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Presented to the 





Printed by tha Survey of Egypt 1917. (6741 

Mushrabieh Window 









JUL6 1994 


&JY OF 10«^ 



THE letters, of which the following are a modified and enlarged form, 
appeared in the Sphinx during the winter of 1916-1917 !•! under the 
title of A Convalescent in Cairo. They purported to be written by a 
convalescent and represented actual excursions with wounded soldiers, 
several of whom showed the keenest and most intelligent interest in what 
they saw. One of them, an elderly Territorial, served as a model for the 
imaginary author of the Letters as they appeared in the Sphinx and would 
indeed have been quite capable of writing them. Having repeatedly been 
asked to compile a guide-book to Cairo monuments, it (Kcurred to me that 
the material I had collected for the purpose of those excursions might be 
used in connection with a simple work of the kind required. 

It would however have proved a gigantic task to write a monograph of 
each of the 359 historic monuments of Cairo, and, on the other hand, the 
Chronological Table which forms the most useful part of this little work 
woukl have been somewhat dry if published entirely by itself. It is hoped 
that the Letters, referring as they do to the most celebrated buildings, and 
written with an almost complete absence of technical details, for readers 
absolutely new to the subject, n)ay serve to awaken the interest and gratify 
the curiosity of people with a latent taste for Moslem architecture and 
history, who may afterwards find the Chronological Table useful if they 
continue their studies of this fascinating and somewhat neglected branch of 
art. I have been careful in each letter to give clear indications of the locality 
of every monument mentioned, so that, with the aid of the excellent plan 
supplied by the Survey Department, no traveller should experience any 
difficulty in finding his way through the labyrinthine native quarters of Cairo. 

I have also appended a list of the principal books in which 1 have found 
the information I have used, most of which can be procured from the Sul- 
tanieh Library, Sh. Mohammed Aly. These renowned authorities do not 
always agree with each other, and, in several instances, the disagreement 
between them is such that a mistake must have been made by one or the other. 
This fact is somewhat encouraging to an obscure student, whose inevitable 
errors wili not therefore be too harshly condemned by learned critics. 

(I) Letteis IV, XI and XII did not foriu part of tin; original series. 


Several of the most interesting stories of Cairo monuments and their 
founders have been purposely left out of this book as they form the subject 
of a more ambitious work iu)\v in course of preparation. 

In addition to the map already mentioned, the interestiuK photographs 
kindly placed at my disposal add a very special value to my little book and I 
am glad to record my grateful thanks to Mr. Wade. Mr. Frederick Chatterton, 
F. R. I. B. A.. Mr. W. A. Stewart and especially to Lieut. K. A. C. Creswell, 
R.F.C., together with my regrets if existing ciicumstances prevented full justice 
from being done to their beautiful negatives. The photographs marked M.A. 
were lent by the Arab Museum, those marked C. C. M. A. come from the 
archives of the Coniitc de Conseroation des Moiiunietits Arabes. The few which 
have no name were i)rocure(i frt)m the very iu^dequatestock of theCairo shops. 
I have also to thank Lieut. W. .M. Hayes, of the Survey of Egypt, the Editor 
of the Sphinx, Lutfy Bey Es Sayed. Director of the Sultanieh Library, the 
sub-Director, Sheykh El Biblawy, Sheykh Said Ismail, Aly Bey Bahgat^ 
Director of the National Museum of Arab Art, and M. A. Patricolo, the 
distinguished Chief Architect of the Commission for the Preservation of Ar^b 
Monuments, tor the kind way in which they have bmoothed difficulties in my 
way and placed information and practical help at my disposal. 

In the spelling of Arabic names, I have endeavoured to keep as consist- 
ently as possible to the Arabic model. It is vain to attempt to follow 
pronunciation without respect to orthography, for the pronunciation of 
certain Arabic letters varies so much according to locality that the same 
word may assume a totally different aspect when spoken, say. by a Syrian or an 
Egyptian. For instance if. in order to suggest S\rian pronunciation, we 
write "Djcddeh" which Caiio natives would call "Gadda." we should consist- 
ently write "Djizeh" and "Djezireh" which nf) local cab-driver would recognise 
at all. Again, most people living in Cairo become accustomed to the strange 
way in which the Arabic letter q is suppressed in pronunciation, and, if tiiey 
know that names such as "Qusun'" or "Aq sunqur" are spelt with a q, it may 
occur to them to ask for the mosque of "Usun" or "A'sun'ur" where they would 
meet with a puzzled denial if they said "Kiisun" or ".Aksunkur.'' 

In the case of the article, however, I have modified the letter / according 
to the rule of pronunciation which applies in all Arabic speaking countries, 
i.e. Abd er Rahman, Mohammed en Nasser, etc. 

H. C. Devonshire. 
Cairo, July 19 17. 



Manuel d'Art Musulman. 1, Architecture. H. Saladin. . Paris 1907 
Manuel d'Art Musulnian. II, Arts Plastiques et Iiidusti iels, 

G. MiGEON ,. 1907 

Art of the Saracens in Egypt. STANLEY Lane-Poole. . London 1888 

Story of Cairo. STANLEY Lane-Poole, 2"d edition ... „ 1906 

History of. Egypt in the Middle Ages. Stanley Lane- 

POOLE, 2nfl edition ., . J914 

Histoire de I'Egypte de()uis la conquete des Arabes, 

J. J. Marcel Pans 1848 

Histoire des Sultans Mamelouks de Makrizi, trad, et notes 

de M. Quatremere „ 1837-45 

La Citadelle du Caire d'apres Maqrizi (Mei)ioires de la 
Mission Ai cheolof^iqiic Fran(,aise du Caire) CASANOVA. 

L'Art Arabe, A. Gayet 1893 

Notes d'Archeologie Arabe I Mcnioires de la Mission d'Ar- 

cheologie Fraiicaise dii Caiff) Max Van Berchem . Cairo 1888 

Materiaux pour un Corpus Inscription urn Arabicaruin. 
(Memoires de la Mission Arclu'ologique Francaise du 
Caire) Max Van Berchem „ 1894-1903 

Bulletins du Comite de Conservation des Monuments de 

I'Art Arabe 1882-1914 

Khitat Masr, Maqrizl 

Tarikh Masr. Ibn Iyas. 

Kairo, Franz Pascha Leipzig 1903 




Introduction Ill 

List of Principal Authorities V 

Letter I. The Mosque of Ibn Tuliin. The Mosque of Suyurghatniish. I 

Letter II. Tlie University of El Azhar. College Mosques of the 

Emirs Aqbogha and Taibars 8 

Letter III. The Mosque of El Hakem. Bab en Nasr, Bab el Futuh, 

Wall of Badr el Gamaly 17 

Letter IV. The Citadel. Joseph's Weil, Mosque of En Nasser Ibn 

Qalaian, Mosque of Soliman Pasha, Mosque and Palaces 

of Mohammed Aly 26 

Letter V. The Mosque of Edh Dhaher 35 

Letter VI. The Muristan of Sultan Qalaun. Mausoleum of Sultan 

Mohammed en Nasser Ibn Qalaun 42 

Letter VII. The Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Palace of the Emir 

Yushbak 48 

Letter VIII. The Mosques of Sultan Barquq. Mausoleum of Sultan 

Qaitbay, Madrasseh of Sultan Farag 58 

Letter IX. The Mosque of Sultan El Moyyad. Bab ez Zuweyleh . 67 
Letter X. The Mosque of the Emir Qigmas el Ishaky. The Arab 

Museum 75 

Letter XI. Mosque of Aqsunqur, restored by Ibrahim Agha. Mosque 

of El Ayny, Mosque of Abu Dhahab. Tekkiet el 

Gulshany 84 

Letter XII. The House of Gamal ed Din. Hall of Beybars, Musaffer 

Khan Palace, House el Giridlieh, Palace of the Emir 

Beshtak, The house of Zeynab Khatun. The House of 

Ibrahim es Sennary 91 

Chronological Table of the Principal Historic Monuments of Cairo. 98 

Fatimite Buildings 98 

Ayubite Buildings 99 

Baharite Mameluke Buildings 99 

Circassian Mameluke Buildings 102 

Monuments Posterior to Turkish conquesi of Cairo 106 

Glossary 108 

Index in 



Photograph Page 

Frontispiece : MUSHRABIEH WINDOW Chatterton 

Mosque of Ibn Tulun, showing minaret Wade 2 

Portion of rulunide Aqueduct at El Basatin (Migret el Imam) Creswell 4 

Interior of Mosque of Ibn Tulun Wade 

Mosque of Ibn Tulun, stucco mihrab with Fatimite inscription „ 6 

Mosque of Suyurghatniish . . Creswell / 

Mos^iue of El Azhar, A corner of the courtyard .... The Sphinx 9 

Ornamental details of Qaitbay's madrasseh (intra i/iurosj . 12 

Sebil of Abd er Rahman Katkhoda C. C. M. A. 

El Azhar. Door By Qaitbay I4 

Mosque of El Azhar. Minarets 15 

North Wall of Cairo, ruins of Mosque of el Hakem. . . Creswell 19 

North wall of Cairo, a guard room ,, 20 

North wall of Cairo „ 21 

North wall of Cairo ,, 22 

Bab el Futuh Wade 23 

Bab en Nasr . . .• „ 24 

Minaret of Mosque of el Hakem 

Bab el Mudarrag. Exterior view Creswell 28 

Burg ez Zafer C. C. M. A. 

Mosque of Nasser Ibn Qalaun, Citadel Creswell 

Bab el Mudarrag. Interior view ,, 29 

Exterior of Mosque of En Nasser, Citadel 30 

Mosque of Mohammed Aly and the Citadel, seen from the 

South, with Mohammed en Nasser's aqueduct. . . . Wade 30 

Mosque of Edh Dhaher. General view The Sphinx 36 

Mosque of Edh Dhaher. West Porch „ 38 

Ornament from ruined College-mosque Edh Dhaheriyeh in 

Suq en Nahassin. Showing lions of Sultan Beybars. . Creswell 39 

Mosque of Edh Dhaher. South Porch „ 40 

Muristan of Qalailn. East Liwan . ,, 44 

MuRisTAN OF Qalaun 

Mosque of Nasser Ibn Qalaun, (intra nmros) .... „ 

Mosque of Nasser Ibn Qalaun 

Mosque of Sultan Mohammed en Nasser. Gothic Porch . The Sphinx 46 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Carved pillar on westsideof porch. Creswell 4c) 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Porch 50 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. East fagade 51 


Photograph Page 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Door of pulpit Stewart 53 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Mihrab of Funeral Chamber . ,. 54 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Marblepanel in FuneralChamber. „ 55 

Palace of the Emir Yushbak. Vestibule Creswell 56 

Palace of the Emir Yushbak. Interior „ 57 

Palace of the P3mir Yushbak. North fa^^ade „ 58 

Ruins of Castle and mosque of Sultan Barqiuj at Khan 

Yunis, from a photograph taken by an oificer of 

Australian Light Horse 59 

Mosque of Sultan Barquq, i intra muros/ 

Mausoleum of Sultan Barquq Wade 

Mausoleum of Sultan Barquq. Arcade of Sanctuai\. . . ,, 61 

Madrasseh of Sultan Farag Creswell 62 

Mosque of Shaaban. Wooden trellis-work of Sebil . . . Chatterton 63 

Mausoleum of Baiquq. Cells of Sufi Monks The Sphinx 64 

Cupola of Sultan Barquq's tomb Creswell 

Tomb of Sultan Barquq (trellis-work) 

Mausoleum of Qaitbay. General view 63 

Bab ez Zuweyleh Wade 68 

Twin minaiets of the mosque of El Moyyad ,. 70 

Mosque of El M(\vyad. View from West Door The Sphinx 71 

Mosque of El Moyyad. West Door Chatterton 72 

Mosque of El Moyyad. Sarcophagus of the Sultan ... ~T) 

Mosque of the Emir Qigmas Wade 76 

Enamelled lamp of the XIV'^ century 78 

Ruins of Fostat. Ancient archway showing regular remains 

of street The Sphinx 79 

Fostat Goolah Filters. (Arab Museum). 

Fostat Fragments of Pottery. (Arab Mu-^eum). 

Fostat Stucco. (Arab Museum). 

Fostat Fragment of Stucco Panelling. (Arab Museum). 

Ruins of Fostat. Oil press showing the groove in which 

the oil flowed Chatterton 8 1 

Ruins of Fostat. A cellar The Sphinx 82 

Mosque of Aqsunqur Creswell 

Mosque of El Av\> , 

Mosque of Mohammed .Abu Dhahab. S')uth Entrance . . Wade ^J 

Mosque of Mohammed .Abu Dhahab. South Gallery . . Stewart 88 

Mosque of Mohammed Abu Dhahab. North Door 89 

Qa'a of House of Gamal el Din C. C. M. A. 

Mosaic fountain in House of Osman Katkhoua . . 

Ceiling FROM the Palace of Beshfak 

Porch of ruined Baths of the Emir Beshtak Chaiterton 94 

House el Giridlieh, from an original water-colour cirawing 

by Aly Effendi el Ghowani 97 

Qa'a of House of Zeynab Khatun C. C. M. A. 

Qa'a of House of Ibrahim es Sennarv 



A.D. 876 

The Mosque of Emir Suyurghiitmish. 

IT is like the realisation of a dream to find myself in Cairo, able to 
see with my own eyes tlic mediaeval Luildings of this wonderful city 
and to i)lace them in my imagination as a setting for the romantic 
scenes of Moslem history which always liad such an attraction for me. 
There is no doubt that Cairo is tlie most interesting city in the world and 
that every lover of history will find here the opportunity of studying his 
favourite epoch, whatever it is, but it is specially rich in Moslem architecture, 
and it is amazing that more visitors do not take advantage of the artistic 
resources which are offered to them. 

Though I have only been here two days, I have lost no time in beginning 
my rambles and I visited my first mosque yesterday. H. very kindly came 
to act as my guide; she knows Cairo well and speaks Arabic fluently. 
We drove through European looking streets until we came to a wide square 
called Sayedeh Zeynab, after a large mosque which stands there ; the place 
also presents a "Caracol" or police station, not a remarkably artistic 
building. H. assured me that all the police stations in Cairo were built 
more or less on that pattern. But, from that moment, the drive became 
entirely delightful, for we turned off into a really Oriental street, bordered 
on either side with quaint little shops, and crowded with picturesque 
figures. It is called the Sharia El Marassin at first but later becomes the 
Sharia es Salibeh ; we left it just before it changes its name and 
went up a steep, winding, narrow road which led us to our destination. 

It is a most interesting ruined mosque, called "Ibn Tulun" after the 
ruler who built it. Pictures of it are to be found in every book on 
architecture, for it is one of the finest Moslem buildings in the world, 


also one of the oldest, the date of it is A.D. 8/6. One mosque in Old 








Cairo *i) stands on an older site, but has been restored so many times 

(I) The niosciuc of Amr Ibn el Aas; See chrcuiuloKical tal>le at the eivi < f 
this volume. 


that practically nothing is left of tiie original building, whereas, in Ibn 
Tuliin's mosque, there remains enough to give us an idea of the noble 
plan and proportions of this grand place of worship. It stands on high 
ground and the outer court is reached by a flight of stone steps; the 
entrance to the mosque itself is at a corner so that one's first sight of 
it is a most impressive vista of cloisters formed by innumerable arches 
resting on massive rectangular piers so lofty that there is nothing "squat" 
about them in spite of their huge size. Before this mosque was built, 
it hati been the custom of Moslem buildei's to rob Christian churches 'i*, 
and even old Egyptian temples, of their round, monolithic columns 
when they wished to erect a mosque, but Ahmed Ibn Tulun preferred 
not to offend the Christian Copts of Egypt and was held back by his 
scruples from entrusting the building of his mosque to some renowned 
Greek architects, who declared that they required three hundred church 
columns in order to build a monument worthy of so great a king. 

This reached the ears of a Christian architect formerly employed by 
the Emir but who was now in disgrace .iiui imprisoned. He succeeded 
in sending a message to his master, telling him that he would gladly 
undertake to build him the finest mosque in the world without the use 
of a single column. Ahmed Ibn Tuliin, delighted, released his architect 
and supplied him with everything he required. 

This anecdote may have been invented after the event ; a more 
scientific way of ex[)hiining the fact that this mosque was built of bricks 
cased in plaster, instead of the stone of the neighbouring quarries, is the 
theory that it was deliberately copied from the mosque of Wathek Ibn 
Mutassim at Samarreh (Mesopotamia). This would also account for the 
unique ft)rm of the minaret about which the folhnving anecdote is told, 
also without a guarantee ot authenticity, x'^hmed Ibn Tulun prided himself 
with justice on his untiring energy and had great contempt for dreamers 
and men who wasted their lime. Having, however, been surprised on one 
occasion when his theughts were wandering and his fingers idly rolling 
a piece of paper into a spiral, he hastened to ascribe a reason for this 
futile occupation by ordering his architect to be called. "Here," he said 
to him "is the^ form that thou shalt give to the minaret of my mosque; 
I have prepared for thee this model with my own hands." 

There are many interesting stories told of this prince, one of the 
greatest rulers Egypt has ever had; he founded several buildings of public 
utility, dispensaries, a hospital, and even drinking troughs for cattle. Some 
portions still remain of an aqueduct '2) intended to carry water to a palace 

(1) In the same way, early Christian church builders in Italy utilised columns 
taken from classic temples. 

(2) This aqueduct is said to have been the work of the Christian architect 
who afterwards built the great mosque. 


he had built at the foot of the present Citadel. Maqrizi relates that the 
Emir was particularly proud of this last achievement and offended by the 
fact that the people did not sufficiently appreciate the pure water brought 
by the aqueduct; he quotes the following story told by the Sheykh 
Mohammed Ibn Abd el Hakem. "I was one night in mv house, when a 












slave of Ibu Tulun came and said "The Emir wants thee"; I mounted my 
horse in a panic of terror, and the slave led me off the high road. "Where 
are you taking me.'" I asked; "To the desert, was the reply, the Emir is 
there". Convinced that my last hour had come, I said "God help me! 








I am an aged and feeble man: 'do you know what he wants with me?" 
The slave took pity on my fears and said "Beware of speaking disrespectfully 
of the aqueduct." He went on till, suddenly, I saw torch-bearers in the 
desert and Ibn Tulun on horseback at the door of the aqueduct, with great 
wax candles burning before him. I forthwith dismounted and salaamed 
but he did not greet me in return. Then I said "O Emir, thy messenger 
hath grievously fatigued me and I thirst, let me, I beg, take a drink." 
The pages offered me water, l)nit I said "No, I will draw for myself". 
I firevv water while he looked on and drank till I thought I should have 
burst. At last I said "O Emir, God quench thy thirst at the rivers of 
Paradise! for I have drunk my till and know not which to praise most, 
the excellence of this cool, sweet, clear water or the delicious smell of the 
aqueduct" "Let him retiie!" said Ibn Tuliln and the slave whispered 
•'Thou hast hit the mark"''". 

Of the suburb of El Qatai, which Ahmed Ibn Tuliui built on the heights, 
north east of Fostat, the original Arab capital of Egypt, nothing now remains 
but his great mosque, the buildings which surroimd it being of a much 
later period. The date of the mosque itself is fixed by a very curious 
inscription in two fragments, the most ancient in Moslem Egypt, a drawing 
and translation of which are to be found in Marcel's "Egypte moderne". 
From ancient writers' accounts, this mosque must have been, in the time 
of its glory, resplendent in beauty and richness of decoration and there 
yet remain traces of wonderful mosaics, marble pavements, carved wood 
inscriptions and plaster lace-work '2). The domed building in the centre 
of the immense court once surmounted a fountain and dates from the 
restoration by Sultan Lagin in 1296. By that time the capital of Egypt 
had been moved from the quarter where the mosque stands to another 
part nearer the Citadel and the mosque fell into disuse and decay ; people 
ceased to come to worship there and it was supposed to be haunted ; only 
one lamp was lit at night and the man who chanted the call to prayer 
feared to come nearer than the threshold. An Emir who had murdered 
another for political reasons, being pursued by the dead man's friends, 
succeeded in eluding them and found concealment in the dark coiners of 
the neglected old mosque. He made a solemn vow that he would repay 
its shelter by repairing it and he kept his word when, in 1296, he became 
Sultan of Egypt. Apparently this Emir, Husam ed Din Lagin el Mansury, 
was an estimable man in spite of the afore-mentioned accident, for he is 

(1) Translation by Lane Poole. 

(2) A very remarkable specimen of stucco work is found in a prayer niclie 
which is placed against one of the piers; it presents some jieculiarly ricii designs, 
one of the earliest ornamental crescents and an inscription in beautiful Fatimite 
Kutic characters, from which we learn that it was built by El Afdal, son of Badr 
el Gamaly, in 1094. 


said to have been an excellent ruler, so much beloved by the people that 
there were tremendous public rejoicings when he recovered after a long 
illness. This illness was caused by a fall from his pony whilst playing polo ! 

Phot. Wade. 
Mosque of Ibn Tulun 
Stucco mihrab with Fatimitc inscription. 

Does it not seem extraordinary to think of tliese Saracens playing a 
fashionable game like polo at the time of the Norman Conquest! 

From the minaret, which we duly ascended, there is a marvellous view 


of the city of Cairo with its innumerable domes and minarets. I was 
struck by the appearance of a very ruined mosque close below us, which 
we must have passed on our way ; the dome of it was c|uite unlike any 

Pilot. Creswtil. 

Mosque oi Suyurghatinish. 

Other. H. told me that it was built by the Emir Suyurghatmish (this 
long name means A Present, in the Turcoman language) under the reign 
of Sultan Hassan. (A.D. 1356). 



AD. 970 
College mosques of the Emirs Aqbogha and T^ibars. 

IT was with the greatest interest I looked forward to a visit to 
El Azhar, the woiid-renowned Moslem University, and my aiiticipalions 
were fully realised yesterday when H. took me to this celebiated 

mosque. Originally built in 970, when the Fatimite invaders from 
the Moghreb'" founded the fortified town of El Qahira (Cairo), and many 
times restored, it has for centuries been the chief centre of IMoslem 
learning and still has as many as eleven thousand students on its registers. 
These students come from all parts of the Moslem world and pay nothing 
for their teaching ; indeed, many of the poorer ones benefit by some 
pious foundation and receive a portion of bread every day ; the sons of 
rich men, however, often bestow presents upon the lecturers. The education 
they acquire is lather limited and old-fashioned and consists chiefly of a 
thorough acquaintance with tite Coran, of reading and writing Arabic and 
of a little arithmetic and geography. The study of the language alone 
covers ten or eleven years and includes vory complicated grammar and 
syntax, and the study of the Coran leads to that of Moslem jurisprudence. 

This Moslem University is sometimes' spoken of as a very fanatical 
centre and some louiists had warned me against going" the)e as I might 
meet with sonie hostile feeling. H. assured me, however, that any tourists 
who had not been well received had probably been themselves guilty of a 
lack of breeding, forgetting that they stood in a place of worship and that 
they ought to behave as respectfully as we would wish strangers to behave 
in one of our own Cathedrals. She added that she had several friends 
among the "dons" and that she had written to one of them to announce 
our visit so that she felt sure of a good reception. 

Indeed, when we arrived before the main entrance, we found two or 
three men in beautiful silk robes waiting for us and an interested and 
sympathetic crowd of underlings ready with slippers to i.nit on over our 
shoes so that we should not bring any tilth from outside into the sacred 

(I) The plan of El Azhar is said to be based upon that of the great mosque 
of Qairwan. 


precincts. The natives themselves take off their shoes and walk about in 
their socks. We happened to come in class-time, and, thon^h I knew 



? <9 








beforehand that this was a crowded school, I had not expected 10 see such 
a large number of people; the great courtyard was like a bee-hive. 

We were able to watch several classes going on ; there are no separate 


class-rooms, no chairs, no desks and apparently no necessity to keep order. 
We did see one large hall which is used for lectures to the professors, 
but all the other classes are given under the colonnades of the sanctuary 
of the mosque; the students squat in a circle around the teacher who 
himself sits on his heels on the floor, perhaps with his back against a 
column, or on a sort of high, broad chair with no back. Those who were 
learning arithmetic did their sums on metal plates which were really the 
sides of old petrol tins, whilst the master demonstrated on a familiar-looking 
black-board. All seemed to listen attentively to the lesson, taking little 
interest iu us, and certainly showing no sign of resenting our intrusion. 
The white-bearded sheykh who was showing us lound, talking in Arabic 
with H., seemed a very well-known and much respected pers'^n. Several 
students, instead of attending a chi'^s. were learning by heart, in corners, 
bv them-elves; they made a (lueei', rhythmical movement which apparently 
helps them to remember the words. Others were stretched at full length 
on the grounc', sleeping peacefully, as if nothing was worth worrying about. 
The sheykh took us into various apartment?, dwellings of students from 
foreign lands — most of the Egyptian students lodge outside in Cairo ; there 
are Moslems in many parts of the world and their religion forms a wonderful 
bond between them. They believe that the Coran was revealed to Mohammed 
in Arabic which is therefore to them a sacred language. Turkish. Indian 
or Russian Moslems all have to learn the holy book in Arabic which the\' 
often do not understand at all, no more than a French or Irish Roman 
Catholic peasant understands his Latin prayeis. 

There is a special apartment for North Afiicans, i.e. Moroccans, Tunisians 
and Algerians, one for Abyssinians— llieir shtykh, an old man as black 
as ink, offered H. some tea ; one for small, yellow men from Java ; one 
for Indians, and another for Syrians, with white skins and handsome faces, 
a type very frequently met with here. Of the Egyptians, it is said that a 
great many become students in order to evade militar> service, Coran 
readers and preachers being e.xempted from it. 

In one place in the courtyard, I noticed a quantity of small children, 
including some little girls, and was told that they constituted a practising 
school, El-Azhar being in fact a sort of training college for teachers. 

The wall of one side of the sanctuary is entirely covered with lockers 
in which the day-scholars keep their books, etc. ; the boarders have theirs 
in their own rooms. The students all looked very clean and tidy, most 
of them wearing the graceful silk robes and small white turbans which are 
so much more becoming than the lounge suit and red "tarbush" of the 
men one meets in the European quarter. There were a good many blind 
men about and it seems that special classes are held for them ; they learn 
the Coran by heart and repeal long passages of it at festivals and funerals 
and in hareems, where their blindness secures admittance for them and 


also for blind musicians. That infirmity does not go necessarily with a 
gentle and docile disposition, for I hear that, at one time, the blind men 
were the most refractory of all the students and ^ave the authorities 
much trouble. 

El-Azhar was built in A.D. 9/0 by Gohar, a Sicilian freed-slave of the 
Fatimite Khalife El Moezz ; he founded an entire new city, east of the 
old Fostat and of Ahmed Ibn Tulun"s town, el Qatai. El Azhar was 
intended to be the Friday mosque, the official place of worship of the new 
Khalitate ; it was only under Moezz's son. El Aziz, that it became a 
centre of learning. 

The teirible earthquake of 1302, which did so much damage in Cairo, 
did not spare the sacred University, but it was piously and carefully repaired 
by a succession of Mameluke .'princes: the Emirs Silar and Suyurghatmish 
(the latter being the founder of the handsome mosque, now in ruins, which 
[ saw near that of Ibn Tukui, A.D. 1356), Sultan Hassan, whose great 
mosque I have not yet seen, and the celebrated Sultan Qaitbay. Besides 
those restorations, some very important additions were made by the Emir 
Taibars in 1309, the Emir Aqbogha in 1334, Goliar. el Khankabay, Sultan 
el Ghiiry in 1501, Abd-er-Rahman Katkhoda in the XVIII''> century, and 
finally i)y the late Khedive, Abbas Hilmy Pacha. 

Abd-er-Rahman Katkhoda deserves a special mention ; two hundred 
years after the Turkish invasion which arrested the development of art in 
Egypt, he was one of the few who still attempted to produce buildings 
in the beautiful Mameluke style, and a great many of his well-ineant and 
often successful restorations or original works are to be found in Cairo. 
The best known is a fountain (sebil) standing at a parting of streets near 
the Muristan of Qalaun, wliich I hope to see very shortly. He also built 
the h(jly moscjue of Sayedeh Zeynab. 

Another great restorer, greater far in artistic merit than Abd-er-RahmSn, 
was the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay who lived in the XV"i century. Lane-Poole 
calls him the Prin.ce of Cairo Builders, and certainly, if history did not 
relate many wars under his reign, one could easily believe that his only 
interest in life was tf.e work of beautifying Cairo and endowing it with 
exquisite monuments. Not only did he build two lovely mosques and a 
large number of fountains, palaces and caravanserai "', but he also effected 
several restorations, of which El Azhar is a striking example. 

The main entrance into the mosque is by the northwest door, restored 
by Abd-er-Rahman ; it leads into a narrow courtyard between two small 
buildings, originally school-mosques and now containing the offices of the 

(I) The beautiful remains of his wekdleh near the soiUh door of El Azhar 
are well known to artists. 



University. The one on the left, built in 1334 by the Emir Aqbogha, 
(majordonio of Sultan Mohammed en Nasser), and reached by a picturesque 

OrnAinental details in Qaitbay*s madrasseh iNtni muros, 

flight of steps, has become the college library. In it are hundreds of Arabic 

Printed hy the Survey of Eaypt 1917. 1674 



Sebil of Abd er-Rahman Katkhoda 


books and manuscripts, some of the latter most wonderful and valuable 
Corans of immense size. They belonged to individual Sultans, and it was 
to support them that those curious wooden thrones {kftrsi) were made which 
are to be found in Cairo mosques. 

Another manuscript interested us, a copy of the Coran in such micros- 
copic writing that the whole 112 chapters hold within sixteen small pages. 
It is not ancient, but cjuite modern, and the calligrapher is still living; 
I was not surprised to hear that he is now blind. The library also contains 
curious maps and globes and the telescope with which the Ulema discern 
the new moon on the first evening of Ramadan. In a kind of professors' 
sitting room, leai ned-looking men seemed engaged in correcting exercises. 
This building, being used for business purposes and not at all artistically 
furnished, has lost all its medioeval charm, and it is with a pleasant shock 
of surprise that one discovers a beautiful prayer-niche, hidden away behind 

A still more beautiful one is to be found in the building on the opposite 
side of the courtyard, the small mosque and tomb of the Emir Taibars, 
wlo seems to have been an Army Cotnmander. His qibleh is one of the 
most remarkable works of art in Cairo, enriched as it is by a delicate 
mosaic of costly materials and flanked on eitiier side by a superb ancient 
column of porphyry. The tomb is quite simple, and the rest of the building 
is encumbered by sordid-looking offices with partitions and pigeon-holes. 
Even the clerks, in European dress, look mean and common place in 
comparison with the dignified, silk-robed professors. 

At the end of the small courtyard, a beautiful door way by Qaitbay, 
in pure XV'ii century style, leads into the great yard or sahn. A charming 
minaret by the same Sultan rises above it. Unfortunately, a later Sultan, 
Qansu el Ghury, also desired to bestow a gift on the holy college, and he 
planted another, taller, minaret close to Qaitbay's, dwarfing it and, at the 
same time, suffering by the comparison ; the contrast is most marked 
between Qaitbay's elegant tower and Ghirry's ugly, two-headed erection. 

It is a generally accepted theory that Qaitbay, and the others before 
him, who restored the sahn allowed it to retain its original form, and it 
is considered as a good example of Fatimite architectural design, with 
broken "Persian" arches supported by GrjBco-Roman marble columns. 
The wall above the arches is ornamented by shell-shaped niches and 
medallions and finished off by an open work parapet crowned with tooth-like 
points, called, I believe, "merlons". The centre arcade through which one 
enters the sanctuary stands exactly opposite Qaitbay's door; there is a 
small cupola above the entrance, decorated with rich kufic inscriptions in 
plaster, which is said to be almost all that remains of the original structure. 

The sanctuary is iminense; three hundred and eighty columns give it 
tbe aspect of a veritable forest, under the cool shade of which groups of 


picturesque Orientals sit or recline absorbed in meditation. Gohar's original 

El Azhar. 
Door by Qaitbay. 

mosque only held six rows of columns, but Abd~er-Rahman added four 



arcades to it. He took away the south-east wall in order to effect this 
enlargement, but allowed the panel to remain which contained the oiiginal 
qihleh. building- an additional prayer-niche in his new wall. He himself is 





buried in a small chapel in the south-west angle of the mosque, near an 
entrance leading into a back street where some of Qaitbay's houses are 
to be foiind. 


There is yet another chapel in the opposite corner, and the servants 
of the mosque declared that it formed the mausoleum of the founder, Gohar, 
but H. assured me that it was of much later date and that a certain Gohar 
el Kliankabay *■' was buried there. It is a very small mosque and a very 
attractive one. 

Finally, we went into a large hall at the back of the Taibarsiyeh, 
where lectures are given to the professors. This was built by the late 
Khedive, Abbas Hilmy, and is very luxurious, with handsome carpets, but 
tlie decoration of the room is rather gaudy and vulgar, modern in fact. 
1 hear that otliei" restorations were made to El Azhar in 1892, under the 
supervision of the special architect of the Comite de Conservation des 
Monuments Arabes, a body of learned archaeologists which has done much 
10 save tlie treasures of Cairo from destruction. 

We walked back along the little street which leads to El Azhar from 
the Sikket el Gedideh, (the continuation of the Musky) and stopped to 
look at some of the innumerable .native book-shops which the vicinity of 
the University has brought there. The whole quarter is very interesting, 
centred as it is around the great medioeval school and living its medioeval 
life. It takes but a few moments, however, to return to the modern, "civilised" 
world, its tramways, electric lights, smart-looking police-men, hideous 
buildings and fashionable tea-shops haunted by frivolous people of various 
races and complexions. 


(I) Perhaps tJic same as a Khazindar of that name who built a madrasseh 
at Jerusalem. 



A. 0. 1012 
Bab en Nasr. Bab el Futuh. Wall of Badr el Gam&Iy. 

JAM endeavouring to arrange my rambles on a chronological plan, and, 
having seen Ibn Tulian, the oldest mosque in Cairo, and El Azhar, 
the second oldest, I now found my way to the third, that which bears 
the name of the Fatimite Khalife El Hakem-b-amr-Illah. This long 
nftme means "he who governs according to God's order" and no appellation 
was ever less deserved. Hakem was the son of the Khalife El Aziz, son 
and successor of El Moezz, founder of El Azhar, a just, noble-minded and 
tolerant man, under whose reign Jews and Christians enjoyed equal treatment 
with Moslems. It is probable that this tolerance was due to the influence 
of his Christian wife, the sister of the two bishops of Jerusalem and 
Alexandria, Hakem inherited the throne at the early age of eleven ; his 
father had appointed the Wazir Birgwan to be his guardian, but, after a 
very few years, the young Khalife, wishing to shake off the Wazir's authority, 
did not scruple to have him murdered. The name of Birgwan has been 
handed down to posterity by remaining that of a narrow, winding street 
starting under an archway which we passed on our way from the Suq En 
Nahassin. 1:1. told me that it led to one of the most exquisite XV^t^ century 
mosques in Cairo, a small madrasseh or college, built by one of Sultan 
Qaitbay's Emirs, the learned Abu Bekr .Mazhar el Ansary, in 1479. All 
this part of Cairo, from the iMusky street, down the "Suq en Nahassin" 
to the great gate called Bab el Futuh, is full of lovely mediccval monuments, 
each of which deserves a visit. 

To return to El Hakem, it seems evident that he was a madman, a 
sort of Nero, who perpetrated horrible cruelties and finally imagined himself 
a prophet, of Divine origin. He used to wander about the city at night, 
watching to see whether the insane rules he had laid down were being 
obeyed, rules about food, drink, the destruction of dogs, the conduct of 
women, whom he condemned wholesale to be shut up in their houses night 
and day 'I', &c„ &c. All his ministers were assassinated by his orders, one 

(I) In order to enforce this rule, he went so far as to forbid shoe makers to 
sell any women's sho^s. " 



after another, for no reason. When he proclaimed his own divinity, he 
was supported by some Persians wlio led the new sect; but the people, 
who had liitherto submitted to the Khalife's vagnries, now rebelled, and 
killed the false priests. One of them, whose name was Darazi, escaped, 
however, having hidden himself in the Khalife's palace: he succeeded in 
reaching Syria and fovinded on the Lebap.on the religion of the Druses, 
which still exists. The Khalife himself was murdered soon afterwards, 
during one of his solitary rambles; his body was never found, only his 
dead donkey and his clothes, and the Druses are said to believe to this day 
that he ascended into Heaven and will return. 

The mosque wliich bears his name and which is situated on the north 
side of Cairo, close to the gate called Bab el Fuluh, was begun by El Aziz 
and only completed by El Hakem, at a time when he still professed the 
religion of his fathers. It covers a very large area of ground, as large, 
I should think, as Ibn Tulun, and it is in an even more mined state. It 
is to be hoped that the authorities will see their way to arrest its decay, 
and to clear it from the workshops, wooden-built primary school and ancient 
Egyptian debris which encumber the great courtyard. Until quite lately 
I believe, the wooden structure which harbours the school used to contain 
the priceless collections of the Arab IMuseum. now suitably housed in a 
handsome building near the Cairo Governorate. El Hakem's noble mosque 
has been sadly misused in the course of centuries. In 1 167. the Crusaders 
occupying Cairo turned it into a sort of headquarters, including a church. 
It was used for Moslem congregations again in the time of Saladin, and, 
even more than El Azhar. it suffered terribly in the earthquake of 1302. 
The two powerful Emirs, Silar and Beybars el Gashenkir, e.ich undertook 
to repair one of the great mosques. Like el Azhar, Ibn Tulun and the 
mosque of Amr in Old Cairo, El Hakem was intended to receive the whole 
population of Cairo for the Friday service when the Khalife himself 
officiated, which is the reason for the vast proportions of these mosques. 
Later on. when Mameluke Sultans ruled over Cairo and the Khalife merely 
wielded religious power, a great many smaller mosques were built, each 
Sultan building a mosque adjoining his mausoleum and the rich Emirs of 
his Court followed the sovereign's example. 

The arcades of El Hakem's mosque spring from rectangular piers as 
is the case in Ibn Tulun's, which evidently served as a model for this one. 
whilst the founder of El-Azhar reverted to the old and not very honourable 
plan of stealing columns from Christian churches. 

The two minarets are the most striking feature ot this mosque. Their 
appearance reminds one of huge pepper-pots, each standing on a sort of 
square pyramid. We walked up to one of them and behold! there was a 
door leading inside the pyramid which was found to contain a large, 
stone-built, circular tower, decorated with beautiful inscriptions: there i^ 



a screw staircase inside the tower and a narrow iron one between it and 
the wall of the pylon, evidently placed there quite recently. 

It seems that those towers, only discovered a few years ago by M. Van 

Phot. Cresivell. 
North wall of Cairo. On the right, ruins of Mosque of el Hakcm. 

Berchem and Herz Pasha, are all that remain of the original minarets, 
the upper part of them having been destroyed by the earthquake of 1302 
and the whole building much damaged. It was restored in 1303 by an 
Emir called Beybars-el-Gashenkir who afterwards became Sultan, and whose 



own very interesting convent mosque in Sh. El Gamalieh has a minaret 
not unlike those of El Hakem. Apparently, these pylons were built round 
the lower part to consolidate it, and the pepper-pots"' were put on instead 
of the ruined upper storey. Perhaps too, the pylons were intended to form 
part of the fortifications, for, after climbing the little iron staircase, we 













found ourselves on a l«:'vel with the top of a fortified wall ; we walked 
(jut on to a wide rampart with battlements and loop-holes, and here and 
there a raised bastion containing a sort of guaid-room. These bastions 
look quite modern and each bears a French name inscribed in ordinary 
characters; those inscriptions were placed there by Napoleon, who partly 

(I) This form of summit to a minaret is called a in,ibkh(itrh. 



restored the fortifications when he occupied Egypt in 1798. The wall we 
stood on is part of the second great wall built round Cairo; the first was 
built in 969, when El Azhar was founded, but, being only of unbaked bricks, 
was not very durable; the third, enclosing the Citadel, was begun by the 
celebrated Sultan Saladin, in 1 172, but never completed. 

v^ ^ '' - 

Phot. CrcsivcU. 

North wall of Cairo. 

This one, and the three great gates which still remain were erected 
about 1040 by the brilliant General Badr-el-Gamaly. This Badi was Governor 
of Syria ; he marched to Cairo to assist El Mustansir, a grandson of 
El-Hakem's, who could not cope with his enemies, both from within and 



without. Badr brought some Syrian architects with him. which accounts 
for the Byzantine style of the fortifications. We wandered over those walls, 
visited strong guard-rooms, passed over the great gate and looked down 
into the street below through narrow openings; finally we were led into 

Phot. Creswell. 

North wall of Cairo. 

a most romantic vaulted passage down a dark staircase, with no light at 
all in some places and, in others, only the narrow rays which entered through 
the loop-holes. One ccjuld imagine the absolute security of a garrison within 
this wall before tjie days of heavy artillery. 



The gates are magnificent, and give a wonderful impression of solidity ; 
I have not yet seen the third, Bab-el-Zuweyleh, but, of the two others, 
Bab-el-Futuh (the gate of Conquests) and Bab-en-Nasr (the gate of Victory, 

Phot. Wade. 

Bab el Futuh. 

or of Succour) I think the former pleased me more. The wall continues 
westwards of it for some hundred yards or so and then loses itself among 
sordid modern houses. Towards the East, it continues without a break as 



far as the gate of Bab-en-Nasr and some way beyond it. Close to Bab-el- 
Futuh, near the entrance of the mosque, a small domed building was said 
by the keeper to contain the tomb of Badr-el-Gamaly himself but H. declaied 






that it was obviously built at a much later period. Badr was the first of 
those great Wazirs who ruled Egypt under the nominal authority of the later 


t i 

Si m^^mTi 

- "'f -r«iBwi 



Printed by the Survny of Etypt !j!7 '674' 


Minaret of M. of el Hakem 


Fatimite Khalifes, themselves mere "rois faineants". Having defeated the 
many enemies of El Mustansir with the help of the well-disciplined Syrian 
troops that he had brought with him to Egypt, he proceeded to consolidate 
his authority by the wholesale execution of every man who might prove a 
competitor or a rebel. Having thus cleared the way, he applied himself 
to the organisation of the Government and the administration of the country. 
During the twenty years which elapsed until his death, at the age of 
eighty, prosperity returned to the ruined and desolate land, agriculture 
and commerce tlourijhed, literature and science were encouraged, hospitals 
and mosques were built. The Meqids or Nilometer on Rodeh Island was 
repaired and a mosque built near it which has now unfortunately 
disappeai'ed. Badr was succeeded by his son El Afdal, known, like his 
father by the title of Emir el Guyush, Lord of Armies; it was he who built 
a mosque, now ruined, on the edge of the .Moqattain hills, a delightfully 
picturesque feature in the view'". 

< < ♦ < »— 

(1) The engraving erroneously entitled "Mosque el Guy lishy " in Stanley Lane- 
Poole's " Story of Cairo " is not a picture of it but of the mosque of Shahin Agha 
el Khaluaty. 



AD. 1176 

Joseph's Well. Mosque of En Nasser Ibn Qalaun. Mosque of 
Solitnan Pasha. Mosque and Palaces of Mohammed Aly. 

OF ull tlie mediccval rulers of Egypt. Saladiii alone has the privilege 
of being rcnienibered by Western readers, and the average man 
or woman of moderate culture will not cheerfully confess complete 
ignorance of his name as of that of Ahmed Ibn Tulfln, Badr el 
Gamaly, or Beybars el Rondoqdary. I will therefore not insult you by 
relating to you the history of that great and noble knight, one of the most 
admirable and lovable characters in history. Should you wish to refresh 
your memory, you will iind a delightful precis of his life in Lane-Poole's 
"Story of Cairo" of which one chapter is fittingly entitled "Saladin's 
Castle". The spur of the Moqattam, on which Salah ed Din Yussef 
Ibn Ayilb (to give him his full name) built his great strongliold, had 
already been utilised by Ahmed Ibn Tulun for the site of his Qubbet 
el Howa, or Dome of the Air. but that was only a health resort and 
had no special military purpose. Salah ed Din's Castle formed part of a 
scheme of fortification (the vicinity of the Moqattam was no danger in 
those days when long range artillery was unknown), wliich included a great 
wall, meeting and completing Badr el Gamaly's r.amparts. The southern 
wall, which was to include the ruins of the recently destroyed Fostat, never 
was finished, but there is reason to believe that the northern part was 
completed and there is now little doubt that the mysterious structure called 
Burg-ez-Zafer was a bastion of Saladin's wall, the remains of which are 
being slowly excavated from mounds of refuse in the north-east corner 
of the present town of Cairo, (see illustration). 

The Citadel itself, the Castle of the Mountain (Qala'at el Gebel) was 
too obviously useful as a stronghold not to be continually inhabited by the 
Sultans who succeeded Salah ed Din and who perhaps needtd it more 
even in the frequent revolts of their mamelukes than as a defence against 
outside invaders. It was. however, taken by storm in 1517 by Selim I. who 
reduced Egypt to a Turkish province and who forced the last of the 
Abbasside Khalifes to delegate the powers and religious authority of the 
Khaiifes to the Ottoman Sultans. From that moment until the French 


occupation in 1798, tiie Citadel became a large barracks for Turkish troops. 
The luxurious Turkish palaces that are now used as a military hospital 
date, I believe, from the time of Mohammed Aly. 

I should advise visitors to the Citadel to tind or make some friend 
amongst the R. A. M. C. officers at the Hospital, under whose privileged 
guidance many doors are open that are otherwise closed to the ordinary 
tourist. We were led by a courteous and well-informed friend of H.'s to 
many spots of the most varied historical and artistic interest. 

The views from the Citadel are of course among the very finest in 
the world. Having already climbed one or two minarets and seen the 
marvellous panorama of Cairo with the winding, silvery Nile and the 
distant Pyramids, I was perhajis less struck by the views of the west and 
south, gorgeous as they are, than by the northern and eastern views, over 
the Moqattam, all golden in the setting sun, with its quarries and vvadys, 
the ancient Fatimite mosque of El Guyushy perched on the e.xtreme edge 
of the rock and, close to it, the fortifications that Napoleon erected to 
command the town and which were so effectively employed as a threat, 
in 1882, by General Drury Lowe. To the left, towards the north, lies the 
necropolis improperly called Tombs of the Khalifes. with its lovely mameluke 
cupolas and minarets. From our vantage-ground, one of the enormous 
towers facing the Moqattam, we could distinguish aiid identify almost 
every monument in that rich archaeological field. 

There is, I believe, a great deal left of Saladin's wall, but we did 

not have time to explore it and did not see the figure of an eagle which 

is still to be found on the wall and which is taken to be the badge of 

Saladin's General and right-hand man. the eunuch Qaraqush (i.e. Black 

Eagle). — Qaraqush, whose name has been given by the Cairenes to a 

sort of local Punch and Judy, was a faithful servant to Saladin and directed 

most of his architectural works in Egypt. When he was taken prisoner 

at Acca by the Crusaders, his master did not hesitate to pay an enormous 

ransom ior him. It was he who superintended the digging of the "Well 

of Joseph " by Frankish prir.oners, though it does not seem certain whether 

this well already existed (in which case it might have been ascribed by 

tradition to the son of Jacob among his many good works as Pharaoh's 

minister) and was merely cleared of accumulated sand, or whether the 

unhappy Crusaders actually had to hew it out of the solid rock, the well 

being called after the Sultan himself, Salah ed Din Yussef. It is 280 ft deep 

and the water to be found in it is quite pure and sweet. The bottom used 

to be reached by winding stairs which have now given way to a simple 

incline; there is a platform half-way down, where two oxen used to work 

a saqqieh or water-wheel with a chain of pots; another saqqieh took the 

water up the n( xt stage to the surface of the ground. 

Another very interesting relic of Saladin consists in a gateway, Bab 



el Mudairag or the "Gate of Steps", now unused and not very easily found. 
An inscription above this gate records the name of the Sultan, with which, 
with characteristic modesty, he associated that of his faithful Qaraqush and 
that of his loved brother and heir-apparent, el A'dil Seyf ed Din, the 
"Saphadin" of the French chroniclers. It was to this Emir that Richard 

*s— * ^^^ <« 

■ "if'^*-^il"i"MifTi-'-''*'"ffl' 

• i 

Phot. Cresu'tU. 
Bab cl Mxidarrag. Exterior view. 

Coeur dc Lion had agreed to ^ive his sister rin marriage, this union to be 
the basis of a lasting peace, when the Christian Bishops, horrified, refused 
their sanction unless Saladin's brother should abjure Islam. All negociations 
then came to an end and hostilities were resumed. 




• ;'■■, 'iv 

'* • i 

' ■■ ■ ^" '■' 


,* 4 ^- ; . . , t 


I ■•m1^ 











4 *- 




:*« :/. 



Printed hy the Survey of Egypt 19 17. (574-J ( C rtHLOtll ) 

Mosque of Nasser Ibn Qalaun Citadel 



Many beautiful monuments of Saladin's successors were pulled down 
by Mohammed Aly to make room for his enormous Turkish mosque. 
M. Casanova, who has made an extensive study of the spot, believes that, 
already in the time of Beybars el Boiidoqdary, a large gateway called Bab 
el Qulla existed where the actual hospital gate now stands. 

Phot. Creswcli 
Bab el Mudarrag. Interior view. 

Close to the big mosque itself, a few black and yellow stones are to 
be seen, relics of the "Striped Palace" that Mohammed en Nasser built in 
imitation of that built at Damascus by Beybars. The celebrated "Hall of 
Joseph", of which many pictures^ happily remain, is also ascribed by M, 



Casanova to En Nasser, and it is impossible not to be struck by the similarity 
of architectural design between those pictures and a photograph of the 
interior of En Nasser's mosque. 

teii«CT7!rp:'^^ ^h ' ""Mr^i '"'A^^'i 

\Ve had to prociu-e a special permit to visit this mosque (oft-en 


erroneously called Qalaun after Mohammed en Nasser's father) and we 
came away full of indignation against the unconscious vandalism of "the 
authorities". The mosque is used to store what surely might well be 
housed elsewhere and, apart from possible active injury, the building is being 
slowly allowed to decay. It is a unique monument of the most artistic 
period in Cairo, and unlike any other mosque. The exterioi, i^erhaps inspired 
by its military surroundings, is very severe in its aspect, quite without 
decoration, save the remains of lovely carved stone balconiis to the eastern 
minaret, but the interior is beautiful. The four liwans around the open 
snlvi still show a forest of fine classic columns, from which spring arches 
of black and white marble; ten superb Ptolemaic granite shafts supported 
a dome over the qibleh but it fell in A.D. 1521 and not'ning remains of il but 
the pendentives in the corners. There are also appreciable traces of a 
very beautiful ceiling in octagonal divisions, with charming decorations 
in green, red-brown and gold over a p.jle blue ground. I he minarets are 
of a very unusual description, crowned as they are with bLildaquin-shaped 
summits richly decorated with tiles of a plain ^reen colour and girdled 
with an inscription in faience mosaic of large white lelteis over a ciark-blue 
ground. The Tartar character that connoisseurs find in their appearance 
is probably explained by the influence of Mohammed en Nassei's Mongolian 
mother and the many Mongolian importations which she brought to 
Q jtaun's court. 

Barquq's son, Farag, also built a mosque at the Citadel, but no traces 
of it remain. It seems possible that his was the mosque mentioned by 
Ibn lyas of which the cupola fell, destroying the mtfirdb and iiiinhar, to the 
great concern of Sultan Qaitbay, who, on bearing of the disaster, hastened 
to the spot in person and forthwith gave oiders for re|iaii?. 

The next monument in order of date that we visited was liie first Turkish 
mosque built in this country after the conquest, by the riHki>h Governor 
Soliman Pasha (A.D. 1528). It is usually called Sidi Sariva, and a saint of 
that name is buried there. The history of it did not seem very clear; it 
is apparently built on the site of a mosque anteiior to the Citadel itself, 
the mosque of Qusteh, an Armenian on Badr el Gamaly's staff, of whom 
an inscri|)lion remains on a stt)ne ; but I own I did not quite grasp the 
coimection with Sariya, a soi t of hermit who lived, I think, in Syria and 
not in Egypt. However the Moqaltam has a great reputation for sanctity 
and perhaps there has been some confusion between some hetmit living 
in one of its caves and the better known Syrian s.iint. 

Another cenotaph in the same mosque is said to be that of the 
manielukes murdered by Mohammed Aly Pasha in 181 1, but, as there were 
over four hundred of them. I doubt whether it be sufficiently capacious. 
The history ot that hecatomb is grim enough. The Pasha invited the 
whole corps of mamelukes t,(/ a feast at hjs palace in the Citadel and received 



them with the utmost cordiality. As they left to return to Cairo, soldiers 
ambushed behind the walls fell upon them whilst they were descending 
the narrow defile leading to the Bab el Azab'", where there was no room 
for the crowded horses to turn. Resistance was useless ; not one of them 
escaped, unless the legend is true according to which one Hassan Bey 
succeeded in galloping his horse to the edge of the terrace near the great 
mosque and jumping him over. The horse was killed, but the mameluke, 
only injured, was picked up by some Arabs who helped him to escape. 
Another, Shahin Bey, reached the hareem terraces and begged in vain 
for protection : he was seized and decapitated <2>. 

Thus perished the last of that turbulent militia, men whose reckless 
courage made them a valuable asset to the rulers of Egypt in times of war. 
but whose uncontrollable ferocity rendered them, in time of peace, a perpetual 
source of struggle and difficulties and a terror to the unhappy populace. 
They had in no wise reformed the habits of their medieval predecessors 
and were practically no better than a band of brigands, tolerated because 
of the alarm with which they inspired successive Governments. Mohammed 
Aly was well aware that his ambitious schemes could not prosper as long 
as he had these terrible prjetoiians to deal with. It has been said that he 
looked on impassively at the massacre, but that is not the case; he sat 
alone i« his divvan, pale and silent, feeling so faint, when he heard the 
shots, that he had to ask for some water. 

This remarkable man, who. on other occasions, gave proofs of an inflexible 
will subordinated to a calculating brain, very neaily succeedeti in procuring 
the independence of Egypt and Syria and recent history might have been 
very diffeient if the Turkish Sultan Abd-el-Medjid had not obtained the 
help of the European Powers to reduce him to the condition of vassaldom 
from which he had started. By the treaty of London, in 1840. England. Russia. 
Prussia and Austria deprived him of Syria, recently conquered by his son 
Ibrahim, and, by way of compensation, made the Pashalik of Egypt hereditary 
in his family. France abstained but, by so dcung, merely encouraged hopes 
that she was not prepared to fulfil. Mohammed Aly invariably showed great 
partiality to the French and, assisted by many individual Frenchmen, intro- 
duced European institutions into the country. For instance, he organised an 
Army, Navy and arsenals on European models, reduced the finances of Egypt 
to order, gave a new direction to agriculture, making cotton a staple product 
and introducing or extending other products. In the earlier days of his 
reign, he had founded many schools and other philanthropic institutions 

(1) The massive yatevvay immediately facing the Mician er Runieyleh ; the 
two large towers which flank it were built in 1754 by Radwan Katkhoda. 

(2) At the same time twelve hundred remaining mamelukes, in different parts 
of the country, were executed by the Pasha's orders. 



which he himself closed or destroyed in his disappointment when he found 
himself delivered into the hands of the Turkish oppressors by those in 
whom he had placed his hopes. 


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His huge mosque is seen to great advantage from a distance when, 
in its incomparable situation, its two slender minarets seem like the lances 
of two motionless sentries, mounting guard over Cairo. At close quarters 




the crudity and vulgarity of certain details are very striking, but the general 
effect is rich and luxurious; the columns in the great courtyard are entirely 
coated with alabaster. 

Our kind guide afterwards led us into the palace which is now used 
as a hospital. It is approached by a charming garden of true Oriental 
character, with tall palms, vines and creepers lianging from wooden supports 
and shady corners scented with jessamine. How far better gardens in 
this style would have harmonised with the splendid buildings of the Midan 
er Rumeyleh than the conventional lawns and beds which have recently 
been placed there, in apparent imitation of the gardens of some Riviera 
hotels! There are some wonderful painted ceilings in this palace, in a 
style utterly different from that of the old Arab houses; some of them 
represent landscapes, views of tlie Bosphorus, &c , in soft colourings, chiefly 
greys and blues; I have been told that they were the work of a Swiss artist. 

The palace contains no less than five or six bath halls, two of which 
are very remarkable. One of them, which has a very ornamental painted 
ceiling, has been converted into an Anglican chapel ; the curtains behind 
the altar hide a marvellous salsabil : two winged horses, carved in alabaster, 
or a very transparent white marble, open their mouths through which water 
once flowed into a succession of graceful vessels, finally to run down a 
channel of white marble, decorated by carved fishe-. into the deer bath 
in the centre of the hall, now boarded over. 

The other is still more remarkable : it is reached by a narrow passage 
walled in moonlight blue and lighted from above by patches of thick coloured 
glass. The bath itself is entirely made of white marble and, on entering it. a 
most striking effect is produced by the contrast between the blue corridor 
and the radiant white of the pavement and walls of the room. Graceful 
and very slender alabaster columns rise from the floor to the thick plaster 
vault with large slabs of coloured glass inserted' into it according to a 
pleasing design. Whilst the glass in the passage is mainly blue an<i 
green, the glass in the bath itself- is chiefly red and gold colour, of an 
intensely rich effect in the sunlight. 

There is a great deal to see at the Citadel and we found that two 
afternoons were not nearly enough. If there had been time, we had hoped 
to see one more mosque, a small Turkish one of the XVIII*'^ century, built 
by a Governor, Mohammed Katkhoda, on the site of an older monument. 
I am told however that it is not particularly interesting and that we did 
not lose much by postponing our visit to it. I hear also that there are some 
fine paintings in the "Bijou" palace; in fact it is as well to set apart 
several days for rambling in this old fortress, rich as it is in interesting 




AD. 1267 

THE accompanying photographs represent a building which I had 
noticed on the \va\' into Cairo hom Abbassieli and which, at first 
sight, I had tal<en for a ruined fortress. It is extraordinarily like 
a fort, with its massive walls, battlements and imposing g;ites, 
and the illusion is encouraged by the fact that, the foot of its walls being 
on a much lower level than the road, a protecting iron i:)alustrade has been 
placed along the edge of the latter and a moat effect is produced. 

And indeed, this monument was used as a fort duiing the French 
occupation, at the time when Napoleon strengthened the old fortifications 
of Cairo. He called it Fort Sulkowski, after one of his very numerous 
aides-de-camp. Do you remember that, when I wrote to you about the 
wonderful wall of Badr-el-Gamaiy, with its fine old gates, Bab-el-Futuh 
and Bab-en-Nasr, I mentioned that some bastions had been restored by 
Napoleon ? Each of tliem bore a name and I ascertained that they were 
names of other members of that brilliant bevy of a.d.c.'s who had accompanied 
him to Egypt. Some of these young men afterwards became very well 
known, for instance, Louis Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, whom he made 
king of Holland and who was the father of Napoleon HI ; Eugene de 
Beauharnais, son of the Empress Josephine, for whom his step-father 
entertained the warmest affection, Lavalette, Junot, Duroc, etc. 

But the to-called fort was no other than a mosque, the first mosque, 
still in existence, built by a Baharite Mameluke, the celebrated Sultan 
Rokn-ed-Diu, Beybars el Bondoqdary, hero of the battle of Mansiireh and 
leader of the brilliant charge in which Saint Louis and his Crusaders, 
hitherto victorious, were defeated. His princely qualities as a soldier and 
an administrator won him the admiration of his contemporaries and much 
has been written of him and of his reign. He was one of the Turcoman 
Mamelukes whom Sultan Saleh Negm ed Din had brought from the Ural 
Mountains to form his bodyguard and who, though loyal to him while he 
lived, afterwards murdered his unworthy son and chose a monarch from 



among" themselves. Beybars assassinated his predecessor, a crime wliich 
apparently in no wise burdened his conscience; his sins ultimately found 

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him out, however, for he died, after a reign of seventeen years, through 
drinking by mistake a poisoned cup prepared by himself fur another. 


A great many important events took place in Egypt and in Syria 
dining his time. He vanquished and drove away the great Tartar invader, 
Hulaku, who ranks in history between Gengis-Khan and Timurlenk ; he 
restored in Cairo the spiritual authority of the Abbasside Khalifes, closed 
evil houses and hashish dens and destroyed the last of the famous Assassins, 
a brotherhood of brigands, the terror of the Middle Ages. During a terrible 
famine in 1261, he instituted shelters for the poor where food was distributed 
at his expense, opened the State granaries to the public and procured wheat 
from Syria and other places. 

Such were his powers of organisation that he may well be looked upon 
as the founder of the Mameluke Empire in Egypt, which lasted, in spite 
of the incapacity of some of his successors and the irrepressible turbulence 
of their court, until the Turkish invasion in 1517. To quote Stanley Lane- 
Poole: "To him is due the organisation of the Mameluke army, the 
rebuilding of a navy of forty war galleys, the allotment of feofs to the Emirs 
and soldiers, the building of causeways and bridges and digging of canals 
in various parts of Egypt. He strengthened ' the fortresses of Syria and 
garrisoned them with Mamehikes ; he connected Damascus and Cairo by 
a postal service of four days, and used to play polo in both cities within 
the same week." 

Not only was he remarkable for his prowess at polo, but also as a 
swimmer, for he is credited with having swum across the Nile without 
doffing his armour, an almost incredible feat. Many interesting stories 
are told of him which do more credit to his extraordinary capacity and 
activity than to his heart. In the years of exile and disgrace that preceded 
his accession to the throne of Egypt, Beybars had left his wife in the 
fortress of Karak under the protection of Fatah ed Din ; the latter abused 
his friend's trust and outraged the guest confided to his care. Beybars, 
having become Sultan, lost no time in hurrying to Karak with a large force. 
This stronghold was impregnable, but the wily Mameluke did not hesitate 
to lay a trap for Fatah ed Din, who, having fallen into it, was delivered 
to the incensed Princess to be beaten to death by her women. 

Having taken by force of arms and sacked the town of Antioch, in 
Syria, he wrote announcing the event to the Prince of Antioch, Bohemond, 
one of the Crusaders— who had been away at the time— describing the 
horrors which had taken place: "thy knights trodden under the hoofs of 

the horses thy palaces ransacked thy ladies sold at four 

for a dinar thy Churches demolished thy garbled Gospels 

hawked before the sun thy foe, the Muslim, treading thy Holy of 

Ilolies etc." and concluded with grim sarcasm "this letter tells 

thee that God watches over thee to prolong thy days inasmuch as in these 

latter days those wert not in Antioch ! a live man rejoiceth in his 

safety when he looketh upon a field of slain As not a man hath 



escaped to tell thee the tale, we tell it thee." Lastly, let me quote Lane-Poole 
once more: "Beybais was exceptionally active in tiie disch;iige of his royal 








functions and was indefatigable in making personal inspections of the forts 
and defences of his empire. Once he left his camji secretly and made i\ 



minute inspection of his iiingdoni, in disguise, returning before his absence 
had been found out by his troops." He took the title of Edh-Dhaher (the 
lUustrious) on ascending the throne, and his beautiful mosque is usually 
called by that name. He had previously built another, a college mosque 

Phot. Crcswdl. 

Ornament from ruined college-mosque Edh Dhaheriyeh in Suq en Nahassin 

showing lions of Suitan Beybars. 

tiiat Maqrizi calls Edh Dhaheriyeh, of which nothing remains now but a few 
fragments"*. It was built in the place called Beyn el Qasreyn, (Between the 
two Palaces) on the site known as the Tent Hall, where the celebrated 
Golden Gate once stood. Beybars bought the ground from a Hanafy Sheykh, 

(1) It was demolished in 1874 in order to cut the broad way from the Suq en 
Nahass'ui to the Beyt el Qady and it is probalMe that some of the material, including 
a fine bi^onze door, was used by M. de Saint Maurice foi' the lovely Arabesque 
house which is now the French Diplomatic Agency. 



a teacher in the adjoining college of Saleh Negm ed Din. The building 
was completed within two years (1261-1263) and Maqrizi lays stress upon 
the remarkable fact that, by the Sultan's orders, all who had laboured at this 
college were paid. Each of the four liwans of the madrasseh was reserved 
for one congregation, the south for the Shafey, the North for the Hanyfy, 

Phot. Creswell. 
Mosque of Edh Dhaher. South Porch. 

the East for the People of the Hadith (tradition) and the West for Readers 
of the Coran. When, a few years later, he decided to build his mosque 
outside the walls, Maqiizi relates that he went to his madrasseh and held 
converse with the Hanafites and then with the Shafeites before talking the 
matter over with his son and choosing some foremen to direct the building 


Unfortunately the present occupation has not been less unscrupulous 
than Bonaparte showed himself in his treatment of Beybars' grand old 
mosque; for years it was used as a slaughterhouse and is now a bakery, 
an even more deplorable destination as far as the preservation of the 
building is concerned. It is to be hoped that it may one day be restored, 
at least sufficiently to prevent the decay from going further, as has been 
done for that magnificent ruin, Ahmed Ibn Tulun's mosque. 

Enough of it remains to delight art lovers. The plan is quadrangular, 
after the style of Ibn Tulim and El Hakem, with an immense open courtyard 
^uid four cloistered liwans. The sanctuary had six rows of arches, supported 
by brick piers whilst the two others boasted but two. Beautiful inscriptions 
run along the arches, as is the case in the small portions that remain of 
the original building of El Azhar, and there are traces of lovely open 
work plaster windows. The three portals are handsomely, though very 
soberly decorated with Fatimite niches and medallions in the same style 
as the facade of Saleh Negm ed Din's college mosque. From old chroniclers' 
accounts, the mosque was once very elaborately ornamented, Beybars having 
procured rich marbles fiom the Christian Churches in the Delta. He also 
brought some marble pavements and some carved wood for his ceilings 
from the Citadel of Jaffa which he had lately conquered. Pieces of a tine 
bronze door have found their way to the South Kensington Museum ; they 
include the central ornament, a fourteen-i)ointed star with the figure of 
an animal in the middle of it. This animal is apparently meant for a 
lion without a mane, perhaps a panther, for the name Beybars means Prince 
Panther in the Turcoman language, and the Sultan evidently used it as a 
badge or coat of arms. Another Rokn ed Din Beybars reigned in Egypt 
about forty years later: Beybars El Gashenkir; his Ivhanqeh in El Gamaliel! 
is one of the most interesting monuments of the time. The minaret of 
it is capped by a Mabkhareh which recalls the minarets of el Hakem, 
restored by the same Emir before he became Sultan. 




AD 1282 - 1284 

Mausoleum of Sultan Mohammed en Nisscr Ibn Qalajn 

AD. 1298 

IT is probiible that most tourists have seen Qahiuii's tomb-niosque and 
Miiristan, at any rate from the outside, for these two buildings, with 
Mohammed en Na'^ser's and Sultan Barqiiq's mosques, are close to one 
entrance of the Khan el Khalilj', the celebrated Cairo bazaars. The three 
together form a beautiful example (;f what is called "Mameluke" architectui-e 
and the date of their buildinji marks the apogee of artistic production in 
this countrv'. 

The word Mameluke, meaning slave or rather "owned" was only ap()lieci 
to a special ami very superior class of slaves, young men from the North 
who were chosen for their strength and beauty and bought in order to form 
a military body-guard for the Sultan. They used to embrace the Mohammedan 
religion and to attain the very highest ranks either in the army or in the 
Sultan's household. 

Qalaun was one of those for whom the last A\ubite Sultan had built 
a palatial barracks in the island of Rodeh and who were in consequence, 
known by the name of Baharites (i.e. from the river). Being of an unusually^ 
fine physique, he had been bought for the high price of 1. 000 dinars of 
(iold, and he advertised this fact, which gratified his vanity, by calling himself 
El ELIfy'J'. His accession to the throne did not reflect great credit on 
him, for, having been made Regent to a seven-year-old Sultan, he deposed 
the child, shut him up in the Syrian fortress of Karak and took the throne 
for himself. Though on the whole his reign was a benevolent one, he 
once allowed himself an act of sanguinary revenge against the inhabitants 
of Cairo who had refused to obey some decree of his. The whole town was 
given over to his ferocious body-guard, Mamelukes like hiinself, the innocent 

(I) Elf means in Arabic. 


and the guilty alike were massacred, and, for three days, the streets were 
streaming with blood and blocked with corpses. 

At last the Ulema succcc'dcd in appeasing the Sultan's fury and he 
repented. In token of his repentance, he built his splendid Muristan, a 
hospital destined for the poor. This at least is the story related by Marcel, 
the learned French historian : the celebrated Maqrizi gives us other details 
which are perhaps not inconip.'itible with the above. According to him, 
(Jalaun, having become \'ery ill in Syria, was much relieved by the drugs 
and medical attention of some physicians from the dispensary founded at 
Damascus by Nasr ed Din Shahid. He visited this institution after he was 
cured and decided to build a similar one in Cairo. The site he chose was 
that of the former Fatimite Emerald Palace (Qasr ez Zumurrud) and was 
occupied by the house of a noble lady. He dispossessed her of it. giving 
her another palace by way of compensation, and the building operations 
were begun imder the direction of the Emir Sangar esh Shugay, a stern and 
cruel man. Slaves, fellahs and prisoners were forced to labour on the 
edifice, building materials were brought from the Pyramids and from the 
citadel which Saleh Negm ed Din had built at Rodeh and which was 
pulled down for the purpose. Whilst the foundations were being made 
two large brass chests were found, filled, the one with gold and the other 
with precious stones, a treasuie which would have been sufficient to pay 
for the expenses incurred. Though the building was intended for the poor 
and included a beautiful moscpie, it was a very Iour time before the people 
of Cairo consented to go there to pray ; they said that it could not be 
agreeable to God to worship in a place which had been erected b_\ forced 
labour, with materials stolen from other buildings, on an ill-gotten piece 
of land. For, when the Princess had been ejected fiom the Palace, her 
women had been scattered and there had been great scandal in the town. 

Very little remains now of this wonderful building which once contained 
a complete university of medical science; in addition to the sick-rooms 
or wards for ordinary male patients, there was a whole section reserved for 
women, cells for lunatics, lecture rooms, professors' and surgeons' operating 
theatres, even a spring had been found in the ground and a carefully 
canalised stream from it flowed through the building. (See illustration). 

Masons were at work when I visited the place, aiTd I am told that the 
Waqfs, a religious and philanthropic foundation, are building an eye-hospital 
for the poor on the site of the Muristan. Indeed, this country is full of 
various eye-diseases and an eye-hospital in tlie centre of the town must do 
excellent work. It seems that this is to take the place of a much smaller 
building in the neighbourhood which is full to overflowing, the yard at 
consulting hours being so densely packed with out-patients that it is difficult 
for the medical attendants to push their way in and out of the building. 

Qalaun built himself a mausoleum adjoining his hospital. This is one 



of the most admirable monuments in Cairo; most of it is in a good state 
of preservation, and tlie rest has been carefully, though perhaps a little 
gaudily, restored'". 

Phot. Cresivell. 

Muristan of Qalaun. East Liwan. 

The cupola is unfortunately gone, but the four splendid granite columns 

(I) As is the rule witli restorations carried out by the Co/nitr dc Coiiscrviitiou 
(Ics Mouutnents Arabes, an Arabic inscription records the date and extent of the 

Printed by the Survey o/ Egypt 1917. I674> 

Muristan of Qalaun 

( Creswell) 



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s rr-r-TJ" 


• .A- 





Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. (6741 ( CrCSWeLl ) 

Mosque of Nasser Ibn Qalaun (intra muros) 

Printed by the Survey o/ Egypt 1917. 1674) ( CrCSIVell ) 

Mosque of Nasser Ibn Qalaun (intra muros) 


and the four rectangular pillars on which it once rested are still there, 
and the latter are decorated with unsurpassed mosaic panels, as are also 
the walls of the funeral chamber. The sarcophagus, with its fine carved 
wood-work, stands in the middle of the hall, surrounded by a massive screen 
of mushrabieh. There is also a richly decorated ceiling and a prayer-niche 
of the rarest beauty. 

Qalaun died in 1290 after an eleven years' reign. Not only did he leave 
various charitable foundations, but the wild birds of Cairo also experienced 
his bounty, and it was he who placed in several mosques those earthenware 
bowls tilled with grain which are still to be seen. His own name means 
"Duck" in the Turcoman language and birds often form part of the 
decoration of wooden panels etc. dating from his reign. He had looked 
upon his eldest son Aly as his successor, but the latter predeceased 
him by four years, and sorrow is said to have hastened the Sultan's death. 
This young prince was the hero of one of the few love stories that have 
come down to us from those bellicose times. On the occasion of the marriage 
of his father with a Syrian Princess, the boy caught sight of one of the 
ladies who had come to the wedding feast and fell so violently in love with 
her that he seemed about to die. She was the daughter of a man called 
Nukai and already married to the Emir Ketbogha. The Sultan, alarmed 
at his son's love-sick condition, succeded in persuading the husband to 
repudiate his wife, thus freeing her to marry Prince Aly. Beauty was 
apparently frequent in her family, for another daughter of Nukai was 
afterwards married to Prince Khali! who, at Aly's death became Qalaun's 
heir. I have read two entirely different accounts of Khalil's death, one of 
which related his inurder as being the work of an unfaithful wife, i)ut I do 
not know whether the wife in question was the sister of the beautiful 
Princess Mankabek. His mausoleum, in the Sharia El Ashraf, presents 
some remarkable features but is unfortunately very dilapidated. 

Almost immediately after his accession, Khalil declared a holy war 
against the Franks, who had by that time lost every strongiiold in Syria 
except Acca which they still held. Khalil besieged and took Acca in spite 
of a desperate resistance; the town was pillaged and the inhabitants 
massacred. Several buildings were destroyed, amongst others a church 
dedicated to S' Michael of which the marble porch was taken to pieces and 
brought to Cairo, where it was put together again and used for the mosque 
of Sultan Mohammed en Nasser Ibn Qalaun, next to that of his father. 
The startling contrast between that pure Gothic portal and its Saracenic 
setting makes one realise the strong individuality of Moslem architecture. 
Mohammed en Nasser did not wait long before succeeding his brother, 
for the latter was murdered three years after his accession. 

Nasser was only nine years old at that time and it was to be expected 
that he should not be allowed to reign in peace. His own Regent, the 



above mentioned Emir Ketbogha, deposed him at the end of a year, shut 
him up in the fortress of Karak in Syria and himself assumed the crown. 
His usurped reign was marked by plagues, famine, wars and an invasion 
of Syria bv the Tartars, a ferocious people. Ketbogha was deposed and 


■ •4i^ 

Reproilticcd from " The Sphinx 

Mosque of Sultan Mohammed en Nasser 
Gothic Porch. 

exiled, other usurpers succeeded him and were murdered and the young 
Sultan, who was now aged 15, was recalled from Karak by an assembly 
of Emirs and replaced on his throne. After three prosperous and successful 
years, a fresh era of disasters fell upon the country. A terrible earthquake 
(1302) destroyed towns and villages, floods, pestilence and famine followed 


the turbulent Emirs left very little power to the Sultan but constantly 
fought among themselves, and the young IVIohammed, discouraged and 
alarmed for his own safety, determined to go once more into, exile. He 
announced that he was starting on the Holy Pilgrimage, and left Cairo with 
a large escort. Having reached Karak, he laid hfjld of the treasure, fortified 
the place and forwarded his letters of abdication to the Emirs. 

Two years later, he repented and returned to Cairo, whence his 
successor, Beybars el Gashenkir, tied and the Mamelukes willingly submitted 
to him. He reigned yet 33 years more, in peace and prosperity, and finally 
died of grief, as his father had done before hiin, at the premature death 
of his favourite son. the Emir Aniik. Eight other sons succeeded him in turns. 

His reign marks the highest standard reached by Moslem art, and no 
less than thirty mosques, of which about twenty remain, were erected in 
his time. It is melancholy to note that the Sultan's own two mosques, 
this one and that on the Citadel, should be among the least well cared 
f)r; his Mausoleum, besides the Christian porch, presents some wonderful 
plaster work, on the minaret and over the prayer niche. The funeral 
chamber itself*'' has been despoiled of every kind of oinament but 
students of Saracenic architecture will find it an interesting example 
of the ingenious way by which a transition was effected from the square 
of the base to the circle from which the dome started. In mosques of a 
later period, the stalactites in the corners by means of which this transition 
was managed were far more numerous and more complicated, in fact became 
an ornament rather than a structural device. 


(I) Said by some authors not to contain Nasser's own remains, but those of 
his mother and of his son Anuk. 



AD. 1347-1351 

Palace of the Emir Yushbak. 

THE ino^qiie of Sultan Hassan is extremely well-known and much has 
been written about it, even in guide books. It is very easy to find, 
standing as it does immediately below the Citadel, opposite the 
recently completed and very gorgeous mosque of Er Rifaay, known to the 
English visitors as the "Coronation Mosque". 

It was built about 1350 a.d. by the seventh of Mohammed en Nasser's 
eight sons, who all occupied his throne in turns. Hassan, who was only 
a boy at the time of his accession, was enabled to reign nearly four years 
by the skill and capacity of a Regent, but he was deposed at the end of 
that time, thrown into the Citadel prison and superseded by his younger 
brother. He had languished in confinement for three years, when fresh 
intrigues among the Emirs, with some of whom he had remained in 
communication, brought about his release and lie recovered the crown, the 
brother who had dispossessed him taking his place in the dungeon. After a 
reign of nearly seven years, he was overthrown once more and perhaps put to 
death. Certain Arab historians state that he escaped to Damascus and 
disappeared, others that he was tortured in Cairo for days until death put 
an end to his sufferings, and I do not know whether he was really buried 
in the tomb erected for him in the funeral chamber of his mosque. It is 
written of Hassan that, unlike other Mameluke Sultans, who had always 
shown a great esprit de corps, he disliked the Mamelukes as a class and, 
whenever he could, appointed men of native Moslem descent to the various 
post and dignities usually appropriated by the Turcoman Emirs. He also 
detested the Copts and had sworn to exterminate them However, he allowed 
a Coptic architect to build his great mosque and one pillar of it, on the 



western side of the porch, shows a small carved image that is generally 
taken to represent a Christian church. A legend relates that, after the 
mosque was finished, the Sultan ordered the architect's right hand to be 

Phot. CresiveU, 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan 
Carved pillar on west side of Porch. 

cut off, so that he should never create another masterpiece to rival it, 
but this is evidently not true for the mosque was not completed until two 
years after Hassan's death. 



Perhaps no monument of Arab architecture has been more universally 
admired than this splendid mosque, which is indeed remarkable for its 
grandiose proportions and majestic beaut.v. Its most striking exterior 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Porch. 

aspect is, to my mind, that which faces the Mohammed Aly street, showing 
the extraordinary heiglit of its walls, crowned by a fine stalactite corniche, 



and the elegant porch so artistically planned as to be in perfect harmony 
with the rest of the edifice. TInfortunatelv, the same cannot l)e said of 


'■<\<^ ' 

; I ; ^),-( 

r A. 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan. East Fa<ade. 

the dome, or of ihe northern minaret, a small and mean-looking object 
compared to its magnificent pendent f)n the south side. These two minarets 


were intended to be alike and, in fact, I believe there were t(^ be two more 
on the two other corners, but one of them fell after being finished and is 
said to have crushed two hundred school children in its fall. The porch 
was walled up in the time of Sultan Barquq and access to the mosque 
forbidden as it was found that its great strength and its position, facing 
the Citadel, caused it too frequently to be used as a fortress by insurgents. 

The base of the northern minaret is studded with cannon-balls which 
are often attributed to Napoleon, but without much real probability. As 
a matter of fact, Napoleon is often unjustly accused by ignorant guides 
and others of damage and depredations of which he was entirely innocent, 
whilst man\ benelits brought to this country by the French occupation of 
1798 are left unacknowledged. 

Napoleon won some brilliant victories over the Mamelukes; these 
were descendants, or, at any rate, congeneers of the XV'h century Sultans' 
fierce body-guard and composed an army of the most dashing cavalry 
in the world. They were used to carrying every thing before them and 
were surprised and disappointed to tind that they could do nothing against 
the French infantry in square formation. After the victory at Embabeh, 
usually called the Battle of the Pyramids, had made him master of Cairo, 
General Bonaparte applied himself to earn the good-will of the Egyptians 
themselves, their, Ulema, sheykhs and imams. By making a great show of 
respect towards their religion and of consideration of their national and 
religious customs, he seems to have been fairly successful for a time. 
Moreover, his soldiers, having defeated the dieaded Mamelukes, came to 
Cairo with an awe-inspiring reputation of invincibility and their merry and 
good-humoured ways proved the very oi)posite of the ferocity which was 
expected of them. But French prestige suffered severely from the naval 
defeat of AI)oukir. Fanatical Moslems, who had been silenced for a while, 
raised their voice again, and. just at the critical m.oment, Napoleon made 
the fatal mistake of allowing himself to be persuaded by his financial adviser 
to levy a new kind of tax on Egyptian property. This caused an outburst 
of fury among the Cairenes and an insurrection began in which General 
Dupuy, Governor of Cairo, and some other officers lost their lives. The 
insurgents took refuge in the mosque of El-Azhar, very probably also in 
that of Sultan Hassan, and prepared to resist a siege. Finally Napoleon 
resorted to the expedient of bringing artillery to the edge of the Moqattam 
and the rebellion promptly subsided. 

It is by no means likely that all those cannon balls were his; a French 
author of the XVII^'' century <'* mentions several cannon-balls and in 
particular some which damaged the dome. Evidently he must have meant 

(I) M. de Thevenot. 



the original cupola, supposed to have been shaped like that of the mosque of 
Suyurghatniish, immediately below that of Ahmed Ibn Tulun ; it fell to 
pieces, in 1659, I think and the present ungainly dome, obviously Turkish 
in shape, wa? built more recently by one of the Ottoman Governors. As it 
is known that Selim I, employed artillery to conquer Egypt in 1517, it seems 

Phot. Stezwvt. 
Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Door of pulpit. 

more than probable that some of these projectiles may be ascribed to him. 

The interior ot the mosque is very interesting; it shows the cruciform 

shape which is common to mosques of the XIV^^ century, each arm of the 

cross being a vaulted room or liwan, closed on three sides, and the sahft 



or courtyard forming the centre. Each of those Uwans was originally 
reserved from the time of Saladin for one of the four great Moslem religious 
sects but I do not know whether that is still the case. The immense 
sah)i is richly paved in marble, a restored ablution fountain of Turkish 
design occupies the centre of it and the four liwans consist of four great 
arches of really overwhelming size. At the side of each, a handsome 
doorway leads into a separate college dedicated to one of the four sects 
the Malakite, Hanafite, Shafeite and Hanbalite. The south east Ihvan, or 

Pliot. Steivaii. 
Mosque of Sultan Hassan. Mihrab of Funeral Chamber. 

sanctuary, is decorated by a magnificent plaster-work frieze of gigantic 
kufic characters over a ground of lace-like arabesques and contains a 
handsome Mi/ibar and Mihrab. Two splendid bronze doors, with gold 
incrustations, lead into the funeral chamber, also of superb ])roportions, 
with a very fine painted wood frieze and a prayer-niche of marble mosaic, 
the walls being faced with rich marble panels. The sarcophagus intended 
for the Sultan is quite plain and surrounded by a wooden trellis. 

The mosque at one time contained many artistic treasures : bronze 
cjiandeliers, bronze and silver stands, carved-wood Goran lecterns, enaipelled 



glass lamps, etc. Most of these have found in the Arab Museum a refuge 
against unscrupulous collectors, careless keepers and the ravages of time ; 
the mosque has recently been partly restored, and. perhaps, when the 
restoration is finished and it is used once more for worship, some of these 


Mosque of Sultan Hassan. 
Marble panel in Funeral Chamber. 

P/iot. Stciviiit. 

works of art may be returned to their original places. There were also 
two incomparable bronze doors to the porch, but Sultan El Moyyad bought 
them at an enormous^ price in I415 for his beautiful mosque near Bab ez 

Quite near Sultan Hassan's mosque, at the S. W. corner, stands an 
imposing ruin which must once have been almost as remarkable as the 



great mosque itself for its grandiose proportions, a XIV"^ century palace 
popularly known as the Serayet Bardak. Some uncertainty seems to exist 
among archaeologists as to the date of the foundation of this monument ; 
it bears an inscri!:)tion mentioning a Sultan Mohammed en Nasser, who 



Phot. Creswell. 
Palace of the Emir Yuskbak. Vestibule. 

may have been the son of Qalaim, Sultan Hassan's father, and the style 
of the porch and fagade is earlier in appearance than the time of the 
Emir Yushbak, who was undoubtedly the owner of this palace in the reign of 



Sultan Qaitbay. Perhaps he only restored it when he became possessor of it. 

I believe this was the s.inie Emir who built the graceful dome at Pont 

de Qubbeh, probably intending it for a mausoleum which he was not 

destined to use, for, like his contemporary, Qigmas el Ishaky, he was killed 

Phot. Crestvell. 
Palace of the Emir Yushbak. Interior. 

fighting in Syria. After his death, his palace became the property of the 
Emir Aqbardy, hence the popular name of Bardaq. 

We approached the great porch of it through the open air workshop 


of a repairing carperter. and stood for a long time admiring tlie wonderful 
stalactite ornamentation, said to be among the very finest in existence ; we 
were unfortunately unable to obtain the key and to visit the interior vestibule, 


Phot. Ciesivell. 

Palace of the Emir Yushbak. North Facade. 

decorated in the same style, neither did we reach the upper floor, of which 
only a few arches remain besides the ruined fagade, but we penetrated into 
the spacious vaulted groundfioor and were much impressed by its enormous 


From a photograph tiikcii by mi office/ of Anstnili.iii Light Horse. 
Ruins of castle and mosque of Sultan Barquq at Khan Yunis. 



AD. 1382-1399 

Mausoleum of Sultan Qaitbay. Madrasseh of Sultan Farag. 

CLOSE to the Mosques of Qalaun and his son in the Suq en Nahassin 
stands a third and very beautiful mosque which adjoins that of 
Nasser on the north side. 
It was built, eighty years later, by Barquq, the first Sultan of the 
second line of Mamelukes, generally called the Burgite, or, more rationally, 
the Circassian dynasty. These slaves were imported from Circassia by 
the Baharite Mamelukes, as they themselves had been by the Ayubite 
Sultans, in order to form a military body-guard, and, again like their 
predecessors, whom they surpassed in strength, beauty and intelligence, 
they soon aspired to the power for one of themselves. Barquq obtained 
the throne through a series of intrigues, battles and murders, an,d hi^ 


reign was interrupted by civil wars, revolutions and foreign invasions, just 
as had been that of more than one of the Turcoman sultans; nevertheless, 
he distinguished himself by a wise and benevolent administration and by 
the building of many useful and beautiful monuments. 

The above-mentioned mosque contains the tomb of a daughter of his 
(he himself being buried in the Eastern Cemetery), but its chief destination 
was that of a religious school or Madrassch. It is built in the cruciform 
plan which was generally adopted in mosques of that period and which 
I mentioned to you when writing about the great mosque of Sultan Hassan. 

The south-east liwan or sanctuary, which contains the prayer-niche 
and pulpit, has a recently restored and very rich ceiling supported by four 
enormous ancient columns of dark red porphyry. The dikkch or choir- 
gallery is new ; it is of white marble and very effective. In the middle 
of the sahn is an ablution fountain of Turkish design which resembles 
many of the sebils or public fountains, in the streets. The entrance into 
the mosque is very striking; a few steps lead to a handsome porch of black 
and white marble with splendid doors of wrought bronze and silver. From 
a small ante-chamber, a long and vaulted passage meanders into the open 
sahn. this corridor being paved with marble mosaic of a bold and harmonious 
design in which those large disks are employed which were probably 
obtained by sawing antique columns horizontally. 

The minaret is slenderer than that of Sultan Hassan and has served 
as a model for several later buildings. 

On the day after I had seen this handsome monument, H. and I v/ent 
to visit Barqtiq's tomb in the cemetery usually, and quite improperly, called 
the Tombs of the Khalifes, and we purposely entered the cemetery by its 
northern extremity, going some way by the Abbassieh tramway and then 
walking along a new road through some waste ground. The necropolis 
is a most remarkable place ; there is no vegetation whatever and the buildings 
and ground are all of the same golden sand colour; it looks at first like a 
large town, with innumerable houses and many beautiful half-ruined 
cupolas and minarets, but it soon becomes clear that it is a dead city, or 
rather a city of the dead. The various burial grounds of the ditferent 
families are enclosed by walls with large windows to them, within which 
are generally found, besides the family vault, a dwelling for the keeper of 
the tombs, his wife and children, and a more Dr less luxurious room in 
which, on certain dates in the year, the female relatives of the dead come 
to spend the night, praying, wailing and feasting in turns. Some of these 
places are quite modern and stand incongruously close to beautiful ruins 
of XlVt'i or XVth century tombs. Several of the latter consist merely of 
one cupola, delicately carved, set on a square basis enclosing the funeral 
chamber with a plain sarcophagus in the centre. 

The mausoleum of Barquq is situated at the north end of the Qarafeh 












or cemetery and is one of the largest monuments in it. It included a khaiujeli 
or monastery, a fountain and a primary school, besides the usual features 
of a tomb-mosque. The exterior aspect is unusually symmetrical, with two 
minarets, one of which has lost its upper storey, and two very high and 
wide stone cupolas, decorated in an effective diagonal pattern. These are 
said to be the first example in Cairo of stone used for a dome, brickwoik 
and plaster having hitherto been used. 

The mosque is unfortunately in a ruined condition, and, I suppose 


Phot. Wade. 
Mausoleum of Sultan Barquq. Arcade of Sanctuary. 

through lack of funds, has only been very' sparingly restored. Here, too 
the building is entered by a vaulted passage of an imposing description 
which leads into the open and very large sahn or courtyard. The general 
plan of the mosque is somewhat like that of El Azhar, or rather of Ibn 
Tulun and El Hakem ; arched cloisters must at one time have surrounded 
the sahn on four sides, with several extra rows of arches on the sanctuary 
side. These arches are peculiar; they do not spring from columns, but 
from pillars, not massive like the piers of Ibn Tulun, but slender and 
elegant; their proportions almost impart a feeling of Gothic architecture 



to the cloisters. The roof which they support, instead of being vaulted 
or ceilinged in the usual way, consists of a series of small, hemispherical 
brick vaults that I can only compare to inverted soup-plates. The great 
twin domes stand at each end of the eastern liwan. over two spacious 


¥ r-^: 

Phot. Cres'tiH II. 
Madrasseh of Sultan Farag. 

funeral chambers; the chapel at the north end contains the sarcophagus 
of the sultan, in richly carved marble ; a pillar at one end is said to represent 
the stature of Baniuq, who must indeed have been a fine, well-grown man, 
nearly seven feet tall. A smaller tomb was intended for the founder of 



the iiiausoleum, Barquq's son Farag*'*, who however, was beheaded at 
Damascus by some revolutionaries (A.D. 1412) and whose body was thrown 
on a lieap of manure. 

Phot. CluitU-rtdii. 

Mosque of Shaaban. 
Wooden trellis of sebil window. 

There are some remains of beautiful wooden trellis work in this chapel, 
as also in that of the south corner which contains three tombs of royal 
ladies, wives or daughters of the Sultan. This particular kind of trellis 

(I) A small college mosque, with some charming details, was built b}' Farag 
near the Bab ez Zuweyieh. In the XVIth century, during the Turkish regime, this 
little mosque was used by one of the governors as an office in which a special 
clerk sat to receive and tabulate the complaints for embezzlements brought by 
private individuals against his predecessor. 



work, frequently seen in Persia and in Turkey, where it has even been 
copied in marble, is very rare in Cairo, the only other example of it being over 
the sebil of the mosque of Shaaban in Sharia Et Tabbaneh. In Barquq's 
mosque, it forms square panels in the doors leading into the chapels from 
the liwan. 

Reproduced J ruDi " The Sphinx". 
Mausoleum of Barquq. Cells of Sufi monks. 

The courtyard is most picturesque ; it has been allowed to get into a 
very neglected condition and nothing is left of the ablution fountain, but, 
in the hollow where it once lay, a wild tree has grown, the one living 
thing among the ruins. There evidently was no dearth of water here in 
the old days, for two wells are still open in which the Arab in charge threw 




' V 


Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. (674) 

Cupola of Sultan Barquq's tomb 


Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. '6741 

( C res well) 

Tomb of Sultan Barquq 



stones to let me jiidse of their great depth. One of them is in the former 
west corner of the building next to the now disused porcli ; above it, on an 







upper floor, the graceful loggia remains of what was the Kuttab or 
elementary school belonging lo the mosque. 


The north liwan of the building contained three floors of cells, once 
inhabited by the religious Suti monks who dwelt in the khanqeh : I hear 
that there were a good many of those religious communities and that the 
first building intended to accommodate them was founded by the celebrated 
Salah ed Din, the Saladin of the crusades. These monks studied and 
practised the art of preaching and the pious Sultan included them in his 
schemes for the religious reformation of the land which he had found 
steeped in the Shi'ite heresy of the Fatimite Khalifes. It was under his 
reign that mosques of the Madrasseh or college type began to prevail, each 
of the four Ikvdns being destined for the instruction of students in the 
tenets of one of the four great sects.- 

The pulpit in Barquq's sanctuary is one of the most remarkable 
features of the mosque, and, I believe, quite unique of its kind. It is of 
stone, delicately chiselled in a most artistic polygonal design, and an 
inscription in beautiful Arabic characters states that this lovely work of 
art was presented to the mosque by Sultan Qaitbay, the great building 
Prince who took so important a part in the restoration of El-Azhar. 

His own perfect little mausoleum stands within a hundred yards of 
Barquq's; it has given the name of Qaitbay to the whole cemetery and 
is very frequently visited by sight-seers. Indeed I have met several people 
who, though quite indifferent to the historical and artistic interest of this 
country, have nevertheless visited Qaitbay's tomb-mosque as a sort of duty. 
H. says that the interior of his college-mosque intra-miiros is even more 
delicately beautiful but that the exterior harmony of this one, with, its 
graceful minaret and charming dome, is cjuite unsurpassed. 

It is a pity that the marble panelling of the sanctuary has not been 
replaced, it is sad to see on the walls the place where it should be found, 
left with no trace of the oiigiiuil facing, save the holes intended to keep 
the cement secure. 




A.D. 1420 

Bab ez Zuweyleh 
AD. I09i 

IT is not always possible to avoid an anachronism when arranging the 
itinerary of my explorations in medieval Cairo, and the gate called 
Bab ez Zuweyleh and El Moyyad's mosque stand so near each other 

that I had to visit them on the same day. 

Bab ez Zuweyleh is the third of the three great gates built in the time 
of Khalife El Mustansir b-lllah (A.D. IO91) by Badr el Gamaly's architects. 
It is also called Bab el Mitwelly, and is to be found at the southern end 
of the street which crosses the Musky at right angles and which passes 
between Sultan El Ghury's two splendid mosques. It is, like its two sister- 
gates, w(;nderfully well built of enormous blocks of hewn stone, with a 
huge tower on each side of it. These towers are, rather unexpectedly, 
surmounted by lovely twin minarets, as sknder and elegant as the towers 
are massive and detiant. It seems that Sultan El Moyyad, wishing to build 
his splendid mosque, about 1412, pulled down part of the fortifications to 
make room for it and placed these two minarets, not on the mosque itself, 
but on the adjoining gateway. The reason why this gate is called El Mitwelly 
is that, quite recently, perhaps one or two centuries ago, an old saint used 
to sit behind one of its doors, work miracles and receive alms. Either 
his spirit is supposed to hover around it still or his memory suffices to 
work more miracles, for the ignorant and poor continue to attribute healing 
virtues to the great gate. When some one is very sick, his lelatives bring 
a lock of his hair, or a shred of his clothing, in extreme cases even one 
of hie- teeth, and fasten it to a nail on the door. I was amused to see that 
the two doors of the gate were indeed covered with those extraordinary 
relics ; in times of epidemics, the spot cannot be particularly healthy. 

In the middle ages, this gate had another gruesome speciality ; it was 
used for executions and was occasionally trimmed with human heads of 
defeated enemies or with the hanging corpses of malefactors or political 
victims. The story of the last Mameluke Sultan is rather a pathetic one. 



His name was Tumanbay, and he succeeded his uncle, Sultan Qansu el 
Ghury, when the latter was killed in a fierce battle near Aleppo in 15 16 
against the invading Turks. Before 1914, accounts of these wars of 400 
years ago, between distant Eastern nations, would have been of little interest 

Pliut. Wade. 

Bab ez Zuweyleh. 

save to historians and Orientalists. Now it seems strangely familiar to 
read of battles between Turks and Egyptians, in places mentioned in our 
own newspapers. The victory of the Turks was due to their use of heavy 


artillery, at that time quite a recent invention and unknown to the Egyptians. 
Terrified by the effect of this new agent of destruction, the latter fled in 
disorder; indeed, one whole wing of their army, commanded by the Emir 
Kheyrbek. abandoned the Sultan and surrendered to the enemy'''. The 
others brought the news to Prince Tumanbay, whom his uncle had left in 
Cairo as Regent, and who hastened to make all preparations against the 
coming of the Turks. He even procured some artillery from the Venetians, 
paying ihem almost its weight in gold. He fortified Damietta and other 
places on the Syrian frontier, taking advantage of the fact that the Turks 
had encamped in Syria and seemed inclined to rest awhile. The Turkish 
Sultan, Selim I., sent some envoys to Cairo, ordering Tumanbay, in the 
most insolent manner, to surrender unconditionally. The unhappy sovereign 
of Egypt, whose courage seems to have deserved a better fate, gathered 
his troops together and went to meet his enemy. Hearing that the Turks 
had already taken Ghazza, El Arish and Qatieh he encamped at Salhieh 
and waited for the invaders Selim, however, by a turning movement, 
crossed the desert in another spot (there was no Suez Canal in those days), 
and arrived at Khanqeh, only a few hours from Cairo. Tumanbay immediately 
turned back and attacked the Turks at Radanieh. The hopes he had placed 
in his artillery were disappointed, his gunners had no experience and could 
do nothing against the better trained Turkish artillerymen. 

The Egyptians fought bravely, but were completely routed. Their 
Sultan hurried back to Cairo, the Turks followed, and terrible fighting 
took place in this city ; the Mamelukes defended the town step by step, 
every house had to be besieged, every street was a scene of carnage. Victors 
at last, the Turks committed the most horrible excesses, pillaging, burning 
and killing; the whole garrison of the Citadel was massacred. Tumanbay 
succeeded in escaping at the last moment, but was arrested in the Delta, 
sold to the Turks by some Bedouins, and brought before Selim in chains. 
The latter treated him kindlv. ordered his chains to be removed and had 
him fed and clothed and brought to him day after day. At those interviews, 
he questioned his prisoner concerning details of administration and the 
resources of the country. After ten days or a fortnight, having learnt all 
he wanted to know, Selim calmly ordered the Sultan of Egypt to be hanged 
at the Bab ez Zuweyleh where his dead body remained for a week exposed 
to the view of the people. 

The adjoining college mosque of El Moyyad, like several others, is a 
dependency of El Azhar and is attended by a large number of students. 
Several classes were going on when we visited it. It was built between 
1416 and 1420, and restored quite recently under the supervision of that 

(I) Kheyrbek was afterwards rewarded for his treachery by being made first 
Governor of Cairo under the Turkish regime. 



estimable body, the Commission for the Preservation of Arab Monuments. 
The founder was a learned man who. though he obtained the throne through 
intrigues and murders, afterwards reigned wisely and peacefully. In the 

Phot. Wade. 
Twin minarets of (he mosque of El Moyyad. 

course of the civil wars and revolts which preceded his accession to the 
throne, he was for some time confined in a prison for criminals which stood 
on this site, and he made a vow, if Allah delivered him. to build a beautiful 



mosque in its stead. He kept his word and his mosque, which contains 
his tomb, is one of the most beautiful in Cairo. In order to procure 
suitable doors for it, he purchased two magnificent bronze doors from the 











mosque of Sultan Hassan, which were sold to him for 500 gold dinars. 
He also seems to have felt no compunction in using pillars from Christian 



Chinches ; one of the columns in his mosque actually shows an unmistakeable 
cross on its capital. 


/-■//(//. Chattcrtdii. 
Mosque of El Moyyad. Wes( Door. 

The enclosure covers a large area of ground including a very attractive 



garden in the courtyard, planted around the fountain where the worshippers 
perform their ceremonial ablutions. Of three liwans and their columns, 
nothing remains but the outer wall, opening on the west side by two 











handsome doors. The sanctuary on the contrary is (juite complete, ii contains 
the usual features and is most richly decorated, every detail of tlie ceiling, 


arcades, walls, coloured glass windows, being worthy of studw The pulpit 
and wooden doors are fine specimens of polygonal marciueterie and the 
prayer-niche is lined with a gorgeous marble mosaic. 

The Sultan's tomb is in a square chapel on the right of the main 
entrance, and the sui^erb dome, resting above a circular row of small 
windows, is set on the square basis formed by the walls of the chapel in the 
remarkable way peculiar to this architecture. The tomb itself is a handsome 
sarcophagus of white marble decorated with a fine kufic inscription. The 
principal porch of the mosque is lofty and magnificent ; it is approached 
by an imposing marble staircase and forms an eminently picturesque setting 
for the students and professors in their flowing robes and turbans. 

The ruins still exist of another monument of Sultan El Moyyad. a 
muristdn after the fashion of Sultan Qalaun's great iihilanthropic institution. 
It is extremely difficult to find these remains, choked up as they are with 
other buildings, some of tliem liovels of the most sordid description. In 
the XVIII''^ century, the Turkish mosque of Ibrahim es Sukkary was built 
literally against the fac^-ade of the ruined ii/tuislihi. the norlh wall of it being 
used as a back wall for the mosque. In order therefore to see El Moyyad's 
monument, it is necessary to obtain access to the mosque, which stands 
in a cid-dc-Siic branching out of the Sh. el Mahgar, almost opposite the 
winding carriage road which leads into the Citadel. It is well worth the 
trouble, however, if it were only to see the great door of the ancient iiiuristi'ui. 
a porch of unusually wide dimensions decorated in a particularly bold 
manner. Some of the handsome ornamental details are exactly like what 
we had seen in the same Sultan's mosque, perhaps on a slightly larger 
scale. The Comitc de Coiiservalion has begun some clearing work and will 
probably find means to allow sight-seers a better view of this fine old ruin. 
There is a good deal more of it hidden amongst the houses and if all those 
could be cleared aw.iy. the general iilan of the building would become 
apparent. It would be well if the Es Sukkary mosque itself could be 
removed, though it is not without some interesting features, including ten 
extraordinary twisted columns unlike anything to be seen in Cairo, I believe. 
They were apparently not destined for this monument for they are not 
used symmetrically, some of the other pillars being quite dift'erent in sh^pe. 




AD. 1481 

The Arab Museum. 

THE small mosque of Qiginas may be considered as an excellent specimen 
of a XV^h century monument in the style to which Sultan Qaitbay 
has deservedly given his name. Situated as it is. in the centre 
of the city, it is more accessible than his own tomb-mosque in the 
Eastern cemetery and much easier to find than his college-mosque in El 
Qatai or Abu Bekr Mazhar's in the Haret Birgivan. It is also seen to 
much better advantage than those two mosques and tlic general exterior 
aspect and architectural proportions are among the most graceful and 
attractive in Cairo. It stands on a triangular piece of open ground at the 
junction of two streets and the respective position of the different parts 
of the edifice could not be more artistically arranged. In order to approach 
it from the most favourable aspect, it is better to come from the Rab ez 
Z'.iweyleh and to turn eastwards along the Darb el Ahmar. As is the 
case with so many other monuments of Cairo, the surrounding level of 
the ground has risen since it was built, and the Commission for the 
Preservation of Arab art has placed an iron balustrade around it and 
cleared it from the invading soil ; we therefore had to go down some steps 
before coming to the flight leading up to the charming porch. The interior 
has recently been repaired with great taste and care, perhaps more artistically 
than any other restoration I have seen yet. all the missing or damaged 
details being exactly restored, and the effect on entering the moscjue is 
particularly pleasing. The proportions are most harmonious, the decoration 
is rich without being overdone, and the lig'it shed by the coloured glass 
windows is mellow and satisfying, revealing by degrees fresh charming 
details as ooe's eyes recover from the glare of the sunshine outsjde. 



Below the lofty dome of the funeral chamber, a sarcophagus is hidden 
under an ordinary embroidered cloth of red and green ; it is not that of the 
Emir Qigmas, but that of an old and venerable man, the Sheykh Abu Harii)a, 

Phot. Wcuk 

Mosque of the Emir Qigmas. 

who (lied in odour of sanctily about three huiuired years ago and was 
buried in this beautiful maus'ileum. The Emir who founded it was Sultan 
Qaitbay's Master of the Horse and a great favourite with the Sultan who 


made him Emir el Hag or officer in charge of the pilgrimage, in which 
capacity, says Ibn lyas, he gave great satisfaction. The same chronicler 
tells us that Qigmas was a pious and benevolent man, handsome in his 
person and his actions, and that he also built a madrasseh at Damascus 
as well as other beautiful monuments. He died in Syria and was buried 
there, though he had prepared the mausoleum in Cairo for himself. 

Not only has the structure of the mosque been restored, but the furniture 
of it ; the pulpit and the Kiirsi or reading chair have been cleverly repaired 
and a very interesting attempt has been made to replace the beautiful 
enamelled glass lamps which used to hang in every mosque. About one 
hundred of those still exist and nearly sixty are preserved in the Arab 
Museum. Four of them were lent to the Kensington Museum in 1883, through 
Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole, and "returned in [887, very unwillingly. The copies 
that I saw in Emir Qigmas' mosque are very attractive indeed ; the 
colouring is not so rich as in tlie real thing, but the elegant shape has 
been reproduced and the Arabic inscriptions are most effective. I was told 
they give the date and occasion of their manufacture, with the name of 
the Pasha who superintended the restoration of the mosque, instead of the 
Coranic verse about Allah being the Light of the Heavens which usually 
adorns the originals in the Museum. The mosciue servants closed the 
shutters and turned on the electric light for our benefit with delightful effect. 
I am told that tliese lamps were made in Bohemia and cost about 6 pounds 
each. The originals are of course literally priceless. I lost no time in going 
to the Arab Museum to see them, and 1 was so charmed with my visit 
that I propose to go there again and again. This museum is full of treasures; 
some have been saved from ruined mosques and tumbling-down houses, 
others come from private collections or legacies. 

It has recently been installed in a handsome building in the Bab el 
Khalq square, about half-way up the' Mohammed Aly street. The ground 
floor is given up to the Museum and is entered by the east door. The upper 
floor, reached by a staircase from the south door on the Mohammed Aly 
street, contains the Sultanieh Library, a very fine collection of Persian and 
Arabic manuscripts together with a large number of modern books which may 
be borrowed by the public free of charge. As our object was primarily to see 
the lamps, we started on our tour of the Museum in the reverse direction 
to that usually followed, turning to the left instead of the right of the 
entrance, into the hall where the glass lamps are kepi. These lamps are 
indeed one of the wonders of the world. It is not yet known where they 
were made, though it seems possible that they came from Fostat. 
They used to hang in the sanctuaries of the mosques and the majority come 
from the great Sultan Hassan Mosque. (A.D. 1360) They are made of pale 
green or golden glass with lovely enamelled inscriptions and ornaments in 
harmonious colourings, many of them bearing the coats of arms of a Sultan 



or Emir'". The shape is charming, that o{ a graceful, though not too 
slender vase, with six little handles placed around the most prominent part, 

Enamelled glass lamp of the XIV»h century.. (Aral) imiseum). 
through which was passed the light chain or silk cord by which the lamp 

(I) The Mameluke princes used badges or coats of arras and the Crusaders 
brought the fashion back with them from the East. 



hung from the ceiling. One or tw.;) of the most beautiful ones had a bulb 
of electric light hanging in the centre, and, when this was turned on. the 
effect was magical. 

In another hall, we were shown some very remarkable specimens of 


■5 6 








pottery from Fostat, the mediaeval Arab town which is being excavated 
here from under the dust-heaps of Old Cairo. The Director of this Museum 
is cliiefly responsible for these discoveries and all the best tilings found 


in the buried town are brought here and exhibited. It used to be supposed 
that no really good pottery was made in Egypt and that the beautiful tiles 
and bowls in the old houses and mosques came from Persia. Now they 
have found at Post at, not only the actual kilns where the pottery was 
baked, but, close by them, heaps of pieces evidently rejected on account 
of some flaw or other, things which never would have been imported, from 
Persia or anywhere else. Aly Bey Bahgat has collected a lot of those in 
one glass case and the flaws are amusingly obvious: for instance one ^fo/c?/; 
(porous water bottle) is bent completely out of shape, a broken plate shows 
little excrescences composed of fragments baked with it by mistake, and 
so on. In another glass case, there are a number of bowls, phues. cups, etc. 
made up of broken pieces completed in plain clay, so that the original 
shape of the vessel is unmistakeable and the beauty of it can be appreciated, 
as well as that of the design and colouring shown by the remaining fragment. 
It is a remarkably clever feat and does great credit to the native artisan 
who does this work. Some of the fragments treated in this way are of a 
dazzling metallic lustre or of superb colourings ; there is a variety of exquisite 
blue tones. Others have inscriptions in different styles of Arabic writing, 
and I was told that several showed dates or the signature of the artistic 
potter who created them. 

The craftsmen of those days evidently loved beauty for its own sake 
and took sincere pleasure in their work. Some charming details of 
ornamentation appear where they are least expected and would hardly be 
seen. For instance the neck of each water bottle is closed by an open- 
work filter, a sort of grill, to act as a sieve when the goolah was being 
filled; each of those grills shows a different design, some bold and striking, 
others delicate and lace-like. They are picked up in such quantities that 
the Museum authorities have some for sale, after reserving the most perfect 
for their show-cases. This is also the case with some little enamelled 
earthenware lamps of dil^erent shapes and colours, the prevailing tint being 
a vivid blue. I hold myself fortunate in having procured the accompanying 
photographs for your inspection. The delicate work of the goolah filters 
is clearly seen in one of them and another represents some of the above 
mentioned fragments cleverly wf(rked into vessels obviously of the original 
shape. Note on one of them the badge of the owner, evidently giikenddr, or 
polo-master at the court. The specimens of stucco-work show bold and artistic 
treatment, the design of one of them being very like some of the decoration 
remaining in the mosque of Ibn Tulun. The stucco panel, of which only a 
small part is finished whereas the rest is only designed, is intended to illustrate 
the skill, not of mediaeval but modern Egyptian craftsmen, a native 
draughtsman having completed the whole of these two panels with nothing 
to help him but the, small portion of the original which remained. And 
I am told that he worked without compasses, but entirely in free hand! 











Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. 1674) 


Fostat Fragments of Pottery 

Printed by the Survey 0/ Egypt 1917. 1674) 

Fostat - Fragment of stucco panelling 




Fostat, the first town built in Egypt by the Moslems and a great political, 
commercial and industrial capital for five centuries, was deliberately burnt 
down under the last Fatimite Khalife in Ii68, when it was feared that 
the invading crusaders might take it by storm. For centuries the heaped- 
up refuse of Cairo buried it, growing into mountains over what had been 
spared by the fire, and it is only quite lately that the dust has been removed 
and searched in a systematic way. The ruins thus disclosed are most 
striking and afford interesting evidence of Oriental town life in the Middle 

Pilot. Chattel ton. 
Ruins of Fostat. 
Oil press showing the groove in which the oil flowed. 

Ages. Personal cleanliness was certainly more cultivated here than in the 
west, almost every large house seems to have contained a bath room ; 
there are also unmistal<eable remains of weavers' establishments, olive 
oil presses, granaries, etc. A few interesting inscriptions on wood were 
found deep in the rubbish, but they were naturally broken and incomplete. 
The museum contains some remarkable wood-work, amongst other 
specimens, three very beautiful movable prayer-niches of the most exquisite 
workmanship*", they date from the Fatimite period. Another very 

(I) M. Ravaisse has written a memoir oa those three wonderful pieces "Sur 
trois niihrabs en bois sculpte ' Memoires de I'lnstitut Frangais d'Archeoiogie 
Cairo 1 889. 




celebrated master-piece in carved wood comes to us from Ayubite 
times; it consists in three sides of a sarcophagus of which the fourth, 
containing the date, has found its way to the South Kensington 
Museum. It seems a pity that some exchange cannot' be made between 

Riproiluccil fio»i "Tin' Sphinx 
Ruins of Fosfat. A cellar. 

the two institutions in order to ctmplfte this interesting relic. It comes 
from a mausoleum in the Southern cemetery, known under the name of 
Saadat el Taalbeh, and there seems no doubt as to the authenticity of the 
date. On the reverse side, the wooden panels are carved in Tulunide style, 
showing that they had been used for some older monument. The Ayubite 


period seems to have produced the finest wood-work to be found in this 
country. H. tells me that the sarcophagus of the Imam Sliafey. in the 
mausoleum rebuilt for him in 1218 by Queen Shemsa, is unrivalled in beauty 
and delicacy of treatment. The Imam's tomb(i*, however, is closed to 
Christians, as are also the mosque of S:iyedna Hussein and that of Sayedeh 
Zeynab. The two latter present no archaeological interest, but the fact that 
the Lady Zeynab's mosque is considered such a holy place should dispose 
of the fallacy so widely spread among Europeans that Moslems do not credit 
women with an immortal soul. 

It is impossible even to allude to all the treasures in this Museum 
in one letter, but I should litce to say a word of the beautiful metal 
work to be seen here, and, in particular, of the brass or bronze articles 
with incrustations of copper, gold or especially silver. I am told that 
most of these came originally from Mosul and then from Damascus, 
but it seems evident that several were actually worked here, perhaps 
by Damascus craftsmen. A great deal of that work is still copied 
here with extraordinar)^ skill. One of the most beautiful objects in the 
Museum is a kursi or small table found in the muristdn of Qalaun, and 
bearing the signature of an artist from Bagdad ; I heard that some native 
ladies of Cairo, wishing to make a handsonie present to the wife of an 
English official who was leaving Egypt alter many years' residence, procured 
an excellent copy of this masterpiece, worked here by skilled Egyptian 
artisans. The Museum is being re-arranged and re-organised with great 
taste and archaeological science by Aly Bey Bahgat, and the Catalogue 
previously drawn up by Herz Pasha will probably be re-edited in order to 
conform with the new conditions. It still makes very interesting reading. 
You asked me to recommend to you easy and popular books on mediaeval 
Cairo : Stanley Lane-Poole, besides his more scientific works, has published 
a delightful "Story of Cairo" for the Mediaeval Town series, and Lady 
Amherst of Hacktiey has compiled a very useful History of Egypt ; her 
book is particularly valuable as it connects the different e[)ochs of the history 
of this country which are usually studied quite apart from each other. Do 
not place any reliance on Mr Douglas Sladen's "Oriental Cairo"; it is ful; 
of erroneous statements and resolutely unfair to the Egyptians. Existing 
guide-books are very inadequate where Arab art is concerned ; the only 
one I have found useful is the French Guide Joanne published by Hachette. 
Among other advantages, it has that of giving the plans of most of the 
betterknown mosques, an inestimable boon to any serious student of 

(I) The pliotograph in M. Saladin's "Art Musulman" which purports to 
represent the dome of the Imam Shafey from the inside, is really a picture of the 
cupola of the mausoleum of Zein ed Din YQssef. 



AD 1347 - 1653 

Mosque of El Ayny. Mosque of Abu Dhahab. 

A.D. 1411 AD 1774 

Tekkiet el Gulsb^ny. 

You ask nie to write to you about the "Blue Mosque" and I ought to 
have remembered how celebrated it is, being a great favourite with 
tourists. It stands in a street which starts northwards, directly 
under the Citadel, and which first bears the name of Sh. el Mahgar, 
then of Sh. Bab el Wazir. It can also be approached from the Bab ez 
Zuweyleh, along the Darb el Ahmar, passing by that charming mosque 
ot Qigmas which I mentioned in my la^t letter. It is one ot the score of 
beautiful mosques which remain to us from Mohammed en Nasser's reign, 
and was built in 1347 by one of his Ministers, the Emir Aqsunqur, who 
is said by Maqrizi to have taken a personal share in the labour. It is one 
of the very few mosques in Cairo in which the arcades are supported by 
stone pillars, octagonal in this case, instead of round columns. The qiblch 
is lined with a handsome mosaic and the pulpit is of carved marble, like 
that of Sultan Hassan. But the reason why it is to attractive to sight-seers 
is the magnificent decoration of blue, green and white tiles with which the 
south-east wall is almost entirely faced. There seems no doubt at all that 
these were added by the Turkish Governor Ibrahim Agha el Mustahfezan 
who, in 1653, restored the mosque of Aqsunqur, which had been sadly 
damaged by an earthquake, and placed his own mausoleum within it. These 
tiles are for the greater part arranged in the intended order, so that they 
form a handsome Persian design and the general effect is very pleasing, 
more so here than in the Turkish funeral chamber where the tiles are 
placed anyhow and do not harmonise well with the marble mosaic. In all 
probability these tiles were not indigenous, but imported from Syria or 
Anatolia by the Turks who were accustomed to this style of decoration. 

Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917 '6741 

Mosque of Aq Sunqur 

( CresiveU) 

Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. 16741 

( Ore swell) 

Mosque of el-Ayny 


many mosques in Constantinople being panelled in this way. It appears 
that there are but very few examples of tiles used in Cairo to decorate 
either the inside or the outside of mosques, though a few domes in the 
Qarafeh are girdled with enamelled earthenware mosaic and some tiles in 
the Museum are said to come from el Ghilry's tomb. The minarets of 
En Nasser's Citadel mosque are also an example of that decoration, 
the tiles in this case being of a plain green rather like the colour of a 
dead turquoise. Another way of utilising enamelled earthenware in decoration 
has recently come to light. During the restoration by the Comite de 
Conservation des Monuments Arabes of the Mosque of Almalik el Gukeridar, 
polo-master of Mohammed en Nasser (a.h. 719) traces were found in the 
east liwan of a plaster inscription on a ground of plain blue tiles. 

Seeing that the subject interested me, H. volunteered to take me to see 
one or two little-known places where tiles were to be found. One of them is a 
very small mosque near el Azhar, in which is a quite unique qibleh illustrated 
by Bourgoin, in his Precis de I'Art Arabe. published in 1892, among the 
Memoires de la Mission Archeologique Francaise au Caire. The Mosque is 
called El Ayny and, if I am not mistaken, is the mausoleum of a learned 
Sheykh who used to read history to the Mameluke Sultan Barsbay 
(early XV'^ century) and who now rests under a very graceful dome 
with charming wooden pendentives (see illustration). The prayer-niche is 
more curious than artistic but certainly quite unique; though somewhat 
damaged, enough of it remains to enable us to see the decoration scheme 
and to judge of the original effect. It is, or rather was, entirely lined with 
plain coloured tiles in royal blue, bluish-green and white ; the two pillars 
which flank it were also faced with these tiles, arranged to form a design like 
that which lines the qibleli at El Moyyad. H. tells me that she does not 
know enough about tiles to form a personal theory as to the origin of these, 
but that they are supposed to be of Moroccan manufacture; it was the 
Bourgoin illustration which induced her to seek out this little mosque. 
It does not seem to be frequented by tourists, for the servants of it had 
no slippers to offer us and we had to take our shoes oft' in order to enter 
the sacred precincts. 

The same thing happened again the next day when, still in search 
of tiles, we went to see the Tekkiet el Gulshany, another corner ignored 
by sight-seers, though it is in a very frequented thoroughfare and more 
interesting from the artistic than the archaeological point of view. It is a 
tekkieh or convent of derwishes of the Qdderiyeli order, and it stands on 
the south side of the Sharia Taht er Rab', almost opposite the wall of 
El Moyyad's mosque. The entrance is absolutely modern, a flight of steps 
leads up to the porch of a house which might be a private town residence; 
even after entering through this door into a kind of hall, nothing remarkable 
strikes the eye and, if the dpor on the left happens to be open, nothing 


appears but a large room which might be a school-room cleared of its 
furniture. But, on turnino to the right, a few steps lead us into a courtyard 
at the end of which stands a small square stone building, surmounted by 
a graceful fawn-coloured cupola, of which the whole fagade is covered with 
tiles. Save for a pleasing arrangement of small, alternate, plain green and 
flowered blue and white squares which frame the door-way, these tiles seem 
to have been placed anyhow, quite irrespective of their design, size or 
shape. But the colour effect is delightful, especially if the sun should be 
shining on it; the prevailing tone is blue and it is set off most harmoniously 
by "the colour of the dome. Unfortunately the Derwishes seemed to have 
required more lodging room than was originally intended and they have 
added a hideous modern wing to theii' house, a corner of which comes across 
about a fifth of the fagade and considerably spoils the effect. We were 
politely invited to enter the Mausoleum, and we did so, but it was hardly 
worth the trouble of removing our shoes. The sarcophagus was covered 
by an embroidered cloth which perhaps hid some carved wood, and enclosed 
in a mushrabieh trellis, the door to which had a very handsome silver 
key of the old mediseval shape. The walls, alas ! were decorated with painted 
imitation tiles ; we were shown sacred relics in a reliquary and some gaudy 
offerings from sick people who had been cured ; I suddenly felt as if I 
were in a village chapel in France or in Italy. We were offered a drink 
of holy water, which was kept in a beautiful marble jar called a zir : there 
are some very like it at the Museum, 

The next place we visited in our search for tiles afforded- a very 
interesting example of Turkish architecture. It is usual among Cairo 
archceologists to say that the Turkish invasion in 1517 marked the end of 
all artistic efforts in Egypt, that the Turks did nothing but destroy, and 
that, of the few* monuments which were built since that time, none are 
worth looking at save those that were directly inspired from Arab sources, 
such as Sheykh El Bordeyny's charming little mosque. This is no doubt 
partly true and the Turks are responsible for much destruction and some 
horrible crimes against Art, to wit the atrocious red paint with which they 
disfigured many beautiful mosques, Ezbek el Yussefy's for instance. But 
there is, to my mind, some beauty in the contrast between the heavy domes 
which they have copied from Hagia Sophia and their slender minarets, 
and it impossible to wish that the .Mohammed Aly Mosque had not been 
placed on the Citadel to crown the city of Cairo and give it an aspec-t all 
its own, though I admit that the interior and near view of that monimient 
are gaudy and vulgar. It happened that we chose the Turkish mosque 
of Abu Dhahab, opposite the main entrance of El Azhar, on account of 
its tiles, but there are several others in Cairo that are better examples of 
that particular style, among others that of Sinan Pasha at Bulaq. The 
jnosque of Soliman Pasha at the Citadel, which we visited the other day, i? 



much less harmonious in its proportions. Mohamed Bey Abu Dhahab, 
also built a wekdleh, in Es Sanadqieh. 

A very rich man, so ostentatious that the people gave him the name 

Phot. Wnde. 
Mosque of Mohammed Abu Dhahab. South entrance. 

of Abu-Dhahab, Father of Gold, either to deride or flatter him, Mohammed 
has made himself notorious in history by his treachery and ingratitude. 


The celebrated Aly Bey the Great {el Kebir) who through his own genius 
and courage, actually emancipated Egypt for a short time from the yoke 
of Turkey (1766) and conceived statesmanlike plans for her aggrandisement 
and development, was betrayed and undone by this man, whom he had 

Phot. Sttivait. 
Mosque of Mohammed Abu Dhahab. South gallery. 

brought up as liis own son Though repeatedly warned against Mohammed 
Abu Dhahab by more faithful followers, the great Mameluke refused to 
distrijst him and it was only when he found his protege leading an Ottoman 



army against him that his eyes were opened. He was finally taken prisoner 
after a desperate encounter in which he was severely wounded and when 
he died, a few days hiter. public opinion, perhaps not unjustly, accused 
Abu Dhahab of haviiiii p()i>oned his benefactor's wounds. 

.#*>*** * ^ 


ji -i 


Phut. SlfU'dii. 
Mosque of Mohammed Abu Dhahab. North door. 

It is a great pity that his mosque cannot be cleared of some of the 
buildings which crowd against it, for the handsome colonnade which 
surrounds it on three sides is not seen to its full advantage. The inner 


hall, reached through beautiful doors of polygonal wood and ivory panelling 
in Mameluke style, has the peculiar harmonious charm of a domed interior, 
and the colouring is very pleasing, mellowed as it is by age. The outside 
gallery ends, on the north side, by an immense iron gate, rich and imposing- 
looking, though the design of the wrought-iron work is devoid of grace ; 
an oblong panel of it, opening independently, admitted us to the Mausoleum. 
A large library of books and manuscripts, once kept in this room, has 
been removed; the sarcophagus is quite plain and hung with the usual 
draperies, but here we found the tiles, with which a whole side of the wall 
is faced. Though connaisseurs may perhaps find among them some valuable 
and interesting specimens, they are not nearly so effective as the tiles in the 
"Blue Mosque": the colours are more varied and, though arranged with 
some regard to design, the whole scheme is much less bold and homogeneous 
and the general effect less artistic. I am very glad, however, that they caused 
us to visit this mosque and to appreciate its interesting contrast with the 
others we had seen'i'. 


(I) Since the above chapter was written, a very interesting and exhaustive 
work on the Subject has been published in Cairo by the Iiisfitiit Fnaifais d'Archco- 
logic Orieiitdle, " Les Revetements Ceraiiiiques dans les Monuments Musulmans de 
I'Egypte", by Claude Prost, containing twelve beautiful illustrations, including 
some of the monuments mentioned. 



AD. 1634 

The Hall of Bcybars Palace of the Emir Beshtak. 

Musaffer Khan Palace The House of Zeynab Khatun. 

House el Giridlieh. The House of Ibrahim es Sennary. 

THE Arabs have a superstitious feeling against inhabiting a house of 
which the master is dead, and nothing goes to ruin sooner than a 
neglected, empty house. This may be the reason why so little remains 
in Cairo of the splendid palaces and private houses built for them- 
selves by those rich Mameluke Emirs who did not hesitate to spend fortunes 
on their mausoleums. Of the few historic private houses that the Comite 
de Conservation des Monuments Arabes has undertaken to keep from decay, the 
most complete, the house of Gamal ed Din, dates from the XVIP'' century, 
later than the Turkish invasion, but the architect who built it adhered to the 
Mameluke style. It is fairly well-known to sight seers and would be more so 
if it were not a little difficult to find. It is reached by a narrow street called 
Sharia Khoshqadam (probably after the Mameluke Sultan of that name, a 
learned man of Greek origin, who reigned from I461-1467) which turns off 
eastwards from the Sharia el Ghuriyeh close to a mosque called El Fakahani, 
a comparatively modern building, built on the site of the mosque founded by 
the Fatimite Khalife Edh Dhafer (543 a. h.). Let me mention by the way that 
the doors of this mosque belong to the original monument and are one of the 
few specimens in Cairo of carved wood of the Fatimite epoch. 

The little street turns to the left after a few yards and then to the right 
again, becoming so narrow that the protruding, closed, wooden balconies on 
the first floor actually touch each other across the street. The " front door" 
is set in a low archway, and. when open, reveals nothing but a dark inner 
wall. As a matter of fact, the corridor leading to it goes off at a right angle 
and if you turn sharply to the left, you find yourself in the wide courtyard of 
the palace. Some work was going on in the centre of the yard and we found 



that an octagonal fountain of beautiful mosaic was being placed there. It 
came from some ruined house and the Coniite thought it well to restore it and 
place it where it could be seen. H. said fountains of that particular descrip- 
tion were usually inside the houses, not in the courtyard, and that the fountains 
that are so frequently seen in the courtyards of old Arab houses in Damascus 
were more solid and weather proof. However it seems to harmonise very 
well with its surroundings. A pretty door, approached by a iiight of steps, 
leads into a delightful kind of deep verandah called a Maq'ad, open on the 
courtyard side by two graceful arches and, on the other side, by a mushrabieh 
window looking out on the nnrrow street or rather into a similar window on 
the opposite side. Oi^ening on the verandah is a balconied chamber, from 
which the ladies of the house could look into the yard and watch the visitors 
who came in through the front door. A narrow corridor passes the door of a 
typical Oriental bath-room and afterwards goes through a small chamber 
with a charming little mosaic console. Finally we were led into the qa'a 
or reception hall, a most delightful place. It is a long room, the beautiful 
marble mosaic pavement raised by one step at the two ends, and with 
several alcoves at the sides, evident)}' intended for cushioned divans. 
The ceiling is richly decorated, with apparent beams and stalactite 
brackets framing the alcoves. All round the room, up to about four 
feet, runs a dado of rich coloured marbles in a harmonious design. On the 
south east wall, this dado takes the shape of a prayer-niche indicating to the 
inmates of the house the direction in which to say their prayers. Above the 
wooden mushrabieh work of tiie windows and around a sort of lantern or 
small cupola over the centre of the hall, coloured glass panels shed an attract- 
ive light into the room. There are two or three different flights of stairs and 
many more rooms in the house, but none of pat ticular interest, save one very 
large hall on the ground floor, unfortunately in a ruined condition, which was 
I believe, intended for entertaining chance guests, with the noble Orienta' 
hospitality of which traces are yet to be found in this country. The owner 
of the house, Gamal ed Din edh Dhahaby, is referred to as Sheykh of the 
Merchants, and was probably Master of a Merchants' guild- 

Charmed with my visit to this wonderful place, I demanded to see more 
and H. took me to see some other houses, mo^t of which were very interesting 
indeed. It is useless to recommejid you to see the most charniing of them 
all, called, I believe, the House of Sheykh Mohammed el Qassaby, for it is 
inhabited by a Moslem gentleman of reflned and quiet tastes, who, while 
taking intelligent care of his beautiful home, would not wish to have his 
privacy continually invaded by sight seers. 

One very beautiful qa'a has been taken over and slightly restored by the 
Comitc imd is well worth a visit; it stands near the Muri>tan of Qalaun in a 
very wide turning from the Suq en Nahassin, called Beit el Qady, the House 
of the Judge, after a very fine Maq'ad of the XV^ century which still stands 

Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. 1674) ( (J ^ (J ^ M.A.) 

Qa'a of house of Gamal ed-Din 

' '^ 


l.> ■ 























^ ^X V- -V^ V ^' i. ^ 



Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. (67*) ( C C M A ) 

Ceiling from Palace of Beshtak 


there and which belonged to a judge, the Emir Mamay. The man who is in 
charge of this also has the key of the qa'a in question on the opposite side of 
the street. It is often called the Hall of Beybars and dates in effect from the 
time of El Bondoqdary (1253), but it became, in the XVIIP^ century, the 
property of a Turkish official called Osman Katkhoda who constituted it waqf'^K 

It is the oldest known specimen of civil architecture in Egypt, and of the 
most grandiose proportions, its central part (of which alas! the lantern is 
gone) being over 15 metres in height. The wooden stalactites framing the 
alcoves are in a good state of preservation and there is an interesting inscrip- 
tion giving the date of the monument and the name of the founder, a certain 
"Mohamed Mulieb ed Din el Muwakkel esh Shafeiy." The pretty marble 
mosaic fountain in the centre did not originally belong" to this ija'a, but was 
recently transferred from a house in ruins called the house of Ayesheh el 
Bezadeh and dating probably from the time of Moiiammed Aly; in order to 
avoid any misconception, this fact is stated in an inscription around the 
fountain, which looks far better in its place than the one in the courtyard of 
Gamal ed Din. 

The next place we visited almost made me weep; it is the sad ruin of a 
very ancient palace, that of the Emir Beshtak es Seyfy, a rich and powerful 
Mameluke of Mohammed en Nasser ( 738). Enough of it remains to 
make it a most interesting monument of that great period to which we 
owe so many beautiful religious buildings though practically no examples 
of psivate architecture. These valuable relics would constitute a precious 
document if only some care were taken to preserve them from further 
damage. But that is very far from being the case; in spite of persevering 
efforts, the Comite has been unable to obtain permission to interfere and it is 
heart-breaking to see the dirt and neglect which are slowly destroying this once 
luxurious palace. The entrance to it is not very obvious, it is through a poor 
modern door in the Darb el Kermiz, leading into a sordid looking courtyard ; on 
our right, however, a well built stone wall shewed a great archway, now entirely 
filled up with masonry, but decorated on either side by the Emir's Mason, 
or coat of arms, in a disk. A similar disk is to be found on the door-way 
which is all that remains of the Baths built by the same Beshtak in the 
Sharia Es Serugiyeh, No. 224 of the plan. On asking for the qa'a we were 
taken up a dilapidated stone staircase to the first floor, where we found 
the great hall. Like other qa'as of Mameluke origin or style, the plan 
of it is very similar to that of a mosque ; it even has an imposing arcade on 

(I) "Waqf" denotes a trust created theoretically for pious or charitable 
purposes, such as the t'oundation and maintenance of a mosque or school, or the 
support of necessitous Moslems. One peculiarity of Waqf property is that it 
cannot be sold, although it may, with the consent of the Religious tribunal or 
Mehkemeh Sharieh be exchanged for other property of the same value. 



rectangular pillars which divides it into liwans exactly like a mosque. 
Perhaps the least damaged parts are the ceilings which are of a marvellous 
beauty ; their design reminded me very much of that of Nasser's ceiling 
at the Citadel, but in a different colouring. The small ceiling of the side 
liwans shew a most intricate system of stalactites; they have unfortunately 
been disfigured by clumsy painting l)ut I have heard experts formulate the 

I'hot ClKitioton. 
Porch of ruined Baths of the Emir Beshtak. 

hope that the original paint might still be found underneath. There is 
also a sadly damaged door of polygonal marqueterie leading into a passage; 
it could probably be repaired by some of Cairo's skilful wood workers. 
The facade of this noble ruin overlooks the Suq en Nahassin street, 
and should harmonise very appropriately with the beautiful group of 
mosques which makes this neighbourhood so attractive to artists. Let us 


hope that means will be found to save Beshtak's palace for posterity before 
it becomes utterly annihilated. 

Another very interesting palace, of a very much more recent date, is 
to be found in the same neighbourhood, in a narrow turning off the Sh. 
el Gamalieh, called Qasr el Shoq (the Castle of Yearning Love), one of the 
Fatimite palaces built by Gohar, of which the name only has been preserved. 
It is called the Musaffer Khan (lodging for travellers) and, though not 200 
years old, is also in a sad state of decay, the rich carved ceilings, marble 
dadoes and mosaic pavements falling to pieces for lack of care. Several of 
the rooms are panelled with charming cupboards of dove-tailed wood with 
open niches in which to place a bowl or a Persian vase, a mcjst effective 
way of decorating a wall. Some of the ceilings in this house are particularly 
pleasing, being made entirel}'^ of stalactites and left unpainted in the plain, 
natural brown colour of the wood, probably Turkish sycomore, instead 
of the usual polychromic decoration which, beautiful and artistic as it was 
in the Mameluke days, is so often crude and glaring in more recent examples 
This house was at one time inhabited by some of Mohammed Aly's 
descendants, and the first Khedive, Ismail Pasha, was born there. It is now 
unoccupied, an old Berberine boab is in charge of it and very pleased to take 
visitors over it. He was not there when we arrived, but some obliging 
neighbours, apparently acquainted with his favourite haunts, went to fetch 
him and brought him back after a little time. I may say that on many 
other occasions I was struck with the good temper and willingness of the 
people wdienever we required any assistance of the sort. And it was not 
always with a view to backsheesh, for many of them, who knew H. already, 
seemed perfectly satisfied with well-earned thanks and a polite salutation in 
Arabic. It is the rule that each visitor to a mosque or other monument should 
buy a ticket on entering; H. has a card from the Ministry of Wakfs which 
dispenses her and anyone accompanying her from this tax, but she nevertheless 
usually gave a small present to the guardian in charge, telling me that 
the tips which they receive are expected to eke out their very small salary. 
At el Azhar, where she was received more as a friend than a tourist, 
offence might have been felt if she had offered anything at all, but that 
would not apply to a stranger. 

A propos of El Azhar, I must mention the house of an unknown lady, 
Zeynab Khatun, in the immediate vicinity of the picturesque little mosque 
of El Ayny, near el Azhar. The Comite has succeeded in isolating the 
beautiful and very characteristic qa'a of this old house, which, being on the 
first floor, is reached by a well-kept staircase. Besides the ceiling, framed 
and supported by handsome brackets, there are cupboard doors of wood 
and ivory marqueterie in XV'h century style, some good mushrabieh windows 
and a quaint little bath-room. 

I enclose a picture of the fagade of another XVIP'' century house, which 



is not photographed fiom the original, but from a very charming painting 
by an Egyptian artist. This house is quite near the entrance of Ibn Tulian's 
mosque and has a particularly beautiful courtyard, quite invisible from 
the door-way, as is invariably the case with these mysterious Arnb dwellings. 

House el Giridlieh from an original water colour 
drawing by Aly Effendi el Ghowany. 

I am glad to add to the afore mentioned interesting old houses 
in Cairo that of Ibrahim es Sennary, which is quoted in the "Description 
de I'Egypte" as a specimen of Arab domestic architecture, and which 

Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. 1674) 


Qa a of house of Zeynab Khatun 

Printed by the Survey of Egypt 1917. '6741 ( (J _ (7. M. A.) 

Qa'a of house of Ibr. es-Sennary 


was used by the illustrious scientists who accompanied Bonaparte to 
Egypt in 1798. The foundation of the Institut d' Egypte is an example 
of Napoleon's extraordinary mental scope as of his marvellous elasticity. 
Fresh from the overwhelming naval defeat of Abukir, which would have 
disiieartened a more ordinary man, he hastened back to Cairo, took a leading 
part in the great national feast of the cutting of the Khalig and, immediately 
afterwards, decreed the foundation of the Institut d' Egypte. The object of 
this Institute was, on the one hand, to introduce into this country the 
progress of modern civilisation and, on the other, to investigate the history 
of ancient Egypt and to tabulate the result of these researches. Of the 
work of this Institute, there remains to us the priceless accumulation of 
documents known as the "Grand Ouvrage d'Egypte". The first members 
of this learned company were the civilian "savants" whom Napoleon had 
brought with him, to whom were associated some staff or artillery officers. 
The meetings, supposed by the Egyptians to be gatherings of gold man- 
ufacturing alchemists, were held in a palace which had belonged to a 
Mameluke Bey, Hassan el Kachef, and wliich has since been pulled down 
to make room ior the Sanieh Government School for girls. Several of the 
French savants were lodged in a small house adjoining the same property, 
which had belonged to a Katkhoda or Turkish Governor, Ibrahim es Sennary. 
Though somewhat dilapidated, the little house still stands and is being 
repaired by the indefatigable Coinite. The accompanying photograph shews 
part of its qa'd. with its pretty mushrabieh windows; another such window, 
close to the front entrance, alone reveals the existence of the old building 
to the rare passers-by. The inner courtyard is charming: a circular flight 
of steps in a corner leads to a gracefully decorated door and the maq'ad 
or arched balcony rises above a sort of low verandah on the ground floor. 
The house stands in a cul-de sac on the east side of the Sanieh School, 
near the SebH of Mustafa and the mosque of Sayedeh Zeynab. 





A H. A. D. No. of plan r) 

21 641 Mosque of Aim- Ibn el Aas'", Old Cairo. 

247 861 2"'' Nilometer*2>, Rodeh Island. 

Ul^c ix^^c Tulunide Aqueduct '3), El Basatin, 

266 879 Moiqueof Ahmed Ibn Tulun, Qalaat el Kabsh'4'. 220 H. 2 


Bab Qady Askar (underground passage) .... 47 C. 6 

Mosque of el Azhir 97 D. 6 

Mosque of Khalife El Hakem, near Bab el Futuh 13 A. 6 
Tombs Es Saba Banat'5', Eastern Cemetery. 
Mo5(iue of Emir el Guyushy. on the Moqattam. 

1087-91 Second Wall of Cairo, and the three gates, Bab el 

' B. 6 
Futuh, BabenNasrandBabezZuwevleh. 332, 6. 7. 1 19 ^^ . 

519 1125 Mosque El Akmar 6>. Es Sannanin, prolongation 

of Sharia Suq en Nahassin 33 B. 6 













(*) These numbers also correspond with Plan II of the Coniitr's Bulletin, which is 
on a larger scale. 

(1) Conqueror of Egypt under the Khalife Omar. This mosque has been many 
times rebuilt and restored and nothing remains of the original monument. See the 
interesting study by E. K. Corbett in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of 
Great Britain, Vol. XXII, London 1890. Also, in Arai)ic the monograph by Yussef 
Effendi Ahmed. 

(2) The first had been built in A. H. 98. 

(3) Known by the fellahs as Migret el Imam. 

(4) See monograph in Arabic by Yussef Effendi Ahmed, Cairo 1917. 

(5) Called by Maqrizi the Seven Domes and said by him to be the tombs of 7 
members of the El Maghraby family, victims of el Hakem. 

(6) Founded by Khalife El Amir. 


No. of plan 

527 1132 MeshhedofSayedehRoqayeh(i*, ShariaElKhalifeh 273 I. 3 

555 1160 Mosque of the Wazir Saleh Telayeh, Qassabet 

Radwan 1x6 E. 5 


572-79 1176-83 Citadel and 3^^' wall of Cairo. 

579 (?) I183 (?) Burg ez Zafer. 

608 I2II Mausoleum of the Imam Shafey (2>, Southern Cem- 

etery known as "Tombs of the Mamelukes". 

613 1216 Tomb of Es Saadat Taalbeh, Southern Cemetery. 

622 1225 College El Kameliyeh •3', Beyn el Qasreyn. 

640? 1243 ? Tomb of Abbaside Khalifes (door and passage) '4\ 

Sayedeli Nefisseh 276 I. 3 

641 1243 College El Salehiyeh, Suq en Nahassin .... 38 C. 6 

647 1249 Tomb of Sultan Es Saleh Negm ed Din Ayub, 

Suq en Nahassin 38 C. 6 

648 1250 Zauwiyet and Madkhareh el Henud, El Tabbaneh. 273 
648 1250 Tomb of Queen Shagaret ed Durr's', Sharia el 

Khalifeh. . . - 169 H. 3 


651 1253 Hall of Beybars(Waqf of OsmanKathoda), Sharia 

Beyt el Qady 50 C. 6 

66o-h2 1261-63 Remains of mosque of Sultan Beybars el Bondoq- 
dary (College Edh Dhaheriyeh), Sharia Suq En 
Nahassin ' . . . 37 C. 6 

665 1266 Mosque of Sultan Edh Dhaher Beybars el Bondoq- 

dary, Sharia Edh Dhaheriyeh. 

682 1283 Tomb known as Fatmeh Khatun ^6\ Sharia El 

Ashraf, Sayedeh Nefisseh 274 I. 3 

(1) Said to have been Aly's adopted daughter. 

(2) Supposed to be built over the tomb of the saint by Queen Shamsa, mother of 
Sultan Kamel. 

(3) Now only a few ruins ; a beautiful plaster window framing is preserved at the 
Arab Museum. 

(4) Contains seventeen tombstones with inscriptions, bearing the names of 2 
Khalifes and of various sons, grandsons and daughters of Khalifes. 

(5) The only woman ruler of Egypt in the Middle Ages. 

(6) In reality the tomb of the mother of Aly, (son of Sultan Qalaun) and of himself 
as well as of his sister. 


No. of plan 

683 1284 Zauwiyet el Abbar, Sharia es Seyufieh 146 G. 4 

683-4 1284-5 Mosque of Sultan Qalaun, Suq en Nahassin. . . 43 C. 5 

684 1285 Muristan of Sultan Qalaun, Suq en Nahassin . . 43 C. 5 

689 1290 Tomb of Fadl Allah. Darb es Saadeh 186 D. 4 

690 1291 Tomb of Sheykh Ibn Soliman er Rifaey, Haret 

Hahiwat, Suq es Selah 245 F. 5 

693 1293 Tomb of Sultan el AshrafKhalil, Sharia el Ashraf. 275 I. 3 

696 1296 Minaret of Mosque El Baqly, Qism el Khalifeh . 156 H. 4 
Vli'^^c ? xiii'^c? Mosque of Imam el Leitli '", Cemetery of Imam 


697 1297 Mausoleum of the Omayyad Imam Zeyn ed Din 

Yussef, El Qaderieh'2' 172 K. 4 

700 1300 Tomb of Q.iiasimquf '3\ El Gamalieh 31 B 6 

703 1303 Mosque and twin tombsof theEmirsSilar,Governor 

of Cairo.and Sangar el Gavvaly.Qala'atel Kabih. 221 H. 2 
703 1303 Mosque and tomb of Sultan Mohammed en Nasser 

Ibn Qalaun, Suq en Nahassin 44 C. 5 

709 1309 College and tomb of the Emir Taibars, precincts 

of El Azhar 97 D. 6 

709 1309 Convent and tomb mosque of Sultan Beybars el 

Gashenkir. El Gamalieh 32 B. 6 

710 1310 Mosque of el Kurdy '4), Darb el Gamamiz . . . 213 G. 2 

714 1314 Tomb of Gohar e! Madany, El Rokbieh. Qism el 

Khalifeh 270 G. 4 

715 1315 Tomb of Hassan Sadaqa. Es Saa'dieh, Es Seyufieh. 263 G. 4 

718 1318 Mosque of Sultan Moh. en Nasser Ibn Qalaun, 

Citadel 143 H. 5 

719 1319 Mosque of Almalik El Gukendar'5', polo master, 

Om el Ghulam 24 C. 6 

719 1319 Mosque of the Emir Hussein *6', El Manasreh. . 233 D. 3 
725 1325 Mosque of Emir Shahab ed Din Ahmed el Meh- 

mendar (master of ceremonies), Darb el Ahmar. II5 E. 5 
730 1329 Remains of Mosque of the Emir Qusun, Sharia 

Mohammed Aly 202 E. 4 

(1) Restored, perhaps entirely, under El Ghury. Non Moslem visitors are not 

(2) Polo master, an Emir ot Sultan Qalaun. 

(3) The superb carved wood sarcophagus in this tomb was deliberately burnt 
down by an imbecile keeper. 

(4) Founded by the Emir Sangar el Gamakdar. 

(5) Called by Maqrizi Almalikiyeh, also known as Zauwiyet el Halumeh. 

(6) A mameluke ol Greek origin, Emii Shikar (huntsman) of Lagin. 




























No. of plan 

VVekaleh of the Emir Qusiin, Bab en Nasr. . . II B. 6 
Mosque of the Emir Almas, (chamberlain), El 

Helmieh 130 F. 4 

Aqueduct of Fum El Khalig 'I' 78 I. 4 

College of the Emir Akbogha (major-domo), 

precincts of El Azhar 97 D. 6 

Tomb of Tashtimur, Eastern Cemetery. 

Bath of the Emir Beshtak, Sueiqet el Ezzi . . . 244 F. 5 

Mosque of the Emir Beshtak, Darb el Gamamiz . 205 F. 2 

Mosque of Aydemir el Balilawan, Oni el Ghulam. 22 C. 7 

Minaret of mosque of the Emir El Khatiry, Bulaq. 

Palace of the Emir Beshtak, Suq en Nahassin. . 34 C. 6 

Mosque of the Emir Altunbogiia el Merdany'^)^ 

Et Tabbaneh, Darb el Ah mar 120 E. 5 

Mosque of the lady Hadaq Miskeii <3), El Hanafy. 252 F. 2 
Mosque of the Emir Aslam el Bahai (armour 

bearer), Darb Shoghlan •. • • II2 E. 6 

747 1346 Mosque of the Emir Aqsunqur, also called Mosque 

of Ibrahim Agha, Sharia Et Tabbaneh. . . . 123 F. 5 

748 1347 Mosque of Arghun Shah El Ismaily, En Nasrieh. 253 F". i 
748 1347 Zauwiyeh of Qetlobogha, Ground floor of house of 

Selim Pacha el Hegazy, Suq es Selah .... 242 F. 5 
748 1348 Tombs of Khwend Tulbay and of Om Anuk 

(Princess Toghay). wives of En Nasser, Eastern 

Mosque of the Emir Sheykhu, Sharia es Salibeh. 147 G. 3 
Mosque of Mangak el Yussefy'41, El Hattabeh . 138 G. 6 
Doorof PalaceofMangakelSeiahdar '4',SuqesSelah 247 G. 4 
Palace of the Emir Taz (now a girl's school), Es 

Seyufieh 267 G. 3 

Sebil ol the Emir Sheykhu, Et Hattabeh .... 144 G. 6 

Tomb es Sultanieh'5', Southern Cemetery. 

Tomb of the Emir Sheykhu, Sharia es S:ilibeh. . 152 G. 3 

(1) Often attributed to Saladin, probably begun by En Nasser in 131 1, restored in 
stone by EI Ghury about 200 years later. 

(2) Cup bearer and son in law of En Nasser. This mosque was built by En 
Nasser's Chief Architect, the Moallem Ibn es Seyufy, who also built the stone minaret 
of the Madrasseh of Akbogha at El Azliar. 

(3) A slave of En Nasser. 

(4) These two monuments were built by the same mameluke, the Emir Seyf ed 
Din Mangak ibn Abdallah Aly Yussefy en Nassery, Selahdar, or Chief Armourer. 

(5) Said by tradition to be that of modier of Sultan Hassan. 
















No. of plan 

757 1356 Mosque of Sultan Hassan 'I' 1330.4 

757 1356 Mosque of the Emir Suyurghatmish, Captain of 

the Guard, Sharia es Salibeh 2l8 H. 2 

758 1357 Pulpit inmosqueof Badr edDin el Agami '21, Haret 

es Salibeh, Suq en Nahassin 39 C. 6 

761 1359 Mosque of Princess Tatar el Heg.iZieh, daughter of 

En Nasser, Darb el Qassassin, El Gamalieh . . 36 C. 6 
76] 1359 Zauwiyet BashirAgh;; el Gandar '3i, Sharia Nur edh 

Dhalani, Es Salibeh 269 G. 3, 

764 1373 Mosque el Tenkezieh, Eastern cemetery. 

771 1369 Mosque of Sultan Shaaban (or of his mother), Et 

Tabbaneh 125 F. 5 

771 1369 Tomb of Ibrahim el Ansary (Aqsunqur), Qantarct 

Sunqur 310 E. 2 

772 1370 Mosque of Assanboglia. Darb es Saadeh . . . . 185 D. 4 
774 1372 Tomb el Ghannamieh, near el Azhar 96 D. 6 

774 1366 Mosque of the Emir Algay el Yussefy '4), Suq el 

Selah 131 F. 4 

Vlll'hc Xivtiic Mosque of Meihqal 'si, Uaib Qermiz.Suq en Nahas- . 

sin 45 C. 6 

775 1373 Mosque of Ei Baqry, liaret el Uuit, Bab en Nasr. 18 B. 7 
783 1381 Tomb of Mohammed Anas, Eastern Cemetery, near 

that of Baiquq ^^\ 


785 1383 Mosque of Aytmish en Nagashy, Bab el Wazir. . 250 G. 5 

788 1386 Mosque of Sultan Barquq, Suq en Nahassin. . . 187 C. 5 

795 1392 Mosque of Inal El Yussefy, El Khiamieh . . . 118 E. 5 

vm"'c XlV'^c Tomb of Saad ed Din Ibn Ghurab'7>, Eastern 

(1) See detailed description by Herz Pasha, Cairo 1900. 

(2) Badr ed Din removed several toiiihs of Fatimite Khalifes in order to build his 

(3) An eunuch; he tinished the mosque of Sultan Hassan after the death of the 

(4) Husband and afterwards murderer of the mother of Sultan Shaaban. 

(5) Restored very recently. 

(6) Anas was the father of Baiquci; a rough Circassian peasant, speaking nut a 
word of Arabic, he came lo Cairo to see his son who received him with honour and 
gave him the rank of Emir. 

(7) A Mameluke of Barquq. 






140 1 





























14 19 




■ XVth c 












No of plan 

.Mosque of Moghlatay, Qasf el Shoq 26 C. 6 

Mosque of Mahmud el Kurdy, El Khiamieh . . I17 E. 5 
Mosque of the Emir Sudun Mir Zadeh ">, Suq es 

Selah 127 F. 

Tomb El Monsy'2», El Hattabeh 139 G. 

Tomb of Karkar, Eastern Cemetery 

Mosque of the Emir Gama! Ed Din el Ostadar, 

Rahabet Bab el Eid, Gamnlieh 35 B. 

Convent and tomb of Sultan Barqnci, Eastern 

Mosque of Sultan Farag, Bab Ez Zuweyleh. 
Tomb mosque of El ^yny, near El Azhar . . 
Mosque of Sultan el Moyyad, Bab Ez Zuweyleh 
Minaret of mosque ez Zahed, Suq ez Zaiat . 
Mosque of Kafur ez Zimam, Haret Khoshqadam 
Mo«que El Banat'^), Sharia Mansur Pasha . . 
Muristan of Sultan El Moyyad, behind M. es Suk- 

kary (el Mahgar) 

Mosque of Abdel Basset, El Khoronfish . . '. 
Mosque of Sultan El Ashraf Barsbay.El Ashrafieh 
Minaret of mosque er Ruey, Sharia er Ruey . 
Zauwiyeh of Firuz, Sharia El Mangaleh. . 
Mosque of Ganibek, Sharia el Mogharbelin . . 
Mausoleum of Sultan El Ashraf Barsbay, Eastern 

Mosque of Taghry Berdy, known as Saghry 

Wardy, Sharia Es Salibeh 209 G. 

Mosque of Saghry Wardy, El Maqassis .... 42 C. 
Wekaleh of Saghry Wardy, El Maqassis. . . . 188 C. 
Minaret of mosque of Qanbay el Tcherkassy, 

Sharia el Baqry, El Manshieh 154 H. 

Mosque of Qaraqoga el Hassany '4', Darb el Gam- 

aniiz 206 F. 

Mosque of El Qady Yehia Zeyn ed Din '5), Sharia 

Bevn en Nehdevn 182 C. 

203 D. 5 
102 D. 6 
190 D. 4 
83 A. 4 
107 D. 5 
184 C. 4 

257 G. 5 
60 B. 5 

175 C. 5 
55 B. 3 

192 D. 4 

119 E. 4 

(1) A page of Sultan Barquq ; the mosque is in ruins. 

(2) Founded by Yunes ed Dawadar. 

(3) Built by Fakhr Ed Din Abdel el Ghany. 

(4) The minaret is reached from the roof of the mosque by a wooden bridge 
thrown across the street. 

(5) This learned (nan had a most unhappy life, being persecuted and tortured by 
several Sultans, one after another. He died under tortuie at the age of 75, having 
built three beautiful mosques. 


No. of plan 

Mosque of El Qady Yehia Zeyn ed Din, El Hab- 

banieh 204 E. 3 

Mosque of El Qady Yehia Zeyn ed Din, Bulaq, 

(Mosque el Mehkenieh). 
Mosque of Lagin es Seyfv 'i', Sliaria Marassina . 217 G. I 
M51-55 Tomb of Sultan Inal, Eastern Cemetery. 
1451-55 Tekkieh of Sultan Inal<2)^ £1 Khoronfisli . ... 61 B. 5 
TombofSheykh Zeiny Abu Taleb, Sharia Beyn 

es Sureyn I41 C. 4 

Tomb of Sultan Ahmed, Eastern Cemetery. 
Mosque of the Emir Ganibek, Governor of 
Geddeh o', Sharia el Qaderieh, Qism el Khalifeh. 
Tomb of Sudun el Qasrawy, El Batanieh . . . . 
Mosque of the Emir Khoshqadam el Ahmady I^J^ 

Darb el Hosr 

Mosque El Maraah '^l, Sharia faht er Rab'. . . 
Mosque of Sultan Inal, Om el Ghulam .... 

876-900 1471-94 Sebil of Sultan Qaitbay, El Azhar 76 D. 6 

876-900 1471-94 Maq'ad of Sultan Qaitbay, Eastern Cemetery. 
876-900 1471-94 Drinking trough of Sultan Qaitbay, Qalaat el Kabsh 222 H. 2 
876-900 1471-94 Drinking trough of Sultan Qaitbav, El Azhar. . 74 D. 6 
876-900 1471-94 Restored entrance and minaret by Sultan Qaitbay 

El Azhar 97 D. 6 

876-900 1471-94 Bab el Qarafeh 278 I. 4 

877-79 1472-74 Tomb-mosque of Sultan Qaitbay, Eastern 

876-900 1471-94 Rab' of Sultan Qaitbay, Eastern Cemetery. 
876-900 1471-94 Fagade by Sultan Qaitbay, Eastern Cemetery. 
880 1475 College mosqueofSultan Qaitbay, Qalaat el Kabsh 22}, H. 2 

882 1477 Wekaleh of Sultan Qaitbay 161, El Azhar. ... 75 D. 6 
876-82 1471-77 Fagade and Sebil of Mosque of Timraz el 

Ahmady, Emir Akhor (Mosque El Bahlul), 

Sharia el Lebudieh 2X6 G. 1 

883 1478 College Mosque of the Emir Ganem el Bahlawan, 

(Mosque el Almy), Es Serugieh 129 F. 4 



XV 'he 










X v"> c 




171 1. 

105 D. 




195 D. 

25 c. 


(1) Built by Sultan Mohammed Abu Said Gaqmaq. 

(2) Founded by a lady relative of Sultan Inal. 

(3) Afterwards restored by Qaitbay. 

(4) An eunuch, Mameluke of Qaitbay. This mosque was formerly a ^<j « in a 
palace of an earlier date. 

(5) Founded by the lady Fatmeh, daughter of an Emir. 

(6) Perhaps of an earlier date. 


No. of plan 

884 1479 Tomb El Fadawieh, El Abbassieh 

884 1479 College Mosque of Abu Bekr Mazhar el Ansary, 

Haret Birgwan 49 B. 5 

884 1479 Mosque of the Emir Yushbek el Mahdy, Pont de 


884 T479 Sebil of Sultan Qaitbay. near Mosque of Sheykhu, 

Sharia es Salibeh 324 G. 4 

885 1479 VVekaleli of Sultan Qaitbay, near Bab en Nasr. . 9 B. 

886 1480 College Mosque of the Emir Qigmas el Ishaky, 

(also called Abu Hailba), Darb el Ahmar . . 114 E. 5 
IX'hc XV'thc Palace of the Emir Yushbekli), Sharia el Mudh- 

affer 266 G. 4 

iX'hc XVthc Mosque of Sultan Shah ill, Sharia Gheyt el Eddeh. 239 D. 3 

ix'^c xythc Mosque of El Sueydy, Old Cairo. 

iX'^c xv'hc Doors of mosque el Mazharieh, Sharia el Baghal, ^ 

Bab esh Sharieh 8 A. 6 

IX'^c xV'^c Minaret of the Mosque of Mogholbay Taz. Haret 

Bent el Memar 207 G. 3 

898 1492 Palace of Qaitbay, Haret El Merdaiiy 228 E. 3 

IX'V-? XV'hc Mosque of Abu el Ela, Bulaq Bridge. 

xV^c? XVt'V.? Mosque of Gohar el Lala, Darb el Labban . . . 134 G. 5 

900 1494 Mosque of the Emir Ezbek el Yussefy. also hall 

and drinking trough, Sliaria es Salibeh. . . . 221 H. 2 

901 1495 House of the Emir Mamay, called Beyt el Qady, 

El Gamalieh 51 C. 6 

904 1498 Tomb of Sultan Qansu H Edh Dhaher Abu Said, 

Eastern Cemetery. 
906 1500 Fomb of Sultan el Adel Tumanbay I, El Abbassieh. 

908 1502 Mosque of Qanibay, Emir Akhor (Master of the 

Horse), El Manshieh 136 G. 5 

908 1502 Mosqueof the EmirKheyrbek, Sharia etTabbaneh. 248 F. 5 
Xthc xvithc Palace of the Emir Kheyrbek, Sharia etTabbaneh. 249 R. 5 

909 1503 Kuttab of Tarabay es Sherify, Bab el Wazir . . 251 F. 5 
909 1503 Tomb and sebil of Tarabay es Sherify, Bab el 

Wazir 255 F. 5 

909 1503. Mosque of Sultan Qansu el Ghury, Sharia el 

Ghuriyeh 189 D. 5 

909 1503 Mosque of Sultan El Ghury, El Manshieh . . . 148 G. 4 

909 1503 Tomb mosque of Sultan El Ghury, El Ghuriyeh. 67 D. 5 

909 1503 Wekaleh of Sultan El Ghury, Sharia et Tabliteh. 46 B. 5 

(1) Sultan in this case is a proper name and not a title. 

















91 5 1 


322 G. 

189 D. 

66 D. 



56 C. 
151 G. 
234 F. 



53 C. 
159 F. 



No. of plan 

909 1503 House of Sultan El Ghury, Atfet el Arbain, Es 

Salibeh " . . . . 

Small house of Sultan El Ghury, El Ghuriyieh . 
Maq'ad of Sultan El Ghury, Sharia et Tabliteh . 
Tomb of Abu Sebaa I'l, Southern Cemetery. 
Gatevvaysof Sultan Qansu el Ghury, Khan Khalily. 
Mosque of Qanibay el Mohammedy, Es Salibeh . 
Mosque of Qanbay er Rammah. En Nasrieh . . 
Mosque of the Emir el Kt-bir, Eastern Cemetery. 
Gateway of Badestar. (El Ghury), Khan el Khalily 
Minaret of Sultan E! Ghury, Arab el Yassar . . 


923 1518 Mcsque of Dashtuty, Bab esh Sharieh 12 A. 3 

929 1522 Zavviyehof Sheykh Hassaner Rumy,Sh.el Mahgar. 258 G. 5 

935 1528 Mosque of Soliman Pasha known as Sariyeh el 

Gabal, The Citadel I42 G. 6 

941 1534 Lin'an Rihan l2l, Southern Cemetery. 

945 1538 Mosque of Shahin Agha El Khaluaty at the foot of 

the Moqattam. 

950 1543 Tekkiet es Solimanieh, Es/Serugieh 225 F. 4 

X''>c xvi'iic Mausoleum EsSayedEshSharawy,Sh.eshSharawy 59 B. 5 
975 1567 Mosque el Mahmudieh l^^l. El Manshieh . . . . 135 G. 5 

975 1571 Mosque of Sinan Pasha, Bulaq. 

982-86 1574-78 Mosque of Messih Pasha (El Messihieh), Arab el 

Yassar 160 I. 5 

994 1585 Tomb of Sinan, Darb Qermez 41 B. 6 

1013 1504 Tomb of Yussef Agha el Habashy. Sikket el 

Merdany 229 E. 5 

1019 1610 Mosque of Malikeh Sartyeh, Ed Daudieh. . . . 200 E 4 
1028 1619 Sebil Kuttab of El QezlarUI, Es Seyufieh. , . . 265 G. 4 
1028 1619 Ceilings in the house of Aly Pasha Boiham, Darb 

es Saadeh . 336 C 4 

IO41 1631 House and Sebil El Grridliyeh, Bir el Watawit . 321 H. 3 

(1) Built i)y the Emir Yunes, a niameluke of El Ghury. 

(2) Built by the Emir Nuruz Kikhya es Sliawisheh. 

(3) Founded by Mahmud Pasha, a Turkish Governor, ferociously cruel, grasping 
and miserly, murdered by an unknown in 1567, much to the relief of the Cairenes. 

(4) Ac-cording to an inscription, tliis was "built by the blessed Mustafa Ayny, 
the distinguished contidant of Kings and Sultans." 


No. Ill' plan 

1047 1637 House of Gamaled Din edh Dhahaby.Haret Khosh 

qadam, el Ghuriyeli 72 D. 3 

1049 1639 Tomb and sebil of Ibrahim Agha el Giindran, 

Sharia et Tabbaneh 238 F. 3 

1059 1649 Sebil of Hussein Katkhoda. Sharia Om el Ghulam. 23 C. 6 

XIf''c XVll'^c House of Radwan Bey, El Khiamieh 208 E. 4 

1063 1333 Sebil of Omar Agha, Sharia Dar es Samaka . . 24O F. 3 
1078 1668 Tomb of Mustafa Agha Galeq, Southern Cemetery. 
1080 1670 Fagade of mosqueof Aksunqur el Fariqany, Darb 

es Saadeh 193 I). 4 

1083 1672 Sebil of Mustafa Sinan. Suq el Selah 246 F. 4 

1884 1673 Sebil Kuttab of Oda Bashy 'I', El Gamalieli. . . 17 B. b 

1084 1673 House of Oda Bashyn', El Gamalieh 19 B. b 

1086 1673 Sebil kuttab of Shahin Agha, Ed Daudieh . . . 328 E 4- 
1088 1677 . Sebil kuttab of Aly Agha Dar es Saadeh, Es 

Seyufieh 268 I. 4 

1088 1677 Sebil kuttab of Abdel Baqy Ibn Lagin, Darb 

es Saadeh 194 D. 4 

1088 1677 Sebil kuttab of Yussef Agha ^2l el Habashy, Darb 

el Ahmar 230 E. 3 

II06 1693 Sebil Waqf Belifieh, Suq el Ezzi, Suq es Silah. . 243 F. 5 

H09 1698 Mosque of Mohammed Katkhoda, Citadel . . . 143 G. 3 
1120 1708 House of Emir Musa Qurbagy, Mirza Mustah- 

fezan, Bulaq. 

1122 1710 Sebil kuttabof Aly Bey edDumiaty,DarbesSaadeh. 197 D. 4 

1123 1711 Mosque el Hag es Sukkary, El Mahgar .... 137 G. 3 
1 127 17 1 3 Sebil kuttab of Musaily Khurbagy, Meidan el 

Moussely 232 E. 4 

I129 1717 Sebil of Mohammed Mustafa, Ed Daudieh . . . 329 E. 4 
li3f 17^9 Sebil kuttab of Bashir Agha Darb es Saadeh, El 

Habbanieh 309 E. 3 

I135 1722 Sebil of Abu el Iqbal, El Balenieh 73 D. 6 

1 142 1729 Sebil Kuttab Beybarsl^l 16 B. 6 

II47 1734 Mosque of Osman Katkhoda, Sharia Abdine . . 264 C. 2 

I132 1739 Sebil of Sitta Saleheh, Darb esh Shamsy . . . 313 G. I 
1137 1744 Sebil kuttab of Abd er Rahman Katkhoda, Beyn 

el Qasreyn 21 B. 6 

(1) Under the Ottoman rule, the Oda Bashy was an official whose function it 
was to bring to the Pasha of Egypt the news of his dismissal. 

(2) A school for orphans. 

(3) Founded by the Emir Qartes. 


No. of plan 

II57' 1744 Fagade of mosque of Abd er Rahman Katkhoda, 

Sharia el Mugharbelin 214 E. 4 

II57 1744 Sebil and trough of Abd er Rahman Katkhoda, El 

Hattabeh 260 G. 6 

II57 1744 Tomb of Abd er Rahman Katkhoda, precincts of 

El Azhar 97 D. 6 

1159 1746 Sebil of Ibrahim Kholussy, Es Serugiyeli . . . 226 F. 4 

1164 1750 Tekkieh andsebilofSultan Mahmud,El Habbanieh 308 

1167 1753 Sebil of Ibrahim Bey III, Ed Daudieh 33 B. 6 

II73 1760 Sebil of Sultan Mustafa, Sayedeh Zeynab. . . . 314 G. 1 

II77 1764 Mosque of El Hayatem, El Hayatem 259 F. 2 

XIIt''c XVIIl"'ic House of Sitta Hafizt-h (Sami el Barudy) l^l, Bab el 

Khalq ....'..., 338 D. 3 

1 187 1773 Mosque of Mohammed Abu Dhahab, El Azhar . 98 D. 6 

1 187 1773 Wekaleh Abu Dhahab, Es Sanadqieh 351 D. 6 

1188 1774 Sebil of Mohammed Abu Dhahab, Sharia et Tab- 

bliteh 62 D. 6 

Xiiti>c XVlli'i^c Sebil of Sheykh el Mutahhar, El Khurdagieh . . 40 C. 5 

II93 1779 PalaceofMussaferKhan,QasrelShoq, ElGamalieh 20 C. 7 

1205 1790 Mosque of Ahmed el Bordeyny, Ed Daudieh . . 201 E. 4 
1207 1792 Mihrab of Mosque of Mahmud Moharrem, Rahabet 

Bab el Eid, Ei Gamalieh 30 C. 6 

I2I1 1796 House of Mohanimed el Qassaby 339 B. 6 

Xlin'^c xvill'i^c Fagade of mosque of Hassan Pasha Taher, Birket 

el Fil 210 G. 3 

1327 191 1 Mosque ei Rifaey f3l N. G. 4 

(.1) A learned and pious man, owner of a tine library; this sebil is erroneously 
called Ismail el Kebir. 

(2) Now used for Government offices. 

(3) This mosque, which English visitors often call the "Coronation" mosque, is 
built on the site of the tomb of an ancient Saint, Sheykh Aly er Rifaay, and Maqrizi 
describes a mosque which stood there in the Middle Ages. Princess Khushiar, mother 
of the Khedive Ismail, began the erection of a mosque on diis site, but the work was 
interrupted by her death. In 1906, tlie Khedive Abbas Hilmy ordered tlie completion 
of the monument, and it was achieved at very great expense, under the direction of 
Herz Pasha, at that time Architect in Chief of the Coniite de Conservation des Monuments 
Arabes. Non Moslem visitors are only admitted on presentation of a permit from 
Abdin Palace. 





Gama '. 
Hare em. 












A line of Khalifes descencied from the Prophet's uncle Abbas, 
and professing Sunni, i.e. traditional or orthodox doctrines. 

See page 43, 


See page 59. 

Raised gallery from which the prayer-leader would be visible 
to a large congregation. 

Loid, Prince, a title usually accompanied by military rank. 

A line of Khalifes, claiming to be descendants of Fatima, 
the Prophet's daughter, and Aly her husband. El Moezz, 
4th Fatimite Khalife, conquered Egypt in 969, and establ- 
ished the Shiite heresy w'hich prevailed until the time of 

Mosque intended for large congregations. 

A word meaning ivouieit and applied by extension to the 
women's quarters in a palace or house. 

The followers of Abu Hanifeh, founder of one ot the four 
orthodox or Sunni sects of Islam. 

The followers of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal, founder of one of the 
four orthodox or Sunni sects of Islam. 

A recognised Preacher, or a Coran reader; an imam may have 
another occu})at!on as well, such as teaching or commerce, 
etc.; several Khalifes have boine the title of Imam. 

A Turkish title, given to the principal Lieutenant or minister 
of the Governor or Pasha appointed by the Ottoman Sultans 
to rule over Egypt. Tlie same word is often spelt and 
pronunced Kikhya. 

Spiritual head of Islam,, clain)ing to be the Prophet's repres- 

A Turcoman word, meaning Noble Lady. 


A Turcoman word, meaning Highness, sometimes given to 
Princes, but more usually to Princesses. 

An early and wonderfully decorative form of writing. The 
modern form, called neskhy. came into use in the time of 

A stool or low table, also the special reading-stools used in 
mosques by Coran readers. 

A primary school. 

Each of the four divisions of a cruciform mosque, usually 
opening on to the sahn by a great arch. The liwan which 
contains the qibleh and niinbar represents the sanctuary. 
Also applied to the (divisions of a qa'a in a private house, 


Mabkhareh. Peculiar grooved cone on summit of mmaret. 

.\i/idriisseJi. School or college mosque. 

MiUnkitrs. The followers of Malik Ibii Anas, founder of one of the 

four orthodox or Sunni sects of Islam. 
Mameluke. See page 42. 

Mandareh. Main reception room of palace or house. 

Maq'aci. Arched verandah or balcony overlooking courtyard of palace 

or house. 
Mesged. Place of worship. 

Xfeihhed. Shrine. 

Mid, HI. An open square, originally a polo ground. 

Mih'db. Niche sunk in a wall built at right angles to a line drawn 

from Mecca, indicating the direction towards wliich a 

Moslem should turn when engaged in prayer. Also called 

Miihiret. Tower of mosque, from the balcony of wliich Moslems are 

called to prayer at stated hours. 
Minbar. Pulpit of mosque. 

Muristdii. Mediaeval name for hospital, now called a nmstashfeh, or 

Mushrabieh. Name given to a lattice work of turned wood, generally used 

as a blind or screen to a window. 
Miislahfez-dri. High Turkish Official. 
.Xeskliv. See Kujic. 

Q'i'a. Principal hall of a palace or house. 

Qaliid. Castle. 

Qardft'h. Cemetery. 

Oasr. Palace. 

Qibleh. See Mihrdb. 

Qubbeh. Dome, usually over a tomb. 

Sahu. Central court of mosque. 

Salsabil. An inclined marble panel destined tor flowing water. 

Saqqieh. See page 2J. , 

Sebil. Free fountain. 

Shafeites. The followers of the Imam Shafey, (died a.h. 204). founder 

of one of the four orthodox or Sunni sects of Islam. 
Sheykli. An old man, an Elder, a wise and learned man. 

Shiitc Doctritie. A heretical form of Mohammedanism practised by the Fatim- 

ites in the Middle ages and at the present day still prevailing 

in Persia. 
Tekkieh. Dwelling house. of a communitv ot Derwishes or Suty monks. 

Ulema. Plural of Aiim. learned man. Generally applied to scholars 

in Moslem divinity. 
Wiidy. Valley. River. The dry bed of an intermittent stream. 

WaqJ. See page 93, foot note. 

Wazir. Prime Minister. 

Wekdieh. Hostelry. 

Zir. .\ large water iar. 


Abbar, Zauwiyet el. . . . . lOO 

Abbas 109 

Abbas Hilmy. Khedive . . ll, 16, 108 
Abbaside Khali fes .... 26, 37, 99 

Abd el Baqy 107 

Abd el Basset 103 

Abd el Medjid 32 

Abd er Rahman Katkhoda . H. 14, 108 
Abu Bekr Mazhar el Ansary 17, 75, 105 

Abu el Ela 105 

Abu el Iqbal 107 

Abu Hanifeh 109 

Abu Hariba, see Qigmas el Ishaky. 

Abu Sebaa 106 

Afdal, El 5, 25 

Ahmed, Sultan 104 

Akhor, Emir 105 

Akmar, El 98 

Algay el Yussety. Emir 102 

Almalik el Gukendar 85, loo 

Almas, Eriiir ... lOl 

Almy, El, See Ganem. 

Altunbogha el Merdany lUl 

Aly Agha ^ . . . . 107 

Aly Bey the Great ...*.... 88 

Aly Bey Baiigat 79, 80, 83 

Aly Bey el Dumyaty 106 

Aly, Khalife 99 

Aly Pasha Borham 107 

Aly Effendi el Ghowany 96 

Aly, son of Qalaun 45, 99 

Amherst of Hackney, Lady. ... 83 

Amir, Khalife El 98 

Amr Ibn el Aas 2, 18, 98 

Anas, Mohammed 102 

Anuk 47 

Aniik, Om lOl 

Aqljardy, Emir 57 

Aqbogha, Emir . . . . 8, II, 12, lol 


Aqsunqur 84, lOI 

Aqsunqur el Fariqany. ...... 107 

Aqueduct of Fum el Khalig. . . i^, lol 
Aqueduct, Tulunide . . . 3,4,5, 98 
Arab Museum 18,55,75,77,78,79,80,83,85 

Arghim Shah lOI 

Aslam El Bahay lOl 

Assanbogha .' . . . I02 

Ayesheh el Bezadeh ...... 93 

Aydemir el Bahlawan lOI 

Ayny, el 84,85,95,103 

Aytmish el Nagashy 102 

A2iz, Ei. Khalife II, 17, 18 

Azhar, El . . . 8,9,10,11,16,18,21,41 

Bab ei Azab 32 

Bab el Futuh .... 17, 18, 23, 35, 98 
Bab el Mitweliy,seeBabezZuweyleh. 

Bab el Mudarrag 28 

Bab en Nasr .... 17, 23. 24, 35, 98 

Bab el Qaraieh 104 

Bab el Qulleh 29 

Bab ez Zu wey leh 23, 35, 63, 67, 69, 75, 84, 98 

Badestan, Gateway el 106 

Badr ed Din el Agamy 102 

Badr el Gamaly 5,17,21, 22, 24, 26, 31,35, 67 
Baliay, El, see Aslam. 

Banat, El 103 

Banat, Es Saba 98 

Baqly, El 100 

Baqry, El 102 

Bardak 56, 57 

Barquq .... 31,42,52,59,60,61,62 

63, 64, 66, 102, 103 

Barsbay. Sultan 85, 103 

Barudy. Samy el 108 

Bashir-Agha el Gandar 102 

Bashir Agha 107 

Beauharnais, Eugene de 35 




Belifieh . . . • 107 

Berchem M. van 19 

Beshtak, Emir. . . . 91,93,94,95,101 
Beybars el Bondoqdary 26, 27, 35, 36, 37 

Beybars el Gashenkir . 18, 19, 4I, 47, 100 

Beybars, Hall of 91, 93 

Beyt el Qady 39, 92, 102 

Bijou Palace 34 

Birgwan, Wazir 17, 75 

Blue Mosque, see Aqsunqur. 

Bohemond 37 

Bonaparte, see Napoleon. 

Bonaparte, Louis 35 

Bondoqdary, see Beybars. 

Bordeyny. Sheykh El 86, 108 

Bourgoin 85 

Burg ez Zafer 26, 99 

Casanova 29, 30 

Citadel . 4,5,26,27,31,33,34,84,86,94,99 
Comite de Conservation des Monu- 
ments Arabes . . . 16,44,70,74,75,85 

Commission for the preservation of 
Arab monuments, see Comite etc. 
Coronation Mosque, see Rifaey. 

Corbett, E. K 98 

Darazy 1 • • l8 

Dashtuty 106 

Dhafer, Edh 91 

Dhaher, Edh 35. 36, 40 

Dhaheriyeh. . . 99 

Drury Lowe, General 27 

Dupuy, General . 52 

Duroc 35 

Elfy, El 42 

Emir El Kebir 106 

Ezbek el Yussefy 86, 105 

Fadawiyeh, El 105 

Fadl Allah 100 

Fakahany 91 

Fakhr el Din Abd el Ghani .... 103 

Farag, Sultan 31, 59- 63. 103 

Fariqany, see Aqsunqur. 

Fatah ed Din t^-j 

Fatima 109 


Fatmeh, Lady 104 

Fatmeh, Khatun 99 

Firuz 103 

Fostat 5,11,77,79,80,81,82 

French Diplomatic Agency . ... 39 
Gamal ed Din edh Dhaheby 91,92,93, 107 
Gamal ed Din el Ostadar, Emir . . 103 
Ganem el Bahlawan, Emir .... 104 

Ganibek 103, 104 

Gaqmaq, Sultan Mohammed Abu Said 104 
Gashenkir, see Beybars. 
Geddeh, Emir, see Ganibek. 

Gengis Khan 37 

Ghannamieh, El 102 

Ghury, Sultan Qansu el Ghury. II, 13, 67 

68, 85, 100, 106 

Giridlieh, El 91,96.107 

Gohar, General .... 11,14,16, 95 

Gohar el Khanqabay II, 16 

Gohar el Laia 105 

Gohar el Madan> lOO 

Golden Gate 39 

Gulshany 84, 85 

Guyushy, El ..... . 25, 27, 28 

Hachette 83 

Hadaq Miskeh, Lady lOI 

Hafizeh 108 

Hakem, El . . . 17,18,19,20,41,61, 98 

Halumeh, Zawiyet el ■« 100 

Hall of Joseph 29 

Hanbal, Ahmed Ibn 109 

Hanifeh, see Abu Hanifeh. 
Hassan, Sultan . 7,11,48,49,50,51,53,54 

Hassan Bey 32 

Hassan cl Kachef 97 

Hassan el Rumy, Sheykh. .... 106 

Hassan Pasha Taher 108 

Hassan Sadaqeh lOO 

Hayatem, El 108 

Heniid, Mabkharet el 99 

Herz Pasha 19, 83, 102, 108 

Hulaku 37 

Hussein, Emir 100 

Hussein Katkhoda 107 

Hussein Savedna . 83 




Ibn Ghurab, see Saad ed Din. 

Ibn lyas 31,77 

Ibn Qalaun, see Nasser. 

Ibn es Seyufy, Moallem lOI 

Ibn Solinian er Rifaey, Sheykh . . lOO 

Ibn Tulun 1,3,4,5,11,18,26 


Ibrahim Agha 84, loi 

Ibrahim Aghael Gundran .... 107 

Ibrahim Bey 108 

Ibrahim el Ansary . . ' 102 

Ibrahim es Sennary 91, 97 

Ibrahim Kholussy 108 

Inal. Sultan 104 

Inal el Yussefy 102 

Ismail Pasha, Khedive 95, 108 

Jaffa, Citadel of 41 

Joanne 8^^ 

Joseph's Well 26, 27 

Josephine, Empress. ....... 35 

Junot 35 

Kafur ez Zimam 103 

Kamel, Sultan El. ....... 99 

Kameliyeh, College El 99 

Karak, Fortress of . . . . 37,42,46,47 

Karkar 103 

Kensington Museum, South . . 41,77,82 

Ketbogha 45,46 

Khalil, Sultan el Ashraf .... 45, 100 
Khaluaty, Shahin Agha el . . . 25, 106 

Khan Khalily 106 

Khan Yunis 59 

Khatiry El lOI 

Kheyrbek, Emir 69, 1 05 

Khoshqadam, Emir 69, 91 

Khushiar, Princess ' . 108 

Kiridlieh, see Giridlieh. 

Kurdy, El 100 

Kurdy, Mahmoud el 103 

Lagin, Sultan 5, 100 

Lagin es Seyfy 104 

Lane-Poole, Stanley 5,11,26,37,38,77,83 

Lavalette . 35 

Leith, Imam El 100 

Library, Sultanieh * . T7 

Liwan Rihan 106 


Louis, St 35 

Maghraby, El , . . , 98 

Mahmud Moharrem ...... 108 

Mahmud Pasha T06 

Mahmud, Sultan 108 

Mahniudieh, El ...,..., . 106 

Malik Ibn Anas no 

Mamay, Emir 93, 105 

Mangak, Emir loi 

Mankabek, Princess 45 

Maqrizi . . . 4,39,40,43,84,98,100,108 

Mara'ah, El 104 

Marcel 5,43 

Maurice, St 39 

Mazhar, see Abu Bekr. 

Mazharieh, El 105 

Mehmendar, El 100 

Meqias, see Nilometer. 
Merdany, see Altunbogha. 

Messih Pasha 106 

Methqal 102 

Michael, Church of St 45 

Migretel Imam, see Tulunide Aqueduct 
Miskeh, see Hadaq. 

Moezz, Khalife El 11,17,109 

Mogholbay Taz 105 

Moghlatay . . . 103 

Mohammed, the Prophet. . . . 10,109 
Mohammed Abu Dhahab. . . 84,86,87 

Mohammed Aly . . . . 26,27,29,31,32 

Mohammed el Qassaby .... 92, 108 
Mohammed en Nasser Ibn Qalaun, 
see Nasser^ 

Mohammed Katkhoda 34,107 

Mohammed Mustafa 107 

Monsy, El 103 

Moyyad, El 55,67,69,70,71 

Muheb ed Din el Muwakkel. ... 93 

Musa Qurbagy, Emir 107 

Musally Khurbagy 107 

Mussafer Khan 91,95,108 

Mustafa, Sultan 97, 108 

Mustafa Agha Galek 107 





Mustafa Ayny 106 

Mustafa Sitian 10/ 

Mustansir b-Illah, Khalife El . 21, 25, 67 
Napoleon ...... 20,27,35,52,97 

Napoleon III 35 

Negm ed Din, see Saleh. 

Nasr ed Din Shahed 43 

Nasser Ibn Qalaun, Sultan Moham- 
med en . 26,29,30,31,33,42,45,46,47 

Nilometer 25, 98 

Nukai 43 

Nuruz Kikhya, Emir 106 

Oda Basliy 107 

Omar, Khalife 98 

Omar Agha 107 

Osman Katkhoda 93, 99, 107 

Prost, Claude 90 

Qady Askar 98 

Qady, Beyt el, see Beyt. 

Qairwan, mosque of ..... . 8 

Qaitbay, Sultan 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 31, 59 

Qalaun, Sultan . . . 11,31,42,43.44.45 


Qanbay er Rammah 106 

Qanbay el Tcherkassy. . . . • . . 103 

Qanibay el Mohammady 106 

Qanibay, Emir 105 

Qansii el Ghury, Sultan, see Ghiiry. 

Qansu II, Sultan 105 

Qarafeh 60, 85 

Qarafeh, Bab el, see Bab. 

Qaraqoga el Hassany 103 

Qaraqush . 27, 28 

Qarasunqur 100 

Qartas, Emir 107 

Qasr el Shoq 95 

Qasr ez Zumurrud 43 

Qatai, El 5, II 

Qetlobogha lOI 

Qezlar, El 106 

Qigmas el Ishaky . 57, 75, 76. J:, 84, 105 
Qubbeh, Dome of Pont de . . . . 57 

Qubbet el Howeh 26 

Qusteh 31 


Qusiin, Emir 100, lOI 

Radwan Bey 107 

Radwan Katkhoda 32 

Ravaisse 81 

Richard Coeur de Lion 28 

Rifaey, er 48, 108 

Rodeh 25, 42, 43 

Rokn ed Din, see Beybar 

Roqayeh, Sayedeh 99 

Ruey, er \qi 

Saadat el Taalbeh 82, 99 

Saad ed Din Ibn Ghurab. . . . * . L02 

Satiyeh, Malikeh , ,io6 

Saghry Wardy, see;Taghry Bardy. 
Sals Mosque, see Algay el Yussefy. 
Saladin, Sultan .... 18,21,26,27,28 

29, 54. 66, LOI 

Saladin, H 83 

Salah ed Din, see Saladin. 

Saieli Negm ed Din Ayub, Sultan 35, 40 

41, 43, 99 
Saleh Telayeh 99 

Saleheh, Sitteh ....*... 107 

Salehiyah, College el 99 

Samarreh, Mosque of 3 

Sangar el Gamakdar 100 

Sangar el Gawaly .... . . 100 

Sanj^ar esh Shugay 43 

Saphadin, see Seyf ed Din. 

Sariyah, Sidi 31, 106 

Selahdar, Mangak el loi 

Seliui I, Sultan 53,69 

Seiim Pasha el Hegazy lol 

Sennary, see Ibrahim. 

Seyf ed Din el Adil 28 

Shaaban, Sultan 63, 64, 102 

Sh a fey. Imam 83,99,110 

Shagaret ed Durr, Queen .... 99 

Shahab ed Din Ahmed, see Mehmendar. 

Shahin Agha 107 

Shahin Bey 32 

Shamsa, Queen 83,99 

Sharawy, Es Sayed esh 106 

Sheykhu, Emir loi 

Silai, Emir Il,i8, lOO 

Sinan Pasha . . . . . . . . 86, 106 



Sladen, Douglas 83 

Soliman Pasha 26,31,86,106 

Solimanieh, Tekkiet es 106 

Sophia Hagia 86 

Striped Palace 29 

Sudim el Qasrawy I04 

Sudun Mir Zadeh . 103 

Sueydy, Es 105 

Sukkary, Ibrahim el Hag es. 7.4, 103, 107 

Sulkowsky • • •. • 35 

Sultan Shah 105 

Sultanieh, es . . 102 

Suyurghatnrtish, Emir . .. . 7,11,53,102 

Taghry Bardy. 103 

Taibars, Emir 8, II, 13, 100 

Taibarsiyeh, see Taibars. 

Tarabay I05 

Tashtimur . lol 

Tatar el Hegazieh, Princess ... lo2 

Taz, Emir lOl 

Telayeh, see Saleh. 

Tenkezieh, EJ 102 


Tent Hall 39 

Thevenot 5.2 

Timraz el Ahmady 104 

Timur Lenk 37 

Toghay, Princess loi 

Tulbay loi 

Tuiiianbay 68, 69 

Tumanbay, El Adel 105 

Wathek Ibu Mutassim 3 

Yunes, el Dawadar ....... 103 

Yunes, Emir . 106 

Yushbak, Emjr . . . 48, 56, 57, 58, 105 

Yussef Ahmed 98 

Yussef Agh^ el Habashy. . . . . 107 " 
Yussefy, Manga,k el. ...... 101 

Zalied Ez 103 

Zeynab Khatun ....... 91,95 

Zeynab Sayedeh 83, 97 

Zeyn ed Din, Qady Yehia . . 103, 104 
Zeyn ed Din Yussef. ..... 83, 100 

Zeyny Abu Taieb, Sheykh .... 104