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RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES IN 
AUSTRALASIA, CANADA, INDIA, &c. 




Frontispiece.] 



THE AUTHOR AND MR. WILSON IN THE " DEVIL'S COACHHOUSE. 



Rambles and Adventures 

in Australasia, Canada, 

India, etc. 



BY 

ST MICHAEL -PODMORE, MA 

(Jesus College, Camb.), F.Z.S., F.R.G.S. 

Author of " A Sporting Paradise," " Ozunkein," etc. 

Corresponding Member of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 
late Artist to the South Australian Government, 
and Hon. Member of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society of Australasia. 



* 

This Book is dedicated to my Father, 

THE REV. JOHN BUCKLEY PODMORE, B.A. 

(Jesus College, Cambridge), 
AND TO 

THE HONOURABLE WILLIAM WILSON 

(Late of Melbourne), 
at the request of his eldest Son, 
WILLIAM WILSON, ESQUIRE, 

who accompanied me across the Blue Mountains. 



LONDON : 
L. UPCOTT GILL, BAZAAR BUILDINGS, DRURY LANE, W.C. 



1909. 

Enured at Stations' Hall.} [Copyright 1909. 



3n 

OF MY DEAR FATHER 
THE REV. JOHN BUCKLEY PODMORE, B.A. 

LATE RECTOR OF COWFOLD, SUSSEX. 



PREFACE 



THE object of this book is to provide an 
interesting and reliable guide to emigration, 
travel, and sport. The author has spent twenty 
years abroad, and resided for a considerable 
time in Australasia, Canada, U.S.A., &c. 
He returned from his last expedition in 1908, 
after an absence of five years. 

" Rambles and Adventures " should appeal to 
public men and others who have the opportunity 
to influence the future of young people. The 
author has adopted a conversational style, and 
his book teems with stories of incident and 
adventure. Government literature has a tendency 
to be cramped, and emigrants are sent indis- 
criminately throughout the Empire, while the 
best land often remains neglected and unknown. 
It is only by private enterprise that exceptional 
chances occur. This book brings them to 
public notice. 

The illustrations are chiefly from photographs. 



1482111 



CONTENTS 



I. THE GREAT SOUTH-WEST COUNTRY OF 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA .... I 

II. THE MARGARET RIVER, WESTERN AUS- 
TRALIA 25 

III. THE UNPEOPLED COUNTRY (QUEENSLAND) 47 

IV. EMIGRATION TO SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND 

THE NORTHERN TERRITORY ... 65 

V. THE BEAUTIFUL ISLAND OF TASMANIA . 88 

VI. EMIGRATION TO NEW SOUTH WALES . 99 

VII. A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE . . .119 

VIII. AN ADVENTURE WITH A TASMANIAN 

DEVIL 162 

IX. IN CANNIBAL LANDS 174 

X. A VISIT TO FIJI 197 

XL A TRIP TO THE BLUE MOUNTAINS . .212 

XII. NEW ZEALAND, BAY OF ISLANDS, THE 

THREE KINGS 230 

XIII. ADVENTURES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA, TAS- 

MANIA, VICTORIA, ETC 246 

XIV. INDIA AND CEYLON 267 



RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

IN AUSTRALASIA, CANADA, 

INDIA, ETC. 



I 

THE GREAT SOUTH-WEST COUNTRY OF 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

THE South- Western district of Western Australia 
I consider the best country in the Empire for 
small capitalists to visit. The climate is cool 
and healthy, the soil fertile, and droughts are 
unknown. Western Australia has an area seven 
times that of England and Wales, and a great 
variety of climate and conditions. This fact 
is not generally known. The central parts of 
the State are subject to terrible droughts, but 
in the Margaret River district there is a splendid 
rainfall every year. 

The choice land in New Zealand, Canada, 
New South Wales, and Victoria often realises 

B 



2 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

fancy prices, but in Western Australia first-class 
land is to be had practically for the asking. 

After four years' ramble in Australasia, I 
returned to Fremantle last April, and was 
amazed to find a dirty, dreary town transformed 
into a neat, prosperous port. Journeying on to 
Perth, the capital of Western Australia, I was 
equally impressed with the wonderful advance 
this city had made. I decided, therefore, to 
delay my return to England until I had made 
some investigations into the possibilities of this 
go-ahead State. The Western Australian 
Government has a perfect organisation for 
receiving immigrants. When the steamer 
approaches Fremantle, which is the port for 
Western Australia, a Government agent goes 
out by the pilot steamer, and boards the ship, 
making himself acquainted with the needs of 
the passengers. The immigrants are taken by 
this officer to Perth, where they are handed 
over to the Lands Department. A free-pass 
railway ticket is granted to the vacant land, 
and the free services of a guide to conduct 
them to the vacant homesteads. This is of 
course confined to a few days, unless the 
immigrant wishes to pay the guide himself. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 3 

When land has been selected, the following 
payments must be made: First instalment 
survey fee, i los. ; office fee, i ; stamp 
duty, is. Total, 2 iis. The money being 
paid, the land can be immediately occupied. 
The second instalment of the survey fee, \ IDS., 
is due at the end of the first year. The 
practical cost, therefore, of 160 acres is $ is. 
The settler, however, must reside upon his 
land, build a house, fence his property, and 
commence to cultivate. When he has spent 
in labour and capital an amount representing 
80, he can obtain his freehold. 

The cost of building a small cottage is about 
,50 in the Margaret River district, and fencing 
of 1 60 acres ^35. 

The Windsor Hotel, South Perth, is the best 
and cheapest place at which to stop. The 
charges range from 255. per week, and the 
locality is attractive. It is within a few yards 
of the beautiful Zoological Gardens, and accessible 
to the Government offices. The fare to cross 
the river is 3d. 

I explored the King River, Tor Bay, Denmark, 
and Margaret River districts, travelling through 
the country by rail and following the advance 



4 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

of civilisation to the virgin forest, and, on 
horseback and on foot, explored hundreds of 
miles of good country where there was scarcely 
any settlement. 

While journeying along the sea-coast, where 
no one had yet built a home, I passed lovely 
bays and inlets, with sandy beach, recalling what 
Brighton, Eastbourne, or Bournemouth may have 
been before the houses were built. 

The route to the King River, Tor Bay, and 
Denmark countries is via Albany. The incon- 
venience of getting up at 5 a.m. to catch the 
6.10 a.m. from Perth can be avoided by leaving 
on the previous day by the 5 p.m. express for 
Spencer's Brook, and spending the night at the 
Brookton Hotel. The accommodation is simple 
but comfortable, the rooms are clean, the food 
satisfactory, and the charges moderate. A train 
leaves Spencer's Brook for Albany at 9.30 a.m. 

This line passes through the great wheat- 
growing country, and the scenery is hilly and 
attractive. 

We arrived at Dalebridge at 11.25 a.m., 
where I had an opportunity of seeing a military 
encampment, and was favourably impressed with 
the smart-looking men and officers. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 5 

During the day I travelled with Mr. Newman 
Hall (York, W.A.), who has penetrated far 
into the wilds of Australia. On one occasion 
he was encamped at Lake Darlot, where dingoes 
were numerous. Every night their howls 
rendered darkness hideous and sleep impossible. 
They prowled around the camp-fire and snatched 
all food within reach. A shot or shout would 
scare them for a time, but they soon returned, 
their fierce eyes appearing in the distance like 
balls of fire. At length their boldness increased, 
and they ventured to steal provisions from the 
tents. One huge dog discovered a half-empty 
meat-tin, and, forcing in his head greedily to 
devour the meat, found it impossible to withdraw 
it. Every effort to free himself failed, and 
the more he struggled and fought the firmer the 
tin became fixed. Pain and anger soon drove 
him frantic, and he rushed blindly about the 
clearing, charging into the baggage and tent- 
pegs. The din and confusion soon aroused the 
campers, but the ridiculous sight the dingo pre- 
sented prevented anyone from shooting straight, 
so they merely gave chase. The dingo, alarmed 
by human foes, rushed across the open space 
with the speed of a fox, until he was brought 



6 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

up by collision with a huge tree. He soon 
recovered, however, and started off in another 
direction, burrowing like a rabbit when ' he 
encountered a steep bank. At such times his 
pursuers overtook him, and he turned to bay, 
biting fiercely inside the tin and then darting 
off to repeat his extraordinary antics. During 
one of these mad runs he was mercifully shot. 
Another time Mr. Hall had a visit from 
blacks, who demanded food and pilfered every- 
thing they found. Their conduct in due course 
became unbearable, and he determined to put a 
stop to it. 

One day he concealed himself and watched. 
Soon he heard stealthy footsteps, and observed 
several blacks creeping towards the tents. Picking 
up an old rusty revolver, which had been 
discarded, he ran towards the savages pointing 
the weapon at the head of their leader. The 
ruse utterly failed. The grim-looking warrior 
merely laughed, and, holding open his two 
hands, said, "Give me shilling?" 

The threat of instant death with the cold 
muzzle at his head did not produce a tremor, 
but rather increased his amusement, and he 
laughed until the tears rolled down his cheeks, 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 7 

shouting, " Me civilised black-fellow, me been 
in jail!" This black was an ex-convict who 
had recently been charged with spearing his 

gin- 
About lunch - time we arrived at Beverley, 
where meals are provided at 2S. 6d. per head. 
Brookton, which lies some few miles further on, 
has made wonderful progress. About three 
years ago it was all bush-land, but now 
represents a flourishing settlement, with good 
hotel, two churches, stores, and State school. 
Northam, Pingelly, Cuballing, and Narrogin are 
important corn centres. 

Barton and Highbury produce good cattle. 
Wagin is a country town with good hotels, 
public buildings, and stores. I left the train 
here to explore the inland districts, and visited 
several settlements. The Honourable C. A. 
Piesse received me kindly, and allowed me to 
examine his splendid estate. He is an advocate 
of intensive culture. I walked over many miles of 
his land and passed through eighteen acres of vine- 
yards, four acres of fig-trees, and twenty-one 
acres of apple orchard. The fruit I picked and 
tasted was well-shaped, sound, and of excellent 
flavour. He has 3,000 acres set apart for mixed 



8 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

farming, and estimated his annual profits at 
,800 per annum. 

There is some good land open for selection 
about six miles from Wagin. In this district 
wheat averages sixteen to twenty-four bushels 
to the acre, and oats twenty to thirty. 

Mr. J. G. Taylor, an Englishman, resides in 
this neighbourhood, and kindly answered the 
following questions: 

" What do you think of the possibilities of 
this great South- Western country?" 

" There's plenty of room here, and no one 
need complain." 

" How long have you been out from England? " 

" Twenty-two years." 

"How long on this farm ?" 

" Sixteen years." 

14 How did you take up your land?" 

" On conditional purchase." 

"How much orchard land have you?" 

' Ten acres." 

" Do you make a living out of ten acres?" 

1 Yes, and have brought up a family." 

' What do you consider is your present 
annual income? " 

" I get upwards of ,400 a year, and com- 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 9 

menced without a penny. I landed in the 
Colony with 305. The first job I got was on 
the railway as a navvy. When I had saved 
up sufficient to pay my survey fee, I took up 
a homestead block and 200 acres on conditional 
purchase." 

" Have you any complaints to make against 
the Western Australian Government?" 

" None whatever." 

" Have you experienced any droughts here 
during your sixteen years?" 

" No, we don't know what they are." 

"Are you satisfied with the cost of freight?" 

" No, I am not, and that is keeping us back. 
We are well treated with our fruit, but general 
freight is unsatisfactory. I am a free-trader, 
and consequently I resent this abominable tariff, 
but my opinions are not held locally." 

Mr. Taylor grows some of the best fruit in 
Australia, and is noted for his honey. 

The other interviews I had were similar to 
Mr. Taylor's. Everybody seemed happy, 
contented, and prosperous. 

During my drive to Woodanilling I observed 
several beautiful bronze-winged pigeons, and 
noted a picturesque lake in the neighbourhood. 



io RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

At Moojebing I was amused to witness a 
game of tennis in the bush. The ladies wore 
white dresses and the men flannels. The sight 
was ludicrous. It seemed as though fashion- 
able life had been deposited by an airship to 
dwell in the wilds. With the exception of a 
good court, there was no sign of habitation. 

Katanning is one of the most important 
centres between Perth and Albany, and Mount 
Barker has 1,066 acres of apple orchards, and 
exports 1,000 cases monthly. 

Albany should be a second Perth, but it is 
in reality a sleepy, inactive place. Instead of 
being one of the great fruit-exporting cities of 
Australasia, it contents itself w r ith the regular 
revenue realised by tourists and the shipping of 
the port. The situation is delightful, and the 
surrounding country represents valuable agricul- 
tural land uninhabited and neglected. 

Within thirty miles of Albany there are 
100,000 acres of land open for selection, and 
beyond is the rich Denmark country, with a 
mere handful of people, and hundreds of 
thousands of acres to be practically given away. 

The Freemasons' Hotel is the best place to 
stop at in Albany. Taking this city as a centre, 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA n 

I explored the country in three different directions, 
and visited the caves in the neighbourhood, 
which are interesting on account of their wild 
and romantic surroundings. I found it difficult 
to procure a driver to these caves, and did not 
start from Albany until 10 a.m. 

It was a lovely day, with a cool breeze 
blowing from the ocean. After proceeding a 
short distance along the main road, we turned 
off to the harbour and drove across the sands. 
The tide was high, and we often splashed 
through the shallow water to avoid the sloping 
beach. The opposite shores to Albany are 
uninhabited, and represent a hilly landscape. 
Beyond the harbour's mouth are sea-girt islands, 
where wildfowl build their nests and rabbits 
breed in great numbers. Wallaby are plentiful 
in the scrub above the high - water mark, 
especially in a place called " The Sandpatch," 
and Mr. George Bagg, who acted as my guide, 
knows where to find them. Wallaby hunting 
is rather uncertain, because these marsupials are 
nomadic. One day the country may be scoured 
for miles without success, and the next day the 
same places will be found alive with them. 

When we had driven some distance through 



12 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

shallow water and had entered a deeper spot, 
the horse suddenly stood still and refused to 
move. Mr. Bagg was forced therefore to wade 
ashore to procure a " gad." This produced 
a wonderful effect upon the horse, who dashed 
through the water until I became so wet that 
I had to insist upon the pace being modified. 

Many snakes are supposed to inhabit these 
swamps, and stories of encounters with them 
have been related by almost every traveller to 
these parts. These snakes were conspicuous 
by their absence during my trip, and though I 
collected skins elsewhere, I failed even to see 
one here. 

As we continued our journey the tide rose so 
high that I expected we should be obliged to 
leave the trap and swim ashore. How we got 
along was a mystery, because the greater part of 
the way I had my legs in line with the seat to 
keep them out of the water. 

There are many dangerous bogs in the vicinity 
where people and horses have been lost. In 
spite of danger, my driver gave a spice of 
humour to the trip by ridiculous remarks to the 
horse. These remarks were always accom- 
panied by gad-physic, such as, " I'll fetch 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 13 

you up, you old rat, before I've finished, 
unless you go bung on me altogether." When 
a sounding smack fell upon the poor brute's 
back he remarked, " Billy, that ought to fetch 
you up; it's like a leech to your blood, you old 
rat." He would then give me a dig in the 
ribs and a knowing wink. 

Convict labour is still to be traced along the 
shores of the harbour, and the shrubs they 
planted to keep back the sand-drift are in good 
condition. Driving in view of this work I had 
to cling to my seat to prevent myself from 
falling out of the trap, and, when these bumps 
and jerks were over, we arrived at a broad 
stretch of dangerous-looking water. 

" We'll never get him through this," I ven- 
tured to suggest. 

" Oh, yes, we will," replied Bagg, " it's only 
up to our knees." 

I entered this forbidding water with many 
misgivings, and we had not proceeded far before 
the horse began to sink. My driver now 
became desperate, and, looking nervously around 
him, began to divest himself of his clothes, and 
in a semi - nude condition made a murderous 
attack upon the horse. The water flew in all 



14 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

directions with the language, and I began to 
feel every minute the conveyance would collapse 
and that my notes and photographs would be 
ruined. Suddenly the horse made a bolt for 
land, upsetting Bagg by this unexpected action, 
and as I had no means of checking him, I 
stood in readiness to jump into the water. He 
pulled up, however, after a few yards, and in a 
short time we were out of our difficulties. 

On the mud-flats we flushed wild duck, snipe, 
and many aquatic birds, and the whole trip was 
exciting, but no tourist should attempt it 
without a good local guide. 

The pedestrian is directed to the caves by a 
signboard. The path leading to them is the 
home of the wattle-bird, bandicoot, wild turkey, 
emu, and dingo. 

A view of the sea. is obtained along the route, 
and the cliffs and headlands are bold and 
rugged, not unlike parts of North Devon. The 
caves are situated in a grand bay, where the 
ocean waves dash with fury upon the beach. 
No habitation is to be seen, though the sur- 
rounding hills would furnish an ideal site for a 
gentleman's seaside home. Here is Nature as 
the Great Hand fashioned it, and the air is 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 15 

pure and invigorating. Sleepy Albany, how- 
ever, is dead to such sentimental appeal, and no 
one has had sufficient enterprise to build an 
hotel or even a house. Eclipse Island is a mile 
from the mainland, and is a good place for 
seals and groper. Groper is a large fish often 
weighing icwt., and it is found all along this 
coast. 

After lunch, we commenced to climb over the 
huge boulders of granite in the direction of the 
sea. The entrance to the caves is intricate, and 
barely wide enough to admit a big man. The 
sides sheer downwards perpendicularly, and, 
close by, there is a deep hole where, without a 
light, one might stumble with fatal results. 

Mr. J. E. Angove, the Government Land 
Inspector, is a good athlete, and it is to him 
that I owe my safe conduct through these weird 
caverns. It would be monotonous to describe 
the many adventures I had. Once my guide 
failed to drag me through a narrow passage, 
and though I crawled on hands and knees, I 
had a narrow escape of being fixed in the rock. 
Squirming backwards, with many grotesque 
movements, I finally released myself, and 
emerged into daylight with torn clothes, cuts, 



16 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

and bruises. We used four candles during our 
explorations, but some of the chambers were so 
spacious that very little could be seen. I 
occupied my time chiefly in searching for 
marsupial bones, which are fairly plentiful in all 
Australian caves. In the afternoon I visited the 
Devil's Cauldron, the Natural Boat, and the 
Natural Bridge. 

The Cauldron is an open space in the pro- 
jecting rocks with precipitous sides, which are 
of considerable height. The waves dash into 
this space with great force, so that the water 
appears to foam and boil. 

The Natural Bridge represents a mass of 
granite hollowed out by the action of the waves, 
and the Natural Boat is a mass of stone about 
the size and shape of an ordinary lifeboat. 

The Blow Hole is three miles distant, and 
resembles similar places of this name elsewhere 
in Tasmania, New Zealand, &c. 

Our return to Albany can only be described 
as hard work. My driver suggested it was like 
a man working his passage to England, and 
once he shouted, " Old rat, stop putting your 
feet down in the same place." 

Mr. W. Bede Christie, the Government Land 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 17 

Agent of Albany, was exceedingly kind to me 
during my residence in his district. On another 
occasion I explored the country in the direction 
of Tor Bay. The road was good near the city, 
but further on it was very bad. In some 
instances huge trees had fallen across the path, 
and it was only with considerable difficulty we 
managed to avoid them. 1 discovered some 
good vacant land about six miles from Albany, 
and then drove on through many miles of rich 
uncultivated flats. A fine range of hills extends 
to the coast resembling the Downs of Sussex. 
Mr. E. Barnett, who has a small holding in 
the Tor Bay district, said: "A man with a 
capital of ^1,000 or less would do well. He 
will be perfectly safe, and prove a benefit to 
himself and the country." 

I walked over four acres of Mr. Barnett's 
cultivations, and found the fruit and vegetables 
perfectly free from disease and of good quality. 

Grassmere Lake is an attractive spot a few 
miles beyond, and surrounded by uninhabited 
hills. Sportsmen come here to shoot wild duck, 
which are plentiful in the reed-beds. The water 
is used for stock, and some thousands of acres 
in this neighbourhood are open for selection. 

c 



1 8 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

I observed some of the cattle here fed entirely 
upon the native grasses, and were in excellent 
condition. The wonderful flower known as the 
bottle-washer is a feature of this locality. 

Driving on, I examined the Crown Lands on 
the border of the Denmark country, and found 
the soil admirably adapted for fruit and root 
crops. The timber was light, and a strong 
man could easily chop down an acre daily. 
Farming, however, has hardly commenced at 
present. Mrs. W. Reilly, who owns a small 
farm, told me she was well satisfied with every- 
thing, and that her crops were doing well. 

"What is the climate like?" I asked her. 

" Oh, beautiful, that's the reason why we like 
to live here. The temperature is never over 
godeg., and we have no severe frost." 

" Have you been successful with poultry and 
artificial grasses?" 

" Yes, poultry and all imported grasses do 
well." 

Some miles further I interviewed Mr. T. 
Knapp, who is a splendid type of a working 
farmer. 

" How much do you estimate you cleared last 
year from your orchard?" 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 19 

" Seventy-five pounds clear." 

"How much orchard-land have you?" 

"Five acres; but my trees are only two to 
four years old." 

" What other revenue did you realise last 
year?" 

" I cleared 60 from butter, ^25 from eggs 
and pork, ^75 from potatoes (four acres), and 
,50 from cattle." 

"Do you employ much labour?" 

" No, with the assistance of my wife I practi- 
cally do all my own work," 

" How much land have you? " 

" I have 610 acres on conditional purchase, 
and 1,000 acres on lease, for which I pay 
i per 1,000 acres annually." 

" Are you perfectly satisfied with the treat- 
ment you receive from this Government?" 

" Yes, but I think the freight should be 
reduced." 

'What apples do you find pay well?" 

" Rookwoods, Dunseedling, Cleopatra, Rome 
Beauty, &c. We have absolutely no disease or 
pest." 

" Do you think a man with ,500 capital 
would succeed here?" 



20 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

" Yes, I think that would give him a fair 
start, but he would need local experience." 

"How could this be obtained?" 

"If a practical man of this description was 
anxious to learn and willing to work, I would 
instruct him and provide board and lodging 
free, and other farmers like myself would do the 
same." 

" Is there any land about here suitable for 
fruit-growing? " 

" Yes, there are small patches of vacant land 
in all directions containing twenty-five to fifty 
acres, but I should advise new settlers to go to 
the Denmark country." 

" Are you satisfied and contented on your 
farm, Mr. Knapp? " 

" Perfectly satisfied. I find a good market 
for all I can grow, and everything I've tried 
has done well. There is no frost to speak of, 
and the climate suits. We have a heavy rain- 
fall during the winter. Our average is about 
3oin." 

" What did it cost you to build your com- 
fortable house? " 

"About ;ioo." 

I had the pleasure of being the guest of Mr. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 21 

and Mrs. Knapp, and during a conversation 
they informed me they both had parents living 
who were over eighty-four years of age. 

The Denmark country now has a million acres 
open for selection. Some large rivers flow 
through this land, which include the Rivers 
Hay, Kent, Frankland, Deep, &c., &c. These 
rivers contain good drinking water. The forest 
abounds in game : tamma, kangaroos, emu, 
wallaby, wild-duck, pigeon, and squeaker are 
plentiful. The soil is suitable for fruit, root 
crops, and intensive culture. The population of 
this immense district is at the present time only 
300. There is a post-office, and a public school 
is in course of erection. 

Another trip I took was to the King River. 
I left the Freemasons' Hotel at 9.30 a.m., and 
proceeded along the Perth Road. I arrived at 
the King River Tea Gardens at 10.20 a.m. 
The banks of the river are thickly lined with 
trees, and a few rough boats can be hired at 
is. per hour. The river winds and twists itself 
into graceful curves and bends, and a few 
islands appear here and there. This is an 
attractive place for a day's outing. Mr. Newman 
has a well-managed property near the small 



22 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Agricultural Hall, and a visit to his farm gives 
a good idea of what can be raised successfully 
in this district. I found his fifty acres pro- 
ducing splendid crops, and had the following 
interview with Mr. D. Moss: 

" How much land have you under cultivation ? " 

" Fifty acres." 

" What is the average potato crop in the 
King River? " 

"Six to seven tons to the acre." 

"What crops do you cultivate?" 

" Potatoes and apples chiefly, but all fruit 
and vegetables do well." 

" What capital do you consider a man would 
need here? " 

" He could not start comfortably without ^400." 

A few miles farther on I entered the virgin 
forest, and found the soil exactly the same as 
that on Mr. Newman's land. The few scattered 
settlements along the road were doing well, and 
the settlers gladly answered all my questions. 

Mr. P. Brown, who cultivates a small vege- 
table patch and keeps a few bees, informed me 
that his income last year was ^150. 

Mr. Geake lives on the border of the forest, 
and does all his own work. He is fifty years 




OX HORSEBACK THROUGH THE BUSH. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 23 

of age, and his only companion is a faithful 
dog. We had the following interview: 

" Are you satisfied with your home in the 
wilds, Mr. Geake?" 

" So far I am very well satisfied, but I have 
only had this land for seven months." 

" Do you recommend men to take up land in 
the King River country?" 

" I think they might do worse. If a man 
is willing to work he will never regret taking 
up land here." 

" You have not, of course, sold anything off 
your land at present?" 

" Only about 5cwt. of potatoes, but there is a 
good deal of stuff ready for market. I bought 
this clearing with a few fruit-trees upon it, and 
have since added sufficient to make me inde- 
pendent in a few years." 

I explored thirty-six miles of the King River 
country, and found it practically uninhabited. 
The travelling was rough, but there was no 
place where a man could not ride on horseback. 
Denmark, Tor Bay, and the King River coun- 
tries represent an area sufficient to support half 
a million people in comfort and contentment, 
and yet the people have not commenced to 



24 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

arrive. The opportunities are now, and later 
on men who have taken up land will be wealthy 
and independent. No Government literature will 
convey an idea of the country from an English- 
man's standpoint, nor can an agent give advice 
unless his travels have qualified him with com- 
parative knowledge. I know of no part of the 
world where a lover of country life could find 
more contentment, healthier surroundings, or 
wider scope for enterprise and success. He 
must, however, be a true man, fearless, deter- 
mined, strong, and healthy. A person suffering 
from catarrh will obtain immediate relief in 
Australia, and in a few months be entirely 
cured. The out-of-door life will build up the 
constitutions of young men who require pure 
air and exercise. 



II. 



THE MARGARET RIVER, WESTERN 
AUSTRALIA. 

MR. LE SOEUF, the Director of the Perth Zoo, 
accompanied me to the Margaret River. This 
district is reached via Busselton, and a train 
leaves Perth at 9.5 a.m. The railway accommo- 
dation is very good, and corridor carriages are 
provided. 

After leaving Perth the route is through some 
very poor country, which does not convey any 
idea of the rich fertile land of the great South- 
West. Large flocks of swans and pelicans are 
to be seen swimming on the Swan River, and 
some good gardens along the river banks. 
These gardens belong to Chinamen, who almost 
entirely represent this industry. They raise a 
considerable revenue from their crops, and Mr. 
Le Soeiif purchases 70 worth annually for the 
Zoo. Further away from the river the soil is 



26 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

sandy, but as the journey is continued the train 
passes through some agricultural land worthy of 
attention. The Darling Ranges border this 
land, and small townships are dotted here and 
there along the line. Maddington five years 
ago was nothing but bush, but now it has 
become famous for its delicious pears. 

The mountain scenery is grand, and yet there 
is no residential township corresponding to 
Mount Lofty in South Australia. Perth's 
proximity to these romantic glens, ravines, and 
valleys would suggest the establishment of a 
mountain tourist resort and country homes for 
business men. The mountains are within 
driving distance of the city, and special morning 
and evening trains would open up this attractive 
neighbourhood. The highest elevation is about 
1,400 feet above the sea-level, and good sport is 
to be had here. During the winter numerous 
cascades and water-falls add to the beauty of 
the place, and in the spring the fields and 
woods are carpeted with exquisite flowers. Mrs. 
E. Rowan chose this locality to paint her 
famous pictures. 

The flora alone render the journey interesting 
to the tourist. The drum-head black-boy is an 




ON THE ROAD TO THE MARGARET RIVER. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 27 

extraordinary tree, which belongs to the coal 
period, and is common everywhere. In appear- 
ance it resembles the head-gear of a savage, 
and takes many years to attain its full growth. 
Its green top provides cattle with nourishing 
food, and by cutting well down with an axe 
into the tender shoots a palatable growth is 
reached, which is wholesome for human con- 
sumption. The blossoms of the white gum 
supply bees with honey, and during the season 
hives are moved from place to place where these 
trees are plentiful. The famous Christmas-tree, 
which is the true mistletoe, represents a golden 
mass of blossom. These trees would be valuable 
for ornamental purposes, but no one so far has 
been able to transplant them. The other trees 
abundant on the route to the Margaret River 
are the common black-boy, she-oak, banksia, 
&c. When the black-boy grows with many 
heads it is a sure indication of good land. 

The journey as far as Pinjarra is somewhat 
monotonous, but compares favourably with 
Ontario and other countries in their undeveloped 
state. Fruit-trees grow here to a considerable 
height, and some families support themselves 
entirely by their orange-groves. 



28 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Mr. Richardson, who is a fair authority upon 
agricultural interests in Western Australia, re- 
marked to me : "I have been in this country 
for twenty years, and have more faith than ever 
in its future. Tracts of country once believed 
to be useless are now producing wonderful crops 
of wheat, fruit, and grass." 

There are no rabbits in Western Australia 
except upon the islands off the coast, and, 
so far, insect pests have not attacked the 
fruit. 

At Pinjarra Station a substantial meal is pro- 
vided in the refreshment-room, and ample time 
is allowed to passengers to partake of it. 
Settlement is taking place rapidly in the neigh- 
bourhood of Brunswick Junction, and I was 
interested to notice two aspects of the country 
along the line. On one side was the virgin 
forest, and sometimes on the other flourishing 
homesteads. At Picton Junction inquiries must 
be made for the through train to Busselton. I 
observed there were good roads all over the 
settled lands and where there was no railway 
driving was easy and enjoyable. In this 
respect the States of Australia are far superior 
to U.S.A. or Canada. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 29 

The Black River district, with Elgin, Capel, 
&c., represented prosperous communities. 

We arrived at Busselton at 5 p.m. This is a 
seaside town quite equal to Littlehampton. It 
has a good promenade, which extends for over 
a mile into the sea, and comfortable hotels, 
where the emigrant or tourist will feel quite at 
home. The sport consists of good quail and 
duck-shooting, and plenty of deep-water fishing. 
There are athletic clubs and golf links. 

The following morning we left Busselton at 
9.30 in a motor-car for Yallingup Caves, twenty 
miles distant. This is a long roundabout way 
to the Margaret River, and should be avoided, 
except by the tourist. The road is good, and 
passes through a fine natural avenue of pepper- 
mint-trees. The wild-cherry is fairly plentiful, 
and has particular interest to the botanist, 
because its fruit grows with the stone outside. 
We passed several bulls in the bush, who re- 
garded us with fierce indignation, but did not 
care to tackle a motor. 

Proceeding across a creek famous for wild- 
duck, we obtained a view of the sea. This 
creek is navigable, and follows the road for 
several miles. The scenery improved as we 



30 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

advanced. Densely-wooded hills appeared in 
the distance, and soon we entered a thick forest. 
I observed here the spear-wood tree used by the 
blacks, and the native pear hanging in tempt- 
ing clusters. We passed several pioneer dwell- 
ings built entirely of bark with cross-pieces of 
hard wood. The Government has thoughtfully 
provided public shelters along this road for the 
free use of the traveller. 

We reached Yallingup about 11 a.m. There 
is a fair hotel here, and the accommodation is 
satisfactory. It is, however, wise to notify the 
proprietor beforehand if a large party intends a 
visit. Mr. Dawson, the Government guide, is 
a well-informed man, and has the happy knack 
of making a visit to the Yallingup Caves very 
enjoyable. These caves were discovered by him 
on the nth October, 1900, so they are practi- 
cally unknown to the world. 

Dawson was roaming through the forest in 
search of a runaway horse, when he narrowly 
escaped falling into the Amphitheatre of the 
Foot Cave. The entrance to this cave has now 
been made safe and easy by the erection of a 
massive stairway, and ladies can undertake the 
trip without much fatigue or inconvenience. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 31 

The chief attraction of the Foot Cave is the 
chamber called the Amphitheatre. Here are to 
be seen a splendid collection of stalactites and 
stalagmites. The latter are formed into huge 
massive columns, and the former assume every 
variety of fantastic shape. Some recall historical 
characters, such as the Madonna and Child, 
Mary Magdalene, a statue of Memnon, and 
figures of a Buddhist priest, &c. Elsewhere can 
be seen the most delicate drapery of gauze, 
or bulging forth in disordered confusion cauli- 
flowers and other vegetables. 

The Amphitheatre is fifty feet high, seventy- 
five feet long, and seventy-three feet broad, and 
to those possessed of comparative knowledge 
fully repays the journey from Perth. We 
walked a mile through the Foot Cave, and 
found it very interesting. We left Yallingup 
at 2.50 p.m. in a two-horsed vehicle to drive to 
Burnside, and soon after our departure found 
ourselves in a splendid uninhabited country 
open for selection. The forest trees were lofty 
and grand, and vegetation flourished to per- 
fection in the rich soil. In some places the 
timber would have brought a fortune if it could 
have been exported. The tuart-tree, black-butt, 



32 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

white karri, banksia, jarrah, red - gum, 
wandoo, &c., were freely distributed. The 
black cockatoo and parrakeets, especially the 
bird known as "28," or the yellow-collared 
parrakeet, were very plentiful. Australian 
robins and richly-plumaged finches sang in the 
woods, and the voice of the carrion crow and 
leaden crow-shrike added an accompaniment to 
their music. The dingo and kangaroo find a 
safe refuge here, and the driver told me they 
sometimes approached close to the road, as 
though prompted by curiosity to examine him. 
Snakes are very scarce all through this country, 
but reptiles of the lizard variety are numerous. 
The so-called magpie, which is such a delightful 
companion in the Australian forest, was con- 
spicuous everywhere, and the coo of the bronze- 
winged pigeon floated towards us with the rustle 
and strange whisperings of the tree-tops. Some- 
times we could pick out the graceful form of 
the wallaby, or the swiftly-retreating emu as she 
led her half-grown young to a place of safety. 
Butterflies and gorgeous flowers gave a perfect 
tone to the beautiful forest scenery. 

We arrived at Burnside just before dusk, and 
were welcomed by Mrs. Brockman, who had 




THE FOREST TREES ARE LOFTY AND GRAXD. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 33 

kindly prepared a comfortable m'eal for us. Some 
of the settlers called to see me, and I had the 
following interview with one of the most reliable : 
" Would you kindly tell me your first experi- 
ences in the Margaret River district?'' 

" I took up land here without any money 
about three years ago. I have now a nice 
home, horses, cattle, pigs, &c., and forty acres 
ready for the plough. My present debts 
represent ,300, and my property is worth 
, 1,000. I estimate my annual income at ^200, 
but when I have sheep and more cattle I shall 
have no difficulty in making ^400 per annum." 
" What steps did you take to obtain this 
property? " 

" First I took up 160 acres homestead, and 
when I had earned a few pounds locally I 
obtained additional land on conditional purchase, 
viz., IQS. per acre, spread over a period of 
twenty-one years." 

' What sort of treatment have you received 
from the Government?" 

" I think the treatment has been very good. 
When I have had difficulty in carrying out 
their requirements I have always met with just 
consideration." 

D 



34 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

" How about a market for your produce and 
meat?" 

"Very good; I have no difficulty in selling 
all I can grow." 

" What do you consider the best crops to be 
raised in this locality?" 

" Potatoes, root crops, fruit, maize, and 
grasses do well." 

" Have you ever experienced or heard of a 
drought in this district?" 

" No, we always have plenty of rain and to 
spare." 

"Is it true that a man can provide himself 
with fresh meat here if he can handle a gun?" 

"Yes; this is true. There are thousands of 
wallaby all along the coast from Cape Naturalist 
to Cape Leeuwin, and in the sea plenty of fish." 

' ' How far are you away from the sea ? ' ' 

" My homestead is two-and-a-half miles." 

" How much land is there vacant in your 
neighbourhood? " 

" There are several hundreds of thousands of 
acres." 

" Is the cost of freight on produce high ? " 

" I think it is too high at present, but I sup- 
pose they will rectify this as time goes on." 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 35 

" How did you manage to obtain your 
ploughs and farm implements?" 

" The Agricultural Bank at Perth, which is 
a Government institution, furnished me with 
cash at 5 per cent." 

" How did you start to work your land? " 

" I ring-barked the timber to bring water to 
the surface. The bank values this at 2s. 6d. 
per acre, and I easily earned 8s. per day." 

" Do you wish me to understand that you 
are paid for clearing your own land for occupa- 
tion ?" 

" Yes. Suppose you have 100 acres of land, 
and you wish an advance, they will have it 
inspected, and their agent will say, ' Yes, it is 
worth the money to do this work,' or you can 
get some reliable person to certify for you, and 
you receive the money you apply for without 
deductions when you sign over a mortgage on 
your property. Then you inform them you 
wish to have some ploughing inspected, and 
they will advance whatever sum the work is 
worth." 

" What would be your advice to intending 
emigrants with reference to personal effects, 
furniture, &c., brought from the Old Country?" 



36 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

" Leave your stuff at home and bring money. 
Make shift with your own manufacture until 
you can afford to furnish properly. Plenty of 
timber abounds everywhere." 

"What is your yield per acre for potatoes?" 

" I have had ten tons, but seven to ten is a 
fair average." 

"What was your harvest this year (1908)?" 

" This year I had fifteen tons. I could have 
grown more, but our chief trouble here is want 
of labour." 

"What wages do you pay?" 

" We pay 8s. per day even for unskilled 
labour." 

Next morning I visited Cowaramup Bay. 
This romantic seaside land is reached via 
Ellensbrook, and should not be omitted by the 
tourist. The journey is best taken on horse- 
back through the bush and along the wild 
uninhabited coast. This beautiful bay has a 
fine sandy beach, and would make an ideal 
home. Huge rocks jut out into the sea and 
afford good fishing ground. A cool, clear 
stream of fresh water flows through a creek 
and empties itself upon the beach. Wild and 
tame cattle come here to drink, and the solitude 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 37 

has rendered it popular for game and wildfowl. 
During the day we shot many edible birds and 
other game. We had an exciting bungarra 
hunt, and though we " treed " it, it finally escaped 
by springing to the ground and entering im- 
penetrable scrub. This creature is like a huge 
lizard, and should not be interfered with by 
the novice. 

Cowaramup Bay is entirely uninhabited, and 
contains good soil for root crops near the fresh 
water, and the higher land is suitable for 
poultry and stock. I believe there are some 
reserve conditions existing, but these could be 
removed in the event of a person wishing to 
take up a homestead. Sheep farming would 
be unwise at present on account of the dingoes 
which dwell in the caves here. Tamma abound 
everywhere, and the dingoes have a cunning 
way of hunting them. One dingo acts as a 
sort of leader, and entering the thick scrub, 
dashes through it with fierce howls, while the 
rest occupy different positions outside. When 
the quarry breaks cover it is immediately seized 
and devoured. 

The swamps and plains of Cowaramup Bay 
are frequented by rare birds. I managed to 



38 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

stalk down and wing the dark reef -heron, 
which has never been secured for any zoological 
collection. I presented this bird to the Zoo- 
logical Society of London, but it died on the 
road within a week of its capture. This heron 
was about the size of a domestic fowl, and I 
discovered it feeding upon small fish in the 
pools among the rocks. Creeping upon hands 
and knees, and hiding in the long grass, I 
watched it for some time unobserved, and when 
it took to flight I managed to pinion the right 
wing. A young black fellow then came on 
the scene and helped me to chase it down. It 
was very savage when caught, and gave us 
some nasty pecks with its long, sharp-pointed 
beak. 

Our return journey was marred by the loss of 
our dog, who picked up some dingo-poison. 
The effect of this terrible drug was painful to 
witness. At first his legs seemed to act as 
though they were entangled in a net, and 
after a few erratic struggles he fell panting to 
the ground. 

Mr. Le Soeiif immediately ran to the dog's 
assistance, having furnished himself with a plug 
of tobacco and the driving-whip, and with the 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 39 

latter he forced some of the tobacco down the 
poor creature's throat. His limbs had already 
commenced to stiffen, but the tobacco produced 
wonderful results, and in a few minutes he was 
on his feet running about as though nothing 
had happened. The poison was strychnine, and 
the exercise proved fatal, for soon the dog was 
seized with another attack of convulsions and 
we were obliged to leave him to his fate. 

Along our homeward path were many evi- 
dences of the dingo, and as the sun began 
to set the lonely woods were awakened by their 
howls. A few days previous to my arrival a 
huge dingo attacked the sheep at Ellensbrook, 
and stood his ground when Miss Bussell en- 
deavoured to frighten him away. 

She shouted and waved around her a long 
riding-whip, but the brute, instead of showing 
fear, approached with fangs displayed and the 
hair bristling about its head and neck as 
though prepared for a fight. Assistance arrived, 
however, and a rifle shot removed the danger. 

The wild, romantic coast-line which extends 
along the Margaret River district provides 
charming views which recall familiar watering- 
places at home. The Margaret River Caves 



40 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

are very wonderful and situated twelve miles 
from Burnside. Mrs. Brockman drives tourists 
there at a reasonable charge. 

The cave road passes through some splendid 
forest-land where there are only three small 
clearings. One of these belongs to some half- 
caste blacks. Mrs. Brockman's farm extends 
practically to the Margaret River, which is 
crossed by a substantial bridge. After we had 
travelled this road about four miles we flushed 
an enormous iguana over 4ft. long, but before 
we could effect its capture it disappeared into a 
hole under a fallen tree. Large flocks of black 
cockatoos almost deafened us with their harsh 
cries, so we paused to bag a few. 

These birds breed freely in the Margaret 
River district, and nest in the most inaccessible 
holes in the highest eucalypts. They procure 
their food by tearing off large branches of 
trees, and rip off chips and bark in an 
astonishing way. When a flock settle on a gum- 
tree, they strip the thick bark down, and leave 
much of it hanging in ribbons many feet long. 
While at work they keep up an incessant con- 
versation, which is amusing to listen to, and 
as each one gets on the track of a juicy grub 




EAGLE'S \VINGS, MARGARET RIVER CAVES. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 41 

he notifies the fact with a squawk that brings 
half-a-dozen others to dig it out. Then there 
is a commotion that can be heard half-a-mile 
away. If one is shot the rest will hover round 
and round, calling to it, so that the shooter, if 
he is sufficiently heartless, can bag them all. 

After we had returned to the road and walked 
back a few miles we arrived at Mr. Connelly's 
homestead. He had only occupied his land 
about nine months, and the clearing was a 
mass of vegetable wealth. Some of the carrots 
I pulled weighed lib., and the parsnips measured 
ift., and everything else was in the same pro- 
portion. This was a practical proof of what an 
industrious emigrant might accomplish with a 
free-grant homestead in a short time. Mr. Con- 
nelly had a nice comfortable cottage built, 
which he told me cost him ^50. He possesses 
little capital, but has availed himself of assist- 
ance from the Agricultural Bank. 

Mr. Connelly made up a party for a day's 
tamma shooting. The tamma frequents the 
swamps and flats, and to procure them one has 
often to climb through tangled growth where it 
is dangerous to proceed with a loaded gun. 
When we had passed through the worst of the 



42 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

bush, we emerged on an open glade where 
there was running water. Here I took up a 
position on a fallen tree, and had barely 
balanced myself before I heard yells from the 
blacks and saw a tamma rushing in my direc- 
tion. I hastily loaded my gun while my eyes 
remained fixed on the quarry, and succeeded 
in bringing it down at forty-five yards on the 
other side of my log. This extraordinary fluke 
excited the blacks, who clapped their hands like 
children as they shouted to Mr. Le Soeiif, " This 
new chum will never starve in the bush." 

AVhen we examined the tamma we discovered 
I had shot two, because there was a well- 
developed young one in the pouch. 

Next day we drove from Mr. Connelly's to 
the caves. The first one we visited was the 
Lake Cave. This is situated in a gigantic 
hollow, and represents an immense hall with 
a collapsed roof. Trees grow in the fissures of 
the rocks and the floor of the space is clothed 
with rank herbage. The karri, witch-hazel, oak- 
wattle, and hazel scrub are dotted here and 
there among handsome ferns. The Lake Cave 
was discovered by Mrs. Brockman. She was 
riding through the bush when suddenly her 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 43 

horse stood still and commenced to tremble. 
Hastily dismounting, she advanced cautiously 
until she found herself standing on the brink 
of a precipice, and, looking down, was amazed 
to behold the wonderful beauty of the scene 
below. Marking the spot, she reported the place 
to Mr. Connelly, who bravely descended into 
the dangerous abyss, and in due course reported 
the Lake Cave both to the discoverer and to 
the Government. This cave has since been 
recognised as the chief sight of the locality. A 
substantial flight of steps has been erected, and 
the descent is safe and easy. Mr. Le Soeiif 
found here the bones of the extinct giant 
kangaroo rat. This terrible hollow must have 
acted as a death-trap to countless creatures, and 
some of their remains date back before the time 
of historic man. This place, therefore, affords a 
rich field of study to scientific men, and it is 
to be hoped that naturalists and zoologists will 
make a special trip from Europe to investigate 
here. They would have ample scope for original 
work, because there exist numerous caves unex- 
plored and unknown. We frequently examined 
the entrance and conditions of some of these 
during my rambles. Men who act upon this 



44 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

suggestion must be prepared to work alone and 
risk their lives in making discoveries. No new 
venture is ever safe. 

The door of the Lake Cave is so narrow that 
only one person can enter at a time. The cave, 
however, is one of Nature's masterpieces, and 
delighted me more than anything I saw in 
Australia. It represents an almost perfect dome, 
the ceiling and sides of which scintillate with 
myriads of pointed pendants, the crowning 
feature being "The Suspended Table," whose 
dimensions are isft. long, 7ft. wide, and lin. 
thick. The table is suspended about 2ft. above 
the middle of the glassy waters of a subter- 
ranean lake, from which the cave takes its 
name, and is attached at either end to the ceil- 
ing by two large stalactites, one of which 
measures fully 8ft. in circumference. By means 
of magnesium, Mr. Connelly lighted up the 
magic beauty of the table, and its icicle-like 
stalactites were brilliantly reflected in the spark- 
ling water, and the marvellous spectacle 
resembled the dazzling splendour of an Oriental 
display, blending memories of the Mammoth 
Cave of Kentucky with the Blue Grotto of 
Italy and the Alabaster Temples of Egypt. The 




SHAWL, MARGARET RIVER CAVES. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 45 

photographs distributed through this chapter 
convey a poor idea of the real beauty of the 
caves. We visited other caves which resembled 
in detail those I have referred to in my chapter 
on the Blue Mountains and Kia Ora. 

On another day we explored the Margaret 
River. There is a comfortable rowing boat at 
the service of persons staying with Mrs. Brock- 
man, and in this we followed the course of the 
river to the ocean. We flushed many wild- 
duck and other aquatic birds and shot some 
fine specimens. This river is famous for marron, 
a kind of crayfish or fresh-water lobster, and is 
caught with fresh meat and a noose. There are 
special spots where excellent sport is to be 
obtained. While Mr. Le Soeiif " yanked " out 
the fish I lighted a fire and got the water 
ready, and by the time it was boiling we had 
enough for lunch. Salt must be used in cooking. 

The banks of the river are thickly bordered 
with trees. In some places the rushes grow 
many yards from the shore, and elsewhere the 
water spreads itself out in swamps and lagoons, 
where the growth is so dense that it is im- 
possible to penetrate. Here waterfowl find a 
safe retreat for breeding and feeding, so it will 



46 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

be many years before they become scarce. Not 
far from this river Mr. Le Soeiif has turned 
down some deer, and the Zoological Society are 
forwarding a few wood-pigeons, &c., from 
England this year (1908) to add to the rough 
shooting of the place. There is a large house 
near the mouth of the river, which was once 
occupied by the first inhabitant of the Margaret 
River district. This gentleman was an Oxford 
man named Bussell, who gave the name to 
Busselton. The house is now rented, with the 
adjoining land, by two emigrants who are in 
partnership. We landed at their clearing. The 
fruit-trees planted years ago have grown into 
giants, especially the figs, which were the largest 
I have ever seen in the world. They were 
heavily laden, and the fowls and pigs were 
feeding upon the dropped fruit. Sea salmon are 
very plentiful in the ocean at the mouth of the 
river, and I saw some splendid hauls during 
the day. , 

It was late when we returned, and our row 
back was very exciting. Dingoes and other 
nocturnal wanderers kept swimming in the water, 
and we lighted our way home by firing the 
black-boy heads. 



III. 

THE UNPEOPLED COUNTRY (QUEENS- 
LAND). 

QUEENSLAND is rightly called "The Unpeopled 
Country." It has an area of 429,120,000 acres 
and a population of only 546,850. Few people, 
however, realise the resources of this State. In 
the interior one can obtain nearly every mineral 
known to science, and almost every variety of 
climate. The charm of the winter weather is 
its extreme dry ness. 

The mining and agricultural possibilities of 
Queensland remain undeveloped because some of 
the choicest spots are inaccessible. Opalton, in 
the far west, where 200 men are engaged mining 
for opals, takes weeks to visit, and a great part 
of the journey must be undertaken by camels. 

Queensland has over a hundred different kinds 
of timber, varying from the hardest and heaviest 
to the softest and most useful. The supply is 



48 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

nearly inexhaustible, but the uninhabited condi- 
tion of the country renders it impossible to 
bring this timber properly to market. About 
8o,ooo,oooft. were milled last year. Parts of this 
State have a steady rainfall and never suffer from 
drought, but when one occurs in the intervening 
country the stock cannot be driven to market. 

Queensland has a coastline of 2,000 miles, and 
its splendid fisheries are in an undeveloped 
state. Three large shires or counties have an 
area of 1 18,876 square miles, which is 14,000 
square miles more than the whole of New Zea- 
land, with the Cook and other islands included. 

The railways cover 3,137 miles, and are the 
property of the Government. Most of the land 
available for settlement is not far from the lines, 
and the policy of the Government is to build 
light railways wherever agricultural settlement 
justifies the expense. 

The nature of the Queensland soil varies with 
the locality. All the northern and eastern lands 
are fertile with vegetable mould. The Darling 
Downs contains 4,000,000 acres of good black 
soil, principally decomposed basalt. The soil 
in the Maranoa district is lighter and more 
suited to wheat-growing and vines. 



QUEENSLAND 49 

In parts of the north the blacks are still 
troublesome, and cattle stations represent the 
only form of settlement; but in the south the 
blacks have practically disappeared, and country 
life is as safe and enjoyable as in Great Britain. 
The climate of the south has been much mis- 
represented both by ignorant writers and those 
who are jealous of Queensland's advantages. 
The winters are superior to those of Southern 
Europe, Egypt, or Florida, and even the heat 
of summer bears no comparison with the damp 
and unhealthy climate of India. In the north 
it is very hot, but in the mountainous districts 
the temperature is cool and not unlike that of 
England. I explored the country as far as 
Cooktown, and visited the wonderful Glass 
Mountains, Darling Downs, Barron Falls, and 
the magnificent scenery of the Great Dividing 
Range. The twelve months I spent in this State 
will rank among the happiest days of my life. 

The death rate in Queensland is the lowest 
in the Commonwealth. It is only 9.56 per 1,000. 
Mr. Thomas Podmore, an uncle of mine, emi- 
grated with his family many years ago. He was 
seventy years of age at the time, and recently 
died in Brisbane in his ninety-third year. 

E 




50 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The part of Queensland I should recommend 
to the notice of emigrants is the Kingaroy 
country. This district is practically uninhabited, 
and is situated near to Brisbane. The climate is 
healthy and cool, the soil rich and deep, and 
there is a reliable rainfall. 

The route to the Kingaroy is via Brisbane to 
Killevan Junction, or by coach from Esk. Land 
can be purchased here partly improved and 
fenced for ,250 per 160 acres, or a British 
subject can select a free homestead on liberal 
conditions of residence, &c. 

The conditions to be fulfilled, before a title 
can be secured, require the fencing of the land 
within five years, or improvements made equal 
to the value of such fencing. The deposit on 
a farm of 160 acres is ,3 i6s. when the value 
of the land is IDS. per acre. Such a farm can 
be made freehold in five years. 

A man with ^250 to ^300 can start dairying 
in a small way and gradually increase his herd. 
The price of a good cow is from .5 to 8, 
and the number to commence with is generally 
about twenty. 

The most successful Queensland farmers I 
interviewed carried on mixed farming, such as 



QUEENSLAND 51 

dairying, agriculture, sheep, pig, and poultry 
rearing, horticulture, and bee-farming. 

The Agricultural Bank of Queensland is a 
Government institution, and advances money to 
settlers at 5 per cent., repayable in twenty-five 
years. The applicants for an advance must give 
a mortgage on their holdings. The bank 
advances 123. in the pound on the total value 
of the land and improvements. The emigrant 
can also borrow money to purchase stock. It 
must be remembered that all the States of 
Australia have not an Agricultural Bank, and 
that they are self-governing and independent. 
I have taken care to mention the individual 
advantages of each in their order to prevent 
any confusion or disappointment. 

Mr. J. H. Wall, who is a farmer in Kingaroy, 
granted me the following interview: 

' What do you think of the Kingaroy 
country? " 

" I have travelled extensively in other parts of 
the world, and consider the Kingaroy could not 
be beaten for farming purposes." 

' What kind of farming do you recommend 
for the district?" 

" Pig-raising and dairying." 



52 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

"What crops do well?" 

" All fruit crops, especially grapes, citrous 
fruits, potatoes, and vegetable produce. Maize 
grows to perfection." 

"Have you any pests?" 

"No; we have neither flying foxes, rabbits, 
nor noxious insects at present in the Kingaroy 
country." 

" What do you consider the chief speculative 
attraction ? " 

" The wonderful timber. Some persons have 
already gained large sums on their holdings." 

" Have you visited other parts of Queens- 
land?" 

"Yes; but I prefer the Kingaroy country to 
any other part I have seen." 

Mr. J. H. Wall, Kingaroy Post Office, 
Queensland, will, I am sure, be a valuable help 
to any emigrant taking up land. He has a 
farm in the neighbourhood, but all letters 
are called for at the office, as there is no 
delivery in the country. This gentleman 
informed me that he had never expected to find 
such g'ood land so near to Brisbane, and that 
there is practically no rock. 

The soil I examined was brown chocolate and 




NORTH QUEENSLAND BLACKS. 



QUEENSLAND 53 

of remarkable depth, as I noted from a new 
well. Wells supply most of the drinking-water, 
but it is not necessary to sink more than 4oft. 
to I2oft. The water is generally pumped to the 
surface with the aid of small windmills, as 
in Canada. 

The Queensland Government grants a free 
pass to persons wishing to inspect the land. 
The cheapest and best place to stop in Brisbane 
is "The Union Club," Charlotte Street, where 
the rates are from 28s. per week inclusive, and 
everything connected with the place is perfectly 
respectable, clean, and comfortable. A married 
man could safely leave his wife and family here 
until he decided upon his land and had a suit- 
able house built for their accommodation. There 
are reduced rates for families. 

The best route to Queensland is via White 
Star Line to Sydney, and then overland by 
train, or by the Howard-Smith Line s.s. " Bom- 
bala." The lowest rates per adult are ,20, 
and there are no suffering and privation on 
these boats. Persons who go steerage on 
German boats will find themselves with sur- 
roundings and hardships which render the 
voyage a martyrdom, and the food is often so 



54 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

disgustingly cooked and served that they are 
obliged to purchase provisions at every port. 
This exceeds the cost of the extra fare by the 
White Star fleet. Further, there is no discre- 
tion used in associating passengers in berths 
and at the tables. Frequently one finds one- 
self sitting next to an Italian or a Greek whose 
habits are far inferior to those of the average 
Hindu. 

If an emigrant can afford to pay first-class or 
second-class rate, the P. and O. Line or Orient 
Royal Mail Line will be found equal to any 
ships afloat. 

When the emigrant arrives in Sydney he can 
safely entrust his luggage to a recognised agent, 
and if he decides to go overland to Brisbane it 
is wise to send luggage by steamer, as the 
overweight charges are very heavy on the rail- 
way. I took this course, and found it answered 
well. Should a delay be made in Sydney, my 
chapter on New South Wales should be read 
as a guide to cheap apartments, &c. " The 
Union Club," Charlotte Street, has a telephone, 
which should be used to arrange an interview 
at the Enquiry Office, Lands Department, Bris- 
bane. 



QUEENSLAND 55 

The taxation in Queensland is about one-third 
less per head than in New Zealand, and the 
annual imports are 4 per head less and exports 
4 per head more. Some of the taxation I 
found was peculiar. There was a stamp duty of 
55. per ,100 payable on all mortgages, and 
the same duty when the mortgages were 
released. A penny receipt stamp on all receipts 
between i and 2, and between 2 and ,50 
a twopenny stamp had to be used. Queensland 
is very particular about the adulteration of food 
and drink. No preservative, not even boracic 
acid, is allowed in butter for export. 

Sanitation and health conditions are carefully 
studied. Wherever you go in the towns you see 
notices displayed in conspicuous places, " Do 
not spit on the footpaths. Penalty ,20." 

Queenslanders are intensely loyal to the 
Crown, and most of the societies are called 
Royal this and Royal that. The libraries are 
generally called Schools of Arts. In Toowoomba 
there is a School of Arts Hotel. 

The market is near Roma Street Railway 
Station, and is a large building, with iron roof. 
In the centre of the asphalted floor are the 
stands or stalls for cart-carried produce. Lines 



56 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

of railway are laid down the full length and 
on each side of the building. The farmer 
having filled the truck with potatoes, chaff, 
pumpkins, or other produce, the truck is 
brought into the market and the produce sold 
without being handled. I saw a truck full of 
bananas, brought 300 miles from the north, sold 
in Brisbane, and then forwarded to Toowoomba, 
100 miles inland, without being touched, and 
there was apparently not a bruised banana 
amongst the lot. 

The daily papers announce in their produce 
report not only the price realised, but the name 
of the farmer who sent the produce and the 
number of the truck. 

Most of the residences in Brisbane and else- 
where are made of wood and perched upon 
house-blocks seven or eight feet high, with an 
inverted tin plate to keep the white ant from 
climbing into the house. The white ant soon 
destroys a building, and great care must be 
exercised in examining supports, flooring, &c. A 
special preparation is sold to eradicate them 
from places where they have commenced their 
ravages. No farm should be without a supply 
of it. 



QUEENSLAND 57 

The German and Scottish elements are very 
pronounced in Queensland, and a large number 
of the leading people are descended from one 
or the other. I do not know why so many 
Germans went to Queensland in the early days, 
but they were so numerous that at one time 
there was a German edition of the Queensland 
Directory. 

Fish is very expensive in Brisbane, and yet 
private parties obtain enormous hauls of schnap- 
per and other fish when they go out for 
pleasure. The Queensland crabs and oysters are 
famous throughout Australasia. 

The shops in all the large towns are good, 
and the prices less than elsewhere in Australia. 
There is no State Church, but perfect religious 
equality for all denominations. The Brisbane 
Grammar School provides an excellent educa- 
tion, and is conducted by an Oxford M.A. 
There is some talk of establishing a State Uni- 
versity, but it is to be hoped that this will be 
delayed until the population justifies it. Queens- 
land needs physical development at present, and 
the professions can easily be maintained by 
persons educated in Sydney University, which is 
so near at hand. 



58 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The Acclimatisation Society's Gardens are one 
of the sights of Brisbane, and should not be 
neglected by the tourist. They contain hot- 
houses full of ferns and orchids and a splendid 
collection of tropical plants growing out of 
doors. Experiments in hybridising are being 
carried on here. In the hope of creating a new 
variety, thousands of pineapple plants are grown 
from seeds. Pineapples with seeds, especially 
those that will germinate, are very rarely found. 

Mr. J. Edmiston, a selector, of Alton Downs, 
near Rockhampton, is considered absolutely 
reliable by the Government. He bears testimony 
which shows that Kingaroy is not the only part 
of Queensland where the emigrant can prosper. 

" Do you think there is a good prospect for 
anyone coming to Queensland?" 

" I think there is a splendid prospect if they 
go on the land and start farming much better 
than in the Old Country," replied Mr. Edmiston. 

' What could a labouring man make at farm- 
ing here? " 

" He could easily earn about .200 a year at 
it. I have made that myself. I had experi- 
ence on a farm at home, but that is not 
absolutely necessary." 



QUEENSLAND 59 

" Do you think farming is the best thing for 
new settlers to turn to in this country?" 

" Certainly. In fact, I would not advise 
people to come here to settle in the towns. 
They should come prepared to begin farming 
at once or to make preparation for starting a 
farm of their own." 

" What amount of capital should a man bring 
with him to begin farming?" 

" A man could easily make a good start here 
with about ^150. That money would be used for 
paying the first instalment on his land purchase, 
buying a few cows, and putting up his house. 
Of course, a pioneer does not spend much on 
his house at first until he has made some 
money." 

"How did you begin?" 

" I began with ;ioo about ten years ago. 
I have paid for my land, and I reckon that at 
the present time I am worth about ,2,000 in 
land and stock." 

" Is there any chance for a man without 
capital? " 

' Yes ; he could get assistance from the Agri- 
cultural Bank of the State Government if he 
wished to begin straight away on the land, or 



6o RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

he could buy land from the Government on 
conditional purchase and then put in some time 
with the neighbouring farmers, and in this way 
save a little capital to enable him to begin on 
his own land." 

" What kind of market is there for butter and 
other produce in Queensland?" 

" There is a splendid market always ready for 
butter, and there is no difficulty in selling 
produce." 

" What other produce besides butter have you 
grown and marketed?" 

" I have grown oats for hay, maize for horse 
and fowl feed, English and sweet potatoes, 
poultry, various kinds of fodder plants, 
ground nuts, fruits, and other kinds of produce. 
On the Darling Downs and in the West Mdre- 
ton districts large quantities of lucerne, wheat, 
and barley are grown." 

" What kind of return do you generally get 
from your crops? " 

" Sweet potatoes yielded about forty tons per 
acre, and they fetch from i IDS. to 3 a ton. 
English potatoes, five tons to the acre, value 
6 per ton. Then I grow lucerne and several 
kinds of millet. The Hungarian and French 







A BAG OF KANGAROO. 



QUEENSLAND 61 

millets are splendid feed for cattle and poultry. 
I have grown ground nuts, which yield about a 
ton to the acre, and sell for 3d. per pound, 
equal to ,28 per acre." 

The reader will notice from Mr. Edmiston's 
statements a marked difference in the value of 
Queensland and Western Australian produce. 
Living on a farm is very much the same all 
over the world, and can be made expensive or 
trifling. The stuff sold in the markets is con- 
sumed in the towns and cities. Foodstuffs in 
Brisbane are cheaper than in any other Austra- 
lian city; in fact, cheaper than in England. 

Mr. John Curtis, President of the Middle 
Ridge Shire Council, Middle Ridge, Too- 
woomba, made the following statement: 

" After an experience of forty-seven years, 
during which I have reared a family of 
twelve, most of whom are now settled down 
in life, I am quite satisfied that there is no 
greater country than Queensland on the face 
of the earth. I speak from practical experience 
of agricultural life in this country. No finer 
opportunities await the emigrant in any other 
part of the world." 

The people of Queensland are kind, hospit- 



62 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

able, orderly, and very democratic. They 
appreciate all persons of worth, but are quick 
to detect humbug and deceit. Any attempt to 
pose as their superior is resented, and aristo- 
cratic claims are viewed with contempt and 
ridicule. 

I made two visits to Queensland from New 
South Wales. The second was in December, 
1907, during a severe drought in Parramatta and 
neighbourhood. This drought covered a large 
area of the State, and the land through New 
South Wales was dried and parched, but when 
I had passed the border and entered the State 
of Queensland everything was different. The 
farms were flourishing and the woods and fields 
looked fresh and green. 

Explorers who are paid to undertake expedi- 
tions always write books. These books generally 
represent in graphic detail every minute difficulty 
and inconvenience. To give spice to the narra- 
tive, deprivation of food and water is referred 
to, &c., and, basing supposed accurate know- 
ledge upon such testimony, the most deplorable 
ideas of Queensland and the Northern Territory 
are current in England and other European 
countries. I quite expected to find Queensland 



QUEENSLAND 63 

like the country between Bombay and Madras, 
but it was the very opposite. 

The neighbourhood of Port Augusta, South 
Australia, is a veritable wilderness; here I 
encountered the mirage of the desert, and saw 
houses and buildings covered with sand as 
Canada is covered with snow; but in Queensland I 
found fertile, delightful country, capable of sup- 
porting twenty times the whole population of 
Australasia. In the interior there are dreary, 
barren wastes, but so there are everywhere, even 
in Old England. The injustice done to Queens- 
land has been through the magnifying of the 
dreary wastes and overlooking the rich, fertile 
districts. The latter would support nearly the 
whole of the white people in the British 
Empire. Persons, therefore, need take no alarm 
from reading fictitious stories of adventures with 
blacks, snakes, &c., because they can, if they 
use proper discretion, live a. lifetime in Queens- 
land without seeing either. 

The tourist should take the trip to Gympie, 
via "The Glass Mountains." This is a great 
gold-mining town, and within twelve miles there 
is some of the best quail-shooting in the world. 
Mr. Austin, " Wyandra," Gympie, is a thorough 



64 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

sportsman and personal friend, and would, I am 
sure, advise people if they communicated with 
him and mentioned my name. Mr. Moody, 
Violet Street, Gympie, is another reliable 
authority on this subject. 

The best place to stop at in Gympie is 
" Wyandra," Chalmers Street, or the Metro- 
politan Hotel, which is in the same street. 
Provisions, cartridges, &c., can be best obtained 
from Cullanane and Co., in Mary Street. 
Another trip should be taken by water to 
Cairns. July and August are the suitable months 
to go north. 



IV 

EMIGRATION TO SOUTH AUSTRALIA 
AND THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 

THE climate of South Australia is one of the 
healthiest in the world. No serious epidemic 
has ever visited the State, which shares with 
Tasmania the lowest death-rate in the Common- 
wealth. In midsummer, when the heat is 
greatest, the air is generally clear and dry. The 
extreme heat rarely lasts more than a week 
without a cool change. Dwellers in Adelaide 
can within an hour reach localities in the sur- 
rounding hills or at the seaside where the 
temperature is always pleasant. The summer 
may be regarded as extending from October to 
March. The weather during April and May is 
perfection. The coldest months are June, July, 
and August, but it is never necessary to house 
and feed the sheep, cattle, or horses. Fruits 
and cereals of every kind grow luxuriantly, and 
live stock are generally free from disease. 

F 



66 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The population of South Australia is only 
350,000, but its area is seven times larger than 
the United Kingdom. The railways extend for 
i, 800 miles, and 18,000 miles of telegraph and 
telephone wires are employed. Three million 
acres of soil are under cultivation; 21,000 are 
vineyards. The sheep number 5,000,000, cattle 
225,000, and horses 165,000. The staple export 
trade is ,4,768,947. The foundation of sheep- 
breeding and wool-growing was laid by the 
South Australian Company importing Merinos 
from Tasmania and New South Wales; also 
rams from Mecklenburg. The first fleet which 
sailed had on board some Leicester and South- 
down sheep, and purchases were also made at 
the Cape of Good Hope, where sheep were then 
selling at 55. each. Heavy losses occurred 
during transit, but the company and private 
individuals persevered so that within two years 
the flocks numbered 28,000. In 1851 there were 
over 1,000,000, early in the sixties 3,000,000, and 
in 1891 the flocks aggregated 7,745,541. To the 
capitalist in search of investment, the pastoral 
industry in South Australia offers exceptional 
opportunities. 

South Australia was called for many years the 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 67 

granary of Australia, being the first State to 
export breadstuff s on a large scale. The climate 
and soil of the southern portions of this 
country are eminently adapted to agricultural 
pursuits. In 1906 I had the honour of re- 
ceiving a small commission from the Govern- 
ment to collect and furnish drawings of the 
protected birds. This work enabled me 
thoroughly to explore the hill country as far as 
the Murray River, and took me to localities 
rarely visited and little known. Port Augusta, 
260 miles north of Adelaide, has in its neigh- 
bourhood a flourishing ostrich farm, where I 
remained nearly a week. This industry is only 
in its initial stage, but there is ample oppor- 
tunity for development. Life on an ostrich 
farm is full of interest and excitement, and I 
doubt if any part of the world suits the birds 
better. Fruit, vegetables, and cereals are suc- 
cessfully raised in the vicinity, but the part of 
the State I would recommend is the hill country 
south of Adelaide. Land legislation, under the 
excellent leadership of Premier Price, is on a 
liberal basis. Small blocks in certain localities, 
chiefly near the centres of population, are open 
for leasing by working men in lots not exceed- 



68 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

ing twenty acres. In this arrangement personal 
residence of the lessee or a member of the 
family is required. Leases, with right of 
purchase, which is exercisable after six years' 
tenure, are allotted for a term of twenty-one 
years, with right of renewal for a further like 
period. The right of purchase may not be 
exercised at a less price than 53. per acre. 

The system of leasing Crown lands, however, 
has now been abandoned in favour of a plan 
whereby the tenant may obtain the freehold. 
Taking the freeholds and Government leases 
jointly, the average area occupied by each 
individual of the population is about seventy 
acres. This is exclusive of pastoral lands. 

In the 400 miles of country which extend 
from Mount Gambler or Penola in the south- 
east to Wirrabara in the north there are 
thousands of acres of land specially adapted to 
fruit-growing. I examined the ten-acre blocks, 
where strawberries, cherries, apples, pears, 
walnuts, gooseberries, plums, apricots, peaches, 
loquats, almonds, olives, figs, grapes, oranges, 
lemons, and mulberries had reached the highest 
state of perfection with no other aid than that 
afforded by the rain and sunshine. These 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 69 

blocks were situated within driving distance of 
Adelaide, and many rich gullies remained 
unoccupied. 

In the ranges near Cape Jervis, which extend 
to Gumeracha a distance of 100 miles abun- 
dance of good land suitable for fruit-growing is 
to be had. This district has a rainfall varying 
from 25in. to 35in. per annum. It is heavily 
timbered, and although it may be purchased as 
low as 3 per acre, the expense of clearing it 
is considerable. This locality, however, has the 
great advantage of being within easy reach of 
the Adelaide markets, and to the port of ship- 
ment by steamers trading with European and 
other oversea countries. Land for grape, fig, 
peach, and apricot-growing can be obtained 
within five or six miles of Adelaide at from 
;io upwards, but the rich alluvial soils suited 
for citrus-trees range from ,50 per acre. 

A little further north is the Barossa district, 
situated in a range which runs almost con- 
tinuously from the Mount Lofty range. Here, 
around Augaston, Keyneton, Nuriootpa, and 
Tanunda, large tracts of land are available. 

The capital of South Australia is situated 
about half an hour's journey by rail from the 



70 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

port. The landing-place until recently was one 
of the chief drawbacks to Adelaide's progress. 
The large boats were obliged to anchor a long 
distance from the shore, and the passengers 
were landed by a small launch, which was often 
a dangerous undertaking in rough weather. 
The commodious harbour, which has been con- 
structed since I first visited the country, cost 
,500,000. Adelaide is one of the prettiest cities 
in the world, and well merits the title of the 
" Queen city of the South." The streets are 
wide and admirably kept, and the drainage 
system could not be improved. Living is very 
cheap; a man with small private means can live 
in comfort and independence. Within the con- 
fines of the city are ninety miles of streets, and 
thirteen miles of roads through parks. There 
are 170 miles of footpaths and twenty-seven 
miles of promenades. Close to the railway 
station is a clean, respectable hotel, where board 
and lodging can be procured for 6s. per day 
or 255. to 303. per week. This is called 
" Grayson's Coffee Palace." Lodgings (bed- 
sitting-rooms) vary from 75. 6d. per week, with 
use of kitchen, wash-house, and firing. Accom- 





F.5 







SOUTH AUSTRALIA 71 

modation of this description can be obtained in 
Whitmore Square. 

The Government officials are exceedingly kiri'd 
and friendly to strangers. Any questions asked 
receive careful and reliable attention. 

The great desire* of the South Australian 
Government is to settle people in the country 
districts, and, while the chief demand is for 
skilled agriculturists, mechanics who are willing 
to go into the country may rely upon work and 
good wages. In the chief manufacturing centres 
the average earnings per week are 2 2S. to 
2 55. for men, and 173. 6d. to 205. for 
women. 

Clerks, shopmen, and warehousemen are 
advised not to emigrate to Australia, but if they 
insist on doing so, experience has proved that 
able, determined men do very well. Work will 
not come to them ; it must be sought. The 
emigrant who avails himself of the columns of 
the " Advertiser," inserts a sensible advertise- 
ment describing his abilities, and calls daily at 
the employment bureaux, will succeed, no 
matter what his former occupation may have 
been. 

One of the most striking features of South 



72 

Australia is the large area of land waiting to 
be opened up by new settlers. The Govern- 
ment offers good agricultural land on the rent- 
purchase system, the terms being easy and 
convenient. These lands are either let under 
perpetual lease or disposed of under agreement 
to purchase by payments extending over thirty 
years; or, if the tenant so desires, the purchase 
money may be paid off at the end of six years. 
In each case the Local Land Board fixes the 
price, having regard to the carrying capacity of 
the land for stock, the value of the land for 
agriculture, or its proximity to the railway. 
The Land Laws of the State are worked on a 
liberal basis; elasticity and sympathy with the 
settler characterise their administration. There 
is a genuine desire to encourage settlement. 

In order to meet the growing demand for 
partly-improved agricultural lands, the Govern- 
ment has recently repurchased large estates 
within good agricultural districts, which they 
are disposing of to settlers on very easy terms. 
Small annual payments are made, and 4 per 
cent, interest is charged on the unpaid balance. 
About 250,000 acres have been set aside during 
the last few years for such purposes. 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 73 

Married couples without children, strong 
youths for stations and farms, haymakers, men 
able to work binders and strippers, shepherds 
and drovers, men-cooks for stations, country 
blacksmiths, garden hands, milkmen, and 
ploughmen are always in demand. Fruit- 
growing and wine-making offer to men of 
capital and experience favourable opportunities, 
which are capable of unlimited extension. Ex- 
perienced fruit-growers with a capital of ,500 
to ;i,ooo should do well, but it is better to 
work at wages, or to help a friend for a time, 
than to plunge at once into farming in a 
country where soil, climate, seasons, and the 
mode of farming are different to what the 
new settlers have been accustomed to. The 
delay incurred in learning these differences will 
be more than compensated by the experience 
gained. 

South Australia needs people to inspire the 
country with the spirit of enterprise and en- 
thusiasm. Closer settlement is needed. The 
Government, ignorant of the value of its land, 
foolishly disposed of enormous tracts in the 
early days to speculators and others. Among 
the places I visited Lobethal appealed strongly 



74 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

to me. The people appeared to me to possess 
too much land, and the scrub and bush were 
out of all proportion to the fields under culti- 
vation. The farmers apparently were content to 
cultivate such portions only as were necessary to 
supply them with a livelihood. The village of 
Lobethal occupies a delightful position, and re- 
sembles England. It possesses a flourishing 
woollen factory, under the admirable superin- 
tendence of Mr. Redpath. This gentleman 
entertained me during my visit, and drove me 
many miles through the country. He represents 
the typical Scotchman who has done so much 
to build up the success and stability of our 
Colonies. The general feeling in Australia is 
that a Scotchman is worth two average English- 
men. 

The lands bordering the Murray River are 
claiming much attention. A scheme for drain- 
ing the flats is already on foot, and much is 
expected from it. Steamboats ply to and fro 
to the different townships, and the crops raised 
in this district are the best in the State. 
Murray Bridge is the nearest town, and the 
Bridgeport Hotel is the best place to stop. 

The land north of Adelaide consists of wheat- 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 75 

growing soil. A fertile belt extends to Gawler 
and Roseworthy. At Roseworthy there is an 
experimental farm and college. The Minister of 
Agriculture kindly drove me to this part of the 
State on the Government motor-car. I visited 
the dairy, wine cellars, fermenting-rooms, engine- 
room, farm buildings, and piggeries, and after- 
wards drove through the fields to inspect the 
barley, wheat, and stock. Everything I saw 
represented scientific farming of a high order, 
and the appearance of the produce and cattle 
was excellent. Labouring people have excep- 
tional privileges in South Australia. The Hon. 
T. Price, the Premier, is a strong Labour man. 
This political party in Australia is much mis- 
understood in England. The labouring classes 
in Australia are well educated, capable, and in- 
telligent. Many of them have received a college 
education, and are fitted for any responsible 
position the country can offer. Labour, there- 
fore, is honoured throughout the State. There 
are practically no loafers or so-called gentlemen; 
the person who lives an idle, useless life is 
despised. Working people are the country's 
greatest need. No one is wanted who desires to 
remain a drone or non-producer. The capitalist 



76 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

and employee enter into a close relationship 
where apparently they possess mutual interests. 
The farmer works side by side with the labourer. 
There is no patronising or domineering. 

The South Australian Government has fixed 
the minimum wage of a working-man at one 
shilling per hour; no one can be employed for 
more than eight hours daily. When disputes 
arise they are decided by a Court .of Arbitra- 
tion. All this sounds strange to an insular 
Englishman, but the system works well in 
South Australia. The workman has plenty of 
money to provide himself and family with good 
food and home comforts. The result is, he 
accomplishes twice as much as the ordinary 
labourer at home, and what he undertakes he 
does with a good heart. 

The total area of the Northern Territory is 
about 335,116,800 acres, or four and a half 
times the size of Great Britain. It lies between 
the 1 2Qth and i38th deg. of east longitude, the 
southern boundary is the 26th parallel of south 
latitude, and the most northerly point of land 
nearly reaches the nth parallel. The population 
of this vast region is only 3,884, of which about 
1,000 are Europeans. 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 77 

The Northern Territory is practically unex- 
plored. Not a year goes by scarcely a day 
without some new addition to the map of some 
range of hills, or a lake, or other discovery. 
The late Duke of Manchester, after an inspec- 
tion of this country lasting several weeks, said : 
" I have seen other parts of Australia, and I 
must say before coming to Port Darwin I had 
certainly thought Queensland the finest part of 
Australia; but I now consider, as far as I can 
judge by that portion of the Northern Territory 
which I have seen, that it is superior to 
Queensland, inasmuch as the vegetation seems 
richer, the grass thicker and of a more perma- 
nent character, and the country much better 
watered." 

The Northern Territory possesses all sorts of 
country and many varieties of climate. Port 
Darwin, in the north, has an average annual 
rainfall of over 6oin.; Charlotte Waters, the 
most southern point, has about 6in. The 
traveller between these two localities encounters 
stony wastes and spinifex, waterless plains, and 
rocky, barren ranges, alternating with well- 
grassed downs, rich, well - watered districts, 
heavily-timbered hills, and on the north coast 



78 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

large navigable rivers. There is a vast tract of 
splendid cattle country in the north of South 
Australia, only the fringe of which is occupied. 
Difficulties of access alone hinder its develop- 
ment. Oodnadatta, the terminus of the railway, 
is surrounded by the driest belt of country in 
Australia; the rainfall is 6in. Proceeding north 
of Oodnadatta, I observed the rainfall gradually 
increased, and there were belts of good country 
with some natural waters. The MacDonnell 
Ranges beyond have a beautiful climate, and 
much mineral wealth will, I think, be found 
here. The Arltunga district is already proved 
to contain payable gold-mines; but the problem 
is to convey supplies and machinery 400 miles 
on camels or waggons. Still on northwards, 
the rainfall increases at every stage until one 
passes through pastoral country capable of carry- 
ing 30,000 cattle. East of Powell Creek there 
is a magnificent pastoral country stretching away 
to the Queensland border, having many natural 
waters and capable of carrying about 900,000 
cattle. To the westward, to the border of 
Western Australia, there is some fine sheep 
country. 

Newcastle Waters is situated in a large 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 79 

pastoral area. At this station there are at 
present 7,000 fat cattle, but no means of getting 
them to market. Mr. Ernest Favenc, a recog- 
nised authority on Central Australia, states that 
from the Powell Station to the head of the 
Nicholson River he found "a large quantity of 
valuable cattle land permanently well watered." 
The country on the southern slope is of a 
nature known all over Australia as being of the 
best description for sheep. The country drained 
by the coastal rivers is of a different character; 
better watered, not so well grassed, and only 
adapted for cattle. The country I would 
suggest as the only desirable part lies from the 
i6th to igth parallels of latitude. The rivers, 
though rough and not exactly trafficable, are 
full of large, deep, and permanent lagoons. In 
the spinifex ridges there are any amount of 
herbage and plenty of vines, which are very 
fattening for the cattle. The spinifex itself is 
valueless, but the country on which it grows is 
often rich in different kinds of herbage and 
vines. 

A profitable industry of the Northern Terri- 
tory is that of pearl-fishing. The whole 
northern coast from Cape York to North- West 



8o RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Cape a stretch of coast of about 2,000 miles 
is the natural habitat of the pearl oyster. 
Pearl-shell to the value of ,20,497 was shipped 
in 1902. 

A large portion of the Northern Territory is 
utterly unfit for cultivation, and inexpert persons 
have given the country a bad name by estab- 
lishing plantations on unsuitable land. Plan- 
tations in the north should be kept within a 
belt of about eighty miles wide round the coast. 
Rice would grow well in this region. The 
curator of the Botanic Gardens at Port Darwin 
made the following report: "The plot reserved 
for rice was cropped last year, with the usual very 
satisfactory results, and is now again under crop. 
This cereal is destined to become one of great 
importance to the Northern Territory in the 
future. Three varieties of rice are indigenous 
to the Northern Territory, and we have a great 
area of land eminently suited for such cultiva- 
tion. Such land, being low-lying, is inundated 
every wet season, and this fact, considered by 
many people as a detriment, is, on the contrary, 
the condition demanded by the swamp variety of 
rice, which is the most prolific and profitable." 

The Victoria River district on the west has 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 81 

been eulogised by many reliable authorities. 
Mr. Wilson stated: "In no part of the world 
have I seen grass grow so luxuriantly, and Mr. 
Gregory observed to me during a ten days' 
journey, when I accompanied him and his 
brother to the Upper Victoria, that he had seen 
more grass land than during all his life before. 
An aggregate of 5,000,000 of acres came under* 
the observation of the party, and may all be 
considered w r ell-watered pasture land." 

Captain Carrington wrote on the Victoria 
River: "Perhaps the value of this magnificent 
stream as a commercial highway may be better 
shown by comparison. In making the com- 
parison I have only in view its capacity as a 
harbour and easiness of access. I have no 
hesitation whatever in saying that the Victoria 
is superior to the Thames, the Mersey, or the 
Hoogly." The Northern Territory is suitable 
for the growth of sugar-cane, rice, maize, lin- 
seed, tea, coffee, indiarubber, tobacco, cotton, 
millet, and cocoanuts; but up to the present 
immigration remains at a standstill. Australia 
has yet to realise its great duty to this 
wonderful land, comprising so many fertile 
plains. The country has been very little im- 

G 



82 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

proved since the Portuguese visited it in 1500. 
This is remarkable. Portuguese, Dutch, and 
English have all been unanimous in their praise 
of the country's natural beauties, the brilliancy 
of the tropical flowers, the rapid fecundation 
of tropical fruits, the grandeur of the jungle, 
and the luxuriousness of growth everywhere 
to be seen. It lies in the same latitudes 
as Mozambique, Samoa, Abyssinia, and Sene- 
gambia. Some white men who have never lived 
in India complain about the climate, and affirm 
that no Europeans can stand field work in it. 
Their remarks apply of course to the neigh- 
bourhood of Port Darwin, but in the Mac- 
Donnell Ranges the climate is beautiful. In 
the same way we might condemn England 
because it is in Europe and the climate of 
Northern Europe is unbearable in winter. 
Personally, I believe the territory presents the 
last great field for fortune - hunters. Professor 
Tate, F.G.S., declared: "The development of 
the mineral resources of the Northern Territory 
is but in its infancy, and I believe rich stanni- 
ferous lodes will yet be found. Rich auriferous 
lodes abound over a large tract of the country." 
Mr. H. Brown, F.G.S., said: "At the mouth 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 83 

of the Fitzmaurice I saw likely country for 
gold." He refers also to the Alligator River 
and the Nicholson as worth prospecting. 

The qualifications necessary for successful 
emigration to the Northern Territory are 
peculiar. A man must be restless, roving, 
masterful, hard-living, and hard-working. He 
must be self-reliant, courageous, a good shot, 
cool-headed, able to ride, to cook, and to shift 
for himself. Sometimes his life will depend 
upon doing the right thing at the right time. 

The Northern Territory might be termed " An 
Adventurer's Paradise." The immediate neigh- 
bourhoods of Palmerston in the north and 
Oodnadatta in the south are free from hostile 
blacks, but to those who are willing to risk their 
lives in seeking for gold or rich fertile land 
the black fellow must be taken into considera- 
tion. Dangers arising from this cause have 
been exaggerated, both by explorers and tragedy- 
seekers. The former always report the most 
trifling friction, and the latter describe them as 
cruel savages. The fact is the black fellow is 
what the white man makes him. If a timid, 
hysterical party fire their guns in the direction 
of an approaching mob, the blacks will re- 



84 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

taliate, and probably sneak behind one of them 
with a spear. If the blacks are allowed to 
enter camp and do as they like, they soon 
become an intolerable nuisance. The best 
policy is to treat them with a reasonable amount 
of leniency and kindness, combined with abso- 
lute rule. One must have no fear. This does 
not mean that an appearance of courage is 
sufficient, but the heart must be genuinely 
fearless. A savage can read a white man 
better than an educated person can read a black. 
The immigrant soon becomes accustomed to 
blacks, and if he gains for himself the title of 
" batchee, berragood," meaning " good white- 
fellow," he can travel where he likes in safety. 
The black fellow can discriminate between good 
and bad, and, though very immoral, he soon 
learns to respect a self-restrained, noble character. 
Three years ago I came across some natives 
in their haunts. The man and his gin were 
sitting on a log, a piccaninny sprawled on the 
grass, and a dingo was coiled up in the shade. 
When the man saw me he bounded to his feet 
as if he had received an electric shock, uttered 
a terrified yell, and ran off through the trees. 
The woman also yelled and started, but turned 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 85 

and dashed round, picking up the piccaninny in 
her sweep. This was no unusual experience. 
They soon forsake the white man's neighbour- 
hood and avoid him in every possible way. 
When they become friendly, it is wise to keep 
them at a distance, and never to expect grati- 
tude or reliable services from them. A black 
fellow sometimes works steadily on a station for 
months, and then, without reason, demands his 
wages and takes his departure at a moment's 
notice, to join himself to a travelling mob. 
Quoting from the journal of another traveller 
(1905): "A long walk was before us, the 
going was pretty heavy, and the day hot; boots 
and leggings were taken off and handed over to 
the blacks, who proudly carried them. Cer- 
tainly, Williamson never saw his boots again, 
but this was the exception." Again : " Loman 
sat down on the sand and listened quietly to 
the incessant jabber, &c. This pleased our 
black friends very much, and the one who 
appeared to be the proud chieftain, a power- 
fully-built savage, announced that he had 
bestowed the hand of his daughter a charming 
young lady, whose costume consisted of a smear 
of red ochre over the face and a medium-sized 



86 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

bone through the nose on a member of the 
party whose size had evidently aroused his 
admiration." Some reference to the blacks 
cannot honestly be omitted from an account of 
the Northern Territory. It is no place for 
families or young children at present, but 
fortunes are awaiting development, and much 
reward may be reaped by the adventurous. 

The route to the Northern Territory is via 
Port Darwin by steamer or Adelaide by train. 
The terminus is at Oodnadatta, 688 miles from 
the capital. Provisions and candles should be 
provided for the journey, because meals cannot 
always be obtained at the stations, and the 
lamps have an awkward way of going out. 
There is no good land near Oodnadatta, but 
some eighty to a hundred miles northward the 
good country begins. Oodnadatta contains two 
Government buildings constructed of stone and 
wood, but all the other dwellings are of 
whitened galvanised iron. The town is very 
healthy and clean. The ground is not loose 
enough to give off the dust, and the air is 
fresh and invigorating. There is a fair accom- 
modation-house called the " Transcontinental 
Hotel," as well as a school-house, where some 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 87 

thirty to forty children are educated. Some 
Chinamen have a flourishing vegetable-garden in 
the neighbourhood; they produce very choice 
tomatoes, which they send to Adelaide three or 
four months before the southern crops are due. 
Tomatoes are raised all the year round. The 
bore- water in the town is sold to the inhabitants 
at 5d. a hundred gallons. The water is hot 
and has a peculiar taste, but it is wholesome 
and pleasant. 

Dalhousie Springs, eighty-four miles from 
Oodnadatta, is a famous district for horses. 
Here many racers have entered into retirement, 
such as Sardine, an Adelaide Grand National 
winner, Little Boz, St. Elmo, &c. Macumba, a 
cattle and horse station, is about forty miles 
from Oodnadatta. It is the first stopping-place 
for the night of the Arltunga coach. 

The climate of the Northern Territory is 
tropical, except on the table-lands, where the 
temperature is lower. There are two seasons 
the dry and the wet. The wet season lasts from 
November to April, with an average rainfall of 
63in. at Palmerston, decreasing southward to a 
minimum of 6in. During the wet season the 
heat is tropical, but at other times of the year 



88 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

the days are bright and clear and the weather 
is equable. 

Land suitable for cotton-growing is offered by 
the Government in blocks of 5,000 acres, rent 
free for seven years; afterwards at a rental of 
i|d. per acre, with the right to purchase at 
2S. 6d. per acre. 

The emigrant should visit the Territory and 
study its conditions before embarking on any 
definite plan. I have described where the 
best-known land is situated, but a few days 
should be spent in Adelaide for consulta- 
tion with the State authorities. The Crown 
Lands Office will provide reliable information, 
or the Agent-General for South Australia in 
London would prove a valuable help. Cattle- 
raising or ostrich-farming would be encouraged 
by the Government. Ostriches of a splendid 
type can be purchased from Port Augusta 
Farm, and cattle under the advice of the 
Hon. L. O'Laughlin, M.P., Adelaide, who 
is the Minister controlling the Northern Terri- 
tory and also an expert farmer. 



V 



THE BEAUTIFUL ISLAND OF 
TASMANIA 

TASMANIA has an area of 26,215 square miles, 
and a population of 180,163 (1907). It is 
situated south of the mainland, and the voyage 
from England costs no more than to Western 
Australia. This beautiful island is more English 
than the other States. Its surface is remarkably 
uneven, being a succession of hills and valleys 
of great height and depth, with peaks and 
glens. The scenery includes the snow-capped 
mountain, the glassy lake, the wild shore, the 
barren tract, the green valley, the extensive 
sheep-land, and the wild expanse of agricultural 
land studded with neat homesteads and made 
pleasant to the English eye by the subdivision 
into fields and highly-cultivated gardens and 
orchards, fenced by hedges such as adorn the 
landscapes of England. The whole island is 
watered by never-failing rivers. 



90 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The valleys and plains richly repay cultiva- 
tion, and there is a large area of grazing land. 
In many localities good land remains un- 
occupied and not yet opened up by roads. 

The soil in the Ringarooma and Scottsdale 
country and along the north-west is a chocolate 
loam of great depth. The only difficulty to 
settlement lies in the dense forests. The same 
applies to the North-West and Huon districts, 
wherein the sturdy settlers, wrestling with the 
forest giants, are steadily increasing the culti- 
vation of the land. The conditions are similar 
to those of Canada, without the long, cold 
winter. The high central table-land is com- 
paratively treeless, but the soil is poor. 

Scottsdale is the terminus of the Launceston 
and Scottsdale Railway line. It is thirty-nine 
miles north-east of Launceston, and one train 
runs daily to and from the city. Coaches 
connect with these trains and convey passengers 
to Ringarooma, Braxholm, Derby, and Moorina. 
These places all represent good agricultural 
land, very sparsely settled. St. Helens lies 
about twenty-five miles south-east of Moorina, 
and is rapidly becoming an important centre for 
export. A steamer trades here every alternate 




THE AUTHOR LECTURING ON THE TASMAXIAN FAUNA. 
[ECIDNA, PLATYPUS, TASMANIAN WOLF, ETC.] 



TASMANIA 91 

week to Hobart or Launceston. The chief crops 
grown in this neighbourhood are wheat, barley, 
potatoes, peas, &c. Sheep, horses, cattle, and 
pigs do well. 

The north-west coast has recently attracted 
many people, and I was surprised at the 
amount of settlement which has taken place 
here. I think this part of the island affords 
the best opportunity to the emigrant. In East 
and West Devon the country has been well 
opened up, and is supplied with good roads, 
railways, and deep-water ports, so that the 
settlers have no difficulty in getting produce to 
market. In the county of Wellington, which 
lies beyond, the farmers are not so favourably 
situated, but appear in a prosperous condition. 
On the Inglis, Calder, and St. Mary rivers 
large tracts have been selected, and areas of 
first-class land still await the emigrant. The 
Union Steamship Company runs a boat bi- 
weekly between Devonport (Tasmania) and 
Melbourne, and one weekly to Sydney. This 
enables the new settler to avoid the train 
journey from Launceston, and lands him direct 
from England in the splendid agricultural 
county of Devon. 



92 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

New Norfolk and the Huon district are 
within easy jeach of Hobart, the capital of 
Tasmania. These are celebrated orchard centres, 
the soil being admirably adapted to fruit culture. 
The ground must not be too rich, or the trees 
run to wood and become barren. It is a re- 
markable feature of the fruit industry throughout 
the island that the best crops are produced from 
trees of stunted growth. Tasmanian apples 
rank high in the markets of the world. The 
American and Canadian fruit is often dry and 
lacking in flavour, though when eaten fresh 
from the tree it is different. Tasmanian apples 
retain their quality for many months, and reach 
England in prime condition. During the fruit 
season Hobart is the scene of much activity, 
and the picturesque River Derwent is alive with 
the world's shipping. 

The climate of Tasmania is delightful, and 
the winters are mild. The island suffered 
severely for many years from the terrible depre- 
dations of bushrangers; but these horrors have 
long ago disappeared, and the aborigines are 
extinct. 

The marsupial wolf and devil once played 
havoc with the flocks, but now the shooting or 



TASMANIA 93 

trapping of these carnivora is considered a great 
event, and one must go far into the pathless 
wilds to search for them. The island is com- 
paratively free from pests, though rabbits are 
very plentiful in the Cambridge district, near 
Hobart. Potatoes often fetch a high price in 
New Zealand and the other Australian States, 
and at such times Tasmanian farmers have 
made fortunes by selling their crops. The 
potato harvest is practically certain, though the 
returns depend on outside markets. 

Beaconsfield (Devon County) is the chief 
centre of the gold -mining industry. The 
Tasmanian Gold Mining Company has proved 
itself to be one of the most productive in the 
southern hemisphere. The other leading mines 
are the Amalgamated West Tasmania, Ophir, 
&c. Forty thousand ounces of gold have been 
produced from one of these mines annually, and 
much mineral wealth remains undiscovered. 
Experts believe that only the fringe of Tas- 
mania's wealth has been touched. 

The general method of clearing land in Tas- 
mania is first to ring-bark the large trees, 
which begin to die at once, and then to remove 
all the indigenous vegetable growths. The 



94 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

smaller scrub must be grubbed up and burnt, 
and the larger trees dug around until their roots 
are exposed. They are then either pulled down 
or burned out. The instrument used for the 
former is called " a forest devil." When the 
trees are down they are cut into manageable 
lengths, piled together, and burned. Most of 
the native timbers will burn green, and there is 
seldom any difficulty in getting rid of them. 
All roots must be " run " and removed to a 
depth of i8in. or 2ft. Clearing, to an English 
emigrant, is a big undertaking. It is usually 
done by contract, and the cost varies with the 
nature of the work. There are many men who 
make a regular business of it, and provide the 
necessary appliances, from " forest devils " and 
bullock teams to blasting powder. 

It is preferable to have clearing done by 
contract, to prevent delay. The selector should 
take care to see that all roots are removed to 
the stipulated depth and the general conditions 
complied with. It is usual to include the clear- 
ing and first ploughing in one contract. The 
roots of some Eucalypts penetrate to a great 
depth, and after trees are ring-barked a stream 
of fresh water frequently flows through the 



TASMANIA 95 

land. I discovered the roots of trees in some 
cases more than moft. below the surface. 

After trees have been ring-barked some will 
burn while green, and others within twelve 
months. The value of labour in clearing land 
is estimated at from IDS. to 2 per acre. 
Cleared land is valued at from 3 to 2$ per 
acre, according to the soil, proximity to markets, 
and other factors. The word " cleared " is 
often applied to land on which all the scrub 
has been destroyed but which is still studded 
with dead trees killed by " ringing." These 
trees are sometimes blown down by gales and 
cut into lengths and burnt where they fall. 
" Partially cleared " refers to land some of 
which remains in its original condition of 
forest. 

Many farmers in the north-western counties 
engage entirely in potato-growing. It is a 
popular method of procuring ready cash under 
easy circumstances. I had an interview with 
one young emigrant, who had just rented a 
farm with the object of making a home for 
himself. Potatoes were very cheap and his 
funds only amounted to 8. With this sum 
he purchased enough seed to plant sixteen acres 



96 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

of potatoes. When digging time came he had 
a splendid crop, and his harvest brought him 
in ;6oo. 

Another example of good luck happened to a 
farm labourer who was " humping his bluey " 
in search of employment in the bad times 
which prevailed at the end of 1906. Money 
was very scarce, and although labour and out- 
side help were very necessary on plenty, of the 
farms he called at, the owners had not the 
wherewithal to pay, and so he had to pass on. 
At length he found a farmer who was willing 
to furnish him with free board and lodging, 
with payment in kind. The terms were that 
in return for preparing a few acres for the 
plough, and planting with seed potatoes, he 
should have half the crop. " Spuds " were then 
fetching only 155. to i per ton. The man 
went energetically to work, and in due course 
prepared and planted a good area of land. 
The crop turned out well, and the net result 
to the man totted up to something over ^120 
for three months' work, potatoes having risen 
to a fancy price. In 1907 they fetched 20 
per ton, and were retailed in Auckland at 3d. 
per Ib. 







\ 



TASMANIA 97 

The possibilities and probabilities of potato- 
growing came under my notice in the case of 
a farmer in the Pine Road district, near Penguin 
(Devon). He was accustomed to plant large 
areas of his farm with the tuber, and, as a 
rule, found the results most satisfactory. This 
particular season he had a very fine planting 
of some eighty acres, and they were estimated 
to yield at the rate of ten tons per acre. This 
farmer received and refused an offer of ,3,000 
for his potato crop as it stood in the 
paddocks, the buyer to do all the digging, find 
bags, and cart the produce to market. The 
owner considered the offer was not good 
enough, and preferred to wait for the predicted 
boom prices for. June and July, which eventually 
ruled. 

During my trip from Bellerive to Sorrell 
and^Colebrook, in the counties of Pembroke 
and Monmouth, I was the guest of Mr. P. 
Murdock, who drove me for many miles 
through the country. I interviewed several suc- 
cessful farmers and walked over extensive sheep- 
runs. The land is well farmed in these 
counties, and the conditions compare favourably 
with those of Great Britain. The fields are 

H 



98 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

separated by hedges, and the country lanes are 
similar to those of England. The regular rain- 
fall gives a delightful appearance to the fields 
in spring, and wheat, barley, oats, &c., yield 
good crops. Land can be bought in Cambridge 
at a reasonable cost, but there are no free 
homestead farms. 

I resided in Tasmania for twelve months, not 
only exploring the country wherever there was 
a railway, but penetrating into the virgin forest 
and vacant Crown lands. Some parts of the 
island I found almost impossible to journey 
through, and more than once became hopelessly 
lost, being rescued by search parties. 

The cheapest route to Tasmania is via Mel- 
bourne on the s.s. " Waretea," of Holyman's 
White Star Line, but the most comfortable is 
by the Union Steamship Company. - 



VI 
EMIGRATION TO NEW SOUTH WALES 

THE New South Wales Government has 
made special arrangements with several shipping 
companies for reduced rates of passage money 
to their State for persons anxious to engage 
in agriculture. The emigrants must be de- 
sirable in every way and approved of by the 
Agent-General in London before these con- 
cessions can be recognised. The lowest rate 
to Sydney is from 6 to g third class, and 
from 26 to 28 second class. Only those who 
have been accustomed to the roughest kind of 
life should travel third class. 

The State of New South Wales comprises an 
area of 198,848,000 acres, and is more than 
two and a half times the size of Great Britain 
and Ireland. The population is only 1,600,000, 
so there is plenty of room for more people. 

Sydney, the working-man's paradise, is one 



TOO RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

of the most beautifully-situated cities in the 
world. The harbour, parks, gardens, and 
recreation grounds are well placed, so that 
artificial landscape harmonises with Nature. 
Not only is the city itself full of interest and 
amusements, but there are so many cheap 
pleasure trips in the neighbourhood that for a 
few pence a person can visit a different spot 
every week in the year. It is quite impossible 
to compare these pleasure resorts with anything 
English, because, summed together, they com- 
bine Coney Island, Dieppe, Naples, Ilfracombe, 
Margate, Rottingdean, and the Canadian Lakes. 
Manly, Como, the National Park, the Hawkes- 
bury, Bondi, &c., &c., are among the most 
popular, and within easy distance. 

The climate of the State is very hot in 
certain parts, especially in the neighbourhood of 
Parramatta, but in winter it is ideal everywhere. 

The valleys and hills of the Blue Mountains 
furnish a cool, pleasant refuge during the 
summer, when the temperature is very much 
the same as it is in England. Here there is 
a regular rainfall, and much uninhabited land 
containing rich belts of soil. The small 
capitalist with a few pounds of certain income 



NEW SOUTH WALES 101 

would find life in one of these choice spots 
unequalled anywhere for health, profit, and 
enjoyment. 

The peculiar advantages of the uninhabited 
valleys of the Blue Mountains have not yet 
been made known, because few persons have 
ever explored them or thought about them. 

The tourists and holiday-makers who take the 
long road-trip from Katoomba to the Jenolan 
Caves have either driven or walked along the 
mountain road. 

I explored the Blue Mountains far beyond 
the range of guide-books and conveyances, and 
it was during these expeditions that I was 
surprised to discover so many beautiful and 
desirable localities without a sign of human 
habitation. It may, of course, be the policy of 
some persons to discourage settlement here, but 
mountain scenery does not deteriorate with the 
introduction of green fields, golden corn, 
picturesque homesteads, and romantic-looking 
homes. Nothing adds more to the charm of 
the Jamieson Valley than the home and sur- 
roundings of Lilianfels. 

One trip I took was from Nellie's Glen, 
which is situated about two and a half miles from 



102 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

the Carrington Hotel, Katoomba. Conveyances 
can be hired for a couple of shillings to the 
" Explorer's Tree," but the rest of the journey 
must be taken on foot. I do not consider the 
path is safe for a horse, and should not advise 
any person to attempt to ride; there are so 
many dangerous spots which only a native 
understands how to avoid. 

After emerging from the glen and ravine the 
road begins to ascend, and in a few hours 
good land will be discovered on both sides of 
the path. Cattle and mixed farming would 
pay well here, and there is plenty of beautiful 
running water. 

There are practically no good roads through 
this country, but there is a movement on foot 
to build them when settlement advances. The 
good agricultural land commences about twelve 
miles from Katoomba. 

Katoomba is a famous summer resort sixty- 
five miles from Sydney. It contains large 
hotels, boarding-houses, and lodging-places, and 
furnishes a good local market for eggs, poultry, 
vegetables, and dairy produce. 

The great mistake many emigrants make is 
taking up land far away from any city. My 




THE BLUE MOUNTAINS ARE THE HOME OF THE WALLABY. 
[PHOTOGRAPHED NEAR KIA ORA.] 



NEW SOUTH WALES 103 

advice would always be to examine the land 
close at home before going further afield. 

New South Wales does not offer the same 
opportunities as Western Australia, Queensland, 
or Tasmania, but it possesses peculiar attrac- 
tions which these States do not. 

Sydney is the metropolitan city of the 
Commonwealth, and has a population of 
500,000. The farmer is within easy access of 
the best market in the southern hemisphere. 
The city itself is entirely European, and there 
are fewer foreigners here than in the ordinary 
large towns at home. The hum and activity of 
modern enterprise centre in Sydney, and the 
scientific farmer is in touch with the latest 
machinery, fertilisers, and improvements. If he 
wants a change he can find every form of 
excitement, amusement, and pleasure to be 
found in London or Paris. The Royal Society, 
the Royal Geographical Society, and a host of 
others associate men of like tastes, and the 
clubs are well managed and comfortable. Cloth- 
ing and stores are cheap or dear according to 
the locality, which applies to all large capitals 
throughout the world. The settlers I inter- 
viewed in the valleys of the Blue Mountains 



104 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

were prosperous and contented. They were 
engaged chiefly in growing maize, root crops, 
fruit, and in dairying. Some of them had 
introduced imported grasses with wonderful 
results, and their cattle looked in excellent 
condition. 

The Governments generally urge emigrants 
to go some distance away for settlement. 
Politics, perhaps, influence their interest in the 
matter, and my experience has been, during 
twenty years of travel, that all Government 
literature is misleading in every part of our 
Empire. The only reliable advice can proceed 
from those who have no personal motive in 
giving it. 

There is no good land available along the 
road within four miles of Katoomba, but the 
emigrant who has the courage and energy to 
visit the locality I have referred to will be able 
to ascertain what land is vacant and make his 
own selection. 

The country between Sydney and Parramatta 
represents some of the worst land in the State, 
but a few miles beyond the fruit farms are 
reached, and the soil improves as the train 
nears Penrith. Penrith is " the gate " to the 



NEW SOUTH WALES 105 

Blue Mountains. No idea can be formed of 
the districts from a railway journey, because 
throughout Australia the good land always lies 
beyond the railway line. 

New South Wales possesses large areas of 
land open for selection in different parts of the 
State. These lands have in many cases been 
acquired from their original owners by pur- 
chase. In the early days enormous tracts were 
bestowed indiscriminately upon unworthy indi- 
viduals, who either lived out of the country or 
fed a few cattle upon it. In this way some 
of the best agricultural land remained locked, 
with no possibility of development. These 
estates have now been sub-divided into home- 
steads, and can be purchased from the Govern- 
ment from 2 to 3 per acre, small deposits 
being accepted and liberal terms granted. 
Where land is far away from a railway it is 
practically given away. 

The average yield of wheat throughout this 
State has been ten bushels to the acre for a 
number of years, and 25. 6d. per bushel is 
the lowest price ever realised. 

The Government of New South Wales some- 
times recommends the small capitalist to com- 



io6 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

mence his operations with wheat-growing, but 
I am sure mixed farming is the only safe 
investment in this climate. 

Farming in this part of the world commences 
with ploughing in February and sowing in 
March. Hay-harvesting takes place early in 
November, and is followed by the cutting of 
maize. December is the month for getting in 
the wheat from the fields. The chief shearing 
season is October and November. 

The New England district produces not only 
good wheat, but excellent potatoes, and some 
farmers have realised gross returns of ^40 per 
acre. The cost of stocking a small dairy farm 
of 100 acres in New South Wales has been 
estimated at about ,400. Such a farm would 
represent thirty cows, ten heifers, two plough- 
horses, three pigs, cart and harness, plough, culti- 
vator, sundry tools, separator, cans, buckets, &c. 

The Australian system of farming differs 
from the English in not being so intense. The 
British practice, with modifications, could be 
successfully followed in Australia. Instead of 
making provision for a long, cold winter, as 
in England, the farmer must provide for the 
dry summer of Australia. 




ENTRANCE TO A CAVE. BLUE MOUNTAINS. 



NEW SOUTH WALES 107 

An instance of quick returns from virgin soil 
was brought under my notice in the case of 
Mr. T. G. Adamson, of Tamworth. This 
gentleman bought a block of 220 acres of 
uncleared land at the end of March, 1906. The 
land was cleared of its timber, and a crop of 
wheat and barley put in. At the end of 
December, 1906, Mr. Adamson took off 695 
bags of wheat and eighty-one bags of barley, 
and in January, 1907, received a cheque for 
,380 for the proceeds. Tamworth is one of 
the districts in which the New South Wales 
Government is making arrangements to resume 
large areas which are at present lying unculti- 
vated in the hands of private owners. On the 
western slopes lying at the back of the moun- 
tain ranges some of the best land in Australia 
can be found for the production of fruits for 
canning and drying purposes. Australian dried 
fruits are often considered superior to the im- 
ported article, and the few hundred tons sent 
to London have been very favourably reported 
upon. 

The local fruit trade is of considerable 
magnitude and commands a fair price. 

Mixed farming must represent fairly good 



io8 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

land and a reliable rainfall, and where this is 
to be found results are safe. 

Mixed farming minimises the risk. It allows 
of monetary returns being received more often, 
and provides for a division of labour for both 
men and teams throughout the year, which con- 
siderably relieves the monotony. The principal 
produce to be aimed at is wool, mutton, wheat, 
butter, bacon, and fruits. 

Sugar-cane can be grown successfully in the 
northern counties of Rous, Richmond, and 
Clarence. In the southern districts maize, 
millet, oats, rye, potatoes, &c., are raised. On 
the soil of second-rate quality in the undulating 
country nearer the foothills, pineapples, bananas, 
oranges, lemons, grapes, peaches, apricots, 
plums, passion fruit, and different berries can 
be produced. 

The alluvial soil of all the coastal rivers is 
w r ell adapted for the growing of lucerne, maize, 
and other fodder crops, and the higher ground 
furnishes ideal grazing for cattle. The greater 
portion of the Western Plains is given over en- 
tirely to stock-raising, except around the artesian 
bores in the north-west and along the irrigation 
canals of the Riverina, in the south-west. 





THE INTERIOR OF A CAVE, BLUE MOUNTAIN'S. 



NEW SOUTH WALES 109 

Outdoor life is the rule in New South Wales, 
and the windows and doors of houses are 
generally left open day and night. Most of 
the houses have verandas, in which much time 
is spent. Owing to the climate, outdoor exer- 
cise is freely indulged in. Cricket, football, and 
cycling are everywhere, and golf is spreading 
marvellously. Boating and bathing are common, 
owing to the numerous harbours and long 
coast-line. Riding is very common, because 
horses are good and cheap. The postman 
brings your letters on horseback, the butcher- 
boy your meat, and the lamplighter goes his 
round in the same way. 

The four seasons of the year are not so 
marked in this State as in Europe. Few of 
the trees lose their leaves in winter. With 
spring they get a new set of leaves. Summer 
and winter are marked enough because the 
winter is absolutely perfection, but the inter- 
mediate spring and autumn are not so. I 
consider there are only two really bad months, 
but these are not so troublesome as our bad 
months in England. When it is very hot for 
a few days it is always followed by a southerly 
wind to take away the effects. Spring months 



no RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

are September, October, and November; 
summer, December, January, and February ; 
autumn, March, April, and May ; winter, June, 
July, and August. 

The emigrant who wishes to take up land 
should call at the Intelligence Department in 
Sydney as soon as he arrives. Concessions are 
granted on the railways to all those who desire 
to engage in rural work, both with regard to 
tickets and effects. Board and lodging can be 
obtained in Sydney for single men from 123. 
to i8s. per week, but married couples will find 
it cheaper to go into lodgings at from IDS. per 
week upwards. Meals can be purchased in the 
city at 6d. each, but those who can afford an 
extra 3d. will be wise to dine at Her Majesty's 
Restaurant in Pitt Street. Two of these meals 
daily, are quite sufficient for health in the 
summer. The breakfast can be prepared over 
an oil stove at the lodgings. 

Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, will be found 
a reasonable and respectable locality for lodgings. 
The cars run from King Street direct for id., 
and if a person walks along Victoria Street 
he will see cards placed in the windows giving 
notice of vacant rooms. 



NEW SOUTH WALES 



in 



The small hotels and boarding-houses should 
not be attempted unless acting under the recom- 
mendation of an immigration officer. 

There are several labour bureaux in Sydney, 
the majority being in Bathurst Street. There 
are a few in Castlereagh Street and one at the 
top of George Street. The daily papers should 
be carefully scanned by those seeking employ- 
ment, and if qualified persons really want work 
and diligently apply for it they will not be 
many days in New South Wales before they 
have a settled position. Work is easier to 
obtain in Sydney than it is in London. 

Much harm has been done to emigration to 
New South Wales by the indiscriminate choice 
of persons for reduced passages and the small 
amount of information given to them. Nearly 
all the literature issued by agencies in England 
has been written by persons paid to do the 
work. These writers are often Australians or 
Canadians who do not understand English 
people or their customs. Every pamphlet I 
have studied has been misleading. Working 
men arrive in Sydney and elsewhere expecting 
to be snapped up for work at higher wages 
than they can get at home. For instance, I 



ii2 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

have before me a publication of the New South 
Wales Government with a table of wages for 
working men: Bricklayers, is. 4^d. per hour; 
carpenters, is. 3d. per hour; masons, is. 4^d. 
per hour; plasterers, is. 3d. per hour; painters, 

is. 2d. per hour; blacksmiths, los. per day; 
BjjV 

&c., &c. These wages are quite correct, no 
doubt, but everybody cannot remain in Sydney 
and obtain them. The English emigrant does 
not appear willing to understand this, and 
remains in the city waiting for a job to turn 
up, or tries in vain for a situation in the place, 
which is overcrowded because men will not go 
elsewhere. Sydney is a friend hard to part 
with, and I doubt if the most callous can leave 
it without some regret. The English working 
man, therefore, is to be commiserated. 

Then there are worthless, lazy, unprincipled 

a 
persons who lounge about street corners, and 

plead a long story about the unemployed and 
the English workman who has driven him from 
work. These people are often thieves and pick- 
pockets, who would not stick at anything longer 
than a day or two. 

Men are often to be seen sleeping out-of- 
doors in the Domain without money or homes. 




A TYPICAL FOREST SCENE. 



NEW SOUTH WALES 113 

A few of these may belong to the helpless 
class of which we have so many in England, 
but the majority I found represented the men I 
have alluded to. 

Just before I left Sydney in 1908 it was 
reported to me that a number of emigrants 
had arrived who could not get work, and were 
trying to persuade the shipping company to 
allow them to work their passages back to 
England. This appeared to me a serious 
matter, if it was true, so I determined to 
investigate it. I visited the labour bureaux 
first, and was surprised to find large numbers 
of advertisements for men and women all over 
the State. These emigrants had not applied at 
any of these places for work, nor did they 
know of their existence. Had they applied 
regularly and made even an ordinary effort to 
interview employers they would not have 
brought this unjust accusation against the 
country. An ordinary person who is worth a 
wage can earn a wage in Australia. We have 
a section of society in England among the 
working classes who obtain wages and never 
earn them ; in fact, during their whole lives 
they never try to add a penny to the income 

I 



ii 4 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

of their employer nor look beyond their own 
selfish demands and needs. These people 
generally end their days in the workhouse at 
home, but in Australia they would probably 
do so in prison. Australia needs men able to 
work, willing to work, and anxious to do their 
own part in adding to the country's advance- 
ment and strength. 

No person should arrive in Sydney without 
^"5 clear of his steamship expenses, and unless 
he travels by the White Star Line he should 
have $ extra to spend on necessary food and 
equipment during the voyage. 

The easiest job to secure is a situation for a 
married couple on a farm, where the wife does 
the cooking and the husband the ploughing, 
&c., &c. Ploughing is an important qualifica- 
tion for farm work. The wages for such 
employment vary from ,75 to ;8o per 
annum, with board and lodging. The appli- 
cants should be between twenty-six and thirty- 
five years of age. The small capitalist with 
^400 to ,1,000 should exercise the strictest 
economy, and not communicate his plans or 
wealth to anyone during the voyage or in 
Sydney. It is far better to appear an honest 



NEW SOUTH WALES 115 

person seeking employment than a person with 
money to invest. 

Mr. Proudfoot, Redfern, Sydney, is a reliable 
person to look after luggage. His carts are 
generally on the wharf, but, if not, he can be 
easily communicated with by telephone. He 
stores private property and ships it carefully to 
any address sent him. I always found his 
charges more reasonable than anyone else's. 
When the luggage is disposed of at the wharf 
the emigrant can easily walk to King Street 
and take the car to Victoria Street to look out 
for his lodgings. Should the steamer arrive 
after dark I should advise that the first night 
be spent at the Alliance Hotel, at the corner of 
Castlereagh and Parke Streets. Trams from 
the railway stations pass the door. The rates 
here are 253. per week or 45. per day. If this 
cannot be arranged I should suggest that the 
night be spent on the ship. Stewards may 
object to this, but they have no authority what- 
ever, and can be entirely ignored. When a 
party of emigrants are on board I should 
advise them to send a telegram to the Intelli- 
gence Department, Sydney, from Melbourne, 
with the words: "Please send an officer to 



n6 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

meet party on s.s. ' .' ' Arrangements 

can be made with the shipping companies for 
the emigrants to remain on board for not more 
than three days after arrival in port without 
extra charge. 

The small capitalist will find the Alliance 
Hotel very comfortable. 







- TO THE SPORTSM/tffe PARADISE- 
tzhzHomz ct the Moose 



/"\NE might think that the builders 
^^ of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way had a special eye to the moose 
hunter, so completely does this system 
cover the range of this noble animal. 
From New Brunswick to British 
Columbia, the Canadian Pacific tra- 
verses every district where moose 
can be found. One third of New 
Brunswick is good hunting ground : 
Quebec is well supplied: over 100 
moose are brought out of Ontario each 
year by the Canadian Pacific. British 
Columbia and Yukon moose are the 
largest in the world. Owing to the 
excellent regulations for the protection 
of game, the numbers are increasing, 
especially in the Cassiar district of 
British Columbia. 

Deer, caribou, wapiti, mountain 
sheep. Rocky Mountain goat, musk 
ox. black and grizzly bear, panther, 
antelope, and innumerable kinds of 
small game are to be had in con- 
siderable numbers in the great sporting 
districts served by the Canadian 
Pacific. 

As to fishing, British sportsmen who 
have not tried their luck in Canada 
cannot realise what awaits them if 
only they go there. Suffice to say that 
Canada has more than satisfied such 




2.50 



an experienced angler as F. Q. Aflalo. 
There are excellent fishing grounds 
only a week's distance from England. 
Among the gamest fish of America 
are the maskinonge and ouananiche, 
both to be found in the province of 
Quebec. 

The cost of a camping trip for a 
party of four for ten days may be 
estimated as follows : 

Two canoes, 50 cent per day ... SI 0.00 
One tent and fly, 50 cents per day 5.00 
One tent for guides, 25 cents psr 

day 

Wages for head guide, $2.50 per 

day 25.00 

Three other guides, each $2.00 

per day 60.00 

Camp outfit, including camp cots, 

tables, chain, axes, p^ks traps, 

and cooking utensils, &c. 7.50 

Making a total of $110.00 
Dollar = about 4. 1 Jd. 

Write for Pamphlets, " Fishing and 
Shooting " and " Camping and Canoe- 
ing," to 

CANADIAN 
PACIFIC RAILWAY, 
62-65, Charing Cross, 
London, S.W. 






VII 
A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 

"WHERE can I get good sport?" This 
question has been asked me frequently. Some 
hunters, perhaps, would suggest a distant land, 
where only the rich and leisured classes could 
go; but my visit to Canada in 1904 furnished 
me with knowledge of lakes and forests easy of 
access, and within the reach of all who have 
six weeks to spare annually and one hundred 
pounds to spend. I have recently discovered 
unfished waters and virgin forests where no 
woodma'n's axe has ever been heard, and where 
the wild animals seem barely to heed the pre- 
sence of man. This sporting paradise is situated 
in the district of Lake Timagami and Lake 
Abbitibi. Moose, Virginian deer, caribou, bear, 
and wolf are plentiful. The waters teem with 



120 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

fish. Huge salmon, speckled trout, black bass, 
pickerel, pike, and maskinonge disregard the 
subtlety of the hook ; while the reed-beds and 
covers abound with feathered game. 

Timagami can easily be reached in a fort- 
night from London. The route is by the 
Allan Line to Montreal, and the Grand Trunk 
Railway to North Bay, with a brief journey on 
the new line to Timagami. The journey by 
C.P.R. to Mattawa, and thence by canoe, 
occupies three or four extra days, but is 
delightful. 

Lake Abbitibi lies north of Lake Temis- 
camigue, and is reached by steamboat from 
Lake Temiscamigue station to New Liscard, and 
thence by guides through the bush and by 
canoe. This journey occupies much time, and 
can only be undertaken by those capable of 
enduring rough open-air life. Lake Timagami 
has been described as the Koh-i-noor of all 
Canadian lakes. It is larger than all the re- 
nowned Muskoka lakes combined, and dotted 
with thirteen hundred and forty-four islands of 
wondrous beauty. An area of 1,400,000 acres 
in this country, including Lakes Timagami, 
Evelyn, Rabbit, Obabika, and others, has 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 121 

recently been withdrawn from settlement, and 
constituted a timber reserve under the Forests' 
Reserves Act. Hence this large tract will 
remain a wilderness and a perpetual resort for 
the sportsman. The shores of these lakes 
belong to a land where neither the settler nor 
the lumberman has penetrated. The traveller 
can enjoy the forest scenery as it looked when 
only the red man held sway and the Hudson 
Bay Company planted their first trading forts. 
Timagami, too, is the safest of all lakes for 
canoes, owing to the close proximity at all 
times of islands, any of them making a good 
camping spot. 

Bear Island, on which is situated an Indian 
village and a Hudson Bay Company trading 
post, is eighteen miles down the lake. Small 
steamers run from Timagami Post Office to this 
island. 

The fall, or autumn, is the best time of the 
year to hunt the moose. The weather at this 
season is bright, clear, and bracing; I doubt 
if any climate can compare with this district 
during September to November. This is the 
rutting season ; and the Indian, imitating the 
amorous roars of the cow, which she utters 



122 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

periodically to make known her whereabouts to 
the bull, can with care and patience secure a 
shot. The most successful hour for moose- 
calling is between sundown and dark. 

The procedure for shooting moose is some- 
times as follows. The nearest man takes a 
decided aim, as nearly as possible under the 
forearm and through the neck, and fires ; or, 
if fronting the beast, in the centre of the breast. 
If he only wounds, the second hunter fires 
also, and perhaps the third, and the animal 
succumbs at last, though it sometimes manages 
to run, scramble, and stumble for miles. The 
hunters, after the first shots, should run forward 
as fast as possible and shoot again and again 
until the moose drops. In this way many 
animals that would otherwise be lost are ob- 
tained. The sportsman must not be led astray 
by the ease with which he can fire half a dozen 
shots from his repeater; but he should aim as 
carefully with each shot as if it were his last. 

During the open season cf 1903 (November i 
to November 15) it is estimated that ten 
thousand deer and one hundred moose were 
killed in Northern Ontario, in which Timagami 
is situated. It is somewhat marvellous how the 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 123 

stock of deer keeps pace with the number 
killed, but it seems that each year they are 
becoming more numerous, and there is an 
increase instead of a diminution. This is 
accounted for by the shortness of the open 
season, and by the strict prosecution by the 
Ontario Government of anyone transgressing the 
laws. The cost of a licence is $, which 
extends from the first to the fifteenth of 
November, both days inclusive. Each licence 
is supplied with two coupons, one of which 
must be attached to each deer killed, and the 
carrier is obliged to cancel these coupons when 
deer are delivered to him for transportation. 

Timagami is one of the loveliest regions on 
earth. No matter where one paddles he is 
always in sight of lordly pines and mountain 
peaks by day and within hearing distance of 
the unwieldy moose's crash and roar by night. 
Here are immense tracts of rocky and well- 
wooded territory which can never be brought 
under cultivation, and which, so long as the 
forests are not denuded, will continue a 
veritable sportsman's paradise. The naturalist 
will note the presence of many beautiful birds 
in this neighbourhood. The following are the 



i2 4 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

most abundant: Black duck, mergansers, teal, 
scaup duck, buffle-head, ruddy duck, bittern, 
heron, sand pipers, yellow legs, hawks, owls, 
ruffed and Canada grouse, osprey, king-birds, 
blue and Canada jays, raven, crow, blackbirds, 
grackles, sparrows, juncos, chickadees, robins, 
cedar birds, and drake wood-duck. 

The earliest time to visit Canada for sport 
is July. A few days can be profitably spent 
at Ste. Anne de Bellevue, situated about twenty 
miles from Montreal. The hotel is good and 
charges very much less than those in the city. 
The Grand Trunk Railway system enables the 
sportsman to make the journey in an hour. 
Fishing here is very good. Black bass and 
wall-eyed pike (dore) are the most plentiful, 
while the ferocious maskinonge, that prince of 
game fish, is found in reasonable abundance; 
in fact, the maskinonge grounds which lie 
about seven miles below Ste. Anne are be- 
lieved to be the very best in Canadian waters. 
In 1904 the record fish tipped the scales at 
57lb. I had two very good days here with 
Ludger Pilon", who is an excellent guide and 
fisherman. 

Mr. Monteith (Monteith House, Lake Rosseau) 












. , . . 









I 




A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 125 

has kindly undertaken to organise an annual 
hunting party to Timagami, and to furnish 
local information. He is one of the cleverest 
woodsmen on the North American Continent. 
He swims like a fish, runs like a deer, and is 
a dead shot. He has tracked down and killed 
three bears in one day. Once he narrowly 
escaped death from an infuriated moose. The 
animal had been stunned by a bullet, and when 
Monteith approached to attack him with his 
hunting-knife the wounded moose jumped to his 
feet and they both fell struggling into the lake. 
Even in these dangerous circumstances the wily 
hunter preserved his presence of mind and 
succeeded 'in stabbing the brute through the 
heart. 

Muskoka lies en route for Timagami. This 
romantic region is easily reached from Montreal 
by booking to Gravenhurst Wharf, where the 
Muskoka Navigation steamers await the arrival 
of the trains. There is nothing anywhere else 
like Muskoka. It stands alone in its particular 
individuality and beauty, and there are few 
spots to be compared to it in loveliness. 
"The old axiom of 'See Naples and die,' 1 
writes an enthusiast, " does not apply to 



126 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Muskoka; a more appropriate saying might be 
suggested, 'See Muskoka before you die,' and 
the visit will probably prolong your life." This 
region is a panorama of delightful scenes in 
lake and stream, and wood and sky. Those 
who have visited the Thousand Islands say that 
Nature was lavish when she gave birth to that 
creation, and lovers of the Adirondacks say she 
was careless in leaving so much that is beau- 
tiful among the Highlands of New York ; but 
if this is true, she certainly was prodigally 
extravagant in Muskoka, for one finds the 
islands and woods combined in a wealth of 
scenery almost too much for any one resort. 

Crane Lake and Blackstone Lake are my 
favourite fishing waters. The route is by 
steamer to Port Sandfield and Gordon Bay, and 
then by canoe with a guide or by waggon road 
through the bush from Port Cockburn. Fish 
are most abundant in these waters, and a good 
catch is certain even to inexperienced anglers. 
Green frogs and minnows are the best bait. 
Pickerel, black bass, and maskinonge afford 
excellent sport. We were content to average 
about thirty pounds' weight daily, though 
others, of the " terror type," boasted of slaying 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 127 

one hundred pounds' weight. Deer, bear, and 
wolf are to be procured in the backwoods of 
this locality, though they are not to be com- 
pared in numbers to Timagami. Dave Lawson, 
a forester, told me that he was chased by 
wolves one winter near Blackstone Lake. He 
shot his two deer during a hunt of three and 
a half hours. Lawson saw the traces of several 
moose in this neighbourhood. It is no un- 
common experience to get within range of eight 
moose during a day's trip near Timagami. 

The illustrations are from photographs taken 
recently in this " haunt of big game and fish." 
Here I found the forest beaten down into solid 
paths. These paths had been used for centuries 
by wild animals passing to and fro from the 
lakes to drink. To shoot the wolf the hunter 
lies concealed near a run-a-way, and awaits the 
wolves as they pass in pursuit of deer. The 
bush is so dense in Timagami that it is im- 
possible to run wolves with hounds. The 
famous Louis Scholes hunts regularly in this 
sporting paradise, and his father, who never 
fails to procure his legal game, told me that 
all I could write would not exaggerate Tima- 
gami 's charms for a sportsman. 



128 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The Muskoka district consists of 800 lakes, 
though there are not more than three navigated 
by the large steamers. Thousands of youths 
confine their shooting and angling to these 
waters, but the English sportsman should not 
be tempted to delay longer here than is 
necessary to prepare for his expedition through 
the wild tangle of smaller lakes and streams, 
where, with his gun and canoe, he will reach 
the "silent places," and be alone with Nature 
in a virgin state. The lakes vary in size from 
forty miles in length to small ponds covering 
an acre. I have resided in this locality for a 
year and a half, and revisited it again and 
again, and as recently as June, 1904. 

Muskoka is a place of which the sportsman 
never seems to tire. The very mention of the 
word has a strange effect upon anyone who has 
ever been under the spell of its fascinations. 
Its altitude, the peculiarly beneficial properties 
of its waters, and the piney fragrance in the 
air are most conducive to health and enjoyment. 
August and September are good months for 
visiting these lakes. The passage should be 
booked to Gordon Bay via Port Sandfield. 
Mr. Cox, the proprietor of a good hotel at this 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 129 

port, is a sportsman, and if written to before- 
hand will arrange for guides. 

Dave Lawson (Falding, P.O. Muskoka) or 
Vankoughnet are good shots and woodsmen. 
A son of Vankoughnet would meet the steamer 
at Gordon Bay or Port Cockburn and escort a 
party by waggon through the bush to Black- 
stone Lake, or by canoe and portages from 
Gordon Bay. The latter route is preferable, 
and some good sport can be had during the 
trip through this sparsely settled country. 

Long Lake, Clear Lake, Silver Lake, and 
Portage Lake should be visited. The shores of 
these lakes are capital specimens of the primi- 
tive wilderness. The few who have visited 
these teeming waters have mostly been genuine 
fishermen, who are happiest when far away 
from civilisation. Few clearings break the 
majestic sweep of the grand old forests; within 
the sheltered bays the loons laugh undisturbed, 
and the wild birds splash in the marshy edges 
or upon the sandy shores. Giant pines and 
hemlocks cast their dark shadows upon the 
sparkling water. The sweet odour of rasp- 
berries, huckleberries, and other fruits greets us 
as we pass the large islands, where, perhaps, a 

K 



1 30 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

she-bear is guarding her cubs. No sound, save 
the croaking of bull-frogs, or the harsh voice 
of the blue-jay, disturbs the solemn stillness. 
The beaver and otter may be seen here, 
and rare fur-bearing animals. We frequently 
hear the heavy splash of a stag as he swims 
from an island to the mainland. When he 
reaches the shore he shakes the dripping water 
from his flanks, and stands for a moment with 
turned head displaying his handsome antlers. 
As we paddle on and turn a sharp bend of the 
islands, a wild duck, with low, agitated flight, 
hastens with her young brood from danger. 
As night approaches, we perceive a fox skulk- 
ing beneath the shadow of the rocks, watching 
a large hare that has left his shelter and is 
feeding upon some rich, tender grass. Soon 
an unwary movement causes alarm, and with 
four bounds he has nearly gone; but now, for 
a moment, he stops, his ears are erect, and 
every instinct alert ; then he slowly vanishes. 
The bright, gleaming eyes of a racoon attract 
us to the hollow log, and the long-drawn moan 
of the wolf warns us that the hour is late. 

The illustrations represent the usual experi- 
ence of average rifle-shots. Twelve thousand 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 131 

deer were procured in Muskoka during 1903, 
and recently, during my rambles through the 
bush, I discovered deer-sign more plentiful than 
ever. Every night I heard the weird scream of 
the lynx and the uncanny bark of the fox. 
Grouse were abundant, and the coveys of young 
strong and healthy. 

I have never failed to catch fish in Muskoka. 
In 1904 I had good sport from Point Kaye 
Wharf, where trout, white fish, and pickerel 
were numerous. I took some fifty photographs, 
but, unfortunately, the majority were ruined 
during my rough life in the bush. A good 
split bamboo rod, 9jft. long, quadruplex reel 
and braided line, 2ft. of medium-sized copper 
wire, a No. 4 spoon with double hooks, and a 
good gaff, represent the outfit necessary for 
maskinonge. 

On May 2ist, 1904, while trolling off One 
Tree Island, with some 3oyds. of line astern, 
I felt a crunch at the spoon, and the line 
began to slip away from the reel at a terrible 
pace. I had hooked a huge maskinonge. The 
fight for ten minutes was the most exciting of 
my life. The first run would have snapped my 
line had we not backed the boat gently. This 



132 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

sent us into deep water. Two or three times 
I managed to turn his head and reel in the 
slack-line, but, by foolishly under-estimating 
the weight of the fish, he snapped the hook 
and got away. 

Deer - shooting in these wilds is always 
associated with excitement and charm. I will 
give a short account of one of my experiences. 
We left Mr. Vankoughnet's house on Black- 
stone Lake at an early hour. After a paddle 
of a couple of hours we landed at a small bay. 
Here the party separated, two men having 
previously been landed some miles higher up 
the lake. 

The position I selected was a fairly open 
spot, where tall trees had rotted and fallen. 
This swamp covered about ten acres, and 
on the north side the ground rose to a 
considerable height. The place was bounded 
by a few tall, handsome trees, and it was 
behind one of these on the south side that I 
took up my stand, about thirty-five yards from 
the thick bush. This neighbourhood is one of 
the wildest and most solitary places in the 
world. For ten minutes a deathly silence 
reigned, and my thoughts were occupied with 
plans for shooting across the swamp. I 




I 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 133 

was expected to drive the deer back to the 
guns and prevent them from reaching the lake. 
The first awakening to life was the squall of 
some blue-jays, evidently startled by the hunt- 
ing party, and I had an opportunity of 
observing their restless habits. They approached 
so near to me that I could have hit them with 
a stone, and then, as though disgusted, they all 
flew away chattering. Soon a large kingfisher 
crossed and recrossed the swamp, giving me an 
easy shot and a desire to add his gorgeous 
plumage to my collection of birds. This king- 
fisher created some stir and animation in the 
dark waters of the swamp. Innumerable little 
heads popped up, and now and then a heavy 
splash startled me. Suddenly there sounded a 
hideous bellowing, introduced by a deep, gut- 
tural voice and chorused by thousands, until I 
began to fear that a deer would escape from me 
during the din. They were huge bull-frogs; 
but what caused their wrath or terror I could 
not conceive, until it dawned upon me that 
they had only recently recovered from the noise 
made during the landing of our party. Seizing 
a piece of rotten wood I hurled it into their 
midst, and they immediately became silent. 



134 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Scarcely had the frogs disappeared, when I 
heard the approach of the hounds; their deep 
baying sounded almost sepulchral in the virgin 
woods. I now became alert, examining gun, 
cartridges, safety-catch, &c., and then listened 
intently. I gazed on all the deer-runs, and 
stepped backward to allow space for a swinging 
shot. Once or twice I heard the sound of 
snapping twigs; but after waiting in readiness 
for a long time, I concluded that the stag had 
" broken away." Another monotonous silence 
followed, and I was tempted to follow in the 
direction of a ruffed grouse, whose call sounded 
close by in the deep undergrowth. I had, 
however, only proceeded a few yards when my 
footsteps were arrested by a deep baying, and 
before I could regain my hiding-place there 
came the whirr and report of a flying bullet 
as it struck the distant rocks. My plan had 
been to remain in hiding, and then to rush 
forward and discharge my rifle into the 
breast or neck of the quarry. There was a 
delicious sense of danger and uncertainty in 
my position. It might be a bear, wolf, lynx, 
or moose. These animals are all terrible foes 
when wounded, and as I stood far away from 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 135 

my comrades my chances of becoming the 
victim instead of the victor were not improbable. 

I had not long to wait a brief notice of 
snapping twigs, and then a huge buck appeared, 
with his head almost bowed to the ground, 
and his handsome antlers directed at me. I 
fired immediately. The wounded animal took a 
bound forward, and as he fell I ran toward 
him. I had approached him within six yards 
when he amazed me by struggling to his feet 
and charging. This was a dangerous position. 
Some sportsmen, ignorant of big game, have 
been utterly confused under such circumstances; 
but having had some experience in keeping a 
cool head, I quickly stepped aside and brought 
him to the ground with a bullet through the 
shoulder. 

At sunset, when our party reassembled on the 
shore to embark, we presented quite a picturesque 
sight, for each hunter appeared dragging his 
game to the boats. The paddle back to camp 
took some time with our heavily - freighted 
barques. 

A few years ago the shores of Troat Lake, 
near the northern branch of the River Ottawa, 
swarmed with bears. The bears were harmless 



136 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

enough if unmolested, but their unpleasant 
prying disposition frequently gained for them a 
character they did not deserve. They would 
creep up under the cover of a thick bush and 
watch a fisherman for hours, and follow a 
camping party at a distance for miles. This 
habit of curiosity resulted in many a weird 
story of narrow escapes, which were purely 
fictitious. 

One day I was left in charge of a camp. 
The men had gone into the forest to hunt. 
My work was to tidy the shanty and prepare 
supper before dusk. 

When I found myself alone, and the deathly 
silence made itself felt, I walked out a little 
way to view the lake. The bright sunshine lit 
up every bay and creek. The quivering voice 
of the loon arose from the reed-beds, and a 
large brood of half-grown wild ducklings 
sported themselves under the shadow of a rocky 
isle. 

Across the carpet of green which bordered 
the lake wandered the trails of many creatures 
the stately, regular prints of the partridge; 
the series of pairs made by the squirrel; those 
of the weasel and mink, just like the squirrel's, 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 137 

except that the prints were not quite side by 
side, and that between every other pair stretched 
the mark of the animal's long, slender body. 
The damp ground showed the print of a baby's 
hand that the racoon had left; the broad pad 
of a lynx; the dog-like trail of wolves. 

Strange sounds broke the stillness, causing 
me to start with nervous dread. The black 
and white woodpecker hammered noisily upon a 
hollow trunk, or the ribald blue jay chattered 
with unexpected suddenness overhead. The 
pines, that extended as far as the horizon, were 
beautiful and solemn and still. The smooth 
surface of the water was constantly convulsed 
by the black bass, as he sprang upward and 
fell with a loud splash into the cool depths. 

I stood gazing at this calm picture of 
Nature, overawed by my surroundings, having 
only recently left my home and native land. 
Turning my head carelessly to note the distance 
I had wandered from the camp, I perceived to 
my horror a large, black bear watching me 
from under the shelter of a rock only a dozen 
yards distant. Expecting to be immediately 
attacked, I rushed away toward the hut, not 
daring to look back until the door was reached 



138 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

and barred then I peeped through the chinks 
in the logs, and discovered he had disappeared. 

For an hour I remained indoors, expecting he 
would reappear, and then shame for my 
cowardice made me bold, and I seized a loaded 
rifle and cautiously approached the spot where 
he had given me such a scare. He was not 
there, nor could I find any sign of his presence 
in the neighbourhood. 

Returning to my retreat, I commenced to 
prepare for my comrades' return. Soon I had 
a fire blazing, and a savoury mess of trout, 
venison, and baked potatoes cooking in the pot 
and frying-pan. 

I had been busy for some time, and had 
forgotten my unwelcome visitor, when an un- 
expected growl made me look up. The bear 
was watching me from a fallen log. Again I 
hastened away to my retreat, glancing over my 
shoulder to observe if I was followed. My 
surprise, however, was great the bear was 
rushing away with the speed of a racehorse in 
an opposite direction, and the crash of his 
heavy body through the thick undergrowth sug- 
gested that he was, if possible, more frightened 
than I. 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 139 

Now had I been content to congratulate 
myself with this fact I should have left the 
harmless creature alone, but, like many foolish 
overgrown boys, I was anxious to show off to 
my comrades. Seizing a rifle I ran in the 
direction of the sounds. Sometimes I stumbled 
and fell, when the projecting branches and un- 
even ground, acting like snares, tripped my 
feet. 

Once while scrambling over the top of a 
fallen log the weight of my body broke through 
the rotten bark and I disappeared half 
smothered into the hollow centre, but I still 
persevered until I arrived at the edge of the 
thick forest where there was an open glade. 

Here some three hundred yards distant was 
the bear; he was shuffling along and rooting in 
the ground so that he looked like a great pig. 
He appeared to be hunting for small reptiles, 
insects, and other food. A moderate-sized 
stone he would turn over with a single clap of 
his paw, and then plunge his nose down into 
the hollow to gobble up the small creatures 
underneath, while they remained dazed by the 
light. 

The big logs and rocks he would try and 



140 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

worry at with both paws ; once, over-exerting 
his clumsy strength, he lost his grip and rolled 
clean over. Under some of the logs he evi- 
dently found mice and chipmunks; then, as 
soon as the log was overturned, he would be 
seen jumping about with grotesque agility, and 
making quick dabs here and there, as the little 
scurrying rodent turned and twisted, until at 
last he put his paw on it and scooped it up 
into his mouth. When he smelt mice under 
some hiding-place he would cautiously turn the 
shelter over with one paw, holding the other 
ready to strike. 

While he was in this attitude I lifted my 
rifle to the shoulder and fired. The bear was 
hit, and blood trickled from his side. For a 
brief moment he stood trembling, and then the 
pain of his wound seemed to drive him mad. 
He rolled himself over and over, tore up the 
earth with his sharp claws, and bit savagely 
in the direction from whence he felt pain. I 
aimed and fired again. Then the unexpected 
happened. The second wound brought the 
maddened creature to his senses, and, stagger- 
ing to his feet, he charged with fierce, open 
jaws. I endeavoured to fire again, but an 



imMtiEZ 




"l HURLED THE USELESS WEAPON AT THE BEAR'S HEAD." 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 141 

empty cartridge jammed, and I held in my 
hand a useless weapon. I had, however, some 
consolation in knowing the bear was badly 
wounded and that my companions might hear 
the firing. 

Hurling, therefore, the worthless gun at the 
bear's head, I took to my heels and ran. The 
bear paused to examine the rifle and then bit 
and worried at it. 

I did not pause in my flight until I had put 
a mile between us, and then, hearing no sound, 
I sat upon a log and lighted my pipe. I had 
scarcely made myself comfortable when I be- 
came conscious of something approaching. 

Believing it was a friend, I hastened to 
meet him, convulsed with laughter at the 
thought of my recent adventure, but I soon 
came to a standstill as the angry growls of a 
bear reached me. The growlings increased as 
he approached, and when he caught sight of 
me he stood erect upon his hind legs tearing 
fiercely at the air and scratching his bleeding 
wounds. 

One glimpse was enough, so, giving a loud 
shout for help, I took to flight. The bear 
gained upon me rapidly, and in a few minutes 



142 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

would have had me in his power had not a 
chance accident prevented it. Feeling warm 
and encumbered by my heavy coat, I flung it 
off, and to my relief observed the bear pause 
to rend it into a thousand fragments. This 
delay gave me a chance which enabled me to 
put several hundred yards between us and to 
take refuge in a thick clump of hemlock, where 
I hoped to remain hidden. The bear, however, 
soon got on my track again, and came directly 
towards me. I was forced, therefore, to hastily 
quit the spot and run on again. By this time 
it was evident that the movements of the bear 
were sluggish, and he several times nearly fell 
to the ground, until during one of these seizures 
he tumbled over dead. 

On another occasion I had a narrow escape 
from wolves. I have told this story once 
before as the adventure of a young trapper, 
but the trapper was in reality myself. I was 
encamped with a friend one winter, far north 
of Lake Timagami, on the shores of an 
unknown and unnamed piece of water. We 
had a long line of traps, which extended 
for several miles, and being overtaken on one 
of our rounds by a storm, we lost the track 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 143 

and became hopelessly lost. To add to our 
dangers, the wolves became very troublesome, 
and, driven by hunger, pursued us for many 
miles. The details are as follows: It was 
almost dark when the howling of wolves alarmed 
us. Jack led the way, and I endeavoured to 
follow him. I could not refrain from admiring 
his cool courage, but men inured to the woods 
are often heroes of many noble deeds. Sud- 
denly he stopped and held up his hand. The 
din was awful, but he addressed me in a calm 
voice, " I am afraid we're in for a hot time. 
I've travelled this road many years, but never 
heard wolves like this." 

" I suppose they've tracked us for certain," 
I replied. 

" They've tracked us sure enough," said Jack, 
" and we'd better be off before they get any 
nearer." 

"Can't we make a stand against them?" I 
asked, nervously. 

" I don't think we can do anything except 
spend the night in a tree," replied Jack, "and 
then we shall have the chance of freezing this 
cold night. We'll keep on our legs as long as 
we can. I expect they will circle us before 



144 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

they attack, and then we must do a ' guy ' up 
a tree." 

" I have always heard wolves won't come near 
a good fire. Why not get some dry wood while 
we've time and make a big pile?" I suggested. 

"It's too late; we ought to have thought of 
this long ago in fact, it was foolish to leave the 
place where we had supper," remarked Jack. 

The prospect of spending a whole night in 
mid-winter freezing and cramped on the branches 
of a tree was a terrible alternative. The thermo- 
meter at this season falls below zero, and unless 
circulation could be maintained we ran the risk of 
freezing to death. 

All wild animals have a peculiar fascination 
over their victims. It is on this account that the 
benighted traveller secures himself firmly before 
entertaining thoughts of sleep and rest. Wolves 
prowl round a refugee in circles, and they seem to 
possess a peculiar magnetic power. One feels an 
almost irresistible inclination to fall into their 
midst. The cold of night is difficult to combat. 
Furs may be warm and plentiful, but the icy atmo- 
sphere penetrates everything, and soon a person 
feels a numbness in the hands and feet. Jack's 
proposal appeared to me only a feeble substitute 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 145 

for warding off the wolves by means of fires 
and guns. 

It was a beautiful night, and the stars shone 
brightly, lighting up the path where the tree-tops 
permitted. Every hour was important in dimin- 
ishing the sufferings that appeared imminent, so 
we nerved ourselves to prolong our flight. 

The casual swinging gait we assumed at the 
start was soon changed to rapid speed. Men 
who have run for their lives know what this means. 
Although it was very dark, we managed to keep 
together until we reached the borderland of an 
extensive lake. Pausing here before entrusting 
myself to the frozen surface, I was aroused by the 
voice of Jack shouting, " Come on, don't stop 
a second! Our only chance is to cross the lake 
and look out for a large oak." 

The wolves had gained so rapidly upon us 
that their howls deadened my voice as I shouted 
a reply. Turning my head, I perceived they 
were now visible. Their glaring eyes shone 
like fire in the darkness, and they were so 
numerous that I gave myself up for lost. I 
still struggled on, however, though I felt like 
one fighting in a dream. Just as I reached the 
shore I heard Jack's voice urging me to climb a 

L 



146 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

tree. But I could not stop to attempt this. We 
had separated at the lake and taken different 
directions. This somewhat baffled the wolves, 
who, arriving at this spot, where they discovered 
two scents, began to scamper in all directions 
around the shore. 

It was at this opportune moment that I came 
upon a small clearing with a rough log-hut. 
Breaking cover, I exerted all my strength to 
reach this place, hearing the cries of a huge 
dog-wolf close upon my track, and knowing 
that the whole pack was not far off. 

Barely had I reached the hut when this wolf, 
which was far in advance of the rest, made a 
spring. The timbers creaked and groaned as 
I hurled my body against the door and avoided 
this first attack ; then, with a loud crash, it 
fell in, and I was free. Jumping to my feet, I 
quickly blockaded the entrance, dealing heavy 
blows with an axe I picked up upon the wolves 
that tried to force a passage. 

Robbed of their prey, the wolves ran round 
the hut, trying to discover some other means 
of reaching me. They sounded their hideous 
snarls at every chink in the logs ; but as time 
went on and they still continued merely scraping 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 147 

and tearing at the stout timbers, I began to 
feel the more pressing danger was over. 

Once I fancied I heard a piteous, despairing 
shriek, and my thoughts turned to my brave 
friend. The sound seemed like the voice of 
a man whose last hour had come and the death 
which he had to face was of an awful character. 
I tried to picture Jack safely hidden away 
amidst the branches of a huge tree, but in 
reality I had little hope. A man overtaken 
by so many wolves would have been killed and 
devoured in a few minutes, and, under-estimating 
the speed of my flight, I dreaded lest the 
wolves, having devoured Jack, might be now 
hurrying after me. It was a dreadful thought, 
and the horror of returning home without him 
almost urged me to go forth into the night and 
perish. Weary, cold, and miserable, I finally 
huddled myself among some empty sacks, and 
fell asleep. 

It was broad daylight when I awoke, and my 
limbs were stiff and sore. The wolves had 
entirely disappeared, and as I pulled away the 
barriers from the door I saw Jack, pale and 
fainting, leaning against the side of the hut. 

At first I thought he was dying, but after I 



148 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

had dragged him into the shanty I perceived 
he was in a half-frozen stupor. I wrapped 
round him every possible covering I could find, 
and as I lay by his side he fell into an easy 
sleep. I now began to look about me and 
examine the crude dwelling that had proved 
such a "tower of refuge" against the wolves. 

The timbers were carelessly hewn, being 
squared and fitted with no other tool than the 
ordinary backwoodsman's axe. Mud and boughs 
had been rammed in the open spaces, though 
daylight was visible here and there. Standing 
as a fixture in the centre was a table supported 
by huge blocks. Upon this table still remained 
the rude appointments of a simple meal. The 
fat adhered to the frying-pan, and the flesh of a 
fat buck remained unconsumed in the midst. 
An unwholesome-looking loaf was uncut, and 
the preparations appeared as though made for 
an expected visitor. A large hunting-knife 
and steel were hanging from a nail ready for 
use. There were no windows, but on one side 
was a sliding door, used probably for light and 
ventilation. This room was partitioned by a curious 
screen composed of deer-hides and old sacking. 
My attention was particularly attracted to this 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 149 

screen. An extraordinary fascination caused me 
to gaze at it. I contented myself for some 
time with the furniture, but the weird-looking 
screen seemed to overawe everything. I had 
no wish to intrude upon the privacy of the 
owner, but a sickly, oppressive odour permeated 
the atmosphere and produced a feeling of in- 
tolerable nausea. I attributed this to the death 
of some unfortunate dog or cat that had been 
unintentionally neglected. 

My hand had already seized the huge screen, 
and I was about to draw it impulsively aside, 
when a noise suddenly arrested the act. Why 
was it I started and turned pale ? Is there a 
power within that can speak ? I drew rapidly 
away and went to the door for fresh air. 
While standing here a few minutes I perceived 
Jack raise himself upon his elbows and look 
searchingly at me before he asked: "What is 
the matter with that screen?" I have been look- 
ing at it for the last five minutes. I can't make 
it out; it seemed to wake me up." 

Having recovered from my unaccountable 
nervousness, I asked Jack, with a laugh, " Did 
you see a ghost?" 

"A ghost!" he exclaimed, springing to his 



ISO RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

feet. " I have heard of ghost stories, but this 
atmosphere is so thick I believe we could cut 
slices out of it with a knife." 

"Well! never mind, old man," I replied 
reassuringly, " let us have a pipe and disinfect 
the enemy." 

We had our pipes and talked of everything 
we could think of except that screen, but I 
noticed my companion looking at it continually, 
and he too detected me a dozen times doing the 
same. Finally, we both asked, almost together, 
"What is behind it?" 

The sun was now well up, and the warm rays 
fell upon the roof of the hut, and as the heat 
increased the atmosphere became unbearable. We 
walked together round the building a dozen times 
and tried to peer into that mysterious recess and 
to unearth the mystery without the necessity of 
pulling aside the screen, but without success. 

Still we hesitated. There are horrors in the 
appearance of death that the bravest shrink from, 
and though we had both so narrowly escaped, 
yet that screen, with its weird shadow and awful 
something hidden, made the very thought of 
investigation repugnant. The old-fashioned de- 
cision of tossing a coin in the air occurred 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 151 

doubtless to us both, but to carry it out was a 
concession to cowardice that neither would admit. 

Jack was evidently working himself up to 
desperation, though he could not keep his eyes 
off the screen. Taking me by the arm, he said : 
"Come on! Let us buck up and do it." 

We entered the hut without a word. The 
atmosphere appeared worse than ever, but we did 
not pause until, as though by mutual consent, 
each had grasped a portion of the screen and 
given it a violent wrench. The result was both 
alarming and remarkable. A terrible blow 
struck me on the brow, and, staggering backwards, 
I fell to the ground. I was knocked insensible, 
and, when I recovered, Jack was bending over me 
and wiping blood from a wound upon my head. 
My first words were: "What has happened?" 
The disorder and wreck around answered the 
question. Our united efforts had destroyed the 
whole structure, and a heavy pole had inflicted 
a severe blow on me as it fell. 

My friend had not escaped entirely without 
hurt, for he told me he had also been stunned by 
a mysterious blow. Our nerves, however, were 
in a far more reasonable condition after the 
accident than they were before. We therefore 



152 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

once more approached the couch which lay half 
covered by the fallen screen, and, carefully lifting 
the corners, looked underneath. 

Oh, horrors! A most dreadful sight greeted 
us. The face of a young woman, half devoured 
and in a terrible state of decomposition ! The 
poor creature had doubtless been seized with 
sudden illness and staggered to her bed, where 
she had helplessly suffered and died. It would 
appear from the half-prepared meal that her 
fatal attack had overtaken her while engaged in 
an effort to make ready for her husband's 
home-coming. 

Leaving this chamber of horrors, we hastened 
to the neighbouring outbuildings, only to find 
the doors barred and locked. A few heavy 
blows, however, from a club soon revealed a 
dead cow, a hog, and a few fowls. The hog 
had evidently been the last to die, a half-eaten 
chicken and even rents in the cow's carcase 
testifying to his last effort to support life. 

Our position was extremely painful. The 
body of the woman was in too terrible a con- 
dition to move, and we had no materials for 
making a coffin. The only alternative appeared 
to be to set fire to the buildings and their 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 153 

contents. Jack agreed to this arrangement, 
because it appeared to us both that the scoun- 
drel husband who had brought his wife into 
these wild forest regions had secretly left her 
and entered a lumbering camp, surrendering 
his wife to her fate. 

Gathering all the dead wood we could find, 
we piled huge heaps on each side, and then 
applied a flaming torch, and in the solemn light 
of that weird fire, with heads uncovered, we 
proceeded silently and sadly to retrace our way 
to camp. 

Deer -hunting will continue famous in the 
neighbourhood of New Ontario for many years. 
Immense tracks of virgin forest, containing in- 
numerable lakes, will take a century to occupy. 
An old hunter tells the following story of a 
fatal encounter with a bull-moose: 

" While hunting near the Cceur d'Alene 
Mountains with a mining prospector named 
Pingree, late in November, there came a heavy 
fall of snow. It was just the weather to bring 
ordinary quarry to a standstill, although not 
deep enough to hamper a moose's movements. 

" We started at an early hour to the borders 
of a lake to kill deer. In the thicket near to 



154 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

the water we suddenly flushed a bull-moose. 
He was a lean old fellow, but very fierce and 
threatening. Pingree, who was nearer to him, 
fired at close quarters, but not fatally. The 
moose, with blood streaming from a wound, 
rushed straight at his opponent and knocked 
him down before he could get out of the way, 
and, as he lay helpless, began to pound him 
on the chest with his terrible forefeet. 

" This event had occurred in an open glade, 
hidden from my view, but the piercing screams 
of my companion quickly summoned me to the 
spot. I rushed round the thickets and fired 
several shots from my repeater into the body of 
the squealing, trampling monster. He turned 
upon me immediately, and I had to swing 
myself into a small tree to avoid his rush as he 
went crashing and plunging into the dense 
forest and disappeared. I hastened to the 
assistance of my poor wounded friend, but soon 
discovered he was past all help, for his chest 
was beaten in, and he died in a couple of 
hours." 

The cougar is not plentiful in Canada, and 
only once did I discover one. This was in the 
early part of December, 1889, when I chanced 




" BEGAN TO POUND HIM WITH HIS TERRIBLE FOREFEET.' 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 155 

to be driving from Utterson to Port Carling. 
The snow had fallen and frozen hard, and the 
sleighing was decidedly good. The roads were 
splendid, and my Indian ponies drew me 
swiftly over their smooth surface. After pass- 
ing the clearing of George Mahon I suddenly 
became aware of some large cat-like animal 
bounding towards me from a sloping bank on 
the left. The moon was shining, and as I 
looked at the strange creature I became alarmed 
to observe its extraordinary speed. I was 
driving very fast, but the bounds of the wild 
cat made it appear as though the sleigh was 
stationary. At first I mistook the brute for a 
large bloodhound, and got my long whip ready. 
Scarcely had I prepared to strike, when the 
cougar sprang at me from the back of the 
sleigh. The horses bolted, and the cat, missing 
its mark, fell heavily in the snow. I had a 
large frontier revolver in my belt, and in an 
instant I fired two shots in quick succession. 
Both appeared to take effect, but did not pre- 
vent a second attack. This time he nearly 
reached me, and got his terrible claws into the 
thick buffalo robe. Fortunately, I did not lose 
my head, but fired at him at close quarters 



156 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

before it was possible to be mauled, and he 
suddenly relaxed his hold and slipped off. For 
a moment he lay on his side, apparently dead. 
I did not delay to examine him, but drove on 
as rapidly as possible, thankful to have escaped 
with my life. 

Next morning I proceeded at an early hour 
to pick up my cougar. There was a patch of 
crimson on the snow, and blood-marks led me 
to a swamp, whence I followed the trail for 
some miles, until it disappeared amongst some 
huge boulders where it was impossible to climb. 
A famous hunter related to me how two men 
were attacked by cougars. This occurred in the 
month of January while they were returning to 
camp after a successful hunt. Each carried on 
his back the saddle, haunches, and hide of a 
deer. About dusk, as they were passing through 
a narrow ravine, the man in front heard his 
companion utter a sudden shout for help, and was 
dumbfounded to see him lying on his face in 
the snow with a cougar, which had knocked 
him down, standing over him, grasping the 
venison, while another brute was bounding 
towards him. The surprised hunter swung his 
rifle round instantly and shot the first one in 




"A LARGE, FLAT, HIDEOUS FACE WITH GLARING EYES." 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 157 

the brain, and it dropped motionless, whereat 
the second paused a moment, and then rushed 
off in an opposite direction. There are few 
instances of cougars attacking men, and Mr. 
Roosevelt is of the opinion, in this case, that 
the animals were young, stupid, and very 
hungry. The smell of the raw meat excited 
them, and they probably could not make out 
what the men were, with the deerskins on their 
backs. Evidently the cougars were merely 
striving to steal the venison, and not to attack 
the hunters. 

The lynx I once discovered peering at me 
from the shelter of a thick bough. I was 
travelling north-east of Lake Rosseau in the 
direction of Fairy Lake. I had ridden about 
ten miles from Rosseau Village, when my 
attention was drawn to some tree-grouse feed- 
ing on a bank some fifty yards ahead. I 
quickly dismounted, and, creeping stealthily 
towards them, bagged one and wounded another. 
Following on this bird's laboured flight I was 
suddenly startled by hearing a noise overhead, 
and, looking up, saw a large, flat, hideous face 
glaring down upon me. I fired, and hit the 
creature. It was a huge lynx, and with a 



158 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

bound it sprang at me from a bough, missed 
its aim, and fell sprawling in the snow. The 
awful rage it displayed was horrifying, as it 
worried and destroyed everything within reach 
of its cruel claws. A more ferocious creature I 
had never seen. Its strength and destructive 
power were enormous. For a considerable time 
I heard its fiendish screams after I had ridden 
away from the spot. 

The big game hunter has many exciting 
adventures in Canada. Winter is the season for 
moose and deer, and terrible storms sweep over 
the forest. I have survived two cyclones one 
in Canada and another in South - Eastern 
Illinois. In the former experience I was accom- 
panied by a man named Herbert, who shortly 
afterwards perished in a storm on Lake 
Muskoka. The prelude to this cyclone was an 
oppressive, sickly sense of warmth, followed by 
icy waves of air. Then came a deathlike silence 
and a fearful consciousness of danger. Suddenly 
strange rumblings sounded in the distance, in- 
creasing in volume, until it seemed as though 
some infernal machine was tearing up the 
mountains, and hurling trees and rocks through 
space. Snow whirled around us in blinding 




"AFTER THE CYCLONE." 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 159 

clouds, carrying in its embrace the most deadly 
missiles, and we were both hurled to the 
ground, blinded, choked, and gasping for 
breath. The snow-dust cut our faces, and pene- 
trated through everything we wore. The noise 
and confusion overhead baffle description. An 
overwhelming desire to sleep seized us, but we 
fought against it, and, staggering to our feet, 
plunged through the storm. More than once I 
stumbled and fell, having no energy to rise, 
and I am unable to narrate the circumstances 
that once more enabled me to battle on. In a 
half-blinded and stupefied state I continued to 
plod on for an hour, moving mechanically. 
The ground was in places almost bare or piled 
up in massive hills of snow. More than once 
I collided with the forest trees or fell helplessly 
into a moving mound of icy dust. It was so 
dark that at times I could not even see my feet. 
Sometimes the whirling snowclouds lifted and 
the sun appeared, but these lulls were followed 
by cyclonic outbursts more terrible than before. 
I felt when these were repeated that I could 
not survive the strain, but the last cloud, as 
dark as night, at length passed over, and the 
storm ceased. My companion found me half- 



160 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

dead in the snow, and but for his noble assist- 
ance I should have perished. 

The lakes of Canada are in March coated 
with four to six feet of solid frozen surface, 
composed of good ice, which is the frozen lake- 
water, then snow partly melted and partly 
frozen, then snow melted and entirely frozen, 
and covered with deep snow upon which 
a few inches of ice have formed. When this 
surface ice melts it is no uncommon sight to 
see a man driving over lakes apparently covered 
with water. A sleigh driven over the ice in 
these circumstances looks like a huge water 
monster sporting in the lake. I shall never 
forget walking from Gregory to Port Sandfield 
during the month of April, 1889. The first 
half-mile was delightful, the ice being strong 
and smooth. Then the top ice began to crack, 
and after a time to break through, giving me a 
drop of nearly two feet into the biting-cold 
water above the foundation ice. 

Mr. Gregory, who was my companion, re- 
called this adventure to my memory in 1904, 
when I revisited old haunts. He had the 
greatest difficulty in urging me on, because my 
sensations at every step reminded me of a 



A SPORTSMAN'S PARADISE 161 

recent experience in England when I narrowly 
escaped drowning. There was really no danger 
in this respect, but I believed that every step 
of that terrible journey would be my last. Had 
I fainted, however, no power on earth could 
have saved my life. 

The Queen's Hotel, Toronto, is the best 
place to put up at. This hotel is old-fashioned, 
reasonable, and extremely comfortable. The 
proprietor of the Queen's Hotel takes a keen 
interest in sport, and gladly renders his assist- 
ance and advice. My rule has been to make 
the Queen's Hotel a permanent Canadian 
address during residence in the country, and a 
centre for trips to Muskoka and Timagami. 
Other places may appear cheaper, but after 
twenty years' experience I doubt if they will 
be found so in the end. It might be well to 
mention my books when requesting an inter- 
view. 



M 



VIII 

AN ADVENTURE WITH A TASMANIAN 
DEVIL 

THE Tasmanian Devil, whose habitat is con- 
fined to the wild, uninhabited portions of 
Tasmania, is almost extinct. The circumstances 
and adventures associated with my coming into 
contact with this rare and ferocious marsupial 
may be of interest to my readers. 

" He never returned." These were the last 
words of my companion when he said good-bye 
and left me to continue my journey alone. We 
had been discussing an expedition to the Crown 
Lands on the banks of the Emu River, and his 
remark referred to the mysterious disappearance 
of the last adventurer to these wilds. Search 
parties had failed to discover the slightest clue 
as to his fate, and though months had passed 
to years he never returned. It was a lovely 
cool day, and the waves were breaking with a 
gentle murmur on the beach, as I stepped 



THE TASMANIAN DEVIL 163 

along briskly over the smooth sands. In about 
half an hour I reached the delta, where the 
blaze path is somewhat difficult to find. Here 
huge tree-ferns grow to immense height and 
flourish amidst the rank, decaying vegetation. 
In some places monster trees are piled in 
massive heaps and present formidable barriers. 
The country, too, is intersected by brooks and 
streams, and the low gullies are dangerous 
swamps where a false step means a loathsome 
plunge into black, oozing mud. This pathless 
wilderness so hampers the pedestrian that he is 
often forced to leave the river banks for the 
higher ground, where he can only proceed by 
jumping from rock to rock. 

The woods, however, are full of charm to the 
naturalist, and the weird solitude gives a 
romantic touch to the place. Frequently I 
would pause to gather the delicate flowers of 
the white cluster or to admire the pale greenish 
bell-flowers of the Billiardera longiflora; the red 
conia, spacris, blue-berry, and cherry blossomed 
to perfection in this natural garden. Bird life 
was much in evidence, and ground doves, wood- 
hen, quail, wood-thrush, and honey-birds re- 
lieved the deathly silence. 



164 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

While I stooped to gather ferns I was sud- 
denly startled by a great commotion, and, 
looking up, perceived a small herd of wild 
cattle thundering down a grassy slope. They 
were handsome, fierce-looking creatures with 
long tapering horns and strong, well-shaped 
bodies wild descendants of a domestic breed. 
For a moment I gazed at their wild careering 
with wonder, and then looked anxiously for a 
place of safety. There was no shelter near, so 
in despair I turned and ran towards the river, 
stumbling and scrambling through the tangled 
vines. The herd had sighted me and were in 
hot pursuit, rendering the forest hideous with 
their bellows. I had now reached some tall, 
closely-growing reeds, and only their waving 
tops marked my flight. The infuriated brutes 
pressed on, splashing the mud about them in 
showers. The sparkle of the shining river was 
visible, but a terrible obstacle stood in my 
way. This obstacle was a perfect net-work of 
fallen tree-ferns, covered with green unwhole- 
some slime. Half-blinded and choked I hurled 
myself against it, hearing the rush of feet 
behind me and too terrified to turn my head 
a false step or fall and I knew I should be 



THE TASMANIAN DEVIL 165 

gored to death. I clutched, slipped, fell, and 
rolled, herbage broke with my weight, and to 
my amazement I found myself safe on the 
other side, where the ground sloped gently to 
the river. My pursuers were thus baffled, and 
soon I heard them returning on their tracks. 
Working my way to the river, I reached the 
mud-flats, where platypus and other amphibious 
creatures had left marks of recent occupation. 

The food of the platypus or duck-bill consists 
of shrimps, beetles, worms, and water fleas. 
They are chiefly nocturnal, but as the afternoon 
advanced I observed a few rise to the surface 
to devour their food. The platypus is one of 
the most remarkable of living animals. It has 
a broad, duck-like bill, webbed feet, and a body 
covered with rich brown fur; to which is added 
a bushy tail like a beaver. It lays eggs and 
suckles its young. When swimming the fore- 
paws are expanded and the hind-paws and tail 
seem to take little part in propelling. When 
diving they throw their heads rapidly beneath 
the body and the front paws are used until the 
bottom is reached. The water being very clear, 
I observed them turn the sand over rapidly 
with their bills, and a train of bubbles marked 



i66 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

the spot where their movements were taking 
place. Their burrows I found just below the 
surface of the river. These animals are very 
shy and difficult to approach, and to stalk them 
successfully requires time and patience. The 
Tasmanian bush is not a desirable place to 
find oneself benighted, so I left the river at an 
early hour to retrace my steps to Burnie. 
Daylight had somewhat minimised my difficul- 
ties of travel, but trudging back was a different 
matter. Frequently I slipped and fell into the 
slime and mud, and soon found myself bruised 
and bleeding. When possible I kept clear of 
the swamps, and tramped through dense scrub 
on the dry ground. Progress was slow and 
painful, and after a long toilsome effort I sat 
down to rest, feeling very weary. In this 
neighbourhood forests had lived, fallen, and 
decayed, and the rotten wood lay thick and 
deep. Every great fern which thrived in this 
fattening pasture was at once a fern and 
fernery, and parasite ferns clung everywhere. 
I had taken up a position on a huge platform 
of fallen trees when I became gradually con- 
scious that I was sinking into the ground, and 
then, without further warning, the rotten wood 



THE TASMANIAN DEVIL 167 

gave way. Down I went, in spite of struggles, 
into a dark, gloomy space with my throat 
choking with blinding dust. It was an awful 
moment, and when I found myself lying in 
slime and mud, I recalled the words: "He 
never returned." Battling with reeking rubbish 
I cleared the bark and broken boughs from my 
arms and shoulders until I could manage to 
stand. Looking upward through the disgusting 
debris, I caught a faint glimmer of light. 
Mustering my strength, I made several desperate 
efforts to climb up the rotten sides of my 
prison. Once I nearly reached the top, and 
when I paused to breathe the fresh branches 
broke, and I fell backwards half stunned. My 
ultimate deliverance was accidental, and hap- 
pened from my clinging, during a slip, to the 
other side of the gap. Here my foothold re- 
mained firm, so I drew my hunting-knife, and, 
with much labour, cut a way through the 
fallen boughs, and thus managed to work a 
passage for my body. Through this I squirmed 
with elbow and knees, while the sharp wood 
cut into my flesh. Once safely outside I 
looked around me. The forest was a perfect laby- 
rinth of vegetation, tropical in its luxuriance and 



i68 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

variety, partly due to the favouring influence of 
humidity and the fertile soil, enriched by the 
accumulated humus of incalculable centuries. 
Water oozed out from the moist ground in all 
directions, tinkling as it fell and making quiet 
music of its own as it descended into the hollows, 
where the tree-ferns grew, and then gurgled 
onwards to the river. 

All that had delighted me during the day now 
became a source of dread. The muddy pool and 
sluggish spring were signals of horror, and the 
trees looked like spectres as they waved their 
gaunt arms glaring ghastly white. In a perfect 
bath of perspiration I regained the river bank, 
devoutly thankful to have emerged from that 
gloomy mass of decaying life. Hungry and 
miserable, I set about looking for a place to 
camp. Close to where I stood were the marks of 
wild cattle. One bull had apparently stopped 
within a few yards to stamp and paw the ground 
suspiciously as the hoof-prints showed, and then, 
unwilling to proceed further, had turned back on 
his tracks. The land on the other side of the 
river was steep and rocky, and huge boulders 
projected from the hillsides. In the deep earth 
large blue gum trees grew to a great height and 



THE TASMANIAN DEVIL 169 

the ravines were thickly covered with te-scrub. 
After careful consideration I decided to cross 
over and pitch my camp. The sun had set and 
dark shadows had veiled the distant woods. I 
experienced some difficulty in effecting my 
passage across, and more than once I was nearly 
swept from my feet by the swiftly-flowing water. 
Steadying myself with a stout stick and occa- 
sionally clinging to a rock or overhanging 
bough, I managed to keep my balance. The 
scramble through the tall rushes occupied some 
time, and when I gained the hill-side my arms 
and face were bleeding from fresh wounds and 
my clothes severely torn. I found, to my dis- 
appointment, that I had hardly improved 
matters, as far as travelling was concerned, and 
wandered about for several hours seeking in vain 
for an open glade. About 10 p.m. I found it 
impossible to proceed further without a torch, so 
I fired some dry wood, and by its light 
endeavoured to pick my way. Sometimes I 
caught a glimpse of a ring-tailed opossum as he 
ran across my path and scuttled up into the 
trees, or a rustle and jump announced the 
proximity of a prying kangaroo, and stealthier 
sounds made me apprehensive of the dreaded 



1 70 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

devil or other carnivora. It was while passing 
over some rocky, broken ground that I took a 
false step and, before I could recover, fell from 
a great height, striking against tree and rock 
until I reached a broad ledge, where I remained 
in a semi-conscious state for several minutes. 
At length I dragged myself to my feet, and 
found I could only stand on one foot, the 
other being so painful that the slightest 
pressure was agony. I struck a match and 
peered over the edge of my resting place. It 
was only a few feet down to a level spot, so 
I descended painfully and commenced to gather 
fuel for a fire. I was obliged to make several 
trips, but when I had procured a good blaze 
its warmth made me drowsy and I soon fell 
asleep. 

About one o'clock in the morning I was 
rudely awakened by a fierce growl, and turning 
over on my side found myself face to face with 
a fierce, hideous creature, whose eyes seemed 
to glow with a murderous light. He had a 
huge head and sharp, glittering teeth, and his 
parted jaws added to his savage aspect. As I 
observed him closely, with the aid of a fire- 
brand, I noticed his body was covered with 



THE TASMANIAN DEVIL 171 

thick black hair, a white patch extended from 
his chest to the ribs, and a similar mark 
appeared above a long, coarse tail. His 
shoulders seemed to quiver with excitement and 
his attitude was most threatening. Had I been 
uninjured I might have taken a delight in the 
advent of such a strange visitant, but in my 
present crippled condition I viewed his coming 
with nervous excitement, and would have given 
anything to tempt him to depart. Shouting 
and threatening noises made no impression, so 
I shuffled close to my fire and commenced a 
bombardment with burning sticks. The sparks 
flew in all directions, and when I paused from 
sheer exhaustion my fire was nearly out, but 
my unwelcome guest still remained almost in 
the same position he had formerly occupied. 
His attitude, however, was more aggressive and 
he took a few short, defiant steps nearer to me, 
accompanying this action with a horrible growl. 
Then followed a series of antics which held me 
spellbound. They could be likened to a worried 
dog snapping viciously at tormenting flies. 
Several times he sprang upward, bringing his 
jaws together with a loud, resounding snap. 
His size was doubtless magnified by the un- 



RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

certain light, and I felt at the time I had never 
before seen a more terrible sight. When he had 
ceased his exertions he composed himself into 
a defensive attitude, as though he were afraid 
to attack me while I remained prepared. 
Whenever I moved he followed my example 
like one engaged in a pugilistic duel. Weary 
of this long inactivity I decided to commence 
the battle, and aimed carefully with my revolver 
to strike him between the eyes. There was a 
loud report and a vivid flash a deadly silence 
followed; but when I looked to ascertain if my 
bullet had hit its mark I was amazed to per- 
ceive the devil still glaring upon me with 
increased fury and apparently unharmed. I had 
still five undischarged cartridges and a huge 
stone handy. I moved forward, therefore, to 
renew my attack at close quarters, anger over- 
coming fear". This time I fired every shot 
without a pause, determined to rush upon him 
with a stone and hunting knife if unsuccessful. 
Three shots took effect, but still he stood his 
ground with feet wide apart and widening with 
every hit. His jaw dropped lower and lower, 
blood flowed from his mouth, and hatred was 
depicted in every gesture; then there was a 



THE TASMANIAN DEVIL 173 

scrambling and shuffling noise, and I held my 
sharp knife ready, expecting him to imme- 
diately rush upon me, instead of which he 
appeared to double up and collapse, and with 
a yell of pain rolled and tumbled from the 
ledge, nor did he pause in his disordered flight 
until a splash announced that he had reached 
the river. My adventures now came to an end. 
The noise of the firing directed the footsteps 
of a search party, and in due course I was 
rescued from my perilous position. 

The body of the Tasmanian Devil was sub- 
sequently found, and the preserved specimen 
was exhibited in London at the Franco-British 
Exhibition. 



IX 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 

THE cannibals of the most daring type are those 
who do not merely procure human flesh as 
animal food, but seek for victims that they may 
get human blood for ceremonial purposes, and 
on such occasions, when they fail to secure 
victims from an alien tribe, they select them 
from among their own kin. This phase of 
cannibalism is the most difficult to combat. It 
is not merely a matter of showing these can- 
nibals the undesirability of hunting, killing, and 
eating their fellows, but to uproot their deeply- 
imbedded idea that human blood is an essential 
to their ceremonial rites. The natives of the 
Purari delta of British New Guinea are 
examples of the most savage people holding 
these tenets. To their untutored minds the 
blood-shedding of Christ confirms rather than 
dissipates their principles. These wild tribes 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 175 

are locally known as Naman natives. Terrible 
as the curse of cannibalism is among them, 
their recognised system of immorality is hardly 
less terrible. The female sex receive no form 
of respect ; daily they are subjected to the most 
degrading form of barter, and are made the 
victims of the most horrible phases of im- 
morality during the period of cannibal orgies. 

In the New Hebrides the natives, though 
still determined cannibals and very treacherous, 
do not kill and eat white people without excuse. 
They may murder you if they take a dislike 
or if you have in their opinion called down a 
curse on the country by your presence, and so 
caused the death of someone belonging to their 
tribe, or if some other white person has angered 
the gods, and you happen to be the next who 
comes along; or if they have lately been seized 
with a desire " to make themselves strong " by 
shedding white man's blood. But if they rather 
like you on the whole and they do not think 
you have cast spells upon them, you may 
mingle freely among them in confidence without 
a maxim gun for a companion. The Male- 
kulan tribe often carry poisoned arrows. These 
can always be recognised by the leaves wrapped 



176 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

round the arrow points. I have handled one 
of these arrows. It had a long unbarbed point, 
clotted and dark with some thick liquid. 
Essence of decaying human corpse is said to 
be the poison employed. Death almost always 
follows a wound from one of these arrows ; it 
commonly occurs on the ninth day. 

During my rambles among the Pacific Islands 
Herr Schlehahan was cruelly murdered by the 
man-eating natives of the Admiralty Group. 
He had for many years resided on St. Gabriel 
Island. He received no warning of the inten- 
tion of the natives. Suddenly he was ap- 
proached from behind by a savage who dealt 
him a severe blow on the head with a club. 

The unfortunate trader fell senseless, and, 
while he lay on the ground, his body was 
terribly mutilated by the natives armed with 
tomahawks. What eventually became of the 
remains is not at all clear, but from the fact 
that the inhabitants of the whole of the Ad- 
miralty Group are cannibals it is presumed that 
the body was devoured at one of their feasts. 

The Trinidad Islands appeared to me chiefly 
noteworthy because of the horribly diseased 
state of the inhabitants. Loathsome disorders 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 177 

seem to have been spread through the islands 
by noxious Asiatic coolies. 

Calling upon some of the leading natives, I 
obtained much useful information respecting 
their feelings toward immigrants. 

In answer to my questions an old chief 
replied as follows: 

"How are you and all your people?" 

" Don't like coolies coolies no good. China- 
men no good." 

"How do you like the English?" 

"We don't want to lose our land; if land 
go then we cry very much. White settlers do 
the crooked. Good English very good; some 
English no good." 

This was all I could get out of him beyond 
a special message to His Majesty the King, 
which I fear would be of little interest. My 
time was limited, so I was obliged to check 
the elaborate preparations he ordered for my 
entertainment; but when I took my departure 
he said, "You come back; you stay week." 

In Sydney I met, at an obscure boarding- 
house, the famous Captain Weaver, who, for 
alleged piracy and murder on the high seas, 
was condemned to death in Fiji. 

N 



i;8 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

He informed me that while cruising among 
some islands off the coast of New Guinea he 
landed upon one notorious for cannibalism. The 
natives were very hostile at first, but after a 
few days, and numerous presents had been 
received by them, they professed friendship, and 
requested him to attend a conference on shore. 

These natives were ruled over by a popular 
king who was old and seriously ill. The con- 
ference was convened, therefore, to request 
Weaver to remove the evil spell under which 
he was suffering. Captain Weaver knew from 
the curiosity of the people that no white men 
had visited this island, but he determined to 
risk his life to win the inhabitants to friendly 
trade and intercourse. Fortifying himself with 
drugs from the ship, he travelled alone several 
miles through the dense forest to the native 
town. Here he found that the king was 
suffering from fever. Knowing the immense 
importance the natives attached to ceremony 
and incantations, he performed grotesque and 
humorous antics which delighted his beholders, 
who called to each other to watch the magic 
of the great medicine man. When he had 
finished these deceptions he requested the people 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 179 

to retire, and entered the king's hut to ad- 
minister a few grains of quinine. This simple 
but wonderful remedy soon had the desired 
effect, and in a few days the king was restored 
to health. 

.Weaver now became the wonder and admira- 
tion of everybody, and so rose in public favour 
that he ranked next to the king on all cere- 
monial occasions. When the king died, a few 
weeks afterwards, Weaver was so popular that 
it was considered the life of the old man had 
only been prolonged to fit him to become his 
successor. Weaver, therefore, was made king, 
and ruled over these people with a wise and 
cautious hand. He taught them the use of 
firearms, how to build houses and fortify their 
towns. In a short time the white king became 
immensely wealthy, and, being ambitious, he 
determined to sail to Sydney to purchase 
articles for the development of his kingdom. 

During the voyage his ship was lost on a 
reef, and Weaver arrived in the city penniless. 
Nothing daunted, he approached several wealthy 
people and related his extraordinary experiences 
with so much cleverness that they advanced 
him money to purchase another ship. The 



i8o RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

exact position of his island he kept secret, not 
knowing whom to trust, and having much 
wealth hidden there. Discontent arose among 
his crew soon after he had cleared " The 
Heads," and long before he reached his destina- 
tion he discovered a plot to murder him and 
take the ship. 

Weaver, however, determined to be on his 
guard, and, having bribed the cabin-boy to 
reveal the plans of his enemies, he turned the 
tables on them by shooting the ringleader. For 
this act he was seized by a British warship 
and imprisoned for many years in Suva, Fiji. 

When the islanders found their king did not 
return, they scoured the Pacific for news of 
him, and finally discovered he was in Fiji. 
These devoted people managed to hide them- 
selves and to enter into communication with the 
prisoner. 

Captain Weaver was ultimately liberated, and 
affirmed his act was justified, and he was inno- 
cent of crime. 

In 1906 he was busy collecting money to fit 
out a ship, and offered me the post of Prime 
Minister and Secretary at an enormous salary. 
I took some days before giving him an answer, 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 181 

being fascinated with the idea of new experi- 
ences and adventures. Happily, however, I 
decided to decline. When I returned to 
Sydney in 1908 I discovered many persons were 
anxiously awaiting some news of his ship. 

Fiji was once the most notorious cannibal 
land in the world. An Englishman named 
Pickering fell into the hands of a hostile tribe. 
He soon became aware that they were making 
preparations for a cannibal feast, of which he 
was to be the principal dish, though these 
preparations would not have been noticed by any 
one less versed in their customs. He knew that 
before they proceeded to kill him a bowl of 
kava would have to be made and a prayer said 
over the beverage when ready, and the person 
saying the prayer could not be eaten. Pre- 
tending utter unconsciousness of what was 
going on, he eagerly watched for the moment 
when the preparation of the kava was advanced 
to the stage at which the prayer had to be 
said, then suddenly, to the utter dismay of his 
enemies, he pronounced the well-known formula. 
No one now dared to take his life, and he had 
the keen satisfaction of partaking of the yams 
and fruit provided for his own funeral. 



1 82 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

A cannibal feast is conducted as follows: 

The victims are made to sit upon the ground 
with their legs drawn under their thighs and 
their arms placed close beside them. In this 
position they are bound so tightly that they 
cannot move a joint. They are then placed 
in the oven upon hot stones and covered with 
leaves and stones, and so roasted alive. 

When the body is cooked it is taken from 
the oven and the face painted black. It is 
then carried to the Bure, where it is offered 
to the gods, being afterwards cut up and dis- 
tributed to be eaten by the people. Women 
seldom eat human flesh. 

The Fijians once indulged in horrible rites. 
At the burial of a great chief the body was 
laid in state upon a spacious lawn in the 
presence of an immense concourse of people. 
The principal wife, after she had been properly 
adorned, then walked out and took her seat 
near the body of her husband, when a rope was 
passed around her neck, which eight or ten 
men pulled with all their strength, until she 
was strangled and dead. When this was done 
the second wife came and seated herself in the 
same place, and she also was killed. A third 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 183 

and a fourth became voluntary sacrifices in the 
same manner, and afterwards they were all in- 
terred in a common grave. One body was 
placed above, one below, and one on either side 
of the husband. The reasons assigned for this 
barbarous custom was that the spirit of the 
chief might not be lonely in its passage to the 
invisible world. 

Human sacrifices were common before a war 
took place. The only weapon with which the 
procurers of sacrifices were armed was a small 
stone concealed in the hollow of the hand. 
With this they would strike their victim a 
stunning blow upon the back of the head, when 
others, who were in readiness, would rush in 
and complete the horrid work. The body was 
then carried amid songs and shouts of savage 
triumph and offered to the gods. At other 
times the king's gang of desperadoes would 
arm themselves with spears, surround the house 
of their victim, and enjoy the sport of spearing 
him through the apertures between the poles 
which encircled the house. In these circum- 
stances the object of their savage amusement, 
frenzied with pain and dread, would rush from one 
part of the house to the other vainly seeking pro- 



1 84 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

tection ; but wherever he ran he found a spear 
entering his body, and at length, perceiving no 
possibility of escape, he would cover himself in 
his cloth, throw himself upon the floor, and wait 
until a spear would pierce his heart. 

At Raratonga two human victims were in- 
variably offered at the birth of the son of a 
principal chief. Another circumstance which 
rendered this practice still more dreadful was 
that as soon as one of a family had been 
selected all the other male members of it were 
looked upon as devoted to the same horrid 
purpose. It availed them nothing if they re- 
moved to another island, for they would be 
sought after and often pursued with dogs 
whenever a sacrifice was required. 

The capture and massacre of the " Port-au- 
Prince's " crew at Hayti on December i, 1806, 
ranks among the most awful fates which befell 
sailors among the Pacific Islands. 

At 9 a.m. Tooi-Tooi, the Sandwich Islander, 
came aboard and invited Mr. Brown to go on 
shore and view the country. He immediately 
complied, and went unarmed. About an hour 
after he left the ship Mr. Mariner, who was in 
the steerage, went to the hatch for the sake of 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 185 

a light to mend his pen, when, looking up, he 
saw Mr. Dixon standing on a gun, endeavour- 
ing by signs to prevent more natives coming 
on board. At this moment he heard a loud 
shout from the savages, and saw one of them 
knock Mr. Dixon down with his club. 

Too surely convinced now what was to happen, 
he ran into the gun-room, when a native caught 
hold of him by the hand; but, escaping from his 
grasp, he ran down the scuttle, where he found 
the cooper. Considering the magazine the 
safest place, they ran there, and, having con- 
sulted what was best to be done, they came to 
the resolution of blowing up the vessel. 

Bent upon this desperate enterprise, Mr. 
Mariner repaired to the gun-room to procure 
flint and steel, but was unable to get at the 
muskets without making too much noise, for 
the arm chest lay beneath the boarding-pikes, 
\\hich had carelessly been thrown down the 
scuttle the previous evening; and the noise 
occasioned by clearing them away, as the uproar 
above began to cease, would undoubtedly have 
attracted the savages' notice. He therefore re- 
turned to the magazine, where he found the 
cooper in great distress from tire apprehension 



1 86 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

of his probable fate. Mr. Mariner now pro- 
posed that they should go on deck at once and 
meet their death like men, while their enemies 
were hot with slaughter, rather than, by delay, 
subject themselves to the cruelties of cooler 
barbarity; and after some hesitation the cooper 
consented to follow if Mr. Mariner would lead 
the way. The latter thereupon went to the 
gun-room, and, lifting up the hatch a little, saw 
Tooi-Tooi examining Captain Duck's sword and 
other arms that were in his state-room. Their 
backs being turned, he lifted off the hatch en- 
tirely, and jumped up into the cabin. Tooi- 
Tooi, instantly turning round, Mr. Mariner pre- 
sented his hands open, to signify that he was 
unarmed and at their mercy; then, uttering 
"Aroghah," he asked him, partly in English 
and partly in his own language, whether he 
meant to kill him, as he was ready to meet 
his fate. Tooi-Tooi replied in broken English 
that he should not be hurt, as the chiefs were 
already in possession of the ship, but that he 
wished to be informed how many persons there 
were below. To this Mr. Mariner replied that 
there was only one, and called up the cooper, 
who had slowly followed him. Tooi-Tooi then 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 187 

led them upon deck towards one of the chiefs, 
who had the direction of the conspiracy. 

The first object that struck Mr. Mariner's 
sight on coming upon deck was enough to 
thrill the stoutest heart. Upon the companion 
was a short, squab figure, about fifty years of 
age, with a seaman's jacket soaked in blood 
thrown over one shoulder and on the other 
rested his iron-wood club, spattered with brains 
and blood, while the frightfulness of his 
appearance was increased by a constant blinking 
with one of his eyes and a horrible convulsive 
motion on one side of his mouth. 

On another part of the deck there lay twenty- 
two bodies perfectly naked, and arranged side 
by side in regular order, but so dreadfully 
bruised and battered about the head that only 
two or three of them could be recognised. A 
man had just counted them and was reporting 
the number to his chief, immediately after 
which they began to throw them overboard. 
On Mr. Mariner and the cooper being brought 
before him he smiled, probably on account of 
their dirty appearance. Mr. Mariner was then 
given in charge of a petty chief to be taken 
on shore, but the cooper was detained on 
board. 



1 88 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

When Mr. Mariner arrived on shore he saw 
Mr. Brown, the whaling master, lying dead on 
the beacli, his body naked and much bruised 
about the head and chest. Finow, however, 
took a great fancy to Mr. Mariner, and spared 
his life. 

Tahiti is situated 2,200 miles from Auckland, 
via Cook Islands. The voyage occupies about 
ten days, and there is a monthly service of 
boats. The scenery is considered by many to 
be the most beautiful in the Pacific. It com- 
prises lofty mountains, romantic valleys, and 
ravines. It is surrounded by a fine reef, and 
has a good harbour. The shore-line is covered 
with cocoa-nuts, and inland the vegetation is 
very rich and attractive. Bread-fruit, mango, 
ginger-trees, and other tropical plants flourish to 
perfection, and the oranges will compare with 
any grown in the world. Papeete, the capital, 
is a well-built town containing about 2,000 in- 
habitants. There are two fair hotels, and a 
band plays twice a week for the benefit of the 
public. There is a beautiful avenue here called 
the Fatava. 

Tahiti will ever be famous for the " Mutiny 
of the Bounty." The women, when half-castes, 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 189 

are very handsome and fascinating. They have 
exquisite figures, dark eyes, and jet-black hair. 
One can almost make an allowance for the crew 
of the " Bounty " falling victims to their charms 
if they excelled the lasses who smile upon every 
fresh arrival who calls at this port. The true 
type of native, however, can only be studied 
by visiting the adjoining islands and getting as 
far away as possible from the white settlements. 

During my four years in Australasia I made 
inquiries as to the inhabitants of Pitcairn, where 
the mutineers spent their last days. There are 
at present 77 males and 92 females (1906). The 
affairs of the island are conducted by a Parlia- 
ment of seven members, with a president, vice- 
president, and a judge. The islanders now 
own a cutter (14 tons), which plies between 
Pitcairn and Mangarewa, whence there is a 
communication with Tahiti and New Zealand. 

In religion they appear to be chiefly Seventh- 
day Adventists. Education has been much 
neglected since 1896. The products of the 
island are sweet potatoes, yams, taro, melons, 
pumpkins, oranges, bananas, pineapples, and 
arrow-root which is prepared in limited quan- 
tities with antiquated appliances. Excellent 



190 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

coffee is grown here. The island has only an 
area of two square miles. It contains about 200 
goats and a small stock of chickens. 

The fate of the mutineers and the subsequent 
discovery of their descendants once created a 
world-wide sensation ; it may therefore be of 
interest to narrate the circumstances once more. 

On the arrival of the " Bounty " off Tofoa, one 
of the Friendly Islands, on April 28, 1789, a 
dreadful mutiny broke out among some of the 
ship's officers and men, with Fletcher Christian, 
the master's mate, at their head. He was of 
a respectable family in the North of England, 
a young man of talent, and of a quick, daring 
spirit. 

On the evening before the mutiny Bligh had 
invited Christian to supper in his cabin, an 
invitation which was declined by Christian on 
the grounds of ill-health. He, however, used 
the time to win over the crew to mutiny. 

At the dawn of day they roughly awoke 
Bligh, who, starting up in amazement, saw two 
men around him armed with cutlasses and 
pistols. He called loudly for assistance, de- 
manding an explanation. 

" Hold your tongue, sir, or you are dead this 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 191 

instant," was the answer he received. His 
hands were tied behind him, and he was forced 
on deck in his shirt, not having been given 
time to dress. 

The boatswain and others having been com- 
pelled to hoist out the launch, Bligh and 
eighteen men were forced to go into her, and 
were quickly veered astern of the ship by a 
rope. Having flung them a few pieces of pork 
amounting to 32lb., isolb. of bread, 28 gallons 
of water, six quarts of rum, six bottles of wine, 
four cutlasses, a quadrant and a compass, with 
a quantity of twine, canvas, and cordage, the 
mutineers sailed away. 

The island of Pitcairn is 1,200 miles from 
Tahiti, and the names of the mutineers who 
landed there were: Fletcher Christian, Edward 
Young, John Mills, Matthew Quintal, William 
M'Coy, John Adams, John Williams, Isaac 
Martin, and William Brown. They had not 
resided long upon the island before it became 
the scene of every evil passion. They began to 
hate and to be hated. First there was a deadly 
strife between them and the Tahitian men, who, 
after practising shooting at a mark, plotted to 
murder them all. This murderous plot, how- 



192 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

ever, reached the ears of their wives, who 
warned them by adding to one of their songs 
these w r ords, " Why does black man sharpen 
axe? To kill white man." 

Deathly struggles followed, Christian, Mills, 
Williams, Martin, and Brown being murdered 
in 1793 by the Tahitians. Christian was the 
first who fell. Mills was next. Adams was 
shot, the ball entering at his shoulder and 
coming out at his neck. He fell, but suddenly 
sprang up and ran. They caught him, and a 
blow was aimed at his head with the butt-end 
of a musket. This he warded off with his 
hand, having his finger broken by the blow. 
On his again escaping he ran down the rocks 
toward the sea; but his pursuers called out to 
him that if he would return he should not be 
hurt. He returned, therefore, and they troubled 
him no more. 

All the Tahitian men were killed in the same 
year, one of them having been destroyed by 
Young's wife with an axe. As soon as she 
had killed him she gave a signal to her 
husband to fire upon the remaining Tahitian. 
This was done with fatal precision. This woman 
died at an advanced age in 1850. She was the 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 193 

last survivor of the " Bounty." In 1794, when 
only four men, Young, M'Coy, Adams, and 
Quintal, were left alive, the women of the place 
were holding in their hands the five skulls of 
the murdered white men. They were only com- 
pelled, after some difficulty, to give up the 
heads to be buried. In that year the women 
made an attempt to escape from the island in 
a boat. 

During 1794 trouble followed trouble. The 
women, having failed in their attempt to escape, 
deliberately planned the destruction of the four 
white men left among them. This dreadful plot 
was discovered in time by the men, and a 
partial and suspicious peace was brought about. 
But other horrors were yet to come. In 1798 
M'Coy, in a fit of delirium tremens brought on 
by drunkenness, threw himself from the rocks 
into the sea and was drowned. Matthew 
Quintal, after threatening the lives of his com- 
panion*;, was killed by Young and Adams, who 
in 1799 struck him with an axe in self-defence. 

Thus six of the mutineers were murdered and 
one committed suicide. Edward Young died of 
asthma in 1800. Only two of the fifteen men who 
landed from the " Bounty " died a natural death. 

o 



194 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

In 1800, Adams, having reached his thirty- 
sixth year, found himself the only man on the 
island. The young community consisted of 
twenty children. About ten years after this 
Adams claimed to have had two remarkable 
dreams which alarmed his conscience. He 
turned his attention to religion, and became a 
sort of patriarch and parson to the whole com- 
munity. Subsequently Mr. Shillibeer wrote an 
account of how the " Briton " had accidentally 
stumbled upon Pitcairn Island and gleaned their 
history. 

The history of the remaining mutineers is 
briefly this: 

On March 23, 1791, three of the men, who 
had remained at Tahiti nearly two years, 
namely, Joseph Coleman, Peter Heywood, and 
George Stewart, came on board the " Pandora " 
and surrendered themselves to the law. The 
captain succeeded in taking eleven others at 
Tahiti. There were twenty-five men who re- 
mained on board the " Bounty." Two of the 
mutineers, Churchill and Thompson, who had 
landed at Tahiti, were no longer in existence 
when the " Pandora " arrived. Within a short 
period of their quitting the " Bounty " one of 



IN CANNIBAL LANDS 195 

them, the ship's corporal, had become a king, 
and both had been murdered. Thompson, 
envious of Churchill's honours, and angry at 
the fancied insult, took an opportunity of 
shooting him, and the natives rose in anger and 
stoned Thompson to death. The "Pandora" 
heard nothing of the nine remaining mutineers. 

The Island trips provided by the Union 
Steamship Company furnish an unrivalled oppor- 
tunity of visiting numbers of places famed for 
their beauty. The different routes are as 
follows : 

i. Auckland to Tonga, Haapai, Vavau, Apia 
(Samoa), Fiji, and thence direct to Auckland. 
Cost, 20. Time occupied about twenty-eight 
days. This gives a day each at Tonga, Haapai, 
and Vavau, possibly two days at Apia and 
nine or ten days in Fiji ; but while awaiting 
transhipment at Suva to direct steamer for 
Auckland passengers must maintain themselves 
for about eight days. Good hotel accommoda- 
tion may be obtained for about IDS. a day, or 
at boarding-houses from 305. a week. 

This trip may be taken in the opposite 
direction for the same fare, but it is necessary 
to stop in Fiji for about eighteen days awaiting 



196 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

connecting steamer, and the time given at the 
various points of call between Fiji and Auckland 
is somewhat less. The trip would take about 
thirty-six days. 

2. Auckland to Tonga, Haapai, Vavau, Apia 
(Samoa), Fiji, Sydney, and thence direct to 
Auckland. Cost, 23. Time occupied about 
thirty-three days. This gives the same amount 
of time at the various island ports as in trip 
No. i, with the exception of Fiji, where the 
time spent is between two and three days. At 
Sydney passengers must maintain themselves for 
about five or six days awaiting steamer for 
Auckland. 

This trip, also, may be made in the opposite 
direction, and will take about the same time. 

3. Same as No. 2, via islands to Sydney, 
thence to Melbourne and back to Auckland via 
Hobart, Bluff, and New Zealand coastal ports. 
Cost, 28 IDS. Time occupied about forty-two 
days. Maintenance for three or four days in 
Sydney or Melbourne must be reckoned on. 



X 

A VISIT TO FIJI 

No artist, photographer, or journalist can convey 
to the uninitiated public any perfect conception 
of the peculiar fascination of a visit to the 
South Pacific Islands. 

The artist will realise the youthful sensations 
of romance, beauty, and dreams; the novelist 
will receive new and unexpected inspiration ; and 
the prosaic and practical will find the luxury 
and ease of his experiences different in their 
character and strangely invigorating to mind 
and body. Personally, I am conscious of some 
regret that I ever ventured among them. They 
have the power to bewitch and captivate those 
mentally constituted like Stevenson, and to chain 
them as victims. Our return home is dull. 
The waving, feathery plumes of the coco palm 
appear like a mirage, even when the last island 
has faded from view ; the merry voices and the 



198 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

laughing eyes of the natives mock us as we 
gaze over the solitary waters; and the roar of 
the angry surf upon the coral reef still echoes 
in our ears, as though to express indignation at 
our departure from one of the most beautiful 
regions of the earth. 

My first sight of the South Pacific Islands 
was disappointing. A cool, gentle breeze was 
blowing, and the eastern sky was marked with 
the first rays of the dawn. Suddenly there 
started forth upon the horizon rich, glowing 
streaks of gold, which flashed and moved like 
lightning until there appeared to be war waged 
in the heavens Nature struggling with death. 
Gradually the darkened space became wounded, 
and brilliant lights spread their radiance further 
afield until their bright reflection danced upon 
the rippled waters. Death seemed to contend 
with life for one brief, final struggle it was 
but for a moment, and then, with glory, 
majesty, and power, the sun seemed to lift 
itself from its couch and a new day was born. 
Now, all eyes are turned towards a black mass 
looming ahead like a forbidding cloud it is 
Kadavu. How disappointing it appeared to 
mel All my conceptions of romance and poetry 




THE AUTHOR AND HIS FIJIAN GUIDES. 



A VISIT TO FIJI 199 

were dissipated. A boy's imaginations, gleaned 
from his story books, and still clinging to man- 
hood, seemed to whisper the whole world was a 
lie. Nearer and nearer we approached until the 
great bulging mass swept downward into shapes 
and forms. I gazed with disgust, it was nothing 
new, the Bay of Islands was far better the 
Bass Straits gave me more delight the Thousand 
Islands have spoilt me. I return, therefore, 
to my state-room to finish my sleep and await 
the summons to breakfast. But I am restless. 
The warm, bright sunshine streams through the 
broad glass window of my deck cabin. I 
cannot sleep. Outside voices are eager in con- 
versation, and those who possess glasses are 
describing beauties I cannot recognise. I seize 
a book, the letters dance, so I decide to walk 
outside upon the deck. The scene has com- 
pletely changed. Mount Washington stands out 
boldly amidst a mass of rich green, where 
tropical flowers, fruits, and ferns flourish as 
weeds. Below is a snowy-white fringe of foam 
extending like a signet-ring around a natural 
harbour, where the roaring, plunging waves end 
in a lovely coral island, upon whose summit 
coco palms and mangoes are mingled in 



200 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

picturesque confusion. The scene is romantic. 
Angry, breaking billows caress its shores, leaving 
a narrow entrance in perfect calm. In sheltered 
spots, bordered with sparkling silver, palms of 
many varieties cluster. The background of 
these fairy bays rises with gentle curves 
and undulations, or merges abruptly into a 
deep ravine teeming with vegetable life. In 
one of these sheltered spots the Fijians have 
found a home, and quaint houses peep out from 
the shadows of cocoanut trees. Two small, 
rugged capes protect the harbour. Upon one of 
these a lighthouse has been built, and the 
whitened walls toned up the multi-coloured back- 
ground. 

The shape of Kadavu appeared at one time 
like Gibraltar Rock, but every mile changed its 
aspect, until its outline was pressed and pushed 
into erratic curves and hollows, above which 
towered majestically Mount Wellington (2750^.) 
and Mount Challenger (2i8oft.). The area of 
the island is 124 square miles, and it is separated 
from Ona by a small channel. The islands 
beyond are Mbulia, Tankuvi, Dravuni, Nmaru, 
North Rock, &c. To comprehend the wonderful 
beauty and detail of a Pacific island one needs 



A VISIT TO FIJI 201 

to supply the clouds and blue of a tropical sky, 
the shades of grey, green, black, and blue 
blending into that perfect harmony which only 
the resultant labours of a patient and skilled 
artist could paint; in fact, I believe an exact 
portraiture would win world-wide fame. It is 
this tone that the photograph lacks and the 
picture fails to reflect. 

Bega is the next island of importance. Here 
Nature seems to have reversed the order by 
putting the background of a good picture in 
front, and half hiding the palms of Storm 
Island and other beauty spots. Now Viti Levu 
is visible, and one is surprised at its size. 

As we approach we perceive boats pulling 
towards us, manned with mop-headed rowers, 
and upon the wharf a miscellaneous crowd are 
collected, consisting of Europeans, coolies, 
Fijians, Samoans, Tongans, &c. Everybody 
wears white, and the natives display their dark- 
skinned legs and arms. The only females are 
represented by a few Europeans, whose pretty 
dresses tone with tropical shades of green. The 
Fijian's hair can only be described as a mop. 
No one seeing it for the first time would imagine 
it was real hair. They look a happy and con- 



202 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

tented crowd, and carry heavy luggage with 
apparent ease, Swinging tin trunks over their 
shoulders, and often carrying a portmanteau at 
the same time. Small native boys only wore 
the sulu, and their smooth-skinned backs shone 
in the sun. 

The Fijians are a pleasant-looking people, but 
could hardly be called prepossessing in their 
features. Their broad nostrils spoil what other- 
wise might be a handsome face. They are, 
however, tall and well-built, and have a dignified, 
stately bearing. Sometimes a wild expression 
passes over the face, conveying an idea of what 
they were in their untamed past. 

The women are of the usual type of tropical 
lands, and have their figures very fully de- 
veloped, and often comely. They recall the 
coloured people of Florida and Mexico. My 
first trip in Fiji was up the Tamavua River, 
and I had an opportunity to examine the rich 
flora which grows upon its banks. The mouth 
of the river has, on either side, a dense growth 
of mangroves, but on the higher land coco 
palms, mangoes, bread-fruit, tree-ferns, bamboo, 
oranges, lemon, &c., grow as weeds. This river 
is one of the prettiest in the neighbourhood of 



A VISIT TO FIJI 203 

Suva, and some fine banana plantations can be 
viewed, together with native dwellings and other 
matters of interest to the tourist. I stopped to 
examine a clever fish-trap, and to watch natives 
spearing. The scenery was wild and beautiful. 
In the distance lofty hills and mountains ex- 
tended to the horizon, and curious freaks of 
nature bulged into fantastic shapes the nearer 
landscape. 

Butterflies, with gaily-painted wings, relieved 
the weird surroundings of impenetrable bush, 
and the wild cries or song of native birds broke 
the silence, or mingled their voices into delicious 
harmony with the strange buzz and hum of 
insect life and creatures whose whereabouts were 
hidden from view. Land crabs were very 
plentiful, and their burrows in the soft bank 
looked like the home of the sand-martin. 
Flying foxes haunt these solitudes, and with 
the first shadows of night struggle through the 
air with clumsy, bird-like flight, and the mon- 
goose lurks in every thick-set scrub. 

Suva is a township buried among trees. It 
is more like a small village than a town. The 
residents are kind and hospitable, and few 
tourists fail to be welcomed to their comfortable 



204 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

clubs. Half-a-day can be profitably spent in 
visiting the botanical gardens, Town Hall, and 
native quarters, with a drive to Government 
House and the racecourse. 

My drive from Suva to the Rewa Hotel was 
one of the most interesting experiences I have 
ever had. The bush is a natural food store, 
and fruits, yams, &c., are to be had for the 
seeking no one can starve in Fiji. The 
bananas and oranges did not appear to me to 
be superior to the products of Florida and 
California, but pineapples, cocoanuts, cocoa, and 
tobacco have, I believe, a splendid future. The 
" Lauthe " or candle-nut tree grows in wild 
abundance, and the " Ndakua " or Fijian kauri 
is a marked feature of the bush. 

One matter which struck me forcibly was the 
extraordinary prolificness of the soil. The three- 
acre allotments were, without exception, bearing 
the finest crops per area I have ever seen, and 
produce support for a family. Rice, cane, and 
cotton do well, and the castor oil plant grows 
to perfection. The rich fertile soil of Fiji has 
been formed principally from decomposed vol- 
canic rock. The eruptive action must have 
been of considerable antiquity, no recent out- 



A VISIT TO FIJI 205 

burst being perceptible, although hot springs 
exist in Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, and Ngau. 

Fiji is the healthiest tropical climate in the 
world. I had several interviews with men who 
had resided there for upwards of thirty years. 
Their appearance was robust and healthy. 
Much injury has been done to Fiji by mis- 
representation, and I must confess I visited the 
islands with certain qualms. We had a gentle- 
man on board the s.s. " Navua " who com- 
menced the voyage in an appalling state of 
health, but the round trip acted upon him like 
magic, and I believe the Union Steamship 
Company has provided the best restorative in 
the world for lung and bronchial troubles. 
Many tourists have been restrained from ventur- 
ing upon a coral reef by reading accounts of 
its dangers. I strongly recommend everyone 
who can do so to visit the reef. I walked all 
over the dry coral reef and waded knee-deep in 
the water without any accident or inconvenience. 
I was accompanied by four natives, and 
followed them everywhere. The submarine 
formations of coral, with their myriad life, have 
been, perhaps, somewhat exaggerated by the 
sentimentalist and neglected by the naturalist. 



206 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

To the majority of the British people very little 
is known concerning the Colony of Fiji. It is 
reached via Auckland, New Zealand; a regular 
fortnightly line of steamers ply between this 
port and Suva, the distance from the New 
Zealand shores being about 900 miles. Some 
people still believe Fiji is inhabited by canni- 
bals, its climate is fearfully hot, and it grows a 
few bananas and cocoanuts, and produces a little 
sugar. The fact, therefore, that this colony is 
attracting the attention of speculators all over 
the world and is fast developing important 
industries and agricultural enterprises will be a 
surprise. 

Fiji consists of about 250 islands, of which 
about eighty are inhabited. The largest are 
Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The total area of 
the islands has been estimated at 7421 square 
miles, so they are about equal in size to 
Wales. Viti Levu claims about half of this 
area and is thus larger than the island of 
Corsica. The Fiji Islands are of volcanic 
origin, well wooded, and very fertile, the south- 
eastern or weather-side being the most luxuriant, 
owing to the heavier rainfall. Here the country 
is covered with a dense jungle, unbroken except 



A VISIT TO FIJI 207 

by the clearings of planters. Most of the 
islands are high and mountainous and rise 
abruptly from the sea. There is nowhere much 
level land, hills and lovely valleys succeeding 
each other from the shore toward the interior, 
while lofty peaks rise in every direction. The 
islands are remarkably well watered, and the 
two larger have numerous streams, many of 
which are navigable by boats for a considerable 
distance. 

Fiji possesses one of the largest sugar-mills in 
the world, and thousands of acres of sugar-cane, 
bananas, and cocoanuts are being cultivated in 
the most scientific manner, with up-to-date 
appliances, by practical farmers; there are also 
large herds of cattle grazing over as fine pasture 
land as can be desired, and there is a regular 
monthly communication by means of large 
ocean-going steamers to the Commonwealth and 
to America. 

A great deal of misconception also exists with 
regard to the climate of Fiji. As the place is 
in the tropics its climate must naturally be 
warmer on an average than countries beyond 
those limits; but the extremes of heat and cold 
are never experienced. During nine months of 



208 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

the year the refreshing, exhilarating south-east 
trade winds blow over the colony, and only 
three months of bad weather is experienced. 
These three months are called the " hurricane 
season," and during that time a blow or 
hurricane may be expected, but happily this 
does not occur more than once in several years. 
There is no malarial fever in any part of the 
colony. The appearance and physique of the 
natives and pioneer settlers speak eloquently in 
favour of the climate. I never saw men looking 
healthier in any part of the world. 

For men with small capital there are many 
openings in Fiji, and now that legislation has 
made it easy to obtain land from the natives, 
either by lease for long terms at a low rental 
or by purchase, the present opportunities are 
exceptionally good. 

The cultivation of fruit, bananas, mandarins, 
oranges, pineapples, mangoes, &c., will always 
be a profitable industry. Fiji bananas are 
acknowledged to be the best in the world. 
Tinning pineapples, drying bananas, and pre- 
serving mangoes and guavas, either as jam, 
jelly, or chutney, will be profitable under- 
takings, for there is an unlimited supply of 



A VISIT TO FIJI 209 

the raw article to be procured and an unlimited 
demand for the manufactured article in the 
markets of the Australian colonies, New Zealand, 
and British North America. Cattle and horse- 
breeding pay well. Horses are increasing in 
demand owing to the opening up of the country 
by roads and the increasing area of land coming 
under cultivation. There is also an unlimited 
demand for poultry, Auckland alone sending 
about 5000 head to the colony annually. 
Dairying and pig-rearing are industries that 
give handsome returns. 

There is plenty of first-class house-building 
timber on the islands, including the famous 
kauri, and there should be no necessity for 
importing large shipments of timber from 
America. An up-to-date saw-mill would be a 
fortune to its owner, for the demand for fruit- 
cases alone is increasing rapidly. Thousands of 
these cases are imported monthly from New 
Zealand and America. 

Fiji is the home of the sugar-cane, several 
varieties growing wild. Five large mills are 
kept busy crushing the cane day and night 
during the season, from July to December; 
another large one is being now erected by a 

P 



210 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

British Columbia company, and there is room 
for a dozen more equally large mills. Rice 
grows as well in Fiji as it does in Java or 
India, and very shortly will become an im- 
portant export. Maize grows well in the drier 
parts of the colony. Cocoanuts supply most 
valuable assets in the shape of copra, which 
frequently realises 1$ per ton in the colony. 
Cotton does well, and vanilla, cocoa, tea, coffee, 
spices, tobacco, and rubber can be grown to 
advantage. New Zealand imports much cocoa, 
&c., from Suva (the capital). Of course cheap 
labour is the great essential to success where 
plantation or farming work is being engaged in, 
and there is an ample supply of this article in 
the shape of Polynesians and coolies at present 
in the colony. 

The ordinary necessaries of life, such as 
clothing and provisions, are no higher in price 
than in New Zealand, and vegetables can be 
successfully grown on the islands. So, with a 
healthy climate, land to be easily and cheaply 
obtained, and a score or more of different 
industries to choose from, I am quite safe in 
recommending persons with small capital to 
emigrate to Fiji. 



A VISIT TO FIJI 211 

The Fijians are a well-behaved people, but 
possession of property renders them very inde- 
pendent. Beyond the cultivation of small plots 
of land they appear to spend most of their 
time in fishing, bathing, and enjoying them- 
selves. They cannot be relied upon for labour. 



XI 
THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 

FEW tourists have visited the Blue Mountains, 
probably because the scenery along the railway 
through Australia is so uninteresting that they 
doubt the existence of pleasure resorts worthy of 
their notice. Throughout the Australian States 
the railways have been constructed purely on 
business principles, without regard to tourists. 
The journey from Melbourne to the South 
Australian border, or from Sydney to Queens- 
land, is monotonous, and even the most sanguine 
cannot become enthusiastic. 

The Hawkesbury, Como, Glass Mountains, 
&c., are happy exceptions to a dreary Australian 
journey; but a ride or drive are the only means 
of enjoying the charming physical features and 
attractions of the Island Continent. 

The Blue Mountains and Jenolan Caves 
compare favourably with any other part of the 




L 



THE ENTRANCE TO THE "DEVIL'S COACHHOUSE." 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 213 

world, and the most indifferent must concede to 
them a character and claim peculiarly their own. 
Govett's Leap and the Devil's Coach-house 
pleased me more than anything else. 

The Carrington Hotel, Katoomba, is the best 
centre from which to view the mountains. 
Excursion trains run from Sydney three times 
weekly, and the cost is IDS. 6d. first-class, 
55. 5d. second-class. The railway journey is 
flat and uninteresting until Penrith is reached. 
Here a pause can be made for a trip up the 
Nepean River, where wallaby and other 
marsupials frisk and gambol at sunset, undis- 
turbed by the steamer's homeward return. 

Proceeding to Katoomba, the route does not 
convey an adequate idea of the lovely ravines, 
craggy heights, and magnificent water - falls 
hidden from view, but broad expanses of forest 
growth are to be seen where mountain succeeds 
mountain, and the lesser heights appear to wave 
and bend like the troubled waves of a restless 
sea. 

At Katoomba the train is met by an army of 
porters anxious to secure patronage; but if the 
tourist is wise he will go to the Carrington 
Hotel. The train arrives at lunch-time. My 



214 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

first trip was to Echo Point. This is a short 
walk from the Carrington down the hill, where 
a splendid view is obtained of the Jamieson 
Valley. A gate is passed on the left which 
leads to the Lilianfels estate, and the path 
through the woods" is surrounded by magnificent 
views, with Leura Falls in the distance. The 
Leura Falls can be reached a nearer way, but 
the road is not so interesting. 

Another day I visited Katoomba Falls, 
driving as far as the Cascades, and then pro- 
ceeding on foot. The path leading past the 
Cascades is visible from the road, and the walk 
is enjoyable. Lizards of various sizes and 
colours appear on all sides, and, if one pauses 
to rest, they creep out from their hiding-places 
and perform amusing antics, reminding one of 
the children's game of puss-in-the-corner. They 
possess much curiosity, and approach within a 
few yards, but dart away to hide on the 
slightest movement. Bird life is in evidence in 
this locality, and near the Federal Pass grow 
rare and beautiful ferns. The Government has 
provided generously for the comfort and enjoy- 
ment of tourists, but vulgar vandalism is 
hideously conspicuous. There is a steep, wind- 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 215 

ing path leading to the awful-looking valley 
below, but the stairway and ladders are perfectly 
safe. Signboards direct the tourist everywhere, 
and the Federal Pass extends for many miles 
along the outskirts of a dense forest, consisting 
of gigantic tree-ferns and semi-tropical vegeta- 
tion. Th'is wild region often represents im- 
penetrable bush, where the lyre-bird dwells and 
the prowling dingo is safe from molestation. 
Delicate and fragrant orchids grow wild, and 
ferns and flowers luxuriate in the crevices of 
the rocks. 

Lunch should be provided for this trip. 
There is plenty of pure water everywhere. To 
explore the wonders of the locality a whole day 
should be given to it, which would allow short 
detours from the beaten track. 

The Pass terminates at the foot of Leura 
Falls. The climb to the main road is more 
difficult and laborious than the ascent* at 
Katoomba. Some of the steps are so steep that 
I found myself obliged to cling to the railings, 
and I should advise nervous or delicate persons 
to avoid this expedition. 

Nellie's Glen is reached via the Explorer's 
Tree. It is about a couple of miles from the 



216 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Carrington Hotel. The Explorer's Tree bears 
the initials of Blaxland, Lawson, and Went- 
worth, who first discovered a passage across the 
Blue Mountains in May, 1813. 

Nellie's Glen has a great reputation for 
snakes; but though I explored it from end to 
end, I only came across three. The best walk 
I took was via Glen wood, Mark Foy's, and 
Blackheath, and then by train to Katoomba. 
Mr. Wilson accompanied me in all my expedi- 
tions, rendering valuable assistance from his 
wonderful knowledge of the Australian bush. 
This walk occupied two days, and we spent the 
night at Glenwood. Next day we traversed 
some of the most beautiful scenery in the 
world. The road ascended gradually up a 
steep declivity and wound its way through a 
mighty chasm. There was a solemn stillness 
in the midst of these mountains, which seemed 
to breathe the atmosphere of another world. 

Occasionally there arose the weird cry of the 
lyre-bird, or the mournful note of the bronze- 
winged pigeon. During our lunch a flock of 
black cockatoos flew chattering and screaming 
overhead, and the growl of wombat sounded 
sepulchral beneath our feet. Upon the ledges 




STALAGMITE FORMATIONS. JEXOLAX CAVES. 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 217 

above inaccessible rocks eagles and hawks had 
built their nests, and at the foot of the precipice 
I found the bleached bones of their prey. In 
one place was the skeleton of a large kangaroo 
which had probably been killed and devoured 
on the ground, because it was too heavy to be 
conveyed to the dizzy heights. During our 
tramp I stalked a handsome lyre-bird, and 
watched its graceful movements for a consider- 
able time. Another interesting trip I took was 
from the Carrington to the Kanimbla Valley, 
where I traced in the green depths our expedi- 
tion to Glenwood, which stretched out like a 
map. 

Blackheath is the station for Govett's Leap, 
and the distance is only a short drive. The 
hotels here are very second-rate, so the trip 
should be taken from Katoomba by rail. The 
Jenolan Caves are situated some considerable 
way from the Carrington. The cheapest route 
would be by rail to Mount Victoria and then 
by coach. Motor-cars can be hired, but unless 
a person is anxious to be treated like a school- 
boy, and to feel conscious hourly of the great 
condescension of the driver in permitting one 
to enjoy oneself, he had better hire a two-horsed 



2i 8 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

conveyance. I drove with Mr. Wilson in a 
carriage and pair, calling at the Hydro. 
Medlow, Blackheath, and Mount Victoria. 
When we had passed these places the scenery 
was grand. A blue haze hung like a thin veil 
over the mountains, and wonderful lights played 
upon the valleys, plains, rocky gullies, awful 
fissures, and precipices. No description could 
do justice to this magnificent panorama, and no 
one has seen the world until brought face to 
face with this sublime handiwork of God. 

Hartley is an interesting village on the way 
to Jenolan. Mr. R. McGarry possesses a com- 
fortable inn, and does his best to make a stop 
here enjoyable. He undertakes to supply the 
sportsman with a few days' good shooting, and 
his charges are 75. per day, or ios., including 
the Use of horses and conveyances. He has 
plenty of poultry, fruit, and fresh vegetables on 
the premises. 

Hartley is the seventh oldest township in New 
South Wales, and was once a large and im- 
portant convict settlement. The surrounding 
mountains concealed many a notorious gang of 
bushrangers, and the doors and walls of the 
inn, called the Royal Hotel, still show the 







MYSTERY, JEXOLAN CAVES. 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 219 

bullet holes made by Gardner during his last 
raid, forty-five years ago. 

We visited the old Court-house, and examined 
the cells where the bushrangers had been im- 
prisoned. The names and scribbling were as 
plainly visible as though the work of yesterday. 
I copied the following: 

W. H. Crossing THAT is 
8 DAYS TWO 

LONG IN 
THIS SHOP 
W GARDNER 

A DAMN GOOD ADVICE 

IT is JOHN GUINN 

W. DAY. McKEWin. 

Mr. McGarry showed us the leg-irons and 
other interesting relics of old barbarism. A 
few hours spent in Hartley fully repay the 
delay. 

Mr. McGarry will meet parties at Mount 
Victoria if notice is given him beforehand, and 
the Imperial Hotel is a good place to stop at 
in Mount Victoria if the tourist should desire 
to break the journey there. 



220 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

"THE DEVIL'S COACH-HOUSE" AND "GRAND 
ARCH." 

Among the names I observed on the cell 
walls at Hartley was that of McKewin. This 
bushranger evaded capture for a very long time. 
He carried on his depredations in different parts 
of the Hartley and Fish River districts; but 
although frequently tracked to the mountainous 
region, then unexplored, he always managed to 
disappear in a most mysterious manner. At 
last two mounted troopers, accompanied by Mr. 
Charles Whalan, managed to solve the mystery. 
It was concluded that McKewin 's retreat must be 
in one of the numerous gullies, and the party deter- 
mined to explore them thoroughly. After much 
labour his hut was discovered on a little flat in one 
of the most secluded mountain gorges. It was 
surrounded during the night, and the bush- 
ranger was captured. Next day the party made 
its way down the gully, and came suddenly 
in sight of a huge cavern in the hillside whose 
entrance was nearly 3Ooft. in height. Passing 
into it, they clambered over gigantic boulders 
to a tunnel-like passage at the other end, which 
led them to the banks of a creek, which 
emerged from a similar cavern to their right. 




STALACTITE FORMATIONS, JEXOLAN CAVES. 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 221 

Thus were first discovered the great caves now 
known as the Devil's Coach-house and Grand 
Arch. 

For many years it was believed that 
McKewin had a secret hoard among these hills, 
and many a hunt there was after it; but all 
that ever was found was the remains of a rum- 
keg. In a cave not very far from his hut 
there has since been found a set of bullock- 
bows, which he stole from one of Mr. Whalan's 
teams. McKewin was lodged in Hartley Gaol, 
afterwards tried by a Sydney jury, sentenced 
and transported to Norfolk Island, where he 
died. 

The district beyond Hartley was full of wild 
cattle. Parties of sporting men came here 
merely for the purpose of " beef -hunting," as 
it was called, and it was during some of their 
exploits that they came in contact with the 
wonderful Jenolan Caves. They, however, 
rarely penetrated far, and nothing was done 
practically until Mr. Jeremiah Wilson and party 
explored them, submitting to all kinds of hard- 
ships. Mr. Wilson was afterwards appointed 
Keeper of the Caves by the Government. 

The Blue Mountains furnished retreats for 



222 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

many famous bushrangers, and scarcely any 
desolate ravine was without its story of robbery 
and bloodshed, 

In June, 1859, the mail coach was on its way 
from Bathurst to Sydney. There were only 
two passengers, one of them being the Hon. 
L. H. Bay ley, Attorney-General for the Colony. 
When they were slowly ascending a long hill near 
Mount Victoria, the driver was startled by the ap- 
pearance of a man with a gun and a peremptory 
order to Stop. The unarmed driver was forced to 
obey, escape being impossible. 

"Chuck out the mail-bags!" was the next 
command. 

"I must not do that," said the driver; "if 
you want them you must take them yourself." 

All this time the bushranger, who had a piece 
of blanket or bag over his head, with a hole 
cut in it to Bee through, kept his double- 
barrelled gun presented. Three times he re- 
peated the order, and was disobeyed; at last he 
said, "I have asked you three times; I don't 
want to shoot you; but, by God, if you don't 
give me the bags I will." The driver then got 
upon the box and threw the bags out, the gun 
pointing at his head the whole time. When 







MR. COOKE, OF KIA ORA. 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 223 

all the bags were on the road in a heap, the 
bushranger, still keeping his gun ready, and 
with a large horse pistol sticking out of his 
belt, ordered the driver to proceed. This he 
did, and then continued on his way to Hartley, 
where several mounted troopers happened to be 
at the time, and reported the matter. 

Kia Ora is the best stopping- place for 
Jenolan Caves. Coaches from Mount Victoria 
pass the door just before the descent of the Five 
Mile Hill. Mr. Cooke, the proprietor, is a 
keen sportsman, and marsupial game abound in 
great numbers. 

The district is outside the limits of reserve 
where game is protected. The zoologist, 
naturalist, and hunter can explore these forest 
glades, and will find them a sporting paradise 
for marsupials. A mountain path, winding 
through exquisite scenery, brings one to the 
home of the wombat. We spent some time 
examining their roomy excavations, and heard 
their fierce growls when the dog attacked them 
in their dens. These creatures are like a fat 
bear in dwarfed proportions, and, though sleepy 
and harmless, are armed with sharp claws, 
which render them formidable foes to the 



224 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

average dog. We passed many wallabies. 
Sometimes we discovered them in small mobs 
of four and five, or singly, as they paused to 
regard us with their dreamy eyes ere they 
bounded away to the mountain retreats. 

I stalked one wallaby, and stood watching 
him unobserved for a long time. He appeared 
to combine the actions of a monkey and a 
rabbit. He would seize with his front claws 
the low-growing branches, and, drawing them 
down, feed upon the tender leaves, or, rabbit- 
like, munch the grass and herbage. While we 
were sitting on a boulder at the entrance of the 
Devil's Coach-house, a handsome rock wallaby 
darted past us into the cave. At night-time 
we heard the strange cry of the koala or 
Australian bear. The voice of this marsupial 
is so human that the most experienced persons 
are deceived by it. These animals are fre- 
quently found on the land adjoining Mr. Cooke's 
house. We spent delightful evenings in the 
woods hunting opossum and flying squirrels. 
The former hang by their tails to the branches, 
and are easily detected in the moonlight. 

The silver opossum somewhat resembles the 
Canadian racoon, and half-a-dozen skins make a 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 225 

nice present to a friend. The flying-fox looks 
like a huge crow as it wings its way after sun- 
set to its feeding-grounds. As we walked 
through the forest we would occasionally flush 
them. Their movements were somewhat startling 
as they darted towards us, and then clumsily 
disappeared in an opposite direction. 

Lyre-birds are plentiful near Kia Ora. Their 
numbers here are believed to be increasing, and 
the young birds, driven from their breeding- 
grounds, wander within view of this place. 

The wanga - wanga, which is the largest 
Australian ground-dove, is often heard in the 
neighbourhood, and the dingo prowls in the 
secluded valleys, only venturing near man's 
habitation when seeking a change of diet. 
Their wolf-like moans echo through the moun- 
tains at night, and convey a romantic sense of 
danger to the surroundings. They are difficult 
to approach, but Mr. Cooke knows where to find 
them among the mountains. 

The caves near Jenolan are very numerous, 
and only a few have so far been explored. 
Dark hollows and mysterious recesses appear 
everywhere one goes. Their approach, however, 
often requires a difficult and painful climb. 

Q 



226 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The Jenolan Caves were discovered at the 
beginning of the last century. Near Kia Ora 
is Wild Bull's Creek, famous for wild cattle 
in years gone by. These animals were once a 
common menace, and many a pioneer had 
narrow escapes. Sometimes it happened that 
the bulls were slightly wounded, and, smarting 
with pain, took to flight. These brutes never 
forgot their wounds, and would afterwards 
scent, and track down, everyone who approached 
their haunts. Wild cattle are now scarce, but 
considerable numbers dwell in the mountain 
retreats beyond the frequented roads. 

Eight miles from Kia Ora some fair fishing 
can be obtained on the Duckmaloi River. This 
place is considered an excellent fishing-ground. 
Bass averaging i5lb. to 2olb. are sometimes 
bagged. The mixed fishing consists of rainbow 
and brown trout, perch, and Murray cod. 

Mr. Cooke undertakes to meet passengers at 
Mount Victoria Station if he receives a few 
days' notice. The fare is 2 is. return. The 
terms for board and lodging are 6s. per day. 
Mr. Cooke can provide horses, guns, and 
rifles. His shot-guns require 12-bore cartridges, 
and rifles Nos. 22, 32, and 44. Ammunition, 




A NATIVE BEAK SEEN AT KIA ORA. 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 227 

wines, spirits, &c., must be provided by the 
tourist. 

Kia Ora is scrupulously ctean, and contains 
seven comfortable rooms. No extra charge is 
made for making up luncheons for shooting 
parties. Mr. Cooke is an excellent photographer, 
and one of the best all-round sportsmen to be 
found in Australia. He showed us plenty of 
game, and we made up a good bag. 

Kia Ora is 4iooft. above sea-level, and over- 
looks magnificent scenery. To the botanist the 
local flora will provide ample interest. Among 
the most noteworthy is the Venus Fly-trap. 
This carnivorous plant grows within five miles. 
The sensitive plant can be obtained within 
eighteen miles, and it has been estimated that 
there are no less than 385 varieties of local 
plant-life. 

With reference to creatures of reptilian char- 
acter, huge iguanas are found measuring 5ft., 
and carpet and diamond snakes of immense size. 
Bats are well represented, from the beautiful 
flying-philanger to the cavern-haunting varieties. 
The Jenolan Caves are very similar to the lime- 
stone formations found elsewhere. The lime- 
stone belt extends from the Grand Archway for 



228 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

three miles in a north direction, and is dotted 
here and there with caves. Some of these are 
very beautiful, but difficult of access. The most 
distant are the Bushranger's Cave and McKewin's 
Hole. A little over a mile from the Grand 
Archway, on the eastern side of McKewin's 
Creek, is the entrance to the Mammoth Cave. 
This cave is very extensive, but difficult and 
dangerous to explore. It contains many vast 
and gloomy caverns, whose floors are strewn 
with huge rocks. Here and there are awful 
chasms, which descend to the level of the 
present underground waterway. Lower down 
McKewin's Creek, on the opposite side and 
nearly half-a-mile from the Grand Archway, are 
the Frenchman's Cave and Glass Caves. Both 
these contain many beautiful deposits, and may, 
in the future, be opened to the public, especially 
if they are found to be connected with the 
Imperial Cave. Half-a-mile south from the 
Grand Archway is the Bottomless Pit, said to 
be over three hundred feet deep, and to contain 
some fine formations. 

The Imperial Cave was discovered by Mr. 
J. Wilson in 1870. He descended a chasm in 
the Elder Cave and landed on the floor of the 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 229 

Imperial Cave. Further investigation revealed 
an entrance from the Grand Archway. 

The Grand Archway may be considered the 
gate to the Jenolan Caves. Here the tourist 
enters subterranean chambers where through 
long ages eternal darkness reigned. These are 
now lighted up with electric and magnesium 
lights, and all the hidden beauties of grotto and 
cavern are revealed. 

Near one entrance is the Wool-shed Chamber, 
where the roofs and walls resemble fleeces of 
wool. The stalactites and stalagmites of other 
caves are fine, and the shawls, sparkling cascade 
formations, translucent white pillars, showers of 
glistening pendants, and wonderful mysteries are 
remarkably beautiful. The photographs convey 
a good idea of these formations, and in no 
respect exaggerate them. 



XII 



NEW ZEALAND. THE BAY OF ISLANDS. 
THE THREE KINGS 

NEW ZEALAND comprises two principal islands 
and some smaller ones, between 33deg. and 
53deg. S. lat. The North and South Islands 
have a total coast line of 4020 miles. In North 
Island the land is so narrow in places that 
the ocean is visible on both sides of it. 
The climatic conditions in Auckland are very 
erratic, and the winters cold, damp, and un- 
suitable for persons subject to rheumatism and 
kindred complaints. New Zealand, unlike 
Australia, has snow-clad mountain ranges, active 
volcanoes, and hundreds of boiling springs. In 
South Island the lakes depend for the water 
supply upon the melting of the snow upon the 
mountains. 

Wellington, the capital of the Dominion, is 
situated in an exposed position in the south of 




A MAORI WOMAN, NEW ZEALAND. 



NEW ZEALAND 231 

North Island, and is subject almost daily to 
cold, violent winds. 

New Zealand has been over-advertised and 
ridiculously exaggerated. During the twelve 
months I spent in the country I experienced 
many disappointments. The scenery is decidedly 
beautiful, but when compared with other parts 
of the world, it is insignificant, and the railway 
service in North Island is inferior to any other 
part of our Empire. 

A person is apt to be attracted to farming in 
New Zealand on account of the superiority of 
the exported meat. Australian mutton and 
lamb are equally good when killed on the land, 
but deteriorate sadly on account of the long 
distances the animals travel before they reach 
the slaughter sheds. One finds that exported 
meat from the Argentine is often superior to 
Canterbury lamb when it has been killed near 
a seaport. I have eaten lamb killed on farms 
in all three countries, and found very little 
difference in the quality and flavour. 

The Waikato Plains are fifty miles south of 
Auckland. Here there are good opportunities 
of obtaining land at low rates, but these cannot 
remain long. This locality represents the 



232 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

turnip-growing district. The soil is light and 
dry, and can be worked at any time. The 
rain finds no lodgment, but is absorbed rapidly. 
There are no high, cutting winds as in South 
Island. The winter is fairly mild, and satis- 
factory returns are obtained from cows, the 
average during the best months being from 
i 53. to i los. per cow per month. 

In respect of the quality of the land for 
dairying, though Waikato is not so fertile or so 
productive of grass as other parts, it has many 
compensating advantages. The mild climate of 
this district enables dairying to be carried on 
throughout the year. The ease and cheapness 
with which heavy crops of swedes can be grown 
ensure an ample supply of winter feed. Young 
cows can be purchased from $ to 7 IDS. 
per head. The Waikato land is worth from 
2 to 4 per acre in the rough, and from 6 
to 12 in a cultivated state. 

The vicinity of Hamilton and Frankton 
Junction offers special advantages, because it is 
accessible to the best stock and produce market 
in the district. At Hamilton from 150 to 200 
fat cattle and from 500 to 1500 sheep are sold 
fortnightly. Hamilton stands in the centre of 



NEW ZEALAND 233 

the farming interests. The lines run north to 
Auckland, south to Taumarunui and Wanganui, 
east to Cambridge, Rotorua, Te Aroha, the 
Thames, and Waihi. All trains converge at 
Hamilton, and run as feeders eighty miles to 
Auckland, and the same distance to Wanganui, 
Rotorua, and the Thames. The coal from 
Huntly passes through this town to the Waihi 
goldfields and other points, and the timber 
from the King Country for all points east; 
hence Hamilton has cheap coal and timber. 
More progress has been made in land settlement 
in the neighbourhood of Hamilton during the 
past five years than in any previous fifteen, 
and it is my opinion that this town might be 
made the most important centre of the agricul- 
tural industry in New Zealand, and investment 
here is absolutely safe. 

During my explorations of the Waikato 
Plains I was the guest of Mr. J. Gordon, of 
Eurek#. This gentleman possesses a magnificent 
estate, about ten miles from Hamilton. He 
landed in New Zealand forty years ago without 
capital. Procuring work as a farm labourer, 
he gradually worked his way up until he 
became the chief man. He avoided the com- 



234 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

pany of intemperate persons, and in due course 
saved from his earnings sufficient money to 
purchase a few acres. This land he tilled and 
managed single - handed. His harvests were 
successful, and his stock brought him good 
returns, so that he was able to increase the 
size of his homestead. He possesses now a 
beautiful country house, and from a labourer 
has become a most influential man in social 
and political life, with all the natural refinement 
and gentility which educated people love. I 
spent harvest-time with him, and was amazed 
at his splendid hay-crop. 

Mr. Gordon is wealthy and independent, but 
he still continues to work side by side with 
his farm-hands. His orchards and vegetable 
gardens were in excellent condition. 

The Waikato is the best place just now for 
the capitalist, but for general work I should 
recommend Poverty Bay. The conditions pre- 
vailing elsewhere do not justify me in mention- 
ing them. Fortune-hunters should give New 
Zealand a wide berth unless they have several 
thousand pounds to invest. 

The most enjoyable pleasure trip I had in 
New Zealand was to the Bay of Islands, &c. 




A SHARK CAPTURED IN THE BAY OF ISLANDS, NEW ZEALAND. 



NEW ZEALAND 235 

This excursion is hardly referred to in the 
guide-books, though it is worthy of the first 
place. In the early days, the Bay of Islands 
was New Zealand's best - known harbour. 
Captain Cook named the port from the cluster- 
ing islets which are grouped to the seaward 
opening. The locality is famous for historical 
tragedies and events. In 1772 the natives 
barbarously murdered here the unfortunate 
Marion de Fresne and his crew. At Karorareka 
the first rude settlement was formed, the 
inhabitants consisting of runaway sailors, 
escaped convicts, and other desperate characters. 
In 1814 the Rev. Samuel Marsden preached 
his first sermon here, and, on recommenda- 
tions from subsequent missionaries, Great Britain 
gradually assumed the right of supremacy. 

The country was not easily subdued, and 
many spots mark the sites of murder, blood- 
shed, and battle. At Waitangi are the ruins 
of the old British residency, and on the oppo- 
site side of the river the Monument and Treaty 
Hill. The church at Russell shows the marks 
of bullets, and some of the early settlers' houses 
still stand. The surrounding country is sparsely 
settled, the population being on the decrease. 



236 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Leaving the Bay of Islands, the steamer 
passes by some picturesque island groups, and 
then enters the harbour of Whangaroa. The 
passage is through a narrow gap between lofty 
cliffs, undermined with dark archways and many 
weird caves. Huge tree-ferns grow in the 
ravines beyond, and the surface of the land- 
locked water is adorned with romantic islands. 
Rocky heights tower above the shores, forming 
fantastic shapes and figures. This harbour is 
one of the beauty spots of the world, and yet 
it has been the scene of the most barbarous 
cruelties and cannibal orgies. 

On a picturesque island near the entrance the 
Maories once dragged some hapless sailors and 
butchered and ate them. Underneath the shadow 
of Mount St. Paul lies the wreck of the 
" Boyd," still visible near the water's surface. 
The massacre of her crew took place in 1809, 
and was an act of vengeance rather than deliber- 
ate cannibalism. "George," the son of a 
Maori chief, had a grudge against the captain, 
who had ordered him to be whipped on board 
for some trifling offence. This cruel treatment 
became known to the natives, and a plot was 
formed to murder the whole crew. 



NEW ZEALAND 237 

The " Boyd " visited Whangaroa for timber. 
The captain and Some of his men were con- 
ducted by the natives up the Kaeo River to a 
fine forest of Kahikatea. Here they were 
suddenly attacked and slaughtered. 

The Maories took the bodies of their victims 
to Square Hill, close to the site of the present 
hotel, and there feasted upon them. When they 
had finished their loathsome meal they dressed 
themselves in the sailors' clothes, and, taking 
the ship's boat, went down to the harbour to 
the " Boyd." As they approached " George " 
hailed the ship, and, going alongside, easily 
took possession. Everybody was killed without 
mercy, except a woman and a boy. The ship 
was then rifled, and old Maories relate how the 
goods were sampled. Sugar was rejected because 
it looked like sand, but they chewed the soap 
until it frothed out of their mouths. 

The natives tried to tow the " Boyd " to their 
settlement at Pupuke, and for a time succeeded 
fairly well, but she grounded near Yellow Island, 
and then, by some means, caught fire, and ulti- 
mately sank. Within the memory of some old 
settlers I interviewed, her forlorn timbers stood 
out of the water at low tide. The trip to the 



238 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Bay of Islands not only furnishes scope for the 
artist and photographer, but supplies the angler 
with the finest sea-fishing to be obtained in the 
world. 

Canada's ferocious maskinonge is represented 
by the voracious shark; Florida's plunging 
tarpon by the weighty load of a mighty har- 
puka; Scotland's fighting salmon by the frenzied 
struggles of the kingfish. 

The s.s. " Clansman," of the Northern Steam- 
ship Company of New Zealand, undertakes the 
Island voyage every week, and carries on board 
an oil launch, which is generally placed at the 
free disposal of the passengers. On one occa- 
sion I started with a party for Stephenson's 
Island, and anchored about three miles from 
the mainland. Scarcely had we let down our 
lines, baited with shark and beef, before the 
fish commenced to strike, and the hauling in 
of harpuka was rarely accomplished without 
assistance. There was no playing the fish or 
need for skilful handling of the line, but 
from beginning to end a hard tug-of-war. 
When I got my first bite I fully believed my 
hooks were entangled in a rock, and summoned 
an experienced fisherman to my aid. We then 



NEW ZEALAND 239 

commenced to haul in with our united strength, 
and it was not until a hideous head appeared 
above the surface that I knew for certain it was 
not an anchor or rock. The fish weighed 
loolb., and the dragging of the monster into 
the boat nearly upset it. The harpuka remained 
dazed for a few seconds, but before it was killed 
fought desperately, lashing furious blows with 
its tail and causing considerable excitement. 
Persons who are ignorant of the strength of this 
fish should be careful in striking it quickly on 
the head. During the afternoon we bagged four 
harpuka, weighing from 27lb. to loolb., and a 
good haul of schnapper and rock cod. This sport 
is rather wet and painful work without rough 
gloves and mackintosh. My hands were bleed- 
ing before I landed the first fish, and subse- 
quently I could scarcely handle a line. 

At Mongonui our party shot a dozen brace 
of wild duck, three pheasants, and some 
beautiful native pigeons. 

Two or three miles from Mongonui is Doubt- 
less Bay, the landing-place of the Pacific cable. 
The gentleman in charge of the station gave 
me a hearty reception and made my visit 
exceedingly interesting and instructive. 



2 4 o RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The Northern Steamship Company's office is 
opposite the wharf. First-class tickets for the 
round trip are sold for 2 125. The complete 
voyage occupies five days, and is the best 
money's worth to be found in any part of the 
world. 

Rotorua has been so elaborately described that 
it is unnecessary for me to do so. Generally 
speaking, I found the published photographs of 
this place created disappointment. 

The Maori girls ruin their appearance by 
dressing like Europeans, and reminded me 
somewhat of sacks tied round the middle. 

New Zealand's remarkable fauna is rapidly 
disappearing. The ornithologist must travel to 
Stewart Island to enjoy himself. Here the 
indigenous birds are fairly plentiful. All over 
the ranges south of Paterson's Inlet the large 
kiwi is as abundant as in pre-European or 
pre-Maori days. Over the shrubs and sedges 
of wet lands the fern-bird is found. The 
Maori-hen greets the wanderer with friendly 
welcome whenever he pauses to rest. Flocks 
of godwits soar above the waters of the 
inlet, and the lovely native pigeon can 
frequently be seen high in the pine-trees, 




THE HARPUKA CAUGHT NEAR \VHANGAROA, NEW ZEALAND. 



NEW ZEALAND 241 

banqueting on the berries of the miro. The 
bushman's friend, the robin, will almost feed 
out of one's hand. 

The kaka is conspicuous, the tui and mako 
mako fill the forest with melody, and a keen 
observer will discover numerous small birds, 
such as the rifleman, wren, &c. 

Sea-fowl haunt the seashore. The Stewart 
Island shag, with its handsome white breast, 
is a striking feature of the wild coast. The 
morepoke sounds his mournful note at night, 
and the white heron stalks majestically among 
the reed-beds. 

The kea is found in the Otago country, 
and has a very bad reputation. It has been 
known to attack both sheep and cattle. A 
traveller related the following incident to 
me. A man exploring the ranges north of 
Lake Wanaka fell from the mountain path, 
and was instantly killed. A search-party was 
organised to ascertain his fate, and, when 
his body was found, a number of keas 
hovered around the spot. These birds flew 
from the corpse, which they had attacked. 
The clothing was torn open, and both 
kidneys had been removed. Shortly after- 

R 



242 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

wards the keas attacked a pack-mule, tethered 
close to the camp, and the animal could 
only rid himself of these fierce birds by 
lying down and rolling. 

The Three Kings are passed during the 
voyage to New Zealand via Sydney. These 
islands are much dreaded by navigators, and 
are surrounded by dangerous reefs and 
sunken rocks. Many terrible tragedies have 
taken place here, and on the last occasion 
of my passing them I became acquainted 
with a survivor from the wreck of the 
" Elingamire." The " Elingamite " struck upon 
a rock during a dense fog. Immediately it 
became impossible to stand on deck without 
support, but the waves did not break over 
her until she was on the point of settling 
down. When the water reached her boilers 
it shot up like a geyser. All the loose 
fittings came adrift and an empty horse-box 
floated astern. She hit a rock about 100 
yards from the cliff, and finally rested on a 
ledge thirty yards distant. The " Elingamite " 
had ,17,000 on board. She now lies 175 
feet below the surface. 

" The first intimation I had that something 



NEW ZEALAND 243 

was wrong," remarked the narrator, " was 
the appearance of the rudder-head through 
the deck, her double steering-wheels having 
snapped off. I had my money in a leather 
strap, but many passengers lost everything. 
While I endeavoured to collect some of my 
personal effects the boat continued to bump, and 
the water soon rose level with the portholes." 

The passengers now showed themselves in 
their true colours, the true gentleman being 
in evidence in contrast to the cowardly, 
selfish sneak. Above the shouts and screams 
could be heard the vilest language. 

Many persons perished when the ship went 
down. Some appeared to go mad and jumped 
overboard before a boat could be lowered. 
The old people were thrust aside in the 
general rush without consideration for their 
misery and despair. It was a struggle for 
life. Those who kept their heads and remained 
cool were chiefly among the survivors. The 
general conduct appeared as though everybody 
thought only of himself. Even in this hateful 
condition of things the people could be classed 
into three divisions: 

i. Those who grasped the whole position 



244 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

and realised that in trying to preserve their own 
lives they would probably save others. 

2. Those who only wanted to save them- 
selves. 

3. Those who determined to save themselves 
even at the sacrifice of others. These loathsome 
characters had to be watched. They were 
responsible for the most awful calamities. They 
fought and grappled to get a place on the 
rafts, and even pushed others off to make 
room for themselves. 

Persons who did the least to save others 
talked the most afterwards. 

The sailors seized a case of gin and got 
drunk. This led to quarrels and fights. 

On the middle island seventy people were 
landed, with the captain in charge. There were 
only three boats. One was smashed and the 
other steered for New Zealand. 

The survivors possessed a few apples and 
some stimulants. Some of the better-class women 
gave their clothes to the children, and then, 
when they shivered with cold and wanted to 
huddle among the mothers, the mothers objected 
and showed no gratitude whatever. Some women 
made fishing-tackle out of their stay-laces and 



NEW ZEALAND 245 

hooks from hair-pins, and managed to catch a 
few fish from the rocks, which they ate raw. 

My friend managed to drift on a raft to the 
nearest shore, and suffered many privations. He 
explored the island, but only found a few flat- 
tailed lizards, sea-birds, and a small black land- 
bird like a sparrow. 

He finally discovered some wild goats, but 
they were so wild he could not capture them. 
He fed chiefly on shellfish, and managed to find 
fresh water. After three days of suffering all 
were rescued and taken safely to Auckland. 



XIII 

ADVENTURES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 

TASMANIA, VICTORIA, AND THE 

NORTHERN TERRITORY 

THE State of South Australia only requires 
proper advertisement to render it famous as 
a health resort. Near the northern border the 
conditions are somewhat similar to the land 
east of Bombay, but the beautiful mountains 
which surround Adelaide produce some of 
the best fruit in the world. 

The tourist and ornithologist will find the 
Adelaide Mountains a birds' paradise, and a 
trip to Murray Bridge will furnish sport for 
rod and gun. 

On November 22nd, 1905, I drove from 
Adelaide to explore the hill-country. The 
road lies through Unley, and magnificent 
views of sea and forest extend on all sides. 
After driving through beautiful woods, I arrived 







THE MOUNTAIN ROAD, S.A. 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 247 

at a deep gully, where a stone wall guarded a 
yawning chasm. Here a dreadful accident once 
occurred to a picnic party. The coach upset at 
the bend of the road, and all the passengers 
were hurled into the awful abyss and everyone 
was killed. 

English song-birds have been liberated in 
the locality, and the voice of the skylark, 
goldfinch, thrush, and linnet fill the woods with 
sweet melody, which is very refreshing to an 
Englishman's ears. 

Belair is the central railway station for the 
Mountains and National Park. I had a Govern- 
ment licence to shoot and collect native birds for 
scientific purposes. The shrike-tit is a very 
ferocious and handsome little bird, and, when 
wounded, will fight fiercely for life, even attack- 
ing its pursuer. The lovely kingfishers act in 
the same way, uttering defiant screams. 

Some distance beyond Belair is the habitat of 
the wonderful emu-wren. This bird has a small 
body, but a tail of remarkable length and shape, 
which it carries erect. The emu-wren is fairly 
tame and can be studied here. 

Aldgate possesses a fair hotel, where lunch 
can b had at a reasonable cost. 



248 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

I returned to Adelaide via the " Eagle-on- 
the-hill " and the Devil's Elbow. Serious 
accidents have occurred at the latter spot, where 
the road descends abruptly and turns off at 
acute angles. The scenery on the summit is 
beautiful. The mountain path winds and turns 
among hills, valleys, ravines, glens, and precipices, 
and beyond appears the city nestling in an open 
plain. 

The round trip requires a whole day. Con- 
veyances can be hired for i y but if taken at 
noon I2S. 6d, 

During my rambles in South Australia I 
spent some time on the Murray River, putting 
up at the Bridgeport Hotel, Murray Bridge. 
The river is spanned by a fine bridge, and 
waterfowl frequent the swamps and mud-flats. 
Duck, heron, ibis, stork, plover, coot, curlew, 
and mudlarks can be flushed everywhere. There 
is an island about two miles from Murray 
Bridge which I named Snake Island. This is 
a famous breeding-place for land-birds. I pro- 
cured here the King Edward parrot, diamond- 
birds, reed-birds, and some rare hawks. Land- 
ing one morning to follow some rare finches, I 
suddenly found myself face to face with a wild 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 249 

bull. He seemed as surprised as I was, but 
soon recovered, and came at me, pawing the 
ground, lashing his tail, and bellowing furiously. 
I was obliged to crawl for safety through some 
dense tangled scrub, where the bull could not 
follow me. When I had got beyond his reach 
I found some difficulty in extricating myself, 
and was thoroughly exhausted before I arrived 
at the boat. 

Snake Island is about a mile long. The best 
place to land is near the centre, on the opposite 
side to the mud-flats. The swampy side of the 
island is full of snakes, and it is necessary to 
be careful in walking. I always gave snakes 
plenty of time to get out of my way, which 
they appeared on most occasions anxious to do. 
Sometimes a young Englishman accompanied 
me, who made a great noise with a stick, 
striking the bushes. I frequently warned him, 
but he ridiculed my advice. One day, while he 
was lashing some small shrubs a few yards in 
front of me, he struck a huge snake, which had 
coiled itself on the trunk of a tree. 

The enraged reptile darted forward to bite 
him, but, fortunately, missed its aim. I had 
just emerged from some thick ti-tree, when I 



250 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

heard a shout of warning, " Look out for a 
snake! " This advice came just in time. The 
creature was retreating in my direction. Its 
movements were extraordinary. It appeared to 
jump backwards rather than glide, and had 
evidently received a violent blow. 

When the snake perceived me, it lifted up its 
hideous head and prepared to strike. It was 
a critical moment, because I was not aware 
that diamond-snakes were harmless. Death seemed 
to stare me in the face. My gun wabbled as 
I lifted it to my shoulder. I fired twice in 
quick succession, aiming at the snake's head. 
A great commotion in the tall grass was the 
result, and, when this ceased, I ventured to 
approach it. My first shot blew off the reptile's 
head, and the second perforated the skin. My 
friend had rather a bad time of it, being in 
the line of fire, though some hundred yards 
away. 

Snakes are never visible on cold days. A 
half-dried swamp is their favourite haunt. I 
have seen them in great numbers in such places, 
and heard them disappear into their holes with 
a disgusting, slimy sound. 

Queensland snakes attain to a great size, but 



TASMANIA 251 

the Murray River varieties vary from four to 
nine feet. The black snake is the most 
venomous. Sometimes battles take place between 
the iguana and the snake. I had an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing one of these encounters, in 
which the snake was killed. 

The Tasmanian Lakes afford excellent sport. 
Platypi, wolf, and devil are found in this 
locality, and the mixed fishing is good. The 
route is via Hobart and New Norfolk to 
Macquarie Plains, and then by coach to the 
lakes. Arrangements must be made beforehand, 
and provisions, &c., provided. Mr. J. Clarke, 
at Ellendale, provides accommodation, but does 
not possess a licence to sell beer, &c. 

The journey to New Norfolk along the River 
Derwent is delightful. Summer is the only 
suitable time for the lakes. Their locality is 
associated with many historical tragedies of the 
early days. Both natives and bushrangers con- 
gregated here to harass the pioneer settlers. 

On one occasion two separate parties of con- 
victs absconded from Macquarie Harbour in 
June, 1824. They managed to seize a boat, 
and when they had rowed twelve miles, they 
moored it to a stump, and wrote across the 



252 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

stern, " To be sold." Some of these men were 
never heard of again, but Brady and his fol- 
lowers soon became notorious for cruelty and 
numerous outrages. 

A surgeon who fell into their hands was 
stripped of his clothes, and only escaped 
flogging by the intercession of Brady, who took 
a fancy to him. Some escaped convicts actually 
became cannibals, and Alexander Pearce was 
hanged at Hobart for this and other crimes. 

The tourist who explores the unbeaten paths 
of the wilds may discover for himself ruins and 
relics of these bushrangers. I found an old 
rusty fetter which had been filed off, and came 
across ruined huts. The uncertainty of these 
chance discoveries adds zest to the Tasmanian 
bush. A curious hut was found on St. 
Patrick's Plains beyond the Great Lake. At 
a distance it resembled a huge, fallen tree, but 
in its centre and sides were doors which over- 
looked the whole plain. 

The notorious Brady became a perfect terror 
to country farmers, and many abandoned their 
homesteads, whilst others fortified and loop- 
holed their dwellings, as in a state of war. In 
July, 1824, some bushrangers under James 



TASMANIA 253 

Crawford attacked a house on the River 
Derwent, and, having plundered it, made the 
occupants prisoners and compelled them to carry 
the spoils to their retreat. On the road, they 
met Mr. Taylor, jun., and forced him to 
accompany them to his father's farm. The 
family observed the bushrangers' approach, and 
armed themselves. Young Taylor shouted to 
his father, and managed to slip away. Then 
the battle commenced, and many dreadful deeds 
were done. Young Taylor, creeping up to take 
his share in the fighting, saw a bushranger 
holding a levelled gun at his father. He 
bravely ran towards him, and, seizing the 
ruffian by the throat, threw him to the ground. 
This brought another villain to the rescue, and 
in the struggle the son was killed. 

On another occasion Brady captured Mr. 
Kemp's overseer and used him as a ruse to 
gain admission to his master's house. It was 
a very dark night, and Mr. Kemp, recognising 
his man's voice, opened the door, and the 
ruffians rushed in. They robbed and plundered 
the whole place. 

One of the most daring exploits of the bush- 
rangers was the taking of the town of Sorrell 



254 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

and the capture of the gaol. A party of 
soldiers were sent in pursuit, and they were 
watched by spies. After wandering all day, the 
soldiers sat down to refresh themselves, stacking 
their arms. A signal was given to Brady, who, 
hurrying to the spot with a few picked men, 
took possession of all their guns and ammuni- 
tion and locked the soldiers up in Sorrell Gaol. 

These many outrages led to vigilant measures 
by the authorities, which only increased the re- 
vengeful spirit of the bushrangers. One of 
their favourite pastimes was to force the people 
who fell into their hands to drink to excess. 
One man they compelled to drink a large 
quantity of rum, with a loaded pistol at his 
head. Then they led him off the farm and 
left him. He was afterwards discovered by a 
shepherd, who saw a dog fondly lick the face 
of a prostrate man. When he approached the 
spot he lifted the poor sufferer to a sitting 
position, but he only opened his lips to request 
a drink of water, and then fell back dead. 

Large sums of money were offered for the 
capture of these bushrangers, and the people 
of Hobart formed themselves into a guard to 
enabte the regular sotdiers and constables to 




1YPICAL BUSH SCENERY, VICTORIA. 



TASMANIA 255 

seek them in their haunts. The robbers, how- 
ever, were mounted, and moved so rapidly from 
place to place, that, as fast as their pursuers 
arrived at one spot, they would be reported 
plundering and murdering elsewhere. When 
Jeffries was a prisoner at Launceston, the bush- 
rangers sent word to the gaol that they would 
carry him off and put him to death. Their 
message, of course, was treated with contempt, 
but they landed and advanced to the residence 
of Mr. Day, who was then entertaining a 
number of his friends. The bushrangers 
plundered the house, and were packing up their 
booty when Colonel Balfour arrived with ten 
soldiers. The robbers retreated to the back 
part of the premises, and fired into the rooms. 
It was dark, and when the firing ceased they 
were supposed to have retreated. 

The Colonel, with four of his men, hastened 
to protect the town, to which a division of the 
bushrangers had been sent by Brady. As soon 
as they had departed, some of the party again 
showed themselves. Dr. Priest joined Mr. 
Bartley and the remaining soldiers. Unfortu- 
nately, his clothing being white, the robbers 
were able to mark him. His horse was shot 



256 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

dead, and he himself received a musket ball, 
from which he died. Exasperated by these 
crimes, the whole country rose against the bush- 
rangers and sought them in every direction. 

The Governor himself took the field and in- 
fused vigour into the pursuit, and in less than a 
month the leaders were in the hands of justice. 

Brady, wounded in the leg, was overtaken by 
the soldiers, and surrendered without a struggle. 
Jeffries was also re-captured. A large crowd col- 
lected to see these men, who were admired for 
their daring as much as detested for their 
crimes. Jeffries was reprieved to act as a 
public executioner. 

The Tasmanian aborigines are extinct. The 
last pure representative of the race was 
Truganina, who died in 1876. These wild 
people are considered by some to have been the 
nearest approach to primitive man. They 
roamed about the forests and possessed neither 
towns nor villages. During my rambles I dis- 
covered several of their old camping-grounds. 
These places were strewn with the shells of the 
mutton-fish, oyster, mussel, &c. In the loose 
sand I scraped up some interesting axe-heads 
and other stone implements. 




A ROAD THROUGH THE FOREST, VICTORIA. 



VICTORIA 257 

The closing scene in the history of the 
Tasmanians happened at Wattle Grove, Port 
Cygnet, on Friday, February 26th, 1905, when 
Mrs. Fanny Cockern Smith, the last half-caste 
survivor, passed away. The deceased was in 
her seventy-fourth year. She was held in great 
respect, and left a grown-up family of sons and 
daughters. 

Victoria possesses beautiful scenery, and 
appears likely to become one of the world's 
pleasure-grounds. The State can hardly be 
described as a great field for general emigration, 
but several instances have come under my notice 
in which men materially improved their 
prospects by living in this part of Australia. 
The climate is ideal during the winter. The 
air is dry, and there are practically no cloudy, 
dull days. Persons with private means will 
find residence in Melbourne delightful, and the 
rural districts unrivalled for scenery and health. 

Victoria possesses the most densely-populated 
areas in Australia. Land is continually sold by 
auction, and small farms can be purchased at a 
reasonable cost. Large estates are being 
acquired by the State and portioned out into 
small holdings to encourage closer settlement. 

S 



258 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

The railway service is excellent, and all the most 
advanced conditions of civilisation prevail. 
Living is cheap and the hotels are good. 

No tourist should miss a trip to the Gippsland 
Lakes, Buchan Caves, and Western Port Bay. 
A train runs daily from Prince's Bridge Station 
at 7.52 a.m. for Sale, arriving at 1.30 p.m. 
The fares for the round trip from Melbourne, 
including the round of the Lakes, is 405. lod. 
first-class, 305. gd. second-class. 

The return journey may be made within two 
months. The tickets, however, are not avail- 
able for breaking the journey, and will not be 
recognised at intermediate stations. 

During the winter months there is no steamer 
from Sale to Cunningham on Fridays, and no 
boat from Cunningham to Sale on Saturdays. 

The Buchan Caves can be reached from Sale 
by steamer to Cunningham, coach to Lake 
Tyers (where there is a " black " reserve), motor- 
launch to Nowa Nowa, and coach to Buchan. 
The aboriginal reserve at Lake Tyers is very 
interesting and well managed. 

During my rambles along the banks of the 
River Avon, I flushed wonderful flocks of white 
cockatoos, parrots, ducks, and pigeons. This 




A BEND IN A FOREST STREAM, VICTORIA 



VICTORIA 259 

river is their favourite drinking - place, and 
towards evening thousands of birds assemble, 
and the woods are alive with their screams and 
notes. On one occasion I was caught in a 
terrible deluge of rain, and the birds were so 
drenched that they could not fly. I picked up 
a handsome rosella, and, in spite of pecks, put 
it into my pocket. For some days it remained 
sulky and would not eat, but with patience and 
kindness its confidence was inspired, and it 
became a delightful pet. The trip from Sale 
to Ramahyuck is worth taking for the sake of 
the birds. In the early days the Victorian 
blacks were a menace to the settlers, but now 
they have almost become extinct. A few dwell 
in reservations or wander about in a half- 
civilised condition, always ready to receive 
charity, but most reluctant to show any gratitude 
for it. Fifty years ago, however, they boldly 
attacked the farmers and wantonly destroyed the 
sheep and cattle. They appeared to consider 
all animals their legitimate prey, and when 
interfered with became revengeful and dangerous. 
One settler dwelling at " The Ovens " had his 
ranch literally broken up by a mob of blacks, 
and lost hundreds of pounds of property. The 



260 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

country around had been generally forsaken, 
and reports of the terrible blacks threatened to 
ruin the cattle industry in Australia. It soon 
became evident that unless confidence could be 
inspired no shepherds or cattle -men would 
venture from the towns. Several gentlemen 
tried the experiment of living together in small 
communities and riding long distances to en- 
courage their shepherds and labourers by their 
presence. They were obliged to employ a 
horseman to continually perambulate the woods, 
lest the natives should attack the herds unawares. 
But even this had not the desired result, and 
it became necessary for the owners themselves 
to undertake this task. Once large numbers of 
cattle were driven by the natives into a pond 
and slaughtered with tomahawks as they en- 
deavoured to scramble out. On another occasion 
a flock of sheep was stolen, and when found 
had been mutilated to prevent them from 
wandering. 

An owner was one day riding with two 
stockmen when they were suddenly surrounded 
by hundreds of painted warriors. Their first 
impulse was to retreat, but the narrow way was 
blocked by natives, two or three deep, who 



VICTORIA 261 

greeted them with a shower of spears. The 
owner's horse bounded and fell into an immense 
hole just as a weapon passed over the pommel 
of his saddle. Then commenced a general 
onset. The natives charged like furies, with 
shouts of defiance. The white men took careful 
aim, and fired a volley at close quarters, and 
the foremost fell dead. This caused a momentary 
check, but they soon recovered and renewed 
their attack with increased rage. It was a 
hideous sight to witness these naked savages 
with their painted bodies and fierce aspect 
rushing forward to death. Sometimes they 
succeeded in inflicting a slight wound, and the 
sight of their enemies' blood drove them mad. 
Many who were fatally shot struggled on to 
revenge their certain death, and were brained 
or fell dead at the horses' feet. Gradually the 
impetuosity of their rushes diminished, and 
the fight became a sort of guerilla warfare, 
lasting from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. The children 
and women assisted the black warriors materially 
by dashing forward and picking up their spears, 
even venturing under the horses' legs. The 
unequal odds eventually began to tell, until at 
length the blacks withdrew their forces to the 



262 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

thickest cover. Some of the children, however, 
were either too frightened or fascinated to retreat, 
and one black boy was found hiding in a hollow 
log. 

William Buckley, a private in the " King's 
Own," lived for thirty-two years among the 
blacks. He was originally transported to New 
South Wales, and accompanied Governor Collins 
in the year 1804 to the settlement at Port 
Phillip. When the new colony was being 
established, Buckley, with three others, ab- 
sconded, and when the settlement was abandoned 
they were left there, supposed to have died in 
the bush. 

On July 23rd, 1835, Buckley was discovered 
living as a wild white man among the blacks. 
His life had been spared because he was be- 
lieved to be the embodied spirit of a deceased 
relation of the tribe. An interesting tradition 
of his forest career is preserved in Victoria. A 
cave, situated near Queenscliffe, towards the 
Heads of Port Phillip Bay, is pointed out as 
Buckley's Cave, in which he long resided with 
at least one lubra of his choice. 

Buckley's memory appeared to fail him as to 
dates; but he believed he fell in with natives 



THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 263 

twelve months after his escape. The blacks 
received him kindly, and accompanied him in 
his wanderings. He had narrow escapes from 
hostile savages, and often had difficulty in 
procuring sufficient food. He learnt their 
language and soon forgot his own, being unable 
to converse in English for some days after he 
was found. His clothing consisted of an 
enormous opossum skin rug, and his hair 
and beard were of great length. He carried 
spears and other weapons like a native. 

The wild blacks have been driven far from 
the civilised parts of Australia. To study them 
in their natural state one should take a journey 
to Oodnadatta, which is 688 miles by rail from 
Adelaide. This trip until recent times was a 
rough experience. When night came the 
passengers frequently found themselves in dark- 
ness (1906). The oil-lamps had a mysterious 
knack of going out, and the majority of people 
held lighted candles. This novel sight was 
positively ridiculous, but candles, food, drinks, 
&c., are very necessary provisions for this 
journey, which occupies three days. 

Dalhousie Springs are eighty-four miles beyond 
Oodnadatta. Along the road the country is 



264 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

flat and hilly in turn. The Angle Pole is 
interesting as a turning-point of the telegraph 
line to Port Darwin. There is a water-hole 
here. The Swallow water-hole is nine miles 
further on. This locality is pleasing, and 
swallows are plentiful. Ross' Hole, further on, 
marks the spot where Ernest Giles started on 
his successful expedition across Western Australia. 
Macumba is three miles beyond. 

During my residence in this locality a party 
of blacks on their way to Niddie perished from 
thirst. The weather was exceptionally warm, 
and they were found dead within half-a-mile of 
each other, at Wargidgea Swamp. 

The blacks are generally plentiful near 
Dalhousie/ Springs. On one occasion I 
observed gins here who had smeared their faces, 
arms, and hair with gypsum, and the men were 
painted with yellow ochre. Their appearance 
was rather terrifying, but they were only show- 
ing respect for their dead. Wild dogs are not 
destroyed here, because of the assistance they 
render in preying upon the rabbits. Their 
savage howls, therefore, are frequently heard 
throughout the night. Nature plays strange 
pranks at Dalhousie. In an area covering 



THE NORTHERN TERRITORY 265 

10,000 acres there are sixty-two springs, from 
one of which enough water gushes out to supply 
all the cattle of Australia. A mountain range 
lies a few miles distant, and the springs exist 
at a considerable elevation. Stony table-lands, 
destitute of timber, appear in all directions, but 
near the water the landscape changes. The 
springs are separated by spongy sodium flats, 
some of which are as dazzling to the eyes as a 
dry salt-lake. No vegetation can live in such 
soil ; but where the water appears most of the 
springs are surrounded by a perfect jungle of 
ti-tree, acacia, and silver wattle. This timber 
is infested with wild cats, and the ground is 
covered with couch grass and velvety moss, 
while at the water's edge reeds and rushes grow 
in tropical luxuriance. The water is wholesome, 
though it tastes somewhat like flat soda-water. 
In some places it is charged with sulphur. 

A week can easily be spent camping among 
these springs. Black duck and white crane are 
plentiful upon the lake, and the thick growth 
at the water's edge affords ample cover. At 
one time 120 blacks camped near me. They 
had come to thin out the rabbits, for whose 
destruction they received 3d. per dozen. When 



266 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

they received payment their conduct was amusing. 
For some time they refused to part with their 
money. Finding, however, the coins had no 
mysterious charm or virtue, and could not be 
eaten, they commenced to temporise. Holding 
each coin separately in the palm of their hand, 
they shouted outside the tent : 

"Give 'em sugar for this fellow!" 
"Give 'em flour for this fellow!" 
Blacks are fairly honest in trading, but very 
immoral. They generally wind up their business 
with an offer of their gin, daughter, or some 
ether girl for sale. They make good stock- 
riders, and the women are useful in looking 
after sheep and goats. The chief difficulty in 
employing these people arises from their want 
of stability. Their nature is nomadic, and 
when the restless feeling possesses them they 
will give up the best situations and depart 
without the slightest reason at a moment's 
notice. In their native state they travel con- 
siderable distances, and rarely remain more 
than two or three days at the same place. 



XIV 

THE CONDITIONS IN INDIA, BOMBAY, 
SOUTHERN INDIA, AND COLOMBO 

THE Indian Empire represents a population of 
about 295,000,000, and these people are included 
in Great Britain's mighty Empire of 393,000,000. 
The tourist, therefore, will naturally anticipate 
great things when he arrives at Bombay. His 
expectations, however, will be doomed to dis- 
appointment, and instead of finding himself in 
a British country and among a sympathetic 
people, he will wander the streets during the 
greater part of the day without even encounter- 
ing a single European. In Colombo, perhaps, 
he may have thought the streets were crowded, 
and have suffered some annoyance from the 
importunate sharks who pestered him with 
fictitious bargains. In Bombay he will be 
exempt from this, but he will be thronged and 
choked as he pursues his way by an unsavoury 
multitude, consisting of Jain, Lingayat, Bhattia, 



268 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

Hindu, Mussulman, Negro - African, Parsee, 
Jew, &c. 

A short stay in the city will soon disabuse 
his mind of all he has learnt about India. 
The old abominations of medievalism pervade 
all ranks of society. Women are employed in 
the most menial and degrading labour, and are 
practically slaves, and the high castes style all 
the labouring classes " vagabonds." The 
bitterest hatred exists between the rival factions 
of religion, and the few thousand British people 
in India are tolerated because of the fear of 
what would happen if their influence were with- 
drawn. The Parsees, who are justly hated, 
would be the first to suffer robbery and 
massacre, and then Hindus and Mahomedans 
would engage in a war of extermination. India 
has never been conquered, and the country 
to-day is practically in the hands of the native 
people, who occupy positions representing every 
department of civil life. This, to my mind, 
has been the great weakness in Great Britain's 
policy if India is to be regarded as a part of 
the Empire. A possession which excludes the 
labouring and middle classes of the old country 
represents injustice to the British people. The 



INDIA 269 

incompetence of the native is apparent every- 
where. On the motor-car it is evidenced by 
daily, or, I may say, hourly, accidents, and the 
higher branches of influence, such as University 
Professorships, with salaries of 305. per week, 
have brought about the new teaching which is 
antagonistic to the handful of British people 
representing the Indian Government. Ninety- 
nine per cent, of the population of India are, 
perhaps, the most illiterate and credulous to be 
found in the whole world. These people are 
easily influenced by a clever scoundrel with a 
l-ttle learning and tact, and the wholesale out- 
pouring of graduates from Indian Universities 
is the primary cause of the present unrest in 
India. To serve their evil purposes, there are 
many such persons travelling to and fro through 
Southern India who have already convinced 
credulous Hindus that the Government is spend- 
ing thousands of pounds annually to propagate 
plague, small-pox, cholera, and other diseases 
for the destruction of the native people. Thus, 
with lies and misrepresentation, if unchecked, 
they will soon transform the present peaceful 
working millions into a horde of raging, 
fanatical maniacs. 



2 7 o RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

" Why pay the tax, and why be subject to 
a handful of foreign oppressors?" they ask. 
" We could easily, if we wished, sweep them 
into the sea." 

The following is the copy of a manuscript 
letter published in "The Advocate of India," 
May 28th, 1908: 

" Ye damned English rogues, you thought 
that, with the exposure of Barindra Ghose, 
everything is undone. You are misled, not 
even the hundredth part of the revolutionary 
organisation is shattered. Rest assured it cannot 
rest idle until Englishmen, male, female, and 
children are mercilessly massacred to the best 
interests of the country. If you dare, being 
strangers in this country, to harass our com- 
rades and persecute and prosecute them, is it 
unjustifiable for us to kill as many of you as 
can suit our purpose, until we are in a position 
to create an insurrection ? You say secret 
murder is no way to freedom. We admit it. 
It simply creates confidence in the works of the 
revolutionists. Everything does not end here; 
there must be war, and with your blood the 
barren ground would be fertilised, every obstacle 
would be washed out, and if you will be a 



INDIA 271 

nuisance in the way you will be no more in 
this world. 

" Yours faithfully, 

" BENGAL REVOLUTIONIST." 

To this letter was added another even more 
violent, signed by Barindra K. Ghose, Hem 
Chandra Das, and Ullas Kar Datta, containing 
threats and warnings: 

" Let every Englishman realise that in every 
district life and property are insecure. We die 
no objection to that, hundreds are to die before 
the great bloody send-off of the white devils 
takes place; but before we depart, let us hear, 
and we will die with cheerful countenance, that 
200 white-skins are sent to hell on the day as 
the delivery of judgment. That is the practical 
sympathy with our work. That will be the 
fittest memorial of the occasion." 

During my journey from Bombay to Tuticorin 
I interviewed several influential native politicians 
under similar circumstances to Mr. Keir Hardie. 
Most of his interviews took place in second- 
class railway carriages with Brahmin leaders. 
Among others I interviewed was Raja Jopala- 
chari, a gentleman of exceptional ability and 
scholarship. 



272 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

" What do you think will be the outcome of 
the present unrest in India?" I asked. 

" I think if the English people are made 
aware of our existing grievances the unrest will 
disappear." 

" Has education brought about the present 
boycott of English merchandise?" 

" Yes, it has made us think." 

"What are your chief grievances?" 

" i. A more popular form of government is 
sought. 

"2. We want a member of the Royal House 
for our Viceroy. A more sympathetic treatment 
of Hindus by Anglo-Indians. Social intercourse 
between Europeans and Hindus." 

" How can we have social intercourse when 
you forbid us to worship with you in your 
temples? " 

" You can worship in our temples. You are 
not forbidden." 

' Why are notices written to forbid us ? Who 
placed them there?" 

'' I don't know who authorised such notices. 
You can enter our temples." 

" Do you think it possible that all religions 
may become a matter of conscience, that those 




A TAMIL GIRL. 



INDIA 273 

who differ will respect and honour the scruples 
of others, and that a national and united people 
may be established in India?" 

" Yes." 

" Is there a general willingness among 
Hindus to encourage scholars and liberal- 
minded men to investigate the claims of 
Hinduism on humanity?" 

" Yes." 

" Do you think Mahomedans and others are 
equally liberal ? " 

" No, Mahomedans are intolerant." 

" Do you think the Mahomedans would throw 
in their lot with Great Britain in the event of 
war?" 

" Yes, and, when successful, would immedi- 
ately turn upon their allies and look for a 
dictator from the north." 

" Have you any solution to the problem of 
rival factions? " 

" I think the whole of India, with the ex- 
ception of the Mahomedans, will present a 
united front." 

"Who are these thieving rascals in India?" 

" They are merely the dregs of the population 
of the various classes." 

T 



274 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

" How is it there are so many different 
prices for the same article in India?" 

" I consider it trade dishonesty." 

" Are efforts being made to raise the tone of 
true honour and just dealing among the 
people? " 

"No." 

"What do you think of the missionaries?" 

" I don't think they stir up strife, but they 
will never succeed in India, because they are so 
unphilosophical and often very ignorant men." 

Raja Jopalachari informed me that an effort 
was being made to break through " caste and 
custom " exclusiveness and to form Associations 
and Conferences. 

Mr. V. Rangasami Aryangar, B.A., testified 
as follows : 

" Would you like to see India independent of 
Great Britain?" 

"No." 

" What do you dislike about the Govern- 
ment?" 

" They should associate more with the 
educated Indian." 

" Do you think if they did so the troubles 
would cease? " 



INDIA 275 

" Certainly. It is the snobbishness of 
English officials I object to." 

Mr. V. Narasinihacharri, a Brahmin, was 
among my interlocutors. 

"Do you think there will be war in India?" 

" I don't think so, but there will be insur- 
rections. When the military appear it will 
stop." 

"Are you a Brahmin?" 

"Yes." 

"What is your dislike of British rule?" 

" Taxes on land." 

"What else?" 

" I want the same freedom people enjoyed a 
hundred years ago. Educated people were then 
employed regardless of their religion or race." 

The interviews I have recorded represented 
the general tone of what I might term the 
moderate party. The snobbishness complained 
of is ridiculously conspicuous in Bombay, where 
society is divided up into numerous social 
cliques, setting a miserable example to the 
native people which is in perfect harmony with 
their pride of caste. The pride, however, of 
Bombay society is too often marked by the 
size of the house and the length of the purse. In 



276 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

spite of these facts, every sensible Indian recognises 
that his country was never more prosperous 
than it is to-day. Numerous institutions have 
been established for his benefit. Electric tele- 
graph and vast irrigation projects have been 
undertaken ; more than 30,000 miles of railway 
and over 150,000 miles of roads maintained. 

Bombay contains some of the finest modern 
buildings in the world, with delightful parks 
and open spaces for recreation and amusement. 
The sanitation in the European quarters is 
excellent. This city was once a perfect death- 
trap to the European. The traveller landing at 
Apollo Bunder, about the year 1885, would 
have found a foul and hideous foreshore. All 
round the island of Bombay was one dreadful 
cesspool, sewers discharged on the sand, and 
rocks only were used for purposes of nature. 
A ride home to Malabar Hill along the sands 
at Black Bay was to encounter sights and 
odours too horrible to describe. One was 
obliged to leap four sewers, whose gaping 
mouths discharged deep, black streams across 
your path, and as one neared Chaupati there 
were the choking fumes from the open, burning 
ghat, and many an ancient fish-like smell. To 



BOMBAY 277 

travel by rail from Bori Bunder to Byculla was 
to enter into filth and stench beyond powers of 
description. The living lived among the graves 
of the dead, the roads were covered with rotten 
fish and the dead carcases of household vermin. 
Under these conditions plague wrought havoc 
among the people. The Government has now 
instituted a regular system of cleansing the streets 
daily with marked improvement to the health 
and well-being of the people. A terrible plague, 
however, broke out in 1896. The population at 
the time was 846,000, and in a few months it 
was reduced to nearly half. Trade and com- 
merce were at a standstill, grass grew in the 
busiest thoroughfares, and it was no uncommon 
sight in the wealthiest part of the native town 
to find a dozen or twenty shops consecutively 
closed and barred. Domestic service was so 
difficult to obtain that English women had to 
perform the duties of housework which are so 
exhausting in this city. 

Some idea can be formed of the ravages of 
plague from the fact that had the victims been 
Europeans more than the whole population 
would have been destroyed annually. During 
the years 1898, 1901, and 1903, more than twice 



278 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

the present European population of Bombay 
would have been destroyed. It is conclusive, 
therefore, that plague is the outcome of in- 
sanitary surroundings. The Government's task 
is most difficult. The Parsees, clothed in their 
splendid garments, driving in stately equipages, 
surrounded with every outward display of 
wealth and splendour, are perhaps the most dis- 
gusting people in their habits. There is a 
tendency among them to cherish rather than 
destroy vermin, and in this they are well 
supported by other inhabitants of Bombay. 

The chief buildings in the city are the 
Secretariat, Municipal Offices, Victoria Terminus, 
General Post Office, British Indian Steamship 
Company's Offices, &c. 

Near the Marine Lines on the left of the 
railway are the Parsee, Mahomedan, and Hindu 
Gymkhanas. On the right side of the 
Queen's Road is a high wall that encloses the 
Hindu Burning and Mahomedan Burial Grounds. 
A short distance up the Charni Road is the 
All Bless Bagh, the principal place for the 
celebration of marriages among the Parsees, 
which is often brilliantly illuminated. The so- 
called Hanging Gardens are a fraud, being 



BOMBAY 279 

merely a small flower garden on the top of 
Malabar Hill. There is an extensive view, 
however, from this position, which renders it 
worthy of a visit, as the islands representing 
Bombay can be clearly seen. Other places of 
interest near Bombay are Elephanta Caves, 
Vehar Lake, Bassein, Thana, Kennery Caves, 
Igatpuri, Nasik, Matheran, Chants, Khandalla, 
Lanowli, Karli, and Poona. The Towers of 
Silence are situated near Malabar Hill, and 
there are some interesting Hindu temples near 
Government House, which are rarely approached 
by the European. It would be unwise to visit 
this neighbourhood alone. I was accompanied 
by Mr. Ward, a fine specimen of a fearless 
Englishman, who not only guided me through 
this dangerous neighbourhood, but ventured into 
the most remote parts of the native quarters. 
The priests greeted us with scowling looks of 
hatred, and though we were careful to be polite 
and considerate in our movements, the attitude 
of the people was most offensive. Among 
other places I visited were the Towers of 
Silence. They are five in number, and can 
be approached by way of the steps from Gibbs 
Road. Tickets to the grounds can be pro- 



280 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

cured from the Parsee Panchayat. The grounds 
have an area of over 75,000 square yards. On 
entering we notice the stone building set apart 
for a house of prayer and the fire temple. The 
Towers of Silence, the largest of which measures 
276 feet in circumference, are surrounded by 
high walls, about 25ft. in height, and having 
an opening on the ground level through which 
the dead bodies are carried. The corpse- 
bearers are the only persons allowed to enter 
the towers, but there is an excellent model in 
the grounds, which is generally shown to 
visitors. It will be found that the bodies of 
the deceased are laid in grooves around the 
well which is to be found in the centre of each 
tower. The bodies of young children are laid 
in the centre circle, those of females in the 
second, and those of the men in the outer ring. 
The bodies, after being exposed in this manner, 
are in a short time stripped of flesh by 
numerous vultures that are always found in the 
vicinity, and then the bones are thrown into 
the well, where they are allowed to decompose. 
This disgusting and revolting method of dis- 
posing of the dead often displays itself in the 
mangled flesh and bones carried by the vultures 



BOMBAY 281 

from place to place. Such a terrible menace 
was this hideous feast to the public health, that 
the reservoir became polluted, and it was not 
until elaborate precautions had been taken that 
Europeans ventured to freely use the water. 

A true man can admire a brave enemy, even 
if his opposition and hostility are hateful; but 
the sneak and coward he can only despise. 
The Parsees represent the true Englishman's pet 
aversion. I could quote innumerable instances 
of their despicable meanness; but it is generally 
known everywhere that the average man who 
enters into partnership with a Parsee has taken 
his first step to ruin. Mahomedans and Hindus 
hate these people, and sometimes are driven to 
punish them in the public, streets. At such 
times these cringing, cynical people fly to the 
British for protection. 

Two Parsees were recently walking with their 
ladies in Apollo Bunda, when they observed 
some Mahomedans following them. The men 
immediately left their women and took to flight. 
Meeting some Englishmen, they clung to them 
for protection. So persistent were they that 
my informant told me they could move neither 
hand nor foot, and any attack would have placed 



282 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

them entirely at the mercy of the Mahomedans. 
When the Mahomedans arrived on the scene 
the Parsees trembled and cried like children. 

During my month in Bombay I received 
invitations to attend various festivities among 
the Hindus and Mahomedans, and rarely lost 
an opportunity of doing so. Enormous sums 
are spent on the wedding feast, and though 
child-marriages are less frequent than they used 
to be, few girls remain single after their 
fourteenth year. Hundreds of guests are invited 
on these occasions, and the most gorgeous 
decorations and furniture are hired for the 
occasion. In addition to this, the expense of 
providing food and luxuries for the multitude 
amounts to fabulous sums. Ten thousand 
pounds is sometimes spent in this way among 
the rich, and the poor are years recovering 
from their outlay in doing honour to the 
marriage knot. 

A funeral is a frequent occurrence in Bombay, 
and the corpse, decorated with flowers, is 
carried by the bearers exposed to public view. 
The Mahomedans bury their dead, the Hindus 
use cremation, and the Parsees suffer their dead 
to be devoured by vultures. Invitations to 



SOUTHERN INDIA 283 

weddings, &c., never include the names of the 
wives Eastern etiquette demands that their 
existence be ignored. 

Tiie best way to visit India is to take a 
passage in one of the splendid boats of the 
British Indian Steamship Company from 
Colombo to Tuticorin and thence by rail to 
Bombay. The entire journey occupies about 
thirty-six hours, and affords convenient facilities 
for visiting the historical districts and temples 
of Southern India, the centres of the greatest 
of the ancient Hindu dynasties. Unfortunately, 
there is an absence of hotels, and the accommo- 
dation at the stations is very limited; but at 
Madura, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, &c., there are 
rooms above the railway stations, and visitors 
occupying these take their meals in the refresh- 
ment rooms, which are all under the supervision 
of Messrs. Spencer and Co., Madras. Even if 
no stay is made, the agricultural industries and 
the conditions of life in Southern India can be 
conveniently studied from the railway carriage. 
Much of the journey will be taken without 
seeing a sign of the white man, though each 
station is crowded with natives of every caste 
and description. Huge idols, in stages of 



284 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

decay and ruin, appear in the most unlooked- 
for places, and numerous villages and towns, 
with their walled battlements, recall past battles 
and bloodshed. Many of these are deserted, 
except by the jackal and hyena, which haunt 
the ruins. Here and there will be seen monkeys 
and other wild animals, but the dense popu- 
lation has driven most of the local fauna 
further north. Birds, however, are plentiful, 
and the ornithologist will find ample scope for 
observation and study. 

Colombo may be seen in a day with or 
without a guide; but thousands of passengers 
who spend only a day ashore fail to obtain 
any adequate idea of the place from want of 
reliable advice and direction Local guide- 
books teem with advertisements, and consign 
one to the shops. The human guide does 
little more unless you know what you want to 
do, and insist on doing it. The best advice 
I can give is to take a first-class seat in 
front of the tramcar for the Grand Pass 
terminus upon the Kelaniya River; next visit 
Maradana and Borella by the same means of 
locomotion. Afterwards hire a carriage, drive 
along Galle Face, Union Place, Vauxhall 



COLOMBO 285 

Road, the Lake, Hyde Park Corner, the 
Cinnamon Gardens, the Hospital, Horton 
Place, Gregory's Road, the Museum, Turret 
Road, Polwatte, and Kolupitiya. Then, if 
time permits, drive to Mutwall. The visitor 
who follows this route will have seen 
Colombo, and should it be his first visit to 
the East he will have received new impres- 
sions to dwell upon for the rest of his 
voyage. Excellent photographs can be obtained 
from Messrs. Skeen & Co. 

A walk through the Cinnamon Gardens is 
not easily forgotten. Here one may wander 
under the shade of palms and figs, or rest 
beneath clumps of graceful bamboo sur- 
rounded by blossoms and perfumes of the 
most enchanting kind. The huge purple 
bells of the thunbergia creep over the arch- 
ways, and gorgeous passion flowers, orchids, 
pitcher plants, bright-leaved caladiums, and 
multitudes of other tropical plants everywhere 
flourish and abound. Both here and in the 
neighbourhood will be noticed the curious 
fan-shaped traveller's tree, often wrongly 
described as a palm. Its long broad leaves 
collect water, which filters into the close-set 



286 RAMBLES AND ADVENTURES 

sheaths at the base of the leaves, whence 
by simply piercing them with a knife the 
traveller can draw streams of pure water. 

Whilst driving through the Cinnamon 
Gardens many prettily-coloured birds are met 
with, and amongst the most fascinating is 
the black-headed oriole, or mango bird. His 
plumage resembles the mango fruit, and is 
relieved with beautiful yellow and black. The 
orange-headed green barbet has a monotonous 
note, which sounds like " Koturr, koturr." 
This is a very handsome bird, whose plumage 
assimilates with its leafy environment, and is 
plentiful in the lesser-populated outskirts of 
Colombo. The white-breasted kingfisher, the 
brown shrike, the Indian koel, the king 
crow, the green bee-eater, &c., will also be 
recognised. 

Travellers who have not been in the East 
before should remember to provide themselves 
with a thick topee for the daytime and a 
straw hat for the evening. The thin rubbish 
offered at Port Said is useless in India, 
and though the thick helmets may appear 
unsightly, they are the only sensible head- 
gear for the climate. Such a hat can be 



COLOMBO 287 

procured in Colombo for five rupees. It is 
necessary also to use an umbrella when out 
of doors during the heat of the day. 

Much annoyance can be avoided from 
coolies and others by carrying a short cane 
and applying it occasionally to the most 
persistent. The police, however, have instruc- 
tions to protect the stranger from all impor- 
tunities to which he objects. Never argue 
with a native or show the slightest sign of 
fear, otherwise the result will be deplorable. 
I found the use of my boot the most effec- 
tive conclusion to all arguments. It is use- 
less to moralise all such attempts are 
attributed to fear, and directly the native 
discovers a trace of this he becomes as bold 
as a lion ; whereas I have known one 
Englishman to disperse a crowd of fifty 
natives single-handed. 

One of the most regrettable features of 
India is the roguery and thieving which 
abound everywhere. No money or valuables 
should ever be left about, or even carried in 
baggage. Drafts of money are the safest 
course. I had the misfortune to be robbed of 
a considerable sum of money. To be stranded 



in India is perhaps the most awful experience 
which could happen to a stranger. There are 
no cheap apartments or respectable lodging- 
houses, and the impecunious one who cannot 
pay his 355. per week will have no choice but 
to sleep out of doors, or enter premises of the 
most revolting nature. Work is practically im- 
possible to obtain. The following advertisement 
conveys some idea of the value of a University 
scholar : 

" Wanted, an Assistant Professor of Mathe- 
matics for Christ Church College, Cawnpore. 
Pay, Rs.i20 (^8) per month. Apply to the 
Principal." 

The average wage of a working man is 
about 2d. per day, and European salaries are far 
inferior to any in the world, judging from the 
newspapers. Fifteen rupees are equal to one 
pound sterling. 



Bangaroo! Bangaroo!! Bangaroo!!! 



BANGAROO 

Is simple, exciting, and 
harmless. 

It is likely to become 
the Most Popular 
Indoor Game in the 
British Empire. 

It can be played in 
a small room with 
Miniature Boome- 

rangs, price God. only, 
or with Large Boome- 
rangs in a park or 
garden, price 1 5 /- 
complete. 



THE POOREST HOME CAN ENJOY 

BANGAROO 

SO CAN THE PRINCE IN HIS PALACE. 




Prices : 6fd., Is., 2s. 6d., 5s., 10s. 6d., 

According to size. 



Sold at all first-class Toy Shops, or direct from : 

BANGAROO COMPANY, LIMITED, 

Hillside, Westbury-on-Trym, 
BRISTOL, ENGLAND. 



DnuRT LANE. LONDON. 



DC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 



A 000 096 921 2