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vol. 13/14 

Railway master mechanic. 

New York [etc. ] 

Simmons-Boardman Pub. Co. 


Old Vol. XIII. 

New Vol. V, 

From January to December, 1890, Inclusive. 


With Which is Incorporated Jhe Railway purchasing Agent and Supply Jrade Journal. 

F. N. Lewis, Manager Business Department. 

W. D. Crosman, Manager Editorial Department. 

Published by the Railway Purchasing Agent Company. 

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The Rookery," Chicago. 
Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, equipment 
and macliinery. Communications on any topics suitable to these 
columns are solicited. 

Prior to January 1. 1886, this journal was known as The Rail- 
way Purchasiuf; Agent. It will still in ita new and wider field be 
adapted to the especial wants of all who purchane or influence 
the purchase of railway supplies. 

(The Official Railway List is also published by this company. 
See annonncement on another page.) 

Subscription price. *1 "00 a year. Adverttsing rates and details 
conceminK circulation piven on application to the office by mail 
^r in person. Address 

E. M. LEWIS. Manager. 
"The Rookery." Chicago. 
New York Office; 45 Broadway, Room us. 

INo. 1. 


We note that there is more favorable considera- 
tiou in some quarters of the so-called "special" 
oils for locomotive ami car use. It is claimed 
that with the decrease iu price of ordinary black 
oil there has been a corresponding letting clown in 
quality which, with the more exacting demands, 
especially in passenger service, has shown its 
effects iu hot boxes and delayed trains. As a 
consequence, managers have in some cases de- 
cided to use oils of a greater body, even at a ma- 
terially higher price, on the general principle that 
"an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of 

While the bill for lubricating cars and engines 
is not one of the largest items of expense in rail- 
way operation, it is one in which there can be 
considerable saving made by exercising greater 
care in using lubricating supplies. The necessity 
of constant watchfulness over the most minute 
details was forcibly brought to our attention re- 
cently by noticing the headlights of engines haul- 
ing the trains of a western road burning at full 
height in the middle of the day. No excuse based 
on the condition of the weaihei could account for 
such neglect, and the inference could only be 
drawn that there was carelessness and consequent 
unnecessary expense in oil consumption, due to 
either the engine men, the round-house men, or 

On the other hand there is perhaps sometimes 
a tendency to give the oil record an undue prom- 
inence. We have heard of one road where the 
engineeis were rated largely by their standing in 
oil used, while but little attention was paid to the 
fuel record which, of course, involves much larger 
amounts. Too close a pressure towards economy 
on oils may lead, in these days of heavier engines 
and faster trains, to such damage of journals, 
rods, and brasses as would counterbalance any 
probable saving. While it is well to be as saving 
as possible with lubricating materials, we must 
steer carefully away from any chance of damage 
to the rolling stock. 

At the last meeting of the New England Club 
an interesting and instructive paper on railroad 
signals and signaling was read by Mr. E. H. 
Soule. We regret that we cannot give space to 
the paper in full, for it dealt with practice in sig- 
naling and interlocking from the time when the 
latter first began to receive attention in this coun- 
try. This was about 1874, and the first machine 
used was a Saxby i Farmer on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. The author traced the history of inter- 
locking from tha' date to the present, and men- 
tioned the general rules governing the practice of 
interlocking. The rapid progress towards sim- 
plicity of design was noted, and examples given 
showing the difference in the number of levers 
required now and a few years ago for the same 
work. For instance, the interlocking system at 
the <irand Central Depot in New York City, as 
rearranged in 1887 comprised 116 levers. In 18s9 
it was again rearranged, and though eleven new 
switches, twenty-nine switch-locks and twelve 
new signals were introduced, only 87 levers were 
needed. Block signals were also described at 
some length, and the various systems, manual, 

electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic, were discussed. 
In closing the author said that but little more 
economy and efficiency of operation could be ac- 
complished in the manual system of block signals, 
and that the outlook for further gain is probably 
in the extended use of the pneumatic system. 

The movement for the establishment of a sys- 
tem of joint inspection at Chicago, inaugurated at 
the Western Railway Club's December meeting, 
should meet with hearty favor. Mr. Peck's paper 
on this subject reveals very clearly the need of the 
proposed reform. He shows how, under the pres- 
ent system of individual inspection, expensive and 
extremely inconvenient delays of cars are of daily 
occurrence, and he also shows that the inspection 
itself, under the present methods, is unduly ex- 
pensive, costing almost as much per car as it does 
to repair the car. The club received Mr. Peck's 
suggestions with favor, and he was appointed a 
committee of one to call a meeting of the hesuls of 
the car departments of roads entering Chicago. 
This meeting has been called for January 21 at 10 
!i. m. — the Western Railway Club's meeting day 
— and will be held in the club rooms. A commu- 
nication given elsewhere explains the working of 
joint inspection at Detroit, and this, with Mi. 
Peck'spaper, makes out a strongcase for the new sys- 
tem. It is believed that any existing difficidties in 
the way of the adoption of similar methods of in- 
spection at Chicago, due to location of the numer- 
ous yards, etc., can be readily overcome when 
given consideration by the coming meeting. It is 
to be hoped that every official interested in inspec- 
tion at Chicago will make it a point to attend the 
meeting and aid in the solution of a problem which 
affects alike the traffic, operating and mechanical 

If we are to judge by the general expression of 
opinion there is not much faith in the value of 
"boiler compounds" in preventing the formation 
of scale as formerly. A committee of the Master 
Mechanics' Association long ago condemned their 
use, but many a barrel of these compounds has 
since been tried as experiments by master me- 
chanics. It is doubtful whether these experiments 
and the failures almost invariably resulting from 
thtm were necessary to prove the correctness of 
the position taken by the master mechanics' com- 
mittee, but it seems certain that the experience 
with the boiler compounds during recent years 
has made most master mechanics, who are 
troubled with very bad feed water, ready to try 
some other method. 

Perhaps the method of water purification which 
is most inviting at present is that in which 
the impurities are precipitated by heat after the 
water leaves the tender and before it mingles with 
the water in the boiler. Tho objections to this 
method in the past have generally arisen from the 
fact that the water was not heated sufficiently to 
deposit all the impurities, and that the suitable 
and adequate means for getting rid of the precipi- 
tated impurities bad not been provided. But it 
seems an easier matter to overcome such objections 
than to obtain purification of the water by any 
other meiins. The whole question is one of great 
importance to many railway companies as a large 
percentage of their expenses for repairs on loco- 
motives can be traced to the effects of impure 
boiler water. 

expense to start one, as the machinery and outfit 
for a physical and chemical laboratory capable of 
pursuing all ordinary investigations, would not 
exceed a cost of ,§5,000. These laboratories have 
made their impression upon railway practice in 
the past, more especially in the line of what is 
now known as routine work in testing supplies 
and improving specifications; work which was 
special in its nature when knowledge necessai-y to 
make good specifications had not been obtained 
and classified. 

In the future some of their most important work 
will be in the line of special investigation, and as 
competition becomes keener and the necessity of 
economy increases, the value of this department 
will be more generally appreciated and the wonder 
will be how we ever got along without them. 

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Thk intelligent and efficient management of a ; 
large railroad system requires so much special | 
knowledge that it is sometimes a matter of wonder 
that railroading should gr.jw to such enormous 
proportions without the establishment of more 
departments of special investigation. About fifteen 
years ago the first department of physical tests in 
connection with a railroad was estab ished, on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, and shortly afterward the 
first railroad chemical laboratory was started on 
the same road. Since that time the number of 
railruad laboratories has increased slowly until at 
present the total number in this countrj' is but 
seven or eight. Where these have been managed 
well they have proved of great value to the roads 
owning them and indirectly to the other roads and 
to the manufacturers. Kor is it a matter of great 

By the courtesy of a large number of superin- 
tendents of motive power and master mechanics 
we are enabled to present to our readers herewith 
a table [pages 4 and 5] giving the additions made to 
the locomotive equipment of the railroads named 
during the year just ended. While the returns by 
no means comprise the entire number of engines 
built throughout the country during that time, 
still they give a clear indication of the recent con- 
dition of the locomotive building trade. Several 
roads, among them some important ones, have 
not favored us with replies to our inquiries and 
although owing to this we have official informa- 
tion of only 826 engines built by the various con- 
tract shops and 368 by the riiilioad companies 
themselves, we have been able to obtain figures 
from other sources which go to prove that the 
total number of locomotives of all kinds built 
in this country and Canada during 1889, not in- 
cluding those exported, is about 2,100. Taking 
the number of engines in service at the close of 
1888 at 31), (WO, the percentage of new ones is 
about 6. This is a small figure and serves to em- 
phasize the statement frequently made during the 
first part of the year, that the stagn.ation in this 
particular line of business was greater than at any 
time in the last few years. Lately, however, a 
decided improvement has taken place, and judg- 
ing by this and by the recent rise in the price of 
steel rails, pig iron, etc., usually infallible signs, 
we may fairly expect a considerable increase in 
the output of the locomotive shops, (with the ex- 
ception of those few that are almost always work- 
ing up to their full capacity, no matter how good 
or bad trade generally is,) during the current year. 

As might naturally be expected the Altoona 
works of the Pennsylvania have turned out a 
larger number of engines (125) than those of any 
other railroad company. Large as these shops are 
they are inadequate to meet the demands made on 
them at present, but the extensive and completely 
equipped new buildings now fast nearing comple- 
tion will, with the help of the older portion of the 
works, be amply sufficient to satisfy all require- 
ments. Meanwhile the company has been com- 
pelled to contract for 25 class "R" consolidation 
engines at the Baldwin shops, 15 of which were 
to be finished by January 1st, and the remiynder 
diu-ing the month. 

We have not considered it advisable to include 
in our list any rebuilt engines, for although "re- 
building " is generally supposed to obviate the 
necessity of purchasing new locomotives, yet the 
term has such a wide range of meaning as to ren- 
der it impossible to draw the line between mere 
overhauling and actual reconstruction at all de- 
finitely, hence the exclusion. 

We are pleased to note the improvement that 
has taken place in all directions with regard to 
the ratio between cylinder power and adhesive 
weight, few badly overcylindercd engines having 
been built during the year. We attribute this de- 
sirable state of affairs, in a great measure, to the 
excellent report presented by the committee on 
"Proportions of Locomotive Cylinders," at the 
St. Paul meeting of the Master Jlechanics' Af so- 
ciatiou in 1887. The seed sown then is now bear- 
ing abundant fruit, 


jANnABT, 1890. 

The most noticeable fact wbicli our figures 
bring out is the growing popularity of the 6- 
coupled engine, chiefly of the lOwheeied type, 
although the mogul has many ailhei>nts, for fast 
and heavy passenger traffic. This is the more re- 
markable as the tendency abroad, more especially 
in England, is to revert to the two single driving 
wheels for this kind of service. 

Tlie compounding of locomotives has attracted 
considerable attention during the year. This is 
due in a great measure to three causes: first, the 
importation by the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany of a Webb three cylinder compound, built by 
Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Company, of Manches- 
ter, Englaud; secondly, the Eiu'opean trip of the 
American engineers during the past summer, 
which enabled many of our rajlroad men to inves- 
tigate personally the details of the various sys- 
tems, and to satisfy themselves concerning their 
merits and drawbacks, to an extent impossible by 
any other means: and, thirdly, the prominence 
given the subject by the technical press. The two 
or three papers on compounding read before the 
railroad clubs have elicited discussion which prove 
by the inteUigence and earnestness displayed that 
our more progressive master mechanics are look- 
ing for better thiogs, and are not only willing but 
anxious to give the compound system a searching 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has not as yet made 
public the results of the tests of the Webb engine, 
but we believe th-it the design will not be adhered 
to in the compound now under consideration at 

The Baltimore & Ohio has already put in ser- 
vice a four cylinder compound designed, built, 
and patented Isy the Baldwin Works, as was noted 
in our last number. 

The Michigan Central has bought a compound 
from the Schenectady works. This engine, which 
left the shops about the middle of December, is an 
exact reproduction, with the exception of those 
changes absolutely required for compounding, of 
the regular type of Michigan Central teu- 
wheel passenger engine, which the works 
named have recently been building. The 
Worsdell-VonBorries system has been used, modi- 
fied with respect to the stariinL' gear by Mr. A. J. 
Pitkin, of the Schenectady works, who has been 
granted letters patents for his imju'ovements. 
A complete description and an illustration of this 
engine appears on another page. There are no extra 
handles to be attended to on this locomotive, over 
and above those used on engines of tbe ordinary 
kind, the valve controlling the admission of steam to 
the 29 in. or low pressure cylinder being auto- 
matic in its operation, and all the engineer has to 
do in starting is to pull open the throttle, and 
then to hook the valve gear back as the engine 
gets into sjieed in the usual way. This is a very 
valuable feature, and altigether we consider this 
engine to contain the elements of success. 

The addition to those we have mentioned, we 
understand that Mr. Geo. B. Strong, of New York, 
is working on the designs of a four cylinder com- 
pound, wliich he expects to have ready in the early 
spring. The Mexican Central are building a 
compound, and several others are at work upon 
designs, generally of the two cylinder type. 
There are, of course, besides, whole troops of 
inventors at work on the subject, probably see- 
ing in compounding a new field for the exercise 
of their talents, now that the car coupler 
question has been so thoroughly attended 
to. Whether the apphcation of the prin- 
ciples of compounding to locomotives will 
be widely made in this country remains to be 
seen, but we feel confident that there is a great 
future awaiting it, particularly on the Pacific slope 
and those other districts remote from the coal fields, 
where the price of coal reaches an almost fabu- 
lous figure. 

. With regard to external appearance of the loco- 
motives of the year there has been further im- 
provement in neatness and simplicity. Severely 
plain dome casings, sand boxes and smoke stacks, 
with cabs in keeping therewith, have become the 
rule rather than the exception, and what our En- 
glish friends have been pleased in the past to call 

I tbe "ginger bread" finish of our engines ha 
conspicuous by its absence. We assert ■« 

as been 
fear of contradiction that the appearance of the 
I representative American built engine of to-day, 
! with its somber painting and freedom from crude 
and barbaric decoration, is less obtrusive and in 
better taste than that of any other country. 

As to the materials of construction there has 
been but little change. Steel easily maintains its 
place as the chief constituent of boilers, but, as 
we pointed out last month, there is a decided ob- 
jection to its use for stay bolts. We note an iu- 
! crease in the use of babbitt metal for lining the 
; journal bearings of driving and truck boxes. This 
IS due to the steady increase of the static load per 
wheel, rising as high as 22,000 in some cases, 
rendering some soft metal lining necessary to pre- 
vent heating. 

The Laird guides are finding favor for all 
classes of engines on account of their simplicity 
and efficiency. The four bar style so long a fav- 
orite is not being used so much as formerly, and 
we are glad to see that on engines where this type 
of guide is still retained, the old fashioned cast 
iron cross head with the wrist pin in one piece 
with the body, is giving place to one having a 
separate iron or steel pin. Excellent as cast iron 
is in its place, its employment for such an im- 
portant connection as a wrist pin is not good 
practice. We have seen 19 m. cylinder engines 
with oast pins only 2| in. in diameter; it does not 
require any very complicated calculation to prove 
the mechanical iniquity of this. The two bar or 
alligator guide is still much used, and answers 
well on engines having large drivers, but for con- 
solidation and other small wheeled engines, the 
lower bar is too near the dust and dirt of the road- 
way for entire satisfaction. The admirable Dean 
enclosed guide is advancing in favor. 

The use of solid ended bushed side rods is nat 
urally increasing; some roads have gone a step 
beyond and make the front end of the main rod 
in the same way, while the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quiucy has gone further yet in adopting a main 
rod having both ends solid. 

The comparatively large number of Belpaire 
fire-boxes constructed will be noticed. This sys- 
stem is undoubtedly the most rational method of 
making a flat sided stayed fire-box that has yet 
been tried, and we expect to see an increasing 
number built year by year. An objection raised 
to it is the large amount of space it fills up in the 
cab. This is not a serious evil and can be miti- 
gated by striking a large radius at the top sides 
of the shell. On the Dutch roads, where this fire- 
box originated, this radius is considerably larger 
than we make it. The Norfolk & Western on 
their new 19x24 in. cylinder 10 wheelers, besides 
the Belpaire box, are using what we believe is 
another invention of Mr. Belpaire's, namely, a 
large screw in conjunction with the reversing 
lever for the adjustment of the point of 

Among the many well designed engines built 
during the j-ear, perhaps the most noticeable is 
the suburban passenger locomotive of the Chicago, 
Burhngton & Quincy, which has already been 
mentioned in the Railway Master Mechanic. It 
will be rememVered that it has six coupled driving 
wheels and a pony truck under the coal bunk at 
the rear end. Tlie design of this engine is char- 
acterized by that boldness and freedom from the 
dictates of tradition that we have become accus- 
tomed to look for in the locomotives of this com- 
pany. We have one serious fault to find with it, 
however. We consider the interior of the cab is 
too much crowded for convenience of operating, 
especially that part which falls to the lot of the 
fireman. The following table gives the leading 
particulars of this engine, together with those of 
engines which may fairly be compared with it. 
The great adhesive weight of the "Q" engine, con- 
sidered with reference to the mean tractive force, 
ensures a prompt getting away from stations. 

In concluding this brief and necessarily some- 
what hurried summary of the work done during 
the past twelve months, we beg to tender our 
thanks to those gentlemen who have so kindly en- 
abled us to make our figures reliable. 


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In addition to the above reports, six firms of loco- 
motive builders have favored us with the record of 
the output of their shops during the year, as fol- 
lows: The Schenectady Locomotive Works built 
220 locomotives during the year, as follows: 
Eight wheelers — 3 with 16x24 in. cylinders, 8 with 
17x21 in. cyhnders, 30 with 18x24 in. cylinders, 
25 with 18x26 in. cylinders, 2 with 19x24 in. cyl- 
inders, making a total of 68 ei^ht wheelers; ten 
wheelers— 7, 18x24 in., 14, 19x24 in.. 8, 19x26 in., 
making a total of 29 ten wheelers; twelve wheelers 
— 1, 20x26 in.; moguls— 5, 17x24 in., 23, 18x24 
in., 10. 19x24 in., 20, 19x26 in., making a total of 
58 moguls; consolidations — 'Zl, 20x21 in.; six 
wheel switchers— 14, 17x24 in., 20, 18x24 in., 2, 
19x24 in., making a total of 36 six wheel switch- 
ers; four wheel switchers — 1 (narrow gauge) 9x14 
in., 1,16x24 in., total, 2; Forneys- 2, 17x24 in. 
In addition to the foregoing these works built 1 
inspection locomotive with 9x16 in. cylinders, 1 
Strong locomotive with 18x24 in. cylinders and 1 
compound with 20 in. and 29x24 in. cylinders. 
This latter engine is described and illustrated in 
this issue. 

The Cooke Locomotive & Machine Co. report 54 
engines built, of which 1 was a mogul with 18x24 
in. cylinders, 20 were ten wheelers, 10 having ]8x 
24 in. cvlinders and an equal number having 19x 
24 in. cylinders, 29 were consolidation engines 
with Wootteu fire-boxes and 20x24 in. cylinders, 
3 were six wheeled switchers having 16x24 in. cyl- 
inders and 1 was a four coupled switch engine hav- 
iug pony trucks back and front and 15x22 in. cyl- 
inders. Besides these locomotives this company 
built 5 Rotary snow shovels in the early part of 
tbe year. It is safe to say that had it not been 
for the removal of this concern into its new works, 
a lengthy and tedious operation, its output would 
have beeu largely in excess of what it actually 

The Taunton Locomotive Works have built 8 
engines, of which 2 were Mason "bogies" having 
14x20 in. cylindeis, 3 were of the American type 
with 18x24 in. cyhnders and 3 were six wheeled 
switchers with 17x24 in. cylinders. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works built 836 loco- 
motives during the year, 2 of which had one pair 
of drivers, 296 two pairs, 35H three pairs and 180 
four pairs. 

The Lima Machine Works have constructed 46 
Shay patent logging locomotives. 

The Mount Savage Locomotive AVorks have 
turned out 2 consolidation fn^^incs having 20x24 
in, cylinders, 



We may add that during the year the Hinckley 
Locomotive Works have gone completely out of 
existence, and the Grant works, of Patersou, liave 
been practically closed up. 


One of our most widely known and respected 
contemporaries has recently delivered a lay-sermon 
in which he makes many wise and true remarks 
upon the subject of the business and official mor- 
ality of railway officers. It is a good sermon and 
a timely one, and the Railway Master Mkchanic 
not only appreciates the courage and good sense 
which inspired and planned it, but will now and 
hereafter take up the burden and proclaim in its own 
style and manner, that a good conscience, a keen 
sense of honor, an unsullied business character 
and a high and sensitive self-respect are worth 
more than money, or all that money can buy, in the 
field of railway service as well as elsewliere. He 
who sells for money his right to feel an honest re- 
spect for the face which confronts him in the 
mirror when he makes his toilet makes a mighty 
poor trade. There is no service more honorable 
than the railway service, and we believe that no 
sei-vice contains a larger proportion of honorable 
men, but there are temptations to dishonesty 
everj'where, and frequent words of counsel and of 
warning are not amiss. We have had on hand for 
some time the materials for an article, the title of 
which, "How much is there in It for Me — A Story 
of Grease," indicates its general nature. Indeed 
it may grow into a collection of stories before pub- 
lication is finished. 

During these recent Christmas days gifts have 
been flying hither and thither like passing docks 
of birds, and some of the railway supply dealers 
have been Santa Clausing all over the country. It 
takes a pretty stem moralist to condemn tlie send- 
ing of a box of good cigars to the master mechanic 
or the purchasing agent with whom one has 
pleasant and frequent business relations. And if 
the recipient does not consider too curiously why 
they were sent or whether the gift will be repeated 
next vear if he happens to be out of a job, he can 
enjoy their flavor to the full. But if they happen 
to be bad cigars the iniquity of the transaction is 
unquestionable. And that they are, sometimes, 
bad is, alas, too true! One, three or fourdays be- 
fore tlie blessed Christmas of la89 a box 
of Christmas cigais came into the office 
of a master mechanic out in Ohio, on whom 
we were calling at the time. Tlie present was 
marked with the name of a certain oil company. 
The box was of pasteboard made in -far away imi- 
tation of red cedar. Our frimd made an excuse 
that he was not smoking at all just then and in- 
sisted that we should try the cigars. (It is only 
fair to liim to say that in all other respects he 
treated us most hospitably.) They were wholly 
and superlativtly bad. Of the evil character of 
that transaction there can be no doubt. No super- 
intendent of motive power, master mechanic or 
purchasing agent will sell his conscience for a 
hundred cigars of that brand! 

To speak seriously — the Railway Msster Me- 
chanic does not set up as a spiritual guide and di- 
rector of its readers. Rut when a man takes ser- 
vice with a railroad company he is bound by the 
simple law of honor to give to its service the best 
that is in him. He takes payment for devoting 
himself to its interests. More than all he owes it 
to himself -to his own manhood — to do the very 
best that he can in the position which he has ac- 
cepted. When this is said all is said. uch a 
man is incapable of being bribed. He knows 
neither fear nor favor in the discharge of his duties. 
His hands are clean and there are uo whisperers 
at his ear. He has no fear that his superiors or 
inferiors wiU lind ont something that he has done 
and wants kept in the dark. Much more — he is 
not afraid that his sons will leai-n he does business 
on principles ■which he does not want them to 

Those who are well informed on this subject 
know that money which comes by dark ways to a 
man's pocket does not, in the majority of" cases, 
stay there. "Easy come, easy go," is the way of it. 

Poker, races and careless speculation prevent any 
lasting accumulation. And not infrequently the 
end comes with a crash, and, with a fly blown 
reputation, the man is left without employment 
and without friends. The first to forsake him will 
be those who tempted him to forget his duty and 
self respect. They cultivated his friendship for 
what they could make out of him, and when he is 
no longer in power they have no use for him. 

Of course a considerable percentage of those 
who are "on the make" seem to succeed by it. If 
more of them saved money and lived well to the 
end there would be fewer of these sinners. 
Whether they are really successful or not must be 
decided according to one's view of what success 
really is. But there will be always in the railway 
service a great number of true meu. 

The tendency of the present time in freight car 
constniction is, it is well known, towards greater 
size and carrying capacity, cars to carry 60,000 
lbs. being in growing use on a number of roads. 
Added to this there is au increase in specially 
large cars for lumber and furniture, though the 
nominal carrying capacity may not have increased 
very much as far as weight goes. 

It is questionable to us how far this increase, 
both in size and tonnage capacity, should be car- 
ried. We are getting a structure that is more ex- 
pensive to build and that will require a much 
larger outlay per car mile for repairs than the 
freight car of the past. 

Another fact which should be remembered is 
that the average load carried per loaded car does 
not increase in proportion to the nominal load un- 
less there is an increase in bulk capacity as well 
as weight capacity. It is safe to say that on the 
average western road the increase in nominal 
earacity from 10 to 20 tons to the car has only re- 
sulted in an actual increase in load carried to 
about one-third of that amount. This is due to 
the fact that with so many articles of freight the 
bulk rather than the weight determines the load. 
This is true, for instance, of live stock and mer- 
chandise, the laUer not averaging over nine tons 
as the load of a 30 to 32 foot car. This fact, to- 
gether with the complications incident to heavier 
and more expensive rolling stock, and with the 
doubtful policy of handling freight trains of be- 
yond a certain weight, should cause us to consider 
the whole situation before increasing too large a 
proportion of our freight car roUing stock beyond 
the capacity of -10,000 lbs. 


U be seen by the announcemeut of the M. C. 
committee, given elsewhere in this 
issue, the next convention of the car builders 
will be held at Old Point Comfort, Va., Instead of at 
Charleston, S. C. We think that the change will 
be welcomed, although there will be disappointment 
in many quarters that Lookout Mountain was not 
selected. The committee has given the matter 
thorough consideration, and its choice is doubtless 
the wisest that could have been made under the 
circumstances. It is to be hoped that arrangements 
can be made to hold the master mechanics' conven- 
tion at Old Point Comfort also. 

We received the report of comparative tests made 
between the Strong locomotive, A. G. Darwin, and 
standard hard and soft coal burning engines of the 
New York, Lake Erie & Western road, too late for 
notice in the December R.\IL\VAY M.^STER Me- 
chanic. A somewhat careful examination of the 
report shows that it is to be classed with prospect- 
useslssued by commercial or manufacturing estab- 
lishments rather than with records of careful, accur- 
ate and unbiased tests. We have had no little faith 
in the Strong locomotive and hope that the company 
which controls it will soon be able to carry through 
a series of comparative tests which will bear investi- 
gation and bring out the actual characteristics of 
the engine without either fear or favor. 

No ENGIME house on the North American contin- 
ent or, for that matter, in Europe either, has a n 

splendid roof than that at Hamilton, beneath which 
the locomotives of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Day- 
ton Railroad rest themselves and are rubbed down 
when their daily runs are over. The roundhouse 
itself is magnificent in size, for the sun rises and sets 
inside its walls. Its ventilation is perfect, for all 
winds blow into and through it. But the roof is the 
grandest thing about it. It is a " majo^tioal roof, 
fretted with golden fire." At noon the sun hangs in 
the high arch of it^dome and at night it is lighted 
by constellations and by troops of fixed and wander- 
ing stars. And the doors of that house are the gates 
of morning and of evening. 

In such a stable a breed of lough and hardy iron 
horses should be developed. It does not really mat- 
ter to those locomotives whether they are in the 
house or on the road, so far as the weather is con- 
cerned. If it rains when they are in the "roundhouse" 
they stand and take it, if it snows they shiver under 
it, if the blizzard howls down upon them they can 
only turn their haunches to it and let the snow 
wreaths sift and whirl around them. A locomotive 
which has "all out doors" for its stall must be proof 
against all vicissitudes of weather. 

We do not publish a cut of this roundhouse because 
we have no landscape artist — and because we are not 
sure that it is an improvement on the old style. The 
sight of those hard worked engines standing in a 
drizzle of rain is not a cheerful one. We all know 
that General Superintendent Neilson, Superintendent 
of Motive Power Cory, and their associates in imme- 
diate charge of the operation and equipment of the 
road are among the very best railway men in this 
country. They are not responsible for these un- 
sheltered engines — this roundhouse built of horizou 
walls and arching sky. If those who control the 
finances of great and prosperous roads would listen 
to the recommendations of those who fully compre- 
hend the science of practical and economical rail- 
roading such roads would not only have good round- 
houses in which engines could be well taken care of, 
but would also have motive power enough to do their 
business without breaking the hearts of general 
superintendent and master mechanic. 

The pointed refererce made by President Harri- 
son, in his message, to the use of improved safety 
appliances on freight trains has brought the ques- 
tion of legislation prominently to the front. That 
congress would one day be called upon to pass mea.s- 
ures compelling the use of automatic couplers and 
brakes on freight trains has long been conceded, and 
there have been brought forward no good arguments 
to prove the undesirability of such legislation— in- 
deed, there has apparently been no spirit of opposi- 
tion to such legislation among leading railway men. 
The mechanical officers of our railways have, after 
most thorough study, experiment and discussion, 
agreed upon a type of automatic couplers and a tyi)e 
of automatic brakes— both possessing in theory and 
in practice nearly all the characteristics that could 
be wished for in such appliances — and thus the 
way has been paved for legislation enforcing 
the use of appliances of this nature. It is 
a fortunate circumstance that, with both brakes and 
couplers, legislation can specify a type without con- 
ferring a monopoly of manufacture and sale, for 
within the lines of these types the field is quite 
broad and is already occupied by numbers of com- 
peting patents. It is conceded that objections as to 
the practicability of automatic brakes and couplers, 
and as to the question of monopoly, are groundless; 
but there remains the question of the burden which 
will be thrown upon the railways by forcing them to 
purchase and ajjply the automatic devices. This is 
a question which must be carefully treated by fram- 
ers of the expected laws; but the limit of time 
which will be given in which to equip cars can be so 
determined eis to make this objection more apparent 
than real. There is little doubt but that legislation 
enforcing the use of these safety appliances upon 
freight trains will be presented to congress this 
winter, and there is a probability that it will be 
passed. The main point is now to secure a careful 
framing of these new laws with a view to the pro- 
tection of natural rights and privileges. 
























12 ] 


20 j 





! "!■ 


' 1 


12 \ 

' i 
^ I 
8 ] 

13 J 

5 \\ 

i i' 
" -I' 


1 f^wheel 





30 > 




































Narrow gauge 

A-hland Coal t Iron Co. 




Allegheny Valley 

i consol. Freight 
2 6-wheel Switch 

iiwheel F^fght 
ti-wheel Switch 
e-wheel Switch 
"Bogie" !Pas.s. 

liZ l^r^ght 
OlO-whecl IFrelght 

lir'"" IS?"' 






.. . 


Walschacrt valve gear 

Boston i Maine 


10 6-wheel 


1 8 wheel 




Freight ■ 





1 1,1. - i ■ -v St. Paul 

rhi;'!':;..', K .i,.,,,u/~..vsairinaW:"::: 

Oiicago. Rock iBlaDd i Paoiflc 

Chicago i West Michigan 



1 6-whecl 




Chicago, Burlington & Quiiicy. 

MoguLs and suburban have Belpaire flre- 

BurUngton & Missouri Kiver in 

10 Am. 
10 mogul 





1 18X34 

4 have Belpaire fire-boxes. 
10 have Belpaire flre-boxes. 

M consol. 

2 6-wheel 
2 Forney 




3 pass. 
8 switch 





Cleveland. Akron & Columbus 


I 10 freight 

Mogul IFrelght 

10-wheel j Freight 

1 Am. Pa.s.s. 
1 mogul Switch 

4 10-wheel 



CaroUna Central 

1 4-wheel 






3 10-wheel 

• 19X34- ■ 



On.. New Orleans & Texas PaciBc. . . 


Covinfelnni: Macon 

?k"r l-alL^"' 

IS-wheel [Inspection 
!Am. iPass. 
!(Oiis..l. FniKl.l 


26 i 

Dululh A: Iron Biinge 

Delaware i- Hudson Canal a. 

The inspection engine has a pony truck 
in front, a pair of drivers 54 in. diame- 
ter, and a 4-wheeled truck behind. 

3 passenger engines have Wootten fire-box. 

Dilaware, Lack. & Western. 




East Tenn.. Virginia 4 Georgia 

Kail Brook CnalCo 

Florida Uy. i Navlpition Co 











8-8 : 



TTscd for incline transfer and switching. 

6 6-whecl 
20 mogul 



1 6-wheel 







Built at Aurora shops of C, B. & Q. 

Hartford & Connecticut Western. . . . 




Hancock & Calumet.. 

ir"" iil^lnd 






Houston & Texas Central 






Iowa Central 

.laeksonvllle Southeastern 

Jacksonville. Tampa 4 Key West. . . . 



These engines burn wood. 

Kan. nty. Memphis Ic Birmingham 
Kansas City. Ft. Scott & Memphis... 

Bntire system. 



I 6 

Lehigh i: HudB<m Kirer 

tVootten Are boxes. 

(JIne passenger and 17 freight. 

Lehigh Valley ::;:.,;.:::: 

lx)uisvllle. New Orleans 4 TexiLS.... 




lU-tthc.l |I'aa,. 

Lake Shore* Michigan Southern... 

Jllchlgaa Centml 




Che 10 passengers have shallow 9re-boxea, 

















MUwauki-c. Luke Shore & Wi;steru. 

' 1 

10 -| 

M mngul 


« lo'^hcel 



2 Freight 










MixicuQ Ciiitral 

Tliose engin.^s liuve 100,000 lbs. on li drivers 









Mobile & Ohio 




New York. Phila. & Norfolk 

3 ■] 

10 -| 

a-, ; 

98 - 


.1 inogul 

4 CI in sill 



3 V-rcitrbt 






New York, On'ario & Western 

One engine has Wootten iire-box. 

f"JJJ^ «">*<>"<i^<tous have Wootten lire- 

EDtli-e system. 




All have Belpaire flro-boxes 

Northern Pacinc 

The IO-wlieelei> are now being delivered. 




1 1 

3 Am. 
2 6-wheel 
9 mogul 
6 10-wheel 





oi-emin Railway & Navigation Co... 





1 compo'd from Messrs. Beyer. Peacock & 

Pcimsyivanitt Co.— 




20 consol. 
13 e^heel 











■■;{::; ::^;:::,.,,,:i,:,;,f3^ 



8 ) 




Pittsburgh. Shenango & Lake Erie. 

Enti e Bjstem. 

ISStSS-rAV^rp'Srrysie.i-.: : ; ; 











Freight ] 







4. wheel 



• 1 


4 a.wheei 
1 10-wheel 






Weighs82.000 lbs. Heaviestengincof type 
built by Ihildwin Works 10 dale. 

West Vhxinla Central & Pittsburgh. 


In the shops of the Manhattan Elevated Railway, 
New York City, work is produced at a minimum 
co«t by a judicious use of jigs, templates, special ap- 
pliances, etc. In turning bolls they use two sets of 
gauge?, one set of standard finished sizes and the 
other set of slightly larger dimensions. The latter 
is used for all work which must afterwards be hard- 
ened and ground, and the former is used for all 
work not hardened and for grinding hardened work 
to finished sizes. Connecting and parallel rods are 
milled on bo'h heads and bodies instead of planed, 
the only planing being the finishing cut on the end 
of the main rod after the parts have been fitted to- 
gether for the reception of the box. Guides are 
forged out of scrap iron and are finished by milling. 
They are casehardened and afterwards ground. 
The standard crosshead on this road used to be built 
up from a number of pieces nearly all of which were 
wrought iron or steel. Their standard is now of 
cast steel, which is much cheaper and reduces the 
number of parts. They are using cast steel and 
pressed steel to quite an extent in the place of cast 
and malleable iron. The boiler fronts are now made 
of pressed steel and their appearance is very neat. 
An engine has just been equipped with the Woolf 
valve gear, a design which only needs two eccentrics 
per locomotive and in which the link is supplanted 

by a block sliding in a movable guide. The road 
has had no experience with this gear, but several 
roads in the northwest have engines equipped with 
it and good results are obtained. 

In his message to congress President Harrison 
asks it to require uniformity in the construction of 
cars and the use of improved safety appliances on 
trains. His reference to this matter is worded as 

The attention of the interstate commerce commission has 
been called to the urpent need of congressional legislation 
for the better protection of the lives and limbs of those en. 
gaged in operating the great interstate freight lines of the 
country, and especially of the .yardmen and brakemen. A 
petition, signed by nearly ten thousand railwa.v brakemen, 
was presented to the coinmission, asking that steps might 
be taken to bring about the use of automatic brakes and 
couplers on freight cars. At a meeting of state railroad 
commissioners and their accredited representatives, held 
at Washington in March last, upon the invitation of the 
interstate commerce commission, a resolution was unani- 
mously adopted urging the commission "to consider what 
can be done to prevent the loss of life and limb in coupling 
and uncoupling freight cars and in handling the brakes of 
such cars." During the year ending June M, 1S8S, over 
2.000 railroad employes were killed in the senMce, and more 
than 20,000 were injured. It is competent, 1 think, for con- 
gress to require uniformity in construction of cars used in 
' ' - - - ^ ■• - use of improved safety appli- 

e will be necessary to make 
earnest and intelligent begin- 
It is a reproach to our civi- 
lass of American workmen should in the 
pursuit of a necessary and useful vocation be subjected to 


iril of life and limb as great as that of a soldier i 

One of the M. C. B. committees— that on mcta] 
for brake shoes — has commenced its work of gather- 
ing material for a report to the .June convention, in 
a manner that reflects great credit upon its members. 
A meeting of the committee was held in the Western 
Railway Club rooms in Chicago, December 18. There 
were present the full committee— (!. W. Rhodes, E. 
B. Wall and B. K. Verbryck— and also the following 
gentlemen, who came in response to the invitation 
of the committee; Wm. Forsyth, .loel West and F. 
W. Sargent, of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; 
E. C. Case, St. Louis & Hannibal Railway, H. H. 
Westinghouse, Westinghouse Air Brake Company; 
W. D. Sargent and Geo. M. Sargent, Congdon Brake 
Shoe company; H. A. Little, Lappin Brake-Shoe 
company; C. W. Roapper, Solid Steel company; C. 
D. W. Gibson, Ramapo Wheel & Foundry company. 
The subject of best method of testing brake shoes 
was very fully discussed, and the following plan of 
preliminary action was agreed to: 

1. Two forms of tests will be made. One to be known as 
shop tests, and the other as road tests. 

" " " ■ ary shop tests will be delegated to the follow- 

ing committees, the tests to be carried ( 
roads named : 

Q. C. Schr«yer. E. B. Thomson, W. H. Marshall, H. 
Little, on the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad. 

b. Mr. Driggs, N. J. Paradise, " " " 

nibal Railroad. 

; respectiv 

the St. Louis & Han- 


Janoaby, 1890. 


0. F. W. Sargent, Joel West, D. L. Barnes, W. D. Sar- 
gent, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quinci" Railroad. 

These committees will submit the result of their investi- 
gations to an adjourned meeting, to be held in the month 
of April, 1S90. From the various methods presented the 
M. C. B. committee will select one or more with such modi- 
fications as the may think best, which will be used for the 
oflicial tests. 

3. The following data should be observed and recorded 
by the committees: 

a. A careful measurement of friction under similar con- 
ditions, namely, pressure, speed, area and temperature. 

b. The pressure to be UJO lbs. per square inch. 

c. The speed to approximate to service on downgrades, 
namely. 20 miles per hour. 

d. The surface of the metal tested to he 1x4 inches. 

e. The rate of wear of the material represerting the 
brake-shoe to be determined by one two hour test of each 

/. The rate of wear of the material representing the 
wheel to be carefully recorded with each two hour test. 

Note.— The tests should be made as applied to steel tired 
wheels, and chilled cast iron wheels, each. Any other 
appear pertinent to the committees to 

shall constitute the 

be carried out and included 

g. Road Tests.— The M. C. : 
technical papers an outline c 
road tests by January 1, 

The committees above mentioned have accepted 
the duties conferred upon them and are preparing 
for their work. The outline of road tests has not 
yet been announced by the M. C. B. committee. It 
is evident that at least one report to the coming 
convention will embody the results of ideal com- 


The Michigan Central recently received from the 
Schenectady Locomotive Works a compound ten- 
wheeled locomotive, the general appearance of 
which is ^ihown by the accompanying illustration, 
made from a |)hotograph of the engine. This engine 
is one of a number of ten-wheeled passenger engines 
built by the Schenectady Works for the road, and is 
an exact duplicate of them except the few special 
features which pertain to the compounding. 

The engine has a 20x24 in. high pressure cylinder 
on the left side, and a 2f)x24 in. low pressure cyl- 
inder on the right side, the other ten-wheelers hav- 
ing two 19x24 in. cylinders. The 29 in. cylinder 
goes into posilion nicely, and the casing is flatted off 
slightly on the outside, as otherwise it would project 
beyond the bumper. Steam passes to the high pres- 
sure cylinder in the usual manner, and exhausts 
through a largo copper pipe extending around the 
interior of the smoke box to the low pressure cylin- 
der; after being used in this cylinder, it passes up 
the stacks in the usual manner. 

In the saddle of tlie low pressure cylinder is an 
intercepting valve, which admits live steam into the 
low pressure cj-linder when the engine is starting- 
It is a piston valve working in a chamber whose 

axis is parallel to the main cylinders. On the front 
of the saddle is a small head or cover, by means of 
which the interior of the intercepting valve chamber 
can be examined, and on the rear is a similar head 
which also carries an external oil cylinder. The 
intercepting valve is attached to a piston rod which 
is tecured to the piston of this oil cylinder so that 
the latter will prevent too quick a motion of the 
intercepting valve. The small piston rod extends 
entirely through the oil cylinder, and at its outer 
end is attached to the lever shown on the side of the 
boiler, and by this means operated from the cab when 
desired. The valve is entirely automatic in its ac- 
tion, however, and under ordinary circumstances 
will require no attention from the engineer. 

A reducing valve is also provided by which live 
steam above a certain pressure shall not be admitted 
to the low pressure cylinder. In starting the engine 
the action of the various parts is as follows: The steam 
passes to the high pressure cylinder in the regular 
way; as it passes through the high pressure cylinder 
saddle, part of it is divided through the reducing 
valve which is located on the back of the cylinder 
saddle and close under the boiler. This valve takes 
steam from the live steam passage cored in the one cy- 
linder saddle, reduces it to one-half boiler pressure 
and delivers it into a passage in the low pressure side 
of the saddle which communicateswith the rear end 
of the intercepting valve chamber. The pressure on 
the end of the intercepting valve presses it forward 
and thereby incloses a port through which the steam 
passes to the low-pressure steam chest. There is 
thus live steam at boiler pressure on the small cy- 
linder and at one-half boiler pressure on the large 
one. This condition of affairs continues only until 
the high-pressure cylinder exhausts once when this 
exhaust steam on its way to the low-pressure cylin- 
der passes into the front end of the intercepting 
valve chamber. It pushes the intercepting valve 
back to its normal position thus closing the live 
steam port at the rear end and opening the passage 
at the front end through which the steam finds ac- 
cess to the low-pressure steam chest. 

The steam chest valves are of the Allen-Richard- 
son type. The ports of the high-pressure cylinder 
are 18 in. long and of the low-pressure cylinder 20 
in. The outside lap is the same for both valves, H 
in., but the high-pressure valve is line and line in- 
side while the low-pressure valve has i in. inside 
lap. The valves are operated by the regular link 
motion and the cut-oflFs, etc., are the same in both 
cylinders. Each steam chest has a combined safety 
and relief valve tapped into it and the low-pressure 
cylinder has one of these valves in each cylinder 
head. Indicator plugs are fitted to each cylinder. 

The boiler pressure is 180 lbs., the reducing valve is 
set at 90 lbs. and the safety valves oil' the low-pres- 
sure cylinder are set at about 110 lbs. 

In general construction this engine is, as before 
stated, identical with other ten-wheelers on the 
road. The illustration will show the general feat- 
ures. Some of the more important dimensions are 
given below. 


Outside la I 

Inside lap <!!. 
AUenp.iit.- ,. 
DririnR wh.i-l 

Drlvint' «h. . . 
Total IVh'rl 1 ,, 

1 working order. 

. DT.OOO lbs. 
.29.800 lbs. 
. 126.800 lbs 

Driver nxlu .iuuruaLs. 
Truck wlicolf (diaiii.l. 
Truck axle journals, . 
Tank capaciiy. wawr 
"* ' apacity, coal . 



The operation of this engine has thus far been 
very satisfactory. It handles trains promptly, has 
no difficulty in starting, steams well and is success- 
ful generally. At present it is running with a 4* in. 
nozzle, but there is no doubt but that a larger one 
will be used later on. The draft is excellent and 
somewhat stronger than is really needed. It has 
been running in freight service but is now doing pas- 
senger work. No tests have yet been made or cards 
taken, but the engine appears to be very economical 
in the use of fuel. 

Superintendent of Motive Power Wall of the Pitts- 
burgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis has been putting in a 
steam motor for handling the turntable at the Co- 
lumbus roundhouse. It is substantially like the one 
at Altoona. 




Discussion on Water Purification. 
The Northwoat Raili-oii.l Cluh met at St. Paul, 
December 7, and diseubsed the subjeet of '-Water 
PuiiBcalion." Mr. J. O. Pattee, of the St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Manitoba, opened the subject with 
the following paper: 


The subject of suitable water for use in boilers ' 
! most expensive and f reijuen 

t difHcul. 

I users have to contend 

and formation of hard incrustations or scale in our boilers. 
At least 7rt per cent, of the cost of the repairs on boilers on 
many roads is caused by bad water, which causes corrosion 
ana "incrustation. Where the scale does not acquire a 
greater thickness than :j tUof an inch on the shell of a loco- 
motive boiler it is by some considered rather an advantage 
as it tends to protect the boiler plates from the corrosive 
action of the water, but when it becomes thick enough to 
threaten the closing of the water space, or where it forms 
in a considerable quantity on the sheet and tubes which 
areexposed to the heat the"incrustation, it not only becomes 
a serious annoyance and causes wasteful expenditure of 
fuel, but is also the source of actual danger of damage to 
the sheets, or of explosions, and tends greatly to shorten 
the life of our tire-boxes and tubes even when no danger 
exists. The heat from the fi 
rapiitl'- :i'^ it r>'h'^r',vice would 

thiit 1^ ._!.; I i ii by circulation, its transformation be- 
in^- i,-- .k scale, which is always a poor con- 
duct. ! ■ 1 I I- .III tubes are overheated often to such 
exi. I: n ,l: ;i. n.-rume corrugated, bhstered, burnt, 
cracke,! ,iud ,.iuu luined. The formation of hard scale 
when thick euougli to cause overheating of any parts of the 
sheets must add materially to the unequal expansion which 
is found to be one of the greatest causes of cracked sheets 
and unequal strain of all parts of the boiler. We find the 
formation of hard scale also interferes 
tion of the boilers, rendsring it no easy 
with any degree of certainty the condition of the parts, 
particularly along the cylindrical portion of the boiler. 

In many "localities the formation of hard scale ' 
that the tubes must betaken out and replaced and the crown 
and other sheets cleaned as often as once in six months; in 
other localities this work is done about once in IS months, 
and where pure water is used the tubes and sheets run for 
years without being removed. The sheets, as 

t effected by scale 


the side sheets at or 

et; this is largely caused by their 
.scsthem to the intense heat and to the 
ulation caused by the crown bar and 

i have been made to calculate the loss of 
heat caused by the incrustation formed on the heating sur- 
face. The circumstances to be considered which determine 
the rate of heal trausmitted through plates covered with 
scale of different kinds and thickness, either homogeneous 
or otherwise, are not sufficiently well understood and are 
too numerous to admit of anything likean exact calculation. 
It has been estimated that l-Ib of an inch of incrustation ou 
the tubes and parts of the boiler is equal to a loss of 3U per 
cent, of the fuel and that the loss increases in rapid ratio 
as the thickness of scale increases. Others say 1-16 of an 
inch of scale is equal to a loss of 15 per cent, and that ^ 

an inch of scale i 

r cent. This, however, 

! sure in our form of boiler that the loss is great, Loth 
in fuel and damage to the parts. 

There are but few problems connected with boiler re- 
pairs at which inventors have tried their hand to a greater 
extent than the prevention of the formation of scale. Many 
pateuts have been issued and numerous anti-incrustatoi 
have been tried with more or less success; but before 
sideling them let us consider the nature of the trouble 
from some in^'redicnts found in the water used. The mere 
amount of solid matter found in any water is not an indi- 
cation of the litness for boiler use, for this depends en- 
tirely upon the nature of the solid impurities. The presence 
of 5u" grains per gallon of deliquescent salts, such as car- 
bonate or chloride of soda, would not be a serious fault 
with frequent blowing off; whereas an equal amount of 
salts of hme without other chemicals would render it tmfit 
for use. 

We find the water in our streams, lakes and wells varies 
greatly in the amount of solid incrustation matter contained 
10 the gallon. In larger lakes it also varies greatly in diff- 
erent localities; this, to, is the case with the water in the 
ocean. To show you that bad water can be used in the 
boilers, we will state that we already know the ocean water 
to be successfully used ' ' ' ' ... 

iiud the streams and lakes muchpurer than the wells. Now. 
suppose we have a boiler fed from a well containing only 
30 grains of solid iucrustating matter per gallon, or one 
pound to 190 or 300 gallons, or, say 5 pounds to 1,000 gallons, 
which would give us at least '35 or 30 pounds of this solid 
matter each day. and we should have the entire surface 
of the ooiler covered 3 IB in. thick in three or four weeks 
unless a grcBter part of it had been removed by blowing 
off frequently or washing the boiler. 

The impurities held in solution in water at CO degrees 
temperature are deposited in the followmg order as the 

We find 

must be used with 

according to good authority, about 3ii parts to 1,000 of solid 
matter in the average open sea. In the Baltic there are 
only 6 parts, while in the Red Sea there are 43 parts, the 

Black sia. 21, the Arctic ocea _..._. 

nel and Mediterranean Sea, 3 
specific gravity of sea water 

water is 1,000. Sea water contains to one cubic foot (about 
7},.' gallons), chloride of sodium, 35-1 oz. : muriate of mag- 
ue'sia, 3-2; sulphate of magnesia, 2-3; sulphate of lime, 1 oz. ; 
total solidSj 302 oz.. about 7-6 oz. per gallon. We speak of 
this only to show that bad water can be used in boilers 
successfully with extreme caution and care, particularly 
when the s'olids are more soluble in hot than cold water. 

Water in Lake Michigan contains about 6 or 7 grains of 
solid matter per gallon, while that in the Mississippi river 
above Minneapolis is S to 10 grains, an -1 the Mississippi 
at Lacrosse, 10 to 13 grains. The two above are con- 
sidered by many the best water in our western lakes and 
rivei-s,*and are often taken as a unit when comparing 
with well water. We find in many of the deep wells 40 to 
W grains i>er gallon of solid incnistating matter. This 
depends largely upon the location and depth of the well. 
Very few wells on the western prairie have water contain- 
ing less than 20 grains per gallon; in fact, any water con- 
Uining less than 2a or 30 grains is considered good. We 

water becomes heated and contentrated. First, 
of Ume; second, sulphate of lime; third, salts of iron, as 
bases or oxides, and some of those magnesia; fourth, the 
silica or alumiua, usually with more or less organic matter; 
fifth, chloride of sodium. 

The first to be considered is the carbonate of lime. It 
is quite well understood that this chemical is the same sub. 
stance — chemically speaking— as selenite. chalk, marble 
and lime stone. It is held in solution in fresh water by the 
excess of carbonic acid, and in reality it is a sort of bicar- 
bonate. By heating the water the excess of carbonic acid 
is driven off and the greater part of the carbonate is pre- 
cipitated. Its solubility diminishes as the temperature in- 
creases ; in other words, cold water will hold in solution a 
much larger quantity than hot water. It is for this reason 
that in water from which the air has been expelled by heat, 
carbonate of lime is found in much smaller quantities. 
Carbonate of Ume is estimated to be solublj in 16 to 37 
thoHsand times its volume of water at ordinary tempera- 
ture, or three to five grains per gallon. This, as stated, ac- 
cording to good authority, all precipitates at 390 degrees, 
and therefore it is one of the greatest enemies we have. It 
is being constantly precipitated as the water becomes hot 
and falls by its gravity to find a resting place on the tubes 
and sheets, if not held in suspension by the circulation of 
the water long enough to allow us to blow it off. Its work 
is constantly being done forming hard scale. Some of the 
bestevidonceof this is found in the formation of hard 
scale of this nature at the check valves where the water 
first becomes heated upon entering the boiler, and iu some 

Sulphate of lime— a substanceof the same chemical com- 
position as gypsum or plaster of paris— acts much like car- 
bonate of lime, and is found in greater quantities and is 
next in importance. According to good authority its great- 
est solubility is at 93 degrees, where 17S grains will dis- 
solve in a gallon of water. At 212 degrees 50 grains per 
gallon will dissolve, and like carbonate of lime, it is com- 
pletely insoluble at about 295 degrees. It is, therefore, 
evident that these two salts are precipitated when a boiler 
is worked at about 60 lbs. pressure, uuless some chemical 
is used to make them more soluble. 

Carbonate of magnesia or magnesia lime stone is the 
next to consider. It is found in small quantities, and its 
behavior is much like carbonate of lime and forms a hard 
scale on becoming precipitated. These chemicals, after 
being precipitated according to the density of the water, 
the rapid or slow circulation, or the intensity of ebullition 
over those parts where the water moves rapidly, are held 
in suspension or carried to a more quiet part of the boiler 
where they are deposited to form hard scale. 

Sodas and alkalies are considered non-incrustating 
solids and in a proper quantity tend greatly to grevent the 
rapid formation of lime scale. Of the many chemicals used 
to prevent the formation and assist in removing scale, 
soda is one of the most common used and no doubt is one 
of the most effective, but it must be applied in proper quan 
titles or it will cause the boiler to foam. Several methods 
of preventing incrustation and assisting in keeping boilers 
clean have been used. We will consider them in the 
lowing order. 

1. Blowing off at the surface or at the base. ■ This i 
be done carefully to prevent a waste of fuel; too n 
blowing off is expensive. If we blow off at the base 
better way is to blow off a quantity of water after the 
boiler has been at rest a short time and the solids which 
have been held in suspension by the circulation of the 

before con- I water have settled to the lowest part of the boiler and be- 
the trouble fore they become fastened to the warm sheets, or after 
boiler has been fired up and before it starts on its trip, 
before the water has been agitated sufficiently to carry 
small particles to the surface. 

2. The constiniction of the boiler so as to give free cii 
lation and the introduction of agents to increase circulat 
so as to hold solids in suspension until they can be washed 
out or blown off. We find quite a difference in the condi- 
tion of our crown sheets when no stay bars are used and 
the circulation is free and rapid and there is but a small 
amount of the bard scale formed during the lime the water 
is in an agitated state. When the engine is set aside and 
allowed to cool down, all particles held in suspension find a 
resting place on the crown sheet and flues and all chemicals 
which are soluable in greater quantities 
in cold also are precipitated and find a n 
parts of the boiler as the water cools, at 
or washed out, help to form hard scale. Boilers made with 
stay bars over the crown sheets are more liable to be found 
badly covered with incrustation on the crown sheet, for 
the reason that the circulation is greatly reUrded and the 

the British Chan- Hme or sediment, which is in other cases washed to other 
- "- ' -' - average parts of the boiler, finds a resting place in and about these 
bars, where it is often formed into one solid mass. 

3. The introduction of chemical agents to render the im- 
purities in the water more soluable, to prevent them from 
precipitating as quickly as the water becomes heated. I 
have tried nearly all the chemicals that have been intro- 
duced, of which I could learn, and all ivith about the same 
result. Few of them were of much value from the fact 
that in no two days the water used in a locomotive boiler 
is the same. To-day we take water from a well, which has 
a large amount of lime: the next place we take water from 
may be a well with no lime and a large amount of soda; 
the" third may be pure water (if such a thing 
could bo found in the western country), so that no 
chemical can be introduced in boilers to take 
proper care of this great variety of water used. The in- 
troduction of chemicals to remove the scale after it has 
formed fn a boiler without dissolving it is dangerous, as 
the scale so loosened will fall in large pieces and lodge on 
highly heated surfaces and cause the sheets to burn out. 

4. The introduction of a system of coonectingpipes or ap 

paratus through which the feed water passes and in which 
the sediment may be collected and blown off. I have tried 
several devices of this kind, and while they have been sue- 
cessful to a certain extent, I did not find "them capable of 
collecting more than a small portion of the sediment. The 
water only became heated enough to precipitate the lime to 
a small extent and the only result was the saving of the ex- 
pense of frequent washing. The scale formed nearly as 
rapidly as with the same water before they were used. 

5. Removal of scale by manual labor. This is a sure 
method but inexpensive and tedious. 

6. An introduction of a system of purifying or treating 
waters at each well or source of supply. I think by analy- 
sis and a thorough knowledge of the water at each point of 
supply we may introduce chemicals or devise other plans of 
purifying the water, so that when the water is thrown into 
the boiler it will contain the proper chemicals, one to act 
upon the other, or be by some other method purified so that 
we shall know when water is taken that it will be suitable 

load of sediment into oiir boilers each day. 

7. The introduction of a system of reservoirs made by 
damming the streams to catch the accumulation of soft 
water made by the melting of the snow in the spring and 
the rain fall which otherwise runs to waste; iu this way we 
could secure at different points from six months^ to one 
years' supply of the best of water. 

Very much has been done to remedy this great evil on 
many roads by a system analysis of the water from each 
source of supply, thereby getting a thorough knowledge of 
the quality of the water and directing all bad wells to be 
abandoned and as little water taken from them as possible. 
I hope soon to see something of tuis kind established in St. 
Paul, either jointly with all roads or individually. 

Mr. W. Mcintosh (C. & N. W.)— I can give the in- 
gredients various waters contain on our line, and 
I have a comparison with the Lake Michigan water 
which contains 1-04 lbs. of incrustating solids in 
1,000 gallons. The Mississippi river water at Wi- 
nona contains 1 •2.5. The next station west that we 
analyzed is Stackton, the water there contains 202 
lbs. to the 1,000 gallons, or 14-53 grains to the gallon; 
this is made up of carbonate of lime, 
8 grains; magnesia, 5-48; trace of o.\ide of iron and 
alumiuum; silica, -70, and trace of alkali chloride. 
Our water along west as far as liasson, about 60 or 
70 miles from Winona, is about in that same condi- 
tion. Then we get up on the table land at a water 
station called Claremont, where we have 21 grains to 
a gallon, neary 22, and that contains 3 lbs. of incrus- 
tating matter to a 1,000 gallons. Our next water 
station is Owatonna and that furnishes nearly 4 lbs., 
and is considered pretty poor water for boiler use; 
4 lbs. to a 1,000 gallons would be nearly 12 lbs. to a 
3,000 gallon lank, which is a good deal. 

Mr. Pattee— What is that made up of. 

Mr. Mcintosh— The total number of grains is 34-70; 
carbonate of lime, 16-97; magnesia. 9-71; sulphate of 
lime, 1-40; a trace of iron and aluminum; silica, -99; 
alkali chloride, 2-8.5; sulphates, 278. When we get 
to Waseca we use water from Loon Lake. That an- 
alyzes very nicely; it contains 1-22 lbs. to the 1,0U0 
gallons, compared to 104 to the 1,000 gallons Lake 
Michigan water, but that water also contains a great 
deal of vegetable matter and deposits a good deal of 
mud or sludge. Then we have nothing very notice- 
able in water until we reach Kasota; the water there 
is nearly the same as at Owatonna; that is, it con- 
tains a few more grains to the gallon but not quite 
so much incrustating matter. At Oshway, up on the 
prairies, the water contains 7.5-29 grains to a gallon, 
but only 4-22 lbs. of that in a 1,000 gallons is incrus- 
tating matter. An artesian well at Sleepy Eye, con- 
tains 45-97 grains to the gallon and in a 1,000 gal- 
lons there is 5 lbs. of incrustating matter; it is con- 
sidered rery bad water. Sleepy Eye lake analyzes 
very nicely, contains 155 lbs. to a thousand gallons, 
but it contains so much vegetable matter that it is 
almost impossible to use it. 

Mr. Pattee— Does it foam? 

Mr. Mcintosh— The trouble with it is not so much 
in the line of foam as in the formation of a kind of a 
paste in the boiler that combines with the minerals 
from other waters and which, unless it is drawn 
off and cleaned out very frequently, will ultimately 
form scale. 

Mr. Pattee— Do you find that paste when it forms 
on the crown sheet, almost impervious to water and 
almost as bad on the sheet as hard scale? 

Mr. Mcintosh— Quite as bad, I guess. Hard scale, 
particularly scale formed of carbonate of lime, is 
porous to a certain extent; I notice a sheet will 
carry a good deal of it and will not burn as rapidly 
as it will with a sediment of this softer mud that we 
get in this western country. 

Mr. Pattee— The onlyad vantage is you can wash it 


Mr. Mcintosh— If wo take it in time we can. The 
city of Tracy has a well, the water of which we had 
analyzed recently with a view to using it, if we 
could. We found it contains 112-69 grains to a gal- 
lon, in other words, 9 lbs. of incrustating matter to a 
thousand gallons; we are not going to use it. 

Mr. Pattee — That means about a wheelbarrow 
load a day. 

Mr. Mcintosh— Yes. sir. Wc have the analysis of 
someartesian wells through DakoUi. Huron contains 
120 grains to a gallon, 628 lbs. of incrustating matter 
to a 1, 000 gallons. The artesian well al Harold conUiins 
102 grains to a gallon and Dierc is only -.52 lbs. of 
that in a 1,000 gallons that is incrustating matter. 

th:e master mechanic. 

The well at Highmore, Dakota, contains a total of 
103 grains to a gallon and only -91 of a pound to a 
1,000 gallons of incrustating- matter. Others range 
in that ratio. We have the analysis of the first well 
that our company put down at Piei-re, Dakota, and 
it was a bad oiu-. It contained ITS grains to the gal- 
lon; 133 of ihat was sulphate of soda. It made pretty 
lively work for the boj's. 

iSlr. Pattee— Did you find in using that whether it 
corroded the flues and the sheets? 

Mr. Mcintosh— It would corrode the flues and 
sheets badly. We used that water for a year; we 
had a ^eat deal of difficulty with it. It foamed so 
bad that it would work through the pipes, get in the 
cylinder, break the cylinder heads and valves and 
everything of that kind. We finally sunk a well on 
the banks of the Missouri river and got splendid 
water there, got right down into the gravel. It was 
Missouri river water filtered through gravel. 

Mr. Pattee — You found the Missouri river water 
filtered through the sand very good? 

Mr. Mcintosh — Yes, sir, we consider it the best 
water we have got on our division, although T have 
no analysis of it. I have tried some compounds and 
never got any good results from them. Possibly 
with carbonate of lime you might use some com- 
pound if you were using that water altogether. It 
would help considerably, if you commenced to use it 
when you started out and cleaned the boiler and 
continued its use. But further west, where we have 
alkali water, I never could get any good results 
from it. Take a boiler that has been running some 
time and has accumulated considerable mud and put 
a compound into it. and loosen off the scale, and it 
will settle down among the flues and have a tendency 
to collapse them. We have used some of the me- 
chanical purifiers for settling this lime and other 
matter before it goes into the boiler; at some places 
we have had fair success with them, particularly 
in the western country, where there is alkali water: 
The purifier seems to have no particular effect on 

Mr. Pattee— Your idea is that it does not precipi- 
tate it in time? 

Mr. Mcintosh — My opinion is that the water passes 
too rapidly through the apparatus, and that it does 
not have a long enough journey to settle this mat- 
ter properly. 

A member— What purifier do you refer to? 

Mr. Mcintosh — We used the Smith, and in the 
western country we got very good results from it. 
In my opinion about the only remedy is to provide 
larger boilers with ample room for the Water to cir- 
culate, with good facilities to get at the different 
parts to clean it out, and provide good large tenders 
so that you can carry plenty of water to pass by the 
stations that furnish the poorest quality. The sur- 
face blow-off of the Smith or other types, I think, is 
a good thing to us in an alkali country, as the scum 
gathers on the surface and can be blown off. 

Mr. G. N. Hunt, secretary and treasurer of the 
Field Peed Water Purifier Company, here read the 
following paper: 


The subject of the purificatiou of feed water for loco- 
motive boilers is a large question, and with many railroad 
men has become a stale question. 

For thirty years the best mechanical minds of the world 
have been seeking some economical solution of the prob- 
lem : How sha.l we prevent incrustation in steam boilers! 
I find that American master mechanics have spent years of 
time and study on this question, and that ever since lSt>8 it 
has been thoroughly and learnedly discussed in their public 
assemblies, uul I fail to find in the printed reports of those 
meetings a recommendation of any economical, feasible 
plan by which feed waler may be purified. In this short 
paper on the subject, I shall lay no claim to originality out- 
side of the special invention for the accomplishment of this 
purpose which I shall briefly describe. 

The subject is divisible into three parts. 

1. Incrustation, its causes, effects and cures. 

2. The deposit of sediment, its effects and remedies. 

3. The impurities in water which prodi 
effects and remedy. 

To quote from a report of the committe 
Railway Master Mechanics' Association • 
sary to dwell upon the fonnation of incrustation in boilers, 
its causes are already so well understood that it needs no 
special comment; suffice to say that, carbonates and sul- 
phates of lime, and carbonate of magnesia are the prevail- 
ing elements contained in the waters which form incrusta- 
tion. Chloride of sodium, fine clay, alumina, and silicates 
are also found, but generally in diminished quantities, so 
that probably a large proportion of the difficulty would be 
overcome by expelling the lime and magnesia. This can be 
done by evaporation, or by chemical means, but such a pro- 
cess would be too expensive as has been clearly shown in 
former reports." Chemical writers tell us that 95 per cent, 
of scale-producing matter in boiler waters is made up of 
carbonates of line, magnesia and iron and the sulphate of 
lime, and that these substances form what is known aa 
"temporary hardness" in water, that is, hardness caused 
by the bicarbonates of alkaline earths and which disap- 
pears in boiling. The other five per cent, of hardness in 
water is called "permanent hardness," caused by the 
chlorides, sulphates and nitrates of the alkaline earths 
which is not lessened by boiling. So it would seem that 
any process thai, uses heat as a means of separating the 
impurities from the water must fail to remove five per 

proved by recent experi- 
•ing water, it is not found 
reduce the degree of hardness lower than ti or 
r degrees, as the heating surfaces of a boiler are kept prac- 
tically clean, when water of this degree of hardness is 

The evil effects of scale being 
hearers I need not dwell on tl _ 
quote briefly from Dr. Joseph G. Rogers: "The evil effects 
of scale are due to the fact that it is relatively a non-con- 
ductor of heat. Its conducting power compared with that 
of iron is as 1 to 375 about; accordingly more fuel is re- 
quired to heat water through the scale and flues of an in- 
crusted boiler than would be required if the boiler were 
clear of scale. It is readily demonstrated that scale l-lb of 
an inch thick will demand the extra expenditure of about 
15 per cent, more fuel. This ratio increases as the scale 
grows thicker; thus when it is i^ of an inch thick 60 per 
cent, more fuel is needed, etc." My subsequent reading 
leads me to believe Dr. Rogers estimates high. However 
that maybe, his estimates divided by two, would convince 
us of evil effects demanding attention, outside of the weak- 
ness of boilers thus produced tending to explosion and the 
evil resulting from the presence of scale making slower 
and more difficult the raising, maintaining and lowering 
of steam. 

To obviate these evils and purify the feed water very 
many plans, good, bad or indifferent, have been devised. 
The various methods thus far employed for the prevention 
of scale may be divided into three general classes. First, 
the use of chemicals, which will counteract the effect of 
the scale forming impurities, or in other words, the u^ of 


tender, and third, methods for pur 

mechanically after leaving the locomotive 

allowed to circulate freely in the 

ifying the 

tender and before it 


In regard to the first method— the use of chemicals— I 
will quote the words of the committee appointed by the 
American Master Mechanics' Association. 

" Your committee desire to say that there is probably no 
subject of more importance to railroad and manufacturing 
interests of the country than how to prevent the incrusta- 
tion of steam boilers. It not only causes great waste of fuel 
(estimated, we understand, by the French engineers at 45 
per cent, of the total amount consumed) but invites boiler 

powders, fluids, batteries, etc., but the majority looked 
upon all such nostrums with suspicion, believing them to 
be more or less injurious to the boilers. In this report, as 
well as in former ones, the useof compounds for removing 

before it is allowed to enter the boiler. 

The chief objection to the second methoa— purifying 
the feed water in the reservoirs at the stations— seems to 
be the great outlay or cost necessary to do this. 

One or two roads in the United States have adopted the 
system, but the first outlay bars most of the railroads from 
using this method. 

In connection with this system, storing rain and surface 
water has several times been recommended by the above 
mentioned committee as perhaps the only method of getting 
pure feed water for boilers. While much good might be 
accomplished by a judicious and careful olacing of water 
tanks along the lines where rainfall is sufficient and the 
lay of Ihe land would permit, so as to get the water from 
rivers and creeks and surface reservoirs; and if needful, 
pipe it to the point desired to locate the tanks instead of 
digging deep wells, and thus getting the hardest of water; 
still the lack of sufficient rainfall in certain portions of the 
west and northwest, and the first cost or outlay has pre- 
vented much being accomplished in this direction ; and be- 

during seasons of rain and high water it is thick with mud, 
causing boilers to foam and produce incrustation. 

And so we come to the third method, which, as far as 
my research has led me, is the most practical and econom- 
ical plan for purifying feed water, provided it is possible 
to accomplish the same in that way, namely: To purify 
the feed water by some mechanical device through the 
action of heat after it leaves the tender and before it en- 
ters into the general circulation of the boiler. 

It was determined as long ago as 1868 by the committee 
apppointed from the American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association to investigate the subject of the purification of 
feed water that: "The only effectual way to prevent in- 
crustation is to purify the water if possible before it is 
allowed to enter the boiler." Their fifth annual report en- 
ters into a long, detailed and exhaustive statement as to 
the cost of purifying the water by the process of boiling, 
assuming from the data, which may be seen in the report, 
that "boiling under pressure would precinitate at least a 
portion of the impurities contained in the water." 

' from the beginning that the 

It will be 
have not departed from their first conclusions i 
to purifying the water before it is taken into the boiler. 

In 1874 Mr. Hudson, of the Rogers Locomotive Works, 
said: " It is very important that the water should he kept 
from forming the solid deposits in the boiler. There ought 
to be some mechanical means for collecting these deposits 
and blowing them out every hour or two." 

Another prominent master mechanic said: "If any me- 
chanical means can be devised to prevent this deposit 
forming in boilers it should be done." 

So there was and ie to-day a crying need of a mechanical 
device that will economically accomplish this result. 
Almost always when there is a great need in the industrial 
world the need is met. The ingenuity of man finally over- 
comes obstacles and proves itself equal to the emergency. 
Usually, too, the solution instead of being an intricate and 
complicated device, is the perfection of simplicity. 

Successful inventors, like successful railroad men, are 
commonly distinguished for simplicity and directness of 
aim; using the very difficulties ki the case as stepping 
stones to the object in view. This is notably true of the 
Field feed water purifier. The apparatus is a simple one, 
and uses the very same natural law which 

by boiling, to obviate the diffi- 



principle upon which it works is 
water to and beyond the boiling 
scale forming imi "' 

ifics the water mechanically after it 

nd before it enters the boiler. The 

' ' ■ - healmg the feed 

leieby causing all 

aied." This is ac- 

uplished by causing the feed w.iier lu p 

located wholly within the boiler, when \\v lU. 
purities are precipitated in the jiuriiur pii.^- 
construction of which is such as Xo preveiii 
and scale forming substances from being carried into the 
boiler. The feed water from the injectors or pumps passes 
nearly to the forward end of the boiler, where it goes 
through the usual check valves and thence into the purifier, 
the purifier being connected directly to the feed water pipes 
on each side of the boiler. The check valves are raised 
from the place where they are usually located, and placed 
on the plane of the purifier, which is just above the fire 
flues, so as to feed the water directly into the purifier. 
After the water flows through the length of pipe forming 
the purifier,, that is six limes lengthwise of the boiler, it 
passes out of the upright pipes into the boiler. These up- 
right pipes extend into the dry steam space 6 or 8 in. above 
the highest water line. 

The purifier is placed in the boiler, out of sight, and does 
not disfigure the boiler. The horizontal pipes are com- 
pletely submerged in water, and placed directly over, but 
not touching, the fire flues. 

The purifier is made in lengths to suit the boiler. The 
outer tube or conduit is 4 in. in diameter, and made of 
sheet steel rolled in circular form and riveted. Each of the 
six lengths of piping is made by joining several short 
lengths together by means of malleable iron flanges. In- 
side of the main tubes are two other tubes somewhat 
shorter and smaller than the outer one; one is about 3 in. 
and the other 2 in. in diameter. These are also made of 
sheet steel rolled into circular shape, but are not closed 
there being a half inch slot or opening all along the bottom 
of each inside tube. These tubes are also perforated to 
allow the water to circulate freely between and through 
the tubes. The inner tubes are held concentric with the 
outer one by a small malleable iron casting at each end 
which is in the form of a cross and fitted with grooves in 
one face for the reception of the ends of the tubes. A long- 
itudinal bolt holds them together. A wedge shape casting 

le end of each fo the short sections of 

pipe of which the purifier is composed, 
in such manner as to assist in catching sediment; the ver- 
tical face of the wedge is opposed to the flow of water. 

The difficulty, however, has not been to precipitate the 
scale and sediment, but to get rid of it after it has been 
precipitated. A purifier of this nature must have a means 
of blowing off the impurities it is designed to collect: 
otherwise it would be valueless. The blowing off and 
cleansing out of the purifier is accomplished in the follow- 
ing manner: On the right hand side of the boiler a tee is 
interposed between the check valve and transverse pipe in- 
side of the boiler, which forms a portion of the purifier. 
At the bottom of fiis tee is a blow-off cock or valve worked 
by a connection in the cab. When the purifier is to be 
blown off, this valve is opened, and the water and steam in 
fiowing out, carry the impurities with it. It will be remem- 
bered that the ends of the short induction pipes project 
vertically into the steam space. The only water, therefore, 
which will escape from the boiler during the operation of 
blowing off will be that standing in the purifier at the time. 
Steam will then follow. The passages are so constructed 
that everything will pass to the right side, and thus pre- 
vent dirt from getting into the left check valve. The check 
valve on the right side is protected by the sh?pe of the in- 
terior of the tee, there being a curved diaphragm inter- 
posed within the tee Uj deflect all dirt from the check 
valves. From the Wfcw-off valve the outflow can be piped 
down outside the engine to any desired point, care being 
taken that the pipes have no sharp bends and no pockets to 
hold sediment. 

The blow off should be operated every two to four hours, 
depending upon the water. 

The blow off lever is easily operated by engineer in the 
cab. One motion shuts the feed and opens the blow off 
cock, which should be left open until steam issues from the 
blow off pipe, when it should be immediately closed. 

By using dry steam ouly for blow off purposes, the blow 
off can be operated as easily while the locomotive is in i^io- 
tion as at a standstill. An automatic blow off can be used 

is also placed i 

The detail points of advantage in this invention are: 

1. The great length and shape of the purifier pipe, being 
in an ordinary boiler 75 to 85 ft., thus enabling the purifier 
to hold the water until it becomes superheated, and until 
all sediment and salts have been precipitated in the pipes, 
thus feeding the boiler with steam and highly heated water 
as pure as water can be made by any mechanical process. 

2. The series of inside tubes through such a continuous 
length of pipe, presenting the greatest possible metal sur- 
face for the attraction of the different solids and salts in 

of the heat, are freed from the water. 

3. The series of dams in each 3 ft. section of the conduit, 
obs*,ruciing the dirt and grosser sediment, and preventing 
its being carried forward into the boiler by the flow of 

4. The cleaning of the purifier pipes by blowing back dry 
steam through the conduits and forcing out through the 
"blow out" all sediment and salts in the purifier pipes, 
while such sediment and salts are in a moist condition. 
(The six upright pipes opening into the dry steam space 
enable us to do this.) 

5. It prevents foaming. 

6. Its simple construction. Its economy. It is easily at- 
tached to the inside of a boiler and does not disfigure the 

7. The salts and impurities, precipitated inside the puri- 
fier, are blown out with dry steam. No water is blown out 
except that at the time in the purifier pipes. This water is 
forced ahead of the dry steam and thus the purifier kept 
clean at all times. 

8. Steam is genei'ated in these six outlets opening in the 
dry s'eam space, and by supplying the boiler with steam 
and highly heated water all expansion and contraction, 
loose rivets and leaky tubes are done away with and there 
is also a great saving of fuel. 

9. The purifier being of such great length, the feed water 


January, 1890. 


reaches the boiling point by the time it has passed twice 
the length of the boiler and from that point until it 
reaches the outlet pipes, a distance of 60 ft., the water is 
increasing in temperature and the calcium bicarbonate and 
the calcium sulphate, oxides of magnesia, iron and other 
. salts are freed from the water and in traveling the greater 
part of the purifier are precipitated and adhere in moist 
condition tc these inside metal surfaces from which they 
are removed by the dry steam blow off, before they have 
time to harden. 

The puriBer holds about 40 gallons of water and has 250 
square feet of metal surface to which the salts are exposed 
when freed from the water by ihe action of the heat. A 
test of this device on one of the main lines of railway in 
the United States for a period of six months shows a clean 
boiler, no mud, no scale formation on crown sheets or 
flues, or in purifier pipes. The water has been let out of 
the boiler once in six weeks to two months and but little 
loose sediment was found. Ordinarily, boilers have to be 
washed out, once every week, on that division. 

The purifier not only catches the impurities and precipi- 
tates the salts, but it cleans itself of such sediment and 
salts by means of the dry steam blow out, without -waste of 

Prof. Chandler, of Columbia College, New York, states: 
"Boiling expels the free carbonic acid and causes the sep- 
aration of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, and if con- 
ducted at a high temperature, under considerable pressure, 
results in the almost complete precipitation of the sulphate 
of lime." This transfers tlie incrustation from the locomo- 
tive boiler to the inside metal surface of the purifier pipes, 
intended expressly to catch it, and so arranged that the 
sediment may be blown out at pleasure. The feed water 
passes from a two inch feed pipe into the four inch puri- 
tier pipe, hence flows much more slowly through the puri- 
fier pipes, and gives opportunity for the precipitation of 
the scale forming properties and the deposit ol sediment. 

By using this mechanical method, the water fed to the 
boiler is always practically pure and of about the same 
temperature as steam. 

Now the third evil, primiiiL- or fonmiiiL-, nmains. We are 
not prepared to say what nsili iii^ ,i,a i, ,> would have 
upon foaming when alkali i. . - - m the use of 

water free from mud and ni - - ^ will usually 

prevent foaming and the iliv ,. ., ,.i r .. ,i>.i reduce this 
evil. "The proof of the pui.'u.i.f, i.. .u tbtAii.f; the string." 

Railroad men I find very skeptical un this subject. I 
guess they have had good cause for being so. I thank you 
for your kind attention and can only say in closing that we 
have a full sized purifier here in the room for your inspec- 
tion and that we should be pleased to remove any doubts 
you may have by placing a purifier, at our own expense, on 
any of your roads for a lest of its merits. 

Mr. Pattee— Speaking of the Smith purifier, there 
is no question but that it does a certain atnount of 
the work which it is intended to do. We have six 
of them in service. By frequent blowing off of one 
of the engines we were able to run it seven weeks 
without washing it out, but at the end of that time 
on examination we found that those solids which 
make the hard scale which is most detrimental to 
the boiler had formed nearly as fast as they had 
without the purifier. It had caught the mud and 
the part of the impurities which had precipitated 
quickly, but the length of pipe was not sutlicient, or 
in other words the water did not get sufficiently hot 
while it was in the pipe, to precipitate the impuri- 
ties in the water, and consequently they passed 
through into the boiler. It did the work to a cer- 
tain extent, but it was not quite sufficient to do the 
work as we wished to have it done. 

Mr. Mcintosh— I would say in regard to the Smith 
purifier that the first engine that we applied it to on 
the Dakota divii-ion. No. 20, is running between Red- 
field and Gcttysburgh, where the water is very bad. 
Since putting that on in February, 1888, after the 
engine had seen six months service, she has run up 
to the present time, and is still running, and there 
never has been a leak in a flue or a stay bolt in her 
fire-bo.< since. That is in Dakota, between the Jim 
River Valley and Missouri. Other engines fully as 
well equipped, running in other localities changing 
from one supply to another, have not done nearly 
as well. Whether it is because the water in that 
section contains peculiar ingredients that cause it 
to work so well on that engine, or because of some 
other cause, I have not been able to ascertain yet. 

President Small — Something must be done in this 
western country, either by mechanical or chemical 
means, to improve the condition of waters used or 
we will sutler an immense expense. We have suf- 
fered an immense expense and it will increase as the 
business increases uuKss we can find some remedy. 
While business has been light on the various roads 
it has not shown up so bad, but now that the business 
is increasing, the number of trains increasing, and 
the size of engines increasing, and the amount of 
water used is increasing we find that stopping an 
engine every 100 or li5 miles to wash it out, taking 
two or three hours, is an expense not ouly in regard 
to the engine, but because of the delay in time and 
in getting over the road. I think the master me- 
chanics ought to encourage the manulacturers of 
different devices by giving such devices a good fair 
trial."" I do not know of any subject that is more im- 
portant to railroads in the west. 


Joint Inspection, 

Test Laboratories. 

The Western Hallway Club held its December 
meeting on Tuesday, December 17, President Hickey 
in the chair. Among the railway men present were: 
C. A. Schroyer, G. M. Davidson and E. B. Thomp- 
son, C. & N. W. Ry.; Allen Cooke, C. & E. I.: P. H. 
Peck, C. & W. I. and Belt; W. Forsyth, R. D. Smith, 
F. W. Sargent and G. H. Ellis. C, B. & Q.; R. K. 
Verbryck, C, R. I. & P.; George Gibbs, C, M. & St. 
P.; W. S. Morris, C. & W. M. and D., L. & N.; G. 
Lo. Potter, Pennsylvania Company; W. H. Lewis, 
C, B. & N.; W. B. Snow and Wm. Rosing, Illinois 
Central; Jno. Hickey, M., L. S. & W. Ry. 

The first subject for discussion, "Joint Inspection 
at Chicago," was opened by Mr. P. H. Peck, of the 
C. & W. I. Belt Ry., in the following paper: 


Chicago 1 

become the largest railroad center of the 
world, and with the extensive growth of the west and 
northwest the interchange of cars between railroads at 
this point has grown faster than some of our best informed 
otHcials anticipated. The car movement at Chicago has 
been steadily increasing each year until it is estimated that 
the interchange now mounts to between 4,000 and 7,000 
cars daily, and I think I am safe in saying tllat;iO per cent, 
of these cars are more or less defective, require a defect 
card in transferring. The limited yard room and tracks 
we have in the city for this vast business makes the in- 
spection of cars both expensive and deficient and keeps 
a large number of cars out of service in busy times when 
cars are most needed. It also causes extra i ' ' ' „, ' 
volviug the blocking of side tracks and the delayi"n'g of 
freight, thus causing any amount of trouble to car depart 
ments and complaints from our superior officers and 

The only way, I think, by which we can avoid this 
trouble is by establisiiing a system of joint inspection at 
the different junction or points of interchange, 
railroads terminate here. All through cars for th 
west are transferred either by the roads bringing 
to Chicago or by some transfer line. Other cars, consigned 
to Chicago industries, that the roads bringing the cars into 
the city have not access to, also have to be transferred by 
some foreign road or transfer company, making it imposs- 
ible to do this interchange transfer work with M, C. B. de- 
fect cards. 

All those cars are received and delivered wii 
kept by the inspectors at the junctions or yards where 
are received. In the month of October, 18S9, the Belt 
received at nine of the largest junctions 37,292 cars 
which there were notations against 9,133 cars, or 34 per 
cent, of number received. The per cent, of defects 
varied at the different junctions from 31 
cent. ; all of these defects would have had to be carded if the 
M. C. B. rules had been adhered to,and many hundred dollars 
worth of repairs would have been done by foreign roads 
which the owners desired to do on their own repair tracks. 

I think the present system defective for the reason that 
we have four transfer lines or tracks over which these cars 
can be transferred to other lines, all receiving and deliv- 
ering by notations kept by inspectors. A defective car 
may go to a road over one line and be unloaded and billed 
home over one of the other lines, but it will not be received 
by its own road as the inspectors have no record of it. The 
cars will then have to go back and be returned to the first 
line that handled it, thus causing a long delay as the car 
will have to be traced to find the first route it was trans- 
ferred to, so as to pass the same inspectors. 

Example:— A defective car passes from the C, M. & St. 
P. to the B. & O. for South Chicago (I take these roads as 
extreme north and south lines in the city) through the Air 
Line, the distance traveled being about 1.5 miles through 
several of the most busy tracks in the city. This car will 
be unloaded and billed home over the Belt Line, (30 miles 
and through four large yards) to Cragin, the junction with 
the C, M. & St. P. The St. Paul inspectors at Cragin will 
refuse it, as they have no record of it. It will then be sent 
back to the B. & O. and routed home via the Belt, B. & O. 
and Air Line, when it will be received home O. K. as these 
inspectors had the record of it the first move. This car 
will thus be hauled over 40 miles and switched in several 
yards through an expensive territory in which to handle 

irs. This is only one example out of man.\- that daily oc- 

ir but I have no doubt that there are at least between 50 

id 100 cars idle daily in this manner. 

The expense that I wish to direct special attention to is 

I the inspection ; there are too many men employed to in- 
spect cars on this method. Each company now has inspec- 
tors of its own at each junction. Both inspectors do the 
work, but for two companies. For instance, at a 
junction of two roads each company has one day and one 
night man, making a total of four men. The.v will inspect 
the cars together, both making the same record, but for two 
companies: oue day man and one night man could keep 
the same records for the two companies, just as well and 
just as correctly. The cost per car for inspection for 
seven of the eight junctions at Chicago for October, 'so 
was from vsi cent, the lowest, to ■03« cent, the 
At one of the junctions there is joint inspection, and the 
inspection there was only 017 c«nt per car, showing a sav- 
ing of one half cent on the cheapest, and 013 cent on the 
highest junction. I think I am safe in saying that between 
35 and 40 per cent, could be saved by joint inspection and a 
better senicc would be rendered; and furthermore, we 
would not have so many cars out ot service. 

The joint inspectors would be furnished with cards to be 
used in the city, to fasten on the cars with the first record, 
showing that ihe car was received by joint inspectors. 
That record would take the car home over any route or 
junction where cars are interchanged. Inspectors could 
use their judgment about using an M. C. B. card on perish 

able freight, avoiding delay when the car was safe to run. 
All the joint inspecloi-s would report and receive their in- 
structions from a head of that department located in the 
city, after the method employed by the car service associa- 

Joint inspection is working very nicely in Kansas City, 
St. Louis, Cincinnati, Buffalo and Detroit, and has been a 
great assistance in keeping the freight moving without un- 
necessary delay. 

During tje past summer I have re.-eived Ir-lters from Mr. 
E. G. Fish, assistant superintemk'nt ll;innihal .S; St. Joe 
Railway, Kansas City, and also fr -m .Mi ( h.u I -. .A. Cory, 



City and Cincinnati. Both 

praise of joint inspection. 1 h; 

oral heads of car departments 



and about all favor it but do r 
I have arranged and adopted |r.,i ,- .■, i\\! the 
Wabash Railway at Chandler, an. i ; i , . Miy lit- 
tle trouble and very few delays own,. I'liecost 

of inspection is much cheaper pir i , ,i i\' -016 
cent per oar against a general avri,, i i,,i"same 

month. In June, with a lighter bu^ i,.^-, i i.. j. i,. i ,,| aver- 
age was -039 cent and the joint ills|i,.i ;;uu .il U.ilijshcost 
019 cent— one cent per car cheaper. 

I find on the Belt line that the average cost per car for 
inspection is too great compared with the average cost for 
repairs. In January, 1889, the cost for repairs was 046 
c.ent and for inspection 031 cent. In June the average cost 
of repairs was -O+t cent and for inspection -039 cent. In 
October repairs per car cost 033 cent and the inspection 
cost -OSO cent. In the largest mouth the repairs cost only 
•015 cent more per car than the inspection. In the month 
of October the repairs per car cost only -007 cent more per 
car than the inspection. All of which shows me that under 
the rules, standards, etc., of the Master Car Builders the 
repairs of cars have almost reached the lowest point of 
economy. But in the present system of inspection in this 
city there is large room for increased economy. To gain 
this economy all heads of car departments will have to in 
vite, form and adopt suitable rules to govern inspection 
the same as the above named cities have. 

I have no doubt but that the heads of the car departments 
could call a meeting and adopt a code of rules, forms and 
cards lobe used in Chicago in joint inspection, that our su 
perior officers would cheerfully approve. After it is once 
adopted and gets to running, we will wonder how we 
managed to do this work so long without it. 

Mr. D. L. Barnes— I should like to ask Mr. Peck 
what parts of the car are generally found by inspec- 
tion to be in need of repairs. 

Mr. Peck— Generally the draw-bar. Sometimes a 
bad wheel. But in our yards at Chicago the draw- 
bars and their attachments produce most of the de- 
fects. That is on account of heavy yard service. 

Mr. Barnes— Which portion ot the draw-bar at- 
tachment is found most troublesomeV 

Mr. Peck— That is something I couldn't answer. 
The draw-bar I ugs are perhaps the most troublesome. 
I have known a car to be drawn 22 miles in this city, 
broken in that way, and to cost 11 cents for repair, 
and all there was broken, if I recollect right, were 
two Sth bolts. 

President Hickey— Do you find the draw-lugs 
broken, or the bolts broken, or both? 

Mr. Peck— It is generally the bolts, but sometimes 
the castings are broken; the draw-bars also break 
quite often. 

President Hickey— Do you lind much trouble with 
the springs of draw-bars^ 

Mr. Peck — No, not so much as we do with their 

Mr. D. L. Barnes— Do you have as much trouble 
with the vertical plane standard coupler as with the 
ordinary coupler? 

Mr. Peck— There are not enough ot them handled 
to demonstrate that, but I know that when we break 
one ot the vertical plane couplers it costs us more 
money than the other. 

President Hickey— To avoid this trouble of delays 
on account of repairs, you propost; a remedy in joint 
inspection. Is that your purpose? 
Mr. Peck — Yes, sir. 

President Hickey— Have you formed an agree- 
ment to that effect with any road? 

Mr. Peck— With only one road. The Wabash 
road and the Bolt Line have a joint inspector at 
Chandler. There we have only two inspectors, 
whereas it each road had its own inspectors there 
would be tour, two for night and two for day, but as 
it is we have one tor day and one for night, these 
doing the work tor both companies. In one month 
we received 3,131 cars there, and at the Chicago & 
Grand Trunk, where there are four men, received 
only 2,300 cars. 

Mr. B. K. Verbryck— We have joint inspection at 
Kansas City, Council Bluffs and Denver. At Kansas 
City and Denver the work is very satisfactory, but I 
cannot say it is at Council Bluffs; it never has been 
to me, and I don't think it will ever be under the 
present management. At Kansas City we have a 
man who is impartial, and his inspection there has 
been very satisfuctory in the way of getting cars 
about from one road to the other. There la very 
little delay. It is just the same at Denver. We 
have had joint inspection there not quite a year. I 
believe with Mr. Peck that where there is great in- 
terchange of cars joint inspection is a very good 
thing. Whether it would be of any advant;igc to us 
here in Chicago I could not say exactly. We don't 
have quite .so much interchange with the Belt road, 
which runs all around Chicago, as the other roads 



do, on account of having our own road here, but I 
think if it could be arranged to have joint inspection 
at points where there is a great deal of interchange 
it would be a good thing and save the companies 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer— The conditions of our yards 
will govern very largely the point of joint inspec- 
tion. I know of "but one point on our lines in Chi- 
cago where joint inspection could be carried on to an 
advantage, and that is between the Chicago iSc North- 
western and the Belt line. We could have a joint 
inspection there, for the reason that both yards are 
right together. I do not understand how we could 
aaopt a system of joint inspection at Chicago between 
all of the roads, because our yards are so situated 
that we could not get a joint inspector to look over 
those yards. Now, as far as ourselves and the Belt 
line are concerned, we could have a joint inspector, 
and 1 presume many of the other roads in Chicago 
could nave with the Belt road, but there is this 
thing about it, the Belt line in Chicago has but a 
short distance to haul a car. It receives a car, say, 
from the B. & O. to deliver to the Milwaukee road, 
and it turns it over to the Milwaukee by the Belt, as 
cited by Mr. Peck. Now, if that car is delivered in 
bad oraer by the Milwaukee & St. Paul to the B. & 
O., the inspector who receives it from the Belt Com- 
pany, without knowing that it was received by them 
in this condition, will reluse to accept it, and the re- 
sult is that the Belt line will have to haul it back. 
We have a great deal of trouble in thai way. In 
order to recuce these troubles to a minimum we 
have established on our road what was discussed 
three years ago by the Western Kailway Club, viz.: 
a red card system of curding. Our object in estab- 
lishing that card was this, that we receive cars from 
a great many roads around Chicago having minor 
defects, but which do not render the car unlit for 
service. Under our rules the inspector receiving 
that car should have held it and sent to the road de- 
livering it for a M. C. B. card. This would cause 
the loss of some three or four days, and the result 
would be that our yard would be hiled up with cars 
that should have gone, and our officials at one time 
issued an order to the effect that any car the defects 
of which could be repaired for $o could be accepted, 
considering that it was cheaper to spend $5 on that 
car than to hold it standing around our yards. It 
was to do away with that injustice, in which we lost 
a great deal of money, that this red card system was 
taken up by us, and when a car is received in bad order 
at anv of" our poiuts it has one of our red cards 
attached to it, slating the nature of the delect that 
was on It when it was received, and requesting agents 
and trainmen to return that car to the point at 
which it was delivered. But frequently the fore- 
man or inspector who placed that red card on the 
car fails to take it off and the result is that the car 
gets away from us with the card ou, and we have 
bills renuered against us with this red card accom- 
panying them as a voucher. We have lost more 
money by that system than we ever did by the old 
svstern. If some one could devise a scheme whereby 
a"system of joint inspection at Chicago would be 
practicable I would go into it heartily, out I cannot 
understand how it can be done. I am willing to 
meet any of the car men on this subject and discuss 
it with them. 

Mr. P. H. Peck— That was my idea exactly. I 
want to gel the car men together to discuss it. A 
great uiaijy limes we wait lor M. C. B. cards, but if 
Ihe cai> couuiin certain perishable freight we re- 
ceive them il they will run in any shape. I think we 
ought to get a "system into operation here as well 
as in Kansas City. Our yards are located no worse 
than they are in Kansas City. 

Mr. B. K. Verbryck— I do not agree with that. 
The Kansas City yards are not comparatively so far 
apart as they are here. Our yards are isolated. Of 
course we have a good deal of interchange from the 
different roads, but they are taken from our yards 
by different parties. We have but very little inter- 
change with the Belt line here in Chicago; at least 
I never get any bills from them. I think the great- 
est difficulty here in Chicago is on account of the 
yards being scattered so lar apart, which would 
make joint inspection very troublesome. 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer— If everybody was honest these 
conditions that now exist would not prevail, but 
there is an inclination among our inspectors all 
around Chicago and other points to beat somebody 
else. The great mistake we are making, and have 
always made, is that we do not inspect our own cars 
rigiaiy enough. What is the result? When the 
Belt line delivers a car to us they never inspect it 
there, and when we deliver a car to anyone else they 
don't inspect it at i.11; they all depend upon the Belt 
line's inspection. The probabilities are Ihat if the 
Belt line returns that car to us without a notation 
or card on it our men will refuse to accept it, know- 
ing very well the defect was on it when it was de- 
livered. I don't say that these conditions do prevail 
between the Belt line and the Chicago & North- 
western, but I say there is an inclination on the part 
of inspectors to allow such conditions as that to pre- 
vail. There are a number of schemes that could be 
devised for the interchange of cars in Chicago. The 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy deliver cars to us. I 
Our yards are so close together that we can go to 
them in a very few minutes to get a defect card from 
them. That is also the case with the Port Wayne. 
But those are the only two roads that I can think of 
just now with which we could have a code of joint 
inspection at all, and unless there should be a joint 
inspector with subordinate officers or subordinate 
foremen in each of the yards in Chicago, with a gen- 
eral head, I don't see how it is possible to establish 
a system of joint inspection. 

Mr. P. H. Peck— That was just my point exactly. 
The inspector where there were, say, four roads 
would be paid by the four roads. I do not see why 
that could not be done, and thus avoid the useless 
hauling and switching around and breaking of cars. 

President Hickey— Mr. Schroyer, you spoke of a 
code of rules to govern joint inspection. Did you 
mean that a set of rules was necessary to govern 
joint inspection? Could not the joint inspector be 
governed in every way by the M. C. B. rules? 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer— I think the M. C. B. rules 
would cover every point at issue if they were lived 
up to, but it is impossible to do it. We should have 
our yards around Chicago blocked with freight so 
that it would be impossible to move. If a system of 
joint inspection was established at Chicago it would 
be necessary to have a code of rules based on the 
master car builders' rules to work on. I do not see 
wherein we should save any money on a system of 
that kind. We do not pay our inspectors to in- | 
spect a train of cars and then when the train is dis- 
posed of to go and sit down and wait for another 
train. It is the duty of the men at those points to 
make those light repairs and let the car goon. I 
know I won't allow one of my men to refuse a oar for 
two Iths draft-bolts, neither would our officials. 

Mr. W. S. Morris— In Detroit we have a joint in- 
spection, and it is workijg very nicely. I cannot 
say that there is any expense in the way of inspect- 
ors saved to us, but we are saved a great many dis- 
putes. The joint inspector is an arbitrator, so as 
to speak, and whenever a controversy arises between 
any two inspectors the joint inspector's decision is 
final in the matter. I must say we that have very 
little detention from cars. 

President Hickey — Mr. Schroyer, you are success- 
ful at minor points with joint inspectors, are you 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer— We have only one and that 
is at Council Bluffs. 

President Hickey — Could not joint inspection be 
worked at Milwaukee? 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer— Yes, I think it could. 

President Hickey— Gentlemen, at this point I think 
it would be proper to discuss any disputed question un- 
der the rules of the regular interchange rules of 
cars. It would be well to discuss any points of con- 
flict that may have arisen under the last inter- 
change rules. 

Mr. B. K. Verbryck — If there was any misunder- 
standing in that regard it would be referred to the 
arbitration committee, you know. 

President Hickey — I understand, but it might be 
well to discuss it here, so that others could be gov- 
erned by the sense of the meeting. Mr. Schroyer, 
do you know of any such disputes arising under the 
last rules of interchange of cars? 

Mr. Schroyer— Nothing that would be termed a 
dispute. We have this difficulty which is constant- 
ly arising under the M. C. B. r"les. We receive a 
car from the C, B. & Q. in a damaged condition; it is 
damaged to the extent that the car is unsafe for ser- 
vice, and of necessity we have to take that car to 
our shops to repair it. In the transit of that car it 
is damaged very much beyond what it was when we 
received it, and in all such cases as this we have to 
stand the expense of the additional repairs on the 
car over and above what has been carded for by the 
C, B. & Q., or any other company delivering the 
car. That is an injustice which the Master Car 
Builders' rules do not provide for. In a great many 
cases we take those cars as a courtesy toother roads, 
and we loose a great deal of money on account of the 
additional damage in getting the cars to our 
shops. That is a thing that I think ought to be 
covered by the Master Car Builders' rules. Very 
often we take it up to the other road and sometimes 
they will compensate us, and very often they won't, 
and if they won't do it we" have to drop the matter 
and lose on it. I presume some of the other roads 
have the same difficulty. With us the difficulty in 
that direction is multiplied because we have so 
many roads around Chicago with our main shops 
here", and there are so few other roads that have 
their main shops here where they can do those 
heavy repairs. 

Mr. Wm. Forsyth— This matter of car inspection 
is not exactly in my line, but it seems to me that it 
is of a sufficient importance for us to try to do some- more with it than to drop it here. I believa 
a little more could be accomplished if a copy of Mr. 
Peck's paper was sent to all superintendents of car 
departments, those having charge of inspection in 
Chicago, and their attention called to it, and a sug- 
gestion that they call a meeting and try to organ- 
ize a joint inspection for Chicago and formulate a 

code of rules to govern, and I make a motion to that 

Motion seconded and carried. 

Mr. P. H. Peck — I am very glad to see this club 
do this thing, for the reason that I am quite reliably 
informed that if the heads of car departments do not 
do it before long the general managers will. This is 
something the car department ought to take hold of 
rather than the general managers. 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer— I move that Mr. Peck be ap- 
pointed a committee of one to name a day and call 
together ihe heads of the car departments of the 
roads in Chicago for the discussion of this subject. 

Seconded and can-led. 

After the passage of a resolution directing the 
secretary of the club to telegraph the executive com- 
mittee of the M. C. B. Association that the Western 
Railway Club favored changing the place of the next 
M. C. B. convention from Charleston, S. C, to Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn., the subject of " Testing Labora- 
tories," was taken up. Mr. George W. Gibbs, of the 
C, M. & St. Paul, opened this subject with the 
following paper; 

to-day on the above 
subject. I do not wish to offer anything in the nature of a 
paper, but merely to indicate the headintrs upon which, in 
iny opinion, discussion may be profitably based. I have 
the honor to be one of a committee to report upon this 
subject to the next Master Mechanics' Associalion conven- 
tion, and, although I speak entirely for myself, I am sure 
the committee, as a whole, will profit greatly by what may 
be said at these meetings. 

The organization by railway companies of departments, 
headed by specialists, for the purpose uf conducting experi- 
mental work outside of the routine of mechanical work, 
and tor passing upon the character of railway supplies, is 
a comparatively new idea, and as yet confined to a few 
only of the greater railway systems of the country. We 
members of this small fraternity are in the habit of think- 
ing we see great possible economies in railway operation in 
such departments, but we have, perhaps, some of the nat- 
tural bias of enthusiasts entering an enormous held — that 
of the aggregation of professions called the " operating 
department,"' and we should like to be told by those of 
broad experience in railway work where our greatest field 
of usefulness lies. 

The head of a " department of tests and experiments," 
as it may be called, occupies a position of great difficulty, if 
he did but know it; his position has not as yet been clearly 
defined (and this is a point we should consider to-day) ; is 
a scientific man, purely, and inexperienced in practical 
work, he will almost certainly fail at first to appreciate tha 
delicate nature of railway organization, will overstep the 
bounds of his legitimate field and thus lose the respect and 
assistance of his superior ofticei-s when they are most 
needed. A man determined to at once bring everything to 
a fixed ideal standard may become 

• investigations 
ic analysis and 
thereby furnishing opinions which will command respect 
and not arouse ridicule. The danger that he will be asked 
to furnish solutions of each and every problem under the 
sun which seems to the practical man mysterious, and, 
therefore, "scientific" is not so remote as it might appear. 
No logical opinion, however, which is not founded upon 
exacl data is reliable. I am here treating test departments 
as scientific bureaus merely, and is this not their proper 

The tendency of modern times is towards specialization 
in every department of knowledge; a man is no longer an 
all-around business man or scientist either; he lakes up a 
specialty and masters it to bea success. Thus, in railroading, 
the heads of departments — business men— have no lime 
and are not qualified by training to attack and solve prob- 
lems involving a knowledge of modern progress in the 
sciences. This specialization followed to its logical conclu- 
sion requires more than one expert in such a department, 
and since to-day a man cannot be both an engineer and a 
chemist, the question arises as to its organization. On 
some roads the two fields are separate and co-ordinate, on 
others one expert heads both. If the right man can be 
found, one with considerable experience in the methods of 
railway work, with executive ability and knowledge of 
the best lines upon which to lay out an experimental inves- 
tigation, it seems probable that he would divide the work 
between the two sub-heads, chemical and physical, to better 
advantage and put their conclusions in better practical 
shape for his superior officer than could be done by either 
individually. However, this is a point upon which some 
difference of opinion may arise and will naturally be some- 
what governed by particular circumstances. The point is, 
that his reports be clear and accurate and his conclusions 
based upon sufficient data. 

Perhaps the first work of a department of this character, 
and work where it may prove of great utility— or the re- 
verse, I may add— is Ihe regulation of the character of the 
supplies, establishing a standard of quality, one practically 
obtainable, and atterwards seeing that the same is main- 
tained. This constitutes the routine work of the depart- 
ment, and the amount of worry and annoyance which may 
be saved the heads of the mechanical and purchasing de- 
partments, by having the contradictory claims of rival 
manufacturers definitely set at rest by actual test, can be 
readily appreciated. 

Of course, the economic results of this poUcy are of first 
impoitance; if establishing a standard of quality seriously 
increases the cost of supplies, it will be necessary to prove 
that the money is gotten back in other directions, which, 
even when true, is an exceedingly difficult matter. But I 
really believe that our experience oas been salisfaclory in 
this respect, taken as a whole. In some cases we do buy 
more costly material under specifications, but in others less 
so. Again, the cost is not proportionately increased with 
the qualit.v, for several reasons, of which may be mentioned 
competition and the constant effort to improve quality to 


cheaper processes. Then, at times, 
manufaeturei*s are really able to supply cheaper goods 
under specifications than without, as they know deflnitely 
what is called for ;ind do not have to supply a higher grade 
to.M\ri ,;i.ri i.iiiriis aue improper handling by the pur- 
clias. [ ' Ills, their responsibility is confined to 

ti 1 1 1 ! I . : r I ■ tests and the guarantee of service 

Wr I, a.. I:. !.■, M,.:!, a department designed to handle the 
great variety of subjects which are constantly arising in 
progressive i-ailway management, from the position of sci- 
entific experts. One branch of the subject deals with a 
system of uniform tests designed to supply an accurate and 
quick method of arriving at the results of practical service; 
the other extends over the almost limitless field of the arts 
and sciences as applicable to the modern art of railroading. 

It is to be hoped that some of those present to day will 
indicate to us more definitely than I have attempted to do, 
facts win, h iiiuy hiivc come to their notice, either from the 
irishli i) !,i !. -11 .hilt,' the workings of such departments, 
tin-! the market for supplies, and, in fact, 

aii,\ : I here is need for other facilities than 

till-. ,.' organization under their charge, for 

can, •!,- .1- .1 -.-iriiiiitic investigation into the causes of 
present defects or contemplated improvements in service. 

President Hickey: This is a very interesting sub- 
ject. For a good many years back the Master Me- 
chanic's Association has discussed it from time to 
time but nothing has ever come of it. Chemical 
laboratories are a very important thing, the only 
sure means of determining the material to be used 
for certain things around rolling stock, and their es- 
tablishment is not very e.\pensive. It was thought 
at one time that this club would get up something of 
the kind for the benefit of the club, as it was thought 

Mr. Geo. Gtbbs: As I said, I started out to indi- 
cate some of the points that might be discussed. 
What we want to hear is exact data as to the ex- 
perience the other roads have had with testing 
laboratories, the amount of force, the amount of 
material they handle, the observed bettering in the 
character of supplies, etc. 

Mr. D. L. Barnes: I would like to ask some of the 
gentlemen present it they consider the apparatus'in 
the ordinary laboratory sufficiently accurate? It is 
my opinion that the apparatus is good enough for all 
practical purposes, and the ditfereaces are too small 
to have any practical bearing. 

Mr. Forsyth: I would like to speak about the 
early history of testing, because 1 was connected 
with probably the first railway testing room in this 
country during the early years of its operation. It 
was started at Altoona, in a dingy old room over the 
erecting shop, and Mr. G. W. lihodes was the first 
railroad engineer of tests. He was afterwards fol- 
lowed there by Mr. J. W. Cloud, and for a time they 
were the only ones in charge of the department. I 
went there sooi; after Mr. Cloud, and the only ap- 
paratus we had was an old machine operated by 
nand, and that machine was used for tensile and 
transverse tests for probably a year or two, perhaps 
longer than that. Then came Professor Thurston's 
oil testing machine, which was a small apparatus, 
about as large as the electric fans now used lor ven- 
tilating. We used that probably over a year, trying 
to get some results from it. That was followed by 
Professor Thurston's torsional machine for measur- 
ing the work done In breaking a specimen. In 
course of time we accumulated sufficient know- 
ledge on the subject to begin to make speci- 
fications, and the result of those specifica- 
tions was not only a benefit to the railroads 
but also to the manufacturers, for it taught them 
how to make better material. That is the way it 
went until quite a number of railroads now have 
their testing departments. About 1S76, I think. 
Doctor Dudley was put in charge of the chemical de- 
partment, and he, I think, was the first railway 
chemist that was employed in the United States. 
If any of you want to read an interesting record of 
the work done at the Altoona chemical laboratory 
you will find started in the Engineeringand Railroad 
Journal a aeries of papers which Mr. Dudley and 
his assistants are now writing. The test rooois hav- 
ing gone through this period of establishing specifica- 
tions and testing materials to those requirements, 
the work had virtually gotten into a state of routine, 
so that the principal occupation of the engineer of 
tests and the railroad chemist is simply to see 
that tne material meets the requirements. 
Now, of course, that is one of the most useful and 
legitimate purposes of these testing laboratories, but 
I think that they have a larger and equally import- 
ant function in original research, ana that the mat- 
ter of testing to meet specifications should be dele- 
gated to an assistant, and the man in charge should 
be allowed to devote a large portion of his time to 
original research. The result of this routine work 
that I spoke of is that we have been testing oils for 
lubrication for fifteen years, and I think I can safely 
say that neither the railway chemists nor engineers 
of tests know very much about lubrication or the 
qualities of oils u»ed in lubrication. What we want 
to get at is what is the best oil which can be furn- 
ished, say for one dollar, and give the most and 
best lubrication. So I suggest that as one of the 
subjects which the committee of the Master Car 
Builders' Association on tests should emphasize in 

their report, and that they recommend that the 
people in charge of these laboratories begin some 
further original reseach on the subject of lubricat- 
ing oils. In the matter of metals— iron and steel, 
I think the test rooms can be given a great deal of 
credit for our knowledge of the quality of steel, and 
it is largely due to them that steel has been more 
generally introduced in the construction of locomo- 
tives and many other railroad structures, but I 
think there still remains something to be learned 
about the resilience of steel and its other qualities, 
because in spite of the best kiiowledge we can get on 
the subject it is a fact that, although steel is recog- 
nized as a superior metal to iron, some of our best 
railroad men prefer for some parts to use wrought 
iron. In the matter of testing machines for metals 
I think very litttle further remains to be done. The 
machines we use in this country I think are far 
superior to those used abroad. The Riehle and the 
Oleson machines are good enough for use on rail- 
roads and the Emery is certainly adequate for the 
most refined investigation. 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer — I would like to ask a question 
regarding an apparatus for testing the lubricating 
qualities of oil. We have tried different kinds of 
oil in our service, and one person will say to me that 
he considers lard oil the best lubricant there is on 
the market; another one will say that he considers a 
superior grade of tallow better than lard oil, and I 
have some of the "black oil" men come to mc and 
show reports made by some of our scientific men 
showing by comparison that the petroleum oils that 
are on the market bear a ratio of 140 as against lard 
oil at 100. I don't take very much stock in those re- 
sults, for the reason that the machines on which 
these tests are made are very unreliable. I would 
like to ask Mr. Forsyth if on their apparatus they 
can get the same results two or three times with the 
same kind of oils. 

Mr. Forsyth — We have done that repeatedly. 

Mr. G. H. Ellis— We have in our laboratory what 
is known as the Thurston oil tester, and we have 
been making tests of every specimen of black oil that 
we have received for the last year and a half. The 
results that we have obtained are merely compara- 
tive, that is, the machine does not show exactly how 
those oils would work when in service, but we do 
claim that we can tell something of the comparative 
worth of oils, when we run that machine under the 
same circumstances, that is, with the same person, 
same pressure, s^me amount of oil used and the same 
temperature. In our laboratory we make these tests, 
and compare them, using lard oil as a standard. We 
have had oils that go far below that, and oils that go 
above that. I wish to say a word or two also in re- 
gard to laboratories in general. The fact that there 
are eight or ten laboratories now in good working 
order organized in the country seems to be a proof 
that they are of benefit to a road, and I think it has 
been well pointed out to us that the work naturally 
comes under two heads, routine work and original 
investigation. The routine work, as has been said, 
naturally comes down to mere tests which ordinary 
help can do, and it can well be left to assistants. 
After a laboratory has existed some time, and those 
in charge of it begin to know their business, It is 
very seldom that they get bad supplies. I am speak- 
ing now of paints and tallows and some kinds of oils. 
As regards original investigation, I would also add 
that is of very great importance. It is conceded by 
some railroad men that that is the most important 
part of a railroad laboratory, and that the routine 
work should be made subservient to that. So far as 
accepting supplies is concerned, the laboratory is the 
watch dog of the road. 

Mr. C. A. Schroyer — I am nut yet satisfied. I do 
not get the information that I am after. What I want 
to know is whether, on the o.l testing machine, with 
precisely the same oil, you can get the same result 
twice; if you can get them twice you ought to get 
them fifty times in succession with that same oil. 
Now, is that machine accurate enough to give it to 
you':" And in measuring the lubricating qualities of 
that oil do you only measure the distance that the 
pendulum is thrown around on your graduated scale 
or do you show what are the heating qualities of the 

Mr. G. H. Ellis— We ought to get the same results 
under the same conditions and with the same man 
working. Tests have been made on the Thurston 
machine showing the endurance of the oil. So far 
as our tests are concerned, we do not carry them that 
far. We carry our test one hour, and it'then shows 
us the temperature, and it generally gets to a tem- 
iwrature that is about the same. The Thurston ma- 
chine is not exactly what it should be, and does not 
show perhaps the best value of an oil. 

Mr. F. W. Sargent — I have never made en- 
durance tests, Mr. Schroyer, but I have made tests 
in Comparing different bearing metals. I have had 
a constant stream of oil running on the journal, used 
same pressure and same speed, and have noticed a 
rising temperature, and also the rising friction, as 
shown by the pendulum. I have been able to dupli- 
cate these results without any difficulty for different 
bearing metals, and also duplicate the rising tem- 
perature, for instance with the soft bearing 1 have | 

made as many as four and five tests from one to two 
hours at a tiue, and have found that the same point 
is reached in the matter of temperature with thai 
bearing— about IGO degrees— and there the coeffioielit 
of friction becomes constant, and the temperature 
remains the same, it may heat up rapidly 
or slowly to that point, " but it will get 
there, with the same speed and the same pressures. 
I have been able to duplicate my results under those 
conditions. But with oil tests I doubt it it can be 
done, 'i'ou have no way of keeping your oil on the 
journal. It files off, and it is only a matter of time 
when the oil is thrown off the bearing, and then your 
test is worthless as a test of endurance. We run 
water through the bearing, to keep the temperature 
at 100 degrees, and we give, as near as we can, the 
same speed, and we run the test for an hour, giving 
eight ounces of oil per hour, and we find that the co- 
eflicient of friction is constant, from one end to the 
other, and the difference in the amount of oil is so 
slight as to scarcely be noticeable. I think that 
results can be duplicated in such investigations, and 
that you can get the comparative values of the dif- 
ferent oils. I think the machines we have to-day 
are accurate enough for practical purposes. We 
have two machines— one screw machine and a 
hydraulic machine. We check these two machines, 
one with the other, and we find them very close to 
each other, answering for any lest we want to make 
on a railroad lor things received. We test all sorts 
of material, the breaking strength of which varies 
from 1,000 lbs. up to 200,000 lbs., and we can readily 
read our results within a thousand pounds. As to 
the laboratory being a check on the goods received, 
it is a great check. We send out specific itions, 
which have been drawn up on our own experience 
and that of other people, to the makers as a guide in 
furnishing us with material. Almostany dealer will 
say: " We can supply you with material according 
to those specifications," but we don't know whether 
they can or not, and we can show from our tests 
where good companies are away off from specifica- 
tions. I recall an instance in regard to material that 
we received from a very reliable company some time 
ago. We condemned it, not on one test or two, but 
on several. We do not try to find fault; we do not 
try to condemn; but this material that we had re- 
ceived and tested several times proved bad, and was 
condemned. Sometime afterwards I saw a repre- 
sentative of that firm, and he said it was the first 
time he ever had had any material condemned. I 
said it was the first time we had ever condemned 
their material, but we couldn't keep it. They went to 
work and tested some of that material, to check our 
results, and they found that we were perfectly right, 
and said they were glad we had sent it back. The 
fact is that great many of these folks make a test of 
a little of it and then don't test the rest. Our fore- 
men in the shops are educated up to this point: that 
they will not take any material unless they know it 
has been certified by the laboratory. The result 
is we weed out all the bad material before it is put 
in the shop and before the shop has put any work on 
it. I remember on one road that I was passing over 
some time ago I saw a large number of arch-bars 
piled up, that had oeen thrown off. I said: " What 
are you going to do with those 'i"' " They are scrap." 
"Can't you use them for anything else':"' "No, 
they are cracked.'' If that road had made a simple 
test they would have discovered the defect and re- 
jected them. 

Mr. G. M. Davidson— On our road, in addition to 
the routine tests which the gentlemen have de- 
scribed, we try to do more or less investigating. For 
instance, the subject of paints will come up; we want 
tokno.why we don't get better service from our 
paints. We naturally test the paints we are buying 
from time to time; but we also go out and buy other 
paints and get samples of still other paints, and try 
to find out the reason why some paints will give us 
good service and others will not. Then take the 
subject of boiler waters; we are accumulating in- 
formation on that all the time, and putting ourselves 
in a position where we shall be able, .sooner or later, 
to take up the purification of feed water. All this 
would be considered outside of routine work. We 
have found that a great deal can be saved by getting 
samples from different manutacturers of different 
articles that are in the market, and comparing them 
with our own. For instance, take dry pigments; we 
sometimes find there is a vast difference in their 
price and but little difference in their quality. In 
that way we have been able to save a good deal of 
money. Then, there are new subjects coming up 
from time to time; for instance, wiinin the last two 
years roads have been urged to go into the use of 
teel axles tor cars. The steel axle men tell one 
tory and the iron axle men tell another. On our 
road we have made extensive investigations on that 

bject, looked into the manufacture of steel axles 

am the start, tested them in every way, and for- 
mulated for our general manager all the information 
ve have obtaineu on that subject. We did all this 
n addition to the regular routine work which haa 
already been described. 

Mr. F. W. Sargent-rOn our road the laboratory 
has been in existence for quite a number of years 


Januaby, 1890. 

and most of these points were taken up a great manj- 
years ago and are now an old story. In a new labor- 
atory there are many new matters to be investigated, 
and not much routine work. Therefore you will find 
in the recent laboratories any amount of new investi- 
gations in regard to paints, steel, waters, axles, etc. 
They are contiually coming up. We have records 
that are pretty complete on all of those points. In 
regard to axles, we find our method of testing axles 
by the drop the best we know of. We test the whole 
axle rather than attempting to test part of it. We 
have found that scrap iron axles will answer our 
purpose and be just as safe as steel axles. In the 
future, as the work gets more severe and the weights 
are heavier, we may find it an advantage to use steel 
axles. We can get iron axles cheaper than steel 
axles, and we get what we consider just as good serv- 
ice out of them as out of steel axles. We have heard 
the laboratory side of the question; now wouldn't 
it be a good idea to hear from some of the supply 
men as to how they like to have their articles tested? 

President Hickey— Mr. Gibbs, will you state for 
the benefit of the club what apparatus should com- 
prise a fair testing laboratory, aside from the chemi- 
cal apparatus. 

Mr. Geo. Gibbs— Whenever I see the result of a 
series of tensile tests given as figured down to 
pounds and two decimal places I immediately begin 
to doubt the accuracy of the result. And the same 
with water; if I find three decimals in the constitu- 
ents, I begin to doubt. The testing machines which 
are now employed in railway work are sufficiently 
accurate, that is to say, they register what is pro- 
duced there, but in some cases do not produce all we 
want. The oil testing machine, I think, is a case in 
point. The friction which is produced there is 
measured to a sufficient degree of accuracy for all 
practical purposes. A first-class laboratory should 
have a tensile testing machine of 200,000 lbs. ca- 
pacity, also a smaller one of .50,000 or 40,000 lbs., and 
an oil testing machine. A machine for rapidly test- 
ing a considerable number of springs is also needed. 
A hundred thousand pounds machine can be 
bought, I think, for about $1,000; the 40,000 lb. ma- 
chine probably could be bought for $800. The spring 
testing machine should not cost as much as that. 

Mr. F. W. Sargent— I made a rough estimate some 
time ago as to the cost of a physical and chemical 
laboratory and I found it would take from $4,000 to 
$-5,000 to equip one to do ordinary work. I should 
think $4,000 at least would be the figure. Regard- 
ing oil testing machines, it seems to me that you 
cannot get accurate results on a machine designed 
like the Thursteu oil testing machine. I think the 
viscosimeter embodies the true principle. It records 
the How of oil and it can be compared with the curve 
you get from the friction machine. 

Mr. D. L. Barnes — I would like to call attention to 
the necessity of accurate manipulation of testing 
machines. It is only within the past two years that 
we have been able, for instance, accurately to test 
the tensile strength of cements. It has been believed 
that the strength of cements varies largely, even 
under the same conditions; now, after experimentr 
ing a long lime, we find that that apparent result 
was entirely due to the apparatus and the manipula- 
tion thereof, and that after correcting that, cements 
mixed under the same conditions differ in tensile 
strength only two or three per cent., whereas they 
formerly showed a difference of 15 to 20 per cent. 


Kew England Railroad Club. 

The December meeting of the New England Club 
was devoted to '-Signals and Signaling.'' Mr. R. H. 
Soule, of the Union Switch and Signal Company, 
read a long and exhaustive historical paper on this 
subject. We find it impossible to find space for this 
paper and discussion in this issue. "Notes of Foreign 
Travel" will be presented at the January meeting. 

The following circulars of inquiry from com- 
mittees of the Master Mechanics" Association have 
been issued: 

1. Do you consider it an advantuRe to place the flre-box 
above the framoi If so, please slate your reason. 

2. Do you experience any more difficulty 'u keeping mud 

4 Is your rinK set level or does it drop in front! If so, 
how much! If you drop in front, please state your reason 
for that method of construction. 

S.'Are your mud rings double riveted all around, or only 

«. In placing the firebox above the frame, does it run 
straight across, or drop in middle — _— ! 

T What depth of Hre-box would you recommend! 

S. Does your firebox stand level, or do you dish your 
frame toward the front end! 

9. What increase of grate surface do you obtain by rais- 
ing fire box above the frame! 

lU. Do you experience any more trouble with driving 
boxes healing with lire- box above frame! 

11. Do you ha 
with flre-box al 
diameter of flu( 

12. Do you use water bars or grates, and for what kind 
of coal! 

13. Do you use brick arch with fire-box above frame i 

14. Please stale in a general way what advantages or 
disadvantages, if any, you have derived from placing fire 
box above the frame. 

In answering foregoing questions, please send blue 
prints and give full information. 

Fked. B. Griffith. 
James MvCBETH, 
W. A. FosTiit, 
L. F. Ltne, 

Replies to be sent to Fred. B. GrifHth, M. M., D., L. & 
W. Ry., Buffalo, N. Y. 


What is the best means and the economy of preserving 
locomotive tanks from corrosion ? 

Have you, in repairing tanks, used any method or device 
to prevent the corrosion usually observed on top sheets, 
and those sheets forming the coal pit! If so, please inform 
your committee of the same, and the additional cost 
incurred in securing the best results; and if of a metallic 
or other form of preventive, please send sketch or blue 
print of same. 

If members know of any means of preserving water 
tanks not referred to in this circular, they are requested to 
send particulars. 

W. J. Robertson, 
Albert Griggs, 
O. Stewart, 
Jerome Wheelock, 
RepUes to be sent to W. J. Robertson, Supt. M. P., C. V. 

1. Are you in favor of an axle for heavy tenders with or 
without end collars! 

2. If in favor of an axle with end collars, please give 
figures for the following dimensions : (a) Diameter of end 
collar; (b) diameter of journal; (c) diameter of dust- 
guard seat; (d) diameter of wheel-seat; (e) diameter of 
center of axle; (f) length of end collar; (gj length of 
journal; (h) length of dust-guard seat; (i) length of wheel 
seat; (j) length from centre to centre of journal; (fc) 
length of axle over all. 

3. If in favor ot a collarless axle, please give the dimen- 
sions as above, except the (a) and (/). Also kind of end 
stop and manner of fixing same. 

Which one of the three forms in use (given below) of 
do you approve! And 

form of axle between the 


of weight on journals per square 

nderstands one that, 
. , . - - - .600 gallons 
,000 pounds of coal. The committee desire 
all the Information they can get on this subject, and to that 
ned they request that your answers be not confined to the 
questions in the circular. 

(Signed) W. Swantson, 

W. Garstang, 

Jas. Maglenn, 

l. r. pomeroy. 

Answers should be addressed to Wm. Swanston, M. M., 

Chicago, St. Louis & Pittsburgh Railroad, Indianapolis, 


Under the duties imposed upon the Executive Committee 
by by. law No. 3, this committee announces that it has 
selected Old Point Comfort, Va., as the place for holding 
the next annual convention of the Master Car Builders' 
Association, commencing on Tuesday, June 10th, lb90. The 
headquarters of the association will be at the Hygeia 
Hotel, the management of which has named a uniform 
rate of » per day for all who attend the convention. The 
Committee of Arrangements consists of Messrs. Wade, 
Day and Demarest, but members who wish to engage rooms 
in advance shou'd address Mr. F. N. Pike, manager Hy- 
geia Hotel, Fortress Monroe, Va. 

The Executive Committee regrets that Charleston, S. C, 
the place selected at the last convention, is ineligible on 
account of insufficient hotel accommodations for a fairly 
well attended convention of the association, because the 
committee realizes that the well-known hospitality of 
Charleston would have ensured a pleasant reception to the 

The committee found Lookout Mountain, near Cha 
tanooga, Tenn., ineligible for the same reason; when tl 
new hotel, now being built at this point, is completed, 
will probably be capable of accommodating the associ 
tion, and although the management promises to have 
opened in May. the Executive Committee thought it be 
to select a place where the necessary accommodatioi 
already exist. 

Buffalo, N. Y., was mentioned as one of the three pla 

for the Executive Committee 

consider, but the subse- 

quent action of the convention, restricting its choice to 
Charleston and the manifest desire on the part of many 
members to go South in isiio, have led the committee to 
disregard Buffalo, believing that by the selection as above 
announced it meets the wishes of a larger portion of the 
membership than could be done by the selection of any 
other place. 

Mm. McWoon 
, S. Lentz, 


E. Cham 

C. A. Sci 

E. W. Grieves, 
KiRBT, J. W. Mardex, 

BisSELL, R. C. BL.tCK.4LL, 

F. D. Casanave, 
Executive Committee. 


To the Editor of The Kailwaj' Master Mechanic: 

The subject of "Joint Inspeciion" is not anew one, al- 
though the " railway press'"" have but recently commenced 
to discuss it. It is admitted by all well-infonned railway 
men that joint inspection is the proper solution of the many 
difficulties arising in the interchange of cars, at junction 
and terminal points. The leading question is, which is the 
best of the several systems of joint inspection now in use. 
The writer has a plan in mind, and with your permission, 
he would like to give it to your I'ailway readers. 

It is as suitable for a large railway center like Chicago, 
as it is for a small two road junction point. The best rei>- 
reseutation of it may be found at Detroit, Mich., where aU 
the railways centering there are regulated by it, and with 
one joint inspector or arbitrator. It has been in operation 
there for five years very successfully. As evidence of its 
satisfaction and success, not a single dispute has arisen be- 
tween any of the railways, party to the agreement, neither 
has there been any complaint from the transportation or 
freight department (which is saying a great deal), har- 
mony prevailing between all departments and roads ever 
since joint inspection went into force. 

It IS operated as follows: The Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation code of rules govern the joint inspection. The joint 
inspector or arbitrator is appointed by the master car 
builders of the railways interested. AU complaints 
against him are referred to and dealt with by 
the said master car builders. He has general 
supervision over all freight car inspection, decid- 
ing any disputes between the different railways. Al 
though he has no authority to discharge any of the- 
inspectors, he is authorized to maintain a uniform system 
of inspection in the different yards, through the car fore- 
men, the latter having direct charge of thej car inspectors 
in their yard. 

The manner of inspection is as follows : On arrival of a 
train it is inspected by the men in the yard it arrives in, 
who mark off any defective cars. Repairs that can be 
done at once without being sent to repair shop or transfer 
shed are done by the inspectors, where it will not interfere 
with their duties as inspectors. The cars passed, on being 
delivered, are again inspected by the receiving railway 
inspectors, and if any defects are detected that the deliver- 
ing railway has overlooked or neglected, the attention of 
the joint inspector is called to it, and if he decides that the 
repairs shall be done by the receiving railway he gives 
them an "order" to charge the delivering road. In case 
the joint inspector is not at hand the repairs may be done 
and the broken parts kept for him to decide by and give an 
order for charges. 

It may be imagined that this self or first inspection will 
be done carelessly and many defects passed on to the re- 
ceiving road to repair, but the joint inspector's "order" 
for charges against the delivering road is a check for any 
neglect of this kind. These orders are sent in monthly to 
the delivering road, and if the head of department 
finds that the charges against his road are 
greater than his against the receiving road, 
he is very apt to call his car foreman 
to account for it. Of course this puts each car foreman on 
his mettle to keep down the charges against his road to a 
minimum. The result is very close inspection on both 
sides. If the defects of a car are of such a nature as to ne- 
cessitate the transfer of the load, this can only be done by 
order of the joint inspector; or if he is not at hand the car 
foreman of the yard where defects are discovered can give 
the order, subject to approval of joint inspector, the trans- 
fer to be charged to the delivering road. If the defects are 
detected by the receiving road and the car be- 
longs to the delivering or a preceding road it can be sent 
back to the delivering road for repairs, after it is trans- 
ferred. The delivering road is responsible for overloaded 
cars. In the interchange of car. "pass cai-ds," are used 
only by the authority, and over the signature, of the joint 

A few of the advantages of this system may be men- 
tioned : tirst, it takes less inspectors than when the inspec- 
tors are under the joint inspector only, because the same 
inspectors that do the interchange inspection, can be and 
are used for local inspection, also for doing running repairs- 

jANtJABY, 1890. 


This is not the case with the other 
double inspection, which insures c 
order, especially when it is some distance between deliver- 
ing and receivinfr yards, or there is considerable switch- 
ins to be done, which is quite often the case. Many re- 
ceiving roads have to maintain a separate set of inspectors 
to insure their trains leaving in good order on account of 
the hard usage cars get after inspected and before leaving. 
Third, cars having defects that may have been overlooked 
or neglected in the first inspection, are detected and re- 
paired by the reviving road, whereas in other systems the 
defective car when found would be returned to the deliv- 
ering road to be repaired and very likelv a dispute would 
arise as to the responsibility of the defect; this is not an 
uncommon occurrence not a thousand miles from Buffalo. 
Fourth, the dispatch with which freight is handled; there 
are no unnecessary delays, all the roads interested work- 
ing as one body, under the joint inspector, to further the 
general interest. No thought of undue advantage is en- 


C. B. 

A car wheel dressing machine of remarkable 
power and efficiency is now in Chicago, and is being 
inspected by frequent delegations of railway officials. 
It is the invention of Mr. G. W. Miltimore, of Ar- 
lington, Vt., who has been engaged for some years 
in developing the principle, and has during that 
pei'iod constructed several machines, each being an 
improvement upon its predecessor in power and 
capacity. The tirst printed description of the new 
and unique method of dressing car wheels developed 
in these machines was published in the May number 
of The R.\ilwav Master Mechanic for 1887. 

In all the car wheel dressing machines now in use 
the material which must be got rid of to true up a 
wheel that has become unfit for service is removed 


by grinding. In the National machines this ma- 
terial is melted or burned off. Instead of the emery 
abrading wheels, with their comparatively slow 
revolutions ana results, these machines perform 
their work with metal disks revolving with high 
velocities and doing their work in minutes instead 
of hours. 

The metal disk, which is the central feature of the 
machine, is about 4 ft. in diameter, and is composed 
of a soft steel tire strongly attached to a wrought iron 
center. As this disk is run up to a velocity of 3,000 
revolutions per minute, it is, necessarily, constructed 
with great care. As a matter of fact, it is never 
called upon to endure more than one-third of the 
centrifugal strain which it is capable of resisting. 
The shaft, bearings and all the details of the ma- 
chine are carefully designed to endure this high 
speed. The arrangements by which the bearings 
are kept cool while the periphery of the disk has a 
steady velocity of about 600 ft. per second are simple 
and effective. 

The disk 'is somewhat thicker than the width of 
the tread of a car wheel, and its face has the outline 
of the standard M. C. B. tread, except that the part 
corresponding to the flange is sunk in the face in- 
stead of projecting from it. In other words, it cor- 
responds to the mould in which a car wheel is cast, 
so that when the wheel which is to be dressed is 
brought up to the disk its flange enters the corres- 
ponding depression in the disk, thus bringing the 
entire surface of flange and tread into contact with 
the face of the disk. 

In operation the car wheel is hung by its axle, in 
bearings which are devised to insure exact center- 
ing, in front ol the disl<, and brought up to contact 

with it as soon as the disk attains its working veloc- 
ity of 3,000 revolutions per minute. In this position 
it revolves slowly in the same direction with the 
disk. Although the surfaces merely touch each 
other, the tremendous velocity of the disk develops 
intense heat at the point of contact, and the metal of 
the wheel is burned or melted ofl", making a veri- 
table torrent of fire as the incandescent particles 
stream downward from the pcint of contact between 
the disk and wheel. The disk does its work with 
great rapidity, although the time required to dress 
a wheel depends, of course, upon the amount of ma- 
terial to be removed and also upon the hardness of 
the tread. The wheels shown in the diagrams re- 
quired 10 and 15 minutes respectively. We have 
seen a steel tired wheel, of average hardness, • 
turned down in seven minutes. New chilled wheels 
can be dressed to perfect roundness and given the 
hard surface with great rapidity. With a new and 
still larger machine, now finished and soon to be set 
up, it is expected to finish a wheel in five minutes. 
With two disks a pair of wheels ought to be placed, 
dressed and removed in ten minutes. The machines 
are designed to dress driving wheel tire, as well as 
car wheels, and the saving of time in such work by 
this method must be of great value. A special 
value, in addition to the saving of time, is claimed 
for this process on account of the singular hardness 
of the surface which it leaves on tread and flange. 
This surface on the finished wheel is so hard that a 
file will not touch it, and there is jjositive evidence 
to sustain the claim that this intensely hard "skin" 
resists for a long time the wear of service, and thus 
adds materially to the life of the wheel. The master 
mechanic of the road on which the first wheels ever 



Januakt, 1890. 

dressed by this piocess were put into service, re- 
plies under date of December 23 to an inquiry from 
The Railway Master MECHAsnc as follows: 

The Miltimore tire dressing machine is a wonder- 
ful device, and I must acknowledge that tires turned 
by this process are finished better and left in condi- 
tion to give better mileage than is the case with any 
other process known to me. Also the smoothing up 
of the tread of cast iron wheels by this machine is 
certainly of great benefit both to the life of the wheel 
and the "smoothness of its running under a car. 

From another source we learn that a chilled wheel 
on the Canadian Pacific which had been taken from 
the scrap pile and trued up in this machine was re- 
cently broken up after running 14,000 miles, and it 
was found that at one place in the tread the original 
wear (before dressing in the machine) had extended 
through the chill to the soft iron. The hard skin 
left by the process had, however, resisted the wear 
of 14,000 miles of service so that no flat spot was 
caused, and the fact that the original wear had ex- 
tended through the chill, was not discovered until 
the wheel was broken up. This is a remarkable 
Statement, but it is certain that the surface left by 
this process is intensely hard, and the evidence so 
far obtained all goes to show that it adds consider- 
ably to the mileage of wheels in service. This hard 
surface is produced ofl both steel-tired and chilled 
by the Miltimore process. 


In these days when greyhounds of the sea are 
steadily reducing the time of passage from continent 
to continent it has been learned that the most pow- 
erful boilers and engines and the finest lines in de- 
sign are comparatively useless for " record-break- 
ing " unless the bearings of piston rods, shafts, etc., 
are of such material that heating will not result from 
high speeds. In a number of recent cases voyages 
have been prolonged hours, and even days, because 
the builders of the machinery did not line import- 
ant bearings with the very best anti-friction metals. 
It has been found that the old kinds of bearing 
metals, which proved successful with the pressures 
and speeds of ten years ago are not adapted to the 
most recent construction. New conditions have 
called for a soft metal which should be much su- 
perior to any of the older compositions. 

To meet these requirements, Magnolia metal has 
come to the front, and it is asserted that of two 
modern steam ships, one having Magnolia metal in 
her journals, and the other fitted with any other 
bearing metal, the former will gain on the latter 
from a halt knot to one knot per hour during the 
voyage. It is stated, as a fact, that the speed of some 
of the newest and swiftest ocean steamers has been 
materially increased by substituting Magnolia metal 

Shmeing work done by the National Wheel Dressing Machine. 
before dressing and dotted lines after. Both wheels Midvale steel tired, 33 in. dia. Tire 
before dressing, 8 ft. 83j in. after dressing; time consumed Id dressing, 10 minutes, 
in. before dressing and 8 ft. s', in. after dressing; time consumed in dressing 15 

[Solid Unes show 
No. 1 — circumference. 8 ft. 
Tire No. 2— circumference, 
minutes. J 

Of course such a machine requires considerable 
power. The one now in Chicago is run by a 160 
horse power engine. But the rapidity with which it 
does its work and the increased durability which (it 
now seems certain) it imparts to the wheels, make it 
an important labor, time and money saving device. 
In a short time a large number of wheels dressed by 
this process will be running on some of our western 
roads, and the value of the invention will be fully 
demonstrated. It is believed that the process will 
prove very valuable when applied to sheets of steel 
and iron. 

The National Metal Dressing Company has been 
organized in Chicago, with offices in "The Rookery,'' 
rooms 80.5 and 807. Mr. F. M. Atkinson is vice presi. 
dent and general manager. 

Expiring Railroad Patents, 

[Furnished by F. H. Brock, patent attorney. IW9 F. St., 
Washington, D. C. These patents are now free to be 
manufactured by any one. Copies of any patent fur- 

Snow plow, J. S. Munson. 
Car axle, G. W. Miltimore. 
Car brake, W. Nelson. 

for the compositions originally put in the bearings 
by the builders. The swiftest of all the ocean racers 
—the City of Paris— has this metal for its bearings. 
It is also stated that the adoption of this raetal by 
the United States naval department has resulted in 
entire freedom from hot journals, and in an appre- 
ciable increase of speed. The tests made under the 
supervision of this department which led to its adop- 
tion by the government have been mentioned in this 
paper. The following interesting item was recently 

The beautiful new steamship " Kaiser 'WilHam II.," of 
ths North German-Lloyd line, on her first trip to this coun- 
try, several weeks since, was detained two days on the 
way from hot journals. On her arrival the chief engineer 
caused the steamship's journal bearings to be lined with 
Magnolia metal. She sailed while the great storm was 
raging that wrecked so many vessels and devastated the 
Jersey coast about three weeks ago, and arrived in Europe 
on time without suffering from hot journals at all. The 
MagnoUa metal went into her thrust bearings. This is 
of the severest tests that an aQti-friciion metal could be 
put to, because the "Kaiser William II. 's" journals were 
badly cut up by the metal that was taken out which caused 
the detention, and the Magnolia metal had to stand that 
disadvantage to begin with. 

Endorsements of the claims of this metal have been 
given by the German government as a result of tests 
made at the royal gun manufactory at Erfurt and on 
the Buckau Magdeburg Railway. Robert H.Smith, 
professor of engineering, Mason College, Birming- 
ham,, under date of September 21, 1889, con- 
cludes a report embracing between S,000 and . 4,000 
tests of Magnolia metal as follows: 

The general conclusion at which I have arrived from 
tlM'so experiments is that Magnolia metal is a very excel- 
lent uiaterial for bearings; that its special good qualities 
appear more particularly when it is subjected to intense 
pressure, such as could not be borne by other metals with- 
out firing or melting, and that under very trying circum- 
stances the Magnolia metal may be trusted to remain cool; 
that is, at a temperature that does not interfere with good 

The results of the most recent comparative tests of 

this metal made by Mr. H. G. Torrey, who for 30 
years has been assayer at the U. S. mint in New 
York, are given in the following report underdate of 
November V: 

New York, November 7, 1889. 

etal Co 
Ge.vtlemex— At your request 1 
tion tests of journal bearing metals. Those selected were 
your own Magnolia metal, taken from the stock as made 
day by day, and Hoyt's genuine babbitt and the de-oxidized 
genuine babbitt, the latter two supposed to be the best of 
their class. The machine used was a 5 in. collar keyed on a 
3 in. shaft lubricated with sperm oil, 5 in. collar running in 

With light pressure and slow revolutions of shaft the 
metals showed little difference but, with rapid revolutions 
and heavy pressures. Magnolia metal showed great superi- 


.: = . = : = :=! 




' if 


. i i 











Respectfully, H. G. Tokkey. 

Cn.iui.Es T.iYLOR. assistant. 

Under date of November 18, 1889, R. L. Peck, 
chief engineer of the steamer Owego reports a suc- 
cessful trial of Magnolia metal on the low pressure 
crank pin on that vessel, which is of 2-500 tons bur- 
den. The crank pin is 14 in. in diameter and 16 in. 
long, and had melted out a lining of Post's Zero 
metal on the previous trip, which was the 
first in which that metal was used. The re- 
port, taken from the log record, shows that the Mag- 
nolia metal succeeded perfectly under very adverse 

In conclusion, it can be truthfully said that the 
company which is offering Magnolia metal to the 
railways, electric light companies and manufact- 
urers of this country have from the first adopted 
the policy of obtaining comparative tests wherever 
possible, of welcoming the examination of and experi- 
ments with the metal by well known scientific and 
practical experts, and of giving the results of tests, 
etc., the widest publicity. 

We regret to learn of the death of Mr. William Purcell, 
for many years the popular janitor of the New York Rail- 
road Club. He died December 20, 18SH, of heart disease. 

Mr. George H. Baker, whose method of instructing the 
engineers and firemen of the "Q" system in the econom 
ical use of coal and steam, has been referred to in those 
columns, has been appointed master mechanic of the West- 
tern Railway of Uruguay, a government road soon to be 



heater" switch lamp, manufactured by Post & 
inciunati, O., is ingeniously constructed to pre- 
vent congelation of oil 
in the very coldest 
weather. Its distinct- 
ive features are shown 
in the cuts. Each of 
the two tubes is continu- 
ous. The longest end 
■ xtends up into the 
"jack" of the lamp. 
.\s the greatest heat is 
at that point, it will be 
^el•n that as the air in 
the up[>ei' end of each 
tube becomes hot a cir- 
culation is established. 
Warm air from near the 
lamp llame enters each 
tube at its flaring end 
to replace the hot air 
nsion in the upper end of the 
tube. The air which enters the short end of each 
tube is sufficiently hot to warm the oil in which the 
bend of the tube is submerged. It is stated, after 
full tests, that this device will Keep the oil liquid 
even in the worst Dakota blizzard. The arrange- 
ment and position of the heat- 
ing carbon, 
it is claimed, is deposited on 
them, and the tubes cannot be- 
come clogged. The flaring ends 
of the tubes can be turned away 
from the flame, so as to prevent 
the entrance of the heated air 
in moderate weather. The 
heater is applied to hand lan- 
terns also and all kinds of train 
signal lamps. In the north- 
west and other regions of this 
country where there are, every 
winter, periods of cold so in- 
tense that mercury freezes, 
such a device is a necessity in 
bnth lanterns and railway 
yards. We are informed that 
this invention has been tested 
under all conditions with satis- 
faction, and it has the presump- 
tion in its fa\or which arises 
from the fact that it is manufactured b; 
and highly reputable house. 

ill known 


A device which should commend itself to all rail- 
way men who believe that the best way to increase 
passenger earnings is to study the comfort of the 
traveling public has been invented by Mr. D. E, 
jje„„„„ of Te--e "au*e '-d ""d '■= m"""f'u;t"red 
by the Ti-iie Haute ImpiOM.mLnt I. ompan^ of that 

This device which we illustrate is claimed and 
appi II to b in I ffectue cure of loose windows and 

This device permits the window to be opened and 
fastened at any desired height. Attention is also 
called to the claim that the bearing of theiubbti 
tired roller against the sash enables the window to 
be raised more easily and prevents the binding of 
the sash in the frame, which is so vexatious. 


The accompanying illustration shows a now hoi i 
zontal drilling and boring machine, as built bx the 
Belts Machine Company, of Wilmington, Del This 
machine. No. 2 size, and the smaller size made by 
this company, are already well known to machine 
tool users, and have been most favorably received 
The company have lately added several improve 
ments which increase the capacity and convenience 
of these excellent tools. • • 

The driving done has five speeds and is back 
geared, giving 10 speeds in either direction to the 
cast iron shell through which the steel spindle has 
always a full bearing and by which it is driven. The 
stool spindle is provided wibh a set of properly pro- 
portioned feeds, automatic in action and instantly 
connected or disconnected as desired. Both a slow 
and rapid hand motion is also provided. The spindles 
after being fed through its full stroke, can be left in 

angle with the bed. An arbor carrying a circular 
cutter is held in the centers of the lathe. The long 
level IS moved hoii/ontallj to open the jaws for in- 
set ting and lemoMn^ the MI ws md downwaid to 

bring the screws to be slotted against the saw. The 
stop screw shown governs the downward motion, and 
thus regulates the depth of slot in the screw head. 
The working part of the apparatus can be raised or 
lowered on the platform front by means of the bolt 


vs so loose that driits ol snow will collect on the 
sills in a driving snow storm. Such windows are a 
menace to the health of every traveler as well as a 
reproach to the officer who is responsible for the con- 
dition of pa.ssenger car equipment. That no small 
amount of. fuel is wasted on account of such windows 
is certain, a waste which wouldtbe obviated by the 
use of a device like the one illustrated.. J 

position, while the feed slide is disconnected, moved 
back and secured to it at another point, thus enabling 
the machine to bore in length up to twice the ordinary 
capacity of the machine. 

The spindle is provided with a truly bored taper 
hole to support one end of a boring bar while the 
steady rest carries the other end. The facing head 
fits on the end of the cast iron driving shell and is 
driven therefrom; it in no way interferes with the 
tree use of the spindle, and both can be used at the 
same time; any ordinary lathe tool may be used in it, 
and the amount of room needed for its swing is con- 
stant and much less than in the older style, thus 
allowing the table to be set up closer tu the spindle. 

The long table is raised and lowered by power, and 
is provided with the usual arrangement of compound 
tables on top of it; those tables are adjusted with 
.screws, can be firmly clamped in position, and are 
provided with ample means for securing work. 

The machine is especially designed for handling 
a heavy duty with rapidity and accuracy, while at 
the same time it presents a neat and substantial ap- 
pearance. The builders will be glad to furnish at 
any time additional information to those desiring it. 


The screw slotting device shown in our engraving 
is designed to replace the expensive appliances fre- 
quently used for slotting the heads of screws. It 
can be attached to any ordinary hand lathe, and is 
belived by its designers to be more efficient for the 
purpose than any machine heretofore made. An 
active boy can with this device slot from ten to fit- 
teen thousand screws per day. A single bolt fastens 
the platform A of this apparatus to the bed of a hand 
lathe, the long lever projecting in front at a right 

C. This device is made by the Brown & .Sharpe 
Manufacturing Company, of Providence, K. I. 


The firm of Pedrick & Ayer, of Philadelphia, 
whose machinery is so well known to most of our 
readers, have recently moved into new quarters. 
The new building is located very near the old one, 
and was designed specially for their work. It is 
now two stories high, built in a very substantial man- 
ner, and with the view of making it a four story 
building in the near future. Though less than three 
months in the new building, their orders have been 
so numerous that the architect already has orders 
for the completion of the two additional stories. 

From a reference to the plans it will be seen that 
the first floor, 11)0x40 ft., forms the main shop. It is 
lighted by windows at each end of the room and by 
two large light wells with skylights above. The 
arrangement of machinery and the facilities for 
handling work are excellent. The iron columns 
which support the floor beams are almost without 
exception supplied with cranes, as shown by dotted 
circles. Two lines of main shafting are used, one 
along each side of the shop, alxiut fi ft. from the wall. 
The engine and boiler are located at one end of the 
building in a room which is partly above and partly 
below the main floor. The engine is a 12x24 in. Cor- 
liss of their own build. The floor of the engine and 
boiler room is made of heavy planks laid upon a 
thick layer of iron slag and asphalt. A dynamo 
located above the engine room on the .second floor 
furnishes current for over 100 incandescent lamp- 
throughout the shops. 

The engine room Is partly above the main floor 
and the space over it has been utilized in the mos- 


Planei-s; /!, Lathes; C, Boring Mills; D, Universal Milling Machines; E, Screw Cutting Machines; G, Vi 

ler. Its roof or ceiling has been cov- 
ered on top with a layer of clay and earth and a 
blacksmith's Are placed there. The stack from the 
boiler is a '20 in. sheet iron pipe inside of the chim- 
ney in the corner of the building-. The products of 
combustion from the forge pass out around the out- 
side of the 20 in. tube. As the chimney is kept hot 
by the gases from the boiler, there is always a good 
draft,even when the forge tire is first lighted, so that 
smoke never goes into the shop but always up the 

The second floor is at present used for lighter 
work. On this floor directly above the engine room 
is the patti'rn shop and ;tt the front of the building 
are thi' on'.- mimI .Iinwing room. The latter are 
all fini>li !n hard wood. The sanitary 

arrangini : Hint, and the shop is in all 

respect>v,- : v.ip, :i -ludy. There is abasement 
under a small portion of the main floor near the 
elevator and in it castings are stored. Two bins 
with small trap doors in the main floor give storage 
for cast iron and wrought iron chips. 

The firm are just about to ship a large order to 
the Union Paciflc road, including nearly a full line 
of their railway shop tools, such as valve seat planers, 
milling machines, cylinder boring machines, etc. 
They have recently received so many inquiries 
about link motion machines suitable for giving in- 
struction that they have recently designed and built 
one. It is about half size of an eight wheeler valve 
gear, and is not meant to be used to take records of 
all valve gears, but simply to give practice in adjust- 
ing a valve gear, and everything that can be done 
with a locomotive gear can be accomplished with 
this. Al a reasonable cost a machine can therefore 
be made which will be excellent as a means for in- 
structing engineers and others about the peculiari- 
ties of the link motion. 


—The Dayton Malleable Iron Works have just been 
quipped with vi r.v c..iii|iletc appliances for extinguishing 
fires. 'I I ■ I ow ortranized for flghiing Are, 

and re^ii It is worthy of mention that 

the mall . ■.< irks not only pay the men in 

full for 1 1.' Ill ■.'■ drills, but also give special 

rewards for i.fflrii-ii.-.v in thi-m. 

— No matter how often one calls at the office of the E. D. 
Albro Co., at Cincinnati, there is always something new in 
the line of beautiful woods or veneers to be seen. Quite 
recentlj- the company received a lot of Sau Domingo ma- 

hogany, which is greatl.v superior to the growths us 
found in the market. The pi'inia vera or white maho 
furnished by this concern comes from the west coa 
Mexico and is much finer than that obtained on the east 
coast, where our supplies of this wood have generally 
hitherto been found. 

—The completed machine for rolling armor plate, just 
finished by the Niles Tool Works for the navy yard at 
Francisco, weighs *M,000 lbs., or 64,000 lbs. more than 
figiired. The two largest rolls weigh Ki.dOO lbs. each, 
three of the rolls were forged by the Cleveland City Forge 
& Iron Co.— a work which that concern has a right to be 
proud of. 

-Mr. Hugh McMillan has been succeeded in the presi- 
dency of the Williames System of Railroad Car Heating, 
by Mr. John S. Clark of Boston. The office of the compan.v 
has been removed to S9 State street of thai city. 

—The Schoen Manufacturing Co., of Philadelphia, whose 
business is the manufacture of articles in pressed steel for 
railway equipment, have decided to move their plant to 
Pittsburgh. The capital stock of the company has been 
increased to *:W0,000, and they are now engaged in erects 
ing fire proof iron buildings in Pittsburgh, and have made 
their contracts for a complete plant on the hydraulic sys- 
tem. Everything is to be first-class, and they will have 
the capacity to turn out from 40 to 50 tons per day of the 
articles they manufacture. Mr. C. T. Schoen, of Philadel- 
phia is the president, and Mr. Henry W. Oliver, of Pitts- 
burgh, vice president of the company. The works will be 
located adjacent to those of the Oliver Iron & Steel Co. 

—The Westinghouse Machine Company beat its record in 
sales of Westinghouse engines in November, 104 engines, 
comprising 39 compounds, 31 standards and 34 juniors, and 
aggregating 7,180 horse power. 

--The Consolidated Car Healing Company, of Albany, 
has absorbed the Automatic Car Coupler Heating Cumpany, 
of Detroit, Mich., and has acquired the ownership of the 
"Peerless coupler" and other valuable appliances. 

—The Buffalo Forge Company have prepared a notably 
tasteful little pamphlet containing fac simile letters from 
users of their blowers and fans. The letters given are 
from representative firms and fully substantiate the claims 
made for the Buffalo blowers and fans. 

—Mr. R. B. Owens is no longer with tho the Williames 
System of Railroad Car Heating— his contract of service 
with that company having expired in November. 

—The Cleveland Twist Drill Company has been for some 
months fully settled in its new works at Lake and Kirtland 
streets, Cleveland, and is having a prosperous season. 
The main building is of brick. 100x35 ft. on the ground, and 
is thre(t stories high. The forge and tempering shops 
covers 75 x 35 ft. additional. Every corner of the building 
is now occupied with machinery, etc., and it will not be 
long befpro the company will have to use some of the sou 

X .50 ft., which is still unoccupied. The business of the 
company with the railways is steadily increasing. 

—A Tripp anti-friction journal bearing was recently ex- 
amined after making 65,001.' miles, and it was found that 
the roller bearings showed less than 1 t>4 in. wear and were 
in all respects in good condition. This bearing is reported 
to be making an excelleBt record on the through car which 
runs between Boston and Philadelphia, on the New York 
& New England and Bound Brook route. 

— The following from Mr. John A. Walker, secretary and 
general manager of the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, 
will be read with interest by all who are using the "graph 
ite" products which are turned out in such great quantities 
at Jersey City : 

The Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J., closes 
1SS9 with satisfaction. Our business has been larger in 
every branch than in 18S8. Our chief new departure in 
1889 has been in the large increase of equipment at our 
graphite mines at Ticonderoga. We have laid the lines 
there for a five years' continuous run— tearing down and 
rebuilding almost everything much larger than before. 
The specially large increase in the sales of graphite paint, 
graphite grease, graphite oils and other graphite lubricants, 
has pushed us to this. The sales of our standard and well 
known Dixon stove polish, Dixon crucibles and Dixon 
"American graphite" pencils have also largely increased. 
Our plant now includes 5 steam engines with a total of 375 
h. p. ; 9 steam boilers of HOC h, p. together, and tho use of 
1.50 h. p. water power. We employ 5.50 persons, and our 
pay roll averages ?4,.500 per week. We have direct connec- 
tions with the telegraph companies and the Long Distance 
Telephone Co. So far as we can see the prospect for 1890 
is bright. 

— We have received from Merchant & Co. several beauti- 
ful photogravuers of the Forth Bridge, which show this 
grandest of structures from several points of view. 

—The Cleveland Twist Drill Co. closed its factory for the 
holidays to take inventory, make repairs and rearrange 
machinery to accommodate some new machines. The new 
factory which was thought too big a year ago, is alread" 
too full of machinery and the firm contemplates building 
addition this year. 

—Among recent orders booked by Riechle Bros, of ^ 

delphia, are one lliO,000 lbs. self adjusting railroad scale 
for the Savarnah. Florida & Western Ry., and one 10-ton 
Rohie patent screw jack for the Mont Alto Railroad Co. 

—An exhibit of one ton of pure aluminum was shown re- 
cently in the Mechanical Hall in Pittsburgh, Pa., by the 
Pittsburgh Reduction Company. This is doubtless by far 
the largest amount of this metal ever shown at one time in 
any country. The metal was ingots, measuring six by 
twelve inches and weighing about five pounds each One 

got, however, weighed about 1.50 pounds. Besides this 

.,..,.:. .V. showed a large variety of manufao- 

metal in sheets, in 
is slated that sam- 
pany have been easily 
;iiivai weiuing process. The cost of 
largely reduced by the processes of the 
company, and we (»re pow in a fair way tp find out "all that 
there h in it." 


hibit t 

tured articles in aluminum— also 
foil like gold leaf, and other foru 
pies of the metal made by this n 
elded by the electrical welding 

Febroaky, 1890. 





The Rookery," Chicago. 
Devoted to the intereBts of railway motive power, equipment 
2s suitable to these 

18 known as The RaU- 
t new and wider field be 

Communications on i 
oolnmns are solicited. 

Prior to January 1, 1886, this journal 
vray Purchasing Agent. It will still in 
adapted to the especial wants of all v 
the purchase of railway supplies. 
iThe Official Railway List is also published by 
another page.) 
I price, $1 '00 a year. Advertising rates and details 
concerning circolation given on application to the office by mail 
or in person. Address 

E. N. LEWLS. Manager. 
"The Rookery," Chicago. 
New York OmcK; 4.'> Ilrua.lwny. Kciom H". 

Vol. 51 CHICAGO, FEBRUARY, 1890. INo. 2. 

abnormal mass of descriptive and critical matter, j people argue that they ar 
The fact that the business is now being conducted thuu enough relatiou'bet 
upon simpler and sounder principles, and that the 
quest for patronage is being carried on more quiet- 
ly accounts, as stated above, for a large part of the 
lack of a visible general interest. What is now 
being done is being done on a business basis. 
There is very little equipping " ou trial " at the 
expense of the heating company; the sales are 
actual. The business thus is really in a healthier 
condition, and any quickening of action by the 
railways arising from the recent terrible lessons 
will result in more real progress than would have 
followed in earlier days. 

Eeference is often made by opponents of hook 
car couplers to the fact that the hook draw- bars 
put on a considerable number of Armour refrig- 
erator cars were taken off in a few months. It is 
insisted that in this case the couplers were taken 
off because they faUed to meet the requirements 
of service. It seems, however, that the air brakes 
with which the same cars were equipped were 
also taken off when the hook couplers were re- 
moved. We have not heard anyone argue that air 
brakes were a failure and that all roads should go ' ever, that if the same 

t; hut there is more 

the two to upset the 

most beautiful theory of ventilation ever applied to 

cars when the passengers get seated and begin to 

kick for their rights as Americans. 


back to hand brakes because the Westinghouse I ^^^ company 
brake was removed from a lot of Armour cars, and 
yet the arguments would be just as sound as re- 
gards brakes as it is in the matter of draw-bars. 
When a fair proportion of the freight cars of the 
country are equipped with hook couplers and air 
brakes the Armour and Swift and all other re- 
frigerator cars will be similarly equipp>.'l. But it 

We have referred to the use by some roads of 
special oils in order to meet the heavier require- 
ments of the service. In some cases where terms 
are made for the purchase and use of special oils 
guarantees are given by the dealers that the cost 
to the company by the use of such oils shall not 
exceed or shall be even less than when the old 
oils were employed. In order to carry out such 
guarantees the contractors usually undertake more 
or less supervision of the use of the oils in serv- 
ice, sometimes having regular inspectors who I for by the average of our raVcha'nlcsr 
travel over the line and instruct the men in the We are led to these reflections by some results 
best use of the material This is a good plan and I of experiments we have lately seen in relation to 
IS often productive of very good results in in- an admission both above and below the line of fire 
creased economy. We would merely observe, how- : ;„ a number of engines in the same service, 
were to be taken by | Here the air admission above the fire had been jn- 

The question of the proper amount of air admis- 
sion into the fire-boxes of bituminous coal burn- 
ing locomotives either above or below the line of 
fire is by no means a settled one. It would seem 
that at this late day of coal burning in locomotives 
we should be able to get some intelligent data as to 
the results of various constructions with the dif- 
ferent prominent soft coals of the country. The 
fact remains, however, that in but few cases can 
we obtain any records of carefully conducted ex- 
periments ; and that in some records that are ob- 
tainable certain important factors have not been 
noted completely enough to make the findings 
valuable for purposes of comparison. This com- 
plaint is by no means a new one on our part, but 
it really seems as if the enormous savings that are 
possible should be better appreciated and striven 

was carefully watched and the men were properly 
wonder that a refrigerator car company found instructed. We have seen two oiling stations at 

that it did not pay to be a pioneer in the hook coup- 
ler field, and that it got tired of having its air brake 
cars put at the head of freight trains to do all the 

The brake shoe committee work alluded to in 
our "Notes" of last month has not yet been fairly 
undertaken. The road tests, it will be remem- 
bered, were not to come until the spring months, 
but the preliminary shop tests were assigned to 
sub-committees for immediate work. These sub- 
committees have up to date accomplished nothing; 
but two of them— the C, B. & Q. and the C. & N. 
W. committees — are just about commencing actual 
tests. Neither of these two committees has as yet 
got its testing apparatus in satisfactory shape, 
although both confidently expect to have things in 
full working order very soon. Both find serious 
difticuliy in getting temperature records. One has 
tried drilling a hole in the miniature shoes. 

terminal points on the same road where coaches 
supposedly received the same care in examining 
and packing boxes, at one of which five times as 
much oil was used in oihng a certain number of 
coaches as at the other, and the men in charge 
were considered careful at both points. When 
watching the working of special oils in single cars 
as against the oil in regular use we have often 
seen a record on the ordinary oil " not exceeding 
one-tenth of the amount used in general service 
on the road for doing the same work. 

The subject of car ventilation was pretty well 
gone over at the last meeting of the Western Rail- 
way Club, but, as usual when this topic is dis- 
cussed, widely varying views were expressed. For 
our part we do not look for anything like concert- 
ed action by the railways on this matter. While 

_ ___ __ ^^^^ _^^ ^^^ iu.u.„„,.it ou>/co '' '*' "^ ''^^ memory of every one who has traveled 

'ng\Vriro'lTwrtirme\riVy '^an1i'"mmersi'nra°'600'' j f'^' P°'"', ventilation is the rule, yet positively 

thermometer in the mercury 

is, however, quickly generated in a moment or 
two, and records cannot be taken; the mercury 
boils out even before the shoes get a fair bearing. 
It is probable that with the pressures, speeds, and 
shoe dimensions prescribed by the committee no 
satisfactory temperature readings can be taken 

- - J"'"^'"! ''"/ instructing car oil- ereased from 1-180 of the grate surface to 1-65 by 
ers when using the old standard material surpris- j ^eans of large and additional hollow stays. At 
ingly favorable results, both m economy and per- the same time, by reducing somewhat the thick- 
formance, might readily be reached. In special tests ness of the grate fingers without changing in any 
we have seen with oils in ordmary use a remark- , way the position of the grates or the side bars, 
ably small proportion of the amount of oil usually \ the air admission area through the grates was in^ 
used was found to be needed when its apphcatiou j creased from 1-45 to 1-27. The results were most 

gratifying in increased steaming qualities of the 
engines, evenness of fire and freedom from smoke 
and sparks. 

As in engines using the old diamond stack with 
cone and netting, we obstruct the free passage of 
the gases, and have to put in additional blast by 
contracting the exhaust nozzles, so in other cases 
we fall into the same difficulty, but at the other end 
of the boiler, by not allowing openings enough 
through the grates. In general terms the need for 
a large amount of air for burning soft coals suc- 
cessfully is being conceded more generally than 
formerly, but the practical adaptation of thistnith 
comes very slowly. 

The engines we have been instancing as show- 
ing good results from an increased air supply had 
in every case the water table, and some interest- 
ing records were available, showing for a number 
of years the working of the engines fitted with the 
water table, as compared with those having plain 
boxes, but with the same boiler dimensions and 
air supply and running on the same service. The 
records showed that the monthly performance of 
the water leg engines gave from 12 to 30 per cent, 
more mileage to the ton of coal than the plain box 

At the last meeting of the Western Railway Club, 
while the question of washing out boilers was be- 

We give elsewhere in this issue the road tests pre- 
scribed by the present committee. They will be 
seen to be very thouglitfully planned, and we look 
for thoroughly satisfactoiy results from their em- 

BeoKNT railway accidents which have been ac- 
companied by fire from the stoves and heaters 
will, we trust, serve to revive the apparent flagging 
of interest in steam heating of cars. This prob- 
lem has received but little public treatment since 
last season, partly because of the mild weather 
and partly because of a quieter pursuit of business 
by the steam heating companies. There was a 
sort of a craze for a season or two on this subject; 
the local clubs were all engrossed in it, and the 
technical and daily press was overloaded with dis- 
cussion of it. There speedily developed an un- 
pleasant speculative characteristic among the pro 

TremendoSs heat I '"'?, vf-ntilation is not by .any means always met 
with. As was suggested by one of the speakers at 
the club the evil is not as general nor as serious as 
many seem to think. The fact of the matter is 
that bad ventilation is almost always due to purely 
local or incidental causes, and it is doubtful 

whether a standard remedy can be supplied, (iood | ing discuss'ed,some interesting facts were developed 
ventilation is possible in the ordinarily constructed ! in regard to the use of water leg, and several 
car, and probable m cars fitted with any one of , members spoke of good points in its favor. The 
several good devices now on the market; but general objections seemed to be the expense of the 
neither ordinary nor special construction can in- device when made of copper, the liability to clog 
sure anything like ideal purity of air in cars while up with sediment or scale and the cutting away by 
human nature remains as it is. In other words, cinders at the turn of the table. These evils did 
while one individual wears his overcoat by prefer- formerly exist in many cases, but the water leg or 
ence in an atmosphere that his neighbor thinks | table can now be successfully put in of steel with 

calls for shirt sleeve toilet; and while porters and 
brakeman lack common horse sense as they do 
to-day, we may look in vain for proper car ventila- 
tiijn. We have seen — as evei-y one has — the brake- 
man open more than half the deck sash on both 
sides, regardless of the direction of the wind, when 
some one asks for a little more air, and similarlv 

iich proportions that clogging by sediment or 
scale is no worse than in any other part of the 
boiler; and with the softer blast that is following 
the use of the straight stack and larger grate there 
need be no cutting effect by cinders, especially 
if sufficient air openings are supplied above the 
fire. The latter, beside other advantages, prevent 
close everything up tight fore and aft when asked the fire being lifted so badly when the engine is 
for /(((/« more warmth ; and we have also seen the working hard or slipping, and thus the cutting 
opening of one deck sash in response to the re- effect is further reduced. 
- ., . quest of a visib'y sweltering individual, followed While we are not at present discussing the rela- 

moters of some of the companies controlling steam instantly by the donning of coats and wraps bv a live merits of the brick arch or the water Ic" as 
heating devices, and with the excessive "exploita- , half dozen of his immediate neighbors. Vcntila- promoters of combustion, it seems as if the water 
tion ' following this came the publication of an I tion and heating may not be closely allied— some I leg avoided the heat storing qualities which were 



quoted against the brick arch as interfering with [ 
proper boiler washing. Its use, which can now be ' 
had without some of the disadvantages which 
could be urged against it formerly, will furnish a de- 
flector, that very important factor in soft coal burn- ! 
ing, in cases where the needs of the service might 
render the use of the brick arch objectionable. I 

The effect of air brakes and automatic couplers 
in making a modem freight car a more highly 
organized and expensive structure is extending to ] 
other portions of the car, particularly the draft I 
rigging and the truck. j 

With an efficient apparatus to control speed and 
stop quickly the tendency is to run freight trains j 
at speeds twice as fast as has been regarded safe 
practice in previous years. The other details of 
freight cars, liowever, are retained and used now, 
and some of them are not suited to the new con- 
dition of things. Their rapid wear and frequent 
failure is pointing plainly to the necessity of fur- ] 
ther improvement in the way of more substantial, 
and consequently more expensive, construction. 

The economy resulting from high speed freight 
trains is not to be aU clear gain in freight re- 
ceipts, for a portion of the increased earnings must 
be expended in more durable material and better 
workmanship, or that economy will not be 

The sudden application of quick acticg brakes 
i t high speed in mixed trains composed of cars 
fitted with Unk and vertical plane couplers will 
result in a more severe trial of draw bars and draft 
rigging than they have had heretofore. In switch- 
ing, the use of automatic couplers will lead to 
quicker work and higher speeds, because the en- 
gineer will not have the fear of injuring his fellow 
trainmen constantly in mind, and he will not ex- 
ercise the same care as when switchn: en had to 
go between the cars. The caution which pro- 
tected the man, and, incidentally, the car, will 
now be relinquished and the couplers and their at- 
tachments will suffer by it. 

The draft rigging of freight cars, as is well 
known, is the one part requiring most frequent re- 
pairs, and the number of cars delayed for such re- 
pairs is certainly on the increase, as it amoimts to 
60 per cent, of all cars held in shops and on track 
for repairs. 

This fact has been reahzed by our car builders 
for some time, but recently a number of designs 
for improved draft appliances have been brought 
out and several of them have been illustrated in 
this journal. We may here refer to a few of the 
better known designs. 

Continuous draw bars have been before the rail- 
road public for many years, but they do not seem to 
have had the necessary qualities which secure gen- 
eral adoption. In fact, their use is confined to a 
comparatively few hnes. The American continu- 
ous draw bar, which has been recently improved, 
is, however, probably the best of its type, on ac- 
count of the ease with which it can be repaired. 
It has recently been applied to a large number of 
new cars on several roads. 

The Graham draft rigging is arranged with cast 
steel followers, which extend up and into oak tim- 
bers, which are secured to the center sills, thus 
distributing the stresses due to pulling and buffing 
between the draft timbers and center sills. This 
device is now used on more than 20,000 cars and 
on some prominent tnmk lines. 

The Butler draw-bar attachment consists of a 
square malleable iron box surrounding the draft 
spring, and with malleable collars surround- 
ing the tail bolt, both back and front of the 
spring. The collars enter the box and form a 
bearing against it before the full motion of the 
spring is used up. 

The Weslinghouse friction buffer uses inter- 
locking sets of movable and fixed friction plates to 
absorb" the initial shocks, bothof puUing and buff- 
ing. The improved Westingliouse buffer has en- 
dured some very satisfactory tests, and in its 
present shape it is certainly a valuable improve- 
-»or* on the ordinary draft rigging and should 

lirove an economical one in spite of its extra cost. 

Mr. Cushing, on the Union Pacific, is now putting 
on his freight cars large cast iron plates on the 
sides of the draft timbers, each casting consisting 
of the two draw-bar stops and a top follower flange 
for one side, thus getting the shearing strength 
of all bolts for either puUing or buffing. 

One of the Chicago roads is now using draw-bar 
attachments made entirely of wrought iron, and 
consisting of a plate connecting the two wrought 
stops. This not only increases the resistance to 
shock in either direction, but protects the sides of 
the timber from the chafing action of the followers. 

The Fox Pressed Steel Company have carried 
this principle further yet, and have now placed on 
the market pressed steel draw-bar attachments 
which have the two stops formed on a side piece 
which extends from the end sill to the bolster,entire- 
ly replacing the draft timbers. 

These are prominent examples of the numer- 
ous improved draw-bar fixtures which are rapidly 
coming into general use, and we must accept them 
as striking evidence of the fact that the old con- 
struction with draft timbers and separate cast iron 
stops is unsatisfactory and entirely inadequate for 
the severe requirements of modern freight service. 

But these attempts to patch up and strengthen 
wooden cars by the use of more cast iron, malle- 
able iron, wrought iron, cast steel or pressed 
steel are hut steps forward in the march toward 
a larger use of wrought iron or steel in car con- 
struction, where the entire uuderframe will be 
made of metal beams, channels, angles and plates. 
The extensive use of automatic couplers and air 
brakes in freight service is thus having an unex- 
pected influence in hastening the time when iron 
and steel freight cars shall come into general use 
in the United States. 

We expect in a subsequent article to consider 
the effect of high speed on our present freight 
trucks, and to show how they, also, will develop 

to a more suitable and substantial mechanism. 

The fact that every now and then a railway 
officer goes into the business of soliciting adver- 
tisements from railway supply houses must be ac- 
cejjted as strong proof that the advertising of rail- 
way supplies is generally considered in railway 
circles to be profitable to those who make and sell 
them. When a general passenger agent, a pur- 
chasing agent or any other railway official writes 
to supply men requesting them to give his repre- 
sentative tlieir advertisements it must be taken 
for granted tha the considers advertising to be a 
good and necessary thing. It would seem to im- 
ply also that he knows that his associates and 
other railway men so regard it. Else how could 
he have the nerve to solicit an advertisement if he 
knew that none of the men on his road and those 
on other roads ever paid any attention to adver- 
tisements. He would be trying to get hard cash 
for a worthless consideration. He would be play- 
ing a confidence game. 

But while it is good to have such convincing 
proof that the value of advertising to the adver- 
tiser is generally recognized by railway men, there is 
a rapidly growing feeling among railway supply 
dealers that the kind of advertising which the rail- 
road man solicits them to pay for is not just the kind 
which they would choose if they felt perfectly free 
to decide for themselves. The word "advertising" 
has come to have a very broad meauing and is 
made to include anything printed on any kind of 
paper used for any purpose. To put the card of a 
manufacturer of car couplers or locomotive boiler 
tubes into a publication descriptive of a route for 
summer travel is called "advertising." Of course 
there is nothing in it — the great traveling public 
who consult such books to decide what lines they 
shall take or where they shall spend their vaca- 
tions do not care a cojjper who makes couplers or 
who makes boiler tubes. The men who buy rail- 
way supplies never consult publications of that 
sort for tlio names and places of manufacturers or 
dealers. If one wanted to introduce a new pill he 
might properly announce its name and searching 

quahties in route books and time table folders, 
because the great public always wants pills and is 
ready to try a new brand. Pianos, sugar cured 
hams, three dollar "pants," — there are a thous- 
and things in which the traveling public are inter- 
ested and advertisements of them on railway fold- 
ers, depot maps or board fences do not strike one 
as incongruous or foolish. But what railroad 
supply man who is unLufiuenced by outside con- 
siderations would try to get raOway trade by such 
methods of advertising? 

Unquestionably, when a railway official under- 
takes to sohcit advertisements he has powerful 
auxiliaries to help him to success. In some vague 
way the supply dealer feels that unless he gives 
his advertisement he wUl be out of favor with the 
road and will sell it no more supplies — at least 
till his offense is forgotten or forgiven. On the 
other hand a beautiful hope dawns in his soul 
that if he contributes as requested 'a thrill of 
gratitude will run like a warm wave through the 
general officers of the road and big orders will pour 
in and eomfoit him. When a solicitor of adver- 
ti-ements has behind him the gigantic wraith 
of a great railroad, smiling approval and patron- 
age on those who give him tUeir advertisements 
and frowning menacingly on all who refuse, he 
has a big advantage. 

It is a fact that the great majority of the "ad- 
vertising" schemes which are represented to 
originate in railway offices have no such origin. A 
direct inquiry often shows that those who come 
with assertions that they are backed by this or 
that railway official make false representations. 
Sometimes a railway officer gives out,of friendship 
and unthinkingly, an endorsement which is used 
in a way and to an extent far beyond his inten- 
tion. Occasionally a general passenger agent may 
yield to the temptation of having some of his 
special printed matter paid for by supply dealers 
under the cover of "advertising." While it is 
asserted now and then that some officer of a rail- 
road has a personal pecuniary interest in some ad- 
vertising "scheme" which depends for its success 
upon his official position, we are sure that such 
cases must be very rare. 

That railway supply men are becoming very res- 
tive under the burden of advertising that does not 
advertise is certain They speak bitterly of the 
cost of it and of the methods used. There has 
even been talk of combination and united action 
in order to protect themselves. But one cannot 
help wondering whether some methods of doing 
business in the railway supply field have not ten- 
ded to produce the state of l.hings now com- 
plained of. Perhaps there is some need of reform 
— in individual cases — on both sides; and per- 
haps when all railway supplies are sold strictly 
on their merits there will be an end to money 
making schemes of advertising which are not in- 
tended to advertise. 


It seems strange that, even at this time, in the 
age of lighting cars by electricity and gas, mana- 
gers of alleged first-class railroads will allow poor- 
ly lighted cars to be used in regular service. On 
one of our eastern roads (and it is on eastern 
roads that car lighting is badly neglected as com- 
pared with western practice) running out from a 
large city, there is, on a late train, one particular 
car with only three single lamps. This car is about 
forty feet long, has dark headlinings and its main 
rafters show their full size, which helps to darken 
the interior by throwing broad shadows on the 
dark walls. What a comparison to the cars on an- 
other road running out from the same city, which 
cars have 14 single lamps. These latter'cars are 
well lighted and run out of the ciiy at the same 
time of night as the car on the first mentioned 

There is a remedy for this poor lighting. If the 
first-mentioned company cannot build a new and 
larger car with better facilities for hghting, it can 
resort to the expedient practiced on even richer 
roads, in order to use their stock to advantage; 
that is, put more lamps in the old car, cut out the 

Febrdary, 1890 


useless and unsightly rafters and paint the head 
linings white. Any one can judge what the result 
would be. 

It would seem that the passenger agents, who 
always take so much interest in the traveling pub- 
lic, would look into these things, for there are 
other roads using poorly lighted cars besides the 
one which has given rise to these remarks. These 
passenger agents should endeavor to follow the 
example of our westeru men in this respect, but 
they always say, "More competition in the west; 

hands, nor necessarily throw a serious financial 
burden upon the railways — notwithstanding these 
facts and figures and others so ably presented by 
the commission, the conclusion is yet reached 
that legislation is inadvisable at present. A com- 
mission of investigation is, however, suggested. 
Such a commission would have been welcome 
several years ago, but the work of investigation 
has already been well gone through by the me- 
chanical oflicers of our railways and existing devices 
shown to be practical, and the interstate commission 

they have to look after such affairs more than we has made investigation, the resultsof which it gives. 

do." It would appear from this statement that 
there was not much to lose by not having well 
lighted cars. Nevertheless, we know of a case 
where a prominent eastern road took 14 season 
ticket travelers from a competing road in one day, 
and on one train, on account of its more luxurious 
and better lighted cars. These jmssengers, in an- 
swer to the question, "Why doyouleave the other 
road when this is so much out of your way?" said, 
"The other road is richer and can better afi'ord to 
have nicer cars, so when this road caters for more 
business by ofiering the inducements the other 
road can as well afford to give, and doesn't, we 
feel it deserves our patronage." The richer road 
uses its surplus in improving its stations and mak- 
ing flower gardens around them, and lets the rol- 
ing stock go, while the poorer one believes in bet- 
ter rolling stock, in which most of the passenger's 
time is spent, while patronizing it. Of course it 
is very enjoyable to have good stations and attrac- 
tive grounds, but when the comfort of the passen- 
gers is sacrificed to pay for them, they are not so 
much appreciated. Methods of building warm, 
well lighted and easy riding cars are within the 
reach of managers and superintendents of rolling 
stock of all roads, whether rich or poor, and should 
be used. 

and which, to our mind, cover the ground so thor- 
oughly that further research is needless. 

The attempt to establish a system of joint inspec- 
tion at Chicago has not proved successful. The 
matter was very fully discussed at a meeting held 
on the 17th of January by representatives ot the 
roads centering at Chicago, but although very strong 
arguments were made for the new system it was not 
agreed to. It was ti-eely conceded thai the system 
was excellent and that it had worked to advantage 
at other points, but with the enormous business 
handled at Chicago, and the peculiar geographical 
location of the various yards, the one to the other, 
it was considered, by the majority of the attendants 
at the meeting, that the expense would be too great. 
Accordingly it was decided to attempt to gain the 
same ends as would be gained by a joint inspection, 
by the use of a red city card, and a committee was 
appointed to design such card and to formulate rules 
governing its use. 

We have been furnished some interesting figures 
as to coupler service on the C, B. & Q. Ry. It seems 
that some 560 cars are equipped with the Janney 
coupler on that road, and that during the past six 
months there were only 19 failures of the draw bars 
proper and 30 failures of the knuckle. This is 
surely a very good showing, and it corresponds with 
the service ot all .Tanney couplers on other 
roads. As a suggestive contrast with the above fig- 
ures we append the following statement which we 
have obtained from the Burlington road, showing 
the cost of maintenance of link and pin couplers on 
that road for the year 18S8,viz: 

Total number of links. 60.990; cost » 13.3 0.5-90 

■• pins, 100,797 " 12.M6 40 

Potter draw bars. 6,826; 0J8t a,090-80 

i unnecessary. 

Thb annual report of the inter state commerce 
commission contained, as was expected, extended 
treatment of the question of safety appliances on 
freight trains, hut the conclusions arrivecT at by 
the commission as to legislation on this subject 
were not just what had been looked forward to. 
The commission decided that it could not recom- 
mend legislation calling for the use of automatic 
couplers or brakes. This decision was reached by 
the commission in the face of its own masterly 
summing up of the situation which leads logically 
to the conclusion that legislation is feasible. 

It would be ditficult to frame a better or more 
convincing argument for the compulsory use of 
automatic couplers and brakes than that supplied 
by the commission itself in its review of what had 
been accomplished by inventive genius to check the 
appalling rate of casualties to trainmen. Both 
couplers and brakes were shown to have been de- 
veloped to a high state of perfection; the dangers 
that might well be expected to arise from the ex- 
tended use of differing designs wereshowu to have 
been obviated by the fact that the mechanical 
officers of the railways have practically agreed 
upon a type of couplers and » type of brakes; and 
the pressing need of the rapid introduction of thea 
safely devices was impressively revealed by the 
presentation of statistics of accidents to trainmen. 
These statistics showed that for the year ending 
June 30, le88, there were 2,070 employes killed 
and 20,148 injured. Figures were given showing 
that a brakeman had only about 1 chance in 4.7 of 
being allowed to die a natural death. Accurate 
statistics as to the extent to whicli the old style 
coupler and brake are respimsible for the dreadful 
death rate above indicated are not in existence but j ment. 

for the year there were 82G deaths and 6,827 in- | 

juries reported to. the commission as being caused Quite recently a coupler inventor persuaded the 
by the work of coupling cars; and from the data general superintendent of a road to ask the super- 
at hand the commission estimates that 613 em- jniendent of motive power to examine his invention, 
ployes were killed and 4,02.5 injured during the The superintendent of motive power demurred, but 
year by falling from cars,which deaths and injur- finally set an hour for submitting to the operation, 
les are chargeable to the use of the hand brake. ^he coupler man was halt an hour late, and when be 

Despite these figures, and despite the fact that reached the office the superintendent of motive 
practical devices are in the market, by the use of | power had gone out to attend to other duties. His 
which they can be greatly reduced, if not prac- ; chief clerk asked the inventor to leave his coupler, 

tically wiped out, and the enforced use of which ; telling him that Mr. would examine it as soon 

, sir," replied the crank, "that 

Recent tests in the laboratories of the C, B. & Q. 
and C.&N.W. R"ys. have developed interesting facts 
as to the pulling strength of hook couplers. It has 
been shown that these couplers will give way, at 
one point or another, at pulling strains ranging 
from 67.000 to flO,000 lbs. When pulled hook with 
hook the breaking strains range about 10,000 lbs. 
Icjs than when pulled hook with link, the dillerence 
being due to the obvious difference in leverage. 
Very few tests have been made as yet, and the data 
so far gathered is insufficient to base reliable con- 
clusions upon. It should be noted in this connection, 
however, that the breakages of hook couplers in 
service arise from buffing, and not pulling strains. 
Upon some prominent roads, however, the required 
tensile strength of links is 90,000 and 95,000 lbs., and 
it is thought not amiss to require hooks to meet the 
same standard, at least during the transition period. 
The makers of hook couplers anticipate no trouble 
in so making their knuckles as to meet this require- 

coupler has cost me a great deal ot time and work 

for which I propose to be paid. If Mr. wants the 

privilege of examining that coupler he must put up 
some money." Being pressed to name a sum he fin- 
ally said that Mr. could examine that coupler 

for just one hundred dollars. The money was not 
put up, but if any one wishes to pay that sum for a 
half hour of ecstasy— that delirium of delight which 
the railway man experiences when a "new" link 
coupler (for it was a link coupler) is laid down before 
him— the Railw.\y M.\ster Mechanic will open 
negotiations with this thrifty genius. 


devices would throw a monopoly in no man's I ^ possibl 

As collarless axles are gaining favor it may be well 
to cite an example of marked success in their use. 
Two years ago collarless axles were introduced on 
the New York & New England Railroad under pas- 
senger cars. Since then 65 cars, coaches and bag- 
gage cars and one locomotive tender have been 
equipped with them. During this time no reports 
have been received of the heating of the journals. 
It is noticeable that there has been more end wear 
on the journals under the passenger and baggage 
cars than on those under the locomotive tender, 
owing, perhaps, to the different style of trucks used. 
Under the tender the regular diamond trucks, with 
a rigid bolster, are used, which are different from 
the passenger trucks in one important respect, that 
is, in not having end pieces nor pedestal stay rod to 
tie bar, thereby rendering the trucks less rigid and 
making them more susceptible to winding or getting 
out of square by the end thrust of the collarless 
journals. This tender has been in regular passenger 
service the past thirteen months and has made 41,666 
miles. The journals are 41x8 in.; center to center of 
journals, 75 in.; total length of axle, 83i in.; wheel 
fit, 4i in.; outer of axle, 4J in. The journal boxes 
are the M. C. B. standard with the addition of suit- 
able lugs to support the endstops. 

These journals were illustrated in the Railway 
Master Mechanic in May, 1889. The criticism 
that we at that time made was on the apparently 
small oil and waste space. Small as it appeared to 
be, however, we are now assured that it has been 
large enough to hold enough oil and waste to keep 
the journals well lubricated under 06 vehicles for 
the past two years; there have been no words of 
complaint of hot boxes. It may not have been 
noticed by our readers that the end stops are loosely 
supported by the lugs, and are free to move up and 
down and laterally. They are, but they are at the 
same time securely locked in, preventing them from 
ever coming out while running, or even while at rest, 
until the journal bearing has been removed and the 
journal box lowered on the journal, when they are 
free to be taken out. The usual key has been neces- 
sarily left out to give more space to accommodate 
the larger journal. These collarless axles are being 
called "the standard" by the New York & New 
England Company, and will be used as fast as the de- 
mands require them. 

Master Mechanic S. W. Huston, of the Cornwall 
Railway, has been experimenting with a compression 
cup on his rods with such satisfactory results that he 
is now equipping all his engines with it, using a com- 
pound grease. In one test he look one gallon of oil, 
costing 37 cents per gallon, and made 1,200 miles 
with it; he then put on compression cups and with 
37 cents worth of compound made 4,:i00 miles, the 
pins running perfectly cool. One of his large freight 
engines, the main pins of which he could not keep 
cool with oil, when pulling heavily, is giving no 
trouble since fitted with the compression cups. Ho 
finds that with the cup and compound he is saving 
oil and is keeping the machinery of his engine clean, 
as there is now no flying of oil. 

As an instance of how little things may be readily 
overlooked, even by careful master mechanics, we 
may cite the case of weak pilot bars. A certain road 


Febbuaey, 1890. 

a plain bar aad the result was that the fibers ot the 
metal lay in a direct line with the direction of the 
pull, as shown in Fig. 1. The result was that the 
end of the loop pulled out in the same manner that 

finding not long ago that these bars were breaking tion, an expansible cross-head pin was favorably 
badly located tbe cause in the method of manufac- 1 mentioned in a committee report and that in our is- 
ture. The slot for the pin had been punched out of I sue of October, ISSS. we quite fully described and 

illustrated that pin. We learn that some 2-5 engines 
on the New York &- \ew England Railway that are 
equipped with this pin have been working very well. 
No failures have been reported in the last three 
years and a half. The oldest pins have remained 
intact all this time, and in fact none of the main rods 
have been worked upon. In other words the main- 
tenance of these rods has cost nothing and the train 
of connections back to the rear wheels has been kept 
up in better shape than ever before. 

Among the many ingenious devices exhibited at 
the Paris exposition an apparatus tor recording the 
weights upon the several wheels of a locomotive at- 
tracted attention. This apparatus is very fully de- 
scribed and illustrated in London Engineering, but 
we can give space only to an e.xplanation of the prin- 
ciple upon which it is based. This principal is illus- 
trated in the diagram given herewith. On a plat- 
form a the object to be measured is placed; the 

it would if made of a piece of wood with the grain 
running similarly. Accordingly, the loop was made 
by bending a i x * in. bar, which thus presented a 
cross-fiber to the line of pull as shown in Fig. 2. 
Tests made with the two forms showed the follow- 
ing results: Punched bar, broke at 10.5,000 and at 
116,.500 lbs.; looped bar broke at 1.51,000 and 169,000 
lbs. The result is not in the least surprising: but 
the fact remains that a simple method of relief from 
an annoyance was left unsought for years. 

The Lehigh Valley is about to apply quick action 
air brakes to 2,.500 freight cars. This is a welcome 
announcement, indicating that the progressive spirit 
of western roads in regard to improved train appli- 
ances is finding place in the east. The large order 
of the Philadelphia & Reading for hook couplers on 
4,000 new freight cars is equally significant. 

Among the recent products of the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works are five locomotives for the Mexican 
Central Railway. They are of the Fairlie-Mason 
type — "14 wheel class D" — with cylinders 20x24 in. 
and six driving wheels coupled, .50 in. in diameter, 
and weigh without tender 110,8.50 lbs. This type of 
engine consists of engine and tender, all upon one 
frame, which permits a very deep and wide fire-box, 
such as would not be possible on any other type of 
locomotive. The driving wheels and pony truck are 
arranged to turn on a center bearing similar to the 
ordinary truck which allows easy running with little 
strain on the track, and makes a perfect riding en- 
gine. The steam pipe is dilTerent from the Mason 
patent, and appears to be — as is often the case— an 
improvement that does not improve, for where the 
Mason had one joint, and that in the center bearing, 
this has three under tbe boiler. The ordinary shifts 
ing link is used, and the extremely short radius 
makes it hard to handle even with the rack and 
pinion reversing gear employed. The quadrant is 
fastened at the top of the reverse lever, and forms 
the rack for the wheel actuated pinion at the top of 
reverse lever— which can be fastened at any point by 
a set screw. It is a slow working arrangement, with 
no particular apparent merit. The cabs are roomy 
and have a corrugated iron roofing over the root 
proper, with an air space bet ween to protect the en- 
gineers and firemen from the intense heat ot the sun 
in the tropical countries— a point of comfort that 
many railroads might look after here at home, 
where the cabs are small and poorly ventilated. 
The good sized cylinders of these engines, together 
with the weight on drivers of about 100,000 lbs., and 
a steam pressure of 160 lbs., make them a powerful 
engine for the service of the mountain roads, and if 
we are rightly informed this is their standard type 
ot engine. They prove to be good steamers and to 
be economical in fuel. 

Our readers will remember that at the Alexandria 
Bay convention of the Master Mechanics' Associsi- 

weight is distributed below through the standards 
placed at each end and terminating in knife edges 
on the ends ot the levers 6 and 6', which are sup- 
ported at their centers by knife edges resting on a 
solid foundation c; the inner ends ot these levers b 
and d' support a disc d, and transmit the load on the 
platform a through a rubber diaphragm c to a liquid / 
contained in the receiver g. which is rigidly con- 
nected to the foundation c. Through the upper part 
ot the receiver g passes a pipe connected with the 
close vessel h\ the lower part of this vessel contains 
mercury into which is plunged a barometric tube I, 
and the column ot mercury is forced more or less up 
this tube with the weight upon the platform; this 
weight can then be read off the graduated scale at- 
tached to the mercurial tube. It can be readily un- 
derstood how, by using a number of these platforms, 
the weights upon the different wheels may be readily 

The following note concerning some current prob- 
lems in car construction now pressing for solution in 
India is of interest as revealing the existence there 
of difficulties similar to those which we in America 
are successfully dealing with through our mechan- 
ical and engineering associations. We fijid the note 
in London Engineering; 

A smaller form ot congress is at present sitting in 
Lucknow, a sort of Master Car Builders' Association, 
which has been invited to advise government on the 
question ot making railway rolling stock more easily 
interchangeable, both as "a whole and in detailed 
parts. It it be true that the most recent type of 
Northwestern Railway wagons is too wide in the 
body to pass over the older systems, which are al- 
ready laid with double lines that cannot now be 
spread, except with an enormous expenditure on en- 
larging stations, bridges, and tunnels, it is high time 
that some definite limit should be put to the ambi- 
dia engineering cir- 

developments, such as the tubular-framed cars lately 

In India owing to the sparks thrown off by most 
Indian fuels, and owing also to the amount of depre- 
dation that goes on, closely covered wagons are used 
tor everything but the carriage of railway and build- 
ing materials. The covered wagons are necessarily 
made high enough to hold cattle, horses, and even 
in the emergencies of pilgrim traffic and war, men, 
and owing to the risk ot fire, the ravages ot insects, 
and the amenities ot the climate, the wagon bodies, 
as well as their frames, are made of iron throughout. 
Under these conditions it is not easy to reduce the 
rates of dead load to paying load much lower than 
7 to 10, and it generally runs about 3 to 4. Singu- 
larly enough the present bogie stock stands at an 
even worse ratio than that of the four-wheeled stock, 
and there is a strong feeling in the locomotive and 
carriage departments in favor of removing this re- 
proach by tbe simple expedient of putting heavier 
axles and wheels under the present wagons, and then 
marking them tor pro tanto higher loads. This pro- 
cess the roadmaster branch of the profession very 
naturally resists tooth and nail, and if it be true that 
even the more modern girders are only designed for 
trains weighing 18 cwt. per-foot run gross, drawn by 
engines and tenders averaging 27 cwt. per toot, they 
do well to object to the trains ot 24 cwt. and engines 
36 cwt. per foot that the locomotive department are 

A method of stripping tanks employed in the shops 
of the Soo line, at Minneapolis, is thus described in 
the Northwestern Railroader: "A cushion is placed 
over the manhole ot the tank and steam admitted 
into the tank through the feed pipe to the engine. 
Only enough steam to thoroughly heat the tank is 
used, and, it is said, in five minutes after admitting 
steam the paint commences to blister. Two men can 
with this method completely clean a tank in two 
hours, where formerly it required the labor ot two 
men for two days. The use of lye and other chem- 
icals which it is difiicult to entirely wash off, is also 
avoided. The difficult ot washing off lye is espe- 
cially felt around the heads ot rivets, where, in a 
short time it is liable to rust and eat through the 
new coat ot paint.'" 

In our October issue we had a paragraph in which 
we asked why railways in one part of the country 
get so much more out ot their coal than do those in 
other sections. A correspondent ot the Northwest- 
ern Railroader offers the following in a recent issue 
of that paper, by way ot answer to our questions. 
His answer will be found quite suggestive: 

As between locomotives on eastern and western 
roads, there are several reasons why the eastern loco- 
motives ought to make a great mileage per ton of 
coal than those on the western. One is that the av- 
erage coal coal used on eastern roads is ot a higher 
evaporative quality than that of the locomotive ot 
the western roads. Coals mined in Pennsylvania 
and Ohio have an evaporative efficiency from 4 to B 
pounds of water per pound of coal consumed under 
similar conditions. Now, some of the western roads 
use Pennsylvania coals, and those in the northwest 
have their supply delivered at the lakes, which 
necessitates the year's supply being placed 
at their disposal during the summer season. 
Coal exposed to the atmosphere each day depre- 
ciates in value, so that by the time the la'st ot the 
season's stock is to be used, the evaporating or heat 
ratio has materially lessened. Another feature is 
that where coals are handled many times the quan- 
tity becomes less, and the value for fast burning 
lowers by being crushed beyond the economical size. 
Some coals, from exposure in a short time, will tritu- 
rate similar to hydnited lime. This is an especial 
feature of many western coals. Their hydrate 
requires part of their heat during com- 
bustion to drive off the moisture absorbed 
from the atmosphere. Another feature is in 
regard to the water which is evaporated most; and 
it may be said all the mountainous roads have feed 
water which does not hold in solution scale producing 
salts ot any noticeable quantity, while those of the 
Mississippi and Missouri V.alley hold in many cases all 
that nature in its laws of solution and gravity will 
permit. Though the salts in solution may not affect 
the ratio of evaporation, they certainly, after separa- 
tion, produce a non-conductor ot heat by depositing 
upon all parts ot the heating surface as rapidly as 
they are separated from their solvent. The loss of 
conducting ratio is thus easily seen, and many ex- 
periments under the same conditions prove that i in. 
of scale shows a ratio as 40 is to 100 in the evaporat- 
ing elficiency. Many of the western roads find a de- 
posit of this amount in making about 14,000 miles 
run. When the locomotive has formed sufficient 

Febbdaet, 1890. 



scale so as not to steam freely, the nozzle is then con- 
tracted and stimulates the draft in counterbalance of 
the loss caused by slow heat conversion. This then 
produces a higher back pressure of the engine with 
another loss without any gain. Those are a few of 
the principal reasons that the western roads are 
handicapped in the miles run to the ton of coal com- 
pared with the eastern roads. 

We would like to receive comment upon these 
views from other readers — particularly from those in 
the west and northwest. 

In a paper on "Methods of reducing the lire loss,"' 
read by C. .1. H. Woodbury before the recent meet- 
ing of the American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, a suggestive hint is given as to the construc- 
tion of yard hydrants about shops, manufactories, 
etc. He said that these yard hydrants should be 
placed at a distance of .50 feet from buildings, and 
that they should be covered with a house which 
should also contain hose, axes, bars, nozzles and 
spanners. The form of house suggested is shown in 
the appended cuts. It will be seen that it can be 
readily thrown wide open on all sides, leaving the 
water butt perfectly easy of access and bringing the 
looped hose, the a.\es, etc., conveniently to hand. 

I I I : 

M M I I I I 



In the course of his paper Mr. Woodbury devotes 
considerable attention to automatic water sprinklers 
showing that they have proved to be a most valu- 
able form of fire apparatus in operation with great 
efficiency, at fires where their action was unaided bv 

other lire apparatus, particularly at night. In mill 
fires he says: '"The average loss for an experience 
of twelve years shows that in those fires where auto- 
matic sprinklers formed a part of the apparatus 
operating upon the fire, the average loss amounted 
to only one-nineteenth of the average of all other 
losses. If the difference between these two averages 
represents the amount saved by the operation of 
automatic sprinklers, then the total damage from 
the number of fires to which automatic sprinklers 
are accredited, as forming a portion of the apparatus, 
has been reduced six and a quarter million dollars 
by the operation of this valuable device."" 

the course of a discussion on smoke stacks, that his 
company was using a cast iron stack which was 
standard for all engines, irrespective of the size of 
cylinders. After allowing a reasonable period to 
elapse since then, in order to reap the benefit of the 
experience of time— the best and most impartial of 
all investigators— as to the desirability of having 
but one standard for this detail, we now lay before 
our readers, through the courtesy of Mr. Ross Kells, 
superintendent of motive power of the Erie, draw- 
ings of this stack. We have also been enabled to 
inquire closely into the merits uf it by watching the 
behavior of engines equipped with it, when handling 
trains ol varying weight and speed on the Eastern 
division of the road. 

As our readers are probably well aware, cast iron 
is by no means a new material for smoke stacks, hav- 
ing been used to a considerable extent both in this 
country and abroad. The Richmond & Danville here 

STANDARD SMOICE STACK.— New Lake Euie & Westeiix Ra 


Febrdarv, 1890. 

and the Great Xoi-thern in England are instances. 
The chief interest attached to the Erie stack is, 
therefore, centered in the fact of its being standard 
for all engines on the entire system (including the 
New York, PennsyWauia & Ohio). The Richmond 
& Danville use three sizes, the diameter of the 
cylinder and the length of the stroke determining 
which of the three shall go on any particular engine. 
The second size, or that used for 18x24 in. cylinder 
engines, has almost exactly the same dimensions and 
general contour as the Erie standard, the only differ- 
ence worth mentioning being the 1.5 in. smallest diam- 
eter of the former, against the 1.5i in. of the latter. 
Complete with base, the Erie stack weighs about 
47-5 pounds, and costs when ready to go on an engine 
within a few cents of $11. The cost of the sheet iron 
stacks with cast iron tops and bases which the "'boot 
legs."— as the new stacks have been christened by the 
Erie employes — have replaced, is said to be about 
$23, an excess of $14. Although we have no figures at 
hand at present, we think that a sheet iron stack with 
a cap of half round iron, and a steel base, pressed into 
shape on a machine (not flanged by hand as is usually 
done, for that would, of course, increase the cost) 
would run the cast iron stack very close in price. 

An advantage possessed by the stack entirely of 
cast iron, is that when worn out in service by the 
action of the blast and the friction of the particles of 
fuel passing through it, or when broken up in a 
wreck, the remains may be consigned to the cupola 
and melted down, thereby reducing the actual pe- 
cuniary loss to a very low figure. Worn out sheet 
iron, on the other hand, cannot be re-rolled, and 
has a limited field of usefulness. 

In manufacturing these stacks, the barrel is cast in 
dry sand with a core swept up on an arbor covered 
with hay rope and loam in the usual way; the base 
is cast in green sand. Without the exercise of con- 
siderable care on the part of the moulder, the bar- 
rel is apt to be somewhat uneven and lumpy, and to 
compare unfavorably with the smooth, even appear- 
ance of other forms of cast iron. 

The rule formulated many years ago that the di- 
ameter of a smoke stack should equal that of the cy- 
linder of the engine, is now very generally admit- 
ted to be wrong, and there are numerous cases on 
record where reducing the stack diameter has con- 
verted a poor steaming engine into a good one. The 
"vena contracta"" shape of the Erie stack is undoubt- 
edly correct, based as it is on sound scientific princi- 
ples. Our observations tend to prove that the di- 
ameter is also right, or nearly so, for engines with 
cylinders 18 in. in diameter and over, the volume of 
steam i.«suing from the exhaust nozzles filling the 
stack completely at its smallest diameter, near the 
bottom, forming a piston, so to speak, which as it 
moves upwards creates a partial vacuum behind it, 
which is filled by the gases from the fire box. The 
outward flare of the steick from the point of least di- 
ameter allows the steam to expand slightly and so 
prevents any sluggishness in entering the atmos- 
phere at the top,or choking. Apart from the piston 
action just mentioned this design in no way ii 
feres with, or lessens the intensity of, the currents 
'•induced" by the friction of the particles of the 
steam on those of the surrounding gases in thi 
smoke box, in passing from the exhaust tips to thi 
stack base, and which is common to all designs. 

As might be inferred from what we said above we 
do not consider the sizes, more particularly the di- 
ameters, of the standard suited to engines having 
cylinders less than 18 in. in diameter, and we con- 
clude that the carrying of two sizes of stacks would 
be desirable, for if the smoke stack is too large for 
the exhaust steam to completely fill, the chances are 
that the nozzles will be reduced in diameter, with at- 
tendant increase of back pressure in the cylinders in 
order to make the engine steam. 

The Erie engines, tor the most part, are fitted 
with double nozzles, each inclined slightly towards 
the other, so that their center lines intersect at the 
smallest slack diameter. Good as the results ob- 
tained are, we consider that even better would be 
reached with single nozzles placed concentrically 
with the stack. The objection so frequently made 



-?-' ji^- 

u:ffmi tnririTi nnnnnnnn li'r^-J 


to single nozzles, that exhaust steam from one cylin- 
der is blown over into the other, increasing the back 
pressure, is not well taken, and when such a condi- 
tion of things is found to exist it is prima facie evi- 
dence of a badly designed exhaust pipe. The Nor- 
folk &: Western experiments conducted by Mr. Chas. 
Blackwell prove this conclusively. We may add 
that Mr. Kells has now about 4-50 of his locomotives 
equipped with the stack and intends placing it on all 
engines as rapidly as is consistent. This is substan- 
tial testimony to its etBciency. 

We also illustrate herewith the Erie grate bar, 
another standard for all engines, that has recently 
been introduced. This is the result of much experi- 
ment while searching for a bar on which to burn 
economically and successfully either bituminous or 
anthracite coal. With the exception of the Elevated 
engines of New York and Brooklyn, the Erie is the 
only company, we believe, in the country that is 
burning hard coal on a rocking cast iron flnger grate 
with good results. The hitherto insurmountable 
difficulty that has been met in attempting to do this 
has been the burning of the bars due to the forma- 
tion of clinkers. The cross section of this bar, how- 
ever, is such that the clinkers, as they form, detach 
themselves, and drop through into the ash pan. As 
will be noticed the spaces and bridges are of the 
same dimensions; allowing for the space occupied by 
bearers, etc., the total air space amounts to about 4-5 
per centum of the whole grate area. As stated 
above, this bar is, like the stack, standard for all en- 
gines, the differences in the width and length of the 
fire-boxes of the various classes of engines being 
made up by stationary, or dead bars, as distinguished 
from those that rock. This plan has been carried 
out on other roads, as for instance, the Missouri Pa- 
cific, and to some extent on the Union Pacific, but 
these cjpds burn bituminous coal exclusively, while 
the Erie bar is adapted for both bituminous and 
anthracite and in this respect is unique. 

Mr. Kells is establishing gradually other interest- 
ing standards, some of which we hope to illustrate 

The Bead Tests of Metals for Brake Shoes. 

The committee appointed by the M. C. B. Associa- 
tion to report on brake shoe materials appointed 
sub-committees for shop tests seme weeks ago, and 
have now decided upon the nature of the road tests. 
These they submit to the railway men interested in 
the tests. Their circular is as follows: 


metals for brake shoes invites the manufacturers to submit 
samples of their shoes for the following tests: 

1. One series of tests to be made with a standard coach 
fitted with four-wheel trucks, Westinghouse quick action 
brake and eight wheels braked. This series lo be divided 
into two Darts, one consisting of a series of tests made with 
33-in. steel-tired wheels with treads turned cylindrical, 
the other to be made with 33 in. chilled wheels ground 

2. A second series of tests will be made with a dynamo- 
meter car also fitted with quick-action brake, with 33 in. 
steel-tired wheels and chilled wheels turned and ground as 
above, but with brakes applied to but four wheels, all on 

3. The tests will be made on a level tangent at 20 and 40 
miles per hour. 

4. The locomotive will be equipped with the Boyer speed 
recorder, an electric bell to the car, and will push the car 

' ' required speed in each 1 

5. Each test will be repeated six times, the car to carry 
the same load in each test. 

6. The brake beams will be the master car builders' 
standard iron beam for 15,000 pound load, as illustrated on 
plate XII, M. C. B. annual report 1SS9. The beams will be 
hung from the truck frames by Sargent's adjustable 
swivel hanger. 

7. Brake shoes will be of the dimensions and design 
given on plate XII of the M. C. B. annual report. It is im- 
portant that the dimensions be accurately conformed to. 
The shoes will hang one half inch from the tread of the 

' ill be so adjusted that 

rheel when brakes 

whole surface before power is. applied. The shoes must 
be furnished to the committee accurately ground or turned 
to fit a 33 in. cylinder. 

S. The diameters of the journals will be the same for all 
tests, and the sponging and oiling of boxes will be main- 
tained as uniform as possible. 

9. Brake leverages and pressures will be constant with 
each car for all tests. To avoid the possibility of slipping 
wheels the pressure of the shoes on the wheels must not 
exceed 70 per cent, of the weight of the wheels on the rails. 

Aijparatus to be used in the test. 

10. To accurately measure the speed, the Boyer speed 
recorder will be used on the locomotive. "W hen the dy- 
namometer car is used the speed recorder therein will also 
be used to check the results of the Boyer speed recorder. 

11. In the coach tests the length of stop will be measured 
from the point of application to the center of car. The point 
of application must be as nearly as possible at the same 
point for each test. The figures will be taken from track 
stakes placed at 50 foot intervals and properly marked. 
The dynamometer car will be fitted with apparatus for re- 
cording the length of each stop. 

12. The pressure in the auxiliary reservoir and brake 
cylinder to be recorded before and during each stop. 

13. The velocity of the wind and the condition of the rail 

ation in the conditions, which should be as nearly constant 

14. In the case of the dynamometer car, an apparatus as 
shown in Fig. 1 will be used -for measuring the friction of 
the brake shoes at all times during the application of the 

15. Parties intending to funi-'i -L. . -. ii.i these tests 
should communicate with tti<' - i-.immittee 

not later than March 1st., aiiil ;i~ . i :is possible. 

If any large number of com|i. i j ,- - ^ : ir iutenlion 

of furnishing shoes, it may b i,- ['..---.ti: lor tlie com- 
mittee lo make modifications in tlicir |)luns on account of 
the time necessarily occupied in each lest. 

16. The committee reserve the right to make such addi- 
tion and modifications to these 1 
tion of the subject may sugBest. 

. further considera- 

G. W. Rhodes, 


ForgedlWronght Iron Wheels Are Made 

This Coantry" 

Tbiit forgod wi-ought ii-on locomotive driving, 
truck and tender wheels are being made in this 
country in considerable numbers will be news — and 
interesting news — to most of our readers. Without 
any preliminary proclamations the management of 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works undertook to devise 
and make a forged wheel that should not be an im- 
itation of any other wheel, but which should be at 
least equal in all respects to the best of them; and 
without any noise of trumpets it has accomplished 


of the Baldwin Works compels thom to use a consid- 
erable number of forged wrought iron wheels. For 
example, they can compete with European locomo- 
tive builders for Spanish orders — but the laws of 
Spain prescribe that every wheel under locomotive 
and pjissenger car equipment shall have a wrought 
center. Without them not t)ne of our Ameri- 
can locomotives would be permitted to run on a Span- 
ish i-ailway. And the specifications for locomotives 
for many other countries necessitate the use of 
wrought" iron wheels. In order to successfully com- 
pete for such orders the Baldwin Locomotive Works 
must be prepared to furnish wrought iron wheels. 

But a long series of very unpleasant experiences 
has shown the management that to depend upon 
foreign wheel makers to supply the wheels needed 
must result in a loss of business. There has never 
been a certainty that wheels ordered when an order 
for locomotives was taken would reach this country 
in time. In a grqat many cases the wheels did notget 
here in time. These vexatious conditions have been 

.•Ik-iicc of the 

the task. The cuts of a 
wheel given herewith inc 

It is important that the position of the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works in this matter should not be mis- 
understood. Nothing is further from the design of 
the managers than 'to enter the market as manufac- 
turers of steel-tired wheels. They are not offering 
their wheels to the railroads of this country as 
against other American wheels. They are not, in 
any sense, competitors with them. 

The facts of the case are that the foreign business 

forged wheel. It is shaped up under several small 
dies and finally welded together in one operation 
under a steam hammer. Careful slotting in all direc- 
tions through finished wheels shows that the process 
welds all the original pieces of which the hub. spokes 
and rim are composed into perfect homogeneity. Yet 
It is really unnecessary to say that a wheel which 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works manufactures and 
uses on the locomotives which it builds is a perfect 
wheel in its design and construction. 

steadily gr 
and aniioya 

dimensions, special sizes, etc., were very great 
Altogether, the conditions became unbearable, and to 
protect its business the management of the Baldw 
Works has been literally compelled to make its ov 
wrought iron wheels for orders in which such wheels 
are specified. 

The wheel which they make is original 
struction and may be truly called an American 


In the early part of last November the Long Island 
Railway moved into its new shops near . Jamaica, N. 
Y. The accompanying plan shows the general ar- 
rangement of the buildings. The roundhouse has 
not yet been erected, but will be as soon as needed. 
At present the roundhouse at Hunter's Point is 

The buildings are brick, with substantial stone 
foundations and granite trimmings. From an in- 
spection of the plan it will be seen that there are 
two principal structures standing parallel to each 
other, with a transfer table in between them. One 
is the machine shop and erecting floor, and the other 
the car shop. The machine shop has a monitor roof 
over all of that portion of it included between the 
row of posts shown in the plan and the wall adjacent 
to the transfer. Above this portion of the floor two 
overhead traveling power cranes, esich of 2-5 tons 
capacity, will be operated. A portion of the build- 
ing is used for boiler works, and next to that a track 
or two is devoted to tender work, all the remainder 
being devoted to the general engine work. The 
machinery is well placed, and several of the heavier 
machines are so placed as to be within reach of the 
I traveling cranes. These cranes are now being built 
1 by the Morgan Engineering Co. The machinery is 
driven by a 75 h. p. Westinghouse engine. 

The car shop, mill and paint shop are all in the 
other large building, and are 3ell arranged for their 
work. A 60 h. p. Westinghouse engine furnishes 
power to the planing mill. The transfer table be- 
tween these two buildings is exceptionally long— "B 
ft.— and runs on four double tracks. It is designed 
to take on an ordinarv coach and a short four wheel 


FEBRnAET, 1890. 

Febbdaey, 1890. 


sary. If an aspirator device is used to draw the ait 
will find its way in. Of course it does this at eve 
ing and crevice in the cars. On the other hand it 
tilstioD be on the plenum plan, that is, a forcing in 
ing full of fresh air, it is not necessary to make a special 

It there bc'^au oncniiiL' for the iuffvcss of 

t go 01 
a funn 

ime heated 

I heating is neces 

5 a proper one. 

face, if it be in a season of the year 
jsary, so that the method of Mr. Mar- 
has been mentioned that this 
device does the same thinR, which is true. 

The question whether it is best to suck the air out 
of the car or force it in for ventilation can 
be decided only in favor of forcing it in, provided 
it is forced in over heated surfaces, for this reason, that 
when air is forced in over heated surfaces it produces a 
plenum in a car and a consequent tendency to get out On 
the other hand if the aspirator system be used, there is a 
sucking of the air out of a car; instead of the foul air pass- 
ing out of all the crevices, the fresh air is sucked in at all 
the crevices, whicli, of course, would bring upon all the 
passengers near those crevices a draft of air. Aside from 
this, it has the bad feature of making the outsides of the 
car cold and the center of the car warm, while the plenum 
system tends to throw the heated airtowards the side of the 
car and the various openings. 

Of course so far as dust and cinders are concerned, it is 
only a matter of proper screening. It is evident to any 
one that if a proper system of screening is employed, 
no cinders can come in through the ventilator. 

Mr. Rhodes— I suppose, Mr. President, that there 
is no railroad man present who will not endorse the 
paper of Mr. Creamer as to the necessity for having 
good ventilation in our passenger cars. But the 
question presents itself, whether the methods that 
are presented to the meeting are sufficient to 
remedy the evil complained of. Then again, is the 
evil so general as perhaps the paper would indicate? 
Has any traveling man ever selected one route in 
preference to another on account of the better ven- 
tilation of cars on the line selected? I think not. 
I do not think the methods that have 
been mentioned at this meeting are such that if we 
put them in service they would produce benefit such 
as we would appreciate. I wish to be understood as 
directing my remarks not to closed sleepers but to 
the coach equipment, with double windows and 
open doors. 

Mr. Sehroyer — For years we have used as a stand- 
ard apparatus for healing our carsastove surrounded 
by a Russia iron jacket.and our method of ventilating 
cars is similar to that used by the Spear Company 
for years on the Pennsylvania road. In the cars 
where we have steam heat, a steam radiator is 
located inside of the door where the coal box former- 
ly stood. This radiator is covered with a Russia 
iron jacket, having a cold air pipe leading from the 
jack on the outside of the car to the lop of the rad- 
iator, the air being admitted through the jack and 
pipe on to tne top of the radiator, the bottom of 
which is entirely open. We thus get all of the hot 
air on the floor, rather than letting it out at the top 
of the radiator, where it would rise at once to the 
root of the car. The impure air is always around 
the bottom of the car, and one of the objects of our 
method is to discharge the hot air at a point where 
it will displace the impure air. There are two 
methods of ventilating; one is by a vacuum and the 
other by pressure, and we prefer the latter. We 
dispose of all the cinders and dust that come in 
through the jack, for there is very little velocity to 
the air as it passes the radiator, because the area of 
the space is so much greater than the area of the in- 
let through the jack. Cinders and dust consequent- 
ly drop to the floor under the radiator and can be 
swept out. It is just as ditBeult to veutilate a car 
to suit everybody as it is to heat a car to suit every- 
body, and we railroad men kuow that this is a 
pretty hard thing to do. 

Mr. Wm. Forsyth spoke at some length and from 
his remarks we extract the following: 

This morning as I came to town from Aurora, 
I was in a chair car which had a single sash 
and a Baker heater. I found that the doors 
were shut and the ventilators shut, and the cars were 
very badly ventilated. The car stopped once or twice, but 
thei-e must have been a very large percentage of carbonic 
acid in thecar when we arrived in Chicago. I spoke to the 
conductor about how his Baker heater was working. He 
said "You can't heat this car with the Baker heater and 
leave the ventilators open, when you have the single sash. 
If the car had double sash you could heat it comfortably 
and leave some of the ventilatoi*s open." 

I am an advocate of double sash, because a car 
has such a small space, such small cubical contents for each 
passenger, that we need all the heat we can get to warm 
the fresh air that comes in, and have the air changed as 
often as possible. I think no one should feel discouraged 
about the seeming impossibility of ventilating our coaches, 
until our train men have been properly instructed how to 
ventilate cars with the means we have already. There is 
certainly an immense amount of carelessness and indiffer- 
ence in the manner in whi^h this thing is treated, and an 
entire neglect to instruct the men in the proper way. 
These are the three things which I would offer 
as practical suggestions in the improvement of 
the ventilation of our cars: First, instruc- 
tions to the men who have charge of them, the brakemen ; 
second, the use of good thermometers; third, the use of 
double sash in the winter time. 

The discussion here closed and after an intermis- 
sion the president announced the next appointed 
subject to be "The link and other valve 

motions." Those expected to open the subject 
not being present, it was continued until the 
next meeting. The subject of "the use of steel 
plate in car construction" was brought up for 
discussion, and was also disposed of in the same 
way, Mr. E. W. McK. Hughes, of the Fox Pressed 
Steel Company, being requested to prepare a paper. 

The President— The next subject for discussion, 
gentlemen, is "the best method of washing out loco- 
motive boilers when there is not suflicient time to 
cool them." 

Mr. Barnes— Some parties are advocating the uso 
of a complete fire brick lining in the fire-box, hop- 
ing thus to secure more complete combustion of the 
gases. As there has been some difficulty already 
experienced, probably there would be still more in- 
convenience in washing boilers which were so 
thoroughly lined with fire brick. 

President Hickey— I am now making some ex- 
periments with arch brick and its retention of heat; 
also the washing out with hot water, and the effect 
it has on the tire-box sheets. 

Mr. Hughes — I know there is a great accumula- 
tion of heat in tire brick. We ran one division of our 
road (in India) for some distance almost entirely with 
petroleum, using the arrangement designed by Mr. 
Thomas Urquhart, and owing to the accumulation of 
heat in the large amount of fire brick used we were 
so delayed in washing out the engines that a large 
number of them were needed on that division. 

Mr. Morris — We have' experienced consider- 
able ditticulty in washing out engines, on account 
of the arch brick retaining so much heat. We 
adopted a plan of putting the cold water 
in with the hot water, before emptying the 
boiler and washing out— of course, after letting the 
boiler stand for perhaps eight hours. I have not as 
yet experienced any troub.e in washing out my boil- 
ers in that way. 

Mr. Peck— The way I do, Mr. President, is to blow 
the steam off as soon as the engine gets in, and just 
start the cold water going in and the hot water go- 
ing out. In that way it would temper the water until 
it cooled it. I am strongly in favor of the water leg 
in place of the brick arch. I have seen water legs 
put in engines which were poor steamers, and they 
were changed into good steamers. 

Mr. Morris — I had some experience with the water 
leg in Connecticut. increased the heating 
surface of the fire box, we had a great deal of trouble 
keeping the water legs tight, from some cause or 
other, and abandoned them for that reason and put 
in the brick arch. 

Mr. Harrison— We have used the brick arch and 
water leg for a number of years on our road. In our 
new mogul engines that we are using on the Chicago 
division, we have the brick arch. It is a difficult thiug 
to prevent incrustation, and it may be a question 
whether in that regard the water leg is better than 
the brick arch. We are using the brick arch in our 
passenger engines as well as some of our freights. I 
have had some experience with the side sheets 
cracking, but I have had more side sheets crack 
without the brick than with them. We do not, if 
we are in a hurry for an engine, wait for the arch to 
cool ott', but wash the boiler at once. I prefer the 
water leg if it can be worked successfully, and the 
incrustations be prevented accumulating in there. 

Mr. Johann— In my operations I have had water 
leg fire-boxes and brick arch fire-boxes. The main 
objection that I had to the water leg, and the reason 
why I stopped the use of them was more particular- 
ly from the trouble arising from the cutting action 
of the cinders as they swept past the edge of the 
water leg. Cinders from the fire would in eight or 
nine months cut the sheet so much that it was pretty 
hard to keep it tight. That is about thj only tronble 
1 have had with water legs, but that was so great 
that I finally abandoned them. I consider that there 
is some advantage in the use of brick arches. Re- 
garding washing out, I think the most proper way to 
do it is to feed cold water into the hot water in the 
boiler, and when it is cool enough, take out the 
hand hole plates and wash out. In that way we gen- 
erally get an engine around inside of about two 
hours and a half. I have never had any bad results 
from that method of washing out. 

Mr. Barnes — What was the material you used in 
the water legs, Mr Johann? And are you sure it 
was not incrustation from the inside that cut them 
out rather than cinders from the outside? 

Mr. Johann— The material that we bad in the wa- 
ter legs was copper. I thought we had no special 
beneficial results from it, and therefore I did not 
attempt to renew it with steel. 

Mr. Rhodes raised the point that members of the 
club would speak more freely and take greater part 
in the discussions, if the remarks were not to be pub- 
lished verbatim in the technical papers. After 
some discussion, participated in by Messrs. Hickey, 
Crosman, Peck, Rhodes, Sehroyer and Forsyth. 
Mr. Forsyth moved that the pres.dent appoint a 
committee of five to consider the matter of the pub- 
lication of the proceedings of the club; and that 
such consideration should be in the direction of in- 
creasing the income of the club if possible. Such 

The president appointed as members of said com- 
mittee, Messrs. Forsyth, Crosman, Barnes, Peck 
and Sehroyer. 

The meeting then adjourned until the third Tues- 
day in February. 


DiscuBaion on ComboBtion. 

At the January meeting of the Central Raihvav 
Club Mr. Jas. Macbeth, master mechauicof the Wes"t 
Shore, and one of the committee on combustion in 
locomotives, submitted a brief report in which he 
gave some results of tests made by him. We quote 
from his report as follows: 

In passenger service with a locomotive and seven cars, 
making an average speed of 4a-88 miles per hour, the coal 
consumption was 47-43 lbs. per train mile; clinker and 
ashSo'Jlbs. per train mile; aud the evaporation of water 
was U-SS lbs. per pound of coal. The engine had 18x44 in. 
cylinders, 18 sq. ft. of grate area, 340 i in. tubes 11 ft. long, 
an extension trout, and carried a boiler pi essure of 140 

In freight service with a 40 car train making an average 
speed of 30 miles per hour, the coal consumption was 
lObbb los. per train mile; clinker and ash 7 9« lbs. per 
train mile; and the evaporation 7 to I. The engine was 10- 
wheeled with 18x34 in. cylinders, 34U 3 in. tubes 13-a in. 
long, IS sq. ft. grate area, extension front and 140 lbs. 

The expense of fuel to railroad companies being one of 
the heaviest they have to contend with, there should be 
perfect combustion, in view of the rapid progress and im- 
proved designs that have been made in the construction of 
boilers in the past few years. In my opinion the dellciency 
when modern engines do not give entire satisfaction is not 
altogether in the plan or construction, but in the manner 
they are handled by enginemen in charge. A good share 
of enginemen seem to have the idea that necessity de- 
mands main force and only this, and from this sUndpoint 
they feed coal without any idea as to what part of fire re- 
quires the supply. My conclusions on this are reached 
from the fact that in watching the smoke stack of an 
engine which has a perfect draft and burns a level Are the 
emission of black smoke should last but eight or ten sec- 
onds after the renewing of a fire; on the other hand, it 
will be noticed an engine having all the perfect points of 
combustion when not properly fired or looked after, a 
gray smoke will be noticed trailing, showing engine io be- 
ing fired too heavily or unevenly. The trailing of black 
smoke is not ouly disagreeable in passenger service, but 
an engine when crowded and fired in the manner stated, 
will not steam freely nor give good results. I trust the 
subject shall be continued with a view of obtaining the 
very best and most economical methods of burning coal in 
our locomotives. 

Mr. E. A. Miller, master mechanic of the N. Y. C. 
& St. L. R'y, supplemented the report by submit- 
ting a comparison between engines using straight 
stacks, high nozzles, and in some cases brick arch 
in the fire-box, and other engines having diamond 
stacks, petticoat pipe and low nozzles. He said: 

I have at this date ouly two engines with arches in the 
firebox, and those engines average 325 miles daily on six 
tons of coal with a train of four coaches heavy loaded. 
Eight wheel (35 ton) engines, with diamond stacks, pulled 
30 cars of 15 tons capacity between Loraine and Uhrichs- 
ville, with about 6^:j or 7 ton of coal; the same engines 
with straight stack haul 35 to 38 cars, according to weather, 
of 35 ton capacity, with about an average of 6,'i tons of 
coal, per 100 miles, an increase of about 335 tons'per train. 
Mogul engines (-'0 ton weight), with diamond stack, 
hauled 45 cars of 15 ton capacity, on 7I4 tons of coal, per 
100 miles; on the same track with the straight stack and 
corresponding smoke box arrangement, the engines hauled 
40 cars of 35 ton capacity with BV tons of coal per 100 
miles, a saving of one ton in coal and handling of 335 tons 
more freight per train. This, of course, is an average. 
The engines have no extension fronts. 

Mr. Dolbeer (Buffalo, Roch. & Pitts.) in the dis- 
cussion which followed stated that on his road a 
limit of lU pounds of coal per car mile tor passenger 
runs and 4.30 pounds for freight trains is established 
aud a premium is paid for the saving effected by en- 
ginemen under this limit. One of the men had run 
with an average of 2i pounds per car mile and re- 
ceived the highest premium, this being the star re- 
cord. The amount of coal remaining in the tank at 
the end of a run is determined by measuring the 

Mr. Mackenzie said that on the Nickel i'late, 
while he was not in favor of extension fronts, they 
knew very well they were pulling the same num- 
ber of cars that the engines did in 1887, and with 
increased tonnage. The comparisons of pounds of 
coal consumed per car mile did not have much to do 
ith the number of cars, but its application to the 
innage was the most important feature to be con- 

Considerable discussion was had on interchange 
jles. The president announced as subjects for the 
ext meeting the "Interchange Rules" and the 
Wear of Steel Tires on Cars and Engines." He 
appointed as a committee to prepare a report on the 
latter subject, Messrs. F. B. GriHith, D. i.. & W.; 

A. C. Robson, L. S. & M. S., and W. A. Foster, F. 

B. C. Co.'s Railroad. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year re- 
sulted as follows: President, Eugene Chamberlain- 


Februabt, 1890. 

vice presideut, A. C. Robson; secretary and treas- 
urer, F. B. Griffith; executive committee, T. A. 
Bissell, J. D. Mcllwain, P. H. Griffin, C. A. Gould, 
Peter Smith, Jas. Macbeth, C. E. Rood. W. E. Cor- 
coran of the Express and Harry D. Vought of the 
Courier were elected assistant 

Discassion on Foreign Travel. 

The New England Club met in their rooms at the 
United States Hotel, Boston, on January 8, Presi- 
dent Richards occupying the chair. The subject 
was " Notes on European Travel." The secretary 
read a paper contributed by Mr. Albert J. Pitltiu, 
superintendentof the Schenectady Locomotive Wrs., 
from which we extract the following: 

The locomotives used abroad have beeu so fully illustra- 
ted that Americans generally have a very good idea of 
iheir design. The principal deparlure trom the usual 
standards is the compounding, which seems to meet with 
considerable favor. Some ol the proportions of these en- 
gines, however, would hardly meet with approval here; 
lor instance, one of the new designs is a 20 and 28 x 24 
compound, having a single pair ol driving wheels T.'o ft. in 
diameter, the weight on drivers being but 40,0UU lbs. We 
would naturally ihink this engine over cyUndered, and 
would expect it to lose about as much in slipping as would 
be gained by the compounding. The engine with twelve ot 
the light English cars did slip badly in starting and the 
speed decreased to a marked degree on ascending grades. 
Still, sufficient economy is shown in the compou nding of 
the various types that this particular road is building 
nothing but compounds for road traffic. Another road is 
building compound passenger engines only. Wth our 
modern designs of locomotive, having large boiler, and 
consequently more weight on drivers, lor a given cylinder 
power, there seems no reason why the principle of com- 
pounding should not be successfully introduced. The crit- 
icism we so frequently hear that the compounds are slow 
in starting trains, seemed to have more foundation on the 
fact that they slipped badly from lack of sufficientadhesion, 
and consequently cannot exert their full cylinder power. 

The workmanship on locomotives is laboriously per 
feet, much time being spent in finishing and polishing 
parts that for ordinary service were better painted. Many 
of the designs seem to have been made with little idea of 
cost of construction, and, as is well known, the working 
parts are very inconvenient to get at for any little repai 
necessary to be made on the road. 
are the exception rather than the 
generally are well designed for 

L with a marked degree of 
through the various sh^ps one is imt 
perionty of our modern design ( 
' > you find I ' 

repaix's, howc 
I the locomotives 
ice, and perform 



> that compare at 
our best builders. This is 
due largely, no doubt to our depending so entirely on tools 
in reducing the cost of production 
ing the amount of wages paid the 

Mr. John Co^jhlan, master car builder of the Bos- 
ton, Revere Beach & Lynn Railroad, also gave notes 
of his travels from which we extract the following: 
After landing at Liverpool we went to examine the first, 

■ rs. The two latter classes had 

to make the darkness visible, 
; second class cars were fairly upholstered, 
! third class cars bad merely a piece of carpet tacked on 
! seats, which were the solt side of a pine board. We 
o exauitoed the two grades of first class cars. We found 
accommodations on board for attending to the calls of 
.ure, which seems to be one of the greatest discomforts 
traveling in Great Britain. After seeing all that we de- 
Kd we went to the Lancashire Railroad. They use a con- 
uous brake almost entirely, but have no hand brake, 
e Midland uses a hand brake on the platform with a 
ew and a vertical shaft connected with a lever acting 


i would run a hundred per cent, better than 
class French cars did, judging from our experi- 
. ihL-y were also very poorly lighted. The first 
4 are somewhat belter. We went to the Saint La- 
on, and from there to the railway department of 
iition. We spent eight days at the exhibition. 

11.4m . I ,1- no smoke coming from the smoke 

&ra iiL' to the employment of the force 

Ui,i . mspected. We found the boiler 

\v,i- . li-.-ssure. The air was heated to 150 

dt-L I ,1- lip through the smoke ilue where the 

two upT.ik._s <uinlniiLd together and then forcing one cur- 
rent of air over the lire and two through the ash pit below. 
Not a particle of smoke could be seen and I wondered whi 
we could not use some such sistcm as that on the railroads 
in our own country. 

Mr. J. A. Coleman, Providence, R. 1., was the 
next speaker. We give an abstract of his remarks 
as follows: 

Arriving on the other side, one of the things 
which first struck me and which I will always 
remember is the excellence of the road beds and 
the avoidance of curves, but the first time I ever 
experienced anything like real comfort and luxury in for- 
eign travel was in ls74 between Vienna and St. Peters- 
burg on a trip from Egipt to Kussia. However, they 
have nothing in Europe to match the comfort of railroad 
travel in this country. 1 lived in Prance some seven years 
and found them very slow in iutroducing even sued ac- 
commodations as sleeping cars, and I have paid seven dol- 
lars for a berth for an eighteen hours' ride from Paris to 
Marseilles. My idea of real suffering is_ to travel night 
and day ■ ■■ • 

to the English first class. The seats of our cars are not as 
comfortable as many of those on the European railways. 

I think the difference between our American system and 
the European is that over there everything is done for the 
roadbed, but the running gear of the cars does not receive 
the same attention, and they are so constructed that they 
must have a straight road or they would not run. Take 
one of their trains and put it on our road and you could 
not go at anything like reasonable speed and keep the train 
on the track. 

Mr. Firth, who has spent several years in Russia 
and Germany, made some remarks in response to the 
call of the president. He said: 

The railways of Russia are fortunate because in the 
early days they had American engineers to build their 
principal railway, who installed a system which is prac- 
tically American, and they still adhere more or less to your 
admirable construction of railway carriages, by which the 
passenger can go from one end of the train to the other. 
They also have their sleeping ear arrangements, but they 
do have four classes of cars. They have made such intro- 
duction of all classes of locomotives and rolling stock from 
France, Germany and England that when I left there about 
five or six years ago they had a very mixed class of rail- 
I way rolling stock. In Russia we have your American 
Baldwin locomotive and the Grant locomotives. We have 
stuck to the direct action between the eccentric and the 
valve,to great advantage in the mechanical working of the 
locomotive itself. Russia began to build for itself exten- 
sively about 10 or 12 years ago, and I think their deaigns of 
locomotives have a larger heating surface than you gentle- 
men use. This has a direct bearing on economy in the use 
of fuel. Russia to-day has good schools and is educating 
its young men in all that belongs to technology, and among 
other subjects they have got hold of the construction of 
railways and the construction of railway rolling stock. 
In short, in my opinion, nowhere but in European Russia, 
and in America, can be found the nearest approach to ab- 
solute comfort in railway travel. 

Mr. McFethries spoke of the Russsian railways as 

While I was in Russia the government ordered 
the passenger (jars to be changed to have a 
free passage through the center of the trains. I happened 
to be on the Moscow & Nishni Novgorod road at the time, 
and we had to change a great many cars ovtr which were 
built in Germany and England, and I think they approach 
the nearest to American passenger cars of anything in Eu- 
rope. They have sleeping cars for the second and third 
class, and I have built some myself for the second class in 
which the back lifted up and formed the npper berth and 
the two seats drew out and made a lower berth. 


"Baker" Heater Explosions. 

Chicago, Jan. 32, 1890. 
To the E.iitor of the Railway Master Mechanic: 

I notice that several recent explosions and fires in cars 
have been charged up to the "Baker" heater. One item in 
particular which I find in one of the railway papers, I will 

WoKK OF THE Car Stove.— The bu: 
wrecked at Sidney o 


le Baker heater 

ised by a broken switch 

I sleeping cars left the tracks and piled 

Union Pacific, 

s. The derail- 


cross fashion. There were 
cars in the train, one containing storage mail and the c 
working mail, and the Baker heaters in both cars ' 
' ' ' fire scattered in every dii 

broken and t 

The wreck 
or three minutes after the derailment. Most 
all of the mail in the storage mail car was saved, but much 
of the mail in the local or working mail car, as well as ex* 
press and baggage, was destroyed. The burning of five 
out of the seven cars composing the train will involve a 
loss of $tiO,OOU. 

I wish to have it understood that the heater causing the 
destruction above noted is the old style Baker heater and 
not the "perfected" nor the "fireproof" Baker heater. 
With either of the latter the throwing out of coals is an im- 

Car heaters should be as absolutely free from fire throw- 
ing and from explosion as it is possible to construct them. 
The safe in the express company's car is made proof against 
fire, and burglars— both to be kept out. Fire, by the same 
provisions, can as surely be kept in a car heater. 

Flexible steel, '4 inch thick, thoroughly riveted, or weld 
ed into one solid, seamless piece, is the material to form a 
safe for the fire, as well as safe for valuables. The neces. 
sary openings for feeding the fuel, admitting air for its 
combustion, and cleaning its ashes, can be readily provided 
without lessening the tire-retaining qualities. Such a car 
heater is made and put on the market by my company, the 
Baker "fire proof heater. It has been in use in 300 cars 
during the last three winters. The first of these steel heat, 
ers were constructed specially for hard coal. We are now 
making them to burn, (without clogging) soft coal, wood, 
or any kind of fuel. 

To prevent the possibilities of the heater itself, or of any 
per-son, being injured by an explosion, we provide one 
weak spot in the heater— a detached portion, or safety vent, 
which is a hollow spheroidal bulb. It is jointless, cast in a 
single piece, and with a top so thin and weak that it is sure 
to blow off at a fixed pressure, and that far below the point 
that would even strain the joints, much less burst the 
heater di*um— the weakest portion of the Baker heater. A 

new vent is readily screwed in, by hand, to replace the 
broken vent. 

No car heater has heretofore been made to successfully 
control its own fire. It is completely accomplished in the 
"fire proof" heater as follows: The regulator diaphragm, 
the portion that is moved by the expansion of the hot water 
in the pipes, and which gives the required motion to the 
draught door, is of corrugated steel, the same as used for 
steam pressure gauges, only, in this, case a duplicate cop. 
per diaphragm is placed on each side of the steel one, for 
protection against rust. 

In order to allow the fire to create any given pressure 
within the heater, and, consequantly. any desired degree of 
heat, it is required of the attendant to simply hook a spiral 
resisting spring into any one of several holes in the lever 
operating the draught door, over each of which holes are 
the figures 10, 20, 30. 40, 50, which denote the pressure of 
hot water to be canned in the heater. 

The generator coil in this heater is made of double the 
quantity of pipe the old style Baker heater contains, and is 
thus given the increased power that is required for the cars 
now built (which are much larger than those for which my 
original heater was intended,) besides giving a surplus of 
heat to be used for the much needed ventilation of the cars. 

Without saying anything further, I leave the intelligent 
readers of the Master Mechanic to draw each his own 
conclusion as to the desirableness of a car heater thus con- 
structed. My main point is to make it understood, that my 
present "perfected" and "fire-proof" heaters must not be 
confounded with the old style Baker heater. 
W. C. Bakek, 

President The Baker Heater Co. 

Are Present Valves Economical^ 

Adrian, Mi. 
To the Kditor of The Railway Master Mechanic: 

I have been much interested ii 
to compound locomotives, and valve gear, valves, etc., in 
your paper lately. 

It seems to be conceded that the D valves and Unk mo- 
tion are not economical when working at points of cut-off 
less than about one fourth of piston stroke. Is not this fact 
owing largely to the very small opening and very gradual 
closing of the steam port, combined with the early release 
and great compression, all three occuring at very short 

Is not a large clearance as much a factor of loss in a 
locomotive as in a stationary engine J 

In short, if a valve could be constructed that could be 
used with the link commonly in use, that would insure an 
opening for steam admission of nearly the whole port area, 
when working at, say one-tenth piston stroke, and that 
would close quickly, and thus secure a high initial press- 
ure, and at the same time release the steam only in time to 
empty the cylinder in time to prevent back pressure; and 
that would keep the exhaust wide open most of the stroke, 
only closing in time to get suflflcient cushion— would not 
such a valve with clearance as small as can be made, and 
release and compression controlled at pleasure give us 
what is really needed^ 

If we had a valve that would shorten the point of cut off 
automatically if the wheels slip or speed increases running 
down hill, and that would delay the point of cut off when 
speed is reduced for any cause, as on a grade or with 
heavier load, v/e would have a valve that would be much 
easier to handle an engine with when switching, and 
which would move an engine very slowly with an open 
throttle. Would not an ordinary American locomotive 
using very high pressure steam and such a valve, be as 
economical as the compound locomotive^ I got up a valve 
as described above and put it on a stationary engine mak- 
ing 300 revolutions per minute, which made an excellent 
card. I corresponded with some mas er mechanics about 
it, but most of them thought the D valve all right. Onc^ 
however, invited me to visit him, and he was so wel, 
pleased with my valve that an agreement was made to put 
it in use; but his death closed the matter then. Late dis- 
cussions have aroused interest in the matter, and I am open 
to correspondence with any master mechanic who desires 
to know more about my experiments. 


[The objections to the steam distribution effected 
by the common link and the D valve, as outlined by 
our correspondent, are substantially correct, but 
though these imperfections are present it must not be 
inferred that their removal would banish all barriers 
which now stand in the way of obtaining the great- 
est economy in the use of steam. Large clearance, 
great compression, small port opening, etc., are all 
objectionable, but even if they are remedied without 
introducing complicated mechanism, the condensa- 
tion of steam in the cylinders would limit the num- 

FEBBnABY, 1890. 


ber of expansions which could be economically em- 
ployed to about four. It is the evils of cylinder con- 
densation which the compound locomotive is, among 
other things, expected to partially overcome. We 
fear, from the last paragraph of our correspondent's 
communication, that he is attempting altogether too 
much with his valve. There is very little call for a 
valve which will automatically control the steam dis- 
tribution on a locomotive. An engineequipped with 
such valves and using a very high boiler pressure 
would not show the same economy, for the reason 
that the higher the boiler pressure and the earlier 
the cut-off in a single expansion locomotive the 
greater the percentage of loss from cylinder conden- 
sation, while in the compound the advantages of high 
pressure and a large number of expansions can be 
obtained with far less loss from cylinder condensa- 
tloji.— Ed. Railway Master Mechanic] 

, Jas. s, IS90., C 
Tu the E<lltur of thi- Riiilway Master Mechanic: 

I have just read a letter in your December issue written 
by Mr. Guy Knox in relation to railway shops and their 
management. I would s>iy in reference to railway com- 
panies doing nothing but running repairs on their locomo- 
tives and sending their hettvi- work to contract shops, and 
buying everything of private concerns, that such a policy 
is simply erroneous. I claim,— basing my claim upon a 
long experience — that fl.'i per cent, of the railways would be 
in the bands of receivers in less than twelve months, if 
such a policy were followed. 

f railway shops 



say yea— tl 

in those shops with s 

c at the head — a busit 

: here in California or in the southern coun- 

been employed by railway companies that 

. their locomotiv 

be overhauled to the I 

bidders, but after a short experiment in this direction they 
soon changed their policy, for the stockholders found there 
was no dividend declared because contract shops and rail- 
way supply houses had eaten it up. 

When you send a locomotive for overhauling to a con- 
tract shop. It is the proprietor's cry, to rush her in, and 
chase her out, and the pass-words are, "let that go," "that 
will do,'" etc. When this engine comes out with a streak 
of black paint it is an "overhauled engine'' "don'tcherknow.'' 
It may suit disciples of Mr. Knox to show such an engine to 
the general manager and say, "Ah I see that engine; I had 
it repaired at Sweat, Hard &Co's. at a cost of one half less 
than we ourselves could do it for.*' Of course the general 
manager smiles and passes the Havana : but should he keep 
a record of that engine for one year, and compare it with one 
that is overhauled at home at a cost, say tive-eighths greatTer, 
he will come to the conclusion that his master mechanic is 
playing a losing game. I claim from a long experience in 
locomotive shops, that railway companies can do overhaul- 
ing 2.5 per cent, cheaper than any kind of a contract con- 
cern can do it for them; and, that where a plant is large 
enough, there is no reason why the railway companies 
should not be able to build as good (and as cheap in the 
long run) a locomotive as most eastern factories are build- 

Most of the locomotives that are sent from the factories 
to-day are thrown together and after six or eight months 
of service are ready to be shipped ; and if you notice their 
record after a thorough overhauling in a lirst class railway 
shop, you will find that they are good for two or three 
years of hard service. Again, wlien they are brorglit in, 
their machinery is in all probability in better condition 
than during their first six months of service from the fac- 

If contract shops and private concerns can make money 
in supplying axle springs, rails and a thousand other things 
to railway companies there is no reason why, if a railway 
company has the same tools and labor with which to pro- 
duce the same articles, they are not losing money by buy- 
ing them from outside parties. 

I shall come to a conclusion by saying that Mr. Knox pro- 
bably bases his whole theory on an incident which he re- 
lates, in which he saw a man in a railway shop take five 
days to turn off a pair of drivers at a cost of Hi 50. Wei 

the master mechanic who had charge of the shop was no 
fitted for his calling. Let Mr. Knox come to Californii 
and we will show him how to turn out drivers at a cos 
of ?3'.50. Yours truly. 

W. D. Hoi.i.ANi.. 


Hollow chisel mortising machines are not new, 
but they are not yet in such general use, but that a 
lively interest centers about their curious operation 
of " boring a square hole," as their work is aptly, 
though incorrectly, termed. The novelty of these 
machines consists in the peculiar formation of the 
chisel, which, as shown in our engraving, is square, 
and is Tilted with an auger made to revolve inside of 
it. The end of the auger projects slightly beyond 
the edges of the chisel, and when presented to the 
timber it bores a round hole— the chisel following it 
and simultaneously squaring out the four corners 
and sides. It will be readily understood that mor- 
tises of any length and width may be cut by forming 
a succession of square holes running into each 

Our illustration shows an extra heavy machine of 
this class. It is of a new design and will be found 
useful for mortising in hard woods used in car build- 
ing. We believe that hollow chisel mortising ma- 
chines have hitherto been made by one or two firms 
only, but the Berry & Orton Company, whose ma- 
chine we illustrate, are now seeking for a share of 
the business of supplying the demand for them — a 
demand that is destined to be much larger than at 
present, as the merits of these peculiar machines be- 
come better known. In placing this machine on the 
market the Berry & Orton Company have made it a 
study, both in the design and arrangement of parts, 
to make it the most complete hollow chisel mor- 
tiser ever offered. They claim the following point 


Febsuabt, 1890. 



of superiority over machines of other manufacture: 
"A much stronger, more substantial machine, and 
one less liable to get out of order; longer belts, 
which are more accessible, being all outside the 
framing of the machine; the driving power for forc- 
ing the chisel into the wood is placed as nearly the 
center of the chisel as possible, which is from 6 in. 
to 10 in. nearer than on other machines; the support- 
ing of the timber to be acted upon is directly back 
of the table and is in a direct line of the chisel; the 
framing of the machine is such that the thrust while 
making the mortise is taken both above and below 
the chisel, hence the soring of the machine is re- 
duced to the minimum, and the chisel, after being 
forced into the wood, is drawn with much moie ease 
and less liability to break than when the strain is 
taken entirely below the chisel; a double set of stops 
is supplied for regulating the position of mortises 
vertically; it is a much cheaper and more durable 

The weight of the machine illustrated is 5,600 
lbs. Its countershaft has tight and loose pulleys— 
which are 12 in. diameter, and 6 in. face— and should 
made SOO revolutions per minute. The Berry & 
Ortoii Co., Philadelphia, Pa., are the makers. 


That the use of some kind of chute tor coaling lo- 
comotives is in the long run much more economical 
than the old methods of shoveling direct, and using 
crane and derrick, is probably admitted by all rail- 
way companies at the present time, although some 
of them adhere to the past and hesitate before the 
immediate outlay necessary for improvements. How- 
ever, year by year more and more chutes are being 
erected, and the crane and derrick are being grad- 
ually relegated to some better use. 

Nowadays as the fast trains scour the country, 
wlien the locomotive finds it necessary to refill the 
coal tank, it pulls up in its swift course by the side 
of one of these coal chute build ings. Scarcely have the 
wheels ceased to revolve, when the chute throws out 

from one of its numerous mouths or pockets a tor- 
rent or shower of coai. One second before the locomo- 
tive's tank was nearly empty,now it is heaped up with 
the black fuel, and the locomotive takes flight again 
with scarcely a break in its rapid progress. This is 
a very different process from that involved in taking 
coal from a derrick and crane, where the train has 
to wait many minutes while the tank is being tilled. 
This economy of time is a very important point in 
these latter days, when every road is straining to 
make better time,and when twenty min utes or half an 
hour saved every day on each train going over the 
line is by no means a small item in point of expense. 

However, in other respects the chute saves money, 
and no small amount. At least half the labor will 
handle the same amount of coal with the chute that 
is required to handle it by the crane and derrick , or 
by shoveling, and by many roads the decrease in ex- 
pense is claimed to be more. When these facts are 
taken squarely into consideration it will be seen that 
no railroad can really afford to put off the erection 
of suitable chutes. 

Of all the chutes now in operation, the Burnett & 
Clifton is bidding fair to grow into almost general 
use, if it has not already that position. It has at- 
tained its popularity by reason of its rapidity and 
ease of operation, its convenience and by its cheap- 
ness of construction compared with many, although 
not all other systems. Such roads as the C, R. I. & 
P., the A., T. & S. F. and the Union Pacific are 
using nothing else. The Union Pacific have put up 
over.400 pockets upon this plan during the past two 
years. The Rock Island, after several year's trial, 
equipped all of its new lines in Kansas and the west 
with it. Many other roads, among them the C. & 
N. W., the Illinois Central, the Rio Grande, the O. 
& M., after trying nearly all other devices, such as 
the dumping car, the crane and derrick, the Kerr, 
etc., have come to this as the best, the safest, the 
quickest and the most convenient. 

The noticeable points in this chute arc as follows: 
The apron, or spout, which carries the coal to the 

tender when swung down is more easily handled 
than in other chutes, because of its being balanced 
on its hinge by arms extending to the rear and coun- 
terweigh ted, and because of the fact that the motion 
of the apron automatically releases, opens, holds 
open and shuts the inside door or gate. This inside 
door or gate sustains the pressure of the coal 
in the pocket until the apron has been swung down 
by the fireman on the tender. When the apron gets 
down with its lip projecting into and over the tank 
of the locomotive, it automatically operates the in- 
side door, as stated above, by its arms in the rear. 
These automatic movements of the inside door, at 
precisely the right time without being touched by 
hand, are a great con%'enience and effect a large sav- 
ing of time, and, together with the ease of handling 
the apron, make it possible to coal a locomotive of- 
ten in less than 20 seconds, the total time that the 
engine stands still. The users of the chute say it 
works perfectly and does not get out of order. Those 
interested in the chute, it may be proper to add, 
have taken pains to have the buildings constructed 
in a proper manner, and the iron work made with 
sufficient strength and in nice shape. 

Working drawings of this style of chute were 
given in our issue of .June, 1889. The illustration 
shown herewith is taken from a photograph of a 
40-pocket double chute lately completed for the C, 
R. I. & P. Railway Company at Eldon, Iowa, by 
Williams, White & Co., of Moline, 111., the builders, 

ho also control the patents. 

The midwinter (February) Century is notable among 
other things for the final instalment of the Lincoln biog- 
raphy. The chapters include the 'Capture of Jefferson 
Davis," "The End of Rebellion," and "Lincoln's Fame." 
Two poems on Lincoln follow the close of the life (one by 
Stuart Sterne and the other by Jas. T. McKay), and sup- 
plementary papers on the "Pursuit and Capture of Jeffer- 
son Davis," by General Wilson, who commanded the Union 
cavalry, and by Wm. P. Stedman, of Company B, who was 
an eye-witness. In the "Open Letter" department is an 
anecdote of Jefferson Davis, showing his indignation at 
the proposition to use concealed explosives in the coaling 
stations of the United States navy. There are comments 
aUo in the "Open Letters" on the Lincoln History, one of 
which defines McClellan's political position. • • ' 

Februabt, 1890. 


note there is given a very interesting unpublished corres- 
pondence between Edward Everett and President Lincoln 
on the addresses delivered by the two orators at Gettys- 
burg, The Lincoln life has run through forty numbers of 
■jhe Century Maganzie. 


The Egan Company, of Cincinaati, have lately 
brought out a now line of band scroll saws, rariging 
from the smallest to the very heaviest, the latter 
suitable for the heaviest and hardest work. These 
saws are all made from new patterns and are beauti- 
ful in design and possess many valuable conveniences 
and improvements. The machine we illustrate is 
their heavy band scroll saw. 

The wheels are 38 in. in diamel^er, made solid and 
turned perfectly true and covered with rubber bands 
made especially to order and in such a manner as to 
insure their remaining on the wheel until worn out, 
if properly handled. The wheel is perfectly balanced, 
making a very reliable and true-running wheel, 
which is a great point on a band saw, preventing the 

stantly made to suit the saw by adjusting the weight. 
The patent roller guides are made on an improved 
plan, one set to support the saw below the table and 
one set above the table. They are attached to the 
adjustable guide bar and raised and lowered by a 
counterweight provided for the purpose. 

The patent tilting device for throwing the upper 
wheel and bo-\ to an angle, so as to lead the saw 
blade to any path on the wheel, is very simple and 

The machine has a patent belt .shifter and brake 
combined, fitted to the machine so that the belt can 
be run at any point of the pulley, while the brake 
acts gently, stopping the saw in the quickest nossible 
time. Further particulars will be furnished by the 
manufacturers, the Egan Co., 216 to 236 West Front 
street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


The equipment, now in progress, of trains on the 
Norfolk & Western and the Shenandoah Valley 



breaking of saws, and allowing the very finest saw I roads with the system of car heating embraced in 

blades to be used to advantage. the v)atents owned by the Morton Safety Heating 

The table is of iron, planed perfectly true and pro- Company, of 112 East Fayette street. Baltimore, Md.. 

vided with a new locking device for holding the ta- ' brings another Kichmond into the field of car heat- 

ble at the desired angle and the blade running true 
to the center of the cut. 

The column is very heavy and cast hollow, com- 
bining strength with neatness of design. The top of 
the column is planed true to receive the patented 
sliding bearing for the upper wheel shaft. This 
bearing is raised and lowered by a hand wheel and 
screw. The lever which gives the tension to the saw 
supports the screw. A change of tension can be in- 

ing by steam. The Morton system is quite unlike 
any of the others in its chief features. It puts a 
"register" into each end of the car, hut these 
registers, instead of being a series of iron pipes, are 
each a single block of terra cotta. and the steam 
pipes along the sides of the car are of the same mate- 
rial. The terra cotta blocks are in cast iron cases 
of an ornamental design and similar in size and gen- 
eral appearance to an ordinary house register. The 

steam heating pipes within the car are about 34 in. 
in diameter and are protected by a sheet iron wrap- 
ping which secures them against accidental break- 

The terra cotta registers are provided with a num- 
ber of passages all leading from the point where 
steam enters the registers to the point where it 
Or they may be described as "honey- 
so that the steam on entering from the 
train pipe is difl'used through the many passages in. 
side the block, and thus rapidly heats the latter and 
enables it to radiate heat into the car. The steam 
passage of the pipes inside the car is comparatively 
small, leaving a considerable thickness of terra cotta 
to receive and retain heat from the steam which 
passes through it. Suitable devices are employed to 
prevent the accumulation of condensed water in the 
pipes and registers. 

Every one knows the comfort of a heated brick 
under one's feet during a ride over country roads on 
a sharp, winrtv winter's day, and how long the brick 
keeps warm in spite of frost and wind. It is well 
known, too, that porcelain, soapstone, terra cotta or 
brick are used for stoves all over Europe, because of 
the slow and equable radiation of heat by those sub- 
stances, and the comfort and economy resulting from 
tbeir use. The Morton system is an ingenious modi, 
fication of the hot brick which made winter stage 
coaching tolerable to our grandfathers, to meet the 
conditions of modern railway travel and the demand 
tor absolute comfort on the part of the travelers of 

Two important claims of superiority are made for 
this sjst«m. One is, that by admitting steam for a 
few minutes before a train starts, and also at stations 
where the longer stops are made, it is unnecessary in 
any ordinary winter weather to call on the boiler for 
steam to heat the train while the engine is working. 
The heat quickly stored in the registers and radiat 
ing pipes while the train is at rest is slowly and 
evenly given out during the run. Most of the steam 
used to "heat up" would otherwise blow off and be 

The second claim is, that this system, with reason- 
ably careful supervision, will prevent the serious dis- 
comfort of over-heating in moderate weather. A 
metal pipe quickly becomes as hot as the steam 
which passes through it— a heat which cannot be 
less than 212 degrees. This, especially in cool but 
not cold weather, is too much heat, and makes pas- 
sengers uncomfortable. But it should not be difll- 
cult to arrest the heating of the terra cotta registers 
and pipes before they become .so much heated. 

As regards safety to life and property in case of 
accident, etc., this system has the merits of the other 
methods of heating trains by steam now in use. Its 
operation on the roads named will be watched with 
much interest bv railroad men. 


Mr. Wn 

Stroudley, the well known locomotive suiierin 
tcndent of t he London, Brighton & South Coast Railway Co., 
England, died in Paris, France, December 20 last. He 
was born at Oxford in !«), and although without any 
early educational advantages soon pushed his way into the 
front ranks of his profession. After holding several im 
portant positions, he entered the service of the above 
named company in ISTO, as the head of the mechanical de- 
partment, and in the IS years elapsini? between then and 
his untimely death, practically revolutionized the motive 
power and rolling stock of that road generally, making 
them second to none in fJreat Britain. He was well known 
by reputation in this country, and those American engi- 
neers who have visited him at the Brighton shops and had 
the opportunity of seeing his work will join with us in say- 
ing that when William Stroudley died a great engineer 
passed away. 

Horatio Allen, the well known civil engineer, under 
whose direction the first locomotive brought to America 
was built and run, died at his home in Montrose, N. J., on 
January 7. 
I Mr. T. S. Lloyd has been appointed master mechanic of 
I the Cincinnati division of the Cheaspeake & Ohio. 
I Mr. Geo. F. Wilson has been appointed general master 
mechanic of theC. K. I,& P., vice Mr. T. B. Twombly re- 
signed. Mr. Harry Monkhouse becomes assistant general 


Febbuaky, 1890. 

Mr. John R. Tilley, who for several years past has repre- 
sented British builders of machinery and steam engines at 
Demarara, British Guiana, has severed his British and 
Scotch engine connections and has become the resident 
agent of the Westinghouse Machine Company, of Pitts- 
burgh, for Demerara and the British West Indies. Mr. 
Tilley is a very able engineer. 

Mr. J. S. Patterson has been made master mechanic of 
the Columbus, Hocking Valley and Toledo, in charge of 
motive power and cars. Master Mechanic Hutchins and 
Master Car Builder Rockafleld have resigned. 

Mr. E. Bronner has been appointed master car-builder of 
the Michigan 

It is reported that Mr. H. Tandy, superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the New York, Ontario & Western, has re- 

An apparatus for measuring and registering the 
vertical oscillations of locomotives will not be with" 
out interest to our readers. Such an apparatus was 
exhibited at the Paris exposition by the Western 
Railway Company of France, and we give illustra- 
tions of two forms of it, together with diagrams show- 
ing the form of record produced by them. The ap- 
paratus registers the vertical oscillations of the foot 
plate of the locomotive relative to the leading axle 
boxes, or in other words, the vertical play of the 
spring, and has been in use by the railway named 
since 1879. From an account of these devices appear- 
ing in London Engineering, we abstract the follow- 
ing descriptive note: 

Fig. 1 shows an arrangement in which a connection 
to the axle box imparts an oscillatory movement to 
an arm which is connected by a rod to a carrier slid- 

ing on a horizontal bar, this carrier being provided 
with a marking point which bears upon a thin zinc 
plate coiled on the drum shown, this plate being 
coated with a protective varnish which is scratched 
off by the point. The oscillations of the arm which 
actuates the marking point also imparts, by means 
of the ratchet and gear shown, a rotary and also a 
slow longitudinal movement to the drum carrying 
the zinc plate. Another marking point, s, actuated 
by a rod leading to the footplate, serves to mark by 
hand on the zinc plate tbe time of passing each kilo- 
meter post. After their removal from the drum the 
zinc plates are submitted to the action of acid, when 
the parts from which the protective varnish has been 
scratched off are etched away and an engraved plate 
obtained from which a print can he taken. 


In the other apparatus, shown by Fig. 2, the record 
is obtained upon a disc instead of a cylinder, and this 
disc has a regular movement imparted to it by clock- 
work instead of being moved intermittently at each 
oscillation of the spring. It consists, as will he seen, 
of a lever L connected at one end to one of the lead- 
ing spring boxes, and at the other giving motion to 
a marking style ( which presses against the var- 
nished zinc disc D, this disk being mounted on a 
shaft which is driven by clockwork. A piece of india- 
rubber coiled on the shaft of the disc with a slight 
tension compensates for the slight variations of re- 
sistance to which the clockwork is subjected in con- 
sequence of the friction of the style (. Another style 
s, actuated by hand from the footplate, serves to 
mark the passing of the kilometer posts. 

The form of record produced by these two devices 
is shown in fac ^inii'" '^''" nnner record is from 

design No. 2. Tbe speed of the disc being constant, 
the distances between the kilometer marks on the 
margin afford an indication of the speeds at which 
the different parts of the run were made. In the 
lower record, produced by design No. 1 the upper 
line gives the record made by the deflections of the 
spring, while the lower shows the record of the pass- 
ing of the kilometer posts. 

These devices are interesting and suggestive, but 
we doubt if mechanical engineers on this side of the 
Vtlantic would be satisfied with such crude appara- 
tus, especially with the first described design. The 
lecord, too, would be far from satisfactory to them, 
in point of neatness and definition. Judging from 
the long period that these devices have been used, 
however— ten years as it appears— they must provide 
fairly serviceable records. We are not informed as 
to the object of ascertaining the extent of the verti- 
cal oscillations but presume that the condition of the 
springs, and possibly the perfection of the counter- 
balancing, are sought to be observed. A very rough 
idea of the condition of the track might be also ob- 
tained with the apparatus; and,as is intimated above, 
a fair sort of a speed recorder is supplied by it. 


Almost without exception railroad offices and 
counting-rooms throughout the country, with a large 
amount of correspondence to be copied, have great 
difficulty in properly dampening the copying pads 
used in the press. The above device, manufactured 
by Samuel C.Tatum & Co., of Cincinnati, O., is made 
to meet this trouble, and as may be seen from the 
cut, is very simple and easily kept in order. The 
tank, which is 12x24 in. and 5 in. deep, will hold 
several hundred pads at a time, and by rapidly run- 
ning them through the wringer, the excess of mois- 
ture is quickly withdrawn, and the pads can be put 
between the leaves of the letter or way-bill copying 
book without fear of getting a blurred copy. 

Those in railroad ofllces who are familiar only 
with the usual ill-smelling tub (which everyone 
heartily wishes he could kick out of the room) and 
sloppy floor underneath, with a loose-jointed wooden 
wringer attached, will readily appreciate this new 
rig, which is already in practical every day use by 
the railroad people. 


The annexed engraving illustrates a Buffalo steel 
pressure blower on a recently perfected pattern of 
adjustable bed with countershaft. It is designed 
and constructed with special reference to high pres- 
sure duty, such as supplying blast for cupola furn- 
a?es, forge fires and sand blast machines, also for 
forcing air long distances. 

By means of a tightening screw the blower may 
be moved upon the bed while running at full speed, 
tLiking up any slack, giving both belts a uniform ten- 
sion which is regulated at the will of the operator. 
This is a very important pMnt in preventing the in- 
convenience and loss incurred by a stoppage during 
heat when blowers are used for cupola purposes. A 
decided saving by the use of the bed is gained in the 
wear and tear of bolts, for a simple turn or two of 
the nut on the end of the adjusting screw and re- 
tightening of the holding down bolts takes but a 
moment or two and accomplishes the same end as 
relacing of the belts, which is usually put off until 
the belt will run no longer on account of too much 

Special attention should be directed to pressure 
blower belts on account of the high rate of speed at 
which they must necessarily run; and absolutely 
perfect alignment of the countershaft with the 
blower is essential in order to secure smooth run- 
ning and even tracking, and to avoid undue wear of 
belts by slipping. 

A telescopic mouth piece is employed in order 
that the blast piping may not be disarranged in mov- 

Febsdaby, 1890. 



ing the blower on the bed, while sufficient length is 
afforded to the countershaft so that tight and loose 
pulleys can be "sed for the main driving belt. A 
self - oiling device fitted to the countershaft 
enables it to be run at high speeds for 
long stretches with perfect immunity, it is claimed, 
from heating or cutting. 

A distinguishing feature of these blowers is the 
solid case, the peripheral portion of the shell being 
cast in one solid piece, dispensing entirely with the 
objectionable "putty joint.'" Being thus practically 
one piece, bearings are always, even under the hard- 
est service, in perfect alignment vertically and lat- 
erally with the rest of the machine, thus making it 
superior in items of durability, smooth running and 
economy of power. The journals are long and heavy, 
in the standard ratio of length to diameter of H to 1, 
and have cap bearings secured by bolts screwed in 
the lower half of the bearing and held in place by 
lock nuts. With this construction any wear can be 
at once taken up, and it is claimed that it is impos- 
sible for bearing to rattle loose. These machines 
are made by the Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 


lu designing the recording pressure gauge here- 
with illustrated, the object was to produce an in- 
strument which would be fundamentally simple and 
consequently reliable, and which could be placed 
upon the market at a moderate cost. 

Fig. 1 represents the instrument complete and 
ready for application. Fig. 2 shows the pressure 
tube with the inking pointer attached; the front of 
case, dial and cover of clock being removed. The 
pressure tube A^ is of flattened cross-section and 
bent into appro.ximately a sinusoidal form. A flex- 
ible strip B, of same metal as the tube, is secured at 
the ends and along the bends as shown in Fig. 2. 

The bent tube may be considered as a series of 
Bourdon springs placed end to end. 

Pressure applied to the tube produces a tendency 
to straighten each bend, or collectively, to elongate 
the whole. This tendency to lengthen the tube is 
resisted by the flexible strip B and thereby convert- 
ed into a multiplied lateral motion. The inking 
pointer is attached directly to the end of the pressure 
tube, as shown in Fig. 2, from which it will be seen 
that the usual mechanism and multiplying devices 
are dispensed with, since the motion of the tube 
itself is positive and of sufficient range. The special 
advantage of this is evident, considering, that in all 
other pressure gauges, the movement of the tube or 

American Society of Mechanical 

iaphragm is small, and requires a syst 
im to multiply the motion many tin 
available for indicating purposes. Tl 

1 of mechan- 
before it is 
;e multiply- 

ing devices must be delicately constructed and 
properly cared for, and ^ven under the most favor- 
able conditions they are liable, at any moment, to 
be a source of error. 

In the instrument illustrated, the tube is designed 
for a range of 180 lbs. per square inch; for other 
ranges its sensitiveness may be varied at will, by 
changing its proportions, as length, shape of cross- 
section, or thickness. The printed charts for receiv- 
ing the record make one revolution in 24 hours, and 
are provided with radial arcs and concentric circles, 
the divisiO'is on the radial arcs corresponding to 
differences in pressure; while those on the concentric 
circles correspond to the hours of the day and night. 

During the past year and a half, several of the in- 
struments have been in operation upon the steam 
boilers at Stevens Institute and have given perfectly 
satisfactory results. 

In regard to making the tubes alike, it will be well to 
state that there has been no difficulty in producing a 
number in which the deflections were equal for equal 
pressures, and which have been directly applied to a 
standard chart, without adjustment. It will be 
readily seen, that, in case there should be slight dif- 
ferences in the deflections, such differences may be 
allowed for, by raising or lowering the tube with 

reference to the dial. This is equivalent to shorten- 
ing or lengthening the deflections along the radial 
arcs. For an indicating instrument it is only neces- 
sary to provide a graduated arc for the end of the 
tube to move over. 

It is evident that the instrument is adapted for a 
vacuum as well as for a pressure gauge, and it 
naturally follows that, if sufficiently sensitive, it will 
serve as a barometer, and measure changes of at- 
mospheric pressure. 

The model herewith exhibited for this purpose, 
was made by electro-deposition of nickel upon a piece 

of solder of the proper form; the solder being after- 
ward melted out in oil. The walls of this tul)e are 
1-.500 in. -hick. When this tube is exhausted -of air 
and sealed, as shown, it gives a deflection of about 
3* inches for an external change of pressure of one 

Another application of th^pressure tube is in the 
recording thermometer. 

The tube may be filled with a very expansible 
liquid, such as alcohol, and sealed. Variations in 
temperature produce expansion of the inclosed 
liquid, which, in turn, gives deflections of the tube 
to correspond. 

These deflsclions may be used to record directly. 


February, 1890. 

without multiplyiD? devices, as shovm in one of the 

The tubes of the pressure gauges to be inspected 
hafe been made bj' the writer at Stevens Institute, 
for the purpose of thoroughly testing the novel form. 
The results have been perfectly satisfactory and our 
recent experience in manufacturing has demon- 
strated the pt)ssibility of duplicating the tubes in 
quantities for a standard chart. 


The electric haulage system of the Jeffrey Manu- 
facturing Company, of Columbus, O., possesses 
many features of interest. The illustration given 
herewith represents its motor car in operation. The 
motor on this machine is of the same type as is used 
by the .Jeffrey Company on its mining machine, and i 
is arranged with a reverse rigging which consists of 
a brush holder carrying four brushes, two being in | 
contact when the car runs forward, the other two 
when running in the opposite direction. The main 
frame, rectangular in shape, is made of cast iron. 
The car wheels are fitted with soft steel tires. The 
motor is located in the center of the frame and trans- 
mits power from the armature shaft through a suc- 
cession of straight gears to the axles. The car is ar- 
ranged with draw-bars and pilots on each end. 

The speed of these motors varies according to the 
work they are to perform. Some of these motor cars 
running in coal mines haul loads over as high grades 
as 4* per cent, with perfect ease at the 8i miles per 
hour. The machinery being compact and occupying 
but little space, the operator is brought near the 
parts it is necessary to handle in order to operate the 
car. The operator is able to turn on the current 
with one hand, and at the same time to handle the 
brushes or the brake. Power is conveyed to the 
motor by means of a trolley, running on a trolley line, 
invented by D. N. Osyor, owned and built by the Jeff- 
rey Company. The trolley line is known as the "all 
metal" system, and is one that does not require a 
ground or rail return. The motor cars carry their 
own lights, which is quite an advantage in coal 
mines, and they can be handled as easily, safely and 
quickly as any steam locomotive. 

The Cyclone Snow Plow at Work. 

The Cyclone snow plow has at last had a chance to 
show what it can do with snow drifts. Plenty of 
good hard work vas supplied to it by the Central 
Pacific blockade, and we learn direct from the scene 
of operation— on the Salt Lake, Truckee and Hum- 
boldt divisions— that it rose to the occasion in a man- 
ner highly gratifying to its owners and to the offi- 
cials of the railway. It has been at work for the last 
ten days on the divisions named, passing through 
snow banks 10 to 1-5 ft. deep, and throwing the snow 
a distance of from 100 to 2-50 ft. from the track. The 
owners of the Cyclone plow have waited long for 
snow, and should feel gratified that the first test of 
the worth of their device has been -so remarkably 
severe and that the result has proved so favorable. 


—The new works and offices of the Ajax Metal Co., at 
4«, «, .W, and 52 Richmond street, Philadelphia, Pa., are 
spacious and convenient. The casting room is 2.5x333 feet, 
and between 14,000 and 15,000 lbs. of Ajax metal castings are 
being turned out daily. The finishing room and the space 
devoted to ingot metal embrace 50x75 feet. The remaining 
space fronting Richmond street— 50x100 feet— is used as a 
test and exhibition room by the Ajax Lead Coating Com- 
pany. The Ajax Metal Company has beeu a prosperous 
concern under the business management of Mr. Hendrick- 
son and the metallurgical skill and experience of Mr. 
Klamer, and it is now a very large concern with abundant 
capacity for production, and a large and steadily increasing 
demand for its products. 

There is a large demand in New South Wales for loco 
motives on the government railways for renewals and ad- 
ditions to stock, and it is currently reported that the au- 
thorities are prepared to give an order for 100 locomotives, 
be deUvered in three years, the first one not later than 
July, 1 S91, on the understanding that the cost of gettin - 

them made in 

securing them elsewhere 

—Mr. Daniel E. Hegbin of Ellenwood, Kan., is reported 
to have entered suit, against the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Raihvay for iT8,450 in payment of royalty on the cattle 
chutes used by that company on their entire system, on 
which he claims a patent. 

The Eureka Cast Steel Company announces that its 
new plant for crucible steel castings is in successful opera 
tion. We have seen a number of samples of this product 
and their excellence as regards tensile strength, uniform 
solidity, etc., was very evident. The company appreciates 
the present and prospective importance of the car coupler 
business and offers to furnish crucible cast steel knuckles 
for the M. C. B. standard draw bars, with a guarantee 
that they will be equal in all respects to wrought iron forg 
They promise to deliver castings made from crucible 
steel process in from three to five days from the receipt of 
the patterns. A recent test by Fairbanks & Co. of six bars 
is crucible product gave the following results : 



Limit of 




39 579 








The officers of the company are: Amos Gartside, presi- 
dent and treasurer; H. B. Faunce, secretary; Wm. B. 
Reaney, manager. The office and works are at Lamokin, 

— Just what it means for an engine to be self-contained 
and shipped completely erected, tested and ready to put 
into operation is not always appreciatPd until practically 
illustrated. A recent occurrence at the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works proves this in a forcible way. The Hamilton 
street shop of that works has been operated for several 
years past (24 hours a day) by a Westinghouse 300 h. p. 
standard engine, which is one of a dozen or more of the 
same kind in use in this extensive establishment. They 
have recently been replacing their larger engines with 
Westinghouse compounds for the purpose of gaining the 
greater economy due to the use of the latter. They re- 
cently had occasion to make a change from the 300 h. p. 
standard Westinghouse to a 350 h. p. Westinghouse com- 
pound, without stopping the works. The standard engine 
ran the shop up until 6 o'clock, p. m., when it was stopped, 
disconnected and removed from the foundation; the 350 h. 
p. compound was put in its place, connected up, pipes run, 
and was in operation at 3:30 a.m. This is probablv as 
quick a change as was ever made with engines of such a 
size. That this is only possible with a self-contained en- 
gine, which can be completely erected and tested in the 
shop in which it is built, is evident, and even with the ad- 
vantages offered by such an engine for quick erection, it is 
a smart job of work to perform in such a limited time. It 
is somewhat doubtful whether or not it could be performed 
at all by any concern, unless it, like the Baldwin Locomo. 
I live Works, has been able to make a record for itself of 

complete in seven days after the 
receipt of 

—The Cape Fear & Cincinnati Railway Company has 
placed orders for 10 locomotives, 10 passenger coaches, 
four mail and baggage cars, and one manager's car. The 
Elmore box lid and the Hin?on coupler have been specified 
for all this equipment. The company has also ordered '200 
freight cars, six caboose cars, 20 coal cars and .50 flat cars, 
all of which have the Elmore box lid. 

—Mr. E. A. Curtis, manager of the E.more Box Lid Co., 
of 57 Board of Trade building, Chicago, has been meeting 
with much success in inl reducing the Elmore car journal 
box lid. The present oflicers of the coupler are C. L. 
Trego, president and treasurer; Chas. M. Farrum, secre- 
tary, and E. A. Curtis, Manager. 

-The Pittsburgh Reduction Company, of which Mr. Al- 
fred E. Hunt is president, now leads the world in produc- 
ing pure aluminum, and Mr. Hunt and his associates have in- 
vestigated the nature and qualities of this metal more thor- 
oughly than has ever been done before. At present the 
monthly production of the works is 1500 lbs. of the metal, 
nearly all of which is 98 per cent. pure. During December 
2S00 lbs. were shipped, and at present the orders for it are 
more than double the producing capacity of the works. 
The company is now greatly enlarging its plant, and 
has purchased two dynamos of 135,000 watts each, 
three 308 h. p. Babcock & Wilcox boilers and two '200 
h. p. Westinghouse compound engines. When this new 
equipment is in place the output of aluminum will be about 
one ton per week. The office of the company is at 95 Fifth 
avenue, and the works at 33d and Smallman streets, Pitts- 

— Hussey, Binns & Co. have a tract of 15 acres at Jean 
ette, 20 miles from Pittsburgh, and are building extensive 
works on it. The rolling mill is "225x90; the shovel mill 
building, 275x90; and the warehouse, 200x80 feet. The 


— The Tripp Manufacturing Company, 34 India Wharf. 
Boston, the sole manufacturers of Tripp's an ti friction 
journal Dearing, Tripp's metallic packing, and Tripp's 
balance piston valve, have established a large factory for 
the manufacture of electric, cable and horse car trucks 
complete, equipped with their celebrated bearings. 

—A public test of the Johnston electric train signal was 
given on the Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn road January 
•23. Among those present were two of the Massachusetts 
railroad commissioners and representative officers of near 
ly all the roads centering in Boston. The tests seem to 
have been successful in every respect, and it was the gen- 
eral opinion of those present that the devices covered by 
the Johnston patents constitute a simple, durable and ef- 
fective system of train signaling. Besides the coupling 
between cars, a distinctive feature of the Johnston system 
is the introduction of the principle of the push button for 
closing the circuit. An insulated electric conductor hangs 
in the place of the ordinary bell rope, and has at intervals 
of a few feet hermetically closed globes of rubber which 
contain the contact metallic surfaces. There being no 
opening in the rubber bulb, no dirt or moisture can enter, 
and a slight squeezing of the bulb causes electric air connec 
tion which rings the bell in the engineer's cab. The ar- 

t'EBRDART, 1890. 


or coupling etc., are ingeniously simple. 
The advantages of such a system are so great tbal all roads 
should be prompt to test one which has so many good 
features. The office of the Johnston Electric Train Signal 
Co. is at 0:^0 Atlantic avenue, Boston, Mass. 

—The Chicago Malleable Iron Co. has secured the con- 
tract for making the 8,000 Van Dorston draw-bars that are 
g->ing on the 4,00U Philadelphia &, Heading cai-s building at 
the Pullman works. The Sharon Steel Casting Co. have 
the contract for making the knuckles for these couplers. 

—The American Fire Proof Sleel Car Co. have pur- 
chased 700 acres of land in the suburbs of Chicago, and 
will erect a large plant for the manufacture of tire-uroof 
steel cars. The buildings will be erected as soon as [x>ssi- 
ble. The plans are already complete. T. W. Harvey, the 
Chicago lumberman, is largely interested. 

— We hear the Piutsch gas lighted cars talked about with 
strong approval by passengers between New York and Bos- 
ton. They do not always know the name of the light, but 
they reoiomber very clearly that they could read or play 
whist without the least straining of the eyes— and some 
even go so far as to speak well of the railroad company for 
putting in such a light. For the average traveler to speak 
well of a railroad company means a good deal I The pro- 
cess of charging the tanks with gas, where the Pintsch sys- 
tem is put in as the company desires to have it, is simple 
and rapid. To charge the tanks of a car requires about 
Ave minutes, and it is done at the station, so that do switch- 
ing is necessary. 

—The announcement of the organization of the firm of 
Coolbaugh, MoMunn & Pomeroy, has been received with 
more than ordinary interest because two members of the 
firm are among the best known railway supply men, and 
also because of the importance of the interests repre 
sented by the new concern. Mr. F. W. Coolbaugh has for 
some years been the general sales agent of the Boies steel 
wheel, and has fought his way to the front in the ceaseless 
battle of competition. He has also, during the last year, 
been doing effective work in introducing the Frost Dry Car- 
buretter system of lighting, as applied to cars, etc. Mr. 
S. W. McMunn is universally known through his former 
connection with the American Brake Company, the Dow- 
ling coupler, the Butler draw-bar attachment, and more 
recently with the Martin anti-fire system of car heatiug. 
Mr. L. R. Pomeroy is secretary and treasurer of the Sub- 
burban Rapid Transit Company, New York, and is an 
expert in all the details of office business. His careful 
studies of all matters relating to i-aihvay motive power and 
rolling stocK promise to make him a high authority on those 
subjects. The new firm are special agents for Carnegie, 
Phipps & Co., general sales agents for the Boies steel 
wheel, and general eastern agents for the Frost Dry Car- 
buretter system of lighting. The office of the firm is at 4.5 
Broadway, New York. 

— The Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company, of 
Providence, R. I., send us an illustrated supplement to 
their catalogue. The catalogue is, as as our readers 
know, made in pocket size, for the sake of convenience, 
and in order to present larger illustrations of some of their 
machines and tools this 1 rger supplement is issued. The 
illustrations are of remarkable excellence. The excellent 
plan has been adopted of placing opposite the illustrations 
of the machines cuts showing operations indicating the 
lines of work in which the machines are used. The cata- 
logue is mailed on application, and the supplement on re- 

—The Magnolia Anti-Friction Metal Company, 74 Court- 
land street. New York, has had a beautiful waltz written 
for it, in Europe, and dedicated to it. entitled, " Magnolia 
Valse." Any one who desires a copy of the waltz, may 
obtain it, by writing to the Magnolia Company and inclos 
ing 3 cents for postage 

— Mr. Thomas B. Inness announces under date of Janu- 
ary I, 1890, that he has dissolved the firm of Thomas B- 
Inness & Co., for the purposeof connecting himself with 
the American Car and Equipment Company, of 10 Wall 
street, New York. He will be pleased to supply his friends 
with such information as they desire, regarding railroud 
equipment, etc., as formerly, and submit estimates for the 
American Car and Equipment Company, on equipment 
and supplies. 

—The Van Dorston Cushioned Car Coupler Equipment 
Company is considerably less than a year old, but it has 
dosed a contract for s,000 couplers to be delivered within 
the next three or four months. These couplers are to be 
put on the 4,000 freight cars now being built at Pullman— 
a fact which shows very conclusively that this coupler has 
b3en selected as its standard by the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad Company. This company has been testing 
the Van Doi-ston cushioned coupler for nearly a year. 
Perhaps no road in the country has a more complete assort- 
ment of sharp cur\-es, grades, sag^ and hog backs on which 
to test an M. C. B. coupler than the Philadelphia & Read- 

ing, and all these— or at least the worst of them— were 
used in testing the Van Dorston. Of the tW or more of 
these couplers which have been on this road in all kinds of 
service for some ten months not one has broken, either In 
knuckle or draw bar. The company claims that the cush. 
ions of hard rubber inserted between the knuckle and its 
bearings against the draw head will enable the knuckle to 
endure the severest trials of mixed service. That the re- 
sults of the Philadelphia & Reading tests sustain this 
claim is shown by the action of the road in buying 8,000 of 

-The following full and clear descripti:n of vulcanized 
fibre and its qualities is from a circular recently issued by 
the Vulcanized Fibre Company, of Wilmington, Del.— the 
New York office of which is'at 14 Dey street, New York ; 

Vulcanized fibre consists of vegetable fibre reduced to a 
pulp, and then subjected to powerful chemical treatment, 
whereby the original properties of the fibre are entirely 
changed, and anew material is produced, of great strength, 
elasticity and durability, which is applicable in some form 
to almost every every branch of mechanical industry. It is 
absolutely insoluble in all ordinary solvents, and is not in- 
jured by contaiit with alcohol, ether, ammonia, turpentine, 
naptha, benzine, petroleum, or any of the animal, vegetable 
or mineral oils. It absorbs water, either hot or cold, but it 
is not injured thereby, except that it swells when wet. and 
resumes its original size when dried. It is made of two 
classes, hard or flexible, as desired, according to the uses 
for which the goods are intended. The hard fibre closely 
resembles horn in its consistency, is exceedingly tough and 
strong, resisting an enormous compressive strain, s "" 
taining its elasticity under all ordinary temperatures, 
flexible fibre has the appeai-ance of a very close graineo 
sole leather, and is used for a great variety of purposes. 



—The Concord (N. H.) horse railroad which has voted to 
adopt electricity has contracted with the Tripp Manfg. Co., 
of Boston, for the celebrated Tripp Anti-Friction Journal 
Bearings, which will be furaished with trucks complete. 
These bearings are proving very successful on various 
roads and are rapidly coming into general use. The severe 
tests given these bearirgs have occasioned a great deal of 
discussion and their durability is no lunger considered ex- 

—Under its alert and careful management the interests 
of the Railway Signal Lamp & Lantern Uo have attained 
a magnitude which renders it impossible for it to remain 
in its present quarters at lOU Beekman st., New York, and 
it will move into far more commodious offices and shops 
about May 1. The new building is now being erected at 
■*47 West .Wd St., New York. It is to be six stories and a 
basement, and will be devoted entirely to the business of 
the company. The building is 135 by 25 feet, with an "L" 
75 by 25 feet, and it will accommodate about 300 hands. 
The arrangements for power and for receiving and shipping 
material are very perfect. 

—The Minnesota Iron Car Company, of Duluth, are now 
turning out from three to five cars per day, the workman- 
ship on and general appearance of the cars being excellent. 
The company have just shipped some cars to the C, A. & 
C. R'y., which are the Iron Car Company's standard M foot 
box cars, tiU,000 lbs. capacity. The body of the car does 
not differ from any first-class box car, the sills being made 
of tubes instead of wood. These cars, from 1,000 to 3,000 
lbs. lighter than wooden cars, have a capacity from 5,000 
to 15,000 lbs. greater.- [Northwestern Railroader. 

Edward Lewis, superintendent of bridges and buildings 
of the Allegheny Valley Railroad, died suddenly at Ken- 
nerdell on that line January 13, 1890. while being conveyed 
in a special train to his home at South Oil City. He was 
bora at Penn's Manor, Berk's county, Pennsylvania, April 
11, 18;U. He learned his trade as a bridge builder while in 
the employ of the firm of Piper &, Shiffler, who constructed 
the bridges on the Philadelphia & Erie Railway. For 
many years he was in the employ of the Keystone Bridge 
Company, leaving that firm in 1S70 to become superintend 
ent of bridges and buildings on the O. C. & A. R. R. R. 
In 1875 he assumed the same position on the Allegheny 
Valley Railroad, which he retained until his death. He 
had long been recognized as an authority on bridges, and 
his work bears witness to his thoroughness and integrity. 

Change! for the Month of January. 1890 

Al,l.E0iiASv V.u.LEY.-Edwaid Lewis, superintendent of 
biidges and buildings, deceased. 

Baltimohe & Ouio SoiTinvEsTEKX, (Formerly Cincin- 
nati, Washington & Baltimore. )—E. K. Bacon elected 
president; W. W. Peabody to be eeneral manager; \V. E. 
Jones, treasurer; Chas. Lowe, secretary; I. G. Rawn to be 
general superintendent. 

Boston & Maine.— Frank Jones elected president, vice 
Geo. C. Lord, resigned. 

Bi Ri.isoTON & MissoiRi RivER.— E. Bignell to be super- 
intendent Northern division, vice D. E. Thompson, resign- 
ed: A. B. Smith to be assistant general freight agent, vice 
G. H. Crosby, promoted. 

Central or Geokoia.— D. D. Curran to be superinlen 

dent Savannah .t Western division, vice W. J. Huylow re- 

Chesapeake & Ohio.— T. S. Lloyd to be master mechan- 
ic Cincinnati division, at Covington, Ky.; J. T. Harahun, 
general manager, resigned. 

CnicAoo & Atlaxiic— C. L. Mayne to bo sui)orintend 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois.— D. J. Mackey elected 
president vice H. H. Porter, resigned. 

CiiRAOO, BiRLiSGTON & QlixcY.— E. M. Herr. superin- 
tendent St. Louis division, transferred to Galesburg divis 
ion, vice A. F. Hilton, resigned. 

CuiCAuo, Milwaukee & St. Pail.- J. B. Cable to be 
superintendent Iowa and Minnesota divisions vice E. H. 
Graves, deceased; D. L. Bush superintendent Hastings 
aitd Dakota division. W. Irwin superintendent southern 

St. Pa 


Clarke, general trafBc manager, rei 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Cmci 

Ewan, superintendent Indianapolis 
Cincinnati, Saginaw & Ma 

& Oma 

-F. B. 


3o & St. Loiis.— John 
division, resigned. 

(formerly Toledo, 

Saginaw & Mackinaw.) — J. T. Gardner to be general i 
ager; A. W. Wright elected president; P. H. Ketcham, 
vice president; F. W. Salsbury to be general freight agent, 
at East Saginaw. 

Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton.— N. R. Adriance to 
be assistant general freight agent, at Cincinnati. 

Cbicaoo, Rock Islano & Pacific-Gco. F. Wilson to 
be general master mechanic vice T. B. Twombly, resigned. 
Harry Monkhouse appointed assistant general master me- 
chanic and assistant master car builder of lines west of the 
Missouri river, with headquarters at Horton, Kan. J. H. 
Blair appointed trainmaster at Kansas Cit.v, vice Z. Hamer, 

Con -MBUS, Hocking Valley & Toledo.— L G. Hutchins, 
master mechanic, and J. M. Rockafleld, master ear builder, 
resigned ; J. S. Patterson to be master mechanic in charge 
motive power and car departments. 

Denver, Texas & Fobt Worth.— W. H. Holcomb to be 
vice president. 

DtLUTH, South Shore & Atlantic— H. J. Payne to be 
chief engineer; C. H. Cavis to be consulting engineer. 

Elmira, Cortland & Northern.— C. W. Williams to be 
general freight and passenger agent, vice G. F. iiandolph, 

Fitchburg. — H. S. Marcy elected president. 

Hannibal & St. Joseph. -W. B. Throop to be chief en- 

Iowa Central.— T. P. Barry to be assistant general pas- 
senger agent, vice A. Dwelle, resigned. 

Illinois Central.— W. D. Hurlbut to be assistant gen- 
eral freight agent Illinois lines. 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern.— J. E. Childs, as- 
sistant general manager, resigned. 

Louisville & Nashville.— J. Geddes, superintendent 
Nashville division, resigned; C. A. Davies to be assistant 
superintendent, at Birmingham, vice B. F. Dickson, pro- 

MoNTEREv & GcLF.^ohn Grace to be superintendent 
Linares division, at Monterey. 

Michigan Central.— E. Bronnerto be master car builder, 
at West Detroit; G. W. Comstock to be assistant superin- 

MiNNEAPOLLs & St. Louis —R. G. Brown, auditor, de 
ceased ; C. M. Pratt to be general passenger and ticket 
agent, vice C. H. Holdridge, resigned. 

Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western.— E. Vliet to be 
general passenger agent. 

Missouri Pacific — J. C. Lincoln to be assistant general 
freight agent, at St. Louis, vice W. C. Stith, resigned. 

Me-xican National.— N. E. Brown to be superintendent 
southern division, vice H. Yonge, resigned. T. D. Kline 
to be general manager, vice J. F. O'Brien, resigned. 

York, Ontario & Wettern.— H. Tandy superin- 
ive power, resigned ; E. MinshuU, master me- 
harge of department; J. E. Childs to be gen- 
eral manager. 

Mobile & Ohio.- G. W. King to be general passenger 

New York, Lake Erie & Western. -J. Duel and H. B. 
Chamberlain to be assistant superintendentats BulTalo and 
New York. 

New York & New England.— C. N. Chevalier to be 

superintendent western division; Phelps to be sup 

erintendent Hartford division; G. F. Randolph to be gen- 
eral freight agent, vice Joseph Shinn resigned. 

New York Central & Hud.son River.-F. A. Harring- 
ton to be superintendent Mohawk & Hudson division: J. 
freight accounts vice J. F. 
«' '■ '■•"-tt, resigned, as 

tendent r 

Northern Pacific— H. H. Scobell, assistant superin- 
tendent of telegraph, deceased. W. Pearce to be purchasing 
agent, vice J. H. Ames, resigned; J. Hill to be superintend- 
ent bridges Rocky MounUin division, vice H. W. Laughlin, 

Ohio & Mississippi. — John Wells to be assistant to presi- 

Ohio, Indiana & Western.— A. G. Weils to be general 
superintendent; W. Kearney to be general master me- 
chanic, vice J. King, resigned. 

Ohio Southern.— T. A. Rittenhouse to be cashier and 
purchasing agent. 

Pennsylvania Compant,— G. M. Farley to be assistant 
engineer west of Pittsburgh j J. Steward to be assistant 
superintendent block and signal system, at Pittsburgh. 

Pennsylvania, Pouohkeepsie & Boston.— A. H. Catlin 
to be general traffic manager. 

Pittsburgh & Western.— H. U. Boughton to be divi 
sion superintendent. 

Rk iLMoND & Danville— W. G. Oakman to be first vice 


Februaby, 1890. 

president, vice T. M. R. Talcolt, resigned; A. B. Andrews 
lo be second vice president, at Kaleifru, N. C. ; J. W. John- 
ston to be third vice pi-esiclent, ;it Kirminsbam, Ala. 

R.IMK. W.VTERTOWX & Ogdexsblkg.— J. H. ML-Ewen to 
be superintendent western division, vice E. Vdu Etten 

Una GuASDE & Eagle Pass.— Superintendent VV. L. Gid- 
deus to be general manager; C. Lang, general freight snd 
coal agent, resigned. 

St. PAfi. & DcLUTU. — Vice President and General Man- 
ager E- L. Dadlev deceased ; G. F. Copeland to be superin- 
Iccideut, G. \V. "Bull to be general freight, and oassen- 
ger a^'eiil vice A. B. l^lough to be general manager. 

Si-'LTH Cauiilin \.— D. C.Allen, general passenger und 
ticket agent, resigned ; J. H. Averill, superintendent, re- 

[xniAXAPOLis -Vice President J. G. 

rxinN Pa* iFn .— A. J Maiulerson to be superintendent 
Iowa divisiou vice W. H. Burns, appointed assistant gen- 
oral superintendent; Frauds Cope, general freight ami 
passenger agent mountain division, deceased; W. V. New 
lin to be assistant general freight agent; W. H. Hurlburt 
to be assistant geueral passenger agent, at San Francisco; 
H. .^. Johnson to be geueral freight agent Union Pacific- 
Fc. Wayne & Denver consolidation; C. F. Meek to be as 
sistant general manager Colorado division; W. H. Ken- 
nedy to be principal assistant engineer, at Portland, Ore. 

VA1.LEV.— Thos. W. King elected president; Wm. Thorn- 
burgh to be general agent and assistant to president ; J. T. 
Johnson to be geueral superintendent ; J. B. Caveu general 
freight and passenger agent vice A. K. Carran, resigned; 
J. Bartol, auditor vice W. B, Porter appointed secretary 

chasing agent, Geo. Hiles, Milwaukee; vice president, W. 
G. Collins, Minneapolis; geueral superintendent, Jamea 
Hiles, Dexterville, Wis.; secretary, auditor and traffic 
manager, C. O. Baker; general freight agent, I. H. Ger 
uiond ; general passenger agent, A. E. Geruicr; master me- 
chanic, G. M. Dillon ; headquarters of operating officers at 
Dexterville, Wis. 

Queen & Ckescext. — A. Clark to be superintendent New 
Orleans Sc Northeastern division, vice E. L. Tyler, re 
signed; R. Carroll to be general manager, vice J. C. Gault, 
resigned; Controller C. C. Harvey to be general traffic 

Wabaso.— J. D. Lund to be first assistant general freight 
agent, vice S. B. Knight, promoted to be general freight 
agent; Vice President J. F. How resigned duties of treas 
urer; F. L. O'Leary to be treasurer. 

West Skoke.— A. E. Ketchum to be superintendent. 


Locomotive Brakes. 

THOMAS B. ATKINS, President. 
53 Broadway, - New York City. 









Branch Offices: Chicago, 616 Phenix Bldg. New York, 15 Cortlandt St. Coaticooke, P. Q., Canada. 

^Tlio IBTXxrton JStools. Gslic Oo-, 


General Office, 191 Washington Street. Eoston, Mass. | 12 & 41 Live Stock Exchange, Kansas City, Ho. 

Chicag ' Office. 169 Jackson Street, Chicago, 111. | 39 Exchange Street, Portland, He., and at Works, Wichita. 


^^-^ vz WILL u:e!T3e eailboai cohpakies to I 

Correspondence Solicited. 


The most durable and effective Valves made 

CROSBY STEAM ENGmE INDICATOR; the best in the world 

""' "93 OLIVER Vt.T'bOSTON.' "" 

London Office. 75 Queen Victori:i St. 


MiiE'-ilia a Ccnic'.o'.o SorTico :f Vcs'.ltQ'.ol Irpre:: Tiili: totxcon 

Im lork, [indimali, 1 Louis ad Clii:aji 

1 211 ^^ 




.viJK ii 11-: j{i>:;^i'. 

^ All B. 80. Trains "Tu^"^ Easts West run via Washington. n||||ggjj Qj^p COUPLER I 

Cor.w'' ■, I -i!!;,i..|i.r«. ! SUITE 518 THE ROOKERY. 

I Cor. Hi. -. . ' '.. tMh.iii. II, 

J. E. FOBSYTH, General Manager. L„^ adams TwV7st.,ake co., 

' I'll!,..,!,,, UK 1 Eiistern .1115 Broadway, 
CHICAGO. I '""J*"-'"'- 1 nfH„.: , New York. 

March, 1890. 




The Rookery," Chicago. 
Devoted to the Interefltfl of railway motive power, equipment 
and machinery. Communications on any topics suitable to these 
columns are aolicited. 

Prior to January 1, 1886, this jonrnal was known as The Rail- 
way Purchaslnn Acent. It will still inltanewand wider field be 
adapted to the especial wants of all who purchase or influence 
the purchase of railway supplies. 

(The Official Railway List Is also published by this company. 
See announcement on another paue.) 

Sabscription price, $rou a year. Advertising rates and details 
concernfne circulation piven on application to the office by mail 
ress ^^ ^^ LEWIS, Mnnager. 

"The Rooki-ry, ' Chicago. 
New Yohk OFFirK: 4.i nmmUvay. Room H.<. 

Vol. 5| CHICAGO, MARCH, 1890. |No. 3. 

Thkke is a bureau of misiuformation located 
somewhere in New EnglauJ which is disseminat- 
ing an immense number of imaginary facts about 
hook couplers. One who passes under the influ- 
ence of this agency comes to almost believe that 
a hook coupler is too weak to resist a strong wind 
or a piercing glance, and that the shadow of a 
cast iron Safford draw-bar is mightier than a solid 
knuckle of tempered steel. Some — if not more — 
of the stories which are current along New En- 
gland's stern and rock-bound coast should be sub- 
jected to a bigger discount than the law allows iu 
any part of the country. 

roads — members who are authorized to cast the 
votes of the roads they represent- the standard. 
adopted by the votes of these members should be 
considered as standards which the roads should 
bb bound to observe, and he asserted his belief 
that formal action thus taken i* binding on the 
roads to use the standard thus selected as far as 
practicable. Mr. Lauder's remark that these 
standards are not binding but simply possess a 
moral binding force, had called out Mr. Marden's 
remarks, and Mr. Lauder is correct. But Mr. 
Lauder is, we believe, as strong an advocate of 
rigid adherence to standards as Mr. Mardeu, and 
may we not hope that continued puinted references 
to the matter, such as those made by the two gen- 
tlemen we have quoted, will result iu a merging of 
the moral obligation into a legiil obligation to 
strictly observe standards that have been formally 
adopted by formally accredited representatives of 
the railways? 

When the railroads of tliis country adopt a 
method of keeping accounts by whicli the supply 
department gets credit (or supplying the best ma- 
terial, instead of the cheapest, their net receipts 
■will be a good deal larger than they are now. If 
those who are responsible for the quality and 
quantity of the supplies of a railroad were required 
to make detailed reports covering a term of three 
or even five years it could be clearly seen whether 
or not they were profitable servants. This method 
would be much fairer to every man concerned 
than that of yearly reports. And it would greatly 
lessen the annual percentage of operating expenses. 

Wherever there is competition the road having 
well lighted cars will get the most passenger t ratfic. 
The American people are great readers as well as 
gi-eat travelers and do not take willingly to the 
idleness and vacant twirhng of thumbs "which a 
badly lighted car compels them to. A traveler be- 
tween New York and Chicago in midwinter has 
fully twelve waking hours of artificial light in the 
30 hours or less of his trip. To compel him to 
■waste those hours because his car is only half 
lighted is an outrage. And the time which fre- 
quent travelers are thus compelled to waste 
amounts to months and even years. 

Ik those who buy oil for car lamps understand 
their busiues.s and act honestly a properly con- 
structed lamp is not an element of danger in case 
of an accident to the train. If, however, the buyer 
of oil is careless, or if he is too "smart" and insists 
on paying less for the oil than it is fairly worth, 
then he may come to have the roasting alive of 
some of his fellow human creatures on his con- 
Science. The oil which the best modern car lamps 
are designed to bum is not as- inflammable as are 
the paints, varnishes and finishings of car interiors 
— or, at least, are not as liable to cause the burn- 
ing up of a car in case of accident. Jf the oil 
lamps have been the chief factors in consuming 
cars and passengers it is because some one bought 
cheap oil. One or two car lamp manufacturers 
are now making lamps which really light cars, and 
these lamps will roast no passengers if the pur- 
chasing agent does his duty. 

We are gUd to hear such positive expression of 
view concerning the use of M. C. B. standards as 
was voiced by Mr. Marden at the New England 
club meeting last month. He said that since the 
reorganization of the association and the appoint- 
ment of representative members by the various 

In another column a correspondent furnishes 
some suggestions on steam distribution iu com- 
pound locomotives which will be of interest to 
those studying the subject. The diagrams here 
produced are, of course, purely theoretical, but 
this is by no means objectionable if it is borne in 
mind that they are necessarily modified some- 
what in practice. For some reasons we would 
prefer to construct theoretical diagrams in which 
the cranks were at right angles, but this involves 
a much greater amount of labor, and is in every 
way more difficult. Such diagrams as produced 
by our coiTespondent can be studied with profit 
in designing the valve gear of compound locomo- 
tives. .\ complete set of them, if carefully con- 
structed, will show just about what to expect in 
the distribution of work between the two cylin- 
ders, the amount of compression in the "high 
pressure cylinder and the amount of valuable 
work done by the steam. Such figures are rela- 
tive rather than actual values, and should be so 
treated. From them can be derived facts which 
will be of value in determining the manner in 
which the equalization of cylinder powers is to be 
obtained, and the way undue compression is to be 
avoided, especially in the high pressure cylinder, 
and some light will be thrown on the problem of 
the ratio between cyUnder and receiver volumes. 
More can be done in this direction than in deter- 
mining the actual economy of the engioe. In the 
latter the subject of cyMnder condensatirn enters 
so largely that experiment, only, can determine 
the result. 

In repairs to the various clasees of rolling stock, 
as well as in new work, it is important that all 
patterns of castings, either iron or brass, should 
be carefully numbered, so that the numbers of the 
particular pieces wanted can be given, as well as 
the names. It often happens that in repair work 
much delay arises from want of attention to this 
matter. We have a case in mind where rod 
brasses were desired for a certain class of engines 
to be used in an engine already in shop. It hap- 
pened that though the class of engine quoted in 
the requisition was the right one, there had been 
some changes made in the pattern in question, of 
which the person ordering was not fully aware. 
Coiisequently a different brass was sent from that 
desired, and it was not until a third attempt was 
made that the right one was finally obtained; 
thus there was caused both delay to the work in. 
the shop and expense in shipping material on the 
road back and forth. This could have been 
avoided if the various patterns had been property 
numbered and tlie jierson ordering given a list of 
the various numbers and styles. 

This class of delay and consequent expense 
arises from a cause we have often referred to in 
the past, i. e., the constant pressure upon the 
heads of the operating departments to keep up 
with tiie rush of the ordinary daily routine, leav- 
ing them but little time to attend to efforts to reach 
higher system and better designs, or to engage in 
original research. This condition is not, of 
course, the best for the service, but it unquestion- 
ably exists on many lines. 

In no direction, perhaps, is this lack of the 

proper system more clearly shown than in the 
matter of detailed drawings for the various classes 
of railroad stock. While a road may have settled 
upon general standards, yet email changes are 
found necessary from time to time in manyof the de- 
tails, and it is important that all interested should 
be notified as soon as possible that such changes 
have been made, and every branch shop should 
be furnished promptly with drawings showing the 
same. When this is not done much confusion 
may arise, causing delay to the work and extra 
expense in making repairs and often resulting in 
too large a supply of the various parts. In short, 
one of the cheapest classes of expenditure in rail- 
way work is that devoted to a well directed 
draughting force, so that all new standards can be 
made known to all promptly and the old blue- 
prints or tracings canceled or recalled. 


In our last number we discussed the improve- 
ments in freight draft appliances, showing the 
tendency to the use of more iron in that detail 
and the gradual disappearance of wood. We ven- 
tured to predict that the effect of the use of air 
brakes and automatic couplers would result iu the 
use of iron or steel for the whole underframe of 
freight cars. 

The freight truck has already advanced toward 
the iron stage so far that the only remaining part 
which is made of wood is the bolster, and that is 
now heavily reinforced by iron either in the form 
of truss rods or by plates J x8 in., laid edgeways 
between oak planks, forming a composite beam. 
But while the truck has thus been made stronger 
and more enduring, the old diamond form is re- 
tained, and the design generally has not been im- 
proved to the e,\tent demanded by the change in 
the conditions of its service. The diamond truck 
is too rigid for high speed. The four wheels are 
connected together in a manner which does not 
admit of flexibility. The unsatisfactory wear of 
diamond trucks under passenger engine tanks 
shows the effect of higli speed upon them, for they 
rapidly go to pieces and continually require re- 
pairs. The injurious effect of such a structure 
upon the track, when moving at a high velocity, 
is not so easily seen, nor can it be shown, but we 
can readily understand that the hammering which 
breaks the truck to pieces must have its reflex in- 
fluence upon the track. The important difference 
between freight and passenger trains has been 
that of speed, and this element has devel- 
oped the various details which are affected by 
speed, so that the passenger tnick is now well 
adapted to its severe service. 

The freight car must now go through the same 
evolution, and it will gradually approach the pass- 
enger car in essential construction, and, in fact, 
some parts are now virtually the same for both 
kinds of cars. The couplers and axles can now be 
made interchangeable; and the freight truck should 
be built more on the principlp of the passenger 
truck. The main difference in the two is the use of 
pedestals in passenger trucks, wliich allow the 
boxes to move freely in them. In lb84 the M. C. 
B. committee on a standard truck recommended a 
pedestal truck and presented a design for a 
steel side frame containing the two pedestals, 
bracket for cross frame, bracket for brake 
beam liangers, and the truck side bearing, 
all in one solid piece. The report stated that " it 
was important that a truck for heavy loads and 
high speeds should allow a free vertical motion of 
the journal box so that the shocks produced by 
the wheel striking joints and frogs are not com- 
municated directly to the truck frame." The 
wheels should have a free movement independent 
of each other, and this introduces another element 
of passenger practice, namely, the use of equal- 

The kind of truck in general design which we 
advocate and which we think will soon be found 
to be the most economical is well illustrated by 
the plan presented by Mr. Hughes at the last 
meeting of the Western Eailway Club. This 
truck possesses all the desirable elements we have 



Makch, 1890. 

mentioned, while it has the advantage of less 
weight than the ordinary diamond trnck, and we i 
believe it can be bought for very little more than 
the cost of the old form. 

Taking up now some of the smaller details we 
will consider first the wheels and axles: The 
natural improvement in the wheel, making it more 
Buitable for high speed, is tie increase in diam- 
eter. Cast iron wheels will be used because they 
have been used for many years in passenger serv- 
ice, and are found satisfactory, and because the 
railroads cannot afford to buy anything else. But 
wheel makers hesitate to guarantee a cast wheel 
having a larger diameter than U6 in., and that 
seemo to be the limit. Cast wheels of this size 
have been used for some time in freight service 
on the Illinois Central Railroad, and it is the 
standard diameter of their freight wheel. It is 
possible that other roads may find an advantage 
in increasing the size of wheel from 33 to 86 in. 

The form of journal which has proved best in 
passenger service is that without an outside collar, 
and the collarless journal will be found best 
suited to fast freight trains. There are a number 
of simple stop arrangements which are independ- 
ent of the useless wedges, and that detail can 
now be safely and profitably dispensed with. 

We will not venture on a discussion of the 
vexed question of rigid and swing bolsters for 
freight trucks, but to be consistent with our gen- 
eral argument we must say that the swing motion 
is now universally used on passenger trucks and 
therefore will be most likely to come into use on 
the modern high speed freight truck. It must be 
observed, however, that freight cars are subject to 
much more severe treatment both in switching and 
in the complete train on ihe road than a passen- 
ger car and the parts forming the connection be- 
tween the body and the truck should have an ad- 
ditional element of strength to resist rough usage. 
The center plates and side bearings now require 
special attention and they should be considered 
related, in a measure, to each other. Two dis- 
tinct and opposite principles have been used in 
the design of freight center plates, one the ball 
joint, depending upon the side bearings for stabi 
lity, the other the broad flat plate with a flai 
edged ring of large diameter sufficient to support 
the car body, horizontally, without the aid of 
side bearings. The first is that usually employed 
on passenger cars; the latter is used on the freight 
equipment of some of the largest lines in the east. 
There is this difference in the first kind in passen- 
ger and freight cars, viz: In passenger cars the 
side bearings are always in contact and carry a 
portion of the load, while the freight side bear- 
ings are usually I to ^ in. apart under the empty 
cars. As the side bearings of long Pullman and 
dining cars have as much weight on them as those 
on a loaded 60,000 lbs. freight car, and the mo- 
tion of the truck on a curve with respect to the 
car body is much greater on the long car, 
it would seem to be a safe practice to allow 
the side bearings of freight cars to be in 
contact and to carry a portion of the load. 
This practice would also be more admissable 
when the freight truck is made with pedestals and 
equalizers, for then thfre is no objection to the 
car body and truck bolster being virtually one 
piece, so far as side motion is concerned. The 
advantages of pressed steel for center plates are 
becoming so well recognized that thousands of 
them are already in use in the United States, and 
it would be a fortunate thing if one or two stand- 
and forms could be adopted by the M. C. B. Asso- 
ciation. The committee on the subjectof pressed 
steel in car constiuction should recommend for 
adoption two standard forms of freight center 
plates, one of the ball and socket shape; the other 
of the flat plate with annular bearings. 

We expect that the freight truck of the future 
will be made principally of pressed steel, with 
pedestals and equalizers, and that possibly freight 
and passenger trucks may be interchangeable. A 
standard form should be accepted, and then a 
thousand trucks ordered by wire could be deliv- 
ered in 10 days. Tliis is the perfection to which 
we should aim in that piece of machinery which 
is more numerous than any other on our rail- 

roads — the freight truck. The present crude form 
and poor workmanship on trucks would then sur- 
prise us all. 


Never in the history of the introduction of aut- 
omatic car couplers have we had presented such 
complete statistics as to service as those of which 
we present a tabular abstract in this issue. These 
figures are not truly conclusive ; they may perhaps 
be said to be not truly comprehensive; but they 
do give us what has long been wanted — an act- 
ual record of service of a considerable number of 
couplers and a showing wherein service has devel- 
oped weakness. They cover the work of 67,643 
Janney couplers, and a service from July 10, 188S, 
to February 1, lo'JO, as reported to McConway & 
Torley, the makers of that coupler. Separate 
recoids of the failures of the draw-bar proper and 
of the knuckle are included in these figures. 
The larger number of failures occurred in the 
knuckle. This fact was already well known, but 
the exact figures will be of interest — while 1697 
knuckle failures are reported, 1111 failures of the 
draw-bars are recorded, the percentages of the total 
number of couplers in service being 2-5 and 
1.64 respectively. It might be said that these 
percentages are not absolute for the time given 
because the full number of 67,643 couplers were 
not of course in service during the entire 19 
months; but an investigation has shown that the 
average service was 12 months and thus we have 
these percentages fairly standing as the measure 
of failures in one year's service. 

Of the knuckie failures most were found 
to be in the upper lug. In the draw-bar failures 
the guard arm gieatly led all other parts, the 
split backs (that portion of the head lying between 
the two lugs) coming next. The small number 
of failures of the lugs of the draw-bar proper will 
probably surprise most of our readers. For fur- 
ther details we refer our readers to the tabular 

Many lines of interesting thought are opened 
up by these figures, but we have not now 
space to dwell more fully upon them. 
We must, however, point out the sig- 
nificance of the fact that we have actual records 
showing that of nearly 70,000 couplers in service 
only about 4 per cent, are shown to have broken 
in any manner. The vertical plane coupler could 
hardly need better indorsement at this stage. An- 
other fact, of timely significance, is that only 48 
out of the 67,6l3 in service met with failure in the 
tail of the knuckle. No information as to why the 
tails failed accompanies these figures, but we may 
with reason assume that most of the failures arose 
from excessive pulling strains although compressive 
strains might, under certain conditions, throw the 
tail of the knuckle with such force against the 
back of the head as to break the tail. With this 
assumption we might be given some basis for ques- 
tioning the conclusive value of the results of re- 
cent laboratory pulling tests of hook couplers. But 
as in these pulling tests the failures occuired at 
several other points beside the tail of the knuckle 
the percentage of knuckle tail failures in service — 
about seven one-hundreclths of one per cent. 
— must be for the time taken simply 
for what it is worth, and as bearing only in a 
suggestive manner — a strongly suggestive man- 
ner, liowever, — upon the results of the labora- 
tory tests. 

'i'he chief significance of the figures now given 
is tliat the record of failures is so remarkably small, 
and that by far the larger part of the failures arise 
from a detail of the design which we may hope to 
be purely temporary, viz: the cutting out of the 
knuckle to permit of couphng with the old link 
coupler — a feature which need be maintained only 
during the tr.insition period prior to the full adop- 
tion of the standard vertical plane type. 

These figures will occasion general surprise — 
they are much more favorable than had been an- 
ticipated. They are accurate as far as they go; 
but, the question will be asked, how far do they 
go? In answer, we will say that there is every 
reason to believe them to practically cover 
every failure, Under the terms of sale, the 

self interest of the purchasing companies im- 
pels a full report of all failures, for the coupler 
company replaces every defective draw-bar and 
supplies one new coupler for every two broken 
ones. No stronger incentive could be had than 
this to the reporting of every failure. Even if some 
of the failures are not recorded the number must 
be small, in the nature of things— not large 
enough to affect the totals and percentages here 


The New England railroad club always turns 
out something pretty good at its monthly meet- 
ings, but at its last meeting ideas of unusual 
value and importance were brought out. Theie is 
perhaps no more important subject now vexing 
the railways than this question of wheel guaran- 
tees. But as far as we can learn (he responsibility 
for the present unsatisfactory status of affairs 
rests mainly with the railways themselves. The 
subject has been gone over thoroughly and a plan 
of action adopted, joint committees of master me- 
chanics, master car builders and wheel makers 
having produced a form of contract and guarantee 
which has been made virtually a "standard" by 
the Master Car Builders' Association. But like 
many other •'standards" it is not observed. The 
strict observance of the standard form of contract 
and guarantee would sound the death knell of the 
"cneap wheel" and this fact alone should impel 
its immediate and continued use. The pressing 
need of the exclusive use of high class wheels is 
well understood. It is a matter of life and death 
as well as dollars and cents and is of correspond- 
ingly imperative importance. But there is per- 
haps no further need for dwelling on this feature 
of the matter just now. for the force of nearly all 
that might be said is already conceded. It may 
be well, however, to dwell shortly upon a feature 
of the contract to which the wheel makers with 
excellent show of reason take exception. 

The form of guarantee adopted by the joint 
conference committee of the Bailway Master Me- 
chanics,' the Master Car Builders' and the Wheel 
Makers' Associations, was very carefully drawn 
up and has been approved by all the parties inter- 
ested. Its weak point, however, is the difficulty of 
enforcing it. It involves a careful, and sometimes 
a complicated, keeping of accounts by the railroad 
companies for a long time. In a very large pro- 
portion of cases the problem is still further com- 
plicated by the presence of the intermediate car 
builder. The railroad company contracts for a 
certain number of cars. The car builder contracts 
for the wheels, and, having no special responsi- 
bility in the matter, if the wheels are not speci- 
fied he procures them wherever he can get them 
at lowest cost without much regard to quali- 
ty. If the wheels are to be subjected to the tests 
prescribed by the joint conference committee, it 
is found no difficult matter for any wheel-maker to 
meet them. Thus the tests are no positive indi- 
cation of quality, and no preference is given by 
either the car builder or the railroad company for 
wheels which far exceed the tests prescribed over 
those which just pass them. If the latter are a few 
cents cheaper, the cents determine the contract 
rather than the tests. 

No doubt the acceptance of wheels on a physi- 
cal test, and the demand for a specified guar- 
antee, are theoretically steps in the right diiection. 
But it is not likely that they will, of themselves, 
ever thoroughly accomplish the end aimed at. 
Laws are made for the lawless, and rigid forms of 
specification and guarantee are required for those 
who need to be bound by penalties or stimulated 
by rewardfi. Good citizens need no severe laws, 
and good men do not need bonds. The best guar- 
antee is character. 

This is all that the wheel-maker asks of the 
railroad companies, — that his character as a man, 
and as a manufacturer, should have its just weight. 
When his work is put to the test of service, the 
quality of the material he uses, aud the excellence 
of his v/orkmanship will very soon be determined. 
1 Let him be judged accordingly. If his work seems 
to fail, let it be tested, and if it has failed through 
1 any fault, under his control, hold him to a strict 



account; but if it has failed through any fault of 
the service, hold the railroad company responsi- 

This is the spirit of the resolutions recently 
adopted by the Wheel Makers' Association, and 
which we give in another column. It is simple, 
reasonable and just. Its adoption in practice will 
secure for the railroads the best wheels that can 
be made, and at the least cost of time and ma- 
chinerj-. AVheu a wheel is scrapped and a doubt 
exists as to who is responsible for its failure, 
amine into its material and workmanship. If they 
meet the highest standard which experience 
demanded, it is manifestly unfair to impeach the 
character of the maker by holding him responsible 
for matters beyond his control. If they do not it 
is just as unfair that the railroad company should 
pay for poor material and defective work. 

As for instance, a wheel is scrapped for "sharp 
Hange. " If, on breaking it up, it is found to have 
a good deep chill at the root of the flange, it is 
much more likely that the failure was due to 
the construction of the truck, or the pairing of the 
wheels, or the condition of the track, than to the 
quality of the wheel. Or, if it has failed from a 
"cracked bracket" or "shelled out spot," and on 
breaking it up it lakes more than the live blows 
required by the specilications to break it in two, 
and then does not break through the ciacked 
bracket but at some other iioiut, or if the shelled 
out spot shows a deep clean chill with discolored 
fracture, it is much more likely that the dam- 
age was done by the heating of the brake, or by 
sliding of the wheel, than by anything within 
tbe control of the maker. Or, on the other side, 
if a wheel is thrown out for "flat spots" and it is 
found on breaking it up that tbe chill was too 
light, then it is fair to presume that the defect 
was not altogether due to sliding or the action of 
the brake. Yet tbe railroad companies, without 
any examination into causes of failure, liold the 
wheel maker responsible for cracked brackets and 
shelled out treads, but not for wheels 'flattened, 
ignoring the fact that the same cause will produce 
dififerent results under different circumstances. 

A wheel hard enough on the tread to wear well 
will probably crack in the bracket or shell out on 
the tread, whilst a soft or light chill, which will 
not in ordinary service wear well, will become flat 
by the same action of the brake. Yet the maker 
of the good and serviceable wheel is condemned 
for his work, and the maker of the poor wheel is 
not. There is occasion, we believe for a thorough 
consideration of this feature of the contract. 

In the discussion before the New England Club 
Mr. Shirn biought out another point, one relating 
to settlements for wheel service. The cost of re- 
moving and putting on wheels is an important 
element in determining the cost of wheel service 
on the mileage basis. Mr. Shinn's estimate of 
§'2-5() as tbe average expense of changing a pair 
of wheels is probably not too large (Mr. Lauder 
placed it at §3), in view of the fact that some 
wheels are put in at junction points, ami others at 
stations where men and wheels have to be sent at 
considerable expense. It would be interesting to 
know just whatthe average actual expense of such 
changing really is, and we understand that there 
is a plan now under consideration by which the 
required figures can be gotten at. Several roads in 
the east and in the west will, if the plan matures, 
keep accurate account of the cost of putting on a 
hundred wheels, as the orders come in for them. 
We should think that by taking a consecutive hun- 
dred on each of several roads all the conditions 
under which wheels are changed would be met — 
that is, some of the hundred would be put in at the 
shops, some atstations and others between stations. 

There is a great deal in this subject of wheel 
guarantees, and we trust that the renewed interest 
now being manifested in it will not be allowed to 
flag until the "standard" that has been adopted 
by the Master Car Builders' Association is fully 
perfected nor until tliat standard is rigidly ob- 

We do not suppose that any one who is at all ac- 
quainted with Superintendent Bonzano, of the Phil- 
adelphia & Reading, ever believed for a moment 

that he had issued an ordei- concerning the beard; 
ot the employes of that company. He is spoken of 
by those who know him as one of the brightest and 
most successful of the younger generation of railway 
officers, and his record, made in holh troublous and 
peaceful times, is an enviable one. As we write the 
announcement is made of his promotion to the posi- 
tion of assistant general superintendent of the Phil- 
adelphia & Reading system. This is a sullicient 
answer to any attack upon his ability or good name. 
He is not the kind of a man to make a fuss about 

But it any railway superintendent, general mana- 
ger or president ever does issue such an order our 
esteemed contemporary, the Car Builder, will be 
deeply grieved. It has interposed the a^gris of its 
protection between the beards of the railway em- 
ployes of this country and the ruthless tyrants who 
might, could, would or should order them to be 
shaved or trimmed. 

"Clip, if you must, every hair 

... . . y head, 

But spare, oh spare my beard," he said. 

It has elevated its banner, and the inscription 
thereon is " Whiskers."' It is defiant— not to say 

" For whoso doth these boots displace 
Must meet Bombastes face to face. 
And who our beards or %vhisl(ers blames. 
Shall be called several naughty names." 

We like to see such a subject handled in that way 
—by our contemporary. That The Railway Mas- 
ter Mechanic would never have done a thing like 
that we admit. But we watch, with deep interest, 
the progress which our contemporary is making in 
becoming a Terror. And may we not hope to see 
other and even frequent manifestations of that dar- 
ing spirit which, impatient of the delay which an 
attempt to get at the real facts of a case would cause, 
bulges ahead and smashes things? 

As to the intelligence, ability and independent 
manhood of the employes of the Philadelphia & 
Reading: to intimate that they are below the em- 
ployes of other roads in these respects is the 
merest flimflam and whansdoodle. The train- 
men of that road are courteous and intelligent 
in a high degree, and we notice that the engine men 
not only make time, but manage to avoid accidents 
to an extent that is very satisfactory to the traveling 

Erratum.— In our issue of February in the article 
on fire boxes we inadvertently gave the wrong fig- 
ures as to the increase of air admission area through 
the grates. The increase, instead of being " 1-4.5 to 
1-27,"' should have been stated as "from 27 per cent, 
to 30 per cent." 


In the Valley Falls shops of the New York, Provi- 
dence & Boston Railroad they have plaster casts 
made of tire sections, taken at intervals and pre- 
served, thus making a very convenient method of 
recording tire rfear. 

A company down in Boston has been trying to 
bottle up heat in cars designed for carrying potatoes, 
fruit, etc. The scheme is to load the car, which has 
double walls filled in with tan bark, double doors, 
etc., and then put in a portable stove and heat up 
the inside of the car and its contents to a pretty high 
temperature, after which the stove is taken out, the 
doors sealed tight and the car started toward its 
destination. The results of this attempt to "can" 
caloric as a housewife cans peaches do not seem to 
have been very encouraging. As the trainman said 
of a certain method of heating passenger cars " it 
works first-rate it the weather doesn"t get too cold."" 
When the thermometer gets down to 10 or 20 degrees 
below zero no overcoat of wood and lining of tan 
bark will keep the frost out of a car. A western 
blizzard spitting frozen mercury and howling over, 
under and around a car would take every particle of 

heat out of it in a few hours even if its walls were 
two or three feet in thickness. But of all cities in 
this country Boston is prolific in absurd and impos- 
sible inventions. 

A yellow pencil is better than any other for cor- 
recting or marking blue prints. Red is too trying 
to the eyes. 

A novelty in flat cars is used about the Valley 
Falls shops of the New York, Providence & Boston 
Railroad. It is about the usual length, and over the 
trucks :s of the standard height. But dropping 
down between the trucks the floor is justa few inches 
from the top of the rail. This has proven of great 
advantage in the loading of heavy materials and 
machinery, and transferring switching houses, etc., 
which have to be loaded from the ground. 

An English firm has just completed one of five lo- 
comotive boilers which are of great interest as being 
among the largest ever constructed. The total 
length of each boiler is approximately 20 ft. .5 in.; 
the mean diameter of the shell is 6 ft.; the internal 
fire-box measures 6 ft. 3 in. by -5 ft. o in. by 5 ft. 10 
in.; they are fitted with 2-54 2} in. tubes. The total 
heating surface is about 1723 sq. ft., and the working 
pressure is KiO lbs. 

The Boston Belting Company has a very handy 
method of handling its electrotypes. Most of those 
used by the company are about 2x2* ins. in size, and 
each one is put into a wooden box into which it will 
just slip. On the box the number or description of 
the electrotype can be plainly written, and there is 
plenty of room for the address if one is to be mailed. 
The boxes can be bought very cheaply. 

The records of some of the locomotives in regular 
service on the New York, Providence & Boston Rail- 
way are very interesting, and we desire to call at- 
tention to the admirable showing of engine No. 19. 
This engine was built in April, 1886, by the Rhode 
Island Locomotive Works, and has been in continu- 
ous service on passenger trains ever since, averaging 
44 stops to every 100 miles run. The general dimen- 
sions are; Cylinder, 17x24: wheels, 62 in.; total 
weight of engine in running order, 9,5,000 lbs.,t>.5,- 
000 lbs. of which is on the drivers. The tires when 
w were 2* in. thick, and after a mileage of 111,327 
les the tires were turned and reduced to 2 9-lli in., 
showing a reduction of .5-16 in., or 22,268 miles for 
every 1-16 in. of tire wear. The repairs of these 111,- 
327 miles amounted to 00228 cents per mile. This 
includes a proportion of superintendency, and all 
items charged to general locomotive repairs. No 
driver brakes were used, and it is estimated a bettor 
record on tires of at least 50,000 miles could have 
been made had the engine been equipped with driver 
brakes and Ross-Meehan shoe. The miles run to one 
ton of coal, 44 91-100. Pounds of coal per mile, 
49 79-100. Miles run to a pint of lubricating oil, 
2.i 11-100. Miles run to a pint of cylinder oil, 49 38-100. 
We think this record is remarkable when we take 
into account the crooked line over which trains were 

Superintendent of Motive Power Henney, of the 
New York & New England road, has succeded in 
making an alloy composed of ingot copper and lead 
The mixture contains about 20 per cent, of lead and 
the product has every appearance of a genuine alloy. 
Mr. Henney hiis been using it in locomotive driving 
boxes for some months, and is entirely satisfied with 
its action. Not one of these bearings in service has 
heated in the least. Owing to the great difference 
between the melting points of these metals the pro- 
duction of a genuine alloy of copper and lead ha-s 
been generally regarded as impracticable. 

The location of the road tests of brake shoes to bo 
made by the M. C. B. committee on best metal for 
brake shoes has been decided upon. The manage- 
ment of the C. R. I. & P. have offered the use of 
their South Chicago branch for the tests and the 
offer has been gratefully accepted. The piece of 



track is level and straight and admirably suited to 
ine purpose. The Rock Island management are to 
be commended for their courtesy and tor the interest 
in scientific research which the extension of that 
courtesy implies. 

It is reported that the Pennsylvania Railroad will 
fit its entire passeng3r equipment with steam heat 
next season. 

Very few visitors to railway shops have any idea 
of the number of distinct occupations with which 
the numerous workmen seen are busied. Indeed, we 
doubt if many of the shop officials and hands them- 
selves realize how many trades and vocations are 
represented among their co-workers. The following 
list of actual workers at the shops of a large east- 
ern road, copied from a blank of that road, will prove 
not only interesting but surprising to a good many 
of our readers: 


Pinning mill. 

Master mechanics. 
Foreman car repaJ 
General foremen. 
Engineer c' *— - 


! Macbinists. 
g I Boiler makers 
g Blacksmiths. 
5 i Hammer shop 
§ I Car repairtTS. 
g 1 Car builders. 

L Car cleaners. 


Air brake inspectors and 

Axle turners. 

f Blacksmiths. 
I Boiler makers. 
Copper and tin 
Car builders. 

"l Foundry. 

I Pattern -sliop. 

Cut cleanei-s. 
Pipe fitters an 
Gas makers. 

£ I Moulders. 
a 1 Painters. 
< Pattern mi 

^h pit c 

Shifting conductors. 
Water tank repairers. 
iScale repairers. 
(Test Dept. assistant. 
BT THE nor». 

Copper and tin shop. 

Car repair shop, pnssen- 

Car repair shop, freight. 
Engine cleaners. 

Hammersmen helpers. 

Hammer boys. 



1 I Machine shop. 

Bolt makers. 
Bolt cutters. 
Bricklayers, masons and 

Bricklayers, masons and 


Copuersmitlis' helpers. 


Coal and wood heavers. 


" T inspectors, passenger. 

r inspector: 

Car cleaners. 
Car oilers. 

f Cleaners. 

I Dumpers. 
Engine -i Preparers 

Electro replater. 

Flue cleaners. 

Foundrymen { Moulder*. 


I'Machine hands, planing 

iPipe « 
.Pipe t 
]Pipe t 

Sheet ii on workers' li 

Spting maker helpen 
lender truck repaire 


Wipers (see engine cleanei '. 

Gang foremen of-! Engine 
I, Rod "el 

Here are 143 different classes of employes recog- 
nized on the wages sheet. There are not 143 differ- 
ent trades, for, as will be seen, there are blacksmiths, 
blacksmiths' apprentices and foremen of blacksmiths, 
and so on, yet after allowing for these duplications 
the number of distinct trades represented is notable. 

A recent dispatch states that the general shops of 
the Burlington road have been located at Lincoln, 
Neb.; that work will commence upon them this 
spring; that from 1,000 to 1,500 men will bo em- 
ployed in the works when completed, and that the 
sum of $275,000 has been appropriated by the com- 
pany for the construction of these shops. We learn 

that the dispatch rather anticipates the facts and 
that probably not more than 200 or 2-50 men will be 
employed at these shops for some time, and that they 
will not be the main shops, at least for the present. 
The locomotive shops ai-e to be first built and will be 
modeled somewhat upon those at West Burlington, 
la., owned by the same road. They will be located 
just west of the town of Lincoln. The amount appro- 
priated is as stated. 

Fifteen notable locomotives are now being built 
for the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad at the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. They are among the 
heaviest that have been turned out in this country. 
They are 10-wheelers and have 64 in. boilers with 
Wootten fire-boxes, 20x24 in. cylinders, and .5 ft. driv- 
ing wheels. We understand that they are not fitted 
with extension fronts. They are intended for fast 
freight service and heavy passenger service. We 
understand that they are quite similar to the Erie 
10-wheelers which have been making such a good 
record, and which were built by the same company. 

Among the remarkable examples of bold engineer- 
ing in the great sugar refinery of Claus Spreckels, at 
Philadelphia, Pa., one of the most unique is the 
hanging or aerial steam engine foundations. The 
engines used in the establishment are distributed 
practically all over the buildings, a large proportion 
of them being on upper floors. Some of these en- 
gines are bolted to iron beams or girders on second 
and third stories of the building, and are consequent- 
ly innocent of all foundation. Some of these engines 
ran noiselessly and satisfactorily, while others pro- 
duced more or less vibration and rattle. To correct 
the latter the engineers simplv suspended founda- 
tions from the bottoms of the engines, so that in look- 
ing at them from the lower floors, they were literally 
hanging in the air. 

The Mississippi legislature has memorialized con- 
gress to enact a law compelling the use of automatic 
couplers and brakes on freight cars engaged in inter- 
state commerce. 

Several railroads have from time to time stopped 
wiping their engines from motives of economy. We 
have always felt that this was a poor policy, but, 
from the results of recent inquiry, we must concede 
that there may be times when it can with temporary 
advantage be adopted. The engines alway.s, of 
course, get very dirty and filthy looking when they 
are not wiped, but we are assured by one gentleman, 
who was some time ago compelled to adopt this 
measure of economy, that the destruction to the ma- 
chinery is not what might be anticipated. This 
gentleman is now wiping all his engines, but assures 
us that he would not hesitate under the same condi- 
tions that existed when he stopped wiping engines 
to again omit that feature of care. 

Something over two years ago we gave illustra- 
tions and a very full description of the shops of the 
Worcester division of the New York, Providence & 
Boston Railway, located at Valley Falls, R. I., a 
short distance out from Providence. We had occa- 
sion then to be quite enthusiastic over the systeijs 
and neatness visible at every turn in these model 
shops; and a second visit made there recently indi 
cates that there has been no let-down in the high 
standard then maintained. These shops are under 
the charge of Mr. Albert Griggs, master mechanic, 
and are conveniently located for the purpose, and 
are marvels of neatness and capable organization. 
On one side is to be found the paint shop, supply de- 
partment, and the oflSce and drafting rooms. Just 
across, and separated by a transfer table, ai'e to be 
seen the machine, blacksmith, and wood-working 
shops. On entering the machine shop, our attention 
was at once arrested by the old time general neatness 
pervading the place, and the admirable plan of ar- 
rangements. With exceptional light, the tools are 
well grouped and selected with care. It is a very 
difficulty matter in a shop of moderate pretensions 
to guard against locking up capital in special ma- 
chines wnich are only used at intervals, and to select 

such tools as will expeditiously and cheaply turn 
out the work demanded, and at the same time be 
available for diversi fled uses. This shop is excep- 
tional in this respect, and worthy of study. Here 
are to be seen the air brake school, and a model tool 
room, and adjacent thereto a wash room. This 
room is ample in siae for the purposes intended, pro- 
vided with a lavatory including hot and cold water^ 
and a locke* for each man. We noticed a great 
many handy rigs, kinks, etc., and we were much im- 
pressed with the various short cuts which were the 
outgrowth of intelligence and experience. The 
wood-working shop and drying room are ample; 
commodious and well arranged, and the method of 
classifying patterns is in keeping with the other ad- 
mirable systems in use. Over the engine room is 
located the bath room for the use of the 
workmen and at other points are located 
conveniences for the use of employes. Where 
there is such thought and care for the com- 
fort of workmen, it is not surprising that good re- 
sults are manifest. This road follows a river from 
Worcester to Providence, and along its banks are 
located a great many mills, making one continuous 
chain of towns which overlap each other. Following 
as it does the river, it makes a very crooked road. 
There is hardly two miles of straight track in the 
whole 30 miles. This road is up to date in all of its 
appointments, its passenger trains being equipped 
with steam heat, the Westinghouse quick acting 
brake, and the Westinghouse train signal. It is 
using exclusively the Crosby chime whistle, so that 
the unearthly screeching of the ordinary type of 
whistle is unknown among these hills, and in its 
stead is the musical chord of three notes which is 
pleasing to the ear, and capable pf being heard a 
great distance. 

Besponsibility for Cars Damaged on Private Tracks. 

Among some recent decisions of the M. C. B. 
arbitration committee one rendered February 14, on 
a question of responsibility for cars damaged on 
private tracks is of especial interest. The cases were 
those of the Kansas City Belt Ry. Co. vs. "other 
lines'' and are stated as follows: 

In December, 1SS9, the superintendent of the Kansas 
City Belt Railway Co. submitted the following facts and 
asked for the decisions of the arbitration committee in the 
three cases named below, having in view the fact that the 
K, C. B. U. R. Co was handling these cars for other lines 
on a switching charge. 

a. "A lumber company, doing business on the line of the 
Belt Railway or a switch put in by the Belt Railway Co. 
on the lumber company's grounds, and on which the lum- 
ber company pays an annual rental for the use thereof, un- 
der a five years' contract, cut a hole in the end of a car In 
order to unload the lumber it contained." 

b. "Another lumber company, operating a track under 


carried off." 

c. "The third case is that of the Argentine Sand Co., 
who own their own tracks. The Belt Railway has simply 
a connection with them and places the cars on their tracks, 
where the Argentine Sand Co. switches them around by 
hand and team. In making a switch a few days ago in this 
manner they allowed a car to come up so hard £ 
other one that a draw-head was broken short c 

"The question is, who is responsible for these 
under Rule 27, the company delivering us the cars to the 
place on these tracks, or this company.'' 

The decision on these cases is as follows: 

"The principle of the rules of interchange is, that 
parties causing damage to other parties' rolling 
stock are responsible for that damage, and Rule No. 
27 only prescribes what parties shall make the set- 
tlement with the parties in whose hands the cars 
were when the damage occurred. 

"The opinion of the committee is that all three of 
the cases cited occurred upon private tracks as con- 
templated by Rule 27, and that therefore the com- 
pany for which the switching service was done in 
each of these cases should assume the settlement 
with the parties in whose hands the cars were dam- 
aged, it being understood by the committee that all 
these cases occurred since September 1, 1889." 

The committee adds that it will recommend to the 
convention in June, 1890, to omit the exception now 
contained in Rule 27, and to leave the rule as it was 
before the revision of 1889. 



Locomotive 14S of the Old Colony Railroad, cue of 
Ml-. J. N. Lauder's standard 18x24 in. locomotives 
designed to carry 17-5 lbs. of steam, was selected early 
in November, 1889, for the purpose of subjecting it 
to au exhaustive test. This engine was new and had 
been run sufficiently long to be in good condition in 
every respect. The work of indicating the engine 
was given to Mr. F. W. Dean, who went very thor- 
oughly into all the details that should be observed 
in gaining accurate information as to the economy 
of a locomotive. Upward of 700 cards were taken, 
from which we are enabled, by Mr. Dean's courtesy, 

to select those that we give. The indicator rig with 
which the cards were taken, was designed by Mr. 

The indicator gear used was, as will be seen 
by our engravings, of the pantagraph type, 
and gave complete satisfaction. It is rigid, accurate 
in its reduction, and allows the use of the shortest 
possible cord. It must be accurately made, but can 
be placed in position in the most careless manner. 
The pantagraph is of such a nature that its correct- 
ness of indication is not in the least degree affected 
by vertical or forward and backward displacement 
of the supporting stand. 

Our engraving shows its construction so clearly 

M. K. P.. Front, 
M. E. P., Back. 
H. P. of Engine, 
Throttle, wide. 
Spring, lOO. 

Revs, per Mil 
Cut-off, 4"4 ii 

Nov, 7, north. 
No. 42, Rt, Cyl, 
Steam, 1.57. 
Cut-off, 4 '4 in. 
Revs, per Min,, 

Throttle wide oper 
M,E, P,, Front, 39 
M, E, P„ Back, as-; 
H. P. of Engine, 3!); 
Spring, 100, 

M. E, P„ Front, 18-7 
M, E. P,, Back, -iir,. 
H. P. of Engine, 4S.5. 
Throttle, wide. 
Spring, 100 

Cut-off, 7;, in. 
Revs, per Min., 

M, E, P., Front, e»-i. 
M. E. P., Back, (i2-7. 
H. P. of whole Engine, 
Throttle, wide. . 
Spring, 100. 

that but little description is necessary. The points 
A, B and C must be in a straight line, and links .1 E 
and B D must be parallel and likewise the links VB 
and FG. These conditions will be always fulfilled 
no matter what may be the position of the crosshead, 
and they cannot be destroyed by lifting up the stand 
or by shoving it forward or backward. Now it is 
necessary to have Ci) equal to B D. The link OJi' 
can connect the other links at any convenient posi- 
tion, either above or below the point B. It must 
only be parallel and equal to V E. The path fol- 
lowed by C will be reproduced on a smaller scale by 
^—reversed when A is above B and not reversed 
when A is below B. In the latter case the point E 


No, 7, left Cy 
Steam, llil. 
Cut-off, 7'.. in 
Revs, per Mil 

Nov, 7, north. 
No. 41, Rt. Cyl, 
Steam, 1.57, 
Revs, per Min., 
Cut-off, 73-> in. 

No. 22, left Cyl 
Steam, 16.3. 
Cut-off, lOV in. 


E, P, 






P. of Eneine 





ring, 100, 

M, E. P,, Front, 94'5. 
M. E, P,, Back, 9.3-7. 
H, P. of Engine, 321. 

Throttle wide open. 
M, E, P,, Front, 433. 
M, E, P., Back, 44-5. 
H. P. of Engine, 7iM. 
Spring, 100, 

.M, E, i 
M. E. P., Back, 7C 
H. P. of Engine. ^ 
Throttle, \ open. 
Spring, 100. 




is between C and D. The scale of reduction depends 
upon the ratio of .1 J? to B C, and this ratio cannot 
be destroyed after once having been established. 

The indicators which were used in the tests re- 
ferred to were Thompson's, made by the American 
Steam Gauge Company, Boston, and they were very 
satisfactory. One was used on each cylinder, and 
they were so placed that the } in. pipes from the 
cylinders, though long, were well drained. The 
pipes were well protected from the air by being 
heavily wrapped with felt and canvas, the latter be- 
ing painted after being in place. The indicator was 
also heavily wrapped with felt. On the left side 
there was a steam gauge showing the pressure in the 
steam chest, and on the right there was a Schaffer 
& Budenberg counter connected with the indicator 
gear. This counter could be used when wanted, and 
did not operate at any other time. It could be in- 


otion when care is 
taken in designing. The proportions employed in 
this case must have been exceptionally good. The 
admission and expansion lines are excellent, the 
back pressure at a minimum, and the area lost by 
compression smaller than usual. Incidentally, these 
diagrams illustrate the effect of speed upon the area 
of the cards. It will be seen that there are quite a 
numljer of those illustrated in which the cut-off is 
4i in. Taking the one in which the speed was the 
lowest, and comparing it with those taken at higher 
speeds, we find the area of the latter is in an inverse 
ratio to the speed. This area is lost on both sides of 
the card, for the admission and expansion lines are 
lower and the compression line higher. 

The work is in each case very well distributed be- 
tween the two ends of the cylinder, being almost 
equally good at all cut-otTs. It would be interesting 

following resolutions passed unanimously at the re- 
cent New York annual meeting of the Association of 
Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels will he of in- 

Ratolvcd, That this association accepts with satisfaction 
the action of the Railway Master Mechanics' and of the Mas- 
ter Car Builders' associations, upon the report of the joint 
conference committee on "Specifications and Guarantees 
for Chilled Cast Iron Car Wheels," with the understanding 
expressed in the follow preamble and resolutions : 

Preamble — Whereas, the wheel maker has no cnntrol 
over the conditions of railroad service; and, whereas, such 
conditions vary materially on different roads : 

Therefore^ Resolved— \. That in all mileage or time 
guarantees, the wheel maker ought to be held responsible 
only for wheels which fail through faults of material or 

■3. That when wheels are taken out of service, on account 
of sharp Banges, flat spots, comby or shelled out treads, or 
for cracked brackets or plates and it is found, on breaking 
up the wheels, that the depth and character of the chill, 
and the strength and character of the metal in the plates, 
are up to the standard specifications adopted by the joint 
conference committee of the Railway Master Me 

i were i 

stantly thrown into or out of action, and thus the 
number of revolutions in any number of seconds 
could be determined with only a very_slight error. 

There was a person at each cylinder, and an ob- 
server in the cab who signaled tor diagrams every 
two minutes, when he also took observations. 

Progressive steam pressure trials w&ve made with 
the object of determining the economy due to in- 
cresising the pressure, but there is little or no evi- 
dence of any gain. Two round tr 
l40 1bs.,two with 160 lbs., and 
two with 17-5 lbs. Perhaps it the 
trials had been extended there 
would have been convincing evi- 
dence. The actual water used 
per indicated horse power per 
hour was for south bound trips 
about 30 lbs., and for north 
bound trips about 24 lbs., while 
for round trips it was about 27 
lbs. It is not entirely clear why 
the south bound trips were more 
extravagant in the use of water 
per 1 h. p. than the north bound 
trips, but thedifference was per- 
sistent throughout the trials 
which lasted seven days. 

The greatest observed speed 
was 376 revolutions per minute, 
equivalent to a mile in 46 7-10 
seconds, or at 77 1-10 miles per 
hour, while a speed above 70 
miles per hour was a rate reach- 
ed every day. 

Specimen indicator diagrams, 
which can be indefinitely dup- 
licated from those taken, are 
herewith illustrated. Probably 
no cards as good as these have 
ever been taken frem a link mo- 
tion engine. They are instruc- 
ve,for tb ey show how much can 


clearance size of ports lap and travel of valves, and 
the principal dimensions of the link motion, but this 
information is not at hand at this writing. 

-Position of the Wheel 

new of the current discussion on the speoifica- 
and guarantee for chilled cast iron wheels, the 

service and not to the quality of the wheels, and that the 
wheel maker ought not to be cilled upon in such cases to 
pay for or replace any such wheels. 

The boiler illustrated in the accompanying cut was 
designed by the Rhode Island Locomotive Works to 
withstand a working pressure of ISO lbs. per square 


Makoh, 1890. 




, a pressure which is considerably in excess of 
iverage practice. While it presents no features 

hich are a wide departure from present customs, it 

ill be seen to be very 

refully designed. The 
boiler is 56 in. in diameter at the first course and 68! 
in. diameter at the wagon top. The shell is 9-16 in. 
thick, and the longitudinal seams are butt joints 
with a wide welt strip 7-16 in. thick on the inside 

and a narrower one of the same thickness on the 
outside. A detail of this seam is shown in sectioo 
and plan above the boiler. The roundabout seams 
are double riveted. The dome is securely fastened 
to the shell by flanging the shell up into the dome a 

shown. In addition to the flanging of the sheets 
there is a 5i.\J in. ring riveted on the inside of the 
shell. It is not unusual to use this ring when the 
dome is placed upon the shell ahead of the flre-bo-t, 
but when the stays from the crown bars enter the 
dome, the ring is often thought to be unnecessary. 
In a boiler intended to carry high pressures, how- 
ever, it adds considerably to the strength at a point 
where it is needed. 

The crown is supported by -SJxJ in. crown bars and 
I in. crown bolts placed about 44 in. centers. The 
stay bolts are J in. diameter except the hollow stays 
through which air is admitted above the fire, and 
the three upper rows which are 1 in. As is well 
known, these latter, when of the same diameter as the 
remainder, break more often than any others. To 
more fully protect the top rows of staybolts along 
the sides of the box from breaking, long stay rods 
extend across the boiler just above the crown. These 
are shown in both the longitudinal and transverse sec- 

The water space at the sides and front of the box 
enlarges toward the top. At the sides the water 
space is 3 in. at the bottom, 3* in. at the curve in the 
spjice, and nearly -5* in. at the top, thus assisting cir- 
culation materially. The firebrick arch is supported 
upon 2 in. water tubes located as shown. The back 
head and front tube sheet are braced with tee iron 
from which braces extend to the shell. No stays ex- 
tend the whole length of the boiler from tube sheet 
to hack head. The back head has additional stiffen- 
ing in the shape of a 6 in. liner. 

The grate area of this boiler is 1841 sq. ft. and tho 
total heating surface 1,446 sq. ft., of which 1,270 is 
tube surface and the remainder, 176 sq. ft., is fire-box' 

CircaUrB of Inquiry— Bailway Hsiter Mechanics' Aaiociation. 

The following circulars have been issued by 
the committees appointed at the last master me- 
chanics' convention to investigate the ''Relative 
Value of Steel and Iron Axles'' and the "Efficiency 
of the Link as Compared with Other Valve Mo- 

To the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association : 
XTLEMEX— Your committee on "Relative Value of 
Steel and Iron Axles" respectfully submit the following 

What, in your opinion, would be the safe limit of di- 
ameter for driving axles; 

Weight i>er .Journal 
1 i2.000 1 

Steei i 111,000 V 

20.000 I 

ngine truck axles. 

Weight per Journal. 


For tender and i 

3 i'Zi 

■ I uiooo ! 

: wear of steel and iron axle 

2. Please give the relat 
journals per .5U,0(J0 miles run. 

3. Please give the relative wear of journal bearings on 
steel and iron axles per .">0,(HKi miles. 

4. Have you bad any steel axles break under locomotives 
or cars ; It so, were they crucible, open hearth or Besse- 
mer! Please give mileage to time of fracture. 

it. In your practice do you liud steel driving axles to run 
any longer without turning t lian iron i Please give number 

of miles run between turnings. Steel 

Iron .... 

Tno.-. Sniw, 

Replies to be sent to Mr. John Macken^tie, superintendent 
of motive power. New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, 
Cleveland, O. Axots Sintlaik, 



To the American Kailnn M , 

Oentlemen:— ThtTMi ,,, 
meeting of the asso, i r 
as Compared with i>i i 
formation that you \vi 1 
and olhervalve motiwtjs wiiii 

1. Results of tests made > 
link wit.h other valve motions 

2. Indicator diagrams taken from engines 

■isociation : 
xi general 
I the Link 

iew of comparing t 


Makch, 1890. 

equipped with the link and other valve motions. Give dia- 
meter and stroke of cylinder, lap, lead and ti'avel of valve, 
and size of steam and exhaust ports. 

8. Cost of fitting up new, and maintenance, as compared 
with the link motion. 

4. Blue prints or drawings of valve motions. 

.5. Have the results demonstrated that the motions 
tested were so tar superior to the link that you would 
equip locomotives with them in preference to the link J If 
so. please give your reasons for so doing; if otherwise, 
state objections. 

Any information regarding form of valve motions, other 
than the link, that you deem interesting, the committee 
will be pleased to rece"ive. It is to be hoped that you may 
be enabled to comply with this request, as a creditable and 
reliable report on so import int a subject is very much to be 
desired. You will increase the obligation by forwarding 
the information at your earliest convenience. 
J.IMES M. Boox, "i 


H. Tandv, 

■ Committee. 

Answers should be addressed to Mr. James M. Boot 
West Shore Railway, Frankfort, N. Y. 

Angus Siscl.iih, Secretary. 


McConway, Torley & Co., the makers of the Jan- 
ney coupler, have carefully collected the records of 
breakages of that coupler with the purpose of ascer- 
taining definitely just how many failures their de- 
vice was sustaining and of just what nature those 
failures were. The fio-ures thus gathered are very 
surprising and will be welcomed by the believers in 
the M. C. B. standard vertical hook counler as sub- 
stantiating the position they have taken. We append 
a tabular summary of these figures by which it will 
be seen that of the 67,000 and odd couplers that are 
in service only about 4 per cent, failed. The period 
of service covered by these figures is from July 10, 
1888, to Feb. 1, 1S90. An averaging of the time of 
service of these couplers shows it to be about 12 
months, which indicates that the number of break- 
ages reported may with perfect fairness be taken as 
the record of one year's service. The figures were 
obtained by means of reports made to McConway, 
Torley & Co. upon the blank shown herewith, the 
report as to the nature of the breakage being made 
clear and unmistakable by the sketching in ot the 
broken part ot knuckle, body or lock as the case 
might be, as indicated on the blank that we have 
sketched in. As the coupler company sells its wares 
under agreement to replace defective bodies, and to 
give one knuckle for every two broken ones, it will 
be seen that there is every reason to assume that 
every failure was reported to the coupler company. 
Some brief comment upon the showing here made 
may be found in our editorial column. 

Upper lug otr 

" chipped 

■■ cracked — 

Lower lug off 

'■ chippe<l 

Both lugs ofr 

■• •'■ bricked 

Upper lug off. lower chipped. 
Lower " '" upper chipped 

rail off 


i\ 0086 
1 0048 

67.64:1 I 

67-M3 95H 

67,M3 oan 

67.0431 OOai 













A ff 

c' Tl 




Bncket k 1 
lT ' "^ 





End of barrel split oft 

Draft bolt pulied through. 



In our issue of January, 1889, we illustrated the 
Westinghouse friction buffer, a novel departure in 
draft rigging. The e.xperience of that buffer in 
service led to improvements which are shown in the 
engravings that we now present. The idea of this 
device, it will be remembered, was to increase the 
capacity of the draft gear for absorbing the severe 
buffing and pulling strains to which cars are sub- 
jected in service. The operation of the improved 
apparatus may be briefly described as follows, refer- 
ring to Figs. I, 2 and 3: When the drawhead A is 
pressed back, the first inch of its motion compresses 


Becord of Janney freight coupler, received from . . 

...... Station. Consigr^edly • ^JJI^/^- ' 

. . . . Memo. No Inspected by 

No. .. 

Knuckle— Upper lug off.. 

'U-half replaced 






Knuckle pin. 
Locking pin. 

Clevis. . 

initial spring C, driving back the wedge block 
0, thereby forcing apart the wedge plates JT and 
compressing the interlocked sets of friction plates P 
and P. Any further inward movement of the draw- 
head results In lorcing the tightly compressed fric- 
tion plates P together in a vertical direction, at the 
same time compressing the main draft spring. Thus 
the mechanical work done by the above parts, which 
are inclosed in the buffer body B, is transmitted to 
the main straps E, and they again transmit the 
thrust to the end sill. When the draw-head is sub- 
jected to a pull, the operation is the same as the 
above and with the same result. Draw rods J J tie 


Fni. 4 — Showing various Positions of Westinghouse Buf 

fer in Action, 
the buffer at one end ot the car to the buffer at the 
other end, forming also a continuous draw-bar. A 
thrust or a pull on the draw-head will therefore pass 
through an elastic medium and be distributed very 
generally throughout the car. 

The capacity of the apparatus is stated to be as 
follows, as determined by averaging several tests 
made on both Riehle and Olsen testing machines: 


Resistance due to initial spring 13,00fl 

" friction 37.44.i 

draft spring 18,000 

Total resistance 68,445 

Foot lbs. 

Work done in compressing friction buffer 8.38fi 

Work done in compressing present ordinary draft 
spring, 6x8 inches, Hi inch motion, and 18.000 lbs. ca- 
pacity 1,314 

Ratio of work done in compressing buffer to work done 
in compressing ordiaary draft spring ^"^ -> 6*46 

In Pig. 4 we show the various positions of the 
parts of the apparatus when under compression, 
and when being pulled, thus giving an accurate idea 
of the sequence of action ot the two springs and the 
friction plates, it being understood that the initial 
spring is in this figure concealed from view by the 
friction plates. 

This apparatus was exhibited to railway men dur- 
ing the paat month at Chicago, Cleveland, Buffalo 
and New York, a train of 23 Pennsylvania cars 
equipped with it being manipulated by being 
bunched and pulled out by two heavy engines, and 
by cutting the train in two and bumping the two 
parts together at varying speeds. These various 
manipulations satisfied the on-lookers that the fric- 

March, 1890. 


tion buffer does the work required of it in a satis- 
fsictory manner, and that the shocks were effectively 
absorbed. The improved apparatus is, we under- 
stand, to be placed upon seven more Pennsylvania 
cars — making 30 for that road; 12 Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy cars; 10 Chicago, Milwauke & St. Paul 
cars, and 34 Old Colony ca rs. It will thus have an 
excellent opportunity to demonstrate its worth in 
daily service, under widely varying conditions. As 
our readers will remember it is manufactured by the 
Union Switch and Signal Co., Swissvale, Fa. 


Car Inspection and Carding The System Employed on the 

Chicago & Northwestern Railway. 
To the EdUur of the Kailway MusUt Mechanic: 

The subject of car inspection and carding is now under 
discussion by the Western Railway Club, and perhaps our 
system on the Chicago & Northwestern Railway used at 
the South Branch and Wood Street stations, will be of 
some interest, and a description of it in your paper will 
not be out of place. 

At our South Branch station we receive cars from sixteen 
roads. Upon the arrival of a train from a connecting line, 
immediately after their engine has cut loose and before our 
engine handles the train, two inspectors, one on each side, 
slowly and carefully examine the cars. As a guide to our 
own inspectors at the South Branch and Wood Street yards, 
and to instantly determine the particular man who in- 
spected a certain part of any car, the head day car inspec- 
tor, having completed his inspection of a car, chalks 
his inspection mark "A" and date on one corner of the car; 
his assistant chalks on his side of car at the corner "B'' 
and the date; the head night inspector "C" and date and 
his assistant ^^D" and date. 

No record is kept of cars in good order and with parts 
all standard. It car A should have some defect which did 
not render it unsafe to vuxi or unsafe to trainmen, or some 
part not standard to car for which there was a master car 
builders' card on car, the head inspector allows the car to 
go forward and makes an entry in his inspection book 
showing date, car number, initials, road received from, de- 
fects or wrong parts for which the master car builders' 
card was placed on, and immediately after such defects 
states what road issued the card, giving date and signa- 
ture on card, and if same shows at what station the card 
was placed on car it is noted down. For example, car A 
is received from the L. S. & M. S. Railway at South 
Branch, loaded for a point on our line, with one draw bar 
for which there is a L. S. & M. S. Kailway master car 
builders' card attached to the cross-tie. The head inspec- 
tor enters report of car on his book thus: "Date, February 
'JO, 1890. From Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, 
one wrong draw-bar. Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
Ry., Master Car Builders' Card, Sandusky, O.. Feb. i. 
IS'JO, John Smith," and allows the car t« go forward. This 
method of recording foreign master car builders' cards and 
defects for which they were placed on car enables us, if the 
card should be lost oft the car or destroyed while the car 
was in our possession, to procure a duplicate of same i r to 
answer any and all questions at any time relating thereto. 

If carB is received from the Michigan Central Railway 
with a wrong drawbar for which there is a Michigan Cen- 
tral master car builders' card attached to cross-tie, and in 
addition to this there is one intermediate sill cut from flange 
of wheel, the inspector Alls out our memorandum freight dis 
patch card, or "red card," as shown in the follomng form, 
and attaches it to.cross-tie of car: 

Reoelvod from JfWilffiin Ctntral H. It. Co. 
at South Brandt Date Februai-y /•*"'. 

Car No. B with the following 

defect*:.... One <nt<rm«dlate«i'U cut from wheet fange 

.IToad Street.. ..withoui 

iitiuned above. ThiH card I 

The car is then allowed to go forward with this card at- ' 
tached, which shows inspectors along our line the condition | 
the car was received from the Michigan Central Ry. and ' 
the point at which received. The inspector (R. Wharton 
in this case), then makes an entry in his book: "Date, Feb- 
ruary '30, 1S90. Car B ore wrong draw-bar. Michigan Cen- 
tral Ry. master car builders' card. Detroit. Feb. 10, IS'JO, 
John Brown." " One intermediate sill cut from wheel 
flange." " Memorandum card put on." 

If car B was loaded with perishable, time or some class I spection. 

of freight not desirable to transfer, and had a broken fol- 
lower plate or broken brass or some detect which rendered 
the car unsafe to run, if su(;h defect could be repaired by 
the inspector, he makes the repair and if not sends it to our 
repair yard, where repairs are made if possible and the car 
allowed to go forward. In this latter case the inspector 
makes the additional entry in his book : "Repair one fol- 
lower plate and one brass," the whole entry then reading: 
"Date, February 20, 1890, car B, one wrong draw bar, 
Michigan Central Railway master car builders' card, Octo- 
ber 10, 1890, John Brown." "One intermediate sill cut 
from wheel flange." "Memorandum card put on."' Repair 
one follower and one brass." 

If car C is received, loaded, and has two or three sills 
broken, the inspector marks car "Not to go," and the car is 
sent to the transfer track and the contents transferred. 
The cai is then sent home. The inspector makes entry in 
his book : "Date, February "JO, 1890, car C, three sills 
broken, not to go." My office is located about two miles 
fjom the South Branch yard, but has telephone communi- 
cation with that point, and in case the inspector is doubtful 
about any point, he calls up on the "phone, and stating the 
case, is advised of the disposition to make of the car. 

The night car inspectors relieve the day men at « ::W p. m. 
each day, and look after all unHnished business and con- 
duct it as outlined above, except in doubtful cases, which 
are given over to the day man, who in turn relieves the 
night men at 0:30 each morning, and he, reporting the 
doubtful points over the 'phone, is advised as before stated. 
Cars are liable to more or less damage in yard switching, 
and after each train is made up the inspector makes another 
examination, and if any car has been damaged it is set out 
and repaired unless repairs can be made while car ia in 

Cars are received off our line at our Wood street yard; 
the ins|)ectors at that point have inspection marks 
head day car inspector. "I 
night car inspector and "t 
same as in South Branch 
our line and after the engii 

handled by the yard engine, the inspectors exam 
the South Bra 

iuve inspection maras, "c lor 
for his assistant. "G" for head 
for his assistant, and are used 

t loose and before being 

I same manner as outlined 


Car A is now received back in this train and, ib samecOT 
dition as originally received from the L-.te Shore A^MicBlU 
gan Southern Railway. The inspector notes thao the mass, 
ter car builders' card covers the case, and the car harir.^ 
received^no damage while in our possession is allowed tog«, 
home without taking any note or check of same. Should^ 
question at any time arise ia regard to this car, our record I 
shows all possible informafon on the subject, for had the 
card been lost oft the car while in our possession, or if any 
part had been broken, when car was received back off the: 
road, we would have taken a record against same 


' received back off i 

line, and if it has i 

oeived no further damage the inspector lakes our memo- 
randum card off car and allows it to go back to the Michi- 
gan Central Railway. If this car should have been dam- 
aged while in our possession, the inspector chalks on the 
side of the car, "Hold for repairs, one broken side door." 
The car is then put on our repair track, repairs made, 
metnorandum card taken off and car allowed to go home 

Car D is received back off our lino and is loaded with 
perishable freight destined to some point on a connocting 
line. We break a draw bar, and having none standard to 
car, put in something that will carry the car safely ana 
pla.e our master car builders' card on the cross-tie for the 
wrong draw bar. It is often the case that a perishable load 
13 received off our line, destined as car D, and has defects 
which do not render the car unsafe to run. In such case 
the inspa-tor does not detain the car for repairs, but puts, 
master car builders' card on for the defects and allovvs car 
to go forward. 

In our switching yard at Wood street, some cars are more 
or less damaged and, as in our South Branch inspection, 
when the tram is made up the inspector once more ex- 
amines the cars and any that were damaged in switching 
are marked for repairs and entry made in his book of same. 

This system gives us a clear, comprehensive and reliable 
record of a car from the time it was received from some 
connecting line at South Branch until it left our yard goinr 
home. The car may be damaged after leaving our yard, 
while in transit to connecting line, however, and returned' 
to us for repairs. In such case, when it is received bavJk 
the South Branch inspector sends the car to our repair ' 
yard and rejiairs are made. He also makes an eutry in his 



KigU Pressure i\ 
Cylinder i \ 


1 /: 


788 "T 
Cu€oa-80%. \ 


1 C«»offSO%- 

1 Terminal Pressure Srrbs. 




;.T ■^''r^jr ^^ — — 



F G 



C30 \ 

\ Cutofl-80%. 



Xerminol Pressure GS lbs. 
1590 ^^-^^.^^^ 



,., V 

- Cutoff-iO%. 
^~-~.,^,^^^ XeruiinalPr 

e SO lbs. 

Receiver Pressure 
136 lbs. 


t 00-80%. 

1684 ^ 



8-13 \ 

Xerniiual Pressure 33 lbs. ^bs. 

res T- 


[ \ 

1 CSS \ 

\ \ 



Xer.ninal Pressure 38 lb 

9. AbS. 


\ 803 



book showing same. It is an occasional case that when a 
car, which we receive from a connecting line with some 
defect and allow to go forward, as with car B, gets back to 
the owning road, they would have no record of the sill be- 
ing cut from the wheel flange and would return it for re- 
pairs. We then attach our bad order card of the following 

C. & N.-W. R'f CO. 
Received this car BAD ORDER. 
Prom Michigan Cent. Ry. - Date 2-20-*90. 

Car Nu. B Defecuas noted 

One Iniermtdiate sill cut from \J0licel JUiTme 

Signature, R. WHARTON. 

The car is then returned home and inspector notes same 
in his book. Should our own car be delivered to a con- 
necting line in good order with load for some point on that 
line, and is received back with broken parts, it is returned 
for repairs or held until a master car builders' card is pro- 
cured from the road responsible for the defect; entry is 
made in the inspection book at the time the car is received 
and shows therein whether the car was returned for re- 
pairs or held for the card. 

All inspection books are sent to my office each morning 
and the previous day's work is entered in ink in record books 
which are labeled as follows; "Out Freight," in which all 
defective cars that \vere allowed to go forward are entered ; 
"Not to Go," in which all cars transferred on account of 
bad order and being unsafe to run are entered ; "Not to Go, 
Returned," in which all cars returned to connecting lines 
as being unsafe to run on account of bad order or cars re- 
turned for i-epairs are entered; "In Freight," in 
which are entered all foreign cars received from 
our line with defects for which we are responsi- 
ble, also all foreign cars damaged while in our South 
Branch or Wood Street yards, or while in transit to a con- 
necting line which the connecting line returned us for re- 
pairs; "C. & N. W." in which all Chicago & Northwestern 
cars which are to be repaired are entered. 

This is a brief outline of our system which has been in 
force at these stations for the past twelve years (the 
memorandum dispatch or "red" card we have used for the 
past two years). The system answers every purpose and 
with the introduction of our memorandum freight dispatch 
card, works without the slightest friction, answers every 
possible question at anytime, and, at our yards, cannot be 
improved upon as near as we can determine. 

K. Wharton. 

Steam DiBtribntion in Compound Locomotives- 

BUFFALO, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1890. 
To the Editor of the Bailway Master Meclmnic: 

Possibly there are some among your readers who are de- 
sirous of becoming better acquainted with the subject 
"Steam Distribution in Compound Engines," but who are 
impeded in their attempts to oblain even a theoretical 
knowledge of it by the absence of any collection of reliable 

Something can be learned by the construction of imagin- 
ary indicator diagrams, assuming different proportions of 
cylinders, etc., and using the isothermal expansion line, 
which is easily drawn, and gives a sufficiently correct idea 
of steam distribution. For the benefit of those who are not 
familiar with the method of drawing this line the follow- 
ing diagram and explanation are appended : 

W k — t — f — ^ — ^ — T"^ 

■mis. ^i. ^^J^ 


It is a well-known tact, that if a certain ij\iantity of any 
gas be maintained at a uniform temperature its pressure 
™il depend upon its volume. If it be allowed to expand to 
twice its volume it will have but one-half its original pres- 
sure. If it be compressed to one-half of its original 
volume its pressure will be doubled, the one change being 
exactly proportional to the other. Upon this law the con- 
struction of theisothermal{equal temperature) line is based. 

In Fig. 1 let AB be supposed to represent the length of 
stroke of a steam engine, and A H the cylinder clearance. 
D H, which forms one end of the diagram, is scaled to 
pounds pressure, and V /, the vacuum line, is drawn at a 
distance of 15 pounds, by the scale on D J3", below A B (the 

Makch, 1890. 



line of atmospheric pressure), and parallel to it. At V 
tliere is neither pressure nor volume. Along the line 
1' 7 there is volume but no pressure. On VD there is 
pressure but no volume. Any point taken in the space 
above VI and to the right of VD will denote a certain 
pressure and a certain volume according to its position. 
D F is assumed to be the line of steam admission, and C the 
point of ca^off. C K is drawn perpendicular to .1 B, and 
diagonals are drawn from V to points taken at random on 
the line C F, cutting the line C K. Onlj- so much of these 
lines are shown in Fig. 1 as will define their intersections 
with C K and C F. Perpendicular and horizontal lines are 
drawn from these points of intersection, and the curve CT 
is drawn through the meeting points. This is the isother- 
mal line, which would be the correct curve for denoting the 
rate of expansion of a gas if it did not change in tempera- 
ture during its expansion. As there is always a reduction 
of temperature during the process, the true theoretical, or 
adiabatic, line falls a little below the isothermal at T. 

The exhaust port opens as the piston nears the termina- 
tion of its strolte and the steam escapes. This is shown by 
the curve A' B. The length of the line T I denotes the ter- 
minal pressure, and is the measure of the steam used for 
one stroke. It is taken in terms of absolute pressure, as 
it is called, being measured from the vacuum line, not the 

The exhaust port closing as the piston reaches the point 
X on the return stroke, a certain quantity of steam is re- 
tained in the cylinder and is subject to compression as the 
piston finishes its movement from ^ to A. If we draw the 
diagonal T' O through the point A and erect the perpendic- 
ular line A' O its length applied to the scale on the line D H 
will give the pressure in the clearance space at the termin- 
ation of the stroke. If it is desired to know how much of 
the clearance space would be filled by the volume of steam 
H ^ at the pressure X O, if it were still further com- 
pressed to the initial pressure, the diagonal V E is drawn, 
and the lines U and r R. That is to say, the steam re- 
tained by compression will be sufficient to fill the clearance 
space at initial pressure for the distance D R, and when 
the valve opens the volume of steam admitted is denoted 
by R C instead of D C. 

No allowance is here made for wire drawing during 
admission or for back pressure during exhaust. In prac- 
tice the steam line would drop during admission, and the 
exhaust line would be somewhat higher than it is repre- 
sented. These points, nnth rome others, are omUfed to 
avoid complication and confusion. There are some lessons 
which can be learned without taking them into account, 
and any one conversant with indicator diagrams can make 
the proper allowance. 

Compound engines are built in various ways. In some 
the steam passes directly from the high pressure to the low 
pressure cylinder. In this case the pistons of the two cy- 
linders must move simultaneously. Sometimes they are so 
built that the steam is discharged into an intermediate ves- 
sel called a "receiver" as it leaves the high pressure cylin- 
der, passing from it to the low pressure cylinder. In 
this form the pistons of the cylinders may move together 
or at different times, the two engines working in the latter 
case on separate cranks, which may be set VtO degrees 
apart, as with the locomotive, or at any other angle. One 
form of marine engine has one high pressure and two low 
pressure cylinders, working three cranks set 120 degrees 
apart. This form of engine gives a very smooth, steady 

In the locomotive the simplest arrangement for com- 
pounding consists in the use of a large cylinder on one side, 
a small one on the other and operating cranks set at 
right angles as usual. A receiver is a necessity in this case, 
as the high pressure cylinder exhau.sts its steam while the 
valve of the low pressure cylinder is closed, and a reser- 
voir must be provided to retain the steam during tlie inter- 
val of lime between the time of exhaust of one cylinder and 
the time of admission of the other. 

The receiver in the locomotive usually consists of a large 
copper pipe passing around the interior of the smoke box. 
The steam it receives is always wet, and is dried to some 
extent during its passage through it by its exposure 
to the hot gases of the smoke-box. It would seem that if 
the receiver were made up of a numberof small pipes so as 
to present a greater surface for the absorption of heat, 
with the same sectional area for the passage of the steam, 
that it would be advantageous, for the heat of the smoke- 
box gases is an unmitigated waste, and any portion of it 
which can be retrieved and converted into work is a clear 

For the purpose of illustration we will suppose an engine 
with a receiver, the two pistons having the same time of 
movement, and we will proceed to construct diagrams at 
various points of cutoff, and observe the peculiarities of 
steam distribution. 

We will suppose the engine to be proportioned as follows : 

Ratio of high to low pressure cylinder, 1 to 23^'. 

Recei\-er equal in capacity to high pressure cylinder. 

Clearance in either cylinder, 10 per cent. 

Slide valves cutting off by their own lap, with neither lap 
nor clearance on the exhaust side. 

According to these data. Figs. 2, 3, and 4 have been 
drawn. In each of these figures the cutoff point of the 
high-pressure cylinder is the same, SO per cent. The cut- 
off point of the low-pressure cylinder is in Fig. 2, SO per 
cent., in Fig, 3, 50 per cent., and in Fig. 4, 40 per cent. 

In order to show the respective volumes of the two cylin- 
ders, the diagrams are drawn as though the cylinder area 
was the same, the difference being in the length of the 

The cut off point of the high pressure cylinder being set 
off, the expansion curve is drawn. (Fig. 2.) On the upper 
line of the low pressure diagram, AX is setoff, = HI,, 
and the cut-off point B established. Letting fall a perpen- 
dicular line from A, a diagonal is drawn»-om Z7 to iJ, cut- 
ting it at ('. This is supposed to be indicative of the pres- 
sure at the time of cut-off in the low-pressure cylinder, 
the pressure being the same for the instant in the other 
cylinder and the receiver. The line D £ is drawn in the 
receiver space, at the height of the point C, denoting that 
the receiver Ib filled with a volume of steam of the pies- 
sure C. As the piston has not finished its stroke, steam is 
compressed into the receiver from the high-pressure cylin- 
der, until its exhaust port is closed. For convenience the 
high pressure piston movement is laid off in the receiver 
space. T G represents the distance traveled up to time of 
low-pressure cut off, and F H, the distance it travels up to 
time of closure of exhaust port. To find the increase of 
pressure in receiver, erect perpendiculars HI, F J, and 
draw diagonal from T through K. The intersection J 
gives the desired pressure. A horizontal line through J, if 
carried to the scale line R I', would cut it just above 00 
lbs. A check 3/, is made at this point. 

A cylinder full of high pressure steam is now exhausted 
into the receiver, and it is required to know the resultant 
pressure. A horizontal linedrawn from the pointof terminal 
pressure P, will cut the line XO at P, and a diagonal from 
il to P will cut P D at Q. This is the new receiver pres- 
sure. The steam retained in the clearance space of the 
low pressure cylinder brought'to receiver pressure and 
added to the volume increases it to S. When the steam is 
admitted to the low pressure cylinder, its pressure drops 
to W, in filling the clearance space. 

The stroke of the low pressure piston now begins, and 
the high pressure piston begins its return stroke. One al- 
lows expansion, the other produces compression. To as- 

. thei 


of c 

piston must be subtracted from that of the other. It is 
represented by the line W Y. If the point C was correctly 
assumed, a diagonal drawn from 1* to 1' will cut the per- 
pendicular line W at X, on the same level as C. If it does 
not, the point C must be changed, and the process above 
described repeated. Being assured that the line ir Y is 
correctly placed, it is divided into a number of equal parts, 
and diagonals dra%vn from 1", cutting ir X. The travel of 
the low pressure piston to the cut-off point is divided into 
the same number of equal parts, and cross-marks made 
from them and the diagonals. Through these the steam 
admission line is drawn. The expansion line is located by 
diagonals from J', cutting a perpendicular let fall from B, 

The exhaust line of the high pressure diagram iscci-t 
laid out from the points between It' and X. The compres- 
sion line is so short in Fig. 2 that it can be drawn by hand. 
When it is longer, it can be laid out by drawing diagonals 
from I' to spaces in the line /./. Their intersections with 
/ K will locate the compression line by transferring the 
spacing of J / to the compression space. 

The figures upon the diagrams denote their proportionate 
area. A considerable drop in pressure is observable be- 
tween the two cylinders in Fig. 2, the terminal high pres- 
sure being 130 lbs, the initial low pressure, S-S lbs. This 
loss is not regained, and the effect produced is less than if 
the pressures were kept together, as will be seen later on. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show the effect of an earlier cut-off upon 
the low pressure cylinder. In Fig. 4 the receiver pressure 
is even higher than the high pressure terminal, dropping 
so as to agree with it when the valve opens and allows the 
iow pressure clearance space to be filled. Comparison of 
the three sets of diagrams illustrates how shortening the 
cut-off of the low pressure side increases, instead of dimin- 
ishing, the amount of work done by it. Between Figs. 2 and 
4 the area of the high pressure diagram is diminished by 
half. The excessive compression in Fig. 4 will also be 

In Fig .1, the high-pressure clearance is 1.5 per cent., the 
high-pressure cut-off 40 per cent., and the low pressure 
cut - off 80 per cent. Here there is again a consider- 
able amount of "drop" between the two cylinders. 
The high-pressure diagram is much larger tfian the low- 
pressure. In Fig. fi, the cut-off in each cylinder is 40 per 
cent. The terminal pressureof one cylinder and the initial 
pressure of the other approximate closely. The greater 

part of the work is thrown, however, onto the low-pressure 
cylinder. It would appear, then, that when there are two 
reverse levers, so that the cylinders can be handled sepa- 
rately, hooking back either lever increases the proportional 
amount of work done by its cylinder, and there is a strong 
probability that an engine can be so proportioned that both 
sides can be operated by means of a single reverse lever, 
and a close equality in the work done by the respective 
cylinders preserved for all points of cut off. 

Comparing Figs. 2 and 5, wesee that shortening the high- 
pressure cut-off has not materially affected the amount of 
work done by that cylinder, but the area of the low-pressure 
diagram No. 5 is less than one half that of No. 2. 

A comparison of Figs. 2 and (i, will give an idea of what 
may be expected if only one reverse lever is used. It will 
be seen that the low-pressure cylinder leads in the amount 
of work done, in both diagrams, and the proportion is nearly 
the same between the high and low-pressure cards in both 
cases. It is fair to suppose that the single reverse lever 
would answer a good purpose for points of cut off between 
those shown, but for shorter ones there would be excessive 
compression in the high-pressure cylinder unless the clear- 
ance were made still greater. 

In Figs. 2, 3 and 4 and again in Figs. 5 and 6, the point of 
high-pressure cut off being the same in each set, the termi- 
nal pressure of the low-pressure cylinder varies but little. 
In tact, " hooking back " this cylinder appears to have but 
little effect except to increase the proportion of work done 
by it, and to increase the back-pressure of the other side. 

If we new tabulate the areas and terminal pressures of 
the respective diagrams, we will be able to form some idea 
of their relative showing of economy in using steam. 
Roughly speaking, the areas of the cards may be taken to 
represent useful effect produced and the terminal pressures, 
the cost of producing it. 

.,.„„. . „ Terminal 

„,„ „ H- P- Cyl. L. P. Cyl. Tot-l. Ptessures. 

*lg. - ,88 1,472 •* 2fi0 nl 

FiK-S 650 UW 2.-1W S 

|!Ki 387 l,a8<l 2,073 60 

F'.K-? 843 708 1„5,51 32 

Fiff-8 5S8 892 1.4.50 28 

(The terminal pressures are mea-sured from the vacuum line.) 
Dividing the totals by the terminal pressures, we get an 
idea of the relative economy. That is to say, one pound of 
steam at terminal pressure, has produced in 

Fl|.2aneffeotof 35.85 

tSl 41-15 

|g| , 41-40 

Fig;* •■■ •■■■^'■"^^■■.^^■■:;;::.'.v::::::;:;;;;;:;; M'S 

This shows the effect of " drop," or the loss of pressure 

about 5 per cent. There is almost always some loss of this 
kind, partly from friction of the steam in the passages. 

Where is the gain from compounding; It cannot be 
shown in a diagram, but experience has demonstrated most 
conclusively that there is one of considerable amount. 
There is a slight gain in the manner in which the force of 
the cteam is applied, which counts for something. If the 
whole force of ISO lbs. of steam were applied to the low- 
pressure piston, it is evident that a great strain would be 
brought upon the engine, much greater than when it is 
used successively in the two cylinders; and by the time the 
crank had passed far enough over center to give the piston 
a good purchase upon it, steam would be cut off and the 
pressure would drop. So a great part of the force of the. 
steam would be used in straining the machinery, not in pro- 
ducing any useful effect. In Fig. 2 of the examples here 
shown, both cylinders, working at SO per cent, cut-off, only 
use a quantity of steam which would constitute a 2« per 
cent, cut-off if used in the low-pressure cylinder alone. It 
is weU known that this is as short an admission as can be 
economically used in a single cyUnder, and as short as can 
be pioduccd by ordinary valve mechanism, unlesss a separ- 
ate admission valve or a cut off valve is resorted to. 

The greatest gain is from the saving in cylinder conden- 
sation, a subject on which there is too much to be said to 
allow it to be touched upon at this time. What has been 
written here is only meant to suggest the way of working 
out the problems which occur in the study of the subject. 
Each different proportion of one cylinder to the other, or to 
the receiver, must be worked out by itself. There is no 
denying the fact that the introduction of the imnciple of 
compounding into locomotive designs will effect a great re- 
duction in the amount of fuel used, and that the compound 
locomotive is the locomotive of the future. 

If we turn to marine practice what do we find; History 
show-s a steady increase in the steam pressures employed, 
and since the introduction of compounding a steady pro- 
gress, both in economy of fuel and in reduction of the 
weight of the machinery, as compared with the power pro- 
duced. In the '40'8 five to seven pounds was the 
usual pressure: by IStX) comjiound engines were in use at a 
pressureof '25 to 40 pounds: in the "Us the pressure was 
45 to 60 pounds, the average piston speed about 375 feet per 
minute and the consumption of coal a little over two 
pounds per horse power per hour: by 1SS0.82 the pros- 


sure had risen to about 30 pounds, pistoQ speed to 450-475 
feet and coal consumption had been reduced to 1-S3 pounds 
per horse power per hour. Double cylinder compounds 
have been superseded by triple cylinders, and even four 
cylinder engines have been built. Triple expansion en. 
^nes are now in use with steam pressures as high as 16.5 
pounds and piston speeds of SOO to 1.000 feet per minute, 
giving a fuel economy of 30 per cent, as compared with 
double expansion engines working at about 80 pounds pres- 
sure, and, say, half the above piston speed. 

The combined weight of engine boilers and water in 
modern marine practice is much less than it was when 
the old single cylinder engines were in use. Triple expan- 
sion engines have been built which weigh — engine, 
boiler and water— as low as 140 pounds per indicated 
borse power. In view of these facts is it not apparent 
that the subject of compounding locomotives is worthy 
of atttention ! Respectfully yours, 

Geo. B. Sxow 

Taghconic Asks Some Qaestions- 

1 have noticed that some straight chimnies on locomo- 
Uives of late construction are made of one thickness of iron 
or steel, neatly secured to a plain saddle and have a ring, 
of half round iron, at the top, the whole being neat in ap. 
pearance, light in weight, cheap in first cost, and efficient 

Others are made of two thicknesses of plate iron with an 
air space between them, the outside plate being covered 
with Russia or planished iron, and surmounted by a heavy 
casting, adding cost and weight which give no return. 
As one not posted in such matters I would. ask which is 
the better, and why; 

A question which will probably be presented to the clubs 

ffor discussion, having often been discussed privately among 

tthe club men, is this : " Is a radical change in the form and 

nra)portion of the oil box advisable;" Answer from some 

cofpertsis, "Yes, if the advantage gained will warrant 

aiiachange." Others say, " maintain the standards." ' 

Lltiis not well to depart from the standards to suit every 

( igtti-ce, yet a too strict adherence to the adopted stand- 

a, ifo\»vould. in some cases, prevent progress. 

iJMifcubut a few years since the adoption of the M. C. B. 
axl t^ .wtich is now being replaced by a larger one for 
hea >» s«r*i.'ce. If, Bellamy-like, we look backward'a few 
years' ■*'*^ St:' many axles in use with a journalS.'j by 4 
or5ic 't'iJ.^s. ;^-lrt,hese dimensions had been taken for a 
standa ^-^ wjtat iwuld have been the condition of things to 
day; t >etveral new forms of journals, and journal bear- 
ings, art ' it- ' use, with excellent results, though hampered 
more or li iss by old tocms and dimensions. 

Manyattea pts have b«eja made to use grease for lubri- 
cation of car jo umals. They have failed for want of a 
suitable oil box; while with a suitable box good results 
would no doubt hi "'e followed. 

The American oL ' box with waste packing beneath the 
journal, took its ge neral form by accident, and from this 
form there has been . 'ittle change in fifty years. 

The foreign box, foi * some reason--sald to be economy- 
was made to lubricate \ 'ith grea«e, which grease is so made 
up as to be pasty in any temperature, neither liquifying in 
warm nor becoming solid in cold weather. 
Why not change our bo> and give good grease a trial; 

As the agitation of the subject of chimney sizes seems 
to be bringing forth good fruit it cannot be an evil tree. 

-Allow me to say tba». there >s of necessity no relation 
between the cylinder and the chimney as to size. 

The chimney and the-b'uist pipe together form an ejector, 
and the areas of the two parts should bear certain proper, 
tions to each other. GoKi results will be found when the 
proportions are as 12 to 1. 

The cylinder, the grate, and the boiler have nothing to 
do with the question except through the blast pipe. 

After the steam has pa« through the first 18 or 20 
lim hes of the chimney the wor k of the ejector is completed, 
:and if the chimney is tapered outward from that point, a 
rslight improvement will be found. 



The accompanying illustrations show the Timms 
journal box as made to conform to the M. C. B. 
standards. It is readily applied to the M. C. B. 
standard truck without alterations and takes the M. 
C . B. brass without change. 

The three leading features of this box are the end 
stop, the dustguard and the close lid. Thepnd stop 
will be seen by reference to Fig. 1 to consist of a 
bracket shaped casting held in place between the 
wedge and the top of the box and engaging the two 
lugs on the inner top of the box. 

Chicago Joint Defect Card. 
/An adjourned meeting of representatives of rail- 
•nva>3 centering in Chicago was held at the rooms of 
ItheOTestern Railway Club on February 18, P. H. 
B'eck in the chair, nine roads being represented 
TTihe oommittee appointed at the first meeting to 
design a card and draw up rules covering same 
reported a card similar to the C. & N. W. red card 
deseribed elsewhere. The report was thoroughly 
discussed, and was in the main favorably received. 
Several details, however, could not be agreed upon, 
and the matter was referred back to the committee 
with instructions to report at a meeting to be held 
Da March IS, at 10 a. m. 

Fig. 2. 

The dustguard, shown in position in Fig. 1 and in 
enlarged detail in Fig. 2, is made of wood and is so 
constructed as to exclude dust and prevent the leak- 
age of oil* It consists of a yoke shaped piece of 
wood fitting beneath the journal and extending up 
on each side of it to the top of the box. A second 
piece fits in over the journal and between the upward 
extending arms of the first piece and is held In place 
by a spring as shown. The inclined surfaces of the 

guard serve to "wipe" the oil in and prevent it from 
working out upon the wheels. 

The lid is made of pressed st^el and hinged to the 
box in the ordinary way. The box is so constructed 
as to allow the lid to close within its walls, making 
the box dust proof at this point. The lid is kept 
tightly closed by the spring shown. 

This box will receive the collarless axle as readily 
as the collared axles. Journals of the following di- 
meusions are readily applied, viz: with collar, 4Jx8, 
4x7, 3ix7; without collar, 4ix8i, 4x7, SfxSJ. 

This box cannot with propriety be said to be longer 
in the experimental stage; it has demonstrated its 
worth very fully in practical service. It is claimed 
for it that it saves 50 per cent, in oil and brass over 
the common box, and the records of the service we 
have seen, seem to substantiate this claim. We know 
of one heavy private car which has been equipped 
with it for nearly two years; the waste has never 
been changed and there has never been a hot box on 
this car. Some months ago two pair of wheels were 
removed on a Chicago, St. Louis & Pittsburgh 
coach after having been in use three years; the jour- 
nals were worn to 3| in. diameter, that being the 
limit allowed on that road before removal, but the 
journal was as perfect as could be desired, both jour- 
nal and brass being worn evenly and perfectly 
straight. The end stop and dustguaM were found to be 
in good condition and were worn very little. A ca- 
boose on the same road was fitted up experimentally, 
one set of trucks being fitted with the Timms oil box 
and the other set of trucks with the ordinary box. 
Five and one-half months thereafter, after the car 
had made a mileage of 12,037 miles, the bearings 
were examined, and the brasses in the ordinary 
boxes had lost 65 ounces of metal each, while the 
brasses in the Timms boxes had lost but U ounces 
each. During the five and one-half months of ser- 
vice the Timms boxes were oiled but once; the other 
boxes were oiled at the usual intervals after the first 
oiling. As the result of this test several more ca- 
booses were entirely equipped. 

On a C. W. & B. baggage car fitted with the 
Timms end stop in connection with the M. C. B. oil 
box the brasses were found to have lost only 3* 
ounces after a mileage of 22,600 miles. A brass un- 
der a C. W. & B. locomotive tender, after nine 
months' service without the end stop, was found to 
have made a mileage of 22,.500 miles and to have lost 
28 ounces on each brass, or 14 pounds to the tender. 
Brasses under the same tender having the same 
mileage, but used with the Timms end stop, had a 
loss of eight ounces from each brass, or four pounds 

Mabch, 1890. 



to the tender, showing a difference of 10 pounds in 
favor of the end stop. The president's car on the 
West Va. Central equipped with the Timnis boxes 
eamc new out of the shop and was run 40 miles in 42 
minutes without a hot box. These are only a few 
instances in which this box has demonstrated its re- 
markable merit. 

As will be seen by some of the instances cited 
above the end stop alone is of great value, but the 
combination of the dust proof lid, end stop and dust- 
guard supplies a box which should command favor- 
able attention. The Timms Coupler Company. Col- 
umbus, O., are the manufacturers of these devices, 
the cost of which is very little in excess of that of 
ordinary boxes. 

The small shop shown in our engraving has jus 
been placed in running order by the Spokane Pall; 
& Northern Ry. It is located at Spokane Falls 
Wash., and was designed by, and is under the charge 
of,C. H. Prescott, master mechanic of the road. The 
plant is small but the road has only four moguls now 
in service, with two standard American passenger 
engines now building (all Baldwins) and not very 
much room is needed as yet. The location ot the 
machinery is shown in the engraving; there is yet 
space for a tire lathe boiing machine and a wheel 
press which Mr. Prescott hopes to have. The 
building is a frame structure, boxed or ceiled up on 
inside and its walls are packed with saw dust. The 
roof has a one foot in 10 pitch and is covered with 
tar telt and gravel. It pitches to the front and rear 
on the engine house and machine shop and to the 
side over the engine room, store room and smith 
shop. One end of each roof beam rests on the wall 
and the other on a center post, and the beams are 
tied from end to end, being well braced. Thus the 
floor is obstructed very little on account of posts. 
The pits have stone concrete bottoms. There is 
room en the ground for an extension of the half cir- 
cle for the engine house as required. 

The building is well lighted with windows and 
skylights as shown. In its construction simplicity 

and strength were the main points observed and in 
rrangement Mr. Prescott thinks, and with good 
reason too, that a high degree of convenience was 


The Cornish or double beat valve of Watthaslong 
been almost universally used on American locomo- 
tives. The difficulty with this form of valve is to 
make it steam light, which is seldom or never done, 
the work being laborious and tedious and therefore 
costly. Should the perfection of workmanship be 
such that the valve is tight when cold, yet when 
heated by the stoam the difference of expansion be- 

valve ojwns very close to the surface of the water in' 
the boiler, which is a fruitful source of "priming,'" 
and works great injury to the pistons and slide 
valves. To prevent this in a certain measure "baffle 
plates" attached to the stand pipes are resorti^d to, to 
catch the water and throw it down again, but they 
are far from being a cure, as an examination of the 

Fig 2. 
tween the valve body and valve stem will cause the 
lower valve to be lifted from its seat, causing a leak 
from the time it is first put into use, and from the 
abrading action of the steam under high pressure it 
soon becomes worse until an overhaul become sneces- 
sary. Another fault of this valve is that the lower 

valves will clearly show, t 
one that is invariably at fault. The designs of valves 
shown in Figs. 1 and 2 are intended to overcome the 
above difficulties, and at the same time perfect the 
balancing. They show the Pendry valve, made by 
W. Allen Pendry, Detroit, Mich. 

Fig. 1 shows the device on a dry pipe having the 
usual goose-neck form. The valve differs from the 
ordinary type, in that the lower vaive is closed and 
formed into a plunger, the upper one only being used 
to admit steam. The plunger has ports f through it 
10 admit steam or air pressure to the cylinder in 



March, 1890. 

which it works. Its operation is as follows: When 
the throttle lever is pulled out the rod G is lifted 
and also lever D, which carries with it the small 
valve a, its stem c, and eduction valve c', thus ad- 
mitting Fteam at a, and closing eduction valve c'. 
The steam now BUs cylinder d through the passage 
around stem c, and everts an upward force on plun- 
ger, B, equal to the downward or seating pressure 
on main valve, ^-1, thus putting the whole valve very 
nearly in equilibrium. A further motion of the 
throttle lever opens valve A to any desired distance, 
a reverse movement of the levers lowers lower vahe 
3, .stem c and valve c', exhausting the steam rapidly 
from the chamber d through ports Jf, and allowing 
main valve, .1, to tall to its seat. The valve c' re- 
mains open, and while running with valve closed, 
should the engine be now reversed, the extra pres 
sure in the dry pipe is relieved as it operates to lift 
valve, A^ because it enters through ports / under the 
plunger iJ, thus nullifying the plunger, and unbal 
ancing valve 4; the pressure in the pipe in this in 
stance .icting only to operate valve A the same a-, i 
common check or safety valve between the pipe ;ui 1 
the boiler and which opens by the collapsing sprnij 
F, which can be set to any pressure. 

Locomotive engineers adopted the heavy "goose 
neck"' form of casting because the style of valve used 
demanded it, although the loss by friction due to the 
steam having to pass this right angle bend, particu 
larly when working full throttle, was well known to 

Salionary and marine engineers have for many 
years conceded that the "straight way" form of 
valves had great advantages over all others and have 
used them to the exclusion of all other kinds. The 
form of valve shown in Fig. 2 is a "straight way" 
locomotive throttle valve, the action being the same 
as described in Fig. 1, the steam passing around the 
plunger and its chamber as shown by the arrows. 
This not only makes a lighter and more symmetrical 
form but also reduces the friction incident to the 
flow of steam through a right angle bend, as shown 
in Fig. 1. The eduction valve in Fig. 2 differs from 
that slfown in Fig. 1, but its action is the same. The 
small hole F permits the escape of water of conden- 
sation, and in this form of eduction valve allows a 
straight reduction of pressure so that it can be 
opened easily. 

The Chicago & Grand Trunk and Detroit, Grand 
Haven & Milwaukee have 1-50 of these valves on 
their engines, some of which have been in constant 
use for four years without a leak. The superintend- 
ent of motive power and machinery of these roads 
says they are just as tight as when first put on. and 
we understand that all engines are equipped with 
them as fast as they come in for repairs. 

The following letter gives his opinion: 

"tn answer to your enquiry about your throttle valves: 
After two years' service it has proved itself admirably ad- 
apted for locomotive uses, and I can thoroughly recommend 
it. It has altogether stopped the trouble we had with leaky 
throttles and when it requires grinding in it is a very sim- 
ple matter, as it has only one face. 

Yours truly. 
H. RoBEKTM, Mechanical Sup't." 

Mr. Roberts says that he puts on the straight way 
valve altogether and has had no reason to change 
his opinion since this letter was written. 

Eipiring Eailro8d Patents, Febrnary, 1890. 

(Furnished by F. H. Brock, patent attorney, tWJ F. s 
Washington, D. C. These patents are now free to be ma 
ufactred by any one. Copies of any patent furnished I 
Mr. Brock at 15 cents.] 

Lock for freight car doors, W. S. Brewster. 

Car truck, W. Youmans. 

Combined seat and desk for railway cars, W. C. Huffma 

Snow plow, VV. Walker. 

Railway tank feeder. A. Grochan. 

Car Spring, G. Franklin. 

Freight car, B. P Lamason. 

Safety car truck, B. P. Lamason. 

Railroad gate, J. Beamisdarfer. 

Straightening railroad rails, L. J. Todd. 

Railway track lifter, A. H. Arnot. 

Safety hatch for cars, R. Listen. 

Railway dust preventer, J, Welby. 

Railway crossing, G. Elliott. 

Rail joint, W. R. Clark. 


The steel truss car wheel, shown in our engrav- 
ings, is offered by its makers as a wheel superior in 
strength, lightness, durability and economy. Its 
construction is well shown in the cuts. The wheel 
.FUffJ. is composed of three princi- 

pal parts, consisting of the 
tire, .1, and two discs of cast 
steel, -C, iJ, bearing sections 
of the hub, C, C. The tire is 
piOMded with a bevelled re- 
taining ring, and the disc with 
shoulders on their rim, 6, h, 
(Fig 3) corresponding on the 
inside with the shape of the 
B I I Vb K' ooves in the tire, and form- 

^ I 1^ mg on the outside the jieces- 

^^ ■ "^ sary bearing surfaces to sup- 

port the outer edges of the 
tire The plan followed in 
joining the tire and discs to- 
gether is as follows: The tire 
IS hist heated and shrunk on 
the discs as shown in Figs. 1 
and 3, which leaves a space of 
_ . I about seven-eighths of an 
■«■ inch between the inside shoul- 
n dels of the hub sections. The 
C B clamping shoulder of the 
n discs are then forced into the 
fl retaining ring of the tire un 
JH der hydraulic pressure of 

- B^ '''°'° ^ *" ^^ *°°*' ""''' *'"' 
j] ^^ inside shoulderr of hub sec- 
tions meet as shown in Figs. 
2 and 4, thus forming an ab- 
solute truss. After the wheel 
is together, as shown in Figs. 2 and 4, four bolts are 
inserted around the hub to prevent the springing of 
the discs at center or hub, before the wheel is 
pressed on the axle. 

The inclined form of the groove in the retaining 
ring on the tire, and the corresponding inclination 

of the clamping shoulders on the disc, when forced 
together by hydraulic pressure makes a connection 
between the tire and center which will, it is claimed, 
prevent slipping of the tire under the most severe 
brake pressure that can be applied. In case of acci- 
dental breakage of the tire, the retaining ring will 
hold the broken section in place, and prevent further 
The thickness of the disc proper is one-half inch, 

and of the hub U inches. The wheels are applied to 
the axles undera pressure of from 70 to "JO tons. The 
tires are guaranteed for 260,000 miles. 

An especial blaim for this wheel is that it is spe- 
cially adapted on account of its elasticity, great 

strength and absolutt_' ?aft_'ty. for r^ervict- on tine 
coaches, locomotives tenders and fast freight, refrig- 
erator, or palace stock cars. The wheel is made by 
the Steel Truss Car Wheel Co.. room 408, Mermod 
& Jaccard Building, St. Louis, Mo. 


Mr. G. R. Joughins has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Norfolk Southern road, having "charge of 
rolling and floating equ pment." His office is at Berkley, 
Va. Mr. Jouffhins was formerly masl3r mechanic of the 
Erie & Huron Railway. 

We regret exceedingly to learn of the death of Mr. Henry 
Snyder, general manager of the Union Switch & Signal 
Company. Mr. Snyder was a gentleman very highly 
esteemed, not only in commercial circles, but among rail- 
way men, with whom he had had dealings for years. 
Thoroughly capable as a business man, well equipped with 
technical information, and possessed of a hearty and genial 
disposition, it was always a pleasure to meet him, either in 
a business way or socially. His loss will be be deeply felt. 

Mr. Wm. H. Turner, superintendent of the New York 
division of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, died 
January 31, of heart failure, after a short attack of pneu- 
monia. Mr. Turner's career as a railway man was inter- 
esting. At the age of IS be entered the freight office of the 
Norwich & Worcester, at Worcester, under his brother, C. 
S- Turner, agent. Here be gained a thorough knowledge 
not only of station and yard work hut of transportation as 
well, as he was often sent on the road in charge of trains. 
His brother being called to the Worcester & Nashua (of 
which he afterward became president) William was ap- 
pointed agent, taking his instructions from P. St. M. An- 
drews, to whom, in later years, he was to give instructions 
as general superientendent. From this position he was, in 
1871, appointed superintendent of the Portland &; Roches- 
ter road. Four years later was made superintendent of 
what IS now the Air Line division of the N. Y. N. H. & H. 
R. R. In '77 he again entered the service of the Norwich 
& Worcester (which in the meantime had become a division 
of the New York & New England) as agent of their boat 
line, the Norwich & New York Transportation Co., at New 
York. When the N. Y. & N. E. passed into the hands of 
receiver Clark, he called Mr. Turner to the superintendency 
of the eastern (and most important) division, to check the 
demoralization of the employes, to secure safe and prompt 
movement of passengers, restore confidence in the road 
and at the same time to enforce the most rigid econor y in 
his department. The appointment proved to have been 
well made and in six months Mr. Turner was promoted to 
the office of general superintendent. The subsequent 
change in the condition, reputation and prospects of the 
property was very largely due to his conservatism, strict 
economy, the attention he gave to the comfort and safety 
of the travelling public, and to the harmony and loyalty lie 
established in all grades of the employes. He left the N. 
Y. &N. E. May 1, 1887, at the call of Mr. Clark, then pres- 
ident of the N. Y. N. H. & H., to take charge of its New 
York division, betv/een New York and New Haven; the 
busiest and most important piece of track in New England. 
To this position also Mr. Turner's ability proved equal, but 
a never resting application to his duties, and his strong 
sense of responsibility, so wore upon him as undoubtedly 
to hasten his death. Mr. Turner's early life and training 
on a New Hampshire farm showed itself in his splendid 
constitution, manly bearing, self-reliance and sturdy com- 
mon sense. While beloved by his associates in official 
station, he was scarcely less popular with his men. His 
character was an inspiration to those who knew him best, 
and the true greatness of this man among men lives on in 

We regret to learn that Mr. Chas. Blackwell has left the 
railroad service, being now with Shoenberger & Company, 
ihe well known Pittsburgh iron and steel firm. Mr. Black- 
well had been of late with the Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas 


City Ry. as assistant superinl«DdeDt. but is better kaown 
through his long connection with the mechanical depart- 
ments of the Central of Georgia, Norfolk & Western and 
other roads. The mercantile world gains an able man by 
this change. 

The railroad service loses another good offlcer in the re- 
tirement of Mr. H. Tandy, who last month resigned the 
position of superintendent of motive power of the New 
York, Ontario & Western, and who has become assistant 
superintendent of the Brooks Locomotive Works. 

Mr. George Hackney, superintendent of motive power of 
the Chicago, Santa Fe & California, has resigned, and the 
jurisdiction iif Mr. Harvey Middleton, superintendent of 
motive power of the Atchison, Topeka .& Santa Fo, has 
been extended to include Mr. Hackney's late duties. 

We learn that Mr. W. T. Small, superintendent of mo 
tive power of the Northern Pacific is seriously ill with a 
complication of pleurisy and pneumonia. His many friends 
are hoping anxiously for an improvement in his condition. 



on Axles for Heavy Tenders. 

The following paper was read at the February 
meeting of the Northwest Club by Mr. W. H. Lewis, 
of the C, B. & X. We are compelled to omit the dis- 

At the last meeting of the Northwest Railroad Club, the 
circular of the committee of the Master Mechanic's Asso- 
ciation on the subject of axles for heavy tenders, was dis- 
cussed informally; and it was thought desirable to present 
this as a subject for discussion at this meeting, and I was 
requested to introduce the same. I will therefore endeavor 
to elucidate my preference of the proper form and propor- 
tions for same. 

We will tirst consider that an axle for this purpose is ex- 
pected to bear, which, according to the explanations of the 
committee, should be for a tender with a water capacity of 
3,80U gallons, and 16,000 lbs. of coal. The weight would be 
as follows : 

Water, lbs 29,480 

Coal ; 15,000 

Dight weight of tender 28,500 

Total 73,980 

DtHluct weightof wheals and axles t).4U0 

Weight on axles 6T.580 

We find the total weight carried is somewhat less than 
that of cars of 6i->,U00 capacity, and we will therefore assume 
that the general dimensions adopted by the M. C. B. Asso- 
ciation for cars of that capacity are ample. 

Our company has 15 locomotives with tenders of the ca- 
pacity and weight given above, that are being carried on 
an M. C. B. standard axle, size 3;'iX* in. journal. 

The question was asked at our lasr meeting, why is it 
necessary to increase the length of journal from 7 toS in 
I will endeavor to answer this; and to make the matter 
plain, will call your attention to the laws of friction, as fol- 
lows; The measure of friction is independent of the ex- 
tent of surface in contact, the pressure and the conditions 
and character of the surface being the same It is also 
independent of the velocity of continuous motion. 

Experiments have been made with different metals and 
with pressure increasing up to the limit of abrasion, which 
show that the above are not universally true. Even if the 
pressure producing abrasion is not reached, it may oe so in- 
tense as to force out the lubrication and produce abrasion 
and heating. 

It has been demonstrated by practice that the measure of 
contact should not exceed a pressure of 300 lbs. per sq. in 
of bearing. For the weight of heavy tender given above 
with a journal .3;\' in., the weight per sq. in. is 301 lbs., 
while with a 4xS bearing with an area of bearing surface of 
3-2 sq. in. the pressure is 26375 lbs. 

Ib view of the fact that the M. C. B. Association has 
adopted an axle for 60,000 lbs. capacity cars. I would 
recommend that we conform as nearly as possible to that 
design, with the exception of the diameter of journal, dust 
guard and collar, which I would recommend to be 4 in., 4?^ 
in. and 4,Th in. respectively. This would in no way inter- 
fere with the inlerchangeability of either new or old stand- 
ard, if desired, with the exception of a slight difference in 
the bearing when used in place of the 40,000 lbs. capacity 
standard axle. 

Experience has demonstrated that the strength of a 4 in. 
diameter journal is ample, and, according to "Trautwine, " 
is capable of sustaining a load of '201 tons with a 
fulcrum of 6 in., or 199 tons with a fulcrum of V2 in. ; 
or, in other words, the factor of safety is 25, which 
is very largely in excess of any requirements in practice. 

In this connection I wish to call your attention to the 
slight ratio of increased pressure between a ful- 
crum of & and 12 in. Many master mechanics 
have opposed the increase of the length of jour- 
nals from 7 to ^ in. on account of what they 
termed the increased leverage of the journal, 'i'et we see 
from the above figures that the decrease in the breaking 
power was only four tons or 4 per cent, of the total, which, 
reduced to the actual increase of bearings from 7 to "S 
inches, represents a small increase in this direction. 

I will therefore recommend that the dimensims asked 
for in the circular of the committee of the Master 
Mechanics' Association be as follows: 

1. Are you in favor of an axle for heavy tenders with or 
without end collars f A. With collars. 

2. If in favor of an axle with end collars, please give fig- 
ures for the foUowinET dimensions; 

A. Diameter of end collar. A. i}^ in. 

B. Diameter of journal. A. 4 in. 

C. Diameter of dust guard seat. A. iJi in. 

D. Diameter of wheel seat. A. 5\ in. 

E. Diameter of center of axle. A. 4."< in. 

F. Length of end collar. A. % in. 

G. Length of journal. A. t> in. 

H. Length of dust guard seat. A. 2 in. 

I. Length of wheel seat. A. 7'4 in. 

J. Length from center to center of journal. 6 ft. 3 

K. Length of axle over aU. A. 7 ft. '4 in. 

3. If in favor of the collarless axle, please give 
mensions as above except the A and F. Also kind 
stop and manner of fixing the same. 

4. Which one of the three forms in use of form ( 
r>etween the wheels do you approve? And why; 

What is the limit of journals per square inch of cc 
^. 300 pounds. 



Steel in Car Construction. 

At the February meeting of the Western Railway 
Club Mr. E. W. McK. Hughes read the following 
paper on 


fulfillment of my promise made at the last meeting, in 

liable ( 

.he various points which have a d 
nency on car construction, as well i 
ligns for that purpose. 

construction can only be effected and 
made successful provided it fulfils three main conditions; 
In the first place, greater simplicity in construction than 
previously; in the second, greater economy either in manu- 
facture or maintenance, or in both; add to these, decreased 
weight, increased strength, and a reduction in parts mak 
ing up the whole. I do not know of any invention of late 
years that so meets with all the requirements to achieve 
success as pressed steel in locomotive and car construction. 
A solid pressed steel plate is produced complete and perfect 
of sufficient rigidity, transversely and longi- 
s to do away with the use of angle irons, and 
le weight and cost of manufacture. 

snger and freight truck dia- 
composed of very few parts. 

ludinally, so 
thus reduce t 
Take for e: 
grams before us. They 

and of one single material, which possess complete 
geneity, and uniform strength throughout, the quality of 
which is guaranteed by the shape it is pressed into. These 
trucks, therefore, cannot but be more serviceable, while 
they possess much strength and endurance in service. The 
system also possesses the recommendation of enabling the 
various parts to be replaced in facsimile an indefinite num- 
ber of times with the certainty of perfect intercbangability, 
thus reducing the labor in erection at the first start, and 
subsequent labor in maintenance and repairs. Besides 
this there is the additional advantage, that, in the case 
of injury by wreckage, the parts are capable of being re 
stored to their original form at a small cost; and if so badly 
injured as to be past repair they are valuable scrap. 

Having alluded briefly to a few of the many advantages 
to be gained in these productions, I will next proceed to 
describe by the aid of diagrams and models, the different 
styles of trucks for passenger and freight service. Com- 
paring them with the hitherto built trucks with channel 
bars, angle irons, truss rods and bolts augmented with cast 
iron, malleable castings and wood, a great contrast is 
afforded by the simple, elegant and uniform shapes of the 
Dressed steel trucks. 

I will now proceed to notice the practical and commercial 
considerations bearing on the subject of pressed steel. One 
of the most important desiderata in connection with car 
construction in these days of low tariff rates is lightness. 
Pressed steel goes direct to this point, as it reduces dead 
weight to be hauled. I cannot better demonstrate this argu- 
ment than by reference to actual forms now in the room , I 
mean these center plates. They vary in weight according to do the original cast plates they replace. In sample 
No. 1 we have a pair of steel plates weighing '27 lbs., which 
have been used to replace cast metal plates weighing i:i» 
lbs. ; sample No. 2, weigh 45 lbs. and replace I6'2i.. lbs. 

All these samples will carry the heaviest cars in service, 
so I will take the first alluded to, which gives a saving of 
•222 lbs per car, or a total saving per train of 30 cars of no 
less than 6060 lbs. saved by the use of this small portion of 
a car. 

Going further, and taking a whole truck, we will see t 
advantage gained in weight. The passenger truck, d 
gram No. Ill, weighs 73:3a lbs. I would take the average 
weight of an ordinary 4-wheel passenger truck of the pres- 
ent day at about si'^6 lbs., giving an advantage to the 
pressed steel truck of about 947 lbs., or a total saving in 
dead weight to be hauled in a train of six cars of abju 
11,364 lbs. 

We next come to the freight trucks. The truck shown 
in diagram No. 16 is designed to replace an ordinary rigid 
bolster truck of the diamond t.vpe. It weighs 4600 lbs 
against a composite built truck of rigid bolster form whic 
may be taken at 5200 lbs., which would give a car mounte 
on steel trucks the advantage in weight of 1'200 lbs., or on 
a train of 30 cars, .36,000 lbs. 

Diagram No. 146 illustrates a novel form of freight truck 
We have nothing to compare it with, unless we take a pas 
senger truck, for in this case we are offering for freigh 
service a truck that might, and will, carrv a passenger 
coach. The object aimed at in this truck has been to re 
heve it of the severe concussions that are delivered on the 
truck with a journal box rigid in the frame. This point is 
attained, as will be seen by placing the springs in the side 
frames and conveying the load through them to the jour 
nals direct, by the introduction of equalizers. 

This truck can be built either with or without end sills 
We may compare it for weight without ends, 10 a diamond 
truck. It is estimated to weigh 5115 lbs., and the weight 
of a diamond truck to carry the same load (00,000 lbs.) may 
be taken at 52(6 lbs. Thus we have 90 lbs. in favor of the 

steel truck which is carrying equalizers weighing 280 lbs. 
In other words, we have a truck for freight service in 
which are conUined portions that at the present time only 
ist in passenger service, and yet the weight is less by 90- 
s. than the ordinary rigid bolster diamond truck. 
Economy in maintenance is arrived at by the use of 
pressed steel in car construction. A standard design hav- 
ing been fixed upon, each part can be produced an indefip 
ite number of times with perfect exactitude. Spare pans 

therefore be held, and i 

ments effected without 

delay. This is a very valuable point in the use of such ma- 
terial, and the further we get to a standard throughout the 
country, the more valuable will be the use of our pressed 
steel forms. Another important feature in these trucks is 
their elasticity, which no other form possesses to such an 
extent. A frame having a high degree of elasticity cannot 
possibl.v destroy itself, as a rigid built one will. We can- 
not have action without reaction and when a shock is im- 
parted to a pressed steel truck, the blow is distributed uni- 
formly throughout the frame, and owing to the high elas- 
ticity of the whole, each part takes its own share, and thus 
relieves the jar. In a rigid frame however, such a shock 
would naturally cause far greater deterioration than in the 
more elastic frame. 

If the whole train is made up of such elastic trucks, it is 
capable, after receiving a shock, of giving it back again. 

nder such circimistances little 
have closely watched the effects of elastii 
ing 1 " 

bad roads and have been 
astonished at the ease with which they worked. 

Wrought steel has worked a marked change in the con- 
struction of ships, bridges, and the buildings we live in, 
and I trust 1 have so far suciM^ded in demonstrating that 
solid pressed steel is about to make a practical improve 
ment in car construction. 

The paper was verj' fully discussed. 

A brief talk on valve motions followed, the Wil.son, 
Grime and Clark motions being explained. The 
committee on puhlie^tion of proceedings reported rec- 
ommending that reports be withheld from the pre"? 
that the verbatum notes be revised by the secretar 
and submitted to the speakers for approval, and 
published exclusively in the club I'rocecdings. 
Action was deferred until the March meeting. At 
the next meeting the club will discuss "The inter 


March, 1890. 

change ™le3,'" and "The best method of balancing 
tie reciprocating parts of locomotives." 


on Car Wheel Contracts. 

The New England Railroad Club met in Boston, 
Wednesday evening, February I'J, President Rich- 
ards occupying the chair. He announced as the sub- 
ject for discussion "The Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation Form of Contract for Chilled Car Wheels." 
Mr. .Tohn N. Lauder of the Old Colony Railroad 
opened the subject. From his remarks we extract 
the following: 

The subject which has been presented for discussion 
to-nii,'ht, I think is a matter of a jrood deal of impor- 
tance to the railroads of the country. It was agi- 
tated and talked up pretty thoroughly two or three 
years ago by the wheel makers and the "representative 
associations of the railroads. Action was taken at 
that time, but there never has been, to my know- 
ledge, any organized effort to put into effect any 
of the principles discussed and agreed upon at that 
time, as a good system of contract for car wheels. 
The reputable wheel makers several years ago 
formed an association to devise ways and means, as [ 
understand, to protect themselves in some degree 
against what might be called illegitimate wheel manu- 
facture. It is a fact well known by railroads Ibat a 
Jirst-class wheel made by a reputable manufacturer 
costs in the neighborhood of $10, and cannot be pro- 
cured for much less with proper material and work- 
manship put into it. We also know that wheels have 
"been sold to some railroads at prices very much be- 
low that, very much below what would produce a 
safe and good wheel. Now the problem is how to 
protect the railroads and the honest manufacturers 
of wheels against these cheap productions. You may 
tie the car builder up as tight as you please with 
specifications, but unless you actually specify the 
make of the wheel it will do very little good. 

Now the Manufacturers' Association, in order to 
have a full understanding of the matter and to get 
the experience and judgment of the railroad men, 
or in other words the wheel users, called upon the 
two national organizations, the Master Mechanics' 
Association and the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion, to appoint committees to meet with the wheel 
manufacturers, to see if they could formulate some 
plan by which both parties could be protected 
against these cheap wheels. They finally 
formulated a system of specificat.ons and 
costs of wheels and a form of contract that it was 
Tielieved would be just to the wheel makers and the 
railroads, and at the same time furnish an incentive 
to The makers to produce a better wheel. 

This report was adopted by the Master Me- 
chanics' Association and Master Car Builders' 
Association. Why, since then, there has not 
been an effort to push this matter by the wheel mak- 
ers, I cannot say. Its adoption by letter ballot makes 
it one of the standards adopted by the Master Car 
Builders' Association. A standard adopted by that 
association is not binding on any railroad, but it has 
amoral binding force which ought to be regarded, 
and purchasing agents would do well to consider this 
matter carefully, and I think they would come to the 
same conclusion that the mechanical men have come 

I think the railroads would receive benefit by mak- 
ing contracts under this system which I have pre- 
sented, and they would get belter wheels; the system 
would give the wheel makers an incentive to make 
the best wheel they could, even if the price they got 
for the wheel was very near the cost price. If they 
make a wheel that exceeds the guaranteed mileage 
they get paid above that mileage, according to the 
excess; so they have an inducement to construct a 
wheel that will make a large mileage. The objec- 
tion may be made that it is an easy matter to get a 
wheel that will give a large mileage, but such a 
wheel may be very unsafe to run. That matter is 
provided for by the system of tests which are in- 
tended to go with this form of contract. 

As to methods of settlement, I think this system 
provides the simplest possible way of settling with 
the wheel maker. For instance, you contract for a 
wheel tor $10, and the maker guarantees .50,000 
miles; now, if the wheel has made 60,000 miles when 
it is scrapped, you simply credit to the maker the 
extra 10,000 miles; if it has made 45,000 miles you 
charge him with 5,000 miles. A large mileage is 
profitable to the railroad, because it saves detention 
of cars in changing wheels; it costs, perhaps, $3 to 
shift a pair of wheels. 

Mr* Lauder here read a paper prepared by 
Mr. W. W. Snow, a prominent wheel maker, from 
which we extract the following: 

We refrard the omission of wheels removed be- 
cause of sharp flanges from the list of those for which the 
maker is not responsible, as very severe, and we think 
there is apt to be much controversy on this point. A very 
large proportion of sharp flanges is due to other causes 
than the quality of the chill on the \vheel. At a recent 
meeting of the Wheel Manufacturers' Association the Mas- 

terCar Builders' report was under consideration, and it was 
recommended by that association that where wheels are re- 
moved for sharp flanges the flange should be bronen. and 
if the fracture shows a good bright chill itshall be evidence 
that the flange wear was produced by other causes than 
those for which the wheel maker is respansible. 

Referring to the proposed settlement, we would suggest 
that the form or table given on page S(j of the master car 
builders' annual report is somewhat misleading. This 
table represents the comparative value of, or difference be- 
tween, high and low priced wheels. It is not a table by 
which settlements can be made, as it places no value on the 
old wheel. To place the matter in its proper light we would 
suggest a careful consideration of the relation of the scrap 
value of a wheel to the price of a new wheel. We find 
there are two items of value in a wheel. One is the scrap 
value, which must always be recognized in the new wheel 
as well as in the old ; this value is always about 4.5 per cent. 
' ",he new wheel. The other item of value is 


iof t 

To illustrate s 

Cost of wheel 

S^rup value. 45 per < 

Service value 

This surface value — $5o0— is guaranteed to equal t; 

the user to be 1 

It is quite evident that this 9 1-fi cents per 1,000 miles of 
service should be the basis of settlement for a wheel cost- 
ing $10, and the table as presented in the report should be 
adjusted to the facts as already shown. 


In adjusting the price at which a scrap wheel should be 
charged back to the maker, either for the purpose of charg- 
ing the short mileage or crediting the excess over the 
guaranty, it is understood that 45 per cent, of the price at 
which the wheel is sold would represent its value as old 
material, and 55 per cent, would represent the actual cost 
to the railroad company. 

Now, suppose, for illustration, that a 33 in. passenger 
car wheel, weighing from 550 to 5fiO lbs., and guaranteed 
for 60,000 miles service, is sold for $11. When that wheel 
is scrapped, 55 per cent, of its first cost, or $605, is charged 
back to the maker. As an offset to this charge the maker 
receives a credit for the service that the wheel has per- 
formed. On the foregoing basis of price the rate of ci-edit 
is ascertained by dividing $605. the actual cost of the wheel 
to the railroad company, by 60,000, the guaranteed mileage 
—making 10 083 cents per 1,000 mile of service. At this 
rate, if the wheel made but 50,000 miles, the maker's credit 
would be 50 times 100S3 cents, or $504. As the wheel cost 
the railroad company $6-05, according to the terms of the 
Id have to pay the difference " 

tween $6 05 and $5 W, the 

of service performed, 

Any excess of mileage that the railroad company had to 
pay the -wheel maker would be computed on the same basis. 

Mr. Marden — I believe that the best wheel that a 
company can buy is the cheapest wheel for it to use, 
and if it actually costs $10 to make a good wheel I 
don't believe that a railroad company which buys 
one for .$8 is going to get a good wheel. 
I can hardly agree with Mr. Lauder as to the stand- 
ards adopted by the association. Since the reorgani- 
zation of the Master Car Builders' Association and 
the appointment of representative members by the 
different roads, who are authorized to cast the votes 
of the roads they represent — I believe when such 
votes are cast, or when a letter ballot is taken, and a 
standard adopted, it really should be binding, and I 
believe it is binding on the roads to use that stand- 
ard, as far as practicable, on the rolling stock they 
own. I hardly believe in admitting that a s'andard 
adopted by the Master Car Builders' Association 
ought not to be binding. 

Mr. Shinn— I think one point has not been brought 
out sufficiently, and that is the real cost of changing 
wheels. We have to consider not only the actual 
expense of making the change by the woi'kmen, but 
also the cost of bringing a car with a bad wheel 
back to the shop, which may be a hundred miles 
distant, and the detention of the car, sometimes for 
days and perhaps for weeks, say at an expense of .50 

nts per day to the railroad company. Now, if the 

'erage expense of changing a wheel is $:J'.50 to any 
company, that $250 is a fixed charge and cannot be 
left out of the account. 

Mr. Lauder— I don't think we need trouble our- 
selves very much in regard to the matter of the cost 
of changing wheels; it is a thing that will regulate 

Mr. Adams — It would be a benefit to the railroads 
if we could drive the cheap wheels out of the mar- 
ket, and the makers out of the bussness. The fact 
that steel wheels run so much longer than iron ones, 
and do not have to be changed so often, as well as 
being so much safer, is a strong argument in their 
favor. It is a very poor steel wheel that will not 
make 7.5,000 to 100,000 miles before it requires turn- 
ing, and we have a good many in our cars that have 
gone 1-50,000 miles without turning, and a number 
that have gone over 200,000 miles. I think it is 
doubtful if the system proposed for buying wheels 
will come into general use. 

Mr. Nye— If a wheel maker agrees to furnish a 
wheel 33 inches in diameter, weighing 600 pounds, 
and guarantees it to run 50,000 miles, and it runs 
49,000 miles, he should have pay for the mileage 
it has made, and you can sell your wheel for what it 
is worth; but the roads says it wants anew wheel 
Iti place of the old one, which I think is very unjust; 

it ought to pay for the work that the wheel 
has done on "the road. I believe that the 
mileage that a wheel does not make under the 
guaranty should be charged to the maker, and the 
mileage that it makes in excess of that guaranteed 
should be credited to him. 


The subject for discussion next month will be, 
"Freight car couplers." 

The advantages of steam heat over the ( 
stove for heating cars has been strongly shown up 
by a notable series of accidents occurring within re- 
cent months. We may cite a few instances to illus- 
trate this, the accidents referred to being of recent 
date: A Chesapeake & Ohio vestible train was 
wrecked and 10 persons were killed and about a score 
injured. As the cars in this train were heated by 
steam, fire did not break out, and a terrible holo- 
caust was thus undoubtedly avoided, because it was 
several hours hefoi-e the p'assengers were extricated 
from th<_' uiir,,. A I . > , nt railroad accident at Pitts- 
burgh, l':i - :; man being burned to death 
by the tin ■, ,1 the wreck. A Northern 
Pacific [>:i>-. [ Li ■yi'ii \\a^ badly wrecked and the 
baggage car caut;hl lire; fortunately the psissengers 
were pulled out before being burned. A Union 
Pacific train was wrecked and two mail cars 
and the baggage cars burned, the sleepers being also 
badly bur. all. la Mii-- case, also, the passengers 
weregott. (1 (•■ a n i lu i,> save them from the hor' 
lorsof l>ui; _ aie but a few of the recent 
oocurrcar. - .: - , . ^oiag to show the need of 
steam heat ••u (.;; i,:.--,!i-er trains. The Chesapeake 
& Ohio accidciil tliat wc spoke of, sad as it was, 
would undoubtedly been even more horrible had it 
not been that it was heated with steam, the cars be- 
ing equipped with the apparatus of the Consolidated 
Car Heating Co. 


—The Adams and Wesllake Company have in connection 
with their other business begun the manufacture of brass 
bedsteads at their works, bounded by Ontario, Franklin, 
Ontario and Market streets, Chicago. They will produce 
a superior quality of work, adopting throughout the En- 
glish sysLtm of construction and finish, employing expert 
English mechanics trained to the business, and importing 
the necessary material direct from Europe. Their bed- 
steads, they announce, will be superior to any hitherto pro- 
duced by American manufacturers, and in point of finish 
as well as mechanical excellence will be guaranteed to be 
the equal of any ever imported. They are prepared to ex- 
hibit samples showing the character of thpir work, and 
will shortly be able to supply catalogues of designs and 

—Jenkins Bros, aunounce a considerable reduction in the 
prices of their well known valves. 

—The Tripp Manufacturing Co., of Boston, who are the 
sole manufacturers of the celebrated Tripp anti-friction 
bearings and Tripp's metallic packing have removed to 180 
Summer street, where they have elegant offices. Their 
rapidly increasing business necessitated the change. 

—The American Sieel Car Wheel Company, of Boston, 
have removed to new quarters, now occupying offices in 
New England Building, No. ISO Summer street. 

—The number of Hale & Kilburn car seats of the latest 
design now in use is very close to 30,000. The success of 
this seat has been simply remarkable. 

—The Billings & Spencer Company, of Hartford, Conn., 
now makes U7 different styles of wrenches, besides drop 
forgings in almost endless variety and of the highest finish. 

—The Standard Car. Coupling Company is supplying im- 
proved Dowling couplers for the New York Central, Mer- 
chants' Dispatch and Eastman heated freight cars, amount 
ing to IGOO cars altogether. 

—The Adams Express Company has arranged to operate 
Burton horse cars on the Pennsylvania Hues between New 
York and Chicago, in passenger train service. Twenty- 
five cars to be used in this service are being built by the 
Burton Car Company at Wichita, Kan. 

—The Deoxidized Metal Company, of Bridgeport, Conn., 
has a very large and profitable business in furnishing "di- 
gesters" for wood pulp paper mills. The de-oxidized metal 
rings which it casts for these digesters are lU feet in dia- 
meter. It has tfie entire control of this business. The 
company, however, does not neglect the car journal bear- 
ing field and its car brasses are making excellent records. 

—A train of 15 Eastman heated cars recently made the 
trip from St. Paul to Boston, loaded with potatoes. During 
part of the journey the cars passed through a region in 
which the temperature was '20 degrees below zero. The 
Eastman apparatus, however, maintained a uniform heat 
within the cars of about 50 degrees, and the potatoes 
reached Boston in perfect order. Over 1500 of these cara 


are now running, and their absolute reliability has been 
proven in hundreds of instances. 

— The Springfield Emery Wheel Manufacturing Company 
has opened occupied a new and almost limitless field in the 
the use of emery wheels for shop work. Perhaps no manufac 
turing concern in the country has brought out so many new 
and useful machines during the last five years as have been 
designed and built by this concern. Several special ma 
chines made by this company have been illustrated in the 
Kailway Mast2k Mechanic, but those were only a few of 
the many which have been designed and successfully applied 
to special uses. The company expects to occupy its new 
shops at Bridgeport, Conn., before May 1. Its quarters at 
Springfield, Mass., have long been over crowded. 

—The Adams & Westlake Co., of Chicago, have issued a 
circular calling attention of those who use steel guard lan- 
terns the advantages of one-piece and one piece bottom Ian. 
terns instead of the old three-piece top patterns. In the 
one-piece lanterns the tops and bottoms are drawn from a 
single piece of heavy tin plate. They also point out the ad- 
vantage of using lanterns in which the ears to which the 
bail is attached are a part of two of the upright guards and 
not separate pieces ; and they urge that a regard for ali 
these points will reduce the consumption of lanterns and 
insure a smaller annual outlay. 

—The Chicago and West Michigan is determined not to 
be outdone in comfort and elegance for its passenger travel ; 
it has just placed an order for six new coaches, for which 
are specified " the new Scarritt" seat. This is the same 
equipment which the 0. & A., Big Four and I. & G. N. 
have recently ordered. 

— George Westinghouse, jr., and C. H. .Tackson. president 
and vice president of the Standard Car Heating and Ven- 
tilating Company, of Pittsburgh, have become directors 
and large shareholders in the Consolidated Car-Heating 
Company, of Albany. The interests of the Pittsburgh 
company are thus consolidated with the Albany company, 
which, by the arrangement, greatly extends the field of its 
operations and becomes the owner of an additional number 
of valuable patents and improved devices for heating and 
ventilating railway cars and lighting such cars by elect- 
ricity. Automatic regulation of heat, which will obviate 
the complaints of the variable temperature of steam heated 
cars, is also secured by an attachment to the air-brake 
cylinder with which all cars are alreaay equipped. Sev- 
eral of the features of the heating systems of the Standard 
company have lately had considerable trial upon the Penn- 
sylvania and Baltimore & Ohio roads with favorable 

—The Link Belt Machinery Company issue an handsome 
catalogue, giving illustrations and description of the vari 
ous forms of link belts made by them and also the many 
uses to which their belts are put in handling material in 
bulk and in packages. 

—The Pond Machine Tool Company, through its selling 
agents. Manning, Maxwell & Moore, ll:i Liberty street. 
New York, has received an order from the ordnance de- 
partment of the United States government for 10 large 
lathes, for the work of turning, boring and finishing guns 
of S tola ins. caliber. The contract amounts to #247,S00. 
The time of delivery extends over a period of about three 
years, which enables the Pond Machine Tool Company to 
Uko care of its regular work promptly, and does uot ma- 
terially reduce the production of its shops for regular rail- 
road and machine shop trade. 

—The Hubbard car seat cushions, made by the American 
Car Seat Co., 300 to 3()fi Deaborn street, Chicago, are of 
notable excellence in point of spring action and durability. 
The delicacy and perfix-tion of elasticity of these seats has 
been known for some time, but the objection against their 
use has been their high cost. The company has, however, 
by improved machinery, overcome this objection and can 
hereafter furnish the cushions at prices that will be satis- 
factory to those desiring a superior article. 

—David Russell has been made superintendent and H. 
Tandy assistant superintendent of the Brooks Locomotive 
Works, at Dunkirk. Mr. Russell was formerly assistant 
superintendent. Mr. Tandy recently resigned the position 
of superintendent of motive power of the New York, On- 
tario & Western to connect himself with the Brooks Works. 

—The stockholders of the Illinois Steel Company met at 
the offices of the company in the Rookery building on the 
13th instant and elected Jay C. Morse president. The old 
board of directors, executive committee and officers were 
re-elected with the exception of the treasurer and secretary 
and assistant secretary, both of whom declined office. Their 
places were filled by the choice of J. C. Stirling as acting 
treasurer and B. W. Perkins as acting secretary-. The com- 
pany gives out the following report : The total value of 
finished product shipped in the eight months of 1SN9 after 
its organization was J15,275,.V39 ; the company received a 
total of 2,(>»S,6S8 tons of raw material and shipped over .tOO,- 
000 tons of finished products ; the toul pay-roll amounted 
to $3,660,SS7, and the purchases of miscellaneous stores and 



supplies of all kit 
received SS,554 cars of material and shipped 40,y.'i4 i 
there were employed directly at all the works on an a 
age per day S,3I!0 men, besides the employment given 
rectly to an additional force in the production of coke, 
iron ore, limestone and other materials. 


Changes for the Month of February, 1890. 

Alamama MiiiLANU.- H. Miller to be general freight 
agent, at Birmingham; C. M.Craig to be chief engineer, 
viC3 H. A. Schwanecke resigned. 

Atchisox, Toi'EKA & Santa Fe.— Geo. Hackney super- 
tendent of machinery lines east Missouri river, resigned ; 
jurisdiction of Harvey Middleton extended to cover Chi- 

Ballimore & Ouio.— Geo. T. Jarvis to be superintend- 
ent Ohio division, vice R. T. Devries, resigned. 

Baltimore & Ohio Soithwestekx.— John E. Rose to be 
superintendent; O. P. McCarty to be general passenger 
agent, vice C. K. Lord. 

BrRLlSGTiis & MissocRl Rivek.— E. F. Highland to be 
assistant superintendent Cheyenne line, vice J. R. Phelan, 
appointed superintendent Black Hills division. 

Chicago & Alton.— D. Bowes to be general western 
passenger agent, at St. Louis, vice S. H. Hunt, deceased; 

A. Hilton to be general agent at St. Louis, vice Bowes, 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois and Mackev System.— 
The following changes took place March 1 : Vice president 
and general manager O. S. Lyford, of Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois and Chicago & Indiana Coal, relieved of duties of 
general manager. George (J. Kimball, second vice presi- 
dent of same roads, resigned and position abolished. 
George W. Saul appointed general manager of both sys- 
tems, with "headquarters at Chicago. D. R. Patterson, 
general superintendent C. & E I., made general superin- 
tendent of both systems. S. H. Spooner, general attorney 
for Chicago & Eastern Illinois and Chicago &. Indiana Coal 
resigned, and W. H Lyford, promoted to the position, with 
title of general solicitor for all lines in the combination. 
S. H. Miller, chief engineer; E. P. Dawley, assistant en- 
gineer, and James Strong, general roadmaster of the Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois and Chicago & Indiana Coal re- 
signed. an<J the positions consolidated into one, to be filled 
bv F. H. Baldwin, with title of chief engineer and superin- 
tendent of maintenance. W. G. Brimson, trainmaster of 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois, resigned and office abolished, 
the duties of W. S. Page, superintendent of transporlation 
of the Chicago & Indiana Coal R., extended to cover Mr. 
Brimson's duties. P. W. Drew, superintendent of tele- 
graph of Chicago & Eastern Illinois and Chicago & Indiana 
Coal, resigned and position abolished. The duties will be 
performed by F. H. Van Etten, chief train dispatcher of 
the Chicago "& Eastern Illinois, and J. E. Mathers, chief 
train dispatcher of the Chicago & Indiana Coal R. G.J. 
Grammar, traffic manager of Peoria, Decatur & Evans- 
ville, becomes traffic manager of ali roads in the combina- 
tion with headquarters at EvansviUe. H. A. Rubidge, 
secretary and auditor of Chicago &, Eastern Illinois and 
Chicago & Indiana Coal, is made secretary and auditor for 
the consolidated system. Title of freight traffic manager P. 
Davis, of the Porter roads, changed to general freight 
agent of same part of new system. E. O. Hopkins, general 
freight and passenger agent of Peoria, Decatur &, Evans- 
viUe, transferred to general freight agent of same road and 
EvansviUe & Terre Haute and EvansviUe & Indianapolis 

ST Michigan, Detroit, Lansing & Noii- 
inaw Valley fc St. Loiis.-J. B. MuUi- 
kcn, vice president and general manager, resigned; C. M. 
Heald to be general manager. ■ 

Chicago & Northwestern.- E. F. Potter to be chief 
engineer Dakota Central division; H. R. Sanborn to be 
superintendent bridges and buildings above division, vice 
Potter promoted . 

Chicago, si Th i ,v i: . -\- City.— J. Berliogett, ap- 
pointed supirir, ' ■ II Miines and St, Joseph divi- 
sions, vice \V i: - M il ; O. Cornelsen to be chief 
train dispaich' i; : n promoted. 

Chicago, Mm ,i i-i .\ St. Paul.— John E. McClure, 
western passenger air.iil, at Denver, deceased. 

Central ok Georgia.— John C. Calhoun elected vice 

Central New England & Western. -F. M. Rand to 
be auditor and division superintendent, vice R. P. Martin, 

Clevelanii, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Loiis.— Robert 
Blee, general superintendent, resigned. 

Georgia PAriFu.- H. C. Ansley to be auditor, vice J. E. 
Starke, resigned. 

Git.vNii TarNK. John Burton tobegeneral freight agent, 
vice Thomas Tandy, deceased. 

Hot ScRiNfj.s.- L. D. Richardson to be superintendent 
and general freight and passenger agent. 

Illinois Central.— John Dunn to be assistant to presi- 
dent; N. D. Wiggins to be assistant superintendent Louisi- 
ana division, at New Orleans. 

Iowa Central.— Russell Sage elected president, vice A- 

B. Stickney, resigned. 

Little Miami.— Frank J. Jones elected to succeed Henrv 
Hanna as president. 

LniiLviLLE, New Alranv & Chicago.— J. O. Ewan to 
be superintendent of transportation, vice E. L. Ryder, 

Manhattan Elevateil— Robert I. Sloan, chief engineer, 
resigned, to take similar position with Chicago South Side 
Rapid Transit Company. 

Mexican Central.— H. A. Vaughan to be superintendent 
Guadalajara division, vice C. E. Halbert, deceased. 


division superin- 

I manager i 

L. Martin I 

to other 

Minneapolis, St. 
Kellie to act as assisi 
duties, office al 
vice M. P. Hawkins. 

New VouK Central & Hudson River.-J. C. Wolf to 
be auditor fi-eiglu accounts, vice J. F. Fairlamb, promoted 
t.. succeed \V, K, ( lillett, resigned, as auditor; H. W. Webb 
to be third vice president; Theodore Voorhees to be general 
superintendent, vice John M. Toucey, made general man- 

New York & Northern.- H. H. Vreeland to be super- 


-O. M. Shepard 

1. snepard 
perintendent New York division, vice W. H. Tur- 
ner, deceased; office of general superintendent abolished. 

New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio.^I. T. Wann to be 
auditor and Earl Tupper to be secretary, vice Thos. War- 
nock, deceased. 

New York, Ontario & Western.— G. W. West to be 
superintendent motive power, vice H. Tandy, resigned; J. 
Burton, general manager, resigned. 

Northern Pacific— F. W. Gilbert to be superintendent 
Coeur d'Alene division; A.S.Morton to be auditor dis- 
bursements, vice W. G. Pearce, appointed purchasing 

Norfolk Southern.— G. R. Joughins to be master me- 
chanic, in charge of rolling and floating equipment, at 
Berkley, Va. 

North and South of Chicago, (formerly St. Louis & 
Chicago).— Now officered as follows: G. L. Hoyt, presi- 
dent; C. H. Bosworth, Springfield, vice president; J. W. 
Calhoun, secretary. 

Ohio, Indiana & Western.- 
mechanic, vice W. F. Kearney, deceased. 

Philadelphia & Reading.— M. P. 
ant general superintendent; G. D. Whitcomb to be super- 
intendent Philadelphia & New York division ; F. W. Stone 
to be assistant general freight agent; H. C. Tucker to be 
general western agent, at Chicago, vice H. S. Snyder, re- 

Pennsylvania Company. — James McCrea to be second 
vice president of Pennsylvania lines west of the Ohio river 
in place of William Thaw, deceased. Joseph Wood ap- 
pointed general manager in place of James McCrea, and E. 
B. Taylor to be general superintendent of transportation, 
vice Joseph Wood. Charles Watts to succeed Mr. Taylor 
as general superintendent. 

Pennsylvania, Poughkeepsie & Boston.— Auditor E. 
J. Fallon assumed duties of general freight and passenger 
agent, vice A. M. Holden, resigned. 

Pittsburgh, Port Wayne & Chicago. — Thomas Butler 
to be master mechanic Crestline shops. 

Redondo. — W. P. Clinton appoint*jd 
vice J. W. HUl. 

Richmond & Danville.— V 
general manager in addition 1 

Rio Grande Western.— L. J. Guinn to be trainmaster 
and superintendent of telegraph, at Salt Lake City. 

Savannah, Americus &. MoNTtiOMERY. — E. S. Goodman 
to be general freight and passenger agent. 

St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas.— D. Miller to be general 
traffic manager; E. W. La Beaume to be general passen- 

fer agent ; L. P. Day to be general freight agent ; S. C. 
obnson to be general auditor, at St. Louis. 
St. Louis & San Francisco.— John O'Day, vice presi- 
dent and general counsel, resigned. 

SE.1TTLE, Lake Shore & Eastern.— J. R. McDonald, 
president, resigned ; A. S. Dunham appointed managing 

Southern Pacific. —E. Hawley to be assistant general 
traffic manager, headquarters at New York City; J. E. 
Lindberg to be superintendent Shasta division vice A. F. 
George, resigned. 

TEXARKANA& FoRT SMITH (formerly K C^T. AGulf). 
—This road is now officered as follows: W. L. Whitaker, 
president; Wm. Buchanan, vice president; L. L. Keller, 
general superintendent; J. H. Smelser, secretary; T. H. 
Garrett, general freight and passenger agent; J. A. Buch- 
anan, audfitor; H. M. Whitaker, general attorney; offices, 
Texarkana, Tex. 

Toledo & South Haven.— Now officered as follows: R. 
B. Dobson, New York, president; C. J. Monroe, vice presi- 
dent; John Ihling, Lawton, general manager; W. G. Snow, 
New York, secretary. 

Texas & Pacific— Leroy Trice to be division superin- 

Terre Haute & Peoria. -W. G. Van Buskirk to be mas 
tcr mechanic at Paris, III., vice F. Young, resigned. 

Warash.— H. Dunlai) to be superintendent bridges and 
buildings, vice J. B. Mitchell, resigned; J. Hewitt, master 
mecnanic, Detroit division, resigned. 

Western New York & Pennsylvania. -J. E. Shields 
to be assistant to president . 


ll) Slaiulnrd Nciilt- 

A Creditable Showing 
Testing Macuin 
At the Centennial Expos 
ighest a 


on In ISrti this firm received 
ard for the Railroad Track Scale they 

" It appeared to the judges that their construction 
offered the greatest guarantee of durability com- 
bined with accuracy." 

Time has proved the correctness of their verdict, foHhe 
most durable Track Scales to be found arc those of Riehle 


" Peraeverenlia omnia vinoil "' thej- thoroughly believe 
in, and it has carried them successfully through the severest 
competition and opposition. 

Flattering Exdor^semests. Such endorsements as the 
following should command attention and respect, and give 
confidence to all purchasers of Scales: 

"We selected your Scales as the best after careful con- 
sideration.' The I. P. MoKKis Compaxv, 
W, C. P. Thomas, Secretary. 

" We have used Riehle Bros.' make of Scales for twenty 
years. We have two of their Track Scales, one of 60 tons 
and one of 90 tons— are giving satisfaction.'* 
The Wm. Cramp & Soxs Ship and Engine Blug. Co., 
Henry W. Cramp. Secretary. 

' Your Railroad Track and other Scales have given us 
:ire satisfaction." Phcenix Irox Co., 

David Reeves, President. 

' Vour Railroad Track Scales for accuracy and sensitive- 
ss have no superior at these works." 

Cambria Iron Co., 
John Fulton, Superintendent. 

) mistake in selecting your Track 
,te and durable." 

Betts Machine Co.. 
A. Betts, President. 
' Very satisfactory." 



J. E. FORSYTH, General Manager. 









Branch Offices: Chicago, 616 Phenix Bldg. New York, 15 Cortlandt St. 

Tlno :^-uLrtoi3. Stools. Oetr Oo.y 


General Office, 194 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. | 12 ft 44 Live Stock Exchange, Kansas City, Ho. 

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espondence Solicited. GEO. D. BURTON, Treasurer, BOSTON, MASS- 



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FDLSOM. Presi 

AGENTS: , ••""Ir"'" 


nnioii. Chi, 

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i. KANUALL, Supt. 

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•RA.TL.^^J^.Arr service 

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Special Excellence in Railroad Car V/heels cf Best 
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O^., Hartford, Conn. 




Manager Editorial Department. 

Manager Business Department. 


Devoted to the interestM of railway motive power, equipment 
and machinery. Communications on any topics suitable to these 
columns are solicited. 

Prior to January 1, 1886. this jonnial was known as The Rail- 
way Purchasing Attent. It will still in its new and wider field be 
adapted to the especial wants of all who purchase or infli 
the purchase of railway supplies. 

Subscription price, $rno a year. AdvertlsInK rates and details 
concerning circulation Kivei 


The Kookery. Cliicugu. 
New Vokk Office: 45 Bioudwuy, Room 1«. 
The Offlclat Ttailirav List i» fmliliehed by Ihh company. 

Vol. 5. 1 CHICAGO, APRIL, 189J. INo. 

TiiK ftcijuittal of Kngiueer Twombly and Fire- 
man La Cloche, who were imlictetl for murder in 
the Rock Island collision case, cannot be taken as 
satisfying. There was somewhat contlictiug testi- 
mony as to the throwing of the semaphore signal 
in time, but the train was ahead of time and run- 
ning at a wrongful speed and altogether the verdict 
appears to represent a miscarriage of justice. 
There is little helpful to the traveler in the 
thought that the responsibility for his safe keeping 
is permitted to be held so lightly. 

Those who are offering improved methods of 
car lighting should never forget that success de- 
pends upon the amount of light produced, rather 
than on the method of its production. Electricity, 
for example, will not illuminate a car any more 
brightly than three old fashioned lamps unless 
enough burners are used to give an increasei' 
amount of light. As poorly lighted a car as one 
ever rode in was lighted by electric incandescent 
burners. There were not enough of them — the 
candle power of each was very low and the glass 
bulbs were dim with dirt. 

But it must be borne in mind that rail- 
way men, particularly trainmen, station agents, 
operators, etc., are charged with the gravest duties, 
the momentary neglect of even apparently slight 
details of which may, and frequently does, cause 
serious disaster. A perfectly unclouded brain and 
stroiig nerves are essentials in the safe direction 
and immediate control of train movements, and 
the whole range of wine-bibbers — from the ver- 
iest tyro in elbow crooking to the oldest soaker, 
knows that these essentials are destroyed by 
liquor. A drink clears the head and steadies the 
nerve only when placed in a stomach weakened 
by previous drinking. If one is wedded to his 
rum and resents the infringement upon his divine 
rights as an individual, alleged to lie in such or- 
ders as that of the Eock Island Railway, let him 
leave railroading and take up some avocation in 
which an occasional (or more likely perennial) 
lapse from a state of perfect self-control will not 
endanger life and property. 

mitted the train to start with the air cut off from 
the rear cars. The very best coupler in existence 
will occasionally fail, and similar negligence would 
cause an accident. No state board of railway 
commissioners can afford to "slop over," but the 
New York board has certainly done that very 

tl.l„,r •' 

Thkre is hardly room for a doubt that Chicago 
will hold a Worlds Fair in 1898. And it is equally 
certain that it will be made a world's wonder- an 
exhibition of the nineteenth century, new and old 
world civilization— a suitable closing of a century 
which has given birth to more wonderful and use- 
ful discoveries and inventions than all the eighteen 
centuries which preceded it. No doubt there 
will be a section devoted to railway material, 
equipment and supplies, and it can easily be made 
the grandest, most interesting and most instruc- 
tive department of the display. What can be done 
in this direction was indicated by the railway ex- 
position in this city in 18;3. Rut during the ten 
years which will have elapsed great improvements 
have been made along all the lines referred to, 
and also in 1893, there will be, no doubt, a very 
large contribution to this section from foreign 
countries. There should be no delay in perfecting 
an organization to make this department of the 
World's Fair what it can and ought to be. The 
mistakes and weaknesses of the exposition of 1883 
can be easily avoided. There are plenty of men 
engaged in the manufacture of railway equipment 
and supplies who have intellectual, moral and ex- 
ecutive ability needed to make the railway depart- 
ment of the World's Fair what it should be. 

The fatal Englewood disaster has caused the 
Eock Is'and management to issue a circular an- 
nouncing that men known to be in the habit of 
becoming intoxicated will not be employed; that 
present employes known to frequent drinking 
places must stop the practice, and if known to be- 
come intoxicated either on or off duty, they will 
be discharged, and that any one discharged for 
intoxication will not be re-employed. Of course 
the cry of "interference with personal liberties" 
will go up from various classes of toddy-loving 

TiiE New England Railroad Club's discussion 
of the car coupling question has rather astonished 
the rest of the country. The "tacts" and figures 
presented at the meeting are entirely at variance 
■with those met with in other parts of the country; 
and the theories offered being based upon these 
alleged facts are not acceptable elsewhere than in 
the confines of New England. The club and its 
membership are of a notably high class and the 
tone of its last meeting is as inexplicable as is the 
result of the vote of trainmen. While New Eng- 
land roads cling to the link and pin many roads 
elsewhere are rapidly adding to their equipment 
of M. C. B. couideis; and while something over a 
thousand New England employes vote against the 
M. C. B. coupler some fifteen or twenty thousand 
employes elsewhere are working to get the M. C. B. 
coupler generally adopted. It has been well 
known that considerable opposition to the hook 
coupler existed in New England, but it was hardly 
expected that that opposition would rear its horrid 
front so prominently as this. The propositions 
advanced at the meeting in question hardly merit 
more than the brief notice we have here given 
them— they have been met and refuted time and 
again, and are dead issues. Jf the New England 
rop.ds would drop their dead issues and take 
up a live one in the shape of a strong movement 
in favor of more careful handling of cars at ter- 
minals they might greatly advance the car coup- 
ling problem. The New England Club has for 
once made a mistake. "Of this there is no manner 
of doubt, no possible probable shadow of doubt, 
no sort of a doubt whatever." 

The outward manifestation of the interest which 
railway men have taken in the compound locomo- 
tive is evidently less than it was some months 
ago. That this is not due to a real lack of interest 
we are quite sure, and it can doubtless be attri- 
buted to the disposition to await developments 
from the workings of those engines now in opera- 
tion in this country. 

As many of our readers already know there are 
three compound locomotives which have within 
the last year been operated in this country, two of 
which are of American build. Thus far they have 
thrown but little light upon the many interesting 
problems connected with the compounding of loco- 
motives. But a brief reference to each of these 
engines and tlieir work may not be amiss at this 

The Webb compound locomotive which the 
Pennsylvania Railroad purchased in England was 
the first of the three to be put in service. Being 
a compound and of English design it attracted 
much attention. As might be expected, however. 
It has not met with general favor. The arrange- 
ment of cylinders and the absence of parallel rods 

The remarks of the New York state board of 
railroad commissioners, in its report on the disaster 
on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern road near 
Hamburg, N. Y., on the Cowell coupler will stri: 
a large numberof railway men as being exceedingly 
unjust. To inspect a single coupler and then 
declare that "such couplers are in the highest 
degree dangerous" does not speak well for the 
fairness or judicial temperance of the board— to 
say nothing of the light in which the utterance 
places its mechanical knowledge. The Cowell 
coupler would never have come into use as it has 
if it were "in the highest degree dangerous." The 
men and the roads which have selected it do not 
adopt devices which can in fairness be so charac- 
terized. If the Cowell coupler in the case in hand 

have made the engine very weak in certain por- 
tions of the stroke and this, together with the lack 
of equalization and consequent hard riding and 
the lack of conveniences for the men, have made 
it unpopular. As a compound, however, its record 
has shown considerable economy, if we would 
judge from the rumors afloat. No official records 
have been made public by the Pennsylvania Eail- 
road and the exact results of its operation are 
therefore known to a few persons only. In the 
case of this particular engine this is a matter of 
little moment, for the design is wholly unsuited to 
American practice, and the only value of the tests 
would be to know the advantage of the primipU 
of compounding, and this has already been dem- 
onstrated in Europe. It is doubtful, however, if 
the results of operation there are strictly compara- 
tive with any data obtainable on American roads 
where the single expansion engines are of such 
entirely different construction. 

The second engine employing the compound 
principle, which appeared last year, was built by 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works under their pat- 
ents, and put upon the Baltimore &Ohio Eailroad. 
This engine was an exact duplicate of other eight- 
wheeled engines on that road, except those parts 
!ar affected by the compounding. The engine has four 
ke j cylinders, two high and two low pressure. All the 

cylinders are outside the frames', the 12 in. high 
pressure cylinders being placed directly above the 
20 in. low pressure ones, and the two pistons con- 
nected to the same crosshead. The steam distri- 
bution in the high and low pressure cylinders on 
the one side was controlled by a single piston 
valve. The mechanical details of this engine were 
very nicely worked out, and everything is compact 
and presents a good appearance. The chief diffi- 
culties likely to be experienced with any such de- 
sign as this lie in the steam distribution and the 
, , , , . arrangement of steam passages. Live steam pass- 

was brolien and therefore uncoupled, that is no ! ing through the piston valve, thence to the h p 
more than might and does happen to any kind of j cylinder, back to the valve, then to the I. p. cylin. 
fi°"r*;i;„ J'J^°*V "P?T";^''^-^" ^"""^ "'■''.'"^ der, and finally to the valve again, necessitates 

liiving very tortuous and cramped steam passages; 
and as in some cnses there can be but about i in. 

then the board has no right to singly out the 
Cowell for condemnation. In any event the fail- 
ure of the two couplers to hold "together was not 
in any proper sense of the term the "cause" of 
the accident. Couplers of all types. Miller, Cowell 
and M. C. B. get out of order and allow trains 
to part almost every day, but with the air 
brakes in order no damage results. In the case 
under consideration the "cause" of the accident 
was the gross carelessness of the employes who 
failed to make the coupling secure after they had 

.- _ ._ .^ — ^„,.j„.ug oc^uic iwi,ci Liicj iiau ijjg nuicu it mignt receive in passing turougti a re- 
had warning of their imperfection, and who per- ceiver in the smoke-box. The manner of attacU- 

of cast iron between two passages in which the 
steam is at widely different temperatures, it fol- 
lows that much condensation might be expected, 
The cramped condition of the passages is apt to 
result in wire drawing of the steam, especially 
when it is exhausted from the low pressure cylin- 
der, as its volume has then become so great. The 
steam in this engine loses the benefit of any dry- 
ing which it might receive in passing through j 



ing the two pistons to the one crosshead, whUe 
not verv objectionable as long as the powers de- 
veloped in the two cylinders are the same, pos- 
sesses decided disadvantages when the powers are 
unequal, as then the tendency is to snap off the 
piston rods at the shoulder of "the taper fit in the 
crosshead. The weight of the reciprocating parts 
is increased probably about 50 per cent., and this 
leads to large disturbing forces, not only in the 
reciprocating parts but also in the balance in the 
driving wheels. 

The results obtained from this engine, as in tlie 
case of the Webb engine, have been kept private, 
and very little has been heard from the engine 
lately. It is to be hoped that the results will 
finally be made public, as the data thus placed at 
the disposal of those interested in the compound, 
as carefuUy conducted tests, would probably indi- 
cate pretty clearly the effect of that arrangement 
of passages, and might give some valuably hints as 
to the exact amountof condensation to be expected 
and the value of a receiver in the smoke-box. 

Th third and by far the most important of these 
engines under consideration is the one built by the 
Schenectady Locomotive Works and now running 
on the Michigan Central Railroad. This engine 
being of the two cyhnder type, and in all respects 
a duplicate of others on the road except the cylin- 
der arrangement, is especially interesting. This 
engine has no objectionable features in its general 
design, and those proportions which pertain to 
compounding are very good. In the engine as it 
first left the shop there were naturally some imper- 
fections of steam distribution, some of which have 
since been corrected. The compression, especially 
in the high pressure cyhnder, was very great, and 
was relieved* by cutting out the valve until it now 
has ji in. inside clearance. The clearance space 
of the h. p. cylinder was also enlarged, and the 
receiver capacity increased, tending to materially 
improve the condition of affairs in the h. p. cyhn- 
der. Tests of this engine have recently been 
made, but as the information furnished the pub- 
lic lias been of a very incomplete nature, it is not 
known how exhaustive the tests have been, nor 
how economical theengine has proved to be. Any 
decided saving in fuel which this engine may show 
will be of special interest, from the fact that in 
effecting this economy it must in so doing compete 
with some of the most economical express engines 
in the country. In the report made. public a few 
miscellaneous diagrams have been presented, and 
the results of three runs of the compound and three 
trips of a single expansion of the same class. On 
examination the data famished for these runs does 
not appear conclusive. It demonstrates that there 
is a decided saving in favor of the compound, but 
just how much that is yet remains to be proved. 
The first comparative run resulted in the single 
engine using practically 13i per cent, more of coal 
and water than the compound did. These results 
appear quite logical, for, under the circumstances, 
one would expect the evaporative power of the two 
boilers would be the same, and that any saving in 
water due to a better use of tlie steam aud the re- 
duction of cylinder condensation would cause an 
equal percentage of economy of fuel. In the next 
two runs the results are very contradictory; in one 
the pfrcentage of saving in coal is nearly twice 
that of the reduction of water consumption, and in 
the other the case is just reversed, and the saving 
of water is far greater than that of coal. From 
such a limited number of comparative runs giving 
contradictory results, it is impossible to judge cor- 
rectly as to the exact economy of the engine. We 
feel quite confident, however, thatexcellent as this 
engine may be, neither it nor any other compound 
locomotive designed in the light of present knowl- 
edge will ever save 2.5 per cent, of the fuel burned 
by the common lO-wheeled engines on the Michi- 
gan Central road, though this performance has 
been claimed as a possibility for it by a recent 

Two things which seem to be particularly desir- 
able to settle in compounding are the relation be- 
tween the cutoffs ill the high aud low pressure 
cylinders and the volume of the receiver. It may 
be confidently stated that the larger the latter, 
within the jiractical limits fixed by the construc- 

tion, the better it is, providing that the steam is 
kept veiy hot while in the receiver. Experience 
in Europe in regard to the relation of cutoffs 
seems to be all in one direction, and that is that 
the cut-off in the 1. p. cylinder should be later than 
in the h. p. cylinder. 

There is no compound at present running on 
which a series of exhaustive and intelligen'ly con- 
ducted tests would prove of more value than on 
the Michigan Central engine. Within the next six 
months there will probably be two more engines 
of equal importance running, one in New England 
and the other in the west. It may therefore be 
safely concluded that by the close of 1890 there 
will be considerable data at hand by which to 
judge of the value of this type in American ser- 



One of the most interesting and timely subjects 
on which a report is to be presented at the next 
master mechanics' convention is that of the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of placing the fire- 
box above the frames of the engine. 

It is now 38 years since the eminent English 
engineer Clark "published as his opinion, based on 
extended experiment, the statement that the gi-ate 
area of a locomotive boiler should be made as 
small as possiblr, provided the rate of combustion 
"does not exceed the limits imposed by physical 
conditions." As this statement in an incomplete 
form has been made use of time and again to ex- 
cuse the insufficient size of the grates foundin 
many locomotives, it is in order to enquire what 
the limits imposed by physical conditions are. 
In marine practice it is considered that to ensure 
complete combustion not more than 15 lbs. of coal 
should be burned on a square foot of grate surface 
per indicated horse power per hour. For the pur- 
pose of comparison let us see how this rate would 
apply to locomotive work. Suppose an engine to 
be indicating 800 horse power, and to be burning 
4 lbs. of coal for each horse power per hour. The 
total amount of fuel consumed in the time speci- 
fied would be 

800X4 = 3,200 lbs. 
and the requisite grate area 

«||»=213 sq.ft. 

As locomotives having only 20 sq. ft., and even 
less, grate area in their boilers are frequently 
called upon to do the above work, day after day, 
it follows that the rate of combustion is 

^-'^X 15=160 lbs. 

of coal per square foot of grate per hour. 

The enormous difference between the rates of 
15 and 160 for marine and locomotive work re- 
spectively, shows clearly how difficult a matter it 
is to apply the same degrees of comparison to the 
two kinds of service, and why it is grossly unfair 
to put the locomotive boiler down as wasteful aud 
extravagant when it labors under the great disad- 
vantage of being forced far beyond the limits of 

As the rate of combustion in the majority of the 
engines with which Clark experimented was un- 
der 100 lbs., it will be seen that his statement 
regarding the size of grates must always be quali- 
fied by the words with which he concluded and 
which we have quoted. 

In endeavoring to reduce the rate of combus- 
tion to a reasonable figure, say 100 to 120 lbs. per 
hour, the obvious plan is to increase the grate sur- 
face. The frames of locomotives in this country 
are usually placed about 42 in. apart; this dimen- 
sion limits the width of the fire box, if placed be- 
tween the frames, to about 33 in. If the box is deep 
and has to go down between the axles of the main 
and back drivers, the length will be about 6 ft. 8 in. 
It is not advisable to go beyond this, as by so do- 
ing the length of the coupling rods becomes ex- 
cessive. The sizes given would form a grate hav- 
ing an area of a trifle over 11 sq. ft. To get more 
length some designers run the fire-box up over the 
back axle, a plan first employed by Cudworth, the 
width remaining as before. The new 10-wheelers 

of the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago are built 
, in this way. This disposal of the box admits of a 
large grate surface, but is open to objections, espe- 
cially when the barrel of the boiler is of large 
diameter, a cross section having that contracted 
appearance, at the grate liue and for some distance 
above it, that Mr. Forney has aptly likened to a 
tightly laced woman. What we regard as the better 
method is to lift the tire-box entirely clear of the 
frames and thereby gain the H in. or so in width 
that are lost with the other style of box. 

The wide fire-box above the frames, long 
I used for anthracite, is now rapidly becoming 
I popular for bituminous coal burning boilers, and 
we have yet to hear a single regret that has fol- 
lowed its adoption. The Schenectady Locomo- 
tive Works' catalogue warmly recommends its use, 
and gives figures showing substantial economy as 
results. The New York Central, one of the most 
conservative roads in the country in respect to mo- 
tive power, is using the wide box on the new lOx 
26 in. "Moguls;" the Michigan Central, the Illi- 
nois Central and a host of our roads are having 
their new engines built that way. Particular at- 
tention should be paid to getting a sufficient depth of 
leg to the boiler; 20 in. appears to be about the 
minimum dimension compatible with entire satis- 
faction. This is on the supposition thai the top 
of the grate bars is on a level with the same point 
on the mud ring, and there is really no reason 
why the grates in any engine should go higher 
than this. With a box shallower than 20 in. there 
is difficulty in carrying a suffisiently heavy fire at 
the front end, without encroaching on the flues. 
This is especially true of the hard coal boilers, as 
an anthracite fire is far more susceptible to the 
chilling effects cf an in-rush of cold air than a 
bituminous, as many firemen have ascertained to 
their sorrow. 

With large wheeled engines, where the center 
line of the boiler can only be raised to a certain 
height determined by the available head room in 
tunnels and elsewhere, it becomes necessary, 
therefore, to drop the top rail of the frame down 
in order to secure a sufficient depth of box. This 
makes the frame more costly both to forge and to 
machine, but it is a very pound-foolish policy to 
hesitate on that account when the desired end can 
not be attained by any other means. 

There are three points raised against the wide 
box, one of which is the alteration in the driving 
spring gear rendered imperative, the second, the 
difficulty in getting atttie shell aud tire-box sheets 
at the mud ring for the purpose of caulking, and 
third, the height above the rails to which the cen- 
ter line of boiler must be raised ordinarily. The 
first of these constitutes a valid objection. The 
spring gear must be somewhat more complicated, 
expensive and harder to get at for repairing. Bail- 
road men must decide for themselves, individu- 
ally, whether t!ie advantages of a reduced rate of 
combustion in the fhape of fuel economy are off- 
set by the difficulties with the spring gear just 
enumerated. Oar own experience has led us to 
form the opinion that with large boilers there is 
but one answer to the question, and that is a nega- 
tive — that the net gain to be derived from the 
wide box is great enough to compensate for a sub- 
stantial increase in the cost of construction and 
maintenance of the springs and their attachments. 
With small boilers, however, which do not have 
to be unduly forced to jierform their duties, any 
gain in fuel economy is so slight as hardly to war- 
rant a deviation in design from the deep box be- 
tween the frames. 

As we have always held that a mud ring should 
be double riveted, no matter what its position 
with relation to the engiue frames might bo, and as a 
ring made in this way rarely gives trouble by leak- 
ing, if honest work is done on it, the difficulty of 
caulking the plates at this point is of no moment. 
Eespecting the height of the boiler above the 
rails, a high pitched engine is usually an easy rid- 
ing one. This is easily accounted for. The 
nearer a line drawn from the center of gravity of 
a locomotive to the rail passes to the spring, the 
more readily will the spring absorb the shocks 
communicated to the wheels by inequalities in the 
roadway, and the less will these shocks be trans- 

Apkil, 1890. 


ruitted to the framing to the engine. As there is, 
we believe, no authentic instance on record of an 
engine toppling over, purely on account of being 
top heavj, we fail to see that the objection some- 
times made, that it is inadvisable to raise the cen- 
ter line of a boiler more than, say, 7 ft. 6 in. from 
the track, is well taken. 

The weight of the fire-box and shell, when stand- 
ard, above the frames is usually transferred there- 
to partly by means of cross braces, studded to the 
mud ring, back head or throat sheet, and partly 
by heavy wrought iron suspension links. Means 
should also be provided, either in the shape of 
diagonal cross braces or their equivalent, to resist 
the tendency of the fire-box to "work" laterally, 
which is always present in varying degrees, but 
which is most pronounced when an engine is tak- 
ing a curve. This is a feature which, overlooked or 
neglected, as it sometimes is, subjects the sus- 
pension links and their connections to severe side 
bending stresses which rack the whole back part 
of the engine to a prejudicial exteut. The pins 
holding the upper end of the links are often forged 
in one piece with the "pads" which take the studs 
securing them to the shell plates. Another, and 
in many respects a better, way, is where a heavy 
iron or steel casting having a pocket on the out- 
side into which the upper end of the suspension 
Jink enters, takes the place of the wrought pad. 
The pocket provides a bearing for the link pin at 
each end of its length and so distributes the pres- 
sure more uniformly throughout. 


The Lake Shore accident causing the death of 
six persons and the serious injury of seventeen 
more is peculiar in that there seems to be no par- 
ticular lesson to be drawn from it — that is, it was 
simply the direct result of unmitigated negligence. 
The devices with which the train was equipped, 
the rules under which the train was operated, the 
conditions under which the train was running — 
all were good, regular, normal, until the conduc- 
tor, when a very ordinary accident happened, 
neglected, openly and with direct disregard of the 
most elementary knowledge wuich his long train- 
ing had given him, to take the one needful, simple 
step which would have made all practically right 
again. There is no occasion to moralize on this 
case — the one offense responsible for the disaster 
was committed deliberately by a man with his eyes 
wide open to the danger of his position. The 
man flatly failed to exercise the proper judgment 
in a case where almost any other, with a tenth 
part of his experience and knowledge of railroad- 
ing, would have done the right thing. 

As most of our readers know by the daily press 
reports, the tram — composed of eleven cars — 
parted just back of the sixth car, by reason of 
some defect of the coujjlings. The parting broke 
the air-brake hose, and both portions of the train 
came to a standstill through the action of the auto- 
matic brake. Thifi happened at Dunkirk, and an 
inspector located there brought a new hose, which 
was refused by the conductor, who did not want to 
take the time to put it on. The air cock at the rear 
of the sixth car was closed by order of the con- 
ductor, and the train proceeded. When nearing 
Buffalo the train again parted, and when this was 
discovered the brakes were applied upon the for- 
ward section by some one operating the conduc- 
tor's valve. As it was quickly seen that the rear I 
section would collide with the first, the engineer I 
was signaled to pull ahead, but he could not release 
the brakes to get away for the conductor's valve 
was still open. Theciash followed. 

The conductor made his first grave error in re- 
fusing to put on the new hose and proceeding with 
his five heavy rear cars shut off from the air. His 
next error was in not notifying either the rear 
brakeman or the Pullman conductor that air was 
cut off from their end of the train, and his next 
in not stationing some one al the doubtful coupling 
to watch for a second parting. As we have inti- 
mated, little can be said of his conduct — it was 
too obviously heedless and wrongful to permit of 
trying to impress any lesson upon his mind. 

The New York Railroad Commissioners have 
very properly severely censured the conductor; 
they also censure the engineer for pulling out with 
a train so disabled by lack of braking power. Tlie 
coroner's jury held the conductor personally re- 
sponsible, and censured the Lake Sbore manage- 
ment for not insisting upon a clear understanding 
of all their rules. It is insisted by some that the 
management is involved in the blame for so 
dealing with its employes that the latter feel that 
"making time" is of more importance tlian any- 
thing else. The best code of rules in the world 
maybe rendered nugatory by the manner in which 
they are enforced by those in authority. Train- 
men sometimes are compelled to read "between 
the lines." Then if an accident happens they 
have to suffer, while those whose iniiueuce has 
really encouraged them to put speed before safety 
shield themselves by the letter of the rules, and 
go free. 

The fact that Mr. J. N. Lauder, superintendent 
of rolliug stock of the Old Colony road, has been 
preparing to test the principle of compounding 
on one of his standard passenger locomotives, has 
awakened much interest among railway men. 
Several months ago Mr. Lauder decided* to take 
this step, and he secured the services of Mr. F. 
W. Dean to work out the details involved in his 
plans. In his standard locomotives, Mr. Lauder 
has probably come as near to the limit of econom- 
ical service as any one in this country — so far at 
least as the American type is concerned, and a 
comparative test on his road will therefore be of 
the greatest value in determining the relative 
economy of compoimdiug. In order to make the 
tests strictly and fairly comparative, Mr. Lauder 
simply changes one of his standard engines into 
a compound. The high pressure cylinder is 2Ux 
24 — the low pressure 28x21 inches — the high 
pressure cylinder is steam jacketed, and the pipe 
leading to the low pressure cylinder passes through 
the smoke arch, and is specially protected against 
condensation before it enters the arch. High 
pressure steam can be admitted ( through a redue- 
mg valve) to the low pressure cj'linder at starting 
or whenever desired. Instead of an automatic ar- 
rangement by which the compound action must 
begin when the drivers have made part of a revo- 
lution, this feature is controlled by the engineer, 
who can use direct steam in both cjdinders at any 
time, and for as long as he pleases. 

We gave in the March Eailwav Master Me- 
chanic several very interesting indicator cards, 
taken by Mr. Dean from one of the Old Colony 
locomotives. The engine from which these cards 
were taken, is, in all respects, except the appa- 
ratus forcompouuding, the counterpart of the new 
compound engine. In order to have a perfectly 
satisfactory basis for comparisons, Mr. Dean has 
spent many weeks in making tests of the simple 
engine. These tests have embraced all the ele- 
ments and conditious of service, and have been 
made with the greatest possible care and accuracy. 
When the new compound engine goes into serv- 
ice a similar series, equally thorough, of tests 
will be made, and the comparisons will show con- 
clusively what effect compounding has on the 
economy of service. The boiler pressure of the 
compound locomotive will be 200 lbs., or 25 lbs. 
higher than that of the engine with which its per- 
formance will be compared. It will probably be 
two or three mouths before any definite results of 
the comparative tests can be announced. 

As wii.r, be seen from a circular published on an- 
other page, the plan of holding the next meeting of 
the Railway Master Mechanics" Association at Look- 
out Mountain has been abandoned, and a letter bal- 
lot has been called for to choose a new place of meet- 
ing. While many of our southern friends will be 
dis!ip|x)inted at this action the majority of those who 
habitually attend the annual meetings are, unques- 
tionably, gratified. They have felt that, at thebest. 
the hotel in which it was proposed to hold the con- 
vention at Lookout Mountain could not be in suBicient- 
ly smooth running order by June 17 to make so large a 
party of guests comfortable. And the feeling that 

the two June conventions should be held either at 
the same place or at points near each other is very 
general. The result of the letter ballot has not been 
announced, but it is practically settled that Old 
I'oint Comfort will be chosen. 

It is quite desirable that some method of selecting 
the places of meeting be adopted by which the sober 
judgment of the members shall determine the ques- 
tion. This could, probably, be best accomplished by 
letter ballot— the places to be voted on to be pro- 
posed at one of the sessions of the annual convention. 
In this way all the places which desired to invite the 
association could do so, and the members, affer due 
deliberation, could indicate their choice uuinllu- 
enced by the excitements which inevitably attend a 
vote taken at one of the sessions. And it might bo 
well, in addition, to leave the Bnal decision, after tbe 
members had indicated their profercnLvs by letter 
ballot, with a committee. 


Though great advances have been made in the use 
of emery wheels around shops, there still seems to be 
too much of a tendency in some places to depend very 
largely upon files for finishing surfaces. The aiapta- 
tion of emery wheels is almost endless for polishing 
and finishing the smaller parts of machinery. By 
a flat table through which the top of the emery 
wheel appears — similar to the bad of a circular saw 
— all manner of plane surfaces may be easily finished, 
while by a system of rests at the side of the wheel 
any variety of angle work may be done. The use of 
permanent guide fixtures connected with emery 
wheels is much more satisfactory than depending 
entirely upon the hand and eye as we see done in 
many cases. 

A very neat arrangement for keeping drawings 
when not in use can be seen in the drawing office of 
the American Steam Brake Company at St- Louis. 
In the vault adjoining the room, two partitions of 
wood * in. thick have been erected, one placed i in. 
from the back wall of the vault, and the second 
spaced 21 in. in front of the first. These partitions 
e.Ktend to the ceiling and are thus equal in area to 
the end of the vault. Each partition is completely 
perforated with 2 in. holes which are spaced Sin. 
from center to center, and through these are inserted 
2-in. paper tubes 21 in. long which are glued to the 
partitions. These tubes form excellent receptacles 
for drawings, either tracings or blue prints. Dust 
cannot enter them from the rear and the front end of 
each tube is closed by a plug that fits the tube nicely 
and has a collar on it which prevents it being pushed 
too tar in the tube and which tends to more certainly 
exclude the dust. On the face of each plug is the 
number of the tube, the number of the drawings 
which belong in that tube, and a small hook on which 
can be hung the check of the man taking drawings 
from it. One person is given charge of the draw- 
ings and the checks, and all drawings must pass 
through his bauds as they as they are taken from or 
returned to the tubes. In this particular case there 
are 1,113.5 tubes. The arrangement is one of the best 
that has come under our notice and in all probability 
can be adapted to store more drawings in a limited 
space than any other method, besides keeping them 
cleaner. When the tubes finally become dusty the 
dust can be blown through them into the i in. air 
space at the back, where it will fall to the lloor. 

The paper on "Aluminum," read at the last meet- 
ing of the Society of Mining Engineers by Alfred K. 
Hunt, .John W. Langley and Chas. M. Hall, throws 
all needed light upon that metal, and should put an 
end to the incorrect representations concerning it 
which have been so common in the "scientific and 
mechanical*' (';■) columns of the daily press. There 
is no longer any excuse for the assertion that alumi- 
num is ;is strong as steel and only one-third as heavy, 
and all the visionary statements concerning the 
future uses of the metal which have been based on 
that incorrect belief. Aluminum as now produced 
in large quantities is of ns to W9 per cent, purity. Its 
specific gravity in castings, absolutely pure, is2'-58. 


April, 1890. 

In its commercial form — that is of about 95 per cent, 
purity, its specific gravity in castings is 28. A cubic 
foot of cast aluminum weighs (in round numbers) 1-59 
lbs., while a cubic foot of wrought iron weighs 486 
lbs., and of soft steel 490 lbs. A cubic inch of alumi- 
num weighs a little less than 1-10 lb.; cast aluminum 
has a tensile strength of about 1.5,000 lbs., but 
when rolled it shows a large increase — sometimes as 
high as 26,000 lbs. In other words, its tensile 
strength when cast is about that of cast iron, and 
when rolled less than half that of ordinary steel. It 
melts at about 1,200 degrees, and is malleable at be- 
tween 200 and 300 degrees. 

What is believed to be the largest solid cutter ever 
made has just been turned out by the Cleveland 
Twist Drill Co., of which Mr. J. D. Co.\, Jr., is the 
manager. It is a " Spiral profiling "' cutter, 17 
inches long, -5 inches in diameter, with a 2 inch hole, 
and weighed, in the rough, 102 pounds. It was 
made " from the solid " and, as completed, is a per- 
fect tool in every respect, without flaw or blemish. 

Mr. F. D. Adams, of the Boston & Albany, has de- 
signed a dump gravel car which has a capacity of 
nine cubic yards, or about twice that of the ordinary 
dumpcar. It is expected to make up trains of 2-5 
or 30 cars of this style so that each train load will 
represent about 2-50 cubic yards, whereas, with 40 
cars of the other kind but 160 cubic yards were car- 
ried. This car can be handled by one man, and can 
be dumped at a sharper angle than the others, so as 
to avoid shoveling. It also throws the load entirely 
clear of the cars, and can be dumped and brought 
back in its former position in less than two minutes. 
The cars are equipped with air brakes, permitting 
high train speed. 

Some idea of the activity at the Altoona and other 
shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad may be gained 
from the fact that duriug the past year there were 
built at these shops 149 locomotives, 6.5 passenger 
cars, 16 baggage and mail cars, 3,002 freight cars, 3 
refrigerator cars, and 320 cabin and maintenance of 
way cars. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy sub-committee 
in charge of shop tests of brake shoe metals has got- 
ten its testing apparatus in satisfactory shape, and 
the work of systematically testing the miniature 
shoes made by the various companies is in full prog- 
ress. No final announcement has yet been made as 
to the road tests which are to be held in April on 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, near 

The Kansas City, Ft. Scott & Memphis road is one 
of the latest to take up solid rear-end main rods. 
Superintendent of Motive Power McCrum of that 
road having specified them in a lot of new eight- 
wheelers. He has used solid end parallel rods for 
some time, and is convinced that adjustment is no 
more necessary at the back end of the main rod than 
at the ends of the parallel rods. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy has ordered 
6,750 sets of Westinghouse automatic air brakes for 
use in freight service. This pretty good sized straw, 
together with those noted recently concerning heavy 
orders for automatic car couplers, shows which way 
the wind is blowing with reference to the general 
adoption of safety appliances in freight service. 

The report noted in our last that the Pennsylvania 
Railroad was to equip its entire passenger equipment 
with steam heat this season was premature. We un- 
derstand that the company will simply somewhat ex- 
tend its experiments with the return system of steam 
heating which it has been developing for two seasons 

Superintendent of Motive Power McCrum, of the 
Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis, has, after pro- 
longed experiments, designed a novel form of ex- 

haust pipe that is giving good results. It produces 
a slightly larger exhaust and reduces the tearing of 
the fire. It is a high pipe with a single nozzle, the 
latter being 4!i in., with an 18 in. cylinder, and 4i in. 
with a 19 in. cylinder. It is described as follows by 
an exchange: 

As viewed from the front the pipe is about the 
same shape as the average high pipe with a single 
nozzle. The side elevation, however, shows a wide 
departure from common practice. Beginning at the 
bottom with the same ai-ea of pipe as the opening in 
the cylinder saddle, the area is increased until at 
about thecenterof length of the pipe it is from th 
and one-quarter to three and one-half times that 
the bottom. From this point of widest area, the 
pipe is reduced to about the usual dimensions at the 
nozzle. For openings in the saddle, 5i in. square 
for each exhaust, the size of the pipe at its largest 
part is about 23x12 in., outside dimensions 

In the new Union Pacific shops at Cheyenne an 
electric crane will be placed over the erecting ftoor. 
Electric lights will be used in these shops as well as 
in the new Denver shops and the present Omaha 
shops. The transfer table at Denver will be operated 
by electricity. Among new designs of equipment 
on this road are a 60,000 lb. ore car with side chutes; 
a transitWeeding stock car; and 17x24 six-wheeled 
switchers with 52 in. wagon top boilers, -50 in. driv- 
ing wheels, a total weight of 85,000 lbs., and a wheel 
base of 10 ft., and an extension front and straight 
stack, unusually large boilers and extensive heating 
surface; the first of 15 large consolidations built for 
this company by the Cooke Works has been delivered 
— these engines have 22x28 cylinders, 6 ft.- boilers, 
and weigh 138,000 lbs. on the drivers, and have a 
total weight of 153,000 lbs; 32 other engines have 
been ordered from the Rome Works— of these, 10 are 
six-wheeled switch engines, with 18x26 cylinders, 
five are 19x24 10-wheelers, and 17 are 20x24 10- 

The ordinary hand lantern serves to illustrate in a 
small way the changes that have taken place in 
railway operation. The old lantern was a compara- 
tively clumsy arrangement made largely by hand and 
needing a nice adjustment of the wicks and constant 
picking to give a fair light. Now we have a lighter 
article, often with a wire or skeleton frame at the 
bottom so the light will be thrown better on the 
ground, and by improved process of manufacture, 
made stronger and cheaper. The old double tubes 
for candle wicking have been replaced by the flat 
burner with aratchet, thus rendering the light more 
even and easier to regulate, while the globe, having 
initials of the road pressed, instead of cut, into the 
glass, has further added to the decrease in cost. 
The cost of lanterns, for instance, does not form a 
large proportion of the expense of operating a road, 
but is one of many items in which material reduc- 
tions have been made, thus decreasing the total 
operating expenses. 

In the drawing office of the Union Pacific motive 
power department at Omaha, blue prints have for 
several years been taken between two plates of 
heavy glass instead of between one plate and 
a cushion, as is generally done.. This method 
of taking prints is found to possess several ad- 
vantages, one of which is found in the fact 
that if prints must be taken in stormy weather, 
there is no cushion to retain moisture. If the 
inner surface of the glass becomes wet at the 
edges they can be quickly dried and the dampness 
prevented from spreading. The second plate of glass, 
though perhaps no better than a cushion when 
the latter is new and in perfect condition, has 
the advantage of always remaining in as good 
condition as on the first day it was used. As 
mounted at Omaha the lower glass lies upon 
a board backing with an intermediate layer of 
felt or blanketing to prevent the glass from 
being easily broken. The upper glass, which is of 
the same dimensions as the lower one, lies upon the 
lower one with nothing to retain it in position but its 
own weight. 

.mple apparatus for determining the moisture 
im is described in the course of an article on 
trials in the last number of "The Locomo- 
As described, and as shown in the illustra- 
the apparatus 
consists of a com- 
imon steelyards and 
a large tin pail, 
about which a lay- 
er of cotton wool, 
an inch and a half or two inches 
thick, is wound, and secured by 
an outer layer of cloth, 
around which several turns of string 
are tightly wound. The empty pail 
is made to weigh some exact number 
of pounds by placing one or two nuts 
or other bits of iron in it. Ten 
pounds of water are next weighed into it, and the 
weight on the steelyards is then pushed along one 
pound. Steam is then blown into the pail until the 
steelyards once more balance. In this way we know, 
with considerable precision, just when one pound of 
steam has been added to the water. The tempera- 
ture of the water in the pail is taken both im- 
mediately before and immediately after the steam 
has been passed into it, care being taker, especially 
in measuring the higher temperature, to stir the 
water well with the thermometer, and to leave the 
thermometer in it long enough for the quicksilver 
to reach the same temperature as the water in which 
it is plunged. The rise in temperature so obtained 
gives us a means of determining the percentage of 


Our readers will be interested in the description 
and illustration which we are enabled to give of the 
boiler of the excellent ten-wheelers recently built by 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the New York, 
Lake Erie & Western Railway. 

The boiler constitutes one of the especial features of 
these engines. The great length of the fire-box in pro- 
portion to the barrel is particularly noticeable. As ex- 
perience indicates that fire-box heating surface is 
considerably more efficient than that in the tubes, 
we regard this as a good feature and attribute to it 
the free steaming for which these engines have es- 
tablished a reputation. The depth of the leg is open 
to criticism; the 15t in. might advantageously have 
been increased, more especially as hard coal is burned 
and no brick arch is used. The arrangement of the 
plates forming the fire-box shell is one which is be- 
ing much used at present, and forms a simple and 
workmanlike method of construction. The grad- 
ually increasing water spaces at the sides of the box 
guarantee a good circulation and a long life to the 
stay bolts. It will be noticed that although a "wag- 
on top 'boiler ,the back portion is cylindrical and with- 
out the objectionable flat surfaces on the sides which 
until recently have usually characterized this type 
and which required heavy cross staying and bracing. 
The tapered course of the barrel is an oblique cone 
and a section taken at right angles to its center line 
is a perfect circle. This design calls for warm com- 
mendation as it removes a feature of American loco- 
motive boiler practice which has justly been termed 
a mechanical abortion. As will be seen from the en- 
graving the horizontal seams in the barrel have 
butt joints within, and outside straps, six rows of 
rivets being used. The mud ring is single riveted, 
although a double row or machine finished corners 
would have been desirable on account of the position 
immediately over the frames, making the shell and - 
fire-box plates almost inaccessible for caulking, 
should it be required. Ample provision is made for 
washing out. We may add that the Erie standard 
grate bar, illustrated in the February MASTER ME- 
CHANIC, is used. 

As the crown is supplemented by radial stays, the 
dome is placed ahead of the fire-box, the course on 
which it is placed forming a portion of the wagon 
top. This construction tends to cause free steaming, 
for the radial stays give a more unobstructed crown 
sheet than when crown bars are used and the third 
course of the boiler being the same diameter as the 
wagon top makes the steam space larger than usual. 
The position of the dome is such that the steam is 
not drawn from the boiler at the point of most vio- 
lent ebullition, and it therefore should be drier than 


! OiX- 





Water space, sides and l>ack 3 in. 

Water spacr*. Ii-ont 4 in. 

Grate cttuipany"^ stylo (8ee Master Mechanic for Feb.) 

Steam pressure 160 lbs. 

Heating surface, lubes, (about) 1,884 sq. ft. 

Locomotive Slide Valves. 

Early valves were of the slide pattern (plain D) 
and had "hook gear". Some of the early engines 
had the eccentric outside the journals and wheels 

It wasnot long before independent cut-off valves 
were tried; Rogers having started on this problem 
about 1)^3. 

Many of the engines of J848 had independent cut- 
off valves, such as are now coming into fashion again. 

In 1852 Baldwin produced a variable cut-off with 
a riding cut-off valve, fitting almost tight U) the 
main valve below and to the sides of the chest. 

.lames first employed the link motion in 1832, and 
the Stephensons used it at once in England, but it 
was not adopted in this country until 1849. 

The introduction of the link in this country was 
violently opposed. Rogers used the suspended link 
in 1849 and the shifting link in 18-50; this latter hav- 
ing the lifting shaft below the link; but the front 
axles of some ten wheeled engines coming in the 
way of the rocking shaft he put the shaft above the 
link. As early as IS-H there was used by Rogers a 
combination of independent graduated cut-off valve 
with the link. Hudson made curved eccentric rods 
to clear the axles of some ten wheeled engines. In 
1886 Uhry & Luttgens applied a supplementary cam 
motion to the link in order to give greater steam 


port opening and retard the exhaust, without affect- 
ing the compression. 

At first, counter weights were used for balancing 
the weight of the shifting link; but afterwards leaf 
springs were used, and then helical and volute. 

Baldwin introduced what is called the half sti-oke 
cut-off, in which the chest is separated into an upper 
and a lower part by a plate on which a separate cut- 
off valve rode. 

About 1868 the B)-istol roller slide valve was in- 
troduced; the pressure of the slide being taken by 
anti-friction rollers; but it was abandoned after ex- 
tensive trial. 

About 1882 the Allen valve was put in; both bal- 
anced and unbalanced. As now balanced by Rich- 
ardson, it is doing good service. Its peculiarity 
consists in a supplementary port cored out in the 
valve itself, so as to admit steam into the steam port 
both inside and outside the lip, thus requiring but 
one-half the valve travel needed where steam is let 
in only at the outer edge of the lip. 

Shrinkage Allowance Gauge and Table- 

We append a table governing the use of a shrink- 
age allowance gauge which is used with great ad- 
vantage on the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Rail- 
road, of which Mr. Jno. Mackenzie is superintendent 
of motive power. The table and gauge explain 
themselves, but we may explain the method of using 
by stating that the inside of the tire is made the di- 
ameter of the center, less the thickness of the shrink- 
age gauge upon which the diameter of centers are 
marked. For illustration, centers from 59 to 65 in. 
are made to the one shrinkage gauge, i. e., if the 
center is 59 in. exact, the bored diameter of the tire 
would be 58 94-100 in., or No. 16 Birmingham wire 
gauge; and if the center is 65 in., the bored diame- 
ter would be 64 93-100 in., or No. 16 Birmingham 
wire gauge, the difference in shrinkage of these two 
sizes being so slight that the one shrinkage gauge is 
used; and so it may be said throughout the lists of 
all gauges. 

rEEL TIKE— X. V. C. i ST. L. 1(. 


Determine tbickneseof 

of on t^K: also stamp di- 
anteter of "center on 
jopposit* side— sec draw- 



In the testing laboratorj- of the Chicago & North- 
western Railway, at the "West Chicago shops, a 
spring tester gauge is used that saves a great deal of 
time and fussing. It was designed by Mr. E. B. 
Thompson, chief draughtsman of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railway, to whom we are indebted for 
the drawingsfor which we have made our engravings. 
Our large engraving shows the gauge as applied to 
the 60,000 lbs. Olsen spring tester in the Northwest- 
ern's laboratory. Our small engraving gives the de- 
tails of Mr. Thompson's ingenious little labor saver. 

Referring to the large engraving, it will be seen 
that a scale is attached to the top plate by means of 
a bracket and moves up and down with the top plate. 
The bracket bears a. pointer and another pointer is 
attached to the frame of the machine. An indicator 
is bcrr.e on the end of a round rod which is so ad- 
justed and secured by a thumb screw to the bottom 
plate that the distance between the top of the block 
and the bottom of the top plate will be 
shown on the scale. Should a different 
height of block be used, or no block, the 
indicator is always to be set so the scale will 
show whatever height there may be between the 
surfaces which come in contact with the spring to be 

As the plunger raises the bottom plate and the 
spring compresses enough to overcome the weights, 
the top plate raises in proportion, carrying the scale 
with it. When the pointer of the bracket is in line 
with the pointer in the frame the reading is taken. 

The indicator will always show the height of the 
spring, even if the pointer in the bracket and in the 
frame ai-e not together, because if the top plate 
raises and thus increases the height of the spring it 
carries the scale with it. 

The pointer on the frame enables one to sec when 
the arm of the scale or the line of its knife edges 
I is horizontal, rather than judge it by the eye. 

The top plate has a movement of about two inches 
and stands, when the weights are on the floor, about 
an inch below the pointer in the frame. 

By the use of this device a great deal of annoying 
measuring is avoided, as may well be imagined. 

Inside Connected Locomotives. 

Builders upon the American side of the Atlantic 
early became convinced that inside connected en- 
gines, that is, those having cranked axles, were more 
expensive to build and to keep in repair, than those 
with outside cylinders, and required more skill in 
counter-balancing; besides being no steadier and no 

The Slockbridge of 1842 had outside cylinders; but 
a pair of trailing wheels behind the driving axle 
took off considerable of the adhesion. Campbell, in 
1836, patented the use of two pairs of drivers con- 
nected by a side rod or parallel rod; and in 1844 this 
was put into use by Rogers, and became known as 
the American type. The same Rogers engine which 
first had this arrangement is also claimed to have 
been the first to have an equalizing beam between 
the driving wheel and the truck. 

Outside cylinders were first bolted to the smoke 
box, which could be done well because the cylinders 
were inclined downwards. But with horizontal cyl- 
inders it was necessary to extend the smoke-box 
down and give it a base, generally of rectangular 
outline with a reinforcing piece around its front 
edges inside. Inside cylinders were fastened to the 
smoke-box and frames, by means of two castings 
which fitted the lower cylindrical side of the smoke- 
box and were bolted together Ih the middle. Later, 
the smoke-box was given a rectangular downward 
projection with a cast iron bottom and a distance 
piece; and the cylinders were bolted to the sides of 
this projection and to the frames. This developed 
a design which added a east iron bottom to the 



1 rrp^i^X 


smoke-box. Next the bo.x was kept cylindrical and 

a heavy bed casting was bolted to its lower side; hav- 
ing passages for the steam and exhaust pipes cored 
in it; the cylinders being bolted to its sides. This 
was followed by the plan now in general use, of 
making the saddles in halves bolted to the bottom of 
the cylindrical smoke box on the topand together in 
the center, each casting being made in one piece 
with the cylinder on that side. 

By 186-5 horizontal cylinders were the rule. 


The peculiar nature of the 
roads in New York has le( 
of the blower valve which i 
companying cuts, the object 

service on the elevated 
to the design and use 
e illustrate intheac- 
sought being rapidity 

of manipulation. With stations only about one-quart- 
er of a mile apart, the necessity for using the blower 
valve during a portion of the trip, soon demonstrates 
the valvo operated by a screw to be a nuisance, for it 
takes too long to open or shut it. Hence the need of 
one such as we illustrate. Here the valve is operated 
by a lever and can instantly be opened wide or closed. 
The valve itself is a shell about two-thirds of a cyl- 
inder in section, with a port cut in it, and fitted with 
a small bridge for the attachment of the valve stem. 
The steam enters through the top of the valve case 
as it stands in the cut, and the pressure therefore 
tends to keep the valve tight against the lower half 
of the cylindrical chamber in which it slides, there- 
by preventing leakage. The end of the valve stem 
is slotted on opposite sides and dropped over the 
bridge in the valve. This design has been in use 
for some time now and has given excellent satisfac- 
tion, having entirely superseded the old form of 

Expiring Railway Patents, March, 1890. 

[Furnished bj- F. H. Brock, imtent attorney, IWy F. St., 
Washington, U. I',. These patents are now free to be man 
ufactred by any one. Copies of anv patent furnished by 
Mr. Brock at 15 cents.J 

Railway car, i:«,3.i9, H. Buck. 

Car roof, 13«,.W9, J. C. Wands. 

Car ventilator, 136,.t02, C. C. Oerhardt. 

Locomotive, 136,729, W. S. Hudson. 

Locomotive cylinder cock, 13tj,724, C. H. Hopkins, 

Lococomotive exhaust nozzle. i:i«,6I9, G. W. Richardson. 

Locomotive relief valve, i:Jt),«ls, G. W. Richardson. 

Handcar, 136,R.W, D. M. Hunt. 

Snow-plow, 136,709, T. A- Davies. 

Car replaeer, 137,863, H. Voth. 

" Berryman. 

Car wheel, 137,286, Wakefield i 


In our last issue we spoke of a novelty in Bat cars 
that was used about the Valley Falls shops of the 
New Y'ork, Providence & Boston Railroad. We give 
an illustration of this car herewith from which a 
more exact idea of its construction may be obtained. 
It is about the usual length, and over the trucks is of 
the standard height. But it will be noticed that 
dropping down between the trucks the floor is just a 
few inches from the top of the rail. This car has 
proven of great advantage in the loading of heavy 
materials and machinery, and transferring switch- 
ing houses, etc., which have to be loaded from the 


Ericsson's strange life and wonderful work com- 
mand the interest of every man of a mechanical 
turn of mind. To every such man the following ac- 
count of his methods of work will, we are sure, prove 
notonly interesting but inspiring. The article, which 
we find in the American Machinist, was written by 
Prof. C. W. MacCord, who writes apparently as one 
who had personal acquaintanceat some time with the 
inner professional life of the great inventor. For the 
tac similes of Ericsson's sketches we are also indebted 
to the American Machinist: 

In many of the notices relating to Capt. Ericsson, 
which appeared in various periodicals soon after his 
death, he was spoken of as passing the most of his 
time "in his workshop, surrounded by his models 
and his tools." The picture thus presented to the 
mind is that of a mechanic of inventive turn, but de- 
fective imagination, working by tentative methods, 
and mainly busied in constructing Experimental 

On account of the haste necessarily attending the 
production of such notices, it would be unreasonable 
to expect perfect accuracy in all particulars; but by 
no chance could anything be farther from the truth 
than this; for he possessed in its fullest development 
that imaginative power which enables the designer 
mentally to see, with perfect distinctness, the form and 
proportions of whatever he wishes to have made; 
and was the last man on earth to have need of a 
model, either to convince him that a scheme would 
work, or to show him how a machine would look. 
The popular idea of a "working model.'' as the first 
step toward a construction on a practical scale, was 
in his case exactly reversed; models to be sure he did 
have, and very beautiful ones too; but they were 
made after the machines were built, and by the most 
skillful workmen he could find. When applying for 
a patent he would frequently order two models, one 
of which was sent to Washington, while he retained 
the other — not for his own gratification, since he re- 
garded such things as mere toys — but because they 
were of use in explaining his designs to others. Let 
the reader then imagine a large, comfortable, neatly 
furnished room, with three windows facing the north; 
at the western end a fireplace (for stoves he would 
have none); in front of the eastern window a table, 
upon which were placed his drawing board, and a 
few well worn but well made instruments, and he 
will have a tolerably correct idea of the "workshop 
and the tools" of John Ericsson. And of the models, 
too, so far as his surroundings were concerned; for 
none of them were ever kept here, with one tempo- 
rary exception. 

The captain's accomplishments as a draftsman 
were phenomenal. His beautiful maps early won 
him great distinction in his native country, and the 
exquisite finish of colored drawings made later on 
amply attested his mastery of the brush. But dur- 
ing the last thirty years of his life he did not take 
the time to put his lines in ink; to use his own 
words, "I do not make drawings any more; I only 
make marks." They were not, however, mere gen- 

-N. Y., P. & B. 

TheIow.\ has just passed a bill requiring 
railways to equip their engines and cars with auto- 
matic couplers and brakes. All new cars and all old 
cars fitted with new draw-bars must have automatic 
couplings; after January 1, 18'J-5, no Iowa road can use 
any cars of its own not so equipped: after January 1, 
IS92, all locomotives must be equipped with driver 
brakes; after January 1, 1893, all trains must have a 
sufficient number of cars equipped with power brakes 

to give control of the train to the engineer; penalties ' 'he lines were such 
are provided for non-compliance to this law, but the I upon' 'a'"heet orii 

railways are left free to 
lives that are not equipped as 
The bill is exi>ecled to pass th 

eral schemes intended to give his assistants an idea 
of what was to be worked up, but were in reality 
drawings, coranletc in detail, with outlines firmly 
penciled, often "shaded here and there to bring out 
the form of certain parts more distinctly, and accu- 
rately laid out to scale; so that, if time pressed, any 
part could be at once traced and the work put in 
hand, which was often done, even when finished 
drawings in ink were subsequently made by his aids. 
And if crowded for space he not hesitate to super- 
pose one view upon another', always provided that 
not to be confounded with each 
e would often put much more 
"marks" than could be done 

I cars or locomo- I when it was copied. Some idea of the dexterity 

ired by the law. j with which he manipulated the few instruments 

ate also. which composed his later outfit may be formed from 

I the fact that the portfolio of this work, executed 


during the last six months of his seventieth year, 
contained 48 double elephant sheets. It is true that 
the captain devoted more hours per day to his work 
than most men do or can, and there is no doubt that 
his mental store of precedents, gathered during his 
long previous practice, enabled him to dispense with 
many computations; but, on the other hand, he con- 
ducted an extensive correspondence, he contributed 
articles to scientific journals, he was much engaged 
in abstract physical speculations; when all is said, 
then the fact remains that he produced working 
drawings with a rapidity probably never surpassed, 
if, indeed, ever even approached. It is not to be un- 
derstood that his assistants were all employed solely 
as copyists; there was plenty of other work for them 
to do, for which he furnished the groundwork in the 
form of rough and ready sketches and verbal in- 
structions: but the proportion of this was far less 
than is common among constructing engineers, for 

quent-e was that he drilled his staff to a high degree 
of efficiency, so that, with his own mighty shoulder 
at the wheel, it is probable that, when he was busiest, 
so much work was never before accomplished with so 
small a retinue at headquarters. He also insisted 
rigorously upon having his plans followed to the let- 
ter; his drawings were complete to the smallest de- 
tail, and he would tolerate no deviation; in which he 
was clearly right, since the whole responsibility 
rested upon him. He argued that if an inch were 
given in this dii-ection. an ell would be taken, and 
the result would be endless confusion and uncer- 
tainty. An amusing incident, illustrating his per- 
tinacity on this point, occurred during the building 
of one of the larger monitors. His outside superin- 
tendent of this work— a very presuming and con- 
ceited individual — came one day with a beaming 
countenance to report concerning the engine bulk- 
heads. The rate of progress was quite satisfactory. 


which reason the world at large, however well in- 
formed as to the number, variety and magnitude of 
the things he accomplished, has not and never can 
have any adequate idea of the prodigious amount of 
labor which he personally per-formed. Much of this 
labor he might have saved himself, but he did it 
from preference. He loved and thoroughly enjoyed 
the work, for one thing, but besides, he was fastid- 
ious in regard to details, of which his arrangement 
was masterly; in working them out he displayed an 
inexhaustible fertility, as well as a marked origi- 
nality, by which his designs are strongly character- 

On putting one of these sheets into the hands of 
an assistant. Captain Ericsson invariably accompa- 
nied it by explanations which were very models in 
every way — brief, lucid, and complete. Not a single 
point was overlooked, and he was not satisfied until 
It was clearly understood. But it must be compre- 
hended then and there, and it must be remembered, 
too; once a plan was delivered, he had an intense 
aversion to repeating the explanation. The same 
qualities characterized his instructions to those 
whom he employed to superintend the construction 
of work in progress; and it hardly need be said that 
so finished a draftsman was minutely critical as to 
the execution of plans made for him". The conse- 

but he could not refrain from stating, with a self- 
satisfied air, that he had had the rivets headed up 
with a button-set, as he thought that made a better 
finish. -'Ah, indeed!"' said the captain, "how many 
have you put inV" The superintendent pointed out 
on the di-awing how far. he had gone. "And they 
look well, do they?" continued Ericsson, to which of 
course he received an eager and emphatic response 
in the affirmative. "Very well; now to-morrow you 
will be good enough to have them all cut out, and 
replaced by others riveted up with the hand-ham- 
mer, with a conical finish, according to the draw- 
ing." And this unexpected instruction the crest- 
fallen man was obliged to execute. 

The power of forming a clear mental picture of a 
proposed structure, which all designers must pessess 
in a greater or less degree, would seem in Ericsson to 
have been abnormal. With nothing to guide him 
but a sketch upon a small'scale, much of it often 
free-hand, he would furnish full-size detail drawings 
with astonishing rapidity. And what was more re- 
markable, it apparently mattered little to him 
whether they were made in sequence or not; he 
would send out first whatever was most needed in the 
shop. If the pattern makers were running short of 
work he would supply plans for castings, but on a 
hint that the blacksmiths were idle he would put 

wrought-iron work in hand. Etch piece, too, was 
complete when he sent it out, and his mastery of de- 
tail was seen in the fact that, even when working in 
this seemingly disconnected way, he allowed nothing 
to look like an afterthought. It often happened that 
here a bracket on a cylinder, there a squared collar 
on a rock-shaft, puzzled the workmen, who could dis- 
cover no use for it, but in the end it invariably 
proved to have a very evident use, and the parts 
fitted to it harmonized with the rest of the machine, 
making the whole structure neat, compact and well- 
balanced. Thus half an engine might be well under 
way before the other half was planned, a general 
drawing of the whole not appearing until the parts 
were to be assembled in the erectlng-shop; and it 
was this peculiarity in Ericsson's method of work 
that accounts, in part at least, for the rapidity with 
which projects under his supervision were pushed 
to completion. And it was a peculiarity in which 
he had nothing to fear from rivalry; to secure in this 
way not only freedom from error in the various 
members, but also the due relations of form and pro- 
portion between them, demands a persistence and 
also a clearness of mental vision, for which we may 
seek elsewhere in vain. 

Now it may be urged that this is not the best way 
to attain the best results; that it is desirable to have 
the whole design so far complete before the construc- 
tion is begun, that a general plan can be furnished 
for the guidance of the shop superintendent, who, 
thus knowing what parts are to be fitted to each 
other, and the relations and functions of all, can di- 
rect the work more intelligently, and with greater 
confidence. This is in. many cases very true, of which 
Ericsson was perfectly well aware, and he adopted 
that course upon occasion. 

Thus, in the years immediately preceding the out- 
break of the civil war, numerous applications were 
made in this and other countries for licenses to man- 
ufacture the "Domestic Caloric" engine. The proc- 
ees of blue-printing was then unknown, and the 
multiplication of tracings became excessively labori- 
ous; accordingly, a complete set of plans, general 
and detail, was made for each of the two sizes of 
that engine most extensively used; these were litho- 
graphed, and a copy of each set was forwarded, with 
the license, to every new applicant. So, again, when 
the whole of a small engine or piece of mechanism 
could be advantageously worked out at once, it 
would be done; but the course first indicated was 
his usual one in executing larger or more compli- 
cated designs. It is not, however, by any means to 
be inferred that in all cases a single sketch was made 
to answer all purposes. When haste was not too 
urgent, he would in the evenings cover sheets and 
half sheets of foolscap with supplementary sketches 
of minor parts, accompanied by notes, comments and 
calculations; graphic memoranda, which often he 
alone could use, and not at all such as he would fui-- 
nish for the guidance of an assistant. In relation to 
these calculations, it may be said that one factor of 
his rapidity in designing details lay in his aversion 
to over-refined formulit. Quick to distinguish be- 
tween essentials and non-essentials, he saw that the 
effect of the "practical coefficient" was substantially 
to obliterate the minute elements sometimes found 
in formula? whose abstract correctness he did not 
pretend to question; and these he would neglect ac- 
cordingly. Again, his mind by nature inclined 
strongly to geometrical in preference to analytical 
reasoning, and he largely employed graphic methods 
as the more expeditious, while still giving results of 
sufficient accuracy for his practical purposes. 

Of experimental engines, particularly those actu- 
ated by hot air, Captain Ericsson made a great num- 
ber; but these were in no sense models. It is easy 
to see that of two different arrangements, one may 
be the better in respects and for reasons which can 
be determined only by competitive trial upon a rea- 
sonable working scale, and for a considerable time. 
Having thus tested one arrangement to his satisfac- 
tion, the captain displayed a singular facility in 
transforming it into another by alteration of details, 
without affecting the unity of design apparent in the 
engine as a whole. It was not the question whether 
the one or the other would work, but which would 
be practically the better; that decided, and not be- 
fore, he would be ready for the model and the patent. 

He exhibited also an equally remarkable ingenuity, 
as well as marvelous fertility, in devising the endless 
variety of mechanical movements which were em- 
ployed in these and other engines. Many of these 
are" of striking beauty, and all are characterized by 
the simplicity of the meaus used to attain the re- 
quired result; in this field he took the greatest de- 
light, and it was here that his pride in originality 
was most clearly shown; if the end in view were one 
which had been reached by others in any way, it 
would seem that the knowledge of that fact was to 
him a sufficient reason for seeking a new one. Here, 
too, he gloried in his mastery of geometric and 
kinematic principles— no deduction or discussion of 
equations, no juggling with signs and symbols led 
him by tortuous paths to a formula that must yet be 
translated into the graphic tongue; to watch him 
was a liberal education in this branch— a few rapid 
twirls of the compasses, a few swift strokes with 
the pencil, and with incredible speed his scheme was 


set out, his point was reached, and as lif once de- 
clared in round set terms, "What I cannot prove bj- 
geometry, I will not prove at all."' 

In this also he recognized the futility of over re- 
finement, and the fact that close approximation is 
often practically as good as absolute theoretical ex- 
actness. He saw more clearly than many the diffi- 
culty of securing in the actual running, particularly 
of heat engines, the precise conditions upon which 
the constructioh of a movement was based; or at 
least he treated it with greater deference. The 
effects of the necessary freedom in fitting of rapidly 
moving parts; the effects of wear in altering dis- 
tances of keying up; the unknown and usually over- 
looked effects of expansion upon the relations of var- 
ious members, which makes a hot engine different 
from a cold one; these and like things, which might 
conspire to derange the niceties of a precise move- 
ment, were duly considered. Then the proportion that 
a given deviation would bear to the general result 
being taken into account, the practical side'of his 
nature asserted itself; he planned engines, not for 
the mere gratification of his mathematical instincts, 
but to run, under ordinary working conditions; and 
he was not the man to retain an avoidable complica- 
tion for the sake of an inappreciated advantage. 

In nothing, however, was the supremacy of Erics- 
son so absolute as In the simultaneous management 
of several different projects; for he possessed in me- 
chanical matters a mental power anologous to that of 
Philidor and Paul Morphy in relation to the game 
of ches,s. Those celebrated players certainly did not 
conduct a number of games at once by simply remem- 
bering, in the usual sense of that word, the various 
moves which they and their opponents made; nor is 
it conceivable that any mere mnemonic effort could 
have enabled the captain to carry in mind, as he did, 
not only the details, but the dimensions of several 
engines in stages of progress. It was apparently a 
matter of perfect Indifference to him upon which he 
was engaged; with surprising facility he would drop 
one and furnish for another any required part, thus 
advancing the work upon all with equal rapidity, 
and this without sacrificing in any one of them 
either the unitv or the prculiarity of its own special 
design. Not that he would trust to his memory, al- 
though on these points it was almost never at fault, 
in relation to those parts which were to be fitted 
to each other, being far too cautious for that; about 
such things he was accustomed to say, "'You have no 
right to think, you must know." And, accurate as 
were both his work and his memory, he avowed that 
"the easiest thing a man could plan was a mistake," 
and took especial pains to detect as well as to avoid 
errors; he never would send out a tracing without 
testing it by comparison with its associated drawings. 
Memory, however, could not have been the chief 
factor in these remarkable feats, which can hardly 
be accounted for otherwise than by supposing that 
there existed in the minds of the chess players, and 
the designer, persistent as well as vivid mental pic- 
tures of the various boards and different engines. 

It will be perceived, then, that Captain Ericsson 
for the most part aimed at the greatest possible ex- 
pedition in completing any given piece of work, and 
adopted methods which were most conducive to 
that end. Some of his most important projects were 
carried out under circumstances requiring urgent 
haste; thus, the imagination shrinks from consider- 
ing what might have been the consequences had the 
Monitors not been begun until a complete set of 
plans had been elaborated; and again, in relation to 
the Spanish gunboats, it is to be recollected that 
wars are ended too soon in these days of rapid motion 
to admit of any such dilatory modes of precedure. 

But when such pressure was not exerted from 
without by the very conditions of the case, there 
was ordinarily an equal pressure from within. What 
was in hand today must give place to something 
else to-morrow; he worked continuously, not 
only because he liked to, but because he 
could not help it. And his selection of his 
method was not due to vanity onaccountof his trans- 
cendent ability in using it, nor yet to mere impa- 
tience of delay, which is a failing In many lesser 
minds; it was due to the thoughts of projects yet to 
be accomplished, that filled his teeming brain and 
pressed forward to realization in their turn. The 
sluggish stream of the meadows may be content to 
await the formation of the placid mill-pond, whence 
stores of power may be drawn at leisure; but the im- 
perial mind of Ericsson was like the rushing tor- 
rent of hia own Swedish mountains, which, im- 
pelled by the resistless force of perennial springs, no 
obstacle can retard. 

The bill introduced by Mr. Flower, of Now York, 
in the house of representatives, to compel the use of 
automatic couplers and air brakes on all the railways 
of the country after November 1, 18!fJ, should not 
pass, for it does not give sufficient time in which to 
meet its requirements. We favor national legisla- 
tion on this subject, but nothing of the radical na- 
ture of this bill. 


The general form and leading dimensions o' the phia. 
standard tank of the Fall Brook (..'oal Company's j The shop equipment is not remarkable, except for the 
lines, of which Mr. William A. Foster is superin- | to'a' absence of cranes. The draughting room, pattern 
tendent of machinery, are shown in the accompany- j ^'"'l' """* "'°°'' working department are above the machine 
ing cut. This tank has been found very valuable ^^°}'' 
for consolidation engines pulling heavv trains, on ac- ! . ^'"= '"'l"' '"? """^ ^"^ ^"'^^^ ^^"^ "'•« ''" " ""•»'' »>""''• 

count of their large water and coal capacity. When i s.frh.'/^.flr'Th '" n "'"^"'"V""^- I'f f'""'^ "'""S 
" ,,,,.,. I Spring street. The smith shop contains eight forges and a 

full of water and with an average load of coal, these i s„all steam hammer. The foundrv, which 
tanks weigh 40 tons, there being 17 tons of water is near the boiler room, 
and S tons of coal. i Most of the locomotives belonging to this road are wood 

The tank is built wide enough to project half an burners. Some few, however, burn soft coal. Some of 
inch over the frame on each side; this renders re- ">^ ^^O'' hurning engines have the extension front end. 

pairs to tank easy and leaves no place to catch coal. 
It will be noticed that the space between the legs in 
front is made wide so as to carry more coal in front. 
In building the tanks no caulking is done except 
when the angle irons butt together. A strip of to 
building paper 3 in. wide is placed between the plates 
leaving a narrow strip outside the plates; when the 
plates are riveted together the edges cut the paper 
off flush with the outside edge. Since using this 
method of construction Mr. Foster has had no trouble 
whatever with leaky tanks. 

A 4 in. cast iron pipe, flanged on both ends, is i 
placed in the center of the tank, about 4 ft. from the 
back end; this keeps the top of the tank free from 
water which may flow over when filling, and also 
serves as a good stay between the top and bottom of 
the tank. 

The M. C. B. standard axle, oil box, brass and key 
for 60,00<l lbs. cars are used in the trucks of these 


To thu El 

The Shops of the South Carolina Hallway. of the Bailwaj Master .Mwliiinic: 

AlKEX, S. C. March 8, 1890. 

As your paper has from time to time described railway 

shops in different parts of the country, it occurs to me that 

a brief description of those of the South Carolina Railway 

Company might perhaps be of interest to some of your 

The South Carolina road is of interest mainly from the 
fact that it was the first railway in the United States built 
from the first to be operated by locomotives. It was for 
this road that the late Horatio Allen, in 18:i0, designed his 
double truck locomotive, which was built the following 
year at the West Point Foundry, Cold Spring, N. Y. At 
present the road operates 346 miles of 4 ft. in. gauge 

track, and has 441 locomotives and i*:« cars. 

The shops, which are in charge of Master of Machinery 
J. H. Agnew, are located in CharlcsKin, S. C. The ma- 
chine shop, which is a long rectangular brick building, ex- 
tends along Meeting street, the entrance being on Spring 
street. Immediately to the right of entrance is the master 
mechanic's office, adjoining which is the store-room. . 
the further end of the shop is the cngine-ro-jm, wtiich co 
tains a single eccentric horizontal engine, an independent 
cut off beam engine, built in issi by Harlan & Hollings- 
worth, Wilmington. Del., and a fire pump. The boiler room 
adjoins the engine room, and is built out at right angles to 
the shop. It contains a large return flue, wagon {op boiler, 
fed by Sellers' injectors. Both the toolroom and the erect- 
i ng shop are built at right angles to the machine shop. The 

The New England Club and the M. C B. Coupler 

Til Ihc Editor of the Uailwav Masti-i ,Mcchiini<-: 

I have read with a great deal of interest the reports of 
the discussion on car couplers by the New England Club. 
As I have, on another occasion, said, my admiration and 
respect for the M. C. B. Association and its membership 
is almost unbounded. I look on the master car builders as 
a very superior class of men. The association has done a 
wonderful world of good. The devotion of its members to 
the best interests of the railroad companies they represent 
is worthy of all praise. Still I must confess I was— I am 
disappointed, yes, grieved and surprised, at what was said 
at the last meeting of the New England Club, made up 
largely of members of the M. C. B. Association. 

But Mr. Editor: I remember I was born, and grew to 
lihysical manhood, in New England. I remember how I 
too used to think that all the world did indeed revolve 
around the New England metropolis. Forty-two years of 
a citizenship in this great west— while it may not have 
changed my physical make up, has given to my mental a 
little more liberalization, to say the least. I have learned 
that there are brains outside of New England. 

But seriously: What would the New England Club have 
us do' Does it think that this great American people arc 
still and see its young men cut down by the thou- 
sands yearly, while the master car builders take up and 
discuss this question of safety couplers again for an- 
other ten years; Is there any assurance that they would 
not oppose every progressive step, unless indeed it first 
had its birth in New England ; 

No, no. The terrible facts are now before the public. 
Railways must use the best known appliances or they must 
and will .be held responsible. While the writer appreciates 
the gravity of the situation and the importance of making 
no mistake in choosing these safety appliances because of 
the great expense, yet when he realizes that not less than 
6,000 of our strongest and best young men must yearly sac- 
rifice either life or limb to the old link and pin coupling 
and hand brakes, so long as they are allowed to remain in 
use, he has no hesitation in saying that they must go, and 
if his efforts are successful legislatures will say that they 
need not stand long as to the "order of their going" either. 

Humanity is on our side. We know that the right will 
prevail. If the M. C. B. coupler in its present form and 
make is not the one that will prevent this inhuman work 
done by coupling cars, we know that there are brains 
enough in the Master Car Buildei-s" Association to change 
and perfect it so that it will. It matters not to the public 
or to the writer whose or what typo of coupler is eventu- 
ally used. But we do demand that some one must be used 
that will lessen this fearful butchery. 

It avails nothing to say that it is more dangerous to 

link and pin draw-bars. We expect this to be so, and be 
cause it is so is the very strongest argument that the change, 
when once decided upon, shall be made in the shortest pos- 
sible time. If the New England Club wants votes from 
trainmen, I can furnish them. I have the documenu that 
s|)eak for from l.i,000 to ao.Oim of these men who are every 
day pulling pins and twisting brakes, and paying not less 
than a quarter of million of their hard earned dollars an- 
nually to their brothers who are injured and killed in do- 
ing this work; and that say they want to see the M. C. B. 
coupler tried now that Is decided upon as standard. 

With the history of the action of the Master Car Build- 
ers' in adopting a standard automatic coupler, and the sut>- 
sequent work of the roads in approving of this action before 
t it, what court is there but would hold a road liable for in- 
I- I juries received in coupling cais that had not the standard 
couplerson— a reasonable lime having elapsed for making 

It does strike an outsider as being a little laic for a mem- 
ber of the M. C. B. Association to accuse the committee on 
car couplers of using undue means. No matter what the 
different members of that committee thought, their rc|iort 
came before the convention, and there was no minority re- 



port. That report was adopted by a two-thirds vole. Then, 
after 90 days the managers approved of this same vote by 
over a two-thirds letter ballot. There was ample time in 
that 90 days for consideration and investigation. There 
have been two conventions since. No master car builder, 
eitner for himself or at the request of the management of 
the road he represents, has seen fit to make any move on 
the floor of the convention to disturb that action. 

Taking it for granted that all was done in good faith, I 
am now trying to get state legislatures and congress to re- 
quire by law the use of such safety standards as the roads 
through their own agents and representatives adopt, and 
what is more, I have every reason to believe that it will be 

Braking a Consolidation with i 

L S. Co 

Wheel I 

New Yoiik, March 15, 1890. 
To the Editor of tlie Kiiilway Master Mechanic: 

1 send you an illustration of a brake built by the Beals 
Railway Brake Company for a consolidation engine with 
close wneel spaces. 

It will be remembered that at the master mechanics' 
convention, last year, the driver brake committee recom- 
mended that for locomotives a "sque-;ze" brake (i. e. two 
shoes to a wheel) be used wherever practicable, and they 
also demonstrated, by experiments at Burlington, that a 
squeeze brake had 4.5 per cent, more stopping power than a 
one shoe "spread" or "pull" brake. These results are given 
on i)agett8 of their annual report. Such an immense ad- 
vantage in the stopping ability of a brake was alone enough 
to justify their recommendation; but I apprehend it was 
not the only reason that controlled their choice. Brake en- 
gineering is beginning to be a little better understood 
amongst master mechanics, and they no longer judge a 
brake by its power to slide the wheels. There is a demand 
for a higher grade 'of efficiency growing up, which is en- 
forced by the increased weight, higher jiressure and speed 
of our modem engines. Light is also breaking in on the 
effect of the driver brake in lessening or increasing shocks, 
und the power that a weak orinefBcient driver brake has to 
aggravate this evil Is now more clearly perceived. 

The necessity of having the engine up to the highest 
grade of efficiency (which is understood to be 80 percent, 
of the wheel weight) is gradually being established. Such 
an engine as the one illustrated, designed originally for the 
Ontario & Western Railroad, weighs, together with its ten- 
der, 88 tons— fiO tons on the engine and 2S on the tender. 
To properly control such an engine as this with SO per cent, 
of wheel weight in brake shoe pressure, requires a 70 ton 
brake, or 48 tons upon the engine and 33 tons upon the ten- 
der. On the engine there are eight wheels, and to distri- 
bute 4.S tons equally uiJOn eight wheels requires tons to a 
wheel. But no brake engineer would jiut any such pres- 
sure as that upon one shoe, upon one side of a wheel. It is 
therefore impossible to approach maximum efiflciency with 
a one shoe brake; and this is the second reason why the 
master mechanics recommended the two shoe or "squeeze' ' 
brake; because it solves this difficulty by the use of two 
shois with 3 tons upon each shoe; the wheel being 
"squeezed" between them, the pressures are made to neu- 
tralize themselves and there is no strain upon the journals 
or frames. 

The brake illustrated is a good example of a squeeze 
brake, because in a consolidation engine the necessity of 
making the wheel-base as short as i)ossible causes the 

wheels to be crowded together, and the difficulty of getting 
two brake-shoes into a 3 inch wheel space is here solved in 
a satisfactory manner by the use of an "S" lever, which 
carries both shoes. The arrangement of the shoes in the 
rear wheel space, where there is more room, shows the 
normal style of the brake on all engines where there is 
room for it. The brake cylinder at the back of the rear 
wheel is constructed to give a piston area of 160 sq. in., 
which at 1.5 lbs. pressure gives exactly 13 tons at the end 
of the piston rod. The strain of this 13 tons would all 
come upon the framing of the engine were it not for the 
ingenious arrangement of the cylinder itself. It will be 
observed that its position enables it to become a fulcrum 
for the rear shoe, and an anchorage also for the fulcrum of 
the tender-brake lever, and these two strains act in the 
same direction on the cylinder rearward, and their united 
strain completely balances the thrust of the cylinder for- 
ward, caused by the 13 tons of pressure upon the piston. 
At the same time a part of this opposing strain is made to 
do the duty of working the tender brake, so that no extra 
brake cylinder and fastenings are needed for the opera- 
tion of the tender brake. And another excellent feature is 
also secured, namely, the certainty of its acting in unison 
with the engine brake. This is as it should be. Engine 
and tender are practicall.y one vehicle, and the coupling 
between them ought never to be subjected to the strain 
caused by a divided brake power. A close scrutiny will 
show that not onl.v are all the shoe pressures balanced, 
but that the strain of the rock arms is also balanced upon 
the space bars, so that the brackets which attach them to 
the frame of the engine have no strain upon them more 
than the weight of the apparatus. The pull rods have 
each an equal strain of 3 tons; not one of them has more 
than another. The brake is vei-y readily adapted to all 
classes of engines and can take any number of wheels in 
series, as it does not require brake beams ; it is perfectly 
equalized and elastic; its shoes are interchangeable, and 
can be removed and replaced in a moment with the fingers, 
no tools being needed, as there is no pin, bolt or key. The 
brake operates equally well with air or steam, and can be 
operated in unison with the train brake. 

James Howard. 

English and American Cars Compared. 

To the Editor of the Railway Master Mechanic: 

I noticed some months ago some interesting data in the 
Railroad Gazette, furnished by Mr. F. W. Webb, on the 
weight and capacity of the standard London & Northwest- 
ern equipment. A leisure moment now comiug to me I 
have prepared a table showing corresponding data concern- 
ing American cars, together with a table making direct 
comparisons, which will. I think, prove interesting to your 
readers. Table No. 1 comprises Mr. Webb's data; table 
No. 2 gives my data, and table No. H my comparison. 

It will be seen that the English cars are lighter per capi- 
ta than American ones. This statement bears out those 
made by many travelers in England and on the continent. 
These tables may be interesting for Mr. Dorsey to read 
and perhaps he could gain some unprejudiced information 
on the subject. 

Of course, there are no complaints to be made on the 
weights and capacity of American equipment, for the great 
difference in the l^f thod of railroading governs the cou 
struclion and style of rolling stock, but there is still food 
for reflection in this subject. There are many more points 
in the details of construction of English cars to be copied. 

than have already been, which would be of great benefit to 
the American car. The light running gear is quite notice- 
able on the English car. The journal box guide or pedestal 
is very simple and inexpensive: it is punched out of a % 
in. steel plate and bolted to the truck side sill or wheel 
piece, and Is without the usual American pedestal tie bar 
and stay rod. The long, (> ft., half elliptic springs are at- 
tached to the truck frame and journal box in a most simple 
manner, and altogether the truck presents a striking con- 
trast to the complicated American one. There is one 
point, however, to be improved upon, and that Is the un- 
usual lateral motion. Outside of this defect, the English 
carriage is a very comfortable riding one. The method of 
heating is a little crude, but that fact does not necessarily 
enter into this discussion, as the construction of the car 
has but little to do with the proper method of heating it in 
this age of steam heat, which, by the way, is a most adapt- 
able system for the English car. 

I must confess that I was a trifle prejudiced against the 
English carriage until I saw one, and was agreeably sur- 
prised with the comfort one could have in them. By the 
judicious use of a couple of shillings, a whole compartment 
with a lavatory attachment can be secured from London to 
Liverpool. The disagreeable feeling of being " locked in " 
vanishes at once, and you are compelled to admire the lock- 
ing in system, as it plays an important part in the securing 

The firm ot Carnegie, Phipps & Co. (limited), is 
well-known to railway men as a producer of steel 
rails, but it has not been an active or generallj' rec- 
ognized competitor in the manufacture and sale ol 
other lines of railway supplies. It has now, how- 
ever, entered the field as a manufacturer ot locomO' 
tive boiler and fire-box steels. The selection of the 
recently organized firm of Coolbaugh, McMunn & 
Pomefoy by the concern as its general agents has 
doubtless caused, or at least hastened, its entrance 
into the railway supply field. The members of this 
new firm have had both experience and success in 
this field, and they would naturally look to it as an 
inviting one in their new business relations. 

In order that those interested might see for them- 
selves how thoroughly Carnegie, Phipps & Co. are 
equipped for making steels for locomotive boilers and 
6 re-bo.tes, and jcdge whether the steels produced 
are of the quality required in railway service, in- 
vitations were recently sent out by Messrs. Cool- 
baugh, McMunn & Pomeroy to a number of eastern 
railway officials to visit as guests the Homestead 
Steel 'Works, near Pittsburgh. In the party which 
left .Tersey City in a special car the evening of March 
fith were the following officers connected with the 
operating, motive power and supply departments of 

Lcneral superintendent B. & O. lines and 
! Philadelphia; R. C. Blackall, superin- 
wcrand machinery D. & H. C. Co. ; J. W. 
iiL' agent D. & H. C. Co. ; Chas. Graham, 
n,,L. &W. R.; W. H. Lewis, division 
.■ D., L. & W. R. ; A. E. Fllley, purchasing 
Rapid Transit Company of New York; 

April, 1890. 





1 Description of 
1 cumage. 

32 ft. 


42 ft. 



7 ft. Kin. 

8 ft. 

Number of 

4 flrst class. 
4 iavatories. 
1 lugsngo. 


1 iiiggagc. 

1 iu'ggagi-. 

Length of 

Carriage capacity. 

Weight of coach. 

1 |42ft., first oluss 

7 ft. 4 in. 


7. ft. 9'., in. 
7 ft. 4 in. 

4 ft. 10 in. 

5 ft. 10>., iu. 

28 passengers. 


f _39,200,hs.^ 

23,6.50 lbs. 

! 11 17 3 
f 23,775 lbs. 

32 ft., flrst class 



■J '32 ft. composite 


70 passengers. 


3ll,-J50 1lis. 

•| carriuie: 

IX 2 2 

Table 2.— Os tde Avebage Amekican Fikst Class 


j Deeoiiption of 



Number of 1 Length of 
compartments, compartments 

Carrying capaeily. 

Weight of coach. 

] '60ft.4wh.truclt 

60 ft, 
50 ft. 
60 ft. 
60 ft. 

9 ft. 8 in. 
Oft. 8 In. 

1 flrst class. ) 45 ft. 9 in. 
I first class. 49 ft. 

28 passengers. 


1 PBHorcar. 

., • '50 ft. 4 wh. truck 


1 flrst class. 40 ft. 
1 baggage. 19 ft. 

iHls. 1 59f.. 
1 lavatory. 1 


48 passengers. 


' "s.;si.r» 

72 passengers 

32 tons. 

I )ws; pissengerirrespectlve of class. 

1 Carriage 


Weight of carriage. | Weight per passenger. 

Length of carriage. 

No. of wheels. 


39.200 1 1400 
23,6)0 I 985-3 
23.775 1.99-3 
36.250 517-8 
36.250 1 00O-4 

4.5 ff. 
35 fc! 
45 ft' 






159,125 ' 736 5 

205 ft. 


promotions. As many of our i-eaders will, sooner oi- 
later, visit the Homestead Works and meet these 
gentlemen, we give the names of those who took- 
charge of and treated with distinguished hospitality 
I the party referred to: Mr. W. L. Abbott, chairman; 
H. M. Curry, vice chairman: Otis H. Childs, secre- 
tary; W. P. Palmer,- general sales agent; E. H. 
Utley, general freight agent Carnegie, Phipps & 
Company, Limited, and Carnegie Brothers, Limited; 
Chas. L. Taylor, superintendent of orders; Ed.H. 
Kenyon, general inspector; J. A. Potter, superin- 
tendent Homestead Steel Works; W. E. Corey, su- 
perintendent plate mill; E.F. Wood, assistant super 
inlendent plate mill; T. Berg, chief draughtsman. 

An Interesting Freight Handling Plant. 

There has recently been placed in the warehouse 
of the Southern Pacific Railway Company, at New 
Orleans, La., a most complete and efficient freight 
handling plant, designed especially for handling 
barrels of sugar, bogheads, etc. The outfit consists 
of four endless elevators, arranged to take the bar- 
rel from the receiving floor to the floor above, either 
for storage or delivery. 

Each elevator consists of two continuous strands of 
heavy link - belting with attachments, carrying 
curved arms which conform to the contour of the 
barrels. These arms as the belt travels upward 
catch the barrels as they are rolled into position on 
skidway properly placed, and carry them to the 




66 ft. 
66 ft . 





254 ft. 


Train based on uur 
Wm. A. Foster, superintendent motive power Fall Brook 
Coal Company: W. L. Hoftecker, superintendent motive 
power C. R. of N. J. ; G. W. West, superintendent motive 
power N. Y., O. & \V. R. ; Chas. A. Draper, purchasing 
agent N. Y., O. & VV. R. ; W. C. Ennis, m-aster mechanic N. 
Y., S. & W. R. ; LaMott Ames, superintendent of motive 
power B C. R. ; E. T. D. Myers, Jr., general agent Rich 
mond Locomotive Works. 

On reaching Pittsburgh the party wsis taken charge 
of by representatives of Carnegie, Phipps & Co. 
Munh.ill, where the Homestead Works are situated, 
was reached about IU o'clock a. m., and the next few 
hours were filled to the brim with most interesting 
and profitable sight-seeing. The arrangement of 
the different parts of the works is such that one can 
follow the details of the processes from the molting 
furnaces to the inspection and test departments 
with the greatest ease. And one, visiting these 
works, realizes vividly how imperfect and unsatis- 
factory any written description of such machinery 
and process is, compared with the sight of them. To 
read of a set of rolls which will take in an ingot 4 ft. 
x4 ft. (i in. and weighing 2-5 tons and reduce it to a 
slab 11 by 3 in. in section, or of a shear which, with 
a pressure of .S,()00tons, cuts a section 48 by 24 inches, 
is vaguely interesting, but to see these tremendous 
engines at work is a startling experience, the vivid 
remembrance of which is inetTaceable. And having 
followed the processes— from the eight open hearth 
furnaces which, altogether, can pour 2.">0 tons of 
melted Bleel per day into the ingot molds to the mill 
in which the ingots are rolled into slabs, then to the 
shears by which the slabs are clipped and trimmed, 
then to the plate mill where the reheated slabs arc 
rolled to any thickness and width desired from 
S of an inch to 3 inches thick, and up to !) ft. Sin. 
wide and of weights up to six tons, and having 
paused at every step of this wonderful progress to 
look at the colossal cranes which lift and carry these 
weights and shapes of steel and the vast engines 
which give the tremendous mills their power— to 
one who has followed these processes from beginning 
to end a common rust discolored steel plate in anj 
hardware store becomes, thereafter, an object of 

genuine interest andanawakenerof wonderful mem 
ories. And it is a fair question, whether one who i: 
in charge of railway shops and rolling stock is com 
pletely educated and fitted for his position if he has 
never seen such processes. 

It is only in the railway field that the boiler and 
fire-box steels produced at the Homestead works are 
comparatively little known. In other fields these 
steels have long been prominent, and it is because of 
the high reputation which they have attained — espe- 
cially in the naval department of the United States 
government— that they are confidently ofl'ered to 
meet the requirements of locomotive service. For 
some years the boiler steel produced at these works 
has been largely used in the navy, and in the cruisers 
now being built it is specified almost exclusively. 
Kvery one knows that the tests prescribed by the 
department of the navy for such steel are most ac- 
curate, careful and severe. A boiler steel which 
meets the government tests is equal to any service. 
In the earlier contracts filled by these works a con- 
siderable percentage of the plates was rejected. But 
the high tests which had to be met were an educa- 
tion ; the percentage of condemned plates grew 
steadily less, so that, at present, it is insignificant. 
.•Vnd in learning to produce, regularly and uniformly, 
steel plates which meet the requirements of the 
naval department, it is believed that the manage- 
ment of the Homestead Works have become able to 
make steel which is thoroughly .suitable for locomo- 
tives. There could be no better school— and a day's 
visit at the works will satisfy one that the scholars 
have been apt. Every plate must run a gauntlet of 
inspections and final approval means that it has en- 
dured successfully a series of rigid tests in which all 
its qualities have been judged. 

While those in charge of Carnegie, Phipps & 
Company's interests and the various departments, 
into which the works referred to in this article are 
divided, are by no means juvenile, still they are all 
comparatively young men. Most of them have 
reached their present positions through 

floor above, and there thc\ are dcln i cl lUnnntK 
ally onto skidwais,iithen lolling aw.ij in /n pi n,c 
to the bat rels which follow Thcie isscaiccli an^ 
limit to the capacity of this kind of elevator, as the 
carrying arms may be placed close together so 
that oven should it be necessary to run the eleva- 
tors slowly, the different arms make their appear- 
ance with such regularity and frequency that the 
only difficulty is in getting the barrels assembled 
quickly enough to tax the full capacity of the hoist. 

The elevators are each provided with a friction 
brake which gives complete control over their oper- 
ation. The entire plant is driven by an extensive 
manila rope transmission, which dispenses with line 
shafts. It transmits ]>owci- not only through the en- 
tire length of the building, but across Bienville 
street and into the adjoining building, furnishing 
power to other elevators of the same kind. The con- 
ditions of this drive, covering a distance of some 400 
feeft, could scarcely be met by any other form of 
transmission, and by no other form whatever with- 
out much greater expense. 

The engineers who planned and erected the whole 
plant, the Link-Belt Machinery Company, of Chi- 
cago, have put up numerous plants of similar de- 
scription, which offer the best solution of the freight 
handling problem. 



During the past month the village of Pullman, 
near Chicago, has been the scene of many interest- 
ing exhibits of the operation of an electric car oper- 
ated by the storage battery. The car has been run 
over a piece of track built by the Pullman company 
for experimental purposes, and full of very sharp 
curves. During some of the tests made these curves 
were not the only obstacle to free running for por- 
tions of the track were covered half an inch deep 
with mud. The car has easily met every call made 
upon it to overcome these severe conditions, and has 
easily speeded up to the point where the shortness 
of the tangents called a halt on the score of safety. 
The speed is under admirable control, being readily 
graduated at any point from 25 miles per hour down. 
The car picks up its motion quickly, yet so very 
gradually as to give no jump or shock whatever; 
and il has been started and stopped in a measured 
distance of one inch. This particular car has 84 
cells, weighing about 4,800 lbs.; although in future 
cars fewer cells will bi used. The ear weighs lo,- 
1)00 lbs. 

The battery used is the well-known Detroit bat- 
tery. The motor mechanism is that of Mr. A. A. 
Ingraham, and will be remembered by many of oui- 
eastern readers as being operated some time ago in 
Brooklyn for si.x months, the Detroit batteries be- | 
ing also there used. The method of transmitting I 
power to the driving wheel is novel, and possesses 
many points that commend themselves to the me- | 
chanic. The armature shaft is geared to a counter | 
shaft, which latter carries a frictiou wheel which | 
engages with an annular ring cast on the inner sjde 
of the car wheels, the ring being of the same diame- 
ter as the car wheel. A novel feature lies in the 
bringing of the car wheels to the friction wheel which 
ia carried between them, instead of bringing the 
friction wheel to the car wheels. This is accom- 
plished in a vei'y simple mannei-, and, as the move- 
ment of the car wheels toward the friction wheel is 
but slight in extent — scarcely observable to the eye 
—no troubles of the nature that might be antici- 
pated are encountered. The whole apparatus is very 
simple, and is operated in a simple manner; when 
the driver applies the brakes the current is auto- 
matically cut ofT. The motor proper, of ordinary 

form, is of 7i horse power. The entire mechanism, 

motor and all, is hung from the trucks. Mr. Ingra- 

ham proposes in future gears to abolish the counter 
shaft and carry his friction wheel directly on the 
armature shaft. 

The batteries used are, as stated, the Detroit bat- 
teries, so well known as the product of the Woodward 

Electrical Company, but which are now controlled 

by the Storage B.ittery Motor Company of Chicago. 

It is claimed for these batteries that with an efficient 

gear, such as that used now at Pullman, the cost of 

power, when 100 cars are used, is something less than 

Sil per day per car, and that each charge of the cells 

will carry the car for from 60 to 100 miles. The 

plates in these cells are formed in the following way, 

which, as will be seen, d^^ers essentially from all 

other processes of making plates for storage bat- 
teries: A mould of the requisite size— say 10 inches 

high, 10 inches wide, and 10 inches long— is tilled 

with large crystals of common salt. Molten lead is 

then poured into the mould. The metal will of 

course readily penetrate the spaces between the 

crystals, which are embedded in the molten mass. 

When the lead cools it is sawed into disks of the de- 
sired thickness, and the plates are placed in water 

to dissolve the salt. When this process has been 

completed the plates are full of irregular cavities of 

the form of the salt crystals. The active material, 

oxide of lead, commonly known as red lead or 

minium, is introduced into the cavities. It will be j An'T'csn Eailway Master Mechanics' Asaociatii 

readily seen that as the irregular spaces which had | Location of t he Jane Convention. 

been occupied by the salt are larger inside than out- 
side, the active material cannot drop out. The 

plates are shaped and connected in the usual way, 

and the positive and negative electrodes are insul- 
ated from each other by hard rubber dividers. The 

closed end of the divider is put at the bottom, thus 

'.ach plate is independently supported by two forks. 

l10i;iiLE HEAI 

The closed end of the divider holds the lowei' edge of 
the plate about an inch above the bottom of the jar. 
In this way the possibility of short circuiting by the 
accumulation of matter on the bottom of the jar is 

The special adaptability of this battery for traction 
purposes is explained thus by its makers: 

"1. The plates possess great solidity, a feature 
whica makes it possible for the cell to withstand the 
hard usage it is liable to encounter on railroads, 
street cars, etc. 

"2. The positive plates do not buckle, and the cell 
gives no trouble whatever. 

•'3. The plates are constructed of porous lead 
the pores, which are tilled with the active material 
are of a wedge-shaped form so that it is quite im 
possible for the parts to be shaken out by the vibra- 
tion or jolting of the car. 

'"4. These cells will withstand the high rates of 
discharge for which they are often called upon in 
starting the cars or ascending steep grades." 

The purchase of the control of this battery by the 
Storage Battery Motor Co. involves the removal of 
the business to Chicago. The latter company has 
secured works at Hermosa, six miles out from Chi- 
cago on the C. M. & St. P., and will occupy them 
June 1. The Detroit worKs which have a capacity 
of 500 c ills per day will continue in operation until 
the Chicago works get fairly running. The Chicago 
works will have a capacity of 1,000 cells per day; and 
will also engage in the manufacture of dynamos, 
motors, etc., and push an electric car lighting sys- 
tem which we hope to soon describe. The otficers of 
the Storage Battery Motor Co. are as follows: F. E. 
Hinckley, president; G. H. Gale, vice-president; G. 
M. Greenebaum, treasurer; H. T. West, secretary; 
F. G. Holton, general manager. 

The executive committee of the Master Mechao- 
cs' Association issues the following circular con- 
lerning the location of the June convention: 

We regret to ledrn that the Lookout Mountain Hotel 

Ctiattanooga, where \ 

..•iiled to hold ( 

far enough advanced toward ( 

pleiion to justify us in depending upon it to furnish 

necessary accooimodation for the convention. As 

Comfort. Va.. %vhere the master ear builders' 
will meet, and which will be attended by many of our me 
bers, we believe it to be desirable to give the members t 
opportunity to vote on a new place of meeting. 

Orlando Stew.irt, 
Angus Sincl.ur, 

Execntive committee. 
Slips for votes are sent out with the above circular, 
and an early announcement of the result may be 


The illustration of the 37 in. double head boring 
and turning mill given herewith, shows a tool which 
has proved to be very useful in railroad and locomo- 
tive shops. The company producing it, the Bridge- 
port Machine Tool Works of Bridgeport, Conn., 
built one of I'uCse machines to order, not expecting 
particularly to ever have occasion to build another, 
but the design met with such favor that the com- 
pany is now building fully as many of this kind as of 
the single head design. 

The capacity of this mill is 37 in. in diameter and 
33 in. in height. The table is 364 in. in diameter, is 
powerfully geared, and has 20 changes of speed. 
The teeth on both table and pinion are accurately 
planed. The feeds are automatic, and range from 
1-32 to I of an inch horizontally, and from 1-4S to 1 of 
an inch in angular and vertical dii'ections. Each 
head feeds iiidependently of the other. The heads 
can be set at any angle, and carry the tool bars which 
have a movement of 18 inches. The countershaft 
has three pulleys 16 in. in diameter, for three inch 
belt, and should run 1.30 and 185 revolutions, both 
forward. The tool weighs 7,000 lbs. 

A commission house in New York City which deals en- 
tirely in supplies for three or four foreign railways recent- 
ly ordered a copy of the Official Railway List "because it 
contains the advertisements of so many manufacturers of 
railway supplies." The List for 1890 will be even more 
complete in this respect than any previous edition. 



Mr. Eugene Fontaine, of Toledo, has invented and 
had erected on the Toledo division of the Michigan 
Central railway a device for which there is a decided 
want — one that will show to the engineer how long a 
time has elapsed since ihe passage of the previous 
train. It does not supply a block but it does atford 
great help to the engineer. This signal has been in 
daily operation now for -5* months without a single 
failure and without any need of repair developing 
itself. A similar signal at Spuyten Duyvil on the 
New York Central, has been in operation since Janu- 
ary 29, over 200 trains per day passing it, with an 
equally good record. 

The device consists of a dial borne on a post, the 
hands on the dial indicating, up to 20 minutes, the 
lapse of time after the passage of a train. The hands 
ai'e operated by clockwork, set in motion by mechan- 
ism operated by the tread of the locomotive depress- 
ing a lever by the side of the rail. The shock of the 
impact of the tread on this lever is completely ab- 
sorbed; and only one shock is received from each 
train, as the lever is kept from quickly rising to its 
normal position— slightly above the level of the rail 
head— by a very ingenious device. The operation of 
the whole apparatus is about as follows : The wheel 
tread depresses one end of a lever, wtjich is ful- 
crumed in an iron bo.>c, the initial shock being ab- 
sorbed by a spiral spring; as the other end rises it 
pulls up a piston in a dash-pot filled with glycerine; 
it is the resistance of the glycerine in this dash-pot 
to the return of the piston which keeps the lever be- 
neath the rail head practically during the passage of 
the train; attached to the inner end of the lever is a 
spring arm which, in rising, pulls up a wire rope 
which, passing under a wheel, operates a rock shaft 
ari-angement in the bottom of the hollow post, which 
in turn pushes upward a vertical rod; as this rod 
moves upward it raises a lever which in turn pushes 
upward a rack bar, the teeth of which engage in a 
gear on a horizontal shaft bearing a clock spring. 
The revolution of this shaft winds the spring, and at 
the same time causes the dial hand to fall to zero, 
when the spring commences to unwind and operates 
clockwork, which carries the hand gradually to the 
20-minute mark. We hope to soon more clearly de- 
scribe this device with the aid of illustrations. 

On March 18 this signal was shown to a party of 
gentlemen, who were taken down from Detroit by 
special engine and private car, kindly furnished by 
the Michigan Central management. 

Among those present were: Robert Miller, assis- 
tant general superintendent; D. S. Sutherland, divi- 
sion superintendent; E. E. Torrey, superintendent 
of telegraph; F. J. Brown, chief train dispatcher; 
.1. .1. Ross, chief line repairer, and John E. Smith, 
depot master Detroit station, all of the Michigan 
Central Railroad; Hon. John T. Rich, state railroad 
commissioner of Michigan, and C. B. Conger, me- 
chanical superintendent same department; Hon. 
George H. Lothrop, Detroit; Adolph Barthell. attor- 
ney, Detroit; the following directors of the Fon- 
taine Safety Signal Co., of Detroit: Joseph Taylor 
and W. K. Anderson, of the Michigan Car Company; 
John D. Norton, president First National bank, Pon- 
liac, Mich.; D. R. Shaw, banking and lumber, De- 
troit, Mich.; C. A.Beardsley, real estate and capital- 
ist, Detroit; Russell B. Owen and Eugene Fontaine; 
also representatives of the Railway Review and the 
Railway Master Mech.ojic. The device was 
operated to the satisfaction of all those present, 
especial commendation being given to that feature 
of the device which keeps the lever down after the 
first impact. 

called automatic car couplers from which railroad com- 
panies were lo select some pattern for use on their respec- 
tive roads. Mr. McPhereon called to his aid the services 
of many ol the managers and mechanical superintendents 
of Michigan, and there is no doubt that each coupler 
selected met with the approval of some practical railroad 
men. Except by the representatives of some couplers not 
in the list, I have never heard the wisdom of the selections 
made questioned, considered in the light of the experience 
then possessed. The experience of four yeare has, how- 
ever, demonstrated, thai few if any of them are of practical 
value for the purpose for which they were intended — to 
preserve the lives and limbs of train men. The reason of 
their failure is too well known to alt of you to require ex- 
planation here. One thing may, however, be stated ; that 
is, they lack uniformity, without which, any number of 
couplers, however perfect in themselves, must fail when 
put into service. On January 1, next, the law of this state 
requires all freight care to be equipped with automatic 
couplers. If the railroad companies go on and comply liter- 
ally with the law, but select from different types of coup- 
tere, nothing will really have been accomplished toward 
reducing the casualties resulting from the coupling of cars ; 
and, in the opinion of many, the danger has been actually 
increased. The action of a majority of the master car 
builders in adopting a particular type of coupler which, 
while coupling with each other, is not conhned to:a partic- 
ular kind of which some syndicate has a monopoly, and the 
action of so many of the leading roads in adopting this type, 
leads to the hope that through this action early uniformity 
is promised, while competition and experience may be re- 
lied upon to remedy any defect which their general use 
may show them to possess. For the reasons stated you 
are respectfully requested to advise me of your reasons 
why all of the following named couplers should not be 
withdrawn from the list of those from which companies 
may select. This will leave only two now standing as ap- 
proved, the Janney and Dowlins, both of the master car 
builders' typo. There is no reason why others of this type 
should not be approved, and the withdrawal of the accom- 
panying list will leave the field clear for the approval of 
any new devices presented under the provisions of the 
coupler act of 1SS~. Also, if this action is taken, is there 
any reason why all railroad companies shall not be required 
to equip their cars with this type of coupler as fast as the 
cars go to the shops for repair or as new ones are built ! 

This is an important question which it is hoped each one 
of you will consider, and advise this office on or before 
April 1 of your conclusions. Those making no reply will be 
presumed to favor the action outlined above. 

The follo%ving is the list of couplers hereinbefore re- 
ferred to: 

AIKMAN COUPLER-P. a. AlKM.iN, Detroit, Mich. 

BLOCKER— JouN A. Blockek, Chicago, III. 

MARIvS-C. E. M.VHKS, Flint, Mich. 

PERKY— VV. V. Pekrv, Chicago, III. 

AMES— Ames CiKCorpLlxoCOMPANv, Philadelphia, Pa. 

THE COWELL— Cleveland, Ohio. 

McCKEE^J.VMES McCkee, Lansing, Mich. 
Very respectfully youre. 


Automatic Conplera in Michigan. 

On March 1 Railroad Commissioner Rich, of Mich- 
igan, issued the following circular, which fully ex- 
plains itself. We understand that the replies have 
been of such a nature that the action for. shadowed 
in the circular will bo taken very soon by the com- 
missioner, when the M. C. B. type of coupler will be 
the only one authorized in the state: 
To General Managers and Superintendents of Michigan 

Railroads : 

Gentlemen— Id 1886 my predecessor, Hon. William Mc- 
Pbersoo, under the provision of law, selected seven so- 

We herewith give an illustration of a new steel 
lantern, manufactured by the Railroad Signal Lamp 
and Lantern Company, of New York, which, because 
of its ingenuity of construction, as well as ils 
strength and durability, will, we think, be of inter- 
est to railroad men. 

Tlie entire frame of the lantern is made of steel. 
The ring guards are cut from one piece and are 
continuous, and 
the upright 
guards are also of 
one piece, extend- 
ing from top to 
base of lantern. 
The guards are 
notched and wov- 
en together, the 
body hook being 
burred on a steel 
ring and indepen- 
dent of the up- 
right guards, af- 
fording complete 
protection to the 
oil cup. The ring 
guards being 
formed with their 
la'Tow edge to 
ihe frame, form 
great resistance 
to any lateral blow, and at the same time cast no 
shadow and shut off no light. 

The manufacturers claim great saving of expense 
to railroads in the use of this lantern, first, from its 
great strength and durability and second, from there 
being no tipped or soldered joints to come apart, 
shop repairs being thus done away with entirely. 


Valuable improvements in the face-plate jaws pro- 
duced by the Cushmau Chuck Company, of Hart- 
ford, Ct., have been made, the details of which are 
shown in our engraving. By providing recesses at 
each end for nuts, the jaws can be used on face-plates 
or plates hnving T slots, and can then, of course. 

by loosening 
the bolts. 
At the same 
are drilled 
and tapped 
in the body 
of the jaw, 
by which it 
can b e at- 
tached to the plate in the old w.-iy (as shown by the 
dotted lines) if desired. The jaws are reversible on 
the plate; the sliding jaws are reversible in the 
blocks, and the screws are also reversible, being 
squared for the wrench at both ends. The sliding 
jaws have parallel grooves the entire length, and 
the bearir.g of the screws in them also extend their 
entire length. Four of these jaws attached to the 
face-plate of a lathe, or to the table of a boring 
mill, or drill press, etc., make an excellent substi- 
tute for the chuck, especially for the larger sizesot 
chucks, t o 

adapted t o 

face-plates 30 in. to 40 in. diameter, the 12 in. for 
larger plates and for the heaviest work. The jaws 
may be put on and taken off the plate very easily, 
one man doing the work alone, without the use of 
tackle of any kind, a great advantage over the 
handling of a large chuck. The Cushman Chuck 
Co., of Hartford, Conn., can give further informa- 


Mr. Albert Griggs, who has succeeded Mr. J. B. Henney 
as superintendent of motive power of the New York & 
New England road, has been for many years master me- 
chanic of the Providence & Worcester road, and has made 
a good record in that position. His shops at Valley Falls, 
R. I., have been much spoken of for their convenience of 
arrangement and their remarkable t 

The resignation of Mr. J. B. Henney. superintendent of 
motive power of the New York ..t New England, was a sur- 
prise to all his very large number of friends. Mr. Henney 
is recognized as one of the ablest of those occupying simi- 
lar positions in this country. He has successfully filled 
such positions in both the west and the east, and has made 
a record which he has a right to be proud of. He is in the 
prime of life, has had a wide experience, and is in all re" 
spects fitted to successfully meet large and important re. 
sponsibilities in bis profession. 

Mr. E. V. Sedg^vick has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Mexican National, with headquarters at San Luis 
Potosi. Mexico. 

Mr. J. M. Lowry, consulting engineer of the mechanical 
department of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road, 
died March 4 at his Milwaukee home. 

Mr. James Mackenzie, general foreman of the »vestcrn 
d ivision of the Hannibal ,.<c St. Joseph road, died in Chi- 
cago on the isth instant of neuralgia of the stomach, aged 
en years. At the time of his death he was on his way to 
visit his son. Mr. John Mackenzie, superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis road. 
Mr. Mackenzie was an excellent draughtsman and a thor- 
ough mechanic, and during his business career had charge 


of a number of important machine manufacturing shops in 
the west. In ls-S'2 he resigned his position of master me- 
chanic of the Kaw ralley division of the Kansas Pacific, 
one that be had tilled for a number of years, but which his 
failing health obliged him to relinquish. His associates 
presented him at the time with a line gold watch, which he 
afterward constantly carried. After a period of rest and 
travel Ue again resumed active work, accepting the posi- 
tion that he held at the time of his death. Mr. Mackenzie 
was known as an upright citizen, kind to the men in his 
employ, always possessing their confidence and highly 
respected in the community in which he lived. His re- 
mains were interred in the family burying place at Adrian, 

M. C. J. Ranahan has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Louisville Southern. 

Mr. John Hewitt has been appointed to succeed Mr. J. 
Evans, resigned, as master mechanic of the Oregon Rail- 
way and Xavigation Company. Mr. Hewitt was formerly 
on the Wabash. 

It is reported that Mr. H. S. Bryan, formerly of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Northern, and later in the railway 
supply business, has been made master mechanic of the 
Duluth & Iron Range Railway. 

Mr. Arthur Crandall, long known in Chicago and to the 
northwestern trade, as a representative of the Dunham 
Manufacturing Co., has taken the position of secretary of 
that concern with headquarters at the Chicago office, 
rooms 703 to 707 Phenix Bldg. 


Discussion on Journal Brasses. 

The Northwest Railroad Club held its regular 
monthly meeting in St. Paul, March 8, and discussed 
" Journal Brasses, " the subject being opened by G. 
L. Warren. He read a brief paper in which he gave 
the results of some tests which he had made. The 
following is the part of the paper which related to 
the tests: 

The experiments were made with two materials 
for journals: one, Norway iron, and the other, ma- 
chinery steel. The bearings, four in number, we 
will class for convenience as A, B, C and D. A was 
composed of six parts by weight of copper and one of 
tin. B was composed of eight parts by weight of 
copper and one of tin. C was composed of one part 
by weight of copper, two of antimony and :;4 of tin. 
Each of these mixtures were refined. D was com- 
posed of eight parts by weight of lead, and one of 
antimony. The pressures per square inch were 100 
lbs., 200 lbs. and 300 lbs. respectively. 

AT 100 LBS. 

Steel Oiled. Iron Oiled. Steel Dr>'. Iron Dry. 

A -OBKo -00447 -0147 '0109 

B OOaiO 00467 OlOa -0131 

C -OlMUO -00300 -0102 -0175 

D -am' -txtiao -ooa; -oi69 

AT 200 LBS. 

A -OW:!- -00)81 0130 -0131 

B -003911 -005K; -Ol.-SJ -0142 

C -0OS36 -0tM37 • -0135 OlSJ 

D -00.-181 -00459 -Ol:n 0175 

AT 300 LBS. 

A -00473 -00574 -IS* -1150 

c'.'.'.'.V.'.'.V.'.r.'.' -00481 -00409 -I'sflll -1370 

1) -nam -00.500 1420 -W20 

The coetlicient given by Moran for brass upon 
wrought iron is -054, while those used for the fric- 
tion on ordinary cars are from 6i to IH lbs. per ton. 
Experiments by Penn showed that brass upon iron 
abraded at 075 lbs. per square inch pressure, while 
at 975 lbs. per square inch it sat fast and babbitt 
metal rolled out at 1,600 lbs. per square inch. 

Mr. G. N. Sceets— The tests in practical service 
have proven that the solid bearing on different 
railroads once seated to the journal and firmly 
secured has given the least friction and makes a dif- 
ference of one car in twenty in a train; that is, an 
engine can pull one more car after a bearing has got 
down to a smooth solid surface, that it can upon 
filled bearing. Soft lead will wear the journal much 
more rapidly than brass. An antimonial filling 
comes nearer to having the least coefficient tor two 
reasons. First, that it is hard enough to overcome 
the wearing etTect of the soft metal on the journal. 
It fills up the crevices that will naturally be in the 
iron; it fills up the thread that is natural on a jour- 
nal after being'turned and then gives you, after the 
filling has worn down to the brass, an absolutely 
smooth surface for the journal and thus reduces the 
coefficient of fraction to the minimum. A test, such 

as described, would not give you the results to be 
arrived at in actual service, from the fact that you 
do not allow for any lateral motion at all, and there 
is a friction in actual service that you cannot obtain 
in a test of this kind; so that the test as you make it 
here would not be a i*eliable test on which to base 
any true opinion as to the road service or actual ser- 
vice on a train. As regards the best amalgam of 
metal, that is almost an immaterial point, whether 
it be 6 to 1, or 7 to 1, or 8 to 1 that you use; above 8 
to 1 your metal would probably be too soft and would 
wear loo rapidly and would come nearer the same 
coeflicient of friction that your hard babbitt would; 
and I claim that a 7 or 8 to 1 or phosphor bronze 
bearing properly made, lined with a thin lead lining, 
sufficient to give you a filling for the spaces that will 
occur in any journal, gives a nice surface, and that 
the jourcal as soon as it is worn down to the brass, 
will give better service, will make less friction, will 
last longer and will give better results in every way, 
than any other bearing you can make. If you 
get a bearing too hard, the result is that the 
constant jar from crossings and frogs is liable to 
break it. In the driving box it does not cut much 
of a figure from the fact that it is in such a position 
that it cannot break until it gets thin. The reason 
people want the hard metal is because it is suscepti- 
ble of a high polish. When once that has been ac- 
complished, the surface obtained from it is almost 
without comparison. It is hard to compare anything 
with it, because they last so long that the time they 
are put on is forgotten. Thereare very many differ- 
ent ideas in regard to what constitutes the best 
bearing. It seems like flying in the face of 
fate to attempt to say what would be the best. 
One man w-ill tell you that he prefers a filled bear- 
ing because it is not so liable to heat; he gets his 
cars over the road in better shape. He will admit 
that the wear on the journal is a great deal more^ 
but that does not cut any figure in the case. The 
transportation departments wants to get their trains 
over the road in time, and if they can only have a 
bearing that will reduce the heating to the mini- 
mum, they can not stop to figure the wearing on the 
journals. They do not figure that a journal costj 
fifteen times what a bearing would cost and when 
once worn out it can not be replaced quite so readily 
as a beari^ig can. I prefer the solid bearing with 
a lead lining not to exceed i inch, and after that has 
been worn out you have got the solid brass to work 
on. The mileage that you will obtain from that 
brass, unless it should have to be removed, on ac- 
count of changing wheels, will more than compensate 
you for the difference in price. Then again, after the 
bearing has become worn out in service, it is worth 
more as scrap, a great deal, than the ordinary shell. 
If a shell becomes heated it is lost to you. You lose 
the filling and you lose the life of the shell, and at 
the same time you lose a portion of it that can never 
be regained because it goes into the waste and is 
thrown out at the side of the track. When a solid 
one gets heated it can be replaced, and put back in 
another journal as soon as cool and will go to 
work all right. A good many say they do 
not like to use a solid bearing, having in mind 
always the idea that they have got to use it without 
a lining; but I claim that a solid bearing with a lead 
lining is far better than any other one. I use 
85 of lead and 15 of antimony for my own use. 
The idea of that is to give you a -lead that will 
not squee-/.e out with the weight that is put upon 
it. With a soft lead lining in a 60,000- lb. car your 
lead will squeeze out at the sides, and the journal 
will get heated. The brass is first bored, and ground 
out so that the surface is perfectly smooth. It is 
then put into an acid bath and then into a tin bath. 
After coming out of the tin bath it is put on a warm 
mandrel and lined. The lining becomes as much a 
part of the brass as any part of it. The first lead 
lining was cut from a sheet, and was put in with 
pressure without any tinning, relying on the weight 
of the car to retain it in place. With the two sur- 
faces separated you could lift the brass up and knock 
it out. The lead lining was at first just as cfficieut 
as if it had been tinned over, but after they got to 
running the heavy cars it wouldn't do; it grinds 
right out. 

Mr. Whitaker— I would like to ask whether or not 
there are any of the members present who can give 
information from the use of the soft metal bearings 
Do the journals reduce in size below the M. C. B. 
standard before they have got an ordinary mile- 
age out of themy If we can get an average life out of 
the a.tle in miles I do not see that there is any very 
serious objection to them. 

Mr. Pattee — I was in a foundry recently where 
they were casting car journal bearings, filling them 
with a composition of 4* of Omaha lead to one of 
antimony, and they claimed to get very good results 
from it. They allowed the shell to be cut away so 
that the filling was about the same thickness at the 
end of the brass as at the center. If the metal had 
been soft there was nothing to prevent it from 
squeezing out at the ends and cutting away the col- 
lar, but they told me that they no trouble. They 
were using a great number of them. They said they 
made the material hard enough to hold its form. 
They claimed that they were running the cars at a 
cost of about 14 cents per thousand miles for oil, pas- 
senger and freight both. I asked them to what 
extent the journals were being worn, and they 
admitted that they were being worn considerably; 
but as Mr. Sceets explained, the ability to get them 
over the road compensated for the wear of the jour- 
nals. I saw in the scrap axle pile though, that the 
fillets were very badly cut out. 

Mr. .Sceets — Isn't it a fact that whenever the fillets 
are found worn it is generally caused by a journal 
becoming heated and running too long after it be- 
came heated, the brasses grinding the fillet out? It 
does not talve long to grind out a fillet after it gets 
cherry red. I think UO per cent, of the broken jour- 
nals are directly traceable to becoming heated and 
being cooled off too quickly with cold water. But 
there is a lining that could be put in that would be 
all right. I made some journal bearings for a car 
that was being tested on the Chicago & Northwest- 
ern and put a genuine babbitt lining in them and they 
loaded the car with 40,000 pounds and ran it six 
round trips between Milwaukee and Chicago and it 
had not worn enough to show that it had been run. 
That was a refrigerator car. 

Mr. Praser — In the journal boxes we cast 
a rib of this metal on each side of the 
center of the journal, with a small strip across the 
ends; this permits oil in the center of the brass. I 
run an engine truck brass from March, 1888, until 
October, 1S89, on one engine. That was one that I 
kept a record of, and it did not get down to the brass 
in that time. The babbitt projects 3 16 at first. 

Mr. Sceets — If you will take an engine truck brass, 
dovetail a slot clear through it and put in an antimo- 
nial rib with just sufficient lead in it to hold it to- 
gether inside, a set of engine truck brasses ought to 
last five years, in lact they will never wear out unless 
they should wear out from the action on top. You 
might run them on an iron or steel surface if you 

Mr. Birber— We are using a filled brass on the N. 
P. Ry. We are like all the rest of you, we like a 
solid brass best I think. It preserves the journals 
and keeps the waste cleaner; allows the oil to fiow 
more readily through the waste. We find more 
sediment in the waste from a filled brasj. The tilled 
brass also wears away the journal. There is no 
question about that. 

Mr. Barber — We have not been using the filled 
brass to any extent until the last five or six months. 
We are keeping a record of them and we expect as 
soon as the year is up to get some record of them. 
We have about 6,000 of the Hopkins, so that we shall 
get at the facts pretty closely. 

Mr. Ward— Have any of you had any experience 
with putting a fillet on both emls of the journal in 
place of just huvmij imi.- lilli'i next the wheel? I 
find that it worU'~ with lr» itonhli- and that we have 
less heating fruiii ii iliaii w. wnuld have with only 
one fillet on the iii-uli- n( ili'' juunial. 

running that way about 
etter and are less liable 
to cause hot boxes. I don't think there is any ques- 
tion that the filled or brass shell with a soft metal 
filling, will run with less liability to heat. But it 
wears the journal faster and if it gets heated you 
have got nothing for scrap, and the journal is very 
apt to he injured. 

Mr. Fraser— That depends upon Ih" fni-m o( yonr 
shell. I never have seen a case Willi , n n, , h , l ,| m- 
solid brass where it cut off or brc.l,. . ! , ^,. . nd 

of the journal. It always goes in i i .. i ... n, ur 
the center. 1 never have seen a, r,n ,„,l the 
fillet on til.' 11, -111. n. ..1 I 
but 1 liai - - . i: m;.'.,, - 1 
of soil in. ' |i , 1 1 . -.. 

had a V..|> l.a.l 1.: al 

melted uuL Lin-re was iitil li i iil' In sustain the load at 
all. 'i'here were twoor llii.. i il.- in the center, 
opposite to the outside sin ll, ami ih.. mcnnent the 
sol t metal was gone the l.ia~- laok.- right in two 
and it would cut the journal evri'v Ume. 

At the next meeting of the club the subject for 
discussion will be " Brasses— Car, Driving and Rod,'" , 
to be introduced by Mr. J. L. Greatsinger, of the Du- 
luth & Iron Range Raili-oad. 

tiut from the action 
. old Thayer brass 
the soft metal was 



Discussion on Chicago Joint Defect Card— Publication of j 
Proceedings, and the H. C. B- Interchange Rales- 

At the March meeting of tlie Western Hail way 
Club the first subject discussed was the I'eport of 
coramittee on joint caid, published in our last issue. 
No agreement could bo had upon the report and it 
was, after prolonged discussion, laid over till the 
April meeting. 

The report of the special committee on publication 
of proceedings was next considered. On motion of 
Mr. Rhodes the report as a whole was accepted. 
The committee's report was then discussed section j 
by section, Messrs. Forsyth, Barr, Rhodes, E. N. 
Ijewis, Verbryck, Barnes, Peck and others taking I 
part in the discussion. Several amendments were 
made and the report was finally adopted in the fol- 
lowing form: 

I. That the |ire!<eiit method of selling to the railway and 
technii-al piip.-rs tiMii^*rripts of the stenographer's notes of 
our dis.ius-i ius. aii.l of supplying the newspapers with 
copies .if p.ip. rs iv.1,1, ije discontinued. 

•J. Thut th'* v.triniis r.iihvay and technical papers be re- 
quested t.i s;iv.' iin ;i,o,uiit of the discussions, prior to the 

a. Tliat tiir siTi.i.iiv revise 'the stenographers's report, 
and semi a |ir.»i ^ii i lie same to any member requesiins it, 
to allov, tii^ p. r^Mii.ii revision of his remarks; and that the 
secretary b.> am h. 1 1 ■.li to eliminate any personal remarks 
or eritin^iii-. mi |i it. i.t.d devices; and that failing to re- 
ceive sii.ii I. >,i~; ,h^ rrierred to the secretary shall pub- 
lish the |ir,.. , , iiii-, ,1, reported on the Monday succeeding 

4. That the prueecdiugs be sent free as heretofore to 
members of the club and to advertisers, but that the urice 
to others shall be $1 per year. The proceedings may, how- 
ever, be given in exchange for other technical publications, 
and such publications received in exchange shall ba placed 
on file in the club room for the use of the members. 

.=). The increased work to be thrown upon the secretary 
by the adoption of this plan should receive compensation, 
the amouol of which we would refer to "' 

i; V ■■ r.iieipates that the adoption of the 

foivL - lit in an increase of advertising in 

the 'I - and also in a revenue from subscrip- 

tion- - but the details of soliciting sub- 

scrii'ii ! - I ' : ' -'-ineuts we would recommend to be 
referred to uie staiiuuig committee on publication. 

The next subject, the proposed changes in inter- 
change' rules, was opened with the reading of the fol- 
lowing suggestions by Mr. O. W. Rhodes: 


Rule 13. Add to the rule a paragraph similar to the last 
one of rule 2.% namely, " No percentage to be added for 
either material or labor except as provided for in rule lU." 
Tue prices for both material and labor in rules 1'2 and 2.~) are 
based on cost. This being the fact, if it is right to add 10 
per cent, in one case, it should also be added in the other, 
uiid thus preserve a uniformity in the conception of the 

Kule 'iT. Insert " by fire" on the fourth line after the 
words '• damaged*' or *' destroyed." The rule will then 
read: '•»»••♦♦♦ when damaged by tire or 
destroyed by fire upon a private track • ♦ • » • ♦.•' 
When this rule was first adopted it was intended to cover 
lire cases only. This distinction has been omitted of late, 
and it is now possible for a swiu:hing road to claim ex 
cinption from responsibility under the broad head of 
"damaged car," i. e., brasses stolen on a private track, 
draft rigging damaged, siding damaged, etc., etc. 

Rule 29. In the second paragraph of the rule strike out 
the following clause ; " Should one of the parties refuse, or 
' aformuiion, the committee shall 

outlined for No. ll». would, in part, auHw i i : t - 

questions. The use of M. C. B. standards in : i i. h- 
original construction has been tacitly anii at. ,t n, i.Mrn 
some railroads for some years past and we are oi the npiii- 
iou the time is now ripe to make it one of the rules of the 
association. Prior to the association's present stand on the 
draw-bar question, a favorite way of showing the evils of 
each line having its own standard bar, ivaw to tabiihiti- tlie 
number of different di*aw bars a ihiHiiLli .ii,.. \..a- .1.11-..! 

to carry for its foreign cars. Unl'^- - i- i- 

is taken on this matter the mem b, I - 

Snd that in place of carrying Jn 

nted." This i 

fact that th. 
an ODiniou i 

pear among t 

fail to fur 

: of last year, which required 
> agree to abide by the decision 
vould consider the 
important in view of the 
ij time be called upon for 
parties, one only having 
railroad and individual 
. s, though they do no. ap- 
s. If, however, it is not 
thought advisable tu liave this requirement, at least strike 
out the clause we have named, and leave it to the judgment 
of the committee whether it can •' decide iuleiligenily"' 
on such one sided evidence as some member may see fit to 
refer to them. 
New rule. In its proper place, probably after rule 1.5 and 

Kule It;.— In repairing damaged cars, M. C. B. standards 
may lie used, when of design and dimensions that do not 
mar or impair the strength of the car, in lieu of the parts 
forming its original construction. 

The M. C. B. automatic draw-bar of any recognized 
mauufacture may be used, providing it conforms strictly lo 
the lines adopted by the association, and also provioing 
that not less than 35,000 cars are in successful service 
equipped with the druw-bar. 

Kule 1.5.— On the sixth line insert in parenthesis after 
the words "originally used," "[except as provided in r^le 
ItiJ new standard parts may, however, be used if agreed 

The question is frequently asked, what can wo do to con- 
tribute to more uniformity in car construction, what steps 
can we take to introduce the standard 
more generally, and what is the advantage to railroad 
panics of the M. C ~ " ' 

as U 

tmiv.,'':'-, ':'; 

:\:': ''■ 

'. B. lines is 
vi!l be well, 

L'. 11, ,-,.i,|,ierVi. 

they t ,■ 


cermin coiid'iUou 

■' ■' ' "^ 1 n :■ t. ts to pay uiori 

n. .1 by one firm, made so carelessly 
iiltle with each other, and others th.ii 
v.irv from the lines in imiwrtanl it.ii 
,-theM.C. B. lines it is possible, t,, 
of wear, to render the coupler an insei 

There has been some talk of it 
tem, and as the Western Hailwa 
to advocate such a plan, a malu 
might be useful. So far as our ^ 
were allured into advocatingthe 
opposed to it now. We wish to be 
The Central Railway Club hav. 

troducinsr a two card 
' Club was one of the 
red opuin.n from the 

under consideratioi 
suchacard would faillo be recognized ami soon havenn val 
ue unless carrying with it some obligation. It is tlierclore 
proposed to use a red card fo- old defects, and that this 
card shall be authority for any railroad company to make 
the reiniirs, not aptiinst the railroad applying the card, but 
ajrain-t til- ,,■:,, I .t the car. Why deceive ourselves by 
nieai - ' titi; Under such a rule any railroad 

mti,\ , I : . 1 and bill against the owner of the car 
fni - I- be considers it essential to repair. 

If is 1 1: - \-, t, ,i ,- ..', aiii, il we might much belter insert a new 

ding old defects on foreign 
repairs of which are essential to the safety of 
trainmen and the running of the car, shall make the re- 
pairs and bill against the owner of the car." 1 need scarce 
ly add we would oppose such a rule. Tlie i. i-an s ,i:, ,i.i 
be made, but the compsny making them - 
them. Some, however, advocate the use ..t , - 
that carries no obligation. At best this w. . ; . _ ,■ 
temporary relief and would soon be of as :t ,. ,,i,,,, ,,, 
our paper currency, if it carried no obligation witti it, 11 
we are to accept a car with old^efects,whenacard carrying 
no obligations with it says they are old, why is it not much 
simpler to accept it without any card{ 

In conclusion I think the association should take some 
steps towards securing a more complete list of subscribers 
10 the rules. 

After considerable discussion the recommendations 
as to rule 12, the new rule 16, rule 1-5, rule 27 and 
rule 29 were adopted. 

Mr. R. D. Smith suggested that there was a word 
left out in rule 10, next to the last line; the word 
'* bolsters." "Railroad companies shall not be liable 
for the replacement of broken bolsters or draft 
spri ngs. " He moved that it is the sense of this meet- 
ing that the rule be made to read, '* Broken truck 
bolster springs or draft springs." Seconded and 

The discussion on interchange rules here closed, 
and as it was late the discussion on the second sub 
ject, " The Best Methods of Counterbalancing the 
Reciprocating Parts of Locomotives," was, on mo- 
tion, deferred until the next regular meeting of the 
club, iind the meeting adjourned. 


Discnssion on Freight Car Couplers. 

At the opening of the New England Club discus- 
sion on car couplers the secretary read the following 
circular, which had been issued by the executive 
committee of the club and sent lo the managers and 
superintendents of the various railroads in New Eng- 
land, tor the purpose of obtaining the opinions of the 
men who use the different couplings, as to which is 
the best and safest: 

New ExoLAXii K.iilroad Clcb. i 
BosTox, February 3.';, IsSKt. i 
To the freight train and yard men of Railroad : 

The New England liailroad Club has assigned asthe sub- 
ject for discussion at its monthly meeting in March next, 
"Freight Car Couplers." This subject, which has occupied 
the minds of railroad managers for several years and is 
still unsettled, has now attained a new interest from thtt 
fact that the president of the United Slates, in his message 
to the present congress, has called itsallcnlion to this mat 
ler, and legislation is proposed, mahing il compulsory on the 
railroad companies to adopt and use, within a given period, 
an automalic freight car coupler. 

As this proposed legislation is ba-sed entirely upon the 
object of lessening the danger to employes engaged in 
handling cars, we deem il fair that these men should be 
given an opportunity to express their ideas as lo the form 
of coupler which best combines uniformity, automatic 
action and safety. 

With this view the New England Railroad Club pro. 

salt'st ami uest coupler, ilie nianageineiit ot yourroad has 
kindly consented to forward your replies to the under- 
signed. Please sign your names in the form below, under 
the type nf coupler which .vou recommend. 

FiiAScis M. CcKTis, Secretary. 

.\ MM t,, 11 hundred and forty-eight votes were re- 
' response to the above circular, distributed 
: In favor of the .Salford coupler, 1,230; 

I iiini ,. iiT; old fashioned link and pin, 113; Boston 
Automatic, M); Gould, 21); Miller, 2r, Marks,.5; Dowl- 
ing, 2; Cowell, 1. • 

Mr. F. D. Adams was called upon by the president 

to open the discussion of the subject. 

"^Ii ''iain- ,\ f. n ; ■ :t ' - ,1.1. the Amescouplor 

naively; several 

■ - t, , Miy and the Van- 

" ,1 I i.,m Hfi .- .-.imi-i,,,! A,t-, ii. Throughths 

uu-slul tiUK o of Us uiiiljul;., tuiel 11 did not prove tO 

be as successful as was anticipated, but 1 believe it 
is one of the best couplerp ever made; it is, however, 
being entirely abandoned. We have used the Saf- 
(oi-d lor a great many years, and we have watched 

1 if - 1.1 .St- of the M. C. B. type with much interest. 

tin order last fall to the inspectors on the 
■ '■ i til. of our road to report every broken coupler 
Miiinl, I'hree hundred and thirty-seven of the Jan- 
iiey tyiic were reported broken in 60 days. At that 
time we were receiving perhaps .501) cars pur day, 
and delivering SOO, and in that lot I don't think over 

2 per cent, had a vertical type coupler. The break- 
age seemed to us enormous, and strengthened our 
determination to use the Safford. In building some 
new cars, more recently, we consulted with some 
other roads in regard to couplers, and were strongly 
urged to use the vertical book, but we have not yet 
seen it for our interest to do so, but have rather in- 
sisted upon the Safford automatic. I notice that 
those who advocate the use of the vertical hook so 

itti-.-" " tin I'.-hi,-;. vtifiti r..,t.i, I", it !t,-l,,i,e.-. Thev 

-■ ■ , ■ , i , , , Mupler to 

peiieu le. puL un eoupier, il u,.uiu bankrupt 

them in llic iicxl live years, uulcab il is improved so 
as to diminish the breakage. I understand that on 
the lines of the Pennsylvania road west of Pitts- 
burgh 1,000 cars have been put into service recently 
wiUi the common pin and link bar, and -500 more are 
being built, and -500 more in contemplation, all ot 
which are to be fitted with the same coupler. Yet 


vhen it wt 
vho are m 

e vertical hook 
.Missouri Pacific, 
iih the pin and 

I iilhe 


the same enii|i,, i . -m. , i ii. :i,,,.|ii nin of the vertical 
hook by the .U,i»iei Car liuiiuei.- .-Vosociation. The 
Atchison, Topeka i. Santa Fe road adopted the ver- 
tical coupler and they have abandoned it, and are 
replacing it with the SatTord automatic. It has been 
generally reported and believed that when the Mas- 

Car Bi 
hook, the 
mously in fa^ 
the eight me 

Association adopted the vertical 
10 committee ot nine wore unani- 
it, but thai is not the fact. Of 
s |ireseiil four only were in favor of 

.11. ,.. t,- ,.|, :...-. T; i.i It, and it was only 
- iiiodilication that 

t ..port of thecom- 

""" '- -■ ib'i 11 wassimplylo 

after a lo..: 
those oppt. 
miitee, upi 

bring the imiLlef beluie iiie at-suciation lor aclion. 
1 believe the Safford bar is the safest coupler that 
has been introduced, and there are ten times as 
many of them in existence as of any other type. 
Unilormily is better than variety in a matter ot this 
kind, and conduces to the safety of the men who 
handle it. It is said that the vertical type is an 
automatic Coupler absolutely. I do not think it is; 
you have to set the knuckle every time, or it will 
"break olT, and a new one costs $-5; a new Safford bar 
cau be bought for that price. 

Mr. Marden— I have not been a believer in the 
master car builders" type ot coupler. 1 realize the 

safely co 

ud the 

fact that we need ! 

sooner all cars are equippi 

belter; the expenses of repairs will then diminish. 

The claim has been made that it all cars were 

«.... - Ii. ; -t. ,..!-_ ,..,1 we would have no fur- 

tli. ... ,..11. I do not accept that 

slat :, , ,- I.;., .' Iielieve that any material 

til, It tiiti i. Iitt.i . ii.tii.iy enough to make the 
knuckles of, is sti'ong emiiigh to bear the shocks it 
receives. Wo have had 100 cars equipped with the 
.\I. C. 15. coupler, and they have been out of service 
more tlian halt the time on account ot being disabled 
by broken draw-bars, and when we add to that the 
expense ot repairing and ot taking them to the 
shop, it has proved rather a cosily experiment. 1 
do iiol think that the majority ot the roads who are 
using that coupler to-day would say that it is just 
what they need, if they expressed an honest opinion, 
but they would say it was a very expensive coupler 
for roads to use to any great extent. We are equip- 
ping cars that we are now building and repairing 


with what is known as the Perry coupler, an auto- 
matic coupler which we have used for several years. 
There is no cue who would he more ^lad than I would 
be to see a good automatic coupler come to the front, 
something that would please the train men and save 
them from broken and crushed hands, and 1 be- 
lieve the roads are now waiting for some coupler to 
be presented which will obviate the dangers that 
attend the couplers we are now using. 

Mr. Shinn — Three years ago I had occasion to 
make some tests of couplers, and I found that a blow 
of about one-third of tie number of foot pound? re- 
quired to break a malleable iron or cast steel 
knuckle would put a permanent set in the knuckle 
and render it useless if two of the same kind came 
together. If they sometimes receive a blow suffi- 
cient to cause a fractui-e, they must more frequently 
receive the lighter blow which will cause the per- 
manent set, sufficient in many cases to prevent the 
coupling of the cars when two of this kind come 
together. In investigating this subject before I 
made the tests, I visited a number of railroads in 
the country where tests of vertical plane couplers had 
been made where I found the scrap pile told a won- 
derful story regarding these couplers; I found there 
were knuckles made of all descriptions of metal, in- 
cluding malleable iron, cast steel of the best makes, 
and some others, and they all had broken under con- 
ditions to which they were exposed, and my conclu- 
sion was that that occurred either through a fault in 
the form, want of sufficient metal, or want of strength 
in the metal itself, and railroads could not atford to be 
equipped with that sort of coupler, unless better ma- 
terial could be found, or the lines increased so as to 
give a much larger body of metal. I think the day 
will come when a better metal will be had than is 
now being used for that purpose, and I think then 
the danger of permanent set will disappear and the 
percentage of breakage will decrease. 

Mr. Getman— Where cars have been kept together 
and equipped with this coupler, the number of 
breakages has been very much less than with those 
where they have been mixed up with cars equipped 
with all sorts of couplers. 

Mr. Lauder — Assuming that the statistics that we 
get from different quarters are approximately cor- 
rect, it seems that there is a vast difference between 
the breakages reported by different roads, and I 
think it is plain how that difference comes about, t 
think, as a rule, it will be found that the roads which 
have taken hold of the vertical plane coupler, and 
equipped any considerable number of cars with it, 
have put this coupler on to a special class of cars, as 
stock cars, fruit cars, etc., where the trains are made 
up perhaps with the products of the west, beyond 
the Mississippi or Missouri river, and run to New 
York or Boston without really being uncoupled; and 
under those circumstances the breakages of any 
coupler, especially a hook coupler, would be very 
slight, buton theother hands the roads that report a 
very large percentage of breakages are those on which 
the couplers are put to the test of switching, and 
that is what drives the couplers to pieces. I assume 
that if the vertical plane coupler ever becomes uni- 
versal in its use, the breakages will very largely 
increase over what is now reported by the roads 
having the greatest number of them, because then 
they will not only be put on to special lines of cars, 
but on to cars engaged in local business, and will 
have to receive their full quota of shocks from the 
switching of cars, especially at terminal points; but 
there will be this difference, that they will be sub- 
ject to shocks by knocking them together with coup- 
lers of their own type, while now they are knocked 
around by couplers of other types, which is mani- 
festly bad for the hook. There is no question that 
vertical plane couplers, as used on the Old Colony 
road, the Boston & Albany, or the Fitchburg road, 
are subjected to a more severe usage, occasioning a 
greater percentage of breakages, than they would 
be if only that kind of coupler was in service. I can 
see nothing but disaster to the vertical plane coupler 
if it shall be adopted universally and put into our 
local service. I don't think that coupler has had any 
fair test of its endurance on the roads which have 
put it on large numbers of cars, because, as I said 
before, it has been applied to special lines of cars 
running in solid trains, where there was very little 
switching done. 

Mr. Coghlan— The trouble with the hook coupler 
is the de^ct in its mechanical construction, and no 
piece of mechanism constructed in that way could 
endure one-quarter of the shocks to which a freigiit 
car is subjected, carelessly handled as it often is 
bv train men in the yard. It does not matter of 
w"hat metal it is made, but if made in this form it 
will bend, and if it does not bend it will break, and 
as soon as it is bent its efficiency is lost. Any piece 
of mechanism that has a hinge will break and wear, 
and that is especially true in the freight car coupler, 
and a severe shock will bend or break the knuckle. 

The discussion closed at this point and a lengthy 
paper upon "Freight Car Couplers," prepared by 
John M. Ford, was read bv Mr. Adams, and from it 
the following extracts are taken: 

There have been two or three years of trial ofthis type of 
coupler (that adopted by the M. C. B. Association), uud it 

i there f 

has been developed under as favorable 
strong personal attachment could offer; and still the many 
failures have not been averted. It seems hardly wise to 
continue the development of a type composed of intricate 
parts, which must be made exact in order to work well, in 
fact to work at all, and which are already proving very 
weak aad troublesome. The Master (Jar Builders' Associa- 
tion, in adopting a type, practically adopted wind. The 
adoption of a t.vpe is not the adoption ' " " ' " 

type is as capable of as many forms and shapes 
parts to the coupler, or the ingenuity of man can uevise. 
At present there ai-e many couplers of the M. C. B. type, 
so called, the parts of no two of which fit each other. Con- 
tinuing on in this line, how long will it be before there 
will be as many kinds of the M. C. B. vertical plane type 
of a coupler in form, length and shape as there are now of 
the link and pin type! Cars are held to-day for parts 
broken in the Janney, Gould and other couplers of this 
type, and they must be held until these parts are piocured 
from points hundreds and perhaps a thousand miles away. 
Delays of this kind should be overcome by a standard,which 
would in a large measure stop the famine for cars at many 
points during the busy seasons of the year. 

Is it not a well-known fact that the indiscriminate adop- 
tion and use of automatic couplers, so-called, has largely 
increased the danger of running freight car trains? It cer- 
tainly is desirable to secure a perfectly automatic freight 
car coupler, but unfortunately that coupler has not as yet 
been produced. It is seldom you can find, in our vicinit.y, 
one ol these so-called automatic couplers that will couple 
with its own kind without being obliged to go between the 
cars to adjust the parts, it being a rare occurrence to find 
all the parts in working condition. It is therefore certain 
that at the present time it would be unwise to force rail- 
roads to adopt a coupler with so many vital defects as are 
shown to exist in all the so-called automatic couplers, in- 
cluding the M. O. B. vertical plane type. 

The officers for the ensuing year were duly elected 
as follows: President, George Richards; vice presi- 
dent, Orlando Stewart; secretary and treasurer, F. 
M. Curtis; executive committee, George Richards, 
ex-olficio, F. D. Adams, J. N. Lauder, AlbertGriggs, 
.1. W. Marden, L. M. Butler, F. M. Tworably, John 
Coghlan; finance committee, Geo. Richards, ex- 
otticio, Charles Richardson, Isaac N. Keith, Daniel 
S. Page, A. G. Barber, Osgood Bradley, Joel Hills, 
George H. Wightman. 

The subject for the next meeting will be locomo- 
tive boilers. 


—A great saving in draft rigging repairs is effected by 

le use of the malleable iron Butler drawbar attachment. 
The Butler Drawbar Attachment Company challenge any 
other device to show as good a record as theirs, and state 
that within the past year there have been more orders 
placed for the Butler attachment for new equipment than 
for an.y other patented device of the kind. 

—The Steel Tubular Car Company, of Bradford, Pa., has 
bought 3,000 acres of land in Tana valley, between Brad- 
ford and the New York state line, and the erection of 
shops will be begun as soon as possible. The company 
will build fl re-proof, indestructible, steel tubular cars. 

—The St. Louis, Alton & Terra Haute Railway have 
just put their Belleville and Pinkney viUe oCBces in hand- 
some shape, the Scarritt Furuiture Company of St. Louis 
doing the furnishing. 

—The Eames Vacuum Brake Company announce that 
they have perfected an improved compressed air brake for 
passenger and freight cars.and are now prepared to demon- 
strate its superior merits over any other brake extant. The 
brake is quick acting, automatic and interchimgeabl; with 
the Westinghouse brake. The locomotive equipment Ihey 
claim to be decidedly superior to any other in the market. 
They ask specially to call the attention of railroad com- 
panies contemplating the equipment of freight cars with 
power brakes, and request that before making contracts 
elsewhere they will Investigate their device. 

-Mr. A. W. Van Dorston informs us that we were in 
error in announcing that the contract went to the Sharon 
Steel Casting Company for the steel knuckles for the 8,000 
Van Dorston couplers ordered by the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing. The contract went to the Standard Steel Casting 
Company, of Thurlow, Pa., which firm is turning the 
knuckles out at the rate of 100 a day. 

—At the shops of William Sellers & Co., of Philadelphia, 
they have a number of cranes in process of construction of 
various sizes and weights, some of them driven by electric 
motors, which are placeii In the cage and travel with the 
crane. The crane which they have recently put up over 
their erecting floor is driven in this way, and works in an 
entirely satisfactory manner. Among the other large tools 
to be seen on the floors are some exceptionally large and 
heavy planers; a iS In. lathe, 43 ft. S In. long, and an angle 
shear to cut angle iron 8xs in. A lathe has also just been 
completed which Is to go to the new shops of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad at Altoona, which is something entirely 
new. It is to be used for facing off rock shaft arms. It is 
fitted with mechanism which reverses the lathe at any de- 
sired point, giving it an oscillating motion, the backward 
movement being four times as fast as the forward or cutting 

motion. The lathe will make any part of a complete revo- 
lution desired, or can be used In the ordinary manner, I. e., 

— Since it went Into service this season and up to March 
1, the Jull snow plow dug out 713 miles of drifts, from 2 
to :30 ft. in depth. In the deepest drifts the snow had to be 
broken down for the plow to operate on. It released 10 pas- 
senger trains, several of which had been lying nine days in 
the snow. During all this service it is stated that the step 
which supports the augur never even became heated. 

—The Servls tie plate is now being made with a larger 
and heavier plate, with an extra flange in the center, for 
use on roads operating heavy rolling stock and hauling 
largest loads. These plates are now going on many miles 
of new track, their economical value being recognized alike 
by contractors and general managers. 

—The specifications for the Chicago West Side Elevated 
Railway locomotives call for United States metallic pack- 
ing on piston rods and valve stem. Allen & Richardson 
balance valve, Kruop steel driving tires. Boles truck 
wheels, French springs, Lappin brake shoes. Mason re- 
ducing valves, Eames vacuum brakes. The car specifica- 
tions call for Cleveland City Forge and Iron Company turn- 
buckles, Globe ventilators, Mlller-Janney combination 
drawbar, Eames vacuum brakes, Lappin brake shoes, 
Chase combination bolster springs, and F. D. Adams drip- 
less journal box. In view of the fact that the company has 
selected so many first-class supplies it is strange that it did 
not adopt an improved lamp for lighting its cars. The 
name of the concern whose lamps are specified awakens 
memories of cars halt lighted, aching eyes an^ wasted 

—The Link Belt Machine Co., of Chicago, favor their 
friends with a very useful and convenient steel pocket foot 
rule which folds up into a length of 4i.j inches. It tits 
snugly into a leather case, the whole affair being less bulky 
in the vest pocket than an ordinary lead pencil. 

—The U. S. Enameling Co., of New Brighton, Pa., has 
been organized to carry on the business started in that 
place by the Star Enameling Co. Mr. E. H. Martin, gen- 
eral superintendent of the old company, occupies the same 
position in the new concern. Mr. E. A. Eames is the west- 
ern representative of the company, with office in the 
Phenix Building, Chicago. The station signs, etc., made 
by the process controlled by this concern are much superior 
to anything else of the kind. 

— The Dunham Manufacturing Co., dealers In railroad 
equipment, have, together with the National Hollow 
Brake Beam Co., moved to their new and commodious 
quarters, 703 to 707 Phenix Building, Chicago, 111. This 
change has been rendered necessary by the growing busi- 
ness of both these companies, and the new location will 
give them about double the space hitherto occupied at 310 
and 311 Phenix Bldg., in addition to aflordingsuperior light 
and ventilation. 

— The Rue Mfg. Co., which has recently moved its shops 
into new quarters in a new building, now has things in 
very good shape— Mr. F. H. Colvin, who Is at the head of 
the concern, evidently taking considerable pride in his 
special tools and appliances for doing the work on the in- 
jectors which they make. The work Is nearly or quite all 
of brass, and there are a considerable number of external 
and internal threads to be cut on the body of the injector, 
and the parts which fit into it. Plugs and receivers are 
provided for keeping these to a uniform size, and in every 
case taps are made with an extension below the thread, 
which is just a nice working fit in the hole to be tapped. 
This insures not only that the hole shall be the proper size, 
but that the thread shall also be true with the hole and 
not cut deeper on one side than the other, as Is apt to be 
the case In tapping brass. The principle of having inserted 
teeth in taps, adjustable for size, is followed out as far as 
possible, and the same Is true of the dies. Mr. F. H. Col- 
vin devotes his time principally to thedevising and making 
of tools and fixtures, with which the work is done, and 
many of them are quite ingenious. A number of Pox 
lathes are used, and the method of cutting the threads on 
the end of the brass piece called the nut, which engages 
with the hob, is different from that usually employed. In- 
stead of having hobs and bobbing it out, it is done with a 
single cutter, which is keyed into a boring bar, and the 
piece being clamped to the tool rest in the proper position, 
and the lathe geared up to cut a screw of the desired 
pitch, the operation is then the same as cutting a thread in 
the lathe in the ordinary manner. The distance which the 
cutter projects from the center of the bar is, of course, 
equal to the radius of the lead screw, so that the proper 
curvature is obtained.— [American Machinist. 

— An article on emery wheels in the March Journal of 
the Franklin Instituteby T. Dunkin Paret, president of the 
Tanite Company of Stroudsburg, Pa., is worthy of special 
mcn'ior, not only because of the very large amount of prac- 
tical information on the subject which it contains, but also 
because of the good taste which It shows. Although the 


writer is an active competitor with many other manufact- 
urers of emery wheels, that fact is almost entirely kept out 
of sight in his article. It would be a good thing if the "sup- 
ply men" who read papers or make addresses before rail- 
way clubs would catch the spirit of this article. 

— A business new to St. Louis and of national importance 
has been inaugurated in the car chair and seat line within 
the past few years, built up by the Scarritt Furniture Com- 
pany. A specialty has been made of this branch of railroad 
work and the arm now maintains the largest plant of this 
character in the world. Their recently added mammoth 
five story building increases their capacity so that they can 
better supply their fast increasing trade, which comes 
from England, Mexico, Chili, Brazil, Cuba and Australia, 
and from the best and greatest systems of railroads in this 
country. The Scarritt Furniture Company's New York 
ofBce is at 14.5 Broadway, with M. N. Forney; the Chicago 
office is at 513 and 514 Phenix building, and the St. Louis 
office is at 412 and 414 North Fourth street. 

—The Boyden Brake Company has secured the services 
of Mr. F. A. Stinard to represent it on the road. Mr. Stin- 
ard is a member of both the Master Mechanics' and Master 
Car Builders Associations and has had many years of ex- 
perience in locomotive and car departments. He has, also, 
an extens've acquaintance in the railway field and will, it 
is believed, make a good record in his present business. 

— Owing to a temporary dearth of important news some 
of the Chicago newspapers recently made a great outcry 
about an alleged violation of municipal ordinances by the 
Safety Car Heating & Lighting Company in establishing a 
plant for making Pintsch gas in the city. As the work 
was done under the supervision of Mr. Jacob Johann, who 
is personally known to most of the readersof Tuc Railw.iy 
M.vsTEH Meciuxic, it is bardly necessary to say that in- 
vestigation shows thit permission was obtained in advance 
for erecting the building and every care was taken to avoid 
all causes of offence. Some citizen with sensitive nostrils 
has complained that a bad smell proceeds from the works- 
The odor is simply that of petroleum, an odor which per- 
vades entire counties in Pennsylvania, Ohio and other oil 
producing districts and the people accept it joyfully. Over 
that part of Chicago in which the Pintsch works are situ- 
ated the smells from Bridgeport slaughter houses and fer- 
tilizer factories come with every south wind in tidal waves 
—and for a fuss to be made over an occasional whiff of 
clean and useful petroleum seems a small business. It is 
alleged also that the Safety Company crossed the streets 
without' permission. What Mr. Johann did was to put un- 
der ground a .'4 in. pipe— which could hardly weaken the 
foundation of Chicago or affect the safety of travel on its 

—The Timms journal-box, illustrated in our March issue, 
has been improved by the substitution of a pressed steel 
box-lid for the one then shown, and by removing the brass 
face plate on the end stop; the wearing face of the end 
stop is now simply chilled, which answers every purpose 
and must reduce the cost. 

The Homestead Steel Works of Carnegie, Phipps & Com- 
pany, Limited, are situated on the south bank of the Mo 
nongahela river, some nine miles above Pittsburgh, and on 
the lines of the Monongahela division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, and the Pittsburgh, McKeesport & 'youghio- 
gheny Railroad, the latter being one of the railroads com- 
prising the Vauderbilt system. The property consists of 
some S9 acres, of which the works proper occupy about 50 
acres of level ground, having a river frontage of some 
3,10U feet. 

The Bessemer department of these works comprises a 
converting mill WJsri ft., in which are located six melting 
cupolas and two five-ton converters; a blooming mill, 178 
ft., 6 in., x73 ft., in which are located soaking pits, a pow- 
erful blooming train and hydraulic crane for handling in- 
gots, etc; also structural mills, .'Bx'J3 in., located in the 
same building, which is &>ixM ft., having three wings 80 
ft. deep. In this building is also located a 10 in. train for 
rolling spring steel, rivet rods. etc. The two structural 
mills are devoted exclusively to rolling steel beams, chan- 
nels, angles, and tees. The Bessemer department is fully 
equipped with engine houses, boiler houses, mixing house, 
etc., and all appliances for economical handling of mate- 
In the open hearth department are the open hearth fur- 
naces; the plate train and finishing machinery are housed 
in the same building. This is OBT ft. long and is built en- 
tirely of iron and steel. The main building, containing 
the open hearth plant and the plate mill proper, is 501 ft. 
long and S6 ft. wide in the main span, with a 45 ft. lean to 
on each side. The inspecting and marking-out department 
is '373x43 ft., and the shearing department is l>7xs(; ft. 

The open hearth furnaces are eight in number; anew 
building is now nearly completed, however, which will 
contain eight more open hearth furnaces. This building is 
about 40Ox'2O() ft. The furnaces all use natural gas as a 
fuel, the stacks being placed at the back, and the checker 

work in the flues preheating the air. Charging is done 
from the general floor level. These furnaces are arranged 
in pairs, with casting pits between each pair. Ncs. 'J, 3 
and 4 are opposite Nos. 7, and 5, respectivel.v. Between 
the pairs of furnaces are the hydraulic ladle cranes, which 
are directly on the center line of thebuilding* and on either 
sideof the cranes are semi-circular pits, capable of taking 
four sets of moulds. Each pair of furnaces are attended 
at pits by two seven-ton and two 30-tou hydraulic cranes, 
which command the furnace itself^ the casting and ladle 
pits, and the narrow gauge tracks over which the ingot 
moulds are removed and the product of the furnace is car- 
ried to the mill. 

At one end of the open-hearth department is a small 
steel foundry, with core-room, etc., where special steel 
castings for use at the works are made. The capacity of 
the open-hearth plant amounts to 7,500 tons of ingots per 
month. This output will be doubled when the new plant, 
above referred to, is completed. 

The slabbing mill building is of steel and iron, 300 ft. 
long and I'iO ft. wide, with a 35 ft. lean to for boilers. 
Eight heating furnaces with vertical pits li ft. in diameter 
and 7 ft. deep, with circular covers, are arranged in pairs 
in the northern end of the building. Two 35 ton hydraulic 
cranes, swung by rack and pinion, and titled with a sim- 
ple hydraulic tackle for gripping ingots, charge and draw 
these furnaces. 

The slabbing train itself is a universal mill. The ver- 
tical rolls are of steel *J0 in. in diameter, and are driven .50 
revolutions per minute, by a pair of 30x.>4 in. reversing 
engines, running lOU revolutions per minute. And the hori- 
zontal rolls are 33 in. in diameter, and are driven by a pair 
of 40x.t4 reversing engines. This train has already dealt 
with 4SX48 ingots, weighing 3S,00U lbs., and is capable of 
taking a '25 ton ingot, 48x54 in., and rolling to a section 11x3 
inches. Tables carry the ingot from the roll train to the 
shear. Tables on both sides of the rolls are run by a pair 
of upright 10x13 in. reversing engines, and the shear table 
by a pair of horizontal SxlO reversing engines. The shear 
power is hydraulic and operated by the descent of the up- 
per knife, with a pressure of 4,000 lbs. per square inch 
(given by two pressure pumps, with 05 in. steam cylinder, 
10 in. water cylinder, and 8 ft. stroke) ; the shear develops 
somewhat over 3,000 tons power, and is capable of shear- 
ing a 48x'24 in. section. A general pressure throughout the 

inch is supplied by two duplex 

the "lean to" are six batteries of four each, of boil- 
ers 44J-2 in. diameter, and 36 ft. in. long, supplying the 
steam pressure of 130 lbs. 

Besides the two cranes for handling ingots at the pits, 
there are in the mill two 16-ton and seven 5 ton slab cranes. 

Aside from the ponderous machinery of the roll-train, 
and the great power and simplicity of design of the hy- 
draulic shear, what is particularly striking about the mill 
is its admirable arrangement and the shipping facilities 
and the very small number of men required to run it. All 

slabs from thii 

to the plate mil 

The capacity of the slabbing mill is 10,000 tons per month 

Ingots were formerly roughed rolled and finished in the 
plate mill, but are now roughed in the universal mill, to 
slabs, which are brought by small cars directly to the fur- 
naces of the plate miU. Three heating furnaces, 25 ft. by 
6 ft. V in., are located on each side of the plate mill, charg- 
ing, and drawing being done by special hydraulic cranes, 
controlled ^y one man who is carried about on a seat sus- 
pended from the jib. Re-heated slabs are placed by these 
cranes on a table of live rollers, which carry them to the 
mill. The mill is three-high, the top and bottom rolls 
being 119 in. long and 32 in. in diameter, and the middle 
roll 119 in. long and 32 in. in diameter, making 50 revolu- 
tions per minute. A 42x54 horizontal engine drives the 
roll train, and screwing down is done by means of a small 
vertical engine, friction clutches and worm gearing. From 
the rolls the finished plates come slowly down a roller table 
363 ft. long and 5 ft. Ij'i in. wide, driven by a line shaft and 
bevel gearing. An overhead traveling crane runs the full 
length of the table, so that the plate can be removed at any 
point, turned over for the inspector, or shifted to any part 
of the table or floor as may be desired. On this the plates 
are allowed to cool, air having free access below the rollers. 
The plates are inspected above and below, and stamped as 
to quality, dimensions, etc., and carefully laid out for 
shearing. The inspector examines the stamping and 
marks and stamps test pieces. From the table the plates 
are rolled on castors to the shears. The castors are small 
rolls, supported on vertical shafts which are held in holes 
in the floor. The shearing is done bv three shears, each 
with a knife 135 in. long, and tivo with 36 in. knives. 

The shipping department is supplied with 16 cranes, 
which place the plates directly on cars on switches of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad system. 

Steam power at 100 lbs. pressure is supplied by four bat- 
teries of four boilers each. Each boiler is 44 in. in diameter 
by 34 ft. 4in. long, with two 16 in. flues; draught being pro- 
vided by two wrought iron stacks 135 ft. high. Two duplex 
pumps feed the boilers, and two pressure pumps with an 18 
in. accumulator supply the hydraulic pressure of 500 lbs. 
per square inch. 

The plate mill has rolled plates from 3 in. thick, 115 in. 
wide down to % in. thick and 117 in. wide, and can handle 
plates as high as six tons in weight. Its capacity is 5,000 
net tons per month. 

In connection with the plate mill is a special set of rolls 
for bending plates and beams, capable of bending the lar- 
gest plate that can be rolled in the mill. This department 
is completely equipped with testing ai>paratus, etc. A very 
complete chemical laboratory and machine and blacksmith 
apartments are also attached to these works. 

The yard service of the works includes three standard 
gauge engines and six narrow gauge engines of various 
sizes. There are nine miles of railroad track in the works. 
In addition to a number of band and hydraulic cranes in 
the various shipping departments there are four 10,000 lb. 
and two 5,000 lb. Yale & Towne locomotive cranes. 

The works are in charge of a general superintendent. 
Each mill or department has its particular superintendent, 
under whom, in turn, are his various clerks and foremen. 
The mills are run night and day. 

The yearly pay rolls amount to, ap|)roximat«ly, f2.000,000, 
the number of men employed being 3,.500. 

Changes for the Uonth of March, 1890. 

Ancohtes, Spokane & E.*s- 
Northern.)— L. C. Roberts to t 
intendent of construction. 

AtciHsox, Tofeka A Saxta Fe.— C. W. Costello to be 
superintendent of Kansas City division, at Ft. Worth, la., 
vice C. L. Nichols, resigned. 

Atlanta & Floiuda.— Cecil (Jabbett resigned as gen- 
"^ I be general superinten- 

Tnomas Garrett 1 


Co A 


> be general i 

Sol. Haas resigned 

made traffic commissioner Associated Roads 

Bai.timuke & Oiiia.— F. S. Gannon 
ger Philadel|)hia & New York branch. 

B Ai.TiMdiiE & Ohio Soitiiwestekn.— Edward Evans to 
be division master mechanic. 

Canadian Pacific— Thos. Tait to be general superin 
tendent Ontario & Atlantic division, vice T. A. Mcliinnon 
appointed master of transportation of entire system. 

H. R. Dill to be superintendent 

ce Levi Hege, resigned ; J. H. 

stem, vice J. M. Phillips, 

■-'---of receipts, ' ~ 

of main stem dii 

Store.v to be trainmaster : 

resigned; M. S. Freeman, t 

E. Mims, resigned; C. F. Thomas to be master mbclianic,' 

at Macon, Ga., vice D. M. Gugel. 

" & Onio.— F. I. Cabell to be engineer main- 

T. C. Eggleston, resigned, and office of 

"""'3 to be superintendent 

Dill resigned; W. P. 

manager; J. C. Loomis, 

, resigned. 

tenance of \ 
assistant abolished; 
Huntington division, vice H. R 
Walker, Jr., to be freight traffic 
superintendent Cincinnati divisio: 

Chic.ioo, Milwaukee & St. Pai-l.- J. M. Lowry, con- 
sulting engineer mechanical department, deceased. G. T. 
Hartigan to be superintendent Dubuque division, viceC 
A Goodnow transferred to Council Bluffs division to suc- 
ceed R. N. Cambpell, resigned. 

CnicAoo, St. Pal-l & Kansas Citv.— J. I. Banks to be 
superintendent bridges and buildings, vice C. H. Egeers 

CuicAGO, St. Louis & PiTTsniuon.— C. M. Bennett to 
be superintendent western division, vice Chas. Watts, 
promoted; F. G. Darlington to be superintendent eaatern 
division, vice Bennett, transferred, W. B. Leeds to succeed 
Henry L. Miller as superintendent southern division. 

CiNciNN.vTi & M0SK1NGU.M Vallet.— C. H. Walton to 
be superintendent vice F. G. Darlington transferred. 

Cincinnati, Sanduskv & Clevel.vnd.— President John 
S. Parlow, deceased. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, CnicAOO & St. Locis.— J. A. 
Barnard to be assistant general manager, at Indianapolis; 
E. A. Peck to be general superintendent, at Indianapolis; 
office of assistant general superintendent abolished; W. F. 
Turrefl, superintendent motive power, to have headquar- 
ters at Indianapolis; C. J. Stedwell, superintendent Cincin- 
nati and Cleveland divisions, to have headquarters at 
Cleveland. T. H. Noonan to be assistant general freight 
agent, at Chicago, in charge of east-bound business; Ed- 
ward S. Washburn to be freight tnifflc maiiat'or; Ohio, In- 
diana »& Western R. to be Peoria A . I- .11 A (, \v,'iis to 
be superintendent, at Indiaiiaii - 1 1: \ . .unes & 
Chicago road to be Cairo divisi"!. .1 , 1,, be as- 

sistant general freight and pa-- ._ , ii.irge of 

Cairo division; Ford Woods to hi i-s- ,, 1: _. 1,. !,,i freight 
agent and H. M. Bronson assistant gcni-ral passenger 
agent Peoria division. 

Denver & Rio Grande.— A. P. Sells to be assistant gen- 
eral freight agent, vice C. F. Zimmerman, resigned ; Alex. 
Struthers to be master mechanic in charge of machinery 
and car department at Grand Junction, Col. ; B. H. De 
Remer to be master mechanic second division, at Lead- 
viUe, vice A. Struthers. transferred. 

DuLcrn & Iron Range.— Geo. C. Kimball to be vice 
s, Mich. 
iinuRG.— J. W. Richards to be auditt 
, vice J. D. Giaque, resigned. 
uoA SocTUERN.- J. R. Parrott appointed receiver. 
1 Central.— A. F. Banks, general freight agent, to 
Be manager; R. A. Dugan to be purchasing agent, 
alltown, Iowa. 

-"NviLi.E, Tampa & Ki:y West.— Superintendent J. 
M '1 I ' -.1 ij' i (1 I' II .. ■[ position assumed by C O. 


freight i 

W. F. Black, 
Xohthwestern.- Newl 
al manager, appointed 

JNTUCKV Union.— J. T. Harahan to be general manager ; 
Hegc to lie general superintendent. 
.11- iiii Nii> I iiiLEANs & Te.xas.— G. D. Lawrence 
- ' ' ' nt New Orleans division, vice A. A. 

-C. J. Ranahan appointed master 

MAMnrrvN Ki.evated.— John Waterhousc to bo chief 
ciiu-i ■ ■ ■ 1; [ ■^loan, resigned. 

-M ' i. ! Kr Dodge. — General Roadmaster J. W. 

.M. .\l 

-Ml • -■■ : M —E. V. Sedgwick to be master me- 

<-li.u,,. . ,1; ,-^.ia l„..,-,rotosi. 

Ml :\i' i\ I'lNTKAL.- Jurisdiction of R.E. Comfort,super- 
intendcnt of fourth division, extended to Calera; J. J. Sul- 
livan to be trainmaster from Juarez to Chihuahua; Mr. 
Howell to be trainmaster from Chichuahua to Jimulco; S. 
R. Comfort to be trainmaster from Jimulco to Calera; E. 


I four mont 
MlcniGAX C'EXTRAL.— James Shields, roadmaster, de- 

MissorRi Palific— N. T. Spoor to be wood, tie and tim- 
ber agent, vice D. M. Wood, resisned. 

New YoiiK & New Exglaxd— Albert Griggs to be super- 
intendent of motive power, vice J. B. Henney. 

New Yokk & Nokthern. — W. D. Davies general freight 
aprent, resigned; L. M. Allen appointed assistant general 
freight agent. 

New York, Lake Erie & Western-.— H. Foster to be 
supervisor of signals; C. W. Buchholz to be civil engineer; 
office of engineer of bridges and buildings abolished ; W. 
J. Murphy, general superintendent, resigned. 

New York, New Havex & HiKTFORi).— Lucius Tuttle to 
be general manager; J. S.Lane, roadmaster Hartford di- 
vision, resigned. 

New York, Suscjiehaxxa & Westerx.— John P. Rafler- 
ty, secretary and treasurer, elected vice president. 

New York, Oxtario & Westerx.— J. M. Ludington to 
be assistant superintendent. 

New York, Providence & BosTOX.-A. Griggs, master 
mechanic Worcester division, resigned ; jurisdiction of L. 
M. Butler extended over entire line. 

New Me.\ho & Arizona axd Soxora.^T. A. Naugle to 
be general freight and passenger agent, vice B. H. Wil- 
kins, resigned. 

Northern Pacific— J. A. Nadeau assistant superin- 
tendent Pacific division, to be general agent at Seattle, 
vice T. H. Tyndale, resigned, in addition to other duties. 

Oregox Railway & Navigatiox Co.— John Hewitt to be 
master mechanic, vice J. Evans, resigned. 

Peobia, Decatur & Evaxsville.— R. B. Starbuck to be 

Pexxstlvania, PorGHKEEPSiE& Boston.- H. H. Kings- 
ton to be general maaager, vice S. C. Stanton, resigned; 
George Gage to be master mechanic; C. E. Mack to be 
general freight and passenger agent, vice E. J. Fallon, re- 
signed; general offices of company removed to 411 Walnut 
street, Philadelphia. 

Philaiieli'hia & Readixg.— C. J. McDougall to be as- 
sistant to general superintendent. 

PlTTsm-KGli, Fort Watxe & CniCAGO.— C. E. Walton to 
be trainmaster western division, vice C. H. Walton, pro- 
moted; G. A. Franks to be chief train dispatcher, at Fort 

PiTTsiiiRGH & Lake Erie.— Elliott Holbrook, general 
superintendent and chief engineer, resigned. 

PoRTL.KXO & WiLLiAMETTE— Rlchard Koehlor 
to be general manager, Portland, Ore. 

SouTHERX Pacific— D. Hawley to be assistant general 
traffic manager, at New York City. 

RicnMoxD & Daxville.— W. H. Green, general superin- 
tendent, to be assistant general manager. 

St. Loris, Arkansas & Texas.— W. T. Smetten to be di- 
vision superintendent vice T. W. Kennon, resigned. 

St. Loils & Sax Francisco.— John O'Da.v, vice presi- 
dent and general counsel, resigned; E. P. Vining to be as- 
sistant general manager, in charge of traffic. 

Sax Frascisco & North Pacific— J. F. Bergin to be 
president, vice James Mervyn Donahue, deceased. 

Toledo, St. Locis & Kansas City.- S. W. Merrill to be 
roadmaster St. Louis division, vice C. L Miller, resigned. 

Uxiox Pacific— R. Baxter, assistant superintendent 
Wyoming division, to be superintendent of division, vice 
W. L. Ryder appointed superintendent of Idaho division ; 
F. L. Corwin to be assistant superintendent Wyoming di- 

s'D. — John S. Harden, 

-Warren G. Elliott elected 

Hlgll Approval. 

Messrs. Riehle Bros. ; 

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is giving the best of satisfaction. Werecently had it tested 
and found it correct. Yours truly, 
Hexrt Disstoxs & Sons, (Incorporated). 


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Tickets on sale everywhere, and see that they read C. H. 
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Track— Trackmen an'l Sidings— stations— suops 
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WALTER D. CROSMAN, Manager Editon;.! Department. 
EDWIN N. LEWIS, Manager Business Department. 


Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, equipment 
and macltinerj". Communications on any topics suitable to these 
colnmns are solicited. 

Prlorlo January 1, 1886, this journal was known as The Rail- 
way Purchasing Agent. It will still in its newand wider field be 
adapted to the especial wants of all who purchase or infiuence 
the purchase of railway supplies. 

8ul)8cription price, $l'f"Oa year. AdTcrtising rates and details 
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The Honkeiy, Cliioajfo, III. 

New York 'Office: 45 Broadway. Bourn 148. 
The Offlctal Kailicav LM is puhttBhed by IhU company. 


CHICAGO, MAY, 1890. |No. 5. 

Thk nnuouiicement given in auother column 
that the master mechanic's convention is to be 
lielil at Old Point Comfort, Va., whtre the master 
car builders had already decided to hold their con- 
vention, will be, we are sure, welcomed by a large 
majority of our readers. There is every reason 
why these conventions should be held at the same 
point, and while the time may not yet be rine for 
liolding them simultaneously, with different sec- 
tions, or chapters holding their sessions in differ- 
ent halls at the same time, yet until this concentra- 
tion of work can be obtained, it is to the interest of 
both conventions that they meet at the same place. 
The supei-iuteudeucy or actual control of both the 
car and locomotive departments is coming to be 
vested so generally in the hands of one individual, 
that it is a burden to him to be compelled to at- 
leiiu botn conventions when they are held at re- 
mote points, as it seemed they would be this year 
up to the time it was definitely settled that the 
master mechanics would not go to Chattanooga. 

We hear a gocd deal of growling and some 
profanity among master mechanics and master 
car builders about the frequency with which cer- 
tiiin railway papers are asking for their opinions 
about this, that and the other matter, by "circular 
letters " with from one to half a dozen questions. 
Some of the more plain spoken of these officials des- 
ignate these repeated requests for answers to inter- 
rogatories as "infernal impudence," 'We must say 
that some of these letters of inquiry come pretty 
near being cheeky. They seem a good deal like 
hysterical elutcbings after notoriety. Railway 
officers, as a rule, are good uatured and dislike to 
refuse such requests, but there is a limit to their 
good nature, and a frequent repetition of these 
calls make them tired. If this business of asking 
everybody to send in his experiences, practices 
and opinions for publication continues to increase 
as it has done during the past few months we 
may, ere long, have the questions "Where, in 
your opinion, was Moses when the light went out " 
and "How's your liver" propounded to all th- 
it and shining lights of the railway world. 
" Master Mechanic would, of course, 

ditiou of train men. He has ridden this hobby 
with all the energy that lies within him, and has 
-j very probably made some enemies in so doing, but 
; he has done his work disinterestedly, and in his 
agitation of the questions relating to car coupling, 
S car braking, and the giving of train men rest on 
j the Sabbath day, he has always been consistently 
j in the right. We made brief mention last mouth 
j of the fact that this law had been passed and gave 
[ a short outline of its teiTus. We now give the law 
in full, not that we approve of state legislation on 
this subject, for our readers are well aware that we 
prefer action from the national legislature, but be- 
cause we wish to place before our readers the 
words of a law which we consider to be very fairly 
drawn in the interest of both the train men and 
those who employ them. 

In another column will be found a letter from 
Mr. F. W. Dean, in which he informs us that the 
compound locomotive now being designed by him 
for the Old Colony Railroad will work as a com- 
pound at all times, except just at the moment of 
starting, and the change from the compound to 
uon-comjjound, and vice versa at that time, will 
be entirely automatic. This is, in our opinion, 
just as it should be. The locomotive should not 
have another handle or lever, to be operated by 
the engineer if it is possible to avoid it; and then 
again, if the compound locomotive is designed so 
that when the maximum power is developed in the 
high pressure cylinder, a corresponding amountof 
work can be obtained out of the low pressure cyl- 
inder, it will be found that the total cylinder pow- 
er of the engine will be as well adapted for all the 
varying amount of work which the engine is called 
upon to do, as is the common locomotive to-day. 
The necessary maximum cylindtr power can be 
obtained without working the engine as a non- 
compound, except for the one revolution at the 
time of starting, .\nother advantage also presents 
itself in making the intercepting valve automatic, 
and that lies in the fact that the benefit of com- 
pounding will be obtained at all times, and there 
is no possibility of the engine being improperly 
handled in this respect, so that, in every way con- 
sidered, the automatic arrangement is to be pre- 
ferred if it does not involve too great complica- 

dent, spoke very earnestly^upon the field of work 
which the association had before it or which it 
should seek. We give a portion of Mr. Haines' re- 
marks in this issue, and refer to them here for the 
purpose of directing attention particularly to his 
propositions as to the relations that should exist 
between the Time Convention and the mechanical 
associations. Mr. Haines' idea appears to be, 
briefly stated, that the mechanical associations 
having passed upon the mechanical merits of 
methods or appliances the General Time Conven- 
tion should be charged with the duty of ensuring 
the adoption of methods or appliances, after 
approval, of course. 

There is certainly something of this kind need- 
ed. Take the case of couplers and brakes, for in- 
stance. The Master Car Builders' Association has 
done its work — investigated the problems connect- 
ed with these two appliances and agreed upon the 
principles that should be observed in their con- 
struction; but ihat is as far as they can go, de- 
spite the representative membership principle now 
embodied in the M. C. li. organization, and which 
is interpreted by some as meaning obligatory 
adoption of agreed-upon standards.l lAn associa- 
tion of general managers, like the General Time 
Convention, could wiih eminent propriety take up 
such a case, where left by the M, C. li. Associa- 
tion, and, considering the latter association's con- 
clusions as settling it in its mechanical aspect, 
proceed to a consideration of the question as to 
whether the value of such devices warrants the 
expense attendant upon their adoption, A live, 
active association of managers engaged on such 
problems could gieatly advance railway mechani- 
cal practice and hasten the adoption of approved 
standards of practice and construction. 

Mr. Haines' suggestions on the question of disci- 
pline in railway service are timely, and thoroughly 
sound. They are so well worded that we here simply 
direct attention to them.commeuding them especial- 
ly to the employes, who we are sure will, upon care- 
ful reflection, agree with Mr, Haines that the par- 
allel drawn between railway service and army ser- 
vice is truthful, and that discipline is essential n.jt 
only to the prosperity of the company and to the 
safety of the traveling public, but also to the well 
being and safety of the employe. 


like to know what everybody thinks about every- 
thing, but it does not propose to make a permanent 
interrogation point and nuisance of itself in trying 
to find out. 

Legislation on the subject of couplers, brakes, 
etc., appears to bo inevitable. Such legislation, to 
be effective; should, we most (irmly believe, come 
through (he national legislature. But unless some- 
thing is done in congress this session we may ex- 
pect some of the state legislatures to take action 
themselves. If all the states that may take such 
action frame their laws on the lines followed by 
the act recently passed in Iowa, little harm may 
be feared from such. We may say here that the 
act W.1S put through the Iowa legislature through 
the active work of ex-railroad commissioner L. S. 
Coffin, of that state. As many of our readers know 
Mr. Coffin's hobby is the amelioration of the con- 

What the outcome of the present veiT general 
"eight hour movement" maybe, it is impossible 
to foretell at this writing, butappearances indicate 
that in no great while a considerable percentage 
of those who work for day wages will work eight 
hours instead of ten. To reduce production by 
one-fifth is a questionable measure, and may lead 
to results entirely unsuspected by the theorists 
who are the leaders in the movement. If there is 
to be no falling off in the total amount produced 
by " days' works," there must be more laborers 
than there are now, or else the present number j 
must work harder while they work than they do at i 
present. If, however, the total of production 
decreases, then we shall none of us be as well off 
as we are now. Of course, if working eight hours 
makes men more intelligent and skillful in their 
I work than they were under the ten hour system, 
then the world may grow richer instead of poorer 
[ with a day of eight hours. This, however, is as 
I yet purely a matter of tbeorj-. Certainly no one 
knows that it will be so. 

Meanwhile the young men who will be the em- 
ployers and " bosses " of ten or fifteen years hence 
are not making any fuss about their hours of work. 
They are doing the work that is given them to do 
I as thoroughly as they can. .\ good many of them 
' are working evenings without extra "pay. No 
doubt too, many of them are over-working, 
and are not paid as much as they earn ; but 
it is from these that the "bosses" will be 
selected as lime rolls on, and, sooner or later they 
will march at the head of the procession. 
Nevertheles.s, the employer, whether individual, 
firm or corporation, which permits willing and 
faithful men to work extra hours without extra 
pay, is guilty of what is very much like stealing. 

In an address made before the General Time 
Convention, in April, Mr. H. S. Haines, its presi- 

Over the name of "Investigator" a correspond- 
ent criticises the remarks on locomotive chimneys 
made in the March number of the Master Me- 
chanic by "Taghconic. " As to the question of 
chimneys made from one thickness of metal or 
with two thicknesses and an air space between 
them, we agree with "Taghconic" that the single 
barrel chimney is preferable. A single barrel of 
sufficient thickness and iinishedwith a ring at the 
top, which is one-half of a circle in its section, 
looks well, and does its work as well, we think, as 
a double chimney. The reduction in temperature 
of the gas by the atmosphere upon the outside of 
the barrel has but little effect upon the question of 
draught. Possibly a more serious effect might be 
found in the shape of the top of the chimney, and 
the effect of the wind upon the blast as it emerges 
into the atmosphere. The chimney finished with 
planished iron is easily dented, and then it looks 
badly. The cast iron top is heavy and its weight, 
nine times out of ten, comes on the truck where 
there is already more than is desirable. As we 
look at it, the single barrel chimney presents as 
handsome an appearance, does its work fully as 
well, weighs less and costs less than the double 
barrel chimney, and is preferable in every way. 

As to the questions in regard to the areas of 
chimneys and upon what they should be based, we 
think that "Investigator'' makes some pertinent 
points, which show the fallacy of basing the area 
of a chimney upon the size of the exhaust nozzle. 
In addition to the questions that "Investigator" 
has asked on this subject, he might also, with 
equal propriety, ask if engines with an 18x24 cylin- 
der and a 3 J single nozzle should have a different 
diameter of smoke-stack from an engine of the 
same size with a i\ single nozzle, and, if so, why? 
At the same time, in propounding these questions 
in regard to chimney areas, one must bear in mind 
that it is a great deal easier to ask questions than 



May, 1890. 

it is to answer tbem; and that if there is any one 
question in locomotive design about which 
there is apt to be a difference of opinion it is that 
of exhaust nozzles and smoke-stacks. We are 
also inclined to think that, from the arguments 
which have been made in the past and which are 
being made to-day, one could find sufficient sup- 
port for almost any statement that he wished to 
make. In regard to the relation between these 
two, if Taghconic can show good reasons for pro- 
portioning chimneys by the exhaust nozzle,we will 
be glad to give him the necessary space for them. 

CocNTEKBALANcrNo the rcciprocating parts of a 
locomotive is really such a simple problem that it 
seems as if the railway world should arrive at 
greater unanimity in regard to it. If we balance 
all the reciprocating weight there is a maximum 
of vertical disturbances. If we balance none of 
the reciprocating weight there is a maximum of 
the horizontal disturbances. There is no need of 
balancing all and having the maximum vertical 
disturbance, because a certain amount of horizontal 
force is permissible without resulting in unpleas- 
ant or dangerous nosing of the engine. There is 
no necessity of leaving the whole of the recipro- 
cating parts unbalanced and thereby obtaining the 
maximum horizontal disturbances, because the 
inertia of the wheel and thd strength of the rail 
will permit a certain amount of vertical disturb- 
ance. Consequently it is not correct to balance all 
or to balance none of those parts. Just what per- 
centage of weight it is best to balance can readily 
be determined from practice and the figure when 
once known is good for aU classes of engines de- 
signed for general work. Flat spots on the drivers 
may result from slipping due to two principal 
causes, namely, variation in the rotative effect of 
the cylinders, and counterbalance. The former 
may have considerable effect on the tires when 
engines are over-cj-lindered, but in modern en- 
gines it cuts a small figure. On the other band 
the counterbalance on recently built engines is the 
cause of much of this trouble, especially when all 
or nearly all of the reciprocating parts are balanced, 
for the latter are very heavy. This gives another 
good reason for not balancing all of the recipro- 
cating weight and also shows how erroneous has 
been the tendency to heavy reciprocating parts 
such as are to be seen in many engines built in 
the last five years. The foregoing is the counter- 
balance problem briefly stated. Steam pressure, 
compression, friction, etc., have nothing to do 
with it and when viewed in its simplicity the prob- 
lem does not appear diflicult to solve. To those 
who are at sea in regard to it, we recommend that 
they reason on the lines indicated above, and then 
experiment a little and we think they will be more 
than pleased with the results. 

Tbe rather interesting inquiry into the "life 
of steam" in the locomotive boiler and its relation 
to locomotive designing, in the thesis of which 
an abstract will be found in another column, is 
woithy of some comment. We can hardly agree 
with the proposition that the steam space should 
be taken as the basis from which to start. If one 
■was not limited in any direction when designing, 
it might be possible to start from such a theoret- 
ical bafis. In practice, however, the point from 
which one must start is the power to be developed 
by the engine, and the service in which it is to be 
run. This seems to be the most rational starting 
point, and from it we must determine wheel diam- 
eters and cylinder dimensions, and the weight 
upon the drivers. Having obtained that much of 
our ensrinethe next question is to get a boiler large 
enough to do the work, and in designing this 
boiler it must have the proper and the right kind 
of heating surface, and should, most assuredly, 
have a good steam space. The proporions of the 
boiler are, however, limited by the weight which 
is allowable and by the general dimensions of the | 
engine, from which it is impossible to vary 
greatly. i 

The proper life of steam, that is, the time which 
elapses from the moment it is formed until it 
passes through the cylinders, has lieen obtained I 

by the author of the thesis from data in regard to 
the best and most successful engines which have 
been designed in the manner which we have out- 
hned above. The points brought out in the con- 
sideration of the life of steam are valuable and 
worthy of attention when designing a locomotive. 
There can be no question but that many boilers 
have an insufficient steam space, or have it so 
placed as to result in very wet steam being sent to 
the cylinders. Such construction is not conducive 
to economy, and when designing a locomotive 
boiler just as great efforts should be made toward 
getting a good large steam space as are now made 
in getting what is considered sufficient beating 
surface; understanding, however, that at all times 
this matter must of necessity be limited by the 
general dimensions of the engine. 

Too much cannot be said in favor of the consid- 
eration of such practical subjects by students of 
engineering, and tbe particular way in which this 
subject was handled by an under graduate is very 
creditable to himself and to the university in which 
he was studying. Practical subjects considered in 
a practical and scientific manner, give to the young 
men of such universities a training and prepara- 
tion for active work after they graduate, which 
can be obtained in no other way, and which are 
worth years of shop experience. 


The term "throttling" an engine generally has 
reference to the improper use of steam by run- 
ning with the throttle partly open, thus preventing 
the steam from having a free access to the cylin- 
ders. Good practice consists in running with the 
throttle as wide open as possible, furnishing 
steam to the cyUnders at nearly the boiler pres- 
sure and regulating the working of the engine by 
the reverse lever. To this end we see master me- 
chanics spending much time and effort that their 
men may handle their machines properly. 

There are other ways, however, by which an 
engine may be said to be "throttled" aside from 
the voliiion of the eng'ueer. We often see engines 
which were designed to e.xemplify the best practice 
and to do the best work, yet which, from some in- 
herent defect, fail of doing what they should and, 
in consequence, are not economical in operation. 
We were reminded of this fact lately in looking at 
indicator diagrams taken of various engines on 
the same road but with different front end arrange- 
ments. Through the interference of the exhausts 
in one or more of the constructions the back pres- 
sure line when working hard went above ten 
pounds, while upon an engine with a freer outlet 
it was reduced to almost nothing. Without this 
test the engme showing a loss at part of the stroke 
of about ten per cent, of its total power might 
have been in continued use with every confidence 
ill its efficiency by its designer. This engine, how- 
ever, was "throttled." 

Jn another case when an engine did not seem to 
give the free action of steam in the cylinder tbat 
the size of the steam passages and pipes would 
warrant, the c.xuse was hunted for some time be- 
fore the difficulty could be located. This was 
finally found to be due to a bridge across the 
opening of the steam pipe at the throttle valve, 
thus preventing the free passage of the steam and 
inducing wire drawing in the cylinder. The same 
harmful result has been caused in the castings 
of the cylinders through improper moulding, wlien 
provision was made in the original drawing for 
ample passages. The engines in both of these 
cases were "throttled." 

Imperfect valve motion has its disadvantages in 
this line which, however, we will not dwell upon 
here in detail as the subject has often been aired 
in technical journals. 

In the fire box part of the boiler we sometimes 
find troubles of this general character. The loss 
through too small a fire box as compared with the 
boiler area is not a trouble that exists in the pres- 
ent day as much as in times past, the tendency 
sometimes even being towards too much grate 
area. We find, however, that sometimes atten- 
tion enough is not paid to the amount of openings 
either through or over tbe grates for a free air ad- 

, and imperfect combustion is the result, 
thus again "throttling" the engine. Going to the 
other tnd of the boiler we often find that in order 
to force a draft through the inadequate air spaces 
in or above the grates the exhaust nozzles are con- 
tracted, thus sbai-pening the blast, increasing the 
back pressure, and impairing the efficiency of the 
engine. In days past, rather than at the present, 
the various cumbersome and complicated arrange- 
ments of cone and nettings to avoid the throwing 
of fire caused by the sharp blast to which we have 
referred, still further obstructed the free egress of 
the exhaust and further induced the "throttling" 
of which we are speaking. 

In short the chances of losses of this general 
character are numerous and it is necessary to 
check off by every means available the actual 
working of the engine as compared with what a 
machine of the style in question should do theore- 
tically. We do' not pretend to have "given all the 
harmful methods by which the action of an engine 
maybe "throttled" but the examples quoted will 
serve as an index to some extent of tbe evils 
which exist in this line. 

A few words concernmg tbe perennial subject 
of valve gear need no apology, for that topic, al- 
ways a live one for discussion, is more than usually 
so at this writing in view of the approaching con- 
vention and the expected report of tbe committte 
appointed to consider the efficiency of the link 

Broadly speaking the chief ends sought in de- 
signing any valve gear are, (1) a port opening suf- 
ficiently large to give entrance to steam of boiler ■ 
pressure to the cylinder during the whole period 
of admission; (2) a sharp cut-off at the end of 
that period, and (3), a perfectly free exhaust. 
How nearly the ordinary shifting link motion 
comes to possessing these desirable features is one 
of those vexed questions of mechanical engineer- 
ing, that wiU, in all probabihty, never be brought 
to a conclusion while steam maintains its present 
supreme position as tbe medium through which 
heat is converted into work. Weighing all things, 
first cofjt, simplicity, cost of maintenance, etc., we 
consider the link gear to have points of superiority 
over any other so far constructed that will ensure 
its use on the great majority of locomotives to be 
built in years to come. We should, however, he 
the last to advocate the doctrine of lai.sse: fain' in 
this connection, and besides being open to cim- 
viction as to the merits of any device calculated 
to perform the required functions in a manner bit- 
ter than the link, we sliall always stand ready to 
lay before our readers descriptions and engravings 
of any gears whose design appears to warrant it. 

The opponents of the link motion always begin 
by finding fault with it for wire drawing the steam 
at short points of cut-off. There is undoubtedly 
truth in this, but liardly so much as some persons 
believe, and we think that badly shaped and con- 
tracted steam pipes and passages have far more to 
answer for in this direction than the valve gear. 
Until approximately perfect proportions are given 
to the parts mentioned, it seems undesirable to in- 
crease the travel of the valves and the width of 
the ports (popular expedients at tbe present time), 
because the longer the valve travel, the greater 
the power that must be expended to operate it will 
be. The Allen valve with its supplementary port 
has done good service in overcoming the trouble 
of wire drawing in fast running engines, and its 
use might, with advantage, be more extended 
than it is. 

With regard to the evil of excessive compies- 
sion, of which much is made, we need here 
only refer our readers to The Railway 
Master Mechanic for April, 1889, where we 
discussed tbe question at some lengih, showing 
that in inside clearance we have, if not a com- 
plete remedy, at least one that will reduce com- 
pression to a point where it cannot be character- 

" as excessive. We commend a careful study 
of the effects of inside clearance to all who are 
striving to improve the dislributiou of steam iu 
express engines. 


Ill no other part of a locomotive's make up does 
attention to detail require to be more tliorougli 
than in the valve gear. Large wearing surfaces 
with ample provision for lubrication are essential 
to really successful working; the links themselves ! 
should be wide and heavy enough not to spring, 
v.hile the most efficient ]ioiut of suspension should 
be accurately determined. As a general thing the j 
distance between the eccentric rod bolts in the 
back of the link is made shorter than is consistent 
with fine adjustment of the point of cutoff. A 
good dimension for this is 2k times the throw of 
the eccentric, in cases where the link or die block 
comes in line with the center of the bolt when in 
full gear. For instance, with a 5 in. throw eccen- 
tric the bolts should be 12} in. apart. 

Of course there are instances where a short link 
is necessary on account of close quarters, but, in [ 
most cases there is nothing to hinder liberal pro- 
portions. The length of the eccentric rods is not 
a matter of very great moment, although it is good 
practice to make them as long as possible so that 
the lead at short points of cut-off may not become 
too great, but we have always held that there is not 
enough benefit to be derived from long rods to 
make up for the disadvantages that they often- 
times carry with them in the shape of spring and 
vibration. A good example of an excellent valve 
motion with very short eccentric rods is that on 
the 10-wheelers built some few years ago by the 
Baldwin works for the Missouri Pacific. In these 
engines the eccentrics were on the front axle and 
the rods, to the best of our recollection, were not 
over 40 in. long if they were that. We do not ad- 
vocate going to such an extreme as this, nor do 
we think that the motion would have been other- 
wise than improved by lengthening the lods, but 
merely cite it as an illustration of what has been 
done without bad results. 

Fine graduations of the reversing lever quadrant 
should be employed on all engines, with the ex- 
ception of those used for switching, where nice ad- 
justments are not essential, and the lever itself 
should be as long as conveniently possible in or- 
der to lighten the labor of the engineer in hand- 
liig his engine. A straight, plain end, without 
any handle projecting at right angles at the top is 
easier to manipulate than any other kind, especi- 
ally if there is room for a good hand grasp above 
the latch. 


As many of our readers are aware from the infor- 
mation which has appeared in these columns, the 
Baldwin Locomotive works placed a four cylinder 
compound locomotive on the Baltimore & Ohio rail- 
road last November. This engine has two high and 
two low pressure cylinders, the high pressure cylin- 
der being placed above the low pressure cylinder, 
the pistons of the two being attached to the same 
cross-head. The steam is distributed by a single 
piston valve for each two cylinders. The engine is 
of the eight-wheel type, and, in all respects, except 
those special features due to compounding, it is a du- 
plicate of other engines running on the same road. 

Through the courtesy of the builders we are 
enabled to publish the accompanying illustrations of 
the special features of this engine. Pig. 1 is a cross 
section through the two cylinders, piston valve 
chamber, and halt saddle. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal 
section through the two cylinders. Fig. 3 is a sec- 
tion through the piston valve chambei', andthe low 
pressure cylinder, while Fig. 4 is a partial section 
through the piston valve chamber and the high 
pressure cylinder. F'ig. 5 is a small sketch which 

claim that the engine is freer 


from the Brick 

The committee on brick arches in locomotive fire 
boxes requests answers to following questions: 
1st. How do you support the bricic arch in your fire 

•id. if with "circulation pipes," do you have trouble with 
the pipes in any way t 

;td. If with lugs or projections screwed to side sheets, do 
you find the luRs burn off very fast! 

4th. Do you use flat or arched bricks' 

.■■)th. Can you run an arch until it burns out, or do you 
have to remove them before this, in order to clear flues; 

tith. Do you find the arch causes damage to fire box 
sheets! If so. in what way! 

7th. Do ycu think the arch assists in consuming the vari- 
ous gases composing black smoke! 

Sth. Do you think more perfect combustion is obuined 
with the arch by checking the passage of smoke and gases 
through tubes and causing them to mingle and be longer 
exposed to heat! 

nth. Do .you think there is a saving of fuel with the arch 

than many other compounds. In starting the engine 
steam is admitted to the low pressure cylinder by 
connecting the adjacent ends of the high and low 
pressure cylinders together, and when steam enters 
the high pressure cylinder, it is wire drawn through 
this connection into the low pressure cylinder, fur- 
nishing steam to work upon both pistons. This 
arrangement is not automatic; it consists simply of 
small pipe connections between the two cylinders, 
closed by suitable cocks, which are operated from ■ 
the cab in much the same manner as the cylinder 
cocks are worked. 

The manner in which the pistons are connected to 
the cross-heads is shown in Fig. B. It will be seen 
that the cross-head works in a four bar guide, and is 
provided with a hub projecting above the guides 
and one projection below, each of which receives a 
piston rod end. The crosshead has been made some- 
what longer than usual, and the piston rods are es- 
pecially strong to provide against any inequality of 
the work done in the two cylinders. The piston 
valves are placed in such a convenient position in 
regard to the links that no rocker shaft is found 
necessary; instead the links are each attached to a 
sliding bar located close to the inner face of the 
frame, which has suitable bearings at each end, and 
by means of a short inclined arm projecting up from 
this bar, connection is made to the valve rod. The 
valve motion is wonderfully simple. In fact all the 
parts of the engine which pertains to compounding 
are compact and simple. Two of the cylinders are 
12 inches and the other two are 20 inches in diame- 
ter, and they occupy very little moi'e space than 

in connection with the extension front, 
short front and diamond stack! 

10th. Can you give any data confirming your opinion as 
lo saving of fuel ! 

llth. About what does it cost you to apply the arch and 
extension front! 

r3th. How do you consider the cost of maintaining the 
arch and extension front compares with keeping up the 
diamond stack, cone, netting, lining, etc.! 

13th. Do you consider that the arch and extension front 
greatly lessens the throwing of live or dangerous sparks, 
and also prevents much of the finer dirt, etc., thrown from 
stacks from striking cars in train '. 

14th. Do you find that flues stop up or clog with cinders, 
etc.. as easily when the arch is used as without it! 

l.ith. If you know of any points for or against the brick 
arch not covered by these questions, please name them. 

The committee desire to make as complete a report as 
possible. Members will please furnish any blue prints, 
sketches, or any daU they can relating to the subject. 

T. W. Gentry, master mechanic, 


T. W. Gf.stkv. 
Al.i.EX Cooke. 
L. C. Noiu.r., 
VV. A. Smith, 


shows the operation of the piston 
assist in understanding the path of the steam. From 
these drawings it will be seen that the steam enters 
the cylinder in the usual manner through the pas- 
sage A. From Figs. 1 and 3, it can be seen that this 
passage divides into two branches, each of which 
furnishes steam to one end of the piston valve cham- 
ber. This chamber is closed at its end in the same 
j way that a common cylinder is closed, and the steam 
leaves the valve chaniber and goes to the high pres- 
sure sylinder through the port B., (Figs. 3, 4 and -5). 
After accomplishing its work in the high pressure 
cylinder it returns to the valve and passes through its 
interior and goes to the low pressure cylinder 
through the port C. It returns again through the 
port and passes outside and around the valve and 
: through the exhaust D. It will be seen that the one 
) piston valve controls the steam distribution of both 
I cylinders, and the ports from it to each are fairly 
{ direct. The only questions which might naturally 
1 arise in the minds of the readers when studying this 
I construction, are in regard to the possibility of wire 
I drawing of the steam and a chance tor its condensa- 
■"• L -.^ - — - •■--• -• iigine gives 

Fig. 3. 
OHIO COMPOUND— B.M.i)« IX Locomotive Works. 
and will common 19 inch cylinders with their lii 
chests on top. 

From the specifications of the engine i 
the following particulars and dimensions: 

•ge steam 
e abstract 

tion. The builders assure us that the i 

able, whatev 

1 these respects. In fact they 


Class of eu^iie American type, > 

High pressure cylindei-s ttwo] h^jl^ui. 

Low pressure cylioders [two] 20x34 in. 

Driving wheels, diameter 66 in. 

Gauge of tnicli 4 ft. 8>4 in. 

Totafwheei base, engine'.'...'.".".'.'.'.".".'.'.".'..... r 21 ft. 10 in. 

Driving wheel base 7 ft. 6 in. 

Total wheel base, engine and tender 60 ft. 

Weight in working order 106.000 lbs. 

Weight on driving wbeeis 76.000 lbs. 

Weight of tender loaded 70.000 lbs. 

Material of Steel. 

Thickness of shell Win. 

Kivets S in. in diameter. 

Style of boiler Wagon top. 

Tubes '. '. '."Ch'arcoai'lron! No.'ii B. 'w. G. 

Number of tubes 251 

Diameterof tiit-e- Sin. 

Length of tiil.f- ... 11 ft. Win. 

Fire-box lOSxSt in. 

Thicknees <.f -i.ii - ;iii.l K.u k 5-16 in. 

Thickness of cm.uu ;^8 in. ii in. 

Water space, sides and back Sin. 

Water space, front 4 in. 

Staying of crown ohixU in. crown bars. 

in this issue we cannot place before our readers fig- 
ures in regard to the valve travel, the amount of 
outside lap aud inside lap and clearance. Without 
more complete data in regard to the diagrams it is 
almost impossible to di-aw any exact conclusions in 
regard to them. They are, however, very interest- 
ing, and will repay a careful study. 

This engine is now running on the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad, having been in both freight and pas- 
senger service since it left the shops. The builders 
have experimented with the engine continually, 
with the idea to develop and improve the engine as 
far as possible. They state that they are now in 
position to go ahead and make comparisons between 
this compound and the ordinary locomotive of the 
same class on the same road. The economy in actual 
practice, while not exactly actual, so far, has been so 
apparent that in these tests which are to be under- 
taken, the company expect that a saving of at least 

the single expansion engines with 19x24 in. cylinders. 
In fact, by a strange coincidence, the weight of the 
trucks was found to be exactly the same. The ar- 
rangement of guides and crossheads has been found 
very satisfactory thus far, there being no more 
wear than usual, and no heating or cutting of the 

In a thesis on " The Proportions of the Locomo- 
tive," written in 1889, by .1. V. Shaeter, a student in 
the University of Illinois, a chapter is devoted to the 
life of steam. By that expression is meant the time 
in seconds which the steam exists from the moment 
it leaves the surface of the water in the boiler until 
it passes out of the cylinders. The accompanying 
data we have prepared by condensing two tables, 




Piston rods Steel. 

Piston roil and ralve stem packing Metallic. 

•iuides Steel. 

Cross h(.-a.l~ Cast steel with brass gibs. 

Valvfni.ili.iii Shiftinglink. 

DriMii^' v^ III . 1-. 1 .11 I'll;.. HO inches in diameter. 

Til.-. I 11" 3I5V4 in. flanged. 

Tii<- I M I ■ A Sx"\2 in. plain. 

.\-xli- . Hammered iron. 

Juiinuil-. Sin. diam. by S'i. 

(.'uiiiKclM.w and pHniiiL-i rods Hammered iron. 


Wheels ".".".".".". . . ...'.'.' .'.'.'.'steel'ilred. 'wrought iron center! 

Diameterof wheels 30 in. 

Axle Joumiila .ixlOin. 


l-'i-amc Oak. 

'I rucks Four wheeled, center bearing. 

Truck wheels Steel tired, wrought iron centers. 

Tank capacity 3,500 gallons. 

In order that our readers may gain a correct idea 
of the general appearance of this engine we repro- 
duce from a photograph the accompanying illustra- 
tion, in which the engine is seen in perspective. So 
little departure has been made in the general ap- 
pearance of the engine that one would at first hardly 
notice that it was a compound. We also give a 
diagram of the engine (Fig. 7) and reproduce 
a number of cards which were taken from the 
engine. The accompanying table will give such in- 
formation regarding them as we have been able to 
obtain. The first four cards are purely theoreti- 
cal in character. These four were outlined and the 
engine designed upon this basis, the designers being 
confident that if the proportions employed were 
such as would give such diagrams in pi-actice the 
engine would be a success. Following these four are 
diagrams taken at various speeds and cut-offs, and 
from them our readers can obtain a fair idea of the 
steam distribution in this engine. We regret that 

25 per cent, of fuel will be made. It is expected that which the author presented in his thesis. The lifi 

little or no more repairs of the engine will be re- of steam is given in these tables in seconds, whe 

quired than on the ordinary locomotive. The weight the engine is running at a rate of -50 miles an hour 

of the truck of this engine is no greater than that of and cutting off so that each cylinder shall use i 



May, 1890. 



sey, and was built by the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works for fast passenger service. It is in many re- 
pocts identical with No. 13. 

No. 15 was built at the Hazleton shops of the Le- 
high Valley road in 18S7. 

No. 16 is the latest type of freight locomotive on 
the Chicago & Alton road. 

No. 17 is one of the "class H" passenger moguls of 
the Chicago, Burlington and & (^uincy Uailroad. 

In the tables which are introduced to give the 
principal dimensions of these locomotives, the steam 
space is computed upon the basis of 3 inches of water 
above the top of the crown sheet in ea^h case. In 
column 13 is given the diameter of the cylinders as 
computed by the muster mechanics' rule upon 
the basis of weights given in column -1. In columns 
U, 15 and 16, the author gives comparisons upon the 
basis of the relations existing between the diameters 
of the drivers, diameters of the cylinders, heating 
surface, grate area and steam space respectively. 
In his thesis, he says: 

" The power of the boiler and the furnace to meet 
the demands made upon them for steam, vary direct- 
ly as to diameter of drivers, the steam space, the 
grate area and the heating surface. It varies also 
inversely as to area of piston or as to square of di- 
ameter of cylinder. If then, we tal<e the relation 
between the diameter of the drivers and the square 
of the diameter of the cylindet-si^-' and multiply 

it by S. G and 77, respectively we have the three 

in which S is the steam space, G the grate area and 
Hi the heating surface. 

Substituting the proper value in these expressions 
we get the series of constants given in the columns 
14, 15 and 16, which afford a ready means of com- 
parison. The last column of the table is computed 
according to an English rule of thumb, allowing 2* 
sq. ft. of heating surface for each square inch of pis- 
ton area. It is introduced only as a matter of 




M. E. P. 













""70 5 






' "\m" 






10 •• 

Cards No. 1, 3. 3. 4 are fl 
;ngine was desiffoed. 

a. P. CjliDder, 12 in. di;i 

Starting heavy train. 

Train of 29 cars freight. 

• ideal curds from which 
III. I.. P. Cylinder 20 in. 

T kcnt 
Cards v 


ken from front 

t cut-off cards. 

much steam as will fill six inches of its length at 
each stroke. The author states that these results 
are comparative, and the relation between them 
would, of course, be the same for any speed or cut- 
off. The locomotives cited have been designed from 
the best practice in the country, and all have been 
reported as working satisfactorily by those having 
them in charge. From the thesis we abstract the 
following description of the engines whose dimen- 
sions are tabulated: 
No. 1 is a Baldwin engine which was exhibited at 

' running on 

the Chicago exhibition in 1883 and : 
the Northern Pacific. 

No. 2 is one of the class A engines on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy road. 

No. 3 is an engine built in 18.S6 by the Ma^n Ma- 
chine Works for heavy passenger service. 

No. 4 was built in the shops of the N. Y. C. & H. 
R. Ry. Co. in 1887 from designs of Mr. Buchanan. 

No. 5 is one of the three engines built in 1887 by 
the Schenectady Locomotive Works from designs of 
Mr. G. W. Stevens. They are now running express 
trains on the Lake Shoi^ & Michigan Southern Rail- 

No. 6 is an engine built at the Old Colony shops 
in South Boston in 1887 after the designs of Mr. .1. 
". Lauder. It was designed for fast passenger ser- 
ice between Boston and Fall River. 

No. 7 was built in the Vincennes shops of the 
Ohio & Mississippi road in 1888, and handles heavy 
express trains on a liW mile division of that road. 

No. 8 is a standard passenger locomotive on the 
Grand Trunk road. 

No. 9 is a standard passenger engine of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern road, built after the designs ol 
Mr. Tilton, superintendent of motive power. 

No. 10 is one of the standard passenger engines, 
class A, used on the Chicago <.t Alton road. This 
engine is equipped with Mr. Wilson's patent valve 

No. 11 is an express locomotive built in 1887 at the 
Susquehanna shops of the New York, Lake Erie & 
Western road. 

. No. 12 is one of the class A passenger engines of 
the Pennsylvania road. 

No. 13 is a passenger engine of the Central Rail- 
road of New .Jersey, No. 169, which Is credited 
with one of the fastest miles on record. It was built 
at the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1882. 

No. 14 is also on the Central Railroad of New .Ter- 

An examination of these tables shows at once 
that there is no system in the present prac- 
tice ol the country. In cases of bituminous coal 
burning American type, the life of steam varies from 
6'15 seconds, in the Baldwin engine to 393 seconds 
in the Ohio & Mississippi engine. In examining 
further we see that in the case of the drivers, the 
latter has slightly the advantage, but the former has 

steam comes the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 
5-44 seconds. This has a large steam space and also 
large drivers. In the anthracite coal burning Ameri- 
can locomotive the life of steam varies from 7-87 
seconds to 6-86 seconds ic the Pennsylvania and 
New York Central engines to 505 in that of the 
7); - 

Lehigh Valley. In the values of — 

the New 

York Central takes the lead with 2308 as against 
1704 in the Pennsylvania. We see thus that the 
roads which are recognized as being the best 
equipped in the country— the Pennsylvania in the 
east, and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy in the 
west — show the largest values in columns 16 and 17. 

The very great superiority of dry over wet steam 
is well known. When the steam space in a boiler is 
small the steam is used so quickly after being gen- 
erated that it does not have time to free itself from 
the moisture carried up with it by the intense ebulli- 
tion. A greater steam space necessitates a larger 
boiler. This, however, is an advantage in many 
ways. It produces a heavy weight upon the drivers, 
and thus allows for a large tractive force, and it en- 
ables an engine to overcome steep and long grades 
more easily because by proiwr management an engi- 
neer can have a large quantity of water ready to be 
converted into steam by the addition of a little 
steam at the foot of the grades as reached. 

From all the foregoing it appears that the only 
possible basis upon which to establish locomotive 
proportions is the steam space. 

If more sets of complete experiments could be 
obtained, with data from which the steam space 
could be obtained in some such way as have indicated, 
I think it quite probable that some law could be dis- 
closed upon which a practical rule could be estab- 
lished. But for the present paper I must content 
mysell with pointing out how such a rule might be 
obtained, its application, and its limitations. 

Taking for example No. 17: 

D-K S 
Having determi: 


the service to which the loco- 


Heatiug Surface. 

















¥ i If- 



'Tht-se two enirines aiv mogiils. 


(See "The Life of Steam," page 

is to be subjected, the relation -caabeap- 

j>roximately determined. Knowing S (steam space) 
the size of boiler may be determined, keeping in 
view the values for G and B, (grate and heating 
surface) given in columns 8 and 7. This will bo lim- 
ited by the condition thatalifeof steam of 6-9 seconds 
may be expected, with an evaporation of -1105295 lbs. 
of water (from and at 212 deg.) per sq. ft. of heating 
surface for each ton of train hauled at a rate of 50 
miles per hour, this figure being the average of a 
number of tests made on American roads."' 

With the advancement of railway construction, 
and consequent additions to rolling stock, it becomes 
quite a problem for the motive power department to 
make all necessary repairs of engines and cars with- 
out interruption to freight and passenger traffic. It 
is therefore important to construct and locate suit- 

can be approached from both ends of the pit, thus 
avoiding delay in shifting. That this arrangement 
is very desirable, can be readily appreciated by those 
managing shops without these facilities. 

The large building on the left is exclusively for 
car repairs and is about 266 ft. by 135 ft. with 19 ft. 
clear under roof trusses. The tracks are 20 ft. be- 
tween centers, and are 13 in number. Each track 
has directly above it in the roof a monitor, which is 
provided with double glass having a 3 in. air space 
between; this space answers the double purpose of 
keeping the heat in during the winter, and making 
it possible during the summer to work under the 
ra.ys of the sun without painting the glass. The 
building is divided by means of frame partitions into 
five departments, of which the first one is 50 ft. wide, 
and contains two tracks for passenger car and exten- 
sive freight repairs; light repairs to freight cars are 
made on the tracks between the main line and the 
track nearest the transfer table. 

double doors 10 ft. 8 in wide and 15 ft. 8 in. high in 
center of arch, and the tracks extending out both 
ways. There is a space of 80 ft. between the build- 
ing and the transfer table pit, permitting cars to be 
placed there without interfering with the running 
of the table or the closing of doors. On the leftside 
at a distance of 240 ft. is the planing mill. This 
building is 56 ft. long by 50 ft. 7 in. wide, and is built 
of brick with slate roof. Its combination roof 
trusses are spaced 13 ft. 6 in. between centers, 19 ft. in 
the clear, the pitch of roof being one in four. The 
mill has an asphaltum Boor. 

Figure 2 shows the interior arrangement of the 
planing mill. The temporary end is turned away 
from the car shops, as future extensions will be made 
in that direction. The track, which is run through 
the center, is used for bringing material from the 
lumber yard near by, and to transport it (after being 
finished) to the car shop, to which the track leads. 
In the near future a lumber shed will be placed be- 


Paint store Hou.e 



1 1 - 1'"' 


4 .:....»« 




- \ - 

1 1 r 


\ \ 

1 ^ \ \ 



• '-■ 

1 1 , 

1 \ \ 



° X\ 

 Bu. "- ■ N.^ 


able repair shops at different points along the road, 
where light repairs can be quickly and economically 
executed, and thus obviate the sending of engines 
and cars to the main shops, which may perhaps be 
located far away. 

Such a shop has within the last two years been 
built by the Pennsylvania Railroad, on the Camden 
and Amboy division, about two miles from Camden 
Station, X. .1. 

By referring to the general plan Fig. 1, it will be 
noticed that the shops are located on a rectangular 
shaped piece of ground parallel to the main line, the 
two main buildings being set at a right angle to said 
line. This location affords equal advantages for 
i-ntering the shops from either end of the road. The 
tracks are also so arranged thai the transfer table 

Next to the repair shop is the cabinet, upholster- 
ing and varnish shop; each one occupying in length 
one-third of the width of the building, and being 30 
wide. The office of Master Mechanic Hill is for the 
the present in the varnish shop, until an office and 
store house building, not shown on the plan, is com- 
pleted. The paint shop, which has 9 tracks, will 
hold 18 passenger cars, with enough clearance be- 
tween cars, as well as betweeen cars and walls. The 
floor is asphaltum and the walls are brick, except 
one end wall which is framed and covered with cor- 
rugated iron, so as to be easil.y removed when future 
extensions require the lengthening of the building. 
For the same reason the partitions are also frame 

Both sides of Ihi- Iniilding are provided with 

tween the planing mill and the car shop to receive 
and store finished lumber. The stationary engine in 
this mill is of the vertical type, and has a capacity 
of 125 horse power. The power of the engine is in 
excess of the present requirements of the shop, and 
was based on the future, running for the present 
with an early cut off. The shop is heated with ex- 
haust steam from the engine, but there is a live 
steam connection which is, however, only used when 
the engine is not running. The arrangement of 
shafting, and the location and particular use of vari- 
ous tools, are plainly shown in the engraving and 
need no further explanation. 

The transfer table is 60 ft. long and is composed of 
12 in. and 15 in. "I" beams, firmly bolted together, 
and its running gear consists of 8 pair of 33 inch ' 



wheels mounted on standard fi-eight axles with 4 by 
s in. journals. There are four tracks with 4 ft. 9 in. 
gauge and Ifi ft. U in. centers, except the two middle 
tracks, which are 17 ft. apart to obtain better guid- 
ing of the table. The propelling is done by wire 
rope located under the right side stone coping of 
the pit, and the compensating carriages are under 
the tracks at the ends. The speed of the table is 
:i(H» ft. iK-r minute empty, and 200 ft. loaded. 

About :W ft. to the right of the transfer pit the 
greeting, boiler, machine, wheel and blacksmith 
shops are located in another large building, about 
266x71 in dimension. This building is also of brick, 
and has a roof similar to the planing mill and large 
doors of same size and spacing as the ear shop. It 
will be noticed that the location of the different 
shops in this building is particularly arranged to 
facilitate the work. The blacksmith shop is in the 
front end, directly opposite the car repair shop, and 
in close proximity to the outside car repair tracks [ 
from which most of the blacksmith work comes. 
Then comes next the wheel and machine shop, and j 
last the boiler and erecting departments. As the 
division of tracks is the same as for the car building 
a straight line communication is obtained over the 
table. I 

Figure 3 shows the general arrangement and loca^ [ 
tion of tools in this building. It will be noticed that , 
the coppersmiths and the Hue welding machine are 
located in the blacksmith shop. Repairs to boilers 
requiring Banging are also attended to in this part i 
of the building. A frame partition divides this part 
from the rest of the shop. All smoke and dirt is 
therefore uonfined to the blacksmith shop, except 
that from the riveting fires, which of course must 
be in the boiler department. Our drawing of the ! 
.-ihop is very clear as to the location of tools. Close 
attention has been made to the placing of each ma- 
chine where it would give the best service. Especi- 
ally is this the case with the 78 in. wheel" lathe, 
which has been placed directly opposite a door open- 
ing, which makes the handling of driving wheels 
very convenient. 

The engine is of 150-horse power, Corliss make, 
and has, like the planing mill engine, been rated to 
allow for extensions. Within the railing surround- 
ing the engine has been placed a 400 light Brush 
dynamo machine, which supplies the light for the 
entire plant. 

The foreman's office and the tool room are of neat 
design and the latter has several special tool finish- 
ing machines, which are used for no other purpose. 
Each workman is furnished with ch-cks bearing his 

particular number, one of which must be handed in 
for every tool taken from the tool room. 

The erecting and boiler shops occupy six tracks, 
and at the ends of the tracks along the side of the 
building the vise benches are located. 

This building and the car shop are both heated 
with the Sturtevant hot air system, each building 
having a separate fan and engine for that purpose. 
The air is forced through galvanized iron pipes, rest- 
ing on the roof trusses, along all sides of the build- 
ing, having outlets every 20 ft. extending to within 
7 ft. of the floor. 

To the right of the locomotive repair shop is the 
casting yard, coal bin, iron racks, etc., and at a dis- 
tance of 10-) ft. the boiler house. This building is 32 
ft X 40 ft. It has brick walls, iron trussof the Fink 
design and a slate roof. It is eouioned with tliree 

boilers, locomotive type, with sloping lire box, th 
diameter of the shell being .50 in., and the total 
length 21 ft. The boilers have 74 flues, 3 in. outside 
diameter 11 ft. long. The fire boxes are 4 ft. by 7 ft. 
and have a heating surface of 0(i2 square feet. A 
pressure of 100 lbs. is carried in the boilers. The 
boilers are connected to a main pipe 8 in. diameter 
which is carried under ground in a 2 ft. square brick 
conduit. At the machine shop, the pipe branches 
into two (i in. pipes, one of which enters the shop, 
and the other runs parallel with the building to the 
property line, which it follows to about midway be- 
tween the car shop and planing mill, where it again 
makes a bend, and runs to a point opposite the plan- 
ing mill. .\i this place the diameter is reduced to -5 
in. at which size it enters the planing mill near the 
engine. At the bends the pipe is joined by copper 



expansion joints, shaped like a horse shoe. The con- 
duit is covered by 3 in. boards, laid crossways iu sec- 
tions, which can readily be removed in case of leaks. 

The smoke boxes are connected with a 4 ft. diame- 
ter brick flue, running under the ground to the out- 
side of the building, where it joins a sheet steel 
stack 4 ft. internal diameter, and 90 ft. high. The 
stack stands on a stone foundation, and is self sup- 
porting. It is lined half way up with fire brick, and 
the remainder with red brick. The stack is made of 
steel, T-16 in. thick at the base and i in. thick at the 

An artesian well has been bored near the boiler 
house from which a Duplex steam pump, located in 
an annex attached to the boiler house, lifts the water 
into the two 3-5,000 gallon tanks standing close by. 
The water is under ordinary conditions distributed 
from the tanks, but the valves are so arranged that 
in case of fire, the pumps will force the water di- 
rectly into the main, whereby a pressure is obtained 
which will throw a stream over the roof of the high- 

print, a reduced cut of which wc herewith give, needs 
no further explanation. Its usefulness is apparent 
upon the face of it. 


The rapidity with which the ten-wheeled engine 
is coming into favor for fast and heavy passenger 
service is abundantly evidenced in the number of 
this type which are now being built. One of the 
latest designs of this class is illustrated in per- 
spective in this issue, and last month we published 
the drawing of the boiler for the same engine. This 
engine is one of several built by the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works for the New York, Lake Erie & West- 
ern Railroad. This engine is one of the heaviest of 
its class, having 20x24 in. cylinders, 08 in drivers, 
and a total weight of 130,000 lbs., of which 100,000 


I the drivers. 

The engine is designed to burn hard coal, and has 

We recently had the opportunity of watching the 
performance of this and a sister engine in service, 
and can testify to its excellent steaming and easy 
riding qualities, the latter being particularly notice- 
able when entering and leaving sharp curves, of 
which the eastern division of the Erie has its fair 
share. Many little conveniences are provided, tend- 
ing to the comfort of the engine men. For example, 
a ventilator is placed in the top of the cab, while 
the roof itself extends back much further than usual 
over the front of the tender to afford a protection to 
the fireman against rain and snow. The engineer's 
brake valve is placed bodily under the running 
board, with a stem running up from it to the side of 
the cab, convenient to the runner's right hand, the 
one he has free from the throttle lever. On the left 

"T^' — ^-^^"'-^ 


est building. Water plugs and hose reels are pro- 
vided for the large buildings and throughout the 

The areas of these shops are as follows: Paint and 
car shop, 3.5,93:; square feet; erecting, machine, 
wheel and blacksmith shop, 18,875 square feet: plan- 
ing mill, ifi'li square feet; boiler house, 1,280 square 

A VERV useful blue-print is issued from the office 
of Mr. Wm. A. Foster, superintendent of motive 
power of the Fall Brook Company's lines, showing 




the weights on each pair of wheels, the distances be- 
tween each pair, the total wheel base, etc., for the 
several classes of engines on that road. This blue- 

a fire-box 11 ft. long and 43 in. wide, the crown of 
which is supported by radial stays. The principal 
dimensions of the engine are as follows: 

Class of engine.. 
Gauge of road... 

Length t>i tubes,. 


Steam pressure... 
Heating surface, tubes. , 

side of the boiler in the cab is a short length of hand 
rail which is very convenient to leave the arm on 
and to brace one's self against. 

Taken, as a whole, the engine fairly represents the 
latest and best development of locomotive engineer- 
ing in this country, and as such must be a source of 
gratification, both to the builders and owners. 

The credit for the design of this-notably successful 
engine is due to the officers of the Erie Railway. The 
dimensions of cylinders and driving wheels, and the 
general dimensions of the boiler were specified by 
Mr. E. B. Thomas, vice president, and Mr. Ross 
Kells, superintendent of motive power of that road. 
The details-were worked out by the Baldwin works 
to conform to their patterns and usual shop practice. 

Railway Patents Expiring in April, 1890, 

> F. St., 

Cvllnders tiard close v 

Piston rods 

Guides (Lalirti 

1 Furnished by F, H. Brock, patent attorney, (J3! 
.Vashiugton, D. t'.. These patents are now free to be man 
ifactured by any one. Copies of any patent furnished by 
Hr. Brock at 15 cents.] 

Sanding device for locomotives, M. Y. Nobles, 

> , - : -■!■ tnicH, .1. McCauley. 

< .1 I \ I'ui-sell. 

nl, C. Latimer, 

Driving tires, front (plain) -n 

Driving axle ujk ii1i*j..iii. ,>Kt-., 

Driving axle Journals ,': M"; in 

Driving boxes cast iron, phosphor bronze bearing. 

Connecting and pai-allei rods steel. 

Crani£ piny steel. 


:eis 33 in. steel tired, Paige spo e. 

BS Otis Steel 

Jjoumals 5x10iD. 

Tank thickness.... 

Tank capacity 

Tender frame 


side and back 3-16 in., remainder M i 

Convertible lieiKlil car, T, Fogg. 

Car heater and ventilator, C. F. Whorf, 

Car replacer. J. F. Baxter. 

cutting tools has been adopts 
shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad, at Altoona. A 
tank is placed just beneath the roof at one corner of 
the shop, pipes running thence to the various ma- 
chines. The lubricant thus Hows by gravity to the 
various machUes, from wltich it is drained away by 
other pipes to a tank beneath the floor. This tank is 
placed directly beneath the upper tank, to which the 
oil is pumped. 

PMay, 1890. 


The principle followed by Eiffel in all his struct- 
I ui-es of this kind is to erive the angle such a pitch or 
curve as not to require diagonal bracing. The tower 

, „., ^u.^.., ..,., „^uu==.,„j ,=>„ 6. ".»>-.. ... lilusl ] was the direct outcome of a series of investigations 

ated by large drawings and slereoptiuon | ' made by M. Kiffel in 188.5 to ascertain the extreme 

The Paris exposition has come and gone, and it is | limit to which iron piers of viaducts could be pushed 

already so much a thing of the past that perhaps our 
interest in it would be slight were it not for the 
fact that we are so soon to attempt a similar work in 
our neighboring city, Chicago. 

Our exposition is to be measured by the success 
and beauty of that at Paris, and the standard there 
established was so high that ample lime, as well as 
money, is required for the gigantic undertaking. 1 
hope to give you, by the aid of the lantern and the 
screen, such an idea of the magnificence and beauty 
of the exposition buildings at Paris as will help yon 
to understand the reasonableness of the demands 
of those who favor ISftS as the proper time for the 
opening of the American exposition. In our short 
talk I shall not confine myself to machinery, but we 
will devote some attention tt> the products of ma- 
chines and the work of the engineer. If we except 
the decorative and artistic features, this covers 
nearly all there is of an exposition; but we can only 
deal with the subject in a general way. 

7'he two most prominent objects of interest at the 
Paris fair were the Eiffel tower and the machinery 
hall, — the former the highest structure ever erected 
by man; the latter the widest building ever covered 
by a single span. These are the structures which 
we must either imitate or excel, and I shall give a 
description of each of them. 

Clreat works of this kind are not the subject of a 
special and sudden inspiration; but when we inquire 
into their history and development, we always find 
that nature has been gradually preparing the man 
for the work and the occasion— the time, the de- 
mand, are theopportunity for the climax of a career. 

Kricsson did not suddenly evolve the idea of the 
monitor. It was the ripened result of the study of a 
\ije time. In his native Sweden he had often watched 
the logs tossed by the storms on the lakes, and he 
thus obtained the ideas of necessary stability of a 
vessel for coasting service. He was taught in his 
army experience the art of building forts, and the 
use of a round tower for a defense in an open place. 
With a magnificent patriotism he was always study- 
ing how to defend his country from the attack of the 
Kusiians, and he made plans for gun boats and fur- 
nished them to Napoleon as an enemy of Russia and 
an ally of Sweden. Thus it was that Ericsson pro- 
duced the monitor as the result of a great experi- 
ence in similar construction, and thus it was that 
M. Eiffel produced his monumental work, the Eiffel 
tower, the iron eolumn'of the republic. 

Eiffel's career gradually led up to his latest grand 
achievement. He was employed on the Paris & Or- 
leans Railroad, and used various wrought iron braced 
structures, instead of cast iron columns or masonry. 
He was among the first French engineers to erect 
bridges without scaffolding, by building the struct- 
ure out panel by panel. His greatest work of th' 
kind was 

with safety. The tower consists essentially of a 
pyramid composed of four great curved columns, in- 
dependent of each other, and connected by belts of 
girders at the different stories until they unite to- 
ward the top. Iron wjis used in the structure 

The cap-stones on the foundations have a crushing 
strength of 1,600 lbs. per square inch, and the great- 
est load on them possible is 42-5 lbs. per square inch. 
The total load on each pier is 1,970 tons, or 3 tons per 
square foot of masonry. The cast iron base plate on 
the masonry has a cylindric cavity 40 in. diameter 
and 36 in. deep. The end of the arched column 
forms a plunger, which enters the cylinder, and is 
secured by bolts, thus constituting a hydraulic press 
upon which a pressure of 800 tons could be exerted, 
thus providing a means of adjustment. Thin plates 
of steel were introduced as the plunger was forced 
out in order to secure the desired variation of level 
The total weight of iron in the whole structure is 
7,300 tons. The actual work on the foundations was 
commenced in January, 1887,— the plans having been 
completed in June, 1886. 

The machinery hall is 375 ft. wide and 1,380 ft. 
long, and covers an area of 900,000 sq. ft., or 14 acres. 
It cost $l,.'iOO,000 or $218 per square foot. The great 
nave is the shape of a Gothic arch, composed of steel 
girders 7 ft. deep, extending from the floor line, 
where they have a cylindric bearing, to the top of 
the arch 100 ft. above the floor, where these girders 
again unite on a large pin bearing. There are 20 of 
these main girders which form the roof of the build 
ing, the larger portion of it being covered with 
glass. The greatest span for a roof heretofore is ol 
the St. Pancras station in London, which has a 
width of 240 ft.; but it is connected across by the 
rods. The roof of machinery hall is entirely cl 
of all ties or braces — below the main girders. Each 
of these steel girders weighs 160 tons. The total 
weight of steel in the nave is 7,400 tons, all resting 
on cast iron roller joints having a surface of not 
more than 302 sq. ft., or a pressui'e of 24 tons per 
square foot. The foundations were commenced in 
July, 1887, and completed in December that year, 
and the hall itself was finished in May, 1S8H. The 
cost of this great structure— *1, .500,000— was made 
up as follows: 



Power was supplied free to the exhibitors of ma- 
engines for the 
ber of different 
Iders who were paid by the administration upon 
a fixed tariff; and the engines and boilers so em- 
ployed constituted exhibits in themselves. It re- 
quired 31 boilers evaporating 114,000 lbs. water per 
hour. The pay for the boiler service was ilSb for 
2,200 lbs. water evaporated. The coal consun\ption 
was 52 tons per day or about 10,00(1 tons during the 
six month: 

arabit viaduct, where an arch of .541 j chinery in motion-the boilers 
ft. span crosses a torrent 400 ft. below. The success | P"i'PO'se being furnished by a 
of this great arch gave courage and confidence to M. I "' 
Eiffel, as he pointed his lattice column to the sky, I "* 
and builded its dizzy heightsinto the clouds. He was 
the engineer for the angle iron structure which sup- 
ports portions of the Bartholdi statue of Liberty, 
and also for the locks on the Panama canal, and 
some of these locks were actually built before the 
failure of that enterprise. 

Tall towers are not a modern idea. Ai 
1S33 the old English engineer Trevethick proposed 
a 1,000 ft. tower, to be made of cast iron cylinders 
100 ft. in diameter at the base, and the whole struct- 
ure to weigh 6,000 tons. This was intended to com- 
memorate the passage of the reform bill. Treve- 
thick's tower was never built. 

In 1876, at the time of our own centennial, Messrs. 
Clarke, Reeves & Co. offered to build a square 
wrought iron tower 1,000 ft. high, but I heard Mr. 
Clarke say in Paris that he was glad their tower was 
not built, because that of M. Eiffel so far surpassed 
his plan in beauty. 

Belgium, 2; United States, 2 ; Switzerland, 4: 
France, 23. Most of the engines were of the Corliss 
type, and many of them were compound, while some 
were triple expansion. Eich engine exhibitor sup- 
ilied all steam pipe valves and other connections, 
lesides the transmission requii'ed for communicat- 
ng motion to the main shaft. The pay was $8 per 
ndicated horse power for the whole time of 180 days 
or 44 cents per h. p. per day of 7 hours. 

The shafting was arranged in four lines running 
nearly the whole length of machinery hall, and hav- 
g a total length of about 4,.500 ft. The lines of 
shafting were supported by double cast iron col- 
umns connected at the top, forming a support for the 
bearings, and by bearings suspended from the 
lattice girders connecting the columns longitudi- 
nally. These girders supported electric traveling 
cranes which were used in placing the heavy ma- 
chinery and afterwards in carrying passengers 
through the hall. The main shafting is '» inches 
diameter, excepting at main pulleys at engines, 
when it is increased to 5* inches diameter. The 
height of shafting above the floor was 14 ft. 8 in., 
and the speed of revolution 1.50 per minute. The 
pay for shafting was about Oi cents per yard per day. 
In the agriculture galleries there were 670 ft. of 2* 
inches shafting driven by an electric motor which 
derived its energy from a dynamo and eTjgine in 
machinery hall. 

At one end of machinery hall was a very interest- 
ing exhibit which combined chemistry and me- 
chanics in a bold, curious and successful attempt to 
copy nature and perform the function of the silk 
worm by transforming woody fiber into silk fiber. 
The digestive juices of the worm acting on its food 
—the leaves of mulberry trees— transforms it into a 
peculiar substance resembling horn and called 
kerotine. It fills the two glands from which it 
exudes in the form of fine threads which unite, and 
the silk fiber thus discharged often reaches 1,000 ft. 
in length. This fiber is cellulose, combined with 
nitrogen. In the artificial process, ordinary papei' 
pulp, white wood, cotton waste, etc., are the start 
ing point. This is treated with defined mixtures of 
sulphuric and nitric acid. The nitratic cellulose is 
then formed into collodion by dissolving into a mix- 
ture of ether and alcohol. The fiber, as it issues 
from the apparatus, isone of the most inflammable of 
substances, containing too much nitrogen, and the 
method of reducing the nitrogen is the secret of the 
inventor. After denitration the filament becomes 
gelatinous, and it can be dyed any desirable lolor. 
The filament is forced under pres.sure through a 
tube, and a cup of water, and, the pasty condition 
being solidified by the water, it can be drawn 
out without breaking and led on to a reel. Seventy- 
two of these tubes are on one machine, and one 
tube can produce II miles of fiber per hour. The 
product can be sold for one-third the cost of real 
silk, and it resembles the natural silk very closely; 
is smooth and brilliant and has a strength about 
two-thirds of the real article, or about 20 tons ixjr 
square inch. Woven into a tissue it appears 
stronger and less litble to cut, due to the fact Ibat 
it is not charged with zinc and lead used in dying 
silk. These foreign matters are introduced for the 
purpose of "weighting" the silk. 

The illuminated fountains were the principal at- 
traction in the evening. The colored jets were not 
produced by throwing colored lights upon the sur- 
face of the water as has been employed at Niagara 


position was open. The lowest I and Saratoga. The method here employed was to 

n pressure regularly carried was 8-5 lbs. and the j imprison the luminous ray itself within the liquid 

est 142 lbs., the average for most of the boilers ; jet, and so perfectly that each particle of water be- 

being 125 lbs. The boilers were located in a long ! comes, as it were, incandescent, and the whole 

row of separate buildings in a space reserved for i stream transformed into a brilliant mass of molten 

them between the machinery hall and the boundary j gold or silver. The jets suddenly change theircolor 

of the Champ de Mars. | and sparkle like fire-works in the darkness, throw- 

The power for machinery in motion was .supplied i ing innumerable sparks in all directions; but unlike 

by 32 engines of various sizes from .50 h. p. to 200 j pyrotechnics, the effect can bo prolonged as desired. 

h. p.; 28 of these were required for the four lines of | The principle is not new, but its application on a 

shafting, running the whole length of machinery | large scale, as at Paris, was one of the greatest 

hall. The maximum power available was .5,000 h. p.. i novelties of the exposition. It has, I believe, not 

but only 2,600 h. p. was required. The engines were | yet been employed in America, yet it could be 

sent from the following countries: From England, 1; made far more beautiful, safer, and less expensive 


than the usual pyrotechnic display on 4th of July in 
our large cities. It. dates back to the Swiss physicist 
CoUadon, 1S41. In the side of a vessel, filled with 
water, CoUadon made a small opening from which 
he allowed the water to issue in a parabolic jet. By 
means of a lamp and a lens he threw rays of light / 
to the origin of the jet. and they became imjrt-isoned / 
by means of a series of total reflections which pre- 
vented them from escaping, and when placed in the 
dark it produced the effect of a luminous parabola. 
The luminous fountains at Paris contained 300 jets, 
and discharged 4-5,000 cubic feet of water per hour. 
The beam of light passing into the interior of a 
liquid tube, with a thickness of the water envelop 
of only 1-V2 inch, cannot escape. In this way jets 
M in. in diameter and 1-5 ft. high, were perfectly 
illuminated. By placing plates of colored glass 
across the line of rays near the origin— the arc 
lights— the colors of the jets were changed at will, 
and many beautiful combinations produced. The 
whole set of jets was under the control of one oper- 
ator, who signaled by electric buttons to his assist- 
ants stationed in vaults under them. 

MAIN BOD OIL CVF, H., L. S. & W. B. B. 

In the accompanying illustration we show a novel 
form of oil cup, designed by Mr. .John Hickey, gen- 
eral master mechanic of the Milwaukee, Lake .Shore 
& Western Railroad Co., and used on engines of that 
line. The cup is a double one and is meant to be 
used on the back end of the main rod. One of the 
chambers contains oil and the other tallow. Each is 
provided with a separate cap, or cover, on top and 
each has a separate passage for the oil or tallow to 
go to the journal. The object of the cup is at once 
apparent. The chamber marked tallow on oui draw, 
ing is filled with that material and the cap screwed 
on, a small vent hole being provided in the latter for 
the admission of air in case the tallow should be fed 
down upon the bearing. The other chamber is foi 
oil as indicated and is used in the oidinai\ waj 
Should the journal become hot the tallow will melt 
and feed down upon it without any cai e whatever 
from the engineer. The least heating of a pin which 
will be sufficient to melt the tallow will immediatelj 
result in a supply of that material, theieb\ ledui ng 
the heating unless it should prove a veiy seuous 
case. The cup has been in service for some time past 
and has been giving most excellent results. 


The Georgia Bailway Shops at Angasta. 

AlKEX, S. C, April IS, 18D0. 
To the Editor ot the Railway Master Mechanic: 

Being in the vicinity recently, I took occasion to visit the 
machine and car shops of the Georgia Railroad at Augusta, 

The machine shops, which are in charge of Master Me- 
chanic John S. Cook, while not being very large, are well 
arranged, and every thing is remarkably clean and well 

The machine and erecting shop is a large rectangular 
brick building, at one end of which is the main office and 
the master mechanic's jirivate olHce, and at ihe other, the 

The shop contains three erecting tracks, each of which 
accommodates one Urge locomotive. Most of the machine 
tools are modern, and large tools are served by cranes. A 
track runs from end to end of the shop to facilitate the 
handling ot heavy pieces. The motive power of the shop 
consists of a horizontal, single eccentric throttling engine, 
having its steam chest above the cylinder and its lower 
rocker arm slotted, enabling the value travel to be changed 
if desired. A gauge is attached to the steam pipe. 

The blacksmith shop, which adjoins the machine shop, 
has one steam hammer of recent design, and eight forges, 
the blast for which is supplied by a Sturtevant blower in 
the machine shop. 

The store rooms are in a large two-story brick building, 
just opposite the entrance to the master mechanic's office. 
The first floor is fitted up with a great number of compart- 
ment shelves, and drawers, in which are kept various loco- 
motive fittings and attachments. Everything here is very 
orderly and well arranged. The second story is used as a 
general store room, and contains a little of everj thing. 


The round-house, which is built of brick, is connected 
with the blacksmith shop. It is floored over throughout, 
and has stalls for 30 locomotives. In the center is a large 
Sellers iron turntable, the rail of which is laid on granite 
blocks. All the pits are cemented. Tracks lead over the 
iron transfer table to the machine shop. Attached to one 
partof the round-house wall is a complete Wcstinghouse 
automatic brake and train signaling apparatus, which is 
used to test various parts of the brake mechanism, such as 
triple and engineer's valves, etc., and also to illustrate 
their working. Adjoining the round-house is a wooden 
shop in which tenders are built. The machines in this shop 
are run by a horizontal, plain slide valve throttling engine. 

In the round-house at the time of my visit, were some 
very handsome coal burning mogul engines, built at the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. These engines have the 
Eames vacuum driver and tender brake, and are also fitted 
with the Wcstinghouse pump, main reservoir, etc , so as to 
operate the air brakes on cars when desired. They have 
the extension front end and open stack. Many of the loco- 
motives belonging to this road are fitted with steam bell 

The car shops, which have recently been completed, are 
very large, are built entirely of brick, and are among the 
finest shops of the kind in the country. They are remark- 
ably well lighted and ventilated, and are heated by steam 
pipes attached to the walls. 

Mr. E. S. Scheetz is the master car builder, and every- 
thing in and about the shops bears evidence of his energy 
and ability. 

>The side and end walls of the building are 'M in. thick, 
and the partition walls between the engine room, mill, 
erecting shop and paint shop are 30 in thick. The door 
jambs are of heavy cast iron. The mill is 90x130 ft., ad- 
joining which is the erecting shop 90x180 ft., containing 8 
tracks which accommodate 8 passenger or 16 freight cars. 
The paint shop, which is next to the erecting shop, is 90x90 
ft., and has tracks for^4 passenger cars. 

Above the mill is the cabinet and pattern shop, and the 
draughting office. The floor, which is OOxl'iO ft., is sup 
ported b.v longitudinal iron girders of 1 section, which abut 

the partition walls and are supported by 10 in. tubular 

in columns resting on brick piers s ft. square at base, 34 
square at top, and 8 feet deep. Above this shop is the 
pattern loft and storeroom for fine lumber. Here all the 
patterns for the locomotive as well as the car department 
are kept. The floor, which of the same dimensions as that 
of the cabinet shop, is supported by trussed beams, resting 
in iron chambers on wooden posts. All machines in the 
pattern shop belt direct to pulleys In the mill, and are 
operated by pull rods, etc., thus doing away with all un- 
necessary shafting. Locomotive cabs and pilots are made 
here. Pilot bars are inserted into the bottom rail, not 
merely bolted to it, as is sometimes done. 

The draughting office is large and %vell lighted, and con- 
tains a very handsome cabinet for drawings, made of Geor- 
gia pine and black walnut, and finished with gold bands. 
This cabinet has IS large drawers and IS cases with glass 
fronts, each case being divided into tl compartments. The 
drawers and cases are gold lettered. 

The mill contains a number of the most modern ma- 
chines, all of which rest upon brick and granite fouuda- 
tions. Among those specially worthy of mention is a 60 ft. 
dimension planer, and a mortising machine which is capa- 
ble of mortising end sills for over 100 cars per day. This 
machine takes a hollow chisel, from }i to 3% in. square. In 
order to fully test its capacity, Mr. Scheetz, with the assist- 
ance of three laborers to handle lumber, mortised end sills 
for O-'i freight cars in 4 hours and 1.5 minutes. 

Hoods are being placed over all machines to remove dust, 
and a 00 in. Sturtevant blower is used to produce draught. 
All machines are provided with large wooden boxes, in 
which the tools belonging to them are kept, each in a sep- 
arate compartment. 

An electric press button is located near each machine, by 
means of which a signal gong can be rung in the engine 
room. Three strokes of the gong signify stop; two, slow; 
and one, all right. The device has been found of great 

The machlner.\' is run by a 70 hol-se power Corliss engine. 
The foundation for this engine is T ft. of brick, resting 

Mat. 1890 


upon three courses of 4x14 in. Georgia pine. The boiler is a 
return tluetubular.carryinpr'JO lbs. of steam, and fed by two 
Seller's "76" injectors. A W ft. transfer table runs the en- 
tire length of the shop. It was designed by Mr. Scheetz, 
runs on four 4 ft. 9 in. gauge traclis, and is worked by four 

The average rate of production of these shops is eight 
box, or 13 gondola cars per weel<. with a force of 12 
men. No passenger cai"s liave as yet been built. All work 
done at these shops is on the duplicate system, all parts of 
a car being interchangeable with like parts of similar cars. 

In conclusion, I cannot but acknowledge my obligations 
to Mr. E. S. Scheetz for the very cordial mannerin which 
he received me. and for the trouble he took in showing me 
me everything of interest in the shops under his charge. 

Qcestlons for Tagbconic— Chimney Design. 

To the Editor of the Railway Ma.sttT Mechanic: 

The better way to build chimneys for locomotives 
one that produces best results and the best 
Chimneys of one thickness of iron with a ring aroiind the 
top may appear to "one not posted in such matters" to an- 
swer the purpose of a good chimney. Some of the objections 
to it are as follows . It being of one thickness of iron and 
without air jacket the atmosphere being colder than the 
gases passing through the chimney it tends to cool them (the 
gases) down and interfere with the rapid draft requisite in 
a good chimney. In a chimney having an air space with 
the outer shell of planished iron the inner walls are kept 
well up to the temperature of the gases passing up it, thus 
accelerating those gases, and doing the work that a good 
chimney is designed to do. The planished iron presents a 
smooth surface to the atmosphere, which reduces the air 
resistance to a minimum, and it can be cleaned much easier. 
The top casting to which " Taghconic " objects produces a 
fine finish at small cost : it also suits the eye and, as sometimes 
happens, assists in putting the weight where most needed. 
If there is no call for beauty in mechanics, why put the half 
round iron around the chimney of one thickness? It must 
be for appearance only, although it is, in fact, an apology 
for a finish. It is furthermore a well known fact that the 
shape of the top of a locomotive chimney has much to do 
with its performing the function it was designed for, as the 
action of the air coming in contact with it at a high rate of 
speed always has an influence on the draft. (See Clark's 
work on Locomotives. \ 

I would like to have "Taghconic'' explain what he means 
by proportioning the chimneys of locomotives to the blast 
pipes as 13 to 1. By this rule the size of grate, and number 
and size of flues are entirely ignored. Can this be a cor- 
rect solution of the much "mooted" question f Does he 
mean that the chimney should be twelve times the area of 
the blast pipe; If so, does this refer to a blast pipe with 
one opening or with twof If with two openings does it 
take the area of both or only one ; and if only one why will 
it require so much smaller chimney for a locomotive using 
two blast pipes than one using a single pipe; if the area 
of both are taken, why, as only one exhaust takes place at 
a time on well designed locomotives; And when there is 
only one exhaust at a time why should the chimney be any 
smaller than where only one is used. By fully explaining 
these matters there are many who will "rise up and call 
him blessed." 

One more suggestion and I am done : I would like to 
have "Taghconic" let us know if he would have his house 
built after the modern style of architecture, and then have 
the roof put on without any cornice for a finish or would 
he have the builder put an old fashioned hoop i made from 
one-half of a hoop pole) around in place of a respectable 
cornice; Invrstihtor. 

When, finally, I was obliged to take the bull by the horns, 
a short investigation convinced me that the automatic 
converting compound, with cylinders of proper sizes, has 
greater starting power than the simple engine, and I have, 
therefore, made the Old Colony engine an automatic one. 
It will get a train away from a station, I feel confident, 
smarter than the lSx'24 in. engine whicli is now satisfact- 
orily performing in the Old Colony service, and it will not 
waste steam in starting as the hand connecting engine 
would. Moreover, it cannot be abused: it must always be 
a compound locomotive, and will at once begin to fulfill its 
object of saving steam. Still further, it is as easy to 
manipulate by the engineer as the simple engine, and this 
will tend to immediately make it popular on the road. 

F. W. Dr(N. 


The balanced spiudle 4g-ineh radial drill shown in 
our illustration was designed especially to meet the 
requirements of the mechanical department of the 
Pennsylvania railroad and was made for the new 

by a screw or rack and pinion, and the latter is 
mounted on a slide on side of the column, and ad- 
justed by a screw. .\ny further information will be 
cheerfully furnished by the builders, the Belts Ma- 
chi ne Co., Wilmington, Del. 

The Jane Convention of the Master Mechanics' Association. 
Secretary Sinclair announces that the members of 
tlie association having voted by a large majority in 
favorof holding the next convention at Old Point 
Comfort, Fortress Monroe, Va., the executive com- 
mittee have arranged to hold the meeting there. 
The pi'opi'ie'or of the Hygeia Hotel, Old Point Com- 
fort, has agreed to accommodate the members and 
their friends for $3 per day, when no extra accom- 
modation is called for. Rooms will be reserved 
specially for the use of members till the day the 
meeting opens, ,Iune 17. Those desiring to secure 
rooms should apply to F N. Pike, Hygeia Hotel, 
Monroe, Va. 


The Old Colony Compoand 

BosTos, Mass., April i:!, \sm. 
To the Edittir of the Railway .Master Mechanic: 

Sir— In your April issue I read a short description of 
the compound locomotive which I have designed for the 
Old Colony Railroad Company. The description is, in the j 
main, correct. You are. however, wrong in saying that ] 
the engine \vill be changed from simple to compound, and | 
vice versa by band. This will be accomplished auto- I 
matically, and the device used will have no connection with 
the cab. It is true that at first I intended to convert the ' 
engine from one kind to the other by hand, because I, at 
that time had an idea, which I did not take the trouble to j 
verify or disprove, that it was necessary in order to start 
a train quickly. 

I had fully made up my mind to place whatever device 
I should use, in the smoke box. and thus be enabled to 
make the drawings of everything but this converting 
device first. By this means I did not keep the design back, 
and secured ample time for consideration of the starting I 
mechanism. 1 

shops at Altoona. Power is received by a cone of 
four speeds, back geared, giving eight changes to the 
spindle through suitable shafts and gearing. 

The arm, upon which the spindle carriage moves 
radially, has a long hearing carefully fitted upon the 
upper part of the main column, on which it revolves, 
when required, to any position within its range, and 
can be readily made fast at any point by a single 
clamping screw. 

The spindle carriage has a horizontal movement, 
by hand, through a rack and pinion, and can be 
firmly clamped to the arm by a conveniently located 

The vertical feed movement of the spindle has 
three changes and is simple and effective; it can be 
instantly disconnected from the spindle, which is 
then readily and rapidly moved through its entire 
travei'.se by a hand lever in convenient location, and 
retained in any position by the counterbalance, 
which also serves the important purpose of steadying 
the downward motion of the drill in passing through 
unsound material. 

The column rests on a well proportioned base 
plate, truly planed and provided with T slots on 
which work o( a larger class can be placed and the 
drill spindle adjusted to operate upjn any part of 
their surface. 

Tables for small work can be of a variety of forms, 
adaptable to the kind of work to be drilled; those 
most commoaly used are the round, square hinged, 
and box tables. The two former styles are mounted 
in a short column and are raised and lo^vered either 

Messrs. W. Garstang, T. W. Gentry and A. .1. 
Cromwell have been appointed by President Briggs 
a committee to carry out arrangements for the con- 


The application of the Westinghouse air brakes 
to engines, passenger and freight cars requires per- 
fectly air tight joints and if inferior metal is used 
the consequences resulting from the ineffectual 
working of the air brakes may be serious. 

The Westinghouse A\i- Brake Company are, we 
are informed, now using and have for the past few 
years been using steel fittings m;inufaotured express- 
ly by Stanley G. Flagg & Company, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., but as the privilege of buying the pipe and fit- 
tings from the Westinghou^se ."Vir Brake Company 
has been left to the option of the users of them, the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company have given the 
steel fittings the following recommendation: 

Stanley G. Flagg & Company, Nineteenth street and Penn- 
sylvania avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. : 
Di;.*K SiBs: Having decided to sell our air brake appli- 
ances separate from the iron pt|ie and fittings used with 
them, our customers are in a position to buy such fittings 
(if they 30 desire) in the open market. To all customers 
who wish to avail themselves of this opportunity we shall 
recommend the use of the steel fittings manufactured by 
you. We have used them for nearly two years to the ex- 
elusion of galvanized malleablcs and have had no defective 

caused considerable annoyance using galvanized malleables, 


May, 1890. 

of these goods, 
fittings that they are 
_ntirely air tight, the thread full and sharp and tapped to 
the original Briggs' standard, rendering them according to 
our experience the best in every respect for air brake pur- 
poses and the cheapest in the end. Yours truly, 

\VF.sT.N<.llolsii Air Bk.vke Comimsv, 
O. Miller, Purchasing Agent. 

Some roads are using the Flags steel fittings for 
locomotive work exclusively, giving their opinion 
that they are economical in the long run both as to 
time in connecting and also in wear and tear. These 
roads are usings fittings of all sizes from i in. to 2 in. 
The steel fittings are claimed to be perfect without 
exception, having full "V ihreads,and being sound, 
homogeneous and entirely free from leakage. 

Experience has proved that for air brake connec- 
tions all fittings and joints must be made exception- 
ally tight, as air pressure is more seai'ching than 
either water or steam, requiring all 

be tight not only for the final test but to stand the 
wear and tear of manipulation and service and also 
the strain which is put upon them. The principal 
railroads and car shops are, we are informed, using 
the Plagg steel fittings with perfect satisfaction. 

A soft metal union for gas, steam, oil, water, etc., 
connections is furnished by Stanley G. Flagg & Co., 

ordinary union will not answer. It is not so liable to 
contraction and expansion as ordinary washer packed 
unions, and, when once put up, does not require 
tightening after the steam has been withdrawn and 
the pipes allowed to cool and the steam put on again. 
These unions have inserted in the head piece, a soft 
metal packing which is concave. The tail, or oppo- 
site, piece is convex and finished on the surface, al- 
lowing the two parts to be screwed up tight and 
loosened again without injury to the seat of the 
union. Although the pipes may be a little out of 
line, the connection of this union is such that when 
it is drawn together and tightened (the seat having 
concave and convex surfaces) a tight joint is made at 
any possible angle, which is a great advantage, as 
heretofore fitters have been inconvenienced in mak- 
ing such connections free from leakage. This union 
can be used for high pressure, standing, it is stated, 
about 100 pounds steam pressure or 3,000 pounds hy- 
draulic pressure without leaking, not requiring to be 
screwed very tight to obtain the desired result, be- 
ing just as good after being taken down and put up 
again as when first put in. No other packing than 
that mentioned is required with this union and it is 
claimed that there is no wear out to it other than 
that of actual wear and tear, as on the pipe. Some 
of the principal locomotive works are using this 
union and find it to give entire satisfaction, a strong 
merit being that no washer is required and that a 
tight joint can be made with but little pi-essure. 

The manufacturers of this union argue that the 
only true way of ascertaining its desirability is to 
use it; and as they are prepared to furnish large 
quantities from stock they offer to furnish with 
promptness any sample orders that may be entrust- 
ed to their care. 

Secretary Sinclair, of the M. C. B. Association, 
announces l!i new adherents to the rules of inter- 
change, and says that several roads have been ad- 
hering to the rules of interchange for two or three 
years, but their names have not appeared in the 
list at end of the interchange rules, owing to a mis- 
understanding, and a belief on the part of some rep- 
resentative members that the appointment of such a 
representative implied an adhesion to the rules of 
interchange, which is not the case. All interested 
parties are requested to see that proper notice is 
given to the secretary if any railroad companies de- 
sire to have their names added to this list. 


The interlocking pneumatic gate shown in our en- 
graving is an application of the Pneumatic Gate 
Company's widely known street-crossing gate to the 
requirements presented at the intersection of 
two or more railway tracks. Our engraving 
was made from a photograph of the gates at 
the crossing of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 
and Chicago, St. Louis cV Pittsburg railways near 
Western avenue and Hilh street, Chicago; the train 
held being on the C, St. L. & P. and that approach- 
ing from the left being on the C, B. & Q, The gates 
are so interlocked that when all are down the opera- 
tor, located in the tower, may choose which of the 
three sets he will unlock and open. It will be noted 
that there is a single set of gates at the right, cover- 
ing two tracks: this controls the Union Stock Yards 
line and this set and the double set crossini- the C, 
St. L. & P., four tracks can be operated entirely 
independent of each other. An air compressor is set 
up in the tower to furnish the air pressure needed to 
work these gates (a maximum pressure of 10 to 12 
pounds being required for prompt working), but air 
compressed by steam power in the C, B. & Q. round 
house, which is about 1,500 feet from the crossing, is 
usually used. The gates ai-e, we understand, giving 
excellent satisfaction. 

This application of the road crossing gate principle 
presents strong claims for favorable considera- 
tion, especially for locations where the much 
more expensive derailing device is not desirable. 
It will readily be seen that the gate arms form 
prominent signals and barriers, resting horizontally 
.aci-oss the tracks except when forced by the operator 
to their perpendicular position tor the passage of 
trains. It is well said of the signal and barrier thus 
presented when the arm is horizontal that the 
signal is of such a formidable nature there is no mis- 
taking it, and that to encroach upon it is to break it 
and thus leave indisputable evidence of disobedi- 
ence to orders. It will be noticed in our engravihg 
that the signal toards carrying lanterns, are so 
pivoted that they hang directly in the middle 
of the track when the arms are lowered and disap- 
pear from view when the arms are raised to the up- 
right position. The absolute certainty of these 
signals and barriers never being open in conflicting 
directions is secured by means of an interlocking ar- 
rangement controlled by the closing arms themselve g 


making it impossible foi- the opei-atoi- to i-aise the 
ai'ms on one set of traclts until he has closed and 
locked the arms on all eonfticting: tracks at the 

The advantages secui-od by this form or interlock- 
ing gate for the intersection of railways may be 
biieUy stated as follows: 

1, A conspicuous signal directly in front of engines 
and trains approaching on tracks that are not clear 
which can be removed only when like signals have 
lioen duly locked over all conllicting tracks. 

1'. A formidable barrier moving vertically from 
the perpendicular to the horizontal position, directly 
across the track to be closed, thus occupying no neu- 
tral position at any time, and not capable of being 
removed except by the operator, and by him only 
when all conllicting tracks have been provided with 
a like barrier similarly locked. 

:V. The operator {who may be the telegraph opera- 
tor at the point) can be located in a comfortable 
tower from which he can have an unobstructed view 
of approaching trains, an undisturbed control of the 
signals and barriers in all weathers and seasons, and 
^ at complicated crossings, can have the power of dis- 
' criminating in favor of passenger trains to a degree 
seldom afforded. 

A leading feature of the system here described is 
that it has no moving parts underground. Thus in- 
spection is made easy and trouble with water, frost 
and concealed breakages are obviated. The gates 
being operated by air, the connections between them 
and to the tower are simply small fixed pipes. 

In operating these gates where there is no avail- 
able supply of compressed air, the operator, using 
the simplest form of pump as a compressor, forces a 
column of air through the small gas pipe connections 
to pistons moving in vertical cylinders in the iron 
gateposts. These pistons actuate, by chain connec- 
tion passing over suitably placed sectors, the gate 
arms. The tie between the pairs of arms is 
accomplished by pipe connections which lead from 
the bottom of the front cylinder in one ;> '-• 
lo llie bottom of the back cylinder in i 
opiiosiio post, and thus the air pressure can- - 
the stveral gates to move in unison. At street liu- 
iiiys the manipulation can be varied so that simulta- 
ULHjus movement of the arms at diagonal corners of 
I he crossing maybe had, thus providing for stopping 
liersoiis appi'oaching, while permitting those on the 
crossing and passing in the opposite direction to 
clear the tracks. On these crossings, by turning 
simple valves, any combination of gate arm move- 
ment maybe had. On railroad crossings, of course, 
such movement is not desired. 

These gates are used at street crossings, on over 
foi'tv I'uaus, among which we may mention the Balti- 
more ,.'c(.>hio,Chesapcake&Ohio,C.,B.& Q.,C.,M.& St. 
1'., C. & X.W., I). & H. Canal Co., Fitchburg,Lehigh 
Valley, L. & N., M ch. Cent., Erie, N. Y. Central, 
IVnnsylvania Railroad, C. St. L. & P., P., C. & St. 
L.. Fort Wayne and Union Pacific. For further In- 
lormation address the Pneumatic Cate Co., 99 
Washington st., Chicago. 

Mr. (ieorge VVestinghouse, in a circular announc- 
ing the absorption of the Standard Car Heating & 
Ventilating Company by the Consolidating Car 
Heating Company, takes occasion to give some of 
the reasons for this action, as follows: 

It is conceded that the warming of railway cars 
by steam generated in the locomotive has become 
more than an experiment; in fact many railway offi- 
cials express the opinion that this method must be- 
come universal; but, to become universal, uniform 
apparatus and practice will be necessary on all con- 
necting: lines. As regards the use of like apparatus 
on all lines, the arguments which have heretofore 
prevailed with reference to brake apparatus can be 
equally well advanced in favor of uniformity in steam 
heating apparatus; and this uniformity in steam 
heating apparatus will, as has been the case with 
brakes, be much more likely to result from the con- 
centration of the business into the hands of oi;e con- 
cern, having the necessary capital and organization 
to manufacture the apparatus needed lo meet all 
reciuirements, and owning also the patents necessary 
to insure to-the users reasonable freedom from the 
annoyances of patent litigation, than in any other 
way; indeed the little |m...'i. -- ~m f;ir made in fitting 
cars has been due to tli- : ^ - i ' i-ing from the 

use of dissimilar -, i were fully 

comprehended by Ui - ; ;.il Company. 

After a careful iii.\._^i;_.ii.oi>. 1 Ijccame con- 
vinced that it is far iu advance of all other com- 
panies in the completeoess of its several systems, and 
in the scope and strength of its patents. The Con- 
solidated Company is already the owner of the 
Sewall "drum"", the McElroy'commingler" and other 
valuable systems, in all of which are combined desir- 
able features of steam and water heating. 

The commingler system, it seems to me, most 
nearly solves the problem of car heating. The 
system involves the use within the car of 
pipes containing water, with which steam is 
noiselessly commingled through an ingenious device 
which has the effect of quickly heating and circulat- 
ing the water, and admits of the utilization of a great 
part of the latent (stored) heat, which is necessarily 
wasted in all direct steam systems, and secures the 
regulation of the temperature of the water from 
seventy degrees up to whatever is required for the 
coldest weather; thus making it possible to avoid 
the annoyance and discomfort which result from the j 
use of those systems whereby the steam is admitted 
directly into the pipes at not less than 212 degrees. 
The pipes of the commingler system may be used 
without an auxiliary water heater, or they may be 
connected to a coil within a stove, so that fire may ' 
be applied and the circulation and heat kept up | 
when the car is disconnected from the locomotive; i 
although the heat ordinarily contained in this con- 
siderable body of water will suffice for maintaining a 
fair temperature within a car for some time after the 
steam from the engine has been turned off. 


Following is the full text of the new Iowa law re- 
quiring the use of automatic couplers and brakes, 
referred to in our last issue: 

An act requiring all railroads, corporations, companies 
and persons, operatiug a railroad and doiug business in 
Iowa, lo equip all their engines and cars with proper, effi- 
cient and safe automatic couplers and brakes, and for pre- 
scribing penalties for failure thereof. 

iiportance toany which 
teution— that of safety 
dus matter of sufficient 
tain our interest in the 


Be " '■'^m'ted by Ihc yencral asseiiMy of the s 


Section 1. That it shall be unlawful tor any corporation, 
co-npauy or person operating any line of railroad in this 
slate, any car manufacturer or transportation company 
using 1 r leasing ears, to put in use in this stale any new 
,.;,,■« nr anv .-Hvs that hiiv.' I>wn writ in to the shop or shops 
[,,!■ •■.•i;.'i\ii ri'iMii--, i'l- w i;i'^<- ilr.iii I'l-i-'ing has 10 be re- 
I ■ I ,: .1 IV not equipped 

i„ >„„p.i oi i.i..oi.p,^ U.viu. uuL ui.^ia;Ld Irom the side of 

Sec. 2. That after January 1, 18U5, it shall be unlawful 
for any corporation, company or person operating a rail- 
road, or any transportation company using or leasing cars 
of any description and used in the commerce of the coun- 
try, or in the construclion of railroads, lo have upon any 
railroad in Iowa for use in the transportation of freight or 
passengers any car that is not equipped with such safety 
automatic coupler as provided for in section 1 of this act. 

Sec. 3. That it shall be unlawful for any corporation, 
company or person operating any line of railroad in this 
state, to use any locomotive engine upon any railroad or in 
any railroad yard in this stale after the first day of Jan- 
uary, isyi, that is not equipped with a proper and efficient 
power brake, commonly called a "driver brake." 

Sec. 4. That it shall be unlawful for any corporation, 
company or person operating a line of railroad in this state 
to run any train of cars after the first day of January, 
MiVi, that shall not have in that train a sufficient number of 
cars with some kind of efficient automatic or power brakes 
30 that the engineer upon the locomotive can control the 
train without requiring brakemen to go between the ends 
or on the top of the oars to use, as now, the common hand 

S>' ' t ■' '..If. ltd corpoi-ation, company or person 
o[..i.. I . '. this state, and every person or per- 

sons - I,- I- ars in the transportation business or 

inrludt* 111 ilieir aiHiual report to the state railroad com- 
missioners the number of locomotive engines and cars used 
in this state, and what number of cars equipped with auto- 
matic safety couplers, and the kind of brakes and couplers 
used, iiii.l tiie iiunibi-r of each kind, when more than one 

s< . . >! ■ Miion, company or person operatinij a 

n.ili, , ; I ! , - -; , , ,11. 1 using a locomotive engineer run- 
ning .1 ' I I I M- I using any freight, way or other car, 
cuiui.r , 11 1,. I'l.. 1^1. .u9 of this act, shallbe deemed guilty 
of a iiiis.leuifauor. ■.liiiI shall be subject to a fine of not less 
than i-'Mi or not more than *1,0UU, for the benefit of the 
school fund, for each and every oflfence. Provided the pen- 
alties on this section shall not apply to companies in haul- 
ing cars belonging to railroads other than those of this 
state which are engaged in interstate traffic: and any rail- 
road employe who may be injured by the 


law, shall no 
damages by continuing 
company or person ru 
contrary to this law. 
Approved April.!, is 


of such 
the provisiobs of this 
ving his right to recover 
loy of such cori>orations. 

In an address delivered by Mr. H. S. Haines, presi- 
j dent of the General Time Convention, at the annual 
meeting of that association in New York last month, 
the speaker offered some valuable suggestions as to 
the future work of the association, as follows: 

For what purpose shall the General Time Conven- 
I tion exist? Fortunately it has now been directed to 

with . 

out a course for ourselves, ami i. ..! pursue it. 
To my mind, this association of ours is c.|ual lo the 
consideration of more than one subject at a time, 
equal indeed to as many as may present themselves 
in its legitimate field of operations. I say its legiti- 
mate field, and I use that expression advisedly, for 
I am of the opinion that it should be restricted to 
the consideration of subjects in which the members 
have a common intcresl. This is true of standard 
time, of uuiform signals and train rules, of car serv- 
ice and of safety appliances. But those subjects are 
outside of its field which involve other considera- 
tions than those relating solely to railroad practice. 
For instance, questions of policy with reference to 
traffic may arouse\ i.lni.l . ni i....^ and com- 
petitions between in. m. . i ,r 1,. II or be- 
tween the commuhi'.!. - . ! ! Inch will 
dominate their dis.u--;.. II .mi, ili.ui. ih.ydonot 
appear to do so. The issues involved iii tiic ques- 
tions hitherto before us have been mainly due to a 
difference of opinion capable of adjustment either 
by argument or by proof. I maintain, thi.'refore, that 
the General Time Convention should avoid any sub- 
ject relating to traffic- or revenue, and should con- 
fine itself to matters of operation and economy. The 
field is large enough to occupv ail the time that wo 
can devote to the business of our association, and in- 
cludes matters well worthy of our attention. 

Assuming then that our proper field is thai of op- 
eration and management, as distinguished iroiii 
traffic and revenue, we have next lo consider hoiv 
these matters should be treated. I should say either 
as they affect our stockholders, or our employes, or 
the public, for we must bear in mind that, as rail- 
road managers, we occupy this threefold relation. 
It is in this triple relation that we have considered 
the questions that have hitherto been presented lo 
us, and wc have now to approach the subject of 
safety appliances. Treated in this way, there will 
be no lack of matter for our deliberations. Tue 
march of progress has not yet brought our railroad 
systems to that condition which leaves nothing fur- 
ther to be desired, and there are improvements in 
methods and appliances now passing from the ex- 
perimental stage, in where they are properly the 
subjects for consideration in technical assuciations, 
to the stage in where the responsible managements 
of our railroad systems must decide whether they 
will recognize them as sufficiently valuable for gen- 
eral adoption. So it has been with the substituiion 
of steel lor iron rails, and iron for wooden bridges, 
with the establishment of sleeping car lines, with ilie 
adoption of continuous air braKes and autoiuaiic 
couplers on passenger trains; so it will be with simi- 
lar improvements in methods and appliances. 

As railroad managers we also handle men as well 
as material and appliances, and here is a field for 
our efforts as yet scarcely touched, at least in the 
way in which I would like to sue it treated. 

A railroad system, properly organized, has its 
staff, field and line officers, its supply deparlmenls, 
its inspectors, its divisions and c1i~i! .iperation; 
in a word, it is an army, wli..- .n - ...iioslay, 
not to devastate, but to tin i . .pie and 
products of a country. Thi- n. and to 
this end all of its efforts ai .1 .ii 1.. accom- 
plish this end succ-s-l i.llx ,11. 1; ,1 .sseiiiial 

vlh of 

our business, with 1 1 n ... .'|.. rations 

and the increased im.i .; ..' ininis. there 

must be an ill. 1.11-. .1 -"' .usi-ipiine and an 
enforcemciii ..' 11, ni m . n |..jnalties as irk- 
some to th. .i..|i ..1 . .. ■ 1, I liny army the in- 
cessant drill 1111. 1 Ml. I LN.aliuns are to the 

soldier. .\ ii.sisUiii.. 1.1 rL.^Li.iiul and reproof, a 
mutinous Icnduiicy, a disposition lo oppose the 111- 
teresls of the company in matters indifferent to the 
emplo.e have been, Ifear, encouraged by labor or- 
ganizations, whose ostensible objects are the pecuni- 
ary, moral and social welfare of their members. If 
this spirit is to prevail, the maintenance of that dis- 
cipline will be imperilled, which is as essential to 
their own safety as for thr protection of the lives of 
our pa.sseii^.. . -"i.iiil II.' |.. iip.-rty of our stockholders. 
The rapi.i ' " -' "i . road mileage and tonnage 
has led to I I- 11 .1 a mob of recruits in our 
industrial aim. a- -' .. lo discipline and to obe- 
dience to cuiiii 01 .i.s ilu .. .lie averse to them. In this 
emergency railroad maiiagcrs have been compelled 
to take this material as it comes to their hands, and 
to make the best possible use of it; but with a de- 
creased ratio of railroad construction this necessitv 
will also decrease; and we will then have lime at 
our disposal to drill the dis.irderly and disaffected 
members into a proper stale of discipline and 10 dis- 
miss the incapables from the ranks. For this work 
10 be successful wo must arouse among them a feel- 
ing of pride in the organization to which they be- 
long, of respect for their officers and of interest in 


the work which they have in hand, which is known 
as esprit de corps; a spirit which has carried armies 
througrh privations, sufferings and defeat to victory, 
and without which no body of men can be controlled 
under adverse circumstances. How to do this with the 
opposition of labor unions better organized than we 
are is indeed a subject well worth our consideration, 
and one which we have to face sooner or later, 
whether we like it or not. It would be out of place 
for me to do more than to indicate the direction 
which the discussion of this subject wauld take. I 
will suggest, however, that when the rapid absorp- 
tion of outsiders into the railroad ranks shall cease 
and all questions of wages shall have been approxi- 
mately adjusted, whether by arbitration or by the 
eflfectof supply and demand, the time in my opin- 
ion will have arrived to determine the relation be- 
tween a railroad corporation and its employes which 
will insure the best results of their labor to them- 
selves, to the company and to the public. Here will 
come in questions as "to permanency of employment, 
insurance aj?ainst injuries, sickness and old age, pri- 
ority of promotion, recognition of meriterious 
services and protection against abuse on the one 
hand, and on the other questions of training for 
special duties, obedience to orders, respect to supe- 
riors, etc., which have occupied the attention of mili- 
tary men for thousands of years, and which have led 
to the application of certain recognized principles to 
an army of fighting men that are in many respects as 
applicable to an army of railroad men. 


Discassion on Co outer balancing Locomotives. 
At the April meeting of the Western Railroad 
Club the leading subject of discussion was the coun- 
terbalancing of locomotives, the proposed joint de- 
fect card being tabled after brief discussion and the 
interchange rules receiving but slight attention. 
Mr. W. H. Lewis, of the C, B. & N. Ry., opened the 
subject of counterbalancing as follows: 


It is the object of this paper to consider, without enter- 
ing into the mysteries of abstract science, the proper 
amount and distribution of counter- weight in the driving 
wheels of the locomotive, and the propoaitions offered will 
be based on the fundamenUl principles of the law of grav- 
ity, and its development into momentum and centrifugal 
force, in the reciprocating and revolving parts. 

In order to analyze the conditions of the problem as 
clearly as possible, we will at first deal with the revolving 
weight independent of the reciprocating weight. 

Starting with the problem of balancing the revolving ] 
weight, we will present the proposition that the counter- i 
weight be so located, and be of such weight that the re- 
volving weight be balanced in a state of rest, with the 
crank in any position. 

Acknowledging this self-evident proposition, it follows | 
thai the counter-weight must be located with its center of 
gravity exactly opposite that of the revolving weight or | 
crank: also, that, according to the principles of leverage, t 
the weight of the counter- weight and the weight of the 
revolving parts must be inversely proportionate to their ■ 
respective distances from the center of axle. 

In other words (as per Fig. ^) the counter- weight, d. 
multiplied by b, the distance from its center of gravity to 
center of axle, must be equal to the revolving weight, (, 
multiplied by a, the disUnce from its center of gravity to 
center of axle. Hence, as per Fig. .">, 

Example : The distance from the center of gravity of a 
revolving weight of 200 lbs. to the center of the axle is 12 
inches, and the distance of the center of gi*avity of the 
counter- weight of 100 lbs. is 24 inches, because 
200 X 13 200 X 12 

24 ~ " 100 

If the foregoing conditions of sialic or stationary balance 
have been obtained, the development of centrifugal force, 
as a result of rotary motion, will also produce a dynamic or 
moving equilibrium, as will be seen by the following ex- 
amples according to the formula of centrifugal force, which 

veigUt i 

ifugal force of the revolv 
ht at 100 and 200 revoluti 
equal to each other. 

veight we must have 

To balance the 
same conditions of static balance 
its counterbalance, which will appear in Pigs. 1 to 4. where, 
in order to consider the force ot gravity, an upright posi- 
tion of cylinder is assumed. It will be seen that a perfect 
static balance is obtained by means of the counter-weight 
shown, with the crank in any imaginable position. 

In this case, we find by reference to Figs. 1 to 4. repre- 
senting a driver turning from right to left, that, at the 

forward and back centers, we hav '"' " * "--' 

ance. because at those points the \ 
is all absorbed in overcoming the 
procatiog weight and in changing 
tion. The arrows indicate the dir 
the reciprocating weight and 
and 4 we have the recipi 
counter weight moving i 

L perfect dynamic 
form centrifugal force 


inches from center of axle, balanced by a counterweight 
of 10<J lbs. with its center of gravity at 24 inches from cen- 
ter of axle, the revolving speeds being 5 
lutions per minute. 

According to the formula above given 
owing for a speed of .50 revolutions : 

r*>in trincr gQ^^^. 0^3-2 

lorcc in ( loox 10-47: 

direction of its mo 
n of the tendency of 
r-weight. In Figs 2 
:aiing weight and its equivaleui 
opposite directions, and the prod- 
uct ot the square ot their horizontal velocities.multiplied 
by their respective weights are equal; hence.the horizonuil 
balance is perfect, but the centrilugal weight of theircoui - 
ter-balance is not counteracted by the reciprocating weight 
By the above it will appear that the reciprocating weight 
is perfectly balanced at all points by the revolving counter- 
weight, but the counterweight is balanced by the recipro- 
cating weight at the dead points or centers only. Hence, 
the effect of the revolving weight as applied to balance the 
horizontal action of the reciprocating weight is only to con- 
vert it to a vertical force acting on the rail, producing what 
is termed a hammer blow. 

Therefore, a solution of the problem will involve the 
choice of the lesser evil; that undoubtedly is the hammer 
blow, considering the smoothness of running and the dura- 
bility of the engine and the comfort of enginemen. 

As to the distribution of this counter-weight for the recip- 
rocating weight, it is evident that the time honored custom 
of dividing this counter-weight equally between coonected 
drivers is not effective unless the effect of this counter 
weight can be uniformly transmitted to the main driver, 
which is a condition impossible to fulfill by means of the 
ordinary parallel rod, with the longitudinal play or lost 
motion, which it must necessarily possess or acquire in the 

From the preceding it appears that the proper method of 
balancing the drivers would require that the counter-weight 
of the main drivers be equivalent to the revolving weight 
added to the whole of the reciprocating weight. ( Revolv 
ing weight, including pins, hub and forward end of parallel 
rod and one-third of the main rod. Reciprocating weight, 
including the other two-thirds of the main rod ; cross head, 
and piston and its attachments.) 

This coudition of course leaves only the revolving weight 
of the connected drivers to be balanced by its equivalent 
counter- weight as per conditions above shown. 

While the above statement is theoretically correct, my 
observation of the effect produced on tires on our engines 
leads me to believe that under certain conditions of speed 
the weights intended to counterbalance the reciprocating 
parts produced opposite results to those intended, and vrork 
considerable damage to the machinery of the engine as 
well as of the track. I have found that the tires invariabiy 
develop a flat spot at the point of contact with the rail 
when the left hand pin has just passed to the forward cen- 
ter. You will perhaps ask why the same effect is not pro- 
duced by the corresponding point on the back end of the 
stroke. I will explain this by saying that the point of con- 
tact of the periphery of the wheel with the rail is near the 
point of the center of gravity of the counter- weights and 
has a tendency to overcome or retard the centrifugal force. 
While in the former case, with the center of gravity on 
the upper quarter, it is free to reserve a leverage acting in 
the same direction as the power applied from the cylinder, 
causing a slight slipping of the wheel. 

It may be interesting to know to what extent the recipro- 
cating weights may be ignored. I will say that in testing 
the balance of a modern engine that was built expressly for 
a heavy passenger service, I find that the back wheels re- 
quired an addition of 1S9 pounds with the center of 
gravity 20 inches from the center of axle to balance 
the r evol vin g weight and the forward wheels had 
only SGS pounds of counter-balance with which to bal- 
ance 90S pounds, as follows: Main rod ai.S pounds, half 
side-rod HiO pounds, cross-head 157 pounds, piston 27H 90s pounds; or, in other words, the reciprocat- 
ing weights were entirely ignored in the forward wheels 
and the back wheels are 189 pounds short of the proper re- 
volving balance. These engines were in service nearjyfour 
years before the balance was corrected, without known in 
jury to the track. 

I am free to admit that when all the various conditions 
of speed, power applied, effect of the piessure in the 
cylinder, etc., are considered, it is to me a very 
perplexing problem as to just what portion of the re 
ciprocating weights should be applied to the counter bal- 
ance. Let us consider for a moment the power exerted by 
a cylinder 18 inches in diameter with an area of 2.54-4H in 
ches, with a steam pressure of 45.H24 pounds acting in the 
same direction of the reciprocating weight. It seems lo nic 
that fiOO pounds of counter-balancing supplies an imper- 
ceptible resistance to its effect. In condensing my opinion 
on this subject I will say that it is impossible to distribute 
such portion of reciprocating weight as will insure a uui 
form motion under the varying conditions of speed, power 
applied, and with engines running, as they are required to 
at limes, without pressure of steam ordinarily cjUed '"shut- 
off;" that if the revolving balance is perfect no injury is 
possible to the machinery or rails, and, while at high rates 
of speed the engine may develop a disagreeable, oscillatory 
motion, and what is know as a fore and aft motion when 
shut off, the vertical or hammer blow motion will be re- 
After reading his paper Mr. Lewis stepped to the 
blackboard and drawing the sketch shown herewith 

I wish to call attention particularly to the effect of exces- 
sive counter-balance on the wear of tires. All of our loco- 
motives are counter-balanced with the full weight of the 
reciprocating parts and we have found that our left hand 
main tires universally develop a flat spot at the point of 

We have at this point of the stroke the full pressure of 
steam exerted on the left hand pin in the direction as shown 
by the arrow and at the same time the centers of gravity of 
the counter weights have so nearly reached the vertical 

point as to overcome the effect of gravitation, the i 

which is exerting an impelling motion in the same direction 

as the power applied at the pin. 

Mr. Lewis here presented tho following figures 
showing change made by him in one engine and the 
of the balance in another. 


wei ghts Of Revolving Part... ^^ Wheel. |Wheel. 

Middle c "^ 

Back half main i 

ght of R'fciprocating Parts. 


Weights of Hevolving Parts. 

Mr. D. L. Barnes here offered the following ( 
nation of the flat spot being on the left hand side, 
sketching his diagram upon the blackboard. 

Possibly I can explain the can 
leaier on the left hand side, 
hat the right hand crank i 

. may arise from the fact 
5ually leads on American en- 
sketch shows the positions of the right hand 
lin at O and the left hand crank pin at G with the 
balance directly opposite the cranks, the left hand 
■ g at P and the right hand at M, the 
direction of motion being as shown by the arrow, the 
engine moving ahead. A. represents the connecting rod 
In the position shown it will be noticed that the counter- 
balances on all four wheels are above the center of the 
wheel, and the centrifugal force of that portion of the 
counterbalance which is used to balance the inertia of 
reciprocating parts is in this position tending to lift the 

wheels from the rails. This, 
reduce the weight on the rai 
slipping, which would cause fiat spots a 
The position of the flat spot described I 
the left hand wheel where it is in con 

point of slip. 


This side up when considering static balance. 


I CouoterDalancing. I 

vhen the left hand crank C 
lot quite as much as show 
he balance M is higher abov 

just passed the dead center. 

the sketch. At this lime 

he center line than the bal- 

herefore the balance M is acting with greater 

lift the right hand wheel 

■ Imlunced us follows: 

force verticaUy and tends 

than the balance P tends to lif : the left hand wheel. There 
' is, therefore, greater weight on the left hand wheel at this 
time, and if the wheel be caused to slip, the wheel with the 
greatest weight thereon will be worn the most; and as the 
left hand wheel has the most weight, it might be expected 
that the tiat spot would be greater on it than on the right 
hand wheel. There is still another reason why slip would 
be liable to take place at this time, and that is. the cranks 
are in a position corresponding to one of the maximum 
turning moments. As a locomotive's drivers revolve, the 
turning effect by the connecting rods is variable, and dur- 
ing one revolution there are four points of maximum and 
four of minimum effect. The points of the maximum vary 
with the point of cut-off. The obliquity of the connecting 
rod for the left hand wheel is such at this time as to in- 
crease the pressure on the rail on that side, as at this time 
the left hand cylinder is working steam full boiler pressure, 
whereas on the opposite or right hand side the piston is 
working in expanding steam, and possibly against some 
back pressure. This point is well brought out by Mr. 
Lewis. If the right hand crank did not lead, but the left 
instead, then the greatest turning moment would take 
place when there was the greatest weight on the right 
hand wheel. These argument are somewhat speculative, 
but indicate a possible explanation of the oicurrence of the 
greater flat spot on the left hand wheel as noticed by Mr. 
Lewis. In my own experience I have noticed four flat 
spots on each driver, some of which were larger than 
others; but I had not noticed that the maximum spots oc- 
curred on the left hand main driver, but I can see reasons 
why such might be the case. 

From the very brief discussiun following we quote 
as follows from the remarks of Mr. Barr of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul: 

Mr. Barr— We have two claiises of ten wheel 
freight engiues, one with wheels 54 inches in 
diameter over tire and the other 60 inches. The 
engines with 60-inch wheels give very satisfactory 
service, and are run fast; the engines with the -34- 
inch wheels have been objected to seriously by the 
engineers, and I think with good cause. The figures 
I have here show the changes in the counterbalanc- 
ing of one of these engines with •54-inch wheels. I 
submit them as illustrating an experiment that has 
given very satisfactory results. 

Old M. rod.s weighe 


Old S •' 

Forward D. wheels i 

weight of R.F. S. rod.. 

K. B. S. '•'.'. 


timatt<l weight weight 

K. B. drivings 

reciprocating parts , 2oO 

eight of crank pin and hub 120 

■ No. 4(i9 R. crosshead weighed. 

piston weighed 

l-^S. rod •' 


Piston , 

% of main rod 

crank hubs and pins weighed ( 
procating parts are as follows: 

i balanced as f 

!sof R. I'\S.rod 

M of reciprocating parts 

Estimated weight of R. F. pin and huh 

R F. D. wheel's counter-balance. 

Following Mr. Barr* 




read a series of propositions concerning counter-bal- 
ancing, submitted by a member of the club. These 
propositions were as follows: 


The subject of counter-balancing seems to be a very im- 
portant one, and well worthy of the attention of the mem- 
bers of the Western Railway Club, and therefore to assist 
in bringing to their attention some of the new points with 
reference to the subject, the following statements which 
have appeared from time to time in the technical papers 
and some which have not, are offered for debate : 

1. The best way to reduce the amount of counterbalance 
in locomotive driving wheels and its effect on the rail is to 
reduce the weight of the reciprocating parts. 

3. The weight of the reciprocating parts of our locomo- 
tives are altogether too heavy as they now are made, and 
therefore all main rods should be made of I section, all 
crossheads should be as light as possible to make them 
without decreasing the wearing surface. All pistons should 
be made of cast steel or wrought iron very thin and dished 
in form, and piston rods should not be made larger in d 
or longer than is actually necessary 

balance on the rail, it having been s 

in diameter of wheel produces a considerable decrease in 

the effect of the counter-balance on the rail. 

4. It is not as advisable to decrease the stroke as to in- 
crease the diameter of the wheel, because for the same 
loss of hauling capacity the increase in wheel diameter 
produces the greatest amount of reduction in the effect of 
the counter- balance on the rail, 
one high spei 
:-balanced by 

will be much greater in the case of the high speed locomo- 
tive for the reason that the effect of the balance on the ra*l 
varies as the square of the velocity of the locomotive. 
Therefore, it might be said : 

ti. That if the high speed locomotive can be run satisfact- 
orily when balanced according to a given formula that a 
' ^.--- ----- jjg balanced by a formula which 

speed 1 

Ud give 

railroads, that a kK..ii,,,i , , , ;. run satisfactorily at 

high speed without balaiR-ing tin.' rec-iprocating parts at 
all, and because such balance is .damaging to the track it 
should be entirely removed. One railroad company has 

8. There are now on record about ten cases in which the 
track has been badly damaged by high speed locomotives 
improperly counter-balanced. These cases are on western 
roads, and this will serve to show the necessity for a con- 
sideration of this subject by the Wesbern Railway Club, 

' in keeping with ' 

only live topic 

. _ of the club, 

which i 

These remarks are offered with the hope that if the club 
approves of any or all of the statements they will offer 
resolutions to the effect that those of which they do ap 
prove express the sense of this meeting. 

Further than 

the front should have 

material therein consistent 

the least possible amount o! 
with strength. 

3. The diameter of the driv 
large as possible without red 
the locomotive in order to reduce the effect of the counter 


Master Mechanic E. M. Roberts, of the Ashland Coal & 
Iron Railroad, has resigned that position' to take a similar 
one with the East Tennessee, Virginia & (ieorgia system. 
He has been appointed master mechanic of the Geor(da 
division, with headquarters at Atlanta. 

Mr. Thomas Howard, general foreman of the Delaware 
& Hudson shops at Oneonta, has been made general in- 
spector of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia. 

M. E. Schmidt, C. E., has changed his office from No. 
I i;tH the Rookery, to No. H'iT the liookery, Chicago. Mr. 
Schmidt's practice as a consulting engineer includes sur 
veys and estimates, examination of railways, the prepara- 
tion of specifications and contracts, superintendence of 
construction, etc. A specialty is made of the investigation 
of Central and Sou*, b American projects. 

Mr. P. W. Brown has been appointed purchasing agent 
of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, with office at Mar- 
quette, Mich. He succeeds Mr. Russell Wallace, who re- 
signed to enter the service of the Chicago & West Michi- 


gan and the Detroit, Lansing & Northern road! 

Mr. J. Chamberlain has been appointed master car builder 
of the Boston & Maine system with headquarters at Law- 
rence, Mass. He succeeds Mr. D. S. Richardson. 

Mr. C. F. Thomas has resigned the position of master 
mechanic of the Georgia division of the East Tennessee, 
Virginia & Georgia, and succeeds Mr. D. M. Gugel as mas. 
ter mechanic of the Central of Georgia at Macon. 

Mr. \V. H. Folsom has been appointed to succeed Mr. F. 
Butze as purchasing agent of the Louisville, New Albany 
& Chicago. 

To Mr. J. B. Heniiey. 

SuperlnlendetU of motive power of the Xew York 

and A'ew Englaml Railroad. 

from the employes of the department, March 4, 1S90. 

is what was inscribed on the salver of a beautiful sterl- 
ing silver service of the respousse design arranged nicely 
in a blue silk, plush lined, brass mounted, quartered oak- 
chest, presenting a fine appearance to the astonished gaze 
of the recipient when it was sprung upon him, after the 
dinner given to him by twenty-five of his late employes 
and associates at Young's hotel. Boston April -i, 1890. The 
dinner was arranged ostensibly to give each friend a chance 
to express his kindly feeling toward one who had always 
shown himself to be an honorable, upright and conscientious 
man, an obedient servant and a good master. As has 
been said of him by a former employe : " He's a hard task 
master, but we like bim for he gives us plenty to do." A 
homely expression, but there's not a pushing and ener- 
getic mechanic who will not appreciate the full meaning 
of the remark. It means tbat when he wanted a thing 
made it must be quickly and ivell done. It means that he 
was mechanic enough to cope with anything pertaining 
the building of locomotives and cars. Finally it meai 
tbat he recognized the ability of every man who worked 
for him, and when there was a vacancy among the leaders 
he filled it from the ranks In thanking his friends for the 
kind and generous offer, he wished them to understand that 
his success in the management of the department could not 
have been had it not been for the able support of bis con- 
stituents, who always showed they were endeavoring to 
work with a will. He didn't believe a train had 
ever been late on his road through the care- 
lessness or incompetency of an engineer, nor did 
he believe one bad ever been late on account of bad 
workmansbip. He said he couldn't alone have turned out 
a new engine a month, and kept up the repairs, nor deliver 
two tiO- foot coaches in 'is days from the date of the order, 
built completely from the rough material. Of course, this 
amount of work was not unprecedented for the country at 
large, but would be appreciated only by those knowing the 
capacity of the shops. The presentation was a' pleasant 
affair aU around. 

The many friends of Mr. Allen Bourn, purchasing agent 
of the Michigan Central, Detroit, Lansing & Northern, and 
allied lines, will regret to hear of his retirement, from not 
only railroad service but from the activities of life. Mr. 
Bo'im has long suffered, and is, or was until very recently, 
in Europe seeking a relief from the ills that pressed upon 
him. He is a very sick man, his trouble being mainly con- 
nected with his brain, 

Mr. W. A, Caswell has been appointed general superin- 
tendent of the Burton car works at Wichita, Kan., and of 
the repair department shops at Chicago, his headquarters 
being at Wichita. Mr. Caswell has an established reputa- 
tion as a car builder and mechanic, gained several years 
ago in large eastern railroad shops, and will pro 
quisition to the mercantile world. While Mr. Caswell 
ters private busii 
50r, Mr. J. T. Chamberlain 
world, becoming 

letter written by Master Mechani.' M. L. Collier, of 
that road, that on this run the engine used only one- 
third of a quart of oil. Mr. Collier thought the tests 
were particularly satisfactory, in view of the fact 
that the engine had new valves just faced on both 
sides. A crank pin grease is also made by the same 
firm, a grease, which it is claimed, will do just as 
good work in its particular field as the coach grease 
above mentioned; ft is made of solidified sperm, un- 
der a special process. 

1 thei 

The Toledo & An 

, for : 


—The government railways of Chili have just placed an or 
der for quite a number of our American coaches which will 
have the modem improvements, among which are the Scar- 
ritt car chairs, very handsome in pattern and finish. The 
Wason Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Mass., are 
building the coaches. We may add in this connection that 
the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis has ordered addi 
tional equipment for its passenger department and has 
specified the new Scarritt reclining chairs for the sealing. 

—The New York office of the Consolidated Car Heating 
Company has been removed from 15 Courtlandt street to 
115 Broadway. 

Mr. Jas. G. Wilson, who for some years has been located 
at 907 Broadway. New York city, has moved into large and 
convenient quarters at 74 West '23d street. Mr. Wilson has 
built up a business, which covers the entire country, in in- 
side and outside window blinds, rolling partitions, etc. 
■oiling steel shutters are used on many of the largest 
buildings. They are specitled on the great warehouse now 
being built by the New York Central & Hudson River R. 
at 59th street and 11th avenue. New York city. They are 
also used on shed "D" belonging to that road, which has 
been rebuilt since its destruction by fire about a year ago. 
The grain elevator of the same road which has replaced 
the one burned at the same time has its gateways closed by 
the Wilson roUiog steel shutters, which are specially ad 
apted to such service. Mr. Wilson also manufactures roll- 
ing wood shutters or inside rolling blinds for cars. These 
are made of any kind of wood that may be desired. The 
dining cars of the Pennsylvania road have inside rolling 
shutters of this design. 

— W. F. Ellis, engineer and roadmaster of the New York, 
Providence & Boston Railway, well known throughout 
railroad circles, has resigned his position to accept one 
with the Dunham Manufacturing Company, in the interest 
of the Servis tie plate and Davies spike. Mr. Ellis was, 
we are informed, the first one to suggest the combination 
of both of these devices as the best advance in permanent 

-Mr. O. K. Gardner, manufacturer of the Gardner sash 
balance, whose shops were recently burned,expeLts to have 
works running about May 15th. They are located 
and P., Ft. W. & C. R. R., Allegheny, 

at Manhattan s 

world. While Mr. Caswell en^ " 
ex-railroad man, his predeces^ 
ain, goes back to the railroad! J 
r builder of the Boston & Maine, h 

— , ,. <l 

The Kxcclsior coach grease, manufactured by the 
Kennesaw Refining Company,of Cartersvill 
making an excellent record in prtictical service.' 
This grease is not atfected by the extremes of heat 
and cold. It is packed into the journal in the same 
manner as ordinary grease. It is charged heavily 
with the best lubricating plumbago, which quickly 
forms a coaling on the journal. It has a record on 
the 'Western & Atlantic Railroad ot la,8,S9 miles to 
one packing of grease, on an express train running 
between Atlanta and Rome. This record was made 
under a heavy car. hea*ilv loaded daily with ex- 
press and baggage. Master Car Builder Kinvon 
has gained from this and similar work a high opin- 
ion of this grease. The cylinder oil made by the 
.same company is also giving excellent service. Some 
months ago a 17x2+ ten-wheeler on the Western & 
Atlantic, that had just been overhauled, made a 100- 
mile run with 14 loaded cars. We learn through a 

—The Tripp Manufacturing Co., of Boston, are at pres 
ent engaged in building a double truck car for the West 
End Street Railway Co., of Boston. The car will have 
eight wheels, will be '38 ft. long from door to door, 7 ft. 3 in. 
wide, and 7 ft. 9 in. in height from the floor, and will have 
a seating capacity for 40 passengers. Each truck has four 
30 in. steel wheels, and two 15 h. p. Thomson-Ho 
tors. The car will be provided with vacuum and hand 
brakes, and the brakes wilt be operated by a to 
arrangement giving immense power. The Tripp patent 
roller bearings will be used throughout, and the car will be 
trucks of an entirely new design (on which pat- 
pending) the equalizing bar being connected direct 
urnal boxes underneath, instead of passing around 
i hitherto. There are less parts and fewer bolts 
about the new Tripp truck than on any other form of truck, 
and they leave plenty of room for the application of the 
ors and electrical apparatus. 

Those who are interested in aluminum and its alloys 

should surely obtain a copy of the catalogue published by 

Pittsburgh Reduction Company, 95 Fifth avenue.Pitts-' 

burgh. Pa. All but two of the 23 pages of this catalogLe 

are devoted to valuable data concerning aluminum. A re- 

arkable amount of information concerning this interest- 

Ga., is^ ing metal is presented in a thoroughly readable manner 

and in compact form. 

— Wood-workers demand machinery for rapid and per- 
fect production ; they are then enabled to_ get their work 
out faster, and in larger quantities. The late improved 
time and labor-saving machines of the Egan company, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, will be fully described in a new catalogue 
soon to be issued, which will be a handsome affair, con- 
taining cuts and descriptions of the immense line of late 
improved wood-working machinery of that company. 

—The charming waltz distributed among its friends by 
the Magnolia Anti-Friction Metal Co. recently is now fol- 
lowed by a handsomely bound novelette.entitled " Luxilla." 
copies of this may be obtained readily by addressing the 
firm at Now York, enclosing 3 cents for postage. 

—The Toledo & Ohio Central are about to order 700 box 
cars and the order will probably be followed by others to 


—A company is now being organized at Pittsburgh to 
manufacture and sell the Smith patent oil box for railway 
cars. This invention belongs to the class of mechanical 
oilers and has shown remarkable results in service. The 
inventor is Mr. W. O. Smith, master car builder of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad at Norwalk, O. 
The oiler can can be adapted to the M. C. B. standard 
journal box at a moderate cost. 

— We are in receipt of a circular which should be of in 
terest to those engaged in the production or use of iron and 
steel. It describes the silica process, owned and conirolled 
by the MuUin's Silicated Iron & Steel Co., of Chicago. The 
process is is not only described, but its eSfect in cast iron 
are dwelt upon at some length. The company has used the 
process upon nearly all the irons produced in the United 
States, and upon all lines of foundry work. A careful re- 
port by Prof. J. B. Johnson, professor of civil engineering, 
and director of the testing laboratory of the Washington 
University, at St. Louis, upon cast iron made by the sili- 
cated process, is included in the circular. It covers the 
effect of the silica process upon the internal structure, the 
working qualities, the tensile strength, and the resilience 
of cast iron. Prof. Johnson's conclusion is that the pro- 
cess greatly improves all the desirable qualities of cast 
iron, and as far as he is aware, aggravates no undesirable 

—Assurances reach us that it is an absolute fact that the 
Strong Locomotive Company will erect notably fine locomo- 
tive works at a point a short distance out from Cincinnati, 
Ohio. An extensive acreage has been obtained, and works 
of a thoroughly modern pattern, both in design and equip- 
ment, will be erected thereon. 

—We have received a catalogue of the Westcott patent 
chucks, manufactured by the Westcott Chuck Co., Oneida, 
N. Y. The leading feature of the product of this company 
is described and illustrated in this catalogue, in connection 
with its large line of chucks. We refer to the scroll com- 
bination lathe chuck, which gives all the movements and 
conveniences obtainable in both the independent and uni- 
versal chucks, at a cost much lower than that for both. 
The catalogue is fully illustrated with finely engraved cuts 
of the company's various chucks, arbors, etc. 

— Among recent contracts of the Sweet & Clark Co., of 
Marion, C, are 400 tons of malleable iron castings for the 
Missouri Car & Foundry Company, and 200 tons of the 
same for the Lafayette Car Works. Five hundred malle- 
able iron draw bars for the I. & G. N., are also under con- 
ract with the firm. The Sweet & Clark Company use nat- 
ral gas exclusivel.N- in the manufacture of their goods, 
nd find that fuel admirably adapted to their wants. 
—The visit of a party of railway oBlcers to the Home- 
stead Steel Works, mentioned in the April Railway 
M-4STEK Mec H.txic, was so successful in all respects that 
Messrs. Coolbaugh, McMunn & Pomeroy recently issued 
invitations for a second excursion to the same works. The 
invitations were very generally accepted, and two special 
cars were well filled by the party. The following list of 
the railway officials who made the trip shows that, in or 
ganizing these excursions, Mr. Coolbaugh and his asso 
elates have hit upon a plan which, besides being novel, is 
remarkably successful in securing the attention and co- 
operation of leading and representative men. That these 
^en were greatly interested by what they saw it is hardly 
Necessary to say. The list is aj follows : G. D. W. Smith, 
purchasing agent of the Central R. R. of New Jersey; E. 
1p. Sheffer, purchasing agent of the N. Y., L. E. & W. 
R. R. ; R. H. Wilbur, second vice president of the Lehigh 
K'alley R. R. ; John Lentz, master car builder, Lehigh Val- 
ley R. R. ; L. B. Paxson, superintendont of motive power, 
|P. & R. R. R. ; L. M. Butler, superintendent of motive 
power, N.Y., P. & B. R. R.; A. W. Sumner, assistant 
purchasing agent, Penn. R. R.,; J. H. Agnew, superin- 
tendent of motive power, S. C. Central R. R. ; W. Gibbs, 
purchasing agent, P. & B. R. R. ; G. W. Gage, superin- 
tendent of motive power, P. P. & B. R. R. ; W. C. De 
Armond, purchasing agent, Norfolk & Western R. R. ; 
Albert Griggs, superintendent of motive power, N. Y. & 
R,R. ; A. S. Vogt, mechanical engineer, Penn. R.R. ; 
. (i. Ely; J. N. Lauder, superintendent of motive 
power. Old Colony R. R. ; J. W. Marden, superintendent 
department, Filchburg R. R. ; J. C. Glass, master me- 
chanic, Allegheny Valley R. H. ; H. D. Mason, purchasing 
agent, Allegheny Valley R. R. ; Abram Gould, purchas- 
ing agent, Missouri Pacific B. R. ; Wm. Garstang, superin- 
tendent motive power, Chesapeake & Ohio R. R. ; W. E. 
Maher. superintendent motive power, C, C. it C. R. R. 


-The Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede and Car Co., of 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, send us a notably handsome cata- 
logue, the cover of which, in its blue and black and gold 
and tasteful design, is quite fet^'hiug. This catalogue, ad- 
mirably printed and illustrated, affords to its readers an 
excellent idea of the general line of light railroad cars, in- 
cluding velocipedes of various forms, that this company 

—The Michigan Railway Supply Co., of Detroit, will 
furnish the New York Central R. R. Co. with their "Cen- 
tral" steel brake beam for the B.UOO ears they are about to 
build. This beam is to be used in connection with the 
Buchanan truck and Westinghouse air-brakes, making a 
notably tine equipment. 

—Suit has been brought in the United States Court at 
St. I'aul. Minnesota, by the Cyclone Steam Plow Co. vs. 
\Vm. H. Ti-uesdale for an injunction to restrain him from 
using the snow plow he purchased recently from the Leslie 
Hros.' Manufacturing Co. as receiver of the Minneapolis 
& St. Louis Railway Company. The Cyclone people claim 
that the new wheel lately adopted by the Leslie Bros." 
Manufacturing Compan.v is an infringement on patents 
held by them. 

—The Dunham Manufacturing Company has removed 
its Chicago ofHce from room 311 to suite ru:<-ror Phenix 

—Those of our readers who use leather belling will And 
some interesting statements in a little circular recently 
issued by the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, of Jersey 
City, N. J. The circular relates to the merits of the Dixon 
belt dressing and leather preservative, which has proved 
remarkably useful in preventing the slipping of belts, pre- 
serving the leather, and preventing both shrinking or 
stretching of the leather. Copies of this circular will be 
mailed upon application to the company. 


Changes for the Month of April, 1890. 

AsHL.^ND Co.vL & Iron.— E. M. Roberts, master me- 
chanic, resigned. 
. Atchison, Topek.v & Santa Fe.— The jurisdiction of R. 
B. Gemmell, superintendent of telegraph, has been ex- 
tended to lines east of Missouri river; C. G. Sholes ap- 
pointed assistant superintendent telegraph with headquar- 
ters at Topeka. Kan. : Frank Bruce, appointed division 
master mechanic of Chicago line, with headquarters at 
Fort Madison, Iowa; Richard English, appointed master 
mechanic of Rio Grande division, with headquarters at San 
Marcial. N. M., vice E. Hockett, resigned; James Collin- 
son, general foreman of Topeka shops, appointed to succeed 
Mr. Bruce as master mechanic of New Mexico division, 
with headquarters at Raton, N. M. 

Atlanta & Florida.— G. P. Howard to be general 
freight and paosenger agent. 

BvRLisGTON & Missouri Rivkk.— H. G. Adams to be 
chief dispatcher of Wyoming division ;Superintendent L. M. 
Fouts of the Colorado division resigned. 

Bkooklvn, Bath & West End.— O. M. Mears to be 
auditor, with office at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

. — General Superint«nd- 

BosTox & Maine —J. T. Chamberlain appointed to suc- 
ceed D. S. Richardson, as master car builder, with office at 
Lawrence, Mass. 

Canada Atlantic— F. E. Dewey, trainmaster, resigned 
and office abolished; M. Donaldson appointed superintend- 
ent of transportation, at Ottawa, Ont. 

Cai'E Fear & Yadkin \ 
ent J. W. Fry to be general 

Central PAtiriL.— The following officers have been 
elected: President, Leland Stanford; first vice president, 
C. P. Huntington; second, C. E. Crocker; third, A. N. 
Towne; treasurer, Timothy Hopkins; secretary and con- 
troller, E. H. Miller, Jr. 

Charleston, Cincinnati & Chii Ae^o.-Geo. W. Bentley 
appointed vice president and general manager. 

CiiATAf<^rA Lake. — J. M. Africa, general manager, re- 
signed; W. E. Griggs t» be general superintendeut in ad- 
dition to duties as general passenger and freight agent; 
Francis S. Jones to be assisUnt general freight agent. 

CniCAOO & Atlantd .— G. M. Beach, general manager, 

Chesapeake & Ohio.— H. Frazier. appointed superin- 
tendent Huntington and Cincinnati divisions, office at Hun- 
tington, W. V.; ofHce of superintendent of transportation 
abolished; J. M. Gill to be assistant superintendent Wash- 
ington division, office at Hinton, W. Va. 

Chicago, BcKLlNciTON & QciN. y — Geo. B. Harris 
elected second vice president, vice Henry H. Stone re- 
signed ; E. P. Ripley, general manager, resigned. 

Ciii' ^'-'K Mii.iVAiKEE & St. Paul.- Superintendent J. 
W. Staplcton transferred to Dubuque division; jurisdiction 
of Superintendent D. L. Bush, of Hastings & Dakota divi- 
sion extended to cover James river division ; D. C. Cheney 
assistant superintendent La Crosse and Valley dlvi- 

iaha.- Stanley 

CiiKAi.o, KocK Island & Paciku.— David Dows, vice 
president, deceased. 

L. F. Kiu:ball to be first assistant general freignt agent 
lines west of Missouri river, with headquarters at Denver. 
G. A. Kimball, assistant general freight agent, to have 
headquarters at Topeka, Kan. 

ClllCAiio, St. Pail. Minneapolis & 
Proudfit, assistant general freight agent, 

ChuaooiSi West Michigan, Detroit, Lansinu & North- 
ern, and Sauixaw Valley & St. Louis— Wm. A. Garett 
to be general passenger agent. 

Russell Wallace to be purchasing agent with office at 
Grand Rapids, Mich., vice Allan Bourn, resigned. 

Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific— P. H. 
Schreiber to be road foreman of engines, office at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Loris.— E. E. 
Kruthoffer to be chief freight accountant; Ira Reynolds to 
be chief ticket accountant. 

Collmbia & 
Chris. Miller, re 
office at Seattle, 

i president. 


Dulltu, South Shore & Atlantic— P. W. Brown ap- 
pointed purchasing agent, succeeding Russell Wallace, re- 

C. P. Flatby to succeed G. W. Hibbard as general west- 
ern passenger agent. 

East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia.— E. M. Roberts 
to be master mechanic of the Georgia division, with office 
at Atlanta. 


& Terre Ha 

-H. W. 

FiTcHBURG.- G. D. Merrill resigned position of train- 
master of western division; M. P. Snyder appointed to 
succeed him, with headquarters at Mechanicville, N. Y. 

Fort Wayne, CisciNX.tTi & Louisville.- John P. Ram- 
sey appointed roadmaster vice J. C. Wagner, resigned. 

Fort Worth & Rio Grande.^I. E. Scully appointed su- 
perintendent of transportation, office at Fort Worth. 

H. G. Thompson to be 

Colorado & Santa Fe.- 
jalveston, Tex. 

Georgetown & Western.- C. A. Ball, general superin 
tendent, resigned. Northern Railway Line— Montana Central.— 
Edward Sawyer appointed treasurer, with office at St. 
Paul, vice S. J. Beals, resigned. 

Hannibal & St. JosEPH.-Trainmaster P. H. Houlihan 
to be assistant superintendent with office at Brookheld.Mo. 

Hannibal & St. Louis— Geo. B. Clason to be general 

Hi ntinodon & Broad Top.— President B. Andrews 
Knight, deceased; Spencer M. Janney elected president 
pro tem. 

Jeffersonville. Mai 
ley, appointed trainma! 

Illinois Central.— J. C. Hartigan to be superintendent 
Chicago division, vice J. C. Russ assigned to other duties. 

G. W. Hatter to succeed Wm. Wilkinson as superinten- 
pent Springfield division. 

Indiana, Illinois & Iowa.— R. M. Kogers.general freight 
and passenger agent, resigned. 

Iowa Central.— John L. Gath appointed superintendent 
with office at Keithburg. 

Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis- Karl Soorck ap- 
pointed resident engineer in charge of construction work 
on lines north and west of Springfield, Mo. 

Kentucky Central —Lewis Hood appointed superin- 
tendent with office at Cincinnati. 

Kentu( KY Midland. — Superintendent J. A. Stewart re- 
signed to accept position of cit.v engineer of Cincinnati. 

Lake Erie, Essex & Detroit River.— D. H. 
perintendent and master mechanic, resigned; W. Woollatt 
appointed general superintendent in addition to traffic 
manager; C. C. Young to be superintendent of transporta- 
tion; S. Austin to be mechanical superintendent; offices at 
WalkerviUe, Ont. 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern.- J. M. Watts a|>- 
pointed superintendent of Toledo division with office at 
Cleveland, vice Thomas Flescher, resigned. 

Little Miami —W. Gibson appointed engineer of main- 

LouisviLLE £c Nashville. —E. E. Snyder, appointed 
roadmaster of second division. J. T. Craik now roadmas 
ter of Nashville & Decatur and Nashville.Florence & Shef- 
field divisions. 

Louisville, New Albany & Chicago —General superin- 
tendent W. R. Woodward, resigned ; duties of office to be 
performed l-y J.O.Ewan. superintendent of transportation, 
at Lafayette; H. H. Kendrick to be auditor, vice J. H. 
Craig, resigned ; W. H. Folsom to be purchasing agent, 
vice F. C. Butze. resigned ; John Loomis to be superintend- 
ent northern division ; J. B. Safford, to be superintendent 
southern division; office of division freight agent at Louis- 
ville, Ky.. abolished; A. V. Lafayette, division freight 
agent, resigned, and W. H. Newman, appointed genera 1 
agent of freight department. 

Louisville, New Ohleans & Texas— J. T. Harahan to 
be general manager ; office at Memphis. Tenn. 

—J. D. Yarring- 

LouisviLi.* Southern. -This road now operated indc 
pendently. W. D. Woodward to be general manager; of- 
fice at Louisville, Ky. ; J. D. Carson, general supei-inten- 
dent, resigned ; A. H. Ford, to be treasurer and auditor 
and A. V. Lafayette, general freight and passenger agent. 

Nashville & Knoxvillr.— President Alexander Craw 
ford deceased. 

Newport News & Mississippi Vai 
ton. second vice president, resigned. 

New York, Lake Erie & We.stern.- Robert M. Parker 
appointed division freight agent, in charge of main line and 
branches east of Susquehanna, with office at the Pavonia 
Ferry, New York City, vice F. D. Hunter resigned. 

New York, Pennsyl 

office at Roanoke, Vc 

Northern Pacific — This company has assumed control 
of the Wisconsin Central, and will operate the same under 
the title of Wisconsin Central Lines, Northern Pacific R. 
Co., lessee. S. R. Ainslie will continue in charge as gen- 
eral manager, and Gavin Campbell as general superintend- 
ent and acting general manager. The authorit.v of the 
lowingc ' -• - -- .. «_.,a_ T, .-,. ..-_ t 

Northern Pacific R. Co. has been 
extended to cover the lines of the Wisconsin Central: J. A. 
Barker, general auditor; George S. Baxter, treasurer; J. 
M- Hannaford, general traffic manager; O. C. Greene, 
superintendent of telegraph. Agents of the Wiscousin 
Central system, and officers ol other lines, will transact 
business incident to the leased property with the following 
local officers in charge ; David S. Wegg, general solicitor ; 
T. J. Hyman, auditor; Abbott Lawrence, acting comp- 
troller; R. W. Maguire, cashier and paymaster; Henry C. 
Barlow, traffic manager; J. C. Patterson to be superintend- 
ent Butte & Gallatin branch. 


; Short Line— G. W. Hibbard to be general traffic 

Peoria & Pekin Union.— General superintendent, 
Thomas Burnett, resigned. 

Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis.— E. C. Lindsay to 
be engineer of maintenance of way. 

Pullman's Palace Car Company.— Stephen Little, audi- 

RoME & Decatur.- J. R. Taylor, auditor, appointed 

general manager. 

Seaboard Air Line.— Seaboard & Roanoke System. 
John C. Winder appointed general manager; office at 
Raleigh, N. C. ; L. C. M.vers appointed general superintend 
ent; office at Portsmouth, Va. ; John H. Winder appointed 
superintendent Seaboard & Roanoke and Roanoke & Tar 
River roads, with offlce'at Portsmouth, Va. 

,— Genei-al Manager 

Southern California.— Frank Dorwin appointed super- 
intendent of telegraph, vice S. B. Fleeter, resigned ; office 
at San Bernardino, Cal. 

W. B. Reamer appointed to succeed G. W. Sanborn, re- 
signed, as superintendent, with headquarters at San Ber- 

Southern Pacific— This company is now officered as 
follows: President, C. P. Huntington; first vice presi- 
dent, C. F. Croker ; second vice president, A. N. Towne; 
third vice president, J. C. Stubbs. 

St. Joseph, St. Louis & Santa Fe.— President Winslow 
Judson, deceased. 

St. Louis, Ai.ton & Terre Haute.— C 
general freight and passenger agent, ^ 

resigned; W. H. Coleman to be assistant 
local treasurer at St. Paul. 
Ulster & Delaware.— President Thomas Cornell de- 

Valley.— C- A. Witzell to be freight agent via 
Gibson, resigned. 

Western & Atlantic.- C. E. Harman appointed 
ceed Alton Angler, resigned, as general 
ticket agent. 

Western Maryland.— Geo. H. Baer elected 
and treasurer, vice J. S. Harden, deceased. 

Wisconsin Central.— Frederick Abbot and Howard 
Morris elected vice president and general solicitor respect- 
ively; Mr. D. S. Wegg resigned as general solicitor. Mr. 
Abbot will continue to be assistant treasurer and Mr. Mor 
ris as secretary. _^ 

Zanesville & Ohio River.— Nathan Wright appointed 
master mechanic, office at Zancsville, O.; position of road 
foreman of engines abolished. 

1 Track Scale fur 

; Sons, (Incorporated; 


MiY, 1890. 

The Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad is the only 
line running Pullman's perfected safety vestibuled trains, 
with chair, parlor, sleeping and dining car service between 
Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Chicago, and is the only line 
running through reclining chair cars between Cincinnati, 
Keokuk and Springfield, 111.. 

Toledo, Detroit, the 

between Cincinnati, Dayt<: 
take regions and Canada. 

The road is one of the oldest in the state of Ohio, and the 
only line entering Cincinnati over twenty-five miles of 
double track, and from its past record can more than assure 
its patrons speed, comfort and safety. 

Tickets on sale everywhere, and see that they read C. H. 
& D., either in or out of Cincinnati, Indianapolis, or 
Toledo. E. O. McCosmuk, 

General Passenger and Ticket Agent. 

.Xcw and Superb DInill;;; Car Oiitlit. 

The dining cars just completed for the Great Hock Island 
route, not only embody all the latest improvements in gen 
eral use, but especial and distinctive features of excel 
lence, which render them unapproachably superior to ordi 
nary dining cars. They will be placed on the Rock Island 
route west of the Missouri river on and after March :it, 
1890, and will impart the crowning grace of perfection to 
its solid vestibule express trains, giving that road a con 
tinuous through dining car service between Chicago and 
Denver, Colorado Springs and Pueblo. The Rock Island 
is the only line that runs two vestibule express trains every 
afternoon from Chicago to Denver. It is not only the fast 
line, but it is also the most completely equipped of all the 
Colorado roads, with elegant day coaches, Pullman sleepers, 
free reclining chair cars, and the finest dining cars in the 





J. E. FORSYTH, General Manager. 

m urn s msM n 

"Acme" Lamps 

FOR - 

Adopted as Standard by the United States Railway Mail Service for 
postal cars, and in use on upwards of 75 railroads. 

"Idams" Steel Guard Solid Top and Bottom Lanterns. 


Headlights with turntable and side and front numbering sig- 
nals. Also Interior Car Trimmings of every descrip- 
tion. Switch locks, etc, Exclusive right 
to manufacture the 


XIO Oxi.ta.x*l(3 Stz*eet, 

H.5 Hroailv 

our '•.if.TIF." Biiriicr. Cila!.» nrl|><'ii|>. ...iiil.i 
Bell. ISO Candle PoHcr. Tlirpe ,.l ili, ., 
ligllt at a less i-ust tlian any gas or cle.-lri. lii; 









Iin.\Ni H Offi.'i.:s: CillcwtiO, (il6 Phenix Bid''. New YOHK. 1.5 Cortland 

APPLICATION to the General Offices, ALBANY, NEW YORK. 

p. Q., Canada 


I i2 & 44 Live Stock Exchange, Kansas City, Ho. 

I 39 Eichange Street, Portland, Me., and at Works, Wichita. 

Correspondence Solicited. QEO. D. BURTON, Treasurer, BOSTON, MASS. 



WALTER D. CROSMAN, Manager Editorial Department. 
EDWIN N. LEWIS Manager Business Department. 


Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, equip 

linery. Comn 

Prior to Jannar>' 1. 1886, this Journal was known as The Rail- 
way Purchasing Agent. It will still in its newand wider field be 
adapted to the especial wants of all who purchase or influence 
the purchase of railway supplies. 

, year. AdTertislne rates and detaUs 
a on application to the offlce by mail 
or in peraon. Address 


The Huiikery. CliicatT". HI. 
New Youk Offkk: W Bro:id«ay, Boom 148. 
TM OffleUU Railway List i>f jrtihli»htd by tMg cmipany. 

Vol. 5. 1 CHICAGO, JCJNE;. 189J. [No. 5. 

Is it quite a f:iir deal to complain, after a con- 
vention has ended, that it "was riiu by a few men 
who did all the talking," when the one who makes 
the complaint took uo part ui the proceedings? 
Those who do take part in the discussions at the 
conventions are pretty apt to feel that the meet- 
ings have been successful, and they are usually 
right. ■ 

SoMK general managers discourage experiments, 
accurate tests and careful records because they 
cost something, liut the master mechanic who 
"experiments," -who is on the alert for improve- 
ments, is a man who insists on having the very best 
material that can be got for the price paid. An en- 
thusiasm for improvement and progress, for find- 
ing something still better than the present "best,'' 
is the best possible safeguard against temptation 
to accept inferior material at superior prices for 
the' sake of a little personal percentage. Tests, 
records and experiments may seem to involve extra 
expense, but the spirit which inspires them saves 
money to the road in most cases and in the long 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
at its convention in Cincinnati, afjpointed a com- 
mittee to report a standard method of testing loco- 
motives--to inclade the engine, the boiler,the qual- 
ity of the steam and the comparative etficiency of 
simple and compound locomotives. The society 
has already done the industrial public an impor- 
tant and valuable service by its admirable reports 
on Standard Tests of Pumping Engines and Stand- 
ard Method of Testing Stationary Boilers, and we 
therefore expect that the report of the present com- 
mittee will establish such a definite basis for loco- 
motive tests that the relative values of locomotives, 
as obtained by such tests, will be more authorita- 
tive and be accepted with a larger degree of confi- 
dence than the reports of most locomotive tests 

If our information is correct all the locomotive 
building concerns of this country, with one excep- 
tion, have provided themselves with the Pratt A 
Whitney standard driver center and tire gauges, 
and the standard sizes of driver centers are now 
almost universally specified. As is aljvays the 
case, a few men rebel against having just what 
other peoiile have, but the number in this instance 
is very small. The adoption of these standard 
sizes was one of the wisest acts ever done by the 
Master Mechanics' Association, and the standard; 
have attained. general observance in an unusually 
short space of time. The master mechanics and 
the locomotive builders of this countrj- are greatly 
indebted to the committee, Messrs. Lander, Jo 
hann and Sprague, who reported and recom 
iuended the standards, and the careful and vain 
able work done by these gentlemen should not be 

It is well to remember when ordering sheet 

or steel tliat the dimension running the way the 

I plate is to be bent should be given tirsl, or next 

after the thickness. In the rolling mills it is al- 

5 understood that the first figure given on an 
r shall be measured in the direction in which 
the plate is rolled or parallel with the "graih." 
For instance, if a plate is wanted to form a butt- 
jointed cyhnder i in thick, 6 ft. long and 5 ft. dia- 
meter, the order 'should read: — 1 plate ^,xl88i in. 
x72 in. Due allowance (not given in the example) 
t always be made for variations in measuring, 
etc., the amount of which is determined by experi- 
ence. With the higher grades of material a strict 
adherence to this rule is not necessary, as such 
plates will bend equally well in either direction, but 
with tank iron and the like an attempt to bend 
against the grain will usually result in failure by 
spliting. It is consequently advisable to keep 
rigidly to the one method, as mistakes are thereby 

< bearing on the question of the durability of 
vertical plane couplers, we may state that there 

ipears to be good reason to take note of the lo- 

lity in which reported breakages occur. We 
have it on excellent authority that the switchmen 

the only body of railway employes opposed to 
the automatic coupler — refuse to favor that coup- 
ler for the reason that its introduction and gen- 
eral use would weaken thern as a striking organi- 
zation. Inexperienced men could with compara- 
tive readiness make up trains of cars equipped 
with the M. C. B. coupler; but such men, even if 
courageous, make sad work of making up a link 
and pin train in a busy yard where all operations 
are hurried. The switchmen recognize this fact 

1, desirous of retaining their power over their 
ployers, strongly oppose the introduction of the 
M. C. 13. coupler. Some statistics of coupler break- 
ages, recently placed before us, show an abnormal 
percentage of breakages at points where ihe 
switchmens' organization is strongest. Careless 
handling of cars is already known to be responsi- 
ble for the bulk of hook coupler breakages; 
malicious "carelessness" may be responsible for a 
larger share of these breakages than has hitherto 
been suspected, if we take the alleged sentiment 
of the switchmen as a guide for our conclusions. 

the frame is reduced to almost a feather edge, and 
being thus insufficient to withstand the pressure 
to which it is subjected, it gradually breaks away 
to the extent of allowing the shoe to move slightly 
up and down on the pedestal leg in unison with 
tCe rise and fall of the driving box. If this move- 
ment of the shoe really becomes injuriously great 
in the course of time, which is extremely doubt- 
ful, it is necessary to provide some means of avoid- 
ing it. liut to reduce the size of the iiUet, or 
what is practically the same thing, the strength 
of the frame, would be about the last expedient 
we should resort to. 

Speaking of a possible movement of the pedes- 
tal shoes naturally brings to mind the clamping 
screws, so-called, that are generally considered 
an indispensable part of an engine's equipment. 
We mean, of course, the tap bolts ('j or J inch in 
diameter), that pass horizontally through the 
pedestal legs into the shoesand wedges, and which 
are supposed, if indeed anybody supposes anything 
abont them, to act as clamps. After the driving 
box is once in position, the shoes and wedges are 
effectually prevented from dropping away from the 
pedestal legs, so the only function left for the bolts 
to perform is to check any tendency to move up and 
down. No movement in this direction on the 
part of the shoe can take place until the feather 
edge mentioned above has broken away to some 
I extent, as its length is identical with that of the 
leg it protects, and even then it is extremely 
doubtful, as we have said, if the shght play thus 
allowed would be in any w'ay detrimental to the 
engine. As to the wedge, uo motion vertically can 
occur so long as the regular adjusting screw is 
securely fastened in its glace. There is, however, 
some little advantage in the use of these clamping 
bolts before the boxes are put in place whUe the 
engine is on the erecting floor. This small benefit 
is in no way commensurate with the expense en- 
tailed by the extra drilling, tapping, etc., required, 
and the omission of clamping bolts altogether 
would, accordingly, seem advisable, for they never 
will be missed. 

Is it not time to put the "Boston fund" to some 
good use? A suggestion has been made that the 
icome of it be used for prizes to stimulate inves- 
gatiou and improvement in the field of railway 
motive power and mechanics. The offer of first 
and second prizes awarded at stated periods of 
two or three years woulij be a powerful in- 
ducement to careful and profitable investigation 
and experiment. To be awarded such a prize by 
the American liailway JIaster Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation would be a great honor. That there is 
abundant opportunity to do work worthy of such 
high honor is indisputable. While it is true that 
the American locomotive as it exists to-day is a 
wonderfully complete machine, no one will claim 
that it has reached the limit of perfection. The 
mas'.er mechanics' department on the great ma- 
jority of our railroads is admirably managed, but 
the methods can be improved inimportivnt details 
Electricity is knocking at the gate of this depart 

That the report of the committee on car coup- 
lers to the Master Mechanics' Association will be 
followed by a lively discussion is not improb- 
able. Tomahawks are being ground and scalp- 
ing knives sharpened, and the big chiefs are get- 
iug on their war paint. Important business in- 
terests will be affected by whatever action may be 
taken, and some degree of personal feeling has al- 
ready been awakened by newspaper and club dis- 
cussions. In short, the conditions will be such 
that it will not be impossible to inaugurate a 
lively and vociferous time. 

it must be taken for granted, however, that 
every man who will take part in the discussion 
desires to get only at the actual facts and to take 
whatever action is for the greatest good of the 
greatest number. This eliminates the elements of 
personal prejudice and personal profit from the 

meut and its capabilities and appliances must be | discussion. There can be no questioning of mo- 
investigated. In short, the field in which work I tives, no accu.sations of individual or local preju- 
may be done that will be deserving of distin- d'ce- It has been intimated that tlie New Eng- 
"uished reward is almost limitless. It is within laud members were hostile to the M.t. B. stand- 
the power of the American Railway Master Me- ard coupler because of jealousy or contrariness, 
chauics- Association to do a new thing, to give a or some other far fetched and imaginary reason, 
powerful stimulus to improvement and progress But take the New England members one by one 

witliin the limit of the splendid Held which it oc 
cupies, and to largely increase interest in its meet- 
ings audits work. Has not the time come to apply 
the Boston fund to this or to some other equally 
fruitful use? 

The weakest points, 

fracture is most 

iind everybody who is acquainted with them 
knows that they are not men who will put them- 
selves in a false position through prejudice or jeal- 
ousy. If they oppose the present coupler it is be- 
cause of what they see on their own roads and in 
their own yards and repair shops. And if they arc 
shown that the facts gathered by wider observa- 
tion and experience sustain the M. C. B. coupler 
of them 

likely to occur, in any well-designed locomotive 

frame, are probablv the inner sides of the upper instead of condemning it there is not 
extremities of the pedestal legs. Recognizing this, \ who will not willingly revise his opinions. To as- 
most builders very rightly put a fillet of from ^ j sert that the New England roads are behind the 
to 1 inch radius in these places, in order to gain 1 times will not help in the least degree to settle the 
the greatest posible amount of strength. We coupler question. Indeed, one who honestly corn- 
have recently heard a complaint from a master pares them with roads elsewhere has to admit that 
mechanic that this radius is too large because in some important particulars they are at the 
the top bearing of the shoe or dead wedge against | front rather than in the rear. 


Jdne, 1890. 

To call names, to ascribe improper motives, or 
to belittle facts, settles notbing. Last winter a 
technical journal which hovers around the bor- 
ders of the field of railway mechanics and now and 
then makes a wild plunge into it, intimated that 
onlv roads "of local importance" were resisting 
the" adoption of the M. C. B. coupler. Eveiy one 
now sees that such an assertion aroused antagon- 
isms which may hinder the proper settlement of 
the question. Not vinegar but molasses continues 
to be the best bait for flies, and to presume that 
those who differ from our own opinions are honest 
and fair is the best way to make and keep them 
fair and honest. It is true that the phase of the 
car coupler ouestion which is to be considered by 
the Master Mechanics' Association is, in terms, a 
limited one. But it may, perhaps, be impossible to 
confine the discussion, nor will it be wise to at- 
tempt to do so. It will be the first opportunity 
which either of the national associations has had 
of discussing the subject upon a basis of facts. 
For the first time since the subject of automatic 
couplers was agitated there will be the facts of 
actual experience to present and discuss. The 
question is emerging from the realm of theory into 
that of practical knowledge. Therefore free and 
full discussion is altogetuer desirable. So far as 
"mixed service" goes railroad men know quite 
fully what the M. C. B. coupler can and cannot do. 
Concerning its operation in service with its own 
kind, through a considerable period, there is less 
information available, and it is to be hoped 
that aU the exnerienc s which members have had 
in this kind of service will be brought out. We 
do not imagine, however, that any one doubts the 
complete success of the coupler under such cir- 


The master mechanics have this year two com- 
mittees on locomotive axles— one on the size and 
form of axles for tenders— another on the relative 
value of iron and steel axles. A consideration of 
the topics coming before these committees may not 
be amiss. . 

First, as to tender axles, with or without end 
collars. We favor the coUarless axle, with cast 
iron end stop, set into guide lugs on the sides of 
the box, and held down by lugs, projecting be- 
yond the b aring portion of the brass. The size 
of the axle could, for convenience, be the same as 
the M. C. B. tiO.OOU lbs. freight car axle, with the 
end collar cut ofi. The dimensions of the axle are 
ample for the load of the heavy tender specified in 
the circular. Such a tender, with 3,600 gallons 
of water and 8 tons of coal, would weigh 75,000 
lbs., and the load on each axle would be about 
8,600 lbs. Taking the projected area of the bear- 
ing as 41 X 8 = 34 in., the pressure per square 
inch of bearing would be 250 lbs. This is almost 
exactly the same as that on the old M. C. B. axle 
with its load, and less than the pressure on the 
large M. C. B. axle, which, under its load of car— 
(SO.OOOlbs. -f 60,000 lbs. = 90,000 lbs., less weight 
of wheels and axles)— carries 10,450 lbs. per jour- 
nal or 300 lbs. per square inch of bearing. The 
stress in the axle under the static load would not 
be as great, therefore, in the axle under the heavy 
tender as in its regular service — under 60,000 
lbs. box care— and, being a well-established stand- 
ard, it would be manifestly the proper axle for the 

As to the shape of the axle three forms are pre- 
sented. The difference between Fig. 1 (showing 
an axle that is straight from the shoulder to the 
center), and Fig. 3 (showing an axle with a curve 
from the wheel seat to the center) in the 
circular is so slight, that it is hardly worth 
discussing, and either of them (Fig. 1 or Fig. 8) 
is so near the M. C. B. shape, that it, the M. C. B. 
shape, should be recommended in preference. The 
diameter at the center should be J that of the 
wheel seat, and if these two be joined by a straight 
line it will be as near the theoretical shape as is 
desirable from a practical standpoint. Fig 2 
(showing an axle reduced at a point a short dis- 
tance inside of the wheel seat) is a bad 
shape for an axle, as it is not of uniform 

strength, being weaker where suddenly reduced in 
diameter, just inside the wheel seat, than at any 
other point. It would be liable to break at that 

The fifth question is: " What is the Limit of 
Weight on Journals per Square inch of Contact?" 
We have already shown that the pressure on the 
old M. C. B. journal was 250 lbs. per square inch 
projected area, and in the new one it is 300 lbs. 
per square inch. The experience with the old one 
was not attended with such a freedom from hot 
boxes as to warrant much increase in the unit 
pressure. It is believed by those who have ex- 
perimented on oil-testing machines, that pressures 
above 300 lbs. per square inch tend to force the 
oil out from the bearing, leaving the journal with 
too thin a film of oil for good lubrication. We 
conclude, therefore, that the limit of pressure has 
been reached by the large M. C. B. axle under the 
regular conditions of its service and would not 
recommend that this pressure of 300 pounds 
per square inch should be exceeded in tender 
axles. This limit would not be reached until the 
journal was worn down to 3^ inch diameter. 

The other committee on locomotive axles has 
to consider the important question of the relative 
value of iron and steel axles. A proper report on 
this subject requires an extensive investigation 
and a careful study of improved processes of 
manufacture which have been recently introduced. 
We hope the committee has given the subject that 
treatment which its importance demands, for, we 
venture to say, nothing involving greater interest 
to the railroads will come before the Master Me- 
chanics Convention. The axle is the vital part of 
all railroad rolling stock. If it breaks it causes 
the most destructive wrecks, and no one is held 
directly responsible for it. If it heats it causes 
the most annoying delays and this is most likely 
to occur on fast trains when every effort is made 
to avoid delays. The material comprising the 
axle is, therefore, one deserving the most earnest 

The price of steel axles, of good quality, is 
now so low and so near the price of good iron 
ones that our master mechanics are more frequ- 
ently called upon to decide whether to use iron or 
steel for the purpose; and the cost being a slight 
factor, what quahties should determine the rela- 
tive value of iron and steel axles? An axle has to 
perform two principal functions — one to act as a 
beam sustaining the load, the other as a portion of 
a machine in which the journal revolves at a 
higher speed and under greater pressure than is 
found in almost any other machinery. Steel is 
now regarded as the best material for journals, and 
it is almost entirely used in all kinds of the best 
machinery. Iron is so soft that it wears rapidly, 
and seams in it produce a rough surface which 
often causes it to heat. lu Europe the rapid wear 
of iron journals (notwithstanding their large size 
for the load sustained) is recognized and the 
remedy is case hardening. It is the regular prac- 
tice among the best builders to case-harden the 
journals of the iron tender axles, driving axles and 
crank pins — in addition to the other portions usu- 
ally so treated in this country. For those who 
prefer to continue tlje use of iron axles, this method 
of obtaining longer, and more satisfactory, service 
for them appears thoroughly commendable. But to 
go into such a wholesale business of case-hardening 
requires an improvement in the process, and in the 
furnace used for case-hardening, as well as the 
addition of suitable emery grinding machinery for 
finishing the hardened journals to true cylindric 

A journal when properly lubricated, and if kept 
clean from grit, and not allowed to heat, will have 
formed on it a hard, smooth glassy surface, which 
is the best possible condition for minimum friction 
and, consequently, least wear. If it can be kept 
in that condition it will run for years with almost 
imperceptible reduction in diameter, and outlast 
the other portions of the machine. It has been 
the opinion of many mechanics that this very de- 
sirable glassy surface was peculiar to iron, and 
that the surface of a steel journal would not 
"polish" in the same way. But an inspection of 
some locomotive crank-pins and driving journals, 

made of steel and of "good proportions shows that 
they attain as high a degree of polish as iron. 

Coming now to the relative strength of iron and 
steel axles: The drop test is now generally 
recognized as the best and most practical method 
of measuring the strength of an axle, and we can 
get a fair idea of the comparative strength of the 
two materials by examining the specifications for 
iron and steel axles used by railroad companies 
which buy both kinds. The standard weight for 
the drop test now generally adopted is 1,640 lbs., 
and the distance between centers of supports 3 ft, 
For iron axles of 4| in. diameter at center the re- 
quirements are three blows from a height of 10 
ft., and two blows from 15 ft. We have never 
understood exactly why two heights are used, un- 
less it is to obtain the minimum strength of the 
axle, if it should break at the first or second blow. 
Good iron axles will easily satisfy this specifica- 
tion. The published reports in circulars issued by 
manufacturers of iron axles show that they en- 
dure as many as 10 to 12 blows, all above the 
first three being from a height of 15 ft. and the de- 
flection being from six to eight inches. The spec- 
ified requirements for steel iixles of the same 
center diameter, are five blows from a height of 
25 ft. One well established firm reports its steel 
axles made for this specification to endure from 
35 to 45 blows from a height of 25 ft. before they 
break, while another reports a large number 
tested up to 50 blows without breaking, and also 
one axle tested beyond this, until it broke at the 
121st blow. 

The tensile strength of iron axles is very irreg- 
ular, especially the ductility as measured by the 
percentage of elongation in the test specimen. 
; Very few tensile tests of iron axles have been 
made, and we do not know of any railroad which 
includes such a test in its specification. The 
railroad testing departments contain, however, 
records of the tensile strength of iron axles, which 
have been broken in service, as well as of new 
axles, and they show the material to have about 
the same physical qualities as common bar iron. 
The tensile strength per square inch of iron axles 
is 40,000 to 45,000 lbs., with an elongation in 4 
in. of from 5 to 15 percent. 

Specifications for steel car or tender axles re- 
quire a tensile strength of 75,000 lbs. the extreme 
limits allowed being 70,000 and 60,000 lbs., 
the specimen having a breaking section J in. 
diameter and 4 in. long. The elongation required 
is a minimum of lH per cent. 

The"Coffin" toughening process, it is claimed, will 
increase the elastic limits of the steel without loss 
ofelongition or ductility. An axle was cut in 
two, one-half of it alone being treated by the 
toughening process, and tensile tests from each 
half gave the following results: 

ElHstic Limit. L'ltiraat^ Streriglh. GloDg:ition. 

(1rilin;ivv :«.II00 lbs. 71,5IX)ll)s. 34-50 

Tougliened.. . .II.OOIJ lli^. 7-',()OI) Ihs. 24-07 

The comparative strength of iron and steel 
axles as given above may be tabulated as fol- 


TCSSlfK T..T. 





Iron. ,1 ,.hloW8@14ft 

10 to IS 




6 to 15 
18 to 25 

The superior strength of steel when properly 
made is clearly shown by the above comparison, 
and, taken with the fact that a steel journal is at 
least as good as an iron one, there are certainly 
good reasons for preferring steel axles to iron ones, 
if they have been properly inspected and the qual- 
ity of the steel is known. 

' The general prejudice against steel axles is 
largely the result of unfortunate experience either 
with steel which was not a suitable material chem- 
ically, or else with good steel which had been in- 
jured in its manipulation in the forge or furnace. 
With the small furnaces and small hammers orig- 
inally used, it was necessary to either forge dif- 
ferent parts of the axle at widely different temper- 
atures, or to foi-ge one-half the axle and take a re- 
heat for the other half. This treatment creates 

Jdne, 1890. 


internal strains, which are very objectionable, and 
this process of mamifacture of axles from good 
steel ingots has resulted iu repeated failure and 
the doubt, thus created, as to the safety of steel 
axles, has greatly retarded their more general in- 

These objections have been entirely overcome 
by a number of steel companies, by the use of 
larger furnaces and hammers. The toughening 
process referred to improves the steel by anneal- 
ing it and changing the crystalline to an amorphous 
structure. Steel axles are now produced from 
hammered ingots 16 inches square, worked under 
a 20-ton hammer and finished under a 8-ton ham- 
mer. Owing to the powerful machinery employed 
the entire axle can be finished witliout double 
heating, and axles made from steel of good quality 
in this manner are more uniform in quality, and 
very much stronger than it is possible to make iron 

In the United Stales, the present condition of 
steel manufacture is such that only open hearth 
steel should be employed for axles, and with our 
present knowledge of the subject it would not ap- 
pear advisable for any railroad to use Bessemer 
steel axles on account of their low price. It is im- 
possible to get Bessemer steel rails of uniform 
quality, and if we do not use a material for axles 
which can be produced iu large quantities and 
uniformally good, we cannot have any assurance 
that our sample axle or test specimen fairly rep- 
resents the whole lot. Boiler steel is made by the 
open-hearth process and the uniformity of the pro- 
duct is well known. The same uniformity should 
be required for axle steel if we want to feel secure 
in the use of it. The price of crucible s'eel is too 
high, and very few axles of that quality are in use 
or are likely to be used. We have plenty of faith 
in open hearth steel axles properly made and the 
price is now so low that all railroads should, we 
think, use them under passenger equipment and 
for locomotives. 

Of ihe papers read before the .A.merican Sooiety 
of Mcihanical Engineers at the Cincinnati conven- 
tion, the one which might be said to pertain most 
)«rtioularlj' to railway work was that on the "Effi- 
ciency of Locomotives." We cannot agree with all 
that is stated therein, especially in regard to cylin- 
der condensation and its probable effect sis a factor 
in the economy of the sipgle expansion and com- 
pound locomotives: one must remember that an in- 
dicator diagram taken from a locomotive at high 
spued cannot be expected to show traces either of 
coudeui-ation or re-evaporation, for the expansion 
curve between the point at which the effect of wire 
drawing ceases and that at which the exhaust opens, 
is far too short to enable any intelligent conclusions 
10 bo drawn from this source alone. If the feed 
water could be accurately mciisured and the work of 
the locomotive were sutliciently uniform to per- 
mit of a reasonably exact calculation of steam 
used in a given time to be miide from 
a limited number of indicator diagrams, some- 
thing might be said about the amount of con- 
de^^Htion in locomotive cylinders, but in the absence 
of such data it is not unreasonable to turn to station- 
ary and marine cnRine practice and there we find 
that condensation is considerable. The conditions 
under which the locomotive is operated probably 
cause more condensation to take place in its cylind- 
ers than occurs in the cylinders of other engines. 
Speed undoubtedly has some effect u|H)n the amount 
of cylinder condensation, but it isijuite probable that 
the highest speeds employed never reduce it the 
figures mentioned in the pajjer. We do not think the 
economy of compound locomotives can be attributed 
wholly to the causes given in the paper, but as this 
phase of the subject has been pretty well ventilated 
iu the columns of this other journals we will not 
repeat wt^at has been written. 

This paper was discussed somewhat at the meet- 
ing and has since called foi*th more or less editorial 
criticism from the various technical journals, as will 
almost any paper on this subject. One of the most sur- 

prising editorials which has appeared on this subject, 
is one two columns in length in the Uaitroad Gazittc, 
in which there are errors fully as great as those to 
which it calls attention. As that journal is 
evidently very anxious that the railway public 
shall not he misled by any errors which may be con- 
tained in the paper read before the society, it will 
probably appreciate the necessity for having its own 
errors corrected for the benefit of those readers who 
might he led astray by thorn. 

The author of the editorial referred to cannot have 
carefully read the paper in question, as the following 
quotation from his words will show: 

It ivas also said that " the reduction of indicator card 
area, caused by early exhaust closure, and the large clear- 
ance spaces found in locomotive cylinders, is often over- 
estimated." Then followed an estimate showing that the 
mean effective pressure is greater when the clearance is 
reduced, the compression being raised to the same [>oint 
in each case, thus showing an advantage in favor of a re- 
duced clearance, in increasing the power of the locomotive, 
as well as its theoretical economy. 

Now the fact is that the paper does not make 
the statement here credited to it. On the contrary, 
it clearly says: " It will be seen that the M. E. P. 
when the clearance is 10 per cent, is 946 lbs., sink- 
ing to 91-8 lbs. when the clearance is reduced to 2 
per cent." That which is based on such an obvious 
error will have very little weight, and the further 
remarks on this point made by the author of the 
editorial need not now be considered. It might be 
well, in passing, to call attention to the fact that, in 
neither the paper criticized nor in the editorial re- 
fered to, is there any computation made of the work 
performed per pound weight of steam used with 
various clearances. The effect of the clearance is 
apparently considered only in its effect on the ex- 
pansion and compression curves of the diagram. 

The assumption that the terminal pressure of the 
compression may be a constant as far as the arrest- 
ing of thcj reciprocating parts is concerned, being in 
this respect independent of the clearance volume, is 
also severely condemned by the editor of the Rail- 
road Gazette, and the following argument is produced 
to show how weak such a supposition is: 

It is assumed that 54 lbs. terminal pressure is all that is 
required to arrest the motion of the reciprocating parts of 
a steam engine, regardless of the clearance. It is not the 
mere terminal pressure which arrests the reciprocating 
parts, but the work performed on the compressed steam 
from the time compression commences to tue point when 
compression ceases. With the same final pressure of com- 
pression the work done, which acts to arrest the recipro- 
cating parts, is vastly different in the two cases cited, 
being about four times greater, according to a diagram 
furnished with the paper, in the case of the IU per cent, 
clearance than with the 3 per cent, clearance. In order 
that the same arresting effect shall be obtained, the work 
performed ought to be the same in both cases; hence, on 
a fair ba.-*is of comparison, the terminal pressure in the 
case of the 2 per cent, clearance ought to be considerably 
more than the 54 lbs. assumed for the 10 per cent, clear- 

This is a most surprising argument. The idea 
that the entire work performed per stroke in com- 
pressing the steam should have any direct 
relation upon the smooth running of the 
engine will doubtless be a 
of our readers. It certainly 
practice the work performed 
steam does not equal the total work required to ac- 
complish the retardation of the reciprocating 
weights and we have always believed that any 
momentum stored in the reciprocating parts in the 
first half of the stroke could be very acceptably ex- 
pended upon the crank pin in the latter half of the 
stroke, except that necessary to provide a compres- 
sion sufficient to prevent a thump from lost motion 
as the pin passed the dead center. To Uike cjiie of 
this thump it is only necessary that the pressure of 
compression at thoend of the stroke shall be slightly 
in excess of the force of momentum at that point, I 
and that this pressure shall not be attained so j 
abruptly as to itself produce a blow. The amount 
of work represented ^by the compression from the ! 
point at which it begins until the end of the stroke, j 
does not enter into the problem at all, and to hrinc 
it forward in this connection shows an entire mis- 1 

I conception of what is involved. To make the point 
more clear, it might be well to refer to the accom- 

j panying diagram, which is reproduced from 
the oue which was used to illustrate this 

new one to most 
to us. In general 
1 compressing the 


if-h- uiiiiir 

i' i' 1 1 1 1 I'T M T T 

t 5 ±:: 

, ^. 

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the paper read before the soi-iety 
It must be understood that what we have to say 
on this point refers simply to what is required 
for the smooth running of the engine in parsing the 
centers and does not apply to the economy of the en- 
gine, nor does it necessarily indicate what is desira- 
ble in practice. 

Now, for some reason not evident, the Railroad Ga- 
zette thinks the total work expended in compressing 
the steam plays an important part in the problem, in 
fact, that it is paramount, and that if the clearance 
is reduced to, say,2 per cent., it would not be proper 
to have the compression begin at some [xiint as 22-2.5 
which would give the sjime terminal pressure (.54 lbs ) 
as before, but that it must begin at a point whicu will 
give equal work in the two cases. Did it ever occur 
to our contemporary that any difference in the 
work done, such as is represented by the area 
between the two curves, would simply be added to 
the rotative effect upon the crank, and that if the 
compression line met the inertia line, at a point 
distant from the end of the stroke by an amount 
equal to the lost motion in the parts, the thump at 
that point would be prevented just as effectuallv 
as though the compression had been represented 
by the full line instead of the dotted one? 
The only minimum limit to the clearance, viewed 
simply as a preventive of pounding at the end of 
the stroke, would be found when the compression be- 
came so abrupt as to be in itself iniurious. 

We have not the space to take up the other errors 
contained in the editorial referred to, but it may be 
well to mention the fact that many of the statements 
there advanced as absolute truths, are simply per- 
sonal opinions of the writer which ho would find it 
impossible to prove, if requested to c" j so. It is per- 
fectly right, and even desirable that a paper should 
st^iteitsopinionson important subjects and should 
give the rea.sons for the position it takes, but i>cr- 
sonal opinions should never be put forward .^ well 
established facts. 

Railroad Commissioner Rich, of Michigan, has 
issued a circular concerning couplers, in which ho 
withdraws approval of all forms of link and pin 
couplers, and directs that only couplers of the 
M. C. B. type shall hereafter be considered as ful- 
filling the requirements of the Michigan law. 

At the convention of rauToad' commissioners in 
Washington last week the following resolution con- 
cerning automatic brakes and couplers was passed- 

Raiolrrit. That Ihe resiwctive states should reuuiro 
euhor directly by law or indirectly through the fnstrS^ 
mentality of iheir railroad commissions eac-h railro^ c^r^ 
poraiion subject to their jurisdiction to place driving^teel 
brakes and apparatus for train brakes upon evcrv^OTOmo 
tue, and tram brakes upon every freight car hereaanr 
constructed or purchased by it, and al^, u,S,d suJb ^rs 
and upon every freight car owned by it, the counler or 

A FEW years ago asuperintendent of motive power, 
with well equipped shops, found himself unable to 
build a lot of new cars which were urerentiv needed 
because his shops were constantly filled with repair 
work. After studying the situation he put a man 
into the yard with orders to report every case in 
which a car was injured in switching, with the 


JONK, 1890. 

names of the employes and all the circumstances. In 
three months the expense account for repairing dis- 
abled cars was reduced over two-thirds, and he was 
able to build his new cars. 

It will require some ingenuity on the part of the 
railway supply men to spend the usual amount of 
money at the Fortress Monroe convention for "enter- 
lainment." But the boys aro ingenious, and can 
malic the waste places blossom like the rose. If all 
else fails, they can fall back on Bowers, candy and 
gum, and by ordering them from points sufficiently 
distant they can manage to spend a good deal of 
money. Of course the -'committee on entertain- 
ment" will want to cover itself with glory, and "get 
all the good there is in it." There is a limit, how- 
ever, which true wisdom will stop short of. Too 
lavish use of money will in time defeat its own ends. 
and the railway officials may suddenly decide to take 
their conventions clear, without any "entertainment" 
"on the side." 

Seriously, while a good many think that attend- 
ance at the June conventions is made unnecessarily 
expensive to railway supply concerns, there is no 
question that the methods now in vogue are far 
preferable to those which would prevail if there were 
no general plan of entertainment to which all con- 
tribute equally. In the latter case a few wealthy 
concerns could monopolize everything, and advertise 
themselves to the exclusion of those who could not 
afford to adopt similar methods. To prevent the 
railway supply representatives from making the con- 
vention weeks pleasant to their friends, the railway 
officials, is impossible. To do this by general and 
combined action, and in a way to give pleasure to 
their own wives and daughters, is by far the best 
plan. As to the assertion, occasionally heard, that 
the schemes of entertaiiiment interfere with the work 
of the convention, we do not think that there is any 
truth in it. The members of each association put in 
as many hours of solid work at these meetings as 
they ought to — and occasionally more. 


We are requested to announce that members of 
the Master Car Builders' and Master Mechanics' 
Associations who require transportation over the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad in going to or return- 
ing from the convention at Old Point Comfort, may 
obtain such transportation from Mr. William Gars- 
tang, superintendent of motive power, Chesapeake 
& Ohio Railroad, Richmond, Va. We may state in 
this connection that President Ingalls, of the Ches- 
apeake & Ohio, has consented to deliver the address 
of welcome at the opening of the convention. 

During recent tests with beating apparatus 
conducted by the Illinois Central Railroad, some ex- 
periments were made with expansion drujjs of a 
larger size than those generally used. It was found 
that these large drums produced a much better cir- 
culation. The mechanical officers of the road have 
not yet determined just how much more effective 
the larger drum is, nor what the actual capacity of 
the drum for a certain length of pipe should be. The 
experiments, while not specilic in their results, are 
still suggestive, and should be born in mind by those 
looking into the heating question. 

On the 2d day of .lune the work of collecting sta- 
tistics of manufactures for the report of the eleventh 
census was inaugurated throughout the entire 
country. The value of this report must depend 
wholly upon the accuracy and thoroughness with 
which manufacturers answer the questions pro- 
I>ounded. The personal interests of every manufact- 
urer aro involved in the character of the report 
manufactures. It will be quoted for the next ten 
years as the official announcement of the exact 
dustrial condition of the country, and will be the 
basis for any future legislation that may be enacted 
in regard to the wants of our people, whether en 
gaged in agricultural or mechanical pui-suits 
Therefore, it is of vital importance to each manu 
facturer that an accurate report shall be made. Th( 
superintendent of census has taken every possible 

precaution in the preliminary work to make this cen- 
sus complete and satisfactory, and the earnest co- 
operation of those engaged in productive industry is 
all that is now necessary to secure valuable results. 
Every manufacturer should bear in mind that his 
answers to the questions relating to his business are 
held strictly confidential, are not disclosed to .any 
competitor or to other persons, and are not used by 
the government as predicate for the purpose of tax- 
ation or license, or in any way to adversely affect his 
individual business. This assurance is printed on 
each schedule over the signature of the superin- 
tendent of census. 

}fauge glasses, in 
the Locomotive, the author concludes that this cor- 
rosion is occasioned by a combined scouring and dis- 
solving action. He concedes that hot water will dis- 
solve glass and that small particles of iron rust and 
other solid matter passing with the condensed water 
over the inner surface of the gauge glass will pro- 
duce a grinding action similar to that of emery and 
water. But to neither cause alone would he ascribe 
the corrosion so commonly observed — the two com- 
bined would, however, account for the results. Con- 
cerning the dissolving of glass by water, a phenom- 
enon apt to be discredited by many, the author 

There can be uo doubt but that water, at the in- 
stant it is condensed from steam, is particularly 
active in dissolving ^lass— much more active than 
after it has stood tor :> time. We have good evi- 
dence of this in our own experience. In fact, at the 
present moment the writer has before him a glass 
tube one-third of an inch in diameter internally and 
26 inches long that was used for condensing steam to 
supply a laboratory with distilled water. Although 
it was used only three hours, it is very perceptibly 
corroded by the "hot water of condensation. 

During a recent visit to one of the principal rail- 
road shops in the vicinity of Chicago, our attention 
was directed to the simple and ingenious labor sav- 
ing device shown in the accompanying cut. We re- 
fer to a continuous feed attachment to the ordinary 
bolt threading machine, whereby crown bar bolts 
can be threaded so that the thread is a continuous 
one and the bolt enters both the inner and outer 
sheets at the same time without strain or injury to 
the thread. By the old method of tapping the bolts 

per day. The device illustrated turns out 200 per 
day very easily and uniformly. The cut almost ex- 
plains itself. The long feed screw engages with a 
large gear wheel at the far end of the machine and 
a small gear on the main shaft, and the feed screw is 
rotated. The tabic or slide carrying the bolt has 
connected with it a split sleeve, with the female 
screw encircling the feedscrew. In ordinary work 
the sleeve is opijti and the continuous feed inopera- 
tive. When it is desired to tap a crown stay, the 
lever shown is turned inward and the bolt is fed in- 
to the tap. When sufficiently threaded the clamp is 
opened, the die opened, and the bolt moved forward 
until the other end is at the die, when the feed is 
again taken and threading finished. The bolt is not 

turned end for end but is run into the body of the 
machine. The ends of the bolt are U in. diam., and 
the body 1 in. diam. The U in. or upset portion only 
is threaded. 

Mr. P. A. Chase, master mechanic of the Kansas 
City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs road, has been ex- 
perimenting with air inlets in his Sre-boxes and in 
increasing them has met with very gratifying re- 
sults. The inlets through the grate have been made 
45 pr.ct.of the grate area, and those above the grate 
area Is per cent, of the fire-box surface area. Mr. 
Chase never has trouble to get Jill the steam he 
wants in engines so treated, the engines doing 
harder work than before and at the same time steam- 
ing better. They can now do work'they never could 
do before. Mr.Chase uses the brick arch in his plain 
box engines, although he favors the water leg and 
puts it into all rebuilt engines. He has always used 
water legs to some extent. 

Of the various sub-committees in charge of the 
work of testing brake shoes only one appears to 
have accomplished anything. This committee has 
conducted a very extensive series of shop tests, 
the results of which we give, as far as determined, 
in another column. The road tests will not be held 
until some time in July or August, and will be held, 
as originally announced, on the Rock Island road 
near Chicago. A dynamometer car has been pre- 
pared with special apparatus for the purpose of mak- 
ing these tests. This car will record graphically 
the pull on the brake shoes, the pull on the draw 
bar, the speed, the length of stop, and the compara- 
tive revolutions of those wheels which are braked 
and those wheels which are not braked, only one 
truck of the car being equipped with brakes. A 
preliminary trip recently made with this car, dem- 
onstrated the practicability of the several recording 
devices. It will be remembered that a drawing of 
the mechanism of the car was given in our issue of 
February, 1890. The mechanism is practically the 
same as then illustrated. On the preliminary trip 
a number of stops were made at 20 and at 40 miles 
per hour, with different shoes. The dynamometer 
car and the locomotive constituted the train. Brakes 
were applied on the rear truck of the car only,and the 
stops were made by them only, the engine simply 
shutting off steam. The air pressures in reservoir 
and cylinder were carefully noted. The data gath- 
ered on this ti'ip gave excellent promise of satisfac- 
torv results in the formal tests. 

At the Aurora shops of the Chicago, Burliiijgton 
,S: Quincy Railroad they have long been troubled 
for proper facilities for handling truck work, and in 
lieu of the quarters which have been desired by the 
ollircis in charge, a neat corrugated iron shop, 
;il»mt -oxHO, has been erected, by the side of the 
^llack^^nlith shop. The shop is fitted with a small 
forge and crane. It will also have a machine for 
riveting trucks by compressed air. This shop is con- 
veniently located by the side of the blacksmith shop, 
and a track runs through it leading to the transfer 
table, which will carry the trucks direct into the 
car erecting shop. 

A tire remover used at these shops is in high favor 
with the officials and the operatives. At a conven- 
ient point in an anglo of one of the shops is placed a 
portable ring burner of ordinary pattern. This is 
supplied with a mixture of gas and air taken direct 
from shop piping under a pressure of from 60 to 70 
111- II. I-. r,,iiiM .-tions from thcairand the gas pipes 
1. :, ; i. , i , I mImiI to the ring, and the gas and air 
run,. i t ,i - hl' through the T. The ring of flame 

j> of ml. M-i' (m :il, and with the apparatus a worn 
lire can lie removed in from four to five minutes; a 
comparatively new tire takes from five to ten min- 
utes. The cost of removing each tire is from -5 to 10 
cents. The device is very economical in both timo 
and money. 

In these shops there are being erected at various 
points, short run ways upon which cinders are 

--^^^^i^ " 

IJdne. 1890. 


wheeled out dii-ect to a small platform and loaded 
thence onto cinder cars. These cars are of -10,000 
lbs. capacity, but of course the load of cinders never 
reaches that figure. Several of these cars are now 
in use, and more are now to be added. Thus in place 
of beingf anno^'ed by unsightly cinder heaps the 
cinders aie wheeled direct to the car and dumped 
into it and removed when the oar is full. This sys- 
tem is not only economical, but it makes a great dif- 
ference ia the appearance of the surroundings of the 


At the Chicago & Northwestern Railway shops at 
Chicago, the chemist of the company, Mr. G. M. 
Davidson, is actively engaged in making paint for 
the company's uses. SUmdard colors have been de- 
cided upon for cabooses, freight cars, passenger cars, 
stations and buildings, bridges, etc. On its caboose 
cars the company has heretofore used an Indian red, 
varnished. This paint almost invariably became 
discolored in three months or so, so that the car ap- 
peared like an ordinary freight car. As it was desir- 
able to maintain a distinction between freight cars 
and cabooses a new paint has been gq.tten up and is 
being made by the company. It is a bright o.\ide 
red and is used as an oil coloi" without varnish; the 
absence of varnish makes repainting a comparative- 
ly economical matter. Of this new caboose paint 96 
per cent, is oxide of iron. On this, as well as the!., f 
other paints 

are made over the cost of paint heretofore bought 
the market. A very satisfactory bridge paint has 
also been formulated and is being made at the com- 
pany's shops. It is a brown pigment, containing 96 
pur cent, of oxide of iron. The percentage of mois- 
ture-absorbing ingredients, it will be seen, is great- 
ly reduced in this paint, and it is expected that the 
bridges will withstand rust for a much longer period 
than heretofore. A very handsome set of paints for 
stations is also being made. For the interiors two 
shades of drab are used, and for the exterior the 
body is a dark red with brown trimmings, the roof 
color being blue slate. All of these colors are un- 
usually handsome in themselves and combine very 
harmoniously. The freight car and building paints 
have been standard since last fall, and this spring a 
standard passenger color was adopted. Mr. David- 
son is now engaged in getting up a color for switch 
targets. The company has heretofore been using a 
l)ale English Vermillion for its targets, ^hich is 
quickly darkened by the gases in the locomotive 
smoke. Experiments are now being made with a 
cheaper and more lasting color for the targets, with 
excellent prospects of success. The company has a 
well-equipped paint mill for the production of its 
colors and keeps it busily engaged. While the com- 
pany saves some money by making its own paints, 
the great point obtjiined is in getting just the shades 
required, and always getting its paint supplies just 
when wanted. The standardizing of all colors used 
by the company on all work is proving very effect 
ive, reducing the annoyances and expenses of meet- 
ing the varied requisitions heretofore made from the 
various points on its extensive system. The com- 
pany is also making its own deodorizing cakes for 
urinals, its disinfectants, and its fire extinguishing 
fluids, putting the latter up in long twttles of the 
ordinary shape. 

presented a paper on '-Compo 
He distributed blue prints showing characteristic in- 
dicator cards, and also a tabulated statement of di- 
mensions of certain standard types of compound 
locomotives. Of 500 now in operation, but a small 
number svere in use in the United States. The num- 
ber was rapidly increasing. He devoted some time 
to the history of the compound locomotive, explain- 
ing the advantages of multiple cylinder engines, and 
the characteristic features of the most prominent 
types. The most important requisites were simplicity 
and large power available for starting. He stated 
that the economy in fuel over single cylinder engines 
was found to vary from 13 to 21 per cent., and that 
the average of a large number of tests extending 
over considerable length of time, showed a saving 
of ISi per cent. Another important advantage was 
that it was not necessary to force the boiler, it being 
therefore possible to secure better combustion. It 
was necessary that the locomotive be designed par- 
ticularly for the work in hand, in order to secure the 
best results. In the writer's opinion, the compound 
locomotive had come to stay. 

conform, and if 

On the division of the Chicago & Northwestern 
road that runs through the iron ore regions 1,300 
ore cars are in service fitted with M. C. B. hook 
These cars never leave that division and 
.,. , , I their records are accurate and complete. The cars 

-.'?, ™'LTl^;irJL?.""f! ! weigh from 22,000 to 24,000 lbs. each and carry 4.5,000 
lbs. They are in a heavy, rough service. The coup- 
ler breakages on these 1,300 cars since January 1, 
1890, number just 12. 

A certain road has of late been having consider- 
able trouble with hot pins on some of its best loco- 
motives. The trouble arises from improper lubri- 
cation, the oil cups being continually lost off. The 
experience has been so ar.noying that the road has 
about decided to dispense with detachable oil cups 
and hereafter to forge the cups on the rod. 

[jle together properly. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy road is about 
to put in another electric transfer table, its first one 
having proved remarkably convenient and economi- 
cal. The new table will be built by the Bay City 
Industrial Works, and its structure and gearing will 
differ quite materially from those of the first one. 

The same road is now turning out three more ol 
its class "I'' suburban locomotives. These enginei 
have given most excellent satisfaction, and theii 
design has been found admirably suited to the want: 
I'apid and heavy suburbar. traffic. 

One of the notable heavy moguls, class "H," on 
this road is now in the shops undergoing re- 
pairs. This engine ran 130,000 miles without 
once being taken off her wheels, and the mechani- 
cal officers of the road are justly proud of the 
design and workmanship which produces such a 
record. This mileage was made between Gales- 
burg and Ottumwa, on a piece of track full of 
grades and curves, in heavy and fast passenger ser- 
vice. The mechanical officers of the road are usu- 
ally satisfied if their engines run 7o,000 miles under 
such work before being obliged to be run in for re- 
pairs. The repairs of the class "H" engine of which 
we speak are costing only about $1,400. 

At the Chicago & Northwestern shops at Chicago, 
30 flat cars are being made into charcoal cars by the 
addition of a well designed box. Three doors are 
cut on each side of the car, the doors being hinged on 
their upper edge and opening outward. In the root 
are two trap doors located in the center line of the 
roof; when these doors are down the running board 
is continuous. This arrangement of doors has been 
found admirably adapted to the requirements of the 
charcoal trade. 

Another road which makes its own paints is the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. It buys most all of 
its dry colors and mixes them at Aurora, where 
there is a large paint storage storehouse and grind- 
ing mills. Prom that point colors in oil are shipped in 
cars to the various points along the road. All colors 
which ^re standard are matched at Aurora. The 
paints which are received dry and mixed are: 
white leads, orange and lemon chromes, red and 
green signal colors, and minerals for freight cars, 
tc. Bridge paints are ordered ready mixed when 
e eded. Blacks are usually bought mixed ready tor 

At a recent meeting of the Engineers Club, of St, 
Louis, Prof. Arthur T. Woods, of Champaign, III. 

The repair yards of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad at Aurora, 111., present a very busy 
scene just now. The men are actively engaged upon 
the equipment of 6,666 cars as rapidly as they come 
into the yards for repairs. Westinghouse air-brakes 
and .lanney couplers are being put upon all these 
cars. The oars are at the same lime being given a 
very extensive and thorough overhauling. Every 
draw timber comes down and a draft rigging de- 
vised at these shops is being applied in every case. 
This draft rigging has proven very useful in service, 
and in the laboratory tests it h is held under a pull 
even when the timbers broke. About seven or eight 
cars are being turned out per day fully equipped as 
above indicated. The plan was to equip about 12 a 
day, but it has been found impossible to do so, on ac- 
it mainly of the lack of material. All the brake 
apparatus is carefully tested before being applied. 
The yards are piped throughout with pipes for com- 
pressed air, and at var'ous points hose connections 
are provided. The various fittings are tested as 
suits their individual requirements. At the time of 
our visit we noticed a large number of the small 
malleable iron elbows undergoing test. They are 
screwed on to the air pipe and plugged up and the 
air is then turned on. Soapsuds are siwnged over 
the elbow, and it there is a pin-hole or any defect in 
the threads, these are immediately indicated by the 
formation of bubbles. A very large percentage of 
the fittings so tested are found defective. .\11 the 
long pipes are stood on end and carefully rapped in 
order than any scale or foreign particles may be dis- 
lodged. They are carefully blown out afterward. 
All the triples are also tested. It having been dis- 
covered some time ago upon the receipt of several 
new vertical plane couplers that they did not con- 
form to the master car builders' lines, the company 
has now erected in the repair yards a buffer carrying 
a standard coupler known to be of the right lines. 
Samples from each lot of couplers coming in are 
placed on a little truck and tried with this template, 

Any one interested in the sick benefit, funeral aid, 
and death beneficiary associations of the United 
States can help make the statistics of such organi- 
zations for the forthcoming census more complete 
and disseminate the knowledge of the good work 
they are doing by sending the names of such so- 
cieties as they may know of, and the addresses of 
their principal officers, to Mr. Charles A. .lenney, 
special agent of the eleventh census, W William 
street. New 'i'ork City. 

■ Fully SO per cent, of the passenger cars of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway are now equipped 
with the Westinghouse quick-acting brake and the 
rest are being rapidly so equipped. Not only is 
the quick-acting triple on these cars, but the brake 
gear is all carefully adjusted to the weight of each 
individual car. The leverages are fixed unchange- 
ably to exert a braking effect upon ilO per cent, of 
the weight of the car. Mr. Schroyer's well known 
piston travel recorder is on these cars and affords in- 
spectors a close check on the adjustment of the brake 
gear as a whole. For taking up slack a turnbuckle 
carrying two brass nuts is used, which permits of a 
rapid adjustment where, were an ordinary iron turn- 
buckle used, rusted tfereads would prevent it. 

The wide range of uses to which the .\d»ms & 
Westlake " Acme " lamp can bo applied was indi- 
cated by the cut of that brilliant and [xipOlar dis- 
penser of light to the traveling public in the llAii.- 
w.\Y M.vSTER Mecha.nic of last month. By 
simply reversing the lamp as the printer did in 
the advertisment, and placing it on a suitable stand 
it becomes a highly ornamental and extremely re- 
chcTcht pair of ash holders. In an emergency these 
can be used as cuspidors, but of this use, one would 
be obliged to say with Othello, " 'Tis true, ti spity 
and pity 'tis 'tis true." 


June, 1890. 


The Rhode Island Locomotive Works have within 
the last year built some very heavy consolidation en- 
gines for various railways, and these have given 
very good satisfaction in service. The class of en- 
gine to which we refer has all been built from the 
same general design, which we show in our illustra- 
tions. Our supplement sheet gives the side eleva- 
tion of this engine, and in the drawings on this 
and the following page will be found sec- 
tions which will assist in showing the gen- 
eral construction. This engine is of the con- 
solidation type, and has cylinders 20 in. in diameter 
and 24 in. stroke. The driving wheels are 50 in. in 
diameter, and the weight upon them is nearly 110,- 
000 lbs. The boiler is of the wagon top type and is 
62 in. in diameter at the smoke- box end. The entire 
shell is built of steel !I-1B in. thick, with the excep- 
lof the throat sheet, which is i in. thicker, in 

uncommon practice of carrying the crown sheets of 
a boiler fitted with radial stays a little higher than 
is desirable, so that a large number of tubes may be 
put in the boiler, has not been followed in this case, 
but the crown sheet has been kept low enough to 
provide a good steam space in the boiler, something 
which is more desirable in some cases than a few 
more tubes. Generally speaking, a boiler tilted 
with radial slays will not have the same number of 
tubes as one in which the crown sheet is flat, unless 
the latter is carried to an objectionable height. It 
is very sure, however, that the loss of heating sur- 
face in the tubes is not so great an objection as a 
small steam space which would be the result of 
carrying the crown sheets higher than usual. 

The engine frame is in three pieces, one large 
forging extending from the cab bracket to the cylin- 
der. Between the front pedestal and the cylinder a 
joint is made for the top and lower rails of the frame, 
so that either of these two can be removed from the 

order to allow for the effects of flanging. The fire- 
box is placed between the frames and above the rear 
axle, the fire-box ring being inclined from that axle 
forward, and horizontal from that point to the back 
of the boiler. The crown is supported by radial stays 
I in. in diameter. The water spaces at the sides of 
the box have been very carefully designed, and have 
been made tti widen considerably toward the top, so 
that the circulation will be good. The by no means 

main forging. The fire-box being in between the 
frames the whole equalizing arrangement is placed 
above the latter, thus making it a little more simple 
than is generally the case upon consolidation locomo- 
tives. The second, third and fourth pairs of drivers 
are all equalized together in one system, and the 
first pair and the trucks are equalized together in 
the second system. The piston guides, crosshead 
rods, etc., are very well proportioned. The steam 

chest valve is balanced, but we notice that the bal- 
ance plate above the valve is a part of the steam 
chest cover casting. This is generally found less 
satisfactory than when the plate is made separate 
and bolted lo the cover. It is, however, fair to say 
that unless this latter form of plate is very carefully 
fastened to the cover, it will not be satisfactory. 
The arrangement of the various fixtures in the cab is 
very complete, and convenient to the enginemen. It 
will be seen that all of the valves are located in one 
steam cock or stand, which is bolted on top of the 
boiler, and receives its supply of steam through a 
small dry pipe which extends up into the dome. The 
throttle lever is also fulcrumed upon this stand and 
the throttle rod extends forward above it and 
through the cab along the top of the boiler to the 
dome, where it passes through a stuffing box into 
the boiler. The position of the lubricator is much 
tetter than usual. It is not put as close to the front of 
the cab as possible, a position in which it is fre- 
quently seen, even where the cab is as large as this 
one, and the boiler extends through it. From the 
specifications which have been kindly furnished us 
by the builders we abstract the following dimensions 
and particulars in regard to the engine: 


SSI :.£SlSo°/ ''■;S'n°e''und-tinde,.V.-. 

16 no!" 

WeKrht on drivers (working order) 

Weight on trucks " " 



Style Of boiler 



ft coal 


1 1 arooal iron 

Diameter of tubes 

in D 

inrc-box...... .' 

liw , in X Si^ in 


HeatlDi? surface, flre-box 


Pistan rings 

G uides.'TLitird) ." .' .' .' '. ." .' .' .' .' .' .' .' ' ." ' .' .' ,' . 

1 t 11-011 spring ring 
twi ted iron 

Driving wheels, (eight) 

DrlMng tires 1st and 4th pairs 

Driving tires, 2Dd and 3rd pairs 


Driving axle journals 

Connecting rods 

Crank pins 

Style two wheeled swing i 

Wheels, (Paige steel tiredi 

lOin diameter 

haium n-d iron 



Prof. .1. B. Johnson, of Washington University at 
St. Louis, has made a study of the results of the 
tests of metal brake beams which were conducted by 
the Master Car Builder's committee at Altoona, in 
June, 1889, and in two letters addressed to the Na- 
tional Hollow Brake Beam Company he gives his 
conclusions, together with some remarks on the 
qualities which should be found in a good beam. 
We give the following abstract of them: 

"There are three important qualities required in 
a brake beam; they are: strength, stiffness and elas- 
tic resilience, or springiness, that quality by which 
they may be able to resist shocks or blows, or sud- 
den jars. This latter quality of resilience is apt to 
be opposed to that of stiffness, but it is very desirable 
to have both qualities represented in the same beam 
to a high degree. I find this to be true in your beams. 

Subplement to the RAILWAY MASTER l\/IEGHAI\IIG, June, 1890. 


I I 


o o o o\ < 

O O O O \ ! 









Name of Beam. 


Load of 15.0110 lbs. 
DeBectlon.i Set. 



per lb. of Iron. 

Elastic resil- 
ience in in.-lb. 
per Ib.of iron. 

National. ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; "JS;; 

9S-5 •• 
?2 5 ■• 


MO •• 

76- •; 

78- •• 
79-5 •■ 

«9- •' 

79- •• 
72- •• 
«8- ■• 























21 3 

^^ ] 
3r5 J 

Wt 1 

111 J 



Penna. K. (Westinghuuse tj-pejNo. i 




P C. 4 St L . .No. 1 

mean = 46:) 



' ::' ""■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■£ I 


Central No. 1 

mean =449 



:i ==£M 


lu fact they excel all others tested. In all three re- 
quirements. I have tabulated the results of my an- 
alysis on the accompanying sheet. Since the beams 
were of varying weight, the results could only be 
compared by dividing all the results by their corres- 
ponding weights and so obtaining the results per 
pound of metal in the beam. This is a fair basis of 
comparison, since all these results vary directly with 
the weight. 

"To be sure, when reduced to a weight of metal of 
one pound, the results do not represent any physical 
fact as shown in the tests, for we could not have a 
beam weighing one pound, but they are the true ex- 
pressions of the relative strength, stiffness and re- 
silience of the beams. Thus if a beam weighing 100 
lbs. has an ultimate strength of 53,400 lbs., we may 
say its strength is 534 lbs. for every pound of iron in 
it; and if another beam weighing SO lbs. has a 
strength of 37,300 lbs., we may say its strength is 
46« lbs. for every pound of iron in it. We thus ob- 
tain figures which are comparable, and in no other 
way can these results be directly compared. 

"Similarly with the stiffness; the greater the de- 
flection the less the stiffness, or we may say that the 
stiffness varies inversely with the deflection; also 
the stiffness increases directly with the weight. To 
obtain an accurate basis of comparing the stiffness 
of the beams tested I have computed the load re- 
quired to deflect each beam O-ol in. per pound of 
weightof beam. That is, find the load required to 
deflect the real beam O'Ol in. and divide this by the 
weight of the beam, the same as was done for 

"The elastic resilience ofjthe beam is the measure 
of the shock or blow it can absorb without being per- 
manently distorted. It is found in inch-pounds per 
IMund of weight of beam by taking those tests which 
just come up to the elastic limit, multiplying one- 
half the load at this ix)int by the deflection and 
dividing this by the weight of the beam. It may not 
be clear how this is a true measure of the elastic re- 
silience or " shock power "' of the beam, but 
it is in fact the measure of the work, 
or energy, spent in the beam, per [wund of 
metal in it, to deflect it up to its elastic limit. Al- 
though this property may seem somewhat abstruse 
in this form, still it is exceedingly important to all 
forms of mechanism about freight or passenger cars, 
where such shocks or blows are very common. 

■'Some resilience or spring in the beam is necessary 
to protect it from harm when sudden shocks or blows 
come upon it. It must have strength to withstand 
the dead pull of the brake rods, b*>t strength alone 
will not resist shock. We must combine strength 
with deflection or distortion under load, in order to 
get resilience or resistance to shocks. In order that 
the beam may remain uninjured also, this distortion 
or deflection must be within its elastic limit; that is 
to say, it must not take a permanent set. It is well 
known that wood will take a permanent set under a 
very small load if it is long continued or frequently 
imposed. .-Mthough such a beam has great resilient 

action under a single or under a tew shocks, this re- 
silience is not elastic resilience, for it is not within 
the elastic limits of the material. It is only the elas- 
tic resilience, therefore, which is valuable in a brake 

"It may be shown that a trussed beam gives not 
only a greater strength, but also a greater stiffness 
and a greater elastic resilience than any other form 
of solid beam, or plate girder. This is but a matter 
of mathematical analysis, provided all are of the 
same material and of the same weight. Of different 
kinds of trussed beams, all of the same span and 
depth of truss, or length of middle strut piece, that 
form will have the greatest strength and elastic re- 
silience, tor a given weight, which allows of the 
highest stress in the parts, before taking a perma- 
nent set. In any properly proportioned beam of this 
character, the back strut will give way first by 
buckling up under a compressive stress, and thus 
take a permanent set and require a readjustment of 
the brake rods. 

"It is an experimental so sustained by theory, 
that a hollow cylindrical form gives greater strength 
in compression than any other, and allows of a higher 
stress before coming to its elastic limit. This ex- 
plains why the hollow compression member of the 
National beam gives both a higher strength and also 
a higher elastic resilience than the solid forms. That 
this conclusion is borne out by experiment is abund- 
antly shown by the Alt90na tests, where the elastic 
resilience of the National beam, in inch-pounds per 
pound of metal in the beam is 30, while that of the 
Penns.vlvania Railroad beam wiis but lil, for the 




Westinghouse 19, tor the Central 13 and foi' the 
Marden but 7-5. 

"The stiffness is necessary to prevent an excessive 
movement of the air piston or main brake rod, but it 
should be attained without any sacrifice of resilience. 
As may be seen by the appended tabulation, the 
National beam does combine both of these qualities 
in an eminent and superior degree. Thus the 
National beam is 15 per cent, stronger, 21 per cent, 
stiffer and 30 per cent, more resilient than the 
Pennsylvania Railroad beam per pound of metal: lU 
per cent, stronger, 7 per ce;it. stiffer and 37 per cent, 
more resilient than the Westinghouse beam per 
povujd of metal; and 28 per cent, stronger, 116 per 
cent, stiffer and -56 per cent, more resilient than the 
the Central beam per pound of metal. The above 
percentages are taken directly from the average re- 
sults in the accompanying table. The P., C. & St. 
L. beam did not have any elastic limit determiaed, 
but the National beam was 26 per cent, stronger and 
26 per cent, stiffer per pound of metal than the one 
specimen of this form which was tested. All theae 
are obtained on the same basis, namely: of an equal 
weight of metal in the beam. The original tests 
themselves furnish a basis of comparing the beams 
as actually constructed and tested. I attribute the in- 
creased values found for the National beam to the ob- 
servance of true scientific principles in its construc- 
tion, especially in the character of the end ioint,and in 
the use of a hollow compression member. I do not see 
how it is possible to get better results out of a given 
weight of metal."' 

OfBcers' Car— M. L. S. & W. By. 

Our illustration shows an officers' car recently 
built by the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Ry.. 
of which Mr. Jno. Hickey is master mechanic. The 
car is -58 feet long and 9 feet 8 inches wide over body. 
The framing is of special design. The sides of the 
car under the sheathing have a wood lining with 
grain running lengthwise of car. The end sills are 
stiffened with 3-8x6i inches iron plate, which is 
firmly fastened between the end sill and the sub end 
sill, into which the center and intermediate sills are 
tenoned. The sill framing is supported laterally by 
i in. rods and girts, which are placed not more than 
two feet from centers throughout the whole 
length of the ear. The car has two observation 
rooms, state room, and sections as shown, with a fold- 
ing bed, desk, and map case, in the large observation 
room. The car has a sleeping capacity for eleven 
persons, not including the porters, and is very con- 
venient throughout all its details. 

Decorative Designs for Car Interiors. 

Some recent decorative work designed for the in- 
teriors of cars at the Chicago shops of the Chicago & 
Northwestern is very tasieful. We are enabled 
through the courtesy of Mr. C. A. Schroyer, super- 
intendent of the car department of that road, to pre- 
sent drawings of a portion of this work. In our en- 
graving No. 1 is a corner of a center panel; No. 2 an 
end of a center panel; No. 3 a corner of a lamp 
panel: No. 4 the half of a center panel,' No. 5 a por- 
tion of a panel of the lower deck; No. 6 an end of a 
narrow panel; and No. 7 a break in a ribbon design 
in a raised root. The colors used are mainly gold, 
silver and black, (the latter only slightly used), and 
while they are as quiet in their tints as are the flow- 
ing lines in design, the effect of the finished 
work is thoroughly artistic. In both design and 
color there is everywhere visible a tone of quiet ele- 
gance and a close adhesion to the true principles of 
decorative art. The care adorned with the decora- 
tions that we recently saw at these shops — of which 
our drawings present a fair sample— will prove a 
standing rebuke to the garish effects sought by some 
recent designers. 

—Within a short time we have heard several motive 
power and car officials speak very enthusiasticaUy of the 
working of the Ross-Meehan brake shoe. It not only great- 
ly lengthens the service of tires between turnings, but also 
lessens the liability to accident on account of double flanges, 





BegnUr May Meeting U. S. Hotel, Boston, Mass. 

At one session of the May meeting, (which meeting 
lasted a month) of the Ananias Club, the following 
paper was read by Professor R — ch — e. 

The new pocket hammers (locally known as "silencers") 
icently distributed by the management of an eastern road 
to its passenger trainmen, have a compact solid silver head 
m aluminum handle. The total weight is small, and 
they can be carried in a side pocket. Being made of pure 
Is they can easily be kept bright even when frequent- 
ly used. It is well known that for a passenger killed in an 
accident the highest amount of damage which a railway 
)e compelled to pay is $.5,000, but for iniuries not fatal 
: is no limit to the amount which a jury may award 
the court adjudge. As much as *30,000 has been 
awarded for a mashed thumb. By deftly usmg these 
hammers on injured passengers, the possibility of their 
surviving to collect big damages is avoided, and they are 
all brought within the $5,000 class. In the excitement 
which necessarily attends a collision or a bad derailment, 
a trainman of experience can, by a few well directed blows, 
save his company a great many thousands of dollars. 
Originally the duty of thus reducing the ml damnum in 
personal injury suits devolved upon the j'outh who sells 
pea nuts and light literature on passenger trains, who for 
that reason soon began to be called the "train butcher." 
Sometimes however, iu case of extensive accidents the 
"butcher" had more work than he could perform, and the 
improved modem practice is to provide one man to each car 
tc perform this disagreeable but highly profitable work. 

In the discussion of the foregoing paper which 
followed a well known official of the O. C. Railroad 
insisted that a small model of a Safford draw-bar 
would knock any silver mounted hammer galley 
west in efficiency in "removing'" injured passengers. 
He said, too, that it would last twice as long as any 
hammer, and that the trainmen would like it better. 
A visiting member, Mr. A — g— s S— no — r, then 
recited the following lines: 

When the shades of night have gathered 

Underneath the starry spheres. 
And I've ordered from the buffet 

Some cigars and several beers, 
'Tis then I lightly scramble 

To an "upper" Pullman bed. 
And Usten to the patter 

Of the cinders overhead. 

Every tinkle on that tin roof — 

Rouses memories in my brain, 
Till a swarm of recollections 

Bring the past to life again — 
Yes, a thousand recollections 

Mix and weave into a woof, 
As I list 'twixt sleep and waking 

To the clatter on the roof. 

Now in fancy come the fellows, 
(Some were modest — some had gall '.) 

Who could fix our locomotives 
So that not a spark would fall. 

Oh: I see their eager faces, 
Hear them Nature's laws repeat, 

As the cinders pelt the car root, 
" " "J storm of sleet. 



There was Bro 

That he'd " got it," loud he swore. 
As he laid his smoke consumer 

In a model on the floor. 
It was tried upon an engine — 

Brown in cash and hope went broke, 
Paying fines for violating 

Kobinson disclaimed al 


What was "practical 

was his "lay." 

With his nettings and deHectors 

Not a spark could get away. 

But when pulling up 

he ridge, 

Sparks like meteors stp 

;amed and burni 

Two new trestles and 

a bridge. 

Never threw out sparks because 

He consumed them in tbe fire-box. 

Heeding all conibusti 

on"s laws 

Poured in when the 1 

elds were dry. 

And three brakemen lo 

t their eyesight 

Hit by cinders in the 



This smoke nuisance 


And thus f,'u.' i h-' r.nlr 

Clean slni- . .".,r. „ 

1 ivat joy! 

Faded p'l , ,■., ; . 

While the >lii II,,,,' -i,,i' 

i ,,i riuders 

n,„r swept. 




How the Mechanical Officials of a Large Railway System 
May Systematically Work Together. 

Most of our ivadei's an- awart.- nf the fact thai 
there bas been in successful ojjoration for some years 
on the Chicago, Burling'ton vS: Quincy Railroad an 
orffanization known as its "Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation;" and also of the fact that the work of this 
association has been of notably great value and aid 
to the successful administration of the mechanical 
department of this road. There is no reason why 
similar associations should not be founded and suc- 
cessfully conducted upon other roads where the sys- 
tem is so extensive that co-operation among various 
members of the mechanical staff becomes difficult of 

In order that the plan and operation of this asso- 
ciation may be fully understood, we have prepared 
the following account of its organization and work- 
ings. The details of the scheme of organization and 
the forms which we give are, in the main, identical 
with those employed on the Chicago, Burlington & 

All Division Master MeL-ljiinii.-s. 

The ( leoeral Storekeeper. 

Lumber Purchaser from Pun-hasing Depa 

Kntjineer of Testa. 

Clieinist, (fron laboratory.] 

And any olliera thought necessary from ea 

In order thj 

of the association never becouio mixed up the superinten- 
dent of motive power should always be the chairman. It will 
be his duty to secure from members of the association as 
early after each meeting as prauticablo such subjects as 
they may want discussed at the next meeting, to have 
them properly tabulated, numbered and sent out to each 
member between each regular meeting, ao that nil may 
come prepared to take part. Each member should be 
asked to name two or three subjects so that if two or more 
should name the same subject tbere will be enough addi- 
tional to make up a suitable list. He will preside at all 
meetings, appoint all committees and perform such other 
duties as individual cases may require. [Complete instruc- 
tions regarding the duties of a L-bairmau will be found in 
"Robert's Kules of Order," section Mi and r)O.J 

The secretary should be the secretary of the superinten- 
dent of niotive power, and should be permanent. All bus- 
iness will then arise at and eventually return to one place, 
which is the headquarters of the association. It will be the 
secretary's duties to keep the minutes of the association 
and to provide each n3ember with a copy of them; to re- 
ceive and keep (in aspecial tilefor the purpose] all reports 
' such other papers as may pertain to the 

tiou, adding to the interest of the meetings, and deciding 
from a parliamentary standpoint all disputed points in de 
bate f pages S. 9 and 10.] 

A short recess should be arranged for by the chairman 
at both morning and afternoon sessions to give membei'S 
an opportunity to examine specimens of material of any 
kind, and blue prints or drawings under discussion, and to 
exchange ideas in a general way on some subject to be 
discussed before it comes formally before the association, 
and for a few words of social converse. 

! feet i 

uld be placed 

of the minutes 

Subjcfttt, Sclallon anil Nanilterlnu. 
From 12 to 1.") subjects can usually be discussed during 
the two days' session. They should be called for und s« 
lected by the chairman as explained nnder duties of chaii 
man. They should be numbered by hundreds, thus: First 
meeting, 15 subjects, should be numbered from lUl toll 
both inclusive: second meeting, 'JOl 10 215, both inclusive 
third meeting, 3UI, and thus through all subsequent meet- 
ings. This will avoid confusion wuich might result from 
referring to subject No. I of the tirst meeting or subject 
No. 1 of the second meeting; or if the numbers ran con- 
secutively from 1 to 100 or more, the number itself would 
give no information as to which meeting it was taken up 
at, while if the hundred ligure is used for each meeting, it 
indicates at which meeting the subject was tirst intro- 
duced, and can be referred to readily, thus: Subject 312 
would be the 12th of the third meeting; 40S would be the 
Slh subject of the fourth meeting, etc. Where a subject 
has been referred to a committee who report at a subse- 
quent meeting it should appear in the minutes of the sub- 
sequent meeting bearing both numbers, thus: Subject 210 
is reported on by the committee in meeting No. 5— 
the subject in the minutes would go out, " Subject 


subject ^ 

meeting No. 6 

uld go( 


s, or general 


CJuincy Railroad; although it is, of course, not essen- 
tial that they be absolutely followed. In the prepara- 
tion of this description of the operation of this asso- 
ciation and the forms used, we have been very great- 
ly aided by Mr. F. S. Woods, formerly chief clerk 
of the motive power department of the Burlington 
road, and now with the Hutchins Car Roof Co. He 
was active in the organization of the association, and 
he was its secretary while connected with the road. 
Before giving the forms used we present the follow- 
ing notcs<lescribing the organization of such an asso- 
ciation, which arc drawn up in the shape of sugges- 
tions to those who desire to create such an a.ssocia- 
tion on their road. 


Mcmbera should consist of 
Superintendent of Motive Power, [who is |>ermanent 

Secretary of Motive Power Department, [who is perman- 
ent secretary.] 
Mechanical Engineer. 
Chief Clerk Motive Powf 

business of the association, keeping them entirely separate 
from the regular motive power correspondence. The .sec- 
retary's copy of the minutes of the meetings should all be 
kept in one book and an index prepared so that reference 
can be made readily at any time to any subject and informa- 
tion obtained as to how it stands, i. e., whether it has been 
disposed of temporarily or permanently, or whether it is in 
the hands of the committee, or any other disposition. 

Time and Place of Mcetimj. 
-*The meetings should be held regularly every 90 days and 
enough subjects provided for two days' discussion. At the 
close of the first meeting it can be decidod by vote of the 
association the time and place the next meeting is to be 
held, and so on for all meetings thereafter. If convenient 
quarters can be secured it would be well to change the 
place of meeting each time, which affords a change for the 
members and an opportunity to visitthedifferent shops and 
to observe the differences in workmen and methods, thi 
iwssibly suggesting subjects for the next meeting. 
Rules of Order. 

1st. Call to order by chairman. 

2d. Roll call by secretary. 

3rd. Reading of minutes of previous meeting. 

r»th. New business. 

"Robert's Rules of Order" will be found a most excel 
lent guide for conducting the deliberations of the a.ssocia 

ject ". At first sight this method of numbering may 

seem superfluous, but when the actual business begins and 
three or four meetings ai-e held, it will be found to be indis- 


When committees are to be appointed the person who 
names the subject should be the chairman. 

If the subject pertains to physical tests of any ' ■ ' "' 
engineer of tests should I 

If chemical analyses ai 

If comparative figures or tabulated 
sired the chief clerk of the 
keeper, may be needed as mem 

If changes in drawings are proposed the mechanical en- 
gineer should be a member. 

If changes in locomotive or car construction are wanted, 
three master mechanics may be desirable and the mechani- 
cal engineer or other members should be instructed to as- 
sist them by furnishing such sketches, drawings, figures, 
or other data as may be needed to assist the committee in 
their work. 

Work given some committees may require longer than 9U 
days; in which case they can report progress at the next 
meeting, and ask for an extension of time, which should be 
granted by motion that the report of progress be accepted 
and extension of time allowed. 

The nature of the case will usually suggest to the chair- 
lan of the association how many the committee should be 
omposed of and who they should be. 

Ci>i)ies of Minutes and how Approved. 

As soon as possible after each meeting the secretary 
should write, or have written, a copy of the minutes by 
electric pen, cyclostyle, hektograph or some other duplicat- 
ing process and send a copy to each member of the asso- 
ciation. If proprietary lines conform to the standards of 
the main stem and are governed by a general superintend- 
ent or treneral manager, to whom master mechanics report, 
an extra copy should be sent all such master mechanics, 
who will forward lo their superior such extra copy stating bv 
letter of tnirr^T'i-T';!! hri^M', just what recommendations 
aromadi>l>,\ Mh i^^ „ m' ,,,., mid ask his approval. The 
superioroOi i ungthe matter over, advise 

his master ( , > ..inmendations he approves 

ing how 
11. This 

change in standards is made the chairman immei 
vises the mechanical ergineer to change his dn 
cordingly, showing the change or changes and 
enough blue prints to supply all i 

ings I if mounted on boards] across the face stencilled in 

paint the words "Oaocclcd date;" if drawings 

are not mounted they may be returned lo the mechanical 

engineer for cancelation or destruction. 


Assuming that the foregoing has acquainted our 
readers with the general scheme of the organiza- 
tion, we will proceed with some details as to the 
methods and form of correspondence to bo used in 
its conduct. We will suppose that a similar associa- 
tion is to be organized. The meeting should bo 
called by the superintendent of motive power, and a 



iJ4^j^i4i44iil I -^ ^ 



letter addressed to all persons •who are to become 
members of the association. Something like the 
following would be sufficient; 

It is the desire of the management of our company that 
an association of the master mechanics and others inter- 
ested i'l the care of equipment, machinery and tools, sup- 
plies, etc., connected with the operation of the mechanical 
department be organized, and that regular meetings be 
held from time to time for the discussion of such changes 
and improvements as may be considered advisable. 

The tiist meeting will be held at on the 

.... day of Please arrange to be present. 

The meeting will be called to order at . . . o'clock. 

In order that these meetings may be profitable to aliit 
will be necessary that we know in advance just what sub 
jects are to be discussed. Will you therefore please send 
me by return mail a list of three (:J| subjects which you 
would like to have considered. A complete list will be fur- 
nished you later so that you may come prepared to make 
the meeting not only interesting but useful. 

Signed Supt. M. P- 

We will assume that the first meeting called as 
per foregoing letter has been held. The next step 
will be the sending of the following letter by the 
chairman of the meeting to the master mechanics 
of the proprietary lines: 

John Doe, Esq., 

M. M 

Deak Sik— Kiii-loseii herewith I hand you a copy of the 
minutes of our Master Mechanics' Association 'meeting 
No. 1, for your personal file, and an extra copy for your 
general manager, which please forward to him with a let- 
ter of transmittal, staling briefly the recommendations of 
the associaiion, and requesting his a)>proval of such of them 

Subject No. 101 ... . docs your manager approve 
Sub - ■•••-- 


Will j'OU please send nie three subjects for discussion at 
our next meeting' 


When responses to the toregoinff inquiries have 
been returned, the superintendent of motive power 
then sends a letter after the following form to the 
vice president of the road: 

And a copy of t 

Vice President, Chicago. 
Deak Sik— Enclosed herewith pic 
minutes of the first meeting of our Master Mecbani 
sociation. The recommendations of the association have 
been submitted to the managers of the proprietary lines 
and have been anproved by a majority, as follows: 




le instructions to change 

Supt. M. P. 
If the approval of the vice president comes baclr, 
the superintendent of motive power then sends the 
following instructions to the mechanical engineer of 
the road: 

Mecli. Engineer, Aurora: 
R— The following subjects of our master mech 
Ling No. I have met the approval of the mana 
! proprietary lines, and our vice president, am 

Subject, No. 1(11 

Please change all drawings to correspond with the 

recommendations and seud me blueprints 

which I will furnish to the different members. 

Sunt. M. P. 
After the blue prints have been sent to the super- 
intendent of motive power by the mechanical en- 
gineer, then he sends the. following letter to the 
division master mechanics, informing them of 
the approval of the new standards by the vice presi- 
dent, and announcing that blue print details of the 
same go by same mail: 

John Doe. Esq., 

ter mechanics' meeting No. : 

equipment and repairs of old. 
Subject No. 101 

We send you by I 
print drawings Ni 
drawings "ci 

and i-etum to 

be standax'd for all 

Please mark your old 
me for destruction. 

This action thus systematically disposes of the 
standards adopted at the first meeting. Then in due 
course of time the superintendent of motive power 
sends out, as chai rman of the association, the follow- 
ing notitication of the second meeting, said notifica- 
tion including the topics which had been selected 
for discussion at that meeting. [The topics we give, 
be it understood, are typical or imaginary.] 

3, to be held at Burlington, May 12th and VSlh. Pleas 
come prepared to express yourself fully on them. 



Subject No. 203— Crown bars. What is the 1 
of securing '. 

Subject No. 
drilled; If yes 
a hole: 

Subject No 3W— Paint. What is the most serviceable 
color for coaches ; 

Subject No. 30.5— Ladders for box cars. Should there 
be four or five rounds; Trainmen complain that with four 
the reach from top round to round on roof is too great for 
short men. Should they be located on sides or ends of 

Subject No. 206— Center plates. A change from cast iron 
to pressed steel is recommended. 

Subject No. 307— Oils. What are the best adapted for 
lubricating shafting and loose pulleys, cutting bolts, tap- 
ping nuts, drilling, etc. 

Subject No. 20S— Oils for locomotives. What allowance 
should be made engineers per 100 miles, and should such 
allowance include or exclude illuminating oil; 

Subject No. 20^- Nozzles, Are double or single ex- 
haust best, and what should be the size of the opening; 

Subject No. 210— Water tanks, drinking, larger, for 
through passenger cars. 

Subject No. 311— Brakes for locomotive drivers. It is 
claimed a driver brake of a different system and indepen- 
dent of the train brake should be used, thus giving an 
emergency brake in case of failure of the train brake. 

As heretofore intimated under the head of " Sub- 
jects, Selection and Numbering ^^ this association's 
work would quickly become comparatively valueless 
if the records were not carefully and systematically 
kept. It is essential that the book of minutes should 
be fully written up promptly, and with proper atten- 
tion to systematic detail. A book of minutes by it- 
self would, if not properly indexed, afford but a poor 
record. A careful index is essential, and we will 
proceed with a description of the method of index- 
ing the minutes used upon the C. B. & Q. 

Supposing the subject to be "Water Tanks, Drink- 
ing, Larger for Through Passenger Cars," and 
it should be the tenth subject of the second meeting. 
By referring to the index, running down the alpha- 
bet to " W,'' and opening the book we would find: 
"Water Tanks, Drinking, Larger for Through Pas- 
senger Cars, Subject 210." Then upon opening the 
book at the index numbered "201," and turning over 
until 210 is reached, something like the following 
might appear: 


Interior of High Pressure Cylinder. 

ugh Passen- 


"Water Tanks, Drinking, Larger for Thi 
ger Cars." 
Feb. 10, 1S90.— Chicago, discussed, page 37 of minutes 

Refered to committee .... and .... page 39 
Ma.v 11, l«Hi.— liuiliiiK'ou, committee report recommending 

larger tanks and submit plan, page .V,*. 
May -1, ly.KI— Aurora, sent to master mechanics for ap- 

provalof manauers, page ill. 
May31,lS90 — Aurora, sent to vice president for final ap- 
proval, page ti«. 
June 1.5, ls<K>— Aurora, made standard and blue piint 

drawings sent to master mechanics, page 71. 

By reference to the page of the minutes referred 
to by this index each consecutive step will be found 
from \ln original discussion until final adoption. 
The rc|)ortof the committee, approval or disapproval 
of managers, together with that of the vice presi- 
dent, would all go in one wrapper in the file of pa- 
pers pertaining to meeting number two. It will be 
readily observed that if this method of indexing 
and filing is properly followed up, any subject can 
be referred to after a lapse of from five to ten years 
as easily as on the day of entry, and it can be done 
in five minutes at either time if the books are pro- 
perly kept. 

The foregoing will, we think, make clear the plan 
of organization and conduct of the C. B. & Q. mas- 
ter mechanics association, and reveal something of 
the possibilities of such associated work upon large 
railway systems. 

The May Club Meetings. 

The various railway clubs held their usual meet- 
ings in May. but we are unable to give space to their 
discussions in this issue. The Western Railway Club 
had an interesting talk on "Counterbalancing " 
motives," ".lournal Boxes," and the "Comparative 
Flange Wear of Wheels." The Xew England Club 
discussed the "Length of Rigid Wheel 
missible on American Railways." The Northwest 
Club discussed "Driver Brakes 

From information and drawings furnished us by the 

superintendent of rolling stock of the Northern 

Railway of France, we have prepared the following 

account of a three-cylinder compound which has 

given excellent satisfaction on that road: 

The peculiar feature of the design of this engine 

that the engine can be run either as a compound 

FlK.S.Sectlon AB 

or as an ordinary locomotive. In addition to the ap- 
plication of the compound principle, it possesses cer- 
tain other peculiarities, the principal of which are 
the high boiler pressure which has been pUiced at 
200 lbs. per sq. in., and the method of steam distri- 
bution from the high pressure cylinder, which will 
be described further on. Sectional views of the en- 
gine are shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and the details of 
the distribution in the high pressure cylinder, the 
exhaust, etc., are given by the smaller figures, while 
the table of the principal dimensions, etc., will be 
found at the end of this article. 

There are three cylinders i)laeed transversely 
upon the same line, all connected with the center 
pair of drivers; the inside crank, which is driven by 
the inside or high pressure cylinder, is located in the 
plane bisecting the right angle formed by the cranks 
of the two outside or low pressure cylinders. The 
steam distribution in these last is accomplished on 
the Walschaert system with a change in the revers- 
ing screw; the valves are under a reduced pressure 
and are provided with the Trick canal. The steam 
chest covers, owing to their great surface and the 
high pressure which they are called upon to with- 
stand, when the steam from the boiler is admitted 
directly into them, are made of wrought iron. The 
diameter of the high pressure cylinder, which was 
originally IS in., has been reduced to 1" in. (the di- 
ameter of the cylinders of the high speed locomo- 
tives of the same line) by the application of a cast 
iron lining, leaving a free space between its outside 
and the inside of the original cylinder, which can be 
utilized as a steam jacket. The intermediate re- 
ceiver, consisting of spaces cast on either side of the 
inside cylinder and forming a i)art of it, communi- 
cate with the steam chests of the low pressure cylin- 
ders by pipe connections. 

Experiments made with a four cylinder compound 
engine on this road have shown that the excessive 
compression of the steam in the high pressure cy- 
linders resulted in a loss of power and a hindrance 
to easy motion at a high speed. This detect has, 
however, been corrected by modifying the valves 
and enlarging the passages. In order to avoid this 
trouble on the three cylinder engine, where it was 
the more to be anticipated, inasmu'-h as it was 
obliged to run with a higher pressure in the inter- 
mediate receiver, a special method of steam distri- 
bution with two valves (Pigs. 3 to 6) has been ustd 
which, by limiting the length of the compression, 
permits the avoidance of the disadvantage alluded 

This distribution is not accomplished by the link 
motion; the valve proper is controlled by an eccei.- 
tric, and has an Invariable stroke which gives a con- 
stant admission. It has two ports at the ends which 
pass through it in a changing direction; their 
edges, perpendicular to the center line of the cylin- 
der upon the valve seat of the latter, have, uimn the 
back of the valve, an inclination of 30 degrees to 
Fig. 9. Section C O