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-. D, OSWELL, M.A., Oxoir., 















A SKETCH of the history of the Rajkumar College at Raipur 
would not be complete without some account of the old 
institution which existed for some twelve years at Jubbul- 
pore, and which was known as the- Rajkumar School. 

This institution was a mere appanage of the Grovern- 
ment high school, and it was practically nothing more 
than a hostel or a boarding-house. Even as it was its 
buildings could not be described as altogether suitable for 
the use they were put to, nor was their close proximity to 
the city an advantage. The Government high school, 
moreover, being at the extreme limit of the city, necessi- 
tated the pupils of the institution passing right through 
the city to get to their school. 

The maximum number of pupils on the rolls at one 
time was twenty-two, but this number had dwindled down 
to five during the last year of its existence at Jubbulpore. 
A variety of reasons were in operation demanding its re- 
moval from Jubbulpore to a more suitable locality : the most 
important of these were its failure to carry out the objects of 
its founders and its distance from the feudatory States of 
Chhattisgarh, from which the bulk of its pupils were drawn. 
In the strictures passed on the institution in its later years 
by Sir A. P. MacDonnell and in the remarks made by Mr. 
Fraser may be found some of the reasons which were assign- 
ed for its failure. Writing of the institution as far back as 
1892, Mr. MacDonnell, as he then was, says : " The teaching 
is poor, the discipline bad, and the tone of the place below 
par : " and he added : " We do not want our young chiefs and 
zamindars to be educated out of native ways into a poor 


copy of second or third-rate English ways." Mr. Fraser, in 
writing to the then Chief Commissioner at the close of 
the year 1891, laid special stress on the importance of an 
improvement in mental training, moral training, and dress : 
and he attributed the failure of the institution in Jubbulpore 
to the following, amongst other, causes : to the pupils having 
their meals in their own separate rooms with no one near 
them except servants : to their spending their holidays, and 
Sundays in loafing about aimlessly or sleeping in their own 
rooms : and to their sleeping in separate rooms in the com- 
pany of servants. 

The only alternative that seemed to present itself to 
the authorities of that time was to abolish the institution 
altogether, and to send the young chiefs to Ajmere, to 
the Mayo College there. However, other counsels prevailed, 
and negotiations were commenced for its removal to another 
place more central and therefore more convenient for the 

Before coming to this, however, I have a few remarks to 
make on what I consider to have been the principal defect 
of the old institution apart from those already given : 1 have 
had an opportunity of meeting from time to time several 
of the alumni of the old institution after its removal ; five of 
them, indeed, became my own pupils in the new institution, 
one I travelled with for some weeks as his guardian, and 
another used to pay me occasional visits : of one and all of 
these I have a very pleasing recollection : they were to all 
outward appearance gentlemen, and the majority of them 
manly withal, but there I must say their good points ended : 
what they were lacking in was moraie, and on looking back 
I am bound to come to the conclusion that one if not the 
chief and only cause of this was their association with boys 
of a lower social order at the Government high school. 
It has been my experience gained in three Provinces that 
the morale of the average Government high school has not 
hitherto been of a high standard. And, parenthetically, I may 
here remark, that I have nothing but praise for the new 
regulations now being introduced by the Director of Public 
Instruction of these provinces, with the view of improving 
that morale. To return: it was early in 1892 that the 
decision was come to to remove the old institution to a more 
central position, and Raipur was decided on as the most 

[ 3 ] 

central and the most suitable in many ways, more especially 
in its proximity to the feudatory States of Chhattisgarh and 
to the more important zamindaris of that division. 

Certain preliminary difficulties had to be overcome, the 
most important of all being that ever-present one of the 
provision of the necessary funds, and another, almost of 
equal importance, the selection of a suitable head. It was 
at first estimated that H lakhs would be required, of which 
Rs. 7 5,000 would be required for the necessary buildings, and 
Rs. 75,000 for an endowment. The monthly upkeep of the 
institution was estimated at Rs. 1 3,000, the calculation being 
based upon the supposition that the numbers would not 
exceed 12 at any rate at first : the fear being expressed at the 
time that to enlarge the numbers to even 30 would necessitate 
going to a low stratum of malguzars, whereby the tone of the 
new institution would be endangered, as the school would 
take its tone from the majority of its inmates. 

The new scheme having been finally decided on, Mr. 
Fraser was entrusted with the task of finding the funds 
and locating a site. An excellent site was secured at the 
west end at Raipur : no better choice -could have been made, 
and the experience of some years has fully justified the 
wisdom displayed in its selection. There were already existing 
on the site excellent buildings, which only required certain 
alterations and additions to adapt them for the purpose they 
were required for. 

The provision of the necessary funds presented graver 
difficulties. Mr. Fraser first propounded the view that the 
Government should itself contribute something towards the 
upkeep of the college, and that a considerable portion of 
the revenues of each State should be put aside for the edu- 
cation of the young chiefs, and he made the further sugges- 
tion that the sons of wealthy native gentlemen of position, 
who might desire to bring their sons under the influence of 
a good European teacher, might have the opportunity of 
doing so by being allowed facilities to send their sons to the 

Before commencing his campaign for the collection of 
funds, Mr. Fraser wrote as follows to the Chief Commis- 
sioner : " I have personally seen and talked to a large number 
of such of the owners of contributing States or zamindaris as 

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have come to years of discretion : they thoroughly approve of 
the contributions proposed in their cases. The feeling is 
strong in this division in favour of having the college at 

The principle was thus accepted that the funds were to 
be provided by contributions from the Chhattisgarh feudatory 
States and the zamindaris. 

The status of the new institution had then to be decided 
on, and it was practically resolved that its status should be 
that of a high school and that it should be affiliated to the 
Allahabad University : the staff to be competent to teach up 
to the Entrance examination. In the light of recent reforms 
in the curriculum that have been proposed it is interesting 
to note that the original scheme contemplated such subjects 
as riding, music, drawing, farming, land surveying, and 
the management of an estate being included in the curri- 
culum ; only it was contemplated as a part of the scheme for 
finding funds towards meeting the requirements of such a 
practical curriculum, that such subjects as riding, music, 
and drawing should be provided for by charging extra fees, 
while for the other subjects all surplus fees were to be 
utilised in providing the instruction required. 

The liberal scale, moreover, on which the original scheme 
was devised may be gauged from the fact that it contemplat- 
ed a billiard-room, a swimming bath, and a racquet court, 
and I may add what I have often considered a desideratum, 
a guest-house for the reception of relatives and friends of 
the boys on occasional visits. The religious requirements of 
the wards were not forgotten ; full scope was to be given to 
what the wards conscientiously believed to be the require- 
ments of their religion. Such then was the scheme in 
embryo. I now come to its actual inauguration, with the 
necessary limitations involved by paucity of funds preventing 
the scheme being carried out in its entirety, as originally so 
liberally and so practically devised : 

I have already mentioned how Mr. Fraser undertook to 
collect the funds. As the result of his vigorous prosecution of 
this self-imposed duty, nearly two lakhs of rupees were ac- 
tually collected. A list is here given of the principal contri- 

[ 5 ] 
To take the feudatory States first : 






Kalaliandi . . . 


Patna . . 








Kanker . . 














The principal zamindaris contn 

uted : 



Bindra -Na wagarh 




Phuljhar , 












Zamindars in different States 


It was wisely determined that at least half of this total 
sum should be invested to serve as an endowment : this 
endowment now stands at Rs. 1,12,200 at 3 per cent.. The old 
rate being 4 per cent., the rate having been reduced in 
1895 led to a corresponding loss of income by the college. 
The actual income now derived from this source of endow- 
ment falls a little short of Ks. 4,000 annually. 

As regards the buildings, a residence for the principal 
already existed in the bungalow occupied by the commis- 
sioner, which was purchased from the firm of R. B. Bunsi- 
lall for Rs.15,000. The nucleus of the main college building 
already existed in the handsome cutcherry building, which 
had at one time done duty as the official residence of the 
Resident : this was purchased for a sum of Rs.25,000. A 
new story was added to it, and various ranges of kitchens 
and dining-rooms were provided at a cost of some Rs. 60,000. 
The later acquisition of the old circuit-house, which stood in 
front of the old cutchery, as a residence for the principal, 
has added greatly to the efficiency of the college arrange- 

The old residence of the principal is now let as a resi- 
dence for the Political Agent, and is a permanent source of 
income to the college. 

Arrangements are now in progress for an alteration in 
the present system of cook-rooms and dining-rooms, the 
present arrangement of which has at no times commended 
itself to the principal, nor, I may add, to those of the chiefs 
and zamindars who have inspected them. Since the origin- 
al buildings were secured, other blocks have from time to 
time been built by certain States wishing to provide some- 
thing better for the accommodation of their wards than that 
provided by the college : these blocks are the Gangpur block, 
now in the occupation of the young chief of Udaipur, from 
Chhota Nagpur, the Bhopalpatnam block, and the Bastar 
block, now in the occupation of the Chhuikhadan wards. 
A bungalow has also been purchased in the immediate 
vicinity of the college as a residence for the members of 
the resident staff. A porter's lodge has also been added, 
and the grounds completely fenced in, thereby also adding 
very materially to the efficiency of the disciplinary arrange- 
ments of the college. Not the least important of the recent 
additions have been the excellent covered-in gymnasium, 
towards which the Education Department liberally contri- 
buted Rs. 1,000, and the riding-school. There is also a 
building which does duty as a cricket pavilion. 

The grounds allotted to cricket, tennis, and football 
are all spacious and level : trees have been planted at 
regular intervals all round them, and every effort has been 
made to beautify the grounds, which are already beginning 
to present a very different appearance from their former 
bare aspect. Water and soil have been the great difficulties 
to contend with in making a garden. Every atom of soil 
has to be imported from outside, and water as a rule can only 
be obtained at very high rates from the local pipe supply. 
However, what could be done in this respect has been 
done, and more will be done as funds permit of it. 

The next thing to be done, after the question of funds 
and buildings had been more or less satisfactorily disposed 
of, was to provide a constitution for the college, and to issue 
a prospectus. In drawing up a constitution for the college 

great help was obtained from a memorandum drawn up by 
Mr. Lindsay Neile as far back as 1884. 

By this constitution college affairs * are directed and 
controlled by a council, which consists of the leading 
European officials of the division, including the Director of 
Public Instruction, and of some of the principal feudatory 
chiefs and zamindars : the Commissioner of the Chhat- 
tisgarh Division is the president of the council. Ordinarily 
this council is supposed to meet once a quarter. For 
purposes of closer supervision there is a board of visitors, 
which, besides some of the European officials on the council, 
also includes the Inspector of Schools for the Eastern Circle. 
This board ordinarily meets once a month, and all questions 
of discipline are referred to it by the principal. The 
principal is appointed by the Chief Commissioner and the 
subordinate staff by the principal. 

In drawing up a prospectus for the college valuable 
assistance was obtained from other institutions of a similar 
character in India, notably from the Mayo College at Ajmere, 
and from Rajkote, with the heads of which institutions the 
principal had early put himself in communication. 

In this prospectus the classes for whom the college was 
primarily intended were denned to be the sons and near 
relatives of feudatory chiefs, zamindars, large landed pro- 
prietors, and other native gentlemen of position in the 
Central Provinces, as well as minors of similar class whose 
estates are under the Court of Wards. 

From the very first great care has been exercised in the 
selection of candidates for admission. The college authori- 
ties have always had before them the danger, already referred 
to, of morale suffering from opening the college to a lower 
stratum of society than that intended by the prospectus, and 
the sensitiveness of the aristocratic classes is further a 
factor that has had to be taken into consideration. Warning 
has been taken from the example of the Aitcheson Chiefs' 
College at Lahore, where the Governor of the college was 
under the necessity of correcting a misapprehension that 
existed amongst the chiefs of the Punjab that a lower 
order of boys was being introduced into that institution than 
had been originally intended. 

The aims and objects of the college are then declared 
to be to provide a place where boys of the classes above 
mentioned may receive a training which shall fit them for 
the important duties and responsibilities that will ultimately 
devolve upon them To this end a sound English educa- 
tion up to the middle school standard will be given to all 
pupils, while those who desire it, and show the necessary 
aptitude, may qualify for admission to the universities and 
may study for a degree in Arts. 

Special attention will be devoted to the training of the 
boys in right and honourable principles of thought and 
conduct, in gentlemanly behaviour and bearing, and in 
aptitude and proficiency in manly sports. 

This practically fixed the status of the institution for 
the time as that of an English middle school with a cur- 
riculum up to that standard. This was sufficient for the 
early years of the institution, but the time has now come for 
its status to be raised and its curriculum to be modified 
accordingly ; and further reference will be made to this sub- 
ject in its proper place. 

The next point dealt with was the provision of a suit- 
able staff. It was duly recognised that for the education of 
the higher classes quality rather than quantity was the 
main factor to be taken into consideration, both in the selec- 
tion of the European and of the native staff. The principal 
of the college was to be a graduate of an English university, 
and the principal members of the native staff were to be 
native gentlemen of the same rank as headmasters of 
district schools. 

The principal selected had perhaps special qualifications 
for the post : besides being an English Public School man 
and a graduate of Oxford, he had had considerable teaching 
experience both as a master in an English preparatory, and 
in an English Public School, and as tutor, and guardian of 
several important wards of Government in India. 

As regards the native staff, it is only necessary for me 
to mention here the selection of Mr. Dalchand as head- 
master. This officer had already had some twelve years' 
experience in the old institution at Jubbulpore, both in the 
capacity of assistant master and in that of headmaster : 
the experience of the past eight years has fully justified his 

L 1 

selection : the various annual reports all bear testimony kef 
the excellence of his record. The historian of the Aitcheson 
College at Lahore has recently declared that disinterested 
zeal cannot be expected from the average native teacher. I 
consider that the highest praise that I can bestow upon 
Mr. Dalchand is to say that disinterested zeal has been hi 
distinguishing characteristic. The staff was a small one, 
but having regard to its quality, this was not altogether a 
matter for regret, especially in a residential institution like 
ours, where so much depends upon the personal influence of 
those who are brought so much into contact with the boys as 
the staff of our college are. At the same time the paucity of 
numbers has entailed a corresponding amount of extra work 
and reponsibility upon that staff, more especially when the 
fact is taken into consideration, that it was never contem- 
plated that the maximum number of boys for whom provision 
was thus made would exceed fifteen, while as a matter of 
fact the numbers have been as high as twenty-five, and have 
never dropped below twenty. However, the inadequacy of 
the staff to meet the altered circumstances of the college 
has now been recognised, and arrangements are in progress 
for the entertainment of a larger staff, who are to be recruited 
from the Education Department. Whatever is decided 
upon, it is certain that the importance that has hitherto been 
attached to securing men of a high standard of character 
will still be a main factor in the appointment of teachers in 
the college. 

The college is just now peculiarly fortunate in its staff: 
the second master, Mr. C. S. Misra, who is a graduate of 
Allahabad University, is a man of great force of character : 
he was lent by the college to the administration during the 
famine of 1900, and in his capacity as famine officer he won 
high encomium from his superior officers. The third master, 
Mr. Kerolikar, was the headmaster of a flourishing institution 
at Nagpur, and has fully justified his selection by the 
Director of Public Instruction. No appointment to the 
subordinate staff has everb een made by the principal with- 
out reference to the Director of Public Instruction. 

The question of schooling fees was the next subject that 
was dealt with in the prospectus. As it became evident that 
the college was to be independent of financial aid from 
Government, at any rate in its early years, provision had to 

I 10 ] 

be made, over and above the" income denveu iroiu "uie 
endowment, to meet the expenditure of the college. 

The minimum fee was fixed at Rs. 25 a month, and the 
maximum at Rs. 100; the average fee being paid amounts 
to about Rs. 40. 

It has not hitherto been found feasible to adopt the 
system of levying fees in force at the Aitcheson Chiefs' 
College, Lahore, where practically 1 2 per cent, of a ward's 
income is set aside for his education. However, it is possible 
that in the near future the schooling fees will have to be 
enhanced to meet the additional expenditure which the 
altered circumstances of the college will entail. 

For boys' personal allowances it was considered that a 
minimum sum of Rs. 50 would be sufficient. 

The question of the number of personal attendants to be 
entertained on the establishment of boys was a mitter that 
engaged the anxious attention of the framers of the prospec- 
tus, and it is further a matter the importance of which has 
never been lost sight of by the college authorities. 

Three servants were considered to be ample for each boy 
attending the college, and it was considered that the es- 
tablishments entertained should comprise only one head 
servant, one cook, and one body servant. Establishments 
are rigorously kept down to this limit, and it is a satisfaction 
to note that in several cases they have fallen below this 

A considerable weeding out process has usually to be gone 
through in the case of boys joining the college for the firsc 
time. One sometimes cannot help having a little sympathy 
with the new arrival, who, fresh from home, brings with him 
his old playmates, the only playmates he has hitherto known, 
the sons perhaps of old retainers of the family: but rules 
have to be enforced and the playmates have to go. In some 
cases the fault does not lie altogether with the responsible 
guardians of the boys ; old retainers insist on accompanying 
"the young master" to school to see what his new sur- 
roundings are like, and with the customary laissez-faire and 
absence of control and discipline that characterises Indian 
court circles, the retainers have their way : they again have 
to be sent back. This process has periodically to be gone 

C 11 3 

through whenever a boy whose family is of some importance 
in the Indian world joins the college. 

As regards the age of admission, it was generally 
thought desirable that as a rule no boys of over 14 years of 
age should be admitted. Subsequent experience has shown 
that this rule is a wise one ; it was a rule unfortunately more 
honoured in the breach than in the observance when the 
college first opened its doors. 

I now come to the time of the formal opening of the col- 
lege by Sir John Wood burn in the month of November 1894. 

Colonel Thomas was the Commissioner of the division 
at the time, and Mr. A. D. Younghusband, whose close 
connection with the college lasted practically down to 1901, 
was Political Agent : a full account of the proceedings at the 
opening is contained in the college records, and it is unne- 
cessary for me to dilate upon it here, in what only professes 
to be a sketch of the history of the college. The fuller 
account can be reserved for the fuller history when the time 
comes for that history to be written. The feature of the 
opening was the address of the Chief Commissioner delivered 
in Urdu to the assembled chiefs and zarnindars, in which 
he reminded them that education was now a necessity in all 
ranks and classes of life, and not least a necessity among the 
chiefs of Chhattisgarh, who had laid upon them the great 
responsibility of ruling their people intelligently and justly ; 
he added that it was expedient that they should have a 
college close to their States and properties to which they 
could send their sons, who would receive at the college the 
instruction and training essential to their future progress 
and success in life : he told them that he had come to Raipur 
to give them evidence of the deep interest he took in the 
college ; his tour in their country the previous winter had 
been evidence of the warm regard he had for their happiness 
and welfare : the assistance he had given to that undertaking 
was the best practical proof he could give of his desire to 
advance their interests. 

A description of the opening would not be complete 
without a list of the States and zamindaris represented 
amongst the pupils who presented themself for admission, 
either on the opening day or at a somewhat later period. 
The chief feudatory States in the Central Provinces that have 

C 12 ] 

been represented are Bastar, Kawardha, Sarangarh, Raigarh, 
Khairagarh, Patna, Chhuikhadan. The chief zamindaris 
represented have been Pandaria, Borasamar, Pendra, Warar- 
bandh, Chhuri, Bilaigarh, Kowdiya, Suarma; Ambagarh- 
Chouki from the Chanda district, Bhiwapur from the Nagpur 
district, as well as Narsingbpur and Umaria from the Nar- 
singhpur district. 

We have had also a representative of the ancient Gond 
Raj, and later there have been representatives from Bengal 
States and zamindaris, the States represented being Gangpur 
and Udaipur amongst the Chhota Nagpur feudatories, and 
the zamindaris of Deoghur in the Birbhum district of 

Passing from the events of the opening day I come to 
the subsequent history of the institution, with the various 
problems that have from time to time presented themselves, 
and the attempts made at their solution. 

The numbers on the rolls of the college at the commence- 
ment of operations was twenty-three, representing all classes 
of the aristocracy, with ages varying from 9 to 20. The total 
number on the rolls during the seven years of the existence 
of the college has amounted to 49, while during the twelve 
years of the existence of the old institution at Jubbulpore 
the total number was only 31. With the inauguration of the 
college now completed, various problems presented themselves 
to the college authorities for an early solution. And here I 
will take the subject of the curriculum first. 

Added to the great disparity of ages existing in the 
pupils that first joined the institution, the varying degrees of 
intelligence was also a disturbing factor that had to be taken 
into consideration. Another factor was the existence of more 
than one vernacular : such vernaculars as Hindi, Oorya, Urdu, 
Bengali, Marathi and Telugu have all at various times been 
represented in the college. 

In treating of the curriculum therefore it is necessary 
for me to state the policy pursued in the past towards this 
subject of the vernaculars. I will premise what I have to say 
on this subject by stating that the vernaculars have always 
played an important part in our system of instruction. I have 
always been fully impressed with the importance of a sound 
knowledge of their own vernaculars to Indian youth, and not 

[ 13 ] 

least to that particular class of India youth whom we ar6 
called upon to educate in our institution. And therefore, 
while believing in thoroughness in English also for this class, 
I have ever kept steadily in view a more or less sound know- 
ledge of their own vernaculars as a factor to be considered, 
and a reference to the college records shows that there has 
been a regular system pursued and a definite policy through- 
out the past in this connection. 

When the college first opened, the great majority of the 
boys were found to be altogether ignorant of English, and even 
the five who joined us from the old institution at Jubbul- 
pore had a very slight literary acquaintance, but no colloquial 
knowledge of it practically ; therefore all instruction had for 
some time to be conveyed almost entirely through the me- 
dium of the vernaculars. The difficulty was therefore present- 
ed at the very outset of providing teaching in the various 
vernaculars. The majority of the boys were found to possess 
a fair knowledge of Hindi, though a few knew only Oorya. 

The problem therefore had to be solved somehow : it 
was not a case where " halting between two opinions" was 
desirable, and so the decision was early come to that all boys 
should be set to learn Hindi as soon as they entered the 
college, and as one of the objects with which they were sent 
to the college by their guardians was that they might ac- 
quire a knowledge of English, it was also decided to teach 
them English pari passu, more especially as the great 
majority ot boys were not of very tender age. Meanwhile, 
and until they were sufficiently advanced to follow the 
explanations given by class masters in Hindi, an arrange- 
ment was made to retain a special Oorya teacher, whose 
business it was to act as interpreter for the class master in 
class in the case of all work done viva voce in class, and to 
correct all written exercises which the boys continued to do 
in Oorya, until they were able to read and write Hindi with 
sufficient fluency to dispense with his services altogether. 

With the funds at the disposal of the college this was 
the best arrangement that could be come to under the 
circumstances : the college could not at the time afford a 
highly paid teacher with special Oorya qualifications, who 
would be competent to conduct a parallel class : the man 
actually employed was the tutor of the late Borasamar minor 

[ 14 ] 

zamindar, who, with the consent of the boy's guardian, 
received a small sum from the college for this special work : 
this man's services were eventually lost to the college, but 
this has entailed no bieak in the continuity of the policy 
pursued towards Oorya: the headmaster has acquired a 
sufficient knowledge of Oorya for all practical purposes of 
elementary work, and another teacher was also available in 
the person of the tutor of the Bhopalpatnam minor zamin- 
dar. But, as a matter of fact, there has not been a great 
demand for the services of either. When the Raja of 
Patna sent his sons to the college, which he did for 
one session only, they were taught through the medium 
of Oorya as usual, but when the Raja of Gangpur sent 
his five sons to the college, which he did early in 1899, 
their instruction in Oorya, which was at once commenced, 
was superseded, at the Raja's own request, by instruction in 
Hindi pari passu with English. Since then the practice 
has been followed of consulting the guardians of boys on 
this subject of the vernaculars to be studied by them, and 
without an exception they have all requested that Hindi 
should be taught as one of these : this has been the case even 
with boys from Bengal. Where more than one vernacular 
is in question, the course now being pursued is practically 
that pursued in the case of the Urdu-speaking boy who was 
in the college for some years: he was taught Hindi according 
to the ordinary routine of the college, but a special teacher 
in Urdu and Persian was provided for him by his guardians. 
We have Marathi and Bengali speaking boys now in the col- 
lege : they are taught Hindi as usual with the other boys, but 
they are also taught their own mother-tongue twice a week, 
and their instructors are their own head servants, who are 
educated men, who teach them under the supervision of the 
class master at an hour specially fixed. There is one Telugu 
speaking boy, but he has always studied Hindi, and as his 
aainindari business is conducted in Hindi, he may be classed 
with the Hindi-speaking boys, and as such he has always 
been classed. Various influences have been at work in induc- 
ing the adoption of the system whereby the study of Hindi 
has been made practically compulsory in our system of edu- 
cation. At the outset the object was mainly to facilitate the 
arrangement of boys into classes according to their general 
standard of attainments and to have one Lingua Franca, 
so to speak, until English could be established as such, to 
facilitate explanations being given in class through 

[ 15 ] 

its medium, where English may not be sufficiently known 
by the majority of the boys to enable them to grasp 
ideas imparted to them in that medium : and though the 
principal has availed himself of his additional knowledge of 
Urdu and Bengali to give his explanations to boys in his class 
knowing those vernaculars through their medium, still the 
generality of the teaching staff have, as a rule, been acquaint- 
ed with Hindi only. As a general rule, therefore, Hindi has 
been the medium of the communication of ideas to the great 
majority of the boys, both in class and out of class, in the 
lectures, disciplinary and other, which have been periodic- 
ally given by the principal. It is unnecessary forme to 
dilate here upon the system pursued in giving instruction 
through the medium of the vernacular by which, in this 
connection, I may be taken as meaning instruction in Hindi. 
Suffice it to say that as practical a turn as is possible has 
been given to instruction in it. Some subjects, especially 
in the junior classes, such as history and geography, are 
taught entirely through its medium; and in the senior 
classes, while the readers have been largely availed of, the 
valuable lessons they contain, now scattered at random all 
over the different books, have been eystematised to enable 
special courses being taken; such subjects as sanitation, 
agriculture, and history having been especially selected: 
and latterly, still further to encourage the study by the boys 
themselves of their vernacular, regular courses of lectures, 
are being given by the staff on Sundays and holidays on a 
variety of subjects entirely through its medium. While the 
principal is taking history for his subject, the other 
members of the staff are taking science and sanitation, and 
the principal has expressed his intention of awarding a prize 
for the best paper on the subjects of such lectures at an 
informal examination at the end of term. As regards the 
future of vernacular instruction in the college, it has practi-> 
cally been decided that the college will give more facilities 
than have perhaps been given in the past for more thorough 
instruction in other vernaculars than Hindi, that may be re- 
presented in the college; and Oorya will receive special atten- 
tion, as it is intended to have parallel classes in Hindi and 
Oorya, as more Oorya-speaking boys may be expected to join 
the college in the future than have joined it in the past. I 
may add in this connection that nearly all newcomers, 
according to their age, are put through the mill of the lower 
and upper primary examinations, which are held entirely in 
the vernacular. 

[ 16 j 

And now I come to the curriculum generally. From 
the very outset, opening as we did with boys of every age 
ranging from 9 to 20, and of every standard of attainments, 
we were confronted with the difficulty of arranging boys into 
classes. The principles that have guided us in our classifica- 
tion have been twofold. There has neen the usual principle at 
work that must guide all classification of schoolboys into 
classes, namely, the standard of attainments reached by those 
boys, and this was the principle first adopted by us : bovs had 
to be at first classified irrespective of age, but eventually the 
principle of age had to be introduced. We opened the college 
with perhaps a larger proportion of " duffers " of advanced 
age there is, 1 think, usual, and many of them were of a 
comparatively low level of intelligence, their standard of 
attainments being considerably lower than that of much 
younger boys : indeed, having the importance of the college 
bearing a good name from the outset before me, I remember 
viewing the prospect with some degree of concern. Still there 
it was, and the problem had to be faced somehow : it was 
soon seen that that very important factor in an educational 
institution, more especially in a residential institution like 
ours, namely, morale, would suffer if the original system 
adopted were to remain in force for any long period. Thus 
it was therefore that we came to adopt the age standard in 
making our classification, side by side with the standard of 
attainments. This system then was adopted much to the 
advantage of the morale and tone of the college generally. 
Boys of brighter attainments have not suffered by the system, 
for the practice of dividing each class into sections was 
adopted at the same time, so that it never became necessary 
at any time to keep the whole class down to the level of the 
least intelligent boys in the class, This system prevailed for 
some time, practically until all the ' aged duffers " were 
eventually weeded out of the college in ail the classes ; and 
no attempt could be made till then to classify subjects. Now 
far less disparity of age exists between the boys in the upper 
classes than was formerly the case, and it has been found 
practicable, and without any danger of morale suffering, to 
arrange the boys into classes according to the degree of 
proficiency they have attained in the different subjects 
studied, to a greater extent than formerly. At the same 
time age is still a factor that has to be taken into considera- 
tion with some of the boys, but it is practically confined to 
the English classes, and it operates more largely perhaps in 

[ 17 ] 

my own English class than in others. We have to avail 
ourselves to the full of our limited teaching staff, but even 
as it is we are able to specialise somewhat, especially in the 
direction of mathematics, science, vernacular, and drawing. 
And this brings me naturally to the course of studies pur- 
sued. But first I must say a few words as to my system 
generally. The great point that I have always impressed on 
my staff is that our object is education and not simply 
instruction ; in other words, we wish " to draw out " and 
not simply " to put in." Our system, therefore, is in the 
main what may be called a catechetical system, as opposed 
to that instruction by rote of which the average native 
teacher is so fond, and which, instead of succeeding in 
gradually developing the intelligence of the boy, only suc- 
ceeds in actually dwarfing his natural intelligence, overload- 
ing his mind with a mass of undigested material, which, as 
soon as the particular object with which it has been swallowed, 
namely, the passing of a particular examination, has been 
attained, naturally* goes the way of all undigested material, 
and is eventually " cast out into the draught." Our process 
may be slower, but I feel confident it is the surer in the 
end, especially in dealing with the undeveloped intelligences 
that we have usually the misfortune to have to deal with. 
Without losing sight, therefore, of the importance of the 
public examination for the brighter boys, I have never 
regarded the passing of examination as the " end all " and 
the " be all " of our existence as a training institution 
for our local aristocracy. Cram therefore has found no 
place in my programme. My early experience with the 
average native teacher was that his voice was the most 
prominent sound in the class-room : the voice of the 
taught was hardly heard at all ; and the instruction given by 
the teacher under these circumtances was, so far as 
the effect on the intelligences of the boys was concerned, 
Vox et prcetera nihil. I have always recognised the 
importance of a high standard of education for the class of 
boys we have to train. I was very early impressed by its 
importance, when I came to examine into the attainments 
of the boys who first joined us from the old institution, 
many of whom had been studying for some years 
up to the middle school standard. I was struck by the 
general ignorance displayed by them, and I was further im- 
pressed by the comparatively low standerd of attainments, 
more especially in English, that was required to pass that 

examination, as the system then was of conducting it. A 
further fact that impressed me was that most of the boys who 
have been up from the college for that examination have 
regarded the passing it, or even appearing for it, as the goal 
of their ambition, and have generally left us after that goal 
has been attained. I very early came to the same conclusion 
that Mr Browning arrived at, that the examination could 
practically be passed almost entirely through the medium of 
the vernacular, and without any sound practical knowledge 
of English at all, and practically, I may say, also without 
any very high standard of vernacular education either. A 
boy, I saw, could pass it with a mere surface knowledge of 
certain subjects, attained very largely too through that process 
known in educational circles as cram pure and simple. In 
other words, boys could pass it and still leave the college 
much as they came into it, with minds uniustructed and un- 
informed. To put it plainly, I did not consider preparation 
for the middle school examination, as it was then constitut- 
ed, as an education at all, and I fully realised that if our 
pupils, many of whom would never be likely to go beyond 
that examination, and others never beyond preparation for it, 
were to be bound by a hard and fast rule to the study only of 
subjects prescribed for it, the great majority of them would 
never be educated at all in the proper sense of the word. 

Having regard then to the middle school examination as 
it then was, I determined that boys who left us, either 
before appearing for it or after passing it, should at least be 
fairly well informed as well as instructed, and I have steadily 
kept this end in view not only by introducing certain subjects 
uhich were not prescribed for that course, such, as English 
history, and by a course of supplementary lectures on a 
variety of subjects, but also by pacing special attention 
myself to the English education of the senior boys; and the 
standard of English that I have always aimed at with these 
boys has always been the standard of the Entrance examina- 
tion rather than that of the middle school examination. 
'Thorough " has always been my own motto, and " thorough" 
is the motto 1 have always impressed on my staff. The new 
system now sanctioned for the conduct of the middle school 
examination seems to promise a sounder substratum of attain- 
ments in those who prepare for it : it is a distinct advance on 
the old system, and it seems to ensure that boys who make 
the passing of that examination their goal will have some- 

thing solid to take away with them. It will at any rate ensure 
a sounder knowledge both of their own vernaculars and of 
English on the part of those who succeed in passing the test, 
than could be ensured under the older system, and in this 
respect 1 can now view with more equanimity than heretofore 
the prospect of confining boys' attention to the particular 
subjects prescribed for it. But it is to be hoped that we 
shall soon see an end to the practice of boys regarding the 
passing of it, ven as now amended and improved, as the goal 
of their ambition, and that we shall soon find amongst our 
alumni boys whose ambition it will be to pass on to a 
university degree. Indeed, I should view without any grave 
concern its entire disappearance from the horizon of the world 
of school. If it is considered advisable that our pupils' 
attention should be directed to the passing of public examina- 
tions at all, I should prefer that their first public appearance 
should be an appearance within the portals of a university. 
This will give them from the very outset of their studies a 
higher ambition than under present circumstances is the case. 
With the recognition of the college by the University of 
Allahabad now & fait accompli, this desirable consummation 
appears likely to be attained. English has always held an 
important place in our course of studies, which now comprise, 
beside the English language and composition, Indian history, 
general and physical geography, mathematics in its three 
branches of arithmetic, algebra, and Euclid, the vernacular 
language and composition, and up to now drawing and 
and physical science. During the past year, moreover, we 
have added to our curriculum mensuration and surveying. 
In the senior classes all these subjects, except of course 
vernacular, are taught through the medium of English, that 
being the language in which it has been ordained that the 
subjects prescribed both for the middle school and Entrance 
examinations should be prepared. With the junior classes 
the case is of course different, and the majority of the 
subjects, except of course English, are done through the 
medium of the vernacular. But even the senior boys, apart 
from their instruction in their own vernacular language and 
composition, do not entirely lose touch with their vernacular. 
I have translated for their use all the lessons from their 
vernacular readers bearing on Indian history, and the 
geography and history of the British Empire, and these 
translations form the basis of my lectures to them on these 
subjects. This system enables them to get a better grasp of 

I 20 J 

these subjects than they could from purely English text books, 
as they have their vernacular text books to fall back upon 
when they require an explanation. It is unnecessary for me 
to dilate here on the system pursued throughout in connec- 
tion with our course of studies, but before bringing this sub- 
ject of the curriculum to a close, it might be interesting 
to note the number of hours devoted to each subject. This 
of course varies with the classes, but the general average 
can be given. The number of working hours in the week is 
practically 40, though 6 of these represent the evening 
preparation hours: the actual hours ot class work are 34. 
English has 9 hours devoted to it, vernacular 7, mathema- 
tics 6, geography 2, history 2, mensuration 2, and sur- 
veying 4, two of these being hours taken from physical 
exercise. Drawing has 6 hours devoted to it, but the survey- 
ing class has 4 hours work at this subject a week, and the 
junior hoys 2 hours ; the remaining hours being devoted to 
other subjects. The ordinary routine of the college is an 
follows : 

7 8 ... Physical exercise. 

8 9 ... Drawing cr preparation of vernaculars. 

10-30 4 ... Class work with an interval. 

4-306 ... Games. 

7-30 8-30 ... Evening preparation. 

Evening lock-up is practically at 7-30. 

A few words on the conduct of examinations may fitly 
conclude the subject of the curriculum, as it has hither- 
to been pursued. There are two sessions of the college, one 
extending practically throughout the rains, which may be 
called the rains session : this lasts from July till October; the 
other extends from November on till the following April. There 
is a short break of ten days at Christmas, but no boys are 
allowed to leave the college for their homes. Two examina- 
tions have been held annually : one conducted entirely by the 
principal at the close of the rains session, both viva voce and 
paper work : this examination corresponds with what at Oxford 
are known as "Collections," being a test of the work done 
during the term. 

The annual examination proper has always been held 
at the end of the hot weather session, and the procedure 
has always been as follows. The principal conducts an exam- 
ination throughout the whole college in paper work, and the 

C 21 ] 

Inspector of Schools conducts the viva voce part of the ex- 
amination: all paper work moreover always lies open 
for his inspection. Further facilities for the Inspector of 
Schools holding this examination have been given during 
the past two years by the extension of the hot weather 
sessions from March 31st, the old date, when it came to an 
end, to April 15th, as it has not always in the past been 
convenient for the Inspector ot Schools to be at headquar- 
ters as early as the end of March. Whenever formerly this 
was the case, the principal at his request used to conduct the 
whole examination. A complete record of these examina- 
tions, with detailed results in the case of each individual 
boy, has been maintained in the college registers from the 
very commencement, and progress reports are sent to all 
guardians at the close of each session. In connection with 
the subject of vacations, which I have touched on above, I 
cannot but think that it would be of incalculable advantage 
to our boys if the boys' guardians or those responsible for 
them could, during the vacations, interest them in matters 
affecting the general management of their estates. Their 
work in this direction would then, as it were, dovetail into 
the work they do at the college, and there would not be that 
hiatus and absence of continuity that now exists between 
their college and their home life: the only result of the 
conditions now prevailing, whereby boys are left practically 
to themselves during the vacations, to enjoy an otium that 
is without any dignity, instead of their being employed in 
some negotium, is that they generally return to the college 
with their minds a tabula rasa and emptied of all they 
have ever learnt. And further it would be of great assistance 
to the college authorities, in arranging the course of studies 
to be pursued by individual boys, if their guardians, on 
pending them to the college, could give some idea of the 
probable duration of their stay at the college, or of the age 
limit to which the boy's education at the college would be 
extended : this would tend to minimise the risk that must 
under present circumstances occur of a boy leaving the 
college with mind only half-formed and immature, more 
especially where I refer here especially to a recent case that 
has occurred he has unexpectedly and without due warn- 
ing been removed from the college for family reasons, some 
years before the college authorities might have naturally 
anticipated when the boy was first admitted into the college, 
that he would be removed. 

[ 22 ] 

I now come to what I consider to be the most important 
factor in the success or failure of an educational institution, 
namely, its discipline, for what boots it Ingenuas didicisse 
fideleiiter Aries to its alumni if Boni Mores be wanting. 
Now various problems presented themselves for solution at 
the very outset, arising from various causes. To begin with, 
there were certain initial jealousies to be overcome arising 
between class and class, between, that is to say, those who 
belonged to the higher aristocratic classes and those who 
belonged to the lower : between those whose forbears were 
rajas or maharajas, and those whose forbears were thakurs 
or zamindars. Here I may as well say that once boys have 
been admitted within the walls of the college, no distinctions 
of class are recognised by the college authorities, but all are 
treated on exactly the same footing as in the great Public 
Schools at home. An amusing illustration of this rivalry 
occurred one day in a small dispute about chairs in 
the common rooms. A young raja claimed an easy chair 
that a young zamindar was sitting on and practically 
demanded that the young zamindar should take t; a lower 

Then there was the comparative want of morale on the 
part of the great majority to be grappled with ; a want of 
morale of which I had several illustrations, but I need only 
mention two here. One morning there was a slight scare 
amongst some of the boys on the supposition that one of 
their number had been attacked with cholera. Needless to 
say the supposition was not a correct one. In the course of 
the day the senior boy presented me with a telegram pur- 
porting to come from his mother, and reading, " If you 
wish to see me alive come at once. " I allowed the boy 
leave, but on communicating with his guardian, a deputy 
commissioner, I received the reply, "I have just seen 
the lady ; she was never better in her life." It was merely 
a device of the boy to get away temporarily. In the other 
case a pupil having received from me an advance of his 
month's personal allowance as a convenience, as he was 
proceeding home for the vacation, drew the amount again 
from the local treasury of his headquarters town as he 
passed through it on his way home. I must say he had 
the courtesy to write and tell me what he had done, relying, 
he added, upon my good nature. 

[ 23 ] 

The large number of older boys who joined us from the 
old institution at Jubbulpore, and brought with them some 
of the not wholly satisfactory traditions of that institution, 
were also a cause of anxiety, and from the very first I had 
fears of the wisdom of the policy that admitted them into a 
new institution, but financial considerations necessitated the 
wide opening of our doors. Matters were not made easier 
for us by the sanction that was early accorded to the non-re- 
sidence of isome of our pupils, who were allowed to live with 
their mothers in the city, coming to the college only for 
their studies : this arrangement was unsatisfactory in many 
ways, not only in the province of discipline, but also in that 
of health. I tried to minimise the effects as much as 
possible by keeping the boys at the college the whole day, 
from early morning to late in the evening, so that they could 
join in the routine of physical exercise and games with the 
others, arrangements being made in the great majority of 
cases for these boys to have their meals at the college during 
the day. It was some years before the arrangement could be 
finally put an end to : the compromise was first adopted of 
allowing the boys to visit their mothers on a Saturday to 
Monday exeat: then this privilege was gradually withdrawn, 
and boys were allowed a Sunday exeat only: now even this 
privilege is rarely asked for : the mothers of wards having for 
the most part given up residence in the city, and only visit- 
ing the place occasionally. 

A curious illustration came under my notice of the 
inconsistency of one of these ladies. She had herself visited 
the college and seen the arrangements, and she had ex- 
pressed herself thoroughly satisfied with them, especially 
with the arrangements for excluding strangers, but she still 
urged that her son might live with her, though at the same 
time she recognised to the full the danger of bad associations 
for her son from his residence in the city. Rut to obviate 
these, she appealed to the District Superintendent of 
Police for a police guard, to be maintained at her house in 
the city at her own expense, " to keep off," as she said, 4< un- 
desirable characters from visiting my son." 

To minimise the effects on the boys' health of a resi- 
dence in a less salubrious quarter than the college precincts 
I instituted a weekly inspection of their mothers' lodgings in 
the city. 

C 24 ] 

Another difficulty that faced us at (he commencement 
of our operations was the unprotected state of the college 

The college had, as it were, been located in the middle 
of a great maidan, across which various thoroughfares ran in 
all directions, and the lapse of time had almost established 
a right of way. To put a stop to this nuisance the owner of 
the principal village in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
college had to be interviewed, and the passage of carts to and 
fro was stopped, but it took longer to persuade the villagers 
to give up what they thought their right of way. At last this 
was effected, but complete privacy could not be secured as 
long as the Government circuit-house was located in the grounds 
immediately fronting the college main building, and the 
court of the sessions regularly held there. The residence of 
the principal, moreover, was at some considerable distance 
from the college. It is satisfactory to be able to record that 
none of these disabilities now exist. While the old residence 
of the principal has become the residence of the Political 
Agent, the Government circuit-house has by purchase been 
acquired by the college, arid now constitutes the principal's 
residence. The grounds, moreover, have been completely 
fenced in, and a porter's lodge has been placed at the main 

In every educational establishment I take it, two depart- 
ments of discipline have to be recognised, namely, class 
discipline and house discipline. Class discipline primari- 
ly falls within the province of each individual class master, 
and its importance was early impressed on the staff, in whose 
hands, when they first join us, I have always placed an excel- 
lent little manual on the subject by an old Rugby form 
master, entitled "Form Discipline," which mutatis mutandis 
is as applicable in India as in England. It contains amongst 
other good things that excellent motto of Quintilian's that 
should form the guiding star of all teachers who wish to 
gain an influence over their class : Minime iracundus minime 
contumelioa'us, and a still more useful and necessary motto 
especially necessary with a native staff, Obsta principiis. 

Important as class discipline is, however, far more im- 
portant is house discipline, and here the head of the house 
must remain supreme. There can be no dual control here. 
As our college is at present constituted, it practically 

[ 25 ] 

constitutes a house, with its fairly manageable numbers, and 
the principal is, and must be, his own house master. Practical- 
ly, therefore, the principal is responsible for the entire discip- 
line of the college. I could not help being struck, on a 
recent perusal of the history of the Aitcheson Chiefs' College, 
Lahore, with one rather curious e*h try in it, and it is the 
principal who is making it, though it is only fair to add that 
it is not the present principal, but a previous principal writing 
of an earlier day. The entry is to this effect : " With regard 
to discipline, I am sorry to say there is much to be desired. 
The masters are lax in enforcing it, and the boys are prompt 
to take advantage of their laxity. The boys too presume to 
no little extent on their supposed social superiority to their 
teachers, and I constantly overhear conversations and argu- 
ments between masters and pupils, in which their relative 
positions are reversed. The boys freely accuse one another 
of using abnsive language, and this while in class and under 
the supposed control of their masters." 

At the first blush this looks like a condemnation of the 
principal from his own mouth, but a further investigation into 
the history revealed the fact that actually a triple control has 
prevailed in the college in the past, and if I am right in my 
conclusions from v* hat T have read in that history, this triple 
control still exist.'-'. Under the system prevailing I quote 
the actual records of the report " The principal is excluded 
from a share in boarding-house supervision, which lie^ 
between the governor and the superintendent. " The super- 
intendent, it may be noted, works through a class of men known 
as musahibe, who are now pensioned native officers. A 
triple system of control such as is here delineated must, one 
would suppose, do away with the raison d'etre of a principal 
altogether : it must at any rate tend to weaken that enthusiasm 
in his work which our present Viceroy has rightly gauged to 
be of the very essence of all really good work, and which 
only a man who has a really free hand can really develop 
if he does not possess it already. 

To my mind the principal must be the head of the 
college ; he must be, at least in the department of discipline, 
Ant Ccesar ant nnllus. 

In our institution there is, it is trne, a controlling body 
designated the board of visitors, but their action rather 
than impeding any independence of action on the part of the 

[ 26 ] 

principal, renders that action more effective. Theadviceof this 
body is always most welcome, and is always invited in any 
flagrant breaches of discipline, happily now rather the excep- 
tion than the rule. Its control is practically confined to 
criticism, if it thinks criticism necessary, of any disciplinary 
action taken by the principal, and simply with regard to its 
adequacy or not. When we first opened we had what might 
have appeared to be a dual control, but it simply existed in a 
division of responsible duties between the headmaster and 
the superintendent of the boarding-house : while the former 
was responsible for the arrangements of all class-work, the 
latter was responsible for the arrangements of the boarding- 
house, but his disciplinary functions were confined to reports 
and not action ; all action the principal kept in his own 
hnnds. Even this semblance of a dual control has now 
disappeared, the headmaster combining the offices in his 
own person, but he still has no power of independent action in 
the field of discipline. 

The principles that have guided me in the administration 
of discipline have remained the same throughout, though there 
may have been some modifications in the methods of that ad- 
ministration in the course of the seven years that have 
elapsed since I first, on the opening of the college, took the 
reins of discipline into my hands. The personal equation 
must enter largely into all disciplinary systems ; but nowhere 
more largely than in institutions like ours, where the scions 
of Indian nobility have to be dealt with. With no class of boys 
in the world is individuality more marked than with this 
class, with its innumerable susceptibilities and prejudices, all 
of which have at some time or other to be taken into 
consideration. Each individual boy must be dealt with 
as in individuality possessing an idiosyncracy of his own. 
Even the Education Department with its rigid and cast- 
iron system of rules and regulations for the maintenance 
of discipline in its schools, has recognised that there may be 
boys in the schools of these provinces that may require very 
special treatment, and it expressly exempts certain of the 
aboriginal classes from the operation of these rules, leaving 
those in authority some liberty of action in dealing with 
them. Amongst these aboriginal tribes the Khonds especially 
are recognised as boys requiring special and tactful treat- 
ment. We have had and still have Khonds in our institu- 
tion, and my experience has been that theirs is a very 

[ 27 ] 

peculiar idiosyncracy. Intense pride, curiously enough, is 
one of their peculiar characteristics, combined with extreme 

Kecognising that all discipline has for its principal 
object the building up of character, personal influence 
and personal association have been the principal factors 
at work in my system. These principles have always 
guided me in the selection of members of my staff: it is 
essential to the success of the system that they should 
be men of character, and therefore men able to bring 
personal influence to bear, and these principles must be 
borne hi mind whenever the college expands sufficiently 
to enable a larger staff to be engaged : a few good men on 
good pay will be infinitely preferable to a large number of 
men of inferior stamp and character. 

I have been exceptionally fortunate with my staff so 
far as its vsenior members are concerned, and I rejoice that it 
has never fallen to me to encounter that curious experience 
which the records of the Aitcheson College show to have 
been encountered in that institution in its early years. I 
quote from the report from which the present principal 
gives this extract: "In 1891 the principal records as a 
matter of congratulation that during the year under report 
no complaint has been made to me by a pupil against a 

However active and energetic the head of a residential 
institution may be, much must depend for the success of 
that institution upon the subordinate staff: their personal 
influence and example must be the chief factors after all. 
This of course correspondingly increases the responsibility 
of the staff, and I have been fortunate in possessing a senior 
staff who have recognised their responsibilities. There is 
always the danger of supervision being carried to the point 
where it narrowly approaches espionage : this danger we have 
avoided, and it has very largely been avoided by the personal 
association of the staff with the boys in their play as well as 
in their work. The junior members of the staff on first 
joining the college have not always recognised the distinc- 
tion, and I remember the casn of one man who strongly ob- 
jected to taking his turn of duty both at preparation and at 
games on the ground that he had not been engaged as a 
chowkidar ! 

[ 28 ] 

Passing from principles, I will now come to my actual 
practice. This divides itself into two periods : first the 
system in force for the early years of the institution, 
and secondly, that in force during the last few years, and 
which will continue to be the model for succeeding years. 
An ideal system would be one that would tend to create that 
atmosphere of freedom and honour that is of the very 
essence of the best Public Schools in England : a system the 
very antithesis to this is the system prevailing in French 
seminaries, which from all accounts only tends to create an 
atmosphere of restraint and suspicion with its necessary 
corollary deceit. In India we have to find " the golden 
mean," and to adopt a system which shall help to develop 
all the best qualities developed by the English Public School 
system, with at the same time perhaps rather closer supervi- 
sion than prevails in that system, for, after all, when all is 
said and done, " East is East " and " West is West," and the 
English Public School system, in its entirety, cannot yet 
be adopted in Indian schools. 

During the early years of the college I must confess the 
Public School system formed my model, and in those years 
I allowed perhaps more freedom than was altogether prudent. 
I did not sufficiently allow for the possible facilities given by 
my system to a boy of vicious tendencies to get into mis- 
chief ; for after all school legislation must be framed not 
necessarily for the majority, who may be of good character, 
but for the "microscopic minority " that will always exist 
even in the best ordered schools, who do possess vicious 

The suaviter in modo may perhaps have appeared a 
stronger element in my system than the fortiter in re, 
and " the velvet glove " may have been more conspicuous 
than the " iron hand." But they were all there, and at no 
time were the reins of discipline dropped altogether, however 
loosely they might have appeared to be held, and when the 
time came, as it did eventually come, for tightening them 
up, the process was hardly observed. I do not suppose that 
our experience has been at all an exceptional one : indeed, 
the records of the Aitcheson Chiefs' College show abundantly 
that other institutions have had their trials as well as ours, 
and I know too that the Rajkote College, even under its 
Bayard of a head, the late Mr. Chester Macnaghten, also 
suffered in this respect. The late president of our council, 

[ 29 1 

in a recent address at the college, very happily spoke of the 
trials our institution experienced in its early day as " infan- 
tile disorders," and the expression aptly expresses their 
character. Still they were " disorders," and as such " they 
gave occasion to the enemy to blaspheme." 

The crisis came when the college council set on foot a 
scheme to do away, once for all, with the non-residential 
system that had prevailed for some years in the case of some 
of the young chiefs, notably in that of the young chief of 
Bastar. The scheme met with very determined opposition, an 
opposition that emanated almost entirely from the zenanas 
affected by it. Rumours to the discredit of the college were 
at once set on foot, and the old prejudices against the old 
institution, whose mantle was naturally supposed to have 
fallen on the new one, were revived with ten-fold force, a 
handle having unfortunately been given to reproach by the 
44 disorders " alluded to above. Rumour invariably vires 
acquirit eundo. And so it was now. A committee was 
ordered to be convened to enquire into the general adminis- 
tration of the college, and the college was most fortunate in 
its composition. The two men who were commissioned to 
make the enquiry were also commissioned to draft a scheme 
of discipline which should form a vade mecum for the 
college authorities for all time. 

They were the then Commissioner of the division, Mr A. D. 
Younghusband, who was also president of the college coun- 
cil, and Mr. A. Monro, the Director of Public Instruction 
in the Central Provinces, and also auex * officio member of 
the council. The institution owes them a vast debt of 
gratitude for the infinite pains they took to draw up a 
comprehensive scheme of discipline. 

The system of discipline ever since in force, and now 
prevailing in the college, is based upon that scheme. 

The system is no longer that of the great Public Schools 
of England, but is practically that which is the nearest 
approach to it, namely, the system that prevails in the best 
English preparatory schools, which is perhaps the best system 
for India. The fact that all boys are now boarders has sim- 
plified matters very much, as all are thus brought under the 
influence of discipline in a more effective way than was pos- 
sible when some boys only were boarders and some day boys. 

[ 30 ] 

The college council has ruled that for the future all boys 
coming to the college must be boarders. Apart from its 
influence on discipline, this ruling will help the development 
of esprit de corps, and will be of great advantage to the 
health of the boys concerned. There is an element of self- 
government in my system, which renders it further incumbent 
that all boys should be resident. From the very first a boy of 
character and influence has been elected, latterly by the votes 
of the boys themselves, as prefect of the school, and the effect 
has been distinctly good. Roll-call perhaps forms one of the 
principle features of the system. Following a custom prevail- 
ing in most Public Schools in England, where all boys and 
masters assemble in " big school " before proceeding to their 
respective class-rooms, I have invariably held the principal 
roll-call of the day myself at the opening of school : all boys 
are assembled in the college hall. This custom has several 
advantages, all more or less of a disciplinary character : it 
enables, me to address the boys on any matters requiring 
special attention, and especially on the quality of their work : 
a weekly report is given of the boys' work in the class-rooms, 
and this is weekly reviewed with the boys themselves at this 
roll-call. Other roll-calls are the early morning roll-call held 
by the master on duty at the gymnasium preparatory to 
physical exercise : another is held in the afternoon, preceding 
the games, and the last one preceding evening preparation, 
which practically represents " lock up" for the clay, as no 
boys are allowed to leave the main building after that hour. 

The senior resident masters each have a week on duty, 
and they are responsible for seeing that all goes on smoothly, 
and they have to report to the principal. A report and order 
book has been maintained from the first; the senior masters 
only report, and all orders on their reports are written by the 
principal in this register for necessary action. 

This division of duties between the different resident 
masters has been found to work well; the system that prevailed 
for some time, of the headmaster being made responsible for 
the arrangements of the boarding-house as well as of the 
classes, was found to be too great a tax upon one man, and 
the present system has been devised to relieve the strain and 
pressure upon him. While the senior resident masters are 
thus made responsible for the boarding-house, the junior 
master is made responsible for attendance at the games. This 
system again works better than the old system, whereby 

[ 31 ] 

attendance at the games was compulsory upon the whole staff, 
each member of the staff attending upon alternate days. Here 
I may parenthetically remark that though attendance at the 
games is no longer compulsory upon the senior members of 
the staff, they have rarely allowed their other duties to inter- 
fere with showing an interest in the games by occasionally 
joining in them with more or less keenness and possibly 
with more advantage to themselves and the boys than when 
their attendance was compulsory. 

I now come to the arrangements of the boarding-house 
proper, as distinguished from school arrangements generally. 

And first I will take that very important subject, the 
establishments of wards. 

I have already referred to the committee on discipline that 
was constituted some years back, and to the very comprehen- 
sive character of the suggestions made. These proposals 
received the full concurrence of the Chief Commissioner 
before whom they were placed, and in his note on these pro- 
posals he lays especial stress on the importance of keeping 
these establishments as low as possible. I quote from his 
note. " So far as it is possible to select for special concurrence 
any portion of a paper with which he is in entire concord, he 
would specify the paragraph on private servants : private 
servants attached to the pupil are a constant danger and 
source of trouble. It is probably impossible to forbid them 
altogether, but they should be kept within the narrowest 
possible limits. " 

The employment of private tutors has always been dis- 
couraged by the college authorities : where they have been on 
the establishments of wards, they have been appointed by the 
guardians to act as heads of these establishments rather than 
in the capacity of tutors, as we understand the terms. It has 
generally been considered preferable to have an educated 
rather than an uneducated man at the head, as a certain 
amount of responsibility attaches to the post. As a matter 
of fact at the present moment there is only one man who 
may be called a tutor, and he has been specially appointed 
by the boy's guardian not only to direct the affairs of his 
establishment, but also in some sense to help him in his 
studies, the boy being of weak mental capacity. But even in 
this case I have found it better for the boy's morale that he 

C 32 ] 

should attend the ordinary classes, the tutor's work being 
confined to correcting his exercises with him after they have 
been looked over by the class master : in fact he has the same 
functions to perform that a house tutor has to perform in 
English Public Schools. We are also providing a special 
tutor for a poor young blind chief who is now with us. 

There is one special case also where a boy has a resident 
guardian. This is a case where the boy's father expressly 
stipulated in his will that the boy should be accompanied by 
a guardian, whom he specifically named, whenever he went to 
the college. This man's duties, however, are confined to the 
administration of the boy's establishment, and he practically 
comes within the category of the class recommended by the 
committee on discipline to act as head servant. I quote from 
their report : 4< As a confidential servant we are inclined to 
prefer the original idea of a respectable old-fashioned 
servant appointed by the boy's own relatives and enjoying 
their confidence." 

This is undoubtedly the view that commends itself to 
those who send their sons and relatives to us. Such respon- 
sible head-servants are practically munahibs, an oriental 
term which may be said to sum up all the qualities that are 
required of a " guide, philosopher, and friend. " At the 
same time, from the college point of view, there are 
inconveniences arising from this system, as these old 
family retainers also act as Jcbabardarfi, another ancient 
oriental institution ; in other words, they are the news- 
agents of the family, retailing all and every item of news 
that they think may interest the absent members of the 
family : thus they keep the zenanas in a constant flutter of 
anxiety and excitement, which has a reflex action on the 
boys themselves, and some times on the heads of the families. 
Every little ailment and every trifling accident to the "dear 
bo>s at school " is exaggerated, A confidential head-servant 
almost invariably means a man possessing the confidence of 
the ladies of the zenana, and not infrequently this means the 
mother's brother. The system in force at Lahore of employ- 
ing pensioned native non-commissioned officers as mueahibs 
has much to commend it. Still, taking it all round, our 
present system is perhaps the best solution of the difficulty, 
though sometimes indeed one is tempted to ask Quis 
custodiet custodes. 

[ 33 ] 

It is against the class of mukhtars especially that the 
college authorities have to be on their guard. No one is more 
interested than this class, with their motto Alieni appetens, 
in reducing boys who come under their influence to mere 
nonentities, by trying to make themselves indispensable ; 
and to check this influence the college authorities must 
insist on always dealing direct with their boys ; they cannot 
tolerate any " middlemen ;" but to do this efficiently a 
knowledge of the boy's vernaculars is indispensable. The 
reponsibility of head-servants or jemadars, as they may be 
called, is limited to the time when the boys are at leisure for 
their baths and their meals, and the college routine of work 
and play does not admit of the boys being in the society of 
their servants for ?my great length of time. A regular 
register of boys' establishments is kept, and is periodically 
examined by the principal in the course of his Sunday 
inspections, to check any tendency towards an increase over 
and above the sanctioned number. I have already referred 
to the temporary disturbing influences created by the arrival 
of new wards, so I need not mention them again. As regards 
the dining arrangements, the hours for these are limited to 
the hours from 9 to 10-30 in the morning and from 6 to 7-30 
in the evening. The hours originally fixed for the evening 
meal were from 8 to 10 p.m. after evening preparation, but 
it is now some years since, on the suggestion of the board 
of visitors, they were changed and with great advan- 
tage to an earlier hour. The evening preparation hour 
now comes after the evening meal, and is the signal for 
" lock up." Now in. this country, at least with Hindus, 
the meal has been described as a "religious sacrament" 
to be partaken of in solitary isolation and in silence. 
In the latest and perhaps most realistic of his creations 
Eudyard Kipling, who, whatever else he knows does know his 
India, has, in the various wanderings of the vagabond Kim, 
as delineated by him, exemplified this. Under our present 
system all boys have their separate dining rooms, most of 
which are attached to their kitchens : there are practically 
no mftsses : the nearest approach to " a mess " is where boys 
coming from the same district and belonging to the same 
caste employ one cook and mess together. No doubt the 
present system does entail the boys spending some time with 
their private servants, but, as I have shown, the college 
routine reduces this time to a minimum. At the same time 
1 have long recognised that the combination of dining-rooms 

[ 34 ] 

with kitchens is not a good one, and for this reason I have 
encouraged estates building separate blocks where this 
inconvenience may be obviated : such blocks are intended to 
form as models for a more elaborate scheme, which provides 
for the construction of blocks to serve as dining-rooms 
pure and simple, and under this scheme it is intended that 
the kitchens and servants' quarters should be in distinct 

It is doubtful whether, where there are so many castes 
concerned, more than this can be attempted. The utmost we 
can attempt in this direction is the encouragement of the 
messing system among boys of the same caste. The social 
element must be, and as a matter of fact is, provided in 
other ways, as will be abundantly seen as I proceed with 
this sketch. 

The sleeping arrangements are very simple. All boys 
have to sleep in the college main building, the upper portion 
of which has been constructed for the purpose. Each boy 
has his own cubicle, and private servants are not allowed in 
these at all. The headmaster invariably sleeps in this upper 
building, and occupies a cubicle. One personal servant a 
week is told off for duty, and in the same way one Ravat ; 
they sleep in the verandahs and their presence is necessary 
in cases of emergency. >. The utmost number of boys that this 
upper building can accommodate is 30, which is after all the 
maximum number of which a boarding-house should consist, 
as any number in excess of this renders it less easy to manage 
with efficiency : should the numbers increase, it will be 
necessary therefore to build, and so to form the nucleus of a 
second boarding-house. As I have already mentioned, 7-30 
is practically the hour for locking up, no boys being allowed 
out of the main building after that hour : by 9 p.m. indeed 
most boys are in bed. 

Another question that comes for consideration in con- 
nection with boarding-house arrangements is that of the 
management of the boys' personal allowances. The personal 
allowances of all wards of Government are administered by 
mjself ; regular accounts being kept of the boy's expendi- 
ture, and the funds banked with a local banker. In this way, 
and in this way only, can expenditure be controlled : the 
system has not been without its good effects. Boys have 
seen for themselves the advantages of small savings effected 

C 35 ] 

in their monthly expenditure : they have thus been able to 
afford certain luxuries, which they would otherwise, had 
all their money gone on "food and 'clothing, have had to do 
without : thus some boys have been able to purchase bicycles 
entirely out of savings effected from their allowances, and 
others watches. An element of suspicion always attaches to 
the handling of money in this country, and it is doubtless 
partly this, and partly also from a spirit of independence, 
and a chafing against control of finances, the theme on 
which their familiars are always harping, that is the cause 
that in some cases the parents and relatives of boys prefer 
that no control should be exercised over their boys' personal 
allowances. Closely connected with the subject of boarding- 
house discipline is the provision made for indoor recreations. 
The college routine does not admit of many vacant hours, 
and it is chiefly on Sundays and holidays that such hours 
occur. Few as they are, however, provision has been made 
to meet them : all boys have to be in the main building on 
Sundays and holidays from 1 1 to 2 and again at 4, when 
there is roll-call. Papers and periodicals are provided for 
them in the library, and books likely to prove of interest 
to them are periodically bought. As regards vernacular 
newspapers, it is so difficult to distinguish between the 
bad and the good that 1 have found it the safer policy 
to forbid them altogether. I have had the advantage of 
hearing the opinions of some of the great chiefs of Behar on 
this subject, and they one and all expressed their opinion 
that the less their young relatives learned of politics, especial- 
ly of such politics as the Vernacular Press usually indulges 
in, the better for them. My attitude towards sound vernacu- 
lar literature, however, is very different, and I am hoping 
shortly to establish the nucleus of a good vernacular library, 
and I have already established a course of lectures on various 
subjects in the vernacular, which are regularly given on 
the afternoons or evenings of every Sunday or holiday. 

Billiards we have not yet been able to compass, but I 
hope in time that the generosity of the chiefs will enable us 
to add this game to our other indoor games, amongst which 
chess is now established. 

The magic lantern is another and a very favourite 
source of entertainment. 

I have always observed that there is often a strong taste 
for mechanical pursuits amongst boys of the class we educate, 

C 36 ] 

and to encourage this taste, I have maintained for some time 
now a carpenter's shop on the premises, where boys whose 
tastes run that way may indulge them. By the courtesy of 
the Inspector-General of Police and the Superintendent of 
the Central Jail I was allowed to send the carpenter to the 
jail for a course of instruction in wood carving at the hands 
of the Burmese experts. Not very many of the boys have 
developed a great taste for mechanical pursuits, and it is a 
moot point whether any of them will ever arrive at the skill 
developed in this direction by the first ward I was placed in 
charge of, the Maharaja of Nuddea in Bengal, who was not 
only able to engineer his own river steamer, but also to shoe 
his own horses, and for the matter of that to shoe any horses 
that were sent him. Apropos of this I have heard a very 
good story about this accomplishment of his. The Maharaja 
was one day calling upon the Collector of the district, who 
was telling him of the difficulty he experienced in getting his 
horses shod. " Oh ! " said the Maharaja, "send them to me, 
and I will shoe them myself. " Still it is an experiment worth 
continuing, and more valuable results may ensue in the near 

All that I have said above shows that the social element 
enters largely into our system, and one evidence of the greatly 
improved social relations existing between class and class now, 
as compared with those that existed in the early days of the 
college, is the generosity and freedom with which boys lend 
their ponies and bicj^clesto one another. This may be a small 
matter, but I think it does point to a very good feeling of 
comradeship existing amongst the boys, and it is a feeling 
that the college authorities do their best to encourage, as after 
all one object with which boys are sent to us is that they may 
learn to choose their companions from amongst boys of their 
own class, rather than from amongst their inferiors, which is 
an hereditary failing with this class of boys. The jealous 
exclusiveness of this particular class in the seclusion of their 
own homes naturally drives the children to associate with the 
children of the family retainers, in order to get that com- 
panionship for which the heart a child naturally yearns ; and 
here I may incidentally remark that it is this feeling of exclu- 
siveness that must be taken into consideration in deciding on 
the classes to be admitted into Rajkumar colleges : they 
must also be exclusive in their character, if they are to attract 
boys of this class. 

[ 37 ] 

The rules regulating the admission of visitors or strang- 
ers into the college premises are very strict : no one not 
known to the chowkidar at the lodge is admitted, except 
on a written order from the principal, and visitors who wish 
to see the college are, in addition, only allowed to enter when 
there are no boys in the building : and as a matter of fact even 
this permission is very rarely given during term time. 
When visitors are allowed in, they are limited to the afternoon 
hour from 4 5 when the boys are all out in the playing fields. 
It is only the complete fencing in of the college premises and 
the acquisition of the circuit-house that has enabled these 
rules to be properly enforced. JNo boys are allowed to leave 
the premises without an exeat signed by the principal : the 
ordinary procedure being for the boy to put up his request 
before the master on duty, who sends it on to the principal, 
who signs it and returns it to the master on duty, who 
finally returns it to the principal initialled. This system 
enables the master on duty to note the fact on taking the 
various roll-calls of the day. No exeat is given except for a 
very special reason, and then only for the day. Owing to 
most of the boys' relatives having left the city ; as I have 
already mentioned, it is not often that an exeat is wanted, 
and as a rule the only day on which one is granted is a 
Sunday or a holiday. On these occasions the responsible 
head-servant always accompanies the boy. The grounds are 
so spacious, and the college so well provided with facilities 
for exercise within its precincts, that it is rare for the boys 
to require to leave them for exercise outside their limits ; but 
the principal occasionally takes parties of them out riding or 
bicycling with him : and it is his custom to allow them to go 
out all together walking or riding on the afternoons of Sun- 
days and holidays when they so require it, but only in the 
company of a responsible member of the staff, and then only 
in a direction away from the town, which is strictly out of 
bounds. They appreciate this privilege, and they never take 
advantage of it : the variety it affords them is, I consider, 
also good for them. 

This naturally brings me to the subject of physical 
exercise, for which, as I have stated, ample provision exists. 
The college possesses an excellent covered gymnasium, 
where gymnastics are regularly taught by a trained gymnast, 
trained at Poona. 

t 38 ] 

There is plenty of variety in the exercises, which con- 
sist also of dumb-bells, physical drill, and deshi kasrat, the 
latter a form of exercise which they all seem to take to. 
Every boy in the college moreover, has been taught if not to 
ride well, at least to sit on a horse. For some time a 
subadar of Madras Lancers was engaged for the special pur- 
pose of teaching riding, but there are not enough horses now 
kept by the boys to make it necessary to engage a trained 
teacher. Owing to the freedom with which boys lend each 
other their animals, I have found it possible by dividing boys 
into sections to give every boy one lesson a week at least 
in riding. Musketry is also taught to every boy in the 
school : to the seniors with a rifle at the volunteer rifle 
range, kindly placed at my disposal by the colonel and 
adjutant of the Bengal Nagpur Rifles, of which corps I am 
myself a member, to juniors in the college grounds through 
the medium of a rook rifle. Needless to say musketry is 
always taught entirely under my own supervision. 

In this way it is possible for every boy in the college to 
handle a rifle of one calibre or another at least once a week. 
All these represent the morning exercises : the evening hour 
is devoted to games pure and simple, of which cricket, foot- 
ball and tennis are those chiefly patronised. 

From the first opening of the college games have formed 
an integral portion of our regular college routine, and 
attendance at them has always been compulsory. 

Though their organisation is from without, their man- 
agement is practically from within : the best athlete in the 
college is also the captain of the games, the boys them- 
selves having the principal voice in his selection. As there 
are generally a number of junior boys in the school, it has 
become necessary to form two sections, as in riding and 
shooting : and while the seniors play under the captaincy 
of one from among themselves, the juniors are placed under 
the superintendence of that member of the staff whose 
special province the games are, In the same way, alternate 
days are fixed for cricket and tennis, so that all get their 
fair share of each. Throughout the period of the existence 
of the college it has been the exception rather than the rule 
for the headmaster or the principal not to be found parti- 
cipating with the boys in their games : and this personal 

[ 39 ] 

association has not been without its effect on the boys' 
characters. It has only been carrying out into actual prac- 
tice a favourite maxim of mine in dealing with boys a 
maxim the importance of which my senior staff also, I 
rejoice to say, abundantly recognise Segnius irritant (mi- 
mas demised per avres Quam quce sunt oculis subjecta 
fidelibus. As a natural corollary to the attention paid to 
the department of physical exercise, the health of the 
college boys has always, as a general rule, been remarkably 
good. The excellent situation of the college has also a 
good deal to say for this : it has always been recognised that 
the air to the west of Raipur, where the college is situated, 
is better than that to the east; Apart, too, from this, the 
college possesses an abundant and excellent water-supply, 
not only from pipe-water but also in its well, the merits of 
which are recognized far and wide, and which is always care- 
fully conserved. 

The college has a regular medical officer in the person of 
the assistant-surgeon, who holds a weekly inspection both 
of the boys and of the premises, including the stores kept 
for sale at the shop located on the premises. Besides this 
weekly inspection, all boys are thoroughly examined at the 
commencement of each term, to ascertain their fitness for 
physical exercise, and at the end of each term to mark their 
physical development after a course of gymnastics. 

The physique of boys is found to improve immensely as 
a rule under the regime they undergo. It has always indeed 
been my experience that Indian schoolboys, under a proper 
combination of work and play, keep as a rule quite as good 
health as English schoolboys. 

The medical officer lives at some distance from the 
college, but with a bicycle orderly at the college to summon 
him in cases of emergency, this has not hitherto proved a 
serious inconvenience. However, it is certainly a matter for 
consideration whether a small and well-equipped hospital, 
with a resident medical officer, even of the grade of a hos- 
pital assistant, is not a desideratum of the college : it cer- 
tainly will be if the college expands . In all really serious 
cases the services of the Civil Surgeon are requisitioned. 

[ 40 ] 

I now come to the very important subject of attendance 
and punctuality in returning to school after the vacations, or 
even after casual leave, whenever that kind of leave has had 
to be granted for domestic or family reasons and ID connec- 
tion with religious ceremonies, the only reasons for which it 
is ever granted. 

This subject attracted the attention of the college 
authorities from an early date, and it was with a view to 
encouraging punctual attendance at school after each vaca- 
tion that the principal has always annually presented a silver 
medal to the boys showing the best attendance in the year 
at school and at physical exercise. It has been a difficulty 
experienced by one and all of the institutions in India of a 
similar character. The records of the Aitcheson Chiefs' College 
at Lahore give abundant evidence of this fact, and conversa- 
tions I have held with the head of the Mayo College, Ajmere, 
have all pointed in the same direction. 

This was one of the subjects that engaged the attention 
of the committee on discipline that I have already referred 
to, and the system now in force for checking the evil is prac- 
tically based on the principles enunciated in that com- 
mittee's note. Boys are now well aware that if they return 
late to the college after the hot weather vacation, the}' will 
be detained at the college and have to work for double the 
period of time that they have been late during the Dusserah 
vacation, and that in special cases they will forfeit the Dus- 
serah vacation altogether. Then again casual leave is never 
granted to boys except at the special request of the boys' 
responsible guardians, who are required to show urgent 
necessity for the indulgence, and even then the discretion 
of granting it or of refusing it rests entirely with the prin- 
cipal. I may add that such irregularity of attendance as 
exists is confined to unpunctuality in returning from leave, 
The college records show abundantly that the attendance 
and punctuality of boys, when they are once within the 
walls of the institution, are excellent. Naturam expellas 
furca, tamen usque recnrret ; unpunctuality is undoubtedly a 
weakness of the people of India, and when a boy is once out 
of reach of the influences of the college amidst his home 
surroundings, he may possibly forget all about the pains 
and penalties attaching to this particular fault, and delay 
his return, the remedy must then lie in the hands of the 

C 41 ] 

responsible guardians of the boy, and if nothing else avails, 
a reference must be made to the head of the administration. 
This has had to be done before now, and it has invariably 
proved successful. The fault really lies very largely with 
the parents and relations of the boys, who are not careful 
enough to see that they do return punctually. Sometimes, 
moreover, when a boy is undergoing the penalty at college 
for his unpunctuality, and when he has practically accepted 
the position, urgent telegrams and special messengers are 
sent by the relatives, all having the effect of upsetting the 
boy and rendering the task of maintaining discipline still 
harder than it need necessarily be. Needless to say " a firm 
front " has to be presented. The principal is doubtless re- 
garded by the boy concerned as *' a beast," but if only he is 
regarded as " a just beast " he will, in the excellent company 
of the present Archbishop of Canterbury, accept it as u the 
highest compliment " that can be paid him. 

The question of punishments may naturally bring this 
portion of my sketch which deals with discipline to a close. 
In institutions such as ours, individuality is a factor that can- 
not be overlooked in apportioning punishments : the memo- 
randum on discipline drawn up by the committee abundantly 
recognizes this : I quote from this memorandum : u the 
fewer and simpler the rules consistently with efficiency of 
administration the better, and the principal's present code 
of rules is a model of conciseness and simplicity : but the 
fewer and simpler the rules, the greater the necessity for 
insisting on absolute and scrupulous obedience to them, and 
for visiting any breach of rule with really deterrent punish- 
ment. As to the particular punishment to be meted out for 
each offence, it is of course impossible to draw up any hard 
and fast code. This must be left absolutely (except in such 
serious cases as require to be dealt with by higher authorities) 
to the discretion of the principal, and in the exercise of such 
discretion the principal must of course study the indivi- 
duality of each boy." Various forms of punishment, appor- 
tioned according to the idiosyncracy of individuals, are then 
dealt with in the memorandum : among such may be men- 
tioned such punishments as detention in school, including 
impositions and extra lessons ; extra drill or some form of 
compulsory physical exercise : " the great point being to 
inflict on each boy such a punishment as would be least con- 
genial to his nature, and to make each boy in the school 

[ 42 ] 

recognise the principle that breach of rule would be inevitably 
followed by consequences of a distinctly disagreeable nature, 
and that repeated offences would involve cumulative punish- 
ment to an indefinite extent : deprivation of treats may in 
some cases suffice as a sufficient punishment, and should be a 
matter of course whenever a boy is- in serious disgrace." 
Other punishments are then touched upon, such as fining a 
boy's pocket money: " putting into Coventry " is also mentioned 
in the note. As regards this very ancient form of punish- 
ment, it is of course very commonly used in English Public 
Schools, but it is only put in operation there by boys as against 
boys, and the idea of its ever being efficacious as a form of 
punishment to be inflicted by the head would never have 
occurred to me had not the head of the Ajmere college inform- 
ed me that he had found it efficacious, especially in the 
case of what may be called moral offences. Now the Indian 
boy is as a rule very amenable to discipline, and it is a rare 
thing to come across the real mauvais sujet, and when 
such an one is found, one is inclined to treat him on the 
principle of the old Scotch proverb, " He that will gang to 
Cupar, maun gang to Cupar," and let him leave the college, 
but in the interests of the majority, he has to be dealt with, 
and failing expulsion putting such an offender into Coventry 
is as effective a way of dealing with him as any other I know. 

The committee on discipline lean to the opinion that 
perhaps this procedure may be found to be more suitable 
for emphasising the fact that a boy is in serious disgrace 
than as an independent form of punishment. The opinion 
of the committee on corporal punishment is a very sound 
one. I had suggested that in this country there were rea- 
sons why corporal punishment should be put out of court 

The committee hold, however, " corporal punishment 
is not in our opinion a thing to be put out of court quite as 
summarily as the principal would suggest. 

" It is a form of punishment to be very sparingly used 
and to be reserved for really serious cases, and it should only 
be inflicted with the special sanction of the visitors, and in 
the presence of one or more of their number, as well as of 
a medical officer." 

C 43 ] 

As a final resort, expulsion may have to be resorted to, 
and as a matter of fact, since the above memorandum was 
penned, expulsion has had to be resorted to in the case of 
one boy. The procedure adopted was that resolved on by the 
college council : the expulsion was formally carried out in 
the presence of the board of visitors and of the assembled 
boys and staff, the object being to make the boy really 
sensible of the disgrace of his position. * 

Such is the general outline of our system. For all 
serious offences the board of visitors are promptly called 
together, and their decision as promptly given : the decisions 
in each case being recorded in a regular punishment register, 
which is maintained for serious offences. Beyond this no 
register is maintained : all cases are dealt with as they come 
up, and noted in the report and order book. As a matter 
of fact the residence of the principal and the senior mem- 
bers of the staff on the premises, and their constant associa- 
tion with the boys, minimises the necessity for punishments 
very largely, while the character and tone of the boys them- 
selves render the commission of any serious breach of dis- 
cipline a very rare thing. The great point to be insisted on 
in all punishments, if they are to be efficacious, is prompt- 
ness. If the offence committed is one that deserves punish- 
ment, then the punishment must follow closely upon its 
heels with no " halting gait." The one weak point I have 
always thought in any iron code of rules denning the 
offence and regulating the punishment, such as exists in 
the Education Code, is that it sometimes leaves the master 
in a quandary as to whether the offence is one which he 
should deal with himself, or should refer to his school 
committee : he generally ends in referring the matter to 
the school committee. It may be weeks before this com- 
mittee takes cognisance of it : the result of their decision, 
when it is at length given, must be practically nil, so far 
at least as any deterrent effect upon the boy is concerned. 

And now to pass from punishments to more pleasant 
subjects. Before bringing this rather fragmentary sketch to 
a conclusion, I cannot forbear to mention here those who 
have shown interest in the college, and those whom, to use 
the good old term current at Oxford, I may call benefactors 
of the college. 

[ 44 ] 

The present Viceroy, Lord Curzon, is well known for 
the interest he takes in all educational matters, and more 
especially in the education of the nobles of India. We have 
not been privileged to receive an actual visit from him at 
the college, but when he passed through Raipur in Novem- 
ber 1899, intent on the investigation of famine problems, 
he honoured me with an interview at which he expressed 
his deep regret that time had not allowed of his visiting us, 
and expressed the very warmest wishes for the welfare of 
the college and that of its alurnni, and I may as well say 
here that every word he spoke bore the impress of that 
enthusiasm which is perhaps his distinguishing characteris- 
tic, and which he succeeds in imparting to those who have 
had the honour of meeting him personally. He has recently 
very kindly sent his portrait to the college. The records 
of the college are a sufficient proof of the keen interest 
that the Chief Commissioners of the province have always 
taken in it, from Sir John Woodburn, who first opened it, 
to our present Chief Commissioner, Mr. Fraser, who has 
ever taken the keenest interest in the institution, and 
without whose exertions on its behalf in past years it would 
probably never have existed at all : that interest he has 
maintained to the present day. The very careful inspection 
he made a few months back, and the reforms he has since 
then set on foot, are sufficient proof, if proof were wanting, 
of that interest. Of the presidents of the governing body, 
Mr. A. D. Younghusband has been par excellence our 
guide, philosopher, and friend in the truest sense. He 
has been more closely connected with the college than any 
other member of the governing body, and his portrait 
now hangs on our walls as a token of our gratitude ; and 
though he has now left the province, the royal portraits 
that also grace our walls, which are a gift from him, are a 
substantial token of his continued interest in the college. 
I have already mentioned the debt due by the college to 
Mr. Monro, the Director of Public Instruction, in the special 
matter of its discipline : he has also always very generously 
accorded his aid in the selection of the staff. Mr. Sly, for 
some time Political Agent in succession to Mr. Younghus- 
band, was ever a warm friend to the college. He evinced 
his interest in a variety of ways : in organising entertain- 
ments, and in his presentation of a silver medal for athletics. 
His successor, Mr. Womack, has very generously also pro- 
mised a silver medal for the same. 

[ 45 ] 

Amongst other members of the governing body, the 
Raja of Raigarh has ever been a consistent friend of the 
college : he has shown his appreciation of it by sending his 
own young brother to it ; his sympathy, by his periodical 
visits to it, and his attendances at the meetings of the 
college council, and his continued interest in it, by his 
presentation annually of two silver medals, one for proficiency 
in English and one for good conduct. 

Another member of the governing body, in his capacity 
as Executive Engineer of the Chhattisgarh States, Mr. Starky, 
well known also in another capacity as a keen hunter of the 
" mighty boar," has presented two silver medals for proficiency 
in equitation : he wishes the young Chhattisgarh chiefs to 
attain such proficiency in the noble art of horsemanship 
as shall enable them in their own persons to disprove the 
old Horatiaa saying, Pout equitem atra cura sedet, if I may 
be allowed a special translation adapted for the purpose. 
Our best horseman of recent years has been the young Gond 
raja, Azam Shah, who has now left us, and who I under- 
stand wishes to be enrolled in the ranks of the new Imperial 
Cadet Corps. Apropos of this corps, we are to have our own 
cadet corps in the college, and with a view to its formation 
I have already introduced a certain uniformity in dress for 
drill and musketry classes. Our recruits from Chota Nagpur 
have generally proved keen horsemen, but with the great 
majority of our boys horsemanship is not their strong point. 
A reference to the long list of contributors to the original 
endowment fund shows the Raja of Khairagarh to have 
been a princely benefactor, and his sympathy and interest 
have been only recently evinced by his sending us his son 
and other relatives to be educated at the college. And now 
I must add what I consider to be certain requirements of 
the college, and first and foremost I would place an 
increased endowment to allow of a more liberal scale of 
pay for the staff. The pay and status of the principal 
of an institution like a Rajkumar college should not be 
inferior to that of the heads of Government colleges, 
who are on the Imperial establishment. And, moreover, 
the institution should be provided with a headmaster 
who could, on an emergency, act for the principal. So 
far this emergency has only arisen when the question 
of leave has cropped up, which has been only once in nearly 
eight 'years ; but in no country in the world, and certainly 

C 46 ] 

not in India, can health be guaranteed. Under the present 
system no provision is made to meet this emergency. 
A headmaster on superior pay, competent to take the 
principal's place at a moment's notice, is therefore an urgent 
need. Amongst our other requirements I would place next 
the provision of a small and well equipped hospital, with 
quarters for a resident medical officer. A pensioned assistant 
surgeon or a good hospital assistant would meet the case. 
Amongst less pressing requirements, but still a desideratum, 
I would place a billiard table, for which an excellent 
room exists. I hope in time also to be in a position to 
grace the walls of the college with portraits of all past and 
present benefactors of the college. It may seem strange 
that I have said nothing about religious instruction in this 
sketch, but in an undenominational institution like a 
Kajkumar college, I do not see how any special arrange- 
ments can be made to suit all requirements. Certainly 
the college cannot make any. It is a matter entirely for 
the parents and guardians of the boys themselves. 
Whenever boys are required to perform specific religious 
observances, every facility is put in their way to enable 
them to perform them. Casual leave is provided for this 
specific purpose, and where the religious observances are 
such as can be performed while the boys are actually in 
residence at the college, as recent experience has shown is 
very largely the case, the family guru or priest is always 
allowed free access for this specific case. Further than this 
we cannot go. I may instance the case of the Aitcheson 
Chiefs' College, where the private munificence of parents and 
guardians has provided a dharm saia for Sikhs, a temple 
for Hindus, and a mosque for Mussulmans to illustrate the 
great variety of religious opinions that may exist in colleges 
like ours. And now I come to the conclusion of my sketch, 
in which I invite the confidence of the chiefs and zamiadars 
in an institution established for their sole benefit. In 1895 
Sir John Woodburn recorded this note in the visitors' book 
of the college : " It has been a great pleasure to me to pay 
a visit to the school. There has been marked improvement 
since I was here in November, and I am thoroughly satisfied 
with the appearance of the boys and the condition of the 
dormitories and class-rooms. Every chief in Chhattisgarh 
must see the value of this institution for the education of 
the boys of his family, and I hope before my next visit to 
see representatives from every State in the school. The 

[ 47 ] 

committee are at liberty to circulate a copy of these remarks 
to the chiefs concerned." In 1900 the present head of the 
administration, Mr. Fraser, recorded a note to this effect : 
" The improvements which have taken place since 1 saw the 
college when I was visiting Sir John Woodburn are very 
marked ; the accommodation has been greatly improved by the 
construction of excellent quarters for several of the pupils ; 
the appearance of the pupils is most satisfactory a manly, 
well-mannered group of young gentlemen. The college 
should be commended persistently to the chiefs and zamin- 
dars, who cannot do better for their sons than send them 
here." And writing in 1901 a similar note, Mr. Fraser 
remarks : " My examination of the college gave me much 
pleasure in respect of the manliness of the pupils and the 
discipline and tone of the institution." 

Enough has been written to justify confidence on the 
part of the chiefs and zamindars ; and there are now not 
wanting signs that that confidence is increasing. It only 
requires, I think, a personal acquaintance with the inner 
working of the institution, an acquaintance that can best 
be made by a personal visit, to establish the required confi- 
dence. As an illustration of the value of such a personal 
acquaintance I may instance the case of the late feudatory 
chief of Udaipur in Chhota Nagpur. He paid us a long visit 
on one occasion, and thoroughly satisfied himself of the 
working of all the arrangements, teaching and other : he came, 
he saw, and was conquered. He at once made proposals for 
sending some of his nephews to the college, and left in- 
structions behind him that his son and heir should be sent 
to the college. The Raja of Khairagarh has also recently 
visited the college and he has evinced his confidence by 
sending us his son and other relatives. 

In his recent address on the occasion of the conference 
called together by him, of principals of Rajkumar colleges, 
the Viceroy pointed out the directions in which the assistance 
of chiefs and zamindars may be of value. His words are : 
" If the chiefs ask me how they can help, the answer is 
simple. Where they have means let them support or endow 
the colleges. Where they have not means, but have families, 
let them send their boys : let them visit the colleges, attend 
functions, take part in the management, show an interest in 
the entire concern." 

C 48 ] 

The real aim of the Rajkumar colleges i after all for 
the welfare of the chiefs and th*; zamindars themselves. 
What our aims are not are very clearly expressed in a letter 
written some years ago by Sir Antony MacDonnell, to Mr. 
Fraser. Sir Antony MacDonnell clearly says; "We do not 
want our young chiefs and zamindars to be educated out of 
native ways, into a poor copy of second or third rate English 
ways." What the aims of the administration are are also 
very clearly expressed in the prospectus, which I will again 
quote from: 

" The aim of the Chief Commissioner in establishing 
the college is to provide a place where the sons and near 
relatives of feudatory chiefs, zamindars, and large landed 
proprietors, and oth^r native gentlemen of position in the 
Central Provinces, may receive a training that shall fit them 
for the important duties and responsibilities which will 
ultimately devolve upon them. Special attention will be 
devoted to the training of the boys in right and honour- 
able principles of thought and conduct, in gentlemanly 
behaviour and bearing, and in aptitude and proficiency in 
manly sports." Our aims in this college then are practi- 
cally identical with the aims of the great Public Schools 
of England, and what those aims are has never been so 


clearly expressed as by the present Viceroy, Lord Curzon, 
in an address ne delivered to the students of the Aitcheson 
Chiefs' College at Lahore, and which is equally applicable 
to our institution : " The Public School system, as we 
understand it in England, is one which is devised to develop 
simultaneously and in equal measure the mind, the body, 
and the character of the pupil ; we undertake to educate 
our young men at these schools in England for the position 
or profession in life which they are destined to fill. We 
endeavour to train their physical energies so as to give them 
a manly bearing, and to interest them in those games, 
pastimes, and pursuits which will both so much conduce 
to their health and add so greatly to the pleasures of their 
lives, and above all by the ideals which, we set before them, 
by the higher example which we endeavour to inculcate in 
them, and by the attrition of mutual intercourse with each 
other from day^to day we endeavour so to discipline their 
character that they shall be turned not merely into men, 
but into what in England we call gentlemen." 

[ 49 ] 

The records of the college show that these aims have 
been consistently pursued by the college authorities. Our 
aim has been throughout to develop the minds and characters 
of those entrusted to us, and to send out into the world 
educated gentlemen, having not only the outward semblance 
of gentlemen, but the instincts as well. 

The present head of the administration, Mr. Fraser, 
in his note after his inspection of the college in July 1U01, 
has set his seal upon this portion of the work of the college. 
Speaking of the boys at the college, he says : ;t They are 
undoubtedly gentlemen." The college authorities have 
desired and looked for no greater encomium than this for 
their boys ; and it has been a great satisfaction to them 
also to have received, as they have done from some of the 
past alumni of the college, a recognition of the debt they 
owe to the college. 

To make the institution then a still greater success 
it only remains for the chiefs and zamindars to do their 
part in sending their sons and relatives to us to be educated, 
and here I cannot do better than conclude with the words 
of wisdom spoken by Lord Curzon, at the recent conference 
on chiefs' colleges. " Let the chiefs contrast the healthy 
life of the school with the hothouse atmosphere of indul r 
gence and adulation in which in bygone times too many 
of the native aristocracy have been brought up and from 
which it has required real strength of character for a man 
to shake himself free. Let them remember that this 
education is offered to them to render their sons and rela- 
tives better and more useful men, not to stunt their 
liberties, but to invigorate their freedom. Let them 
recollect that it is probably the only education that these 
young men will get in their lives, and that the days are gone 
by for ever when the ignorant and backward can sit in the 
seat of authority. The passionate cry of the 20th century, 
which is re-echoing through the Western world, is that ib 
will not suffer dunces gladly. The prophets of the day are 
all inviting us to be strenuous and efficient. What is good 
for Europe is equally good for Asia, and what is preached 
in .England will not suffer by being practised here." 


Rajkumar colleges are now on their trial. Criticisms 
have recently appeared upon them in the columns of the 
daily Press and in the pages of magazines, and the Viceroy 
has himself criticised them in conference. 

As regards the criticisms of " Civis " in the Press 
there is very little to say : he evidently knows but little of 
the problems really involved, and the very form his criti- 
cisms take shows that he can in no sense be regarded as a 
representative speaking on behalf of the great landed classes 
of India. The case is very different when we come to those 
of the Graekwar of Baroda in the pages of the magazine East 
and West, but even in his case his criticism loses much of 
its value from imperfect acquaintance with the actual work- 
ing of these colleges, and his criticism is practically con- 
fined to suggestions for bringing the Rajkumar colleges 
more into touch with the educational needs of the day. So 
far, and so far only, his criticism, such as it is, is valuable. 

But when we find the Viceroy himself summoning a 
conference of principals of Rajkumar colleges to meet to 
discuss with them the situation, then we are forced to the 
conclusion that criticism on their methods is required, and 
the great value of his criticism is that it is not only destruc- 
tive, but also constructive. Taking it for granted therefore 
that reforms are wanted, and that there have been faults in 
the past, the first question that presents itself is where the 
fault lies. Now I take it there are only four possible alter- 
natives : the fault must either lie with the heads of these 
institutions, or it must lie with the material sent to the 
institutions there to be moulded, or with the methods adopt- 
ed and the system generally, or with the curriculum. 

The conference brings out clearly and a very satisfac- 
tory feature it is that the fault, wherever it lies, does not lie 
with the heads of the colleges; and considering the great 
importance attached by the administration to the selection of 
suitable men, and considering, moreover, the qualifications 
required of such heads, this is not altogether a matter for 

The head of a Raj kumar college in India has perhaps 
more functions to perform in his way than cceteris paribus the 
head of a Public School in England. 

He has to be not only the magister scholce, in which 
capacity he may be a Busby or an Arnold, but he has also to 
be the paterfamilias of his boys. He must therefore be a 
man of character, possessing that all-important factor re- 
quired in dealing with all classes of the aristocracy in this 
country,- personal influence. With these qualifications he 
must also, if he is to have the power of exercising this per- 
sonal influence to the full, be invested, in all matters affecting 
the internal economy of the college, with a perfectly free 
hand. The history of the Raj kumar college at Rajkote, 
under the direction and guidance of its late head, Mr. Ches- 
ter Macnaghten, is, I venture to say, sufficient evidence of 
what can be done when such is the case. And on the other 
hand the records of the Aitcheson Chiefs' College at Lahore 
show what the difficulties of working such an institution ere 
when the opposite is the case. The ces triplex with which 
that institution is encircled does not seem at all times 
to hav'e connoted corresponding strength. To use a 
simile adopted by a recent brilliant exponent of the art 
of war, it may not be the function of the head to set the 
machinery in motion, but it must be his function to regulate 
and control it when it has once been set in motion by the 
higher powers. And again, if I were asked what are the 
special qualities that a man taking up this work as his life^ 
work should possess, for his own peace and comfort, I should 
say an infinite fund of patience and good temper, and 
above all that quality possessed in a pre-eminent degree by a 
former head of one of these colleges, the "saving grace of 
humour." We come next to the material, and how far that 
may be in fault. We may take it for granted that the 
material is not always of the best, especially where boys are 
sent to these colleges often from remote jungles, and with 
minds an absolute blank, and who perhaps represent the first 
of their race to submit themselves to the " tyranny" of the 
schoolmaster. But though the material may be such, and 
though it may be permissible to complain that .' bricks can- 
not be made without straw," still there is no intention of 
finding in the material the fault that is being searched for : 
at the same time I do think that many failures that the 
''finger of scorn" has pointed out as due to residence in these 

[ 52 ] 

Rajkumar colleges, should really be attributed to family 
or domestic reasons necessitating boys leaving the college 
in early youth, with both body and mind immature. And 
after all, when all is said or done in this connection, unless 
the college can have entire control of its alumni through- 
out their whole student period, home influences, and not 
college influences, must be held responsible for what are 
after all but " reversions to an original type." We pass on to 
the system generally, in which we must include the system 
of discipline. No reflection has been passed on this. 

Having now eliminated from our enquiry the heads of 
these colleges, the material sent to the colleges, and the 
system of discipline pursued, we come finally to the curri- 
culum The decree has gone forth that it is here that we are 
to look for the grave defects from which these institutions 
are supposed to be suffering, and that it is here that the 
knife of reform must be applied. The education given in 
the colleges is said not to be of a sufficiently practical 
character, and as not meeting the requirements of the special 
classes sent to them : and herein is further supposed to be 
one cause amongst many of that hostility amongst the 
class who should be their special patrons and supporters 
that has militated against the full success of these colleges 
in past years. 

There have been many causes operating in the past to 
bring about the indifference or actual hostility that has un- 
doubtedly characterised the attitude of many of the chiefs to 
colleges intended entirely for their welfare and benefit, and 
I do not need to add any to those which the Viceroy has 
gauged so nicely in his recent address to the conference. I 
quote from his address : " I am led to think that hostility or 
indifference of the chiefs springs in the main from three 
causes : there is first of all the deeply embedded conservatism 
of the States' traditions that the young chief or noble should 
be brought up and trained among his own people, the 
zenana influence, which is frightened at the idea of an 
emancipated individuality, and the court surroundings, every 
unit of which is conscious of a possible loss of prerogative or 
authority to itself in the future should a young recruit from 
the West appear upon the scene and stir up the sluggish 
Eastern pools : next come the belief that education in chiefs' 
colleges was too costly, and also the doubt whether the chiefs 

[ 53 ] 

were entirely satisfied with the class and quality of the edu-. 
cation provided." It is this latter point that we are now 
engaged on. Personally I am inclined to think that this 
last is the least of the many factors operating ; and that the 
most potent factor is to be found in zenana influence, with its 
fears of an " emancipated individuality." However, it can- 
not be disregarded as a factor, and as such it commands 
serious attention. Undoubtedly there has been in the past 
a great want of uniformity in the curriculum pursued in the 
different Rajkumar colleges ; while one college for instance 
has had its curriculum fixed in a groove for it by the require- 
ments of the Education Code, others have practically adopted 
a curriculum of their own : thus the highest class in the 
Mayo College at Ajmere were not so very far back studying 
such subjects as Shakespeare, astronomy and agriculture, and 
were also being taught to paint in oils ! 

Another weak point has been the vagueness or want of 
clear definition of what was really wanted in the education 
of the scions of Indian aristocracy. All of these colleges 
have had, I take it, the same end in view, and that is, to 
send their alumni out into the world as educated gentlemen ; 
there has been a difference in the methods only whereby this 
end should be attained. Still the term perhaps is vague, and 
the qualifications of the old All Souls fellows have generally 
in the past been accepted as sufficient qualifications for the 
classes sent to these colleges : they have been sent there bene 
nati and bene vestiti, and the colleges have hitherto generally 
considered their function discharged if they send them away 
mediocriter docti. 

This vagueness has now been removed, and a clear 
note struck by the Viceroy as to what the end in view is to 

The alumni of these institutions are to be trained as 
men of business and as gentlemen withal. The Viceroy's 
words will well bear repeating : " If I am to come to you for 
my Imperial cadets, I must have reasonable security that 
you will not give me a callow and backward fledgling, 
but a young man with the capabilities of an officer and 
the instincts, manners, and education of a gentleman. 
Similarly, let us make clear that the thakurs, and jagirdars, 
and zamindars of the future to which class the majority 
of the boys at the Eajkuinar colleges belong, are sent 

away to their future careers with a training in the elements 
of agricultural science, in civil engineering, in land records 
and measurements, and in knowledge of stock and plants 
that will be useful to them. If it is a future ruler that is 
being shaped for the responsibilities of his life, then let 
him be given that all-round education in history, geography, 
mathematics, political economy and political science that 
will save him from degenerating into either a dilettante or a 

The colleges now have no excuse for not knowing what is 
wanted. So much has been gained, but the problem still 
remains unsolved as to how the end in view may best be 
attained. The verj* fact of two classes having to be provided 
for in these colleges shows the complexity of the problems 
still existing : we have to consider side by side with the 
ruling class the larger class of the zamindars. We have to 
provide an all-round education for the former, and a technical 
education for the latter. All this points to the necessity 
of adopting that system recommended by the Educa- 
tion Commission of 1882-1883 for the Government high 
schools and styled " The Bifurcation of Studies." 

These problems are in process of being worked out by 
a small committee appointed by the Viceroy, and possibly 
before this is in print a satisfactory solution will have been 
found, and a suitable curriculum devised to suit all cases. 

Meanwhile I will sketch out what I think would meet 
all the circumstances of the case. The questions practically 
resolve themselves into two ; first, up to what standard in the 
first instance should all the classes in each of the colleges 
be taught; and secondly, when and at what period should the 
necessary bifurcation of studies commence. Looking at 
the whole question, both from the pupils' and from their 
teachers' point of view, I have come to the conclusion that 
the standard to be aimed at in the first instance should be 
the Entrance standard of the university : this would neces- 
sitate each of the colleges being recognised by some univer- 
sity up to that standard. 

This would do away with at least one of the difficulties 
of providing for the education of both ruling chiefs and of 
the zamindars and thakurs : they would all be treated 
alike up to the Entrance standard. 

L 55 ] 

And now comes the question as to when the bifurcation 
of studies should commence. I would postpone this until 
after the Entrance standard had been reached. After this I 
would strongly recommend that a special standard of attain- 
ments, more or less elastic in its character, should be fixed, 
and a special diploma arranged to be given which could be 
adopted by each and all of the colleges : this < would remove 
the individuality that now exists in the studies of each 
college, and introduce an elastic uniformity in place of that 
dull uniformity that would have to prevail were all the col- 
leges bound under the Education Code to the regular higher 
examinations as prescribed by the universities : in other 
words, I would not bind the colleges to follow as a necessary 
thing the university course once the Rubicon of the 
Entrance examination had been successfully negotiated. All 
this of course would be subject to the proviso that special 
arrangements would be made to enable specially bright boys 
to pass on to the higher university examinations, without 
at the same time removing them from the special influences 
of residence in the college. Their case would have to be 
treated as a special case, and supplementary classes would 
have to be opened for them. For the moment then I am not 
considering this class, who will probably be a " microscopic 
minority," I am considering the majority. Thus after the 
Entrance standard had been once attained, the college would 
then proceed to provide an all-round liberal education for its 
ruling chiefs, and a technical education for its zamindars. 

There would be many practical advantages to be gained 
by such a system as this. First and foremost all the boys in 
the college would receive a solid basis of a more or less 
liberal education before proceeding to technique : then, again, 
it might be possible by this time to discover the natural bent 
of a boy's mind, and it would under this system be possible 
to treat him accordingly. There are very many boys for 
instance who have absolutely no head for mathematics and 
for whom a course of logic would be more profitable. Others 
who have a distinct taste for science, and specially for what 
I may call the mechanism of science : under the elastic sys- 
tem I am proposing this class of boy would be specially 
provided for to his own great advantage. To force such 
boys along the beaten path of a university course, as univer- 
sity courses now are, would be to warp for ever any origi- 
nality he ever possessed, and to make him an automaton 
instead of a thinking practical man of the world. 

[ 53 ] 

Another advantage of such a system would be, that it 
would enable the teaching staff to give courses of lectures 
suitable to their pupils' requirements and their own individ- 
ual tastes and acquirements, when lectures would have their 
full educative value, once the bugbear of examination was 
removed from the horizon both of the lecturer and of 
the pupil. Atritic calling himself "Civis" has recently 
suggested that the hours of study at Eajkumar colleges 
should be limited to three : he does not mention what 
should be done with the rest of the time : had he suggested 
that facilities should be given for supplementing the 
regular hours of study with courses of lectures on subjects 
similar to those pointed out by the Viceroy, his criticism 
would have been of more value. 

Such is a fairly workable scheme, and it is a scheme 
that I consider would, on the whole, meet all require- 
ments. But there is yet another problem to be 
considered, which only illustrates the difficulty these 
colleges labour under, and which is undoubtedly one 
cause why perhaps they have not as yet succeeded 
in falling into line, so far at least as examination results are 
concerned, with other and contemporary educational insti- 
tutions. It farther points to the fact, not always recognised 
by irresponsible critics, that only those who have -to work 
these institutions really know the nature of the many prob- 
lems involved. And here I refer to the case of a very large 
class of boys who join our colleges who are utterly incapable, 
and will always remain incapable, of passing any public 
examinations at all. If these boys are to be confined to the 
special university standard, it will practically mean that they 
will receive no special training at all, and for them the college 
will never be anything but a preparatory school, with no 
school for them to look forward to as a finishing school: 
they will, in other words, always be undergoing a course of 
preparation with no good resulting from it. The case of such 
boys must be considered : they exist in large numbers in all 
of our Rajkumar colleges, and their case can only be met by 
the adoption of special methods to meet it. 

This class of boy as a rule is a class that will never 
derive much benefit from an English education pure and 
simple, and in all probability they will, on returning to 
their native wilds, have very little occasion for it : it would 

[ 57 ] 

be the better course to adopt for them an Anglo- Verna- 
cular course of studies : a modicum of English only to be 
required of them, just enough for them to read and write it. 
The time now devoted by them to the laborious study of a 
language which only succeeds after several years in impart- 
ing to them an imperfect aquaintance with colloquial 
English, and practically no fluency in writing and reading 
it, would be far more profitably spent by them in studying 
other and more practically useful subjects through the 
medium of the vernacular. I would not give up the study 
of English altogether with this class, as it would bring about 
too strong a dividing line of demarcation between them and 
these who were studying English, which in a residential 
institution might indirectly affect the morale of the school ; 
but I would have every subject but English taught through 
the vernaculars. There is only one difficulty connected with 
this policy, and that is the provision of suitable vernacular 
text-books dealing with the more advanced subjects that 
would in time have to be introduced into the Vernacular 
course. This difficulty could be obviated by the college 
employing a translator, who would translate the required 
works under the supervision of the head of the college : the 
translation would be made from the best English text-books 
dealing with the respective subjects, whether the subject was 
history or geography, or agricultural science or political 

The only other alternative would be for the college to 
fix a limit of age for the final attempt at passing the Entrance 
examination, or a limit of trials for it : two attempts 
should be the outside number allowed, and 1 6 years of age 
the age limit. 

This was the system I myself adopted with a ward who 
was specially placed under my charge some years ago by the 
Bengal Government, and it answered admirably in his 
particular case ; after the final trial at the Entrance his 
studies followed the bent of his mind, which took especially 
the direction of chemistry. A laboratory was fitted up for him, 
and he was given every facility for its study. Lectures were 
also given him on law, political economy, travel and 
biography, and literature generally, and simultaneously he 
studied the management of a zamindari. 

C 58 ] 

After the final attempt then an all-round education 
should be given, so that at length when the time comes for the 
boy to leave school, he has at least a chance of leaving it with 
mind fairly mature, instead of only " unprepared and still to 
seek." I put the age for this class of boy at which the final 
opportunity for passing the Entrance should be given at 16, 
as in the great majority of cases these boys are removed from 
the college at the age of 1 8 : they have thus two ful'l years for 
useful study of a special character. Of course if there is a 
chance of boys being left at college till their majority at 
21, the age may be and perhaps should be extended to 18. 
With the average boy, as we find them in our colleges, 8 years 
is none too long a period to prepare them for the Entrance 
standard. Indeed the authorities of the Aitcheson Chiefs' 
College at Lahore have found 3 years nearer the mark. Now 
boys as a rule rarely join these colleges before they are 10 
years of age, indeed 12 is nearer the mark : the later then a 
boy joins, the less chance he has of passing the Entrance 
examination until his last year, leaving no time for 
any special studies. Practically this all points to the fact 
that if, as is eminently desirable, a practical course of 
instruction is to be the order of the day with our boys, 
examinations must more and more retire into the 
background, and we practically return to the point 
we started from, that, taking everything into consideration, 
an all-round education is the best education the Eajkumar 
colleges can give, and if they can give this by any closer 
connection with the universities than they now have, by all 
means let them be more closely connected, and be affiliated 
up to the highest standard attainable ; but if, on the other 
hand, they can give it better without this very close connec- 
tion, then let them do so. Their raison d'etre after all is 
not the passing of so many examinations, but, as the Viceroy 
has expressed it in an address I have already quoted from, 
" to develop simultaneously and in equal measure the mind, 
the body, and the character of the pupil. " 

There is further the question of health to be considered. 
It is a factor that cannot be ignored in these days of exami- 
nations. No one who has not had experience of Indian youth 
can possibly realise the strain upon them that preparation for 
an examination entails. Conceal the fact as we may, memory 
is the chief faculty brought into play in this preparation by 
Indian boys, and this means a corresponding waste of physi- 

C 69 ] 

cal energy, and a strain upon the constitution of the boy that 
time only will reveal. The Indian boy is, as a rule, very keen 
on what he calls " a pass, ' ; and will work for many hours at 
a stretch in the hope of obtaining it. It is no uncommon 
thing for boys to read till late into the night and again from 
early dawn ; and the first thing that a boy asks for when he 
has this ordeal before him is that he may be excused from 
physical exercise. Now the boys in our colleges, as a rule, 
belong to a class whose strong point has not hitherto been the 
exercise of brain-power, and it would probably entail serious 
injury to their health were they to be often subjected to this 
ordeal. The conclusion of the whole matter is, therefore, I 
think to reduce their appearance in the public examination 
halls to a minimum. And now to come more particularly to 
our own institution at Raipur. 

We also " have been weighed in the balance and found 
wanting, " and in our case also as with the other Rajkumar 
colleges, it is in the direction of our curriculum that we 
have been found wanting. We are the youngest of all the 
Rajkumar colleges, and it is impossible, therefore, so far for 
a verdict to be passed upon the results of our system either 
in the direction of failure or of success. That time will come 
when we are older, and when we shall be in a better position 
to compare ourselves with older institutions of the same cha- 
racter. But meanwhile I think I have shown abundantly 
in my sketch of what we have attempted to do ; that looking 
at our work from the point of view of education, rather than 
of instruction, that work does not necessarily spell failure. 
However that may be, the necessity for reform in our curric- 
ulum is recognized ; it is to take a more practical Direction 
than it has hitherto taken. The head of the administration, 
Mr. Fraser, ou a long inspection visit which he paid to the 
college in the course of 1901, at once detected the weak 
point in the old curriculum as hitherto pursued. By his 
orders a committee assembled and drew up certain recommend- 
ations, having for their object the introduction of such prac- 
tical subjects into the curriculum as agricultural science, 
surveying, revenue accounts, and other subjects, such as will 
prove of practical utility to the class of boys we are educat- 
ing; and, further, the recognition of the college by the 
Allahabad university up to the Entrance standard, with the 
view of encouraging amongst our pupils a higher standard of 
attainments. These recommendations have since received the 

r eo ] 

full sanction of the Chief Commissioner, and arrangements are 
now in progress for giving effect to them. In this connec- 
tion it is of interest to note that these recommendations 
appear to fall into line with the known wishes of the chiefs 
on the subject, as very similar ideas had been propounded 
earlier in the year by one of the feudatory chiefs themselves. 
They had received the attention of the governing body of 
the college, and this council will again be consulted on the 
best method of bringing the recommendations of the com- 
mittee into effect. An increased staff, it is recognized, will 
be necessary if full effect is to be given to them; and addi- 
tional funds will be required. The whole question indeed is 
very largely one of funds, and it is possible that in the near 
future the college may have to ask for aid from provincial 
funds. Self-help has hitherto been its motto, and this, if 
anything, may be a justification for such an appeal. At 
the same time the chiefs and zamindars and thakurs can- 
not altogether be absolved from the responsibility of providing 
the necessary funds, as, after all, the reforms to be introduced 
are for the ultimate benefit and welfare of their own sons and 
relatives, And now a word in conclusion as to the future of 
the Rajkumar colleges as shadowed forth in the Viceroy's 
address to the conference at Calcutta, 

For one thing they are to be maintained and for another 
their distinctive character is to be retained. Speaking 
generally of Rajkumar colleges, the Viceroy said ; " In the 
first place I would keep firmly to the original object for 
which the chiefs' colleges were founded, namely, as seminaries 
for the aristocratic classes. I would not unduly democratise 
them. In this respect I would not aspire to the ideal of 
the English Public School. The time is not yet. I would 
frankly admit that a Rajkumar college rests, as its name 
implies, upon class distinctions a distinction congenial to 
the East and compatible with the finest fruits of enlighten- 
ment and civilisation. Let us keep them as they are 
intended to be, and not turn them into a composite construc- 
tion that is neither one thing nor the other. Next, let us 
try to make the education business-like and practical, and 
where we have not got them, let us secure the teachers and 
let us adopt the courses that will lead to that result." 
The Viceroy further added that if success could only be 
secured by giving more money, he would do his best to 
provide it. 

But he added, and with these words I propose bringing 
this sketch to a conclusion, he had a corresponding claim 
to make upon the chiefs : " I have," he said, " a right to ask 
them for their support, not merely in funds, for many have 
given and continue to give handsomely in that respect, but 
in personal sympathy and direct patronage. If chiefs' 
colleges are to be kept going, and to be reformed in their 
interests, they must deserve the boon. They must abandon 
their attitude of suspicion and hanging back. I am ready to 
do anything within reason to attract their confidence to the 
colleges, and it will not be fair upon me if they accept all 
these endeavours and then continue to sit apart and look 
askance. Let them contrast the healthy life of the school 
with the hothouse atmosphere of indulgence and adulation 
in which in bygone times too many of the native aristocracy 
have been brought up, and from which it has required real 
strength of character for a man to shake himself free. Let 
them remember that this education is offered to them to 
render their sons and relatives better and more useful men, 
not to stunt their liberties, but to invigorate their freedom. 
If the chiefs ask me how they can help, the answer is simple. 
Where they have means, let them support or endow the 
colleges. Where they have not means, but have families, let 
them send their boys, let them visit the colleges, attend 
functions, take part in the management, show an interest in 
the en.tire concern. If this is the spirit in which they will 
meet me, I venture to think that we can soon make up the 
lost lee-way, and that Government and the native aristocracy 
in combination for neither can do it apart will be able to 
convert the Rajkumar colleges of India into something more 
worthy of the name." 

Pioneer Tress, No. 541. -23-4-02. 50. 


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