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American Engineer 

Established 1832 







INDEX, 1915 


Accidents due to poor lighting 238t 

Accidents, Noise and 526t 

Accounting, Material store expenses, store- 
keepers' convention 287 

Acetylene (see Oxy-Acetylene). 
Acme Supply Co., Reverse unifold dia- 
phragm 1353* 

Adams, H. C. Standardization of coal prep- 
aration, Fuel convention 275 

Agnew, "Big Bill" and "Blue Monday," 

Harvey IJe Witt Wolcomb 533 

Ahsiuolh, N. H., Piece work and bonus sys- 
tems in the boiler shop 240* 

Ahsiuolh, N. H., Repairing locomotive boiler 

tubes 83" 

Air Brake Association convention 295* 

Air Brake Association (see Meetings). 

Air brake hose, Device for mounting 134* 

Air brake hose, Goodyear 484* 

Air brake maintenance, M. C. B. conven- 
tion 1395* 

Air brake system. Effect of moisture in.... 623 
Air brakes, Handling of, T. E. A. conven- 
tion '. 509 

Air brakes. Inspection and maintenance of, 

on freight cars, by Robert Barnaby 406 

Air brakes. Maintenance of 1356§ 

Air brakes. Testing devices for, L. & N.. 470* 
compressor, High speed centrifugal, De 



iir compressor with piston valve and auto- 
matic cut-off, Ingersoil-Rand . 643* 

Lir compressor. Small steam driven, unit, 
IngersoH-Rand 428* 

kir compressor valves, Simplate 545* 

lir hose. Device for mounting, by B. N. 
Lewis 134* 

Ur motors. Apparatus for testing, Tool 
Foremen's convention 414* 

^ir pump air cylinders. Oiling, by E. A. 

Air pump cvlinder heads. Reinforced gaskets 

for, by J. A. Jesson 

Air pump cylinders, Reboring, by J. A. Jes- 


Air pump gland nut lock 322* 

Air pump packing rings, Chuck for finish- 
ing, by F. R. Stewart 589* 

Air pump rack, by John H. Nagle 90* 

Air pump, Repairing 9J^-in. cylinder heads. 530* 

Air pump repairs. Special chuck for 183* 

Air pump revcislng rods, Repairing worn, 

by J. A. J^FSon'. 242* 

Air pumps, Clearing, by W. E. Johnson.. 82* 

Air pumps. Device for placing, by W. S. 

Whitford ...:. 581* 

Albers. L. IL, ' President s address. Air 
Brake convention 295 

Allegheny Steel Co., Forged steel truck 

side frame .:* 1318* 

Aluminum alloy '. .:.' 98t 

American Car &! I'oundrir' Co., Rolled steel 

truck frames '.'.' .\ 429* 

American Car & Ship H*a.-d?vare Co., Water 

glass guard ' 490* 

American Ele^lri^.* Railway .Association (see 
Meetings). * 

American Encine^ring Cd„ \Steel car sand 

blasting plant '. . V \ 376* 

American Malleable C)ftStin>;s Assn., Ex- 
hibit : ....;. . . 1319* 

American Mason Safety^ -Tread Co., Device 

to prevent ladflers frppi slipping 1285* 

American Rai'way' Masti^j-' Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation, A suLCv'iisful conrehtion 1287§ 

American Raiiw-i/ Mastdi' .Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation convention ......... 1211*. 1270*. 1290* 

American Railwa/ Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation. Eletrrjn of cfficers 1303 

American Railwav' Mast.T TVfechanics' Asso- 
ciation, Re..uK of letter ballot 565 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation, Revis^oi: of standards and recom- 
mended prhbtice 1217* 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Associa- 
tion convention 409* 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Associa- 
tion (see Meetings) . 

Amencan Railroad Master Tinners', Copper- 
smiths' and Pipefitters' Assn. (see Meet- 

American Saw Mill Machinery, Variety 
^JOod worker 1 281 * 

American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers 51, 647 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
(see Meetings). 

American Society for Testing Materials (see 

American Tool Co., Portable lathe 

American Vanadium Co., Carbon-Vanadium 
forging steel 

Anderson, J. E., Engine failures, their cause 
and cure 

Andrus, C. H., Boring front end main rod 

Annealing, Electric furnace for, by T. F. 

Anthony, J. T., Combustion in locomotive 
fireboxes, A. S. M. E 

Anti-Friction Roller Bearing Co., Journal 

Anvil attachment for oblique bending, 
Blacksmiths* convention 

Appletoti, W. l'.. Suggestions for a prop- 
erly kept roundhouse 

Appliances, Modern, on large locomotives, 
T. E. A. convention 

Appointments. Keeping 

Apprentice, Helping by sympathy and co- 
operation, by Joseph Smith 

Apprentice, Helping the, by H. E. Black- 






I help 
I help 






I help 


, competi- 

Apprentice letter competition, The 

Apprentice, The letters 

Apprentice school. The 

Apprentice school car, Staten Island 

Apprentice, The special 

Apprentice, The special, by Herman 


Apprentice, Start the, right 

Apprentice, Take a real interest in the, by A. 


Apprentice, Value of incentive to, by J. 


Apprentices, Advice to 

Apprentices, An inspiring address to, by 

(leorge M. Basford 

Apprentices. Give responsibility to 

Apprentices, Model locomotives built by 

Apprentices, Points for, to ponder 

Apprentices, Training official material and 
journeymen, by F. H. Thomas 

Apprenticeship, Does modern, pay 

Apprenticeship, Modern, by Robert N. Miller 

Apprenticeship, Two good suggestions relat- 
ing to 

Arc welder. Constant current, Lincoln.... 

Arc welding. Answers to some questions on, 
by J. F. Lincoln 

Arc welding. Blacksmiths' convention. ..... 

Arc welding in boiler maintenance, Boiler 
Makers* convention 

Ash pans. Fuel convention 

Association, A car department 

Association, Centralized control of 

Association of Railway Electrical Engi- 
neers' meeting 

Associations, Consolidation of mechanical. 
330§, 384§, 1307S. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Keeping boil- 
er inspection records 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Pacific type 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Safety cut- 
out valve 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Steel coaches 

383 § 












Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Testing car 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Training 
oflUcial material and journeyman appren- 

Athey Co., Cloth-lined metal weather strips. 

Atlantic Coast Line, Double tire flanging 

Atlantic Coast Line, Finishing car and en- 
gine truck brasses by grinding 

Atlantic (Toast Line, Finishing cylinder 

Atlantic Coast Line, Gage for pilot coupler. 

Atlantic Coast Line, Guard for vise tail 

Atlantic Coast Line, Jigs for grinding guide 

Atlantic Coast Line, Relief valve for super- 
heater locomotives 

Atlantic Coast Line, Repairing 9^-in. cyl- 
inder heads ._ 

Atlantic Coast Line, Repairing worn tail 

Atlantic Coast Line, Removable wedge bolt. 

Atlantic Coast Line. Shoe and wedge chuck 
for milling machine table 


Atlantic Coast Line, Stenciling gage for 

freight cars 468* 

Autogenous welding (sec Welding, also see 
Oxy -acetylene Welding). 

Averill, E. A., What the stoker has done 
for the locomotive, A. S. M. E 11 

A.xles, Device for straightening bent 631* 


Babbitt furnaae for driving box hub liners, 
C, St. P., M. & O 

Bahcock. A. H., Southern Pacific sixvolt 
electric headlight equipment 

Bailey, T. F., Electric furnace for reheating, 
heat treating and annealing 

Ball bearings. Strength of, S. K. F 

Ball joint connection. Main reservoir, Frank- 
lin Railway Supply Co 

Ball joint connection for main reservoir, 

Ballantine, N. U., The Mikado vs. the con- 

Baltimore & Ohio, Staten Island lines. Ap- 
prentice school car 

Band saw. Metal cutting (see machine tools) 

~ " S: Joint Co., Ball joint con- 



Brass & Joint Co., Flexible pipe con- 

i between engine and tender 

rass & Joint Co., Smokebox blower 

ass & Joint Co., Tank hose strainer 
E. S., Road tests for determining 

front end conditions 

Barnaby, Robert, Inspection and mainten- 
ance of freight car brakes 

Barometric condenser as an open water heat- 
er, by D. P. Morrison 

Barr, H. Edsil, Pneumatic light forging ham- 
Barton, D. E., The best practices in engine 

house work 

Basford, George M., Address to apprentices 

Baxter, H. M., Tests of lubricants 

Beading^ tool. Special, by Peter E. Mcintosh 
Bean, O. M., Fuel oil for locomotive use. . 
Beandry & Co., Inc., Motor driven power 

Becker, E., Some factors in locomotive main- 

Bell, J. Snowden, Variable exhausts, M. M. 










Bell yoke bearing reamer, by F. W. Bent- 
ley, Jr 

Belt shifter. Dearborn Steel & Iron Co 

Belt stick, Safety, Ready Tool Co 

Benners, E. H., Cast steel' truck side frame. . 

Bentley, F. W., Jr., Bell yoke bearing ream- 

Bentley, F. W., Jr., Jig for drilling dry pipe 

Bentley, F. W., Jr., Post cluster for exten- 
sion cord plugs 

Bentley, F. W., Jr., Reclaiming worn lubri- 
cator plugs 

Berdan, E. C, Brake rigging 

Bessemer & Lake Erie, Shop kinks. Black- 
smiths' convention 

Bettendorf Co., All-steel box car 

Betton, J. M., Sand blast helmet 

Betts, E. E., Proper handling of equipment 

Beyer, O. S., Jr., Tonnage rating, T. E. A. 

Billing machine, M. C. B., Burroughs 

Blackburn, H. E., Helping the apprentice. . 

Blacksmiths' Association (see International 
Railroad Blacksmiths' Association). 

Blossom, H. F., Freight car stencilling out- 


fitting, Smokebox, Barco 

Blower. High speed, De Laval 

Blower pipe drain fitting, Watertown 

Blueprints, Waterproofing 

Boiler check bodies, Chuck for finishing. . . . 
Boiler design in respect to heating surface, 

by F. J. Cole, at A. S. M. E 

Boiler feed Water, Treating locomotive, 

Boiler Makers' convention 

Boiler inspection competition. .430§, 496S, 
Boiler inspection law. Results of the, by 

Frank McManamy 

Boiler inspector and his job, The 

Boiler inspector's facilities and methods of 

working, by W. J. Gillispie 

Boiler inspector's competition, prize article, 

by T. T. Ryan 

Boiler Makers' Association (see Master 

Boiler Makers' Association). 
Boiler patch bolt, by Peter E. Mcintosh 



















Page numbers under 1,000 refer to Railway Age Gazette, Mechanical Edition; those over 1,000 refer to the Daily Railway Age Gazette. 

§ crlitcri.-il; f short nou-illustrated article or note; J communication. 

*Illustrated article; 


I!>,ilcr I.IUKS, l-ailu: 

Boiler slurll. Uuiluction 

nolcl i.r p.m-a, Boile 

of fusible tin 612 

ion of strength in cor- 

r Makers' convention 315 
: and bonus systems 

in the, Ijy N. H. Ahsiuolh 240" 

Boiler tube cutter, Apparatus for driving, 

Tool Foremen's convention 410" 

Boiler tube cutter, by Lewis Lebovitz.... 542* 
Boiler tube cutter, Superheater, Tool Fore- 
men's convention 409 " 

Boiler tube welding, Master Blacksmiths' 

convention 471 

Boiler tubes. Electric process for safe-end- 
ing, by L. R. Pomeroy 469" 

Boiler tubes, Lohmannized 1285t 

Boiler tubes, Melted, by E. A. Murray 4t 

Boiler tubes. Repairing, by N. H. Ahsiuolh. 83" 

Boiler tubes, Using old, as pipe 192* 

Boiler washing and (Tiling system for small 

roundhouses, by William Wells 251* 

Boiler washing, M. M. convention 1296" 

Boilers, A few facts about inspecting 365 

Boilers, Care of, in winter 568 

Boilers. Design, construction and inspection 

of locomotive 1272 

Boilers of locomotives held out of service. . 103t 

Boilers, Y-fitting for washing out 530* 

Bolt heading machine. Continuous motion 

hammer. National 373" 

Bolts with battered heads. Reclaiming 39* 

Bonus system, I'ixing standard tiriie "for a.. 192 
Bonus system. Piece work and, in the boiler 

shop 240" 

Bonus system. The, by W. H. Wolfgang.. 108J 


Catechism of U. S. Safety Appliances, 
by J. D. MacAlpine 211 

Compressed Air, by Theodore Simons. . 3 

The Electric Furnace and Metallurgical 
Work, Bureau of Mines 15" 

Electric Railway Handbook, by Albert 
S. Richey 605 

Examination Questions and Answers, 
T. E. Assoc 157 

Experience in Efficiency, by Benjamin 
A. Franklin 385 

Graphic Methods for Presenting Facts, 
by Willard C. Brinton 57 

Heat Treatment of Steel, by Editors of 
Machinery 107 

How to Make Low Pressure Trans- 
formers, by Prof. F. E. Austin 555 

The Influence of Smoke on Health, Uni- 
versity of Pittsbvtrgh 57 

Installing Efficiency Methods, by C. E. 
Knoeppel ^ 107 

Mechanical World Electrical 


Mechanical World Pocket Diary anc 
Year Book 

Official Proceedings of the Ninth An 
nual Convention of the Master Boilei 
Makers' Association 

The Origin of Coal, by David White 

et a! 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting, by 

C. H. Bur 



Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting, by 
Calvin F. Swingle 497 

Practical Mechanics and Allied Sub- 
jects, by J. W. L. Hale 441 

Proceedings of the Air Brake Associa- 
tion 441 

Proceedings of the American Electric 
Railway Association 269 

Proceedings of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers 331 

Proceedings of the American Railway 
'Tool Foremen's Association 3 

Proceedings of the International Rail- 
way Master Blacksmiths' Association. 3 

Proceedings of the Master Tinners, 
Coppersmiths and Pipefitters' Asso- 
ciation 385 

Proceedings of the Traveling Engineers' 
Association 57 

Resuscitation, by Charles A. Lauffer, 
M. D 331 

Rules for the Construction of Station- 
ary Boilers, A. S. M. E 269 

Steam Charts, F. O. Ellenwood 157 

Tests of Metals and Other Materials, 
War Dept 269 

United States Safety Appliances, M. 
C. B. Association 211 

Universal Safety Standards, Machine 
Shop and Foundry 212 

University of Illinois Bulletins 331 

Boston & Maine, Freight car stencilling out- 



S. Af 

urning Mills (see Machine 
Locomotive superheaters, A. 

G. L. 



Bourell, W. A., Brine tank drain valve. 

Boutell, Hugh G., Indicator reducing 

tion 563* 

Boutet, H., Trifling defects in interchange, 
Car Inspectors' convention 523 

^rake and signal equipment, M. C. B. con- 
vention 1334* 

Brake beam fulcrum. Forged, Damascus 

Brake Beam Co 144* 

\ Brake beam fulcrum, Solid forged, Damas- 

L cus 1382* 

Brake beam safety hanger, K. O. Elliott.... 431* 
Brake beam safety strap, Former for, Black- 
smiths' convention 480* 

Brake beam strut, Forged steel, Buffalo 

Brake Beam Co 1398* 

Brake beam, The No. 2 13838 

Brake, Electro-Pneumatic, T. E. A. conven- 
tion 507 

Brake, Hand, for freight cars. National 

Braice Co 258* 

Brake hanging and the M. C. B. journal 

bearing 270t 

Brake, Lever hand, D. R. Niedcrlander 428» 

Brake rigging, Berdan 483* 

Brake shaft drop handle and ratches, B. 

R. & F .. 43« 

Brake shaft supports. Formers for bending, 

Blacksmiths' convention 480* 

Brake shoe and brake beam equipment, M. 

C. B. convention 1335* 

Brake shoe. Safely, A. Mitchell 320* 

Brake slack adjuster, Johns-Manville 1319* 

slac^ adjuster, Manual, JohnsMa 



100 per cent operative in freight 

service, Air Brake convention 297 

Brakes, Hand, on heavy passenger cars. Air 

Brake convention 298 

Brakes, Variable load for freight cars 1308S 

Braking trains, The art of 269S 

Brinckerhoff, F. M., Practice versus theory 

in design 108t 

Brine tank drain valve, W. A. Bourell 261* 

British all-steel kitchen cars 178* 

British design of reciprocating and revolv- 
ing parts, by H. A. F. Campbell 390*. 443* 

Britton, J. R., Systematic value setting on 

locomotives 366 

Brooms, Manufacturing, by B. N. Lewis 407* 

Brown Engineering Co., General utility vise 

for drill press 255* 

Brown. H. M., Removing indentations in 

superheater smoke tubes 40* 

Brown. L., Defective box cars 30 

Brown, R. E., Double tire flanging tool.. 308* 
Brown. R. E., Finishing car and engine 

truck brasses bv grinding 193* 

Brown, R. E., Finishing cylinder cocks 195* 

Brown. R. E., Jigs for grinding guide bars 242* 
Brown. R. E., Shoe and wedge chuck for 

milling machine table 591* 

Brunelle, Geo. J., Cause of high speed steel 

tool failures 

Buchanan. William, Relation of the paint 

shop to the repair yard 

Buckeye Jack Mig. Co., Emergency jack.. 
Buffalo Brake Beam Co., Forged Steel Brake 

beam strut 1398* 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, Air pump 

rack 90* 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, Brake shaft 

drop handle and ratchet 43* 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, Steel frame 

caboose 301* 

Buffer, Radial, Economy Devices Corp 1322* 

Bundy, C. L., Defective box car 80 

Burner, Paint. Mahr 1322* 

Burnett, R. W., The standard box car— a 

negative viewpoint 121 

Burroughs Adding Machine Co.. M. C. B. 

bill machine 1354 

Buying, Railroads have started 553§ 



California Valve 
California Valve i 

: Brake Co., Dia- 

valve . 

Brake Co., Train 

Calvert, R. F., Simple furnace for melting 

brass 36* 

Cambria Steel Co., Slick friction spring 

draft gear 259* 

Campbell. H. A. F.. Reciprocating and re- 
volving parts 109*. 163*, 215, 443* 

Campbell, J., Value of incentive to the ap- ^^— 
prentice 531 

Canadian Government Railways, Adjustable 

drilling stand 42* 

Canadian Northern, Disinfectant arrange- 
ment for passenger cars 466* 

Canadian Northern, Exhaust passage drain 

valve 586* 

Canadian Northern, Expansion joint for 

water heater 628* 

Canadian Northern, Pillar crane for ma- 
chine tool work 360* 

Canadian Northern, Step-ladders for sleep- 





Towel receptacle for 

Canadian Pacific, First 4-8-2 type locomotive 

in Canada 556* 

Canadian Pacific, Grinding wheel protection, 249* 

Canadian Railway Club (see Meetings) 

Capacity, Increased, in existing locomotives 1§ 


All-steel automobile. Union Pacific 73* 

Apprentice school car, B. & O., Staten 

Island lines 369* 

Body framing. Long Island steel sub- 
urban car 404 

Car— (Continued) 

Box, The 36-fl 13071 

Box, All-stccl, Bcttcndorf 1398* 

Box, Defective I308| 

Box, Defective, by L. Brown 30 

Box, Defective, by C. L. Bundy 80 

Box, Defects of, and their remedies, by 

R. N. Miller 171 

Box, end door, by Geo. E, McCoy 173* 

Box, Improper loading of 233 

Box. No "(Ircatest Defect" in 20 

Box, Overhead inspection of, M. C. B. 

convention 1367 

Caboose, Eight-wheel, with steel under- 
frame, P. S. & N 23P 

Caboose with steel center sills, Eric.. 25* 

Caboose, Steel frame, B. R. & P 301* 

Ceiling fan, safety 4352* 

Construction in 1914 11 

Construction, M. C. B. convention 1368 

Coupler committee. Report of the 13551 

Couplers, M. C. B. convention 1359* 

Curtain rollers. Improved Rex 1352* 

Derailments, causes and a remedy 619* 

Diaphragm curtains. Improved Rex 1382* 

Diaphragm, Reverse unifold, Acme 1353* 

Diaphragms, Rex metal 1321* 

Dining chairs 300* 

Doctor of, the 628 

Doors, box 1355f 

Door, Flush, for box, Ralston 1354* 

Draft arms, Wooden I383» 

Draft equipment, M. C. B. convention.. 1390 
Draft rigging. Friction spring, Cambria 259* 

Dynamometer. Japanese railways 66* 

•••sXEMIIBJ SSlMg *J3131U01UKU.<([ 606* 

Electric lighting system 467 

Eliminate old from interchange service 496| 
End construction. Jersey Central steel 

baggage and mail cars 125* 

End construction. Union Pacific freight 76* 

Foreign, Billing repairs on 1061 

Frame, L^nit construction, Erie steel cars 357* 

Freight, Increased mileage 13231 

Freight, Impact between 1383| 

Freight, Impact between, in switching 

service, M. C. B. convention 1391* 

Freight, Stencilling outfit, by H. F. 

Blossom 458* 

Frozen, Thawing out, C. & W. 1 574* 

Handling properly 625* 

Inspection, Freight 440§ 

Inspection, Uniformity in 468 

Journals, Lubrication of 19 

Journals, Maintenance of 1307$ 

Kitchen. British all-steel 178* 

Lighting fixtures. Northern Pacific... 522* 
Lighting generators, underframe sus- 
pension of, safely 257* 

Lighting, M. C. B. convention 1386* 

Passenger, Dead weight in 2105 

Passenger, Electric lighting of 620 

Passenger, Roof construction for, John- 
son 485* 

Refrigerator brine tank drain valve, 

Bourell 261* 

Reinforced wooden, Settlement prices 

for. M. C. B. convention 1344 

Repairs, Compensation for, M. C. B. 

convention 1343 

Repairs, Economies in freight 129 

Repairs. Improper charges for 1324| 

Riveting in steel, construction 2$ 

Riveting in steel, construction, by H. 

A. Hatfield 33*, 87* 

Roofs. Testing, Santa Fe 399* 

Sand blasting steel, Mott Sand Blast- 
ing Mfg. Co 427* 

Sleepers, The ventilation of, by 

Thomas R. Crowder 464* 

Stakes. Form for bending steel. Black- 
smiths' convention 480* 

Standard box — a negative irtewpoint. . . 121 

i.lS.O Steel baggage and mail, Jersey Central 123* 

t^ Steel box, Canadian Pacific 399* 

Steel, design from a protection stand- 
point. Painters' convention 540 

Steel, design from a protection stand- 
point, by John D. Wright 525 

Steel frame box, for the I. C 78* 

Steel frame passenger 157$ 

Steel freight competition 4955 

Steel, Interior finish. Painters' conven- 
tion 541 

Steel passenger 13235 

Steel passenger with arch roof, Union 

Pacific 349* 

Steel pasenger. Design of .459*, 515*, 625* 

Steel passenger. Northern Pacific 517* 

Steel passenger, for the Santa Fe. . . 21* 

Steel passenger statistics 299 

Steel passenger, type of center sills in 227* 
Steel, Sand blasting, American En- 
gineering Co 376* 

Steel suburban, Erie 356* 

Steel suburban, Long Island •402* 

Steel underframe box. Union Pacific 73* 

Step, Adjustable, James H. Vaugh; 

Stock, End construction of Canadi 

Suburban, Grand Trunk 

Tank, M. C. B. convention 

Truck (see Truck) 

L'nderframe, Erie caboose 25 

Underframe, Jersey Central steel bag- 
gage and mail cars 123 



Page numbers under 1,000 refer to ^''^^''yf^i.^^-^^^^Z^i.^t^j^^^^^rr^;^'^^^ ^"'"^^ ^"^ "-'"'■ •'"™^ -'<^- 




L'nderframe, Northern 
passenger cars 

Pacific steel 


cased earnings. 





Underframc, Santa Fe 22 

Underframe should be strengthened.. 330§ 

Underframe, Strengthening 498t 

Vestibule trap door. Extensible, Penn- 

Vestibnle trap door. Sliding, O. M. Ed- 
wards Co., Inc 

Well, 200,000-11>. capacity, P. & L. E. 

Wheels (see Wheels) 

Car control, by James lMt2 
Car department association. 
Car department competition. 

Car department correspondence 55§ 

Car department correspondence and reports, 

bv Charles Clatidy 72 

Car department and expediting preferred 


Car department ar 

Car department officers and . .^ 

Car department. Steel freight competition 5545 

Car inspector: "The Doctor of Cars" 628 

Car inspector, Making a 576 

Car inspector problem, The 604§ 

Car inspectors 1 307§ 

Car inspectors. Making good, by C. S. Taylor 624 
Car inspectors. Why it is hard to get good. . 627 
Car Inspectors' aiid Car Foremen's Asso- 
ciation (sec Chief Interchange Car In- 
spectors' and Car Foremen's Association). 
Car inspectors' competition, The.439§, 4958, 
Car inspectors' competition, Prize article, 

A. M. Orr 

Car inspectors. The making of good 575 

Car man. The shipper, the railway and 

the. bv F. C. Maeglcy 293* 

Car men. Of interest to 440§ 

Car repair facilities. Provide good 1383§ 

Car repair shops, Joint 1383| 

Car repair shops. Joint, at large terminals, 

by F. C. Schultz 30 

Carpets, Cleaning, at terminals 567* 

(iasehardening. Blacksmiths' convention.... 475 

Casehardening materials 148t 

Cast iron. Machinery 216t 

Cast iron. Strength of 308t 

Castle nuts. Dies for forging large. Tool 

Foremen's convention 412* 

Catalogs 54, 104, 

154. 208. 266. 328, 382. 438, 494, 552, 602, 650 
Center sills, (Considerations affecting type 

in steel passenger cars, by L. K. Sillcox. 227* 
Central of Georgia, Chuck for finishing 

boiler check bodies 133* 

Central of Georgia, Chucks for air pump 

repairs 183* 

Central of Georgia, Clips for date tags on 

steam gages and safety valves 131* 

Central of Georgia, Finishing tank valve 

castings 82* 

Central of Georgia, Special chucks for a 

turret lathe 

Central of Georgia. Turning engine bolts.. 
Central Railroad Club (see Meetings). Railroad of New Jersey, Freight 

car repair shops 

Central Railroad of New Jersey, Steel bag- 
gage and mail cars 

Chairs, Dining car 

Charts. Calibration, for Vanderbilt tenders, 

by Towson Price 

Chesapeake & Ohio, Boring and facing back 

main rod brasses and driving boxes 

Chesapeake & Ohio, Oiling air pump air 





Chesapeake & Ohio, Quadruple tool for pla 

ing shoes and wedges 

Chesapeake & Ohio. Reclaiming material at 

local shops 

Chesapeake & Ohio, Removing indentations 

in superheater smoke tubes 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Cleaning 

triple valves 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Handling 

coupler yokes 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Pneumatic 



Chicago. Indianapolis & Louisville, Loco- 
motive coal consumption tests 617* 

Chicago and North Western, Bell yoke 
bearing reamers 36* 

Chicago & North Western, Device for plac- 
ing air timnns 581* 

Chicago & North Western, Gas brazing 

furnace 591* 

Chicago & North Western, Method of 
cleaning air pumps 82* 

Chicago & North Western, Method of secur- 
ing steam gages 364* 

Chicago & North Western, Packing iron for 

journal boxes 137* 

Chicago & Northwestern, Portable rivet forge 

and blow torch 191* 

Chicago & Northwestern, Pneumatic flue 

cutter 86* 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Flat plate air 

compressor valve 545* 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, High speed 

steel tipi>ed tools 590* 

Chicago, St. Paul. Minneapolis & Omaha, 

Repairing driving boxes 527* 

Chicago & Western Indiana, Cleaning car- 
pets at terminals 567* 

Chicago & Western Indiana, Thawing out 

frozen cars 574* 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car 
Foremen's Association convention 522 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car 
Foremen's Association (sec Meetings). 

Chiles, (ieo. S., Characteristics of plate 

springs 161*, 219", 340*, 392* 

Chilled Car Wheel Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion (see Meetings). 

C'hristy Universal Pipe Joint Co., Pipe joint 98* 

Cincinnati. Abatement of locomotive smoke 

at, by G. H. Funk 566* 

Cincinnati Electric Tool Co., Electric 


Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, 

Grinding distributing valves 39* 

Cincinnati Planer Co., Slide plate planer.. 95* 
Clark, W. A., Lubricatioti of car journals. . 19 
Claudy, Charles, Car department cor- 
respondence and reports 72 

Clifton, W. H., Substitutes for expensive 

lumber 288 

Cline, N. T., Air pump gland nut lock 322* 

Coal consumption, Locomotive, by L. W. 

Wallace CI?' 

Coal dust. Ignition temperature of 642t 

Coal, Powdered, Fuel convention 271 

Coal prejiaration. Standardization of. Fuel 

convention 275 

Coal, Pulverized, for locomotives 211§, 213* 

Coal pusher. Locomotive Stoker Co 1321* 

Coal, Saving, by Charles Maier 442+ 

Coal sprinkler, Ohio Injector Co 256* 

Coaling facilities. Improved performance 

with old type, by J. S. Williams 66* 

Coaling stations. Fire hazards at 562 

Coaling stations. Fuel convention 275* 

C^ole, F. J., Boiler design in respect to 

heatiiig surface, at A. S. M. E 5 

Color, Flat, vs. enamel. Painters* conven- 
tion 540 

Combustion in locomotWe fireboxes, by J. 



P. Neff, at A. S. M. E. 

fireboxes, by J. 


Committee report. A, well presented 1267§ 

Coniniu»ators. Turning, in the power house. 470* 

(Competition, The apprentice letter 4968 

Competition, Boiler inspection 439§, 496§ 

(Competition, A car department 384§ 

Competition, The car inspectors'. 439§, 495§, 555§ 

Competition. Don't miss this 603§ 

Competition, Locomotive boiler inspection. . . 604S 

C^ompetilion, Piston valve packing ring.... 554S 

Competition, Piston valve ring 439§ 

Competition, Steel freight car 495§, 5545 

Competition, A unique 5S4§ 

Compressed air. The cost of, by Thomas F. 

Crawford 364 

Condenser, Vacuum pump, Ingersoll-Rand. 594* 

Consolidation of mechanical associations.... 330§ 

Consolidation. The, problem 1356§ 

Control of cars, bv Tames Fitzmorris 71 

Convention Hall, The New, at Atlantic 

City 1183S 

Conventions, The July 383 § 

Conventions, Two July 329S 

Conventions, Two successful 1356§ 

Copper and alloys. Welding bv acetylene 

methods, by J. F. Springer 367 

Cordeal, Ernest, Locomotive running 



Cornell, Harry, Laying out Southern valve 

gear 386t 

Correspondence, Car department 55§ 

Correspondence and reports. Car depart- 
ment, by Charles Claudy 72 

Cost or hiring and discharging men 1268§ 

(Tounterbalancing, M. M. convention 1292 

Coupler, Automatic, with movable guard 

arm. Stark Car Coupler Corp 1382* 

Coupler committee. The report of 13558 

Coupler, Gage for pilot, by H. C. Spicer 216* 

Coupler head. Emergency, Frank B. Hart. 484* 
Coupler release lever for switch engines, by 

Geo. E. McCoy 115* 

Coupler release rigging, Singlelink 486 

Coupler release rigging. Simple, National 

Railway Devices Co „• • x • ' ' • HI. 

Coupler yokes. Handling, C. B. & Q.... 592* 

Couplers, New M. C. B. experimental 622* 

Couplers. M. C. B. convention 1359* 

Couplers and parts. Marking of. Store- 
keepers' convention 290 

Couplings, Flange and screw, for injectors, 

M. M. convention _ ^5o» 

Crane arrangement for locomotive shops. . . . 372 

Crane & Co.,' Locomotive safety valve 255* 

Crane motor. Standardization of 585 

Crane, Pillar, for machine tool work. Can. 

Nor. •. • 360* 

Crane, Proposed Gantry for car repair 

vards, bv W. E. Johnston 304* 

Crane trolley. Electric, Northern Engineer- 

ing Works ■■■■■■■■:■ •■^; ■ ■ '' 

Cranes Safetv limit stop for electric. Elec- 
tric Controller & Mfg. Co...., 1398* 

Crawford, D. F., President's address at M. 

C. B. convention • 1327 

Crawford, Thomas F.. Cost of compressed 

gij. 364 

Crosshead "shoes. Jig for babbitting. Tool 

Foremen's convention , 410 

Crowder, Thomas R., Ventilation of sleep- 
ing cars :■.••••,•'■'(.* 

Crown sheets. Device for determining height 

of. Tool Foremen's convention 410 

Crown sheets. Standard slope of. Boiler 
Makers' convention 


Page numbers under 1,000 refer to Raihvay Age Gazette, Mech 

5 editorial ; t short 

teal Edition; those over 1,000 refer to 
jn-illustrated article or note; t commu 

Curtain rollers. Improved Rex 1352* 

Curtain Supply Co., Improved Rex cur- 
tain rollers 1352* 

Curtain Supply Co., Improvements to Rex 

diaphragm curtains 1382* 

Curtain Supply Co., Rex, metal diaphragms 1321* 
Curtis, Hobart W., Adjustable saw guard 95* 

Cut-out valve. Safety, .Santa Fe 44* 

Cylinder cocks. Finishing 195* 

Cylinder heads, Attachment for grinding... 133* 
Cylinders repaired by arc welding 477* 


Daily, F. J., Index head for holding rod 

brasses 140* 

Damage to freight 13248 

Damage to lading. Prevention of 2671 

Damascus Brake Beam Co., Forged brake 

beam fulcrum 144* 

Damascus Brake Beam Co., Solid forged 

brake beam fulcrum 1382* 

Davey, Dr. \\ . P., An X-ray inspection 

of a steel casting 170* 

Dearborn Steel & Iron Co., Belt shifter.. 543* 
De Laval Steam Turbine Co., High speed 

blower and centrifugal air compressor. . 374* 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Water 

tube firebox 222* 

Delta Electric Co., Hand lantern 488* 

Derailments, causes and a remedy, by H. M. 

Perry 619* 

Design, American and European locomo- 
tive 1268§ 

Design, construction and inspection of loco- 

motive boilers, M. M. convention 1272 

Design, Good features of tank 224* 

Design, Improved locomotive 440§ 

Design, Locomotive, for fuel economy, M. 

M. convention 1275 

Design of reciprocating and revolving 

parts 106§ 

Design of a standard M. C. B. box car, 

M. C. B. convention 1370* 

Design of steel passenger equipment, by 

Victor W. Zilen 459*, 515*, 625* 

Design, Practice versus theory in, by F. 

M. BrinckerhoiT 108t 

Design^ Refinement in locomotive 331§ 

Design, Spring rigging, A study of, by 

J. P. Shamberger 15* 

Design, Steel car, from a protection stand- 
point, by John D. Wright 525 

Design, .Steel car, from a protection stand- 
point. Painters' convention 540 

Detroit Lubricator Co., Automatic force 

feed flange oiler 1283* 

Diagram for determining percentage of 
maximum tractive effort, bv L. R. Pome- 

roy '. 453* 

Diamond, The, in steel boring 20t 

Diaphragm curtains. Improvements to Rex. 1382* 

Diaphragm, Reverse unifold, Acme 1353* 

Diaphragms, Rex metal 1321* 

Dickert, C. L., Clips for date tags for 

steam gages and safetv valves 131* 

Dickert, C. L., Turning engine bolts 193* 

Dies, Forging machine, by J. Lee 37* 

Disinfectant arrangement for passenger cars, 

Can. Nor 466* 

Distributing valves. Grinding, C, N. O. & 

T. P 39* 

Doctor of cars, The, by G. C. Slarrow 628 

Door, End, for box car, by Geo. E. McCoy.. 173* 

Door, Flush box car, Ralston 1354* 

Doors, Box car 135S§ 

Doors, Specification for outside hung for 
new box cars, M. C. B. convention.... 1368 

Draft arms. Wooden 1383§ 

Draft gear, construction, M. C. B. conven- 
tion 1369* 

Draft gear, M. C. B. convention 1390 

Draft gear problem, by E. A. Murray.... 498$ 
Draft rigging. Friction spring, Cambria 

Steel Co 259* 

Drain fitting blower pipe, Watertown . . . . 45* 
Drain valve. Exhaust passage, Can. Nor. 586* 
Drifting valve. Automatic, M., St. P. & 

S. .S. M 593* 

Drifting valve. Automatic, l^athan 372* 

Drill, Close quarter, Ingersoll-Rand 1322* 

Drill device for firebox work. Tool Fore- 
men's convention 412* 

Drill post. Angle, Tool Foremen's conven- 
tion 409* 

Drill motor extensions by V. T. Kropid- 

lowski 579* 

Drill (see Machine tools). 

Drilling attachment. Horizontal, for a radial 

drill, bv V. T. Kropidlowski 40* 

Drilling stand. Adjustable 42* 

Drinking fountain, Sanitarv, for passenger 

cars, Henry Giessel & Co 47* 

Driving box brasses. Jig for setting up in 

shapcr, by Lewis Lebovitz 370* 

Driving box wedge. Automatic, Franklin.. 546* 
Driving boxes. Boring and facing, by M. 

Flanagan 239* 

Driving boxes. Machine for boring, by E. 

C. Gaines 138* 

Driving boxes. Repairing, bv P. F. Smith. 527* 
Driving wheel hub-plate. Adjustable. Smith. 486* 

Drop forging. Blacksmiths' convention 476* 

Drop handle and ratchet. Brake shaft 43* 

Drv kiln, Norfolk & Western, humidity 

controlled, by W. H. Lewis 462* 

Drv pipe collars. Jig for drilling, bv F. 
W. Bentley, Jr 81* 

the Daily Railway Age Gai:ette. "Illustrated article; 


Dry pipe joints, Jig for grinding, Tool 
Foremen's convention 

iJufTcv, Paul R., Water gage cocks 

Uvii.Liiinmctcr car, Japanese railways, by 
E.lw.ird C. Schmidt 

Uynaitioinetcr car, Swiss railways 


Eccentric cranks. Tool for locating, Tool 
Foremen's convention 

Eccentrics, Jig for planing 

Economy, Car department officers and 

Economy Devices Corp., Radial buffer 

Economy Devices Corp., Piston valves ap- 
plied to slide valve cylinders 

Economy Devices Corp., Rectangular ex- 
haust nozzle 

Economy Devices Corp., Universal valve 

Economy, Enginemcn and 

Economy, The, of good workmanship 

Education of locomotive firemen 

Edwards Co., Inc., O. M.. Sliding vestibule 
trap door 

Efficiency engineer, An experience with the, 
by Harvey De Witt Wolcomb 

Efficiency, Engine house. General Foremen's 

Efficiency, Machine tool 

Efficiency, Measuring, by H. L. Gantt.... 

Efficiency in railroad shops 

Efficiency, Relative, of steam, gas and oil 

Efficiency, Shop, by Robert N. Miller 

Efficiency, Shop, General Foremen's con- 

Ejector, Squirt hose, Ohio Injector Co.... 

Electric Controller & Mfg. Co., Safety 
limit stop for electric cranes 

Electric furnace for reheating, heat treat- 
ing and annealing, by T. F. Bailey 

Electric furnace, Tempering tools with the 

Electric hand lantern, Delta 

Electric headlight equipment, Sou. Pac. 

Electric headlight, Incandescent equipment, 

Electric lighting of passenger cars 

Electric lighting system, Car 

Electric process for safe-ending tubes, by 
L. R. Pomeroy 

Electric reamer, Cincinnati Electric Tool Co. 

Electric welding (see Arc welding). 

Electrical equipment. Maintenance and op- 
eration of, M. M. convention 

Electrical operation, Steam railway men and 

Electro-pneumatic brake, T. E. A. convention 

Elfe, W. W., Chuck for finishing boiler 
check bodies 

Elfe, W. W., Chuck for air pump repairs.. 

Elfe, W. W., Finishing tank valve castings. 

Elfe, W. W., Special chucks for a turret 

Elliott, Edward O., Brake beam safety 

Emerson, Harrington, Analysis of dependent 
scfiuence as a guide to fuel economies.. 

Enamel color. Flat color vs., Painters' con- 

Enamel color. Maintenance of, versus var- 
nish, Painters' convention 

Endsley, L. E., Experiments to determine 
stresses in truck side frames 

Endsley, L. E., Impact between cars in 
switching service, M. C. B. convention. 

Engine bolts. Turning, by C. L. Dickert.. 

Engine failures 

Engine failures. Prevention of. . 

Engine failures, Relation of engine house 
organization to, by Harvey De Witt Wol- 

Engine failures, their cause and cure, by J. 
E. Anderson _ 

Engine, High compression oil, Nordberg. . . 

Engine house efficiency. General Foremen's 

Engine house foremen, Training 

Engine house organization 

Engine house repair work, by M. Vallen . . 

Engine house. Suggestions for a properly 
kept, by W. U. Appleton 

Engine house work. Best practices in 

Engine houses. Handling locomotives at. ... . 

Engine terminal. Getting results from a big 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsyl- 
vania (see Meetings). 

Enginemen and economy 

Enginemen, Educating in smoke elimina- 

Engineering Foundation. The (see Meetings 

Engineers' and firemen's demands. Western. 

Ennis, J. B.. Possibilities of the future, 
A. S. M. E 

Equipment, Dead weight in passenger 

Equipment, Government inspection of rail- 
Equipment, Proper handling of, by E. E. 

Equipment, Steel frame passenger 

Equipment, Steel passenger train 

Erie Railroad, Caboose with steel center 

Erie Railroad. Combination rivet set 

Erie Railroad, Heavy 2-10-2 type locomo- 

Erie Railroad, Jig for planing eccentrics.. 

Page numbers under 1,000 refer to Railtvay 

Lrie Railroad, Model locomoti 











built by 


Railroad, Steel suburban cars 

Erie Railroad, Turning commutators in the 

power house 

Exhaust nozzle, Rectangular, Economy 

Exhaust nozzle. Variable, F. Mcrtsheimcr. . 
Exhaust nozzle with internal projection . . . 
Exhausts, Variable, by J. Snowden Bell, 

M. M. convention 

Exhibit, Railway Supply Manufacturers' 

Association at Atlantic City 

Exhibit, This year's 

Exhibit, Track, at Atlantic City 

Exhibitors, With the 

Expansion joint for water heater 

Extension cord plugs. Post cluster for, by 

F. W. Bentlcy, Jr 

Eve protectors for machinists and grinders, 
'T. a. Willson & Co 

Furnace, Gas brazing, C. & N. W. 
l''urnacc. Simple, for melting brass. 







Facing tool. Automatic, Mummerl-Dixon . . 48* 

Fan, Ceiling. Safety 1352* 

Fan drafting as applied to locomotives, by 

H. B. MacFarland, at A. S. M. E.... 6* 
Feed water, Treating locomotive. Boiler 

Makers' convention 314 

Feed water heater on geared locomotive, 

by Hnrold S. Johnson 226* 

heating, by H. H. Vaughan, 

at A. S. M. E. 


Feed valve testing clamp, by B. N. Lewis.. 134* 

Filter, oil, RichardsonPhemx Co 253* 

Fire hazards at coaling stations 562 

Fire losses in the mechanical depart- 
ment 554§ 

Firebox crown sheet, Standard slope of, 

Boiler Makers' convention 314 

Firebox, Riegel water tube 222* 

Firebox sheets, Movement of 1267§ 

Fireboxes, Cross stays in. Boiler Makers' 

convention 314 

Fireboxes, Removing and replacing. Boiler 

Makers* convention 316 

Fire door latches, Chucks for threading 

in a turret lathe 196* 

Fire door pedal. Adjustable, Franklin 144" 

Firemen, Education of locomotive 496S 

Firemen, Performance of 346* 

Firemen, Training, T. E. A. convention 508 

Firing, Smokeless, and passenger revenue . . 554§ 

Fitzmorris, James, Car control 71 

Flanagan, M., Boring and facing main rod 

brasses and driving boxes 239* 

Flange oiler. Automatic force feed, De- 
troit 1283* 

Flanging clamp, Pneumatic, Niles-Bement- 

Pond Co 145* 

Flaws, Locating, in metal surfaces 642t 

Flue cutter. Pneumatic 86* 

Flues (see Boiler tubes) 

Foremen, Developing car 1384§ 

Foremen, The training of 55§ 

Foremen, Training engine house, bv R. G. 

Gilbride 81 

Forge. Oil burning blacksmith 633* 

Forge, Portable rivet and blow torch, by 

W. S. Whitford 191* 

Forge, Portable rivet. Mahr Mfg. Co. 1283* 

Forging, Drop, Blacksmiths' convention 
Forging hammer. Pneumatic light, H. Ed- 

sil Barr 

Forging machine dies, by J. Lee 

Forging specifications, M. M. convention.. 
Forms for handling work reports at engine 


Fosdick Machine Co., High speed radial 




Foundry and Machine Exhibition (see Meetings). 

Fowler, Geo. L., Tests of exhaust ventilators 235* 

Franey, M. D., New York Central smoke- 
washing plant 511' 

Franklin Institute (see Meetings) 

Franklin Railway Supply Co., Adjustable 

fire door pedal 144* 

Franklin Railway Supply Co., Automatic 

driving hox wedge ; 546* 

Franklin Railway Svipply Co., Hard grease 

press 322* 

Franklin Railway Supply Co., Main reser- 
voir ball joint connection 254* 

Franklin Railway Supply Co., Single lo- 
comotive water joint 201* 

Freight, Car department and expediting 
preferred 516 

Freight, Loss and damage to 1324§ 

Frogs and crossings, Making and repair- 
ing. Blacksmiths' convention 471 

Front end conditions. Road tests for deter- 
mining, by E. S. Barnum 454* 

Front end and draft appliances. Locomo- 
tive, by C. D. Young at A. S. M. E f> 

Front ends. Fuel convention 281 

Fry, Lawford H.. Compounding superheater 
locomotives. M. M. convention 

Fuel Association (see also International 
















quence as 









, G. I 

Fuel Association) 

1. Railway 


M. M. convention 

;, Analysis of dependent se 

fide to. Fuel convention., 
for locomotives 211§ 

Fuel convention 

.\batement of smoke 


Gage for pilot coupler, by H. C. Spiccr.... 

Gaffes, Wheclprc»B and locomotive 

Gaines, E. C, Machine for boring driving 


Gaines. F. F., Feed water healing, A. S. 

M. E 

Gaines, F. F., President's address at M. M. 


Gamble, H. E., The best methods of deal- 



(iantt, H. L., Measuring Efficiency 

fJardner, Henry H., Prepared paints for 
metal surfaces 

Gardner, Henry, Railway repair shop or* 

Gas valve, A high pressure. International 
Oxygen Co 

Gaskets, Reinforced asbestos, for air pump 
cylinder heads, by J. A. Jesson 

Gear casc^ Seamless drawn steel 

General Foremen's Association (sec Inter- 
national Railway General Foremen's As- 

Gibbons, j. W., Protection of iron and 

Giessel & Co., Henry, Sanitary drink- 
ing fountain for passenger cars 

Gilbride, R. G., Training engine house forc- 

Gillespie, W. J., Article in boiler inspection 

Givin. E. F., Eight-wheel caboose with steel 

Golden-Anderson Valve Specialty Co., Au- 
tomatic non-return valve 

Goodwin, Geo. S. , Economic value of a 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Air brake 

Grady, Benjamin, Repairing 9j^-in. air 
pump cylinder heads 

Grain, Saving waste 

Grand Trunk suburban coaches 

Grate, Hulson locomotive 

Grates, Fuel convention 

Grease cups. Compressed air. Hunter 

Grease press, Franklin Railway Supply Co. 

Great Northern, Device for forming sill 

Great Northern. Reclamation plant 

Greenfield Tap & Die Corporation, Internal 
guide for pipe threading tools 

Grinder, Portable, Ingersoll-Rand 

Grinding and distribution of tools. Tool 
Foremen's convention 

Grinding machines (see Machine Tools) 

Grinding wheel protection, by E. T. Spidy. . 

Grinding wheel wear, Effect of speed on... 

Grinding wheels 

Guide bars. Jigs for grinding 

Guides, Turret head for planing, by B. O. 

Gustin-Bacon Mfg. Co., Vacuum oil bur- 


Mfg. Co., Vacuum paint 


Hack saw (see Machine Tools) 

Hammer, Motor drive for Bradley helve, 

by \V. E. Johnson 

Hammer, Motor driven power, Beaudry.... 
Hammer. Pneumatic light forging, H.' Ed- 

Hammctt, H. G., Expanding and beading 

machine for injector pipe couplings 

Hanger, Brake beam safety, E. O. Elliott . . 
Hanna Engineering Works, Riveting ma- 






















n. by J. 

ling tool steel. Facto 
Mathews, et al 

Hardness testing 

Harrigan, J. H., Why it is hard to get good 
car inspectors 

Harrison Safety Boiler Works, Recorder 
for measuring flow over weirs 

Hart, Frank B., Emergency coupler head.. 

Harvey. H. H., Economics in freight car 

Hatfield, H. A., Riveting in steel car con- 
struction 33», 

Headlight, Incandescent, Pyle 

Headlights, Locomotive, M. M. convention. 

Headlight requirements. Locomotive, by E. 
S. Pearce 

Headlight, Sou. Pac. six-volt electric, equip- 

Heat treated and alloy steels, br C. D 
Young, at A. S. M. E ' 

Heat treating. The electric furnace for, 
by F. F. Baily 

Heat treatment of metal. Blacksmiths' con- 


Cincinnati 566 

Heat treatment of steel 

Hedeman, Walter R., Good features of tank 


Heffelfinger, H., Piece work for a paint 


Helmet, Sand blast, J. M. Betton. ........ . 

Hettenbaugh. R. J., The apprentice school.. 

Hoist for loading scrap wheels 

Hose, Air brake, Goodvear 





Age Gasette, Mechanical Edition; those over 1,000 refer to the Daily Railuay Age Gazette. 
§ editorial; f short non-illustrated article or note; J communication. 

'Illustrated article; 


Hose connectors, automatic, Service tests 


Hose clamp. Safety, Mahr Mfg. Co 

Hose coupling, National 

Hub plate. Smith adjustable 

Hulson Grate Co., locomotive grate 

Hunter Pressed Steel Co., Compressed air 

grease cup 

Huntley, \V. P., Engine house organization 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co., Pipe bender.... 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co., Small triplex 


Hydraulic press. Portable attachment for 

operating, by B. N. Lewis 


Illinois Central, Steel frame box car 

Illinois Central tool system, by Owen D. 

Impact between cars in switching service, 
L. E. Endsley, M. C. B. convention.... 

Imperial Brass Mfg. Co., Oxyacetylene 

Imperial Brass Mfg. Co., Oxyacetylene 
welding and cutting torch 

Indicator reducing motion, by Hugh f« 

IngersoU-Rand Co., Close quarter drill 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., Condenser vacuum 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., Piston valve with auto- 
matic cut-ol? for air compressors 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., Portable grinder 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., Small air compressor 

Injector pipe couplings, Expanding and 
beading machine for, H. G. Hammett. . . 

Injectors, Exhaust, by Robert W. Rogers. 

Injectors, Exhaust steam, for locomotives.. 

Injectors, Flange and screw couplings for, 
M. M. convention 

Inspecting boilers, A few facts about 

Inspection and maintenance of air brakes 
on freight cars, by Robert Barnaby 

Inspection, Freight car 

Inspection, Government, of railway equip- 
ment _ 

Inspection, Locomotive boiler 

Inspection, Locomotive boiler, competition.. 

Inspection of locomotives and tenders 

Inspection, Overhead, of box cars, M. C. 

B. convention 

Inspection, Uniformity in car, by M. Marea 
Instruments for measuring the hardness and 

elasticity of rubber. Shore 

Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Fore- 
men's Association (see Chief Interchange 
Car Inspectors' and Car Foremens' As- 

Interchange, Discussion of rules of. Car 
Inspectors' convention _. . 

Interchange service, Eliminate old equip- 
ment from 

Interchange, Trifling defects in, Car In- 
spectors' convention 

Interchange, M. C. B. rules of 

Interchange. Revision of the rules of, M. 

C. B. convention 

International Association for the Preven- 
















of Smoke 



pressure gas 

Engineering Congress (see 

Oxvgen Company, A high 

, „_. valve 44* 

International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' 

Association convention 471* 

International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' 

Association (see Meetings) 

International Railway Fuel Association 271* 

International Railway General Foremen's 

Association convention 417* 

International Railway General Foremen's 

Association (see Meetings) 
Investigator, A field for the special 604§ 


Tack, Emergency, with adjustable base. 

Simplex 432* 

Jack, Parsons Journal 488* 

Jacks, Emergency, Buckeye 259* 

James, W. F., Stenciling gage for freight 

cars 468* 

Japanese Railways, Dynamometer car 66* 

Jenkins Bros., Swnng check valve 1286* 

Jerome-Edwards Metallic Packing Co., Sul- 
livan piston and valve stem packing 596* 

Jesson, J. A., Care of lye tanks 188* 

Jesson, J. A., Reboring air pump cylinders 138* 
Jesson, J. A., Reinforced gaskets for air 

pump cylinder heads 469' 

Jesson, J. A., Repairing worn air pump 

reversing rods 242* 

Jesson, J. A., Removing gaskets from bulls- 
eye lubricators 39* 

Jigs, Special, for locomotive repair shops. 

Tool Foremen's convention 409* 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Slack adjuster 

for brake equipment 1319* 

Johns-ManviUe Co.. H. W., Manual slack 

adjuster for freight cars 644* 

Johnson, Harold S., Feed water heater on 

feared locomotive 226* 
nson. Otto B., Roof construction for 

passenger cars 485* 

Johnson, W. E., Cleaning air pumps 82* 

Johnson, W. E., Packing iron for journal 

boxes 137* 

M. C. B. 

Johnston, W. E., Motor drive for Bradley 

helve hammer 184* 

Johnston, W. E., Proposed Gantry crane for ^ 

car repair yards ^04 

Journal bearing. Brake hanging and the 

" -^ " 270t 

iimai utaunBj., Brouzc, The AmcHcan 

Metal Co 48t 

Journal bearings. Hot trailer 565 

Journal box packing guard, Nuway Pack- 
ing Guard Co -. • * 200* 

Journal brasses. Finishing car and engine 

truck by grinding, by R. E. Brown 193* 

Journal jack. Parsons 488 

Journals, Maintenance of car 1307§ 

June Mechanical Conventions. . .(See Meetings) 

Journal bearing. Roller, Anti-Friction Rolle 

Beariii " 


Kansas City, Mexico & Orient. Variable 

exhaust nozzle 1319* 

Keystone Equipment Co., Tool holder for 

high speed steel cutters 1226* 

Kiesel, W. F., Jr., Stresses in side rods... 212t 

Kingan-Ripken Co., Valve gear device 483* 

Kinsey, Owen D., Illinois Central tool 


Kinsey, Owen D., Machine steel for small 


Kropidlowski, V. T., Drill motor exten- 




Kropidlowski, V. T., Horizontal drilling at- 
tachment for a radial drill 

Kropidlowski, V. T., Reducing piston valve 

leakage 359* 

Labor and material, Prices for, M. C. B. 

convention 1343 

Ladders, Device to prevent sUpping of, ^ 

Mason ^^®^* 

Landis Machine Co., Chaser grinder 47* 

Landis Machine Co., Pipe threading and ^ 

cutting machine 429 

Lantern, Electric hand, Delta 488 

Lauer, W. F., Piston valve packing rings. 583* 

Lebovitz, Lewis, Flue cutter 542 

Lebovitz, Lewis, Jig for setting up crown 

brasses in shaper. 370 

Lee, J., Forging machine dies o7 

Lehigh Valley, Closing valve links with 

oxy-acetylene torch 538 

Letters, The apprentice 4391 

Lewis, B. N., Manufacturing brooms 407* 

Lewis, B. N., Shop notes from the Soo 

Line 133* 

Lewis, W. H., Humidity controlled dry 

kiln 462 

Lifting hook for heavy work 133 

Lighting arrangement. Northern Pacific ' 

steel coaches 522 

Lighting system, Car electric 
Lighting^, Tr: ■ " - - - 


convention 1366* 

M. C. B. convention 1386* 

Lillie, G. W., Tender Derailments 58t 

Lincoln Electric Co., Constant current 

welder •. ■ • • 

Lincoln, J. F., Answers to some questions 

on arc welding 

Lineshaft, Higher speeds ; . 

Lister. F. G.. Oil-burning blacksmith forge.. 
Lister, F. G., Oil burning sand dryer.. 
Loading, Improper, of box cars 
Loading rules, M. C 

Locomotives _. 

2 10-2 Erie 158 

4-4-4 tvpe, P'. & R 1193* 

4-6-0, Portuguese State Railways 115 

4-6-2 tvpe, Santa Fe 217 

4-8-2 tvpe. Can. Pac 556 

Alterations in, to increase capacity 105S 

American and European design 1268s 

Ash pans. Fuel convention _. . 281 

Boilers, Design, construction and in- 
spection of, M. M. convention 1272 

Boiler inspection 308 

Buffer, Radial, Economy Devices Corp. 1322 

Capacity, Increased, in existing 18 

Coal consumption, by L. W. Wallace... 617* 

Coal pusher, Locomotive Stoker Co.... 1321 

Counterbalancing, M. M. convention.. 1292 
Crankpins, General Foremen' 

Cylinder lubricator, force feed, Na- 
than •-.:•••' 

Cylinders, Repairing by arc welding.. 
Design of, for fuel economy, M. M. 


Design, Improved 

Design, Refinement in 

Development in 1914 

Driving axles. General Foremen s 



Driving boxes (see driving boxes) 
Driving spring hangers. Dies for form- 
Economic value of a, by C5eo. S. Good- 

Operation, Effect of valve gear on, 

T. E. A. convention • ■ 505 

Exhaust nozzle with internal projec- 
tions 198* 

Exhaust liozzle, ' Rectangular, economy 1192* 

Exhaust nozzle. Variable 1319* 

Exhaust nozzle, variable, M. M. con- 
vention 1290 

Locomotives — (Continued) 

Fan drafting as applied to, by H. B. 
MacFarland, at A. S. M. E 

Fashions in 

Feed water heating, by F. F. Gaines, 
at A. S. M. E 

Firebox, Lackawanna water tube 

Fireboxes, Combustion in, by J. T. An- 
thony, at A. S. M. E 

Fireboxes, Combustion in, by J. P. 
Neff, at A. S. M. E 

Frame construction, P. & E., 4-4-4 

Frame, Method of arc welding 

Front end and draft appliances, by 
C. D. Young, at A. S. M. E 

Front ends. Fuel convention 

Grate, Hulson 

Grates, Fuel convention 

Headlight requirements 

Inspection of 

Link trunnion. Dies for forming 

Maintenance, Some factors in 

Mileage account 

Mikado vs. Consolidation, by N. D. Ball- 

Model, built by Erie apprentices. .41*, 

Modern appliances on, "r. E. A. con- 

Operation, Smokeless, without special 
apparatus, H. H. Maxfield 

Performance, Variations in 

Pistons, Forged and rolled steel, by 
W. W. Scott, Jr 

Possibilities of the future, by J. B. 
Ennis, at A. S. M. E 

Radius bar. Length of, by L. R. Pom- 

Reading type 

Reciprocating parts. Light 

Reciprocating and revolving parts, by 

H. A. F. Campbell 

109*, 163*, 215, 390", 

Reverse gear. Can. Pac, 4-8-2 type.... 

Reverse gear, Young 

Rod brasses, Boring and facing back 
main, C. & O 

Rods, tires and wheels, General Fore- 
men's convention 

Running repairs 

Running repairs, by Ernest Cordeal... 

Sander, White 

Side rods. Stresses in 

Spring rigging design, A study of, by 
J. P. Shamberger 

The steam, of today, Discussion, A. S. 
M. E 

Steam tender. Southern Ry 

Stokers, Fuel association 

Stokers, M. M. convention 

Superheater, Compounding 

Superheater, Compounding, M. M. con- 










Superheaters, by G. L. Bourne, at A. 

S. M. E 

Tabular comparison, 2-8-2 type 

Tabular comparison of 4-4-2, 4-6-0, 

4-4-0, 2-6-0 and switching types 

Tabular comparisons, 4-8-2 and 4-6-2 


Tabular comparison of Mallet, 2-10-2 

and 2-8-0 types 

Truck, Canadian Pacific, 4-8-2 type 

Uniflow cylinder for 

Valve gear. Southern, by R. S. Mounce 

Valve gear, Yoimg 

Water joint. Single, Franklin 

Wedge bolt, removable 

What the stoker has done for the, by 

E. A. Averill, at A. S. M. E 

What the stoker has done for the, by 

C. F. Street, at A. S. M. E 

Locomotive Stoker Co., Coal pusher 

Locomotive, The value of the 

Long Island Railroad, Shop kinks. Black- 
smiths' convention 

Long Island steel suburban cars 

Loss and damage to freight 

Loucks, H. L., Combination rivet set 

Loucks, H. L., Jig for planing eccen- 

Loucks, H. L., Points for apprentices to 


Loucks, H. L., Turning commutators in 

the power house 

Louisville & Nashville. Removing gaskets 

from biill's-cve lubricators 

Louisville & Nashville, Testing devices for 

air brakes 

Lubricants, Tests of, by H. M. Baxter. . . . 
Lubricating Metal Co., Metallic packing 


Lubrication of car journals 

Lubricator choke plugs. Reclaiming worn.. 
Lubricator, Double action force feed, Na- 









Lubricators, buU's-eve, Removing gaskets 

from, by J. A. Jesson 39" 

Lumber, Ordering and handling 574 

Lumber, .Scrap, from box cars 1323§ 

Lumber, Substitutes for expensive. Store- 
keepers' convention 288 

Lye tanks. Care of, by J. A. Jesson 188* 


M.icCorkindale. A., Take a real interest in 
the apprentice 641 

nbers under 1.000 refer to Railway Age Gazette, Mechanical Edition: those over 1,000 refer to the Daily Railway Age Gazette. 'Illustrated article; 
§ editorial; t short non-illustrated article or note; t communication. 


MacFarland, H. B., Fan drafting as ap- 
plied to locomotives at A. S. M. E 

McCoy, Geo. E., Adjustable drilling stand 

McCoy, Geo. E., Box car end door 

McCoy, Geo. E., Uncoupling lever for 
switch engines 

Mcintosh, Peter E., Y-fitting for washing 
out boilers 

Mcintosh, Peter E., Special beading tool 
and boiler patch bolt 

McManiimy, Frank, Results of locomo- 
tive boiler iiisi)ection law 

Machine Shop Management 

Machine tool efficiency 

Machine Tools 

Band saw. Metal, Williamson 

Band saw. Vertical, for metal cutting, 

M. E. Shinn & Co 

Boring and Turning Mill, Niles-Be- 


Car wheel lathe. Center drive 

Drill, Cotter and keyseat, Niles-Bcmcnt- 


Drill, Radial, Willmarth 

Grinder, Car wheel, Springfield Man- 
ufacturing Co 

Grinder, Chaser, Landis 

Grinding machine. Self - contained, 


Hacksaw machine. High speed, Massa- 
chusetts Saw Works 

Lathe, Driving wheel, Niles-Bement- 

Pond Co 

Lathe, Portable, American 

Nut tapping machine. Automatic, Na- 
tional Machinery Co _. . . 

Pipe threading and cutting machine, 

Landis Machine Co 

Planer, Slide plate, Cincinnati 

Quintuple punch and shear, Ryerson.. 
Radial drill, High speed, Fosdick Ma- 
chine Co 

Slabbing machine. Vertical, Newton... 
Turret lathe. Universal hollow-hexa- 
gon, Warner & Swasey 

Worm wheel cutting machine, Newton 
Macnab, E. S. M., Electric lighting of pas- 
senger cars 

Maegley, F. C, The shipper, the railway 

and the car man 

Magnet for removing metal from flesh, 

Wcstinghouse Elect. & Mfg. Co 

Magnet steel, Qualities of 

Mahr Mfg. Co., Paint burner 

Mahr Mfg. Co., Portable rivet forge 

Mahr Mfg. Co., Safety hose clamp 

Maicr, Charles, Saving coal 

Main reservoir, Ball joint connection for, 


Main reservoir ball joint connection, Frank- 
lin Railway Supply Co 

Main rod brasses, I?oring and facing, by 

M. Flanagan 

Main rod brasses, Boring front end, by 

C. H. Andrus 

Main rod keys. Chuck for threading front 

end in a turret lathe 

Maintenance of equipment. Economical 

Maintenance of locomotives. Some factors 

et al. Factor 
., Smokeless 









by E. 


Malleable iron exhibit, Ar 

Castings Association 

Malleable iron exhibit, American Malle- 
able Castings Assn., correction 

Marea, M., Uniformity in ear inspection.. 

Master Blacksmiths' Association. (See Inter- 
national Railroad Master Blacksmiths' 

Master Boiler Makers' Association conven- 

Master Car Builders' Association conven- 
tion. Proceedings of 1327*, 1359*, 

Master Car Builders' Association, Election 
of officers 

Master Car Builders' Association, Forty- 
two vears ago 

Master 'Car Builders' Association. New ex- 
perimental couplers 

Master Car Builders' Association, Results 
of letter ballot 

Master Car Builders' Association, Revision 
of standards and recommended practice. . 

Master Car Builders' billing machine. Bur- 

Master Car Builders' rules of interchange 

Master Car Builders' rules of interchange. 
Revision of 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' As- 
sociation, (see Meetings). 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' As- 
sociation Convention, Proceedings of... 

Master Mechanics' Association, Associate 
members, make better use of 

Master Mechanics' Association. (See Amer- 
ican Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 



Works, High speed Hack 

Massachusetts Sa 

Saw Machine _ . . 

Material, Accounting for second ha 

Storekeepers' convention 

Material and labor. Prices for, M. C. 


Material, Reclamation of 

Material. Reclamation of. Storekeepers' con- 

Material, Reclaiming, at local shops, by E. 
A. Murray 


Maxlield, H. 

operation 561 

Mechanical associations. To committees of 31 

Mechanical department, A held for the spe- 
cial investigator 6048 

Mechanical uepartmcnt and operating re- 
sults 12081 

Mechanical department, Relation to stores 

denartnienl 5558 

Mechanical dc|iartmenl salaries, K. J. Miller 4t 


Ail H.,,1.. A,, MM,, linn 150, 203 

.Vi Ill I III till Iviilway Association 549 

Ami Ml ,11 l:,, In, III .\Iiister Tinners', 
I ,,|,l„ is,,,,il,s ;ii„l Pipefitters' Assn.. 323 

Amcric.'tn K.iilway Tool Foremen's As- 
sociation 262, 379 

American Society for Testing Materials, 
150, 323 

American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers 51, 100, 323, 599, 647 

Canailian Railway Club 323 

ral Railroad Club 599 


III Inn llll ll'. A, .Illnn. .203, 434, 491 

riiill, ,| I ,1 W li. , 1 M,,,,,il,i, Mirers 599 

Tlir iMinlii.iMiiK I I:,i,.,,, 100 

Engineers' Siuiety of Western Penn- 
sylvania 549 

Foundry and Machine Exhibition 492 

International Association for the pre- 

veiilion of smoke 491 

Intiriiational Engineering Congress. 50, 262 
liiieniational Railroad Master Black- 
smiths' Association 434 

International Railway General Fore- 
men's Association 50, 379 

June Mechanical Convention. .. .262, 599, 647 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 

Association 204, 379, 434 

Meeting at Franklin Institute 262 

National Association of Corporation 

Schools 323 

Traveling Engineers' Association. .262, 492 

Western Railroad Club lOO, 323 

Meetings, Joint M. M. and M. C. B., M. 

M. convention 1291 

Men, The best methods of dealing with, 

by H. E. Gamble 61 

Men, Cost of hiring and discharging 1268§ 

Men, How do you select your, by R. V. 

Wright 387 

Men, Methods of dealing with 55§ 

Men, Scientific selection of 1384§ 

Men, Selection of 1I83§ 

Men, Shop or railroad 21 1§ 

Men, Steam railway and electrical opera- 
tion 13078 

Mertsheimer, F., Variable exhaust nozzle.. 1319* 

Metal band saw, Williamson 488* 

Metals, Protecting against heat 238t 

Metallic packing equipment. Keeping up 

standards on 270$ 

Meter for recording flow over weirs, Har- 
rison Safety Boiler Works 433* 

Michigan Central, Shop kinks. Black- 
smiths' convention 480* 

Michigan Central, Special beading tool and 

boiler patch bolt 137* 

Michigan Central, Y-fitting for washing 

out boilers 530* 

Middleton, W. B., Guard for vise tail piece 247* 
Middleton, W. B., Relief valve for super- 
heater locomotives 416* 

Mileage account, Locomotive 440§ 

Mileage, Increased freight car 1323§ 

Miller, F. J., Mechanical department sal- 
aries 4t 

Miller, R. N., Defects of modern box cars 

and their remedies 171 

Miller, R. N., Modern apprenticeship 532 

Miller, Robert N., Shop efficiency 137 

Milling machine. Heavy duty universal, 

Rockford Milling Machine Co 146* 

Milling machine (see machine tools). 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 

Automatic drifting valve 593* 

Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 

Manufacturing brooms 407* 

Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 

Shop notes from 133* 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas, Machine tool 

lubricant pump 589* 

Mitchell, A., Safetv brake shoe 320* 

Modern Tool Co., Collapsible tap 544* 

Modern Tool Co., Self-contained grinding 

machine 91* 

Moisture, Efl'ect of, in the air brake system 623 
Moisture in yard testing plants. Air brake 

convention 295 

Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Ry., Re- 
claiming bolts with battered threads 39* 

Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Ry., Using 

old boiler tubes as pipe 192* 

Morrison, D. P., Barometric condenser as an 

open water heater 634* 

Motive power department. Matters worthy 

of attention 12681 

Motor drive for Bradley helve hammer, by 

W. E. Johnson 184* 

Motors, Standardization of crane 585 

Mott Sand Blast Mfg. Co., Plant for sand 

blasting steel cars 427* 

Mounce, R. S., Southern locomotive valve 

gear 59* 

Mummert-Dixon Company, Automatic fac- 
ing tool 48* 

Murray, E. A., Draft gear problem 498t 

Murray, E. A., Melted boiler tubes 4j 

Murray, E. A., Oiling air pump air cyl- 
inders 408* 

Murray, E. A., Quadruple tool for planing 

shoes and wedges 584* 

Murray, E. A., Reclaiming material at local 

shops 631* 


Naglc, John IL, Air pump rack 90* 

Name, Our change in 6051 

Nathan Mfg. Co., Automatic drifting valve 372* 
Nathan Mfg. Co., Force feed cylinder lu- 
bricator 489* 

National Association of Corporation Schools 

(see Meetings). 
National Brake Co., Hand brake for freight 

Hose Coupling Co., Hose coup- 
Automatic nut 



National Machinery Co., 

National Machinery Co., Continuous mo- 
tion hammer bolt heading machine 373* 

National Railway Devices Co., Simple coup- 
ler release rigging 431* 

Neff, J. P., Combustion in locomotive fire- 
boxes, A. S. M. E 10 

Nchls Alloy Company, Carl, Metallic salts 
pyrometers 46* 

Newton Machine Tool Works, Inc., Ver- 
tical slabbing machine 319* 

Newton Machine Tool Works, Inc., Worm 

wheel cutting machine 597* 

New York Central, Electric welding kinks. . 477* 

New York Central, Portable oxy-acetylene 

welding and cutting outfit 592* 

New York Central smoke washing plant, 
by M. D. Franey 511* 

Niederlander, D. R., Lever hand brake 428* 

Nilcs-Bement-Pond Co., Boring and turning 

mill 543* 

Niles-BementPond Co., Center drive car 
wheel lathe 321* 

Niles-Bemcnt-Pond Co., Cotter and key- 
seat drill 486* 

NilesBement Pond Co., Driving wheel lathe 371* 

Niles-Bement-Pnnd Co., Pneumatic plate 

flanging clamp 145* 

Nolan, J. P., Reclaiming bolts with battered 
threads 39" 

Nolan, J. P., Using old boiler tubes as 

pipe 192* 

Nordberg Mfg. Co., High compression oil 
engine 487* 

Norfolk & Western Humiditv controlled dry 
kiln, by W. H. Lewis . . .'. 

Norfolk & Western, machine for driving 


Northern Engineering Works, Electric crane 

Northern Pacific steel passenger cars 

Nut lock. Air pump gland, N. T. Cline 

Nut lock. Positive, Schum Bros 

Nut tapping machine (see machine tools). 

Nuway Packing Guard Co., Journal box 
packing gtiard 




Officers, Car department, and economy 330§ 

Officers, Sweeping changes in 2675 

Officers, Training material for, by F. H. 

Thomas 370 

Officers, Treatment of subordinate 12875 

Ohio Injector Co., Squirt hose ejector 256* 

Oil burner, Vacuum. Gustin-Bacon 260* 

Oil burning locomotives. Smoke prevention 

with, T. E. A. convention 509 

Oil engine. High compression, Nordberg. . 487* 
Oil filter. Power plant, Richardson-Phenix. . 253* 
Oil, Fuel, for locomotive use. Fuel con- 
vention 280* 

Oil quenching baths. Determining the tem- 
perature of 451t 

Oiler, Automatic force-feed flange, Detroit 1283* 

Oils, Tests of lubricating 225 

Oplinger, H. E., Removable wedge bolt 591* 

Organization, Engine house, by V '^ 

shop, by He 


"S^ - . ... 

Gardner 536* 

Organization, Relation of engine house to 

engine failures, Harvey De Witt Wolcomb 533* 
Organization, Toning up an, competition. . 554§ 
Organization, Treatment of subordinates. . 1287§ 
Orr, A. M., Prize article. Car inspectors' 

competition 575 

Output, Quality of shop 4415 

tile; ■ . . . _ 







ngth of 645t 

Uxy-acetylene process for boiler work. 

Boiler Makers' convention 309 

Oxy-acetylene torch for closing valve links 538* 
Oxy-acetylene welding copper and copper 

alloys, by J. F. Springer 367 

Oxy-acetvlene welding and cutting outfit. 

Portable, N. Y. C 592* 

Oxv-acetvlene welding and cutting torch. 

Imperial 320* 

Oxy-acetylene welding, General Foremen's 

convention 425 


under 1,C00 refer to Railway Age Gasette, Mechanical Edition; those over 1,000 refer to the Daily Railaay Age Gazette. *Illustrated article; 
5 editorial; t short non-illustrated article or note; J communication. 


O.xyacctylene welding. Possible substil 

for acetylene in 

Oxy-acctylenc welding, Restrictions on. 

Packing guard. Journal box, Nuway Pack- 
injf (lUard Co 

Packing iron for journal boxes 

Packing, Metallic material, Lubricating 
Metal Co 

Packing rings. Piston valve, W. F. Lauer. . 

Paint burner, Mahr 

Paint color, Flat vs. enamel. Painters' con- 

Paint, Maintenance of enamel color vs. var- 
nish tinish, Painters' convention 

Paint materials, "Test committee report, 
Painters' convention 

Paint, Protection of iron and steel with, 
J. W. Gibbons 

Paint, Protection of steel with. Painters' 

Paint shop. Piece work for a, by H. Hcf- 

Paint shop. Relation of the, to the re- 
pair yards, by Wm. Buchanan 

Paint sprayer. Vacuum, Custin-Bacon 

Paint stock, quality vs. price in buying. 
Painters' convention 

Paint, Temperature indicating 

Painters' Association (see Master Car and 
Locomotive Painters' Association). 

Paints, Prepared, for metal surfaces, by 
Henry H. Gardner 

Park, L. L., Does modern apprenticeship 

Parsons Metal Products Co., Journal jack 

Patent, What is the value of a, by Paul 
Synnestvedt, M. C. B. convention 

Patterns, Painting 

Patterns, Substitute for wooden 

Pearce, K. S., Locomotive headlight re- 

Pennsylvania Railroad, Boring front end 
main rod brasses 

Pennsylvania Railroad, Exhaust nozzle with 
internal projections 

Pennsylvania Railroad, Extensible vesti- 
bule trap door 

Pennsylvania Railroad, Forging dies. 
Blacksmiths' convention 

Pennsylvania Railroad, Four wheel truck 
for passenger cars 

Pennsylvania Railroad shop kinks, Black- 

















Personals — General 

Avers, A. R 

Bast, P. E 

Bartlett, Henry 

Billingham, R. A 

Bisbee, Sheridan 

Boardman, F. W 

Bosworth, W. M 

Brassill, J. K 

Brooks, C. E 324, 

Brown, R. M 

Brown, T. U 

Carthcart, H. W 

Chidley, Joseph 

DeVilbis, E. B 

Duguid, J 

Eager, A, H 

Elmes, C. C 

Eisner, William H 

Gallagher, F. S 

Geiser, W. B 

Gillespie, W 

Good, G. \V 

(Iraburn, A. L 

Hamilton, M. E 

Harris, E. J 

Havmond, F. O 

Hazzard, W. I 

Hessenbruch, T. K 

Hooper, N. C 

Hungerford. S. J 

MacBain, D. K 

MacRae, J. A 

McKinnon, A 

McNiece, W. B 

Macbeth, H. A 264, 

Main, D. T 

Milncr, B. B 

Mirtz, P. P 

Mitchell, J. A 

Moffatt, J. F 

Ncedham, E. K 

O'Brien, J. E 

Oviatt, H. C 

Owens, W. H 

Reese, O. P 

Roblin, L. G 

Roquemore, P 

Schmalzreid, W. M 

Seahrook, C. H 

Seiders, I. A 51, 

Sheafe, J. S 

Smith, H. E 

Smith. William C 

Sproule, Gordon 

Stiffey, S. S. 
Summerskill, T. A. 
Taylor, F. W .... 

































Personals — General — (Continued) 

Thompson, W. O 

Thomson, S. G 

Vaughan, H. H 

Warner, W. W 

White, H. J 

Whiteley. G 

Winterrowd, W. H 




Personals— Master Mecha 
of Engines 

AlLritiht. T. A 

Armstrong, S. T. ... 

Baldwin, T. C 

Barker, N. M 

Barry, F. J 

Barton, 1). E 

Baum, T. W 

Bell, Norman 

Bissett, J. R 

Boldridge, R. M 

Bowen. Tobn R 

Brvant, E. } 

Carev, F. F 

Carlson, F. C 

Caskey, A. F 

Cassadv, J. A 

Clark, J. T 

Clough, D. I 

Connors, C 


Dales, A. E 

Dolan, J. P 

English, H. A... 

Evans, G. I 

Findlav, J. W. 

Fisher,' L. G 

Fitzsimons, J. E. 
Flavin, J. T. ... 
Fletcher, W. H.. 
Goodrich, G. P. . 

Gould, J. E 

Graham, G. S. . . 

Griest. E. E 

Hallman, A 

Hamlet, A. E. ... 
Hardin, L. A. . . . 
Heinzer, J. P. .. 
Henry, G. W..., 
Higgins, D. W. . 






Hudson, T. C 

Huston, F. T 

Johnson, J. W 

Keller, W. H 151, 

Keyser, E. E 

Kincaid, R. M 

Kvle. C 

Langhurst, E. T 

Lillie. Grant W 

Linthicum, P 

Mc.Mpine, J. H 

McCann, E. H 

McConachie, W. G 

JIcElrath, William 

McMillan, A. E 151, 

McPartland. M. B 

McOuade, R. J 

Mahan. A. H 

Malthaner, W 102 

Mills, J. H 

Moffatt, J. F 

Moore, W. C 379, 

Nevins, B. E 

Pavne, W. W 

Pickrell, W. J 

Powell, A. II 

(luantic, C. J 

Reid, J. J 

Ried, H. G 

Ronaldson, F 

Schriver, J. L 

Scott, M. J 

Scott, W. L 

Sealy, W. C 

Selfridge, H 

Simpson, H. R 

Sisco, G. E 

Sturrock, A 151, 

Van Aiken, E. B 

Watt, A 

Wilmore, F. W 

Windle, T '. . 

Young, A 151, 

Personals — Car Department 

Alquist, P 380, 

Andrew, H. W 

Berg. A 

Blodd, O 

Brice, A. D 

Chandler, R. L 

Coponv, A 

Decker, G. E 

Dempster, W. C 

Eley, E 

Fickel. John A 

Fitz. R. A 

Forrest, W 

Grove, W. E 

Hacking, E 

Hawkins, John M 

Hilborn, A. M 

Hodgson, J 

Hodgson, J. L 

Hooker, N. E 















sonals— Car Department — (Continued) 

Jander, A. P 551 

Johnston, J. E 600 

Lamb, V. J 

Lilly, R 

... 205 

Long, W. H 

.. 380 

McClellan, C. H 

. . 600 

McNiece, W. B 

... 151 

Marshall, T. W 

... 205 

Messeroll, D. C 

Miller, W. F 

... 102 
... 380 

Mills, W 

Mounce, R. S 

Munro, C. A 

... 325 

. . . 600 

Murdock, C. A 

Pierie, W. H 

... 102 

Reid, F 

... 102 

Spence, T 


Stone, C. E 

Thiel, E. J 

Thompson, George 

Turner, G. H 

... 600 
... 152 
... 102 

Van Buren, C. W 

Walker, William 

... 380 

Weldon, R. D. C 

White, H. J 

White, L. C 

. . . . 102 
... 647' 
. . . 325 

Wilhite, J. A 

Zerchcr. F. B 

... 52 
... 325 

Personals — Shop and Engine House 

Archer, W. H 

Atwell, Leo.i 

Band, R. W 

Beardshaw, A 

Becker, H. G 

Bloom, E 

Brandt, William 

Burel, W. C 

Burton, J. A 

Carey, J. J 

Cleary, L. A 

Darbv, H 

Feetham, G 

Gordon, S 

Hacking, E 

Hannah, A. T 

Hay, D. W 

Hening, C. R 

Hillman, G. A 

Hope, W 

Howell, F. P 

Jones, L. B 

Kendall, A. H 

Kerwin, J. M 

Kinsell, W. L 

Laycock. G. H 152, 

Lowe, T. S 

Lundburg, C 

McCarra, M. F 

McRae, John 152, 

McTavish, A 325, 

Miller, J. A 

Miller, R. A 

Mitchell, J. A 152, 

Moran, W. F 

Morey, E. H 

Moses, F. K 

Mueller, S. E 

Newman, C M 

Nolan, William H 

Ord, L. C 

Osborne, H 

Palos, T. W 

Patterson, W. R 

Pontius, T. H 

Rauber, F. A 

Rogers, J. D 

Ross, D 

Schneider, J. S 

Shaler, H 

Smith, Bert 

Spicer, H. C 

Stewart, C. E 

Stone. J. H 

Walton, T. A 

Warren, F. W 

Wells, W 

White, C 

Wilder, C. D 

Wolfe, F. E 

Wood, W. B 

Woods, John E 

Young, R. R 





Personals — Purchasing and Storekeeping 

Bowen, H. W 

Burgess, C. L 

Burns, E. J 

Calhoun. F. B 

Coles, J. M 

Cooke, T. W 

Desalaux, J. B. A 

Dugan, F. P 

Dunbar. Frank 

Francis, W. D 

French, C. D 

Gehan, G. W 

Goodwin, E. G 

Harpke, G. C 

Harvey, J 

HInkey, W. M 

Hunter, A. P 

■Hutchinson. A. E 

Ingersoll. G. R 

Jacobs, R. A 




64 S 

Page numbers under 1,000 refer to Railway Age Gasette, Mechanical Edition: those over 1.000 refer to tlie Daily Railway Age Gasette 

§ editorial; t short non-illustr;ited article or note: r communication. 


1915— RAILWAY AGli (iAZlCTTl-:. MiailAXIC AL i:i)ITin\ Index. 

Personals— Purchas 

Joliin, C. U. .. 
Keller, Joscjjll 
Lavender, C. , 
Lcparcl, C. E. . 
Lunsford, R. A 
croft, S. 

nd Storekeeping— (Co 


Morchead, W. S 

Murpliy, J. 1' 103 

Murphy, P. J 103 

O'lirien, John 205 

Owen, Waller K 325 

Peabody, W. L 551 

Powell, H. M 4'i2 

Price, !■:. J 492 

Reed, F. D 264* 

Robinson, G. It 380 

Roth, E. J 264 

Rothcary, C. H 648 

Sewell, n. A 103 

Stewart, W. U 601 

Stokes, W. D 601 

Sweing, A. J 648 

Thomson, L. C 52 

Toye, Eldred C 52 

Urtef, E. J 264 

Woods, J. 1 648* 

Yenmans, C. 1 648 


II. A. 

A. L 

Personals — Obituary 

Addis. J. W 

Allen, W. ]•■ 

Chapman, T. L 

Charlton. Matthew 

Cohen. Mendes 

De Voy, .1. F 

Fox, Patrick 

Hayward, Charles 

Henderson, Kdmund P 

Laurie, J. B 

McCann, Charles 

McGee, James 

Mcintosh, William 

Marker, James .......'.■.. 

Meier, Col. E. D 

Mirtz, P. P 

Moran. J. J 

Salmon. R. B 

Sherwood. M. E 

Thompson. Charles A 

Waldron, N. A 

Philadelphia & Reading, 4-4-4 type passen- 
ger locomotive 

Piece work accounts. Handling, Painters' 

Piece work. Blacksmiths' convention 

Piece work and bonus systems in the boiler 
shop, by N. H. Ahsiuolh 

Piece work and its advantages, by E. J. 

Piece work for a paint shop, by H. Hef- 

Piece work. Storekeepers' convention 

Piece work system, Freight car repairs 
under a. by J. J. Tolin 

Pipe bender. Hydraulic Press Manufactur- 
ing Co 

Pipe connections, Flexible, between engine 
and tender. Barco 

Pipe joint. Universal, Christy Universal 
Pipe Joint Company 

Pipe threading and cutting machine (see 
Machine Tools). 

Pipe threading tools with internal guide, 

Piston rod gland and oiler, by James Ste- 

Piston rod packing. Sullivan 

Piston rods. Tests of special steel 

Piston valve, (see Valve). 

Pistons. Forged and rolled steel, bv W. W. 
Scott, Jr 

Pitard, J. H.. How can I help the apprentice 

Pittsburg. Shawmut & Northern, Steel un- 
derframe caboose 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie. Barometric con- 
denser as an open water beater 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, Well car. 200,000- 
Ib. capacity 

Plant for building cars, A Spanish 

Pneumatic hammer, C. B. & Q 

Pneumatic hammer for reclaiming track 

Pneumatic hammer. Tools for facing con- 
nections, Tool Foremen's convention 

Pneumatic tools. Maintenance of, Tool 
Foremen's convention 

Pomeroy. L. R., Diagram for determining 
maximum tractive effort 

Pomeroy, L. R., An electric process for 
safe-ending tubes 

Pomeroy, L. R., Length of radius bar 

Portuguese Slate Railways express locomo- 







Power. High, per unit of weight. ........ 

Powerhouse, "Turning commutators in, 1 

H. L. Loucks 

Practice, Recommended, Air BraJ<e co 

Practice. Recommended, Storekeepers' con- 
Pratt. E. W., Smoke prevention 



Press for closing crown brasses, C, St. P., 
M. S: U 

Press for hard grease, Franklin Railway 
.Supply Co 

Preston, W. E., Effect of valve gear on 
locomotive operation, T. E. A. convention. 

Prices for labor and material, M. C. B. 

Prices, Settlement, for reinforced wooden 
cars, M. C. B. convention 

Price, Towson, Calibration charts for Van- 
derbilt lenders 

Pn.sperin .mmI lb, ...llvvays 

Piiiiii,. r,,n.|. 11 - I v.i num. lnger.solI-Rand.. 

Vnuw In, ,,,,,. I, MM i,,.,l lubricant, M. K. St T. 
ing hydraulic, lly- 


M I 

1 l-.l. 
<l I.I. 

He, Watson-Stillman 
machine tools). 
Headlight Co., " 

t Co., Young 


rl Nehls Al- 











Radius bar. Length of, for two-wheel trucks, 
by L. R. Pomeroy 

Railroading, The mechanical side of, by 
Wm. Sddafgc 

Railway Electrical Engineer, The 

Railway Fuel Association (see International 
Railway l-"uel Association). 

Railway (icneral Foremen's Association (see 
International Railway (jeneral Foremen's 

Railway .Storekeepers' Association conven- 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' Assn., Elec- 
tion of executive members 

Railway Tool F'oremen's Association (see 
American Railway Tool Foremen's Asso- 

Railways, Prosperity and the 

Rain water. Chemical properties of 

Ralston Steel Car Co., Flush box car door 

Ready Tool Co., Safety belt stick 

Reamer, Heavy duty electric, Cincinnati 
Electric Tool Co 

Reamers, Standard, Tool Foremen's con- 
vention ; . . 

Recorder for measuring flow over weirs, 
Harrison Safety Boiler Works 

Records worthy of attention 

Reciprocating and revolving parts 

Reciprocating and revolving parts, by H. A. 
F. Campbell 109*. 163*. 215. 390*. 

Reciprocating parts. Light 

Relief valve for superheater locomotives, 
by W. B. Middleton 

Repair facilities. Provide good car 

Repair shops. Joint car 

Repair work. Engine house, by M. Vallen . . 

Repairs, Billing on foreign cars 

Repairs, Compensation for car, M. C. B. 

Repairs, Economies in freight car 

Repairs, Freight car, _ under a piece work 
system, by J. J. Tolin 

Repairs, Improper charges for car 

Repairs, Locomotive running, by Ernest 

Repairs. Running, bv Railroader 

Reverse gear. Can. Pac, 4-8-2 type 

Reverse gear, Youn.g 

Richardson-Phenix Co., Oil filter 

Riegel, S. S., Water tube firebox on the 

Rigid Tool Holder Co.. Bo'riAg' tool holders 

Riley. J. W.. Safety wrecker yoke 

Rings. Device for forming, under the steam 

hanuner. Blacksmiths' convention 

Rivet fnrge and blow torch. Portable 

Rivet forge, Mahr Mfg. Co 

Rivet set, (Combination, by H. L. Loucks. , 

Riveting machine, Hanna 

Riveting in sleel car construction 

Riveting in steel car construction, by H. A. 

Hatfield 33*, 

Road foreman. Qualifications of a 

Robinson, \V. L.. Powdered coal 

Rock Island Lines. Economic study of mikado 

vs. consolidation 

Rock Island Lines. Simple furnace for 

melting brass 

Rockford Milling Machine Co.. Heavy duty 

universal milling machine 

Rod brasses. Boring front end main 

Rod brasses, Index head for holding 

Rods, Stresses in side, \V. F. Kiesel, Jr.. 

Rogers. Robert W., Exhaust injectors 

Roller bearings, journal. Anti-Friction Roller 

Bearing Co 

Roof construction for passenger cars. John- 
Roofs. Testing car, Santa Fe 

Roundhouse (see Engine house). 

Rubber, Instruments for measuring hardness 

and elaslicitv of. Shore 

Rule. Uniform, for load on stay bolts. 

Boiler Makers' convention 

Rules, Book of standard. Storekeepers' con- 

Rulcs, Loading, M. C. B. convention 









Rules of interchange. Discussion of <^ar 

Inspectors' convention 524 

Rules of interchange, M. C. B 1323| 

Rules of interchange, Revision of, M. C. 

B. convention 1 340 

Ryan, T. T., Prize article, boiler inspectors 

competition 635* 

Rycrson & .Son, Jos. T., Elliptic spring 

forming machine 593* 

Ryerson & Son, Jos. T., Punch and shear.. 198* 

Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co., Ceiling 

.Safety Car Healing & Lightinif Co., Under- 
frame suspension of car lighting gene- 

Safety first in railway shops 

.Safety first. Tool Foremen's convention... 

.Safety valve. Crane & Co 

Salaries, Mechanical department 

Samson, ('. H., Accounting for second 

Sand lilast helmet, J. M. Bctton 

Sand blast house, Jersey Central freight car 
repair shops 

Sand blasting steel cars, American Engi- 
neering Co 

Sand blasting steel cars, Plant for, Mott. . . 

.Sand dr.ver. Oil burning, by F. G. Lister.. 

.Sander, Locomotive, White 

Sargent Co., Safety water glass cock 

.Saw guard. Adjustable, Hobart W. Curtis.. 

.Schaff, W. F., Letter on car inspection, 
Car Inspectors' convention 

.Schlafge, Wm., The mechanical side of 

Schmidt. i:dward C, Japanese Railways 
dynamometer car 

Schoenen, Herman, The special apprentice.. 

Schultz, F. C, Joint car repair shops at 
large terminals 

Schum Bros., Positive nut lock 

Scott, W. W., Jr., Forged and rolled pis- 

Scrap and scrap classification. Storekeepers' 

Scrap lumber from box cars 

Scrap material. Reclaiming 

Scrap, Reclaiming, Blacksmiths' convention. 

Scrap reclamation plant, Great Northern. . . 

Scrap, Reclamation of. Storekeepers' con- 

Second hand material. Accounting for, 
Storekeepers' convention 

Selection of men, by R. V. Wright 

Selection of men. Scientific 

Sequence, Analysis of dependent, as a guide 
to fuel economies. Fuel convention 

Shamberger, J. P., A study of spring rigging 

Shearing machine (see Machine tools). 

Shinn & Co., M. E., Vertical band saw for 
metal cutting 

Shipper, The, the railway and the car man 

Shoe and wedge chuck for milling machine 
table, by R. E. Brown 

Shoes and wedges. Turret head for plan- 
ing, by B. O. Yearwood 

Shoes and wedges. Quadruple tool for plan- 
ing, by E. A. Murray 

Shoemaker, H., Crane arrangement for loco- 
motive shops 

Shop craft committee meetings 

Shop efficiency. General Foremen's conven- 

Shop efficiency, some methods of securing, 
by Harvey De W'itt Wolcomb 

Shop Kinks 

Adjustable drilling stand, Canadian 

Government Railways 

Air pump rack. B. R. & P 

Air pump, Reinforced asbestos gaskets 













pump. Repairing 9'/z-m. cylinder 
heads. A. C- L 

Air pump rep.iirs. Special chuck for, 
C. of Ga 

Air pump reversing rods, Repairing 
worn, by J. A. Jesson 

Air_ pumps. Device for placing. C. & 

.-\ir pumps. Method of cleaning, C. & 

N. W 

Anvil attachment for oblique bending, 


Arc-welding a locomotive cylinder. New 

York Central 

Babbitt furnace for driv-ing box hub 

liners, C, St. P., M. & O 

Beading tool, Michigan Central 

Bell voke bearing reamers, Chicago & 

North Western 

Bench arrangement for cleaning triple 

valves, C, B. & Q 

Blacksmiths' convention 

Boiler tubes. Using old as pipe, Mor- 
gan's L. & T. Ry 

Boring and facing back end main rod 

brasses and driving boxes, C- & O- . 
Brake beam safetv strap, Former for, 

Mich. Cent : 

Brake shaft supports. Formers for, B. 

& L. E 

Car stakes, Form for bending steel, B. 

& L. E 





nder 1,000 refer to Railway Age Gasctte, Mechanical Edition: those 
§ editorial: t short non-illustrated article 

Age Gazette. 'Illustrated article; 


Shop Kinks— (Continued) 

Chuck for finishing air pump packing 
rings, by F. K. Slewart 

Chuck for finishing boiler check bodies, 
C. of Ga 

Chucks for threading fire door latches 
and front end main rod keys in a 
turret lathe, C. of Ga 

Cleaning carpets by compressed air, 
C. & W. I 

Commutators, Turning in the power- 
house, Eric 

Coupler yokes, Tools for removing, 
forming and riveting, C, B. & Q.. 

Crane, Pillar for machine tools, Can- 
adian Northern 

Crosshead shoes. Jig for babbitting, C, 
M. & St. P 

Crown brasses, Jig for setting up m 
the sharper, by Lewis Lebovitz 

Cylinder cocks. Finishing, A. C. L. .. 

Cj;linder heads. Attachment for grind- 
ing, Soo Line 

Device for determining height of crown 
sheets. 111. Cent 

Device for straightening bent axles, 
C. & O 

Dies for forming large castle nuts, C. 
& N. W ,.... 

Drill motor extensions, by V. T. Krop- 

Drill post. Angle, 111. Cent 

Drilling device for firebox work, Wa- 

Driving boxes. Machine for boring, N. 
& W 

Dry pipe joints. Jig for grinding, Wa- 

Eccentric cranks. Tool for locating. 111. 

Eccentrics, Jig for planing, Erie 

Engine bolts. Turning, Central of 
Georgia ._ 

Feed valve testing clamp, Soo Line... 

Finishing car and engine truck brasses 
by grinding, A. C. L 

Finishing tank valve castings, C. of Ga. 

Flue cutter, apparatus for driving. 111. 

Flue cutter, by Lewis Lebovitz 

Flue cutter. Superheater, 111. Cent.... 

Forging machine dies, by J. Lee 

Frames, Method of arc welding 

Furnace for melting brass. Rock Island 

Gas brazing furnace, C. & N. W 

Grinding distributing valves, C, N. O. 
& T. P 

Grinding wheel protection. Can. Pac. . . 

Guard for vise tail piece, A. C. L 

Guide bars, Jigs tor grinding, A. C. L. 

Hoist for loading scrap wheel, C. & O. . . 

Horizontal drilling attachment for a 
radial drill, by V. T. Kropidlowski. 

Index head for holding rod brasses.... 

Jig for drilling dry pipe collars, by F. 
W. Bentley, Jr 

Journal box packing iron, C. & N. W. 

Lifting hook for placing work in lathe, 
Soo Line 

Link trunnion. Dies for forming, Penn- 

Lubricator choke plugs. Reclaiming 
worn, by F. W. Bentley, Jr 

Main rod brasses. Boring front end, 

Motor drive for Bradley helve hammer. 
Western Pac 

Oil burning blacksmith forge, S. P. & S. 

Oxv-acetvlene welding and cutting out- 
fit, N.' Y. C 

Pilot coupler gage, A. C. L 

Pneumatic flue cutter, C. & N. W 

Pneumatic hammer, C, B. & Q 

Pneumatic hammer for reclaiming track 

Portable attachment for operating hy- 
draulic press, Soo Line 

Post cluster for extension cord plugs.. 

Press for closing crown brasses, C, 
St. P., M. & O 

Pump for machine tool lubricant, M., 
K. & T 

Reboring air pump cylinders, by J. A. 

Reclaiming bolts with battered threads, 
M. L. & T 

Removing gaskets from bullseye lubri- 
cators, Louisville & Nashville 

Removing indentations in superheater 
smoke tubes. C. & O 

Repairing worn tail braces, A. C. L. . . . 

Rings, Device for forming under steam 
hammer, Pennsylvania 

Rivet forge and blow torch. Portable, 
C. & N. W 

Rivet set. Combination, Erie 

Rotary four-way valve, by E. H. Wolf. 

Sand Drver. Oil Burning, Spokane, 
Portland & Seattle 

Shoe and wedge chuck for milling ma- 
chine table, A. C. L 

Shoes and wedges. Quadruple tool for 
planing, C. & O 

Sill steps. Device for forming. Great 

Sill steps, Device for forming, Mich. 

Page numbers under 1,000 refer to Railway 


Shop Kinks — (Continued) 

Spring banding machine, L. I 

Spring hangers. Dies for forming driv- 
ing, Pennsylvania 

Steam gage and safety valve clips for 
dale tags, C. of Ga 

Steam gages, method of securing, C. & 
N. W 

Stenciling gage for freight cars, A. 

Stenciling outfit. Freight car, Boston & 


motors. Apparatus for, N. 

& W 

Throttle valve seal reamer, Wabash.. 
Tire flanging tool. Double, A. C. L... 

Tire lifting hook, Soo Line 

Tools for facing air hammer connec- 
tions, N. & W 

Tools tipped with high speed steel 

Turnbuckles, Dies for forming, Penn- 

Turret head for planing guides, shoes 

and wedges, Virginian 

Valve chamber bushings, Gear train 

used in pulling in 

Valve motion links closed with oxy- 

acetylene torch, Lehigh Valley 

Valve packing rings and bull rings. 

Chuck for finishing 

Valve seat port miller, Wabash 

V-filting f^or washing out boilers, 

Michigan Central 

Shop operation. Economy in 

Shop organization, by Henry Gardner.... 

Shop output, quality of 

Shops, Efficiency in railroad 

Shops, Keeping clean 

Shops, Jersey Central freight car repair.. 

Shops, Joint car repair 

Shops, Safety first in railway 

Shore Instrument & Mfg. Co., Instruments 
for measuring hardness and elasticity of 


Signal material. Handling, Storekeepers' 


Signal, Operation of the pneumatic train. 

Air Brake convention 

Signal and train brake equipment, M. C. B. 


Silberberg, Mortimer J. Time study watch 
Sill step. Device for forming. Blacksmiths' 


Sillcox, L. K., Considerations affecting type 
of center sills in steel passenger equip- 

Sitterly, W. H., Improper loading of box 


Sill steps. Device for forming, by John 


Slabbing machine (see Machine tools). 
Slack adjuster for brake equipment, Johns- 











Slack adjuster. Manual, for freight cars, 

Slarrow, G. C, "The Doctor of Cars" 

Smith, Joseph, Helping the apprentice by 
sympathy and co-operation 

Smith Locomotive Adjustable Hub Plate 
Co., Adjustable hub plate 

Smith, P. F., Repairing driving boxes 

Smoke, Abatement of locomotive, in Cin- 
cinnati, by G. H. Funk.... 

Smoke elimination, Educating enginemen in. 

Smoke prevention. Fuel convention 

Smoke prevention. Locomotive 

Smoke prevention, M. M. convention 

Smoke prevention with oil burning loco- 
motives, T. E. A. convention 

Smoke prevention without special apparatus, 
by H. H. Maxfield 

Smoke washing plant, N. Y. C, by M. 
D. Franey 

Smokebox blower fitting, Barco 

Southern locomotive valve gear. Kinematic 
diagram of 

Southern Pacific six-volt electric headlight 
equipment, by A. H. Babcock 

Southern Railway, Steam tender locomotive. 

Southern valve gear. Laying out the, by 
Harry Cornell 

Specifications, Forging. M. M. convention.. 

Specifications and tests for materials, M. 
C. B. convention 

Specifications and tests of materials 

Spicer, H. C, Gage for pilot coupler 

Spicer, H. C, Repairing worn tail braces.. 

Spidy, E. T., Grinding wheel protection.. 

Spokane, Portland & Seattle, Oil-burning 
blacksmith forge 

Spokane. Portland & Seattle, Oil burning 
sand dryer 

Spring banding machine. Blacksmiths* con- 

Spring design, Plate 

Spring forming machine, Universal elliptic, 
Ryerson ._ 

Spring making and repairing. Blacksmiths' 

Spring rigging design, A study of, by J. 
P. Shamberger 

Springs, Characteristics of plate, by Geo. 
S. Chiles 161*, 219*, 340* 

Springer, J. F., A possible substitute for 
acetylene in welding and cutting 

Springer, J. F., Welding copper and copper 
alloys by acetylene methods 
















Springfield Manufacturing Co., Car wheel 

Standard box car — a negative viewpoint, by 
R. W. Burnett 

Standards and recommended practice. Re- 
vision of, M. M. convention 

Standards, revision of, M. C. B 

Stark Car Coupler Corp., Automatic coupler 
with movable guard arm 

Stationery, Storekeepers' convention 

Stay bolts. Driving, Boiler Makers' con- 

.Stay bolts. Uniform rule for load on. Boiler 
Makers' convention 

Stays, Cross, in fireboxes, Boiler Makers* 

Steam gage and safety valve clips for date 
tags, by C. L. Dickert 

Steam gages. Method of securing, by W. S. 

Steam, Storing, at the engine 

Steel, Alloy and heat-treated carbon, for 
reciprocating parts 

Steel, Carbon and high speed. Blacksmiths* 

Steel, Carbon-vanadium forging 

Steel, Cause of high speed, tool failures, 
by Geo. J. Brunelle 

Steel, Heat treated and alloy, by C. D. 
Young, at A. S. M. E 

Steel, Heat treatment of 

Steel, Heat treatment of. Blacksmiths' con- 

Steel, High speed, lipped tools 

Steel, Protection of iron and 

Steel, Protection of iron and, by J. W. Gib- 

Steel, Protection of, with paint. Painters' 

Steel, soft for small tools, by Owen D. 

Steins, Carleton K., Give apprentices re- 

Stencil gage for freight cars, by W. F. 

Stenciling outfit. Freight car, by H. F. 


Step-ladder for sleeping cars. Can. Nor.... 
James, Piston rod gland and 



Stewart, F. R., Chuck for finishing air 
pump packing rings 

Stoker engines, Thin fires for 

Stoker, The mechanical 

Stoker, What the, has done for the loco- 
motive, bv E, A. Averill and C. F. Street, 
at A. S. M. E 

Stokers and increased capacity 

Stokers, Locomotive, M. M. convention... 

Stokers, Mechanical, Fuel convention 

Store expenses. Accounting for 

Stores department. Relation to mechanical 

Storekeepers' Association (see Railway 
Storekeepers' Association). 

Street, C. F., What the stoker has done 
for the locomotive, A. S. M. E 

Strength, Reduction of, in corroded or 
pitted boiler shells. Boiler Makers* con- 

Stresses in truck side frames. Experiments 
to determine the, by L. E. Endsley 

Subordinates, Treatment of 

Superheat and compounding 

Superheater, The, and fuel economy, M. 








Superheater locomotives. Compounding, M. 
M. convention 

Superheater smoke tubes. Removing indenta- 
tions in, by H. M. Brown 

Superheaters, High water and 

Superheaters, Locomotive, by G. L. Bourne, 
at A. S. M. E 

Supervision, More, needed 

Supervision, Sufficient and competent 

Supply man. The, at conventions 

Supply man. Welcome the 

Svnnestvedt, Paul, What is the value of a 
patent ? M. C. B. Convention 






Supply Trade Notes 

Acme Supply Co 493, 649 

Adams & Westlake Co 381 

Adams Bagnall Electric Company 326 

Alderdice, George F 436 

Allen &• Son, A 436 

Allen, S. G 265 

Allen, W. C 206* 

Allis-Chalmers Co 326 

American Blue Print Paper Co 265 

American Can Co 326 

American Car & Foundry Co 602 

American Locomotive Co 326, 436, 650 

Manganese Steel Company.. 326 

Spray Co 493 

Steel Export Co 436 

Vanadium Co 265, 493, 649 

on, Larz 326 

M. G 265 

n Locomotive Works. 53, 327, 436, 601 

H. F 265 

n, E. C 326 

n-Witten Manufacturing Co 326 

Barret, G. G 152 

Barllett-Hayward Co 493 

Bauer, W. F 53 

Bavonne Steel Casting Company 326 

Beckert, Louis F 436 







Age Gasette. Mechanical Edition: those over 1,000 refer to the Daily Railway Age Gazette. 
5 editorial: t short non-illustrated article or note; $ communication. 

*Illustrated article; 


Supply Trade Notes— (Cc 

Uelkimp, R. K 

Best, H. W 

Best, Leigh 

Bethlellem Steel Co. 

P. H. 

Biggs, P. H., Machinery Co. 

Booth Co., L. M 

Boss Nut C( 

Boston Bching Co. 



R. .S. 


Buda Co 

Buflfalo Brake Beam Co. 

Burnett, R. W 

Burwell, L. T 

Bullcr Co., Ltd., W. W 

C & C F.ieciric Co 

Canil)ri:i Steel Co 

Camphell, U. A, 



r 265 









,152, 381, 436, 437 

Canadian Car & Foundry Co 152, 493 

Cantley, Thos 493 

CarlLss, Thomas E 436 

Carnes, W. B 265 

Carpenter Steel Co 206 

Gate, L M 650 

Caughey, E. B 326 

Central Iron Works 326 

Chambers Valve Co 382 

Chapman, W. C 206 

Charhono, F. H 381 

Chicago Malleable Castings Co 152 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co 265 

Chicago Railway .Signal & Supply Co.. 649 

Cincinnati Oear Culting Co 326 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Co 326 

Cincinnati Shaper Co 326 

Clark, Walter L 327 

Coffin, Joel S., Jr 265, SSI 

Cohen, L. L 26S 

Collette, H. S 326 

Columbus Bolt Works Co 436 

Conover-Overkamp Machine Tool Co... 326 

Consolidated Car Heating Co 153 

Continental Car & Equipment Co 326 

Continental Car Co 326 

Continental Piston Ring Co 436 

Cook, Thomas R 436 

Crawford. H, C 381 

Davis Manufacturing Co 326 

DeRevere, A. W 326 

Dearborn Chemical Co 152, 265 

Dearborn Steel & Iron Co 206 

Detrick & Harvey Machine Co 53, 493 

Detroit Graphite Co 436 

Dilley Foundry Co 326 

Disston & Sons, Henry 265 

Disston, William 265 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 206,265 

Dixon, Joseph F., Jr 326 

Dotv, H. M 327 

Allen Amer: 

Manganese Steel 

- 326 

Edison Phonograph Works 53 

Edison Storage Batterv Co 

53, 152, 381*, 493, SSI, 601 

Edwards, E. T 437 

Electric Storage Battery Co 601 

EMis, Charles B 493 

Evans, M. A 493 

Evans, W. H 602 

Everett, Edward A 493 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co 381* 

Fairmont Gas Engine & Railway Motor 

Car Co 152 

Fairmont Machine Co 152 

Fisher, W. H. P SSI 

Flint & Chester, Inc 436 

Fogg, J. W 206 

Forged Steel Wheel Co 265 

Franklin Railway Supply Co 551, 649, 650» 

Galena Signal Oil Co 26S 

Geier, Fred A 326 

General Lead Batteries Co 152 

Genger, J. Douglas 327 

Giesel Co., The Henry 103 

~ R. W 649 



Gishoit Mach 
Gossen. __ 

Goidd, T. O IS 

Graff, E. D \ 55T 

Grigg, Frank N '. .'.\ io3 

Grip Nut Cn 403 




lill, Laurence 326 


Hardv, W. E. 

Hart, Eli StilL. 

Harvev, Alexander S3 

Harvey Co., The '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 382 

Havron, John 436 

Hawley. Henrv S .:....:. 437 

Hem, H. 640 

Hequenbourg, H. C ! .' 53 

Hewitt Co 265 

HibWts, F. N 436 

Hirkox, W. B 326 

Higging, Samuel 103 

Hilles & Tones Co ' 601 

Hodges, William Sterling 3'7 

Holladay, Negstad & Co 493 

Supply Trade Notes — (Continued) 

Hucy, A. H 265 

Huey, W. B 265 

Hunt Co., Inc., C. W 265 

Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co 103, 551, 602 

Ideal Die & Tool Cfo 436 

Independent Pneumatic Tool Co 381 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 381 

Inland Steel Co 493 

Irwin, F. K 326 

Jackman, A. E 53 

Jennings, R. E 206 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W 152, 265 

Johnson, A. S 152 

Kalamazoo Railway .Supply Co 436 

Kearney & Trecker Co 103 

Kouffel & Esser Co 493 

Kineaid Stoker Co 381 

Kinney, W. H 152 

Lackawanna Steel Co 206 

Lalrobe Electric Steel Co 437 

Leeds, E. L 206 

Lehigh Valley 436 

Leonard, H. Ward 153 

Lidstone, Charles 326 

Lima Locomotive Corp 265 

Linde Air Products Co 265 

Little, C. B 649 

Llewellyn, J. S 152 

Llewellyn, Paul 152 

Loco Light Co 551 

Locomotive Finished Material Co 103 

Locomotive Pulverized Fuel Co 206, 265 

Locomotive Stoker Co 436 

Love, L. S 436 

Lubricating Metal Co 327 

Me Adam, A, D 206 

McAllister, J. R 601 

McConway & Torlcy Co 552* 

McElhany, Charles B 152, 437 

McElroy, J. F 153 

McFarland, J. A 1S3* 

Mclntyre, F. W 381 

McKenna Brothers Brass Co 437 

McKenna, Roy C 437 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, Inc 

54*, 206, 265, 326 

March, P. G. 



. 382 

Millsapps, W. K 493 

Mitchell, H. G 381 

Modern Tool Co 436 

Mohr, Joseph 207 

Molleson Co., G. E 601 

Montgomery, H, 


, L, H. 

1, L. A. 
ton, W. 
e Steel 
n Co.. 

: Co 









C. A. 


J. Turner 327 

Moore, M. C, 327 

Morse, C, H., Jr 381* 

Mudge S- Co 436 

Muhlfeld, J, E 265* 

Munch, A 265 

National Boiler Washing Co 551 

National Carbon Co 649 

National Equipment Co 649 

National Hose Coupling Co 436 

Newbold, R, M 381 

Newhall, David 551 

New York Air Brake Co 601 

NilesBement-Pond Co 

206, 326, 327, 381 

Niles Tool Works Co 327 

Normoyle, D, J 326 

Norton, A. O., Inc 436 

Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co 493 

Oatman, Paul B 436 


Ostrander, A. E 

Ottinger, W. S 

Overkamp, C. H 

Pacific Great Eastern Equipment Co. 

Parsons Co., B. W 

Passino, A. J 

Paterson, R. A 



ck, M. A, 


Steel Co 602, 649 

Peters, I'. R 649 

Pittsburgh Steel Car Co 326 

Pollard, H. K 326 

Pool. G. C 649 

Poole, A. J 265 

Poor. F. H 649 

Powdered Coal Engineering & Equip- 

nt Co., 
C. E, 


Pratt & Whitney 206, 493, 551 

Preston, H, E 326 

Pullman Company 53 

Pvrene Mfg. Co., The 326 

Q & C Co 1S2, 551, 649 

Oiiincv, C, F 152 

Railroad Supply Co 437 

Railway Appliances Co 493 

Railway Economy Device Co 551 

Railway Engineering & Equipment Co, 326 

Railway List Co 153' 

Railway Periodicals Co., Inc 552 

Ralston Steel Car Co 206 

Ramby, George W 326 

Rapp. J. P 265 

ReadingBayonne Steel Casting Co 326 

Supply Trade Notes~(Continued) 

Reading Steel Casting Co 326 

Rciss, Geo. T 327 

Ucploglc, J. L 153*, 649 

Republic Iron & Steel Co 436 

Rhoadcr, C. H 152 

Riddcll, G. !•• 493 

Robinson & Son Co., Wm. C 103, 327 

Roberts, II. M 55: 

Roberts & Schacfcr Co 437 

Robertson, W. Spencer 436 

Roebling's .Sons Co., John A 103 

Roger Ballast Car Co 53* 

Rohnian, H. D 650* 

Rosser, W. W 206* 

Rowell, B. C 382 

Ryan, Edward 436 

Ryan, Galloway & Co 436 

Ryerson & Son, Jos T.103, 152, 493, 551 

S K F Ball Bearing Co 551, 649 

.St. Louis Surfacer & Paint Co 152 

Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co., 

„ The 53, 207, 381 

Safety First Manufacturing Co 265 

Sargent, Williai 

Schoen, C. T 

Scott, H. B 

Scott, W. A., Jr 

Scullin Steel Co 

Scabrookj H. H 

Seaton Foundry Co., John. 



-- 103 

Sessions, II. H 207 


H. R. 


Page numbe 

Sherburne, Charles William 327 

Sherritt & Stoer Co., Inc 265, 436 

Shcrritt, M. A 265 

Smith, Bertram 493 

Smith, Robert M 493 

Smith, S. H 601* 

Smith-Totman Co 602 

Smith-Ward Brake Co., Inc 436 

Southward Foundry & Machine Co 207 

Spalding, Charles 326 

Spangler, J. .\I 649 

Sprague Electric Works 206, 601 

Spray Manufacturing Co 493 

Standard Brake Shoe & Foundry Co 326 

Standard Chemical Co 53 

Standard Coupler Co 207* 

Standard Heat & Ventilation Co 103 

Stark Rolling Mill Co 206 

StevensDtiryea Co 327 

Stevens Arms & Tool Co,, J 327 

Superior Car Roofing Co,, The 206 

Symington Co,, T, H 206* 

Taylor, F. W 206* 

Taylor, R. L 552 

Taylor Wharton Iron & Steel Co 326 

Terry Steam Turbine Co 207, 326, 382 

Thompson, H. G 381* 

Titan Storage Battery Co 152 

Toledo Scale Co 649 

Towne, H. R 207* 

Traver, William H 265 

Trent, J. H 152 

Tripp, G. E 382 

Tucker, A. Q 551 

Union Fibre Co 326 

Union Switch & Signal Co 53 

United Railway Specialties Co 436 

United States Light & Heat Corporation 436 

United States Light & Heating Co 265 

U. S. Metal & Manufacturing Co. 326, 602 

Valentine Varnish Co 152 

Van Aiisdall, W 551 

Van Patten, E, B 649 

Vanadium-Alloys Steel Co 437 

Varney, H. A 602 

Wainwright, Jos 326 

Ward Leonard Electric Co 153 

Waugh, W. D 436 

Weber & Co., W. H 601 

Wells Light Manufacturing Co 382 

Wcstinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 

Co 103. 265, 327, 381, 382, 436, 602 

White & Co., Inc.. J. G 326 

Whiting Foundry Equipment Co 326 

Willard Storage Batterv Co 381, 436 

Willson & Co.. Inc., T, A 53 

Wilson, Alexander 551 

Wilson, G. C 381 

Wilson, L. F 153* 

Winship, E, E 326 

Wood, Walter M 265 

Wright, David A 103 

Wright, J, S 265 

Yale & Towne Mfg. Co 103, 206. 207* 

Yardley, C, B., Jr 103, 327 

Zelnicker, Walter A 53 

Zug Iron Si Steel Co 152 

ss railways dynamometer car 606* 

Tail braces, Repairing worn, by H. C. 

^ Spicer 90* 

Talc as a lubricant 148t 

Tank design, Good features of, by Walter R. 

Hedeman 224* 

Tank hose strainer with automatic cleaning 

device. Barco 1199* 

Tank valve castings. Finishing, bv W. W. 

Elfe ^...:. 82* 

Tanks, Constructing locomotive. Boiler Mak- 
ers' convention 315 

Tap. Collapsible. Modern Tool Co 544* 

Taylor. C. S.. Making good car inspectors. . 624 

1. 000 refer to Ra\hvay Age Ga:c. 

cal Edition: those over 1,000 refer to the Daily Raikvay Age Gazette. 'Illustrated article; 
n-illustrated article or note: $ communication 


Tcfft, Jesse E., Handling work reports at 

engine houses 31* 

Tempering tools with the electric furnace.. 590 
Tenipleton, Kenly ii Co., Emergency jack 

with adjustable base 432* 

Tender derailments, by G. W. Lillie 58J 

Tender, Southern steam, locomotive 613* 

Tenders, Calibration charts for Vanderbilt. 563* 

Tenders, Inspection of 284 

Test committee report. Painters' convention 539 _ 

Test department, Pennsylvania 329g 

Test department, Pennsylvania, by C. D. 

Voung 332* 

Tests, iJata from Monon coal consumption.. 617* 

Tests of exhaust ventilators _. 235* 

Tests and specifications of materials 1355§ 

Tests and specilications for materials 1373* 

Tests, Road, for determining front end con- 
ditions, by E. S. Barnum 454* 

Testing devices for air brakes, L. & N.... 470 

Tliawing house tor frozen cars, C. & W. I. 574* 

Thill. E. }., Piece work and its advantages. 122 
Thomas, V. H., Training official material and 

journeymen apprentices 370 

Throttle valve seat reamer. Tool Foremen's 

convention 411* 

Tinware, Standardization of, M. M. con- 
vention 1274* 

Tinware, Standardization of. Storekeepers' 

convention 290 

Tire tlanging tool. Double, by R. E. Brown. 308* 

Tire heater 638t 

Tire lifting hook, by B. N. Lewis 134* 

'I'ires, rods and wheels. General Foremen's 

convention 420 

Toilet, Sanitary, West Disinfecting Co 1353 

Tolin, J. J., Freight car repairs under piece 

work system 347 

Tonnage rating and scientific train loading, 

T. E. A. convention 502 

Tool failures. Cause of high speed steel, by 

Geo. .1. Brunclle 369 

Tool Foremen's Association (see American 

Railway Tool Foremen's Association). 

Tool holders. Boring, Rigid 595* 

"Tool holder for high speed steel cutters, 

Keystone 122.6* 

Tool svstcm, Illinois Central, by Owen D. 

Kinsey 361* 

Tool steel. Factors in hardening, by J. A. 

Mathews et al 243* 

Tools, Grinding and distribution of. Tool 

Foremen's convention 415 

Tools, Machine steel for small, by Owen D. 

Tools tipped with high speed steel 590* 

Tools, The value of home-made 604§ 

Towel receptacle for sleeping cars, Can. 

Nor. 461* 

Tractine effort. Diagram for determining per- 
centage of maximum, by L. R. Pomeroy.. 453* 

Trailer bearings. Hot 565* 

Train lighter, axle driven, Northern Pa- 
cific steel cars 522* 

Train lighting, M. C. B. convention....... 1386* 

Train pipe compensating valve, California 

Valve & Air Brake Co 94* 

Train signal. Operation of the pneumatic. 

Air Brake convention 296* 

Trains, Rough handling of passenger 1287§ 

Transportation. Cost of conducting. 1288§ 

Trap door. Extensible vestibule, Pennsyl- 
vania 430* 

Trap door. Sliding vestibule, O. M. Ed- 
wards Co., Inc 1320* 

Tr.aveling Engineers' Association convention 499 
Traveling Engineers' Association (see Meet- 

Treacy, John, Device for forming sill steps. 641* 

Triple valves, Cleaning, C, B. & 568* 

Triple valve. Diaphragm-operated, California 

Valve & Air Brake Co 92* 

Trolley, Electric crane, Northern Engineer- 
ing Works 97* 

Truck, Cole-Scoville 216t 

Truck brasses. Finishing car and engine, by 

R. .¥.. Brown 193* 

Truck, Erie steel suburban cars 3^8 

Truck frames. Rolled steel, American Car 

& Foundry Co 429* 

Truck, Hot trailer bearings 56s 

Truck, Leading, C. P. R., 4-8-2 type 558* 

Truck, Long Island steel suburban car.... 404* 

Truck side frame. Cast steel, Benners 645* 

Truck side frame. Experiments to determine 

the stresses in 127' 

Truck side frame. Forged steel, Forsyth,... 1318 

Trucks, Car, M. C. B. convention 1388* 

Trucks, Design of 625* 

Page numbers under 1,000 refer to Railway Age Ci 

§ editor! 

Trucks. Four wheel, for passenger cars, by 

R. V. Wright 569* 

Trucks, Length of radius bar for two-wheel, 

by L. R. Pomeroy 290* 

Truss rods on steel members, by Theo. F. 

H. Zealand 4J 

Truss rods on steel sills _. 56§ 

Tubes, Repairing locomotive boiler, by N. 

H. Ahsiuolh 83* 

Tubes (see Boiler tubes). 

Turnbuckles, Dies for forming. Black- 
smith's convention 476* 

Turner, Walter V., Electro-pneumatic brake, 
T. E. A. convention 507 

Turret lathe chucks. Special, by W. W. Elfc. 196* 


Uncoupling lever, National Railway Devices 

Co 431*. 486 

Underframe, Grand Trunk suburban coaches 175* 

Underframes should be strengthened 330§ 

I'nderframes, Strengthening of 498J 

L'nderframe suspension of car lighting gen- 
erators, Safety 257* 

I'niflow cylinder for locomotives 612* 

Union Pacific, Steel coaches with arch roof 349* 

Union Pacitic, Steel freight cars 73* 


Vallen, M., Engine house repair work 85 

Valve, Automatic non-return, tiolden-Ander- 

son 596* 

Valve chest for piston valves on slide valve 

cylinders, Economy Devices Corp 258* 

Valve chest, L'niversal, Economv Devices 

Corp 1282* 

Valve, Exhaust passage drain. Can. Nor. . . . 586* 

Valve gear device, Kingan-Ripken 483* 

N'alve gear, Efl^cct of, on locomotive opera- 
tion, T. E. A. convention 505* 

Valve gear. Laving out the Southern, by 

Harry Cornell 386i* 

Valve gear, reverse gear and valve. Young. 1284* 
Valve leakage. Reducing piston, by V. T. 

Kropidlowski 359* 

V'alve links, closing with the oxy-acetylene 

torch 538* 

Valve packing ring competition 554§ 

Valve packing rings. Piston, by W. F. 

Lauer 583* 

Valve, Piston, with automatic cut-off for air 

compressors, IngersoU-Rand 643* 

Valve ring competition 439S 

Valve, Rotary four-way, by E. H. Wolfe.... 542* 
\'alve seat port miller. Tool Foremen's con- 
vention 411* 

Valve setting. Svstematic, on locomotives, 

by J. R. Britton 366 

Valve stem packing, Sullivan 596* 

Valve. Swing check, Jenkins Bros 1286* 

Valves, Simplate air compressor 545* 

Valves and Valve gearing. General Fore- 
men's convention 417 

Varnish finish. Maintenance of enamel color 

vs.. Painters' convention 541 

Varnish turning white. Painters' convention. 541 
Vaughan, H. H., Feed water heating, A. S. 

M. E 12 

Vaughan, James H., Adjustable car step.... 546* 
Ventilation of sleeping cars, The, by Thomas 

R. Crowder 464* 

Ventilators, e.xhaust, Tests of, by Geo. L. 

Fowler 233* 

Virginian Railway, Turret head for plan- 
ing guides, shoes and wedges 187* 

Vise, (!;eneral utility for drill presses, Brown 

Engineering Co 255* 

Vise tail piece. Guard for, bv W. B. Mid- 

dleton 247* 


Wallace, L. W., Locomotive coal consumption 617* 
Warner & Swasey Co., Universal hollow- 
hexagon turret lathe 96* 

Watch, Time study, Mortimer J. Silberberg. 261* 

Water gage cocks, by Paul R. Duffey 136* 

Water glass cock. Sargent 1303 

Water glass guard, Babcock 490* 

Water heater. Barometric condenser as an 

open 634* 

Water heater. Expansion joint for 628* 

Water joint. Single locomotive, Franklin.... 201* 

Water strainer and strainer cleaner, Barco. 1199* 

Watertown Specially Co., Blower pipe drain . 

fitting 45* 

Watson-Stillinan Co., Triplex hydraulic pump 146* 

:ettc Mechanical Edition: those over 1,000 refer to 
al; t short non-illustrated article or note; t commui 

WCilhcr strips, Clothlined metal, Athey 

Co 260* 

Wetlge bolt. Locomotive, Wine Railway Ap- 
pliance Co 200* 

Wedge bolt. Removable, H. E. Oplinger 591* 

Welding, Answers to some questions on 

electric, by J. F. Lincoln 195 

Welder, Constant current electric, Lincoln. 490* 
\\'elding copper and copper alloys by acety- 
lene methods, by J. F. Springer 367 

Welding and cutting outfit, Portable oxy- 

acetyfcne, N. V. C 592* 

Welding and cutting, Possible substitute for 

acetylene in 529 

Welding and cutting torch. Combination 

oxy-acetylcne, Im])crial 320* 

Welding, Electric, Blacksmiths' convention. . 476* 
Welding, Electric, in boiler maintenance, 

Boiler Makers' convention 312 

Wehling equipment, Uxy-acetylene, Imperial 

Brass Co 197* 

Welding, Flue, Blacksmiths' convention.... 471* 
Welding, Oxy-acetylene, General Foremen's 

convention 425 

Welding, Oxy-acetylene for boiler work. 

Boiler Makers* convention 309 

Welding, Restrictions on autogenous 1207§ 

Wells, William, Boiler washing and filling 

system for small roundhouses 251* 

West Disinfecting Co., Sanitary toilet.... 1353 
Western Pacific, Motor drive for Bradley 

helve hammer _ 184* 

Western Railway Club (see Meetings). 
Wcstinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 

Magnet for removing metal from flesh.... 148* 

Wheel failures. Car 1355§ 

Wheels, Car, M. C. B. convention 1340 

Wheels, Chilled iron 578 

White American Locomotive Sander Co., 

Inc., Locomotive' sander _. 1353* 

Whitford, W. S., Device for placing air 

pumps 581* 

Whitford, W. S., Method of securing steam 

gages 364* 

Whitford, W. S., Pneumatic flue cutter 86* 

Whitford, W. S., Portable rivet forge and 

blow torch 191* 

Williams, J. S., Improved performance with 

old tvpe coaling facilities 66 

Williamson, H. C, Metal band s.lw 488* 

Willmarth Tool Works, Radial drill 45* 

Willson & Co., T. A., Eye protectors for 

machinists and grinders 48 

Wine Railway Appliance Co., Wedge bolt.. 200* 
Winterrowd, W. H., First 4-8-2 type loco- 
motive in Canada 556* 

Wolcomb, Harvey De Witt, "Big Bill" Ag- 

new and "Blue Monday" 533 

Wolcomb. Harvey De Witt, "How the Old 

Man Beat Them to It" 639 

Wolf, E. H., Rotarv four-way valve 542* 

Wolfgang. W. H., The bonus system 108} 

Wood, Charles E., No "Greatest Defect" in 

box cars 20 

Wood worker. Variety, American Saw Mill 

Machinery Co 1281* 

Work reports. Handling, at engine houses, 

by Jesse E. Tefft 31* 

Workmanship, The economy of good 156S 

Wrecker yoke, Safety, J. W. Riley 547* 

Wright, John D., Steel car design from a 

protection standpoint 525 

Wright. R. v., Fcur wheel trucks for pas- 
senger cars 569* 

Wright, R .v., How do you select your men? 387 


X-ray inspection of a steel casting, by Dr. 

W. P. Davey 170* 


Yearwood, B. O., Turret head for planing 

guides, shoes and wedges 187* 

Young, C. D., Heat treated and alloy steels, 

A. S. M. E 13 

Young, C. D., Locomotive front ends and 

draft appliances at A. S. M. E 9 

Young. C. D., Pennsylvania Railroad test 

department 332* 


Zealand, Theo. F. H., Truss rods on steel 

members 4t 

Zilen, Victor W., Design of steel passen- 
ger equipment 459*, 515*, 625* 

the Daily Railtmy Age Ga::ette. 'Illustrated article; 

January, 1915 



American Engineer 


WooLwoRTii Building, New York, N. Y. 


CHICAGO: Tiansporlation 

CLEVELAND: Citizens' BIdg. 
Chambers, Westminster. 

Edward A. Si 

;, President L. B. Sherman, Vice-President 

Henry Lee, Secretary 
of the company is the address of the officers. 

Roy V, Wright, Editor 

«. K. Thayer, Associate Editor A. C. Loudon, Associate Editor 

C. B. Peck, Associate Editor 

Subscriptions, including the eight daily editions of the Railway Age 
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Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. V., as mail matter of the 
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WE GUARANTEE, that of this issue 4,500 copies were printed; that of 
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age of 4,600 copies a month. 

Simmons-Boardman publications are members of the Audit Bureau of Circu- 

Volume 89 

January, 1915 

Number 1 



Economy in Skop Operation 1 

Car Construction in 1914 I 

Increased Capacity in Existing Loconictives 1 

Riveting in Steel Car Construction Z 

Enginenien and Economy 2 

Machine Tool Efficiency 2 

Locomotive Development in 1914 2 

To Committees of IVIechanical Associations i 

New Books 3 


Mechanical Department Salaries 4 

Melted Boiler Tubes 4 

Truss Rods on Steel Members 4 


The Steam Locomotive of Today 5 

A Study of Spring Rigging Design 15 


Lubrication of Car Journals 19 

No "Greatest Defect" in Box t ars 20 

Steel Coaches for the Santa Fe 21 

Erie Caboose with Steel Center Sills 25 

Relation of the Paint Shop to the Repair Yard 28 

End Construction of Canadian Pacitic Stock Cars 29 

Joint Car Repair Shops at Large Terminals 30 

Defective Box Cars 30 


Handling Work Reports at Engine Houses 31 

Riveting in Steel Car Construction H 

Simple Furnace for Melting Brass 36 

Bell Yoke Bearing Reamers 36 

Forging Machine Dies 37 

Locomotive Running Repairs 37 

Removing Gaskets from Bullseve Lubricators 39 

Grinding Distributing Valves 39 

Reclaiming Bolts with Battered Threads 39 

Removing Indentations in Superheater Smoke Tubes 40 

Horizontal Drilling Attachment for a Radial Drill 40 

Model Locomotive Built Ijy Erie Apprentices 41 

Running Repairs 41 

Adjustable Drilling Sta.-.d 42 


Brake Shaft Drop Handle and Ratchet 43 

A High Pressure Gas Valve 44 

Safety Cut-Out Valve 44 

Blower Pipe Drain Fitting 45 

Radial Drill 45 

Metallic Salts Pyrometers 46 

Sanitary Drinking Fountain for Passenger Cars 47 

Chaser Grinder 47 

Automatic Facing Tool 48 

Eye Protectors for Machinists and Grinders 48 


Notes 49 

Meetings and Conventions 50 

Personals .......'. .■ 51 

Supply Trade Notes 53 

New Shops 54 

Catalogs 54 

With a coiisidtTable part of the five per 
cent rate increase granted, the eastern 
roads will surely derive some relief from 
Shop Operation the period of depression. The public has 
.shown that it helicves the railways need assistance and has so 
vigorously expressed this feeling that the Interstate Commerce 
Commission has granted a large part of the requested increase 
in rates. Everything possible should be done by the railroads 
to keep the cost of operation to a minimum consistent with 
safety and efl'icicncy. The shop men are in an excellent position 
to assist substantially in this respect. The careful use of ma- 
terial, careful workmanship and economical use of supplies are 
all factors that will materially contribute towards the necessary 
economies. Retrenchment in the mechanical department has a 
direct effect on the employees, and they should be made to 
realize that by their help money can be saved to the end that 
tlie shops will lie kept in operation. 



in 1914 

.\ most interesting feature of the figures for 
car construction in 1914 is the increase in 
the number of all-steel box cars built, the 
greater part of which is due to the adoption 

111 the all-steel type of construction on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. There is also a considerable increase over 1913 in the 
number of steel underframe box cars built, while the num- 
ber of steel frame box cars falls off materially. On first con- 
sideration it might seem that the steel frame construction is 
losing in popularity, but there may be other explanations for 
the falling off. In a year of depression like the one just past 
many of the railroads order little or no equipment, so that 
the cars built are for a comparatively few roads and it is 
difficult to point to any definite tendency which is indicated 
by the construction figures. There is also an increase in the 
number of steel underframe passenger cars built, but most of 
these were built for a comparatively few roads, some of 
which favor this type of construction. The all-steel car pre- 
ponderates, although there is a falling off in the total num- 
ber of cars built. Of the wooden passenger equipment cars, 
the greater proportion were milk, refrigerator, and cars for 
other special service. — {From our Weekly Edition.) 

Increased Capacity "^'^^ ^'" pressing need of greater train- 
. . . loads has increased locomotive ditnensions 

and capacities so rapidly that the large 
Locomotives locomoti\es of a few years ago. which the 

more modern equipment replaces, have developed a serious prob- 
lem for the motive power and operating departments to solve. 
There are numbers of these locomotives which possess more ca- 
pacity than is needed for way-freight or branch line service, 
yet in many cases it has been necessary to place them in 
such service, as well as in switching. Many of these engines 
are capable of developing a maximum tractive effort which 
will start very heavy trains, but are deficient in boiler ca- 
pacity and are therefore incapable of economically hauling 
such trains for any distance. If there were some way of in- 
creasing the steam making capacity of such locomotives they 
could take their place in heavy main line service; in fact, such 
an increase in boiler capacity could very easily obviate the 
necessity of a road's making considerable e.xpenditures for 
new locomotives of greater capacity. The difficulties attend- 
ing the use of superheated steam with slide valves and the 
expense necessary in applying piston valve cylinders have 
prevented the use of superheaters in many such instances. 
Of the past year's locomotive development, therefore, per- 
haps the one of most direct interest to railways is that which 
has shown the possibilities of increased capacity obtainable 
from existing locomotives. It is now possible to apply piston 
valves without going to the extent of entirely new cylinder 


Vol. 89, No. 1 

and saddle castings, and the use of the superheater and the 
brick arch, even on narrow firebox locomotives, has given 
remarkable results in increased hauling capacity. It is there- 
fore probable that the immediate future will see the mod- 
ernizing of the large locomotives of a few years ago, in con- 
siderable numbers. — (From our Il'eekly Edition.) 

Rlvetinii in Assembling and riveting are matters of 

the utmost importance in steel car con- 
struction and should be of general interest 
Construction jq a|] ^^j^q g^g j^, ^^jy ^^,.,y connected with 

che building or repairing of steel cars. The article by H. A. 
Hatfield, the first part of which is published in this issue, while 
containing much of general interest, should be particularly in- 
teresting to those who are called upon to inspect the various 
processes in the construction of steel equipment. As pointed 
out by Mr. Hatfield the strength and rigidity of a steel car de- 
pend primarily upon the tightness of the rivets. The securing 
of tight rivets under the conditions usually existing in the con- 
struction of steel freight cars demands eternal vigilance on the 
part of the inspector, whose troubles would undoubtedly be con- 
siderably decreased if the author's suggestions relative to the 
proper heating of rivets and maintenance of tools were more 
generally observed, \yhile the article in general does not fit the 
conditions found in boiler shop practice, it contains several 
practical suggestions which might be applied there with as good 
results as in the car shop. It will be published in two parts. 

r- .■ A western road which is carrving on a 

tngmemen . . ' . 

progressive campaign in fuel economy is 

making use of a diagram, in lectures to 
Economy t},g enginemen on fuel economy, showing 

the amount of money spent during the past fiscal year for loco- 
motive fuel, locomotive repairs, freight car repairs, enginemen's 
wages, enginehouse expenses, water, lubrication and supplies. 
It shows clearly the relation between each item and gives an 
idea of the magnitude of the different items. As an example, 
the cost of the fuel consumed is 175 per cent of the enginemen's 
wages, the cost of locomotive repairs is 116 per cent, and the 
cost of freight car repairs is slightly over 100 per cent. The 
men are shown that aside from their own wages, which are 
about 18}/2 per cent of the total amount of the items mentioned, 
they are more or less responsible for the expenditure of over 
17'A million dollars. They are thus made to feel that they have 
an important part to play in the railroad game from an economic 
standpoint in addition to the running of the locomotives. By 
making a saving of only 1 per cent of this total they will save 
the company very nearly 4^4 per cent of their wages. Economy 
brought home to them in this way makes a strong impression, 
and they all seem to be interested in the fact that they are 
responsible in some considerable degree for these large ex- 

,, , . Many railway men have the idea that rail- 

Machine -" , ■' , . . , ,.„ 

way shop work is so entirely different 

from that performed in industrial plants 
Efficiency that no comparison can be made between 

the two. To a certain extent this is true. In almost every 
case the railway shop finds it necessary to perform a number 
of different jobs on the same machine, whereas the large in- 
dustrial shops have a sufficient amount of regular work so that 
individual machines can be kept busy on one, or at most, a few, 
specific jobs. By doing this it is possible for them to experi- 
ment sufficiently to find the speed and feed that will give the 
most economical results. But it is also true that the railway 
shop can, to some extent, profit by these experiments. It can 
apply the rate of metal cutting in many cases to its own works; 
it may obtain information that will show how the increased 
cost of new and improved machinery will be more than justified 

by increased production, and, to some extent, new uicthods of 
doing work will be suggested. The manufacturers of new ma- 
chines purchased should always be consulted as to how the best 
results may be obtained from their machine tools. Occasions 
have been known where high grade machines have been grossly 
underrated simply oh account of a lack of knowledge as to 
what the machines will stand. The tool builders are willing to 
demon.strate their machines thoroughly, as it is to their best 
interests to have their products produce economical results and 
the railway shops should take advantage of this opportunity 
in studying how to secure more efltective results in shop 

Locomotive '^^^ number of locomotives ordered in the 

_ calendar year 1914 was 1,265, which con- 

stitutes a marked falling off from 1913, 
'" '^'"* when there were 3,467 ordered. The fall- 

ing off in building was of course due to the general business 
depression, but the poor business conditions have by no means 
eliminated developments tending toward the improvement of the 

A year ago we referred to what is without doubt the highest 
development of the Atlantic type locomotive, embodied in the 
latest engine of that type built by the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
These locomotives were largely the result of long continued 
experiments along the lines of refinement in design and increase 
in boiler capacity. A number of them have been built and are 
in daily service hauling very heavy trains on extremely fast 
schedules. The same policy which resulted in the production of 
this Atlantic type locomotive has, during the past year, produced 
on the Pennsylvania a Mikado and a Pacific type locomotive 
which are especially noteworthy. Interchangeability of parts has 
been carried out in these two locomotives to a considerable ex- 
tent, the boilers of the two engines being identical. On the test- 
ing plant at Altoona the Pacific type locomotive recently de- 
veloped approximately 3,200 horsepower, a ' truly remarkable 
figure, and in this connection it is interesting to note that this 
horsepower was obtained when the locomotive was equipped 
with a type of exhaust tip having four internal projections, and 
that the horsepower obtainable with the ordinary form of ex- 
haust tip was considerably less. 

Heat treated steel takes a prominent place in the design of 
the Pennsylvania locomotives, and of locomotive design in gen- 
eral it may be said that alloy steels continue in favor for such 
parts as axles, crank pins, main and side rods, frames and springs. 

The large locomotive is again to the fore in 1914. The 
Pacific type locomotives built by the American Locomotive Com- 
pany for the Chesapeake & Ohio lead in point of total weight for 
this type, this being 312,600 lb., while the maximum tractive effort 
of 46,600 lb. developed by these engines is also the greatest for 
this type. The heaviest locomotive of the Mikado type of which 
we have record is also a Chesapeake & Ohio engine and weighs 
322,500 lb. The Baldwin Locomotive Works built during the 
year for the Baltimore & Ohio, a 2-10-2 type locomotive which 
has a total weight of 406,000 lb., and is the heaviest locomotive 
ever built on a single set of drivers. The world's record for 
large locomotives was again broken by the construction for the 
Erie Railroad by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of a 2-8-8-8-2 
type, Triplex compound articulated locomotive using the weight 
of the tender for adhesion and having a total weight of 853.000 
lb. This locomotive has a theoretical maximum tractive effort 
of 160,000 lb. and has hauled a train of 251 loaded cars weighing 
17,912 tons. A few locomotives of the Mountain, or 4-8-2 type, 
were built during the year, but they are intended for service 
under special conditions and there does not seem to be any gen- 
eral tendency to go lieyond the Pacific type for hauling heavy 
passenger trains. 

The mechanical stoker has taken a prominent place in increas- 
ing locomotive capacity, and there arc a number of locomotives 
now in service which would not have been built had it not been 

January, 19!5 


possible to ("ire tlum liy ineclianical means. On lar^e hand-fired 
locomotives liic nso of coal pushers in the tender, for moving the 
coal forward within the reach of the lireman, lias greatly in- 

During the year experiments have been completed resulting in 
the successful use of powdered coal in locomotive fireboxes, 
and while the results of these experiments are not yet available 
it is probable thai when published they will prove of very con- 
siderable interest and value. 

The large locomotive is likely to continue in favor in new 
construction, although it inay be doubted that the two-cylinder 
type can be carried much beyond present dimensions because of 
limitations in clearance. The possibilities in the use of three 
cylinders were brought out recently in a discussion before the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers by J. B. Ennis, chief 
mechanical engineer of the American Locomotive Company, and 
it would not be surprising to see steps taken in the near future 
toward developing large locomotives with this cylinder arrange- 
ment. With few exceptions the compound locomotive has gained 
nothing in favor during the past year, although the Mallet type 
continues in use for the particular classes of work for which it 
is suited, and it is of special interest to note that a large loco- 
motive of this type which was built by the American Locomotive 
Company in 1912 for the Virginian Railway has developed in 
service a horsepower soinewhat over 3.000. This power is note- 
worthy when it is considered that it was necessarily developed 
at low speed. 

For the future it may be said thai further economies will 
probably develop from superheating, and while the use of feed 
water heaters in America has thus far been only of an experi- 
mental nature, the results obtained are promising and would seem 
to ihdiciite its developmen-t before long toward an extensive use. 
Considered from all slaitdpoints the locomotive development of 
the immediate future Will probably continue along the lines of 
increase'd capacity through the means of refinement in design and 
the application of economy producing features and those which 
tend directly to increase boiler capacity. — {From our Weekly 

subject assigned and get all the information possible from every 
available source. Get busy now; send your letters of inquiry 
out so that there will be sufficient time to carefully analyze the 
replies and get additional information when necessary. Make 
your 191.S convention the best in the history of the association. 

-r„ c :..„•„ -'^t t'l's time of the vear, about midway 

1 o Committees -' 

. between the annual conventions of the vari- 

of Mechanical ., i. • i • ^■ 

ous railway mechanical associations, alten- 

Associations (jon of the members of the committees ap- 

pointed to prepare reports for the 1915 meetings should be 
called to the fact that, if they are not already doing so, it is 
time for them to lake an active interest in the work which has 
been assigned to them. Too often the tendency is to postpone 
such matters until the last minute, a report then being hur- 
riedly compiled just in time to present to the convention. Usu- 
ally in such cases it is based on an incomplete investigation. 
Railway men are very busy, and this is just the reason such 
matters should be started early. The life and standing of any 
railway association depends entirely on the quality of the work 
it does, and the members of committees are under definite obli- 
gations to the other members of the association to submit re- 
ports that will be of material benefit to them and to the asso- 
ciation as a whole. 

The higher railway officers watch the progress and work of 
the associations in order to know whether or not it is worth 
while to send their men to the conventions. The larger asso- 
ciations are finding it necessary to rely on some of the minor 
associations for investigations that they have not now time to 
handle. The responsibility of the minor associations is there- 
fore increasing, and it is the duty of every committee member 
to assume his share of this responsibility. In too many cases 
the chairmen of the committees do all the work. This is not 
fair to them, nor is it fair to the association, for under such 
circumstances the report gives only one man's point of view. 
Every committee member should give the best he has and feel 
the same responsibility as the chairman. Carefully study the 


Procccdmg.! of lite American Rnil-.fay Tool Foremen's Association. Com- 
piled and published by Owcii I). Kiti«y, secretary of the association, 
Chicago, III. 145 pages, 6 in. by 9 in. liound in paper. 

This book is the official report of the sixth annual convention of 
tlie .\iiKrican Railway Tool Foremen's Association, which was 
held ill Chicago, July 20 to 22, 1914. Among the most important 
subjects considered are Tool Room Grinding, Safety- as applied 
to Grinding Wheels, Distribution Systems of Shop Tools, and 
Special Tools for Drilling, Reaming and Milling, the latter sub- 
ject including considerable information regarding the work that 
is being done at the Burnside shops of the Illinois Central. The 
book is neatly illustrated and contains valuable information. 

Proceedings of the International Railroad Master Black smiths' Association. 
Compiled and published by .\, L. Woodworth, secretary and treasurer, 
Lima, Ohio. 296 pages, 6 in. by 9 in. liound in cloth. 
The twenty-second annual convention of the International kail- 
road Master Blacksmiths" Association was held in Milwaukee, 
.'Vugust 18 to 20, 1914. This publication of the proceedings of 
that convention includes papers on Frame Making and Repairing, 
the Heat Treatment of Metals, Spring Making, Oxy-Acetylene 
and Electric Welding, and other subjects of interest to black- 
smiths. .'\ number of shop kinks w-ere also included which show 
economical methods adopted by various members for performing 
routine railroad blacksmith work. Addresses by II. E. Man- 
chester, J. F. DeVoy, and J. J. Hennessey, of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, are also included. 

Compressed Air. By Theodore Simons, E. M., C. E., Professor of Mining 
Engineering, Montana School of Mines. 167 pages, 6 in. by 9 in. 
Illustrated. Bound in cloth. Piiblished by the McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, 239 West Thirty-ninth street. New York. Price $1.50. 

The author's purpose in the preparation of this treatise was to 
give the student and general reader such an insight into the 
principles underlying the production, transmission and use of 
compressed air as to enable him to comprehend the operation 
of the various appliances and to judge of their merit. The book 
is divided into four parts, the first three dealing with the pro- 
duction, transmission and use of compressed air, the fourth 
containing descriptions of coinpressors and accessories. The 
whole subject is treated theoretically, the development of the 
various formulas which form the basis of compressed air calcu- 
lations being gone into in considerable detail. Interspersed 
throughout the text are concrete examples which are worked 
out in detail. By carefully following these through the student 
has a means not only of checking his understanding of the 
principles involved, but is in a measure brought to a realization 
of the physical conditions represented by the symbols in the 
formulas. Higher mathematics has been sparingly used, its 
principal application being in the development of horsepower 
formulas for air compression and expansion. In Part IV sev- 
eral compressors and compressor appliances are described, this 
part of the text being well illustrated with photographs. It is 
not extensive enough, however, to do more than give the reader 
a general knowledge of the various methods of applying the 
principles set forth earlier in the hook. A number of tables are 
contained in an appendix for convenience in the practical appli- 
cation of formulas. 

While the book is elementary throughout, containing brief 
statements of all the fundamental laws involved, its greatest 
field will be found among engineers or engineering students 
whose previous education has given them a knowledge of these 
laws. Such readers should be able to obtain a thorough und'-r- 
standing of the problems involved in air compression and its use. 



No. I 



Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
To THE Editor : 

There are railway mechanical department officers in the 
United States having under their charge as many as 4,000 shop 
men, 500 locomotives, 40,000 cars, as well as monthly pay rolls 
of $100,000, besides many other responsibilities, and as compen- 
sation they receive tlic munificent salary of $300 a month. 

Now to be reasonably competent to hold such a position, a 
man must start as a lad of 15 or 16 years of age, work hard, 
read much, and be especially intelligent. Then, if he is fortu- 
nate enough, he may be appointed, at, say, 40 years of age to such 
a position. He must be familiar with all branches of railroad 
MOrk, must furnish advice on all technical subjects and his work 
is a constant grind with little or no opportunity for promotion 
but decided possibilities of ''losing out" for reasons beyond his 
own control. 

Such inadequately compensated mechanical officers are among 
the sources of greatest extravagance of railroads today. The 
better class of men go to other livelihoods, where not only 
more money and glory are to be obtained, but greater peace, 
happiness, and satisfaction as well. 

Such niggardly compensation of railway officers is very ex- 
pensive in the end. F. J. Miller. 


Clifton Force, Va. 
To THE Editor : 

I have read with a great deal of interest the communications 
concerning melted boiler tubes in the August and November num- 
bers of the Railway Age Gacette, Mechanical Edition, and it calls 
to my mind a similar experience with which we were con- 
fronted some time ago. 

The locomotive in question had been in yard service in a dis- 
trict where the boiler feed water contained a great deal of 
scale-forming matter, and when placed in the roundhouse for 
repairs it was decided to build a light wood fire in the firebox, 
with the idea of possibly ridding the firebox sheets of the heavy 
scale. In a very short time my attention was called to the red 
hot condition of the barrel of the boiler. The front was re- 
moved, and we found that the tubes had melted in two and that 
the inside of the boiler, particularly the front end, resembled 
an iron furnace. 

Someone has advanced tlie theory that this tremendously hot 
fire is accounted for by using wood which contained a great 
deal of rosin, which, when the fire was built, passed up and 
was deposited in the tubes, and did not ignite until the fire in 
the firebox attained a high temperature. There being no water 
in the boiler, and the tubes being thin, it did not take a great 
deal of heat to burn them in two. It is also said that cases are 
on record where coal running high in volatile matter, such as 
Pocahontas, would deposit a soot on the inside of the tubes, 
which, when the temperature became sufficiently high, would 
ignite and burn fiercely. This deposit is more noticeable in 
stacks on stationary plants, where flames 40 or 50 ft. high are 
often seen issuing from the stack. 

I do not attach much importance to the former theory, as 
the wood used in building the fire in this engine contained very 
little, if any, rosin, and granting such as being the case I do not 
believe that it could have been deposited in the tubes, as it 
would surely have burned, being of a low flash point. The lat- 
ter explanation does not seem reasonable, as I do not believe 
that the tubes in this engine contained enough soot to create 
such an intensely hot fire. It is my opinion that the fire was 
caused by a great quantity of wood pulp igniting in the boiler. 

this pulp having been placed there by the engine crew to stop 

If anyone has any suggestion to ofifer as to what caused the 
tubes to burn in this engine I would be glad to hear from him. 

E. A. Murray, 

Master Mechanic, Chesapeake & Ohio. 


Harvey, IM. 
1 THE Editor : 

The editorial on British Steel Coaches in the October number 
contains a criticism of the use of truss rods on steel under- 
frame sills. No doubt there are good reasons why truss rods 
are not to be desired on steel members, but the reason given 
in the editorial does not appeal to the writer. When applied to 
a sill the truss rod and sill together become a truss, the sill 
being the compression member and the rod the tension member, 
both being without tension or compression with no load, and 
the tension and compression being equal when a load is applied. 
An initial tension in the rod is not necessary in order that it 
do its share. Truss rods are frequently used on steel members 
in other lines of work to good effect. A truss rod would be 
more effective on a steel sill than on a wooden one for the 
reason that the compression member of the truss would not 
shorten, due to drying out or by compressing at the truss rod 
anchors, as is the case with a wooden sill. 

Theo. F. H. Zealand. 

Painting Patterns. — The practice of painting patterns to in- 
dicate the parts of a casting which are to be machined and those 
to remain rough has been followed in steel foundries for some 
time. It is learned that a similar practice is gaining application 
in gray-iron foundries. The parts of a pattern corresponding 
to parts requiring no machine work are tinted gray, while the 
parts which are to be machined are painted yellow, with the 
parts of the pattern indicating the location of cores in red. 
Castings are sometimes spoiled because the molder does not 
know what part is to be finished in the shop. 

Chemical Properties of Rain Water. — It is believed that 
water as it leaves the clouds is in a practically pure condition, 
and that the first opportunities for its contamination arise im- 
mediately following the beginning of its descent to the surface 
of the earth. In falling through the atmosphere, either as rain 
or otherwise, it takes up certain substances. Naturally these 
substances taken up are dependent upon the substances con- 
tained in the atmosphere through which it falls, which in turn 
are to a large extent due to the industrial conditions existing 
upon the surface of the earth. But there is one substance al- 
ways present in the air, and that is carbon dio.xide (COj) or 
carbonic acid gas. In a district where bituminous coal is the 
chief fuel, and where this fuel is largely impregnated with sul- 
phur, which is the case generally with the middle states bitumin- 
ous coal, the sulphur, in the process of combustion, is also con- 
verted into another gas just the same as is the carbon into CO, 
gas. This sulphur gas naturally impregnates the atmosphere 
and is dissolved by water falling through the air, and eventually 
converted into sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid is of such a char- 
acter that when in even a weak solution in water it will dissolve 
metallic iron very rapidly. There is also present in the at- 
mosphere, at all times, another class of substances commonly 
known as the ammonia class. The atmosphere carries some of 
this in practically all neighborhoods at all times, consequently 
more or less of this class of substances becomes a part of the 
impurities contained in natural waters. Assuming now that the 
water has passed down through the atmosphere and has reached 
the immediate surface of the earth, it has taken up some carbon 
dioxide, some ammonia, undoubtedly some sulphur gases, and 
probably some oxygen. — IV. A. Converse, before the Railway Club 
of Pittsburgh. 

The Steam Locomotive of Today 

Discussion at Annual Meeting of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, December 2, 1914 

On page 571 of the November, 1914, issue we published the 
report of the sub-committee of the Railroad Committee of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers which was presented 
at the annual meeting of the society, held in New York, Decem- 
ber 2, 1914. In the following jjagos arc given extracts from the 
discussion on Boiler Design, Fan Drafting of Locomotives, Front 
Ends and Draft Appliances, Combustion, What the Stoker Has 
Done for the Locomotive, Superheaters, F'eed Water Heating, 
Heat Treated and Alloy Steels and Possibilities of the Future. 


F. J. Cole, Consulting Engineer, American Locomotive Com- 
pany : — In recent years, locomotives have increased so much in 
dimensions, weight and power that methods employed in the 
past are no longer adequate in proportioning the grate, heat- 
ing surface, length and diameter of tubes, etc., or to prede- 
termine how best a locomotive boiler may be designed to suit 
certain requirements, the type, tractive effort and limitations of 
weight being known. 

The size of cylinders is usually fi.\ed by the permissible axle 
load allowed upon the track or bridges, in connection with the 
type, the diameter of the driving wheels, the boiler pressure 
and the factor of adhesion. After these fundamental features 
are decided upon, the boiler proportions must be outlined to see 
whether the required amount of heating surface can be obtained 
without exceeding the limits of weight. 

There are two general questions involved in the considera- 
tion of this subject, namely, how many pounds of steam per 
hour are required to supply the cylinders in order to develop 
the maximum horsepower; and what proportion of grate, fire- 
box and tube heating surface will best produce this amount of 

The locomotive, unlike most steam plants, varies in the speed 
and power developed. It must be able to run at any inter- 
mediate speed between starting and its full velocity and at the 
same time develop all degrees of tractive effort within its ca- 
pacity. At slow speeds the maximum pull must be exerted in 
order to start the trains easily, and for this reason the live steam 
is admitted to the cylinders during 80 to 87 per cent of the stroke. 
As the speed increases it is necessary to reduce the admission 
period, thereby increasing the expansion of the steam ; there- 
fore for any speed there is some point for the valves to cut off 
the live steam, at which the engine will develop its maximum 
power. There is also some minimum velocity at which the full 
horsepower of the locomotive is attained ; after this velocity is 
reached the horsepower remains constant or slowly decreases. 
This critical point may be taken at 700 ft. to 1,000 ft. per minute 
piston speed. 

Instead of the old arbitrary method of designing locomotive 
heating surface by cylinder ratios, the idea of using the cylin- 
der horsepower suggested itself as forming a very desirable 
basis for the heating surface, grate area and tube area. Curves 
were prepared from the most recent available data showing speed 
factors or drop in M. E. P. in relation to velocity. With satu- 
rated steam the average maximum horsepower is reached at 
about 700 ft. piston speed per minute, speed factor .412; constant 
horsepower is obtained at 700 to 1.000 ft. piston speed, and the 
horsepower decreases slightly at higher velocities for average 
conditions when engines are especially constructed for the high- 
est speeds. For superheated steam the average maximum horse- 
power is reached at 1,000 ft. piston speed, speed factor .445, and 
constant horsepower at higher speeds. Because the horsepower 
is based on piston speeds, the stroke and diameter of wheels are 

omitted in the following figures, the calculation becoming hy 
cancellation : 

.85 P X .412 X 1,000 X 2 A 1.7 P X .412 X .\ 


= .0212 X P X A 



0212 X i* X A 
in which A = area of one cylinder in square inches. 
P = the boiler pressure. 
.412 = speed factor. 

In a similar manner the horsepower calculation for super- 
heated steam becomes : 

HP. — .0229 X P X A 
using .445 as the speed factor. 

The maximum horsepower can sometimes be increased when 
the locomotive is operated under the most favorable conditions. 
It is considered safer and better practice, however, to take 
figures which represent average conditions rather than the ab- 
normal and unusual figures obtained when all conditions are 
most favorable. 

The horsepower basis affords many additional ad\antages in 
designing locomotives. For instance, in determining the maxi- 
nuim amount of water and coal required per hour, the size of 
the grate is found to be proportional to the amount of coal that 
can be burned to the best advantage, to be varied according to 
the quality. Knowing the amount of coal required per hour 
directs attention to the question of hand firing or the use of a 
mechanical stoker. Knowing the amount of water evaporated 
per hour determines the location of water stations, size of tender 
lank, the size of injectors and safety valve capacity, also the size 
of steam pipes and other features of the boiler. Through the 
stack a mixture of gas and exhaust steam is ejected at sub- 
stantially the same velocity for all locomotives in similar service, 
and proportional to the amount of coal burned. For this reason 
the area of the stack may be taken as proportional to the maxi- 
mum amount of coal burned per hour in the firebox. 

As a result of the investigations, conclusions have been ar- 
rived at as follows : 

Firebox Evaporation. — .\n evaporation of 55 lb. per square 
foot of firebox heating surface, combustion chamber and arch 
tubes has been adopted. The greater absorption of heat by 
the firebox than by the rear portion of tubes per unit of 
area is largely due to radiant heat. This varies as the square 
of the distance from the surface of the fire to the sheets 
separating the gases from the water. Again, it is probable 
that within certain limitations the amount of heat absorbed 
is independent of the heating surface and is a function of the 
LTfate area or the area of the bed of live coals. Assuming 
that there is sufficient heating surface to absorb the radiant 
heat, it is probable that very little additional heat will be ab- 
sorbed by increasing the firebox heating surface. It therefore 
follows that the relatively greater area of the fire in proportion 
to the absorbing surface in wide firebox locomotives is more 
efficient than in the old narrow firebox. 

Diameter, Length and Spacing of Tubes. — The evaporative 
value in pounds of water per square foot of outside heating 
surface has been approximately calculated for 2 in. and 2J4 
in. tubes, and for superheater flues 5% in. and 5'/i in. The 
range of length is 10 to 25 ft., and the spacing 9/16 in. to 1 in. 
The best data available shows that the evaporative value of a 
tube or flue varies considerably with differences in length, 
diameter and spacing. The curves of temperature compared 
with length have been used as a basis for determining the 
evaporation for different lengths of tubes and flues. The rate 
of evaporation on this basis will vary directly as the difference 


Vol. 89, No. 1 

of remperature of ihc lube or lluc gases and that uf the steam 
contained in the boiler. 

Tubes and flues from 10 to 24 ft. long, spaced 9/16 in. and 
1 in. apart, outside diameter 2 in., 2'4 in- and 5J4 in. will 
evaporate from 7.50 to 14 lb. of water per square foot per hour. 
Grate Area. — The grate area required for bituminous coal is 
based on the assumption that 120 lb. of coal per square foot 
of grate per hour is a maximum figure for economical evap- 
oration. While 200 and 225 lb. have at times been burnt in 
small, deep lirebo.xes and the engines made to produce suffi- 
cient steam, it is wasteful of fuel and it has been found after 
numerous and careful tests that the evaporation per pound of 
coal under these conditions is very low. If, on the other hand, 
the rate of combustion is too slow, economical results will not 
be produced owing to the fact that at least 20 per cent of the 
coal burned produces no useful work in hauling trains, but is 
consumed in firing up, waiting at roundhouses or terminals, on 
sidetracks, or to the fact that the greater portion of the time 
locomotives are used at considerably less than their maxinumi 

For hard coal the grates should be proportioned for a 
range of from 55 to 70 lb. of coal per square foot per hour, 
according to the grade of the fuel. 

Complete tables of horsepower for saturated and super- 
heated steam, evaporation of tubes and flues of various 
lengths, diameters and spacing, as well as diagrams of tem- 
perature for different flue lengths, have all been prepared to 
facilitate the calculations in determining the proportions of 
grate, firebox, tube and flue heating surface. 

It must be remembered, however, that the boiler capacity 
for a locomotive when other things are in proportion cannot 
usually be made too large within the permissible limits of 
weight, and it can be shown by numerous tests that such in- 
crease in boiler capacity makes for considerable economy in 
the use of fuel and steam. For passenger service the boilers 
may often be made with advantage over 100 per cent. 

In a general way, a boiler will have ample steam making 
capacity if proportioned by this method for 100 per cent, 
provided the grate is sufficiently large and deep so that the 
rate of combustion at maximum horsepower does not exceed 
120 lb. of coal per square foot of grate per hour for bituminous 
coal of average quality. For gas coal a smaller grate may 
be used, but it is better practice to use the larger grate and 
brick off a portion at the front end in order to obtain suffi- 
cient volume of firebox for proper combustion, because nearly 
all modern locomotives are deficient in firebox volume. 

C. D. Young, Engineer of Tests, Pennsylvania Railroad. — 
On the Pennsylvania Railroad it is believed that the tend- 
ency at the present time should be to increase the firebox 
heating surface, as it should be realized that it is of com- 
paratively greater effectiveness at mean and low rates of 
working than the remaining surface of the boiler. Some few 
years ago when large boilers were designed the tendency was 
to make the ratio of the firebox to the total heating surface 
less than 6 per cent. This resulted in locomotives which, al- 
though efficient in evaporation, were not free steaming, as 
they lacked capacity unless very heavily drafted. It is my 
opinion that the firebox heating surface should be at least 
7 per cent of the total heating surface of the boiler, in order 
to provide a free steaming locomotive, and that when this 
ratio is satisfied, good results will follow, provided the tube 
heating surface has been properly proportioned. When work- 
ing the boiler at high rates of evaporation, however, the 
tube surface is fully as effective as firebox surface, and for 
large capacity a large tube heating surface is necessary. 

We do not agree with the recent tendency toward ex- 
cessively long tubes, as beyond a certain length of tube there 
is too great a sacrifice of boiler capacity in the interest of 
economy in coal. The long tube presents a very serious ob- 
struction or resistance to the flow of the gases, and beyond 

a length whicli appears to be about 100 internal diameters, 
this obstruction increases without a corresponding increase 
in evaporation. The locomotive with a long tube is a slow 
steamer and a higher draft must be furnished in order to 
create an active fire. This rule that the length of tube should 
be 100 times the internal diameter has been applied to three 
new classes of our locomotives with exceedingly gratifying 
results, and confirms the earlier experiments which were made 
by us upon this subject, as well as those made by M. A. 
Henry, of the Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Railway of 


H. B. MacFarland, Engineer of Tests, Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe. — The method of drafting a locomotive with its ex- 
haust steam has varied in detail only during the long period 
of development of the steam locomotive. The basic prin- 
ciple is exactly that of 50 or 60 years ago. The exhaust 
from the engine was early utilized to produce the necessary 
draft and is commonly so used today. 

The magnitude of the loss due to back pressure as it ex- 
isted in representative locomotives on the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe was shown in a paper presented by the writer at 
the fourth annual convention of the International Railway 
Fuel Association* in May, 1912. The material was collected 
from a large number of locomotives in actual service operat- 
ing under greatly varying conditions and showed conditions 
existing at that time. A general statement is drawn based on 
tests conducted on 18 different locomotives representing as 
many different types, working under such varied conditions 
as are encountered upon the Santa Fe system, with territory 
extending from Chicago to the Pacific Coast, and presenting 
at one place or another most of the conditions encountered 
in railway service. This statement shows that for every 100 
horsepower used as actual tractive effort, there are 66 horse- 
power wasted through the exhaust, over 70 per cent of which 
may be credited to the excessive back pressure necessary to 
produce draft for the locomotive boiler. A study of the facts 
has led the writer to the consideration of a more economical 
method of drafting locomotive boilers. 

Comparative power performance curves for locomotives 
1,700 and 1,962 are shown in one of the illustrations. These 
curves are plotted as a result of data obtained during com- 
parative tests on these locomotives on the third district, Ari- 
zona division, between Barstow and Bakersfield, Cal., a dis- 
tance of 140 miles, in the winter of 1909. Locomotive 1,700, 
a Mallet compound (2-8-8-2), fitted with a Jacobs-Shupert 
firebox, Buck-Jacobs superheater, and feed-water heater, cyl- 
inders 26 in. and 38 in. by 34 in., had a tractive effort of 
108.000 lb. Locomotive 1,962 was of the simple consolidation 
(2-8-0) type, fitted with Baldwin superheater, cylinders 24 in. 
by 32 in., and had a tractive effort of 49.500 lb. These curves 
are presented because they show the enormous back pressure 
horsepower loss which is an inherent defect in the Mallet type 
locomotive. The curves show that the maximum power of 
the Mallet was developed at a speed of approximately 17 
miles an hour and that drawbar horsepower and back pres- 
sure horsepower equalized at a speed of approximately 25 
miles per hour, showing that at this speed the locomotive 
exerted 950 drawbar horsepower and that an equal power was 
required to draft the boiler. The curves for the consolidation 
type show that the maximum power of the locomotive was 
developed over a wide range of speeds and that back pressure 
horsepower was not appreciable except at high speed. 

The data accumulated frorn a great many tests conducted 
over the various divisions of the Santa Fe system, have 
shown the desirability for some other method of furnishing 
draft for locomotives to supplant that now commonly used. 

•Reported in the American Engineer, June, 1912, page 300. 

January, 1915 


These tests have forcibly deiiKjii^tiaUil llic inefficiency of 
the present arrangement when viewed from a thermodynamic 
standpoint. The chief advantage in favor of the present ar- 
rangement is that it is very efficient, speaking from a purely 
mechanical standpoint; that is, it is free from any complicated 
parts which are liable to get out of adjustment and does its 
work when once it has been set up with very little attention 
other than minor adjustments to keep it in good working 
order. It is this feature alone that has enabled the present 
front end arrangement to exist to the present day. In view 
of existing conditions, attention was attracted to the pos- 
sibility of drafting a locomotive by some method of forced 
or induced draft, but because of the impracticability of in- 
stallitig a system of forced draft on a locomotive, except pos- 

The ijrobleni, however, was not as simple as it at first ap- 
peared. Although there were many existing installations of 
induced draft, and several manufacturers making a specialty 
of these installations, yet they were not readily adaptable to 
the locomotive. In power plant and marine service the space 
occupied by the draft apparatus is not as important an item as 
with the locomotive. When the problem of furnishing draft 
apparatus of this character was presented to the manufac- 
turers, they were able to calculate the size of the fan and 
the horsepower necessary to drive it to burn the required 
amount of coal per hour, but when the space that such an 
apparatus would occupy was taken into consideration, they 
were astounded, and were not able to furnish either data or 
apparatus satisfactorily to meet the requirements. For this 

Con ■par afife, Po^er Rerfarmance^ 5 

Miles. Per Hour. 
Comparative Power Performanc 

sibly in the case of stoker-fired locomotives where it is not 
necessary to open the fire door, this form of draft was aban- 
doned and attention directed to the adaptation of induced 
draft for the purpose. It is a well known fact that induced 
draft has been successfully applied in stationary and marine 
service, and its development in these fields has been rapid 
during the past few years, so that we now have many installa- 
tions of this character. The development of the steam turbine 
and progress in the theory and construction of centrifugal 
fans for this work has added much to the progress made and 
it seemed logical that if the system could be so successfully 
applied to other fields, it would find ready application to the 

reason it was absolutely necessary to start in at the begin- 
ning and develop such an apparatus. 

The first step in the development was to secure data showing 
just what could be expected in draft obtainable, in fuel con- 
sumption, in boiler efficiency, and in power requirements to 
operate a fan draft system. Locomotive 932 was secured for 
experimental purposes and an experimental plant constructed 
to secure the data. The test was confined to the boiler of 
the locomotive with a 48-in. ventilating fan attached to the 
smokebox. No attempt was made at this time to run the 
engine on the road. Connection was made between the inlet 
of the fan and the smokebox of the locomotive so that the 
exhaust was through the fan rather than through the ordinary 


Vol. «9. No. I 

stack. The fan was driven by means of a 2S-Iiorsepo\vcr 
constant speed motor, belt connected. The variation in speed 
at which the fan was driven was accomplished by changing 
the diameter of the pulleys. The power necessary to drive 
the fan at various speeds was accurately determined by meas- 
uring the current necessary to drive the motor. With this 
arrangement a series of tests were made in Topeka, Kan., 
in February, 1912. A maximum of 3,350 lb. of coal was burned 
per hour, and a maximum of 830 boiler horsepower was de- 
veloped. This was accomplished at an expenditure of 20 
horsepower required to drive the 48 in. fan at an average 
speed of 715 revolutions per minute; the maximum draft in 
the smokebox was 2'yg in. of water. The first tests in the 
series were made with the diaphragm in place in the smoke- 
box, but this was removed during the later runs and it was 
found that with the fan draft it was possible to .get a very 

W/A Induced Draff 10^ Inch Nozzle 
Average Condilhns g Forced Condi fhns 

/Irerage B.P. /Irerage B.P. 3.7S Lbs. 

Wifh Siandard Front Fnd Scinch Nozzle 
Ayerage Condlfhm Forced Condiiions 

Aferage B.P. ll.TSLbs. 

Average B.P 24.0 lbs. 

Exhaust Cavity Diagrams 

uniform distribution of the draft without employing deflector 
plates of any kind. It was not possible to develop anywhere 
near the maximum boiler horsepower with this installation, 
but valuable data were secured for use in the construction 
of an experimental unit for drafting purposes. 

From the data obtained from these preliminary tests with 
the 48 in. fan applied to both coal and oil burning locomo- 
tives, an experimental unit adaptable to locomotives was 
furnished by the manufacturers and delivered to Topeka in 
September, 1912. This unit consisted of a stock 24-in. fan 
with special provision for direct connection to a 40 horse- 
power steam turbine, the entire apparatus being so con- 
structed as to be a compact unit suitable for application in 
the ordinary smokebox of a locomotive. Preliminary tests 
were made with this unit, during which the volume of air at 
atmospheric pressure and temperature, discharged at various 
turbine speeds, was determined when the fan was operated 
against various resistances simulating locomotive service. 
These tests indicated that the fan was of sufficient size for 
the locomotive for which it was ordered, so that application 
of the apparatus was made to locomotive 1,302 at Topeka 
shops in January, 1913. The first actual test of the apparatus 
installed on this locomotive was made on January 12, 1913. 
It was soon apparent that the 24-in. fan did not have the 
capacity to furnish the necessary draft, and it was not until 
after a great deal of experimental work, during which it was 
necessary to design and build three fan rotors and make 
modifications of the fan casing, that a fan of sufficient capacity 
was secured to permit of actual road tests. During the de- 
velopment of these fans, however, several stationary and road 
tests were made with the locomotive, during which valuable 
data were secured. 

Prior to tests with the fan draft apparatus, complete tests 
of the locomotive with the standard front end arrangement 
had been made for a basis of comparison of results obtained 
with the two arrangements. Typical indicator cards secured 

under the various condiiions show tlie possibilities of the fan 
draft in eliminating the back pressure of the engine. While 
the fan used during the later series of tests was not me- 
clianically correct or of sufficient capacity to develop the 
ma.ximum power of the locomotive, it was of sufficient capac- 
ity to bring out many valuable points relative to the general 
performance to be expected from a system of this kind. The 
locomotive burned its fire as satisfactorily with the fan draft 
arrangement as with the standard front end arrangement, 
and there was no more tendency for the fire to bank or 
clinker. A uniform draft varying from 4 in. to 6;4 in. of 
water was maintained with the fan draft. 

The capacity of the fan was limited to the maximum safe 
speed at which it could be run, and wlien the demand upon the 
boiler was such that it could be supplied witli the draft avail- 
able within the maximum speed of the fan, there was an 
economy shown. This was evident when the locomotive was 
working on grades, where, although more steam was used per 
stroke, the relatively low speed of the locomotive made the 
total steam consumption lower than on the level stretches 
where less steam was used per stroke, but the higher speed 
and consequent increase in the number of strokes per unit 
of time, placed a demand for steam on the boiler which could 
not be supplied by the draft available with the fan. For 
this reason, it was not possible to maintain full boiler pres- 
sure at all times with the fan draft arrangement, so that the 
initial pressure available in the cylinders was from 12 lb. to 

Speed,- 28.S M.P.H. Dranbar Pull, Standard 8,S60 ihs. 

Induced 9,200 Lbs. 

Dynamomefer H. P. Standard 6SI Indicated H. P. Standard 847.3 
Induced 699 Induced 9S9.4 

Rigtit Side 

Speed.- Z7.SHPH. 

Dranbar Pull, Standard 11,000 Lbs. 
Induced 12,800 Lbs. 

Dynamomefer ft. P. Standard 807 Indicated HP Standard 1013. 7 

Induced 939 

Induced 1085.1 

Full lines represent cards ivitti standard fronfend. 
Dotted Lines represent cards ivith induced draff. 

Indicator Cards Taken with Standard Front End and with Induced 

13 lb. lower from runs with the fan draft than runs with the 
standard front end arrangement. Analyses of the indicator 
cards show that although there was a gain in power as indi- 
cated by an increased area at the bottom of the cards, there 
was a corresponding decrease at the top of the card. This 
was due to the difference in initial pressure, so that the gain 
in power due to the elimination of the back pressure was 
just about sufficient to operate the fan draft apparatus, and 
there was no apparent gain in the over-all efficiency of the 
locomotive. This is demonstrated by the indicator cards 

A comparison of the performance of the locomotive under 
the two systems of drafting during periods in the runs when 
such comparison is at all possible, that is, when working con- 
<litions are similar, is favorable to the induced draft arrange- 
ment. Such a comparison based upon the actual power de- 

January-, 1915 


liveri-<i at tin: drawhar shows a saving of nearly 20 per cent 
in fuel for tlie fan draft, and it is entirely possible to effect 
a marked saving in indicated horsepower with it. 

Typical exhaust cavity cards are shown in one of the en- 
gravings. These pressure readings were taken in the exhaust 
cavity of the valves by means of an independent indicator 
litted with a 20-lb. spring. They were olinsen to cover the 
entire field as nearly as possible. 

The conclusions drawn from these comparative tests were 
that it is entirely possible to draft a locomotive boiler by 
means of an induced draft fan to replace the exhaust tip 
commonly used; that it is possible to entirely eliminate the 
cylinder back pressure under normal conditions and greatly 
reduce it under forced conditions of operation of the loco- 
motive; that with e<iual steam chest pressures, cut-oflfs, and 
speeds there is an appreciable increase in indicated horse- 
power due to the elimination of the cylinder back pressure, 
and that it is entirely possible to successfully operate an in- 
stallation of tliis character at the necessary high speed during 


Arrangement of the MacFa 

(Id Fan Draft 

intervals of time representing a run over the average division 
of a railroad. 

The logical field for locomotive mechanical draft is upon 
compounds in general and Mallet compounds in particular, 
where the excessive back pressure results in more pronounced 
cylinder losses. The development of this branch of locomo- 
tive engineering will necessarily be gradual, on account of the 
absence of data or lack of experience on the subject. 

The experience with the fan draft gained from actual tests 
led to the development of an automatic control system to 
yovern or regulate the speed of the turbine, and consequently 
regulate the intensity of the draft. It was found that it was 
highly desirable to make the operation of the fan as nearly 
automatic as possible and not have to depend on the engineer 
or fireman to regulate its action. At the same time, its op- 
eration should be under the control of the fireman at all times 
should he choose to exercise control. The essential features of 
the automatic control system which have been developed are the 

provision of both ma.ximum speed and pressure governors and 
an arrangement which insures the starting of the turbine at the 
time the main locomotive throttle is opened, and shutting off 
when the throttle is closed. In addition to features, an in- 
dependent steam line is provided which makes possible the oper- 
ation of the turbine at nearly its maximum speed when the loco- 
motive is standing. 

The maximum speed governor is made a part of the steam 
turbine itself and is designed to automatically throttle the sup- 
ply of steam into the turbine when the pre-determined maximum 
safe speed has been reached. The maximum pressure governor 
is fitted into the steam line supplying the turbine and is so con- 
structed that the flow into the turbine is automatically throttled 
when the locomotive boiler pressure has reached within a few 
pounds of the normal working pressure. This governor is also 
fitted with an attachment which makes possible the control of 
steam through the valve from the locomotive cab. 


C. D. Young, Engineer of Tests, Pennsylvania Railroad. — 
1 here has been a tendency of late to use exhaust nozzles having 
other than circular openings. T' j- plain circular nozzle forms 
a steam jet which is too near.f ' tylindrical, or the shape of 
the stack, and the use of such a shape as the rectangular ap- 
pears to break up the continuity or the form of the jet and 
cause it to draw out a larger volume of gases. Both rectangular 
nozzles and nozzles of the dumb-bell shape have been used with 
success, and with an increase in evaporation over that with the 
circular form. There has recently been developed on our loco- 
motive testing plant a nozzle having four internal projections 
which appears to be more satisfactory than some of the irregu- 
larly formed nozzles. With these nozzles, having other than a 
circular outlet, an increase in the evaporative capacity of the 
boiler of from IS to 25 per cent has been obtained and in recent 
tests on a large Pacific type locomotive a nozzle with four in- 
ternal projections has given a maximum capacity in equivalent 
evaporation from and at 212 deg. of 87,414 lb. per hour. In the 
locomotive in question, this is an evaporation of 18.0 lb. of 
water per square foot of heating surface per hour and with this 
quantity of steam an indicated horsepower of 3,184 was obtained; 
whereas, the circular nozzle on this same locomotive developed 
a maximum eqiuvalent evaporation of but 62,719 lb. of water per 
hour, resulting in an indicated horsepower of 2,501. It should 
be understood that no change was made in the locomotive other 
than in the exhaust tip. 

It has been the practice on the Pennsylvania to require that 
the air openings into the ashpan be at least 15 per cent of the 
area of the grate, and when the openings are of this size, the 
ashpan vacuum will be considerably less than one inch of water 
at the maximum evaporative rates. We have found, however, 
in the case of some switching locomotives, that this area of 15 
per cent of the grate area has been too large for the require- 
ments of their service and to provide for this condition upon 
slii fling locomotives, ashpan dampers have been installed along 
the air inlets at the mud ring. This arrangement very nicely 
takes care of these locomotives, which stand a great deal of the 
time, and if the air inlets in the ashpan were not reduced, it 
would be difficult for the firemen to prevent a large amount of 
steam from escaping from the safety valves. 

C. E. Chambers, Superintendent of Motive Power, Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey. — Two or three years ago we had a new 
type of locomotive which gave us some trouble. After a number 
of trials of various expedients it occurred to me that the stack 
might be too small, so I took up with the locomotive builders the 
question of the relation of the diameter of the stack to the 
diameter of the cylinder, and it was admitted by them that the 
stack was smaller than it should be. We increased the diameter 
from 15 in. to 18 in at the choke. We had perhaps one hundred 
or more engines with the same size stack, and about the same 


Vol. 89, No. 1 

cylinder volume, but not in the .same kind of service, so that 
they did not give us much trouble. But after making these 
changes on this particular type we made the change on the other 
engines and found a decreased consumption of coal. 

One small improvement we have made in smokebo.x fronts 
where there is trouble from overheating is the placing of a liner 
about 4 or 5 in. away from the smokebox door, and filling the 
space with asbestos. This entirely eliminated the overheating. 


J. P. NefT, vice-president American Arch Company. — All 
modern locomotives, or at least practically all those built in the 
last few years, have been built to haul heavy steel passenger 
trains on hard schedules or to meet exacting conditions in 
other kinds of service. As the locomotive itself has been greatly 
improved and refined in the last ten years, so has this special 
device, to the end that it has been shorn of many of its original 
faults, leaving its never disputed virtues standing out all the 
more prominently. The brick arch insures more nearly complete 
combustion. The combustion of high volatile coal at the rapid 
rates necessary to meet the demands for large hauling capacity 
today is fraught with considerable losses due to incompleteness. 
That represented by the CO tv^ntent in front end gases is only 
a part of it. The losses from the incomplete combustion of 
hydro-carbons may easily be four times that represented by the 
CO per cent in the gas analysis. Anything that will mitigate 
these losses without introducing too high air excess reflects at 
once in higher furnace temperatures. The introduction of the 
combustion chamber helps by lengthening the flame travel, but 
the introduction of the arch, especially the arch on water tubes, 
not only doubles the average length of the flame travel, but 
possesses the more important virtue of being a mechanical mi.xer. 

By fostering or enhancing combustion above the fuel bed in 
this way considerably more heat is evolved and higher firebo.x 
temperatures result. Authentic tests have shown that with cer- 
tain coals this increase in firebox temperature may be 15 per 
cent; yet, as a rule, these higher firebox temperatures are not 
accompanied by higher front end temperatures. This is ex- 
plained by the fact that the tube supported arch by virtue of its 
position performs another important function, that of forcing 
these higher temperature gases to sweep or brush at consider- 
ably increased velocity a considerably greater area of evaporating 
surface; not only the added area of the arch tube surface, but 
much surface of hitherto unswept firebox plate, so that the 
double result is accomplished, of creating more heat, and causing 
to be absorbed this increased amount of heat, giving a net re- 
sult of increased boiler output for the same amount of coal 
consumed, a distinct advance or rise in the boiler efficiency. 

The circulating tubes or arch pipes play no small part in this. 
Not only do they present by far the most eff'ective heat-trans- 
mitting surface, but the circulating effect in itself is very im- 
portant, especially at high rates of evaporation. Just as the 
particles of gases must quickly touch the heat absorbing surface 
and give way instantly to other particles, so must the water, 
or steam film, on the opposite side of these surfaces give way 
quickly to other particles of water, if a high rate of heat transfer 
is to be accomplished. Expedited circulation will insure this 
favorable condition. A locomotive boiler can no more give 
high duty per pound of weight or square foot of heating surface 
wl'.en the gases move leisurely over its surfaces and through its 
tubes than can the locomotive as a whole give high horsepower 
in a slow turning of the wheels. 

J. T. Anthony, Manager Service Department, American Arch 
Company. — High firebox evaporation means high boiler ef- 
ficiency, for the high heat absorption by the firebox reduces the 
temperature of the gases entering the tubes; and for any one 
boiler, the temperatures of the gases entering and leaving the 
tubes are directly proportional when reckoned above steam tem- 
perature. Hence a lower temperature of entering gases means 
lower front end temperatures and an increase in efficiency. 

A lar,i,;e percentage of the bituminous coal burns above the 
grate as gas. The rapidity and completness of the combustion 
of these gases depends on the amount of oxygen present and 
the thoroughness of the mixing. In a firebox with 60 sq. ft. of 
grate, with a rate of combustion of 60 lb. of coal per sqiiare 
foot of grate per hour, an air supply of 20 lb. per pound of 
coal and an average firebox temperature of 2,000 deg., the 
volume of the gases evolved is about 1,200 cu. ft. per second. A 
firebox of this size would have a capacity of about 200 cu. ft, 
and would have to discharge and be refilled with gases abolif 
six titnes per second. The average time available for combustion 
of each particle of gas would then be about one-sixth of a second, 
and this is insufficient for complete and proper mixing by diffu- 
sion. With the short time allowed, it is necessary to mix the 
gases by mechanical means, and this is generally accomplished 
by an arch or baffle which forces the gases to pass through a 
restricted area, this area being not less than the net tube area. 

It is evident that mere firebox volume is not sufficient of 
itself, and it is necessary to have a flameway of such cross 
section and length as to intimately mix the gases and provide 
sufficient space for burning before the gases reach the tubes. In 
an ordinary firebox, without baffle or combustion chamber, the 
average length of flameway is only 5 to 6 ft. By the intro- 
duction of baffles and combustioii chambers, this length can be 
increased to from 10 to 15' ft.', which results in not only more 
complete combustion but also in increased radiating surface, 
with a corresponding increase in firebox evaporation and a 
lowering in temperature of the escaping gases. 

A Pacific type locomotive with 55 sq. ft. of grate area, a tube- 
supported arch and an average flameway of 8 ft. had an aver- 
age firebox temperature, covering a range of 25 tests, of 2,100 
deg. This temperature was taken at the center of the firebox 
at about the end of the arch. The gases entering the tubes showed 
an average of 1,725 deg., or a drop in temperature of 375 deg. 

Another Pacific type locomotive with the same size grate and 
a tube-supported arch, but with a combustion chamber 3 ft. 
long, giving an average flameway of 11 ft., showed over the 
same range of tests an average firebox temperature of 2,185 
deg., with the temperature of the gases entering the tubes of 
1,485 deg., or a drop of 700 deg. between the center of the 
firebox and the tube sheet. - 

We obtain high efficiency at low rates of combustion in spite 
of the large air excess which generally accompanies. This is 
due to the fact that at low rates the firebox absorbs a larger 
percentage of the total heat evolved, and the amount so received 
for any one firebox depends primarily ofi tlie temperature of 
the fuel bed. It is possible that this temperature is higher with 
large air excess than with the lower, as the temperature is due 
to the rapidity of combustion which in turn depends upon the 
scouring and cutting action of the air blast. 

The firing clearance, or the vertical distance between the fuel 
lied and the lower lubes, or arch, has been materially increased 
by the introduction of modern types of locomotives with trailing 
trucks, as this has permitted the firebox to be placed behind 
the drivers and the grates dropped lower. This one step has 
probably offset to some extent the high ratios between heating 
surface and grate area which are found in modern locomotives. 
The extent of the firebox heating surface is determined largely 
by the size and location of the grate ; but there is no fixed 
relation between heating surface and grate area, or between fire- 
box and boiler heating surface. 

As stated above, the firebox evaporation depends primarily 
upon the extent and temperature of the radiating surfaces and 
not on the extent of the firebox heating surface. Increasing the 
firebox heating surface without increasing the grate area or 
flaineway will result in very little increase in evaporation. Its 
only effect is to reduce the amount of heat absorbed by each 
unit of surface, with a slight reduction in the temperature on 
the fire side of the surface. An evaporation of 60 lb. of water 
per square foot of firebox heating surface per hour requires a 




(liffcrciicc of less tlian 100 dcg. bclwucii lliu water and llic lire 
side of the sheet, and if sufficiently high firebox temperatures 
or sufficiehtly large radiating surfaces could be obtained, it 
would be possible to materially increase even this high rate of 
evaporation without forcing the heating surface to its capacity. 

In the Coatesville tests, conducted by Dr. Goss, the two lire- 
boxes gave an evaporation as high as 58 lb. of water per square 
foot of heating surface per hour; but there was practically no 
difference in the total amount of water evaporated by each of 
the fireboxes when working at the same rate of combustion and 
with the same grate area, notwithstanding the fact that one of 
them had 12 per cent more heating surface than the other. 

Judging from the past, we are not apt to see any radical 
departures from the present type of firebox in the near future, 
unless the nature of the fuel is materially changed, and the 
writer believes that any improvement in the efficiency of this 
part of the locomotive will be obtained by providing for ample 
grate area, firing clearance, gas mi.xing, flameway or combustion 
chanilier space, and air supply. 


C. !•". Street, Vice-President, Locomotive Stoker Company. — 
The most important accoraplislimenis of the mechanical stoker 
as applied to locomotives, are the increasing of the earning 
power of existing locomotives, and the removal of all liinitations, 
from a fuel quantity standpoint, on the size of locomotives. 

The locomotive designer should always keep in mind the fact 
that every dollar earned m the operation of a railway must be 
earned by its locomotives, and, therefore, I have, in the above, 
given first place to the increase in the earning power of existing 
locomotives. I could cite many instances to prove this state- 
ment, but as an illustration, will take one : 

-A locomotive having about 54,000 lb. tractive effort when run- 
ning with saturated steam, had a tonnage rating over a certain 
division of 4,750 tons. Superheaters were applied to this loco- 
nu)ti\t', aiul the tonnage increased to 5,000; stokers were ap- 
plied, and the tonnage increased to 5,250; then 5,500; then 5.750, 
and linally 6,000 tons. In the meantime, the tonnage rating of 
the sliovel-fired, superheated steam locomotives was increased 
to 5,500 tons. This shovvs an increase of over 20 per cent 
in the tonnage rating of this locomotive after the stokers were 
applied, and the locomotive today, stoker-fired, is hauling 10 per 
cent more tonnage than when shovel-fired. 

The increase in the tonnage rating of the shovel-fired loco- 
motives is very interesting, and brings out strongly one of the 
indirect advantages of the stoker. Before stokers were applied, 
the shovel-fired locomotives were not doing anywhere near wdiat 
they should do, and as soon as the stoker came into use, it in- 
creased the earning power, not only of locomotives to which it 
was applied, but of all others on the division. 

The stoker is making it possible to come much nearer to 
theoretical conditions in regular operation. We all know that 
there is a wide difference between the earning power of a loco- 
uiotive under test conditions and under average road conditions. 
1 have in mind one case, in which, under test conditions, it was 
found that a certain locomotive could haul 4,000 tons comfort- 
ably over a certain division. When put in regular service, how- 

ever, it was found inqjossible to operate it with more than 3,500 
tcjns over this same division. With the stoker, thesfi lotomotivcs 
can easily haid 4,000 tons in regular road Service; 

The fact that the stoker has removed limitations in tht size of 
locomotives can be brought out by reference to several of the 
locomotives referred to in the committee's report. The Moun- 
tain type locomotives referred to were fitted with st<jkcrs when 
they were built, have always been stoker-fired, and no attempt 
has ever been made to shovel-fire them. One of the locomotives 
referred to would never have been built had it not been known 
that a stoker could be secured which would fire it. There arc 
30 of the locomotives of one class referred to now in regular 
operation, and they would never have been built had it not been 
known that a stoker could be secured which would fire them. 
.\ number of other locomotives, notably the most powerful Pa- 
cific type as yet built, are now in regular operation, and would 
never have been contemplated without s stoker. 

There are today, very few, if any, shovel-fired locomotives in 
this country having a maximum tractive effort of 50,000 lb. or 
over, which are being worked to their full capacity. Wherever 
stokers have been applied, the earning power of the locomotives 
on which they have been placed has been increased from 10 to 
20 per cent. There is no instance where stoker-fired and shovel- 
fired locomotives are being operated under identical conditions. 
The stoker-fired locomotives are hauling increased tonnage, using 
a cheaper fuel, or working at higher average speeds than the 
shovel-fired locomotives, and arc, therefore, earning more money. 

E. .\. .Averill, Engineer of Operation, Standard Stoker Com- 
pany. — Although the proper firing of a locomotive by hand has 
reached the stage of a skilled operation and some remarkable 
records have been made in certain instances, the progress of loco- 
motive development has now almost entirely passed the point 
where skilled manual firing can properly do the work if the full 
capacity of the locomotive is to be used. 

.At a speed in miles an hour equal to about one-half (.476 to 
,636) the diameter of the drivers in inches, the capacity of most 
modern freight locomotives is fixed by the boiler capacitj'. In a 
report of a test on a large locomotive at the Altoona test plant 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, it is stated that the results in- 
dicate that the capacity of the boiler was limited by the ability 
to burn the coal on the grates and not by any failure of the 
heating surface to absorb the heat supplied. While in this case 
the limit was marked by the impossibility of supplying sufficient 
air through the grates to properly burn the fuel, there are a 
reasonably large number of locomotives operating in this coun- 
try today which are running at less than full boiler capacity 
because of the physical inability of the fireman to supply the 
amount of fuel that can be burned. These locomotives are 
giving to the drawbar the pull which the man can supply but not 
wliat the locomotive is capable of supplying at the desired speed. 

I have selected at random ten classes of locomotives built 
during the past three years which are typical of the general size 
and capacity of all the larger freight engines built in that time. 
These are shown in the accompanying table. ' The American 
Locomotive Company's standard practice in connection with 
steam per horsepower hour and evaporation per pound of coal 
has been used ; also the percentage of tractive effort and maxi- 


26 & 41 


28 X 2 


21 J^ & 34 


28 X 3 


26 X 3 


26 & 40 


25 X 3 




Hp. from 

at Max. 




























































On grade of .05 per cent 

Coal at 

Water per 



so. ft.. 

sq. ft.. 



per hr.. 


H. S.. 


















































1 ,765 












1. 510 




•Horsepower + .01798 Pd^ at ,1,000 ft. piston speed. 
t 3.25 lb. coal per horsepower liour. § 7.2 lb. water 

al horsepower from heating,. ^ii 
of coal. ** Passenger train. 



Vol. 89, No. 1 

nuim horsepower at various piston speeds and the evaporation 
per square foot of heating surface for the firebox and tubes. 
It is assumed that each locomotive is working at the speed in- 
dicated on a .5 per cent grade, and tliat the cars in the train each 
weighs with lading 70 tons. 

When delivering the power cacli of these locomotives is easily 
capable of giving, if in good condition, it will be seen that they 
require from 4,900 lb. to over 8,000 lb. of good quality coal an 
hour. Similar calculations for grades of less rise will show a 
higher speed and greater coal requirements per hour. 

It is evident that these engines, with the possible exception of 
the last one, are not being supplied with this amount of coal, 
although they could use it if they were. They are actually get- 
ting from 4,500 to 5,000 lb. an hour and handling trains of a 
proportional size. The last one on the list is included to show 
the sixe that lies near the dividing line between hand and stoker- 
firing. These ten examples are typical of the ones referred to 
as giving the drawbar pull tlie man can supply, but not what the 
locomotive is capable of supplying. 

A number of locomotives like these, all of the same class and 
operating on the same division, will have a tonnage rating in 
proportion to the ability of the average poorest fireman that is 
assigned to them rather than of the average best fireman. 
\V bile there may be a few firemen on the division who are ca- 
pable of developing the full boiler capacity, the group of engines 
as a whole may be daily working much below their actual ca- 
pacity. The acceptance of the opportunity to supply the desired 
quantity of coal at all times to these locomotives, that is offered 
by the stoker, will have the same practical effect on operating 
expense as would a new order of more efficient, larger loco- 
motives. A reduction in the cost of conducting transportation 
follows this increased locomotive capacity in a number of the 
principal items when presented on a ton-mile basis. The stoker 
itself offers an opportunity for further saving, particularly in the 
cost of fuel, reduced claims for damage or accident, and the 
recruiting of men of higher caliber for locomotive service. 

An instance of the possible savings in the cost of conducting 
transportation through increased locomotive capacity following 
the application of a stoker, is found on a certain division where 
ten tonnage trains are sent one way over the road each day with 
hand-fired locomotives. Application of stokers has permitted an 
increase of over 11 per cent in the tonnage of a train. The re- 
turn movement is largely empties. The application of stokers 
will give a direct saving in wages and train supplies alone of 
about $100 per engine a month on this division. If advantage is 
taken of the increased capacity of the division for tonnage with- 
out adding locomotives, the saving will be larger. 


H. H. \'aughan, assistant to vice-president, Canadian Pacific, 
stated that considerable has already lieen heard as to the experi- 
ments made on feed water heating by Mr. Trevithic on the Egyp- 
tian railways, in which he used not only exhaust steam heaters, 
but waste-gas heaters in the front end. With the latter he has 
been able to put the water into the boiler at 230 deg. and obtain 
22 per cent economy. In this country the Central Railroad of 
Georgia has done a little with feed water heaters, as well as the 
New York Central, the Canadian Pacific, and the Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey. 

"On the Canadian Pacific we have been experimenting with 
feed water heating for six years. We have tried open heaters 
in a tank with fairly good satisfaction. We also applied ex- 
haust steam injectors, and got fair results. We have since been 
advised by the manufacturers that our troubles were because 
of our having applied an injector of too large size for ordinary 
work on the engine. However, I am of the opinion that while the 
exhaust steam injectors would work fairly well under certain 
conditions, yet there would be some difficulties where the amount 
of water consumed is large. We found on experiments with an 
open heater that the temperature obtained w-as due to the exhaust 

steam from the feed pump, so. assuming a temperature of 200 
deg. in the feed water, it would really be the equivalent of 160 
deg. when the water was put into the boiler by an injector with 
100 per cent efficiency. By heating the water at the injector suc- 
tion to 120 deg., we got 6 per cent economy, and used injectors 
as against 10 or 12 per cent economy with the feed water heater, 
and using a pump. We thought 6 or 7 per cent with the in- 
jector was preferable to 10 or 12 per cent with the pump, and 
we have been experimenting on that in recent years with 
reasonable results. Lately we have experimented with an 
ordinary closed feed water heater, and it is giving fair results. 

"This is a subject which American railroad people have 
largely neglected. It has the advantage of not only saving 
in coal, but increasing the capacity of the boiler. In careful 
experiments we found an economy of 12 per cent in the use 
of the heater, and we feel that that justifies our going into the 
device more thoroughly. I feel that we will see feed water 
heating coming into larger use, not only with exhaust steam, 
liut with waste gas." 

F. F. Gaines, superintendent of motive power. Central of 
Georgia, said in part : Feed water heating in this country is 
confined to a limited number of cases, and cannot be said to 
be generally recognized as a factor in fuel economy. Experi- 
ments made on several engines show that about 10 per cent 
economy can be expected ; there have been, however, offsetting 
difficulties in maintenance. 

The feed water heater in question was made up of two 
elements. The first consisted of a pair of condensers in the 
form of long drums applied underneath the running boards. 
The steam from air pumps, boiler feed pumps, and some of 
the main exhaust was condensed in them and the heat taken 
up by the feed water. The second element consisted essen- 
tially of a double nest of tubes in the smokebox, similar to a 
Baldwin type superheater. The feed water from the tank was 
forced through the condensers and smokebox heater, and 
from the heater through the regular boiler checks. 

Some trouble was experienced with operation of the pump, 
and it was also found that the type of pump used was not alto- 
gether suitable for the purpose, wearing very rapidly and 
having considerable slippage. The smokebox heater tubes 
were objectionable from the standpoint of obstructing draft 
and filling up with soot and cinders between the tubes, also 
cutting out very rapidly by the action of the exhaust. There 
was a further objection due to the fact that the condensed 
steam from the air pumps and boiler pump exhaust was still 
at a temperature that, in cold weather, would give off con- 
siderable clouds of steam, and as this water had to be wasted, 
the result was a cloud of steam around the engine, which was 
objectionable because of obscuring the view of the engine- 
man in looking back over the train. 

These heaters were used some two or three years, however, 
and tests were made which showed them to have a fuel econ- 
omy somewhere in the neighborhood of 10 per cent. 


Geo. L. Bourne, Vice-President Locomotive Superheater Com- 
pany. — The locomotive boiler, when considered for the applica- 
tion of a superheater, presented many limitations that neces- 
sarily have an important bearing on the design and construc- 
tion of the superheater. These limitations are more readily ap- 
preciated when it is remembered that the development of the 
locomotive, within certain fi.xed side and overhead clearances, has 
been dependent on the size of the boiler; that is, as the size of 
the locomotive has grown, each pair of wheels has been added 
to obtain proper weight distribution in order to accommodate 
increased boiler sizes. As a natural consequence of these con- 
ditions, the boiler is no larger than is absolutely necessary; in 
fact, in the majority of cases it is insufficient in evaporating 

The application of the superheater to this boiler, frequently 

January, 1915 


ina(lc(|uate as to heating surface, necessitates a reduction of 
aliout IS or 20 per cent in the tube heating surface. This is 
occasioned by the use of the large flues in which the super- 
heater units are located. Furthermore, a certain percentage 
of the gases which formerly were all available for evaporation 






















800 1000 1200 1400 IWO 

Pision Speed. 
Curves Showing Possibilities of Increased Capacity from Super- 

of the water must now be used for superheating the steam, 
since the superheater does not provide for any increase in the 
maximum rate of combustion. Taking tliis boiler with its de- 
ficiencies, the superheater designer has been able to produce an 
economy of 25 per cent in fuel, as a direct result of saving one- 
third of the total water evaporated per unit of power developed. 
This has resulted in greater locomotive capacity. 

As an illustration of this fact, the accompanying diagram is 
presented. It shows cylinder tractive elTort in per cent plot- 
ted against piston speed. The lowest curve. No. 1, very fairly 
represents the speed factor for an average saturated steam 

loconiotivt. Curve No. 2 similarly represents the average 
modern superheated steam locomotive, using between 200 and 
250 deg. of superheat. The greater tractive effort available 
is due to the fact that a longer cut-off is possible with the super- 
heater engine at comparative speeds. The limiting factor at the 
usual speeds is the ability of the boiler to furnish steam. 

These results have been accomplished in the face of boiler 
limitations, parts of the locomotive not adaptable to the use 
of highly superheated steam, and lack of experience in the 
organization which must handle the locomotive. The prob- 
lems incident to these conditions are rapidly being worked 
out, and results shown by the superheated steam curve will 
soon be as basic as the saturated steam locomotive curve was 
a few years ago. The future then holds a possibility for further 
saving by increasing the degree of superheat. 

The superheater engineer lias only made use, thus far, of 
the same variety of flue sizes as was used by the locomotive 
designer for tube sizes. If the superheater designer is per- 
mitted tlie use of a size dififerent from the two present stand- 
ards, it is possible to obtain in a superheater boiler an evapo- 
rating surface practically as great as in the saturated steam 
boiler. The superheating surface in this case will be a net gain 
to the heat absorbing surface of the boiler. With a boiler and 
superheater thus arrange<l, a greater capacity may reasonably be 
expected, and a curve approximately that shown as No. 3 may 
be confidently looked forward to in the near future. For some 
time past large passenger locomotives have been operated very 
successfully with steam chest temperatures running between 750 
and 800 deg. F. Curve No. 3 is representative of locomotives 
using this degree of steam chest temperature, which means 350 to 
400 deg. of superheat. 


C. D. Young, Engineer of Tests, Pennsylvania Railroad. — With 
the ordinary annealed carbon steel as used generally for loco- 
motive forgings, such as axles, crank pins, side rods, etc., the 
minimum physical properties may be considered to be as follows : 

Tensile strength 80,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elastic limit Yi the tensile strength i 

Elongation in 2 in 22 per cent 

Reduction of area 30 per cent 

With properly quenched and tempered carbon steel we may 
expect an increase in the elastic limit of 30 per cent or more. 


Grade of Material 

Main and parallel rods Annealed .45 carbon 

Quenched and tempered .52 carbon. 

Lb. pei 

sq. i 



Tension or 





Tensile Strer 




1 ,800,000 

in 2 in. 
20 per cent 




T. S. 

20 per cent 




T. S. 


20 per cent 
20 per cent 

Quenched and tempered .52 carbon. 

ched and tempered .52 carbon, 
ched and tempered alloy 

Crank pins Annealed .45 carbon 

Quenched and tempered .52 carbon. 

Quenched and tempered alloy. 
Cast steel parts Annealed .28 carbon 

nd tempered .28 carbon. 

Springs Drawn 1.0 carbon 

Quenched and tempered 1.0 carbon. 
Quenched and tempered alloy 

figures for working fiber stress may be 20 per 


Combined 1 
bending ( 

torsion in 









8,666 (Tens 



10.000 (Tens 




Transverse St 

excess of those shown. 

T. S. 

T. s. 

T. S. 

T. S. 

1, 466,066 

20 per 
20 per 

20 per ( 

22 per < 

Bend Tesi 
25 deg. 
25 deg. 
50 deg. 


Vol. 89, \o. I 

about 15 per cent increase in tensile strengtli. tlie elongation 
remaining the same and the reduction of area increasing about 
SO i)er cent. These are conservative ligures and a great deal 
better elastic limit and tensile strength may be obtained, depend- 
ing upon the chemical composition and the heat treatment. 

From alloy steels, such as chrome-vanadium or chrome- 
nickel, we may expect to obtain tlie tnllnwing iiiiiiinuim physical 
properties after heat treatment : 

Tensile strength 95,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elastic limit 75,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elongation in 2 in 20 per cent 

Rcdnction of area 30 per cent 

On an average these alloy steels will sImw an increase in physi- 
cal properties over those of annealed carbon steel of 20 per cent 
or more in tensile strength, 80 per cent or more in elastic limit, 
with elongation in 2 in. about 9 or 10 per cent less than that of 
the carbon steel, and the reduction of area 75 per cent or more 
greater. These figures are also subject to considerable variation. 

In carbon steel castings approximately the same per cent in- 
creases in physical properties as were given for carbon steel forg- 
ings may be obtained after proper heat treatment. The experi- 
ence with alloy steel castings has been too limited to furnish any 
satisfactory data. 

Up to the present the majority of users of heat treated steels 
seem to have made but little, if any, use of the increased physical 
properties as determining the fiber stresses used in design, 
though some of the larger builders of locomotives have made 
such increases in fiber stresses for both heat treated carbon and 
alloy steels. In certain parts where heat treated carbon steel has 
been used, the fiber stress has been increased about 25 per cent 
above that used for annealed carbon steel, and in the case of heat 
treated alloy steels an increase of as much as SO per cent has 
been made. In some cases, depending upon the design and serv- 
ice for which the forging is intended, it is preferable to allow 
no increase in the fiber stress, but to consider the excess strength 
as contributing to increased life in service, or to safety. 

Recent practice has indicated that it is desirable, when using 
heat treated designs, to carefully study the sections, so as to 
avoid abrupt changes, and also in the case of larger shafts, such 
as axles or crank pins, that they should be hollow bored in 
order to provide for better treatment and to relieve shrinkage 
strains which occur during the quenching process. 

While there is no objection to the change of the present 
standard section, it would seem, with our present knowledge 
of heat treated material, that it would be entirely safe to use 
certain increases in the fiber stresses when designing the loco- 
motive parts, and, as a suggestion as to what could be done in 
this respect, the accompanying table shows what is recom- 
mended for three grades of steel as to working fiber stresses 
and the minimum ultimate strength and elongation. This has 
been tabulated for .45 annealed carbon, quenched and tempered 
.52 carbon, and quenched and tempered alloy steels. 

Results seem to indicate that heat treated carbon and alloy 
steels will show greater resistance to wear and to the fatigue 
Stresses in service than annealed carbon steel, and it is our opin- 
ion that the increase in resistance to wear is about in proportion 
to the increase in Brinell hardness. 


J. B. Ennis, Chief Mechanical Engineer, American Locomo- 
tive Company, — The large steam locomotive of the fu- 
ture will probably not be the locomotive of the past. Today 
we can see possibilities toward further refinement in design and 
further economies that may be obtained. 

For freight service on easy grades where the capacity of 
the articulated type is not required, we already have excep- 
tionally large locomotives of the six, eight and ten-coupled 
types. Simple cylinders operating at 200 lb. pressure have 
reached a diameter of 30 in., and in oider to transmit this 

power a main axle 13 in. in diameter has been used. Main 
crank pins, connecting rods and other details, are of enormous 
size. With the increase in tlio diameter of cylinders, the 
cylinder centers have gradually been increasing, and frame 
centers decreasing. This has resulted in higher stresses than 
those caused by piston thrust only. The weight of revolving 
and reciprocating parts has reached the point now where, in 
some cases, proper counterbalancing becomes very difficult. 
It is doubtful whether much more capacity can be obtained 
in these types if designed along the present lines, and attention 
could profitably be given to refinement in design and its relation 
to the careful selection of materials. 

The modern passenger locomotive has reached a high state 
of development, but there is one problem still to be solved 
that has been recognized for many years, that of the effect 
on the rail of the vertical unbalanced forces in a two-cylinder 
engine. At present, our largest and most powerful passenger 
locomotives have two simple cylinders, 27 in. to 29 in. in diam- 
eter, giving maximum piston thrusts of approximately 117,- 
000 lb., with static wheel loads higher than ever before and, 
with few exceptions, reciprocating parts of much greater 
weight. 1 he four-cylinder balanced corrlpound was intro- 
duced al)0ut ten years ago as a possible solution, and for a 
few years large numbers of these locomotives were built. 
There is no doubt as to the results obtained, as far as balanc- 
ing is concerned, but recently very few have been con- 
structed. Four-cylinder simple locomotives have also been 
tried out, but in both of these types the capacity is limited 
on account of the available space between the frames, mak- 
ing it practically imposssible to provide the power now given 
by the largest simple two-cylinder engines. 

Little consideration has been given to tlie advantages of 
the three-cylinder arrangement, although a few locomotives 
of this type are in successful service today. As compared 
with the four-cylinder engine, either simple or compound, 
the tliree-cylinder type offers the possibility of increased 
power. With one cylinder located between the frames ample 
room is provided lor a properly designed crank axle and 
main rod which cannot be arranged for in the four-cylinder 
type beyond a certain limit. As compared with the two- 
cylinder engine, the advantages are, briefly, a more even 
turning moment, an ideal counterbalance condition, . and the 
opportunity to furnish maximum power with the minimum 
destructive effect on the rail. The power obtained in a two- 
cylinder engine with cylinders 27 in. in diameter and a maxi- 
mum piston thrust of 117,000 lb. can he obtained in a three- 
cylinder engine with cylinders 22 in. in diameter and a maxi- 
mum piston thrust of 78,000 lb. This decrease of 33 per cent 
in thrust means a corresponding reduction in the individual 
weights of all of the machinery. 

It is true that considerable progress can yet be made in 
the two-cylinder engine toward reducing the weights of 
reciprocating parts by the careful selection of materials and 
proper design. The three-cylinder engine, however, offers 
advantages possessed by no "other arrangement, and it would 
seetn that for high speed passenger service, at least, this 
type is well worth considering for the future. 

G. R. Henderson, Baldwin Locomotive Works. — There is 
one subject which has not been referred to except by the 
committee, and that 'is the question of powdered coal. I 
think in a few years we will have largely extended its use. 
Powdered coal will also assist in lengthening the firebox and 
give a greater amount of evaporative surface in that way. 
These things must be considered as increasing the length 
of the locomotive. In increasing the length, fortunately, we 
can put a heavier engine over the present bridges without 
having to remodel their construction. By lengthening, I think 
it is possible to build a locomotive of 250,000 to 300.000 lb. tractive 

A Study of Spring Rigging Design 

Discusses the Probable Causes of h'ailure and 
Gives Suggestions for Designs to Overcome Them 


A prominent road in llic middle west has been having trouble 
with failures of the spring rigging on large power. The most 
trouble has been experienced on Mikado locomotives, having a 
weight on drivers of 238,200 lb., and a weight on the leading and 
trailing trucks of 29,000 lb. and 52,000 lb., respectively. These 

determining the reason why these hangers should fail in this way. 
Evidence that the hangers do not fail by direct tensile strain 
was obtained when comparing the stresses in the equalizers and 
the hangers. The section of one of the intermediate equalizers 
8 in. I)ack from the pin hole is 2 in. by 6 in., and it is loaded to a 

Wrot Iron. 

3Z- >)<- 

Back Equalizing Bnm. IVrvt Iron. 
Fig. 1— Mikado Type Locomotiv* Spring Rigging That Has Given Trouble from Failures 

engines have a tractive effort of 57,000 lb. The arrangement of stress of about 8,000 lb. per sq. in, while the stress on the hanger 

the sprmg nggmg is shown m Fig. 1. The chief trouble has been which transmits the load to the equalizer, is only 2 740 lb per ^q' 

experienced with the spring hangers breaking in the fillet at the in., which would indicate that the equalizer 'should fail first 

upper bosses. A study of the design was made with a view of Hangers which have worn 20 per cent below size on account of 


VciL. 89, No. 1 

rubbing on the frame have also shown indications of falling at 
the tillcts at the upper boss. Erom the engine failure reports and 
from an inspection of the hangers taken from a roundhouse scrap 
pile, it has been found that all hangers have broken close to the 
boss; that hangers with bosses of different lengths have broken 
at the end of the longer boss, and all hangers not completely 
broken off show a bending at the cracked section, the crack be- 

Flg. 2 Fig. 3 

Bending of Spring Hangers Due to Side Motion of the Rigging 

ginning on the inside of the hanger. This would seem to clearly 
indicate that the hangers are broken by bending, as the failures 
occur at the section having the largest bending moment. In 
comparing these hangers with those of other engines of approx- 
imately the same weight, and whose spring rigging is of the same 
design and material, it was found that the hangers on the Mikado 
locomotives had a longer boss. Since the other engines have not 

Fig. 4 — Diagram of Stresses In Middle Connection Hanger 

had this same trouble, it seems right to assume that the long boss 
is responsible for the failure. 

A condition which may produce large bending stresses in a 
hanger is the sidewise motion of the rigging. This motion is 
caused by the moving of the driving box upon which the spring 
saddle rests, or by the elevation of one driver above its mate, rel- 
ative to the frame. Fig. 2 shows the probable manner of bend- 
ing when the pin is a tight fit. The bending here is similar to the 

bending of a beam li.xed at both ends. Eig. 3 shows the probable 
manner of bending when the pin is a loose fit. The action here 
is similar to that of a beam fixed at one end and loaded at the 
other. In Fig. 3 the bending moment from the side motion is op- 
posed to the bending moment due to the eccentric loading. It is 
plain that the hangers do not fail from this side bending, because 
tliis is greatest at the frame, whereas the hangers fail at the upper 
boss. The eflfect of this side motion is to produce an eccentric 
loading, the moment from which is a maximum at the upper boss, 
the point where the failures occur. The same reasoning applies 
to the hangers whose lower ends are fastened to the equalizer 
Conditions which will give rise to bending moments great 
enough to produce stresses far above the material's elastic limit 









B \ \ 






Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 

Designs of Hangers to Resist Bending 

are, when the center line of the pin is inclined to the center line 
of the hole ; when the pin fit in the hanger is tapered ; when the 
pin is bent and when the hole in the hanger is tapered. The 
stress in the body of a spring hanger is the resultant of a direct 
tensile stress and of a stress due to bending. The bending oc- 
curs whenever the reactive forces at the top and bottom bosses 
have lines of action displaced from the neutral axis of the hanger. 
The middle connection hanger which fastens to the frame is the 
one whose stresses will be determined here. This hanger is shown 
in Fig. 4, the component bending moments being taken from 
forces taken below the section. Distances to the right of the ver- 
tical axis represent counter-clockwise, and to the left clockwise, 
moments. Three conditions will be considered. 

Fig. 8 Fig. 9 

Front Center Hanger Under Eccentric Loading 

C.vSE I. — The lines of action will be considered as passing 
through the neutral axis of that part of the hanger exclusive of 
the bosses. This represents the most favorable condition. 

Case II. — The lines of action will be considered as passing 
through the middle points of the two bosses. 

Case III. — This case represents the most unfavorable condi- 
tions — lines of action on the inside edges of the bosses. 

The reactive forces as shown in Fig. 4 are equal and are desig- 
nated by Fi at both top and bottom. In cases II and III these 
forces form a couple. Since the algebraic sum of the horizontal 
forces must be zero, the forces of the opposing couple are equal, 
so they are designated by F, at both top and bottom. 

January, 1915 


Value of !•■;. — I'or case I, r, equals zero. For cases II and III, 
by equaling opposing couples we have, 

F: h = Fi k, where h and *■ arc mtiniciit arms. 

Fj = F, 

TIic bendinf,' iiinmcnt at any section distant /i,, frnni tlic center 
line of the lnwer |)in hole is: 

M = Fi kj + Fs h, 
Substituting the vahic of R from (A) 

M = F, k, + F, 

(kh, \ 


Value of Fi.— The force transmitted to each spring hanger 
equals the weight per driver minus the weight of the wheel in- 
cluding the weight of the side rods, one-lialf the weight of the 
axle, tlie weight of the box, the weight of tlie saddle and the 
weight of the spring, the remainder to be divided by the nuni])er 
of hangers per spring. In the present case this force is 6,000 lb. 
or 2,740 lb. per sq. in. The di.stribution of stress at section A'.V, 
Fig. 4, is shown at K. 

For this case there is a tensile stress and a stress due to heiKliuH : 

The bending moment — F] 


Substituting: F, = 6,000 
h, = 11.5 ii 
h = 14 in. 

0.25 in. 
0.75 in. 
k, — k,. = 0.5 


6,000l0.25 + 




Since the section is symmetrical about its I-axis, the section 
modulus in tension will be the same as that for compression : 
Z = 1/6 bd- b = 3.5 in. d = .625 in. 

3.5 X .625' 

Z = 


Let Si,c- 

nd St. 

compressive stress due to bending 
tensile stress due to bending 
M 3,530 

: = = = 15,500 lb. per sq. in. 

Z .228 

.\s in Case I. the direct tensile stress = 2,740 lb. per sq. in. 
The resultant stresses are: 

Tensile = 15,500 + 2.740 = 18.240 lb. per sq. in. 
Compressive = 15.500 — 2,740 = 12,760 lb. per sq. in. 

The distribution of stresses at section .Y.Y for this rase is 
shown at N, Fig. 4. 


For Case III we have : 



construction whicli will praclic ally eliminate the benduiii moment, 
and still design the hanger fur tension, as in Fig. 7. 

The usual construction brings a bending moment on both the 
sword and the long hanger. They should both, therefore, be 
made to withstand bending. In Fig. 7 practically all the bending 
comes on the sword hanger which is made to resist it, while the 
long hanger is subjected to tension and is designed accordingly. 

I'ig. 8 shows how an eccentric loading may be brought on the 
irntit ciiit<r h;nii.'ir )iy an inclination of the han^rer ■•r equalizer. 

•Smtrd Hangtf 

Suh^^lituting in (B) and solving: 

M ^ 5,560 inch-pounds, bending moment, 

and Sbc and Sbt = = 24,400 lb. per sq. in. 

Resultant tensile stress = 24,400 + 2,740 = 27,140 lb. per sq. in. 
Resultant compressive stress ^ 24,400 — 2,740 = 21,660 lb. per sq. in. 
The distribution of stresses for this case is shown at M, Fig. 4. 
On hangers having a narrow boss, the bending moment may be 
neglected when a generous factor of safety is used. But with a 
wide boss the usual factor of safety is not great enough to 
provide for the stress not considered in the design. The length 
of the boss on the Mikados is 2y% in. ; this is y% in. greater than 
on the next size below. It seems improbable that these hangers 
should fail by direct tension, as case I gives a factor of safety in 
tension of about 12. An increase in hanger stress means an in- 
crease in driving box reaction and an increase in reaction be- 
tween the driving wheel and rail. Any force on a driver great 
enough to break a spring hanger would also break a rail if ap- 
plied between the ties. 

Two general methods suggest themselves for overcoming the 
difficulty: First, design the hanger so that it will be able to resist 
the bending moment, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6: and second, use a 

■-Froni Center 

Flfl. 10 — Showing Restricted Movement of Sword Hanger In Spring 

The vertical load on this hanger is 24,000 11). If the load is sup- 
ported 1 in. from the center the bending moment will be : 
24,000 lb. X 1 in. = 24,000 in. lb. 
TT D" T X 2.5' 

" 32 " 32 ~ ' 
M 24,000 

p = = = 17,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Z 1.4 

The tensile stress will be increased by the direct tension, 
which is : 

IT D' jr X 2.5» 
.Area of hanger = — • =: 4.9 sq. in. 


= 4,800 Ih. per sq. 

■Srvord Hanger 


Fig. 11 — Suggested Arrangement of Spr 

ng Hangers to Provide 

Therefore, the maximum tensile stress ^ 17,000 -j- 4,800 ^^ 
21,800 lb. per sq. in. As this hanger is free to move sidewise it 
would probably assume the position shown in Fig. 9 under an ec- 
centric loading. That is, the hanger would swing until the hne 
of action of the loading would pass through the center of the 
upper supporting pin. The bending moment would then be 
greatest at the bottom. .\n inspection of the front equalizing 
beams on the Mikado engines shows a great many of them ap- 
parently inclined. But if there is an even bearing of the center 
hanger on the beam for some particular position of the rigging. 
any side movement must necessarily produce an eccentric loadieg. 

Fig. 10 shows how a restricted movement of the sword hangers 
in the spring will cause eccentric loading on the front center 
lianger. Under a large vertical movement of the spring the 
sword hanger will strike at the point A. This brings a bending 
moment on tlic banger. Inn the force producing it is corapara- 


Vol. 89, No. 1 

lively small and the hanger is strong against bending in this di- 
rection as its section is deep. Its serious effect is to prevent the 
pin from alining itself with the front center hanger, and in forc- 
ing the front transverse beam forward, while the center hanger 
tends to force the other transverse beam backward. Inspection 
of these hangers shows indentations, indicating that they have 
borne against the spring. The wearing of the holes into an ob- 
long shape is probably due to the high bearing stress. 

The short hangers which fasten to the frame have a boss Uii 
in. long,, with a hole 2 in. in diameter, giving a projected area of 
2'4 sq. in. As each hanger bears 6,000 lb., the unit pressure 
will be: 


= 2,700 lb. per sq. in. of projected .irea. 


This stress is great enough to actually crush tlie metal out- 
ward, and as these bearings are practically free from lubrication, 
very slight movements w'ill produce rapid wear. 

Fig. 11 shows an arrangement which might be used to advantage. 
Here the hanger pins are placed lengthwise with the frame in- 
stead of across it. This will permit the hangers to adjust them- 
selves to the side motion of the rigging without subjecting them- 
selves to bending or to eccentric loading. In this arrangement 
the movement of all the members is such as to eventually wear 
for themselves the longest possible bearing. This is in contrast 
to the present rigging, where the spring hanger cannot have a 
bearing along the entire length of its boss except in one position 
of the rigging. The side movement of the present rigging docs 
not tend to wear the broadest possible bearing for the boss. 

The lack of what might be termed "transverse flexibility" in 
the present spring rigging is probably its greatest defect. There 
is no question about the side movement of the hangers. The ex- 
cessive wear on the frame shows this. Furthermore the side mo- 
tion of the drivers and the elevation of one above the other is con- 
sidered in the design of the driving boxes. The spring saddle 
rests upon the driving box and the spring upon the saddle, so 
that any movement of the box must be transmitted to the spring. 
The box is designed for tilting, but the spring rigging for no 
side motion. This seems inconsistent. There is a certain amount 

Fig. 12 — Another Spring Hanger Suggestion 

of play at the hanger pins, but this will produce a bending 
moment which the hanger is not designed to resist. 

One end to be sought in designing a spring hanger is to make 
one which will last the life of the locomotive. This is utterly 
impossible at present. Even were a hanger made which would 
not be bent by side motion as in Fig. 11, or which would resist 
an eccentric loading, its life would be limited by wear on the 
frame or on the frame protectors, when in place. Frame wear 
cannot at present be avoided because of the small clearance be- 
tween the frame and the drivers. The defects of the present 
arrangement may be summed up as follows : Poor oiling facili- 
ties ; frame wear cannot be avoided because of the small clear- 
ance between the frame and the inside of the driver; non-flex- 
ibility in a transverse direction, except at the expense of bending 

tlie hanger directly and by eccentric loading; side motion of the 
rigging will not tend to wear flat bearing surfaces, and the life 
of the hanger is limited by wear on the frame. 

In the arrangement shown in Fig. 12 the present tension ar- 
rangement is abandoned and a single member is placed on the 
inside of the frame, being subjected to direct tension and bend- 
ing. The pins are placed lengthwise with the frame to permit 
side movement. The wear of the members in Fig. 12 is such as 

Spring ^Cup 

Fig. 13 Fig. 14 

Suggested Designs for Siiort Hangers 
to eventually give a bearing as long as the boss. As the hanger 
is placed inside of the frame, the clearance between itself and 
the frame can be made large enough to avoid wear. The stress 
in such a hanger would be : 

12,000 X 8 = 96,000 in. lb. bending niunienl 
X 6= 

P — 


odulus — 

8,000 lb. per sq. in. from bending 


= 1.000 lb. per sq in. 

8,000 -I- 1,000 = 9,000 lb. per sq. 

direct ten 

SI mum tension 

If an I-section were used in Fig. 12, a larger section modulus 
Could be olitaincd, giving a lower stress for the same section area. 

Fig. 13 shows an arrangement which would give transverse 
flexibility to the short hangers when using the usual sword 
hanger. A ball bearing should be used on the front equalizing 
beam, and the sword hangers connected to the transverse equal- 
izing beam should have freedom of movement. Fig. 14 shows 
an arrangement for using a ball bearing at the spring and at the 
equalizer. The possible objections to this would be: Liability 
to unseat; liability to turn and be subjected to bending in a 
direction in which it is weak; high bearing stress; great weight, 
and that it does not liold the spring on its seat by restricting its 
side motion. 

However, the ball bearing arrangement would no doubt be as 
firm on its seat as is the spring on its pin. It could be prevented 
from turning by a forked member thrown loosely over opposite 
hangers. The bearings could be removable, and made of spe- 
cially hardened material so as to stand a high bearing stress. 
The weight should be no objection if they did not fail and need 
to be replaced in roundhouses. 

The advantages of the arrangement shown in Fig. 14 are : 
Good oiling facilities; simplicity; will eliminate wear of itself 
or the frame by proper selection of clearance ; ideal flexibility 
without subjecting itself to bending or eccentric loading; stresses 
can be accurately computed, and as a result of the previous ad- 
vantage there should be no engine failures from broken hangers. 

Possibly the greatest objection to a single hanger used to 
connect the spring with the equalizer is its weight, but this 
objection should disappear if it will eliminate hanger failures 
and wear on the frame. An inspection shows that the frame is 
worn because only about one-half of the frame protectors are 
in place. The others are either torn loose from the frame or 
else have the side broken off. But heavy as it must be, it would 
harmonize with the design of a heavy locomotive. 

Cair Depamtmemt 


General Car Fu 


an, Dululh, Missabc & Nurthe 

The lubrication of car journals should be investigated sys 
tematically, the results summarized and used as a guide in prac- 
tice. The bearing surfaces of both the journals and brasses must 
be smooth and true, the brasses being large enough and of suf- 
ficient strength to resist spreading or closing, when they are sub- 
jected to the maximum pressure of the service in which they are 
used. The wedges should be of correct dimensions. If they are too 
large, having a crown bearing only, the load will be concentrated, 
cau.'-ing excessive friction which, in turn, will cause the rapid 
heating of the brass and journal. Under high capacity cars, 
wedges with only a side bearing will cramp the brass to the 
side of the journal and cause excessive heating. 

Oil boxes are a factor in lubrication. There are a variety of 
designs, shapes and sizes. Different results are obtained from 
the extremes in cither case. Some boxes are very narrow, mak- 
ing it difficult to place or keep the sponging in its proper position. 
There are other boxes considerably larger that allow the spong- 
ing to become disarranged to such an extent that it soon works 
away from the journal. Then, again, there are boxes in which. 
when properly packed, the sponging will have very little move- 

When excessive journal friction develops, trouble manifests 
itself when the temperature rises more rapidly than it can be 
tlissipated by the metals in the box. This causes the oil to vola- 
tili/.e. preventing it from reaching the parts under pressure. 
This increases the friction, thus increasing the heat until the 
brass breaks or melts. With the journal bearing surface de- 
stroyed the heat will increase until the journal is burned off or 
broken. The trucks should be square and true, otherwise the 
brasses may be forced against the box or fillets, or against or on 
top of the collars. The box may be out of line with the result 
that heating will occur in proportion to the freedom that the 
brass has, or the amount that the truck is distorted. 

There are a number of causes with a combination of conditions 
other than a lack of oil that will produce hot boxes. One of the 
principal causes is the moving of the sponging or packing away 
from the journal. The lateral movement of the axle forces the 
packing away from the inside or fillet end of the journal. It 
must follow that a surface in contact, under pressure and re- 
volving, will generate heat at the point where the packing and oil 
do not touch the journal. This heat is conducted to the full 
length of the bearing and in time causes a hot box. This is a 
difficult condition to detect from an outside examination of the 
box. It can be corrected by using the packing spoon to replace 
the packing in the back end of the box and in contact with the 
full length of the journal. 

The oil box as used on railway equipment cannot be even one- 
quarter filled with oil as the hole in the back of the box is about 
lyi in. from the bottom. This should show the necessity of hav- 
ing a good grade of saturated waste placed and kept in the 
proper position in the oil box. It should be a practice when 
examining boxes, or when they show signs of heating, to use a 
packing spoon to put the sponging back in contact with the 
journal. The most important element in the lubrication of car 
brasses is that the oil be conveyed to every part of the journal. 

Axles and journals as now made from steel give little trouble. 
The percentage of hot boxes originating from journal defects is 
small. The brass or bearing has a direct influence on the man- 

•From a paper presented before the Missabe Railway Club, Proctor, 
Minn., November 30, 1914. 

iier in which a journal will run. Every precaution should be 
taken to procure a perfect lit with a grade of bearing metal suit- 
able to withstand severe service. In following up and investigat- 
ing hot ))ox reports a number of brasses that caused trouble were 
examined. In nearly every case the lining had worn away at 
the center and not at the ends of the brass, due to a variation 
in the structure. On breaking the brasses longitudinally for ex- 
amination they were found to consist at the center of a mixture 
different from that at the ends. Others were found that were 
not solid, or had longitudinal fissures or flaws. The difference 
in the rigidity of the metal produced an unequal distribution of 
the pressure. The question of foundry practice, or the care ex- 
ercised in manufacturing car brasses, is one of the most im- 
portant features in furthering perfect lubrication. Dross or sand 
when mixed with the bearing metal causes unequal hardness, or 
what are termed "hard spots." As the soft metal wears away, 
lOncentrating the pressure on the hard spots, excessive friction 
will be caused, producing a rapid rise in temperature and ul- 
timately a hot box. The only remedy for this trouble is to 
change the brass. It would seem proper to use a high grade 
of metal for the lining of car brasses. A more general investiga- 
tion of tliis subject would undoubtedly be the means of showing 
the importance of the proper mixtures for journal bearings in 
heavy capacity car service. 

The linings in use on the European railways are made from 
copper, tin and antimony, and may be considered as having tin 
as a base. The general American practice is to use lead and an- 
timony or lead, antimony and tin or a lining with lead as a base. 
.A dynamometer car test of from 65 to 80 cars with bearings with 
lead linings, as against tests of cars with bearings made from 
babbitt, or of copper, tin and antimony, or copper, tin, antimony 
and lead, would probably show some surprising results in an 
increase or decrease in journal friction, abrasion and fuel, thus 
showing the advantage of a tough homogeneous anti-friction 
car brass lining. It is my opinion that a field is open for in- 
vestigation in the matter of the comparative wearing and fric- 
tional qualities of different mixtures of metal. With a 70-car 
train we have 560 car journals. With a small decrease or in- 
crease of friction per journal, a noticeable loss or saving on 
brasses, journals and fuel would be effected. There is one point 
that would have to be considered in a test as suggested, and that 
is, that the trains be equipped with anti-friction side bearings 
of the same pattern in order that flange friction may not be 
confused witli journal friction. 

The road track conditions, or even yard tracks with high or 
low joints affect the condition of the packing. There will be 
fewer hot bo.xcs on cars moved over good tracks than on those 
that travel over rails not in as good alinement. The handling of 
cars also has an effect on the trucks and inasmuch as the brass 
is affected by every movement of the truck, it must follow that 
all shocks are transmitted to the brass. 

Trouble will also occur when the packing has become ground 
up and reduced to a pulp, or when the strands have become so 
short that proper capillary action cannot take place to convey the 
oil from the bottom of the box to the journal. When boxes are 
packed too tight so as to shut off the flow of oil it causes a wiping 
action instead of lubricating the journal. When the packing is 
too loose it falls away and settles dow-n below the journal. Also. 
when the packing has become glazed from dirt the flow of oil 
to the journal is retarded, or when the packing has too large a 
percentage of oil it becomes hea^'y and soon settles away from 
the journal. 

After hot box compound that has been used on a hot journal 
becomes cool it will make the packing a hard, solid mass like 




Vol. 89. No. I 

grease, sluming otY the flow of oil from the hottoni of the box. 
Packing in this condition invariably causes trouble if it is not 
removed at destination. Hot box compound is intended to be 
used only when journals show signs of heating beyond the point 
where car oil will not lubricate (a certain temperature, about 
300 deg. F., at which car oil vaporizes or passes off in the form 
of a gas or smoke). It is made from mixtures that do no: 
volatilize at as low a temperature as car oil. However, on ac 
count of its damaging effect on the packing after the journal 
has become cooled, it should be used sparingly and only on jour- 
nals that car oil will not lubricate. 

Many train delays would be avoided if prompt attention could 
be given to journal boxes when they first show signs of heating, 
thus saving broken brasses, cut journals and the setting out and 
picking up of cars. Delays and hot boxes can be reduced to a 
minimum by all concerned giving attention to the details, par- 
ticularly to the condition of the packing. The oil boxes on this 
road are being systematically repacked. The waste and oil re- 
moved is cleaned, special attention being given to retaining the 
oil in the box. The packing is in better condition and more oil 
is in the boxes than at any time heretofore. 

In view of the possibility of a box or boxes having some 
or all of the packing removed, a brass or wedge cracked or 
broken, and the large number of other causes that bring on the 
heating of journals, it would seem that, from an operating and 
safety standpoint, no train should be allowed to run very many 
miles from its starting point until the crew are given an op- 
portunity to satisfy themselves that all the journals are running 

The suggestions as outlined are intended to bring to the notice 
iif those who may be interested in this subject the fact that the 
lubrication of modern railway cars is worthy of more than a 
passing interest if a reduction of train resistance is desirable. 


:igh( Repairs, Union Pacific. A 

ns, K.n. 

What is the greatest defect in box cars an<l how can it best 
be remedied? The answer depends entirely on the point of 
view. The train and engine men, if asked, would without any 
hesitation refer to our old friend, the draft gear problem ; the 
claim department would say leaky roofs ; the freight house men 
and those having to do with loading and unloading would swear 
by and at the side doors which will not open or close ; while 
the air brake inspector thinks he has all the trouble in his effort 
to maintain his 85 per cent of efficient brakes. Each branch 
has its own particular complaint to register, but when we get 
to the car repair foreman, who gets the cars in the shop for 
each and every ill that the box car is heir to, he is at a loss 
til place his finger on any defect and say it is the greatest. 

During the past few years great strides have been made in 
freight car construction, and as each succeeding sample car 
comes to us, we look it over and try and locate the weak spots 
and say, "At last we have the car that will stand ; it is hard 
to see wherein it could be improved." But after a few months 
service we find a faulty piece of designing and consequent 
trouble developing at a point where we least expected it. 

It was suggested in the announcement of the competition by 
the Railzi'ay Age Gazette, Mechanical Edition, that the draft 
gear question be left out, and it has been very thoroughly cov- 
ered in recent issues. I would just state in passing, however, 
that the champions of the friction gear are not found among 
the freight repair men. H. C. Priebe, in the September issue, 
page 453, voices, I believe, the sentiments of 75 per cent of the 
car foremen of this country. 

I believe that next tO- tht draft rigging the roof is the greatest 
source of trouble. Designs which were thoroughly satisfac- 

•Entered in the car department com |)etition which closed October 15, 1914. 

liiry 15 years ago arc now uorthless and do not last over a year 
or so. We will have to get away from the combined wood and 
metal roof and develop the all-metal roof until we have 
brought it to the required state of perfection. There are a 
number of good all-metal roofs now being tried out, and after 
a little more experience with them we should have a roof 
which will be thoroughly satisfactory. 

Unfortunately, the side door and its stubborness is a feature 
on which we do not appear to be making much progress. It is 
true, we have more elaborate and costly fixtures than we had in 
the old days, but it is also true that we have more trouble with 
the side doors than we did then. It is admitted that the size 
of the doors has increased considerably, thus making the de- 
signing of efficient hangers a much more difficult matter; but 
the fact remains that in spite of all the inventive genius which 
has been brought to bear on this subject, we are far from 
having a satisfactory door on our box cars. If anyone doubts 
this statement, he has, in order to be convinced, only to go into 
any freight yard and try to open a few doors unaided. It 
would appear that we will have to sacrifice the most desirable 
feature of having a water tight and dust proof door to providing 
one which can be operated without the use of pinch bars, rely- 
ing upon temporary stripping for protection when the contents 
are of such a nature that this action is necessary. 

The air brake is now in such a highly perfected condition that 
it would appear almost sacrilegious to offer any criticisms upon 
this, but so much of its efficiency depends upon proper mainte- 
nance that it is imperative that it should receive our best at- 
tention. The regular and systematic draining of main reservoirs 
will go a long way toward keeping the triple valves in better 
condition. "Water in triple valve" is too often the cause of de- 
fective and inoperative brakes. Piston packing leathers, too, 
should be renewed as soon as defective ; they are too often over- 
looked and investigation will show that fully SO per cent of our 
defective brakes are due to packing leathers being worn out. 

The end construction of box cars in general has left a great 
deal to be desired. Broken end posts, ends bulged out, etc., are 
prolific causes of bad order cars. A great many remedies have 
been tried out ; end posts have been reinforced with iron plates ; 
end truss rods have been applied, but the shifting load was ir- 
resistible and all our best designs went down to defeat. But the 
advent of the all-steel end bids fair to overcome this difficulty, 
and the increased first cost will be more than justified in the 
saving on repairs. 

The improvements in truck designs have kept pace with the 
car body. The arch bar truck has had a long reign, and cracked 
arch bars have caused many a bad derailment. The maintenance 
of nuts on column and journal box bolts has always been dif- 
ficult, but very necessary from a safety standpoint, and their 
elimination by the solid cast steel truck sides, which are now in 
general use on new cars, has lifted a heavy burden from the car 
inspectors and foremen. 

In conclusion, the many improvements being made show that 
the car department is not behind the locomotive department in 
its effort to keep pace with modern requirements, but is always 
on the alert to overcome the weak spots, and if each railroad will 
do its share of ridding our rails of the light wooden underframe 
cars, and also reinforce the earlier steel underframe cars, some 
of which are proving to be entirely too light, it will become 
increasingly difficult for anyone to pick out the greatest defect. 

The Di.\mond in Steel Boring. — In extending the use of the 
diamond to boring hardened steel it was found that the diamond 
seems to act equally well at almost any ordinary boring speed, 
as long as the. depth of cut is not sufficient to catch the cutting 
edge and spring the bar. The speeds and feeds seem to be about 
the same as in using a steel tool on soft steel, although it is pos- 
sible that a higher speed might be maintained should it be found 
desirable. — American Machinist. 

Steel Coaches for the Santa Fe 

New Passenger Equipment 70 I-t. Long Over I'.nd 
Sills; Day Coach Seats 83 Passengers, Chair Car 76 

Tlie Atcliison, I opcka it Santa 1-t has rtccivcd from tlic 
Pullman Company 76 coaches and 49 chair cars of all-steel con- 
struction, which were designed in the office of the engineer of 
car construction of the Santa Fe, and represent distinctly Santa 
J-'e practices. The principal details are practically identical for 
both types of cars. The interior arrangement is the same, with 
tlie exception of the .seats and an additional sink opposite the 
women's saloon in the chair cars, which is provided with hot 
and cold water and was installed for the convenience of women 
Iiassengers traveling with children. The coaches will seat 83 
passengers and the chair cars 76. The chair cars are used in 
the transcontinental service, linth typis nf cars measure 70 ft. 

a top and Lottoni cover plate 'A in. Iiy K in., the top cover plate 
extending entirely across the car, while the bottom cover plate 
extends only from the center sill to the side sill on the center 
crosstie. A pressed steel gus.sct plate is used in the center cross- 
ties, as shown in the illustration, to stiflfen the lower connection 
with the center sill. A triangular J4-in. gusset plate is used at 
ihe junction of the top cover plate and the side sill at each cross- 
tie. 'Ihis gusset also connects the crossties with the diagonal 
hraces. which are of 'A-'m- ^Y 8-in. steel plate. Diagonal braces 
,'4-in. by 8-in. extend from the side to the center sills. 

The double body bolsters are made up of double diaphragms 
of ;4-in. pressed steel, placed hack to back and located 21 m. 


— @- 

□ □ □ 

D D D 

ta Din D D D 

Tcj/s^r 7^^» i's?'i*:??^'?d4 

Floor Plan of the Santa Fe Steel Chair Car 

'iver end sills and 77 ft. 8 in. over butters. The chair cars weigh 
13,600 lb. and the coaches 13.400 lb. The inside length is 69 ft. 
4 in. and the width is 9 ft. 1 in., the width over side sills being 
9 ft. 6 in. The only wood used in the cars is the Js-in. pine 
flooring and the window capping. The exterior is painted the 
new Pullman standard body color, and the interior is finished 
in imitation dark mahogany, which is enameled and baked. 

The construction of the underframe is shown in the accom- 
panying drawings. It is made up entirely of structural steel 
shapes and steel plates. The center sill is of the fish-belly type, 
being 2 ft. 8 in. deep at the center for 7 ft. 6 in. each side of 
the middle of the car. These sills then taper for 16 ft. 4^4 in. 
to a depth of 12''s in. at the body bolster. They extend through- 

on each side of the truck center. Similar diapliragms are inserted 
between the webs of the center sill, as in the case of the cross- 
lies .\t this point each of the center sill girders is reinforced 
by a ■}4-in. by 6-in. bottom cover plate, extending 4 ft. back and 
3 ft. 6 in. forward froin the center hue of the bolster. The 
bolsters themselves are strengthened by 7-in., 9.7S-lb. channels, 
located 3 ft. 9ii in. on each side of the center line of the car. 
fhese braces also support the side bearing of the car body, 3-in. 
by 3-in. by ^-in. angles 19 in. long, and a bottom cover plate 
'/[ in. by 6 in. by 15 in. long being applied at the bottom of the 
ihannel in the center for this purpose. The body bolsters are 
further reinforced by a top cover plate of !4-in- steel 4 ft. 3 in. 
uiile. which extends between the side sills in one piece. A 

steel Passenger Equipment for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

out the length of the car between the vestibule end sills. The 
girders are 14 in. apart and are made up of 5/16-in. plates with 
two 3-in. by 3-in. by -V^-in. angles at the top and two 3-in. by 
3-in. by yi-in. angles at the bottom. A top cover plate H in. 
thick and 24 in. wide extends the full length of the car. Two 
center and two intermediate crossties are located 5 ft. 3 in. and 
l.S ft. i-'.s in., respectively, on each side of the middle of the 
car. They are made up of single J4-'n- pressed steel diaphragms 
which extend between the webs of the center and side sills ; a 
diaphragm of the same material is placed between the webs of 
the center sill at these points. Tlie crossties are reinforced by 

Ixittom cover plate ,'-2 in. by 8 in. is riveted to each set of dia- 
phragms, and large triangular gusset plates of J^4-in. steel con- 
nect the bolster with the side sill at the side nearest the end 
of the car. 

The end sill is made up of a '^-in. pressed steel diaphragm, 
extending between the center sill and the side sill. This dia- 
phragm has a 3-in. flange to which is riveted a ig-in. by 8-in. 
lop cover plate and a '4-in. by 6-in. bottom cover plate, the 
latter extending across the car from side sill to side sill. The 
top cover plate is reinforced by a 3-in. by 4-in. by '4-in. angle, 
located SH in. back from the face of the end sill, and to this 



\'oL. S9, No. 1 

Jamarv, 1915 



aic riveted tlic end posts.'Ke /-4-in. gusset plates arc used 
to tie the end sill to the side sills. An 8-iii., 11.2S-lh. channel is 
located 28-)4 in. on either side of the center line of the car and 
extends hetween the end sill and platform end sill, which is a 
steel casting. 

The side sills are made up of a 17,'.rin. hy 5/16-in. web plate, 
reinforced at the top by a 3-in. by 2 11/16-in. by l4-'n. Z-bar 
on the outside and a 3-in. by 3-in. hy 5/16-in. angle on the in- 
side, and at tlie bottom by a 3-in. by 3-in, by J^-in. angle on the 

car. Tn addition lo these I-beams there are six intermediate end 
posts made up of 4-in., S.25-lb. channels. The corner posts are 
made up of 3-in. by 2 11/16-in. by 'A-in. Z-bars, which are re- 
inforced by S/16-in. by 2 11/16-in. plates, and J^-'f- pressed steel 

^ _^ ^ ^ ^ „ , 

0( )0 




Z/l ->| 

5ecHon F-F. 
Arrangement of Body Bolster on the Santa Fe Steel Cars 

outside. These sills extend between the end sills. The side posts 
have a Z-shaped cross-section, the through posts being pressed 
from 3/16-in. steel and the short ones from J^-in. steel. The 
belt rails are '/^-in. pressed steel of Z-shaped cross-section, the 
inside and outside sheathing being riveted to the flanges. The 
side plates are of ''A-m. pressed steel, and also of Z shape, ex- 
tending through between the vestibule ends. 

The end construction is of an anti-telescoping design, two 
sets of 6-in., 23.9-Ib. I-beams being riveted to the end sill, and 
the platform end sill 22 in. on either side of the center of the 

Center Crosst 

channel-shaped members, with flanges 1J4 in- and 3^2 in., a XVi,- 
in. by lJ4-in. by J/s-in. angle being riveted to the longer flange. 
The end posts are secured to the end sill by pressed steel 
gussets. The end plate consists of a 6-in., 8-lh. channel bent 

Intermediate Crosstle for Santa Fe Steel Passenger Cars 

to a radius of 9 ft. from the side plate to the I-beam end post, 
then continuing straight across to the other I-beam. The upper 
and lower deck carlines and the deck posts are pressed in the 



\^u. 89, No. 1 

shape of a L-liannel from J-s-in. stcd. Tlu- dfck sill is a 3/16-in. 
by 1'4-in. by 8'/-in. pressed steel angle. The deck plate is a 
3/16-in. pressed steel channel, with flanges 2'. I in. and a S-in. 
web, the sheathing being riveted to the flanges. The side plate 
is pressed steel and of Z shape. 

In addition to the side and center sills, the floor is supported 
by a 5-in., 6.S-lb. channel, located 2 ft. 15/16 in. each side of the 
center line of the car. The underfranie is entirely covered by 

lead, i-lexolith pieces, covered with Xo. 14 sheet copper, are ap- 
plied to the sides and ends of the car, except at the toilet rooms. 
The insulation between the inside and outside sheathing for a few 
inches above the side sill consists of four courses of f^-in. Flax- 
linuni. The sides, ends and roof of the car are insulated with 
M-in. Fla.xlinuin, tightly fitted and held in place between the 
frame members by No. 20 pressed galvanized iron bands, sprung 
in place and fastened by H-i"- stove bolts. The frame mem- 

Arrangement of the End Framing of the Santa Fe Steel Chair Cars and Coaches 

1/16-ir.. galvanized -.teel. which is riveted to the underfranie hers themselves are insulated with Jj-in. Flaxlinum, cemented at 

members under the diagonal braces and gusset plates. On top 
of this is placed a layer of H-in. fireproof Flaxlinum, fitted in 
between the nailing strips and secured with cleats with i/^-in. 
fireproof Flaxlinum under them. A lj4-in. air space is left be- 
tween this insulation and the floor proper, which is built of 
^-in. by 3'/i-in. tongued and groved yellow pine laid in white 

the edges. 

The outside sheathing of the car is yi-in. open hearth steel 
plate, and the inside consists of No. 18 steel plate. The roof 
sheets of the upper deck are of No. 14 galvanized steel, while 
those of the lower deck are of No. 16. The roof and hood 
covering is No. 16 open hearth galvanized steel. The roof sheets 

January, 1915 



are given t)iic coat of mi-tal ruof primer and two coats of nictal 
preserving paint. This is the only part of the exterior of the 
car that is not sand-blasted before it is painted. 

The trucks used on these cars are the Santa Fe standard six- 
wheel cast steel type, having a 10-ft. 6-in. wheel base and 
37!4-in. wheels with 3%-m. steel tires. The trucks are pro- 
vided with Barber rolling center plates and side bearings, 
Symington journal bo.xes and L. N., Creco brake beams. Other 



Framing of the Santa Fe Steel Passenger Cars 

specialties applied to these cars are McCord window fixtures and 
weather stripping, two North Pole sanitary drinking fountains. 
Utility ventilators, Gould axle lighting system with Electric 
Storage Battery Company's batteries. Miner friction tandem 
draft gear, type A-19 B, and Westinghouse air brakes. Xut 
locks are applied to all bolts where possible, and where this 
is not possible the bolts are riveted over. The Chicago Car 
Heating Company's system of steam heat is used, and as a 
special feature, two risers of \%-m. pipe 16!4 i". long extend 
up inside the panels, between tlie windows, from the longitudinal 
heating pipe. Holes are made in the belt rail, and openings 
left in the top and bottom of the car to provide a circulation 
of air at these points. 

There liave recently been placed in service on the Erie a 
number of cabooses with wooden superstructure and six wooden 
longitudinal sills, but equipped with steel center sills, body bol- 
sters and end sills. These cars are 2K ft. 6 in. long over body 
end sills, but the center sills extend through between the strik- 
ing plates, the distance over the latter being 33 ft. 8 in. 

The center girder consists of two 10 in., 35 lb. channels placed 
\2% in. back to back, and a % in- top cover plate extending the 
full length. The platform end sill is a 10 in., 15 lb. channel and 
is connected to (he top of the center sill by angles. The body- 

End View of the Erie Caboose 

bolsters are built up of 's in. web plates, with 2', 2 in. by I'/i in. 
by J4 >"• angles acting as top and bottom flanges on both sides, 
and a J^ in. top cover plate extending the width of the car. 
There is also a ! j in. bottoin cover plate extending just beyond 
the side bearings. The truck centers are 22 ft. 2 in. apart. 

The wooden sills are 5 in. bv 9 in., and rest directiv on the cen- 

The Steel Members of the Underframe of 

Erie Caboose 



Vol, 89, No. 1 

January, 1915 

RA11.WA^■ Af;K C..\7.\':VT\-.. Ml'.CllAMCAI. l':i)ITION 


l^^-W-— /54-^-^^ /7f—^-^^ 

Arrangement of the Steel Members of the Caboose Underframe 

Floor Plan of the Erie Caboose 



Vol. 89. X.i. 1 

ter girder and body bolsters, while two truss rods, one on cither 
side of the car at the outside, pass over wooden needle beams 
placed 3 ft. 7 in. on either side of the center line. The draft 
gear stops are riveted directly to the 10 in. channels which 
form the center sills. The wooden center and intermediate 
sills are carried through to the platform end sills, these exten- 
sions forming sills for the platform which is 2 ft. 1 in. wide. 
The steps are of steel construction with wooden treads. 

The car is 32 ft. 8 in. long over the roof and 8 ft. 11 in. wide 
over the eaves. The cupola extends nearly the full width of 
the car at the base. taperin,s> to a width of 7 ft. 7^4 in. over the 

ami the steel roofs whenever conditions warrant it. In most 
cases, no attention is given to the metal parts underneath a car, 
whereas they should be well protected. 

Next in point of importance is the steel or semi-steel rooting. 
It is very important that this should be kept in first class con- 
dition in order to preserve it. The underside as well as the out- 
side should be well painted when the car is being constructed, 
for the most deadly enemy to steel is moisture and there is no 
place where it is more apt to lurk than in the hidden parts of 
car construction. 

One of the most expensive operations in painting cars is 

Wooden Caboose with Steel Center Ellis and Body Bolste 

eaves; it extends 6 ft. 6; t in. lengthwise of the roof. The car 
is 14 ft. 81/2 in. high over the cupola roof at the center. Special 
attention has been given to making the interior arrangement 
as comfortable and convenient as possible for the trainmen. 
The weight of the car is 38,700 lb. 


Forenun Painter. Delanare. Lackawanna & Western, East Buffalo. N. Y. 

There is no money expended in tiie maintenance of railway 
ecjuipment that gives more value than that used in protecting a 
car well with paint. On the steel car, rust and corrosion soon 
take place, caused from sulphur, dripping, etc., and the car be- 
comes weakened and is a source of danger in transit. 

On the road with which I am connected it is considered neces- 
sary to repaint steel cars once in three or four years, covering 
all portions of the car, and as far as my observation has gone 
the stenciling is always legible and most of the exterior of the 
car is in good condition. We employ a system of painting the 
cars in series, so that no haphazard painting is resorted to. Our 
wooden cars give a longer term of service. However, those 
which have steel underframes require closer checking and if 
we discover the frames are rusting we scrape and paint them 

Frontier Car Men*s Association, 

Stenciling, and it should lie done with :i desire to convey as 
plainly as possible the information desired. First, the names 
and numbers of all cars should be in a uniform place, so that 
any one may know at all times just where to look for them. 
I am glad to say that a movement is at last under way to get 
the car owners to adopt a system of uniform standards of let- 

The officers of some roads have advanced the idea that the 
painting of freight cars cannt>t be done during the winter months, 
especially in this climate and out of doors. During the year 
1907, when we started the work at our East Buffalo shops, we 
Iiainted, 1,413 cars. Nine cars were painted in January, three in 
I'ebruary and two m March, so that we were practically at a 
standstill for three months. During 1909 we painted 2,198 cars; of 
these we painted 156 in January, 128 in February and 182 in 
March. In 1914 we painted over 3.000 cars, of vhich 177 were 
done in January, 158 in February, 165 in March and 122 in April. 
I think these figures show that we have been wrong in assuming 
that work of this nature could not be done during the winter 
months. Previously our year's total output was reduced, and we 
were obliged to lay off men of some experience who were of 
more value than new men, due to the fact that in working to- 
gether, they become more efficient and can accomplish more work. 

.\s most of the work done is in the open air, tracks should 
be assigned for this special purpose so as not to interfere with 
the repair men. The weighing of cars is no small item and 
should be entrusted to a reliable man who, after the cars are 
weighed, can put on the new weight, giving a report of the old 

January, 1915 


as well as the new weiglns sn thai the jimper reports can he 

The men who arc assigned to look after the repair yard must 
at all times he on the alert, for whenever cars are undergoinK 
repairs, more or less ot the sheathing is ripped off, destroying 
the stenciled information which should he replaced heforc the 
oar goes back into service. One item is wrong door numbers, 
due to the fact that an old door from some other car has been 
used instead of a new one. This is a source of confusion to 
those who are obliged to take numbers, as often the number is 
taken from the door instead of the side of the car. 

The reclaiming of paint skins and settlings is an item that 
should be thoroughly looked after, for considerable money can 
very soon lind its way to the scrap pile if the stock man is not 
watchful. He should also be responsible for tools and brushes 


The fact that stfjck ears are used tor many other kinds of 
freight, such as lumber, rails, ties, etc., seems to have been 
ignored by many designers and builders. As a matter of fact, 
if a careful check were made on some roads it would probably 
be found that stock cars arc used for this class of traflfic con 
siderably more than for livestock. Even though the percentage 
of this traffic does not run high, the ends of stock cars will, on 
the average, receive more severe end shocks than box cars be- 
cause, with the exception of rails or similar loads of steel, the 
majority of the materials loaded in them are piled high in the 
car and some of them, particularly pipe and pulpwood, are slip- 
pery, which causes them to produce heavy shocks ; on the other 
, ,, TT'^ 

7/S^ CanfRaiL 

given out each day and see that they are returned at the end of 
the day's work and placed where they belong. A suitable build- 
ing for the storage of oil and paints is essential as well as 
modern devices for mixing paint, and sanitary quarters should 
be provided for the workmen. 

O.XYGEN IN Blast Furn.\ce Practice. — If oxygen is added to 
the air-blast for a blast furnace, so that it is present to the extent 
of 23 per cent in the air instead of the normal 21 per cent, there 
is a saving of from 110 to 130 lb. in the amount of coke required 
to smelt a ton of iron, and the iron produced is said to be of a 
higher quality. — Scientific American. 

fie Stock Cars 

hand box cars, being used lor a greater variety of lading, do not 
so frequently have a load of this description. 

This condition is not taken care of in many designs, and for 
this reason the end arrangement of the latest type of car built 
by the Canadian Pacific may be of interest, as illustrating how 
a substantial end may be easily and economically applied to a 
car of otherwise standard construction. This car is a standard 
design that has given excellent service for some years, but the 
newer cars have been constructed with steel center sills in con- 
nection with reinforced ends to eliminate draft gear troubles. 

The end construction consists of two 5 in. 11.6 lb. Z-bar end 
posts, heavy angle corner posts, a 5 in. 11.6 lb. Z-bar end plate 



Vol. 89, Xo. 1 

securely attached tu the end posts, and corner posts securely 
attached to the wooden side plates by means of gussets with 
several bolts through the timber. The lower ends of the end 
posts arc connected to a sill plate passing over the top of the 
wooden end sill and riveted to the steel center sill, iirmly 
uniting the center sill construction and the end framing. The 
end lining consists of 2}i in. tongued and grooved pine or 
spruce for a height of 4 ft. above the flooring, with 1^ in. thick- 
ness the balance of the height. 

This construction produces a car that is economical in first 
cost and will satisfactorily withstand ordinary service conditions 
either for stock or other lading. 

The last order of these cars was equipped with socket cast- 
ings inside of the slats to support temporary decks. This tem- 
porary deck is so designed that if similar castings are applied, 
the same deck will be interchangeable in any 36 ft. car. When 
these castings are applied to a car, the sheathing board immedi- 
ately below the fascia is remo\e(l to provide ventilation for 
lading carried on the upper deck. , 


Chief Interchange Inspector, Chicago, III. 

Joint repair shops should be established in districts in which a 
large number of industries are located, so that after bad order 
loaded cars arriving in these territories are unloaded, they can 
be repaired and reloaded. This avoids hauling the car back empty 
to the delivering line, and also creates a supply of good order 
"•ars for loading at industries in such districts. If such cars were 
repaired, it would also avoid the necessity of the hauling of a 
large number of empty cars into such districts for loading. 

The available cars for such joint shops in Chicago, for ex- 
ample, would amount to about 250 cars per day, including 
both light and heavy repairs. In addition to the cars that ac- 
cunmlate in these territories, provision should also be made 
for forwarding to such shops, foreign bad order cars which 
accumulate in the terminals of railroads in the vicinity so as 
to entirely relieve the railroad companies' shops from the neces- 
sity of repairing foreign equipment. It is far more economical 
to carry such necessary foreign material as is needed at a joint 
shop than it is to carry a supply at each of the shops of the 
various railroads entering a large terminal. 

The M. C. B. Rules which went into effect on October 1, 
1914, and in particular rules 1, 2 and 120, have brought about 
the accumulation of a large number of foreign bad order cars ; 
if such repairs were made at a joint shop, a great deal of the 
material removed from the cars which the car owner orders dis- 
mantled under rule 120 could be used when making repairs to 
foreign cars. If joint car shops were established, an organi- 
zation should .be created to supervise as follows : 

First: To authorize repairs that are necessary by making an 
inspection of the cars. 

Second : To see that the repairs are properly made. 

Third : To see that bills are properly rendered for the work 

One of the great advantages to be gained by having a joint car 
shop would be the creation of a car supply, thereby saving a 
large amount of money, both in intermediate switching charges 
and per diem which accumulates while such cars are being moved 
back and forth. The delay of moving such cars to repair tracks 
for repairs should also be considered. 

To illustrate, if a car moving under load from one railroad to 
another via a switching line to an industry is found in bad order 
on unloading, it is returned to the switching line for delivery to 
the originating line where the repairs are finally made. A joint 

•From a paper presented at the December meeting of the Car Fore- 
men's Association of Chicago. 

car shop would reduce the switching and make the car available 
for loading more quickly, as well as reduce the liability of dam- 
age due to accident on account of handling bad order cars. 

Another matter that would have to be looked into, woiild be 
the question of the proper amount to be allowed to the terminal 
line for switching charges to and from such shops. When a 
car is delivered to a switching line under load, a switching charge 
is made which carries with it the return of the empty car to the 
originating line. The movement of cars from industries, after 
they are unloaded, to the shops for repairs would be about the 
same as though the cars were returned to the originating line 
empty, and switching charges should only be allowed for the 
service of switching the car from such shops after the repairs 
had been completed. This, however, would not apply to cars 
delivered empty to such lines by railroad companies for repairs 
at such shops; in such cases separate rates should be made. 



The most important defects in bo.K cars are those w-hich 
cause a lack of thorough protection to lading. A box car is 
housed for the detinite purpose of protecting freight against 
loss and damage and any car which is built for this purpose 
should be so designed that under ordinary wear and tear, with 
reasonable maintenance, all parts should combine to give 
thorough protection during the full life of the car. The box 
car has been developed and u.sed on this continent much 
more than elsewhere and even today foreign countries are 
moving their freight largely in open-top cars covered only 
with waterproofed cloth. 

The superstructure of a box car is an expensive article 
compared with that on a gondola car and much more is 
expected of it in the way of protection of lading. The defects 
which cause this lack of protection can usually be attributed 
to faulty design, poor workmanship, rough usage or lack of 
maintenance. Designers are, too frequently, not in close 
enough touch with the cars they have designed, and are work- 
ing on new designs before the defects in the previous ones 
have been developed far enough, or discovered at all. This 
condition is more liable to occur when railroads want cars 
in a hurry, which is usually the way they want them. A car 
often shows weaknesses after several years of service which 
were not apparent when it was new. Much poor workmanship is 
caused by men working under the piecework system; under 
these conditions they will not waste a minute to make good 
a defect which can be hidden, and this frequently occurs when 
the system of inspection is lax. Rough usage is something 
for which the operating department is chiefly responsible, 
but the car designer, builder and repairer can each do their 
share to prevent its bad effects. 

The most common defects which cause loss and damage 
are in roofs and doors. The remedy for these defects lies in 
eternal vigilance and a constant lookout should be kept for 
signs of weakness. Much good information can be obtained 
by inspecting cars in rainy weather and by watching cars 
traveling when loaded; by car designers getting in touch with 
operating conditions and obtaining information from those 
in a position to regularly observe cars in service and on re- 
pair tracks. Any part of a car should be of such a nature 
that with reasonable maintenance it will give satisfaction 
during the whole life of the car. Designs should be simple 
but efficient and a few dollars spent in careful designs may 
save many times as much money later. The railroads can- 
not spend money to better advantage than to see that the de- 
signs of their box cars are carefully made and thoroughly 
considered in the smallest details and, if necessary, thor- 
oughly tested before the building of large numbers of cars. 

•Entered in the car departn 

ompetition which closed October IS, 1914. 

p Pmactic 




Chief Clerk. Motive Power Deparlment. New York Ccntrnl * Hudson River. 

Peekskill. N. Y. 

The report of work required on locomotives at engine houses 
on one of the main line divisions of a large eastern railroad is 
handled with the use of three forms. That shown in Fig. 1 is 

sary repairs made the book is also signed in the proper column \>y 
the workman who cares for this class of work. This renders 
it easy to place responsibility for failure of this equipment if such 
failure is due to neglect in maintenance or to the engineman not 
reporting the defects. 

The form shown in Fig. 2 is in book form, containing either 
ISO or 300 pages, according to the size of the terminal where it 
is in use, and entries are made in black ink by the work report 
clerks from the dictation of the engineman on arrival. Each 

Condition of Locomotives at end of trip, and of Air Bral(e Equipment before leaving terminal. 

Date (^-^rir--^ ^ / >s- 19 ; // 

Loco. No. 








(To be signed by A. B. Itisp.) 










So o o 






; oi-c 



Oj^».,w_4^ <^ ji-A/O-wv^^ 

Cf-Z^ ^^^^ 



— 1 

Fig. 1 — Form Showing Condition of Engine at End of Trip 

used for reporting the condition of the locomotive at the end 
of the trip and of the air brake equipment when leaving the 
terminal. The form in Fig. 2 is used to indicate the condition 
of the locomotive at the end of the trip and that in Figs. 3 and 4 
is the locomotive work card. The practice is uniform at each 
point on the division. 

The form in F'ig. 1 is in book form containing 150 or 300 pages, 
according to the size of the terminal at which it is used, and shows 

item of work reported is shown separately and numbered in con- 
secutive order, commencing with No. 1, for each locomotive. 
For example : 

Right injector does not prime No. 1 

Clean out tank wells No. 2 

Repack right trailer box or examine brass No. 3 

The numbers of each item are shown in the column at the 
extreme right-hand side of the page. 

Condition of Locomotives at end of Trip. 

n.t^ ^^-^^On--^ ^ /'>s- i9jj£ 

Loco. No. 

The Locomotive is in good condition, with following exceptions 

(To be signed by ENGINEMAN and INSPECTOR) 

of each Item 

(^<^^P->— e-A -C^- /VA^yU>t — 

irv\/- -trv^ .g— ^a.»~-...'— t -^^-^^-^^^ 




Fig. 2 — Form for Reporting Locomotive Repair Work 

the condition of the air brake equipment, also of the injectors on 
locomotives arriving. Entries are made in black ink by the work 
report clerks from the dictation of the engineman who signs the 
book with his full name in ink before leaving the office, each 
item being marked "O. K." or "Not O. K." as the case may be. 
After the air brake equipment has been inspected and the neces- 

•Entcred in the competition on Engine House Work, which closed July 

It might be said here that a vigorous campaign of instruc- 
tion is conducted by the road foremen and assistant road foremen 
of engines among the enginemen to educate them along the lines 
of rendering clear and concise reports covering the existing de- 
fects as nearly as possible. This means a saving in time for 
the engine house force as it relieves them of the necessity of 
searching for the cause of the trouble. 

Each engineman signs his full name in ink under the items. 



Vol. 89. No. 1 

reported by luni on his locomotive. If an cngiiUMiian has milhhig 
to report his locomotive number is entered, and he signs the 
book over the words "No Defects." Any work not reported by 
the cngineman, and found necessary by any of the inspectors, is 
also entered in tliis book in red ink by the clerk and signed for 
by the man making the report. 

The small work slips shown in Figs. 3 and 4 then come into 
use. Work reported on the form in Fig. 2 is transcribed by the 
clerk to these slips, a separate slip for each item reported, the 
numbers of the slips corresponding with the numbers of the 
items shown in Fig. 3. The slips arc distributed to the sub- 

£»« No I £n«' 


■•r y nr logp. i_ I PUce and Dnt« 

Above Work Peifonaed bjr 

!t.(rCv>.A/ ^- 


Fig. 3— Work Report Slip 

foremen by the engine house foreman, being given out according 
to the nature of the work, boiler work to the foreman boiler- 
maker, oiler's and doper's slips to the head oiler, machine work 
to the gang foreman, etc. These foremen distribute the slips to 
the men who actually perform the work. 

The work slips are divided into three classes, as follows : 

1. — Includes all forms showing defects which were remedied 
before the engine was despatched. 

2. — Includes all forms for repairs which in the judgment of 
the foreman are not necessary. 

3. — Includes all forms covering defects that were not remedied 
before the engine was despatched. 

First-class slips must be properly dated and signed with the 

BEMABKS-Wh7 Not Don< 



■^T-^-^ '^ (j'^^^T-^^ 


' S-x,s 

-.v.-,.XCPC:i-<- - '^— T,vJ_< 


-L^ ^ ^ 

Fig. 4 — Reverse of Work Report Slip 

full name of the workman who makes the repairs. Second-class 
slips are marked with the words "not necessary" by the engine 
house foreman, who signs and dates them across the face. Third- 
class slips must show on the back why the work was not done 
before the engine was despatched, over the engine house fore- 
man's signature and the date of signing. As soon as each slip 
is completed it is deposited by the workman in a box provided 
for the purpose in the engine house. These slips are collected 
by a messenger and taken to the work report clerk who checks 
them of? in the book. Fig. 2, as follows : 

For first-class slips a figure 1 is placed opposite the item in 

tile column hea<lcd "Uisposition of each item of work reported," 
Fig. 2. For second-class slips, a figure 2 is placed in the book, 
and for third-class slips a figure 3 is used. 

After being thus checked ofT the slips are filed in a separate 
cabinet provided with two compartments for each locomotive 
number, a large one for first and second-class slips and a small 
one for third-class slips. This cabinet is shown in Fig. S. This 
keeps the slips covering unfinished work separate, and they are 
again delivered to the workmen on each subsequent arrival of 
the locomotive until the work reported is completed, when the 
ligure 3 in the book shown in Fig. 2 is circled and a figure 1 is 
I)laced opposite it, indicating that the repairs have been made. 
Slips covering work reported on engines going to the main 
shops, or sent for permanent assignment to some other point, 
are forwarded by mail to that point and after the work is done 
are returned, checked off, and filed away, thus making the 
record complete. Before the ISth of each month all first and 
second-class slips for the preceding month are removed and filed 
in packages properly listed, together with the completed books, 
Figs. 1 and 2, for further reference. 

It will be noted that a perusal of the book shown in Fig. 2 
will show just what was done with each item reported, and while 




Fig. 5 — Work Report Filing Cabinet 

it may seem that this system is too intricate for practical pur- 
poses, actual practice proves that such is not the case, as it has 
been in use for three years with very good results. With this 
method it can be very quickly determined just what work was 
reported on any locomotive by referring to Fig. 2 and then from 
the number of the slip listed therein, the work slips can easily be 
located from which the signature of the workman who made 
the repairs and the date they were made can be obtained. The 
fact that such an absolute record is possible with this system 
has a tendency to make the workmen more careful as they 
know that they can be closely checked up for each item of work 
done. The form shown in Fig. 2 also furnishes a rapid and 
accurate means of determining the number of arrivals and the 
number of engines repaired at a given point for any period de- 
sired, which is something that required a great deal of time to 
complete before this system was inaugurated. The cost of in- 
stalling this system is not great, because, except at large terminals 
where a great many engines are handled, the system can be taken 
care of by the regular engine house clerks in addition to their 
other duties. 

Tool M.\kers. — Until a manufacturer reaches the stage where 
he can employ steadily the minimum number of tool makers, a 
toolroom is a rather expensive proposition. — American Machinist. 

Riveting in Steel Car Construction 

A Brief l3iscussion of Rivet Manufacture; Opera- 
tions Which Are Necessary to Secure Tight Rivets 

General l-'<ircman, Canadian Car and Foundry Company, Montreal Oue. 

One of the prime factors upon wliich the strength of a steel 
car depends is tlie riveting and its appearance may be perma- 
nently marred by careless workmanship or the use of improper 
tools. Tifjht rivets of uniform shape and size, without collars 
<ir marked plates, can only be had by studying the details of 
every operation in the history of the rivet. This history begins 
with the ordering of the stock and includes the arrangements 
made for .storins it from the time it is rolled till the rivets are 
driven as well as the operations of manutacturin.u and driving. 


Stock fi>r ri\ft^ shnitld lie purchased to speciliealinns and 
carefully checked by the purchaser's inspector. Particular atten- 
tion should be paid to the diameter of the bars as a very small 
variation over size will make them too large to go through the 
dies without leaving heavy fms on both sides of the shank of 
the rivet, while if the stock is undersize, the dies will not grip 
it and the header will shove it back instead of upsetting it. 
Rivet material should be stored in a dry place under cover, and 
.should be stocked in small quantities in order that it may be 
used before being damaged by rusting. The rust comes off in 

Rivet Heading Machine with Overhead Crane and Storage Bins 
in the Bacl<ground 

the dies, making it impossible to produce clean rivets from very 
old stock. It also spoils the bottom of the furnace. Poorly 
made steel rushed through the various operations in manufac- 
ture and steel made by rerolling or "bushelling" scrap are par- 
ticularly liable to corrosion and pitting. If the bars are very 
badly pitted, the shanks of the rivets made from it will appear 
to have been overheated, and they may be scrapped as burnt by 
the heater boys in the riveting gangs. Difficulty will be found 

in heading stock that has rusted very badly because it will be 
under size and the dies cannot grip it. I here will also be trouble 
in driving, due to a lack of material to make a full head ; and 
because of the weakened cross section, pitted stock has a tendency 
to bend rather than to upset. For the same reason the supply 
of rivets kept on hand shoulrl be small. Open rivet bins collect 
a great deal if <lust and this, together with moisture, stray elec- 
tric currents, anil the gases in the shop, is the source of rapid 

)^)roken rivets, thuugh generally attributable to poor mate- 
rial, are sometimes the result of improper heating of the rivet 
stock. Very few machine hands really know how to heat, and 
tend to get too much material into the furnace at one time. 
Before it is worked up the last few bars have soaked so long 
that the metal will be soft and spongy. Rivets made from such 
metal have a very crystalline structure and are very brittle 
when ciild. This sin mid lie explained to all operators and they 
should Ijo particularly w;iriied to shut down the furnace when 
delays occur for slight repairs, etc. Another prevalent practice 
is to make rivets before the stock is heated hot enough to flow 
properly, and as a result the edge of the rivet head is cracked all 
around. The reason neither of these conditions causes very 
much trouble lies in the fact that the heating for driving really 
acts as heat treatment for metal not too greatly changed in 
structure, the hammering completing the cure. Those previously 
heated to excess waste so rapidly that they arc scrapped. 

If the volume of work justilics it, the best and cheapest method 
of handling the stock and product is to install an electric crane, 
though provision should be made for handling by hand in event 
of any accident to this equipment. It may also be handled by 
means of an industrial railway and an elevator for lifting the 
trucks to the top of the bins. This method takes more labor 
for handling purposes and considerable floor space that with the 
crane system can be utilized for other purposes. Whatever sys- 
tem is used the boxes can be arranged close enough to the ma- 
chine fur the rivets to fall directly into them, and save the 
time and lalior necessary for shoveling. A small jib crane near 
the machine may be used to lift the boxes and to change dies. 

In choosing a heading machine a multiplicity of parts is to be 
avoided; the die gripping mechanism should be positive and the 
attachments easy to adjust. The output may be seriously affected 
by the time required to change dies after the machine has been 
used for some time because of the time lost in packing out dies 
and otherwise trying to correct the wear on the slides. No 
amount of packing will compensate for worn slides. The rivet 
heads may be off center owing to the header rising or swerving 
to one side, or the shanks out of true because of the lost motion 
in the gripping slides. For these reasons the machine chosen 
should be designed with some arrangement enabling accurate 
alinement to be maintained. It is preferable that scale and wa- 
ter should not fall on the slides, as this is the cause of a greater 
part of the wear. 

Rivet machine dies should be made of a good alloy steel or- 
dered specially for this purpose. Carbon steel may serve for 
rivets made in small quantities, but for long runs on the larger 
sizes the edges of the passes will fail,' the temper being drawn 
by the hot work. Such a pair of dies will outlast several pairs 
of carbon steel and repay the higher first cost not only in re- 
placement, but in machine time saved and in the quality of the 

Unless special precautions are taken, some difficulty may be 



No. 1 

had in getting the two dies to line up in the machine owing to 
the variation in the distance from the center of the passes to the 
face resting on the slide. A method which prevents such trouble 
is to ciamp the two die blocks together and machine them up 
square, then put thetn on a surface plate and lay off the center 
of the passes from the plate, so that this important dimension 
is always the same. The most economical dies are made with 
two passes on the side; if only a small number of rivets are re- 
quired of one diameter and length, the bore of the different 
passes need not be the same. Worn dies can be redrilled for 
rivets of a larger diameter, and tliey may be planed down for 
shorter lengths as the ends of the passes wear. The bore of the 
pass is material size, it being the usual practice to roll rivet stock 
1/64 in. below size, the expansion due to heating being sufficient 
to hold the stock under the impact of the header after it has been 
cut off from the bar. The sharp edge should be taken off the 
end of the pass next the header to leave a small fillet between the 
liead and shank of the rivet. Different makes of machines re- 
quire different sizes of die blocks, but the length of the pass 
equals the length of the rivet plus 1/16 in. 

With the exccptior;,of the shank the header must be hardened 
or it will upset, bend or break. Great care should be taken when 
setting the dies that the header is not off center, as a lop-sided 
head detracts greatly from the strength and appearance of the 
rivet. The size of the cup should be gaged frequently, as a 
worn cup will make big heads and ragged riveting will result. 

Every shop has its own standard proportions for rivet heads, 
and it is unusual to find any two agreeing exactly in size. After 
a company has tried and adopted certain standard sizes, however, 
they should be firmly adhered to. A complete set of master gages 
should be made and kept with the shop records and duplicate sets 
for machine shop use placed in the tool room. Every department 
foreman concerned should have a male gage for all the sizes in 
general use, so that he may knpw that his tools are in good con- 
dition. That the strength of the work, especially single riveted 
joints, is increased by any addition to the weight of the rivet head 
is true ; but it is not advisable to go beyond the usual sizes given 
in the hand books on structural steel, as the increased strength 
is obtained at an increased cost for rivet stock, the output from 
each riveter is decreased, owing to the trouble in keeping the 
greater lengths from bending in the machine, and a greater num- 
ber of rivets are driven loose because of the increased difficulty 
in getting the shanks to upset in the hole. On the other hand the 

f§ Diam. 


g iVrench 

Wrenches for Use In Assembling Steel Cars 

head should not be made* too shallow as it is liable to snap off in 
tension, nor should it be spread so that the diameter is out of 
proportion to the height, or the material be distorted in forming. 


Granting that the forming is well done and the punching is ac- 
curate so that the holes match well, it is of the greatest im- 

portance that all parts be bolted together so closely that the 
rivet cannot spread and form a collar between them which will 
hold the two surfaces apart. All work should be lined up by 
means of gages and straight edges and bolted so solidly that the 
reaming will not disturb it. Wrenches for assembling should 
be made similar to those shown in the engraving, the pointed 
ends serving as pins which may be used to pull the parts into 
line. The handle may seem long but as it is positively neces- 
sary to have the parts of the w'ork drawn close together, short 
handles should only be used when space does not permit the use 
of long ones. Medium weight sledges with smooth faces and no 
sharp edges to mark the work may be used to drive the parts to 
place. Benches or trestles for assembling purposes should be 
strongly made. A light rail spiked to the top will facilitate 
handling heavy work. Jigs for the sides, ends, etc.. should be 
of heavy construction so that they will retain their accuracy 
under rough handling. 

All work should be assembled with bolts the same size as 
the rivets to be driven ; punching not allowing for this should 


/g Turnbuckfe 

J C 


'Z WrougM Iron Pipe 

Brace and Clamp for Use In Assembling Steel Cars 

not be accepted. Bolts with special coarse threads should be 
made for assembling, 7 threads per inch for 5^ in. bolts and 6 
threads per inch for Yi, in. bolts. The standard thread wears 
too rapidly for this work and the bolts cannot be rethreaded 
as many times, nor can they be tightened up as quickly. Wash- 
ers for assembling may be made cheaply from scrap of various 
thicknesses. Nuts that are too big to be retapped are suitable 
if used witli a plate washer next the work. The supply of 
bolts should be plentiful and include a number of lengths as 
it is often necessary, in case of a projecting flange or two bolts, 
coming close together, to use a long bolt and a number of 
washers in order to get the nut in such a position that the 
wrench can be used to advantage. Numerous attempts have 
been made to get away from the bolt and nut as a means of 
fastening, and various kinds of clamps tried, but those found 
pow-erful enough to close up the work are expensive to make 
in the quantities required. 

Drift pins are best made of a good tough steel high enough 
in carbon to make them stiff but not enough for them to fly 
under the impact of the sledge. Old reamers or dies drawn 
down are dangerous for this reason. Braces should be made 
of \y^ in. round stock, the threaded end being upset for a 1^ 
in. turnbuckle. Spreaders may be made of pieces of pipe in 
which a fork threaded to the head, with one nut on it, is in- 
serted. Jacks of various sizes and kinds, a number of strong 
clamps and several chains of different sizes complete the as- 
sembler's outfit. 


It is quite usual to find the reaming handled by the least 
intelligent men in the shop, for the air motor is heavy and the 
work monotonous, but no man should run one of these machines 
until he has had its principles explained to him and he knows 
enough to see that it is properly taken care of. It is good prac- 
tice to use one make and size of machine throughout the shop, 
since then it is only necessary to keep one type of repair parts 
on hand and all tools are interchangeable. The non-reversible 
motor is preferable because it is impossible to run the tool in 
the wrong direction, and the power may be cut off positively 

January, 1915 



in c;isc of accident. A good air niacliiiic w^■il^h^ alioiit 50 lb., 
and uses from 30 to 40 cu. ft. of free air prr iiiiiiiiic at HO 11). 
pressure. The work of reaming is carrinl on nmlcr condi- 
tions that are far harder on the machine than any drilling with- 
in its capacity. Unfortunately it appears that these machines 
are developed for conditions favorable to drilling; the higher 
speeds, liea\ier cuts and lack of positive support — conditions 
that nuisi lie met in reaming — greatly increase the repair bills 
and necessitate more than ordinary care to keep the machines 
always in first class order. The prime requirement is to keep 
them well oiled. There are several makes of grease for use in 
air motors. Each machine should be partly filled at intervals 
and one man should be detailed to oil every luachine at least 
once a day. 

h'or car work it is cheaper to m;d<e reamer tools than to liuy 
them. E.xtrcmc accuracy not being called for, they may be 
1/64 in. over size to allow for grinding. The shanks for all 
sizes should be made for No. 3 Morse taper sockets. By this 
practice the larger sizes may be recut for the smaller sizes with- 
out toiK-iiing the shanks, and it is necessary to remove the 
socket from the machine only when replacing it by a new one. 
Care should be taken with the tang and taper, since a bad fit- 
ting tool means time lost in the shop trying to get it to stay in 
the machine. If the tool is loose in the socket it may drop 
partly out when the machine is started, break the corner off 
the tang and spoil the socket ; for this reason it is best that 
all sockets and shanks should be fitted to standard gages and 
that worn sockets be scrapped. .A drift pin should be pro- 
vided for removing the tools from the socket. The sockets 
should always be removed from the machine by the last turn 
of the feed screw, or by a hardened steel rod which is passed 
through the spindle after the feed screw has been removed. 
Reamers should be made of high speed steel, as in most cases 
it is impossible to have water at hand for cooling purposes, 
and carbon reamers burn up unless water cooled. 

It has proved the best practice to use J4 i"- air hose, and as 
flexibility is not of as great importance as with the riveting 
hammers, the heaviest kind of armored hose will be found the 
cheapest for this work; J/^ in. hose connections should be used 
for all pneumatic tools. 

The following facts should be impressed upon the reamer 
operator: That a reamer is a high priced machine, not to be 
subjected to unnecessarily rough usage; that the parts operate 
at a high speed under pressure, and unless plentifully supplied 
with lubricant, the cost for repairs and lost time will be heavy ; 
that there is a critical speed at which the tool works best which 
is very near the stalling point; that drilling is a different propo- 
sition from reaming, the drill being run with the lowest pos- 
sible speed and the greatest feed up to the stalling point. 

The development of the electric drill has been so rapid that 
it is only a question of time before it replaces the air machine. 
It is cheaper to install, and costs less for upkeep. There is 
practically no loss from leakage and no drop in pressure, two 
things greatly against the air machine; nor do changes of 
weather and temperature affect it. It has been stated that 
drilling with compressed air is approximately two to three times 
more expensive than with electrically operated drills, and the 
same holds goods for reaming. The two great reasons for not 
installing electric reamers are the fact that it is still necessary 
to use air to drive the rivets and that the machines operated 
by alternating current are not as successful as those using di- 
rect current. Since alternating current is largely used for power, 
the use of direct current accessories would require the installation 
of a converter set and special wiring. 


Rivets can be driven by a pneumatic riveter at a lower cost 
than by a hydraulic rixeter or a pneumatic hammer. Space in 
the present article is not available to do more than state the 
fact, but it amounts to about 25 per cent saving over the hy- 

draulic ni;ahine and nearly 50 per cent over the pneumatic 
hammer. In addition the rivets arc tighter because the toggle 
effects a gradual application of the pressure which constantly in- 
creases as the stroke advances and the shank of the rivet is tjp- 
set so that it completely fills the hole. It is therefore seen that 
any work which can be handled to a machine or on which a 
portable riveter can be employed, should be machine riveted. 

There are a number of makers with both stationary and port- 
able riveters on the market, several different types of which are 
designed especially for car shop purposes. When buying this 
eipiipment it is a mistake to get larger sizes than the greater 
part of the work calls for. The majority of the rivets used being 
'y in. and H in., machines to drive these sizes and no larger 
should lie purchased. .\n inch increase in the diameter of the 
piston and an inch or two added to the length of the stroke 
may greatly increase the number of cubic feet of air used. This 
is decidedly expensive, for according to Hiscox a two stage 
compressor under the best conditions develops 14.5 hp. in com- 
pressing 100 cu. ft. of free air per minute_ to 90 lb. pressure. 
This means that a machine using 5 cu. ft. of free air per rivet, 
driving 20 rivets per minute, allowing for leaks the uses 16 hp. 
Since a little over half this volume of air at this pressure is 
required to drive a J^ in. rivet it is obvious that the best policy 
is to buy only enough large machines to take care of the rivets 
in the draft gear, the draw bar yokes, and the few other large 
rivets that may be required. Unnecessarily large riveters also 
mean further expense for increased compressor and receiver 

Professors I. nvvin and Keimcdy in a series of tests made in 
1881-1885 proved that the shearing resistance of rivets is not 
highest in joints riveted by means of the greatest pressure and 
the ultimate strength of joints is not affected to an appreciable 
extent by the mode of riveting. Very great pressure in riveting 
is therefore not the indispensable requirement that it is some- 
times supposed to be. Further tests proved that if the thickness 
of the material which the rivet passes through does not exceed 
the diameter of the rivet plus 'A in., and the rivet is hot, 15 
tons pressure will thoroughly fill the hole and make a good }i 
in. rivet. As the plate thickness increases, the pressure required 
increases approximately in proportion to the square root of the 
increase of thickness. That is, if the total thickness of plate 
is four times the diameter of the rivet we should require twice 
the pressure given above in order to thoroughly fill the hole 
and do good work. It is possible to use so high a pressure as to 
seriously injure the work. The plates are bruised and bent, and 
the holes may be subjected to a radial pressure sufficiently great 
to develop cracks in any but the very best plate. This condition 
is further aggravated, especially on thin stock, by the heat con- 
veyed to it from the rivet and hot die. Stresses are set up be- 
tween the hot and cold parts of the plate, a temperature is de- 
veloped corresponding to a blue heat resulting in brittleness and 
the development of cracks later on. Most manufacturers issue 
a double warning with their machine and in their advertising 
matter. While they point out the impossibility of driving good 
rivets without an ample supply of air at the right pressure, they 
try to impress the user with the fact that the pressure cannot 
be allowed to run above that for which the machines are de- 
signed without injury to the machine and the work. Designs are 
usually based on 150,000 lb. per sq. in. as the pressure necessary 
to drive rivets. This is the highest value for the crushing 
strength of cold rivet steel. The real value seldom exceeds 
100,000 lb. per sq. in., and it has been proved by actual tests that 
it takes only one-fourth the pressure to drive a hot rivet that is 
required to drive a cold one. Therefore the manufacturer's 
rating is very high and the smaller machines will safely take 
care of the riveting through any thickness of plate used in steel 
car construction. In this connection the economy of properly 
heating the rivets should be noted. It saves the machine, saves 
air and results in far better work. 

The operator of a machine riveter is responsible for the ma- 



Vol. 89, Xo. 1 

chine and for the work turned out. Before driving any rivets, 
he should blow out any water that may have condensed in the 
cylinder and adjust his dies. This is done by letting the ram 
down and turning the screw till the die presses against tiic wnrk. 
The ram should then be raised and the screw given a lialt turn 
down. In driving rivets the die should be brought down slowly 
at first until the ram is nearly out l)eforc putting on the full 
power. A sufficient number of dies should be kejit at each ma- 
chine to allow them to be changed frequently in order to pre- 
vent them from spreading, due to the continued heating. They 
may be paired, a long one with a short one, gradually decreas- 
ing one length and increasing the other in such a manner that the 
space between the dies will remain practically constant and the 
greatest possible amount of work will be obtained from the steel. 
By this method a die may be used till its thickness is little more 
than the height of the rivet head. Special die steel is made by 
some manufacturers for use without hardening and tempering. 
Where hardened dies are used the heat soon draws the edge of 
the cups, and it is necessary to anneal them before they can be 
recupped. A test' is advisable before a selection is made, since 
there is a wide variation in the number of rivets wliicb can be 
obtained without rccupping. 



The illustration shows a design of furnace suitable for melting 
small or medium quantities of brass, which has been used satis- 
factorily at the Horton, Kan., shops of the Rock Island Lines. 
With the furnace one-half to two-thirds full it is possible to melt 
brass in about 30 minutes. 

The shell of the furnace, which is 1 in. thick, is iiuule from two 
hemispherical castings about 24 in. in diameter. The upper cast- 
ing has an openmg in the top for pouring, about 8 in. in diameter, 
and another opening, a little to one side, for the burner. The 
castings are lined with a 2 in. layer iif fire-brick and the lirick is 

Furnace for Melting 

Imed with a 1 in. layer of fire-clay, extopt at the two openings. 
They are then clamped together by means of four lugs and 1 in. 
bolts. Two of these lugs are formed to act as bearings. They 
are 3 in. in diameter and are supported by a 4 in. x 1 in. wrought 
iron frame. Fastened to the outer end of one of these bearings 
are three wrought iron handles which are used for turning the 
furnace when pouring. The burner is supplied with a 2 in. blast 
pipe which has an oscillating joint shown at A. This blast pipe 
also has a slide for regulating the blast, which is shown at B. 

The burner consists of a 2 in. blast pipe in which are located 
two other pipes, one for compressed air and one for oil. The 

compressed air passes through a ^-in. pipe which enters the 
blast pipe about 4 in. from the nozzle and terminates about Yi in. 
back of the nozzle. The oil pipe enters the blast pipe about 6 in. 
from the nozzle and terminates inside tlie compressed air pipe at 
a point 'A in. from its end. 

The supply of air and oil is regulated by valves located as 
shown. Both the compressed air and oil pipes are connected 
with about 4 ft. of hose which allows the furnace to be turned 
when emptying. The nozzle of the burner is about 2 in. from the 
outside of the shell and is formed by reducing the end of the 
blast pipe to 1'4 in. in (Hameter, The nozzle is supported by a 
wrought iron brace bolted to the sliell of furnace. 



There is nothing in connection with the |)erformance of the 
bell ringer that has more influence on its action than the condition 
of the yoke bearings of the bell. The necessity in most shops 
of removing the bell stand and reaming it on a drilling machine 
for correct alinement makes this a piece of repair work that 
is very often slighted, with resultant inconvenience to the 

The accompanying drawings illustrate a simply constructed set 
of reamers which make this a comparatively short piece of work. 
The reamer in Fig. 1 is for truing up the holes to I'j in.; the 

s. llThJi. 

a, ends. 

Reamers for Truing Bell Yoke Bearings 

reamer in Fig. 2 is for reaming the holes when worn over V/2 
in. In either case a bushing is then applied to the wings of the 
stand to take the standard 1J4 in- yoke pin. Both reamers can 
be used in connection with an air motor and the operation is 
shown in Fig. 3. Owing to the double nature of the reaming 
cutters it is quite easy to keep the holes in line. The reamers 
eliminate all necessity of removing the stand and on one or two 
jobs of this kind will efifect enough saving to pay for themselves. 
This method of truing bell yoke bearings has been developed 
by W. H. Halsey, general foreman, locomotive department, 
Chicago & North Western, Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

Line Loss. — Conditions may readily occur in connection with 
electric wiring where the drop may not be sufficient to cause any 
diffiulty in the operation of lamps or motors, but if the loss over 
these wires is figured, it will be found advisable to use larger 
wire, as the interest on the increased cost of the wire will be 
less than tlie loss of power by the use of the smaller wire.— 

January, 1915 





The set of dies for a I'/s in. Ajax forging machine, shown in 
the drawing, lias a number of small blocks of tool steel let into 
the main dies. Tliesc are of standard sizes to provide for in- 
tercliangeability, and many jobs of a similar nature may be 
handled with the same main die blocks by changing the smaller 
blocks. This practice materially cuts down die costs. 

The dies illustrated are for the manufacture of lazy cock stud 
handles and brake release handles. These are both made from 
}i in. round stock, cut lo length in a shear. In forming the lazy 
cock handle one end is first upset, the stock is then put through 
ihe lidlc m the lazy cock sliid and the other end is upset in the 
same die, as shown at section /'/'. This is dune in one heal, and 
when necessary the balls can he trimmed up in the swetlgiiig die, 
section IW, to take off any fins. The brake release handles arc 
first upset on one end with the die at section DD and are then 
flattened as shown at section CC. The punching die for these 
handles is shown at AA, the die block being drilled and a pipe 
let into the side to take away punchings. These three operations 


ll woulil be a task nf no great difficulty to provide motive 
power of the highest possible efliciency for the movement of all 
trains, if no limit were placed upon the number of locomotives 
(jwned, if unlimited amounts of money were available for making 
repairs, and if shop and engine house facilities were kept up to 
the highest slate of perfection. Such favorable conditions do not 
e.xist, and if they did would nut be conducive to moderate operat- 
ing costs. 



ocomotive con- 

jnuniy "\ operation, so 
tributes, deni;inds : 

(1) That llu' nuiulier nf engines owned be no greater than is 
necessary lo hanille ihe jieak load of traffic. 

(2) That shii]i facilities be sufficient to complete the necessary 
general overhauling without the consumption of excessive time 
in or awaiting shop. 

(3) That engine house work be so planned and conducted that 
locomotives arc available for service the maximum number of 
hours per day and ilays |K-r month, and that their condition be 

Too/ Sfee/ Bhcks<-<^ 

5ecfion /!-A. 


Too/S/eeA Blocks 
Sec f ion D-D. 

Tool 5 feel Blocks 


5 — 


Secfion B-B. 

Tool 5leel Blocks 

Lazy Cock S^ucf. 




■g Diam. 8 Hole 

— H 

Brake Release 

y'^rrangemerrl of Dies. 

Sec-fion C-C. 

Forging Machine Dies with Insets of Tool Steel 

are done in one heat. The other end of this handle lias a right 
angle bend. To accomplish this a slot is cut in the lop of the 
stationary die and a bracket is bolted on the side of the moving 
die. The bracket serves as both gage and bending tool, the part 
at £ being the gage and the part at F doing the bending, the 
latter being done cold. 

Si'EciAi, Tooi.s. — The making and maintenance of special tools 
and fixtures are costly, and in order to put the toolroom on a 
satisfactorv basis, svstem is an essential. — American Machinist. 

such as to permit of handling the proper train loads without 

The failure to fully realize the third condition makes impos- 
sible the fulfillment of the first two. Where running repairs are 
not properly made, rapid deterioration of the machine must 
follow. Short periods between general shoppings result. The 
increased number of shoppings necessarily overloads the main 

•Entered in the competition on Engine House Work, which closed July 
15, 1914. 

t310 Frisco r.uilding, Springfield, Mo. 



Vol. 89, No. 1 

shops and leads to a poorer quality of general repairs, excessive 
time in the shop, and long periods of waiting on the hospital 
track. The purchase of new power is the usual expedient to re- 
lieve such a condition. 

Again, inadequate running repairs mean low power efficiency. 
Locomotives will not handle their full tonnage ; delays and 
failures are unavoidable ; in order that the traffic may be handled 
there must be an excess of power. The failure, therefore, to 
provide for the proper maintenance of locomotives in service is 
responsible for excessive investment in power ; high cost of shop 
repairs; inefficiency and heavy expense in train operation. 

That a high cost of repairs per unit of work performed by 
locomotives insures the best power condition by no means follows. 
The contrary is in fact more often the case The railroads in 
the United States which handle the greatest amount of traffic 
witli the Ica.'t investment in equipment, with the lowest train 
mile costs, with the fewest engine failures, have without excep- 
tion a moderate unit cost of repairs, while many of those roads 
which expend unusual amounts in the maintenance of equipment, 
obtain a low mileage per locomotive per year, have a train ton- 
nage less than the efficient minininm and register frequent delays 
from power failures. 

The condition of power does not necessarily depend upon the 
amount of money expended in its repair. It does depend upon 
the time at which the necessary repairs are made. A man might 
comfortably sustain life with an expenditure of five dollars a 
week for food and lodging, provided he distributed the amount 
equally over the period. If. however, he gorged himself to the 
full extent of his allowance at the first meal he might starve or 
die of exposure before the next installment was due. 

The quality of running repairs, paradoxical as it may seem, 
depends very little upon the adequacy of the engine house facilities 
provided. Up-to-date buildings, machinery and appurtenances 
are a convenience but not an absolute necessity in the proper 
maintenance of locomotives. It appears at times as though the 
mere presence of improved facilities for performing the heavier 
class of repairs leads to a neglect of the minor items. To main- 
tain power in the best condition demands frequent and rigid 
inspection, and immediate attention to minor defects. If these 
two requirements are fulfilled, elaborate and expensive engine 
house layouts will be unnecessary. It is the shoe or wedge not 
properly adjusted that calls in time for the dropping of wheels 
to renew driving brasses and turn journals. It is the loose rod 
key that makes necessary the renewal of a back end brass ; the 
broken follower bolt that knocks out the cylinder head ; loose or 
ill-fitted bolts that break the frame, and the careless use of the 
beading tool which makes necessary the renewal of tubes. The 
detection of minor defects and their immediate correction is the 
whole secret of high power efficiency and low maintenance 
costs. The usual tendency of engine house forces is to over- 
look or pass over those minor items of repairs which do not 
materially interfere with the operation of the locomotive, post- 
poning their performance until such time as defects of a serious 
nature have resulted. The cost of reducing a brass or setting up 
a wedge is insignificant as compared with the cost of renewing 
the brass, and perhaps turning a cut pin, or of dropping the 
wheels and renewing a driving box brass. The engineer, the 
engine inspector and the wiper are the agents of inspection. If 
they are competent, well trained and conscientious the greater 
number of the small defects, the neglect of W'hich leads to failures 
and expensive repairs, will be found and reported before they 
have developed to a serious stage. 

The engineer's report should cover such defects as develop 
during the operation of the engine, and should be made during 
the progress of the trip and not after arrival at the terminal. 
For this purpose he should be provided with a work report book 
of convenient size and shape to be carried in the pocket, so that 
he may make note of any irregularities which occur in the run- 
ning of the engine. Many minor defects in the working parts 
of the locoirotive are called to the attention of the engineer 

while the engine is in motion. If note is not made of such 
imperfections at the time their presence becomes known they are 
very likely to be forgotten or overlooked when hurried entries 
are being made in the engine house work book at the end of 
the trip. 

The engineer should not be expected to make an exhaustive 
examination of the locomotive after arrival at the terminal. In 
the first place, he is very infrequently a skilled mechanic and 
is not, therefore, qualified to make a competent inspection. .Again, 
few engineers at the end of a trip are willing to give the time 
and attention necessary to complete a thorough inspection. The 
engine inspector's duties should begin where the engineer's 
leave ofT. The selection of competent men as inspectors is a 
matter of prime importance. Too often the position of engine 
inspector is filled by a superannuated engineer or a mechanic of 
inferior rank. Such practice is entirely wrong; the position 
should be lilled by the best mechanic available. The results to 
be obtained from proper terminal inspection, first, to determine 
llie repairs necessary, and second to pass upon the quality of 
the completed work, will fully warrant the payment of a salary 
comparing favorably with that of a foreman. 

The inspection of incoming engines should be of the most 
thorough nature. All parts of the locomotive should be examined, 
not occasionally, but at the end of every trip, and all of the 
defects, even to the most insignificant and apparently unimpor- 
tant ones should be reported and given attention. 

The importance of the wiper as a factor in efficient engine 
house work should not be overlooked. Engines which are 
covered with grease and dirt cannot be properly inspected. 
Cracks in frames, rods, blades or other vital parts of the locomo- 
tive may be so eflfectually covered by a coating of dirt that their 
detection is impossible. Such defects undiscovered will lead to 
failures in service, possibly entailing the destruction of equipment 
or the loss of human life. Locomotives may be thoroughly 
cleaned and kept clean at the cost of a few mills per mile run, 
and such expenditure is covered many times over by the im- 
proved inspection made possible. The wipers themselves may 
be trained to report to the inspector or foreman defects which 
they discover while cleaning locomotives, and many break downs 
and failures may be avoided by their so doing. 

Clean engines not only permit of more adequate inspection, 
but conduce to a higher efficiency of the labor applied in their 
repair. Almost any mechanic will work with increased energy, 
and with greater pride in the work when the parts which he 
must handle are free from grease and dirt. 

Adequate inspection provided for. the next necessary step is 
to insure that the defects discovered are promptly and effectively 
repaired. The proper performance of running repairs at engine 
houses depends far more upon the organization of force, and 
the quality of supervision, than it does upon equipment and 
facilities. The engine house force, no matter how small or Imw 
large, may be so assigned as to give to each individual workman 
the care of and responsibility for the repairs to certain parts of 
the locomotive, .\niple antl competent supervision to insure not 
only the performance of all work ordered, but to inspect its 
quality, is a necessity if high power efficiency is to be maintained. 
To summarize, the duties of the engine house are : To provide 
competent and continuous inspection of locomotives in service, 
to insure the discovery of defects in the incipient stage, and 
to promptly and effectively repair all defects so found, preventing 
minor defects from causing, through neglect, the necessity for 
extensive. repairs. Simple as this formula appears, many engine 
house foremen will raise the objection that the volume of work 
absolutely necessary to keep the power in service is so great 
that the less important items of repair must be neglected. At an 
engine house where this policy has been employed some difficulty 
may be experienced at first in securing proper attention to de- 
fects of a minor nature. In such case it might be well to start 
with only two or three engines just out of the main shop, giving 
them particular attention to sec that careful inspectiin is made 

January, 191S 



after each trip, and that all defects are corrected before tin- 
engine rctnrns to service. By the process of gradually taking 
up more and more locomotives on this plan, it will soon be found 
that the volume of heavy running repairs has so decreased, that 
the original force employed will lie more than sulTicicnt to keep 
the power in the best of condition. 


Broke Fo 


■ille & Nashville, Corbii 

The device shown in tlic engraving was designed to facilitate 
the removal of sight feed gaskets from Detroit bullseye lubricn- 
tors. These gaskets often become stuck in place, and owing l" 
their location below the follower threads, arc rather difticult tn 
remove. The body of the device is shown at A. It is threaded 
on tile lower end tn fit the follower threads in the lubricator 
body and the stem is threaded to take the nut D. Before the 
nut is applied the sleeve C is slipped over the stem, the four at- 
tached pins B being placed in holes through the body ./. \\ ith 

Device for Rer 

ng Gaskets from Bullseye Lubricators 

the device screwed into position in the lubricator, the nut is 
turned down against the sleeve, thus forcing the pins into the 
gasket F. The whole device is then unscrewed from the lubrica- 
tor body, the gasket being loosened and removed by following 
the threads. The four pins B are }i in. in diameter and are 
made from tool steel. It is advisable to provide a ball thrust 
bearing in the sleeve C, in order to insure a free working nut 
and to remove the tendency to bend the pins when forcing them 
into the gasket. 


The accompanying illustration shows a home-made air en- 
gine for grinding six different surfaces of the distributing valve 
of the Westinghouse air brake at one time. The device was 
invented by W. L. York, of the Ferguson shops of the Cincin- 
nati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific. It is in reality a small 
engine, equipped with a valve and cylinder, as indicated, the 
cylinder being the barrel shown on the further side of the 
engine. The guides for the crosshead are supported on up- 
rights bolted to the base of the machine. The valve is operated 
by an eccentric on the near side of the flywheel. The crank 
on the front of the engine oscillates a plunger, which is at- 
tached to the application piston. On the back end of this piston 
rod another rod is fastened, which operates a lever, with a ful- 
crum, as indicated in the illustration, which transmits the mo- 

lion to a rod that oscillates the equalizing piston. The device 
will grind the application piston ring, the application valve, the 
equalizing valve, the equalizing piston ring, the graduating valve 
and tlie exhaust valve all at the same time, and will perform 

Small Engine Used for Grinding Six Surfaces of Distributing Valves 

the job in one and one-half hours, whereas it would require 
four hours to do the grinding by hand in the usual way. The 
small engine may be operated by air or steam. 



BY J. 


Louisiana & Te 

Railroad. Ai«i< 


It is the general practice in railroad shops when reclaiming 
old bolts accumulated from the dismantling and repair of equip- 
ment to cut off and rethread all those having threads battered 
or bruised so that a nut will not go on. Where the threads are 
not badly worn or the material fractured this practice not only 
wastes a great deal of material but results in a large accumu- 
lation of short liolts for which tliere is no further use. 

Die Plate and Dies Removed from the Vise 

A simple device for reclaiming such bolts without cutting off 
the ends is shown in the illustration. A die plate or socket is 
fitted to an ordinary parallel vise from which the screw has 
been removed, the movable jaw of which is operated by an air 
cylinder. Dies of different sizes suitable for the bolts to be 
worked on are fitted to the screw plate, the two halves of each 
pair being connected by a flat steel spring as shown in one of 
the illustrations. When air is released from the cylinder and the 
vise opened the dies are thrown open by the spring and the 
bolt to be worked on is placed between the dies at the end of 
the threads next to the head. The air is then applied and the 



Vol. 89, No. 1 

vise closed. A rcversil)le air motor siisiicmlcd by means of a 
pulley and counterweight and provided with a suitable socket 
is used to unscrew the bolt from the die, thus restoring the 
threads to serviceable condition. This operation requires much 
less time than the cutting off and rethreading of the bolts, and 
since they retain their original length they are suitable for the 
work to which they were originally applied. 

A simple device for restoring the threads on smaller size bolts, 
such as ■y's in. and ^ in., consists of a screw plate provided with 
a crank attachment similar to a carpenter's brace. Dies of the 

Bolt in Position to Be Threaded Out of the Dies with an Air Motor 

required sizes are provided to fit the screw plate. For rapid 
work the bolts are held in a vise operated by an air cylimkr, 
the die plate being run over the threads by hand. In this way 
the threads of small bolts are restored quicker than tbey cnuld 
I e reclaimed by cutting of? and rethreading. 



Shop Superintendent. Chesapeake & Ohio, Huntington. W. Va. 

Superheater smoke tubes, because of their large diameter, are 
very readily injured by rough handling. Indentations are formed 
in removing and rattling, especially where coke or old arch brick 
is used in the rattler to assist in removing scale. They not only 
form obstructions which interfere with the insertion of the 
superheater elements but also increase the liability of the tubes 
to collapse under pressure. 

A jack for removing indentations from 5->^ in. tubes is shown 
in the engraving. After the tubes have been rattled and welded 

they are carefully nispcck-d fur iiuk-niations. which are marked 
with chalk. The air jack, which is attached to a piece of -ji 
in. pipe about 30 ft. long, is- placed over each indentation on the 
outside of the tube and the pipe marked with chalk at the end 
of the tube. The jack is then inserted in the tube, the chalk 
marks on the pipe serving as guides for its projjcr location under 

K— ..-/^ ^^'- *^ 

Screi a ^"^.^^ ^Doml Pin 

Device for Removing Indentations from Superheater Smoke Tubes 

the indenlatiuns. When properly placeil air is applied and by 
lightly striking the tube with a hammer the indentation is quickly 
removed and the tube pressed back into perfect shape. This 
work can be done with great rapidity and the tulics are in perfect 
condition when returned to service. 



The horizontal drilling attacliment shown in the illustration 
may be used to good advantage on a radial drill for counter- 
sinking holes in the flanges of back tube sheets and many other 
operations of a similar nature. The body of this device, shown 
at A, may be forged solid from a piece of mild .'teel. such as 

Horizontal Drilling Device for Use on Radial 

an old axle, and the recess for the gears cut out, or it may be 
made from two pieces of round steel, one end of each being 
split and drawn out flat to the required dimensions, the flat 
portions being welded and shaped so that the two bars are at 

Januarv, 1915 


right angles tu each ulhtr as sliuvvii in tin,' drawing. The hars 
are then tinished in a drill press to form the bearings of the 
spindles B and B\ Spindle B has a Morse taper extension C, 
for insertion in tlic drill spindle at one end and a bevel gear 
;it the other. Spindle /i' has a thrust collar D on the outer 
end, which is I'ltted with a Morse taper socket. The bevel gear 
on the inner end nu-shcs with llu' gear im spindle li. A yoke 
(/' of flat ir..n is bent arcpinid the body nf the device, 
the ends being twisted and extended to support a cross piece 
// which carries a feed screw. The work is damped against 
the drill liy means nf the feed screw, the overhang of the hori- 
zontal spindle being supported by the work. The illustration 
shows the de\ ice in use for countersinking holes in the flange 
of a back tube sheet. 


if the Erie Railroad at 
.•oniplete a model of a 

The aiiprentices employed in the shop 
Meadville, Pa., have designed and bnil 
Pacific type passenger locomotive. 

Meadville is one of several points on the Erie where apprentice 
schools are maintained. To test the proficiency of the boys at 
the Meadville school, the work of building a model engine was 
entrusted to them, and after eleven months and one day, they 
completed their task and presented to their master mechanic the 
minialm'e engine shown in the accompanying illnstration. The 

The boiler was tested at KJ5 lb. per sip in. hydrostatic pressure. 

The total weight of the engine, loaded, is 623 lb.; total weight 
of engine and tender 812 lb.; capacity of tender, coal, 37 lb., 
water, 11 gal.; boiler pressure 25 lb.; the number of parts in the 
engine and tender is 4,511. 

The work was carried out umler the direction of I-". G. IJc- 
Saussure, instructor of apprentices at the Meadville shops. The 
nio'lel is to be placed on exhibition in the window of the Erie's 
downtown .jffices at 399 Uroadwav. New York. 



From statements that apiiear quite frequently in the magazines 
it seems that each road has what is considered a lixed charge per 
locomotive for despatching, and if this charge is exceeded there 
lias to be an explanation made as to the cause. Sometimes it is 
too nuich labor at the ash ])it, at other times it is due to too 
niiich supervision and again it nia\ be Ijrought about by using 
too high priced labor in handling the engines. In any event, a 
reduction in forces has to be made. \i times extra expenses 
creep in due to causes beyond control of the shop or terminal 
management, such as weather conditions, or a falling ofif of 
business for a few days, but the reduction has to be made, 

Reduction of forces on running repairs shoubl be made only 
after a careful stuily as to conditions. .\s a rule comparisons are 

Group of Erie Railroad Apprentices and Model Locomotive Built by Then 

locomotixe has been named ^Meadville. The work of building it 
was begun December 13. 1913, and the engine was completed 
November 14. 1914. There were 26 apprentices engaged in the 
work, including one blacksmith, five pattern makers, two boiler 
makers, one tinsmith and 17 machinists. All drawings were made 
by the boys and the cylinders were designed by one of them. It 
took 350 patterns and core boxes to accomplish the work. On a 
test the engine attained a speed of 572 revolutions per minute. 

made between each mtnth and the preceding one and the same 
month of the previous year. Sometimes when this comparison 
is made there is no attention given to the ccmdition of the locomo- 
tives at each period. This plays an important part in the running 
repair charges. If the power was in good condition, inspection 
cost less and the number of fires drawn was less, due to little if 

'Entered in the competition on Engine House Work, which closed July 


\'oL. 89. No. 1 

any tube trouble; whereas the month with which comparison is 
niatle may have required much more work and expense due to 
the poor condition of the power. As it begins to get run down, 
engine failures become more frequent and every one is in trouble, 
a good portion of their time being spent in explaining the cause 
of failures. 

Great care must be exercised in organizing the working force 
at a terminal, particularly if it is a large one, handling from 100 
to 120 locomotives each 24 hours. The main thing to be looked 
after is the getting of the engines over the ash and inspection 
pits so as to make room for others. .\t a terminal of this 
nature, a few years ago, there were three divisions entering, 
and passenger trains came in as a rule from each division with 
only an hour's difference in arrival time. This held out freight 
trains, and they afterward arrived in groups. The work was 
successfully handled by the engineers making out their reports 
clearly and using good judgment in the work they reported. The 
shop had information through the despatchers as to any delay 
caused by an engine, consequently, the shop men were prepared 
to either clean the fire or draw it without any question. It was a 
rare case wdien an engine had to be sent back to the pit from 
the roundhouse to have the fire taken out. The inspectors were 
on hand at the pit, made a thorough inspection and promptly 
notified the roundhouse office of all defects. In many cases they 
did some of the tightening up of loose nuts, applying pins or 
keys that were missing, etc., but for engines on hard runs they 
did not do any of this work but reported it to the oftice with 
the rest of the work. 

The roundhouse force was so organized that a machinist and 
helper, or a boilermaker and helper were assigned to particular 

Engine house foremen should study their men and their work, 
place them accordingly and change them at intervals so that 
there will be no favors shown. Because one man may be good 
on valve work does not mean that others cannot learn to do the 
work if given the chance. Try to find out what is in a man; 
give him a trial and nine times out of ten he will come out all 
right. This will be encouragement for others to try. A foreman 
should never call his men to account for mistakes on the floor 
of the shop within sight and hearing of their fellow workmen; 
he should never by any act hold up any man to the ridicule ol 
his fellows. If a reprimand has to be given, have the man come 
to the office, where he can be spoken to and corrected without 
his losing his self respect. 



.'\n adjustable drilling stand for firebox work is in use on 
the Canadian Government Railways, and is the design of an 
employee of that system at Truro, Nova Scotia. The engraving 
shows the application of the device to firebox work, and also 
gives the details. The supporting piece is made up of steel 
tubing arranged so that it can be adjusted for different lengths 
according to the position occupied in the firebox. A double 
center is placed in one end to prevent turning, with an adjusta- 
ble single center in the other to tighten the stand in place. The 
drill center is placed against an arm which is held at right 
angles to the main support of the drilling stand. This is ac- 
complished by means of a boss on the end drilled so that it 

/fe- ^—4"—>\ 

Sfeel Tube- 1 Thus. 

k—4-S H 


2 0^ 

Sfeel Tube -I Thus. 

Adjustable Drilling Stand Used for Firebox Work on the Canadian Government Railways 

jobs, which they handled for from two to three months when 
they would be changed to other work and another set of men 
took their places. By this method the men got a chance to do 
all classes of work so that if for any cause a man was absent 
there was always some one on hand who was acquainted with 
his work. There was no breaking in of new men on running 
repairs and therefore less chance for poor work. 

fits over the steel tubing, and it is then clamped in the desired 
position by means of a set screw. This arm has center marks 
placed at convenient distances along its length to provide ad- 
justment for the drill. 

While this device is intended primarily for firebox work it 
can be readily seen that it is adaptable to many other positions 
about a locomotive where drilling is necessary. 



For some classes of cars, such as drop end gondolas and 
cabooses where a hand wheel is objectionable, or for cars of 
great carrying capacity where a leverage is desired at the 
brake shaft greater than that afforded by the standard brake 
wheel, it is customary to employ a ratchet head with a drop 
handle instead of the brake wheel. The accompanying illus- 
tration shows a device of this kind which has recently been 
(levcliiped on the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh for appli- 
catinii tci the square brake shaft* now in service on its equip- 

The drop luniille and ratclut head form a complete unit 
wliich is inlcrchanyralilc with the lirako wheels used on the 

pawl are three teeth which are held in engagement with the 
tooth.ed disc of the ratchet by gravity when the handle is in 
working position. Projecting from the toothed end of the 
pawl is a tongue, shown at /•", which extends into a pocket formed 
in the housing, just above the jaws between which the drop 
lever is pivoted. When the lever is in the horizontal position, 
the pawl engages the teeth on the ratchet wheel, the position of 
the parts being as shown by the full lines. When the lever 
moves from working to release position the cam on its upper 
end makes contact with the lower face of the tongue on the 
pawl, causing the pawl to rotate upward about the pin E to 
the position shown by broken lines and disengaging it from the 
ratchet. The cam end of the lever and the tongue of the pawl 
are so formed that when the lever is swung about halfway from 
its vertical to its horizontal or working position, the contact 
ceases and the pawl is fully engaged. The operator is thus 


Brake Shaft Ratchet Head and Drop Handle Developed on the Buffalo. Rochester & Pittsburgh 

square shafts. The entire device is composed of four castings 
having a total weight of about 15 lb. The housing and drop 
handle are malleable iron while cast steel is used for the 
ratchet and pawl. Referring to the drawing, the ratchet A is 
formed with a socket below the toothed disc and a spindle 
aliove the disc. The socket fits the end of the square brake 
shaft, to which it is secured by a single bolt passing through 
the shaft ; the spindle above the disc serves as a support and 
bearing for the housing B, which may be freely revolved, but is 
locked against vertical movement by the riveted pin C. The 
pawl D surrounds the spindle and is pivoted at one end upon the 
|iin E. cast in place in the housing. At the opposite end of the 

ber, 1914, page 647. 

Raih<i'ay Age Ga::cttc, Mechanical Editi, 

safeguarded should power be exerted against the brake before 
the lever reaches the horizontal position. The loop form of 
lever handle protects the operator in case his grip should slip 
when setting the brakes. 

The design of this device is very simple, and it is claimed to 
have proved its reliability and efficiency in service. Aside from 
linishing the ratchet spindle and its bearing in the housing, the 
only machine work required in fitting up the parts is the drilling 
of a few holes ; but little skill is required in assembling and 
applying it to the brake shaft. 

This brake shaft handle was designed and has been patented 
by F. J. Harrison, superintendent of motive power, and W. J. 
Knox, mechanical engineer of the Buflalo, Rochester & Pitts- 




\'oL. 89, No. 1 



To meet the severe rc(|uireinents of a satisfactory stud valve 
for use in high pressure gas cylinders the valve shown in the 
illustration was developed by the International Oxygen Company, 
115 Broadway. New York, for its own use. It has now Ijcen 
tested in service for several years by this company and other 
gas manufacturers, and is claimed to have proved successful un- 
der all conditions. 

The valve is designed for use with pressures up to 2,5()0 lb. 
per sq. in. and is made of metal throughout. Tlie construction 
is such that no packing is required in any part, thus eliminating 
a source of danger when inflammalile material is used, as well 
as a cause of loss from leakage. The body is forged from Tobin 
bronze, while the other parts are made of metals which are non- 
corrosive to gases or to weather conditions. The flow of gas is 
controlled by a diaphragm, as shown in the sectional view of the 
valve, which is made of a tough, springy material that is claimed 
to withstand all the strain put upon it without cracking or 
breaking, even after years of service. The diaphragm takes the 
place of packing material, and in this way the usual stuffing box 
is entirely eliminated. It is silightly concave, and normally sets 
away from the seat of the val\ c a sufficient distance to permit 
a full opening without the aid of the gas pressure; this permits 

G. H. Wilson, a locomotive engineer on the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, has in\cntecl ;, cut-nut valve to replace the ordinary 
cut-out valve now used in the train line directly under the en- 
gineer's valve for the purpose of cutting out this valve when 
two or more engines are coupled to one train. The special fea- 
tures of the new valve are that it can be used in emergency 
if there is an accident to the engineer's valve; it is provided 
with a warning port which gives assurance tliat there is no 
train line stoppage between the rear engine and the leading 
engine as soon as the leading engine is cut in; it permits the 
rear engineman to instantly assume full control of the brakes 
in double-heading service, provided he finds it necessary to do 
so, and lastly, it is so designed that it will not be possible for 
the helper engine to cut ofl' from the train until the second en- 
gineer takes control of the brakes, without the brakes being set 
throughout the entire train. Its use will eliminate the necessity 
of having a cut-out cock on tlie train line leading to the front 
end of the locomotive. 

This valve is in brief .i three-way cock with the openings A 
leading to the engineer's valve. B to the main train line and C 
to the locomotive train line leading to the front end. Fig. 1 
shows this valve in position for operating the train imder or- 

Stud Valve for High Pressure Gas Cylinders 

F/g.3. Fiq.4. Fi'g.S. 

Safety Cut Out Valve for Locomotives 

all the gas in the cylinder to be used dmvn to atmosplieric pres- 

The safety plug used in this valve is designed to meet the 
requirements of the Bureau of Explosives of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. It is filled with fusible metal melting at, or 
below, the boiling point of water, and is provided with three 
passages, each in a straight line with the direct action of the gas 
in the cylinder, to permit the outflow of the metal. The plug 
has a hemispherical seat which forms a tight joint when screwed 
into the body of the valve by compressing a phosphor-bronze disc. 
No part of the plug projects beyond the body of the valve, thus 
protecting it against breakage. It will not blow when subjected 
to the direct rays of the sun or to any other atmospheric condi- 
tion, but the fusible metal will melt and the valve will blow 
Vk'hen placed in a fire before the expansion of the gas can do any 
damage to the cylinder. 

The construction of this valve is very simple, and all parts are 
so arranged that they are readily accessible whenever examina- 
tion or renewal is required. The hand wheel is so designed 
that it may lie removed or left as a permanent part cif the 

dinary conditions. \\'hen an e.xtra engine is connected to the 
front of the train and the air cut in, air escaping through the 
warning port D informs the engineer of the second engine that 
the engineer of the leading engine is ready to assume control 
of the brakes. By turning the handle of the valve through one- 
quarter of a revolution, the valve w'ill assume the position shown 
in E'ig. 2, and thus cut out the engineer's valve of the second 
engine, giving control of the train to the engineer on the first 
engine. If the engineer of the second engine desires to assume 
control of the train he will turn the handle of the valve through 
another quarter turn, placing the valve in the position shown in 
Fig. 3. which will place his engineer's valve into operation, con- 
trolling the brakes on the leading engine as well as on the train. 
When it is desired to pick up cars on the head end of the engine 
it is possible to charge the train line by placing the valve in the 
position shown in Fig. 4. the openings E and /■' charging the 
train line of this string of cars without disturbing the pressure 
in the train line of the train itself. After charging the valve is 
placed in the position shown in Fig. 3. 

A\'hen a pusher engine is used on the rear of the train these 
same features obtain with that engine. By the escaping of air 

January, 1915 



tliriiuyli the uaniiiig pnrt /' llic engineer of tlie rear engine will 
know that tliere is no obstructed passage in the train line-, and 
will place his valve in the position shown in liu. J. ^'> that the 
hraUxs on the helping engine inay he operated by the leading 
engineer. In cases wdierc it is necessary for an engine to haul 
a train running backwards, the position of this valve will be 
that shown in Fig. 3, the cut-out cock at the rear of the tender, 
of course, being closed. Fig. 5 shows cross section through 
this cut-out valve. Further information regarding this valve 
may be obtained from Thomas Ogden, Box 252, Rawlins, Wyn. 


Much annoyance is caused to persons standing near a locomo- 
tive when the blower is started by the spraying from the stack 
of dirty water which has accumulated in the blower pipe while 
the blower valve was closed. Trouble is also experienced from 
the same cause in cold weather by the freezing of the blower 
pipe. The blower pipe fitting, a sectional view of which is shown 
in the engraving, is designed to overcome these conditions by 
automatically draining the blower pipe at all times when the 
Wovver valve is closed. 

The device consists of a body of malleable iron in wliicli is 
inserted a very tough Tobin bronze bushing to form a seat for 
the ball check. The ball is of gunmetal 1% in. or 1 3/16 in. in 
diameter, depending upon the size of the fittings, and is care- 
fully ground to form a perfect sphere. The gunmetal mixture 
is especially adapted to resist the corroding action of steam at 
high temperatures. The ball may be easily removed by discon- 
necting the blower pipe nipple and is kept in place liy means of 
the lugs in the smokebox connection. 

When not in use the ball is unseated bv gravitv and all con- 

Ba// Refoining Lug 

Automatic Drain Valve fo 


densation is free to drain from the pipe through the elbow 
connection from which it may be piped to any convenient point 
of discharge. As soon as the blower valve is opened steam 
pressure seats the ball, thus closing the drain port and permitting 
the entrance of steam to the blower nozzle only. Where fires 
are started by attaching a hose from the roundhouse steam line 
to a blower pipe connection on the engine this device is espe- 
cially useful. In such cases the drain pipe may be arranged for 
connection to the roundhouse hose and the blower operated 
merely by opening the valve in the steam line. The pressure in 
the drain pipe causes the ball to seat against the end of the 
blower pipe nipple, shutting off connection with the blower pipe 
and preventing the possibility of the steam backing up in the 
boiler should the blower valve in the cab be leaky. The use 
of a valve or plug in the connection for the roundhouse hose is 
thus made unnecessary. 

This device was developed by the Watertown Specialty Com- 
pany, Watertown, N. Y., and is claimed to have rendered effect- 
ive service in tests conducted during a period of several months. 

It i^ usually made with liftings fur l-in. and \V.\-m. blower pipes, 
but modifications of the general design of the body can be made 
Id suit special requirements. 


.\ radial ihlll in the design of wdiich is incorprirated a new 
type of drill head an<l arm has been placed upon the market by 
the Willmarth Tool Works, Cleveland, Ohio. The most promi- 
nent feature of this machine is the manner of moving the head 
and arm for locating the holes to be drilled. The head rotates 
about a large circular bearing on the arm, and the arm rotates 
about the column as in the usual type. I his produces a double 
swiveling motion, so that any hole within the capacity of the 
machine may be easily located. A self-locking spiral gear and 
rack are provided for moving the head. The bearing of the head 
on the arm is 17 in. in diameter, and is provided with an annular 
ring inside for hcjlding it central and a heavy pivot bolt for 
liolding the two together. .\n eccentric clamp locks the head to 
the arm. 

The column is of the post and sleeve type. The post has a 
large and heavy lower portion, and extends up to the top mem- 

Wiimartti Radial Drill 

ber. w-hich is bolted to it, making a braced construction and add- 
ing materially to the stiffness. The column sleeve telescopes the 
post, and has bearings at both the top and bottom, also a large 
ball thrust bearing at the bottom. The sleeve has a binding clamp 
at its lower end. The arm is of cylindrical box section, and 
heavily ribbed on the inside. It is elevated or lowered by means 
of gears at the top operating a coarse pitch screw hung on ball 

There are eight changes of speed, from 35 to 375 r.p.m., ar- 
ranged in geometrical progression. Four changes are obtained 
by the cone pulleys and four more by the back gearing, which is 
provided in the spindle driving gears. The tapping mechanism 
is operated through a jack shaft in the head, running at high 



\'uL. 89, Xci, I 

sptcfl, and driving through ring clutches, which arc self adjusting. 
They are operated by means of a lever in front of the machine, 
enahling the workman to easily start, stop or reverse the spindle. 

The spindle is of special steel, and is provided with an ample 
ball thrust bearing. It has a No. S Morse taper socket and is 
3'..i in. in diameter at its large end and IM in. at its smallest 
section. The feeding mechanism is of the selective gear box 
type. Six changes of feed are provided, ranging from .006 in. 
to .027 in. per revolution of the spindle. These are instantly 
available by operating the dial on tlie front of the feed box. .■'i 
quick return hand wheel is attached to the feed pinion shaft, and 
the engagement of the worm to it is made by means of a friction 
ring controlled by a nut in front of the hand wdieel. Both depth 
gage and automatic trip are incorporated in the feed mechanism. 

The bearings throughout are bushed with high grade special 
bearing bronze, and ample oiling facilities arc provided. Xo cast 
iron gears arc used in this nKicliinc. In accordance with their 


.V method of measuring high temperatures \vlierc\cr heat is 
applied has been developed by the Carl Nehls Alloy Company, 
Detroit, Mich., and is based upon the melting points of various 
mixtures of metallic salts. JMolecular mixtures of metallic salts 
arc made up which have melting points ranging between 220 deg. 
and 1.330 deg. Centigrade. Practical means have been devised for 
usmg these mixtures in place of costly instruments. They are 
also very useful for checking other pyrometers. 

The mixtures are made up in two forms, the solid and the 
paste. In the solid form they are cast into cylinders, 7/16 in. in 
diameter and H in. long. Each cylinder is wrapped in paper 
on which is printed its correct melting temperature in degrees 
Centigrade. For all temperatures below 500 deg. Centigrade 

Rotating Head for Wilmarth Radial Drill 

requirements the gears are of steel, bronze or a specially high 

grade semi-steel. All gears are fully guarded. 

The principal dimensions of the machine are as follows: 

U.ingc of drilling 481^ in. 

(ircalest distance i'rom spindle to base 52'/2 in. 

Greatest distance from spindle to table 27 in. 

\ertical traverse of spindle ^ 11^ in. 

\erlical traverse cf arm on column ~r-. 28 in. 

Hcisjht of machine 96 ni. 

Weight of machine J. 500 lli. 

Service Test of Automatic Hose Connectors. — A service test 
of the automatic hose connectors manufactured by the Robinson 
Coupler Company, Washington, D. C, has been in progress on 
the Canadian X^orthern since June 10, 1914. The cars equipped 
are in ore service on a branch line 165 miles long and it is under- 
stood that under varying weather conditions the equipment has 
required no attention for renewals or repairs, tight joints having 
been maintained with temperatures as low as 35 deg. below zero. 

Machine Records. — Some method of recording the location and 
movements of machines is necessary, particularly in large plants 
and those in which an appraisal is to be kept up to date. — 
American Mac!:iiiisl. 

Method of Temperature Indication in Metal or Salt Bath Furnace 

(932 deg. F.) the cylinders, which are known as Sentinel pyrom- 
eters, may be used in air-tight glass tubes, especially provided 
for that purpose. The same cylinder may thus be used repeat- 
edly. For other purposes where the use of the tubes is not prac- 
ticable small porcelain saucers are provided which prevent the 
wasting of the salts and the littering up the place where they are 
used. This also enables the same salts to be used several times 
before renewal is necessary. 

In the paste form the mixtures are packed in tins, each of which 
contains enough to make several hundred determinations. The 
temperature at which furnaces, ovens, retorts, steam pipes, etc., 
are operating may be determined by placing a steel bar on which 
a small amount of the various pastes has been daubed, in the 
furnace or against the part. The temperature will be between the 
melting points of the last paste to melt down and the one having 
the ne.xt higher melting point. By using a long bar one can 
determine whether the temperature is uniform in the front and 
back, top and bottom, or the corners of a furnace, oven or kiln. 

This method of determining temperatures is especially useful 

January, 1915 



in connection with the hardening of tools in a forge fire. A 
paste is selected that represents the correct liardening tempera- 
ture for the tool and a small amount daubed on the tool. The 
melting of the paste clearly indicates the time when the tool can 
be taken out of the fire and quenched. Surrounding the tool with 
a piece of sheet steel or inserting it in a piece of gas pipe will 
add to the accuracy of tlie results by keeping the paste from 
coming in contact with the fuel. 

A method of using the Sentinel cylinders is sliowu in the illus- 
tration. Two tubes or pipes with plugs in the bottom ends are 
placed in the furnace. Sentinel cylinders from different melting 
temperatures are dropped into the tubes and metal rods are 
stood on top of the cylinders. When the cylinders melt the 
rods will drop to the bottom of the tubes. When one rod is 
lowered and the other is not the temperature is between the 
melting points of the two cylinders. These need be only 10 
degrees apart. This is very useful for linding tlie temperature 
of molten metals, salt hath furTiaces, etc. 


A combined drinking fountain filter for passenger cars has 
been brought out by Henry Giessel & Co., Chicago, and has 
been giving good results in service on one of the western roads. 
It is known as the "North Pole" sanitary drinking fountain, and 
is made up of a filter, a storage tank for the filtered water, a 
cooling pan and an ice box. The fountain occupies a space 
14 in. by 17 in. by 48 in., and all parts are accessible for in- 


Passenger Car 

spection. Water from an overhead tank flows to the filter at 
the top of the fountain and is filtered through Tripoli rock, 
then passing to the storage tank directly below. From this tank 
it passes to the cooling pan in the ice box, which is a small 
vessel of watcrtigln construction. The ice surroundins; the cool- 

ing pan lowers the temperature of the drinking water to a de- 
sirable degree without permitting any of the ice water to mix 
with the drinking water. 

The metals used in the construction of the fountain arc non- 
corrosive throughout. The filter case is made of galvanized 
malleable iron and heavy tinned sheet brass. The storage tank 
and cooler are made of heavy galvanized iron sheets. The cool- 
ing pan is made of galvanized gray iron. All the pipes and fit- 
tings are also galvanized and the parts exposed to view are fin- 
ished in German silver. The filter is in the shape of a cylinder 
with its core removed; the water seeps through from the out- 
side to the inside and passes directly to the storage tank. The 
lilter material docs not absorb the impurities of the water, and 
may readily be cleaned by scrubbing in water with a stiff brush. 
It may be removed and cleaned in about five minutes and should 
lie cleaned every few days. 

Aside from its sanitary characteristics, the principal features 
of this drinking fountain are the cheap grade and small quan- 
tity of ice that may be used. Comparative tests between this 
and an ordinary water cooler in passenger cars between Chicago 
and Kansas City showed a saving of 73.6 per cent in the amount 
of ice used and 80 per cent in the cost of the ice in favor of the 
sanitary fountain, tlie temperature of the drinking water averag- 
ing 49 deg. for tlie sanitary fountain and 38 deg. for the ordi- 
nary water cooler. Less care is required in the maintenance 
of this cooler than of the ordinary cooler, a general cleaning 
being necessary only when the cars are shopped. Provision is 
made for draining the entire system when the car is out of 
service and witlinut heat in cold weather. 


.•\ machine for grinding thread cutting dies, especially de- 
signed to meet the requirements of users of dies made by the 
Landis Machine Company, Waynesboro. Pa., has recently been 
brought out bj- that company. The machine is of a duplex na- 

Chaser Grinder 

and Disc Sharpener for the Cutters of Roller Pipe 
Cutting Machines 

ture, one side being fitted with an attachment for handling all 
sizes of Landis chasers and the other with a device to sharpen 
the disc cutters of roller pipe cutting machines. It may also 
be used to grind tools, for lathes, planers, shapers. etc. 

The chaser grinding attachment has adjustment in both hori- 



Vol. 89, Xo. 1 

zontal and vertical planes with suitable graduations for con- 
trolling the lead and rake angles of the dies. Both the trans- 
verse and longitudinal feeds are in horizontal planes, a feature 
which insures accurate grinding. The table is gibbed at both 
slides and furnished with an overhang to protect the guides frcnn 
emery dust. The disc cutter grinding attachment is operated l>y 
hand and has both vertical and horizontal adjustments. .\n 
adjustable rest is also provided to facilitate the handling of 
miscellaneous tools, 


The facing of liosses and other similar work willi tlie ordinary 
Hat spot facin.s: tool has always been a troublesome operation 
owing to the difficulty of getting the tool properly started into 
the work. The cutting edge of the tool is usually ruined in 
scraping off the scale so that it must be either reground or re- 
placed by a sharp tool before the operation can be completed. 
A facing tool designed to overcome these difficulties has recently 
been introduced by the Mummert-Di.xon Company. Hanover, Pa. 
This tool is provided with a Morse taper shank and is readily 
applied to a drilling machine spindle whenever work of this 
kind IS to be done. 

By referring to the illustration it will be seen tliat tlie tool 
takes an ordinary lathe tool bit, wliich has a radial movement 
from the center outward controlled l)y means of a feed screw. 
Tlie operation is therefore the same as facing on a lathe. The 
tool gets beneath the scale at the start and breaks it aw-ay as it is 
fed across the work. 1 he feed is effected by means of the 

Facing Tool for Drill or Milling iVIachine 

knurled ring on the upper face of the tool, which is either 
gripped with the hand or held by means of a pin inserted in 
one of the holes in the knurled edge, and placed against the 
frame of the machine. The pilot fixture attached to the bottom 
face of the tool is designed to enter the hole in the center of 
the boss and steady the tool. Thimbles of various sizes may be 
placed on the pilot spindle in order that it may be used in holes 
of any size. In case there is no hole in the boss when the facing 
is done the cone center and drill pilot may be used. After the 
work has been centered the drill attachment is removed and the 
tool steadied by means of the cone center. When the tool is 
used on a boring mill or other machines with rigid spindles, the 
use of either guide is unnecessary. 

This tool is claimed to increase the rapidity with which work 
of this kind may be done. The tool bit may be readily removed 
for sharpening and replaced by another with no more trouble 
than is required to remove the bit from an ordinary lathe tool. 
The Morse taper shank is furnished in three standard sizes to 
fit any drill spindle. The tool is made in 4-in. and 6-in sizes, 
indicating the maximum diameter which it will face. 


.■\ goggle especially designed to meet the re<|uirements of 
machinists and grinders has recently been placed on the market 
Iiy 1 . .A. W'illson & Co., Inc., Reading, Pa., in the construction 
of which considerable attention has been given to comfort as 
well as to eye protection. By the use of a special frame design, 
the weight is made very light without sacrificing the ability to 
withstand rough usage in the shop. .An adjustable bridge en- 
ables the wearer to easily fit the goggles to his face. This bridge 
is pliable, strong and securely attached to the eye wire. The 
bridge does not touch the top of the nose at all, but the weight of 
tlie glasses is distributed over the sides of the nose and cheeks. 
I his construction makes it possible for the goggles to be worn 
over other glasses. 

It is of the greatest importance that grinders and machinists 
be protected from emery dust and grit which whirl around the 
sides of glasses. The light fine-mesh wire sides of these goggles, 
it is claimed, give complete protection at the sides without being 
uncomfortable to the wearer. Comfort is further assured by the 
flexible half cable temples, which easily conform to any face and 
do not pull or cut into the ears. A fine quality glass is used to 
insure freedom from eye strain, and lenses may be easily and 
quickly replaced by simply loosening one of the screws of the 
end-piece. Being made entirely of rust-proof metal, the goggle is 
perfectly sanitary and can be thoroughly sterilized at any time. 

Several types of goggles are included in the line being placed 
on the market by this company, each designed to meet the re- 
quirements of a certain class of service. For chipping, a frame 
is used which is especially adapted to prevent glass flying inward 
should a lens be brokjen. 

Strength of B.^ll Be.^rings. — In an accident due to high wa- 
ter the car lighting dynamo of a Santa Fe combination coach and 
niail car was badly damaged, the armature shaft, which was Ij/j 
in. forged steel, being bent and the dynamo pulley entirely 
broken up. The dynamo was a Bliss type O, equipped with two- 
No. 412 S. K. F. ball bearings. The dynamo suspension and the 
generator frame were both badly sprung, the latter being suf- 
ficiently out of round so that two of the pole faces bound on 
the armature. The armature itself was not injured, but the force 
which caused the bending of the shaft was great enough to- 
break up both the end housings which enclose the bearings. 
The bearings themselves, which acted as fulcrums, over which, 
the shaft was bent, were entirely uninjured and will be returned' 
to service without any repairs. 

Bronze Journal Bearing. — The American Metal Company,. 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has recent tested a 22-lb. bronze journal bear- 
ing placed under the tender of a Pacific type locomotive on the 
Baltimore & Ohio. This engine ran 51.000 miles with only 
1/32 in. wear of the bearing, while the other bearings on the 
tender were rebabbitted six times each. The composition of 
these bearings is 65 per cent copper, 30 per cent lead and 5 per 
cent tin; they are heat treated in crucibles and are solid bronze 
castings, requiring no babbitt surface. An extreme test of this- 
metal was made under a rolling table of a 108 in. plate mill at 
the Jones, Laughlin Steel Company's plant at Pittsburgh. The 
minimum weight on these bearings was estimated at 10,000 lb. 
Two 7S-lb. brasses gave continuous service for four weeks, or 
twice as long as the ordinary phosphor bronze bearing, and on 
account of the position of the bearings it was impossible to 
lubricate them during the test. The graphite in the lead acts as 
a lubricant and thus reduces the amount of lubricant required. 

Grinding Wheels. — In many cases, as a grinding wheel wears, 
down the speed of the wheel is allowed to diminish. When 
this is the case the grain depth of cut will be increased on ac- 
count of the diminished wheel speed, as well as because of the- 
smallcr wheel. — American Machinist. 

riio large nuiiuUiDiisi" of tlit- iJukuli. VViniiipfg S: I'Mcilic at 
Diilulli, Minn., was ik'Stroycil liy lire- 1 )(H-(.-nili(.-r 25. Several 
I(iciinii'ti\'OS were daniayed. 

The shops of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern at 
.\rgenta. Ark., which were closed recently were reopened on 

Decenilier 1. l'II4. putting 600 men back at wnrk. 

The Ilaltiniore &: (.)hio Chicago terminal repair sliop at East 
(.hicagci. Ind.. was seriously damaged hy lire recently. Snmc uas also done to the cars in the shop. 

The Southern Pacific Co. issued an order etTcctivc Decem- 
her 21. 1914, calling back to work 1.600 men who were laid 
off at the Los Angeles shops during the latter part of 

The safety supervisor of the El Paso & Southwestern an- 
nounces that the number of employees injured during the 
month of October, 1914, was less than half the number reported 
ill October, 1913. 

President Kenly, of the Atlantic Coast Line, announces 
that reductions of from 6 per cent to 10 per cent have been 
made in the salaries of all persons in the employ of the com- 
IKiny receiving $200 or more a month. 

I'cirty or more railroad employees arrested recently at 
Pinner's Point (Norfolk) Va.. for working at the freight sta- 
tion on Sunday, were fined five dollars apiece. The South- 
ern Railway, acting in behalf of its employees, appealed the 
case to the Norfolk County Circuit Court. 

The safety and efficiency bureau of the San Pedro, Los An- 
geles & Salt Lake reports a reduction of 33.9 per cent in the 
number of injuries to employees for the year ending October 
31. 1914, as compared with the preceding year. Three employees 
were killed, the lowest record in the history of the road, ex- 
cept that for 1909, when three were killed. 

The new car shops for the Chicago & Eastern Illinois at 
Oak Lawn, near Danville, 111., adjoining the locomotive re- 
pair shops, were completed December 1, and the new build- 
ing was put into use at once. At the same time the old shops, 
which had been closed for some time, resumed operations 
with a full force working 40 hours a week. 

In the yard of the Boston & Maine at Somerville (Boston) 
Mass., about 2 o'clock in the morning of December 17 last, the 
police took into custody 118 tramps, who were found in pas- 
senger cars, where they had expected to spend the night in the 
comfortable atmosphere of the cars, which were being kept 
warm for use early the next morning. On being searched at 
the police station, not a cent of money was found among the 
wlicdc crowd. 

The Bureau of Mines, of the Interior Department, has 
eight mine-rescue cars traveling through the different min- 
ing districts, giving instructions to miners in rescue, first aid 
and safety methods. The bureau also has five mine-rescue 
stations in different coal fields from which it is carrying on 
similar work. Legislation now pending in Congress will, if 
enacted, provide for continuous operation of cars throughout 
the year. Most of the railroads haul the cars tree. 

At the evening session of the annual meeting of the .Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers in New York, Decem- 
ber 2, 1914. the John Fritz Medal was awarded to Prof. John E. 
Sweet, honorary member and past president of the society, 
"for his achievements in machine design and for his pioneer 
work in applying sound engineering principles to the con- 

struction (jf the high speed steam engine." This medal is 
awarded by the four national engineering societies. 

Work was resumed on December 1, 1914, at the shops of the 
Wheeling & Lake Erie at Brewster, Ohio, and Ironvillc, in 
compliance with an order by Judge John H. Clarke, of Cleve- 
land, to the receiver of the railroad. The shf)ps had been 
practically idle for two months and repairs to cars had been 
reduced for reasons of economy in order to meet certain 
interest payments. This policy the court criticized, as neither 
wise from an economical standpoint nor just from a social 
point of view. 

Although it was reported recently that the members ni the 
shop craft unions had voted to call off the strike which was 
declared in September, 1911. on the Illinois Central and the 
Harriman lines, announcement has since been made by the 
railway department of the .American Federation of Labor 
that the boilermakers voted in favor of calling off the strike. 
but that their vote was not large enough to offset the vote of 
the machinists, blacksmiths, car men and sheet metal 

The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen has filed a state- 
ment with the Missouri recorder showing that a total of 
$16,056 was expended in the campaign for the passage of the 
full crew bill, which was defeated by referendum vote at the 
election on November 3, 1914. The Missouri Legislative Commit- 
tee of the brotherhood, according to the statement, collected 
$15,880, leaving a deficit of $176. It is stated that the mem- 
bers of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen contributed 
$14,680 and that $1,200 was contributed by the Order of 
Railway Conductors. 

Mr. Love, chairman of the Oklahoma Corporation Commis- 
sion, is reported as proposing to ask each high school and 
higher educational institution of the state to offer, as a part 
of its course of study, instruction in the making and adjust- 
ment of freight rates. He wants to give the next generation 
in Oklahoma a general knowledge of railroad rates, their ap- 
plication and adjustment, which, he says, are all Greek to the 
average citizen. Mr. Love must be of an optimistic tempera- 
ment. If he really wishes success he should begin by giving 
the boys a couple of years of real Greek, as a preliminary 

The Baltimore & Ohio recently sent four superintendents 
on a trip of inspection to the Pacific coast, to be gone ten 
days; and on the return of the party, four other superintend- 
ents will be sent on a similar journey but by a different route. 
The men going on the first trip are H. B. Voorhees. G. D. 
Brooke, J. C. Hagerty and E. W. Scheer; and those on the 
second trip, R. N. Begien, F. B. Mitchell, E. T. White and 
M. V. Hynes. It is expected that all the general and division 
superintendents of the company will make trips of this kind. 
occasion being taken to send them now while business is 
below normal. 

The executive committee of the Chicago Association of 
Commerce has adopted a resolution in favor of setting the 
clocks throughout the nation ahead one hour in order to 
secure more daylight after working hours in the summer 
months. The resolution also asked the L^nited States Cham- 
ber of Commerce to consider the question at its annual meet- 
ing in February, in Washington, with the idea of bringin.g 
about a nation-wide movement in favor of the change. A 
special committee of the association held a meeting last week 
to consider a plan for adopting Eastern time for Chicago in- 




Vol. 89, Xo. 1 

stead of Central, hut so imich opposition was cxpri-sscd by 
railroad men present, on account of the confusion which 
would result if Chicago n:adc the change, that it was dccid.-d 
to push the n-.ovement along national lines. 

The Nashville. Chattanooga & St. Louis has recently placed 
orders for additional machinery to be used in the equipment 
and enlargement of its shops at Nashville so tliat 1,000 freight 
cars may be built by the company annually. The impelling mo- 
tive in this decision on the part of president John Howe Peyton 
and general manager D. B. Carson was not alone the economy, 
but in order that employment might be given to some of the 
old and efHcient employees of the company and that tht: unem- 
ployed in this section might have an opportunity to secure work. 
It is estimated that between 400 and 500 additional men will be 
used in the car-building department of the road and that work 
will begin early this year. The new equipment necessary will 
cost $30,000 and the shops will eb rearranged and thoroughly 

The House Committee, at Washington, has reported the 
Post office appropriation bill for the next fiscal year, vvith a 
rider in which are embodied the provisions of the Moon bill 
for changing the basis of railway mail pay; and Mr. Peters, 
the chairman of the Ivailvvays' Committee, says that an at- 
tempt is being made to secure from the Rules Committee a 
rule to facilitate the passage of the proposed new legislation. 
Mr. Peters reiterates his declaration that the provision of 
the Moon bill for payment to the railways on the basis of 
space occupied is not only unfair in principle, but embodies 
rates per mile very much too low. With the space in a car 
fully loaded, the compensation would amount in many cases. 
to less per ton per mile than ordinary rates for the trans- 
portation of coarse commodities by freight train. The rail- 
roads are now losing not less than eight millions annually 
because of the parcel post, and if the space rates are adopted 
this loss will be still greater. The small railroads, which are 
now the worst sufferers from inequitable rates, would lose 
from 25 per cent to 65 per cent additional if the plan should 
be adopted. 


In the article in the Decemlier, 1914, issue, i)age 614, describ- 
ing the Chesapeake & Ohio Pacific type locomotives, reference 
was omitted, through an accident, to the fact that the locomo- 
tives are equipped vvith the type C Street stoker manufactured 
by the Locomotive Stoker Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 


Word has been received from Berlin that because of the war 
all preparations have been broken off for the ninth session of 
the International Railway Congress, which was to have been 
held there ne.xt June. The congress, whose membership con- 
sists of governments and companies operating more than half 
of the earth's railway mileage, is perhaps the most important 
railroad association in the world. Its sessions are held every 
five years, the last having occurred at Berne, Switzerland, in 
1910. They are devoted to the discussion and interchange of 
ideas on questions of railway maintenance, equipment and oper- 

ation. The (German government was to liave acted as liost, and 
it was understood that Kaiser Wilhelm wmild have opened the 
convention. Some of the American "reporters" have already 
prepared their papers for the congress. 


President Ripley, of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, pub- 
lished in the December issue of the Santa Fe Magazine the 
following letter addressed to all en.ployees : 

"Most individuals and companies dealing in railroad supplies 
have given up the practice of sending Christmas presents to 
railroad employees and officials. However, to a certain extent 
the practice was in evidence last year. 1 have always been 
opposed to this practice, have discouraged it, and am glad that 
it is decreasing. I want Santa Fe men to take such action as 
seems proper to eliminate it entirely. I appreciate that many 
of the presents given are tokens of friendship extending over 
many years ; nevertheless the practice is bad, and certainly so 
where the presents have any value. The high standing enjoyed 
tiy Santa Fe men makes it all the more desirable that the prac- 
tice cease." 


The engineering experiment station of the LTniversity of Illi- 
nois announces that four vacancies will be filled at the close of 
the current academic year in the research fellowships, ten of 
which have been maintained since 1907. These fellowships, eacli 
of which carries an annual stipend of $500, are open to gradu- 
ates of approved universities and technical schools, appointment 
being made for two consecutive collegiate years. Not more than 
half the time of a research fellow is required for the work to 
which he is assigned, the remainder being available for graduate 
study, and at the end of the two years, if all requirements have 
been met, the master's degree is granted. The subjects covered 
in this research work include architecture, chemistry, civil en- 
gineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, mining 
engineering, municipal and sanitary engineering, physics, rail- 
way engineering and theoretical and applied mechanics. Nomi- 
nations to these fellowships are based on character, scholastic 
attainment and promise of success, preference being given to ap- 
plicants who have had some practical engineering experience 
since completing their undergraduate work. Applications for 
nomination must be received by the Director, Engineering Ex- 
periment Station, L'niversity of Illinois, L^rbana, 111., not later 
than February I. 


International Raihvay General Foremen's Association. — At a 
recent meeting of the executive committee of the International 
Railway General Foremen's Association, it was decided to hold 
the 1915 convention at Hotel Sherinan, Chicago, July 13-16, in- 

International Engineering Congress. — Some confusion seems 
to have arisen between the International Electrical Congress, 
which it was proposed to hold in San Francisco in September, 
1915, and the International Engineering Congress, which, as 





Title of Paper 






.Tan. 12 

Jan.' 12 
Jan. 15 
Jan. 23 

Jan! 21 
Jan. 19 

Preventing Damage to Freight 

Various authors .... 

James Powell . . . 
Harry D. V^ought. 
Wm. Cade, Jr... 
Harry D. Vought. 
J. B. Anderson.. 
F. O. Robinson.. 
B. W. Frauenthal 

A. J. Merrill 

Jos. W. Taylor.. 

St. Lambert, Que. 

9.S Liberty St.. New York. 

New England.... 

Making Friends 

R. V. Wright 

J. M Daly 

Practical Methods of Tonnage Rating 

95 Liberty St., New York. 


H. P. Herr 

207 Penn. Station. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
C. & O. Ry., Richmond, Va. 


General Electric Electric Cars 

I. F. Layng 

South'n & S'w'rn. 


Economies in Freight Car Repairs 

H. H. Harvey 

1112 Karpen BIdg., Chicago, 111. 

January, 1915 


previously aninjiiiiced in these columns, is to be held during the 
same month. Owing to the unfortunate situation existing abroad, 
it has been decided by the governing body of the American In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers to indefinitely postpone the Imld- 
iiig of llie Electrical Congress. This docs imt affect the Inter- 
national l.n^inccring Congress, which is to be held as urininallv 

.hiu-ricdii S.icii'ly of Mrcluinital ImiiiiH-crs.^Al the amiual 
meeting uf the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, held 
in New York, December 1-4, John A. Brashear, Pittsburgh, I'a.. 
was elected president, and Henry Iless, of Pliiladelphia, I'a., 
<jeorge W. Dickie, New York Shipbuilding Company, Camden, 
N. J., and James E. Sague, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., were elected 
vice-presidents. Charles T. Main, Winchester, Mass., Spencer 
Miller, The I^idgerwood Maimfacturing Company, New York, 
and Max Toltz, St. Paul, Minn., were elected managers, Morris 
L. Cooke, Philadelphia, was elected manager to fill an unexpired 
term, and William H. Wiley was elected treasurer. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — The second meet- 
ing of the season of 1914-15 of the Chicago Section of the 
.American Society of Mechanical Engineers will be held in tlic 
La Salle Hotel. Chicago, January 8, 1915. The following papers 
will be presented : — Locomotive Superheaters, by R. M. Oster- 
mann, assistant to the vice-president, Locomotive Superheater 
Company; Locomotive Stokers, by Clement F. Street, vice-presi- 
dent, Locomotive Stoker Company, and Railway Economics, by 
Willard A. Smith, president. Railway Review. The first two 
papers will be discussed by Robert Quayle, general super- 
intendent I if motive power and car deiiartments. Chicago & North 
Western; H. T. Bentley, superintendent of motive power, Chi- 
cago & North Western; D. F. Crawford, general superintendent 
of motive power, Pennsylvania Lines West, and Dr. W. F. M. 
Goss, past-president of the society and chief engineer of the 
Chicago Association of Commerce Committee on Smoke Abate- 
ment and Electrification. The last paper will be discussed by 
II. H. Vaughan, assistant to the vice-president, Canadian Pacific, 
and W. H. Marshall, president, American Locomotive Company. 

All members of the Western Railway Club are invited to 
attend and all persons desiring to attend the dinner at 6.30 p. m. 
should notify the secretary, H. M. Montgomery, 316 Home In- 
surance building, Chicago, immediately. Those wishing to at- 
tend the reading of the papers only will be admitted at 8 p. m. 
The dinner will be served at $1.50 per person. 

The following list gives ttames of secretaries, dates of ne.vl or regular 
meetings, and places of meeting of mechanical associations. 

.\tr Brake Associ.\TtoN.~F. M. Nellis, 53 State St., Boston. Mass. Con- 
vention, May 5-7, 1915, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Association. — J. W. Taylor, Kar- 
pen building, Chicago. Convention, June 9-11, 1915. Atlantic City, 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Illi- 
nois Central, Chicago. Convention, July 1915, Chicago. 

.American Society for Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice. 29 W. 
Thirty-ninth street. New York. 

Car Foremen's Association op Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 North Fiftieth 
Court, Chicago: 2d Monday in month, except July and August, Lyt- 
ton building, Chicago. 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association. — 
S. Sl<idniore, 946 Richmond street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

International Railway Fuel Association. — C. G. Hall, 922 McCormick 
building, Chicago. Convention, May 17-20, I9IS, Chicago. 

International Railway General Foremen's Association. — William Hall. 
1126 W. Broadway. VVirona, Minn, Convention, July 13-16, 1915. 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago, 

International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood- 
worth, Lima, Ohio. Convention, August 17, 1915, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Master Boiler Makers' Association. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty street. 
New York. Convention, May 26-28. 1915, Chicago, 111. 

Master Car Builders' Association. — J. W. Taylor, Karpen building, Chi- 
cago. Convention, June 14-16, 1915, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Assoc, of U, S. and Canada. — 
A. P. Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Convention, September, 14-17, 
1915, Detroit, Mich. 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — E. Frankenberger, 623 Bris- 
bane building, Buffalo, N. Y". Meetings monthly. 

Railway Storekeepers' Association. — J. P. Murphy, Box C, Collinwood, 
Ohio. Convention, May 17-19, 1915, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

Traveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. Y. C. & H. R., 
East Buffalo, N. Y. Convention, September 1915, Chicago, 111. 


// i.f (iiir dcuic III make lliese columns cover as completely as 
I'li.s.fiblc all Ihc cluiiif;cs thai lake place in the mechanical de- 
fiirliiicnls uf the railuays of this country, and we shall greatly 
iif'l'rccialc any assistance llat our readers may git-e us in helping 

Id bring this abonl. 


T. r. IIriiwn lias been appointed supervisor of locomotive 
n|K r:iti.iii (111 the lines north and west of ColuiTibia of the Sea- 
fit ..ird .\ii' Line, with headquarters at Hamlet, N. C. 

W. (iiJ.i.Ksi'iK, master car builder of the Central Vermont at 
St. Albans, Vl., has been appointed mechanical superintendent 
in charge of motive power and car departments, and the position 
of master car builder has been abolished. 

II. ('. 


0\i\iT. whose appointment as assistant mechanical 
idciil of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, in 
if the newly established bureau of fuel economy, with 
headquarters at New 
Haven, Conn., has al- 
ready been announced in 
these columns, was born 
on December 5, 1871, at 
Milford, Conn., and was 
educated in the gram- 
iTiar school of his native 
town. He began rail- 
way work on May 23, 
1889, as a locomotive 
iireman on the New 
\'ork. New Haven & 
Hartford. In July, 1894, 
iie was promoted to lo- 
comotive engineman, and 
m l-'ebruary, 1900, was 
appointed air brake in- 
spector. Three years 
later, he was appointed 
foreman of engines, and 
in August, 1S04. was 
promoted to master me- 
chanic on the same road. He subsequently served as general 
inspector of the mechanical department, and in May, 1913, was 
appointed assistant mechanical superintendent. The following 
September, be was appointed superintendent of the Old Colony 
division, which position he held until November 9, 1914, when 
he was appointed to his present position. 

C. H, Seabrook, superintendent of machinery of the Inter- 
national & Great Northern, with headquarters at Palestine. Tex., 
has resigned, effective January 1. 

Irwin A. Seiders has been appointed fuel inspector, a position 
recently created by the Philadelphia & Reading, with head- 
quarters at Reading, Pa. Mr. Seiders has been continuously 
in the service of the Philadelphia & Reading for H years, hav- 
ing entered the Tamaqua shops as a laborer early in the year 
1882. He served in various capacities in the shop, station and 
train service until September, 1888, when he entered the engine 
service as fireman. He was made road foreman of engines in 
April, 1907, in which capacity he served until his recent ap- 
pointment as fuel inspector. 

S. S. Stiffey has resigned as superintendent of motive power 
of the Toledo & Ohio Central and the Zanesville & Western, 
and that office has been abolished. 

T. A. SuMMERSKiLL, superintendent of motive power of the 
Central Vermont at St. Albans. \'t., has been assigned to other 
duties and the office of superintendent of motive power has 

been abolislied. 



Vol. 89. No. 1 


N. M. B.\RKER has been appointed master mechanic in charge 
of locomotive, car and supply departments of the Copper Range 
Railroad, at Houghton, Mich., succeeding John A. Berg, as- 
signed to other duties. 

J. R. Bjssett has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the South Carolina division of the Seaboard Air Line at Savan- 
nah. Ga.. and the River Junction Line, formerly under tlie super- 
vision of the road foreman of engines of the l-'lurida division, 
is now under the supervision of Mr. Bissett. 

J. A. Cass.\uv, master mechanic of the Alabama Great Soutli- 
ern at Birmingham, Ala., has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, at Somerset, 
Ky., succeeding H. B. Hayes. 

J. J. Ci.ARK, formerly general foreman of the Missouri, Kansas 
& Texas at Walnut Springs, has been made master mechanic 
at Waco, Texas. 

H. Cramer, road foreman of engines of the Seaboard Air 
Line at Savannah. Ga., has been appointed supervisor of loco- 
motive operation of the lines south of Columbia, witli lieadquar- 
ters at Jacksonville, I'la. 

J. E. FiTzsiMONS, master mechanic (if the Central Vermont 
at St. Albans, has been assigned to other duties and the position 
of master mechanic has been abolished. 

A. Hai-lman has been made road foreman of engines of the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas at Smithville, Tex., succeeding C. E. 

A. E. Hamlet, road foreman of engines of the North Carolina 
division of the Seaboard Air Line at Hamlet, N. C, has been 
transferred to the Alabama division in the same capacity, with 
headquarters at Americus, Ga. 

G. W. Henry has been appointed assistant road foreman of 
engines of the Cleveland division of the Baltimore & Ohio at 
Cleveland, Ohio 

D. W. HiGGixs has been appointed road foreman of engines 
of the Rock Island Lines at Fairbury, Neb., succeeding W. D. 

E. J. Langhurst, assistant road foreman of engines of the 
New Castle division of the Bahimore & Ohio, has been appointed 
road foreman of engines at Parkersburg, W. Va. 

E. H. McCann has been appointed master mechanic of the San 
Antonio, Uvalde & Gulf, with headquarters at Pleasanton, Tex., 
succeeding J. H. Ruxton, resigned, whose title was superinten- 
dent of motive power. 

William McElrath has been appointed road foreman of en- 
gines of the Rock Island Lines at Eldon, Mo., succeeding J. H. 

W. W. Payne has been appointed road foreman of engines 
of the North Carolina division of the Seaboard Air Line, at 
Hamlet. N. C. 


A. D. Brice, assistant to the master car builder of the San 
Antonio & Aransas Pass, has been appointed master car 
builder, with headquarters at Yoakum, Tex., succeeding W. T. 
Cousley, resigned. 

Willis C. Dempster has been appointed car foreman of the 
Rock Island Lines at Pratt, Kan., succeeding T. J. Butler. 

N. E. Hooker has been appointed assistant foreman of the car 
department of the Erie at Cleveland. Ohio, succeeding J. E. Fitz- 

C. E. Stone has been appointed general car foreman of the 
Missouri & North Arkansas, with headquarters at Harrison, Ark. 

J. A. WiLHiTE has been appointed car foreman of the Chicago 
Great Western at South Des Moines, la. 


Leo.v Atuell, roundhouse foreman of the Southern Railway 
at Birmingham, Ala., has been made general forouan at Selma, 
Ala., succeeding T. S. Krahenbuld. 

J. A. Burton has been appointed night roimdliouse foreman 
of the Chicago Great Western at South Des Moines, la., suc- 
ceeding George Bailey. 

Ci. A. ITillman has been appointed erecting shop foreman of 
the i'ric at Galion, C)hio, succeeding H. A. Kinscy. 

W. !•". MoRAN has been appointed roundhouse foreman of the- 
Ruck Island Lines at Shawnee, Okla., succeeding .\. Hamilton. 

F. K. Moses, foreman at the Garrett (Ind.) shops of the Bal- 
timore & Ohio, has been appointed master mechanic of the Balti- 
more & Ohio Chicago Terminal shops, at East Chicago, succeed- 
ing J. W. Fogg. 

S. E. Mueller has been appointed general foreman of the 
Rock Island Lines at Rock Island, 111., succeeding R. J. Mc- 

Bert Smith has been appointed general foreman of the Rock 
Island Lines at Eldon, Mo., succeeding W. H. Burleigh. 

J. H. Stone has been appointed boilermaker foreman of the 
Erie at Marion, Ohio. 

F. E. Wolfe has been appointed roundhouse foreman of the 
Chicago Great Western at Haytield, Minn., succeeding A. T. 


E. J. Burns has been appointed storekeeper of the Albuquerque 
division of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Winslow, Ariz. 

L. C. Thomson has been appointed general storekeeper of the 
eastern lines of the Canadian Northern, with headquarters at 
Toronto, Out. 

Eldred D. Toye has been appointed storekeeper uf the Ontario- 
Grand division of the Canadian Northern, with headquarters at 
Toronto. Out. 


Matthew Charlton, formerly master mechanic of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad, died of infirmities at his home in- 
Louisville, Ky., on December 25, at the age of 84 years. 

Colonel Edward D. Meier, formerly president of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers, died on December 15 
in New York City at the age of 73. He was born in St. Louis,. 
Mo., and graduated from Washington University in 1858. 
He subsequently spent four years in Germany at the Royal 
Polytechnic College in Hanover, and later became an ap- 
prentice at the Mason Locomotive Works, Taunton, Mass. 
.After serving in the United States army during the civil war 
he entered the service of the Rogers Locomotive Works at 
Paterson, N. J. He subsequently was superintendent of ma- 
chinery of the Kansas Pacific, now a part of the Union Pacific. 
In 1870 he became chief engineer of the Ilhnois Patent Coke 
Company, and two years later was secretary and construction 
engineer of the Meier Iron Company, and in 1884 organized 
the Heine Safety Boiler Company, of which he was president 
at the time of his death. Previous to 1908 he was president 
of the American Diesel Engine Company and introduced the 
Diesel motor into this country. He was president of the 
American Boiler Manufacturers' Association in 1898; presi- 
dent of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 
1910, and in 1913 represented that society in Munich, at a joint; 
meeting witli the German Engineering Society. 

Jainuakv, 1915 



Supply Trade Notes 

)i (lie liaUlwin Lucdiiiotivc Works h;i 
t least for the next moiitli. 

The Etldyslune i)Iant 
liecn put on full time, ; 

H. R. Slieene has been appointed sales engineer of the L'nion 
Switch & Signal Company, with headquarters in room 2039 
Railway Exchange building. St. Louis, Mo. Mr. Sheeue will 
report to the resident manager al Chicago. 

H. C. Hequembourg. whose election to the vice-presidency 
of the Standard Chemical Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has been 
announced in these coUunns, was born in St. Louis, Mo. Ik- 
received his education at 
Dunkirk, N. Y., and 
spent the first 21 years 
of his business life with 
the Brooks Locomotive 
Works of that city in the 
positions, respectively, of 
bookkeeper, cashier and 
assistant secretary. When 
the /Xmerican Locomo- 
tive Company was incor- 
porated in June, 1901, he 
was made its general 
purchasing agent, and 
has remained in that po- 
sition up to the accept- 
ance of liis new appoint- 
ment. The Standard 
Chemical Company is a 
refiner of carnotite ores 
and produces radium, 
uranium and vanadium. 
Mr. Hequembourg as 
company will lie its representative in the 
headquarters at 30 Cliurch street. New 
represent tlie .\nicrican Vanadium Com- 


\ ice-president of the 
east and will have 
^■ork. He will also 
jiany in the i.ast. 

Alexander Harvey, secretary of the Del rick & Harvey Ma- 
chine Company. Baltimore, Md., died in that city on November 22, 
of pneumonia. Mr. Harvey was 57 years old, a native of Balti- 
more, and with Jacob N. Detrick organized the company bearing 
his name, in 1884. He leaves three sons and a daughter. 

T. A. Willson & Co., Inc., Reading, Pa., has been awarded the 
grand prize at the Second International Exposition of Safety 
and Sanitation, held at the Grand Central Palace, New York, 
from December 12 to 19. 1914. The award was given to the com- 
pany in recognition of the merits of the various Willson eye pro- 

By a recent decision of the directors of the Pullman Com- 
pany, the work of building one steel sleeping car a day will con- 
tinue throughout the winter months. Because of the small de- 
mand for cars during the past few months a discontinuance of 
this policy had been considered, but the recent decision will af- 
ford work to the men during the winter. 

On December 10. 1914. Judge Hazel, of the Western District 
■of New York, handed down a decision in the suit of the Safety 
Car Heating & Lighting Company vs. the United States Light & 
Heating Company, holding patent No. 747,686. issued to J. L. 
Creveling. and owmed by the former company, valid and in- 
fringed by the apparatus of the latter company. There were 
eight claims in the suit and all were sustained. The patent 
■covers regulating devices for regulating the output of a variable 
speed generator and means for controlling the regulating de- 
vices to determine the output. 

Arthur E. Jackman has been appointed manager of the ma- 
chinery department of the Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Com- 

p.-iny, St. Lou's, Mo., succeeding J. J. Hilpirt, who has re- 
signed to become storekeeper of Cia. Mcxicana De Pctroleo, "El 
Aguila" S. A. at Tanqiico, Mex. Mr. Jackman was at one time 
general manager of the Sea View Railroad and the Xarragan- 
seft Pier Electric Light & Power Comijany. He was also for 
years in the railway and lighting department of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company, and left the position 
of superintendent of the East St. Louis, Columbia & Waterloo 
Railway to assume his present duties. 

The fire that destroyed part of the Edison Phonograph 
Works, at Orange, N. J., on December 9, did not in any way 
affect the Edison Storage Battery Company. One end of the 
large concrete buildings of the battery works is across the 
street from Mr. Edison's private laboratory, which was saved, 
and this as well as the rest of the plant escaped unscorched. 
The fire started about 5 :20 in the afternoon and was under 
control by 10 o'clock. The telephone exchange was in one 
of the burned buildings, but through the prompt action of 
the New York Telephone Company a temporary switchboard 
was working in the battery office before business hours the 
next morning and the Public Service Electric Company had 
einergency lines furnishing power nearly as soon. The business 
of the Edison Storage Battery Company, therefore, suffered no 
interruption whatever. 

Eli Stillson Hart, chairman of the board of the Rodger Ballast 
Car Company, Chicago, and one of Chicago's oldest residents, 
died at his hcnne. 2922 Prairie avenue, on November 23, after 

an illness of several 
weeks. Mr. Hart was 
born in Rochester, N. Y.. 
in 1832. In 1855 he was 
graduated from Hamil- 
ton College in the law 
school. He began the 
practice of law in Clin- 
ton, la., and came to 
Chicago in 1856. where 
he continued his law 
practice as a member of 
a leading firm of that 
period. In 1874, owing 
to ill liealth. Mr. Hart 
gave up his legal work 
to engage in business. 
He was one of the 
founders of the Rodger 
Ballast Car Company, 
the success of which was 
due to his ability, and 
until his death he was 
chairman of board of directors. Mr. Hart's integrity of char- 
acter, sound judgment and kindly humor made him many friends. 
He is survived by tliree children : Miss Gertrude W. Hart. H. 
Stillson Hart and Mrs. Evan A. Evans. 

William F. Bauer, assistant manager of the railway depart- 
ment of the Edison Storage Battery Company. Orange, N. J., 
has been appointed manager of the Chicago office of that 
company, succeeding Charles B. Prayer, who retired on . 
November 30 to devote himself to private interests. Mr. 
Bauer has been engaged in storage battery work for many 
years. In 1889 he was the electrician in charge of the original 
train lighting equipment of the Pennsylvania's Chicago 
Limited, a lighting system designed by his father, then chief 
electrician of the Pullman Company. He later had experience 
with the Electric .\ccuniulator Company, the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, the Pullman Company 
and the Wagner Palace Car Company. In 1501 he entered the 
employ of the Consolidated Railway Electric Lighting & Equip- 

Copyright by MotTctt, Ch 

Eli S. Hart 


\'oL. 89, No. 1 

iiient Company and uvo years later was appointed cliicf electrician 
of the Missouri Pacilic, in charge of car lighting. In 1906 
Mr. Bauer became sales engineer of the Electric Storage Bat- 
tery Company. He has been with the Edison Storage Bat- 
tery Company for about a year and is president of the Rail- 
way Electrical Supply Manufacturers' Association. 

Charles Arthur Moore, president of Manning, Ma-xvvell & 
Moore, New York, died of heart disease on board the steamer 
Rotterdam, on which he was en route for Naples. Aside from 
his position as president 
of Manning, Ma.xwell & 
Moore, he was president 
of the Shaw Electric 
Crane Company-, Consoli- 
dated Safety Valve Com- 
pany, Ashcroft Manu- 
facturing C o m p a n y . 
Hancock Inspirator 
Company, Hayden iS: 
Derby Manufacturin.t; 
Company, United In- 
jector Company, and 
was a director of the 
Continental Insurance 
Company, the Liberty 
National Bank, the 
American Bank Note 
Company and the Na- 
tional Machinery Com- 
pany. Mr. Moore was 
born in West Sparta, 
N. Y., in 1845, and was 
educated in the public and private schools of Rochester. N. Y.. 
and Lynn, Mass. He enlisted in the navy at the outbreak 
of the civil war and served throughout the war. He tlien 
became a salesman in New England, and in 1880 joined the lirm 
of H. S. Manning & Co., of New York, forming the firm of 
Manning, Ma.vwell & Moore, manufacturing railroad supplies. 
In 1905 the business was incorporated and Mr. Moore became 
president and a controlling owner. Mr. Moore was a member 
of the Chamber of Commerce, National Civic Federation, New 
York Board of Trade and Transportation, American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, Empire State Society of Sons of Revolu- 
tion, Ohio Society, St. Andrew's Society, Pilgrims of the United 
States and Society of Genesee. He was a member of the Auto- 
mobile Club of America, Army and Navy, Republic, Union 
League, Lotus, Engineers, New York Railroad, Machinery, Law- 
yers and Transportation clubs, and the founder and for ten 
years president of the Montauk Club. 


Charles A. Moore 

New Shops 

Missouri Pacific. — This company will build a 10-stall 95-ft. 
frame engine house at Horace, Kan., to replace the one recently 
destroyed by fire. The work will be done by company forces. 

Oregon-Washington R.mlro.^d & Navig.^tion Company. — 
Work has been be.gun on the division terminal buildings of this 
company at Spokane, Wash,, which consist of an 11-stall round- 
house, a machine shop, 80 ft. by 120 ft., a power house, 40 ft. by 
50 ft., a coaling plant, cinder pit and coach cleaning facilities. 
The power house will be of concrete construction, and the other 
buildings will have brick walls and mill constructed frames. 
W ork is being done by company forces and the approximate cost 
will be $150,000. 

Southern Railway. — This company has given a ci)ntract to 
the Murphy Construction Company, East St. Louis, 111., for the 
construction of an 18-stall roundhouse, machine shop building, 
store, oil and office building, at Denverside yard. East St. Louis. 

\'extilateu Co.mmltatinc Pgle Railway Motors. — The Gen- 
eral Electric .Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has issued bulletins 
No. 44,403 and 44,405, describing the company's commutating pole 
railway motors for 600 volt and 600/1,200 volt service. Both 
motors are described in considerable detail. 

Dust Guards.— The National dust guard is the subject of a 
12-page booklet issued by the National Raihva\- Equipment Com- 
pany, Toledo, Ohio. This dust guard is made entirely of steel 
and fiber and aside from the adjusting clamps consists of but 
three pieces. It is being tried out on nearly 100 dift'ercnt rail- 

Portable Electric Drills.— Circular E-2, just issued by the 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, 111, deals with 
the Thor portable electric drills which are manufactured by this 
company. It contains four pages and includes illustrations and 
sizes of these tools, as well as tables giving the various char- 
acteristics of each. 

Torches for Steel C.\r Rep.mrs. — The Mahr Manufacturing 
Company, Minneapolis, Minn., has issued an illustrated booklet 
devoted to the Mahr steel car repairing torches. These torches 
will burn either kerosene or crude oil and are fitted with inter- 
changeable nozzles. They are also made in sizes suitable for 
liiiilcr shop and other work. 

I'uRTABLE Electric Tools. — A catalog recently issued by the 
Neil & Smith Electric Tool Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, is de- 
voted to this company's Ideal line of portable electrically-drivei> 
tools. The booklet contains 56 pages, thoroughly illustrated and 
describes a considerable number of types of electric grinders 
and buffers, drills, screw drivers, etc. Several pages are also 
devoted to electrically-driven saws and a table of grinding wheel 
speeds is included. 

Ratchet Brake Lever. — A IS-page booklet issued by the Pitts- 
burgh Railway Appliance Company, Farmers Bank building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., deals with the Acme ratchet brake lever and con- 
tains a number of illustrations showing this type of lever in 
its difTerent forms and applied to different classes of freight and 
passenger cars. Illustrations and descriptive matter are also in- 
cluded dealing with the universal journal bo.x lid manufactured 
by the same company. 

Paint Tests. — An eight page leaflet has been published by 
the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., as a 
supplement to the October, 1914, issue of Graphite, which is 
entitled The Atlantic City Steel-Fence Paint Tests. As the title 
indicates this pamphlet deals with the final report of inspection 
of the steel paint test fence which was presented at the meeting 
of the .\merican Society for Testing Materials, held in Atlantic 
City in July of this year, A brief history of the test is given, 
followed by a discussion of the results as reported by the inspec- 
tion committee. 

Steel Pipe. — History, Characteristics and .Advantages of Na- 
tional Pipe is the title of National bulletin No. 11-C issued by 
the National Tube Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. The second edi- 
tion, enlarged, was issued in November. 1914. This bulletin is 
a 48 page booklet and goes into the subject of steel pipe very 
fully. It is divided into chapters and is thoroughly illustrated. 
The National Tube Company has also issued recently informa- 
tion regarding the increase in the amount of steel pipe manu- 
factured from 1888 to 1913. In 1888 there were approximatelv 
500 tons of wrought iron pipe manufactured, while the amount 
of steel pipe manufactured was negligible. In 1905 the amount 
of wrouglit iron pipe manufactured had decreased to 452,797 
tons while the steel pipe manufactured had increased to 983,198 
tons. In 1913 the wrought iron pipe had decreased to 312,746 
tons and the steel had increased to 2,189,218 tons. 

February, 1')1: 



American Engineer 

Published on the Kikst Thuhsday of Evehy Month by thb 


WooLwoBTEi Hum, DING, New York, N. Y. 

Mctliodh of 

CHICAGO; Transporla 

M-n Anne 

CLEVELAND: Citiicns' lildg. 
inibers, Westminster. 

Edward A. Si 

HONS, President L. B. Sherman, Vic 

Henry Lee, Secretary 
ircss of the coinpaiiy is the address of the office 

Roy V. Wright, Editor 
.■Uxocialc Editor A. C. I 

C. B. Peck, Associate Edito 

Associate Editor 

Subscriptions, including the eight daily editions of the Railway Age 
Gasette published in June in connection with the annual conventions of 
the Master Car Builders' and American Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciations, payable in advance and postage free: 

United States, Canada and Mexico $2.00 a year 

Foreign Countries (excepting daily editions) 8.00 a year 

Single Copy 20 cents 

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as mail matter of the 
second class. 

WE GUARANTEE, that of this issue 4,800 copies were printed; that of 
these 4,800 copies 4,122 were mailed to regular paid substribors. 260 were 
provided for counter and news companies' sales, 204 were mailed to adver- 
tisers, exchanges and correspondents, and 224 were provided for samples and 
office use: that the total copies printed this year to date were 9,300, an 
average of 4,660 copies a month. 

Simraons-Boardman publications are members of the Audit Bureau of Circu- 

Volume 89 

February, 1915 

Number 2 



Methods of Dealing with Men 55 

The Training of Foremen 55 

Car Department Correspondence 55 

Truss Rods on Steel Sills 56 

Care of Boilers in Winter 56 

Western Engineers' and Firemen's Demands 56 

New Books 57 


Tender Derailments 58 


Southern Locomotive W-ilve Gear 59 

The Best Methods of Dealing with Men '..'..'.'.'. 61 

Jersey Central Freight Car Repair Shops ,,,', (,1 

Improved Performance with Old-Time Coaling Facilities 66 

Japanese Railways liynamometer Car 06 


Car Control ; , 

Car Department Corres|ior derce and Reports ' i > 

Union Pacific Steel Freight Cars 73 

Steel Frame Box Cars for the Illinois Central 78 

Defective Box Cars '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 80 


Training Engine House Foremen si 

Jig for Drilling Drv Pipe Collars 81 

Finishing Tank Valve Castings ■■■ Ih 

Cleaning Air Pumps 82 

Repairing Locomotive Boiler Tubes SJ 

Engine House Repair Work "85 

Pneumatic Flue Cutter yi^ 

Riveting in Steel Car Construction 07 

Repairing Worn Tail Braces '■. co 

Air Pump Rack ' ' 5q 


Sclf-Contained Grinding Machire 91 

Diaphragm-Operated Triple \'alve 9) 

Adjustable Saw Guard o? 

Slide Plate Planer V.V.'.V.V.'. 95 

Universal Hollow-Hexagon Turret Lathe at. 

Portable Lathe 07 

Electric Crane Trolley 07 

Vacuum p.^nt Sprayer ;::;::::::::::::;::: l^ 

Universal Pipe Joint 9^ 


^•'otes go 

Meetings and Convertions '''inn 

Personals '/[ JfJV 

Supply Trade Notes , ] Ifl^ 

Catalogs ,„', 

We jirint elsewhere in this issue an ar- 
ticle on the handling of men, by H. E. 
Uealini! With (janihlc. foreman blacksmith of the Pcnn- 
^«" sylvania Railroad, .Mtoona, Pa. Mr. 

(iaiiiliU- has brou).;ht out some important points which should 
be carefully considered by all foremen. In substance, he 
advises the foremen to consider the men under them as men, 
and not as mere machines placed at their disposal and out of 
whom they arc to extract the greatest amount of labor for 
the least possible cost. That this does not pay has l>een 
demonstrated many, many times. Fine, elaborate and ex- 
tensive systems of shop administration have utterly failed sim- 
ply because the men on whom the system was supposed to 
operate were not given proper consideration. The value of 
the most efficient machine may be entirely lost if the man 
operating it is not in accord with his superiors. The contented 
workman is the dividend producer; his energy, mind and 
thought produce the actual results. The foreman who ob- 
tains the most from his men is the one who treats them as 
incti and as he himself would like to be treated. The foreman 
is directly responsible for the work of his men and they have 
his reputation in their hands. Is it not logical, therefore, that 
he should sock to secure their interest and loyalty? 

-ru T, ■• X In •"! editorial on this subject, page 558 

I he I raining •' r o 

cii of.r November, 1914, issue, after out- 
lining the conditions which resulted in 
I-oremen i|,(. failure of a young man when he had 

been appointed to ;lie position of engine house foreman, we 
stated that if the man had had a guiding hand at the terminal 
during the first few weeks, or even days, after he went there as 
foreman, he would probably have made good. In commenting 
on this editorial a correspondent said that it appealed to him 
particularly because of his own experience ; he had been sent 
to relieve a foreman who left within a few hours after his 
arrival, giving him almost no opportunity to familiarize himself 
with conditions Ijcforc the entire responsibility of the work was 
placed upon him. This is an example of the haphazard methods 
commonly employed in the appointment of engine house foremen. 
To those who are familiar with the vsay such appnintments are 
very frequently made, and who have endeavored to devise some 
means of providing trained men for the position of foreman, the 
article on Trainin.g Engine House Foremen, by R. G. Gilbride. 
which appears elsewhere in this issue, should appeal particu- 
larly. Space does not permit of printing the form of examina- 
tion which accompanied Mr. Gilbride's article, but it covers the 
general duties of the various classes of men employed in an 
engine house in a manner sufficiently thorough to show plainly 
by the answers a candidate makes to the various questions 
whether or not he is familiar enough with engine house work in 
general to undertake the duties of a foreman. This examina- 
tion could, of course, be varied to suit the conditions on any 
particular road. If, after serving an apprenticeship, a young 
man were given this course of training, he should be capable 
of successfully assuming charge of an engine house, provided 
care were taken when selecting him as a candidate, to make sure 
that he possessed the qualifications desirable in an engine house 
foreman; indeed, if he were to fail after receiving such a train- 
ing it would seem that it must be because of a lack of some 
qualification other than training. 

Q. Elsewhere in this issue is published a paper 

on "Car Department Correspondence and 
Reports." presented at the January meet- 
Correspondence ing pf the Car Foremen's Association of 
Chicago. Mr. Claudy points out in this paper some of the im- 
portant items that make unnecessary correspondence. But 
neither he nor any of the members at the meeting spoke of the 
lack of familiarity with the M. C. B. Rules that exists among 
some of the men employed in the car department. Interviews 



\'0L. 89, No. 2 

•with modianical officers wlio are directly interested in the 
M. C. B. rules and price list have disclosed the fact that this 
is a large source of trouble. Incorrect billing is liable to cause 
more unnecessary correspondence than a wrong car number, 
for in addition to the letters of exception there may be letters 
of explanation concerning the point at issue. There may be 
some excuse for misinterpretations, but there is little excuse 
for ignorance of the rules. The chief i oint brought out in tlie 
<liscussion of the paper concerned the delay caused by the undue 
use of technicalities in endeavoring to avoid respunsibility. It 
should be remembered that the rules were promulgated to aid 
the roads in maintaining their equipment while on foreign roads. 
They are designed to provide an easy, fair and uniform method 
of locating responsibility and making charges for work per- 
formed by the handling lines. Their purpose is primarily to 
save time and money for the roads which are members of the 
Master Car Builders' Association, and until the different roads 
and their employees look on tl.e rules in that light and 
desist from trying to evade responsibility by means of techni- 
calities, or what is sometimes called "sharp practice," the rules 
will not fully serve the purpose for which they are intended. 
In the long rim there is nothing to be gained in "putting any- 
thing over" another road, for with the great amount of inter- 
change between all the roads there is always an opportunity to 
'get back" and the processes will net both roads a loss, due to 
unnecessary correspondence and possilily traveling expenses, 
M-ith absolutely nothing gained. 

_, D J On page 4 of our Januarv issue appeared a 

Truss Rods ' * . ■' -, "^^ 

communication entitled 1 russ Kods on 

°" Steel Members," criticising the discussion 

Steel Sills gf this subject which appeared in an edi- 

torial on British steel car construction in the October, 1914 issue. 
There are, no doubt, conditions under which the use of truss 
rods on steel members may be advisable. But it is a fact that 
the use of truss rods with the structural steel sections usually 
<-mployed in steel underframes, the rod being provided with 
turnbuckle adjustment and passing over queen posts, but not se- 
cured to them, not only produces an arrangement the action 
of which under load is very uncertain, but one which is usually 
uneconomical from the standpoint of the best distribution of 
material. Wood sills are always provided with truss rods which 
are so adjusted that the rod is not only under initial tension 
liut the sill is given a perceptible upward camber, thus insuring 
the action of the sill as the compression member while the rod 
takes the tension resulting from the direct loading as well as 
from the eccentricity of drawbar pull. This adjustment is en- 
tirely feasible because of the very low modulus of elasticity of 
the wood and the relatively large deflection of the sill within its 
safe working load. 

If the wood sill is replaced with one of structural steel, say 
an eight or ten inch channel, the case is entirely different. The 
deflection of such a sill within the length of span commonly 
found in car construction, under a load corresponding to the 
■safe working stress of the material, will never be more than a 
small fraction of an inch. The effect of this deflection trans- 
mitted to a truss rod through the queen posts — assuming the rod 
to have been originally in perfect adjustment without initial 
stress — will be to produce a stress equivalent to a lengthening 
•of the rod by an amount much smaller than the deflection of 
the beam. In other words, the beam may be loaded till the 
material has reached its safe working stress with but little 
stress in the truss rod unless the rod is of a size much larger 
than is usually employed, or is sufiliciently tight to produce an 
initial compression in the sill, the amount of which is always 
tincertain. Under heavy buffing shocks it may be possible to 
cause a reversal of stresses in the sill due to the eccentricity of 
the draft gear, compression in the sill being greatly augmented 
and tension eliminated from the lower chord. Under such con- 

dition.-i the truss-rod is worthless, and may even be detrimental 
if drawn up light. 

On the whole it may be said that tlie truss rod is of relatively 
small value when used in coimtction with a structural section, 
the shape of which is especially designed to secure the maximum 
stiffness per unit of weight. Its use is a makeshift which should 
lind no place in a permanent structure, such as an all-steel or 
steel underframe car. 

^ , 1 his IS a time of the year when troubles 

Care of ,. , . , ., 

peculiar to locomotive boilers are aggra- 

"' ^"^^ vated greatly by weather conditions, and 

in Winter although the subject is far from being new 

it may not be amiss to remind those who have to do with boiler 
maintenance that great care is necessary both in maintenance 
and operation if boiler troubles are to be kept within reasonable 
limits during the winter months. We are further reminded of 
this by looking over an article on the maintenance of locomo- 
tive boilers by J. F. Raps, general boiler inspector of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, which was published in the Illinois Central 
Magazine. ]\Iauy cases of leaky tubes, perhaps the greatest 
aggravation to boiler maintaincrs and certainly a cause of many 
trials to the operating department, are started at the ash pit 
by careless use of the blower and the injector. A good, in- 
structive, heart-to-heart talk on this subject by the foreman with 
the ash pit men will do much toward relieving a difficulty of 
this kind. The cleaning out of tubes is another matter of prime 
importance. The winter is a season when a locomotive needs 
every portion of its heating surface, and if tubes are allowed 
to become stopped up, and the condition is not remedied, the 
steam-making capacity is reduced. We know of but one way 
to make sure that a tube is clean ; that is to pass an auger com- 
pletely through it and afterwards blow the tube out with air. 
There are many boiler makers who make a practice of using 
a short auger, or else inserting the long auger only a few feet 
in the tube. The work is then entered in the work book as 
done and the engineman cannot understand why the locomotive 
docs not improve in steaming and very likely books the steam 
pipes to be examined or reports a leak in the front end at the 
other division terminal, when all that is needed is that the tubes 
be thoroughly cleaned for their entire length. Advantage should 
be taken of days on which a locomotive is being washed out to 
see that the tubes are all in good condition, and more than ordi- 
nary care should be given to the cooling and washing of the 
boiler to avoid sudden changes in temperature and the conse- 
quent sudden contraction of sheets. If these points are kept 
carefully in mind in handling locomotives at engine terminals, 
much necvlless work can lie avoided and many engine failures 

Western Engineers' 
and Firemen's 


now aljout sixteen months since the 

engineers and firemen of the western roads 
presented demands for increases in rates 
Demands ^f p^y ^^d more favorable service rules. 

There were numerous conferences between the representatives 
of the men and the railroads affected, but no definite agreement 
could be reached. Now the arguments are being heard by a 
board of arbitration appointed under the .\'ewlands act, and 
the findings of this board will decide the issue. The hearings 
were begun on November 30, 1914, the enginemen and firemen 
having the first opportunity for presenting their case. 

In brief, the men have demanded that the high rates of pay 
in effect on some roads that do not have as favorable service 
rules 3s other roads, be applied to the favorable service rules 
that are in eft'ect on roads that do not pay the higher rates, 
and both rates and rules be applied universally throughout the 
West. This, it may readily be seen, would be a pyramiding 
of the cost to the railroads, and in some cases give exorbitant 
pay to some of the engine crews. As an example. Article 7 
of the men's demands requires that engineers and firemen ar- 

February, 1915 


living at a Icniiiiuil or the end uf the run shall he autoniatieally 
released, and when used again sliall begin a new day. Taking 
a specilic case nnder this rule on the Gulf, Colorado & Santa 
l'"e, a certain engineer earned in October, 1913, $202,74 per 
month for working 8;^ hours per day on a "turn around" run. 
Under the new rule lie would have earned $1,435.75, and his 
Jireman, $937.79 for (hat one month. There are many other 
cases similar to this and (he roads estimate that this rule alone 
would cause an increase in operating expenses fjf $621,128 a 
year. ,\nother instance of the unreasonableness of some of the 
■demands is the demand that engineers and firemen deadheading 
on company luisiiuss shall he paid the s.-ime rale .-md on the same 
basis as the engiiuer ami fireman running the train on which 
they are deadheading. This means fidl time for absolutely no 
work ; the men may even be sleeping in a Pullman or caboose. 

The representatives for the railroads began their testimony 
on January 26. James B. Sheean, counsel for the railroads, 
stated that a comparison of the wages of the men making the 
demands with those of any ot'.icr cr.-ifl, nr of ;iny other railway 
employees, or of engineers and lirenien in otlier parts of the 
country, show that they are receiving already a liigher com- 
]icnsation in both rates of pay and rules. He also stated that 
in the wqges for about 5,000 typical men in all classes of serv- 
ice for an entire year, there was a maximum of $3,725.20 for 
1 assenger engineers. $3,342.30 for freight engineers, $1,752.20 
for passenger lircmen, and $1,890.32 for freight firemen. .-Vs 
compared with these, tlie governors of seven states receive 
$3,000 or less per year, while those of seven other states re- 
ceive $4,000, or only slightly above the engineers' ma.ximum 
earnings. For the month in which the demands were presented 
the engineers in regular passenger service earned from an 
;nerage of $185 to a ma.\imum of $341.60 per month, and in 
freight service from an average of $170 to a maximum of 
$358.70 per month ; firemen in regular passenger service earned 
from an average of $115.54 to a maximum of $209.89 per month, 
and in freight service from an average of $110 to a maximum 
of $221.05 per month; other firemen in combination freight and 
passenger service earned even more than this. 

The testimony of J. H. Keefe, assistant general manager of 
the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, for the railroads, shows in 
considerable detail just what these demands mean in money to 
the railroads. For the months in which the demands were pre- 
sented (October, 1913), separate accounts of what the men 
earned under the present rates of wages and what they would 
have been paid under the schedule demanded by them w-ere 
kept by the railroads affected. From these records Mr. Keefe 
showed that if the deinands were granted, approximately 
$40,000,000 would be added to the yearly operating expenses of 
the 98 roads aiTected. For that specific month the enginemen 
would have received $1,759,008 in addition to what they were 
already paid, and the firemen, $1,653,391. The total additional 
compensation to motormen, their helpers, and to the hostlers 
would amount to $263,561, making a grand total additional com- 
pensation of .$3,675,960. In addition to this $181,009 would 
have to be expended for new help, making a total of $3,856,969, 
This is an increase of 51 per cent. 

The increase for engineers on passenger trains would ainount 
to 37.5 per cent, and for the firemen, 42 per cent. In through 
freight service the increase for the enginemen would amount 
to 41.2 per cent, and for the firemen to 25 per cent. In w-ay 
freight service the increase for the enginemen would be 56 per 
cent, and for the firemen, 67 per cent. In switching service the 
increase for the enginemen would be 38 per cent, and for the 
firemen 51.5 per cent. In other service the increase for the 
enginemen would be 31 per cent, and for the firemen 35 per 
cent. Taken as a whole, considering all classes of service, the 
increases for the enginemen would be 41 per cent, for the hre- 
men 61 per cent, and for the hostlers 108 per cent. 

These figures speak for themselves and are especially audible 
when the present condition of the railways is taken into con- 

si<leration. Our readers well know to what economies and re- 
Irenehmcnts their respective roads have been forced, and the 
anticipation of still greater sacrifices for the benefit of a selected 
7 per cent of all western railway employees, who at present 
receive over 12 per cent of the wages paid, cannot be viewed 
with very great enthusiasm. If the demands were granted as 
presented, this favored 7 per cent would be receiving in the 
neighborhood of 17 ])cr cent of the wages paid to the railway 
employees in the western district. 


The liUhicnce of .Smoke on Health. 173 pages, 6 in. by 9 in. Dound in 
paper. Publislltd by the University of Pittsburgh, I'iltsburgh, I'a. 

This is smoke investigation Bulletin No. 9 of the Mellon In- 
stitute of Industrial Research and contains the papers repre- 
senting the work done by the physicians and laboratory investi- 
gators on the staff of the smoke investigation. It is edited by 
Oskar Klotz and William Charles White. 

The Origin of Coal. !!y IJavid White and Reinhardl Thiesscn, with a 
chapter on the Korniatinn of Peat, by Charles A. Davis. 378 pages, 
6 in. by 9 in. Illustrated. Hound in paper. Published by the Depart- 
mLiit of the Interior, Hurcau of Mines, Washington, 1). C. 

This is bulletin No. 38 of the Bureau of Mines and constitutes a 
report of studies to learn from microscopic examinations of coal 
how far and in what way the grouping of coal by types depends 
on dififerences in the kind of plant material from which it was 
formed and on the conditions of its accumulation, or how far the 
special characters or qualities of coal of any type were deter- 
mined by the nature and the state of the plant debris from which 
the coal was formed. 

Grafhic Mclhoits for Presenting Facts. I!y Willrnd C. Biinton. 363 pages, 

7 in. by 10 in. Fully illustrated. Dound in cloth. Published by the 

Engineering Magazine Company, 140 Nassau street. New York. 
Price $4. 

In the preparation of this book it was intended "to produce a work 
which can serve as a handbook for any one who may have oc- 
casional charts to prepare for reports, for magazine illustration 
or for advertising. .An effort has been made to present the sub- 
ject to suit the point of view of the business man, the social 
worker and the legislator. Mathematics have been entirely 
eliminated and very few technical terms are used. It is desired 
to reach those readers who have never had any statistical train- 
ing, and therefore consistent effort has been made to keep the 
book on such a plane that it may be found reasonable and use- 
ful by any one dealing with the complex facts of business or 
government. It should also, however, prove of use to engineers 
and statisticians. 

Proceedings of the Traveling Engineers' Association. Compiled and pub- 
lished by W. O. Thompson, secretary of the association, Buffalo, N. Y. 
453 pages, 6 in. by 9 in. Bound in leather. 

This book is the report of the twenty-second annual convention 
of the Traveling Engineers' Association, which was held in Chi- 
cago, September IS to 18. 1914. The important subjects consid- 
ered at this convention and which are included in the report art 
the Care of Locomotive Brake Equipment, the Economical 
Operation of Locomotives, and a paper on the Chemistr\' of 
Combustion. All the subjects were thoroughly discussed and 
the information published in these proceedings is of value to rail- 
way mechanical men. The paper on the Care of Locomotive 
Brake Equipment is especially useful as it is in sufficient detail 
and covers the ground so thoroughly that it may be considered 
one of the best treatises on this subject ever printed. The pro- 
ceedings also contain addresses by J. F. DeVoy, of the Chicago. 
Milwaukee & St. Paul; H. C. Bayless, of the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, and Frank McManamy, chief inspector 
of locomotive boilers. Interstate Coinnierce Commission. 



\oi.. 89. Ni 



T.ii-EKA. Kan. 
To THE Edituk ; 

Notwithstanding the numerous reports and recommendations 
that have been made from time to time on the subject of tender 
derailments, we are confronted with periodical epidemics of this 
trouble. These cases, as a general thing, cause very little dam- 
age, but the danger of a bad accident is great and every means 
known should be brought to bear on the subject to reduce the 
tendency. Track conditions are generally blamed for these de- 
railments, but in most cases the trouble can be traced to other 
causes which, if corrected, will overcome the difficulty. 

In one case of an Eight-wheel locomotive, the tender was being 
derailed entirely too often ; and the trouble was completely over- 
come by changing the location of the si<!e bearings from 66 in. 
centers to 43 in. centers. This location was determined by first 
locating the center of gravity of the tender frame, cistern and 
load, and the combined w-eight of these parts was considered as 
acting from this center of gravity. It was also assumed that 
the forces generated by the weight of the tender and load on an 
uneven track and around curves acted on a line from this center 

Present locaf,o\ 

of Side Bearing^' v^ ,- 

Suggested Location 
of 5/de Bearings 

Location of Side Bearings Which Eli 

nated Tender 

of gravity to the rail. In this case the intersections of these 
lines with the horizontal line across the top faces of the side 
bearings were 43 in. apart, and the side bearings were moved in 
to correspond with this with the best of results. 

In my opinion, this location divides the load that is transmit- 
ted to the lower side bearing by tne upper or body side bearing, 
by conveying a greater proportion to the opposite truck spring 
than would be the case with the old location, and also puts the 
load between the two final points of support, namely the two 
rails. The farther out the side bearings are placed the greater 
the proportion of the side bearing load that compresses the 
springs on this end of the bolster. This tendency is increased by 
the rebound of the springs at the opposite end of the bolster, 
from the previous roll of the tank to the opposite side. These 
forces combine to give a lifting tendency to the opposite or light 
end of the bolster, and this is greater if the side bearings are 
located outside the rails, and if the truck springs are too weak 
and compress solid under the load. This will lift the wheels on 
the light side of the truck, especially if there is not enough clear- 

ance between the ti.ip of tile bolster and the bottom oi the tup 
arch bar. 

In following up another analysis a tendency is fouml in the 
truck to lead toward the side having the heaviest load; in other 
words, the side of the truck having the normal weiglit friim the 
center plate through the bolster plus the thrust of the side bear- 
ing, will not travel as fast with a given pull at the center pin 
as the side having only the normal weight. This tends to turn 
tlie truck horizontally and is resisted by the wheel flanges, and 
tends to crowd the lead flange of the heavy side of the truck 
against the rail. If the engine is on a curve and curving to the 
opposite side from the way the tank is listing, we have the centrif- 
ugal force due to the speed of the engine and the above men- 
tioned tendency, both acting to crowd the flange against the 
outer rail, causing a liability to climb the rail. On the other 
hand, if tlie curve leads to the side of the tank that is down, 
the tendency to turn the truck horizontally is not so detrimental, 
as it helps to lead the truck around the curve. In this case the 
centrifugal force due to the speed of the engine tends to crowd 
the truck toward the outer rail, which in this case is on the 
light or elevated side of the truck, and it is possible to imagine 
tliese wheels lifted enough to climb the rail under the conditions 

The greatest tn.ulile 1 l-elie\e is due tn tlie location of the side 
bearings and the lifting tendency produced by a too wide spacing, 
together with tlic movement of the tank frame caused by the en- 
gine. This latter may tend to throw the front truck toward the 
side that is raised at the instant it is raised, on account of the 
rear drivers being on the rebound (after having passed the track 
depression that is just listing the front tender truck), and causing 
tlie lifted llange to drop on top of the rail. 

The committee on tender trucks, of the Master Mechanics' 
-Vssociation, reporting in 1909 covered this in their con- 
clusions as follows : 

"We are of the opinion that tender derailments can be prac- 
tically overcome by the use of properly designed trucks having 
rigid or swing motion bolsters supported by suitable bolster 
.■■prings, either elliptical or half elliptical, double or triple, and 
when side bearings are properly located, having a spacing of 36 
in. frcnt, where possible, and 4.S to SO in. at tlie rear end. The 
tyjies (if truck may be of the arch bar or steel side frame pat- 
tern, with journal boxes rigid with the arch bars or side frames; 
or of the pedestal type having arch bars or solid frames with 
springs over tlie journal boxes; or of the pedestal type having 
side equalizers with half-elliptical springs between the equal- 

Later experiments with a similar tender that was also giving 
trouble proved that the Master Mechanics' rule of 36 in. for the 
front side bearings and 48 in. for the rear was perfectly satis- 
factory. These figures average 42 in. center to center as against 
AZ in. determined in the first mentioned case, and no doubt 
closing the front bearings to 36 in. and spreading the rear to 
48 in. is also in line with a further steadying of the tank; at 
any rate it works out very well in practice. 

The subject is one well worth careful attention and these few 
thoughts, though not new. are brought out again for what they 
are worth. G. W. Lillie, 

Dist. Mechanical Superintendent, Cliicago, Rock Island & Pacific. 

[Editor's Note. — The subject of tender derailments was dis- 
cussed in the Railway Age Gazette during 1912 on pages : 561 
and 569, September 27; 667, October 11; 112,. October 18; 783, 
October 25; 874, November 8; 919, November 15: 1130. De- 
cember 13.] 

Tensio.v ON' Brushes. — The tension on dynamo brushes 
should be set by the aid of a small spring balance, so that all 
the brushes will bear with an equal pressure. This refers espe- 
cially to high-speed machines ; the pressure will vary from about 
8 to 10 oz. per sq. in. of brush surface in slow-speed machines 
up to 1J4 lb. in the high-speed types. — Power. 

Southern Locomotive Valve Gear 

A Description of the Latest Uevclopment in 
Outside Gears, with an Analysis of Its Motion 


'I'lic Sniuhrni Incnnnnixt- \al\c jn-dT is llii- latest develop- 
ment in iiutside gears. It is being used to some extent on sev- 
eral railroads and is, apparently, well past the experimental stage. 
On this account, and also because the gear embodies certain 
principles not heretofore used in outside valve gear construc- 
tion, an explanation of its principles and a detailed analysis of 
its motions will probably be of interest at this time. 

In some respects the Southern valve gear resembles other well 
known types of outside gears : 

1. Motion is imparted to the valve by an eccentric crank, at- 
tached to the main crank pin, the eccentric crank pin being 
located approximately 00 deg. from the ni;iin rr;ink pin. 

Application of the Southern Valve Gear to a Locomotive With In- 
side Admission Valves 

2. It resembles cue other gear in that all tile moving parts 
have pin and bushing connections. 

It differs from other outside gears in these respects: 

1. The connection between the crosshead and valve rod ha-; 
been eliminated. The method of olitaining an equivalent iiin\i- 
luent will be explained further on. 

2. It has no oscillating link, and. as a consequence, the wear 
between the link and the link block, as well as the so-called 
"slip" of the link block, generally believed to be objectiona'ile, 
has been eliminated. 

3. The links used with the Southern valve gear do not iier- 
form the same function as do the oscillating links in other 
gears. They are stationary and serve only to guide the move- 
ment of the point of suspension of the radius hanger, when the 
reverse lever is moved to adjust the cut-ofif or to reverse the gear. 

4. The small number of parts forming the Southern gear tends 
to reduce the reciprocating weights. The correspondingly small 
luimber of points of wear should make it attractive from a 
maintenance standpoint, provided the gear remains in reasonably 
accurate adjustment lietween shoppings of the locomotives. 


The description to follow refers wholly to the kinematic 
diagram, which shows the Southern valve gear arranged for 
inside admission valves. The only change in the arrangement 
of the parts for outside admission valves is the location of the 
eccentric crank pin, w-hich is set 90 deg. in advance of the 
main crank pin instead of 90 deg. behind it, as in the case under 

The crank pin circle is divided into twelve equal parts. 
Each division is numbered and the corresponding number is 

placed on the path of each moving part in order to show its 
position in relation to the crank pin during one revolution of 
the drivers in forward motion. The diagram shows the exact 
path of each part of the gear during one complete cycle in 
full gear forward motion. The position, No. 1, for which each 
part is shown by heavy center lines, was chosen because it 
shows the parts most ckarly in their relation to each other. 

The motion imparted to the valve, while coming from one 
source, the return crank, is, in reality, made up of two motions: 
one, which tnoves the valve a distance approximately as great 
as is required for full valve travel, and which may be decreased 
by "hooking up" the reverse lever; and the other, which moves 
the valve a distance equal to the total lap plus twice the lead, and 
which is constant at all times regardless of the position of the 
reverse lever, I he latter motion corresponds to the motion 
obtained from the crosshead in other types of outside gear. 
It is obtained in the Southern gear by using the eccentric rod, 
.IHC, as a lever. The fulcrum is at B, and the distance r-y, 
traced by the point C on the ellipses, equals the total lap plus 
twice the lead. In order to obtain this movement, it is neces- 
sary to so proportion the eccentric rod that the lengths AB and 
I^C are in the same ratio as are the diameter of the return crank 
circle and the total lap plus twice the lead. 

The diagram show-s the main crank pin on the front dead 
center, position A'o. /. The valve is then displaced 1-5/32 in. 
ahead of its central position, which means that the front steam 
port is open 7/32 in., the amount' of the lead. If the crank pin 
were on the back dead center, position No. -, the valve would 
lie displaced the same distance back of its central position. The 
ellipses traced by the point C, for forw-ard, backward and mid- 
gear positions of the reverse lever, intersect at two common 
points, T and ". which clearly shows the function and operation 

Application of the Southern Valve Gear to a Locomotive With Out- 
side Admission Valves 

of the eccentric rod extension. BC. and also that the lead is con- 
stant at all points of cut-off. 

The upper end of the radius hanger. EB, is attached to the 
link block at E. The position of the link block is controlled by 
the reverse lever through the main and auxiliary reach rods. The 
radius hanger, together with the link, link block, reach rods and 
reverse lever, comprises the reversing mechanism. The lower 
end of the radius hanger is constrained to move in an arc of a 
circle whose center is at E. This arc is controlled by the posi- 
tion of the point of suspension. For full gear forward motion 
the front end of the arc is below the back end. and the vertical 




Vol. 89, No. 2 



R\ ^ 

/ /^wo 








FEniiLi.AkY, 1915 


distance Ijutwccii the ends is a niaxinnnii. I'ur full gear Ijack- 
vvard mcjtion, the front end of the arc is above the back end 
an equal vertical distance. As the reverse lever is moved to- 
ward the center, the arc approaches a position tangent to a 
horizontal line, and at niidstruUe the front and back ends of the 
arc arc on a horizontal line. Here the arc has no effect upon 
the movement of the valve, its motion being derived from the 
lever action of the eccentric rod, as was explained in a previous 
l)aragraph. The path of the front end of the eccentric rod (and 
the lower end of the transmission yoke^ C, is, therefore, the 
resultant of the movement of the back end of the eccentric rod 
in a circle, and the fulcrum B, in an arc whose radius is BE. 
The path traced by the point, C, takes the well known elliptical 
form. Motion is transmitted from this point to the horizontal 
arm of the lull crank, GFII, through the transmission yoke, CG. 
The vertical arm of the bell crank is direct-connected to the 
valve rod. 

Attention is called to the desij^n nf the bell crank. \\ hen it is 
HI central position, the "horizontal" arm slants slightly downward 
and the "vertical" arm has a certain backset. This compensates 
in a large measure for the angularity of the eccentric rod and 
main rod, by causing the valve to travel equal distances backward 
and forward from its central position, and tends to "square" the 
valve events with the piston travel. 

The long dash-lined arc and ellipse show the patlis of tiie 
points B and C, in full gear backward motion ; and the short 
dash-lined arc and ellipse show them in mid gear position. 


Valve diagram No. I is drawn to suit the dimensions of the 
valve and ports. It shows the long port opening and free 
e.xhaust obtained at full gear. Diagram No. 2 shows the valve 
ellipse for full gear plotted from the kinematic diagram. It 
should be noted : 

(1) That the port is fully opened at about IS per cent of the 
piston stroke, and does not start to close until about 57 per cent, 
the dwell depending upon the overtravel of the valve. 

(2) The cut-off occurs at about 88 per cent of the stroke, while 
the valve is moving at a comparatively high velocity. 

The illustrations show the application of the Southern valve 
gear to a Pacific type locomotive with inside admission valves 
and to a Ten-wheel locomotive with outside admission valves. 



Blacksmuh, Pennsylvania R. R., Altoona, Pa. 

Keep your assistant in touch with all your work and cor- 
respondence, so that in your absence he will be able to answer 
any questions which pertain to your shop. Every man, no mat- 
ter what position he occupies, has a sense of personal pride and 
honor. The workman of today is not a machine that can be 
driven. The day for that kind of supervision or generalship 
has passed. Workmen of today are commanding more respect 
and more freedom of thought than ever before. A foreman 
should never be domineering, manifesting a spirit and disposition 
that he knows it all. In doing his work, if a man offers a sug- 
gestion, listen to him. If it answers the purpose quite as well 
as your own, adopt it. It will make him feel good, and will 
draw out the best thought that is in the man, and will encourage 
all of the men to think. Never throw cold water on a good 
suggestion. If his way is not practicable, tell him kindly why it 
is not. You still retain his confidence and respect. 

Do not get all on fire when the master mechanic or the gen- 
eral foreman visits your shop ; do not bustle around, telling one 
man to do this and another to do that — it will create confusion 
in your shop. If the master mechanic is at all keen, he will soon 
detect your weakness and inability to handle men, and your 

•Read before the convention of the International Railroad Master Black- 
smiths' Association at Milwaukee, Wis., August, 1914. 

men also will be quick to sec this failing. 1 have seen men, 
and so have you, go all to pieces when some one in authority 
came their way. Self-control is one of the very important 
things in handling men. We have seen men who when anything 
displeased tiiem, lost their tempers and, as a consequence, lost 
their heads, and after they went away, have heard the remark 
that "he was a fool." If possible, do not do anything that will 
lower your standing in the estimation of the men. 

1 am aware of the fact that some men may take advantage 
of your kindness. This is the exception and not the rule. Do 
not ill-treat one hundred men because four or five are ungrate- 
ful and do not appreciate your interest in their behalf. If the 
master meclianic should find one of his foremen discourteous, 
or gruff to his men, is that any reason why he should issue a 
circular letter in which all his foremen are accused? 

There are two very important factors in getting out work: 
lirst, the man's ability to do the job. Second, his willingness to 
do it. Encourage shop kinks and draw out the very best that 
is in the men. To get the best results, the foreman should be in 
close touch with his men. Study, if possible, the character and 
disposition of your men. This will help you to distribute work 
to the best advantage. Religion, politics, or personal friendship 
should have no place in the shop. All men should be treated 
the same. If this principle is carried out, the foreman will have 
the full confidence and respect of all his men, without which he 
cannot be successful. He should be firm, but kind and just, let- 
ting his men know what he wants and what is expected of them. 
-\ever countenance or encourage tale-bearing. A foreman's 
character should be such as would appeal to his men in every- 
thing that stands for good, pure and upright manhood. For 
instance, if the foreman patronizes the dram-shop, how can he 
exercise discipline over his men if they do the same? Character 
is a mighty thing, and stands for much in all departments of life. 
When men respect us for our character and not for our repu- 
tation, we have accomplished much. 

If you issue orders, you should see that they are not violated, 
but obeyed. If at any time you have cause to reprove or call 
any of your men to account for neglect of duty, do it privately, 
never publicly or while you are in a bad humor. Never swear 
at your men. To abuse, punish or make unkind remarks to men 
in the presence of others lowers your standing in the estimation 
of the men. and you will not accomplish anything. It will only 
give men an opportunity to criticise you after you go away. 

In getting out work, the co-operation of the individual work- 
man is very essential. You should be in close touch with your 
men, so that they will work just as hard when you are not look- 
ing at them as when you are standing by the machine. The 
same friendly relations should exist between the foreman and 
his men as between the master mechanic and the foreman. 
When a man w'orks hard and does you a good or quick piece of 
work, tell him you appreciate his effort. 

Encourage the men and boys to use their best efforts to be 
useful. It is certainly a matter of gratification and pleasure to 
you to have the master mechanic intimate that he appreciates 
your efforts. Carry this same principle when dealing with your 
men. Method, system and organization are the shop essentials, 
but with all that do not forget that the individual study of your 
men and their co-operation is needed to make any system a 
success. In a shop doing miscellaneous work, the foreman will 
be called upon to use judgment so as not to delay or hold the 
work in changing men from one job to another. At one time 
the foreman was looked upon by the majority of men as an 
enemy. The men claimed that those in charge rushed work, 
using the argument that it was in a hurry in order to cut piece- 
work prices. We should be very careful not to practice deception 
or misrepresentation in any of our shops in this respect. Honest 
dealings with men on the part of those in authority will insure 
success. There is a better feeling existing today between the 
employer and the employee. This is evidenced by the pension 
system that is being provided by almost all corporations. 

Jersey Central Freight Car Repair Shops 

Plant Handles 4,000 Gars a Month; Includes a 
Sand Blast House for Steel Cars and Tenders 

Durir.g the year 1912 the t entral R.-iilruad ..I New Jersey addeil 
to its Elizabethport shops, whieh then eunsisted of locomotive 
and coach repair shops, a freight car repair plant designed to 
take care of both wooden and steel cars. This plant was corn- 
completed and placed in operation during the fall of 1912. It 
includes a planing mill, a building for the storage of finished 
freight car lumber, a car repair shop, a sand blast house, a 
paint shop and a small building for paint storage, the latter in- 
cluding a mixing room and a room for cutting and storing 
stencils. The plant has a capacity of :d)Out 4,000 cars a month. 
and at the present time the greater part of the output is wooden 

This plant required the building of an extension to the pnwi-r 
house to accommodate two 500 lip. Babcock and Wilcox water 
tube boilers, tw-o direct connected 400 kw. direct current gen- 
erator units and one Ingersoll-Rand, high duty air compressor 
with a capacity of 3,386 cu. ft. of free air per minute at 100 lb. 
gage pressure. The power house is connected to the planing 
mill and car repair shop by means of tunnels in which are lo- 

liatenled cllector and sawdust separator located on the roof of 
tile sawdust house, a small building situated near the planing mill 
but not shown on the drawing of the plant layout. The sawdust 
IS here automatically separated from the coarse shavings and 
deposited in a bin placed in the upper part of the building, from 
which it may be delivered through chutes in the side of the 
building for loading cars, or into bags from a chute within tiie 
building as required, the sawdust being used for various pur- 
poses along the road. The coarse shavings are delivered from 
the collector to tlic intake of a long distance fan by which they 
are dri\en tlirough a 20 in. sheet metal conduit about 700 ft. 
long to another collector on the roof of an auxiliary power 
plant near the coach repair shop, where they are used as fuel. 
The planing mill has a well equipped tool room, within which 
is provided room for the shop switchboard and other electrical 
apparatus. Aside from racks for the storage of small tools 
and machine tool cutters, tlie tool room contains complete 
equipment for tlie maintenance of cutting tools. This includes 
a band saw liler and setter, a liand resaw sharpener, a circular 

Layout of Central of New Jersey Car Repair Shops at Elizabethport 

cated the wiring for electric light and power circuits and the 
piping for live and exhaust steam, fuel oil and compressed air. 

The buildings are so grouped that the movement of the cars 
is practically continuous in one direction from the time of enter- 
ing the repair shop until painted and ready for service. The 
planing mill, which forms one end of the group, occupies a 
building 300 ft. long Ijy 80 ft. wide, and is readily accessible 
to both the car repair sliop and the outside repair tracks. All 
machines in the planing mill are equipped with individual motor 
drive, each machine being connected with a switchboard located 
in the tool room by wiring carried in conduits laid in the con- 
crete floor. Sprague electric trolley hoists of one ton capacity 
are used to handle heavy timber through the mill. 

The shop is equipped with a shaving exhaust system arranged 
to automatically collect shavings from most of the machinesT 
and having intakes conveniently arranged to receive the sweep- 
ings from the others. This system was designed and installed 
by the Meadons Blower & Pipe Works, Brooklyn, N. V., and 
is operated by two single 60 in. Sturtevant exhaust fans, each 
requiring about 25 hp., and driven by direct connected electric 
motors. The delivery pipes from these fans are carried to a 

saw sharpener, a planer knife grinder, a resaw roller and 
stretcher, and an emery wheel, as well as facilities for the braz- 
ing of band saws. 

The shed for storing finished lumber lies between the mill 
and the car repair shop, and is separated from the mill by 
about 59 ft. Running through the shed are two standard gage 
tracks, one of which is for shop transportation only. Through 
a series of turntables material may be delivered from this track 
to the material tracks in the repair yard and inside the car re- 
pair shop. 


The car repair shop occupies a building 600 ft. long and 80 ft. 
wide which is divided into four longitudinal bays. The south 
bay is separated by a brick wall from the remainder of the 
building and is occupied by the car shop office, the storeroom, 
the smith and plate shop and the wheel shop. Adjoining this 
side of the building is a storage yard served by a 25-ton Gantry 
crane having a span of 41 ft., one end of which is carried by 
a rail on the side of the building. A store department stock 
of heavy material for use in the car shop is carried within this 
area and is unloaded directly from the cars on a track passing 


February. 1915 


|< ---li'i'i- 

iiiuk-r the iiiilcT c-ml of the crane. 'I'his stock includes slcel 
iindcrf rallies, cast steel lindy liiilsters, drawbars, wheels and 
axles, etc. Wheels and axles are delivered by the crane to doors in 
the side of ilie wheel shop directly in front of the wheel presses 
;md wheel lathe, and other material is delivered to doors in the 

Gantry Crane over Heavy Material Storage 

side of the shop from which it is carried to the erecting shop 
on trucks and, to a limited extent, by electric trolley hoists. In 
addition to its use in handling material the track under the 
Gantry crane is also used as a repair track, the crane service 
being available for this work. 

Sawdust House and Separator for Planing Mill 

The three bays in the erecting shop each contain two repair 
tracks between whicii is a standard gage material track. The 
1^;iy adjoining the blacksmith and wheel shops is equipped for 
handling steel cars. It is served by two Shaw 15-ton, overhead 



\'oi.. 89, No. 

electric cranes and the blacksmith shop is readily accessible for 
the repairing and straightening of damaged plates or structural 
sections removed from the cars. All rivet heaters are portable 
oil furnaces, the oil being piped directly to taps conveniently lo- 
cated within the building. .■Xt the present time only one track 
is used exclusively for steel car repairs, considerable wood car 
work being taken care of on the other. The two east bays are 
used exclusively for wood car repairs. They are provided with 
overhead lighting by a saw-tooth roof and side light by large 
windows in the north side of the building. 

Compressed air is carried through a 5 in. pipe in the tunnel 
to a point just outside of the west end wall of the car repair 
shop. From this point the pipe is carried up the end of the 
building, passing through the wall at a point about 23 ft. above 
the ground. The distribution system consists of one main and 
three au.xiliary pipe lines carried overhead and extending tlie 
length of the shop. The main pipe is placed between the steel 
car bay and the adjoining wood car bay. The auxiliary lines 
are located along the north and south walls of the erecting shop 
and between the two wood car bays. The main pipe consists 
if three sections, each e.xtending about one-third the length of 
the shop, the first of S in., the second of 4 in., and the third of 
3 in. pipe. At the ends of the two larger sections are cross fit- 
tings from each of which 2 in. feed pipes lead across to the 
au.xiliary lines north of the steel car bay. The south line is con- 
nected to the main at either end of the shop, the two lines and 
feed pipe thus forming a closed loop. In each of the feed pipes 
is placed a 30H in- by 96 in. air reservoir from which a yi in. 
drain pipe leads to the floor. Drop pipes 1 in. in diameter lead 
froin the four longitudinal supply pipes at every second column, 
the columns being placed 20 ft. apart. Each drop leads to a 
special wye fitting, the two branches of which are connected to 
34 in. Westinghouse cutout cocks located 3 ft. 6 in. above the 
floor. The erecting shop is heated by hot air furnished by two 

l)olli live and exhaust steam connections, as well as a return 
connection to the power house. 

The storeroom is about ISO ft. long and contains a store de- 
partment stock of the smaller materials used in the car shop, such 
as malleable castings, coupler parts, rivets and bolts, grabirons, 
washers, nuts, etc. One end of the room is devoted to the re- 
pair and storage of air brake apparatus. 

Adjoining the storeroom is the smith and plate shop which 
extends about one-third the length of the building and is lo- 
cated opposite the middle of the steel car bay. It is equipped 
with a llillos & J,,nes \o. _' ilnuble punch and shear, one 2,000 


Interior of the Sand Blast House Showing the Dry Sand 
Storage Bins 

lb. and one 500 lb. steam hammer, a Newton cold saw and a 9 
ft. by 14 ft. oil furnace for reclaiming bent plates and miscel- 
laneous material removed from steel cars in a damaged con- 
dition. The front of the furnace is 3 ft. outside of the shop 
wall, and is located directly in front of a door near the middle 
' 'f the shop. One end of the shop is occupied by the blacksmith 

ires, eight in number, which are conveniently arranged for ac- 
cess to the steam hammers. The 2,000 lb. hammer is placed 
near the middle of the shop and is served by a jib crane which 

ilso reaches four fires. Forced draft is furnished for the fires 
a No. 8 Sturtevant blower driven by a 30 hp. motor and the 



steel Bay in the Car Repair Shop 

fan heating sets located on mezzanine floors over the store 
room and wlicol shop. The hot air is distributed along the south 
wall by a continuation of the tunnel from the power house and 
along the north wall by means of a longitudinal and two trans- 
verse air ducts. Outlets from the longitudinal ducts are placed 
at regular intervals about 20 ft. apart, the- air being delivered 
through the floor close to the wall. The means by which the 
flow of air is controlled and directed at each outlet is shown in 
detail in one of the draw-ings. Air for the fans is drawn di- 
rectly from the main shop space through intakes in the south 
vail of the erecting bay. The heating stacks are provided with 

l*"<L ^^ Flange 

Hot Air Duct Outlet Used in the Erecting Shop 

^nloke is exhausted by a Sturte\ant niultivane exhaust fan 
driven by a 20 hp. motor. At the other end of the shop are 
grouped several machine tools, including a nut tapping machine 
and double head bolt cutter. This shop is designed to salvage 
all serviceable material removed in the car repair shop. 
Sprague trolley hoists of one-ton capacity are used in the black- 
smith shop to a limited extent both for carrying material from 
the erecting shop and from the heavy material storage outside 
of the building. The tracks are arranged to directly serve the 
Newton cold saw and the double punch and shear. 

The space adjoining the smith shop and extending to tlie end 
of tlie building is occupied by the wheel shop. The wheel presses 
and wheel lathe are arranged so that mounted wheels may be 
rolled directly to or from each machine on tracks passing througl 
doors opening on the Gantry craneway. .A stindurd gage mate 





rial track fiili-rs the sliup at the end of the hiiildiiis and extends 
down the center, pneumatic hfts heing provided at the inter- 
sections with the cross tracks ahove referred to. The axle lathes 
are ranged along the iiisiilc wall of the sho|i. 'I liey are served liy 
one-ton Sprague eledric trolley iK.ists operating on a longitudinal 
track, extending over all of the machines. .'\ transverse track 
with a switch connection leads to each wheel press. These arc not 
generally used, however, as the hoists lind their greatest useful- 

steel, and the sides arc entirely of glass from a point about 
5 ft. alxjvc the floor to the roof. Continuous operating 
sashes are provided for the entire area of the glass, with the 
exception of a short distance on both sides at the end of 
the building, where the dry sand storage bins are located. 
On the end of the building toward the car repair shop is 
built a sand drying room of brick and concrete construction, 
and beyond this is a frame sand storage shed. 

%Pip* from^ir 
Reseryolr ,v* 

Barrel Paint Mixers in \he Paint Storage House 

ness in handling axles into and out of the latlies rather than 
in shop transportation since the lathes and wheel presses are 
seldom operating in synchronism. 


The work of sand blasting both steel cars and locomotive 
tenders is carried on in a building provided exclusively for 
that purpose. This building is ?0 ft. long and has one stand- 
ard gage track extending throughout its entire length. It 
is 28 ft. wide inside and thus provides ample room on either 
side of the track. The construction is of concrete, brick and 

The sand drying stove is of very simple construction. It 
is made up of three ring sections and a hemispherical top, 
all of cast iron. The lower ring forms the ash pit and a 
smoke flue connection is provided in the top of the hemi- 
spherical section. .\ sand hopper surrounds the stove to the 
grate, delivering sand to the lioor through gates at the bot- 

There are two dry sand storage bins in the sand blast 
house, one on either side of the building. One of these con- 
tains new sand only, used sand being carried in the other. 
Sand from the drying room is elevated to the storage bin 
in the sand blast house by a pneumatic ejector, the essential 

Sand Blast House; the Sides Are Enclosed witli Continuous Operating Sash 



Vol. 89, No. 2 

details ot which are shown in one ol the engravings. The 
sand is shoveled from the floor into a screen-covered hopper, 
from which it runs into a steel tank below the level of the 
floor. When the tank is tilled the plug cock in the hopper 
connection is closed, and the sand is elevated to the bin by 
means of compressed air. A similar hopper is located un- 
der the used sand bin. It has been found that the sand may 
be used several times before losing its cutting power, and 
this hopper is employed in elevating used sand from the 
floor to the bin above it. A supply of cither quality of sand 
is thus always available. 

The paint shop occupies a building 200 ft. long by SO ft. 
wide, through which extend two tracks. This building is 
well lighted and ventilated by windows of the same con- 
struction as those in the sand blast house. . It is provided 
with a loose cinder floor which is much more readily kept 
clean than a hard floor, where pneumatic paint sprays are 
Msed. The paint storage and mixing rooms are in a separate 
building, near the paint shop. The mixing room contains 
four motor-driven Kent barrel mixers, served by a differen- 
tial trolley hoist by means of which barrels are readily 
handled from the floor and dumped into the mixer tanks. 
In addition to paint storage rooms this building also con- 
tains a stencil room, provided with facilities for cutting and 
storing the stencils for freight car lettering. 



Chesapeake & Ohio. Charlottesville. Va. 

The old style coal bin as a means of coaling locomotives is 
still much in evidence on some railroads at points where con- 
.'iderable numbers of engines are handled. With such facilities 
the mechanical department is confronted with the problem of 
keeping the cost of turning engines within reasonable limits, as 
well as getting engines coaled in time to make the necessary 
running repairs before their layover time is up. 

Where engines are coaled from a bin the usual practice is to 
dump the coal from the car to the floor of the bin, from which 
point it is shoveled into buggies and hoisted to the tender of the 
locomotive. Handling coal in this manner requires considerable 
labor, and where many etigines are handled is very slow under 
the best of conditions. A. plan has been put into efifect on the 

the width of the car, these being used to close the hoppers when 
the buggies are filled. The coal that runs over is shoveled up 
in order to keep the floor clean, so that the manipulation of the 
buggies will not be hampered. 

By following this method the second handling uf the coal has 
been done away with, and not only has a saving in time and 
cost of coaling engines been eff'ected, but there has been noticed 
a marked reduction in steam failures. This is accounted for by 
the fact that a much more uniform grade of coal is now being 
delivered to the locomotives, all engines getting about the same 
percentage of slack and lump. When the coal was dumped on 
the floor a large portion of the lumps rolled to the outside of 
the pile. The first engines coaled after a car had been dumped 
got a large percentage of the lumps, while later engines got a 
large percentage of slack. 


Professor of Railway Engineering, University uf Illinois, Urbana. III. 

Some months ago the writer was commissioned by the 
Imperial Government Railways of Japan to design and to 
have built in the United States, a dynamometer car. This car, 
which was completed and shipped during the past summer, 
has recently arrived in Japan. The general dimensions and 
the general specifications of the car were laid down by Mr. 
S. Matsuno, chief of the motive pow-er section of the Jap- 
anese government railways. In the choice of the car de- 
sign and of the type of equipment, as well as in all details, 
the designer was left free to follow his own judgment. 

The car was designed to measure and to record data need- 
ed in making tests to determine train resistance and tests of 
locomotive performance on steam roads. It is accordingly 
equipped to record drawbar pull, drawbar work, speed, time, 
distance traveled, position of mile-posts and stations, the 
direction and velocity of the wind with respect to the car, 
and the vacuum in the brake cylinders. In addition to these 
records, it is possible on occasion to record also such data 
of locomotive operation as the time of taking indicator cards, 
the position of the reverse lever and throttle, etc. 

The car itself is 47 ft. 10 in. long over the buffers, 8 ft. 
6 in. wide over all and 12 ft. high. The underframe and 
platforms are of steel and the body of wood. It is finished 

Skam HeaHngPipe 

Floor Plan of the Dynamometer Car 

Chesapeake & Ohio at Charlottesville, Va., whereby the handling 
of coal has been reduced from ^Vz cents per ton to 5;^ cents per 
ton, the force required being reduced about one-third, and the 
engines being coaled with greater despatch. 

Instead of dumping the coal directly onto the floor of the bin 
two buggies are placed under the car at one time and filled by 
opening the hopper doors far enough to facilitate the free run- 
ning of the coal. The flow of the coal is controlled by placing 
Mnder the car four 2 in. by 10 in. oak planks, 36 in. longer than 

within in quartered oak. The trucks are of 3 ft. 6 in. gage, of 
all-steel construction and suitable for high speeds. The car 
has the buffers, vacuum brake, and hook and link couplers, 
which are common in Japanese railway practice. A space 
of 13 ft. at the rear end of the car is occupied by a berth 
section, lockers and lavatories, leaving a workroom 7 ft. 9 in. 
wide by 27 ft. long, which contains the recording apparatus, 
work bench, desk and other equipment. The car is equipped 
with an axle generator and storage battery, which furnish 

I-'ebruary, 1915 



current, not only for the lights but for the motor and ukik- 
ncts incorporated in the recording apparatus, and for other 
electrical equipment. 

Motion for all apparatus witliin the car is obtained, by 
means of gearing, from tlie axle of an auxiliary truck, lo- 
cated licliind tlie forward car truck. This truck carries a 
pair of small wheels on a single axle whose relation to the 
car axis remains fixed, thereby permitting a simpler arrange- 
ment of gears than if the motion were derived from one of 
the axles of the regular trucks wliich have a considerable 
motion with respect to the car axis. Furthermore, since the 
wheels of the auxiliary truck are not subjected to brake- 
shoe action, tlieir dianuter changes much less rapidly than 
the diameter~of tl'e reguhir truck wheels, and consequently 
the speed of motion of the apparatus within tlie car is sub- 

be changed from test to test to correspond in strength with 
the maximum working pressure in the oil. 

The general design of the dynamometer mechanism is 
shown in tlie accompanying illustrations. This design has 
been somewhat complicated by the fact that the owners i:i- 
sisted on retaining the ordinary bufifers, even though it 
should prove necessary to separately register on the rec ird 
the amount of the buffer thrust. It has proved fcasi le. 
liowever, to avoid doing this. There is provided in the draw- 
bar mechanism an equalizing lever which swivels on a pin 
carried in the central axis of the drawbar yoke. The bufifers, 
instead of having their scat in the car frame, deliver their 
thrust against the ends of this lever. The thrusts on the 
liufifers, therefore, merely set up in the drawbar mechanism 
internal stresses wliich arc iK>t transmitted to the dyna- 

ject to less variation and correction than if the motion had 
been transmitted from one of the regular truck wlieels. Pro- 
vision is made for raising the wheels of this truck from the 
rail wlien the apparatus within the car is not being used. 

Tlie dynamometer for measuring the drawbar pull is an 
oil-filled cylinder mounted on the center sills toward the 
front end of the car. Through a yoke the piston of this 
cylinder is connected to the car drawbar, and consequently 
the whole pull of the locomotive upon the car is received 
against the oil in the cylinder. The pressure built up in this 
oil is transmitted through a ^-in. pipe to a small indicator, 
located on the recording table within the car. The maximum 
pull to be registered by the car is 80,000 lb. The sectional 
area of the dynamometer cylinder is about 91 sq. in., and 
the maximum working pressure in the oil, therefore, will not 
exceed 880 lb. per sq. in. The springs in the indicator may 

mometcr cylinder, and the buffer thrusts in no wise affect 
the pull record. 

All parts of the buffer and drawbar mechanism are carried 
by rollers to minimize friction. For the same reason the 
piston of the dynamometer cylinder is not packed, the piston 
having a ground fit in the cylinder. As a result of this, a 
certain leakage of oil takes place past the piston. To com- 
pensate for this leakage, oil is pumped into the cylinder by 
means of a hand-operated pump. The leakage from the cyl- 
inder is received in a drip tank and is returned thence to the 
oil reservoir by means of compressed air, which is supplied 
by a small motor-driven compressor located within the car. 

.Ml records are made on a continuous strip of paper iO 
in. wide, which moves over the surface of the recording 
table. When desired, the paper may be driven by means of 
a motor mounted on the table base, in which case the records 



S9, No. 2 

are made on a time base instead of on a distance base. \\ Ikii tlusc records being cuntrolUd througb tbe iiieiliuni of ekc- 

drivcn from the truck below the car, the paper travels eillier tru-magnets. 

1/16 in., % in-, or 1 in. for each 100 ft. of car travel. When The speed record is obtained by means nf a Hoyer speed 

driven by the motor, the paper travels at either 5 in.. 20 in., recorder mounted on the base nf the talile and directly 

or 80 in. per minute. .\s may be seen in the top view of tlie .geared to one of the spindles of tlie main gear case. The 

recording table, all tlie pens for the various records are ar m. tion of ilie sjjced recorder piston rod is transmitted to 



,6 Dhm. Cot^rPhfe 

^^r^ Cor ruga fed Iron Thresholds -^j] 

■1;. r -.i,h.>^-l.,-^.w4: 

-«-, _I93« 

Noie: Apparatus Shown in Farfhesf Pos'iHon 
Back nifh no Compression in Draff Spring. 

Arrangement of the Dynamometer and Allied Parts, Showing the Method of Taking Care of the Buffer Thrusts 

ranged to travel in the same straight line. Datum pens ar- 
ranged in front of these pens draw base lines for the records 
of drawbar pull, speed, wind direction and brake cylinder 
pressure. All other records are drawn as straight lines, with 
offsets occurring in (he lines at certain intervals, the pens for 

the upper surface of the table and transformed from a verti- 
cal to a horizontal motion by means of a slotted bell-crank 
which moves a small carriage on the top of the table, shown 
at the right in the top view of the recording table. This 
linkage also increases the norn-al maximum travel of the 

LHUU-.K^. 191; 


lloyer gage frnin 3 in. to 6 in, rrr)visi()n is made for driv- 
ing this inslrnnu-nl at twice its niirnial speed. I'ljr luw- 
spccd tests, the speed recorder is run in higli gear, and for 
high-speed tests in the low gear. The shift from Iiigh to low 
gear may lie accomplished either by one of llu- operating 
levers or by means of an cleclrically-operated clutch whicli 

Front View of the Recording Table 

goes into action when the speed cnrve pen reaches the limit 
of its travel. A speedometer, such as is commonly used on 
automobiles, is used for determining the momentary speed. 
These instruments have a range up to 85 m. p. h., and it is 
expected that tlie car will occasionally be operated at that 
speed. Wind direction with respect to the car a.xis is also 
recorded on the chart. The spindle of a wind vane mounted 
on the roof of the car projects downward to the recording- 
table where, through a crank and a yoke, it is connected to 

on the chart tlirongh the medium of a pen controlled by an 

I lie pen which draws the record of pressure in the brake 
cylinder is carried on an extension of the piston rod of a 
small indicator similar in design to an ordinary steam engine 
indicalor, the cylinder of this instrument being connected 
with the main cylinder of the vacuum l)rake. The record 
of distance traveled is made by a pair of contact points 
placed on one of the gears of the main gear train, which 
makes one revolution for each l,f)00 ft. of car travel. These 

nent for Recording the Ar 

nt of Work Done at the 

contact points control an electric circuit through one of the 
magnets, which in turn controls the distance pen. 

A work recorder or planimeter. whose purpose is to auto- 
maticallv record the area included between the curve of the 

Top of the Recording Table in the Japanese Government Railways Dynamometer Car 

the wind direction pen. This pen draws a cur\e whose ordi- 
nate is the sine of the angle made liy the wind vane with the 
longitudinal axis of tlie car. The wind velocity record is 
obtained by means of an anemometer of the pattern used 
liy the I'nited States Weather Bureau, and makes its record 

drawbar pull and its datum line, is used on this car, the de- 
sign being shown in one of the photographs. It consists 
essentially of an accurately ground steel cylinder, which is 
in contact with and is rolled by a ground spherical surface. 
The spindle which carries the segment of the sphere, shown 


\oi,. S9, Xo. 2 

in the jiliotograph, bears a fixed relation to the tabic. r>y 
means of gearing this spherical segn.cnt is driven at a rate 
proportional to the travel iif the paper. The cylinder, on the 
other hand, is carried in a t'ranie so pivoted that it may be 
turned about a vertical axis. To this frame, near the bottom. 
there is attached an arm, a portion of which appears in the 
photograph. This arm terminates in a wheel which plays in 
a slotted carriage carried on the end of the rod attached I" 
the drawbar pull pen. The carriage may be seen at the lel't 
side of the recording table. Hy means of these connections, 
any movement of the drawbar pull pen results in a corre- 
sponding change in the angle of the frame which carries the 
rolling cylinder. The cylinder is kept continually in contact 
with the sphere by means of a spring attached to the cyl- 
inder frame. The roll of the cylinder, wb.icli is directly ]>v" 
portional to the speed of revolution of the sphere and t > 
the tangent of the angle which the cylinder axis makes willi 
the sphere axis, is consequently also proportional to the 
paper travel and the pull curve ordinate. In other words. 
the roll of the cylinder is proportional to the area include 1 
under the curve of drawbar pull. The proportions of the in- 
strument are such that for each 3 sq. in. of area the c\liniler 
will make one complete revolution, and for each revolulinn 
an ofTset is made by the work recording pen. 

The time record is made at both edges of the chart b\' 
means of two pens mounted on one rod, which is operated 
by the cam and magnet mechanism shown at the left of the 
recording table. A clock making electrical contacts every 
five seconds controls these magnets, which in turn operate 
the pen rod through the mediutii of a pair of cams. The de- 
sign is such that the record distin.guishes not only live-second 
intervals, but one-minute intervals as well. Such other rec- 


the armatures i- 
cross the table top 
f push buttons, the 


As additional evide 

These magnets 
iring for which is 

lice of Japanese 

nuuinted on a 


-e co.nrnlled 1,\ 


peniuuieiillv ins 

ailed in 

it may 


1 ■•L:-;.v.i 

«~i ^H^ ^K 


•^ ^^^^B 

H^^ MB ^1 ^'"^^^^fl^H 

i&.-.-i3 ■ 3tUt %^. - ■ W t^ 

Interior of the Dynamometer Car 

be of interest to add that the 
have also recently installed, 

Japan u 

ie gove 

a tin: 


Dynamcmeter Car for the Japanese Government Railways: the Trucks Shown Are Temporary 

ords as the position of mile posts, position at which indicator 
cards are taken, reverse lever position, throttle position, lo- 
comotive boiler pressure, etc, may be made on the chart by 
means of a number of extra pens whose arms are connected 

equipped laboratory for testing locomotives. With this plant 
and the dynamometer car, the Japanese railways have for ex- 
perimental study of the problems of locomotive and train opera- 
tion, facilities equaled on only one .-Xmerican railway 




cliaiiic, Chicaeo Jiincliun Railway. Chicaeo, III. 

It has licuii the liistoiy ,jf the vvorlil tliat it is easy to 
start sonH'thiii,L;, hut hanl t(i C(iiitr(il what has liecn started. 
and lack of proper control in the movement of trains and 
cars lias so far-reaching and so wide an effect ui]oii all branches 
of railroading that car control would seem to be an all- 
important consideration. The business of a railroad, of 
course, is primarily that of moving freight and passengers; 
this often seems to be forgotten in the unending multitude 
of things that are necessary for the efifective handling of 
traffic. There are millions of dollars invested in right-of-way, 
terminals, freight yards, rolling stock and motive power, but 
they are all subordinate to the one principal business of 
transportation in its primary meaning. 

When the control of tlie car is mentioned, the air l)rake, 
because of the intricacy of its design and construction, is 
naturally thought of first, and the brakebeam, apparently a 
much more simple appliance, is lost si.ght of. .An air brake 
is of very little value without a brakebeam of the right de- 
sign, construction and material. I want to c.ill attention to 
the defect.'^ in brakebeams, for the reason that not only is a 
brakcheam's work important, liut that the ini[iortance of its 
work is so often lost sight of. .\fter a brakebeam has been 
placed on a car, the car in a train, and the train is in motion, 
our control of the brakebeam, and so of the car, is limited 
In' the construction of the brakebeam. The always and ever- 
present necessity of perfect control of the car, which is a 
unit in the moving train, makes it imperative that a brake- 
beam be right when it is applied first to the new car. and to 
know that it is right means that we have got to know that 
the materials are right, that the design is the result of years 
of experience, and also that the construction has been under the 
direction of experts. 

.\ defect in a l)rakcbeani i> a most important defect, for 
the reason that it is liable to make defective all parts of the 
car. .\ moving car that cannot be controlled because of a de- 
fect in the brakebeam may, and often does, have most dis- 
astrous results. The modern passenger train or freight train 
could be likened to the long end of a lever of which the 
brakebeam is the short end. The brakebeam is one of the 
few items in railroad service which can correctly be termed 
■emergency equipment. It is something which is called upon 
to work at all times, and this work is not always the same. 
'Given a fairly good track, most car equipment is called upon 
to do the same kind of work each day. or each trip, but not 
so the brakebeam. When an emergency arises, the strain 
and the work put upon it is multiplied many times. If a car 
roof or an underframe, or a draft gear, receives severe usage 
occasionally in the operation of a train, how much more so 
and more constantly does a brakebeam receive severe usage. 
Dangling, as it does, from underneath the car, it is suddenly 
thrust not against some stationary structure, but upon mov- 
ing wheels with tremendous force behind it: in an emergency, 
this force is at the maximum, and the wheels are revolving 
at their fastest speed. It is hard to imagine any service more 
trying than that which is given to the brakebeam; yet it is 
required to do its work with every disadvantage, and, at the 
saine time, even its partial failure to do the work required 
of it may mean destruction of property and loss of life. 

"Entered in the car dep.irtmert competition which closed October 15, 1914. 

Undoubtedly there is nothing that works at any greater 
disadvantage upon a car than a brakebeam; and the very 
fact of its working at a disadvantage proves that it is working 
at a tremendously high maintenance cost. 'I he Railway Age 
Gazette, in referring to box cars, seems to imply that the 
defects sought arc those in the underframe and above. Draft 
gear, box car roofs and ends, and underframcs seem to be 
occupying the center of the stage. Their importance is not 
to be questioned, but the importance of the brake beam, the 
vital factor in the control of trains, cannot be overlooked in 
an industry where transportation is the chief business. I do 
not think it will be questioned by prominent railroad men 
that the most expensive item of car repairs, year in year out, 
not excluding couplers of draft rigging, is the brake — that is 
the rigging and the brakebeams. Much of the high cost of 
maintenance is to be explained both by the use of inadequate 
brakebeams and the multiplicity of designs. 

The Railway Age Gazette has asked for suggestions as to 
how the defects may be eliminated. Suggestions for better- 
ment would probably be of more value than criticism, and if 
we are to obtain betterment, so far as the brakebeam is con- 
cerned, we should use brakebeams of established and suc- 
cessful design and of capacity sufficient for, if not in excess 
of, the service in which they are put. The railroads should, 
through the medium of the Master Car Builders' .Associa- 
tion, change or make standards with caution, and then insist 
upon their being respected after they are established. It may 
be that M. C. B. standards cannot very successfully be made 
other than suggestive as they are now, but something could 
be done to make them other than "paper" standards. 

When the railroads went into the use of the solid beams, 
differing essentially only in names and location of rivet holes, 
and being entirely alike in inefficiency, they created a situa- 
tion that will not be corrected until these beams are elimi- 
nated, and the roads are paying for this every day. The use 
of so many inadequate brakebeams; the use of beams hav- 
ing so many different interchange dimensions; the use of so 
many beams that cannot be successfully kept in service or 
repaired at any reasonable cost — these have developed a situ- 
ation that delays cars every day and adds heavily to the cost 
of railroading. 

The suggestion to make an M. C. B. standard brakebeam is an 
attempt to get away at one long jump from the confusion 
and chaos existin.g. This cannot be done for manifest rea- 
sons, but the railroads can remedy a very serious difficulty 
in the freight car situation today by never buying brake- 
beams unless they fall within the present established M. C. B. 
requirements. The present requirements classify the beams 
in relation to service, and establish their capacities and tests 
in interchange features and over-all dimensions. If the rail- 
roads would start today to buy only such beams as fall within 
these limits, the situation would gradually and substantially 
improve, and a big source of expense and delay would be 
corrected by evolution, without serious disturbance. .Along 
this line it seems to me that if the Master Car Builders' .Asso- 
ciation had some rule that any standard should remain such 
for a term of years and not be subject to constant change, 
the freight car situation might be benefited. 

Too often the brakebeam is considered of minor con- 
sequence, and its important function, and particularly how 
much there really is to the subject, is not understood. The 
most general error is to believe inefficient rigging is effi- 
cient simplj' because failure and accident do not occur in ordi- 
nary work or service stops. Trains are being handled daily 



Vol. 89. Nn. 2 

where such equipment is used and the ordinary stops made; 
therefore, the equipment is regarded as sufficient and by 
many stamped as efficient. In compliance with the law. public 
buildings are equipped with lire escapes, yet a small per- 
centage of public buildings burn. The law requires that boats 
be equipped with all sorts of life saving apparatus, yet until 
the emergency arises, it rests idle and is of no service. Kail- 
way cars are equipped with the quick action brake primarily 
to take care of emergencies rather than to take care of the 
ordinary stops in the handling of trains. Today the increased 
speed and momentum of the heavier trains has given the 
quick action brake everyday usefulness which was not orig- 
inally contemplated. If, therefore, the element of emergency 
is likely to arise and the quick action brake liable to be 
required, why impair or practically imllify its efficiency by 
the employment of inadequate co-operative elements? It 
would seem that the first cost of a brakebeam should never 
be considered, in view of the fact that it is emergency equip- 
ment, and that its value lies chiefly in the protection which 
it aflfords. When we have advanced in the art of railroading 
to that point where we buy one brake beain, not because it 
is ten cents cheaper than another, but because, whatever the 
first cost, this cost will be taken into consideration only in 
its relation to the final cost of the beam and the maintenance 
cost of the box car upon which it is used, we shall have 
accomplished a great deal. 



Chief Clerk lo General Car Foreman. Belt Railway of Chicago 

It is generally believed that a considerable volume of the 
work performed in handling the correspondence and reports 
pertaining to the car department could be eliminated if they 
were given more thorough attention at the start. The man- 
ner in which these matters are handled by tlie car department 
will have a good or bad effect on various other departments 
of the railroad, according to the degree of efficiency in 
handling this work. The car department is called on to 
furnish information aflfecting such subjects as loss and dam- 
age claims, personal injuries, train accidents and responsi- 
bility for damage to equipment, in order that the responsi- 
bility may be placed where it belongs. If such information 
is not furnished fairly and accurately, it will cause unneces- 
sary correspondence, impairing the efficiency of the depart- 
ment, and often justice will not be obtained. No effort 
should be made to evade responsibility by referring (|ucs- 
tions to another department or to another railroad wliich 
could be correctly answered by those handling the work. 

If the complete facts are not shown in the original reports 
and records, trouble will surely be experienced when these 
are taken up for consideration. The information should be 
recorded in such detail as may be essential for a clear under- 
standing of the subject at any time. Brevity is efficiency 
when it is not lacking in the essentials, but the necessary 
details should not be sacrificed for brevity. Too many em- 
ployees make records of important items with only sufficient 
^details to reinforce their own memory, forgetting that the 
records they make today are often to be used by someone 
else tomorrow. This is also another source of considerable 
unnecessary correspondence in the car department. 

The lack of the spirit of broadness and fairness in handling 
reports with foreign roads is another source of unnecessary 
correspondence. It is perfectly proper to defend a principle 
that may be involved in solving large questions, but the de- 
fense of wrong principles by technical arguments, with the 

hope of placing the real responsibility where it does not be- 
long, is a waste of time and energy to any department. 

Perhaps the greatest individual source of what may be 
termed unnecessary correspondence is the result of report- 
ing wrong car numbers and initials. While some of tliese 
errors originate in the office, they are largely due to the car 
inspector or the repair track foreman. A wrong car number 
quoted in a bill for foreign car repairs usually means a letter 
of exception from the mechanical department of the fo/eign 
road to its auditing department, which, in turn, communi- 
cates with the auditing department of the road making the 
hill. It is then passed to the mechanical department of that 
road and must be investigated by the car accountant anil the 
mechanical representative originating the information. When 
the error is corrected, the bill must then retrace its path to 
the mechanical department of the foreign road. The wrong 
initial carries with it even greater detail of investigation thai> 
the wrong car number, and practically the same iktall is 
necessary in handling claims for accidents, etc., when wrong 
numbers and initials are reported. 

The car inspectors and repair men sliould not be too se- 
verely criticised, as often they perform their work under 
very adverse circumstances. Some roads resort to discipline 
in an effort to overcome these errors, but it is not believed 
that such methods will produce the best results, as the errors 
are not a willful neglect of duty. If a suitable degree of 
efficiency cannot be obtained from the men in the field, a 
more fitting place in the organization should be found for 

Another means of reducing correspondence and adding to 
the efficiency of the car department is promptness in handling 
reports and correspondence. All well regulated car depart- 
ments have certain reports which are required, and if these 
are furnished promptly and while the subject is fresh, it will 
insure a clearer statement of facts, as well as avoid the tocv 
frequent necessity of being called upon to furnish them. The 
same is true in handling correspondence. If replies are 
made as promptly as possible the information furnished can 
be presented in better form, in less time and avoid the neces- 
sity of "urgers" being sent out which may require passing 
through a number of offices, adding work to each one, as 
well as increasing the volume of correspondence to be ex- 

A defective filing system adds its share to confusion and 
unnecessary labor. It is often found that the information- 
sought is already a matter of record and in the possession 
of the road making the inquiry, but ineflfective filing 
methods the connection is not made, and additional corre- 
spondence is imposed on the offices of both roads interested. 

.\ brief and concise statement of facts, either in reports or 
in correspondence, is far more forceful than repetition and 
unnecessary details. It consumes less of the time of the per- 
son imparting the information, as well as of the recipient. 
In order to do this, sufficient thought should be given the 
subject under consideration to get a clear conception of it 
in the irind. after which both brevit\' and detail can be 
rounded into a harmonious combination. Failure, in an- 
swering correspondence, to make proper reference to files, 
nften results in confusion and delay which could be avoided 
if this feature was given due attention. 

The reduction in unnecessary correspondence and the 
standard of efficiency is best accomplished through an ef- 
ficient or.ganization. from the head of the department to the 
lowest in the ranks. Often men are employed to perform 
certain duties, and perfection is expected when they are 
wholly unqualified through lack of training to perform such 
service. The entire organization should be continually stud- 
ied, with a view to detecting certain qualifications which 
could be readily developed to aid in performing effective 

Union Pacific Steel Freight Cars 

All-StccI Ftquipment of lOO.OOO Lb. Capacity for 
Automobile Traffic; Box Car I Fas Steel IJnderframe 

There weii' phuiil in service a short time aj^o hy the I'liiuii 
Pacific 4,000 steel uiulcrframc box cars, 2,000 of vvhicli were 
hiiilt by the American Car & I^'otnidry Ccim])any, and 2,000 by 
the Western Steel Car & I'oundry Company, and 600 all-steel 

The underframe is of the I'ettendorf type, the center sill con- 
sisting of a 20 in., 112 lb. I-scction girder, while a cast steel body 
bolster i.s used. The end sills are 8 in., 13.75 lb. channels and 
6 in., 8 lb. channels are used as diagonal braces between the end 


Pacific Steel Car for Automobile Traffic 

automobile cars built by the Western Steel Car & Foundry 


The automobile cars are of 100,000 11). capacity and weigh 51,900 
lb. They are 50 ft. 6}i in. long over end sills and are SO ft. 

sills at the center sill and the body bolster near the side sill. 
The side sills are 9 in., 13.25 lb. channels and the crossties which 
extend between the center sill and the side sill are 8 in., 11.25 lb. 
channels. A S'A in. by 2',2 in. by % in. angle extends in the 
form of a bow between points on the center sill just back of the 

long inside. The 
tom of the carline 
4,630 cu. ft. 

Steel Underfram 

jht from the top of the floor to the bot- 
10 ft. I's in., and the cubical capacity is 

Car for the Union Pacific 

draft arms, the top of this arch being at the side sill on either 
side of the car. There are 4 in. by 4 in. wooden stringers used 
for supporting the floor and these are carried on the 8 in. chan- 



Vol. S9, No. 2 

r-ir-il-" , 





'SZ'mdlUnsi dt--, 


-a'z'Onr&idSilb- .»( 



I3'll%' tlCam 

1 7 i^^ry^feg^^a-g^ g^tj^^yg 

February, 1915 





K_ — iz — '-X 



\'oi.. 89, No. 2 

nel crossties. The trucks are spaced 40 ft. 4 in. between centers 
and have cast steel side frames of the X'ulcan type. One end 
of the car is fitted with steel doors swinging to either side, while 
donble side doors of wooden construction are used. These side 
doors give an extreme door opening of 9 ft. 9^ in., the w idtli ]>•.■- 
tween the door posts being 10 ft. 3'/2 in. 

The steel body framing is made up of 3 in., 6.7 lb. Z-bar side 
posts and 3 in., 11.5 lb. Z-bar braces, the framing being outside 
the ' g in. steel plate sheathing. The side plates are 4 in., 8.2 lb 
Z-bars and the end plates are 5 in. by 3 in. by 5/16 in. angle.- 
The sides of the car are fitted with stringer pockets, as shown 
in one of the, illustrations. These pockets are used to carry tlir 
ends of transverse stringers for supporting an upper deck in the 
car when this is required, and it will also be readily seen that 
they can be of material assistance in securing miscellaneous 
lading in place. The Murphy corrugated steel end is used, a.s 
well as the Murphy radial type of roof, the strength of the end 
construction being made to meet the Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation recommendations. This end is made in three sections, 
the two lower being of ^ in. plate, while 3/16 in. plate is used 
in the upper section. The carlines are 3 in. by 3 in. by 5/16 in. 
tees, while there are two 3/16 in. U-section pressed steel pur- 
lines on either side of the car, spaced 27 7/16 in. between cen- 
ters, the inner one being 10^ in. from the center line of the car. 

The special equipment includes New York air brakes, Western 
angle cock holders. Acme automatic brake adjusters, Scullin- 
Gallagher body bolsters, Creco brake beams. Climax couplers, 
Carmer coupler relief rigging. Camel door fasteners, Miner draft 
rigging. National malleable journal boxes. Buckeye cast steel 
truck bolsters. Miner gravity truck side bearings and Barlier 
truck roller device. 


The box cars are of 100,000 lb. capacity and are also equipped 
with the Bettendorf steel underframe. Cars of this type hav- 
ing a steel underframe, steel end construction and a steel roof 

End of the Automobile Car Showing the Steel Doors 

have met with distinct favor in some quarters. In point of 
strength it would seem that they should give almost as good 
results as the steel franie inside sheathed car while retaining 


Seciion af Cen-fer of Can 

-joof- A 

Seciion a-f- Body Bolshn 

End Elevation and Cross Sections of Union Pacific Steel Underframe Box Car 

1'"ebruarv, 1915 



the advantages of the vcrlical slicatliiim. I liesc cars are 41 ft. 
long over ends and 40 ft. 8 in. long inside, the cubic capacity 
being 3,500 cu. ft., and the height from the top of the floor to 
the bottom of the carlines 9 ft. 4V2 in. ; the weight of the car 
is 42,900 !]). 

Tlie center sill consists of a 24 in., 120 lb. I-section girder, 

end sills at the center and the body bolsters at the side sill; the 
crossties are 10 in., 25 lb. I-beams. The superstructure of the 
car is of wood, but the ends are of the Murphy corrugated steel 
type, there being an 18}4 in. by 12 in. door opening in one end. 
The roof is of the Murphy radial steel type with pressed steel 
U-scction purlines and 3 in. by 3 in. by 5/16 in., T-scction car- 


(o "J (j) o 








""■^ Itl' 




V, 1 


[l — [,_J'„_.^ 






Stringer Seat Pin. 




stringer Seat Ring. 

SirinaerSecit Pocliet. 
Upper Deck Stringer Pocket Used on the Automobile Car 

wliile the body bolsters are of cast steel. It will lie niiticcd 
that this center sill is heavier in the box car than in the auto- 
mobile car, the reason for this being that the center sill in the 
box car was designed to carry the greater proportion of the 
lading, while in tbe ;!utuniiibile car it was the intention of the 

lines, eacli 42 in. between centers. There are two purlines on 
cither side of the car, spaced 22 19/32 in. between centers, the 
inner one being 11 5/16 in. from the center of the car. 

The special equipment on the box cars includes Climax coup- 
lers. L'.arljer truck roller device, Xew York air brakes, Creco 



_ ,Q ',1" Ol^erjackinff Cas/Jr^S 

-H 1 
— H 

Section f\/ear Center. 

Section at Bolster 

End Elevation and Cross Sections of the Automobile Car 

designer that a considerable portion of the weight of the lading 
should be carried by the side frames of the car. The end sills 
are 8 in., 13.75 lb. channels and the side sills are 5 in., 11.6 lb. 
Z-bars. There are 6 in., 8 lb. channel diagonal braces between the 

brake beams. Carmer coupler release rigging. Vulcan cast steel 
truck side frames, Camel door fixtures. Miner draft rigging. Na- 
tional malleable journal boxes. Buckeye cast steel truck bolsters 
and Miner gravity truck side bearings. 



\'oi., S9, Xi). 2 


The Illinois Ccmral has recently received 5,000 steel frame 
box cars which were built by the American Car & l'"oiinclry 
Company, the Western Steel Car & Foimclry Company, the 
Standard Steel Car Company and the Haskell & Barker Car 
Company. These cars are of the outside frame construction and 
have a capacity of 80,000 lb. All the cars are equipped with 
steel roofs. The cars are 41 ft. 5 in. long over the end slll.s 
and 40 ft. 6 in. long inside of the sheathing. They are 8 ft. 9 in. 
wide over the side sills, and 8 ft. 6 in. wide inside of the sheath- 
ing. The inside height is 8 ft. 4 in. from the top of the floor to 
the bottom of the carline at the side. The cars weigh approxi- 
mately 40,000 lb. each. 

The underframes are made up of structural and pressed steel 
shapes. The center sills are of the lishbelly girder type, having 

ileej) in tlic center. They taper to the side sills and are riveted 
to tile webs of the center sills and the side sills. These members- 
are reinforced at the top by 3 in. by 2!/2 in. by J4 'i- angles, 
:ind at the bottom by 3 in. by 2)4 in. by S/16 in. angles. Cover 
plates measuring 8 in. by 3i in. by 6 ft. long, are secured to the 
lop llange, and pressed steel gussets are used to reinforce the 
cross bearers at the center sill connection in the deepest part 
of the tishbelly girder. 

The floor supports are 4 in., 8.2 lb. Z-bars connected to the 
side and center sills by 4 in. by 3 in. by '/i in. angles. The 
draft arms are pressed steel sections yi in. thick, and are spaced 
12^ in. between the webs. They form a continuation of the 
center sill, and are riveted to the end sill as shown in the draw- 
ing. There are two intermediate stringers of 3 in., 6.7 lb. Z- 
bars and two center stringers of iyi in. by 3>^ in. yellow pine. 
The intermediate stringers are secured to the crossbearcrs and 
bolsters, and the center stringers to the center sills. 

Illinois Central Steel Frame Box Ca 

a depth at the center of 24 in. These girders are made up of 
web plates 5/16 in. thick, which are riveted to S'A in. by SlA in. 
by 5/16 in. angles at the top and 5 in. by 4 in, by -^ in. angles 
at the bottom, A plate 5/16 in. thick and 19 in. wide covers the 
lop of this girder. The center sills extend beyond the bolsters 
and are riveted to the draft arms. The side sills extend from 
end sill to end sill, and consist of 9 in.. 13.25 lb. channels. The 
end sills are made up of 10 in.. 15-lb. channels with the flanges 
turned outward. Diagonal braces of 4 in. by 2'/: in., 8,7 lb. 
tees are used at each corner, extending from the bolster near 
the side sill to the draft sill near the end sill, being held in po- 
sition by S/16 in. gusset plates. The cross bearers are made 
of 'A in. steel pressed in the shape of a pan and are 14 'j in. 

The bolsters consists of two pressed steel pans J4 'i- thick riv- 
eted back to back, and to a top and bottom cover plate -5.s in. 
thick. Side bearings of the ordinary type are used and are lo- 
cated at 4 ft. centers. .-X variation of ,'4 in. to 11/32 in, is al- 
lowed in the clearance. 

The superstructure is made up of eight side posts and eight diag- 
onal braces, all made of 3 in., 6.7 lb. Z-bars. In the end construc- 
tion there are four center posts of 4 in., 8.2 lb. Z-bars and four 
intermediate posts of 3 in., 6.7 Jb. Z-bars. A pressed steel cover 
plate J4 •"• thick, pressed in the shape of an angle, is riveted 
to the upper flarge of the end sill, and is bolted to the end 
sheathing. The construction of the door posts is clearly indi- 
cated in the drawings, and they consist essentially of 4 in,, 8,2 lb. 

Fhhruary, 1915 


Z-bars The corner posts are 4 in. by 4 in. by 5/16 in. angles. posts and bolted to the roof The floor is la,d wUh W, •". 

The side diasonal and corner posts extend below the top of ship-lapped yellow pine, and the slieathnig is I/2 in. thick, also 

the side sills, nn<l arc rivcte.l In them. The eml posts extend of yellow pine. , . , , ■ xi . .!,» 

the inside of the end sills. Thr si.le plates are 4 in.. The trucks have a wheel base of -i fl. 6 in. They have the 

down on 


^0 PoqrOffenin^_ 

Arrangement of the Framing in the Illinois Central Box Car 

8 2 lb Z-bars They are fastened to the side posts and diagonal American Steel Foundry Company's bolster, and are equipped 
braces by pressed steel gusset plates. The end plates are 3/16 with the Barber three-roller truck device. The Scull.n-Gallagher 
in pressed =teel plates, being riveted to the outside of the end Iron & Steel Company's cast steel side frames and spring ^planks 



Vol. 89, No. 2 

are used, with the National Malleable Casting Company's malle- 
able journal box. Other specialties used in the construction of 
these cars are the Sharon coupler, Miner tandem D-S63 draft 

Cross Sections of the Illinois Central Car 

gear, Carnier uncoupling device, the Imperial centering device 
for the draft gear, and Camel door fixtures. 



There has been a marked improvement in box car design dur- 
ing the past two years in order to meet the more severe service 
requirements due to larger locomotives, longer trains, and the 
more extensive use of hump yards; but in the writer's opinion 
still more attention should be given to efforts toward making 
the cars more nearly proof against lost and damaged freight. 
When we consider the fact that there is paid out annually by 
the railroads of the United States, for claims due to lost and 
damaged freight, appro.ximately $30,000,000 it would seem that 
railroad officers should give this matter careful consideration. 

While it is a common practice with railroads to make an in- 
spection of cars just prior to loading with cement, flour, and 
other freight that may be damaged by leakage, yet notwith- 
standing this precaution many cars with leaky roofs are loaded, 
and as a result claims are presented for damaged freight. More 
attention should be given to making roofs and doors storm 
proof, as this will materially reduce claims for lost and dam- 
aged freight. A careful inspection of box cars in any of the 
terminal yards will reveal the fact that many cars have de- 
fective roofs and side doors, and leads to the belief that these 
parts have been badly neglected, and in some cases poorly de- 
signed. There are few satisfactory roofs in service today. 

In going back some 30 years and reviewing briefly the different 
kinds of roofs that have been tried out, we find the first roof 
to be used to any extent was the double board type. This style 

of roof failed, due to the weaving movement and torsion of the 
car. which loosened the nails, allowing water to run down into 
the car and damage the contents. Then came the practice of 
applying a layer of heavy plastic roofing paper between the two 
courses of boards. It was thought by doing this that the nails 
would be tightly scaled all aro\,ind and this would stop tlie wa- 
ter from going through into the car. While this proved of 
some benefit, it did not fill the requirements. Then came the so- 
called torsion-proof paper roof; this roof was applied by first 
laying down a course of boards, usually lengthwise of the car. 
The roof sheets extended from the side plate to the ridge pole 
with the edges upturned and inserted in saw cuts in the sub- 
carliiies; then the nailing strips or subpurlines were applied and 
another course of boards. The weaving and torsion movements 
of the car caused the roof sheets to become displaced and the 
result was a .leaky roof. Then came into use the inside metal 
roof with the sheets extending across the car from side plate to 
side plate. This roof was too rigid and the sheets gave away 
at the ridge pole and along the side plates. Following this came 
the inside metal roof with the roof sheets extending from side 
plate to ridge pole, the edges of the sheets being turned up ami 
inserted in saw cuts in the subcarlines. This roof gave fairly 
good .service and is used quite extensively at the present time, 
but in order to get as much inside clearance as possible this 
style of roof was partially abandoned and the outside metal roof 
came into use. This roof was applied by first laying down a 
course of boards lengthwise of the car with the roof sheets ex- 
tending from the side plate to the Ftdge jlole, where they over- 
lapped, as well as along the edges. This roof did not prove 
satisfactory, as the weaving of the car caused the sheets to 
become broken at the side plates and also to unlock at the sides 
of the sheets, and resulted in a leaky roof. Other designs were 
used to some extent, but with no better results. 

In the past few years there has come into use the all metal 
roof which has given good satisfaction so far. and is in my 
opinion, the kind of roof the railways must come to in order to 
stop the heavy losses in claims for lost and damaged freight. 

Howe\er, while leaky roofs have been responsible for most 
of this loss the side doors of bo.x cars are responsible for a 
great deal of the trouble. .A. careful inspection will reveal the 
fact that large numbers of box cars are running with the side 
doors from >2 in. to ^ in. away from the side of the car, and 
in running against a heavy rain storm, water is bound to blow 
in, damaging the contents of the car. Numerous other defects in 
side doors will also be found, such as front door stop split, hasps 
broken, etc.. and many doors are lost off on the road and in the 
yards ; also, a careful inspection will reveal the fact that it is 
necessary in many cases to use bars and sledges to open and 
close the doors, a condition which should not exist. Besides this 
there is the liability of doors falling off and injuring trainmen, 
or perhaps falling against a passenger train. 

In my opinion the flush type of door can be used to the best 
advantage, especially on cars with a steel superstructure or other 
designs that will not rack in switching so as to get the door 
opening out of square and cause the door to be inoperative. -\ 
door of this type has the advantage of being set in flush with 
the side of the car. It also has the advantage of moving out 
about two inclies in opening and in case any freight is against 
the door, the latter moves away from the obstruction and slides 
by it to the open position. A door of the flush type can also be 
made waterproof, which is another point in its favor. 

Another part of the box car that has caused a great deal of 
trouble is the ends. Thousands of cars will be found running 
with wooden ends, the end and corner posts being tennoned to 
the end plate and end sill. This kind of construction offers 
little or no resistance to the shifting of loads in switching cars 
and it is a waste of money to be replacing these ends as they 
were originally built. As fast as cars of this class give out they 
should be fitted with corrugated steel ends, which make a good 
substantial construction. 



man. Grand Trunk Pacili 

aliHin, On 

Tlie choosing of ;i iiiaii to iill ihe position of engine house fore- 
man generally has been nioir or less haphazard. When an engine 
house foreman resigns his position or is dismissed, the master 
mechanic may he short of material from which to choose a suc- 
cessor, and as a result the man selected does not have the proper 
training and is compelled to undergo a great many hardships 
that might have been averted had the appointee been given some 
•opportunity to receive preliminary training in his new duties. 
Machinists who have previously handled back shop repairs ex- 
clusivelj, have been appointed to the position of engine house 
foreman, in which an entirely different set of conditions present 
themselves, resulting in poor service to the company. 

One of the eastern Canadian railways adopted a system based 
•on tlic rules which this article sets forth, and since that time has 
started out in charge of roundhouses a number of trained men. 
who have shown, with the training they have received, that they 
are well qualified to handle the work properly. Young men who 
did not develop ability to handle men during their shop training 
were not considered, but taken care of in the back shop work 
which suited their special qualifications. However, there can be 
no doubt that a man who has had the back shop training in addi- 
tion to the special training covering the roundht)use, is better 
fitted to give the company good service than the man who has 
only had ro\mdhouse work, or only back shop work. Road fore- 
men of engines are trained from enginemen, train masters from 
brakemen, conductors and despatchers ; road masters rise from 
section men and section foremen ; but in a great many cases 
mechanical officers appoint untrained men with only the expe- 
rience they have gained through being first class men in heavy 
repair work, or in some other mechanical capacity, but which 
did not train them for the position of engine house foreman, 
resulting in trouble for all concerned through the appointee's 
not having a grasp of the operating and roundhouse conditions. 

In selecting probationary candidates in the system referred to 
above, the young man selected should have had experience in 
the main sliops as a charge hand or assistant to the foreman, 
■or in a position where he has shown some ability in the handling 
of men and work. The shop master mechanic selects the men 
who are to be recommended for the position of engine house 
foreman, seeing that they are thoroughly prepared in all respects 
and given the necessary experience in boiler and tender shops 
preparatory to their departure from the main shops. The train- 
ing in an engine house covers four ])eriods of three months each. 
During the first three months service a man is assigned to gen- 
eral work which includes boiler and tender repair work. 

In the second period he acts as assistant leading machinist, 
working as assistant to the man wlio holds that position in all 
the duties pertaining to it. It is his duty to copy the work from 
the work report book, assigning it to the different men, and see 
that this work is properly entered after the work has been done ; 
the work of looking after the tools and tool room is also as- 
signed to him. 

In the third period he is employed in connection with the 
movement of engines from the time they arrive on the shop 
tracks until they are again turned out of the shop for service. 
This includes supervision of the cleaning out of the locomotives 
■ on the ashpit and the time necessary to complete this operation ; 
moving the locomotive in and out of the shop; seeing that the 
washing out is properly done and keeping a check on the time 
necessary to do this work: looking after the lighting up of the 

engines .iml aKo seeing that the work to be done on them is 
properly booked by the enginemen. lie also makes periodical 
trips on the locomotives during this period to become familiar 
with their operation on the road, during which he makes notes 
of the quantity of coal and water used on the trip, weight of the 
train, etc. 

In the fourth or final period of three months he is placed at 
work in the storeroom and ofifice to become familiar with the 
inethods of conducting the clerical work, handling the stores and 
the maintenance of the projjcr fjuantity of stock, as well as the 
system of handling the men, etc. 

When he has completed his term at the engine house, has 
passed a written examination on the duties and work connected 
with the handling of engines at engine houses, and has shown 
himself qualified to assume the more responsible duties, his name 
is referred to the superintendent of motive power who then ar- 
ranges to send him otit as niglit foreman or relieving at some 



The renewal of brass dry pipe collars calls for considerable 
laying out if the holes through the pipe are irregular or zig- 
zag in formation. When a new collar is applied to a new dry 
pipe the holes are drilled through both the collar and the pipe 








yYrof Iron 



Drilling Jig for Renewing Dry Pipe Collars 

in the same operation, but the renewal of the collar alone re- 
quires the laying out of the holes to inatch those already in the 

The drawings show a simple arrangement used by the writer 

Dry Pipe and Jiq in Position on Drilling Machine 

which has been successful in securing accuracy and has con- 
siderably reduced the time required to do this work. The bar 
is bolted to the table of a drill press and the pipe with the new 
collar in place is laid over it. The stud A has a concave point 



\'o[.. 89, No. 2 

with which the drill is centered, after which the table, or radial 
arm, as the case may be, is clamped in position. With the other 
end of the pipe resting on a roller horse, the holes on the in- 
side are dropped one after another on to the concave stud, and 
the holes drilled through the collar directly in line with those in 
the pipe. The concave end of the stud allows the drill to break 
through and complete the hole without obstruction. When the 
drilling is completed the pipe may be riveted at once. 


in. Central of Gcori! 

The illustrations show the method of fmishing tank valve cast- 
ings at the Macon shops of the Central of Georgia. For finishing 
the valve seat end of the ca.sting it is- set up on a drill by means 
of U-shaped supports and clamps applied to the fiange. Tlie 

Tank Valve Casting Mounted on Expanding Mandrel for Finishing 
Hose Nut End 

machining is done by means of a shell reamer on an arbor of 
machine steel which is placed in the spindle of the drill. The hose 
nut end is finished on a lathe, the work being supported on an 
expanding mandrel screwed to the spindle of the lathe. Only 
two sizes of these castings are used, therefore it is necessary 

to liave (inly two mandrels and two reamers to take care of 
this work for all classes of locomotives. The reamers, being of 
ibc shell lype. may be made to fit the same arbor. 


Sloreltceper, Chicago & North Western. New Butler, Wis. 

The accompanying illustration shows a method of cleaning 
air jiumps without removing them from the locomotives. The 
apparatus used for this purpose is half of an ordinary oil barrel, 
placed on a frame of ;4 in. by 2 in. bar iron which is made to 
lit the bottom of the liarrel just above the first hoop. This 
band is made in two parts, one part having the axles welded 
on, while the other part has the handle and rest. These two 
parts are bolted together through J-l in. holes drilled in the 
lugs on the two halves of the band. A strong solution of lye 
water is placed in the barrel and the pump connections to the 
air end of the pump are broken, fittings being applied as shown, 
so that the lye water may be drawn in through the inlet and 
discharged back into tlie barrel through the outlet. 

These pipes extend down very nearly to the bottom of the 

A Method of Cleaning Air Pumps 

barrel and are spaced as far apart as possible, so that the refuse 
matter coming out of tlie pump will not be drawn back into it 
again. When all the connections have been made, steam is ap- 
l)lied to the pump and it is run at a slow rate, drawing the lye 
solution into the air inlet, circulating it through the different 
passages and discharging it from the discharge pipe with the 
refuse. This is allowed to continue for one hour, and at the ex- 
piration of that time the pump is washed out by the same proc- 
ess with clear water. The pump is then well lubricated and 
placed in service. It has been found that this method is very 
satisfactory. The information was obtained through the cour- 
tesy of J. E. Tisdale, general foreman at New Butler. 

Valve Seat End of Tank Valve Casting 

Inspection.— Next to the intelligent selection of help, the in- 
spection of the product is the most important factor of efficiency. 

— .hnc-rifdti Machinist. 

Repairing Locomotive Boiler Tubes 

Methods Which Bring Good Results in a Shop 
Which Has a Minimum of Facilities for This Work 


The liandling nf Incnmotive boiler tubes and flues in tlic slinp 
is an im|iiirt,-iiil itt'in of the cost of locomotive repairs. Articles 
on this suljjcct liave appeared recently in several journals, in 
which stress is laid on the use of mechanical devices to facilitate 
operations and reduce costs. The writer, beinij accustomed to 
achieve corresponding results with a iiiiniiiiuni of facilities in v;iri- 
ous departments of the boiler shop; and knowing also, tliat there 
are many other boiler foremen workinf; under similar conditions, 

Fig. 1— Diagr 

Showing Course of Tubes ThroLigh tine Flue Shop 

will endtaMir to slmw how lubes may be eHiciently handled frnm 
the Iocnmoti\e, tbrouyli the flue shop and back to the locomotive 
entirely by liand. 

It may lie well tn state that in the particular shop the arrange- 
ment and operation of wliieb are to be described, all 2 in. and 
2;4 in. tubes are iron and are repaired with iron safe ends, 
while all 5'j in. flues are iron but are repaired with 4}/2 in. 
steel safe ends. Fi.q. 1 shows the layout of the shop buildings 

Fig. 2 — Rotary Car on Which Tubes Are Carried to the Rattier 

adjacent to the flue shop and affecting its operation. As the 
tubes are ready for removal from a locomotive in the erecting 
shop, a car of the type shown in Fig. 2 is placed ahead of the 
locomotive, on which the tubes as they are removed from the 
boiler are loaded. The loaded car, which has a capacity of 
one full set of 460 tubes 2y^ in. in diameter, is then run on the 
transfer table and moved to the track leading to the rattler. 
The rattler is of the barrel type, is run dry and is loaded by 

hand. After it has been run the required length of time to 
properly clean the tubes, ihey are dumped from the bottom on 
inclined rails leading to tlie llrjor where they arc ready for in- 
spection and sorting. 

iMg. 3 is a floor plan of the flue shop, an interior view of 
which is shown in Fig. 4. It will be noticed that the machines 
are set very close together because of the absence of facilities 
for handling the tubes. The space is so limited that it is neces- 
sary to finish tube work as it leaves the rattler; it is not prac- 

Fig. 3 — Plan of the Flue Shop Showing the Location of the 

ticable to finish a part of one set and then store the remainder 
while finishing all or part of another set. 

It has been noticed upon inspecting tubes as they come from 
the rattler, that those having from three to eight safe ends are 
badly pitted on the safe ends, while the body of the tube is 
still perfect. Where this condition is found, the old safe ends 
arc cut off and the remaining part of the tubes restored to the 
required length by welding on an intermediate piece similarly 
cut from another old tube. These intermediate pieces are of 
three lengths : 21 in., 40 in. and 60 in. A new safe end 7 in. 
long is then welded on the end of the intermediate piece, the 
finished tube having only two welds. This practice has very 
materially reduced engine failures due to burst tubes. 

After tubes are inspected and sorted, those to be scrapped 
are thrown out of door A. Fig. 3. to be loaded on scrap cars, 




\oL. S9, Xd 2 

while those to be safe-ended are piled at the cutting-off machine. 

After the tubes are cut. those requiring intermediate pieces 
more than 21 in. long are loaded on a wagon and moved to a 
flue welding machine which is placed about SO ft. from the flue 
shop, in the material yard. This machine, which is shown in 
Fig. 5, is a combination of a homemade rivet forge and a No. 2 
Boyer rivet buster placed over a welding die and mandrel. The 
brickwork in the rivet forge was altered, and the air pressure 
used in the rivet buster reduced to 40 lb. per sq. in. The forge 
and rivet buster are set in line, so that while one end of the 
piece to be welded is heating the other end is on the mandrel, 
between the dies. When the proper welding temperature is 
reached, the tube is pushed through the fire and the weld made 
with the rivet buster, which is operated by a pedal. As the 
weld is completed in a very short time, the part of the tulie in 
the furnace is not seriously affected by the fire. 

.\fter a tube is welded it is withdrawn and laid bv itself until 

which is bolted a piece of J4 in. plate having a punched hole 
3 in. in diameter through its center. In placing the end of the 
tube against the stop the swedged portion is passed through 
this hole, where its rotation against the rough punched edge 
of the hole removes all scale and dirt leaving the end which 
receives the copper ferrule in the back tube sheet smooth and 

.After the tubes are cut to length, they are given a hydrostatic 
test. The machine for doing this work is adjustable for various 
lengths of tubes. It consists of a wooden trough with a cylin- 
der at each end ; the cylinder at the rear end does not close 
the tube untd it is full of water, after which the other cylinder 
increases tlic pressure in the tube. This method insures the 
removal of all air from the tube before the test is made, after 
which the front cylinder raises the pressure in the tube from 
100 lb. per sq. in. — the water line pressure — to 300 lb. or more, 
depending upon the air pressure. Defective tubes are thrown 


-Interior of tile Flue Shop Looking Toward the Anneali 

ind Loading Track 

cool, when it is piled. It has been found that if tubes are piled 
while the welds are still red hot, they will be bent when cold, 
due to the contracting of the exposed surface sooner than that 
next to the other tubes in the pile. After the intermediate 
pieces are welded on, the tubes are loaded on a wagon and re- 
turned through the window B, Fig. 3, to follow the course of 
other tubes through the shop. 

The tubes next are placed at the piecing furnace where the 
ends are expanded and seven inch safe ends inserted. They are 
then piled at the welding furnace and welded by a Hartz flue 
welder. The swedging of the ends is done at the same heat 
and the tubes are then piled back of and to the right of the cut- 
ter, ready to be cut to length. This machine has an adjustable 
stop to govern the length of the tubes, against the upright leg of 

iiut and those which withstand the test are ])iled at the annealing 

The annealing furnace consists of a back wall and a small end 
wall to protect the testing machine from the direct radiation 
from the fire. The tubes are piled up with the ends about two 
inches from the back wall ; the burner is opened and the flame 
being confined to the 2 in. space, the ends of the tubes are soon 
raised to a red heat. About 150 tubes are annealed at one time. 
As fast as they are heated the tubes are placed on the push car 
shown in Fig. 4 in the background. When loaded this car is 
pushed out to the boiler shop, where the tubes are transferred 
to the rotary car shown in Fig. 6. This car is then passed 
across the transfer table to the track in front of the engine from 
which the tubes were removed. 

•'F.iiiiHAiCi , 1915 



Due 10 the fact that engines in the erecting shop are headed 
south while the flue shop was originally laid out for engines 
headed nortli, it is necessary to turn all tubes end for end be- 
fore they are placed in the rattler and again after leaving the 
due sliop. Tliis is taken care of by the ball bearing rotary cars 
shown in Figs. 2 and 6. 

Superheater flues S'A in. in diameter are handled by the sanit 
niethods, and follow the same course tlirougii the shop as the 
2]4 in. tubes, the various machines being adjusted to suit the 
larger diameter. In cleaning, a))OUt si.\ or seven are placed in 

Fig. 5 — Outdoor Welding 

Machine and Furnace for Piecing Short 

the rattler wilii a load of 2,'4 in. tubes. By this method the 
splitting of ends formerly experienced has been eliminated. 

Steel safe ends Ayi in. in diameter are cut the required length, 
then heated and scarfed by hand. The flues are cut on the iyi 
in. end and belled out to receive the safe end. The scarf is then 
made by chipping the outside corner of the belled portion of 
tlie tube as shown in Fig. 7. This method of scarfing eliminates 
the use of a lathe in the machine shop, so that all work on the 
flues is taken care of in the flue shop. .'X liberal amount of 
borax is used while making the welding heat and only one heat 
is taken, the 4'/2 in. ends of the flues being heated only twice 

Fig. 6 — Rotary Car for Transporting Repaired Tubes to the 
Erecting Shop 

while in the shop : once at the piecing furnace and once at the 
welding furnace. The heating of these large flues is always 
accompanied by a wasting of the metal and by keeping the num- 
ber of heats to a minimum a much better flue results. These 
flues are cut to length, tested, annealed and loaded in the same 
manner as the 2% in tubes. 

The operations described are taken care of by a regular flue 
shop force of four men, a fifth man being required only when 
handling S'/z in. superheater flues. The moving of the tubes 
loaded on the special cars shown in the illustrations, from the 
engine to the rattler and from the shop back to the engine, is 

done by the general shop labor gang. The output per month 
averages about as follows : 

4,500 2 in. and 2<A in. tubes; 

100 S'/i in. flues; 

100 3 in. and 4 in. miscellaneous tubes. 

This output is equivalent to approximately 6,000 — 2 in. or 2% 


Fig. 7 — A — Superheater Flue Swedged to 4J/2 In. Diameter; B — Flue 

Belled Out to Receive the Safe End; C — End of the Flue 

After Being Scarfed by Chipping. 

in tubes and is handled at an average direct labor cost of $300 
|ier month, or at an average rate of five cents per tube. 

1 he average number of tubes removed from boilers as a re- 
sult of leaks during the hydrostatic test is less than one per 
boiler and there have been no leaks or other defects in the S'A 
in. flues either during the hydrostatic boiler test or in service 


General Foreman, Southern Pacific. Carlin. Ncv. 

.An engine house, to be managed to its highest efficiency, must, 
in the nature of its equipinent, be up with the highest standards 
of the times. A general repair shop, in order to turn out the 
largest possible amount of work in first-class condition, must 
necessarily be equipped with the latest facilities, such as traveling 
cranes and improved machinery. An engine house on the other 
hand, must be equipped with good boilers, water pumps, air 
compressor, serviceable lathes, turntable, sanding device, and fuel 
facilities, in order to successfully handle the power. It is also 
necessary that good drop pits be provided ; that the house be 
well lighted, and, if the climatic conditions require it. in winter 
it should be fairly well heated. It should be kept in a sanitary 
condition at all times. This, I believe, has a very great effect 
for efficiency among the men. 

The engine house equipment should be frequently inspected 
and repair parts kept in stock ready for an emergency, as the 
plant cannot be successfully operated without the equipment in 
proper working order. The turntable should receive its share 
of attention in the line of maintenance, such as oiling the 
operating machinery and also the bearings. All tools should 
be thoroughly inspected and their condition kept up to as high 
a standard as possible, and the men in the various vocations 
should be impressed with the idea that it is their duty to see that 
defective tools are reported. The engine house foreman should 
know the condition of ever}- engine under his charge, and the 
date of the last general repairs, and a record should be kept 
of such dates. 

In the organization of an engine house of any size, provision 
should be made for an assistant foreman, a boilermaker fore- 
man and a clerk. The boilermaker foreman should determine 
the condition of the fireboxes and tubes of each engine and re- 
port it to the engine house foreman, and I also believe it would 
be good practice for the foreman occasionally to personally in- 
spect the interior of fireboxes and the condition of tubes. The 
assistant foreman should have charge of the various mechanics. 
The foreman knowing the condition of each engine, should plan 
the work and select the best opportunities for making unusual 
and heavy repairs. He should also co-operate with the store- 
department toward keeping the standard repair parts in the 
store room, avoiding the waste of producing them with the 

•Entered in the competition on Engine House Work, which closed July 


\'0L. 89, No. 2 

inferior nnicliincry available at most engine houses; in most cases, 
the parts can be manufactured in the general shops many times 
cheaper than is possible in the roundhouse. Delay to the 
work on the engines will be prevented by having as many neces- 
sary repair parts as possible in stock, which will necessarily 
keep the engines in service a greater proportion of the time. 

The engine house foreman should at regular intervals advise 
the master mechanic, or other officer, regarding the condition of 
the engines, and how long they can be kept in service without 
general repairs. The boilermaker foreman should be thoroughly 
familiar with the ability of each man in his charge, know to 
which class of work each one is best suited, and that the neces- 
sary tools are available and in good condition. He should in- 
struct his men that the standard of the road in the line of tools 
should be strictly adhered to; that proper prossers or rollers are 
used and see that the men thoroughly understand the work which 
they are doing. This is of great importance, as a boilermaker 
not thoroughly understanding his work may do considerable 
damage to a boiler. It is also of great importance that hostlers, 
fire cleaners and other laborers connected with the turning of 
engines be trained to realize the importance of their work and 
what it means to have engines turned in the least possible time. 
Hostlers should be instructed how to properly use injectors and 
care for the fire while an engine is in their charge in order to 
prevent unnecessary work which niiglit be caused by improper 

As much work as possible should be specialized. A blackboard 
should be installed in a conspicuous place and marked with the 
various special work into which the repairs of locomotives may 
be divided, such as air brake, boiler work, etc., and as many 
other special duties as may be desired. The men for these 
various duties should be carefully selected. The air brake man 
should necessarily understand the operation of the air brake and 
also how to make proper repairs; for instance, if the brakes 
are reported not setting, he should know what defects in the 
air brake apparatus will produce such a defect. 

The man in charge of boiler appurtenances should be thoroughly 
familiar with the Interstate Conmierce Commission requirements 
and should also understand the working conditions of injectors, 
lubricators, etc. If an injector is reported not working, the 
cause should be determined and not a new injector immediately 
applied, where perhaps a few slight repairs will answer the 
purpose. The testing of steam gages and the setting of safety 
valves should be among his duties and he, in conjunction with the 
boiler inspector, should see that all such work as is required by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission regulations is done, the 
boilers washed out, as well as any other inspection or repair work. 
This will help greatly in keeping the engines in service and 
also prevent the frequent waste of fuel which occurs when a 
boiler is blown ofT. 

The duties of the cellar packer should not be lost sight of. 
Much can be accomplished by proper attention to this work. 
The cellar packer should be so trained as to be able to fit up 
engine trucks, trailer and tank brasses and should also know 
how to adjust driving wedges. This work should be under his 
care, and he should thoroughly understand what effect a tight 
wedge may have in producing a hot driving box, and how an 
improperly fitted bearing will affect a journal. .'\ tanksmith 
should be employed, whose duties should be to maintain all tank 
wheels, springs, safety appliances on the tank and engine, see to 
the application of all brake shoes on the engine and tender and 
the application of all engine springs. Reliable and steady men 
should be employed on this class of work and the wages paid 
should le good, as the work is heavy and requires much physical 

A man thoroughly familiar with valve gears should be used 
when work of this nature has to be done. Such other work as 
valve rings, piston rings, links, etc., should also come under his 
charge as his time will not be constantly occupied in setting 
valves in the ordinary roundhouse. .\ man who thoroughly 

understands rod work should be assigned to do all such work. 
'1 his will generally keep a man busy in a roundhouse of any 
size. Such work as packing piston rods and valve stems, the 
maintenance of flange oilers, etc., should be assigned to a special 
man, who, with the experience which he will gain, will show 
a great saving in the maintenance of these parts. Whatever 
additional force is required, such as men for general repair work, 
changing engine truck wheels, taking up lateral motion in trailers, 
refitting binders and the various other classes of work reported, 
should be kept as all around running repair men. If enough 
work is done to justify one or two machine men, they should 
be employed, and in addition to the necessary machine work 
they should make repairs to tools. 

The roundhouse clerk should keep a record of all annual and 
monthly inspections of locomotives and boilers, also the dates 
of washout. I believe it is a good practice to have a regular 
period of time between washouts. He should also keep record 
of the various piston inspections, the removal of tubes, the re- 
moval of lagging and the inspection of the interior and exterior 
of boiler barrels, and such other office records as may be assigned 
to him. 

Hostlers should be made to realize that as soon as an engine 
arrives it should be placed in the roundhouse with the least 
possible delay. The work report should be immediately copied ; 
this should be done by the assistant foreman, who has immediate 
charge of the repair work, and each item distributed to the 
various men. The numbers of engines requiring washout should 
be marked on the board during both the day and night shifts 
by the foreman or inspector in charge. Boiler washers should 
thoroughly understand the importance of cooling a boiler properly 
before washing, at points where cold water is used, and shoidd 
be made to realize the importance of keeping the boilers free 
from scale and washout plugs clean and in good condition. 

Care should be exercised as to doing all the work booked by 
cnginemen. Mention might be made of the frequent report 
"engine not steaming." An engine which has given satisfactory 
service as to its steaming qualities at previous times should 
not have the size of its nozzle tip reduced or a heavy bridge put 
in it, but the possibility of other defects which will prevent an 
engine from steaming freely should be thoroughly investigated. 
In many cases after the tubes and the crown sheet are thoroughly 
cleaned a great difference is experienced in the steaming qualities 
of an engine which was previously reported as not steaming. 


General Foreman. Chicago & North Western, Milwaukee, Wis. 

The illustration shows a flue cutter which has been used for 
some time, but which as originally constructed required the use 
of a special motor supplying air to the cutter through the 
spindle. The end of the spindle was redesigned by the writer 
in order that knuckle jointed shafts and any type of motor may 

Pneumatic Flue Cutter Altered to Take Motors of Any Type 

be used. As now arranged, air is supplied to the flue cutter in- 
dependently by means of the carefully fitted sleeve and ports in 
the spindle leading from the circumference to the 3/16 in. air 
passage on the center line. This device is very useful in cutting 
out flues behind steam pipes, which may be done without the 
necessity of removing the pipes. 

Riveting in Steel Car Construction* 

A Brief Discussion of Rivet Manufacture; Opera- 
tions Which arc Necessary to Secure Tiftht Rivets 

(Jencriil I'orcman, (>anailian Cor & Foundry Company, Montreal, Otn-"- 


Poor livi'tiiiK may result Inmi careless work: neglecting 
to change dies often enough, poor judgment of rivet lengths 
and other shortcomings for which the riveting gang is ac- 
countable. But frequently the greater part of the trouble is 
due to worn rams and adjusting screws. Once cither wears, 
the dies will throw sideways, since the rivet will bend easier 
than it will upset. The lu-ad formed will be oflf center and 
will cut acrohs the grain of the slock, thus losing a great ])art 
of its strength. On close work, if the bottom of the die, the 
yoke of the machine or the "bull nose" projects far enough 
to hit before the head of the rivet is in line with the center 
of the cup, the edge of the cup will cut the head and spoil 
the rivet. When the conditions are such that a "bull nose" 
is used care must be exe'rcised that it is not bent by the re- 
peated heavy pressures, so that the rivet heads are out of 
line. Old machines that are sprung slightly may be cor- 
rected by a special die holder made with the shank off center, 
or bored eccentric to bring the die faces in line. 

Stationary machines are of two kinds, column and pit 
riveters. The latter is generally used for center sills, etc., it 
being more convenient to handle large work when it is sus- 
pended. The machine should be so placed that an air hoist 
or chain block may be hung from an overhead trolley or jib 
crane by which the work may be supported. For smaller 




The "Coaxer" for Drawing Plates Together, and Special Tool for 
Driving Flat or Coiintersuntc Rivets 

machines a very convenient sling is made of a small endless 
chain, which is caught over the hook of the block and around 
the work, to support the end farthest from the die. 

On any but the very lightest work, it will be found desir- 
able to use four men in a gang; the fourth man enables the 
gang to itiaintain a speed that would be impossible Avith 
three men. The machine operator should have some mechan- 
ical ability and a knowledge of the machine he is handling. 
His lirst helper must be strong and active, as he has the 
greater part of the heavy lifting to do. The sticker and 
heater should be bright, active fellows, as their speed and 
skill in furnishing the rivets control the output of the gang. ■ 

Each gang should have a complete set of dies and its own 
outfit of tools, including a medium weight sledge, two stick- 
ers, hammers, wrenches of various sizes, drift pins, bolts, nuts, 
washers, etc. .\ too! known as the "coaxer" is used to 

stiueeze the plates together when they are being riveted with- 
out h.iving lieen well bolted together first. It resembles a 
wrench, the jaws being Jji in. thick. The rivet is stuck from 
the bottom up through the pieces to be riveted and the coaxer 
is slipped over it. The die coming down presses on the jaws 
of the coaxer and squeezes the plates together, then the ram 
is lifted enough to allow the coaxer to be withdrawn and the 
rivet is formed by a second application of the air. The gage 
is tried again and if it fits, the remaining rivets may be stuck 
from the top and rapidly driven. 

When it is necessary to drive an occasional flat or counter- 
sunk head in a run of button Iieads it can be done without 
changing dies with the to(d shown in the illustration. This 
is made of high speed steel willi ;i button on one side to fit 
the cup of the die already in the ii::u'liine. A •..;nio\<- i^ turned 

•For Part I see Railway 
page 33. 

Age GazeUe. Mechanical Editi, 

A Jaw-Riveter in Use on an Underframe, Showing Method cf 

around the body in which a wire handle may be secured. 
As the tool is necessarily small, it should be hardened, other- 
wise it will distort with the pressure and heat. 

For work too heavy or unwieldy to handle to the machine. 
a yoke riveter may be used similar to the column riveter. 
but without the lugs used for fastening the latter in position. 
On freight car underframes some variation from the standard 
shape of rivet head is permitted, and a light, strong machine, 
known as a jaw-riveter, is used. The heads made by this 


Vol. 89, No. 2 

machine have a slight ring on one side owing to the fact 
that the motion of the jaw does not carry the die on a line 
parallel to the center line of the rivet and the outside edges 
of the dies are a little further apart than the inside edges 
when the rivet is finished. This can be avoided to a certain 
extent by making special dies so designed that when the 
rivet is completely formed the die faces are parallel. These 
machines arc easily handled and are very speedy. They are 
strong for their weight, since the gap is very small, and the 
leverage is large in proportion. .\ free running chain block 
of at least two tons capacity should be used to suspend this 
machine. The reason for the large size of this block will be 
understood vvhen it is known that frequently it has to sup- 
port a portion of the weight of the work owing to the fact 
that the dies are often slightly high and lift in closing. Care 
is necessary to get the height of the top die just right, for if 
the machine hangs on the rivet, it will spoil the shape of the 
head and mark the plate. 

The ease and speed in handling suspended work or a sus- 
pended machine depend greatly upon the design of the trol- 
ley and the track used. For medium weights a two-wheel 
trolley may be used. IvU for heavy work four wheels are pref- 
erable, two wheels tending to jam and move in jerks. The 
length of wheel base and increased bearing surface make the 
four-wheel trolley run smoothly with a minimum efifort and 
it takes the joints in the track without difficulty. 


The importance of properly heating the rivets for machine 
riveting has been strongly represented. It is of still greater 
importance when the rivet is to be driven with a pneumatic 
hammer, since it must be at such a temperature that the shank 
will upset with the impact of the hammer. Unless the hole is 
thoroughly filled the rivet may be jarred loose; its holding 
power will then be reduced to the bearing pressure of the heads 
■on the plates, produced by the contraction of the rivet material 
in cooling. Consequently, the first requirement of any riveting 
gang is a properly designed rivet furnace. The present market 
price of fuel oil makes it of the utmost importance that all the 
work possible be obtained from it. The furnace must, there- 
fore, be built for the work, and the burner properly installed, 
as well as operated with intelligence. 

Something of the art of heating should be taught the heaters 
instead of leaving the mastering of this important operation 
entirely to their experience at the expense of many gallons 
of fuel oil wasted and tons of rivets burnt. It is impossible to 
obtain intelligent operation while the present practice of hiring 
small boys for heaters prevails, hence it would seem advisable 
to so arrange the prices for this work that men capable of 
understanding instructions could be secured. It should first be 
shown the heater that oil will not burn in the liquid state, and 
that the burner is employed to break it up and mix it with the 
air necessary for combustion without waste. The second lesson 
should deal with the handling of the burner to obtain the proper 
mixture of oil and air : it shourd show how if too much oil is 
turned on it will smoke, and if too high air pressure is admitted 
to the burner it will carry the particles of oil beyond the point 
where the work is to be done before they can be raised to the 
burning temperature. Best results are obtained with a short 
white flame that a heater will soon learn to recognize. He must 
also learn to know the proper temperature of the rivet by the 
color, and the nature of a burnt rivet. 

The furnace should be located as close as practicable to the 
work and the shortest possible len,gth of time intervene from 
the moment the rivet leaves it till it is headed ; hence the gang 
tnust move quickly and complete each move in a positive man- 
ner, there being no remedy for a loose rivet but to cut it out 
and replace it. 

The heater's comfort should be looked after, and some ar- 
rangement made so that he may approach the furnace without 

liaving to bear the direct heal from the doors. DitTerent ar- 
rangements have been tried with success. Baffle plates and 
perforated air pipes below the door, to blow the heat upward, 
or water pipes above the dcor, perforated so that a sheet of 
water falls across the baffle plate and keeps it cool, are both 
very good methods. The shop windows should he painted or 
shaded if the sun shines on the furnace during the hot part of 
the d;iy, as the two heats will sicken the toughest heater. 

The number of rivets the gang has in a run being laid out 
for them, they should always proceed in the same rotation so 
that the heater will always know what length and diameter of 
rivets to send along, otherwise considerable time may be lost 
while the heater and sticker signal to one another. Of course, 
if the punching was inaccurate and the hole very much en- 
larged by the reaming, a longer rivet than usual will be re- 
quired to fill it up. and signals must be given. A simple code 
for the purpose should he adopted and taught to each new 

Next in importance to the furnace installation is the supply 
of rivets and the method of keeping them at the furnace. Once 
the gang has had a full day on a run no difficulty should be ex- 
perienced in obtaining the right size and length of rivets from 
the source of supply. The amount allowed eacli heater should 
be carefully checked and an investigation follow any unusual 
demand. The supply should be controlled by one man, who will 
report the amount per day supplied each furnace so that tlie 
proper sizes and lengths may be made as required. 

Small bins built of steel should be placed at each furnace, the 
number of compartments corresponding to the number of dif- 
ferent rivets in the run. For machine riveters usually a great 
number of the same size rivets are used, while on the shipping 
track it may be necessary to have si.\ or seven lengths and 
possibly two or three diameters. In the first case there may 
be only two large compartments in the box or bin, while in the 
latter case it may have to be two tiers high to accommodate the 
nimiber required. The construction should provide sufficient 
room for dumping the supply of rivets directly into this bin. 
and allow the heater to get them out with a shovel from the 

Small rivets should be heated in a muffle furnace. If the quan- 
tity of rivets required does not justify building such a furnace, 
a short length of heavy pipe of a large diameter may be used, 
one end being plugged, or a couple of fire bricks may be placed 
so as to keep off the direct flame, though this method does not 
furnish very clean rivets. 

For the safety of those working around him and persons 
passing by, the heater should be impressed with the necessity 
of looking before throwing the rivet to the sticker. The pause 
should be of sufficient length for his eyes to become accus- 
tomed to the light of the shop after the glare of the furnace. 

The sticker should be taught the signal code and he should 
know the proper temperature of the rivet. He must be quick 
in his movements and adept at catching rivets. For this pur- 
pose a can should be furnished and the practice of stopping the 
flying rivet with the gloved hand forbidden, as the effect of 
burns to the hands or scale in the eyes may prove serious. The 
can should be made of heavy, galvanized iron, special care being 
taken to have the handle comfortable to hold, and stiff enough 
to stand up under the blows received. If the sticker can reach 
his work from the floor, a triangular device made of thin plate 
may be used. It serves the double purpose of catching the 
rivets and protecting the floor from the heat. The tools pro- 
vided the sticker include a pair of short tongs, which can be 
used with one hand for picking up the rivets, a hammer for 
knocking off scale or driving the rivet into the hole, and a 
wrench, it being his work to remove the assembling bolts. 

In car construction the variety of dolly bars is great and new 
ones must be made to suit any special requirements, but tlie gen- 
eral principles arc the same, new bars usually being modifications 
of some one of those shown in the engraving. The straight 


I'EimuARv, 1915 


(Icilly may liv mailc from a solid har of mild steel and the cup 
I'orKed in one end, or it may be made so that the snap or set 
used in a pneumatic hammer may be placed in the end. The 
latter is the better method, as tlie snap having had a machine 
linish forms a truer head, and having been hardened is less 
liable to distortion and wear. P.y changing snaps, this liar docs 
for all sizes of rivets. The drawing sliows the body of the bar 
.Mimewliat smaller than the ends, the advantage gained being in 
the purchase obtained for the forward hand against the en- 
larged front end. 

Very often it is necessary to ofTset the dolly to clear some ob- 
struction in direct line with the rivet, or to place tlie ])ucker in 




straight Dolly. 
Rivel Snap Inserted. 

General Types of Dolly Bars Used in Steel Car Construction 

a more convenient position. The straigiit dolly for a j,s in. or ^4 
in. rivet should weigh 30 lb. If the conditions permit this length, 
it should be forged from a 2 in. round bar 26 in. long. The 
spring dolly is used when it is possible to jam a bar between the 
rivet head and some part of the car in direct line with the rivet. 
If possible a handle is attached. Bars of another class are 
usually designated as number nine dollies because of their re- 
semblance to the figure nine. They are expensive tools to make, 
but for riveting under flanges and in places difficult to get a 
good tight rivet with the ordinary bars they soon pay for 

Certain advantages are gained liy using the holdcr-on instead 
iif the solid dolly. The action of the machine meeting every 
Mow of tlie hammer with an opposite force tends to make the 
ri\cts tighter; it is self-adjusting, the shortest length being 
about one foot. For long distances pieces of pipe of various 
lengths may be attached. The machine greatly lightens the 
bucker's work and speeds up heavy riveting, as the riveter, know- 
ing the other head will be held positively, does not need to hit 
light blows on the start as he would if the bucker was holding 
a dolly li:r. When using the solid bar the bucker must under- 
stand that to release the rivet not only may spoil it, but may be 
dangerous for him, as the riveter, not expecting the nio\e. may 
not stop the hammer in time and the flying snap may hit liini. 

When it is necessary to drive rivets larger than the usual 
diameters through thick plates, a good job may be oljtained with 
a medium-sized "gun," by bucking up with another .gun. This 
operation is not fast enough to recommend it for regular work, 
but it will serve the purpose where such conditions are occa- 
sionally met. 

Upon the judgment used in the selection of pneumatic ham- 
mers depends, to a great extent, the output of the riveting 
gangs. On freight work, of the total number nf rivets driven. 

aliiiiu one per cent are '« in. or over in diameter, and about the 
same proportion are ^ in. or smaller in diameter. Under usual 
conditions, therefore, these extremes may be disregarded when 
selecting the hammers. Any unusual sizes of rivets can be taken 
care of by the various expedients as suggested in this paper; 
but for passenger work, in which there arc a great number of 
small rivets, small hannners should be used, as they use less air 
and leave fewer marks on the plates, being more easily con- 
trolled. The first requirement of the hammer is speed; then 
come lightness, compactness and simplicity of the parts, result- 
ing in ease and cheapness of repairs. The hammer chosen should 
have a speed of about SOO blows per ininutc with a barrel or 
cylinder of medium length, antl a piston of the dimensions .shown 
in the accompanying drawing. 

Tool manufacturers claim that the use of short pistons is 
the worst abuse a hammer can be subjected to, but practical 
experience in car work has proved that the machine is not in- 
jured from cutting, crumbling, or excessive wear if the piston 
is not made shorter than the length here shown. The steel used 
should be carefully clioscn for the work, and in tempering 
should be drawn a shade softer than the rivet set, for if they 
are equally hard one will break. The sets, snaps or dies, as they 
are variously called, must be very carefully fitted to the ham- 
mer if a tapered piston is used, for if there is any play, the 
piston will hit one side and break. 

Carelessness on the part of the riveter may explain some piston 
troubles. If he lays the hammer down in such a position that 
the piston rests against the snap w-hen the latter is very hot, the 
temper of the piston may be drawn. A careful man will not 
lay his machine down without removing the piston and snap 
for this reason as well as for safety's sake. Usually the riveter 
makes far too many rivets before changing snaps, and the snap 
in consequence is very highly heated. It is taken out of the 
gun and left to cool, and when next used it is either very soft 
and spreads with the heat of the rivet, or it is brittle and breaks. 
Dies should be changed very frequently, say, every 35 or 40 
rivets on 54-in- work, and more or less frequently according to 
the diameter, so that the snap will not reach the tempering 
point. Instead of allowing them to cool in the air, each riveter 
should have a bucket of water to cool his snaps in. Where the 
heat is not high enough for tempering, the action of the water 

is cooling only, and the snap comes out with the original temper. 
Hammer troubles are largely due to foreign matter carried 
by the air, and although the manufacturers will provide strainers, 
either in the hammer or the pipe, these are of such fine mesh 
that they clog up very quickly and there is no easy means of 
cleaning them, considerable time being required to take out, 
clean and replace one. The result is that the riveter puts it out 
of commission before the hammer has been in use very long. If 
the strainer could be made without these faults it would mean 
a great reduction in the repair bills. The life of a hammer 
may be greatly prolonged by following the manufacturer's in- 
structions as to keeping it clean and well oiled. 


Inspection of riveting should be comprehensive enough to in- 
clude all the details of the process. It should require hot and 
cold tests of every lot of steel received for rivet making. The 
cold stock should bend 1?0 deg. flat on itself, without fracture 



\\n.. ,S9, No. 2 

on the outside. The head of a hot rivet should flatten until it 
is 2'/2 times the diameter of the shank without cracking at the 
edges. The best stock will stand heating almost white, driv- 
ing through two thick, springy plates, and the removal of tlic 
assembling bolts as the rivet grows black. If a run of broken 
rivets and snapped off heads occurs, the truulilc can generally 
be traced to the rivet material. 

The general appearance of a riveter's work depends to a 
great extent on the holes he has to fill. If they are accurate 
and have not been reamed larger than is necessary to pass the 
hot rivets easily, the rivet heads should be well shaped and 
easily keep in alinement. On passenger work, where it is the 
practice to punch the holes ^s in. small and ream to size, the 
riveters are able to produce good work more quickly. 

Defective rivets can be detected by their color, the shape of 
the heads, or by tapping w'ith a light hammer. .\n underheated 
or "green" rivet generally has a beautifully polished top, and is 
mushroom shape, not being closed down at the edges. It is 
easily knocked loose because the material in it was not hot 
enough to flow under the hammer and till the hole. The over- 
heated or burnt rivet head is pitted and has a cinder-like appear- 
ance. The nature of the steel has been changed and some of it 
wasted away entirely, so that the strength of the 'rivet is gone. 
This is usually the head held by the dolly, and it may happen 
that the beads are good, but are affected by the heat of the 
dolly itself. may be remedied by drilling a small hole 
through the lioUnm of tlic cup, to meet another hole through 
the side of tlie die, thus forming a vent. 

Rivet heads should be concentric with the shanks and close 
down against the work. Tightening up, recupping or caulking 
loose rivets should not be allowed, except for an occasional 
rivet not forming part of an important connection and not di- 
rectly transmitting stresses. In cutting out rivets in places 
where it will be difficult to replace them, judgment should be 
used in deciding if the new rivet w-ill be as good as the one 
already in. or if the plates will be parted and the adjoining 
rivets loosened up in driving it out. 



Gang Foreman, Atlantic Coast Line, Waycrost, Ga. 

The usual method of refitting worn tail braces is to send them 
to the blacksmith shop for filling in. Where this practice is fol- 
lowed it is necessary to finish the brace in the machine shop 
after the welding is completed. The method illustrated in the 
accompanying drawing is one which results in a saving of con- 


Method of Refitt 

Tail Braces 

siderable time and produces a more rigid foundation for the 
deck plate than the original construction. The worn bar is 
milled oflf to the broken line, as shown in the drawing, and its 
seats in the frame chipped to receive taper keys. The bar is 

then replaced and the keys driven inlo position. When once 
repaired in this manner it should never lie necessary to remove 
the deck in order to repair a worn tail lirace. as the keys may 
lie renewed in running repairs. 

Chief Urarts 


an. Buffalo, Rochester & Pit 

gh. DuB.iis. 

undergoing repairs in thu 

Wlicn loconioiixes are undergoing repairs in the shop 
roundliouse, tlie air pump is often removed and left on the floor 
until it can be replaced on the engine. The rack shown in the 
illustration was designed to provide a place on which to store 
air pumps after they have been overhauled and while waiting 
to be replaced on the locomotive. It has a capacity of four 
8}/2-in. cross-compound pumps, or two 8Vi-in. cross-compound 
pumps and two 9^-in. pumps, placed on the rack in the man- 
ner shown in the illustration. 

The rack is of simple construction and is built up of open- 
hearth steel plate and angles. The end and middle supports 
are formed of 's-in. plate, flanged at the center and secured to 

Rack for Storing Air Pu 


4-in. by 4-in. by >2-in. angles at the bottom. At a point about 16 
in. above the floor a longitudinal member of J^-in. plate, flanged 
to form a channel section, is riveted to the flanges of the sup- 
ports. The top rail is a S-in. by 1,'4-in. bar, from which the 
pumps are supported by means of wrouglit iron hooks. In 
placing a pump on the rack the hooks are removed and secured 
to the top bolting lugs by means of Ij^-in. studs, which are 
included in their lower ends. Special hooks are provided for 
each size pump so that when hung upon the rack the bottom 
bolting flange rests against the channel member of the rack 
and the pump is supported in a vertical position. The space 
below the pump is clear, so that a truck may be run under the 
rack to receive the pump where crane service is not available. 

Keeping Appointments. — .-K method of receiving visitors in 
vogue in a certain shop is worthy of mention. -After the visitor 
has presented his card, stating the person he wishes to see, he is 
shown into a waiting room. His card is taken by the young man 
in the office and the time is stamped on the back with an auto- 
matic time-stamping machine. His card is then conveyed to the 
party with whom the appointment is desired. This time-stamping 
idea is valuable in that it has the tendency to cut down long 
waits in keeping appointments. It is further valuable if any 
question arises as to the length of time any party has been kept 
wailing. — Anicricun Machinist. 



self-containi:d grinding machine 

A line of self-contained, motor or single pulley driven grinding 
machines, in the construction of which special attention has licen 
gi\en to rigidity, has been developed by the Modern Tool Com- 
pany, Erie, Pa. Aside from the attention given in the design of 
these machines to secure permanency of alinement there are 
several noteworthy features, including the method of operating 
llic feed box, by whicli speeds and feeds may be changed while 
the machine is in molinu. All lexers and handles for the con- 
trol of the machine are localed in finnl uitbin easy reach of the 

The machines are ec|uip|ied with anlnmatic cross feed which 
can be set for the reduction of any amount from .OOO.S in. to 
.005 in. at eitbtr or bntb cuds of tile talile reverse. Feeding au- 
tomatically on one end only is especially advantageous when 
grinding against a square shoulder. The feed is automatically 
thrown out when work is ground to size, and a positive stop is 
provided when feeding the wheel by hand in the production of 
duplicate work, .^n auxiliary feed for bringing the wheel auto- 
matically into the work when the table is not being traversed 
can lie supplied. This is desirable when the work is short and 
can be covered liy the full width of the wheel. The cross feed 
hand wheel is graduated to .0005 in. in plain \icw of the opera- 
tor. The automatic cross feed is adjusted by the movement of 

Self-Contalned Single Pulley Universal Grinder 

a lever to the point desired, as indicated on a graduated dial 
plate, and may be instantly changed to any feed while the ma- 
chine is in operation. 

The table is provided with power traverse, wliich is controlled 
by means of a lever placed to the left of the table hand wdieel. 
and when power is applied to the table the hand wheel is auto- 
matically disengaged and remains stationary. When power is 
removed from the table the hand wheel is simultaneously en- 
gaged for traversing the table by hand. Another feature of note 

is a variable tarrying device, by wliich llie tarry at each end of 
ihe stroke can be regulated. 

The base of the machine is of massive proportions and is 
crossbraced to insure rigidity. Klat and V guides are used as 
the sliding table, the swivel table and under the wheel stand. 
The base rests upon three points, preventing cross strain and in- 
suring perfect alinement of the machine. 

The machines are provided with a powerful drive, and have 
a large wheel spindle with ample bearings. The spindle is made 
of alloy steel, specially trealid. ground and lapped to the re- 

Arrangement of Gears in the Speed Box 

quired size; it is 3J4 in. in diameter and runs in phosphor bronze 
bearings 8% in. long. These bearings are the same length on 
each side of the drive pulley and are provided with sight-feed 
oilers. The grinding wheel is driven by a 6-in. belt over large 
diameter pulleys. The wheel stand base is of large proportions 
and is bolted to the bed of the machine. The wheel stand, which 
has a broad spread, slides on \' and flat ways and is held down 
by gravity. It is provided, however, with a safety gib to pre- 
vent lifting under abnormal conditions. The wheel center has 
a long, large bearing on the spindle, and will take any of the 
recognized standard grinding wheels. 

The headstock is entirely belt driven, which gives an abso- 
lutely smooth movement to the work and eliminates anj' possible 
chance for chatter. It is fitted to the swivel table by means of 
V and flat ways and is held in position by a hooked clamp bolt. 
The headstock spindle is hardened and ground and runs in ad- 
justable bronze bearings, lubricated by means of a sightfeed 
oiler. The tailstock is fitted to the swivel table in the same man- 
ner as the headstock. Its spindle is held in any position by 
means of a spring, or may be set positively against the work 
and locked. The work centers are directly over the table guides. 
a construction which eliminates the strain necessarily present 
where the work centers overhang the bearings. .\ wheel truing 
device is mounted on the tailstock and is adjustable to all diam- 
eters within the range of the m.achine. so that the wheel can be 
trued up without its being necessary to remove work from the 

All the speeds and feeds are derived from one gear box. which 



\'ui.. 89, No. 2 

I'cirms an entirely separate unit and is located outside of the bed 
of the machine. All gears are in mesh at all times and are en- 
gaged with the shaft by a patent ball drive clutch, by means of 
which a change of speed or feed may be quickly and safely made 
while the machine is running. The speed box consists of three 
series of gears, which are journaled in the case and run at con- 
stant speed. The center gears are the drivers, being belt con- 
nected to the main driving shaft back of the machine. The gears 
at the rear control the table feeds and those in front the work 
speeds. Six table feeds and 12 work speeds are provided, the 
gears in the top of the case doubling the number of work speeds 
directly obtainable froin the lower gears. Gear A meshes with 
gear B in the upper case, and tlie two gears on speed shaft C 
are loose except when one or the other is engaged by the posi- 
tive clutch D, which is keyed to the shaft. Ample lubrication is 
supplied by the splash system, tlie lower 'part of the case being 
oil tight and filled with lubricants. 

By referring to the illustration showing the details of tlie ball 
drive clutches it will be seen that the gears mounted on the 
front and back shafts in the lower part of the feed box are made 
with hardened ball pockets in the surface of the shaft bearing. 
Each set of gears is mounted on a sleeve rigidly secured tp the 
driven shaft, the circidar opening in the sleeve being placed over 
a splineway in the body of the shaft. These openings are con- 
tracted at their inner end and form pockets for the halls shown 


Work Speed Shaft Showing Details of the Speed Change Device 

in the illustration. Any one of the gears nn the shaft may be 
brought into action by means of the flat earn which slides in the 
splineway and brings the ball into engagement with the pocket 
in the hub of the gear, where it acts as a key between the gear 
and the shaft. While this device marks a departure from the 
usual methods of speed box control, it has been tested in service 
for several years, during which time its operation is claimed to 
have been entirely successful. 

The work speeds range from 12 to 250 revolutions per minute, 
and the table feeds from 22 in. to 104 in. per minute, which cover 
every range within the capacity uf tlie machines. The work 
speeds and table feeds being entirely independent of each other. 
it is possible to obtain a correct table feed for any given work 

These machines are built in sizes ranging from 24 in. to 60 in 
between centers and will swing up to 16 in. in diameter. The 
regular w-heel equipment is 18 in. in diameter by 2 in. face, but 
wheels as wide as 6 in, and 24 in. in diameter on the 12 in. ma- 
chines, and 6 in. wide by 30 in. in diameter on the 16 in. ma- 
chines, may be used as special requirements demand. The ma- 
chines are arranged so that they may be driven either by a single 
belt at constant speed or by a motor connected directly to the 
end of the main drive shaft. 

.\ system of air brake control, known as the autoinatic straight 
air system, including a triple valve and several auxiliary devices, 
in which the control is effected entirely by diaphragm-operated 
wing valves, has been developed by the California \'alve & Air 
Brake Company, Los Angeles, Cal. The system is designed to 
operate in synchronism with the equipment now in general use, 
and in addition possesses a number of distinctive features which 
may be brought into service on trains made up entirely of 
automatic straight air equipment. 

For use on passenger trains where the automatic straight air 
system is in service throughout the trains, tlie car equipment 
consists of the usual brake cylinder and auxiliary reservoir, the 
automatic straight air triple valve and a service reservoir, the 
function of which is to increase the train line volume. In 
freight service where the automatic straight air system must 
operate in connection with the systems now used, the car equip- 
ment consists of the usual form of brake cylinder and auxiliary 
reservoir, the automatic straight air triple, a quick release and 
service reservoir charging valve, the function of which is to 
cut out the graduated release feature of the triple valve, the 
service reservoir and a service reservoir retaining valve, the 
function of which is to prevent the waste of service reservoir 
air should the train line pressure be reduced below equaliza- 
tion, as in an emergency application of the brakes. This device 
is not essential to the operation of the system, its use being 
entirely to effect economy in the use of air. 


A sectional elevation of the triple valve is shown in the dia- 
gram of freight car equipinent. The body of the triple is made 
in live sections, each joint being provided with bolting flanges 
between which is secured a diaphragm of annealed coinmercial 
copper. The diaphragms are secured at the center, between 
heads and follower plates, through which they are operatively 
connected to the valves of the triple. The functions of this 
triple valve are the graduated releasing of the brakes, under 
control of the engineer, and the recharging of the auxiliary 
reservoir ; tlie graduated application of the brakes by the ad- 
mission of train pipe air to the brake cylinders on a reduction 
in train pipe pressure; the admission of auxiliary reservoir air 
to the br.dce cylinders when brake pipe pressure is reduced be- 
low the point of equalization in a service application, and the 
quick emergency application of the brakes on a sudden reduc- 
tion of train pipe pressure by venting both train pipe anfl 
auxiliary reservoir air to the brake cylinder. Application and 
release of the brakes, as well as the recharging of the auxiliary 
reservoir are effected entirely by diaphragms 3 and 24 and con- 
necting parts. The release of auxiliary reservoir pressure to 
the brake cylinder in service emergency is performed by dia- 
|iliragm 39, while in full emergency all parts of the valve are 
in operation. In tlie sectional elevation the parts of the triple 
are shown in lap position, all valves being closed with the ex- 
ception of valve SI. When the engineer's brake valve is placed 
in full release position after a service emergency application of 
the brakes, train pipe pressure accumulates in chamber 2, under 
diaphragm 3, thereby forcing the diaphragm and head 8 upward, 
and carrying hollow rod 6, diaphragm 24, and valve cage 28 up- 
ward with it. When further movement of these parts is stopped 
by shoulder 26, diaphragm 3 continues to move, compressing 
spring 5 until the head strikes nut 7, thus opening valve 11 and 
admitting train pipe air to chamber 4 through grooves in the 
stem. Chamber 4 is at all times in communication with the 
auxiliary reservoir. The upward movement of diaphragm 24 
and valve gage 28 lifts valve 35 from its seat. Chamber 25 is 
at all times in communication with chamber 25-.A. above valve 
SI, by means of a passage which is not shown. The opening 
of valve 3S therefore releases brake cylinder pressure to the 
atmosphere through pass?ges 86 and 85, to chamber 2S-.A, 

February, 1915 


through ihc valve 51, ami thence lo the atmosphere from 
chamber 25 through holes in the cap at the lower end of the 
triple valve. 

There is a passage for air between chambers 2, .39-A and 40, 
which is not shown in the engraving. Train pipe pressure thus 
acts at all times above diaphragm 39, which in release position 
firmly presses valve 53 to its scat. There is also a restricted 
opening 79, between chambers 39-A and 81, which maintains 
equal air pressure on both sides of diaphragm 63, except in 
emergency applications. There is no pressure at any time in 
chamber 21. above e(|ualizing diaphragm 24, port 22 being pro- 
vided to release to the atmosphere any air which may enter 
the chamber through leakage. 

When the pressure in chamber 4 has reached an amount 
slightly less than full train pipe pressure, the tension of spring 
5 causes the diapliragm 3 and head 8 to move downward, clos- 
ing the auxiliary reservoir feed valve 11. A slight differential 
pressure acting upward against diaphragm 3 is thus maintained, 
which prevents undue sensitiveness to slight fluctuations in train 
pipe pressure. 

• When a reduction is made in train pipe pressure, the 
excessive auxiliary reservoir pressure in chamber 4 causes 
diaphragm 3 and head 8 to move downward, carrying 
witli them rod 6, diaphragm 24 and valve cage 28. 
Witiiin the valve cage is a graduating valve 32, the stem of 
which is attached to the stem of release valve 35. Further 
movements of the parts after valve 35 has seated causes the 
scat in the valve cage to move away from the graduating valve 
and opens communication between the train line and brake cyl- 
inders through the ports 12, the passage in the rod 6 and the 
ports shown in the valve cage. From chamber 25 the air enters 
the brake cylinder by the course already outlined. Train pipe 
air continues to flow to tlie cylinder until the accumulation of 
pressure under diajihragm 24 is slightly greater than the total 
reduction of pressure against the under side of diaphragm 3. 
wlien the parts will move upward, closing graduating \alvc 32. 
The relation of train line volume to brake cylinder volume and 
of the diaphragms 3 and 24 is such that this equalization takes 
place when the predetermined reduction in train pipe pressure 
has been effected. Should a brake cylinder leak cause a re- 
duction in the pressure in chamber 25, the pressure in chamber 
4 will cause a downward movement of the parts to application 
position until tlie brake cylinder pressure has been restored. 
L'nequal piston travel does not affect the cylinder pressure, as 
the lapping of the graduating valve depends entirely upon the 
relative pressures in the train pipe and brake cylinder. 

It will readily be seen that any increase in train pipe pressure 
will produce a differential pressure, acting upward against the 
two diaphragms, and that the resulting upward movement of the 
parts will open exhaust valve 35, thereby causing the release 
of air from chamber 25, and the brake cylinder to the at- 
mosphere. The release of air continues until the reduction of 
pressure under diaphragm 24 causes the auxiliary reservoir 
pressure above diaphragm 3 to close the valve. Any definite 
increase in train pipe pressure will therefore cause a corre- 
sponding definite decrease in brake cylinder pressure. Grad- 
uated release is thus merely a reversal of the operations in- 
volved in a graduated application of the brakes. 

The maximum service application is obtained at the point of 
equalization of the pressures in the brake cylinder and train 
line. This pressure is said to be the same as that obtained by 
other triples effecting equalization between the auxiliary reser- 
voir and brake cylinder. A further reduction of train pipe 
pressure below the point of equalization reduces the pressure 
in chamber 40 below the brake cylinder pressure acting against 
the under side of diaphragm 39. The resulting upward move- 
ment of lliis diapliragm opens valve 53 and closes valve 51, 
thus admitting auxiliary reservoir air to the brake cylinder 
and producing an uicrease in brake cylinder pressure of about 
20 per cent. This increase of braking power, which is known 



Vol. 89, No. 2 

as service emergency, is at all times available after a full service 
application of the brakes. A quick emergency application of 
the brakes is cfTected in the usual manner. .^ sudden reduction 
in train line pressure will cause the operation of diaphragms 3 
and 24 in the manner previously described and will effect a 
reduction of tl.e pressure in chamber 39-.\ at a rate faster than 
equalization can take place between this chamber and chamber 
81, through the restricted passage 79. The resulting downward 
movement of diaphragm 63 opens valve 69 to which it is at- 
tached by rod 70. Chamber 40-A is at all times in communica- 
tion with chamber 39-A, and train pipe air thus passes tlirough 
valve 69, opening check valve 7i and thence passing directly 
into the brake cylinder. When equalization has been effected, 
check valve 73 drops to its seat, and diaphragm 39, moving 
upward, causes the release of auxiliary reservoir air to the 
cylinder. The closing of valve 51 prevents the excessive brake 
cylinder pressure from accumulating under diaphragm 24 and 
releasing the brake. 


The quick release and service reservoir charging valve is de- 
signed for use on freight cars. It performs two separate func- 
tions : a retardation of the rate of charging the service reser- 
ve. r and the production of a quick release of the brakes, re- 
gardless of the rate at which the train pipe pressure accumu- 
lates. The use of this feature is optional, and it is controlled 
in the same manner as the retaining valve on present standard 
equipment. By opening the cock 34, a full release of the brakes 
will result from an increase in train pipe pressure. By placing 
the handle in the retaining position, which closes the cock, the 
graduated release feature of the triple is retained. The quick 
release is effected by venting auxiliary reservoir pressure to 
the train pipe through valve 24, thus destroying the differential 
action of diaphragm 3, in the triple valve, which controls the 
graduated release. Valve 24 is opened by an increase of 5 lb. 
in train pipe pressure acting upward against diaphragms 13 and 
10, after any application of the brakes. A gradual equalization 
of the pressure on the two sides of diaphragm 10 is effected by 
feed groove 29. After the auxiliary reservoir has again re- 
charged the valve will assume lap position, in which it is 
shown. A reduction in train pipe pressure will effect a down- 
ward mnvement of diaphragm 10, thus opening valve 27 and 

Auiomafic Train Pipe 
Compensafing Val^e 

Diagram of Connections for the Automatic Train Pipe Compen- 
sating Valve 

allowing a rapid tluw (if air troni the service reservoir during 
an application uf llic brakes. 


When a reduction in train pipe pressure is made beyond the 
point of equalization, the excess of brake cylinder pressure will 
cause the diaphragm in the service reservoir retaining valve to 
move downward and close the pasSage between the service 
reservoir and the train pipe, thus preventing the unnecessary 
loss of pressure from the service reservoir. On restoration of 
the train pipe pressure to the point of equalization, communica- 
tion is restored. 


Where the automatic straight air equipment is operated in 
cunj unction with other systems, no change is made in the 
equipment of the locomotive. Where solid trains of automatic 
straight air equipment are in service, however, an automatic 
train pipe compensating valve is added to the locomotive equip- 
ment. Referring to the diagram showing the connection and 
the sectional drawing of the device, it will be seen that it has 
three connections: one to chamber D of the engineer's brake 
\alve, one to the main reservoir and one to the train pipe. 
I he successful operation of this device depends upon the ex- 
istence of an absolute seal between chamber D and the train 
pipe, which does not exist with the graduating piston in place. 
Since the compensating valve performs the functions of the 
graduating piston, the latter is removed and the lower body 
gasket (if the brake valve replaced liy a blind gasket. 

,^ To 5uppkmenfary Resen 
P^ and Chamber D 

To Train Lint ^. 

ffi-*-7o Main Reservoir 

Sectional View of the Automatic Train Pipe Compensating Valve 

When the pressure is reduced in chamber D tlie excess pres- 
sure in chamber 44 of the compensating valve causes an up- 
ward movmcnt of diaphragm 36 and exhaust valve 45, thus re- 
leasing train line pressure to the atmosphere. When the brake 
valve handle is placed in lap position the pressure in chamber 
44 will be reduced slightly below the pressure in chamber 43, 
and the exhaust valve will be closed by a downward movement 
of the diaphragm. While the brake valve remains in lap posi- 
tion, should any further reduction in train pipe pressure take 
place because of leakage, it will result in excess pressure above 
diaphragm 36, which will move downward carrying with it 
yoke 38. In its movement from the upper to the lower shoulder 
of the stem of valve 45, the yoke will open valve 53, thereby 
admitting main reservoir pressure to the train pipe. On the re- 
establishment of equalization in the two chambers, or of a 
slight excess in chamber 43, the diaphragm will move upward 
and the coil spring will close valve 53. In addition to the 
functions of the equalizing piston this device, therefore, main- 
tains a constant train pipe pressure against leakage, while the 
engineer's brake valve is in lap position. With the compensat- 
ing valve in service it is possible to maintain uniform and con- 
stant brake cylinder pressures with the automatic straight air 
triple, regardless of equality in piston travel, brake cylinder 
leakage or train pipe leakage. 

Tliese triples are claimed to render satisfactory service on 
both freight and passenger equipment, the only alteration re- 
quired for passenger service being an increase in the size of 
the valve and passages to accommodate the greater volumes 
of air to be handled. Several triples are said to have been in 
continuous passenger service for 176 days on the Arizona East- 
ern, between Globe and Bowie, during which time they re- 
quired no attention. On removal the diaphragms were found 
to have collected considerable sand, which had in no way im- 
paired the operation of the triples. A number of these triples 
have been in freight service on the San Diego & South Eastern 
since May, 1913. It is said that during a year in sand and bal- 
last service no attention was required for cleaning or repairs. 

February, 1915 




A safi'ly device of interest to users of wood wori<ing machinery 
is shown in the illustrations. It may be readily adjusted to tliL- 
requirements of the work and when so desired may be swunjj 
nut of the wav. It is the invcniion nf I lnhart W. Curtis, foreman 

illustration is provided to prevent the guard from swintsing 
against the saw. The shaft is provided with a joint near the 
Ijraciset which permits the gnard to he swung hack when not in 
use. The guard is made from aluminum and the working parts 

from steel or iron. 



of the pattern ilepartment, Watcrl)ury l'"arrel l'"oundry & Macliiui 
Company, Waterbury, Conn. 

Fig. 1 shows the position of the guard while the saw is ii 
operation. Fig. 2 shows the guard raised partially from the saw 

A heavy planer inr linisliing slide plates used under switch 
points has recently been designed by the Cincinnati Planer Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio. The slide plates are 18 in. long and 
about 6 in. wide and are planed ]4 'i- deep for a distance of 
about 6 in. from the end. The table is intended to receive two 
rows of plates and four tools are used, two in each head. This 
reduces the distance necessary to feed the heads from six 
inches to three inches, each of the two tools cutting half the 
distance. The full depth is taken in one cut at the rate of 40 ft. 
per minute. 

In order to facilitate rapid checking and unloading, special 
transverse slots are cast in the top of the table, opening at the 
sides. The table is of the box type and provided with two inner 
guides between the Vs. It is held down by adjustable gibs at 
the sides. 1 he driving gears and table rack are of steel through- 

The bed is of the four-wall design, having extra inner walls 
between the cross girths throughout its length. It is bored for 

Fig. 2— S 

and Fig. 3 shows it raised to ils lull height and thrown over to 
one side, where it is kept when not in use. The guard is pivoted 
to an arm on a shaft which is supported by a bracket bolted to 
the saw table. The height of the guard is adjusted by means of 
a lever on the end of the shaft, and the check chain shown in the 

Fig. 3 — Saw Guard Swung Bacl< from tbe Table 

Planer for Finishing Switch Point Slide Plates 

the shaft bearings, which are internally ground and fitted into 
place. The housings are wide and of heavy box form, carried 
down to the floor line and fastened to the sides of the bed by 
heavy tongues, bolts and dowels. 

The rail and heads are the same as used on the frog and 
switch planer built by this company. The rail is secured to the 
housings by four clamps, two on the outer and two on the inner 
sides of the housing face. The heads are taper gibbed through- 
out and the dovetail for the down slide is cast solid with the 
saddles, thereby eliminating one extra joint. The clapper box 
is of steel and is provided with three heavy bolts and clamps, 
so arranged that two tools may be clamped in each head. .\ 
new style clamp is used for holding the clapper box at the top. 
Instead of a cored slot and two bolts, a clamp the full width of 
the slide is provided and three bolts are used. 

The machine is driven by a reversible motor coupled directly 
to the driving shaft. This gives a large variation of cutting and 
return speeds, each independent of the other. All gears are 
thoroughly covered, to safeguard the operator against accidents. 

The planer will take work up to 48 in. wide. 24 in. high and 
the table has a traverse 20 ft. long. 



\"0L. 89, No. 2 


The latest product of the Warner & Swascy Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, is an improved model of the universal hollow-hexa- 
gon turret lathe. 

The most noticeable change is in the design of head. The 
former head has been superseded by one entirely new in type, 
and with gears running in oil. Not so apparent, but perhaps of 
greater importance, are the increased working range, the greatly 
increased power of the head, the corresponding increase in the 
rigidity and strength of the bed and the two tool carrying units, 
as well as the larger and more rigid tools. These changes have 
resulted in greatly increased capacity and efficiency. The greater 
capacity has been attained without noticeably increasing the 
size and operating dimensions of the machine ; in fact, the new 
model is more compact than the former one. The automatic 
chuck of the No. 3-A machine now takes round stock up to 3J4 
in., and the length turned has been increased to approximately 40 
in. The swing over the cross slide has been increased 
to 1714 in-, and the maximum swing of the machine to 21^ in. 
The capacity of the No. 2-.-\ machine has lieen correspondingly 

The new machine, it is claimed, has power and rigidity greatlv 
in excess of requirements. The new geared head, with a 5-in. 
belt running on a 16-in. diameter pulley, is capable of delivering 
14 horsepower, with a large overload factor. This power will 
be required only when machining heavy steel castings or forg- 
ings with several cuts being made simultaneously. The rigidity 
and strength of the bed. the two tool carrying units and the 
feeding mechanisms are well in proportion to the power de- 
livered by the head to the work. The tools are redesigned in 
keeping with the increased capacity and more rigid construc- 
tion. The splash system of continuous lubrication employed in 
the head, with the gears running in oil. insures a steady stream 
of lubricant. This reduces the frictional loss of power in the 

riic turret and carria.yo arc imwcr-dperated simultaneously, 
with the turret and carriage feeds independent of each other. 
By this means two distinct operations can be made at the same 
time, as for example, boring with the turret while the carriage is 
facing or recessing and cutting off. Eleven tools may be placed 
in operation with one set-up. Through its various combinations, 
feeds ranging from 10 to 212 are produced. The machine has 

Head of Hollowz-Hexagon Turret Lathe with Chucking Equipment 

twelve spindle speeds, both forward and reverse, with ten feed 
changes in each direction for both carriage and turret. The 
feed changes are controlled by the feed box at the head end 
of the machine. The spindle speeds range in geometrical pro- 
gression from 8 to 250. 

As in the earlier type, the head is cast solid with the bed. It 

Hollow-Hexagon Turret Lathe Equipped for Handling Bar Stocl< 

head, and eflfects a decided increase in the life of the machine. 
The pan has been placed lower, to give increased space for 
chips and to assure easy accessibility to those parts of the ma- 
chine directly over the pan. The legs have been redesigned to 
insure a solid support and freedom from vibration, and the turn- 
stile operating the turret saddle has been superseded by a large 
hand wheel. 

is the single-pulley type, and may be belted directly to the line 
shaft, or to a constant speed motor. 

Taper-turning and screw-chasing attachments are furnished 
when desired. The taper attachment turns tapers up to lyi in. 
to the foot, in lengths of IS in. The screw-chasing attachment 
cuts from 2 to 48 threads of any pitch. Each leader will cut 
three pitches that are multiples of 1. 2 and 4 of its own thread. 

February. 1915 



ICvcry 1'ai.ilily lias ln-cii prus idvil to make the machine easy 
of opcraliijii. The power rapid ti-avcrse of the turret saddle 
facilitates quick operation; llic independent adjustable stops for 
both the turret saddle and the carriage greatly reduce the set- 
ting-up time ; the hollow-hexagon turret permits tools to be 
bolted from the inside, assuring maximum use of each face of 
the turret, with full support for the tool in the direct line of 
thrust and torsional strains. The machine is eiiually adaptable 
to bar and chucking work. 



The .Xmerican Tool Works Company. Cincinnati. Ohio, 
lias recently placed on the market a portable 16-in. lathe, 
designed for railway shop use. It is the regular 16-in. Ameri- 
can high-duty lathe with the eight-speed geared head for 
drive, anil all st;ni(laril equipment, surli as the unlimited 

I lie trolley shown in the photograph, in its general form, has 
been on the market for some time, but recently several improved 
details have been added and it now appears in a form embody- 
ing the most recent crane enginering practice. .'\ primary con- 
sideration in the altered design has been safety, both in the way 
of strength and in the perfection of working parts. Durability 
of gears and other moving parts has been secured by enclosing 
and running them in an oil bath, thus protecting them from 
dust and grit. The construction is such that the covers of the 
gear cases must be in place before the gearing can be run, thus 
preventing carelessness in operating the trolley with gear 
covers removed. 

Each train of back gears is rigidly mounted in a single frame, 
the bearings of which arc bored in line, bronze lined and capped, 
throush bolts being useil tliroughnitt instead of studs. The hoist- 

Portable Lathe for Rallwray Shops 

quick-change gear n_,-chanism. double plate, all-steel geared 
apron, chilled bed, heavy four-bolt tail stock and all-bronze 
bearings. The machine is mounted on three wheels and is 
provided with a long handle for hauling it about the shops. 
The three-point bearing on the floor provides a stable sup- 
port for the lathe, even where the floor is uneven. The ma- 
chine shown in the illustration was built for a large railway 
shop, and it is believed that it will prove of advantage where 
it is desirable and more economical to take the machine to 
the work rather than the work to the machine. The machine 
weighs approximately 3.200 lb. 

Iron Exports from Sweden. — Iron ore heads the list of 
Sweden's exports. During 1913. 6,440,000 tons were exported to 
foreign countries, chiefly England and Germanv. — Mnchiiuvv. 

ing gear train between the armature and drum gear is in a 
single rigid casting which insures permanent alinement. The 
drum gear is enclosed in a case of the same general type that 
is used for the hoisting gearing. All gears bear in the frame 
and are capped on top. no overhung bearings being used. All 
gear covers are castings and the joints are placed so that they 
are perfectly tight, thus preventing the leakage and dripping of 
oil from the trolley to the floor of the plant. The covers may 
be easily lifted, but for inspection and lubrication large man- 
holes are provided in each cover. It has been found in practice 
that a set of gears in a trolley of the enclosed type running 
alongside a crane having a trolley with exposed or partially 
protected gears lasts more than three times as long as the gears 
in the old type of trolley and the operation is almost noiseless. 
The hoisting gear box is made an integral part of the main 


Vol. 89, Nu. 2 

trolley frame, thus securing permanency of alinement of all 
gears and their sliafts. 

A double system of electrical and mechanical brakes is used 
and the trolley is also equipped with an effective limit stop. 
Interchangeability has been insured by the use of standard 
gages and templates. The trolley is wired throughout in steel 

Electric Crane Trolley with Enclosed Gear Cases 

conduits. It is built by the .Xorthcrn Engineering Works. De- 
troit, Mich., and is made in capacities from 2 tons to 125 tmis. 
For mill service the trolleys have axle bearings of cither the 
vertical or horizontal cast M. C. B. tyjie. 


The accompanying illustration show^s a paint sprayer, which 
is operated by means of a vacuum created in the delivery 
pipe. The paint is contained in the can under atmospheric 
pressure, and is drawn up intn and through the nozzle by 



nt Sprayer for 

Iroad Work 

means of air pressure passing over a series of holes in the 
nozzle. The quantity of paint is regulated by the valve, as 
shown in the illustration, and the sprayer itself is controlled 
by a push valve which controls the flow of air. .\ir at the 

ordinary shop pressure may be used to operate this machine, 
and its construction is of such a simple nature that it may 
be used by unskilled labor. The only precaution necessary 
in using this machine is to be sure that it is thoroughly 
cleaned, after being used, either by turpentine or by benzine, 
in order that the atomizer may not become clogged with the 
paint, which would otherwise harden while the machine is 
idle. This sprayer is sold by the Gustin-Bacon Manufactur- 
ing Company. Kansas City, Mo. 


.\ universal pipe joint that has been in successful use on 
Mallet engines on the Kansas City Southern is shown in 
the accompanying illustrations. In this specific instance the 
joint is used in the air brake train line on the locomotive. 

Universal Pipe Joint, Assembled 

between the two drivnig unit.--, to give the necessary flexi- 
bility. Its construction will be clearly understood from the 
photographs shown. The joints are ground to a fit, thereby 
requiring no packing. This joint will allow horizontal and 
\ertical movements and is of special advantage between lo- 

Parts of the Universal Pipe Joint 

comotives and tenders. Its use can also readily be extended 
to the train pipe lines, and it will also find service in sliops. 
This joint is sold by the Christy Universal Pipe Joint Com- 
pany, 524 North Broadway, Pittsburg, Kan. 

.-\lu.mixuii .\i.i.ov. — In their efforts to produce an aluminum 
alloy which would not be appreciably heavier tlian aluminum, 
but would possess a much greater tensile strength, German 
chemists have succeeded in making an alloy which has a tensile 
strength three times that of aluminum and which is composed 
of 1 per cent of tungsten and 9 per cent of cobalt or 0.8 per cent 
molybdenum and from 9 to 10 per cent of cobalt, the remainder 
being aluminum. — Macliiiiery. 

I lie oiiyiiU'iTs who inaik- pieliiiiinary surveys fur a govcrii- 
iiiciit railroad in Alaska liave returned and have made an in- 
lornial report to President Wilson. 

On Deeeinher 21 the machine shops of the l.aUe Mrie & West- 
ern at Tipton, Ind., were destroyed hy lire. Much machinery 
was also damaged. The estimated loss is $20,CXK1. 

The OUlahonia railroads have issueil a circular IcIUr to the 
liuhlic Ki\inK arynments against a numlier of anti-railroad hills 
which liave heen introduced in the legislature, includiuK tlie full 
crew l,i\v and the car limit law. 

The larye shops of the Baltimore & Ohio at Baltimore resumed 
work January 4 in every department, about 2,000 employees 
being put at work. The shops of the Big Four at Beech drove, 
hid., which had been closed for some time, resumed work Jan- 
uary 1, with about 2,400 men. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad reports no passenger kilK'd in .i 
train accident in 1914 on the entire system, east and west of 
Pittsburgh , 16,303 miles of road. The number carried was 
188,411,876; passenger train miles, 67,389,381. The lines east of 
Pittsburgh in the past two years carried 311,675,794 passengers 
and not one oi them was killed in an accident to a train. 

.'\ bill has been introduced in Congress by Mr. Goeke, of Ohio. 
II. R. No. 17,894, to amend the Boiler Inspection Act of Febru- 
ary 17. 1911, so as to provide for the inspection by government 
inspectors of all parts of the locomotive and tender ; and it has 
been passed by the House. A law of this nature was recom- 
mended by the Interstate Commerce Commission. In the Senate 
the bill was referred to the Committee on Interstate Commerce. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has put in the field ten en- 
gineering parties to make a complete survey of one million 
acres of land which the road owns in the state of .Krizona. This 
land is situated along the main line of the railroad, lying in 
alternate sections of 640 acres each. One purpose of the survey 
is that application for patenting the lands may be made. It is 
reported that steps will be taken for the agricultural development 
of parts of the land. 

I he board of directors of the .American Society of Civil En- 
gineers has adopted a resolution and sent it to President Wilson, 
declaring its opinion that "it would be unfortunate for the pres- 
ent .Alaskan Railway Commission to be superseded, and that the 
interest of the public demands that the present commission be al- 
lowed to carry out the construction as well as the location of the 
proposed line." The commissioners are William C Edes. Lieu- 
tenant Frederick Mears and Thomas Riggs. Jr. 

The Illinois Central has given out a statement that during 
the two years ending January 1, 1915, it carried 26.271,000 
passengers without a fatalit>' to a passenger. In its Chicago 
suburban trains, wliich carry -10,000 passengers a day. the com- 
pany says it has not a killed a passenger for 53 years, or since 
the beginning of the suburban service, and it is also stated 
that no revenue passenger has been killed on the Illinois Central 
liroper, exclusive of the Yazoo & Mississippi Vallev. since March 
0, 1910. 

I'inle\ Yard, the new gravity classification yard of the South- 
ern Railway, near P.irmingham, Ala., containing thirty miles of 
track, wdth a capacity of 2,000 cars, has just been placed in serv- 
ice. The buildings include a 25-stall roundhouse of reinforced 
concrete with a 90-foot electrically-operated turntable; a con- 
crete coaling station with an overhead storage capacity of 1,000 
tons, and water, sand and cinder handling facilities. Electric 
lights and a complete system of fire protection have lieen pro- 

vided. I he road will concentrate at I'inley work which has been 
<Ione at four different points scattered r,ver a territory of ten 

.\t .\ltoona. Pa., petitions have been circulated asking the 
legislature of Pennsylvania U> repeal the full crew law of that 
state. It is said that 90 per cent of the employees of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad in the shops at Altoona have signed the pe- 
lition and have done so freely; but those who do not sign are 
making loud complaint. The language of the petition is the same 
as that in the letter of President Rea of the Pennsylvania road, 
in his recent appeal to the citizens of the state to abolish this 
oppressive law. .\t Marrisburg. Pa., the leaders of the brother- 
hood have announced that they are going to oppose the repeal 
of the full crew law. 

The .New '^ork .State Public .Service Commission. First dis- 
trict, following its investigation of a collision on one of the ele- 
vated lines in Manhattan in December, and also of the recent 
subway accident which caused the death of one passenger, has 
ordered the Interborough Rapid Transit Coinpany to take meas- 
ures to have only steel cars in the subway from December 1 
next. At present there are between 400 and 500 cars used in the 
subway which have wooden bodies with metal sheathing. In the 
discussion between the commission and the officers of the Inter- 
borough there has been a proposal to use these wooden cars on 
the elevated lines; but there are some obstacles to this plan and 
the matter seems to be still unsettled. 

Of the recent order for rails placed with the Lackaw'anna 
Steel Company by the New York Central Lines 2.000 tons of 
open hearth rails are to be treated with .10 titanium. Al- 
though the New York Central Lines have had several small 
tonnages of titanium treated open hearth rails for which the 
Titanium Alloy Manufacturing Company, Niagara Falls. N. Y., 
has furnished the Ferro Carbon-Titanium free of charge for 
experimental purposes, this is the first bona fide order for 
titanium treated open hearth rails placed by the New York 
Central Lines and is the result of a long series of experiments 
which have been carried on under the general supervision of 
Dr. Dudley. The New York Central formerly used considerable 
titanium in the treatment of its Bessemer steel rails, the use 
of which has been practically abandoned during the last two 
or three years. It has now gone over to open hearth rails al- 
most entirely. 


Under the reorganizaticin of the consolidated New- York Cen- 
tral Railroad Company, formerly the New York Central and 
Hudson River, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and the 
Chicago, Indiana &• Southern, two grand divisions will be estab- 
lished, the eastern under W. J. Fripp, general manager, with 
headquarters at .Albany; and the western imder D. C. Moon, 
general manager, with headquarters at Cleveland. Under Mr. 
Moon will be two general superintendents, Albert S. Ingalls in 
charge of lines between Buffalo and Toledo, and Frank H. Wil- 
son, in charge of lines between Toledo and Chicago. Under Mr. 
Fripp will be three general superintendents. T. W. Evans in 
charge of lines between Buffalo and Syracuse, and between 
Montreal and Clearfield, Pa. ; E. J. Wright, in charge of lines 
between Syracuse and the electric zone at New Y'ork; and Miles 
Bronson. in charge of the electric division. .Abraham T. Hardin 
will have general charge of operation, maintenance and construc- 
tion as vice-president. Patrick E. Crowley will be in general 
cliarge of transportation on the consolidated lines between Chi- 
cago and New York as assistant vice-president. The road will 



\\>\.. 89. Xo. 2 

be divided into five operating districts ; First, between New York 
and Syracuse; second, between Syracuse and Buffalo; third, 
between Buffalo and Toledo ; and fourth, between Toledo and 
Chicago. The New York electrified zone constitutes a separate 
(fifth; district. Chicago is called the western terminus of the 
road, but there are really three western termini, the other two 
being Zearing. on the former Chicago, Indiana & Southern. % 
miles west of Chicago, and Danville, on tlie same road. \2S miles 
south of Chicago. 


At Sayre, Pa., an important division terminal of the Lehigli 
Valley, a stranger, whiling away a half hour in a moving 
picture house, was surprised, following a western photo drama, 
to see thrown on tlie screen an announcement like this : 
"James Brown, Thomas Jones. William White and 
John Black boarded for 10 p. m. ' 

This announcement apparently did not cause the least ripple 
of curiosity in the house, unless it was on the part of the vis- 
itor. The men named were members of a freight train crew. 
The division superintendent at Sayre has made an arrangement 
with the moving picture theater men so that freight crews can 
be called on their screens at any time. Thus the men can 
amuse themselves w^hen they are in Sayre without fear of caus- 
ing trouble for tlie call boys. 


Railway and Marine News of Seattle. Wash., publishes an 
interview with a railroad man. stating that recently he saw on 
the side tracks at Huntington. Ore., 11 cars of Idaho wheat 
bound for Portland, to be sent from there by way of the Panama 
canal to the Atlantic seaboard. This, he said, was the first ship- 
ment of Idaho wheat ever carried by the Oregon Short Line 
to tidewater bound for another seaport. He also mentioned that 
dried fruits are now moving from the Pacific coast to Atlantic 
ports at a rate of 26 cents per 100 lb., and canned goods at 30 
cents : and large shipments of salmon from Alaska, which have 
gone principally by rail to Chicago and the eastern seaboard, 
are now going by way of the canal. He also mentioned the 
case of a piano manufacturing concern in Chicago that has 
found out that it can ship in carload lots to New York and then 
by the canal to the Pacific coast cheaper than by rail from Chi- 
cago to the same point of destination; and that shipments of 
household furniture from Rockford, 111., have moved to Pacific 
coast points by the same route. 

The same publication reports an enormous demand for cold 
storage space on boats running through the canal, from the 
fruit and vegetable shippers along the Pacific coast. The steamer 
Ohioan of the American Hawaiian fleet, which sailed from San 
Francisco on December 23, was offered 8,000 tons of fruit and 
vegetables, fish and other products, which are best carried in 
cold storage rooms. The boat only had a capacity of 1.500 tons 
in its refrigerating rooms, and apples and fish had been offered 
at the Puget Sound ports which would fill this space. F. A. 
Hooper, district freight manager of the American Hawaiian 
Steamship Co., is quoted as saying that he has never seen any- 
thing to equal the demand for refrigerating space for the New 

York trade, and that it has been necessary to allot the available 
space to the various districts to avoid complaints of discrimina- 


Following the suggestion of one of its employees, C. F. Ru- 
dolph, telegraph operator at Stafford. X. V.. the Lehigh Valley 
has issued the following order: 

"When freight trains are pulling out of sidings, or away from 
inspection points, or water stations where a stop has been made 
to take water, the engineer will inove the train not to exceed six 
or eight miles an hour to permit a member of the crew to make 
a running uispection of the entire train. 

".\t such points, one or more members of the train crew must 
be at the head end of the train before it starts and inspect the 
train as it passes, watching closely for bent axles, broken flanges, 
brake rigging down, defective brake rigging, defective arch 
bars, defective drawheads, wheels sliding, brakes sticking, loose 
wheels, hand brakes applied, car doors loose, or any other de- 
fects that can be detected.'" 


Western RaUzi'ay Club. — A few months ago the Western Rail- 
way Clul) appointed a "booster" committee for the purpose of 
devising means whereby a larger attendance of railway men in 
and about Chicago may be obtained at the meetings. From re- 
plies to circular letters sent out by this committee it was deemed 
advisable to hold the meetings in the afternoon instead of the 
evening. This will give members of the club living outside of 
Chicago an opportunity to attend the club without having to 
stay in Chicago all night. This practice was in vogue about IS 
years ago. and it is hoped that its revival will prove satisfactory 
and that the members will avail themselves of the opportunity 
of attending the afternoon meetings. 

Tlie Engineering Foundation. — At a meeting held in the Engi- 
neering Societies building. New York. Wednesday evening. 
January 27, the Engineering Foundation was inaugurated, and it 
was announced that .Ambrose Swasey. designer and builder of the 
Lick. Yerkes and United States Naval Observatory telescopes, 
and an engineer, scientist and astronomer of distinction, had 
given $200,000 to promote engineering research. 

Mr. Swasey is a member of the firm of Warner & Swasey, 
Cleveland, machine tool builders and manufacturers of tele- 
scopes, in which branch they are among the largest in the 
w-orld. Mr. Swasey is 69 years old, a past president of the 
.\merican Society of Mechanical Engineers and of the Cleve- 
land Engineering Society, a member of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers of Great Britain and of the British 
.Astronomical Society. He is a Fellow of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society. In ISOO he received from the French govern- 
ment the decoration of the Legion of Honor for his work on 
astronomical instruments. 

The administration of the fund will lie conducted by tlie 
Engineering Foundation Board elected by the trustees of the 
United Engineering Society, and composed of nine members 
from the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American 
Societv of Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute of 



Canadian Feb. 9 

Central Mar. 11 

New England.... Feb, 

Title of Paper 

Toronto Grade Separation 

Rules of Interchange 

Railroad Fuel Economy 

York Feb. 19 Train Despatching by Wireless 

Pittsburgh Feb. 26 ! E.xperiments on Truck Side Frames. 

Richmond Feb. 8 j New York Terminals 

St. Louis Feb. 12 Locomotive Superheaters 

South'n & S'w'rn. l Mar. 18 1 

Western Feb. 16 I What Ts a Locomotive? • 

J. R. W. Ambrose.. 

Committee Report... 
Im. C. M. Hatch.... 

L. E. Foley 

Prof. L. E. Endsley. 
IH. S. Balliet 

R. M. Ostermann... 

I Geo. S. Goodw 

James Powell. . . . 
Harry D. Vought. 
Wm. Cade. Jr.... 
Harry D. Vought. 
T. B. Anderson... 
O. Robi 

St. Lambert. Que. 

95 Liberty St.. New York. 

683 Atlantic .-\ve.. Boston, Mass. 

95 Liberty St., New York. 

207 Penn Station. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

C. & O. Rv.. Richmond, Va. 

Louis, Mo. 

B. W. Frauenthal. Union Stat 

A. J. Merrill [Box 1205, Atlanta 

Tos. W. Taylor... 1112 Karpen Bldg., Chicago, 


I'EBRUARV, 1915 



Mining Engineers, and the American Society of Electrical Engi- 
neers, with two members to be chosen at large. 

American Society of Mechanical Enaineers. — The Chicago 
Section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers held 
a "railroad night" at the La Salle hotel, Chicago, on January 8, 
VMS, papers being presented on Locomotive Superheaters and 
Locomotive Stokers by R. M. Ostermann, Locomotive Super- 
heater Company, and Clement F. Street, Locomotive Stoker 
Company, respectively. Mr. Ostermann gave an illustrated de- 
scription of the locomotive superheater and quoted from tests 
showing how the steaming capacity of a locomotive boiler may 
l)e increased by the use of the superheater. As a rough average 
a coal saving uf 25 per cent and a water saving of 35 per cent 
can be obtained from a superheater engine as compared with a 
saturated steam engine of the same class. He stated that there 
were 32,000 locomotives equipped with the top-header type 
superheater, of wliicli there are nearly 12,000 in use on tliis con- 

Mr. Street showed the imporlanoc of the locomotive to the 
earnings of a railroad and how by the use of the stoker on 
large engines their capacity may be increased 10 per cent, lie 
also briefly described the dififerent types of stokers in general 
use on American railways, and stated that there were nearly 
1,000 locomotive stokers in use today. These two papers were 
discussed by R. Quayle and H. T. Rentley of the Cliicago & 
North Western. 

Willard A. Smith of the Railway Review gave a talk on Rail- 
way Economics, in which he questioned the policy of some of 
the railways in adopting the modern heavy rolling stock before 
their traffic demanded such equipment. He stated ihat the gen- 
eral adoption of this policy has led to an increase in mainte- 
nance of equipment costs which has become a serious burden to 
the railways of this country. He attributed the increase in oper- 
ating ratios mainly to this cause. As another reason for in- 
creased maintenance costs he mentioned the lack of proper shop 
facilities, stating that in many cases equipment was purchased 
by roads that did not have the proper facilities for maintaining 
it. He believed there is a more fruitful field in developing" the 
efficiency of the locomotive than its size. He also advocated 
a bureau of railway engineering, which could be created by the 
government, private institutions or the railways themselves, for 
the purpose of studying scientifically and experimentally rail- 
way problems that are now being threshed out individually by 
the railways witli necessarily an economic loss. 

The following list gives names of secretaries, dates of next or regula 
neetings, and places of meeting of mechanical associations. 

Air Brake Association. — F. M. Nellis, 53 State St., Boston, Mass. Con- 
vention, May 5-7, 1915, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

.\merican Railway Master Mechanics' Association. — J. W. Taylor, Kar- 
pen building, Chicago. Convention. Tune 9-11, 1915, Atlantic City, 
N. J. 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Illi- 
nois Central, Chicago. Convention, July 1915, Chicago. 

American Society for Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice, 29 W. 
Thirty-ninth street. New York. 

Car Foremen's Association of Chic.\co. — Aaron Kline, 841 North Fiftieth 
Court, Chicago; 2d Monday in month, except July and August, Lyt- 
ton building, Chicago, 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association. — 
S. Skidmore, 946 Richmond street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

International Railway Fuel Association. — C. G. Hall, 922 McCormick 
building, Chicago. Convention, May 17-20. 1915, Chicago. 

International Railway General Foremen's Association. — William Hall, 
1126 W. Broadway, Winona, Minn. Convention, lulv 13-16, 1915, 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood- 
worth, Lima, Ohio. Convention, August 17, 1915, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Master Boiler Makers' As.sociation. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty street. 
New York. Convention, May 26-28, 1915, Chicago, 111. 

Master Car Builders' Association. — J. W. Taylor, Karpen building, Chi- 
cago. Convention, June 14-16, 1915, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Assoc, of U. S. and Canada. — 
A. P. Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Convention, September, 14-17, 
1915, Detroit, Mich. 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — E. Frankenberger, 623 Bris- 
bane building, Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings monthly. 

Railway Storekeepers' Association. — T. P. Murphy, Box C, Collinwood, 
Ohio. Convention, May 17-19, 1915, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

Traveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. Y. C. & H. R., 
East Buffalo, N. Y. Convention, September 1915. Chicago, 111. 


// is our desire to make these culumns cover as completely as 
possible all the changes that take place in the mechanical de- 
partments of the railways of this country, and we shall greatly 
appreciate a)iy assistance that our readers may give us in helping 
to bring this about. 


J. K. Brassill, general master mechanic of the Northwestern 
Pacific at Tiburon, Cal., has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power and marine equipment of the Northwestern Pa- 
cific lines, with headquarters at Tiburon. 

J. DuGUiD has been appointed assistant mechanical superin- 
tendent of the Central Vermont at St. Albans, V't. 

D. R. MacBain, superintendent of motive power of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern, which is now consolidated with 
the New York Central Railroad, has had his jurisdiction ex- 
tended over the Illinois division of the New York Central, for- 
merly the Chicago, Indiana & Southern. His office remains at 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Frank \V. Taylor, division master mechanic of the Illinois 
Central at Waterloo, Iowa, has been appointed superintendent 
of machinery of the International & Great Northern, with head- 
quarters at Palestine, Tex., succeeding C. H. Seabrook, resigned. 


F. J. Barry, general inspector of air brakes, steam heat and 
lighting of the New York, Ontario & Western, with office at 
Middletown, N. Y., has been appointed master mechanic, with 
office at Mayfield Yard, Pa., succeeding W. H. Kinney, resigned, 
and his former position has been discontinued. 

D. E. Barton has been appointed acting master mechanic of 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, with headquarters at Argen- 
tine, Kan., succeeding E. E. Machovec. 

Norman Bell has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Minnesota and Iowa divisions of the Illinois Central, with head- 
quarters at Waterloo, Iowa, succeeding Frank W. Taylor, re- 
signed to go to another company. Mr. Bell was born at Elkhart, 
Ind., July 30, 1884, and was educated in the Elkhart public 
schools, later serving as a machinist apprentice with the Na- 
tional Manufacturing Company of Elkhart. He entered the serv- 
ice of the Illinois Central as a machinist March 1, 1904, and was 
appointed erecting foreman at Waterloo, la., July 9, 1910. He 
was appointed general foreman at that point August 1, 1910, and 
served in that capacity until January 1, 1915, when he was 
appointed master mechanic of the Minnesota and Iowa divisions, 
as above noted. 

J. P. Dolan has been appointed inaster mechanic of the Apa- 
lachicola Northern, with office at Port St. Joe, Fla.. succeeding 
R. .\. Billingham. 

H. F. HowsER, road foreman of engines of the Baltimore & 
Ohio at Brunsw'ick, Md., has been appointed road foreman of 
engines and assistant trainmaster of the Shenandoah district, 
at Harrisonburg, Va. 

F. T. Huston has been appointed assistant master mechanic 
of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh at Fort Wayne. 
Ind., succeeding E. E. Griest. promoted. Mr. Huston graduated 
in mechanical engineering from Purdue L^niversity in 1904 and 
entered the service of the Pennsylvania Lines as an apprentice, 
later serving as machinist. In August, 1907, he w-as appointed 
motive power inspector, and was engaged in special work and 
in inspecting new locomotives to January 1. 1912. when he was 
appointed assistant master mechanic of the Allegheny shops. 
On January 1. 1914. he was appointed assistant master mechanic 


\'0L. 89, No. 2 

at Crestline, Ohio, which position he held at the time of his 
appointment as assistant master mechanic at F'ort Wayne, Ind., 
January 1, 1915, as above noted. 

W. M.\LTii.\NER has been appointed master mechanic ot tlie 
Baltimore & Ohio, at Newark. Ohio, succcechng ( ). J. Kcllcy, 
assigned to otlier duties. 

J. L. ScHRivER has been appointed assistant road foreman of 
engines of the New Castle division of the Baltimore & Ohio, at 
Chicago Junction, Ohio. 

E. E. Grikst. assistant master mechanic of the Pennsylvania 
Lines West of Pittslnirgli at Fort Wayne, Ind.. has been 
appointed master mechanic at that place, succeeding B. Fitz- 
patrick. deceased. Mr. 
Griest was born at 
Zanesville, Ohio No- 
vember 28, 1882. and 
entered railway service 
as a clerk in the au- 
ditor's office of the C. 
& M. at Cambridge. 
Ohio, in 1899. This of- 
fice was transferred to 
Pittsburgh in 1900 and 
he then entered the 
division freight agent's 
office at Cambridge as 
a clerk and messenger. 
Early in 1900 he en- 
tered the Columbus. 
Ohio, shops of the 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati. 
Chicago & St. Louis as 
an apprentice machin- 
ist, remaining there in 
that capacity and as 
machinist until November 1. 1904. During the last six months 
of his apprenticeship Mr. Griest was assigned to special work 
imder the master mechanic, being in charge of moving the 
machinery, taking out the steam engines and installing 
motors in connection with the changing of the shop from 
steam to electric drive. On the completion of this work he was 
assigned to re-arranging the piece work prices and work in 
connection with the introduction of high speed steel and 
improving shop methods. On November 1, 1S04, he entered 
the school of mechanical engineering at Purdue University, 
graduating in 1907. He spent one summer vacation in mining 
work in Alaska and from July 1 to November I, 1907, was a 
designer in the engineering departinent of the Crucible Steel 
Company of America at Pittsburgh. From November 1. 
1907. to January 31, 1908. he was employed as a foreman 
in the Erie Railroad shops at Hornell, N. Y., and on February 
1. 1908. became assistant machine foreman of the Pennsyl- 
vania Lines West at Fort Wayne. Ind. On March IS. 1909, 
be was promoted to assistant master mechanic of the I'ort 
Wayne shop, the position he held at the time of his appoint- 
ment as master mechanic at that point on January 1, 1915. 
as noted above. 


John A. Fickel has been appointed car foreman of the Grand 
Trunk at Fort Erie, Onl., succeeding D. C. Messeroll. 

John M. H.\wkins has been appointed assistant general car 
loreman of the Rock Island Lines at Shaw'nee. Okla., succeed- 
ing G. N. Dorr. 

.\. Kipp, general car inspector of the New York, Ontario & 
Western, will have charge of matters relative to steam heat 
and lighting, owing to the appointment of F. J. Barry as master 


mechanic, and B. P. F'lory, superintendent of motive power, will 
assume direct charge of air brake matters. 

R. Lilly, formerly car foreman of the Canadian Pacific at 
Tliree Rivers, Que., has been appointed night car foreman at 
Place Viger, Montreal, succeeding E. Minshell. 

C. H. McClell.\n, formerly car foreman of the Canadian 
Pacific at Ottawa, Ont., has been appointed car foreman at 
Place Viger. Montreal, succeeding G. II. Turner, transferred. 

D. C. Messeroll^ formerly car foreman of the Grand Trunk 
at Fort Erie, Ont., has been appointed general traveling car 
inspector of the Ontario Lines, and districts 8, 9 and 10, Eastern 
Lines, succeeding T, Rogers. 

W. Mills has been appointed general car foreman of the 
Grand Trunk Pacific, succeeding E. Hacking. 

C. A. MuRDOCK, car inspector of the Canadian Pacific at Ou- 
tremont. Que., has been appointed car foreman at Tliree Rivers, 
Que., succeeding R. Lilly, transferred. 

F. Reid has been appointed car foreman of the Canadian Pa- 
cific at Weyburn, Sask., succeeding C. H. Zerbach. 

G. H. Turner, formerly car foreman of the Canadian Pacific 
at Place Viger, Montreal, has been appointed assistant car fore- 
man at Outremont, Que., succeeding R. D. C. Weldon. 

R. D. C. Weldon, formerly assistant car foreman of the Cana- 
dian Pacific at Outremont, Que., has been appointed car fore- 
man at Sortin \'ard, Montreal, succeeding M. I. Miller. 


S. Gordon has been appointed fureman nf locomotive store 
orders of the Canadian Pacific at the .\ngus shops, Montreal, 
succeeding F. G. Goddard. 

E. H.\CKING, formerly general car foreman of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific, has been appointed general foreman of the 
Transcona. Man., car shops of that road, succeeding L. E. Burns- 

F. W. Warren, formerly locomotive foreman of the Grand 
Truidv at Coteau. Que., has been appointed locomotive foreman 
at Southwark, Mimtreal terminals, succeeding D. Ross. 


C. L. Burgess has been appointed storekeeper of the Inter- 
colonial Railway, at Gibson, N. B., succeeding F. Dunbar. 

J. M. Coles has been appointed storekeeper of the Canadian 
Pacific at Swift Current, Sask., temporarily, succeeding G. O. 
Jackson, who has enlisted for military service. 

T. W. Cooke has been appointed storekeeper and timekeeper 
of the Canadian Pacific, at Minnedosa. Man., succeeding E. 

J. B. A. Desal.vux, formerly storekeeper of the Canadian 
Pacific, at Wilkie, Sask., has been appointed storekeeper at .'Ks- 
siniboia. Sask., and his former position has been abolished. 

E. G. Goodwin has been appointed fuel agent of the Southern 
Railway, the Virginia & Southwestern and the Northern Ala- 
bama, with headquarters at Knoxville, Tcnn.. and subsidiary 
offices at Birmingham, .Ala., and Princeton. Ind. 

A. P. Hunter has been appointed storekeeper of the Canadian 
Pacific at Coquitlam, B. C, succeeding C. Bradley. 

G. R. Inger.soll, purchasing agent of the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern, which is now consolidated with the New York 
Central Railroad, has had liis jurisdiction extended over the 
Illinois division of the New Y'ork Central, formerly the Chi- 
cago, Indiana & Southern, with office at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Joseph Keller has been appointed to the new position of gen- 
eral fuel inspector of the Lehigh \'alley. with office at South 


Bctlilclicin, Pa, Mr. Keller was prcvicjusly a iiK-iiibcr of the 
board uf examiners fnr eiiKineiiieii nii llie I.eliiKli Valley at 
South Bethlehem, 

J. P. Mrid'iiy, general sloreUeeper of the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern, which is now consolidated with the New York 
Central Railroad, has had his jurisdiction extended over the 
Illinois division of the New York Central, formerly the Chi- 
cagti, Indiana & Sonlheni, with office at Cleveland, Ohio, 

P. J, Mrui'in-, formerly storekeeper of the Canadian Pacific, 
at Hroad\ievv, Man., has been appointed storekeeper at tr(jws- 
nest. 11. C.. succeeding E. J. I'.urke. 

H. .\. Skwkli, has heen appointed storekeeper of tlie Cana- 
dian Pacific, at liroadview, Sask., succeeding P. J. Murphy. 


Tho.m.xs L. Ch.M'M.w. formerly sni)erintendent of motive 
power of the Chesapeake S: Oliio, tlied on Oecemlier 30. at the 
home of his son in Caldwell, N. J., at tlie age of 71. 

Eu.MiNii P. IIkn'derson, formerly a master mechanic of the 
Southern Pacific, died at San Antonio, 'fex., on January 4, aged 
75 years. 

John 1'.. Laikie, purchasing agent and general storekeeper of 
the Central Vermont, with headquarters at St. Albans, Vt., died 

on January 16, at his 
home in that city after 
an illness of inany 
months. Mr. Laurie was 
l)cjrn on February 22, 
1862, at Sarnia, Ont., and 
began railway work with 
the Grand Trunk. He 
served as storekeeper 
on the Grand Trunk at 
London, Ontario, until 
September, 1899, when 
lie left that road to enter 
the service of the Cen- 
tral Vermont, and since 
that time until he was 
compelled on account of 
poor health to give up 
active work he had been 
purchasing agent and 
general storekeeper of 
the Central Vermont, 
with headquarters at St. 
Ali-ans. N't. .Mr. Laurie is survi\ed by one sister, who is also a 
resident of St. Albans. 

Charles A. fHoiMi'soN, formerly superintendent of motive 
power and equipment of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, 
died on January 4 at Jamaica, N. Y., at the age of 81. 

Boilers of Locomotives Which Are Held Out of Service.— 
It frequently happens in locomotive service that IS or 20 loco- 
motives are set aside for a time and the general practice is to 
drain the boilers. We have found in one or two cases that 
where that was done and sufficient time allowed to elapse, when 
we come to use them again they were pretty badly pitted and 
rusted. On the other hand, where these boilers were left full of 
water, there was no deterioration. In the case of a locomotive 
that only went into service occasionally, in the course of a couple 
of years we found that boiler in bad shape. When we built a new- 
boiler for the same service and adopted the practice of leaving 
it full of water, that seemed to cure the trouble. — D. J. Redding, 
before the Raiki'ay Club of Pittsburgh. 

Supply Trade Notes 

L. II. Mesker is now connected with the sales department of 
Kearney &. Trecker Com|)any, Milwaukee, Wis., and after Feb- 
ruary 1 will represent that company in Ohi(.). 

Samuel Higgins, formerly general manager of the New York, 
.Vew Haven & Hartford, has been elected president of the Stand- 
ard Heat & Ventilation Company, New York and Chicago. 

Tlie Henry GiesscI Company, Chicago, 111., has appointed 
Irank N. Grigg, 1201 Virginia Railway & Power building, Rich- 
mond, Va., as southeastern sales agent, representing the com- 
pany in all territory south of the Ohio river and east of the 

Mississippi river. 

C. B. Yardley, Jr., has heen appointed representative of the 
Wm. C. Roi)inson & Son Company, Baltimore, Md., manufac- 
turers of high grade lubricating oils and greases. Mr. Yardley 
will make his headquarters at the New York office, 12 Coenties 
Slip, and his territory will include the eastern railroads. 

A lire on the night of January 18 totally destroyed the in- 
sulated wire department of the John A. Roebling's Sons Com- 
pany, 1 renton, .\. J., at an estimated loss of $1,000,000. No part 
of the wire mills or wire rope works was damaged, and the 
work performed by the plant destroyed will be taken care of in 
other shops. 

David A. Wright, who for several years past has been con- 
nected with the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, New 
York, as district manager in the west, has opened an office for 
himself as manufacturers' agent at 140 South Dearborn street, 
Chicago, 111. He will specialize on labor saving and pneumatic 
machinery, cranes, etc. 

H. H. Seabrook, formerly district manager of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company in Baltimore, has been 
appointed district manager of the company at Philadelphia, suc- 
ceeding J. J. Gibson, who has become manager of the tool and 
supply department at East Pittsburgh. Owing to a consolidation 
of territories the Philadelphia offices will hereafter embrace that 
previously covered by the Philadelphia and Baltimore offices. 

Announcement is made that on January 1 the John Seaton 
Foundry Company and the Locomotive F'inished Material Com- 
pany, Atchison, Kan., were consolidated, and that they will here- 
after continue the business of both companies under the name of 
the Locomotive Finished Material Company. The directors of 
the consolidated companies are as follows: John C. Seaton, H. 
E. Muchnic, Clive Hastings, W. S. Ferguson and G. L. Seaton. 

Arrangeinents have been completed for an extensive display 
of the hydraulic machinery manufactured by The Hydraulic 
Press Manufacturing Company, Mount Gilead, Ohio, at the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, Cal., 
in 1915. The exhibit is being installed in block 11 in the Palace 
of Machinery, and will occupy a space 27 ft. wide by 67 ft. long. 
It will be in charge of the company's Pacific coast representative. 
The Berger & Carter Company, 1045 Seventeenth street, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Chicago, are offering a prize of $100 
in gold for the best trade name for the line of tool steel which 
the company is selling. The company has been selling a com- 
plete line of tool steel for many years, but has had an outside 
manufacturing connection for the steel, and in consequence 
adopted the name used by the manufacturer. It has since been 
found necessary either to manufacture or control the manufac- 
ture of the steel, which the company has now been doing for 
some time. In addition to the $100 first prize, those who send in 
the 100 next best names will be given a copy of a loose-leaf 
leather reference book of steel and engineering data, and for 
the next best 200 names bound volumes of the same book will 
be given. 



Vol. 89, No. 2 


Whistles. — A leaflet issued by the Walter .\. Zelnicker Sup- 
ply Company, St. Louis, Mo., is devoted to the "Old Noisy" 
gong whistle. This whistle is made in sizes from 2 in, to 12 
in. and is intended for use on factories and shops. 

Ste.\m-Hydraulic Presses. — Bulletin L from the Mcsta Ma- 
chine Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., contains eight pages de- 
scribing steam-hydraulic presses for shearing, bending, forging, 
flanging and punching. Illustrations of several of the machines 
arc given. 

Electric Meters.— Bulletin No. 40, issued in December, 1914, 
by the Sangamo Electric Company, Springfield, 111., contains 
32 pages and describees and illustrates clearly different forms 
of electric meters. Details of the construction are given and 
several pages are devoted to diagrams showing the connections. 

Steel Warehouse Trucks.— A folder issued by the Edwards 
Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, is devoted to the 
steel trucks made by this company. These are two-wheel 
trucks intended for use in warehouses, freight sheds, railway 
shops, etc. They arc built principally from structural steel 

Eve-Protecting Glasses.— Safety Service Bulletin No. 4 and 
other literature from T. A. Willson & Co., Inc., Reading, Pa., 
describes and illustrates the line of safety glasses manufactured 
by this company. These glasses are made in a variety of forms, 
some of which are especially suited for the difTerent classes of 
shop work. 

Forging Machines.— The National Friction-Sli]i Flywheel is 
the subject of National forging machine talk No. 6. This is 
a two-page folder and contains a good half-tone illustration 
of the National heavy pattern forging machine equipped 
with a friction-slip flywheel, as well as a sectional view of the 
flywheel and considerable data concerning it. 

Air Compresscrs. — The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, 
Chicago, has issued bulletin No. 34-K, dealing with this com- 
pany's class N-SO and N-SG fuel oil and gas driven air 
compressors and their application to the unit system of air 
power plants. The bulletin contains 24 pages and describes 
and illustrates these compressors in considerable detail. 

Curtain Fixtures.— Bulletin No. 182, issued by the Dayton 
Manufacturing Company, Dayton, Ohio, describes and illustrates 
the Dayton curtain for railway car windows. This curtain is 
fitted with friction shoes bearing in grooves which hold the cur- 
tain in position and retaining strips prevent accidental displace- 
ment. A guide for convenience in ordering is given on the last 

Facts About F\'EL Oil.— This is the title of a four-page leaf- 
let issued by the Production Engineering Company, 1716 
Spring Garden street, Philadelphia, Pa. This leaflet is de- 
voted mainly to the advantages claimed for the Peco burner. 
Another four-page leaflet has also been issued by this com- 
pany containing an article on Fuel Oil and Its Application, 
by David Townsend, president of the company. 

Oil Testing Set.— The General Electric Company has just 
issued bulletin No. 49,901, describing an oil testing set by means 
of which the dielectric strength of oil can be easily determined. 
The proper use of this set insures the successful operation of 
high-tension oil insulated apparatus. The set consists of a 30,000- 
volt testing transformer with an induction regulator for voltage 
control and an oil spark gap, all of which are assembled as a unit. 

Metal Protection. — "Lohmannized" is the subject of a 15- 
page booklet, illustrated by half-tone engravings, which has just 
been issued by the Lohnmann Company, SO Church street. 
New York. This process is explained as "a non-corrodible coat- 

ing, which is integrally attached to an article of iron or steel, 
the coating and the base being welded." Microphotographs are 
given, showing the results of tlie process and the results of tests 
are also included. 

Portahle Machink Tools. — The 1915 portable machine tool 
catalog issued by the Pedrick Tool & Machine Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., contains 62 pages, and includes a great deal 
of information as to this company's various portable ma- 
chines. These tools include cylinder boring bars, motor driv- 
ing attachments for boring bars, crank pin turning machines, 
portable milling machines, pipe bending machines, etc. The 
catalog is completely illustrated. 

Heat Treating Furnaces. — Bulletin N'o. 7, issueil liy the Qui.t;- 
ley Furnace & Foundry Company, Springfield, Mass., is de- 
voted to underfired, accurate temperature, heat-treating 
furnaces, using gas or oil fuel and manufactured by this com- 
pany. These furnaces are intended for heating small ma- 
terial for annealing, hardening, tempering, carbonizing, 
forging, etc., where uniform and controllable temperature is 
required. The bulletin is illustrated. 

Air Compressors. — Bulletin No. 34-S, dated November, 1914, 
and issued by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, Fisher 
building, Chicago, 111., is devoted to small power-driven air com- 
pressors. The compressors are made in several different forms, 
both air and water cooled and either gasolene engine or motor 
driven. The bulletin describes and illustrates the various types, 
as well as the sheet steel suction and discharge valves which 
are used on all sizes above 3 in. by 3% in. 

Steam Railway Electrification. — Special publication No. 
1,552 of the Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company, 
East Pittsburgh, Pa., is devoted to a brief description of the 
equipment supplied by this company for several recent steam rail- 
way electrifications. Other sections of the bulletin deal with de- 
velopments in subway, elevated, interurban and street railway 
equipment. Photographs taken in a number of cities are in- 
cluded, showing the various types of cars in service. 

Lightning .Arresters. — Bulletin No. 45.602 has just been is- 
sued by the General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., 
and deals with the subject of the protection of series lighting 
circuits by lightning arresters. The arresters described in 
tlie bulletin are of two types, the horn type and the aluminum 
type. The former is designed for the protection of series 
transformers and rectifiers against lightning discharge and 
similar trouble, and the latter particularly for the protection 
of cable circuits running from series arc rectifiers. 

Electrical Supplies. — The Western Electric Company, 463 
West street, New York, has issued its 1915 Electrical Supply Year 
Book. This book contains 1,216 pages, and. besides listing and 
cataloging the company's various electrical equipment, contains 
a great deal of useful information in the form of tables and 
formulas. The book contains an alphabetical index, and will 
enable the trade to determine at a glance the approximate cost 
of any one of the articles listed. One of the features of the 
book is an advertising bulletin embracing examples of advertising 
and selling helps which the company furnishes to its agents in 
connection with the sale of goods. 

Railway Line M.\terial. — The General Electric Company, 
Schenectady, N. Y., has recently issued bulletin No. 44,004, 
which forms an ordering catalog descriptive of railway line 
material for direct suspension. This publication covers prac- 
tically everything in line material for this method of sus- 
pension, save poles and wire. The parts are illustrated and 
each illustration is accompanied by the proper catalog num- 
bers. The prices are not included. The bulletin contains also 
miscellaneous data relative to construction, overhead material 
per mile, general data on the use of solid copper wire and 
copper cable, dimensions of grooved trolley wire sections, etc. 

March, 1915 





American Engineer 


WooLwoRTii Building, New York, N. Y. 

CHICAGO; Tiansportation Bldg. CLEVELAND: Citiit 

LONDON: Queen Anne's Chambers, Westminster. 

Edward A. Simmons, f 


President L. B. Sherman, Viee-Presidc 

Henry Lee. Secretary 
of the conip.iny is the address of the officers. 

Roy V. Wright, Edit 
Associate Editor 

C. B. Peck, As 

A. C. Loudon, Associate Editor 
date Editor 

Subscription-s, including the eight daily editions of the Railway Age 
Gatette published in June in connection with the annual conventions of 
the Master Car Builders' and American Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciations, payabl>" in advance and postage free: 

United States, Canada and Mexico $2.00 a year 

Foreign Countries (excepting daily editions) 8.00 a year 

Single Copy 20 centa 

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as mail matter of the 
second class. 

WE GUARANTEE, that of this issue 5,000 
these 5.000 copies 4.333 were mailed to regular 

were provided for counter and news companies' sales, 209 were mailed to 
advertisers, eschan&es and correspondents, and 258 were provided for samples 
and office use : that the total copies printed this year to date were 14.300, an 
average of 4,767 copies a month. 

Simmons-Boardman publications are members of the Audit Bureau of Circu- 


Volume 89 

March, 1915 

Number 3 



Help Keep the Premises Clean 105 

Alterations in Locomotives to Increase Capacity 105 

Design of Reciprocating and Revolving Parts 106 

Billing Repairs on Foreign Cars 106 

High Power per Unit of Weight 106 

Economical Maintenance of Eciuipment 107 

The Value of the Locomotive 107 

New Books 107 


Practice Versus Theory in Design 1 08 

The Bonus System 108 


Reciprocating and Revolving Parts 109 

Uncoupling Lever for Switch Engines 115 

Portuguese Express Locomctive 116 

Economic Value of a Locomotive 118 


The Standard Box Car— .^ Negative Viewpoint 121 

Piece Work and Its .Advantages 122 

Steel Baggage and Mail Cars 123 

Experiments to Determine the Stresses in Truck Side Frames 127 

Economies in Freight Car Repairs 129 


Clips for Securing Date Tags to Steam Gages and Safety Valves 131 

Points for Apprentices to Ponder 133 

Chuck for Finishing Boiler Check Bodies 133 

Shop Notes from the Soo Line 133 

Engine House Organization 135 

Water Gage Cocks 136 

Shop Efiiciencv 137 

Packing Iron for Journal Boxes 137 

Special Beading Tool and Boiler Patch Bolt 137 

Reboring Air Pump Cylinders 138 

Machine for Boring Driving Boxes 138 

The Best Practices in Ergine House Work 139 

Some Factors in Locomotive Maintenance 140 

Index Head for Holding Rod Brasses 140 


Roller Journal Bearing 141 

Hvdrau'lic Pipe Bender 142 

Vertical Band Saw for Metal Cutting 142 

Automatic Nut Tapping Machine 143 

Car Wheel Grinder 143 

Forged Brake Beam Fulcrum 144 

.Adjustable Fire Door Pedal 1 44 

Pneumatic Plate Flanging Clamp 145 

Safety Hose Clamn 145 

Triplex Hydraulic Pump 146 

Sand Blast Helmet 146 

Heavy Duty ITniversal Milling Machine 146 

Pneumatic Light Forging Hammer 147 

Magnet for Removine Metal from the Flesh 148 


Notes 149 

Meetings and Conventions 150 

Personals 1 SO 

Supply Trade Notes 152 

Catalogs 154 

,, , ., With a pig and a goat your plant would 

Help keep ' ,, ... , , , 

compare favorably with sfjme hack yards 
the Premises ^.^^ j^^.^^.^ .,,^,^^,4.. j^ ^ remark made by a 

Clean superintendent to the man in charge of 

■ me ijl the lompany's shops. He might have said much more 
as to the advantage.s to be derived from neat shops and prem- 
ises, but he believed that the comparison was enough, and in 
this case it proved so. There are other railway shops in this 
country to which this same remark might apply. To them we 
desire to convey the message that neat, clean shops will do much 
to increase output, inspire careful workmanship, keep the em- 
ployees cnntintcd and advertise the road in the right way. At 
the liiirnsidc simps of tin- Illinois Central the officers make 
it a sjucial pciint to kie|) the shops and surroundings or- 
derly and as neat as the conditions will allow. Barrels made 
of scrapped corrugated roofing are placed at various points 
throughout the plant ; they are painted white and kept that 
way. An inscription "Help Keep the Premises Clean' is neatly 
lettered on the covers. These white barrels contrast so vividly 
with the black cinder grounds that it is impossible to forget 
the purpose for which they are intended. The entire plant 
maintains a Sunday appearance day in and day out. The men 
like it and tlie sliop officers believe that they are fully repaid 
for their trouble. It costs but little to do this and the advan- 
tages arc many ; you will be better satisfied with your work 
and the work of your men will better satisfy you if this policy 
is followed. 

..... . The Kansas City Southern has recently 

Alterations m ■' <■ j 

completed some tests which were conduct- 
Locomotives to 1 ii ■ ^ J ■ • 1 c 
ed with a view to modernizing a class of 

Increase Capacity consolidation type locomotives. As origi- 
nally built these engines had a tractive effort of 44,900 lb. and a 
weight on drivers of 182,600 lb., 22 in. by 30 in. cylinders, 55 in. 
driving wheels, a boiler pressure of 200 lb. and a grate area of 
33.5 sq. ft. Alterations were made to two of them, one being 
fitted with a wide firebox providing a grate area of 62.5 sq. ft., 
while the other was fitted w-ith a superheater, a brick arch and 
a design of piston valve chest which is applied directly to the 
slide valve seat and avoids the necessity of applying new cylin- 
ders. The cost to convert the engine which was equipped with a 
wide firebox, was $4,850, while the cost for the other engine was 
$2,775, the difference being about 43 per cent in favor of the 
latter locomotive. In comparative fuel tests the locomotive with 
the narrow firebox and a superheater used 24 per cent less coal 
per 100 ton-miles. 33 per cent less water per 100 ton-miles and 
developed an average running speed IS per cent higher than the 
locomotive with the wide firebox. On a tonnage test the per- 
centages in favor of the superheater locomotive were, in ton- 
miles, 15 per cent increase, running speed 11 per cent increase, 
fuel consumption 16 per cent decrease and water consumption 29 
per cent decrease. 

These figures are of more than ordinary interest as showing 
what can be done, by the expenditure of a comparatively small 
amount of money, in the way of increasing the capacity of many 
locomotives that have been or are now being pushed aside. In 
this case the factor of adhesion was such that an increase in the 
size of the cylinders would hardly be justified and it is doubtful 
whether the strength of the frames would permit such an in- 
crease. But there are plenty of other cases where different ex- 
pedients should be justified in order to obtain another five or ten 
years' service on tonnage trains from existing locomotives. 
There have been quite a number of locomotives built within re- 
cent years with factors of adhesion lower than what was for- 
merly considered good practice, and if the locomotive which it 
is desired to convert has a factor of 4.5 or over it is quite prob- 
able that an increase in the size of the cylinders could be safely 
made, provided the frames were strong enough to stand this in- 
crease. However, an increase of 2.000 or 3.000 lb. in maximum 



\\n.. 89, No. 3 

tractive eft'ort might well justify the replacing of the frames as 
well as the cylinders and as it is unlikely that such a conversion 
would be considered without the application of a superheater 
there would be, beside the increase in maxinumi tractive effort, a 
decrease in fuel and water consuni])lion and a decided increase 
in sustained capacity. Moreover, the additional weight resulting 
from the superheater and allied changes would help in preventing 
the factor of adhesion from reaching a i:oint which miglit be 
considered too low. 

.\ny Conversion of this nature will, of course, have to be jusli- 
Jied by the results afterward obtainable and tlie changes just out- 
lined would unquestionably run into a considerable amount of 
money. Uut there must be many cases where sucli modernizing 
methods would be justilied provided the money for making the 
changes can be obtained. Under present day railroad conditions 
the question, "What will it cost?" comes with increasing em- 
phasis ai;d if the results obtained in the case of the Kansas City 
Southern locomotives are considered in relation to the cost of 
making the conversion, they will undoubtedly make a strong 
appeal to higher railway officers. 

CSS of some of the 
d for low cost of main 
win) ;wc to blame for t 

,.f whii-li all nui-1 

iiinor officers, who a 
'nance. These few. 
.' charge of dishone> 
aitTer, the- innocent 

\t all times a serious problem, the design 
f reciprocating and re\olviiig parts for 

Design of 
Reciprocating and ^^^.^^^^ locomotives has greatly increased in 
Revolving Parts tliHicullv wiili the advent of the high piston 
loads wiiicli result from the use of cylinders of the large diam- 
eters r.ow Common in locomotive practice. The real seriousness 
of this problem is probably best brought home by consideration 
of the elTect of the pressure on the rail. When, with the high 
a.xle loads now in use, a variation between the maximum and the 
minimum weight on the rail, under any driving wheel, of 100 
per cent of the static weight on that wheel may. and probably 
often di-ies. result from the effect of the counterbalance, it can 
be readily seen that stringent measures are justiliable in reducing 
the weiglit of the parts of the locoinotive which necessitate this 
counterbalance. In the article on "Reciprocating and Revolving 
Parts," which is published in another part of this issue, it is 
stated that the practical problem of balancing is not so nnich how 
to lialance as how to reduce the total weight of the reciprocating 
parts to a minimum. There are a number of locomotives now 
in service, built during the past two or three years, which stand 
out very clearly as regards the design of these parts when com- 
pared with the average practice, and there seems no reason wh.\ 
such good results could not be more generally olitained. Indeed, 
it is plainly indicated by Mr. Campbell in this series of articles 
that they can be. The series is divided into three parts. Part 1 
dealing with .American design. Part 2 with British design and 
Part 3 with the use of alloy and heat treated steels. The author 
is already known to many of our readers and will be remembered 
as the writer of the article on "Locomotive Connecting Rods" 
published on page 175 of the .Iwcrican Engineer for April, 1913. 
This article was most favorably received, and is lieing very gen- 
erally Li.sed by designers, and it is hoped that the present series 
will prove even rnore valuable as an aid to improved locomotive 

„.,,. _ Rather strong insinuations have sometimes 

Billin4 Repairs ■ ,i i . j: 

been made concerning the honesty ot some 

**" roads in regard to their bills for foreign 

Foreign Cars car repairs. The paper read by H. H. 

Harvey, general car foreman of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, at the February meeting of the Car Foremen's .Associa- 
tion of Chicago, in wdiich he advocated the appointment of in- 
spectors by the M. C. B. Association for inspecting foreign car 
repairs, we believe states the case correctly. Mr. Harvey said; 

Without question, all roads do at times make improper charges, but in 
most cases, these are simply errors and not made with deliberate intent tn 
defraud. However, it is quite possible that some few car owners deliberately 
charge for roiairs not made, possibly not with the consent nf the higlier 

officers, but through the zeal 
endeavoring to make 
there be such, are the ones w 
in repair bills, under the stig 
well as the guilty. 

We believe that errors are the greatest causes for the im- 
proper charges and, further, that the errors are caused by tlie 
lack of a proper knowledge of the M. C. B. rules. Last month 
it was pointed out in these columns that ignorance of the rules 
was the cause of a large amount of unnecessary correspondence. 
1' woidd seem, therefore, that much of the trouble now common 
ill the liandling of repairs to foreign cars ei>iiUl be eliminated if 
the men were made to learn the M. C. B. rules thoroughly and 
to use them intelligently. Some roads appoint inspectors whose 
duty it is to visit the various repair points of the road and check 
up the uork tlone in repairing cars with tlie bills made out for 
tliese repairs. In the discussion of Mr. Ilarvev's paper it was 
stated that this procedure had resulted in satisfactory results 
and many cases were found where the foremen were cheating 
themselves. These inspectors, reporting direct to the superin- 
tendent of motive power, bring to light the weak spots in the 
car department, whether they be caused by ignorance of the rules 
or by over-zealous foremen endeavoring to make .-i showing. If 
this practice were generally adopted it is probable that the com- 
|)laints for incorrect charges would be reduced materially and 
lioth the home and foreign ro;i<ls would be materi:illv 

„.^, r, I be de\elopment of over 2,000 indicated 

High Power i i i i a 

horsepower liy a balanced compound pas- 

^^ "' senger locomotive having a total weight of 

of Weight 165,300 lb. is a performance rarely, if ever, 

equalled in American practice. Such results are reported to 
have been realized in service from a recently built ten-wheel 
express passenger locomotive on the Portuguese State Railways, 
a description of which appears elsewhere in this issue. The con- 
ditions under which this pt^wer was developed are not known, 
and it is impossible to say whether it represents sustained per- 
formance or the power developed during a short period only. 
Two lialanccd compound .Atlantic type locomotives, the cylin- 
ders of which Compare \ery closely in size with those of the 
I'ortu.uuese locomotive, were tested on the St. Louis testing plant, 
the maximnni indicated horsepower of each being between 1,600 
and 1,700. The lioilers of both of these engines were larger 
than that of the Portuguese locoirotive. one having a total heat- 
ing surface of 3,-107 sq. ft. and the other a total heating surface 
of 3,237 sq. ft. 

.Atchiscm, Topeka & Santa Fe engine No. 535, with a total 
weiglit of 201.500 lb., a total heating surface of 3.237 sq. ft, and 
a grate area of 48.4 sq. ft., was shown by the test to be capable 
of maintaining a maximum indicated horsepower of 1,605 at 54 
per cent cut-off with a steam consumption of 20.8 lb. per indi- 
cated horsepower hour. The Cole balanced compound. New 
York Central No. 3.000. with cylinders ISyi in. and 26 in, in 
diameter by 26 in. stroke, weighing 200.000 lb. and having a 
heating surface of 3.407 sq. ft. with a grate area of 49.9 sq. ft., 
was shown by the tests to lie capable of developing a horsepower 
of 1,670 at 52'/2 per cent cut-off with a steam consumption of 
23.2 lb. per horsepower hour. Comparing the Portuguese loco- 
motive with these engines the possibilities for such a perform- 
ance on its part are not evident. If this engine is capable of 
developing over 2.000 indicated horsepower, it must have an 
unusually low water rate for a saturated steam engine as, as- 
suming a maximum evaporation of between 37.000 lb. and 38,000 
lb., which would be higher than is usually obtained in American 
practice from the same heating surface and grate area, the maxi- 
mum horsepower of the Portuguese engine must have been ob- 
tained at a water r;ite of about 17 Hi. per indicated horsepower 

March, 1915 




('. A. Solcy stated at the Jaiuuiry meeting 
'if (he Western Railway Club that the big- 
gest ((ucstion iiefore the railroads at the 
of Equipmect present time is the proper and economical 

maintename of ei|ui|imcnl. This (|ueslion. at all times a live issue 
with the iiu'chanical departniml of AmcTican raiKvays, is espe- 
cially so at present. Each new di'si^n nl ecpiipment, with new 
machines ii^r doinj; the repair work and witli flnctnations in 
jirices of material, alters the maintenance i)rohleni in -.ome re- 
spect, anil this prcihlem is one that is worthy of stU(I\ liy the 
ablest men in the lield. 

Maintenance should lirst be considered when desiKiiinf; 
the equipment, and whenever possible, parts thai are liable to 
need repairs or replacement should he so located and inrorpo- 
r.ited in the structure that tliey may easily be reijaired nr re- 
neue(i This necessitates the designers' familiarizing tlieniselves 
witli the re])airmen's prolilems. From these men ;i great many 
details can be learned wliich, if carefully cuisidered in design- 
ing, will show marked economies in the cost (jf repairs. The 
repairmen, on thbir part, should, from their experience, antici- 
jiate tl e making of repairs with special devices or jigs where 
the number of cases warrants such devices, in order that the 
work may be done as quickly as possible and with a niininnnn 
labor cost. They will also do well to study the supply lield for 
machines and apparatus, the purchase of which ma> be of ma- 
terial assistance to them in their work and which uilh tlie sav- 
ing in tlie cost of repairs will be .a in\eslmenl for 
iheir companies. 

.\n economical feature in which all railway mechanical men 
le directlx interested is the reclaiming of scrap material. Sev- 
.i;d railroads are giving thi> subject attention: some have in- 
stalled cxtensi\e plants for this specific purpose, wdiile others 
are giving it a very close study with a view of enlarging the 
plants they .now have in operation. There are numerous other 
avenues for maintenance economies. Every man should put his 
shoulder to the wheel. Give the companies the best ideas you 

T. xr t ll the ideas m G. S. Goodvvm s paper on 

The Value , ,, , , , ... 

the \ alue of a Locomotive, presented 

° * at the l-'eliruary meeting of the Western 

Locomotive Railway Cluli, and abstracted elsewhere in 

this issue, are tliorou.ghl_\- studied, followed and elaborated on 
by the railway mechanical mtn of this countr.w we will lind 
mechanical departments operating on a scientific basis that here- 
tofore bias not been thought possilile. Mr. Goodwin estalilished 
a basis — the net earning [>ower of a locomotive — from which 
sliould be determined the method of handling power. He has 
sjiown that the average net earning piiwer of all locomotives 
in this country is $44 a day. He has also sliown that for in- 
ilividual engines this value will vary greatly according to the 
conditions under which they operate. It will be found that 
locomotives of low net earning capacity will re(|uirc a differ- 
ent method of handling from those of bigb net earning capacity 
if true economy is to result. 

Some motive power men strongly advocate the regular as- 
signment of engines: others are advocates of pooling the serv- 
ice. The former claim more mileage, fewer failures, more 
reliable service, etc., while the hitter's chief argument is tliat 
fewer engines arc required and that there is always an engine 
ready for the transportation department. Hut we only hear 
the mechanical man's point of view, and lie has only liased 
his arguments on tlie results he sees, not on an analytical 
economic study. We have yet to hear from a jiurely economic 
point of view as to which is the lietter system. A scientific 
economic study of this question would be of great advantage 
to all the railways and woubl undoubtedly lead to many changes 
in ihe methods of handling motive power. Mr. Goodwin has 
outlined a basis on which to work. 

Strimg exceptions were taken to 5.^.96 per cent of a freight 

locomotive's day being charged to the mechanical department, 
especially as the road from which these figures were obtained 
operates under the pooling system. L'nder the circumstances 
it is almost impossible to question the figures, as the system 
by which they were obtained harl been in effect for some time. 
With this statement the tpicstion naturally arises, "What must 
be an engine's dead time in the regular crewcd system?" 


lii.thillinii lillUicncy Methods. I!y C. K, Knoeppcl. 258 pages, 6ii in. hy 
in in. ]llu?tr.atf(l. Botird in cloth. Published by the Engineerini; 
M.iKazine, 140 Nassau street, Xew York. Price »3. 

I here have lieeii so many books published within recent years 
dealing with the principles of scientific management that when a 
new one is brought out it arouses hut little interest. In this 
book, however, Mr. Knoeppel endeavors to avoid the matter of a 
mere declaration of principles and tells what the methods are 
that are known to increase the efficiency of a manufacturing 
plant and also how they are put into use. The introduction to 
the book states that the purpose has been to give wholly frank 
.iiid thoroughly practical working instructions and explanations, 
Covering tile entirety of efficiency practice as tested and proved 
in many important and successful undertakings carried out by 
the author: it wonld seem that this purpose has been efTectively 
carried out. .\s originally prepared, the material in the book 
appeared in a series of articles published in the Engineering 
Magazine during 1914, liut this is expanded and changed to a 
considerable extent in this volume. The chapter on the efficiency 
clearing house has been considerably enlarged and chajiters added 
on costs and on auxiliary devices for the planning department. 
A considerable niimlier of charts, diaarams and illustrations have 
also been added. 

Ilnil-Trcalnicnt of Sled. CumpiU-d liy tlie Kditors of Machinery. 278 
pages. 6 ill. hy 9 in. Ilhisirated. Hound in cloth. Published by the 
Industrial Press, 140 Lafayette street, New York. Price $2.50. 
During the past two decades developments have taken place in 
the processes involved in the building of machinery as well as 
in the materials of construction, wdiich have produced many 
changes in the heat-treatment of steel. The introduction of high 
speed steel for cutting tools and the various alloy steels, the use- 
fulness of which depends almost entirely upon proper heat- 
treatment, has made necessary the careful study of processes and 
has produced many remarkable changes in practice. In the 
preparation of this book it has been the purpose to place on 
record the modern methods of heat-treatment, and although 
lar.gely descriptive in its dealing with the subject, the book will 
lie found to contain much practical data of value to those who 
have to do with heat-treating operations. 

The first chapter is devoted to a theoretical discussion of the 
efTect of heat-treatment and a brief digest of the results to be 
obtained by various methods of treating carbon and alloy steels. 
In the following chapters the various processes of hardening. 
(|uenching, tempering, annealing and casehardening are described 
in detail, the text being amplified by numerous engravings show- 
ing the construction and methods of operation of the furnaces 
and other appliances. The application of the electric furnace to 
heat-treating operations is dealt with at considerable length and 
a chapter is included on the newly developed method of case- 
hardening by carbonaceous gas. 

A brief treatise is included'on the methods used to measure the 
hardness of metals. Various types of hardness testing machines, 
developed in this country and abroad, are described and the prin- 
ciples on which they operate set forth. 

The information contained in the book has been mainly com- 
piled from articles published in Machinery and from the well 
known Machinery Reference Books, and it forms a very com- 
prehensive treatise on a subject about which little of a practical 
nature has been written. 



Wii.. 89, No. 3 



New York, N. Y. 

To THE Editor : 

On page 451 ot jour September, 1914, issue you print an 
in. cresting editorial entitled "A Word of Thanks." You 
therein invite a "frank and squarc-from-the-shouUier criticism'' 
of things you publish. 1 wish to accept your invitation and 
'hand you one" on the subject of co-operation. In your 
"Word of Thanks" you say your whole heart and soul is set 
on bettering things in your particular lield, etc., and in the 
final paragraph you slate the truism: "After all, we arc rc:illy 
one big association with one common interest, and each one 
of us owes it to all the others to do our little part in making 
the mechanical department more effective and more efficient." 
With the next stroke of your editorial pen, however, you ex- 
cite discord where harmony and co-operation are of the ut- 
most importance to the "common interest" for which you 
had just appealed. 1 refer to your editorial, "Limitations of The 
Designer." Damage is done by your editorial because you 
cite a specific case and from it draw a general conclusion, 
and in doing so you furnish fuel for the fire of antagonism 
between the "practical" and the "theoretical," which is such 
a serious detriment to progress in any industry. 

The designer in a railroad organization is never an inde- 
pendent unit with authority to depart from standards and ar- 
range apparatus to suit himself. The designer is, however, 
a member of the big association, specially trained in the 
theory of mechanics and in the work of reducing to a tangible 
and practical form on the drafting table the various features 
and arrangement of parts desired in a device or machine. 
The perfection of the result will depend largely on the thor- 
ough .study given to the details of the design in order that it may 
incorporate all the good features H'liieli the operation and main- 
tenance of such inaehines haze shoicn to be adi'isable. Here is 
where the co-operation o'' the practical and theoretical is of 
the utmost importance, and the head of the department or 
the one responsible for the finished result of the designer's 
work should see to it that the designer not only co-operates, 
as in this case, with the man who has "spent his life running 
locomotives," but also with the man who spends his life in 
maintaining locomotives. For example, see "Air Brake Re- 
pairs," page 165, Railway Age Gazette, July 24, 1914. 

Great progress has already been made by the patient and 
constructive analysis of existing designs of apparatus through 
the co-operation of the manufacturer, operating men and de- 
signing engineers in an effort to perfect the design for the 
good of the common interests. This good work will go on 
and further improvements will be made when the hearty co- 
operation of every individual of our "one big association" is 
enlisted in the desire for the success of the new design, be 
it of a car, locomotive, shop or other equipment for the 
road. In the editorial you give credit to the mechanical 
engineer for the design of a particularly good box car, be- 
cause of co-operation with the operating men. Why, tlien, 
blame the designer when the same co-operation was not 
insisted upon in the engine design? 

Co-operation cannot be secured by a jerk, but by the steady 
pulling together of all the many members of the "big asso- 
ciation" of the railway industry. The united efforts of so 
many experienced and trained minds will eventually result 
in remarkable improvements in working conditions and in 
operating costs. 

We all have our limitations, even editors, as witness tlie 
appeal for help in your "Word of Thanks." If the editor of 
a great journal needs help through co-operation with the 
"practical," how much more must the designer need such 
help? In conclusion, I refer to the final sentence of your 

editorial, ".\ Word of Thanks," and hope that this com- 
munication may "help the editor" to co-operate with the 
designer in enlisting the aid of the "practical" in the per- 
fecting of the work intrusted to him. 

1'. M. Brixckerhoff. 


Toledo, Ohio. 

Tu THE Editor : 

While I have read many criticisms of the bonus system for the 
payment of labor, I believe that such a system can be established 
in any manufacturing plant by a capable efficiency engineer. 
This has been proved by the results of such installations in many 

The reasons for the failure of the bonus system in so many 
instances are not the faults of the sj stem itself but may be traced 
to the short-comings of the so-called expert who is responsible 
for the many radical changes both in organization and shop prac- 
tice which usually accompany the installation of a bonus system. 
The expert is very frequently deficient in a number of ways. He 
often has to learn the business of his client at the client's expense ; 
he possesses too much egotism ; his work is frequently too largely 
based on theory unbacked by practical experience. He is seldoni 
well enough acquainted with the design of machinery, tools, jigs 
and fixtures. Through lack of tact he antagonizes the workmen, 
who in turn can very easily make impossible the determination 
of a basis for a fair standard. His standards are often the result 
of rough estimates which may do injustice either to the workmen 
or to the management. 

To be worthy of the title of efficiency engineer one should be 
an engineer capable of directing the design of labor-saving de- 
vices such as special tools, jigs and fixtures. He should be able 
to locate machine tools for the most economical production. He 
should thoroughly understand the bonus system ; but it is not 
worth while to make time studies for the purpose of establishing 
standards of performance for the workmen until the location of 
the machinery has been thoroughly investigated and until the 
best possible use of jigs, templates and other specirl tools has 
been made. He should be able to set up work in a machine and 
operate it himself, such an accomplishment being invaluable in 
securing the confidence and respect of the workmen. He should 
have the good judgment necessary to establish standards of per- 
formance which will prove satisfactory, both to the workmen and 
to the management. I have known so-called experts, in arriving 
at standards for automatic machines, to speed them up to their 
maximum production, thereby setting a standard so high that the 
workmen were never able to earn a bonus. 

W. H. Wolfgang. 

Temper.xture Indicatinx, Paint. — A paint which changes 
color at various temperatures has recently been brought out in 
Europe, says F. J. Rankin of the Colorado Agricultural College. 
When applied to iron work it is a visual indicator of the run- 
ning condition of a machine or other apparatus. The paint is 
red at ordinary teiuperatures but turns black when heated, be- 
coming red again on cooling. It is claimed that the color will 
always follow the temperature, no matter how many times the 
cycle is repeated. — Iron Age. 

Metric System in China. — Cliina recently enacted a weights 
and measures law in which the meter and kilogram are pre- 
scribed as the sole standards, although the old system of meas- 
ures is still recognized. The units of the old system are de- 
fined in metric terms, the length unit being exactly 32 centi- 
meters. The metric units are given the same names in the 
Chinese language as the nearest old units, but to each is given 
the prefix "sin," which means "new." Thus the meter will be 
known as "sin-tchi," and the kilogram as "sin-king." The metric 
system was not made compulsory at the outset, the date of com- 
pulsory application of the act being fixed later. 

Reciprocating and Revolving Parts 

Beginning a Series of Articles Dealing With Their 
Design and Improvements Which Are Possible 


I — American Desicn 

The late S. 1.. Barnes once said "The practical problem u( hal- 
ancing is not one of how to balance, but of reducing tlie total 
weight of the reciprocating parts to a minimum." 

The size of the present day passenger and freight locomotive 
has made it more necessary than ever to keep the weight of the 
reciprocating parts down to a minimum. A certain Pacific type 
locomotive now in service has a piston and piston rod weighing 
•900 lb., a crosshead 560 lb., and a main rod 970 lb. When this 
engine is running a mile a minute, the force of the inertia of 
these reciprocating weigiits at the end of each stroke is about 
80,000 lb. or 40 tons. The excess weight in each driver to bal- 
ance two-thirds of these reciprocating parts causes a dynamic 
augment on the rail SO per cent greater than the static weight on 
each wheel. This means a total variation between the maximum 
and the minimum weight of lOO per cent of the static weight on 
any wheel point. The inertia of these reciprocating weights acts 
at a distance of three feet from the center line of the locomotive, 
])roducing a large unbalanced couple tending to nose the engine. 
Even the revolving weights in the main wheels, owing to their 
size, are far out of the plane of their balance weight in the wheel. 
This creates another unbalanced couple that tends to rock the 
axle across the engine. 

The amount of steam force necessary to accelerate or decelerate 
these reciprocating masses reduces the evenness of the final turn- 

•Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

int,' moment at the crank pin. This reduces the effective drawbar 
pidl, especially at high speeds. 

The American railways seem to have decided that the two- 
cylinder locomotive is a necessity, and to have given up any idea 
of utilizing three or four cylinders. That is, no matter how 
great the power to be developed, it has got to be carried by only 
two sets of driving gear. To do this means that the engine has 
got to carry as much as 150,000 lb., or 75 tons, on one set of 
driving gear, consisting of a piston, piston rod and crosshead, 
wrist pin, main and side rods and crank pins. The largest 
freight locomotives now have 13 in. diameter main axles and 
10J4 in. diameter main crank pins ; a few years ago the dimen- 
sions of this pin would have been considered sufficient for a 
good-sized axle. If the weight of the parts necessary to carry 
such loads is to be kept anywhere within reason, great care and 
refinement in design is imperative. Even then the weights may 
be too great, and a study of the further reduction of weight by 
the use of heat treated carbon steel, or of alloy steels, will be- 
come necessary. 

Before studying in detail the actual present practice in the de- 
sign of these parts I wish to present a few tables of weights in 
order to show that the average practice of today is not nearly 
as good as it was 15 years or more ago. This may seem .sur- 
prising, but it is a fact. Broadly speaking, the weight of the 
piston, piston rod, crosshead and connecting rod should be pro- 
portional to the piston load that they have to carry. The tables, 
I to V, give data connected with the reciprocating parts of a 


Road and type 

Penn., 2-8-0 

Nat. of Mexico, 2-S-O 
Southern Pacific, 
Mex. " 
I!. R 

Road and type 

C. B. & Q., 2-10-2 

C. 1!. & Q., 2-8-2 

Virginian. 2-8-2 

Gt. Northern, 2-8-2 

Lehigh Valley, 2-8-2 

Rock Island, 2-8-2 

Erie, 2-8-2 

B. & O., 2-8-2 

A. T. & S. Fe., 2-8-2 

Woodward Iron Co., 2-8-2. 
N. O. M. C, 2-8-2 

B. & O., 2-10-2 


. Piston load carried, lb. 

per Ih. per per 

Ih. wt. lb. wt. 
parts crosshead piston 



main rod 

uiLT Since 1904 


-iving wheels 

& B., 4-6 

& A., 4-4-2 

& R., 4-4-2 

& A., 4-6-2 

Y. X. H. & H.. 4-6-0. 
Y. C. & St. L., 4-6-0.. 

; 84 in. 
; 80 in. 
; 73 in. 


load, lb. (area 

piston X 

full b. press.) 







reciprocat- wt. rec 
ing parts, lb. parts 

2,315 53 

2,123 52 

1,845 53 

1,966 53 

1.916 52 

2,176 51 

1,785 59 

1,743 58 

1,795 46 

1,613 58 

1,207 58 

2,656 49 

-Piston load carried, Ib.- 
». per per • 

c. lb. wt. lb. wt. 

shead piston n 



P.\RTs ov Passenger Locomotives Built Before 1904 

Boiler Piston 

pres- load, lb. (area r 

sure, piston x Cross- 
lb. full b. press.) head 
. 183 50,000 169 

185 58,000 188 







-Weight, Ib.- 
Pisicn and 

Main reciprncat- 
rod ing parts, lb. 

Piston load carried, Ib.- 
lb. wt. 
head piston 













main rod 




Vol.. 89, No. 3 

Tari-e I\*, Dat.\ for Reciprocating 1 


Road and type driving 

Pcnn., 4-6-2 26 in. x 26 

C. C. & O., 4-6-2 

N. V. N. H. & H.. 4-6 

C. G. W., 4-6-2 

C. & O., 4-6-2 

B. & O., 4-6-2 

N. Y. C. 4-6-2 

Lehigh Valley, 4-6-2.. 


25 in. X 30 in. 


24 in. X 26 in. 


25 in. X 28 in. 

,73 in. 

27 in. X 28 in. 

: 73 in 

24 in. X 28 in. 

; 76 in 

26 in. X 28 in. 


25 in. X 28 in. 


T.*itLE \", Data eor Reciprocating Parts of Locomotives H 

Road and type 

Ptnn., 4-6-2 

Pcnn., 4-4-2 

Pcnn., 2-8-2 

P. & R., 4-4-0... 
C. B. & O., 2-10-: 



■iving wheels 


Boiler load f 

pres- lb. (area 

sure, piston x Cross- 
lb. full b. press.) head 

205 114,000 491 

205 89.000 327 

114,000 532 

76,200 302 

123,700 526 

Weight, lb. — 

and .' 



408 K- 




Total , 

wt. of per lb. ^ 
reciprocal- of rec, 
ing parts, lb. fiarts 
1,376 83 

1.014 87 

1,470 77 

1,031 74 

1,936 64 


Piston load carried, Ib.- 

, Refei 

er lb. encc 

:. main for 

rod photogr; 






number of locomotives ; then follows the most important part — 
the amount of pi.ston load carried per pound of weight of the 
parts collectively and of each part separately. The average 
figures are given at the bottom of each table. The tables have 
been divided into passenger and freight locomotives built before 
l'-04 and since 15CM. and a fourth table is given including 
live engines built recently, in whicli exceptional care has been 
taken in the nuitler nt designing the reciprocating and revolv- 
ing parts. 

If the reader grasps the substance of these tables, it will 
enable him, W'ithout going over a lot of data, to see that we are 
not doing as well in respect to the design of reciprocating parts. 
as we did in the past on smaller engines. An examination of the 
first engine given in each table, freight and passenger, w-ill show 
cases before 1904 that are so far above tlie average as to be 
striking; and one of the passenger engines is not only above the 
average, lint it i'^ better in nc:irl\ ivcr\ wei.^lit per load carried 

unit of iforic dour may be reduced. Light (•arts do not neces- 
sarily iiicaii weak parts, but may mraii stranger parts. 

The <lesigners of the automoliile and the flying machine, liy 
using great care in detail design, and by the nse of high grade 
steel, have reduced the weight of tlieir mnvins,' parts to a mar- 
velous degree. I he locomotive engineer can do ilie same when 
he makes up his mind that it is necessary and decides to start 
anew, determined to obtain definite results in weight reduction. 
In the remainder of this article it is tlie intention to show in 
detail the notable results obtained in the design of the recipro- 
cating jiarts of several locomotives built in 1914. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad in 1914 built very heavy and pow- 
erful -Atlantic (see b'ig. 1) and Pacific type locomotives,* both 
of which have a very heavy weight on drivers. To safely per- 
mit the use of such a weight it was imperative that the excess 
counterlialance weight in the drivers should not exceed a certain 
hi;iire at a uncn speerL It w a> cUterniined tliat at 70 miles per 

1 — Running Gear of Pe 


3d Atlantic Type Locomotive. CI. 

than any of the recent five cases of special locomotives gi\ en in 
the last table. A great many of this class of 4-4-0 type loco- 
motives have been built and are still running, and I feel safe in 
saying have shown no failures in these light parts. 

This brings us to the main thought which the writer wishes 
lo bring out in this paper, and to a fact that each reader should 
consider carefully. As the size and power of tlie locomotive 
is increased, the moving parts per unit of worl; to be done need 
not be increased in weight. On the contrary their weight per 

liour the centrifugal force of the excess weight in the driving 
wheels sliould not exceed 30 per cent of the static weight on a 
wheel point ; or, to state it another way. the variation between 
the maximum weight and the minimum weight on a driver should 
not exceed 60 per cent of the static weight. This definitely 

*A description of the Pennsylvania Atlantic type locomotive, class E6s. 
was published on page 63 of the Railway .4gc Gasette, Mechanical Edition, 
for February. 1914, and a description of the Pacific type locomotive, 
class K4s. and the Mikado tvpe, class Lis, Fig. 2. was published on page 343 
of the July. 1914. issue. 

M.MUII. I':'15 


settled what tlic reciprocating parts must weiKli, and in nrder 
to bring the weight of the parts within tliis Hinit it was f(iim<l that 
only 60 per cent of the reciprocating parts conld he balanced. 
The weights of these parts are given in table VI. 


LocoMin IVES 


Name of part K6s 

I'iston, i)iston rod, extension rod. crosshcad and K-rv.... 408.5 

Crosshcad and wrist pin 312 

I.ap and lead lever connector ; 15 

Front end of main rod 279.5 

PiLli end of main rod 440.5 

nieaiis to pr^jdiice such light parts and still retain the recjuired 
strength, ligs. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 show the piston, piston rod, 
crosshcad, main rod and side rods for the Atlantic type loco- 
motive class E6s, and E'igs. 8, 9, 9A, 10, 11 and 12 for the Pacific 
type, class K4s. The unit stresses have been noted on the 
drawings at the different sections. I hey are based on a maxi- 
mum piston load etpial to the product of the area of the pist<in 
and the full boiler pressure and a (jroportion of the main 
rod load on the side rods, in the case of the .'\tlantic type WJ 
per cent, of the Pacific tyi>e 70 per cent. 

The pistons arc of rolled steel of umbrella shape and are of 
exlrcmc-lv light scctii'ii. The unit stress has not been detcr- 

Fig 2— Running Gear of Pe 

riotive, Class Lis 

Total main rod 720 930 

Front end of side ro.l 185 136 

Back end of side rod 231 162.5 

.Side rod (main pin) 534.5 

Kear end eccentric rod (equivalent at 13 in. radius) 22.7 

The material for the main and side rods, piston rod, pins and 

\alve motion parts is silico-manganesc carbon steel, heat treated, 

with the following characteristics : 

Carbon 0.50 per cent Ultimate strength. 85,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Manganese 0.55 per cent Elastic limit 50.000 lb. per sq. in. 

Silicon 0.20 per cent Elongation in 2 in 20 per cent 

Phosphorus .. .Not over 0.03 per cent in area 40 per cent 

Sulphur Not over 0.03 per cent 

,] ^ g /I I g' Thi Pisfon Rings ihouttj be fumed ^* 
I6~A M M r/S larger in diamefer fhan bore of 

The pistons are made of rolled open hearth carbon steel. The 
crossheads are of cast steel made by the electric furnace process, 
with the following qualities : 

Carbon 0.40 per cent Ultimate tensile strength. 

Manganese 0.48 to 0.60 per cent 70.000 to 80,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Silicon 0.22 to 0.28 per cent Elongation in 2 in. . 12 to 25 per cent 

Until a designtr has actually tried, he does not realize what it 

mined, as there is no really satisfactory formula for the design 
of pistons. L'nwin's, Seaton's and Bach's formulas are all well 
known, and the designer may possibly use them all as a guide ; 
but in the last analysis he must use his judgment, especially 
with this shape of piston, as it is known to be actually stronger 
than any of the formulas will show. It will be noted that no 
cast iron wearing shoe is used, and that the wearing surface of 
the rim is only 3^ in. wide, but the piston rod has an extension 
tail rod. If the extension rod had not been used, the employ- 
ment of such a narrow wearing surface as 3J4 in. would hardly 
have seemed wise, and it is possible that a cast iron bull-ring 
might have had to be used. But with a wider ring made of cast 


Rod Befbre Srrec/a/n^. 
'iston Rod of Pennsylvania Atlantic Type Locomotive 

iron, and no extension tail rod. the weight would have been 
greater than the piston head, even allowing for the added weight 
of the extension piston rod and the sliding shoe. There is a 
belief that an extension piston rod, unless it is very stiff and 
kept carefully lined up, is of little value, but a hollow extension 
rod of large diameter can be made stiff and at the same time 
very light. 

The details of the piston rod and its extension and the rod 
extension shoe are clearly shown in Figs. 4. 9 and 9A. These rods 
are made of carbon steel, heat treated. The method of manu- 



Vol. 89, No. 3 

facture is clearly shown; the rod is forged and then hollow stresses arc noted. Although this rod is extremely light, it is 
bored throughout its length. The necessary sections are then stiff in compression and flexure, and there should be no reason 
swaged down as shown in the finished rod. The load and unit for its causing trouble. 

-H /J'k-^^ il\ 

k — 4'—-^ 

lain Rod of Pennsylvania Atlantic Type Locomotive 

March, 1915 



The crosshc-ads arc shown in Figs.' 5 and 10. This type of 
crosshead has been standard on the passenger engines of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and on many New Haven engines for 


_J ^r* One Right and One ieff 

~ Deh,l Shoirn is Right 

5teel. Heat Tnated 

(<-— »---^/J^ 

Fig. 7 — Side Rod of Pennsylvania Atlantic Type Locomotive 

years. With the exception of the old style crosshead with a solid 
wrist pin and using four-bar guides, as shown in Fig. 91'), it is 
the lightest type of crosshead made, in relation to its strength. 

.Ket/msy toliei 


.Ket/msu to lie fTiade proper 
' ■ 'Stofftke;/ 

'-^ r^ 


Class A 





8' 4' 









J-I0.400lb" /Ilh„hr5hn„l„n, ,. 

I Load 114.000 mX. o^t^slon HMThd. 45 _, 

' ! ,., y.iThdsfirl 4.".^ /• . ) -f T .; 


H— -4'— ^df^ 

4s- MV *^"" 

Finished Rod. Shef. 

based on a load equal to the area of the piston times the full 
boiler pressure. These stresses are conservative. 

Taju.e VII — Sihesses in Piston Rod and Crosshead op Pennsylvania 

Amount of stress, lb. per sq. in. 

Atlantic type, 
Section ; and nature of stress E6s 

Shear on key 10,500 

Tension in rod througli key way 9,650 

Tension in neck of crosshead thiough keyway.... 4,700 

Crushing of key on the rod 16,500 


V>^'~ DeplhotR,n^s 
^ plus tile difference In mtl>tji u^v 

beifreen a/linder and oi^ion 

Fig. 8 — Piston of Pennsylvania Pacific Type Locomotive 

These crossheads are made of 0.4 carbon steel by the electric 
furnace process, and the railway officers state that this is the 

Rod Before Srredging. 
Fig. 9 — Piston Rod of Pennsylvania Pacific Type Locomotive 

only method that insures these castings being sound. The unit 
stresses on the various sections are given in Table VH and are 


Section Showing Crosshead A:~c'rb!?d. 

Fig. 9A — Extension Shoe for Piston Rod Siiown in Fig. 9 

Crushing of key on crosshead 

I'.earing pressure, pin on crosshead... 
Compression in main shank of piston 



The crossheads have ample gib surface and bearing surface 
where the pin bears on the crosshead, a very essential point. The 
oiling of the wrist pin has been carefully worked out and is clearly 
shown in the drawings. The lap and lead connecting link is 
driven from an extension of the wrist pin. Studying these cross- 


Fig. 9B — Four-bar Crosshead 

heads in detail it will be found that no unnecessary metal has 
been put into them ; the one point that may be raised is that they 
are not as strong when the engine is running backwards and 
therefore are unsuitable for freight engines. 

The main and side rods for the Atlantic type, class E6s, are 
shown in Figs. 6 and 7, and for the Pacific type, class K4s, in 



No. 3 

Figs. 11 and 12, These rods are made of open hearth carbon back stub of the main rod follows the railway's standard prac- 
steel, heat treated. The loads and unit stresses at the different tice. This is a strong, light stub, but the writer does not believe 

Fig. 11 — Main Rod of Pennsylvania Pacific Type Locomotive 

sections are noted on the drawings and are given in table VIII. that it can be made any lighter than a stub that uses a strap and 
Great care has been given to every detail of these rods. The bolts. The side rods have been made unusually deep, giving a 

March, 1915 



correspondingly low whip stress at high speeds. The knuckle 
pin of the side nnh, l'"ig. 12, seems muisually large, but this size 
is used to keep the bearing pressure per square inch down to 

Table VIII — Stbesses in Main and Side Rods op Pehnsvlvahia 


Amount of stress, lb. per sq. in. 

Section; and 
Main rod. I section 
Crosshead stub, ten 



A design of uncoupling lever which is being successfully 
used on the front and rear ends of switch engines on the Inter- 
colonial Railway is shown in the accompanying drawing. It 
rc|)laces the old style of lever which extend across the loco- 
motive in one piece with an operating handle at either end. 

Bearing Preisure on Km \ 

F. Pin 



Main Pin 


1400 lb." 

B. Pin 






Fig. 12 — Side Rods of Pennsylvania Pacific Type Locomotive 

Crosshead stub, bending 

Main stub strap, tension 

Side rod, I section 

Front and back stub eye, tensi( 
Front and back stub eye, bendii 
Main side rod stub, tension... 
Main knuckle eye, tension.... 






The old style lever was objected to because of the danger of 
injury to a person standing near the end of the footboard when 
the lever was being operated from the opposite end. In the new- 

standard practice. Knuckle pins are often made too small and 
show very rapid wear because of lack of ample bearing surface. 
Another point in favor of this knuckle pin is that, being large in 
diameter and narrow, it gives an action more like a spherical 
pin. This is important because there is no doubt that many side 
rod failures are due to a twisting action on the rods, produced 
by the rod ends getting out of line with each other. A ball 
knuckle pin will greatly relieve this cross twisting strain. The 
I sections of the rods are broad, and slirn. a type of section that 
has been extensively used on the road. 

[Editor's Note. — The remaining section of Part I of this series 
will be published in an early issue.] 

H.VRDNESs Testing. — If in testing for hardness by the Brinell 
process it is necessary to use a V-block when testing the bar, 
see that the block is made of tool steel well hardened and tem- 
pered to a straw color, otherwise an impression of the bar will 
be left in the block and a true Brinell will not be obtained. 
Small bars, ^ in. and less in diameter, usually give an ex- 
aggerated result lower than that obtained from the same steel 
in heavier bars; want of surrounding stiffness explains this. 
When testing malleable castings or intricate pieces, take several 
impressions in various places and then work out the mean re- 
sult; otherwise the test may be misleading. — American Machinist. 

Double Uncoupling Lever for Switch Engines 

design the lever is in two parts, each of which is separately 
connected to the lock lifter, thus making the movement of the 
lever at one end entirely independent of the other. 

Railway Men and the War. — It is stated that 4,000 em- 
ployees of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway are now in the 
British army on the continent. 

Portuguese Express Locomotive 

Balanced Compound Ten-Wheel Type Which Devel- 
ops Exceptionally High Power Per Unit of Weight 

The locomotive shown in the illustration was recently built 
for the Portuguese State Railways for express passenger service, 
and is of special interest because of the high horsepower de- 
veloped in relation to the engine's total w-eight. A maximum 
indicated horsepower of 2,214 is reported to have been developed 
with a total weight of 165,000 lb. and a weight on drivers of 
112,200 lb. This is equivalent to 1 hp. per 74.5 lb. of total weight 
and is nearly 40 per cent greater than the horsepower per unit 
of weight developed by the American Locomotive Company's 
experimental Pacific type locomotive. No. 50,000. The latter de- 
veloped 2,216 hp. continuously \n actual service, which is equiva- 
lent to 1 hp. per each 121.4 lb. of total weight. The Portuguese 
engine has a ma.\imum tractive effort of 22.200 lb.,- while tlie e.x 
periniental Pacific type locomotive is rated at 40,300 lb. 

The Portuguese engines are built to operate on a 5 ft. 5^4 '» 
gage, tlius increasing the clearance limits and decreasing the dif- 
ficulties of cylinder and axle design for a balanced compound 
locomotive. The four cylinders lie in the same horizontal plane, 
the high pressure being placed between the frames and the low 
pressure outside of the frames. The high pressure cylinders are 
15.35 in. in diameter, while the low pressure have a diaineter of 
24.8 in., giving a cylinder ratio of 2.61. Both high and low 
pressure cylinders drive on the front pair of wheels, the former 
through a crank axle. The steam distribution is controlled by 
two piston valves of somewhat unusual construction. By re- 
ferring to the sectional elevation of the locomotive it will be 
seen tliat each valve is made up of three heads, mounted upon the 
same stem, each head being surrounded by an annular cavity en- 
closed by packing rings at the ends. The central head, wliich is 
considerably smaller in diameter than the others, controls the 
steam admission to and exhaust from the high pressure cylinders. 
Each end of the valve serves one end of the low pressure cyl- 
inder, the annular cavities around the valve forming a portion 
of the final exhaust from the low pressure cylinder to the at- 

Three poppet inlet valves are provided on each valve chest, 
and are connected with the reversing gear in such a manner that 
when in full forward or starting position all three valves arc 
opened. The central valve admits steam from the high pressure 
steam cavity to a cored passage in the cylinder casting while the 
two end valves simultaneously admit the steam from this passage 
into the cavity below each low pressure steam port. The ad- 
mission of live steam is therefore automatic, the object being to 
bring the low pressure cylinders immediately into service in 
order to quickly start the engine. This arrangement prevents the 
accumulation of the undue back pressure on the high pressure 

piston which results from the use of the ordinary by-pass starting 
\:ilvc operated independently from the cab and by providing a 
steam passage to the low pressure cylinders which is independent 
of the high pressure port opening, insures a more rapid accumu- 
lation of efifective pressure and a quicker starling engine than is 
liossible with the by-pass starting valve. 

The boiler is of the straight top type having .-i diameter of 

Half Sections Through Cylinders and Firebox 

66J4 in. outside of the first ring and carrying a working pressure 
of 227.5 lb. It has a total heating surface of 2,503 sq. ft. of 
which 188 sq. ft. or aliout 7.5 per cent is located in the firebox. 
Owing to the wide gage an unusual width of firebox is possible 

Balanced Compound Express Passenger Locomotive for the Portuguese State Railway 


March, 1915 



p. h. 

213 1b. 

p. h. 

213 Ih. 

p. h. 

J03 11). 

p. 1:. 

227.5 11) 

p. h. 

227.5 lb 

wiliiout (.iiiploying a trailer truck, a grate area of 44.1 sij. ft. 
Ijcing obtained with a length of 123 in. 

The engines have bar frames 4 in. wide with a single front 
rail to which the cylinder castings arc secured in the manner 
commonly employed in American practice. All driving journals 
are SJa in. in diameter and 9^2 in. long. 

In service it is said that these engines have completely ful- 
llllcd all the required conditions, their performance havin.; proved 
highly satisfactory in every way. From a number of iiulicator 
cards taken in service on a level line at various speeds and cutofTs, 
the total indicated horsepower varies from 842 at 40 miles per 
hour with a train of 341 tons and a cutoff of 40 per cent to a 
maximum of 2,214 at 63 miles per hour while hauling a train of 
388 tons and working at a cutoff of SO per cent. The accompany- 
ing table gives the results calculated from five typical indicator 
cards taken under varying conditions. 

Horsepower Calculated from Indicator Cards 
Spccrl lioilcr pressure Cutoff Weigtit of train I. Hp. 

40 per cent 341 tons 830 

38pcreent 341 tons 1,234 

35 per cent 355 tons 2.054 

50|,-.rcent 388 tons 2,214 

40 per cent 314 tons 1,799 

The tender is carried on six wheels, pedestals for which are 
provided in the underframe. It has a water capacity of 5,800 
f^al. and carries 9.8 tons of coal. The principal dimensions and 
ratifis of the locomotive are given in the accompanying table: 

General Data 

Gage 5 ft. 5Ji in. 

Service Passenger 

Fuel Coal 

Tractive effort 22.200 lb. 

Weight in working ord-r 165,000 lb. 

Weight on drivers 112,200 lb. 

Weight on leading truck 52,800 lb. 

Weight of engine and tender in working order 270,900 lb. 

Wheel base, driving 14 ft. 9'A in. 

Wheel base, total 29 ft. J4 in. 


Weight on drivers -H tractive effort 5.06 

Total weight -^ tractive effort 7.4 

Tractive effort X diam. drivers -r- heating surface 663.8 

Total heating surface — grate area 56.8 

Firebox heating surface -r- tube heating surface, per cent 8.1 

Weight on drivers -^ total heating surface 44.8 

Total weight -^ total heating surface 66.0 

\^olume equivalent simple cylinders, cu. ft 7.8 

Total heating surface -v- vol. equivalent simple cylinders 320.9 

Giate area -f- vol. equivalent simple cylinders 5.7 


Kind Halanced compound 

Diameter and stroke 15.35 in. and 24.80 in. by 25.20 in. 


Kind Piston 


Driving, diameter over tires 74.8 in. 

Driving journals, main, diameter and length 8.66 in. by 9.45 in. 

Driving journals, others, diameter and length 8.66 in. by 9.45 in. 

Engine truck wheels, diameter 35.4 in. 


Style Straightlop 

Working pressure 227.5 lb. 

Outside diameter of tirst ring 66.2 in. 

Firebox, length and width 123 in. by 51.2 in. 

Tubes, number and outside diameter 300 — 1.87 in. 

Tubes, length 15 ft. 

Grate ar. 

tubes 2,314.3 sq. ft. 

rfacei firebox 188.4 sq. ft. 

rface. total 2,502.7 sq. ft. 

44.1 sq. ft. 

Weight. loaded 105.900 lb. 

Water capacity 5,800 gal. 

Coal capacity »-8 tons Iron Ore Production. — Germany's iron ore produc- 
tion for 1913 is given by Stahl und Eisen as 35,941.285 metric 
tons, having a value of 3.71 marks (88.2 cents) per ton as com- 
pared with 33,711,142 tons in 1912 with a value of 3.73 marks 
(88.7 cents) per ton. In 1913 48.047 miners were working as 
against 46,295 in 1912. Brown iron ore containing less than 12 
per cent of manganese constituted 3,005,970 tons of the 1913 total, 
while the brown ore containing from 12 to 30 per cent man- 
ganese amounted to 330,037 tons. Manganese ore of over 30 
per cent manganese totaled 760 tons in 1913.— Iron Age. 

Economic Value of a Locomotive 

Earniiif* Capacity Analyzed; Opportunities for Increased 
Returns; Improved Shop Methods Prove Economical 

Mechanical Engineer, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, Chicago, III. 

Freight $2,203,860,284 . . 

Passenger 716,174,021.. 

Other transportation revenue 224.939.393.. 

Total revenue from transportation $3,144,973,698.. 

Non-transportation revenue 36,204,200. . 

Consideration of the potential value of locomotives, expressed 
even roughly in terms of average daily earning capacity, suggests 
several important possibilities for the improvement of general 
practice, which it is the purpose of this paper to discuss. For 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, the total operating revenue 
from 251,277 miles of railroad was $3,181,177,898, divided as fol- 
lows : 

.69.28 per ccn 
.22.51 per cen 
. 7.07 per cen 
.98.86 per cen 
... 1.14 per cen 

Total revenue from transportation $3,144.973,698 98.86 per cent 

This revenue was produced by the use of 63,198 locomotives 
having an average tractive eflfort slightly over 30,000 lb. As- 
suming that 11 per cent of these locomotives are in the shop 
receiving repairs, this leaves 56,246 earning the above revenue. 
Dividing the total revenue from transportation, by the number 
of engines gives nearly $56,000 per year, or $153 per day as the 
gross earnings of an engine, -\pplying to this figure the oper- 
ating ratio, 71.33, we have $44 per day as the net earning power 
of all the locomotives of the United States. This money was 
earned after the locomotive had paid for repairing the track, 
paid for repairing the cars, and paid for repairing itself. 

The most notable thing about these figures is that nearly 99 
per cent of the total operating revenue of the railways is re- 
ceived from the operation of trains, for the successful operation 

In order to bring out the monetary value of a locomotive a 
little clearer, statistics arc quoted in the accompanying table 
froin 24 of the larger roads of the middle and western states for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913. The gross earnings of loco- 
motives per day is the quotient of earnings divided by the num- 
ber of locomotives reduced to a per diem basis. The net earn- 
ings are obtained by the use of the operating ratio. These earn- 
ings are shown under four captions, it being assumed where 
noted that 11 per cent of the locomotives are always in the shop 
undergoing repairs, and where switching engines are involved 
that 90 per cent only are handling freight. 

'1 hese figures bring out that the net average earning power of 
a locomotive varies from .$30 to $125 per day; while for all the 
roads of the United States the earning power is $44. The aver- 
age rate per net ton mile is introduced to show one reason why 
the value of a locomotive fluctuates — a locomotive capable of 
earning $75 per day on one road may be able to earn only $40 
per day on some other road, and this is further affected by the 
size of the engine, amount of work for it to do, etc. 

The value placed on a locomotive when rented of course varies 
on different roads, both as to amount and basis of computing. 
( Invariably running repairs are taken care of by the borrower, 
and general repairs by the lender.) Some use the size of cylin- 
der, others the weight on drivers or total tractive effort. The 
general minimum charge is $10 per day, increasing to from $25 
to $40 for the modern engine. Two roads base the rental on a 

Gross earnings per day 

B 9,129 $93,330,370 $64,063,856 1.77-' 901 

C* 2,012 33,597,124 23,181,395 732 347 

D 1.496 13,901,415 9,795,074 293 207 

E 9,710 81,888,321 58,540.091 1,952 1,262 

F 7,976 82,311,523 54,661.588 1,781 1,047 

G 8,240 70,853,004 46,428.045 1,608 775 

H 1,747 16,898,666 10.857,207 376 ' 235 

I 1,032 15,114,030 9,908,251 345 161 

J 1,275 16,111,571 11.987,134 399 263 

K* 2.338 34.790,798 27,549.696 811 413 

L 2,636 24,331,048 18,078,140 617 360 

M 801 13,132,536 12,385.212 264 133 

N 7,750 78,297,710 58,426,236 1,284 799 

O 4,763 63.747.632 42,589,299 1,460 803 

P* 1.872 57,745.398 39,376,127 980 408 

O* 1.819 35,019,744 23,018,013 703 348 

R 3.817 32,104,311 20.912,978 682 404 

S 7,285 61,671,460 45,748,269 1,153 767 

T 2,943 20.968,555 15,330,648 313 ) -iit 

U 1,092 10,795,233 8.155,027 216 ( 

V 6,684 71,625,298 52,270,686 1,276 736 

W 1,885 17.886,817 12,407.401 392 230 

X 7,569 91,810,307 63.773,804 1,465 877 

y 2,515 31,486,479 21,774,362 697 422 

• Lines East of Chicago. 

t Where noted. 11 per cent of the engines are assured to he in the si 
service; 10 per cert passenger. 

of which three essentials are necessary, namely : Locomotives 
to move the trains, which is the subject of this paper; equip- 
ment to carry the tonnage, and track to move the trains on. 

No two of these essentials are of any benefit without the third, 
and the importance of all three is shown by the fact that for the 
fiscal year ended June 30. 1913, $544,000,000 was spent for main- 
tenance of equipment and $538,000,000 for maintenance of way. 

•Abstract of paper presented before the Western Railway Club, February 
16, 1915. 








z: C.J; 


< s 


























































































fixed charge per 1,000 lb. tractive effort, which is about 50 cents. 
Five roads based their rental charges on the results obtained by 
calculating interest and depreciation on the value of tlie loco- 
motive in question. To this is added charges for general repairs, 
taxes, insurance and profit on the transaction. An example of 
this with the profit omitted will show what might be termed 
"out-of-pocket'' value of a locomotive. 

The follow'ing table shows approximately what this would 
amount to for different original cost^ between $10,000 and $30,000 


Maiuii, I91S 



willi assumed charges for interest, depreciation, taxes, etc., and 
repairs. In the case of repairs, these are based on the assump- 
tion tliat lUO miles represent a day's work for a locomotive. 

IvENiAL I'kk I^av, Based on Interest, Uepkeciation, Ta.\es, I.nsuranlt; 
AND Repairs 

Taxes and Repairs, 

Interest iJeprecialion insurance basis 

Original at at at $1.09 100 miles 

cost 5 per cent 5 per cent per $100 per day Total 

$10,000 $1.37 $1.37 $0.30 $7.00 $10.04 

15,000 2.06 2.06 .45 8.00 12.57 

.30,000 2.74 2.74 .60 9.00 15.08 

J5.000 3.43 3.43 .75 10.00 17.61 

30,000 4.11 4.11 .90 11.00 20.12 

Of the four nietliods used, namely, size of cylinder, weight of 
drivers, rate per 1,000 lb. tractive effort and interest and depre- 
ciation, the last two are more accurate, and the third is more 
attractive from the standpoint of simplicity. One must admit, 
however, tliat tlie last discriminates between the modern, highly 
efficient engine and the old engine which is less efficient. I he 
modern engine with the latest devices to give more economical 
performance certainly is worth more than tlie same size engine 
built ten or even five years ago. 

We have thus developed three measures of the value of a 
ioconioti\e: What it can actually earn; what it is worth from 
an investment standpoint, or what inight be termed the "out-of- 
pocket" value, and what it is usually rented for. We have also 
shown that 99 per cent of the total operating revenue is pro- 
duced by these locomotives while moving trains. 

An engine earns money only while it is moving freight, and 
is unproductive when not working. In order to bring out forc- 
ibly the actual miles an engine makes per day, data have been 
taken from the reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
for 24 roads, which shows an average of 57 miles per day or 4 
hours at 14 m. p. h. for freight locomotives. On the road with 
which I am connected a study has been made of just how a 
freight locomotive day is spent and a form of report* has been 
developed under the direction of N. D. Ballentine, assistant to 
the second vice-president, which accounts for every movement 
of the locomotive during the day. Reports are made independ- 
ently by the roundhouse foreman, yardmaster and train con- 
(hictor and these are combined with the information regarding 
engines in the shop into a single report which is suinmarized 
for the month something as below. (In comparing this data 
with other lines great care should be taken to know on just 
what basis their data is prepared, and unless the information is 
developed from a record to that described above, its accuracy 
may be open to serious question.) 

Freight Locomotives — Mechanical Department Care 
Hours Minutes 

Koundliouse 6 49 28.40 per cent 

Running repairs 2 41 11.18 per cent 

flassified repairs 3 27 14.38 per cent 

Total mechanical department 12 57 53.96 per rent 

Terminal I^etention 

Hours Minutes 

Regular schedule 2 55 

Stock, fruit, vegetables 7 

Superior trains 3 

Insufficient tonnage 20 

Main line obstruction 

Rest for crews 7 

Miscellaneous 14 

Time between call and departure 16 

Total terminal detention 4 2 16.80 per cent 

Time Between Terminals 

Hours Minutes 

.-\etual running time 4 16 17.78 per cent 

Meeting trains 53 (Miles per 

Station work 1 20 day 68) 

Track conditions 1 

Sixteen hour law 1 

Accidents, etc , . 1 

Block signals 2 

Engine failures 2 

Car failures 3 

Weather conditions 

Miscellaneous 22 

Total time between terminals 7 1 29.24 per cent 

Total time accounted for 24 100.00 per cent 

•See Railway Age Gazette. October 27, 1911. and October 25. 1912. for 
descriptions of these reports. 

I his brings out clearly the following points: 

Hours .Minutes 

.\n engine is in the hands of the mechanical 

<lepartrnent being made ready to move tonnage 12 57 S3. 9 per cent 

An engine is in the hands of the tranh|iortaliuii 

department ready to move tonnage 6 47 28.3 per cent 

An engine is actually moving tonnage and there- 
fore earning money, only 4 16 17.8 per cent 

This brings us to the third division of this paper, viz.. What 
can be done to make the engine more available for handling 
tonnage? This same thought is very aptly stated by George K. 
Henderson quoted in Baldwin Record of Recent Construction, 
No. 60. Mr. Henderson stated as follows : 

"The author believes in wearing out locomotives as fast as pos- 
sible. By this he does not inean wearing them out by improper 
treatment or careless maintenance, but by the legitimate work of 
hauling trains. The faster they can be worn out the sooner they 
will be replaced with modern machines, and the strides made in 
the power and type of locomotives in the last few years have 
been such that an engine only 10 years old is of comparatively 
little use, except for branch service." 

In the example of the distribution of a locomotive day, the 
roundhouse is charged with 6 hours and 49 minutes or 28.4 per 
cent of the day. 

This time is taken up in turning the engine. There are several 
iteins in connection with this work in the roundhouse which will 
suggest opportunities to reduce the time. Improved dump grates, 
good ash pan designs, properly inaintained turntables, and hot 
water boiler washing systems arc all vital factors in reducing the 
lime in the roundhouse. Good inspection is necessary in order 
to save failures on the road. Inspection pits have been found to 
be advantageous, especially when engines are to be turned quickly 
and have not time to be placed on the roundhouse pit. There 
should be enough men in the roundhouse to do the work needed 
and the facilities should include a small inachine shop adjacent 
to the roundhouse, equipped with drill press, shaper, lathe, bolt 
cutter and emery wheel, also a small, well-equipped tool room. 
This machine shop saves a lot of time running back and forth 
to the big shop. There ought also to be good air and steam 

Running repairs is charged with 2 hours, 41 minutes, or 11.2 
per cent of the day. Running repairs no doubt vary closely with 
the time an engine has been out of shop, and with the thought 
in mind of reducing the running repairs the road with which I 
am connected has reduced the mileage between shoppings. There 
have also been put into effect some changes in detail design, 
which in many cases eliminate entirely the running repairs. For 
instance, we cast a brass hub liner on the face of the driving box. 
The result is that it is unnecessary to drop the wheels between 
general repairs, and there is saved the cost of this work, which 
conservatively is $25 for labor and material, and the engine out 
of service for three days, which at $44 per day is $132. A lesser 
saving as regards running repairs is made by the use of brass 
shoe and wedge liners on the driving box. The good effect of 
these shows most clearly during general repairs. We find them 
with the tool marks hardly worn out and it is therefore unneces- 
sary to line up the shoe and wedge. 

Another source of trouble is the pounding of the main driving 
boxes with its attendant trouble in the rod brasses. This means 
the dropping of the wheels to repair the brasses. It would seem 
that this work could be minimized by the use of some form of 
removable brass, although we have no experience with these de- 
vices; we have, however, used the so-called long driving box 
with the result that the trouble was entirely eliminated, and in 
addition there is less wear of the axle. The cost to drop a pair 
of wheels and to crown the brass is approximately $23 labor and 
the engine is out of service three days. 

To minimize stay bolt trouble the practice of using the same 
form of flexible stay throughout the breaking zone is a great aid. 
One of our boiler foremen estimated this alone to save one or 
two days every 60-day period. 

With the advent of the gas and electric welding outfits it has 



Vol. 89, No. 3 

been possible to make many repairs that heretofore would not 
have been possible. For instance, we had a Mikado engine with 
all driving wheels having flat spots 2 to 5 in. long and '/i to V* 
in. deep. To have dropped the wheels would have cost not less 
than $150, which inchules the loss in tire material. To this must 
be added the value of the engine while out of service for three 
or four days. We welded the flat spots with an electric torch, the 
wheels being in place under the engine, in live hours at a cost of 
$2.05 for labor and $5 for material and current. Both the gas 
and electric torch have been used successfully in this work. This 
is only a single example of what this device offers in the way of 
getting an engine into service promptly and at the same time at 
a greatly reduced cost of repairs. It should be an easy matter 
on the above showing alone for any railroad to justify the pur- 
chase of these outtits. Forty-four dollars saved for an engine day 
is interest at 5 per cent on $880 per annum, or by saving 30 
engines one day you save $880. 

After the engine has made its mileage it, of course, gets a gen- 
eral overhauling, and whenever possible we make our engine can- 
didates for shop pull a train to the point of shopping. If it be 
assumed that an engine receives general repairs every 18 months 
and that 60 days is the average time from out of service to in 
service, that means that 11 per cent of the engines are always in 
the shop. Sixty days multii)licd by $44 equals $2,640, the loss 
while the engine is at the shop. During slack business when loco- 
motives are not needed to move trains, it is obvious that we 
should put them through the shop to the extent that they are 
ready for the shop and that the .shop can take care of them. 

While it is desirable to have a few engines in the "bone yard," 
so that "lights" and "heavies" can be properly balanced, there can 
be a saving made by not having too many engines standing around 
idle w-aiting to get into the shop, but rather schedule their move- 
ment to the shop so that they are available with the least waste 
of engine time. An ideal condition would be more nearly realized 
when the condition of the engines slated to go to the shop were 
such that one or two months in service, if necessary to suit the 
convenience of the shop, would not mean a series of failures. 

When an engine is about to go to the shop, many roads (ours 
among them) make a practice of sending advance notice to the 
shop of just what material will be needed. On firebox w-ork 30 
days advance notice is desirable, so that the box will be ready 
to put in as soon as the old box can be cut out. To make the 
most of this plan of advance notice, the information must be ac- 
curate and be acted upon promptly, without waiting to get the 
engine in the yard to see if the material is really needed. 

After the engine reaches the shop what improvements can be 
made there with a view to cutting down the time in the shop? 
The first thought is modern shop facilities, and, considering that 
an engine is worth $44 per day, it ought not to be difficult for 
any one to show substantial savings by the use of more modern 
shops. Assume a shop turning out 30 engines a month, or 360 
per year, and that by making certain changes an engine could 
be turned out four days sooner. Assume further that for three 
months of the year there is sufficient business to provide work 
for these engines just as soon as they arc turned out. The saving 
then will be 90 engines multiplied by four days, or 360 engine 
days, which at $44 per day equals $15,840. Now, if we had taken 
this $16,000 and purchased an engine with it. we would have had 
the same amount of available power, since by changing the shop 
we saved 360 engine days ; but the more modern shop will enable 
repairs to be made more cheaply, and, further, the capacity of the 
shop is increased 6.7 per cent. Hence, it would be considerably 
more economical to modernize the shop. Of course, if this im- 
provement can be made at less than the above the saving is in- 
creased proportionately. 

Another item which I understand some roads have to contend 
with is material. An engine is delayed for want of proper repair 
material, and this delay in some cases runs into months. It must 
not be understood that this is entirely the fault of the stores de- 
partment, as many times the material was not ordered as promptly 

as it niiglit liavf been. On the other hand, the shop man has a 
perfect right to assume tliat certain kinds of material arc kept in 
stock continuously by the stores. A great deal of this material 
for which engines are delayed is very moderate in price, so that 
no great valuation is involved, and, further, practically all ma- 
terial is common to several engines, particularly where there are 
a number of engines in a class, and this reduces the amount of 
stock necessary to carry in order to adequately protect the en- 
gines against delay. Too often the fact seems to be lost sight of 
that an engine is w'orth money, and the fact only is seen that 
there is so much money invested in stock, without regard to 
whether the equipment can be repaired promptly. This policy 
cannot be too strongly condemned, since both the mechanical 
and stores departments are working to the same end, i. e., to keep 
the engines in condition to earn revenue for the railroad. 


M. K. Bariuim, superintendent of motive power, lialtimore & 
Ohio, stated that the average number of miles of the locomotive 
per day and the time in service is surprisingly low, and blamed 
the conditions under which it is necessary to operate some trains 
for this low figure. Regarding terminal detention he stated 
that on the Baltimore & Ohio one division has decreased this 
delay from three hours to one hour by a careful study, with 
no cost lo the load. One cause of excessive terminal detention 
is the lack of proper facilities for turning heavy power. These 
should be provided before such engines are purchased. 

H. T. Bentley, superintendent of motive power, Chicago & 
North Western, stated that enough men should be held in the 
roundhouse lo make running repairs properly when necessary, 
and not have any more than necessary when engines are not 
being repaired. He has found it desirable to keep one or two 
engines in the back shop for comparatively heavy repairs in 
order to keep men busy all of the time. These repairs will, of 
course, be more costly but the availability of the men will make 
it worth while. He did not believe in reducing the mileage 
between shoppings. His road has kept engines in service by 
use of special devices on the engines, some such engines having 
made over 200,000 miles. Engines which a few years ago used 
to make 4,000 miles per engine failure have made as high as 
44,000 miles per failure during the past year. This result is 
attributed to the special eflforts of the roundhouse and shop 
men together with the use of improved details and special de- 
vices on the locomotives. 

A. R. Kipp, mechanical superintendent, Soo Line, stated that 
on regularly assigned engines the mileage is limited by the rest 
of the engine crews or the 16-hour law. He pointed out that 
the interest and depreciation of the extra locomotives required 
for regular crews must be considered together with the claimed 
decrease in maintenance and productive costs and operating 

N. D. Ballantine, assistant to second vice-president. Rock 
Island Lines, suggested that the same system as was described 
in the paper be used on roads maintaining the regular crew 
system in an endeavor to find out just what the value of a 
locomotive is under that system. 

Mr. Goodwin said that with the value of the freight engme in 
excess of $44 per day the advantages of regular crewed engines 
should be carefully studied. It might be found advisable to 
pool the engines in rush season and assign them when there were 
plenty of engines available. 

V.xLi'E OF Ne.^tness, — We had occasion to go into a shop a 
short time ago where the virtue of neatness was instilled in a 
novel manner into the minds of the boys employed. One of the 
first things a boy is asked and shown how to do is to wrap up 
parcels. The head of this company believes that if a boy can be 
trained to properly wrap up objects of awkward shape, one of 
the cardinal qualities of a useful employee — neatness — is being 
fostered. — American Machinist. 


>r Builder, Canadian I'aci 


Montreal. (Ju 

From time to time we read stirring articles from high rail- 
way officers on the desirability ot' a standard box car; these 
frequently take the form of a demand, a call to arms to rise 
and overthrow tlie mechanical man who, it would seem from 
these articles, has for many years obstructed progress and 
caused untold millions of expense by a failure to attain the de- 
sired end. Such articles are usually favorably commented on 
in the railway magazines, the impression seeming to be that the 
•writers must of necessity be right, and the weakness of the 
mechanical man is sometimes apologized for with suggestions 
that in time he may come to see the matter in the same broad 
way as the higher officer. 

If the box car situation is analyzed it will be found that the 
traffic officers and the officers who control the policies of the 
railroads are responsible for the diversity of box car dimen- 
sions, and that no one would be more pleased than the me- 
chanical man if a more limited number of designs were decided 
on. Cars of varying or unusual dimensions, such as those of 
more than usual length, height or width of side door, or having 
large end doors or otherwise fitted for special service or use 
in a restricted territory ; or for service which may be peculiar 
to the entire territory reached by the home road, are being de- 
manded by the traffic department. It is not for the mechanical 
man to say that these cars, which may make 90 per cent of their 
mileage on the home road shall be built to the standard dimen- 
sions said by the traffic department to be unsuitable for the home 
service, in order that the cars may be standard for the 10 per 
cent of their mileage which may be made on foreign lines. 

These matters can only be settled by the traffic department 
and others who decide on matters of policy affecting almost ex- 
clusively their own department. If persons who are at all worried 
about the box car situation will take the trouble to investigate, 
they will find that the box cars built in the last few years, espe- 
cially those with steel superstructure, are costing very little for 
repairs. Barring wrecks, the repairs are confined almost ex- 
clusively to couplers, wheels, trucks and other parts which are all 
standard. If any large part of these repairs is due to a weakness 
in the standard the doctrine of adopting a standard box car is 
then proved unsound, as the standards were usually amply strong 
to meet the demands of service of the period for which they were 
designed ; if weak, the design has been outgrown in the rapid de- 
velopment of the railways, which is the case with the car itself 
and which to some extent will be the case with any car that 
might be adopted at this or any other time. 

From the large percentage of steel frame box cars built dur- 
ing the last few years the indications are that this design will 
be very largely used in the future. These cars are largely con- 
structed of rolled shapes which seldom need renewal, even 
when a car is wrecked, as they can easily be straightened or 
reformed to the original shape at any car repair point. It has 
been found unnecessary to carry rolled shapes in s.ock for re- 
pairs, and as the parts of the cars which fail are the parts which 
are already standard, it is only necessary to carry in stock lining 
and decking, which are being standardized. The cars which 
are giving trouble now, and which are largely causing the un- 
easiness that brings forth the letters and articles referred to, 
are the cars which were built from ten to twenty years ago and 
represent the best state of the art at that time. If the best of 

ihem had been adopted as standard and liad so continued to 
the present day, (here i.s no doubt that the present repair bills 
would lie aljout doul;le what they arc, and this to a degree is 
what it would mean in the way of expense ten or twenty years 
hence should a standard box car be adopted now. 

It is true that we sometimes see appliances on cars, the value 
of which may be very much questioned, but it is probable that 
the net result of the use of these questionable devices may be 
on the credit side of the ledger for the railroads as a whole, 
as they are for the most part being developed towards some 
desired end with the final result that a simple and effective de- 
vice is secured. It is also true that occasionally a designer 
makes an unfortunate mistake in some vital part of the car 
which results in bad failures on a certain series of cars, but 
tliese cars are usually so thoroughly advertised by the embargo 
placed on them by other roads that the railroads are benefited 
as a result, because the same mistake is not likely to be repeated. 
If a box car with wooden underframe and superstructure 
were to be continued it would probably be advisable to go very 
much more into the standardizing of the parts than has been 
done, as the wooden car differs from the steel car in that the 
amount of material carried for repairs increases with the life 
of the car, whereas the corresponding parts do not have to be 
carried at all for steel underframe and steel superstructure 
cars, since more than enough parts are saved from fires and 
cars demolished in the wrecks to take care of the few renewals 
that are required. At the Angus shops of the Canadian Pacific, 
where we have been ordering small lots of 250 box cars at a 
time to keep the shop going in a small way during the depres- 
sion, every lot of cars is built slightly different ; this in no way 
affects the desired interchangeability and will reduce the cost 
of maintenance. These changes are made principally for the 
following reasons: To protect the lading from the elements; 
to increase the strength ; to reduce the weight, and to reduce tht 
cost of maintenance. Examples are given below of how the 
conclusions are arrived at governing the changes for the four 
reasons given above. 

Protecting the Lading from the Elements. — We have a sprink- 
ler arranged to test a sufficient number of cars coming out of 
the shops to determine any possibility of leakage through the 
roofs, sides and ends. This is not the impractical fire hose 
test, but is made to approximate the worst storm conditions, 
and we do not stop when any weakness is found until we find 
a substantial way of remedying the trouble. This is not usu- 
ally done by car builders and is obviously much better than 
waiting for the claims department to report trouble, and the 
writer considers it unfair for shippers to be forced to use a 
car designed in all small details by persons who have not had 
the opportunity to make all of these investigations. 

To Increase the Strength. — Minimum weight being a very im- 
portant factor in the designing and building of cars in the ef- 
fort to reduce weight, we occasionally turn out a finished de- 
sign that may require slight strengthening in some of the parts. 
The necessity of increasing strength is usually confined to the 
superstructure as we have from experience largely overcome 
the weaknesses that were common to the underframe. 

To Reduce Weight. — While not so necessary as increasing 
strength, yet it is important to reduce weight where it is pos- 
sible to do so with safety. Many opportunities are afforded 
with the variety of rolled shapes that is available, to accom- 
plish this without any additional cost, and often with a reduc- 
tion in cost. 

To Reduce Cost of Maintenance. — While the cost of mainte- 



\"oL. 89, Xo. 2 

nance is carefully considered by the designer, yet the cars in 
actual service when carefully observed bring to notice certain 
items of expense that can be remedied, and in some cases en- 
tirely eliminated. The use of rivets in place of bolts is prob- 
ably one of the most important items to be considered in re- 
pair work. Bolts were used in the past for securing parts that 
would require frequent renewals, but as the failures to these 
parts have been reduced the bolt, which is expensive in mainte- 
nance, has been replaced by the rivet. The use of cast steel 
and pressed shapes in place of malleable iron have also to be 
K nsidered here. 

The comparatively low average cost of maintenance of the 
present day, considering the large amount of old wooden equip- 
ment still in service, is entirely due to the present design of 
car which confines the repair expense almost exclusively to 
the wearing parts, outside of a few unfortunate mistakes in 
design, as previously mentioned. It must also be borne in 
mind that the car of the present cannot show the lowest cost 
of repairs, while relieving the hiKli cci^t of repairs to the old 
wooden car which is still with us. 

To sum the matter up, the parts that are movable and need 
to be renewed should be and are standardized. The use of rolled 
sections gives us a car which is otherwise a car of standard 
parts. We also have minimum requirements for the center sill 
construction which would seem, for the reasons given above, 
to be about as far as we should go at present in standard- 
izing the box car, except that limiting outside and inside di- 
mensions should be arranged for ; this should be attended to 
by the traffic department. One of these dimensions, the height 
of running boards, it would seem very essential to decide on 
in order that the roads will not keep on increasing the height 
of their cars until the government concludes that there is not 
sufficient room for the trainmen on top of the cars and issues 
an order that bridges, tunnels and overhead electrical construction 
must be raised to give sufficient clearance, which would be very 

As small changes in the development of the car do not in- 
crease the amount of material to be carried in stock, or the 
Cost of maintenance, why should a complete standard car be 
adopted, which, if followed, will shut off the improvement of 
details which is necessary if we are to progress? 



, New York Central. Ea 

Bulfaio. N. Y, 

The greater part of my railroad career has been spent in 
connection with piece work, and needless to say. I have had 
my troubles, due mainly to men who are averse to the use of the 

I believe we will all have to acknowledge that the tendency 
of the day work system is to bring the superior workman down 
to the level of the inferior. This is virtually placing a pre- 
mium on inefficiency and therefore is opposed to the accomplish- 
ment of the desired results. On some of the western railroads 
there is a system in operation known as the bonus system, 
whereby a workman receives a bonus in addition to his daily 
rate of pay. This bonus, I understand, consists of a part of the 
increase earned by the operator by reason of an increased 
output, due to increased efficiency and diligence on his part. 
While this system may give better results and bring better re- 
turns to the men than the day work system, it does not seem 
possible that it will provide maximum output per operator, 
minimum cost per article, and maximum earning rate per hour, 
per operator, such as would be attained under a proper piece 
work system. 

There are three potent factors in the successful handling of 

•From a paper read before the Niagara Frontier Car Men's .^ssociation, 
February 17, 1915. 

a piece work system. These are elficient piece work inspectors, 
peace of mind on the part of the workmen, and a schedule that 
can be readily understood by the men. 

Peace of mind on the part of the workman is absolutely 
necessary if he is to do his best under any system. This should 
be considered in the light of the fact that the piece work 0)ier- 
ator is olten suspicious of the piece work inspector. If there 
is one thing that will put a piece work operator out of sorts, 
it is the slightest doubt as to whether he has received pro] er 
reimbursement for his labor; therefore a great deal depends 
on the piece work inspector, as the average workman is no 
mathematician, and generally has an innate suspicion of the 
inspector, in that he is not reasonably sure that he has received 
proper returns for the work performed. For this reason the 
piece work schedule should be one that can be easily inter- 
preted and understood, and combination prices eliminated. The 
other two factors in an efficient piece w'ork system rest with 
the management, and make it possible for the success of the one 
just described. 

Extreme care should be exercised by piece work inspectors 
to sec that the men are fully compensated for the work per- 
formed, and in the matter of piece work prices, to see that the 
workman is properly compensated, considering the conditions 
under which he is working, and that the company obtains the 
desired results. A piece work price should not be installed 
where the inspector cannot "back it up.' In other words, he 
sliould never set a price under given conditions unless he can 
produce men from the working force who can demonstrate 
that the price is right and good for an increase of about 50 per 
cent or more over the day rate. Then, should a workman 
question the fairness of the price, he can be shown tliat it is 
productive of increased earning capacity, and he will readily 
see that piece work is of great benefit to him and the piece 
work inspector is his friend. These are the results obtained 
under a proper piece work system and are conditions that ap- 
peal strongly to the operator. 

Did you ever stop to consider wliat little importance you 
are alone; how little you would amount to if it were not for 
the association and co-operation of others? What would the 
tools and machinery of an institution or shop amount to if it 
w-ere not for the men who operate them? In this sense a piece 
work inspector should take the operator into his confidence 
and show him that he believes in him ; show him how his 
earning capacity can be increased and how both he and the 
railroad company can be benefited, then you w-ill derive from 
the workman the full benefits resulting from the use of a piece 
work system. 

Every man working in a shop under a proper piece work 
system knows that it is wise to study at all times ways to get 
his work out quicker, as he realizes he will be benefited there- 
by. He is aware that the shop superintendent and his foreman 
are anxious to co-operate with him along these lines, and that 
he will not be penalized for using his brains in having the 
piece work price cut, because by his increased output he is de- 
creasing the cost of production. In my estiination. piece work 
can never be handled successfully if the management will al- 
low the prices to be cut as soon as they become remunerative 
to the workmen. Nothing is more discouraging to a man than 
this price cutting for no other reason than increased efficiency 
on the part of the operator. Therefore it behooves the piece 
work inspector when making prices to use the utmost care to 
note the conditions under which the man is working. In this 
connection, I wish to bring out that where men are put on 
piece work, the shop equipment should be of such design and 
quality as will offer best results and should be kept up at all 

In closing, I desire to emphasize the fact that where a shop 
is working under a thorough piece work system, there is no 
question about its efficiency, as I believe piece work may prop- 
erly be considered a synonym for eflficiency. 

Steel Baggage and Mail Cars 

New Equipment for the (Central of New Jersey Is 
70 ft. Ion?; and Has a 30 ft. Mail Compartment 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey lias in service seven steel 
bagiiagc and mail cr\rs having a 30 ft. mail compartment equipped 
according to the United States Government specifications and a 
•40 ft. compartment for the transportation of liagfiagc or express. 

The wel) plates are 5/16 in. thick, and each has two i'/i in. hy 
31/2 in. by yi in. angles riveted to it, top and bottom, while rivet- 
ed to the flanges of the four tfjp angles is a 2 ft. 5 in. by '/i 
in. top cover plate. This plate is 65 ft. 3^ in. long, and does 



■' I 'l'l I -'ji'i ! ll rU" I. ^ ?-^? 

mr^iajfe ^ 



Z%m%Jo'A^—s'o'—A^-s'o"-Av-3'a--A^ — is'a'---^'"'""^' 

709i~-~rT., — 


Floor Plan of the Jersey Central Baggage and Mall Cars 

These cars were l)uilt by the Harlan & 1 lollinasuorih Corpora- 
tion. Wilmington, Del., are 70 ft. 9.)4 in. long over end plates anJ 
weigh 144.700 lb. each. They are mounted on si.x-wheel trucks 
equipped with the Commonwealth steel frame, and clasp brakes. 


not therefore e.\tend the full length of the car. .-\ bottom cover 
plate is not used. 

'1 he two center crossbearers are placed 5 ft. 4 in. on either 
side of the center of the car, and are built up of diaphragms 

Center Sill Construction of the Baggage and Mail Cars 


The center girder, uhicli is the main member of the under- 
franic. is of the fishbclly type, built up of steel plates and angles. 
The two wel) plates are 2 ft. 4 in. deep at the center of the car. 

pressed from 5/16 in. plate, which are the full depth of the 
center sills at the inner end, while the lower flange tapers up- 
ward toward the outside of the car till a depth of 6^ in. is 
reached. .\ 5/16 in. pressed liller is also used between the webs 

Steel Baggage and Mail Car in Service on the Centr of New Jersey 

and are spaced IS in. apart; this depth is maintained for 9 ft. 
7 in on either side of the center of the car, at which point the web 
plates begin to taper, and at a point 6 ft. lY^ in. farther on they 
reach a depth of 18' ,s in., which is maintained to the end of the car. 

of the center sills, and the crossbearers are finally reinforced 
by a 6 in. by 5^ in. cover plate at the bottom and a 9 in. by Yi in. 
cover plate at the top, both extending acrgss the car. The two 
intermediate crossbearers are spaced 16 ft. 2 in. on either side 




\'oL. 89, No. 3 

of the center of the car and the dia|)hragms, which are 14 in. The double body bolsters are spaced 50 ft. 6J4 i"- between 

deep at the inner end and 6;^ in. deep at the outer end. are centers and consist of two members whose centers are 2 ft. 8 in. 
pressed from 5/16 in. plate with a 5/16 in. pressed filler between on either side of the center of the center plate. These members 


,!0 Pressed Car/ines 

Arrangement of the Members of the Body Frame and Underframing 

the webs of the center sills. A top cover plate 9 in. by fg in. are built up of four diaphragms pressed from 5/16 in. plate 
is used on the intermediate crossbearers as well as a 6 in. by with 5/16 in. pressed fillers between the webs of the center sills ; 
Yi in. bottom cover -plate, both extending the width of the car. a 20 in. by Vi in. top cover plate is used and a 16^4 in. by }4 in. 

March, 1915 



bottom cover plate, both e.xtending tlic wiiltli of the car and 
riveted to the pressed diaphragms and fillers. Steel castings of 
special section are riveted to the two cross members of the body 
bolster at points 3 ft, 10 in. on either side of the longitudinal 
center line of the car and support the body side bearings. Cross 
ties or floor supports consistinR of 6 in., 8 lb, channels arc used, 
and extend hclwi-iMi iho i-cntcr ;in(l side sills. The side sills arc 

toward tlic outride of the car and the back lOMi '"• nearer the- 
center of the car than the inside of the web of the Z-bar, and' 
another channel of the same size and weight is placed \2]/i in. 
nearer the center of the car with the flanges turned inward. At 
a distance W/i in. farther in from the back of the inside channel 
two i'/i in. by ZYz in. by 5/16 in. angles arc placed with the 
long flanKcs riveted together ami the short flanges turned out- 

-?^^?^-''^ -dt^-t. 



End Construction of the Steel Baggage and Mail Cars 

6 in. by V/i ni. by 7/16 in. angles and extend the full length ot 
the car. 


The end construction is of the dummy type. The corner post 
of the car is a 4 in, by 3^ in, by }i in, angle to which is riveted 
a 4 in,, 8,2 lb, Z-bar, and a lYz in, by ly'z in, by "4 '"■ angle is 
also riveted to this Z-bar as shown in the drawing of the end 
construction. A 4 in., 5.25 lb. channel is placed with the flanges 

ward at the end of the car. A 4 in., 5.25 lb. channel with the 
flanges toward the outside of the car and its back placed 6^ in. 
beyond the center of these two angles forms the door post. The 
main vertical bufling members are 9 in., 25 lb. I-beams, and are 
riveted to the two connected angles referred to above. An end 
buffing sill construction of 3 in. by 3 in. by fs in. angles and 
5/16 in. plate extends between this I-beam and the corner of the 
car. The pud members are connected at the top by a 10 in., 



\'(M.. 89, Xo. 3 

15 Hi. channel, extending across tlie car uitii the nances turned posts to the corners of the jjj»- ami 7 in. l)y ■ .. in. plate lictwccn 

upward. the doors ; antl the side posts are 3]/- in. by 3 in. hy J^ in angles ; 

BODY FRAMING the side sheathing is l-i in. plate. The side door posts are 4 in. 

The baggage doors have an opening 8 ft. 6 in. wide by 6 ft. by 3 in. hy 5/16 in. angles connected at the top by 4 in., 8.2 lb. Z- 

2's in. in height, while the side doors in the mail end (if the bars. The side plate is a 5 in. by 3 in. by 5/16 in. ;uigle, to the 

Sfx-Wheel Truck with Commonwealth Cast Steel Frame, Used on the Jersey Central Baggage and Mail Cars 

car are 2 ft. 10 in. wide and tlie same height as the side doors in 
the baggage compartment. There are 6 in.. 8 lb. cliannel diagonal 
braces used between the top of the corner posts and the bottom 
of the lirst side post on either side of the car as well as between 
the top of the door post and the bottom of the side posts next 
adjoining. The belt rail is 7 in. by J4 i'l- plate from the door 

of the Mail Compartment 

upper flange of which is riveted a 5 in. by '4 in. jilate with a Zyi 
in. by 2'/, in. by ,'4 in. angle above this. The deck sill is a 3 in. 
by 3 in. by J4 'I- angle, and the carlines are pressed from No. 10 
steel plate. The lower deck roof plates are 1/16 in. thick and the 
upper deck plates are 3/32 in. thick. 


The trucks are of the six-wheel type, have clasp brakes and are 
fitted with the Commonwealth cast steel frame, which is 15 ft. 6 
in. long over all. The truck wheel base is 11 ft. and the joui-nals 
are Syi in. by 10 in. M. C. B. standard. The wheels are Midvale 
solid steel and are 36 in. in diameter. 

The floor in the mail compartment is of '^ in. steel plate with 
3-ply Salamander insulation and double wood floors, the bottom 
floor being }i in. yellow pine, while the top floor is ^ in. maple. 
1/16 in. insulating paper being placed between the two layers. 
In the baggage end the floor is of Flexolith composition laid on 
Keystone metal with % in. floor plates and covered with yellow 
pine grating. There is an oak flooring at the doorway laid cross- 
wise of the car. The inner side of all the outside plates through- 
out the car is lined with 3-ply Salamander insulation while the 
outer side of all the inside plates in the mail compartment is 
insulated with the same material, excepting the ceiling plates, 
which are insulated by Agasote strips between the plates and 
the carlines. There is no insulation on the inside finish in the 
baggage compartment. The mail compartment is sheathed on 
tlie inside with 1/16 in. steel plates on the sides and No. 16 gage 
plates on the upper ceiling. The lower ceiling is covered with 
No. 20 gage plate while the ends are sheathed with ]/i in. steel 
l)late. This is also followed in the baggage compartment. 

M\R(H. 1915 



The special equipment iiuhules Gould eoiiplcrs, ccnleriiij; de- 
vices and friction draft gear; Miner friction buffing gear; Ajax 
vestibule diapliragnis ; Standard Heat & Ventilation Company's 
vapor system of heating ; Safety Car Heating & Lighting Com- 
pany's axle liglU equipment and ligliting fixtures; Edison stor- 
age batteries ; Adams & W'estlakc Company's folding lavatory ; 
Westinghouse air braise and signal system ; American slack ad- 
justers ; Ward ventilators and Gould journal boxes. 



ofessor at Railway Mechanical Eniiinccriii«. U 
PidsburSh, Fa. 

ity of Piltsbiirtih, 

The design of the ditTerent members nf a freight car truck 
has received careful attention for a good many years, but so 
far as the writer knows, no delinite information had ever been 
obtained with regard to the actual force coming on the side 
frame until tlie work herein described was undertaken. The 
object of these experiments was to obtain the actual force com- 
ing on the truck side frame and from the results thus obtained, 
to check tests on a truck side frame in wliieh certain forces 
were assumed. 

The three main forces to which the side frame is subject are, 
the downw^ard spring pressure, the end thrust of the bolster, 
and the twisting of the side frame caused by the spring plank 
wlun the car is on a curve and the inside pair of wheels is at- 
tempting to get ahead of the outside pair. Of the three forces 
mentioned, the maximum direct vertical force had often been 
estimated and was generally considered to be not over twice 
the normal load on the frame when the car was standing still. 
That is, the vibration of the car up and down on its springs 
might carry the pressure underneath the spring from almost 
nothing to double the normal load. 

The car used in the test was a Pennsylvania standard H 21 
hopper, which had special cast steel trucks. One truck was de- 
signed to obtain the direct vertical load, and the other to obtain 
the bolster thrust and the twist of the spring plank. Special 
apparatus was used to determine the forces. After the car was 
equipped, it was first tested light, by putting it next to a switch 
engine in the Allegheny yards of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
This was done in order that minor adjustments of the apparatus 
mi.s^ht be made and the entire arrangement tried out. After this 
the car was put in local and through freight trains and repeated 
round trips from Pittsburgh to .Alliance were made. One round 
trip w-as made betw'een Pittsburgh and Altoona in fast freight 
service to obtain the force due to the twisting action of the 
spring plank. 

Table I gives the results obtained with regard to the maximum 
direct vertical force on the side frame. 



T.xBLE I. — Results of Tests to DETER^ 

OS Truck Side FB.\.^<E 

Maximum Max- 
Load Load on pies- imum load 
on car. truck side sure on side in per cent 
Test Kind of service lb. frame normal, lb. frame, lb. of normal 

1 Local None S.175 16.-400 200 

2 Local None 8.175 15,800 193 

3 Local 66,000 2-1.675 52.800 214 

4 Local 66,000 24,675 45,000 182 

5 Through freight 91,000 30.925 66,600 216 

6 Through freight 91,000 30.925 76,000 246 

7 Through freight 91,000 30,925 60,000 194 

The first three columns are self-explanatory. Column IV 
gives the load in pounds on the side frame with the car standing 
still. These values were obtained by subtracting the weight of 
the wheels, axles, side frames and journal boxes from the total 
weight of the car, and dividing the remainder by four. Column 
V gives the maximum pressure obtained with the direct vertical 
load. This was obtained from the record made of the maximum 

•From a paper presented before the Railway Club of Pittsburgh, Feb- 
niary 26, 1915. 

•est of service 


1 Local 

2 Local 

3 Local 

4 Local 

5 Local 

6 Through fast f 

7 Through fast f 



compressing of the springs. The lirst four values in this column 
were obtained while the car was equipped with M. C. li. stand- 
ard 100,000 lb. capacity springs, each of which has a capacity of 
64,000 lb. before going solid, while the last three values were 
obtained with special springs, each having a capacity of 104,000 
lb. before going sfilid. Column \'I gives the total load in per 
cent of the normal. 

Table 1 1 gives the results obtained with regard to the maxi- 
mum pressure set up between the bolster and side frame, due to 
the end thrust of the bolster against the columns of the frame. 

Table IL — Results op Tests to Uetebmine .VlA.'dMUM Uolste» Thbust 
ON Truck Side Frame 

Load Bolster thrust 

Load on truck Bolster thrust in per cent 

on side in lb. on side of normal load 

Kind car, frame frame, maximum on side frame 

Test of service lb. normal, lb. Right Left Right Left 

1 Local None 8.175 4,300 4,600 52.6 56.2 

2 Local 66,000 24,675 5,900 9,200 24.0 37.4 

3 Local 119,150 38,463 5,900 9,500 15.4 25.4 

4 Local 91,000 30,925 8,500 7,500 27.4 24.2 

5 Local 91,000 30,925 5,400 5,300 17.4 17.2 

6 Local 91,000 30,925 4,000 S.IOO 13.0 16.5 

7 Through fast freight 91,000 30,925 4.900 7,500 15.8 24.2 

8 Through fast freight 91,000 30,925 7,300 7,300 23.6 23.6 
Each test represents a round trip, Pittsburgh to Alliance. 

Table HI gives the results obtained with regard to the maxi- 
mum force due to the twisting action of the spring plank on 
the frame. 

Load Twisting Twisting 

on truck of spring load in per 
side frame plank in lb. cent of normal 

normal, at center of load on 

lb. truck, maximum side frame 

8,175 3,000 36.7 

24,675 3,975 16.1 

38,463 4,975 12.8 

30,925 5.050 16.3 

30,925 5,050 16.3 

30,925 5,550 18.0 

30,925 6,100 19.6 

First six tests represent trips from Pittsburgh to .Alliance and return. 
Test 7 represents trip from Pittsburgh to .-Mtoona and return. 

From a survey of the results obtained in Table I, it will be 
seen that the maximum direct vertical pressure may vary from 
182 per cent to 246 per cent of the normal load on t'ne frame. 
The results, however, show that only in one case does the maxi- 
mum load exceed 216 per cent of the normal load, so that for 
the design of a freight car truck probably a conservative figure 
would be 220 per cent of the normal load on the frame. It was 
found, however, during three round trip tests between Pitts- 
burgh and Alliance, in which the standard M. C. B. springs 
were employed and the total weight of the car was 139,700 lb., 
that the springs went solid several times during each trip of 80 
miles. This w-ould indicate that a force of over 64,000 lb., which 
was the capacity of the springs, came upon them. 

After it became evident that these springs were going solid, 
the car was equipped with four new sets, each having a capacity 
of 104,000 lb., and three round trips were made, the results of 
which are given as the last three lines in column V of Table I. 
These results indicate clearly that the standard M. C. B. springs 
do not have sufficient capacity and that forces of over 70,000 
lb. are not unusual with a normal load of 30.925 lb. on the frame. 
Xow if we consider for the average 100,000 lb. capacity car, 
weighing 40.000 lb., and loaded to 110.000 lb. capacity, making 
a total weight of 150.000 lb., that the wheels, axles, side frames 
ar.d journal bo.xes are not carried by the springs, the normal 
load carried by each spring would approximate 33.000 lb. If we 
consider 220 per cent of this load, the maximum force for de- 
sign would be 72,600 lb. for each frame, "fhis is somewhat 
higher than most companies have used in their design. 68.500 lb. 
being a common figure. Then in view of the fact that the 
springs are going solid, it is almost impossible to predict what 
maximum force might he obtained due to the impact after the 
springs go solid. This may account for a great many failures 
in arch bar and cast steel side frames. 

I'rom a studv of Table II. it will be seen that the force ob- 



\XL. 89, No. 3 

tained due to the end thrust of the bolster against the columns 
of tlie frame, referred to hereafter as the transverse load on the 
frame, varied considerably, but the maximum with the total 
weiglit of the car, 167,850 lb. was 9,500 lb., or 25.4 per cent of 
the normal load on the side frame. This 25.4 per cent of the 
average load on a side frame on a 100,000 lb. capacity car would 
be about 8,500 lb., and probably for safe calculating 9,000 lb. 
would be the maximum force for test purposes. 

From Table III it will be seen that the twisting force reached 
a maximum in the trip from Pittsburgh to Altoona, and as this 
force is dependent upon the degree of curvature, this is readily 
explained, as this track has one or two curves of 8 deg. curva- 
ture, and the track between Pittsburgh and Alliance has no 
curve of over 5 deg. The maximum force obtained was 6,100 
lb., from which we may assume that 6,000 lb. would probably 
be a safe figure for test. 

The part of this paper which deals with the actual stress in 
the side frame, is taken from the results obtained from the tests 
of some 40 different designs of side frames, using three forces 
acting on the frame as described above. The exact amounts 
of the three forces were not the same as those found in actual 
service, due to the fact that the tests conducted to determine 
the stress set up in the side frame were made before the tests 
to determine the actual maximum force were carried out. For 
the purpose of this paper only the results from two different 
designs of frame will be considered. 

As previously stated, the three forces, namely, direct vertical, 
transverse and twisting, were found to have maximum values 
for a 100,000 lb. car of 72,000 lb., 9,000 lb. and 6,000 lb., re- 
spectively. The actual forces used in the testing hereafter de- 
scribed were 68,500 lb. direct vertical, 6,000 lb. transverse and 
5,000 lb. twisting. However, the results due to the transverse 
load have been increased 50 per cent and represent the stress 
due to a transverse load of 9,000 lb. There might be some 
question in this procedure, if it had not already been found in 
actual test that for all practical purposes the stress at any point 
in the frame was directly proportioned to the loads as long as 
the elastic limit of the metal was not reached. 

For the purpose of determining the stress throughout the 
frame under the three different loads, the Berry strain gage was 
used. This gage is so constructed that the elongation in 2 in. 
gage length can be determined to .0002 in. 

In preparation for a test the frame was mounted on two heavy 
supporting castings on the bed plate of the testing machine, 
this being a 300,000 lb. Riehle machine, located at the Granite 
City plant of the American Steel Foundries. The distance be- 
tween the supports was equal to the wheel base of the truck. 
Double knife edge bearings over the supports were used. Cap 
castings over the support and filler blocks were also used to 
obtain the correct height for the spring seat and to support the 
knife edges. After the frame had been selected for the test, 
the points of reading were located, and small holes were drilled 
into the casting about }4 in. deep and exactly 2 in. apart, and 
these holes were then reamed to get a good firm surface for 
the points of the instruments to rest in. 

The two frames to be discussed were from two general types 
of design, designated according to the cross section of the dif- 
ferent members in the frames, namely, the L section and the I 
section. The L section type is as shown in Fig. 1, and will be 
referred to as frame A. This design of frame has been discarded 
by the manufacturers. The I section type, as shown in Fig. 2, 
is a later type of design and will be referred to as frame B. 


When the design of a truck side frame has been diicussed 
the question usually has been, "What factor of safety shall we 
allow?" An arch bar type side frame has a calculated factor 
of safety of from 12 to 16. This seemingly large factor was not 
used originally, but was arrived at by substituting larger and 
larger sections in an attempt to overcome breakage; yet a great 

many arch bars break, and we usually say that the metal was not 
of the correct composition. The same is true of the cast steel 
side frame ; defects are laid to the metal, while they may have 
been due to the design. In fact it appears that the average de- 
signing engineer has been using 25 per cent mechanical knowl- 
edge and 75 per cent judgment in the design of the different 
members that go to make up a freight car truck. 

A careful study of the results of these tests will, I believe, bring 
out some important factors in the design of cast steel side frames. 

^° ° - °W 

Fig. 1 — Truck Frame Design A 

The results show clearly that we have not been able to calculate 
accurately the stresses occurring in the different members of 
the frame. For instance let us look at the stresses obtained in 
the tension member of the A frame at readings 46x and 69. 
Reading 46x is on the web side of the L, and reading 69 was 
taken on the top of the lower leg of the L at the front or away 
from the web. The stress at point 46x for the direct vertical 
load is 1,600 lb. per sq. in. in compression, and at point 69 is 
17,600 lb. in tension. Also at the points 8 and 8x, which were 
taken at the top of the L section, the 8x reading being on the 
back of the web and the 8 at the front, the 8x reading was 
5,400 lb. in tension, and the 8 reading 16.500 lb., showing plainly 
that the tension member is attempting to bend in such a way 



Fig. 2 — Truck Frame Desig 

that the two legs come nearer to the center of gravity of the 

Another place where the stress does not follow what might 
be expected, is at the center and bottom of the frame at read- 
ings 29 and 29x. The stress at 29 is 2,700 lbs. compression, and 
at 29x is 27,000 lb. tension. If we stop to consider a moment 
we can see why this is true, for the outer edge at point 29 can 
bend up and relieve itself, thus leaving most of the load for the 
web side. Now if we look at the results obtained at the same 
points on the tension member of the B frame where the web is 
in the center, we find that while there is some variation, it is 
not so wide. For instance, if we take the reading at the bottom 
of the B frame at points 38 and 38x, it will be seen that the 
stress is 14,000 and 12,200 lb. per sq. in., respectively. The 
average of the two would then be 13,100 lb. Now if we should 

I'; ' , ^ 

March, 1915 



average the two strci^scs at points 29 and 29x on frame A, we 
wuiild obtain 12,150 lb. in tension, so it will be seen that the 
average stress for all jiractieal purposes is the same, It is also 
true that if \vc should caleulate the moment of inertia for the 
.cross section of these two frames at tliis pnint, we would find 
them almost exactly the same. 

The same comparison can be made at the lower end of the 
tension member; that is, the average stress for the direct ver- 
tical load on the A frame at points 46x, 69, 8 and Hx, is 9,200 lb., 
and for the same relative points on the B frame, that is points 
34, 34x, 11 and llx, it is 8,600 lb., which is for all practical 
purposes the same. I'or the comparison at the bottom of the 
frames, the maximum stress on the A frame is 27.000 lb. per 
sq. in., and 14,000 lb. per sq. in. on the B frame ; and at the bot- 
lom of the tensi(jn member tlie maximum on the .\ frame is 
17,600 lb. and 11,600 lb. on the B frame. That is, the maximum 
.stress in the B frame under the vertical load is SO per cent less 
in the bottom memlier, due to its sytnmetry of section, and 30 
per cent at the bottom of the tension member in the B frame. 
This same saving is true in any comparison of the stresses due 
to the three loads. The maximum indicated stress on the A 
frame is 38,100 lb., at point 72. and there is a maximum of only 
19,400 lb. at point 41x on the B frame. 

There are a great many places where the stresses are over 
20.000 lb. in the A frame, but none where they are that high 
in the B frame. In fact there are only 5 points on the B frame 
where the stress is over 16,000 lb., with the three forces applied, 
and there are 24 points that show over 16,000 lb. stress on the 
A frame; there are 7 points on the A frame that show over 
25,000 lb. stress. This would indicate that the metal in tlie A 









































Fig. 3 — Comparison of Stresses in Frame B and a Frame Four 

Pounds Lighter 

frame was distributed in such a manner that each pound was 
■doing a more uniform share of -the work than is the case in the 
A frame. 

The value of a small amount of metal at the correct point is 
well shown in Fig. 3. Here are shown two curves, one plotted 
from the result obtained under the diri .t vertical load on frame 
B at the points 1 to 21, inclusive. These values are represented 
liy circles. The other values plotted as crosses on the same or- 
dinates are results obtained from a frame made from the same 
pattern as frame B, but 4 lb. lighter. This metal was placed as 
a narrow flange on the B frame, as shown at the top of section 
A-B Fig. 2. This flange started gradually at point 3 and con- 
tinued to point 13. where it disappeared into a small bead on 
■each side of the web. The maximum stress at point 11 on the 
E frame, was only 30 per cent of that obtained on the frame 
^vithout this flange and which weighed 4 lb. less. 

Another place where a small amount of metal can materially 

reduce the stress is at the bottom flange. The results of tests 
on four frames of similar design except as to the width of the 
bottotn flange are given in Table IV. The maximum stress in- 
dicated was oljtained by averaging the stres'es at the positions 
on the difTcrcnt frames represented on the P. frame at points 41 
and 41 X, the weakest points on frame B under all loads. 

Table IV. — Km'ect of I)iife»ent Widths op the Bottom Meubei ow 
THE Stbess 

Maximum avcraifc 
stress in bottom 
Widlli member ilui- to vertical 
of bottii.n member and twisting loads 
S'/j in 24,900 lb. 

4 in 20,000 lb. 

454 in 16,950 lb. 

5 in I3,J00 lb. 

The transverse load was not taken into consideration because 
of the fact that it had very little effect at this point, due to its 
distance from the point of application of the transverse load. 
The assumption w-as also made that the twisting force acts in 
both directions and the stress due to the twisting would at times 
lie positive on both sides of the frame. It will be noted that the 
maximum average stress will he almost inversely proportioned to 
the square of the width of the bottom member. 

From a survey of the results here given it may be seen that 
the stress is somewhat higher than might be expected. I am 
sure we would be very much surprised if we should test an arch 
bar truck under these inethods. It is certain that where we 
have been assuming that w'e had a low stress, and that stresses 
of 8,000 to 10,000 lb. have been breaking frames, we will have to 
change our assumption and say that it will take over 20,000 lb. 
to cause cast steel to fail. I feel that cast steel will stand up 
under occasional stresses up to 20,000 lb. for a good many years. 

If we stop to consider the cast steel bolsters we will find that 
they are getting loads that produce stresses of 20.000 lb., and 
they are standing up. For instance, a bolster that has a stress 
of 10,000 lb. under a load of 68,500 lb., which is the load used 
for calculations by some companies, will often receive double 
that load as indicated from the tests recorded in the first part 
of the paper ; thus it is seen that 20,000 lb. stress w ill be produced 
in tlie bolster. 

The B frame is not heavy ; its weight is 435 lb., and as the 
M. C. B. Association committee last year recommended to the 
association a frame weighing 500 lb. for 100.000 lb. capacity cars, 
this frame could be increased 65 lb., and if the metal were well 
placed, the maximum stress under the three loads would not 
be above 15,000 lb. at any point. I am confident that if a cast 
steel frame was never subjected to a stress of over 15,000 lb. 
the life w'ould be considerably more than the life of the car. 


General Car Foreman, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. Chicago. III. 

One of the most important questions in regard to the freight 
car repair problem at the present time, is to get rid of the 
short draft timbers extending only to the body bolster and 
secured to draft sills by only about four ^s-in. or l-in. bolts. 
Cars thus equipped are not safe to handle in the heavy ton- 
nage trains, and if their owners wish to continue using them, 
they should keep them on the home rails, regardless of the 
capacity of the cars. Only recently I saw a box car that had 
been given heavy general repairs. It had been repainted and 
made practically new- above the sills. It had six 5-in. by 8-in. 
longitudinal sills, with short draft timbers depending entirely 
on the vertical bolts with which they were attached to the 
draft sills for support. Work of this kind is not economical, 
nor is it safe, and it should be discouraged in every way. 

r^Iany economical practices in freight car repairs have been 
brought out in the past few years, and I would invite your 

•From a paper presented at the Tanuarv meetine of the Western Rail- 


RAii.WAV a(;e gazette, mechanical edition 

\'ou. 89. No. 3 

attention to some that have come to my notice. Few it any 
of them are original with me, and most of them are in quite 
general use on various roads, but they may serve to en- 
courage the bringing out of others. 

Bolts % in. and over in diameter can be welded or pieced 
out to any desired length under a Bradley hammer at a sav- 
ing of at least $15 per thousand bolts, and they will give 
satisfactory service. 

Old l>s-in. truss rods from dismantled cars may be made 
into brake shafts by upsetting the lower end and truing up 
the drum under the hammer, and drawing the upper end 
down to the proper size for the ratchet wheel for a distance 
of about 4 ft. This makes a good stiff shaft, at a mucli less 
cost than when it is made of new iron. 

Column bolts for arch bar trucks may 1)c made from old 
1%-in. body truss rods, by upsetting the two ends about 4 in. 
or 5 in., truing up under a hammer and leaving the center 
of the bolt IJ^ in. in diameter. 

Old 1%-in. truss rods from dismantled cars may be ham- 
mered down under a Bradley hammer into 2 in. by J 2 in. 
flat, 1 in., 1% in., or 1J4 in. round, at a saving from $5 to $12 
per ton over new iron. This, of course, does not apply where 
roads have their own rolling mill. 

Coupler pockets that are cracked or broken at the rivet 
holes may be pieced out at a considerable saving. They 
also may be made from arch bars from dismantled cars. 

Draft springs that have taken a permanent set may be 
heated, stretched to the proper length and retempered. 

The flanges may be sheared from old truck channels, and 
the web made into plates for strengthening wooden draft 
sills between the end sill and the body bolster. 

Brake shafts from dismantled box and stock cars may be 
cut off and made into brake shafts for coal and flat cars. 

Brake rod jaws from dismantled cars may be cut off and 
used in making rods for repair work. 

Metal brake beams from dismantled cars may be used for 
repair work on system light-capacity cars, or in chan.ging 
cars from wood to metal beams. 

Very good brake beam hanger supports may be made from 
old arch bars, which, when riveted to the channel type spring 
planks, make an economical way to change cars from out- 
side to inside hung brakes. 

Many malleable castings may be replaced with forgings 
or pressings made from scrap at the shops, at a less cost than 
the price of the malleable castings; carline pockets are a 
good example of this. 

Old wrought iron body bolsters may be made into dead- 
wood plates, carrier irons, tie straps and many other things. 

A very good bottom brake shaft support may be made 
from old arch bar tie straps. 

The good part of broken sills, and good sills from dis- 
mantled cars may be made into sill splices, at a saving of 
about $1 per splice. 

The bottom two-thirds of short pieces of second hand sills 
can be used in making running board saddles, grain strips, 
blind girths, cripple posts, etc. 

The lining and the lower course of roof boards frr)m dis- 
mantled cars can, if carefully removed, be used for repairs. 

The good sheathing on dismantled cars, if carefully re- 
moved, may be used below the side and end doors, for mak- 
ing end doors for repair work, and also for sheathing on 
bunk and company service cars. Old flooring from disman- 
tled cars may be used to good advantage in making grain 
door nailing strips. 

Oak carlines from dismantled cars can be made into first- 
class outside cross braces for side doors. 

Good second-hand brasses may be rebored and reliiied at a 
considerable saving; if filled brasses are used it is often only 
necessary to rebore them. 

Second-hand nuts, if promptly picked up from around the 

repair tracks, can usually be reclaimed by simply giving them 
an oil bath. It pays to remove nuts from broken stub ends 
of bolts by hand. 

Cracks in the floors of box cars can be calked with oakum 
and much flooring saved. By using flooring not exceeding 
6 in. in width in box cars, the necessity of renewing on ac- 
count of shrinkage cracks that cause leakage of small grain, 
will be materially lessened. 

Use plates at least 3 in. square under the vertical rod lieads 
at the side plate, also under the heads of bolts going throu^li 
the sills, to prevent them from pulling down into the plate 
and sills. This applies to cars with wooden sills and plates. 

The ends of old box cars may be greatly strengthened by 
applying IS^-in. end lining, extending from corner post to 
corner post. Many grain leaks may be avoided by fitting 
this lining tight at the floor and at the girth. 

The road with which I am connected has found it good 
practice to build, at its own shops, from SOO to 700 stock 
cars a year, in order to use up the good material taken from 
dismantled cars, which would otherwise have been sold as 
scrap. These are 36-ft. cars with steel center sills and treated 
intermediate and side sills. In practically all cases we have 
been able to use second-hand material in their construction, 
with the exception of the lumber, steel sills, post pockets, 
brasses, bolts, etc. This second-hand material is carefully 
inspected, worked over and the worn parts removed, so that 
the cars are just as good as if all new material had been used 
in their construction. 


J. A. Carney, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, spoke of the 
success attained in building up worn collars on car axles by 
the oxy-acetylene process at a net saving of $2 per axle. He 
also stated that the practice of tearing down old box cars 
had proved more economical than burning them; some lum- 
ber can be reclaimed, the scrap wood can be used for firing 
up engines, and the iron will be in much better condition to 
classify. Williafn Queenan,* also of the Burlington, stated 
that the cars are torn down on a piece-work basis and that 
the lumber reclaimed more than pays for the cost of tearing 
the cars down, reclaimin.g the lumber and sorting the scrap. 
In a period of 11 months about 700 cars were torn down, 
from which $15,000 worth of lumber was reclaimed, the lum- 
ber being rated at $14 per 1.000 ft. The cost for doing this 
work was between $11,000 and $12,000, which leaves a very 
good margin of profit. 

E. G. Chenoweth, Rock Island Lines, took exception to 
some of the items mentioned in the paper, stating that he 
believed if everything be considered, that the cost of reclaim- 
in.g would be more than the purchase of new material, men- 
tioning as one of the items to be considered the freight rev- 
enue derived from hauling the material. He called attention 
to the practice of one road, which uses old 100,000 lb. capacity 
axles for making axles for 80.000 lb. capacity cars, and old 
80,000 lb. capacity axles for making axles for 60,000 lb. capac- 
ity cars, the axles being upset and re-turned. 

J. F. DeVoy, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, spoke of the 
benefits derived from the use of rolling mills for re-rolling 
the scrap iron. He said that while in every case they would 
not prove economical on a cost basis, they were of great 
convenience in cases of emergency. He also mentioned the 
benefits to be derived from oxy-acetylene welding. 

Other members spoke of the possibility of using scrap lum- 
ber for making sheds and buildings, and cases were men- 
tioned where the metal roofs from torn-down cars were cut 
up and used as shingles. The Louisville & Nashville cuts 
off the flanges of the old metal roofs and reflanges them, 
using them over again for car roofs. 

"Mr. Queenan described the method of making stock cars from scrapped 
box cars in an article published in the Railway Age Gazette, Mechanical 
Edition. July. 1913, page 379. 

p Pmactic 

CLIPS FOR SECURING DATE TAGS TO steam gages arc removed an.l tested. All air gages as well 



Assistant Master Mechanic. Central of Genriiia. Macon. Ga. 

The accompanying drawings show a metliod of securing 
date tags to steam gages and safety valves and the special 
tools which have been developed to punch and form the 

Fig. 1 — Method of Applying Date Tags to Gage Dials 

clips. Fig. 1 shows a steam gage dial in which the clips 
have been punched and a date tag inserted. The tags are 
made of stiff white paper on which the date of test and the 

^ l<--^->t<-- 

"h — \—. — : H- 


|<- 3,^ _>| 

T.-?g Ho Wer Bhnk. 
Vr-?'^u' Coeraiion. 

rig. 2 — Dies for Forming Tag Holders 

as steam gages are tested at quarterly inspections and tags 
arc applied to them in the same manner. The tool used 





Tapped.riBolt | 

(5 ! 





3Me hr Ad/uifing I}ial 

k— 2/*'—- >1 


Fig. 3. — Tool for Punching Clips in Gage Dials 

for punching clips in tlie gage dial is shown in Fig. 3. It 
consists of a die plate and a guide for the punches, held to- 
gether by means of a 7/16 in. cap screw. The upper piece 

->1 a \^-e—'^ 

dip. rr<ade of f*>. J8 B. IfO. 
Shee-f Brass. 


w- z\ -A 

Tog. made of No. 24 BfT.O. 
Bnght Tin. 

Fig. 4 — Method of Securing Date Tags to Safety Valves 

engine number are written with ink. These tags are applied is lipped over the edges of the die plate to secure proper 
when quarterly inspection is made or for any reason the alinement. Graduated slides are secured to the side of the 




\'uL. 89. \o. 3 

device, by means of whicli the gage dial may be adjusted to 
secure the proper location of the clips. 

The method of securing tags to the safety valve, together 
with details of the tags and clips, are shown in Fig. 4. The 
tags are made of bright tin on which are stenciled the engine 
number, the date tested and the pressure at w^hich the valve 
is set. A tag may readily be slipped into the clips and after 
once in place there is no danger of its losing out. When 
the safety valve is next tested the tag may be pried out with 
a screw driver and another one inserted. Blue print instruc- 
tions, showing the method of application and removal, are 
sent to all outlying points where quarterly inspections are 

Special tools are provided for cutting and forming the clips. 
The blanks are punched by the tool shown in Fig. 5. Its 
body is made up of two parts, the upper part forming a 
guide for the punch and the lower part containing the die. 
The punch is fitted into a sleeve within which it is secured 
from turning by means of a flat dowel, and a stem is screwed 
into the sleeve against the top of the punch. The sleeve 
is prevented from turning in the body of the punch by means 

This tool consists of a die with a circular depression at the 
center 1/32 in. deep and a forming tool on the face of which 
is a corresponding extension 9/16 in. in diameter. By placing 
the blank in the slot shown in the face of the die with the 
straight edge on the center line, the tag holder is formed 
by a blow of a hammer on the stem of the forming tool. 

The clips are secured to the safety valve cage by means 
of one screw and one rivet in each. The holes in the cage 
are drilled Iiy the use of a jig. 


BY H. 

Shop Foreman 


Railroad. Dun 


the ini- 

Keep clean. Keep neat; then watch 
provement of your workmanship. 

Don't keep your eye on the other fellow for in the meantime 
your own work is being neglected: at the same time don't let 
the other fellow "get something over on you." 

Take good care of your tools. .\ competent machine shop 

a Tap 

Tag Holder Blank. 
First Operaii'on. 

-Punch for Cutting Tag Holder Blanks 

of a special screw, the end of which slides in a vertical groove 
in the side of the sleeve. A difference of Yt, in. is allowed 
between the diameters of the die and its pocket in the body 
to provide for accurate alinement. The die is secured in 
position by means of three set screws, which also hold the 
two parts of the body together. 

After the blanks have been punched, the pockets for the 
ends of the tags are formed by the tool shown in Fig. 2. 

foreman, by an inspection of your outfit, can tell pretty well 
what class of work you will do. 

Make every move count. This life is the greatest game you 
will ever play in, and don't forget that there are some good 
places vacant. 

Systematize your methods of working. 

Be cheerful. Don't watch the clock ; as long as you do the 
hands move the wrong way. 

March, 1915 



Don't watch the fin'i 

Don't destroy yimr 

Uings to the lirni fnnii 

man. He is watching you. 

employer's property. Remember it be- 

which you get your living. 



■an. Central of Georgia, Macon, 

The illustrations show a chucU for finishing boiler check 
bodies from which good results arc being obtained in service. 
It consists of a cast iron block cored to receive the boiler check 
111 Illy, which is lirnily held in ])iisitinn by means of a wrought 

Finishing the Valve Seat and Threading for the Cap 

iron clamp and two studs in one end of the casting. Two sides 
of the chuck at right angles to each other are bored and 
threaded to fit the lathe spindle. These are opposite the 
branch pipe connection and check valve seat of the boiler 
cl'.eck. W'l'.cn secured in the chuck it is possible to coni- 

Chuck for Finishing Boiler Check Bodies 

pletely finish a boiler check body with the exception of the 
boiler connection without resetting the work. The check 
valve seat is finished by means of a special reamer shown 
in one of the illustrations and the threads for the cap are 

tapped on tlie lathe. The construction of the chuck requires 
a slightly bent turning tool for finishing the branch pipe 
connection and the threads are chased by means of a special 
threading tool. The end of the connection is finished by 
means of a ball reamer. The boiler connection is finished 

Chuck in Position for Finishing the Branch Pipe Connection 

when the check is applied to the boiler. This work is done 
on centers, a pipe center being used in the tailstock. 



The devices described below are in use at the Minneapolis 
shops of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie and have 
been found to be especially convenient on the work for which 
they were designed. 


One of the illustrations is a sketch of a lifting hook used for 
removing heavy work from lathes and other machines in which 
the work is held on centers. It is of special advantage where 
a positive lift is made, such as with electric crane service. Its 

_ h iV "^"1 r — io-—->^y—6-—^ 

Si O.SOiam. Spring ^' 9ound Sfeel 
Lifting Hook for Heavy Work ~ 

construction is clearly shown in the illustration, and by its use 
the danger of bending the centers or pulling the work out of 
the machine before the centers have been released is practically 
eliminated. The compression of the springs will indicate when 
sufficient force has been applied to suspend the load. 


-An arrangement for giving the oscillating motion to a cylin- 
der head when it is being ground to the face of the cylinder 
is shown in another of the engravings. The arm from the 
cylinder head is attached to the pitman, which is driven by 
means of an air motor through the gears, as shown in the il- 
lustration. The frame work for the machine is made of IJi in. 
by 5^ in. bar iron and is attached to the floor of the shop by 
lag screws. The cylinder arm and the pitman are provided 



Vol. 39, No. 3 

with a series ol holes to permit adjustment. Witli this device 
the work requires the services of ouly one m;ui, and it may be 

Adjus fable M different 
~ Cylinder ffe/ghfs 

Attachment for Grinding Cylinder Heads 
done in a shorter period of time with very satisfactory results. 


A device similar in nature to that referred tn for grinding 
cylinder heads and used for operating the pump handle of 
a hydraulic press is also illustrated. It is made up of a train 
of gears taken from an old hand car. a crank axle and a driv- 
ing sliaft to receive an air motor. The frame holding these 
jiarts is bolted to the base of the liydraulic press as indicated 

Hydraiilrc Press Attachment 

in the illustration. The stroke of the pump is adjustable. This 
device has been satisfactorily used for operating the press when 
removing and applying crank pins or driving axles. It saves 
the time of the men in doing the work, and in some instances 
it will eliminate the necessity of having more than one man 
on the job. 


One of the drawings shows a lifting hook used for tires when 
they are being set or removed. The clamp is easily applied and 
eliminates the necessity of using set screw clamps which take 
time to apply, and which often stick when they become heated. 
Several sets of screw clamps are also required to accommo- 
date the diiTerent widths of tires, but this device will take care 
of all sizes of tires. 


Another device in successful use in these shops is a quick- 
acting clamp to be used when testing air brake feed valves. 
The valve is placed in the clamp at .), shown in the engraving, 

[[iB 'i 


Lifting Hook for Tire Setting 

J/2 in. dowels being applied to fit in the bolt holes of the feed 
valve. By screwing down on the clamp wheel B, the feed valve 
is securely clamped to a leather gasket as shown, while the air 

Clamp for Testing Feed and Reducing Valves 

pressure is admitted to the brackets of the clamp and thence 
to the valve in the same manner as on a locomotive. 

Device for Mounting Air Hose 


Another illustration shows an arrangement that has proved 

satisfactory in mounting air or signal hose in one operation. A 

March, 1915 



piece of slei-1 Ull)ill^; 14j> in. lung, lluted as indicated, is held 
in a clamp atlaclied to the work bencli between an air cylinder 
and an air hose coupling. The nipple is placed on the end of 
the air cylinder plunger, and as the air pressure is applied botli 
the coupling and the nipple are forced into the hose. The steel 
tubing is ilutcd in order to reduce the friction between it and the 
hose. All material "used in the construction of this device is 
taken from stock usually found in a railroad shop. 



General Forcmin. Chesapeake & Ohio. Ashland. Ky. 

The accompanying chart shows a system of organization which 
i.'i applicable to large or small engine houses by adding to or 
reducing the forces under the different headings. 

The important part in roundhouse work is to keep the power 
moving, but in doing so to know that the engines sent out are in 
condition to make the trip successfully, with minimum risk of 
tying up the road by an engine failure. To accomplish this suc- 
•cessfully, there must be system. A rotmdliousc cannot be run 

should really be taken out i>f llic English language so far as 
he is concerned, and the word "try" substituted. 

Men with fixed occupations should be directly under the round- 
house foreman, as shown by the chart. The boilermakcr fore- 
man and gang foreman arc placed in immediate touch with the 
men in their departments ; this enables them to know each job 
and its progress. These men are required to keep accurate de- 
tailed records of the work done by the men in their departments, 
in an 8 in. by 12 in. record book, indexed with the engine num- 
bers, there being several pages to an engine. The work and 
the name of the workman is entered therein daily. This is a 
very useful book in lawsuits, as it contains facts and prevents 
guess work. 

An engine inspector and a good inspection pit are two of the 
most imjjortant factors in engine house organization. If there 
is no inspection pit, a pit of some kind should be made. At 
this point, engine crews are relieved in the yards, one mile from 
the round^iouse and shops. The engines are handled by hostlers 
to and from the yards. The hostlers keep what is known as a 
roundhouse record book of the engines they handle. They enter 
the train numlicr, the engine number, the names of the engine 
crew, the time the engine arrives on the inspection pit and the 

Dispatcher. \ 

Engine House 

Cleaners and 

Scrap Men, 

Boiler yVashers 




Flue Cleaners 

Orafe and 

and ^n:h 

/Ish Pan 

Brick Men. 


and Fire 


Apprentice. \ 

Machine Shop 

Laborers or 

Coal Elevator 

Men and Sand 

Dryer. Fire 



\t^achine Men 
\ Machine Appr 
'Drill Press Men. 
Bolt-Cutters "K. 

Tool Room arxi 

Tool Room 


Chart for Engine House Organization 

successfully unless there is system in the w'ork. The number of 
men employed should be determined by the number of engines 
despatched. .A machine shop is a necessary addition to a round- 
house terminal at divisional points, but not where an erecting 
shop is located, as the latter can be depended on to take care of 
the roundhouse requirements. Neither is the machine shop fore- 
man always necessary ; the size of the terminal governs this. 
Usually the gang foreman W'ill handle the machine men. With 
first-class facilities, a plan can readily be worked out, but with 
most railroads feeling the effects of legislative agitation, con- 
ditions must be taken as they are, or as they develop, which means 
the facilities are usually considerably behind the demands and 
systematic methods are necessary to accomplish the desired re- 
sults. A roundhouse man should never say "Can't." The word 

•Entered in the competition on Engine House Work, which closed .Tub- 

time the engine is ready for service. They also keep in this 
book a record of any delays encountered, to and from the yards. 
This book is checked by the engine despatcher or clerk with 
the engine house record book, when he makes his daily report of 
engines despatched. When an engine comes in from a trip, it 
is handled to. and left by the hostler on the inspection pit: the 
hostler delivers the engineman's work report to the engine in- 
spector, who makes his inspection, entering the result on a 
regular work report over his own signature. He attaches the 
engineman's report to the one he makes and delivers them to 
the roundhouse foreman, who figures on the engine from the 
work shown. The engine watchmen handle the engine from the 
inspection pit to the ash pit. to the coaling station for coal and 
sand and over the turntable into the roundhouse. In the mean- 
time, the two work reports are in the hands of the gang and 
boiler foremen, slips are made for the different jobs and they 



\'0L. 89, No'. S 

are ready for the engine when it is placed in ilic roundlunise. 
These slips are given to the men and are returned when the 
job is completed. The name of the man is entered on the slip 
with the length of time taken on the job. These slips, with the 
work reports of the engine inspector written up and signed, are 
filed in book form. As the books are filled they are filed in the 
foreman's office. This arrangement avoids the necessity of the 
workman reading the full report, and saves time as the job is 
specialized and tlie undivided attention of the workman given 
to it. 

One of the most difhcult problems of the roundhouse foreman 
is keeping in touch with the engincnien and firemen, to avoid a 
surplus of men in the pool or extra lists. The whereabouts of 
each man should be carefully kept, that is, those oflf on leave or 
from other causes. The call boys or engine callers should make 
day and night lists of the trains run and the men used, and 
these lists should be used daily by the clerk and engine despatchcr 
when revising the lists and blackboards, the revised lists beini; 
furnished the callers and roundhouse foreman daily. The con- 
dition of the work on engines should be transferred by memoran- 
dum by the day and night roundhouse foremen daily. 

Not every back shop mechanic will make a good roundhouse 
man ; I have reached the conclusion that this will also apply to 
helpers and laborers. On the other hand, there are coinparatively 
few roundhouse mechanics, helpers or laborers who will not make 
good in the back shop. This is due to the back shop work being 
done more mechanically, the roundhouse work requiring more 
resourcefulness. Invariably in employing a mechanic I ask him 
about his roundhouse and back shop experience and I find the 
man that has served a part of his apprenticeship on roundhouse 
work, does better, quicker work, than the man from the back 
shop who, as a journeyman, has worked in the roundhouse. I 
believe that machinist and boilermaker apprentices should be given 
roundhouse experience during the last half of their third year to 
develop the confidence requisite in a good roundhouse man and 
to provide men for this service in the future. It is becoming 
more difficult to get satisfactory common labor for roundhouse 
purposes. This class of men prefer back or erecting shop con- 
ditions or the work in other industries ; invariably the latter pay 
higher wages, which attract the better element. The roundhouse 
man necessarily accepts the conditions as presented and must im- 
prove them if he can. A record book of applicants who appear 
eligible, with name, residence, reference and the result of an 
investigation of the references entered therein will prove of 

Monthly statements should be compiled showing the detail 
cost of all classes of labor and roundhouse material ; not engine 
material or supplies that are charged to the diiiferent accounts 
but material used to run the roundhouse and shop, on a basis 
of the kind and number of engines despatched. The statement, 
covering all roundhouses, should be furnished to each round- 
house foreman with a direct letter to each man, calling attention 
to any particular item in the comparison that fits his individual 
case ; comparisons make ambitious men think. 

Foremen should endeavor to instill confidence and f.iith in 
the men. It is a good asset and they will respond more quickly 
than might be expected. It seems to me that the secret of suc- 
cess in organization is in knowing just how far you can place 
responsibility on your men, from the highest to the lowest in 
the ranks. When you have decided this, build up on it and you 
will create an organization that w-ill be strong as a whole and 
will produce results. 


Anthracite Co.\l.— Shipments of anthracite coal are reported 
for the calendar year 1914 as amounting to 68,302,961 tons, 
which is 766,667 tons less than in 1913. The total output, in- 
cluding an estimated 3 per cent sold to local trade and to em- 
ployees, was over seventy millions, and in addition to this an 
estimated quantity of eight millions was used in operating the 


A new style of locomotive water gage cock, which is the in- 
vention of Harry Glenns, Portsmouth, Ohio, is shown in one of 
the illustrations. In designing this cock it was desired to obtain 
one that would meet the rigid requirements of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission and permit the user easy access in mak- 
ing repairs while the locomotive is under steam. It will be 
seen that the device is made in such a manner that the valve 
may be easily removed and replaced in case of necessity. To 
do this the stem and cap are first removed, when the valve may 
be taken from the body, the passage from the boiler being closed! 

Glenn Gage Cock 

by the ball valve. In regrinding while the boiler is under pres- 
sure, the tail piece, which holds the ball valve from its seat, is 
removed. The valve is then reground on its seat by means of a 
special socket made for that purpose. The ball valve prevents 
the escape of steam from the boiler during this operation. If 
the gage cock is used frequently no trouble is experienced from 
the ball valve becoming covered with scale. 

Another simple design of water gage cock is also illustrated. 
It is simple in construction as well as efficient from a service 
point and meets the requirements of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. The possibilities of leaks are much less than in 
many of the types" now in use. The valve consists of the handle, 
the spindle, the packing nut, the removable section of the body, 

|<— -//f ->| 

, H ^^^^^^3.,^^::^ ^^^:^^^^ ^ -^-"^^r?^^^^?^^^;^;^^^.^^ 

Water Gage Cock with Special Features 

the drip tube, which may be cast integral or made separately, 
as desired, the connecting sleeve, the body and the gasket G. 
The cock when in the position shown does not permit the passage 
of steam to the section beyond the gasket G, and when the 
spindle is screwed down on the seat in the body it is again closed. 
To repack the nut, the cock may be either as shown or closed 
against the seat in the body. To renew the gasket G, the cock 
is closed tight. When in the closed position all parts except 
the spindle and body may be removed and cleaned or renewed 
as occasion may demand. Any lime in the outlets for steam 
and water in the spindle may be loosened and readily blown out 
as soon as the reassembling is completed. 

Saving Time. — The element of greatest expense in manufac- 
turing is time, for a little time wasted here and there will lessen 
and possibly destroy, the year's profits. — American Machinist. 

March, 1915 





Today we are living in an era of productive efficiency where- 
in all are striving to attain the greatest possible output with the 
mininium of elTort. While as a wliole there are many praise- 
worthy features in the systems developed to attain this end, yet, 
due often to the method of introduction, several very undesirable 
features have arisen which have often discredited the vvliole 
movement toward scientilic management. 

To attain the greatest efficiency in an industrial organization 
there is needed the harmonious co-operation of all the forces in- 
volved, and to obtain such co-operation there must exist a feel- 
ing of mutual trust and confidence throughout the organization. 
We often find cases where a so-called efficiency system has been 
introduced in a plant and yet, after a period of suflicient length 
for its proper introduction, it has lapsed, leaving the organization 
with far less of the spirit of co-operation than existed before 
the system was inaugurated. In fact the system, mainly because 
of those to whose hands its introduction was entrusted, has really 
done more toward sewing seeds of discontent among the em- 
ployees than perhaps any innovation which has been introduced 
up til tlie present time. 

Wherever the application of scientilic management has been 
honestly worked out we can find material benefit to both the em- 
ployer and employee, but under the cloak of efficiency engineer- 
ing we can still find a great deal of faking carried on. It is 
because of the faking that the chief complaint is raised against 
efficiency which has for its only object the speeding up of both 
men and machines. . Scientific management rightly construed 
means the proper correlative action of employer and employee — 
a co-operation resulting in benefit to both. 

The introduction of a system of scientific management must 
be gradual. Human nature resents the sweeping criticism in- 
ferred in an abrupt change of methods. Scientific management 
is generally accompanied by many changes in methods, and 
therefore to be ultimately successful it must rely upon winning 
the sympathy and co-operation of the workman, as well as the 
foreman and officer. This cannot be accomplished by the mere 
issuing of instructions; it requires a painstaking campaign of 
education as to the purposes of the system. The efficiency en- 
gineer must, therefore, be a man of extreme tact; he must 
possess a suaveness that will at all times insure confidence, and 
above all things else, he must be a keen judge of human nature. 
The failure of the efficiency engineer to exercise these qualities 
is one of the chief obstacles in the way of scientific manage- 

Changing over to the new basis cannot be expected to pro- 
duce phenomenal results at the very outset, but must be able 
to show some improvement in a short time. Educating the 
workman to the system and above all, convincing him that it is 
finally to result in a larger pay check for him, of course takes 
time, as it requires an individual study of every man in the shop. 
It can, however, be greatly facilitated by means of shop demon- 
strations and lectures. The modern apprenticeship system, 
wherein the boy is taught the most efficient methods, and above 
all, where he is taught to use his resources rather than blindly 
to follow precedent, has done much toward paving the way 
for the successful application of the principles of scientific man- 

It often happens that increased plant output is obtained at 
the expense of the employees alone rather than by improve- 
ments in the methods of production. In order to successfully 
operate an efficiency system the men must be assured that their 
increased productiveness will not be offset by decreased pay. 
Their confidence in the integrity and sincerity of the manage- 
ment must be retained. Ground for the least feeling of sus- 
picion or mistrust tends to destroy the morale upon which the 
success of the system entirely depends. 


Storekeeper, Chicailo & North Wcitern. New Butler. Win. 

The accompanying illustration shows an improved packing 
iron, designed by P. S. Hoye. car foreman of the Chicago & 
Xorth Western at Xew Butler, Wis. The principal feature of this 
packing iron is the small hook which is placed on the shoulder 
c;f the iron for lifting the journal box cover, thus saving the 
time of turning the iron around to use the handle for this 
purpose. The length of the spoon is 14 in. instead of 10 in., 





L /^ Round fn?n \ 

Journal Box Packing Iron with Improved Features 

tliis being sufficient to reach the depth of the largest journal 
Ijox, without the hook interfering in any way with the manipu- 
lation of the packing iron. It is also short enough to prevent 
contact with the ties when the cover is being raised. This new 
packing iron has been used at New Butler with very good suc- 
cess, and saves considerable time in inspecting journal boxes. 



Boiler Maker Foreman. Michigan Central. Kalamazoo. Mich. 

The beading tool shown in the drawing is designed to prevent 
the formation of a groove in the tube sheet at the outer edge 
of the bead on the tube. It is especially intended for use in 
the roundhouse where it may be handled by an inexperienced 
man without danger of injury to the tube sheet. It does not 
require as much material to form the bead as the usual type of 
tool as it draws the tube out instead of shouldering it up. The 
foot of the tool should be ground off to fit the size of the tubes 
with which it is to be used. Many ordinary beading tools are 
lost by being shot through the tubes with an air hammer. The 

Patch Bolt with Groove Above the Threads. Beading Tool De- 
signed to Prevent Grooving of Tube Sheet 

shape of this tool is such that it will not enter the tube when in 
operation farther than as shown in the engraving. 

The patch bolt shown in the illustration was designed and 
has been successfully used by the author for more than a year. 
Some of those bolts have been placed on the fire line in the 
firebox and none of the patches in which they have been used 
have required calking since they were applied. The distinctive 
feature of the bolt is the removal of the last thread under the 
countersink by means of a round nose lathe tool, thus forming 
a slight groove above the threads. Where straight bolts are 



Vol. 89, No. 3 

used williiiut tlic formation of such a groove, if the thread is 
not cut close up to the edge of the countersink and the patch 
is countersunk to a feather edge, the bolt will tighten into the 
sheet before a lirm contact between the head and the counter- 
sink of the patch has been secured, the patch not being drawn 
firmly to place. On the other hand, in endeavoring to cut tlie 
thread close up under the head of the bolt, the edge of tlie 
tool will usually cut into the head and spoil its surface. This 
prevents the proper seating of the bolt in the patch. 



The drawing shows a machine wbicli w;is dt-signcd to reliore air 
pump cylinders without removing them from the center piece. 
It consists of a belt-driven, star feed boring bar mounted upon 
a surface plate, the operation being very similar to that of the 
portable boring bar used iu reboring locomotive cylinders. The 
pump is placed on the bed of the machine and the cylinder to be 
rebored is slipped over the end of the bar. A split taper bush- 
ing of brass is then inserted in the stuffing box and the packing 
nut screwed on just far enough to hold the bushing in place. 
The pump may then be placed on the boring bar, the outer end 
fif which is inserted through the taper bushing and centered by 
tightening the gland nut. .\fter the cylinder has been secured 

on the end of tlie star feed screw at B the cutter head is fed 
into the cylinder until it strikes the center jiiece, and the collar 
C of the automatic feed stop is clamped to the pawl release rod 
by means of a set screw. The cutter head is then run back out 
of the cylinder, the tools placed in position and the machine 
started. The tool posts or jaws have a slide bearing in the face 
of the cutter head which provides for radial adjustment. Cams 
which are shown in detail on the drawing control this adjust- 
ment and are so designed that a maximum variation of 54 in- i'l 
the diameter of cut may be effected without disturbing the set- 
ting of the tools. When boring the cylinder the tools are ad- 
justed to the minimum diameter. .After the bore is completed 
the cutter head is fed up to the counterbore at the inner end 
of the cylinder, the cams adjusted liy means of a wrench and a 
cut taken from the counterbore. Tlie outer counterbore may 
be finished in the same way, the entire operation requiring but 
one setting of the tools. A second adjustment of the automatic 
feed might be desirable before finishing the outer counterbore. 


Norfolk & Western, Roanoke, Va. 

About a year ago the driving box work at Roanoke became so 
heavy that it could not be handled with one macliine. There 

Machine for Reboring Air Pump Cylinders Attached to t!ie Center Piece 

to the bed by means of clamps on tlie four studs shown in the 
drawing, the cutter head is set in the counterbore and centered 
by means of the set screws shown at -i. By means of a crank 

were no other machines available for this job, and after some 
careful study it was decided to convert an old car wheel boring 
machine into a machine suitable for boring driving boxes. 

Maiuh, I'JIS 

All. WAY A(;i': oAzi'/i-i'i':, mechanical euitkjn 

•| hr 

car wheel li..riiiK m 

11 was 

ii]i ..11 

a planer where the 

t..ii .. 


I good beariiiR fur 

the s 


uul having a 40 in. 

liy -)() 

I'lrst striiipe.l ami (lie frame set 
f the base was planed down to 
itationary table. A table 5 in. 

in. top with three T slots was 

the .jri^inal lever counterbalance with counterweights inside the 
frame, two sheaves being secured to brackets within the frame 
for this purpose. A simple clamping device, the construction 
of which is clearly shown in the illustration, was installed on the 
machine, each side of which is operated by an 8 in. air cylinder. 
The pulley ratios are such that the bar has a speed of 40 
revolutions per minute; the feed is 'A in. per revolution, the 
same speed and feed being used for all sizes of boxes. '1 he 
time required to bore a box varies from 12 miti. to 20 min. The 
total cost of converting this machine did not exceed $200, in- 
cluding the labor, material and patterns. 


Old Car Wheel Boring Mill Converted for Boring Driving Boxes 

made and securely bolted to the frame of the machine. A bracket 
to carry an ordinary belt drive was cast and litted to the back 
..f the frame, the hnrin" lr\r being driven by means of bevel 

Table and Clamping Device on Converted Boring Mill 

gears. The original sleeve was bored out and bushed at both 
ends to take a 41 j in. boring liar. The original feed, belt driven 
from the driving shaft, was used, but it was necessary to replace 


tchison, Topcka & Sania Fc 

, Supervisor, Atchison, Topcka & Sania Fc, Topcka, Kan. 

I'lvery organization which deals with the performance of work 
.Upends on the elements of human activity, primarily, physical 
and mental. The facilities afforded and the conditions prevailing 
at the time of the performance have much to do with the results 

I'.ngiiie houses vary in importance as the amount of work done 
and the number of engines handled, and also with the class of 
service in which the engines are used. In selecting men for im- 
portant engine houses the management generally casts about for 
the successful men at the smaller points. The foreman is selected 
.11 account of his ability to get things done right and at the 
proper time. He must deal fairly with his men and be able to 
obtain the best results from a given nuirber, and he must also 
be in perfect accord with the operating officers with whom his 
organization is dealing. He inust have his work so in hand that 
he will be able to estimate accurately when he can have certain 
engines ready for service. He must be able to estimate when an 
engine which is not in the engine house, and perhaps not oflf its 
run, will be ready for service if the operating department re- 
quires this information. He must be quick to locate troubles 
which develop and to apply remedies. He must know when a 
piece of work needs to be done, when it is done right, have a 
fairly accurate knowledge of the cost of doing it, as well as the 
time it should require. 

He must have the respect of the men who are working under 
his direction, and he must be interested in the most minute de- 
tails as well as have a grasp on the whole situation. He must 
be able to select men who are capable of performing the various 
classes of engine house work. He must see to it that the various 
regidations relative to standards ..f equipment, etc., are lived 
up to. 

He must be familiar with the keeping of such records and the 
making of such reports as are required, the use of fuel in the 
engine house, and the issuing of supplies, and he must exercise 
the best economy. He must be prompt to execute special orders 
for power, and have a thorough knowledge of the facilities at 
hand. He must be diligent, patient, and have the power of con- 
centration, as well as capacity for long sustained eflfort. He 
must have full knowledge of all the crafts engaged in the work, 
be familiar with the most approved methods and be able to keep 
the work going under all conditions. 

Specialists should be used on certain work, such as boiler work. 
valves and valve motion, pistons and guides, rods, driving boxes, 
etc.. and if not available in the shop force they should be de- 
veloped. He should see that his men maintain the buildings and 
shop equipment in good condition. 

Comfortable working conditions, facilities for the personal 
coiTifort of the workmen, such as reading rooms, clean amuse- 
ments, and something in the line of educational and social ad- 

npetition on Engine House Work, which closed Tulv 

15. 1914. 



Vol. 89, Xo. 3 

vantages, will do much to prevent engine failures and keep down 
the cost of maintenance of power, by keeping workmen in a 
contented state of mind, resulting in efficiency. 



c, Chicaeo & North West 

naba. Mich. 

Con.-iideriny: conditions as far hack as 1KS5, when lueonnitives 
were painted with drop black, the best kind of varnish was used 
and all repair work was well done, brings more clearly to mind 
some of the more important repair items which, if properly 
taken care of, will assist greatly in keeping power out of the back 
shops and hospital tracks, and thereby increase the mileage be- 
tween shoppings. 

The care of wedges is one of the most important items. If 
properly kept up, the wedges not only prevent excessive wear in 
driving bo.xes and brasses, shoes and wedges and rod brasses, 
but do a large share toward avoiding loose and broken cross- 
heads, broken front cylinder heads and broken frames. If an 
extra man is placed in charge of this work, the care of driving 
box cellars and the keeping tight of binder bolts, it will take 
but a short time to show that these items will relieve the back 
shop of a large amount of work. 

Valve motion should be watched carefully ; never allow a 
"lame" engine to run ; close inspection should be made and the 
trouble corrected. This can be done in any ordinary roundhouse. 
If necessary close the eccentrics and perhaps apply bushings in 
the links, transmission bars and hangers 

Tire work, rod brass renewals, the babbitting of crossheads, 
etc., can all be done in roundhouses. Lateral play in trailing and 
engine truck boxes should also be looked after in roundhouses. 
In an article in the Railway Age Gazette some time ago, refer- 
ence was made to increasing the wheel and driving box face to 
give a larger side bearing and avoid lateral wear. In my opinion 
this is wrong as it would mean more friction and would be a 
disadvantage on sharp curves. 

Careful inspection should be made of all tires. Good inspectors 
are valuable assets, and we should be more careful in selecting 
the men for this important work. Wheels, and especially steel 
tired engine and tender wheels, should never be allowed to run 
to the limit as to sharp flanges ; this is a dangerous condition in 
the first place and moreover it then becomes necessary to turn off 
too much metal from the tread of the wheel in order to again 
obtain the proper flange. Little or no attention is given to deter- 
mining why at times one flange out of four in a tender truck be- 
comes sharp. Few roundhouses or shops tram the wheels and 
square the trucks properly; I have never found four wheels 
under a tender sharp at one time and if the practice is followed 
of carefully tramming the wheels to see that the truck is square, 
I can see no reason why one wheel should become sharp out 
of four. 

Boilers should be washed not less than three times a month, 
taking water conditions into consideration. I believe that in 
most places it will be found that there are not enough boiler 
washers employed. If the matter of boiler washing is kept up it 
will avoid a great deal of boilermaker's work and help greatly 
to preserve fireboxes and tubes. A good blow-off system and the 
free use of soda ash will go far to eliminate scale and mud from 
boilers. Care should be taken to keep tubes free from soot ; 
they should be blown out at every washout, the brick arch taken 
down and the tubes candled ; the calking edges should be watched 
very carefully and kept free from burrs. 

All tools which are standard should be inspected once every 
30 days by a competent man. 

The importance of the positions of the various foremen should 
not be overlooked. These men hold responsible positions and 
should be selected from the ranks of the best mechanics ; they 

should have the ability to handle men as well as to direct the 
work and see that it is properly done, as my experience has indi- 
cated that much money is paid out for poor work which has to 
lie done over again. How many foremen personally watch the 
work to see that it is properly done? Close supervision of de- 
tails is very desirable and with good judgment and a little 
common sense, will lulp materially in the economical main- 
tenance of power. 



.V jig for liolding rod brasses wdiile being finished on a sliaper i.'i 
shown in the illustration. The two parts of the brass are clamped 
l)etween two circular plates which are pivoted to the vertical face 
of an angle plate secured to the shaper table. The brass is held 
securely in place by means of six set screws in the outside cir- 
cular plate and it has been found that sweating the two parts of 

shing Rod B 


the brass together is unnecessary. The entire chuck revolves 
about the axis of the clamping bolt and is fitted with an index 
head divided into quarters for machining the four sides of the 
brass. Before chucking the brass the adjoining faces of the 
two pieces should be Finished and tl.e eiub faced. 

A Spanish Car Building Plant. — The annual report for 1913 
of the Spanish Metallic Construction Company, of Madrid, shows 
that the company's business for the year totaled $2,888,000, an in- 
crease of $449,100 over 1912. The company has five plants and 
the number of men employed is 1,800 as against 1,650 in 1912. 
The chief factory of the five is at Beasain, province of Guipuscoa. 
This plant alone built during the year 1,250 flat cars and five 
first-class passenger cars for the Northern Railway; 1,215 freight 
cars of various kinds, and 43 first-class passenger cars for the 
Madrid Saragossa & Alicante Railway; 4 first-class and 3 third- 
class passenger cars for the Oviedo-Hendaye Railway, besides a 
number of cars of various kinds for companies and individuals. 
This plant has a capacity of 3.000 freight and 200 passenger cars, 
per year. 


A jouriKil box with rcjller I)cariiigs for use in equalized 
trucks of tlie pedestal type is shown in the drawings. It was 
■developed by the Anti-Friction Roller Bearing Company, 88 
Broad street, Boston, Mass., and is so designed that no lateral 
movfment takes place between the box and the axle, provi- 




Side Elevation of Roller Bearing Journal Box 

sion being made for this movement between the journal box 
and the truck frame. 

The journal box is of cast steel with casehardencd roller 
surfaces and is provided with an oil reservoir in the bottom. 
In applying the bearings to e.xisting axles the journal is 

used in order to reduce the trouble from slippage should 
one end of the journal bearing or of the box wear faster than 
the other, and it is claimed to have proved successful in 

Lateral motion between the journal box and the axle is 
prevented by an end thrust bar of phosphor bronze. This 
bar rides in a groove in the end of the axle and at cither side 
projects into pockets in the journal box cover, which are 
closed at the rear by the face of the box. It may be readily 
renewed by removing the cover from the box. As shown on 
the side elevation of the box, the distance between the pedes- 
tal flanges is -J^ in. greater than the width of the pedestal. 
This permits the necessary lateral motion of the axle relative 
to the truck frame, the motion being controlled by the saddle 
and transverse rollers resting on the top of the box. The 
saddle is held in position by the end of the equalizer while 
the rollers provide for the lateral movement of the journal 
box. The contour of the roller surfaces on the box and on 
the saddle tends to retain the axle in a central position under 
normal conditions when running on straight track. 

The journal box cover is held in position against the face 
of the box by two T-bolts and taper keys, which facilitate 
the quick removal and replacement of the cover for ex- 
amination or renewal of the bearing. The cover need seldom 
be removed in service, however, as the bearing may be oiled 
by removing a plug provided for that purpose. The roller 
cage is held in place by a forged ring which seats against a 
shoulder in the end of the box and forms a portion of the 
cover joint. 

Oil is carried in the well in the bottom of the box to such 
a height that the rollers dip as they revolve and carry the oil 
to all parts of the bearing. A felt washer, secured at the 
rear end of the box by a metal ring, keeps the interior free 

End and Longitudinal Sect 

turned down as shown in the sectional drawings and fitted 
with a sleeve of low carbon steel, which is pack hardened 
on the outside and pressed into place on the journal. The 
rollers thus run on hardened surfaces and the wear is very 
slight. The rollers, which are solid, are slipped into slots in 
a phosphor bronze casing and are divided into three longi- 
tudinal sections of 16 rollers each. This construction was 

from dust, and oil is retained by a groove turned in the sur- 
face of the journal between the bearing and the end of the 
box. Service tests indicate that the bearing requires oiling 
about once in three or four months. 

A test to determine the durability of this bearing was con- 
ducted during a period of about 18 months on a 50-ton pas- 
senger car originally fitted with 5 in. by 9 in. journals. Dur 



\'oL. », No. 3 

ing the test the bearings made about 80,000 miles and ran 
approximately 20,000 miles on one oiling. At the end of the 
test the rollers, sleeves and other parts of the bearings had 
acquired a high polish, but are claimed to have shown no 
other evidences of wear. Repacking the box and renewing 
brasses being entirely eliminated, the cost of maintenance 
was reduced to the occasional oiling of the bearings. 


The engraving shows a press which was primarily designed 
for bending pipe of various sizes hut which is also suitable for 
miscellaneous work, such as bending small structural shapes, 
straightening bars, shafts, etc. It is provided with clamps l)y 
which it may be attached to a stanchion, the diameter of whicli 
is not over 5 in., and it will bend pipe up to 4 in. in diameter. 

The press is of steel throughout. The frame and bending 
bed are cast in one piece; the top of the frame is provided with 
a ring in which the cylinder sets. The construction is such that 
the cylinder may be turned to any desired position in the ring 
and keyed in place, thus bringing the handle of the ram pinion 
to the point most convenient for the operator. The bending 
blocks are held in position on the base by means of ser- 
rations which interlock with corresponding serrations on the 
surface of the base, and are readily changed without the use 
of a wrench. 

The ram is forced downward by a hand-operated pump nf 
which the reservoir forms a part. The pump has a plunger 
diameter of i/s in., and a stroke of VA in., and is equipped 
with a 1/2 in. safety valve and 14 in. tee wheel operating valve 
A hand-operated pump is especially desirable on a press of this 

pressing bed which receives tile bending blocks is 27 in. long 
and lias a pressing width of 8 in. The clear height between 
the ram head and pressure bed is 14'.4 in., and the height of 
the press over all is 3 ft. 11 in. It is manufactured by The 
Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company, Mount Gilead. Ohio, 
and develops a maximum pressure of 30 tons. 


The metal hand saw shown in t'.ie illustraticn cuts at any 
angle and has been developed by M. E. Shinn & Co.. 1846 
West Lake street. Chicago. The cutting portion of the blade 
operates vertically and is automatically fed by gravity, the 
angle of the saw blade remaining unchanged as the cut prn- 

The material is supported on a table provided with a radial 
back and a vise operating in a slot across the table. By adjust- 
ing the radial back material may be cut at any angle desired. 
The lug shown at the right end nf the radial back is secured 

Hand-Operated Hydraulic Pipe Bender 

kind because the facility witli which the ram pressure may be 
controlled greatly reduces the danger of over-bending the ma- 
terial. A rack and pinion is provided for the rapid movement 
of the ram to the work before the pump is operated. As the 
ram moves downward the cylinder fills with liquid, the upward 
movement returning the liquid to the water box. There is thus 
no lost motion in the operation of the pump. 

The ram has a diameter of 6 in. and a run of 9 in. The 





Gravity Feed Metal Band Saw 

to the table by a single cap screw, so that it may be readily re- 
moved, thus leaving the table clear for the handling of longi- 
tudinal work. .\ny length of work may be handled longitu- 
dinally, as there is a clearance of eight inches between the saw 
and the arbor frame. 

The non-cutting or return part of the blade passes o\er wheels 
arranged to carry it back to a point where it will clear the ma- 
terial being cut, while the cutting part of the saw is held in a 
vertical position and is free from twists. The saw arbor is 
mounted upon four ball hearing wheels, to one pair of which 
gears are attached. The wheels travel in channels which keep 
the arbor in alincment as it is fed into the work, and the gears 
operate in racks which insure uniform traxel of both sides of 
the arbor. The feed is effected by inclining the i)lane of the 
channels. The inclination of the tracks may be altered by an 
operating lever at the right side of the machine and the feed 
thus regulated to suit the thickness of the work. The action 
of the saw is entirely automatic; a trip which may be adjusted to 
any width of material stops the saw after the cut is completed. 

This machine is capable of taking material up to 1 1 in. by 12 
in. in section. .At ordinary operating speeds it will rut niT cold 

March, 1915 



rolled steel shafting 2'/i in. in diameter in about three miniites, 
while a 6-in. shaft requires about 23 minutes. The band saw 
used is 15 ft. 6 in. long, % in. wide and .0312 in. in thickness. 
The table is 42 in. long and is 18 in. from the floor, a low table 
being used in order to facilitate the handling of heavy material. 
The machine sh<iwn in the illustration is designed for a single 
belt drive. Iiut a back geared motor drive can be a|)])lied if 


An automatic nut tapiiing machine using a bent tap to provide 
for continuous operation without reversing the direction of the 
tap is shown in the accomprmying illustration. This machine 
was develoiied by the National Machinery Comiiany, Tiffin, Ohio, 
and is being built in sizes to handle J4 in., ■)-^ in., Yz in. and f^ in. 

The hoi)per in whicli the blanks are placed is of large size, 
being designed to hold about SO lb. on the smaller size machines. 
The nuts are moved from the hopper to the feed chutes by means 
of a vane type feed mechanism and are carried down the chute 
by gravity into position against the starter. There are four of 
these feed vanes and they arc so enclosed that the weight of the 
blanks does not interfere with their operation. They are driven 
by a ratchet and pawl from the driving shaft. The ratchet is 

Automatic Nut Tapping Macliine in Wliich a Bent Tap Is Used 

held between friction flanges which allow it to slip in case thin 
blanks wedge in the feed groove and interfere with the move- 
ment of the vanes, thus preventing damage to the machine. 

The tap spindle and starter are inclined, thus causing the face 
of the blank to lie against the. starter. The lubricant keeps the 
face of the starter washed free from chips so that the blank is 
always tapped at right angles with the bearing face. After tli-- 
nut has been started on the tap it is held stationary and t'le 
spindle is fed into it during the completion of the operation. By 
thus holding the nut the difficulty due to binding in the guides, 
which is often experienced where the nut is fed onto the tap. is 
overcome. The tap spindle has a .slight lateral travel and is 
counterbalanced, giving the spindle a floating movement. 

After the nut has been tapped it travels up the shank, througli 

the liead and off the end of the tap, as shown in one ul tlit- 
illustrations. The hood over the head serves to direct the nuts 
into a chute by which they are conveyed out of the machine into 
kegs or bo.xes. .\n automatic belt-shifting device is provided by 
which the machine is stopped in case a slug or an improperly 
shaped blank should pass over the tap and jam against the head. 
1 hese machines are designed primarily for tapping sfpiarc 
nuts, but he.Nagonal nuts can be handled. Each size of machine 
may be arranged for handling both styles of nuts, as well as 

Head of Automati 

Nut Tapping Machine Opened. Showing Course 
of Finished Nuts 

several sizes, and by Tuaking a >imple gear change the rate of 
feeding can be regulated to suit tlie kind of nuts being tapped. 
The fi in. size machine is recommended for operation at the 
rate of 30 United States stand:ird nuts per minute. 


The illustration shows a car wheel grinding machine which 
has recently been developed to handle either steel or cast iron 
wheels which may be centered either on dead centers or on 
their own axle journals, as desired. It is manufactured by the 
Springfield Mauufacturins Company. Bridgeport. Conn. Wheels 

Self Contained Car Wheel Grinding Machine 

of any diameter from 28 in. to 44 in. may be handled and pro- 
vision is made for centering journals up to 6 in. in diameter. 
The machine is self-contained and is driven bv one belt, either 


Vol. 89, No. 3 

from a line shaft or by a motor mounted on the base. The 
cotmtershaft is mounted on a frame which is placed in front 
of the machine in order that the space directly above the centers 
may be unobstructed. 

The axle is driven by a gap gear at the center from two driv- 
ing pinions which are widely spaced to overlap the gap in the 
driven gear. Both pinions are driven by the same shaft in order 
to insure correct relative action at all times. A clutch which 
is operated by hand levers from cither side of the machine facili- 
tates stopiiing the axle accurately wlien the gap in the gear is 
properly located to permit the removal of the axle. Three dif- 
ferent axle speeds are obtainable. 

The grinding wheel spindles are driven by a belt fro?n drums 
on the countershaft, the proper belt tension being automatically 
-secured by means of idlers. Cone pulleys on the spindles pro- 
vide two different speeds for the wheels. The spindle heads 
slide in swiveling bases which permit of taper grinding. The 
slide bearings are of the long narrow type and are provided 
with taper gibs to take up wear. A feed screw of large diameter 
is used, at the end of which is placed a ball thrust bearing. 
Both the feed and the transverse are hand operated. Grinding 
wheels 18 in. in diameter are used, operating at speeds of 1,040 
and 1,350 revolutions per minute, the axle being driven at speeds 
of 4.2, 5.3 and 6.5 revolutions per minute. Water is delivered 
to the grinding wheels by means of a suitable pump of ample 
capacity, part of the bed forming the supply tank. Hoods are 
placed over the wheels to confine the spray. 

Large sleeves and feed screws are used in the tailstocks. 
which are provided with both dead centers and wabble centers. 
The dead centers are necessary when grinding engine truck 
wheels and the wabble centers are provided to prevent axles 
from moving laterally when grinding wheels on their own jour- 
nal bearings. The journal rests are designed to receive split 
bushings of varying diameter, each of which is itself adjustable 
for slight variations in the diameter of journals. 

This machine has a capacity of about 20 pairs of 33 in. wheels 
per 10-hour day, the exact rate depending upon the condition 
of the wheels and the amount of stock to be removed. When 
motor-driven a constant speed motor of 20 hp. is required. The 
net weight, including the motor and accessories, is about 18,000 lb. 


The brake beam fulcrum shown in the illustration has been de- 
veloped by the Damascus Brake Beam Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, to replace the malleable iron fulcrums now generally used. 
Tliis full-rum i^ .'i «nlid steel forging, one end of which is pro- 

but both the tension and compression member ends may be 
formed to fit any type of beam. 

Forged Steel Brake Beam Fulcrum 

vided with a seat for tlic tension member of the beam and the 
other fitted to the structural compression member. The fulcrum 
is held in position against the latter by means of a bolt and 
clamping plate clearly shown in the illustration. As shown, the 
fulcrum is designed for application to the Anglrod brake beam. 


An adjustable pedal has been developed by the Franklin Rail- 
way Supply Company, 30 Church street. New York, for use in 

Adjustable Fire Door Pedal Removed from the Door 

operating pneumatic fire doors. Tlie tread is mounted in a 
pedal hanger in which it has a sliding adjustment to permit 

Adjustable Pedal Attached to the Franklin Butterfly Door 

March, 1915 



iiioviiiH il farllur fnmi llio boiler head as the coal is used out 
of tin- lenilc-r. The tre:ui may also be adjusted for either a tall 
or a short lircman, a lock being provided which holds it in any 
desired position. The hanger is mounted on a rigid lianger bolt 
about which it may be swung in either direction Ijy raising it to 
dear the teeth in the face of a shoulder on the bolt. VVlien 
swung to the desired position it is secured by dropping it into 
lilace, the teeth in the hanger engaging those in the shoulder. 
Vertical adjustment of the hanger is provided so that in case 
of a warped deck the tread may be raised to the proper clear- 
ance, making it umiecessary to take the hanger to the blacksmith 
shop. This adjustment is made by turning the rigid hanger 
bolt, which is threaded in tlie fulcrum. One side of the fulcrum 
is slotted and when the proper adjustment has been made the 
bolt can l)e locked in place by means of a bolt provided for that 


Tlie accompanying illustration shows a i)late Hanging clamp 
on which tlie clamping beam is not only raised and lowered by 
air pressure, but also clamped by this means. The machine is 
built by the Niles Bement Pond Company, New York. On pre- 
vious designs the top beam was elevated by air pressure, but it 
was clamped by means of screws with hand-wheels. 

The upper beam is moved by four cylinders. There are two 
lower and two upper pistons, the lower ones being used for 
elevating and lowering and the upper ones for clamping the 
beam. These operations are all controlled by means of a three- 
way valve. The corresponding cylinders are designed to operate 
simultaneously. The upper beam is bc-iil in macliined slots in 

exert an effective pressure of 15 tons at an air pressure of about 
80 lb. per square inch. 


The liose clamp shown in the illustration was originally 
developed for use witli its oil burning equipment by the Mahr 
Manufacturing Company, Minneapolis, Minn., and was in- 

Clamping Sleeve Used in Safety Hose Clamp 

tended to eliminate the danger arising from failure of the 
type of clamp now generally used. These clamps are made 

for all sizes of hose and provide a safe coupling for use with 

Pneumatic Plate Flanging Clamp 

the upiier pistons, and means are provided so that the top beam 
adjusts itself to give an even distribution of the load, when 
clamping plates of' uneven thickness. The upper pistons have a 
bearing in the frame which prevents any side motion of the 
pistons and upper clamping beam. 

This machine is furnished in several sizes, the one illustrated 
having a capacity for plates 12 ft. wide. The clamping cylinders 

oil, steam or hot water hose, where a failure of the coupling- 
is dangerous. 

By referring to the sectional elevation of the coupling it 
will be seen that a nipple having a knob on the end extends 
into the hose which is surrounded by a wide spirall}--split 
clamping sleeve, beveled on each end. The beveled surfaces 
are brought into sliding contact with corresponding concave 

AII.W \^■ A(;i-. G.\;^ETTE. MLa IIAXlLAl. KDrri'.tX 

\'(ii.. 89. Xo. 3 

surfaces in the body of the coupling at one end and in the 
clamping nut at the other by screwing the clamping nut on 
the body of the coupling. The resulting closure of the sleeve 


Section Through Hose Clamp Showing Method of Gripping the Hose 

effects a lirm grip on a consideralile length ol the hose and 
practically eliminates the danger of failure from slipping of 
the joint. 


.A niotcr-driven triiilcx single-acting pump which eniliodies 
several special features has been added to its line of high-pres- 
sure hydraulic pumps by the Watson-Stilhnan Company, 50 
Church street. New Vork. While primarily designed to meet the 
requirements of tunnel service it is equally adaptable to other 
classes of work. 

To secure compactness and rigidity the imanr is nmunted on an 
extension of the heavy cast iron base. Tliis also insures per- 
fect alinement between the motor and the pump. The pump 
body is a machine steel forging fitted with bronze valves and 
bonnets, and is dcsiyned to eliminnte all air spaces. The passaee- 


M'-y ^'.^^^ 

Zjj^j J 

^V^ -^-^^^^ ^ 


^ ^—^■* NEW 

rORK ■' 

: ,'^^ V 

Motor-Driven Hydraulic Pump 

ways are made large to reduce friction of the water to a mini- 
mum. TTie plungers are of tool steel and are guided in a rigid 
crosshead guide which is keyed and bolted to the base. They 
are driven by eccentrics which are cast in one piece and keyed 
to the driving shaft, the eccentrics being spaced 120 deg. apart. 
The driving shaft and bearings are of large proportion and are 
provided with ample lubrication. The power transmission gears 
are heavy and have cut teeth throu.ghout. The pump as shown is 
operated by a 10-hp. motor running at <':00 R. P. M. and delivers 
100 cu. in. of water per min. at a pressure of 3 .500 lb., the speed 
of the crank shaft being 100 R. P. M. 

Russian B.ath Tr.ain for the Front. — It is stated that the 
Russian ministry of ways and communications is sending to the 
front a bath train of over 20 cars, providing 2,000 baths daily. 
There is a tank car in case water is unobtainable at any stop- 
ping place. Soldiers can be given clean underclothes from the 
stores carried. There is also a car for drying and disinfecting 
outer garments and a restaurant car. 

Blast Helmet 

In the accompanying illustration is shown a helmet which is 
designed to protect the eyes, face and head of the operator of 
a sand blast machine from dust and flying sand. The helmet 

is made of brown can- 
vas, is strongly con- 
structed and is comfort- 
able to wear. As shown 
in tlic illustration the 
rim projects well beyond 
ilie operator's face, thus 
luabling him to turn his 
l-.ead freely without com- 
in,g in contact with the 
curtains, which are of 
sufficient length to de- 
scend over the shoulders 
jnd effectively exclude 
sand and dust. The con- 
struction is such that 
there is free circulation 
of air around the head 
l)etween the sweat band 
: nd the body of the 

Ventilation is facili- 
tated by the eye piece 
which is usually made of 
line wire netting that 
does not impair the vi- 
sion and is not affected 
or dimmed by the action 
of the flying sand or by 
dampness, as is glass. 
When so desired, however, a celluloid strip may be substituted 
for the wire gauze, but as a rule this is not recommended. The 
helmet is manufactured by J. M. Betton. 26 Park Place, 
New Vork. 


In the accompanying illustrations is shown a universal double 
liack geared milling machine designed for heavy duty, which has 
been recently introduced by the Rockford Milling Machine Com- 
])any, Rockford, 111. This machine is of the knee type, witli an 
especially rigid overhanging arm and a vertical brace for the 
outer end of the arbor. It is driven by a 3 in. double belt on a 
three step cone pulley. 

The spindle runs in phosphor bronze bearings which are pro- 
\ided with means for taking up the wear of both bearings in one 
operation. The spindle is 3 in. in diameter. It is fitted with a 
Brown & Sharpe Xo. 1 1 taper socket and a 1 in. straight hole 
extending through to the end of the spindle. 

The spindle speeds- are in geometrical progression, ranging 
from 17 to 392 r. p. m.- in either direction. The double back 
gears are enclosed in the column and placed at the front of the 
machine. This arrangement brirgs the gears close together, and 
is claimed to prevent chatter when taking heavy cuts. All gears 
are of liberal diameter with wide surfaces and coarse pitch. 

The table has a working surface of 50 in. by 11^ in. It is 
provided with quick return motion and is designed to swing 
through an arc of 300 deg. The table feed gearing is driven by 
a chain which is enclosed in the column to prptect it from dust. 
The feed changes are 14 in num1)er. ranging from .005 in. to 
.175 in. per revolution of the spindle. Only two levers are re- 
quired to make all feed changes. The maximum length of auto- 
matic feed is 28 in. for longitudinal. 8 in. for the cross feed 

March, I'»15 

KM I. WAY A(;i-: flAZI'. 




19 ill. 
• may In' 
i of 34 in 
ir ,.\urli;in 

the MTliial 
.pc-cially pn. 
and JO in. 

KiiiK • 
h tw. 

I'm IS 

•d. If (kv 
cd Willi I 


solid sin- 
.iislu-d aid 

lirc'd. liiiuc 

111.- ma- 

1 4 in. in 
111- sn|i|i<irl 

.. It 

■U.T and 
is li,dd 

Double Back Geared Universal Milling IVlachine 

in pcisitiiin liy a Handed suiipurt uliicli is secured tn a solid flange 
on llie face of the column. 

The vertical milling attachment, which is shown in one of the 
illustrations, is not driven through the main spindle nose as is 
usual in Unee ty])e milliiit; machines. \\ hen placiiit; the attach- 

Vertical Milling Attaciiment in Place 

ment on the machine the overhanging arm is removed and a 
slec\c in which runs a driving shaft inserted in its place. The 
attachment is clatnped to the flange on the main column and its 
spindle driven hy the shaft, through beveled gears which form 

a' part of the attachment. I he shaft is driven throuKh a geared 
connection hack of the main spindle, hy the use of an idler 
j»ear. This arrangement [irovides the same range under the ver- 
tical attarlimeiit as is permitted under the main spindle, and 
also leaves (he main spindle free for use on certain kinds of 
work without dismantling the attachment or removing work 
frciin the table, it being only nccssary to turn the lower arm of 
the attachment out of line with the main spindle. 

The machine is provided with a spiral dividing head which will 
swing W/i in. in diameter and take 24 in. between centers, lis 
spindle can be set at any angle fron 10 deg. below horizontal to 
10 deg. beyond perpendicular. A vise attachment having a 
graduated swivel base and a ma.ximum opening of i'/t in., as 
will as a three-jaw ciiiick 6 in. in diameter arc also included 
ill tin- equipment of the miller The net weight of the machine 
IS .3.H(X) lb. 


Tlie illustration shows a light forcing hammer ft)r o|)eration by 
compressed air wliich was designed to handle tool dressing, light 
litnding and straightening, and the miscellaneous forging work 
which is usually done by a blacksmith and helper. The use of 
compressed air permits its location at points in the plant where 

Light Wor 

steam is not available. Air from the shop system at 80 lb. to 
100 lb. pressure is used, a J^-inch pipe or hose connection being 

The heavy anvil block is cast in one piece with the frame to 
which the cylinder is keyed and bolted, the key extending en- 
tirely across the face of the joint. The guides for the ram are 
also secured to the face of the frame. Side housings were 



Vol. 89, No. 3 

avoided in the design in order to keep the working space clear 
and to facilitate observations of the work under the hammer. 
All important bolts have double nuts to prevent them from jarring 
loose. The piston and piston rod arc formed from one piece 
of chrome-vanadium steel, oil treated, while the hammer head 
and guide shoe are made in one piece of high carbon steel. The 
guide shoe is of large area and the piston rod has a long taper 
tit in the ram. The dies, which are removable, are of special die 
steel with hardened faces. 

The piston is packed with cast iron snap rings. In order to 
facilitate the examination and renewal of the rings tlie piston 
rod stuffing box gland is split so that it may be readily removed. 
The piston may then be raised above the top of the cylinder and 
inspected without the necessity of removing the ram from the 
piston rod. 

The plain forging dies shown in the illustration are regularly 
furnished with the hammer, but special dies of any form may lie 
quickly substituted. For accurate die work, such as forming and 
stamping light sheets, the anvil is furnished with three heavy cast 
lugs spaced 120 deg. apart. These are fitted with hardened centering 
screws by means of which the lower die may be accurately alintd 
with the upper one. In order to provide clearance for the work 
the frame is recessed at the top of tl'e anvil and the front and 
back walls are removed, thus permitting the passage of long 
stock througli the frame when it is desired to work the stock 
across the die. 

The air admission to the cylinder is controlled by a simple 
slide valve designed to remain tight regardless of wear, and pro- 
vided with special ports to give the control desired. The valve 
is operated by the foot lever shown at the front of the anvil. 
This lever is depressed by a slight pressure of the foot and re- 
turned to its upper position by the pull of a coil spring located 
in a pocket at the front of the anvil. When air is admitted to 
the valve chamber the ram rises to its upper position and on de- 
pressing the foot lever it strikes a quick, snappy blow of great 
force. Upon releasing the lever slightly the ram rises instantly 
to its upper position, where the piston is air cushioned so that 
it cannot strike the cylinder head. The hammer readily responds 
to variations in the foot pressure and it is claimed that with a 
little practice the range of operation may be varied from light, 
rapidly repeated blows of short height for use in straightening 
light material to the maxiinum force of the hammer, which is 
sufficient for the reduction of 2-in. stock. The foot control is 
especially suited to the miscellaneous class of work for which the 
hammer is adapted. 

The hammer is manufactured by H. Edsil Barr, Erie, Pa. An 
important consideration is its comparative freedom froin limita- 
tions as to location, being independent both of line shafting and 
a steam supply. It is built in two sizes, one weighing 800 lb. for 
light tool and soft metal work, and the other weighing 1,200 lb. 
suitable for general forging operations on material 2 in. square 
or smaller. The larger hammer occupies a floor space 14 in. by 
24 in. and stands 5 ft. 6 in. high. 


T.\Lc .\s A Lubricant. — A German chemical journal contains 
an article relating to the use of talc for lubricatiVig purposes. 
Talc does not behave like graphite when treated with tannin so- 
lutions, but it may be brought into a fine molecular state by heat- 
ing it with ammonium carbonate or by exposing it for several 
hours to a current of dry ammonia. The talc is afterward dried 
in a vacuum. The treated material can be suspended in water so 
that it is very difficult to filter it, and subsides very slowly 
in lubricating oils of medium density. When once suspended in 
a neutral oil, the talc does not subside on heating. The change 
in the character of the talc is attributed to the absorption of a 
minute quantity of ammonia. From 40 to 60 per cent of ordinary 
talc may be introduced into heavy mineral oil, provided the oil is 
added to the talc and the operation not carried on in the reverse 
manner. — Machinery. 

A magnet for removing metal embedded in the flesh, which 
is one of the most powerful in the world, has been installed 
by the Westiitghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company in 
the relief dciuirtmcnt of its East Pittsburgh works. The 
magnet is mounted on a liox containing the resister, which 
is used to regulate the amount of current flowing through 
the coils. It requires 4.000 watts for its operation, or enough 
power to supply 100 Mazda lamps of 32 candle power each, 
and is designed for operation on 70 volts. 

It is not an infrequent occurrence for steel and iron work- 
ers to get bits of metal in their eyes or hands. Previous to 
the installation of a magnet the onlv means of removal was 

Magnet in Operation, Removing Steel fr 

the Eye 

by probing, a method which is as uncertain as it is painful. 
Since this machine was put in operation it is a very simple 
proceeding to extract such particles. The portion of the 
body in which the foreign particle is embedded is placed 
near the pole tip of the magnet, the switch is closed, and 
the magnet does the rest. Some reinarkably small pieces 
have been extracted in this way. The pole piece is removable, 
a number of difi^erent shapes being supplieil for various classes 
of work. 


M.xcHiNE Power and Piecework. — In any shop if the feeds, 
speeds and power of tnachine tools of the same class vary, it is 
a practical impossibility to establish a just and efficient piecework 
or premium system. — American Machinist, 

Materials for Casehardening. — The composition of case- 
liardening materials varies very widely. The following table 
shows the range of variation in seventeen commercial compo- 
sitions tested : 

Per Cent 

Moisture 2.68 to 26.17 

Oil 0.17 to 20.76 

Carbon (organic) 6.7 to 54.19 

Calcium phosphate 0.32 to 74.75 

Calcium carbonate 1-2 to 11.57 

I'.arium carbonate nil to 42.0 

Zinc oxide nil to 14.5 

Silica nil to 8.14 

Sulphates (SOs) trace to 3.45 

Sodium chloride nil to 7.88 

Sodium carbonate nil to 40.0 

Sulphides (S) nil to 2.8 

— Machinery. 


K. 1). Gilberts, smoUc iiis|]ccti)r of tlic city of Clcvclaiiil, lias 
submitted a report showing that tlic density of Icjcomotive smoke 
<hiring the second half of 1914 decreased 79 per cent, as compared 
with the second half of 1912. 

A press despatch from \'era Cruz, Mexico, h'ebruary 2, an- 
nounced the re-opening of the railroad between that place and 
Mexico City, with a passenger train running through for the first 
time since November 19. 

The Chicago & Alton has reached an agreement with a com- 
mittee representing its trainmen, providing for increases in pay 
for flagmen and train baggagemen, and a number of changes 
in working conditions, including payment for terminal overtime, 
and extra payments for work outside of the regular routine. 

Representatives of the conductors', trainmen's, enginemen's 
and firemen's unions, in Ohio, have announced that they will 
concentrate tiieir efforts liefore the legislature this year on the 
effort to secure tlie passage of the train limit bill and to op- 
pose the repeal of the extra crew law, but will urge no other 
anti-railroad legislation. 

A bill has been introduced in the Missouri legislature to re- 
quire interstate railroads to establish stations not more than 
five miles from the state line, to put an agent in charge and to 
stop trains long enough to enable passengers to buy new tickets 
and have their baggage rechecked, in order to take advantage 
of the lower intrastate passenger fares. 

The Secretary of the Interior has recommended to Congress 
an appropriation of $2,000,000 for the use of his department 
in the work of building the proposed government railroad in 
Alaska. An appropriation of $1,000,000 was made at the last 
session of Congress. The secretary has not yet reached any 
decision as to the purchase of the Copper River & North West- 
ern or the Alaska Northern, both of which roads may be in- 
cluded in the proposed government system, 

H. W. Thornton, formerly general superintendent of the Long 
Island Railroad, now general manager of the Great Eastern of 
England, has "made good." This statement came in a recent 
press despatch from London, saying that at the annual meeting 
of the shareholders of the Great Eastern, Lord Claud Hamilton, 
the chairinan of the company, paid Mr. Thornton a special 
tribute ; and that the meeting unanimously agreed that Mr. Thorn- 
ton, already, before filling out a year's service, had fairly justified 
his selection as manager. 

Five years ago, in co-operation with the Pennsylvania State 
College, the Pennsylvania Railroad organized its first class of 
apprentices for school instruction. The school was established 
at the Altoona shops and 30 pupils were enrolled. Three branch 
schools have since been opened at other points on the line, and 
today the total enrollment numbers 300 young men. Thus far. 
151 apprentices have completed the full three-year course and 

have been graduated from the school ; approximately 60 more 
will be added to this number by the classes going out this year. 

The .American Museum of Safety, William H. Tolman, di- 
rector, made its annual award of medals on l-'cbruary 10, at the 
United Engineering Societies building, 29 West Thirty-ninth 
street. New York City. The E. H. Harriman Memorial medal 
for the American steam railroad, which during one year has been 
the most successful in protecting the lives and health of its em- 
ployees and of the public, was presented to the New York Cen- 
tral. The Anthony N. Brady medal for a similar purpose, 
awarded to an electric railway, went to the Boston Elevated. 

The railroad committees of the house and senate of the Kansas 
legislature held a hearing on February 1, on the extra crew, the 
train limit and other bills affecting railroads and their em- 
ployees. Officers of the railroads and representatives of the 
employees appeared and presented arguments. All of the em- 
ployees' representatives favored the bills, except a negro porter, 
representing the porters, who opposed the extra crew bill, on 
the ground that if an extra brakeman or flagman were required 
on passenger trains the elimination of the train porters would fol- 
low. A. De Bernardi, general superintendent of the Missouri 
Pacific, said that if the bill were passed, for every extra brake- 
man added it would be necessary for many roads to lay off two 
trackmen as a measure of economy, and that the trackmen were 
more essential to safety than the extra brakeman. Representa- 
tives of the roads also brought out the fact that the trainmen 
had never attempted to negotiate with the officers of the roads 
for extra brakemen. 


On February 15, George M. Basford, chief engineer of the 
railroad department of Joseph T. Ryerson & Son. made an 
address before the apprentices of the Chicago & North Western 
at Chicago. The talk was intended to give the boys a bigger and 
broader view of the opportunities which lay before them and of 
the possibilities which might result if they were to follow their 
work in the right spirit. The title of the address was "Making 
Heroes." "Choose to be heroes," said Mr. Basford, "in the 
heroism of simple honesty in the work which shows and in that 
which lies concealed, that you may look back in years that are 
to come, proud that you have done an important part in making 
the Chicago & North Western a better railroad. To see what 
is right and not to do it. is want of courage. ' The address was 
enthusiastically received. 


The boiler code committee of the .-Kmerican Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers has made a final report on this subject, which 
has been accepted by the council. This final report is the result 




New England.. 

New York 



St. Louis 

South'n & S'w'ri 


Western Canada 






















Railway Advertising 

Rules of Interchange 

Annual Meeting 

Annual Electrical Night 

Rules of Interchange 

Railways and Agricultural Development. . 

Methods of Wage Payments 

Relations Between Mechanical, Purchasi 
and Stores Departments 


Edward Hungerford. 
Committee Report... 

Fuel Oil 



James Powell.... 
Harry D. Vought. 
;Wm. Cade, Jr.... 
Harry D. Vought. 
J. B. Anderson... 
"" O. Robins 

Committee Report. 
F. H. La Baume. 

F. H. Hamilton B. W. Frauenthal 

R. E. Smith. C. Pierce 

and W. D. Stokes.. A. J. Merrill 

Frank McManamy... Tos. W. Taylor... 
T. G. LeC.rand iLouis Kon 


St. Lambert. Que. 

95 Liberty St., New York. 

683 Atlantic Ave., Boston. Mass. 

95 Liberty St., New York. 

207 Penn Station. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

C. & O. Rv., Richmond, Va. 

Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. 

Box 1205, Atlanta, Ga. 

1112 Karpen BIdg., Chicago, III. 

Box 1707, Winnipeg, Man. 




of the work of llic original coiiimittce, of which John A. Stevens 
is chairman, and an advisory committee consisting of engineers 
representing various phases of the design, installation and opera- 
tion of boilers. This advisory committee included the follow- 
ing representatives from the railway field: F. II. Clark, general 
superintendent of motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio ; .\. L. 
Humphrey, vice-president and general manager of the Westing- 
house Air Brake Company; H. H. Vaughan, assistant to vice- 
president, Canadian Pacilic Railway, and W. !■". Kiesel, Jr., as- 
sistant mechanical engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 1 he 
code is considerably shorter than when originally brought out 
by the committee; and the rules laid down in it, of course, do 
not apply to boilers which are subject to federal inspection and 
control. The original committee and the advisory committee 
have been continued as one and. will meet once a year in order to 
make any changes that advances in practice may make necessary. 
At these meetings will also be taken up any change which may 
seem necessary in a rule because it works unnecessary hardship 
on any particular class of boiler makers or users. 



.hncrican Society for Tc.U'.ng Mntcvials. — The eighteenth 
annual meeting of the .American Society for Testing Materials 
will be held at the Hotel Traymore, Atlantic City, N. J., on June 
22-26, 1915. 

Air Brake Association. — The twenty-second annual conven- 
tion of the Air Brake Association will be held at the Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago, 111., Tuesday, May 4, 1915. Committees will 
report on the .Accumulation of Moisture and its Elimination 
from Trains and Yard Testing Plants, Adequate Hand Brakes 
on Heavy Passenger Equipment Cars, Need of Efficient Clean- 
ing and Repairing of Freight Brakes, What Shall We Do to 
Improve the Present Pneumatic Signal Device, Difficulties the 
Railroad Companies Encounter in Endeavoring to Run 100 Per 
Cent Operative Brakes in Freight Service, and M. C. B. .\ir 
Brake Hose Specifications. 

The following list jjitrj names of secretaries, doles of ne.rt or regular 
meetings, attd places of meeting of mechanical associations. 
Air Brake .\ssociatio.n.— F. M. Nl-IUs, 53 State St., Uoston, Mass. Con- 

venticn. May 5-7, 1915, Motel Sherman, Chicago. 
American Railroad Master Tinners, Coppersmiths and Pipefitters' 

-XssociATioN.— W. E. Jones, C. & N. W., 3814 FuUon street. Chicago. 

Annual meeting, Chicago. 
American Railway Master Mechanics' Association. — J. W. Taylor, Kar- 

pen building. Chicago, Convention, June 9-11, 1915, Atlantic City, 

N. J. 
American Railway Tool Foremen's .Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Illi- 
nois Central, Chicago. Convention, July 19-21, 1915, Hotel Sherman, 

American Society for Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, University 

of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Pa. Convention, June 22-26, 1915, 

Hotel Traymore, .Atlantic City, N. J. 
.American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice, 29 W. 

Thirty-ninth street. New York. Annual meeting, December 7-10, 

1915, New York. 
.Association of Railway Electrical Engineers. — Joseph A. Andreucetti, 

C, S N. W., Room 411, C. & N. W. Sta., Chicago. Annual meeting, 

October, 1915. 
Car Foremen's .Association of Chicago, — Aaron Kline, 841 North Fiftieth 

Court, Chicago: 2d Monday in month, except July and .August, 

ton building, Chicago, 
Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's .\ssociation. — 

S. Skidmore, 946 Richmond street, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
International Railway Fuel .Association. — C. G. Hall, 922 McCormick 

building, Chicago. Convention, May 17-20, 1915, Chicago, 
International Railway General Foremen's -Association. — William Hall, 

1126 W. Broadway, Winona, Minn. Convention, July 13-16, 1915. 

Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 
International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' .Association. — A, L, Wood- 
worth, Lima. Ohio. Convention. .August 17, 1915, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Master Boiler Makers' .Association. — Harry D. Vought. 95 Liberty street. 

New York, Convention, May 26-28. 1915. Chicago. 111. 
Master Car Bcilders' .Association. — T. W. Taylor, Karpen building, Chi- 
cago. Convention. June 14-16, 1915, .Atlantic City, N. J. 
Master Car and I hcomotive Painters' .Assoc, of U. S. and Canada. — 

A. P, Dare, B. S: M,. Reading. Mass. Convention. September 14-17, 

1915. Detroit. Mich. 
Niagara Frontier Caw Men's .Xssociation. — E. Frankenberger, 623 Bris- 
bane buildirg. Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings monthly. 
Railroad Master "Tinners. Coppersmiths and Pipefitters' .Association, — 

U, G, Thompson, C, & E. I„ Danville, 111, Annual meeting. May. 

Railway Storekeepers' .\ssociation, — T, P, Murphy, Box C, Collinwood, 

Ohio, Convertiop, May 17-19, 1915, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 
Traveling ENr.NEERS' Association.— W. O. Thompson. N. Y. C. & H. R.. 

East Buffalo, N. V. Convention, September, 1915, Chicago, III, 

// is our desire to )iiake tlicse coliiiiiiis coicr as completely as 
I'ossible all ttie changes ihat take place in the mechanical de- 
partments of the railways of this country, and zve shall greatly 
appreciate any assistance that our readers may give tis in helping 
to bring this about. 


.\. R. .-VvEKS. who uas general mechanical engineer of the 
Lake Shore & Michig.ui Southern and other New York Central 
lines west of HulValo with office at Chicago, has been appointed 
principal assistant engineer of the New York t'cntral, general 
duties car design and construction, with heail(|,iartcrs at New- 

R. M. Brown has been appointed assistant engineer, in charge 
of engineering and drafting at the locomotive and car shops of 
the New Y'ork Central, with headquarters at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Joseph Chiuley, assistant superintendent of motive power and: 
rolling stock of the Xew York Central, with headquarters at 
Cleveland, Ohio, now has jurisdiction over the Illinois division. 

1'", S. G.\i.i.,\(;her has been appointed assistant engineer, in. 
charge of cai design and specifications of the New York Central, 
with headquarters at New York. 

W. B. Geiser, who was acting chemist and engineer of tests 
of the New York Central & Hudson River at West Albany, 
X, Y., has been appointed assistant chemist and engineer of 
tests of the New York Central at West Albany, 

P, P. MiRTz, who was mechanical engineer of the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern at Cleveland, Ohio, has been appointed 
assistant engineer, in charge of locomotive design and specifica- 
tions, of the New Y'ork Central, with headquarters at New 

E. F. Needha.m, superintendent of the locomotive and car de- 
I :irtn:ents of the Wabasli, has removed his office from Springfield, 
111., to Oecatur. 

P. RoouEMORE has been appointed mechanical engineer of the 
International & Great Northern, with office at Palestine, Texas. 

H. E. S.MiTH, who was chemist and engineer of tests of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at Collinwood, Ohio, has 
been appointed chemist and engineer of tests, with supervision 
over laboratories and material inspection, of the Xew York- 
Central, with headquarters at Collinwood, Ohio, 

G, Whiteley, master mechanic of the Alberta division of the 
Canadian Pacific, at Calgary, .-Mta., has been appointed assistant 
superintendent of motive power of the Eastern Lines, with heat'- 
quarters at Montreal, Que, 


S, T. Arm, STRONG has been appointed master mechanic of the 
International & Great Northern at Palestine, Tex,, succeeding 
T. Windle, resigned, 

E. J. Brv.\nt, .general foreman of the International & (ireat 
Northern at Houston, Tex., has been alipointed master mechanic 
at Mart, Tex. 

A. F. Caskey has been appointed road foreman of equipment 
of the Des Moines Valley division of the Rock Island Lines, and 
that part of the Dakota division between \'alley Junction and 
Gowrie, with headquarters at Vallc} Junction, la. 

.\. E, Dales has been appointed district master mechanic of 
the Canadian Pacific at Brandon, Man., succeeding L. G. Fisher. 

L. G. Fisher, formerly district master mechanic of the Ca- 
nadian Pacific at Brandon. Man., has been appointed district 


March. 1915 

RAILWAY AGK GAZETTi:. M l-.( 1 1 \ Mr \l. I.DITION 


L-haiiic at Cranljriiiik, H. C, succccfling A. SUirrock, 

f ilu- llli- 

nf tlu 


J. T. Fl,.\viK has liecn a]i|"iinterl master meelianie n 
nois division of the New York (_'enlr,-il .it flihsmi, hid. 

Gecrgk S. GRAH,^M has been aiMiniiitiil master meclui 
Pennsylvania division of the Delaware S; ihulson at C 
Fa., succeeding John J. Reid. transferred. 

N. M. H.XRKKR. whose apiiointment as master meclianic in 
charge of the mechanical and supply departments of the Copper 
Ran.ce Railroad at ITonshton. Mich., has been announced in 

these columns, entered 
railroad service as a ma- 
chinist apprentice a n d 
was employed as a ma- 
chinist for several years 
on western roads, during 
which time he prepared 
himself for college. He 
eiiiered the University of 
,\ r i z o n a at Tucson, 
where he specialized in 
mechanical engineering, 
and at the same time 
was engaged as instruct- 
..r in machine shop prac- 
tice. I'poii leaving col- 
lege he again entered 
railway service as ma- 
chine shop foreman of 
the Ccrro de Pasco Rail- 
way at Cerro de Pasco, 
N. M. Barker ?""• ="1^ was later ap- 

pointed assistant master 
mechanic of this road. Mr. iJarker left this position to return to 
the United States, where he again took up railway work, being 
employed as a draftsman on the Nevada Northern at Ely, Nev. 
He left this road to become superintendent of construction for 
the .\. Hughes Construction Company, Denver, Colo., and for 
the past several years has been engaged in this capacity on gen- 
eral engineering work in the West. He severed his connection 
with this company on his appointment as master mechanic of 
tlie Copper Range as above noted. 

W. H. Keller has been appointed assistant master mechanic 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, at Cincinnati. Ohio, 
succeeding .A. E. McMillan. 

C. Kyle has been appointed master mechanic of the .\tlantic 
division of the Canadian Pacific at St. John, N. B. 

A. E. McMii.L.\N, assistant master mechanic of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Southwestern, at Cincinnati, Ohio, has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Indiana and Illinois divisions, with 
lieadi|uarters at Washington, Ind. 

John J. Reid, master mechanic of the Pennsylvania division 
<'f the Delaware & Hudson at Carbondale, Pa., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Susquehanna division, with 
head(|uarters at Onconta. N. V., succeeding William Malthaner. 

H. Selfridge, formerly general foreman of the Oregon Short 
Line at Salt Lake City, L'tah, has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Nevada Northern at East Ely, Nev. Mr. Sel- 
fridge was born on July 12, 1872, at Brownsville, Minn., his 
parents soon afterward moving west and settling in Oregon. 
.After receiving a high school education he became a machinist 
apprentice in Tacoma. Wash., finishing with a special course 
of one year in the boiler shop. He then entered the service of 
the Central Pacific at Sacramento, Cal., as a locomotive fireman. 
In 1898 he was promoted to engineman. in which capacity he 
was employed on various divisions of the Srnithern Pacific 

until the fall of 190.\ when he left the service to engage in other 
business. Mr. Selfridge subsequently re-entered railway work, 
being employed in the locomotive service of the San Pedro, 
I. OS Angeles & Salt Lake, the Denver & Rio Grande and the 
Union I'acific until April, 1907. He then entered the service 
of the Oregon Sliort Line as district foreman, and has since been 
cnimected with that road in various capacities until his appoint- 
ment as iiKuter iiuelianic of the Nevada Northern, as noted 

A Stirroci.. district master mechanic of the Canadian Pacific 
at Craiibrook, B. C, has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Alberta division at Calgary, Alta.. succeeding G. Whiteley. 

E. B. Van Akin has been appointed road foreman of equip- 
ment of the Minnesota division of the Rock Island Lines at 
Manly, Iowa. 

A. Young, roundhouse foreman of the Chicago. Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, at Chicago, lias been appointed district master mechanic 
at Milwaukee, Wis. 

W. Malthaner whose appointment as master mechanic of 
the Baltimore & Ohio at Newark. Ohio, was announced in these 
columns last month, was born at Salem. N. \ .. .-\ugust 4. 1874. 

He entered railroad 
service as a machinist 
apprentice on the Dela- 
ware & Ilud-son at Green 
Island. N. V.. in 1889, 
and at the end of four 
years was made a gang 
foreman in the same 
shop, serving in this ca- 
pacity on various classes 
of work until 1896. He 
then left railway work 
and served as a machin- 
ist for the General Elec- 
tric Company and other 
m a n u facturing ci .mpa- 
nies for two years, when 
he again entered the 
Green Island shops of the 
Delaware & Hudson as 
foreman of the air brake 
department. In 1900 he 
became terminal fore- 
man of the same road at Schenectady, N. Y.. -ind after two 
years in this capacity was appointed general foreman at Platts- 
burgh, N. Y. In 1904 he was made division master mechanic 
of the Saratoga & Champlain divisions of the Delaware & Hud- 
son, which position he occupied until 1912, when he was trans- 
ferred to the Susquehanna division. Me leaves this position to 
enter the service of the Baltimore & Ohio. 


.\. Berg has been appointed general foreman, car department 
of the New York Central at Wesleyville. Pa., succeeding O. 
Blodd. transferred. 

O. Bli dd. formerly general foreman of the car department of 
the New York Central at Wesleyville, Pa., has been transferred 
to Sandusky, Ohio, as general car foreman at that point, succeed- 
ing R. A. Fitz, transferred. 

R. A. Fitz, formerly general car feireman of the New York 
Central at Sandusky, Ohio, has been transferred to Nottingham. 
Ohio, as general car foreman. 

W. B. McNiECE. formerly car foreman of the Grand Trunk 
Pacific at Jasper. B. C.. has been appointed car foreman at 
McBride, B. C. 




Vol. 89, No. 3 

T. Spence, formerly car foreman of the Canadian Pacilic at 
Fort William, Ont., has been appointed general car foreman at 
Vancouver, B. C, succeeding W. C. Hodgson. 

George Thompson, district master car liuilder of the New 
York Central at Englcwood, 111., has liad liis jurisdiction ex- 
tended over the Illinois division. 


E. Bloom has been appointed shop demonstrator and chief ap- 
prentice instructor, of the Chicago & North Western at Chi- 
cago, III., succeeding E. H. Morey. 

George H. L.wcock has been appointed locomotive foreman of 
the Grand Trunk Pacific at Endako, B. C, succeeding George 

C. LuNDiuiRG has been appointed ronndhousc foreman of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Chicago, succeeding A. Young. 

John McRae, locomotive foreman of the Canadian Pacific at 
Revelstoke, B. C, has been appointed shop foreman at Kam- 
loops, B. C, succeeding G. Dillard. 

E. H. Morey, shop demonstrator and chief apprentice in- 
structor, has been appointed foreman of the new erecting and 
machine shop of the Chicago & North Western, at Chicago, III. 

J. A. Mitchell has been appointed locomotive foreman of the 
Grand Trunk Pacific at Biggar. Sask., succeeding A. S. Wright. 

C. M. Newm.^n has been appointed superintendent of shops 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Soutlnvcstern at Washington, Ind. 


Walter Alexander, who has just been appointed a member 
of the Railroad Commission of Wisconsin, has for the past 13 
years held positions as assistant district master mechanic and 
district master mechanic 
at Minneapolis and Mil- 
waukee of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul. 
The law creating the 
Railroad Commission re- 
quires that one member 
be familiar with trans- 
portation conditions and 
problems, and it was 
Governor Philipp's idea 
that a man who has had 
practical experience in 
railroad operation, as 
well as a technical train- 
ing as a mechanical en- 
gineer, would be best 
suited for the position. 
Mr. Alexander was born 
in Glasgow, Scotland, ant 
went to Milwaukee in 
1873. After receiving a 
common school educa- 
tion be served an apprenticeship as a machinist and drafts- 
man with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, and was also 
employed as a fireman on that road. While so employed 
he prepared himself for college and entered the University of 
Wisconsin in 1893, graduating in the mechanical engineering 
course in 1897; and he received a second degree in engineering 
the following year. After three years' instructional work in 
engineering at the University of Wisconsin, one year at Armour 
Institute and one at the University of Missouri he returned to 
railroad service as assistant district master mechanic of the 
St. Paul at Minneapolis. Two years later he was transferred 
to Milwaukee to a similar position, and later was made district 
master mechanic, which position he has held up to the present. 

SUPPLY Trade Notes 

Walter Alexander 

Jed O. Gould, general superintendent and works manager 
of the Gould Coupler Company, at Depew, N. Y., died Friday, 
February 19, at Buflfalo, N. Y. 

The Zug Iron & Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has been 
acquired by Jos. T. Ryerson & Son, Cliicago. The plant is 
to be dismantled and a warcliouse will be erected on the site. 

(jcorge T. Merwin, formerly with the W. W. Butler Com- 
pany, Ltd., Montreal, Que., has been appointed general sales 
manager of the Canadian Car & Foundry Company, Montreal, 

The Fairmont Machine Company, Fairmont, Minn., has 
changed its name to the Fairmont Gas Engine & Railway 
Motor Car Company, and has increased its authorized capital 
stock to $1,000,000. 

George Gibson Barret, formerly general manager of the 
Cleveland Drop Forge Company, and at one time connected 
with the American Locomotive Company, died at his home in 
Commack, L. L, on February 16. 

James S. Llewellyn has been elected secretary, and Paul 
Llewellyn treasurer of the Chicago Malleable Castings Com- 
pany. James S. Llewellyn will continue to hold the office of 
works manager at the W'est Pullman works. 

John H. Trent, formerly railroad representative of the H. 
W. Johns-Manville Company, New York, at St. Louis, Mo., 
has been transferred to New Orleans, La., as branch manager, 
and has been succeeded at St. Louis by W. B. Mallette. 

C. B. McElhany, assistant general manager of sales of the 
Cambria Steel Company, has been appointed general manager 
of sales, succeeding J. Leonard Replogle, who has resigned 
to enter the service of the American Vanadium Company. 

William H. Kinney, formerly master mechanic of the New 
York, Ontario & Western at Carbondale, Pa., has entered the 
railroad sales department of the Dearborn Chemical Company, 
Chicago, and will have headquarters at the company's New 
\'prk office. 

C. H. Rhoader, who has been connected with the St. Louis 
Surfacer & Paint Company, St. Louis, Mo., for four years, and 
with the Valentine Varnish Company for two years, was re- 
cently appointed western railway representative of the Kay & 
Ess Company, Dayton, Ohio. 

C. F. Quincy, president of the Q & C Company, New York, 
has acquired the entire capital stock of the Railway Appliances 
Company, Chicago, formerly owned by Percival Manchester. 
The business of the Railway Appliances Company will hereafter 
be operated by, and in the name of the Q & C Company. 

W. S. Ottinger, district sales manager of the Cambria Steel 
Company, has been appointed assistant general manager of 
sales, effective March 1, to succeed C. B. McElhany, promoted. 
Mr. Ottinger will be succeeded as district sales manager by F. J. 
Krouse. Albert S. Johnson will become assistant district sales 
manager, succeeding Mr. Krouse. 

Due to the existence of a battery jar marketed under the 
name "Titan," and the fact that any battery using these jars 
might appear as a Titan battery, the Titan Storage Battery 
Company, Newark, N. J., has changed its name to the General 
Lead Batteries Company. No change whatever in owner- 
ship, officers or policy is involved. The change is made 
merely to avoid confusion. 

Charles E. Foyer has been appointed assistant general sales 
manager of the Edison Storage Battery Company, Orange, 
N. J. Mr. Poyer has been with the Edison interests for about 
four years, having served first on the personal engineering 

MARrii, 1915 

RAILWAY \(;i'. (;A/i':r'ii'.. mkciiaxu ai. i-:i)ni()\ 


staff of Mr. J-'-ilisDii in tlic dt-M-lnpiiK-m uf special applii-alioiis 
of tlic alkaline liatttry. and later as assistant advertising man- 
ager. l'"or the past two years lie lias been manager of the 
honse lighting deiiartment. 

James !•'. Mcl^lroy. presideiU of the Consolidated C'ar Heal- 
ing Company, .\lbany, \. V., died at Laconia, i\. II., on 
h'ehruary 10. Mr. McElroy was prominent as an inventor and 
business man, and was identified with several of .Albany's 
hanlsing and mercantile instittitions. He was born in Grcen- 
lield, Ohio, November 25, 1852, and was gra<hiate(l from 
Dartmouth College in 1876. h'or four years following Mr. 
McElroy was the princi|)al teacher of the Indianapolis Institu- 
tion for the Blind, and then for seven years was superin- 
tendent of the Michigan Institution for the Blind. In 1887 
he organized the McElroy Car Heating Company, operating 
its own patents. Two years later it was combined with llu- 
Sewall Car Heatin.t; Company. 

J. Leonard Replogle, vice-presidci 
sales of the Cambria Steel Company, 
resigned, effective March 1, to ac 

ami general man.iger ol 
;ince September, l')12, has 
|it llie piisiliim of vice- 
prrsideiil a ii d gencTal 
man.iger of sales of the 
.\merican V a n a d i u m 
(.'ompany. Mr. Replogle 
has been in the service 
of the Candiria Steel 
Company for appro.xi- 
mately 26 years. He was 
born in Bedford county, 
I'a., on May (\ lS'7fi, and 
was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Johnstown. 
He entered the employ 
of the Cambria Steel 

lupany as an 



lioy when he was lint 13 
years of age and served 
successively as clerk, 
shipper, assistant super- 
intendent of tiie axle 
department, superintend- 
ent of the forge, axle 
and l)olt departments, as- 
sistant to the assistant general manager, superintendent of the 
order department, assistant general manager, assistant to presi- 
dent and vice-president and general manager of sales. Mr. Rep- 
logle will have oflices at Xew York and Pittsburgh. 

H. Ward Leonard, president of the Ward Leonard Electric 
Company, Bronxville, X. Y., died suddenly of apoplexy, as he 
was about to attend a banquet of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers at the Hotel Astor, New York, on 
Thursday, February 18. Mr. Leonard was a prominent elec- 
trical engineer and inventor. He was born in Cincinnati on 
February 8, 1861, He graduated from the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, and when he was 23 years of age 
became associated with Thomas A. Edison as a member of 
Mr. Edison's staflf of four engineers selected to introduce the 
Edison Central Station System. When he was 26 years of 
age he became general superintendent of the W^estern Electric 
Light Company at Chicago. The following year he formed 
the firm of Leonard & Izard, which made many important 
installations of central stations and electric railways. In 1889. 
when the firm was bought out by the Edison interests, Mr. 
Leonard became general manager of the combined Edison 
interests for the United States and Canada, with headquarters 
in New York. In 1891 he completed his inventions of the 
Ward Leonard system of motor control, and later introduced 
several other iniiiortant inventions in the electrical tiebl. 

J. A. Mcl'arland has been a|.|.oinled southwestern district man- 
ager r,f tbe l',ir<l-.\rc'.u-r (ompany, ( hicago. with headquarters in 
tlu' I'risco building, St. Louis. Mo. Mr, McFarland was born on 

October 23, 1880. at 
Mendota, 111. After fin- 
ishing his cfimmon school 
education he entered the 
University of Illinois, 
from which he graduated 
in 1903, having special- 
ized in chemistry. He 
began railway work in 
May of the same year in 
the chemical department 
(jf the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, at Topeka, 
Kan. On January 1, 
1904, he became as.sistant 
in the testing depart- 
inent of the Chicago & 
Xorth Western. In Feb- 
ruary, 1905, he became 
chief chemist of the 
Missouri Pacific, in which 
J ^ McFarland position he remained un- 

til May, 1909. when he 
took charge of tbe St. Louis office of the Dearborn Chemical 
Comjiany, L'liicago, looking after the latter's railroad business in 
that territory. In July, 1911, he left that company to becon-e 
chemist and engineer of tests of the Frisco System, and was 
later connected with the Standard Railway Equipment Com- 
|)any, Xew Kensington, Pa., until his recent appointment with 
tlie Bird-.\rcher Company, as noted above. 

Lyndon F. Wilson. vice-i)residcnt of the Railway List Company. 
Chicago, has resigned to become vice-president of the Bird- 
.Archer Company, Chicago, effective April 1. 1915. Mr. Wil- 
son was born at Rush 
Lake, Wis., November 
4, 1883. He was edu- 
cated at Ripon College. 
Lawrence University, 
and the University of 
Wisconsin. Before en- 
tering college, however. 
he was an operator in 
the office of his father 
on the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul. Later, 
after having had consid- 
erable machine shop and 
power plant experience. 
he became an engineer 
in the Department of 
the Interior of the L^nited 
States government, after 
having passed examina- 
tions in steam, electricity 
L. F. Wilson 3nd heating and venti- 

lating. After one year 
in this service, he joined the engineering department of the 
W estern Electric Company, and remained with the latter until 
the fall of 1908, when he became mechanical department editor 
of the Railway Review. In the spring of 1?09 he became editor 
of the Railway Master Mechanic, and was subsequently given 
editorial charge of Railway Engineering, both being published 
by The Railway List Company. Chicago. He was promoted to 
the vice-presidency of this company in the summer of 1913. 
-After April 1. Mr. Wilson will he located in the Chicago office 
of the Bird-Archer Company 


Vol.. 80. \o. 3 


TiMBLKRS. — The Whiting Fmiiulry luiuipnient Co.. Ilarvfv. 
111., has issued catalog No. 113 which is entirely given over to 
descriptions of the line of tuinbicrs manufactured by this company 
for use in various classes of f.mndry work. The catalog, which 
is well illustrated, will be .-^ent free upon request. 

Br.\ss FoiNnRY Eqi'II'.ment.— Catalog Xo. 114 of the Whiting 
Foundry Equipment Co., Harvey, 111., deals with the line of 
brass foundry equipment developed by this company. The line 
includes cranes, furnaces and tumblers as well as a line of tongs 
and shanks for handling crucibles. The catalog will be sent free 
upon request. 

P.MNT. — T!ie first nuinlier of a puiilication to be known as The 
Scientist has been received from the Goheen Manufacturing 
Company, Canton, Oliin. It is intended to devote the space in 
this booklet to the advancement of the iron, steel and galvanized 
iron preservatives, as well as the w-ater-prooling compound and 
damp-proofing paint of which the Gi)hccn Manufacturing Ci>m- 
pany is the maker. 

V.\LVES. — A 40-page catalog recently issued by the Homestead 
Valve Manufacturing Company, Homestead, Pa., deals with the 
different types of valves which this company manufactures. Il- 
lustrations and the principal dimensions of the difTerent tyjies 
are given and a cross-section showing the construction nf the 
Homestead straightway valve is included on pa.a:e 7. with de- 
tailed descriptive matter. 

Ventil.ation. — A pamphlet has been issued by the American 
Blower Company, Detroit, Mich., entitled Ventilating the 
Fletcher Savings and Trust Company Building. It contains a 
brief description of the Sirocco ventilating system as applied to 
an office building in Indianapolis, Ind. A number df drawings 
are included showing the layout of the system and a number nf 
types of Sirocco multiblade fans are illustrated. 

P.MNTS. — The ninth edition of the Review of Technical faints. 
by Frank P. Cheesman, has just been issued by Cheesman & 
Elliott, 100 William street. New York. This book contains 52 
pages, is illustrated and is intended to give anyone interested in 
metal painting the benefit of the long experience of this firm. 
Various kinds of paints are considered in detail and information 
given as to the best paint to use for any particular class of work. 

V.^LVE Gears. — A booklet recently received from the Southern 
Locomotive Valve Gear Company, Knoxville, I'enn., contains 
some interesting data regarding the Southern valve gear. .A 
number of indicator cards are included from locomotives fitted 
with this type of gear as well as data taken from the results 
of tests of locomotives to which this gear has been applied. Il- 
lustrations of the gear itself as well as Incnmotives fitted with it 
are included. 

T.\ps AND Dies.— The Wiley & Russell Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Greenfield, Mass., has recently issued catalog Xo. 36. 
which deals with the screw cutting tools and machinery manu- 
factured by this company. It is a book of pocket size contain- 
ing 285 pages and besides illustrations and detailed information 
concerning the taps, dies, gages, etc.. it contains, near the end. 
4 number of tables of decimal equivalents, standards for wire 
gage, metric screw threads, etc. 

S.\i.\LL Turb()-Gener.\tor Sets. — The General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, X. Y., has issued an attractive bulletin. 
Xo. 42,010, describing in considerable detail the horizontal turlio- 
generator sets of small capacities. These machines are liuilt in 
capacities ranging from 7 kw. to 330 kw. direct current, and 
100, 200 and 30O kw. alternating current, and are used largely 
for supplying light and power in mills, machine shops, laundries, 
etc., as well as for train lighting. 

S.Now b'i..\N(;ERS. — .\ 16. page booklet has recently been re- 
ceived from the Railway Appliance Company, Old Colony build- 
ing. Chicago, describing the improved type of Ray self-contained 
snow flanger. This device, which is applied directly to the loco- 
motive, is designed to keep the rail and fiangeway clear of light 
snowfalls. It is also used on wedge plows for clearing the 
liangeway. The booklet is well illustrated and contains a num- 
iier of interesting photographs of snow-fighting scenes. 

Water Softeners. — The Harrison Safety Boiler Works, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., has recently issued a 20-page leaflet devoted to the 
Sorge-Cochrane Hot Process Water Softening System. Tlie 
process, which is based upon the fact that chemical reactions are 
more rapid and complete in hot water than in cold water, is de- 
scribed in the leaflet which also contains a brief treatise on the 
chemistry of water softening. The text is well supplemented by 
;i nundier of diagrammatic views showing; the operation of the 

Centrimcai. PiMi's. — This is the title of a 64-page bulletin. 
Xo. 19, just is.sued by the Terry Steam Turbine Company, 
Hartford. Conn., giving details and data on various turbo- 
pump applications. The principles of operation and con- 
struction of the centrifugal pump are explained, as are de- 
tails of the steam turbine. Because of the wide latitude of 
speed possible with the turbine, the unit occupies a much 
smaller space than would be required for a pump pcrformin.g 
the saine duty but driven by a reciprocating engine. 

Mui.TipoRT Valves. — Cochrane Multiport Valves is the subject 
of a booklet of 72 pages just issued by the Harrison Safety 
Boiler Works, Philadelphia, which describes the multiport valves 
introiluced by that company for back pressure relief and vacuum 
service. How service in connection with mixed flow turbines, and 
check valve service with bleeder or extraction turbines. The 
essential idea of the multiport valve is the use of a number of 
small discs instead of one large disc, in order to secure greater 
safety, quietness, lightness of moving parts and tightness. 

Engineering Caixi-i.atioxs. — This is the title of a 23 page 
booklet issued by Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company, Chi- 
cago, which deals with the application of the comptometer to cal- 
culating work in the drafting room and the estimating depart- 
ment for a variety of calculations involving addition, multiplica- 
tion, division and subtraction. It is well illustrated and contains 
numerous examples of the operations for which the machine is 
being used. The booklet will be of interest to those in charge 
of engineering offices and drafting rooms generally. 

R.MLW.w Line iM.\TERiAi,. — The General P,lectric Company has 
recently issued bulletin No. 44.004. which forms an ordering 
catalog devoted to railway line material for direct suspension. 
This publication covers practically everything in line material for 
this method of suspension, except poles and wire. The parts are 
illustrated and each illustration is accomiianicd by the proper 
catalog numbers. The prices are not included. The bulletin 
contains also miscellaneous data relative to construction, over- 
head material per mile, general data on the use of solid copper 
wire and copper cable, dimensions of grooved trolley wire sec- 
tions, etc. 

Pl-mp.s. — The Xational Transit Company, Department of Ma- 
chinery, Oil City, Pa., has just issued bulletins X'os. 1, 2. 4. 101 
and 301, all of which are contained in a neat binder and are 
devoted to its line of jiumping machinery for general service re- 
cently added to the line of oil and .yas i)umpin.g machinery which 
it has previously manufactured. In bulletin Xo. 1 are illustrated 
the pumps for difTerent classes of service manufactured by this 
company including the duplex, crank and fly-wheel direct steam 
driven and geared pumps ; a line of gas engines and a line of 
pipe fittings. The other bulletins are each devoted to a particular 
class of service. 

Ai'Kii,, l'J15 




American Engineer 

Published on the Fibsi TmiRsnAV of Kveky Month by the 


WooLwoRTii Building, New York, N. Y. 

CHICAGO; Transportation Bldg. 
LONDON: Queen Ai 

Edward A. Simm{ 
The addr 

inibers, Westminster. 


President L. B. Sherman, FiV 

Henry Lee, Secretary 
of the company is the address of the oflficei 

Rov V. Wright, Editor 
Editor A. C. Loudon, Associate 

. B. Peck, Associate Editor 

R. E. Thayer, Associate 

Subscriptions, including the eight daily editions of the Railway Age 
Catette published in June in connection with the annual conventions ot 
the Master Car Builders' and American Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciations, payable in advance and postage free: 

United States, Canada and Mexico $2.00 a year 

Foreign Countries {excepting daily editions) .... 8.00 a year 
Single Copy 20 cents 

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as mail matter of the 
second class. 

WE GUARANTEE, that of this issue 5,260 copies were printed; that of 
these 6,260 copies 4,568 were mailed to regular paid subscribers. 260 were 
provided for counter and news companies' sales. 231 were mailed to adver- 
tisers, exchanges and correspondents, and 201 were provided for samples and 
office use; that the total copies printed this year to date were 19.550. an 
average of 4.888 copies a month. 

Simmons-Boardman publicalio.-.s are members of the Audit Bureau of Circu- 


April, 1915 

Number 4 



Plate Spring Design 155 

.\dvice to Apprentices 155 

Reclaiming Scrap Material 155 

Shop Craft Committee Meetings 156 

"The Economy of Good Workmanship 156 

Handling Locomotives at Engine Houses 156 

Steel Frame Passenger Equipment 157 

New Books 157 


Heavy 2-10-2 Type Locomotive 158 

Characteristics of Plate Springs 161 

Reciprocating and Revolving Parts 163 

.An X-Ray Inspection of a Steel Casting . 170 


The Defects of Modern Box Cars and Their Remedies 171 

Box Car End Door 173 

Grand Trunk Suburban Coaches 174 

British All-Steel Kitchen Cars 178 


Special Chucks for Air Pump Repairs 183 

Piston Rod Gland and Oiler 183 

Motor Drive for a Bradley Helve Hammer 184 

An Inspiring Address to Apprentices 185 

Turret Head for Planing Guides, Shoes and Wedges 187 

Suggestions for a Properly Kept Roundhouse 187 

t:are of Lye Tanks 188 

Jig for Planing Eccentrics 188 

Machine Steel for Small Tools 189 

Results of the Locomotive Boiler Inspection Law 190 

Portable Rivet Forge and Blow Torch 191 

Post Cluster for Extension Cord Plugs 192 

Using Old Boiler Tubes as Pipe 192 

Fixing Standard Time for a Bonus System 192 

Finishing Car and Engine Truck Brasses by Grinding 193 

Turning Engine Bolts 193 

.\nswers to Some Questions on Electric Arc Welding 195 

Finishing Cylinder Cocks 195 

Boring Front End Main Rod Brasses 196 

Special Chucks for a Turret Lathe '. 196 


Oxy-Acetylene Equipment 1 97 

Small Single Acting Hydraulic Pump 197 

(luintuple Punching and Shearing Machine 198 

Exhaust Nczzle with Internal Projections 198 

Heavy Duty Electric Reamer 199 

Journal Box Packing Guard 200 

I ocomotive Wedge Bolt 200 

Single Lrcomotive Water Joint 201 


Notes 202 

Meetings and Conventions 203 

Personals 204 

Supply Trade Notes 206 

Catalogs • 208 

.,. riif (lcsi(4ii 1)1 pl.ite .spring.-, is a >uliject in 

, . wliich many railway mccliaiiical men ha\e 

■ prinij .^ ^i^.^.jj interest. It is one wliich has been 

'^"'"'f!" almost entirely based upon theory with but 

lilllc exact dala <if a practicable nature by which to check or 

nuidify the formulas generally used. On ai:other page appears 

ilie first of a series of articles on I'late Springs by G. S. Chiles. 

These articles are based on the results of extensive tests and 

c'jiilaiii much valuable dala relative to the characteristics of 

\arious types of plate springs. The concluding article will be 

largely devoted to design and will contain recommendations for 

modifications in the present practice. 


A few weeks ago George M. Basford, who 
is regarded as the father •rf modern railway 
si, op apprenticeship, made an address before 
Apprentices ^ meeting of the Chicago & North Western 

apprentices at iJhicago. He took as his subject "Heroes," and 
clearly outlined the underlying principles which govern the de- 
\elopment and advancement of ambitious yjung men who desire 
to make good in the railway mechanical department organ- 
ization. The principles outlined in this article, which is given 
elsewhere in this issue, are, of course, equally true for young 
men who desire to advance in any other occupation or profes- 
sion. The unfortunate part of the whole business is that such 
a comparatively small number of the apprentices can be forced 
to stop and think and take advantage of advice of this sort. 
We hope that not only the young men who read the article will 
take it to heart, but that the older men who have charge of 
apprentices will bring it to the attention of the young men and 
try to get them to realize its great importance to them if they 
intend to make a success of their work. We shall be glad also 
to hear from any of the apprentices as to their experiences in 
regard to apprenticeship and as to how, in their opinion, the in- 
struction which they are receiving and the schedules which they 
are following could be better arranged to meet the needs of 
railway shop apprentices of today. 

Reclaiming It is difficult to compare the performances 

„ of two different roads in reclaiming scrap. 

as the conditions are usually very different. 
Material -j p,p problem in most instances is a local 

one, and the fact that one road shows a saving in reclaiming 
certain classes of material does not necessarily mean that an- 
other road can obtain the same results. It does indicate pos- 
sibilities, however, and a study of the conditions under which 
one road operates its reclaiming plant may show the investi- 
gators licw their plant might be improved. 

The selection of the foreman for a reclaiming plant is of 
prime importance. The peculiar characteristics of the work re- 
quire a man who is energetic and ingenious; he must be capable 
of exercising good judgment in the selection of the material to 
be reclaiined and of developing methods to make it serviceable 
at the smallest possible cost. Such a man. with an efficient and 
well-trained organization, will find no difficulty in showing that 
money can be saved in scrap reclamation. In addition, he must 
be supported by competent accountants, men capable of deter- 
mining very closely the cost of reclaiming the various ma- 
terials in order that he may know just where he stands. The 
desirability for this close supervision would that better 
results can be obtained by having the reclamation work handled 
by a separate organization located preferably at some important 
shop point near the scrap market. 

The question has been raised as to whether this work should 
come under the stores or mechanical departinents. Both are 
directly interested. It is the duty of the stores department to 
keep the purchase of material at the lowest point practicable 
and still carry enough material to meet the demands of the road. 
The mechanical department is interested in that it receives the 



\'uL. 89. No. 4 

benefit of the money saved by reclamation. It, therefore, be- 
hooves both departments to work together, regardless of which 
has direct control of the plant. The work itself is, of course, 
mechanical, and the mechanical men are more capable of deter- 
mining what can be done in the matter of reclamation. 

The question of investment in equipment for a reclaiming 
plant is also important. There may be just as much money 
lost in the operation of inefficient machines in the scrap shed as 
in the best shop on the system, and the use of inefficient ma- 
chines may mean the difference between a profit and a loss in 
doing some of the work. 

„, r- L The mental attitude of the workman toward 

shop L.raft ... ... 

his employer is an important item in shop 
Committee administration. In the railway shop par- 

Meetings ticularly there is often lacking that per- 

sonal feeling that many times naturally exists between the owner 
of a small industrial shop and his men. At all of the shops 
of the Illinois Central an effort has been made to bring the 
n-.en into closer touch with the organization by tlie appointment 
of a shop craft committee. This committee is composed of rep- 
resentatives from each department or craft and meets monthly 
in the office of the shop superintendent. At these meetings the 
general welfare of the men, the shop conditions, and safety are 
discussed with a view to determining at first hand just what 
complaints the men have, how their working conditions can be 
improved and to instil into their minds, through their rep- 
resentatives, the necessity of doing their work with the idea of 
safety to themselves and their fellow workmen. It is explained 
that the shop is operated on a montlily appropriation basis, and 
that what they save in material will work towards an increase 
in what may be expended for labor, which may mean longer 
hours, with the accompanying increase in pay, or the emploj'- 
iiient of more help. The men appreciate the fact that the 
company is seeking to improve their conditions, and in many 
cases they recommend improvements that are of direct economic 
advantage to the company. This practice has been in effect for 
some time and is regarded as an important feature in the shop 
administration. That the purpose of the committee may be 
more thoroughly understood by the men. each member is aii- 
pointed for only two consecutive months, the members being ap- 
pointed by the men themselves. 

The Economy of 

Tlie general foreman of a large eastern 
shop after showing a visitor a number of 
examples which indicated clearly the high 
Workmanship quality of the workmanship, said, "It 

doesn't cost any more to do work that way — and it doesn't come 
back." The conditions obtaining in railway shop work do not 
tend toward encouraging the highest quality of w'orkmanship. 
Locomotives must be kept in service tlie greatest possible pro- 
portion of the time and transportation officers are wont to make 
frequent inquiry as to when certain engines will be ready, so 
that the shop staff is under a steady pressure in turning out 
work. There is, therefore, "an almost constant tendency, or 
perhaps it might be more properly termed temptation, to leave 
something undone or to shirk the method of its doing. Whether 
or not such practice is cheaper in first cost than if time and 
care were taken to produce a first class job. there can be no 
doubt that the after effects are expensive, for such work does 
"come back" in many ways. 

A brief consideration of one or two examples will show very 
plainly how expensive poor workmanship really is. A loco- 
motive that returns to the engine house from the yard because 
a cylinder cock that was booked off as O. K. refuses to stay 
closed, will cost much more in terminal delay to the engine 
and train crews alone than the expense of doing the job prop- 
erly and trying the cylinder cocks thoroughly at the shop to 
insure their working satisfactorily. The widespread effects of 

any engine failure are of such a nature that the direct cost can- 
not be counted, but it is safe to say that it would much more 
than pay for any work that would have prevented the failure. 
L'nder the bombardment of questions and requests for power 
that a foreman receives from the transportation officers he would 
be superhuman if he did not permit some work to go out which 
could not be classed as good; but an hour or so added to the 
time an engine is in the shop is many times better than an en- 
gine failure. The trainmaster who complains of the length of 
time a locomotive is held under repairs would complain much 
more strenuously if the same engine were hurried out and as a 
result gave up a train on the road. In either case the shop 
foreman is the victim, but it is a great deal easier to explain a 
shop delay caused by an effort to prevent an engine failure than 
it is to explain neglected work which resulted in a failure. The 
wise fcireman will see to it that his work "doesn't come back." 


The function of an engine house organ- 
ization is to take the locomotives as they 
come from the trains, make the necessary 
at bngine Houses repairs and prepare them for service as 
(|uickly as possible. In the movement of a locomotive through 
the routine of a mechanical terminal there are two or three 
points to which we believe greater attention should be given 
than is the general practice. With regularly assigned engines, 
which have tu lie at a terminal a certain length of time as a 
minimum, tl;e quicker the work which is done outside the engine 
house is completed, the more time there will be available lor 
the more important work w'hich is done inside. In the case of 
pooled engines all of the work must be done as quickly as pos- 
sible; so that in general it can be stated that despatch should 
be used in getting locomotives by the coaling plant and over the 
ashpit. The work of coaling can be done with but slight delay 
if the equipment is modern ; but at an engine house with out-of- 
date facilities, co-operation with the shopmen is necessary if 
serious delays are to be avoided. For instance, if an engine is 
fifth or sixth in the line at the coaling plant and the boiler wash- 
ing gang is doing nothing pending its arrival in the engine house, 
the foreman, if he is a man who keeps in close touch with his 
organization, will order that engine to the ashpit and thence to 
the house without coal, leaving the work of coaling to lie taken 
care of on the way out, and if necessary having tlie firing up 
done enough earlier to provide for this. 

At the ashpit, while speed is desirable, care must be taken 
not to make improper use of the blower and the injectors, and 
at the same time to carefully clean the fire, or dump it if that is 
necessary, so that the grates will be left clean. Here again, hy 
keeping in touch with the shopmen, considerable time can be 
saved. An engine requiring boiler work can be blown down 
while on the ashpit to a pressure just sufficient to work the en- 
gine over the turntable, and a saving both in time and in water 
can be effected by not working the injectors. 

Stress is laid on the quick handling of the outside work, first 
because a machinist or a boilermaker cannot tell until he lias 
bad a chance to carefully examine the work entered in the work 
book, w^hether it is likely to result in a long job or a short one. 
There may be some hidden trouble which was not apparent to 
the engineman or inspector who made the work report, and if 
such is the case all the time which is available may be neces- 
sary to get the engine ready for service again. Second, the 
repairing of locomotives is the most important part of the ter- 
minal work and the more time given to it, the better the work 
is likely to be done. .Kw engine house staff should, therefore, 
be provided with an ample number of capable hostlers and ashpit 
men to reduce to a minimum the time that locomotives stand 
outside the shop after their arrival. This is particularly true in 
the winter months, when it is an easy matter for them to freeze 
up or develop leaky tubes, causing added trouble and expense, 
and probably delay. 

April. 1915 



Steel Frame ^^ '"' ''''^'"' H^'^^'^^'" *'■' acciistoiiK'd in tlic L'nilcd 

States tu steel cms in |iassengcr trains 

rasseniier , , , , 

tliat \vc now take llniii as a matter ot 

Equipment course. The public .lenian.l for steel cars 

was met— or at least a start was made tDuard meeting it — 
almost before it was made and there are now few roads of im- 
portance in this country that do nut operate steel passenger 
train cars in considerable numbers. Some of the mistakes made 
in the designing of the first cars have been discovered, and are 
being remedied in later designs; but there is still room for 
improvement in some of the designs of steel cars now in serv- 
ice, particularly as regards noise and heating. In Canada, where 
the winter temperatures are much more severe than those en- 
countered in .general in the United States, the Canadian Pa- 
cific has placed in service a number of steel cars which it is 
understood are proving satisfactory from the standpoint of tem- 
perature, both in sunmier and winter. These cars were de- 
scribed in the Ruilnav .-/i't' Giisctir, Mccliauical Edilinn for 
May. 1914, page 237. 

In deciding on the use of steel cars consideration must be 
given to the facilities available for repairs, and the officers of a 
road on which it will be necessary to go to the expense of 
building and equipping a shop for repairs to steel passenger 
equipment if that type of car is adopted, are likely to move 
slowly, particularly under present conditions. Confronted with 
the necessity for new equipment in the Montreal suburban, serv- 
ice, the officers ot the Grand Trunk developed a car design of 
special interest at this time, when the all-steel car has become 
so common. This car is described elsewhere in this issue. In 
order to produce a car with ample strength, which could be 
kept comfortable in all teinperatures and be repaired with the 
facilities now available on the road, a design was adopted hav- 
ing a steel frame and ends, and reinforced and finished with 
wood. The danger from fire was carefully considered ; but 
even an all-steel car cannot be mad« entirely fireproof because 
of the upholstery, and with steam heat and electric light the 
clanger of fire should be small except in the case of telescoping 
over the locomotive firebox, a danger whicli should be slight in 
this case. 

First consideration would lead to the belief that such a car 
would be unusually hea\y. but although the length of the car 
body is 70 ft., the weight is but 137.000 lb., which with a seat- 
ing capacity of 96 gives a dead weight per passenger of 1,427 lb. 
This figure is below the average for all-steel cars, this being 
about 1,500 lb., while the minimum is in the neighborhood of 
1.200 lb. The use of heavier locomotives makes it possible to 
haul seven of tlie new cars in a train, giving a total seating 
capacity of 672 as against 250 in the previous five-car trains, 
the dead weight per passenger in the latter being 1.500 lb. 


The F.lcclric Furnace iii Mctallingicjl IFork. By Dorscy .\. Lyon, Robert 
M. Keeiiey and Josepli F. Cnllen. 190 pages. 6 in. by 9 in. Bound 
in paper. Illustrated. Published by the Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Mines. Washington. D. C. 

This book is bulletin No. 77, published by the Bureau of Mines 
and is divided into three parts. Part I treats of the design, con- 
struction and operation of electric furnaces. Part II of the 
smelting ot metals in the electric furnace and Part III of the 
manCifacture of ferro-alloys in the electric furnace. The bulletin 
mittee and is a revision of the questions and answers previously 
issued bv this association. 

properties of steam, both wet and superheated, lor the steam 
tables usually employed in such work charts have been sub- 
stituted ; with total heat and specific volume as the co-ordinates 
sets ol constant temperature, constant pressure, constant qual- 
ity, constant superheat and constant entropy curves have been 
plotted. The graduations have been arranged on a decimal 
basis, thus facilitating interpolation between the values plotted 
on the chart. The use of a single chart to include the total 
range of pressures and temperatures to be met in engineering 
practice would be extremely awkward. Such a chart in folder 
form when in use would take up the large part of the top of a 
desk, .\side from this disadvantage it would soon become worn 
at the folds and its serviceability greatly impaired. The au- 
thor has therefore chosen to divide the chart into a number of 
sections, each section being subdivided horizontally into an up- 
per and lower part, which are placed on facing pages. These 
pages are preceded by an index chart showing the various sec- 
tions in their proper relative position and showing the range 
of values for the variables on each section, by referring to which 
the proiier section to use in any specific case is readily deter- 
mined. .\bout half of the volume is devoted to problems, the 
solutions of which are worked out by the use of the charts. 
The introduction contains a brief statement of fundamental 
principles, these being included for the benefit of those wishing 
a l)rief review of thermo-rlynamics, and an explanation of the 
use of the charts. In addition to the steam charts the book 
contains tables of barometric corrections and theoretical steam 
velocities. The graphic presentation of <lata possesses sev- 
eral advantages over tlie use of tables and the principal objection 
to tlie use of charts — the dirticulty of securing sufticient range in 
|)racticable sjiace liinitations — has been admirably n-et by the 
author in this volume. 

Sicam Claris. By F. O. Eilenwood, assistant professor of Heat Power 
Engineering, Cornell University. 91 pages, 7 in. by 9'/i in. Bound in 
cloth. Published by .Tohn Wiley S: Sons, Inc.. 4,12 Fourth avenue. 
New York. 

This book was prepared for the use of engineers, teachers and 
students who are called upon to solve problems involving the 

Examination Questions and Arswers. Compiled by a committee of the 
Traveling Engineers' .Ass'ciatinn. 205 pages, 4!4 in. by 6V2 in. 
Bound in cloth. Published by the Traveling Engineers* .Association, 
W. O. Thompson, East Buffalo, X. Y., secretary. Price $1 per copy, 
or 65 cents per copy in lots of five or more. 

riiese questions and answers are for firetiien seeking promotion, 
and for new men to be employed. They were compiled by a 
committee of the Traveling Engineers' .-Kssociation, of which 
\\ . H. Corbett, division master mechanic of the Michigan Cen- 
tral, was chairman. The book is divided into three series, the 
first series containing examination questions and answers on 
which the firemen will be examined at the end of the first year. 
The second series is for the second year examination, and the 
third series is questions and answers which the firemen will be 
expected to know before being promoted to the position of en- 
gineer. The first series deals with the fireman's duties and in- 
cludes considerable information on the combustion of fuel and 
the proper method of firing. A few questions are also given 
concerning the air brake. 

The second series of questions also contains instructions as 
to the proper method of firing and deals with problems in boiler 
maintenance and construction with which the fireman should be 
familiar. It also contains information regarding injectors and 
lubricators. Further questions are also asked concerning air 
l)rakes, and the subject of oil burning locomotives is gone into 
quite thoroughly. The third series covers the duties of an engi- 
neer and gives considerable information regarding the main- 
tenance of the machinery of a locomotive while on the road. 
This series also includes information regarding break-downs. 
Compound locomotives are considered in some considerable de- 
tail, as are the Walschaert and Baker-Pilliod valve gears, lubri- 
cators, and electric head lights. The different types of air 
pumps and air brake apparatus on locomotives are also con- 
sidered in considerable detail, 151 questions being asked on this 
sijbject. This book was most carefully compiled by tlie com- 
mittee and is a revision of the questions and answers previously 
issued bv this association. 

Heavy 2-10-2 Type Locomotive 

Erie Engine Has 63 in. Drivers, 31 in. by 32 in. 
Cylinders and Total Engine Weight of 407,700 lb. 

A large locomotive of the 2-10-2 typo lias recently been more & Ohio locomotives. In the following table is a coni- 

plaeed in service by the Erie Railroad. It was built by the parison of the leading dimensions of these locomotives: 

Baldwin Locomotive Works and is slightly heavier than the Koaj p & q Erie 

locomotives of this type built last year by the same company lip^'i^": <^T<'^? ,fMSS 13- o^-'S?2 !u- 

„ ^, . ^ ^i , . ^t' Weight on drivers 336,8001b. 32/ .250 lb. 

for the Baltmiore & Ohio.* The new locomotive has o3-in. Weight, total engine 406.000 lb. 407,700 lb. 

-66- 4:-— 66- 

Ceneral Arrangement cf the Erie Railroad 2-10-2 Type Locomotive 

drivers, the largest which have jet been placed on an engine 
of the 2-10-2 type, and by using 31-in. cylinders the tractive 
efTort has been maintained very nearly to that of the Balti- fuperheat"? heat'inf 

Drivers, diameter 
Cylinders, diam. : 

*For a description of the Baltimore & Ohio 2-10-2 Type, 
Gasctte, Mechanical Edition, September, 1914, page 456. 

Rail-way Age 

5S in. 63 in. 

30 in. by 32 in. 31 in. bv 32 in 

200 lb. 200 lb. 

face 5.573 sq. ft. 5.801 sq. ft. 

face 1,329 sq. ft. 1,377 sq. ft. 

S8 sq. ft. S8.1 sq. ft. 


The boiler of the Erie locomotive is similar in construction 



-- - o.^^lF^-^^'-fik ^•, 


^V-i-iBM Jft*^HBltLL=.:^== 




^ ^1 t Ig^ 



Erie Locomotive of the 2-10-2 Type Which Develops 83.000 lb. Tractive Effort 

April, 1915 


Icj ihat of tlie Baltimore &: (lliio loconioliv f illiislratccl in tlu- 
ilcscription above retcrred to. The dilTereiice in the lieatiiig 
surface is due almost entirely to an increase in the length of 
tubes, which are 24 ft. long as compared with a length of 23 
ft. in the boilers of the Baltimore & Ohio locomotives. The 
lubes are welded into the back tube sheet. The new boiler 
has a conical ring in the middle of the barrel which increases 
the shell diameter from 90 in. tu 100 in. I In- iraiii dome is 

s|>ecial atlciiliiiii has bciii Kivcn to the exhaust passages, 
vvliicb are unusually direct and of liljeral section area. Steam 
distrilnition is controlled by 16-in. piston valves driven by the 
Baker gear and set with a lead of 3/16 in. The locomotive is 
equipped with the Kagonnet power reverse gear. 

The reciprocating parts are comparatively light for an en- 
gine of this size, l-'orged and rolled steel f)istons of Z-section 
are used. The guides are of the alTgator type with a \crtical 

-26 0% >»»-..(<- 

Sectional Elevation of the Boiler of the Erie 2-10-2 Type Locomotive 

of pressed steel in one piece and is mounted on the connec- 
tion ring, while the auxiliary dome is forward cf the firebox 
on the third ring and is placed over a 16-in. opening in the 
shell. The boiler contains a combustion chamber 28 in. long. 
There is a full installation of flexible staybolts in the water 
legs, and four rows of flexible bolts support the front end 
of the combustion chamber crown. The equipment includes 
a Schmidt superheater, Security brick arch. Street stoker. 

distance of 20 in. between the bars. The crossheads have 
steel bodies with bronze gibs 32 in. in length and are very 
simple in design. They weigh 785 lb. apiece, and although 
large in itself, this weight may be considered low for the 
size required. The front and back main rod stubs are of the 
Markel type with removable brasses. .\s shown in one of the 
drawings, the cast steel filling blocks in the main stub are 
cored out to remove as much weight as possible. 

263, Z^' Tubes 48.S^'F/ues 
24' o' Long. 


Cross-sectional Elevations of the Boiler 

Talmage ash-pan and blowofi" system, Franklin grate shaker 
and firedoor and Chambers throttle valve. 

The cylinder castings are simple and massive in design, and 
are secured to the frames by 12 horizontal lj4-in. bolts each. 
Both the cylinders and steam chests are fitted with bushings 
of Ilunt-.Spiller gun iron and the same material is used for 
piston and valve packing rings. In designing the cylinders 

• hving to the comparatively large diameter of the wheels 
and the relatively light reciprocating weights it has been 
possible to balance the locomotive very satisfactorily. It was 
unnecessary to resort to the use of auxiliary counterweights 
on the main axle, and lead has been used in the counter 
weights of the main wheels only. 

The frames are Vanadium steel castings with rear sections 



Vol. 89. Xo. 4 

ol forged iron. The main frames are 6 in. in v. idtli and arc 
spaced 42 in. between centers. The single front rails arc 
cast integral with the main sections and in front of the cylin- 
ders they are bolted to a combined deck plate and bumper 
casting furnished by the Commonwealth Steel Company, in 
which is housed the Miner draft gear. This is a large and 
elaborate casting and it has been cured out wherever possible, 
to save weight. Poling pockets are cast in the bumper. 

The driving wheels have a total lateral play in the boxes 
of li in., and the first and fifth pairs have % in. more play 
between the flanges and rails than the second and fourth 
pairs. 1 he main wheels have plain tires, and in spite of the 
long rigid vvheelbase the locomotive will traverse 16-deg. 
curves. The engine has the Woodard leading truck, the Cole 
trailing truck and Cole long main driving boxes. 

\\lurc\i.-r practicable, details have been made interchange- 
able with corresponding parts of the Erie's latest Mikado 
type locomotives. Such parts include the tender trucks com- 
plete, the pilot, frame-crossties, brake shoes and heads, many 
brass fittings and the following parts, except for the main 
wheels: driving boxes, axles, tires and shoes and wedges. 
F'lange oilers are applied to the leading wheels and a speed 
recorder is operated from the rear truck. 

The tender is of the Vanderbilt type, havin.;^ a water ca- 
pacity of 10,000 gal., and a coal capacity of 16 tons. The 
frame is composed of 6 in. by 4 in. angles, with front and 
back bumper beams of cast steel. The trucks have cast steel 
side frames and solid rolled steel wheels manufactured by 
the Standard Steel Works Company. 

The 2-10-2 type, although not yet generally in use, has met 
with marked success in heavy freight service and the large 
boiler capacity, together w'ith the comparatively large driving 

Wiicel b,isc 
Wliecl base 
Wheel base. 


sshead of the Erie 2-10-2 Type Locomotive 

wheel diameter of tlie Erie locomotive, indicates the possi- 
bility of further development in this type tow-ard sustained 
capacity at higher speeds. 

The following are the principal dimensions and data: 

General Data 

Gage 4 ft. S'A in- 

Service Freight 

Fuel Soft coal 

Tractive effort 83,000 lb. 

Weight in working order 407,700 lb. 

Weight on driver.s 327,250 lb. 

Weight on leading truck 24,450 lb. 

Weight on trailing truck 56,000 lb. 

Weight of engine and lender in working order 586,300 lb. 


engine and tei.der 77 ft. 4'i in. 


Weight on drivers -H tractive effort: 3.94 

Total weight -=- tractive effort 6.18 

Tractive effort X diaui. drivers -r- equivalent heating surface* 664.72 

F.quivalent heating surface' -^ grate area 89.29 

Firebox heating surface ■— equivalent heating surface,* per cent 3,28 

Weight on drivers -i- equivalent heating surface* 41.60 

Total weight -r- equivalent heating surface* 51.83 





1 N?1^ \ 


'— '!' '1--' 


-7/-— >! 

Marke! Main Rod Stub with Cored Filler Blocks. 

Volume both cylinders ; J7.9S' cu. ft.. 

Kquivalent heating surface* -H vol. cylinders 281. 45. 

(M-ate area -^ vol. cylinders 3. 15' 


Kind Simple 

Diameter and stroke 31 in. b.v 32 in. 

Kind Piston 




Driving, diameter over tires 63 in. 

Driving, thickness of tires 3^^ in. 

Driving journals, main, diameter and length 13 in, by 11 in. 

Driving journals, others, diameter and length 11 in. by 13 in. 

Engine truck ^yheels, diameter 34 in. 

Engine truck, journals 6 in. by 12 in. 

Trailing truck wheels, diameter . .42 in. 

Trailing truck, journals 9 in. by 14 in. 


Style Conical 

Working pressure 200 lb. per sq. in. 

Outside diameter of first ring 90 in. 

Firebox, length and width 13254 in- by 96 in. 

Firebox plates, thickness Sides, back and crown, .?^ in.; tube. 5^ in. 

Firebox, water space 6 in. 

lumber and outside diameter 269—2!^ in. 

umber and outside diameter 48 — 5 ^■a in. 

nd flues, length 24 ft. 

surface, tubes 5,443 sq. ft. 

rface, arch tubes 37 sq. ft. 

rface, firebox 258 sq. ft. 

rface, total 5,801 sq. ft. 

Superheater heating surface 1,377 

Equivalent healing surface' 7,866.5 

Grate area S8.1 

Tender ' 

Weight ' 178,600 lb. 

Wheels, diameter _ 33 in. 

Journals, diameter and length 6 in. by 11 in. 

Water capacity 10,000 gal. 

.Coal capacity 16 tons 








.-q. ft. 

•Equivalent heating surface ^ total evaporative heati' 
times the superheating surface. 



Traffic Through the Pan.\ma Canal. — More than a million 
Ions of freight have been carried through the Panama canal dur- 
ing the first three inonths of its operation. Thus far, the west 
hound traffic has been in excess of eastbound traffic, westbound 
being 621,080 tons as compared with 457,991 tons eastbound. 
More than 95 per cent of this traffic was on the four great routes 
which developed soon after the canal was opened; the United 
States coastwise trade, the traffic between the Pacific coast of 
the United States and Europe, the trade of the west coast of 
South .America with the Atlantic seaboard of the United States 
and with Europe and traffic between the Atlantic coast of the. 
United States and the Far East. — American Machinist. 


Characteristics of Plate Springs 

Part I : The Effect of Friction ; Relation of Service 
to Test Deflections; Detectinj« Permanent Set 


While imuh lia> been wrilUii in rcceiU years mi iilatc springs, 
the treatment (it tlie sulijcc: has been largely of a tlie<rretical 
nature, ciinsisting in the (Jeri\ation, analysis and comparison 
lit various lorniulas used in designing springs. The object of 
l^art I of this article will be to describe the characteristics of 
plate springs as observed in a series of experiments, both in the 
laboratory and in service. The efifect of friction under various 
conditions is brouglit out in its relation to methods of testing 
and to service performance. 

Part II will deal with the effect <if the characteristics of mate- 
rials and of methods of manufacture upon the action of plate 
springs. As far as possible the results of the tests will be used to 
exjilain why actual and theoretical performance are often at vari- 


I , 




i : ■ 

t ■ 

^— ji 


'- . : : ^=t: 




Fig. 1 

ance. The bearing of the results upon the subject of design will 
be considered with suggestions for an improved formula for 

Before proceeding further the writer wishes to acknowledge 
Ins indebtedness to those whose willing co-operation has aided 
him in securing the data upon which the article is based, espe- 
cially to R. G. Kelley for his able assistance. 


In order to secure satisfactory results in testing plate springs 
it is- necessary before recording data to apply and remove an 
initial load several times, this load varying according to the con- 
dit'on of the springs. For repaired springs or those tested after 
remii\al from service the load used amounts to about 25 per 
cent over the static load for which the spring is designed while 
for new springs it is usually taken at about SO per cent over 
the static load. The limbering up of the spring in this manner 
eliminates slight irregularities which may be due to internal 
friction, initial stress resulting from the fitting and banding of 
the plates and the attendant temperature changes, or the taking 
of a slight permanent set at or below what is ordinarily con- 
sidered as the elastic limit of the material. Unless this practice 
is followed it is impossible to verify deflection readings by dupli- 
cating tests. Springs rarely, if ever, return to the original free 
height after the removal of an initial load even as small as 50 
per cent of the static or rated loading. 

In deflection tests on steel plate springs the methods to be 
used require careful attention. Whether the deflection is meas- 

ured as the load is applied, or as it is released, and what load is 
10 be used in testing for permanent set are questions the settle- 
ment of which will seriously affect the results obtained. 

In Fig. 1 arc plotted the deflections obtained by the application 
of a compression load of 23,100 lb. to a number of locomotive 
driving springs. The springs are all of the same general di- 
mensions, but are divided into three groups differing in chem- 
ical composition and the method of assembling. The springs 
in group ./ were built up of carbon spring steel, and were re- 
inove<l from several heavy Pacific type passenger locomotives 
after having been in service several months. Those in group H 
were new, with a vanadium content; and in assembling, the 
plates had been painted with a mixture of oil and graphite. 
Those in group C were old carbon steel springs which had been 
reset, retempercd and the plates painted with a mixture of oil 
and graphite. 

.After an initial load of 29.000 lb., equivalent to a 2s per cent 
overload, had been applied and removed three times the camber 
was measured. The static load of 23,100 lb. was then applied 
and the camber of the spring again measured. The deflections 
recorded are the differences between the free camber and that 
with the static load applied. They varied from I'i in. to 1.9 
ill. for group . /, the average being 1.63 in. The deflections for 
group B are considerably greater and much more uniform than 
those for group .i, ranging from 2.2 in. to 2.4 in. and averaging 



Fig. 2 

about 2.27 in. The deflections for group C are stdl greater and 
more uniform, varying from 2.4 in. to 2.5 in., the average being 
2.44 in. It will be noted that the results obtained by this method 
for new springs with oil and graphite between the plates are 
fairly uniform while the variations in deflection of old springs 
are so great as to make the results practically worthless as a 
means of checking individual springs with formulas or specifi- 
cations. The causes for these variations will be discussed more 



Vol, 89, No. 4 

fully later on and attentinn is called tn tluni al this point only 
to show the unreliability ot data obtained in this manner. 

The results ot a better method of testing, and one which is 
quite generally used are shown in l-"ig. 2. The abscissas represent 
the load in thousands of pounds and the ordinates the camber of 
the spring in inclies. After being limbered up, the free height, 
or the camber of the spring, was measured and found to be 5;/4 
in. The next step was to apply a load of about 2,000 lb., and 
again record the camber which in this instance was 4.88 in. 
Without removing this load an additional 2,000 lb. was added, 
bringing the load up to about 4.000 lb. This reduced the camber 
to about 4.45 in. In like manner successive points on the curve 
were determined, the camber gradually decreasing to one inch 
at a load of 20,000 lb. The operation was now reversed ; that is, 
the load was reduced by about 2.000 lb., bringing it down to 18.0(X) 
lb. It should be noted that the camber instead of returning to 
1.45 in., is now only 1.10 in. In other words, with the removal 
of the final increment of 2,000 lb., the spring did not return "to 
the position it had occupied previous to the addition of this in- 
crement. Likewise, each successive point on the release load 
curve will be found to be of smaller value than its correspond- 

.DTH QPBAND {b^t^oM. 


'^ / 

' ' c 

Fig. 3 

ing point on the applied load curve, though the difference be- 
tween the two curves diminishes as they approach the point of 
zero load, which is the same for both curves. 

The reason for this difference in the camber of the spring 
for the same load is due mainly to the friction existing between 
the individual plates composing the spring. To some extent, the 
time eiTect must also be taken into consideration. L'pon the 
application of a load, an elastic elongation or deformation im- 
mediately takes place, even though the resulting stress is much 
below the primitive elastic limit, but the permanent or plastic 
deformation, ordinarily considered a negligible quantity, does not 
occur until after the elapse of a period of time. As this per- 
manent deformation increases gradually under a constant load, 
the return of the material to its original state after the removal 
of tlie load is also gradual. Since the effect of this phenomena 
is similar to that of the friction between the plates in that it has 
a tendency to result in a higher reading for the applied load 
curve and a Inver reading for the release load curve, it no 

iloubt has some effect upon the curves; however, as this effect 
is comparatively slight, it may be disregarded in this article. In 
the case of a semi-elliptic spring a small portion of this difference 
is perhaps due to the friction between the rollers or blocks upon 
which the ends of the spring rest and the table of the testing ma- 
chine, although these surfaces were well lubricated. In all in- 

Fig. 4 

Stances the load increments were not of the same value. Should 
any one increment slightly exceed its preceding increment, any 
attempt toward equalization by removing the excess weight would 
result in a false value for the curves. In other words, it is to 
he borne in mind that once having applied a load to the spring, 
neither tliis load nor any portion of it should be removed until 

Fig. 5 

it is desired to obtain values for the release load curve. Sim- 
ilarly, the values for the release load curve should be obtained 
only by the removal of the portion of the load and, in no case, 
should an attempt be made to equalize successive increments of 
the load by the addition of any amount whatever. 


ApKiL, 1915 



III (.rdcr tn clvur?ninc the extent tn uliich the iht'fereiit speeds 
of the testiiiK niacliine ;il"tectv<l the results, the curves shown in 
Fig. 3 were plotted, in this case the deflection of the spring 
in inches being taken as the ordinate instead of the camber. Tlie 
spring chosen for these tests was selected at random from a 
number on the store house platforin. It was tested uitb the re- 
sult shown in curve A, but for the purpose in (|Uestion, it was 
desired to have a spring with a minimum amount of friction 
and it was reset, retempcred and the surface of the plates painted 
with a mi.xture of oil and graphite before being asseml)led. In 
this condition it was tested at three different speeds of the 
testing machine head : 1 in., 3S^ in. and T-yi in. per minute as 
shown by curves C, B and D respectively. While there is some 
diflference between these curves it is inaiipreciable so far as it re- 
lates to the purpose of the test and may be neglected. As a 
matter of fact, slight irregularities resulting in some instances, 
in differences as great as these have been encountered in verify- 
ing tests on the same spring. 

The reader's attention is called to the important fact that the 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 H+H 

mi lllllllllllTFFF 

LDcaMQTiyE nniviNG apniNc 


values of the release load curves are much more uniform than 
those of the applied load curves. 

In order to bring out clearly the necessity for the applica- 
tion of an initial load in testing springs before deflections are 
recorded the curves of a double elliptic tender truck spring are 
plotted in Fig. 4. As will be seen from the illustration of the 
spring in Fig. 5, it had accumulated a heavy coat of rust during 
several years of exposure on the storehouse platform, this con- 
dition serving to emphasize the point in question. The distance 
over the spring bands before the application of the first load was 
14.37 in., and instead of following a straight line, as is usually 
the case, the applied load curve exhibits a decided hump. The 
release load curve is also irregular, but to a less degree, and 
does, not return to the same initial point. On the second appli- 
cation of the load the results are more nearly uniform. In this 
case the release load curve returns to the initial point of the sec- 
ond applied load curve. In some instances as many as five ap- 
plications of the preliminary loads are necessary to thoroughly 
limber up a sprint; and insure reliable results. 


I'or the puriiose (;f showing the variations in the deflection of 
springs due to variations in the condition of the plate surfaces, 
the spring referred to in I'ig. 3 was selected after having been 
exposed to the weather on an. unsheltered storehouse platform for 
about t\*'o years. It was first tested just as it was fnuntl, and the 
result is shown by curves -i on both Fig. 3 and big. 6. It was then 
reset, letenipered, the surfaces of the plates ijainted with oil and 
graphite and re-assembled. The test curve then obtained is shown 
at n, I'ig. 6, the same testing machine speed being used in both cases. 
At a load of 34,000 lb. the difference in deflection between the two 
application curves is .6 in., which may be attributed to the de- 
crease in internal friction in the spring after resetting. The 
spring was again reset and reteinpered and assembled without 
lubricant between the plates. In this condition curve C, Fig. 6, 
was obtained. While the difference between the three release 
load curves is very slight, the maximum being about .1 in., a 
marked difference exists between the applied load curves. For 
a load of 20,000 lb. the difl^erence in deflection between the 
spring in its original condition and when reset without oil and 
graphite between the plates is .27 in., or 15.6 per cent. With 
oil and grajjbite between the plates a further increase in de- 
flection of .14 in., (jr 7 per cent was obtained. The total increase 
in deflection ilue to resetting and lubricating the plates was .41 
in. or 23.7 per cent. The uniformity of the release load curves 
for wide variations in spring conditions is shown in Fig. 6. 

[Editor's Note. — The remainder of Part I will be published in 
an early issue.] 



P.VRT 1 (Concluded). 
Tlie valve motion parts of these Pennsylvania locomotives 
are shown in Figs. 14, 15, 16 and 17. It is not the intention to 
discuss each part in detail. Looking at the illustrations, these 
parts seem startlingly light. Every detail towards weight reduc- 
tion has been carefully considered. Starting right with the pis- 

«>«> \/l\B\c\D\£\F'a\ 

and Ihcj/^ 

9 \3i,\i%4'i\-ri l^\z% 


10 4;7*^,4/z|!?l 

Drop Forging. 

Stchon X-X 

Fig. 14 — Valve Stem Crosshead of Pennsylvania Locomotive 

ton valve, the valve rod and valve rod crosshead, which are the 
main inertia parts, the weight has been greatly reduced over 
ordinary practice. -\ll these parts may seem light, but as 
some of the principal stresses in them are caused by the inertia 
■ IV.IiUvin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 



^'oL. 89, No. 4 

I I ,'« Me/d 


-2 "AcioieOrainicn 


■^ Z'2-k"- 

7«-o Thus Per i'alve W.I. 


.Seamless Shel Tube ^ 

'"Ht ■ 

/?//7y5 Cuf af Top. 

riefhod of Cuffing 



Valve Rings 

p a 










Isf. Boring 






Znd. Bofing 






Section B-B. 

15_Piston Valve Used on the Pennsylvania Locomotives 

0-t Thui R^hl orxi Left. H.l. 
Derail Shorrn ii Righl 

Fig. 16— Walschaert Valve Gear for Pennsylvania Pacific Type Locomotive 

Afe.S- One Ihui Right and Lefl. W.I. 
Delall Shonn ii RIghl. 

April, 1915 



forces due to tln-ir own wciRlit, it is evident tliat this very weight valves have Kood luhrication, and the writer lielieves that the 

reduction has been one of the best safeguards against breakages. parts lure illustrated will give every satisfaction. 

The bearing surfaces of some of the pins throughout the motion The reciprocating and revolving parts designed for a 2-10-2 

No. 6 Taper ffn. 4g long . Pin hoiti h be 
so fhat Pin is driven from fbe iop. y 

x-^-rsr-" Tf -r-i — ^-^ — i . . i\~i\ ' i , 

^ 1 '^1. \ . /''f"'i""^M _^^5?^^ =^ 1— --^f 

■4- qSl ' I ' -« I ■•'; ^ No.l- flight artd U/f. . 

L ai'-.Z Y--^>'i AS /III D. CopNo.1 -^'j^!. ,. 

^.-._«i — ^ e^M^-- j£-:^|> 

|< J7j^ if/— H V 

'•ri . . rfif ^^ 

J''-' tfjS} " " No.3- Right and Left 

i r^j'i AS. /Ill 0. 

\f. . 47- >j 

''^r^j-.-~|*^i^|1'i'grr — ^ — ^ — " i . :"t? ^ 'iJ'^aX, - V\ ii*ii*^ 1^"^ 

^||^4J_-JL ^,^^ .^^y. T^I^ f ^ /-^^Tf^.-^^ 

"~V[ <*7-w«„ ~^J^^^ " ""5' ^-:;-:-/ji-— ::>, Tapen-nii' 

Top.rli,„e- NoJ-OneRigf.fandLeff. "" "" NoS-One R,ghland Leff. 

AS Alia ^■'- ^"o- 

K- 13k 

No. 4 -2 Thus 
AS Alio. 

Fig. 17 — Walschaert Valve Gear for Pennsylvania Atlantic Type Locomotive 

seem very small, but are probably not too small when we con- 
sider the reduced pressures that come on them. 

It may be remembered that the Pennsylvania Railroad pur- 
chased one of the Frencli four-cylinder DeGlehn compounds. 
This engine had unbalanced valves, but the valve niotiim parts 

type freight locomotive built in 1914 by the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works for the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy, will next be 
considered. The railroad already had one engine of this class 
and size, the cylinders being 30 in. by 32 in., the drivers 60 in. 
in diameter, the boiler pressure 175 lb., and the weight on drivers 

Fig IS— Running Ge 

Df Cliicigo 

rlington &. Quincy. 2-10-2 Type Loc 

were very light and the writer heard it authoritatively stated 
that after the engine had made a certain mileage it was carefully 
examined and it was found that the wear of the valve motion 
parts was absolutely nothing. The wear of the valve motion 
parts is mostly caused by their own weight, assuming that the 

300.000 lb. The main drivers were several hundred pounds light 
as to counterbalance, even in balancing the revolving weights, 
and two counterweight bobs weighing 1,500 lb. each had been 
placed on the main axle between the boxes. This made the dead 
weight on the main drivers excessive. The railroad company 



\oi.. 89. X( 

asked the Haldwin Locomotive Works to design two locomotives 
of a duplicate order of ten engines without the counterbalance 
hobs on the main axle, and to use alloy steel for the piston rods, 
connecting rods, stub straps, pins and eccentric cranks. The 
pistons and crossheads were to he lightened as much as posjibi ;. 
It was decided to use nickel-chrome steel, annealed, with an 
ultimate strength of 100.000 lb. per square inch, a yield point of 
70.000 lb. per stiuare inch and an elongation of 23 per cent. 

ess excess weight, and the total weight of the reciprocating 
tas reduced 16 per cent. 
I'ig. 19 shows the piston and piston rod. The piston is 


Fig. 19 — Piston and Rod for Buriington Locomotives 

'Ihis was found impossible to obtain. Xickel-chrnme carbon steel, 
oil tempered, was fmally used and had the following properties: 

Carbon 0.38 per cent 

ManRanesc 11.50 per cent 

Silicon 0.026 per cent 

Nickel 1.27 per cent 

Chrome 0.28 per cent 

Ultimate tensile strength. 

96,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Yield point 70,000 lb. per sq. in. 

LTltiinate compressive strength 

(assumed) 60,000 lb. per sq. in 

Elongation 25 per cent 

Reduction in area 62 per cent 

The piston and crosshead were made of 0.4 carbon cast steel, 
carefully annealed, with an ultimate tensile strength of 80,000 

of 0.4 carbon cast steel, annealed ; a cast iron bull ring is used. 
The piston rod is of nickel-chrome steel, hollow-bored and then 

Taiile IX — Saving in- Weight in Reciprocating Parts of Burlington 
J-10-2 TvPE Locomotives 

Weight, in lb., of 

Carbon Nickel- Weight 
Xanie of part steel parts chrome parts saved, lb. 

Piston and piston rod 1.022 945 72 

Crosshead 706 526 180 

Main rod 1,305 1,035 270 

Side rod on front pin 150 117 33 

Side rod on intermediate pin 482 352 130 

Fig. 20 — Burlington Piston Redesigned 

lb. per sq. in., yield point 50,000 lb. per sq. in., and elongation 
22 per cent. An idea of the appearance of these parts may 
be obtained from Fig. 18. The results obtained in weight reduc- 
tion are given in Table IX. The counterweight bobs were omit- 
ted from the main drivers and the weight at the rail on the main 
drivers was reduced from 67.000 lb. to 62,000 lb. The main 
wheels without any bobs were better balanced vertically by 35 
lb. The forward, back and intermediate wheels have very much 

Fig. 22 — Pressed Steel Piston 

Side rod on main pin 

Side rod on intermediate pin. 

Side rod on back pin 

Main crank pin 

Eccentric crank 


3ecf,bn D-D. 
Wearing Shoe 


oil-tempered, and an extension piston rod is not used, so that a 
cast iron wearing ring seemed necessary. 

Aridi., 1015 



'l'\w iiisliiii sliiiwii in I'iy. 19 is iiol ;is linlil iis il (uiilii have 
In-eii ck'sigiud and Miiiiik- streiiglli slill rirUiiiicil. I'igs. M and 
21 .slinw lliis liislnn rcdcsiKm-d an<l cunsick-i alily lightened. The 
piston rod is nut to h;ui- an extension tail rod, and the piston is 
to be made of r.illcd i.prn hearth steel of 0.45 lo 0.50 carhori and 

I his i^ .1 IikIiI piston hilt is expensive to make and lit up. 

lig. i.i shows a JO ill. piston head of the hollow box type with 

a east iron wearing shoe sprung in or east on. I his head is to 


Cas/ tion Ring Cuf a/One Phce ■ 

Fig. 23— Hollo 

Box Type Piston 

i< 7"- >l- w'- >j 

Fig. 25 — Side Rod Sluhs of Burlington Locomotives 

oil tempered. The wearing shoe is of cast iron with lips on the be ma<le of vanadinm cast steel with an idtimate strength of 
outside; this ring will be made in one piece, then parted by one 90,000 lb. per sq. in., and to withstand 190 lb. boiler pressure. 
cut and sprung around the head and welded or brazed where This head, with only }i in. walls, is to be cast by the electric 

it was cut. Eight %-in. bolts hell) to hold the shoe to the pis- 

furnace proccs 

(I the manufacturers state that it is well 




J4'-— JL 

''ension in ffodJ'/J 100 lb. "" 
Bearing Prei. Key on Pod BO. 300 lb. 

ton, although it is a question whether these are needed after tlu 
shoe is once put on and the ends brazed together. 

Fig. 22 shows a pressed steel piston head 30 in. in diameter, 
that has a cast irmi wearing shoe, held by a retaining ring 

Fig. 24 — Crosshead Used on tlie Burlington 2-10-2 Type Locomotives 

This piston, complete with rings. 

within their possibilities, 
weighs only 250 lb. 

Fig. 24 shows the crosshead of the Burlington engines. This 
is made of ,4 carbon cast steel annealed, the ultimate tensile strength 



\'(.l.. 80, Nn. 4 

ln-iiig SO.LKH) \h. pur sq. ill. A c;ist irmi urariiiij gili is usid. Tin- 
Laird type of crosshrad with two bar guidi-s was drcided on, as 
for large freiglit ongines it w-as found tliat this was the lightest 
tvpe obtainable. Many railway men are not in favor of this type 
of crosshead, but it has been successfully used on many freight 
and passenger locomotives, some of the freight locomotives be 
ing of very high power. On many European r.iihvays it i^ 
standard, especially on passenger engines. 

It will be noled that a small lug has been cast on fur the pin 

Die coniueling mcL ,,l' the llurlingtnii j.icninnlivis arc shown 
in h'ig. 20. 1 section main and side rods have Ijecii used and 
the bearing pressure on all the pins kept fairl\ low. llu- m;ni\ 
side rod ccmneclion is of the strap type with weilge adjuslnietn, 
this arrangement being used in order to keep the hearing pres- 
sure Im\v c.n this pin. .\s the diameter of the crank pin increases 
and the periphery speed of the lirass on the pin also increases, 
the liearin.i; pressure on these large pins should l)e kept even 
Inwer than has been done in this ease. The stub straps are of 

4 \Wl W1 S----------=-----^K--i----------------^ 

.il.C'^ ^r 


^/- inoo/b"" 

Load 123,700 lb" 


Bearing Pressure on Pins 





4 ' e 



ii k4 

3901b. '" 


4 " 4 

9901k " 

Main (Side) 

3 X » 

1.830 lb" 


0i X4 




990 lb °" 



7.6001b °" 


4 X li, 


ll' J-ll.000lb°\ 


4^^^^^&^:f^^^^^^„ ^ 


4' \*- Load99.000lb 

Fig. 26 — Connecting Rods of tiie Buriington Locomotives 

for the combining lever. It was decided tu do this lucause it 
was thought that the crosshead pin had enough to do without 
driving the valve motion, and also because the Irngth of the 
combining lever required this particular location. A large cross- 
head pin has been used, and ample bearing surface provided 
for the pin in the crosshead itself. 
The stresses on the various sections are given in table X. 

nickel-chrome, oil-tempered steel and are liglit. The stubs on 
tlic main pin, although of the strap type have had every pound 
of unnecessary weight reinoved and are very light in relation to 
ihe work performed. Tlie stresses in the different sections are 
given in table XI, based cm the main rod load equal to the area 
of the piston nmltiplied ]iy the full boiler pressure and a pro- 




Bo/f A^ 
Taper \ 



"4 >n OM^ „ 

„, phce by Whetl 5hcp„-ri\ r\X'Fr-k-s- 1 — ? 

1*-^'^- 8- ^—-e'—(.X. — -7|- — \ 

V 35|--/=^^^'^-^ 

Fig, 27 — IVtain Cranio Pin of Burlington Locomotive 

based on a load equal to the area of the piston multiplied b; 
the full boiler pressure. The usual allowable unit stresses ar< 
given in the second column. 

V .^- --^ """"' ^ 

. 28— Eccentric Crank and Rod of Burlington Locomotive 

the fr 


X — Stresses 

Crosshead of Burlington 2-10-2 'I 

Lb. per sq. 

m key 

in rod through keyway 

1 in neck of crosshead through 

g of key on rod 

g of key on crosshead 

: pressure-, pin on crossliead. . . 
ssion in main shank of piston 


Usual all 


able sin 















porlional load on the side rods, -Si) per c 

r. ids .-ind 80 per cent on lite two middle rods. 

Tlie intermediate knuckle pin is large in diameter and has 
ample wearing surface. The front and back knuckle pins are 
of the ball pin type. This type of stub is clearly shown in Fig. 25. 
When this style of ball pin is used, it is the writer's lielief that 
greater stresses may safely be used in the rods. This style of 
pin has been running some years and has given every satis- 

The I sections of hotli the main an<l side rods are of a design 


Atom.. 1''15 



nut nuicli used by utlar American designers, Tlic rods .ire nar- 
row and heavy webs are used. It is tliougbl tliat tlu- narrnwcr 
the original slab from which the rod is made ihc snnnder every 
part of it is forged; then instead of cutting away and leaving 

T.Mii.B XI— Stresses in Majn and Sidk Ki: 

Alloy Carbon steel, 

Siciiun steel Not heal treatc 

Main rod. I section 11,250 ' 8,000 

Ciossheacl stub strap 7,050 6,000 

Crosshead stub strap at set ^crcw 5,800 6,000 

Main rod Mul>. tcn^i. n 8,500 8,000 

Main suil,. lir.i.iuiK 11,700 14,000 rod ( Inin :LinM..Kl() I section 9,850 8.000 

Sid. I mil. iin, .li.Mri I section 11„100 8.000 

Slnli 111, ml lid Ii.hL 1 eye, tension 6,000 6.000 

S iliiiiil mill bade) eye, bending 32,700 20,000 

.M.iin ^hl. II, Ml. tension 7,500 5,000 

Mm,, Jiiii.lJ, ..yc, tension 11,000 6.000 

liiRiiiiciiiilr slob eye, tension 7,900 6,000 

Intermediate kniieWc eye, tension 7,500 6,000 


mh I 

of the 

iictal i: 


left I. 

ch is the least 
ir.ivide a sub 

only a very thin wel) in tin 
worked part of the steel, < 
stantial and solid vvci). 

It must not be thouHht that this style of rod is any heavier 
than the slimmer and wider one, because each has the same 
stress and therefurc the same cross-sectional area. As a strut 
in coinprcssioii. where the ratio of length to the least radius of 

gyration — docs not exceed 160. actual tests on full si/ed 

sections have shown that this type of rod is just as strong as the 

to the driving wheel design— the style of rim, the spokes and 
hub — sonic weight was taken off the imbalanced hub portion and 
a few pounds added to the coiniterbalance where this weight 
counted most. 

Reference has been made to the difficulty of keeping the bear- 
ing pressure low on large crank pins on account of the peri- 
phery siJied of the brass increasing as the diameter of the pin is 
increased, and in this connection l"ig. 29 show^ anoth. r ■;ty1c of 

Fig. 30 — Running Geai 

of Philadelphia 

main stub and brass. The tbesaijeake & r)hio had great iliffi- 
culty in keeping the main pins cool on their Mountain type loco- 
motives, which originally had the usual strap and wedge stub. 
This new stub is solid, with no key adjustment and a steel bush- 
ing is pressed into the solid end and held by steel plugs at the 
top and bottom. The brass is a loose bronze ring and revolves 
on the pin and in the bushing; this reduces ihc velocity of the 


■^-7r'Si—-M , 

3 3" 3" ? 

r I ^' 4i' i ''4?""*': Brome Bi/shlna to Turn Freelu in 
t,.o I ~^^-'''T,~-^~~f-^^ySfedBu5h!naandonCn3nkPin. 

V ! I I \Li?i.Hr>k'.irlni I ; ^ ' 


I ' \ l3 S.i Moles §c/rs 

Fig. 29 — Main Rod Used on Chesapeake &. Ohio Mountain Typ; Locomotive 

It is the writer's belief that this lyi>e of 
varied stress conditions better than any 

wider and slimmer one. 
rod will withstand the 
other section. 

The main crank pin. fig. 27, is of nickel-chrome steel, h.dlow 
bored and then tempered. The liber stress in this pin in 
bending is not high considering the bne quality of the steel. .\s 
a matter of fact the outside dimensions of the ))in were deter- 
mined by the bearing pressure. A lar.aer hole could have been 
bored out of this pin and the liber stress slill kept within safe 

1 he eccentric crank and eccentric rod. big. 2i's. were lightened, 
but not as inuch as thev might have been. Ijy careful attention 

brass by one-lialf. The pin is oiled by a series of holes in the 
brass, grease plugs, lop and bottom, being used. J. R. Gould, 
superintendent of motive power of the Chesapeake & Ohio, states 
that this style of stub has been in operation two years and has 
given satisfaction. 

big. 30 shows a I'hiladclphia & Reading 4-4-0 type passenger 
Ioconioti\e. ten of which were built by the Baldwin Locomotive 
\\ .>rks in 1"J14 to the company's designs. It is believed that 
(liese are the heaviest eight- wheel engines ever built. Special 
attention was given to the design of the reciprocating and re- 
volving parts and all the valve motion parts. It is not intended 
to go into their design in detail, but the illustration shows clearly 



Vol. 89, No. 4 

lliat all these parts, and especially the valve motion wurk, arc 


Research Laboratory. General Electric Company 

It has always been true that as soon as a new tool is perfected 
unsuspected applications of that tool rapidly develop. This has 
been especially true in the case of the Coolidge X-ray tube. 
Possibly the question of observing the "pipe" in a steel ingot 
by the use of the X-ray, thereby being able to determine just 
where the ingot should be cropped, may seem still somewhat re- 
moved, at least in so far as commercial applications are ci>n- 
cenied. There is no inherent impossibility in the process bow- 

Fig. 1 — Radiograph of Steel Casting Showing a Blow Hole Below 
the Surface. The Circle Shows Where the Button Was Removed 

ever. The case now being described is a lung step in this di- 
rection. It is the object of this article to describe in detail what 
has already been done in the way of an X-ray examination of 
a certain steel casting of which suspicion had been aroused as 
to its homogeneity when in the machine shop. 

The original casting was 2^ in. thick and weighed about a 
ton. When received at the Schenectady works of the General 
Electric Company it had been machined down to appro.ximately 
the desired shape and thickness. The amount still to be taken 

Fig. 2 — Machined Surfaces of th 


from the faces was not more than % in., and in some places 
was only 1/16 in., but wiien this was removed it was found that 
some small imperfections had been cut into. These extended 
over an- area about 5 in. long and lyz in. wide. The mechanical 
ilepartnienl at once chiseled away a part of the surface at this 
point, and then sent the casting to the research laboratory to 
determine if, by means of an X-ray examination, it might be 

possible to reveal still other hidden blow holes or imperfections. 

.\ Coolidge tube especially made for use on high voltages 
was set up in front of that part of the casting where the im- 
perfections had been found. An 8-in. by 10-in. Seed X-ray plate 
was mounted immediately behind the casting and the plate was 
backed by a large sheet of lead. The distance from the source 
of X-ray to the plate was 20 in. The tube was excited by an 
induction coil with a mercury-turbine interrupter. The current 
tlirough the tube was 1.25 milli-amperes and the potential across 
the terminals of the tube corresponded to that sufficient to break 
down a IS-in. spark gap between needle points. The X-ray 
plate was exposed two minutes. .'\t the place where the radio- 
graph was taken, the finished casting was about 9/16 in. thick. 
After a radiograph had been obtained at the point where the 
imperfections were discoveri'd. tlic casting was moved 8 in. and 
another radiograph made. In this w;iy a number nf r.xploralory 
railiogra])hs were laken lliroULjb dilTercnt points ol the casting. 

.\ll llu- radinyraiilis llius laken showed plainly the tool marks 
on ilir surface ..i llu- lasliiii.;. All but one showed peculiar 
iiKirkin,t;s. u bic b uerc of su. li sli.ipc as I., sirou'^ly su,i;'4cst that 

Hole Passing Through the Button 

ilicy were indeed the pictures of holes in the interior. .\ cir- 
cular piece, 1 in. in diameter, was punched froni the casting at 
a point where one of the radiographs indicated that a blow hole 
should be found. A reproduction of this radiograph is shown in 
Fig. 1, and the point at vvhich the punching was taken is indi- 
cated by the circle. An examination of Fig. 2 shows that the 
surfaces of the casting were entirely free from blow holes at 
the point where the button was removed. Fig. 3 shows the ends 
of the hole in the button. 

This has proved, then, that with the proper X-ray exposure, 
blow holes or cavities may lie disclosed in apparently solid metal 
of considerable thickness. A careful comparison of the X-ray 
photographs and the button photographs leads to the conclusion 
that very small air inclusions are made visible; and the fact 
that the tool marks are plaiidy visible on the X-ray plate conlirnis 

Ria,.\TivE Efkjcieincy of Steam, G.\s and Oil Engines. — 
Koughly stated, a first-class modern steam engine utilizes about 
12 per cent of the available heat in the coal, resulting in, say 
1.6 to 1.7 lb. of fuel per b. during a week's work of SS 
hours. If the boilers are to be fired by producer gas, for which 
purpose slack and dust can be used, then each brake horse- 
power will require about 2 to 2.2 lb. of coal. Internally fired 
,uas and oil engines are approximately twice as efficient as steam 
engines, which means that they utilize about 25 per cent of the 
available heat. Crude oil being 37 per cent better than good or- 
dinary coal, oil engines should use only about three-eighths as 
much oil as the coal mentioned above, say about 0.6 lb. per 
b. Then, however, as there are no boiler radiation losses 
over night, a material saving results and the oil eonsuin])tion 
per week of 55 hours may be about 0.5 lb. per Petrol 
and similar internal combustion engines would require about 0.4 
lb. per (jas engines have also the same efficiency 
as oil engines, but as there is a loss of about 20 per cent in the 
producers, if these work day and night, and another loss of 
quite 10 per cent if they have to stand itile over night, the efli- 
ciency of gas engines is only about 40 per cent better than that 
of first-class steam engines. — Power, 

Cam Pepamtmemt 



lical linDinccring. CarncBii- \w 

Fitlshiirijh. Po. 

of Technology. 

Tlic prcipcr strc'iiKllii-ninK uf box cai uiulerfraiiics is in 
itself a subject wortliy of serious consideration, owini;; to tlic 
ever increasing denumds (jlaced upon the undcrframe. As a 
result of the introrliuiion of larger and more powerful loco- 
motives, the cars ol wraUer design ba\r l)een gradually retired 
to the cripi>le shop to be reinf(n-ced or, where damage has 
been too great, to be scrapped. With this gradual elimination 
of the weaker type and the substitution of still stronger 
types has arisen the (piestion as to what shall be considered 
a proper standard for the strength of box cars. This question 
is one of great import, for in it are involved questions con- 
cerning hrst co-~t, iU|ireciation and maintenance, and inter- 
locking with these the questions pertaining to durability, 
protection of lading and the cost of hauling the dead weight 
o\cr the line. 

.Aside from the question of first cost of equipment can be 
considered that phase of economical construction in which 
more stress is laid upon durability, maintenance and pro- 
tection of lading than upon first cost, depreciation and cost 
of haulage of dead weight and therefore on the basis of equal 
revenue ton-miles we could consider the extremely heavy 
construction on one side of the balance against the extremely 
light construction on the other side, with the most economical 
type of construction somewhere between the two. After all, 
railway operation is a matter of dollars and cents and in 
these days of rigid economies and retrenchments it should 
be the aim of managements to safeguard the future by in- 
vesting only in such forms of equipment as give the lowest 
final cost and not. as is more often the case, in designs 
which are low in first cost but high in maintenance and 

It is of course to be admitted that in cases of new types 
of construction figures are not always available showing the 
cost of maintenance or of actual depreciation of these newer 
types, due to wear and tear, and therefore it may be argued 
that at best we can but resort to the method of cut and try 
in determining which type of construction is the more eco- 
nomical. However, by a constant study of yearly costs of 
depreciation, maintenance and haulage of dead weight, based 
on revenue ton-miles made by the car. we can soon observe 
whither the drift of costs is carrying us. This is, of course, 
assuming that no one type of car has been favored to the 
detriment of the others. 

With this end in view, after a series of observations cover- 
ing a period of several years of the performance of various 
types of construction us