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Full text of "The Rajputana gazetteer, Volume 2"

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THE 



RAJPUTANA GAZETTEER 



*n n^ 



VOLUME II. 



CALCUTTA : 

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OP GOVEBNMENT PRINTING. 

1879. 



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T'v^*^ K^HO'S' 






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/;^ 



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CONTENTS. 



AJME&MEBWABA. 



General Description 
The Arrali Bange 
The Watershed 



Bivers and Streams 
Water-snpply for irrigaijion 
Old Tank-emhankments 
Natural Beserroirs 

Cojomnnications— 
Boads 
Tel^raphs 
Post Offices 

Minerab 

Stone-prddacts 

lame 

Boad-metal 

Forests 

Wild Animals and Game 

Snh-diyisions 

History of Ajmer 

History of Merwara 

Land-Tennres 

Sales and Mortgages 

Non-proprietary Cultivators 

Population and Castes- 
Population and Castes 
Land-owning Castes 
Merwara Clans 
Social and religions cuitoms 
Beligions tendency 

The Land- 
Agriculture 
Bevenne Statistics 

Trade- 
Trades and Manufactures 

Towns- 
Chief town^ Ajmer 
Be&war 
Kekri 
Pnshkar 
Other Towns 







Page. 


• «• 


»•• 


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1 


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n 

Page. 
Education — 

Education .., ... ,., ... ... 71 

Literature and the Press ... ..* ... ... ... 74k 

Mayo College »»* ... ... ... ... ib. 

Dispensaries ... ... ... ,.. ,.. 75 

Poorliouses ... ••. ... ••• ... 76 

Administration — 

Ciril and Criminal ... ... ... ... ... ih. 

Police ... ... ... ... ... 78 

Jail Statistics ... ... ... .,, ... 79 

Military ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Meteorological ... ... ... .„ ,., 85 

Climate ... ... ... ,., ,„ 87 

Birth and Death Bate ,.« ... ... .«• ••■ 88 

Endemic Diseases ... ... ... ,., ,.. *b. 

Other Diseases •.• ... ... ,., ,.. ib» 

Medicine ... ... ... ... ...*Ill89 

Betrospect of British Administration and the Famine of 1869 .„ ^,. ib. 
Famine- 
Famine of 1888-69 ,M M. ... ... ... 108 

Present condition of the people ... ... ... ... ,., 113 

Ajpjpendix A ... ,.• ... ... ... 119 

fi Jj •.« •«. «*« ... i.( l^SU 

ft G ... •«. ... ... ... Iax 

n J-) ... .M ... ... .•» 122 

M •£' ... .«* ... •*• ... 123 



JAIPUR. 



Geography- 
Boundaries and Area' 
General Topography 
Sub-surface Water 
Soils 
Geplogy 
Precious Stones 
Eivers 
Lakes 

Climate and Bain&ll 

Drouglitt 

Forests 



History ... 

Form of Goremment 

Principal Feudatories and Th&kurs 



... 


r.. 


-t«* 


126 


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ThQLand— 

Land-Tennres ,.« ..« .1. •«• ... 140 

Distribution of the Land ••• ... ... ••. ..« 142 

Cultivated Area ... - ... ... ... .,, t5« 

Land-Eevenue ... ... ... ... ,.. ib. 

Agriculture ' ... ..« ... .., ... 143 

Cost of Production ... ... ... , ... ,., ib. 

Cultivation ... ... ... ... ... 144 

Irrigation ... ... ... ... «.« ib» 

Population — 

Population ... ... ... ... ... 145 

Castes, Clans, and Tribes ... ... ... ... ... 146 

Eeligion ... ... ... ... ... 147 

State of Society ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Trade — 

Manufactures ... ... ... ... ... 148 

Commerce ... ... ... ... ... 149 

Administration- 
Judicial System ... ... ... ... ... 150 

Jails ... ... ... ... ... ih. 

Police ••• ... ... ... ... 151 

Army ... ... ... ... ... ib* 

Mint ... ... ... ... ... ib^ 

Post Offices ... ... ... ... ... 152 

Telegraph Offices ... ... ... ... ... t6« 

Education ••• ... ... ... ... ib* 

Communications ••« ... ... ... ... 153 

Trade Routes ... ... ... ... ... 154 

Towns — 

Principal Towns ... ... ... ... ... f6. 

Fairs ... ... ... ... ... 160 

Holy-places and Antiquities ... ... ... ... ... tft, 

Apjpendix A ... ... ... ... ... 163 

» B 164 

Q ... ... ... ... ... 165 

M 2) ,.. . ... ... «.t ... 166 



JESALMEa. 

€kograpby— 

Boundaries and Area ... ... ... ... ... ^7 

Configuration ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Scarcity of Water ... ... ... ... ... 169 

Soils ... ... ... ... ... ib, 

Bivers and Lakes ... ... ... ... . . . t5. 

Climate and Bainf^ ... ... ... ... ... 170 



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• Page. 

History ... ... ... ... ... 170 

Account of Bulbg Family and dominant Classesi and form of Qovemment ... 172 

Mannfactores ,•• ... ... .•• ... 173 

The Land- 
Principal Crops ,,. M. ..I ... ... ib* 

Agriculture ... ... ... ... ... ih. 

Irrigation ••» ... i.. ... ... ib, 

Land-Bevenue ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Land-Tenures ' ... ... ... ... ... 174 

Population — 

Proprietary and Cultivating Classes ... ... ... ... 175 

Population ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Castes, Clans, and Tribes ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Religion ... ... ... ... ...^ 176 

State of Society ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Occupations ... ... ... ... ... 177 

Administration — 

Judicial System ... •,. ... ... ... ib. 

Jails ^ ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Police ... ... ... ... ... 178 

Education ..'. ... «,, ... ... ib. 

Communications ... ,,, ... ... ... ih. 

Towns — 

Principal Towns ... ... ... ... ... 180 

Fairs and Holy-places ... ... ... ... „. ib. 

Antiquities and Bemarkable Places ... ... ... ... 181 





JHALAWAR. 






Geography— 










Boxmdaries and Area 


... 


... 


*#.■ 


... 


Geology 


•.« 


... 


• •t 


... 


Configuration 


t.c 


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Soil 


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Bivers 


t.t 


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Climate and Bainfall 


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History 


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Form of Government 


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Account of Euling Family 


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The Land- 










Principal Crops 


... 


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Cost of Production 


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185 

ib. 

186 

187 

ib, 

ib, 

188 

190 

191 

194 
ib. 



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Page. 



Agriculture 


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Irrigation 


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Cultiyated Area 


... 


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• •• 


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195 


System of Tenures and Land-Bevennes 


• •• 


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Coltiyating Classes 


«.. 


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... 


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199 


Population — 














Population 


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Castes, Clans, and Tribes 


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Beligion 


... 


... 


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... 


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203 


State of Society 


••• 


... 


... 


... 


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ib. 


Occupation 


... 


... 


• •• 


... 


• •• 


ib. 


Education 


... 


... 


• •• 


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ib. 


Administration — 














Admimstrative Sub^visions 


... 


... 


• »• 


• *• 


• «• 


204 


Judicial System 


**• 


• .* 


• •• 


• *. 


••• 


ib. 


■ Police 


... 


... 


... 


• .. 


... 


205 


Jails 


... 


... 


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• •• 


... 


ib. 


Communications 


».« 


... 


• .• 


... 


... 


206 


Towns- 














Principal Towns and Parganas 


.1. 


... 


... 


• •• 


• •• 


ib. 


Parganas 


••* 


... 


... 


... 


... 


212 


Fairs and Holy-places 


... 


... 


... 


• •• 


• .. 


219 


Antiquities and Bemarkable Places 


... 


... 


... 


• *f 


220 




JODHPUB. 










Geography- 














Boundaries and Area 


... 


... 


• .• 


• .. 


• •* 


222 


Configuration 


... 


... 


... 


... 


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ib. 


Soils 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


»*.. 


Geology 


... 


... 


... 


... 


• *• 


ib. 


Salt-sources 


... 


... 


... 


... 


• .. 


224 


Bivers and Lakes 


... 


... 


• •• 


• .. 


• •« 


226 


Climate and Bainfall 


• .« 


!•• 


i.a 


• •• 


• f« 


228 


History 


• •• 


• «« 


• !• 


t.« 


• *i 


230 


Form of Government 


• •• 


«•• 


• •• 


tr« 


t«« 


236 


Administrative Sub-divisions 


• •« 


• •• 


M« 


• tt 


• •• 


237 


The Land— 














Principal Crops 


!•« 


• •• 


#•• 


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Agriculture 


!•« 


••' 


• •« 


ttt 


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238 


Lrigation 


• •• 


• •« 


!■• 


•tt 


• •t 


ib. 


Land-Bevenue 


*** 


• «• 


• tt 


ttt 


• tt 


239 


Land-Tenures 


• •« 


• •• 


ttt 


ttt 


•tt 


240 


Proprietary and Cultivating Classes 


• •• 


• •« 


• tt 


• •• 


243 



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Page. 
Population— 

Population ... ,., ... ... ,,, 244 

Castes, Clans, and Tribes ... ... ... ... „. ih, 

Religion ... ,., ... ... ,„ 245 

State of Society ... ... ... .., „. ib. 

Darbar Ceremonies ... ... ... ,.. .,. 246 

Ceremony of Installation to the ^adi of Marwar ... ... ,,. 247 

Customs of marriage and inheritance ... ... ... ... 251 

Occupations ... ... ... ... ... 252 

Trade- 
Manufactures and Trade ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Administration — 

Judicial System ... ... ... ... ... 253 

Jails ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Police ... ... ... ... ... 254 

Education ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Communications ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Towns — 

Principal Towns ... ... ... ... ... 257 

Fairs and Holy-places ... ... ... ... ... 258 

Antiquities and Bemarkable Places ... ... ... ... 259 

Famine — 

Famine of 1868-69 ... ... ... ... ... 264 



mallAni. 

History ... ... ... ... ... 265 

Geography — 

General Topography ... ... ... ... ... 268 

Configuration ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Rivers ... ... ... ... ... 269 

Jhfis or Lakes ... ... ... ... ... 270 

Mountains or Hill-countries, and Minerals ... ... ... ,,, ib. 

Forests ... ... ... ... ... 272 

Grasses ... ... ... ... ... ib. 

Wild Animals ... ... ... ... ... ib, 

Conmiunications ... ... ... ,., ,,. ib. 

Climate' ... ... ... ... ... 274 

Droughts, Floods, and BLghts ..« m« ..t •.« •*. «*. 
Population — 

Population ,.• ... ..* ... ... 275 

Caste, Sects, and Races ... ... ... ... ... ih. 

Religion ... ... ... ... ... 282 

Sodal Customs and Usages ... ... ... ... ... 283 

State ol Society ,., »., ... ... ... ib. 



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vu 

Pag©. 



••• 
••• 



••• 



The Land- 
Principal Crops • •. .M ... 
Agricultnre ... ... ••• 

Agricultural Tenares • • • • • . ttt ... 

Rent-rates •#. ••• ... ».. 
Mode of collecting reyenne and agricnltoral statistics 

Famine •.« ••« ••« ».« 

Trade- 
Commerce and Manufactures •.• •., ••. ••• 
f airs ••« ... ••• •«. 

TheDarMr ... ... ... ... 

Aristocracy ... ... ••• ,,, 

Tenure by whicli the Jagirdirs of Mall&ni hold their Estates ... ... 

Official Classes or Civil Establishment ••• ,•• ..« 

Police ,„ M. 

Towns and Villages ... ... 



••« ••• 



... 


284 


• •t 


ib. 


... 


28S 


• *# 


ib. 


tt« 


286 


t«« 


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289 


• .• 


290 


■ •• 


ib. 


• *• 


a. 


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291 


• «• 


293 


».< 


ib. 


••« 


ib. 



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AJMER-MERWARA: 



COMPILED MAINLY BY 



J. DiGGES La TOTJCHE, Esq., C.S. 



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GAZETTEER OF AJMER-MERWARA.' 



General Description. — ^Ajmer-Merwara is a district of British 
Boundaries India suiTOunded by the Native States in 

oim nes. RdjptitAna. Ajmer is bounded on the 

north by Kishangarh and Marwar, on the south by Merwara 
and Mewar, on the east by Kishangarh and Jaipur, and on the 
west by Marwar. It lies between north latitude 26* 41' 0" and 
25' 4r 0", and east longitude 75' 27' 0' and 74' 17' O"'; and contains, 
according to the topographical survey, an area of 2,069'816 
square nules. Its population, according to the census of 1876, is 
309,914 souls. 

The tract called Merwara is bounded on the north by 
Marwar and Ajmer, on the south by Mewar, on the east by Ajmer 
and Mewar, and on the west by Marwar. It lies between north 
latitude 26' 11' 0" and 25' 23' 30^ and east longitude 73' 47' 30" 
and 74' 30' 0". It contains a population of 86,417, with an area, 
according to the topographical survey, of 640*864 square miles. 

The united district contains an area of 2,710*680 square miles, 
with a population of 396,331, or 146* 2 to the square mile. 

The two tracts were originally distinct districts, and each 
possesses a history of its own. They were united under one 
oflBicer in A.D. 1842, and till 1877 formed the charge of the 
Deputy Conmiissioner of Ajmer and Merwara. In 1871 a 
separate Commissioner was appointed to reside in Ajmer; and 
in 1877 the revenue, magisterial, and civil jurisdictions were 
again broken up into the two divisions of Ajmer and Mer- 
wara, each under an Assistant Commissioner — the Commis- 
sioner being the head of the whole. One Assistant Commis- 
sioner resides at Ajmer, and the other at Bedwar, which place 
is also called Nayanagar ; it is the only town in Merwara. The 

* The basis of tliis Gazetteer is the report on the settlement of Ajmer-Merwarafor 1874, much 
of which has been bodily transferred to the Gazetteer. Other sources whence information has been 
derived are Colonel Hall's "Sketch of Merwara/' 1834; Colonel Dixon's "Sketch of Merwara," 1848; 
and Colonel Dixon's report on the settlement of Ajmer-Merwara, 1850. The principal authority 
for the article on history is Colonel Tod's Rajasthan. Colonel Briggs' Ferishta, and Sir H*. Elliott's 
Musalmdn Historians, have also been consulted. Mr. W. W. Culcheth, Executive Eng^eer, fur- 
nished a note on the stone-products of the district ; and Mr. Moir, Assistant Conservator, one on the 
forests. The articles on education and administration have been compiled from the Commissioner's 
administration report for 1872. Captain Loch, Officiating Commandant, wrote a note on the 
Merwara Battalion ; and Dr. Murray, Civil Surgeon, supplieid information relating to the medical 
aspect of the district. 



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t 2 ) 

sadr station of Merwara takes its name from that of the pargana in 
which it is situated, and is known as Bedwar. The head-quarters 
of the Commissioner are at Ajmer, .from which place Bedwar 
is 33 miles distant. The united district forms also a Chief Com- 
missionership under the Foreign Department of the Government 
•of India, the Chief Commissioner being the Agent to the Gover- 
nor-General for RdjpTit&na, whose, head-quarters are at Abti. 
The controlling authority is vested in a Commissioner with the 
powers of a Sessions Judge, and under whose direct management 
•are placed the police, registration, Jails, and education of the 
province — ^depatrtments which in larger administrations are kept 
distinct. 

The Arvali Range. — ^The Sanskrit word " meru,'* a hill, is a 
component part of the names of both districts, and the dktin- 
iguishing feature of the country is the Arvaii range, the "strong 
barrier " which divides the plains of Marwar from the high table- 
land of Mewarv The range, which commences at the " ridge " at 
Delhi, crops out in considerable size near the town of Ajmer, 
where it appears in a parallel succession of hills, the highest 
being that on which the fort of Taragarh is bmlt immediately 
above the city, and which is 2,855 feet above the level of the 
:sea, and between 1,300 and 1,400 feet above the Ajmer valley. 
The *' Ndgpahdr,^* or Serpent Hill, three nailes west of Ajmer 
t^ity, is nearly as high. About ten nodles from Ajmer the hills 
disappear for a short distance, but, in the neighbourhood of Bedwar, 
form a compact double range by which the pargana of Bedwar is 
•enclosed. The two ranges approach each other at Jow^ja, fourteen 
miles «outh of Be^war, and finally meet at Kiikrd in the north 
-of the Todgarh tahsil, from which village there is a succession of 
hills and valleys to the furthest extremity of the Merwara district. 
The range on the Marwar side gradually becomes bolder and more 
precipitous tlQ it finally meets the Vindhya mountains near the 
isolated mount of Abil 

The Watershed.— The highest point in the plains of Hindustan 
is probably the plateau on which stands the town of Ajmer; and 
from the hills which bound the Ajmer valley, the country slopes 
to all points of the compass. The range of hills between Ajmer 
and Nasirabdd marks the watershed of the continent of India. 
The rain which falls on the one side finds its way by the Chambal 
into the Bay of Bengal ; that which falls on the other side is 
discharged by the Ltini into the Gulf of Kach. Further south 
the watershed is still more clearly marked, and* is the Mgh wall 
of rock which separates Marwar from Merwara. The portion of 
Ajmer east of the range which connects Srmagar with Rajgarh, 
including the pargana of Rdmsar and the estates of the talukdars 



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( s ) 

generally, is ai^ open country, with a dope to the east, and brokers 
only by gentle undulations. West of the NAgpahdr the pargana 
of Pushkar stands quite apart from the rest of the district, and 
is a sea of sand. 

Fosses. — ^Merwara is a narrow strip about seventy miles long, 
and with a varying breadth of from fifteen miles to one mile. 
There are no important moimtains ; the highest hilL* are to be 
met with about Todgarh, where the peaks attain an elevation of 
2,855 feet above the level of the sea. The average level of the 
valleys fe about 1,800 feet. In Lower Jierwara, corresponding 
with the tahsil of Bedwar, there are three well-known passes. The 
Barr pass on the west is a portion of the imperial road from Agra 
to Ahmadabdd, is metalled throughout, and kept up by imperial 
funds. On the eastern side are the Pakharia and Shahpura 
ghdts — the first leading ta Masuda, the second to Mewar — and 
both are imder the district committee. In Tipper Merwara^ 
or the Todgarh tahsil, there are the Kachbali, Rpli, umddbArf, and 
Dawer passes, leading from Merwara into Marwar. These are 
mere mountain-tracks through which the salt of Pachbadra and 
the grain of Mewar is carried with diflBculty on banjdrd bullocks. 
There aro no passes deserving of the namein Ajmer ; the road ta 
Pushkar, six miles east of Ajmer, passes through a dip in the 
Ndgpah^r range, and is metalled throughout from local funds. 

Rivers and Streams. — As a necessity of its position on the 
watershed of the continent, the district is devoid of any 
firtream which can be dignified with the name of a river. 
The Bands river, which takes its rise in the Arvali, about 
forty nailes north-west of Udaipur, touches the south-eastern 
frontier without entering the district, and affects only the istimrdr 
pargana of Sdwar. This river during the rains is iinfordable for 
many days, and as there are no ferries, travellers from Kotah and 
DeoU only cross into the Ajmer district by means of floats 
extemporised for the occasion. Besides the Bands there are four 
streams — ^the Khari Nadi, the Ddi Nadi, the Sdgarmati, and the 
Sarasvati. These are mere rivulets in the hot wesU;her, over whidi 
the foot-passenger walks unheeding, but become torrents in the 
rains: neither they nor the Bands are used for the transport of 
produce. The Khari Nadi takes its rise in the State of Udaipur, 
and, after forming the boundary between Mewar and Ajmer, falls 
into the Bands at the northern extremity of the Sdwar pargana. 
The Ddi Nadi is anrested in the early part of its course by the Nedran 
embankment, '^ence it flows by Sarwdr (belonging to Kishan- 
garh) and Baghera, and, eventually, also empties itseK into the 
Bands. The Sdgarmati rises in the Andsdgar lake at Ajmer, 
and, after flowing through and fertilizing the Ajmer valley, takes 



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( 4 ) 

a sweep northwards by Bhaonta and PisAngan to Gobindgarh. 
Here, it meets with the Sarasvati, which carries the drainage of the 
Pushkar valley ; and the united stream, from this point tUl it falls 
into the Runn of Kach, is designated the Ltini or Saltl river ; 
and it is on this stream that Marwar chiefly depends for what 
fertility it has. The aflluents of these streams are many, and 
there are some independent streams running northwards into the 
Sambhar lake, but none of them have obtained a name, and they 
are mere drainage-channels running only in the rainy season. 

Water-supply for irrigation. — ^There is no permanent supply 
in the wells of the districts ; they all depend upon the rainfall. In 
the Ajmer district, where the beds of the nalaa are sandy, a sufficient 
amount of water is absorbed during the rains to supply the wells on 
either bank ; but wells can only profitably be made within a short 
distance from the stream, and beyond that stretches unirrigatedland 
to the base of the hills on either side. In Merwara, where the beds 
of the drainage-channels are rocky and the slope of the country 
greater, the rainfall, if unarrested, rapidly flows off into Marwar 
and Mewar, and benefits the country but little, as the soil is shallow 
and unretentive of moisture. The configuration of the districts, 
with a more or less rapid slope from the 'watershed, rendered it 
imperative to provide for the retention of the rainfall by artificial 
means ; while the undulations of the ground, and the gorges 
through which the hill-streams had worn a passage, rendered it 
practicable to retain the rainfall by a system of embankments. 

Old Tank-embankments. — ^The idea of such embankments was 
one which early presented itself to the minds of those conversant 
with the district. The Bisalya tank was made by Bisaldeo 
Chohdn about the year 1050 A.D. ; his grandson, And, con- 
structed the Andsdgar; and the tank at Kdmsar was built by 
Bdmdeo Pramar. In Merwara, the large tanks of Dilwara, 
Kffinjar, Jowdja, and old BalAd, date from long before British rule. 
They are wide earthen embankments, generally faced on both 
sides with flat stones laid horizontally, and closing gorges in the 
hiUs. With ordinary care they will last as long as the hills 
which they imite, and their construction furnishes a substantial 
proof that before British rule the principles of subordination and 
co-operation were not unknown in Merwara. 

The tank-embankments of the district at present number 
^ . ,. ^ ,^ , 419, of which 168 are in Aimer, 183 in the 

Descnption of these works. -r\ / j_i»i i/»o«Jimi -i 

Beawar tahsil, and 68 m the Todgarh 
tahsil. They have been often described ; and Colonel Dixon, in his 
*^ Sketch of Merwara," chapter XII et seq.^ has given a very full 
account of them. The best site for an embankment is a narrow 
gorge where, by uniting the hills on each side, the drainage of the 



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( 5 ) 

valley above can be stopped and the water thrown back to form a 
lake which will irrigate direct by a sluice, and feed the wells below 
by percolation. Such sites are, however, very limited in number, 
and nearly all of them have been already utilized, though in 
many cases the embankment is capable of much improvement. 
In the open parts of the district, where Colonel Dixon made a 
large number of tanks, the embankments run a considerable 
distance from one rising ground to the other; some are nearly 
two miles in length. The centre portion of the dam arrests the 
flow of a drainage-channel, and the water spreads on each side to 
the rising ground. Every tank is provided with an escape to 
prevent the water topping the embankment during floods. These 
tanks are generally very shallow, and seldom have any water in 
them after the autumn harvest has been irrigated. Colonel Dixon 
attempted at first to form earthen embankments, but the soil is so 
devoid of tenacity that the plan was early abandoned. There are 
three kinds of embankments in the district : — ^First, a waU of dry 
stone backed by an earthen embankment and faced with a coating 
of mortar, — there is generally a dry stone retaining. waU in these 
embankments : secondly, a masonry wall backed with earth, the 
masonry and embankment being of greater or less strength in 
proportion to the weight of the watCT to be retained : thirdly, 
a wall of masonry without any embankment. This last is the 
best, and was adopted in the more hilly parts of the district where 
the gorges did not exceed 100 yards in width. Similar to these 
are the small masonry- weirs thrown across a nala in its course 
through the hills, in order to ensure a supply to the wells on 
either bank. 

With the exception of the few tanks constructed before 1818, 
„. , ,, . , ,. and seven tanks built by Colonel Hall in 

History of their construction. -.^ ., • j j i • • j. 

•^ Merwara, the remamder owe their existence 

to the unaided and untiring energy of one man who ruled 
Merwara from 1836 to 1842, and the imited district from 1842 
to 1857, when he died at Bedwar. The name of Colonel Dixon 
will be remembered in Ajmer and Merwara for many generations. 
For years he worked steadily at this single object without help or 
sympathy, and without much encouragement; for, until the works 
were completed, they attracted but little attention, and the district 
was too remote to aUow of the Grovemment of the North-Westem 
Provinces taking at first an intelligent interest in the work. 
With such help as his tahsilddrs and a few trained chaprdsis 
could give. Colonel Dixon constructed aU these works ; and it 
was only in 1853, when the tanks had been completed, that the 
appointment of an uncovenanted European assistant was sanc- 
tioned. Nothing worthy of note was done after Colonel Dixon's 



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( 6 ) 

death till the establishment of the Ajmer Irrigation Division of 
Public Works in the beginning of 1869* The tank which has 
now been constructed at the jdgir village of Bfr is a fine example 
of the best class of tank-embankment. New tanks have also been 
constructed within the last few years at Rajaosi, Ladpura, and 
Makrera in Ajmer, and at Jalia, and a new tank at Baldd in 
Merwara. 

Colonel Dixon was of opinion that the tanks had raised the 
^_ ^ . ^, ^ , water-level of the country ; and there is no 

Effects of the tanks. i i j. j i j i j i j j i • 

doubt that, subsequently to their construc- 
tion, wells were made in many places where the experiment had 
been tried and proved unsuccessful. The opinion of a committee 
assembled in 1874 to discuss the subject of water-revenue 
assessment, was that about half the wells in the district owed 
their supply to filtration from the tanks. Major Lloyd, Deputy 
Commissioner, writing in 1860, was of opinion " that from the 
moisture preserved in the soil, and the great increase of vegetation 
they have helped to create, the reservoirs have been, to some 
extent, instrumental in causing the increased supply of rain which 
has been measured in the last few years." There has been 
another undoubted effect of the reservoirs, and this a deterio- 
rating influence. The soil throughout the pargana of Rdmsar is 
impregnated with salt, and the effect of the pressure of the head 
of water in the tank, and the capillary attraction of the water 
used in irrigation, has been to force up impure salts to the 
surface. Not much land has been rendered entirely unculturable, 
and, if this land gets manure, it yields excellent crops, but without 
manure the land yields a very inferior return. The village of 
Nedran, where is one of Colonel Dixon's largest reservoirs, is 
generally brought forward as an instance of this effect, and here 
it has been found necessary to reduce the assessment twice within 
the last twenty years. 

"Nearly all the tanks are dry by the month of March, and the 
beds of the majority are, cultivated for a spring crop. There 
is hardly any produce from the reservoirs themselves. Water-nuts 
are not grown: fish are caught in the Anasdgar and in the 
Rdmsar and Nedran tanks ; but the people do not eat fish, and 
it is only in the Andsdgar and the sacred lake of Pushkar that 
fi^h permanently exist, while religious prejudice prevents their 
being killed in the latter lake. 

Natural Reservoirs. — ^Besides the artificial reservoirs, there 
are four natural reservoirs in the district, which in less dry 
countries would hardly deserve mention. These are the sacred 
lake of Pushkar, and the lake known as Old Pushkar near the 
former. Both are depressions among sandhills without any 



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( 7 ) 

outlet, but exercise a considerable influence by percolation 
tbrougb the sandhills on the low sandy bottoms in their 
vicinity. In Merwara there are two natural basins, that of 
Sargaon and that of Kardntia, both near Bedwar. A passage 
for the escape of the water of the former has been cut through 
the encircling sandhills, and the bed is now regularly cultivated 
for the spring crop. That of Kardntia lies amongst hills, and is 
of no use for irrigation. 

Communications : Boads. — ^The famine of 1869 gave a great 
stimulus to the construction of metalled roads. Before that, 
the only metalled roads in the district were fourteen miles 
between Ajmei? and Naslrabdd, and seven miles between Ajmer 
and Gangwana on the Agra road. Now, the Agra and Ahmada- 
bdd road is metalled throughout, from the border of Kishangarh 
territory to the border of Marwar. Prom Nasirabdd a metalled 
road extends to the cantonment of Deoli, 66 miles, and another 
in the direction of Nimach and Mhow, partly metalled. Merwara 
was a country without roads before the famine, but it now 
possesses a tolerable road to Todgarh and Dewari, and fair roads 
over the Pakhariawas and Shahpura passes into Masuda and 
Mewar. Except station roads, and roads to Pushkar, six miles, 
and to Srinagar, ten miles, there are no metalled roads under the 
district fund committee. 

The Rdjptitdna Railway runs from Agra to Ajmer, at which 
point there is a branch line to Nasirabdd. The Nimach Railway, 
which is intended to connect the Holkar State Railway, from 
Khandwa to Indor, with Nasirabdd and the Rdjptitdna line by 
way of Nimach, is in course of construction (1878) . The Western 
Rdjpiitdna Railway, intended to connect Agra with Bombay vid 
Ajmer and Ahmadabdd, was in 1878 opened to Bedwar, and in 
progress for a distance of about 200 miles south-westwards. All 
these railways are, or are being, constructed on the metre-gauge. 

Telegraphs. — There are two telegraph stations in the district — 
one at Ajmer and the other at Nasirabdd— besides those at rail- 
way stations. The total number of messages sent from the Ajmer 
office during 1877-78 was 6,290 ; from the Nasirabdd office, 1,466— 
total 7,756. The Ajmer office received 8,165 messages, and that 
of Nasirabdd 1,501 — total 9,666. The telegraph receipts for the 
year 1877-78 were Rs. 12,050, the disbursements Rs. 9,709. 

Post Office. — ^There are four head imperial post-offices in the 
district — ^Ajmer, Nasirabdd, Bedwar, and Deoli; with ten sub 
or branch offices — ^at Mangliawas, Masuda, Pisdngan, Pushkar, 
Srinagar, Taragarh (Ajmer hill-fort), Bhinai, Kekri, Sdwar, 
and Todgarh. On the reorganization in 1870-71, a chief inspec- 
tor of post-offices was sanctioned for Rdjpiitdna, which had 



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( 8 ) 

previously been under the Post-Master-General, North-Westem 
Provinces. The following statement shows the number of covers 
sent for delivery through, and received for despatch from, the 
imperial and district post-offices of Ajmer and Merwara for the 
years 1860-61 to 1877-78. Statistics of the district post are 
not procurable for 1860-61 : — 







BlGBITBD. 




POBIBD. 






Letters. 


Newspapers. 


Parcels. 


Books. 


Letters. 


Newspapers. 


Parcels. 


Books. 




A860.ei 


804,860 


12,130 


3,013 


2,129 


282,290 


6,066 


1,256 


447 




1866-66 


364,8»5 


26,209 


3,753 


3,149 


366.246 


8;864 


1,473 


621 


IicpBMiL Post 


-l 1870-71 


367,996 


31,337 


3,633 


6,698 


672,687 


8,980 


2,374 


2,860 




1 1875-76 


580,684 


61,064 


4,108 


4.472 












U877-78 


690,406 


Qk668 


6,096 


4,992 


... 


... 


,.. 






1-1866-66 


21,636 


879 


238 




23,632 


34 


76 




DifltwcT Post 


J 1870.71 
1l875 7« 


16,368 
30.580 


1,443 
140 


378 
14 


"'26 


17,388 
12,163 


60 
14 


141 
31 


• M 




ll877"78 


16,296 


300 


96 


42 


11,793 


60 


20 


20 



The following abstract shows the number of covers received 
at, and despatched from, the several district ddk post-offices during 
1874-75 and 1875-76 as compared with 1877-78 :— 



Tub. 


BBCBlTBDi 


ReIUBKBD UKDBLITBBABLl. 


POSTBD. 


Letters. 


Newspapers. 


Parcels 

and 
packets. 


Letters. 


Newspapers. 


Parcels 

and 
packets. 


Letters. 


Newspapers. 


Parcels 

and 
packets. 


1874-76 

1875-76 

1877-78 


20,409 
11,104 
16,296 


1,177 
149 
800 


196 
71 
96 


1.978 

662 

1,879 


83 
6 
43 


"'46 


24,361 
12,163 
11,793 


129 
14 
60 


73 
31 
40 



The decrease of 1875-76 was attributable to the conversion of six 
large district post-offices into imperial post-offices during the latter 
part of 1874-75. 

Minerals. — ^The hills abound in mineral wealth, though for 
many years no revenue has been derived from this source. The 
Taragarh hill is rich in lead, and copper and iron mines have 
been worked but did not pay their expenses. The lead mines of 
Taragarh were farmed by the Marathas for Rs. 5,000 a year, the 
custom being for the miners to receive three-fourths of the value 
of the metal as the wages of their labour and to cover their 
expenses in sinking shafts. Mr. Wilder, the first Superintendent 
of Ajmer, took the mines xmder direct management, and they 
produced annually from 10,000 to 12,000 maimds of lead, which 
was sold at Rs. 11 per maund. The Ajmer magazine was the chief 



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( 9 ) 

eilstoni6r, ftnd, dii its ceading to take metal in 1846, the mines were 
elosed. The lead is universally allowed to be purer and of a better 
quality than Euroipean pig-leadi and it is dhiefly owing to the 
tf ant of fueli and df pltoper means of transport, that it has been 
driven from the marketi When landed in Agra, which is the 
nearest mafket, the lead dost Rs. 16 a maund, or Bo. 1-8 more 
than the same quantity df English lead. Perhaps the extension 
df a railway to Ajmer may revive this now extinct industry ; the 
tniner^, who were the people of the Indiifkot, still live in Ajmer, 
but the demand f of the metal, the offspring of the troublous times 
In the beginning of the denturj^, no longer exists. 

An oMcer of the G^logical Survey visited Ajmer for two 
reasons, but as yet no report of the residts of his survey has been 
communicated. The folloA^^ng remarks on the geology of the dis- 
trict are taken from Dr. Irvine^s " General and Medical Topography 
of Ajmer^' (A.D. 1841), pages 68 and 154. The general character 
of the district is of plutonic hypogene formation, and no organic re- 
mains have as ^et been discovered. The hills are schistose for th© 
most part, and m appearance often sermte, and though not volcsmic, 
the jagged ridges often give them that appearance. This serrate 
aspect seems owing to the hardness of the rock composing the 
hUls, the sharp points of wMch have remained iminjured by tho 
attrition of Water. A very hard, dark-grey granite appears to 
underlie the schistose strata throughout the country. The great 
mass of the rocks are of micaceous or homblenoe schist, or of 
compact felspar. The cultivated soil is a natural mixture of one- 
third stiff yellow loam, and two-thirds sand, consisting of disin- 
tegrated mica schist and felspar. Pure silicious sand is rare. No 
superficial portion of the soil is absolutely clayey, nor, excepting 
in the beds of artificial tanks, is any alluvial soil found in tho 
district. In tracts where the euphorWae are most common, 
carbonate of lune is found in lai^ quantities ; and barren as the 
hills and adjacent stonv tracts appear in the hot weather, both 
become covered with a (delicate verdure of grasses and small plants 
during the rains. 

Stone-prodticts. — Good building materials abound throughout 
the district, and stone is largely used for purposes for which wood 
is employed elsewhere in India. Door-frames are often made of 
stone, and the best roofing is formed of slab-stones resting on 
arches or on stone-beams, while thin slabs have lately been used 
as slates. Slab-stones are used for roofing, for flag-stones, and for 
spanning culverts. The best quarries in the vicinity of Ajmer 
are at Sillora (in Kishangarh territory), and at Srinagar, where 
slabs 12 or 14 feet long, by 3 or 4 feet, or even more, in width, can 
be obtained. At the former place, beams 20 feet or upwards in 

B 



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t 10 ) 

length hj 1^ foot in width are procurable. Near Be^war, slabs 
not quite so large, and generally too hard to be dressed with a chisel, 
are quarried at Atitmand. At Kheta Khera, about six miles north* 
east of Beawar, limestone slabs are found which can be dressed. 
Near Todgarh, good slabs have not been found, but beams 10 or 12 
feet long and uneven in thickness are procurable. Good slab- 
stones can be got at Deogarh, about ten miles south-east from 
Todgarh, but the roads are not enough to allow of their being 
carried any considerable distance. 

Suitable clay is not obtainable for bricks ; and bricks are seldom 
used, but, for rubble masonry, stone is everywhere to be met with. 
The best quarries are in the range of hills running from Kishangarh 
between Ajmer and Nasfrabdd, and down to the east side of 
Merwara. The stone here is found in slabs of almost any size, both 
sides perfectly parallel ; and if it is carefully quarried, one smooth 
face can generally be obtained. For ashlar work, limestone, granite, 
and marble of a coarse kind are procurable, while sandstone is 
brought from a distance in Marwar. 

Zime. — ^Lime is burnt from kankar and from limestone ; the 
latter description is preferred by the natives* The limestone 
generally used in the city of Ajmer is a "grey stone obtained near 
the village of Naraili, about six miles from the city. The lime 
burned from this stone is not very pure, but is tenacious, and bears 
a large admixture of sand. At Makhopura, Kalesra^ Kholia, and 
other villages, a pure white limestone is found ; but the stone is 
hard, and difficult to bum. limestone is also found in abundance 
near Bedwar. Kankar is to be met with in all parts of the district, 
but varies considerably in quality as a carbonate of lime. That 
which breaks with a blue fracture, and which, when breathed on, 
causes the moisture to adhere, is considered fit for lime-burning. 
Kankar-lime has higher hydraulic properties than stone-lime, and 
is generally used by the Department of Public Works. No material, 
however, producing good hydraulic lime, has yet been discovered 
in the district. A natural cement called kadi is brought from 
Nagor, eighty miles north-west from Ajmer. It has been examine 
in Calcutta and pronounced to be **a very valuable and hydraulic 
cement " when carefully burnt. It is, however, generally overbumt, 
and disintegrates when exposed to water, and is, consequently, only 
used by the natives for the interior of their buildings. 

Boad -metal. — Materials for road-making are everywhere abun- 
dant. For heavy traffic, broken limestone, the refuse of a slabstone 
quarry, or granite is more suitable and lasting than kankar, which, 
though very generally distributed, is not found in blocks, and 
which, though it makes a smooth, even road, does not stand heavy 
traffic. For district roads, any coarse brittle stone, if not too 



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( 11 ) 

micaceous, or an inferior kind of gravel called harhay may be 
substituted for stone or kankar. Both descriptions of materials are 
to be met with in all parts of the district, are easily dug, and 
answer the purpose very well when the traffic is light. 

Forests. — In former times the hills about Ajmer were probably 
covered with scrub- jungle, and where tiie growth has been unmo- 
lested, as on the west side of the NAgpahdr hill, there are still some 
trees on the hillside. With this exception, however, the Ajmer 
district was denuded of trees long before the commencement of 
British rule, and the Marathas are generally given the credit of the 
denudation. The parts of Merwara adjacent to Ajmer are described 
by Mr. Wilder, an eye-witness in 1819, as an "impenetrable jungle," 
though now, except in the extreme south, where there is no local 
demand, and whence carriage, till recently, was quite impracti- 
cable, Merwara is not much better off in this respect than Ajmer. 
The trees which existed could only have been scrub at the best, and 
the demand of the town of Bedwar, of the cantonment of Nasirabdd, 
and for wood to bum lime for the tank-embankments, added to the 
absence of all attempts at replacing what was destroyed, has left but 
few trees in any accessible part of the district, and wood of all kinds 
is exceedingly scarce and dear. 

The indigenous trees are the bdbtil (acacia arabicaj, nfm 
(azadirachta indicaj^ and khejrd (^rosopis spiciferajy which are 
generally found on the plains and on the low slopes of the hills ; 
dhao (conocavpus latifolia) and kher (acacia catechu) are met with 
on the intermediate slopes ; and salar (boswellia thuriferaj occupies 
the summits. Of these, the bdbiil is the principal tree which fur- 
nishes wood useful for other purposes than fuel. The pipdl and bar 
tree (fictis religiosa BJidficus indicaj are also found, but only in 
favored localities. In place of trees, the hills about Ajmer are covered 
with " tor" bush, or euphorbia, which is cut and dried, and used 
largely for fuel in the city. The indigenous trees will grow easily 
from seed, and, if the rainfall is favorable, planted trees require no 
artificial irrigation. The euphorbia is easily transplanted, and if 
planted in the early spring strikes root at once. It is used for fences 
on the railway and elsewhere, but is with difficulty kept in order. 

The exotic kinds of tree are difficult to rear, and will only grow 
near wells, or after having been artificially irrigated. They are the 
fards (tamarix orientalisj, siris (acacia speciosajy giilar (yictis 
glomerataj yi:simB>nnd(tamarindtis indicaj, m.oh.wSk(bassia latifoliaj^ 
mango (mam,gifera indicaj, jdmtin (eugenia jambolanaj, sisdm 
(dalbergia sissuj, the cork-tree (milling tonia hortensisj, and a few 
others. None of these will grow on the hillsides, and only thrive 
in good soil ; . while the necessity of irrigating the plants when 
young renders theiy nurture expensive Colonel Dixon devoted 



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( 12 ) 

much attentioii to the planting of trees and the gardens of Ajmcr, 
and the nim trees of Bedwar owe their existence to him. After 
his death, however, no attempt was made either to plant in the 
plains, or to re-forest the hills as they rapidly became hare. In 
1871 Government sanctioned the appointment of an Assistant 
Conservator and Sub- Assistant Conservator of Forests, more for 
the purpose of creating, than of conserving, forests. Forest 
operations in Ajmer are not intended as directly profitable specu- 
lations on the part of Government ; their principal aim and object 
is an indirect and climatic advantage, to prevent the rainfall 
rushing down the bare hillsides, carrying away in its course 
what little soil remains, and to cause it to penetrate into the 
crevices of the rocks and fill the springs. The roots of the trees 
and the vegetation will, it is hoped, retain and create soil on the 
steep slopes, while the lowering of the temperature of the hills 
may ultimately have the effect of causing the clouds, which now 
too often pass over the district, to part with their moistute within 
its boundaries. 

Apart, however, from the intrinsic difficulty of re-foresting the 
arid hills, it was not easy to obtain the land. The waste had been 
made over to the vUlage communities by the settlement of 1850, 
and it had of old been made use of by the people for grazing 
purposes, and as a support to fall back upon in years of distress by 
the sale of wood ; and it was naturally the hills where there was 
most wood that the forest officer was most anxious to take up, and 
the people most loth to part with. It was, therefore, determined to 
resume the management of certain chosen tracts, and to take up 
the land under an ordinance of the Governor-General in 
Council. The main provision of the ordinance was the proprie- 
tary right is to vest in Government as long as the land is 
required for forest purposes, the villagers being allowed cer- 
tain privileges as to cutting wood and grass. A total area of 
54,746 acres has been selected — 7,045 acres in Ajmer, 7,516 in 
Beawar, and 40,185 acres in Todgarh. It is intended to exclude 
all goats and cattle, to prevent fires, and to scatter seed broad- 
cast during the rains without going to the expense of artificial 
irrigation. Several nurseries have been established in all parts 
of the district, especially in the Government gardens near Ajmer, 
and land has been taken up and planted in the estates of the 
talukdars under the Court of Wards. There are no fruit-gardens 
except in the suburbs of Ajmer city, and mangoes, though tolerably 
plentiful, are stringy and bad. 

Wild Animals and Qame. — ^There is not much cover for large 
game in the district ; but leopards are foimd in the western hills 
from the Nagpahdr, where they are regularly trapped down to 



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( 13 ) 

Dawer; hyaenas and wolves are rare; tigers are said to stray 
upwards now and then from the souther^ portion of the Arrali, 
but if they do come, they find no cover or water, and go back again. 
Rewards are given for the destruction of wild animals, — ^five rupees 
for a female leopard, and two rupees for male leopards, female 
wolves, and hysBnas. The males of the last two animals are paid 
for at one rupee a head. The total amount expended in 1873 on the 
destruction of wild animals was Ks. 43. No rewards are given 
for snake-killing. The number of deaths from snake-bite recorded 
in 1872 was 30. Wild-pigs are preserved by most of the th4kurs 
who have large estates, for pig-shooting is the favorite amusement 
of Rijpiits, There is also a Tent Club at Nasfrabdd which 
extends its operations beyond British territory, but the pigs like 
the shelter of the hills, and in many places the ground is too rough 
and stony to ride over. Antelope and ravine-deer are in no great 
numbers, and are shy and difficult to approach. Of small game, 
the bustard occasionally finds its way in from Marwar, and florikin 
are met with when the raios have provided cover for them. Qeese, 
duck, and snipe are found about the tanks in the cold weather; 
but good snipe-ground is very Kmited, three or four brace being 
considered a good day's ba^. The small sandgrouse is found in 
abundance; the large sandgrouse is rare. Hares were nearly 
annihilated by the famine, and have not yet recovered their 
numbers- The quail-shooting is tolerable, and the common useless 
grey partridge cries in every direction. 

Sub^divisiom^ — The district of Ajmer in Colonel Dixon*s time 
contained thuee tahsik — AJmer, Edmsar, and Eajgarh — ^which 
were established in order to provide constant supervision of the 
tanks. The Rajgarh tahsil was abolished after Colonel Dixon's 
death, and the Rdmsar tahsil was abandoned on the reorganization 
of the district in 187L Ajmer proper hafi now only one tahsil, at 
head-quarters. The owners of the istimrdr estates, which in area 
are nearly double the khdlsa, pay their revenue direct into the 
sadr treasury without the intervention of a Sub-collector. Merwara 
is divided into two tahsils, that of Bedwar and that of Todgarh. 
A third tahsil, that of Saroth, was, after Colonol Dixon's death, 
amalgamated with Bedwar- Ajmer contains twelve parganas, 
of which AjmOT^ Bidmsar, Eajgarh, and Pushkar are chiefly l^Alsa; 
Kekri as one khdlsa town, and the remaining parganas — Bhinai, 
Masuda, Sdwar, Pisdngan, Kharwd, and Bagherd — ^are held by 
istimirdrdars- The military cantonment of Naslrabdd, with the 
surrounding viQages, forms a civil sub-division, and Kekri has been 
placed under a deputy magisfa'ate residing at Kekri. The tahsil of 
Bedwar contains the parganas of Bedwar, Jak, Chang, and Saroth. 
Bcdwax is British territory ; Jak also is British territory, but belongs 



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( 14 ) 

cliiefly to the Thdkurs of Masuda and Kharwd ; Chang belongs 
to Marwar ; and Saroth belongs to Mewar. The pargana of Beawar 
was at various times sub-divided into four parganas, and their 
names still occasionally crop up and breed confusion. The distant 
villages of Beawar pargana were formed into a separate pargana 
of 33 villages, and annexed to the Saroth tahsil under the name 
of pargana Jowdja. The pargana of Lotana consists of eight 
villages founded by Colonels Hall and Dixon in Mewar waste ; and 
the Barkochran pargana has the same origin and contains nine 
villages. The tahsil of Todgarh contains four parganas, of which 
Bhailan is British territory, Kotkirana belongs to Marwar, and 
Dawer and Todgarh belong to Mewar. At the settlement of 1874 
the land was divided into assessment circles, and statistics have 
been compiled according to circles, and not according to parganas. 
Rutory of Ajmer. — The early history of Ajmer is, as might 
be expected, legendary in its character. 
Legendary history of Aja. ^^^ commcnces with the rulc of the 

Chohdns, the last-bom of the Agni-kulas, and the most valiant 
of the Rajput races. According to tradition, the fort and city of 
Ajmer were founded by Baja Aja, a descendant of Anhal, the 
first Chohan, in the year 145 A.D. Aja at first attempted to 
build a fort on the Ndgpahar, or Serpent Hill ; and the site chosen 
by him is still pointed out. His evil genius, however, destroyed 
in the night the walls erected in the day, and Aja determined 
to build on the hill now known as Taragarh. Here he constructed 
a fort which he called Garh Bitli ; and in the valley known as 
Indurkot he built a town which he called after his own name, 
and which has become famous as Ajmer. This prince is generally 
known by the name of Ajapdl, which Colonel Tod explains was 
derived from the fact that he was a goatherd, *' whose piety in 
supplying one of the saints of Pushkar witli goat's milk procured 
him a territory.'* The name probably suggested the myth, and 
it is more reasonable to suppose that the appellation was given to 
liim when, at the close of his life, he became a hermit, and ended 
his days at the gorge in the hills about ten miles from Ajmer, 
which is still venerated as the temple of Ajapdl. 

With the next name on the Chohdn genealogy we pass into 
the region of history. Dola Bae joined in resisting the Musalmdn 
invaders under Muhammad Kasim, and was slain by them in 
A.D. 685. His successor, Manika Bae, founded Sdmbhar, and 
the Chohdn princes thereafter adopted the title pf Sambri Bao. 
From his reign till 1024 A.D. there is a gap in the annals. In 
that year. Sultan Mahmtid, on his expedition against the temple 
of Somnath, crossed the desert from Multan and presented himself 
before the walls of Ajmer, The reigning prince, Bilumdco, 



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( 15 ) 

Vas totally unprepared for resistance, the country Tras ravaged, 
and the town, which had been abandoned by its inhabitants, was 
plundered. The fort of Taragarh, however, held out, and as 
Mahmiid had no leisure to engage in sieges, he proceeded on his 
destructive course to Guzerdt. Bilumdeo was succeeded by 
BIsaldeo or Vxsaladeva, who is locally remembered by the lako 
which he constructed at Ajmer, still called the Blsalsdgar. 
Bisaldeo was a renowned prince* He captured Delhi from the 
TuArs, and subdued the hill-tribes of Merwara, whom he made 
drawers of water in the streets of Ajmer. At the close of his life he 
is said to have become a Musalmdn, to have resigned his kingdom, 
and to have retired into obscurity at Dhiinddr. His grandson. 
And, constructed the embankment which forms the Andsdgar 
lake, on which Shahjehan subsequently built a range of marble 
pavilions. Someshwar, the third in descent from And, married 
the daughter of Anangpdl, the Tudrking of Delhi, and his son was 
Prithvi Raja, the last of the Chohdns, who was adopted by 
Anangpal, and thus became king of Delhi and Ajmer.* 

It is matter of common history how Prithvi Raja opposed 

Prith • Ra* cii hdn d Shahdb-ud-diu in his invasion of India 

shahkb-ud-din.*'* ^ '^^ *^ jj^ ^jjg ycars 1191 and 1193 A.D., and how 

in the latter year he was utterly defeated 
and put to death in cold blood. Shahdb-ud-din shortly afterwards 
took Ajmer, massacred all the inhabitants who opposed him, and 
reserved the rest for slavery. After this execution he made over 
the country to a relation of Prithvi Raja under an engagement 
for a heavy tribute. In the following year Shahdb-ud-din prose- 
cuted his conquests by the destruction of the Rahtor kingdom of 
Kanouj — an event of considerable importance in the history of 
Ajmer, in that it led to the emigration of the greater part of the 
Rahtor clan from Kanouj to Marwar. 

The new Raja of Ajmer was soon reduced to perplexities by 
a pretender, and Kutb-ud-din Eibak, the 
Kutb-ud-din. founder of the slave dynasty at Delhi, 

marched to his relief. Hemrdj, the pretender, was defeated, and 
Kutb-ud-din, having appointed a governor of his own faith 
to control the Raja, proceeded with his expedition to Guzerdt. 
A few years afterwards, however, the Raja, uniting with the 

* This follows Colonel Tod*s account (volume II, page 416 of the reprint). The subject of 
the Chohan dynasty is, however, very confused, and General Cunningham (Archaeological Reports, 
volume I, page 157) confesses his inability to make any satisfactory arrangement either of the 
names of the princes or of the length of their reigns. General Cunningham fixes the probable 
date of the capture of Delhi by the Chohans in A.D. 1151, and Prithvi Raja was the son of 
Someshwar and the grandson of Visaladeva according to him. According to Colonel Tod, Prithvi 
*Baja was sixth in descent from Visaladeva; and in the genealogical tree in the possession of the 
'.Baja of Nimrana in Alwar, the same number of generations intervene between these two princes. 
General Cunningham is of opinion that two different princes of the same name have been identified 
"^Rs on^ person. — (See Archseological Reports, volume II, page 256.) 



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( 1^1 

Rahtors and Mef^, attempted mdfependeiice. Kufb-ud-din ntetrctedl 
from Delhi in the height of the hot season, and shut up the Raja 
in the fort. Here, ftading no meaisst of escape; he ascended the 
funeral pile as ib related in the Tajul Madsir. Kutb-ud-din them 
marched against the ecmfederated Edjptits and Mers, but wa» 
defeated and wounded, and obliged to retreat to Ajm'er,^ where 
he was besieged by the confederate army. A strong reinforcement 
from Ghaz^m, howerver, caused the enemy to raise the siegi^, and 
Kutb'Ud-din annexed the country to the kingdom of Belhi, and 
made over the cbar^ of the fort of Taragarb to an officer of 
his own^ Sayyid Husain, whose subsequent tragical fate has caused 
him to be enrolled in tiie list of niartyrs, and whose shrine isJ 
still the njost caospicuous object on the bill-fort be was imable 
to defend. On the death of Kutb-ud-din in AJD. 1210, the 
Kahtors joined the Choh&ns and made a ni^t-attack upon the 
fort. The garrison was taken unprepared, and was massacred to 
a man. Their tombs, as well as those of Sayyid Husain and his* 
celebrated horse, naay still be seen on T^Kraga^h in the enclosure^ 
Which bears the name of Gunj Shdhidan, or Treasury of Martyrs. 

Sh-ams-ud-din Altanash, the successor of K^tb-u^din, restored 
the authority of the kings of Delhi, and it 
itoa Eumbho of Mewar. .^^ maintained till the disastrous invasion 
of Tamerlancr By that time a number of independent Muhaimmadan 
kingdoms had been established, of which the chief were Bijapur, 
Golkonda, Quaeriit, and Mai wa. Kana Eoimbho of Mewar profited 
by the relaxation of all authority which ensued upon the sack 
of Delhi, and the extinction of the house of Tughilak, to take posses* 
sion of Ajmer; but, on his assassination, the territory fell into* the 
hands of the kings of Malwa, with whom the Eana had been 
perpetually at variance and for fifteen yean» had waged war. 

The kings of Malwa obtained possession in A.D. 1469, and held 

Ajmer tiU the death of Mahmud II in. 

Kingsof Maiwiw ^j)^ 15^!^ ^^^ the kingdom of Malwa 

was annexed to that of Guzer^. The dome over the shrine of 
Khwaja Mueiyyin-ud-din Ohisti was built by these kings, wha 
jare known in Ajmer by the name of Nawdb. On the ^th of 

Mahmiidll, Maldeo Eahtor, who had just 
MaideoBahtor. ^ succecdcd to the throue of Marwar, took 

possession of Ajmer among other conquests. He improved the 
fortress of Taragarb, and commenced the construction of a liffc 
to raise water to the fort from the Ndr Chashma spring at the 
foot of the hill. The work still stands as solid as on the day 
It was buUt, but the scheme was never carried to completion. 
The Rahtors held Ajmer for twenty-f our years, but the country was 
one of the earliest acquisitions of Akbar^ and from 1556 A,J). 



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( 17 ) 

to the reign of Muhammad Shah, a period of 194 years, Ajmer 
was an integral portion of the Mughal empire. 

In the time of Akbar, Ajmer gave its name to a stibah, which 
included the whole of Rdjpiitdna. The 
Mughal Emperors. distrfct of Ajmer was an appanage of 

the royal residence, which was temporarily fixed there in this and 
subsequent reigns, both as a pleasant retreat and in order to 
maintain the authority of the empire among the surrounding 
chiefs. Akbar made a pilgrimage to the tomb of the saint 
Khwaja Mueiyyin-ud-din OhLsti, and built a fortified palace just 
outside the city. Jehangir and Shahjehan both spent much time 
at the " Dar-ul-khair," and it was at Ajmer that Jehangir received 
Sir Thomas Boe, the ambassador of James I, who reached the city 
on the 23rd December 1615. It was at Ajmer that in A.D. 1659 
Aurangzeb crushed the army of the unfortunate Dara, weakened 
as it was by the defection of Jaswant Singh of Marwar, and forced 
his brother into the flight which was destined to terminate only 
by his imprisonment and death. The celebrated traveller Bemier 
met and accompanied Dara for three days during this flight, and 
has given a graphic description of the miseries and privations of 
the march. Bemier left Dara at one day's journey from Ahmadabad, 
as neither by threats nor entreaties could a single horse or camel 
be procured on which he might cross the desert to Tatta. During 
the war with Mewar and Marwar, which was brought about by 
the bigotry of Aurangzeb, Ajmer was the head-quarters of that 
emperor, who nearly lost his throne here in 1679 by the combination 
of prince Akbar with the enemy. 

On the death of the Sayyids in 1720 A.D., Ajit Singh, son of 
Jaswant Singh of Marwar, found his opportunity in the weakness 
consequent on the decline of the Mughal empire to seize on Ajmer, 
and killed the imperial governor. He coined money in his own 
name, and set up every emblem of sovereign rule. Muhammad 
Shah collected a large army and invested Taragarh. The fort 

held out for four months, when Ajit Singh 

Bahtors of Marwar. agreed to surrender his conquest. Ten 

years later, Abhay Singh, the accomplice in the assassination of 
his own father Ajit Singh, was appointed by Muhammad Shah 
viceroy of Ahmadabdd and Ajmer, and Ajmer became practically 
a portion of Marwar. The parricide Bakht Singh obtained Nagor 
and Jhalor from his brother Abhay Singh. Abhay Singh was 
succeeded by Rd,m Singh, who demanded the surrender of Jhalor 
from his uncle Bakht Singh. The demand and the insolence of 
Bdm Singh culminated in the battle of Mairta, where Ram Singh 
was defeated and forced to fly. He determined on calling in the 
aid of the Marathas, and at Ujain found the camp of Jai Appa 

c 



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( 18 ) 

Sindia, who readily embraced the opportunity of interference. 
Meanwhile the career of Bakht Singh had been terminated by the 
poisoned robe, the gift of the Jaipur Rani ; and Bijay Singh, son of 
Bakht Singh, opposed the Marathas. He was defeated, and fled to 
Nagor, which withstood a year's siege, though meanwhile all the 
country submitted to Ram Singh. At the end of this period, two 
foot-soldiers, a Bdjpiit and an Afghan, offered to sacrifice them- 
selves for the safety of Bijay Singh by the assassination of the 
Maratha leader. The offer was accepted; the assassins, feigning a 
violent quarrel, procured access to Jai Appa, and stabbed him in 
front of his tent. The siege languished for six months more, but 

a compromise was eventually agreed on. 
Marathas. jgjj^^y gj^^j^ Surrendered to the Marathas in 

full sovereignty the fortress and district of Ajmer as mund1cat% 
or compensation for the blood of Jai Appa. The Marathas, on 
their side, abandoned the cause of Rdm Singh. A fixed triennial 
tribute was to be paid to the Marathas by Bijay Singh. The 
tomb of Jai Appa is at Pushkar> and, till 1860, three villages of 
Ajmer were set apart in jdgir for the expenses of the tomb. Rdm 
Singh obtained the Marwar and Jaipur share of the Sambhar 
lake, and resided there until his death. These events occurred 
inl756A.D. 

• Eor thirty-one years the Marathas held undisturbed possession 
of Ajmer, till in 1787, on the invasion of Jaipur by Madaji 
Sindia, the Jaipur Raja.called on the Rahtors for aid against the 
common foe. The call was promptly answered, and at the battle 
of Tonga the Marathas suffered a signal defeat. The Rahtors 
re-took Ajmer, driving out Mirza Anwar Beg, the Maratha 
governor, and annulled their tributary engagements. The success 
was, however, transient; for, in three years' time, the Marathas, led 
by De Boigne, redeemed the disgrace of Tonga by the battle of 
Pdtan, where the Kachhwdhas held aloof and the Rahtors ignomi- 
niously fled. General De Boigne then marched on Ajmer. On 
the 21st August 1791 he arrived imder the walls : the next day the 
town was taken, and the fort was invested. The citadel, however, 
had been provisioned for a year, and was defended by a numerous 
garrison. After seventeen days' operations, De Boigne, converting 
the siege into a blockade, marched with the greater part of his 
troops against the Rdjptits, who had assembled on the plains of 
Mairta. On the 10th September the Rdjpdt army was surprised 
before daybreak ; the unavailing gallantry of the Rahtor cavalry was 
broken against the well-served guns of De Boigne and the hollow 
squares of his disciplined infantry. The Rahtor army was nearly 
annihilated, and by 3 o'clock on the same day the town of Mairta 
was taken by assault. The Rahtors now submitted, and agreed to 



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( 19 ) 

pay tribute. Ajmer reverted to the Marathas, and was held by 
them tai its cession to the British Government in A.D. 1818. 

Singhi DhanrA] was governor of Ajmer during the three 

years it was held by the Rahtors. The 

ern^enr ^"^^ ^"^'^'^ ^''" ^st kuowu of the Maratha Subahddrs 

was Grobind Rao, who appears to have 
been a strong and good governor. By the treaty of the 25th 
June 1818, Daulat Rao Sindia, after the Pinddri war, ceded the 
district of Ajmer, valued in the treaty at Rs. 5,05,484, to the 
British Government ; and, on the 28th July 1818, Mr. Wilder, 
the first Superintendent of Ajmer, received charge of the district 
from Bapti Sindia, the last Maratha Siibahddr. 

The history of Ajmer from 1818 is the history of its adminis- 
tration. The long roll of battles and sieges is closed. The 
district, worn out by the incessant warfare of half a century, at 
length enjoys rest, and the massive battlements of Taragarh begin 

to crumble in a secure peace. The Mutmy 
The Mutiny of 1857. ^f ^857 passcd Kkc a cloud ovcr the 
province. On the 28th May, two regiments of Bengal infantry 
and a battery of Bengal artillery mutinied at NasirabM. The 
European residents, however, were sufficiently protected by a 
regiment of Bombay infantry, and the treasury and magazine at 
Ajmer were adequately guarded by a detachment of the Merwara 
Battalion. There was no interruption of civil government. The 
mutinous regiments marched direct to Delhi, and the agricultural 
classes did not share in the revolt. 

History of Merwara. — ^The history of Merwara before the 
occupation of Ajmer by the British authorities in 1818 is practi- 
cally a blank. Hardly anything is known of the country 
except that it was a difficult hilly tract, inhabited by an inde- 
pendent and plundering race, who cared not for agriculture, and 
who supplied their wants at the expense of the surrounding 
territories. Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur had penetrated no further 
than Jak in an endeavour to subdue the country, and Amir Khdnhad 
failed in an attempt to chastise the plunderers of Jak and Chang. 

Mr. Wilder, the first Superintendent of Ajmer, entered into 
agreements with the villages of Jak, Shdmgarh, Liilua, Kana 
Hiera, and Kheta Khera, the nucleus of what is now Ajmer- 
Merwara, binding them to abstain from plunder. The pledge, 
however, was Kttle respected, or could not really be enforced by 
the headmen, and in March 1819 a force was detached from 
Nasirabdd for the attack of these places. No opposition was 
encountered, the villages were taken one after the other, and all 
levelled to the ground. The inhabitants escaped into the adjacent 
hills, which Mr. Wilder, who accompanied the force, describes as 



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( 20 ) 

an " impenetrable jungle.'' Strong police-posts were stationed at 
Jak, Shdmgarh, and LMua. 

In November 1820 a general insurrection broke out. The 
police-posts were cut off, and the men 
Conquest of the country. composiug them wcrc killed. The thorough 
subjugation of the country was then determined on. A force 
stronger than the former retook Jak, Liilua, and Shdmgarh, and 
after some correspondence with the Governments of Udaipur and 
Jodhpur, and promised co-operation on their part, the force 
advanced into Mewar and Marwar-Merwara to punish the refugees 
of Jak, Liilua, and Shdmgarh, and the men who had given them 
an asylum. 

Borwa was the first village of which possession was taken, and 
the attack was then directed against Hat^m, where, however, a 
repulse was sustained with a loss of 3 killed and 23 wounded. 
In the night, however, the garrison evacuated the fort. The 
troops then marched to Bardr, which after some show of fighting 
fell into their hands. The capture of Mandlan and Barsawara 
followed, and a strong detachment was then sent against Kot- 
kirana and Bagri in Marwar-Merwara. These were taken 
possession of and made over to Jodhpur ; and the reverses of the 
Mers reached their culminating point in the capture of Rdmgarh, 
whither most of the chief men had retreated. These were nearly 
all killed or wounded or taken prisoners, and the remaining strong- 
holds submitted in rapid succession. A detachment of cavalry 
and infantry was left at Jak, and the main body withdrew at the 
close of January 1821, the campaign having lasted three months. 
Captain Tod, in the name of the Rana, undertook the adminis- 
tration of the portion belonging to Mewar. 
ist^r"'"''^' ^'' *^' '^^" He appointed a governor, built the fort of 

Todgarh in the centre of the tract, raised 
a corps of 600 matchlock-men for this special service, and 
commenced to collect revenue. A different policy was pursued by 
the court of Jodhpur. The villages which had been decided to 
belong to Marwar were made over to the adjoining thakurs : there 
was no controlling authority, and no unity of administration. 
Ajmer brought all its share under direct management, but at first 
the Thdkurs of Masuda and Kharwa were held responsible for the 
establishment of order under the superintendence of Mr. Wilder. 
It soon appeared that this triple government was no government ; 
the criminals of one portion found security in another; the 
country became infested with murderous gangs, and the state 
of Merwara was even worse than before the conquest. Under these 
circumstances, it was determined that the three portions should 
be brought under the management of one officer, vested with fxill 



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( 21 ) 

autliority in civil and criminal matters, and that a battalion of 
eight companies of 70 men each should be enrolled from among 
the Mers. 

The negotiations with TJdaipTir resulted in the treaty of May 

1823, by which the management of Mewar- 
joS^!" ""^^ ^^^''" ^'^^ Merwara, consisting of 76 villages, wm 

made over to the British Government for 
a period of ten years, the Rana agreeing to pay Rs. 15,000 a year 
to cover civil and military expenses. In March 1824, a similar 
engagement was, after some difftcnlty, concluded by Mr. Wilder 
with the Jodhpur Darbdr. It was arranged that the sum of 
Rs. 15,000 should be annually paid on accoimt of civil and military 
expenses, the Maharana and the Maharaja receiving, in each 
case, the revenue of their respective portions. In March 1833, 
the arrangement with Mewar was continued for a further period 
of eight years, the Eana agreeing to pay Rs. 20,000 Chitori (or 
Rs. 16,000 Kalddr) on accoimt of civil and military expenses. On 
the 23rd October 1835, the arrangement with Marwar was extended 
for a further period of nine years. The transfer of the Jodhpur 
territory was only partial ; many villages were left in the haiids 
of the bordering thdkurs, though nominally under the poKce super- 
intendence of the British authorities. Twenty villages were made 
over by the first treaty, and by the second treaty seven villages 
were added ; but these latter were returned to Marwar in 1842. 
Colonel Hall was the first officer appointed to the charge of the 

newly-acquired district, and he ruled Mer- 
^Administrafcion of Colonel ^^^ f^j. thirteen ycars. Hc was fettered 

by no instructions, and was left to provide 
for the due administration of the country. In his report, prepared 
in 1834, he describes the system he adopted. Civil and criminal 
justice were administered by punchayet or arbitration. In civil 
cases the procedure was as follows : — The plaintiff presented his 
case in writing, and the defendant, being summoned, was required 
to write a counter-statement. An order was then passed for the 
parties to name their respective arbitrators, the numbers on each 
side being unlimited, but equal. The appointment of an umpire 
was found imnecessary. The parties then wrote a bond to forfeit 
a certain amoui^t, generally one-fourth or one-third of the amount 
at issue, if they should afterwards deviate from this decision of 
the pimchayet. The punchayet was then assembled, and an 
agreement taken from its members to decide according to equity, 
and to pay a fine of a stated amount if they do not. A native func- 
tionary then asseml?led the punchayet, summoned the witnesses 
and recorded the proceedings to their close. When a decision was 
arrived at, the result was made known to the parties, who were, 



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( 22 ) 

entitled to record their assent or dissent. If two-thirds of the 
piinchayet agreed, the question was settled. If the losing side 
dissented and paid the forfeit, a new punchayet was chosen by 
special order of the Superintendent. 

Criminal cases, in which the evidence was unsatisfactory, were 
also referred to punchayet. Four months' imprisonment in irons 
was the usual sentence, on conviction, for minor offences, imless 
the crime had been denied. The jail was made self-supporting ; 
each prisoner was supplied with one seer of barley-meal daily, and 
with nothing else, but, if the prisoner wished, he might furnish his 
own flour. On his release he was obKged to pay for his food and 
for his share of the jail establishment, as well as for any clothing 
which might have been given him ; and this system of recovering 
the jail expenses from the prisoners and their relations lasted till 
Colonel Dixon's death, when, on the representation of Captain 
Brooke, it was abolished in the year 1858. The prisoners worked 
from daylight till noon in the hot weather, and from noon till 
evening in the cold weather. 

The revenue was collected by estimate of the crops — one-third 
of the produce being the Grovemment share, except in some 
special cases. The estimate was made by a writer on the part of 
Government, assisted by the patels, the patwdri, and the respectable 
land-owners. If a dispute arose, the worst and best portions 
of the field were cut and a mean taken. An appeal against the 
estimate was allowed to the Superintendent. The prices current 
in the country for ten or twelve miles round were then taken, an 
average struck, and this assumed as the rate for calculating the 
money-payment to be made. Cultivators who broke up new land, 
or made wells, received leases authorizing them to hold at one-sixth 
and one-eighth of the produce. The headmen of the villages paid 
one-fourth. 

The system of administration adopted for Merwara has been 
given in some detail, since it possesses an historical value as being 
that under which the coimtry throve till 1861, the year of Colonel 
Dixon's regular settlement, and which, according to the opinion 
of all competent observers, was eminently successful. An account 
of this settlement will be found at page 99. Merwara was, no 
doubt, fortunate in obtaining rulers like Colonel Hall and Colonel 
Dixon, and Government was fortunate in enjoying the services of 
such officers. Colonel Hall remained at his post from 1823 to 
1836, and his successor Colonel Dixon governed Merwara till 
1842. In that year, Ajmer was added to his charge ; but though 
Merwara was under an Assistant Commissioner, still. Colonel Dixon, 
as Commissioner, lived there the greater portion of every year till 
his death at Bedwar in 1867. Both officers devoted their whole time 



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( 23 ) 

and energy to their charge, and to them is due the regeneration 
of Merwara, and the reclamation of the Mers from a predatory 
life to habits of honest industry. 

Nothing can more plainly speak to the great social change which 
has been wrought in the inhabitants of Merwara than the deserted 
and ruined state of their ancient villages. These were, formerly, 
invariably perched upon hills in inaccessible places for the sake of 
safety from the attacks of their fellow-men and of wild beasts. 
The adoption of habits of industry and agriculture has rendered 
the retention of such dwellings alike imnecessary and inconvenient. 
The old villages are now nearly deserted, and are fast falling into 
decay. New hamlets have sprung up everywhere in the village, 
and the tendency to settle near the cultivated land is still on 
the increase. 

Tenures. — ^The land-tenures of Ajmer are, as might be expected, 
entirely analogous to those prevailing in the adjacent Native 
States, and though they have been often misunderstood, yet the 
vis inertuB of the province has sufficed to prevent their being 
interfered with, except in the one instance of the mouzdwar 
settlement of 1860. The soil is, broadly, divided into two classes : 
khdlsa, or the private domain of the crown ; and zamindari, or land 
held in estates or baronies by feudal chiefs, who were originally 
under an obligation of military service, but who now hold on 
istimr^ tenure. Khdlsa land, again, might be alienated by the 
crown either as an endowment of a rehgious institution, or as a 
reward for service to an individual and his heirs. Such grants, 
when they comprised a whole village or half a village, are termed 
jdgirs ; and 61 whole villages and 3 half villages have been alienated 
in this way. 

The basis of the land system of Rdjptitdna is, that the State is 

in its khdlsa lands the immediate andactual 

^^^' proprietor, standing in the same relation to 

the cultivators of the soil as the feudal chiefs do to the tenants on 

their estates. The jdgird^ who are assignees of the rights of the 

State, have the same rights as the State itself. 

Prom ancient times, however, it has been the custom in the 
khdlsa lands of Ajmer that those who permanently improved land 
by sinking wells and constructing embankments for the storage 
of water, acquired thereby certain rights in the soil so improved. 
These rights are summed up and contained in the term " biswd- 
dari," a name which is synonymous with the term "bdpota** 
in Mewar and Marwar, and with the term " mirds '' in Southern 
India, both of the latter words signifying " heritable land." A 
cultivator who had thus expended capital was considered protected 
from ejectment as long as he paid the customary share of the 



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( 24 ) 

produce of the improved land ; and he had a right to sell, mortgage, 
or make gifts of the well or the embankment which had been 
created by his capital or labour. The transfer of the well or 
the embankment carried with it the transfer of the improved land. 
These privileges were hereditary, and the sum of them practically 
constitutes proprietary right. Hence the term ** biswMdr " has 
come to mean " owner," and a right of ownership gradually grew 
up in permanently improved land. 

In a district like Ajmer, where the rainfall is extremely 
"precarious, unirrigated land was hardly regarded, and possessed 
but little value. The State was considered owner of this as well 
as of the waste. A cultivator without a well, or at any rate an 
embankment, was looked on as, and must always be, a waif, with 
no tie to bind him to the village where he may reside. No man, 
in fact, cultivated the same unirrigated fields continuously ; the 
village boundaries were undefined ; there was always more 
unirrigated land around a village than could be cultivated by the 
number of ploughs, and the inhabitants of each village cultivated in 
each year according to their numerical strength and the character 
of the season ; the State exercised the right of locating new hamlets 
and new tenants, of giving leases to strangers who were willing 
to improve the land, and of collecting dues for the privilege of 
grazing over the waste from all tenants, whether biswMArs or not. 

Mr. Wilder and Mr. Middleton, the first Superintendents of 
Ajmer, have recorded their opinion that waste-lands are the 
property of the State. Mr. Cavendish, their successor, whose 
experience was gained in the North- Western Provinces, considered 
them to belong to the village community. Mr. Edmonstone, who 
made a ten years' settlement in 1835, investigated the question, 
and was clearly of opinion that the State was the owner. In his 
settlement report, dated 12th May 1836, he writes that the 
opinion of Sir Thomas Munro, as regards the tenures in Arcot, 
seems to him peculiarly adapted to the tenures of Ajmer, and is 
entirely consistent with all the information he possessed. " The 
Sarkdr possesses by the usage of the country the absolute right 
to dispose of the waste in aU villages which are mirds, as well as 
in those which are not.'* 

When Colonel Dixon commenced the construction of his tank- 
embankments in 1842, he acted as a steward to a great estate. 
He founded hamlets where he thought fit ; he gave leases at 
privileged rates to those who were willing to dig wells, and distri- 
buted the lands under the new tanks to strangers whom he located 
in hamlets in the waste. In no instance did the old " biswdddrs " 
imagine for a moment that their rights were being invaded, 
nor did they consider that they were entitled to any rent or 



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( 25 ) 

malikana from the new comers. The new comers had the same 
rights as to sale and mortgage of improved land as the old 
" biswdddrs." 

Such was the tenure of the khdlsa lands of Ajmer till the year 
1849, when the village boimdaries were for the first time demar- 
cated, and, under the orders of Mr. Thomason, a village settlement 
was introduced. This settlement effected a radical change in the 
tenure. It transformed the cultivating communities of the khdka 
—each member of which possessed certain rights in improved land, 
but who as a commtmity possessed no rights at all — ^into " bhya- 
chara, " proprietary bodies. The essence of the mouzawdr system 
is, that a defined area of land — ^that, namely, which is enclosed 
within the village boundaries — ^is declared to be the property of the 
village community, and the community consists of all those who 
are recorded as owners of land in the village. The change, how- 
ever, was unmarked, and even now is hardly understood, and 
is not appreciated by the people. Daily petitions are filed by men 
anxious to improve the waste, praying that Government will 
grisint them leases iq its capacity of landlord. In many cases 
where Colonel Dixon established a new hamlet he assessed it 
separately from the parent village, i.e.^ the revenue assessed on 
each resident of the hamlet was added up and announced to the 
headmen of the hamlet. The waste remained the common 
property of the parent village and of the hamlets. In 1867 these 
hamlets were formed into distinct villages, the waste adjacent 
to the hamlet being attached to it. The biswdddrs of the 
parent village retained no right over this land, nor do they imagine 
that they possess any. In this way there are now 139 klidlsa 
villages in Ajmer, against 85 at the time of Golonel Dixon's 
settlement. 

Until the mouzawdr settlement of 1850 therefore, the tenure 
in the khdlsa was ryotwdr. The State owned the land, but allowed 
certain rights to tenants who had spent capital on permanent 
improvements in the land so improved. TMs bundle of rights 
gradually came to be considered proprietary right, and since 1850 
the State has abandoned its exclusive and undisputed right of 
ownership over unimproved land. 

The tenure of the feudal chiefs was originally identical with 
istimrdr ^^* ^^ ^^ chicfs in the Native States of 

"^ * EdjpiitAna. The estates were jdgfrs held 

on condition of military service and liable to various feudal inci- 
dents. Colonel Tod, in his Rajasthan, volume I, page 167, thus 
sums up the result of his inquiries into the tenure : — " A grant 
of an estate is for the life of the holder with inheritance for his 
offspring in lineal descent or adoption with the sanction of the 

i> 



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( 26 ) 

prince, and resmnable for crime or incapacity; this reversion 
and power of resumption being marked by the usual ceremonies 
on each lapse of the grantee, of sequestration {zabti)^ of relief, 
{nazardna) of homage and investiture of the heir." 

Prom all that can be discovered, the original tenure of the 
mass of the istimrdr estates in Ajmer is exactly described in the 
above quotation. The grants were life-grants, but, like all similar 
tenures, they tended to become hereditary. 

None of these estates ever paid revenue till the time of 
the Marathas in 1755 A.D., but were held on the condition of 
military service. To exact this service was for those freebooters as 
unnecessary as it would have been impolitic, and, in lieu, they 
assessed a sum upon each estate which presumedly bore sonie 
relation to the number of horse and foot soldiers which each 
chieftain had up to that time been required to furnish. The 
assessment, however, was very unequal, and took a much larger 
proportion of their income from the lesser chiefs than from tiie 
more powerful thdkurs who were likely to resist and whom it might 
have been difficult to coerce, and who probably had a voice in set- 
tling the contributions of the chiefs subordinate to them. On the 
cession of the district in 1818 A.D., the tahikdars were found 
paying a certain sum under the denomination of " Mamla *' or 
"Aln,'' and a number of extra cesses which amounted on the 
whole to half as much again as the Mamla. These extra cesses 
were collected till the year 1841, when, on the representation of 
Colonel Sutherland, Commissioner of Ajmer, they were abandoned. 
In 1830, 1839, and 1841, the Government of India had declared 
that the estates were liable to re-assessment, and had given explicit 
orders for their re-assessment ; but these orders were not act^ on, 
nor apparently communicated to those concerned. The chiefs who, 
at a very early period of British rule, perhaps even before it, had 
acquired the title of istimrdrddrs, no doubt considered themselves as 
holders at a fixed and permanent quit-rent. This belief of theirs 
was strengthened by the action of Government in 1841, when all 
extra cesses were remitted, avowedly on the ground that they 
were ** unhallowed Maratha exactions,*' and the demand of the 
State was limited to the amoimt which had been assessed by the 
Marathas nearly a century before. The final orders of Government 
on this tenure were conveyed in the letter from the Secretary to 
the Government of India to the address of the Chief Conmiissioner, 
No. 9411., dated 17th June 1873. The Viceroy consented to waive 
the right of Government in. the matter of re-assessment, and to 
declare the present assessments of the chiefs to be fixedin perpetuity. 
This concession was accompanied by a declaration of the Uability 
of the estates to pay nazaruna on successions j and the conditions on 



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( 27 ) 

wWch the istimrdrddrs now hold, have been incorporated in the 
Banad which has been granted to each of them. 

There are in all 06 estates, containing 240 villages^ with an 
area of 819,523 acres* The istimrdr revenue is Rs. 1,14,734-9-11, 
and the estimated rent-roll of the istimrdrddrs is Bs* 5,60^000. 
In 60 estates, all held by Rdjptits, the custom of primogeniture 
now obtains. Of these, however, 11 only are original fiefs ; the 
remainder have been formed by sub-division in accordance with the 
rules of inheritance* Originally the property was, on the death of 
the parent, divided equally among the sons, though in some cases 
the eldest son, called " Pdtwi," was considered entitled to a larger 
share than his younger • brothers. A notable instance of the 
operation of this rule is the separation of the Dewalia estate from 
Bhinai. In the next stage the successor to the pat or gadi 
was, apparently by a fiction of sovereignty, considered entitle! to 
succeed to the estate, but provision was made for the yoimger 
brothers by the alienation to each of them of one viUage on 
girds tenure. The last instance of such an alienation occurred 
in the year 1823. In the third stage of the history of inheritance 
the estates ceased to be further sub-divided, and the provision for 
the younger members of the Agnatic group was limited to the 
grant of a well and a few bighas of land for fife. This is the stage 
which has now been reached, though in the smaller estates a 
fourth stage may perhaps be mark^, in which the younger 
brothers have become merely hangers-on at the table in the eldest 
brother's mansion. So much remains of the ancient custom that 
some provision for younger brothers is considered imperative on 
every istimrdrd&r. 

There are six estates, each of a single village, the tenure of 
which differs from that above described. Pive of these are held 
by coparcenary bodies ; succession is regulated by ancestral shares, 
and both land and revenue are minutely divided. In one village — 
Karel, belonging to a community of Bahtors — -the property of the 
two chief men of the village is distributed, on their death, into one 
share more than there are sons, and the eldest son takes a double 
share. Eajaosi stands apart trora all other istimr&r estates. It 
belongs to a Chita, who is sole istinu-drddr; but the land is owned, 
not by him, but by the actual cultivators from whom he collects 
a fixed share of the produce, and himself pays a fixed revenue to 
Government. One of these villages, Kotri, belongs to Chdrans or 
Bhdts, and was originally separated from the istimrdr estate of 
Bhinai. The other five were stated by the kdniingos in the time 
of Mr. Cavendish to be khdlsa villages, and they probably should 
not have been included in the istim^ list. 

The subordinate rights in the istimrdr estates have never 



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( 28 ) 

formed the subject of judicial investigation, nor liavie the settle- 
ment operations of 1874 been extended to the istimr^r area* The 
principle followed under British rule has been to leave the istimr^- 
ddrs to manage their own affairs, and to interfere with them as 
little as possible. This principle has been recognized by the Gov- 
ernor-General in Council, who (paragraph 19 of letter No. 377 R., 
dated 28th October 1871) " is clearly of opinion that in no case 
should there be any attempt to effect a sub-settlement which is 
not apparently needed, and would probably cause dissatisfaction 
and alarm." It is well known, however, that in most of the larger 
estates there are villages held in j^lr by Chdrans, Jogis, and others, 
and villages held by sub-talukdars, relations of the istimrdrd^, 
who generally pay an unvarying amount of revenue to the head 
of the family, and who are succeeded in the sub-talukas by their 
eldset sons. As a general rule, jdgir villages are not resumable, 
nor can the sub-talukas be resimied except for valid cause assigned. 
To meet these cases it has been proposed to insert a clause to the 
following effect in the substantive law of Ajmer : — 

** Sub-talukdars and jdgirddrs in the istimrdr estates shall 
continue to enjoy the rights of which they are at present possessed, 
except where valid reason shall be shown, to the satisfaction of the 
Chief Commissioner, for the abrogation of any of them. " 

The istimrdrdars have always claimed. to be owners of the soil, 
and their claim has been allowed. The prevailing opinion is, that all 
cultivators are tenants-at-wiU ; but there are good grounds for 
hesitating to adopt this conclusion. Mr. Cavendish's inquiries 
extended to 296 villages, and in 158 villages the thdkurs disclaimed 
the right of ouster of cultivators from irrigated and improved 
land, where the means of irrigated or the improvement had been 
provided by the labour or capital of the cultivator. It was generally 
admitted that such land could not be mortgaged or sold ; but the 
istimr^ddrs allowed that the cultivators had a right of re-entry on 
their land, on their return to the village within a reasonable time. 
In 161 villages Mr. Cavendish found hereditary cultivators whose 
rights were the same as those of the owners of well3. TJnirrigated 
and unimproved land was \miversally admitted to be held on a 
tenure-at-will from the istimrdrddr. Mr. Cavendish recommended 
the extension of the principle thus admitted by most of the 
thakurs as to the rights of owners of wells to the estates of 
those chiefs who had boldly claimed the right of ouster from all 
land. On this subject the opinion of Colonel Dixon, as conveyed 
in a memorandunf addressed to Sir Henry Lawrence and dated 
28th August 1854, is deserving of attention : " The chiefs of 
villages are reckoned as biswdddrs within their own estates. It 
is a right which is rarely exercised by them, for all cultivators 



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( 29 ) 

who have sunk wells would, in the eye of the law, be considered 
their owmers, and not dispossessed without cause assigned, and 
without being remunerated for their outlay. In bardni and 
taldbi lands the people cultivate according to the pleasure of the 
thdkur." The principle, that those who have expended capital 
in the improvement of the soil acquire thereby a right in it, 
is perfectly in unison with the land system of the country; 
and whenever an inquiry is made into the rights of individual 
cultivators and a record is prepared, this principle must form the 
basis of adjudication. As a matter of fact, disputes between an 
istimrdrddr and the tenants hardly ever come before our courts. 

The subject of jdgir estates was investigated by a mixed 
Usir committee of Government officials and 

jdglrdArs, and the report of the commit- 
tee, dated 16th May 1874, contains a history of each estate. 
Out of a total area of 160,838 acres, yielding an averagfe 
rental of Rs. 91,000, 66,472 acres belong to the endowments 
of shrines and sacred institutions, and yield an income of about 
Ks. 43,000. The remaining jdglrs are enjoyed by individuals and 
certain classes specially designated in the grants. No conditions 
of military or other service are attached to the tenure of any jAgir. 

In all jdgfr estates the revenue is collected by an estimate of 
the produce, and money-assessments are unknown. As was the 
case in the khdlsa before Colonel Dixon's settlement, the ideas of 
rent and revenue are confounded under the ambiguous term 
**Hasil;" and, until the year 1872, the relative status of the 
jdgirddrs and cultivators as regards the ownership of the soil was 
quite imdefined. On the 13th August 1872 a judicial declaration 
was made under Regulation VII of 1822, and the main points are 
as follow : — Eirst, all those found in possession of land irrigated or 
irrigable from wells or tanks, which wells or tanks were not proved 
to be constructed by the jdgfrddr, were declared owners of such 
land ; secondly, the jiigirddr was declared owner of irrigated land 
in which the meaus of irrigation had been provided by him, of 
unirrigated land, and of the waste. 

The tenure known as bhdm is peculiar to EAjpiits. The word 
Bhdm itself means "the soil," and the name 

Bhtimia properly signifies " the allodial 
proprietor" as distinguished from the feudal chief and the tenant 
of crown-lands. According to Colonel Tod, volume I^ page 168, 
the bhtimias in Mewar are the descendants of the earlier princes 
who, on the predominance of new clans, ceased to come to court 
and to hold the higher grades of rank. They continued, however, 
to hold their land, and became an armed husbandry, nominally 
paying a small qxiit-rent to the crown, but practically exempt. 



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( 30 ) 

In course of time, various kinds of bhum greW up, wbicli, tinlike 
the original allodial holding, were founded on grants, but had this 
apparently in common, that a hefeditary, non-resumable, and 
inalienable property in the soil was inseparably bound up with a 
revenue-free title. Bhdm was given as ** Mundkati,*' or Compen- 
sation for bloodshed, (wehrgeld), in order to quell a feud, for 
distinguished services in the field, for protection of a border, or for 
watch and ward of a village* Whatever the origin of the bhiim 
holding, however, the tenure was identical, and so cherished is 
the title of Bhiimia, that the greatest cMefs are solicitous to 
obtain it, even in villages entirely dependent on their authority* 
The Maharaja of Kishangarh, the ThAkur of Fathegarh, the Thdkur 
of Juuia, the Thdkur of Bandunwara, and the Thdkur of Tantoti, 
are among the bhiimias of Ajmer. 

There are 109 bhiim holdings in Ajmer, and, except in those 
cases where a raja or an istimr^^ is also a bhtimia, the property 
passes to all children equally. It is probable that none of these 
holdings are original allods, but belong to the class of assimilated 
allods. We should have expected to find aa bhiimias the 
representatives of the tribes which ruled in Ajmer in former 
days, — Ohohdn, Pramar^ and Gaur Bdjpiits. It is true that nine 
holdings are held bv Gaurs ; but the bhtimias are nearly all Rahtors, 
the descendants ot the younger branches of the families of the 
istimrdrddrs, and none of these can lay claim to an origin ascending 
higher than that of the estates from which they sprang. 
Whatever the origin of the holdings, however, the rights and duties 
of all bhtimias came in course of time to be identical. At first the 
land was revenue-free, subsequently a quit-rent was imposed but 
irregularly collected, and this quit-rent was abolished in the year 
1841 along with the extra cesses from istimrdrddrs. The duties of 
the bhtimias were three in number : first, to protect the village in 
which the bhiim is, and the village cattle, from dacoits ; secondly, 
to protect the property of travellers within their village from 
theft and robbery ; and thirdly, to indemnify pecimiarily suflEerers 
from a crime which they ought to have prevented. 

This last incident was a peculiar feature of the Ajmer tenure, 
and grew out of the custom of Bidjptitdna that the Baj should 
compensate losses of travellers by theft or robbery committed in 
its territory. This custom is still carried out by the International 
Court of Vakils. Where the theft or robbery has occurred in a 
village belonging to a fief, the chieftain to whom the village 
belongs is called on to indemnify the sufferers ; and the istimr^Lrd^ 
of Ajmer have always been compelled to indemnify sufferers from 
thefte and robberies committed on their estates^ Similarly, a 
jdgird^ to whom the State has transferred its rights and duties 



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( 81 ) 

is pecuniarily liable. When the theft or robbery is committ<»(l lii 
a khdlsa village in which the Raj occupies the position of landlord^ 
the State itself has to pay compensation. In no case has tho 
cultivating community of a khdisa or jdgir village been called on to 
pay indemnity. In Ajmer, the State, finding this responsibility 
inconvenient, transferred it to a bhdmia as a condition of the 
teniure ; but in khdisa villages, where there are no bhtimias, the 
State still remains responsible. 

However useful the system of pecuniary indemnification may 
have been, and howevOT well adapted it was to the times of 
anarchy in which it had its birth, there is no doubt that in Ajmer 
it has long been moribund, though it still shows spasmodic signs 
of existence. When the average rental enjoyed by a bhtimia is 
only Rs. 17 a year, it is hopeless to expect that more than a 
very few bhdmias could compensate even a very moderate loss. 
If the stolen property exceeded a few himdred rupees in value, 
none could from the assets of their bhiim indenmify the sufferers. 
The progress of civilization, roads and railways, and the freer 
intercourse which arises between States, inevitably doom this 
device of a rude state of society. The transition commenced some 
time ago in Ajmer, when the Thikur of Junia, who is hereditary 
bhdmia of the town of Kekri, was permitted to commute his 
responsibility for compensating losses with the establishment of 
a force of watehmen in the town. As soon as the Native States 
adopt a system of regular police, this distinctive feature of the 
bhiim tenure must have vanished, and Government in 1874i 
sanctioned the proposal to abolish the pecuniary responsibility 
and to revert to what seemed to be the original incidents of the 
tenure, to hold the bhiimias liable as an armed militia to be 
called out to put down riots and pursue dacoits and rebels, and 
to take from them a yearly quit-rent under the name of naza- 
rana. 

The above sketeh wiU have shown that it is probable that the 
The state. State stiU posscsscs larger proprietary rights 

in the kh^sa villages of Ajmer than it 
possesses in most other parts of the Bengal Presidency. In 
istimrar estates, on the other hand, the State has few or no rights 
beyond that of taking a fixed revenue. In j%fr villages the 
State has assigned its rights to others. To the State belong in 
sole proprietary right all mines of metals in khdisa villages, while 
for its own purposes it can quarry, free of payment, where and 
to what extent it pleases. This principle was recognized in the 
letter from the Secretary to the Government of India, No. 22611., 
dated 10th November 1873. Two ranges of hills near Ajmer, 
that of Taragarh and that of J^agpaliar, have been declared to be 



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C 82 > 

the property of Government. The tank-embankments of Ajmer 
have aMost all been made by the State, and Government is the 
owner of the embankment and of all that grows thereon. Under 
the forest ordinance (Regulation I of 1874), the State has reserved 
to itsdlf the right to resume from the vUlage commimities the 
management of any tract of waste or hilly land, the proprietary 
right, subject to certain conditions, being vested absolutely in 
Government as long as the land is required for forest purposes. 
Merwara possessed no settled government till 1822, when it 
Merwara, camc Under British management. The 

erwara, people found the occupation of plunder 

more profitable and congenial than that of agriculture. No 
crops were sown except what was actually necessary for the scanty 
population. The tanks were constructed and used exclusively for 
the purpose of providing water for the cattle. No revenue or rent 
was paid. The RAjptits were never able to obtain a firm footing in 
the country. Whatever small revenue they could get from it was 
obtained at a cost both of life and money far exceeding its value. 
Undear such circumstances tenures could not spring up. Colonels 
Hall and Dixon, to whom the civilization of the Mers is due, 
treated Merwara as a great zamindari, of which they were the 
manager's, and Government the owner. Their word was law ; they 
f oimded hamlets, gave leases, built tanks, and collected one-third of 
the produce of the soil as revenue. At the settlement of 1861 all 
cultivators who had recently been settled in the viQages were 
recorded as owners of the land in their possession equally with the 
old inhabitants. 

Sales and Mortgages. — One peculiarity of the land-tenure of 
Ajmer-Merwara shoidd not be omitted : it is the entire absence of 
the custom of sale, whether voluntary or enforced. Private sales of 
land appear to have been practically unknown till about a genera- 
tion ago, nor has any land ever been sold for arrears of revenue. 
Sale of land in execution of decrees of the civil court has been 
prohibited as contrary to ancient custom. Mortgages, however, are 
only too common, and many of them differ in no respect from 
sales. 

Non-proprietary Cultivators. — ^At the settlement of 1874, nearly 
all cultivators were recorded as proprietors, and a non-proprietary 
cultivating class hardly exists in the khdlsa of either Ajmer or 
Merwara. When there are tenants, they pay generally the same 
share of produce as the proprietors themselves paid before the 
regular settlement. The few mauriisi cultivators recorded by 
Colonel Dixon pay distributed shares of the Government revenue. 
There is no rent-law in the province. Rents are universally taken 
in kind, and suits for arrears hardly ever come before the courts* 



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( 33 ) 

Suits for enhancement are unknown. Custom, and not competi- 
tion, regulates the rate of rent. The istimrdrddrs and the jdglr- 
dars collect their rents without the intervention of the courts, and 
in these estates there are not cultivators for the land that still 
remains to be brought under cultivation. The population hitherto 
has been periodically decimated by famine ; and as no Rdjptit 
will, if he can possibly avoid the necessity, ever touch a plough, 
cultivators are still at a premium. 

Population and Castes. 

JPojpulation and Castes. — The total population of Ajmer-Mer- 
wara by the census of 1876 was 396,331, 
Census Statistics. exclusivc of Europcaus, of whom 558 were 

enumerated in 1872. There were 93,464 houses. Of the popu- 
lation, 212,267, or 53'4 per cent., were males, and 184,064, or 46*6 
per cent., females. Adults were counted at 270,910, of which 
number 143,967 were males and 126,943 females ; children were 
counted at 125,421, of which number 68,300 were boys and 57,121 
girls. Classed by occupation, 63,537 males over 15 years of age 
were agriculturists ; non-agriculturists were 69,996. Hindus, 
with whom Sikhs and Jains were classed, were returned as 348,248, 
or 87*8 per cent, of the population. Muhanamadans were 11-9 
per cent., or 47,310. Native Christians were returned at 715, and 
Parsis at 68. 

The jaindus, forming the largest portion of the population, 
may be thus divided : — 

Brdlunans ... ... ... 19,581 

Kshatriyas ... ... ... 14,558 

Vaisyas (mercantile tribe, &c.) ... ... 38,316 

Hindu religious orders ... ... ... 3,252 

Sudras (miscellaneous Hindu castes) ... 188,413 

Aboriginal tribes (Bhils, Minas, and Mers) ... 60,107 
Others (including Sikhs, Marathas, Bengalis, 

and unspecified tribes) ... ... 24,021 

348,248 



The whole census of Ajmer and Merwara, with a third of a 
million of inhabitants, cost Rs. 740. Including the khdlsa and 
jdgir villages, but excluding the istimrdr villages, there are 190 
villages in Ajmer. There are 241 villages in the Bedwar tahsil and 
88 in Todgarh; and these numbers must be borne in mind in tracing 
the distribution of the castes. 

Land-owning Castes. — ^If the account just given of the tenure in 
the khdlsa and j^gir portions of Ajmer, has been followed, it will 
not be a matter of surprise that Bdjputs own hardly any land except 

s 



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( 34 ) 

bhiim and istimrdr, or that 67 castes were found in possession of pro- 
prietary rights at the revision of settlement in 1874. As no 
Rdjptit will touch a plough unless forced by necessity, none 
would hare cared to take land other than on bhtim or talukdari 
tenure, and the crown tenants, as well as the tenants of the jAgir 
estates, are mainly the descendants of the ancient cultirators of 
the soil who hare held their land in all the dynastic changes 
through which Ajmer has passed. Where every man who dug a 
well became owner of the land irrigated therefrom, and where a 
cultivator without a well is considered a waif, with no tie to bind 
him to the village where he may reside, the land-owning castes must 
be nearly co-extensive with the cultivating castes ; and such is found 
to be the case. Of the 190 Ajmer villages, 52 are held by J4ts, 61 
belong to Gujars, 61 to Mers, 4 to Rdjpiits, 2 to Deswali Musal- 
mdns ; eight castes hold one village each, — Christian, Mdli, Sayyid, 
PathAn, Mughal, Banjdrd, Ahfr, and Fakir. In the remaining 
22 villages there is no exclusive caste ownership ; the priucipal 
castes in these villages are fourteen in number: Mdlis, Telis, Mers, 
Merats, Deswalis, Gujars, Brdhmans, Rdjpiits, Mahajans, Kayaths, 
Kharols, Ahirs, Rebaris, and Regars. The remaining land-owning 
castes have few representatives, and are scattered over many villages. 
The four villages belonging to Rdjptits are Arjimpura jdglr, 
Arjunpura khdlsa, Gola, and Khori; the two former belonging 
to Gaur Rdjptits, the two latter to Rahtors. This exception, 
however, only proves the conclusion of the foregoing paragraph. 
Arjunpura jdgir was given on condition of protecting the road, 
and assimilates to a bMm tenure. The land is sub-divided among 
the descendants of the original grantee. Arjunpura khdlsa stands 
quite alone by itself as the only zamindari tenure in the district, 
with the exception of Muhammadgarh, where the tenure has been 
created by the British Government, and narrowly escaped being 
classed with the istimrdr estates. Gola was held on istimrdr tenure 
till shortly before the establishment of British rule, Khori was 
originally a Mer village, but the Rahtors held a large amoimt of 
bhiim in it, and gradually turned out the Mers. In short, where 
Rdjpiits hold jdgir or khdlsa land, it will generally be found that it 
is the relic of a talukdari tenure, or of a jdgfr grant, or an encroach- 
ment by bhiimias. 

Rdjputs were returned in the census papers of 1876 at 14,558. 
j^. ,^g It is a curious fact illustrative of the great 

vicissitudes of early times, that, though 
Ajmer was held for over a thousand years by Chohdns, there are 
now few Chohdns to be met with in the province. They must be 
looked for in Hdrdvati, in Alwar, and in the desert of Nagar 
Pdrkhar, whither they have been pushed by the Rahtors who 



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( 86 ) 

liave occupied their place as the ruling tribe, and who in numbers, 
wealth, and power greatly preponderate over the other Rdjptit 
clans who hold land in the district. These are three in number 
— Graur, Sesodia, and Kachhwdha ; and it will be convenient to 
consider them in the order of their arrival in the province, for 
a definite date can be fixed for the arrival of each. 

In the time of Prithvi Raja Chohdn, Raja Bachraj and Raja 
^^ Bdwan, Gaur Rdjptits from Bengal, came 

^' to Ajmer on the customary pilgrimage to 

Dwarika. Prithvi Raj engaged the brothers in an expedition 
against Daya Singh of Nagor which was successful, and subse- 
quently each of them married a daughter of Prithvi Raj. Raja 
Bdwan settled at Kuchdman in Marwar ; Raja Bachraj remained 
in Ajmer. In course of time, Junia, S^war, Deolia, and the 
adjacent country, fell into the hands of the Gaur Rdjptits, and to 
the head of the clan Humdyun gave a mansab of 7,000. In the 
time of Akbar, Raja Bital DAs founded the town of Rajgarh, and 
called it after the name of his grandson. Raj Singh. The son of 
the latter took Srinagar from the Powdr Rdjptits, who have now 
disappeared from the district. This, however, was the climax of 
the prosperity of the Gaur Rdjpiits, for soon afterwards they were 
ejected from Rajgarh and aU their territory by Kishan Singh, 
Rahtor. After twenty-five years of dispossession Gt)pal Singh 
recovered Rajgarh, and the Gaurs were in possession when the 
country fell into the hands of the Marathas. The Marathas in 
1817 resumed Rajgarh and the twelve villages attached to it, as 
the Raja was unable to pay a contribution of Rs. 10,000 Fouj 
Kharch. On the establishment of British rule, these villages were 
returned on the condition of payment of nazardna ; but, as the 
nazardna was not, or could not, be paid, the whole was resumed 
with the exception of one small village, Kotdj, and, until 
1874, remained khdlsa. In March 1874 the town of Raj- 
garh was presented in jdgir to Raja Devi Singh, the repre- 
sentative of this ancient but fallen house ; and the graceful gene- 
rosity of Government has been thoroughly appreciated by all 
classes of the community. The Gaur Rdjpiits hold land in four- 
teen villages. The descendants of Bital Dds are jagirddrs of 
Rajgarh and Kotaj, and bhiimias of Ddnta and Jdtia. The des- 
cendants of Balrdm, a younger brother of Bitdl Dds, are the 
istimrdrddr of Manoharpur, and the bhtimias of Sanodh, Ndndla, 
Nedran, Lavera, Dudiana, and Jharwdsa. The descendants of 
Raja Bdwan are jdgirddrs of Arjunpura jdgir^ are owners and 
bhAmias of Arjunpura khdlsa, and hold bhiim in Tubeji. 

It is unnecessary in this place to give a detailed history of the 

rs Rahtors, the great conquering race which, 

^'^^' in the year 1212, abandoned the ruined 



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( 36 ) 

capital of Kanouj and founded a kingdom in the desert of Mar- 
war : such an account belongs more properly to the Gazetteer of 
Jodhpur. All the talukdars of Ajmer, with the exception of the 
Thdkur of Manoharpur, the Thdkur of Sdwar and his relations, and 
the Chltas of Merwara descent, who hold four villages on istimrdr 
tenure, are Rahtors, and all trace their descent from Seoji, the 
founder of the monarchy. Of the 109 bhiim holdings in the dis- 
trict, 83 are held by Rahtors, nearly aU the younger sons and bro- 
thers of the istimrdrd^. The Rahtors of Ajmer have the same 
customs and characteristics as their brethren in Marwar. They 
are still warlike and indolent, and great consumers of opium; 
Each man carries at least a dagger, and, except imder extreme 
pressure, none will touch a plough. 

The pargana of SAwar, at the south-eastern extremity of the 
Sesodia Ajmcr district, is held on istimr^ tenure 

by Sesodia R^jptits, and the estate is a 
portion of a grant made by Jehangir to Gk)kal Dds, who is said to 
have received eighty-four wounds in the service of the emperor. 
The pargana of Phtilia was originally part of the kh^a of Ajmer, 
and was given by Shahjehan to the Raja of Shahpura, a scion of 
the royal house of Mewar. For many years the Superintendents of 
Ajmer continued to exercise interference in the affairs of this par- 
gana, but in 1847 it was permanently assessed at Rs. 10,000, and 
the Raja of Shahpura is no longer coimted among the istimrdrd^ 
of Ajmer ; he is considered a tributary prince who holds of the 
British Government for Phtilia, and of Mewar for the rest of 
his territory. There is a family of Sesodias who are bhtimias in 
Nepoli. Besides these there are no other Sesodias in the 
district. 

The Kachhwdha RAjpiits, like the Sesodias, are to be found in 
Kachhwiha. the villages adjoining their respective States 

of Jaipur and TJdaipur, and hold bhiim in 
five villages. They are settled principally in the villages of Harmdra 
and Tilomid, in the extreme north of the Ajmer district. The 
most noteworthy family, that of Thdkur Hamdth Singh of Har- 
mdra, has had a chequered career. Hamdth Singh, the ancestor 
of the family, received a jdgir of six villages from Aurangzeb. The 
estate was partially resimied by the Rahtors, and wholly by the 
Marathas, and the present representative of the family, Thdkur 
Hamdth Singh, who alone of all the bhiimias in the district is 
entitled to the appellation of Thdkur, holds now some 800 acres 
of bhiim in Harmdra and Tilomid. 

The Jdts were numbered at the census of 1876 at 30,486. 

j^^g They, with the Gujars, are the original 

cultivators of the soil, and considerably 

outnumber any other caste. Nearly the whole of the Rdmsar 



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( 37 ) 

pargana belongs to them* They are settled in Kekri^ and in 
the best villages of the Ajmer and Rajgarh parganas. Tubeji, 
Suradhua, Makrera, Jethdna, BudhwAra, and Pecholean belong 
to Jdts. In the Bedwar tahsil they hold seven villages, chiefly 
in and about the old town of Bedwar adjoining the Ajmer 
district; for they never penetrated far into Merwara, and are 
not to be found in the Todgarh tahsil. They are divided into 
three main families, — Puniyo, Sishmo, and Harchitrdl ; but their 
gdts are more than a hundred. As elsewhere, they are strong 
men and hard-working cultivators. They hold no revenue-free 
land, nor any bhiim ; they have in Ajmer double as much land as 
the Gujars, and pay three times as much revenue, partly no doubt 
owing to their having monopolized the best villages, but chiefly 
to their greater energy in making weUs and improving their lana. 
The Jdts worship a variety of gods, including Mdtd and 
d f T • • Mahadeo, but the chief object of vene- 

ejaji. ration for all the Jdts of Marwar, Ajmer, 

and Kishangarh is Tejaji, whose legend is as foUows. Teja was 
a Jdt of Kamdla near Nagor, in Marwar, who lived eight hundred 
and sixty years ago, and had been married at Rupnagar, in 
Kishangarh. While grazing his cattle, he observed that a cow 
belonging to a Brdhman was in the habit of going daily to a 
certain place in the jungle where the milk dropped from her 
udder. Further observation showed that the Tm'IV feU into a hole 
inhabited by a snake. Teja agreed with the snake to supply h\vt\ 
daily with milk, and thus prevent the Brdhman suffering loss. 
Once when he was preparing to visit his father-in-law, he forgot 
the compact, and the snake, appearing, declared that it was neces- 
sary he should bite Teja. Teja stipiilated for permission to first 
visit his father-in-law, to which the snake agreed. Teja proceeded 
on his journey, and at Kishangarh rescued the village cattle from 
a band of robbers, but was desperately wounded in the encounter. 
Mindful of his promise to return, Teja with difficulty reached 
home and presented himself to the snake, who, however, could 
find no spot to bite — so dreadfully had Teja been cut up by the 
robbers. Teja therefore put out his tongue, which the snake bit, 
and so he died. The Jdts believe that if they are bitten by a 
snake and tie a thread round the right foot while repeating the 
name of Tejaji, the poison will prove innocuous. There is a 
temple to Tejaji at Sarsara in Kishangarh, and a fair is held in 
July. Tejaji is always represented as a man on horseback with 
a drawn sword, while a snake is biting his tongue. Nearly all 
Jdts wear an amulet of silver with this device round their necks. 
Colonel Dixon singled out Tejaji as the patron of the fair he 
established in his new town of Nayanagar. 



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( 88 ) 

Some customs of the Jdts deserve mention. Marriage is not 
* xu T^^ allowed within the same gdty and takes 

Customs of the Jats. , n i a. • tj» i i • tt 

place generally later m Me than m Upper 
India. A cocoanut and a rupee, emblems of fertility and wealth, 
are sent to the house of the bride. There, the brotherhood is 
collected, and the contract is concluded by throwing the cocoanut 
and the rupee into the lap of the bride. The day is then j&xed by 
the bride's parents ; and the " bardt," which consists generally of 
twenty-five to thirty men, reaches the village in the evening. At 
the appointed time, the bridegroom proceecfi to the bride's house 
in red clothes and with a sword in his hand. The village carpen- 
ter affixes a frame of wood, called a torun, over the door, and 
this the bridegroom strikes with his sword and enters the house. 
The torun is a cross-barred frame reseml3ling a wicket, and 
the custom is probably a relic of the marriage by conquest. All 
castes put up toruna, and, as they are not removed, they may be 
seen on haK the houses in the district. When the bridegroom has 
entered the house, the Brdhman causes him and the bride to 
go round a fire lit in the centre of the room. This is the ceremony 
called " Phera," and is the only one used. The second day there is 
a feast, and the bridal party then disperses . The bride's father takes 
money, Rs. 84 being the fixed amount. The bridegroom's father 
spends about Rs. 200, the bride's father nearly as much, and the sub- 
sequent gunay when the bride's father gives turbans to his son- 
in-law and relatives, costs him about Rs, 150 more. 

Among the Jdts, as among the Gujars, Malis, and all the tribes 
rt ^ rxT/^v/ of Merwara, widow-marriage is the rule, 

Custom of Natha. , . ,, j c, •KVJti.x^jL a k 1 

and IS called " Natha. A man cannot 
marry hisyoimger brother's widow, but may that of his elder brother. 
The younger brother has the first claim on the widow's hand ; but 
if he does not marry her, any one in the gdt may do so. No feast to 
the brotherhood is given in Ndthd, and consequently this species 
of marriage is much less expensive than the other. No disability 
of any kind attaches to the children of a Ndthd marriage : young 
widows are married off by their husband's relations, who take 
about Rs. 100 or Rs. 150 from the second husband. Formerly 
the widows were not allowed much choice as to whom they should 
marry, and were generally given to the highest bidder; and in the 
early accounts of the Mers the custom is stigmatized as revolting 
under the name of sale of women. As a matter of fact, grown-up 
widows can now choose for themselves, though, when they do, 
the punchayet generally orders a certain sum to be paid to the 
deceased husband's relations. These orders are often contested, and 
are not enforced in the courts. If a widow chooses to remain 
so, she is not forced to marry ; and, in all castes, a widow who 



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( 39 ) 

has no sons retains her deceased husband's property till her death 
or her re-marriage. She cannot mortgage except in order to pay 
her husband's debts or to marry her daughter. The custom of 
Ndthd arose out of the right of property supposed to be derived 
from the sum paid to the bride's father on the occasion of the 
marriage engagement, and the condition of widows is infinitely 
preferable under the custom than if they were forced to remain 
unmarried all their liyes. Colonel Hall has recorded that, while he 
was complaining that women were sold as sheep, the women them- 
selves, so far from considering it a grievance, were flattered by the 
payment of a high price as a testimony to their beauty and useful- 
ness. Rdjptits and Brdhmans are the only castes who do not practise 
NdthA ; with the Rdjptits the custom of sati is the alternative. BAj- 
piit wives and concubines all long to become satis, and, were the cus- 
tom not sternly repressed, it woidd now be flourishing in E;djptitdna. 

The chief waste of money among the Jdts and other Hindu 
castes is on the occasion of a feast to the 
ma. brotherhood on the twelfth day after the 

death of a relation. If, however, the feast is not given on the 
twelfth day, it may be given at any time, and the mahajans stir 
up the people to perform these ceremonies. Jdts, Mdlis, Gujars, 
and Mers eat three times a day. The early meal is called sirdman^ 
and consists of the food remaining over from the preceding day. 
The mid-day meal is called hhdt or rota, and consists of barley 
or maize bread with greens and buttermilk. The evening meal, 
called hydrn, generally consists of soaked maize and buttermilk. 
All castes smoke tobacco and present it to strangers, and he who 
consumes most is the best man. 

The Gujars hold 36 villages in all parts of the Ajmer district 
and 3 in Bedwar tahsil, where they are 
^^^^* settled in the outlying villages of Jethgarh 

and Bhyronkhera, in the Mewar plain. They were returned in the 
census of 1876 at 29,345. They are careless cultivators, and 
devote their energies to grazing cattle. Those who live near 
Ajmer sell milk and butter in the town. Their chief divinity is 
Deoji, who was a Gujar of Bednor, in Mewar, some seven hundred 
years ago, and worked miracles. Their customs are identical 
with those of Jdts ; but the Gujars in Merwara have adopted a 
custom of inheritance from the Mers by which the projperty is 
divided according to wives, and not according to sons. Gu3ars and 
Jdts will eat together. The chief men of the Gujars are called 
Mihr ; the chief men of Jdts are called Chowdhry or Patel. 

Brdhmans .were counted in the census of 1876 at 19,681. The 

Brdhmans Brdhmaus of Mcrwara eat meat, and have 

"^^' no dealings with the other Brdhmans* 



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( 40 ) 

Brdhmans are not generally cultivators, but hold revenue-free 

land in nearly every village. Of the 
*^^^*' Vaisya tribe, the two chief castes are the 

Agarwals, who derive their name from Agar Sen, who lived at Ag- 
roda, in Hariana ; and the Oswals, who trace their birth-place to 
Osanagri in Marwar. These two classes of merchants and traders 
are followers of the Jain religion, and are generally well off. Other 
Vaisya castes are Maheshwaris, Bijaburjis, Khandelwals, and 
Dhiisars. 

The Kayaths say they are a caste intermediate between the 
^ ^, J . . X Vaisyas and Sudras, and some wear the 

Kayatns and mixed castes. ^^ /i • i ii i mi i-i 

Brahmamcal thread. There are three 
distinct families in Ajmer, known by the names of their parganas 
— ^Ajmer, E&msar, and Kekri ; and these acknowledge no relation- 
ship. They have been hereditary kdntingos since the time of the 
Mughal emperors ; they hold about 1,000 acres of revenue-free 
land, and enjoy certain perquisites from j Agfr and istimrdr villages. 
Mdlis numbered about 11,638 and are good cultivators, and hold 
the greater part of kusba Ajmer. A peculiar caste — Kir — ^very 
few in number, devotes its attention to the culture of melons. 
The Bebdris, also very few in number, breed camels and cultivate 
rice. The menial castes are Bhangis, Bulahis, Thoris, and Regars. 
Bulahis are the most numerous, numbering 23,04iO, and consider 
themselves superior to the Eegars, who correspond with the 
Chamars of the North- Western Provinces. Minas, Sdnsis, and Bhils 
are the thievish classes. None of them are numerous in the 
district. The Minas are abundant in the pargana of JahAzpur in 
Mewar, whence they make their incursions ; and now and then the 
district is infested by Baoris, a thievish and robber caste from 
Marwar, who, however, have got no settled abode within the limits 
of the province. The names of the remaining castes indicate 
the occupation of each — ^kilmhdrs (potters) number 8,985 ; ndis 
(barbers), khdtis (carpenters), telis (oilmen), chAkars (domestic 
servants), sundrs (goldsmiths), lakheras (dealers in lac), lohirs 
(blacksmiths), dhobis (washermen), are below 5,000; darzis (tailors), 
kuldls (liquor-sellers), chlpis (cluntz painters), kah4rs (bearers), 
ghosis (mUk and butter sellers), are below 2,000 ; kdmbis, tambolis 
(betel sellers), sikalgirs (steel sharpeners), belddrs (diggers), 
bharbiijas (grain-parchers), thateras (braziers), bhdts (bards), raj 
(masons), are all imder 500. 

Of the Muhammadans (47,310 by the census of 1876), 20,034 

Muhammadans ^^® classcd as Sheikh, Sayyids are 3,219, 

Mughals 686 ; Afghans are numbered at 

7,441, and of other classes there are 15,930. Deswalis hold two 

.villages in the north of the district, and say they are Rdjptits who 



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( 41 ) 

were converted in the time of Shahdb-ud-din. One village, 
Muhammadgarh, belongs in zamindari tenure to a Pathdn. 
The banjdrds who live in Ghegnl are Musalm^s, and were, 
they say, converted at the same time as the Deswalis. The 
Musalm^iiis in the district are chiefly the attendants on the 
Muhammadan shrines, and most of them hold reVenue-free land 
in the j^glr villages attached to these institutions. They are poor 
and idle. 

Native Christians are returned as 715. The United Presby- 
^ . ^. ^ „ . terian Mission has occupied this field for 

Cnnstians and Parsis. , -,•■■. i •! 

many years ; and a short account of its 
establishment, and of what has been done, will be found in the 
article on Education. Parsis are only 58 in number, and are 
Bombay shop-keepers in the cantonment of Nasirabdd. 

Merwara Clans. — The tribes which at present inhabit Merwara 
do not claim to be, nor do they appear to have been, the original 
inhabitants. Of these last, however, but little is known. The 
country must have been an impenetrable jungle, and the majority 
of the sparse inhabitants were probably outlaws or fugitives from 
the surrounding States. The caste of Chandela Gujars is said to 
have dwelt on the hills about Chang ; the hills in the neighbour- 
hood of Kalinjar, Saroth, and Bhaelan are assigned by tradition 
to Brdhmans. On the east side, on the Borwa hills, the caste of 
Bhatti Bdjptits is said to have been located, while the southern 
portion of the Todgarh tahsil was occupied by Minas. There ia 
a tradition that a Bhatti RAjpiit, Ajit Singh, bore the title of King 
of Merwara. 

The present inhabitants of Merwara are all promiscuously 
designated Mers, a name which is derived from " mer," a hill, and 
signifies " hillmen.'' The name is not that of any caste or tribe, 
and is only a correct designation in so far as it is understood to 
mean the dwellers on this portion of the Arvali range. The two 
main tribes of Merwara are those known by the appellation of Chita 
and Bardr, each clan being traditionally divided into twenty-four 
gdts; but new gdta are constantly formed which take the name of 
their immediate ancestor, and there are now about forty gdts in each 
tribe. 

Colonel Tod (Rajasthan, vol. I, p. 680) asserts that the tribes 
of Chita and Bardr are Minas, and the traditions of the people 
themselves point to a Mina ancestry. Both tribes claim a common 
descent from Prithvi Raj, the last Chohdn king of Ajmer ; and the 
story is that Jodh Mkhun, the son of Prithvi Baj, married a girl of 
the Mina caste (who had been seized in a marauding expedition near 
Btindi), supposing her to be a Bdjputni. When he discovered his 
mistake, he turned away the mother and her two sons, Anhal and 



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< 42 ) 

Anup. The exUes wandered to Chang in Bedwar, where they were 
hospitably entertained by the Gujars of that place. Anhal and Anup 
rested one day under a bar or fig-tree, and prayed that if it was 
destined that their race should continue, the trunk of the tree 
might be split in twain. The instant occurrence of the miracle 
raised them from their despondency, and the splitting of the fig-tree 
is a cardinal event in the history of the race, according to the follow- 
ing distich :— 

Charar se Chita bhayo, aur Bar&r bhavo bar-ghat, 
Shakh ek se do bhaye ; jagat bakh&ni j&t.* 

In following the distribution of the clans, it is necessary again 
to bear in mind that there are 51 Mer villages in Ajmer, and that 
there are 241 villages in the BeAwar, and 88 in the Todgarh, 
tahsils. 

Anhal settled at Chang in the north-west of Merwara, and his 
^^ descendants in course of time exterminated 

the Gujars who had given an asylimi 
to him and his mother. The clan multipKed, and gradually 
occupied all the strong places of Merwara, where they founded 
the villages of Jak, Shdmgarh, Ltilua, Hattin, Ktikrd, Kotkirana, 
Naf, and othCTS. They appear to have held the remaining 
Mers in subjection, for they enumerate sixteen castes of Mers 
who, they say, used to pay them one-fourth the produce of 
the soil and of aU plundering expeditions. The clan now holds 
117 entire villages in Bedwar, besides portions of 53 and 16 entire 
villages in Todgarh to the north of that tahsil, and including the 
pargana of Kotkirana. In Ajmer there are 21 entire khdlsa and 
3dgir villages belonging to Chltas, and they are to be found in all 
the Ajmer Mer villages, except four. 

Of the sub-divisions of this clan, by far the most numerous 
and important is that of the Merdts, a term which is generally 
used as synonymous with a Muhammadan Mer, but which is a 
patronymic derived from Mera, the common ancestor of the 
Kdtdts and Gordts. Hardj, grandson of Mera, a Chita in the 
reign of Aurangzeb, took service under the emperor at Delhi, 
During a night of terrific rain he remained firm at his post as 
sentry, with his shield over his head. The emperor, to whom 
the matter was reported, is related to have said : " In the 
Marwar tongue they call a brave soldier Kdtd ; let this man be 
henceforth called Kdtd.'' Hardj soon after became a convert to 
Islam, and is the progenitor of all the Kdtdt Merdts, a very large 
family, who hold 78 villages in Beawar, including all the prin- 

* " From the sound * charar ' (the noise which is supposed to have reached Anhal from the 
splitting tree) the Chltas are called, and the clan Bar&r from the splitting of the fig-tree. Both are 
descended from one stock. The world has made this tribe famous." 



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( 48 ) 

cipal places in the north and east of the tahsU. Gora wm brother 
of Hard], and his descendants are Hindus, and hold 21 villages 
in the centre and south-west of Bedwar, of which Kalinjar and 
Kabra are the chief. The Gordts spread southwards, and have 
occupied 13 villages in the north of Todgarh, 1 village in Ajmer ; 
Makhopura belongs to them. The Kdtdts, the most pushing of 
aU the Chitas, spread northwards, and hold 9 of the 21 Chita 
villages in Ajmer. There they formed new gdts^ of which the 
BahMur Khdni, generally called par excellence Chitas, is the 
principal. Besides the khdlsa and jdgir villages, four villages in 
Ajmer proper are held by Kdtdts on istimrdr tenure, viz.^ Nausar, 
Bajaosi, Ajaysar, and Kharekhre. The villages were given them 
by the Mughal emperors for the protection of the city of Ajmer and 
the adjacent passes. Shamsher Khdn, the istimrdrddr of Bajaosi, 
is the head of the BahAdur Khdni family, and is styled Tikdi. 
The chief men of Kdtdts and Gtordts caU themselves Thdkurs ; but 
in Bedwar the chiefs of Hatiin, Chang, and Jak, who are Kdtdts, 
are called Khdns. 

Of the remaining sub-divisions of Chitas, the most important 
are — ^the Laget, who hold six villages in Bedwar ; and the Nanset, 
who own the villages of Bargaon, Pdlrdn, Phdrkia, Mdnpura, and 
Hdthibata in Ajmer, besides portions of several others. The 
other gdts which may be mentioned are the Bajoriya and Bedari- 
ydt — ^the former holding three villages in Bedwar, the latter hold- 
ing three villages in Ajmer — ^and the Bajriydt Borwdra, BUddiya, 
Pithrot, Bdlot, and Nddot, who possess a village, or parts of seve- 
ral. The other gdts live scattered throughout Merwara. 

Anup, the brother of Anhal, settled in Todgarh and founded 
the Bardr clan. His descendants, less en- 
^^^' terprizing than the Chitas, have remained 

in Merwara and are not to be found in Ajmer. They hold eleven 
villages in Bedwar, the most important of which are Kdlikdnkar, 
Saindra, Bhaelan, and Khera Sangnotan ; they occupy the whole of 
the south of the Todgarh tahsil, and own forty-eight entire villages. 
They are more unsophisticated, honest, and straightforward than 
the Chitas. They call themselves Bdwat — a petty title of 
nobility ; and would be insulted by being called Mers. The chief 
men are called Bao, and they have a multitude of Tikdfs, of 
whom the principal are the Bao of Ktikrd and the Bao of Bardr. 

All these Chohdn-Minas, with the exception of the Kdtdts, 
are nominally Hindus. Kdtdts and Grordts eat together, and 
nothing is forbidden food to either. A Chita will not marry a 
Chita, nor a Bardr a Bardr; but a Chita seeks a Bardr wife, and a 
Bardr seeks a Chita wife. A Bardr woman who marries a Kdtdt 



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( 44 ) 

or Musalmdn Chita is buried on her death ; a Kdtdt woman who 
marries a Bardr is burned on her death. The marriage ceremony 
in either case is performed by " Phera," the officiating Brdhman 
leading the bride and bridegroom seven times round a fire. The 
Kdtdts of Ajmer are beginnnig to understand that they are Mu- 
hammadans, and have partially adopted some Musalmdn customs. 
Thus, they have discarded the dhotiy which is universally worn by 
their brethren in Merwara.. They sometimes iatermarry with 
other Chitas ; but it is not the custom, nor looked on as the proper 
thing to do. The custom of " Phera" under the guidance of a 
Brdhman is being abandoned in favor of the Nikd ceremony in 
their marriages, and, under the influence of the Khddims and 
other Muhammadans with whom they intermarry, they have 
begun to think they ought to keep their women secluded, though 
in Merwara the women work in the fields. 

The customs of the two clans, whether calling themselves 
Muhammadans or Hindus, are identical ; a sonless widow retains 
possession of her husband's property till she marries again, or till 
her death. She can mortgage in order to pay her husband's debts, 
to discharge arrears of Government revenue, or to obtain funds 
for the expenses of marrying her daughters. Daughters do not 
inherit when there are sons alive. All sons inherit equally ; but, 
in the event of there being sons from two or more wives, the 
property is divided^^r capita of the wives, and not per capita of the 
sons. This custom called Chtinda-Bat, as opposed to Pagriwand 
or Bhai-Bat, is universal among all the Merwara clans. There 
is no distinction between ancestral and acquired property. A 
relation of any age may be adopted ; the nearest relation has the 
first claim, and his children bom before his adoption succeed in 
the adopted family. Sons by slave-girls, who are numerous 
under the name of Dharmputr, get land to cultivate, but obtain 
no share in the inheritance, and cannot transfer the land. The 
custom of Ndthd,or widow-marriage, prevails, and has been already 
described. Much money is spent on funeral feasts. 

Among the tribes which boast other than a Chohdn-Mina 
ancestor, the most important are the two 

Pramar clans. ^j^j^j^ ^^:^ deSCCUt from Dh^dndth 

Powdr or Pramar, who founded the city of Dhardndgar (said to 
have been 24kos in circumference), inMarwar, before the Pramar 
B/djputs were obliged to give way before the Ghelots and Bahtors. 
Tradition says that Bao Bohar, a descendant of Dh^dndth, came 
and settled at Budh^na in the extreme south of the Bedwar 
pargana. Prom this place his descendants spread and founded the 
adjacent villages of Bilidwas, Jowaja, Bahdr, Barkochrdn, Bdwat 
Mdl, Lusdni, now in the Bedwar tahsil, and Akayjitgarh Naloi 



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( 45 ) 

and others in the Todgarh tahsil. The tribe is divided into six 
g6t8^ — ^Deldt, Kaldt, Doding, Boya, Kheydt, Pokhariya. Of these, 
the Deldt is the most numerous, and holds fourteen whole villages 
in Bedwar and five in Todgarh ; the Kaldt clean holds only one 
village — Kalath^ Khera, in Bedwar; and the others hold no 
entire village in Merwara, The Deldts appear to have pushed the 
other members of the tribe out of Merwara, who thereupon settled 
near Ajmer, and especially in the pargana of Pushkar. There are 
eleven villages in Ajmer held by this tribe, and they hold parts of 
eight others. The Dodings own Barla, Maddrpura, and Gwari ; 
to the Boya clan belong the villages of Hokrdn and Gudli ; 
Khwdjpura and Kanakhera belong to Kheydts ; and the Pokhariya 
clan hold the villages of Pushkar, Ganahira, Naidla, and Naulakha. 
The men of this tribe like to be called Bdwats, but are generally 
called Mers ; the chief men are called Gdmeti. They are an 
industrious race, generally taller and better built than the Chohdn- 
Minas. Kdtdts will not give their daughters in marriage to this 
tribe, but will take wives from them ; and they intermarry freely 
with Hindu Chitas and Bardrs, and the other Mer clans. Their 
customs are the same as those of the Chohdn-Minas. 

The second tribe which claims descent from Dhdrdndth is that 
" ^ of the Motl Rdwats, who inhabit the par- 

gana of Bhaelan, where they hold fourteen 
villages. They own two villages — ^Fathpur 1st, and Bhojpur in 
Bedwar — and only scattered representatives of the tribe are met 
with in Ajmer. The pargana of Bhaelan is supposed to have been 
originally inhabited by Brdhmans. A descendant of Dhdrdndth, 
BiOhitas by name, came and lived at Bdgmdl as an ascetic in a 
cave in the hill now caUed Mdkutji. A banjdrd who was passing 
through the hills with his wife, deserted her at this spot ; she lived 
some time with the Jogi, and then, descending the hiQ, sought the 
protection of Khemchand Brdhman in Bamunhera, and in his 
house was delivered of twin sons, of whom one remained in 
Bhaelan, the other in Marwar. In the fifth generation, one 
Mdkut was bom who expelled the Brdhmans from Bhaelan. The 
hill which was the cradle of the race was named after him, and 
he is still venerated by the Motis. A fair is held on the hill in 
September, at which time the hero is believed to traverse the 
twelve villages of Bhaelan in the twinkling of an eye. 

After the sack of Chitor by Ald-ud-din Ghori, two brothers, 
Gheiot Bdjptits of the Ghelot clan, fled to Borwa 

in the Saroth pargana, where they inter- 
married with Minas. This tribe is divided into sixteen clans, of 
which the most important are the Goddt, Medrat, Kdchhi, Pinga, 
Baniydt, Lahr, Bdlot, and Dhdnkal. They hold eleven entire vil- 



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( 4« ) 

iages in all parts of BeAwar, one village (Ktikar-khera) in Todgarh, 
and are found in twenty-three other villages in Merwara. In 
Ajmer they own six villages, — Purbutpnra, Ansari, Maydpur, 
Lachhmipur, Boraj, and Amba Massena. They consider them- 
selves Surajbansi Bdjpiits, and call themselves Rdwats. like the 
tribes of PuAr origin, they intermarry with Hindu ChohAn-Minas. 
Merits will take wives from them, but will not give them their 
daughters in marriage. 

The Buldhi caste holds four villages in Bedwar, Jdts and 
other tribes Gujars hold ten, and Narsingpura and 

Diingar-khera belong to Mahajans. The 
remaining inhabitants of Merwara belong to a few scattered clans 
who pass under the general designation of Mer, and who, as usual, 
claim to be descended from Bdjptits, but who have no jdgd and 
no history. The Fatally dt clan claims to be of the stock of the 
Bhatti E/djptits of Jesalmer, and holds one village, Baria Naga. 
The Chaurot claim the same descent, and own one village, E^ali* 
kankar Kishanpura. They are also found in Mohanpura in Ajmer. 
The Bharaal dan live in the village of Ekmkhera Dhan&p, and 
are to be met with in Kotra, Saidaria, Bhowani-khera, and Kishan- 
pura of Ajmer. The Buch Mers inhabit Bajpur Biichdn, and are 
found in a couple of villages in Ajmer. The Kharwdl Mers live 
in Nayanagar and Fathpur 2nd ; and the headman of the town of 
Bedwar is of this caste. Mamnot^ Selot^ Bandt^ and Bana live 
scattered in a few villages. 

Social and relipious customs. — ^Although the Mers consider them- 
selves Hindus, and are generally classed as such, yet they are little 
fettered with Brdhmanical rites and ceremonies. They eat three 
times a day, maize and barley bread being their principal food ; but 
they will eat the flesh of sheep, goats, cows, and buffaloes when it 
is procurable. Even the Brdhmans of Merwara will eat flesh ; they 
observe no forms in the preparation of their food, and no prohibi- 
tion exists as to the use of spirituous liquors. There is a proverb 
" Mer aur Mor unch6 par rdzi hain" — Mers and peafowl love the 
heights, — ^and probably from this habit of Kving in high places they 
are exceedingly indifferent about washing. They are, in short, 
a very dirty race. In matters of religion they do not trouble 
themselves much with the orthodox divinities of Brdhmanism. 
Small-pox is a great scourge of the country, and the chief deity 
worshipped is Mdtd, to whom a stone called sitla^ daubed with 
red paint, is consecrated; and these stones are to be met with on 
all sides, chiefly under Jchejra trees, which are sacred to Mdtd. 
Aldji is a common deity ; and the deified heroes Deoji and 
Bdmdeoji also find worshippers. Deoji's temple is at Barsawara 
or Todg£^rh. Bdmdeo is a Buldhi hero who worked miracles, 



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( 4.7 ) 

and his priest is a Buldhi. The hills of Mdkutji and Goramji, the 
highest in Merwara, share in the veneration by the people, and this 
is probably a relic of a pristine fetish worship, though now the 
Mils have modem hero legends attached to them. The only 
important religious festival of Merwara is the annual fair held at 
Todgarh in the month of September in honor of Mdtd, called, 
from the name of the place, " PipMj MAtd/' Tradition says that 
the Mers used to sacrifice their first-bom sons to this goddess ; 
and it is still customary for those who have had a first son bom 
to them during the year, to bring a buffalo to the sacrifice. The 
animals, after the touch of consecration by the priest before the 
shrine, used to be let loose, and the people, each armed with 
a knife or a sword, cut them alive into piec^. This barbarity 
continued till 1865, when, on the representation of Mr. Bobb, the 
missionary at Todgarh, it was put a stop to, and orders were 
issued that the animals should be first killed with a sword* 
Before the famine there were some forty or fifty animals yearly 
sacrificed, and in 1874 there were eighteen buffaloes thus offered to 
the goddess. The officiating priest first strikes the animal on the 
neck with a long sword ; it is then dragged away and cut into little 
pieces in a few minutes. The festivals of the Holi and Dewali are 
kept in Merwara. The chief national peculiarity of the celebration 
of the Holi is the game called " Ahera'* on the first and last day 
of the festival. The whole village turns out into the jungle, each 
man armed with two sticks, about a yard long, called pokhri; 
opium and tobacco are provided by the headmen ; and, having 
formed a line, the people commence beating for hares and deer, 
knocking them over by a general discharge of sticks as they start 
up. A number of hares are killed in this way. If the mahajans 
will pay — and the mahajans of Ajmerand Merwara, being Jains, 
are exceedingly tender of life — ^the people will not kill on the 
second day. The festival of the Holi concludes with a game like 
" touch in the ring.'* The people consume a good deal of tobaccOi 
but very little opitim. Tobacco they carry in an oval wooden box 
called ghata^ and the principal men append a long wooden 
handle to this box, which they always carry about with them. The 
handle signifies that all who ask will get tobacco. 

Religious tendency. — It has been already mentioned that there 
is a distinctly visible tendency among the Merdts socially to 
assimilate with the orthodox followers of Islam, and to abandon 
their ancient customs common to them with their non-Muham- 
madan brethren. They have abjured the flesh of the wild-boar. 
They have begun to adopt "Nikd,** instead of the custom of 
**Phera,'' in their marriages. They have begun to keep their 
women secluded, and to intermarry with persons within degrees 



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( 48 ) 

prohibited by the ancient customs. The tendency is without 
doubt destined to further development till the old customs fall 
into entire disuse. Among the Rdwats of Todgarh also the 
tendency to adopt the social rules of Brdhmanism as prevailing 
among surrounding E/djpiits is clearly discernible, though the 
assimilation has not gone so far in this case as in the other. 

In neither case are there any religious feelings concerned ; 
the question is simply one of greater respectability. Under the 
influence of the headmen of Todgarh, the Rdwats in 1874 
entered into an agreement to abstain from the flesh of kine and 
buffaloes, and to excommunicate all transgressors. In that year for 
the first time they took no part in the dismemberment of the 
buffaloes sacrified to Mdtd, leaving the work to be done by Bhfls 
and Buldhis. It is safe to predict that, in course of time, the 
whole of -Merwara will become either Brdhmanized or absorbed in 
the orthodox religion of Islam. Beyond this tendency to social 
assimilation, there is hardly any religious movement visible: 
Representatives of many curious Hindu sects are found in the 
district ; but the head- quarters of these sects are not in Ajmer 
itself. 

The Land. 

Agriculture. — ^The agricultural statistics here given are taken 
from the settlement report of 1874, and the statement on next 
page shows the acreage in the khdlsa villages of the various crops 
on the ground during the year 1872-73 when the district was 
under settlement. The chief crops are barley and jowdr, which 
occupy respectively 20 and 17 per cent, of the crop area. Tfl 
and bdjrd occupy 9 and 8 per cent, respectively ; and after these, 
at that considerable interval, come cotton with 8,219 acres, and 
gram with 9,543. The cultivation of sugarcane is confined in 
Ajmer to the Pushkar valley, where it is grown without irrigation, 
and where a crop is taken for three consecutive years without 
re-sowing. In the j^gir villages of this circle Rs. 10 per acre is the 
regular rent paid for sugarcane land. The cultivation of melons 
is almost exclusively the occupation of a particular caste called 
Kirs, and is chiefly carried on in the sandy beds of nalas. The 
Kirs do not pay more than Rs. 2 a bigha, or Rs. 5 per acre ; and 
in Bedwar the rate is generally E/e. 1 per bigha. Poppy is not 
made into opium in the Ajmer district, but sold in the form of 
poppy-heads. In Bedwar and Todgarh the juice is extracted in 
the usual toilsome manner by a number of incisions on the head 
of the plant. The raw juice, called dudh (literally, " milk'*), 
is either sold on the spot to banyas, or carried by the people 
themselves to Pdli, where it is manufactured into opium. Nearly 
the whole of the opium produce may be considered an export 
trade. 



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( 49 ) 



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( 50 ) 

Jow^ is grown almost entirely on bardni land, and is a very- 
different crop from the jow^ of the North- Western Provinces, 
where it is often grown on manured land. Here, it is stunted, 
being seldom more than five feet in height, the stalks thin, and 
the heads small. Bdjrd in Ajmer gives much the same outturn 
as jowdr, and is very inferior to the bdjrd of Marwar. Maize is 
grown in land irrigated from wells and tanks, and under the tanks 
is a very precarious crop, as in years of heavy rain it is often 
entirely drowned. Barley is grown in chAhi, talAbi, and Abi lands, 
and the produce varies considerably, from twenty maunds an acre 
to two or three. The value of straw and bhtisa in the district is 
almost nominal. There are no large towns to cause a demand 
for this produce, and what is sold in the towns is brought in on 
men's heads from the adjacent villages and sold at about four annas 
a bundle, without being weighed, and the rate does not more than 
cover the wages of the carriers. In the villages, straw and bhiisa 
are wasted ; grass-lands are abundant in every village, and grass 
is regularly cut in most villages. The cattle thrive better on it 
than on the less nutritious bhiisa, and, as long as the people have 
grass, they do not wse bhtisa at all. 

The following table shows the classified cultivated and 
uncultivated area of thekhdlsa villages of Ajmer and of the jdgir 
estates and of Merwara, according to the settlement survey 
of 1874 :— 





— s— 

a 


" ■ — - 

UlTASSSSSABLB. 


AS8S88ABLB. 


BuB-Binsioir. 


1 


1 


^ 


CulUvated. 


9 

1 






1 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Ajmer 


359,424 


31,480 


111,303 


142,783 


18,663 


8,366 


7,746 


74,266 


108,920 


107,721 


216,641 


Betfwar 
Todgarh 


209,692 
223,297 


891 
479 


146,234 
191,212 


146,626 
191,691 


6,466 
fi,469 


7,690 
2,406 


7,770 
922 


19,840 
8,938 


41,766 
20,730 


21,801 
10,876 


68,067 
81,606 


Total Merwara ... 


432,989 


870 
32,360 


837,446 


838,316 


14,935 


10,096 


8,692 


28,773 


62,496 


82,177 


94,673 


Total kh^Ua 


792,413 


448,749 


481,099 


83,488 


18,461 


16,488 


103,029 


171,416 


139,898 


811,314 


3&eiT 


160,838 


12,888 


60,266 


68,148 


10,166 


1,642 


8,869 


29,806 


44,462 


43,228 


87,690 



The area of the istimrdr estates is 1,271'469 square miles ac- 
cording to the topographical survey completed in 1875 ; the culti- 
vated area of these estates by same measurement was 643 square 
miles. No detail is available of the cultivated area, as these 
estates were not measured in the revenue settlement of 1874 ; so 
that the statistics as far as the whole district is concerned are 
defective. It will be observed that the cultivated area of the 



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( 51 ) 

khdlsa is classified into — chahi, or land irrigated from wells; 
taldbi, or land irrigated from tanks; dbi, or land in the beds 
of tanks ; and bardni, or unirrigated land. The classification of 
soils is unknown to the people. In the dbi area is also included 
the fields known in Merwara as " pdraband." These are terraced 
fields in the hilly portion of the district which are supported by a 
wall of dry stones. In some cases the wall is substantial, and 
retains water to moisten the soU, but in general it merely prevents 
the field being washed away. Where it is substantial and acts 
as a dam, the fields under it have been classified as dbi. The 
cultivated area of Ajmer and of Bedwar is practically stationary 
since last settlement, in the year 1849-50, nor has there been 
more than a nominal increase in irrigation. The irrigated area of 
Ajmer was formerly 28 per cent, of the cultivated area ; it is now 
25 : the irrigated area of Bedwar was formerly 34 per cent. ; it is 
now 33. In Todgarh there is a slight increase in the irrigated 
area. It was formerly 50 per cent. ; it is now 52. Ajmer has 25 
per cent, of irrigation, Merwara 40 per cent. The manured area 
of Ajmer is 11 per cent., of Merwara 16 per cent., of the 
cultivated area. In Ajmer there is 26 per cent, of rabi crops ; in 
Merwara, 49. Twenty-five cart-loads, or 200 maunds of manure, 
is the regular amount put on taMbi land. Chdhi land is a little 
more highly manured when possible. Abi and bardni lands are 
not manured. In Ajmer the deposit in the beds of tanks is used 
as manure. 

The domestic animals in the district are small and weak. In 
the khdlsa villages of Ajmer there were in 1874 18,320 plough- 
buUocks, 108,370 cattle of all other sorts, including sheep and 
goats, and 8,420 ploughs. In Merwara 19,752 plough-bullocks, 
148,641 cattle of other sorts, and 9,833 ploughs. In spite of the 
famine, cattle have considerably increased since 1850, especially 
in Merwara, where, at the settlement of 1851, there were 16,571 
plough-bullocks, 73,857 cattle of other kinds, and 8,361 ploughs ; 
in A]mer there were 14,243 ploughs. But these statistics were 
taken after the disastrous year 1848, in which it was calculated 
that two-fifths of the cattle perished. There are 4,283 wells 
worked in the Ajmer district, as against 4,042 in 1849. The 
average amount irrigated is 4| acres per well. In Bedwar there 
are 1,995 wells worMng, as against 1,467 at the time of Colonel 
Pixon's settlement, giving an average of 3|- acres per well. In 
Todgarh there are 5,771 wells in use, as against 4,062 at last 
settlement, giving an average of only 1^ acre per well. It may 
be interesting to compare the statistics of agricultural wealth in 
Ajmer with those collected at the settlements of Mr. Middleton 
in 1826, and of Mr. Edmonstone in 1836. In Mr. Middleton's 



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( 52 ) 

time, 1,860 wells were recorded, and 3,678 ploughs. Ten years 
later, and after the famine of 1833-34, Mr. Edmonstone found 
3,185 ploughs and 1,575 wells. 

Revenue Siatistics. — The following statement shows the number 
of estates upon the rent-roll of the district, their total land-revenue, 
and the total number of registered co-parceners according to the 
settlement records of 1874. The number of proprietors is not given 
in Colonel Dixon's records. 





{ Tstimr&r 


1822-23. 


1886^. 


186(M»1. 


m^79. 




70 


70 


70 


70 


Number of estates ... 


Ajmer khdlsa ... 
Merwara 


81 


81 


86 


139 




132 


267 


303 


329 


Number x)f co-parceners 


Ajmer kh41sa ... 
Merwara 


... 




... 


18,639 
27,380 






Rs. 


R^. 


iu. 


Rs. 




C Istimr^r 


1,67,288 


1,67,288 


1,14,734 


1,14,734 


Total land-revenue ... 


< Aimer khalsa ... 
(Merwara 


1,59,746 


1,29.872 


1,71,762 


1,42,896 




43,764 


1,09,842 


1,72,662 


1,18,661 


A«^erage land-revenue paid l)y 
each estate 


( Istimr^r 

< Aimer kbdlsa ... 

1^ Merwara ... 


2,389 

1,972 

331 


2,389 

1,601 

427 


1,637 
2,021 
670, 


1,637 

1,028 

361 


Average land-revenue ^laid by 
each eo-parcener ... 


( lstimr4r 

< Aimer khalsa ... 

{merwara ... 


... 


-.. 


• *. 


7-10 
4r6 



The number of istimrdr estates recorded by Mr. Cavendish is 70. 
Nominally there are 76, but in reality, counting the estates 
which belong to a single owner as one, there are 66 estates paying 
revenue to Grovemment. Besides these, 27 separate estates do 
not pay revenue direct to Grovemment, but pay through the estates 
to which they are subordinate. The large increase in the number 
of kh^lsa estates since last Hsettlement is owing to the separation 
of hamlets from their parent villages ; only five villages — ^those 
received from Gwalior in 1860 — have been added to the district 
since the commencement of British rule. 

The land-revenue of Ajmer-Merwara after the settlement 
of 1874 stands as follows : — 





Rs. A. P. 


Istimrfir 
Ajmer kMlsa 
Merwara kMlsa 


... 1,14,734 9 11 

... 1,42,896 

62,885 


Marwar-Merwara 
Mewar-Merwara 


3,20,615 9 11 

5,154 

50,622 




3,76,291 9 11 




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( 53 ) 

In the istimrdr revenue is not included Rs. 10,000 paid by the 
Raja of Shahpura, who is considered a tributary prince. Of the 
remaining revenue, Rs. 55,432 is water-revenue of the tanks, and 
will not be collected in years when the tanks remain empty. The 
land-revenue collected from the villages of Marwar and Mewar- 
Merwara is not borne on the rent-roll. The receipts are paid into 
the personal ledger, and credited periodically to the estates con- 
cerned, subject to deduction on account of costs of manage- 
ment. 

One of the main characteristics of the revision of settlement 
in 1874 is the division of the land-revenue assessable on lands irri- 
gated from tanks, into two parts — soil-revenue and water-revenue. 
The soil-revenue wiU be paid each year, but the water-revenue is 
dependent on actual irrigation from the tank. The question of 
assessment of water-revenue is one which abounds in difficulties 
owing to the varying capacity of the tanks. The largest tanks, 
when full, will irrigate both harvests, and the people can obtain 
from them as much water as they like. The smallest tanks in 
the most favorable years contain water sufficient only for a very 
inadequate irrigation of the kharif , and if the rains are too heavy, 
the kharif is drowned. No single rate can be found which wiU be 
an equitable assessment on aU the land measured as taldbi. The 
settlement officer, therefore, first classified the tanks themselves 
and fixed rates for each class. The question then arose as to the 
system under which the water-revenue, amounting in the whole 
district to Rs. 55,432, should be collected. It had been proposed 
to contour the tanks and fix a gauge which would show the supply 
of each season, and to charge for the water by the cubic foot, 
leaving the distribution to the village community. This would 
perhaps be the most perfect system; but the task of contouring 
all the tanks in the district would require a staflF of engineers for 
several years. It had been suggested to form the tanks into zones 
of rainfall, and to give the Chief Conmiissioner authority to allow 
remissions of water-revenue when the rainfall of any zone, as 
measured at an appointed station within it, fell below a certain 
number of inches. But the extreme partiality of the rainfall 
frustrated this scheme ; it will often be raining heavily on one 
side of a hiU, while the other will be perfectly dry : and when the 
rainfall depends, now on the eastern and now on the western 
monsoon, no zones can be formed ; besides which; the filling of the 
tanks depends on a burst of rain of three or four inches at a time : 
when the rains are light, no water finds its way into the tanks, 
though the rain-gauges may indicate an average fall. Moreover, 
much depends on the time of the fall. If the faU is early in the 
year, the water may evaporate before it is required for rabi 



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( 54 ) 

irrigation. There seemed no alternative, therefore, except that of 
annually examining the area irrigated from each tank. 

The syjstem adopted is to assess a lump sum founded on the 
capacity of the tank. This lump sum is to be made good from 
the fields actually irrigated each year, unless its incidence on the 
irrigated area exceeds a certain nxed maximum or falls below a 
certain fixed minimum. Thus, in the case of Dilwara tank, there 
were 244 acres measured as taMbi. The water-revenue of the 
village was assessed at Rs. 1,068, being at the rate of Rs. 4-6 per 
acre on the irrigated area, as this area appeared to represent the 
full capacity of the tank as it now exists, and the rate and the 
resulting assessment seemed fair and reasonable. It was provided 
in the village engagement that this sum, Rs. 1,068, should be 
made good yearly by the irrigated fields, except when its incidence 
on the irrigated area exceeded Rs. 5, when the actual irrigated area 
should be assessed at Rs. 5, and the balance remitted. 

It was provided further that, when the incidence of the 
assessed water-revenue fell below Rs. 3-12, the actually irrigated 
area should be assessed at Rs. 3-12, and the excess credited to 
Grovemment. As long as the irrigated area fluctuates between 
213 and 289 acres, the revenue is unchanged, though the water- 
rate varies each year. As soon as the incidence of the assessment 
shows pressure, the pressure is relieved, and if the existing tank is 
extended, or by greater economy in the use of water the irri- 
gated area is enlarged. Government will reap a benefit during the 
term of settlement. The advantages of the system seem to be— 
Pirst. — ^A certain amount of stability is secured for the water- 
revenue, for, in all ordinary years, there wiU be neither remissions 
nor enhancements. Secondly. — When water is scarce, it may 
safely be presumed that those who get it can make larger profits 
out of it than they can when it is plentiful. In such years they 
pay a higher price for the water. On the other hand, when water 
is plentiful and cheap, those who get it pay less than the assessed 
rate. In no case does any man who does not get water, pay any- 
thing. Thirdly. — It is the interest of the headmen and of each 
land-owner within the minimum, that is, in all ordinary years, to 
economize and spread the water, for each man's revenue is lightened 
thereby ; while, for the same reason, it is the interest of each to 
bring within the irrigated area all land actually irrigated, and to 
prevent any one gf their number from defrauding Government. 

The other sources of imperial revenue are excise on spirits and 
drugs, assessed taxes, stamps, and law and jujstice. The customs 
duties, as has been already mentioned, were abolished in A.D. 1869, 
and no local revenue is derived from salt, as its manufacture in 
pans has been discontinued by order. 



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( 55 ) 

The abkdri revenue produced in 1877-78 Rs. 44,599. The 
farm of drugs, including opium, produced Rs. 5,416 ; and the 
farm of the excise on spirits Rs. 38,887, the balance being fines 
and forfeitures. There were in 1877-78 168 shops for the retail 
sale of liquor in the district, and the number of sanctioned 
stills was 154. The talukdars who are entitled to precedence 
among their brethren, fourteen in number, are allowed the 
privilege of keeping private stills. The receipts under the head 
of stamps include non-judicial stamps, judicial stamps, duty on 
tinstamped paper, deficit duty, and fines and penalties connected 
with non-judicial stamps. In 1871-72 the proceeds were 
Rs. 84,786, in 1872-73 Rs. 1,16,834, in 1873-74 Rs. 1,35,419. 
Law and justice include fines, the net proceeds of jail manu- 
factures, and registration-fees. In 1873-74 they amounted to 
Rs. 25,776. The receipts in 1877-78 under the head of stamps 
were Rs. 1,44,292, and of law and justice Rs. 23,136. 

The normal expenditure on civil administration is about two 
and a quarter lakhs less than the net revenue of the district. The 
statement on next page shows the details of revenue and expendi- 
ture for the year 1877-78. 



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( 56 ) 



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< 57 ) 

Trade. 

Trades and Manufactures. — ^The city of Ajmer was in ancient 
times an entrep6t for the trade between Bombay and Upper 
India, and a factory was established here in the early years 
of the East India Company, subordinate to that of Snrat. The 
position of the district must always render it a mart for Rdjpiitdna 
for the produce of Upper India and of the Bombay Presidency, 
including European goods ; but the province itself has no manu- 
factures, and produces but little in excess of its own consump- 
tion. What import and export trade there is, is almost entirely a 
transit trade, and an import trade can only exist in proportion 
as the province has something to offer in exchange. 

The transit trade of the district is carried by camels and 
banjdrd bullocks, and, till the year 1869, was much hampered by 
customs and duties. There were, a transit duty, an export duty, 
town-duties, and a tax called Mdpd. During the last years of the 
Maratha rule the customs were farmed for Rs. 31,000, and the 
taxes were retained in their integrity by Mr. Wilder. Mdpd was 
the most vexatious tax, and was a duty levied on the sale of every 
article in every village. Originally it was levied at the rate of 
Re. 1-6 per cent, from persons not residing in the place in which 
the articles were sold, so that the every-day transactions between 
the inhabitants of the same place were exempt, and the burden 
fell on what may be called the external trade of the village. The 
chief innovation introduced by Mr. Wilder was to levy the transit 
duty on the maund, instead of on the bullock or camel load as 
had before been customary; but his successor, Mr. Cavendish, 
introduced other provisions which still further fettered trade. He 
extended the MdpA tax to all towns as well as villages, and to the 
transactions between the inhabitants of the same place, and raised 
the rate to Rs. 2-6 per cent. He established a new duty in the 
towns of Ajmer and Kekri on the sale of sugar, tobacco, rice, and 
ghf, and for the transit trade introduced a system of rawdnaa 
whidhfell withimmitigatedseverity on all but the richer merchants. 
No goods were allowed to enter the district without a pass, 
and all merchants were required to file a petition to take out 
the pass, and again, on the arrival of the goods within the 
precincts of the district, or at the city of Ajmer, to subject them to 
examination and weighment, and thus prove their exact identity 
with the species and quantity mentioned in the rauxina. In order 
to prevent their goods being stopped on the frontier, the mercantile 
firms at Ajmer were obliged to obtain from their correspondents 
previous information of any despatches of goods, particularizing 
every article, and then a pass had to bo procured and sent to 



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( 58 ) 

meet the goods on the frontier. On the recommendation of a 
committee in 1836, Government abolished this system, and 
restricted the customs taxes to a teansit duty to be levied once for 
all on the import of foreign goods into the district, whether 
intended for domestic consumption or re-exportation. To avoid 
vexatious inquiries, the tax was directed to be taken on the bullock 
or camel load at a fixed sum. 

These orders do not appear to have been acted on, for many of 
the old abuses seem to have been as rife as ever in 1859, when the 
Deputy Commissioner complained that, if a cultivator in a village 
a mile from Ajmer wished to sell a seer of ghi in the city, he had 
to procure a pass from the customs agent in his village, stating 
his name and abode, and specifying the goods taken for sale. On 
arrival at the town, he was obliged to have his goods examined 
again to see if they agreed with the pass, and export duty was still 
levied. In 1860 Government sanctioned other reforms, all in the 
direction of the orders of 1836. Export duties were abolished and 
the customs-tax remitted on eighteen articles, while the duty on 
seventeen articles was considerably reduced. The whole district 
was consolidated into one circle, whereby the separate duties 
formerly levied in Merwara and the pargana of Sdwar ceased. By 
these reforms the dutiable articles were reduced to thirty-seven, 
of which the duties on cotton, ghi, salt, tobacco, cloths, blankets, 
and opium chiefly affected the produce of the district. The revenue 
from the customs before 1860 averaged about one lakh, and from 
that year till 1868 averaged about Rs. 1,12,000. In 1869 
customs were entirely abolished, and all trade is now free as far as 
Ajmer is concerned. 

There is a suitable bonded warehouse in Ajmer at the 
railway stg^tion. In Bedwar also there is a good bonded ware- 
house. 

The import trade of Ajmer city was estimated for the 
year 1877-78 at Rs. 27,80,911, of which sugar and cloth of all 
kinds were the chief items. European cloth was estimated at 
Bs. 5,62,000, of which about half was re-exported. Country cloth 
and sugar were estimated at Bs. 1,24,705 and Bs. 5,52,837 respect- 
ively. Much of the sugar is re-exported to Marwar and Mewar. It 
comes almost entirely from Bohilkhand and the Punjab. Hardly 
any sugar was grown in Bdjpiitdna, and this trade before the open- 
ing of the railway employed large droves of camels which returned 
empty to Sambhar, about fifty miles, and thence took return-loads 
of salt for Upper India. A large portion of the Mewar trade is 
now carried direct to Bedwar, and the goods are not unloaded 
at Ajmer. The export trade of Ajmer city was estimated for 
1877-78 at Bs. 2,89,593. 



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( 59 ) . 

The new town of Bed war is rapidly absorbing the greater part 
of the trade of the district, and is becoming the exclusive entre- 
p6t of the cotton trade. The camels which brought down sugar 
from Hissar for Mewar were laden with cotton at Bedwar and des- 
patched to Ahmadabdd, whence they returned withEuropean cloth, 
cocoanuts, and other articles of minor importance. The cotton 
is packed in loose bales of about three maunds weight each, and 
two of these form a camel-load. It apparently does not pay to 
press the cotton, for, though there are two presses in Bedwar (one 
belonging to the municipality), they are hardly, if ever, used. The 
value of the cotton exported in 1877-78, as nearly as can be ascer- 
tained from the merchants, was about Rs. 6,71,520, and, of this 
amoimt, a large portion is stated to be the produce of Mewar. 
There is also an export trade of grain in most years from Mewar to 
Marwar which passes through Bedwar. Marwar, however, is too 
poor to import according to its needs, and, in years of famine, the 
people have no other resource but to emigrate to more favored 
countries. The exports of Bedwar were estimated at Rs. 16,13,407, 
the imports at Rs. 22,02,040. 

It is difficult to form even an approximate estimate of the 
value of the exports from the district itself. The istimrdr estates 
have only been measured by the Topographical Survey, and there 
are no reliable returns of the crops grown in this portion of the 
Ajmer district. The exports consist of grain, cotton, and opium. 
Without returns of the area under grain-crops in the istimrdr 
estates, which in area exceed one-half of the Ajmer district, it is 
impossible to calculate how much more grain is produced in aver- 
age years than is necessary to supply local consuimption. In 
the longitude of Ajmer the harvests are so precarious that the 
grain-trade observes no fixed route. Some estimate, how^ever, 
may be given for cotton and opium. The area measured under 
cotton at the settlement of 1874 in the khdlsa villages of Ajmer- 
Merwara was 8,219 acres, and the estimated produce of the crop 
was 31,665 maimds of uncleaned cotton. Allowing 2 seers per 
head for local consumption, the annual amount retained at home 
by the inhabitants of the khdlsa villages was 6,785 maunds, leav- 
ing a surplus to be exported of 26,576 maunds, the value of which 
was Rs. 1,29,400. Cotton is largely grown in the istimrdr estates, 
the soil of which is much more suited for it than that of the 
khdlsa ; and adding the jdglr villages, the value of the export 
trade of this staple may be set down at upwards of 3^ lakhs, or the 
amount at which it was estimated in the trade returns of Bedwar. 

The area measured under poppy in the khdlsa villages of Ajmer- 
Merwara was 2,849 acres, and the crop valued at Rs. 1,39,283. 
Almost the whole of this was formerly exported to Pdli in Marwar, 



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( 60 ) 

but since opium scales were started in 1877 in Ajmer, it has gone 

to Bedwar to be exported to Bombay and China. Of the whole 

area imder crop, 2,229 acres were in the Todgarh tahsil. There 

is cwnparatively little opium grown in the istimrdr estates, and 

the value of the export may be assumed at a lakh and a haJi . 

Ajmer possesses no manufactures deserving of special mention, 

^, ^ ^ with the exception of the (nowimused) salt- 

Manufactures. £ -njt nvi ij -1 • -I 

pan of Bamsar pargana. The salt, which 
in years of heavy rain exudes abundantly from the soil, was scraped 
up and thrown into large pans, where it was dissolved in water. The 
water was allowed to run off into a lower pan, where it evaporated. 
There is a separate caste called Kharol who were engaged in this 
manufacture : but during the dry years of famine of 1868-69 the 
salt did not exude ; the Kharols, who have no land, nearly all 
died ; and the manufacture was ordered to be stopped under the 
impression that it deteriorated the soil. 

Towns. 

Chief toion, Ajmer. — ^Ajmer had a population of 31,683 accord- 
ing to the census of 1876, and is the largest town in the district. 
It is built on the lower slope of the Taragarh hill, is surrounded 
by a stone wall, and possesses five gateways. The town is well 
built, with some wide and open streets, and several fine houses. 
About one-third of the population is Muhammadan — ^nearly all 
Khadims of the shrine of Mueiyyin-ud-din Chisti. The town 
was formed into a municipality under Act VI of 1868, and the 
income in 1876 was Rs. 57,966 ; of this sum, Rs. 61,712 were 
due to octroi, and Rs. 6,254 to minor sources, tiz., nazul 
gardens, &c. 

Ajmer is the residence of the heads of several important firms 
^ of Seths who have establishments through- 

out Rdjpiitdna and in other parts of India 
where they carry on a trade in grain, cotton, and opium. In 
Ajmer, their chief, almost their sole, occupation is that of banking 
business proper, and is confined to the sale and purchase of 
htindls, especiaUy hundls for the payment of tribute due by 
Native States. Their money-lending business has much diminished 
within the last few years, owing to the istimrdrddrs, who were 
their principal constituents, having been prevented from borrowing, 
and to the action of the courts in giving decrees with protracted 
instalments. The Seths complain that. this procedure of the 
courts has rendered the village banyas indiflPerent about paying 
their debts when due, and the Seths find the return of their 
money so slow as to render it no longer profitable to lend. 



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( 61 ) 



The origmal town of Ajmer was bmlt inside the valley through 
which the road leads to Taragarh, and 
" ^ * this place, known ad Indurkot, is still the 

residence of a number of MusalmAn families — Sheikhs, Pathdns, 
and Sayyids. These people state that they are the descendants of 
the soldiers who came to Ajmer in the time of Shahdb-ud-din, and 
are a peculiarly dark race ; they own no land, and get a livelihood 
chiefly by farming the gardens around Ajmer. The old baoris^ 
or reservoirs, and the temple to be hereafter described, are almost 
the sole relics of the ancient town. 

The city is for the most part dependent for its waterjsupply 
^^ . , on the Andsdgar lake, from which two 

Water-supply. , ^ , . . , ' . j. • ± 

masonry channels, with opemngs at mter- 
vals, pass underground — one through the city, and the other just 
outside it. The latter fills a handsome reservoir built by Colonel 
Dixon and called the "Maddr Kund.'* No attempt has as yet 
been made to filter the water of the lake, which is often in a very 
impure state. The people on the south side of the city generally 
use the water of the Jhalrdy which is a deep cleft in the rocks at 
the base of the Taragarh hill, and filled by a never-failing spring, 
though surface-water is also conducted into it. There is a similar 
natural spring on the Nasirabdd side of the city which was opened 
out by Colonel Dixon, and is known as the digi. The water in both 
these reservoirs is said by the people to possess a high specific 
gravity owing to the strata of lead through which it passes. There 
are very few good wells about the town, and there are none within 
the waUs. What wells there are, are fed by percolation from the lake. 
The chief objects of interest are the dargdh, the Arhdi-din-ka' 
Masjidy the fort of Taragarh, and the fort of Ajmer. 

The dargdh is an object of veneration and pilgrimage to all 

religions and sects. The emperor Akbar 
^ ^^^ ' made a pilgrimage on foot to this tomb, 

and the banyas of the dargdh bdzdr daSy lay their keys on the 
steps of the shrine before opening their shops. Khwaja Mueiyyin- 
ud-din Chisti, the saint known as Khwaja Sahib, is said to 
have died in the year 1236 A.D., at the age of ninety-seven, 
and to have come to Ajmer at the age of fifty-two, shortly 
before the invasion of India by Shahdb-ud-din. Many marvels 
are related of him in the Akhbdr-uUAkhydr and other works, 
and it is difficult to extract the historical facts of his career 
from the mass of romantic legends which have gathered round his 
name. It was at Medina that a voice came from the tomb of the 
Prophet calling for Mueiyyin-ud-din, and directing him to go to 
Ajmer and convert the infidels. He obeyed the call ; and, on his 
arrival at Ajmer, rested on the spot now known as the Kangara 



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( 62 ) 

Masjidy in the dargdh, where at the time the king's camels were 
tethered. From this he was ejected, and went and took up his 
abode on the hill which overlooks the Andsdgar, the margin of which 
lake he found covered with idol temples. The idolaters, enraged 
at the slaughter of kids by the Musalmdns, conspired to massacre 
them; but on coming in sight of the Khwaja, they remained rooted 
to the spot, and though they tried to ejaculate Bdm! Rdm! could 
only articulate .SaA/m / Bahim ! In vain did the idolaters, led by 
the great sorcerer Ajipdl,andthe<^^o^a Shadideo, renew their attacks. 
They were defeated on every occasion, and finally begged forgiveness 
of the Khwaja, and invited him to come and take up his abode in 
the town. He consequently chose the site of the present dargdh. 
Shadideo and Ajip^ became Muslims ; but the Raja refused to be 
persuaded in spite of the miracles, and it was owing to a dream in 
Khoras^, in which he saw the Khwaja calling to him to come 
over to India and help him, that Shahab-ud-din was induced to 
march into Hindustdn and complete the ruin of the infidel king. 

The Khwaja was twice married ; his eldest lineal descendant, 
called the Dewanji, is the spiritual head of the shrine. All 
descendants of the KJiwaja enjoy great consideration throughout 
India. The Nizdm of Haidardbdd, they say, will not sit in their 
presence, and the Maharajas of Jaipur, Gwalior, and Jodhpur place 
them on a seat with themselves. 

The dargah is built on the southern side of the city adjoining 
the city-wall which nms at the foot of the Taragarh hill. The 
residence of the dewdn is to the east of the shrine, and west of it 
is a quarter of the city appropriated to the Khadims or servitors of 
the dargdh. The first object on entering at the main gate is the 
^a^^6a^-A?Aa/^a, containing two huge drums which were presented by 
Akbar after the capture of Chitor; and just beyond this, is a high 
arched gateway tastelessly decorated that flaring colors, and with 
stairs to the top. Here is treasured a gong, also portion of the 
spoils of Chitor, which is beaten sixty-four times in the twenty-four 
hours. To the right of this arch is a spacious courtyard where the 
Mahfil is held, and fm'ther on, a large mosque built by Akbar, now 
partially in ruins. Proceeding towards the holier part of the shrine, 
called the Bhitar-ka'dstdnd^ the visitor sees, on the right, a white 
marble mosque built by Shahjehan, stiU as perfect and fresh as on 
the day it was finished. On the left is the tomb of the saint, with 
the tombs of his two wives on the north side, and the tombs of his 
daughter, Hafiz Jamdl, and of Chimni Begum, said to have been a 
daughter of Shahjehan, on the south. The tomb of the Khwaja is a 
square-domed buUding with two entrances, one closed by a pair of 
sandalwood doors, part of the spoils of Chitor, and the other spanned 
by a silver arch presented by Siwai Jai Singh of Jaipur. 



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( 63 ) 

From the first to the sixth day of the month of Rajab in each" 
year, a religious festival called TIrs MSla is held at the dargdh. The 
festival lasts six days, for it is micertain on what day the saint died. 
The proceedings consist for the most part of recitations of Persian 
poetry of the Sufi school, at an assembly called the Mahfil. These 
recitations are kept up till 3 o'clock in the morning, by which time 
many pilgrims are in the ecstatic devotional state technically known 
as Hdlat. One peculiar custom of this festival may be mentioned. 
There are two large chaldrons inside the dargdh enclosure, one twice 
the size of the other, which are known as the great and little deg. 
Pilgrims to the shrine according to their ability or generosity propose 
to offer a deg. The smallest amount which can be givenf or the large 
deg is 80 maunds of rice, 28 maunds of ghl, 36 of sugar, and 15 of 
almonds and raisins, besides saffron and other spices ; and the mini- 
mum cost is Rs. 1,000. The larger the proportion of spices, sugar, 
and fruit, the greater is the glory of the donor. About 1840 
the Nazir Ilmds of Jodhpur offered a deg which cost Rs. 2,500, 
and its sweet savour is still redolent in the precincts of the dargdh. 
The donor of the large deg^ besides the actual cost of its contents, 
has to pay about Rs. 200 as presents to the officials of the shrine, 
and as offerings at the tomb. The small deg costs exactly half the 
large one. 

When this gigantic rice-pudding is cooked, it is " looted " in a 
state of boiling heat. Eight earthen pots of the mixture are first 
set apart for the foreign pilgrims, and it is the hereditary privilege 
of the people of Indurkot and of the menials of the dargdh to 
despoil the chaldron of the remainder of its contents. After the 
recitation of the Fdthia, one Indurkoti seizes a large iron ladle, 
and, mounting the platform of the deg^ ladles away vigorously. 
All the men who take part in this hereditary privilege are swad- 
dled up to the eyes in cloths to avoid the effect of the scalding 
fluid. Each takes a-ladleful of the stuff in the skirt of his coat, 
and not uncommonly finds the heat so overpowering that he is 
obliged to drop it. When the chaldron is nearly empty, all the 
Indurkotis tumble in together and scrape it clean. There is a 
story that Imddd Khan, a Resald^r of Jodhpur, wished on one 
occasion to make a fair and equable division to all, and partially 
accomplished his object ; but, on his return from the festival, he was 
stricken by a bullet directed by an unseen, if not supernatural, 
hand, and died. There is no doubt that the custom of " looting '* 
the deg is very ancient, though no account of its origin can be 
given. It is generally cotmted among the miracles of the saint 
that no lives have ever been lost on these occasions, though bums 
are frequent. The rice is bought by mahajans and others, and 
most castes will eat it. The number of pilgrims at this festival 



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( 64 ) 

is estimated at 20,000, but no buying or selling is done except 
that of pedlars' wares. 

From an antiquarian point of view, the most interesting sight 

The « ArUi-din-ka-Jhofi- in Ajmer is the masjid in the old town which 
P™" is known as the " Arh^-din-ka- Jhofipra," 

or the shed of two and a half days. Various accounts of the 
origin of this nanie have been given ; the most probable perhaps, 
or at least the only one which does not rest on a supernatural 
basis, is that Kutb-ud-din or Altamsh, on visiting Ajmer, 
passed the temple on his way to Taragarh and enjoined that, by 
his return in two and a half days, it should be ready as a place for 
his devotions. Accordingly, by the appointed time it was trans- 
formed into a Muhammadan mosque. Gteneral Cunningham, in 
the second volume of the reports of the Arehseological Survey, 
pages 258 to 263, has described this building in detail, and 
the following remarks are taken from his report: — ^like the 
great Kutb Masjid at Delhi, the Ajmer mosque was built of the 
spoils of many Hindu temples which were thrown down by the 
bigotry of the conquerors. The signs of rearrangement in the 
piUars are not so striking as in those of the Kutb mosque, but they 
are equally numerous and conclusive, and it is certain that the 
pillars did not belong to a Jain temple, as there are many four- 
armed figures sculptured on them. 

The Ajmer mosque is the finest and largest specimen of the 
early Muhammadan mosque that now exists. It consists of a 
quadrangle cloistered on aU four sides with a lofty screen-wall of 
seven pointed arches, forming a magnificent front to the western 
side. The side-cloisters are mostly ruined, but the whole of the 
seven noble arches of the screen- wall, and the greater part of the 
pillared cloisters behind them, are still standmg. The name of 
Altamsh may be read on the lower belt of writing on one of the 
minarets which surmount the screen- wall, and this is sufficient to 
show that the mosque must have been completed during the reign 
of Altamsh, or between A.D. 1211 and 1236. It is thus of the 
same age as the Kutb mosque at Delhi, and General Cunningham 
is inclined to believe that the two mosques were designed by the 
same architect, and that even the same mas6ns may possibly have 
been employed in the decoration of each. Externally, the Ajmer 
mosque is a square of 269 feet, whereas the Delhi mosque is a 
square of 147^ feet only. The screen-wall of the Ajmer mosque 
is 200 feet long, that at Delhi is 136 feet.* 

In the Kutb mosque, the Mazind^ or Muazzin*s tower for 
calling the Faithful to prayer, is a distinct and separate building, 

* This interestiDg building was restored at a cost of Bs. 14,000 in the year 1875-76, unsafe 
portions having been ^ken down and rendered safe. 



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( 65 ) 

known as the celebrated Kutb Mindr. But in the Ajmer mosque 
we have the earKest example of a pair of Muazzin's towers in two 
small min^ which are placed on the top of the screen-wall over 
the great centre aaxjh. This arrangement was impracticable in the 
Delhi mosque, as the screen-wall is only 8 feet thick ; but in the 
Ajmer mosque, with its massive screen-waH 11^ feet thick, the 
architect found it possible to erect two^ small miners, 10^ feet in 
diameter, for the use of the Muazzin. The tops of both of 
these min&rs are now ruiued, but enough stiU remains to show thsA 
they were sloping hollow towers with twenty-four faces or flutes 
alternately angijlar and circular, just like those of the Kutb 
Mindr. like their great prototype also, they were divided into 
separate stages or storeys by horizontal bdts of writing. 

In the masjid proper, and in the cloisters, there were originally 
344 pillars ; but as each of these represented at least two of the 
original pilhbrs, the actual number of Hindu columns could not 
have been less than TOO, which is equivalent to the spoils of from 
twenty to thirty temples. General Cunningham attributes the 
grandeur of conception and boldness of design exhibited in these 
two great mosques to the genius of the Islamite architect ; but 
the gorgeous prodigality of ornament, the delicate sharpness of 
finish,^ and the laborious accuracy of workmanship which are conspi- 
cuous in the execution, he considers due to theskillof Hindumasons. 

The hill-fort of Taragarh, which has played so prominent a part 
Tara h Port ^ history of the proviucc, is a circum- 

aragar . vallatiou of the crcst of the hill which 

overhangs the city of Ajmer and commands it at every point. The 
walls of the battlements, where they have not been built on the 
edge of an inaccessible precipicCj are composed of huge blocks of 
stone cut and squared, so as to make a dry wall of some 20 feet 
thick and as many high. The space within the walls is 80 acres^ 
and is much longer than broad, with an acute sali^it angle ta the 
south. There are several tanks inside the fort which are filled dur- 
ing the rains, and generally contam water throughout the year. 
From 1818 to 1832 the fort was occupied by a company of Native 
Infantry, but, on the visit of Lord William Bentinck in 1832, it 
was dismantled. Since 1860 it has been used as a sanatarium tor 
the European troops at Nasfrabdd, and the accommodation was 
increased in 1873 so as to allow of the residence of one himdred 
men. The summit is crowned by the shrine of Mir&n Husain, 
whose history has been related already. The shrine is endowed 
with three Plages, the average annual revenue of which is 
Rs. 4,367. Immediately around the shrine are tiie residences of 
the Khadims, or servitors. Jab^ Elhan, chamberlaui in the time 
of Akbar, built the mosque; and the present conspicuous gateway, 

I 



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( 66 ) 

from which there is a magnificent view of the surrounding coun- 
try, was built by Gumanji Bao Sindia. 

There is a massive, square, fortified palace built by Akbar on 
. the north side of the city, which from 

arsenal, but has now been converted into a tahsil and treasury. 
It is a prominent object in the landscape from all parts of the 
valley, but has no great pretensions to architectural beauty. This 
was the residence of Jehangir when at Ajmer. Shahjehan built 
a row of marble pavilions on the embankment of the Andsdgar, 
and turned into a residence what was a pleasure-gai^en in the 
time of Jehangir. 

The city of Ajmer is in latitude 26° 26' 30", and longitude 
74r 39' 31". It is 677 miles from Bombay and 232 by railway 
from Agra. 

Bemoar. — ^The thriving town of Bedwar or Nayanagar next 
claims notice as the chief mart of the cotton trade, and the only 
other municipality in the district. Its position between Mewar 
and Marwar gives it commercial advantages. The income of the 
municipality in 1876 was Bs. 18,788, of which sum Bs. 16,366 
were contributed by octroi. The incidence of taxation per head of 
population was Be. 1-5-3, while in Ajmer in the same year it 
was Bs. 1-10-2. 

Bedwar is the only town in Merwara, and is the creation of 
Colonel Dixon. Before 1835 there was only a small village of some 
thirty or forty houses, close to the cantonment of Bedwar, on the 
site of the present town. Colonel Dixon issued notifications of his 
intention to build a town, and in due course candidates for forty 
shops appeared. The work was then conmienced; the streets 
were marked off at right-angles, the main streets having a breadth 
of 72 feet, and being planted on each side with trees. Mohullas 
were allotted to the different castes ; and as the town grew and 
prospered. Government sanctioned the building of a town-waH of 
stone set in mud and plastered outside, which cost Bs. 23,840, and 
which has lasted exceedingly well. Colonel Dixon estimated the 
population in 1848 at 9,000 souls, but at that time it was probably 
not so large. The town contains a population, according to the 
census of 1876, of 12,038 souls. The houses are generally of 
masonry with slab roofs. There is a colony of smiths, whose 
iron-work is exported to Ajmer, Mewar, and Marwar ; and also 
a colony of dyers. 

Kekri.-^With the exception of the town of Nasirabdd, which 
has grown up with the cantonment, there are no other towns in 
the district with a population above 5,000. Kekri has about 5,000. 
The town is fifty miles from Ajmer, and, in the early yearsof British 



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( 67 ) 

rule, bade fair to rival Ajmer as a trading mart. It has, however, 
been long in a declining state. Except its position as regards native 
territory, the town possesses no advantages in itself ; water of any 
kind is scarce, and sweet water can omy be obtained from wells 
sunk in the bed of the tank adjoining the town. Kekri has a wall, 
and is the residence of a deputy magistrate, whose duties, since 
the istimr^ddrs of the adjoining parganas have been invested 
with magisterial and civil powers, have been much diminished. 

Pmhkar. — ^Pushkarisa celebrated place of pilgrimage, and the 
great sanctity of its lake, equalled, according to Colonel Tod, only 
by that of Manusarowar in Tibet, is due to the belief that here 
Brahma performed the yajna, and that the Sarasvati here re-ap- 
pears in five streams. The legends connected with these two beliefs 
may be found in the Prnhhar Mahdtmy of the JPadma Purana, 
Brahma was perplexed as to where he should perform the sacrifice 
according to the Vedas, as he had no temple on earth like other 
deities. As he reflected, the lotus fell from his hand, and he 
determined to perform his sacrifice wherever it fell. THie lotus, 
rebounding, struck the earth in three places ; water issued from all 
three, and Brahma, descending, called the name of the place 
Pushkar, after the lotus.* Brahma then collected all the gods, 
and on the 11th day of the bright half of Kdrtik, everything was 
ready. Each god and rishi had his own special duty assigned to 
him, and Brahma stood with a jar of amrit on his head. The 
sacrifice, however, could not begin until Sdvitri appeared, and 
she refused to come without Lakshmi, Parvati, and Indrdni, whom 
Pavan had been sent to summon. On hearing of her refusal, 
Brahma became enraged and said to Indra : " Search me out a 
girl that I may marry her and commence the sacrifice, for the jar 
of amrit weighs heavy on my head.'* Indra accordingly went, but 
found none except a Gujar's daughter whom he purified by passing 
her through the body of a cow, and then, bringing her to Brahma, 
told what he had done. Vishnu observed — " Brdhmans and cows 
are in reality identical ; you have taken her from the womb of a cow, 
and this may be considered a second birth.'* Shiva added that, as 
she had passed through a cow, she should be called Gdyatri.t The 
Brdhmans agreed that the sacrifice might now proceed, and 
Brahma, having married Gdyatri and having enjoined silence 
on her, placed on her head the jar of amrit, and the t/ajna com- 
menced. 

* The holy ground extends for one ^ojan round the largest lake, called Jyesht Pushkar, The 
second lake is the Madhya Pushkar, near the tank now called Svda Bai, The third lake is the 
Kanisht Pushka/r, which is now generally called Burha Pushkar. The middle lake is very small, 
and there are no buildings round it or round the third lake. 

t The image of Gayatri may be seen in the temple of Brahma, close to that of Brahma himtelf . 



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( 68 ) 

The sacrifice, however, was soon interrupted by a naked 
man who appeared crying ** Atmat ! Atmat 1" and who, at the 
instigation of Shiva, threw a skull into the sacrificial ground. When 
it was attempted to remove the skull, two appeared in its place, 
and the whole ground gradually became covered with skulls ; till 
Shiva, at Brahma's request, finally agreed to remove them on 
condition that he should have a temple at Pushkar, there to be 
worshipped under the name of Atmateswar. Meanwhile a number 
of Brdhmans, all u^y men, arrived from the Dakhln. As they 
bathed in the lake, their forms changed into those of handsome 
men; and the ghdt at which they bathed, <^ed Surdp Ghdt, is the 
resort of pilgrims on the 11th day of K^ik. 

On the morning of the 12th day the Brdhmans came to 
Brahma aaid asked where they were to bathe. He directed 
them to bathe in the Prdchi Sarasvati, the stream which passes 
by the village of Holopan; and it is explained how the Sarasvati, 
after disappearing imderground to escape the heat of the fire 
which she is cjmying to the sea, re-appears in five channels,* in 
the sacred soQ of Bushkar ; how two of these meet at Nand, five 
miles from Pushkar; and how, from the junction, the river, 
thereafter called the Ltini, proceeds to the sea. The sacrifice was 
disturbed this day by Batu Brdhman, who let loose a snake 
among the Brdhmans. The reptile coiled itself round Bhrigu 
Bishi, whose son imprecated a curse against Batu that he might 
become a snake. Batu, going to his grandfather Brahma, was 
consoled by the promise that he should be the founder of the 
ninth order of snakes, and was directed to go to the Ndgpahdr, 
where he should receive worship on the 5th day of the dark half 
of Sdwan at the place called the NAg-kund. 

The sacrifice proceeded till the 15th, each day having its 
appointed duties; for this day the Brdhmans were directed to 
make a circuit of the lakes and to bathe in Gayakup . t Shortly after 
their return, Sdvitri appeared, greatly incensed at the disregard 
which had been shown to her. Brahma sought to pacify her, but to 
no purpose, and she went away in a rage to the hill north of the 
lake where is her temple. 

After the y<yna performed by Brahma, Pushkar became so 
holy that the greatest sinner, by merely bathing in it, went to 
heaven. Heaven became inconveniently crowded, and the gods 
complained that no man any longer regarded them or his duty, 

* The five streams are enumerated as Swprahha, wMch falls into Jyesht Pushkar ; Sudha, 
which falls into Madhya Pushkar; Kdnka, which falls into Kanisht Pushkar; Nanda, which flows 
past Nand ; and Prdchi, which passes hy Hokran, 

t It is the duty of pilgrims on the 15th day of Kdrtik to perform the circuit {Parihramd) of 
the lakes and to hathe in Gayakup, the tank now known hy the name of Suda Bai. The virtues 
of the tirth of Gaya are said to reside in this place, whence the name. 



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( 69 ) 

SO easy was it to get to heaven. Brahma agreed accordingly that 
the tirth should only be on earth from the 11th day of Kdrtik to 
the full moon, and for the remainder of the year he promised to 
remove the tirth to the air (anfarikhsha).^ Such is the legend 
given in the Pushkar Mahdtmya. 

The legends conoeming Pushkar after the yajna of Brahma are 
rather confusing. The virtue of the lake is said to have been 
forgotten till it was re-discovered by Raja Nahar Rao Purihdr of 
Mandor, who followed a white boar to the margin of the lake, 
and then, dismoimting to quench his thirst, found, on touching 
the water, that he was cured of a sMn-disease. He is accordingly 
said to have had the lake excavated, and to have built ghdts. 
Pushkar, after this, appears to have come into the possession of 
Chechi Gujars, for there is a legend that some seven hundred 
years ago a large body of Sanyasis came to bathe in Pushkar ; 
they disapproved of the Gujars being in possession of the ghdts, 
killed them all on the night of the Dewali, and turning out the 
Kdnphatd Jogis, who had becoma priests of the temples, them- 
selves left a representative at each temple. 

There are five principal temples in Pushkar — ^those dedicated to 
Brahma, Sdvitri, Badri Narayana, Vdr^a, and Shiva Atmateswara. 
They are all of comparatively modem construction, for the old 
temples suffered much at the hands of the Mughals, and 
Aurangzeb, as elsewhere in India, enjoys the reputation of having 
destroyed all thetemples. A masjid, which is stillkept up, was built 
by him on the site of a temple to Kesho Rae. The temple of 
Brahma was built by Gokul-Pdrak, an Oswdl mahajan of GwaUor, 
and is the only temple dedicated to Brahma in India." The 
attendants at the temple are Pun Gusdens. The temple of Sdvitri 
is built on the north of the lake, and was constructed by the Purohit 
of Ajit Singh of Marwar, The temple to Badri Narayana was 
rebuilt by the Thdkur of Kharwa about 1800 A.D. That of 
VArdha, or the boar, was demolished by Jehangir, and the present 
temple was built by Bakht Singh of Jodhpur. Goma Rao, Stibahddr 
of the Marathas, re-built the temple of Shiva Atmateswara. 

The town is picturesquely situated on the lake, with hills on 
three sides : on the fourth side, the sands, drifted from the plains 
of Marwar, have formed a complete bar to the waters of the lake, 
which has no outlet, though the filtration through the sandhills 
is considerable. Bathing-ghdts have been constructed nearly 
round the lake, and most of the princely and wealthy families of 
• Rdjpiitdna have houses round the margin. The principal ones 

* The tirth can be made to descend by the recitation of a mantra commencing " Apo hishta 
mayobhuvas" — " Ye waters are the source of all good things." For Sudras, the recitation of the 
eight-syllabled mantra, " om namo Narayanaya," is sufficient. 



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( 70 ) 

are those built by Raja Mdn of Jaipur, Ahelya Bai, the queen 
of Holkar, Jawdhar Mai of Bhartpur, and Raja Bijay Singh of 
Marwar. According to ancient charters, no living thing is allowed 
to be put to death within the limits of Pushkar. A short time 
ago an English officer fired a rifle at an alligator in the lake ; the 
whole population immediately became much excited, petitions 
were poured in, and it was with difficulty that the Brdhmans 
could be pacified. The uproar was probably owinff as much to 
jealousy of their invaded privileges as to any feelmg connected 
with the sanctity of animal life ; but the latter feeling is not 
confined to the Brdhmans at Pushkar, and all the mercantile 
classes of the district, being of the Jain persuasion, are exceedingly 
tender of life. In the municipalities of Ajmer and Bedwar it 
is necessary, for sanitary reasons, to keep down the multitude of 
dogs which swarm in every Indian town, but none 'are allowed to 
be killed. The mahajans in both towns subscribe and keep up a 
staff of sweepers to catch the dogs, and a " dharmsala,'* a place 
where vagrant dogs are imprisoned and fed, till an opportunity 
arises for transporting them by batches into foreign States. As a 
matter of fact, the dogs generally succeed in returning to their 
native town in the rear of the cart on which they have been 
expatriated, and the process recommences de novo. 

The population of Pushkar is about 3,750, and consists almost 
entirely of Brdhmans ; of these, there are two divisions — those of 
the Bara Bds and those of the Chhota Bds — and these two have been 
perpetually at variance. The Brdhmans of the Bara Bds are 
undoubtedly the older inhabitants, and they have held the lands of 
PushTiar in jdglr since long before the Mughal empire. They 
say they are descended from Pardsar, the father of the Veda 
Vydsa, and that, like the Mathura Chdubes, their names were 
omitted when the list of the ten Brdhmanical tribes was drawn up. 

They trace their descent, however, through one Bhopat, and the 
general belief is that this Bhopat was a Mer, Brdhmans will not 
eat with these men, who are found only in Pushkar and in a few 
of the neighbouring towns of Marwar. They are generally called 
" Bhojak'^ in the papers which have been given by the Rajas on 
the appointment of Purohits, and they intermarry with Sevaks, the 
Brdhman attendants at Jain temples. 

The Brdhmans.of the Chhota Bds cannot say when they first 
came to Pushkar, but there is a charter of Jehangir extant 
providing that, of the offerings to the Brdhmans, two-thirds should 
be allotted to the Bara Bds and one-third to the Chhota Bds;» 
and this is still the rule of division. These last Brdhmans are 
divided into four classes, — Gaur, Sunddh,Gujrdti, and Raj Purohit; 
and are the Purohits of the Rajas of Jaipur, Bikanir, Bhartpur, 



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( 71 ) 

and Dholpur. There is a story that Siwai Jai Singh came to 
bathe in the lake, and gave his clothes to the Furohit, a Brdhman of 
the Bara Bds. He was afterwards surprised to see his clothes 
worn by a Sevak in a procession at a Jain funeral at Jaipur. On 
enquiry, he found that the Sevak was a son-in-law of the Purohit, 
and he then took away the office from the Brdhmans of the Bara 
Bds and conferred it on those of the Chhota Bds. 

The fair at Pushkar takes place in October or November, and, 
like other religious fairs, is used as an opportimity for trade. It 
is attended by about one hundred thousand pilgrims, who bathe 
in the sacred lake. In 1877 the quantity of merchandise and the 
number of animals brought for sale were below the average — ^there 
were about 401 horses, 1,496 camels, and 1,986 bullocks. The 
horses are chiefly Marwari and Katiawar, and the native cavalry 
regiments serving in Bdjpiltdnd generally send parties to purchase 
remounts. 

Other Toums. — ^The remaining towns in the district may be 
more briefly dismissed. Bhinai, Masuda, Sdwar, Baghera, and 
Pisdngan are the chief towns of their respective thdkurs. There is 
an old Jain temple at PisAngan which derives its name from its being 
situated near the Priyasangama or junction of the Sarasvati 
and Sagarmati streams. Khurwa is celebrated for its tank. 
Deolia, Bundunwara, and Gobindgarh have each a population of 
about 3,000. Among the khalsa villages, Rdmsar boasts of a large 
taldo from which it derives its name. Srfnagar is famous as 
the seat of the former power of the Pudr Rdjpiits. who were 
dispossessed by the Gaurs, and whose representative is now 
Thdkur of Bandsar in Bikanir. Rajgarh was held by the Gaur 
Ei,]ptits before the ascendency of the Rahtors, and was given in 
jdglr in 1874 to the descendant of its original rulers. 

Education. 

JEducation. — As regards education the province is in a very 
backward state. There is no literary cla^ in Ajmer, and the 
agricultural classes are quite apathetic on the subject. Of a 
total number of 1,143 headmen of villages appointed at the 
settlement of 1874, only 64 could write their names. 

With the exception of a monthly subsidy of E«. 300, which was 
jj^ ^ given to an English missionary who had 

jmer o ege. established a school at Ajmer, no attempt 

was made by Government to provide for the education of the 
people, till the year 1861, when a school was opened at Ajmer. 
The school was affiliated to the Calcutta University in 1861, and 
since that time 37 pupils have passed the Entrance Examination, 



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( 72 ) 

and 8 of this number the Pirst Arts Examination. In 1868 the 
school was raised to the position of a college, but with a staff of 
teachers limited to the requirements of the First Arts Examination 
of the Calcutta University. 

The college at Ajmer is a conmiodious building, situated about 
a mile from the city. The present staff consists of a principal, a 
head-master, a teacher of mathematics, an assistant teacher of 
mathematics, and seventeen assistant-masters ; the principal, the 
head-master, and the teacher of mathematics are Englishmen^ The 
number of pupils on the rolls at the close of 1877-78 was 190, of 
whom 164 were Hindus, 24 Muhammadans, and 2 others. 
Of these, 4 studied English alone, 121 studied English, Urdu, and 
Persian, and 66 studied English with Hindi and Sanskrit. The 
total income of the college was Bs. 28,964, including a Gtovemment 
grant of Rs. 27,166 ; and the expenditure was Rs. 29,230. 

Attached to the college is a boarding-house for the acconuno- 
dation of boys from the village schools who have obtained scholar- 
ships ; and 20 boys resided here in 1877-78. 

There is also a city branch school established in the city of 
Ajmer with a view to provide education for the poor boys of the 
city, and for such of the children as from their tender age or 
other causes could not attend the Government college situated on 
the Bedwar road, a mile distant from the heart of the town. The 
number of boys on the rolls at the close of 1877-78 was 284, of 
whom 223 were Hindus and 61 Muhammadans. The total in- 
come of the school was Rs. 3,900, of which about half is provid- 
ed out of the imperial revenues and the rest by the Ajmer 
municipality, fees and fines, &c. This school is intended to be 
a preparatory school for the college, and is placed under the direct 
supervision of the principal of the college. 

A somewhat similar school has been started at Bedwar to 
provide primary education for the children of the town. There 
were 162 boys in this school at the end of the year, most of them 
being Hindus. 

During the year 1876-77 the district schools were reorganized 
-„ ^ .„ , , with a view to extending the range of ele- 

Elementary village schools. . iT-jf^ mi i 

mentary pubhc mstruction. The number 
of the existing tahsili schools was reduced, and a larger number of 
halkabandi or elementary schools established. There are now 
68 vernacular schools established, 50 in the Ajmer district and 
18 in Merwara. Of these, 19 are supported by Government, and 
the rest from the educational share (one per cent.) of the S^ per 
cent. cess. Of 1,770, the total number of boys attending these 
schools in 1877-78, 1,346 belonged to Ajmer and 426 to Merwara. 
Of this number, 1,669 were Hindus, and only 101 Muhanmiadans ; 



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( 73 ) 

of the Hindus, 1,271 were recorded as sons of agriculturists, and 
the rest were non-agriculturists, consisting of mahajans, artizans, 
&c. The total cost of these schools during 1877-78 amounted to 
Rs, 15,367, of which Rs. 9,484 were a Government grant. The 
average daily attendance was 1,234*03. 

Besides these, there is one grant-in-aid mission school at Bedwar, 
one male normal school, one female normal school, five girls' 
schools in the Ajmer district, and one jail school at Ajmer — 
educating a total numher of 376 pupils, of whom 65 were girls. 

During the year 1877-78 a grant-in-aid of E/S. 100 per men- 
sem was sanctioned for a school to be established at Ajmer for the 
education of European and Eurasian children. 

No arrangements were made at Colonel Dixon's settlement in 
1850 for the levy of a school-cess ; but shortly after the announce- 
ment of the assessment, 75 schools were established in Ajmer- 
Merwara, and Colonel Dixon possessed sufficient influence to 
induce the people to defray a large portion of their cost. The 
number was subsequently reduced to 57, and the contributions 
were continued as long as Colonel Dixon lived. After his death, 
however, the clamours of the people against the cess became so 
violent, that Government authorized the cessation of the contribu- 
tion, and all schools except those supported by Government were 
closed. The intensity of the unpopularity of the cess may be 
gathered from the fact that, when the sister-in-law of the Bhinal 
Eaja performed sati in 1857, the last request of the Brdhmans who 
surrounded the pile was that she might use her influence for the 
abolition of the cess for village schools. 

On this subject the labours of the B;djptitdna branch of the 
United Presbyterian Mission deserve notice. The Mission, whose 
head-quarters are at Edinburgh, collects between £30,000 and 
£40,000 a year for foreign missions alone, and has eight stations 
in Bdjpiitdna. The first, Bedwar, was founded in xl.D. 1860 by 
the Rev. Mr. Shoolbred. Nasirabdd was founded the following 
year. The Ajmer station was established in 1862, and that of 
Todgarh in 1863. Deoli received a missionary in 1871, and Jaipur 
in 1872. The whole cost of the schools established by the Mission 
is borne by the Mission Board, and grants-in-aid have been to a 
small extent received. The Mission has established five Anglo- 
Vernacular schools — at Ajmer, Bedwar, Nasirabdd, Deoli, and 
Todgarh; besides 68 vernacular boys' schools and 8 vernacular girls' 
schools. The numbers in the Anglo- Vernacular schools are 721, 
and average attendance 561. There are 1,564 boys in the verna- 
cular schools, and 243 girls, with an average attendance together 
of 1,284. The total of boys and girls in all the Mission schools in 
the district amoimts to 2,518, and the average attendance was 

K 



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( 7^ ) 

1,8'45, or, including Native States, 3,453 on the roll, and average 
attendance 2,597. The Mission has also established four orphan- 
ages — in Bedwar, Ajmer, Nasirabdd, and Todgarh — ^in which 220 
orphans of both sexes are fed, clothed, and educated. Some of 
the Beawar orphans have been settled on land secured for them 
near the villages of BaUd and Nundri. 

Thereare four thoroughly qualified practitioners — at Ajmer, 
NasirabM, Bedwar, and UdaipuT — ^who superintend dispensaries 
where medicine and advice are given gratis. 

The following statement shows in a synoptical form the 
statistics of the schools above mentioned -: — 



<Ol.ASS 07 BCHOOI.. 


o 

si 


■i 

1. 

It 


5^ 






1^ 


Bbicabks. 


Oovernmeni Schools. 






Bs. 


Bs. 


Bs. 






Ajmer GoTernment College 


1 


190 


27,166 


28,964 


29,230 


181^08 




Ajmer City Branch fiidhool 


1. 


284 


1,562 


8,900 


3,900 


240-7 




Seiwar „ „ 


1 


162 


75 


1,075 


940 


71- 




Tahsili and Halkabandi Sclioc^s ... 


68 


1,770 


9,484 


18,653 


16,367 


1,23403 




tGirls' Schools 


6 


69 


1,018 


1,498 


602 


48*10 




Male Normal School 


1 


20 


1,410 


1,416 


1,116 


16-64 




female „ „ 


1 


6 


417 


1,051 


690 


4-71 




trail School 


1 


90 


291 


361 


275 


79-89 




kJrant-in-aid Mission School, Betfwar 


1 


200 


1,036 


3,423 


3,347 


150- 




Total GoTemment 


80 


2.771 


4S,458 


60,025 


55,357 


2,02515 




Mission Sehoois. 
















Anglo- Vemacnlar ... ... 


6 


2,276 
243 


'.. •••• 








• 


Elementary, Boys* 
„ Girls* 


68, 

8 




.... 


1,845- 


( The cost of the Mission 
\ schools is not known. 


Total Mission 


81 


2,518 


... 






1,846- 




Gbakd Totai. 


161 


6,289 


42,468 


60,025 


66,357 


3,870-16 





Literatwe and the Press, — There is no indigenous literary- 
class, nor was there any printing press in Ajmer till 1871. Prom 
this press the Bajputdna Official Gazette issues in English, 
Hindi, and Urdu ; and the publisher is allowed to add a supple- 
ment, which is an ordinary newspaper. 

Mayo College. — In the latter part of the year 1870 the late 
Earl of Mayo visited Rdjpiltdna, and, in a darbdr held at Ajmer, 
suggested to the princes and chiefs there present that a college 
should be founded at Ajmer, where the future rulers and nobles 
of Bdjputdna might receive such an education as would fit them 
for their high position and important duties. He proposed that 



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( 7S ) 

an aristocratic college should be established at the joint expense 
of Government and its feudatories, and invited subscriptions 
from the chiefs. They responded by promises of sums amount*- 
ing to nearly six lakhs. The interest on this sum, added to a 
fixed annual subsidy from the Government of India, forms the 
income of the college, ta be devoted to the salaries of the educa- 
tional and subordinate staff, and the maintenance of the grounds. 
With regard to the buildings, it was arranged that the college 
itself, with residences for the principal and head-master, should 
be provided by Government, and that each State should build 
boarding-houses^ for the accommodation of its own pupils within 
the college precincts,, the residence for the Ajmer boys being 
built at the expense of the British Government. 

A space of about 150 acres, including the site of the old 
Ajmer Residency, was taken up at the end of 1871 for the college 
grounds. But, at this pointy operations languished for somo. 
timCy owing to indecision on, the subject of a. design for the main 
building, and the work, did not begin actively until towards tho 
close of 1873^ Boarding-houses for Ajmer, Udaipur, Jodhpur, 
Jaipur (twelve pupils each), Bhartpur and Bikanir (two pupils 
each), are finished, as well as houses for the principal and head- 
master. Houses for boys from Alwar, Tonk,. Kotah, and Jhald- 
war complete the list*^ All the houses, with the exception of the 
Jaipur residence, built by that State, have been constructed by 
the Department of Public Works* The designs are principally in 
the Hindu-Saracenic style,, and stone masonry of a high class 
has alone been used in their ccmstruction. 

The main college building was commenced in 1877. The first 
stone was laid by A.. C. Lyall, Esq., Agent to the Governor-General 
and Chief Commissioner of Ajmer, on the 5th January 1878. 
The building was designed by Major Mant, r.e., and is being 
constructed by J. W. Brassington, Esq., C.E., of white marble 
from the local quarries. It cannot be finished until 1880. But 
the opening of the college was not delayed till its completion. 
The first principal was Ma3or St. John, r.e. On his departure to 
Kabul, he was succeeded by Captain Loch. In 1877-78 there 
were 39 pupils at the college. 

Dispensaries. — ^Ajmer-Merwara contains six dispensaries : the 
branch dispensary at Todgarh was closed on 1st May 1877, and 
a grant-in-aid allowed to the missionaries at Todgarh ; the sadr 
dispensary at Ajmer, and the dispensaries at Kekri, Masuda, 
Pisdngan, and Bdmsar, being under the charge of the civil 
surgeon. The other dispensary is at Bedwar in Merwara, and is 
under the charge of the assistant surgeon at Beawar, who is 
a native of Bengal. The income of the dispensaries during 



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( 76 ) 

the year 1877-78 was Rs. 11,480, of which Rs. 3,322 was an im- 
perial charge; the expenditure was Rs. 6,200, of which Es. 4,353 
was the cost of estahlishment. The numher of in-patients was 4,561 ; 
of out-patients, 25,970. In 1859 the revenue of the dispensaries 
was Rs. 1,751, of which Rs. 1,460 was a Government grant ; the 
number of in-door patients was 119 and out-door 5,158* The 
great want of the district in respect of the dispensaries is that of 
competent native doctors, and it was proposed to establish a 
medical school at Ajmer, as it has been found that foreigners from 
Bengal proper do not make these institutions popular with the 
people. It may be added that a small enclosure adjoining the 
Ajmer dispensary has been set apart for lunatics, but there is na 
lunatic asylum in the province. 

Poorhouses. — In this place may be given an account of the 
institution attached to the Dargdh Khwaja Sahib, which is known 
as the "Langar Khana,'' and is the only institution resembling a 
poorhouse in the district. The custom of giving a daily dole is as 
ancient as the shrine itself, and is alluded to in all the old grants. 
Two maunds of barley are daily cooked in a chaldron with salt and 
distributed at daybreak to all who come. The average daily attend- 
ance in 1874 was about 400. No inquiry is made as to recipients. 
Besides the 730 maimds of grain which are thus yearly consumed, 
604 maunds are annually distributed to infirm women, widows, and 
other deserving persons at their own houses. The whole charity is 
in charge of two darogas who receive pay from the funds of the 
institution. The cook, water-carrier, and other servants are paid in 
grain. In times of scarcity a second dole is issued in the evening. 
The normal cost of the charity in 1874 was about Rs. 3,000 per 
annum, of which Rs. 666 — a large percentage — was the cost of 
supervision. 

Administration. 

Administration : Civil and Criminal. — The following statement 
shows the number of courts and of covenanted ofiGlcers in Ajmer- 
Merwara at different periods :— 





1823-24. 


186a-61. 


1860.81. 


1872-73. 


1877-78. 


Kumber i^ maaisteriail courts .,. „. ,„ 
M civil courts, including reyenue oowrtB 
„ covenanted oflficers ftt work throughowfc tlw year 


8 
8 
8 


8 


6 
8 
8 


f 
11 

8 


20 

18 

8 



In the year 1823-24, when Merwara came under British 
management, the civil and criminal and revenue administrations 
were placed in the hands of one officer, Captain Hall ; and civil and 
criminal cases were decided by punchayet. At this time in Ajmer 



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( 77 ) 

there was a Superintendent who was also Political Agent for 
Jodhpnr, Jesalmer, and Kishangarh; and an Assistant who did the 
mass of the criminal work. The civil work was done by a Sadr 
Amin, the heavy cases being taken up by the Superintendent. 
In 1850-51 Colonel Dixon was Superintendent of both districts 
with civil and criminal powers, and had an Assistant in Merwara 
and another in Ajmer. Besides these covenanted officers there 
were two Sadr Amlns in Ajmer, who did both civil and criminal 
work. By the Ajmer Courts Regulation dated 8th March 1872, 
published under section 1 of the Statute 33 Vic, chapter 3, the 
whole judicial system was reorganized. Subsequently in 1877 
another Courts Eegulation was passed. By this Regulation 
there are five grades of courts, viz. — (1) the court of the Chief 
Commissioner ; (2) the court of the Commissioner ; (3) courts of 
Subordinate Judges of 1st class; (4) courts of Subordinate 
Judges of 2nd class; (5) courts of Munsifs. Each of these 
courts has, ordinarily, both civil and criminal jurisdiction. It 
was provided that, if a court of first appeal confirms a decision 
of a court of first instance on a matter of fact, such decision shall 
be fijial. In the year 1877-78 there were twenty magisterial 
courts. The Commissioner exercises the powers of a Sessions 
Judge, and the Chief Commissioner those of a High Court. In 
the same year there were seventeen civil courts, exclusive of 
the court of the Chief Commissioner. The magistrate of the 
district has been invested with the powers described in 
section 36 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, and hears ap- 
peals from the decisions of officers exercising the powers of a 
subordinate magistrate. He is invested with the powers of 
a civil court in all suits, whatever be the value or amount of the 
subject-matter; and with power to hear appeals from decisions 
of any civil court of the first four grades. The aggregate value 
of suits in 1877-78 was Rs. 8,01,116, being an average of Rs. 11381. 
The civil courts do not sit during the months of August and 
September. 

In Merwara, till the introduction of Act VIII of 1859, aU civil 
cases were decided by punchayet. In Ajmer a custom obtained 
from 1818 to 1843 for the Superintendent to " countersign all 
agreements presented by all classes of ^people desirous of entering 
into pecuniary engagements with mahajans or others. The 
contracting parties, either in person or by vakfl, appeared before 
the signing authority to vouch to the correctness of the document. 
The purport of the writing, whether giving a whole estate in 
mortgage or pledging property to a smaller extent, was not noticed. 
It was considered sufficient that the parties concerned verbally 
certified to the correctness of the instrument. The paper thus 



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( 78 ) 

signed was considered of equal legal force with a decree of 
court, and, as such, it has been acted on to the present day. 
The production of the dast-khati ikrdrnama, with the request 
on the part of the plaintiff that the engagement be carried 
through, has met with a prompt compliance. Upon a requisition 
on plain paper, the same process has issued as if the case had 
been decided in the civil court after the payment of all legal ex- 
penses. In this manner has a large portion of the Ajmer land 
become impledged to the monied interests. On the calls of the 
tahsildar, on the istimrdrddrs becoming pressing, the agent, with 
the friendly money-lender, appeared before authority, when the 
proceeds arising from some of the villages for a term^ of years were 
signed away to the money-lender." Such is Colonel Dixon's 
account of the custom which he was the first to discontinue. In 
lieu of it, a system similar to that prevailing in the Regulation 
Provinces prior to the passing of the Code of Civil Procedure was 
established. On receiving the plaint, a notice was issued to the 
defendant directing his attendance by vakil or in person within 
fifteen days. Should he not have attended within that term, 
proclamation was made that, if he should not answer within 
another term of fifteen days, the case would be decided ex-parte. 
" Should he file his answer, the reply and replication are called 
for, the issues to be tried are then determined, and a period of six 
weeks is allowed to the plaintiff to produce his proof. Thus it 
may happen that three months have elapsed before the case is ready 
for trial. After this there is often most unnecessary delay in 
deciding the points at issue j one party applies for the postpone- 
ment of the trial, or for more time ; then the opposite party 
follows suit. The papers are often absurdly lengthy, and filled 
with nice arguments on points quite immaterial to the real issue .'^ 
Such is the description of Major Lloyd, writing in I860, 

Folice. — The following figures show the strength of the 
jegular and municipal police in the district in the year 1877 : — 

^ f European district superintendent and inspectors, &c. ... 3 

\ Native inspectors, sub-inspectors, and bead constables 93 

IVTi^v (Mounted ... ... ... ... 4a 

Total ...582 

Police stations are divided into first-class, second-class, and 
outpost. In Ajmer there ara six first-class stations, six second- 
class, and nine outposts ; in Merwara, three first-class stations, 
two second-class, and seven outposts — total nine first-class, eight 
second-class, and sixteen outposts. One of the chief difiiculties 
with which the police of the district have to contend is the 



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( 79 ) 



cammission of dacoities by large bodies of mounted men, and 
there is reason to believe that gangs often pass through British 
territory, especially the narrow strip of Merwara, in going to or 
returning from the scene of their depredations. 

Jail Statistics. — There is now only one jail in the district, 
that of Bedwar having been tjlosed. Till the year 1860, the 
Ajmer jail was in an old native building near the city, and, owing 
to the unhealthiness of the site, the mortality was very great. In 
1854, out of 188 prisoners, 12 died ; in 1865, 18 out of 166 ; in 1856, 
20 out of 122 ; in 1857, 25 out of 138. In 1859 the daily average 
of prisoners was 169, and *the mortality amounted to 34, or 20 per 
cent. A new jail was commenced in 1858 on one of the healthiest 
sites in Ajmer, and the mortaKty is now reduced to under 1 per 
cent. Before the new jail was buiit, no indoor work was done 
by the prisoners. No regular statistics of the Ajmer jail are 
procurable before the year 1864-65, when it was placed under the 
Inspector-General of Prisons. The following statement shows the 
comparative statistics of the Ajmer jail for the years 1864-65 
and 1877-78:— 





1864-65. 


1877-78. 


Total nmnber of prisoners admittedf during the year 

y, „ discharged daring the year 
Average number sick m hospital 
Total number of deatiis during the year 
Percentage of deaths to total population 


251i 
638 
629 
1076 

6 

•78 


424-00 

753 

671 

11-30 

4 
0-26 


Total cost per prisoner for rations ... 

,f tt clothing 

9, „ jail establishment, including fixed establishment, pdice, 
and extra guards ... 

t$ »» hospital chaises 

*» »» contingencies 
Total cost per prisoner, including all charges 
Total value of jail manufactures 
Average amount earned by each prisoner employed on manufactures ... 


Bs. A. P. 

80 6 m 

4 8 1| 

21 2 6 
19 3 
2 16 3 

66 1 0^ 
995 6 6 

15 6 11 


Bs. A. P. 

19 3 619 
3 12 3-90 

20 2 6-37 
13 3-58 
3 12 1 86 

54 4 689 
7,822 
23 12 1 



Military. — There are three military stations in the district— 
NaslrahM, Deoli, and Ajmer ; the two latter being garrisoned by 
local corps, the Deoli Irregular Porce and the Merwara 
Battalion. At Deoli a regiment of Bengal cavaliy is also can* 
toned. At Beawar there is a detachment of the Merwara 
Battalion. 

The cantonment of Naslrabdd is situated on a bleak bare plain 

Nasirab^ which slopcs castwards from the furthest 

range of the Arvali hills in this direction. 

The drainage is good, but there is a great lack of sweet water. All 

the wells in the cantonment are brackish, and many are quite bitter. 

Drinking-water for the troops has hitherto been carried a distance of 



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< 80 ) 

about three miles. Many schemes have been proposed for supply- 
ing the cantonment with water by forming a tank-embankment 
in the nearest range of hills, and one of these, by which water 
will be brought a distance of five miles from a village called Danta, 
has been carried out. 

The lines of Nasirabdd were laid out in 1818 by Sir David 
Ochterlony, who, early in that year, had marched into Rdjpii- 
tdna with a force of eight regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, 
and a proportionate amount of artillery, with a view of effecting the 
dispossession of Amir KhAn's forces, and confirming the newly- 
formed and renewed treaties of alliance and protection with the 
States of Bdjpiitdna. Two accoimts are given of the origin of 
the name. According to one, it was after a fakir, Nasir Shdh, 
whom the general foimd living in the place. According to the 
other, the name is derived from the title of Nasir-ud-daula which 
Shah Alam conferred on Sir David Ochterlony for his defence of 
Delhi against Holkar in 1804. The cantonment is laid out in a 
continuous stretch of over a mile in length, the lines of the troops 
being to the windward of the officers' bungalows, to the leeward 
of which is a large, irregularly-built, open town with about 18,000 
inhabitants. The garrison consists of a battery of royal artillery, 
a regiment of European infantry, short of a detachment left at 
Nimach, a regiment of Bombay infantry, and a squadron of 
Bombay cavalry from the regiment at Nimach. It is commanded 
by a brigadier-general with the usual staff, but forms part of the 
Mhow Division of the Bombay Army, and is generally visited once 
a year by the major-general of the division. Though Ajmer 
has always belonged to the Bengal Presidency, and has always 
been administered by Bengal officers, NaslrabM is under the 
Commander-in-Chief of Bombay and is garrisoned by Bombay 
troops. 

The cantonment is administered by a cantonment committee ; 
and the cantonment magistrate exercises civil and crimiQal juris- 
diction within four miles radius of the cantonment. NaslrabM 
possesses a chaplara of the Church of England appointed by the 
Bishop of Bombay, and a Roman CathoKc chaplain. With the 
exception of the United Presbyterian missionaries, and a 
chaplain at Ajmer who visits Jaipur periodically, there are no 
other ecclesiastics in the district ; the chaplain at Nasirabdd, who 
belongs to the Bombay diocese, being supposed to minister to 
the spiritual requirements of the European inhabitants of 
Bedwar and Deoli. Extracts from the registers of births, deaths, 
^Tid marriages in Ajmer are forwarded to the Registrar of the 
Calcutta diocese ; and the Administrator-General of Bengal takes 
charge of the estates of persons dying intestate. 



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( 81 ) 

Wie (^ntonment of Deoli is about seventy miles fi-om Ajmel? 

in the midst of native territory, but the 

DeolL cantonment itself is considered part of the 

Ajmer district. It is garrisoned by an 

irregular cavalry l^ghneut from the Bengal Presidency, and a local 

corps called the Deoli Irregular Force. This latter consists of 

both cavalry and infantry, the cavalry being mostly Sikhs> while 

the infantry are Minas, a predatory tribe who have been enlisted 

as soldiers with a view of weaning them from unlawful pui^uits* 

The commandant of the force has been gazetted as cantonment 

magistrate, and disposes of the few magisterial cases which arise 

here from time to time. 

This Battalion, whose head-quarters were l^emoved from 
BeAwar to Ajmer in 1871, demands more 
eirwara on. notice, as it was largely instrumental in 

the pacification and civilization of Merwara ; and the B/Csolution 
of the Governor-General in Council, dated 20th June 1822, 
which directed the formation of a local corps in Merwara^ 
yields to none in importance among the measures adopted to 
reclaim the Mers from their predatory habits** The nucleus 
of the regiment then raised was composed of drafts from 
the Udmpura local battalion, which in its turn had been formed 
from the remnants of the army of the notorious Amir Khdn. 
The total strength of the new Battalion was fixed at 680 of 
all ranks, divided into eight companies. Vacancies for 340 Mers 
as sepoys were reserved, and a certain proportion of the commis- 
sioned and non-commissioned posts were set apart for those Mers 
who should soonest qualify themselves to hold them. The corps 
was cantoned near the old town of Bedwar, about thirty miles 
south-west of Ajmer, then in the midst of a waste and uncultivated 
tract of country. At first there was considerable difficulty in 
obtaining recruits, but 100 Mers of all ages from fifty to fourteen 
years were induced to enlist by a boimty of five rupees and the 
favorable influence of a general feast. Not only was it difficult 
to enlist men, but it was still more difficult to retain them after 
they had enlisted. Many returned to their villages, being unable 
to brook the restraints of military service. The regiment, how- 
ever, soon found no difficulty in attracting men to its standards : 
some of the most smart and deserving recruits were rapidly 
promoted ; the first feeling of mistrust soon gave way to one of 
attachment to the service; and while the Battalion gained in 
popularity, it also attained a creditable standard of efficiency from 
a military point of view. 

* The following account of tho regiment has been taken chiefly from Colonel Dixon' ■ ** Sketch 
•f Merwara." 

L 



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( 82 ) 

During the fearly years of the existence of the Battalion, many 
Mer sepoys used to take their discharge on the completion of 
three years* service, by which time they had generally managed to 
save sufficient money to purchase a pair of bullocks. They then 
TOtumed to their villages and took to agriculture. In this way the 
number of those who in the new regiment had learnt what duty 
was, and who had acquired habits of discipline, obedience, clean* 
liness, and good faith, was sufficiently great to influence the inhabi- 
tants of Merwara in the direction of industry and order. In 1835 
a system of agricultural advances was estabfished, and, from that 
date, discharges, though still numerous, were much less frequent. 
In 1823 the cantonments were moved four miles south, adjacent 
to what was subsequently the site of the town of Nayanagar. 

In 1825 the Battalion was augmented by the addition of ten 
men per company, thus raising its strength to 760 of all ranks. 
The immediate cause of augmentation was severe detachment 
duty on the outposts in the Merwara hills. This did not, however, 
prevent two companies being detached to Ajmer in 1832 — one as 
the escort of the Agent to the Governor-General, the other as a 
city-guard. 

It was not till the year 1839 that the Battalion saw any active 
service. In that year it was foimd necessary to despatch a force, 
composed of the Merwara Battalion and the Jodhpur Legion, 
against several outlawed thdkurs of Marwar, who, under the 
leadership of one Chiman Singh, Champdwat, had for several years 
devoted memselves to pillage and highway robbery, and whom the 
Maharaja of Jodhpur was unable to subdue. The outlaws had 
established their head-quarters in the wild country near the town 
of Kot in Merwara at the entrance of the Dawer pass. The two 
regiments, under the command of Captain Dixon, moved on the 
enemy from different directions, and, after a sharp struggle, suc- 
ceeded in completely dislodging the outlaws and breaking up the 
band, many of whom were killed, with their leader Chiman Singh, in 
the action. The loss of the regiments was only eight men killed and 
woimded ; and the thanks of the Governor-General were accorded 
to Captain Dixon, while the conduct of the BattaKon met with 
high commendation. In the autunm of the same year the services 
of the regiment were again put into requisition for the expedition 
against Jodhpur; but as Maharaja M^ Singh submitted to all 
demands, no hostilities occurred, and the force was marched 
back to its quarters at Bedwar. With this event ends all that need 
be said of the Merwara local Battalion till the Mutiny of 1857. 

The troops in NasirabM mutinied on the 28th May 1857. Early 
notice having been conveyed to Colonel Dixon, commanding the 



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( 83 ) 

Battalion at Bedwar, lie immediately ordered a company to move on 
Ajmer. By a forced march of thirty-three miles during the night, 
lieutenant W. Camell, commanding the detachment, was enabled 
to occupy the magazine at Ajmer before information of the 
occurrences at NasirabM had reached the company of the 15th 
Native Infantry then garrisoning the niagazine. It consequently 
permitted itself to be reheved and marched to NasirabM, and 
by this prompt measure the safety of Ajmer was secured. The 
detachment was subsequently strengthened by further reinforce- 
ments from Bedwar. During the course of the Mutiny, a detach- 
ment of the Battalion was employed with the Rdjpiitdna field force 
under Major-General Sir G. St.Patrick Lawrence, and moved 
against the mutineers of the Jodhpur Legion, who had established 
themselves in the walled town of Aiwa in Marwar. Por its services, 
and for the unshaken fidelity and loyalty displayed by the corps, 
all men serving with the Battalion on the 1st July 1857 were 
rewarded with the grant of the pay, and privileges as regards 
pension, of soldiers of the line. 

In December 1857 the Government of India authorized the 
formation of a second Mer regiment under the command of lieu- 
tenant W. Camell, to be stationed at Ajmer. On its formation, 
the Merwara local Battalion was reduced by two companies, which 
were drafted into the new regiment ; the strength of the united 
corps was 1,500 men. The new Battalion, however, enjoyed but a 
short existence. In 1861, financial reasons rendered its reduction 
necessary, and in October of that year it was amalgamated with 
the old Merwara local Battalion, which was then raised to the 
strength of 1,000 of all ranks, and was placed under the 
Inspector General of Police. By this measure, the Battalion, with 
the exception of the men on whom special privileges had been 
conferred as a reward for loyalty during the Mutiny, was deprived 
of the advantages, in respect of pay and pension, which were 
afterwards conferred on the other local military corps of Rdjptitdna, 
and the men were consequently discontented, while the regiment 
was practically useless for purposes of police. These, among other 
cogent reasons, induced Lord Mayo, after his visit to Ajmer in 
1870, to reorganize the Battalion into a purely military corps. 
Accordingly, by the Resolution in Council dated 20th November 
1870, the numbers were reduced to a total strength of 712 of all 
ranks, divided into eight companies. The pay of the men was raised 
from Es. 5-8 to Bs. 7 a month, and they were granted the same 
privileges as regards pension and allowances as the other local 
mf antry corps ia Rdjptitdna. At the same time, the head-quarters 
were transferred from BeAwar to Ajmer. 

There are no regulations fixing the proportions of the castes to 



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( 84 ) 

be enlisted, but the variations are slight, and the tendency is towards 
reduction of the foreign element. The composition in 1874 of the 
force, consisting of 710 men, was as follows : — ^Mers, 351 ; Merats^ 
232 ; Muhammadans, chiefly belonging to the Ajmer district, 32 ; 
Brdhmans, 19 ; Rdjptits, 19 ; Jdts, 6 ; Gujars, 3 ; other castes, 48, 
chiefly fromRdjptitdna, though a few come fromOudh and Benares. 
In Colonel Dixon's " Sketch of Merwara '' the constitution of the 
corps about the year 1848 is given as 299 Purabis (men from the 
North-Westem Provinces) or of other castes than Mers, and 461 
Mers and Merats — total 760. It will thus be seen that the corps 
is more local now than in 1848. The regiment has recently been 
armed with the Enfield rifle. When there is promise of an 
abundant harvest, recruits are scarce ; but when distress threatens 
Merwara, candidates flock for enlistment. Apart, therefore, from 
the political advantages of a regiment which has no sympathies in 
common with Rdjpiits, there is reason to believe that the existence 
of the regiment is a real boon to the district of Merwara, affording 
employment to many who would otherwise be without a livelihood, 
and, by means of the savings which are annually accumulated, 
contributing to the wealth of the people. The regiment, however, 
has ceased to be what it was ia former days — a school through 
which the greater part of the youth of the country passed ; and 
more especially since the removal of the head-quarters to Ajmer, 
its influence on what may be called the home aspects of the corps 
has been much diminished. While the Battalion was at Bedwar, 
the soldiers who enlisted, for the most part from the villages 
immediately adjacent, were allowed to go after parade in the 
morning to their homes ; they worked all day in their fields, and 
were back to cantonments by night. Leave was often applied for 
by those who lived at a greater distance, and freely granted. 
The men, therefore, continued practically to form a part of the 
agricultural population : they met their relations frequently, and 
their pay went often to the common stock. 

Soldiering has now become a profession. Men who enlist do 
so for their life-time, and take their discharge only when invalided 
or entitled to full pension. After their term of service is over, 
they invariably settle down on their ancestral land, having probably 
saved enough to dig a well for its improvement. Here they spend 
the remainder of. their days; and generally have considerable 
influence in the village, especially those who had attained to the 
rank of subadd,r or jamad^ in the Battalion. 

In 1878 the regiment volunteered for service in Afghanistan, 
where they acquired an excellent reputation and proved the 
use of their mountain homes in training hardy and active 
soldiers. 



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( 85 ) 

Meteorological. — ^The following statement shows the rainfall 
measured at the stations of Ajmer, Bedwar, and Todgarh from the 
year 1860 to 1878. Since 1863 the rain-gauge at Ajmer has been 
placed in charge of the Meteorological Department, which is 
superintended by the civil surgeon. The registers of BeAwar and 
Todgarh are in charge of the tahsUddrs : — 



Yeak. 


Ajmeb. 

» 


Beawab. 


TODGABH. 


Bemaeks. 




Inches. 


cents. 


Inches. 


cents. 


Inches, cents. 




1860 


10 


77 


6 


69 


13 36 


Scai'city. 


1861 


25 


50 


19 


40 


13 60 




1862 


43 


40 


42 


70 


23 18 




1863 


27 


34 


22 


90 


21 6 




1864 


17 


64 


20 


70 


21 8 




1865 


16 


47 


19 


30 


26 9 




1866 


26 


16 


14 


60 


24 


20 inches in Augt. 


1867 


27 


27 


16 


90 


81 7 


14 inches in Augt. 


1868 


9 


28 


5 


50 


8 3 


Famine. 


1869 


23 


92 


17 


60 


21 4 


15 inches in Sept. 


1870 


16 


97 


13 





11 90 




1871 


,21 


70 


23 


50 


10 60 




1872 


32 





20 


50 


80 30 




1873 


21 


27 


29 


80 


26 10 




1874 


17 


75 


15 


60 


*> 




1875 


86 


37 


28 


80 






1876 


23 


73 


22 


40 


> Not avail- 




1877 


11 


76 


15 


20 


able. 




1878 


81 


05 


21 


70 


J 




Average 


21 


07 


19 


83 


20 10 





This tahle, which is not, perhaps, quite trustworthy, gives an 
idea of the precariousness and partiality of the rainfall. The pro- 
yince is on the horder of what may fairly be called the " arid zone,'* 
and is the debateable land between the north-east and south- 
west monsoons, and beyond the full influence of either. The 
south-west monsoon sweeps up the Narbada valley from Bombay, 
and, crossing the table-land at Nimach, gives copious supplies 
to Malwa, Jhaldw^, and Kotah, and the countries which Ke in the 
course of the Chambal river. The clouds which strike Katiawar 
and Kachh are deprived of a great deal of their moisture by the 
influence of the hills in those countries, and the greater part 
of the remaugider is deposited on Abii and the higher slopes of the 



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( 86 ) 

ArvaU, leaving but little for Merwara, where the hills are lower, 
and still less for Ajmer. It is only when this monsoon is in 
considerable force that Merwara gets a plentiful supply from it, 
and it is only the heaviest storms which get as far as Jodhpur, 
where the average rainfall does not exceed four or five inches, while 
beyond this is the rainless land of Sind. The north-east 
monsoon sweeps up the valley of the Ganges from the Bay of 
Bengal and waters the northern part of Rdjpiitdna, but hardly 
penetrates farther west than the longitude of Ajmer. On the 
conflicting strength of these two monsoons the rainfall of the 
district depends. 

The prevailing wind during the rainy season is a south-westerly 
one, but there is but Uttle rain which comes from this direction. 
The south-west monsoon is exhausted before it reaches even 
Merwara ; and, if this monsoon is in the ascendant, the weather 
will be cloudy, and there will be light and partial showers, but no 
heavy rain. When the wind veers roimd to the west, as it often 
does, there will be no rain. It is from the north-east that Ajmer, 
Bedwar, and Todgarh obtain their heaviest rainfalls, though the 
south-west monsoon has naturally more effect at Todgarh than 
at Ajmer. The central portions of the province often receive 
heavy falls from the north-west ; the north-east monsoon being 
apparently diverted from its course by the winds from the desert. 
The direction of the wind is most changeable, and the rainfall is 
exceedingly partial. 

Not only, however, is the rainfall most precarious and partial, 
varying in total amount very much from year to year, and from 
place to place, and falling with fury upon one side of a hill while 
the other side is perfectly dry, but it is most irregularly distributed 
over the rainy season, and most uncertain as to the intensity of 
the fall. This last question is a most important one with reference 
to the filling of the reservoirs. If the rain fall in light showers, 
even though it be on the whole an average fall, the soil will 
absorb it, the nalas will not run, and the tanks will remain empty. 
If the fall is sudden and heavy, and at the same time general 
within the catchment-area of a tank, the chances are that the 
embankment will be damaged. The best rainy season is one which 
includes a fall of three or four inches in twenty-four hours in June, 
and a similar fall in September, with intermediate showers. Then 
the tanks fill and are replenished for the rabi harvest, and the 
kharif crop is not drowned with excessive rain. 

These peculiarities may be illustrated from the history of the 
years for which the rainfall has been given. The years immediately 
before 1860 were years of heavy rain, averaging in Ajmer over 
30 inches j but the rainy season of 1860 was a very bad one. 



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( 87 ) 

What rain there was, fell in showers insufficient to fill the tanks j 
and there was no rain in September. The kharif harvest failed ; 
and, but that Marwar had fortunately good rains and furnished 
supplies of both grain and grass, the scarcity which ensued would 
have amounted to a famine. The north-east monsoon failed over 
the North-Western Provinces this year, but Marwar got more 
than its usual supply from the south-west. In 1861, the north- 
east monsoon appears to have been in the ascendant, but hardly 
reached to Todgarh ; 1862 was a year of extraordinarily heavy 
rain ; the fall was spread over a long time, and was not violent 
enough to damage the tanks. The kharff failed, however, from 
excess of moisture, but the rabi was splendid. In 1864 there 
was an average fall, but it all fell before the second week in 
August. In 1865 there was no rain till the second week in August, 
and it ceased entirely in the second week of September, only 1 
inch 8 cents, having been registered in Ajmer in that month. There 
were some heavy showers, however, which filled the tanks. In 
1866 the rains began in the second week of August, and fell 
continuously till the end of the month. In some places the tanks 
were not filled, in others there were very heavy falls. But for the 
tanks, each of these three seasons would have been one of very 
severe distress. The year 1867 was favorable ; but the following 
year was one of famine, the average fall of all the stations having 
been only 7 '41 inches. The rains of 1869 were not unfavorable as 
regards the amount of the fall, but no rain fell till the middle 
of July, and there was no rain again for nearly two months. The 
rainfall of 1870 was below the average, but was pretty well distri- 
buted. The years 1871, 1872, and 1873 were average years, but 
the fall was irregularly distributed : in Ajmer, in 1871 there were 
8 inches during the month of June and ^ inch in August ; in 1872 
there was 1 inch in June and 18 inches fell in August — ^the rainfall 
of July and September was nearly equal in both years ; in 1873 
the greater portion of the rain fell in July. 

Climate. — ^The climate of the district is dry and healthy, and 
there are but few days on which a strong wind does not prevail. In 
the hot weather, strong easterly breezes alternate with hot west winds 
and keep the atmosphere cool. During the rainy season, a south- 
westerly or north-easterly wind is nearly always blowing according 
aa either monsoon is in the ascendant. The cold weather commences 
later than in the North- Western Provinces, but the cold in the 
months of December, January, and February may be called 
severe. There is often hoar-frost on the ground in the early 
morning. The statement on next page shows the mean highest 
and lowest temperature for each month of 1871, 1872, and 1873 
according to the standard thermometer at the Ajmer jail. 



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( 88 ) 





1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


Months. 


1 


M 


M 


i 


1 


J 


s* 

» 


a 

a 


a 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 


604 
69-7 
80-4 
89-2 
90-9 
88-6 
82-7 
81-6 
86-2 
83-1 
73-6 
64-6 


71-6 
82-3 
91-6 
1000 
99-0 
96-1 
91-8 
920 
930 
91-3 
820 
73-8 


60-6 
67-5 
66-6 
800 
78-6 
76-0 
71-6 
74-8 
763 
76-5 
62-8 
65-6 


61-3 
67-0 
80-7 
88-6 
93-0 
93*8 
84-1 
79-6 
81-6 
78-3 
71-7 
64-2 


70-8 
83-8 
92-8 
99-6 
103-7 
104-6 
91-6 
86-1 
89-9 
86-1 
80-2 
74-3 


63-6 
638 
68-6 
78-3 
810 
81-7 
76-7 
83-6 
71-1 
71-2 
61-4 
64-8 


601 
60-6 
78-9 
88-4 
90-4 
94-2 
831 
82-0 
83-6 
78-9 
696 
611 


72-6 
81-2 
91-7 
96-5 
104-7 
102-1 
92-2 
92-3 
89-6 
87-6 
77-6 
70-8 


47-6 
67-9 
66-9 
79-1 
76-2 
77-2 
76-2 
760 
74-8 
72-3 
631 
62-6 



JBirth and Death Bate. — There are no trustworthy statistics 
as to the annual birth-rate and death-rate throughout the district. 
Births are not reported at all, but deaths are reported. The 
information is collected by the police from the village headmen, 
who, in their turn, rely on the reports of the chaukid^, a 
body of men who are very insufficiently organized in Ajmer. 
The four months from November to February seem to be the 
most fatal season, the hot season comes next, and the rainy 
season from July to October seems to be the most healthy. 
In the towns, the statistics are perhaps more reliable. In 1872, 
the death-rate of Ajmer city was 64i*65 per mille; of Kekri, 
35-67 ; of Bedwar, 41-69 ; of NaslrabM, 22-03. 

Endemic Diseases. — Dr. Murray, the civil surgeon, whose 
experience of the district dates from the year of the Mutiny, reports 
that there are no diseases endemic in the district, unless the fevers 
generally prevalent in Ajmer city in the months of October and 
November, and which were very fatal in 1872, can be classedas such. 
These are believed to be due to the very defective drainage to the 
valley, and various drainage schemes have been proposed since 1869. 
The work was commenced in 1874, and has been completed. 

Other Diseases. — In the eighteen years from 1866 to 1874 
there were five outbreaks of cholera in Ajmer, namely, in 1861, 
1862, 1865, 1867 j and 1869 ; the first and the last year being those in 
which the disease was worst. Cholera usufdly appears in the rainy 
season. The cause of malignant cholera is believed to be a 
peculiar poison in the atmosphere^ while non-malignant cholera 



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( 89 ) 

may arise from sudden transitions from heat to cold, from impure 
water, indigestible food, bad meat, stale vegetables, or intemperance. 
Dysentery and diarrhoea are very prevalent during the rains, as also 
is rheumatism. Cases of ophthalmia are frequently met with. 
Diseases of the skin are very common ; they assume various types 
and characters from a common herpetic eruption to the most 
inveterate form of lepra. Pleurisy and pneumonia carry off a great 
many people in the cold weather. Boils and abscesses are very 
prevalent during the rains, and scurvy is common at this season. 
Guinea- worm is almost always more or less- prevalent, and in some 
years hundreds of people are attacked by this malady. Unless the 
worm is extracted at an early stage, considerable irritation and 
inflammation supervene, and it may be weeks or months before 
the patient recovers. Europeans are seldom attacked by guinea- 
worm ; this immunity is attributed to Europeans drinking well- 
water, and having it properly strained. No cattle epidemics have 
been recorded of late years, nor have there ever been any epidemic 
attacks during the gatherings of pilgrims at the Pushkar fair or 
the festival of the Khwaja Sahib. 

Medicine. — There are said to be some three thousand different 
kinds of physic to be obtained from the shops of the pansdris, or 
native druggists ; but, of these, only three hundred are believed in ; 
nearly all are imported from other parts of India. Most of the 
drugs of real efficacy used by native practitioners are to be found 
in our own pharmacopoeia, 

Itetrospect of British Administration and the Famine of 
1869, — ^The territory of the Ajmer district that is now under direct 
British administration has been practically identical since the 
cession of the district in 1818 to the present time. The only 
change of importance has been the addition of five villages in 
accordance with a treaty with Sindia in 1860. The directly- 
administered villages of Merwara have been identical since the 
conquest and cession in 1823. The temporary arrangement under 
which seven Marwar villages were for a few years placed under 
British management, will not vitiate a comparison of different 
periods. The administration of the istimrdr estates of Ajmer has 
been confined to collecting from them a fixed assessment ; the 
thdkurs and jdgirdArs were left to manage their own affairs. The 
following retrospect, therefore, will be restricted to the adminis- 
tration of the khdlsa or Government villages, and chiefly of Ajmer. 
The following statement shows the demand and collections on 
account of land-revenue of the khdlsa of Ajmer proper for each 
year from 1818 to 1874. The prices of the chief grains grown 
in the district are also given for each year. 

M 



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( 90 ) 

Statement of Demand and Collections in tie Khiha Fillaget of Ajmer from 

1817-18 to 1873-74. 





Sbbbs pbb bupbb. 










TlAl. 










Demand. 


Collections. 


Bbkuucs. 




Wheat. 


Barley. 


Maize. 


Mot. 


















Be. 


Bs. 




1818 


14 


22 


22 


13 


1,28,978 


1.15,060 


Collected by the Marathas. 


1819 


16 


26 


27 


24 




1.59.746 


Mr. Wilder-B direct collections at half 

produce. 
Mr. Wilder'B three years' progresslTe 


1820 


13 


21 


24 


21 


1,79,467 


1,40.034 
















settlement. 


1821 


16 


22 


28 


23 


1,64,700 


1,64,700 




1822 


21 


30 


36 


26 


1,64,700 


1,64,700 




1823 


21 


38 


46 


36 


1,64,700 


1,62,670 


►Mr. wader's five years' settlement. 


1824 


20 


36 


36 


30 


1,64,700 


1,59,279 




1826 


17 


21 


21 


21 


1,64,700 


31,920 


) Berenne collected khtfm at half pro- 
duce. 


1826 


21 


29 


29 


29 




1,37,630 


Collected at half produce by Mr. Mid- 
dleton. 


1827 


25 


42 


40 


36 


1,44,072 


1,44,072 




1828 


27 


62 


69 


37 


1,44,072 


1,42,760 




1829 


26 


46 


61 


42 


1,44,072 


1,26,646 


Mr. Middleton's five years' settlement 


1830 


26 


39 


44 


39 


1,44,072 


1,24,956 


• continued for two years. 


1881 


26 


88 


89 


40 


1,44,072 


1,23,350 




1833 


32 


66 


68 


47 


1,44,072 


1,22,873 


' 


1833 


25 


88 


35 


27 


1.44,072 


1,24,629 




1834 


12 


18 


19 


14 




80,343 


Mr. Edmonstone's summary coUeo* 
tion. 


1886 


17 


29 


33 


80 


1,19,302 


1,18,792 














. 


ment. 


1836 
1837 


22 
22 


83 
29 


83 
32 


30 
28 


1,29,872 


1,27,513 
, "- ^10 

172 
"iO 
116 
47 


Mr. Edmonstone's ten years' settle- 


1838 


18 


24 


^ 


19 


... 


ments; but, after the first year, half 


1839 


17 


23. 


21 


... 


- the Tillages gave up then- leases. 


1840 


11 


20 


22 


21 


... 


J and the revenue was collected direct 


1841 


16 


26 


26 


20 




H at half produce. 


18ia 


S^ 


26 


30 


22 


... 


198 


•\ Colonel Dixon's collections partly on 


1843 


20 


28 


28 


24 


... 


137 


1 Mr. Edmonstone's settlement, but 


1844 
1846 


ir 


28 
28 


28 
28 


21 
24 




07 
'87 


1 ' chiefly direct at two-thirds the pro- 
) duce. 


1846 


19 


28 


30 


28 




167 


\ 


1847 


19 


26 


30 


28 




m 


f Colonel Dixon's duwt collections at 


1848 
1849 


14 
14 


• 19 
19 


22 
23 


16 
16 


••• 


!37 
162 


r two-thirds of the produce. 


1860 


18 


22 


28 


22 


1,71^219 


00 


4 


1861 


21 


29 


29 


22 


1,71,762 


i36 




1852 


22 


33 


34 


27 


1,73,822 


117 




1863 


24 


33 


83 


26 


1,73,658 


;58 




1854 


27 


^ 


81 


24 


1,73,690 


(65 




1866 


24 


^ 


35 


80 


1,75,010 


119 




1866 


24 


2® 


88 


36 


1,74,022 


'34 




1867 


26 


89 


20 


37 


1,75,240 


183 




1858 


27 


42 


38 


86 


1,74,173 


S90 




1869 


24 


34 


83 


26 


1,73,797 


'39 




1860 


18 


«8 


25 


25 


1,83,095 


*,_.J16 




1861 


17 


21 


21 


27 


1,73,386 


1,61,259 


tlement, exclusive of collections for 


1862 


14 


23 


20 


16 


1,74,084 


1,74,064 


road fund, Bs. 1,763, and taliCofund, 


1863 


14 


20 


17 


19 


1,72,834 


1,72,834 


- Bs. 6,126, which were collected each 


1864 
1865 
1866 


14 
11 
12 


22 


19 


15 


1,72,844 


1,72,844 


year, the deficiencies being shown 


19 
17 


18 
16 


13 
15 


1.72,853 
1,73,347 


1,72,853 
1,73,047 




1867 


13 


20 


18 


16 


2,11,340« 


2,10,336 




1868 


13 


18 


16 


16 


1,80,765 


1,80,591 




1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1876 


6 
9 
13 
16 
14 
13 


8 


6 


6 


1,81,844 


1,02,928 


Bs. 42,406 remitted. 


16 


15 


12 


2,02,073 


1,82.495 


„ 6,249 „ 


21 


20 


18 


2,17,644 


2,13,150t 


„ 1.980 .« 


25 


26 


21 


1,88,435 


1,86,216 


,* 366 „ 


22 


22 


20 


1,81,506 


1,80,023 


u 863 „ 


17 


16 


17 


1,80,313 


1,80,313 












l,4a.896t 




/ 



ledger^fw^^y^re!'^'''"*''^"'^'"'^^^ ^'^^ ^^ ^ "^«^P*« ""^^^ ^ personal 

t In this are included the arrears paid up by the farmers. 
X Assessment net, with cesses, Bs. 1,66,362, 



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( 91 ) 

Mr. Wilder, Assistant to the Resident at Delhi, was, as stated 
above, the first Siiperinttendent appointed to Ajmer. He received 
charge from Sindia's officers on the 26th July 1818, and found the 
city almost deserted, and the people, though peaceable and indus- 
trious, much reduced by oppression. On the 27th September 
he reported on the newly-acquired province. Neither Tantia 
nor Bapu Sindia had ever collects more than Rs. 3,76,740 from 
the district, and, of this sum, Rs. 31,000 represented the amount 
at which the customs had been farmed; the remainder was 
land-revenue.* Of the land-revenue, amounting to Rs. 3,45,740, 
the assessment of the istimrdr tenures was Rs. 2,16,762, that of the 
khdlsa Rs. 1,28,978. The system of Maratha administration was 
practically to exact all that could be paid ; but about nine years 
before the cession, a kind of settlement had been concluded in 
the istimrdr and khdlsa lands, in accordance with which it had been 
arranged that, instead of the recent arbitrary enhancements of 
the istimrdr revenue, all future augmentations should take the 
form of taxes or levies, and the land-revenue of the khdlsa was 
shown as a fixed sum, Rs. 87,689, while the remainder was 
to be collected in the shape of a number of extra cesses. The 
object of this arrangement was twofold. The istimrdrddrs were 
anxious that the arbitrary exactions should not be consolidated 
with the original revenue, lest, on a change of rulers, it might 
be difficult to procure their remission, and the governor of Ajmer 
only sent to Gwalior the land-revenue proper, and appropriated 
to himself the extra collections. The khdlsa villages were farmed 
for the amount of the Ain, and the extra cesses were levied 
under forty-four heads. Of these, a tax called Naudraky equal 
to 2 per cent, over and above the Ain, was the perquisite of Sindia's 
wives. A similar tax was denominated Bhent Bai Sahiba, and 
was an offering to his sister ; and his daughter and his^/r (spiritual 
director) received respectively Rs. 2 and Re. 1 from each village. 
The produce of these four cesses was sent to Gwalior, and the 
governor appropriated the produce of the remaining forty exac- 
tions. The chief was -Fb^*-Sryiar(? A, levied on account of the expenses 
of maintaining troops for the protection of the villages. This was 
uncertain in amount, and varied with the ability of the people to 
pay and the power of the governor to compel payment. Patel 
JBdb and Bhum Bdb were percentages levied from patels and 
bhtimias. There were numerous offerings at all the Hindu festivals, 
charges on account of every act of civil government, and sundry 

* In the treaty- of cession with Sindia, the reyenue of Ajmer was valued at 5,05,484 Sri- 
■hahi, or 4,50,986 Parakhab^, rupees. It was admitted, however, by the Resident at Gwalior 
that the revenue wag much exaggerated. 



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( 92 ) 

arbitrary cesses uncertain in amount. Tiie actual collections from 
tlie khdlsa in the year before the cession amounted to Rs. 1,15,060. 
The question of the currency was one which caused Mr. 
Wilder some difficulty. None of the Company's coins were current 
further south than Jaipur, but there were six principal mints 
whose coin was current in Ajmer, and for all of whom the chief 
source of supply of bullion for coinage were dollars imported 
from Bombay or Surat, via Pdli. No bullion was ujsed. The 
Ajmer mint had been established since the time of the emperor 
Akbar, and turned out yearly about a lakh and a half of rupees 
called Srishahi. The Kishangarh rupee was struck at Kishangarh, 
and the mint had been established about fifty years, though it 
had frequently been suppressed by the rulers of Ajmer. The 
Kuchdwan rupee was struck by theThdkur of Kuchdwan inMarwar 
without the permission of the Maharaja, who was too weak to 
assert his rights. The thdkur was supposed to clear 6 per cent, 
by bringing the dollars to his melting-pot. The Shahpura mint 
had been established for some seventy years in spite of the attempts 
of the Rana of Udaipur to suppress it. The Chitori rupee was 
the standard coin of Mewar, and the Jhdrshahi rupee was struck 
at Jaipur. Mr. Wilder cut the knot of the coinage difficulty by 
concluding all transactions on the part of Government in Parakha^ 
bdd rupees, and receiving them alone in payment of Government 
revenue. The fixed revenue of the istimrdr estates he converted 
from Srishahi into Parakhabdd currency by allowing a deduction 
of 9 per cent. ; and it is on this account that the present istimrdr 
revenue of each'thdkur consists of rupees, annas, and pies. 

Mr. Wilder proposed to abolish what he calls " the very 
objectionable and disgusting system heretofore practised," and to 
take the revenue in the khdlsa by reverting to the ancient custom 
of estimating the crop and dividing its value. The people willingly 
agreed to pay one-half the estimated value of the crop, this 
being the old rate of assessment, and that customary in the 
adjacent States. The collections for the year were Rs. 1,59,746 ; 
and Mr. Wilder writes that the measure of an equal division of the 
crop had been productive of all the benefits he had anticipated. 
The people had acquired confidence in the moderation and justice of 
their new government, and, though it would not be advisable for 
the next two years to demand any great addition to the increase 
that had already taken place, yet he was confident that on the 
third year ih^jama might be raised to double what it had reached 
under any preceding government without at all pressing on the 
inhabitants. Accordingly, Mr. Wilder proposed a three years' 
progressive settlement, — in the first year Rs. 1,79,437, in the 
second Rs. 2,01,691, in the third Rs. 2,49,303. He was of 



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opinion that " if the jama is so apportioned that half of the 
produce be found sufficient, one year with another, to meet the 
Government demand, the remaining share is quite enough to 
provide every necessary comfort for the husbandman/* This way 
of putting the case sounds peculiar, but is quite in accordance 
with Mr. Wilder's views, whose dominant, il not sole, anxiety 
Was to increase the Government revenue. Mr. Wilder furnished 
no information of the principle on which the demand had been 
fixed, nor of the grounds on which a progressive assessment had 
been resolved on ; and the settlement was confirmed with some 
hesitation by Government, who remarked on the proved disad- 
vantages of an assessment framed on anticipated improvement, 
which checks the rising spirit of industry and the accumulation 
of capital. 

The settlement, however, was not destined to run its course, 
but broke down the first year. The kharif was injured from 
excessive rain, and in February there were successive frosts 
which so destroyed the rabi that the straw even was not fit for 
use. Mr. Wilder proposed to relinquish the balance, and to 
make a settlement on a fixed annual yama of Rs. 1,64,700. Both 
these proposals were sanctioned by Government, the term of 
the ^ttlement being fixed for five years. The assessment was 
faMy collected for the first four years, though in the fourth year 
the people were obHged to borrow to pay their revenue ; but 
the fifth was a year of famine. There were occasional showers 
till tbe 10th of June, but from that date there were only two 
showers — one on the 12th, the other on the 20th August. A 
hot westerly wind prevailed, the tanks dried up, the weUs began 
to fail, and the kharif was lost. Porage was as scarce as grain; 
many of the cattle died by August, and most of the remainder 
were driven off to Malwa. Grass was selling at 20 seers a, 
rupee. Two severe frosts in March almost entirely destroyed the 
indifferent rabi ; recourse was had to collecting one-half the pro- 
duce : the amount realized was Rs. 31,920. The next year was a 
good one ; but the people objected to pay according to Mr. Wilder's 
settlement, and the revenue was again collected khdm. 

In December 1824 — the middle of the famine year — Mr. 
Wilder was promoted to the charge of the Sdgar and Narbada 
territories. His six years' administration had not been productive 
of any great results. He made no radical inquiry into any of 
the institutions of the province. He continued many old abuses 
both in the customs and revenue departments, simply because 
they brought in money. It cannot be said that he took much 
pains to ascertain the value of the land he assessed or the condition 
of the people; and the era of material improvement had not yet 



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dawned. He united in his person the offices of Superintendent 
of Ajmer and of Political Agent for Jodhpur, Jesalmer, and Ki- 
shangarh, and kept up a semi-regal state with elephants, horsemen, 
and chohddrs. On the other hand, his administration was rather 
starved. The whole cost of the revenue and police estahlishment of 
the district was Rs. 1,374 a month, or less than half of Mr. 
Wilder's salary, which was Rs. 3,000. There was not a copy of 
any Regulation in the office in 1823, and a copy of the Calcutta 
Gazette was refused. After a time, a European assistant was 
appointed. The great solicitude of Mr. Wilder was to develop the 
trade of Ajmer, and he invited merchants from all quarters to 
come and settle in the city. One curious feature of his corre- 
spondence is the number of letters of recommendation he gave these 
merchants and bankers. Many of these letters were written to 
judges and magistrates, requesting them to assist in collecting 
money due to the merchants. 

Mr. Henry Middleton, also a North-West civilian, succeeded 
Mr. Wilder in December 1824. He was of opinion that Mr. Wilder's 
assessment was very high, that fixed assessments of any kind were 
unpalatable to the people, and, if confidence could be reposed in 
the subordinate of&cers, the system of taking in kind would be 
best. The experience, however, of the year 1825-26 rendered 
Mr. Middleton loth to adopt this system ; accordingly he proposed 
a five years* settlement, and reported its completion on the 26th 
November 1826. He had rough measurement-rolls prepared, but 
he chiefly relied on the collections of the previous year as a 
criterion of resources. He remarks upon the poverty of the people 
and the extortions of the money-lenders. Many cultivators who 
had come to the district in the first years of the British rule, had 
been driven away again by bad harvests and high assessment. The 
wells were falling into disrepair, and the people had no money 
to repair them. Mr. Middleton's settlement was sanctioned at 
Rs. 1,44,072 for five years. 

The assessment, however, was collected only in the first of the - 
years the settlement had to run, and that with considerable 
difficulty. The rains commenced favorably, but from the middle 
of July till the first week of September there was no rain. The 
bdjrd and jowdr all came to nothing. The rains of September, 
however, were plentiful ; the people who had begun to drive their 
cattle to Mewar and Marwar for pasturage, returned, and the 
rabi harvest was good. Mr. Middleton did not remain long enough 
in the district to collect the next year's revenue, and made over 
charge to Mr. Cavendish in October 1827. He was an officer of 
mediocre ability, and initiated no useful measures. 

Mr. Cavendish, his successor, was a great reformer, and left 



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( 96 ) 

the impress of his energy on every department of administration. 
To him the district is indebted for a very valuable collection of 
statistics regarding istimr^, hhtim, and j^gir tenures. He carried 
out, however, little of what he took in hand ; and the sanction 
which had been accorded to Mr. Middleton's settlement prevented 
his interference in the assessment of the khdlsa. In forwarding 
the accounts for the year 1828, he explains the method of collec- 
tion, and gives a long account of the circumstances of the district 
and of his own views as to the weight of the assessment. The 
custom of collection as handed down from the Marathas, was for 
the patel with the patwdri, where there was one, to estimate the 
crop ; one-half the estimate was the Government revenue. Almost 
always, a loss, or inability to pay the assessed revenue from the pro- 
duce of the land, was the result of the estimate, and then followed 
an annually varying contribution from all village residents to make 
up this real or supposed loss. The contributors were not permitted 
to interfere in the valuation, and the tahsildar enforced payment. 
Mr. Cavendish considered that Mr. Middleton's assessment 
was high, for several reasons : " because the cultivated area has 
remained stationary since the time of the Marathas, who only 
collected Rs. 87,689 ; because the rate of assessment exceeds 
one-half the produce ; because no cultivator in the soil of Ajmer, 
which requires much labor and expense, can afford to pay one-half 
the produce ; because the assessment is collected, not from the 
produce of the soil, but by a fluctuating and arbitrary tax ; and 
because the assessment has been made on the basis of a favorable 
year's collections when com was dear.'* Mr. Cavendish applied 
the rates to which he had been accustomed in Saharanpur, to 
Mr. Middleton's areas, and calculated that the assessment ought 
to be Rs. 87,645 instead of Rs. 1,44,072. He gives three main 
causes of the original over-assessment of the district, all of which, 
no doubt, worked to that end : first, the strength of the Maratha 
Government, who took all that the people could give, and who were 
unfettered by any prescriptive rights ; secondly, the exaggeration 
of the revenue by Sindia at the time of transfer, which made Mr. 
Wilder endeavour to work up to an impossible standard ; and, 
thirdly, that the year 1818-19 was a very good year in Ajmer, while, 
owing to the devastations of Amir Kh6n in the territory of Mewar, 
Marwar, and Jodhpur, there was a large demand on all sides for 
grain, and prices were very high. This last is a most important 
poiat, and seems to be the real key to the over-assessment of the 
district. Indeed, the first assessments made by British revenue 
officers in a newly-acquired district, almost invariably broke down 
through the error of over-estimating com prices. They used to 
take the old war prices that prevailed during the anarchy preceding 



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( 96 ) 

annexation; and they forgot that with peace and order came plenty 
and open markets. Mr. Cavendish proposed a revision of settlement ; 
bnt in the event of this not being sanctioned, he recommended that 
the people should not be pressed for their revenue in bad seasons. 
He also introduced partially a khewdt, or assessment of individual 
holdings, — a, measure unknown to Mr. Middleton's settlement. 
He lays stress on the point that remissions granted in a lump sum 
benefit, not the real sufferers, but the tahsildars, kdniingos, 
patwdris, and patels. He introduced, for the first time, patwAris* 
accounts, and appointed patwdris for many villages where there 
were none, and directed every patwdri to give a receipt. Govern- 
ment approved of Mr. Cavendish's innovations generally, but, 
with regard to the weight of the assessment, decided that a more 
detailed investigation must precede a general revision; and directed 
that the unexpired period of the settlement should be diligently 
employed in ascertaining the capabilities of each village. It is 
certainly a matter of regret that the settlement of Ajmer did not 
fall into Mr. Cavendish's hands rather than into those of Mr. 
Middleton. 

Holding these views as to the weight of the assessment, it was 
not to be expected that Mr. Cavendish should press the people 
to pay where he found there was a difficulty in paying. As a 
matter of fact, remissions were regularly applied for and granted, 
and the settlement was not worked up to in any one year. In 
only one of the four years that Mr. Cavendish was in the district 
were there any rains in December and January. He left the 
district at the end of 1831, the year of the expiry of the settlement. 
He writes that he had intended to make the settlement with 
patels, and to give to each tenant a statement showing the 
amount for which he should be individually responsible. He 
adds that he had never been stationed in a district where the 
seasons were so uncertain, the soil so poor, and which was so 
highly, nay oppressively, over-assessed. 

There was no rain in 1831 till the 7th August, but the rabi 
crop was good. Mr. Moore, the Assistant Superintendent, to 
whom Mr. Cavendish had made over charge, collected the revenue 
on the principle established by Mr. Cavendish. The year 1832 was 
marked by destructive flights of locusts in September and October; 
and Major Speirs, who succeeded Mr. Cavendish, found himself 
obliged to allow the kharlf hsts to lie over till March. Major 
Speirs did not attempt a settlement ; he collected all he could, 
and the remainder was remitted by Government. In the year 
1833-34, however, even the pretence of working on the settlement 
was abandoned. The year was one to be marked with a black 
cross in the calendar of Ajmer. It commenced with a cattle 



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epidemic in April, which carried off one-half or two-thirds of the 
cattle* There were only two hours* good rain from June to Sep- 
teiuher; there was no forage and no kharlf, for the locusts in 
September devoured nearly every green thing. Major Speirs col- 
lected the kharif instalments by an equal division of the scanty 
produce, and proposed to give the rabi revenue to the people to 
enable them somewhat to recoup their losses. In December 1833, 
Major Speirs was promoted to the post of Officiating Commis- 
sioner, and made over charge to Mr. Edmonstone, who collected 
the rabi instalments by " taking, from such of the village commu- 
nities as would consent on any reasonable terms, engagements 
to pay revenue for their villages according to a fair and just 
estimate of their resources calculated with reference to the deterio- 
rated state of the country from the drought." In the following 
year he made a summary settlement on the same principle, 
the demand of which was Rs. 1,19,302. If the villagers did not 
consent to his terms,, the revenue was collected khdm at half 
produce. 

In the cold weather of 1835-36, Mr. Edmonstone proceeded to 
make a regular settlement, which, as it Was subsequently sanc- 
tioned for ten years, is generally known by the name of the decen- 
nial settlement. His settlement report is dated the 26th May 1836. 
Mr. Edmonstone gives a rapid sketch of the previous administra- 
tion of the land, in order to prove that " the district, instead of 
advancing, had receded, and that, independently of drought and 
failure of seasons, in no one year had a fair assessment been fixed 
on the land." His endeavour had been to avoid the custom which 
had hitherto prevailed, of fixing the jama at the highest amount 
which could be collected in any year, and then each year remit- 
ting, generally indiscriminately, all sums about which there was 
a difficulty. Mr. Edmonstone did not assume rates as Mr. Caven- 
dish had proposed to do, but adopted a method of his own for 
assessment. The villages were measured, and the cultivated area, 
amounting in all to 36,257 acres, classed into chdhi (8,989 acres), 
taldbi (2,180 acres), and barAni (25,088 acres) . He then assessed the 
cash-paying produce (Indian-corn and cotton) or the do-fasli area 
at the current money rates during khdm tahsil; and estimated the 
average produce per blgha of other crops. The Government 
share, one-half, except in the case of patels and mahajans, he con- 
verted into money by the average price current of the previous 
five years. He thus obtained a rough jamabandi amounting to 
Bs. 1,57,151, and then visited each village, and fixed his demand 
with reference to the past fiscal history, present circumstances, 
and future capabilities of each estate. No villages were given in 
farm. Two small ones were held khdm, as they could not be 

N 



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{ m ) 

l)rotighl up to his standard; the rest accepted his terinS. (Ths 
Amount finally assessed was Rs. 1>27,&25, or, including the khdm 
Villages, Rs. 1,29,872. . 

Mr. Edmonstone describes thfe people as reckless, improvident, 
poverty-stricken, and mUch in debt. The Bohras wete maste:i^ 
in the villages ; they weighed the grain, helped themselves, and 
allotted the remainder ; they advanced the Government revenue, 
and gave advances of «eed-grain and for the purchase of battle ; 
they regulated the expenditure of the (Community, even to the 
sums employed on marriages and othel* festivals. Their right was 
hereditary ; they furnished no accounts, and thfe debt to them ran 
on from generation to generation. Mr. Edmdnstone settled with 
the headmen of each village, who, he believed, acted generally in 
accordance with the wishes of the village community. The inci- 
dence of his assessment amounted to Es. 3-9 an acre, while the 
tinirrigated area was nearly 69 per cent, of the cultivated. Ther 
settlement returns show 5,621 cultivatoa^, 2,676 non-cultivatorg, 
3,185 ploughs, and 1,575 wells. 

The decennial settlement was th^ first whic^h Was based On the 
cultivated area and p^sonal inquiry, and the assessment of indi- 
vidual villSbges seems to have been very fairly and judiciously 
carried out. The great defect of the settlement was the very 
imperfect and inequitable manner in Which the village assessment 
was distributed over the holdings. Hitherto the people had paid 
one-half of the estimated produce to the patels, and the deficien- 
cies were levied from the non-agricultural residents. Mr. Caven- 
dish had partially introduced a khewdt ; but the principle of the 
joint responsibility of all khewAtddrs was practically unknown in 
the district, and was introduced for the first time by Mr^ Edmon- 
stone. It is evident that a cultivator assessed at one-half the 
produce of his fields, and obliged to pay in good and bad years, 
cannot pay for other cultivators who migrate in years of difficulty, 
or who, being left without resources, turn for a livelihood to 
manual labour. These two classes are still well known in the 
district as the Jirar and nadar asami. In the first year of the 
settlement the distribution over the holdings was proved to 
be quite inequitable, and the people began to clamour for a return 
to the practice of collections from the afctual produce. Mr. 
Edmonstone had left Ajmer in the end of 1836, and lieutenant 
Macnaghten, his successor, proposed to make a fresh distribution 
of the revenue, and "to give to each cultivator a separate lease, 
specifying the quality and quantity of land in his possession, 
and the rent which Government will expect to receive from him.'* 
In sending up this proposal. Colonel Alves, the Commissioner, 
remarked that it wa^ tantamount to a proposal to change the 



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( 99 ) 

settlement from monzdwdr into ryotwdr ; and Government, adopts 
ing this view, decided that the change was undesirable, and 
disallowed the proposed measure. Though, however, a re-distri- 
bution of the revenue was refused, yet the villages were offered the 
option of returning to direct management, or of retaining their 
leases; and 41 out of 81 villages preferred the iwrnev alter- 
native- 

During this <5orrespondence> Colonel Sutherland succeeded 
Colonel Alves as Commissioner. He took very great pains ta 
make himself thoroughly acquainted with everything conceming^ 
Ajmer, and his reports on the khdlsa administration and on the 
istimrdrd^s are standard papers of reference. Aft^ Skn exhaujstive 
retrospect of the previous administration, from which a good deal 
of the preceding sketch has been taken, he ijame to the conclusion 
that "the system of village assessments is quite inapplicable 
to Ajmer; that they have produced extensive injury to the 
Government revenue and to the condition of the people^ and in a 
few more years they will leave us hardly any revenue^ and reduce 
them to utter poverty.'* He looked for a remedy to the repair- 
and construction of tanks^ which render the country almost proof 
against famine, and advocates the mode of assessment which had 
been carried out by Captain Dixon in Merwara as that suited ta 
the country and consonant with the wishes of the people** 

The four years from 1837-38 ta 1840-41 were years of severe 
distress, and at the time of Colonel Sutherland's report, which ia 
dated 26th January 1841, the khdlsa villages had reached the 
lowest depths of poverty. The Superintendent reported that five 
hundred families had left the district owing to the pressure of the 
revenue which they were unable to pay. Half the tanks, had been 
broken for years, and many of the wells were out of repair* The 
people were too demoralized to permit of grants of advances for 
a/griculturalimprovements. They preferred paying half the produce 
to accepting the reduced assessment of Mr. Edmonstone. The 
houses were generally dilapidated, and the whole khdlsa in the 
eyes of the Commissioner bore a poverty-stricken look which was 
a painful contrast to the condition of the talukdars' estates. 

Here, then, we may pause — ^f or a new era openjs for the district 

* Colonel nixon'3 mode of a&sessmeiit was as follovs : — 

1st. — Lands under cotton, maize, sugar, and opium to be charged with a money-rate. 

2nd.-rOther rabi and kharif crops to be estimated or measured, and one-third of the produce 
to be taken as the Government share by a money^asessmei^t fix^ According to the average yearly 
value of produce in the principal neighbouring markets. 

3rd.^ — Land newly broken up to pay one-sixth the produce for the first year, one-fifth for th© 
second, and one-fourth for the third and fourth years. In the fifth year, and thereafter, the f uU 
rate of one-third to be charged. 

4th, — A remission in the amount of share to be given to those who construct embaDfkments or 
dig new wells. . 



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( 100 ) 

with the hegmning of the year 184il — ^and briefly gather the lessons 
to be derived from the foregoing acconnt. The collections had 
dwindled down to less than they were in the time of the Marathas. 
The initial over-estimate by Mr. Wilder of the resources of 
the district had extended its baneful effects over the whole period. 
The settlements of Mr. Wilder and Mr. Middleton exceeded the 
collections of the good years on which they were founded, and 
were far too oppressive to be paid. Mr. Edmonstone^s settlement, 
the lowest of the three, was founded on an estimate of half the 
actual produce ; and, as an equal average assessment to include 
good and bad seasons, was a complete failure. Its incidence was 
Bs. 3-9 an acre on 31 per cent, of irrigation, or about twice as heavy 
as the settlements made in the North-Westem Provinces under 
Regulation IX of 1833. With the experience gained in these 
settlements the Government of the North- West might have con- 
cluded that its ** trust that the settlement would prove moderate, 
and be realized without distress to the people,'* was fallacious. The 
decennial settlement, however, broke down, chiefly because no 
proper arrangements were made for the collection of the individual 
quotas. The old order under which the headmen and patw^is 
had collected one-half the produce from each cultivator, had given 
way to the principle of joint responsibility ; but this latter was an 
impossible system where each cultivator held a defined amount 
of land and was assessed for it at a sum which left him merely the 
means of subsistence. 

The success of Major Dixon's administration of Merwara had 
for some time attracted the attention of Government and the 
Commissioner, and, at the end of 1840, the Superintendent of 
Merwara was instructed to proceed into the Ajmer district and 
report on the local facilities for the construction of tank-embank- 
ments in the khdlsa villages. In February 1842, on the depar- 
ture, on furlough, of Lieutenant Macnaghten, Major Dixon was 
appointed Superintendent of Ajmer in addition to his other duties 
as Superintendent of Merwara and Commandant of the Merwara 
Battalion. From the date of his assuming charge a new era 
commences in the history of the administration of the country. 
Within the next six years, Rs. 4,52,707 were expended on the 
construction and repair of embankments; advances were made for 
agricultural improvements, and the Superintendent succeeded 
in infusing a good deal of his personal energy into the people. To 
enable Government to reap a benefit from the new works, sanction 
was procured to allow such villages as desired it to abandon their 
engagements. All were invited to return to khdm management, 
and when a tank was made or repaired in one of the few villages 
which insisted on retaining their leases, a percentage of the cost was 



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( 101 ) 

levied in addition to the assessment. The rate of collection at the 
same time was reduced from one-half to two-fifths ; and the zahti^ 
or cash rates, also lowered. Colonel Sutherland and Major Dixon 
were both anxious that the rate of collection should be reduced 
to one-third; but this was not sanctioned by Govemment. On the 
expiry of the ten years* settlement, the whole district was held khdm 
and managed as Major Dixon had managed Merwara. 

In 1846, Mr. Thomason, the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
North- Western Provinces, visited this outlying portion of the 
territory under his charge. His visit to the district confirmed the 
opinion which he had previously formed of the expediency of 
returning as soon as possible to the system of village settlements. 
He remarks that a mode of administration which depends upon the 
experience and energy of one man is not fitted for general adoption. 
The people had learned fully to recognize the principle of 
joint responsibility, and their land, from the means of irrigation 
with wMch it had been provided, possessed a higher and more 
uniform value than was formerly the case. Arrangements were 
therefore made for a revenue survey, and instructions were 
issued to TMajor Dixon for the formation of a village settlement. 
Moderation was inculcated, and the standard to be aimed at was 
the punctual realization of ^ jama equal to Mr. Edmonstone's 
assessment, and yielding, over and above that amount, a moderate 
profit on the money invested in tanks and reservoirs. This 
moderate profit was afterwards put at 5 or 6 per cent. 

The season of 1848-49 was a year of very severe drought, which 
wholly eclipsed in severity the calamitous season of 1833-34. Of 
the many taldos in Ajmer and Merwara, only one had the benefit 
of a good shower. The drought was equally severe in the whole 
country from Marwar to Biindi. No crops were produced except 
in well-land and in the beds of tanks. There was an utter 
failure of forage ; and one-third of the cattle, by Colonel Dixon^s 
estimate, died. At one time it was doubtful whether engage- 
ments for a fixed assessment could be entered into. The succeed- 
ing year, however, was favorable, and the settlement commenced 
from the kharif harvest of 1849. 

In making his assessment. Colonel Dixon was guided chiefly by 
the experience he had gained of the capabilities of each village while 
it was held under direct management. His method of assessment 
was as follows : He took Mr. Edmonstone's assessment and added 
to it 8 per cent, of the sum expended on tanks in that village. 
This was the standard. If the past history of the village or its 
" latent capabilities " warranted Colonel Dixon in believing that 
this amount could be paid, he assessed the village at this amount. 
If he thought it^could pay more, he assessed it at more. If ho 



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thought it could by no possibility pay this amount, he reduced the 
standard. No rates were worked out until after the assessment, 
nor was any attempt made to compare the incidence of the 
revenue in different villages, or to explain its variations. The 
inequality of the assessment was, no doubt, tempered by Colonel 
Dixon's intimate knowledge of the district, but the system neces- 
sarily produced inequality. For all practical purposes of assess- 
ment the measurement of the villages in Colonel Dixon's time 
was superfluous. If 6 per cent, of the outlay on the tanks be 
added to the assessment of Mr. Edmonstone, the amount will be 
Rs. 1,58,273, and this was the sum proposed by the lieutenant* 
Governor as a fair amoimt to distribute. The highest amoimt 
which had ever been collected was in 1847-48, when, at two-thirds 
the produce, the revenue stood at Rs. 1,67,237, and this included all 
cesses. Colonel Dixon's actual assessment, excluding the 1 per 
cent, road cess, but inclusive of the tank cess of 1 per cent, on the 
outlay, which was merely a deduction from theGbvemment revenue 
set apart for a particular purpose, was Rs. 1,75,756, or, adding the 
assessment which was subsequently made on Nearan and Kerani- 
pura, Rs. 1,85,161. The assessment was lighter than Mr. Edmon- 
stone's, but the unirrigated area had increased in greater propor- 
tion than the irrigated, and the rate of assessment was Rs. 2-0-3 
on 28 per cent, of irrigation. The best description of the settle- 
ment is that given by Colonel Dixon himself in a demi-official letter 
to Sir Henry Lawrence, dated 25th January 1856 : " If the season 
be moderately favorable, and the taldos be replenished, the rents 
will be paid with ease and cheerfulness by the people. If drought 
ensues, we have been prepared to make such a remission that dis- 
tress in paying the revenue shall not reach the people. It is neces- 
sary to bear in mind that we have given the profits to the people, 
ourselves bearing the onus of loss. In a country like Ajmer- 
Merwara, where the seasons are so extremely irregular, to burden 
the zamindars with arrears of rent on account of what was not 
produced, would check the energies of the people and render them 
less industrious than they now are, when they know we shaU only 
claim the rent, or a portion of it, when it has been assured to 
them by Providence. To have made the jama less, would have 
been to have left the zamindars only partially employed, while in 
a season of scarcity we must still have relaxed the demand.*' This 
extract clearly sets forth the nature of the settlement. It was 
not intended to be an equal annual jama to be collected in all 
years except what in other parts of India would be called famine 
years ; but the assessment was pitched at the highest amount that 
Colonel Dixon believed should be collected in good years, and he 
was prepared to apply for remissions whenever they were required. 



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( 103 ) 

The people accepted the settlement with reluctance. Colonel 
t)ixon (paragraph 14 o£his report), in speaking of Ajmer parganjt. 
Bays : " Our labors to convince the people that their weKare and 
benefit had been mainly studied in the proposed arrangements, 
were unheeded. As all the patels and headmen were of one 
mind, it was evident they had been instructed by some evil-dis- 
posed people who loiter in the vicinity of the courts to reject our 
offers." Rajgarh pal'gana assented more readily; Edmsar, the 
most heavily assessed) was reluctant ; but the persuasions and 
influence of Colonel Dixon eventually induced all to accept the 
terms. In sanctioning the settlement, the Lieutenant-Governor 
expressed a fear that the assessment would be found in some degree 
higher than the country could easily pay, but trusted to Colonel 
Dixon's local experience and intimate knowledge of the country, 
tind was ready to beheve that the assessment has been so fixed as 
to draw forth rather than discourage the exertions of the people. 
The Court of Directors shared the apprehensions of the Lieute- 
nant-Governor, but the settlement as proposed was sanctioned 
for twenty-one years. The Lieutenant-Governor, however, desired 
it to be understood " that, except after report to Government and 
special sanction, no other penalty was to be attached to the 
non-fulfilment of the settlement contract than annulment of the 
lease and return to khdm management." 

The settlement thus sanctioned was a mouzdwdr settlement only 
"in name, and the system of collection adopted by Colonel Dixon 
rendered it practically a ryotwari one. Before the instalments 
were due, the villages were divided into circles, and a chaprdsi 
was appointed for each circle. It was the duty of this official, in 
•company with the patel and patwS,ri, to collect from each individual 
tenant the sum recorded against his name in the patwdri's 
register. If the cultivator himself could not pay, the bianya with 
whom he kept his accounts was called up, and the money generally 
produced. When the revenue could not be collected, ColonelDixon 
made up his mind as to how much should be remitted about the 
month of May, and applied for sanction for the remission of the 
amount proposed. Thus, in May 1854 he applied for leave to remit 
Rs. 16,825, and his request was at once granted. It is a matter 
of common tradition in the district that, when the revenue of any 
village was found to come in with difficulty, the deputy collector 
was sent out and arranged for a fresh re-distribution of the 
assessment. Such a mode of administration, though the best 
suited to the district and perfectly consonant with the wishes of 
the people, differs very considerably from the mouzdwdr system, 
and could only succeed where the collector was intimately 
acquamted with the resources of each village. 



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( 104 ) 

Having completed the settlement of Ajmer, Colonel Dixon 
took the assessment of Merwara in hand. As regards Merwara, 
thq Lieutenant-Governor had no desire to embarrass him with any 
instructions. He remarks that the district had been raised to 
its present state so entirely by Colonel Dixon's exertions and 
arrangements, that he alone was the best judge of what should 
be done. Colonel Dixon, therefore, marched into Merwara in the 
cold weather of 1849-50, and reported his settlement of the district 
on the 27th September 1850. It was sanctioned for twenty years 
at a net demand of Rs. 1,81,751 and a gross demand of Rs. 1,88,742. 
The incidence of the assessment was B/S. 2-11-2 on 38 per cent, 
of irrigation. 

For several years after the settlement, there was a succession 
of favorable seasons, and the remissions for which Colonel Dixon 
found it necessary to apply were but small in amount. He 
continued to impress upon the people the advantages of wells and 
tanks; many were made by the people themselves, and the 
country was prosperous and contented. Colonel Dixon adminis- 
tered the districts of Ajmer and Merwara, to which duties was 
added the command of the Merwara Battalion, till June 1857. 
He was at Bedwar, where he generally lived during the hot weather 
and rains, when he heard the first news of the mutinies ; and when 
the news of the mutiny of the troops at Nasirabdd arrived, he laid 
himself down and died. His tomb is in the Bedwar churchyard, 
and is still an object of veneijttion to the Mers, who kept a lamp 
burning at the tomb, and made vqws there, until the lamp- 
burning was a few years ago forbidden by a Deputy Commissioner 
at the suggestion of orthodox Englishmen ; but his memory will 
take long to extinguish. The walled town of Bedwar is wholly 
his work, and he is probably the latest Englishman who has 
built a ^ fenced city.' Colonel Dixon had lived in the district 
for thirty-seven years, originally belonging to the cantonment 
of Nasirabdd. He, as an officer of the Bengal artillery, had 
taken part in the subjugation of Merwara in 1821. In 1836 he 
became Superintendent of Merwara, and in 1842 he became Super- 
intendent of both districts. 

With the death of Colonel Dixon closes what may be called 
the second period of the history, the era of material improvement ; 
and the era of inflexible realization of the revenue commenced. 
The principle of Colonel Dixon's settlement was forgotten, and 
the idea gradually gained ground that the assessment was an 
equal annual demand to be collected in full each year. In the 
year 1853 Colonel Dixon had been appointed a Commissioner, and 
corresponded direct with the Government of the North- Western 
Provinces, in whose administration Ajmer had been placed in 



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( 106 ) 

1832, and Merwam in 1846. Before 1853 the oflSce^s in charge 
of Ajmer and Merwara had been styled Superintendents, and 
corresponded, first with the Resident at Delhi, subsequently with 
the Resident in Malwa and R^piitana, and after 1832 with the 
Commissioner^ Prom 1858 the united districts remained a Deputy 
Commissionership under the Agent to the Governor-General and 
Conmiissioner> who, in his latter Capacity, was subordinate to the 
Government of the North>- Western Provinces^ till 187l> when the 
province was formed into a Chief Commissionership under the 
Foreign Department of the Government of India^ and was given a 
Commissioner of its own, the Chief Commissioner being the Agent 
to the Governor-General for Rdjpiitdna* 

Captain J. C. Brooke^ the first Deputy Commissioner, submitted, 
On the 24ith July 1858, a long and interesting report on the 
condition of the country^ which has been printed in volume III 
(new series) of Selections from the Records of Government, l^orth- 
Westem ProviQces. He found the cultivators in the Ajmer and 
Bajgarh parganas better off than those in Rdmsar, who were 
generally very poor. He remarks on the great want of cattle* 
The country had suffered very severely from the famine of 1848 ; 
the cattle had died in thousandi^, both in the district and in the 
countries where they had been taken to graze, and the country had 
not recoveredw Almost the only manure available consisted of 
the deposit in the beds of tanks* Merwara was better off in this 
respect ; and the cultivation of poppy had advanced with rapid 
strides in the pargana of Todgarh since the settlement* The cul- 
tivators about th^ town of Nayanagar were poorer. The patwdris' 
papers he found were merely transcripts of the settlement record. 
Each cultivator had been led to consider his revenue as a fixed 
sum, and that it was a great injustice to demand more from him 
to make up the deficiencies of defaulters. In Merwara, the 
sepoys of the Battalion were regularly defaulters, and, where the 
settlement was not light, took no trouble to make any arrangements 
for the cultivation of their fields. Colonel Dixon, who was both 
Commandant of the force and Superintendent of the district, had 
been in the habit of deducting the amount of land-revenue due 
from the men's pay ; but this anomalous procedure was impossible 
when the offices of Superintendent and Con^andant had been 
separated. Each cultivator whose crop had failed was obliged to 
pay his own quota by borrowing. There had been no bdch^ or 
distribution of the deficiencies caused by defaulters over the 
village community since the settlement. No account had been 
kept of the profits of common land, and any remissions received 
from the State were appropriated by the whole village, giving^ a 
very small modicum of relief to those really requiring it. The 

o 



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( 106 ) 

patwdris were miserably paid, and generally acted as money-lenders 
to the people. Captain Brooke revised the patwdris' establishment, 
and doubled up the smaller villages, so as to enable him to give a 
more fitting remuneration to those who undertook the duties. 
He called attention to the manner in which land submerged in 
the bed of tanks had been assessed at high rates, and proposed to 
strike out of the settlement all lands liable to constant submersion, 
and to take revenue from them only when they should be 
cultivated. He was of opinion that the settlement had pressed 
heavily, and showed that the prices of wheat and barley had fallen 
50 per cent, below what they were for the three years preceding 
the settlement. He discussed the question of tanks at some length, 
and, to remedy the silting-up of weirs and tanks, proposed to 
construct sluices one-third the ordinary width of the river-bed 
and level with the floor of the bed. Many of Captain Brooke's 
suggestions were valuable, but the principle of laissez /aire was 
now in the ascendant, and nothing was done. 

In 1868 the whole of the annual rainfall took place between 
the 16th July and 1st August. The rain fell in a deluge in Ajmer 
and Bedwar. All the tanks were filled suddenly, and many burst. 
The streams flowed with such violence, that acres of land in many 
places were washed away. The Rdmsar lake, which had never 
been known to have filled before, overflow^; the Andsdgar 
lake rose 5 feet in as many hours, and the water flowed over the 
embankment, which was considerably injured : the houses on the 
ba^ were all under water. The kharif crop rotted in the ground, 
and when, after the waters had subsided, a re-sowing took place, 
the seed, for want of further rain, failed to germinate. Though 
the rain was so heavy in Ajmer and Bedwar, the parganas of 
Todgarh and Saroth were parched with drought. As usual in 
Ajmer in years when the kharif crop is drowned, the rabi crop 
was very good, and the revenue of the year hardly suffered. 

In May 1860, after a lengthened tour through the district. Major 
Lloyd, Deputy Commissioner, submitted a long and interesting 
report on its general condition and the measures he had adopted for 
its improvement. In comparing his recollection of the district from 
1849 to 1853, with its state in 1860, Major Lloyd was struck with 
the signs of increai^g prosperity which were discernible. Lands 
which he remembered covered with scrub and low jungle, presented 
sheets of luxuriant cultivation ; new houses were springing up, 
and the carefulness of the^^^i^^ culture in Upper Merwara excited 
his admiration. He formed the patwdris into circles — Bi measure 
commenced by Captain Brooke ; and arranged for a systematic 
revision of the seltlement records, and a fresh distribution of 
the revenue. He proposed to remedy the silting-up of the veils 



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( 107 ) ' 

by two or ttree times ploughing deeply the dry beds of the streams 
during the hot winds. Five Tillages had come under khdm manage- 
ment in Ajmer and seyen in Bedwar. The history of one of these 
khdm villages may be given as a forcible example of the evil effects 
which sometimes followed Colonel Dixon^s method of assessment. 
The village of Akhri, in the Ajmer pargana, had been assessed 
by Mr. Edmonstone at Rs. 608. Colonel Dixon constructed a 
tank in the village which cost Rs. 10,813. The tank had been 
in full working order for several years before the twenty-one 
years' settlement, and the highest collections ever obtained were 
Rs. 1,226. Colonel Dixon added 8 per cent, on the outlay of 
the tank to Mr. Edmonstone's assessment, which gave a standard 
assessment of Rs. 1,515. The -actual assessment was Rs. 1,530. 
As long as Colonel Dixon lived, remissions were yearly granted, 
amounting in 1854 to Rs. 450, and in 1856 to Rs. 570. In 1857, 
the year of Colonel Dixon's death, the village became kham, and 
Rs. 889 were collected. Khdm management was continued till 
1871, the average collections of the ten years from 1857 to 1866 
being Rs. 1,230, at two-thirds of the produce. In 1871 a farm 
was given of the village for Rs. 1,530, the old assessment. The 
farming lease has utterly ruined the village. The average gross 
collections of the farmer for two years were Rs. 1,285, and 
this he only obtained by screwing the last anna out of the people. 
In the year 1873-74 the people practically refused to cultivate. 
The earthworks on the railway had been started, and the villagers 
preferred gaining a subsistence on them to working the soil for 
the benefit of the farmer. The village has now been assessed 
at Rs. 858, including Rs. 150 water-revenue. 

The rainy season of 1860 was a bad one ; what rain fell, fell in 
showers insufficient to fill the tanks; this supply ceased before 
the end of August, and there was no rain in September. The 
kharlf failed, and, but for the favorable season in Marwar, 
the district would have suffered as much as the greater part 
of the North-Westem Provinces. The work of re-distribution of 
the revenue was held in abeyance, and never re-commenced. 
Major Lloyd made an estimate of the probable outturn in each 
estate, and fixed the amount to be collected, the balance to be 
suspended, and the simi to be remitted. Subscriptions for the 
relief of the distress were collected in Ajmer to the amount 
of Rs. 6,000, and charity was distributed through the principal 
Seths. The year 1862 was one of extraordinary rain, averaging 
4i5 inches ; the rain was spread over a long time, and was not violent 
enougjh to damage the tanks. The kharif failed ; but the rabi was 
magnificent. The revenue was collected in full, and the scarcity 
which prevailed in the adjoining States kept prices very high. 



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( 108 ) 

The rainy seasons of 1864, 1865, and 1866 were remarkable 
illustrations of the great value of the tanks, for, -without the 
tanks, each of these years would have been one of considerable 
distress. In 1864 there was an average fall, but all the rain fell 
before the second week of August. In 1866 there was no rain until 
the second week in August, and it stopped in the second week of 
September ; a few heavy showers, however, generally filled the 
tanks. In 1866 the raios began in the second week of August, and 
fell continuously and lightly till the end of the month. In some 
parts the tanks were not filled, in others there were very heavy falls. 
There was a violent hail-storm in March 1867 which destroyed the 
crops about Bedwar, and many of the wells dried up owing to the 
deficient rain for three years. The revenue, however, was collected 
in full. 

The season of 1867 was a favorable one : the average fall at 
fifteen stations was 21*5 inches. In the previous year the deputy 
commissioner had, unnoticed, introduced a most important change 
into the system of collecting the revenue. The whole revenue 
was ordered to be collected foom the headmen alone. Hitherto 
the revenue had been collected from each individual tenant, 
through the lambarddr indeed, but by means of a tahsil chapr^i, 
who assisted the lambarddr in summarily collecting the sums 
due. The system was a rough-and-ready one, but was suited 
to the tenure, and had worked well. 

Famine. 

Famine 0^1868-69. — The following year will long be memorable 
in Bdjpiitdna as the commencement of the most disastrous famine 
which, within the memory of the existing generation, had visited 
the country. Scarcity is seldom absent from some part of lldj- 
putdna, and is chronic in the western part of Marwar and in 
Bikanir. In ordinary years of scarcity the people in the afflicted 
tracts, taught patience by constant adversity, emigrate with their 
families and cattle to more favored regions, and return to their 
homes in time for the sowings of the succeeding year. It is only 
when both the south-west and north-east monsoons fail that a 
general and disastrous famine is experienced. Then, Rdjpiitdna 
has hitherto been destined to the miseries of a terrible famine 
of the three great necessaries of life — grain, grass, and water- 
called in the country a tirkdl^ or treble famine. The first famine in 
Bdjputdna, an account of which has been handed down in writing, 
occurred in the year 1661 A.D. The memorial of it is preserved 
in the beautiful marble bund erected at Kankratili in Mewar at 
the expense of a million sterling by MaharanaB^aj Singh of Udai- 
pur to save his people during the dire calamity^ . Other faminea^ 



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( 109 ) 

occurred in 1746 and in 1789, the latter of which is supposed tS 
hare exceeded in intensity even the terrible one of 1812, which ia 
said to have lasted five years, and has gained the name of panch* 
Ml. Three-fourths of the cattle died, and, as stated in the record 
of the famine of 1661, man ate man. Large tracts of country 
were depopulated by this famine, and traces of the devastation 
caused by it were visible in Ajmer at the beginning of British rule* 
Since the famine of 1812, no general famine had occurred in 
B/djpiitdna. There had been a continuance of local scarcity, and, 
as has been already related, there was severe scarcity in Ajmer in 
1819, 1824, 1833, and 1848. The famine of 1861 which was 
60 severe over the North- Western Provinces, only affected the 
eastern portions of Edjpiit^a, including Jaipur and Alwar; and 
the countries dependent on the south-west monsoon, including 
Marwar, were blessed with a plentiful harvest. 

Por some years previous to 1868 the seasons had been irregular, 
and, as we have seen, the rainfall of 1864, 1865, and 1866 was 
very deficient in Ajmer. ^ In 1864 the rains broke up very early, 
and the kharif was only half an average crop ; in 1865 the rains 
commenced very late, so that all the early crops were lost, and 
only half the later crops were saved ; in 1866, the rains were late 
and light ; 1867 had been better than its predecessors, but the 
country entered on the famine with its stocks of grain exhausted. 

The rainfall of 1868 was unfavorable from the commence- 
ment. The early rains of June were not sufficiently heavy to 
allow the cultivators to plough the land and put in the seed. 
From the Ist June 1868 to 1st June 1869 the average fall for all 
the stations of Ajmer-Merwara was only 7*4 inches, or about one- 
third of an average fall. The State of Jaipur was as bad ; and, at 
Jodhpur, no rain whatever fell during the rainy season, or at 
least not enough to be measured by a rain-gauge. West of the 
Arvali the south-west monsoon failed entirely. East of the Arvali 
the rains fell only over the Indore districts, but did not extend over 
Central India and Bundelkhund, the starving population of which 
provinces flecked into Malwa. In Guzerdt a terrible flood in the 
early part of August swept all before it. The people saved them- 
selves by getting on eminences and climbing trees, and the country- 
was under water for days. Cattle and stocks of grain and fodder 
were swept away, and the element searched out and destroyed the 
stores of grain below ground. ' No rain fell subsequently, and 
Guzerdt itself had to undergo the hardships of scarcity. The 
north-east monsoon had equally failed, and great scarcity over- 
shadowed the North- Western Provinces. Ajmer was thus isolated 
in the midst of afamine tract; it had no supplies of its own, 
and, owing to the utter failure of forage, the price of which. was 



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( no ) 

in many places actually dearer than grain, no carts could travel^ 
nor could the pack-bullock of the banjdr^, of which there are 
hundreds of thousands in Rdjpiitdna and Central India, traverse 
the country. The only means of transport which were ayailahle 
consisted of camels ; all the kdfilas employed by traders, however, 
cease travelling in the rains, partly because no return-loads of salt 
can be carried during that season, and partly because, agreeably to 
the time-honored custom of the country, camels are then turned 
out to graze. No regular organization for the supply of grain by 
camels was attempted by the local administration. 

Towards the end of August 1868, emigration commenced from 
Ajmer-Merwara. Wheat at this time was selling inAjmer at ten 
seers ; barley, jowdr, and grass were twelve seers per rupee. Such 
was the scarcity of fodder that cows were offered for sale at Re. 1 
each, and good plough-cattle at Rs. 10 a pair. No grass could be 
procured by the cantonment of Nasirabdd. The horses of the 
artillery battery were sent away altogether, and the BmsJl cavalry 
detachment which remained had to fetch forage from Nimach, 
a distance of 150 miles. Relief-works were commenced ; and in 
November 1868, the deputy commissioner, who had, either per- 
sonally or through his subordinates, visited every portion of the 
district, reported on the coiidition of the country. Half the 
cattle had been driven to Malwa owing to absence of fodder. 
The kharif had practically been a total failure. The water in the 
wells was scanty, and had become so brackish that it was imfit for 
purposes of irrigation. In some places where the crops had 
sprouted, no grain, owing to lack of moisture, had been formed, 
and the stalks had been cut to feed the cattle. The people were 
apathetic, and entirely in the hands of the money-lenders, who 
would make no advances. In January, February, and March 
1869, 1*2 inch of rain fell, but there was no cultivation on 
imirrigated land, and the area under crop in the rabi was confined 
to those localities where well-irrigation was procurable, for none 
of the tanks had any water. Mildew and hail-storms attacked the 
scanty crop, and there was to all intents a total loss of both crops. 
The distress was intensified by the crowds of emigrants from Mar- 
war who, coming with their herds in search of food and pasture, 
trenched considerably on the scanty supplies of food remaining, 
and consumed the little grass in the district. Emigration from 
Ajmer-Merwara now went on with.redoubled speed, and the people 
were reduced to the necessity of supporting themselves on the bark 
of the khejra tree and roots which they mixed with grain and 
ground up* to make bread. Poor-houses were now established, and 
the country waited in eager expectation for the rains of 1869. 

The hot B<)ason of 1869 was unusually protracted, and it waa 



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( 111 ) 

not till the middle of July that the long-looked-f or rains set in 
and the people were enabled to plough their fields. In many 
places, when there were no cattle, the men, making small plougli^ 
for the purpose, yoked themselves in place of their oxen and 
laboriously turned up a furrow, while the women dropped in the 
grain. There was hardly any rain, however, in August (only 
14 inch was measured in Ajmer), and the distress now began 
to reach its culminating point as the prospects of a kharff harvest 
gradually disappeared. Barks and roots even were scarce, and 
the mortality was frightful. A copious rainfall in September to 
some extent revived the hopes of the people, but these were soon 
destined to be dashed. Swarms of locusts, hatched in Jesalmer 
and Bikanir, invaded Marwar, Ajmer, Tonk, and the northern 
parts of Mewar, and devoured every green thing. The estimated 
loss was, of maize 46 per cent., of jowdr 56, of bajrd 67, of cotton 
68, of til 73, of pulses 82 per cent. Grain was literally not now 
procurable, — ^barley was selling during the month of September^ 
according to the price-lists of Ajmer, at 6^ seers ; the highest 
price it reached was 3 seers, but men with money in their hands 
could not get food in the city of Ajmer. Importation fron^i 
Bhawdni and Rewdri now commenced, and convoys of camels^ 
coming for the Sambhar salt daily, brought large supplies. In 
August 1869 an application was made to the Government of the 
North- Western Provinces to despatch grain from Agra, but the 
consignment arrived after grain had become cheap. At the close 
of the famine, the deputy conmiissioner estimated the losses at 
25 per cent, of the population of 426,000, at 33 per cent, of the 
cattle, and 50 per cent, of ploughs. Government had spent 
altogether B/S. 15,20,074, of which amount it is calculated that 
B/S. 2,30,000 were given in gratuitous relief. 

Into the vexed question of the adequacy of the relief 
administration it is no part of a Gazetteer to enter. A full 
account of what was done will be found in Colonel Brooke's 
account of the " Famine in Rajptitdna," which was published in 
the Gazette of India of the 26th Eebruary 1871. The district 
officers did all that men could do ; but no addition whatever was 
ma/de to the ordinary district staff, and in August 1869 there was 
no grain in the country wherewith to feed the people, who neces- 
sarily died. The rains of 1870 were rather below the average. 
Ajmer got 21 inches, Bedwar 10*7, Todgarh 10* 8 ; but no rain fell 
after August. The deputy commissioner reported that the state 
of apathy and demoralization of the people, owing to the misery 
of the last two years, was such that nothing availed for the collec- 
tion of the revenue save active coercive measures ; and these, except 
in two instances^ had been effectual* In Bedwar in 187^^ s^^- 



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( 112 ) 

trheat Vrks selling at 5 to 6 seers per rupefe, barley at 7 Se^rSi 
gram at 4 seers ; and was generally repayable with 100 per cent* 
interest. In Todgarh, seed*whe2tt was selling at 2^ to 3 seersj 
barley at 3^ to 6 seers ; repayable at 12 seers, and 18 seers^ 
respectively. 

In Merwara it was found utterly impossible to collect the 
revenue during the famine years, and eventually the Arrears were 
remitted^ A summary settlement was made for Merwara from 
the year 1872-73, which was at a reduction Of 32 pef Cent, on the 
settlement demand. The collections from Merwara during the 
period of settlement are shown in the following table for periods 
of five years : — 



TfthfU. 


CiroU. 


III 

IS 


1 


III 


11 


3©&war ... 1 


Beawar 

Chnng 

Sbamgarli 

Total ... 

Bbaelan 
Dewair 
Todgarh 

Total ... 


Es. 

65,679 
10,164 
25,279 


61,686 
10,241 
24,489 


66,387 
10,689 
26,132 


Rs. 

34,935 

6,256 

15,871 


^^ 


91,022 


86,416 


S2,208 


57,062 


'Todgarh ... | 


12,816 
28,9^6 
35,270 


12,816 
28,697 
35,112 


12,817 
28,816 
35,108 


8,457 
21,083 
22,498 




77,022 


76,625 


76,741 


52,038 


Grand Total, 
Merwara ... 


1,68,044 


1,63,041 


1,68,949 


1,09,100 



This table is instructive. The first period shows the favorable 
years after the settlement ; during the second, remissions were 
allowed ; the revenue during the third period was rigorously 
collected; and the fourth period, which includes one year of 
the summary . settlement, shows the average paid by Merwara 
during the famine and subsequent years. 

The foregoing retrospect has suflB.ciently demonstrated, what 

was already abundatntly clear from a 

Kemarkg on tb<j village sys- . consideration of the tenure, that.the village 

tern as applicable to Aimer- . i» xi. twt __j.i ttt ± t» • ■ 

Merwara. systcm of the North- Westem Provmces 

is not self-acting beyond a certain point, 
and that a mouzdwdr settlement cannot succeed in Ajmer- 
Merwara. By the term **mouzdwdr'* is meant a settlement 
where the assessment is based on the average of good and bad 
seasons, and where the priaciple of joint responsibility is enforced 



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( 113 ) 

in the collection of the revenue. The seasons present too great 
vicissitudes to allow of an equal annual demand being assessed, 
but this difficulty has been partially surmounted in the recent 
revision by the assessment of water-revenue, amounting in 
Ajmer-Merwara to Rs. 55,432 out of Rs. 2,61,557, separately 
from the land-revenue on the unirrigated aspect. The assessment 
on the dry aspect includes the full assessment of well-land, but, 
in each village where the tanks fail to fill, the water-revenue will 
be remitted each year. The principle of joint responsibility has 
not been formally abolished, for cases may arise (though the 
cultivated area cannot be largely increased in any village) in 
which it would be just to enforce it. One of the main objects of 
the recent settlement, however, has been to reduce its evils to 
a minimum. All well-known and recognized divisions of a 
village have been allowed to choose a headman, and to each 
cultivator has been permitted the option of deciding through 
which of the headmen he will pay his revenue. The total amount 
payable through each patel has been added up, and a list of each 
headman^s constituents given to the headman, and filed with the 
settlement record. Thus, in a village paying Rs. 1,000, there 
may be five patels, two responsible for Rs. 250 each, one for 
Rs. 200, one for Rs. 125, and one for Rs. 75. Under the old 
system, the tahsildar demanded the revenue from those among 
the headmen whom he considered the most substantial in the 
village. Now, he can tell exactly how much he should collect 
from each patel ; and if the representative of any thok or pati 
cannot be made to pay, very valid reasons indeed should be 
adduced before the representative of the other divisions of the. 
village are called on to make good the deficiency. Frimd fcwie^ 
in such a case the simi should be remitted. In short, the old 
thok and pati of the mouzdwAr system has been entirely aban- 
doned. No real thoha and patis exist in Ajmer-Merwara, and for 
a number of more or less arbitrary sub-divisions of the land has 
been substituted an agglomeration of holdings, bound together by 
the fact that the owners have selected one of the headmen sanc- 
tioned for the village as the representative through whom they 
will pay their revenue. In this way, the headmen of the villages 
have become a strictly representative body, as they ought to be. 
JPresent condition of the people. — ^The result of the famine has 
Besuit of the f ine ^^^^ ^ throw the district into a state of 
e amine. indebtedness from which it is doubtful if 
it wiU ever recover. The assessment of the khdlsa has never been 
light, and the people have always been a cultivating tenantry 
living from hand to mouth, and with no resources beyond those 
of the current harvest. One effect which follows on every year 

p 



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( 114 ) 

of scarcity was especiaUy observable during the famine, and this 
is the opportunity which is given to the grain-dealers to secure 
what wotdd otherwise be bad debts. There is always a large 
amount of unsecured debt which has descended from father to 
son, or consists of extortions of the grain-dealers which they could 
not recover in a civil court. A starving man is not over-cautious 
regarding the obligations he undertakes, and the grain-dealers found 
their opportunity in the necessity of the cultivators, who, if they 
required food, were obliged to sign bonds or mortgage their land 
for the full amount which the grain-dealers stated was due to 
them. This process was very extensively carried out in Merwara, 
and especially in the Todgarh tahsil. A new species of debt has 
been incurred since the famine, owing to the system introduced 
in 1866 of not collecting revenue except from the headmen. The 
headmen, or rather the most substantial headman in the village, 
when pressed, borrowed money to pay, and wrote bonds for the 
amount in their own names, and not as representatives of the 
village community. The village commimities have, as a rule, 
repudiated their share in these debts, and the courts have given 
decrees for large sums against the headman personally, though 
the debt was really due from the village. 

The amoimt of mortgage debt which has been found existing 
at the recent revision of settlement in the 
ortgage. khdlsa villages is Rs. 11,55,437. Many 

mortgages have, no doubt, escaped record, and many of them are 
of old standing and cannot be laid to the account of the famine, 
but the indebtedness on mortgage debts alone is suffici^itly appal- 
ling. The mortgages of the district are almost all of the usufruc- 
tuary kind, but it is only in rare cases that the mortgagee takes 
possession of the land. The custom is for the mortgagor, at the 
date of writing the mortgage-bond, to write what is called a 
Gugri khat stipulating to pay the mortgagee as rent yearly eithw 
so many maunds of grain per 100 rupees of the mortgage-debt, 
or so much per cent, interest. The rent of the land bears generally 
no relation whatever to the value of the produce, but only to the 
aniount of the mortgage-debt. In Merwara a kind of metayer 
. system has been established between the mortgagor and mortgagee : 
the grain-dealer gives half the seed- grain and takes half the pro- 
duce, the cultivator having to pay the Government revenue out 
of his share. 

Owing to the fact that sales of land in execution of decrees 
are forbidden, and to the peculiarities of 
cJr'"''^*^"'^'''''^"^'^^^^ ^^^ tenures of the district, the money- 
lending classes have never become actual 
owners of the soil as they have in other p£),rts of the Bengal Presi- 



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( 115 y 

dency. It is calculated by the settlement officer, however, that 
a sum equal to more than the revised Government demand annu- 
ally passes into their pockets as interest on mortgages, so that in 
reality they draw more than the landlord's share from the produce 
of the soil. The policy of our rule has been everywhere favor- 
able to the monied class, and this is especially true of Ajmer and 
Merwara. Mr. Wilder encouraged by every means in his power 
the settling of Seths in Ajmer ; and m chapter X of his " Sketch 
of Merwara,^ Colonel Dixon writes : ** After water, the desidera- 
tum next in importance to ensure the prosperity of Merwara was 
the location of people of the mahajan class. It is an established 
fact that agriculture cannot prosper without the intervention of 
mahajans.** The presence of a m.onied class has, no doubt, alle* 
viated the scarcity of many unpropitious seasons^ but the fatal 
facility of borrowing has plunged all classes into debt^ The diffi- 
culty of rescuing the people from the load which now weighs them 
down is enormous. In the case of the istimrdrddrs, Grovemment 
has cut the Gordian knot by itself liquidating the debts and taking, 
a moderate interest from the indebted thdkurs ; but this remedy 
could not be proposed in the case of the petty owners of the 
khdlsa. 

Loans to agriculturists are generally transacted by village^ 
^ ^ . . , ^ shopkeepers, who, in their turn, borrow 

Kates of interest. « ^ j i ^ « j i n a • mi. j • 

from the Seths of Ajmer. The ordmary 
rate of interest on small transactions where an article is given in 
pawn as security, is 12 per cent, per annum ; where a mortgage is 
given on movable property, but possession is not given of the 
property mortgaged, the rate is 24 per cent. In mortgages on 
immovable property the rate varies considerably, from 12 per cent, 
to what is called sakh siwaya^ or 48 per cent. ;, but the usual 
rate is 24 per cent. Where the interest i& paid in grain, from 9 to 
12 maunds per hundred rupees is the rate of interest. In petty 
agricultural advances on personal security, 24 per cent, is the usual 
rate, and where an advance of grain is given, it is repayable with 
interest, called bddhi^ at the rate of 5 to 10 seers per maund per 
harvest. The rate of Rs. 4-8 to Rs 6 per cent, is considered a fair re- 
turn for money invested in buying land. Assuming,. then, a rate of 
24 per cent, as the int^est on the mortgage-debt of the khdlsa, the 
figures go to prove that an annual sum of E^. 2,77,328, or more 
than the net Qt)vemment revenue, passes into the hands of the 
money-lenders. Besides the debts secured on land, there are large 
sums due on unexecuted decrees by agriculturists in the Ajmer, 
Bedwar, and Nasirabdd small cause courts, and an unknown 
amount is secured by bonds. The value of the whole produce of 
the district, exclusive of istimrdr and jdglr, has been estimated by 
the settlement officer at between 15 and 16 lakhs ; and, of tliis. 



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( 11.6 ) 

amount, 6 lakhs is absorbed by the Grovemment revenue and cesses, 
arid interest on debt. 

The income of istimrdrddrs of the district has been estimated 
«... .1.,^ .^. ^ ^. by recent enquiries in the court of the 

Position of the istimrardar. ^ • . i t% k Krw -irwo x j.i_ 

Commissioner at Rs. 5,59,198. In the 
year 1872 a Regulation was passed for the relief of embarrassed 
thdkurs and jdglrddrs. Their estimated debts amounted to 
seven lakhs, and the Government of India sanctioned a grant 
of the sum. Their debts have now been nearly all paid or 
compromised, and interest on the advance at 6 "per cent, is paid 
from the profits of the estate to Government. The revenue 
paid by the istimr^ estates amounts to Rs. 1,14,734-9-11, or 
about one-fifth of the assets. The smaller estates are compara- 
tively very heavily assessed, some at nearly one-half the rental ; 
the larger estates, whose owners were powerful and could resist 
oppression, are lightly assessed : the Thdkur of Masuda has an 
income of over Rs. 70,000, and pays Rs. 8,565-6 ; the Raja of 
Bhinai pays Rs. 7,717-7-11, out of a rental of Rs. 55,000 ; and 
the assets of the larger estates are capable of a very considerable 
increase with proper management. In a few years it is hoped 
that nearly all these estates will be freed from debt, and the chiefs 
will be able to hand down an unencumbered estate to their 
descendants. 

The wages of the labouring classes have risen considerably 

since 1850 ; the ordinary wages at present 

for cooues are 3 annas per man, 2 annas per 
woman, and 1 to 1^ anna for children according to size. The 
Department of Public Works pays generally 3^ annas to men. 
In 1850 wages were paid in Srishahi coinage, and were equivalent 
to 1 anna 9 pie, 1 anna 2 pie, and 9 pie, respectively. Agricultural 
labourers in and about Ajmer city, employed in weeding crops and 
working wells, receive — men 3 annas a day or Rs. 5 a month, or 
Rs. 2 to Rs. 2-8 with food and clothing ; women 2 annas a day, and 
they are scarcely ever employed by the month ; children up to 2 
annas a day. The old rates did not exceed 2 annas a day or Rs. 4 
per month, and women and children were paid proportionately less 
when employed in cutting crops. The labourers receive about half 
a seer of grain called karpi in addition. A plough with a pair of 
bullocks and a driver costs 8 annas a day. In villages, agricul- 
tural labourers receive generally 2 seers a day ; when employed by 
the year, they generally receive a pair of shoes, a blanket, and a 
rupee for tobacco, in addition. 

Smiths are paid from 6 to 8 annas a day by the Department 
Skilled artizans ^^ Public Works, carpcntcrs from 5 to 7 

annas, masons from 5 to 6 annas, or, when 
employed by the month, from 10 to 15 rupees. About tl^ year 



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( m ) 

1850 the rate of wages for all was about 4 annas Srishahi a day, or 

Rs. 7-8 a month. Colonel Dixon built all his tanks at the rate of 

E;e. 1 per cubic yard ; at present masonry cannot be built for less 

than from Rs. 3-8 to Rs. 4 per cubic yard. Not only has the rate 

of wages increased, but the hours of labour haye diminished. 

Eight hours are now considered a good day's work, while formerly 

all labourers worked about ten hours. 

No statistics exist for the comparison of prices of ordi- 

^ , . nary articles of consumption, except food- 

Present prices. T 'Ji J.1 • • • I" J • 

grams, with then* prices in past times. 
The following were the prices current in Ajmer city in the year 
1873, — sugar, Rs. 11-4 per maund ; gtir, Rs. 5-10-8 per maund ; 
ghi, Rs. 26 per maund ; Sambhar salt, Re. 1 per maund ; khari 
salt, 1 maund 15 seers per rupee ; tobacco, Rs. 10-4-8 per maund ; 
dried fruits, Rs. 18 per maund ; fuel, 2 maunds 30 seers per 
rupee ; distilled liquors sell at 4 annas, 8 annas, and Re. 1 per 
bottle ; the best rice is 4 seers per rupee ; common rice, 7 seers 
12 chittacks ; barley, 19 seers 12 chittacks ; Indian-corn, 14 seers . 
8 chittacks ; wheat, 14 seers 14 chittacks ; indigo, Rs. 76 a 
maund. The prices of all these articles have, no doubt, risen 
considerably since 1850. 
- , . , ^ , The gold and silver weight table used 

Local weights and measures. • p 11 ^ 

is as follows : — 
4 Mungs = 1 Rati. 

8 Batis = 1 Masha. 

12 Mashas = 1 Tola or a Rupee. 

The weights used in the city of Ajmer are the Government 
chittack, seer, and maund of 80 pounds ; in the district the 
following table of weights is in use : — 

18 Mashas = 1 Pukkapais. 

2i Pukkapais = 1 Kacha chittack. 

4 Chittacks = 1 Pao. 

2 Paos = I Adhsera. 

2 Adhseras = 1 Seer. 

5 Seers = 1 Pansera or Dhari. 

8 Panseris s= 1 Maund (kacha) = 27 seers of 

80 tolas. 
^Time is measured as follows : — 
1 Breath = 4 Seconds. 

6 Breaths = 1 Pal = 24 Seconds. 
10 Pals = 1 Kshan = 4 Minutes. 

6 Kshan = 1 Ghari = 24 Minutes. 

7i Gharis =? 1 Pahar = 3 Hour&. 

8 Pahars =1 Day and night = 24 Hours. 
Cloth measure: — 

Diameter of a Pukkapaia = 1 Ungli. 

28 Unglis = 1 Hath, 

li Hatfi = 1 Giij = i yard of 36 

inches. 

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(118 ) 

Measure of distance :— 

28 Unglis = 1 Hatb. 

84 Haths = 1 Jarib of 20 Ghatas. 

50 Jaribs = 1 Kos = 2^450 yards. 

The Ajmer bfgha is a square of 44 yards, and 2^ bfghas are 
exactly equal to an acre : — 

1 Square Ghata 6 feet 7 inches = 1 Biswaiisi» 
20 Biswansis = 1 Biswa. 

20 Biswas = 1 B%ha = 1,936 square 

yards^ 



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( 120 ) 
APPENDIX B. 

Statement showing the Prices of Produce in Ajmer during the Famine of 1868-69. 



Ye«r. 



1868 



1860 



1870 



Month. 



June 
July 

AugOBt 

September 
October 
November 
December 

Jamisry 

Febroary 

March 

April 

May 

Jane 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Janutfy 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Wheat. 



Barley. 



Srs. Ch. 

16 11 

16 4 

16 6 

10 

7 Iff 

7 4 

7 

7 

7 12 

7 

6 14 

6 12 

6 7 

6 8 

(> 12 

4 9 

6 12 

6 

6 9 

6 14 

7 12 
7 4 
9 
9 14 
9 



Srs. Ch. 

23 1 

21 8 

22 6 
12 6 

9 1 

8 6 

8 7 

8 9 

8 13 

8 16 

8 16 

8 4 

8 8 

9 



Srs. Ch. 



Maize. 



Srs. Ch. 



6 

6 

6 6 

6 12 

4 12 

6 6 

9 4 

10 11 

llr— 6 

13 

13 11 

16 12 

16 8 

13 8 



Mot. 



6 11 

6 8 

6 4 

4 14 

4 12 

6 7 

4 14 

6 

8 6 

10 8 

11 8 
14 

12 4 
10 8 



B^r£. 



Srs. Ch. 

20 10 

19 8 

16 14 

10 9 

7 13 

7 14 

7 2 

7 4 

7 4 

7 1 

7 

6 12 



6 12 

6 2 
4 4 

7 4 
9 8 

10 2 

11 13 

12 12 

13 10 
16 11 

14 6 
13 4 



Jowlb*. 



Srs. Ch, 

20 6 

20 

17 8 

10 

8 7 

8 

7 8 

7 6 

7 11 

7 7 



Srs. Ch. 



6 1 

6 

4 14 

6 8 

8 11 

10 12 

12 

12 14 

14 11 

17 6 

16 

14 7 



Grass. 



Srs. Ch. 



1$ 

11 2 

11 9 

12 8 

13 

12 4 

13 12 

14 14 
14 4 
14 4 
40 



Bhtisa. 



40 





30 





... 


.. 


26 





12 





16 





18 





24 





16 







.. 


... 




11 


8 


11 


8 


... 


... 



14 10 

14 

17 6 

17 14 

17 8 

26 10 

40 



60 
70 
70 .0 



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( 121 ) 



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( 123 ) 

APPENDIX E. 

Sir Thomas Rob, Ambassador of James I, arrived at Ajmer on 23rd 
December 1615, and, on the 10th January 1616, presented himself at Jehangir's 
court and delivered his credentials. The following passages are extracted 
from Sir Thomas Roe^s Journal, as they possess a local interest : — 

Jehangir at the time lived in the fort now called the Magazine, and the 
attendants on his court seemed to have lived in extemporised houses outside 
the city- wall in the space between the Daulat Bigh and the Madar Hill. 
When Jehangir left Ajmer fof Mandar, he gave orders to set fire to all 
the Lashhar at Ajmer^ to compel the people to follow ; and the order was duly 
executed, 

'^ The king comes every morning to a window looking into a plain before 
his gate, and shows himself to the common people. One day I went to attend 
him. I found him at the window, and went up on the scaffold under him. On 
two tressels stood two eunuchs with long poles headed with feathers, fanning 
him. He gave many favors and received many presents ; what he bestowed 
was let down by a silk rolled on a turning instrument ; what was given him, a 
venerable, fat, deformed old matron, hung with gymbals like an image, 
plucked up at a hole. With such another clue at one side in a window were his 
two principal wives, whose curiosity made them break little holes in a grate of 
reed that hung before it to gaze on me. On Tuesday at this window the 
king sits in judgment, never refusing the poorest man^s complaint : he hears 
with patience both parties, and sometimes sees with too much delight in blood 
the execution done by his elephants. Illi meruerey sed quid tu ut adessea, " 

This gate is probably the principal entrance to the magazine on the city 
side, where there is a window on each side, such as Sir Thomas Roe describes. 

The next description is of a place generally called the Nur cAasAma at the 
back of the Taragarh hill. The fountains and tanks are in a ruinous state^ 
and the place can only be reached with difficulty as of yore. 

^' The 1st of March I rode to see a house of pleasure of the king's, given him 
by Asaf Khan, two miles from Ajmer, but between two mighty rocks, so defended 
from the sun that it scarce any way sees it ; the foundation cut out of them and 
some rooms, the rest of free stone : a handsome little garden with fine foun- 
tains, two great tanks, one thirty steps above the other. The way to it is inac- 
cessible but for one or two in front, and that very steep and stony : a place of 
much melancholy delight and security, only being accompanied with wild pea- 
cocks, turtles, fowl, and monkeys that inhabit the rocks hanging every way 
over it.'' 

Sir Thomas Roe also visited the Daulat Bdgh, whither he had been invited 
to supper by Jamdl-ud-din Hasan, a man whom he describes as possessed of 
more courtesy and understanding than all his coimtrymen. 

^^ Jamal-ud-din had borrowed of the king his house and garden of plea- 
sure, Hauz Jamal, a mile out of the town, to feast me in; and, overnight 
earnestly inviting me, I promised to come. At midnight he went himself and 
carried his tents and all furniture, and fitted up a place by the tank-side very 
handsomely. In the morning I went : at my coming he came to meet me, 
and, with extraordinary civility, carried me into his room prepared, where he 
had some company and one hundred servants attending. He entertained me with 
showing me the king's little closets and retiring-rooms, which were painted 
with antiques, and, in some panes, copies of the French kings and other Chris- 
tian princes. In this time came in dinner ; so, sitting on carpeting, a cloth was 



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( 124 ) 

laid, and divers banquetting set before us, and the like a little apart for 
the gentlemen that accompanied him, to whom he went to eat, they holding 
it a kind of uncleanness to mingle with us ; whereat I told him he promised 
we should eat bread and salt together ; that without his company I had but little 
appetite ; so he rose and sat by me, and we fell roundly to our victuals. The 
substance was made-dishes of divers sorts, — ^raisins, almonds, pistaches, and 
fruit. Dinner ended, he played at chess, and I walked. Returning, after 
some discourse I offered to take my leave ; he answered he had entreated me 
to come to eat ; that what was passed was but a collation ; that I must not 
depart till I had supped, which I readily granted. After a time our supper 
came, two cloths being spread as in the morning, and before me and my 
chaplain and one merchant were set divers dishes of sallets and meat roast> 
fried and boiled, and divers rices. He desired to be excused ; that it was their 
manner to eat among themselves; his countrymen would tak^itill if he ate not 
with them; so he and his guests, I and my company, solaced ourselves with a 
good refreshing. The meat was not amiss, but the attendance and order much 
better, his servants being very diligent and respectful. He gave me for a 
present, as is the manner when one is invited, five cases of sugarcandy dressed 
with musk, and one loaf of most fine sugar white as snow, about fifty 
pound weight, desiring me to accept one hundred such against my going, 
^ which,^ said he, ' you refuse of me thinking I am poor, but it costs me nothing ; 
it is made in my government and comes gratis to me.^ Thus professing 
himself my father, and I his son, with compliments I took my leave.^^ 

The last extract is an account of a violent storm of rain which fell on the 
20th August 1616 :-- 

" The twentieth day and the night past fell a storm of rain called the ele- 
phant, usual at going out of the rains, but for the greatness very extraordinary, 
whereby there ran such streams into the tank, whose head is made of stone, in 
show exceeding strong, but the water was so grown that it brake over in one 
place, and there came an alarm and sudden fear that it would give way and drown 
all that part of the town where I dwelt, insomuch that Prince Khurram and 
all his women forsook their house ; my next neighbour carried away his goods 
and his wife on his elephants and camels to fly to the hillside. All men had their 
horses ready at their doors to save their lives, so that we were much frighted 
and sat up till midnight, for that we had no help but to flee ourselves and 
lose all our goods ; for it was reported that it would run higher than the top 
of my house by 3 feet and carry all away, being poor muddy buildings ; fourteen 
years past a terrible experience having showed the violence, the foot of the tank 
being level with our dwelling, and the water extremely great and deep, so that 
the top was much higher than any house which stood at the bottom in the 
course of the water, every ordinary rain making such a current at my door 
that it run not swifter in the arches of London Bridge, and is for some hours 
impassable by horse or man. But God otherwise disposed it in His mercy ; 
the king caused a sluice to be cut in the night to ease the water another way, 
yet the very rain had washed down a great part of the walls of my house, and 
so weakened it in divers places that I feared the fall more than the flood, and 
was so moiled with dirt and water that I could scarce lie dry or safe ; for that 
I must be enforced to be at new charge in reparation. Thus were we every 
way afflicted : fires, smokes, floods, storms, heat, dust, flies, and no temperate 
or quiet season.^' 



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JAIPUR: 

COMPILED BY 

JiAJOR 0. A. BAYLAY, 

POLITICAL AGENT. 



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GAZETTEER OF JAIPUR.* 



Geography. 

Boundaries and Area. — The State of Jaipur, including Shekd* 
wati, is bounded on the north by Bikanir, Lohdri, Jhagdr, and 
Patiala; on the south by Gwalior, Biindi, Tonk, Mewar, 
and Ajmer; on the east by Alwar, Bhartpur, and Karauli; 
and on the west by Kishangarh, Marwar, and Bikanir. It lies 
between north latitude 25° 43' and 28° 30', and east longitude 
74° 50' and 77° 18'; and contains an area of 14,465 square miles. 

General Topography. — The general character of the country 
is tolerably level and open, though it is continually crossed 
and diversified by hills in groups and ranges, and by isolated 
eminences. The centre of the State is an elevated tableland of 
triangular form from 1,400 to 1,600 feet above sea-level, 
bounded on the south by a base line running west from the city of 
Jaipur : the eastern boundary consists of ranges of hills running 
north and south along the Alwar border; towards the north 
and west this triangular plateau is bounded by a broken chain 
of hills, a portion of the Arvali range, which forms the apex 
of the triangle by intersecting the eastern range near Khetri in 
Shekdwati. The hills here rise to a considerable height with a 
bold outline ; this range of hills on the north-west forms a natural 
boundary between the sandy and desert tracts of Shekdwati (or 
the country of the Shekdwat clan in the extreme north of the 
Jaipur State), and Bikanir on the one side, and the more fertile 
soils of Jaipur on the other. To the east of Jaipur, beyond the 
range of hills close to the city, there is a rapid fall of some three 
or four hundred feet in the first two or three miles, after which 
there is a gradual fall along the valley of the Bdnganga river to 
the Bhartpur border, and the country becomes gradually more 
open, with a less interrupted plain as it spreads out towards the 
alluvial flats of the Jumna. The eastern portion of Jaipur has 
many ranges of low hills in it, and near the Karauli border is 



* Principally written by Major C. A. Baylay, Political Agent. 



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( 126 ) 

much cut up with ravines. From the base of the central plateau 
above described, the country slopes gradually to the south-east 
towards the Ban^ river, only a few isolated hills appearing above 
the plain ; but in the extreme south the hill-ranges re-appear and 
in the neighbourhood of E/djmahdl, where the Bands river has 
forced itself through the range, the scenery is markedly beautiful. 
Westward from Jaipur the country rises gradually towards the 
Kishangarh border, and consists, in a great measure, of broad, 
open, treeless plains, dotted with occasional hills. 

Sub-surface Water. — The depth and character of the sub-sur- 
face water in Jaipur varies considerably. Southward of the range 
which marks off the Shekdwati districts from the rest of Jaipur, 
water is everywhere fairly near the surface, varying from a few 
feet in low-lying groimd to 30 or 40 feet ; but in Shekdwati, 
north of the range, water is always at a great depth, averaging 
from 80 to 100 feet. It is brackish in many parts where the soil 
is much impregnated with salt ; but generally the water may be 
found sweet to the east and south. To the north, in Shekdwati 
and in the neighbourhood of Jaipur, it varies considerably, being 
sometimes brackish and sometimes sweet ; while westward of 
Jaipur it is more constantly brackish. 

Soils. — The soil of Jaipur, in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the city to the west and north, is generally sandy ; in some 
•places are tracts of mere barren sand ; underneath this sandy 
surface, clay and stiff soil, mixed with kankar, is often met with. 
Eastward, along the Bdnganga valley, the soil is generally a rich 
firm loam ; and in the extreme east, towards Hindaun, it is still 
sandy, though not unproductive. Southward from Jaipur the 
soil is mostly rich and fertile ; and the tract to the extreme south, 
enclosed by the bend of the Bands river, consists of a rich allu- 
vial loam, and is the most fertile portion of the State ; whereas 
Shekdwati, to the north of the intersecting range, consists almost 
entirely of shifting sands. 

Geology. — There has not as yet been any regular geological 
survey of the hill-ranges in Jaipur, so that but little information 
can be given on this head. 

The principal hill-ranges in Jaipur have been noted under 
the head of " General Topography." They consist chiefly of granite 
and sandstone, mixed sometimes with white and black marble, 
and occasionally with mica. They are said to be primitive rocks 
belonging to the transitionary series, as they do not contain any 
fossil remains. The hills to the south and east are formed princi- 
pally of sandstone, while those to the north . contain more 
granite. The hills for the most part rise very abruptly from the 
plains, and many of them are peaked j others being flat at the top 



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( 127 ) 

with the edges steeply scarped for some way down the hillside, 
thus forming natural fortifications. 

To the north, where the Khetri hills meet the Alwar range, 
there has heen a great geological disturbance ; the granite of the 
Arvalis bursting through and upheaving the sandstone of the 
Alwar hills, thus exposing alum shales and rich veins of copper 
ores, cobalts, and nickels. Copper mines are worked to some extent 
in the neighbourhood of Khetri ; but, owing to the want of proper 
appliances for keeping down the water, the richest veins, which 
are lowest, cannot be reached, and the outturn is very small, for 
lack of scientific management. The water in many of the mines 
is rich in sulphate of copper and alimi, and cobalt is found in 
thin layers between the veins of copper ore. This latter mineral 
is much used at Jaipur for enamellmg, and is also exported to 
Delhi and Haidardbad in the Dakhan for that purpose. In addition 
to the mineral substances above noted, salt is extensively manu- 
factured and exported from the Sambhar Lake, an account of 
which will be found under its proper head. 

Good building-stone is plentiful in many parts of Jaipur. 
Beneath the Amargarh fort, on the hilly range east of the city, 
a greyish metamorphic quartzose sandstone is quarried which is 
miuch used for building and paving in Jaipur. 

From Dando, 24 nnles from Jaipur, a coarse grey sandstone 
is procured, which is used for door-frames, pillars, &c. 

At BAnkri, 36 miles east from Jaipur and near the Deosa 
railway-station, huge slabs of a foliated mica schist are quarried, 
which are very valuable for roofing, some of them being 30 feet 
long. From near Karauli, 82 miles from Jaipur, and from Basi, 92 
miles distant, red and cream colored sandstone of very fine qua- 
lity is procured, and is much used in ornamental work. The best 
marble comes &om Makrdna in Marwar, 20 miles west from the 
Sambhar Lake, whence it is brought to Jaipur to be sculptured. 
But a coarser marble of a greyish-white color is procured from 
R^ttwdla in Jaipur near the Alwar border ; it, however, does not 
keep its color well, but turns yellow with age. Northward, from 
Baisl&ia, in Kot PutK, a black marble is obtained, which is much 
used by statuaries and for inlaying- work. There is abundance of 
good limestone, a very good quality being procured from near the 
Kdnauta railway-station ; and kankar is found almost everywhere, 
generally in flat beds instead of in nodules. 

!Preciou8 Stones. — ^As regards precious stones, carbuncles are 
procured in large quantities to the south near Rdjmahdl; and 
turquoises are said to have been formerly found in numbers in 
that neighbourhood at Toda. 

Bivera^ — ^The general drainage of the country, from the table* 



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( 128 ) 

land wliich forms the centre of the Jaipur territory, is to the east 
and the south-east ; though a few streams follow the slope to ' 
the north-west, and carry the rainfall from the northern hill* 
into the sandy plains northward, where the water is soon lost. 
The Bands, which crosses a comer of Jaipur on the south, 
receives most of the Jaipur watershed hy several tributaries, of 
which but one or two are perennial. The Bdnganga reaches the 
Jumna du-ect, flowing eastward ; but in the hot season its surface- 
bed is often dry here and there. The Amdn-i-Shdh, which sup- 
plies Jaipur city with water, has a slight flow throughout the 
year. Almost all the other rivers mentioned below are flooded 
in the rains, and dry in the hot months. 

The Bands is the largest river in the State. It rises in the- 
The Bands ^® ^®^ Saimar in the Arvali range, ta 

the west of Udaipur, and, flowing east- 
ward after a course of more than 100 miles, enters the Jaipur 
State near Deoli, about 10 miles west of Bisalpur, as if, by a freak 
of nature, instead of flanking the Toda range of hills, it forced ai 
jiarrow way for itself through the hills perpendicular to tha 
direction of the range, entering it at Bisalpur and leaving it at 
B/djmahdl. At both places the torrent in flood has scoured deep 
holes ; and in these and the other pools in the bed of the stream^ 
trout, mahsir, and other kind of fish are always to be found. 
The scenery here is exceedingly wild and beautiful. The river is 
impassable in flood ; but there is a ferry at Bdjmahdl, and also 
at Tonk ; these are required for about five months in the year. 
In the hot months the bed is dry, excepting where there are pools. 
The bed is heavy sand, in places very treacherous after the rains,, 
and should not be crossed by a stranger without a guide. Tha 
banks are well-defined, and, on an average, 30 feet deep. Tha 
width at Bisalpur is about 600 feet, but at Tonk 2,000 feet. It 
is joined by the Mdshi, Dhil, and Morel rivers, and, following an 
easterly course after passing through the wild hills of Rantham- 
bor and Kandahdr — ^two of the ancient forts of the Jaipur Stal^— 
it falls into the Ohambal, about 86 miles below Tonk. 

This river rises in hills near Manoharpur, about 25 miles due 
Bimramra north of Jaipur, and flows in a south-east 

anganga. direction for about 26 miles, until it 

reaches a range of hills near Rdrngarh. It has iipparently forced 
its way through these hills in a deep gorge about one mile in 
length, 360 to 600 feet wide, and 400 feet deep. After emerg- 
ing from the range of hiUs, it continues its course due east 
for about 66 nailes, when it enters the Bhartpur State near Mowd, 
at a point about 26 miles east of the range of hills above 
mentioned. It is crossed by the Edjpt^tdna State Eailway 



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( 129 ) 

bridge ; and, about 10 miles beyond, is joined by the Shilas, 
a rapid stream in flood, from the north. The stream in the gorge 
near R^mgarh is perennial — at the hottest season it flows here 
about 8 cubic feet per second ; but below this it is dry, except in 
the rains. The banks are generally about 20 feet in height, clearly 
defined. In floods^ which last for a few hours, it is impassa- 
ble, and in the gorge near Edmgarh it rises sometimes to a 
height of 23 feet. Some interest attaches to this river, as regards 
the Jaipur State, from the fact that Rdmgarh was once a capital 
of the State and known as Mdshi ; and a temple, in the gorge above 
alluded to, is still called Jumna-ki-dair. Hitherto, every Raja, 
on accession to the gadi of Jaipur, has come to this place to be 
shaved ; this bemg considered part of the ceremony necessary. 
The Gambhir rises in the hills south of Hindaun, in the eastern 
— ^ ^, , border of Jaipur, flows in a north and 

The Gtunbmr. . , j i • j • ■% ni 

north-east direction, and, after a course 
of about 25 miles in the Jaipur State, enters the Bhartpur State ; 
eventually it joins the Bdnganga, near Rupas, and flows on with 
it to the Jumna, Its banks are clearly defined in clay and kankar 
soil, generally from 30 to 50 feet deep, and much cut up with 
nalas. It is impassable in floods. The whole of the dminage 
area of the hills to the west of Hindaun, from Toda Bhim as far 
as Khera, falls into this river. 

This river rises in the hills near Sdmod and Amloda, 20 miles 
The Bdndi ^^^ uorth of Jaipur, It flows in a south- 

south-west direction, until it meets with 
ranges of rocky hills near Kalwdr and Kalegh, which cause it to 
take a westerly direction. Passing through these obstructions, 
it joins the Mdshi, after a course of about 100 miles. It is 
crossed by the R^jptitdna State Railway below Kalegh, near the 
Asalpur station, and crosses the Ajmer and Agra road at 25 miles 
from Jaipur. Its breadth here is 800 feet. It is impassable in 
floods, which last a few hours. The bed here is sandy ; the banks 
about 10 to 15 feet in height, and well-defined. 

This rises in the hills immediately to the north of Jaipur city, 
fru K A ' 01,^1. 9'iid flows southwards past the old town of 

The Amin-i-Shih, >^ -i nj -^ - i. i j 

Sanganer, and, after a course of about 
22 miles, it falls into the Dhtind river. It is a perennial stream, 
excepting at the foot of the hills from which it rises. The Rdjpii- 
tdna State Railway crosses over the Amdn-i-Shdh, one mile west 
of the Jaipur station, on an iron girder bridge. The town of 
Jaipur is supplied with drinking-water from this river. The 
water is pumped up by steam-pumps about 104 feet into service 
reservoirs, which command the city, through which water is deli- 
vered in iron pipes under 60 feet pressure. 



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( 180 ) 

The Morel is a tributary of the Ban^s. It rises in the hills 
The Mwei ^®^ Dhuli, ahoutS miles north of Banskho 

and 20 east of Jaipur. It flows in a 
direction due south ; passes under the Agra and Ajmer road by a 
bridge of three spans of 20 feet ; also under the Rdjpiitdna Ste^te 
Railway, near the Jatwdra station; and continues its course 
south. At a point about 35 miles from its source, it is joined 
by the Dhiind, which comes from a distance of 50 miles ; the two, 
thus united, flow on under the name of the Morel, in a south-east 
direction, for about 40 miles. Here, it is added to by the water 
of the Khdri river ; and, after following a winding course, with 
deep, well-defined banks, through stiflE soil intersected with nalas, 
it falls into the £ands# 

A tributary of the £an^ : this river rises in the Kishangarh 
The Mdshi. State ; enters the Jaipur border 10 miles 

west of Pachewar, and flows in an easterly 
direction for 50 miles, where it unites with the Bandf . 

The Dhtind rises on the hills near Achrol, about 15 miles due 

The Dhtind. uorth of Jaipur, and falls into the Morel. 

It flows due south, passes about two miles 

east of Amber, the old capital of the Jaipur State, and crosses 

the Agra and Ajmer road at the eighth mile-stone, at the village 

of Kdnauta. It is impassable here in floods for a few hours. 

This rises in the Toda Bhlm and Ldlsot range of hills, about 

The KhAri ^^ milcs uorth of Bdumiawds. It flows 

south through rich soil, with well-defined 

banks, about 20 feet deep ; passes about 5^ miles east of Bdmnia- 

wds ; and, after a course of about 35 miles, falls into the Morel 

river. 

The Mendha rises in the hills near Jetgarh, north of Jaipur. 

The Mendha. ^^ flows in a Westerly direction, and falls 

into the Sambhar Lake. 

This river rises in hills near Jetgarh and Manoharpur, about 

The 8khi ^^ milcs duc north of Jaipur. It runs in 

a north-east direction towards Giirgaon ; 

is subjectjto heavy floods ; the banks much cut up in parts with 

ravines ; and, after skirting Alwar, passes out of tfaipur into the 

Nabha State. 

The Sota rises in hills near Jharli and Jetgarh, about 40 miles 
The'Sota. ^^® uorth of JaipuT. It flows in a north- 

east direction, and, after a course of about 
40 miles, falls into the Sdbi. 

This river rises in the hills near Khandela, about 45 miles 
The KiutM, uorth-north-wcst of Jaipur; flows north- 

north-west ; passes about 10 nules east of 



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( 131 ) 

Jhtinjlinu ; and, after a course of about 60 .miles, through the 
length of Shekdwati, it loses itseU in the sand at Sankh^in, just 
as it enters the Bikanir territory. 

Lakes. — ^The only lake of any importance in the Jaipur 
State is the Sambhar Lake, situated in latitude 26"" 68^ and long* 
itude 75"* 5', on the joint border of the Jaipur and Jodhpur States, 
and to the east of the Arvali range of hills which run in a north- 
westerly direction through Bdjpdtdnd. The character of the 
surrounding country is arid and sterile. When full, the lake forms 
a sheet of water measuring about 20 miles in length, 1^ to 7^ 
miles in breadth, and from 1 to 4 feet in depth. With the 
exception of a period of ten years (from 1835 to 1844) when 
it was worked by the Gk)Temment of India to repay it for 
expenses, &c., incurred in repelling the predatory incursions 
of the Rdjptits in British India, the lake was owned and worked 
jointly by the Jaipur and Jodhpur Darbdrs uninterruptedly 
from the reign of Ahmed Shdh, one of the successors of 
Akbar, to the year 1870, when the British Ctovemment became 
lessees under separate treaties concluded with the Jaipur and 
Jodhpur chiefs. The process by which this salt accumulates in 
the lake is not well understood.* Some ascribe it to the presence 
of brine springs or rock salt ; but the most feasible theory attributes 
it to the mineral properties of the surrounding hills (in which 
limestone and salt are known to abound) being washed into the 
lake from the watershed which flows into it. The supply of salt 
varies according to the rainfall and other local contingencies ; 
but the average yearly outturn is 9,00,000 maunds,t and the 
cost of storage and extraction about 6 pies per maund. The 
selling price of the salt at the lake fluctuates with the demand, 
the quality, and the quantity produced. The salt is of three 
difiEerent colors — ^blue, white, and red ; but, of these, a bluish-grey 
of several tints is the most prevalent and esteemed ; more particu- 
larly in the North-Western Provinces, whither it is largely exported. 
The white salt, again (distinguishable by its opaqueness from 
the transparent salts of other parts), is most valued in the States 
of Rdjptitdnd, particularly Jaipur, where it is almost exclusively 
used ; while in and about the Muhammadan State of Tonk, the red, 
the shades of which vary from tints of a delicate roseate to a deep 

* Tradition accounts for the formation of tlie lake in tlie following manner : About the year 
A.I). 551, the goddess Sambra, the tutelary divinity of the Chohin Bdjpdts, in return for some 
religious service on their part, converted a dense forest into a plain of gold and silver. That the 
people of Sambhar, dreading the cupidity and strife which this possession would excite, begged of 
the goddess to retract her g^t, when the plain of gold and silver was transformed into the present 
Bait lake. 

t It is said to baye been as much m 90,00,000 maimds in A.D. 1839, which is the largest 
quantity on reeonL 



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( 1^2 ) 

claret, is the favorite color. The cause of this peculiarity of 
variegation of shades is much disputed. Some attribute it to the 
presence of microscopic algae, some to animalculse, and others to 
mineral agents ; while one or more of the tints — the bluish-grey 
particularly — is known to be due to the penetration of the fine silt 
of the lake into the interspaces of the crystals, the formation of 
which is that of a truncated pyramid, the sides of the cubes measur- 
ing sometimes as much as 1^ inches. The lake supplies nearly 
the whole of the chief salt marts of the Panjdb, North-Western 
Provinces, and Central India, which are reached by six main 
arteries or routes, namely : towards the north to Rewdri ; north- 
east, to Alwar and Ferozpur ; east, to Agra ; south-east, to Elarauli 
and Jhansi; and towards the south and east to Tonk. The 
principal caste employed on the salt-works is the " Bardr," at one 
time a much more numerous class than now, and, until about the 
thirteenth century, when the greater portion of them were Muham- 
madanizedby Ala-ud-din Ghazi, consisting exclusively of Hin- 
dus. The depopulation of the Bardrs through famine and disease 
has, of late years, brought other castes to the works ; but, singular 
to say, although the pay is more than is ordinarily obtainable 
elsewhere, there is scarcely a single foreigner among them. This 
monopoly is understood to be due to the superstitious local belief, 
propagated presumably to exclude foreign labour, that were out- 
siders to attempt the work, the festering sores which the flesh 
wounds, received from contact with the sharp angles of the 
crystals when wading in the pans, invariably superinduce after 
their exposure to the brine and foetid mud of the lake, would most 
assuredly cause their death* 

Climate and Rainfall. — The cKmate of Jaipur is dry and 
healthy, and, the country being elevated and sandy, malarious 
fevers are but little prevalent. In the cold season the climate is 
very agreeable, but in Shekdwati it is often unpleasantly cold, 
and hoarfrost frequently remains in the shade till long after 
sunrise. During the hot season, the hot winds from the west blow 
with great force m Shek^wati and the northern portions of Jaipur ; 
but the sand soon parts with its heat, so that the nights are 
generally pleasant and the mornings very cool. Towards the 
south and east the hot winds are not so strong, but, owing to 
the soil not being sandy, the nights and mornings are not 
so cool. 

There is generally a fair amount of rain throughout the terri- 
tory, except in Shekdwati, where the fall is more precarious ; but 
Jaipur proper- is seldom afflicted with the periodical famines 
which visit the neighbouring territories ; for, being on the verge of 
the south-west and south-east monsoons, it receives rain from 



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( 133 ) 

both. During the great famine of 1868, Jaipur suffered less 
than some other portions of Rdjpiitana. As a rule, the rainfall is 
greatest in the southern and eastern portions of the State. 
The rainfall at Jaipur for the eight years from 1868 to 1875 is 
given below, the maximum being 42*6 inches in 1870, the mini 
mum 126 inches in 1868, and the average rather over 
inches : 

Year. Inches. 



25i 



1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 



12-67 
18-60 
42-50 
28-38 
30-19 
17^20 
20-24 
36-82 



Most of the rain falls in the months of July and August; 
but about the end and commencement of the year there are 
usually heavy showers. During the remainder of the year the 
air is exceedingly dry. The average temperature at Jaipur of 
each month for the five years 1871 to 1876 is given 
below : — 



Months. 








Degrees,?. 


January 








63-64 


February 








67-89 


March 








75-41 


April 








89-16 


May 








94-01 


June 








96-13 


July 








88-20 


August 








87-05 


September 








85-59 


October 








84-85 


November 








77-69 


December 




Mean of five years . 


•• 


65-59 




81-27 



The maximnm temperature of 1876 was 106°F. and the mini- 
mum 38°, the amplitude of yearly fluctuations being therefore 
68**. May and June are generally the hottest months, and Janu- 
ary and February the coldest. 

Droughts. — ^As before observed, Jaipur has generally a fair 
rainfall, and is not often subject to droughts (the most severe sea- 
son of drought on record is that which occurred in the great famine 
year of 1868) ; neither is the country subject to floods. As in 
other parts of India, the crops in Jaipur are more or less subject 



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( 134 ) 

to bKghts, but not to any remarkable extent. The two principal 
kinds of blight are " Ratra," which means nipping, and affects 
the rain-crops; and "Role " (the name of a r^ powder), which 
is apt to attack the wheat and barley crops, turning them of a 
reddish-brown color, if cloudy weather prevails at the time when 
the crops are near maturity. 

Forests. — ^There are no forests of any extent in Jaipur. The 
hills in the immediate neighbourhood of the city, and in the 
southern portions of the State, are more or less covered with 
the dhdo \Anogeissus pendula) and other jungle-trees of little 
or no value except for fueL The bdbdl {Acacia arahica) 
and the nlm {Melia indica) may be considered as the pre- 
vailing trees of the country; the former grows extensively in 
many portions of the State, and is most valuable to the country 
people, as its wood can be used for a great variety of purposes. 
In the neighbourhood of the towns and villages the usual 
Indian trees are to be found, such as — 

The Am or Mango {Mangifera indica). 

„ Imli or Tamarind {Tamarindus indica). 

„ Bm {Fictis indica) . 

„ Pipdl {Fictis reliffioaa). 

„ Sirnis .(Albizzia odoratissima) . 

„ Sissu {palbergia aism). 

„ Jamun (JEugeniajambolana). 

Also the nlm, bdbtil, and numerous other trees, all of which will 
grow well and flourish if protected from cattle and watered for 
the first two or three years. Shekdwati, owing to its sandy soil 
and the great depth of sub-surface water, is, on the whole, very 
deficient in trees ; but there is a considerable amount of the khejra 
(Acacia letccophlcea) ; the wood is of inferior quality, but the pods 
are very useful as food for cattle. The phog, a succulent plant 
without leaves, and growing to 3 or 4 feet in height, is also 
worthy of mention, being very plentiful and useful ; the flowers 
are eaten by the people, the stalks form good forage for camels, 
and the roots furnish a constant supply of fuel. 

Grasses. — ^There are a good many different kinds of grasses in 
Jaipur used as forage for cattle and for thatching ; among the 
latter may be mentioned the pani, a tall coarse grass growing in 
huge tufts very similar to the Pampas-grass, the tall flower-stalks 
of which form hard reeds when dry, and are tied together and 
much used, in place of split bamboos, as the foundation for grass 
screens and thatches. In Shekdwati the bhurat grass is very plen- 
tiful : its seeds form food for cattle, and are much eaten by the 
poorer classes j but its prickly-seed vessels annoy pedestrians. 



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( 135 ) 

HiSTOET. 

Sistory. — ^The early chronicles of the Jaipur chiefship are, 
as usual, the genealogy of the predominant family of a clan, giving 
the present chief's lineage, and the deeds of his ancestors. The 
accepted legend traces back this lineage to Kash, the second son 
of Rdma, who ruled at Ajodhya, and who is said to have migrated 
thence to Rhotas on the Sone river, whence, after several genera- 
tions, a second inamigration brought Raja Nal westward across 
the Jumna to Narwar. And at Narwar the family, or the sept, 
estabKshed itself, until one Dhola Rao founded the parent city of 
the present Jaipur State at .Amber in A.D. 967. At that time 
the country round is said to have been parcelled out among many 
petty chiefs, Rdjptit and Mina, all subject to the great Tu4r dynasty 
of Rdjptits which reigned at Delhi. After years of warfare and fluc- 
tuation of power, Dhola Rao and his Kachhwdhas are said to have 
absorbed or driven out the petty chiefs, and to have at last founded 
a solid dominion, with a substantial territory. The tribal sove- 
reignty thus set up was originally known by the name of Dhiindar, 
from a celebrated sacred mount of that name somewhere on what 
is now the State's western frontier. Half a century later, another 
chief, Hanuji, wrested Amber from the Minas, and consolidated 
his power, placing his head-quarters at Amber, which gave its name 
to the chiefship thenceforward until 1728 A.D., when the second, 
Jai Singh, deserted it for Jaipur. The ninth chief in succession 
from Hanuji was Udikara, the grandfather of Shekji, who con- 
quered for himself on his own private venture the districts now 
held by the Shekdwat sept of the Kachhwdhas, of whom he is the 
eponymous ancestor. Allowing for considerable uncertainty about 
dates and names, this outline probably represents very fairly the 
course of growth and settlement of a successful clan fighting its way 
upward to territorial dominion, and retaining always as its chief 
the descendant of the most ancient family of the founder's kin. 
The Amber chiefship of the Kachhwdhas is little mentioned in the 
annals of Musalmdn empire until the Mughal came in; and it is 
probable that the clan had not much political importance before 
the sixteenth century ; nor is it possible to suppose that, up to that 
date, they had not been more or less in submission to the Musal- 
mdns, from the time when a powerful government had become 
firmly established at Delhi, Agra, and Ajmer. For the Kachhwdha 
coimtry lay at an easy distance from these three great garrison 
towns, and was easily accessible from all three points ; while the 
road to Ajmer passed right through that country. In the sixteenth 
century the cluef of .Amber seems to have attached himself to the 
side of Bdber and of Humdyun ; and Raja Bihdri Ldl was engaged 
in the affairs of Bher Shdh. The importance of the ruling house in 



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( 136 ) 

the annals of the empire dates from Bihdri lAl, who ingratiated 
himself with some influential adherents of the emperor Akhar, and 
in the first year of Akhar^s reign was presented at court. Five years 
afterwards, when Akhar made a pilgrimage to A;]mer, this chief, 
with his whole family, had an honourahle reception from him at 
Sanganer, close to Amher ; Bihdri lAl gave his daughter to the 
emperor, and entered his service with three sons, one of whom, 
Bhagw^ Dds, hecame a man of some distinction as a governor and 
commander. The daughter of Bhagwdn Dds was the mother of 
Prince Khusrti (Akhar's grandson), whose intrigues and ill-fate are 
well known ; and Mdn Singh, the adopted son of Bhagwdn Dd,s, 
was one of the most renowned imperial generals of his time. 
He fought in Orissa and in Assam ; and at a critical period, under 
great difELculties, he maintained his authority as governor of 
Kahul, and held his own on that remote and perilous frontier. 
He was rewarded with the governments of Bengal, Behar, and the 
Pakhan. 

The next chief of note is Jai Singh, the third in succession 
from Mdn Singh, who was commonly known hy his imperial 
title of Mirza Baja. His name appears in all the wars of 
Aurangzeh in theDakhan, where it is still rememhered as well hy 
tradition as hy some huildings which he erected. The hest proof 
of his influence and ahility is that Aurangzeh thought it neces- 
sary to instigate one of the chief's sons, and an aspirant to his 
succession, to poison him ; hut even the support of the empire 
could not ohtain the chief ship for the murderer against the una- 
nimous dissent of the clan. 

After an interval of three chiefs we come to Jai Singh II, 
commonly known as Siwai Jai Singh, a title given hy the 
emperors, which his descendants adopt to this day. The word 
means 1^, and is supposed to measure the superiority of the 
bearer to all cotemporaries, whom the unit signifies. Jai Singh 
was in every way a remarkable man ; but mainly for his scientific 
aptitude and industry, his skill as an engineer and architect, his 
liberal support of science and art, and his own personal accom- 
plishment as a mathematician and an astronomer. He construct- 
ed, upon his own invention, observatories at Jaipur, Delhi, 
Benares, and Ujain, with which he was able to correct the astro- 
nomical tables of De La Hire, and to leave as a monument of 
his skill the tables of stars collated by himself and called the 
" Tij Muhammad Shdhi." He laid out and built the present 
city of Jaipur in A.D. 1728, to which he transferred his 
seat of government from Amber. As a politician, however, he 
is partly responsible for the treaty which was made by Jaipur, 
Jodbpur^ and Udaipur to resist the Musahndn power, then 



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• C 137 ) 

decaying under the incipient break-up of the Mughal empire* 
The intention of this treaty was good, but its base was 
unsound. The Kachhwdha clan had, with the Rahtor clan, 
been excluded from intermarriage with the Sesodias of Udaipur 
by reason of having given daughters to the Mughal; and 
by this treaty the Sesodias agreed to re*admit the two clans upon 
condition that in both clans a son by a Sesodia mother 
should be entitled to succeed to the chief ship in supersession of 
elder sons by wives from other clans* Of course, this clause gave 
rise to fierce disputes over the succession; for primogeniture 
could not be so easily set aside, and it did much to weaken 
the clans by feuds and factions. Nevertheless^ Jai Singh, who 
was the imperial lieutenant at Agra, managed considerably to 
augment his domains as the empire fell into confusion. 

After his death the political confusion spread wider. The Jdts 
about Bhartpur were rising into power, and fought the Jaipur 
chief with success, eventually annexing to the Bhartpur Sfeate 
lands originally belonging to Jaipur. A chief of one of the 
Kachhwdha septs founded the present Alwar State, partly at the 
expense of Jaipur, which thus lost a large piece of territory about 
the middle of the eighteenth century ; and later in the century 
came in the Marathas, attracted by the quarrels which had been 
engendered by that unlucky treaty clause about the succession. By 
the end of the century the State was in great confusion, distracted 
by internal broils, and impoverished by Maratha exactions. In 
1803beganthe political relations of Jaipur with the British Govern- 
ment, the object.being to form a league against the Marathas ; 
but the alliance was dissolved by Lord Comwallis. Meantime 
the dispute between the chiefs of Jaipur and Jodhpur for the 
daughter of the Udaipur chief had brought both States to the 
verge of ruin, and Amir Khan with the Pindaris was exhausting 
the country. In 1817 negotiations began again, when Amir 
Khdn was living at free quarters in Jaipur territory ; and in 1818 
a treaty was at last made by which the protection of the British 
Government was extended to Jaipur, and an annual tribute fixed. 
Two successive minorities, which followed the death of Jagat 
Singh in 1818, gave opportunities for strife over the succession, 
and for much misgovemment ; in 1835, on the succession of the 
present Maharaja, then two years old, there was a serious dis- 
turbance in the city. The British Government took measures to 
insist upon order, to reform the administration, and to support 
its effective action; and the State has gradually become 
well-governed and prosperous. In 1857 the chief of Jaipur 
rendered good service to the British, which was rewarded by a 
grant of the pargana of Kot K^im. 



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t 138 ) 

Form of GovERNMisNT. 

The Maharaja of Jaipur, in common with the rest of the chiefs 
of Rdjpiitdna, exercises supreme civil and criminal authority 
within the limits of his territories, and has the power of life and 
death in respect of his own subjects. The admmistration of the 
State is nominally carried on at the capital by a Council composed 
of eight members, witli the Maharaja as president ; there is also a 
secretary, who acts as an ex-officio member. The business of the 
Council is divided into four departments, viz. — Judicial, Revenue, 
Military, and External ; each department being in charge of two 
of the members of Council* 

Principal Feudatories and Thdkurs. — ^The principal feuda- 
tories of the Jaipur State (Khetri, Sfkar^ and iJniard), together 
with the numerous chiefs and thdkurs of Shekdwati, the 
principal among whom are Baswa, Nawalgarh, Manddwar, Sd- 
rajgarh, &c,, are all descended from Shekji, the grandson 
of Udikara, one of the former rulers of Jaipur, who f oimded 
the numerous Shekdwati commimities which now cover the 
extensive tract termed Shekdwati, tJnidrd being an exception 
(this chief belongs to the Naruka clan), in that the estates of 
the chief ship are in Jaipur proper, and to the extreme south of 
the State. 

In addition to the above-mentioned feudatories, there is 
also the chief ship of Pdtan, in Torawdti, the head of which is 
descended from the ancient Tu4r kings of Delhi, Subsequent to 
the time of Shekji, the Shekdwats increased greatly in number 
and power ; and, in order to break their strength, the Jaipur Gov- 
ernment, about a century ago, took advantage of some dispute 
among them to encourage and establish the custom of an equal 
division of real estate amongst the male children on the death of 
a parent. Sikar and Khetri are the only estates which have 
escaped this ruinous sub-division: the first by the destruction of 
the minor branches who sought to enforce partition ; and the 
latter by the want of issue beyond a single son in each generation. 
This system of sub-division has been very damaging to the 
prosperity of the Shekdwatis, and is the cause of great poverty 
in some of the chiefships. 

The principal nobles and thdkurs of Jaipur belong to what are 

Jai ur Kotris caUcd " the twclvc Kotrls," founded by 

^^^^'^ ^ -' Pirthi Raj, a former ruler of Jaipur, who 

gave estates to each of his twelve sons ; and also to other Kotris 

founded by previous rulers. Three of the twelve Kotris are 

extinct. A list of the Kotris is given on next page. 



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i 13& ) 









Yearly 




Tbial 




Na. 


KOTBfS. 


Names of 
Fiefs. 


revenue o* 

pcinoinal 

Piefe.. 


Sab>fiefs 
in&milj. 


amount 
held by 


EEHA.BE8. 










family. 










Bk 




Bs. 




1 


Paruuraulot ... 


Nfmera... 


10,000 


1 


10,000^ 


2 


Bhimpota 


(Extinct.) 








1 


8 


N£tMwat ... 


Churnu . . . 


70.,000 


10 


2,20,000 




4 


Puchaenot 


S&Btbra . . . 


17,700 


» 


24t,70O 




5 


Sultanot 


Surat ... 


22:,000 


• »• 






6 


Kdngarot 


Digi ... 


50,000 


22 


6,00,000 


The twelve 


7 


Rajawat 


Chandlai 


ao,ooo 


16 


1,98,137 


^ IVOtriB lOUUlKJVL 

bj Pirthi fUy. 


8 


Perfcdbji 


(Extract.) 










9 


Bulbudherot ... 


Achrol ... 


28,850 


2 


1,30,000 




10 


Sheod&sji 


fExtincty. 










11 


KalMnot 


Kalwir ... 


25,000 


19 


2,45,000 




n 


Chatierbkojot 


Bagm ... 


4,0,000 


6 


1,00,000. 






Gugawat 


DllTlf ... 


70,000 


13 


1,67,9001 




Khumbanl ..» 


Bansklio 


21,000 


2 


23,787 






Khumb^wat .►. 


M&hfo ... 


27,538 


6 


40,738 






Seobarupota ... 


Nindhir... 


10,000 


3 


49,500 


^Kotrls held by 
descendants of 




Banbfrpota .., 


B&lkoh ... 


19s,000 


8 


26,575 


other rulers. 




Naruka 


TJni^rd ... 


2,00,000 


6 


3,00,000 






BMnkdwat ... 


liohwfin... 


15,000 


4 


34,600 





The following are more details regarding the Shekdwat and 
other feudatories and chief ships above noted : — 

This is a Shekdwati chief ship belonging to Baja Ajit Singh, 
comprising the parganas of Khetri, Bibai, 
Singhdnd, and Jhunjhnu, yielding an 
annual revenue of about Rs. 3,50,000, and paying a tribute of 
E/S. 80,000 a year to the Jaipur Darbdr. The chief holds, besides, 
the pargana of Kot Putli, yielding about Rs. 1,00,000 a year — a 
possession which was bestowed in perpetuity upon his ancestor. 
Raja Abhi Singh, by the British Government, for services 
rendered to Lord Lake in his military operations against the 
Marathas in the early part of the present centuiy, but notably 
in an important and successful engagement by British troops 
under Colonel Monson, with Sindia's army on the banks of the 
Chambal at that period. 

Another of the Shekdwati tribute-paying dependencies of the 

g^^^ Jaipur Darbdx, Sikar, which in former 

years was inhabited by perhaps the most 

lawless of the Shekdwati races, is now a well-governed, peaceful, 



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( 140 ) 

and prosperous chiefship* The-present chief, Rao Uaja Madho 
Singh^ being a minor, the estate is administered by managers, 
tmder the d&ect supervision of the Jaipur Government. The 
annual revenues are estimated at about Rs. 4,00,000, and the 
tribute paid to the Darbdr is Rs. 40,000 a year. 

Pdtan is a small tributary chief ship situated north of Jaipur, 
between Kot Putli and Khetri in the hilly 
^ district termed TordwAti. This chief ship 

is interesting from the fact of its rulers having sprung from a 
very ancient house, the Rao of PAtan being the direct lineal 
descendant of the Tu4r kings of Delhi, who were expelled that 
place, about eight hundred years ago, on its capture by the Ghor 
dynasty. The family settled at Pdtan, and have since ruled there 
undisturbed by the political commotions which have from time to 
time disquieted and disunited the neighbouring estates in and 
around the province of Tordwdti. The chief ship possesses many 
fertile and well- watered plains, capable of producing the richest 
crops. The lands are divided amongst the brotherhood, the holdings 
being so very small that it can scarcely support its population. 

This is a chief ship belonging to Jaipur proper, situated to the 
^ extreme south and in one of the richest 

^ ' portions of the State. The tJnidrd chief 

belongs to the Nartikd clan of RAjptits, forming one of the addi- 
tional Kotris or houses of Kachhwdha thdkurs. Prom the extra- 
vagance and misrule, however, of the present Rao Raja, the 
estate is hopelessly involved in debt, and, in consequence, its 
affairs since the past few years have been directly administered 
by the Jaipur Darbdr. The revenues of the chief ship are estimated 
at Rs. 1,75,000 per annum, and the yearly tribute which it pays 
to the Darbdr Rs. 45,000. 

The four leading tribute-paying thdkurs of the Shekdwat 
province of the Jaipur State are — ^Baswa, Nawalgarh, Manddwdr, 
and Stirajgarh. Their incomes are variously estimated, but that 
of Baswa may be safely put down at Rs. 70,000 per annum, and 
that of the tluree others at Rs. 50,000 each ; one-fiith of which is 
paid to the Jaipur Darbdr as tribute. 

With regard to the petty chief ships and thdkurs of the State 
generally, the estates are, excepting in one or two instances, pros- 
perous and fairly administered, the people contented and happy, 
whUe the relations subsisting between them and the Darb^ are^ 
without exception, of a cordial and happy character. 

The Land. 
Zand Tenures. — The following classification of the free-hold 
tenures (as distinguished &om mere cultivating holdings) is 



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( 141 y 

taken (with some sKght alteration) from Colonel Brooke's PoKti* 
cal History of Jaipur : — 

I. — Grants for which no feudal service is performed, but only 
a quit-rent paid ; and which are held principally by members of 
the Rajawat clan, being branches of the Maharaja's own family, 
and partaking of the nature of appanages. 

II. — ^Estates either conquered or possessed by the ancestors of 
the present holders prior to the conquest of Jaipur by the reign- 
ing family, including such chief ships as Slkar, BLhetrf , tJnikrd, and 
others. These pay a tribute to the Jaipur Darbdr of about one- 
fourth of their estimated revenue. 

III. — Estates upon which no rent is paid, but service is per- 
formed. The contingents they supply were originally calculated 
at one horseman per thousand rupees of rent; but this is not 
now in all cases either provided or exacted. 

IV. — Religious endowments and rent-free personal holdings, 
including grants and gifts to temples, to civil and military offi- 
cers, coiirt favorites, &c., &c. 

The tenure of the three first classes seems to be fundamentally 
the same, with the slight differences of origin and some variety 
as to the duty or payment upon which •it is held. All three 
classes include numbers of the clan fraternity who hold their 
lands, not originally by grant from the sovereign or upon a 
feudal system, but by right of kinship with, and descent from, 
the original stock or stocks which first conquered and settled as 
a dominant clan in the country. The third class, that of jdglr- 
dArs, may include some real grantees who originally obtained 
assignments of land on the system by which the revenue was 
given for maintenance of troops or other distinctly valuable 
considerations. The tenures in the Shekdwat country have 
this peculiarity, that, excepting two or three great estates, all 
holdings are regularly divided among all the sons on the death 
of the father, the rule of primogeniture which prevails in 
nearly all estates of Bdjptitdna not having been admitted here. 
But they are all free-holders, paying a fixed customary 
quit-rent. 

In most villages there are what are termed "biswdddrs**; 
but they are mere middlemen between the State and the culti- 
vator, and arrange for the collection of the revenue from the 
latter, receiving a percentage for so doing. The cultivators are 
mere tenants-at-will, and have no hereditary rights ; but, owing to 
the scarcity of the class, they are, as a rule, treated as hereditary, 
being seldom interfered with so long as they pay the revenue. 
The principal cultivating classes are Minas, B^l^ra BrdhmaoSj 
GujarSi Malis^ and J&ts. B/djptits do not cultivate much. 



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( 142 ) 

Distribution of the Land. — ^There is no trustworthy information 
to be obtained regarding the proportion the khalsa land bears 
to that held by the tributary chiefs, grantees, fief -holders, &c.; but 
from the estimates formed by officers having long experience of 
Jaipur, it would appear that the khdlsa or crown lands are 
somewhat less than a half of the total area, say three-eighths, 
leaving five-eighths, of which some three-eighths may be put down 
to the estates on tributary or service tenure, and the remaining 
one-fourth to military, religious, and other grants. 

Cultivated Area. — It is impossible to give any accurate infor- 
mation under this head, and the Darbdr seem to have no such 
records as would enable one to form a fair estimate ; but officers 
of experience in Jaipur have estimated the cultivated area under 
irrigation at ten per cent, of the whole. In addition to this there 
is a large area placed under temporary cultivation during the 
rainy season, which varies very considerably from year to year, 
and which may, perhaps, be put down at about double the irri- 
gated area. 

Land Revenue. — In the Jaipur State, the land-revenue is 
collected partly in cash, but principally in kind ; the custom 
of a rate on ploughs does not prevail. The Raj share of the crop 
is calculated either on the system of " Kunkut '* or "Batdi " : 
the former is an estimate of the outturn of the standing crops 
formed just before the crops ripen, and is principally used in 
regard to the rain-crops, which ripen in the autumn ; the second 
is a division of the grain after threshing, and is generally applied 
to the cold- weather crops ripening in the spring, such as wheat, 
barley, &c. The Raj share varies from one-sixth to half of the 
outturn, according to the quality of the land and other circum- 
stances — a common average being one-quarter or three-eighths 
for the spring-crop, and rather more for the autumn crop. 
The village officials are the patel, the patwdri, and the kd- 
ntingo ; they are to a great extent paid by shares of the grains called 
JiakSy or rights, which are deducted previous to the division 
between the Raj and the cultivator. Under the Batdi system, 
the grain is formed into heaps, according to the shares, after thresh- 
ing, the straw being retained by the cultivator, in Jaipur these 
village officers have no hereditary rights ; and, indeed, their whole 
status is low and precarious, being mainly dependent upon the 
arbitrary pleasure of the revenue collectors or the great land- 
holders. The patel is the headman of the village : he settles petty 
disputes and quarrels, reports crime to the tahsildar, and assists in 
the collection of the land-revenue, &c. The patwdri is the village 
joccoimtant, both for the land-revenue and customs dues. The 
kdntingo i^, in Jaipur, a more assistant to the patwari, as there is 



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( 143 ) 



no record of vfllage rights such as is kept by the kdmingos in 
villages in British territory. 

Agriculture. — The crops raised in different parts of the 
Jaipur territory vary considerably with the different nature of the 
soil. In Shekdwati, where there is a deep sandy soil, and where 
water is at too great a depth to admit of irrigation to any extent, 
there is, in the. main, but one crop a year, raised during the rainy 
season and ripening in October and November. This crop consists 
principally of bdjrd, as a cereal, and miing and mot as pulses ; 
the latter taking the place of the grain grown in firmer soils. 
With regard to Jaipur proper, in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the capital, and to the north, the rain-crop is the same as 
in Shekdwati, and but little wheat and barley is grown in the 
cold season towards the south and east. As the soil becomes richer 
and firmer, jowdr and makai (Indian com) take the place of 
bdjrd, and cotton and til (sesamam) are also sown during the 
rains ; while, in the cold season, wheat, barley, gram, sugarcane, 
opium, tobacco, dAl, linseed, and kiistimber (safflower) are exten- 
sively grown ; and in the eastern districts rice of a coarse quality 
is grown to a limited extent. 

Cost of Production. — It is difficult to obtain such information 
as will enable a fair average of the cost of production for the country 
generally to bo struck ; but the following calculation gives an 
approximation of the same in regard to some of the main crops : — 

Cold Wbathbb Ceop, Bablby and Wheat. 



Rain Cbop, BIjtbX. 



Ploughing once ' 

Seed 

Reaping 

Threshing and winnowing 



Per Bigha. 
Rs. A. P. 
2 
3 
3 
3 6 



Total ... 


11 6 


Average outturn perbigha, say 

3 maunds. 
Cost of pi-oduction per maund, 

excluding Raj tax, &o. 


3 10 


Value of 3 maunds at Rs. 1-8 .^ 


RS.A.P. 

4 8 


Deduct Raj share and village 
haks (say half outturn) 
leaves 1^ maunds, value ... 

Deduct cost of cultivation 


2 4 
11 6 


Balance as profit of cultivator, 
perbigha 

s 


18 6 





JPer Bigha, 




Rs. A. P. 


Ploughing 4 times 


...080 


Manuring 


...10 


Seed 10 to 20 seers 


...080 


Irrigation from well 


...400 


Reaping 


...0 3 


Threshing, Ac. 


... 3 6 



Total 



6 6 6 



Average outturn per bigha, say 

6 maunds. 
Cost of production per maund, 

exclusive of Raj tax ,.,111 

Maunds. 
Outturn, say ... 6 

Deduct Raj share and village haks 8 



Balance 



Value at Rs. 2-4 per maund 
Deduct cost of cultivation 



Rs.A. 
6 12 
6 6 



P. 

6 



Balance of profit to cultivator ... 5 



6 

mm- 



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( 144 ) 

This calculation is made on rather a low average of outturn^ 
and pre-supposes a certain amount of hired labor ; but it bears out 
the statement of the villagers, that, unless they carry out the 
cultivation by means of themselves and their families, and with- 
out hired labor, but little margin of profit is left to them from the 
cold- weather crop. In lands irrigated from some of the new tanks, 
only 8 annas per bigha is chained for watering for each crop, 
which would give the cultivator a much greater margin of profit. 

Cultivation. — ^The mode of cultivation is of the very rudest 
description: for the rain-crop the ground is scratched with a 
plough as . soon as the fi^t showers fall ; in the case of 
bdjrd the furrows being often some distance apart, so that the 
plough may cover as much ground as possible in a short space 
of time. The seed is generally sown at the time of ploughing, by 
means of a long funnel attached to the plough. In the sandy 
tracts of Shekdwati, camels are yoked to the ploughs, instead of 
bullocks. For the cold- weather crops which are irrigated (with the 
exception of gram), the ground is generally ploughed four times, 
the first ploughings being done in September, and the seed sown 
in October, either with the funnel above noted or broadcast. A 
rough implement, composed of a flattened log of wood, is then 
drawn over the ground, so as to cover over the seeds and com- 
press the earth. 

The field is next divided into small square beds, by means 
of a large wooden scraper called datdli, water-courses being 
made between the beds at intervals to enable the crop to be irri- 
gated. Except in places where the land can be irrigated by water- 
courses from tanks, this operation is carried on by drawing water 
from wells by means of a large leather bag called charas, 
attached to a rope running over a wheel supported over the well 
on wooden pillars, the rope being drawn by bullocks. In some low- 
lying lands where water is very near the surface, small fields and 
garden-crops are irrigated by means of a small leather bucket 
raised by a long wooden lever. The grain is reaped with a small 
sickle cialled dantli; and the ancient custom of treading out 
the com by means of cattle still obtains. Rotation of crops 
seems to be but little regarded, as, owing to the quantity of 
uncultivated groimd, it is easy to let fields lie fallow for a 
time. The principal vegetables grown are — ^a large kind of white 
radish, onions, chillies, spinach, cucimibers and gourds of kiiids, 
egg-plants, &c. ; and in the spring large quantities of melons are 
grown in the sandy beds of nalaa. 

Irrigation.— -Wi^ the exception of a few simple irrigation- 
cuts from perennial streams and the remains of some earthen 
village bunds, no traces of irrigation-works of any importance 
are found. Since 1868| howeveri the Eaj has spent Bs. 50|000 



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( 145 ) 

annually in develbping the irrigation capabilities of the State : 
56 works have been completed up to date, and 24 are in progress. 
These comprise repairs to existing broken village-tanks and some 
new projects; a few of some importance, such as Mora Sagar, Rae- 
sar Lake, Khoa irrigation-cut, &c. The water-rate has been fixed 
at 8 annas per bigha for each crop, which usually receives three 
waterings. In cases when a field is higher than the level of the 
water, and a bucket is required to raise the water, 4 annas are 
charged. That irrigation is profitable when the works are carried 
out under favorable circumstances, is proved beyond doubt — about 
6 per cent, having been gained in the return on most of the works 
hitherto carried out ; but it is necessary to see that there is good 
storage, good land to receive the water^ men to cultivate it, and 
that there is not too large an outlay in the first instance, whether 
from expensive supervision, unnecessary work, or any other cause. 

Population. 

Population. — ^Without a census (which has never yet been 
taken), the population of the Jaipur State can only be very 
roughly calculated. It has been estimated by those who have 
experience of this part of the country, that the density of the 
population of Shekdwati, which has an area of about 5,000 square 
mQes, and where the towns are comparatively far apart, will 
average about 50 to the square mile ; and if Jaipur proper, 
which has an area of about 9,465 square miles, is taken at 150 
to the square mile (a very moderate estimate), the population of 
Jaipur proper will be about 1| million, or a total of about If 
million for the whole territory. With regard to the capital itself, 
a regular census was taken in 1870, since when, it is believed, 
there has not been any considerable increase. The result of the 
census was as follows :— 

Men ... ... 54,^^16 

Women ... ... 50,620 

Boys ... ..• 19,45a 

Girls ... ... 13,059 

Total ... 187,847 

The proportions of the different classes have been estimated as 

follows : — 

B&jputs ... ... i 

Other Hindus ... ... i 

Muhammadans ... ... i^V 

Jains ... ..' -A" 

As regards other Hindus, the Minas, perhaps, equal the Mjpiits 

T 



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( 146 ) 

in numbers ; next in numerical order come the Brdhmans, a great 
proportion of whom are Bagra Brdhmans, a lower order of the 
class, who cultivate the soil; then Banyas, Gujars, Jdts; after which 
come the numerous Hindu castes comprising the artizan and menial 
<3lasses. With regard to the distribution of the different classes, 
Minas are most numerous along the eastern border, and in the 
south-east; Rdjptits and Banyas are more evenly distributed; 
Brdhmans and Gujars are most numerous in the southern and 
central districts ; and J^ts in the north, in the neighbourhood of 
■the capital, and to the west. There Is a considerable number of 
Muhammadans, and the Kdim Khdnis form a large class in 
^hekdwatl. 

Castes, Clans, and Tribes. — The following are some of the 
j)rincipal castes in the Jaipur State : — 

The higher class of Brdhmans are in service or officiate in 

temples, &c. ; but there is a lower class 

BjAhmans. called Bdgra Brdhmans who are very 

numerous, and who form one of the principalclasses<rf cultivators 

in the Jaipur State. 

The greater portion of the R^jpdts in Jaipur belong to the, 
Kachhwdha clan ; they are of three classes : 
BAjpiits. — ^^^^ those who hold estates ; 2nd, those 

in service ; 3rd, those who till the soil. The third class are not very 
numerous. R^ijptits will not work as cultivators unless pfressed 
l)y poverty. The Shekdwat E/^jpiits are noticed Hinder Itie head 
^* Principal Thdkurs '' at page 138. 

A very numerous ^class, consisting of a great many xdans : the 
Banyas, and Mah^ans. or banking class are principally Jains ; and 
^asikers. the bauyas, or traders, Blndus. 

An aboriginal race who held the country previous to the ad- 

vent of the Rdjptits ; they are very nimie- 

rous in Jaipur and Shekdwati; they are 

^f two classes — ^Ist, chaukiddrs or watchmen, also professional 

robbers; 2nd, zamindari Minas, who have settled down to 

cultivation. 

^ ,.^ Both gain their living by cultivation : 

-Gmars and Jats. j.x. i* • x • 

^ the former are very numerous m Jaipur. 

3 „ ^ . These are two principal castes of those 

JUuTS and Babans. , , *i., • ii j. j -i 

commonly met vrith m all towns and vil- 
lages. They are herdsmen, also cultivators. 

The proportion of Muhammadans in Jaipur is very small ; but 
•r t. J TTA- Tn.- - i^i Shekdwati there is a very numerous 

Muhammadans :KaimKii«nis. , . i-rr>»» -m i > i • • 

class termed Kaim Khams, who were origi- 
nally Chohdn B/djputs, but were converted to Islam. They are 
said to have formerly owned the tract of country now called 



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C 147 ) 

Shekdwati, but were afterwards dispossessed^ by SKeEji, iRer 
founder of the Shekdwat clan of Rdjputs. 

Religion. — The mass of the population consists of Hindus, fol- 
lowers of Vishnu or Shiva, the former predominating, and attached 
mainly to the specific adoration of Krishna. Gtanesh, too, is very 
generally worshipped, as also Itevi or Kali, and Sitala Mdta, 
the latter two especially by the Minas. Mahddeo or Shiva, under 
its numerous forms,, is worshipped to a considerable extent ; the 
Maharaja himself being a follower of this sect, his tutelary deity 
being Rdj Rdjeshwdr, one of the forms of Mahadeo. Of 
the Hindu in^pendent sects who have a peculiar doctrine 
and worship, the most notable is the Dddu Panth, which had its 
origin, and still has its head-quarters, at Barahana (near the Sam- 
bhar Lake), within Jaipur territory. Here is a shrine and monas- • 
tery, built near the spot where, the founder of the faith (Dadu),., 
who lived about the time of Akbar^ or in the sixteenth century, 
vanished.. His book is in great vogue,, and many still follow his 
doctrme as therein expounded, and as interpreted by his successors,, 
the religious superiors at the shrine. The devotees shave the head,, 
adore only the book, and preach mysticism, and. morality, travers- 
ing the land on regular circuit to spread the word and commune 
with disciples. The Ndgas of Jaipur are a sect of militant devotees 
belonging ta the BMu Panthi sect, who are enrolled in regiments 
to serve the State ; they are vowed to celibacy and to arms, and 
constitute a sort of military order in the sect. 

State of Society. — Some of the chief s and principal thdkursor 
Rdjptit aristocracy are wealthy land-owners ; but many are poor 
and in debt. As regards the mahajans, or banking classy 
many of them are very rich, and they are, as a rule-, well-to-do* 
The petty traders> the artizan clasSj heads of villages, and a 
certain proportion of agriculturists-, may be said to enjoy a certain 
degree of prosperity, on the whole ; but the peasant cultivators are' 
generally in debt to the Borahs, or money-lenders, and the mass 
of them live from hand to mouth. The Jdts are generally the 
most prosperous ; next come the Gujars and Brdhmans ; but the- 
Minas are almost always poor. 

The aristocracy and the richer classes live ininasonry houses ; 
the subordinate chiefs and great kinsmen of the ruling chief 
usually have their houses well fortified, sometimes living in castles- 
upon hills, sometimes in houses in the village at the foot of the 
hill, which is surrounded by the fort as a citadel of refuge. The 
leading nobles keep up much rude state, and desire to be as inde- 
pendent as possible of the court at Jaipur ; their success varies 
according to the relative forces of the nobles and the administra^- 
tion. They are obliged to attend court on certain periods and. 



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( 148 ) 

occasions, when they are usually in opposition to the official 
bureaucratic element. In Shekdwati the towns present a very 
fine appearance from the houses being built of blocks of white stiff 
clay, cut from the kankar beds and allowed to dry in the villages ; 
by far the greater number of petty dwelling-houses are built of 
stone or brick and mud, or of mud only, and roofed with tiles or 
thatch. The villages are almost invariably surrounded with a 
high fence of dried thorns. In the Shekdwati districts, more remote 
from head-quarters, the people have always been more turbulent 
and less inclined to obey the head-quarters administration than 
elsewhere. They belong to a separate sept of the Kachhwahas; 
and their chiefs rule their own estates with little interference 
from, and great jealousy of, the chief of the State. The dress 
of the people seems to be much the same as in other parts 
of Rdjputdna; but the Pheta turban — that is, a turban formed 
with narrow and twisted, instead of broad, flat, bands — seems very 
generally worn. The inhabitants follow the usual Hindu and 
Muhammadan customs. The greater proportion of the men go 
about armed ; the richer classes keep bailis (carriages drawn by 
bullocks), saddle-horses, and riding-camels. 

The food of the inhabitants is much the same as in other parts 
of Northern India. Rajputs, and many other classes of Hindus 
and Muhammadans, eat meat ; in Shekawati bdjrd forms the staple 
article of food. 

Trade. 

Manufactures. — Although the Jaipur State can perhaps 
scarcely be called a manufacturing country, still, some of its pro- 
ductions have acquired a wide notoriety for their great excellence 
in design, texture, and finish. Amongst these may be mentioned, 
marble-sculpture, enamel- work, woollen cloths and fabrics. An 
extensive trade is also carried on in dyeing, which is confined prin- 
cipally to the ancient town of Sanganer ; the waters of the Amdn-i- 
Shdh river, on whose banks it is situated, being said to possess 
some peculiar properties favorable to the dyeing process. 

The materials for this branch of industry are procured from 
„ , , , . the marble quarries at Makrdna,* in Mar- 

Marble sculpture. i.«i.«ij i«j. ii p 

war, which yield a white marble of very 
fine quality, and from Baisldnd, in Jaipur territory, where a 
black marble is obtained. The principal articles manufactured are 
images and ornamental figures, for which there is a large and 
steadily-increasing demand. The trade is carried on almost 
exclusively by a class of Brahmans called SiUwats. 

* Makrdiia is about 20 miles from the Sambhar Salt Lake, on the Jaipur border. 



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( 149 ) 

In this work, originally imported from Benares, Jaipur stands 
justly pre-eminent. The enamelling is 
^^' done on gold, and is beautifully and taste- 

fully executed in various colors, the ruby being the most prized. 
Specimens of Jaipur enamel- work were exhibited at the late Inter- 
national Exhibitions at Paris, London, and Vienna, and also form- 
ed part of the presents lately taken to England by His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales, and were specially admired. Some 
of the principal mineral agents employed by the trade, such as 
cobalt and sulphate of copper, are obtainable in the hills near 
Khetrl, in the Jaipur State. In connection with enameDing, 
Jaipur carries on a brisk trade, both locally and with other parts 
of India, in the setting of precious stones in ornamental jewellery. 

The more important products under this head are the chakmds 
(floor-cloths) and ghogis (felt- wrappers) 
00 en a ncs. manufactured at Mdlpura, about 60 miles 

/south from Jaipur ; a class of goods wMch are extensively 
used in E;djpiitdna, and for which M^pura enjoys considerable 
notoriety. The other but less important manufactures are gold 
and silver lace, celebrated for its purity, delicacy of texture, and 
durability ; ornamental shoes and shellac bracelets {churls), some 
of the latter articles being beautifully and expensively colored and 
gilt, and much worn by the upper class of native women through- 
out the country. A coarse cotton cloth for local consumption is 
also very generally manufactured in the villages. 

Commerce. — The principal articles of export and import of 
the Jaipur State are as follows : — 

Cotton, grain, oil-seeds, sugar, printed cloths, hides, wool 
^ _, from Shekdwati, marble images, churls. 

Exports. ^ 

Grain and sugar from the North-West, English piece- 
j^ ^ goods, hardware, spices, and miscella- 

^ * neous. 

The annual value of the external trade of the State about 
1874i-75 may be fairly estimated at — exports, 35 to 40 lakhs of 
rupees ; imports, 66 to 70 lakhs of rupees.' 

The above figures are exclusive of the large export of salt from 
the Sambhar Lake to the North- West by rail, which, now that the 
lake is worked by the British Government, and the transit-duties 
on the salt have been relinquished by the Jaipur State, does not 
in any way affect, financially, the trade of the territory. But 
what gives importance to the commerce of the State is the large 
banking and exchange business carried on at the capital, and in 
the larger towns in Shekdwati, where it may be said to be out of 
all proportion to the legitimate operations of trade. At the 



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( 150 ) 

capital of Jaipur, which is the money market for all Rdj- 
ptitdna, there are as many as seven banking firms, doing an 
aggregate business of about two and a half crores of rupees, 
and possessing a capital of upwards of six millions sterling. 
In addition to these, there are several minor houses whose 
collective business may be estimated at half a crore of rupees 
a year. The large apparent excess in the amount of the imports 
over the exports is accounted for chiefly by the large trade that 
is carried on in precious stones and metals, which is not 
included in the returns of the Darbdr. These are imported in the 
rough and less valuable state, and sent out, manufactured, to the 
houses of the wealthy Marwaris in Shekdwati, Bikanir, &c. An- 
other cause of the excess in question is, that the Jaipur bankers, 
having, as a rule, branch firms at all the chief marts in British 
India with which trade is carried on by the State, a large share of 
the imports is paid for by drafts on these places. The importation 
of gold to Jaipur (another item excluded from the returns of the 
Darbdr) is not less than 25 lakhs of rupees a year. Much of this 
finds its way to the mint for coinage into the celebrated Jaipur 
gold-mohur, of which not less than 100,000 are yearly exported 
to the large trading and banking cities in British India. 

Administkation. 

Judicial St/stem. — ^The general Nizdmat^, or administrative 
sub-divisions, are under officials termed Nazims, who are district 
magistrates or civil judges. All original suits in the districts are 
filed in their courts. At the capital, all civil suits below Rs. 300 
are filed in the subordinate civil courts, termed munsif s' courts ; 
and suits above that amount come before the chief civil court, 
termed the sadr diwdni addlat, which also hears appeals from 
the nazims' and munsifs' court. With the exception of petty 
criminal cases, which go before the dty k6tw41, all original 
criminal cases at the capital are tried in the court of the city 
magistrate, termed the faujddri addlat. There is also an appel- 
late court at the capital, which hears appeals from the sadr 
diwdni and faujddri addlats. In all civil suits below Rs. 500, the 
appellate court's decision is final. All civil suits above that 
amount, and all criminal cases, are appealable to the Council, 
which, being the highest tribimal in the State, is the final court 
of appeal. It may be here remarked that in Jaipur a suitor's 
difficulties are by no means ended when he has passed all Courts 
and obtained his final decree. 

Jails. — ^There is only one jail in Jaipur, which is situated at 
the capital, outside the city-walls^ It is very well conducted^ and 



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( 151 ) 

is a great credit to the State. The average number of prisoners, 
male and female, is over a thousand — a large number by compa- 
rison with the State's population. They are employed outside 
the walls, but a system of intramural labor has been introduced 
which promises well. 

Police. — ^The police of the State, which was formerly 
undivided, is now composed of two distinct and separate 
bodies : one, which may be called the "rural" police, consisting 
of chaukiddrs and tahsil sepoys in the different towns and 
villages, and acting under the orders of the magisterial authorities 
of their respective districts ; the other being the general police, 
who exercise independent powers in all police matters within 
their respective jurisdictions, and are directly subordinate to the 
Darbdr and its advisers. The police arrangements at the capital 
consist of a number of police and watchmen located at the 
k6twdli, and in different parts of the city, who are inmiediately 
under the k6twal of the city. 

Army. — There are in the State 38 forts, and other defensible 
places, mounting some 200 pieces of ordnance of all calibres. The 
Ndgas — a military order of the Dddu Panthi sect, which has been 
already mentioned — number between 4,000 and 5,000, and are 
reputed to be faithful and daring, and, as such, are more feared 
than other troops of the State. They will not undergo^^ny disci- 
pline, wear no uniform, and are armed with sword, spear, match- 
lock, and shield. During the general mutinies of 1857, these 
were the only body of men really true to the chief, and, but 
for them, the so-called regular army would have rebelled. The 
maintenance of the army costs the Darbdr about Rs. 6,20,000 
annually. 

There is a gun-factory at the capital; but the manufacture 
of ordnance, especially of larger calibre, is extremely limited. 

Mint.— The only mint now existing in the Jaipur State is 
the one at the capital, which is celebrated for the purity of its 
gold and silver coinage. The coins struck are gold-mohurs, rupees, 
and copper pieces. The process (which is of the most primitive 
description) of hammering, purifying, and cutting and clipping 
the blanks to the proper size, occupies from ten to fifteen days ; 
then follows the stamping, which is done by hand, and with dies 
made by engravers on the premises. The institution is capable of 
turning out as many as ten or twelve thousand gold, and as many 
silver, coins per diem ; and the average yearly coinage value is in 
gold* twenty lakhs of rupees and silver ten lakhs of rupees. By a 
system of depreciation which takes place in the value of the Jaipur 
gold and silver coinage, at the rate of 1 per cent, triennially, 

• Owing to the high price of gold, the gold coinage has fallen off considerably since 1872. 



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( 152 ) 

during the reign of the issuing chief, and a further annual frac- 
tional reduction on the accession of a successor, very few old gold 
or silver coins are to be found, the circulating medium either 
finding its way back to the mint for re-coinage, or being broken 
up into jewellery and personal ornaments, for which the purity 
of the metals renders them so very suitable. The copper money 
of which formerly 35 pieces, or 17 1 takhds (subject to fluctuation 
of exchange), went to the rupee, has lately been assimilated with 
the copper currency of British India, both with regard to weight 
and uniformity of value, the old device being alone retained. The 
Jaipur coinage is distinguished from that of other native inde- 
pendent States by the thar (sprig) which is borne on the reverse, 
the English translaition of the inscription written in the Persian 
character being as follows : — 



{Obverse.y 



{Severte.) 





The gold-mohur weighs 167-8 grains, the metal being absolute- 
ly pure ; and the rupee, which is alloyed with 4^ grains troy of 
copper, weighs 175 grains, the alloy being added after assay. 
The market value of the gold and silver coinage depends on the 
fluctuation of exchange ; but the par value of the mohur at Jaipur 
is 16 rupees, and of the rupee 17 annas of our currency. 

Post Offices. — There are, in all, 38 imperial post-offices in the 
Jaipur State, supplemented by the local postal service of the State, 
which extends throughout the territory ; and although its primary 
object is the transmission of official orders and reports, it is of consi- 
derable use to the public at large. The State issues no postage 
stamps ; the postage, the rates of which are much the same as those 
in British India, being realized by a money payment. 

Telegraph Offices. — ^The telegmph-line from the North-Western 
Provinces to Bombay runs through the Jaipur State, with an 
office at the capital . 

Education. — In Jaipur, public instruction has made greater 
progress than in any other State of Rajputana, during the admin- 
istration of the present Maharaja Edm Singh, who maintains 



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( 153 ) 

the traditional taste of his house for the encouragement of letters 
and learning. The college at the capital, which was opened in 
1844 with about 40 pupils, had in 1875 a daily class attendance of 
800,* and could compare fevorably with similar institutions of its 
kind and status in British India. The college staff consisted of 
15 English teachers, 12 moulvi8(or Persian teachers), and 4 pan- 
dits (or Hindi teachers) ; and the annual cost of nciaintenance, 
borne exclusively by the Maharaja, was then about Rs. 24,000. 
Here, the students receive a well-grounded English and vernacular 
education, and are prepared for the Matriculation and Fine Arts 
examinations of the Calcutta University, with which the college was 
affiliated in 1873. There is also at the capital a well-attended school 
for the instruction of the sons of the tbiJcurs and higher officials 
of the State. There is also a Sanskrit college, attended by about 
250 pupils; and a school with several local branches for the edu- 
cation of girls and young women, which has an attendance of 600 
pupils, mcHstly of the Brdhman and Banya classes. There is, 
besides, a School of Industrial Art established at the capital by the 
Maharaja in A.D. 1866. In the districts there are 33 elementary 
schools, wholly supported by the State, and 379 indigenous ones, 
all more or less so supported, with an aggregate class attendance 
of nearly 8,000. These schools impart elementary instruction in 
Hindi and Urdu. Gi^ere are also ten patwdri schools in the 
different districts, attended mostly by sons of patwdris, who are 
taught surveying and keying of village accounts. The whole of 
the district schools are periodically inspected by two officials 
appointed for that purpose by the State. 

Communications. — ^The Agra and Ajmer road is a first-class 
^ , metalled road, 127i miles in length, 

Agra and Aimer Boad. i-i-j* x j j ^ 

general direction east and west, run- 
ning across the Jaipur territory from east to west, and touch- 
ing the capital about midway. The road, together with 
staging-bungalows throughout at convenient mtervals, was con- 
structed by the Maharaja, the British Government contributing 
one-fifth of the cost. It is much less used since the railway to Ajmer 
opened, and the staging-bungalows are not now kept up by the 
State. With the exception of the rivers Dhtind and Bdndl, and a 
few nalaSy it is bridged and metalled throughout. 

This is a second-class metalled road, length from Jaipur to Tonk 
• . . m 1. T> ^ 60 miles, of which the 4S milesin the Jaipur 

Jaipur and Tonk Boad. i-j-i •• ixjtj. i 

territory have been completed. Its general 
direction is due south from Jaipur, passing close to the Jaipur 
towns^ of Sanganer, Chdtsii, and Newai. There is a staging- 

* TWichoiUuet bdng for thfliinost pffft Hindus^ onlj abou^ one-sixth being llnhammadani. 

U 



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( 154 ) 

bungalow at Ch&tsti maintained by the Jaipur Darb^r, aiid a 
ferry at the point where the road crosses the river Bands, near 
Deoli. 

A toetd^Ued road, under eonstruction in 1875 from the Mandd- 
mr ^^_/ A^ ,. T> J "w^ station of the Rdjptitdna State Eail- 

Mandawar and Karauli Boad. . ., i j ^ •'a ji -rr^ i» j. 

way to the bord^ of the Karaun ter- 
ritory, passes the large towns of Mowd and Hindaun in the 
Jaipur State. Length of road, 49 miles. 

Trade Routes. — ^The principal trade-route of Jaipur now, is 
the Edjpiitdna State Railway line from Agra to Ajmeir, run- 
ning east and west through the capital and the centre of the State, 
by which nearly the whole of the Sambhar salt finds its way to 
the North- Western Provinces and the Panjdb, and by which near- 
ly the whole of the imports, such as English piece-goods, hard- 
ware, spices, grain, and EohUkhand sugar for the south-west por* 
tions of the State, are carried. Some of the other main articles of 
export, such as cotton, grain, oil-seeds, coarse cloth, Sanganer 
chintz, &c., are also carried by therailway . There is but little teaffic 
northward from the capital, as the trade of Shekdwati travels, prin- 
cipally, either north-east to the great mart of BhawAni, in Hisar, 
or south-west to Ajmer. The principal export from SheMwatiis 
wool ; and the imports are Bohilkhand sugar, English piece-goods, 
hardware, spices, tobacco, &c. Owing to the sandy nature of 
the soil, camels are used almost entirely in the ShekdWati trade. 
The ManddwAr and Karauli road, noticed under the head of 
" Communications,'* is now becoming an important trade-route 
since the opening of the railway, Hindaun being the principal mart 
for all the cotton, grain, oil-seeds, raw sugar, tobacco, &c., grown in 
the south and east of the Jaipur State. Salt for the south-eastern 
portions of the State, and for the Jhansi salt-marts, also passes by 
this route, which is superseding the former route vid Bhartpur 
and Eatehpur-Sikri. There is also a considerable trade in 
copper and brass vessels from the town of Siwai Mddhoptir, in 
the south-east comer of the estate where these articles are largely 
manufactured, and exported southward, vid Indargarh, into the 
Hardoti State ; the return trade being grain from Kotah, &c. 
Bullocks and donkeys are the chief mode of transport on 
this route. There is but little salt-trade now from Sambhar and 
Nawah, south-east through the Jaipur State to Hardoti, as the 
banjd/rda go principally vid Marwar and Ajmer* 

Towns. 

Frincvpal Totvm. — ^ijtnber, a very ancient city now crum- 

, bling to ruins, was formerly the capital of 

"^ '• the Jaipur State. Nothing is known in 



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( 165 ) 

regard to the earlier history of Amber; but, in A.D. 1037, the 
Kaehhwdha Rdjptits, shortly after obtaining a footing in this part 
of the country, conquered Amber from the king of the Susawat 
Minas, the head of the Mina confederation, after a long and 
protracted struggle. The seat of Rdjpiit power was thereupon 
transferred from Kho to Amber, which became the capital of the 
coimtry, and gaine the name to the State. ]VIany concessions 
were made to the Susawat Minas : villages in the immediate 
neighbourhood were given to them, and they only were to guard 
the Rdjp^t citadel and treasury, &c., — ^rights which they still 
enjoy. Amber continued to be the capital of the State tUl A.D. 
1728, when the seat of power was transferred by the celebrated 
Siwai Jai Singh II, who foimded the present capital, called 
Jaipur after him. 

■Amber is situated in a valley of the range, about five miles 
north of the present capital, and is almost entirely surrounded 
by hills. The site was well chosen by the Minas as a safe ^and 
secret stronghold in those troubled times. There are many objects 
of interest at Amber : the fine old Il6jput palace is weU worthy 
of a visit, and the view from the top is strikingly picturesque 
and beautiful. Except as a very interesting relic of antiquity. 
Amber is now of no importance, for the city is almost deserted 
and the buildings falling into decay. 

This is a considerable town in the Shekdwati district of the 
State, about 120 mUes north-west from 
**^^ Jaipur. It is walled, and possesses a fort 

of some pretensions ; and has an imperial post-oflB.ce. 

Bkgm is a town of some importance on the Agra and Ajmer 
^^^ trunk road, about 18 mUes south-west 

^^^ from Jaipur, and the residence of one of 

the principal thdkurs of the State. A considerable trade is carried 
on in dyeing and printing cotton stuffs ; an imitation of the 
more celebrated Sanganer work. Above a mile to the east is a 
commodious staging-bungalow maintained by the Maharaja of 
Jaipur. 

A town of some importance on the Agra and Nasfrabdd route, 
CMtad about 24 miles south-east from Jaipur. 

There are eight fairs held annually at the 
place^ some of them largely attended. The town has a dispen- 
sary and establishment maintained by the Maharaja. 

A large, flourishing, and fortified town, about 18 miles north 

^^.^ of the city of Jaipur, and the seat of the 

^^ th^ur of that name, the premier noble 

of the State. It has a dispensary and establishment maintained 

by the Maharaja, 



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( 156 ) 

A large town (raflway^station) 38 mfles east from Jaipur^ 
situated in the immediate vicinity of the 
^^^^ Bdjptitdna State Railway, and the Agra 

and Ajmer trunk road, which cross each other at this point. 
Dausa was once the capital of the State before Amber was wrested 
from the Minas. It stands on the slope of a large, isolated, 
flat hill, nearly four miles in circumference, and fortified with 
a loopholed wall and bastions of considerable strength. The 
town contains numerous Hindu temples and ancient edifices, 
which are, however, fast hurrying to decay. At the close of the 
Mutiny of 1867-58, Tantia Topi, the famous rebel leader, was 
caught between two colimms of British troops in the neighbour- 
hood of Dausa, when a battle was fought under the walls. 

There is a staging-bungalow and dispensary maintained by 
the Maharaja ; also an imperial post-office at the railway-* 
station. Six fairs are held at the place annually. 

An important and thriving town, 42 miles south from Jaipur. 

j^^^ Has a nrad fort of some strength, and 

^^ is surroimded by a wall of the same 

material. It is chiefly remarkable for the important fair 

" Kalidnji/' which is held annually, and attended by some 16,000 

pilgrims. 

A considerable town on the Agra and Ajmer trunk road, 41 

j^^^ miles west from Jaipur. In the centre of 

the town is a small but neat citadel, and 

the place is surrounded by a mud wall. There is a dispensary 

with establishment in the town, and a staging-bungalow close by, 

both maintained by the Maharaja. 

A thickly-popidated town of some importance, 70 miles south 
j^^ from Jaipur, possessing a fort, and sur- 

rounded by a mud wall. It is remarkable 
for the resolute and successful defence which it made against the 
efforts of Daulat Eao Sindia to take it in A.D. 1809. 

A fortified town in the district of Shekdwati, belonging to the 
Fateh TIT Slkar chief ship, a tributary of Jaipur, 

^^' situated 145 miles north-west from Jaipur. 

Although yet a thriving place, it has lost much of the prosperity 
and vigour which it acquired during the rule of Rao Raja I^chh- 
mdn Singh, a former chief of Slkar, who had his residence here. 
There is an imperial post-office. 

A large commercial town on the Agra and Mhow route. 

Hindatm. ^^^ f ortifications, which at one time were 

considerable, are now fast going to decay. 

It is remarkable for the important Mdhdbhir fair which is held 

at the place annually, attended by as many as 100,000 pilgrims. 



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( 167 ) 

There are an imperial post-office and a dispensary^ tlie flatter 
maintained by the Jaipur Darbdr. 

A handsome and flourishing town belonging to the zamin- 
dari of one of the principal thdkurs of 
the State, situate near the banks of the 
river Bands, 60 miles south from Jaipur. It has a citadel, 
and is surrounded by a wall and moat of considerable pre- 
tensions. 

The capital of the State, Jaipur is situate on the Bdjpiitdna 
State BaQway line, and the Agra and 
^^^* Ajmer trunk road, 149 miles east from 

the latter, in latitude 26"* 56' and longitude TS"" 56'. It is the 
largest town, and the chief commercial centre of RdjpiitAna; 
and, having been carefully laid out in comparatively recent times 
by a chief of remarkable character, it is in many respects the 
finest of modem Hindu cities. Tie city, which takes its name 
(Jainagar or Jaipur) from the famous Maharaja Siwai Jai 
Singh II, by whom it was founded in the year A.D. 1728, stands 
on a small plain or basin, conjectured to be the bed of a lake, 
having on all sides, except the south, where the ranges diverge, 
rugged hills, the summits of whioh are now at all the import* 
ant points crowned with forts. At the end of the ridge over- 
hanging the city on the north-west, stands the chief defensive 
work, Nahargarh, or the "Tiger Fort,'* the rock face of which is 
so scarped as to be inaccessible on the south, or city side, while 
on the north the ridge slopes towards Amber. A masonry cre- 
nelated wall, averaging in height 20 feet and in thickness 9 
feet, surrounds the whole city. There are seven gateways fur- 
nished with screen-walls, all ouilt of the same pattern, witir^Ewo.^ 
kiosks above and macldconlis over the entrance. At nearly 
equal distances are bastions and towers, pierced for cannon, 
while the parapet is loopholed for musketrv. The city is remark- 
able for the regularity and wideness of its streets, and the 
architectural beauty of the mosques, temples, and private resi- 
dences which adorn them. From east to west the city is a little 
over two miles in length, and in breadth about one and a quarter 
mile. It is laid out in rectangular blocks; two wide roads 
cross the central one, dividing the city into six equal portions ; 
these, again, are intersected at even intervals by streets of 
less width, the sub-division proceeding \mtil at last the thorough- 
fares become lanes. The main street^ — ^which are paved, drained, 
and lighted by gas manufactured outside the city-walls — ^are 
111 feet in width, the secondary ones 55 feet, and the next 27^ 
feet ; the business buildings, and the more important places of 
worship^ being in the widest thoroughfares^ the houses of the 



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C 158 ) 

nobility and the citizens in the outlying quarters, while the Maha- 
raja's palace with its pleasure-grounds occupies the central block 
and an area of about one-seyenth of the whole town. The city 
is well provided with hospitals, dispensaries, alms-houses, and 
schools. Good drinking-water has also been brought into the city 
by iron pipes from the Amdn-i-Shdh river, about four miles off, 
thus conferring a great boon on the inhabitants, who had previously 
to bring drinking-water from outside the city. For such a large 
place, very little trade is carried on, and this is for the most 
part con&ied to banking and exchange business. The popula- 
tion, including that of the suburbs, is estimated at 140,000. An 
imperial post-office, a telegraph-office, and the British Residency 
are all located outside the city- walls. There is also a staging- 
bungalow and a hotel for the benefit of the nimierous travellers 
and tourists who visit the place. 

The capital of a tributary (Jaipur) chief ship of the same 
name, yielding an annual revenue of over 
Bs. 4,00,000, situated in the Shekdwati 
district of the State, 75 miles north from Jaipur. It is fortified 
by a citadel of some strength on the summit of a hill 1,000 feet 
above the town. In the immediate neighbourhood are valuable 
copper mines, capable of being worked to a large extent, the water 
in which is rich in sulphate of copper and alum, and in which 
there is a considerable export trade. The place is provided with 
schools (both English and vernacular) and a dispensary. There 
is also an imperial post-office. 

A pargana in the Torawdti district of Jaipur belonging to 
_.._,.,. the chief of Khetrl, on whom it was con- 

ferred, m perpetmty, by Lord Lake in 
A.D. 1803, for military services. The town of Kot Putli, distant 
from Jaipur 74 miles north-east, posse^es a fort and other defen- 
sible structures, which were of great importance when held by 
the Marathas, before their subjugation by Lord Lake. Its annual 
revenue is about Rs. 1,00,000. There is an imperial post-office 
at the town. 

A large fortified town belonging to the Sikar chiefship (a 
LaciiimiaiuraTh fcudatory of Jaipur), and named after Rao 

acniunangar . B/Si^a Lachhmdn Singh, a former Sikar 

chief, by whom the place was founded in A.D. 1806. It is built 
after the model of the city of Jaipur, and contains many handsome 
edifices, occupied principally by the banking class, the chief 
traders of the town. There is an imperial post-office. 

An ancient but not a large town, 40 miles west from Jaipur; 

N4rain4 coutauis scvcral tcmplcs of interest, and 

famous as the head-quarters of the PMu 



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( 159 ) 

Panthis, a religious, though not veiy ntimferous, sect, who profess 
to worship one God unrepresented by an image or without a 
temple ; their saints, being celibates, maintaining a succession by 
adoption. From the Dadu Panthis, the foot-soldiers of the State 
called Nagas are obtained, numbering between 4,000 and 5,000, 
and to whose fidelity, daring, and moral influence as soldiers, is 
attributed the steadfastness of the general army of the Jaipur 
State to the British cause during the Mutiny of 18$7-58. 

A town in the Shekdwati dependency of Jaipur, belonging to 

a feudatory th^ur of the State, situate 

awaigar . ^^ miles north-wcst from Jaipur, having a 

yearly revenue of Bs. 76,000. There is an imperial post-office 

at the place. 

The chief town of a tribute-paying dependency of the Jaipur 
^^.^^ State of the same name, 70 miles south 

^^ ^* from the city of Jaipur ; the annual reve- 

nue being about Rs. 3,00,000. It is a large fortified town. 

A large, handsomely-built town on the north-west frontier of 
V /ov. , . xx the State, 100 miles north-west from 

Bamgarn (Shekawati). ^ • • xi j. • 

Jaipur, possessmg the most miposmg 
appearance as it is approached from the north. It contains 
many palatial edifices belonging to. wealthy bankers, by whom 
it is chiefly peopled. There is an imperial post-office at the 
place. 

A large and flourishing town, the principal place of a zamin- 
sdmod ^^^ ^^ *^^* name held by one of the prin- 

cipal thakurs of the State, yielding an 
annual revenue of Rs. 1,10,000, situate 24 miles from Jaipur. 
The place is defended by a fort of some strength on the summit 
of a hill, at the base of which the town stands. 

A town on the Jaipur and Jodhpur border, the joint property 
Sambhar ^^ *^^ ^^^ Statcs, 39 milcs south-wcst 

^^ '* from Jaipur. It is principally remarkable 

for its antiquity and the famous Sambhar salt lake, which is des- 
cribed in another part of this Gazetteer. In the town itself there 
is nothing of interest. There is an imperial post-office and a 
dispensary, the latter maintained by the joint DarbArs. 

A flourishing fortified town, on the banks of the Amdn-i-Shdh 
g^ ^^ river, 7 miles south-west from Jaipur and 

^^^'' 3 miles from the Sanganer station of the 

Bdjpiitdna State Railway. Its principal features of interest are 
its temples and Jain edifices, one of which is a magnificent struc- 
ture, and said to be over a thousand years old. The place is fur- 
ther celebrated for its dyeing and printing cotton stuffs, the 
water of the Amdn-i-Shdh river being said to possess some pecu- 



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( 160 ) 

liar properties favorable to tiie processes. In this trade a lai^e 
business is done. 

The capital town of a tributary chiefship of that name in the 

^j^ Shekdwati dependency of the State, 72 

nules north-west from the city of Jaipur. 

It is a large fortified town. The annual revenue of the estate is 

Rs. 8,00,000. There is an imperial post-oflSlce at the town. 

A town of some size 80 miles north from Jaipur, in the Shekd- 
g. j^^^^ wati dependency of the State, accurately 

"^ described by Elphinstone as " a handsome 

town built of stone on the skirts of a Mil of purplish rock, about 
600 feet high." Copper inconsiderable quantities is found in the 
neighbouring hills, which, until lately, had been worked from 
time immemorial, the subterraneous galleries being in the aggre- 
gate many miles in length. The ore is of an inferior description. 
The mines, which are the property of the Elhetri chief and which 
at one time yielded considerable revenue, have been closed sincel872, 
owing, it is said, to the difficulty and expense which was latterly en- 
tailed in woricing them. There is an imperial post-office at the place. 

Fairs. — There are in all twenty-three places in the Jaipur 
State where the more important periodical fairs are held : these 
are tabulated in Appendix A. 

Soly-places cmd Antiquities. — ^Amongst the more important 
of the numerous shrines and antiquities of the Jaipur State may 
be mentioned the following : — 

A shrine of great sanctity, on the summit of a range of hills 

The Guita ^ *^® ®^** ^^^ about 1| mile from the city 

of Jaipur. The temple, which is dedicated 
to the sun, is a building of the plainest kind, and contains an 
image of Surya, the " Sim God." A very fine view of the city 
and suburbs is obtained from this point. Below the platform, on 
the east side of the range, is a spring, the waters of which, after 
passing several artificial wells and reservoirs, pour over the natural 
rock into the well- wooded valley beneath, in which are gardens, 
shrines, and tanks most picturesquely situated. The water, the 
fall of which is about 70 feet, is held sacred by the Brdhmans, 
and the priest in charge of the shrine asserts that it is the true 
Ganges, a pilgrimage to which is quite as efficacious as to the one 
which flows past Hardw^ or Benares. 

This is one of the most interesting antiquities of the State. 

observator or jantar ^^® obscrvatory, wMch is at the capital, 
serva ry or an . ^^ erected by Maharaja Siwai Jai Singh 

II, the celebrated " astronomer and mathematician,'* being the 
largest of five which he provided at Jaipur, Delhi, Ujain, Mathra, 
and Benares ; it has probably not been used since his deaths 



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( 161 ) 

which took place in A.D. 1743. The instruments, which are for 
the most part built of masonry covered with lime, upon which 
the gradations were most carefully marked, but now from age 
peel^ off in places, are of huge size. 

Silla Devi (the stone goddess) is a temple of great antiquity, 

. located within the precincts of the palacer 

^^ at Amber, formerly the capital of the State. 

Here, agoatis dailysacrificed — ^the substitute, according to tradition, 

for the human victim which was formerly offered up to the goddess. 

There is a shrine of apparently great aiitiquity in the old city 

. ^ , . of Amber, called Amberlaswas (a title of 

Shiva), and from which, it is said. Amber 

takes its name. 

The monastery and shrines of the Dddu Panthi sect at Naraina 
.- . ^ , are of some interest. The monastery is a 

Naraina Temples. j -i • j-/i t j.-l j_ • i ±. 

striking edifice. In the centre is an elegant 
pillared hall on a raised platform, wherein are deposited the palla- 
dia of the- faith, the writings of the founder, and where also are the 
impressions of his feet and his bed. The whole building is of the 
finest Makrdna marble; its cost was supplied by contributions 
from neighbouring princes, especially the Maharaja of Jaipur. 
Next in order is one of three cenotaphs of pure marble, erected 
to the memory of Raja Bh6j, who fell fighting, about A.D. 
1677, for the Delhi emperor. The hero's descendants assert that 
his hand was so large as to require a sword twice the ordinary size 
in the handle. One of the most interesting objects at Naraina is 
the mosque, its rear wall rising from the picturesque lake. It 
has five rows of ten pillars, carved in the richest style of ancient 
Hindu art ; almost all are unlike in their ornamentations, though 
generally similar in form, being octagoaal at the base, then passing 
into the circle, and having lotus-figure capitals, in this instance 
mutilated by the Musalman. They are very similar to those at 
the Kiitb near Delhi, and are believed to be of the same age as 
the temple of the " Lord of Joy " (Shiva) in Shekdwati, which was 
founded in 961 A.D. 

Another remarkable edifice is the Tripolia, built, as an 
inscription upon it shows, in A.H. 1012, or A.D. 1603. 
Many stones of more ancient buildings appear to have been 
worked into the mass ; but most notable are the four angles of 
a ceiling, exactly similar to that of the portico of the temple of 
Baroli (dedicated to Shiva) near the Mukundara pass on the 
Ohambal (depicted at page 789, volume II of Tod's Bajasthan). 

Sanganer, situated 7 miles from Jaipur, besides being a place 

Jain Temples at Sanganer. ^^ ^.^^^ antiquity, pOSS^SCS many fine 

specimens of ancient Hindu art : oi the 
more remarkable of these are its Jain edifices, of which there 

V 



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( 162 ) 

"are several. The more important of these shrines is one of 
great size, constructed of marble and sandstone, and believed 
to be over a thousand years old. Though smaller, it is very 
much similar in style to that of the famous Dilwdra Jain 
temple on Mount Abii. Europeans are not admitted into this 
temple beyond the outer entrance. 

A village situated at the base and on the far side of the range 
of hills to the eastward of the capital ; is a 
very ancient place, famous as the first 
possession of the Kachhwdha Rdjptits in Jaipur. It contains some 
old temples, a few images, and some rude but very ancient wells 
of the time of the Minas before they were subdued by the R&j- 
ptits. Snake worship has its relic in a stone with a cobra in relief 
upon it, outside the gate. 

A shrine of some antiquity and importance, a little over two 
nrndh miles from the capital, where the impres- 

ranpadn. sious of the feet of Ramchandra, the d^ed 

ancestor of the Maharaja, are worshipped. 

A place of very great antiquity, about 40 miles north-west from 

BaMtor vairit ^^J*^' «:^? possessing Serines of great age 

and sanctity. The capital of Matsya (the 

name by which the tract of country at present forming the Jaipur 

State was called some nine hundred years ago), and celebrated in 

the Hindu legends as the abode of the five Pdndtis during their 

exile of twelve years from Delhi or Indraprastha. Historians in 

the seventh century describe Bairdt as a town of considerable 

importance, and possessed of several Buddhist monasteries ; while 

from later historical accounts by Mahmtid of Ghazni, who 

invaded the country in A.D. 1009, it is probable that the kingdom 

of Bairdt included the greater part of the present State of Jaipur, 

Among holy-places must be mentioned Gehtor, a village in a 

^ . • , ^ , ^ deep valley in the Nahargarh range, north 

Cenotaphs at Gehtor. « /\ • x "^ i i i i ^ i ^ x i 

of the city, where the handsome cenotaphs 
of the former rulers of Jaipur, since the time of the great Siwai 
Jai Singh II, are situated. Among the holy-places and antiquities 
of lesser importance in the Jaipur State may be mentioned — 
I. The shrine of Bdnganga, 
II. The temple of Simolaji, in Chdtsii. 

III. The Debdani taMo (tank) and temple at Sambhar. 

IV. The temple of Kalidnji at Diggl. 

All these are much frequented by the people of the Jaipur and 
surroimding States. The architectural remains of Chdtsu, which 
are believed to be of great antiquity, are also of some note. 

In addition to the above, there are many shrines and relics 
of antiquity worthy of note in the Jaipur territory ; but no 
detailed information is procurable regarding them. , 



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( 163 ) 



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( 164 ) 






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( 165 ) 
APPENDIX C. 



Statement showing the number of Elementary Schools m the Zilas of Jaipur. 


ZiLAS AKD PaBGANAS. 


•si 

II 






II 


Bbiuses. 


Hindaun 


1 


1 


2 


94 




Siwai M^hopur 


1 


1 


2 


63 




„ CMtsii 


1 


1 


2 


57 




Pargana Newai 


1 


... 




37 




Malama 


... 


1 




23 




Mdlpura 


... 


1 




25 




Dausa 


,1 


. . . 




29 




Basw£ 


1 


... 




85 




Bairfit 


1 


... 




32 




Prfigptira 


1 


... 




29 




Tordwati (Ramghar) 


1 


1 




52 




Sambhar 


1 


« . . 




80 




TalnV a Sri Mddhopur . . . 


... 


1 




18 




Kot Bdndwar 


1 


• . . 




28 




Toda Rai Singh 


... 


1 




29 




Kasba Sanganer 


1 


1 




43 




„ Amber 


• •• 


1 




85 




Sbekdwati 


• . • 


• •• 


,,, 


• • t 




Udaipur 


1 


• • • 




80 




Jhunjhnu 


1 


• • • 




73 




Thikana-ka-Gfion 
Total 


8 


1 


9 


82 




22 


11 


83 


844 












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( 166 ) 



APPENDIX D. 

Statement thowing the number of Maktubs and Chattalae in {he Jaipur 
territory partially supported by the Bdj. 



Localities. 


1 


1 


^ 


Total namber' of 
Pupils. 


Siwai Jaipur 


44 


91 


135 


1,304 


Zila Jaipur 


2 


89 


41 


702 


„ Hindaun 


• • • 


7 


7 


118 


Siwai Mildhopur 


1 


8 


9 


205 


Chdtsu 


... 


8 


8 


167 


Maldma 


3 


13 


16 


299 


Dausa 


1 


23 


24 


419 


Basw£ 


1 


15 


16 


305 


Tordwati 


% 


29 


81 


1,137 


Fargana Sambhar 


... 


8 


8 


82 


Zila Gting&pur 


a 


15 


17 


309 


,, Lalsot 


... 


6 


6 


273 


,, TodaBhim 


1 


6 


7 


139 


,, Shekdwati 


7 


81 


88 


1,070 


M^lpura •• 


... 


8 


8 


273 


Fagi 


1 


4 


5 


188 


Bairdt 


••• 


6 


5 


79 


Kot Kdsim ••• ••• ••• 


1 . 


2 


8 


47 


Total 


. 66 


313 


879 


7,061 



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JESALMER: 

COMPILED BY 

Lieutenant-Colonel 0. K. M. WALTER, 

POLITICAL AGENT. 



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GAZETTEER OF JESALMER. 



Geography. 



Boundaries and Area. — ^The State of Jesalmer lies generally 
between latitude 26° 5' and 28" 24' north, and longitude 69' 30' and 
72° 50' east ; its greatest length, east and west, being 172 miles, and 
greatest breadth, north and south, 136 miles. It is of the shape 
of an irregular oval, the longer axis being 215 miles lying north- 
east and south-west. It is bounded on the north by Bhawalpur, on 
the east by Bikanir and Marwar, on the south by Marwar, and on 
the west by Sind. The area of the State is 16,447 square miles. 

Configuration. — The country is almost entirely a sandy desert, 
except in the portion north and south of the town of Jesalmer, 
which is very stony, being a continuation of the hills of Bdrmer 
in Mallani. These extend about 40 miles north of the city, with 
a breadth of 10 or 12 miles. Due east from Jesalmer there is 
also rocky ground indicated by stone hills appearing at intervals in 
the sand as far as Pokaran and Phalodi in Marwar. Near the city 
the ground is very stony, with comparatively little sand and no 
alluvial soil. Low ridges of limestone rock, many miles in length, 
run parallel to each other, with a gentle inclination so as to form 
long valleys between their ridges ; but even in these valleys there 
is little arable soil. There are here and there numerous hills of 
sandstone, of a dark color, flat topped, and entirely destitute of 
vegetation. The general aspect of the country is an interminable sea 
of sandhills of all shapes and sizes, mingled in inextricable confu- 
sion, some rising 150 feet above the general level of the country; 
those in the western portion of the country are occasionally 
covered with phog [calligonum) bushes, in the eastern with 
large tufts of grass. The western portion of the country around, 
and to the south of Shahgarh, is one of the most desolate tracts 
that can well be seen ; in the ordinary desert the sandhills are 
clothed to a certain extent with shrubs and coarse grass, and 
around the villages these afford pasture for the flocks and herds ; 
but in this part there are large extents of shifting sand, locally 
tern\ed " draens." These vary in si^e from two or three miles 
across to ten or twelve, and on them there is no trace of vegeta- 



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tion, and their surface is ever changing, as the wind heaps the 
sand into hills, or scoops into deep hollows ; they are very diflSiciilt 
to cross, the path shifting daily. The inhabitants say that they 
are travelling slowly northwards ; they swallow up and occupy a 
large portion of the country, depriving the inhabitants of much 
of their wretched pasture-ground, and causing them to be poorer, 
and to have a harder struggle for life than the rest of their 
feUow-subjects. Their chief subsistence is milk, with a little 
bdjri, which they obtain from Sind, or exchange for sheep. The 
stony sections are two : one would be comprised within a line 
drawn from Vinjarai on the southern frontier, through the villages 
of Khaba, Kathori, and Mohangarh to the border village of 
Chdlim, north-west by north of Pokaran in Marwar ; the second 
section would be between the Mdrwdr frontier to the south-east, 
and a line drawn from the above-mentioned village of Chdlim> 
in a north-eastern direction through Nok to the border of the 
Bikanir State. The west of the State is a vast expanse of sand in 
enormous waves, covered with a very scanty vegetation and very 
thinly populated. A country could hardly present a more desolate 
appearance ; the villages are few and far apart, and consist gene- 
rally of some circular huts, or " wigwams," collected round a well 
of brackish water. Towards Thanoli and the western portion of 
the coimtry there is little, if any, cultivation. In the east, near 
the large villages of Nok, Bikampur, and Barsalpur, there are 
many fields in the valleys formed by the sandhills where, when 
the season is favorable, the inhabitants grow jowdr and bajrd. 
In several places there is a kind of sandstone and inferior lime- 
stone which comes to the surface in the valleys. All over the 
country, water is scarce, and generally brackish. The wells are 
very deep; one recently measured by an ojfficer of the Great Trigo- 
nometrical Survey of India, at the village of Chanria, 32 miles 
south-east of the capital, was 490 feet deep. Most of the villages 
have small ponds, in which the rain-water collects, in a good 
season sufficient to last for seven or eight months ; but as a rule, 
owing to the scanty rainfall, the supply fails in from four to six 
months ; the villages have then to obtain their water from long 
distances (16 to 18 miles) ; the poorer classes, who cannot afford 
to get their water from a distance, drink the brackish water (a 
well or two of which every village possesses), mixing with it a 
little " dahi " (curds), the acidity of which, in a measure, counter- 
acts the brackishness of the water. The average depth of wells is 
said to be about 250 feet. In the eastern portion of the country 
each village has its tankas, or circular holes in the ground lined 
with fine polished chunam, in which the water collects during the 
rains, and is kept for use when other supplies fail. 



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S<:arcity of Water. — ^The rainfall is very scanty indeed, and 
water is not only very far below the surface, but is very scarce, 
except at a few favored localities. In the sandy desert, water can 
generally be obtained if wells are dug ; but in some portions of 
the stony desert, especially in the north-eastern corner of the 
State, it is so far below the surface that the springs cannot be 
tapped by wells, and the nature of the surf ace-soU is such that it 
is extremely difficult to prevent drainage- water collected in tanks 
from being absorbed by the soil. Por instance, between the villages 
of Bdp and Chdlim, a distance of nearly 40 miles, there is but one 
village at which water can be obtained during the hot season, 
and during years of drought even the tank of that locality dries 
up and the whole tract is deserted. The excavation of a well 
was attempted in this part of the State. It was dug to a depth 
of nearly 500 feet without tapping the springs, and was at Last 
abandoned in despair when a stratum of sand was reached. It 
may be imagined that, in such a country, salinity of soil would be 
rare, and, in fact, traces of salt are only met with at the two oases 
where depressions occur and water is near the surface. 

Soils. — Almost the whole of the soil af Jesalmer may be 
described as sandy, which is even favorable to some grains, 
notably to bajrd, of which good crops are grown. The capital 
of Jesalmer is built on a hill which furnishes a Kmestone more 
valuable than even the red sandstone of Marwar : it is of a dull 
yellow color, and takes an imperfect polish, but is good for 
lithographs. There is another variety of yellow limestone with 
large quantities of a substance like red ochre blended with it, 
produced at Hdbur, a few miles from Jesalmer, and there are pits 
of a yellow unctuous clay resembling fuUer's-earth, or multdni 
mdti. 

Rivers and Lakes, — There are no perennial streams in Jesaimer, 
and but two small rivers— one called the Kahni, the other Lathi- 
ka-Nddi ; the former takes its rise from water accumulating during 
the monsoon in low ground belonging to the villages of Kotri, 
Gahura, and Lutabana, and, after flowing a distance of 28 miles, 
spreads over a large space of flat ground and forms a lake, or jhil, 
called the Bhiij jMl. Very occasionally, when there is an excep- 
tionally large rainfall, this river deviates from its usual course, 
near a village called Kuldhana, and, passing by that of Lodorva, 
empties itself on what is locally known as a " Rinn," or flat salt- 
marsh, 14 or 16 miles beyond Bhiij ; here the water soon dries 
up and can be turned to no account, the soil of the Rinn being 
unfit for cultivation. 

The Lathi-ka-Nadi issues from*Marwar and has two branches : 
one rising near, and passing by, a village of Marwar, the Rinn, 

w 



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( 170 ) 

or salt-marsh of Aresur and Tillage of Thuri, where it changes 
its name to " Rtipa-ka-Bhalu ;" the other branch rises near, and 
passes by, the village of Bhangti of Marwar, and over the flat 
grounds of Jinj. It is joined by the other branch about eight 
nailes to the east of Lathi, and, flowing on about 24 miles to the 
west, spreads over some low flat ground near the village of 
Mohangarh, covering sometimes a space of ground 20 to 30 miles 
in extent. This river has, however, had no water in it since 1825, 
when the people tell of a very heavy rainfall. 

Climate and Rainfall. — ^The climate of Jesalmer is essentially 
dry and healthy, akin to that of Marwar ; epidemics are of rare 
occurrence ; people seem to suffer chiefly from fever, spleen, and 
skin-diseases, guinea-worm, and small-pox (which is, of course, 
endemic). There is a saying that neither mud, musquitos, nor 
malaria is to be foimd in these regions. As regards temperature, 
the heat is greatest in the months of May and Jime, and hot 
winds prevail with much violence. As soon as rain falls, the wea- 
ther becomes cool and pleasant ; the coldest times are from the 
middle of December to the middle of February, when the ther- 
momenter falls very low, with a good deal of frost and ice. In 
January, the thermometer always reads below freezing-point 
during the night ; the lowest recorded temperature at Barsalpur 
was 18** on the 23rd January. No observations on the rainfall or 
temperature have ever been registered, but the former is very 
scanty indeed; in 1875, for instance, there were only two rainy days. 

HiSTOBY. 

The Jddon Bhdtti Rdjpiits are of very ancient lineage; 
they claim descent from the Yadu or JMon kings, whose power 
was great in India at a very remote period of its history, Yadu 
being the patronymic of the descendants of Bhtida, the progenitor 
of the " Somavansa " (the Lunar or Indu race). Accorcfing to the 
ancient chronicles of Hindustan, Praga (the present Allahabad 
on the Ganges) was the cradle of the race, after which Mathura 
(Muttra on thB Jumna) remained the seat of power for a long 
period. On the death of Hari Krishna, the deified leader of the 
Jddons from whom the Bhdtti E/djptits claim lineal descent, the 
tribe became dispersed; many of them abandoned Hindustdn, 
among them two of the sons of Krishna, who proceeded northward 
beyond the Indus and settled there. Some time after this, one of 
their descendants being defeated and killed in a battle the tribe was 
driven southward into the Panjdb, where Salbahan, son of Guj, 
founded a town called after his name, and conquered the whole 
region. His grandson was named Bhdtti ; he was a great warrior, 
and conquer^ many of the neighbouring princes, and from him 



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( 171 ) 

the patronymic was changed, and the tribe was thenceforth dis- 
tinguished by his name. Shortly after this, the tribe was again 
driven southward by the king of Ghazni, and, crossing the Sutlej, 
found refuge in the Indian desert, which was henceforth to be 
their home. This traditional account may represent in outline 
the early migrations of the Bhatti tribe, which may be supposed 
to have entered India from the north-west under heroic leaders 
now deified as the sons of Krishna, and to have been settled for 
some time in the Panjdb. One of the grand expeditions of Mah- 
miid of Ghazni (1004-5 A.D.) was against the city of Bhdttia, 
also called Bhera, which place is now said to have been on the left 
bank of the Jhelum, opposite the Salt Range ; and there can be 
little doubt that Bhdttia was, or had been, in the dominion of the 
Bhattia Rdjptits, Mr. E. Thomas considers that the four last 
Hindu kings of Kabul (before the ifihaznevides) may have been 
Bhdttia Rdjputs. It may be taken as certain that the Bhdttias 
were driven into the desert by the conquests of the Musalmdns 
on the north and west ; that they maintained constant warfare on 
both borders for many generations with the Muhammadans ; and 
that they gradually subdued or drove out the rival tribes or clans 
whom they found in the territory which they occupied, of whom one, 
the Sodas, appear to have been very strong ; their head-quarters are 
now further westward towards Umarkot, Their head-quarters 
appear to have been placed successively at Tumoli, Deorawal, 
and Jesalmer : the two fixst named places still exist, the last is 
now the State's capital. Deorawal was founded by Deoraj, a 
famous prince of the Bhatti family ; shortly after his birth in 836, 
his father and all his kinsmen were treacherously murdered by 
the Barahas, a neighbouring tribe, he alone bdng saved by the 
stratagem of a jogl, a Hindu religious mendicant. Deoraj 
became a great warrior, and established the power of the Bhdttis 
firmly in this desert tract ; the title of Rawal also commenced 
with him, and he is coimted as the real foimder of the Jesalmer 
family. The Bhdttis gradually extended their possessions south- 
ward, and many of them became great freebooters, a character 
they have continued to bear ever since. In 1156, Jesal, the sixth 
in succession from Deoraj, founded the fort and city of Jesalmer 
on a low ridge of sandstone hills, and made it his capital, as being 
more secure than his former residence, Ix)dorva, which was in 
the open plain. Subsequent to the founding of Jesalmer there 
was a succession of warlike princes, who were constantly engaged 
in battles and raids, and their taste for freebooting proved most 
disastrous, for, on two occasions, viz., in 1294 and shortly after- 
wards, the Bhdttis so enraged the emperor Ala-ud-din that the 
imperial army was despatched against them> and conquered and 



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( 172 ) 

sacked the fort and city of Jesalmer, so that for some time it 
remained completely deserted. 

In the sixteenth century we hear of the Turkoman governor 
of TJmarkot, under the Aryhan dynasty, marrying the daughter 
of the Bhdtti chief of Jesalmer ; and the son of this marriage, 
Khdni Zamdn, was a distinguished general of his time in Sind, 
which was then on friendly political terms with Jesalmer. The 
Bhdttis seem to have formed alliance with the Sind Amirs 
against the Rahtors, who undoubtedly pressed them seriously, and 
considerably interfered with their ancient territorial dominion. 
After this, there is iiothing especial to record till the time of 
Rawal Sabdl Singh, the twenty -fifth prince in succession to Jesalji, 
which marks an epoch in the Bhdtti history, in that he acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the Delhi emperor, Shahjehan, and 
was the first of the Jesalmer princes who held his dominions in 
subordination to the empire. The Jesalmer chiefs had now 
arrived at the height of their power ; their territory extended 
north to the Sutlej, and included the whole of the province of 
Bhawalpur, westward to the Indus, and to the east and south 
included many districts subsequently annexed by the Rahtors and 
incorporated in Marwar and Bikanir ; but, from this time to the 
accession of Kawal Mulraj, the seventh ruler in succession from 
Sabdl Singh, the fortunes of the State rapidly declined, and most 
of the outlying provinces were wrested from Jesalmer. Rawal 
Mulraj succeeded in 1762; during his life-time the State was 
virtually governed by the minister Salim Singh, who was guilty 
of great cruelty and oppression. Mulraj was the first chief of 
Jesalmer with whom the British Government entered into political 
relations ; the treaty was concluded ia 1818. Since the death 
of Mulraj in 1820, there have been no stirring events in 
Jesalmer. He was succeeded by his grandson Gaj Singh, who 
died in 1846, and his widow adopted Ranjit Singh, nephew of 
Gaj Singh. The present chief, Maharawal Bairi Sdl, brother of 
Banjit Singh, succeeded in 1864, having been adopted by the 
widow of the late chief Maharawal Eanjit Singh, who died 
without heirs. 

Account of Muling Family/ and dominant Classes , and form of 
Government. — ^The present ruler of Jesalmer is His Highness the 
Maharawal Bairi S^l, by caste a Jddon Bhdtti Edjpdt, and aged 
twenty-seven years. The family to which the chief belongs is 
accepted as the eldest of the whole clan, and the chiefship is held 
by right of direct lineage from the original founder and the deified 
ancestor of the J^dons. 

The constitution is very much the same as that of the neigh- 
bouring State of Marwar, but perhaps it is more of a tribal 



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( 173 ) 

suzerainty than even that of Marwar; but differing in this res- 
pect, that the Bhdttis are divided into numerous groups which 
do not, as in Marwar, spring from one recognized ancestry; 
for instance, there are Maldotis, Kailuns, Bursungs, Pohurs, and 
Tejmatahs — all Bhdttis, and probably branches of the same stock, 
but not bound together by such close blood-ties as the Rahtors. 
Many of the tribal chiefs, though acknowledging the Maharawal 
as their suzerain, are, to a great extent, independent, insomuch 
that they pay nothing to their suzerain for their estates, which 
in some cases are equally divided amongst all the sons, whilst in 
others the eldest son succeeds, and the younger branches obtain 
only small portions of land as their inheritance. The Bhdttis 
retain their Hindu notions, though with some degree of laxity, 
from their interpourse with the Muhammadans on the northern 
and western frontiers. The districts are governed by hakims, 
who have, however, but little real power in the thdkurs' estates. 

The administrative sub-divisions are twenty-four in number. 

Manufacture. — The only articles of domestic manufacture 
worth notice are the fine woollen cloths and coarse blanketing, 
which are largely worn. Sheep are much kept, and the wool is 
woven into excellent blankets, coarse flannels, and (with the finest 
thread) into pagris^ or head-cloths, of a curious texture. The 
coarse hair is spun into twine and twisted into ropes. 

TniE Land. 

Principal Crops. — ^Throughout Jesalmer, only rain-crops such 
as bdjrd, jowdr, mot, til, &c., are grown ; the soil being light 
and sandy, good crops of bd,jrd are produced after a very slight 
fall of rain. Spring-crops of wheat, barley, &c., are very rare. 
The only articles for which Jesalmer claims a speciality are onions, 
ber fruit, and roses. 

Agriculture. — ^The remarks under this head in the Marwar 
Gazetteer apply equally to Jesalmer. One crop only is 
produced — sowings of wheat in very small patches. The ploughs 
used are very light, and just scratch the sandy soil after the first 
rainfall, in June, when the seed is sown broadcast, camels being 
often used for drawing the plough. 

Irrigation. — OwiQg to the very scanty fall of rain, irrigation is 
almost unknown in Jesalmer. 

Land'Mevenue. — If wheat or gram is ever grown, the Darbdr 
takes from the cultivators from a fourth to a sixth share, and if 
the rain-crops, such as bdjrd, mot, til, &c., from a seventh to an 
eleventh share of the produce. There are three different ways, of 
collecting the Darbdr share of the outturn : one called " kankhut,*' 
which signifies estimating the value of a standing crop, and thus 



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( 174 ) 

determining the respective amount of the Darbdr^s and cultiva- 
tor's shares ; a second that of calculating the value of a crop, 
after it is cut, but before the grain is threshed out ; this is locally- 
known by the term "kari ktiata;*' a third practice is to divide 
the grain into shares after it is threshed out ; this is called " latta/* 
In addition to the share taken by the Darbar from the cultivator, 
there are the following other demands : — The dewan for the time 
being; the kdnwdria, or man who looks after the crops in the 
interests of the Darbdr ; the kdmddr of the kuthar, or grain store, 
and the MaharawaVs water-supplier — ^are all entitled to a portion 
of the yield from the rdydt. This generally averages half as much 
as is taken by the State; for instance, supposing the outturn to be 
100 maunds, and the Darbdr share is an eleventh, then 9 maunds 
go to the ruler, 4^ to the officials above mentioned, and 86^ 
maunds to the cultivator ; should the State demand be a seventh, 
it will get 14 maunds, the officials 7 maunds, and the cultivator 
79 maunds. Jdgirddrs take from such of their tenants as are of 
the ordinary cultivating class two rupees rent for as much land 
as they can cultivate with one pair of bullocks in one place. As 
regards other tenants, especially the fighting class, or men carrying 
arms, such as Rdjptits, &c., jdgirddrs allow them to till as much 
land as they like, rent-free, and these men have, in return, to do 
service for the jAgirddr; but, on occasions of deaths or marriages in 
the landlord's family, such tenants pay mota (fees) consisting 
of cash, or a camel, horse, or bullock, according to their means. 
The same custom as regards landlord and tenant prevails in 
villages held as charitable grants, with the exception that the 
(jlass of men bearing arms are not exempt from payment of 
two rupees for as much land as they can cultivate with one pair 
of buUocks. 

Land' Tenures. — There are 461 villages in the State of 
Jesalmer, of which 229 are fiscal, 71 held by jdgirddrs, 32 as 
charitable grants, 11 under " patta," or title-deed, 109 in bhum, 
and 9 for services performed to the State. There are no zamin- 
dars in the State ; the Darbdr*s and jdglrddrs* dealings with their 
tenants as regards land-revenue are very simple, and have already 
been described. There are two classes of jdgirddrs in Jesalmer : 
one holding their estates on what is called the ^^basi'* tenure, 
that is, in perpetuity ; these jdgirddrs pay nothing whatever to the 
Darbdr, either in the way of rent or service. The other tenure 
is that of pattay or title-deed ; the holders of these estates retain 
them at the pleasure of the ruler, but pay nothing, A third 
tenure has lately come into practice by which villages are given 
for a single life. Estates bestowed as charitable grants are held 
in perpetuity, and the holders of them are exempt from payment 



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( 175 ) 

of any kind. When a jdglrddr holding an estate in perpetuity- 
dies, the Darbdr does not issue a new patta^ or deed, to the eldest 
son. The profit obtained from the soil is divided equally between 
aU the sons, if there happen to be more than one ; so long as all 
agree together, this system is well enough, but it is most 
frequently a fruitful source of grievous quarrels. If a dispute takes 
place, a division of the land is made, either by friendly arbitration, 
or by order of the Darbdr. Suppose there are four sons, each 
can cultivate as much land as he likes, and the gain is his alone ; 
but if others cultivate, then the produce is equally distributed 
amongst the four brothers ; the eldest gets no extra share. This 
system continues from generation to generation, and, in some 
instances now, a man's share in the land is very small indeed. This 
custom prevails principally amongst those Bhattis, descendants 
of Maharawal Kait Singh, who reigned about eleven generations 
ago, amongst whom the chief thdkurs are Jinjiniali, Bard, Rindur, 
Dangri, and Sitnaia. Amongst the Kian and Bursingh Bhdtis, 
descendants of Maharawal Kalunji, the eldest son gets the estate, 
and if he has any brothers, they are allowed to cultivate as much 
land as they can themselves, rent-free, or they may employ one 
or two cultivators and cultivate through them, paying no rent. 
Amongst the thdkurs of Jesalmer with whom this custom 
prevails are those of Bikanpur, Barsalpur, Girasir, Sirda, &c. In 
bhiim tenures, a tax of from one and a quarter to one and a half 
rupees is levied from each holder of a tenure, he having to perform 
service for the Darbdr when called upon, for which he receives 
payment. Sasun villages are held by Chardns, Bh&,ts, and Swamis ; 
the Maharawal has no jurisdiction in these villages, and^ if any one 
committing a crime flies to any of them for refuge, he finds a 
sanctuary. 

Population. 

Proprietary and Cultivating Classes. — The proprietary classes 
are the Darbdr and the j&girdars ; the cultivating are Jdts, 
Bishnavis, and E/cbaris, amongst the Hindus ; large numbers of 
Muhammadans also cultivate. 

Population. — No census of the population having ever been 
taken, an approximate idea can onlv be given. It has been 
estimated that the entire population of the State does not exceed 
72,000 souls, which gives only 4-37 to the square mile ; of these, 
43,600 are said to be Hindus, 26,000 Muhammadans, and 2,500 
Jains. 

Castes^ Clans, and Tribes. — ^Thdkurs, or heads of Rdjptit 
famines, come first amongst the population in the Jesalmer 
territory ; next to them are Bhtimias ; then other Rdjptits who 



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( 176 ) 

take concubines ; and, lastly, the chdkars, or servants of the State, 
and Gujars, The Rdjptits of Jesalmer are divided into the 
following gots : — ^Bhdtti, Rahtor, Pnar, Salunki, Tanwur, Chohdn, 
Purihar, Sesodia, Khfchl, and Jhala. Different kinds of Brdhmans 
are as follows : — Pushkuma, Sirmoli, Joshi, Raj gar or Kesuria, 
Pdliwdl, and Gojurgor. The Mahajans are divided into the follow- 
ing classes : — Agarwdl, Mahesri, Oswdl, and Bhdttia. In addition 
to the above, the population of the country is comprised of peo- 
ple of the usual castes — Charans, Bhdts, Aroras, Lohanis, Bho- 
3uks, Sundrs (goldsmiths), Jdts, Bishnavis, Rebdris, Shamis, 
Gosains, Jutis, Sddhiis, Khdtris, Mdlis, Kalals, Darzis (tailors), 
Khdtis (carpenters), Silawuts (masons), Ktimhdrs (potters), 
Ndis (barbers), Baris, Lakheras, Kaldigurs, Mochis, Desantis, 
Dhobis, Jagris, and Od^s. The Muhammadans of Jesalmer, com- 
prising somewhat more than a third of the whole population, 
are divided into 76 classes; Bauris, Bhils, Gtiriiras, Megwals, 
and Khabriiks (sweepers) form the lowest castes in the country. 

Beligion. — Of the population of Jesalmer, the worshippers 
of Sukti (Suktas), the female principle locally known as Devi 
Muts, form by far the larger proportion of the Hindus ; it being 
calculated that they number about 31,000. The followers of 
Vishnu are said to be 4,600, Shivites 3,500, Jains 2,000, low 
castes 5,000, and Muhanmiadans, as stated before, 26,000. There 
are altogether 68 temples belonging to the followers of Vishnu, 
24 to Shivites, 37 to the Suktas, and 19 Jain temples, of which 12 
are situated in the city of Jesalmer and 7 in the districts. 

State of Society. — The head of society of the State is of course 
the Maharawal, who possesses an annual income of a little over 
one lakh of rupees. The family deity of the rulers of Jesalmer is 
Swanjiaji, a goddess to whom there are several temples erected 
in the State. Swanj means a spear, and the legend of the 
household deity of the Bhdttis is as follows : — In the time of Sri 
Krishen, the ruler of Maghadeo, the country now known as Behar, 
was named Jura Sandh. He had in his possession a spear which had 
been given to him by the gods. It was such a remarkable weapon 
that it never failed to kill any one against whom it was directed. 
All the JMon clan were much afraid of this spear, so they applied 
to Kalka Devi on the subject. Kalka Devi, taking the form of 
seven women, went to Jtira Sandh, and, by deceit or treachery, 
obtained the spear from him, and gave help to the Jddons ; ever 
since, the JMons have worshipped the goddess Kalka under the 
name of Swanjihiji, or taker of the spear; the name has now 
become corrupted to Swanjiaji. 

The principal thdkurs of Jesalmer are — (1) the Bao of Bikam- 
pur, (2) Rao of Barsalpur, (3) thdkur of Jinjiwali, (4) thdkur of 



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( 177 ) 

Barti, (5) tMkur of Rindur, (6) tMkur of Gyam, (7) thdkur of 
Girajsur, (8) thdkur of Dangii, (9) tMkur of Sirda. Amongst 
the official classes of Jesalmer are Sah Mehtas (Oswdls) and 
Tawari Mehtas (Mahasuris) ; these families are mtisahibs, and hold 
hereditary posts of importance under the Darbdr ; all dewans of 
the State are selected from the latter class. Sah Mehtas generally 
hold posts as accountants. Men of the Purohit, Byas, and 
Acharaj castes are likewise entrusted with important duties. 
Half -a-century since, the thriving class of Pdliwdl Brdhmans 
occupied many large villages in the districts about the capital, 
but they were all compelled to forsake their homes by the exac- 
tions and tyranny of the then minister Z^lim Singh ; bare walls 
and roofless houses are now the only vestiges of these villages. 
The main part of the population led a wandering life, grazing^ 
their flocks and herds. A large portion of the grain consumed is 
imported from Sind ; as a general rule, the population cannot be 
considered prosperous, and women wearing ornaments even of the 
simplest description are rarely seen. 

Occupations. — ^The Megwals (a low caste) of the country make 
luis, or blankets of sheep's wool ; goats* and camels' hair is used 
for small bags and druggets; girths for camel-saddles are made 
of sheep's wool; the stone of the coimtry affords material for 
cups and platters. There are no other manufactures. A great 
number of the inhabitants are graziers, and keep large herds of 
camels, homed cattle, sheep, and goats ; it is said that from 10,000 
to 12,000 goats and 4,000 to 5,000 sheep are annually sold, while 
bullocks in considerable numbers are exported. Camels are chiefly 
bought by people of the country, there being little or no export of 
these animals. The principal trade of Jesalmer is in wool, ghee, 
camels, cattle, and sheep, all of which find a ready market in 
Guzerdt and Sind. Grain, sugar, foreign cloth pieces, and other 
miscellaneous articles form the chief imports; neither local 
manufactures nor local crops suffice for local wants. Some of the 
people wear English cloth, but most of them use country cloth. 
Country cloth is prepared by the Megwals and Muhammadan 
weavers. Men of all professions get eight aimas a day for their 
daily labor, and thdr monthly pay varies from four to eight 
rupees. 

Administration. 

Judicial System. — ^There is one civil court at Jesalmer. 
Criminal cases are disposed of by the dewan at the capital, and in 
the interior by the hdkims of the districts. The Maharawal alone 
has the power of life and death. 

JaiL — ^There is no regular jail at Jesalmer; prisoners are 



x 



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( 178 ) 

confined in the fort, or in such places as the authorities may 
select for them. 

Police. — The Maharawal has a force which may he called one 
of police rather than anything else, consisting of 651 infantry, 
375 of whom are generally on duty at the capital and 276 
in the district ; of the latter, many are mounted on camels, the 
animals ordinarily used for purposes of locomotion in those 
sandy tracts. The cavalry number 155, which are equally 
distributed between the capital and the outlying parganas; 
of these 40 are Sikhs ; the rest of the force, both infantry and 
cavalry, are natives of Rdjptit^a, or of the bordering district of 
Sind. These men are armed chiefly with the ordinary matchlock, 
sword, shield, or spear of the country ; but have no drill or dis- 
cipline ; they are, however, very good as police. 

Education. — ^Education is at a very low ebb in the State. 
Government schools there are none. Jtitis (Jain priests) are the 
chief school-masters, but their teaching is very elementary. 

Communications. 

There are no made roads nor staging-bungalows in Jesalmer, 

but the following are the principal routes : — 

I. — ^From Jesalmer to Jodhpur — 

Basanpur ... ... ... 11 miles. 

Chandan ... ... ... 16 „ 

Lathi ... .., ... 13 „ 

Udhaaia ... ... .i, 12 „ (Marwar) 

On this route carts can travel ; water (though not very good) 

and suppKes plentiful. 

II. — ^i^om Jesalmer to Bikanir — 

Basanpur ... ... ... 11 miles. 

Chandan ... ... ... 16 „ 

Buhadnria ... ... ... 14 ,, 

Loharki ... ... ... 14 „ 

Sehur or Uturgarh ... ... ... 18 „ 

Shekhasur ... ... ... 1% „ 

B^p ... ... ... 12 „ 

Zalim-Singh-ka-Serr... ... ... 12 ,, 

Nokhra ... ... ... 12 ,, 

Carts can travel by this route, and water and supplies are 
procurable. 

From Uturgarh there is also a route vid Phalodi, 16 miles 
to Ndgaur of Marwar. 

III. — ^From Jesalmer to Bhawalpur, Dirawar, Ahmadpur, and 
Khanpur — 

Chaudhri ... 16 miles : sweet water from tanks and wells. 

Nahurzi ... 12 „ water brackish. 

Boli ... 24 ,. ., sweet. 



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( 179 ) 



This route is only fitted for camels. 

After BoK of Jesalmer there comes 
20 miles, 
IV. — ^From Jesalmer to Ahmadpur (2) 

and Aobaord — 

Lanila ... ... 14 miles : water sweet. 



Nohar of Bhawalpur, 
Kot Sabzal, Khairpur 



Saun 
B&mgarh 
Btmao 
Tuneot 



16 
10 

16 



and brackish. 



brackish. 



on 



By this route grain is brought from Sind to Jesalmer 
camels. Carts can travel by this route. 
V* — From Jesalmer to Arori, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Jacobdbdd, and 

Ludkhdna in Sind — 

Chutrail * ... ... 14 miles : wells, water sweet. 



Kuchuri 

KholiwaM 

Gotaru 



14 

10 
40 



,, ,, between last 

stage and this. 
The next stage is Mithrdo in Sind, 48 miles. 

This route is through the sandy desert, and is a very difficult 
one, water being found at stages far apart from each other. 
VI. — ^From Jesalmer to Mirpur and Khangarh — 

The first three stages of this route are the same as those in 
No. V. 

HnkrathSla ... 24 miles : wells, but water brackish. 

HingaM-ka-Th&l& ... 12 „ well, water bad. 

This route is very fit for camels : huge tibds, or sandhills, are 
met with. 
VII. — ^From Jesalmer to Raiopur — 

The two first stages the same as in No. V. 

Sedhamrum ... ... 10 miles : water sweet. 

Molakra ... ... 16 „ „ 

Shdhgarh ... ... 32 „ „ 

Another difficult route only fit for camels : huge sandhills are 
met with. 

Vni.-— From Jesalmer to Umarkot and Haidardbdd (Sind)— 
Satds ... ... 14 miles : water sweet. 

Khori ... ... 14 „ „ 

Bhajlar ... ... 30 „ „ 

Sandhills met with on this stage. 

Gerlah ... ... 10 miles : water bad. 

This route is only a footpath fitted for camels. 
IX. — ^From Jesalmer to Guddra of Sind en route to Kachh Bhtij — 
Kurwan ... ... 20 miles : water sweet. 

Dira ... ... 20 „ „ and brackish. 

Kohira ... ... 14 ,, ,. 



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( 180 ) 

This route is only for camels. 
X. — ^From Jesalmer towards Bdrmer — 

Dhunwa ... ... 11 miles : hard road ; water sweet* 

Devikot ... ... 18 „ water good, 

Kujordi ... ^ ... 14 „ „ 

Carts can travel by this route. 

XI. — ^From Jesalmer towards Balotra and Marwar — 
The first two stages are the same as in Route No. X, 
Ola, 24 miles : water plentiful and sweet ; carts can be used on this stage. 

Towns. 

Frincipal Totms. — ^The capital city of Jesalmer was said by 
Lieutenant Boileau, who saw it in 1835, to consist of about 8,000 
houses, including two or three thousand in the citadel ; but recent 
estimates are much lower. He says — " It has good streets, but 
scarcely anything like a bazar ; the custom-house is near the fort 
gate, and at this spot there is sQme little appearance of traffic, 
as well as in one or two of the contiguous streets ; but there is 
little of the bustle of a large city in any part of it, except, per- 
haps, about the time of lamp-lighting, or again at those times when 
the women of the city stream out by thousands, and fill their 
pitchers morning and evening with the water of a large tank called 
Gurrisir. The citadel, town- wall, and all the principal houses 
being built of the dull-yellow limestone of which the hiU is itself 
composed, have, at a distance, a sombre appearance from the want 
of a variety of colors to relieve the eye ; and, indeed, it is hard to 
say at first view which is the native rock and which are the arti- 
ficial buildings, for the former is flat-topped, and the latter are 
fliat-roof ed ; but, on close examination, it will be seen that an im- 
mense deal of labor has been expended on the architectural deco- 
rations of a large proportion of the better class of houses, the fronts 
of which are ornamented with balconies and lattices of the same 
yellow marble, richly carved, which gives them a finished, though 
rather cumbrous, appearance.'' 

The other principal towns of Jesalmer are — Bikampur, Siran, 
Ndchana, Khori, Kholia, Kaldhura, Satd, Jhinjiwala, Devikot, 
Bdp, Balana, Sutuana, Bdru, Chayim, Loharki, Nawan, Jala, 
Lathu, Dangri, Bujoral, Mandai, Rdmgarh, Barsalpur, Giraj- 
sin, Mohangarh, Kishangarh, Eanot, Shdhgarh, Btibli, 'Bhainsra, 
Kanasur, Eanjitpura, Deora, Bhodli, Mahdjdlar — 34 in number, 
with an estimated aggregate population of 32,620 inhabitants. 

Fairs and Soli/ -places. — Two large fairs are held: one of these 
is celebrated on the last day of the month of Baisakh, or April, at 
Bram Hiinda, about 10 miles from the city of Jesalmer — ^it is 
attended by the followers of Vishnu, Devi, and Shamus; about 5,000 
or 6,000 people visit the place on the occasion — the fair lasts 



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( 181 ) 

for two days : the other fair is held in honor of Goja (a saint) 
at the same place in August or September of each year ; and on 
this occasion, also, about 3,000 or 4,000 people assemble. Other 
fairs of less note are also held, but no trade is carried on at them. 
The two first mentioned are religious fairs, and the others are held 
on occasions of local festivals. 

Antiquities and Remarkable Places. — The capital city Jesal- 
mer was founded in the year 1166 by Rao Jesal; it is situated on 
one of the low ridges of yellow limestone which hereabouts pre- 
sent strata nearly horizontal, dipping gently to westward with a 
tolerably bold profile to the east of 90 or 100 feet high. The city 
is built at the south end of one of these ranges, which is so near- 
ly horizontal that its surface is quarried in every direction, and 
supplies abundant building material for the inhabitants ; on the 
south side of the city, but within its walls, is an insulated hill of 
about three-quarters of a mile in circuit, and with rather preci- 
pitous sides, which has been carefully fortified with more than 
eighty bastions, and forms a very imposing citadel when seen 
from the southward ; but the unf ortimate contiguity of the range 
of hills already mentioned, which are within 600 yards of tJtie 
north face of the fort, and nearly of the same altitude, dimi- 
nishes very much its capability of defence, especially as this hill, 
called SuK Dungri, is 700 yards wide at the top, and allows of guns 
being brought up to the very foot of the town-wall. The ramparts 
are two-and-a- quarter miles in circuit, with thirty-eight bastions, 
theVhole beiag built of uncemented stone, and the bastions beiag 
in general much higher than their intermediate aurtains ; but many 
of them are in ruins. Four gates and three sallyports give access 
to the city ; but there are many other places where access would not 
be diflicult, as even horsemen may ride over the walls by ridiag 
over the hillocks of drift-sand which have nearly obliterated the 
southern as well as a great part of the western face. The town- 
wall was never very strong, being, ia its most perfect state, barely 
four-and-a-half feet thick and fourteen high (includuig a parapet 
six feet high and two feet thick), without either ditch or fav^sse^ 
braie. A large portion of the space inside the walls of Jesalmer 
city is unoccupied, the ruins of houses lying about proving that it 
must have been far more populous in former times. The Maha- 
rawal generally resides in a small palace in the city, and not in 
the fort. Around the city there are numerous monuments 
erected over the ashes of various rich or distinguished inhabitants, 
and also several gardens whose greenness is in pleasant contrast 
to the general arid prospect. The citadel is an irregular, triangle, 
nearly 1,300 yards or three-fourths of a mile in circuit, as already 
mentioned, and may be nearly 130 feet to the summit of the 



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( 182 ) 

ramparts, wliich vary from 15 to 30 feet, and have a narrow 
renee 6 feet broad running all round the fort. There is a single 
entrance, on the north side, defended by four gateways with 
sloping roads between them, so as to give easy access to the 
palace and other buildings within its area, which is quite choked 
up with houses and temples. At a short distance the color of the 
walls gives an appearance of mud, but, on closer inspection, the 
excellent quality of the stone cannot fail to attract attention, not 
only for its durability, but for its fine grain and texture, affording 
a great scope to the skilled architect. This has been thoroughly 
appreciated by the wealthy inhabitants, for in few places is such 
exquisite carving in stone, as that which decorates the houses of 
some of the opulent Oswdl and Paliwdl merchants in Jesalmer, 
to be seen. Huge round boulders lie in close array along the 
battlements, ready for offensive purposes in case of assault. The 
prospect from the ramparts is not fair or attractive. The fore- 
ground presents a succession of sterile, ropk-bound ridges, barely 
clad with a few stunted bushes ; whilst, on the horizon, the low 
undulations seem to mark the commencement of the stiU more 
arid desert and sandhills. The Maharawal's palace surmounts 
the main entrance of the fort, and is an imposing pile crowned 
by a huge umbrella of metal mounted on a stone shaft — ^a solid 
emblem of dignity of which the Bhdtti princes are justly proud ; 
the interior, however, is ill-arranged, and frittered away into 
numberless small apartments. Water is obtained from three good 
wells within its precincts. The palace is 969 feet above the aea ; 
the city itself is about 800 feet. The Jain temples in the fort 
are remarkable for their beautiful stone-carviag ; the oldest was 
bmlt in A.D. 1371. 

Lodorva, a few miles from Jesalmer, was, for a time, the 
capital city of the Bhdttis, but it is now in ruins ; there is, how- 
ever, an ancient Jaia temple stUl standing. 

Tunnoti, founded in A.D, 731 by Rao Tunna, was the first 
seat of power of the Jadu Rdjpiits on their settlement in the desert. 

Thanoli fort is a square with bastions at each comer ; it is 
partly mud and partly brick, and is gradually falling into ruins, 
though still in better preservation than most of the forts, 

Kishangarh is reported to be in good order. 

Loharu fort is of brick, ornamented with encaustic tiles ; it is 
oblong, with an inner court 50 feet high at one end ; it has nume- 
rous bastions, and there are wells within the fort, which is in very 
fair preservation and has several pieces of serviceable artillery. 

Shdhgarh fort is of mud, and nearly overwhelmed with sand. 

Lathi fort is new, and of stone, having been built by the 
thdkur within the last few years. 



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(183 ) 

Bikampur is of mud and soft limestone, and is more a forti- 
fied residence of the Rao than a regular fort. 

The same may be said in a great degree of Barsalpur, 'which is, 
to all appearance, nothing more than a large mud and limestone 
enclosure on the highest portion of the village. 

Rdm'garh fort is of stone, uncemented and in ruins in several 
places. 

The principal forts are those of Kishangarh, Ghotarti, 
Bikampur, and N^hana ; those of Barsalpur, Deva, Lathi, and 
Sh&hgarh are of less note. 



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jhalIwIr: 

COMPILED BY 

Captain H. B. ABBOTT, 
Political supebintekdent. 



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GAZETTEER OF JHAUWAR. 



Geography. 

Boundaries and Area.—ThQ State of Jhaldwdr consists of two 
separate areas : the mam one is boimded on the north by the 
Rdjpiit State of Kotah ; on the south by the petty State of 
Eajgarh, the outlying portion of the Maratha States of Sindia and 
Holkar, a detached area of the Diwar State, and the State of 
Jaora; on the east by Sindia's territory and a detached area 
of the Tonk State ; and on the west by detached districts of 
Sindia and Holkar. This portion of the State lies between 24i 48' 
and 23° 48' north latitude, and 76** 56' and 77' east longitude. 
The lesser detached area is bounded on the north, east, and south 
by the Gwalior State, and on the west by that of Kotah ; and it 
Ues between 25' 5' and 25° 26' north latitude, and 77' 26' and 76' 55' 
east longitude. The area of the State is 2,500 square miles ; and 
it contains a population of 140,102 souls, of which 60,227 are men, 
46,060 women, 17,425 boys, and 16,400 gbls. These figures have 
been taken from a partial rough census roade about 1870. 

Geology. — ^The following extract from a brief memorandum 
on the subject by the Superintendent of the Survey, shows the 
geological formation present : — 

"Two of the main rock series of India are weU exposed, 
^halrapdtan, the capital, stands on Vindhyan strata at the 
northern edge of the great spread of basaltic rocks known as the 
Deccan trap formation ; this northern area of it being also often 
mentioned as the Malwa trap. These Vindhyans belong to the 
upper division in the geological survey classification, of this 
great Indian rock-system. The beds about Jhalrapdtan are 
considered to belong to the Rewd or middle group of them, 
and consist of sandstone and shales with a band of limestone. 
Over the greater part of this Vindhyan area, the strata are 
quite undisturbed, and their habit is to weather into scarped 
plateaux or ridges, having one face steep and the other sloping. 
These are capped by the sandstone, the low ground being 
eroded out of the shales. Close to Jhalrapdtan, however, a 
sharp axis of disturbance passes from the south-east beneath the 
trap to the north-west, throwing the beds up in an anticlinal 

Y 



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( 186 ) 

form, with dips of 70° to the north-east and south-west. Along 
this steep outcrop, the sandstone weathers iato long narrow 
ridges. This feature gradually dies out to the north-east. The 
eruptive rock was poured out over the denuded surface of the 
Viadhyans. It is found filling what were narrow valleys, and 
it spreads over plateaux and ridges, totally concealing the sedimen- 
tary formation. There are many varieties of these basaltic rocks, 
hard, with columnar and ball structure, or amorphous, also vesicu- 
lar and amygdaloidalin every degree; and soft, crumbling, ash-like 
beds, both earthly and vesicular. Connected with the trap, general- 
ly here underlying it, but often interstratified with it, there occur 
patches of sedimentary beds, earthly and calcareous, containing 
fresh-water shells. They are known as the Deccan inter and 
infra trappean beds. They afford very strong evidence that* the 
eruptive rocks were subaerial. Here too, as elsewhere, one often 
finds the trap formation overlaid by rock laterite, a peculiar fer- 
ruginous and vesicular rock, the origin of which has been much 
disputed. The age of the Vindhyan formation is quite unknown, 
beyond that it must be at least as old as paloeozoic. The trap is 
certainly either upper cretaceous or lower tertiary." 

Iron, and red and yellow colored clays used in dyeing cloth, 
are found in the Shahdbdd pargana. 

Configuration. — ^The main area of the State is situated on a 
raised plateau, which lies rather more than 1,000 feet above the sea 
at the north, and gradually rises to 400 or 500 feet more to the 
south. The northern, eastern, and a portion of the southern 
part of this area are very hilly ; these parts are iatersected with 
streams of various sizes, and, for the most part, the hills are 
covered with wood and grass, and at some points surround lakes 
of some extent, formed by damming- up the outlets of natural 
basins. The rest of this area of the State is a rich plaia, un- 
dulatiQg in parts, and dotted over with evergreen trees. The 
detached area of Shahdbad is on the west — an elevated table- 
land with water very far removed from the surface ; the eastern 
portion is some 500 or 600 feet lower. It is crowded with MQs, 
and covered with thick jimgle, giving these parts a very wild 
appearance. 

Jhalawd-r is divided into — 

(1) The central parganas lying below the Mokandara range 

or steppe, making the fall for the Pathar plateau 
into Malwa. 

(2) The Chaumehla — pure Malwa country. 

(3) Shahabad, a wild and woody district of the plateau, 

on the east. 



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( 187 ) 

Nos. 2 and 3 are Zdlim Singh's personal acquisition — No. 2 by 
the cession from Holkar at the treaty of Mundesar. 

Soil. — Taken generally, the soil may be pronounced decid- 
edly rich, consisting in great part of the dark, clayey mould 
which produces valuable crops, like opium. Locally the soils 
are divided into three classes, which are, again, sub-divided 
into good, middling, and poor, according to the crops produced 
on them. The three classes are known as — kdli^ the rich black 
soil; dhdrrmi^ of a lighter color, but equally proKfic ; and IdUpUiy 
a yellowish-red soil, by far the poorest of the three. It is esti- 
mated that about one- quarter of the culturable area consists of 
kdli, half of dhananl, and ©ne-quarter of lal-pill soil. In parts the 
presence of rock and kankar close to the surface interferes with 
the productiveness of the kdli and dhamnl soils. 

Rivers. — Of the many streams running through this territory, 
the following are the most important : — 

The Parwan enters the State at the south-east extremity, and 
windi^ its way for 50 miles up to the point of exit in Kotah 
territory ; half-way, it is joined by the Newaj, another good-sized 
stream. Por 16 miles of its length it forms the border with the 
Kotah State. There are two ferries on this river — one at Mano- 
har thana, the other at Bhachumi. A ferry at Bhurelia crosses 
the Newaj. The KaK Sind, at the south, forms the boundary 
with the districts of Sindia and Holkar, and at the northern 
end of its length is the boundary with Kotah. The bed of this 
river is rocky ; the banks are precipitous, and in parts Kned with 
trees. It flows for a distance of 30 miles through the State, and 
passes at one point within a mile of the Ohhdoni, or head- quarters 
of the Maharaj Edn4. There is a ferry across it, at Bhonrasa. 
The Ahii river, flowing from the south-western corner, traverses 
the State for a length of 60 miles ; and, for the greater portion 
of this, is the border-line with Holkar and Tonk districts in 
the south, and with Kotah in the north. It joins the Kali Sind 
river at the point where that streatn enters Kotah territory. 
Its bed is less rocky; its banks are precipitous, and, in parts 
where the foliage reaches the water's edge, are picturesque. 
Perries at Suket and Bhilwari cross it. The Ohhoti Kali Sindh 
river flows only for a short distance through the south-western 
portion of the State. » There is a ferry at Gangrdr. 

Climate and Rainfall. — The climate resembles that of Central 
India, and is decidedly healthy. The hot weather is less severe 
than that of Northern E^jpiitdna, the thermometer ranging 
during the day in the shade from 85° to 88°. As a rule, during 
this season, the mornings, evenings, and nights are fresh. The 
temperature during the rains is cool and pleasant, and in the cold 



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< 188 ) 

weather there are short seasons of frost« The rainfall is between 
30 and 40 inches^ judging from a record which has been kept at 
Agar. 

Hktoet. 

Sistory. — %S!&m Singh of Kotah (whose pedigree will be found 
elsewhere) was originally the hereditary faujddr, or commander-in- 
•chief , of Kotalu The old chief of Kotah on his death-bed nominated 
Zdlim Singh regent during his son's (Om6d Singh's) minority ; 
and thfe extraordinary abihty with which Z^Uim Singh exercised 
his power, induced Om6d Singh, after his minority ended, to 
leaye all authority in -the regent's hands. Raj Eana Zdlim Singh 
tit last became, for all serious political affairs, the acknowledged 
ruler of the State ; and, when the British Qoyemment guaranteed 
by treaty with the cMef the integrity of Kotah in 1817, a sup- 
plementary article was added in 1818 which guaranteed to Z^Uim 
Singh and his heirs the authority and privileges he then possessed. 
This arrangement soon produced troubles — f&st upon the death of 
Om6i Singh, his successor naturally desiring to recoyer authority ; 
ttnd again on the death of Zfilim Singh in 1824. After much dis- 
cussion and some armed contests, the hereditary chief of Kotah 
and the heir of Z^ilim Singh were induced by the British Goyern- 
ment to agree to a compromise, whereby certain districts of the 
Kotah State were separated off and ceded to the heirs of Zdlim 
Singh ; whereby the new State of Jhalrapatan was constituted 
under the hereditary rule of that family. Of the ceded districts, 
that called the Chaumehla comprised four mah^ which were 
ceded by Holkar at the treaty of Mundesar to Kotah upon the desire 
of the British Goyemment, which especially intended them as a 
reward to Zdlim Singh for his zeal and fidelity to British alliance ; 
while the district of Shahdbdd had been long a j^gir in Zdlim 
Singh's family, under grant from Kotah. Jhalrapdtan, the capital, 
had been established by Zdlim Singh; and the name JhaMw^ 
was selected for his new State by the first chief. These arrange- 
mtots were ratified by two treaties in 1838, from which year the 
State dates its creation. 

The districts then seyered from Kotah were considered to repre- 
sent a reyenue of twelye lakhs, or one-third of the income of the 
Kotah State. To this grant was added the obligation that the new 
State should be responsible for one-third of the then Kotah debts. 
By the treaties, the new chief acknowledged British supremacy, 
agreed to supply troops according to his means, and to pay an 
annual tribute of Rs. 80,000. He receiyed the title of Maharaj 
Rana, was granted a salute of 16 guns, and placed on the same 
footing as the other chiefs in Bdjptitdna. When these affairs had 



\9 

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( 189 ) 

been settled, Maharaj Rana Madan Singh, grandson of the great 
Kotah administrator Z^lim Singh, left Kotah attended by a 
following of 10,000 persons, inclusive of jagfrddrs and officials, for 
the Dhanwdrd Chhdoni, a permanent camp situated between the 
city of Jhalrapdtan and the Kotah fort of Gagraun, This spot 
had been fixed on as a dwelling-place by Zdlim Singh some 
years previous, at a time when astrologers had foretold an ulti- 
mate downfall of Kotah, and where, he considered, close imder the 
guns of the Gdgraun fort, he would be safe from the wandering 
bands of Marathas engaged in trying to secure his person for 
the assistance he had rendered to the British; these places 
he also considered a point of vantage whence he could rule, 
and teach industrious habits to the turbulent Bhils of those parts, 
as well as keep in check the marauding bands of that region. This 
Chhdoni thenceforth became the head-quarters of the State, and 
is still the place of residence of the chief, 

Madan Singh died in 1845, and was succeeded by his son Pirthi 
Singh at the early age of fifteen ; a regency council, composed 
of the old officials of the State, being appointed to conduct affairs. 
In 1867-68 this chief rendered good service to Government by 
affording protection to British officers ; in revenge, the mutineers 
from Nimach caused the State to suffer, which led to the Govern- 
ment tribute for that year being remitted. Previous to this, the 
State had become involved in debt to the amount of fifteen or 
sixteen lakhs ; but the most successful manager the State has had, 
Sdh Hindu Mai by name, succeeded in paying off more than half 
this amount in four years. 

Maharaj Bana Pirthi Singh was of a most good-natured and 
happy disposition, which made him very popular with his subjects; 
but his good-nature and easy-going disposition were taken advan- 
tage of by the several kdmd^, who, in turn, had the control of 
the State purse; the result was that the State again became 
heavily involved. To remove these difficulties, ' the plan was 
tried of apportioning some parganas of the State for the pay- 
ment of debts ; the rest of the State being at the same time 
divided off to defray the expenses of the Court, the administra- 
tion, and the Baj services. When this plan failed in its 
object, the late kdmddr Seth Harak Chand, who had recently 
come into favor, advised the enhancement of the. land-revenue 
for a period of five years as the only effectual way of getting 
. rid of the difficulty. The advice was taken, and the land- 
revenue raised by two lakhs of rupees^ an extra imposition which 
was carried out for seven years and is said to have resulted in the 
actual receipt of ten lakhs, the remaining four being found 
unrealizable. This second trial to pay off the debts was scarcely 



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( 190 ) 

more succe^ful then the first, as the State has creditors who claim 
between thirteen and fourteen lakhs. 

There are signs that this enhancement of the land-tax has 

told heavily on the agricultural population in many parts of the 

^ State ; and it is thought that, at the last, the Maharaj Rana was 

awakening up to the realization of the fact, which had been 

somewhat concealed from him. 

In 1873, Maharaj Eana Pirthi Singh adopted a nice boy, by 
name Bakht Singh, from a Jhala family resident in Barwdn, of 
Kathidwdr,. related to him in the ninth degree. It was stipulated 
at the time of adoption that if a male heir were hereafter to be 
bom to the Maharaj Rana, the boy Bakht Singh was to receive a 
jdgir of Es. 20,000 a year, otherwise he would succeed to the 
Jhaldwdr gadi. 

In August 1875, Maharaj Rana Pirthi Singh died after a 
painful illness, much regretted by all. .On the 1st of Jime 
1876, Kanwar Bakht Singh was acknowledged as the suc- 
cessor to the late Maharaj Bana; the young Bani having 
proved to be not pregnant, as at one time it was supposed she 
was. On the 24th June the youthful Bakht Singh, who was in 
his eleventh year, was formally installed, on which he took the 
name of Zdlim Singh, in accordance with family custom, which 
enjoins that only the four names of Zdlim Singh, Madhu Singh, 
Madan Singh, and Pirthi Singh are to be assumed by the rulers 
of this house. The young Maharaj Bana Zalim Singh is study- 
ing at the Mayo College, Ajmer. During his minority the 
administration of the State is conducted by a British officer under 
the title of Superintendent. The organization of the new arrange- 
ment, and arrangements for the liquidation of the State debts, are 
the first objects to which that officer's attention has been directed. 

PoRM OF Government. 

On the formation of the State^ the Maharaj Bana Madan 
Singh took as his type of government the personal rule of his 
grandfather Zalim Singh; the daily routine of this personal manage- 
ment was as follows : — ^The chief arose before day-break, when the 
reports of the troops and kotwal were heard and disposed of; 
written reports from the parganas, and the verbal reports of heads 
of departments and offices, next received attention. Tip to 8 a.m. 
was the time allowed for the disposal of all this business, when 
the Maharaj Bana had his breakfast, during which the principal 
sahiikars assembled before him and read out the news received 
from various quarters through their firms. Breakfast ended, four 
confidential officials were invited to join the chief. Before this 
assembly, the papers from the office of the Political Agent of. 



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( 191 ) 

Hardoti and those from the Accounts office, were produced ; the 
Maharaj Rana passing his orders directly, or consulting the four 
officials alluded to before deciding as he thought fit. The closing 
hour for this office- work was 12 noon. From that time, to between 
4 and 6 p.m., the chief retired into the zandna, where matters of 
domestic import were dealt with. On re-appearing, the Maharaj 
Rana held a general darbar, at which all the officials presented 
themselves to pay their respects ; this over, His Highness proceeded 
to the stables, and, seated there, first the Pauj Bakhshi was called, 
when any enlistments necessary were made before the chief, the 
descriptive rolls of the men bein g written at the time. This ended, 
petitioners were summoned through the head of the Palki Khdna, 
or intelligence department ; the Maharaj Eana either summarily 
disposed of these miscellaneous petitions, or referred them to the 
heads of departments or pargana officials for disposal. This con- 
cluded the day's business. As already stated, on the accession of 
Maharaj Rana Pirthi Singh a council of regency composed of 
five members carried on the government. After this, government 
through a single ministry came in vogue. At times the late 
Maharaj- Rana made attempts to keep up the old personal atten- 
tion to business; but his easy-going inclination, and excessive 
fondness for zanana society, prevented steady application ; and, 
consequently, each succeeding kdmdar, or manager, apj)ears to 
have secured more power into his hands, until the last became ^all 
but virtually the chief of the State* On Maharaj Rana Pirthi 
Singh's death, a council of five sirddrs carried on the administration 
under the orders of the Political Agent of Hardoti and Tonk, till 
the appointment of the Political Superintendent in 1876. 

Account of Ruling Family. — The ruling family belongs to the 
Jhala clan of Rajpiits, long settled in Kathidwdr. About A.D. 
1709, one Bhan Singh, a second son of the head of the clan, left 
his country with his son and a small company in order to try his 
fortune at Delhi. At Kotah, Bhan Singh left his son Madhu Singh 
with the Maharaja Bhim Singh who then ruled the Kotah State, 
and went on himself to Delhi, where all trace of him ends. His 
son Madhu Singh won for himself the good graces of the Kotah 
chief, who married his eldest son to Madhu Singh's sister, granted 
him a jdglr of Rs. 12,000, and gave him the post of faujddr, a 
position which implied the control of the army, ^the forts, and 
the palaces. His connection with the chief gained him the familiar 
title of "Mamd," which continued for some time in the family. 
Madhu Singh was succeeded in the office of faujddr by his son 
Madan Singh. Madan Singh had two sons, Himmat Singh and 
Pirthi Singh, the former of whom is said to have been famous for 
personal strength and prowess. Pirthi Singh had two sons, Sheo 



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( 192 ) 

Singh and Z^lim Singh ; the latter of whom, being adopted by his 
uncle Himmat Singh, and surviying his father, succe^ed to his 
^ndfather's position in the Kotah State at the age of eighteen* 
Three years later, ZAlim Singh was the means of securing a victory 
for the Kotah troops against those of the Eaja of Amber ( Jaipur) * 
ZAlim Singh afterwards fell into disfavor with the Maharao, 
owing to his rivalry in the case of a favorite woman whom the Ma- 
harao wished to place in his zanAna. Leaving Kotah, Z41im Singh 
did good service at Udaipur. Returning to Kotah when Maharao 
Gumdn Singh was on his death-bed, the chief sent for him and 
committed his son Om6d Singh and the country into his charge^ 
The rest of Z^Uiim Singh's career is a matter of Kotah history^ 
Madhu Singh, his son, succeeded to his position in Kotah, and his 
son Madan Singh became the first chief of the Jhal&w&c State, as 
already related. The late chief Pirthi Singh has left two widowed 
Ranis : the senior one, married many years ago, is of the BhattiAni 
tribe of RAjpiits, and came from Chaumtin of Jaipur; the second, 
the chief married only a short time before his death ; she is of 
the Solankhi tribe of Rd^jpiits, and the younger daughter of the 
Lonwdrd chief in Rewa Kanta. The late MaJiaraj Rana has left 
no legitimate issue. 

The only relatives of the family present in Jhalrapdtan are 
Bhai Gopdl Singh and Chhatar ^al, descendants of Madhu Singh; 
their immediate descent being through brothers of Madan Singh, 
froin whom the chiefs family are directly descended. A gienealo- 
gical tree of the ruling family is given on the next page. 



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MohunSingli 
(Jhamar, Kathi^w^ 



I 



I 



Bhow^ni Smtai 
Singh. Singh 



Fntteh 
Singh. 



Kali^i 
Bingl 



I 



Ladgar Singh* 
Bakht Singh, I 
Bh6j Biy. I 



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( 194 ) 

The Land. 
Principal crops. — The following are the principal crops 1— ■ 



M&U. 


Urfd. 


Opium. 


Jowir. 


Indian-corn* 


Tfl. 


Wheat. 


Miing. 


Sugarcane 


Gram. 







The staple of the foUr Southern parganas^ the Chattmehla, id 
opium, which finds its way to Bombay vid Indore. In other parts, 
wheat and opium are chiefly cultivated, with the exception of 
the Shahdbdd pargana where bdjrd is more grown* The autumn 
crops are mdkd, jowdr, urid, mting, til, bdjrd, s^, sugarcane, 
kdngni, tobacco, cotton, and a few others. The spring harvest 
brings wheat, barley, gram, opium, and mastir* 

Oost of Production. — On the supposition that the cultivator 
gives his own, labor, i.e., deducting the cost of wages, it is calcu- 
lated that a raj bigha of opium costs about Rs. 12 to produce ; if 
labor be hired, the cost is calculated at Bs. 20. M.&kk is calculated 
to cost Rs. 2-3 per raj bigha, jowdr Rs. 1*10-6, and wheat 
Rs. 2-12 : the last three are calculated on the supposition that labor 
is partly hired. Mdkd being mostly grown on opium ground, the 
manure given to the former suffices for the latter. The manure 
given to wheat and jowAr is supposed to be enough to last for 
four or five years in the black soil* 

Agriculture. -^^'Slou^can^ior the autumn crops first commences 
at the end of May, when the soil is once turned, and is thus in a 
state to derive benefit from the thunder-showers which generally 
precede the regular rains. After the first burst of the rains, the 
soil is again turned, and sowing begins. Land lying fallow 
during this season for the purpose of receiving spring-crops is 
ploughed three or four times, and gets thoroughly saturated with 
moisture ; it is then in a fit state to grow wheat without the help 
of irrigation. Opium receives eight or nine waterings, at first daily, 
and then at intervals of three and four days. The outturn of this 
crop is greatly dependent on manure, which is composed of either 
cow or goat dung. Some forty or fifty of the small country-cart 
loads are required for an acre. The pod of the poppy is cut three 
different times for the juice ; but in the Chaumehla it is cut four 
times. The average yield in an acre is 12 seers ; in the Chau- 
mehla, however, it amounts to 24 seers. Rich irrigated land has 
in the autumn either mdkd or jowdr sown on it, which in the 
spring is followed by opium. 

Irrigation. — Irrigation is chiefly from weUs ; water is generally 
near the surface (with the exception of the Shahdbdd pargana) ; 
but the amount of land irrigated by a well is small, owing to 

z 



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( 195 ) 

the absence of fertfle springs, and to the wells not being deeply 
dug on account of hard rocky strata, or layers of moist unstable 
clay being m6t with close to the surface. Around and near head- 
quarters a fair amount of irrigation is carried on from bunds, such 
as the large taldo below Jhalrapdtan city, whence a masonry 
channel two miles long, constructed by Z^m Singh, conducts the 
stored water to the lands of a village on the other side of the city. 
In the districts there are several bunds, but want of attention to 
them for some time has rendered them almost useless. 

Cultivated Area. — It is stated that barely two-fifths of the total 
area of the State are cultivated. Of the uncultivated portion, more 
than one-third is culturable ; the remainder consists of hills and un- 
culturable waste. The cultivated area is calculated at 10,88,488 raj 
bighas, or 507,418 acres, of which 7,16,631 raj bighas, or 331,440 
acres, are khdlsa or uiialienated, and of this khdlsa land, 3,969 
raj bighas, or 1,846 acres, are directly tilled and managed through 
State servants : of the aUenated portion, 1,08,724 raj bighas, or 
50,683 acres, are in jdgir ; 59,279 bighas, or 26,702 acres, are in 
" tJdak,'* or religious grant ; and 45,800 bighas, or 21,350 acres, are 
awarded in lieu of pay to officials. 

System of Tenures and Land Seventies. — *The ancient revenue 
system in force inHardoti was the Idthd and batdi^ or rent inkind by 
weight and measure in proportion to the value of the soil and of 
the product. Two-fifths to one-half of the outturn, according to 
the crop, went to the State ; the remainder, after payment of the 
village expenses, being the right of the cultivator. The system 
had its advantages : it possessed an elasticity which adapted it to 
the people and their hand-to-mouth existence. But it had its 
disadvantages, by affording opportunity for oppression on the part 
of the collector, and fraud on that of the tenant. The office-du^ 
and lands of the patel were hereditary ; so was the right of the 
cultivator in the soil. The land was, as it is to this day in Btindi 
(also a part of Hardoti), bdpoti. The cultivator could sell or 
mortgage it, and, even if made over to another in consequence of 
his inability to cultivate it, he was entitled by custom to certain 
dues on it, and to re-occupy it whenever he was in a position to 
till it. In the P^rtan pargana of Btindi, only separated from 
Kotah by the Chambal, a villager told Captain Muir that his father 
had claimed and obtained his bdpoti, oir patrimony, which had for 
two generations been thus in the hands of another. In 1807, Baj 
Bana Zdlim Singh, the administrator of the Kotah State, superseded 
the system in force by a fixed money rent. Enquiries were 
instituted as' to the modes and rates of collection existing in, 

• The following description of the revenue flystem is taken from a memorandum drawn up 
by Captain W. J. W. Muir in 1875. 



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( 196 ) 

and the nature, extent, and fertiKty of, the soil of each vil- 
lage. The whole territory was measured. Pasture and moun- 
tain tracts were demarcated, and the land was then classified after a 
manner. A money rate per bigha was fixed for each class of soil, 
payable whether the land was cultivated or not ; this rate being 
somewhat higher than the value which the rent paid in kind had 
represented. No one uniform scale of assessment was, however, 
adopted for the entire State, the rents varying (though slightly) 
with almost every village. The district and village expenses were 
also estimated, and a fixed scale per bfgha was laid down, which 
was to include every charge and to be collected with the revenue. 
The object of this was to put a limit on exaction, and prevent 
all subordinate oppression. At the same time, the ancient 
Kotah jaribj or standard measure, was reduced to 56 gaZy and 
the gaz to nine fists of different men. The latter, as placed in 
stone by Zdlim Singh in the kach^ri at Jhalrapdtan, measures 
2 feet 6f inches. The Kotah jariby or chain, therefore, equals 143|t 
feet, and the Kotah bigha 2,288 square yards 36 square inches. 
The settlement was aadmiwdry with the cultivator individually. 
The offices and duties performed by the patel were swept away, 
and the cultivator was brought into direct relation with the Raj. 
The dues of the patel were fixed at 1| annas per bfgha on the 
lands constituting his pateli, and his personal lands were assessed 
at a lighter rate than those of the cultivator, or granted rent- 
free. The first blow struck at the hereditary principle was through 
the patels, who were superseded where others were ready to offer a 
higher nazardna for the office. The assessment introduced was 
rigorously exacted, and the slightest defalcation was followed by 
distress, confiscation, and sale. Advances were made from the 
treasury, in money or in kind, to all who were willing to take up 
lands ; but they bore a high rate of interest, and the obligations thus 
created left the peasantry at the mercy of the fisc. A very large 
area of waste-land was thus brought under cultivation, and the Raj 
Rana thus introduced the system of direct farming, which he subse- 
quently carried to suchan astonishing extent that "the fields* which 
had descended from father to son — through the lapse of ages the 
unalienable right of the peasant — ^were seized in spite of law, custom, 
or tradition, and it is even affirmed that he sought pretexts to obtain 
such lands as, from their contiguity or fertility, he coveted. These 
lands were taken up and farmed by him directly ; the once indepen- 
dent proprietor sinking to the position of a hired serf, or an outsider 
being entertained. At this period, when the remainder of the coun- 
try was wasted by predatory armies and bands of marauders, Kotah 
' ' ' »■— — ^1 I I 11 ■ I J . II ■ I 

* Tod's Sqfaathan, vol. II, page 538. 

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( 197 ) 

was, owing to the sagacity and energy of the Raj Bana, prosperous 
and at peace.* The inhabitants of surrounding Statea flocked to it, 
and, with the superabundant population thus placed at his command, 
the Raj Rana brought the whole State to a pitch of the highest 
cultivation. Not a nook or patch capable of producing grain was 
allowed to be fallow. Any land untilled was appropriated by him, 
and the establishments he maintained for the purpose rose to 4,000 
ploughs and 16,000 oxen. Such was the prosperity of the country, 
that an eye-witness states it was difficult to find a pathway through 
the corn-fields which covered the face of Hardoti. Por years it 
was the granary from which not only Rdjpiitdna and much of 
Malwa — both desolated by war and famine — ^but the roving hordes 
who lived on them, drew their supplies. With the return of peace 
and the death of the Raj Rana in 1824, this artificial prosperity 
came to an end, and the reaction was hastened by the disorders 
arising from the conflict for power which raged between the 
successors of the Raj Rana, the regents of the State, and the titular 
rulers. In 1838, on the departure from Kotah of Raj Rana Zalim 
Singh's grandson, Madan Singh, for the separate State assigned him, 
all the personal farms (which had been kept by the regents 
under their own personal control) fell to the State. These — still 
locally known as the *^ hall ki dhartf, " and including the richest 
lands — ^were scrambled for by the protigis and adherents of the 
favorites of the chief who then succeeded to power, and were 
secured by them at a low assessment. Financial embarrassments, 
the consequence of mal-administration, led to an enhancement 
of the land-revenue ; and in 1840, and again in 1860, the rents 
were raised all round by the addition of a certain sum per bigha. 
Similarly, in 1866, a further charge of 10 per cent, on all preceding 
rates Was attached by the present chief. During this interval 
the Raj had also appropriated several of the dues originally fixed 
to meet village expenses, the payment of which was thrown on the 
cultivator. 

Such is a brief sketch of the revenue history of the State. It 
is unfortunate that the papers connected with Raj Rana Zdlim 
Singh's settlement are not forthcoming, as they are known to have 
been in great detail. A search instituted at Captain Muir's request 
in 1870 failed to discover any trace of them at Kotah, and supported 
the statement of the officiak there, that they had been carried off, 
with other important public records, by Raj Rana Madan Singh. 
Jhaldwar, when applied to, alleged that, if taken there, they must 
have been burnt with the State records in the Mutiny. 

While, thus, the system established by Zdlim Singh still exists 

• See Malcolm's Central India, vol. I, 603 ; II, 62. 



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( 198 ) 

and forms the basis on which the revenue is collected, many of the 
actual details have been modified and superseded. As already- 
shown, a large element of irregular tenure was introduced on the 
partition of the haK lands. In the years of mal-administration 
which followed, other lands have been obtained by bribery and 
collusion with the officials, or have been absorbed and incor- 
porated by those who have no right to them. Similar remarks 
apply to the rent-free holdings, many of which are, moreover, 
beUev^ed to be held by parties who have no claim to them. Matters 
have been further complicated by different standard measures 
having been adopted in the grants which have been made since 
Eaj Eana Zalim Singh's time. The raj blgha then fixed has 
been ignored, and the local and larger bigha, varying with each par- 
gana, inserted. Nor does a greater certainty exist in regard to the 
lands on which (what may be called) a full assessment is paid. No 
enquiry having been instituted since the settlement of 1807, 
allowance has not been made for the increased productiveness or 
deterioration of the soil, nor have the holdings been tested. 

The total land-revenue is represented as Rs. 17,47,197, of 
Land-revenue. which sum Bs. 13,21,943 rcach the 

treasury, the balance being the income of 
the ahenated lands, the principal of which, the j^girs, absorb 
Rs. 1,52,802, the religious grants Rs. 80,625, and the payment of 
officials Rs. 43,983. Rent-free grants amount to Rs. 53,487, and 
grants for village service are estimated at Rs. 59,958. The man- 
agement of the land-revenue department of this State has been 
so neglected for years past that it is not possible to place absolute 
reliance on the above figures. The land-revenue is reahzed 
through the medium of a person known as the manotiddr, who, in 
addition to being the cidtivator's banker, is further a security 
(hence his name) on his account to the State for the payment of 
the instalments of revenue. These manotlddrs effect payment by 
granting hiindls at one and two months' sight on the leading 
bankers resident in Jhalrapatan city and the Chhdoni ; the officials 
then realize the money from the bankers. In return, the State is 
considered bound to do its best in obtaining for the manotiddr the 
produce of the cultivators for whom he is security. There are 
some cultivators reduced to such a desperate state of poverty 
that manotldars cannot be obtained for them ; such persons have 
the produce of their crops taken and sold by the tahsildar, who^ 
after deducting the amount to be granted in advance for food and 
seed, credits the remainder to the revenue. The mode of assess- 
ment, as a rule, is.asamiwar, or by holdings. A rough measure- 
ment is made during which note is taken of the crops then present; 
to these several crop areas Old-established revenue rates are ap.. 



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( 199 ) 

plied, and tlie assessment is considered complete. The confusion 
which has prevailed for some time in the revenue department, as 
already mentioned, renders it impossible to give these revenue rates 
as now existing, without lengthened inquiry, for which there has 
been no time. It appears they differ in almost every sub-division 
of a pargana. 

The theory that the State is the lord of the soil is here very 
Land-tenure. practically obscrvcd, so much so that, when 

enhancing the revenue of the khalsa lands, 
a similar percentage of demand was levied on the jdglrddrs under 
the revenue of enhancement. The village proprietor, or biswdddr, 
does not appear to exist, except perhaps, to some extent, in the 
Chaumehla. The cultivators are generally occupancy-tenants 
nominally, but the caprice of various managers seems to have 
made them in reality tenants at the will of the ofl5cials. The 
jdgirddrs furnish horses and men for the police service of the State, 
and present themselves at head-quarters to pay their respects to 
the Maharaj Eana on the occurrence of festivals. The religious and 
rent-free grants are held on the same conditions as elsewhere. The 
patels, or village headmen, have rent-free holdings in lieu of being 
held answerable for the collections of revenue ; but the introduction 
of manotiddrs has relieved them of much responsibility. Village 
servants such as the Sansri and Bdlai hold land in lieu of service. 
The lands held in lieu of pay are, unless confiscated for mis- 
behaviour, life-holdings. 

Cultivating Classes, — ^In the Chaumehla district the cultiva- 
tors are mostiy Sondias — a class of Rdjptit origin, but in their 
manners and customs now far removed from them. In the south- 
east, the Mehwdtl, Bhil, and Gujar are the chief cultivators. In 
the Shahabdd district Kardrs cultivate. The cultivators in the 
rest of the State are Jhala Rdjpiits ; around Jhalrapdtan itself, 
Kiilmis, Dhakars, Jdts, Minas, Mdlis, and Gujars. 

Population. 

Population. — ^The statistics under this head are not to be 
altogether trusted. By far the greater portion are Hindus ; the 
Jains are very few, but have some influence. There are a fair 
number of Musalmdns, a good portion of them being TurMa 
Bohras, of the Shfah persuasion from Gujardt. 

Castes, Clans t and Tribes. — Of the Rdjpdt, the greater ntimber 
are Jhalas ; the Hadiis, Eahtor and Ghandrawat, are next in num- 
ber ; then follow in equally small numbers the Rajawat, the 
Solankhi, the Sesodia, the Stikhtawdt, and the Khinchi. The 
Brdhmansi Jains, and Musalmdns have ahready been mentioned ; 



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( 200 ) 



the mahajan or banya is well represented : there are K!ayaths, 
The town population contain the following working castes :— 



Khati 

Kiimhar 

Rangrez 

Kalaig4r 

Liihdr 

Teli 

Chhipi 

Bisdti 



Carpenter. 

Potter* 

Dyer. 

Tinker. ^ 

Blacksmith. 

Oilman. 

Cloth-printer. 

Pedlar. 



Darzi 


... Tailor. 


Tamboli 


... BetelJeaf seller. 


Mochi 


••• Shoemaker. 


Chamar. 




Sun£r 


... Goldsmith. 


Dhobi 


••• Washerman. 


Patwd 


... Braider. 


Julahd 


••• Weaver. 



and a RajpAt class of stone-laboxirers called Or. The wandering 
classes are the Santhias, Kanjars, and NItts. There is also a 
migratory class of Ltihars from Marwar, who, it is said, on account 
of scarcity of food in that State, pass yearly through this State 
en route to Indore, and, on their return journey, spend two or 
three months here in the execution of petty contracts : they take 
as many as two or three hundred carts of implements with them. 
The description given by General Malcolm in his Central India 
of the Sondias or Sondis, has been found 
by local enquiry to be substantially cor- 
rect. A rough census lately taken shows their numbers in the 
Ohaumehla district of the State to be 19,860 — all cultivators. In 
other parts of the State a Sondia is rarely found. Their chief 
clans are Ea,htor, Tawur, Jddon, Sesodia, Gehlot, Chohdn, and 
Solankhi. The Chohans are said to have come from Gwalior and 
Ajmer, the Rahtors from Nagore of Marwar, and the Sesodias and 
others from Mewar from seven to nine centuries ago. The Ohau- 
mehla Sondias consider themselves as descended from Rajputs of 
the different clans, and assert that the families they are descended 
from are now in several instances holders of influential jdgirs in 
the States from which they emigrated. One account makes out 
that the people derived their name from the country which, beiag 
bounded by two rivers of the name of Sind, was called Sindwdrd, 
corrupted into SondwdrA, which caused the inhabitants to be 
called Sondias. The other account makes the people give the 
name to the country, their name being a corruption of the Hindi 
word Sandhia—- twilight, not mixed (neither one thing nor the 
other). A Sondia, with his comparatively fair complexion, round 
face, shaven chin, and peculiar large, white turban, is at once distin- 
guishable from other classes. Though given to quarrelling among 
themselves, more particularly over land, they can combine, as 
was recently seen when a deputation from a pargana, consisting of 
over one hundred persons, retired in sulks, owing to one of their 
number having had his turban knocked off by a sepoy, which was 
considered as an indignity to the whole body, and resented as such.^ 



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( 201 ) 

They ar^ simple and very ignorant, and still given to taking what 
belongs to others, which now chiefly shows itself in cattle-Ufting. 
They have taken to agriculture, and some of the Chaumehla 
patels are well-to-do, but, as a class, they do not appear thrifty, 
and their village expenses are very high. A few villages are held 
in jdgfr, the remains, it is said, of considerable possessions granted 
originally by the Muhammadan emperors as an inducement 
to settle. The following is the a<5count given by Malcolm in 
his Central India referred to above, of the Sondias in his 
time : — 

** They are often called Rdjptits, but are mixture of all classesi 
or rather descendants of a mixed race. In their origin they were 
probably outcasts ; and their fabulous history (for they consider 
themselves as a distinct people) traces them from a prince who, in 
consequence of being bom with the face of a tiger, was expelled 
to the forests, where he seized upon women of all tribes, and 
became the progenitor of the Sondias, or, as the term implies, 
* mixed race, ' some of whose leaders soon after settled in Malwa, 
where they have ever since maintained themselves as petty 
zamindars, or landholders, as well as plunderers. 

" That the Sondias have a claim to antiquity, there can be no 
doubt ; but we have no record of their ever having been more 
than petty robbers, till the accident of their lands being divided 
among four or five local authorities, always at variance and often 
at war with each other, combined with the anarchy of Central 
India during the last thirty years, raised them into importance as 
successful freebooters. Though often opposed to the Grassias, 
who are settled in the same tract, a congeniality of pursuit has led 
to their being much associated with the latter, and particularly since 
the insanity of Jeswant Rao Holkar. Erom that date, neither life 
nor property was secure within the range of the lawless bands of 
Sondw^d, most of whom, from breeding their own horses, were 
well-mounted. At the peace of Mundesar, the Sondias were 
estimated in number at 1,249 horse and 9,250 foot, all subsisting 
by plunder, for the possessions they claimed as their own were 
in a state of complete desolation. " — (Vol. I.) 

" The principal among the illegitimate, or, as they are often 
termed, half-caste, Ildjpiits in Central India, are the Stidfs, 
who have spread from Sondwdra (a country to which they give 
the name) to many adjoining districts. A short history of them 
has been given. They are Hindus, and take pride in tracing their 
descent from Rd^jpiit heroes ; but their habits have led them, on 
many points, to depart from the customs of their fathers, and, 
except refraining from the flesh of buffaloes and cows, they 
little observe the peculiar usages of the Hindus. This tribe 



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i 202 ) 

is divided mto many classes or families, which take their name»- 
from Rajpiit ancestors; but all intermarry. Second marriages 
among their women are verjp^ common; and, from the strict usages 
of the Rdjplits upon this point, there is none on which they 
deem the Sondias to have so degraded the race from which they 
are descended, 

" The Sondias have been either cultivators or plunderers^ accord- 
. ing to the strength or weakness of the government over them ;. 
but they have always had 3 tendency to predatory war, and have 
cherished its habits, even when obliged to subsist by agriculture* 
Their dress is nearly the same as that of the other inhabitants, 
though they imitate in some degree the R^jptits in the shape^ 
of their turbans. They are, in general, robust and active, but rude 
and ignorant to a degree. No race can be more despised and 
dreaded than the Sondias are by the oth^ inhabitants of the coun- 
try. They all drink strong liquors, and use opium to an excess ; 
and emancipated, by their base birth and their being considered 
as outcasts, from the restraints which are imperative upon other 
branches of Hindu society, they give free scope to the full grati- 
fication of every sensual appetite ; consequently, vices are habi- 
tual to this class which are looked upon by almost every other 
with horror and disgust. There is little union among the Son- 
dias ; and acts of violence and murder amongst themselves are 
events of common occurrence, even in what they deem peaceable 
times. Their usual quarrels are about land, and each party ia 
prompt to appeal to arms for a decision. This race has not been 
known to be so quiet for a century, as at present. When the Pin- 
ddri war was over, their excesses gave the British Gbvemmerit 
an opportunity of seizing their strongholds and compelling them 
to sell their horses, which has in a great degree deprived them of 
the ability to plunder; but still the presence of troops is essential 
to repress their turbulent disposition ; and a long period of peace 
can alone give hopes of reforming a community of so restless and 
depraved a character. The women of this tribe have caught the 
manners of their fathers and husbands, and are not only bold, but 
immoral. The lower ranks are never veiled, appear abroad at 
visits and ceremonies, and many of them are skilled iji the man- 
agement of the horse, while some have acquired fame in the 
defence of their villages, or, in the field, by their courageous use 
of the sword and spear. 

" At their marriages and feasts the Sondias are aided by Brdh- 
mans, but that caste has little intercourse with them, except when 
wanted for the offices of religion. Among this rude race 
Ohar^ms are treated with more courtesy ; but the Bhdts, who relate 
the fabulous tales of their descent, and the musicians, who sing 

Al 



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( 203 ) 

their own deeds or those of their fathers, are the favorites on 
whom they bestow the highest largesses." — (Vol. !!•) 

Meligion. — Hinduism of the Vishnu form of worship is the 
religion of the greater number. The Jains have some fine large 
temples in Jhalrapdtan city. There are a f ew DMu Panthis, 
Giris, Puns, and Nathis ; also a very few of the sect called Kunda 
Panthi, who eat in common out of a vessel called a kunda, by 
way of symbolizing their indifference to caste rules. This sect 
has lately established itself here, and seems anxious to avoid notice, 
the members being seldom seen together, and forming, in reality, 
a secret society of religious free-thinkers. The Ktil Devi of the 
Jhala or ruling family is the goddess Biswanti. 

State of Society. — ^The stete of society is backward, educa- 
tion having made but little advance. With possibly the excep- 
tion of the Chaumehla and one or two districts, the condition of the 
agricultural classes, which is poor, owing, it is said, to too heavy 
an enhahcement and the fall in the price of opium combined, has 
reacted on the banya class, several of whom, as manotlddrs, have 
found themselves out of pocket by standing security for the 
payment of the revenue. The city of Jhalrapdtan does not wear 
the appearance of a thriving town ; the houses of the principal 
banking firms, which are branches of the prosperous houses whose 
head-quarters are at Mathura, Ajmer, and Indore, must form an 
exception, for they have enjoyed unusual opportunities of gain, 
and some of them haverprofited by privileges granted many years 
ago. Sandstone, easily got at, and very workable, being plentiful, 
houses are principally made of that material ; the poor make 
dry-stone walls of it, covered by a roof of either roughly- 
made tiles or thin stone slabs of the same sort supported on 
either wooden or stone rafters — those better off add mud or 
plaster. 

Ocotipation. — Of the Rdjpiits, the only class at all extensively 
employed on agriculture is the Jhala \ the rest of the clan of that 
name refuses, however, to intermix with these cultivators. The 
Brdhmans are employed either on religious or menial services. 
The banking classes are composed of about three-quarters Jain and 
one-quarter Vishnu. The Bohras carry on retail business in various 
wares, chiefly tin and iron. The Kayaths, as elsewhere, are clerks. 
The banking interest has for some time been largely represented 
among the State officials. 

Education. — ^Education is in its infancy. In the districts, the 
gaon giirii, or village priest, teaches the young people, chiefly the 
sons of banyas and Brdhmans, their mode of keeping accounts, 
and the rudiments of reading and writing the guttural local 
Hindi. In Patau city, and in the Ohhdoni, there are town schools 



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( 204 ) 

at which Hindi, Urdu, and EngKsh are understood to be taught ; 
the teachers, however, are not very capable, and doubtless have 
not had much encouragement ; the result is that very few boys 
leave the schools with any appreciable degree of education. 

Administbation. 

Administrative Sub-divisions. — ^Twenty-two parganas (as fol- 
lows) constitute the administrative sub-divisions : — 



Sub-divisions. Filiates. 

Chechat ... ... 44 

Suket ... ... 54 

Kherabdd 22 

Ziilmi ... ... 10 

iJrmal-JTiabapfitan ... 128 

Bukarl 73 

Richhwd ... ... 133 

Asndwar ... ... 26 

Ratlai ... ... 42 

Kotra Bhatta ... ... 45 

Sarera ... ... 37 



Deldnpur 

Aklera 

Charelia 

Mandhar Thana 

Jawar 

Chhipa Burod. 

ShaMbdd 

PachpaMr 

Awar, 

Dag 

Gangrar 



Filiates. 

149 

32 

19 
131 

47 
163 
259 

77 

40 

86 
123 



As will be seen, these sub-divisions are very unequal, and 
require revision. Por the custom tariff, the four parganas of 
Pachpahdr, Awar, Dag, and Grangrar — locally known as the 
Chaumehla — are distinct from the rest of the State, as is of 
necessity the detached and differently placed pargana of Shahdbdd. 
Judicial Si/stem. — ^In the time of personal rule, the pargana 
officials had certain criminal, civil, and revenue powers ; petitions 
against their decisions, or heavy cases, were brought before the 
Maharaj Rana through the head of the Palki Khana, the chief, as 
before stated, either settling them himself, or referring them to the 
pargana officials. At that time no fees were taken : matters of debt 
were mostly settled by mutual ^reement ; agricultural implements 
were never sold. In 1850, criminal and civil courts were established 
at the capital ; for two years they existed but in name, for the real 
powers lay with the Palki Khdna, which decided cases verbally. In 
1861 these courts were re-established, but had only the power to 
draw up the records of cases, and submit them to the Maharaj Rana 
f of orders. About 1874 the system now in force was arranged, 
but it is only lately it has had a. fair trial, for, till then, these 
courts had to pay their establishments from the proceeds of fines 
realized, and their action was interfered with by the late kdmdar. 
The system at present is as follows : — ^The tahsil courts have 
in criminal matters powers up to one month^s imprisonment and 
Rs. 40 fine. The tahsildars of the Chaumehla and ShahdbM have 
superior powers, i.e., two months' imprisonment and Rs. 50 fine ; 



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( 205 ) 

In civil cases their powers are tmdefined. Appalls from the deci- 
sions of the tahsildars lie to the criminal and civil courts at head- 
quarters, half a month being the time allowed for appeal ; the 
powers of the former are one year's imprisonment and Rs. 100 fine. 
The powers of the civil court extend up to Rs. 1,000. Appeals from 
the decisions of the two courts above-mentioned lie to a punchayet, 
or appellate court consisting of three members whose powers in cri- 
minal cases extend to three years' imprisonment and Rs. 300 fine ; 
in civil suits their powers are limited to Rs. 7,000 ; two months re- 
present the time allowed for appeals to this court. In criminal mat- 
ters the courts were directed to be guided by the Penal Code temper- 
ed by local custom. In civil cases, fees are taken at 12^ per cent, 
nominally ; but the practice has been to make that the outside 
limit, and to take fees in accordance with the wealtji of the person. 
TKll lately, proceedings stopped with the granting of -a decree, exe- 
cution of it being seldom heard of. Oases beyond the powers of 
the appellate court, as well as appeals from it, are heard by the 
head of the State, who also disposes of revenue matters beyond the 
powers of the tahsildars, which are undefined. 

Police. — ^The police organization is complicated. In regard 
to enlistments, discharge, pay, and somewhat also in regard to 
discipline, the district police are \mder a central office called the 
fiibundi. The force, which numbers about 100 horse and 2,000 
foot, is distributed over the country : some are tinder the orders of 
the tahsildars for purely tahsil work ; others perform police duties 
under the same official, who has under him an officer called a 
p&hkdr, quite tmconnected with real tahsil work. The other 
portion of the force is under three officials called girdi officers, 
who are expected to be going the roimds of their several 
districts on the look-out for highway robbers and dacoits ; the 
greater part of this portion of the force is told off to outposts. 
It is supplemented by sowdrs ai\d footmen from the regular 
forces, which accompany the girdi (Officials on their tour. Both the 
p^shk^ (through the tahsildars) and the girdi officers submit 
their reports and proceedings to the hcsad of the criminal court ; 
but, till lately, the subordination to the criminal court was 
nominaL The town of Jhalrap^tan and the Chhioni have muni- 
cipal police under kotwdls in subordination to the criminal court. 

Jail. — ^Formerly, all prisoners were confined in the forts at 
Mandhar Thana, Kailw^ra, and Shah4bdd. About the year 1865 
a central jaU was instituted, and in 1871 a Eurasian Superin- 
tendent was appointed to it. This official, having had expe- 
rience in the North- Western Provinces, succeeded in bringing 
the jail into good order. The prisoners are employed on road- 
malong, and in the manufacture of paper, rugs, and cloths. Disci- 



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( 206 ) 

pline and cleanliness are maintained. The number of prisoners 
varies from 100 to 130. ^ 

Communications. — ^The only metalled roads in Ihe State are in 
the Chhdoni, and one from there to Jhabapdtan city, 2^ miles 
in length; there is one in course of construction from the 
Kotah boundary to the Chhdx)ni for a length of 18 miles : this 
Toad wiU meet one being made in Kotah, and thus establish 
good communication between the two places. All other roads 
are cpuntry-cart tracks which, in the rains, are useless for wheeled 
traflGlc, as vehicles are unable to proceed in the saturated black 
soU. The principal routes of these tracks are to the south-east 
towards the high road between Agra and Bombay ; to the south 
towards Agar and Indore ; to the south-west towards Ujain; to the 
west in the direction of Nimach ; and to the north-west towards 
Kotah, which line the new metalled road in that direction is to 
take. Along the south-east and south routes, traffic is carried 
on with Bombay through Indore, opium being exported and 
English cloths imported ; grain from Bhopal is also imported by 
these routes. By the north-west route, grain from Haraoti, and 
a smaU quantity of cloth from Agra, are imported. 

Towns. 

Principal TovynPand Parganas. — ^The chief towns in the State 
are the foUowing : — Jhalrapdtan, the Chhd^ni, Shahdbdd, Kail- 
wdra, Chhipa Burod, Mandhar Thana, Bukari, Suket, Chechat, 
Pachpahar, Dag, and Gangrar. 

The old town of Jhabapdtan lay a little to the south of the 
^; modem site along the banks of the 

Chandarbhdka stream, which is now a few 
furlongs from the centre of the new town. The name is said by 
Tod to mean the city of bells, as the old town, being a place of 
some sanctity, contained 108 temples with bells to correspond. 
It was also known from its position by the name of Chandioti- 
Nagri. This city was destroyed and its temple despoiled in the time 
of Aurangzeb ; all that was left of the ancient place in 1796 was 
the temple of " Sdt SeheK," or Seven Damsels (still standing in 
the new town), and a few Bhfl huts around it. In that year 
Zdlim Singh founded the present city, removing the tahsU from 
tTrmal to Jhalrapdtan, and building a city-waU. To encourage 
inhabitants, he placed a large stone-tablet in the centre of the chief 
bazar, on which was engraved, the promise that whoever settled' 
in the town would be excused the payment of all customs-dues, 
and that, of whatever crime convicted, his pimishment should not 
exceed a fine of Rs. 1-4. These terms quickly attracted traders from 
Kotah and Marwar, especially from the latter place. In 1850, 



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( 207 ) 

during the lif ertime of the late Maharaj Bana, the kdmddr Hindu 
Mai had this gtone-tablet removed and thrown into the large 
tank on which the city stands, from which time the privileges 
enjoyed up to that time were annulled. The talao, or tank, is 
said to have been made by an " Or " Rdjptit named Jesii. Zdlim 
Singh, however, put it into repair, and constructed a masonry 
channel from it for a length of two miles, by means of which the 
lands of the neighbouring village of Gttndhor are irrigated. The 
chief bankers reside at JhalrapAtan. The mint and other Raj 
establishments are there, and the head-quarters of the Jhalrapdtan 
pargana. 

The founding of this town has already been mentioned in the 
The chh&om history of the State : here are situated the 

^' Maharaj Rana's palace, and all the various 

courts, offices, and departments ; it is situated on a rising stretch 
of rocky groimd ; its present great want is a proper water-supply 
for drinking and bathing purposes. The population is considered 
larger than that of Jhalrapatan. 

In 1872-73, Lieutenant Holdich, k.b., commenced a plan 
of the cantonments of Jhalrapdtan on the 12-inch scale ; these 
cantonments, however, were foimd to be little more than a 
collection of mud huts built round the Raja's palace, the real 
old city being about 4 miles to the south, situated to the east 
of a good-sized lake, the palace being built on the large ma- 
sonry dam. A small square fort overlooks the town from the 
sunmiit of a jimgle-covered hill to the north. The city itself 
is also walled and is the real capital of the State, although 
the Raja has taken up his residence at the cantonments. 
At about 2 1 miles to the north of the cantonments is the 
fort of Gdgraun, in the Kotah territory. The name of the 
city was originally P6.tan, but was re-named Jhalrapdtan by 
the first Raja, who was a Jhalra Rdjpiit. It is situated at the 
foot of a low range of hills running from south-east to north- 
west ; the drainage from these hills to the north-west of the town 
is collected into a good-sized lake by a large and very solid ma- 
sonry dam, about two-thirds of a mile long, on which are sundry 
teniples and buildings, as well as the old palace. The town lies 
behmd this dam, the general level of the groimd being the same 
height as the water of the lake in the cold weather. Between the 
city- wall and the foot of the hills are a number of gardens watered 
by a small canal, brought from tlie lake. Except on the lake side, 
the city is protected by a good masonry-wall with circular bastions 
and a ditch capable of being filled with water from the .lake. 
This ditch, however, ceases in the centre of the eastern face. 
Prom the west, and passing by the city on the south at a distance 



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( 208 ) 

of 400 or 500 yards , flows the ChandarhMka rirer, which then bends 
to the north-east, and passing through the hills joins the Kdli 
Sindh, after about 4 miles of open country. Prom the north of the 
town a metalled road is carried over a very low part of the range 
and continues due north to the cantonments. Between this road 
and the Chandarbhdka, on a hill 150 feet above the city, is situated 
the small square fort mentioned above ; it has never been com- 
pleted and is of no importance. The country to the north of this 
small range is flat and fairly well cultivated, and through this is 
the road to the cantonment, locally always called the " Chhd^ni." 
Prom the north city- wall to the Raja's palace in the Chhd^ni the 
distance equals 4 miles 3 furlongs. TMs new palace is enclosed by 
a high, apparently strong masonry- wall, forming an exact square, 
with large circular bastions at each comer and two Semi-circular 
ones in the centre of each face, the length of each face being 735 
feet. The principal entrance is in the centre of the eastern side, and 
the approach to it is along the principal street of the bazar run- 
ning due east and west. A little more than a mile to the south- 
west of this palace is a sheet of water, formed by damming-up 
the drainage on the north side of the range of hills already men- 
tioned in connection with the city ; below this lake, and watered 
by it, are several gardens, and in the centre of one the Eaja is 
building himself a bungalow, surrounded by a canal to. be kept 
full of water from the lake. About a mile and a half to the 
east of the Chha6ni is the Kdli Sindh river, which just here flows 
nearly north and south, and is the boundary between Jhaldwdr 
and Kotah. To the north is the road leading to Gagraun fort, 2^ 
miles distant,^ passing over rocky, undulating ground; it is un- 
metalled, but is passable for carts, although decidedly rough 
and, bad. A quarter of a mile from the fort, the road crosses 
the Ahu river into the Kotah territory, the bed of which is between 
high banks and is about 200 yards across. During the cold season 
the water is not more than 40 or 50 yards wide, quite shallow, 
flowing over pebbles close under the southern bank. The 
remainder of the bed is sandy or shingly. Half a mile to the 
south-east this river joins the Kdli Sindh. 

Gdgraun is situated on a straight rocky ridge running south- 
Q^ ^ east and north-west, and consequently 

^^^' parallel to the low range between 

Jhalrapdtan city and cantonments. The city, such as it is, 
is on a low part of the ridge, the large and important fort 
protecting it on the south-east, whilst a smaller and half -ruined 
fort protects it on the north-west ; the city is also itself surround- 
ed by a masonry-wall connected with these forts, so that from 
outside the whole place appears to be one. No objection is made 



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( 209 ) 

to any one entering the town or northern fort, biit neither native* 
nor European is allowed inside the south-eastern, which com- 
mands the town thoroughly, and is separated from^ it by a deep 
ditch cut in the solid rock and a high strong wall. As already 
mentioned, the Ahu river is about 400 yards distant from the fort,, 
and, flowing parallel to its south-western face, joins the Kdli Sindh 
almost at right-angles ; the two together then pass through a gap 
in the ridge, over rapids, turning the south-east extremity of the 
fort, and form a large and deep pool of water. The course of the 
Kdli Sindh is here abruptly turned to the north-west by a second 
ridge, similar to, but even more rocky and somewhat higher than^ 
that on which G^graun is situated ; it continues its course between 
these two ridges, flowing directly below the north-east face of 
Gdgraun for a. mile and a quarter, when it again abruptly turns 
to the nori}h-east and passes through a gap in the second ridge,^ 
and thence finds its way through the higher ranges beyond. Thus 
the Kdli Sindh and the Ahu flow very nearly parallel to each other 
at a mean distance of about 600 yards, but in contrary directions^ 
Gdgraun being situated between them, but immediately above the 
K^ Sindh. In flood-time the whole space between the two ridges 
is filled with water almost up to the fort walls, on the precipice 
above ; and not many years ago the city itself, which lies low 
between the two forts, was flooded, the Ahu and K^ Sindh joining: 
each other through it, thus isolating the south-east fort. Such 
a body of water not being able to escape fast enough through the 
small gap in the second ridge, a portion of it makes its way up 
the valley to the south-east, and escapes through another gap 
and flows up the next, a much larger valley, and rejoins the main 
river at the foot of the large hills beyond. 

In former years, Gdgraun appears to have been a small t&wit 
with anunrgaportant fort crowning the top of the ridge; Zdlim 
Singh, however^ seems to have thought it a good military posi- 
tion, and built the present fort completely surrounding the old 
one, which now forms a sort of citadel on the top. The south- 
western face of the ridge was completely built up with solid ma- 
sonry from the level of the ground to nearly the foot of the old 
walls ; at the south-east extremity the waU runs along the top 
of the rocks, with the exception of one huge outlying solid bas- 
tion nearly circular, which rises from the river-bed ; the north- 
east face of the ridge being naturally very precipitous, the wall 
is carried along the top ; the north-west end, which overlooks the 
town, is strongly fortified ; a deep ditch has been cut through the 
top of the ridge under the walls and continues nearly to the end 
of the fort under the south-west face, but gradually becomes shal- 
lower till it dies away. The principal entrance is from the towur 



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( 210 ) 

After a ditch has been crossed by a permanent stone bridge, a 
passage lies between two high bastions, but without any gateway ; 
the road then curves a little to the right, slightly ascending be- 
tween very high walls, and the great gate is reached ; on the left of, 
but outside, this gate is a small postern leading down to the river. 
On entering, the path skirts a large excavation in the rock, intended 
to hold water, but often quite dry. Beyond this is a high wall, but 
with no gate, and behind the wall are a number of old buildings, all 
more or less in ruins, except the one occupied by the kiladdr. A 
second wall is then met with, which is believed to be the north-west 
wall of the original fort. This inner place is approached by a zigzag 
and through a large gateway, and a tolerably open space is f oimd 
with trees about it, and some long lines of buildings imder the walls 
on the right, where sepoys live, a store-house or magazine, and 
the ruins of a palace. A wall again divides this into two, and 
from behind this is a sloping road between two walls through a 
postern down to the river. This is no longer used, and is built up. 
The exit from the citadel to the south-east is by a simple door- 
way in the wall, from which there is a descent till the end wall 
immediately over the river and to the large circular bastion already 
mentioned. By a turn to the right, and taking the road back 
towards the town, but outside the citadel, a narrow space is reached 
with a small precipice surmounted by the citadel wall on the right, 
and protected by the ramparts on the top of the huge south-west 
walls on the left. These ramparts are 60 or 70 feet abqve the 
groimd outside. Continuing along this path a ramp is seen by 
which the walls overlooking the town and protecting the principal 
entrance may be ascended. On the north-east face there is but one 
wall, the precipitous nature of the hill here rendering a second and 
lower waU unnecessary. 

The noticeable feature in the country aroimd Gdgraim is the 
extreme straightness and wonderful parallelism of the two ridges, 
not only immediately at the placeitself , but for two or three miles on 
either side. The larger hills beyond, again, although much broken, 
also show a similar character ; and in the valleys where the KdU 
Sindh lays bare the rocks below, it is equally marked. Both hills 
and valleys are thickly wooded, and those long straight walls of 
jagged rock projected up above the jimgle are very striking. The 
gorge by which the river finds its way out into the open plains is 
very fine, high precipices alternating with wooded slopes on either 
side. One precipice, absolutely vertical was plumbed and f oimd to 
be 307 feet in height. This is known by the name of the ** Gid 
Kerai, " or Vulture's Precipice, and, it is said, was formerly used 
as a place of execution by the Kotah Bajas, the victims being 
precipitated on the rocks below. The tops of these hills are the 

Bl 



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( 211 ) 

culminating points of the range, and the slopes from them to the 
open country beyond are yery gradual. Sambur and chital 
abound here, more especially near the banks of the Kdli Sindh ; 
numbers of tigers, too, wander up and down the valleys, but it is 
difficult to shoot them in the cold weather, as they escape through 
the thick jungle over the hills ; bears, too, are said to be found. 
There are numerous footpaths up and down the hills, principally 
used by wood and grass cutters; but there are only two 
passes at all frequented — one nearly north of Gdgraun, up the 
Amjar valley to Panwar, and the other about 2^ miles further 
up the range, which leads to Rajpura ; they are both stony and 
rocky, and not fit for carts, but passable for laden camels. Du- 
ring the dry season many of the rapids are fordable on foot, but 
are very rocky, and, the rocks being slippery and the stream strong, 
they are by no means convenient fords. Below the fort is a very 
good ford, but the ascent into the fort is not good ; horses can go 
up and down, but with some little difficulty. At the junction of the 
Ahu and Kdli Sindh a large boat is kept, but is not much used 
during the cold weather. Further up-stream is the Tolaghati 
ford, which is very rocky, but passable for horses ; the next is the 
Manderi ford, due east of the Chhdoni, which is passable for 
carts ; the road is cut through the banks on each side, the left 
side of the river-bed being a rocky slope, the remainder stony 
and shingly; the water is about knee-deep, running swiftly 
over large stones; it is frequently used, being on the principal 
road to the east from the Chhd^ni; above this, again, there 
are other fords fit for horses to cross, but they are not much 
used except by wood-cutters. The Ahu and Kali Sindh rivers 
form the boundary between the Jhalawdr and Kotah terri- 
tories, and chaukis are built on either side of the river at the 
Manderi ghdt. Jhaldwdr also has one at Tolaghati. 

Shahdbad is situated in the detp^ched pargana of that name, 
shaMb^ which was first granted to the son of Zdlim 

Singh by the Kotah chief, and afterwards 
became a part of the Jhaldwar State. The town was founded a long 
time ago, by whom is not known, but it is said that the lower fort 
wasconstructedbyRdmandLachlmidn, the heroes of theRamaydna. 
The town contains about 1,000 houses, and a mosque of Aldmgir's 
time. The houses are built of masonry. The water is deemed 
unhealthy. Zalim Singh built an upper fort on the hill above the 
town. Betel-leaf is extensively grown. 

This is also situated in the Shahdbdd pargana. There are hot 
Kaiiwdra Springs near it, situated in shady woods, 

^ ^* where a fair is held in the hot weather. 

In the north-east of the main portion of the State. Formerly 



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{ 212 ) 

^, , -, - four villages stood here ; one of item, 

Chbipa Burod. ^i j- j.»« -Jii i 

Burodia, containing a considera ble number 
of Chhipis. In 1801, Zffim Singh, looking to the turbulent nature 
of the times, caused the inhabitants of the three other villages to 
move into Burodia for safety, and named the place Chhlpa Burod ; 
and at the same time removed the adjacent tahsil of Bambori to 
this place. It is now the head- quarters of a tahsil. 

Mandhar Thana is the head-quarters of a tahsil ; it was formerly 
-. ,, _ caUed Khata Kheri. In the times of the 

Mandhar Tnana. tn ii • ji • j 

Delhi emperors the pargana was given to 
Nawdb Mandhar Khdn, who built the present town and named it 
after himself. The place fell into the hands of the Bhils, and was 
taken from them by Maharao Bhim Singh of Kotah. The inner 
fortress is very ancient; the outer one was made byBhlm Singh, and 
the city-walls were erected in Zalim Singh's time. The town 
contains 500 houses, generally built of brick with thatched roofs. 
Below the fort, the rivers Parwan and Kdkar meet and form a 
deep pool. The place is noted for the manufacture of brass 
utensils. A large teak forest is close to the town. 

This is a very old town formerly the head-quarters of the 

g^j^^^ Siikhtawdt Rdjpiits. There was a fort 

which was destroyed by the Marathas. 

Within the ruins is the Jhala 'Kiil Devi temple, whither the 

Maharaj liana goes to worship on the occasion of the Dasera 

festival. It is the head-quarters of a tahsil. 

Chechat was also formerly a part of the Siikhtawdt R&jpiits* 
^^^^ possessions, but was taken from them by 

Raja Bhlm Singh of Kotah. It is also the 
head-quarters of a tahsil. 

Farganas. — ^The tahsil town of Pachpahdr from which the 
Pach hdr pargaua takes its name, is situated on five 

^ ^ ' hills, from which circumstance the name 

is derived. It is said to have been originally founded by the 
Pandiis, then to have come under the dominion of Raja Bikramajit 
of TJjain. In Akbar Shdh's reign it was given in j^gir to the 
Rdmpura thdkur, from whom it was wrested by the Udaipur 
Rana, who gave it to his nephew, the Jaipur Raja. Holkar 
next became possessed of it. The British Government took it 
from Holkar and made it over to Kotah through Zdlim Singh. 
The town contains 1,000 houses, of which 300 are of banyas, 200 
of Brahmans, and 100 of Musalmdns. 

On the margin of a tank there are situated two temples — ^one 
of Jain, the other of Vishnu. A third, of the goddess Mdtd, also 
exists outside the village. Each of these temples contains stones 
bearing certain inscriptions. 



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( 213 ) 

The pargana contains 77 villages, which hare been divided 
thus — deserted, 16 ; given in religious or other grants, 6 ; and 
khdlsa, 56. It was surveyed on three different occasions, viz.^ 
in Sambat 1906, 1925, and 1930; and the results arrived at 
show the entire area to be 1,57,062 bighas 14 biswas, the culti- 
vated portion of which is estimated at 62,400 bighas 9^ biswas ; 
uncultivated, but culturable, 51,147 bighas 2^ biswas; given 
in jdgir, 3,181 bighas 11 biswas ; whilst the remainder, on account 
of its rocky nature, is totally imculturable. The revenue amounts 
to E/S. 1,62,353-3. The assessment of land irrigated from tanks 
and wells is fixed from Rs. 2-8 to Rs. 10, whilst that of mdl, or 
land dependent on the monsoon rains, from Re. 0-4 to Rs. 1-8. 
The rights or dues of patwdris, nazardnas, &c., are recovered 
at the rate of Rs. 21-3 per cent. Kdntingos, chaudris, patels, 
and patwdris, in lieu of their dues, possess land given them in 
jdgir. The chief products of the place are wheat, gram, Indian- 
corn, opium, and tobacco. The zamindars are principally of 
the Sondia caste, although Rdjputs, Gujars, and Minas also follow 
the same occupation; but their numbers in proportion to the 
Sondias are very small. They borrow money from Bohras, or 
village bankers, by paying interest at 1^ and 2 per cent, per 
zp.onth. 

This pargana was founded by Stikhtaw^t Rdjptits in the reign 
, of Muhammad Shdh, now about five centu- 

^^' riesago. After undergoing certain dynastic 

changes, it came into the hands of Holkar, then into that of the 
Maharao of Kotah, and finally it was made over to the chief qf 
Jhaldwdr. The pargana contains 42 villages, of which ' 2 are 
given in religious or other grants, and kh^a 34. These 
villages were measured in Sambat 1906, and the area was found 
to be 75,370 bighas 3| biswas. The cultivated portion amounted 
to 26,512 bighas, of which 3,822 bighas 13 biswas were given 
in j^gir and religious grants ; the remainder, viz.^ 45,030 bighas 
8 biswas, being entirely unculturable on account of its rocky 
or stony nature, Fiwat, or land irrigated from tanks and 
wells, is assessed from Rs. 4 to Rs. 10; while that of mal, 
or land not artificially irrigated, from Re. 0-4 to Rs. 1-12. 
Khatdbandi and patw^ri dues are realized at 3 annas 4 pie 
per rupee. The patels pay rent once in every three years* 
The chief productions of the place are opium, Indian-corn, jowdr, 
wheat, and gram; the last two are not very plentiful. The 
cultivators are of the Sondia, Gujar, and Mina castes. The 
officials appointed to collect the revenue are styled manotiddrs, 
who are paid at the rate of 2 annas per rupee. These officials 
also advance money and seed-graia to cultivators for the 



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( 214 ) 

improvement of their lands, charging interest for the former 
at 24 per cent, per annmn ; but, in the case of the latter, they 
take 10 seers over every maund for each year, e.g., if they 
advance one maund of grain, they recover IJ maimd at the end 
of the year. The administration of justice is conducted as 
follows : — ^All civil cases above Rs. 7 are disposed of at Jhaldwdr ; 
in proceedings of a judicial nature, the p^shkdr is empowered to 
imprison for a term of three years, and to inflict fines not ex- 
ceeding Rs. 50. Matters connected with land are disposed of 
by biladars, or a committee consisting of three or more influential 
men of the place. The only two places of antiquity are a Jaia 
temple, and a darg^h of Mlian SaMb, a Muhammadan saint. 

This pargana was founded by a Khatri in the reign of Akbar 

Shah. Previous to its foundation, an 
*^' old city called Anopshahr existed in 

the neighbourhood; the exact site of the latter cannot now be ascer- 
tained. Dag was originally under the chief of Pirawa, but 
since then, having passed into the hands of several of the Hindu 
and Muhammadan rulers, it eventually came under the subjec- 
tion of Jeswant Rao Holkar, from whom Zdlim Singh, the then 
minister of Kotah, farmed it with ten others; but, on the 
creation of the Jhaldwdr principality, it was made over with three 
others to Maharaj Rana Madan Singh, the first chief of JhaM- 
wdr. It contains 88 villages, divided into — deserted, 7 ; given in 
religious or other grants, 2 ; given in j^gir, 10 ; and khdlsa, 69. 
Judging from the measurements conducted in Sambat 1906, it 
has been ascertained that these 88 villages covered an area of 
2,60,314 bighas 3 biswas of ground, the cultivated area of which 
was put down at 37,791 bighas 17 biswas, yielding an 
annual revenue of Rs. 81,402-3-3; since then, much of the 
cultivated land has been thrown out of cultivation, whilst that 
not cultivated, though of a culturable nature, has now been 
brought under cultivation. This change led to an increase in the 
cultivated area, which is now much in excess of its original 
extent, thus increasing the revenue to Rs. 1,02,136-1-9. The 
assessment of land irrigated or irrigable from tanks or wells varies 
from Rs. 3 to Rs. 7 per bigha, while that requiring no artificial 
irrigation from Re. 0-8 to Rs. 1-8 per bigha. In Dag, however, 
the rate for the former is Rs. 12 per bigha. The usual rights or 
dues of kdniingoi, patwdrgari, mandloi, and dharmada are recovered 
at the rate of Rs. 17-10 per cent. The patels and jdgirddrs also 
pay certain sums of money once in every three years. 

Mdkd, or Indian-corn, and opium, grow in abundance ; whilst 
gowdr, wheat, and gram are not so plentiful. The zamindars 
belong to the Sondia caste s some pay their rent direct to the Rajj 



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( 215 ) 

others througli manotlddrs, or customs officiak of an inferior 
rank, who are paid by them at the rate of 2 annas on each rupee. 
These men, in lieu of cash, recover their income in opium and 
grain. Sometimes they act as rural bankers to the zamindars by 
furnishing them with seeds and manure, charging interest at 24, 
and in some cases even 50, per cent, per annum. Takdvi 
advances are also made by the Raj to cultivators for the improve- 
ment of land at the same rate of interest, viz., 24 per cent, per 
annum. 

The administration of justice is as follows : — ^All civil cases, 
excepting those of an insignificant nature, are heard and disposed 
of at JhaMwdr ; judicial cases are enquired into by the p6shkd.r, 
who prepares the file and forwards it on to the head-quarters for 
orders, disposing of minor cases himself. He is not empowered 
to imprison, but can inflict fines not exceeding Rs. 8. 

The remains of antiquity existing in the pargana are — b, large 
masonry tank known as Kdlidn Sdgar made by KAli^n Singh Chand- 
rawat in Sambat 1663 close by two dargdhs or mosques of the 
Muhammadan saints called after the names of Ghaib Shdh and 
Lai Hakani. There is also a masonry well made by one Maira 
Kidn of Kotah, in Sambat 1869 ; the ruins of an old makbara, or 
tomb, said to have been erected during the Muhammadan rule. 

Grangrar, the chief town of the pargana of the same name, is 

situated close to the banks of the Kdli 
^^^^'' Sindh river. Originally, it possessed the 

name of " Gbrgarat.*' It is not known by whom it was founded, but 
tradition says it was given in jaglr by the Kairuv Rajputs to one 
Garga Charga, a giirii, or a leader of the clan. Its subsequent 
history is analogous to those of the other parganas. It contains 
137 villages, ckssed thus — deserted, 16; granted in jdgir, 20; 
given in religious grants, 4 ; and khdlsa, 97. These were mea- 
sured in Sambat 1906, but the area is not known. The revenue 
amounts to Rs. 1,07,178. The system on which the assessment 
is based is — ^for piwat, or land irrigated from tanks and wells, Rs. 4 
to Rs. 6-12 per bigha ; for m^, or land dependent on the monsoon 
rains. Re. 0-8 to Rs. 2. The rights and dues of patwdris, kdntin- 
gos, and other officials, are realized at the rate of 17 per cent. 
A sum of Rs. 5 is taken annually from each village on the occa- 
sion of the Das6ra and other festivals, exclusive of another rupee 
for charitable purposes. The chief produce is opium, wheat, 
gram, jowdr, Indian-corn, sugarcane, and til. The cultivators are 
principally of the Sondia caste ; but Minas, Gujars, and Rdjpiits 
in small numbers f oUow the occupation also ; the proportion of 
the latter is, however, insufficient. Patels are only nominally 
knownj whilst the chief woijdng official is the manotid^ or a 



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( 216 ) 

mahajan, who is held responsible for the due payment of the rents 
from cultivators. He advances money, seed-grain, &c., on interest 
at the same rates as those obtaining in the other parganas, and is 
paid by the zamindars at 2 annas on the rupee. 

Regarding the system of administration of justice, all import- 
ant cases, whether of a civil or criminal nature, are instituted and 
disposed of in the courts of the capital. The p^shkar in the latter 
case merely prepares the file and fortrards it on to the head-quar- 
ters (Ohhaoni) for disposal. 

Amongst the remains of antiquity may be mentioned an 61d . 
tank on the borders of which exist a few cenotaphs or chabutras 
of the ranis who became satis ; over these chabutras are large 
slabs bearing certain inscriptions. The town contains a very old 
building close to the banks of the river now occupied as a 
kacheri or E-aj office. In former times some jewellers' shops 
appear to have been estabKshed in the city, as small rubies and 
other precious stones are often found in the neighbourhood, even 
at the present day. 

This is a -smaU Bhil hamlet in the range of hills which 
^^^^. divides Hardoti from Jhaldwdr, and 

some 14 miles east of the JhaldwAr 
cantonment. It takes its name from a small temple adjoining, 
and is situated on the eastern extremity of the beautiful lake 
known as the " Mansurwar," formed by throwing an embank- 
ment across the valley, which is here some six or seven hundred 
yards broad, and which may be said to be a continuation of 
the one in which Mukandara, Gangrar, and Mandhar are 
located. The place is oi;e of great beauty. The eastern, northern, 
and western sides of the lake are richly wooded to the water's 
edge, while the karaunda, growing in great profusion, not only 
forms a thick network below, but covers the trees for some 30 and 
40 feet of their growth. The place is one of the favorite hunting 
resorts of the Jhaldwdr princes, and always contains tigers. 
The embankment is at the western extremity of the lake. The 
lake is about a mile long by a quarter broad. Towards the east 
it is shallow, and runs into long sedgy creeks and channels, all 
fringed with trees. Apart from the beauty of the scenery the 
spot is famous for its historical associations. It is the site of a 
city of ancient times said to have been called Sriandgri, which is 
stated to have existed on the slope of the ridge along the southern 
side of the lake, and to have extended westwards as far as the 
tJj^r, about a quarter of a 'mile to the west and rear of the present 
embankment. Nothing now remains save three old temples and 
the remains of others, and blocks of hewn stone which, covering a 
large area, testify to the , former extent (rf the city. Here and 



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( 217 ) 

there, too, the streets can be traced. In the south- western comer 
a village known as Gurguj has been subsequently established by the 
Bhils. The largest temple is sacred to Mahadeo; the one adjoining 
it, to Mdtdji ; while the third on the TJjAr is a Sar^ogi's, and said 
to have been built by a GwAl. An inscription on some ruins to the 
south of the tank sets forth that it was a Baisunti temple erected 
by one Sah Damodur Sah on a Monday on the first of the dark por- 
tion of the month Kdrtik, Sambat 1416, to the glory of Grod. The 
town is said to have been one of the chief of the Khichi Raj, whose 
capital was first M4u, some four miles due north, on the northern 
slope of the range, and afterwards Gdgraun. The embankment of 
the lake is about 300 yards long by 30 broad. It is literally covered 
with most interesting Bati remains, which are difficult to 
approach, owing to the way in which the karaunda has en- 
shrouded them. It is only by clearing this away that they 
can be inspected. Some 30 or 40 chhatris and chaMtraa with 
funeral stones still exist, while the ruins of numberless others 
strew the embankment. Each stone bears the effigy of the dead : 
a cavalier mounted and armed at all points, and the wives who were 
burnt with him. Underneath their names are written ; but the 
letters on very many are entirely effaced. In the majority, only 
the top line is legible ; while in a few, the whole remains. Com-^ 
mencing from the northern end, the first is a stone bearing date 
Sambat 1550 to Raj Sri Maharaj Dhiraj Maharaj Sri Gungaddsji. 
The next is a fine large chhatri built on a broad square stone-faced 
platform raised some four feet from the ground. The chhatri is a 
large spacious one. A portion of the roof and the eight round stone- 
pillars remain standing. In the centre is a stone-tablet with a 
cavalier and five ladies ; underneath is the following inscription : 
In Sambat 1578, on the 11th of the light portion of the month 
P6s, Monday, Rajan Sri Rao Sria departed : five Ranis burned 
with him, his wives — ^the Solunki and her slave-girl, the Sis6dniji, 
the Gaurji, the Kesodumji, the Stiktaw^tji. He was Lord of 
Gdgraun. Medina was his, and his abode Clan Khichi, Ramlote, 
Golan bmlt on the comer of the chhatri of Bindyak (Gan^shji), 
Purdhan, Mdchalpur, Purdnapura (then follows a couplet in praise 
of Rdm) . Erected on the embankment of the Mdjisurwar at Rdtddei. 
The remains of two other chabtitras are inmiediately behind ; one 
of these probably is that of Bindyak, referred to in the preceding 
inscription — Sambat 1578 Berkhey P6s sud gydras Somwdr ke din 
Raja Sri Rao Sria deolok hua. S^t liya panch rdnion n6 — ^Bhau 
Solunki dur bdndi, Bhau Sis6dni, Bhau Gaurji, Bhau Kesodumji, 
Bhau Siiktawdtji. Gdgraun ka dhdni, has ka bhom Meddna, Gt>t 
Khfchi, Ramlote, Golan, kone Btadyak meldlno, Purdhan, Mdchal- 
pur^ Purdoapura • • • Mdnsurwar ke pdl par Rdtddei Mdnsurwar ke 



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< 218 ) 

pdl. Then come two others on which only Sambat 1543 and Sambat 
1546 are readable, then one on which is — Sambat 1516 on the 10th 
of the light portion of Baikh, Khawaisji Sri Gunga Singhji s6t kara 
Piitr Sri Rdmji deolok hua. Then come others of 1587, 1555, 
121B, 1611, 1516, 1566 (Raja Hanwant Singh), 1558 (Raj Hdri 
Singh), 1666 (Deo Singh, son of Sheo Singh), 1565 (Rao Raja Sheo- 
duth Singhji), 1661 (Sheo Singh), and 1604. The one dated 1687 
has below it a statement that it was raised to the son of MaharaJ 
R4m Singhji. The one with 1213 bears a cavalier with sword and 
spear, and the woman on a high raised platform ; the inscription 
is not readaWe. The one of 1561 is covered by a chhatri supported 
by very handsomely-carved pillars. In many the dress and appear- 
ance of the parties represented are curious. In several, both the 
cavalier and his raids are represented as wearing crowns, while the 
horses of others are caparisoned to the knees. 

At the extreme southern end is a chhatri, the antiquity of which 
cannot be doubted. The tablet is a large broad stone of a whitish 
color, different from all the rest, which are of a reddish-brown^ 
It represents a cavalier and seven women. Close to the last, and 
almost buried under the karaunda overgrowth, is a small slab of 
stone not a foot broad by some 3 long, with an inscription in Sans- 
krit, the letters of which are beautifully and clearly cut, and so 
sharp that they look as if onlydon^ lately. It bears the date 
1276. Captain Muir had it examined by pandits from Jhaldwdr, 
but none could read it. The tank, it is stated, wa» built by Raja 
Man of Jaipur, who was sent by Akbar to punish Pirthiraj, 
Rahtor of Mdu. But RajaM^n lived about Sambat 1650 (A.D. 
1594), or later than the dates on the sati stones. The lake, too, is 
called Mdnsurwar in Rao Sria's tablet of Sambat 1&78. To the 
temple of Rdtddei is attached the legend that a sister of Achla 
Kich of Gdgraun came to stay here, and was turned into stone. 
A small temple was ^ected to her, which ZdUm Singh enlarged 
and built of stone. 

About two miles to the west of the lake the river TJj& forces 
its way through the ridge which bounds 
** the valley on the north, cutting through 

the rock ; this cutting is called the Chdupulda Mdtd. On the 
northern side of this pass are the remams of the palace of 
Medina, another seat of the Khlchis, much of which is stOl 
standing on higher ground, and commands the entrance to the ruins 
of the old fort. Underneath the palace stood, it is said, the 
village or town of Medina. Three temples, a chhatri, and some 
funeral stones only now mark the site. Two sati stones bear the 
date 1571| one bears 1569. 

cl 



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( 219 ) 

The iJj^r from here forces its way across the yalley, and then 
south through the hills through a long de^p defile, wild and wooded 
to the north, where it debouches on the plain at Mdu. The 
whole range of hills abounds with stories of the " Ghdtirao " 
(Lofd of the Pass), the Khichi Mehrao, one of the legendary- 
heroes of past days. 

A large lake of that name two miles to the east of, and in the 
^^^jj^ same valley as, Edtddei and the Mdnsurwar. 

It is upwards of two miles long by half a 
mile broad. It is in a natural hollow, and formed by closing up a 
gap of some 260 yards long and 100 broad on the northern ridge. 
The embankment is formed of large blocks of cut stone piled tier 
above tier. It is said to be much older than M^nsurwar, and to 
be very deep. Kadila is stated by some to have been a raja, by 
others a mahajan of Mdu. To the south of Kkdila there used in 
ancient times to be a large town called Rung Pd<tan ; there are 
now no traces left of it ; it had a raja by name Mkha, whose 
rani was named Sodi. The story goes that one day they were 
both listening to the song of a Dome named Bhola, and were so 
pleased that the raja promised to give the Dome whatever he 
chose to ask ; the rani, who was on the roof, pointed with 
her finger to a valuable necklet she wore, wishing to prompt the 
Dome to ask for it. The raja saw the motion made in a large 
mirror he had before him, and, believing that the rani had intended 
the Dome to ask for herself, was angry, and gave her to the Dome. 
The latter served her as a devoted slave. Once only the raja 
and rani met, when they were at once changed to stone, and one 
chhatri covers the ashes of both ; the lady, true in life to her 
lord, was burnt with, and united to, him in death. The chhatri 
was built on the embankment of the Kadila taldo ; but time has 
removed all vestiges of it. * 

Fairs and Soly -places. — ^The principal temples in Jhalrapdtan 
have the following legend as to the cause of their foundation. 
When the new city was being built, one Ganga Eam, a Liihdr, was 
engaged in building his house when he was told in a dream 
that four images would be dug out of the spot, and he was there- 
fore to dig the foundations himself ; he did accordingly, and dug 
out a stone box in which were found the four images — Dwdrka- 
nath, Eamnik, Gopindth, and Santndth. Information of this was 
sent to ZdKm Singh, then at Kotah, who hastened down and 
directedthat a small boy should be given four slips of paper with 
the names of four Hindu persuasions on them ; whichever slip 
the boy placed on an image, that was to be considered the worship 
that image desired. The result was. that Dw^kanath desired 



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( 220 ) 

Ballabh Kul or the Ndth Dw^ persuasion, now represented by 
the large temple in P^tan ; Ramnik desired Vishnu Marjad wor- 
ship, and has a temple inside the palace enclosure at the Chhaoni ; 
Santnath desired Jain worship, and has a large temple in Patan ; 
Gopinath wished for no worship, and, consequently, has no temple. 
The legend regarding the ChandarbMka stream is as follows : — 
A certain raja had leprosy which he found incurable. One day, 
when out hunting, he pursued a black and white pig to where the 
present river now runs ; in a hollow close by there was water, into 
which the pig in despair jumped, and appeared the other side 
entirely black. The raja, seeing this wonderful result, deter- 
mined to try the pool for his own recovery; accordingly he 
bathed in it and was cured. The place thenceforth became 
a resort for pilgrims, and a fair is held here yearly in the 
month of Kdrtik, when the ceremony of bathing is extensively 
performed. The fair lasts for a week : bullocks, cows, buffaloes, 
brass and copper vessels, and cheap ornaments are bought and sold. 
In the month of Baisakh, another large cattle fair is held on the 
banks of the large Patau talao, where bullocks principally ex- 
change hands, the zamindars of Hardoti and the adjoining States 
coming in numbers to make purchases. At Mandhar Thana, in 
the month of Phagiin, there is a Sheordtri fair which lasts for 
fifteen days; here, too, buffaloes, cows, and bullocks are bought 
and sold, as also brass vessels* and some cloth. Zamindars from 
E-ajgarh, Narsinghgarh, Pdtan, Haraoti, and Khilchipiir, assemble 
there. The KMlchipiir bullocks are much in favor. In Baisakh 
there is a fair held at Kailwara, in. the Shahdbdd pargana, which 
lasts for fifteen days. The people bathe in the hot pools at the 
place called Sita Bdri, and buying and selling of plough-cattle 
and agricultural implements goes on. People assemble from 
Jhaldwdr and Hardoti, especially the latter. ^ 

Antiquities and Remarkable Flaces. — ^The ruins of the temples, 
idols, and buildings of old Jhalrapdtan are found near the banks 
of the Chandarbhdka stream. An inscription found on a stone by 
Captain Muir contains the name of a Baja Diirga Gul, and bears 
the date Sambat 748 or A.D. 692. One story has it that a Eaja 
Hti founded this city ; another account gives the credit to Baja 
Bhim, one of the Pdndtis ; and a third account is that the *^ Or • ' 
Bdjputby name Jesii mentioned above (on page 207), when break- 
ing stones, found his iron hammer turned into gold on a philoso- 
pher's-stone, and, repeating the process with other hammers and 
obtaining similar results, took up his quarters at the place and 
founded the city. 



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JODHPUR; 



/ 



MALLANI: 



COMPILED BY 



LlEUTEKANT-OOLONEL 0. K. M, WALTEJ^i 
POLITICAL AGENT. 



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GAZETTEER OF JODHPUR. 



Geogbapht. 



Boundaries mid Area. — Jodliptir, called also Marwar, is the 
largest in extent of the Rdjptitdna States. It is honnded on the 
north by Bikanir and Shekdwati ; on the east by Jaipur and 
Kishangarh ; on the south-east by Ajmer and Merwara ; on the 
south by Sirohi and Palanpur ; on the west by the Eann of Kachh, 
B,ndthe Thar and PArkar districts of Sindh; and on the north- 
west by Jesalmer. It lies generally between 24*" 30' and 2T 40' 
north latitude, and W 0' to 75° 20' east longitude. Its greatest 
length, north-east and south-west, is about 290 miles, and its great- 
est breadth 130 miles ; and it contains an area of 37,000 square 
miles. 

Configuration. — The configuration of the country may be 
briefly described (as referred to below in the paragraph on geology) 
tts a vast sandy plain, with, in the south-east third of the district, 
or to the south of the Ltinl river, various isolated hills of the same 
description as the Arvali range, but none of these hills^ are 
sufficiently elevated or extensive to deserve the name of mountain- 
ranges. 

Soils. — ^The soils of Marwar may be classified as follows : JBai^ 
Jcaly the most common, is a light sand, having little or no earthy 
«tdmixture, and only fit for the production of bdjrd, mot and miing, 
til, sesamam, water-melons, and other plants of the cucumber 
ibmily ; wheat is chiefly grown in a rich soil known as chikni 
(clayey) ; pild is a yellow sandy clay adapted for barley, tobacco, 
onions, and vegetables; sc^fMi (white) is a soil of a siliceous 
nature, only productive after heavy rains ; and khdri, alkaline 
earth, poisonous to all vegetation. 

Geology. — ^The geological characteristics of the country are 
somewhat complex, and vary considerably as the district is 
traversed from east to west. The south-eastern boundary, viz.^ 
Merwara and the Arvali range, part of which towards the south 
is within the frontier of Marwar, consists principally of metamor- 
phic rocks which rise precipitously from the Marwar plains, in 
some localities attaining an elevation of 3^000 feet.. The metamor- 



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phic or transition rocks, found in that part of the Arvalis bounding 
Marwar, are chiefly gneiss, hornblende, quartz, and mica-slate ; 
but, in the higher lulls, bands of basalt and porphyry are seen, and 
occasionally granite, which, more towards the south, becomes the 
principal feature of the highest part of the range, as at Abii. 
Passing from the Arvalis towards the west, the surface, eyen at 
the base of the mountain-range, is found to be sandy ; but the 
understratum appears to be chiefly gneiss, hornblende, mica-slate, 
and quartz, all of which may be seen cropping up through the 
surface sand, and in some localities attaining an elevation of 800 
to 1,000 feet. The aspect of the country, therefore, as far as the 
Liinl river (which, passing through the southesm district, divides 
Marwar into two unequal parts), is that of a sandy plain, vrith 
here and there bold, picturesque, conically-shaped hills rising to 
the elevation above noted. These hills, or rather rocks, are most 
numerous near the Arvalis, becoming gradually more widely 
separated as the Liinl is approached. The most prominent of these 
formations are — ^the Nddolai hill, on which a colossal stone-elephant 
has been placed; the Pimagir hill near Jddhan; the Sojat hill ; 
the hill near Pdli ; the hill near Giindoj ; the Sdnderao hill ; the 
JAlor hill ; and various others of minor note and size. Immediate- 
ly around these hills the surface is hard and stony, gradually 
passing into sand, which becomes more heavy as the eastern and 
northern districts are approached. After crossing the Lum, or at 
about one-third of the breadth of the principality, these conically- 
shaped hills are less numerous, and sandstone appears ; but the 
metamorphic rocks are not lost sight of until the range on 
which the capital ( Jodhpur) is situated is passed. The geological 
nature of the country round Jodhpur is especially interesting. 
The fort commanding the city is built on a sandstone formation 
rising to the height of 800 feet, having to the north cones of 
porphyry and masses of trap of various descriptions, placed in 
juxtaposition to the sandstone. The layers of this sandstone are 
usually parallel with the horizon, and thej^ generally rise 
abruptly out of the sand' below, but are sometimes visibly 
supported by trap or metamorphic rock. In some places, porphy- 
ritic trap is ranged in stairs, and has apparently been thrown up 
at a later date than the sandstone, without having materially, 
damaged the stratification of the latter. The country to the 
north of Jodhpur is one vast sandy plain called ThuU or sandy 
waste, only broken by sandhills or t^bds, which, commencing in. 
Marwar, stretch into Bikanir in the north, and into JesaJmer, 
Sindh, and Mallani in the west and south. Occasional oases are 
met -with in this district; but water is exceedingly scarce, and 
often from 200 to 300 feet from the surface. It is conjectured ; 



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( 224 ) 

that the substratum of this part of the country is sandstone, asi 
that is passed through in sinking the deep wells ; but no special 
investigations have been made. 

Of minerals there are none in Marwar. Zinc Used to be 
obtained in small quantities near Sojat. Marble exists in profu- 
sion at Makrdna in the north, and also in smaller masses near 
Ghdnerao on the south-east border. 

Salt sources. — One great peculiarity of the State of Jodhpur 
consists in its numerous salt sources. Within its borders are con- 
tained — (1) a part of the great Sambhar Lake, a vast natural 
deposit of salt ;* (2) Pachbadra, an important salt-field, 35 miles 
south-west of the city of Jodhpur ; (3) Didwdna, a salt lake 
situated near a town of the same name and 65 miles north-west 
of the Sambhar Lake; (.4) Phalodi, a salt-marsh in the north- wes^ 
comerof the State near the Jesalmer frontier ; and (5) Pokaran, 
another salt-marsh 12 miles west again of Phalodi. Besides these, 
there is the river Liini, which, entering the State on its eastern 
boundary, flows in a south-westerly direction to the Rann of 
Kachh, and is, for a long distance up from its mouths, capable of 
yielding salt in practically unlimited quantities throughout the 
entire hot season. And north of the Sambhar Lake, between it 
and the Shekdwati frontier, there are the salt jhils of Sargot and 
Kachawan, with unknown capabilities for salt manufacture. 
Pinally, over and a\)ove these salt sources, there are in the State 
72 salt-producing villages possessing 370 working factories. 

The salt source at Pachbadra is situated in a valley or depres- 
sion, which has evidently been at one time the bed of a river. 
The tract occupied by the salt-works comprises about 8 miles in 
length of the valley bed, with an average breadth of about 2^ 
miles. The salts produced are locally known by the names of — 
Sambra, 1st quality; Hiragarh, 2nd quality; and Pasali, 3rd 
quality — ^f rom different areas into which the salt source is divided. 
The Sambra salt is excellent. The crystals are irregular cubes 
varying in size from half an inch to nearly an inch in length. 
The quality of the salt obtained from the Hfragarh area differs 
.from the Sambra mainly in point of size. The sides of the crys- 
tals rarely exceed half an inch. The Pasali salt is very inferior 
in quality to the others. It is white and opaque, and none of the 
sides of the crystals exceed a quarter of an inch in length. The 
method of obtaining salt at Pachbadra is extremely simple. Ob- 
long pits are dug of various sizes ; a supply of brine percolates 
through the pit bed, and when that has become sufficiently con- 
centrated so as to show signs of crystallization around the pit' 
edge, branches of a thorny shrub called morali are sunk in it ; 
on these branches salt-crystals form and continue to grow for 



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( 225 ) 

alx)ut two, or sometimes three, years ; at the end of that period, 
as a rule, the salt crop is extracted in the following manner : men. 
enter the pit, and, with an instrument called a aangra (an iron 
wedge-shaped chisel, ahout one foot long, attached to a wooden 
handle five feet long), they cut through the thorny branches and 
"break up the salt which is caked on the bottom ; the branches, 
with the crystals attached, are carried to the edge of the pit, and 
the crystals are shaken or broken off ; while the salt which has 
been broken up is drawn to the sides by a broad iron hoe, with 
a handle five feet in length, and is then removed in baskets to the 
top of the pit. The approximate annual outturn of salt- at Pach- 
badra was estimated in 1877 at about 11 lakhs in British maundy 
of the three qualities noted above. 

The Dldwdna salt source consists of an oval-shaped depression, 
surrounded by sandhills. It is about three miles long by one 
broad, its longer axis lying almost due east and west. About three- 
quarters of a mile from each end a dam or bimd is built across 
the depression, cutting off the centre portion from the ends, the 
object being to prevent, as far as possible, the drainage of the sur- 
xounding country from reaching the centre space within which 
Bait manufacture is carried on. The process of manufacture ia 
as follows : — The bed of the centre portion of the marsh is not 
•unlike that of the Sambhar Lake — ^black, fetid, and cldyey ; and, in 
this, wells are dug, and, round the wells, irregularly-sha]ped solar- 
evaporation pans are made in the clayey bed, the bottoms and 
Bides of the pans being carefully kneaded and worked so as to be 
Bmooth, free from cracks, and water-tight ; these pans vary in size 
from 250 to about 2,500 square ya^s, and are from 8 to 12 inches 
deep. The wells are about 6 feet in diameter and 12 to 14 feet 
deep, lined with wood to keep the sides from falling in ; and the 
brine is lifted by means of the chanch, or lever bucket, and 
run along shallow drains into the evaporating pans. It is' there 
allowed to remain imdisturbed for from ten to twenty days until 
the salt is made ; the salt is then scraped into a heap, allowed to 
drain, and removed to the edge of the pan, where it generally 
remains until it is sold. The salt season tisually commences in 
February, and lasts till the rains set in. The people who manu- 
facture salt at DIdwAna are a class of low Muhanunadans called 
Deswdli, a tribe peculiar to Didwdna ; their profession is heredi- 
tary. The usual annual outturn of salt at Didwdna was estimated 
by Mr. Whitten of the Inland Customs (Salt) Department ia 1877 
at about 8| lakhs of maunds. 

The Phalodi salt-tract is a depression about 5 miles by 3 miles, 
and the major axis is about north and south. Besides the main 
basin there is a long strip of saline soil at present unworked% 



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The mode of manufacture of salt is almost precisely the same as 
at DidwAna, described above. The operations, however, commence 
in November and continue till the advent of the rains. The an- 
nual outturn was estimated in 1877 at about 1^ lakhs of maunds; 
but it was at the same time considered that double this amount 
could be manufactured without difficulty^ The Pokaran salt-tract 
is a similar depression about 8 miles in length by 4 in breadth, and 
the mode of manufacture is the same as at Didwaua. The annual 
average outturn was estimated in 1877 at 20,000 maunds ; but 
the produce appeared to be only as much as could be readily 
disposed of. 

Rivera and Lakes.- — ^The river Liinl takes its rise in the 
lake at Ajmer ; it is at the fountain-head 
called the Sagarmati ; it is joined at Gro- 
vindgarh by the Sarsuti, which has its source in the Pushkar 
lake, and at that point takes the name of Liini. Prom Govind- 
garh, this river flows in a south-westerly direction through Mar- 
war, and is finally lost in the marshy ground at the head of the 
Bann of Kachh. Throughout its course, as far as Balotra, the 
Lunl is nearly everywhere confined between banks ranging from 
5 to 20 feet high, covered with jhdo {tamarix dioica). It is fed by 
numerous tributaries, chiefly from the Arvali range of mountains. 
In heavy floods, which occur, however, very rarely, it overflows its 
banks in the district of MallanL The local name of this overflow 
is Rel ; and whenever such an occurrence takes place, the crops of 
wheat and barley grown on the soil thus saturated are very fine. 
The Liinl is for the most part merely a rainy-weather river, and its 
bed is dry everywhere, except where the action of the water has 
in places scoured out deep holes, which remain filled with water 
nearly all the hot season. Drinking-water is obtained from 
November to June fi*om masonry wells sunk in the banks to a 
few feet below the level of the river-bed; and it is a peculiar fact in 
connection with these wells that, if excavated too deep, the water 
loses its sweetness, and becomes bitter and quite unfit for drinking 
purposes : from these wells, also, considerable tracts are irrigated 
in the districts through which the river flows, and crops of wheat 
and barley are grown. There is a saying in Marwar that half the 
produce of the country, in so far as cereals are concerned, is depen- 
dent on the river Lunl, and this is undoubtedly the case. It attains 
its greatest breadth in the Sachor and Mallani districts. Melons 
and the singhdra nut {trapa natans) are grown in great quantities 
in the bed of the river in the dry season. The bed of the river is 
filled with sand, with out-crops here and there of a coarse sand- 
stone rock. It is from this sandstone that the masonry wells above 
referred to are constructed. The Luni itself, in its course through 

d1 



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Manrar to Balotra, is for the most part sweet, except in the neigh- 
bourhood of the village of Bala ; but the water of the affluents is 
more or less tainted with salt, and on their banks exist many of 
the minor local salt-works of Jodhpur. As the Ltini below Balo- 
tra flows towards the Rann of Kachh, it becomes more and more 
saline in character ; this is specially the case where it is joined by 
the river Sukri. On the edge of the Bann of Kachh, on the border 
of Marwar, the three branches of the river are described as " reser- 
voirs of concentrated brine/' 

The Jojri rises in the Merta district of Marwar, and falls 
TheJojri. into the Liini about 15 miles to the 

south-west of the capital. 

The Sukri has its source in the Sojat 

district of Marwar and joins the JAxii. 

The Giiyabdla rises in the hills of Kdpura, pargana Sojat of 

^^^^ Marwar, and empties itself into the 

^ Liinl near SathlAna. 

The Beria or Pdli river rises in hills near Sojat, and joins 

^ „ . ^^,. the Giiyabdla. The people of Pdli, by 

The Rena or PWi. i- i x *j. a ^ S n xi. 

which town it flows, contmually use the 
water of the Beria for dyeing purposes ; they dig shallow earthen 
wells two or three feet deep in the land of the river-bed, just 
above the water-level, and boil the water, mixing the dyeing 
materials in it ; the water has some peculiar chemical qualities, 
its effect being to give a certain permanency to the colors used by 
the dyers. 

^^ g^^ The BAndi rises in the Arvalis near 

Siriari, and falls into the Lunl. 

The JuwAi rises in the Arvalis, flows west past the canton- 

^ - .. ment of Erinpura, where, when in flood, 

the nver is of extreme breadth, and 

joins the Ltinl near Gtira. 

The only lake in Marwar is the famous salt lake of Sambhar, 
o 1.1. cui^T % which is thus described by Colonel Brooke 

Sambhar Salt Lake. •••. j n-n'^* ' -n a > tL 

m his report on the Famme m Bajpii- 
tdna of 1868-69 : — " North of Ajmer occurs a depression in the 
ArvaU, the dividing ridge of Bdjpdtdna. The country is also 
gradually depressed for a distance of 30 or 40 miles on either 
side, and forms a hollow where a lake 30 miles long has been 
formed. This great basin must have been filled with salt- 
water by the receding waves in some former geological era, 
when Bdjptitdna was upheaved from the sea. As the mass of 
water diimnished by evaporation, the clay bed became saturated 
with salt. The waters of each rainy season flowing into the lake 
dissolve a portion of the brine, which crystallizes again in the hot 



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( 228 ) 

weather. Two other depressions of the same kind exist : one in 
the north of Marwar at Didwdna, and the other in the south at 
Pachbadra " (described above). 

There are a few jhils or marshes in Marwar, notably one in 
the Sachor district, which covers an area of 40 or 50 miles in the 
rainy season, the bed of which, when dry, produces good crops of 
wheat and gram. 

Climate and Bamfall. — ^The climate of Marwar may be em- 
phatically indicated by one word — dryness, which, even in the 
monsoon period, is, comparatively speaking, the principal charac- 
teristic. This arises from various causes, which must be briefly 
considered before the peculiarities of the climate can be even 
cursorily appreciated. The chief conditions modifying climate in 
Marwar may be stated as follows : — First, the geographical position 
of the country ; secondly, the geological nature of the surface ; 
thirdly, the absence of forest cultivation and vegetation. How 
these conditions modify the climate, and influence public 
health, the following details will show. With respect to the 
geographical position of the country. As before observed, Mar- 
war extends from Sirohi, Palanpur, and the Rann of Kachh 
in the south, to Bikanir in the north, a distance of some 290 
nules, and from the Arvali mountains, which separate it like 
a wall from the more fertile districts of Mewar in the east, 
to the Rann of Kachh, Umarkot, and the Thar deserts in the west ; 
being at its widest part nearly 130 miles across. The country is 
therefore without the range of the full force of the south-west 
monsoon from the Indian Ocean, and entirely removed from the 
influence of the south-east monsoon from the Bay of Bengal. Also 
the clouds from the south-west, before arriving over Marwar, must 
float above extensive arid districts, as the sandy tracts of northern 
Gujardt, Kachh, the Eann, and the desert districts of Umarkot 
and Parkar. This results in a very small rainfeill, which, taking 
the centre of the country, Jodhpur, as the guide (at which place 
only have meteorological observations been recorded, and those 
only recently), does not often exceed the average of five and 
a half inches, and is more frequently much less, although 
occasionally a larger fall may occur. This small rainfall 
alone, under a tropical sim, is sufficient to account for much 
of the characteristic dryness of the climate. In the next place, 
the geological nature of the district induces dryness of atmos- 
phere. The surface consists of sand, lying on a substratum 
of ferruginous sandstone, in which numerous concrete silice- 
ous and chalk formations are found. In many places, me- 
tamorphic rocks, consisting principally of gneiss, mica-slate, 
quartz, and hornblende, rise through and far above the sand- 



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stone and snrface sand. These eminences, generally of a 
conical shape, are called Mers^ and towards the west of the dis- 
trict they give place to the t^bds, or sandhills of the desert. What 
little rain does fall, must therefore be immediately absorbed by 
the thirsty sandy soil of the country, and by the still more sandy 
surface of the beds of the one river, and of the comparatively few 
water-courses, furrowing the land. This one river, the Ltini, con- 
tains only scanty pools of water, and its tributaries are dry dijring 
ten months of the year. Hence, in the absence of lakes, there can 
be no moisture in the atmosphere from the evaporation of the 
water. It is well known that the absence of forest cultiv?ition and 
vegetation add to the dryness of a climate, and it is also well 
understood that the rainfall is, usually, comparatively smaller or 
larger in proportion to the amoimt of forest and vegetation 
existing. In Marwar there is no forest, and, in comparison with 
other districts, very little cultivation or jungle. The sandy soil, 
the brackish water nearly everywhere found, and the prevalence of 
the saline efflorescence known as reh^ are the principal reasons 
why there is so little of either wild-jungle growth, or of cultivated 
ground. Thus, all conditions unite in producing that extraordinary 
dryness characteristic of Marwar. 

The next most striking peculiarity of the climate is the extreme 
variation of temperature, which occurs during the cold season 
between the night and the day. This depends in a great degree on 
the dryness of the atmosphere, the heat given off by the earth at 
night passing freely through dry air, whereas it is absorbed and 
rete/ined by the damp of a moist atmosphere. Thus it occurs that 
on the sandy soil of Marwar, while the nights may be sufficiently 
cold for ice to form, the days are often marked by a temperature 
of 90** F. in the shade of a tent. 

The diseases prevailing are those which would be theoretically 
expected under such climatic conditions, viz.^ malarious or 
paroxysmal maladies, especially in the autimmal season, when the 
extremes of temperature are first experienced. Skin affections 
are also very prevalent, depending, probably, partly on the bad 
water and indifferent food of the lower classes, and partly on their 
dirty habits, the latter being in some degree the result of a scar- 
city of water for household and personal use. The food of the 
people, consisting chiefly of bdjrd, is also instrumental in the 
production of dyspeptic complaints, which would be even more 
prevalent, were it not for the abundance and cheapness of salt 
throughout the country. Guinea- worm and mycetoma or madura 
foot are also diseases of the soil. Of epidemic maladies, small-pox 
is the most prevalent, occurring periodically with some violence. 
Cholera, however, comparatively seldom presents itself, and it 



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( 230 ) 

more rarely penetrates the semi-desert districts to the ^est of the 
capital of Marwar, 

HlSTOKT. 

History. — The present ruling chief of Marwar is His Highness 
the Maharaja Jeswant Singh, who holds that position hy right of 
being chief of the Eahtor clan of Rdjpiits, to whom the territory 
belongs. As will be seen below, the founder of the Marwar 
dynasty migrated from Kanauj, and in less than three centuries 
his descendants spread over an area of four degrees of longitude 
and the same extent of latitude, or nearly 70,000 square miles. 
In short, the Rahtor race, from its warlike and aggressive propen- 
sities, became the most powerful clan of the Rdjpiits, and several 
independent States were founded by offshoots from it, among 
which may be mentioned the States of Bikanir and Kishangarh 
in Rdjptitana, and Edar and Ahmadnagar in Gujardt. Though 
the early history of Marwar is wrapt in obscurity, still there is 
reason to beKeve that the Jdts, the Minas, and the Bhils originally 
held the country in separate petty chiefships, before the great 
Bahtor conquest. General Cunningham states that the kingdom 
of Gurjara, in which he includes Marwar, was ruled by a Gujar 
prince ; but there is no record of such a dynasty in the local aimals 
or legends, nor any remnant of a Gujar race ;* contemporaneously 
with the great Hindu dynasties of Delhi, Kanstuj, and Chitor, 
portions of the vast tract then known as Marwar were ruled by 
Purihar, Gohel, and Deord clans of Rajputs. This was the era 
immediately preceding the fall of the Rahtor sovereignty of Kii- 
nauj in A.D. 1194. The local historiai^s record that, subsequent 
to that event, Shivaji, grandsont of Jai Chand,$ the last king 
of Kanauj, entered Marwar on a pilgrimage to Dwdrka, and, 
halting at the town of PdH, he and his followers displayed their 
valour by repelling large bands of marauders. At the entreaty 
of the Brdhman commimity of the place, who were greatly 
harassed by constant raids of plundering bands, Shivaji agreed to 
settle among them and become their protector. The Rahtor 
chief, acquiring land and power around Pdli, gained there the 
first footing in his future kingdom. His son and successor, 
Asthdn, extended the domain by conquering the land of Kher 
from the Gohel Rdjpiits, and established his brother Soning 

• In Marwar the word Gujar is used for Qnjardt. 

f By some accounts the nephew. 

J The dynasty of Kanauj is said to have lasted fourteen centuries from the first sovereign, 
Nden Pal, to the last, Jai Chaiid ; it was completely overthrown by Shahabuddin, the Afghan cluef 
of Ghor, who had invaded India. 



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( 281 ) 

in Edar,* then a small principaKty on the frontier of Gujardt, 
The succeMing chiefs were engaged in perpetual broils with the 
people they had settled among, and it was not till Rao Chanda, 
„ the tenth in succession to Shivaji, that Mandor, then the capital 
u of Marwar, was, after several attempts to wrest it from the 
Purihar sovereign, acquired by the Rahtors in marriage. Prom 
I the time of Chanda, A.D. 1382, the actual conquest of Marwar 
I by the Rahtors may be dated. Chanda was succeeded by Rao 
Rir Mai, a famous warrior as well as king. Jodha, the youngest 
of his twenty-four sons,t ruled after him, and founded the city of 
Jodhpur, which he made his capital. He had fourteen sons, and 
from this numerous progeny the principal Rahtor clans and 
feudal chiefs of Marwar were founded, and the whole land over- 
spread. Rao Jodha died in 1489, and to him succeeded Satel, his 
eldest son, who met his death in 1492, in a j&ght with a band of 
Pathans who had carried off a number of women from a fair then 
^ being held at Pipdr. After him came the second son of Jodha, 
Rao Sujd, who occupied the gadi of Marwar for twenty-seven years. 
Sujd's son died during his father's life-time, leaving two sons by 
two mothers : the elder, Biram Deo, was set aside ; and the younger, 
Rao Ganga, succeeded on the death of his grandfather. It was 
during the reign of Rao Ganga that the Rahtors fought under the 
standard of Mewar, led by Sanga Rana, against the Mughal 
emperor Bdbar, in the fatal field of KhAnud in 1528, in which his 
grandson, Rao Mai, was killed. Ganga survived this disaster 
only four years, and was succeeded by Rao Maldeo in 1532, 
during whose occupation of the chiefship, Marwar attairied to 
its zenith of power, territory, and independence. When the 
emperor Humdyun was driven from the throne by Sher Shah, 
he sought the protection of Maldeo ; but in vain. Maldeo, how- 
ever, derived no advantage from his inhospitality, for Sher Shdh, 
^^ in 1544, led an army of 80,000 men into Marwar. The 
struggle was a severe one, but the first levSe en masse of the 
descendants of Shivaji, arrayed in defence of their national liber- 
ties, was defeated ; though so nearly was victory resting with the 
Rahtors, that Sher Shdh, at the close of the fight, is said to have 
exclaimed, with regard to the sterility of the soil of Marwar as unfit- 
ted to produce richer grain, ^* he had nearly lost the empire of Hin- 
dustan for a handful of barley." In 1561, Akbar, probably in 
revenge for Maldeo's inhospitable treatment of his father, invaded 
Marwar, and captured Merta and the important fortress of Ndgaur, 
both of which places were conferred by Akbar on the younger branch 

* This branch was eventually ejected about 1525 by the Mohammadan king Moor Ghaffiar 
Sliilh (Gujardti), but Edar was again recovered by the Rahtors, 
t Not eldest, as stated by Tod's Eajatthan, volume L 



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( 232 ) 

of the, family, the chief of Bikanir, now estabKshed in independ- 
ence of the parent State. In A.D. 1569, Rao Maldeo succumbed to 
necessity, and, in conformity with the times, sent his second son, 
Chandarsen, with gifts to Akbar, then itt Ajmer, which had 
become an integral part of the monarchy ; but Akbar was so dis- 
satisfied with the disdainful bearing of the desert king, who 
refused personally to pay his court, that he not only guaranteed 
the free possession of Bikanir to Rao Singh, but presented him 
with the firman for Jodhpur itself, with supremacy over his 
race. Chandarsen appears to have possessed all the native pride 
of the Rahtor, and to have been prepared to contest his country's 
independence, in spite of Akbar and the claims of his elder 
brother, Udai Singh, who eventually was more supple in ingra- 
tiating himself into the monarch's favour. At the close of 
life the old Rao had to stand a siege in his capital, and, after 
a brave but fruitless resistance, was obliged to yield homage, and 
pay it in the person of his son, Udai Singh, who then became, as 
the native chroniclers say, the servant of Akbar. Maldeo was 
succeeded by Chandarsen, who, though jimior, was evidently the 
choice both of his father and the nobles, who did not approve of 
Udai Singh's submission to Akbar. Chandarsen was slain in the 
storm of Siwdna by the royal troops, under, it is supposed, the com- 
mand of Udai Singh, who then obtained possession of the gadi^ and 
gave his sister, Jodbdi, in marriage to Akbar. On this, the emperor 
not only restored all the possessions he had wrested from Marwar, 
with the exception of Ajmer, but several rich districts in Malwa. 
Udai Singh was not ungrateful for the favours heaped upon him 
by the emperor, for whom his Rahtors performed many signal 
services. He received the rank of Raja from Akbar in 1584, and 
died in 1596, being succeeded by his son. Raja Sur Singh, who also 
attained to high honor with Akbar, for whom he conquered Gujardt 
and the Dakhan. As a reward for his great services, he held from 
the emperor, in addition to his native dominions of Marwar, five 
great fiefs in Gujardt, and one in the Dakhan. On the occasion 
of the contests amongst the four sons of Shahjehan, Jeswant 
Singh, second son of, and successor to. Raja Sur, was appointed 
generalissimo of the army sent to oppose Aurangzeb near Ujain. 
His vanity made him delay his attack imtil Murdd joined his 
brother, in order that he might have the pride of saying that he 
had triumphed over two imperial princes in one day; that triumph, 
however, was denied him, for, after a long and murderous conflict, 
he quitted the field a vanquished man, though exhibiting to the 
last abundant proof of his own contempt of danger. Jeswant 
Singh subsequently made peace with Aurangzeb, who, however, 
never forgot the former part taken against him^ and^ to get rid of 



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( 233 ) 

Idm, appointed him to lead an army against the Mgh&ns^ and 
during his absence caused the death of his only son, Pirthiraj, 
by means of a poisonous robe. Jeswant Singh died, beyond Atak * 
in A.D. 1681* His wife, who was with him, was in her seventh 
month of pregnancy. She determined to become sati^ but was 
prevented ; and, shortly after, gave birth to a son, named Ajit. 
As soon as she was able to travel, the Rahtors prepared 
to return to their native-land. Aurangzeb carried his ven- 
geance towards Jeswant Singh even beyond the grave, and 
commanded that the infant should be surrendered to Ms custody, 
oflEering to divide Marwar amongst the Rahtor contingent 
if they would surrender him ; but the offer was in vain. A 
severe battle was fought at Delhi on Aurangzeb's attempting 
to obtain forcible possession of the young Ajlt, and in the midst 
of the contest the infant prince was saved by being concealed in 
a basket of sweetmeats and entrusted to a Moslem who made 
him over to a man named Dtirga DAs. This loyal and faithful 
adherent succeeded in carrying off the heir to the gadi of Mar-^ 
war to a place of concealment amongst the hills of his own coun-" 
try. After this, Aurangzeb invaded Marwar, took and plundered 
Jodhpur, sacked all the large towns, destroyed the Hindu tem- 
ples, and commanded the conversion of the Rahtor race. This 
cruel policy cemented into one bond of union all who cherished 
either patriotism or religion ; the Rdjpiits cast aside all private 
feuds and combined to a man against the emperor, and, in the 
wars which ensued, Aurangzeb gained, for a time at least, little of 
either honor or advantage. In 1680-81 he suffered a disastrous 
defeat at the hand of the Rahtors, who instigated his fourth son. 
Akbar to rebel, by promising to support him in a dash at the 
imperial throne ; he restored young Ajit to the gadi of his ances- 
tors ; and it was then that the Rahtors rallied round Akbar, that 
years of anarchy prevailed, and the sovereignty of Marwar was 
again taken from them. In 1710, Shdh Alam made friendship 
with the chief, and restored to him the nine districts comprising 
his ancient kingdom. When the Sayyids were in power, A]it first 
coalesced with them, and afterwards roused their ire, and they 
invested Jodhpur. Abhai SiQgh, his son, was taken to Delhi as a 
hostage, and amongst other conditions insisted on, was the giving 
of a daughter in marriage to Farukh Siyar. To this marriage may 
be ascribed the rise of the British power in India; for Farukh 
Siyar was at the time afflicted with a dangerous malady (a white 
swelling or tumour on the back) rendering necessary a surgical 
operation, retarding the nuptials between him and the Rahtor 
princess, and even threatening a. fatal termination. A mission 
from the British merchants at Surat was at that time^at courts 



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( 234 ) 

fend, Bfi a last resource, tlie surgeon attached to it was called in, 
who cured the malady and made the emperor happy in his bride. 
He desired the sui^eon, Mr. Hamilton, to name Ms reward ; and 
to the disinterested patriotism of this individual did the British 
owe the first royal grant or firman conferring territorial posses-^ 
8ion and great commercial privUeges. Ajit was much mixed up 
with all the intrigues that occurred in the imperial court prior 
to the death of Farukh Siyar; but when the latter event occurred, 
A]lt, refusing his sanction to the nefarious schemes of the Sayyids, 
returned with his daughter, the emperor's widow, to Jodhpur, 
leaving his eldest son Abhai Singh at court. The Sayyids threat- 
ened destruction to Marwar, and ultimately succeeded in per* 
suading Abhai Singh that the only mode of arresting its ruin was 
his own elevation. He and Bakht Singh were the two elder, by 
one mother, a princess of Biindi, of the twelve sons of Ajit. 
To the lattCT, Abhai Singh wrote, promising him, in the event of 
the death of their common father, the independent sovereignty 
of Ndgaur ; and then (in 1726) was committed the foulest crime 
in the annals of Rajasthan, the murder of Ajit by his son Bakht 
Singh. Abhai Singh succeeded ta the §fad% smd, at the time of 
the rebellion of Sirbaland Kh^n, rendered great service to 
Muhammad Shdh, heading, in 1731, a force against Ahmaddbdd, 
where he fought and conquered the rebel. Abhai Singh returned 
to Jodhpur with the spoils of GujarAt,^ and strengthened his 
forts and garrisons, determining, in the general scramble for 
dominion which was then going on, not to neglect his own 
interests. After this, internal disputes arose between Abhai Singh 
and his brother Bakht Singh. The former died in 1760, and was 
succeeded by his son RAm Singh ; and from this date, and from 
the parricidal murder of Ajit Singh, may be traced the many 
disasters which befel the Rahtors. A feud arose between R4m 
Singh and his uncle Bakht Singh, and^ a fierce fight took place 
at Merta, in which the former was beaten, and fled to TJjain, 
where he found the Maratha leader, Jai Apa Sindia, and with 
him concerted measxures for the invasion of his country. In the 
meantime, Bakht Singh, the parricide, met his death, it is said, 
by means of a poisoned robe given him by his aunt, the wife of 
the Jaipur prince, Ishwari Singh, a princess of Edar, then ruled 
by another son of Ajit ; and Bijai Singh, his son, was proclaimed. 
Rdm Singh, assisted by the Marathas, gained a victory over Bijai 
Singh ; but, the Marathas considering that their time could be 
employed more profitably on richer lands, a compromise ensued, 
and the cause of Rdm Singh was abandoned, on stipulating for 
a fixed triennial tribute, and the surrender of the important 
fortress and district of Ajmer in full sovereignty to the Marathas. 

El 



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( 285 ) 

After this, Marwar enjoyed several years of peace ; but tlie rapid 
strides made by the Marathas towards universal rapine, if not 
conquest, compelled the RAjpiits once more to form a union for 
the defence of their political existence. The battle of Tonga 
ensued, in which the Marathas under DeBoigne were defeated, 
and Sindia compelled to abandon, not only the field, but all his 
conquests for a time. Bijai Singh recovered Ajmer tempora- 
rily; and also wrested the rich province of Godwdr from 
Mewar. Amerkot was about the same time taken from the 
Sindh rulers and attached to Marwar. In 1791, the murder- 
ous battles of Pdtan and Merta took place, in both of which 
the Eahtors were defeated by the Marathas under DeBoigne, and 
the result was the imposition of a contribution of £600,000. 
In 1794, Bijai Singh died. His successor, Bhlm Singh, attempted 
to put to death afl possible competitors to the throne; and he 
had nearly succeeded when he himself died, while the last heir to 
Bijai Singh was besieged in Jalor. This was Eaja Mdn Singh, who 
became chief in 1804, and whose rule lasted through nearly forty 
years of discord and confusion. At the beginning, his succession 
was disputed in favor of a supposed posthumous son of Bhim 
Singh, called Dhonkul Singh. The Jaipur B;aja supported Dhon- 
kul Singh ; his real object being to force M^ Singh to give up 
to him the Udaipur princess, the famous Krishna Kumdri, who 
had been betrothed to Mdn Siagh. Amir Elidn, the Pinddri, 
joined the Jaipur army : Mdn Singh was defeated and besieged 
in Jodhpur; but he managed to bribe Amir Khdn to come over 
to his side and to attack Jaipur ; so the Jaipur troops retired 
hastily. Amir Khdn massacred treacherously the principal rebel 
thAkurs at Ndgaur ; and Raja MAn Singh thus established him- 
self ; though the dissensions between the chief and his principal 
clansmen continued imtil his death. In 1814, Amir Khdn again 
entered the country, overran it, and murdered ia the Jodhpur 
fort the Raja's spiritual director, Deonath, with the Dewdn 
Indraj. This murder of a most holy man, the chief of the power- 
ful order of the Ndths, overwhelmed Mdn Singh with horror : 
he became a recluse, abandoned all power to the Ndths, and 
lived like an ascetic devotee, feigning madness. At length he 
was recommended to nominate his only son, Chatar Singh, as 
his successor, to which he acceded. The minister of the young 
prince sent envoys to Delhi to seek an alliance with the British 
Government; and ia January 1818, at the commencement of 
the Pinddri war, a treaty was concluded by which Jodhpur 
was taken under the protection of the British Government. 
Chatar Singh died shortly after the conclusion of the treaty, where- 
upon his father threw off the mask of insanity and resumed the 



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( 236 ) 

administration. Internal dissensions, howerer, continued; and in 
1839, in consequence of disputes with the nohles, and the entire 
subjection of the Maharaja to the priestly influence of the Ndths,* 
the misgovemment of Jodhpur became such that the British 
Government was compelled to interfere. A force was marched to 
Jodhpur, of which it held military occupation for five months, 
and Mdn Singh executed a personal engagement to eaasure future 
good government. Mdn Singh died in 1843 without natural heirs 
and without having adopted a son. He was the last descendant of 
Abhai Singh, and the succession now lay between the chiefs of 
Edar and Ahmadnagar in Gujardt in the Bombay Presidency. 
Edar was the nearest of kin ; but the selection being left to the 
widows, nobles, and State officials, they chose Takht Singh of 
Ahmadnagar, whom, with his son Jeswant Singh, they invited to 
Jodhpur. Owing to constant disputes between the Darbdr and 
the tMkurs, the affairs of Marwar remained in an unsatisfactory 
state during the administration of Maharaja Takht Singh ; but he 
was a loyal chief, and did good service during the Mutinies. He 
died in February 1873, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Maharaja Jeswant Singh, the present ruler of Marwar. 

'Form of Government. — ^The ruler of Marwar is styled Maha- 
raja, and holds that position as head of the clan of Bahtors, 
whose ancestors first conquered the country and who have ever 
since possessed it. The constitution has hitherto generally been 
described as feudal, but exception has been taken to this term by 
recent writers of authority, and it may be better explained by 
calling it that of a tribal suzerainty rapidly passing into the 
feudal stage. The institutions of Marwar are highly favor- 
able to general peace and the protection of personal property, 
provided that the tribal chiefs live in harmony with their 
suzerain and with one another ; for there is a chain of autho- 
rity running from the ruler to the possessor of a circle of 
a hundred villages, and of one village, and of well mounted 
and armed troops stationed throughout the country, which must 
bid defiance either to foreign or domestic aggression. The 
rights of all classes of the agricultural commimity are weR- 
defined, understood, and thoroughly respected, except in periods 
of anarchy or misrule. The pat^t, or tribal chief of any magni- 

* Mdn Sipgh had always been at variance with Maharaja Bhlm Singh ; he had long held 
Jalor in spite of frequent attacks made against him^ but was reduced to the last extremity, and on 
the eve of surrendering himself and Jalor, when he was relieved from his perilous situation by the 
death of Bhlm Singh. He attributed his escape to the intercession of B,jogi, or holy man, named 
Deonath — ^the proenomen signifying the deity, and the latter a tribe of Gosains ; for whilst con- 
sulting him on capitulating, Deonath cried out " Wait for a day or two : I will bring about your deli- 
verance." After that, Mdn Singh deserted the religion of his forefathers, and Deonath became his 
divinity and steward of all spiritual mysteries, or his faith, and thus it was that the N^ths obtained 
such influence over him. 



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( 237 ) 

iide, is the ruler of his estate, and the judge ahnost exclusirely 
1 aU matters of civil and criminal jurisdiction over his people, 
^he duty has descended from father to son for a period generally 
f some himdreds of years ; all parties are hound together hy a 
ense of present interest and past advantage ; so that, in addition 
what has heen considered hy the first authorities as the hul- 
rark of the rights of the people of India, the village community, 
he people of Marwar have a conamunity of villages belonging to 
ach patdit, and a community of patdits, all liiJced together in 
. chain of common defence against the despotism of the throne^ 
nd foreign aggression. The thdkurs of Marwar owe military 
ervice to their suzerain, and exact the same from their brethren 
whom assignments of land have been made ; and these form their 
oUowing, the whole constituting the following of the suzerain 
limselL The thdkur and his brethren are entitled to the Gk)v- 
mment share of the produce from those, either proprietors or 
ithers, who cultivate the land ; and these small possessions are, in 
he opinion of those who have had opportunities of judging, better 
aanaged than the fiscal lands, and the people happier under 
hem. The fiscal lands are managed by hdkims, appointed and 
emoved at the pleasure of the chief or his minister, who exercise 
or the time the same jurisdiction in these lands as the thdkur 
loes permanently over his estate, and, as the general conservators 
>i the peace, a certain degree of authority over the thdkurs them- 
elves. The actual fiscal lands in Marwar hardly amount to a 
ifth of those in the possession of thdkurs and jdgirddrs, and are 
lot so well managed ; yet everywhere the right of Government to 
b certain money rate, or share of the produce, is so well understood 
hat the agricultural classes everywhere live in comparative 
ecurity. In fine, there is no conamunity so exclusively tribal, and 
mder such mixed jurisdiction, as that of Marwar. The Maharaja, 
ls the tribal suzerain, often finds it diflScult to pass a decision or 
five directions in cases coming before him, mainly owing to his 
)osition, which is that of one exercising limited jurisdiction over 
/U aristocracy consisting principally of his brethren and kinsmen. 
Administrative Sub-divisions. — ^The administrative sub-divi- 
ions of Marwar are twenty-one in number, each presided over 
y a hdkim. 

The Land. 

Principal Crops. — The principal rain-crops grown are pulses 
nd millets, bdjrd, mot, til, and jowdr ; the first two are exten- 
ively produced in the sandy tracts: the former is sown as 
arly as possible, even in May, should any rain fall in that month ; 
lie latter in August : the former takes three months, the latter 



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( 238 ) 

six weeks> to ripen. Besides these cereals, large quantities of 
melons are grown, wMch supply food for a considerable portion of 
the year, and, when abundant, are allowed to be plucked by any 
passer-by, and even the cattle are fed on them ; the seeck are 
dried, ground, and mixed with flour for food. In the fertile por- 
tion of Marwar, enclosed within the branches of the Liini, wheat 
and barley are produced in considerable quantities : these are 
sown in October, and reaped generally in March and April. Cot- 
ton is occasionally seen near wells, but the staple is generally 
poor. Opiimi is cultivated in the south-east portion of the district 
m the vicinity of the ArvaU range of hills, where the water is 
sweet and the soil rich. Tobacco and sugarcane are also, but 
not extensively, grown. 

Agriculture. — In the sandy parts of Marwar the rain sinks 
into the soil and does not flow off the surface, so that a very small 
rainfall suffices for the crops. "When the rainy season commences^ 
the sandhills are ploughed by camels, and the seed planted very 
deep in the ground. After it has sprouted, a few showers, at 
long intervals, bring it to maturity, and, as the Ught-built desert- 
camels walk quickly, each householder is able to put a large 
extent of ground under crop. The produce in a favorable season 
is more than is necessary for the wai^its of the population ; but, 
unfortimately, the means of storing grain are difficult to procure, 
as burnt earthen vessels for the purpose have to be brought from 
long distances ; the surplus produce is therefore frequently left 
on the ground to be eaten by cattle. The k^rbi, or bljr^ stalks, 
which make excellent food for cattle> are little heeded in good 
years when rich grass is plentiful. Generally speaking, neither 
kdrbi nor grass is cut or stacked as a provision against bad 
seasons. 

The most fertile districts of Marwar are — (1) Godwdr, (2) 
Sojat, (3) Jetdran, (4) Maroth. Wells with abundant supplies 
of good water are to be found in each, and both spring and 
autumn crops are grown. After these come — (1) Merta, (2) 
Jdlor, (3) Jodhpur, (4) Sachor, (5) Ndgaur. In one-half of each 
of these districts, where weHs are plentiful, both spring and 
autumn crops are raised ; in the other half, and in all the other 
districts of Marwar where the crops are dependent on the rainfall 
alone, and where there are no wells or other modes of irrigatiouj^ 
only autumn crops are grown. 

Irrigation. — ^Large naasonry bunds are scarce in Marwar, but 
the cultivating classes are very careful to make the best use 
they can of the scanty rainfall which is usually their lot. A 
number of them join together and enclose as much land as they 
can with a small earthen eanbankmeat^ which they surround 



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( 239 ) 

}homs to prerent the ingress of aniinals; the water is allowed 
lect for three months, and the soil is then thoroughly 
bted, and produces, without further irrigation, good crops 
leat. Irrigation is also extensively carried on, by both 
in and ordinary wells, where the water is not more than 
et in depth; beyond that depth, well irrigation is not 
able. 

and'Bevenue. — ^No tmiform system of assessment prevails 
[arwar; it varies in different districts; but one-third of 
actual produce is the prevailing rate. In Ndgaur the land 
\ one luxuriant rain-crop, of which the extreme share of 
alf falls to the landlord. In the Thull, or sandy portions of 
fcate, where labour is scarce, and where the ground yields 
3tnd uncertain returns, the landlord's share sometimes falls 
w as one-fourteenth. There are different modes in which 
>arbdr or the jAgirddr's portion of the produce of the soil is 
ed from the cultivator. They are as follows : — 
irst : the Idta mode. — ^All the produce of the harvest is reaped 
ollected at one, two, or more places close to the village ; and, 
threshing-out, the Darbdr portion is taken in kind on the 
having been duly measured or weighed. 
3Cond : the kunta mode. — ^The same process is gone through, 
this difference, that the Darbdr portion of the produce is 
L by guess or calculation, without imdergoing the process of 
iment or measurement. This is an unpopular mode, against 
bi the cultivators generally complain. 

hird: the kdnkar kunta mode. — ^The total amount of the 
ice of the harvest is calculated while the crops are standing, 
;he Darbdr portion, in kind or in cash, taken on the strength 
at calculation. 

'ourth : the mukata mode. — By this mode a fixed rate per bigha 
ish is realized from the cultivators. These rates vary for 
:ent kinds of produce. 

'if th : the bighari mode. — ^By this mode a fixed rate per bigha, 
measurement, is levied, in cash or in kind, 
ixth : the gugari mode. — ^By this mode a fixed amount of 
ace in kind is received, generally from well lands. 
>f these six modes, the first is the most acceptable to the 
vators. 

'he village officials are as follows t-r-Pirst, the havilddr, or 
3r of trust, who collects the revenues for the Darbdr or for 
dglrddr, and is also the police officer of the village : second, 
[itnwarid, who guards the fields, and prevents the cultivators 
. stealing the com : third, the taf addr, who receives, and is 
)nsible for, the accounts of the Darbdr portion of the 



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( 240 ) 

produce; this official is sent, when the whole produce of the 
village is collected at one place, to receive the Darbdr portion of 
the same : fourth, the toldvati, who measures or weighs the 
produce. These officials are nominated by the Darbdr, or the 
3dgirddr, as the case may be, and are paid by the villagers. 

In addition to the above, the other officials are — the chaudhri, 
the patwdri, and the bdmbhi. These offices are not hereditary, 
and the jdgirdar can nominate any one he likes to them. During 
the periods these persons hold their appointments, they enjoy 
certain privileges and immunities for which they pay something ' 
in cash yearly to the jdgirddr. 

Land-Tenures. — There are altogether 3,600 villages, including 
those of Mallani, now under British management, in Marwar ; of 
these, 2,158 are said to belong to Eahtors, descendants of the origi- 
nal conquerors of the country, who hold their lands by right of 
consanguinity to the ruling chief, and pay a military cess and 
succession-tax as detailed below. Pour hundred villages are held 
by Edjpiits of other clans, such as Bhdttis, Chohdns, Tu^, Indars, 
&c. These, for the most part, occupy under bhiim tenures, paying 
only a small annual sum in the shape of what is locally known as 
faujbal, or tribute. The Bhdttis, as a rule, possess their villages 
from having formed marriage-ties with the families of the rulers 
of Marwar. Chohdns, Tudrs, Indars, and others, date further 
back, and are generaUy descendants of those who held estates 
prior to the occupation of the country by the Rahtors, and whose 
rights have ever since been upheld. These thdkurs are better off 
than the first described, for the amount of tribute in no case 
equals that of rekh^ or military cess ; and succession-fees are not 
paid. This leaves but 942 villages for the fisc, out of which 
have to be deducted estates bestowed on members of the family 
of the ruling chief, charitable grants, and villages awarded for 
service. 

Thakurs of Mallani, the descendants of Mallindth, who 
conquered lands for themselves, and have remained semi-inde- 
pendent, pay tribute only. The estates of the principal feuda- 
tories are given alphabetically, viz. : Ahor, Alaniawds, Asop, Auwd, 
Bagri, Balunda, Bhakri, Budsa, Chdnaud, Chandawal, Gh^erao, 
Harsauld, Jaula, Khejurla, Kherwa, Khinwasar, Kuchdman, 
Mdroth, Mithri, Nimbdj, Pokaran, Raepur, Eds, Edyan, Eohat. 
These estates vary in value from a lakh down to fifteen 
thousand rupees. The thdkurs, being all off-shoots from the 
rulers of Marwar at different times, are semi-independent, 
very conservative, and, as a rule, extremely loyal to the head of 
their house. Por their fiefs they pay a yearly military cess called 
rekh^ which is supposed to be 8 per cent, of the gross rental 



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( 241 ) 

Talue of the estate; they have also to furnish one horsemaA for 
every thousand rupees' worth of rekh j and where the rekh of an 
estate is less than Rs. 1,000, one foot-soldier has to be provided. 
When a thdkur dies, his heir has to pay a succession-tax. In 
direct descent the Darbdr takes three-fourths of the gross rental 
of the estate, leaving one-fourth for the support of the heir, 
who is absolved from giving service for that year. Where an 
adopted son succeeds, the Darbdr takes as wicces»ion-tax the 
whole of the revenue of the estate for one year, and no service 
is exacted. 

The lands of a village, partially or wholly, are of the following 
denominations : — ^The bd,pi, the mangli, the hdsili, the sdsan or 
the doli, the pusditd, the jdgirl, and the bhi^. The tenures^ 
under which these lands are held, are not alike throughout the 
coxmtry, and, though generally similar in their main features, 
they vary in different districts, according to the custom which 
has for long prevailed in each. 

The description of these lands is as follows :— 

The bdpi land, or lands of ancestral inheritance, from h&p, a 
father (or fatherland). This title is invariably conferred upon 
lands either by the Darbdr or by the jdgirddr, tmder the following 
circumstances : — ^ 

Eirst, when a cultivator at his own private and exclusive 
expense has dug a well, with the permission of the Darbdr or of 
the jdglrddr, the title of bdpi is conferred upon the lands to be 
irrigated by that i^ell, in consideration of the expense incurred by 
the cultivator and the future rental benefits that are to accrue 
therefrom to the Darbdr or to the jdgfrddr. In virtue of this 
title, these lands become the perpetual inheritance of the 
cultivator, and cannot, except on some strong State grounds, 
be resumed. He can sell these lands, or dispose of them in any 
way he may be inclined. If the owner of such lands ever 
happens to migrate for some years to a foreign country, or if 
he has not sufficient means to bring them under cultivation, 
the Darbdr or the jdgfrddr is entitled, in consideration of its, 
or his, own interests, to cultivate them, or to cause them to 
be cidtivated by others, on the payment of a certain rent 
to be paid to the owner on his return. Only when the 
owner of such lands dies without leaving any heir behind 
biTn can these lands be appropriated by the Darbdr or the 
jdgirddr, or made over to any other person under the same 
tenure or any other in vogue in the village. No portion of 
such lands can be given in charity by the owner, such alienation 
bemg strictly forbidden. It must, however, be understood that 
these bdpi lands are not exempt from the payment of customary 



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(242 ) 



ijents to the Darb&r, or to the j&gird&r, as the case may be. The 
Jats of N^gaur, and the Paliwdl Brdhmans of Merta in general, 
hold such lands, and more or less the same tenure prevails in other 
districts of Marwar. 

Secondly, when a cultivator has constructed an embankment 
with the object of fertilizing his fields and those of his neighbours, 
he secures the title of b^pi to the lands lying in the vicinity of 
that embankment, for the same reasons, and subject to the same 
terms, as stated above. 

Thirdly, when a cultivator, with the permission of the DarbSr, 
or of the j^gird^-r, has peopled a deserted site within his village, 
and at his own risk has brought the land around that site under 
cultivation, the title of bapi is conferred upon such lands. 

Fourthly, the Darbar and the jagirdars can also confer this title 
upon certain lands, on their receiving a lump sum for the same 
from the cultivator, or on the promise of payment of an enhanced 
rate of rent in perpetuity. 

Mangli lands. — ^When bdpi lands are held by Brdhmans, they 
are called mangli, the term mangli meaning ^ propitious.^ The 
change of designation, however, makes no difference in their 
conditions or the obligations attached to them. 

Hdsili, or lands subject to assessments. — ^These form the major 
portion of the lands belonging to a village, and can change hands 
at the option of the Darbdr or of the jdgirddr. The jdgirddr or 
the Darbdr is also entitled to determine the rates of assessments 
on these lands as his interests may dictate. 

Sdsan lands (sdsan is a Sanskrit word signifying * order'). — 
These lands are granted for charitable purposes, both by the Darbdr 
and by the great jdgirddrs, for which it is necessary to secure a 
Raj sanad. Such lands are invariably exempt from all kinds of 
assessments, and it is considered highly sacrilegious to resume 
them. If cultivated by the owner, he is entitled to enjoy the whole 
produce ; but if by any other, he, the owner, can claim only a 
portion of the produce according to the terms of agreement between 
him and the cultivator. These lands may be sold by the owner, 
but only in the absence of any heir to claim them can they lapse 
to the Darbdr or to the jagirddr. 

Doli lands. — These are lands generally given in charity by the 
jdgirddr only. No Raj sanad is necessary for these grants, 
which, however, are considered as sacred as the sasan grants, and 
held equally exenipt from all kinds of taxes or assessment. 

Pusaitd (a local term for * rent free ') lands are generally given 
by the jdgirddr to those whom he employs in his service. They 
can be resumed by the jdgirddr at any time when he dispenses 



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( 245 ) 

with the serrices of his servants. They are held exempt from all 
assessments or taxes. 

Jdgfri lands. — ^When the Darb&r or the great sirdArs resume 
any village from its jdgirddr, the latter, in consideration of his 
previous position, is allowed to retain some lands, free of rent, to 
be tilled by him, or by his tenants. These lands are held exempt 
from any kind of tax, and the owner is allowed to enjoy the 
iisufruct for generations, provided he conducts himself peaceably, 

Bhiim lands. — ^These are of various descriptions : — 

Pirst, the lands given by the Darbdr or by the j&girA&r to any 
one for important services rendered to the State or callage, or for 
the protection of the village. Such lands are exempt from all 
kinds of taxes or fees, except thebhiimbdb (which is no more than 
a mild form of tribute), to be levied from them yearly. Treason 
against the State, or the commission of a heinous crime, can alone 
justify the Darb^r in resuming these lands. 

Secondly, lands peopled and brought imder cultivation by some 
enterprising persons are allowed to be enjoyed by them in perpe- 
tuity. A fixed tribute, named dumba, is paid yearly to the j%ir- 
ddr within whose estate the land comprising the bhtim is situated. 
These lands are also exempt from any other tax or service, and 
continue to be enjoyed by the owner for generations, provided he 
conducts himself peaceably. This kind of tenure mostly prevails 
in Godwdr. 

Thirdly, lands or villages seized upon, or conquered, ^wan7y, 
and successively enjoyed for a series of generations, without being 
renewed or disturbed even during a change of government, also 
constitute bhtim. Such bhiims are mostly found to exist in Jdlor 
and Godwdr, and are by far the most important of all. They are 
exempt from all kinds of taxes ; only a fixed sum, named faujbal, 
is levied from them yearly. They cannot be resumed except on 
the grounds stated above. It wiU be thus seen that the position 
which the bhiimids in general hold is more important and durable 
than that enjoyed by the jdgirddrs, and they may fairly be said 
to be the undisputed lords of the soil over which they preside or 
rule. 

There is also the ndnkdr tenure — from ndn, * bread ;* and kdr, 
' working ;* or working for bread. Eight or ten villages in the Merta 
pargana are held imder this tenure, chiefly by Rdjptits, who possess 
them in perpetuity, and no tax of any kind is levied by the Darbdr. 

Proprietary and Cultivating Classes. — ^The proprietary classes 
have been described above. The principal cultivating classes are — 
Jdts, Sirwis, Bishnawis, Pitals, Edjpiits, and Muhammadans of 
the country, such as Kdim Khdrds, who enjoy grants of land which 



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( 244 ) 

they till themselves. The first named are said by Tod to comprise 
five-eighths of the whole class of inhabitants* 

Population. 

Population. — Marwar is peopled by Rdjpdts (the conquerors 
and possessors of the soil), by Chdrans, Bhdts, Jdts, Bishnawis, 
Minas and Bhils (the aboriginal inhabitants), and by the usual 
mixed Hindu population, with a sparse number of Muhamma- 
dans. The Chdrans, a sacred race, hold large religious grants 
of land, and enjoy pectdiar immunities as traders in local 
produce. The Bhats are by profession genealogists, but also 
engage in trade. The Minas, Bauris, and Bhils are predatory 
classes, but are employed in menial capacities. The Muham- 
madans are principsdly soldiers, the word sipdhi being used in 
Marwar as a Mughal word, to designate a Muhammadan, The 
Marwaris, as a race, are enterprising and industrious ; the agricul- 
tural classes, having to undergo great privations from poor food 
and often bad water, and living on a poor soil, are trained in a 
Bevere school of hardship and patient endurance. Marwari 
traders are to be found in all the chief cities of South and West 
India. In the pursuit of trade they quit their homes for years, 
only revisiting them on occasions of marriages or of family con- 
cerns. No census of the population has ever been taken, but it 
has been roughly calculated at about 2,850,000, of whom 86 per 
cent, are said to be flindus, 10 per cent. Jains, and 4 per cent. 
Muhammadans. Supposing the nimiber of inhabitants to be 
tolerably correct, this would make a total of 77*02 to the square 
mile; and local authorities calculate the E/ahtor population as 
200,000, which gives a percentage of 3*40. 

Castes^ ClanSj and Tribes. — ^The principal Hindu castes are as 
follows (the list received from well-informed local authorities 
gives the precedence first to Brdhmans, second to other religious 
sects, and third to BAjputs) : — 

Brdhmans are divided into the following sects: — ^Tailang, 
Parik, Sankhwdl, Graur, Kanaujid, Pushkama, Sawug, Srimdli, 
Sdrswat, Khandelwdl, Sarwarid, Gujardti, Purohit, Daima, Gujar* 
gor, Sundwar, Nadwdni, Sdchora, Pdliwdl. 

The other reKgious sects, Bhikhd6vi, are as follows : — Sodmi, 
Jdti, Sddh, Mahdtmd, Ndth, Dhundia. 

Rdjptits are divided into the following gots : — Itahtors, Bhattis, 
Pudrs, Ohohdns, Gehlot, Tudr, Kachhwdha, Dewals, Solankhi, 
Purihars, with whom are the Indars, Dodhia, Goyal, Gaur, Bargti- 
jar. Next to Bdjpiits in order of precedence come Charans, Bhats, 
and then Mahajans, of whom there are nine different sections, viz.^ 



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( 245 ) 

Oswdl, Mahesri, Aganvdl, Porwdl, Siimdl, Srisrimdl, Vijdwargi, 
Saraogi. 

After the Maliajans come all the other Hindu castes not men- 
tioned above ; a Kst of most of them is given in the Mallani por- 
tion of this Gazetteer ; only those not mentioned there being en- 
tered here — ^Motesar, a caste of beggars peculiar to Marwar, who 
receive largess from Bhdts and Chdnins on occasion of marriages 
in their families; Pancholi, local name for Kdyaths; Khatri 
(mahajans) ; Sirwi, a cultivating class ; Gujar, also a cultivating 
class; Tirwdri, a kind of Chi^ran; Rdwal (buffoons); Chdkar 
(domestic servants to Rdjptits) ; Mehra, same as Kahdrs ; 
Bdri, makers of the small cups constructed of leaves, used for 
holding various articles of food ; Bharbhunjd (grain-parchers) ; 
Baid, a low caste ; Kharwdl, men employed on salt-works ; Belddr ; 
Dabgar, makers of the large camel-leather kiipis, or Jars in which 
ghee is carried ; GhAnchA, basket-manufacturers ; Jdgri, beaters 
of the small drum used at native dances ; Gwdrid, rope-makers ; 
Mer, inhabitant of Merwara; Ndt, gipsy; Mina, the well-known, 
predatory class ; Gururd, the priest of Chamdrs ; Bauri, another 
predatory class, employed also as chaukidars on the principle 
*^ set a thief to watch a thief ;" Bdgri, a somewhat similar caste 
to Bauris ; Satid, a low caste ; Sdnsi, a predatory caste ; Dhdnkd^ 
a low caste. 

Meligion. — Of the Hindu population, 45 per cent, are follow- 
ers of Vishnu, 36 per cent. Devimats, more properly called Sdktas, 
or the worshippers of Sdkti, the female principle; they also call 
themselves Bdm-Mdrgis, from bdm (4eft ') and mdrgis (* travellers 
along a road ' — ^frommdrg * road'), the real meaning being * those 
who do not walk straight.' The Devimats or Saktas form secret 
societies, most of their rehgious rites being carefully kept from 
the knowledge of the uninitiated. The Shivites are said to num- 
ber only 5 per cent., and the Jains 10 per cent., of the population. 
The principal local saints of Marwar are — Rdmdeo, Harbu, 
Pabu, Goga, and Mahir-Monglid. iEach of these saints has 
large numbers of disciples. There are also the Bishnawis, follow- 
ers of Jdmba, Dddu Panths, and Rdmsandhis. The above are all 
included in the total population of Marwar as amongst the wor- 
shippers of Vishnu. 

State of Society. — ^The family deity of the rulers of Marwar 
was, in the Sat Yug or first Hindu epoch, Mansd Devi ; in the 
DwdparYug (second epoch), Pankhdni; in the Titd Yug (third 
epoch), Rdshtarsend; and in the present or Kali Yug (fourth 
epoch), Ndganechi. The legend is as follows : — The authors of the 
human race were Mdyd (literally, ' mother'), a female deity, and 



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(246 ) 

Brdhm (the creator). In the Sat Tug, or first epoch, the female 
deity was called Mansd (as at her desire the world was formed). 
In the second epoch her name was changed to Pankhdni, or winged 
goddess, because she had of her own will become changed into a 
falcon. In the third epoch, she took the name of Rashtarsend 
(rdshtar meaning the world, and send a falcon), and in this 
form remained hovering over, and protectress of, the world. 
The real title of the Marwar Bdjputs was " Rdshtwar," now 
corrupted to Rahtor. The name arose from the goddess Rdsh- 
tarsend bestowing her 'car (blessing) on that sect of the human 
race now called Rahtors, hence their original name Rdshtwar or 
Rashtarwar. In the present epoch, or KaK Tug, the tutelary 
deity's name was again changed to Ndganechi, The reason given 
for this change is as follows : — ^When Duhar, the grandson of 
Shivaji (the original founder of the Rahtor dynasty in Marwar), 
succeeded his father as ruler of the land of Kher, he went to the 
Karndtak, where the Rahtors ruled previous to becoming kings 
, of Kanauj, for the purpose of bringing the image of the goddess 
Rdshtarsend from her temple there to his own country of Kher ; 
but when the cart containing the goddess reached the village of 
Ndgana of Marwar, the vehicle came to a stand-stiU, Upon this, 
Duhar concluded that the goddess wished to take up her abode 
there, so he built a temple for her reception at Ndgana, and placed 
the goddess in it (the temple is still existing in this village) ; her 
name then became Ndganechi or Ndganake (resident of Ndgana). 
There are several temples to this goddess in Marwar. 

J)arhdr ceremonies. — ^The following are some of the customs of 
the Marwar Court: — ^The highest honor the Maharaja bestows on 
a visitor is to receive and dismiss him standing, and raise his right 
hand a little on his arrival and departure ; to the next in rank, the 
Maharaja rises both on arrival and departure of the visitor ; there 
is, again, a third grade of visitors, on the arrival (not departure) of 
whom the Maharaja rises. All the aristocracy of Marwar precede 
the Maharaja in processions ; on such occasions it is considered a 
mark of high honor for the chief to stop and receive the salute 
of any particular person joining the procession. The great drum 
beats four times every night in the fort at Jodhpur at fixed times, 
and it is considered a mark of high honor and respect to stop the 
beat of the drum once out of the four times, on the occasion 
of the death of any of the principal thdkurs. On the demise of 
any of the principal thdkurs or hereditary officials of the State, 
the Maharaja pays a visit of condolence to the families of the 
deceased at their homes. 

Six grand Darbdrs are held during the year by the Maharaja, 
viz.^ on the festiyals of Akhetij, Das^ra, Dewdli, BLoli, Barasgdnth 



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( 247 ) 

(annirersary of the chiefs birthday), and Edkhipunam. At the 
first four festivals the Maharaja, and the principal thdknrs, sitting 
according to their rank, dine together in one room (the Maharaja 
being the host) ; but the food is served on separate dishes. 
Except on Akhetij and Edkhipiinam, nazars are ojffered to, and 
accepted by, the chief. 

On the birth of an heir to the gadi^ an inferior class known as 
Bdris make an impression of the newly-born child's foot on a piece 
of cloth with saffron, and this piece of cloth is exhibited to the 
aristocracy of Marwar, and to the chief of Kishangarh, from 
whom they receive largess in return for the good news they 
convey. When an heir is bom to the gadi of Kishangarh, the 
cloth with the mark of the child's foot is brought by the Bdris to 
the Jodhpur chief, thus notifying the intimate connection between 
the two princes. 

Ceremony of Installation to the gadi of Marwar. — ^The prince 
to be installed has to fast the day preceding the ceremony. 
On the day of the ceremony the chief Brdhmans assemble in the 
fort to invoke the deity for a blessing on the proceedings ; the 
chief then bathes in the sacred waters of the Ganges, Junma, and 
Pushkar lake, brought for the purpose. Gan^h, Shiva, Vishnu, 
Brdhma, and other gods are propitiated in the presence of the 
prince. Afterwards weapons of war, viz.j swords, shields, and guns, 
also the royal insignia, umbrella, sceptre, and standard, and the 
DarbAr horse and elephants, are worshipped. This ceremony is 
termed Bajesar. When this has been done, the chief, arrayed in 
his State dress, takes his seat on the gadi, which is placed on a 
raised marble platform known as Singhdr Ohauki. The thdkur 
of Bagri then comes forward and binds on the sword of State, 
greeting the chief aloud with the words **May Jodhpur prove 
propitious to you 1" to which the Maharaja replies, " To you let 
Bagri prove propitious T' Meanwhile the Bids (Hindu priest) 
places the tilak (or mark of inauguration) on the forehead of the 
Maharaja. A salute of guns is fixed, and shouts of joy are imme- 
diately raised from all parts of the city. The newly-installed 
chief then rises from the gadi and takes his seat on another 
marble platform in a palace called the Daulat Khdna (or abode of 
wealth), where nazars are offered, and obeisance made, by all the 
jdglrddrs and State officials. The reason given for the Bagri 
thdkur*s investing the chiefs of Marwar with the sword is 
as follows : — ^During the life-time of Eao Sujd, his son (who was 
heir to the gadi) died, leaving two sons by two mothers — ^the elder 
Biram Deo, the younger Ganga. When BaoSujd was dying, 
several of the thdkurs of Marwar, who were then more nearly 
related to the chief than now, including Thdkur Pachden of 



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( 248 ) 

Bagri, came to the fort to enquire after the health of their chief. 
Having come off a long journey, they were famished, and sent to 
ask the mother of Biram Deo for food ; she returned an indig- 
nant reply to the effect that she was not an inn-keeper, and that 
food could not be cooked for them at that late hour. Gbnga's 
mother, hearing of this, not only prepared hot baths for 
the way-worn travellers, but also sent them a capital dinner. 
Whereupon Pachden (who was regarded by the others, being 
much the oldest, as wise and discreet), much pleased with the 
hospitality of Granga's, and indignant at the treatment of Biram 
Deo's, mother, offered his and lus comrades' swords to Ganga, and 
at Sujd's death installed him on the gadi^ superseding his elder 
brother. Erom that time the right of investing the heir to the 
gadi of Marwar with the sword has belonged to the thdkurs of 
Bagri. On occasions of great Darbdrs held by the Maharaja, no 
matter what chiefs of high rank are present, it is the rule for the 
ChampAwat, be he one of the highest or lowest of his clan, to 
offer his nazar before all others. The reason assigned for this 
is, that, on the death of Maharaja Jeswant Singh in A.D. 1681, 
beyond Attok, where he had been sent by the emperor Aurang- 
zeb, the latter seized the country of the Rahtors, and all the 
thdkurs had to flee for their lives. One of the ranis of Maharaja 
Jeswant Singh was pregnant at the time of her husband's death, 
and wished to become sati with his other rani and seven concu- 
bines, who immolated themselves with his pagri, or turban, 
which had been brought home from beyond Attok ; but, being 
in the seventh month of her pregnancy, she was prevented 
from so doing by Uda KimipAwat.. In due course she 
gave birth to Ajit, who for many years, during which the 
Muhammadans held the country, was protected in the hills of 
Marwar by Diirga Dds Kanot, whilst Mukimd Singh Champdwat, 
who was in the secret of his chief's hiding, acted as commander- 
in-chief of the forces, which ultimately raged successful warfare 
against the Muhammadans. Por this act of fidehty, the Cham- 
pdwats, to the present day, are looked upon as the first in the 
numerous Rahtor clan of Marwar. 

Amongst the families of influence inMarwar are the following:— 
Bhanddris, of the Oswdl sub-division of the Jains, have long 
held the highest posts in the State, viz.y those of dewdn, bakhshi, 
and the musdbat. Bhanddri B/Ughndth, during the time that 
Maharaja Ajit Singh was at Delhi, ruled Marwar in his master's 
name for many years. 

Mohnots, Osw^s, have held equally prominent positions with 
the Bhanddris. Mohnot Nainsi was a famous minister in the 
reign of Maharaja Jeswant Singh. 



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( 249 ) 

Singwi, Oswdls, have held the most important offices of State 
from Maharaja Mdn Singh's time to the present. 

Bakhshi Bhim Raj and Dewdns Ind Raj and Fateh Raj 
were conspicuous characters during Maharaja Mdn Singh's reign. 
The post of bakhshi has been hereditary in this family since the 
time of Maharaja Biji Singh. 

Muhtas, Oswdls, who came originally from Jdlor, have also 
filled the highest posts during the reigns of Maharaja Man Singh 
and Takht Singh. 

Lodh6s, Oswdl mahajans, have held offices of high position 
and honor, and have, on several occasions during the last two 
reigns, been entrusted with the post of Darb4r vakil, as also 
that of dewdn, 

Asopa Brdhmans have, since the time of Maharaja Bijai Singh, 
repeatedly held the important post of DarbAr vakil at the 
Maratha Court, and with the earlier British Residents at Delhi. 
Bishan Rdm, a member of this class, signed the first treaty 
between the British Government and the Marwar Darbdr. 

Pancholis or Kdyaths have held the posts of dewdn and bakhshi 
since the time of Maharaja Ajit Singh ; they are also the hereditary 
scribes (Hindi) and accountants of the State, and are employed 
in all offices. 

Pushkarna Brdhmans, members of which caste rose to emi- 
nence during the reign of Maharaja Takht Singh, and held the 
offices of dewdn and bakhshi. 

SabhAwat Rajputs are the hereditary deorhiddrs (literally, 
* door-keepers ') of the State ; they superintend all Darbdr cere- 
monials : all officials and others who desure to pay their respects 
to the Maharaja are introduced by, and all honorary dresses are 
presented through, them. 

There are two other important and hereditary offices of State- 
one that of Bias, the other Purohit. The former official must be 
a Brdhman of the first rank. He performs all the religious cere- 
monies in which the Maharaja himself has to take part, such as 
that of installation to the gad% marriages, &c. All gifts to 
Brdhmans are distributed through this functionary. The present 
holder of the office is Bias Biidh Ldl, whose ancestors have 
enjoyed the post for many years. 

The other official — ^termed Rajgur Purohit — ^performs all the 
ceremonies on occasions of deaths amongst members of the 
Maharaja's family. The present incumbent is Daulat Singh, to 
whom the post has descended from his ancestors. 

There are also hereditary Chdrans of the State. Of these, 
the families of Bdnkedas and Ohaendi,s are the first in rank; 
they hold the posts of bard, "and it is their duty to collect 



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( 250 ) 

and preserve the records of eacli reigning chief, and embody 
them in their histories, which is done both in prose and verse. 
They also compose odes commemorative of the most impor- 
tant passing events, which they recite before the Maharaja 
in darbdr. They receive rich gifts from the chiefs of the 
courts to which they belong, and the highest honors are 
paid to them. Kavi Raj Murdr Dhan, the present poet- 
lanreate of Marwar, is a grandson of the Bdnkedds above 
mentioned. The got of the Bids who performs all the religious 
ceremonies of the court is Sdndilia; that of the Rajgur Purohit, 
Bhardwdj. 

In the sandy portion of Marwar, beehive-shajied huts are 
generally seen, with the exception of the thdkur s residence, 
which in small villages is generally of mud with a thatch roof. 
The villages are enclosed with a strong fence of thorns to keep 
out wild animals and thieves. In many, the houses are built 
separately, and each has its own enclosure of thorns. Where this 
is the case, sanitation is easy, and these localities appear cleaner 
and neater than others. The middle classes generally dwell in 
houses constructed of mud with thatch roofs ; those of the 
mahajans are frequently of stone and mortar ; whilst in some vill» 
ages the thdkur*s house is a handsome, well-constructed residence. 

The lower classes of Marwar are generally temperate, 
laborious, and economical ; their dress is of the simplest kind ; 
as a rule, they partake of two meals a day, consisting of bread, 
vegetables (generally dried), and curds and milks. Their houses 
usually contain nothing but a limited number of cooking utensils, 
and several sleeping-cots ; carpets or rugs are rarely used ; the 
people sit on the bare ground. ^ 

The trading class are bankers and merchants. Marwaris are 
scattered all over India, and are a most enterprizing class, amassing 
often great wealth. Though visiting their native country seldom 
and at long intervals, they are most loyal to the rule of the State. 
When the late chief Maharaja Takht Singh died, every Marwari in 
Calcutta and Bombay shaved his head and face as a mark of 
mourning. The principal cultivators are Jdts, Sirwis, Bishnawis, 
Pitals, Rdjptits, and Muhammadans of the country, such as 
Kdim Khanis who enjoy grants of lands. These latter, however, 
after their agricultural labours are over, lead very idle lives, 
passing their time in their own houses, or in some public spot 
smoking and gossiping. The women, on the contrary, work hard, 
being employed in drawing water, for which they often have 
to go rery long distances ; cooking, dressing their com, spinning, 
and lookmg after the cattle on their return from grazing. They 
also work, in the fields. 

Gl 



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( 251 ) 

The people of Marwar are described, by one who has long lit^ed 
amongst them, as generally laborious, frugal, comparatively well- 
to-do, and physically s1ax)ng. 

Customs of marriage and inheritances — ^Although, according 
to Hindu law, it is strictly forbidden to take money on the occasion 
of the marriage of a daughter^ yet three-fourths of the Bdjpiit 
population, and nearly all of the other aects of Hindus in Marwar, 
«et this law at defiance ; and, in the lower grades of society^ the 
toother of the bride often receives large sums of money from the 
bridegroom, especially when he is much older than the bride* 

Ceremonies of betrothal vary in different castes. Among 
Edjpiits and ChArans it is customary for the contracting parties to 
partake of opium together in the presence of a few members of 
their caste, when the betrothal is verbally completed. Amongst the 
Tailang Br&hmans the &i^er of the proposed bridegroona sends a 
handkerchief to be placed on the head of the girl. It is usual 
amongst SArswat Brdhmans for the &ther of the intended bride 
to pla^ a ring on the finger of the proposed bridegroom ; whilst^ 
amongst other Brdhman sects, the father of tiie girl to be 
betrothed gives fruit, raw sugar, cocoanut^ &c», to the other 
party, or vice versfd. Amongst the Osw61 mahajans the bride- 
groom's friends send a garland of flowers and a ring for the bride ; 
other mahajans exchange raw sugar and cocoanuts in confiirma- 
tion of the betrothal. ^ Amcm^t the JatiA Ktimh^, the binding 
of a thread on the bride's wnst is the chief custom^ Amongst 
all other classes an exchange of raw sugar and cocoanut con- 
firms the betrothal. When the marriage ceremony takes place> 
the bridegroom, accompanied by his male companions, goes to the 
bride's house, whilst entering which the Brdhmans repeat verses 
from the sacred Yedas, and invoke the gods and planets ; the 
bridegroom then clasps the bride's hand in his, and together they 
walk four times round a fire lit in the centre of the room ; for 
three times the bride precedes her husband, and on the fourth 
follows him. Amongst the Srimdli Brdhmans it is customary, on 
the morning after the first CCTemony, for the bridegroom to carry 
his bride four times round the fire% With Maheswdris and 
PanchoUs, again, when the bridegroom enters the bride's house^ 
the bride's maternal uncle takes her in his arms and walks seven 
times round the bridegroom. 

Except amongst the higher classes, such as Brdhmans, Maha- 
jans, and well-bom Bdjpiits, widows are generally allowed to re?, 
marry ; divorces are permissible and are common. ^ 

The laws of inheritance in Marwar differ ; that of primogeni- 
ture principally prevails. In many States there are certain lands 
or villages which are ostensibly the recognized portions of younger 



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( 252 ) 

sons. The share of a younger son is not fixed, but it is always 
more than mere food and clothes, except during the life of the 
father. On the father*s death the younger son's share to a 
portion of patrimony (though only perhaps a few fields) is always 
allowed. 

With some of the thdkurs of Mallani, however, and other 
relatives of Rao Mallin^th, an equal division of the pro- 
perty takes place amongst all the sons at the father's death. 
Lands held under pusditd, bhiim, sdsan, and j^giri tenures (see 
under head of "Land-Tenures") are equally divided amongst all the 
sons. Amongst Br^hmans, banyas, the lower (Mrder of Rdjptits, and 
aU others of the Hindu community, property, whether moveable 
or immoveable, is equally divided amongst all the sons on the 
death of the father. The same custom prevails amongst Jdts^ 
the most important cultivating class in Marwar ; and when a 
J^t has no son of his own„ he may make his son-in-law his heir, 
provided the latter agrees to reside for the remainder of his life in 
his deceased father-in-law^s house. As a rulie, daughters'* soos do 
not inherit; but the Srimffi Brdhmans, failing male issue of their 
own, adopt daughters' sons — ^a practice allowable by the Hindu 
law-givers of olden times. 

Occupations. — ^He majority of the population of Marwar are 
by occupation cultivators. There are workers in ivory, dyers, 
potters, barbers, carpenters, oilmen,, domestic servants, goldsmiths,, 
dealers in lac, blacksmiths, tailors, washennen, liquor-sellers, 
bearers, chintz-printers, milk and butter sellers, betel-seUers, steel- 
sharpeners, diggers, grain-parchersj^ braziers^ bards, masons,, &c.. 

Trade. 

Manufactures and Trade. — ^The manufactures of Marwar are 
of no great importance in a commerciail point of view. Turbans 
for men, and scarves for women, which are peculiar to this part 
of the country, are dyed and prepared with much labour for 
wearing, by Ohadwas and Khatris. An embroidered siUc knotted 
thread for wearing on the turban, GaXiQA.phulmdldy also peculiar to 
Marwar, is made by Osw^ mahajans. Those who are engaged in 
this work are called patwas. 

Jamdanis, leather boxes for holding clothes, are extensively 
made in Jodhpor by Mochis ; they cost from two to five rupees. 

Snuff is made by Khatris in the city of Jodhpur, and i» 
exported ; it sells at from one-quarter to three-quarters of a seer 
for the rupee. 

At Ndgaur, iron wires for the native setdr (a guitar of three 
strings) are made by ironmongers j this wire sometimes sells at 
thirty-two rupees a tola. 



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( 253 ) 

Arrows arc made by a class of Muliammadans who are known 
from their trade as tirgars. 

Ivory toys are also extensively made at Ndgaur by Chiirigars, 
and exported. 

Brass cooking-utensils of various kinds are made at Ndgaur by 
Thatheras, and are largely exported. 

At Merta, gugis (cloaks) and chakmds (the same material in 
pieces) are made by Muhammadan weavers (Pinjaras) of sheep's 
wool ; the former sell at from one-and-a-quarter to four rupees, 
and the latter from eight annas to two rupees, each. 

Khas-khas tents, pankhds, &c., are also made at Merta by 
tailors. 

At Sojat, saddles, bridles, &c., for horses are made by Modiis. 

At J^or, drinking-vessels of bell-metal, prettily engraved, are 
made by Thatheras. 

Scarves worn by women in mourning are dyed of very fast 
colours at Pokaran, B^otrd, and Sindari of Marwar ; and are 
largely exported to Bikanir, Jaipur, and Ahmaddbdd. 

The principal exports are salt, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, cot- 
ton, wool, dyed cloths, hides, and pomegranates. Prom Makrdna, 
marble and marble manufactures are exported, and stone from 
various quarries. The chief imports are goor, kand (coarse and 
refined sugar), and rice from Bhiwdni of Hisdr; opium from 
Kotah, .Mewar, and Beilwar. 

Prom Bombay come English piece-goods, silver, and copper. 
Prom Gujardt spices of every kind, dates, gimi-arabic, borax, co- 
coanuts, silks, sandalwood, and dyes. Com is imported at times 
from Sind and Bhiwdni, Trade is carried on chiefly by permanent 
markets at Jodhpur, Pdli, Merta, Parbatsar, Ndgaur, Didwdna, 
Pachbadra, Phalodi, Jdlor, Pipdr, and Bdlotrd. 

In ordinary years local crops suffice for local wants, but local 
manufactures are insufficient. 

Judicial System. — ^At Jodhpur there are civil and criminal 
courts presided over by separate officials. The Maharaja alone 
has the power of life and death, and final appeals lie to him in all 
but petty cases. Most of the district cases are disposed of by the 
hdkims. 

The thdkurs within their estates assxmie independent magis- 
terial authority, and, until lately, it was only the lower f euda« 
tories who would surrender criminals or brook interference in cri- 
minal cases. Arbitration is generally resorted to in all civil cases. 

Jails. — ^There is one very large newly-constructed jail at 
Jodhpur, roomy, well- ventilated, and cleanly kept. There is 
also a lock-up at the head-quarters of each district, in which, how- 
ever, only short-termed prisoners are kept ; those sentenced to 



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< 254 ) 

more than three months* incarceration being sent, as a rule, to the 
Central Jail at Jodhpur. 

Police. — ^The police duties are generally conducted by the 
army, no separate establishment existing. 

ilducation. — ^Education in an advanced form is unknown in 
Marwar. A large proportion of the population can read and 
•write Hindi, amongst whom are included most of the ladies of 
good birth, which it is believed is peculiar to this State. The 
capital now possesses two good schools, one for the sons of th^ 
kurs and the higher classes, the other for children of trades-people 
downwards. At both these schools, English, as well as the ver- 
nacular languages, is taught. There are ako schools supported 
by the DarbAr in some of the district towns, and every large 
village possesses one, presided overbytiie local Jdti (Jain priest). 

Communications. — ^There is one metaUed road, 100 miles in 
length, running through Marwar; it is the main route from 
Ajmer to Ahmaddbdd in the Bombay Presidency. There are 
travellers* bungalows on this road as follows, commencing from 
Bedwar in the Ajmer border : — 



Bar, 16 miles : water sweet; supplies plentiful. 

ChandAwal, 17 

Sojat, 12 

J&dhan, 15 

P^i, 11 

Gundoj, 11 

Dhola, 13 

Sanderao, 9 



jf 

33 
39 
33 
39 
99 



9 93 

9 99 

9 ^ 9% 

»> 9y 

If 99 

99 



Route from Jodhpur towards Bd»rmer in Mallani— 

Nar Nadi, 12 miles : tank water; sandy road ; supplies plentiful, 

Doli, 16 „ well water; supplies plentiful; soil hard. 

Sarvarhi, 12 „ water brackish; supplies plentiful; soil sandy ^ 

Pachbadra, 14 „ soil hard ; tank water ; supplies plentiful. 

Jasol of Mallani, 8 „ sandy ; have to cross the Lum ; water good ; 

supplies plentiful. 

On this route both carts and camels are used. 

Route from Jodhpur towards Jesalmer — 

Balarvo, 16 miles : Bandy and hard soil ; water good ; and supplies plentiful, 
Ghdvrho, 8 „ „ „ „ from wells; supplies 

abundant. 
Chfimbu, 10 „ „ water sweet; supplies plentiful. 

Dechu, 18 „ „ wiell water good ; supplies plentiful. 

Mandlo, 8 „ „ and hard soil ; watar good ; supplies abundant. 

Luvo, 10 „ soil hard; tank water ; supplies procurable. [a nala. 
Pokaran, 8 „ „ water good ; supplies abundant ; have to cross 

Oddnia, 12 „ „ water salt ; supplies procurable. 

Carts and camels can be used on this route. 



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Route from Jodhpnr 

Bhaw&d^ 16 miles 
Um^esrio^ 16 



S&tiko, 

Tantuwifl^ 

Kaku, 

Kudsu^ 

Deshnok, 

Bikanir, 



18 
12 
14 
12 
20 
10 



11 
11 

99 
99 
99 



< 256 > 

toBikanir — 

: soil hard ; water good ; supplies scarce, 
water good ; suppUes scarce, 
sandy; well water sweet; supplies plentiful. 

,, watex from tanks good ; supplies procurable^ 

„ water good ; supplies plentiful. 



„ and hard soil; water sweet; supplies abundant. 
„ „ water good; supplies abundant. 

Carts and camels are used on this route» 



Boute from Jodhpnr to Jaipur — 

Bisalpur, 18 miles : sandr ; water good ; s»[^lies pl^ntif uf» 



PJpdr, 

Borunda^ 

Merta, 

Pabhi, 

Bhakhri, 



16 
18 
18 
18 
14 



Parbatsar^ 20 
Kotrhi, 10 
Korsineo^ 10 
Sambhar^ 10 
Jobner^ 14 
Govindpur,18 
Jaipur^ 10 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
1> 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



soil hard; 



99 
99 

99 



99 
99 



hard and sandy ; water good ; supplies abundant, 
sandy ; water good ; supplies abundant, 
(the same as above; have to traverse the Gungoli pass);., 
sandy ; water good ; supplies procurable, 
hard soil ; water good ; supplies plentiful, 
(the same as above) . 
sandy; water good; supplies plentiful, 
water and supphes as above, 
have to cross a mda; water ."good; supplier 
abundant^ 



99 
99 



Carts and camels, &c.; travel by this routev 

Eonte from Jodhpnr to Ajmer dbect — 

sandy ; water good ; supplies abundant. 

soil hard; (rest same as above). 

sandy ; have to cross the Luni ; water good; sup* 

plies procurable, 
have again to cros&the Luni; water gpod; supplies. 

plentiful, 
sandy and hard soil ; water good ; supplies abun^ 

dant. 
soil hard ; (same as the piseceding). 
soil hard ; have to cross the Sarsuti ; water good i 

supplies plentifuL 
sandy ; (the rest as above), 
(metalled road) ; soil hard and sandy ; water good j;; 

supplies abundant.. 

Carts and camels go by this ronte» 

Eonte from Jodhpnr to Ajmer vid Merta — 

Bisalpur, 18 miles : sandy; water good; supplies plentiful.. 
Pipir, 16 ;, hard soil; (rest as above). 
Borunda, 18 „ ,, ^ 

Merta, 18 „ „ „ 



Btsalpnr, 

Bogal, 

JMk, 


18 miles 
16 „ 
16 „ 


Balundaj 


10 „ 


Lanbian, 


8 „ 


Kurhki, 12 „ 
Oovindgarh, 8 „ 


Puslikar, 
Ajmetf 


14 « 
6 ,, 



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( 256 ) 



^yan^ 14 miles : hard soil ; (rest as above) » 
Ladpura^ 10 i> yj if cxobq the Luni twice. 

PushkaTj 12 J, sandy; water good; supplies abundant. 
Ajmer, 6 ,, (a metalled road from this place to Ajmer) ; supplies 

plentiful. 

Carts and camels travel by this route. 

Eoute from Jodhptar towards Udaipur — 

Mogra, 12 miles : sandy; water good; supplies plentiful. 

Eolmt, 16 ,, soil hard ; have to cross the Luni ; water good ; supplies 

plentiful. 
P41i, 14 „ sandy and hard; have to cross two nadis; water good; 

supplies abundant. 
Busi^ 14 „ soil hard; water good; supplies plentiful. 
Jiwand, 12 „ „ have to cross a nadi ; (rest as above). 

Desuri, 14 „ „ water good ; supplies plentiful. 

Jilwfira (of Udaipur) 10 miles; stony; have to cross the pass; camels and 
carts can go; water good; supplies abundant. 

Route from Jodhpur towards Mount Abd— 



Mogra, 
Bohatj 

Pdli^ 



<jundoj, 

Dhola, 

S&nderao, 



12 miles: sandy; water good; supplies abundant. 



15 



14 



10 

13 

9 



soil hard; have to cross the Luni; water good; 

supplies abundant, 
both sandy and hard; have to cross two nadis; 

water good; supplies abundant; staging-bungalow, 

post and telegraph offices here. 

[water good; supplies plentiful, 
soil hard; metalled road; staging-bungalow; 






it 



Boute from Jodhpur to Palanpur — 



S&law^Sj 

Phinch, 8 

Dhunarho, 10 

Khandap, 18 

Balwarho, 14 

Aildno^ 8 

Dhanno, 16 

Bhfnmalj 18 

K%mal, 16 

Bargaouj 14 

Bant, 10 
Panthfiwarho, 10 

Ganodrho, 10 

Dantiwdrho, 



10 miles: sandy; water good; supplies plentiful. 



10 

10 
10 



Bhutorhi, 
Palanpur, 

Carts and camels go by this route. 



water brackish ; supplies plentiful, 
soil hard; water good; supplies plentiful, 
soil sandy and Hard; water good; supplies plentiful, 
soil hard; water good; supplies abundant, 
sandy ; supplies plentiful ; water good. 

„ (red; as above) . 
soil hard ; water good ; supplies plentiful, 
sandy; (rest as above) . 

,, water good; supplies plentiful. 

soil hard ; (rest as above) . 

„ have to cross a stream; water good; 

supplies procurable, 
soil hard; have to cross a stream; water good; 

supplies procurable, 
soil hard ; water good ; supplies procurable, 
sandy; water good; supplies abundant* 



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( 267 ) 

Boute from Jodhpup to Bedwar — 



Bisalpur, 18 miles: sandy; water good; supplies plentiful. 

Kdpura, 10 ^ ,, soilnard; water good; supplies plentiful. 

Chipio, 18 „ sandy and hard ; have to cross a stream ; water 

good ; supplies plentiful. 
Bar, 10 „ (travellers' bungalow) ; soil hard and sandy ; have 

to cross a stream; water good; supplies plentiful. 
Bedwar or Nayanagar, 14 miles (metalled road) running through the 

Bar Pass, 

Carts and camels go by this road. 
Boute from Jodhpur to Didwdna and Daulatpura vid Ndgaur — 



Gangani, 


18 miles: 


sandy; water 


good; su] 


pplies p 


lentiful. 


Ustriln, 


16 


99 


soil hard ; water good ; 


supplies procurable. 


Qevv&a, 


10 


99 


99 


99 


99 


plentiful. 


Kharaii, 


10 


99 


99 


99 


99 


procurable. 


Kigaar, 


10 


99 


99 


99 


99 


abundant; post- 
office here. 


Somrh&n, 


14 


99 


99 


11 


99 


plentiful. 


DugashtdUj 


10 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


Khi&lo, 


10 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


Kathoti, 


8 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


Kairap, 


10 


99 


sandy; 


99 


99 


99 


Kolio, 


8 


99 


soil hard ; 


99 


99 


99 


Didwfina, 


6 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


Daulatpiira, 


6 


99 


sandy ; 


99 


99 


99 



Carts go by this route. 

Route from Jodhpur to Bikanir vid Ndgaur — 
Oanganij 



Ustrdn, 

Basni^ 

Goran, 

Kham&l,' 

N^aur, 



18 miles : sandy, water good ; supplies plentiful ; carts and 

camels can go : have to cross a stream. 
16 miles : soil hard; water good; supplies plentiful. 



14 
10 
10 
10 

14 



AMi, 

. Charkhro 

of Bikanir, 16 
Nokho, 18 
Deshnok, 14 
Bikanir, 14 



99 
99 
99 



99 
99 



„ „ „ procurable, 

„ „ „ plentiful. 

„ „ „ procurable. 

„ „ „ abundant; post-office 

here, 
sandy and hard ; water brackish ; supplies procurable. 

sandy ; water brackish ; supplies scarce. 

„ water good ; supplies procurable. 

„ „ „ plentiful, 

sandy and hard; water good; supplies abundant. 

Towns. 

Principal Toums. — ^The principal towns are Jodhpur, Bdlotrd^ 
Asop, Barlu, Pachbadra, Pokaran, Mathdnia, Bisalpur, Tinwri, 
Baliinda, BilAra, Khinwasar, Siwdna, Pipdr, Kiira, Agolai, Sam* 
dari, Bhdwi, P^, Ndgaur, Mtindwd, LMniin, Ktiehera, JAel, Par- 
batsar, Baru,Bordwar, Thduwla, Merta, Anadpur, Rdyan^ Bhakhri^ 



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( 258 ) 

M^rotli, Ltinwa, N^wa^ Kuchdman, Mithri, Mindha, Sambhai*^ 
Sojat, Winawds, Jetdian, Raepur, Nimbdj, GMnerao, Sddri> 
Nddol, Sdiiderao, Desurij Chdnaud, BdK> Winjua, Phalodi, Jdlor, 
Ahor, Bhinmdl, Biidgaon, B^rmer, Jasol, Tilw^a, Gura, Nagar, 
Sindri, Baitu, BAt4rUj Bohat, Mogra, Auwa, Alaniawds, Bar Jdd* 
ban, Chanddwal) G^aIldo], Dhola, Phalstind, Didw^na, S4iithu, 
BdkhAsap, Sdchor, Ohitalwdna, Bagri, Mandor, Bar^tia, Bdbra> 
Samel, Bds> Sdlawds, Sathldiia. 

Fairs and Soly*plaae8^"-^Th!b prinoipal fairs in Marwar are as 
follows:-^ 

TilwAr^, in Mallani, held in March. ; lasts for fifteen days* See 
Maliani portion of this Grazetteer, page 290. 

Mtindwa of N4gaur, held in the months of December and 
January, prinoipally attended by trarellers, and gives an income 
of about B/S* 3^000; it was instituted by Maharaja Bakht 
Singh in honor pf Shri Krishan under the name of Girdhdri. It 
laste nearly two months, and is visited by from 30,000 to 40^000 
people, principally from Marwar ; but people from other districts^ 
chiefly ftom Bhiwdni, also attend. The Mtindwa fair formerly 
brought in an income to the Daxbdr of from Bs* 10,000 to 
!Els. 16,000, but it has fallen off of late years% Bullocks are sold 
in large numbers at this fair* 

The Parbatsar fair is held in the month of Bhddon (August)^ 
and lasts for ten days. Bullocks are sold in large nxmibers. It 
is attended by about 10,000 people, and is held in honor of Tejaji, 
of whom an account is given in the Ajmer Gazetteer. The way 
the fair came to be held at Parbatsar in Tejaji's honor is, that 
in the time of Maharaja Bijai Singh there was a very sharp 
hdkim at Parbatsar, who foimd that Marwaris, especially J4ts> 
went in great numbers to the fair at Sarsura of E^ishangarh^ 
and that a good iacome was derived by the Kishangarh Darb^r 
in consequence ; so, knowing that the chief object wMch took the 
Jdts to Sarsura was to worship at Tejaji's shrine, he made up a 
story that Tejaji had appeared to him in a dream, and dedred 
that he should be worshipped in future only at Parbatsar. The 
hdkim, then, had a figure made representing Tejaji, and ordered all 
Jdts, on pain of punishment, to attend the Parbatsar fair, and 
not to go to Kishangarh. The Darbdr derives a revenue of from 
Ks« 5,000 to Es« 6j000 a year from this fair^ which is attended 
chiefly by Jdts. 

The B/dm Deord fair is held in the month of Bhddon (August)^ 
and is attended on an average by from 8,000 to 10,000 people, 
principally from Marwar, Mewar, Bikanir, and Jesalmer* It is 
held in honor of Bdm Deo, of whom an account is given elsewhere. 
The income of this fair goes to the thdkur of Pokaran, who holds 

Hi 



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( 259 ) 

it from the Darbdr on the same tenure as he holds his estate. 
The fair is represented as of the annual value, or rekh^ of Rs. 8,760 ; 
and he has to give the service of eight men, or one man for each 
thousand rupees* worth of rekh. 

The Bil^ fair is held on Chait Bud 15th, corresponding with 
the latter part of the month of March, and lasts only one day ; 
5,000 or 6,000 people usually attend. No income is derived from 
this fair ; it is held near a spring of water about four miles from 
the village of Bildra, and the legend is that Raja Bal having been 
in the habit of giving great feasts at this spot, the deity Ganga 
appeared to him once in a dream and told him that, if an 
arrow was shot into this spring, he would appear there, and that the 
water of the spring should become as sacred as that of the holy 
Ganges itself. Bal obeyed his order, and the water of this spring 
has ever since been held sacred, especially by the poorer classes. 
The place is called Bdnganga, from bdn, an arrow. 

The Barkana fair is held in the month of Pus (December) ; 
6,000 or 6,000 people attend it from the Godwdr pargana, in which 
Barkana is situated, and from Mewar and Sirohi. It lasts for 
two days, and is held in honor of a Jain temple erected there ten 
or twelve centuries ago. 

A fair is held in Pebruary or March on the top of a hill called 
Oorambar (a corruption of the word Gorakh), four miles from the 
village of Sdran, pargana Sojat ; 5,000 or 6,000 people attend this 
fair from the neighbouring villages, and horn Mogra, Merwara, 
&c. ; it lasts for two days. There is a temple to Gorakhndth on 
the top of the hill, and the fair is held in his honor. 

The above are the principal fairs, but small local fairs to the 
number of sixty or seventy are held all over the country. 

Towns* 

Antiquities and BemarJcahle Flaces. — ThB city of Jodhpur was 

Jodhpw hvoli by Rao Jodha in A.D. 1459, and, 

from that time, has been the seat of gov* 

emment of the extensive principality of Marwar. It is placed 

on the southern slope, and flat beyond, of a small range of 

hills running east and west, the prevailing geological form of 

which is red sandstone ; the city is surrounded by a strong wall 

nearly six miles in extent, and there are seven gates each 

bearing the names of the towns to which it leads. The fort is built 

on an isolated rock, the highest point of the range, and contains 

the Maharaja's palace, a large and handsome buildmg, completely 

covering the crest of the hill on which it stands, and overlooking 

the city, lying several hundred feet below. The city contains 

many handsome buildings, palaces of the Maharaja, and town 



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( .260 ) 

residences of the thdkurs; besides numerous fine temples and 
tanks. Building-stone is plentiful, and close at hand, and the 
architecture solid and handsome. 

Jdlor is the chief town, situated on the southern border of 
j^j^^ the vast sandy plain of Marwar, which 

stretches away for full 300 miles, broken 
occasionally by low ranges of rocky hills, to the Indus on the 
west, and Sutlej on the north. It is a place of importance, 
famous in former ages for the strength of its fort, and the 
many long and gallant sieges it withstood. Built early in 
the Christian era by the Pramdrd dynasty, then all-powerful 
in Western India, its walls, composed of large masses of cut-stone, 
remain in perfect preservation. The fort, about 800 yards in 
length by 400 in width, crowns a rocky hill of an altitude of 1,200 
feet above the surrounding plain, and commands the city which 
hugs the northern slope. The main entrance lies on this face, and 
leads up a steep, slippery stone roadway, passing three distinct 
lines of defence, all of considerable strength^ and mounting guns 
on the outer face of the fort. There is but a single rampart wall, 
about 20 feet in height, on the outside, and of varied thickness, 
sufl&cient, however, to admit of cannon being mounted. The fort 
is amply supplied . with sweet- water from two excellent tanks 
inside. 

This is a large, walled, irregularly-built city, formerly the capital 
^^ ^ of the northern portion of Marwar, and 

^^' still containing the fort and palace of the 

former rulers. At least one-quarter of the city is now in ruins, 
presenting a confused mass of fallen houses and of debris, such as 
one might expect to encounter in some city of the dead, but 
scarcely to be seen in a town containing some 30,000 inhabitants. 
There are several very handsomely carved sandstone houses, 
generally the property of merchants engaged in amassing wealth 
elsewhere. Various sanguinary encounters have taken place at 
Nagaur. Rao Chanda successfully attacked the imperial garrison 
then located there in the latter part of the fourteenth century. 
Again, in A.D. 1407, Rao Kilan of Jesalmer pretended to offer 
a daughter in marriage to Chanda, and went so far as to say that 
if he suspected aught unfair (there had long been a feud between 
the two families), he would, though contrary to custom and his 
own dignity, send the Bhdtti princess to Ndgaur. The offer was 
accepted, and the wedding party set out ; but the carriages sup- 
posed to convey the bride's cortege contained armed men. Chanda 
came out to meet, as he thought, his bride, found out his mistake, 
and commenced to retreat ; but too late. The armed men rushed 
out from their carriages j and Chanda was killed at the gate of 



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( 261 ) 

Ndgaur. In A JD. 1661, Ndganr was captured by Akbar, but was 
afterwards restored by him to the Bahtors, on his marriage with 
the sister of their chief. 

Merta was founded by Bao Doda, fourth sonof Bao Jodha, and 
added to by his son, BaoMaldeo, who reigned 
*"*^ from A.D. 1532 to A.D. 1669, and bmlt the 

fort called after him Mai Kot. Merta has been the scene of many 
a hard-fought battle, and the country round is covered with stone 
pillars erected to the memory of the dead. It was at Bdngarwds^ 
about two miles distant, that in AD. 1790 the Marathas, imder 
DeBoigne, inflicted such a disastrous defeat on the Bahtors, on 
the bund of a tank called J>&agql6i. There is still to be seen a 
tomb erected to the memory of a Frenchman, captain of infantry, 
wounded in the service of Maharaja Sindia on the 11th Septem- 
ber 1790, who died of his wounds on the 18th of the same month, 
aged sixty-one. The inscription is in French, the slab being of 
white marble. Water is plentiful at Merta, there being numerous 
tanks all round the city* 

The town of Didwdna is situated to the north-west of a large 
DidwAiuk ^^® ^^ *^^» being a natural depression in 

the surface of the ground, in every respect, 
except in size, similar to its more extensive neighbour Sambhar 
(see account under Salt Sources). DidwAna is a large, walled 
town, said to contain about 20,000 inhabitants. Some of the 
houses are well built of stone. There are several wells of sweet 
water, and on the side of the town, opposite to the salt sar^ a fresh- 
water tank, from which manv of the town people drink. 

Nadolai was once the capital of the province of Qodw&, and is 
Nad laL exceedingly interesting owing to its archi- 

tectural remains, showing that in that part 
of the world the Jain faith was once predominant. It was at a 
very early period the abode of a branch of the Choh4ns of Ajmer, 
and from it sprung the DeorAs of Sirohi, and the Sonigui^ of 
Jdlor. One of the princes of Nadolai, Lakha, is said to have 
measured swords with MahmM. The fortress, or rather its 
remains, is on the declivity of a low ridge, to the westward of the 
town, with square towers of an ancient form, and built of a very 
curious conglomerate of granite and gneiss, of which the rock on 
which it stands is composed. The temple of Mahavira is a yeij 
fine piece of architectnre (see Tod, volume I, page 697). Nadolai, 
Bdli, Desuri, and Sddri, in the province of Godwdr, are said, by the 
author just quoted, all to have been ancient seats of the Jains. 

Mandor, three miles from Jodhpur, is interesting as having been 

j^, , the ancient capital of the Purihar princes 

of Marwar, prior to its conquest by the 



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( 262 ) 

Rahtors. It contains the cenotaphs of the ruling chiefs of the 
country, erected on the spot where the funeral pyre consumed 
the remains of those who in former days seldom burned alone. 
There are also stone effigies of gallant chieftains of Marwar, 
curious as specimens of nide carving by workmen of the country. 
But little respect or reverence is shown towards spots which in 
western countries, as cemeteries, are considered sacred in the 
present day. Many of the cenotaphs are homes for the beggar, 
and even the pariah dog ; and nothing is done towards repair- 
ing the monimients erected to those who were heroes in their 
day. 

Situated 39 miles to the north of Jodhpur, Pip&r is a very ancient 
j^ town, and is celebrated in the traditions 

of the desert as one of the cities founded 
by the Pramdrds prior to the Christian era. There is an abun- 
dance of wells, and good water is also obtained from a lake called 
the Sampu, which is connected with the tradition of the founda- 
tion of Plpdr, as described by Tod in his Annals as follows :--• 
" A Brdhman of the Pdli tribe, whose name was Pipd, was in 
the habit of carrying milk to a deity of the serpent (Takshak) 
race, whose retreat was on the banks of this lake, and who 
deposited two pieces of gold in return for the Pdliw^'s offering. 
Being compelled to go to Ndgaur, he gave instructions to his son 
to perform his charitable office ; but the youth, deeming it a good 
opportunity to become master of the treasure, took a stick with 
him, and, when the serpent issued forth for his accustomed fare, 
he struck him violently, but the snake, being scotched, not killed, 
retreated to his hde. The yoimg Brdhman related his adventure 
to his mother, when the good woman, dreading the vengeance of 
the serpentine deity, prepared a servant and bullock to convey 
her son to his father at Ndgaur. But what was her horror in the 
morning, when she went to call the youth, to find, instead of him, 
the huge serpent coiled up in his bed 1 Plpd, on his return, was 
inconsolable ; but stifling his revenge, he propitiated the serpent 
with copious libations of milk. The scaly monster was conciliated, 
and revealed the stores he guarded to Pfpd^ commanding him to 
raise a monument which would transmit a knowledge of the event 
to future ages. Hence Pipdr arose from Pip4, the Pdli; 
and the name of the lake Sampu, from his benefactor the 
^ serpent * (sampa). All these allegorical tales regard the 
Takshak races, the followers of the religion of Buddha or 
Jaina, and their feuds with the Brdhmanical sects. It is 
evident that Pfpd, the Pdli, worshipped both ; and the very name 
induces a belief that the whole P^liwdl caste are converts^ from 
Suddhism/' 



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( 263 ) 

Pdlij the commercial city of Marwar, is situated 45 miles south* 
p^ east of the capital. Pdli has acquired an 

unenviable notoriety as the place of origin 
of the maha mdri^ or Indian plague, in 1836. Situated on the 
main road between Ahmaddbdd and Ajmer, it has long been 
the chief commercial mart of Western Rdjpiitdna. The prin- 
cipal trade carried on is that of dyeing woollen cloths. The 
city is built of sun-burnt bricks, no stone being readily procur- 
able in the neighbourhood. In the civil wars that formerly 
raged in Marwar, the possession of Pdli, from the commercial 
character of its inhabitants, was of great importance to either 
party, and at their desire the fortifications were razed. As an 
emporium, its reputation is of ancient date, and, politically, it is 
connected with the establishment of the reigning family of these 
regions. A community of Brdhmans then held P41i in grant from 
the princes of Mandor, whence comes a numerous class, termed 
P^wdl, who follow mercantile pursuits. It was in Sambat 1212 
(A.D. 1156) that Shivaji, the founder of the Rahtor dynasty 
and son to the emperor of Kanauj, passed Pdli on his return 
from a pilgrimage from Dwdrka to the Granges. The Brdhmans 
sent a deputation to ask him to relieve them from two great 
enemies to their repose, namely, the Minas of the Arvah, and 
the lions, which had become very numerous. Shivaji relieved 
them from both ; but the opportimity to acquire land was too 
good to be lost, and, on the festival of the Holi, he put the leading 
JBrdhmans to death, and took possession of Pdli. 

Phalodi is a large town to the north-west of Marwar near the 
borders of Bikanir and Jesahner. The garhi, or fort, was 
built by Biao Hamird Nirdwat, great-grandson of Itao Sujd, 
There is a house still in the fort called by Hamird's name. The 
garhi was added to by Rao Maldeo, who succeeded to the gadi 
of Marwar in A.D. 1532, and is now in good order, having been 
recently repaired. The population is said to be about 12,000, 
Many of the mahajans, who own houses in the place, carry on 
trade in all parts of India, but leave their families at Phalodi, 
returning at intervals. 

The fort of this place is said to have been constructed by 
p karan- "^^^ Maldco out of materials brought from 

Satelmir, distant about two miles from 
Pokaran, which he dismantled. Satelmir was built by Satel, the 
eldest son of Rao Jodha (after whom Jodhpur is named), on 
the top of a low ridge of hills ; there is nothing left now, but the 
ruins of an old Jain temple. Pokaran is the appanage of the 
premier baron or thdkur of Jodhpur, who holds the post of 
pardhduj which entitles him to a seat on the khawas^ or behind 



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( 264 ) 

the Maharaja, on an elephant on all State occasions. AU docu- 
ments, being grants of lands, villages, &c., by the Darbdj*, have to 
receive his signature. His ancestors came foom Bhinmal to Pok* 
aran in the time of Maharaja Abhai Singh. 

Famine* 

Famine 0/1868-69. — Colonel Brooke, Officiating Agent to the 
Governor-General for the States of B/djptitdna, in his report on 
the famine of 1868-69, writes thus : — " At Jodhpur no rain what- 
ever fell during the rainy season, at least not sufficient to be 
measured by a pluviometer. Godwdr under the Arvali, which 
partakes of the Ajmer and Mewar climate, was favored with a 
little rain in July, but none subsequently. The south-west mon-i 
soon failed entirely throughout Marwar. ' 



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( 265 ) 

MALLANL 
History, 

Mallani justly claims to be called tile cradle of the Rahtoif 
race in the west ; for when E^mau j fell before the Muhammadan 
arms, Asthdn, the great-grandson of the last Itaja of that 
State, emigrated to Marwar with a body of his followers, and in 
A.D. 1181 established himself as ruler over Blher, a town near 
the banks of the Liini, and the districts of Mewo (now called 
Mallani) adjoining it, which he seized from the Qohels, of whom. 
Tod, in his Annals and Antiquities of Itajasthan, thus writes : — 
** Their first residence was Jund Khairgarh near the bend of 
the Liini in Marwar. How long they had been established here 
we know not. They took it from one of the Bhfl chiefs named 
Kherwd, and had been in possession of it for twenty years when 
expelled by the Rahtors at the end of the twelfth century." 
When the Qohels were exterminated by the Rahtors, Kher is 
said to have been a town of importance ; but the only ancient 
building still standing is a temple of Chatarbhiij, which local 
informants assert to have been constructed in A.D. 1176.. The 
Gohels migrated to Bhaunagar on the Gulf of the Mdhi, after 
their defeat, and are still to be found there in large nimibers. 
After the conquest of Kher, the Rahtors do not appear to 
have acquired further territory in Mallani until the time of 
MallinAth, when the districts now known as Gtira and Nagar 
were conquered from the Sords (whose chief was named Sind) by 
Khem Karan, son of Jaitmdl and nephew of Mallindth. There 
is a local tradition that Khem Elaran obtained possession of 
Sin&'s wife, and that it was by her treachery that he succeeded in 
overcoming the Sords. The descendants of children bom by her 
to Khem Karan still reside in Nagar, and are known as Udh4nia 
Rdjptits. After their defeat by Khem Karan, the Sords 
emigrated to Nagar Fdrkar of Bind. When Asth^ first 
captured Kher, the present B&rmer district of Mallani was 
held by Anant Rao Sdnkld. According to Tod, volume I, page 
93, the Sdnkl^ were the second of the thirty-five Sacho 
or branches of the Framdrds. There are now the remains of 
two (apparently) large cities — one, Kher&ru, to the west, and 
the other, Jtina, to the south-west, of B&rmer — and twenty and 
twelve mUes, respectively, distant from it; said to have been towns 
of importance in those days. The Sdnklds were exterminated 
by the ChohAns, who, in their turn, had to succumb to the 
Kahtors, and the manner in which the latter obtained possession 
of the B&rmer district is said to have been as follows:— 
The leader of the Chohins was named Mdnja, whose daughter 
had been given in marriage to Jagmdl^ son of Mallin&th (the 



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( 266 ) 

ninth in succession to Asthdn)-. By her, Jagmdl had a son named 
Mandlak. Jagmdl had a quarrel with his Choh^ wife, who, on 
this account, accompanied by her son, left her husband and 
returned to her father, who gave her a village, which was 
called after her and is still known as Ranigdon. Jagmdl 
then summoned a number (said to be about 200) of his most 
faithful followers, and instructed them to go to his wife and 
son and give out that they too had quarrelled with and left him ; 
they therefore went and joined Mandlak and his mother. Some 
time after, when all preparations had been secretly made, Jag- 
mdl set off with 300 or 400 men, on pretence of bringing back 
his wife and son. On arrival at Jiina, he attacked and killed his 
father-in-law, and added the present Bdrmer district to his pos* 
sessions. An old rhyme is still current in Marwar which, it is said, 
was often quoted to Mdnja by the Chdrans — 

" O Mdnja ! you may as well place your trust in a tiger's whelp as in the ofiCspring of JagmiZ r 
Put him away foom you, or he wiX one day kill you I" 

Major Malcolm's report^ written in 1849. 

" In the fourteenth century a separation took place in the 
Rahtor tribe, a portion following the fortunes of Birdm Deo (the 
younger son of Sdlkd Rawal), who subsequently founded the 
principality of Jodhpur ; while the remainder, under the elder 
brother, Mallindth, continued to occupy their former position in 
Mewo, or Mallani as it is now more frequently denominated 
after Mallindth Rawat, the immediate ancestor of the present 
chiefs of Bdrmer, Jasol, Nagar, and Sindari. 

** It is uncertain how long the Rawats of Kher continjied to 
exercise any control over the rest of the chiefs, or to be considered 
as the head of a principality ; but, at the period when we first 
became acquainted with them, all traces of such a power had long 
ceased, and each chief of the principal families into which the 
tribe is divided claimed to be independent. 

^* The law of Gavelkind, or that by which an equal division of 
the property of the father is, at his death, made among his sons, 
has long existed among these tribes, and to its deteriorating effects 
are to be traced all the evils which have befallen the community. 
Dissensions among families, and blood-feuds arising out of the 
minute sub-division of land, which it enforced, led to the assistance 
of the neighbouring and comparatively powerful chiefs of Jodh- 
pur being frequently solicited, and this gave rise to an interference 
on which the latter ground their right of sovereignty over the 
districts at large. 

"No treaty or formal contract between the parties can be 
produced in support of this claim, but the circumstance of the 
past Rajas of Jodhpur interfering in the settlement of the local 

il 



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( 267 ) 

disputes among the chiefs, and lerying, for a number of years, 
an irregular species of tribute on the district, confirms, according 
to the usage of the country, their right to be considered as the 
lords paramount of Mallam, 

*^ For many centuries past, the districts of Mallani had been 
one continual scene of anarchy and confusion, and their inhabitants 
more savage and lawless than the neighbouring Khosds of the 
desert. The Court of Jodhpur, when called upon to repress their 
excesses, acknowledged their inability to coerce them. Under these 
circumstances, the British Government, as conservators of the 
general peace of India, found themselves compelled to proceed 
against them as a public nuisance, and, with their own troops, to 
seize the districts which they occupied. The Jodhpur Darbdr 
having failed to render even the limited assistance which they had 
promised, the whole trouble and expense of the undertaking fell 
upon our Government. 

"After the occupation of the district, the principal chiefs 
were removed as prisoners to Kachh, whence they were subsequently 
released, on furnishing security for their good conduct, and on- the 
express stipulation, entered into by Sir Henry Pottinger with the 
chiefs of Banner in person, that, as long as they conducted them- 
selves with propriety, they should be considered under the special 
protection of the British Government. 

"The Jodhpur Darbar, though they had utterly failed, as 
above stated, to afford any assistance to Government in the 
reduction of Mallani, were not slow to put forward a claim to its 
sovereignty. In reply to this demand, it was admitted by Govern- 
ment that the Rajas of Jodhpur had for many years exercised 
a species of control over Mallani, and levied tribute from its 
chiefs at irregular periods ; that such claims as it might have 
once possessed ' were rendered null and void by the state of anarchy 
and confusion into which it had allowed the country to fall; and 
that, though the British Government had established a claim to 
the districts themselves, consequent on having reduced them 
to order and obedience, it was willing, out of kindness and consider- 
ation to His Highness, to waive its just rights, and to acknowledge 
His Highness as entitled to sovereignty over these districts, and 
the tribute they might yield ; at the same time, informing him 
that our interference would not be withdrawn till his Government 
could afford satisfactory evidence of its capacity to rule them itself.'* 

Major Impey^s report of 1868. 
" Mallani came under British control in 1836, and was managed 
by a Superintendent on a consolidated salary of Rs. 700 a month. 
He also commanded a detachment of regular troops, consisting 



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( 268 ) 

of one squadron Bombay regular cayalry, two companies regular 
infantry, and one hundred Gaekwar horse ; his head-quarters 
were at JBarmer. 

*^ In 1844 this detachment was withdrawn and replaced by 30 
horse and 60 infantry of the Jodhpur Legion and 160 Marwar 
horse. On the departure for England in 1849 of the local 
Superintendent (Captain Jackson), the district was, first as a 
temporary measure, and then permanently, placed imder the 
charge of the Political Agent, Marwar. 

" In October 1850, on account of sickness at Bdrmer, the Politi- 
cal Agent arranged with the officer commanding the Jodhpur 
liCgion to have his own escort at Jodhpur increased to 40 horse 
and 80 foot, and from it to furnish reliefs for the Mallani guard, 
which was then reduced to 14 horse and 8 foot, the Mallani 
prisoners being brought from Bdrmer to Jodhpur. 

^*In 1854 this detachment was altogether withdrawn from 
Bdrmer, and the military control of the. district has since then 
been left to the contingent of the Darbdr horse, which now con- 
sists of 60 men mounted on camels, 50 horsemen, and 30 foot- 
soldiers, with the usual complement of commissioned and non- 
commissioned officers.*' 

A circumstance worthy of note here, is the addition to Mallani 
of the tract of country now called Takhtdbad, after the late ruler 
of Marwar, Maharaja Takht Singh, which is thus described by 
Major Impey : — " In the south-west corner of Mallani, where it 
marches on Sind, there is a strip of district, about 50 nules long 
and 7 broad, known as Takhtdbdd ; it comprises twenty-nine villa- 
ges, some of them consisting of only a few huts, collected round a 
pool, or well of fresh water, and which more properly would be 
styled hamlets, the nucleus, we may hope, of future villages." 

Geography. 

General Topography. — ^The province of MaUani lies between 
Marwar Proper and Sind. It having never been surveyed, only 
an approximation of its area can be given. Taken from its extreme 
points from north to south, it is about 150 mUes in length, 
and 120 mUes in breadth from east to west ; and its area may be 
roughly calculated at 18,000 square miles. On the north it is 
bounded by the State of Jesalmer and the Shiv district of Mar- 
war ; on the east by the Pachbadra, Siwdna, and Jdlor districts of 
Marwar ; on the south by the Sachor district of Marwar ; on the 
west by the TJmarkot and Chdchrd divisions of the Thar and P^rkar 
districts of Sind ; and on the north-west by the Girdb district of 
Marwar. 

Configuration. — The general features of the country are sand- 



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( 269 ) 

hills. The whole of the northern and western portions form 
part of the little desert stretching into Sind and Jesalmer, 
These sandhills rise to an altitude in places of 300 to 400 feet, 
and this part of Mallani resembles the troubled waves of a sea of 
sand. Por ages, these wastes hare been the grazing-grounds of 
camels, kine, goats, and sheep, tended by the hardy Biluch tribes 
of the desert, who combined this occupation with cattle-lifting. 
Water is found some 150 to 300 feet below the surface ; but is 
usually brackish, and in some spots deadly to man or beast. Wells 
and pools that are drinkable after the rains, and up to March be- 
fore the heat has absorbed the moisture, become then noxious, and 
drinking-water is exceedingly scarce. Wherever a successful well 
exists, it constitutes a village or hamlet, round which the herdsmen 
flock in summer and pay dues to the villagers whose well they use. 

The people have a superstitious prejudice against the construc- 
tion of new wells, and seek for old wells to repair. There is a 
current belief that an ancient king, known as the Sagar Raja, had 
an army of demons who possessed the faculty of smellmg out where 
good water existed, and there he had wells dug : the sites of these 
old wells are sought for. This belief has lately been strengthened 
by the fact that in the confines of Baitu, in the Sindari estate, 
five of the Rdjpiit shareholders dug separate wells, and all turned 
out salt and useless. Still, of late years, five new wells have 
been made in the Takhtdbdd district ; but in this tract Muham- 
madans abound, and it is not regarded as Mallani Proper. 
Wells cut in the rock, or rather at the foot of the rocky lulls, 
such as the great well of BArmer, cost some thousands of rupees ; 
but wells so situated are rare. In the soil called ndyar, hard soil, 
the average cost of a well is Rs. 1,500 ; but near the Liinf or 
in the pAr they may be dug for Rs. 40 to Rs. 50 ; but these are mere 
pits for water, and are not constructed of permanent masonry. 

Mivers. — ^The only river in Mallani is the Ltini (for a lengthen- 
ed description of which see Jodhpur). 

The Liini enters Mallani at Jasol, and pursues a tortuous 
course along the eastern boundary of the country for some 80 
miles, finally leaving the province at Gdndap of Giira, and, flow- 
ing a few miles further through the Sdchor district of Marwar, is 
eventually lost in the marshes of the Rann of Kachh. It is the 
only stream that relieves the sandy aspect of Mallani. After 
the rains, generally speaking, the water found in the bed of the 
Liini, and in the wells along its banks, is sweet and abundant ; but 
the stream is as capricious as it is erratic. On one bank it may be 
a blessing, on the other a curse. This is seen in two villages in 
the Giira estate : one is rich with crops, the other arid and 
bare ; on one bank the stream flows over sand, and its water is 



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( 270 ) 

sweet ; on the other, over a hard bottom, and is brine. This 
capriciousness may be noticed along its whole course through 
Marwar and Mallard. Generally in the hot weather the river-bed 
is dry, though water, salt and sweet, may be found by digging 
a few feet below the surface; but, in places, it leaves deep 
pools in chasms of rock or sand, such as are found near Sindari. 

The Sukri river (for which also see Marwar) joins the Luni 
at Gdndap. 

Jhils or Lakes. — ^There are jhils at Shokar, Sarkdpdr {sar 
means a marsh, and par is a soil peculiar to the Bdrmer district 
and the north-western part T)f the province — see page 285), and 
at Kharin-ka-pdr. These are in the Bdrmer district. In those of 
Takhtdbdd and Setrao there are thirty-five or forty of these 
marshes. In favorable seasons, wheat is grown in the beds, 
and, when the marshes become dry, kutcha wells are dug to a 
depth of from eight to twenty-four feet, and thus a plentiful 
supply of water is procured. The Sark^pdr covers an area of 
from 1,000 to 1,200 bighas. Villages are located near all these sars. 

Mountains or Sill-countries y and Minerals, — One very high hill 
in Mallani is Nagar of Jasol ; the ascent to it is about a mile 
and a quarter in length. On the top are tdnk^ (reservoirs for 
water), and one small nadi, or nala. As far as is known, there 
are no minerals in this hill, nor is the stone used for any pur- 
pose. It is the highest point of a small ridge which trends in a 
south-western direction, and is about 1^ kos in length. 

In the Sindari Pattd, at a village called Dundali, is a solitary 
hill, locally known as Gohdna, in height about the same as that 
of Nagar. No minerals have been found in it, nor is the stone 
used for building or other purposes. 

There is also a small range, consisting of two or three hills, 
near the village of Sanpdn of Sindari, from which slabs for roof- 
ing purposes, called sils^ are procured. 

At Simu, also in Sindari, there is another solitary hill, the 
ascent to which is about three-quarters of a mile. Its stone is not 
utilized. 

In the Gdra pargana there is a single hiU of about seven miles 
in length, but of no considerable breadth, called Dhorimanha, 
from a village of that name at its foot. Its elevation, at the 
highest point, is about the same as that of the Gtira hill. There 
are in it caves, in which in former times Sar^his and other preda- 
tory tribes were in the habit of concealing themselves. 

There is at Chahotan a portion of an important ridge of hills, 
which extends through Jesalmer into Bikanir territory. At 
Chahotan this ridge is of considerable height, beiQg about If miles 
in ascent. There are several ponds on this hill; which become full 



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( 271 ) 

in the rains, and grass grows on the table-land at its summit, which 
is about a kos in area. On this are the remains of an old fort. 
Water jiercolates half-way down the hill, where it re-appears, and 
is collected in a kundy or basin, and from this the "villagers of 
Chahotan obtain their supply of drmking- water throughout the 
year. At Khardru, where tnere are the remains of an ancient 
city, supposed to have belonged to the SAnkld tribe, who were 
exterminated by the Chohdns, is a large hill, the highest point 
of a small range in that neighbourhood. There are no (known) 
minerals in it, and no quarries. 

Jasdi-ka-pahdr, in Bdrmer, has a large extent of table-land on 
its summit, which, in the rains, is covered with grass; there is 
also a good supply of water, and the cattle of the surrounding 
villages graze there for six months in the year. This hill used to 
be a fastness for robbers in former times. 

Juna-ka-pahdr, another portion of the Chahotan ridge, is a 
very steep hill ; and, although it contains an abundant supply 
of grass, cattle cannot, owing to its abruptness, graze there, but 
grass is cut by laborers when a supply fails elsewhere. There 
are the remains of an old fort on the summit of this hill. 
Jiina was, in former years, a large village belonging to the 
Sdnklds ; but at present there are only a few inhabitants in 
it. 

Tdrdtarha is a hill situated about three kos distant from Jtina- 
ka-pahdr. Its aspect is much the same as that of the one last 
described. 

R4nig4on-ka-pahdr, between Tdrdtarha and Jiina. — Grass is 
found on this hill, but the sides are so steep that cattle cannot 
graze there. 

Bdrmer-ka-pahdr. — ^The village, or rather town, of Bdrmer is 
located under this range of hills. There is a small fortalice, 
built on the summit of one of the lower ranges, in which the 
Bdrmer thdkurs now reside. The stone of this hill is used for 
building and roofing purposes. 

Luno-ka-pahdr, also near Bdrmer, is a small hill, but the 
stone is much used for building purposes, long slabs being 
procured from it. 

Multdni Mdtl, or fuller's-earth, is found in considerable 
quantities at Kapuri of Bdrmer ; it is used by natives of all castes 
for washing the hair. It is also mixed with macerated paper, 
from which small vessels are made, too porous, however, to retain 
liquids. This earth is taken to TJmarkot in Sind, Jodhpur, and 
Bikanir. It sells on the spot for about IJ annas per donkey-load, 
and 2 annas per bullock-load or from IJ to 2| maunds in 
weight. 



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( 272 ) 

Forests. — ^There are no forests or forest-trees in Mallani. The 
common trees are — ^khejrd (acacia leucophloeaj , kumat, khair, 
roHrd (iecoma undulata)^ phog (calligonum) ^ ber (zizyphus jujubaj ^ 
jdl, dk foalotropisj ^ and nim: the first eight are indigenous; the 
last is only seen where cultivated. On the banks of the Liini the 
babiil (acacia arabicaj is found in considerable quantities, and 
the jhdu; the last, howeyer, is more of a shrub than a tree. 
The wood of the khair, khejrd, and rohird is utilized for 
building purposes ; that of the rohird;, after being kept for a 
couple of years, is much valued, and tables, chairs, boxes, &c., 
are made of it. The flower of the dk, mixed with salt, pepper, 
&c., is considered a good remedy for coughs ; and the sap which 
.is extracted from it is thought a certain remedy for pricks by 
thorns ; the leaves are also extensively used as applications in 
cases of rheumatism. The twigs of the dk and phog, but especial- 
ly of the latter, are employed as materials for supporting the 
sides of kutcha (shallow earthen) weUs, and in building huts ; the 
leaves of the ber, mixed with cut grass, &c., is a favorite food for 
camels. 

Grasses. — ^Murath(?),* sanid,* and khinp* grasses are used for 
thatching purposes, and from the latter strong ropes are made. 
The bhurat, siwan, and bured are very conmion in Mallani, and 
on them the cattle chiefly graze. 

'Wild Animals. — The common beasts of prey are wolves^ 
jackals,, foxes, and leopards ; the last named are, however, rare. 
The wild-pig is occasionally found. Ravine-deer are seen all over 
the district ; antelope only in the neighbourhood of Jasol. Hares 
are occasionally seen, but are not numerous. Amongst the game- 
birds are the large bustard (eupodotis edwardsiij and tilor (houbara 
macqueeniij, the ordinary grey partridge and grey quaU, the large 
sandgrouse (pterocles arenariusj , the common sandgrouse (ptero^ 
cles exustusj^ the painted sandgrouse (pterocles jascitusj^ the 
coolen or demoiselle crane (anthropoides virgoj, the black ibis 
or curlew (local name, kur ddntli). Ducks of various kinds are 
found in the cold weather wherever there are pools of water. 
There are no fish in Mallani. 

Communications. — ^There are no made roads in Mallani, nor 
travellers* bungalows. A house has been erected at Jasol, which 
is sometimes occupied by the Political Superintendent when on 
tour, and by any European officers who may come to the district 
to attend the Tilwdra fair. Travellers from the North- West and 

^ — —^ 

* Englisli names not known* 



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( 273 ) 



other parts of India, proceeding 


to 


Dw^ka, take the following 


route:— 






JaBol to Taprin ... 




..• 4 kos* 


Tapran to Bhukdn 




... 8 „ 


Sindari 




... 4 „ 


Tie]& 




... 4 ,> 


J£likherfi 




• •• ff 


Nagar 




... 4 „ 


Gura 




••• *' f9 


Gandap 




... 6 „ 


On this route there are no difficulties 


; sweet-water is found at each 


stage ; supplies are plentiful ; and wheeled vehicles ca.n he used with 


comfort. 






Another route is from Jasol to Gadrah in Sind ; from Umarkot 


the stages are as follows : — 






Sanli 




... 5i kos. 


Nosar 




... 6 „ 


Chawfi 




••• ^ }3 


Shokar 




• • • ^ S3 


Barmer 




... * If 


Jasai 




... 5 „ 


SidnS 




••• ^ » 


Khatalkapfo ... 




... 6i „ 


Gadrah (in Sind) 




••• *i fs 



On tliis route, with the exception of Ohawd (where it is brackish), 
water is plentiful and sweet, and all supplies procurable. Carts 
can only be used as far as Banner ; beyond that, sand and sand- 
hills are encountered, and the country is covered with brushwood 
of the kumat and khair, which render the passage of wheeled 
vehicles almost impracticable. 

A third route is vid Jesalmer to Rori Bakar, and from Jasol 
is as follows : — 

Tilw^ra ••• ... ... 4 kos. 

Santara ... ... ... 6 „ 

Sodhan ... ... ... 6 „ 

x&atii ... ... ...o „ 

Ondo (of Sheo Marwar) ••• c. 3 „ 

Ula (of Jesalmer) ... ... 7 „ 

With the exception of Ratu, the water is sweet at all these 
stages, and supplies plentiful. Carts can travel by this route ; but 
very heavy sand and sandhills are met with, which render 
it (fifficult for bullocks to drag carts along. 

S 

* The kos in Mallaxd is a little more than 1| zniles. 



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( 274 ) 

A fourtli route is from BArmer to Takhtdbdd, the portion of 
Mallani which joins the border of Sind : — 

Akora ... ... ... 6 J kos, . 

Chahotan ... ... ... 6 ^, 

Bijrar ... ... ... 5 ,, 

Kelnor (head-quarters of Takhtdbdd) ... 7i „ 

By this route, carts cannot travel ; only camels and horses are 
used. The country is very sandy, and covered with an under- 
growth of kumat trees. Water at all stages good, and supplies 
plentiful. 

The route from Bdrmer to Gdra is as follows : — 

Mitri, 6 kos: water sweet ; supplies plentiful. 

Noklira, 5 „ „ brackish ; „ „ 

Khandali, 6 „ „ very scarce; „ „ 

Gura, 6 „ „ good; „ „ 

This route is only fit for camels ; carts are not advisable. 

Climate: — ^The climate of Mallani is a healthy one ; hot winds 
prevail with great violence in the months of April, May, and 
June, but the nights are fairly cool, and, as soon as rain falls, the 
temperature becomes pleasant ; the coldest months are from the 
middle of November to the middle of February. The amount of 
raiafall cannot be given, as a register has never been kept. 

Epidemics are rare ; fever, spleen diseases, and guinea-worm 
are the most common maladies. 

DroughUy Floods^ and Blights. — Droughts are very common ; 
floods never take place ; and blights are of rare occurrence. 

In these desert tracts, locusts generally appear after an un- 
usually heavy monsoon, and do much damage. 

State of Society. — In the towns of MaUani, such as Bdrmer, 
Jasol, Sindari, Nagar, and Giira, most of the houses are construct- 
ed of stone and bricks, and roofed with tUes, whilst those owned 
by the poorer classes are of mud with thatched roofs. In the 
towns the people are generally prosperous. Throughout Mallani, 
with the exception of the towns, beehive-shaped huts are mostly 
used, each family having a separate enclosure, which is fenced 
round by a strong hedge of thorns, those who can afford it 
having a compound- wall of mud as well. The people store their 
com in mud-constructed granaries, which are found in all these 
enclosures, and bear somewhat the appearance of Egyptian urns. 
Owing to the enormous area of land belonging to one village, vary- 
ing from three to six kos in circumference, the people form out- 
lying settlements, locally known as dhdnis, round which they cul- 
tivate. In some of the larger villages these dhdnis number from 
40 to 80. Scarcity of water does not allow of much bathing, and 

Kl 



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( 276 ) 

Hhe village people are filthy both In their persons and flress. 
Although they cannot be said to be floimshii^, there is little ot 
no actual poverty. 

Population, 

Population. — No census of Mallani "has ever been taken; 
•therefore, as regards the division into Hindus, Muhammadans, 
and Jams, only an approximate idea can be formed. Erom local 
enquiry it would appear that the Hindu (dass is by far the most 
numerous, forming a third of the whole population. Next to the 
Hindus in nimiber come the Muhammadans, who inhabit about 
120 villages of the district. The Jains are represented by Oswdls 
and Jdtis, whose nimibers are not considerabfe. 

Castes, Sects, and Races. — ^The Rdjptits of Mallani are divided 
into fiftv-two gots, as follows : — ^Deord, Sesodia, Bh&tti, Sodhd, 
Solankhi, Chohdn, Parid, Paridrid, DhiSndu, Dhdndal, Bord, 
Bdgeld, Bidd, Detd, Singarpdl, Khipd, Jasolid, Phalsundid, 
Sinmdl, Gogdde, Sdudi, Indd, Jetang, B^ddr, Kasumblid, Ghelot, 
Eiirmot, Kelan, Gogli, Sugdr, Shekdwat, Mdngalia, Dhawechds, 
Paridr, Kalded, Kaldwat, TJgd, Sor, Jasor, Selot, Kdld, Bharakmal, 
Makwdnd, Jharechd, Barechd, Kotechd, Karwd, Birdwd, Jai- 
chand, Klhdwarid, ^tmot, Mahechd. Ijocally, they and their 
relatives take preced^ice, and after them the castes detailed 
below : — 

These men do not cultivate, but trade on a small scale; 
o . V i>-/i. tli©y go i^^m, house to house beffffing for 

Snmali Brdhmans. • ° j -n j j t i ^ R 

gram, and will not eat cooked mea.t, or 
drink water, brought by any other than their own caste. 

There are large numbers of Jdshis (astrologer class) in the 
j^g^-,^ district of Mallam; their chief occupa- 

tion is trade, they take ghee and gund 
(gum), the latter obtained in large quantities from the kumat 
and bdnuU trees — ^the first to Gujardt, Jodhpur, and Nayanagar ; 
the second to Bhiwdni. In return, they bring back goor (raw 
sugar), khdur (coarse sugar), cocoanuts, dates, betel-nuts, and 
occasionally rice. Those J^shis who are cultivators are dealt 
with on more favorable terms than other labouring classes ; a 
fourth share only of the produce is taken from them, and they 
pay no import or export dues. 

with the original Bahtor founders of 
Mallani, and cultivate. 
These men have lately come from the Bikanir State to Mallani. 
«o. of T^«a.r«««. T^^y ^^® *1^® Purohits of the Jdts ; they 

cultivate, and also live on chanty. 



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( 276 ) 

These men are the Purohits of the thdkurs of Mallani; their 
^„ duty is to escort the ashes of their 

Raigur Brfthmans, ,•', , iJii-i aj. 

deceased masters to the Ganges. At 
weddings they receive from all classes of Hindus what is locally 
known as lik, Le., presents in money ; they hold lands rent free 
from th^urs. 

,, -^ , . The Agarwdl Mahaians are worshippers 

of Vishnu, and traders. 

^ , , . ^r v . The Maheshwari Mahaians are also 

worshippers of Vishnu, and teaders ; few 

cultivate. 

r^ xiTurx.' /t • -^n Tho majority are cultivators; only 

Oswal Mahaians (Jainis).. j i i •* "^ -l 

those who are very prosperous become 

traders. 
In Marwar and Mallani there are two classes, of Chdrans ; 
^^^^^^ one called Bdrath, the other Garwi, 

Ch^ans. The former class were originally 
Bhdttis ; but in the time of either Shivaji or MaUindth, they were 
named B^U^ths, and received the title of Chdran. The village of 
phurmard in the pargana of Ndgaur of Mallani belongs to them 
in iidak (rait-f ree tenure, or,, literally ^ in charity) . The supposed 
origin of the Bdraths is, that a Bhdtti of good family had 
an intrigue with a woman, also of good family but of another 
caste ; and they came together and took up their abode on the 
left bank of the Liinl, near Durmard. The water on this 
bank of the Liini is brackish and undrinkable, whilst that on 
the right is sweet and good. When the river was in flood (so 
runs the story) this couple, either singly or together, were able, 
under the auspices of a goddess (name unknown), to cross 
to the right bank without even getting their clothes wet, 
and thence bring sweet water. On this they were looked upon 
as holy people, and the village of Durmard was given to them. 
They have now spread over other parts of India. The Bdrath 
Chdrans worship Mathwiji chiefly. The Garwi Chdrans ori- 
ginally, from some quarrel with their then ruler, came from 
Kachh, with their families, flocks, and herds. At the time they 
immigrated, Jdlor of Marwar was held by an ancestor of the 
present ruler of Palanpur (Muhammadan), and was his capital. 
He located these Garwi Chdrans on the banks of the Ltini ; their 
headman was called Shind, and the present village is called, after 
him, Shinaddri. Ddri means accepting (ddran) ; Shinaddri there- 
fore meant that Shind consented to live there. The name is 
now corrupted into Sindari. Their descendants still live in this 
village, which in former times was considered " suma,'* or a place 
of refuge, from which no criminal or ottiers seeking an asylum 



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( 277 ) 

could be given up. Both these classes of Chdraus consider them- 
selves as above the law, and resent any interference by committing 
chdndi, that is, self-immolation, and cutting and wounding them- 
selves with knives, swords, and daggers. The Garwi Chdrans are 
great traders,and never accept charity,as Bdrath Ghdrans do. They 
pay no dues, and in troublous times, when plunder was rife in the 
land, these men, although trading with thousands of rupees' worth 
of property, were never molested ; this was mainly owing to the 
dread of their self-immolation, the onus of blood in such a case 
falling upon the authors of the crime which led to it. The 
Garwi Chdrans are now divided into clans, or khamps, and inter- 
marry, but not with the Bdrath Chdrans, with whom they wiU 
neither eat nor smoke. Most of them worship the goddess Ndg 
Bai. 

These men are held in great awe, in the same way as Chdrans, 
g^^ by all Hindus ; they hold lands, and some- 

times villages, rent free ; they receive great 
largess at weddings, and, if refused, abuse the non-givers in song. 
These are a caste of Brdhmans, but eat meat and drink liquor. 
LohauM They trade in the same manner as the 

J6shis ; they pay less duty on goods than 
others, but are not so leniently treated as J6shis. 

A low caste of Brahmans ; they live chiefly on charity, and are 
the Purohits of Oswdl mahajans ; they cook 
^^ ** for the Oswdls and read kabits. Although 

themselves Shivites, they worship at the Jain temples. 

There are two classes of these men— one locally known as 
sunte Simdrs — and are worshippers of Vishnu. 

In MaUani they cultivate, but their trade 
is that of workers in gold, silver, brass, &c. The other class is the 
Mer Sundr ; they also worship Vishnu, and their trade is the same 
as that of the Brdhmania Sundrs ; but they do not intermarry, 
drink, or eat with them. 

This tribe formerly resided in all the villages of Jasol, in two 
j^^ of Sindari, and in one of Bdrmer ; now 

they have spread over the entire district 
of MaUani. They are capital farmers. 

These men are cultivators, but are only found in estates bor- 
^^^.g dering on the Ltini, where both spring and 

autumn crops are grown. They, as well as 
Jdts, Rebdris, and Pdliwdls, are worshippers of Vishnu. 

The Bishndwis (followers of Jamba) cultivate in the district 

Bishndwis. of Chahotau. 

The Rebdris keep large herds of sheep and goats, and the 
Rebdris. morc Wealthy possess cattle and camels. 



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( 278 ) 

The offspring of a man and woman of different castes are so 

. . called. They intermarry with each other, 

anjogi mi. ^^^ ^^^ class is considcrcd the offspring of 

sin, and is coldly regarded. They cultivate, but many of them 

are frequently beggars. 

These men eat flesh and drink spirits. Their bodies are buried, 
not burnt, after death. They are worship- 
^^^^^' pers of Mahadeo. There are different classes 

of Gosains; sonjie are buried in a sitting position, and some at 
full length. Their remains are interred in the place where they 
lived ; a platform of mud or stone, according to the status of the 
deceased, is placed over the remains, and a figure of Mahadeo. 
In parts of Marwar this class owns villages, and are well off. 
Some of them (those who marry) cultivate, but the greater num- 
ber are beggars, that is, they five on charity. There are twelve 
different classes of Gosaias, of whom ten are in Mallani, 
tnz. — Giri, Puri, Bhdrti, Ban, Sarswati, Sdgar, Parit, Parghat, 
Arun, and Runkhar. 

The Ndths are kiiown by wearing a stone ornament passed 
through the lobe of the ear. Many of 
this class, especially those who are well 
off, do not marry at all, and are called Nihang (the Ndgas of 
Jaipur) ; those who marry are termed Girhast. The gtirii, or 
priest of the famous Mallindth from whom Mallani is named, was 
a Gosaia called G^ribndth ; none of his (the priest's) disciples 
are allowed to marry, and if any of them is caught intriguing 
with a woman, he is turned out of the temple and not allowed 
to re-enter it. • He then may marry if he likes, or take a woman 
into his house as a concubine. If a Gosain or any religious 
man, that is, a man who is a priest of Mahadeo or of a temple, 
has an intrigue with a woman, he and she escape punish- 
ment by going to a temple and putting on fakir's costume — dust- 
colored clothes. After remaining a day or two in the temple, 
they take up their abode in the village as man and wife, and no 
ill is thought of theni ; but the man cannot be a priest in the 
temple, and he is no longer considered a ch61a, or disciple. 

-.,. ,- . . They are worshippers in the Jain tem- 

pies, and are by profession school-masters. 

Their trade is to stamp dyed stuffs ; some few also cultivate ; 

Khatris those who work at this trade for thdkurs 

are exempt from taxes, and perform his 

work for less payment than they receive from others. 

j^^^.^ -This class is a very industrious one; 

they are the market-gardeners of India. 



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( 279 > 

The Sungds call themselves mahajans ; they; ate the KaMs of 
the North-Western Provinces ; their trade 
Simgds. ^ ^j^^ ^£ distillers of liquor. 

The same remarks as regards Mochis 
^^^ ^**^""^' (see next page) apply to them. 

The Khdtis are also servants of the village ; they have to per- 
^,,. , , . form all carpentry- work of the village^ 

Khatui (carpenters). • f, •'i. a__j.ii 

repairs as well as making of carts, ploughs, 
&c. They are not so well remimerated ns kdmhdrs^ mochis, 
tailors, and others. 

These men cultivate ; pay land, but no other, taxes. They are* 
siiawats really stone-masons by profession, and in 

Mallani they do all kinds of stone- work„ 
and are house-builders, as well as constructors of the ordinary 
stone flour-mills of the village : these chakis, or flour-mills, cost 
from one to two-and-a-haJf rupees each ; there is a great trade in 
them at Banner, whence they are conveyed to Sind and other 
places. " Sildwats'' are of the same caste as Khdtis (carpentersj^ 
with whom they intermarry. 

^. , . These men are by trade oilmen ; they 

also cultivate. 

There are three classes of Ktiinhdrs : the first are called 
KtimhArs Karsds, and are cultivators of the soil ; the 

second, who have no special appellation, 
but are known as Ktimhdrs, make earthen pots, cultivate, and 
keep asses with which they plough. Earthen pots are supplied 
by these men to the villagers ; from those with whom an alrange- 
ment is made, they receive annual compensation in the way 
of grain, and, on occasions of marriages and deaths, cast-off 
clothes ; and from others payment, in either money or grain, at 
the time of purchase. The thdkurs of Mallani absolve this caste 
also from the payment of dand, an annual tax of three rupees 
levied on all other cultivators ; as also from jh6pri, or house, 
tax, which others have to pay at the rate of one rupee per 
annum ; they are also excused by the thdkurs the payment of a 
tax varying from two to six rupees, which is levied on all other 
cultivators on the occasion of the marriage of their (the cultiva- 
tors') daughters. !For these remissions they have to give earthen 
vessels without payment to, and fetch water for, the th^ur, 
whenever he visits the village. The third are called, like the 
Megw^s, Jdtid Kiimhdrs ; these do not intermarry with the other 
two classes of Ktimhdrs ; they are workers in wool (locally called 
jdt), hence the term Jdtid, and thread and rope makers ; they, 
too, cultivate. 



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( 280 ) 

These men are treated in the same way by the thdkurs as 
^ , . shoe-makers and tailors. By such as 

NdiB (barbers). ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^j^ ^^ ^^j^ ^p^^ ^j^^ 

l3arber is paid yearly in kind, and by others as their means admit. 
The women of this class attend other women in child-birth, act 
also as wet-nurses, and perform other menial duties for the ladies 
of a household. 

These men work in gum-lac. Bangles of lac sell from six to 
^^^ twelve annas a pair; the ivory ones cost 

Lakher s (bang e- ers). ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ rupCC eight aunaS a 

pair. The women of the country often have their arms covered 
with these ivory bangles, the whole cost of which is from about 
twelve to fourteen rupees. Lakherds pay no taxes to the thdkurs, 
and for this indulgence they have to repair the bangles of the 
thdkur's family when broken. 

These form a low class of Brdhmans ; a few cultivate ; they 

get the clothes thrown over dead bodies 
when taken to be burned, and eat the 
food given in charity by people for twelve days after the death of 
any one in a family. 

This is an inferior class, who more often beg than work. 
Desdntari Whatever charity is given on a Saturday 

^ ^ ' is given to these men. If a Hindu 

festival falls on an unlucky Saturday, the Desdntaris are pre- 
sented with a black buffalo, cow, goat, or even a black blanket, 
and in return they worship the god (Saturn) in order to drive off 
the evil omen. 

Mochis, besides shoe-making, also do other kinds of leather- 
Mocbis work. The price of ordinary leather 

^ ** shoes in a village varies from twelve 

annas to a rupee and a half. Cultivators of the soil pay for their 
shoes in grain, others pay cash. The thdkurs only pay half price 
for their shoes, some nothing at all ; and the mochis are allowed 
to cultivate as much land as the yean by their own household, 
rent free. If a thdkur gives excessive work to the mochi, he will, 
in exchange, lend him bullocks to plough with, or obtain them 
for him from others ; and supply seed for sowing. If a mochi has 
no time to cultivate, the tMkur assists him in other ways by 
presents of money and clothes on occasions of marriages or deaths. 
For this, the mochi has not only to supply shoes to the thdkur's 
family, but perform all other duties pertaining to his trade. 

They receive clothes and food in charity 
moiiB (drum-beaters). fj^j^i the village, and largess at weddings. 

The same remarks apply to this class as 
Phobia (washermen). to shoc-makcrs, tailors, and others of the 

serving class. 



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( 281 ) 

There are three classes of Megwdls ; they eat together, but do 
^ ^^ not intermarry: the first are locally known 

^^ "* as Bdmbis, the same caste as Chamdrs in 

the North- Western Provinces; they perform the general work 
of the village, look after travellers, &c., and get, in return, the 
skins of all unclaimed dead animals ; on occasions of marriages, 
food ; and from the heads of villages, a certain quantity of grain 
at harvest-time ; they are also workers in leather, and weavers. 
The bodies of those who are followers of Rdmdeo (a holy man 
whose shrine is now worshipped at Edmdeora near Pokaran), 
andPdbu, another holy man who formerly lived in the neighbour- 
hood, are buried; and the bodies of worshippers of Vishnu are 
burned. The second are Jdtids, the Regars of the North- Western 
Provinces: these men cultivate, but their special occupation is 
dyeing and working in untanned leather ; they eat the flesh of 
dead animals. The third are called Bangards ; they make cloth 
from thread, and also cultivate. The same remarks as to burning 
and burying after death apply to the Jdtids and Bangards. 

They act as veterinarians. A few of them also operate on the 
^_^ human body in cases of stone disease. 

^^™^ Many are cultivators and traders, and are 

treated with a certain degree of leniency by the thdkurs. 

This class form the gtiriis, or spiritual guides, of the Megwdls ; 
^. , they labor in the fields, and are weavers 

too by trade. 
A kind of Chamdr ; they are also drum-beaters ; they work in 
g^^^^ the fields, and get pay by the village for 

^'^*™** their duties as drum-beaters. 

These men are good cultivators; they act also as shikdris, 
r>un / 1^ • • 1 ^ messengers, and general servants to the 

tnakurs, and are paid accordingly. This 
class were inveterate thieves, but (in Mallani at least) are now 
losing that character. On occai^ons of marriages, a small band 
of these men, arme4, are collected to form a body-guard, and 
they are generally to the front whenever disputes occur between 
one village and another. 

These men are paid by the thdkur and 
Bhangis. others according to their means. 

The Muhammadans in Mallani are divided into forty-one 
classes, as follows : — Sayyid, Daras, Samejd, Samd, Rdhamd, Nuhri, 
Arisar, Manglid, Makyd, Bakid, Jonij&, Hdlipotrd, Abrd, 
Bhamsard, Mher, Chdma, Janj, Bhyd, Sdnd, Sangrasi, Kaldr, 
Chichdr, Sahtd, Dal, Rdjar, Gaju, Jhakrd, Thdbd, Rdmdawd, 
Bhati, Kati, Tdlozi, Dewat, Hingord, Sardi, Dhdndal, Chopdn, 
Sumrd, Panu, Rind, and Jesar. 



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C 28a ) 

BeligioiP. — The majority of the Hindus of Mallani are wor- 
shippers of Shiva. The principal th^kurs of Mallani, descend- 
ants of Mallindth, worship at the temple of Rugndth ; and the des- 
cendants of Jaitmil, a brother of Mallinath, of whom are the 
thdkurs of Nagar and Gurd, at that of a god named Alamji. There 
is a very ancient temple (built seven hundred years ago) at Kher, 
the village so called near the Luni, to Rugndthji, who is 
worshipped by maaiy of the Rdjptits of the districts. Jain tem- 
ples are found all over Mallani ; three at Nagar are very old, hav- 
ing been built prior to the occupation of Mallani by the Rahtors. 
Temples to Mahadeo are also common. The founder of the district, 
Mallinath, is generally worshipped, there being shrines to him in 
almost every village. A great annual fair is held in his honor at 
TUwdra on the banks of the Ldnl near to his shrine.^ On the 
opposite side of the river is a temple erected to his wife, Rup^ 
3>evi. The legend about Mallindth and his wife Rupd is, that the 
former did not die, but was translated to the skies on horseback 
from a hill near the village of Dudiali of Marwar ; and when his 
wife Rupd heard of his disappearance, she started off in a rath for 
the spot in order to become sati, but on the road she vanished f rom* 
the rath, and was never seen again ; so they are now worshipped as 
god and goddess. There is a goddess locally known as Bdnkahnatd,. 
held in great veneration by aU in Mallani. In boundary and other 
disputes the oath of Bdnkalmdtd is always taken, and is considered 
a most blading one. At Bdrmer there is an old temple erected 
to Bdlarikh (another name for the sun) ;. the idol is of wood. All 
the Jdshi (astrologer)^ tribe are said to- be worshippers of Bdlarikh,. 
and the temple at Bdrmer to be the only one to this god. At two 
ruined towns or cities of Bdrmer — Kherdru, and Jiina, sometimes 
called Patrdsar, said to have been strongholds of the Gohels — are- 
still to be seen remains of Jain temples, as well as those of 
Mahadeo and Rugndthji. In every village of Mallani, gene- 
rally under a khejra tree, will be found a stone slab with the 
figure of a snake carved on it y and the victiai of a snake-bite is 
always taken to this shrine, and Goga interceded with for recovery. 
The local legend about Goga is as follows : — There was once a Rana, 
named Jdwar, a descendant of Choh^ Pirthviraj; he had a 
wife, named Vachal, who had no offspring, and they lived at a 
village called Dadrdwd.* It so happened that Gorakh Nath, a 
Sidh, or holy man, very famous in the religious history of Hindu- 
stan, and the founder of an independent sect, came to their village, 
and went round, as was his custom, begging. Jewar's wife 
did not see him at the time, being engaged; but, hearing 



* Situated in the district of Hansi. 



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( 283 ) 

afterwards that a holy man had been to beg, she sent her 
maid to search for him. The Sidh had located himself outside 
of the village, whither Jewar's wife herself took food to 
him, and told him of her having no offspring, and of her great 
desire for a son. The Jogi was so pleased at such a lady of rank 
bringing him food that he told her her wish should be gratified 
and she should have a son. Upon this she returned to her house, 
and, in accordance with the Jogi's promise, a son was bom> to 
whom the name of Goga was given. One day, when the child was 
lying in its cradle, a snake appeared, which the child grasped by the 
neck, and, as is the wont of children when they get hold of any- 
thing new, put it to his mouth ; when people came up and saw 
this, they dragged away the snake, and expected to see the child die, 
as it was actually suclang the snake's head. When nothing result- 
ed to the child, and they remembered the story of his birth, they 
assumed that Goga was endowed with miraculous powers, and he 
has ever since been worshipped, but particularly as a protector 
from snake-bites. 

A local hero named Pdbu is also much venerated in Mallani ; 
the legend about him is as follows : — ^Asthdn, the founder of the 
Rahtor dynasty in Marwar, had a son named Dhdndal, whose 
descendants are to this day known as Dhdndal Rahtors. He had 
two sons — ^the eldest Bhui^, the second Pdbu. DhAndal had a 
blood-feud with the Khichi Rdjptits, the chief of whom was named 
Jhind Rao, whose head-quarters were at a place called Jdel in the 
pargana of Ndgor. Pdbu on one occasion went to the village of 
Kolu in the Sheo pargana of Marwar to marry a daughter of a 
Sdnkla Rdjptit, las brother Bhurd accompanying him. Whilst 
there, Jhind Rao made an open attack upon a Chdran woman 
named Dowal, a resident of Pdbu's village, and carried off all her 
cattle. The Chdran women went at once to complain to Pdbu, 
and arrived at the exact moment when the marriage ceremony, or 
pherd, was being performed. On hearing what had occurred, 
Pdbu left his bride, mounted, and, with his brother and followers, 
went in pursuit of Jhind Rao, whom he overtook. A severe battle 
was fought, and Pdbu was kiUed after performing prodigies of 
valour. He has ever since been worshipped as a deity, owing to 
his death whilst fighting so gallantly. There are temples in many 
parts of Marwar to Pdbu, who is represented as on horseback 
with a spear in his hand. His horse was called '* Black Caesar,'* 
and there is an efi&gy at Mandor of Pdbu moimted on this, hia 
favorite warhorse. 

Social Qustoms and Umgies. — ^Marriage ceremonies in Mallani 
differ little from those in other parts of India, but the expenses are 
much less. Widow-marriage is not allowed amongst the thdkurs 



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( 284 ) 

and other superior classes; but amongst Jdts, Rebdris, Sundrs, 
Chamdrs, and others of the inferior classes, a widow can take a 
second husband. There is no regular marriage ceremony: the 
intended husband comes to the widow's house, where he is fed ; 
he gives the woman clothes and jewels^ and takes her away, but 
never by the front door of the house. If she has any children 
by her former husband, they remain with his family ; the ojffspring 
by such a second marriage are considered as legitimate. 

Whenever a marriage or death takes place in a thdkur's 
fetmily, a fee called ddpd is levied from all classes (cultivators 
included), except Brdhmans and Shdmis ; this fee varies from 
one to eighteen rupees, but the lowest sum is that generally 
taken, especially from the cultivators. As regards inheritance in 
the pargana of Bdrmer, the estates are equally divided amongst the 
sons of a thdkur. In Jasol, Sindari, Nagar, and Gtira, the eldest 
son succeeds to the estate, and other brothers have portions 
(in land) given to them for their livelihood. The property of 
aU other Hiudu castes in Mallani is equally divided amongst 
all the sons. 

The Land. 

Principal Crops.— ^TUhe various kinds of crops grown in Mal- 
lani are bdjrd, mting, mot, jowdr, til, and cotton: these are 
sown as soon as the monsoon sets in, and are reaped, bdjri 70 
days, cotton 90, and the rest 60 to 65 days, after sowing. 
Water-melons, locally known as matird, grow in wild pro- 
fusion in the rainy season ; the villagers eat large quantities ; 
each melon contains on an average about three seers of juice, 
which is cool and pleasant to the taste. The seeds are eaten by the 
cattle, and, in time of dearth, ground into flour and used as food by 
the people. Tumba is a gourd indigenous all over Mallam, but more 
particularly in the thull or sandy portions. Bullocks, camels, and 
horses eat the gourd ; and men for their own use cut it in pieces 
and bury it in the sand, where it is kept until only the seeds 
remain ; these are then washed, brayed in a mortar, the outer husk 
thrown away, and the remaining portion of the seed mixed with 
bdjri and ground into flour. Wheat-crops are grown on the banks 
of the Ltini, but are very rare in other parts of Mallani. When 
the rainfall is favorable, however, this cereal is cultivated in 
marshy lands in the Setrao and Chahotan districts. Barley and 
sesamam are rarely seen, and gram never. 

Agriculture. — The plough of the country is the same as that 
used in other parts of India. Bullocks, buffaloes, camels, and 
asses are employed for draught; and occasionally, when a cul- 
tivator csmnot afford animal labour, the plough is worked by men. 



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( 285 ) 

The soil of Mallani may be classed under tliree heads : sand 
knc^wm as thuU ; hard or stiff sandy clay called ndyar ; and de- 
posits of soil in the hills of limestone called pdr. Three parts 
of Mallani may be roughly estimated to consist of sand* Of 
the remaining quarter, two-thirds may be classed as hard sandy- 
clay, generally so salt and sterile in its nature as to niirture 
only grass which springs up with the rain and withers away 
immediately. In such ground, sweet-water is not to be found* 
The remaining portion is known as pdr, a soil peculiar to the 
Bdrmer district and the north-western part of the prorince* 
It is formed of patches of deposited soil lying in the interstices 
tit the foot of limestone ranges, and is in request for culture, as, 
at little expense, crops can twice a year be grown on it, water for 
its irrigation being obtained at little cost by digging shallow 
trenches or reservoirs in the surrounding limestone bed, which 
catch the upper drainage of rain-water from the surrounding 
slopes* 

Agricultural Tenures. ^-^ThBre are no zamindars (or such classes 
as. are known by that name in the North- Western Provinces) in Mal- 
lani. The PdliwdlBrdhmans more than any other class resemble 
zamindars, and they are oiily found on the banks of the Luni. 
The probable cause of their position is to be traced in the history 
of the first arrival df the Rahtors in Marusthali or Marwar, when 
the Pdliwdls accompanied them to the land of Kher, now known 
as Mallani. The cultivators pay hdsil (revenue) in kind to the 
jdgirddrs, who are the real owners of the soil ; and the PAliw51s 
Teceive ti zamindari haq, locally known as ghtigri, from the culti- 
vators (except of their own caste). This haq, or share, is paid in 
kind, and depends on the season. In good seasons he gets for every 
kalsi (a local measure containing about twelve maunds) 13 or 
13| pailis (another local measure of about 1^ seers), or, in other 
words, about a sixth share of the produce. If the Pdliwdl 
neither cultivates himseK nor can find husbandmen, he has to pay 
rent in cash to the jdgirddr for such land as is left uncultivated. 

There is no land measurement in MaUani : a field, or khet^ 
in the ner^ or land near the Liinl, may be from 8 to 25 blghas, and 
for these fields the Pdliwdls pay from two to five rupees as 
jent. 

BenUBates. — ^All J&t, Rebdri, Bishnawi, and Kalabi hus- 
bandmen pay three rupees per chula (i.^., per family) in cash 
yearly to the jdglrddr. Por this they may employ as many 
ploughs as they can, and the produce is then shared by customary 
proportions according to the crop. Por bdjri and cotton crops 
-they pay as revenue to the jdgirddr from an eighth to an 
eleventh share of the produce, besides supplying for his horses 



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( 286 ) 

a camel-load of bdjri heads (or as much as can be packed in 
a bora, or bag), and from mting, mot, jowdr, and tfl, a very 
small share varying from one to two camel-loads. Of the 
spring-crops, for well-land a fourth, and for bardni, or lands 
irrigated or saturated from bunds, a fourth or fifth share, belongs 
to the jagirddr, who also takes for his horses one or two strips 
or beds of wheat locally known as khodd. In addition, the 
cultivator has to pay a small share of the produce of both autumn 
and spring crops to the pardhdn, or headman of the jdglrddr, and 
likewise to the village temple. From other cultivating classes, 
such as those who do service, the jdglrddr takes from one 
to five rupees per annum per family, but no share of the prbduce. 
In the Takhtdbdd district of Mallani the proprietors of the land 
are the thdkurs of Setrao, Chahotan, and Gangdsarid of Sdchor 
of Marwar. There are in this district a class of Muhammadan 
settlers called Samejds, and to them the lands have been leased 
for a period of thirty-five years, twenty of which have expired. 
They pay two rupees per plough to the landholder, but are exempt 
from all other taxes. They are held responsible for the peace of 
the country. * 

Mode of collecting revenue and agricultural statistics. — ^The 
m.ode of collecting the revenue by the jdglrddr is as follows :— • 
When the grain is threshed out and stored in one spot, his 
men proceed to the place, the grain is measured in earthen vessels 
{ghards), and the jdgirddr's share put aside. Implicit trust seems 
to be placed in his tenant by the landlord : there are no kanwdrids, 
or watchers of the crops, as on the khdlsa lands belonging to the 
Darbdr. Until the grain is collected in heaps, a tenant may con- 
sume as much as he requires for the daily sustenance of himself 
and family; but if he makes away with, or conceals, any, the 
jdgfrddr, on discovering this, takes a twofold, and sometimes a 
fourfold, share, and in future the delinquent has to give security 
against repetition of the offence. 

Pamike. 

In 1868 the south-western monsoon had failed entirely through- 
out Marwar, and there was, consequently, no grass crop. The 
country within the branches of the Liini had been visited by 
heavy storms of rain on the 1st and 2nd September, which saved 
the stunted grass, which was too sparse to cut and too short for 
homed cattle to graze upon. A little rain fell in the south-western 
comer of Marwar and at Giira in Mallani, but the herds leaving 
the country on their way to Gujarat soon trampled it down. A very 
short crop of grain, about one-fifth of the usual quantity, had been 
originally sown, and of this little ripened. It was hoped, if there 



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( 287 ) 

If ere another fall of rain, that a considerahlo quantity would be 
saved ; but no fall occurred. 

A report was received on the 25th September from Mallani 
that not even in the villages where rain had fallen on the 1st and 
2nd September wotdd the cattle be saved, as there had been no 
subsequent falls. The Jodhpur cavalry detachment at Mallani 
was disorganized, and the horses had been let loose from their 
pickets to take their chance of life by feeding on the grass-roots 
beneath the sand. Even the deputv in charge of the djstrict was 
unable to procure grass for his sole horse, which he had ojBfered for 
sale at one-eighth its value without being able to find a purchaser. 
Nothing cotud show the great distress from the want of grass 
more than the latter fact. 

Mallani suffered equally with the rest of Marwar. With the 
exception of about half-a-dozen hamlets, the whole tract belongs 
to thdkurs, offshoots of the family of the Jodhpur Maharaja. 
They not only own a ^reat number of cattle, but breed one of the 
finest and most endurmg races of horses in India, which are at the 
same time both high-spirited and tractable. The produce they sell 
yearly at the great fair of Tilwdra near Bdlotra, and this forms a 
principal source of their revenues. On the approach of the famine 
the thdkurs sent their horses to their connections in Gujardt and 
Jesahner. The change of forage seemed to agree with the 
horses as little as with the cattle, and about three-quarters of the 
breeding stock died. It would be supposed that horses would 
not have been afficted in the same way as cattle. They may 
have required grain on a change of pasture, but it is not im- 
probable that there was a murrain both amongst cattle and horses, 
aggravated, as' in the hmnan body, by insufficient food and bad 
water, which caused so great a mortality. 

The long-looked-f or rains set in at last in the middle of July, 
and the people were enabled to plough their fields. They had lost 
their cattle and plough-bullocks ; wherefore, making smaU ploughs 
expressly for the purpose, they yoked themselves in place of their 
oxen, and women dropped in the grain as the men laboriously 
turned the furrow. Only one ploughing was given, and a few 
thorns in place of harrows were dragged over the furrows to 
scratch the earth over the grain. So precious were camels and 
bullocks at this time for agricultural operations that three rupees 
a day represented the rate of hire for a camel ploughing, and four 
rupees a day for a pair of bullocks. 

A breadth of land equal to half the usual quantity was sown. 
The grain everywhere sprouted splendidly, and all reckoned that 
the famine had passed, when another scourge visited the country 
in the shape of locusts. They entered Marwar from Jesalmer 



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( 288 ) 

at tbe end of May, and laid their eggs in every direction. These 
hatched as the rains set in, and by the end of August the young 
locusts had spread over the whole famine tract, laying fresh eggs 
wherever there was sand. The broods from these eggs appeared 
early in September, and, moving in dense masses backwards and 
forwards, destroyed every living thing in their way. Crops were 
eaten down so that the ground had the appearance of never having 
been sown. By degrees the locusts got their wings and flew hither 
and thither over the country, devouring the ripening grain which 
the young broods had spared. Each swarm, of which there must 
have been hundreds in Rdjpiitdna, settled every night, covered 
every green plant over an area of 12 or 15 square miles, and left it 
bare as they flew away in the morning. The loss to the country 
by the locusts was about 76 per cent, of the crop, which originally 
was only a half crop. 

Mallani, being a desert tract, suffered less from fever than the 
rest of Marwar. An accurate account was taken of the popu- 
lation of 81 villages in Mallani, and enquiries made for the purpose 
of a census. The mortality in these villages will give some idea of 
the great loss of population by the famine throughout Marwar. 

Loss of Population caused hy the Famine in 81 villages in Mallani* 



I 



r 



8 



NtTMBEB that EHieBATBB 
DIBD. 



AND 



iM' 



IS ^ 



p 



1 



^ 



^.9 



§* • 

II 

^ 

4,631 
11,498 
1,714 
8,061 
2,896 
9,620 

33,420 



1 Bdrmer 

31 Villages of Bdrmer 

11 Besdla 

1 Villages of Besala 

1 Sindari 

36 Villages of Sindari 

81 



5,047 
18,623 
2,002 
3,722 
4,730 
13,883 



190 

1,514 

180 

460 

1,197 

3,048 



115 

243 

"'24 
118 
305 



111 

481 
118 
117 
519 
910 



Total 



43,007 



6,589 



805 



2,316 



416 

2,235 

298 

761 

1,834 

4,268 



9,807 



The loss in Mallani was consequently about one-fourth of 
the population, the number before the famine having been 43,007, 
and after it 33,420. The difference between the loss by fever in 
the interior desert villages of Bdrmer and Besdla, and by the 
same disease at Sindari on the bank of the Liinl river, is very 
marked. In the former, the deaths by fever were only one-for- 
tieth of the population ; in the latter, one-sixth. The total loss by 



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( 289 ) 

fever was much less in Mallani than in the richer districts erf 
Marwar, where it was in many cases as high as one-third. 

The district of Mallani, which is under the direct management 
of the Political Agent, was almost depopulated by emigration. 
The native official in charge was called on for a list of such works 
as would give employment to the poor, and which might be profit- 
ably commenced, and were situated in different parts of the country. 
The deepening of four tanks already in existence was taken in 
hand, as well as the construction of three new ones. An advance 
of money was at once made for the works, and the jdgirdArs were 
informed that half the cost of any work undertaken in their estates 
would be paid for by the Political Agent. 

Tkade. 

Commerce and Manufacture. — The chief manufacture in 
Mallani is from wool and country cotton carried on by the Ban- 
gard Megwdl class. Cloth for wearing apparel composed of 
cotton and wool mixed, and luis^ or blankets of wool, alone are 
made. Small dariSy for spreading on beds, of camel-hair, are also 
woven by the Jdtid Megwdls. 

The Mochis of Barmer make horse and camel gear of leather, 
which finds a market in Umarkot as well as in the district. 

Stone flour-mills are also constructed at Barmer and exported 
in large nimibers. 

The principal articles of commerce are ghee and gum : the for- 
mer is taken to Gujarat, Jodhpur, and the Ajmer town of Nayana- 
gar ; the latter to Bhiwdni. The imports are raw and coarse sugar, 
and rice, from Bhiwdni. TIrd (a kind of vetch) and tobacco are 
brought from Malwa by the banjdras who carry salt there from 
Pachbadra. 

Opiimi is brought from Kotah, Jhalrapdtan, and Pdli. 

English cloth comes from Karachi and Bombay ; from the 
former place vid Haidarabad and Umarkot, and from the latter 
vid Pali, and sometimes by the direct route vid Ahmaddbdd, Dfsa, 
and Giira of Mallani. Ivory comes from Mandvi, generally by 
way of Gujardt and the Tharrad, and sometimes vid Sind. 

There is a very large export of bullocks from Mallani ; they 
are chiefly taken to the Tilwdra fair for sale, and those that do 
not find purchasers there, are taken by Muhammadan butchers 
to Gujardt. Butchers from Ahmaddbad and Disa come to Mallani 
and purchase large quantities of lambs at from eight to twelve 
annas a head. After marking, they leave them in the district to 
graze until they obtain a good size, when they take them off to 
the markets, paying to the grazier from one to two annas per head 
per annum for their trouble. They also purchase goats in the 



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( 290 ) 

same way ; but only male, not female, goats are sold. There is 
also a sale of from 1,000 to 1,200 camels every year from MaUani ; 
these are chiefly purchased at the Tilwdra fair ; and, in the same 
•way, from 100 to 150 colts or fillies from the district find a mar- 
ket. In good seasons the crops not only suffice for local wants, but 
graia is exported to Jesalmer, the north-western parts of Marwart 
and occasionally to Kachh. 

Fairs. — ^An annual fair is held at Tilwdra of MaUani in the 
month of March, which lasts for fifteen days. In 1875 the live- 
stock brought to this fair was as follows : — 

Young bullocks ... ... ... 15,000 

Full-grown „ ... ... ... 15,000 

Camels ..• .*• ••• 5,000 

Horses ... ... ... 400 

Hides, tanned leather, brass and tin utensils have a large sale. 
The annual attendance of people is from 30,000 to 35,000 from 
all parts of the country, the larger number of course from Mar- 
war ; but other parts of Bajpiit^a, Gujardt, Sind, and the Panjdb 
are well represented. The principal object of adoration is the 
ehriae of MaUindth ; all sellers of animals or goods make a small 
offering of either pice or food at the temple, and the general cry 
of all the Hindus throughout the fair is " Jai Mallindth T* 

The JDarhdr. — ^This subject has been treated of under Marwar. 
Aristocracy. — The whole province of Mallani consists of jdglr 
estates, the principal of them being held by the five chief houses, 
descendants of Mallm^th, and of Jaitmdl, his brother. 

The first in rank is Jasol, the Rawal thereof being the senior 
- , _, ^. branch. The estate of Jasol comprises 72 

viUages, which are divided between two 
kotris, or families, half belonging to Rawal Chiman Singh, the 
representative of the Partdb Singh family, and his relatives ; and 
the other half to Thdkur Padam Singh as head of the Baghji 
family, and his kinsmen. 

The main portion of the BArmer estate consists of 60 villages, 
B&mer Estate which are held by five different f amnios 

known as Raot^, the first in rank, the 
Sdhebdni, Kishndni, Pophdni, and Elhimdni. There are also six 
viUages forming an integral portion of this estate held as chari- 
table grants, udaJe, or rent-free. 

The Sindari estate is composed of 62 villages. There are two 

sindari Estate. families in Sindari, one known as the Ratan 

Singh, and the other as the Hdthi Singh. 

The first is the owner of twelve, and the second of eight, villages. 

Of the remaining 42, 25 are shared by both families, 15 belong 

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( 291 ) 

to petty Edjpiits (Chliutbliaids), and 2 to Br^Uunans. Rawal 
Mdnji is the head of the Sindari f amUy. 

The Nagar estate consists of 29 very large villages, and, being 

situated on the Liini, is highly cultivated 

Nagar Estate. ^^^ ^^j^^ j^ ^ divided amongst two f amir 

lies known as the Eawatji and Akheraji. The head of the former 
is Rawat Gomdn Singh, who succeeded to this estate by adoption, 
and to whom belong three-fifths of the villages ; whilst Bawat 
Bhabut Singh, son of Gomdn Singh, remained as heir and pro- 
prietor of the Akheraji portion. The Nagar family are descend- 
ants of JaitmAl, a brother of MaUindth. 

Otira was fotmded as an off -shoot from Nagar eleven genera- 
^ „ tions back. The Nagar Rdjpiits, being 

Gdra Estate. ^ . i i j v xi. • • n j.t. 

much troubled by the mcursions of the 
Chohdns of Sdchor, planted an outpost at Gura, headed by Thd- 
kur B/atan Singh. By degrees it became a separate colony, and 
thus was formed the Gdra estate consisting of 103 vUlages, 
There are two families in it, known as the Mdldeoji and Surajmal. 
In the former, Bana Khem Singh holds four-fifths, and Thdkur 
Bakht Singh one-fifth, of the villages. Of the latter, Bana Karan 
Singh is the sole proprietor. 

Besides the five principal estates noted above, there are four 
chahotan, Setrao, Besiia^ and miuor oucs — Chahotau, Sctrao, Bcsdla^ au^ 
si^i Estates. Sidui. The two first sprung some genera- 

tions back from the Bdrmer family. Besdla and Sidni are 
later off-shoots of the same house. Chahotan comprises 40 small 
villages, Setrao 20, Besdla 12, and Sidni 10. The holders of 
these estates are quite independent, and pay separate faujbal, in 
the same way as the owners of the five larger estates. 

In the historical portion the manner in which the TakhtdbM 
rr ^.^.^x^.J:A t. x 4. cstatc camc to be incorporated with Mallani 

Takhtdbdd Estate. , , j •t.j^tj -j i? cxX 

has been described. It consists of 29 
villages. When it was merged in Mallani, the right of proprietor- 
ship had to be determined, and this was done by assigning one- 
third to the thdkur of Setrao, one to the thdkur of Chahotan, 
and one to the thdkur of Gfingdsarid of Marwar Proper. ^ 

Tenure by which the Jdgirddrs of Mallani hold their Uitates.-^ 
The jdglrddrs of Mallani hold their estates by right of conquest. 
When the British Government were compelled to interfere, as has 
been described already the Maharaja of Jodhpur put forward a 
claim to sovereignty over the district; and owing to the chiefe 
of Jodhpur having, for many years, exercised, or rather attempted 
to exercise, a species of control over Mallani, and levied tribute 
from its chiefs at irregular periods, this claim was allowed by 
Government; but, as Mallani has been since 1836 imder British 
management, the Darbdr has virtually had nothing to do with it. 



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( 292 ) 



The ]dglrddrs pay faujbal, or army tribute, amounting to 
Rs- 8,932 yearly. This is levied by the Political Superintendent 
in the following proportions, and remitted to the Darb^ : — 



Bs. 



Rs. 



Jasol 


2,100 


Chahotan 


218 


Bdrmer 


1,100 


Setrao 


132 


Sindari 


1,800 


Bes4Ia 


500 


Nagar 


302 


Si^ni 


200 


Gura 


2,530 


Megrii 


50 


Tkey also pay 


Rs. 1,631 for office expenses. 





Official Classes or Civil Establishment of Mallani. — ^The chief 
local authority in Mallani is designated h^im, and receives a 
salary of Rs. 150 per mensem. He acts imder the orders of the 
Superintendent, to whom he submits all criminal cases. Civil 
suits, and disputes about land, are settled as much as is possible 
by arbitration. The cost of the civil establishment is Rs. 5,748, 
of which Rs. 1,531 are paid by the jdglrddrs, and the remainder 
by the Marwar Darbdr. 

Police. — The police force of the district is under the command 
of a native officer with the rank of Resaldar, who receives a 
salary of Rs. 100 a month. He has under him fifty men mounted 
on camels, fifty horsemen, and thirty foot-soldiers, with the usual 
complement of non-commissioned officers. 

Towns and Villages. — ^The chief towns of Mallani are — 
Bdrmer, which is the head-quarters of the district, and where 
the hdkim resides; Jasol; Sindari; Gtira; and Nagar. The 
number of villages are 415, but these do not include dhdnis, or 
hamlets, which are very numerous. There is nothing of special 
interest to record regarding the towns of MaUani. 



Ck)vt. C, B. Presfl, Simla.— No. 886, P. D.— S-8-79— 354. 

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