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THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



CB 
G87g.l 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00031717134 



This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 



Form No. 471 




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p. ^. §■ 



/x, c>_c>-«'>^e-. . 



Rarobtes of a Southerner 



THREE Continents. 



" I must also see Rome."— /^rw/. 

"... An altar to the Lord in tlie midst of tlie land of Egypt, and 
a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. And it shall he for a sign and 
for a witness."— /s'rtzVjA iq. 

" In the way going up to Jerusalem,"— il/^r/l' lo. 



-E^, L. CtK-OOIXIH:. 



SECOInTID T'lTOTJS.-^a^lD- 



GREENSBORO : 

Thomas Brothers, Book and Job Printers. 
1891. 



COPYRIGHTED. 

P. L. GROOME. 




to 



To Col. Julian S. Carr, 

The Frrnid of Urdversal Man, the Beau Ideal PJuMhropist, 

and to 

Washington Duke, Esq., 

WW has done for my Alma Mater what was in my heart but beyond 

my ability to do, this volume is inscribed. 

By the Author. 



U/e J\)a\)\[ Tl?em fWl, 



In addition t6 his own observations, the author is indebted to 
many writers for valuable suggestions in preparing this volume; 
the following have been specially serviceable : The Standard 
Histories ; Geikie ; Farrar's Paul ; Conybeare and Howson's 
Life and Epistles of Paul ; Thompson's Land and the Book; 
Josephus ; Dr. Young ; Bishop Marvin's East Via West ; Col. Gor- 
man ; Dr. Buckley's Writings on Foreign Travel ; Dr. Olin ; Dr. 
Fisk ; Bayard Taylor's Views Afoot ; Lee Merriwether ; Mark 
Twain ; President Winston's Continental Letters ; Dr. De Haas ; 
Dr. Menzie's Turkey, Old andNeiv; Dr. Hamlin; Wood's Ephesus; 
Hamilton's Works on the Turks ; George Ebers' Works ; Ency- 
clopedia Britannica, and all the guide books in loco. When 
more than suggestion is used the text ie borrowed with due 
credit. 

For illustrations we gratefully acknowledge the kindly ser- 
vices of The (Epworth) Alliance Hemld, Pittsburgh Christian 
Advocate, Col. J. B. Gorman and Miss Lehman. 

To friendly critics and a generous press the first edition owed 
its rapid sale. 

May we not hope that enlargement in volume, revision of 
text, and illustration will secure for this the favorable recep- 
tion accorded to the first edition? 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTKR. PAGE. 

I. From North Carolina to New York 9 

II. Crossing THE Sea 16 

III. France 25 

IV. Paris to Italy 31 

V. Genoa— "Pearl OF THE Sea," 36 

VI. Pisa, Florence 41 

VII. Rome 52 

VIII. Naples—" Wanton Beauty," 59 

IX. Egypt 71 

X. Farther Up THE Nile 85 

XI. Down THE Nile TO Cairo 96 

XII. Odds and Ends 105 

XIII. On Suez Canal 113 

XIV. The Oldest Seaport 118 

XV. From JOPPA to Jerusalem 125 

XVI. Mt. Calvary 138 

XVII. In AND About Jerusalem 145 

XVIII. Around, Above, Beneath and in Jerusalem 

— Mt. Moriah— Gethsemane 156 

XIX. Traveling in Palestine 167 

XX. North of Jerusalem 175 

XXI. Mt. Tabor, Sea of Galilee, Nazareth 184 

XXII. Mt. Carmel and the Coasts of Tyre and 
SiDON 190 



VI. 
CHAPTER. PAGE. 

XXIII. Beirut 197 

XXIV. The Land, The People, The Man 205 

XXV. Among the Grecian Isles 215 

XXVI. Smyrna and Ephesus 221 

XXVII. From Asia TO Greece 237 

XXVIII. Amongst Savants 247 

XXIX. Through the Hellespont to the Sublime 
Porte 254 

XXX. In and About Stamboul 260 

XXXI. Constantinople and the Turks 267 

XXXII. Through Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, 
Hungary and Austria 277 

XXXIII. Vienna 283 

XXXIV. Through Germany Down the Rhine 292 

XXXV. Heidelberg, Worms, Down the Rhine 

TO Cologne 299 

XXXVI. Three Weeks in London 306 

XXXVII. Sights in London- 315 

XXXVIII. Scotland— Abbotsford, Edinburgh, 
Glasgow 327 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Frontispiece 

St. Peter's Cathedral 8 

Ship — La Gascogne 19 

Leaning Tower 45 

Loggia Dei Lanzi — Florence 51 

The Colosseum 54 

Naples, Bay, Vesuvius 58 

Pompeii as Dug Out 65 

Exhumed Bodies 63 

Hon. Elihu B. Taft 66 

Mill, Bakery, Wine Jar of Pompeii 79 

Taking a Drink of Water 73 

Sakieh for Raising Water 74 

Cairo from the Citadel 'j'] 

Section of the Great Pyramid 82 

Pylon, or Gate to Egyptian Temple 93 

Scene on the Nile 98 

Water Carrier 106 

Slave Boat on the Nile 112 

Joppa or Jaffa 119 

Women "Grinding at the Mill," 130 

Jews' Wailing Place 154 

Mount of Olives 1 64 

Jerusalem from the South Side of Olivet 171 

Sea of Galilee 204 

The Acropolis of Athens as it Was 243 

Constantinople 259 

City Road Chapel — Wesley's Church, Front View 316 

Interior of City Road Chapel 317 

Wesley's Tomb 319 

Interior of Westminster Abbey — Choir 322 

St. Paul's Cathedral, London 324 

Sir Walter Scott's Monument 330 



CHAPTER I. 



FROM NORIH CAROLINA TO NEW YORK. 



" I have always supposed that the gospel narratives would 
be more interesting and better understood, and that the instruc- 
tions of our divine Teacher w^ould fall with more power upon 
the heart in the places where they were first delivered, than 
where read or heard on the other side of the world ; and to a 
limited extent I find this to be true."— TAe Land and the Book. 

At five or six years of age I read '' Peep of Day," in 
which graphic descriptions of scenes in the Kfe of our 
Lord awakened a desire to travel over the Holy Land: 
subsequent reading and education only intensified 
this desire. And I have often prayed for the privilege 
and believed it would be afforded. A kind providence 
anticipated my most sanguine expectations, removing all 
barriers in the autumn of 1888. 

So by January, 1889, preparations for the journey done 
I went over to Trinity College to see Professors Armstrong 
and Price, who had spent some years abroad, for such 
kindly suggestions and advice as they might make, and 
much to my delight and profit. Dr. Crowell placed a 
very valuable book in my hands that served me in 
studying the conditions of things in Europe. 

At Archdale I had the good fortune to meet the Rev. 
Rufus King, who had been to Palestine, and who gave me 
several valuable hints. Bishop Granberry very kindly 
gave me a letter commending me to the confidence of 
such Christian communities as I might visit, with the as- 



10 

8ur;ince that I should have his prayers in my behalf, all 
of which were most cordially appreciated. Dr. Young 
wrote me a few days ago, to go first to Egypt and Pales- 
tine, as the " mercury would soon be too high for comfort 
there." I never did like mercury and purposed to follow 
his advice. 

Farewells said at home, with a valise as my only trav- 
eling companion, I turned my face toward the North. 

By way of Richmond you reach Washington at 11 a.m., 
leaving Greensboro at 8:40 p. m. Our engine killed a 
very fine cow just before reaching Washington — we stop- 
ped and all went back, excpt the ladies and children, to 
see her. 

In Washington I called first at the State Department 
for my passport, after which, it being Wednesday, and 
Mr. Cleveland's day for receiving visitors, I called at the 
White House with about one hundred others to be intro- 
duced to the President. It is an informal affair : the 
President stands in a doorway leading out of the E!ast 
room, and visitors come up to him, say " howdye do, ]Mr. 
President?" and pass out. It is simple and does a little 
good perhaps and no harm. It adds a proportion to 
American citizenship denied the subjects of most other 
countries. 

I admire the public buildings of Washington enough 
to write a whole letter about them, but many of my 
readers have already seen them, and others have written 
them up in better style than I may hope to do. In all 
the travel before me I do not expect to see any one 
building more magnificent than the Capitol of the 
United States, nor any city more beautiful than Wash- 
ington, with its fine buildings and parks. Being detain- 
ed in the White House, I had toVait till four for a train, 



11 

but the loss of time was more than compensated 
by the acquaintance of a Mr. Miller, of New York, son 
of a Presbyterian clergyman. He says in their church 
they have the Y. P. 0. E. S., i. e. the Young People's 
Christian Endeavor Society, and that it works admira- 
bly. It is the same thing about which I wrote an article 
in November. I formed one of the same at Mt. Tabor, 
on Granville circuit, with twenty-four members. It 
gives each something to do. We are all very fast learn- 
ing the fact that, to take stock in any thing or expend 
labor, prayer or thought to further a cause, identifies us 
with that enterprise as we cannot otherwise be. * 

I reached Jersey City at 11:35 P. M., Wednesday, and 
New Y'ork next morning at nine o'clock. I have now 
been here two days, stopping at the International 
Hotel, Park Row, opposite the post office first, but as 
our Steamer leaves to-morrow morning at six, I came 
down to the Palace Hotel, one square from the pier. 

My first care was to put a portion of my cash into the 
hands of Messrs. Brown Bros., whose letters of credit 
are honored all over the world where there is a Bank. 
But they required that I be identified ; and Dr. Deems 
was the only man who knew me in the city. I purposed 
calling on him for letters of introduction, advice, etc., 
and called at his house, but he was not at home. I 
could not find him. But sometimes when things can't 
be done one way they can another, so I succeeded by the 
other. 

The Cunard and Inman lines send vessels to-morrow 
to Liverj^ool, also the Red Star Line to Antwerp. But 



*It is gratifying to know that since writing tlie above, the General Con- 
ference of our Church has provided for the same thing, calling it the Ep- 
worth League, But I was the first to organize one in Southern Methodism. 



12 

I chose the Gascogne of the French Line to Havre. 
This is the largest and finest boat in the harbor, capacity 
seven thousand tons. I chose this also because I might 
pick up a little French on the way. 

I presume I need not dwell on this city much. Every- 
thing is done on a magnificent scale. Many of the 
buildings on Broadway are from six to ten stories high, 
with high pitched rooms. A. T. Stewart's old property 
occupies a whole square, and is built of stone as are hun- 
dreds of others. The Brooklyn Bridge is the largest 
suspension bridge in the world. The main span is 1.593 
feet 6 inches long, the entire length is 5,989 feet. It is 
eighty feet wide, and ninety feet high, and would hold 
altogether fifty thousand people. They have several 
lines of elevated steam railways, capable of carrying 200 
passengers each at a trip; they go about every sixty or 
seventy seconds during the morning, and the cars 
are full in the morning and late in the afternoon. 
They stop every few blocks to let passengers on and 
off". 

CoojDer Institute is a magnificent brown stone build- 
ing, opposite the Bible House, Eighth vStreet and 
Bowery. Here is a free reading-room, one hundred feet 
wide and two hundred long — I am guessing — with a 
dozen copies each of scores of papers, and thousands of 
volumes of books ; tables with chairs, and desks for 
standing are plentifully provided for the thousands who- 
come here yearly to read and obtain the knowledge they 
are too poor to buy elsewhere. About one hundred and 
fifty were in when I called. Free lectures are given 
also. Paintings and statuar}^ are on free exhibition. I 
felt a thrill of admiration for the beneficent founder 
when I departed. I saw the statue of the Father of 



18 

"his country, in Wall Street at the treasury building, 
where he took the oath of office as the first President of 
the United Stutes. I visited the Stock Exchange, where 
men are made pau|)ers and millionaires by telegraph. 
And although I have attended many scores of revivals 
of religion, I have never witnessed such antics as I saw 
cut there. Men yell and scream much, I imagine, as 
Indians celebr;ite a victory won, or Cannibals the dance 
of death ; but others have written up New York. 

I noticed a very few colored people in New York, not 
over a dozen or twenty perhaps. Too cold or too some- 
thing for Sambo up liere. 

Another thing: I have seen less smoking on Broad- 
way than one would in a town of a thousand inhabi- 
tants, jierliaps, in North Carolina. I have seen less than 
a dozen boys with cigarettes — this I thought remarkable 
and very creditable. The habit may be smoking at 
home, I don't know, only 1 have not seen it to any ex- 
tent, hardly, in public. 

I must relate what will seem to be a narrow escape. 
It may be serviceable to some young reader ex- 
pecting to visit the Metropolis. The morning I ar- 
rived a familiar looking chap accosted me w^th, "Hello, 
Oroome, yon herel" "Yes," I replied. He endeavored to 
draw me into conversation, but being in a hurry I es- 
caped him, but to be encountered a few moments later 
by a more successful accomplice. The first had learned 
of my home, name, etc., and reported to the second man 
-who said : "I am from Greensboro, and felt as if I must 

speak to you ; my name is ," giving the name of 

one of the^first families in North Carolina, "and we are 
_going to put up a cotton factory in Greensboro; lam 
here to buy the machinery for it. Let me give you my 



14 

card and show you our fancy label." He being so well 
related, and from Greensboro, and putting up a factory, 
I supposed it was the knitting factory that was going up 
about that time, I hated to appear so disinterested as to 
refuse his card and pictures. "They are just here," he 
said, leading me across Broadway and on a square, chat- 
ting very pleasantly. I began to feel, this man is pre- 
suming very much to thus waste my time, and the 
thought occurred to me, he is a "sharper," but I followed 
him two squares, and he stopped at a very nice looking 
second class office: "Walk in, Mr. Groome." I paused 
at the door, he passed in and said to a gentleman writing 
at a table and in front of a screen : "Is the printing 
done ?" "Xo," replied the scribe, "sit down and I'll send 
over for it." "Come in, Mr. Groome, it will be done in 
a moment, and we will go." "No, thanks, I'll stand 
here," I said. He then came out and insisted • that I 
come in, wished to know if I were in a hurry, etc., etc. 
I looked across the street, and a gentleman shook his 
head violently and gesticulated his warnings. I had 
already started away. After listening to the proposition 
of another confidence man to visit a clothing store, I 
looked straight at him and said : One of your men tried 
that game on me yesterday ! "I don't understand you — 
what do you mean, Mr. Groome ?" Oh, nothing, I replied, 
except it seems when a man comes to the city looking 
rustic, he finds himself surrounded by a set of new 
friends, who — "Good day, Mr. Groome," he said excited- 
ly, and was gone. 

These fellows go in j)airs ; one learns the name and 
place of residence, reports to the other and thus catch 
up unwary visitors. They are called "Confidence men.'^ 



15 

Once inside'^of their dens, the door closed, and you may 
be robbed'^if^not murdered.* 

At six o'clock.Saturday morning we went aboard. 

"The sails are spread, and fair the light wind blows, 
As glad to waft him from his native home." 

•Since reaching home, two North Carolinians have told me of being 
swindled in the dens of "Confidence men" in New York. 



CHAPTER II. 

CROSSING THE SEA. 

Before the gangAvay was pulled ashore and the ship cut 
from her mooring I penned a few lines, in the early 
morning light, to loved ones at home, and felt a sensation 
of fear and peril, new to me and strange, possibly com- 
mon to those about to cross the ocean for the first time. 
What hes before me on this waste of water? And if I 
return not what of the little group that I left weeping 
a while ago ? What right had I to le:ive any way ? Had 
not one Jonas tried the same with disastrous results? 
And was he not an example to men of like habits? Are 
there any other preachers aboard who, like myself, are 
going forth to widen and deepen their knowledge of men 
and things that they may bring to the church's service 
better equipment of both body and mind, who may be a 
sort of guarantee to me, that God's good providence will 
guide us safely over? No, not one can be found on the 
roll, save a Hebrew Ilabbi. 

About six o'clock, c-n Saturdiv morning, a small steam 
ferry boat that had b -en fastened to ours, began to move 
her out towards the channel of the river and turn her 
prow towards the ocean. So small was the motion that 
only by sighting distant objects in a line with the oppo- 
site end of ths vessel could one see her move, but when 
she at last got into position, and turned her mighty en- 
gines loose, her screw churned the sea behind into a 



foaming whirlpool. We dropped our pilot about the 
same tiuie as one of the Cunarders. Our engineers de- 
termined to run out of sight before night, and did but 
damaged an eugine, causing se\^eral hours delay; during 
the night the tortoise passed the hare, but we afterwards 
passed them to see them no more. 

This is the sixth day we liave been out, the first was 
bright, only one passenger sick, but the second was windy 
and the usual tributes were paid to Neptune. Sunday 
night blew a gale. Monday was stormy all day, nearly 
everybody was sick. We had a musical crew, but no 
singing. 

Lying in our state room the water rising above the 
ports looked green at first, but when a great wave struck 
her we would be in the dark. When at last I essayed to 
go above, the sublimest scene I ever witnessed met my 
view. The legions of the storm swept the crest from the 
waves until a fancy net^Avork seemed to be spread out 
over the sea. Our ship rolled heavily from one side to 
the other and all movable commodities changed sides 
accordingly. The storm beat from the starboard quarter, 
the waves sometimes running overthe rail ''leaped on the 
■deck like charging giants." Siie proudly lifted her head, 
careened to the larboard, shook them oh" and rushed 
through the tempest, but to be again attacked by the fu- 
rious storm king and but to conquer him. When her 
screw was lifted by her plunging a jarring tremor ran 
through the ship, but like a thing of life with a goal m 
view she went groaning, creaking, yet careering on. 
One can recall but not relate how the wind shrieked 
through her masts, spars and cordage. It may be weak- 
ness, but to see^the sea rising above your ship like moun- 
tainsand sweeping down as if anxious to engulf her, to 



18 

see her rise momentarily as if by magic to escape certain 
death, far above, to be plunged again into the deep, the 
sea ever and anon breaking over, sweeping all mov- 
able things from the deck alarms one for the time. 
You know that death would not have to go far from his 
course to take you. I was a little more fervent, if no 
more sincere in my devotions. I renewed my pledges 
of service, to greater length than at the usual hour of 
prayer. Thursday morning the storm was gone and we 
have since had tine weatiier. 

Our ship, La Gascogne, is a gallant barque, four masts, 
and iron irom mast to keel. Her entire length is 546 
feet by 36 feet wide, capable of carrying 1,500 passengers 
though there are less than three hundred on board. She 
was built in 1886. She is a fast boat, has crossed from 
New York to Havre in seven days. We expect to be 
out eight days this.time. Her draught is 26 feet. When 
at full speed, on a smooth sea she generates a wave on 
either side about six feet high, the two aggregating in 
bulk about what she displaces. These waves stand at an 
angle of about 40 degrees, and between them and the 
ship is jDerfectly smooth. She is driven by three massive 
engines, aggregating eight thousand (8,000) horse power; 
she burns one hundred and sixty tons of coal per day, 
in thirtv-six furnaces. 



20 

Fare on La Gascogne is high because the distance is 
greater than to Glasgow or Liverpool, her ship's crew is 
larger, and the line, ^'•Coniirig aie Geaeralc Tranmtlan- 
tique,^^ to which she belongs, has a monopoly of the 
travel from Xew York to Havre. She carried on this 
trip three hundred pouches of United States mail. 

The seabirds attended us all the way across. Some- 
times they light on the wa.ter for a short while and rise 
to pursue us again. What power of endurance must be 
locked u}) in tlie tiny muscles ol their tireless wings. I 
have 

'•'Marked the seabird wildly wbeeHng through the skies," 

and considered that, 

''God attends him, God defends him when he cries," 

and felt secure. 

You never get tired looking at the sea, it is so sugges- 
tive, as well as so wonderful. The universal receptacle 
of the washings of all continents, with their city sewer- 
ages, and yet one of the great health giving powers of 
the world ; all the rivers run into it, yet it is not full. 
Its floor may be covered with the corpses of those who 
have essayed to traverse its plains, yet it seems at times 
harmless and inoffensive. You may become familiar 
with a thousand of its secrets, yet ten thousand are 
concealed, "emblem of the infinite God, vast, unsearch- 
able, unknowable." Verilv, thev that go down to the 

.... - ' -^ » 

sea in ships, in time of storm, "See his wonders in the 

mighty deep," 

"When the Almighty's wrath is glassed in storms," 
the highway of all nations, it in turn requires tribute of 



21 

them all, type of the Maker's power, type of his love, as- 
it enibnices every land, small and great, disbursing its 
beneficence to all, inspirer of ambition, eloquence and 
song, paralyzing with fear and dread, when Neptune 
drives abroad to wreak vengeance on his foes, or sooth- 
ing to happy dreams, when 

"Rocked in the cradle of the deej)," 

or one lounges in the shade, some quiet summer eveniug,- 
near the beach, 

"Down by the deep green sea." 

What stories could it relate of piratical deeds, of lost 
and starving crews, of bloody encounter, prosecuted by 
ambitious thirst for power, covetous thirst for gold and 
unholy revenge, and not a few of sighing lovers. 

" Roll on thou deep and dark and wondrous ocean, roll." 

I have formed some pleasant acquaintances ; an art 
student who has studied in Naples, Rome and Germany, 
and spent a year in New York, is on his Avay to the Ju- 
lieu School in Paris ; two Greeks returning to Sparta, a 
wealthy Italian, who promises to serve me in Turin, and 
a Jewish Eabbi from Jerusalem. All these have spent 
some time in America and acquainted me with many 
facts relative to the objects of my tour. I have also had 
the good fortune to be invited, while in Genoa, to the 
house of an Italian importing merchant, who lives in the 
same street Columbus did. There are many garrulous 
Frenchmen aboard, but as yet I have not become ac- 
quainted with any of them. 

Yesterday and to-day we saw in the North two beau ti- 



22 

f nl rainbows, their reflection on the surface of the water 
reached almost to the ship. Our artist went into rap- 
tures over them. He is sketching almost ever^^thing, 
has got me down in black and white. 

And I will tell our young readers how illustrative 
sketches are made : first, outlines are made with an or- 
dinary graphite pencil, these are filled with a pen and 
ink, this is photographed on a plate of gelatine, making 
a fac simile of the illustration, this plate is after this 
submitted to acid treatment, when all is eaten otf except 
the photographed impression, which now projects above 
the other surface; from this is made the stereotype plate, 
from which any number of pictures may be taken. 

About 1 o'clock P. M., Sunday, the 8th day from Xew 
York, La Goscogne dropped anchor a mile from the wharf 
at Havre. But we did not go ashore till 4 P. M., when 
we were told that the train then in waiting was the only 
one that would carry us on our tickets to Paris. The al- 
ternative was presented of losing the fare or traveling on 
Sunday ; we reluctantly and perhaps unfortunately chose 
the latter. 



CHAPTER III. 



FRANCE. 



No one expects to go to Europe without visiting Paris. 
She has learned to project herself into the thought of 
every civilized people. As Apollo was consulted at 
Delphi, the goddess of Fashion sits on the tripod and 
dictates here. God Mars likewise has long held his court 
here, in the cite in the Seine, and here only is learned the 
par excellent code de Gidsine, (way to cook). 

The transformations of her civil and social life exhib- 
it all the variety of the kaleidoscope, now grave, now gay, 
humorous, stocial, ancient, modern, full" of churches yet 
irreligious, surpassing all others in contributing to life's 
reliefs and indulgences, yet the most reckless in sacri- 
ficing life, to-day it is vive la vol, to-morrow it is the 
guillotine. Strange, beautiful, mysterious metropolis, 
we will enter thy gates, Avalk thy streets and boulevards, 
visit thy cathedrals, cimetieres and gardens, thy palaces, 
towers and temples and briefly study thy pleasure-loving 
people. It was 9 o'clock P. M., when we reached Paris. 
It was Sunday and election day. Gen. Boulanger had 
just defeated Jacques, Eadical. The citizens thronged 
every square of the magnificently illuminated capitol, 
and wild shouts rent the air at every item favorable first 
to one contestant and then the other. Fatigued, we 
sought our couch, but the enthusiasm without was un- 
abated for hours. On going abroad next day we found 
that Paris was painted red, yellow and green with large 



24 

posters representing- the various claims of the rival can- 
didates to represent the district of Seine in the House of 
the Deputies ; at least one hundred thousand circulars 
varying in size from four feet square and under were 
posted in the city, and from what little French I am able 
to read, I think the same methods are resorted to here to 
defeat one's opponents as at home. The friends of one 
candidate would cover the posters of his opponent with 
their own ; these would be covered again until they 
would be forty deep, one for Jacques, one for Boulanger 
throughout. They were pasted on everything that would 
hold them by the thoroughfares, but all were cleaned off 
nicely on Monday. I made effort to visit the Senate and 
House of Deputies also, but failed, as considerable red 
tape is required, which I discarded, rather than lose the 
time. 

I visited the Place de la Bastile, which is occupied by 
a monument commemorating the bravery of "French 
Soldiers in 1827, 1828 and 1829." 

The base and pedestal are marble, the column proper 
is bronze, on top is a bronze figure representing the Ge- 
nius of Liberty holding in one hand a torch, in the other 
a broken chain, the ascent is by a spiral stairway of two 
hundred and twelve steps, and from the top one has a 
fine view of the city. There is an interesting history 
connected with this column. It is on the site of the 
prison by the same name, w^hich was built over five hun- 
dred years ago by Kings Charles \. and VL, not used at 
first for a prison, but afterwards was used to confine per- 
sons of rank. It was destroyed at the beginning of the 
French revolution, July, 1789. The present column was 
well nigh destroyed by the commune in 1871. 

Hotel de Ville is one of the finest buildings in the city. 



25 

It contains the town hall and offices of the municipal 
authorities, but is not yet completed on the interior ; the 
facade is very imposing ; in niches of the second, third 
and fourth stories are statues of the Celebrities of Pa- 
risan history. Here also was a rallying point for the 
revolutionists in 1789 ; to this place Louis XVI. came 
from Versailles in procession, testifying his submission 
to the will of the National i^ssembly. Here the two Hu- 
guenot Chiefs died by order of Catherine de Medici, 
after the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Here Foulon, 
treasurer, and his son-in-law were hung to lamp-posts 
during the Eevolution, and here perished many another 
victim. 

The Palais Royal is near by, built by Cardinal Riche- 
lieu, in the early part of the seventeenth century. It 
also is connected with many a tale of royal dissipation, 
faithlessness and misery. It has been owned in turn by 
French and German kings and people. It was also well 
nigh burned down by the commune in 1871, but has 
been since rebuilt. Here one sees the finest display of 
jewelry in Paris; in one window are hundreds of 
bracelets, selling at fancy prices; watches, chains, 
charms, ear-rings, pins, etc., etc., with diamonds worth 
thousands of dollars. They are arranged in rows, in 
rings, in stars, in pyramids and all manner of fantastic 
forms, all pleasing to the eye. Occasionally one sees the 
sign, "English Spoken," but I find it often not so ; if 
"one speaks English" you are the one, yet any of them 
can make a trade ; in fact every article has marked on it 
the price in francs. There are more restaurants here 
than any other kind of shops, and living is cheap or 
dear, according to what you wish. One can dine any- 
where for five cents or five dollars, as one pleases. One 
3 



26 

notable thing about bread is that it is all baked alike, in 
long, light rolls, one to five feet long. I have seen scores 
of persons carrying bread in their arms, exactly as a boy 
carries a turn of wood. Occasionally t is carried in 
baskets, mostly in hand, arm or apron. Lee Merriwe- 
ther remarked that they sell bread here "by the yard ;" 
another author says by the "ell (as in Cambridgeshire 
they sell butter by the yard)." 

Paris contains a reading people, judging both from the 
number of book-stores and news-stands, and the number 
of papers published daily at one cent each. As far as I 
could judge, I think much wine is drunk, but very little 
whiskey or cognac. 

I visited the churches of JSTotre Dame, St. Sulpice 
and the Holy Sepulchre. St. Sulpice, a very large 
structure, four hundred and sixty-two by one hundred 
and eighty-three feet, by one hundred and eight feet 
high, supported interiorly by thirty-two stupendous 
columns rising to the height of seventy or eighty feet, 
they support an arched ceiling of marble or stone. 
This church contains eighteen chapels, beside a nave 
where the faithful were worshiping during my visit; 
this is the second oldest church in Paris, I^otre Dame 
being the oldest. 

This church is on the site of a church of the fourth 
century; it was consecrated in 1182, but the nave was 
not completed until the thirteenth century. The finest 
part of the Cathedral is the facade facing the West ; the 
three portals are adorned with the finest gothic work- 
manship. There is one window in this church said to 
he fifty-four feet high. Notre Dame is five hundred 
and seventeen feet long, one hundred and fifty-six feet 
wide, and the vaulting in the nave is one hundred and 



\ 



27 

ten feet high. It has passed through the revolution and 
witnessed much bloodshed; within its portals reason 
has been deified and the true light seemingly extinguish- 
ed. To the credit of Napoleon it was opened, by his 
order, for Divine worship again. 

I spent a day in the Louvre, situated in a place once 
infested by wolves, when this Avas a forest ; hence its 
name. It covers several acres of land ; it contains the 
largest collections of paintings in the world, besides a 
large collection of relics from Babylon, Ninevah and 
Egypt; immense Sarcophagi, Statuary Mummies, 
etc. Here is a dinner table in mosaic, displaying 
ducks and fatted fowl in gorgeous colors, yet the pieces 
of stone of which they are made are often no larger 
than a pin-head, many thousands of pieces are required 
for one bird, yet the picture is complete in every detail, 
and the surface of the table is as smooth as a pane of 
glass. The cost must have been many thousands of dol- 
lars. Among the Statuary I believe the Venus de Milo 
is thought to be the best, though now time-worn and 
abused by handling. 

I spent much time in the Salle of the Italian School ; 
a novice can discern the superiority of these in outline 
and faultless blending of colors. One becomes intoxi- 
cated with admiration, and dazed before the splendid 
panoramas. 

Passing still down the beautiful quay you enter the 
Jardin des Tuilleries, once reserved for Royalty alone, 
it is now a public esplanade, enjoyed by happy lovers, 
gay soldiers, nurses and hundreds of romping children 
rolling hoops, spinning tops, etc. Next is the Place die 
Carousal, where Louis XIV. gave an equestrian ball, 
1662, and where fetes have been held ever since. The 



28 

Arc de Triomph now stands there, and is small in com- 
parison with its surroundings. Next is the Court of the 
Tuilleries which, with the Jardin, and Ebjsees Champs 
transcends the most lofty ideas I had conceived of their 
beauty, on farther at Place de Concorde, where thousands 
of gay and idle denizens assemble every afternoon, is 
the Obelisk brought from Egypt, with its silent elo- 
quence. I turned aside to see the Panorama — siege of 
Paris in 1870-1, but was disappointed ; it was inferior 
as a work of art to the Battle of Bull Run, as seen in 
Washington by the same artist, Poilpot. Up the same 
Boulevard, one and one-half miles farther, though it 
does not seem half a mile, is Arc d' Etoile, begun by 
Napoleon I., after his Austrian campaign, and finished 
twenty or thirty years later ; he is the only cognizable 
figure on the facade. He is being crowned as a con- 
queror. 

I visited the Hospital des Invalides and saw many of 
the wounded soldiers of their last war. Near by is the 
Tomb of Napoleon I. which I did not enter, it being 
closed, but which I presume is the most colossal tomb 
that has been built in a thousand years. The dome and 
cross on top are bronze ; around the silent chieftain hang 
the tattered colors riven on many a gory field. A spell 
hangs over the place and falls on the intruder into such 
a presence. 

I visited the cemetery Pere La Chaise, and saw the tomb 
of Abelard and Heloise, whose pathetic history has been 
read around the world. Their effigies lie in state upon 
two sarcophagi under a small canopy, and if in life di- 
vided, they are in death united. Here he many others 
once famous in letters, eloquence and diplomacy. 

The Palace of the Luxomburg, built by Mary de 



29 

Medici is a magnificent structure combining Tuscan, 
Doric and Ionic orders of architecture. It has been oc- 
cupied by kings, consuls and socialists. It is now a 
museum of art. 

I was greatly interested in Jardin des Plantes, founded 
by Louis XIII., where I spent a morning. Time would 
fail to tell of the reptiles, fossils, birds, beasts, savage 
and tame, carniverous, herbivorous and omnivorous. 
Here were bears, lions, tigers, cats, hyenas, wolves, etc., 
etc., from Africa, Asia and America; storks and cranes 
tall as a man, pelicans, with sacks large enough to hold 
a gallon under tljeir bills, ostriches, hawks, and the giant 
condor from South America ; one white bird had a green 
tuft on the back of its head from my stand point, like a 
bunch of grass. Here are seals, antelopes, bison, rein- 
deer, kangaroo, deer, zebras, etc., ad irtfinitu n. 

The Jardin des Vivants Plat tes was closed, but one 
could see the vast collections through the glass sides, 
and by it a cedar of Lebanon about three feet in diameter. 

I went to the markets and priced a good many things 
to ascertain the comparative cost of a table support with 
what it is in North Carolina. The difference is small. 
The meats are of a fine quality. They have jack rabbits 
three times as large as any in North Carolina, and they 
are plentiful. 

One is pleased with the fine Norman draught horses 
used. One horse carries over a ton of coal, often two 
tons on a cart, about the streets ; two horses haul ten to 
twelve tierces of molasses often. On one omnibus forty 
to fifty persons will go, drawn by two horses till a grade 
is reached, when a third is hitched in. 

I visited one branch of the McAll Mission and con- 
versed with a missionary about another, Le Bruiin. 



30 

They are prosecuting a vigorous work, have services 
every day at the dispensary; free lectures are delivered 
every day to the invalid poor, who receive free treat- 
ment. Many young women are educated and afterwards 
given employment, and homes are found for the destitute. 
They claim that the school was asked of God in prayer 
and given by Him in answer thereto — and in the ante- 
room many verses of scripture are quoted on the walls 
as proof of the legitimacy of their position, and which 
all Christians with much experience can believe. They 
are prosecuting a vigorous work and will be perceptibly 
felt in that gangrenous capitol. 

The weather was fair and considering the brevity of 
my stay, I had a fine opportunity of studying French 
outdoor city life. 

They are a gay and contented looking people, and 
notwithstanding the words, ^^Libertie, Egalitie, Fraterni- 
tie,^^ are engraved or painted over the portals of every 
public building the iron paling, fifteen feet high around 
them, and the jail-like defences in front of private win- 
dows tell that up to this time a commune was not only 
a possibility, but a probability at any time. 

The poor had a way of exposing themselves in order 
to be hurt by passing vehicles, as they were supported 
during convalescence. The custom became so general 
as to require an ordinance fining anyone who was hurt 
by such means. Of course few were found willing to 
pay a fine for the luxury of being run over by a cab. 

Hotel Haute Loire, 203 Boulevard Raspail and B. 
Yard, Mt. Parnasse is a good one, and convenient to the 
.Exposition grounds and places of most interest, and 
English is really spoken. 



CHAPTER IV. 



PARIS TO ITALY. 



Having spent several days in Paris, visiting the various 
places and objects th:it claim a stranger's notice, as the 
Louvre, depository of the most famous works of Art 
from the most ancient to modern times, Jardin des Plants, 
where perhaps the largest collection of plants in the 
world are to be seen, a very large exhibit of animals, 
birds, reptiles, fossils, &c., &c., Jardin du Luxomhourg, 
Tuilleries, Champs Elysees, Boulevards, Arches, Towers, 
&c., &c., the most comprehensive exhibit of goods for the 
shambles extant, I left this city so famed for displays, for 
men of science, learning and war, for its lov.e of the beau- 
tiful and blood for Italy. We soon ran into the green 
gardens that feed the vast population on vegetables. We 
see thousands of plants under glass vessels about gallon 
measures, to protect them from cold, and going up the 
Seine, we soon run into the wildest scenery, seemingly, 
"where mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been," but find 
it is only a park which has doubtless been preserved by 
the decendants of some feudal lord, it is here the large 
hares of which we saw so many are grown. Up the 
Seine we fly, now over a bridge now under one, all of 
which are built of stone, beautiful villas adorn the brows 
of the hills, and grassy meadows lie between, green to 
the very water's edge, even in mid winter. We are now 
at the head of navigation ; here is a dam thrown across, 
ah, no, there is a lock, and boats can pass; here is 



32 

another park and balsams and other evergreens are 
thick ; we emerge from the forest and here is another 
yilla, where once a Feudal Baron lived in State upon 
the hard earnings of his serfs. Not all the griefs of the 
feudal system are gone from republican France yet, as 
the little patches of «jround, the thached roofs that cluster 
about some pretentious mansion, as well as other facts 
of modern history testify. We see the washer women 
down by the river br.nk with their goods. This is tlie 
custom both in France and elsewhere in Europe. I met 
with the same trouble in leaving Macon that Lee Meri- 
wether had in getting there, I could find no one speaking 
English, nor any one who could understand my French, 
ou est le convoi i^oar Modane T^ said I to a number of men ; 
they would all tell me something, but I could not under- 
stand, finally I got on the right one. The real trouble 
was this ; I found the right train but the wrong side, 
they would show me the one and motion round, I would 
go round and try to take another and say, ici 'puiir 
Modane ? One can enter the cars from only one side at 
an}^ one station. Sleeping a few hours I awoke to look 
out upon snow-capped rijountains. Soon we enter a 
valley and the mountains begin to look higher and 
higher, on we sweep through a dozen tunnels up a beau- 
tiful, sinuous stream. We reach Lac de Bourget, a beauti- 
ful sheet of water, cle ir as crystal with a greenthit at the 
bottom that renders it with mountains bej^ond and strip 
of fog and solitary fa m house and fiying duck all reflect- 
ed on its quiet face a picture fit for any artist's pencil. 

The public road up this valley surpasses anything of 
its kind I have ever seen, graded as carefully as the 
railroad with stones set to mark every mile, and round 
*Wliere is the train for Modane ? 



33 

stones every few feet to guard the trees planted every 
twenty or thirty feet for shade in summer. I heartily 
wish every road maker in America couid see it. The 
bridges are all of stone or iron. 

By the fails in the river beside the railroad, I know 
we are risinii fast, as well as by the snow, which is now 
deepening on the gromid. Thousands of feet above 
the threatening craggs look down. High up as material 
could be carried the mountaineer has fastened his cottage, 
the eaves seeming to be buried in the mountain on the 
upper side ; why they should have been put there, all 
beyond being inaccessible, approach to them almost im- 
possible — except to ihe birds or the chamois — is as great 
a mystery as to tell how their children can be reared 
without falling out of doors and rolling over the precipi- 
ces to the valley below. Soon we will reach Mt. Cenis 
tunnel, no, we stop at Modane till midnight. 

Modane, at the State boundary, is a pretty httle 
Italian town. I learn here the way they have of making 
a passenger pay for his ticket and enough besides to pay 
the government tax on the railroads ; five centimes above 
the price stamped on the billet is the universal custom. 
On the mountains around Modane many cannon frown 
upon all the avenues of travel, defying any other Xapo- 
leon to pass these mountains to surprise and capture a 
lethargic land. 

Custom-house officers, which are found at nearly every 
town of any size, expect po^r bois, or drink money, for 
the pains of searching through your baggage. I begin 
to practice on these border Italians, with the purpose of 
paying just as little cash for having my valise emptied 
as possible, so I appear not to understand what they 
mean. I say "English," "no understand." "iVo?i parlo 



ritaliano!" To all their pantomimes, which really mean,, 
pay me a lira, I look like a dummy and pass on. 

It is after midnight on the first day of February when 
the cars leave Modane gave (station) heading towards 
Turin. The ground is covered with snow, and our com- 
partment is warmed up by two large zinc tanks half 
filled with hot water. One can rest his feet on these and 
keep warm ; they are changed about every two hours for 
hotter ones. In case of an accident there would be no 
danger of fire except from the lamps, but they are alto- 
gether insufficient for warming travelers as our American 
cars do. 

There is a long step outside reaching the whole length 
of the coach ; along this the officer running the train 
sometimes walks to see if all is well, and in some Euro- 
pean States to collect or punch the ticket. 

There is a large number of officials at every station ; 
only one or two employees on each train. The porters 
and ticket collectors are at the stations. It is difficult 
to leave the train without their aid. The advantage of 
having them at the station is that fewer men can do the 
work. 

From Paris to Rome there is a train every hour or 
two, and the same agents attend to them all, besides 
doing local work. The cars have eight or ten doors 
opening on the sides to compartments having two seats 
each perpendicular to the course of the train, the pas- 
sengers occupying them being vis-a-vis. The doors are 
doubly fastened on the outside and one can scarcely 
reach the fastening from within. When you wish to- 
descend you have to beat the door and yell for a porter. 
One is seldom asked for a billet (ticket) while aboard, but 
when leaving the train the passenger has to pass througk 



35 

a gate, where his ticket is demanded. In Italy without 
a ticket one has to pay four times the price of one. If 
one rides on a first class car when he has a second class 
ticket, three times the difference between the fares is 
required. So I learned from fellow travelers. The class 
is marked in large Fs, thus : First class, I ; second class, 
II; third class, III, on the door to each compartment. 

Some trains are only first class throughout, others first 
and second classes, again they are mixed, and when they 
are the classes of coaches are mixed sure enough. They 
are coupled together regardless of order, and the mail is 
coupled in the rear. There are no conveniences on any 
trains run for the public in Europe. 

The style of these cars is favorable for murder or 
robbery, being in compartments as elsewhere described, 
so electric bells are provided in case of foul play, which 
has occurred on some English railways. 

At five o'clock, passing Mont Cenis tunnel, we are in 
Turin, called by the Italians Turino, a beautiful city 
and once the capital of Piedmont. We go from this, 
place to Pisa and Florence. 



CHAPTER V. 



GENOA— ''PEARL OF THE SEA: 



About sun up we reached the Po, on whose classic 
banks still weep the unhapjjy sisters of the rash, unfor- 
tunate Pha?ton, who, alternately freezing and scorching 
the earth while driving the chariot of the Sun, was cast 
by JoYe down headlong into this stream. At least Ovid 
so told us when a boy. We ascend a ravine down which 
plunges a beautiful rivulet, on whose banks are many 
villages, through another tunnel about two miles long, 
.and down another gorge towards Genoa, called by the 
Italians Genova. It is the wealthiest city in Italy, con- 
taining with its suburbs 180,000 people. Half of the 
males of proper age are soldiers ; half of the male pas- 
sengers on the cars are soldiers. 

On reaching Genoa I was met at the traiu by , a 

host of porters, and men and boys wanting to help me, 
ready to take one's valise, either with or without his 
permission. 

The first thing that greets one's eye on entering the 
street is the statue erected to Christopher Columbus, the 
figure of America kneeling at the base of the statue, and 
the allegorical figures of Peligion, Geography, Strength 
^nd Wisdom seated around, and between which are re- 
liefs of scenes from the discoverer's life. It was built 
.about twenty-seven years ago. 

I worshiped on Sunday at the English church, and 



heard an average sermon from Math. 8:24, after which I 
introduced myself to the rector and inquired about 
Protestant religion in Grenoa. He and a Presbyterian 
minister have four churches which are useful chiefly in; 
affording seamen and travellers with church privileges.. 
Italians do not take to Protestants. To their mind it is 
like "carrying coals to New Castle." I heard the Wal- 
densian preacher, however, preach a sermon in Italian to 
a crowded house, and the Holy Spirit seemed to rest on 
him and his people throughout the service. 

I was favorably impressed with the Genoese; there is 
quite a contrast between them and the French ; if any- 
thing they are more ostentations, and are a much better 
looking people. 

And historians say all their energies have been con- 
centrated on making money, whence it has come to pass 
that she is the wealthiest city in all Italy. She has not 
been rich in the Arts nor Sciences, but has contributed 
indirectly to their encouragement. 

Some say Genoa derives its name from the likeness of 
the bay on which it is built to a knee, called in Latin, 
genu. The mountains press close down upon the sea,, 
giving but little level land on which to build, but if 
they could not build wide they certainly built high. 
The average height of the buildings of the entire city is 
probably six stories. Many of the streets are very nar- 
row, not over eight feet wide. 

The police of Genoa are a very fine looking set of 
men ; they dress finely, wearing silk hats and their 
clothes cut in the latest styles. Both in Paris and 
Genoa a peculiar kind of dray is used — two long skids^ 
say thirty feet long, between which at one end stands. 



38 

the horse, for jSB^j are both for shafts and body to the 
dray, are bal»ced on the axle about two feet apart, and 
braced togeimer from end to end ; on these poles or 
scantlings t^e load of boxes, bags or barrels will be 
packed to the amount of two or three tons. When the 
load is too heavy for one horse another is hitched in 
front of him, a third in front of the second, and so on. 
Such gearing is inconvenient, and often on turning cor- 
ners the horse next to the load is thrown down, often the 
load pitching forward preventing him from rising. No 
place on earth needs a law preventing cruelty to animals 
worse than Genoa. 

I arrived on Saturday — blue Saturday. I was amazed 
to see thousands of windows full of clothes hung out to 
dry, until I reflected, there is no where else to dry them, 
except by the fire. So it was the raggedest town I ever 
saw. While Genoa is so wealthy the majority of her 
citizens are poor. There is little to do. I saw nothing 
to indicate that they were lazy. On the wharves men 
stood around waiting for ships to come in, anxious for a 
job. Others Avere sweeping the streets for the sweepings. 
There were few or no gossiping groups. They are 
striving to improve their people morally, have many 
institutions of charity, asylums for destitute children 
and abandoned women, and a statute was enacted during 
my sojourn with a view^ of suppressing as far as j)0ssi- 
ble the existing lewdness. Copies of this ordinance were 
carried tlyough every street next day and thousands of 
copies distributed. 

I should not have been able to glean so many facts 
but for the kindness of the Italian merchant previously 
referred to. He showed me the churches and explained 



39 

the events connected with them — the monuments, walls, 
palaces, and the institutions of the city. I saw the 
house Columbus was born in, and also that which his 
father was bom in ; they are near together. The first 
is seven stories high, while those on either side are eight. 
It has a brown stuccoed front, and is perhaps 1,000 
years old. Near by are the old city walls, on which for 
some years hung the chains taken from subjugated Pisa, 
but restored when Italia was united under one govern- 
ment, and which I saw hanging in Campo Santo at Pisa. 
In a small museum here are exhibited the instruments of 
torture used during the inquisition, and life-like figures 
in wax showing the marks made upon martyrs of those 
days; one for clipping off the end of- the tongue, one 
with iron teeth in a band fitting around the head, the 
band being in two sections with arms like tongs, which 
enabled the one using it to apply lever power for pressing 
the iron teeth into the skull, chills the beholder's blood. 
The church of St. Lorenzo is built of alternate layers 
of black and white marble, the interior is finely decora- 
ted with paintings and statuary and is very impressive. 
This church is said to contain the body of John the 
Baptist in a gold coffin, taken from the Venetians, By 
paying one of the sextons a small fee he will take you 
around to the rear of the chapel of St. John (the church 
contains several chapels) even during service there, strike 
a match which makes even more weird the ghostly light 
of the place and explain how that this (marble) coffin is 
not the other (gold) one, that contains the real body of 
John, and for the privilege of seeing which you paid 
your money, and which can be shown by him after the 
visitor, by much ceremony, obtains a special permit. As 
we expected to visit several other cities where John Bap- 



40 

tist has bodies, we desisted from further effort to see- 
this one. 

St. ximbrose is the oldest and wealthiest church in the 
city, and had many worshipers in its chapels during our 
yisit on Monday. 

The Exchange was about as busy as that in Xew York, 
though not so wild ; here is the marble statue of Cavour, 
the great statesman, who died endeavoring to unite his 
countrymen into one commonwealth. He triumphed, 
but like most others whose lives are given to the develop- 
ment of great schemes, he did not live to realize the- 
benefit of his endeavors. He is represented as seated, 
giving counsel. It w^as for a long time the dream of 
Italian statesmen to unite their country, but the diffi- 
culties of locomotion previous to railroads, together with 
local prejudices and popular ignorance forbade the fea- 
sibility of such a project. The application of steam to 
facilitate and so to multiply production, travel and com- 
merce will not only unite larger territories, but establish 
a widespread homogeneity, gradually introducing similar 
manners the world over. Clothing houses in London 
now stipply retailers in all the large cities of the world. 
The shoes worn here now would be styled by a certain 
modern Southern evangelist " tooth-picks." 

The toga of the ancient Roman is modernised into a 
cloak or talma reaching to the knees and folding twice 
in front of the wearer, the border passing over the 
shoulder and falling down the back. They look grace- 
ful. 

Costa Agostino, my Italian friend, gained admission 
for me into some of the principal palaces. We visited 
that of Duke Galiera, who gave 24,000,000 lirae to im- 
prove the harbor by building about a mile of break- 



41 

water. It was made of stone and blocks of hydraulic 
lime and sand weighing some twenty tons each. This 
wall rises nearly thirty feet above the level of the sea 
and is about thirty feet broad. Result : one of the 
best harbors in the world, while it is the busiest in 
Italy. The walls are in two sections, between which 
vessels enter port. 

The authorities have police cruising near the shore 
all the time to protect the fish from dynamiters. 

Galiera's wife built the hospital of St. Andrew, cap- 
able of succoring two thousand inmates, I judge, at one 
time. 

The palace of Spinola on Via Roma contains the por- 
trait of Andrew Doria, once the Princeps of Liguria, also 
his statue in marble, together with portaits of a dozen of 
their pristine chiefs; bird's eye views of the principal 
cities of Italy are painted on the walls of the upper 
halls. It is used for government offices partly. 

I saw the daughter of the woman who saved Gari- 
baldi by concealing him three days in* her house. A 
marble slab above the door in piazza di Sarzano marks 
the place. It happened thus : He advocated a republic ; 
the King sought his life ; he hid in the house of a coal- 
seller ; on the third day he shaved, put on the coal deal- 
er's clothes, took a bag of coal on his shoulder, passed 
out the city gates and was safe. 

The Mazzini palace is the Palais Royal^of Genoa.. The 
exhibits there quite equal those of Broadway, N. Y. 

They have a small but very pretty park in the center 
of the city called Vilatta di Nigro. From the elevated 
summit of this beautiful place I first saw the blue Med- 
iterranean, whose history would be almost a history of 
the world. As I gazed I pondered on stories of Jason 
4 



42 

and of Jonah, of Xerxes and the Greeks, of Troy and 
Anchises' Son, of the Phoenicians, Syracusans, Cartha- 
ginians and Colombo. 

Millions may rest in the Necropoles of Egypt, but 
who could number the shipwrecked victims asleep with 
the Mermaids there ! 

In this park is the statue of Joseph Mazzini in 
marble, twenty feet high, and the equestrian statue of 
Victor Emmanuel, the first King of United Italy. 

Leaving Genoa the road winds through the Riviera 
towards Leghorn for three or four hours nearly half the 
time under-groand, suddenly you dart out into a villa 
prettier than any picture, and scores of them rivalling 
any residences on Fifth Avenue adorn the hills facing 
the sea. 

The grandeur of such scenery is more easily imagined 
than described in which beetl'ng crags, barren or 
crowned with verdant shrubbery now swing over our 
flying coach, now are penetrated by it or recede far up 
in proud disdain, the terraced sides and valleys between, 
clad in vines, olives and chestnuts, while on our right 
the sea in mimic combat charges almost into the win- 
dows of our car, but the surf is lost in spray or recedes, 
to be swallowed up, the sun sinks into the gilded bosom 
of the deep and the kaleidoscope revolves to show by 
twilight's milder ray what "Heaven hath done for this 
delightful land." We leave the coast run up the Arno 
and are soon in Pisa, where we stop for a day. 



CHAPTER VI, 



PISA, FLORENCE. 



All the way from Alessandria to Pisa the most luxu- 
Tiant o-ardens are to be seen. I counted thirteen differ- 
ent kinds of green salad in one near Genoa and haA^e seen 
scores like it. 

Pisa is an average looking city with massive walls and 
iron gates, still kept closed at night, as when they were 
a republic, or a kingdom. Pisa, you know, was founded 
by Pelops, the grand-son of Jove, and son of Tantalus 
^nd Phrygia, and was once the most war-like of any of 
the Italian states. They whipped the Greeks once at 
Constantinople. She boasts the oldest university of 
any country, giving to the world Galileo. 

His lamp still swings in the Duomo ; but has 
never suggested a new idea to a mortal since. There 
are four buildings which all foreigners passing this way 
think it worth while to visit. The Duomo, the Leaning 
Tower, the Baptistery and the Campo Santo. 

The Duomo was built largely of the spoils of the Sara 
€ens of Palermo, in the expedition undertaken A. D. 1063. 
There are seventy-two columns in the interior of the 
church, of granite and marble; vast amounts of verde 
antique laplslazuli, porphtjry^ bronze and gilt adorn this 
temple. The design is by Michael Angelo, and is 
in the shape of a Latin cross, the style is a mix- 



44 

ture of the Grecian and Arabic. The floor is marble- 
mosaic — curious designs ; ceiling black and gilt ; the 
main altar is separated from the nave by a marble balus- 
trade about seven feet high; within is a black cross- 
with the figure of Christ upon it, suspended from the 
ceiling about sixty or seventy feet. The cross is about 
four by six feet. There is a marble piazza about tAventy 
feet wide all round the outside of the Duomo, and the 
green grass in the campus renders the whole a fresh and 
pleasing object to the eye. 

Immediately to the rear of the Duomo is the Baptis- 
tery, built by one florin from every citizen of the repub- 
lic in the thirteenth century. Here is a large font of 
Parian marble and one of the finest pulpits in the world. 
The peculiar attraction of this structure is the echo: 
sing a few notes and pause, and they are heard far up in 
the dome, and after a few moments still farther up, but 
fainter ; so, says a gifted writer, " good deeds, hardly 
noted in our grosser atmosphere, awake a divine echo in 
the far world of spirits." 

We went from the Baptistery to Campo Santo (sacred 
camp, or cemetery). The earth in the old portion be- 
tween the walls was brought from Jaffa, when the Tus- 
can Knights made their memorable pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land : it was jout in their boats for ballast ; it is 
claimed that it will decompose any human body in two 
days. The walls around this form a rectangle and dis- 
play many frescoes of the fourteenth century, with sixty- 
tw^o Gothic arcades. 

I had always thought the Leaning Tower was on a 
hillside and leaned toward the West ; it is in a great 
plain, as is the whole city, and leans toward the South. 
I ascended to the top, where Galileo so often surveyed 




LEANING TO AVER OF PISA. 



46 

the planetary worlds. The whole is of marble and gran- 
ite. There is nothing to prevent one from falling from 
the first seven stories except about eight feet of railing 
in front of the doors. The top has an iron rail all the 
way round. Here one has a fine view of the Carrara 
mountains, supplying a good quality of marble, of the 
winding course of the Arno to the sea and upwards 
many miles towards Florence, the city lies at our feet. 

Just out of Pisa we noticed factories making cotton 
cloth, of all the gaudy styles. 

Nearly all of the rich, alluvial bottom land of the 
Arno from Pisa to Florence, (called here Firenze) is 
planted in grapevines. The land is laid off by ditches 
into irregular rectangles ; on each side is a row of trees, 
cut off six to ten feet high and allowed to grow, but kept 
cut short; these support the vines and at the same time 
supply thousands of twigs, annually, for willow-ware ; be- 
tween the ditches, say forty yards, the land is cultivated 
in wheat, gardens, &c. They turn it mostly with a spade. 
They drive heifers large as ordinary oxen ; also a car-load 
of them was being shipped, all milk-white. 

At Florence many donkeys are driven to buggies and 
drays ; the horses are all, or nearly all, very poor, and 
seemed to be driven almost to death, and poorly fed. 

Their dogfs are all either muzzled when on the streets 
or led by their masters or mistresses. I saw, for the first 
time a woman in our hotel here smoking a cigar. In all 
the cities visited since leaving New York, nearly every 
square has little booths where all the papers of the nation 
are on sale. These are a reading people, they have doz- 
ens of book-stores and libraries ; every cafe is expected 
to have a dozen papers on the tables for customers to read 
while sipping their coffee, milk or wine. All their daily 



47 

papers sell for one cent each. It is only a question as 
to who holds the helm, to determine whither the ship 
wdll drive. 

There are many unsettled questions in Italy yet, but 
the decline of the papal power is not one of them, and 
looking at papal Italy in one of her strongest holds, I 
do not think any great nation of the world has anything 
to fear from this source, excei:)t that deadness to spiritu- 
ality w^iich seems to rest on her votaries. Compromis- 
ing on forms, she gives ease to the conscience of many 
who are spiritually dead. 

At S. Spirito Annunziata to-day, filled with worship- 
pers, many on their knees, followed visitors around the 
church with their eves ; one man on his knees was talk- 
ing to another standing up. One no doubt pious wo- 
man dropped her penny into the contribution box, by 
the door, and stooj^ed and kissed it as she retired. 

This church and the Duomo have remarkable re- 
sounding qualities, and the priests with their choristers 
and responsive readings, make a noise about equal to a 
dozen hives of swarming bees. 

The church, whose worship is a strange compound of 
Jewish and Pagan customs, and whose doctrines pander- 
to all the natural propensities of fallen human nature,, 
has run to great extremes. I was rej^roved by a Catho- 
lic for singing, " Let the Saviour in," as wanting in rev- 
erence. Yet he frequently took God's name in vain, 
and swore continually. He was, however, no doubt, 
sincere in his reproof. 

The Duomo engaged the greatest architects known to 
fame. Across the street from the Dom two figures in mar- 
ble are seated, one holding a trestle-board on which de- 
signs of the building are drawn and at which his eyes are 



48 

gazing as if he contemplated changes. This is Brunel- 
leschi. Hard by this sits Michael Angelo, with face up- 
turned towards the dome. He studies it as a model for 
St. Peters. 

We went to St. Croce to look upon the tombs of the 
Popes, Cardinals, Poets, Sculptors, Architects and great 
men whom the Italians and Catholics have delighted to 
honor. We found the inscriptions on many a grave- 
stone worn smooth by the feet of many visitors. Gali- 
leo's tomb is a sarcophagus of variegated marble. He 
sits on it with telescoj^e in hand, and gazes into the 
heavens. 

" In Santa Croce' s lioly precincts lie 

Ashes which make it holier, dust which is, 
Even in itself, an immortality. 

Though there were nothing save the past and this, 
The particle of those sublimities 

Which have relapsed to chaos : here repose 
Angelo's, Alfieri's bones, and his. 

The starry Galileo, with his woes ; 

Here Machiavelli's earth returned to whence it rose. 

We do the Uffizzi, Palatine, Buornorotti, Ancient and 
Modern gsMeries, the Piazzas, Gardens, (fee. I will let the 
Rev. J. M. Buckley, D. D., Editor of The Christian Ad- 
vocate, New York, who was iii Florence about the same 
time as myself, and who calls this city the shrine of 
Art, Science and Literature, speak for me as to the im- 
pression made by Florentine galleries. He says : 

" After several days spent in the galleries and palaces of 
Florence I found my eyes 'dim with excess of light" and 
my mind in a confused state — basins of porphyry, por- 
traits of Samson, banners of Italian cities, mosaics and 
ceilings painted in imitation of mosaics, "Judith and Holo- 



49 

femes,, Madonnas and saints without number, the Magi, Ve- 
nus, Bacchus, St. Paul, Csesar, tombs, cherubs, Laocoons, satyrs 
with gaps in their teeth, Cupids on a dolphin, Amazons 
lighting, small gray birds with red crests, heads of the Medusa 
death of Virgin Mary, angels with mandolin, massacre of inno- 
cents, Luther's wife, kings on horseback, gamblers struck by 
lightning, columns of oriental alabaster, vases of rock crys- 
tal, portraits of popes and cardinals and of Pluto, men with 
apes upon their shoulders, boar hunts, ancient bronze helmets, 
spurs, lamps, old manuscripts, vaulted aisles and statues of the 
archangel Michael, all thrown together, with the names of Van 
Dyck, Reubens, Correggio, Raphael, Da Vinci, and Titian in- 
discriminately applied to them. I was intoxicated with art. 
But after a few days my vision clarified, and there came out a 
score of paintings and statues as distinctly impressed upon the 
mind's eye as the most vivid perception of the physical orb- 
All the rest is lost in the milky way of finite memory, but those 
which remain will shine on until the canopy is darkened with 
the shadowing of the oblivion in which our most delightful 
sensations, as well as those which are painful, are lost." 

By a fortunate accident I was permitted to see Pitti 
Palace, where the King resides, when in Florence; the 
walls of each room are covered with silk, and the color 
and design of each is different. The upholstery corre- 
ponds with the finish of the walls, which in the King's 
bed-room is lemon-colored silk, filled with rich designs ; 
the Ball-room, King's Reception, Bed-room, Budoir, and 
Throne-room, the Queen's Reception-room and Bed- 
room, the ro^yal Dining-room with chairs set for sixty- 
six were shown ; Victoria and Dom Pedro et alii ate 
here last year at a great reception given by Humbert 
I. We were shown through the rooms of the Prince of 
Naples, then through the archives, in which were stored 
thousands of pieces of gold and silver plate. 

The day was done and returning to our hotel we 
queried, "Will the world ever get what it needs?" viz : 



50 

Men of brains and prestige and means to go to work for 
man? Yes, possibly these will be forthcoming, when the 
church and society following shall put a proper pre- 
mium on that kind of labor, rather than on a selfish 
monopolizing, yet tipping plutocracy. 

Only let Christians of means indicate in their inter- 
course with the poor that the religion of Christ is a 
source of more enjoyment than earthly possessions, that 
a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of things 
possessed, but in enjoying sunshine, air, water, sleep, 
digestion, domestic affection, social intercourse and in 
mutual service, in serving one's generation according 
to the will of God, and a simple reliance upon the 
Lord Jesus Christ for everlasting life. Let it be shown 
until the restless striker shall see that there is no monop- 
oly of all the best things and cannot be. 

How many more decades will poor human society tor- 
ture her children before the Golden Rule so well fitted, 
if obeyed, to perfect all conditions of society, will be 
read and believed? 

Let those with the light lead the way. 




LOGGIA DEI LANZI— FLOKENCE. 



CHAPTER VII. 



ROME. 



I must also see Rome.— PawZ. 

From Florence to Rome is about six hours on the fast 
train ; I found a good hotel near the station, [ind set 
out to see Rome, old and new, in company with Dr. 
Tagert, of Chicago. We started first to St. Peter's, the 
largest church on earth. The Egyptian obelisk seen in 
front of the church is 82 feet 9 inches high, and is said 
to be the only ancient monument in Rome that has not 
been overthrown. The entire outlay for columns, foun- 
tains, buttresses, statues of saints, of which there are 
162, with the pavement in front of the church was over 
$1,000,000. 

Before the end of the 17th century this church had 
■cost $50,000,000 ; the new sacristy cost 8950,000 ; the 
yearly expense is $37,500; and the church is not yet 
done. But one is met on the threshold, in the aisles, 
under the colonnades and on all sides by filthy and 
Tagged beggars, and that in abundance. 

In the gallery is a bronze statue of Hercules, for 
which Pope Pius IX gave Baron Righetti 268,000,750 
francs, about $53,200,150, and it was impossible tor me 
to separate the idea of such extravagance and luxury 
from the existing want and ignorance of the bulk of 
the Romish church and (!atholic Italy. It is but one of 
many thousands of the statues, paintings and relics 



53 

that crowd the galleries and museums of the Vaticaru 
palace, purchased at enormous prices. 

Rafael and Angelo gave all their genius to the church- 
Not only the dome of St. Peter's but the Sistine chapel 
belongs to the latter, and the Loggia and St mza of the 
Vatican to the former, with thousands of feet of canvas 
besides. I saw no picture anywhere more eloquent 
than Rafael's Transfiguration. The Church of Rome 
honored her sons, as she still makes immortal the writer 
of fiction who knows how to weave in his web some 
threads of which Nun's veils are made. It is a source 
of comfort to belong to a church that has not turned 
aside from constantly proclaiming God's will to exhaust 
its vitality upon political schemes and its resources in 
gorgeous mausoleums above its fallen leaders. 

From the Vatican we visited the tomb of Tasso, and 
were shown his chairs, table, desk and the leaden coffin 
in which he was said to have rested for three hundred 
years, (this we doubted as it seemed too small.) 

We concluded the day with a visit to Piazza Pincio, and 
a visit to the Colosseum by moonlight. I have visited 
the Colosseum four or five times and the grandeur of the 
the structure grows on one at every visit. But looking 
at this amphitheatre of Vespasian, there is no good 
ground now for the lines so often quoted by tourists : 

"While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand 

When falls the Colosseum Rome shall fall, 

And when Rome falls, with it shall fall the world." 

For all the might}^ group that cluster about the Forum 
speak from their desolation, and speak loudly that all. 
the unhallowed toil of man shall perish. 

If one could describe how entire the ruin here how 



55 

great the change, it would be difficult to gain the 
credence of the reader and impossible to give any ade- 
quate conception of it. Standing on the brow of the 
Capitoline hill and looking South-east what an array of 
fallen greatness rises before the eye! To the South is the 
Palatine hill, with ruins of the palaces of the Ca3sars, at 
our feet stands the column of Septimus Severus over 
the Via Sacra, the column of Phocas the tyrant, Byron's 
^'nameless column without a base," (that being buried 
when he wrote his poem.) Here are remains of the 
Temple of Concord, Temple of Vespasian, Portions, Tem- 
ple of Saturn, Rostra, Senate House, where "Great 
Caesar fell," Forum Romanorum, Temple of Castor and 
Pollux, Rostra Julia, Temple of the Vestal Virgin, Tem- 
ple of Julius Csesar, Temple of Antoninus and Faustinae, 
Temple of Rome and of Venus, Arch of Titus, Arch of 
Constantino and the Colosseum all are open to the eye 
at a glance. Of the hundreds of columns which once 
supported fretted frieze and cornice of marble, porphyr}^ 
lapislazuli or giallo antico or bronze scarcely one re- 
mains intact; one sees granite and marble columns four 
and five feet in diameter broken up into sections of every 
length from one foot to twenty. I cannot conjecture how 
the iconoclast performed his task so thoroughly, but it is 
done, was it of God ? 

In one minutes walk of the Forum is the Mamartine, 
traditional, prison of St. Peter and St. Paul, you are 
shown the indenture made by Peter's head in the stone, 
the spring of miraculous origin, at which they baptised 
converts, the stone pillar to which they were chained, 
&c. It was in this same subterranean vault that Catiline 
was strangled, there is a passage leading under ground 
from it to the Forum. 



56 

Of course I visited the churches that contamthe head 
of St. Matthew and the teeth and fingers of Sts. Paul 
and Peter, the stone that shows the foot-prints of the 
Saviour, Peter's bones and table and Paul's house in the 
church of St. Sebastian, the Scala Sancta, where several 
monks were ascending on their knees as Martin Luther 
was doing when the truth illuminated his soul. Our 
readers will remember these are called sacred because it 
is claimed that they are the steps on which Jesus as- 
cended to Pilate's judgment hall, they are marble, cov- 
ered partially with w-ood and are twenty-eight in num- 
ber. 

There are many hundreds of Catholic priests here ; 
they all w^ear long robes or frocks, much like female 
attire, except the binding at the waist ; some of them 
go barefoot, except sandals ; some wear ropes around 
their waists, and all look serious. Hundreds of them 
are young theologues. Rome is papal. The spirit of 
Christianity has modified the current of civilization 
here chiefly from without, I think. The refined self- 
ishness of other days, the bloody a3stheticism that could 
bind Prometheus to the rock, if forsooth the last shadow 
borne to the visage from the expiring soul might be 
transmuted to canvass, expresses itself now otherwise. 
If a dominant animalism found expression in Templum 
Veneris and the Thermae of Caracalla, and if the Colos- 
seum and its myriads of victims, savage and human, 
rej^resented the tragedic, and Rome in flames the me- 
lodramatic Romans of other years, there is now the 
anomaly of a Christian nation, the mother of the rest, 
with resources in the ends of the earth, literally giving 
her children stones (to gaze at), when they ask for 
bread, and contrary to the expectation of the Book she 



57 

holds in her hand, minimizes life's necessities hy turn- 
ing plow-shares into swords. 

During our stay a revolt was threatened. The people, 
exasperated, hungry and restless, determined to change 
affairs from statu quo. The mob created quite an ex- 
citement, by breaking out some windows and threat- 
ening further mischief; but the military being on hand 
all soon became quiet, and many of the insurgents were 
shipped to the country. 

The dazzling splendor of kings, the pageantry of 
power, as set forth in the world's cumulating history, 
represent much oppression, much blood and tissue 
vainly consumed, the counterpart exhibits rags for 
robes, ignorance and ignominy, instead of knowledge 
and glory. 

The factors whence these antipodal extremes have 
sprung are abuse of official prerogative above and mis- 
use of God-given prerogative and endowment below. 

A notice posted in every museum, palace, gallery or 
garden forbids, in four languages, the giving of gratui- 
ties, but we have found only one who refused; the fact 
is, many of these bankrupt lords are supported by these 
same gratuities. Sometimes the keeper gets more than 
he exj^ects and thanks profusely : again, receiving less 
he looks grum. The common people have become so 
used to servility and meniality that they seem to have 
no conception of self-respect, and a gentleman dressed 
like a lord will take a soldi, one cent, and thank you as 
if it were a dollar. We hired a carriage to take us to the 
Catacombs of St. Calistus, on the Appian way, one and a 
half miles from the city, our guide contracted with us 
for two liras but required three at settling time, we j^aid 
him, but took his number and left him ; he soon came 



58 

running after us, to pay back what was due us : On the 
way we visited the church of San Sebastiano, said to con- 
tain the impress of Jesus' foot when he met Peter about 
to fly from martyrdom. Peter said, Doniine quo vadisf 
Whither goest thou? Jesus replied, "To Rome to be 
crucified again." Peter turned back. The semblance of 
of a track is shown, also St. Sebastian's body in stone 
stuck full of arrows. 

This church is at the entrance to the Catacombs of the 
same name, but as they are all alike we only visited one. 
These subterranean passages are said to aggregate five 
hundred miles, cut through tufa stone about thirty 
inches wide, they have receptacles on either side for re- 
ceiving the dead, one recess above another like shelves 
in a store; often all that is left of the corpse is a white 
streak in the dust where the last bone mouldered back 
to the earth whence it sprung. These corridors often 
intersect one another, and occasionally open suddenly 
into an underground chapel where the early Christians 
used to worship, when Rome was in the hands of the 
Caesars. 

The author of Ben Hur says they were constructed 
with Ben Hur's gold, as an asylum for persecuted 
Christians, and some think they used it as a cemetery 
to prevent cremation. No guide will touch one of these 
bones on pain of excommunication. 

St. Peters looks magnificent from the grounds. 




NAPLES, BAY, VESUVIUS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



NAPLES.— ''WANTON BEAUTY: 



Naples is renowned for its close relations to Hercu- 
laneum and Pompeii rather than for its own achieve- 
ments. Its population in 1885, was considerably over 
half a million. While there are other characteristics 
peculiarly Neapolitan, observable in the priests, mer- 
chants and merchandise, artisans and the humblest 
citizens, there are fewer large and princely palaces. 
While they have some very elegant squares and foun- 
tains, they are very limited in number. They have 
excellent street cars and a carriage any moment to take 
one to any part of the city for una lira (20 cents.) Like 
all the cities we have visited, they seem to have excel- 
lent police regulations. But the beggars are legion; 



60 

some of our party have suggested that if you look at 
many of them they expect a gratuity. They are brought 
up to it from childhood. 

Sometimes in a very thickl}^ settled part of the city a 
dozen children will beset one, crying ^^signor! signor! 
datemi soldi! datemi soldiP'' (give me a cent) ; the philo- 
sophy of their conduct is this, if they get something, it 
is so much made ; if not, nothing is lost, and this dis- 
position to beg grows with their growth. There are 
quite a number of merchants here who have a sign, 
prezzofissi, price fixed ; many others who will sell you a 
piece of goods for one lii^a, tie it up and declare it is two 
liras. Only to-day we took luncheon at a restaurant, 
inquired the price of coffee before ordering, was told so 
much, when we were ready to settle it was double. An 
incident which occurred one day in a restaurant whither 
we had gone for coffee, illustrates one or two phases of 
Italian city life. Hotels sometimes give their guests 
only lodging, sometimes breakfast, and sometimes all 
three meals. We were at one of the former kind, to 
which the restaurant mentioned was attached. We had 
called for coffe lotte, coffee with milk, and knew not why 
we had to wait so long, until an Italian came in with a 
large female goat, which had no sooner stopped than he 
stooped down behind the faithful nannie and began to 
fill a very small mouthed bottle with milk, for which 
our host paid him three cents, and for a spoonful of 
which put into our coffee we had each to pay him three 
cents extra. They often carry a bag of water in the 
sleeve to empty in the vessel of milk, a sly cheat. 

We have a few times step'ped into their shops or stores 
and priced articles as if we purposed buying ; often we 
were asked three, four and five times what we could 



61 

really purchase for. The}^ do not read as the Floren- 
tines and Romans, nor is much no^v doing for education 
in general. 

Were the travel to Naples to stop entirely for two 
years there would be fearful suffering, I believe. The 
Enghsh, French, Germans and Americans drop hun- 
dreds of thousands here yearly. 

Italy has produced some of the first musicians, poets, 
painters, architects, and sculptors. She possesses one 
of the most delightful of climates. Naples has the finest 
of the bays. "See Naples and die." All these are the 
heritage of those now living there and holding in fee 
simple their lawful patrimony. They have preserved in 
a praiseworthy manner the works of art left to them, as 
the safest and never-failing source of revenue. What 
the nation claims as reward for its care is not excessive, 
but every native feels the patrimony to be his individu- 
ally, and would fain be enjoying, while you are passing 
through, the portion of the bounty that falls to him. 

Land'rents near about Naples for 820 to $30 yearly, 
and house-rent is pretty high ; good living is high, but 
the poor live very cheap. Macaroni seems to be the 
chief staple of support, and it is made here by th'i car- 
load. 

The first day of our stay we visited the National Mu- 
seum, admission one franc (20 cents), catalogue forty 
cents. The contents are about as follows: Mural paint- 
ings from Herculaneum and Pompeii ; the finest collec- 
tion of bronzes in the world; marble sculptures (some 
master pieces); inscriptions ; Egyptian antiquities ; Me- 
diaeval antiquities; crystals; bronzes; ancient terra- 
cottas; Papyri from Herculaneum; engravings (seen 
only by permission); Pompeian relics; food; domestic 



63 

utensils ; ornaments ; coins ; vases ; picture gallery ; li- 
brary of 200,000 volumes; 4,000 MSS., some of them 
rare and of great interest. 

We visited, the second day, Pompeii, which was de- 
stroyed A. D. 79 by an eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. The 
excavation was going on the day we visited the buried 
city, but the principal part has been exhumed for many 
years. All enter by the Porta marina or sea-gate, for the 




EXHUMED BODIES. 



sea, which is now several furlongs off, once reached 
within a few feet of the city w^alls, (admission forty 
cents), a guide is furnished by the government. A mu- 
seum here contains several plaster casts of human bodies 
found in the streets and houses— giving a pretty fair 
reproduction ; also a dog, which makes almost a perfect 
cast. These casts are made by filling with soft plaster 
the vacuums found in beds of cinders, where the wretch- 
es who perished with their city lay till they were en- 



64 

tirely roasted. The plaster graduall}^ becomes hard and 
Temains a permanent heritage. 

The general plan of the place is about the same as 
that of ancient Rome. Here is the Forum, about it are 
the Temples of Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Fortuna, Basil- 
ica, Pantheon, and not very far off the circus and am- 
phitheatre. One is shown also the houses of Sallust, 
Tragic Poet, C & E. Rufus, Orpheus, Lucretius, Faun, 
<fec. I can easily believe this city Avas destroyed for its 
wickedness as was Sodom by divine appointment. It is 
strange to a visitor to see the people now building far 
up on the side of Vesuvius, half way at least from Pom- 
peii to the top. They have two or three cities, as large, 
perhaps, as either of those overwhelmed in the year 79 
not over half the distance from the ver}^ crater. 

Leaving Pompeii at 11:30 in company with Hon. E. 
E. Taft, of Vermont, a Califbrnian, and our guide, with 
.•a horse and two ponies, we started to ascend the Vol- 
cano. Our route lay through Torre Annunciata, a city 
•of 12,000 inhabitants. Mr. Taft had a turn for fun, and 
jnounted on a good horse, he put out at full speed 
through the town, to the consternation of everybody on 
the streets. Our guide, divining his intentions, seized 
Tthe horse's tail as if to hold him back, it being impos- 
sible for me and Mr. G., an old gentleman of three-score 
and more, on our ponies to do more than keep in sight of 
our illustrious leader, who went careering around the 
street corners, much, I imagine, like Mazeppa in his ex- 
'Cursion from "Bangor to the dismal swamp." Our little 
•steeds fairly spread themselves, but 'twas of no use, the 
leader had the longest legs and thinnest flanks, besides he 
ivasa cavalry horse, on the retired list and had good wind. 
I should have expected that we would all be arrested, for 



65 

riding at a gait to endanger our own lives and those 
of persons on the streets, but how could we be arrested? 
What prospect would a pursuer, even on a fast horse, 
have of ever seeing us after the passing minute, and as 
policemen do not ride, we were safe. Mr Taft bent on 
fun, and we on catching him and the guide, still hold- 
ing the horse's tail, and looking as they swept around 
the street-corners like small boys at the end of a whip- 
cracking game that scatters them far and wide, flew on 
at Gilpin speed. It soon grew monotonous to the guide 
and the martial steed with his double load, and we came 
up in time to hear the guide say, as best he could, for his 
breath was about gone, that if that was the way we pur- 
posed going he would let us go on without him. I was 
sorry for him, but had not got near enough to be heard 
before. 

It ill became the dignity of a State Senator, a sexag- 
enarian and a Methodist preacher on their first visit to 
a town so to astonish the natives as to call all the peoj^le 
from their dwellings into the streets, and have them to 
follow us as long as they could see us, some laughing at 
the fun of the thing, others terrified, not knowing what 
was about to happen. If we had been coming from the 
mountain instead of going to it, and the air had been 
filled with smoke and thunder, and the earth with 
trembling from the restless monster as on that fatal day 
in 79, our conduct would have been appropriate, but 
under no other circumstances. But all is well that ends 
well, and we take it more leisurely as we begin the as- 
cent in the suburbs of the town. Still the guide and the 
looj sent to hold our horses, hold on to the horses' tails 
all the way up to the hitching place. This a great help 
to one walking up hill, I afterwards tried it myself. Leav- 



66 

ingtown, we enter a vineyard two miles wide, pass a few 
scrubby pines, about large enough for walking canes, 
and vegetation ceases. 

The soil is about the color of black lead, with a brown- 
ish hue. The surface of the ground for the first few 
miles is covered chiefly with gravels about the size of 




ho:n". elihu b. taft. 



peas. We ride to within one and a half or two miles of 
the crater, where a bo}" holds the horses, and men who 
met us returned to assist us in climbing up. The horses 
and guide and boy cost seven francs for each person ; if 
you take a man to help pull you up from the place of 
dismounting, it costs 4 francs more ; if you take a cane 
it costs 1 franc more. ^Ir. Taft was heavy and took 



help. ^Ir. G. and I did as well without. After going- 
to within a quarter of a mile of the top, we found hot 
stones that had just rolled down, and every few steps 
more stones and hotter; presently they were red hot ; a 
hundred yards further and we saw one roll down as 
large as a barrel. We sat down to rest, and down came 
one, red hot, rolling down an angle of forty -five degrees, 
going at the rate of several miles a minute, and another ; 
we could see them in time to dodge from their path 
Now we kej^t on a ridge of them some ten feet higher 
than the track down which they were tumbling, and 
which seemed to be a kind of highway for them ; soon 
we came to a sluice of red hot lava, twenty feet wide 
and several feet deep, running down like thick molasses. 
We could not go nearer than within ten feet of it, too 
intense was the heat. Our guide offered to imbed a 
penny in a molten piece for a franc. Mr. Taft had him 
to put two pennies in two pieces. He did so, but it was 
unsatisfactory, the impression of the coin being so 
vague. I got one of them, however, as a souvenir of 
our meeting and Vesuvius. 

The fumes of sulphur and gases well nigh stifled us, 
and so dense was the smoke that all stopped short of 
the entire journey save myself and guide, who protested 
against going further, but not expecting to come this 
way again right away and being so near, I was deter- 
mined to look down the throat of this heaving, stewing 
thundering monster. On the summit one feels the 
mountain tremble like an old mill when it is grinding. 
So the guide, fearful of losing his position and gratuities,, 
went with me to the top, and my ambition was satisfied. 
I felt it to be risking my life, and my stay was short ; 
you see where a whole mountain has fallen in, to fill the 



68 

Tacuum made perhaps when Pompeii and Herculaneum 
were buried ; and it is probable that the thousands and 
millions of tons since belched forth, have left an im- 
mense cavity, which may cause a falling in of the sides 
at any time. I hurried back through smoke and foetid 
gases, sometimes almost suffocated and every moment 
fearful of being overtaken by a block of heaved-out lava. 
It was very disagreeable on account of the snow, some 
of which was melted and made with the pebbles and 
ashes a muddy track. It was smooth, however, and in 
a short time w^e were on our steeds again. As no one 
has given me any adequate idea of this volcano, so I do 
not hope to do better for others. Long ridges of scoria, 
several hundred yards in length, sometimes twenty feet 
Iiigh and from twenty feet to one hundred feet wide, 
seem to have been placed artificially and but yesterday. 
They are of many colors mingled, from the black slag to 
the dura petra nearly white. On the South side the moun- 
tain has kept active so long, sending out matter which 
hardens often near the summit until it is very high and 
sharp, the ascent for the last several minutes being about 
4o°. From Naples one sees clouds of smoke ascending 
from the crater during the day, and at night flames of 
fire are ever shooting up as if from some distant burn- 
ing building. 

The animals we rode were very diminutive as are 
nearly all the equine species seen in Italy. Mr. G. who 
is an elderly gentleman started with Beefsteak but not 
liking his qualities offered to swap with me. Of course 
I accommodated him ; but after trying Macaroni, he 
concluded he had cheated himself and wished to trade 
back and we traded again. He then thought he was 
-cheated again but determined to take vengeance out on 



G9 

Beefsteak by whipping him. The animal was so short 
he struck clear by and missed the object of his ire every 
time. He then contented himself by abusing the 
Italians. 

We left next day for Brindisi, the ancient Brundusium 
of the Romans, whence we sailed to Alexandria. Brin- 
disi has nothing of special interest except its name, 
which means the antlers of a stag, the promontories 
that jut out into the water there being in appearance 
very much like a stag's horns, and the pillars that stand 
there to mark the terminus of the Appian Way paved 
from Rome three hundred and fifty miles. Only one of 
these, however, is left now, the other having been thrown 
down by an earthquake. 

On the way to Brindisi we passed Bari where St. 
Nicholas is buried and where the pious Greeks of Rus- 
sia go yearly to buy a bottle of precious snow water 
which is thought to have miraculous medicinal proper- 
ties. This is specially holy in their esteem and some- 
times sells at fabulous prices. We went down the 
Adriatic coast and in sight of Greece. 

There are seven clergymen aboard the steamship 
Cathay, of the P. and O. (Peninsular and Oriental) 
line, of whom four are Presbyterians, one a Bajjtist, one 
an Episcopalian, and myself, a Methodist. Two of them 
are missionaries, one representing the Christian Guild, of 
Scotland the other the church of England* 

From Brindisi to Alexandria is 900 to 1000 miles and 
requires three days and nights to complete the voyage. 
Our captain said he had never seen higher winds. The 
storm that wrecked the steamers at Samoa came our 
way. 



CHAPTER IX. 



EGYPT. 



Who can adequately describe landing amongst Arabs? 
The}^ throng about the gangway ere it connects the ship 
to the wharf, precisely as hungry hogs do about the 
trough where swill is emptied, nor can two or three 
policemen arrest or check their persistence. They cry 
their good qualities and crowd one another, pushing and 
beating opponents until a stranger is surprised that 
many are not killed every day. "When the gangway is 
secured they overrun the vessel's deck, thrusting their 
heads under one's hat brim, yelling in English, 
French or German, as the case demands, for your 
patronage. So much is paid them for every customer 
got into a carriage or hotel, besides baksheesh for hand- 
ling baggage. One is impressed at the abundance of 
the survival of the unfittest. 

We landed at Alexandria about 8 o'clock Thursday 
morning, and taking a ride through the city went to 
Cairo the same day. 

The ride up the Nile was the most interesting of my 
life. While the objects along the way were not just 
such as I had expected, they were not below expecta- 
tion. The railroad crosses the Rosetta and Damietta, 
arms of the river, and several canals, while every spot 
of ground is covered with the rankest herbage. The 
soil is a dark brown, almost black, loam. This deposit 



72 

of the Nile is 30 to 60 feet deep. Its capacity to pro- 
duce is limited only by the time required for plant 
maturity and irrigation. Along the road are hundreds 
of towns made of sundried brick — not a single one made 
of timber. We passed many thousands of Arabs on 
the road, most of whom were riding donkeys ; these are 
very diminutive, being only 3 J tc 4^ feet high, yet I 
often saw two men on one donkey. They sit so far back 
on him that the only chance for the second man is to 
get before ; you canH ride behii d one of these men on a 
donkey. A great many camels are used also. 

The first things that impress a stranger in the towns are 
the dress of the people, their want of decency, and their 
commercial habits. Often one can only tell a male from 
a female by the beard and a veil worn by females over 
the nose. Married women also wear a stick or brass 
tube, about like a number 12 cartridge, between the 
eyes — thus the face is entirely concealed, with the excep- 
tion of the eyes, and the hollow tube admits fresh air 
for respiration. 

Their stores are only a fe^v feet deep, and sometimes 
all their goods are on the floor, even when their stock 
is bread, and the floor is often mother earth. They sit 
oftea on the ground seemingly indifferent to customers, 
smoking pipes that will hold a whole package of Dur- 
ham smoking tobacco. They all smoke, and nearly all 
gamble, just where they sit to trade. 

Alexandria and Cairo have many water carriers ; the 
men sell, the women donate. The men carry it in 
large skins — goat skins — holding about 10 or 12 gallons, 
price about five cents per gallon of filtered Nile water> 
which is very good ; they cry as they go, miyeh ! tiyeb 
miyeh! water! gDod water! Powdered almonds is said 



73 

to be put into the slightly muddy water, precipitating 
the argillaceous and other substances, leaving it pure 
and sweet. I need not remark upon the excessive 
filthmess of these people when it is remembered that it 
seldom rains here-about eight inches a year at Alexan- 




TAKING A DRINK OF WATER. 



dna less than two in Cairo, and none further south 
one has an idea of the dust that is made by the travef 
of thousands of donkeys and camels, cows, goats and 
heep daily over the highways. It is very hot ; a little 
tod fills one wuh perspiration, they go into the canal 
with their beasts, and all lave together, after which they 



74 

fill their water jji'i's. You can see fleas crawling about 
upon them ; often' "one sees a dozen flies in their eyes ; 
many of them are half clad, man}^ entirely nude. It is 
said there is either a cow, camel, goat or donkey for 
ever}^ acre of land in the Delta, and a person for every 
animal. I believe the true estimate puts one person for 
every two acres of -^and. 

I suppose they irrigate their land muchas they did 
Ave or six thousand years ago, or earlier^'^for I cannot 
think of anything more primitive. The\ raise it by a 



■| 






SAKIEH FOR RAISIXG Ys'ATER. 

.system of sweeps, like our sweep-wells, only shorter 
levers are used ; sometimes four sets are required to 
raise the water 20 or 25 feet high, each set lifting a basket 
full (flag baskets) five or six feet high, where it is 
emptied into a large cavity in the bank and again carried 
up. They call these shadoofs. Another way is to have 
a perpendicular and horizontal siuir-wheel geared to- 
gether and turned by a cow or camel blindfold, or person. 



This puts ill iiKjticni an endless chain, with jars fastened 
at proper intervals (Sakieh) ; they raise the water, which 
empties into a trough connecting with a ditch, and so is 
carried for miles over the fields, which are level as far as 
the foot h'lls. I believe they are a little lower at the base, 
of the hills than at the margin of the river, owing to the 
greiter deposit near the stream during the annual 
overflow. This facilitates the irrigation, as the water 
flows d) n an inclined plane from the start. Small 
dams are made around little squares to hold the water 
until every plant on the cultivated area is wet in season. 
The \v;iter is turned into and out of these squares by the 
bare foot of the fellah (farmer.) 

When one sees the fertility of this valley, the sweet- 
ness of the Xile water, he is not surprised that ancient 
Egyptians, without a knowledge of the true God, should 
have deified the stream to which they seemed to owe all 
their support, especially when the manner of its over- 
flowing and enriching the land annually without any 
rains, so far as they knew, was so mysterious and won- 
derful. 

I am told that each farmer has to give So per acre 
yearly to the government as tax. In some places two- 
thirds of all the yield are taken ; the government owns 
the land largely; they raise three and four crops yearly, 
consisting of ]>arley, sugar, rice, clover, beans, &c. These 
crops, however, are measurably affected by the rise in 
the Nile. The tax is levied according to the same. 

The Government often reports the Xile to have reached 
the normal height of 23 or 24 feet when it has not, so 
as toexcuse a high tax. There are raised large herds of 
cattle and sheep for Alexandria and Cairo markets, and 
I judge other cities also. 



76 

The city of Cairo is now the centre of the world in 
more senses than one. It is not only the seat of the 
Khedive's dominions in the North of Africa, but the 
season is on, and tourists from the Continent, Great 
Britain and America are here in great numbers. I met 
two young gentlemen of the U. S. Man of War Essex (I 
think) now on the way home from a tour round the 
world, Mr. Scales, of Greensboro, N. C, and Mr. Rus- 
sell, of , N. C. There are travelers from nearly 

every American State. They have an English quarter, a 
French quarter and perhaps a German quarter. 

Everything looks like springy; everybody seems happy, 
and Cairo, already numbering 400,000 inhabitants, keeps 
booming. 

We visited the Citadel, on Mt. Mokattam, where the 

finest panorama in all Egypt lies out before the spectator 

from the South side of the Mosque of Mahomet Ali. 

W^e stood on this terrace • for an hour or two, studying 

Cairo, every part of which is visible, with hundreds of 

mosques and minarets and palaces ; the Pyramids of 

Ghizeh, eight miles to the west, of Sakarah, "the city of 

the Tombs," 15 or 20 miles to the south, and Old Cairo, 

a few miles to the south, enrich the landscape with 

"The river gleaming and winding away from the dim south 
into the blue distance of the north, the green strips of cultiva- 
tion on its banks delighting the eye amid the yellow sands." 

There is the arena where were enacted many of those 
tragic scenes recorded in the first two books of the Bible. 
There unknown, obscure little Joseph began and devel- 
oped into a man of wonderful power, and made himself 
a home at which he royally received his father and kins- 
folk. Hither Jacob came, with trembling step, for life, 
as Abraham, his grandfather, had done before, and 



blessed Ms sou's benefactor and beneficiary, and his 
children and grand-children. There toiled the subject 
race for four hundred and twenty years. There Moses, 
brought up in the Kiug's palace and educated yonder at 
On, returned to work his miracles before the King. Yes, 
that river was once blood. The blackness of those 
heavens could once be felt. Those streets were throno^ed 
by frogs, and swarms of flies, and other pests tormented 
the wretched monarch. 0, the history enacted on that 
plain I Egypt, thou wast the nurse of the Hebrew peo- 
ple. Silent, mysterious, wonderful land I 

We visited here the Mosque, which is of Ala- 
baster, and contains the body of Mahomet Ali ; lamps 
are kept burning by it all the time. The floor is 
covered with the finest Persian carpets and rugs, on 
which the worshipers sit instead of on pews. It Avas 
Friday or Mahometan Sabbath, and one solitary Arab 
sat cross-legged, swinging back and forth aud rej^eating 
in a whining song verses of the Koran. I think the 
howlers instead of the dancers worship here. Christians 
are not permitted to enter the enclosure after the hour for 
w^orship to begin. Sandals were provided for visitors, 
for which backsheesh is required. We then visited Jo- 
seph's well, which is 290 feet deep, from which pure 
water is elevated by donkeys at the bottom. This well 
is square and 15 or 18 feet in diameter; in the solid 
stone, around the main shaft, a stairway leads to the 
bottom. "We descended partly down, far enough to get a 
good idea of the whole. We passed out by the narrow 
defile in which Mahomet Ali had 450 Mamelukes, with 
their leader, Ibrahim Bey, killed in 1811, for fear of 
their revolutionary plans ; 800 more were killed in the 
city. Emin Bey escaped by leaping his horse over the 



79 

battlement. His horse Avas crushed to death, but he 
escaped. The eastern terrace, 100 feet high, from which 
he leaped, is called La Sav.t da Mameli(ke. The fact of 
the leaping- is questioned. 

We rode out to Cheops, 4,060 years old, and the 
Sphinx, 140 faf^t long, plus 50 feet for the paws ; the 
head is over 100 feet in circumference and the body 40 
feet in diameter. We ascend Cheops alone, without 
help, (this is quite a triumph) especially when ha- 
rangued by a dozen Arabs before and behind, and all 
around; the usual method of ascent is for two Arabs to 
precede and pull while a third from the rear pushes up 
the climber. 

They try to alarm the novice by pointing out many 
dangers to w^hich he is exposing himself, saying : 

"American no find way. Hawaji (Mr.) head swim. 
Hawaji fall, get killed." 

And the ascent is perilous to one without a steady 
nerve. Reaching the top when my companion was 
scarcely half way up I began to muse : 

This is Cheops, built some think for the habitation of 
a single corpse, whose reign had been so oppressive that 
his body had to be conveyed away secretly, and his 
name never called by his subjects, fulfilled the words of 
truth, ''the name of the wicked shall rot." What varied 
scenes have been enacted here, when this pillar was 
being erected, of toiling serfs and cruel taskmasters, 
making the world great and miserable ! the leeks, rad- 
ishes and onions consumed by the workmen aggregated 
$1,700,000. What a celebration when the "chief corner 
stone" (the apex) was laid! What a history has been 
made beneath its shadjw, what untold thousands of 
Egypt's sons have passed by with gallant tread, going to 



80 

foreign wars against the mighty Cheta under Rameses 
and Thothmes (Napoleon of Egypt), some to bring many 
•captives home, more whose blood enriched the enemies, 
lands. What unnumbered hosts have marched hither 
to return no more. Just there Napoleon concentrated an 
•oration into one phrase : " Sons of France forty centuries 
dook down on you!" 

What a strange place is this ! To the west is endless 
^eath, the desert sands, bro:vn and red, interminable, 
say, "Leave hope behind who enter here !" To the east 
the fertile and happy valley with the smiling Nile seem 
^s contented and peacelul as if there were no death, and 

"backsheesh Hawadji !" "America give good back 

rsheesh!" "Give New York back sheesh," "Give Yankee- 
doodle back sheesh !" "Give it ! give it!" "Howadji buy 
mummy! genuine antique ! worth 6 shillings," (about 
the size of a man's finger, a poor imitation of a mummy 
■case). "It is not genuine, I fear," said I. "Genuine 
antique, Howadji, give it fou- shilhngs." "Too much," 
€aid I. "How much you give it?" "I will give you a 
piaster (4 cents) for a pair of them," said I hoping to 
disgust, and get rid of their pertinacity. "Well, give it, 
give it." "No, I don't want them." ''Give it, give it." 
•''Miyeh (water) Howadji." " Tiyeh miyeh,^' (good water). 
"Buy it, buy it!" and you have to buy it. "AVant see 
do Mark Twain?" "What is that?" "Arab go down 
pyramid, up 'tother pyramid and back here in fifteen 
minutes for one shilling." Mark Twain said he hired 
him in hopes of seeing him break his neck, but Arab 
triumphed. They call it, "Doing Mark Twain." 

By this time my friend had reached the top exhausted. 
The summit is twenty-four feet square, and there are 
blocks of stone on this area four hundred and sixty odd 
feet perpendicular that weigh many tons. 



81 

I descended, went into the interior, into the King's 
•and Queen's chambers, both of which have been written 
much about. I hesitate to say more than that the en- 
trance is fraught with the greatest danger, being by a 
descent and then an ascent over stones worn smooth as 
glass. The king's chamber, 34 feet by 17 feet, and 16 
feet high, is the most reverberating of any hall I ever 
-entered. It contained a mutilated, lidless sarcophagus 
•or coffer, about whose purpose there is much conjecture. 
Some say it is a coffin, some, a treasure chest, some say it 
was designed for a universal standard of measure cor- 
responding to the laws of the Hebrews, others say it is 
ihe pillar spoken of by Isaiah 19 : "In day that shall 
there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of 
Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. 
And it shall be a for a sign and a witness unto the Lord 
of Hosts in the land of Egypt." As our carriage ap- 
proached the base we noticed men on the summit of the 
pyramid, and they looked like toy men on a mantel. 
This optical delusion was owing to the great bulk of 
matter just beneath, Cheops covers nearly thirteen acres 
of land, and has been computed to contain enough stone to 
build the city of Washington, D. C, government build- 
ings and all. It is about an hour's ride by carriage from 
Cairo, on the foot of the Lybian range of hills bordering 
on the Lybian desert. 

When we were returning from the interior of the pyra- 
mid, my Arab guides stopped short before me at the 
critical turning from the shaft descending from the 
king's chamber to the shaft or tunnel leading to the well 
SO feet below the base of the pyramid and called the bot- 
tomless pit, at the point K, (see cut) It is difficult 
to get from one to the other, and perilous even with 



83 

good light, but here they extinguished their candles 
and mine, and I knew not what was next, for I had left 
my friend on top, who said he did not care to venture 
within. A man thinks rapidly when unexpected danger 
suddenly confronts him. So I. What does it mean ? 
There are a hundred of them outside. What can my 
friend do alone? He was afraid to come in with me, 
much more will he fear to do so now ; besides, what 
could he do if he should come? Will they kill me and 
drop me in the deep well they showed me a moment 
since, that is just behind me ? 

Thes.e, with many other apprehensions, shot through 
my mind like electricity. I had not been in Egypt over 
twelve hours ; I did not understand the Arabs. Every- 
thing I had seen of them disgusted me. I had heard 
and read of their treachery, but felt safe in sight of 
Cairo, of English troops, with an English gentleman on 
the top, especially since I had paid the f<heik three shil- 
lings for the privilege of penetrating this "miracle in 
stone " that was as much mine as his. Every one who 
has traveled among the Arabs has anticipated me, I 
know, when I tell them that ''backsheesh, Hoivadji /" was 
the first sound that filled the darkness. Yes, they 
w^anted this job settled for then and there. An old, 
useless Arab had followed me up the mountain down 
again and inside, saying repeatedly : " I make you satis- 
fied, you make' me satisfied." So he yelled again and I 
responded in the vernacular of the place, " Yes, make 
me satisfied and I'll make you satisfied." I told them 
certainly I would give them plenty of backsheesh — they 
lighted up and in another minute we stood from under. 
And for the first and last time (though amongst them 
for two months afterwards) satisfied them with back- 



84 

sheesh. It was now sundown, but my friend, seeing me 
i-safe outside, determined to try it himself, with an expe- 
rience similar to mine. 

" This mighty structure stands immortal in its greatness, lift- 
ing its brow the nearest to heaven of all earthly works (1877), 
and asserting in every feature something more than human. 
With all of man's workmanship that went before it in utter 
ruin, it stands only the more readable from the damages 
•of time, the grand and indestructible monument of the true 
-primeval man. Upon its pedestal of rock, battered by the 
buflfetings of forty centuries, it stands, upspringing like a tongue 
•of fire kindled of God to light the course of time down to its 
final goal and consummation." 

"Old Time, himself so old, is like a child, 
And can't remember when these blocks were piled, 
Or caverns scooped ; but, with amaz'd eye, 
He seems to pause, like other stand ers-by. 
Half thinking how the wonders here made known 
Were born in ages older than his own.'' 

Next day we went through many of their bazaars, in 
which they sell fruits of Egypt and other countries — 
>cane, dates, oranges, bread, eggs, cheese, birds, fish, etc., 
•etc. All manner of fabrics of cloth, carpets, rugs, etc., 
from Arabia and Persia ; pipes and tobacco and cigar- 
•ettes, boots, shoes, slippers and fezes, hardware, and flag- 
ware and jars by the ten thousand, and everything else 
almost, and all on the ground in the streets on a rug, 
each man or firm just having what they can conveniently 
-take away at night. 



CHAPTER X. 



FARTHER UP THE NILE. 



I had arranged to take the trip up the Nile with Drs.. 
Whigham and Black on Cook's steamer, but being a lit- 
tle careless about securing a berth, found when I didl 
make application that all had been taken. They wished 
to register me in Rome for this excursion at £50, also at 
Naples for the same price, but at Brindisi they offered 
me a ticket for £25 sterling. We went from Cairo over* 
perhaps the dustiest railroad in existence, 247 miles to 
Assiout. No water is found on these trains unless the 
thoughtful traveler carries a cruse or water jar holding 
about one quart, which costs, jar and water, about two' 
cents. At Assiout we took the government postal steam- 
er and were enabled briefly to study the country in its- 
resources, its institutions and population. 

We learned that the Copts, about one-eighth of the- 
inhabitants, hold about one-fourth or more of the offices,., 
they are more competent, and being weak in a military 
sense are awake to their interest, and try to educate 
themselves. They hold nearly all the positions in civil 
service, while the military positions for religious reasons 
are given to Mahometans. The Copts have only one 
wife and are all Christians. They never intermarry 
with Arabs. 

The stations of the postal service are all on flat-boata 



86 

ancliored to the shore because the banks and level of the 
water are ever shifting under the annual overflow of the 
Xile. At these stations hundreds of Arabs gather on 
the arrival of the boat with cane, bread, eggs, cheese- 
curds, vegetables, pigeons, &c., &c., to sell, sometimes a 
hundred crying their wares at once until however much 
you want a thing, your only chance to get it is to catch 
the eye of the vender, who, calling the name of the 
goods he sells, says : " God will lighten my load of 
oranges;" *^God will forgive thy sins." At the same 
time from twenty-five to fifty are crying backsheesh. 

At Abooteeg all others gave way to an old blind man 
who yelled enough for a dozen. Our captain said his 
words at first meant, '^Oh, my Lord." This he rejoeated 
some scores of times ; he would then vary, and finally 
appealed to our idea of the ridiculous by barking like a 
dog — " bow I wow, wow I" so rapidly and with such 
frantic gesticulations, and leaping so as to permanently 
monopolize the attention of all, and secure his backsheesh. 

At the next station was a blind boy, who appealed only 
to the emotions and promise of reward for benefactions 
he had memorized those passages in the Koran suited to 
his purpose, these he used with great effect. The Arabs 
were moved as by the spell of elocjuence and contributed, 
as did also the Christians. 

The valley of the Xile from Assiout, 393 miles from 
Alexandria, is between the Lybian hills on the west and 
Aabian on the east. They rise suddenly from the plains 
500 feet high, presenting a barren front of limestone and 
begin the deserts of the same names. The valley, some- 
times 20 miles wide, is, on an average, about six or 
seven, and all under cultivation. The river will rise 
again in four months and in those sandbars left bare 



now they are planting " water-wel on seed. There are 
plenty of. tomatpes, peas, beans, &c., of this season's 
growth. We saw ' also ' water-melons in Cairo, They 
have harvested their sugar cane, and our captain says 
one acre will make tli^ree barrels of sugar. They also 
are harvesting barley |\yhich of ten only , grows eighteen 
inches high but as thick, a^s 'can well stand on the 
ground. Flax is maturing. " 

The Khedive owns many sugar factories along the 
Nile, making the best standard brands, and the price is 
about the same as w^ith us. . There are also ,very . large 
jug and jar fcictories here, as all the vessels used for 
water are earthen-ware. AVe saw perhaps fifty thousand 
at Farshoot. 

Our boat, the Akashea, carried us, among the most 
unique scenes we had ever witnessed. The skies above 
were cloudless by day and by night. The sun shone 
with intolerable heat by day, but when he retired behind 
the Lybian hills, the evaporation from the Nile soon 
cooled the air, and stars invisible in other lands sent 
twinkling rays down through the translucent atmos- 
phere. When it is hot the buffaloes come down in the 
river to wallow. The women wade out to fill their pon- 
derous water jars, a boat laden with jars, sheep, wheat 
or cane for market passes every now and then, the banks 
are lined with men working at the shadoof, in a state of 
nudity, except the poorest excuse of a breech cloth, their 
sweeps creaking on the axle, as with uniform swing they 
land the life-giving liquid. 

The Ibis religlosa venerated as divine by the ancient 
Egyptians is extinct, but many a flock of ducks evades 
the hurrying boat and every town furnishes thousands 
of pigeons. 



On the morning of the third day we reach Thebes — 
our destination. 

When we landed none of the objects of our visit were 
in sight, although I stood in the midst of Thebes, well 
calculated to "fascinate, appall, stun, defy the imagina- 
tion and confound the reason." Twas indeed "like en- 
tering a city of the giants, who, after a long contest had 
all been destroyed, leaving their vast temples as the only- 
proof of their existence." Her magnificence once justi- 
fied Homer in singing : 

"Not all proud Thebes* unrivalled walls contain 
The world's great Empress on the Egyptian plain 
That spreads her conquest o'er a thousand states, 
And pours her heroes through a hundred gates. 
Two hundred horsemen and two hundred cars, 
From each wide portal issuing to the wars." 

From Luxor we went to the tombs of the kings and 
the temples of ancient Thebes, four miles west of the 
river. Twenty-five of these tombs are up a defile Bab-el- 
Molouk, in the Lybian Mountains about one and a half 
miles from the plain and are all near together ; they 
are tunnels open at one end, and descending sometimes at 
a small angle, sometimes very steep, and are divided into 
a great many chambers, the principal one being for the 
king's sarcophagus and remains. One we visited, No. 17, 
of Sethi L, descends 180 feet below the entrance, and 
the bottom, which is nearly four hundred feet distant 
from the entrance, is more than five hundred feet per- 
pendicular from the top of the hill under which it was 
dug. The walls and ceiling are full of carved hierogly- 
phics except No. 17, which, much superior to the rest 
every way, is done in bas relief. 



89 

"On entering the tomb (of Sethi I.) the visitor finds himself 
actually transported into anew world, . . . All has become, 
so to speak, fantastical chimerical. The gods assume strange 
forms. Long serpents glide hither and thither round the rooms 
or stand erect against the doorways. Some convicted malefac- 
tors are being decapitated and others are being precipitated intO' 
the flames. Well might the visitor feel a kind of horror creep- 
ing over him if he did not realize that after all, underneath 
these strange representations lies the most consoling of dogmas,, 
that which vouchsafes eternal happiness to the soul after the 
many trials of this life. Such, in fact, is the meaning of the 
pictures which adorn the walls of this tomb. This legend must 
be understood in an allegorical sense. The judgment of the 
soul after being separated from the body, and the many trials 
which it will be called upon to overcome by the aid only of 
such virtues as it has evinced while on earth, constitute the sub- 
ject-matter w'hich cover the tomb, from the entrance to the 
extreme end of the last chamber. The serpents standing erect 
over each portal, darting out venom, are the guardians ol the 
gates of heaven— the soul cannot pass unless justified by works 
of piety and benevolence. Thus the tomb is only the emblem 
of the voyage of the soul to its eternal abode . . . from room 
to room we witness its progress as it appears before the gods 
and becomes gradually purified, at last in the grand hall, at the 
end, it is admitted into that life which a second death shall 
never reach."— 3iaWe^^^. 

I took coj^ies of the hieroglyphics from several of these 
tombs but the raised letters copied much the best. We 
lunched in one of these, and rode through the Necropolis 
to the temple-tomb (of marble) of Queen Hatasou and 
the Eamesium — Temple of Eameses II. "erected in the 
very center of the district of the dead, the monument 
where after his death his subjects should come and 
evoke his memory and wherein he naturally displays his 
piety, his glory and, as a matter of course, his campaigns." 

"Eameses should have been pleased with his temple, 
for it was not built by his descendant, but by himself 
self and for his own honor." 
7 



90 

AYe visited the Temple of Medinet Habou and the 
iVIemnonium of Strabo where a few f oundatiou stones 
and the gigantic colossi alone remain. One of these is 
said to have greeted Aurora with a song each morn- 
ing ; the expansion caused by the sun's heat (it being 
shattered) no doubt has at times made noise enough to 
attract attention and give rise to the legend. They once 
stood at the entrance of a temple nearly one-fourth of a 
mile in length. Many of the columns of the temple of 
Eameses the Great still stand with the Osiride images 
in situ, but much defaced. The most important thing 
here is the statue of Rameses. It is a monolith of red 
granite, representing the king sitting, hands on his 
knees, at peace with his enemies. 

It was originally 57 feet high and over 22 feet 4 
inches across the shoulders, and is estimated to weigh 
1198 tons. It has been thrown down and much broken, 
many millstones having been taken from the very face, 
but from the armpits up it is entire, except exteriorly 
much mutilated, and is above ground, so as to exhibit 
"just what it was, the largest statue in the world." But 
how it became so broken to pieces no man knoweth. 
This is No of the Scriptures: — "Thus saith the 
Lord God : I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause 
their images to cease out of Noph ; and there shall be 
no more a prince of the land of Egypt ; and I will put a 
fear in the land of Egypt. And I will make Pathros 
desolate, and will set fire in Zoan, and will execute 
judgments in No. And I will pour my fury upon 
Sin, the strength of Egypt ; and I will cut off the mul- 
titude of No. And I will set fire in Egypt : Sin shall 
have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, and Noph 



91 

shall have distresses daily. The young men of Aven 
and of Pi-beseth shall fall by the sword : and these cities 
shall go into captivity." " At Tehaphnehes also the 
day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the 
yokes of Eg}^t; and the pomp of her strength shall 
cease in her: as for her a cloud shall cover her, and her 
daughters shall go into captivity. Thus will I exe- 
cute judgments in Egypt, and they shall know that I 
am the Lord."— Ezek. 30: 13-19. And I turned and 
read up the prophecies and decrees of God against these 
idolatrous cities and I saw that they are literally ful- 
filled. We went one mile south to the Temple of Medi- 
inet Habou, where the only naval battle of the Egyptians 
is recorded on the walls. Here is a great succession of 
temples representing much history and probably great 
devotion ; the victors are cutting off and counting the 
hands of the vanquished. Once a Christian church was 
in the precincts of this temple, in the very court where 
we now stand. All the works of art here have been 
destroyed nearly. Theodosius, anxious to root out idol- 
atry, ruined much, perhaps jealous and envious con- 
querors, more. All these temples, while at a good ele- 
vation above the Nile's overflow, are still underground, 
except where reclaimed by scientists. The people clus- 
tered around these deserted temples after their overthrow 
and lived in them and built around them until debris 
accumulating, they built on the tops of them, and so 
they became buried, and there being no communication 
about such things between the inhabitants and lovers of 
antiquity, some of these cities and temples were long 
lost. There are miserable mud towns all around every 
one of them now. 




PYLON, OR GATEJlTOjEGYPTIAN TEMPLE, 8o FEET HIGH. 



93 

The next day we visited the Temple of Karnak, the 
most imposing in the world, whose walls 25 feet thick 
and eighty high, are penetrated by four splendid pylons 
still standing; it contains the tallest obelisk in the 
world, 108 feet 10 inches high, of red granite. As we 
sat in the shadow of this obelisk a strange being sud- 
denly appeared before us whose approach had been un- 
-observed. He is so correctly described by another that 
I copy, omitting one or two sentences: 

" In the Temple of Karnak, amid the grandeur unparalleled, 
was a scene so strange and weird, so horrible yet fascinating, as 
to surpass the wildest fancies of Dumas or Eugene Sue. It 
thrilled, repelled, yet held the gaze until nature, half-paralyzed 
by the spectacle, asserted itself and compelled the removal of 
the object. \. creature in the form of a human being, paralyzed, 
mute, naked, except for a rag tied across the loins ; with shaven 
head, apparently seventy years of age, perchance not more than 
fifty, perhaps nearly one hundred, exactly the color of the 
ruined columns and the doorway, crawled out from under the 
broken pillars and huge monoliths, as a lizard might emerge 
from a pile of stones. A mumbling, inarticulate sound emerged 
from his lips ; he moved sideways and tried to rise, and held 
out his hands for alms; * * * some of the Egyptian attendants 
seemed to stand in awe of him, and hesitated to drive him back 
into the obscurity whence he had emerged. And when at last 
two of them lifted him up to move him, he exerted what 
strength he had and broke from them, falling upon the ground 
and moving off" with the sinuous sideway motion with which 
he had approached ; but whenever he fell the hand which was 
held out to receive alms always came into position. Nothing 
human have I ever seen in collections of deformities and idiot 
asylums so peculiar; nothing which appeared to efface human- 
ity and so transform a man into a beast. 

" I departed with an intensified sense of the greatness and of 
the littleness of man." — Observations Abroad. 

Here stands the most massive and Avell preserved col- 
umns; one court alone contains 134 columns, t-welve 



94 

feet in diameter and sixty feet liigh, with capitals of 
open and closed lotns — called the forest of columns. 
The whole is If miles in circumference, and dating, a 
part of it, to 3064 B. C. 

As we Avandered through the ruins of this temple, 
covering 90 acres and gazed in bewilderment upon the 
time-defying obelisk, massive pylons and cyclopean walls, 
and above all, the magnificent forest of columns, in im- 
agination we repeopled these plains with a race superior 
in civilization to these moderns, laid oif the vast plain 
into streets and stood dazed in the old, proud ''Empress 
of the Egyptian plain." 

The ocean by its vastness and power, the mountain by 
its lofty seclusion awe us, but not less so these stu- 
pendous, mysterious ruins. These stones were quarried 
and strangely freighted from some far-away mine, and 
by the greatest of architects reared for the glory of their 
city and worship of their gods, ages before Columbus 
sailed in seach of America or the cornerstones of London 
or Komeor Athens were laid, before the children of Israel 
crossed the Red Sea, or Moses was born, when all the 
nations that now exist lay back in the womb of barbarism. 

The air seemed "heavy with history." With what 
exultant pride the ancient builder stood apart to look 
upon the labors of his hands I Was he not a worshiper 
of nature's Architect whose templed universe suggested 
the pattern for this temple on the Xile I 0, wonderful 
men of old I 0, silent yet most eloquent pillars that 
defy the marvelous sweep of Time that has vanquished 
all your contemporaries of old I What countless myr- 
iads have come and gone since the chisel decreed you to 
be so grandly beautiful ^ I thank you for the spell, the 



95 



inspiration, the dread engendered only in sucli presence. 
We stopped at Denderah returning, and found a tem- 
ple entire. Mariette says this temple was in course of 
completion while Jesus was living in Jerusalem. It 
consists of not less than 27 halls and chambers on the 
first floor ; others above are reached by two flights of 
stone stairs. This temple was not a place for the peo- 
ple to meet and worship, it was penetrated only by the 
king, priests and their special attendants, no dwellings 
exist for priests as in the temple at Jerusalem. " It was a 
sacred depository, a place of preparation (for fetes) and 
of consecration. Here processions were organized and 
the sacred vessels carefully stored away; if inside all 
was dark and sombre and nothing indicates the use of 
artificial light— that darkness w^as intended to intensify 
the mystery of the ceremonies, while it secured the only 
mode known of preserving the precious objects and the 
sacred vestments from the ravages of insects and flies, from 
the penetrating dust and from the scorching sun." The 
cathedrals of Eome, some of them, might trace their 
pedigree this far up the Mle if not farther. 



CHAPTER XI. 



DOWN THE NILE TO CAIRO. 



The Mle, one-fourth to one-half a mile wide, increases 
in Yolnme from its months upwards for fourteen hun- 
dred miles, owing to the vast quantity of water used for 
irrigation and evaporation, and the fact that through all 
this distance it is without a tributary. The water is 
muddy, a seal brown, but when tiltered is clear and cool. 
Besides the steamer, two or three other kinds of boats 
ply on the bosom of Sihor, as the ancients called the 
Nile. The largest of these is called the dahabeah. It 
has state-rooms like a steamer, but is moved by sails and 
oars. They are often fifty feet in length, perhaps eighty 
or a hundred. One-half of the dahabeah is devoted to 
state rooms, saloon, &c., the other to cargo, deck, and for 
the liberty of those managing sails and oars. Other 
boats (Markebs) using sails when the wind favored and 
long heavy oars, laden with Avheat, sheep, water jars, &c., 
went down to Cairo and Alexandria and returned well 
nigh empty or with merchandise for countries south of 
Egypt. As every nation that uses ships has a peculiar sail 
with Avhich to drive them, so the sails of any Egptian 
boat are like birds' wings drawn out and up, the points 
farthest from the mast being sharp. They are stretched 
on booms and sheets supported by a long sweep balanced 
on an upright j^ost rather than masts, and at such an 
angle as the sailors choose. Sometimes half a dozen 



97 

Arabs tugged tliem slowly up the stream by a long rope, 
sometimes in the water, sometimes on the bank. We 
have noticed their boats and cargo covered over with a 
network that allowed the cargo of water- jars to reach 
several feet beyond the sides of the boat. The wheat 
was poured out in the boat without sacks, as it was upon 
the ground when they reached market. 

Thousands of natives almost entirely nude raise water 
to irrigate the lands for from one to three ■piastres, five 
to fifteen cents, per day. Herons fly round us all the 
time and fine large ducks, while hordes of tame uncouth 
monsters called here buffaloes come down and wallow in 
the Nile like hogs. 

In the morning and evening it is pleasant on the Nile, 
but in the middle of the day it is hot, no clouds protect 
one from the sun during the day. At night overcoats 
are needed ; many natives wear them all day. 

Keturning to Cairo I visited On or Heliopolis, where 
Moses was graduated, about six miles north-east from 
Cairo. I went alone as my companions had gone to the 
pyramids, which I had visited previously. The price of 
a carriage was ten shillings, having proved their excel- 
lent qualities of locomotion in upper Egypt I deter- 
mined to ride a donkey, as he would cost me, with a 
donkey boy, only three shillings. There is always a 
crowd of boys and men with donkeys to hire on the 
streets of Cairo, and as soon as they learned that I want- 
ed one, twenty or thirty surrounded me, each proclaim- 
ing the superiority of his animal. I did not want to go 
at that moment, so crowding to the margin of the mob I 
ran as fast as I could down a side street. One of them 
gave a signal to another company ahead of me, and they 
started to meet me, the former following, and so hemmed 



99 

nie in between the walls, full forty of them, each with a 
donkey to let, and each determined that I should ride 
his. Seeing no way of escape, I took out my knife and 
began hacking as if I would cut them to pieces and try- 
ing to look as desperate as possible, but all to no avail ; 
they never noticed the knife more than if I had had 
none, so I took a donkey and am sure the worst donkey 
boy in Egypt, and started to see the remains, of Egypt's 
old university town. On the road I passed a cemetery 
where they were burying a babe without a coffin, as they 
have no timber out of which to make coffins. It was 
wrapped up very tightly, rather I should say bound up, 
laid in a recess on one side of a shallow grave and the 
sand and gravel poured in upon it. I was ordered to 
quit the place before .he interment was complete, which 
I afterward learned was because I was unclean; being 
only a Christian I had no right, and they determined not 
to suffer me to pollute the sacred place. 

On leaving I saw a woman veiled and seated about 
fifty yards away weeping aloud. I asked my donkey-boy 
the cause of her weeping ; he said she was the child's 
mother. I asked why she was there alone. " She does 
not w^ant the men to see her face," he said. 

It was my fortune to witness two other funeral proces- 
sions the same day. One was that of Haggar Ali, evi- 
dently a man of distinction and popularity, by the style- 
and size of the procession, and the fact that ten widows 
were following his bier, over which most gorgeous ban- 
ners floated high in the air. 

Another corpse followed by a large concourse and five 
wives, had been no doubt a man of importance, whose- 
name I never learned ; both had been entirely too much 
married. The procession accompanying these corpses 



100 

'made vocal and martial music, wherefore I judged tliem 
to have been government or army officials. 

AVe passed on the way to On a multitude of Arabs 
formed in a circle about thirty feet in diameter. We 
paused to ascertain the cause of the excitement. A 
snake-charmer had two striped snakes about a yard long 
Tv^hich were crawling about over his bare shoulders, arms 
.and neck, and he was making his little boy, about five 
years old, handle them in the same way. The boy very 
reluctantly undertook his part, w^hereupon the father (if 
he were a father) would take a clamp made of iron, spring 
it open, run one end in the boy's mouth, the other resting 
on his cheek and pressing so tightly that the blood would 
•ooze out, while he would stand off and deliver an ani- 
mated speech in Arabic to the delighted spectators, not 
.seeming to notice his boy, whose anguish was expressed 
in wailings and tears. I could not willingly witness such 
inhuman conduct and hurried away. 

Nothing of interest remains at On save the obelisk, 
'66i feet high and the oldest one standing, said to have 
been erected "1740 B. 0. by Usertasen, under whom 
.Joseph came to Egypt," — Wilkinsoii, — at which Moses 
and Joseph before, must often have looked, and perhaps 
criticised the hieroglyphics on it. Under its shadow 
Plato studied Philosophy, and our Savior in infancy 
may have looked at it, as the tree called tne " Virgin's 
Tree," where the holy family is said to have rested, when 
they fled into Egypt, is nearly in sight. It is an old syc- 
amore, similar in appearance to a mulberry, cut and 
.scarred by vain tourists, standing about eighty yards 
from the highway; it is reached by passing through a gate 
and the walks of a lovely garden, where bachsheesh is 
is^anted when you enter, while you stay and when you 



101 

leave; in fact the gate-keei^er refused to let me out until 
T had satisfied some half-dozen urchins who seized my 
donkey's bridle and tail when I mounted to start and 
wanted more ; but after all you can often satisfy half a 
dozen of them with a dime, while again they will clamor 
until they have gotten two or three times as much as 
they have earned, and the only way to deal -with them 
satisfactorily is to fix the price of everything before- 
starting with them, pay^this^only at the end of the jour- 
ney, or they will never complete it. 

I went with a gentleman of Dr. Whigham's party to^ 
the i^yramids the first day we were in Cairo. We bar- 
gained to give fifteen shillings for a carriage and guide,, 
he unwittingly paid him before reaching our hotel, and 
because we did not give "backsheesh," he stopped, we- 
paid him a shilling to go on, he drove about fifty yards 
and stopped again, wanting^more "backsheesh," and we- 
could not urge him farther. We reached the hotel on 
foot. It was our first day amongst them and we had not 
learned their tricks. They are superlatively filthy,, 
though some are scrupulously cleanly. We saw hun- 
dreds of them lying on the streets asleep in the scorch- 
ing sunshine. In the main they are very healthy look- 
ing; they live on bread and vegetables, rice and buffalo- 
milk. 

There was a fine mission work being prosecuted here 
in Cairo, under Dr. Lansing and Dr. Bliss (who has 
since died) of the Presbyterian Church. We visited, 
them and heard them relate how they had moved on 
from a small beginning to large success. We saw about 
one hundred young Arab men belonging to their school 
in a debating society, discussing some query in quite a. 



102 

lively manner, but it was all Arabic to us. The mis- 
sionary at Luqsor was absent while we were there, but 
we met several of his pupils which are more or less cred- 
itable to him. I think he is doing a fair work. How 
they can endure the summer here is more than I can un- 
derstand. Life must be in great peril later in the sea- 
son. But when the Lord said, "\Y\io will go for us ?" 
the love of Christ and souls constrained them and they 
said, "Here am I, send me." 

I and Mr. Merrill went to the Boulac Museum, the 
the most important of any in the world on some accounts. 
Here are the best preserved and most numerous works of 
art of the ancient Egyptians and the most illustrous 
mummies that now exist or perhaps ever will. Julius 
Caesar or even Alexander the Great, would be modern 
beside these hoary monarchs. But here they are in a 
state of excellent preservation. 

Here is Sethi I., whose tomb we explored at Thebes 
done in bass-relief from the entrance to the most remote 
recesses, at a cost, no doubt, reckoning on our basis of 
valuing time and labor, of millions of dollars. Fully ten 
thousand square feet of surface was filled with raised 
hieroglyphics. He is the Pharaoh, whose daughter 
found little Moses, at whose table Moses ate, on whose 
knees he sat, these same hands no doubt smoothed back 
the curls from his parched brow many a day when he 
came in from play. He is a little above the medium 
height and very bright. Just beside him is his son, 
Rameses the 11. , commonly called Rameses the Great. 
Hejs dark, owing probably to the discoloring effect of the 
•embalming material. He began to rule on the throne 
at 11 years of age, and waged war at 7 3'ears of age, he 



103 

ruled 67 .years altogether; he was three years younger 
than Moses and no doubt they had many a boyish joust 
and turn down m the Nile. He is that Pharaoh who 
was angry at Moses, when he heard that Moses had 
taken an Egyptian's life, and he sought to kill him, and 
Moses fled from his face and from Egypt until Rameses 
was dead ; he is the author of the largest Monolith image 
ever made ; under him Egypt obtained quiet from all 
her enemies. 

He is known to Egyptologists as the Pharaoh of the 
oppression (of the IsraeHtes.) 

Beside these is Thothmes the 3rd, known as the Na- 
poleon of Egypt, because he was the greatest of her 
warriors. Under him Egypt " placed her frontier where 
she pleased." "On the beautiful stela of victory of Thoth- 
mes III, at Boulaq, it is written: I Anion have spread 
the fear of thee to the four pillars of heaven."— ^6ers. 

Standing in the presence of these old monarchs of 
antiquity and thinking of the changes since their day 
and how they laid the foundation to so large an extent 
of all subsequent civilization, it seems as if the ends of 
the earth were come together. 

As I looked down upon their upturned faces that did 
not seem more than a decade to have suffered by the 
ravages of time, I thought of the poet's words : 

"The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces, 
The solemn temples, the great globe itself, 
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve ; 
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded. 
Leave not a rdck behind : We are such stuff 
As dreams are made of, and our little life 
Is rounded with a sleep." —Tempest. 

One is awed in the presence of the universal slayer's 



104 

mighty victims. Could those silent lips but speak, what 
stories could they relate ! What light cast upon the 
dark and distant past, about our fathers who went down 
into Egypt, and sojourned there, in a strange land; 
about these old tombs and temples, obelisks and pyra- 
mids, through which the antiquarian wanders, and pon- 
ders, vainly trying to make them reveal their secrets. 
Could it be authoritatively announced that on a given 
day they would rise in their coffins and tell their expe- 
riences, what a pilgrimage of Savants there would be. 
Every additional item of knowledge, however, only con- 
firms our sacred records. The sight of these old kings 
was well worth the journey to Egypt, and had I seen no 
more should have felt myself to be well repaid. I said 
rest on old heroes to wield the sword of truth more 
mighty than the ones of steel that gave you such re- 
nown ; let your shrivelled hands, though palsied by 
death, crush the mighty king's ot error, who fain would 
rob us of the heritage bequeathed us by Moses ; you 
sought his life then, but remain to defend his teach- 
ings now; your lifeless bodies, if not worth more to the 
race than your ambitious spirits challenge, at least, 
an equal place. 

If man has acquired the skill of thus preserving from 
decay the perishable body of his fellow-man, what an 
easy task will it be for the great Creator to summon the 
scattered particles of those who have not been preserved 
by the embalmers art, on the resurrection morning ! 

"Why should it be thought a thing incredible that 
God should raise the dead!" 



CHAPTER XII. 



ODDS AND ENDS. 



I noticed in Cairo two footmen dressed in white 
.frocks to the knees, bare-legged, with long tasseled caps 
on their heads and bearing long sticks as soldiers carry 
arms. They trotted about twenty steps in front of a 
carriage in which an English lady and gentleman were 
seated. These fellows will hire as footmen to run all 
dfiy for two and a half cents per hour, or even less. 
Cheap p ges. 

On the way up I noticed the natives cleaning out a 
canal ; fully one thousand of them were at work, most 
of them without a shred of clothing, which fact seemed 
not to embarrass them in the least. They did not have 
a spade, a wheel-barrow, nor cart, but standing in rows 
of five, six, seven and eight, or nine, the first in the bot- 
tom of the canal cut out a chunk of mud weighing ten 
or fifteen pounds with his hands, passed it on to the sec- 
ond and he to the third up the bank until it reached the 
top, where the last man took it and cast it as far as he 
could. Some of them were standing two and three feet 
deep in the mud. Their manner of ditching was about 
as primitive as that of North Carolinians in working the 
public roads, in some counties. 

The clover of Egypt grows about three feet high, is 
very nourishing to herbivorous animals, and is cut 



106 

with a knife. I did not see a mowing scythe in the 
country. One can sit down and cut as much as he can 
carry without moving. They carry camel loads (about 
five hundred or six hundred pounds) and donkey loads 
of it to the towns every day. These loads of grass 
borne by donkeys often present a laughable sight — 



^^> 







WATER CARRIER. 



nothing but the feet of the animal is seen, or possibly a 
pair of ears and a tail and feet ; the rest is enveloped in 
a great mound of green clover. One can buy enough of 
it to support a donkey or a horse for a day for three or 
four cents. 



107 

On all the highways great numbers of women can be 
seen gathering dung, which is made into cakes, dried in 
the sun, and stored away for fuel, with which they cook. 
They are driven to this extremity beca'use no timber 
except for fruit and shade is found. 

Tlie Arabs have a market day every week ; on that 
day every one who has anything to sell, or who wishes 
to buy, will go to the bazaar, often with long trains of 
laden camels fastened tandem. The first is ridden or 
led, a rope halter with an iron piece under the chin of 
the second, hurting him if he pull back, fastens him 
to the saddle of the first ; the third is in like manner 
fastened to the second, and so on till a caravan is easily 
managed by one driver. If th^y live near the city they 
pause on the suburbs, as there is a tax on everything 
that passes the city boundaries. One often sees as many 
as a thousand, and half as many donkeys and camels, 
all seated on the ground, (except the donkeys) with all 
the products of the country and every article imported 
into the country for sale. On market day only will you 
find them there. If they are far from the city they 
have a meeting place in the country, where they bring 
horses, donkeys, sheep, goats and cattle, and spend the 
day trading. 

As priests in the Greek and Catholic churches are 
distinguished by their caps, so the different sects of 
Mohammedans are also. The ordinary Arab wears a 
red fez with a black tassel in the center of the crown. I 
have read that families were once distinguished by the 
color of the fez. I was told that those who have made 
the pilgrimage to Mecca are afterwards entitled to wear 
a green fez. The Dervish wears a gray fez with double 
the altitude of an ordinary red fez and four times the 
bulk or thickness ; in fact it is made of the same ma- 
terial as a saddle blanket and as thick. 



108 

There are two sects of Dervishes — the Dancers and 
Howlers. The first sway their bodies to and fro and 
whirl around on tip toe, singing, and saying "He is one. 
He is God," Lah-lllah- Allah! , until exhausted. 

The Howlers will sit cross-legged on the floor and 
repeat verses of the Koran and whine as they sing or 
read from their book, swaying their bodies back and 
forth. None but the Dancing Dervishes allow Christians 
to be present during the hours of worship on Friday. 
But they worship anywhere any day, iji a railway car- 
riage, on the roadside, on the deck of a boat. They 
generally spread down a handkerchief or blanket on the 
ground, get on their knees, put their forehead three 
times to the earth, ]rise and stand, face towards Mecca, 
touch the lower tip of the ears with the ends of the 
thumbs, fold their Uiands across the breast, kneel and 
touch their forehead the fourth time to the ground, 
usually taking about three minutes to worship. 

A fellow traveller told me a story of an Arab, which is 
true to life. A physician had taken a very poor Arab 
to his house and treated him for some disease that 
promised to prove fatal, but the medical man succeeded 
in making a cure. When the doctor told his j^^tient 
that he was well enough to return home, the good mus- 
sulman thought] that the doctor was under lasting obli- 
gations for the privilege I of having had such a subject 
to practice upon, and before leaving told him bethought 
he (the doctor) should bestow some nice backsheesh 
(present) by which to| remember him. "The only grat- 
itude they know'is a lively desire for greater favors." 

Said Joseph was our guide to the tombs of the Kings. 
He had two wives. We asked him about a multiplicity 
of wives. He said, "Two wives no good." When the 



109 



husband maltreats one wife she carries the caee to a 
judge, who calls the rascal to account and extracts 
pledges of good behavior. The punishment of the wife 
is left to the husband, who is often very brutal. 

We noticed excavations going on around the temple of 
Luqsor— one which Joseph is supposed by some to have 
built. The Arabs were reclaiming, under English or 
French engineers, I did not learn which, this most won- 
derful seat of ancient worship. About two hundred 
Arabs were carrying the earth off in flag baskets. Many 
children were engaged on the job. I pointed out one 
little girl about five years old, crouched in a sunk place 
on the bank of the river, lying as flat on the ground as 
possible. Said I, she is hid to keep from work. We 
stopped about where she was concealed ; the overseer 
looking at us discovered her, called her out, abused her, 
if he did not beat her. She was exhausted no doubt,' 
and obeyed the voice of nature within her that called 
for rest. The overseer looked, with a flail in his hand 
like the pictures we have seen of the task-masters put 
over the Israelites of old. These living wheel-barrows 
get from two to fifteen cents per day. 

The American Consul at Luqsor is an Arab, Morad 
Ah. His son speaks English very well, having been 
educated at the Mission school there. We were invited 
to dine with him one day and accepted the invitation 
We were there to learn. Now in every place one visits 
111 the east, there are antiquity venders, ^^Geniwine an- 
tique, Howadjir Antiques vary in price according to 
the success the manuflicturer has had in making them 
look old, worn and dingy. 

Our Consul had a large store of antiques. And din- 
ner over, his son invited us to look at them. That wa^ 



110 

the secret of the invitation to dinner. He had a museum 
indeed, worth a great deal to look at. He sold mum- 
mies and mummy cases. He had mummy cats thou- 
sands of years old, hawks, and scarabs worth ten and 
fifteen pounds sterling. And whatever you priced ' was 
high, many times the price of the same article sold 
by one who had no claim to our patronage. So we 
bought enough to satisfy him that his invitation was ap- 
preciated and not extended in vain. 

The donkey-boys are equally shrewd, and if their 
patrons are Americans the}^ name their donkeys after 
some famous American, if he is English, after some Eng- 
lish Lord. If French, after Napoleon, Boulanger, &c.' 
"VVe have rode on Buffalo Bill, Grant, Abraham, Ma- 
homet and Solomon. 

The following j^aragraph is from a sermon by my 
comrade, Mr. Merrill, after his return to America: 



For hundreds of miles, beyond where the railway ends and 
foreign energy steps, you see no separate house upon the land,, 
the sign of ownership and independence. Only villages of mud 
rising here and there out of the plain, where the dwellings of 
the people look like the burrows of animals in a bank of earth. 
At every landing where the boat touches, are crowds of people, 
half fed, half clothed, wholly unwashed, indolent, squalid, beg- 
gars and blind, indifferent, crushed in all their hopes by the 
miserable government over them, paying two-thirds the price 
of all products in taxes and often robbed of the rest. With no- 
capacity to enjoy anything beyond the leeks and black bread 
that appease their hunger for the hour — with not enough 
spirit to raise their hands and brush from their fiices the swarm 
of flies that gather there under the torrid sun. You would not 
expect in that torpidity, in that lotus eating life, any growth of 
hope or any desire for something better beyond the borders of 
the Nile, but I found it even there. I had on the last day at 
Karnak and Luxon a donkey boy who had learned a little Eng- 
lish and had, with much enterprise, named his donkey after a 



Ill 

certain president of the United States. As he ran beside the 
animal during the day he asked much about America, and I 
answered all his questions and asked him if he would like to go 
there to live. "Yes, yes," he said, "me go with you!" He 
found out that I was to leave on the steamer at 6 o'clock in the 
evening and just as I got on board and was looking down upon 
the deck I saw Hassen, the donkey boy, running down the bank 
and pushing through the crowd with eager eyes called "you 
take me ! me go with you !" I wanted to take him but could 
do nothing. Tossing him a bit of money I answered, "No." 
His face fell and he was silent, but in a moment after he was 
gesticulating and calling me again to take him, saying "he would 
work hard, be good boy and never leave me," and the last view 
I had of Luxon, as the darkness fell and the steamer moved 
aw^ay, was of the young Arab, Hassen (the acquaintance of a 
day) reaching out his hands in the darkness and imploring that 
he might be taken to America. It seemed to me it was but a 
repetition of that old cry and of that deep darkness and bond- 
age out of which God once led the Hebrews into the promised 
land- a darkness and a bondage that has prevailed for nearly 
all its history over the face of Egypt. 



ilillFfiil^ 




fT^^fiwiiTr^p "T '''''TinTii'n'"J«^ni!|iifi\l 



CHAPTER XIII. 



ON SUEZ CANAL. 



Following backward the course over which earthly- 
kingdoms have passed, we go from the home of the 
greatest of the first nations. 

As we flew along through the land of Goshen towards 
ihe Suez Canal, and I read again how God dealt with 
Pharaoh — the man raised up to show what long suffer- 
ing and authority belong to God — the story of Joseph, 
the finest and most succinct delineation of human na- 
ture, of the domestic affections and the strength of 
blood affinities, of the special providence of God, of the 
strength and rewards of faith, of the nature and power 
of prayer — a story that has ever had a beauty super- 
natural and a pathos elsewhere unequalled, appeared 
still more beautiful when I here read it again. 

I tried to picture the two and a half millions of He. 
brews taking up their line of march towards the Red 
Sea, and Pharaoh worried almost to death by Moses, a 
friend, could he but have seen it, after burying his first 
born, gathering his armies, it may be from the very 
necropolis, to pursue the malcontents and force them to 
return, the safe jDassage of the latter and the final ca- 
tastrophe that overwhelmed the haughty monarch and 
his hosts. 

We reached Ismail, on the Canal, forty-seven miles 
from Port Said, where we stayed all night, in one of the 
prettiest towns on earth. The streets are as straight as 



114 

an arrow, well shaded, macadamised and intersected b}^ 
street car lines. The inhabitants are French and Arabs,, 
and number three or four thousand. 

The next morning was so stormy that we could not 
go aboard the steamer, because the canal here passes 
thiough lake Timsah, five miles in length, and the 
waves were so violent we could not come near enough 
in small boats to board her, and we had to walk three 
miles to pier No. 6, at the north-west end of the lake. 
There were many weakly ladies in the company, some 
of whom could not obtain conveyances and w^ho had to 
walk also, and were of course exhausted. They were 
under the supervision of tourists' agents and held an: 
indignation meeting that evening, after reaching Port 
Said, severely censuring Cook & Son for allowing them 
to suffer such inconveniences and also for detaining 
them a day too long at Port Said. 

Port Said is three hours, by steamer, from Ismail, on 
the Suez Canal, cut all the way through the desert. It 
was so very windy that the air was filled with sand, and 
one could not see over a hundred yards. Dredges 
worked by steam are engaged lifting sand from the bot- 
tom of the canal by a number of large buckets fastened 
to an endless belt or chain. These buckets j^ass over a- 
large spout, inclining downwards from the dredge and 
reaching a hundred feet or more from the canal. Into 
this spout the buckets empty their load of sand and 
water and it flows far off" on the shore, and thus the 
canal is kept navigable. It is seventy-two feet wide at 
the base, at the narrowest place, and widening out to 
two and three hundred feet where the banks are low. 
The water is twenty-six feet deep. 

The day we spent at Port Said is never to be forgot-- 



115 • 

ten. It was the Sabbadi. Our steamer was appointedl 
to sail that day, but could not load her cargo, though 
the sailors labored hard all da}'. The passengers went 
in a body to the office and tried to iorce the officers into- 
measures, but all in vain. It was late in the afternoon 
Monday before she sailed. AVe were all shocked at 
seeing them load the boat on Sunday, but protested 
against having to rest ourselves. I remarked to Mr. M.,. 
it seems as if the Lord meant to make us rest to-day 
any-way, and though we went with the multitude, (shall 
I say to do evil?) amongst whom were four or five 
clergymen beside, we were glad of the delay. Our 
rule was not to travel on Sundays. All sorts of 
people live here — Arabs of course, (the country is- 
full of them) Germans, English, but more French ; the 
Arabs seem to take to the French and vice versa, besides 
the French followed De Lesseps, the canal builder, here 
and remained. No standard of morality is required, 
hence the most shocking scenes are common. Sailors 
of every nationality continually coming and going find 
a populace ever ready to commingle on the lowest moral 
stratum and pander to the most vicious tastes. 

We inquired for a church, but none could be found. 
There is a large square where a band plays Sunday- 
afternoon, and thousands are coming and going all the 
time. This is the only place where we saw Caucasians 
and Arabs intermarried. There were hundreds of rag- 
a-muffins parading the streets. Little girls from five to- 
ten years of age with dresses that touched the ground 
wearing bustles large as water-buckets, and sporting 
beaux, presented a sight altogether novel to us, and ex- 
tremely ridiculous. Men were dressed in female attire, 
and perhaps females were dressed as men. Whites were- 
blacked, and the band and soldiers burlesqued by reck- 



116 

lees boys, with all manner of squeaking instruments, and 
sticks for swords and guns — wearing false faces, &c. 
Thus the French holiday takes the place of the Christian 
Sabbath of rest and worship, and as a further conse- 
quence gambling hells and other ruinous institutions oc- 
cupy where churches should have been built and Sun- 
day schools carried on. 

An Arab boy persisted in an effort to black my shoes, 
against all protestations, though I told him he should 
not, with all possible earnestness and emphasis, until, 
seeing escape from him was impossible, I told him I 
would not pay him. He followed, however, occasion- 
ally getting a stroke at them until he thought them pol- 
ished sufficiently to justify a claim for pay. He then 
began to beg ; I was unconcerned for a long w^iile, wish- 
ing to see how long he would hold out ; he probably 
would have stayed until night had not a stranger stand- 
ing by slapped him over, or had I not left. 

But to have any fair estimate of Port Said one must 
see it. On the greatest thoroughfare of the world it has 
caught up many of the worst of travellers' habits. It 
would be a great strategic point for missionary opera- 
tions. 

The great iron-clads of France, England and Turkey, 
that lie in waiting there continually for any safety their 
commerce may demand, teach us that we too, as a 
church or churches, should occupy and defend inter- 
■ests dearer than all else. 

At last the Venus is ready to sail to Joppa and with 
regret we cast a last look upon old Egypt, wonderful in 
rivers and ruins, people and pyramids, an atmosphere 
translucent, a desert more awful if not sublime than 
mountains or ocean, a sky in a peculiar sense "inlaid 



117 



with patens of bright gold," and gardens as fertile as 
Eden. 

"Egypt, to which Abraham, the father of the faithful went' 
when the ftimine was sore in his land ; to which Joseph was 
sold ; and to which the sons of Jacob went as their great-grand 
father, Abraham, had done before, because there was corn in 
Egypt ; and to which pious Jacob followed captive Benjamin to 
receive an imperial welcome from long lost Joseph; Egypt 
where the children of Israel were in bondage four hundred 
years. Egypt, birthplace of Moses, whose life voyage began on 
the Nile, in an ark of bulrushes ; scene of most wonderful dis- 
plays of Jehovah's power, when river and air, sea and sky trem- 
bled with horror as an earthly potentate refused to obey the In- 
finites' command, "Let my people go"; whence he brought them 
out with a high hand and an outstretched arm ; Egypt, which 
in the long history of Israel till the coming of the Son of Man 
was so intimately associated for good or for evil with God's 
chosen people that Dean Stanley calls it "the mother country'' 
of Palestine, and which at last was a refuge for the Saviour of 
the world when "He came unto His own, and His own received 
Him not.' - Egypt, fRreweUr—Ohservations Abroad. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



THE OLDEST SEAPORT 



Standing with fifty or sixty other passengers on deck 
■of the steamship Venus, of the Austrian Lloyd Line, 
on March the 5th, the first gray streaks of dawn reveal- 
ed to us the lowlying country of Philistia to the south- 
east and the ashy colored range of Judean hills stretch- 
ing away to Mt. Carmel in the north and to Hebron in 
the south. What feelings of mingled joy and thankful- 
ness filled each heart in anticipation of what la}^ before 
us. We were so soon now to make our way across 
those mountains to that city of all earthly ones most 
dear to Jew and Christian, and only second in sacredness 
to the Mussulman. 

I was profoundly grateful that the fond hopes of many 
years were so soon to find full fruition ; that I should 
have the privilege of visiting the land made sacred by 
the footsteps of the Son of God and some of the places 
once so dear to him ; that my feet should press the soil 
once trodden by him as he toiled and taught. 

With reverence new we hail this giant among the 
continents — oldest yet least understood — holding half 
of the human race ; birthplace of races, religions, su- 
perstitions. Here "tenacious Judaism, progressive and 
spiritual Christianity;" indomitable, insolent Moham- 
etanism, Budhism, Confucianism and other isms began. 

If God ever spake to man in the vocabulary of earth, 
to tell of an infinite love and a glorious destiny, and 



120 

how to attain unto the fullest measure of life for time 
and eternity, it was beneath yon skies into which we 
look, under which we soon shall stand. No marvel if 
excitement thrills in every face, in every act. 

VCe are not of the majority who at this season rough 
seas deny a landing. The fear we all had of not being 
able to land, was dispelled, and increased our pleasure 
at seeing our ship drop anchor in the oldest and worst 
of seaports — whence Jonah sailed when he had such a 
bad landing, and wliither the wood that went into Solo- 
mon's temple viRS shipped. Our crew was a medley ot 
Americans, Britons, French, Germans, Italians, Rus- 
sians, Turks, Arabs, Copts and Ethiopians — Christians, 
Jews and Mohammedans — Tourists, Pilgrims, Scientists, 
Preachers, Teachers, Doctors and Merchants. 

At sunrise the ship's great heart ceases to beat at 
Joppa. Her coming was anticipated, as evidenced by a 
score of boats manned by athletic Arabs hurrying over 
the swelling sea in their eagerness to secure customers. 
Some of them fly red flags with the names of H. Gaze 
& Co., Thos. Cook & Son, and RoUa Floyd, in letters of 
w^hite. These have come out for those tourists who may 
be traveling under their auspices. 

Rolla Floyd, with whom we stopped, is a Yankee by 
birth, but confines himself to Palestine, while the names 
of the other tw^o are seen around the w^orld. Both have 
headquarters in London, and are very necessary to those 
tourists who prefer to pay others for fighting their way 
through Italians, Arabs, Chinese and Japs, and for im- 
munity from the responsibilities and security against the 
contingencies incident upon travel in strange lands. 

From our ship about half a mile from shore, we watch 
the waves rushing in by the classic rocks, to one of 



121 

which m}'1;hology says the beautiful Andromeda, on 
account of Juno's jealousy, was chained, and rescued by 
Perseus, becoming afterwards his bride. After death 
she was translated to heaven, where she still occupies a 
place in the constellation with her mother Cassiope. 
They wash the shore at the very base of the house of 
Simon the tanner, where Peter lodged and saw the won- 
derful sheet let down from heaven, containing "all man- 
ner of four-footed beasts and wild beasts, and creeping 
things and fowls of the air," revealing to his then too 
narrow mind the wideness of God's mercy in the Gospel 
dispensation, which is as the "wideness of the sea," and 
marvellously enlarging his idea of a preacher's mission. 
On the top of which, or one in its place, I afterward 
went myself; and in order to be sure of standing where 
Peter did, if he did, went all over it. From this stand- 
point one sees the "great sea" stretch far away north, 
west and south. Peter's eye no doubt swept that hori- 
zon in meditation, and watched the restless tides that 
beat upon that rocky shore, typifying the human hordes 
that had swept over Judea's hills and plains before and 
since the days of Noah. 

"Monarclis of Palestine, and Kings of Tyre, 

And tlie brave Maccabee have all been here; 

And Cestius, with his Roman plunderers; 

And Saladin and Baldwin, and the host 

Of fierce crusaders, from the British north, 

And shook their swords above thee, and their blood 

Flowed down like water to thine ancient sea." 

So we will go ashore. We will land here whence Jonah 
sailed, on a firmer footing than he found on quitting 
his bark. We wish to tread the soil of the Holy Land. 

I am in the Holy Land ! What revelations await m}' 



122 

journey through it ! Sweet were the optimistic dreams 
of her inspired seers. Shall the sweet waters of Cherith 
brook or Siloe's "that flowed fast by the oracle of God,'' 
or skies of marvelous softness, or the hills made sacred 
by the presence and frequent discourses of our Lord 
cause me to experience a kindred enlargement and make 
me still more hopeful of the strife? 

I am going to "walk about Zion and go round about 
her, tell the towers thereof, mark well her bulwarks, 
consider her palaces, that I m\y return and tell it to the 
generation following." Will I feel as the Psalmist did? 
And if I do not, nor witness the sights so dear to him, 
nor feel the confidence in the supremacy and final uni- 
versal racial triumph of Israel that her |)rophets di , 
conclude that these leaders in happy, sanguine hours 
were only overwhelmed with self-gratulation at their 
own providential election and dazed by hoi)es impossi- 
ble of realization, shall I doubt the stability of the Di- 
vine government that for the present seems to be taking 
small cognizance of the chosen race ? 

Has fancy woven a web now to b^ \mraveled ? Has 
imagination reveled in a vista to fade when entered like 
the mirage? Shall the reverence and divine poesy that 
have ever clustered about the names of Judea, Jerusa- 
lem, Hebron, Galilee and Nazareth be dispelled? Shall 
the halo that has ever encircled the Holy Land, cutting 
it ofi" from all others, vanish into thin air and leave it 
to be merged into the vast community of countries, and 
so make me loser of the inheritance of all my Christian 
life, until I shall regret the knowledge that increases my 
sorrow and the wealth that is worse than poverty ? Shall 
I discover some of the "mistakes of Moses ?" And see 
how that after all he did not lead the Israelites hither? 



128 

Shall I see that much blindness'^ and natural environ- 
ment conduce to ocular delusion? And find facts 
favorable to doubting if not denying the probability of 
miracle ? Especially that greatest of miracles the resur- 
rection from the dead ? Which stands out before the 
hopes of millions like a colossal tower, where they can 
shelter when the storms of life beat tempestuously about 
them and floods of adversity threaten to engulf them — 
whose wholesome shade protects them when solstitia]^ 
suns dry up all the flowers that bloom along their path 
and wither all the green branches of earthly prospects — 
a tower pointing heavenward, around whose spiral stair 
hope ascends, till the din of earthly strife dies out be- 
low and the child of sorrow has all his tears and fears 
dispelled ? 

But "we shall see what we shall see." 1 will gain 
what I may from the land as well as from the Book; 
and if not in this mountain, nor yet in Jerusalem the 
true worshipers worship the Father, some dormant sen- 
timent may be awakened, some active power intensified. 
I may learn from the lilies of the field ; the thorny, 
stony, rich ground, the faithful shepherd, with ever im- 
perilledj flockf. I will note the barren and fruitful fig 
tree; the fisherman and his nets; the ever waiting 
penny -a-day laborers ; the fountain open in time of 
drouth. I will read the words of the Book, as nearly 

*Three per cf-nt. of the population are blind, and twenty per cent, have 
injured eyes. Because of the scarcity of water they seldom, if ever, wash. 
I never saw a washpan or basin in an Arab bazaar while among- them, 
and the same customs are followed to a large extent as in the Savior's 
time, I think. I judge it was their custom not to use much water gener- 
ally. They also wear turbans or hats without brims, and the sun Is very 
hot. No doubt for these reasons there was about as much blindness then 
as now 

:!:We saw a boy drive a fox from his flock one day about noon. He ran 
towards us and turned down the hill and hid under the rocks, where "the 
foxes have holes," in sight of Jerusalem. 

tAt night the flocks are put into pens made of stone, over which it is 
difficult or impossible for foxes and jackals to climb. Sometimes they are 
put in large caves under the hillside, and the shepherd sleeps in the cave's 
mouth. 



124 



as I may where they were spoken, and study from all 
possible standpoints the ways of God to man. and from 
my treasury thus replenished, bring to my Master's ser- 
vice as much as I mav, things new and old. 



CHAPTER XV. 



FROM JOPPA TO JERUSALEM. 

The last chapter relates our emotions on entering Pal- 
estine. We halt a clay at Joppa to visit Simon the tan- 
ner's house referred to in Acts, chapter 10, and the fine 
orange groves, of which there are many producing about 
8,000,000 a year valued at about one mctterlich (1 cent) 
each. Probably no larger or sweeter are grown any- 
where. Self-indulgence, freed from domestic economy 
expands in the stingy traveler, we freely tested Joppa 
oranges and pronounce them first class. 

There are two good mission schools and a hospital in 
Christian hands which we visited. Miss Arnott has 
given her fortune and her life to teaching young Arab 
girls how to become Christian wives and mothers. We 
can testify to the efficiency of her efforts from exhibi- 
itions of her pupils on the occasion of our visit. 

Rev. J. R. Long has a male school under his control. 

Miss Bessie Mangan succeeded in founding what is 
known as the Mildmay Hospital, where hundreds have 
been nursed and thousands treated, including Jews, Mos- 
lems, Greeks, Latins and Maronites. We noted the po- 
liteness and attention of the deaconesses, the contented- 
ness of the patients and the promise of the whole insti- 
tution as an agent for our Lord and tor poor humanity. 

The road from Joppa to Jerusalem is almost a perfect 
road. It passes Ramleh, the home of Joseph of Arima- 
thea (?) Bareh or Gibeah, the Valley of Ajalon, where 



126 

Joshua commanded the smi and moon to stand still un- 
til he vanquished the Philistines, Ajalon belonged to 
Dan, Josh. 19:42. We stopped to dine at Latrum about 
half way to Jerusalem: It is traditionally held to be 
the home of the penitent thief, who was said to be 
named Disma and a robber of travelers. Latro is Latin 
for robber and no doubt Latrum was the home of this or 
some other robber. Abou Josch or Kirjath-jearim is 
about nine miles from Jerusalem. Here the Ark of 
God rested 20 years. The name signifies city of woods ' 
it is in a semi-circular cove of the hills, somewhat like 
an amphitheatre. I felt strange emotions as I read I 
Chron. 13:5 : "David gathered all Israel together from Shi- 
hor of Egypt even unto the entering of Hemath. to bring 
the ark of God from Kirjath-jearim/' and Ps. 132:6—8: 

"Lo, we heard of it at Ephratah ; we found it in the 
fields of the wood. 

We will go into his tabernacles ; we will worship at 
his footstool. 

Arise, Lord, into thy rest; thou, and the Ark of thy 
strenojth." 

AVhat a multitude of people, all rejoicing with their 
king as they move along towards Jerusalem. 

Perhaps the procession was many miles long. Sud- 
denly they pause at the front. What is the matter? A 
man falls dead. Uzza, ignorant of the command of God, 
showing the sole manner of carrying the ark, when he 
thought to save it from falling from the cart, is struck 
dead for his rashness, and unutterable confusion ensues. 
David is chagrined ; everybody disappointed and afraid 
to meddle further, and ignorant of the plainest direction, 
they leave the Ark at the home of Obed Edom, where 
it stayed for three months, in which time David and the 



127 

priests read up a little, and had better success in mov- 
inir it. The next place of interest is Kalomeh, near 
which it is claimed John the Baptist was born, and 
southwest of which is a Valley, Wacbj es Sumpt, in whicli 
tradition says David slew Gohath. In another hour we 
reach Jerusalem and stop at the Jerusalem hotel, about 
five minutes walk from the Joppa gate and the tower of 
David. 

Wp:dnesj)ay Evening, March Gth. 

Rev. C. D. Merrill, a Presbyterian minister of Cah- 
fornia, with whom I had traveled through Egypt, and 
myself contracted with Isa (Esau) Lobat to take us to 
Jericho, Jordan, the Dead Sea, Marsaba and Bethlehem, 
returning to Jerusalem the third day, for one hundred 
and fifty francs, about thirty dollars. We set out after 
12 o'clock lunch the next day. A good donkey and 
donkey boy carried provisions, and a guard with a belt 
full of cartridges and a fine breech loading rifle repre- 
sented the Ottoman empire protecting her guests. We 
had good horses shod with an oval piece of sheet-iron, 
without heels or toes, so shaped as to present to the road 
a convex surface, a rocker, four very large nails on each 
side held them on. thus all their horses are shod. 

We go out of Jerusalem on the north side, and under 
the hill now supposed to be the hill Calvary, by the 
place where tradition says Stephen was stoned, cross the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat, pass the garden of Gethsemane 
and near to Absalom's pillar (tomb) up the south side 
of Olivet, through the Jewish cemetery, where one could 
walk over ten or twenty acres on tombs without touching 
the ground, over the spot where, it is thought, Jesus wept 
over the city, by two large stone columns supposed to be 



128 

the remnant of the house of Simon the Leper. Then to 
Bethany on the east side of the hill, where a little house 
built of limestone is shown as the house of Mary and 
Martha, now kept for backsheesh. We came in an hour 
to the Apostles' fountain, and in two hours to an inn or 
khan, where it is claimed the good Samaritan deposited 
the unfortunate traveler and two pence for his support. 
We are going down to Jericho over' the remains of the 
old Roman road over which, no doubt, Herod once 
could ride in a chariot, though it does not look as if it 
were ever good enough for that. We meet ''robbers" (?) 
every mile or so. About the middle of the afternoon 
we reach the ravine that contains the brook Cherith, 
where Elisha lived in troublous times. And the word of 
the Lord came unto him, saying : " Get thee hence, and 
turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the brook Cher- 
ith, that is before Jordan. And it shall be, that thou 
shalt drink of the brook; and I have commanded the 
ravens to feed thee there. So he went and did accord- 
ingfunto the word of the Lord : for he went and dwelt 
by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. And the 
ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morning, and 
bread and flesh in the evening ; and he drank of the 
brook " ; the sides of the gorge often show perpendicular 
faces many hundred feet high. Isa said the Greeks had 
built a church on the supposed site of Elisha's repose. 
We reined up our horses and could hear the brook leap- 
ing over cataracts, going down to Jcicho too. Herod 
the Great conducted this stream through an aqueduct to 
the imperial city of Jericho. Portions of this aqueduct 
still remain, though Jericho abides under the curse of 
Joshua till to-day ; not a house remains. About sunset, 
having descended nearly four thousand feet since noon, 



129 

we crossed Cherith, paused and drank of its sweet, 
limpid waters, rode two miles farther to Elisha's Fomi- 
tain, whose waters, bitter no more, are very warm, say 
80° Fah. We went about a mile farther through fra- 
grant thorny shrubbery growing on the banks of the 
stream from Elijah's Fountain, and said to yield the 
fruit from which is made "balm of Gilead," and rest at 
the Russian Hospice on the site of ancient Gilgal. We 
retire amid the howls of jackals and the miserable music 
and dancing of the Bedouins AAdio 

"Vex with mirth the drowsy ear of night," 

to the delight of another party of tourists near by. We 
rise early next morning, ride across the plain to Jordan, 
by the same way, perhaps, the spies went when Rahab 
sent them off, to the place where Jesus Avas baptized 
possibly. Multitudes of pilgrims come here every year 
to be baptized. Here the Israelites catered the prom- 
ised land, while the waters of Jordan stood on a heap, 
here Jordan was parted again when Elijah passed over 
to be carried to heaven in a chariot of fire. On the way 
we saw two women grinding corn or wheat in a mill. 
The Jordan was muddy, rapid, deep, and about two 
hundred feet wide. We cut some pipe stems and canes 
and proceeded to the Dead Sea. I did not notice any- 
thing specially differing from other lakes of water, except 
its very bitter saltness, almost as strong to the taste as 
potash. It is in the midst of sterility. Some parties 
went bathing in it, but we did not, as it leaves a gum 
upon one's cuticle, which is very unpleasant unless one 
bathes afterwards in fresh water, which we did not have. 
We had provided bottles and filled them with water 
here, and bathed the hands and face. 



131 

The great depression of this funnel-shaped basin' 
under a Meridian sun, (1292 feet below the Mediterran- 
ean sea) made it so warm that we had to take off our 
coats, but the same afternoon, having left the valley, we 
were in a hail and rain storm up in the mountains that 
gave us severe colds. 

Tiie face of the hill country is covered with beautiful 
flowers in the greatest variety. I am not botanist 
enough to name them, but enjoyed their fragrance and 
beauty no less on that account. Thousands of bees 
carry ofl' to the rocks that crown every hill the nectar 
from their cups, and herds of cows, sheep and goats 
browse through them to their hearts' content. It is still 
a land flowing with milk and honey. 

We noticed a great many piles of stone by the way- 
side, our guide said they were " Moslem prayers," offered 
up in sight of a mosque or wely (tomb); often twenty 
stones made an irregular pillar, each stone representing 
an act of worship. 

A caravan of sixty donkeys laden with about four or 
five bushels of wheat each, and about twenty drivers, 
passed us going to Bethlehem to market. These patient 
little animals never stumble, even on the most rugged 
hill-side in the most tortuous path, even with a burden 
as heavy as his own weight upon his back. The "latter 
rain" was falling, and our guide said that the rain that 
day would depress the price of wheat half a franc, or 
ten cents, for, said he, "this rain will about insure a 
good crop." We spent the night in the Church of St. 
Saba. It is in the fastnesses of the rocks on one side of 
the gorge (Kedron) several hundred feet deep. St. Saba 
is said to have lived in a cave, which is shown here^ 
with a lion, the austere life of an old monk. His 



132 

friends and followers continued to build around the 
little nucleus until at last a most wonderful structure 
built of hewn stones and polished stones, stands there 
to shelter a score of lazy, greasy Greek Priests, who live 
on bread and olives. No woman is ever supposed 
to pass within the gates. When we reached the iron 
portal of the castle, heav}' showers were driven by a 
north-west wind. We carried a permit from the Patri- 
arch of Jerusalem, which gained admission for us, after 
waiting an incredibly long time in the merciless rain. 
Dr. Thompson thus describes his first visit to this castle 
or convent : 

"We entered through a low iron door, turned round through 
a second door, then down again by winding stairs, across queer 
■courts and along dark passages, until we reached at length our 
rooms, hanging between cliffs thai towered to the stars, or 
seemed to, and yawning gulfs which darkness made bottomless 
and dreadful, I was struck dumb with astonishment. It was 
a transition sudden and unexpected, from the wild mountain to 
the yet wilder, more vague and mysterious scenes of Oriental 
enchantment. Light gleamed out fitfully from hanging rocks 
■and doubtful caverns. Winding stairs, with balustrade and iron 
rail, ran right up the perpendicular cliffs into rock chambers, 
where the solitary monk was drowsily muttering his midnight 
prayers. It was long after that hour before sleep visited my 
■eyes, and then my dreams were of Arabs, and frightful chasms, 
and enchanted castles." 

One of the tenants show^ed us about the labyrinth. 
There is a chapel built and dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
one to St. Saba and St. John and the Virgin Mary. In 
the court-yard is St. Saba's octagonal mausoleum. They 
showed us, also, a room full of skulls — fourteen thou- 
sand human skulls — slain by the Persian King Chosrces 
II, when he stormed and took this stronghold A. D. 616. 

They show, growing b\' the walls, a palm tree that 



133 

has miraculous power in certain cases, they say. We 
bought beads, canes and porcupine quills of them and 
departed to Bethlehem. 

We go through the borders of the fields of the shep- 
herds, reaching the city about noon. 

On the spot where it is claimed and conceded our 
Lord was born is a Christian church, the oldest in the 
world, in part. A silver star marks the place, and this 
inscription in latin is around the star, "Here Jesus 
Christ was born of the Virgin Mary," and a m.arble 
manger, the place where they laid him, is near by. 

Above these, four rows of lamps of silver and gold 
burn night and day — one row for each of the four de- 
nominations of Christians (Greeks, Catholics, Copts and 
Armenians) to which this church belongs. They all 
have chapels in the church, and all worship there every 
Sabbath and occasionally on week days. I witnessed a 
funeral conducted by the Coptic Christians. It was one 
of six children that had died with measles that day. 
The little corpse was laid on the cold marble floor. The 
Priest and friends were standing in a circle around it, 
performing the last offices due its mortal remains. 

We went through the chapel of Joseph, where it is 
said the angel appeared to Joseph and advised him to 
go into Egypt. 

St. Jerome's chamber is shown here, and he is repre- 
sented with a lion in a stained glass window. Here he 
studied and translated the Vulgate. 

"All about us were memorials of the Gospel history, and va- 
rious altars — one devoted to the Magi, another to the shepherds 
and another to Joseph — on the spot where they had adored the 



134 

Holy Child, or received divine commands. Taking all the cir- 
cumstances into the account, and comparing the little that can 
be said against the authenticity of this site with the very pow- 
erful consideration in its favor, I relinquished myself to the 
reverential emotions which the belief that I was in the very 
spot where the infant Saviour lay would naturally inspire in the 
heart of a Christian.''— O^serra^ion-s Abroad. 

In Bethlehem Boaz lived, and near by Ruth gleaned. 
Here David was brought up. Here is the "well bj^ the 
gate," whose w^ater he longed for, and poured out w^hen 
he might have enjo3^ed it, because it was ''the blood of 
the men that went in jeopardy of their lives." The 
people are brighter as in all the towns, and nearly all 
are Christians, nominally. They call their town Beit 
Lahm — that is, city of bread. It is well named, for 
their fields are very lertile and their olive orchards sel- 
dom fail. It is well named further, because it gave to 
the world Him who is the ''bread of life" for the world. 
It is also claimed that the flock over which the shep- 
herds were keeping watch was the one from which 
sacrifices were obtained. 

"And there were in the same country shepherds 
abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by 
night; and, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, 
and the glory of the Lord shone round about them, and 
they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, 
fear not, for behold I bring you good tidings of great 
joy, which shall be to all people, for unto you is born 
this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ 
the Lord, and this shall be a sign unto you; ye shall 
find the babe wTapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a 
manger. And suddenly there was with the angel a 
multitude of the heavenly host praising God and say- 
ing : Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 



135 

good will toward men. And it came to pass, as the 
angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shep- 
herds said one to another, let us now go even unto Beth- 
lehem and see this thing which is come to pass which 
the Lord hath made known to us. And they came with 
haste and found Mary and Joseph and the child lying 
in a manger." — Luke 2: 8-15. 

Spending a few hours here, we proceeded to Jerusa- 
lem through a heavy shower of the '"latter rain." pass- 
ing on the way the tomb of Rachel, where Jacob buried 
her when Benjamin was born, "near to Ephratah, the 
same is Bethlehem." We go through the plains of 
Rephaim, where David "fetched a compass and came 
upon the Philistines, over against the mulberry trees,'' 
passing the "well of the star," and in sight of the "val- 
ley of Roses" on the way. We reach Jerusalem before 
night on the third day, having visited Jericho, Jordan, 
the Dead Sea and Bethlehem, and traveled about sixty 
miles. 

The following Monday we went to Hebron, eighteen 
miles south of Jerusalem, passing Solomon's pools 
about half way between the tAVO cities. One of these 
is 582 feet long, 210 feet wide and 50 feet deep ; the 
other two are a little smaller. These supply the city 
with water through aqueducts made of stone and 
mortar. 

By noon we reached Hebron. Here we saw grape 
vines doubtless similar to those that flourished in the 
days of Caleb and Joshua. Hebron, one of the oldest 
cities on earth, ranking with Damascus in antiquity, is 
blessed with splendid fountains. We had come up to 



136 

look at the parcel of ground that Abraham bought of 
the sons of Heth " for a possession of a burying-place," 
and which contams the ashes of Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob and their wives. There they buried Abraham 
and Sarah his wife, there they buried Isaac and Rebekah 
his wife ; and there I buried Leah. 

This place is as sacred to the Mahometans as to 
Christians — in fact they claim to be the true children of 
Abraham — the title of the Hebrew^s being only second, 
while Christians have no inheritance in him. So sacred 
is the place that they do not venture to disturb the re- 
pose of those distinguished sleepers. Nothing short of a 
mandatory order from the Sultan can turn the ke}' that 
conceals from common mortals this most revered crypt. 
We were shown a hole in the wall into w^hich they told 
us we could thrust our hands and touch the stone under 
w^hich lie the ashes of heroes w^ho led the race — who 
made the Bible, largely; w^ho, without precedents, ex- 
emplars or formulae, gave rules for mankind in the 
mere record of their experiences. Not being allowed to 
do more than walk around the walls protecting these 
men and women, we take our Bible and read Gen. 23 
and Gen. 50. We tried to imagine the mighty hosts 
that came up from Egypt with the corpse of Jacob em- 
balmed. Great man in life, "Prince of God" — worthy 
of the blood that flows in thy veins, and no less great 
in death! Sleep on — who knows but thy embalmed body 
may yet be found and attest anew the records dear to 
us as life itself 

We went up the valley from Hebron about a mile to 
see a very old oak called "Abraham's Oak." It is in 
the plains of Mamre and the only oak about there, and 
if an oak can live four thousand years, may-be this is 



187 

the one under which Abnihiim sat when the angels 
passed down to destroy >Sodom. If the sequaia gigantea 
in the Mariposa Grave are live thousand years old, as is 
claimed, may be this oak is four thousand. Dr. Thomp- 
son says : "It is a baluta, (evergreen oak) 26 feet in girth, 
and its thick branches extend over an area ninety feet in 
diameter." AVe stood on the enchanted ground where 
Abraham pleaded for the godless city of Sodom, and 
whose faith in a faithless people arrested his pleadings 
too soon. 

We bought some of the acorns that grew on the oak, 
and photographs of it, repaired to our carriage and re- 
turned to Jerusalem. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



MT. CALVARY 



There is, and probably will forever be, dispute about 
locating the site of Calvary. Two places lay claims to 
it. One is a hill northeast of the Damascus gate, above 
a cave called Jeremiah's grotto, many scholars accept 
this as the true site. Several assert that they were the 
first to establish the claims of this place, but it is called 
in Jerusalem, Gordon's Theory. The place is covered 
with Mohammedan graves. One's first impression when 
shown this hill is that it answers to the description in 
the Gospels, and being considerably beyond the city 
limits and still bare, as if providentially left so, the con- 
viction is deepened. We append below some facts and 
suggestions confirmatory of this theory by the Rev. 
Selah Merrill, D. D. LL. D.: (formerly Consul.) 

" It is known that under the Convent of the Sisters of Zion 
which is near the Castle of Antonia, but on the opposite side of 
"Via Dolorosa," there is six or eight feet below the level of the 
street, some remarkably well preserved ancient pavement, 
which hundreds of travellers have visited and admired. 

From certain indications we are led to believe that this pave- 
ment was connected with an ancient street that ran in nearly a 
direct line from Antonia northwards to the city wall. 

The most important miliary route of Palestine at the time of 
Christ was that which connected Caesarea-on-the-Sea with Je- 
rusalem, which it approached from the north. 



139 

At the point where the line of the street first mentioned, sup- 
posing such a street to have existed, touched the city wall, we 
find an old gate, closed at present, but bearing the significant 
name of " Herod's Gate." 

If the line of this street be extended be5^ond this so-called 
*' Herod's Gate," to the northwest, we shall find along it definite 
traces of an old Roman road. This we find to be identical with 
the great military road which connected Jerusalem with Caes- 
area. 

It is perfectly natural to suppose that the place of the public 
execution of criminals would be somewhere on the line of the 
road. Between the castle and the fatal spot soldiers who guard- 
ed the criminals could move to and fro unobstructed. 

A little after this road leaves the wall at the point marked as 
^' Herod's Gate " we find on the left hand a hill remarkable in 
form, noticeable from its position, and with which are connected 
some traditions respecting the execution and burial of crimi- 
nals. 

Again, we find the name of St. Stephen connected with the 
w^estern slope of this hill ; here is the traditional place of his 
martyrdom ; here a church was erected to his memory, which 
existed for nearly eight hundred years, and of which remains 
have been unearthed during fiv^e years past. 

It is not unnatural to suppose that St. Stephen was executed 
at the place of the public execution of criminals. The theory 
that our Lord was executed at the same place has the most valid 
reasons in its support. 

There is current among the Jews in Jerusalem a tradition 
that this hill was the place of stoning the " Beth Has-Sekilah " 
mentioned in the Mishna. Likewise another tradition that this 
hill was the place, or connected with the place, of burial of 
those who had been publicly executed. The origin of these 
traditions I do not know, nor do I pretend to estimate the value 
of them. That they exist at all is curious and — I should say — 
a significant fact, whether they are worth little or much. 

In like manner I do not know the origin of the name " Her- 
od's Gate," or why it should not have been called " Solomon's 
Gate," or '' David's Gate." But the fact that this name is found 
in this particular locality is significant, when taken in connec- 
tion W' ith the other circumstances that are grouped around it. 

In recent times or since it has been safe to build outside Ihe 
walls, say within the last twenty years, the principal residences 



140 

have been erected on the west of the city, because the Jaffa 
road leads off in that direction. At present, however, they are 
being extended also in the northwest quarter; but in the time 
of our Lord private houses or villas, surrounded by gardens and 
hedges, were on the north of the town because on that side 
there was not only the great thoroughfare leading to Damascus, 
but also that leading to Caesarea, which was then the main sea- 
port to Palestine. The numerous ancient cisterns, now mostly 
in ruins, that are found in all the open region northwest of Je- 
rusalem show that that quarter has been thickly inhabited. 

If Joseph of Arimathea, who was a wealthy man, had a pri: 
vate garden near the city, we may suppose with reason that it 
was located in this direction. The statement in John xix. 41, 
" in the place where He was crucified there was a garden ; and 
in the garden a new tomb, wherein was never man yet laid," 
seems to be verv explicit. If, on the other band, we press 
these words literally, and on the other insist that our Lord was 
crucified in the place of the public execution of criminals, we 
make this place and the garden of Joseph of Arimathea to have 
been identical. The question arises whether a man of position 
and wealth would have a private garden in such a place ? But 
there is no real objection to supposing that the hill-top, which 
was easily accessible from the roman military road, might have 
been devoted to the purpose of execution, and at the same time 
the ground about it to the very foot of its slopes, to have been 
occupied by private gardens might have surrounded the hill on 
the southwestern and northwestern sides, and joined the Roman 
road on the north. 

The Roman road which we have described as leading to An- 
tonia through or near " Herod's Gate " skirted this hill at the 
foot of its eastern and northeastern slopes. Some miles farther 
north this road divided, one branch going north to Nablous or 
Shechem, and the other past Beth Horon to Antipatris and 
Csesarea-on-the-Sea. Along this road Paul, strongly guarded 
was taken a prisoner to Caesarea. With what emotions did the 
prisoner, as he left the city and passed this Golgotha hill, look 
up to the spot where the Master had died upon the cross ! 

In the absence of a suitable diagram I will place before the 
reader a very large capital letter Y, which shall be inverted, 
and the extremities of its arms shall touch the wall of the city 
at the points .1 and B. 



141 




T 



A will represent the present Damascus Gate, and B the one 
now closed called "Herod's Gate." A C D will represent the 
present Damascus or Nablous road, while B C D extended 
pretty directly would touch the Castle of Antonia. E repre- 
sents the Golgotha hill, in which the Grotto of Jeremiah is 
shown. The bottom of the Y, or D, will be understood to be 
towards the north. 

This figure is not correct, inasmuch as the lines B C and A C 
meet really at a considerable distance from the city wall; but 
it was designed to give only a general idea of the place we have 
been considering, and this purpose it serves sufficiently well. 

There is in the western face of this hill a large tomb, before 
the mouth of which the earth, during past ages, has accumu- 
lated to a depth of six or eight feet. It is a peculiar tomb, and 
has suffered somewhat in the lapse of time, but from what re- 
mains of it one would say that it was Christian rather than 
Jewish in its construction. This point I do not attempt to de- 
cide absolutely, but even if it could be shown to be certainly of 
Christian origin it would only show that the slopes of this hill 
at a very early period, were thought to be desirable as a place 
of burial, and hence we may suppose that, at a still earlier pe- 
riod, they were occupied by Jewish tombs. 

Very near this point, still in the western slope of this hill, 
there have been opened during the present summer some very 
remarkable Christian tombs, supposed to be those that were 
built by the Empress Eudocia. 

My object in what I have now written was merely to group, 
in a way different from what had ever been done before, and 
likewise in a more complete manner, certain facts and sugges- 
tions which appear to me to be very reasonable in connection 
with this most important question. Very few points in the 
topography of ancient Jerusalem can be settled beyond dispute ; 
but with reference to the site of Calvary I will close by repeat- 
ing what I have already said, namely, that the strong probabili- 



142 

ties are in favor of regarding the hill above Jeremiah's Grotto 
as the place of the crucifixion of our Lord." 

The discoveries make by Helena, mother of Constan- 
tine, or said to have been made by her,^ satisfy the 
Roman Cathohcs and Greek Catholics, the Copts and 
Armenians, that where the church of the Holy Sepulchre 
is (which is within the present city walls and near the 
center of the city) is the true site. The various stations 
occupied by the friends of the Saviour on the occasion of 
his death, are all marked by a chapel or stone, differing 
from the rest of the pavement of the floor, in color, shape 
or elevation. Within the church is a stone called the 
Unction Stone ; on this spot they claim He was laid to 
be annointed for his burial. Pilgrims from Russia and 
other lands, numbering now about 2,000, kneel and kiss 
this stone, wiih a dozen others in the church, one mark- 
ing the spot where He appeared to Mary Magdalene, 
another where John and Jesus' mother were standing 
when He said, "mother, behold thy son, and son behold 
thy mother." Then there is shown the Holy Sepulchre; 
millions have kissed the stones of it. It is divided into 
two rooms, an ante-room or "chapel of the angel," and 
the sepulchre proper. From the first, one passes through 
a stone wall about four feet thick, through an arched 
door not over three feet high and about two feet wide. 
Inside, the sepulchre is about five by seven feet; one 
half is devoted to a marble couch, on which it is claimed 
the Lord lay. The end farthest from the door is held 
b}' a Greek priest who will sell you a candle on Sunday 
or on any other day, for one or two metterlichs (2 cents). 
There is standing and kneeling room by the place oc- 
cupied by the dead for about four. We went there 

* First paragraph, chapter 17. 



143 

several times and always found it crowded. The pil- 
grims will approach it upon their knees, bending down 
every few feet to kiss the floor. The Archbishop of the 
Greek church pretends to have a candle miraculously 
lighted from heaven in this ante-room once every year. 
He enters, closes the door, and after awhile thrusts his 
lighted candle through a hole in the side, from which 
others light theirs, and then light up the sacred places 
in the church which they hasten to visit, extinguishing 
the candle before it is half consumed, carrying the 
remnant home to be interred with their bones. 

The holy sepulchre is built entirely of marble, and is 
twenty-six feet long, about eighteen broad, and a little 
over twenty feet high, and four sets of lamps of gold and 
silver light it up day and night — one for each of the four 
sects that perform service within the church. It is not 
claimed that our Lord lay in this very tomb, but only 
that this is built upon the identical spot where the 
"Lord lay." 

To the right of the main entrance and about fifteen 
feet above the floor there is a large rock, round about 
and above which is a chapel, say twenty feet square, (I 
speak from memory). The stone rises about two feet 
above the floor and is perhaps fifteen feet wide. It has 
three holes in it and it is said that in them were placed 
the crosses of Christ and of the two thieves. To the right 
of the centre one there is a large cleft in the rock. This 
they say was made when the rocks were rent. 

Then one is shown the stock and pillar to which the 
Savior was chained, and the one on which he sat, and 
immediately underneath the cross, Adam's grave is 
shown ; for they say it was needful that his blood should 
fall on Adam's head. When this tomb was pointed out 



144 

to Mark Twain, he said he "wept, because he was a 
blood relation of Adam." 

The foolish traditions connected with these sacred 
spots, rob them of that solemnity that belongs to them, - 
and with the irreconcilable course followed by the vari- 
ous religious sects of Christendom here and now is the 
greatest hindrance to Gospel work amongst these heathen. 

The Christian religion in its w^orst forms is far superior 
to the best types of Paganism ; but what we wish to do 
is to make them see the same. And these same Mo- 
hammedans have to stand guard with musket and 
sword, not at the door of the above church, but within 
it, by the tomb of Christ. I was crowded from my 
place one Sabbath to make room for Turkish soldiers 
during worship, almost within arms length of the Sepul- 
chre, and a few years ago, many were killed. Owing to 
suffocation an effort was made to escape from the build- 
ing, and the soldiers mistook the rush for an attack upon 
them, and began fighting, so the greatest melee imagin- 
able ensued, and three or four hundred perished ; most 
however, were run over and trampled to death. The 
same thing has occurred since our visit, except that it 
was a real fight originating in bigotry. 

The guards are kept because the church is the joint 
property of four denominations, Greeks, Catholics, Ar- 
menians and Copts, each of which wants more than the 
rest will allow. There is worship in the various chapels 
of the church every dav. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



IN AND ABOUT JERUSALEM. 



March 12. — We went first to the Holy Sepulchre al- 
ready spoken of above; see two tombs near by the Holy 
Sepulchre, one of them called the tomb of Nicodemus, 
the other that of Joseph of Arimathea, they are vaults 
cut out of the rock on which the church is built. There 
is a chapel in a cave in the church, in which the Catho- 
lics say Helena found the three crosses on which Jesus 
and the two thieves were crucified, and so knew this to 
be the true Calvary ; the other locality has been descri- 
bed in the preceding chapter. 

On Mt. Zion we visited the Armenian cathedral ,where 
St. James was beheaded, containing his tomb. The 
priest showed us about the splendid pile very graciously, 
and sprinkled rose water over us when we departed. 

We passed out of the city through Zion's gate, to a 
mosque containing David's tomb, and the so-called 
coenaculum or upper room where Jesus took the last 
supper with his disciples. The upper room, about forty 
feet long and thirty wide, is on the first floor about eight 
feet above ground. 

Near by is shown the house of Caiaphas and a stone 
pillar on which it is claimed the cock sat that crowed as 
the Lord predicted when Peter so vehemently declared 
his allegiance. Here the stone that was rolled away 
from the sepulchre by an angel is shown in an Armenian 
chapel. Near by are the Armenian and English ceme- 



146 

teries. From this iDoiiit we have very fine views of the 
pools of Gihoii on the southwest of Hiniiom and Hill 
of Evil Council on the south. Zion is now plowed as a 
field. Jer. 26:18. Mic. 3:12. 

In the afternoon we went to Mt. Moriah. There were 
several of us, and they required twenty francs admission 
fees. Only within the last 37 years could Christians 
enter the temple akea at all, and Jews are still ex- 
cluded or exclude themselves, some say, to avoid stepping- 
on the Holy of Holies, the location of which cannot be 
identified. Once inside of the walls the Jews had a 
limit, where Gentiles had to pause on pain of death ; now 
they are forbidden to pass the threshold leading to the 
grounds ; so every Friday they repair to the outside and 
w^eep over their glory departed. We saw many of them 
the day we visited the "Wailing Place," and a sadder 
sight we have seldom if ever seen. We could not refrain 
from tears, as they read the old Tes^"ameut books, and 
mourned responsively. As these Jews have come here to 
die, that they may be buried near the Holy City, oppress- 
ed by the sins of their past lives, a sense of their national 
calamities, the contempt of Christian and Mohammedan 
superiors, and in many cases by extreme poverty, their 
woe-begone appearance is well calculated to call out our 
profound sympathies. 

We copy the following account of the Wailing Place, 
and the sad history connected with it, as well as the 
habits of the Jews who visit it now, from By-paths of 
Bible Knovicihje, No. Ill, by Rev. James King, A. M.: 

THE WAILING PLACE. 

"Proceedinof northward of Barclay's Gate, we come to an in- 
teresting section of the wall known as The Jews' Wailing Place, 



147 

where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon. It is a small 
quadrangular area, roughly paved with large square stones,, 
situated between low houses and the Sanctuary wall. It is fur- 
ther hemmed in by walls on the north and south sides, and the 
area itself is only of small dimensions, being about a hundred 
feet in length and fifteen in breadth. The Temple wall above 
ground at this spot is about sixty feet high, and the lower 
courses of visible masonry are for the most part made up of 
magnificent stones, venerable from their high antiquity and 
from the fact that they are veritable remains of the old Jewish 
Temple. For many generations, at least once a week the Jews 
have been permitted to approach the precincts of their Temple, 
and it is a touching sight to see them manifest aff'ection to the 
venerable wall, while they kiss the very stones and bathe them 
with their tears. 

'The Psalmist's words were verily fulfilled : 'Thy servants 
take pleasure in her stones, and favor the dust thereof.' Kneel- 
ing before the vestiges of their desolate and dishonored sanctu- 
ary, the Jews still raise the wail of lamentation: 'God, the 
heathen are come into Thine inheritance, Thy holy Temple 
have they defiled, they have laid Jerusalem on heaps. . . . 
We are become a reproach to our neighbors, a scorn and derision 
to them that are round about us. How long, Lord? Wilt Thou 
be angry forever? Shall Thy jealousy burn like fire?' 

"Outside Barclay's Gate, and close to the south end of the 
Wailing Place, Sir Charles Warren sank a shaft, and had to dig 
through rubbish to the enormous depth of about eighty feet 
below the colossul lintel, before he came to the foundation of 
the Haram wall. Beneath the surface are twenty-two courses 
of excellent masonry, each course being from three to four feet 
in height. The lowest course is let into the rock, and each 
course is set back about half an inch as it rises. The drafting of 
the stones is very finely executed, and for delicate finish will 
compare favorably with drafted masonry in any other part of 
the Temple enclosure. 

"During a recent visit to Jerusalem, after an examination of 
this part of the wall, the author took up his position at the south 
end of the paved area, and watched the appearance and move- 
ments of the increasing crowd. Nearest to him stood a row of 
women clad in robes of spotless white. Their eyes were bedim- 
med with weeping, and tears streamed down their cheeks as 
they sobbed aloud with irrepressible emotion. Next to the- 



148 

women stood a group of Pharisees — Jews from Poland and Ger- 
many. These are known by the name of Ashkenazim, because 
they came from Ashkenaz — the name given to Germany by the 
Rabbins, For the most part the Ashkenazim are small in stature 
and fragile in form ; but their supercilious looks indicate the 
same self-sufficient pride that characterised the Pharisees of old. 
The old hoary-headed men generally wore velvet caps edged 
with fur; long love-locks or ringlets were dangling on their thin 
cheeks, and their outer robes presented a striking contrast of 
gaudy colors. 

"Beyond stood a group of Spanish Jews, of more polished 
appearance and dignified bearing. They are called Sephardim, 
because, according to the Rabbins, Spain is Sepharad. Besides 
these, there are Jews from almost every quarter of the world, 
who had wandered to Jerusalem that they might die in the 
city of their fathers and be buried in the Valley of Jehosaphat 
under the shadow of the Temple Hill. The worshipers grad- 
iialh' increased in number until the crowd thronging the pave- 
ment could not be fewer than two hundred. It was an affecting 
scene to notice their earnestness ; some thrust their hands be- 
tween the joints of the stones and pushed into the crevices as 
far as possible little slips of paper on which were written, in 
the Hebrew tongue, short petitions addressed to Jehovah. Some 
even prayed with their mouths thrust into gaps, where the 
weather-beaten stones were worn awav at the joints. The ex- 
planation given of this strange proceeding is that it arises from 
a desire on the part of the worshippers that their prayers may 
rise from holy ground, and, ascending like the morning and 
evening incense, may, through the sacred wall, rise to the God 
-of Abraham. 

"The congregation at the Wailing Place is one of the most 
solemn gatherings left to the Jewish Church, and, as the writer 
•gazed at the motley concourse, he experienced a feeling of sor- 
row that the remnants of the chosen race should be lieartlessly 
thrust outside the sad enclosure of their father's holy Temple 
by men of alien race and an alien creed. Many of the elders, 
seated on the ground with their backs against the wall on the 
west side of the area and with their faces turned towards the 
Eternal House, read out of their well-thnmbed Hebrew book 
passages from the prophetic writings, such as 'Be not wroth very 
sore. O Lord ; neither remember iniquity forever; behold, see, 
^e beseech Thee, we are all Thy people. Thy holy cities are a 



149 

wilderness, Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation. Our 
holy and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised Thee, 
is burned up with fire, and all our pleasant things are laid waste. 
Wilt Thou refrain Thyself for these things, Lord? Wilt Thou 
hold Thy peace, and afflict us very sore?' " 

About four o'clock a Rabbi stood up, facing the Sanc- 
tuary wall, and, resting bis book against the stone, read 
aloud from the Jewish lamentation service a kind of 
litany. After each petition the assembly responded in a 
peculiar buzzing tone, rocking their bodies to and fro, 
after the manner of their fathers. The following litany 
of eight petitions is often rehearsed : 



Tlie Rabbin reads aloud— 
For the place tliat lies desolate: 
For the place tliat is destroyed: 
For the walls that are overthrown: 
For our majesty that is departed: 
For our great men who lie dead: 
For the precious stones that are buried: 
For the priests who have stumbled: 
For our kings who have despised Him: 



All the people respond- 
We sit in solitude and mourn. 
We sit in solitude and mourn. 
W^e sit in solitude and mourn. 
We sit in solitude and mourn. 
We sit in solitude and mourn. 
We sit in solitude and mourn. 
We sit in solitude and mourn. 
We sit in solitude and mourn. 



Another litany, written after the manner of an anti- 
phonal psalm, is often repeated. It consists of five pe- 
titions offered up on behalf of Zion; and, in response 
to each petition, the assembly offer up a petition for 
Jerusalem : 



The Rabbin prays thus— 
We pray The« have mercy on Zion ; 
Haste ! haste ! Redeemer of Zion ; 
May beauty and ma.Jesty surround 

Zion; 
May the kingdom soon return to 

Zion ; 
May peace and Joy abide with 

Zion; 



The people answer- 
Gather the children of Jerusalem. 
Speak to the heart of Jerusalem. 
Ah ! turn Thyself mercifully to 

Jerusalem. 
Comfort those who mourn over 

Jerusalem. 
And the Branch of Jesse spring up 

at Jerusalem. 



150 

The following is an account of a visit to the Wailing 
Place by Dr. Frankl, a Jew, who visited the Holy City : 

"The Jews have a firman from the Sultan, which, in return 
for a small tax, ensures them the right of entrance to the Wail- 
ing Place for all timp; to come. The road conducted us to sev- 
eral streets, till, entering a narrow, crooked lane, we reached 
the wall, which has been often described. ThereJ can be no 
-doubt but the lower part of it is a real memorial of the days 
of Solomon, which, in the language of Flavius Josephus, is 
immovable for all time. Its cyclopic proportions produce 
the conviction that it will last as long as the strong places 
of the earth. Before we reached the wall we heard a sort 
of howling melody — a passionate shrieking — a heart-rending 
wailing, like a chorus, from which the words came sound- 
ing forth, ' How long yet, God?' Several hundred of Jews, 
in Turkish and Polish costumes, were assembled, and, with 
their faces turned towards the wall, were bending and bow- 
ing as they offered up the evening prayer. He who led their 
devotions was a young man in a Polish talar who seemed to 
be worn out with passion and disease. The words were those 
of the well known Mincha prayer, but drawled, torn, shrieked 
and mumbled in such a way that the piercing sound resembled 
rather the raging frenzy of chained madmen, or the roaring of 
a cataract, than the worship of rational beings. At a consider- 
able distance from the men stood about a hundred women, all 
in long white robes, the folds of which covered the head and 
the whole figure, like white doves, wh.ch, weary of flight, had 
jierched upon the ruins. "When it was their turn to offer up 
the usual passages of the prayer they joined the men's tumul- 
tuous chorus and raised their arms aloft, with their white robes 
looking like wings with which they were about to soar aloft 
into the open i«ky ; and then they struck their foreheads on the 
square stones of the wall of the Temple. Meanwhile, if the 
leader of their prayers grew weary, and leaned his head against 
the wall in silent tears for a moment, there was a death-like 
silence. I happened to be near him. and I could mark the sin- 
cerity of his agitated soul. He gave a rapid glance at me, and, 
without stopping short in his prayer, said to me, 'Mokam Ko- 
desh,' L €., 'Holy place,' and pointed to my covered feet. My 
guide had forgotten to inform me that I must take off my shoes. 



151 

I now did so, and was drawn into the vortex of raging sorrow 
and lamentation. 

"The Jewish Sabbath begins on Friday evening at sunset ; 
therefore, when the sun is sinking low in the western sk)^ the 
worshippers at the Wailing place sometimes chant in Hebrew a 
plaintive hymn known as the Wailing Song. The melody is 
thought to date from the time of Ezra, and, consequently, is 
accounted to be amongst the oldest pieces of music extant. The 
following is a translation of the hymn : 

He is great, He is good, 
He'll build His Temple speedily. 
In great haste, in great haste. 
In our own day speedily. 
Lord, build— Lord, build. 
Build Thy Temple speedily. 

He will save, He will save. 
He'll save His Israel speedily. 
At this time now, O Lord, 
In our own day speedily. 
Lord, save— Lord, save. 
Save Thine Israel speedily. 

Lord bring back. Lord bring back, 

Bring back Thy people speedily ; 

O restore to their land. 

To their Salem speedily. 

Bring back to Thee, bring back to Thee, 

To their Savior, speedily. 

"How long the Jews have assembled for lamentation at the 
Wailing Place cannot be determined with certainty, although 
there is historical evidence to prove that they have assembled 
to mourn over their lost glory and desolate Temple since the 
time of the Apostles. After the merciless destruction of Jeru- 
salem by Titus, in 70 A. D., the priestly families fled to Tiberias, 
on the shores of the sea of Galilee ; and the great men of the 
Jewish nation found homes in Egypt, Cyprus, and other places, 
while only the poor and the officiating priests remained in the 
Holy City. Slowly Jerusalem rose from her ashes, and for sixty 
years enjoyed such peace as comes after the maddening din of 
warfare. 

"During that period the Jews bewailed their downfall, and 
nobody interfered with the poor inhabitants of the city. At 
length, after sixty years' freedom from accursed warfare, a 
mighty insurrection arose among the Jews against the oppres- 



153 

sive yoke of Rome. The insurgents were headed by Bar Cocha- 
ba, the Son of a Star, the last and greatest of the false Messiahs 
After three years of warfare and butchery, Bar Cochaba, with 
sword in hand, fell down slain on the walls of Beth-er, near 
Bethlehem, and forthwith the domination of the Romans was 
restored. The Emperor Hadrian, filled with wrath at the insur- 
rection, again destroyed Jerusalem, and drove the Jews from 
their hallowed city. He fixed a Roman colony on Zion, built a 
heathen temple on Moriah, on the site of the sacred edifice of 
the Jews, and dedicated it to Capitoline Jupiter. When the 
colony had increased in size he bestowed upon the new city the 
name of JEIia Capitolina, combining with his own family title 
of JEVms the name of Jupiter of the Capitol, the guardian deity 
of the colony. Christians and pagans were permitted to reside 
there, but the Jews were forbidden to enter the city on pain ot 
death ; and this stern decree remained in force in the days of 
Tertullian, about a century afterwards. About the middle of 
the fourth century, however, the Jews were permitted to dwell 
in the neighborhood, and once a year — on the anniversary of 
the capture of Jerusalem — they were allowed to enter the Tem- 
ple enclosure that they might approach the lapis pertusm, or 
perforated stone, and anoint it with oil. 'There,' says an ancient 
writer, 'they make lamentations with groans, and rend their 
garments, and so retire.' " 

"Jerome, the eminent Latin Father, who founded a 
convent at Bethlehem, and for thirty years led an ascetic 
life in the Holy Land, when commenting, about 400 a.d., 
on Zephaniah i. 14, 'The mighty man shall cry there 
bitterly,' draws a vivid picture of the wretched crowds of 
Jews who in his day assembled at the Wailing Place, by 
the west wall of the Temple, to bemoan the loss of their 
ancestral greatness, On the ninth of the month Ab, 
might be seen the aged and decrepit of both sexes, with 
tattered garments and dishevelled hair, who met to weep 
over the downfall of Jerusalem, and purchased permis- 
sion of the soldiery to prolong their lamentations (et mies 
mercedem postulat ut illisflere plus liceat.) The perforated 



154 

stone, called lapi.-< pertusus. is probably the Sakhra or 
sacred rock of Moriah, originally the threshing-floor of 
Arannah the Jebusite, and now covered with the elegant 
sanctuary called Kabbet es-Sakhraor Dome of the Rock. 

After the Moslem occupation of Jerusalem in the 
seventh century, the lapis jjertasiiSy or sacred rock of 
Moriah, was invested with a sanctity second only to the 
Kaaba of Mecca. This sanctity was afterwards extended 
to the whole of the top of Moriah, and, consequently, the 
lieretic Jews were driven outside the Temple's enclosure. 
In course of time, however, they approached the outer 
w^alls, and there continued to celebrate their lamentation 
service. Thus for above twelve centuries have the Jews 
assembled outside the walls of their ancient Temple ; but 
it would be difficult, with our present knowledge, to 
prove that the present Wailing Place has been the iden- 
tical spot of lamentation throughout the many genera- 
tions that have lived and died since the Moslem occupa- 
tion of Jerusalem under Khalif Omar in 637 A. D." 

I neither saw nor heard anything to favor the suppos- 
ition that the Jews are rapidly returning to Palestine. 
I think that the beneficence of Sir Moses Montifiore, and 
of the Rothschilds, the former having built tenement 
houses in abundance, nearly or quite rent free ; the latter 
building hospitals, induced many poor Jews from all 
over the world to return to their historic and sacred city ; 
and this movement in connection with certain prophecies 
of scripture, gave rise to the belief. The following how- 
ever throws light on the subject from a more recent 
observer : 

Charlotte, N. C, Jan. 1», 1891.— Dr. A. W. Miller, pastor of 
the First Presbyterian church, of this city, has received a letter 



155 

from Dr. Ben. Oliel in charge of a mission established in Jeru- 
salem by Dr. Miller, for the conversion of Jews, which says that 
eighty thousand Jews had reached there from Russia since 
December 1st. The letter says Russia had even attempted to 
annoy the Jews in Jerusalem. 

There must be an error in the figures. There are no 

transportation facilities adequate to such results. This 

immigration is chiefly from Russia, no doubt, and is due 

to persecution. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



AROUND, ABOVE, BENEATH AND IN JERUSA- 
LEM— ML MORIAH—GETHSEMANE. 



The temple area is bounded by a wall fifteen hundred 
feet long on the east, nine hundred and twenty-seven on 
the south, sixteen hundred feet on the west, and one 
thousand on the north, and covers thirty-five acres ; it is 
above Ophel, a hill between the Tyropceon Valley and the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat ; it is now nearly level, for Solo- 
mon built walls and pillars on the top of which he placed 
arches, supporting a platform, on the top of' which he 
built other pillars and continued the circumscribing 
walls to a very great height, still another opinion places 
this masonry in the age of Justinian, when in 529 A.D., 
he built a church on Temple Hill to the Virgin Mary. 

The walls are, mostly, now, under ground, but the 
same platform built by King Solomon, as some think, 
remains, and the subterranean caves made by covering 
over these pillars are called Solomon's stables, and the 
pillars have holes for rings, in which no doubt the hal- 
ters were tied. If they were not used by King Solomon 
for stables, they were by the Knights Templar. A little 
to the west of the center of the temple area is the Mosque 
of Omar, on the site of Solomon's Temple. It is an 
elevated platform of stone fifteen feet higher than the 
surrounding area. Julian, the apostate, attempted to 



157 

rebuild the Temple to prove that Christ was a false 
prophet ; but while excavating, balls and flames of fire 
issued from the ground, consuming the workmen. It 
was>ttempted again, afterward, with similar results. 

"After the conquest of the country by the Mohammedans, 
one of the first acts of Calif Omar was to build a splendid 
Mosque, known as the 'Dome of the Rock,' on the site of Jeho- 
vah's Temple. This edifice, afterward beautified by Calif Abdel 
Marwan, still crowns the summit of Moriah, and the place is 
regarded by the Moslems as only second to Mecca in point of 
interest, as Mohammed is said to have ascended to Heaven from 
here. The Mosque is an octagonal building, five hundred and 
thirty-six feet in circumference, surmounted with a graceful 
dome supported by twelve exquisite antique marble and por- 
phyry columns. Covering, as it does, simply this naked rock 
so sacred in its associations to Jew, Christian and Mohamme- 
dan, nothing could be more appropriate or grand. It is much 
finer than St. Sophia at Constantinople, or St. Marks at Venice ; 
has no rival for grace or sanctity, and its peculiar shape is the 
only reason it has not been more extensively copied ; but as a 
shrine for the 'Rock of Ages' it is perfectly beautiful, and when 
the sunshine streams through its fifty-six gorgeous windows, its 
golden mosaics seem to kindle up with a divine fire, rendering 
the spot truly glorious. The building is encased on the outside 
with encaustic tiling and colored marble ; within it is golden 
arabesque mosaic, very rich, with passages from the Koran 
everywhere inserted in the walls. And, what is remarkable, 
no reference is made in the inscription to David, Solomon, or 
Mohammed, but the name of 'Jesus, the Son of Mary,' is men- 
tioned four^times. Is this prophetic of its becoming some day 
alChristian church ? 
" "The profound repose and death-like silence of this Temple 
is in keeping with the sacredness of the place, for here alone, 
in all the earth, was the only living and true God worshipped 
throughout long ages ! When Greece was ignorant of God, and 
Rome had 'changed the glory of the Incorruptible into an 
image made like to corruptible man,' the descendants of Abra- 
ham on this mount and in this place still preserved the writings 
of Moses, and the worship of the one true and only God. It 
was here Solomon erected his beautiful Temple ; here through 



158 

long centuries the daily sacrifice was offered, and God mani- 
fested himself to his people in the mysterious Shekinah as 
nowhere else on the earth. Here first were sung those stirring 
psalms of David, which ever since have been ascending like 
incense from earth to Heaven. Toward this spot God's people 
in every age and in every land have turned their faces when 
they prayed ; and it was here the Great Teacher himself taught 
his disciples, wrought his miracles, and near by, on Calvary, a 
spur of the same mountain, as the 'Lamb of God,' was sacrificed 
for the sins of the world. Surely, 'This is none other but the 
house of God and the gate of Heaven,' " * 

The rock beneath this gorgeous dome is the one on 
which Josephus says Abraham built an altar for the 
sacrifice of Isaac. Through the rock there is a hole 
about twenty inches in diameter, used, no doubt, for 
conveying the remains of sacrifices and the ashes to some 
subterranean sewer or passage emptying into the valley of 
Jehoshaphat, but the Mohammedans say that Mahomet 
went from this place to Heaven, passing through the rock 
(there is a cave under the rock, his praying place) mak- 
ing this hole. He sprang up from the rock, and they pre- 
tend to show^ one of his tracks on the rock. They say the 
rock started to follow him, but Gabriel flew from Heaven 
and caught the stone, checking it in mid air. He left 
the print of his hand upon it, which is shown you, and 
they pretend that the rock has been miraculously sus- 
pended there ever since, having no visible support. 
They also say that from the east wall of the Temple 
area to Mt. Olivet a bridge will be built as narraw as a 
razor's edge ; Christ ^viU. sit at one end and Mahomet at 
the other ; every mortal will have to cross over it ; the 
righteous alone will succeed; the wicked will fall off 
and perish in the valley of Jehoshaphat, over which the 
*Dr. De Hass m "Buried Cities Recovered." 



159 

bridge is built. The Rabbis could equal the Arabs in 
imaginary creations. Speaking of Og, King of Bashan, 
they say: "The soles of his feet were 40 miles long, and 
the waters of the Deluge only reached to his ankles. 
He was ante-diluvian, but escaping became Eliezer of 
Damascus, Abraham's servant. Abraham was only 74 
times the size of ordinary men. Scolding 0^ one day, 
Og trembled until a double tooth fell out. Abraham 
made himself an ivory bedstead of it, on which he ever 
afterwards slept." "Moses, who was ten ells high, once 
attacked Og— by this time King of Bashan. He seized an 
ax ten ells long, jumped ten ells high, and struck Og on 
the — ankle. The blow finally killed him; for Rabbi 
Jochanan says: 'I have been a grave-digger, and once 
when I was chasing a roe it fled into a shin-bone. I ran 
after it for three miles, but could neither overtake it nor 
see any end to the bone, so I returned and was told that 
it was the shin bone of Og, King of Bashan.' " — Thomp- 
son. 

Near the Mosque of Omar is the Mosque El Aksa, 
built for a Christian church. In this, contrary to rea- 
son, for it occurred in the Temple, they show where the 
angel appeared to Zechariah, where Mary lodged, and a 
cradle (a marble one) in which Christ lay during his 
stay on the occasion of his circumcision. This is m a 
cave under the temple area and is possibly true. The 
print of his feet where he stood on the occasion of argu- 
ing with the doctors and lawyers, is pointed out. 

We wandered about the hallowed spot until nearly 
sundown, went through the Via Doloroso by the churches 
of the Flagellation, Ecce Homo and by Pilate's Gate. 
We went to see Robinson's arch the same afternoon ; 
this is the remainder of a ruined bridge once crossing 



160 

from Mt. Moriah to Mt. Zion, over Tyropeon valley; it 
was more than three hundred feet long, fifty-one wide, 
and eighty high. On it Titus parleyed with the Jews 
before striking the final blow, A. D. 70. 

One day Mr. M. and I walked around the city about a 
mile beyond the walls, taking in eight high hills. We 
passed a cemetery from which a melancholy and monot- 
onous bugle sounded for hours. In our conjectures 
about the occasion of such a, to us, unique procedure, 
we finally concluded some soldier was dead and these 
w^ere expressions of military grief, (as such they would 
have been fitting.) AVe stood and watched the manoeu- 
vres of the camp some hundreds of yards away in Gihon 
yalley ; we decided this time they were about to inter 
some noted charger, as certainly they were handling a 
dead horse, whereupon we thought the solo still more 
appropriate ; but the horse was disposed of and our mu- 
sician still made the welkin ring. Subsequent inquiry 
revealed to us that he Avas a mile from the city, in obe- 
dience to a delicate sense of the fitness of things, to 
practice. I thought at once of Dr. Talmage's remark 
that an embryo cornetist might get to heaven, but it 
would be hard for his neighbors to do so. Did the city 
fathers of Jerusalem see no chance unless they ostracised 
for the time their band recruits ? 

We took one day to do the hills around Jerusalem and 
one the valleys. We start down Gihon, called Hinnom, 
below the lower pool of Gihon, and pass four most 
pitiable looking lepers, some of whom have lost fingers, 
some toes, some the voice, except a dry husky whisper. 
A good house has been provided for them, and support, 
about one mile south-west of the city, but they prefer to 



161 

sit by the way-side and beg. We go down Hinnom to 
En Rogel, in Jehoshaphat valley; here is a pool of most 
filthy looking water, bnt nsed; here David's friends, 
Jonathan and Ahimaaz, came for news when he fled 
from Absalom — 2 Sam., 17:17. Here Adonijah made a 
feast with a view of gathering adherents and seizing the 
Kingdom when David was about to die. Joab, the great 
captain, was in his party to his own ruin. We then go 
up through the King's gardens, which are luxurious and 
fruitful enough, watered, as they are, from the pool of 
Siloam, to deserve the name. We pause at Siloe's brook 
to see the daughters of Siloam come over for water and 
do their washing. It is no longer a "shady rill," nor an 
inspirer of lofty song, except to the blind indeed. We 
ascend to Gethsemane, enclosed by a wall of stone about 
seven or eight feet liigh ; it covers about one- third of an 
acre, contains eight large olive trees, possibly the same 
under which the disciples slept when He was withdrawn 
from them, about a stone's cast, to pray. It is in the 
possession of the Franciscan order of the Latin church, 
and kept by a kind and courteous gardener, who gave 
us, unsolicited, small bouquets, for which he refused 
backsheesh ! He also refused to increase the size of them 
for pay. We tried to call up the scenes of that doleful 
night, when our best friend "trod the wine-press alone," 
"and of the people there was none with Him." Hard 
by is a cave called the "Grotto of the Agony," into which 
the Savior retired to pray. The Latins have a church 
there now and in it a beautiful statuette representing the 
agony and the angel strengthening Him. "And he was 
withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled 
down, and prayed, saying, Father, if thou be willing, 
remove this cup from me: nevertheless, not my will, 



162 

but thine, be done. And there appeared an angel unto 
him from heaven, strengthening him. And being in an 
agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it 
w^ere great drops of blood falling down to the ground." 
Luke 22: 41-44. My heart swelled with gratitude that 
already such an inheritance had fallen to me by His 
sufferings and death, and that these good things are but 
the earnest of what awaits us beyond. 

Before leaving Jerusalem we went into the subterra- 
nean quarries, where King Solomon got stone for build- 
ing the city, the Temple and the Walls of Jerusalem. 
One can wander here for hours over new ground all the 
time, see how the stone was cut from the living rock 
and severed by wooden wedges. Here are tons on tons 
of chips, where the stones were trimmed before going into 
the wall. Thompson says: 

''We found water trickling down in several places, and in one 
there was a small natural pool full to the brim. This trickling 
water has covered many parts with crystalline incrustations, 
pure and white ; in others stalactites hang from the roof, and 
stalagmites have grown up from the floor. The entire rock is 
remarkably white, and though not very hard, will take a polish 
quite sufficient for architectural beauty. 

'The general directions of these excavations is south-east, 
and about parallel with the valley which descends from the 
Damascus Gate. I suspect that they extend down to the Tem- 
ple area, and also that it was in these cayerns that many of the 
Jews retired when Titus took the Temple, as we read in Jose- 
phus. The whole city might be stowed away in them ; and it 
is my opinion that a great part of the very white stone of the 
temple must have been taken from these subterranean quar- 
ries." 

We also went to see the models of the Temples of Solo- 
mon and Herod and the Mosque of Omar, by Mr. Shick, 
who has been present at all modern excavations about 



163 

the city, who has read all the books that have been writ- 
ten on the subject, and who probably knows more about 
Jerusalem — ancient and modern — than any other living 
man on earth. This model was thirty years in building 
and is a perfect piece of workmanship. He offers to sell 
the whole for $3,000, which is cheap. We bought 
photos of this model, and in London I had them put on 
glass for use in a stereopticon. 

We went to Mt. Olivet and ascended the tower there, 
from which one has a splendid view. To the east, four 
thousand feet below and eighteen miles away we can 
clearly see the Dead Sea and the Jordan valley for fifty 
or sixty miles; beyond, the mountains of Moab. On 
the west Jerusalem lies on the slopes of the hills rising 
from the valley of Jehoshaphat, while to the south fruit- 
ful fields stretch out in pleasing panorama towards Beth- 
lehem. North we see many small towns, which no doubt 
were large cities in David's day. We are near the place, 
possibly on the very spot, on which the disciples and 
friends of our Lord gathered that memorable day to see 
their Lord ascend. The Russians have a Greek Catholic 
church here — a very fine one — called the Church of the 
Ascension. 

The country contains many convents of the Roman 
and Greek Catholic churches, built at enormous cost, 
but they are dead, not embalmed, not buried, that were 
better, they are putrid cadavers, a stench in Mohamme- 
dan nostrils. 

There is a good Protestant work going on in the city 
and community. I have formed the acquaintance of 
several native Christians, some Christian Hebrews, all 
Protestant, and their type of piety is very satisfactory, so- 
far as one can judge on short acquaintance. 




W'& 



165 

The Church of England has a resident bishop and 
several priests here, an elegant church, a good school, a 
good Bible depository and two olive wood factories in 
which they work Cliristian Jews. I worshipped with 
them on two Sabbaths and about twenty-five young 
Jews from twelve to 17 yearsjold made the music, and 
several grown Jews were in the congregation. I con- 
versed with some of them and rejoiced to see a devotion 
to Christianity equal to the opposition they had once 
shown. 

One of the priests whom I met handed me the follow- 
ing, which I copy to show the character of the only 
Protestant missionary work going on in the Holy City : 

The London Society for Promoting Christianity 
Amongst the Jews. 



JERUSALEM MISSION. 

The following are the various means used for bringing the 
Gospel to bear upon the Jews in this city: 

1. Christ Church. 

In the Hebrew Church on Mount Zion there is a daily He- 
brew Service at 7 o'clock in the morning. Also a daily Eng- 
lish Service at 9 o'clock. 

Sunday services at 10 a. m. and 7:30 p. m. in English. 

G-erman Service at 3:30 p. m. 

2. Schools. 
The Boys' School, where 42 Jewish boys are boarded and 
clothed, and a large number partly fed. 

3. The Jewesses' Institution. 
In this Institution 32 Jewish girls are boarded and clothed, 
and many day scholars are taught and partly fed. In both 
Schools, Christianity is distinctly taught. 

4. The Enquirers* Home. 
Here Jewish Inquirers are provided with shelter while their 
sincerity is tested, as well as their Industry. 



166 

5. The House op Industry. 

This is a home for young Converts and tested Enquirers 
•where they are taught Trades and provided with work. 

6. The Hospital. 

Here the sick Jews are treated for various complaints; 
twenty-six beds being provided for them. Also laige numbers 
of Out-Patients are attended to both at the Hospital and in 
their Homes. 

7. The Book-STORK. 

Bibles in various languages, and other useful books are sold 
.and given away. 

8. The Bookbinding and Printing Shop. 
9. The Carpenter's Shop. 
10. The Shoemaker's Shop. 



By such methods and works carried on by voluntary 
subscriptions the Society seeks to spread the knowledge 
of the Gospel among that people from whom the Church 
received the truth at the first. 

Travelers interested in Christian work are invited to 
inspect the various parts of the work carried on in 
Jerusalem. 

A conference of Jews and Christians recently held in 
Chicago, sent a memorial to President Harrison, March 
5, 1891, asking his diplomatic aid in an efibrt to secure 
for Jews, especially Russian Jews, peaceful possession 
■of homes in Palestine. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



TRAVELING IN PALESTINE. 



Many readers would like to know how the tour 
of Palestine is made. From Joppa to Jerusalem, Beth- 
lehem and Hebron one can go on wheels ; the rest of 
the country must be visited on horseback, except from 
Haifa to Tiberias and I believe there is a road from Jop- 
pa to Nablous and there is a good road from Beirut to 
Damascus, 72 miles. 

Tourists either camp in tents or lodge in hospices of 
the Latin and Greek churches, finding hotels only in the 
larger towns. We chose the second, as being both more 
economical and affording a better opportunity to study 
the customs and character of the people now living here. 

We made arrangements with Mr. Floyd, a contractor, 
to take us from Jerusalem to Beirut. The cost of the 
trip varies according to the size of the party and the 
amount of baggage, from five to fifteen dollars per day, 
and takes, by Damascus eighteen to twenty days, and 
by Tyre and Sidon twelve days. 

Both routes are the same as far north as Nazareth 
Cana and Tiberias, where those going by Damascus go 
East of the Jordan, while those going up the coast go 
westward to Mt. Carmel, and Haifa. The road passes 
Bethel, Shiloh, Plains of Ephraim, Mts. Gerizim and 
Ebal, Sychar, Jacob's Well, Samaria, Jenin, (" En Gan- 
nim " Fountain of Gardens) — the Kishon rises in 



168 

this city ; the plain of Esdraelon, Gideon's Fountain, 
Gilboa, Shunem, Nain, Endor, Mt. Tabor, Sea of Gali- 
lee, Cana, Nazareth, Mt. Carmel, Acre or Akka, Ain or 
Ez-Zib, where Hyrcanus had his ears cut off and Her- 
od's brother knocked out his brains against a wall to 
escape indignity. Tyre, Sidon, Sarepta and many other 
cities of doubtful identity. I will relate some incidents 
of the journey farther on. 

I will give one day from our itinerary. A dragoman, 
well acquainted with the country, takes charge of the 
party. He informs us the previous evening at what 
hour we are to start, and promptly calls us at the ap- 
pointed time. Our baggage ready, while we take break- 
fast, it is put on the mules. Breakfast is bread, butter, 
eggs, cold meats and coffee. This done, with pencil, 
paper and notebooks and such protections as we need 
against bad weather, we go out for the day's ride. If 
the donkey boys have not done strapping on the bag- 
gage, it is interesting to watch them fasten half a dozen 
valises, trunks and bundles of different sizes and shapes 
so well balanced on a horse, mule or donkey that it will 
not fall off all day, up and down the mountains, nor gall 
the beast. I have seen a horse fall fiat with his load on 
the smooth stones of Tyre and not affect the load on his 
back, but rise and go right on as if nothing had hap- 
pened. They quarrel a great deal in everything they do 
— these Arabs, they never seem to understand each oth- 
er, so that often in tying a rope or fixing a rein, they 
will talk as if about to fight the whole time — though I 
believe they seldom do fight. Everything ready we 
mount our horses for the morning ride. 

The first day out from Jerusalem is over a very rough 
road, being a portion of the old Roman road from Cassa- 



160 

rea, it has greatly deteriorated. We have just turned 
our backs upon the once more growing city, when two 
gentlemen in black waterproofs ride into our path ; a 
glance suffices to show they have traveled considerably, 
and only a minute is required to learn they are Drs. 
Brancroft, Principal of Phillips Academy, Andover, and 
Buckley, editor of The Christian Advocate (New York.) 
The former on his second or third trip abroad, the latter 
on his fourth ; the conversation turns from one pleasant 
topic to another. I learned from Dr. Buckley the sad 
news of Bishop McTyeire's death. 

We go North-west by the tombs of the Kings and the 
hill Scopus; about one and a half miles out the drago- 
man says, turn your horses now and look at Jerusalem 
for the last time. We turn and look ; within the walls 
the city seems to be young ; without she appears to be 
but the work of yesterday. 

As we take this last look we remember the Salem 
(peace) of Melchizedek, the Jebus, strong hold of the 
Jebusites, and how David came and took it for Israel 
and made it the capital city of his realm, and how diso- 
bedient Israel had to surrender it to Shishak of Egypt, 
and how this was but the beginning of a long list of sor- 
rows whose anticipations well nigh broke the heart of 
Jeremiah, and whose realizations were but the fulfill- 
ment of the words of Moses, Deut. 28th, and of many of 
his successors, especially of the man like unto him 
whom the Lord God should raise up unto Israel. We 
think of Titus' hosts encamped just here to the left on 
Scopus, of that final shock when all was lost, even to 
the holy temple itself, of the brave and the wise Jose- 
phus, cool in the hour when 

"Death rode upon the sulphury siroc, 
Red battle stamped his foot and nations felt the shock." 
11 



170 

And not only nations, but the world. Poor, fanatical, 
ritualistic, starving Jews, your house now desolate, is 
not even left you ; vainly hoping to the very end for a 
Saviour, the Messias, had he returned indeed, it would 
have been to be again rejected, and hither wandered the 
poor, deluded crusader, urged by fanaticism, ambition 
and revenge at a cost of millions of lives and billions of 
gold to take the holy Sepulcher from Moslem hande 
with barbarous butchery ; to be surrendered again to 
Islam under Saladin. 

Just over the city walls rises the magnificent dome of 
the mosque of Omar on the site of Solomon's Temple, to 
the left, the Mosque El Aksa, be3'ond, the tomb of David 
on Mt. Zion, to the right the Tower of David, the 
splendid double-domed church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and to the right of the walled part the Russian Hospice 
worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. To the left 
and visible enough is Mt. Scopus and Mt. Olivet, at 
whose base is Gethsemane, beyond is Siloam, beneath 
w^hich flows " Siloe's shady rill " " fast by the oracle of 
God." Just over the Eastern wall is the " hill of Evil 
counsel." The minarets, domes, towers and cathedrals 
all are photographed indelibly on memory's page; 
with a deep sigh we bid the City of David farewell. 
What a history of voluptuous splendor, of religious sol- 
emnities, of ignominious captivities, of more than mel- 
ancholy tragedies, she has known ! What future awaits 
her, who can tell ! 

We turn our horses' heads towards the North, grate- 
ful for that mercy that has brought us here and so 
greatly increased life's richness. We soon reach Shafiit, 
called Nob, where David fled and fed in trouble, I. Sam. 
21. Tradition says this is the birth place of the prophet 



^ffrfHimiillll' 




ililillliiiiu,, 



172 

Joel. Nothing now remains except ruins, with a few 
poor houses, and it stands about one hundred yards 
from the road. We next and soon come to Ramah, the 
home of that Levite w^ho was so unfortunate at Gibeah 
of Saul, Judges 19. Saul's seven sons were hanged near 
here at Gibeah; Jer. 31:15, also immortalizes this place, 
though now not one Jew lives here, and only a few 
wretched Arabs. Over very stony (old ruined Roman) 
roads about 11 o'clock we pass on our right Beeroth, 
where it is claimed Joseph and Mary turned back to 
look for Jesus, when lost at 12 years of age. The day 
has become exceedingly cold and windy. We have 
reached Bethel by 12 M., and ride down into an old res- 
ervoir and eat on the ground, pic-nic fashion, behind 
the wall of the reservoir. While the dragoman and 
cook arrange for lunch we read up the history of Bethel 
and find that this is where Abraham built an altar to 
God, that here Jacob took some of these stones, possibly 
the one I sit on was one of them, to make a pillow to 
rest on as he fled from Beersheba to Padanaram, and 
had that wonderful dream, seeming to see the angels 
of God ascending and descending on a ladder, and 
though the ancients called it Luz at the first, it has been 
called Bethel ever since. Here he built an altar and an- 
nointed it with oil and called it " El-Bethel, because 
there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face 
of his brother." Here he vowed. Here Rebekah's nurse 
died and was buried. Near here the two she-bears slew 
forty and two children for mocking Ehsha, the prophet of 
God. Here Jeroboam set up a golden calf and sought 
to turn away the people from God ; and on one occa- 
sion, stretching out his hand to smite God's prophet, it 
was withered, and restored again in answer to the 



173 

prophet's prayer. Just across a ravine and in full view 
is Ai, which has a history following Jericho's overthrow. 
Josh. 7 tells us that the host of Joshua were routed be- 
cause of Achan's covetousness at Jericho in stealing a 
wedge of gold, two hundred sheckels of silver and a 
goodly Babylonish garment, and could not prevail until 
after Achan's execution. 

Lunch over, we mount our steeds and make towards 
Jifna, where we are to lodge for the night. 

We pass no places, these two hours now recognized as 
connected with sacred history, though no doubt could 
these stones speak they would rehearse sad stories of 
blood and tears. We observe on the way steep hills 
terraced to the top, and estimating the time and labor 
required to do the work of terracing according to Am- 
erican standards of valuation much of this land costs 
two thousand dollars per acre, and fifty to one hundred 
dollars per acre annually to keep it in repairs. But 
humanity is very cheap, and time is not money, as 
with us. 

There is a great variety of climate, not much in soil. 
The Jordan valley and along the coast of the Mediter- 
ranean is very warm now ; the hills are temperate and 
pleasant \' hile the mountain tops are colder, and Leban- 
on and Hermon covered with snow. Nearly all the soil 
is red, some spots of grey land are seen, and a few belts 
of black ground in Galilee, but all is productive to an 
amazing degree. Some of the hills and mountains seem 
at a little distance to be destitute of any soil, and to be 
only made of rocks, yet here the herds of sheep and 
goats find pasturage. There is no more beautiful land 
perhaps anywhere than the plains of Jezreel and all the 
panoram i seen on all the sides of Mt. Tabor, from the 



174 

tojD, and all the country li'Dm Mt. Tabor to the sea of 
Galilee is excellent for farming and not very hilly. 

But turning from the agricultural to the political con- 
dition of this country I have observed that it is, if not 
fully ripe, nearly so for a change, if I may not say 
revolution. One typical American to every one hundred 
inhabitants here would bring about a revolution in, I 
think I may say, five years at the farthest, but it is com- 
ing any way, only Moslemism stays it, but the claims of 
humanity are asserting themselves steadily. The Eng- 
lish, French, Germans and Russians are all fully ap- 
prised of the coming smash, and each fully awake to a 
sense of the possible gain it may result in to each. 
Each watches all the rest with Arguslike vigilance: each 
is putting as many men in position in every salient point 
as possible. 

At Beirut there is a post office for the English, one for 
the Austrians, one for the French, etc., and enough men 
of these three nations, i. e., of either of them, to do the 
most important civil service of Syria, which they expect 
to do some of these days. 



CHAPTER XX. 



NORTH OF JERUSALEM. 



The second day out from Jerusalem was very raiiiy^ 
and we needed the Arab ahais (a kind of overcoat nsed 
by Bedawins) we had bought in Jerusalem, w^hich were 
good waterproofs. 

AVe passed through Hora-]\Ieiyeh or Eobbers' Glen, 
where we met a caravan of about forty camels, with as 
many drivers ; their cargo was wheat, Avhich was set on the 
ground while the camels were grazing. There is an ex- 
cellent spring in this glen at which we got a good draught. 
Our road wound up the ravine, while on either hand the 
hillsides were terraced to the top, with no less than one 
hundred stone walls, some of them ten and twelve feet 
high. On these terraces wheat or lentils are sown, or 
fig or olive trees planted. 

We reached the site of ancient Shiloh about noon, 
where we lunched in an old ruined church. We saw^ the 
desolation spoken of by Jeremiah 7: 12-14 and 26: 6, and 
remembered that this w^as once Joshua's capitol, where 
he reared up the tabernacle. — Joshua 18. That here 
Eli lived and died, that here Hannah came and prayed 
and was heard and obtained the desire of her heart, and 
made yearly visits to bring her boy a little coat. 

And as I read this history, and considered the happy 
results I thought how beautiful to give our children to 
God in infancy and rear them for his service. 



176 

We ride during the afternoon through the fertile 
plains of Ephraim and Mukhna, reaching Jacob's well 
just before night. It too is walled in and a gate kept 
for backsheesh, but the gate-keeper was absent, and we 
climbed up some other w^ay, i. e., over the wall. A church 
was once built over the well, but it has gone to destruc- 
tion, leaving only broken columns projecting here and 
there from the debris. A large stone, like a mill-stone, 
covers the shaft ; this stone has a hole drilled throusfh 
it about two feet in diameter. It was very deep but dry. 
We longed for a draught from its depths. Since our 
visit the Russian government have bought it from the 
Turks and will give it all needed improvements. We sat 
on that well's mouth and looked over the fields two 
months later in the year than when our Lord said : "Say 
not ye. There are yet four months, and then cometh 
harvest ?" Just out there a f e^/ hundred paces is a tomb 
called Joseph's tomb in the parcel of ground that Jacob 
gave to his son Joseph, where they buried, him, and the 
bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought 
up out of Egypt, burying them in Shechem, in a parcel of 
ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the 
father of Shechem for a hundred pieces of silver ; and it 
became the inheritance of the children of Joseph. — 
Joshua 24: 32. We look up at Mt. Ebal and Gerizim, 
called mountains of Cursino- and Blessino-. — Josh. 8: 33. 

I copy from my Diary the following, written the even- 
ing we were there : "Our Lord must have been here in 
winter, but at any season the scene is inspiring. Already 
the place was old and full of history, beneath him was 
Jacob's well before him the parcel of ground he had 
bought and lost in une(|ual conquest and retaken with 
his "sword and bow," in the midst of it was Joseph's 



177 

tomb, above him the Mountains of Blessing and Cursing, 
around him a people dead to their privileges and duties, 
and void of any knowledge of the truth. 

No place on earth was better suited to reflection on the 
remote and romantic past, the serious and pregnant pre- 
sent, the sad foreboding future. Oh, Son of God, I am 
riding by where thou walkedst and w^ast weary with the 
journey, resting thy tired head, it may be, that night on 
some of these stones, because the Jews and Samaritans 
have no dealings with one another. I go up to Shechem, 
whither, perhaps, thou couldst not, and find a good 
home. I have enough of all but thy spirit. Thou car- 
riedst all our woes. Thou art worthy to be crowned 
Lord of all. Be my portion forever, and lift me, a con- 
stant beneficiary of thy grace, to a higher plane of living. 

We ride between Ebal and Gerizim to Sychar of old, 
called now Nablous. It is a city of 13,000 inhabitants 
and contains the remnant of the old stock of Samaritans 
(about one hundred and fifty) whose chief or high priest, 
Jacob Shalaby, we saw at Jaffa. They still worship in 
Mt. Gerizim as directed. — Ex. 12. I saw the old Pen- 
tateuch manuscript iu their possession, which they claim 
to be twenty-six hundred years old. It is parchment and 
rolls on two cylinders from one of which it unrolls as it 
rolls upon the other, it is about twenty-four inches wide, 
and very dingy as one would expect. The Turks have a 
garrison here. There are signs of great poverty. The 
curse of leprosy abides and abounds. There is a steam 
wheat mill and a soap factory or two, though none of the 
inhabitants appear to have ever used any of the soap. 
We spent the night wdth Mr. Fulcher, a missionary, who 
was so busy trying to right some altercation (I think) 
that had arisen that w^e had little conversation with him. 



178 

He remarked, iu answer to some questions, he was only 
sowing seed now. 

The next morning we rode down a stream on a splen- 
did road that went to Jaffa. On the banks of this creek 
that emptied its water into the Mediterranean, grow the 
richest vegetation, the finest olive trees, and most luxu- 
riant gardens. We also passed about a dozen flouring 
mills run by water power. No dams were built across 
the stream but a long race carried the water until a fall 
of twenty feet could be secured, then in an aqueduct 
made of stone the water is carried to the centrifugal 
wheel which is the only power we saw used in Palestine. 
We saw one turned by concussion in Syra. I dis- 
mounted and entered one of these; the stones were 
about three feet in diameter, the upper one was about 
six inches thick, without a hoop, while the flour, un- 
bolted, ran out in a depressed place on the floor. The 
miller was standing barefooted in the grist ; two or three 
donkeys and as many dogs were standing around near 
enough to begin a meal the moment the guard (the 
miller) should leave his charge. 

We leave the good road and take a bridle path to 
Samaria, the old capitol of Samaria, two hours dist- 
ant. A hundred columns, monoliths, some in situ, 
marking the course of the vast colonnade three fourths 
of a mile long, some scattered over the fields tell of 
a magnificence and splendor worthy of the Roman 
that whilom ruled this ruined realm. 

" Sixteen columns on the topmost terrace are still thought to 
mark the site of Baals temple which Jehu demolished— 2 Kings, 
10.''~Land and Book. But all that is left of the ancient palatial 
and colonnade splendor are some rowg of stone pillars, twenty 
feet in height, three feet in diameter, and still retaining some 
of the polished surface which glistened in beauty two thousand 



179 

years ago. The situation of Samaria is remarkable. It is on a 
lofty hill, with a ring of still loftier hills surrounding it. Aval- 
ley ring and a mountain ring are its double engirdling of beauty 
and strength. The sides of the central hill, upon which sat the 
capitol of Israel, slope down to the valley, and bear remains of 
buildings and terraces. On the northern side, and near the 
base of the hill, are several rows of massive stone pillars. The 
situation alone gives us a fair idea of what it used to be in at- 
tractiveness and natural strength. After looking at it I did not 
marvel that it took the Assyrians three years to secure its cap- 
ture. 

It was in this city that w^as begun the idolatry that proved 
the ruin of Israel. Here Elijah came and preached to Ahab 
and Jezebel. Naaman, with his chariots and gold and his lep- 
rosy, visited this city, seeking relief. Elisha lived in the neigh- 
borhood, and afterward in the city itself, as the scripture tells 
us that he was there during a certain siege. It was here tha* 
occurred several scenes that have always peculiarly and power- 
fully impressed me. It was on one of these mountains before 
us that Elisha's servant saw the horseman and chariots of the 
heavenly army. On the walls here walked "the king in hitherto 
concealed suffering of mind, until the wind blew aside his cloak 
and the tortured body was revealed. Across that valley sped 
the lepers in the moonlight to the vacant camp of the besiegers. 
Over those hills in the distance swept the strange sound that 
affrightened a whole army and put them to flight ; and under- 
neath the walls of this place Elisha led an army blinded by the 
power of God, and then transformed them all into the lasting 
friends of Israel by kind treatment — good piece of gospel let 
down into Old Testnment times. Here Philip preached the 
gospel with great success, and here Piter withstood Simon the 
Sorcerer." — Carradine. 

We leave this desolate city and pass through charm- 
ing landscapes ; far away on every hand, nestled under 
the hills, are towns that look pretty in the distance, a 
circumstance that always helps a Mohammedan town. 
We passed through one — Jeb-a — where the children 
came out and cried after us '' goon," "leave herel" "you 
are infidels !" " you will all go to hell !" " God will not 



180 

give you long life !" " you are Nazarenes," &c. We 
met another large caravan of Damascus merchants go- 
ing down to Joppa or Egypt. We pass Sitniir on a high 
hill and the last fortress to yield to Ibrahim Pasha when 
he overran this country, Dothan, where Joseph's breth- 
ren were feeding their flocks when he visited them and 
met such unkind return for his beneficence, and where 
Benhadad sought Elisha, and his men were stricken 
with blindness — 2 Kings, 6. We stop for the night at 
Jenin, on the boundary of the plain of Esdraelon. It is 
a well watered town containing about four thousand in- 
habitants. There is no hotel there and we lodged with 
an Arab. They gave us the principal room in the 
house. The floor was covered with matting for a carpet. 
Some real fine paintings were on the wall ; and they gave 
us an excellent dinner of soup, pigeons, sheep and veg- 
etables, including plent}^ of lettuce, which has no sub- 
stitute nor rival in the world, as they grow it and 
prepare it. 

While we were eating, however, our dragoman and 
the Arabs in the yard had some bitter words. I think 
it was about our stopping in the town, as they used the 
word Christian and Nazarene a good deal. He would 
not tell us the cause, which confirmed my conviction 
that I had conjectured aright. He left them and came 
in and closed the door, not, however, until they had 
thrown a stone or two. I made bodily j^rotection a mat- 
ter of special prayer that evening. A Christian mis- 
sionary (Catholic) had been driven from the town, and 
where Catholics can't retain a hold, it is not the place to 
be careless in. We found a body of soldiers in a few 
yards of our dwelling next morning, and to them, under 
God's good providence, we may have owed our safety. 



181 

The Arabs failing to kill us the fleas tried. Mr. M., 
who was tender and afforded good pasturage, remarked 
that one could stand two or three hundred fleas, but 
when they came by baskets full and bushels, the supply 
was beyond the demand, reminding one of the boarder 
at school who said he did not mind hash for sixty or 
seventy meals, but when it became a regular thing he 
got tired of it. We survived them, however, and arose 
next morning to pursue our way over the battle-field of 
the world — the Plains of Jezreel. It is ravishingly 
beautiful as a tract of country, and possessed of a histo- 
ry that will ever claim a share of the research and study 
of the historian and antiquarian. Thothmes III, before 
the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, and Necho 
fought here. Here fell Ahab and Ahaziah, Jehoram and 
Jezebel, Sisera and Saul. The following is our diary 
for that day, March 21 : 

"Leaving our dwelling at 7 o'clock we go out by a 
very large crystal fountain, source of Kishon, pass a 
large Khan, full of Arab travelers, the Pasha's to the 
right and a mosque to the left, and in two minutes are 
on the plain. Jenin is full of gardens, cactus and palm- 
trees. Twenty miles or less to our left is Mt. Carmel ; 
on each side the fellahs (farmers) are weeding the wheat 
and barley ; the air is vocal with the songs of birds, and 
misty clouds, just enough to temper the rays of the 
ascending sun, are flitting about. Soon we descry Mt. 
Hermon, covered with snow, far to the north, Mt. Tabor 
to the north-east, and Gilboa to the south-east. We are 
in the midst of the plain, every acre of which has 
drunk the blood of fallen warriors. It is well cultivated 
for Arab farmers, and very fruitful, but the poor fellah 
is robbed by the government of all except the scantiest 



182 

support ; to be tardy in paying tax is a crime severely 
punished. The collectors go in pairs, often in squads of 
four and six, armed with swords and repeating rifles. 
They levy on olive trees and collect for them before they 
bloom. Arabs have taken the sword and literally perish 
by the sword in the hand of the tax-gatherer. We come 
in two hours to Jezreel, home of Jezebel, Ahab, and 
Naboth, of Jehu, Jehoram and Gideon. Jezreel is on a 
hill, the first of the Gilboa range from the west. The 
houses are ail built of mud. 

We pass Fuleh, scene of the battle of Mt. Tabor, 1799, 
where Kheber, with fifteen hundred French soldiers 
fought twenty-five thousand Turks for six hours, when 
Napoleon came up with six hundred more and routed 
them. Here at hand is the part of the plain where 
Gideon, with his three hundred t lat lapped vanquished 
the PhiUstines by night. There they in turn triumphed 
over Saul the day after he had gone over yon hilf 
to consult the witch whose cave is in Endor, just behind. 

One or two miles to the east are the "high places" — 1 
Sam. 29 ; 2 Sam. 1: 19-27. And sparkling in the sun- 
light to our right are the waters of Gideon's fountain, 
w^here his thirsty troops lapped water as a dog — Judg. 
7: 6. Before we are done taking in these things our 
horses have walked into Shunem, scene of Elisha's la- 
bors, where lived that woman with such correct ideas 
of taste and political econom}^ as to have her husband 
build a room to their house for the preacher. If any 
would learn how she was paid many fold let him read 
2 Kings, 4: 8-37. Mt. Carmel, to which she made her 
servant drive the donkey in a trot, without stopping, is 
in sight about fifteen miles west. Shunem is surround- 
ed by a wall of living cactus, through which no living 
animal much larger than a rat could pass. 



183 

A mile beyond the town we pass a Bedouin encamp- 
ment; they are flaying a sheep of the species called "fat- 
tail." The tail is about the ordinary length of a sheep's 
tail, but except the bone and skin is a solid lump of fat 
weighing sometimes lorty pounds, and is used by the na- 
tives for butter ! 

We dine at Nain in a Catholic church, or rather in a 
room joining the church. Here was performed the 
miracle recorded in Luke 7: 12-15: "Now when he came 
nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead 
man carried out, the only son of his mother, and she 
was a widow : and much people of the city w^as with 
her. And when the Lord saw her he had compassion 
on her, and said unto her, weep not. And he came and 
touched the bier : and they that bare him stood still. 
And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. And 
he. that was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he 
delivered him to his mother." It is now a miserable 
Arab village, about three miles from Endor, whither we 
go to look into the cave visited by Saul the night pre- 
ceding his death. The cave is there ; so are others ; so 
we looked into it and some others also ; a large one is 
shown as the real scene of the dialogue — 1 Sam. 28: 11- 
19. A surly Turk was sitting in the cave when w^e visit- 
ed it. He had a sword, but did not speak nor strike. 
Here we saw many bee-gums on the roofs of the 
mud houses, and quantities of bees very busy carrying 
honey into gums made of mud. It is tw^o hours ride 
from this place to the top of Mt. Tabor, where we go to 
spend the night. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



MT. TABOR, SEA OF GALILEE, NAZARETH. 



While some doubt shades the title of Tabor to the 
honor of the scene of our Lord's transfiguration, we gave 
it the benefit of our sanction, and tried to feel that near 
by us somewhere that august event occurred. 

Napoleon had been here, we cared not for that, Alex- 
ander perhaps, the Crusaders, Barak and Deborah and 
even Melchizedek. Each had engaged in conflicts affect- 
ing the destiny of nations, to greater or less extent, but 
not for any nor all of these would we have gone thither. 
We hoped to come if possible where the Son of Mary was 
made so glorious before His Brethren's eyes. 

We went up a zig-zag road through a thin forest of 
low scrubby oaks, the summit is nearly level and ellip- 
tical in shape, being about five hundred yards long by 
three hundred wide. Old walls and fortifications scat- 
tered in confused masses cover the entire top. It is 
about eighteen hundred feet high, standing alone in the 
plain. 

From a certain point both the Mediterranean and Sea 
of Galilee are visible, the country of Bashan and most 
of central Palestine and all of the Plain of Esdraelon. 
Nazareth fifteen miles across the plains among the hills 
may be plainly seen. 

A great educator from Massachusetts asked me, if T 
had to obliterate from memory all that I had seen in the 



185 

Holy Land with a single exception which particular 
thing or place would I retain? Finding it difficult 
to decide he quickened my thought by mentioning 
Esdraelon. 

The Russians or Greeks and Latins both have churches 
here, and priests but no worshipers. We spent the 
night with the latter, cut a nice walking stick or two, 
some pen-holders, and read up such history as we had 
in the Bible and guide-books relating to Mt. Tabor. 

Next morning we rode across the plains passing a fair 
of which a missionary testifies : 

" The noise is incessant, and at a distance sounds like that "of 
many waters," Every man is crying his wares at the top of his 
voice, chickens cackle and squall, donkeys bray and fight, and 
the dogs bark. Every living thing adds somewhat to the many- 
toned and prodigious uproar. It is now a miscellaneous comedy 
in full operation where every actor does his best, and is su- 
premely gratified at his own performance. 

The people find many reasons for sustaining these antiquated 
and very curious gatherings. Every man, woman, and child 
has inherited the itch for trading, and, of course, all classes meet 
at this grand bourse to talk over the state of the markets, from 
the price of a cucumber to that of a $5,000 horse from the 
Hauran. They meet to talk of the news. These fairs are the 
daily newspaper, and there is one for every day within a cir- 
cuit of forty miles. They are the exchange and forwarding office, 
corresponding to our markets, fairs, conventions, picnics, excur- 
sions, etc." 

Millions of bees gathered sweets from nature's pro- 
digal gardens, through which also shepherd boys tended 
hundreds of sheep, and goats with ears a foot in length, 
making them equally as conspicuous as the fat-tail 
sheep. About noon our dragoman, who rode in front of 
us reined up his horse and turned him around, saying 

BACKSHEESH ! by which he meant I have led you to a 
12 



186 

sight worth plenty of money, and so he had. In one 
minute more we paused at the top of a hill that descended 
suddenly for a thousand feet; under the hill lay the city 
of Tiberias in the margm of the sea of the same name. 
The sea of Galilee is thirteen miles long by seven wide, 
greatest diameters, and 666 feet below the level of the 
Mediterranean. Its surface was pretty smooth, except 
here and there it appeared to be the play-place of just 
the tiniest zephyrs which would go in every direction, 
never staying long enough nor yet hastening strong 
enough to more than betray their presence and make a 
picture as by one magic touch. 

" The winds with wonder whist, 
Smoothly the waters kissed." 

The lake is girt about by a plain in places one or two 
miles wide. We walk down this dreadful hill, take din- 
ner, get a boat and go to Tel- Hum or Capernaum, now 
desolate ; go through the ruins over-run with weeds, stand 
on the foundation of an old church supposed to be the 
one built by that Roman who wished Jesus to heal his 
servant — Luke 7:3-5, and the synagogue in which Jesus 
often preached. I looked over the desolate place and 
thought of his reproofs, when this was his home. Here 
he called Peter, James and John ; — here he delivered that 
most remarkable discourse — John 6. 

It is a never-to-be-forgotten object lesson one learns in 
wandering amongst these cities once so populous, once 
so blessed, now so forsaken. 

We return by Bethsaida (fish town). Nothing re- 
mains of it but a mill. We gathered some shells for 
far-awav friends, saw our boatmen catch a nice draught 
of fishes, and returned througli the darkness. The jack- 



187 

als screamed and howled on the shore. We were under 
a clear sky and gazed up at the 

" stars that shine nightly on blue GaUlee." 

The wind arose and we talked of the night that fol- 
lowed the miracle of feeding the five thousand when the 
disciples were in such evil plight. We read all the refer- 
ences to the Sea of Galilee, and the Gospels became, in 
a sense, new to us. 

Next morning I went out and took a bath in the pel- 
lucid lake, picked up a smooth stone, rode down to see 
the Sulphur Spring, where baths may be had in a well 
fitted bathroom free of charge. They are said to be very 
potent in curing rheumatism. The temperature of these 
springs is 128° Fah, and when we visited them the 
rooms were so filled with sulphurous vapor that one 
could hardly breathe in them. 

Our next objective point is Nazareth. We pass, on 
the way, the Mount of the Beatitudes, by which the 
Crusaders fought their last battle and were vanquished 
by the Moslems under Saladin, A. D. 1187. We reach 
Cana about noon and take lunch in a pomegranate gar- 
den, Drs. Burkley and Bancroft ride by, going towards 
Tiberias. We all wish to see the jars w^iich held the 
wine made of water by Jesus, at the wedding, but the 
Greeks and Catholics have possession of them (if they 
exist at all) and are quarreling about whose they are, 
and we were debarred the privilege. Going over the 
same road Jesus so often traveled from Nazareth to 
Capernaum, we reached Nazareth Saturday afternoon 
about 3 o'clock and stayed until Monday morning. 

We took a guide and went to the precipitous place 
over which the wicked Jews purposed throwing Jesus, 



188 

called the Hill of Precipitation. " And all they in the 
synagogue, when they heard these things, were filled 
with wrath, and rose up, and thrust him out of the city, 
and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their 
city was built, that they might cast him down headlong. 
But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way." 
— Luke 4:28-30. I attended the Episcopal Mission 
church in the forenoon and looked through their splen- 
did Female College in the afternoon, where about 80 or 
100 girls are being educited and Christianized. They 
also have seven other schools in the country around, 
superintended by Miss Edith Gaze Brown. These girls 
are to become wives and mothers some of these days, and 
that of the best people of the country . They are sowing 
good seed in a fruitful field. I should say that this 
mission belongs to the "Ladies' Evangelical Society in 
the East," whose headquaters are in London. They re- 
peat Psalms, and sing from "Gospel Hymns" in Sunday 
School and also use the International Lessons. The 
tourists spending Sabbath in Nazareth were invited to 
tea in the college Sabbath evening and addresses were 
made by several clergymen. 

In Xazareth one is shown Joseph's house, work-shop, 
Church of the Annunciation, and a stone over which a 
church is built, on which it is claimed Jesus ate with 
his disciples before and after his resurrection, though 
the evidence to establish the truth of these claims is 
not very satisfactory. 

We ascended the hill to the Wely Sem'ftn, (tomb of 
Simeon) above the town. We can see Acre and the Sea; 
beyond Esdraelon and the intervening hills, the plain 
of Sharon. While enjoying this sumptuous panoramic 
fea^t three young men came up, one of whom was near- 



189 

]y blind, (20 per cent, of these people have injured eyes.) 
He told me he would give me a hundred dollars to cure 
his eyes ; a more impossible task was never presented. 
I thought of my weakness, and at the same time of the 
power of Him whose bo34iood was spent in the city be- 
low and on these hills and plains, who undertook just 
such a case while he lived, and whose power was not 
shortened because He had moved His dwehing place. 
I preached unto him Jesus. He was a Christian. They 
drew a Bible on me to know on what I based my belief 
that Jesus would heal his eyes. I told him to read John 
14: 13-14. He said he would pray for eye-sight, and I 
promised to pray for him. 

They left me and went off to an olive tree, under 
which they sat down to read the book they had and 
ponder no doubt upon the liberal construction they had 
just heard put upon its announcements. As I looked 
at them I thought of the boyhood of Jesus, who must 
often have climbed these hills to gaze at the snow-cov- 
ered mountains in the north, the luxuriant plain below 
and the great sea beyond. Yes, all these, so delightful 
to me, were all familiar to Him. He must often have 
lingered here till twilight softened the scene and dark- 
ness shut out air but His own thoughts upon human 
life, man's folly and his danger, his possible attainment 
and the effort he purposed putting forth to rescue us; 
His conflict with evil and error. His, rejection and 
death, that life might become a more stupendous reality 
to man, and immortality might be brought to light. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



MT. CARMELIAND THE COASTS OF TYRE 
AND SID ON. 



Leaving Nazareth we reach Haifa under Mt. Carmel 
in six hours, passing on the way several small towns, 
some among the hills built of stone, some on the plain, 
of mud. We met between thirty and forty women, with 
large copper basins filled with milk, holding five or six 
gallons each, going to Nazareth. Several men were 
with them, but they rode donkeys, never deigning to 
touch the loads carried by their wives, mothers and 
sisters. That is the custom here ; the women are on a 
level with the donkeys, as laborers. We find a good 
hotel, dine, and spend the afternoon going through the 
German colony, which is a model in its way. It is a 
cosmos in miniature. Next morning I went with our 
muleteer to the top of Mt. Carmel. The Catholics have 
a church over the cave in which Elijah hid, when Ahab 
sought his life. Near by is the cave in which Obadiah 
is said to have hid the fifty prophets — 1 Kings 28: 13. 
Napoleon used this church for a hospital when he be- 
sieged Acre, twelve miles across or around the bay, in 
1799. 

Haifa is a seaport. Most of the inhabitants are Chris- 
tians and Germans. They seem very thrifty, and came 
here to have religious liberty as our pilgrim fore-fathers 
came to America. I do not understand their creed, 
however, even after hearing it explained. The govern- 



191 

ment is macadamizing a road from this place to Tiberias 
by Nazareth and Cana. From this point telegraph wires 
run to Jerusalem, Shechem, Tiberias, Nazareth, Beirut. 

There are many nice orange groves and vineyards 
here, and much wheat is shipped hence to France and 
Spain. In the afternoon of next day we rode around 
the bay, crossed the Kishon, "that ancient River Kishon," 
on whose banks Elijah slew the prophets of Baal — 1 
Kings, 18: 40, It is a small stream, barely large enough 
to turn a mill at this season, though large enough ta 
sweep away companies of soldiers under Sisera's retreat. 

We stopped for the night in Acre, called also Ptole- 
mais and St. John d'Acre. It is the "Key of Palestine," 
has been besieged and burnt often. Its history goes 
back to the Egyptian kings, centuries B. C, and it 
figured largely in the crusades. Its present population 
is 5,000, of whom 700 are Cln-istians, the remainder 
Mohametans. 

A German preacher, named Bitzer, joined us here 
and traveled with us the rest of the way. 

I and Isa (our dragoman) took a boat and went out 
to the steamer on which Mr. M. was going to Beirut, to 
see how he was getting on. There were about twenty 
Arab boats laden wdth w^heat, destined to some 
distant market. While we were on the steamer all bu- 
siness was suspended and the greatest possible uproar 
began. I thought one of the wheat boats was sinking, 
but the confusion increased to such an extent I con- 
cluded the steamer w^as going down. The Arabs (about 
one hundred of them) were all talking at once; some of 
them were frantic and gesticulated like madmen. I 
could not understand a word they said, but knew that 
something awful had happened or was about to happen, 



192 

so I told Isa to let us be going. He laughed, and told 
me the occasion of the excitement, as follows: One of 
the crew had smiled at a Mussulman who was praying 
on the deck of the boat, (a very common thing), the 
Arab had seen himj and wanted him punished by the 
officers of the ship, and all the rest were in sympathy 
with the aggrieved devotee. 

In the twelfth century more than ten times the pres- 
ent population were killed here during a single siege. 
In the thirteenth century Khalit-Ibn-Khalaem, Sultan 
of Egypt, besieged and captured it in thirtj^-three days 
and slew 25,000 Christians, many of w^hom (ladies) cut 
their own noses off to escape more barbarous treatment. 
Many remnants of the crusaders may still be seen, 
notably the old church of St. John, and a hospital. We 
drank from a fountain of brackish water, said to have 
wrought miraculous cures. But the greatest honor the 
place has ever known is recorded in Acts xxi: 7. 

Leaving Acre next morning we saw many people 
gathered on the outside of the city gate. They were 
both from the town and country, the former had come 
out to buy the vegetables, the latter had brought to sell, 
which were auctioned off by the donkey load without 
unloading the beast. The following articles were selling 
at different stations as we passed : Onions, carrots, pota- 
toes, lettuce and other salads, oranges lemons, milk and 
curds. They are sold outside the gate to avoid taxation. 

A splendid aqueduct brings water from the mountains 
to the town. We ride by this about ten miles. Our 
road now lies to the north and passes through rich plains 
in which are groves of oranges and lemons. We dine 
at Khan de Rhauna on fresh fish, which they catch in a 
large circular net by wading out into the surf until the 



193 

fish comes in sight when the net which has been slightly 
twisted is thrown like a lasso, and having a leadline 
sinks down rapidl}^ around the fish, the leadline is 
pulled up then to a focus by a draw string, a hole is left 
in the top just large enough to take out the fish. 

We pass over White Cape, where the road is cut 
around the cliff" five hundred feet above the water and a 
stumbling or misstep of the horse would precipitate the 
rider into the sea. This is the old Roman road leading 
from Caesarea to Antioch. We descend into the plains 
filled with old wells and stone troughs, and walls, and 
steps, remnants of Hiram's Tyre, which was nineteen 
miles in circumference. We pass near by Hiram's tomb 
and ride into Tyre and to the house of Abdul Malak 
(Servant of the Angel). There are ruins here that would 
tempt the archaeologist and antiquarian to linger many 
a day. 

The wharf is built of polished columns of stone that 
once supported domes of palaces and temples " of per- 
fect beauty." Massive pillars of red granite, monoliths, 
a section of which looks like a heart cut of stone, and 
twenty-five feet long by four in diameter, and smaller 
pieces lie scattered all about, marking the tracks of the 
destroyers, which Ezekiel, chaps, xxvii-xxviii, said 
would come this way. Tyre was built 2350 B. C, and 
with her parent, Sidon, taught navigation to the world, 
and colonized Carthage. Earthquakes, fire, the sea and 
war have all exhausted their resources upon Tyre. 
Tyre and Sidon were given to Asher in the division of 
Canaan but they never got possession of them. The 
Israelites were feeders to them and they were necessary 
to the Israelites, possibly until they became so amalga- 
mated, especially in religion, as to have all things in 



194 

common, peaceably. A huge mound stands by the way 
just before reaching Tyre; on this it is said once stood 
the temple of Hercules. 

From Tj^re to Sidon we cross the Leontes River, called 
here Xahr-el-Kasineiyeh, on a beautiful stone bridge 
supported by a single arch sixty feet wide, the ruined 
city of Ornithopolis, the Cave-temple of Astarte, Sarep- 
ta, now in ruins, and a house of white stone on the site 
of the house of the widow that fed Elijah. — 1 Kings, 
17: 9-16. Every inch of this ground has been employed 
in making the history of our race, and imagination re- 
peoples it, rebuilds its cities, with streets full of business 
and romping children, its temples resounding with As- 
tarte's praise, repaints its battle scenes of holocaust and 
ca23tive's clanking chains, feels again the earthquake's 
shock, and trembles at the terrible vengeance of the 
Almighty angered. 

"Therefore, thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I am 
against thee, Tyrus, and will cause many nations to 
come up against thee as the sea causeth her waves to 
come up. And they shall destroy the w^alls of Tyrus, 
and break down her towers; .... and they shall 
lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the midst 
of the water. And I will cause the noise of thy songs 
to cease: and the sound of thy harps shall be no more 
heard. And I will make thee like the top of a rock : 
thou shalt be a place to spread nets upon; thou shalt be 
built no more : for I the Lord have spoken it, saith the 
Lord God."— Ezk. 26. 

We stop at a good hotel at Sidon, kept by an Arab. 
The parlor, saloon, and bed-rooms are on the second 
floor, while some shops foce the street on the lower story. 
The whole building surrounds an open court about fifty 



195 

feet square, where the horses and donkeys are kept. 
The latter kept up a constant braying which preveats 
one from becoming lonesome. 

The saloon accommodates from one to two hundred 
guests. It is fitted up with tables for billiards, cards, 
backgammon, checkers, &c., &c., for all the city Arabs 
gamble and smoke all day and often till midnight. 

Our dragoman had been cross and negligent the day 
w^e reached Sidon; I had seemed displeased. That 
evening after supper he came into my room and begged 
my pardon, took my hand, put it to his forehead and 
kissed it, and took it several times to repeat his professed 
submission to my will. I tried to think him sincere, 
forgave him, and dismissed him seemingly satisfied. 

Sidon is a very ancient city and was so named prob- 
ably in consequence of its having been a fishery. (Saida 
means fish). It was built by the grandson of Noah, and 
invented the art of navigation, carpentry, sculpture, 
making glass, stone cutting, casting iron, &c. — Josephus, 
b. 1: 6. 

The present population numbers about 12,000, of 
w^hom 2,500 are christians, 300 are Jew^s. Nearly all 
of these, however, belong to the Greek and Latin church- 
es ; but there is a Protestant school doing a good work, 
under the patronage of the church of England. 

The road from Sidon to Beirut is the roughest w^e have 
traveled over, though the French soldiers made a splen- 
did road here only a few scores of years ago, but it is 
ruined now. Every two or three miles on all the im- 
portant roads of Palestine and Syria there is a little 
stone house built, called a guard house. We were glad 
to see that traveling had got to be very safe, as indicated 
by the absence of the guards from most of these. 



196 

We pass over the battle ground of Ptolemy and An- 
tiochus the Great, fought 218 B. C, and where tradition 
says the whale left Jonah, and where the Nahr-El-Danur 
flows cool and deep from Mt. Lebanon. There are many 
silk flictories along the road and thousands of acres of 
the plains and hillsides are devoted to the culture of 
mulberry trees for the manufacture of silk. We leave 
to our right the perishing home of the eccentric lady 
Stanhope, who died as she had hved in self-imposed 
exile, "unwept, unhonored" and unloved. 

We pass through a belt of deep red sand for three or 
four miles between walls made ol this sand when wet, 
about four or five feet high, through groves of pine trees, 
owned by the government and used for telegraph poles. 
They are trimmed up and are as thick as pines can 
grow, even in North Carolina. We pass the customs 
officers and at 4 p. m. on the twelfth day after leaving 
Jerusalem ; stop at the Hotel del' Universe, kept by a 
native Syrian, and never found a better, nor cheaper 
one in all our travels. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



BEIRUT. 



Our first thought on reaching Beirut was one of relief 
at having terminated a journey perilious on account of 
the treachery of the people one must associate with and 
depend upon, and the excessive heat of the climate 
along the coast. We were mindful of the good provid- 
ence of God that had shielded us hourly through the 
worst dangers we would brave. Grateful letters awaited 
us at the post office, and newspapers from home. After 
dinner our dragoman, muleteers and donkey boy came 
to my room to bid me farewell and receive backsheesh. 
These fellows will appear to be nearly heartbroken at 
parting with the traveler, but if disai3pointed in the 
quantity of backsheesh expected, will go off pouting and 
it is said, sometimes not even say good-bye at all. 

We had a written contract to the effect (specified) that 
all backsheesh was to be paid by our cicerone ; neverthe- 
less he, with all the rest, seemed to have lost sight of 
that, and wanted all possible perquisites. 

Next morning I went to see Mr. M. at the Hospital of 
the Knights of St. John, where he had gone the day 
previous to our arrival, and though blessed with the 
best medical attention to be found anywhere ; his conva- 
lescence was so slow as to require him to stay about two 
weeks. I remained with him four days, and bade him 
adieu with a sad heart, for in the seven weeks in which 
we had been constantly together, our attachment for 



198 

each other and dependence upon one another, had 
grown to be like that of two brothers. Now our journey 
lay apart, and both were once more alone at the farthest 
point from home. 

The following is an extract from a letter written since 
his return home : "After you left Beirut I had to remain 
about ten days, for Dr. Post would not let me go for a 
week after I was up and about the garden. Dr. Post 
told me he and Dr. Dight had a consultation every 
morning over my case, for they did not understand it ; 

concluded it was malaria in the main 

Well, it was a grand trip, was it not? Who could picture 
old Egypt as it is? Or ever get a just view of the Holy 
Land as we saw it? Or imagine Pompeii or Rome? It 
is all like a dream, but when I fix my thought on any 
one part of it, it becomes all clear as a picture." 

Beirut is a city of over one hundred thousand inhab- 
itants, most of whom are Arabs and Turks, but there 
are many French, Germans, Greeks and Italians also, 
and some English. The Enghsh, French and Austrians 
each have a post office, as well as the Turks, and I be- 
lieve the Italians as well. It is the principal seaport of 
Syria, ant carries on a large wholesale trade with Da- 
mascus and the inland towns farther in the interior. 
There are several factories here making silk g jods, soap, 
nargilehs, glass goods, shoes, sandals, copper-ware and 
hard-ware generally. The city is taking on an Euro- 
pean air to a considerable extent. 

I went one day to Nahr-El-Kelb, (Dog River) which 
is a sight well worth the time and trouble to see. It 
flows from the Lebanon mountains and is cold. From 
this stream Beirut is supplied with drinking water, 
driven about six or seven miles through pipes, by a 



199 

steam engine. The Nahr-El-Kelb flows through a canon 
whose sides are nearly perpendicular and about five or 
six hundred feet high. The rock forming the sides of 
this canon is limestone, and several places have been cut 
smooth for receiving inscriptions and reliefs. One of 
these, life size, represents Salmanezer, another Rameses 
the Great, cut in relief There are also inscriptions in 
relief to Marcus Aurelius and Napoleon III. A stone 
bridge, centuries old, spans the stream about a quarter 
of a mile from the beach ; over this bridge mules were 
carrying sugar cane on their backs, and I judged there 
w^as a sugar factory near by from the vast amounts haul- 
ed. Two large bundles weighing three or four hundred 
pounds are balanced on the mules' backs and the}" go 
without a driver to the proper destination. 

The highway is a continuation of the old Roman road 
to Antioch, and is in good condition, being macadam- 
ized ; it passes through mulberry groves all the way 
around the sandy beach of St. George's bay. 

This entire population is Christian, even for many 
miles in the interior. And so bigoted are th^}^ that 
they will not only not hear any other sect, but will not 
allow others to plant a school or church among them ; 
they are Catholics chiefly ; some, however, belong to the 
Greek church. They are as violent as the Latins in 
their hostility to Protestanism. Dr. Jessup had in hand 
the case of a missionary at Sidon who had been arrested 
on the charge of murder ; everything was being done 
by the Catholics that could be to secure his execution. 
It was my privilege to contribute to a fund being raised 
to secure his release. The wounds our Lord has received 
in the house of his friends have checked the onward 
march of his kingdom more than all the infidelity, ra- 



200 

tionalism, agnosticism, and all other forms of skepticism 
together. 

It was my privilege to visit the various institutions 
doing work directly for Christ in Beirut, and I copy 
from statictics and statements placed in my hands by 
our Missionaries a concise history and outline of their 
labors. 

The following is an extract from a letter written by 
myself to the Raleigh Christian Advocate, from 
Beirut : 

"I thought I w^ould write you about the wonderful 
work of missions here in Beirut, but I have found to 
my hand a summary, by the dauntless Dr. Strong, to 
the correctness of which I wish to bear testimony. I 
had the pleasure of visiting their college for young men, 
and through the courtesy of the President, Dr. Bliss, 
of acquainting myself somewhat with their equipments 
and methods. It is nearly, if I may not say, quite an 
ideal college. They have about two hundred pupils, 
w^ho show real culture in manner and conversation. 
The College is well equipped, located and managed. I 
may say the same of Miss Thompson's school, except as 
to numbers ; she has only 50 or 60 I think. Their hos- 
pital is all one could desire. They have a large printing 
establishment, through which I looked, and it keeps 
many hands busy. I called on Dr. Van Dyck, who re- 
marked in answer to my interrogations regarding the 
history, present status and outlook of missionary labors 
in Syria and among the Mohammedans, that already 
there was crystallizing energy sufficient to cast a system 
or polity for local church government. This fact fur- 
nishes very practical evidence in support of the claims 
of Christian Missions." 



201 

Dr. Strong says : "Beirut, in Syria, is called the 'crown-jewel 
of modern missions.' It was taken from the bed of Moslem 
degradation, cut and set by the deliberate planning of a hand- 
ful of American Christians. As late as 1826 Beirut was a strag- 
gling, decaying Mohammedan town, without so much as a car- 
riage-way through it, a wheeled vehicle, or a pane of window 
glass in it. The missionaries who came to it were persecuted 
by the authorities and mobbed by the populace. Some were 
driven to the Lebanons ; others fled to Malta. There they 
matured their plans, chimerical to all but the eye of faith. 
They projected Christian empire for Svria, not the gathering of 
a few converts. Schools, colleges, printing-houses. Western 
culture in science, art and religion, were all included in their 
plan. They returned to Beirut bringing a hand-press and a font 
of Arabic type. 

Night after night a light gleamed from a little tower above 
the mission building— a prophetic light seen out on the Medi- 
terranean-where Eli Smith, and, after he was gone, the still 
living Dr. Van Dyck labored in translating the Bible into Arabic. 
When, in 1865, Dr. Van Dyck flung down the stairway the last 
sheet of 'copy' to the compositor, it marked an era of import- 
ance to Syria and Asia Minor, to Egypt and Turkey, and all the 
scattered Arabic-speaking peoples, greater than any accession or 
deposition of Sultans or Khedives. There is nothing more 
eloquent than the face of the venerable translator, in which can 
be read the making of the grandest history of the Orient. The 
dream of the exiles has been accomplished. Beirut is to-day a 
Christian city, with more influence upon the adjacent lands than 
had the Berytus of old, on whose ruins it has risen. Stately 
churches, hospitals, a female seminary, a college, whose gradu- 
ates are scattered over Syria, Egypt and wherever the Arab 
roams ; a theological seminary, a common-school system, and 
three steam presses, throwing ofi" nearly half a million pages of 
reading matter a day ; a Bible-house, whose products are found 
m India, China, Ethiopia, and at the sources of the Nile ; these 
are the facets of that 'crown jewel' which the missionaries have 
cut with their sanctified enterprise." 

The following condensed report explains itself: 



13 



202 



PLACES OF EVANGELICAL WORSHIP IN BEIRUT, 

Together with brief statistics of Evangelical Work in the city, and of 
the American Mission in Syria. 

I. 

WORSHIP AND PREACHING IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

1. American Mission Church. 

2. Church of England Service. 

3. Chapel of Syrian Protestant Church. 

4. British Syrian Schools. 

II. 

WORSHIP AND PREACHING IN THE GERMAN AND FRENCH. 

1. Chapel of Prussian Deaconesses. 

WORSHIP AND PREACHING IN ARABIC. 

1. American Mission Church. 

2. Syrian Protestant College. 

3. Eastern Chapel. 

4. Musaitebeh Chapel. 

5. Orphan House of the Prussian Deaconesses. 

6. Hospital of the Knights of St. John. 

7. Moslem School of Miss Taylor. 

8. Six Arabic Sunday Schools. 

9. Six Classes during the week for Bible Instruction to Women. 

IV. 

EVANGELICAL CHRISTIAN WORK AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 

1. American Presbyterian Mission, American Bible Society. 
British and Foreign Bible Society. London Religious Tract 
Society. 

2. Theological Seminary of the American Mission. 

3. Syrian Protestant College. 

4. American Female Seminary. 

5. British Syrian Schools— One Boarding School and seven 

Day Schools. 

6. Church of Scotland Mission to the Jews. 

7. Prussian Deaconesses Orphan House and Boarding School 
for Girls. 

8. Miss Taylor's St. George's Moslem School for Girls. 

9. German Boys' School. 



203 

10. Day School of Syrian Protestants, and three other day 
Schools. 

11. Blind Schools for Men and Women. 

V. 

THE PRESS. 

Rev. Samuel Jessup, Manager. 

Mr. W. R. Glockler, Supt. 

The Arabic Press of the American Mission printed in 1885: 

Total pages 27,981,600 

Of which Scriptures 17,378,600 

Vols, of Scriptures distributed during 1885 23,576 

Total No. of distinct books on the Press Catalogue.... 368 

Total pages printed from the first 311,742,044 

VI. 

STATIONS OF THE AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION IN SYRIA. 

1. Beirut.— Rev. C. V. A. Van Dyck, M.D., D.D.; Rev. AV. W. 
Eddy, D.D.; Rev. H. H. Jessup, D.D.; Rev. J. S. Dennis, D. 
D.; Rev. S. Jessup, and their wives. Miss E. D. Everett, 
Miss E. A. Thomson, Miss A. S. Barber, of the Female 
Seminary. 

Theological Seminary. — Instruction given by members of Bei- 
rut Station. 

Syrian Protestant College. — Rev. D. Bliss, D.D., President; Rev. 
J. Wortabet, M.D.; Rev. G. E. Post, M.A., M.D.; Rev. Har- 
vey Porter, B.A.; Thos. M. Kay, M.D.; Charles F. Dight, M. 
D.; John C. Fisher, M.A., M.D.; Samuel P. Glover, M.D.; 
Robert H. West, M.A.; Frank E. Hoskins, B.A.; Louis F. 
Giroux, B.A.; Mr. Yuhanna Dakhil, Sheikh Khalil Ul- 
Yazigil, Frank S. Woodruff, B.A.; Robert H. Beattie, B.A.; 
Henry M. Hulbert, M.A.; Yusuf Aftimus, B.A.; Daud Sa- 
lim, B.A.; Mr. Francis Riclia. 

Medical Students 31 

Collegiate Department 61 

Preparatory Department 75 

Total 167 

Total Pupils in American Mission Schools in Syria 5,665 

Of whom Girls 3,736 

Total Number Members in Svrian Native Churches 1,301 

Sabbath School SoJiolars " 3,804 

Contributions of Native Churches $6,451 



204 



2. Abeih and Suk el Ghurb.— Rev. Wm. Bird and wife; Miss 
Emily Bird; Rev. T. S. Pond and wife. 

3. Sidon.— Rev. W. K. Eddy and wife; Rev. Geo.i A. Ford. 
Female Seminary.— Miss H. M. Eddy, Miss R. Brown, Miss 
C. Brown. 

4. Tripoli.— Rev. 0. J. Hardin and wife; Rev. F. W. March and 

wife; Ira Harris, M.D., and wife. Female Seminary.— Miss 
H. La Grange, Miss M. C. Holmes. 

5. Zahleh.— Rev. G. F. Dale, Jr.; Rev. W. M. Greenlee, and 
their wives. 

6. Total American Missionaries, Men 14 \ qo 

Women 24/ "^^ 

Native Pastors 3^ 

Total Native Syrian Preachers 35 V 189 

Teachers and others 151 j 

VII. 
ST. John's hospital for 1888. 

Indoor patients 491 

Patients treated in Polyclinique 8,390 

Total days of treatment 11,953 




SEA OF GALILEE. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



THE LAND, THE PEOPLE, THE MAN. 



When we consider the geographical position of Pales- 
tine, the^topography, climate, and vegetable productions 
of the country, and the peculiar history and character- 
istics of the Hebrew people, we see a remarkable fitness 
in the land and the peojDle to entitle them to that choice 
made by God in using them to carry out his purpose 
concerning the race of mankind in their development. 
Geikie says the land is peculiarly ad ipted to qualify its 
inhabitants to write a book for all men, on account of 
the cosmopolitan character of its vegetable grow^th. 
"The teachings and illustrations of our Lord would have 
been out of place in any other country except this. 
They could not have been uttered anywhere else.''' — Thompson. 

But what is still more significant is the character of 
the Israelites. The call of Abraham from Ur of the 
Chaldees has no counterpart in the history of any other 
family. The announcements made to him, from time to 
time, were new, mysterious, wonderful, and as far remov- 
ed from him in their ultimate designs as the steamer that 
carries the international mails is from the secrets that 
slumber in its mammoth hold. 

Palestine has been on the highway of the nations from 
time immemorial. Asia Minor, Assyria, Persia, and all 
the north and east passed that way to Egypt, Abyssinia, 
Ethiopia and all places in Africa and vice versa, whether 



206 

their mission was one of hostility, of commerce, of in- 
vestigation or emigration ; thus making it one of the 
strategic points most valuabe in impinging against the 
citizenship of the world. The characteristics of Abra- 
ham and his posterity were such as God would teach to 
other peoples. 

1. In the first 'place, Abraham had faith in God. He 
believed God meant well towards man ; that all he did 
was for man's good ; that he had a great concern for 
man. He believed this with such an intensity that he 
was ready to co-operate with God in any plan, to under- 
take any task imposed upon him by God, so that he 
obtained the honorable titles "Friend of God," "Father 
of the Faithful." 

This same peculiarity is exhibited in his children, 
Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and others whose names are re- 
corded in Hebrews xi. 

2. Domestic ajfection is peculiar to the Hebrews. 
While God has given parental love to the lower animals 
even, it is a remarkable fact that fallen human nature 
descends below the brute world in many respects ; and 
the nations of the east show an aversion to their chil- 
dren, especially female children, that is not paralleled 
among the lower animals, so far as I know. At this 
time there are places where a little money would pur- 
chase a car load of children from their parents, and 
many female babes are strangled at birth. But the 
Israelites loved their children. Witness Jacob when he 
thought Joseph torn by wild beasts, and when Benja- 
min was required ere they could obtain more bread. 
"All these things are against me ;'' ^^aid he, "you will 
bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave," or 
Joseph when he saw Benjamin— Gen. 45 — or David 



207 

weeping over a would-be parricide until his heart seem- 
ed broken.* 

Take the following from the Nashville Advocate^ of 
February 14, 1891. 

"We can still learn salutary lessons of the Jewish people a& 
well as of the Jewish Scriptures. Filial respect is one of the 
most important elements in character, of which these times is 
sadly deficient. It still lives in that ancient people. A corres- 
pondent of the New York World draws this delightful picture 
of filial reverence : 

" 'There is nothing in the world of pleasure and recreation to 
compare with the beautiful devotion that is paid the old He- 
brew people by their children and grandchildren at the various 
summer resorts. A rude remark is never made in their hearing^ 
nor a disrespectful word uttered to aged mother or father. The 
gentle yielding of easy chairs, the oftering of choice things to 
eat and drink, the last consideration of self where there is a 
drive or sail for a limited number, and the graceful anticipation 
of creature comforts, are attributes of the children to which the 
filial respect of the youthful Christian is not approachable.* 
A lesson much needed among Christians." 

3. They were a very sentimental people, and carried 

their sentiment into their religion. Other nations built 

temples in honor of their gods and sacrificed in them, 

and feared and revered their divinities, but nowhere is it 

said they loved them. Their worship was of the head — 

it never reached their hearts. Hebrews had conceptions 

of a being with sentiment. Jacob wrestled and agonized 

in prayer until he prevailed. The Psalmist said, "my 

heart and my flesh crieth out for the living God." And 

their sentimental nature is seen to-day by the way they 

repair weekly to the outside of the Sanctuary wall, and 

weep as near the site of their once glorious temple as 

possible, and the further fact that every Jew buried in a 

* Every one loves his children, hut the Hebrews love them more tenderly 
than other people.— Ebers, Uarda. 



208 

foreign land wishes the "holy sand," or some of Pales- 
tine's soil sprinkled upon his grave, and the Talmud 
says they think that in some mysterious manner the 
pious dead will make their way under ground to Mt. 
Olivet, just above Jehoshaphat and appear on that 
ground at the resurrection. 

4. The Jew was conservative. This fitted him for re- 
ceiving the sacred oracles, the written and oral law. No 
"better evidence need be adduced than the facts that they 
have kept the Pentateuch intact, or not materially al- 
tered through the greatest imaginable vicissitudes, the 
rising and falling of empires, the birth and death of 
many nations, the extremes of climate, exaltation 
persecution such as no other people has known ; all have 
been too weak to more than barely modify the habits of 
this people. The Samaritans, of Jewish origin partly, 
(about one hundred and fifty remain at Sychar,) 
still retain a Pentateuch manuscript said to be twenty- 
six hundred years old, and it is about the same as ours, 
and they still worship in the mountain of Gerizim, as 
the woman of Sychar said to Jesus, and as they were 
directed by Moses — Exodus 12. 

5. Once more, the Hebrew was aggressive, or rather 
liad the faculty of impressing his faith upon other peo- 
ple, as Joseph in Egypt, whom we cannot think of 
having a higher office at first than that of a donkey-boy, 
ivho nevertheless made such progress as to stand beside 
Pharaoh, all the time taking care of his religion, and 
saying that it w^as in consequence of his God that he 
•did well. He preached God the good to the King, and 
with success, for he obtained favor for his (alien) people 
until another Pharaoh was on the throne who "knew 
not Joseph." 



209 

Daniel, a captive lad, did the same, became prime 
minister to four or five of the world's greatest monarch s, 
and made Nebuchadnezzar say there is no God but Dan- 
iel's God. "Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol 
and honor the King of heaven, all whose works are 
truth, and His ways judgment ; and those that walk in 
pride He is able to abase." 

Likewise did Esther and Mordecai and Ezra and Ne- 
hemiah. 

Endowed thus, with powers and peculiarities on which 
to base individual and national prosperity and develop- 
ment, (the home is the bulwark of civilization and stable 
government, but the home is built on Domestic affec- 
tion,) God put this nation in contact with the people of 
the earth at opportune times and in wise ways, making 
such occasions reciprocally serviceable, mutually eleva- 
ting, developing and diffusing light and knowledge until 
other nations, besides, might be put in charge of the 
mission which only one at first could undertake.* 

We owe the Jew a debt. We obtained from him what 
is best in us, at least the fertilizing of the germs of it ; 
if not the nature, a knowledge of the first principles. 
We believe for his excellence he was chosen. His ex- 
cellent qualities were made prominent by the favor of 
God, and his testimony is not nearly at an end. Let 
him be kindly considei ed, for it is as George Eliot has 
said, "The well-being of Israel is the well-being of the 
church." 

Traveling the length and breadth of this land, if 

there has been any change whatever in my religious 

views it has been to intensify my faith in the inspiration 

of Scripture and the divinity of Jesus Christ. When 

we consider the narrow limits of Palestine, the arduous 

*For I know him, that he will command his children and his household 
after him. 



210 

toil necessary to production, and no resources whatf^ver 
besides those of agriculture and the feeding of flocks ; 
and when we consider that the Canaanites and other 
tribes filled the country and occupied cities with high 
walls, and that a nation which had for centuries been in 
bondage, and showed its capacity and disposition for 
war in the conduct of ten of the tw^elve spies sent to in- 
vestigate, and the conduct of the camp on hearing their 
report : "And they brought up an evil rej^ort of the land 
which they had searched unto the children of Israel, 
saying, The land through which we have goi.e to search 
jt, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and 
all the people that we saw in it are men of a great sta- 
ture. And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, 
which come of the giants ; and we were in our own sight 
as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight. And all 
the congregation lifted up their voice and cried; and the 
people wept that night. And all the children of Israel 
murmured against Moses and against Aaron : and the 
whole congregation said unto them, Would God that we 
had died in the land of Egypt! or would God we had 
died in this wilderness ! And wherefore hath the Lord 
brought us unto this land, to fall by the sword, that our 
wives and our children should be a prey ? were it not 
better for us to return into Egypt? And they said one to 
another. Let us make a captain, and let us return into 
Egypt." — Num. 13: 32 — 14: 4, when we consider, too, 
little time was occupied in taking enough land for their 
use and cities enough for their comfortable dwelling; and 
when we read the law guaranteeing peace and prosper- 
ity, and the conditions forfeiting the divine favor in 
Deut. 28, etc., and study the history of the Jews, we see 
a proof of the divine hand through all. 



211 

When we consider, again, these narrow limits, and 
contrast the products of this shepherd people in the 
world of thought and morals, with those ot surrounding 
nations, the conclusion is they were under the divine 
guidance. There are the Ganges, the Euphrates and the 
Nile flowing through lands of incalcuhdDle wealth. 
There are Greece, Rome, and all the rest. From them 
arose Ninevah, Babylon, Thebes, Cheops, the Acropolis, 
Parthenon and Colosseum. They have given us war- 
riors, statesmen, historians, poets, painters, sculptors and 
architects, showing that there was not an indigenous 
genius here, for many other lands have equalled this in 
ordinary and extraordinary talent. But this little sec- 
tion has done more than ony other one, or all others, for 
it alone inherited ability to give to man an ultimate 
ethical code ; and if we judge by the standard given by 
its supreme law giver : That the servant of all is greatest 
of all, then is it entitled to the fir&t place. 

The Philosophers have all had a sameness about their 
sayings, but the heroes of Scripture had uncommon and 
unique experiences and gave utterance to equally uncom- 
mon thoughts. Abraham, Job, Moses, David, Elijah and 
Daniel were not as the other great men of the earth. They 
were in many respects similar to one another ; but unlike 
the heroes of poetry, history and biography of other lands. 

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob stand out alone before the 
world as moral pioneers, marking a highway of faith 
and obedience, not yet improved upon, and in studying 
these men we must do so remembering that they were 
without the written word and examples since recorded. 
"These all died in the faith, not having received the 
promises, but having seen them afar off, and were per- 
suaded of them, and embraced them." 



212 

But once more ; when we remember that this people, 
with such noble sires, proved unworthy sons, lost their 
liberty and became subject to pagan masters, from one 
of the meanest of their towns, of the poorest parents, 
gave to the world a man of pure lips, of pure habits, of 
great knowledge ard wisdom, yet having never learned, 
totally unselfish amidst the most selfish, possessed of mi- 
raculous power, fearless amidst hosts of enemies, defiant 
•of accumulated ecclesiastical and traditional energy and 
prestige, of wealth, or other forces, arresting in their 
progress storms, devils and diseases, going about doing 
good gratuitously amid the most mercenary, and choos- 
ing the most ignoble men to take up and carry forward 
his work where he left it off, until it should fill the 
earth ; who put greater premium on suffering as a means 
to secure adherents than on temporal gratifications ; in 
fact, a man doing all things in a manner different from 
all other men, against all men's natural propensities, yet 
making them say "he hath done all things well ;" when 
we study his life in his land, his time and his people, 
when we consider how unfavorable his antecedents, and 
his environments from every human standpoint, and the 
sublimity, purity, simplicity and universal sweep of his 
teachings, and that his biographer said "the common (!) 
people heard him gladly," and who himself said for 
eternal record, "If a man compel thee to go a mile with 
him, go with him two," and "if he sue thee at the law 
and take away thy cloak, let him have thy coat also" — a 
man who, without reading history, political or moral 
science, yet announced instinctively the foundation prin- 
ciples on which alone pure and substantial civil and 
social institutions can permanently be based; whose 
foundations need not to be widened nor narrowed, and 



213 

"other foundation can no man lay:" "Heaven and earth 
shall pass away, but my word shall not pass away;" 
when we consider all these things and stand before this 
cosmopolitan character speaking to every nation and 
every man, whose words need no altering forever, but 
only to be obeyed, we bow down before him and say with 
Nicodemus, "Thou art a teacher come from God," and 
with the centurion, "surely this man was the son of 
God," and with Peter, who knew him best of all, "Thou 
art the Christ of God." 

Two years after writing the above "The Land and the- 
Book" fell into my hands. As it so forcibly and fully 
speaks on this subject I copy what forty years of 
sojourn amongst that people enabled the learned author 
to testify with accuracy. He says : 

"Jesus grew up from his youth to manhood amongst a people 
intensely mercenary. This vice corrupted and debased every 
relation of life. We can fill up the outlines of his picture from 
the every-day life and manners of the people about us. Every 
body trades, speculates, cheats. The shepherd boy on the 
mountains talks about piastres from morning to night ; so does 
the muleteer on the road, the farmer in the field, the artisan in 
his shop, the merchant in his magazine, the pasha in his palace, 
the Kady in the hall of judgment, the mullah in the mosque, 
the monk, the priest, the bishop — money, money, money ! the 
desire of every heart, the theme of every discourse, the end of 
every aim. Everything too, is bought and sold. Each prayer 
has its price, every sin a tariff. Nothing for nothing, but every 
thing for money. Now our Lord was an Oriental, and grew up 
among just such a people ; but who can or dare say there is the 
faintest shadow of this mercenary spirit in his character? With 
uncontrolled power to possess all, he owned nothing. He had 
no place to be born in but another man's stable, no closet to 
pray in but the wilderness, no place to die but on the cross of 
an enemy, and no grave but one lent by a friend. At his death 
he had absolutely nothing to bequeath to his mother. He was 
as free from the mercenary spirit as though he belonged to a 



214 

world where the very idea of property was unknown. And 
this total abstinence from all ownership was not of necessity, 
but of choice ; and I say there is nothing like it, nothing that 
approaches it in the histor}' of universal man. It stands out 
perfectly and divinely original. 

"Jesus was the founder of a new religion. Milton makes the 
Devil say to Jesus: 'If at great things thou would'st arrive, get 
riches first ; get wealth, and treasure heap.' And this tempta- 
tion no man under such circumstances ever did or could resist. 
But Christ from the first took his position above the human 
race, and to the end retained it without an efibrt. He divorces 
his Gospel from any alloy of earth. Money, property, and all 
they represent and control, have nothing to do with member- 
ship in his society, with citizenship in his Kingdom. Not only 
is the idea not human, it is every whit contrary to what is hu- 
man. He could not have borrowed it, for he was surrounded 
by those who were not able to comprehend the idea — no, not 
even the apostles, until after the day of Pentecost. As to the 
multitude, they sought Jesus, not because they saw the miracles 
and were convinced, but because they ate and were filled. And 
so it always has been and is now in this same country. . . . 

He kneio that the multitude followed him for the 

loaves and fishes ; that they sought to make him King that 
they might revel in ease, luxury and power ; that the^'^ crowded 
around him to be healed as people do now around our physi- 
cians ; that one called him master to obtain a decision in his 
favor against his brother in regard to the estate, as many join 
the missionaries the better to press their claims in court. . . 
. . . According to the parable, some will even claim admit- 
tance into heaven because they had eaten and drank in his 
presence, and still more absurd, because he had taught in their 
streets. Xow, however ridiculous such pretensions may appear 
to men in the AVestern World, I have had applications for 
money in this country, urged earnestly, and even angrily, for • 
precisely the same reasons. Our Lord founded the parable, 
even to its external drapery and costume, not on fancy, but on un- 
•exaggerated fact." 



CHAPTER XXV. 



AMONG THE GRECIAN ISLES. 



"Where burning Sappho loved and sung — 
"Where Venus rose and Phoebus sprung," 
We sailed, the Grecian Isles among. 

From Beirut we embarked on the Vesta, of the Aus- 
trian Lloyd Line. On account of cargo, we were delayed 
thirty hours, and it is dark ere the rattle of loading- 
machinery ceases and the thud of the propeller begins. 
All night we go one hundred and fifty-six miles over a 
rough sea ere we reach Cyprus, our first landing place. 
As we stay here four hours, there is an opportunity and 
a proposition to go ashore. We are half a mile from 
Larnika, the principal town of the island, and land in 
small row boats. Cyprus derives its name from Kiipros, 
a plant that grows here and makes a reddish and yel- 
lowish dye, with which the women throughout the East 
color their nails. Once the island was covered with 
forests, but these have all disappeared. Once large cop- 
per mines were worked, and from Homer to Alexander 
and later, they excelled in the manufacture of brazen 
armor. It is said the metal copper derives its name from 
Aes Citprium — euphonized or anglicized into co23per. 

The King of Larnika, called Chittim in the Scrip- 
tures — presented Alexander the Great with a sword, so 
we are told by the historians. Cyprus produces wheat, 
barley, cotton, silk, madder, oil, wine, caroobs (the husks 



216 

of the prodigal son) and salt. But locusts are said to 
eat up and destroy nearly half the products of the far- 
mer commonly. 

General di Cesnola, who was consul here for several 
years, made very important discoveries at many of the 
ancient city sites, all of which are fully detailed in his 
book. We saw one place which he had honey-combed, 
finding only an ancient cistern containing a few relics of 
a remote age. 

About the only thing worth visiting at Larnika is the 
Church of St. Lazarus, (Greek.) You are shown the 
spot where he died, after coming from Palestine, and 
where he is buried (?). There is a painting of him in 
the church, also of his resurrection, in which a bystand- 
er is holding his nose to shut out the scent of the corpse. 
Our young readers of Mythology will remember that it 
was here the goddess Venus rose from the foam of the 
sea, and a yearly festival is still held, in which all go 
out on the water in boats ; it is believed to be on the 
anniversary of Venus' birth from the sea, and so cele- 
brated. Anciently young men specially sought wives on 
these festival occasions ; no doubt many do still. 

Ezek. 27: 6 rej^resents these islands as making box 
and cedar wood fabrics, inlaid with ivory. They have 
maintained this habit to the present time, although 
ivory has given place to mother of pearl, which is prob- 
ably meant by the prophet, for when we reached Ehodes, 
the next point at which we anchored, the natives came 
on board with large baskets full of boxes for tobacco, 
matches, card cases, etc., with books and birds, and 
canes of olive and lemon wood, some of them contain- 
ing at least fifty pieces of mother of pearl, manufactured 
by the state prisoners, and selling very cheap. 



217 

We all bonglit several articles apiece. The most pop- 
ular article of auy seemed to be a bird. It was made so 
that the wings open and shut on hinges, and the back 
with the wings open on another hinge, showing a jewel 
case ill the body. As they hurried from the boat one of 
these birds was dropped from the basket in which the y 
were carried. I and a G-reek Priest were the first parties 
on deck next morning, and he found it. I told him that 
the Captain would take it back to the owners when the 
vessel returned and it should be sent back to them. The 
thought of such a thing seemed strange to him. He- 
said such things were never done thereabouts ; and I 
judge he spake truly if he did not act honestly. 

Very anciently there was a high state of civilization 
among the Rhodians, and they were very powerful in 
commerce and on the seas, and Strabo tells us that the 
city of Rhodes was more magnificent than either Rome 
or Alexandria, both of which he had visited. Rhodes 
(the island) furnished three of the cities that formed the 
Dorian Hexapolis. These three afterwards united to make 
the city of Rhodes, B. C. 409. 184 years later they erected 
the statue of Apollo, 105 feet high, which stood little 
over half a century as one of the wonders of the world. 
The Romans drew largely on their codes of civil laws, 
which were in advance of those of other contemporane- 
ous nations. Some of our tourists heard a Greek relate 
that when a disturbance arose between the women of the 
island to break it up a reward was offered to the woman 
who could dive the deepest and stay under longest. 

They were engaged in many of the wars that were 

waged on the various coasts of the Mediterranean. 

They very bravely fought to maintain their independence 
14 



218 

against the European masters from Greece and Italy. 
They submitted, however, to Alexander, but renounced 
the domination of his successors. It is painful now to 
see the degenerate race that occupy where once large 
wealth and learning were common ; now there is a pro- 
scription on even the effort to learn to read ; scarcely five 
per cent, of the people can write their names ; nor is it 
vastly better in most of these classic islands. I might 
relate sad tales of fire and bloodshed in the history of 
several of the group forming the Grecian Archipelago, 
but the school boy can find them all in his history. 

The next day after leaving Rhodes we came fairly into 
the Grecian Archipelago. From the deck one sees islands 
rise from the water, seeming to shut us in on all sides ; 
now one rises suddenly from the sea and projects several 
hundred feet into the air ; some rise into lofty mountains, 
one or two of which were covered on top with snow, 
while others stretch far away into undulating hills and 
plains. At sunrise we sight Kos, or Cos, far ahead ; it 
seems that we will leave it to the right, when the ship 
turns North and we leave it to the left. Everybody 
wishes to see all they can of Kos, and are above, with 
glasses, taking in that part nearest the ship. Here 
Hippocrates was born, the great medical man, and some 
claim Apelles, the famous artist, who painted a portrait 
of Alexander the great, who would not suffer it done by 
any other artist. Kos, the capital, is a pretty seaport 

Soon we come to Halicarnassus, the birth place of 
the great historian, Herodotus, of Dionysius, and Hera- 
clitus, the poet, the principal city of the island of Caria. 
It was here that Artemesia, the Queen, 354 B. C, built 
the famous Mausoleum over her husband, Mausolus, 



219 

that ranked as one of the seven wonders of the world. 
Causmg his bones to be burned and powdered, she put 
the ashes thus made into water, which she drank until 
she had made herself to receive all that remained of her 
lamented lord. It was far off our line and we could only 
see it through glasses. 

We next land at Leros, a town of 3,000 inhabitants, 
built in and on the steep sides of a ravine. From the 
sea back the houses rise like stairsteps. On one hill top, 
overhanging the city, are the remains of the old fortress, 
besieged so long in vain by the Turks ; on another are 
about half a dozen windmills with giant-like arms, 
which look very lazy to one accustomed to seeing every 
thing done by steam power. We pass Patmos without 
stopping. Hither the proud Roman thought to exile 
and silence God's Apostle. But from this rock pulpit 
he preached so loud all nations shall hear him. Tradi- 
tion points out the spot where the revelation was given. 
A monastery has been built near by, the location of 
which we could dimly see ; the island was in view for 
several hours. Of course there was universal regret 
that we must be content with merely looking from the 
ship's deck, instead of traversing from side to side, and 
gathering at least a flower or a stone as a memento of a 
\dsit to the one island of all the seas most sacred by its 
associations to every Christian ; but anxious as we were 
to stop, and glad as we would have been to linger, it 
was different with those who managed the ship. A 
famous writer then on board says : 

"Patmos is the embodiment of sternness and force; its altitude 
is that of a giant who had thrust himself up and out of the sea, 
and stood through the ages defying its power. As the plain of 
Bethlehem was pre-eminently adapted to ttie heavenly visita- 



220 

tion and jubilant song of the shepherds, so this bleak barren 
rock is in harmony with the revelations of the absolute triumph 
of God over sin and of the Kingdom of Christ over all king- 
doms, there given to John. 

"Nor is there any thing within or without the Bible more 
sublime than this : 

*"I, John, who also am your brother, and companion in trib- 
ulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was 
in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for 
the testimony of Jesus Christ.' " 

About sunset we passed Scio, one of the many places 
that claim to be the birth place of Homer. 

"Seven cities boast the birth of Homer dead, 
Through which the living Homer begged his bread." 

We pass many steamers and sail boats in these waters, 
indicating a vast amount of commerce. I have often 
wondered how ships could sail so much among these 
islands without shipwreck. The seas are deep to the 
very shores, however. They have erected light-houses 
where the danger is greatest, and lie to Avhen it is very 
dark. Notwithstanding all this, the wonder of sailors' 
skill and good judgment and great success does not 
cease. And we lie down to sleep, feeling secure in their 
hands under the merciful p»rotection of the Father of us 
all. We awake in the beautiful harbor of Smyrna. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



SMYRNA AND EPHESUS. 



We landed at Smyrna on Sunday morning, and as 
usual had the Turkish Custom-house Officers to pry 
into every little parcel in our baggage ; this may com- 
monly be avoided, however, by giving them backsheesh. 
If time is precious, or one has doubtful articles, liable 
to duty, or does not care to have a rough march through 
one's luggage, it pays to end the matter by giving a 
franc. If, on the contrary, one has plenty of time, 
nothing liable to duty, and wishes to see what a Turk 
can do in the matter of impudence and disregard for 
others' property or feelings, when he has an opportuni- 
ty, one only has to give up his baggage and seem not to 
understand that he should pay any "thank money," 
and the officer will show him pretty soon. Smyrna has 
a population of 200,000 to 300,000, and with its suburbs 
extends ten or twelve miles around the bay. 

It has the prettiest quay I have seen anywhere, and a 
row of buildings for two miles facing the sea, that for 
elegance would adorn any city. They are largely coffee 
houses, (Turks have no bar-rooms except for 'infidels," 
that is. Christians,) with dwellings overhead, offices, 
hotels, and private mansions. The street, 100 feet wide 
and three feet above the water, inclines towards the bay 
just enough to carry off the rain, and is traversed the 
whole distance by a tram-way track, at the end of which 



222 

is the railwa}" to Aidin. Across the bay steam yachts 
or ferry-boats go fl}dng every few minutes laden with 
passengers to and from some suburb, while a score of 
steamers of all the European nations load and unload 
their cargoes. It would be well not to leave the quay, 
for very little else is so charming ; all the other streets 
are narrow and mostly very filthy. I remember to have 
seen dead dogs and cats and rats which were removed 
only by the slow process of decomposition. Nor were 
these sights the worst. I went through their fish mar- 
ket. It is a study for the Zoologist — shell fish, slick 
fish, scaly fish, red fish, black fish, abound. When there, 
it would appear that there was nothing in town but fish. 
It is largely so in the vegetable quarter. Then in the 
bazaars, all covered over with an arch-way, and divided 
up into stalls much like a livery stable, in each of which 
a Turk sits cross-legged. The way these Turks sit cross- 
legged and read the Koran during business hours is 
totally unlike any thing an American sees at home ; 
oblivious to all but his book, till his goods are called for, 
then he shows the greatest anxiety to trade. Their ba- 
zaars have sections for certain kinds of goods, each 
consisting of many stores, calico merchants, silk merch- 
ants, tobacco nargeleh (or pipe) merchants, etc., with 
some good French and Jew stores. 

The London Daily News, 1890, gives the following in- 
teresting facts and figures about Smyrna : 

"According to Consul-General Holmwood's report the popu- 
lation numbers 210,850. But of this total only 52,000 are Mo- 
hammedans. The Mohammedans are largely outnumbered by 
the Greeks, who count 62,000, exclusive of 45,000 "Greek sub- 
jects." The railways are wholly under British management 
and have been constructed by British capital. The gas-lighting 
of Smyrna is the work of a British company ; but — and here 



223 

comes the ironv of the situation— 'the municipality of Smyrna is 
at present wholly composed of Ottoman suhjects.' To sum up 
the position, Smyrna is, as far as population goes, a Greek city ; 
as far as public works with their capital outlay are concerned, 
an English city ; but as regards government, a Turkish city. 
The Turk is the incubus. As a commercial port Smyrna the 
Beautiful has several great advantages over Constantinople, but 
so lona as the Turk blocks the way the vast development of 
which'smyrna is capable will be retarded. It is the same all 
over tie Mediterranean and Black sea coasts. Wherever there 
is progress the Greek is at the bottom of it." 

The population is heterogeneous, consisting of Turks, 
Greeks, French, British, Jews, etc. The Greeks are 
very much like the Jews in appearance. The houses, 
which are jammed together too close to allow of a yard 
or garden, or even a street wide enough for a vehicle, 
often are supplied on the upper or second story with a 
projecting balcony or box with glass windows on all 
sides, called masharobeahs, which are often latticed. In 
these the ladies sit to witness life on the streets below. 

I attended services at the English church on Sunday, 
and at the Sailors' Bethel, called Smyrna Rest," Sunday 
night, when Dr. Buckley preached to a small band of 
sailors, and I gave a short talk and prayer. 

Protestantism meets with the most violent opposition 
here, both from the Greeks and Mahometans. The 
American mission, however, has a good church and two 
good schools. I met one missionary, rather an aged 
man; he was hopeful of final results. One good thing 
in Smyrna attracted our notice— their observance of the 
Sabbath day. All shops were shut except restaurants 
and cafes. We also saw a policeman arrest a vender of 
green fruit (almonds I believe) as if they had some re- 
gard for the health of the people. 



224 

The English Church has in large letters above the 
pulpit the following : 

" Be thou faithful unto death and I will give thee a 
crown of life^ 

In the following is the only reference to Smyrna in 
Ihe Bible, and that is by our Lord : 

"I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but 
thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which 
say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of 
Satan. Fear none of those things which thou shalt 
suffer : behold, the devil shall cast some of you into 
prison, that ye ma}^ be tried : and ye shall have tribula- 
tion ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will 
give thee a crown of life. He that hath an ear, let him 
hear w^hat the spirit saith unto the churches : He that 
overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death." — 
Rev. 2: 9-11. 

Smyrna contained one of the seven churches, whose 
site is still shown. It is a very ancient city, though 
many think the original city was some miles aw^ay. 
The present one was built or rebuilt by the order of 
Alexander the Great, in consequence of a vision he had 
on Mt. Pagus, by Antigones and Lysimachus, after his 
death. I went up on Mt. Pagus for the view. In as- 
cending we passed the tomb of Polycarp, a disciple of 
John, and by some believed to have been the "angel o^ 
the church in Smyrna." On the summit or acropolis 
is an old fort in a fair state of preservation, though not 
dating prior to mediaeval times ; in this is said to be 
remains of the old church or mosque in which Polycarp 
preached. We are now about 500 or 600 feet above the 
sea, and behold a splendid panorama. The quiet city 
at our feet, beyond, the bay with every variety of boats, 



225 

from the trim caik to the great ocean-going iron-clad, 
and far and near many a suburban village nestles be- 
tween the mountains and the sea. Farther out are the 
islands of the Grecian Archipelago. Just here, on the 
mountain side, is the old theater, its proscenium all torn 
away to build garden walls or pave the streets, its shape 
scarcely discernible, where 2,000 years ago the tragedies 
of Sophocles and the Comedies of Aristophanes delight- 
ed the airy minds of the Greek populace, and where, 
nearly 1800 years ago, Polycarp was sacrificed to make 
a holiday sensation. When the Pro-consul said: "Blas- 
pheme Christ and I will release you, he replied: "Eighty 
and six years I have served him, and he hath never 
wronged me;- how then can I blaspheme my king who 
hath saved me." We look towards the interior; how 
splendid ! There is the caravan bridge, and the ceme- 
teries above which wave graceful cypresses; there are 
the country roads wu:iding their tortuous way for many 
a mile until lost behind the hills, and the railways with 
trains hurrying on with western ideas for this slug- 
gish people ; in the background a re the many mountains 
where nymphs and Goddesses were born, and the spirits 
of poesy and song emanated to immortalize their favor- 
ite offspring. It seemed as if there lingered still the 
enchantment known to nature's sons. 

I descended to go to Ephesus, that I might see more 
of this inexhaustible and lovely country, so miserably 
managed under Moslem rule. 

Our Consul said it would be only a waste of time and 
money to go to Ephesus — that all who went came back 
disappointed ; but some people have a way of their own ; 
such composed our party. At the station I met Rev. 
Mr. Mills, President of Earlham College. We two failed 



226 

to telegraph for horses, which Drs. Buckle}' and Bancroft 
and Bishop Fowler were careful to do. But we were 
well, while several of their part}" were not. I recently 
received the following from Dr. Mills : 



"My Dear Sir: Your letter recalls to my memory our ex- 
ceedingly pleasant acquaintance in the East last spring. 

"That journey to Ephesus and back, and our rambles in 
Athens I Ah, those were experiences worth living over a thou- 
sand times. 

"I have just last week received three cases of Syrian objects, 
including a plow, yoke and goad, a mill, &c. &c. 
"Yours, Fraternallv, 

J. J. Mills." 



The site of Ephesus is half a mile to a mile and a 
half from Ayasolook, the railway station, and forty- 
nine miles from Smyrna. It lay on all sides of the 
small mountain, Prion, and at the foot of a larger one,. 
Mt. Coressus, separated by a valley about 500 feet wide. 
In this valley, and on the side of Prion next to Coressus, 
south, was one of their gymnasiums, the walls of which 
are still in situ, and near the gymnasium the Magnesian 
gate, through which on May 25th of each year proces- 
sions bearing the image of Artemis came from the Tem- 
ple of Diana along the Via Sacra, and at which they 
were met by Ephebi, or young men of the city, and so- 
were led to the theater, and afterwards to the Corresian 
gate, whence they returned to the Temple, having pass- 
ed through the main streets of the city, and entirely 
around Mt. Prion ; it was by locating the gates and 
tracing the course of the streets leading from them that 
Wood (1869) discovered the long lost, and until then 
vainly sought temple of Diana. Philostratus says a 
covered way led from the Magnesian gate to the temple. 



227 

Going south from the Magnesian gate we pass the Ba- 
silica, of Roman production, the agora or wool market, 
the Odeon, or Lyric theater. 

This is built on the South side of Prion, the natural 
incline of the hill serving for the elevation of the seats. 
The front is 153 feet in diameter, and it is estimated to 
have had a seating capacity of about 2300. Wood, who 
exhumed the buried city, found here the statue of Lucius 
Verus, now in the British Museum, and a life-size statue 
of the muse Erato, with a 7 -stringed lyre and a pedestal 
at her side. All the interior of the Odeon was white 
marble, vast amounts of which are scattered all around; 
the door-posts and many seats are still in their original 
position. A little farther on towards the south we pass- 
ed another market place, and still farther on the west 
side of the mountain is the great Theater, which is of 
so much interest because of its connection with the his- 
tory of St. Paul. We walked about through the vast 
but wasted place, and while we endeavored to recall in 
imagination the ancient splendor of the pile and the 
excited people, who "rushed with one accord into the 
Theater," I took out my Bible and read the account of 
the excitement stirred up by Demetrius, who made silver 
shrines of the goddess and who brought great gains to 
the craftsmen making and selling the same — saying: 
"Sirs ye know that by this craft we have our wealth. 
Moreover ye see and hear that not alone at Ephesus, but 
almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded 
and turned away much people, saying that they be no 
gods, which are made with hands : So that not only this 
our craft is in danger to be set at naught, but also that 
the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised 
and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia 



228 

.and the world worshippeth. And when they heard these 
sayings they were full of wa'ath and cried out, saying, 
Great is Diana of the Ephesians. And the whole city 
was filled with confusion : and having caught Gaius and 
Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in 
travel, they rushed with one accord into the theatre. 
And when Paul would have entered in unto the people, 
the disciples suffered him not. And certain of the chief 
• of Asia, which were his friends, sent unto him, desring 
himth'dt he would not adventure himself into the theatre. 
Some therefore cried one thing and some another: for 
the assembly was confused ; and the more part knew not 
w^herefore they were come together. And they drew 
Alexander out of the multitude, the Jews putting him 
forward. And Alexander beckoned with the hand, and 
would have made his defence unto ^he people. But 
Avhen they knew^ that he was a Jew, all with one voice 
..about the space of two hours cried out. Great ^6' Diana 
■of the Ephesians. And when the townclerk had ap- 
peased the people, he said, Ye men of Ephesus, what 
man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the 
Ephesians is a w^orshipper of the great goddess Diana, 
.and of the i aage which fell down from Jupiter ? Seeing 
then that these things cannot be spoken against, ye ought 
to be quiet, and to do nothing rashly. For ye have 
brought hither these men, which are neither robbers of 
churches, nor yet blasphemers of your goddess. Where- 
fore if Demetrius, and the craftsmen which are with 
him, have a matter against any man, the law is open, 
.and there are deputies : let them implead one another. 
But if ye inquire any thing concerning other matters, it 
.shall be determined in a lawful assembly. For we are 
in danger to be called in question for this day's uproar, 



229 

there being no cause whereby we may give an account of 
this concourse. And when he had thus spoken he dis- 
missed the assembly." — Acts 19 : 25-41. 

This theater is in the shape of a horse-shoe, and is 495^ 
by 467 feet through the two greatest diameters. It is 
variously estimated to have held from 25,000 to 60,000 
people. Like the Odeon, itis also on the hill side. The 
front and gates were of marble, carved into figures of 
exquisite beauty. This was repaired after the temple 
had been destroyed, as shown by many decrees passed 
and carved on the stones of the building, one of which 
gives citizenship to Agathocles in consequence of his 
giving the city 14,000 measures of corn. One is a de- 
cree of Hadrian, A. D. 120. 

Evidently this theater, or some similar one, suggested 
the idea of the Colosseum to Vespasian. In front of the 
theater are the Agora and the great gymnasium, while a 
few miles west we look out upon the sea. On the north 
side of Prion is the Stadium of the Augustinian age, 
similar to that of Antioch, where Ben Hur, Aldebaran, 
Atair, Antares and Rigel made themselves to be sung by 
the women and children in the tents, because of victory 
over the insolent Eoman. We try to find the seat where 
poor Simonides and Esther would have sat to look upon 
the exciting scene; to fix the place where the unfortu- 
nate Messala was crushed to the wall, and fill the great 
area, nearly one thousand feet long, with excited specta- 
tors. 

The west end was adorned by an open columniated 
screen in tiers. The bases of some of the supporting 
columns are still to be seen. In front of the Stadium, 
to the west, is the Serapion, where oiferings were made 
to Serapis. It is elevated about fifty feet above the race 



230 

•course of the Stadium and covers about two hundred 
and fifty square feet ; in the center is a hewn rock foun- 
dation containing an altar, reached by four flights of 
steps and three piers for columns between each flight. 

Passing out by where once stood the Corresian gate, a 
little north of the Stadium, the principal street led to 
the Temple of Diana or Artemis, about one mile north 
of Prion. On the east of Prion is the cave of the Seven 
Sleepers and many Christian tombs. We now cross the 
fertile plain and the Cayster, formerly much larger than 
at present, and come upon the site of one of the seven 
wonders of the world, until 1869 concealed from human 
eyes by twenty feet of siltings, the world-renowned Tem- 
ple of Diana ; the stoa or platform covered eight acres, 
and rested on a bed of charcoal, between layers of mor- 
tar, charcoal and skins. This served the double purpose 
of diminishing moisture about the base and danger of 
destruction by earthquakes. The temple was seven times 
destroyed, and rebuilt always upon the same foundation. 
The last but one, which Pliny says was 220 years in build- 
ing, was burned by Herostratus, who had despaired of 
making a great name by fair means, and thought to im- 
mortalize himself as an iconoclast. 

The city fell into the hands of Alexander the Great 
before the last temple was finished; the previous one was 
burnt on the night of his birth. He offered to complete 
it at his own expense if the Ephesian City Magnates 
would allow his picture to be placed in it, but they re- 
fused by the flattering but evasive reply that it was not 
fitting that one God should pay homage to another. We 
copy some of the dimensions of this wonderful structure. 
On the lowest step it measured 418 feet by 239 feet 4 J 
inches. The pavement of the peristyle was 9^ feet above 



231 

the street and reached by 14 steps 19 inches wide in the 
tread. The temple itself was 312 feet Qi inches by 163 
feet 9 J inches, and was octastyle, i. e. with 8 columns in 
front, and dipteral, i. e. with two rows of columns on the 
sides. These were in rows of 20 each, one hundred 
columns in all (27 of them the gifts of Kings) of the 
Ionic order, measuring 6 feet J inch at the base and 8 ^ 
diameters in height, making them, base, capital and all, 
about 60 feet high. We saw great quantities of the 
ruins — many drums — of these columns scattered about. 
The parts of the Temple were called Pronaos, or porch 
in front, the vestibule, cella, or large chamber, at the 
end of which was the altar for sacrifices ; beyond the 
altar was the statue of the goddess, then a room called 
Opisthodomos, the treasury, and the Posticum or porch 
on the rear, corresponding to the Pronaos on the front. 
(Some of these temples that we have visited are very sug- 
gestive of the human nature of the deities inhabiting 
them, notably that of Denderah.) 

" Ephesus was the third capitol and starting point of Christi- 
anity, Jerusalem and Antioch being the other two. Ephesus 
witnessed its full development and the final amalgamation of 
its inconsolidated elements in the work of John, the Apostle of 
Love. It lay one mile from the Icarian Sea, in the fair Asian 
meadow, where myriads of swan and other waterfowl disported 
themselves amid the windings of Cayster. Its buildings were 
in the delightful neighborhood of the Ortygian Groves. Its 
haven, once the most sheltered and commodious in the Medi- 
terranean, had been silted up by mistakes in engineering, but 
was still thronged with vessel* from every part of the civilized 
world. It lay at the meeting point of great roads from Sardis, 
Troas, Magnesia and Antioch, thus commanding access to the 
valleys of Hermus and Meander and the interior. Its seas 
and rivers were rich with fish ; its air was salubrious ; its posit- 
ion unrivalled ; its population multifarious and immense. Its 



232 

markets glittering with the produce of the world's art, were the 
Vanity Fair of Asia. They furnished to the exile of Patmos the 
local coloring of those pages of the Apocalypse in which he 
speaks of "the merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious 
stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and 
scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of precious 
wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and 
odors, and ointment, and francincense, and wine, and oil, and 
fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and 
chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.'' Rev. 17: 12, 13. 

And Ephesus was no less famous than it was vast and wealthy. 
Perhaps no region of the world has been the scene of so many 
memorable events in ancient history as the shores of Asia 
Minor. The whole coast was in all respects the home of the 
best Helenic culture, and Herodotus declares that it was the 
finest site for cities in the world of his day. It was from Les- 
bos and Smyrna and Ephesus and Halicarnassus that lyric and 
epic poetry and philosophy and history took their rise. It was 
here that Anacreon had sung the light songs which so thorough- 
ly suited the light temperament ot the Greek colonists in that 
luxurious air ; here that Mimnermos had written his elegies ; 
here that Thales had given the first impulse to philosophy ; 
here that Anaximander and Anaximines had learned to inter- 
est themselves in those cosmogonic theories which shocked the 
simple beliefs of the Athenian burghers ; here that the deepest 
of all Greek thinkers, "Heraclitus the Dark," had meditated on 
those truths which he uttered in language of such incomparable 
force ; here that his friend Hermodorus had paid the penalty of 
virtue by being exiled from a city which felt that its yices were 
rebuked by his mere silent presence ; here that Hipponax had 
infused into his satire such deadly venom ; here that Parrhasius 
and Apelles had studied their immortal art. And it was still 
essentially a Greek city. . . . While the presence of a few 
noble Romans and their suites added to the gaiety and power 
of the city, it did not aff'ect the prevailing Hellenic cast of its 
civilization, which was far more deeply imbued with Oriental 
than with Western influences, ^ch was the city in M'hich St. 
Paul found a sphere of work unlike any in which he had hith- 
erto labored. It was more Hellenic than Antioch, more Orien- 
tal than Corinth, more popular than Athens and more wealthy 
and more refined than Thessalonica, more sceptical and more 
superstitious than Ancyra or Pessinus. It was, with the excep- 



233 

tion of Rome, by far the most important scene of all his toils, 
and was destined in after years to become not only the ^rst of 
the Seven Churches of Asia, but the seat of one of those great 
<Ecumenical Councils which defined the faith of the Christian 
world. 

The character of the Ephesians was then in very bad repute. 
It was the headquarters of many defunct superstitions, which 
owed their maintenance to the self-interest of various priestly 
bodies. South of the city was the olive and cypress grove of 
Leto, where the goddess brought forth her glorious "twin-born 
progeny." Here was the hill on which Hermes proclaimed 
their birth ; here ihe Curetes protected their infancy from wild 
beasts ; here Apollo took refuge from the wrath of Zeus after 
he had slain the Cyclopes ; here Bacchus had conquered the 
Amazons during his progress through the East, or so argued 
Ephesian ambassadors before the Roman Senate when pleading 
for right of Asylum. Nor did they see that it was a right ruins 
ous to the morals and well-being of the city. Legend told how,, 
when the temple was finished Mithridates stood on its summit 
and declared that the right of asylum should extend around it 
as far as he could shoot an arrow, and it flew miraculously a 
furlong's distance. 

The temple, which was the chief glory of the city, and one of 
the wonders of the world, stood in full view of the crowded 
haven, the temple was the most splendid ornament of this- 
most splendid city of Asia. This temple— the eighth— had 
been rebuilt with ungrudging magnificence out of contributions 
furnished by all Asia — the very women contributing to it their 
jewels, as the Jewish women had done of old for the Tabernacle 
of the Wilderness. It gleamed far oflf with a star-like radiance. 
Its peristyle consisted of one hundred and twenty pillars of the 
Ionic order hewn out of Parian marble. Its doors of carved 
cypress-wood were surmounted by transoms so vast and solid 
that the aid of miracles was invoked to account for their eleva- 
tion. The staircase that led to the roof was said to have been 
cut from a single vine of Cypress. Within were the master- 
pieces of Praxitiles, and Phidias, and Scopas, Polycletus. Paint- 
ings by the greatest of Greek artists, of which one— the likeness 
of Alexander the Great by Apelles — had been bought for a sum 
equal to $25,000 of modern money, adorned the inner walls. 
The roof of the temple itself was of cedar-wood, supported by 
columns of jasper on bases of Parian marble. On these pillars 
15 



234 

hung gifts of priceless value, the votive offerings of grateful su- 
perstition. At the end of it stood the great altar adorned by the 
bas-relief, behind which fell the vast folds of a purple cur- 
tain. Behind this curtain was the dark and awfiil adytum in 
which stood the most sacred idol of classic heathendom ; and 
again behind the adytum was the room, which inviolable under 
divine protection, was regarded as the wealthiest and securest 
bank in the ancient world. 

The image for which had been reared this incomparable 
shrine was so ancient that it shared witli the Athene of the 
Acropolis, the Artemis of Tauris, the Demeter of Sicily, the 
Aphrodite of Paphos and the Cybele of Pessinus, the honor of 
being regarded as "an image that fell from heaven." She was 
represented on coins— which may have easily passed through 
the hands of Paul — as a figure, swathed like a mummy, covered 
with monstrous breasts, and holding in one hand a trident and 
in the other a club. The very ugliness and uncouthness of the 
idol added to the superstitious awe which it inspired. The 
Jewish feelings of St. Paul would have made him regard it as 
pollution to enter her temple ; but he must have seen on coins 
and paintings and in direct copies the strange image of the 
great Artemis of the Ephesians, whose worship, like that of so 
many fairer and more human idols, his preaching would doom 
to swift oblivion."— i^«rrar's Paul at Ephesus. 

The Goths set fire to this last temple, A. D. 226 aud 
fhe world's great centers have gone on changing from 
place to place, until Ephesus, once so magnificent, has 
so well nigh perished as to be almost forgotten. Once 
Antony and Cleopatra lived here ; once Alexander beg- 
ged in vain for honors it might give ; once here was the 
image that "all Asia and the world worshippeth" en- 
throned in "marble halls." Here Paul fought with 
beasts, because of the advantage he should gain by the 
resurrection of the dead. Here was one of the seven 
churches to whom John was commissioned to write and 
say : "I know thy works and thy labor and thy patience, 
nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou 



235 

hast left thy first love." Here was that band of brethren 
whom Paul "ceased not to warn day and night with 
tears, by the space of three years," and to whom he after- 
wards wrote from Rome, by Tychicus, his "most sub- 
lime" and "majestic" epistle, so full of encouragement, 
solicitous exhortation and prayer. Some think also from 
Ephesus was written the first epistle to Corinthians. 

Alas, that all this greatness should perish — that these 
splendid monuments now should be inhabited only by 
bats, jackals and serpents — that these columns and 
gates should be put into mean and useless fences ; yet 
so it is. 

Still further to the north is an old Castle, built by the 
Knights of St. John in the 14th and loth centuries ; 
also a Mohammedan mosque, into which much of the 
material of the temple was worked. On this side are 
left standing a few of the pillars of the ancient aqueduct 
that supplied the city with water. On the tops of these, 
about 40 feet high, the storks build and rear their young. 
They were very numerous, tame as chickens, and digni- 
fied m appearance. 

It was our good fortune to have the best guide procu- 
rable — Mr. Mills and I — one who was with with Wood 
in his excavations, 1863-1869, and knew how to guide 
fairly well. Quite satisfied with our visit, at 4 p. m. we 
took the cars for Smyrna. The scenery was very fine. 
To the north was Mt. Tmolus, covered with snow, and 
on both sides smaller members of the range covered with 
bright 'angelicas, and the low shrubbery with bursting 
buds and springing grasses. In one of these hills the 
myths say Artemis was born, but we did not try to visit 
her birth-place. 



236 

We ran upon a herd of several hundred horses grazing, 
but they were fearless of the locomotive. We passed 
msLuy fellahs plowing with the same kind of plows used 
thousands of years ago. However, they break the land 
well, about one fourth of an acre per day. To-morrow 
we shall bid adieu to Asia and sail for Greece. 

The question is often asked : "If Christianity is des- 
tined to predominate, why have Mussulmen sway in the 
countries where once Paul preached and Christian church- 
es stood, which have gone to decay?" It may be said, in 
reply, that the religion of the Moslem is nearer to the 
truth than either the ancient Greek or Roman paganisms 
which prevailed in those countries referred to, and the 
true religion has more protection now in those places 
than it then had. Besides, the aggressive force of Chris- 
tianity has been expended in other directions rather than 
at those places where it began to manifest itself. Per- 
haps few if any of those places have grown worse since 
Paul's day. Many of them have grown better. It is 
true, as Carlisle says in his Hero-worship : The good of 
the old is retained until it is absorbed by and recast in 
the new. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



FROM ASIA TO GREECE. 



"Immortal Greece— dear land of glorious lays, 

Lo here tlie unknown God of thine unconscious praise."— AV^/^. 

We left Smyrna for Athens on a stormy sea, that grew 
more boisterous every mile we advanced, and only three 
of our number were comfortable on deck, of whom I 
was one, and proud to think myself able to defy, at last, 
the Mediterranean's worst. We pass on the route the 
temple of Minerva Sunium, situated on a high, rocky 
promontory overlooking the sea. Out of sight of hu- 
man dwellings, it is a magnificent ruin, standing, like 
"the lone Indian," a sentinel over the land whose glory 
has departed, and the seas where that glory was largely 
won. For an hour before reaching the harbor Athens 
was in view — not the city proper, but portions of it — 
and the Acropolis stood out in bold relief against the 
April sky. All glasses were brought into requisition. 
And we quote Archdeacon Farrar to portray the thoughts 
and feelings then filling our minds : 

"Athens! with what a thrill of delight has many a modern 
traveler been filled as, for the first time, he stepped upon that 
classic land I As he approached the Acropolis what a throng of 
brilliant scenes has passed across his memory ; what processions 
of grand and heroic and beautiful figures have swept across the 
stage of his imagination ! As he treads upon Attic ground he is 
in 'the Holy Land of the Ideal ;' he has reached the most sacred 
shrine of the 'fair humanities' of paganism. It was at Athens 



238 

that the human form, sedulously trained, attained its most ex- 
quisite and winning beauty ; there that human freedom put 
forth its most splendid power ; there that human intellect dis- 
played its utmost subtlety and grace ; there that Art reached to 
its most consummate perfection ; there that Poetry uttered alike 
its sweetest and sublimest strains ; there that Philosophy at- 
tuned to the most perfect music of human expression its loftiest 
and deepest thoughts. Had it been possible for the world by 
its own wisdom to know God ; had it been in the power of man 
to turn into bread the stones of the wilderness ; had perfect 
happiness lain within the grasp of sense, or been among the re- 
wards of culture ; had it been granted to man's unaided power 
to win salvation by the gifts and power of his own nature, and 
to make for himself a new Paradise in lieu of that lost Eden 
before whose gate still waves the fiery sword of the Cherubim- 
then such ends would have been achieved at Athens in the day 
of her glory. No one who has been nurtured in thf^ glorious 
lore of that gay and radiant city, and has owed some of his best 
training to the hours spent in reading the history and mastering 
the literature of its many noble sons, can ever visit it without 
deep emotions of gratitude, interest and love." 

The topography of the sea and land required us to 
steam by the city in order to come into port. At 11 a. 
M. we reached Piraeus, the harbor of Athens, filled with 
the crafts of all nations. Four miles to the northeast is 
Athens with 75,000 inhabitants. Some of us go up in 
carriages, some on the cars. 

The first impression made on the mind is relief at the 
yast improvement upon the populations of Egypt, Palestine 
and Asia Minor, in the dwellings, manners and clothing 
of the people. Business is conducted much as I had been 
used to at home; the streets w^ere clean, the buildings 
tasteful, and life, energy and snap greeted us at every 
turn. I and President Mills hire a guide to conduct us 
to the sights of Athens of yore. We go first to the 
Temple of Theseus, who made himself immortal on the 
field of Marathon before the haughty Persian was van- 



239 

qnished there ; to whom was ascribed the honor of uniting 
into one commonwealth the twelve States into which 
Cecrops divided Attica, after destroying the Minotaur of 
Minos, who required a tribute of fourteen youths and 
maidens to be sent every nine years from Athens for the 
monster to devour. The national hero of the Greeks, 
they erected this temple to receive his bones which Cimon 
brought from Scyros, B. C. 469, and it became a tomb, 
a temple and an asylum all in one, and while one of the 
earliest works of ancient Athens, it is the best preserved ; 
104x45 feet, having a peristyle of Doric columns, it 
served as a model for the advanced age and national 
prosperity that produced the Parthenon under Pericles, 
the first of Grecian statesmen, and Phidias, the first of 
cdl sculptors. We then went to the so-called prison of 
Socrates, where he is said to have drunk the fatal cup of 
hemlock. It is only traditional, and forever beyond tho 
reach of certainty, but certainly every indication favors, 
the tradition. 

It is a cave, divided into two rooms, cut into the solid 
stone, the first cave or room faces the Acropolis, and is 
entered by a door of about ordinary size ; the second one, 
in which the sage was confined, is entered from the first 
by a narrow door on the back side and near the right 
corner. We go next to Areopagus or Mars' Hill. It is. 
reached by sixteen steps which though cut in the solid 
stone are nearly worn out, one or two being gone entirely, 
A few places cut smooth on the top point out, it is 
thought, where the accuser and accused stood in trials 
held here; the Council that met here was called the 
Upper Council, the one meeting in the valley being 
called the Council of Five Hundred, Its name is derived 



240 

from the double name of Mars and Ares. He was tried 
on this hill, for the murder of Neptune's son, by the 
gods and the place has since been called Areopagus or 
Mars' Hill! It lies to the west of and one hundred feet 
below the Acropolis and is separated from it by a valley, 
ivhich has largely been filled up by the accumulation of 
rubbish for many centuries. We regreted that we could 
not stay and attend the service to be held there the day 
after our departure, held there because of what is written 
in Acts 17: 

Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars' hill, and said, Ye men 
of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. 
For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar 
with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom 
therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. God 
that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is 
Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with 
hands ; neither is worshipped with men's hands, as though he 
needed anything, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and 
all things : and hath made of one blood all nations of men for to 
dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the 
times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; 
that they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after 
him and find him, though he be not far from every one of us: for 
in him we live, and move and have our being; as certain also of 
your own poets have said. For we are also his offspring. Foras- 
piuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think 
that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by 
.art and man's device. And the times of this ignorance God 
winked at; but now commandeth all men everywhere to repent: 
because he hath appointed a day in the which he will judge the 
world in righteousness by thcU man whom he hath ordained ; 
whereof he hath j^iven assurance unto all men, in that he hath 
raised him from the dead. 

And when they heard of the resurrection of the dead some 
mocked : and others said. We will hear thee again of this matter. 
So Paul departed from among them. Howbeit certain men 
clave unto him, and believed : among the which was Dionysius 



241 

the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with 
them. 

Vandalism has well nigh done its worst in Athens. 
Only think of demolishing the temples that were not 
only the pride and glory of Athens at her acme of 
greatness but the production of architectural genius 
unrivalled in any age, for material with which to shelter 
an ignoble race, too lazy to go to the quarries, or of 
taking the columns that formed the supports of the roof 
or architraves of the temples of Jove or Minerva, and 
use them for burning lime kilns, and we have a sample 
•of what has been going on for centuries, and an answ^er 
to the question, why are there not more of the remains of 
ancient Athens ? Renan, the sceptic, insinuates that the 
works of art in Athens perished because St Paul called 
them idols. He writes: 

" Ah beautiful and chaste images ; true gods and true god- 
desses, tremble! The mistakes of this ugly little Jew (St Paul) 
will be your death-warrant." 

It was their death-warrant as gods, but only as gods. 

" We have learned to see God in all that is refined and 
heautiful; whom his love has lifted up above the perils of an 
extinct paganism ; whom His own word has taught to recognize 
sunbeams from the Fountain of Light in every grade of true 
^rt and every glow of poetic inspiration may thankfully admire 
the exquisite creations of ancient genius : — but had Paul done 
so, he could not have been the Paul that he was." — Farrar. 

The thought occurs that only by searching for the di- 
vine are such productions obtained, only by uplift of 
soul and outstretching of his powers toward his God, do 
man's capacities fully develop in any sphere of life. 

The second day we visited the Acropolis, the elevated 
rock upon which Cecrops began to build Athens 1550 B. 



242 

■O. It is a nearly level area, about one thousand feet from 
east to west by half that distance from north to south. 
It was fancifully said to be the center of four concentric 
circles, viz.: Athens the city, Attica, Greece, the world. 
It is entered only through the propylea, on the west, 
the finest ever built, executed under the direction of 
Pericles, and though much abused by the unappreciative 
rulers that haye dominated Greece for many centuries^ 
and the ineyitable friction of rolling years, the mind 
easily rebuilds the abused but still graceful structure,, 
and rejoices in contemplation of what it once was, while 
we 

" Sigh for the touch of a vanished hand 
And voices hushed in death forever." 

We pass the great Propylea and stand on soil pressed 
by some of the greatest men of antiquity. Just to the 
right of the gate, Lord Byron is supposed to have sat as 
he wrote the following lines : 

" Slow sinks, more lovely ere his race he run 
Along Morea's hills, the setting sun ; 
Not, as in northern climes, obscurely bright, 
But one unclouded blaze of living light! 
O'er the hush'd deep the yellow beam he throws. 
Gilds the green wave that trembles as it glows. 
On old Aegina's rock, and Idra's isle. 
The god of gladness sheds his parting smile. 
O'er his own regions lingering, loves to shine. 
Though there his altars are no more divine 
Descending fast the mountain shadows kiss 
Thy glorious gulf, unconquer'd Salamis! 
Their azure arches through the long expanse 
More deeply purpled meet his mellowing glance, 
And tendered tints, along their summits driven, 
Mark his gay course and own the hues of heaven 
Till, darkly shaded from the land and deep. 
Behind the Delphian cliff he sinks to sleep." 

Here they concentrated their thoughts, their genius' 
and wealth for the glory and p'rotection of their nation. 



244 

On this area were to be found many templee erected in 
honor of their gods and goddesses, the chief of which was 
Minerva or Athena, in w^hose honor three images arose 
and the two grandest of their temples. The irregular 
Erectheum and the Parthenon both contained images of 
Jove's virgin daughter. The Parthenon, 228 feet long 
by 101 feet wide, which contained her statue, 39 feet 
high, the work of Phidias and made of ivory and gold, 
covered with gold ornaments to the amount of nearly 
half a million dollars, presented in its Doric columns, 
metopes and fretted frieze not only the best study of 
architecture, but the righest museum of sculpture and 
choicest collection of paintings in all the world: "ded- 
icated to the national glory and the worship of the gods." 

The Venitians bombarding the Turks in the 17th cen- 
tury, set fire to a powder magazine on the south side of 
the Parthenon, and well nigh demolished this temple. 
The columns on the west end present many indentations 
made by bombs and grape shot. May we not hope that 
a perpetual peace has settled upon the Acropolis at last? 

The present King, George, has shown a praiseworthy 
disposition to exhume and preserve whatever relics still 
remain undiscovered. He has had a museum fitted up 
in the rear of the Parthenon for the reception of such 
relics as have been recently found, or may be, and had 
the ancient Stadium excavated a year or two since at his 
own expense. 

We went through the museum and was distressed at 
the paucity of the remains that greeted our eyes. We 
visited the Acropolis on three successive days, with the 
same sense of admiration for the Greeks of the perisha- 
bility of all earthly productions, though they may be 
marblf^ or brass, of the truth of the poet's words that 



245 

"He builds too low who builds beueath the skies," and 
of the Scripture that saith "Except the Lord build the 
house they labor in vain who build it." 

The atmosphere seemed to be charged with a sombre 
enchantment, and a solemn grandeur shrouded the six- 
teen remaining columns of the once magnificent temple 
of the Olympian Zeus, where century after century the 
patient destroyer has beat his silent vigils. 

The Odeon, or Theatre of Herod, is still to be seen on 
the south side, below the Acropolis, and east of this the 
Theatre of Dionysius, with the seat of Dionysius, in 
which we sat. It is one piece of marble with rests like an. 
arm chair, and his name is carved on the front of it in 
Greek. These theatres were for the enactment of tra- 
gedies, recitations of poems, etc. The seats were of 
stone or marble and were arranged in semi-circular re- 
ceding tiers, one above another. 

There was a pedagogue surrounded by about fifty or 
sixty young men and boys standing at the entrance of 
this theatre, and our guide said (for though I had read 
Greek at school, I could not understand a word he spoke), 
he was lecturing on the political history of Greece, and 
striving to arouse their patriotic impulses by speaking to 
them amid the ruins of better times. He would point 
to the Acropolis above, the theatre in front, the country 
or battle-fields in the distance, and was animated in hi& 
delivery and interesting to his audience. I was reminded 
of the old peripatetics of whom I read when a boy. 

Other objects of which I may not speak at large but 
which we could not afford to slight, were the temple of 
Nike, or the Wingless Victory, at the threshold of the 
Acropolis, Tower of the Winds, Stadium, the Gate of 



246 

Hadrian, on the west side of which an inscription says: 
This is the city of Theseus." One on the east side says: 
This is the city of Hadrian, and not of Theseus. Ha- 
drian built the city east of the Agora or market place, 
where St. Paul disputed "daily with them that met with 
him." 

While we were in Athens an officer of the army died. 
The pall-bearers carried him through the streets in a 
coffin, the upper part of w^hich was removed, exposing 
the profile of the corpse to persons on either side of the 
street. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



AMONGST SAVANTS. 



The morning of April 12th was somewhat threatening ; 
several watery looking clouds were floating through the 
skies not very high above the Capitol city of Greece. 
The train was due to leave the station for Peloponnesus 
at 7 o'clock. On the previous evening, seven of us met 
in the parlor of the Hotel D'Estrangers, where all were 
stopping except myself, I being at the Hotel of the 
Ionian Islands, two squares away, and arranged with a 
guide to visit Corinth by the early train. The distance 
was three hours, and we had six hours in which to do 
old Corinth and the Acro-Corinthus, which was the chief 
object of our visit. 

Five of our company were preachers, four of these 
D. D's.; five were Americans ; two were college Presi- 
dents; the two who were not ministers were Sunday 
school teachers. 

Soon after starting we passed a hillock to the left, 
which our guide called the Academy of Socrates, a little 
farther on, to the right, the place where Plato's Academy 
was, or his garden which he inherited and in which he 
is said, by Diogenes, to have taught, as well as in the 
Academy. Near by our guide pointed out the birth- 
place of Miltiades and the plain in which the first cereals, 
given by the goddess Ceres for the rescue of her daugh- 
ter, Proserpine, were planted. They chose a good place 
to begin at, as the soil is still very fertile after continued 



248 

cultivation for more than twenty-five centuries. It is a 
dark red clay and had a fine crop of wheat or barley 
growing on it during our journey. There were a great 
many poppies in full bloom, mingled with the wheat, 
which, however, some of our company, better versed in 
Botany than myself, contended were not poppies, but 
anemones, or something else. 

It is in the same locality in which the Greeks claim 
the first Olive tree was planted on earth ; they still 
abound. 

Our first stopping place was Eleusis, once powerful 
enough to contend with Athens for the sovereignty of 
Attica, and more ancient than Athens or even Ceres 
whom they worshipped, whose temple the Persians de- 
stroyed when they invaded Attica, but which was re- 
built by Ictines the architect of the Parthenon under 
Pericles, but to be again demolished by the German van- 
dal Alaric, A. D. 395. Its • shattered walls stand on a 
rocky knoli, about two minutes walk from the station, 
in the midst of a people who seem not only to have no 
pride at remembrance of the glory attained by their an- 
cestors, but not even the remembrance of that glory or 
even conception of it ; " no heritage of the past remains 
but monuments, decrepitude and corruption ;" 

" All except their sun is set." 

The road winds around the bay of Eleusis, then the 
gulf of iEgina filled with small islands. We saw hun- 
dreds of birds floating on the surface seeming to be 
feeding on the small fishes just below the surface. 

The hillsides are covered with worthless, scrubby 
pines, a few feet high, besides which we saw no timber 
at all. We passed over the Corinthian Isthmus where 



249 

many centuries B. C. the Isthmian games were cele- 
brated, through whicli man}^ rulers vainly sought to cut 
a channel large enough for the passage of vessels. 
Among those wishing thus to unite the Saronic and 
Corinthian gulfs were three of the Caesars and Alexan- 
der the Great, and previous to them Diodorus Polior- 
cetes, who abandoned his purpose because he found he 
would inundate the country on the Saronic gulf! How- 
ever, the moderns have found out the error of Demetrius 
and will soon have the two seas flowing together, and 
Peloponnesus will be an island. The canal is cut 
through the stone most of the way, and is one or two 
hundred feet deep in several places, judging from what 
I could see from the cars as we crossed. 

How strange to think, as we looked upon the rougb. 
ground between the two seas, almost five miles apart- 
that the Greeks used to draw their vessels from one tO' 
the other overland ! However, that was previous to the 
days of ironclads and the Great Eastern. We stopped! 
at Corinth Station, near to or within the old city limits,, 
but about six miles from the citadel, Acro-Corinthus. 

We took carnages and rode to a small village of half 

a dozen dwellings, passing on the route several places 

paved with smooth stones and circular in shape, about 

one hundred feet in diameter. It was probably on one 

of these that the "sweet Gallio" had his "judgment seat'^ 

when the Jews made "insurrection with one accord 

against Paul" saying, "This fellow persuadeth men to 

worship God contrary to the law." A matter of so small 

concern to him that he drove them from his presence- 

and looked with indifference on, while they beat Sosthe- 

nes, their chief To-day hundreds of millions could be 

enlisted in defense of Paul's attitude, then " no man 
16 



250 

stood by him." Gallio, the Roman Proconsul gave not 
a thought to the creed of Paul or of the other Hebrews. 

Our carriages halted in a cluster of houses under some 
large sycamore trees, one of which extended its ample 
shade over us while we dined on a rude table, for the 
use of which we paid a drachma ("20 cts.) We were 
soon besieged by antiquity venders, having ^^ genuine 
antiques,^^ tear bottles, cups, kylixes, &c.; which they 
said were once used by the ancient Corinthians, and 
which may have been several months old. 

Near by where we ate, a few Doric columns, tied at 
the top by large stones, fragments of the old architrave, 
mark the site of the only remaining temple of the gods 
of Corinth, and the only building that St. Paul looked 
upon during his sojourn here of nearly two years. From 
this temple we took horses and rode to the gates of the 
citadel, about three miles distant, and tvvo thousand feet 
high. This was the most impregnable fortress known to 
the ancients, called the "fetters of Greece" by Philip, and 
.could be taken only by surprise or treachery, and even 
since the days of artillery can be taken from one side 
•only, a pointed rock to the southwest from which it was 
battered and taken by Mohammed the Second. There 
are two or three sets of gates that must be passed ere 
one can reach the interior. Within the walls are the re- 
mains of a large town, perhaps not less than twelve 
thousand people once lived on this rocky pinnacle ; none 
of the houses, however, remain intact, all have been par- 
tially or quite torn down. Two Mohammedan mosques 
remain, shattered as the rest. In the largest one about 
half-way from the gates to the highest point of the hill, 
two cows were quietly resting in the shade, cheWing 
their cuds. 



251 

"Here is the spring at which Pegasus was drinking 
when taken by Bellerophon." At proper intervals along 
the walls many old cannon w^ere distributed, but all at 
which they could belch forth their missiles of woe was 
gone. 

Where two thousand years ago marble temples stood 
in honor of Venus, where was the Stadium, the Theatre, 
the Agora, the Lyceum and Academy, all was still ; Mo- 
hammed's legions had likewise come and gone. 

A few patches of houses (I will not say towns), dis- 
graced the ample plains below, once teeming with cul- 
tured citizens, who excelled in painting and casting and 
working of glass as their neighbors at Athens did in 
sculpture, who probably were the authors of the bronze 
Hercules in the Vatican which cost Pius the Ninth, over 
ten millions of pounds. 

A few crafts float in the harbors of the opposite seas, 
where once were forests of masts, whence sailed the 
first w^ar galleys and whither came the commerce of all 
the Orient. 

Looking northwest over the Corinthian gulf we saw 
Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses, mantled in snow 
above ancient Delphi, 

"Where, save a feeble fountain, all is still." 

Helicon and many other mountain peaks were in view, 
the mention of whose names calls to mind some tragic 
event inhistory, some metamorphosis of the mythologist, 
some immortal song of the poet. 

We all gathered at the highest point and scanned the 
horizon round through our glasses, then the nearer land- 
scape, then back into each other's eyes to read reflections 



252 

that might find expression there. What melancholy 
emotions involuntarily arise in witnessing how the glory 
of man may vanish and come to nought I 

We returned, reaching Athens about 7 p. m., and felt, 
as President Mills expressed it, that though he had to go 
over the road three times, it would not be too often. 

The next day, in company with three of the gentle- 
men of the party that went to Corinth, we visited the 
American School of Archaeology, History and Literature. 
We met Prof. Rolfe, a graduate of Amherst College, and 
for some time professor in the University of Ohio. Al- 
ready he has gained an enviable place among modern 
archaeologists, though he did not seem to be past twenty- 
five. We also met his accomplished young wife, a fit 
companion for a man whose chief association besides is 
with fragments of old stones exhumed from old city 
sites and tombs. 

Prof. Waldstein is in charge of the school, and it 
seems to be in excellent hands. He will be remembered 
as the visitor who discovered the lost metope of the Par- 
thenon in the Louvre at Paris, and came suddenly before 
the world as a discoverer, taking high rank as an archae- 
ologist, which position he has ever since most ably 
sustained. 

From those gentlemen we learned that a student can 
live in Athens, have free use of the school, and meet all 
necessary expenses for about $12.50 to $15.00 per month. 

We ascended Mt. Lycabettus hardby the city to the 
northeast, and enjoyed one of the finest landscapes on 
earth. Saving her temples, Athens is as beautiful, per- 
haps, as ever ; so are her blue gulfs, her fields of wheat 
that skirt the suburbs, her groves of olive trees, her 



253 

royal gardens, her wide well-paved streets, her marble 
palaces, her modern academies, one of which it is claim- 
ed has the finest Aida of any university in the world. 

Athens that was did her share in making the civiliza- 
tion of the world that is, going in her mission by way of 
Kome and Constantinople, while Athens that is, at last 
is receiving back from the civilized nations, whom she 
so well served, the ideas of commerce, manufacturing, 
politics, literature and law. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



THROUGH THE HELLESPONT TO THE 
SUBLIME PORTE. 



We go from Piraeus, the harbor of Athens, to 
Constantinople by the Itahan line of steamers. Now an 
Italian agent will always make a traveller pay more than 
the legitimate price of a ticket. On railroads, they only 
collect 5 centimes more than the price stamped on the 
face of the ticket, while I found, after going aboard, that 
I had paid three lirae or sixty cents more than the price 
as stamped on the face of the "billet." 

We had a stormy sea until we reached the Dardanelles. 
I dreamed, the first night out from Athens, of embracing 
loved ones at home, and awoke to find myself holding 
tight to the sides of my berth to keep from falling out. 
A fellow-passenger told me, next day, that he was thrown 
from his (upper) berth to the floor of his stateroom, and 
considerably bruised. Bishop and Mrs. Fowler and 
their only son, C. H. Fowler, Jr., were on board return- 
ing from an episcopal tour through the mission fields of 
their (M. E.) church in China and Japan and on their 
way to the European mission conferences, one of which 
at Loftcha in Bulgaria, I hoped to visit, should time 
permit. Being about the ablest preacher of his denom- 
ination I hoped to hear him, but did not. What limited 
time we were together I enjoyed recitals of his experience 
as a christian and preacher. He enjoys a joke. He 



255 

was one ol the party when we visited, on donkeys, the 
ruins at Denderah, expressing pity for the donkey-boy, 
some one asked : " Why don't you take it time about 
with him, Bishop ?" He rephed : " There's a miUion of 
them and but one of me." 

At ten o'clock next morning, we entered the mouth of 
the Dardanehes, the dead line of nations, and every foot 
of land to Constantinople has a thrilhng history, asso- 
ciated with the building or burying of earthly empires. 
We first pass Tenedos, whither Homer says the Greeks 
carried their galleys to make the Trojans think they had 
retired from the siege, and where they built the wooden 
horse. We pass near that field where nothing but 
the death of faithful Patroclus could dispel the sullen 
gloom of Peleus' son and kindle his martial spirit into 
that quenchless flame that made him the hero of the 
first and greatest epic. Fine fields, fairly cultivated, 
stretch inland from the Straits and seem to be capable of 
large yield. Occasionally thin forests of diminutive 
growth adorn the landscape. We reach the towns of 
Sedur-Bahr on the left and Dardanelles on the right, 
where we have to halt and submit to an examination by 
the Turkish officials appointed by the government to 
examine all vessels passing that way to Constantinople 
and the Black sea. Near by we see where Leander and 
Lord Byron swam across, about three miles, the latter 
taking seventy minutes to make it. The distance is said 
to be three miles, while the current carries one a mile 
out of his course, making it necessary to travel four 
miles in all. Lord Byron and a fellow traveller, Mr^ 
Ekenhead represented the current as strong, the water 
cold, though they made the shore without fatigue. 
Some doubt whether the story of Leander be true, as 



256 

lie would have to smm eight miles in going from Abydos 
to Sestos and returning. A tower, called Leander's tower, 
stands at the mouth of the Bosphorus between Stamboul 
and Scutari, built to commemorate this faithful brave 
and devoted lover. 

Near Abydos, Xerxes had built his bridge of boats, 
fastened by cables of papyrus, for the transportation of 
the Asiatic troops to Europe, the first of which, by 
Mandraele. was carried away by a storm, which so 
enraged him that he murdered the architect. 

The ancient site of Abydos is now occupied by a 
Turkish town called Nogaw Bauran ; here Parmenio led 
Alexander's army across fi'om Europe to Asia, and again 
the Osmanli Crescent crossed to be set up first on 
European soil, by Suleiman, A. D., 1360. 

The day was very bright, which greatly increased the 
enjoyment of the sail through waters so renowned, 
where steamships from all nations pass hourly up and 
down. We fain would have driven our shi]) on faster, 
that we might enjoy the views presented by the borders 
of both continents, all the way to Constantinople, but 
night fell upon us as we entered the sea of Marmora (or 
marble). It is so named in consequence of the abundant 
supply of marble quarries along its coasts and in its 
Islands. 

I can hardly hope to convey to my readers even a 
small conception of the beauty which the rising sun 
revealed on the morning of April loth, as we came into 
the harbor of Constantinople. For more than an hour 
i^revious to our arrival we were on deck eagerly antici- 
pating, from statements made by those on board and 
familiar with the city, somewhat of its magnificence. 

In approaching the city on the sea of Marmora, we 



257 

pass Stephanos, where the English gunboats stopped the 
Russians approaching to the capture of the Turkish 
capital, in 1878, just too soon. Next is Makrikoi, (pro- 
nounced Makrikeue,) then a large factory town to the 
left and Scutari to the right — all suburbs of Stamboul. 
The sea contains many islands, a flying visit to seven of 
which claims one day of the hurried tourist's time. 

The objects seen most distinctly at a distance as one 
approaches are the minarets of St. Sophia, the Mosque 
of Achmed and the Genoese Tower. These appear to 
be only a mite above a sea of indistinct objects all 
mingled together promiscuously — the outlines of this 
world-renowned metropolis. As we approach nearer 
and nearer, the parts of the mighty emporium stretch 
out on either hand like wings, and rising from the water 
terrace-like, extend far inland. 

The sea is divided into two arms — one of which, to 
the right, extends twenty miles to the Black sea and is 
called the Bosphorus; the other, about six or seven 
miles long, is called the Golden Horn. That part of 
the city which is embraced by these two arms bears the 
double name of Pera and Galata. Pera is the name of 
the upper portion and Galata the lower. Rue de Pera 
is the name of the principal street of the city. Galata 
is connected with Stamboul or old Byzantium (of the 
Greeks,) by an American-built iron bridge across the 
Golden Horn. Immediately to the left is the old 
Seraglio grounds. 

The city across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side is 
called Scutari, the Brooklyn ot Constantinople, of which 
we shall have occasion to speak hereafter. 

Our ship anchors just below Seraglio Point, surrounded 
by a hundred more, doing business in these waters to 



258 

the amount of 7,000,000 tons annually, receiving and 
discharging tourists and cargoes from and to all civihzed 
nations. A thousand minarets, each surmounted by a 
crescent, gleaming in the sun-light, rise above a city or 
cities magnificent in extent and in appearance from the 
deck of our steamer, and in power, also, if we judge by 
the length of time they have dominated these seas and 
shores, or by the dozen idle ironclads at rest in the 
Golden Horn, ready at short notice to sail in the national 
defence or to the conquest of any undefended nation 
whose tribute would be worth the cost of war. 

Many are the factors that enter into the Eastern ques- 
tion, if it be any question, not the least of which perhaps 
is the providence that retains the dominancv of the 
"ever sick, but never dying man of the East," because 
his neighbors show no more readiness to uplift the 
masses than himself. 




Illlist. 



w 



CHAPTER XXX. 



IN AND ABO UT STAMB UL 



When I reached Cook's office, on the Rue de Pera, 
where good mail matter was in waiting, I met again Dr. 
Oreen, of Buffalo, N. Y., and Mr. Dogget, of Winooski, 
Vt., whom I had seen in Jerusalem. We took a car- 
riage, and George Thomas for a guide. We went first 
to the Genoese Tower, built by the Italians when tliey 
were in possession centuries ago. It is on a hill in Ga- 
lata, near to the British Post Office. It is a circular 
wall about twelve feet thick, if I remember correctly, 
and about fifty feet in diameter. One ascends by stone 
steps in the w'all about two hundred feet, wdience the 
view is very fine. We next cross the Golden Horn, pass 
Pnblique Dette — the Government School for Priests — into 
the Seraglio grounds, go through the Museum of Anti- 
quities, see one fine piece of Statuary— Andreanus, the 
Greek victor — Cyprian pottery and Assyrian Antiquities, 
drive as near the Sublime Po^te (that is, the lofty gate 
of the Seraglio, from which the name is given to the 
Sultan's realms) as they will allow, which is not near 
enough to pass through it, as we have no firman. In 
the grounds stands the largest tree I ever saw. It is a 
sycamore. We go hence to St. Sophia. It costs us two 
shillings each to enter and two piasters each for sandals 
to wear while within. Rugs and carpets of matting 
covered the floor, and a few Turks were 2)raying, while 



261 , 

others were hiughing and talkiiig. St Sophia was built 
for a Christian churchy and the builder, when it was 
completed, was so elated at its magnificent appearance 
that he said: "Solomon. I have surpassed thee !" Some 
of the material was brought ft'om Ephesus and other 
cities, and no doubt this was among the finest structures 
in existence when first built, as it is still. 

We go to the Hippodrome, which contains an Egyp- 
tian Obelisk, Constantine's Tower, and the three brazen 
serpents, ten feet high and thirteen inches in diameter, 
which once "formed the interior of the Tripod of Del- 
phos;" they are twisted together and have all been be- 
headed, the first one by Mahomet (not the prophet) 
when he took the city. We saw one of these heads in 
the museum. This is one of the oldest antiquities in 
existence, and speaks of the days when the Greeks 
looked towards Delphi as the Moslems do towards 
Mecca. 

The Museum of the Janizaries next claims our atten- 
tion ; they were a mighty factor in the completion of the 
subjugation of tlie Byzantine empire. One sees the 
dress and armor used by each officer and servant. Their 
number was only 1,000 at first, chosen from among the 
Greeks as a body-guard to the Sultan, kept in position 
and faithful by receiving the spoils of war, they were 
increased to 40,000 and became a terror to Christendom 
in the East. 

The Reservoir of 1001 columns is a wonderful struc- 
ture ; it contained three stories, each supported by 224 
pillars, making 672 in all. Why it was called reservoir 
of 1001 columns I do not know. Two of these stories 
are now filled up ; the third, about 25 feet underground, 
is used to spin silk in. When used for water it contain- 



. 262 

•ed 1,0(X),000 cubic feet, though that of St. Peter was six 
times as large. When we emerged from it a rough Turk 
who had seen us enter or who had been called by our 
guide, w^as on hand to receive backsheesh for so great and 
important a privilege as we had enjoyed. 

We next visited Seraskierat, which contains the offices 
of the War Department, and the City Tower, which we 
did not ascend. Hard by is the Pigeon mosque, the 
court yard of which is darkened by thousands of pigeons 
daily. When a Turk is sick or in perils by the sea, he 
vows to Allah to go and feed the pigeons, if he but 
obtain deliverance; hence one can always see these 
Mussulmen fulfilling their vows much to the gratification 
of the pigeons. 

Although we had engaged the carriage for the day, 
our coachman wanted his pay and to postpone till to- 
morrow the seeing of the Seven Towers and Palace of 
the Sultan's headquarters. After parleying over it for 
a long time we conquered and rode through the entire 
city of Old Stamboul, and back by the barracks of his 
majesty's troops and Topari or Artillery Mosque and 
Mosque of the Sultan, called also Yildik or Star. The 
interior of this is very imposing. The Sultan worships 
Tiere once a week, on Friday. It is near to the Royal 
residence and surrounded by most splendid gardens, far 
up on the heights back of the city. Returning we stop- 
ped at the Bible house, and met Mr. Bliss, son of Dr. 
Bliss, whom we met in Egypt. He is the efficient young 
-Secretary. Dr. Buckley learned from him that one could 
buy the air above residences, whereby the owner was 
prevented from building his dwelling any higher. 

I was told that the Bibles they distributed are often 
torn to pieces by fanatical Turks; but a Mohammedan 



263, 

will never destroy a paper with the name of God on it, 
if he knows it ; on the contrary, they will pick up and 
preserve every piece, however filthy, which contains that 
holy name. They cram these pieces into crevices be- 
tween rocks or where the name will be preserved from 
further abuse. I heard a story of one thus preserving 
such a piece of Scripture in Jerusalem and had curiosi- 
ty enough to read what was said about God, and was 
by it led to embrace Christianity. Nothing I have ever 
witnessed surpasses in sincerity and I may say solemni- 
ty, a Moslem at prayer, yet with all that it is not at all 
certain that he has any principle. 

IN ASIA MINOR AGAIN. 

April the 16th was set apart by us to visit Scutari, the 
Mohammedan and English Cemeteries, and Boulgour- 
loo, on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus. The steam 
ferry-boats start from the bridge that spans the Golden 
Horn, and are capable of carrying about one hundred 
and fifty passengers each, and they run abount every 
fifteen minutes through the day. One man sells you a 
ticket, another punches it and a third collects. The 
boat is divided into two decks, first and second class, 
each of which is divided into two compartments — one 
for gentlemen, one for ladies ; also on each side of the 
lower deck a room is cut off and labelled in English 
and Arabic, "Harem reserve." A man may take his 
wives in if it be unoccupied ; if it be occupied, he is 
separated from them on the trip. I thought once, at 
Bebek, I should fail to get aboard at all, being met and 
stopped at every effort. I found that, without knowing 
it, I was trying to pass through a gate where only fe- 



264 

males could pass. ''One must do in Turkey as Turks 
do." 

Landing in Scutari we took a carriage for the Moham- 
medan Cemetery — one of the largest in the world, cov- 
ering several square miles, and the tombs are crowded 
about as near together as they can be. Every grave was 
marked by a marble slab, or, I should rather say, post 
or column, for they were narrow and thick, often eight 
feet high, each having a head with a peculiar head- 
dress or turban worn by deceased during his Hfe. 

One is shown a canopy supported by six marble 
columns, beneath which is buried the favorite horse 
of Sultan Mohammed. Above all these wave tall and 
graceful cypresses, emblems of mourning. 

Passing this, we soon reach the English Cemetery to 
the right. Not only the English sailors and inhabitants 
who die here are brought here for interment, but those 
of the English troops who fell in the Crimean war, sleep 
here also ; and a granite shaft, forty or fifty feet high, 
stands in the midst of the grounds, raised in honor of 
England's fallen braves. It is approached frnn several 
sides by gravel walks, either shaded or bordered by 
several species of evergreens. Just outside is the hos- 
pital where is still shown the room and furniture of 
Miss Nightingale, who devoted her talents to the allevi- 
ation of human suffering. 

About six miles from the landing at Scutari, we reach 
Boulgourloo, passing, on the way, several pretty towns 
and a few of the Sultan's summer palaces, for he has a 
great number of them. Boulgourloo is a high hill, 
covered with grass, sloping rapidly in all directions ; it 
is one of the hills on which beacon fires were lighted 
from Tarsus to B3'zantium before the electric telegraph. 



265 

From it the Emperors used to start to Asia on their 
hunting expeditions. The hill is several hundred feet 
high, and the forests having perished centuries since, 
one can see for a hundred miles over the sea of Marmora, 
studded with islands, and Kadi Koi, the site of Chalce- 
don of old, birth place of Zenocrates, and seat of the 
fourth general council, A. D. 451, which condemned 
the Monophysites ; it was the starting point of gen- 
erals, in olden times, to Persia and the East. It is 
more ancient than Byzantium (Constantinople). We 
see many miles over hills and plains towards the inte- 
rior of Asia. On the other side the Bosphorus, adorn- 
ed by a dozen towns, comes, by the aid of our glass- 
es, within easy eye-shot. What shall I say of Con- 
stantinople, with her suburbs far enough away to lose 
all her objectionable aspects, and near enough to pre- 
sent her hundreds of mosques, palaces and public build- 
ings, with the ships of all nations ever coming and going! 
Truly she sits a queen, and the most favorably located 
of any city in the world perhaps, if she only had a good 
citizenship, of progressive men in her back countries. 

We very fortunately happened on this side on the 
most favorable day of the year ; it is fifteen days until 
Ramazan, and the day the camels start to Mecca with 
the national offerings. They start from the Mosque of 
Achmed the first, and are taken thence to a boat. The 
boat brings them to Scutari, and two huge Bactrian 
camels, decorated with silk into which threads of gold 
and silver are woven and ostrich feathers until they 
are nearly covered ujd. wait to receive the presents; 
really the camels are meant for priests or dignitaries to 
ride upon, i\^hile thirty or forty mules are laden with 
two or three boxes and trunks apiece and the camels 



266 

support large canopies that pitch forward at one step 
and backward at the next, as if they meant not to stay 
in position to grace the procession. 

Thousands of people had gathered to witness the re- 
ligious /e^e ; allthe piazzas and windows were full of ex- 
cited spectators ; about a hundred cavalry were on hand 
to keep the peace and guard the sacred treasures. The 
street that led down to the landing was so crowded that, 
fearing lest at the critical moment we should fail to be 
in a favorable j^osition for seeing, we took a shop-keep- 
ers bench and stood upon it; but when the cavalry 
formed in line we were only about four feet in their rear, 
and the very horse that was in front ol us became very 
restless, ran backward into our party, hurting several 
persons and upsetting our bench, almost breaking a 
boy's leg. While all this pageant was passing I had 
serious misgivings lest the fanaticism of these Turks 
should suggest something disastrous to us Christians, so 
few, and safeguards so far away, nor did I feel perfectly 
at ease until the crowd dis23ersed. 

At two o'clock the booming of cannon informed us 
that the freight had started, and in a few moments it 
was landed, reloaded and hurried away. While it w s 
being brought ashore there was a mock gladiatorial con- 
test. 

The Ramazan is the Moslem Lent and lasts four weeks. 
During that time they neither eat, drink, nor smoke 
from sun-up until sun-down ; the first thing after sun- 
down is to smoke ; this they will do for an hour often, 
after which they eat. The camels start to Mecca two 
weeks before, so that the offerings may be on hand at 
the opening of Ramazan. We recrossed to the European 
side, made an excursion up the Golden Horn to the 
Sweet Waters, passing the magnificent red stone College 
of the Greek church, and completed the day. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



CONSTANTINOPLE AND THE TURKS. 



Wednesday, April 17th, was our last day in Constan- 
tinople. We went up the Bosphorus to the Black Sea, 
by the route which Jason went in search of the "Gol- 
den Fleece." The coast on either hand was lined with 
towns nearly all the way up. Ours was a mail steamer, 
and it was curious to see them deliver the mail and 
tickets. The former was carried in square boxes, locked 
with a hasp, staple and padlock. At every station the 
Captain would have the tickets tied up in a little bag 
about such as we have seen boys carry their marbles in, 
into which a stone weighing four or five ounces was 
dropped. This would carry momentum sufficient to 
land it, while he received a like wallet from each station, 
to be carried on, tossed ab jard often after the boat was 
under headway. Failing to carry lunch I had to buy 
some bread, which gave me an idea I should else have 
missed. As I could not speak Turkish, and being alone 
(for my companions returned to the city, while I got off 
at Bebek to see our American College,) I stood near by 
the bread vender until I saw him sell a ring of it about 
as large as the ring used on a trapeze, say six inches in 
diameter, then I knew the price and bought myself, 
taking the bread and laying down two metterlichs. The 
idea I caught was the benefit of seeds sprinkled on the 
bread while cooking. I do not know the name of the 



268 

seeds ; they were about as large as cloverseed, and pos- 
sessed a strong and very pleasant flavor. They also 
possessed an oily property, which made the bread more 
nourishing. 

The college is about twenty minutes walk from the 
landing, and is reached by walking up a very precipit- 
ous hill overlooking the Bosphorus. The walk-way, 
however, is well graded and passes under that famous 
wall built by Mohammed II in three months, each 
workman doing more each day than had ever been done 
by one man in a day before or since. It was built in 
the shape of the Arabic letters which spell Mohammed's 
name, and as a rallying point from which to take Con- 
stantinople and destroy the Byzantine empire. I have 
seen no prettier location anywhere than Robert College 
enjoys. It overlooks nearly the entire length of the 
Bosphorus and far into Asia Minor beyond, whose bosom 
is covered with pretty towns and prosperous farm-hou- 
ses in the midst of the green fields. 

It is surrounded by a stone wall and a great variety 
of trees and shrubbery. The building is of stone and is 
large, commodious and well arranged ; a four-story house, 
built around an open court, from which the ascent is 
made to the upper stories. After looking at the grounds 
and buildings sufficiently from without, I called on Dr. 
Washburn, the President ; while waiting for him, an 
indelible impression was made upon my mind to the 
effect that the officers were very busy and the students 
equally as idle. Dr. Washburn I found to be a very 
polite, communicative gentleman. The students of the 
college were from Servia, Bulgaria, Austria and several 
other nationalities are represented including Jews, being 
either Greek or Catholic christians, instead of Turkish 



269 

boys, only one or two of which, I believe, are in the 
college. The college is a power for good, though inferior 
to that of Beirut. The other high schools of Constan- 
tinople are said to be atheistic, which fact gains a 
sympathy otherwise denied this Protestant Christian 
college. They have one hundred and seventy boys en- 
rolled. An orator alluding to its proximity to Mahomet 
Second's wall and towers, said : "It stands on higher 
ground than those towers. It dominates them. Its 
forces are spiritual and eternal. It shall see them pass 
away." This prophecy will doubtless be fulfilled. They 
were seven years securing a title to the property after it 
was purchased ; such is the Turkish way of doing busi- 
ness and his fear of the Russ and Frank. 

To-day is the Sultan's birthday ; the masts of every 
Turkish craft are ornamented with streamers ; the fronts 
of gardens and yards have lattice-work made of flowers 
and tinted paper woven into fanciful shapes; the branch- 
es of trees are hung full of bottles. The streets are 
crossed with ropes and twine woven into webs at places, 
all strung with candles and Chinese lanterns to be light- 
ed at night. At 12 o'clock m. twenty-one rounds of 
cannon are fired. 

Constantinople, a magnificent city, is at her best, doing 
honor to her ruler. Everybody seems to take pleasure 
in the occasion ; though the Sultan is as much afraid of 
dynamite as the Czar of Russia. 

At night the city, with all her suburbs, is illuminated? 
every one of her thousand minarets is blazing, and they 
look together like all the constellations of the skies had 
clustered just over the happy capitol. The Sultan's 
palace, just above Yildik, seemed from Galata across the 
Golden Horn, to be of crystal and illuminated with a 



270 

hundred electric lights ; and hundreds of inferior pal- 
aces, with mosques and military stations, far up on the 
heights in the suburbs, and private dwellings, all \ded 
with each other in an effort to honor the Ottoman 
monarch. 

No doubt thousands of barrels of kerosene were con- 
sumed, and the fall moon lent all her mellow radiance 
to enhance the witchery of the scene. I stood for more 
than an hour beneath a spell, as it were. Pera, through 
which runs the Strand, or Broadway, and the city on 
both sides the Bosphorus, are behind me and out of 
sight; but Stamboul, rising terrace-like beyond the 
Golden Horn, is reflected from its trembling face, which 
almost doubled the grandeur, already everwhelming. I 
had never seen anything of the kind so splendid before; 
I do not expect to see it again on earth. Great is the 
power of a man or a system thatswiys millions of loyal 
souls, even though they be semi-heathens. 

This ovation not only marks the high place the Sultan 
Abdul Hamid II holds in his subjects' esteem, but 
shDws him entitled to be placed beside earth's poten- 
tates. 

Again, we thought of the waste of labor and material, 
so much needed by the ignorant children of this pon- 
derous empire, and asked the question, why all this 
waste upon one poor, perishing polygamist, who feels 
to be jeopardizing his life every time he goes out? And 
the answer comes back, for the sake of these same poor, 
needy wretches, w^ho will not rest content without such 
remote, pampered, haughty, aristocratic masters. Of 
course oppression abounds, but this evil is less than 
those which arise from a consciousness of irresponsible 
freedom among a people incapable of self-government. 



271 

Give such a people pageants, illuminations, parades,, 
sensuality and mystery about religion ; make Cathedrals 
dark ; read or sing prayers in an unknown tongue ; ex- 
communicate for reading scriptures and knowing truth, 
and it is no surprise to find anomaly in moral, social 
and political matters, such as a celibate priesthood on 
the one hand and a polygamous one on the other, re- 
sulting in scepticism and nihilism. 

Time would fail to tell of all the strange experiences 
of a traveller here, or the interesting objects on every 
hand, or the habits or religion of the Turks. The facts 
that they do abstain from wine, do observe the rite of 
circumcision, do fast during Ramazan, show them capa- 
ble of becoming exemplary christians. But they are cruel 
in the treatment of their wives, making them do almost 
all the work, consider the birth of girls a curse, and 
make them begin to wear veils at eleven or twleve years 

of age. 

If a man wishes a wife he must speak to his father to 
secure one for him ; if he hkes her he keeps her, if not, 
he returns her to her iatlier ; and if he be able to sup- 
port two he gets his father to look him up another. No 
courting among the Arabs. *♦ 

Their salutations are unsurpassed by any people for 
grace and significance. An Arab meeting or parting 
with a friend will raise his right hand to his forehead, 
drop it to his lips, then to his breast, which means, I 
revere you with my mind, speak well of you with my 
lips, and give you a place in my heart. One might go 
far to find more delicate politeness. On parting the 
first says : Yallah salaam! May you go in peace. The 
other responds : Salaam, i. e., peace. The ordinary salu- 
tation is. En harak sa'id, i. e., " May you have a rich 



272 

day." The response is equivalent but the words differ- 
ent, and is : En harak mabarak ! If an Arab wishes to 
carry a point he will stoop to conquer ; he will kiss your 
hand repeatedly, lay the back of it against his forehead, 
on the top of his head, and kiss it again. 

A story is told of a Turk as follows : A neighbor 
wished to borrow his donkey and was told the animal 
was not at home ; pretty soon the animal brayed, said 
the neighbor : "There, he is at home." " I won't lend 
anything," said the Turk, " to a man who believes a 
donkey's voice in preference to mine!" 

If you approach a female unveiled, who usually keeps 
her face veiled, she will either pull the veil over her face, 
and hold it in her mouth or turn her head till you pass. 

Often in the warmer climates of Egypt and Palestine 
the males and females seem to be dressed alike, look- 
ing at them from the rear ; a tunic or something like a 
sheet of white cloth is worn over the whole body, head 
and all; the men often wear clothes like an American, 
often a skirt which fastens to each leg below the knee 
and a coat about his body. The women have a great 
variety of dress, including trousers. Mothers of the poor 
learn th^r children to say backsheesh before they learn to 
say mother. I have seen them send babies out to meet 
us not three years old, who understood their business. 
They will come out, babe in hand, point to it and say 
"he" or " she christian, 6ac^*s/t(?es/i, Howadji!" 

A lady told me that while at Marsaba, in Palestine, 
she ordered a donkey boy to wash out the kyathos and 
bring her a nice drink of water; he put some water in 
the vessel, went up to a donkey, thrust the end of the 
donkey's tail into the kyathos and mopped it out and 
brought her a nice drink of water ! Using him as a 



273 



€up-towel ! Very convenient that ; it can be hung out 
to dry and preserved for future use. 

While there are about 1,000,000 inhabitants in Con- 
stantinople our guide said there were 1,500,000 dogs. I 
I have counted eight in one pile, sleeping like hogs. 
These are nearly all of the same species, a kind of cross 
between the cur and Shepherd dog. They are relig- 
iously scrupulous about the treatment of canines. Every 
man fee s the dogs in front of his door, though he lays 
no claim to them ; he will also defend them when en- 
dangered. The dogs of one street or section live in har- 
mony among themselves, but will not tolerate strange 
dogs ; they unite to ostracise any visitor ; all seem to 
understand the proper boundaries of their real estate 
and allow no trespassing. Friday is Moslem Sabbath 
and on that day they publicly feed dogs. 

The Mahometans are fatalists. When misfortunes 
overtake them they say. Kismet Diir— It is fate. They 
do not think the trouble could have been averted by 
any effort of theirs. 

Oriental cities are generally built in a very compact 
manner because it is more economical and affords greater 
defense in time of war, few of the streets are broad 
enough for vehicles to pass, they are often built on hill- 
sides, also, because of the better defense thus secured. 
So that instead of the carts and drays used in Occiden- 
tal cities, men carry the baggage and freight from 
wharves to stores and warehouses. A thick pad is 
fastened over the shoulders falling down below the 
hips, a box of merchandise often weighing three or four 
hundred pounds rests on this while the man goes in a 
stooping attitude, a long rope reaches around the bur- 
den behind and around the bearer's forehead. The 



274 

limbs of these human freight cars are generally bare, 
and evidence the greatest possible muscular develop- 
ment. 

The}' say that Satan, " Stoned Devil," against whom 
they pray five times daily, is the genius that inspires 
all mechanical wisdom. 

They punish apostasy with death, unless the apostate 
recant at once. When Moliammed began his brilHant 
career, he told his followers the world was divided into 
two parts, viz : Dar ul Islam and Dar ul Harb — that is. 
House of Islam and House of War. " House of War," 
said he, " is for God. God gives it to you." What such 
a motto and its inspiration wrought, Christendom knows 
but too well. He j^redicted the capture of Constantinople 
700 or 800 years before it was done. It was not Mo- 
hammed's purpose to destroy Christians and Jews. He 
called them Kitablees, or people with a Book, meaning 
the Bible — his system being a degenerate Judaism 
grafted to Arabic habits. His followers, however, did 
not adhere to this part of the j^lan. Jerusalem was the 
first city that fell into their hands, and Charlemagne, to 
whom the Kalif sent the keys of the Holy Sepulchre, 
secured from them safety for Frank merchants in Syria 
and Egypt. 

Dr. Menzies' Turkey^ Old and Neiv, says : 

"Mussulman conquest is rapid and splendid and followed by 
precarious and incurable decadence." 

The Turks had a standing army when such a thing 
was unknown in Europe. But Europe was laying broad 
and deep the foundations for mightier conquests than 
the "gorgeous East" had ever known, or could ever 
attain, until they too should follow the ways of the 
western world. 



275 

The following is a summarized estimate of the Turks 
b}^ one who travelled throughout the Ottoman Empire, 

" They are hospitable, charitable generally, sometimes gener- 
ous; the lower classes are honest, their greatest merit; not so with 
the upper classes ; but one may rely on their solemn promise. 
They are ignorant, presumptuous, vain and bigoted, proud with- 
out any feeling of honor, and cringing without humility, cannot 
resist money or the prospective benefit of a lie. 

In Government and administrative duties they are tyrannical 
and overbearing, in religion dogmatic and intolerant, in fiscal 
measures mercenary and arbitrary, and ignorant of their own 
history as they are of others. The higher classes are inferior in 
character, probity and honor to the lower. Their virtue is that 
of the Savage, who is generous because nature supplies his 
wants, and charitable because of the uncertain tenure by which 
he holds his goods; poor and removed from temptation he is 
honest, but entrusted with office he becomes a thief. He plun- 
ders the poor and propitiates the rich by bribes, hence offices 
are sold to the highest bidder." 

Constantinople is the headquarters for such missionary 
work as is carried on in Turkish territory. Our Consul 
there is a Jew, and secures for our Missions more 
clemency than his Christian predecessor, so I was 
informed at Bierut. He put the Missions on the same 
basis as all other American enterprises. Dr. Hamlin, 
founder of Robert College, relates an experience which 
illustrates the power of Christianity even among Mussul- 
men. While superintending a bakery that supplied the 
English army with bread, he bought on thirty days 
time, ten thousand dollars worth of flour from a Turkish 
merchant, on his credit as a Christian Missionary. I 
visited the Sailors' bethel here and was present at one 
service, and had a gracious season of prayer with a 
sailor who had not walked for several weeks, on account 
of rheumatism, and was glad to hear that he came down 
stairs the next day. 

As I looked at this degraded people, I was saddened 



276 

iDeyond expression; they looked like sheep, having 
no shepherd. I often longed for a voice that they 
■could understand, that I might tell them good news, 
and that the christian church could but catch as a 
watchword Mahomet's own, " This part is God's, God 
gives it to you," and give and go and continue giving 
and going until the mighty work of preaching the 
gospel to every creature is done. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 



THROUGH ROUMANIA, BULGARIA, SERVIA^ 
HUNGARY AND AUSTRIA. 



At 9 o'clock, p. M., I left Constantinople for Vienna.. 
After buying my ticket I was seized by two burly Turks 
unable to speak English more than to say "jjas-s^-por^." 
Now, a pass-port is seldom required on entering Turk- 
ish dominions, but always on leaving, so I had secured 
a Teskereh (Turkish pass-port) for Constantinople ; just 
such a one as even a Turk would have been required to 
have if visiting there from some other place, but I had 
not had my American pass-port vised, i. e., passed through 
the hands of a Turkish Consul and had his permission 
to travel in Turkey written on it. So I produced my 
Teskereh ; they read it, handed it back, and demanded : 
"Passe-port." Now, if I had given them my American 
pass-port, not vised, they would have fined me two or 
three dollars and detained me, perhaps, as many days. 
So I did not produce that, but handed back the Teskereh 
again, which they refused, saying: "Passe-port," "passe- 
port." Not producing the other, one of them snatched 
the Teskereh out of my hand, which I snatched back as 
quickly, and turned and walked away. I had learned 
the tricks of Turks during two months in Egypt, Pales- 
tine and Syria, and knew they were only after back- 
sheesh. Had I fallen into the hands of the ruffians on 
entering their country for the first time, I would have 



had to pay out and been detained several days besides. 
When the train rolled off I felt a burden roll off with 
it. One is ever ill at ease for fear these Arabs will prac- 
tice some new, successful trick upon him. There is no 
trouble to one using Cook's or Gaze's tickets, but some- 
times I traveled without them — did not have one then. 

The distance from Constantinoj^le to Vienna is one 
thousand and fifty miles, the time forty-seven hours. I 
left the brilliantly illuminated city at nine o'clock, p. m. 
Two or three young Germans got on the same car, and 
I made an effort to get into the same compartment with 
them, first, because I was going towards Germany and I 
would practice speaking a little, and second, because I 
was afraid to ride with two or three Turks all night in a 
car locked up, and in a car from which there was no 
possible egress and no hope of aid if it should be need- 
ed. I had purposely assumed a garb that was calcula- 
ted to allay all suspicion that I might have anything 
worth seizing, and enjoyed more ease in consequence on 
this transcontinental ride. 

The cars on all European railroads are dispatched in 
the same w^ay, as follows : Two alarm or signal bells are 
rung a few minutes before the cars are ready to -start; 
when the time expires a third bell is rung, the conduc- 
tor blows a whistle like a dog whistle, the engineer re- 
sponds with a single whistle from his engine, the cars 
moving off at the same instant. There is no getting off 
or on after the last bell is rung. 

As we said we took the cars in old Stamboul and 
skirted the city by the seashore. It was twenty min- 
utes ere we passed the last emblazonry of the Sublime 
Porte and shot out into the darkness towards the west 
and home. 



279 

Unable to converse with the two or three passengers 
that were in the section of the car with me I was left to 
my own reflections, and many were the thoughts that 
coursed through my brain about these Turks, so strange 
in religion, in habit, in speech, in dress and all their 
customs ; and the mind went on to kindred subjects, 
the conditions of the human race, their multiform ways, 
creeds, colors and characteristics. But much is common 
to them all. All thirst for more. All have some form 
of religion. All are "made of one blood for to dwell on 
all the face of the earth," and perhaps God sees a greater 
good in them all than we can see or are ready to believe. 
Musing thus the hours wore on and tired nature sank 
into the arms of Morpheus. There are no sleeping 
accommodations on this line, except on the train that 
leaves on Sundays, but I left on Thursday. 

Next morning we reached 

ADRIANOPLE, 

the last Turkish town. Other travelers carried their 
baggage to the custom house from the train. I did not. 
I had not seen it on that fashion as yet. So in a few 
minutes the officers searched the train, and I expected 
trouble, but found none and experienced such a sense of 
relief at being rid of these bugbears "as only those who 
have travelled in the Orient are able to appreciate. 

As we hurried through a very fertile looking plain the 
Balkan mountains, about twenty miles from our way, 
were covered with snow. The fellaheen were ploughing 
with six-ox teams to iron plows, made by civilized me- 
chanics, which promised to put new life into the agri- 
cultural interest of lands so long depressed under Turk- 
ish rule. We passed the breastworks that mark the 



280 

spot where many a brave Servian bled and died in 
1877_'78, striving to free themselves from the galling 
yoke of Turkey. Large herds of sheep were pasturing 
near the road in Turkey, Servia, and Roumelia. 

This long railroad has different cars and different of- 
ficials for every state through which it passes, and we 
knew when we ran into a new territory by the change in 
the uniform of the railway and military officers. The 
Servians and Bulofarians wear very heavy caps of felt 
with long knap, also the red stripes down their trouser 
legs was about two inches wide while that of the Turks 
was only one-fourth to three-eighths wide; all soldiers 
wear their national coat of arms. The first day I took 
dinner at Tzaribrod. This is the country where people 
live so long. Near here, Peter Czartan lived 185 years, 
and Kamartzik, of Polotszk, 163 years, and between here 
and Constantinople, an old Turk still lives, aged 150 years, 
supported by the Sultan's generosity. If one of these 
old gentlemen should declare that he was Adam, no 
living man, from his own personal knowledge, could 
deny it. The names on signs here were almost all Rus- 
sian, as well as the style of the people's dress. 

I noticed in passing through Bulgaria, the water con- 
veyed to several mills through races around hillsides 
until it had reached the point to be applied when it was 
emptied from the race into a hollow log about twenty 
feet long through which it was precipitated against a 
paddle wheel. 

On the evening of April 18th, the snow was falling 
and there was promise of a cold, sleepless night. I had 
just fallen into a good slumber when quite a stir of 
passengers awoke me. All must go with all th^ir bag- 
gage again to the Bulgarian customs officers to be 



281 

examined and have our passports restamped. My 
shoes were thin, the rain and snow were faUing fast, 
the fire had died out in the stove that was this time 
under the coach, warming the car by a pipe that ran 
through from bottom to top. So I moved slowly and 
my baggage was rather heavy for a «?ingle man to carry. 
There were no lights about and I was nearly lost in the 
darkness, unable to speak a word comprehensible to the 
people there. There were two or three doors or windows 
lighted up by dim lamps within, and in one of these I 
saw people moving about; to that one I went to find the 
low counter for the reception of a traveller's baggage. 
Passing these guardians at the outposts of the nation 
who register every passenger's name, place from which 
he comes, and to which he is going, (because 'eternal 
vigilance is the price of liberty') and regaining my car, 
I wrapped myself in my Arab bist, and slept till the 
morning sun showed us the flushed river Save at the 
junction of which with the Danube we see the beauti- 
ful city of Belgrade, into which we run and get a fine 
breakfast at the railroad restaurant. 

Once more our luggage and passports have to be ex- 
hibited, and once more on the cars we feel easy. We 
cross a high trestle over the Save and stop at Semlin, 
still in sight of Belgrade, and are ordered once more to 
give the representatives of the Austrian Empire suffic- 
ient reasons why we should hope to enjoy so great and 
important a privilege as to pass through their country. 
It is not enough that a man is of a lawful age, he must 
be well recommended also. 

From Semlin to Pesth the road soon crosses the Da- 
nube and then runs north between the rivers Theiss and 
Danube, about seven hours through a marshy plain all 
18 



282 

the way. Many ponds of water, miles in extent, and 
not over two feet deep, lay along our way. The farm 
house, all through Hungary, reminded me of those of 
the Dutch I had been used to at home. The cattle are 
some species of long-horns ; often their horns seemed to 
be three feet long, or more. 

We stopped only about an hour or two in 

BUDA-PESTH, 

and had only time to get an idea of the general appear- 
ance of the Hungarian capital, and hurried aw^ay to 
Vienna, Wien they call it in German. I found two 
Hungarians aboard the cars w^ho had lived a long w^iile 
in America. One was going to Vienna to see his wife 
and baby. To hear him speak of his baby reminded 
me of the father of " dat Young Yawcub Strauss." Fol- 
lowing his advice I stopped at the hotel Wimberger, 
near the West Bahnhof, and was w^ell pleased, even 
when I reckoned with mine host and Co. Generally 
two or three to a dozen servants are on hand when a 
traveller leaves, each expecting a gratuity. 



CHAPTER XXXIII 



VIENNA. 



It would require a whole book to give any adequate 
Idea of the " most splendid capitol of Europe." It is 
an old city, originally settled by Celts, afterwards, it 
became a Roman military station. Marcus Aurelius 
died there. It was besieged by Attila and afterwards 
by the Turks. It has been the seat of the house of 
Hapsburg for more than six hundred years. 

Vienna owes its beauty to a circumstance. It was 
once a walled town, but all the space having been taken 
for buildings and streets within the walls, the space 
around them was taken until there was more of the city 
outside than inside the walls. 

The ancient city within the walls is called the Stadt^ 
and numbers about 50,000 inhabitants, while the entire 
city numbers about 1,000,000. As the bulk of the city 
was thus exposed, it was determined about thirty-two 
years ago to tear the wall away, the space occupied by 
the Wall was converted int(j a street about two or three 
hundred feet wide, laid ofi' into boulevards and street- 
car lines. It is called Ring-Strasse. 

The Stadt is the fashionable quarter. The Hof burg, 
or imperial palace is there as well as those of the nobility. 
There is the Graben or street containing the finest stores, 
the banks, leading churches, museums, galleries, etc. 

Around the Ring-Strasse (Ring Street) are situated the 
National Museum, two large stone buildings covering 



284 

about four acres each, and between them Maria Theresa 
Platz, where her bronze statue is seated in an imperial 
chair surrounded by statesmen, generals, poets, sculptors, 
physicians and musicians as Loudon, Khevenhueler, 
Lichtenstein, Daun, Kaminitz: Haugwitz, Mozart, Haydn 
and others. 

Next is the Treasury, after ^vhich is the Parliament 
building, the facade of which presents three gables 
adorned with statuary representing the country at peace: 
these are supported by fifty Corinthian columns and 
eight pilasters. Sloping walks, guarded by gens d'arms 
go up to the great porches. The interior is arranged 
after the same model as that of the United States at 
Washington. The top is surmounted by eight chariots 
drawm by two and four horses. It is said to have cost 
8,000,000 florins. We noticed some master-pieces of 
frescoing, done by Kruppen-Carl : Maria Theresa, after 
the seven years' war, Founding of St. Stephens, and From 
the Cradle to the Grave, the original, no doubt, from 
which came the chromos and engravings of the same, so 
numerous in the United States. Next to this is the 
Rathhaus, or city hall, one of the finest in the world, 
costing 17,000,000 florins, (a florin purchases about as 
much labor as a dollar, but is less than 50 cts.) The 
ceiling of one room, the grand reception hall, cost 
48,000 florins and a single chandelier cost 35,000 florins. 
The floor is made of oak mosaics oiled. 

The Rathhaus is situated in the rear of a square laid 
off in pretty walks and thick-set with shrubbery. 

Next to the Rathhaus is the Votivkirche(Yoi\Ye church) 
erected in commemoration of the Emperor's escape from 
assassination in 1853. Very near by is the University. 
The departments are all in the same room, and labeled 



285 

Law, Theology, Medicine, &c. The Aula contains the 
statues of Maria Theresa, and Rudolph, the lounder. 
The library occupies nine stories, having floors of iron 
bars about the size of plastering laths turned edgewise 
to admit the free transmission of light. It is said to 
contain 1,000,000 volumes, besides several thousand 
incunabula (first books printed) some fine books of parch- 
ment costing 1,400 florins per volume when new. They 
contain very rare, highly colored pictures. All these are 
seen in glass show-cases. Crossing the Ringstrasse, we 
pass the New Opera, a very imposing structure exter- 
nally, enter the Volksgarten, a small park containing the 
Theseum, a small Temple built like the Temple of The- 
seus at Athens, and to hold Canova's marble group oi 
Theseus slaying the Minotaur. Passing through the 
Volksgarten we see the Opera House, Bank, Academia, 
Kunstler Haus, which is quite a picture gallery, filled 
with visitors. One picture, by Falkenburg, unfolds to a 
protestant philosophic mind one cause of the universal 
social and moral obliquity that predominates here. The 
picture is that of a young woman, with rather flushed 
face, kneeling behind an old man clad in the attire of a 
Catholic Priest ; his head inclines to catch the words 
she tremblingly whispers in his ear; we pause to hear 
them; ^^ Pater peccaviP'' (Father I have sinned). For- 
giveness is easil}^ obtained, and the way is paved for 
repetition. 

The educating influence of such pictures in these con- 
spicuous places is past estimating, especially when they 
are praised by the great and learned. 

The art galleries of Europe are largely what Catholic 
priests have made them ; the people are very largely in- 
fluenced by the galleries. If chastity is barely known 



286 

it is because it is not desired. The innate sense of pu- 
rity is assisted just enough by the church to forbid that 
the sale of indulgences and the confessional should 
cease, while human nature has all the encouragement 
that the lewdest genius can suggest. It is a positive 
injury for any one to visit these places whose character 
is not formed. ^ ^ ^ ^ jyj^j^ ^f prestige 
should cry out against the lewd in art, unless the mod- 
esty that is praised be false and have no foundation in 
nature and the fitness of things. We in America .-ire 
following in the wake of our ancestors. Are we only 
behind them in reality or following them astray? 

French Infidelity, German Rationalism and Russian 
Nihilism are only natural reactions — protests against 
the unnatural and illegitimate assumptions and teach- 
ings of Roman Catholicism in France and Germany 
and Greek Catholicism in Russia. 

Beside the Kunstler Haus stands the elegant Music 
Freund, adorned with the marble busts of Gluck, Haydn, 
Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, and many 
others. A little further is Christ's church and Beetho- 
ven's monument in Bronze. 

All these places which I have mentioned are situated 
on an arc of the circular street called the Ringstrasse, 
and suggest how splendid an appearance it must present. 
The whole of this street runs between lofty mansions, 
hotels, museums, galleries and beergardens fitted up 
like parks. 

I attended service in St. Stephen's church, Stephen's 
Platz or square, said to be one of the noblest gothic ed- 
ifices in Europe. The Catholic worship is all alike to 
me, and it is not necessary to explain it to those who 
have seen it, and hardly possible to those who have not. 



287 

I ascended the tower, over 450 feet high, there bemg 
only two church steeples higher in the world, those of 
Strasburg and Cologne. 

I went to the Augustine church to see Canova's mon- 
ument of the Archduchess Maria Christina, said to be 
one of his noblest works. The tomb is triangular, and 
built of marble. The inscription above the door is in 
Latin — Uxori optim.^ Alburtus — to the most excellent wife 
of Albert. Above this inscription an angel supports a 
cartouch bearing her name and profile ; another ap- 
proaches bearing a palm ; a female figure and two chil- 
dren enter the door bearing an urn and wreaths ; to the 
left another female figure leading an old man ; to the right 
an angel reclines on a sleeping lion. The figures are life 
size. In the Loretto Chapel of this church are the silver 
urns that contain the hearts of many members of the 
im^Dcrial family. 

The Capuchin church contains two leaden boxes, in 
which are the ashes of Maria Louisa and the Duke of 
Keichstadt, second wife and only child of the great Na- 
poleon, This unfortunate son fell as far short of as his 
father transcended parental expectancy. Two squares 
away, in the Treasury Museum, is the royal cradle^ 
trimmed in satin, pearls and gold. 

We noticed a barefoot (not an uncommon thing) Ca- 
puchin priest sitting near the sidewalk reading on Sun- 
day morning, and stopped to learn that he was so posing 
to arrest passers by, who should thus be made to read 
the conspicuous advertisement of a "panoptican show" 
going on in rear of him. His trick was a success. 

All these Austrians go to church. I noticed little 
children, not over three and four years old, at church 
and worshipping, just as the old people did, kneeling be- 



288 

fore the crucifix<^s, images and paintings of Christ as 
they passed. All attend early and say their appointed 
number of prayers, and the remainder of the Sabbath, 
say after nine or ten o'clock, is converted into a holiday. 
They go by thousands into the country on excursions, 
as hundreds of tram-cars i un daily, while all who do 
not go to the country go to the Prater or other heergarten. 
The Prater is the great place of concourse. I went out 
Easter Monday, and I and a Presbyterian minister who 
witnessed the scene, estimated that there were no less 
than 100,000 people in the Prater that day. It is a 
magnificent park, laid off into walks and drives, con- 
taining many theatres, circuses, beer-gartens "flying 
Dutchmen, lady orchestras and other catchpenny places 
of amusement." 

To say this number drank not less than 5,000 barrels 
of beer that day would appear extravagant until we 
state that we have it on good author ty that one beer-haus 
in Munich consumes 1,000 barrels daily, a quart being 
the smallest amount sold at one time. The average dai- 
ly consumption is two quarts per capita for the entire 
population. 

A tram-car climbs from the city to the heights on the 
west by means of a cog-wheel ; we ascended and had a 
nice view of the city and her environs. It is novel to 
an American to see little boys of 7, 8 and 9 years carry- 
ing side arms and dressed in uniform, and of all ages 
carrying canes. They appear to be following the pre- 
cept as they understand it — train up a child in the w^ay 
he should go and when he is old he will not depart 
from it. They want a soldier out of every man, and so 
begin on him in time. , And while these youngsters are 
in the cities and towas of Europe flirting with city girls, 



289 

their sisters are at home doing all the farm wcrk. It 
was a daily sight in Vienna to see pretty girls driving 
two-horse wagons from the country, when no doubt 
their brothers were in the Austrian camp. It was the 
same going from town to town on the cars — the women 
were cultivating farms everywhere. Alas, when a nation 
must thus waste its productive forces in order to feel 
secure, while all the delicate sense of woman, that makes 
her queen of home and clothes her with native charms, 
is blunted by reducing her to a serf, with the task of 
feeding the family and supplying tax sufficient for the 
nourishment of her son, husband or brother and the 
government besides. 

It was really amusing to see large dogs hitched to 
'One-horse wagons loaded with milk or vegetables, to 
lighten the draught otherwise falling upon the market- 
woman. 

We took one morning to visit Shoenbrun, the magnifi- 
cent summer palace of the Emperor two miles from Vi- 
enna. We counted 165 windows on one side, which 
enables one to have some idea of its size. It is in har- 
mony, externally and internally, with the style of Francis 
Joseph. All the entrances are guarded by gens d'armes, 
and though in this is like all European palaces, we are 
glad of the contrast in this respect between it and the 
White House. 

A pretty park, covering more than a thousand acres, 
surrounds Shoenbrun. It is laid off' into many pretty 
walks and drives and beautified by fountains filled with 
fishes. Seats are placed at proper intervals, and it did 
me good to see the poor people walking through these 
royal gardens or resting by these beautiful spouting 
fountains. One drive, about a mile in length, has a row 



290 

of small oak trees on each side that seem to have beerb 
cut perpendicularly by a great plane, and then about 
twenty feet above the ground, by a horizontal j^lane ; 
looking down this avenue from one end there seems to- 
be a solid wall on each side of the drive ; not one twig 
an inch long projects beyond the plane. 

In one museum I saw figures in wax illustrating 
many diseases. The flesh seemed to be purposely cut 
away so as to expose the various organs aflected in these 
diseases, and often many figures were reproduced to 
show the progress of the diseases ; bones were broken, 
often projecting through the flesh, polpoid growths were 
being extracted ; eyes, ears, nose, throat and all were 
diseased and being relieved. The nervous, veinous, ar- 
terial and muscular svstems with the viscera were all 
shown, each to itself. One hardly knows which to ad- 
mire most, the one who dictated or the one w^ho exe- 
cuted so skillfully for such an exhibition. 

The squares of Vienna are adorned wdth many eques- 
trian statues. Belvedere gallery is the largest in the 
city and claimed my time one half day. Raphsel's Ma- 
donna a la Verdure is here. Titian has a Madonna here, 
Corregio a Ganymede and an lo. One of the best pieces 
is an Altar piece representing the Catholic, Greek, Jew- 
ish, Mohammedan and Brahmin faiths. 

It has beeh the custom for more than 250 years for 
the Austrian Emperors and their wives to wash the feet 
of twelve old men and twelve old women of the city on 
Friday before Easter, every year. They also send a 
table (Thote dinner and a bottle of wine to those whose 
feet they have washed. The suicide of the Kroniwintz 
this year cast such gloom over the royal ilimily as to 
forbid festivities, and the ancient custom was unob- 
served. 



291 

The Aiistrians are a healthy, good-natured looking^ 
set, fond of show and pleasure, and mostly have blue 
eyes. They are all Catholics, and badly priest-ridden. 
I copy a few extracts from a confidential circular placed 
in my hands : 

The object of this communication is to give a few particulars 
of a quiet work for the Lord which has been carried on for some 
time at , province of Austria. The indiscriminate publi- 
cation of details in Christian journals is an impossibility, as in 
consequence of the lack of religious liberty in this country, all 
aggressive evangelistic effort, especially that of an undenomina- 
tional character, is practically prohibited, and it is only by act- 
ing with the greatest prudence and by keeping carefully within 
the letter of the law that such work can be done. We there- 
fore earnestly request those Christians into whose hands this 
may fall to regard the communications it contains as confidential, 
and to exercise care that the circular may not fall into the hands 
of Jesuit spies, who are constantly on the watch for any streak of 
light on this priest-ridden land, and whose influence upon the 
authorities and people at large is so great that they often suc- 
ceed in putting an end to all efforts. 

Public Gospel meetings as they can, be held in England,. 
France and Italy, being forbidden in Austria, we can only have 
private gatherings in our own dwelling, with a limited number 
of people, whom we must invite personally by cards. 

The great centre of attraction in our meetings is the Bible. By 
far the majority of our attendants had never seen a copy of the 
Word of God ere thev came to us. 



CHAPTER XXXTV. 



THROUGH GERMANY, DOWN THE RHINE. 



Our train rolled out of the grand Westhahnhoff on the 
clear, crisp, frosty morning of April 24th, bound for 
Frankfort-on-the-Main. I took a slow train because they 
often stop over two, four and six hours, giving the hur- 
ried tourist time to see many places he would have to 
pass by if on the limited express ; also the slow trains 
are used by the common people, while the fast trains are 
chiefly used by the wealthy, and I wished to see all I 
possibly could of the middle and lower classes. The 
rich are about the same the world over. 

Soon after leaving Vienna the mountains of vStyria 
and T3T0I appeared far off to the left and covered with 
snow seemed to lift a warning hand that Switzerland was 
too cold and must be passed by. All day we fly over the 
most pleasing landscapes ; all the land that is cleared is 
in a fine state of cultivation. If it is clothed in verdure 
every foot is occupied; if it is fallowed every inch is 
broken ; if a canal passes through it does not monopo- 
lize ; just so much as is necessary is taken for the water, 
the remainder is utilized in some other way. If some is 
left CO sustain its native forest, the decaying trees and 
shrubs are removed and every part presents the finish of 
.agricultural and horticultural skill, and nature herself 
Jias woven these landscapes into lovely shapes as deft 



293 

fingers do the drapery of dress. Baedeker says of this 
section, "No other district in Germany offers such a va- 
riety of charming scenery within so small a compass." 

PASS A u, 

the first town reached in Germany, at the confluence of 
the Inn and Danube, is a beautiful town that really 
looks more rustic than city-like. We spent an hour here 
looking round and getting rid of Austrian florins and 
hruetzers for German marks and 'pfennigs. 

I met a gentleman here who spoke English ; we took a 
compartment together to Nuremburgh. He was a native 
Eusse, and spoke freely of the efforts made by Eussia to- 
capture Servia and Bulgaria by flooding those sections 
with political and religious (Greek) literature from Mos- 
cow and other great centers of Eussia, and expressed 
himself as of opinion that they were about ready to ally 
themselves to Eussia. 

We pass, near 

REGENSBUKG, 

the Walhalla or Temple of Fame, called also Deucher 
Ehren, modeled after the Parthenon at Athens, built fifty 
or sixty years ago by Louis I, of Bavaria. The entab- 
lature is adorned Avith sculptures by Wagner, illustra- 
ting Germany's ancient history. Below are a hundred 
busts of eminent Germans. The grounds about the 
building are admirably laid out, and command a fine 
view. The whole is on a height overlooking the Danube 
and city. 

I stopped four hours in 

KUREMBURG, 

which gave me time to see the old high-gabled houses 



294 

ynth stone balconies ; the double wall, 800 years old, 
^hose lofty tower called the Burg I climbed to get a 
better view of the town and its environs. The Rathhaus, 
or town hall, was about to be closed for the day, but a 
few pfennigs turned the key backwards, and I saw with- 
in. It is a rare building and has connection with famous 
deeds. It contains Albert Durer's best works in fres- 
coes, and a very fine painting of himself painting Max- 
imilian the Great ; also a fine portrait of Faber, of lead 
pencil notoriety. There is the lion of "Red-wine and 
White-wine" fame, and I sat in the Royal chair of Leopold 
I. The Shoene Brunnen, or beautiful fountain, deserves 
the name. 

In the valley of the Pegnitz, where across hroad meadow lands, 

Else the blue Franconian mountains, Nuremberg, the ancient, stands. 

Quaint old town of toil and traffic- quaint old town of art ana song. 
Memories haunt thy painted gahles, like the rooks that round them throng; 

Memories of the Middle Ages, when the Emperors, rough and hold. 
Had their dwelling in thy Castle, time-defying, centuries old. 

And thy brave and thrifty burghers boasted, in their uncouth rhyme, 
•That their great imperial city stretched its hand through every clime. 

Everywhere I see around me rise the wondrous world of Art, 

Fountains wrought with richest sculpture standing in the common mart; 

And above Cathedral doorways saints and bishops carved in stone, 
By a former age commissioned as apostles to our own. 

Here, when Art wast still religion, with a simple, reverent heart. 
Lived and labored Albrecht Durer, the Evangelist of Art : 

Here Hans Sachs, the cobbler-poet, laureate of the gentle craft. 

Wisest of the Twelve Wise Masters, in huge folios sang and laughed. 

But his house is now an ale-house, with a nicely sanded floor, 
And a garland in the window, and his face above the door : 

And at night the swart mechanic comes to drown hiscark and care, 
•Quaffing ale from pewter tankards, in the master's antique chair. 

JNot thy Councils, not thy Kaisers, win for thee the world's regard ; 
But thy painter, Albrecht Diirer and Hans Sachs, thy cobbler-bard. 

Thus, O, Nuremberg, a wanderer from a region far away. 

As he paced thy streets and court-yards, sang in thought his careles lay : 

Gathering from the pavement's crevice, as a floweret of the soil, 

The nobility of labor— the long pedigree of toil. —Longfellow. 



295 

From Nuremburg we ran down to 

WURZBURG 

•on the Main, reaching there a short while before day- 
Having to leave at sunrise, and as there was a good res- 
taurant in the Station, I did not go to a hotel ; here I 
received the first native hospitality I had known for 
many weeks. An attendant at the depot invited me to 
his room and supplied me with water, soap, towel and a 
comb, which conduct I supposed was designed to secure 
a small perquisite; this he refused, however, when of- 
fered, and only received it when I insisted. I was anx- 
ious to go across the Main and visit the monument of 
Walter of Vogelweid, the Minesinger of whose will Long- 
fellow says : 



"And lie gave the monks liis treasures, 
Gave them all with this behest : 

They should feed the birds at noontide 
Daily on his place of rest ; 

Saying, 'From these wandering minstrels 
I have learned the art of song ; 

Let me now repay the lessons 
They have taught so well and long.' 

"Thus the bard of love departed ; 

And, fulfilling his desire, 
On his tomb the birds were feasted 

By the children of the choir. 

"Thus they sang their merry carols — 
Sang their lauds on every side ; 

And the name their voices uttered 
Was the name of Vogelweid." 



The town is also noted for the manufacture of fine 
wines from the vineyards seen along the railway, and 
for the medical depai'tment of its University. There 
were three Japanese students in the Station who had 
been smoking and drinking beer all night. 



296 

We dashed down and across the Main, through tun- 
nels, over bridges, through green fields and forests of 
maple, cypress and oak, and reached 

FRANKFORT, 

the home of one of the Rothchilds and birthplace of 
Goethe, at 8 o'clock, a. m. 

The Ariadne, Danneker's masterpiece, in Bethmann's 
Museum, is a solid piece of Marble representing this 
bcMutiful daughter of Crete as left by Theseus and 
found by Bacchus, seated on a lion. She sits sidewise 
on the beast looking over her right shoulder. The poet- 
sculptor clothes her with that happy freedom from care 
that we welcome in any face, and that laxity of restraint 
for which the artist refuses any substitute. Leaving the 
Ariadneum I mistook the directions of the keeper, and 
was soon lost ; having only my German to fall back 
upon, I asked many a time, the best I could, the way 
to the Stiidel Gallery, and sometimes got plain direc- 
tions, accompanied by appropriate motions of the head 
and hands, the latter of which conveyed more intelli- 
gence to my mind than the best German : often I would 
pause in front of a fellow -pedestrian with my stereo- 
typed. Wo ist Stadel Museum? He would very often look 
straight at me, as if astonished, and reply : '' Ich verstehe 
nicht, mein HeiT^ " I do not comprehend, sir." Again I 
approached some one who was evidently a stranger, like 
myself, he would merely shrug his shoulders and pass 
on. (All Europeans shrug the shoulders when asked a 
confusing question.) 

" To Sit on rocks, to muse o'er flood and fell, 

To slowly trace the forest's shady scene, 
Where things that own not man's dominion dwell. 

And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been, 



297 



To climb the trackless mountain all unseen, 

With the wild flocks that never need a fold 
Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean— 

This is not solitude, 'tis but to hold 
Converse with nature's charms, to view her stores unrolled- 

" But in the city's hum, the din, the shock of men, 

To hear, to see, to feel, and to possess 
And roam along the world's tired denizen, 

With none to bless us, none whom we can bless. 
Minions of splendor shrinking from distress, 

None who, with kindred consciousness endued. 

None who if we were not would smile the less 
Of all who followed, flattered, sought and sued. 

This is to be alone ; this, this is solitude." 



I instinctively carry my reckoning, like the lower an- 
imals, but lost it altogether in Frankfort, and only began 
to find myself after I had gone over the "Cock and 
Devil " bridge, as it is called, because the architect con- 
signed the first living thing that should cross it, to the 
bottomless pit ; this proved to be a cock, a large figure 
of w^hich is placed on one of the pillars that extends 
several feet above the floor, also one of Charlemagne is 
near by. Like the Seine at Paris, and the Thames at 
London, so at Frankfort the Main runs between stone 
walls and over a macadamized bed. Once over this 
bridge I had to go down the river half a mile to the mu- 
seum, and the tops of steeples and other high objects all 
became so adjusted in my mind that I had no farther 
difficulty. 

The Stadel gallery contains several Madonnas (por- 
traits of the Virgin Mary) w^hich are classed among 
noted paintings, an altar-piece by Fra Angelico, and 
imitations of the Venus de Medici, Laocoon, Wrestlers, 
&c. The Brazen Shield of Achilles by Schwanthaler is 
a master-piece. A very fine painting of the Ten Vir- 
gins must have suggested the lines of Owen Meredith : 
19 



298 

*' One still as death, hollowed her hand about her lamp, 

For fear some motion of the midnight, or her treath 

Should fan out the last flicker. 

Rosy clear the light oosed through her fingers o'er her face. 

There was a ruined beauty hovering there. 

Over deep pain, and dashed with lurid glare— 

A waning gloom." 

The Kaisersaal, which contains frescoe portraits of all 
the German emperors from Konrad I, 911, to Francis II, 
1806, and the clock given by Napoleon I, claimed me 
an hour, after which I went to the Dom to see the Dead 
Christ, by Van Dyck, and an altar-piece in wood, repre- 
senting the crucifixion. I made a hurried visit to the 
beautiful Palmgarten, the monuments of Schiller and 
Gutenberg, and left for Heidelberg, passing Darmstadt, 
in which one sees from the cars the war monument of 
Ludwig Einster, 1870-1. 

Almost every foot of lar d is cultivated from Darm- 
stadt to Heidelberg ; it is rented out in small patches ; 
often one farmer has a lot fifty yards wide and three 
hundred long in wheat, beside that and about the same 
size, one is newly ploughed for corn or some other crop. 
The land for many miles is laid off this w^ay, and I was 
told that one man had possession of only a few acres. 
In the distance to our left several towers rise on the 
heights. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



HEIDELBERG, WORMS, DOWN THE RHINE 
TO COLOGNE. 



At nightfall the old University town of * 

HEIDELBERG 

is reached, made up of 16,000 Protestants, 9,000 Cath- 
olics and 2,000 Jews. After a good night's rest I took 
a guide and went to the Molkencur, a very high moun- 
tain overlooking the city and valley. My guide pointed 
out one of the largest cement factories in the world, the 
valley over the Neckar where the students light duels 
two or three times a week, a church half Catholic and 
half Protestant, each denomination worshipping in it 
every Sabbath, and the old castle, which has been de- 
stroyed by the French, by lightning, and is now in the 
hands of the ever successful destroyer. Time. Heavy 
fogs advised us not to ascend to Konig^s Stohl, as the view 
would not repay the toil. 

We will go down from this splendid observatory to look 
through the historic castle. It is reached by crossing a 
draw-bridge, over a very large moat, then through the 
gate in which hangs still the ponderous portcullis, and 
we are in the open court, where sixteen of the electors of 
Palatine, done in stone, look down from their niches in 
the lofty walls. In a museum of antiquities, seen for 
twenty pfennigs, there are many old swords and all the 



300 

machinery of ancient battle, keys almost as heavy as a 
pick, mugs, moneys, postillion boots truly monstrous 
model of the castle Molkencur, Konigs Stohl and plan of 
the city made of cork by a cook, securing for him a for- 
tune. Below is the great Tun, holding 50,000 gallons 
of wine ; it has eighteen hoops 8x10 inches, the two at 
the ends being 8x14 inches. It has been filled three 
times, the last time wasj'in^ 1769, by Charles Theodore 
elector of Bavaria. On the top is a platform where 
about six or eight persons can dance, which they did 
on the occasion of filling the Tun. 

The great university founded by Rupert Carolo, elec- 
tor of Palatine in 1487, contains his bust in the aula, or 
assembly hall. Around the front of the gallery are the 
names of many of their noted professors, while the ceil- 
ing has female figures representing Theology, Law, Med- 
icine and Philosophy. 

I w^ent from H. to Maintz, stopping two hours in 

WOKMS 

to see the monument of Martin Luther on the Luther 
Platz. He is standing with upturned face on which is 
depicted intelligence, conviction, courage, purpose. In 
his left hand he holds the Bible ; his right is closed and 
rests on the Bible ; below him are cut in the stone the 
words : 

Hier Stelie Icli. 
Icli Kann niclit Anders. 
Gott Hilf mir ! Amen ! 

which mean : Here I stand. I cannot retract. God help 
me ! Amen ! 

The artist was most happy in the execution of his 



301 

task ; one seems to be in the presence of the living hero 
of 1521. I saw nothing else while traveling that so 
electrified me as did this statue. 

There is no grander exhibition on earth than a man 
to whom God has committed a trust not recognized by 
his cotemporaries perhaps, but known to himself, and 
having the courage of his convictions amid all opposi- 
tion and persecution, intent on doing his part at all 
hazards. Ko doubt the world is a greater debtor to 
moral than to physical courage. It is in such birth- 
throes that correct thought and right sentiment burst the 
prison bars of dogmatism and custom and leap into life 
to emancipate nations and races. 

It is a very interesting ride of an hour to 

MAINTZ. 

Farm houses are thick ; gardens, pastures and stock are 
fine ; at every station country lasses unload large cans 
of milk for the city. A bar or rail is put up at every 
railroad crossing, and the sentry presents arms while the 
train is passing. Every private soldier salutes every 
officer he passes, though they may be on opposite sides of 
very wide streets, filled with carriages or wagons. This 
often requires several hundred salutations a day. 

Maintz is one of the best fortified cities in Europe, 
and contains many fine monuments. The Cathedral is 
said to be the richest in monuments of any in Europe. 
I only took time to hurry through it. The Tablet to 
Fastrada, wife of Charlemagne, and Schwan thaler's 
monument to Frauenlob, the pious minstrel of the Holy 
Virgin, were all I noticed. Cars run on both sides of the 
Rhine, but we preferred to take a steamer. The Rhine 



302 

has been written about so miicli that I hesitate to say 
anything ; the scenery to Bonn, birthplace of Beethoven 
and seat of a University, is wild and attractive ; the 
perpendicular hills are crowned with old towers, the 
sloping ones ornamented with terraces, growing fruits 
and grapes. The Ehine and its fels and towns have 
many a legend of ancient hero and heroine, as Siegfried 
and Brunhilde, of Einbod and the Maiden offered to the 
monster of Drachelf els and Lurlei, Bishop Hatto and the 
Mouse Tower, Hans Winkelsee, and scores of others. In 
all their romances and songs the river of Germany has 
mingled its "chorus sweet and clear." 

Across the Ehine Julius Ca?sar built his bridge, and 
along its banks history has been making ever since. 

We reached 

COLOGNE 

about sundown. I stopped within one square of the 
Cathedral, thought by some to be the grandest Gothic 
structure in the world, being 500 feet high ; it has one 
door or portal (on the south) that cost $500,000 ; it has 
a chapel called the Chapel of the Three Kings, said to 
contain the bones of the ]VIagi I 

I attended the Church of England services on Sun- 
day, which seemed designed for, as they were only attend- 
ed by visitors. The Sabbath is used as a holiday, after 
the early morning service, say nine to ten o'clock, in 
Cologne as in Vienna. I went to the Cathedral before 
breakfast on Sunday to find it almost filled at that early 
hour. They had the finest music I ever heard, which 
was kept up nearly all day ; when one division of the 
choir would sing until exhausted, another would be 
called on. 



303 

I went to St. Andrew's (Catholic) Church before 
breakfast Monday mornmg. About 200 children were 
at prayers, with about a dozen ladies, all led by a little 
girl not over ten years old. She would utter several in- 
vocations, pause and be followed by the congregation 
repeating the last sentence or uttering a responsive 
prayer. They had stepped into this church on thdir 
way to school, as they do every morning, and as their 
minds are developed their hearts and habits are fixed 
about the altars of the church. 

The church of St. Peter has an altar-piece, Rubens' 
"Crucifixion of St. Peter," which is thought to be very 
superior ; the head is downwards. Near by, at No. 10 
Sternengasse, is shown the house in which Peter Paul 
Rubens was born, 1577, and in which Maria de Medici 
died in 1642, having been driven by the heartless Rich- 
eheu, for whom she had obtained the cardinalate from 
her Parisian home. 

The Rathhaus, about six hundred years old, is a splen- 
did city hall, dedicated to the Caesars. The bronze 
equestrian statue of William III, places him high above 
the men who graced and supported his regime, and oth- 
ers of the cult of Blucher and Von Humboldt. 

At 12 M., on the day after reaching Cologne we, took 
the cars for 

BRUSSELS, 

arriving at 9 o'clock the same evening, passing on the 
way Aix-la-Chrqjelle, the birth-place and favorite resi- 
dence of Charlemagne, and where for several hundred 
years after his death the German emperors were 
crowned. 

At this place both Charlemagne and his wife Fastrada 



304 

died. He was buried in the octagonal nave built by 

himself in a marble chair. About a mile or two from 

the railway one can see the Frankenbiirg, a hunting-seat 

of the great Charles. It is said the water surrounding 

the Castle was a lake, into which his wife's ring was 

thrown. 

" Thou knowest ttie story of her ring, 
How, when the court went back to Aix, 
Fastrada died : and how the King 
Sat watching by her night and day. 
Till into one of the blue lakes. 
Which water that delicious land 
They cast the ring drawn from her hand ; 
And the great monarch sat serene 
And sad beside the fated shore. 
Nor left the land forevermore." 

— Golden Legend. 

We pass Liege, a factor}^ town, and the first in Bel- 
gium. A train with 200 passengers dashed in from >Spa, 
the oldest watering place in Europe, of any note. As it 
only costs from one to three cents per mile to travel in 
Belgium, and as it is the most populous country in the 
world for its size, there is much travel. Chaude Fon- 
taine, another watering place, was on the line of our 
road and looks somewhat like Piedmont Springs, in 
Burke County, N. C. A large new hotel was in course 
of erection. The entire face of the country in Belgium 
is as pretty as a picture. The morning after reaching 
Brussels I went out to see the field of 

WATERLOO, 

twelve miles from the city. A large mound has been 
built in the center of the field, about 800 feet west of 
where Wellington's headquarters were during the fatal 
day, and very near the position of the impregnable 
square, behind which was the road into which fell 

"Rider and horse, friend and foe, in one red burial blent." 



305 

The top of the mound is reached by ascending 200 
steps. It is surmounted by a granite base of huge pro- 
portions, on which stands a cast lion looking towards 
France with one fore-foot resting on a globe. This sig- 
nifies so much to the Frenchman that my guide said 
-only few of them visit Waterloo at all. I was very for- 
tunate in having a guide well posted on the history of 
the movements made by all the leaders in that crisis of 
the world's history. 

Napoleon had approached to within a few hundred 
yards of Wellington's position, when Blucher arrived. 
Wellington had all the advantage in position from one 
side of the field to the other. But such battles are de- 
termined by the Friend of the nations and not by the 
" heaviest artillery." 

Some one has said that Napoleon never wrote an im- 
portant document without using the word " glory," as if 
that were his talisman, and Wellmgton likewise always 
used the word " duty." And on this field of carnage 
the world has been taught the superiority and triumph 
.of duty over glory. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 



THREE WEEKS IN LONDON. 



Leaving Brussels, one hour sufficed to reach Antwerp^ 
a well fortified town on the Scheldt, on the borders of 
Holland. Xext morning at six we were seated in an 
English railway carriage on British soil and enjoyed a 
peace of mind that was new. I felt like talking much^ 
like one after a long fast enjoys a sumptuous table 
d'hote, and indulged freely with a Londoner and an 
English-speaking gentleman from Vienna. The country 
along our route was cleared of timber, as in most Euro- 
pean States, but the farm-houses and farms were more 
like those I had been used to at home. Soldiers ubiqui- 
tous on the Continent were missed here. 

At nine o'clock I stood on one of the streets of the 
busiest metropolis of the world, inquiring for a 'bus that 
would take me to Smith's Temperance Hotel, Southamp- 
ton Kow. I was directed to go to the Bank, near by. 
There are scores of banks in London, but only one is 
known as "the Bank." From that point omnibusses go 
in all directions and every one or two minutes, for one 
penny a mile. Every one goes loaded, and the number 
of pedestrians does not appear to be diminished. In fact 
so dense is the travel on the main thoroughfares that it 
is often difficult to leave a store for want of a place 
in the throng, but once in one is moved along almost in- 
voluntarily. This is true any day on Cheapside, the 



307 

Strand, Oxford street or Holborn. On th^e streets po- 
lice are stationed at every crossing in the center of the 
street to direct vehicles to the left side, order them to 
stop and move along, and give every one a fair opportu- 
nity to change his location, a privilege his individual 
self-assertion is often inadequate to obtain. 

"The thing that most astonished me about London, and that 
I had been least prepared to see there, was the amazing activity 
in the streets. A New Yorker born and bred, who has seen the 
principal American cities, fancies that there can be nothing in 
the world like Fulton street and Broadway. 

"London is full of Fulton streets and Broadways, and in them 
and in all the other streets the cabs and hansoms fly about in 
such a hot and apparently reckless way that I always felt while 
I was there that the only reason I did not read of a hundred 
'run over' accidents every morning in the papers, was that 
it would be doing violence to the organic principles of the Lon- 
don press to print the news. I confess I was more than half 
afraid to cross the crowded streets, and with a fear which is en- 
gendered in New York in few places and on few occasions. I 
was assured by the citizens that they are all so accustomed to 
project their coat tails at right angles to their bodies and to in- 
voke divine aid between the flying hoofs of horses, whenever 
they need to cross a street, and that they are as adept at it as 
an American lightning rod man is at dodging missiles. Yet I 
observe that Dickens, in his Dictionary of London, thinks it 
worth while to suggest that the only way to go from curb to 
curb is to make up your mind what course y^u will take and 
then stick to it, because then the London cabbies will divine 
your intentions. To change your mind while en route is to 
confuse the cabmen, and make your return to America be in the 
form ol freight. Then, again, I found that in the Western end 
of the Strand — that is down by Temple Bar and the Law Courts 
— 200 more or less mangled bodies are sent to the Charing Cross 
Hospital every year." 

There are several elevated railways, and London un- 
derground is said to be honey-combed with railroads. 
There is one place where 1200 trains pass daily, or one 



308 

nearly every minute. These are necessary to accommo- 
date the vast numbers of a city that is a microcosm. 

"It contains more Roman Catholics than Rome itself; more 
Jews than Palestine ; more Irish than Dublin ; more Scotchmen 
than Edinbur^: ; more Welchmen than Cardiff; has a birth in 
every five minutes and a death in every eight minutes ; has 
seven accidents in it every day in its 7,000 miles of streets ; has 
124 persons every day, and 45,000 annually, added to its popula- 
tion; has 117,000 habitual criminals on its police register, and 
has 88.000 drunkards annually brought before the magistrates*" 

There are 5,500,000 inhabitants occupying nearly 
790 square miles. Allowing a third, for streets, parks, 
gardens and the Thames, there would be 17 persons to 
the acre. If four houses were built on every acre, there 
would be a family of four to every house, aud enough 
over to make four cities as large as Raleigh. As many 
of the wealthy have large yards and gardens and small 
families, one -can conjecture how densely must be popu- 
lated the poorer districts ; often fifty or more are crowd- 
ed into one tenement dwelling. This is a fruitful source 
of both crime and disease, and the wiser heads are trying 
to devise means for the amelioration of these evils. 
"What shall we do with our cities?" has long been a 
question among European philanthropists and econo- 
mists. Investigation reveals that there are no people in 
London whose ancestry can be traced back four succes- 
sive generations in the city. One way of checking the 
evil is to open up large public parks and gardens, but 
the desire to be near their work and to diminish rent on 
the part of the poor, and the increased income from 
rents, influences the wealthy to crowd as many as possi- 
ble into every house that is for rent, and thus misfortune 
and Mammon sway to the ignoring of the good laws or- 



309 

dained of God for man's well beiug. Those who most 
need to obey the laws of health are ignorant of them, 
and have not the power if they had the wisdom tO observe 
them. Those Avho know of them and have the power to 
see them observed more generally, have not the disposi- 
tion to help any but themselves. 

They have in London what is known as the "sweating 
system," by w^hich is meant that a person who has credit 
gets work from tailors or others, and gets those persons 
to do this work at a very small price, who have no credit 
and who, to make their wages cover their necessary ex- 
penses of living, crowd together in tenement houses 
until the heat radiated from their bodies, and the air, 
robbed of oxygen by frequent inhalation, make a condi- 
tion worthy of the appellation. It presents one of the 
evils to be combatted by philanthropists in the over- 
crowded city. 

" The report of the Committee of the House of Lords on 
Sweating has just been presented. It is affirmed that the chief 
factors in the Sweating System are not middle-men or foreign 
labor or the extensive use of machinery. The system is shown 
on the contrary to be the issue of inefficiency in the class of 
workers, early marriages, and the tendency of the residuum in 
large towns to form a helpless community and to accept a low 
standard of life. But, in the main, the system is ascribed to the 
excessive supply of unskilled labor, and the work of married 
women, who are willing to employ the intervals of domestic- 
duty at a low rate of wages which to single women would mean 
starvation. The report places little reliance on legislation, 
though it suggests that all home-workers should be registered 
and open to authorized inspection, but it looks hopefully to- 
ward an increased sense of responsibility in the employer and 
improved habits on the side of the employed. Surely John 
Wesley's panacea of all evils, social, industrial, political is still 
the true and only one — the spreading of scriptual holiness 
throughout the land." 



810 

There are many institutions built by charity, for poor 
children. I saw representatives from sixty-six institu- 
tions for the governing and training of destitute and 
criminal children. It was in St. James' Hall. They 
numbered 600, and were trained to sing, march, and 
perform in pantomime with almost perfect precision. I 
also attended a meeting of the " London Society for Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to children " held at the Mansion 
House, with the announcement that " The Right Hon. the 
Lord Mayor will Presided This announcement always 
secures a full attendance. The meeting was addressed 
by H. E. Cardinal Manning, (whose appearance and 
bearing are very similar to those of Dr. Closs, during 
life), Hon. A. F. Mundilla, M. P., A. K. Rollit, M. P., 
and others. 

The sights of London are too numerous to be cata- 
logued, a list of the most interesting is kept at all the 
hotels for gratuitous distribution; to write them up 
would be to write almost a history of England. The 
May Meetings, including over 130 different Societies for 
the good of Christian, Jewish and heathen men, women 
and children were holding their annual meetings, and 
were of great interest because I wished to learn how the 
English churches met and carried their responsibilities. 

As Bishop Marvin said, the English have their own 
way of doing things. At all of the meetings w^hich I at- 
tended, about twenty, everything was cut and dried be- 
forehand. The questions to be discussed were printed. 
The mover of every motion, and the one appointed to 
second it, and the words of the motion were all on a 
printed circular. The speech of the putter of the mo- 
tion was sometimes read. No place is allowed for ex- 
temporaneous speechifying. Generally effort was made 



311 

to secure the endorsement of my Lord, so and so, by 
putting him in the chair or announcing that he would 
be present. 

These Lords and bishops have a monopoly and are 
conservative enough to keep as far as possible the first 
places at a distance from all whose qualification to fill 
them comes by any other way than by inheritance or 
court favor. 

They put on the greatest imaginable stiffness and be- 
have as if they thought the matter at hand were worthy 
to monopolize the world of thought for a decade or two. 
The audience appear to accept the interpretation put 
upon it and cheer to the echo such periods as are com- 
monly used all over our country, and cry " Hear, hear," 
to ordinary truisms. Their preparation always prevents 
confusion and I judge they moved so slowly only be- 
cause their common people were so far behind. In the 
matter of collections, however, they are ahead of us. I 
never attended any service in church or public hall that 
a collection was not taken, nearly every one contribut- 
ing. 

What I have said does not imply that Great Britian 
has not led the world in literature, poetry and govern- 
ment, as well as in religion. She has. If her form of 
government is not equal to ours, in our judgment it is 
in their opinion superior, and may be superior when we 
consider the character of the subject. Our forefathers 
brought away the best conceptions of goverment then ex- 
isting and the best class of citizens the world could thne 
furnish with which to maintain such a government 
when it should be formed. 

England has done more than we in the matters men- 
tioned above, but she has been many centuries at it. I 



312 

told a patriotic Briton that we expected to have as raan5r 
Poets and Literati after awhile as England. He said we 
did not have one whose name was as great, and who 
had lived before the world so long as Shakespeare. I 
told him just to .wait until we lived to be as old a peo- 
ple as the British and he would see what he would see ! 

At these meetings it was plain to be seen that a war 
was going on between the established church and the 
dissenters. At several meetings of the church of Eng- 
land in Exeter Hall, whenever evangelistical efforts 
er e reported such as they were driven to adopt by dis- 
senters there would be cheers loud and long. Frequent 
disparaging references were made to dissenters, while the 
dissenters were loud in their complaints against an op- 
pressive system that had to be supported by all the 
people, many of whom did not believe in its polity, nor 
all of its doctrines. In Joseph Parker's church an or- 
der of court that had been issued for selling some poor 
man's property for taxes due the established church was 
exhibited and much enthusiasm aroused against such a 
condition of things. Rev. Mr. Cleal said in City Temple 
at this same meeting that he had known the names of 
pupils taken in the day schools to compel them to at- 
tend the Sunday Schools of the English church. He 
said " Our opponents are hard to oppose because they 
drift in the spirit of the age." 

The dissenters are hopeful of a change and are faith- 
fully bearing the testimony of Jesus. 

There are many Churchmen who are uneasy lest the 
Pope shall make great inroads into England, he has 
already said: "England is doing well." The "Tract 
Movement," converted thousands to Romanism. The 
Queen's private Sacretary is a Catholic, and wise people 



313 

"know what that means. The alarm has been great 
enough to call forth much comment in the Churchman, 
specially on the occasion of Her Majesty's visit to a con- 
vent while in Spain, and a poem which had a wide cir- 
culation, a stanza or two of which I copy : 

To-day the curse is in his keart. 

The while with /z>j he blesses ; 
Infidel— Godless England sees 

No harm in his caresses ; 
The maudlin men of " Modern Thought " 

Can grip no Standard truth ; 
And Jesuits in the English Church 

Have Romanised our youth : 
The very throne has howed itself 

At Leo's trampling feet ; 

Can God do otherwise than let 

Such Sin with sorrow meet ? 

Beckon him on ! ! This blessin^-Po^e, 

.He holds Victoria inle, 
And fain would give her " Moonlight " fare. 

As in the Sister Isle ; 
" No faith with heretics," is still 

The Papal undertone ; 
And Englishmen are fools, who think 

That Rome has kinder grown ; 
" Kill, kill," She says ; let Manning's words 

Our sad attention win. 

Or li/e or liberty gOCS OUt 

When Leo's power comes in. 

Victoria has a hard time, I presume ; while everything- 
nearly seemed to indicate the greatest love and devo- 
tion. Each party is very jealous, and objects to any 
patronage being given to the others. Her policy seems 
to be to do at Rome as the Romans do. In Scotland she 
attends the Presbyterian church, in Spain the Catholic, 
at home the Ej^iscopal. 

One can see why she should defer to so great an extent 

to the Catholic church, when one remembers that Ireland 

is so largely Catholic and that 50,000 of her troops are 
20 "^ 



314 

Catholic, besides tliose who live on English soil, and the 
further fact that her Majesty's interest in the East is 
protected by the Catholic in the jealousy he bears towards 
the Greek church of Russia and the Slavonic States. 
All eastern people are ruled through their religion, and 
to be stable in power the monarch must properly esti- 
mate all the factors involved in the problem of ruling. 
The Queen can afford to smile upon the church of Eome 
for the returns. The leaders of Society forgive her if 
their principles oppose, for their standing depends upon 
her patronage as well. And if the Jesuit is far more 
diligent and successful in improving every occasion than 
the Protestant, nobody deserves so much blame as this 
same fault-finding Protestant. The propagation of any 
religion depends upon the operation of natural laws (on 
the human side) which are as much the property of one 
individual or sect as of another. 

• Protestantism needs to learn the value of printer's 
ink, as the Politician and Jesuit know it, as well as the 
worth of devotion to the task in hand. 

Mr. Spurgeon has learned this lesson and not only has 
written a great many books, but has organized a tho- 
rough system of Colportage, the annual meeting of which 
it was my privilege to attend in his Tabernacle ; it is 
working well. Mr. Wesley learned it, and wrote and 
sold books — cheap books — with what result is known too 
well to be repeated here. 



CHAPTER XXXVIL 



SIGHTS IN LONDON. 



At several meetings of the Wesleyau Methodists I 
learned that they are trying to carry their share of 
responsibility in supplying the people with the gospel. 
I was present at the opening of Cleveland hall, which is 
a Methodist church. The same meeting was protracted 
and many souls converted. 

The West End Mission is supplied by Kevs. Hugh 
Price Hughes, who is second only to Spurgeon as a pop- 
ular leader among dissenters, and Mark Guy Pearce, his 
colleague, both of whom I heard preach. 

I attended several services in City Road Chapel, in the 
church of John Wesley. It now has two preachers, one 
of whom, the Rev. Mr. Murrill, kindly showed me 
through Mr. Wesley's house. His study was a small 
room not over 7x8 feet. In it is the quaint old teapot 
from which he gave his preachers a cup of tea on every 
Sunday morning ; part of the spout is broken off and on 
each side is burned in blue letters a stanza used as a 
blessing before and after meals. One reads as follows: 

"Be present at our table, Lord- 
Be here, he everywhere adored, 
And in thy mercy grant that we 
In paradise may sup with thee." 

The room in which Mr. Wesley died is a small room. 




INTERIOR OF CITY ROAD CHAPEL. 



318 

In it are his writing desk and libraiy, his clock and his 
chair. Mr. Murrill said that Cyrus Field had offered 
$2,500 for the writing desk and $500 for the teapot ; 
but no sum could purchase them. I was present at a 
tea-party in the parlor of the church and was invited to 
address the meeting. I also made a talk to their Sunday 
School, and preached in the evening in the Mission Chap- 
el. In the rear of the church is Wesley's tomb, which is 
very unpretentious, consisting of a base about four by 
eight feet and about four feet high ; on this rests a shaft 
six or seven feet high, with the single word Wesley on 
one side. Since my visit a tomb like the accompanying 
cut has been built. Around him lie Clark, Watson, 
Benson, and many others noted in Methodist history. 
Tablets to the memory of the Wesley s, Fletcher, Dr.. A. 
Clarke, Joseph Benson, Coakeand others, are in the walls 
of the church behind the altar and on either side. 

Across the street is Bunhill Fields Cemetery, once the 
chief burial place for non-conformists, but now disused. 
It contains the tomb of Watts, DeFoe, Bunyan, whose 
tomb has the figure of "Pilgrim," with a load upon his 
back. A large upright marble slab, near the centre of 
the grounds, contains the following : 

HERE LIES THE BODY OF 

MRS. SUSAN^^A WESLEY, 

WIDOW OF REV. S. WESLEY, M. A.. 

YOUN"GEST DAUGHTER OF REV. S. ANXESLEY, D. D.y 

MOTHER OF XII^'ETEEJf CHILDREN, 

OF WHOM THE MOST EMIXE^^T WERE JOHIs" AND 

CHARLES, THE FORMER FOUNDER OF THE SOCIETIES 

CALLED METHODISTS. 



In sure and steadfast hope to rise 
And claim her mansion in the skies ; 
A Christian here her flesh hiid down, 
The Cross exchanging for a crown. 




Wesley's tomb. 



320 

Of the noted preachers in London I heard Spurgeon, 
Canon Farrar, Hugh Price Hughes, Mark Guy Pearce, 
Newman Hall, Joseph Parker, and the Bishop of Lon- 
don. At the May Meetings I heard some dozens of 
preachers from the country, and Missionaries from the 
foreign fields. Besides the Colportage meeting in Spur- 
geon's Tabernacle, I was present on two Sundays when 
he preached ; both sermons were superior as to matter 
and delivery. His church has two elliptical galleries, 
each holding about 1,000, while the body of the house 
holds 4,000. It was full on both occasions. His voice 
was pitched on the proper key to fill the auditorium, and 
sustained throughout. He preaches an hour, and uses 
great variety of style both in sermonizing and in his de- 
livery. He comments on the lesson before the sermon 
and pronounces the benediction without song or prayer, 
after the sermon. He aims at immediate results, and 
preaches with great earnestness and unction. 

As nothing else in the Avorld is so great as a really 
great man, I called to see him one afternoon for a few 
minutes. I said, Mr. Spurgeon, I am an American stop- 
ping for a short time in London, and thought I would 
like to form your acquaintance. He smiled, extended 
Ms hand and remarked: "Well, you have seen a great 
somebody, indeed." After a short pleasant conversation 
I arose to leave, when he said : ''May the Lord bless you 
and give you a safe voyage home." 

I attended a prayer meeting in a room of the Taber- 
nacle, which is held every Sabbath from 10:30 to 11 a. 
M., when prayer is offered for the Holy Ghost's presence 
and power to rest oii Mr. Spurgeon, the members of the 
church, visitors and the unconverted who may attend. 



321 

This was to my mind an explanation, largely, of how, 
for thirty years this great man has been so efficient in 
his Master's vineyard. 

Mark Guy Pearce is a Perfectionist, and, while sensa- 
tional, believes in the presence of the Holy Spirit and 
his willingness to do now all we need to have done if we 
are but willing and anxious. He preaches with much 
feeling. His colleague, H. Price Hughes, is very sensa- 
tional. He attracts and controls large audiences. He is 
a great leader. 

On the last Sunday I spent in London, in the after- 
noon I heard Canon Farrar preach in Westminster Ab- 
bey, and scores of people were turned away for want of 
even standing room. He read his sermon, and it was a 
piece of splendid composition for which he is so renown- 
ed. He has a mellifluous voice, and his delivery was 
splendid considering the reading. 

Joseph Parker's City Temple, Holborn, is a most ele- 
gant church, with lecture room, study and parlors. He 
is a topical preacher ; his style is elevated and stately ; 
he is a srand man to look at. The discourse to which I 
listened was not above an average, but was enlivened 
occasionally by some startling statement or comment 
apropos of the discussion. Speaking of Esau he said: 
^'Has it come to that I Life reduced to repentance — re- 
pentance vain ! Disembowelled life ! An epitaph of two 
words. Born — Died I Alas what doth temptation I" He 
uttered no uncertain sound on the subject of future pun- 
ishment : "God says thou shalt surely die. Satan says 
thou shalt not surely die. Reject, young man, any theory 
that promises any probation beyond the grave." 

There are many noted churches in London — City Road 




INTERIOR OF WESTMINSTER ABIJEV — CHOIR. 



323 

Chapel, already noticed ; AVestminster Abbey, wbicli con- 
tains the dust of kings, queens and warriors, painters,, 
poets and sculptors, statesmen, philosophers and theolo- 
gians, all honored with appropriate tombs, tablets and 
epitaphs. One is shown the Jerusalem chamber, where 
King James' and the revised versions were translated. 
A whole day is necessary to half way see over the pon- 
derous pile ; while one might read, reflect and study there 
for a lifetime without exhausting the subjects of interest. 

St. Paul's is the third largest ehurch in the world, and 
is also a receptacle for such heroes as Wellington, Nel- 
son, Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who built it, 
Eeynolds, Samuel Johnson and others, making it a kind 
of "N"ational Temple of Fame." 

The Bow Church on Cheapside is one of Wren's best 
works. There is a dragon on the top of the steeple 9 
feet long. Persons born within hearing of the Bow- 
bells are Cockneys, i. e. true Londoners, (B.) 

Newgate, Ludgate, Billingsgate were named after the 
old gates that led through the wall when this was a Eo- 
man town, and mark the old city limits, now miles from 
the suburbs. 

The Tower, which covers l.S acres, has four objects 
which every visitor should not fail to see, viz : 

1. The Crown Jewels in the Wakefield Tower. Among 
many other coronets is that of Queen Victoria, contain- 
ing 2783 diamonds. They are confined like lions in a 
circular cage of iron about ten feet in diameter. Crowds 
of people gather here daily to behold the dazzling gems, 
regalia, scepters, &c., valued at £3,000,000 or about 
$15,000,000. 

2. The White Tower, the old original Norman keep or 
prison, with walls 15 feet thick, containing a very large 



325 

collection of old armor, such as was used during several 
hundred years. 

3. Leaving the White Tower, the space in front is 
called Tower CIreen. In this are buried the victims of 
jealousy and revenge. In the middle of it one sees a small 
square paved with granite to indicate where the scaffold 
stood for the execution of Queens Anne Boleyn and 
Katharine, Margaret, Lady Jane (Gray) and many other 
royal unfortunates. 

4. The Beauchamp Tower on the west, whose walls 
are full of inscriptions, cut in the stone by the unfor- 
tunate wretches incarcerated there, repays a visit. 

The Bridges, the Equestrian Statues, the Monuments 
to statesmen, warriors and discoverers, the British Mu- 
seum, National Gallery, South Kensington Museum, 
Madame Tussaud's Waxworks, with the Zoological Gar- 
dens, Parks, Palaces, Houses of Parliament, Place of 
Justice, with strangely clad justices and barristers,. 
Banks, Halls, and so on, would require many weeks to 
see and understand. 

The j)ublic ground called a Square in America is called 
Circus in London, Piazza in Italy, Place in France, and 
Platz in Germany. 

The dogs in Turkey are curs or Shepherd dogs, or a 
mixture, in Vienna the Mastiff predominates, and is 
worked to the market wagon, in London the Pug seems 
to be in the ascendency and is always led about by a 
string. 

The large Norman draught-horses, as in France, Ger- 
many, Austria and Belgium, are used in England also. 

The streets are kept clean by regiments of boys, car- 
rying wooden scoops and stiff brushes, moving rapidly 



326 

from point to point as their task reqnires, half bent, the 
scoop sliding. When full it is emptied into an iron box 
by the sidewalk, several feet high. These boxes are duly 
yisited by wagons. 

Often one sees a boy or man Avith colored crayons 
making beautiful pictures on the smooth stones of the 
sidewalk. You cannot but pause to admire them, stretch- 
ing for many yards, and often the product of real geni- 
us. You will soon see in large letters : ".Will you xot 

CONTRIBUTE TO AID A POOR AMBITIOUS YOUTH ?" Or 

some other phrase, asking alms. 

On almost every square small stands face the street 
where milk is on sale. At these one can get a quart of 
milk for 5 cents, and plenty of bread for a hearty meal 
for two cents. There are commissioners appointed to 
buy milk daily from these stands, testing its quality to 
protect the purchaser from imposition. 

Their police regulations in all their details are equal 
to the best to be found in the world, probably. 

The movements of the royal family are chronicled in 
England about as famous persons are in America. It 
was announced one morning that the Queen would take 
the cars, from Paddington Station, for Windsor, so I, 
with multitudes of others, went out of my way to see 
her. Great crowds gathered on all the street-corners, re- 
quiring many police to preserve order. Her face was 
flashed, she seemed excited, but I was unable to deter- 
mine whether it was from modesty, irritation at the poor 
order kept by the guards, or a fear of bombs, or some- 
thing altogether different. The pageant was not over- 
powering, yet somewhat greater than a Presidential 
turnout. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 



SCOTLAND— ABBOTSFORD, EDINBURGH, GLAS- 
- GOW. 



After a sojourn of three weeks in London, every wak- 
ing hour of which was turned to the best account, I 
bought a ticket to Glasgow by way of Melrose (called 
the Waverly Eoute) and Edinburgh, passing on the way 
Peterboro the Proud, York the Ancient, Durham with 
its castle and cathedral encircled by the river Wear, and 
ISTewcastle father on, where I spent about four hours, 
which enabled me to see the old castle, built by the son 
of William the Conqueror, and Stephenson's great bridge 
over the Tyne and his monument, reaching 

MELKOSE 

about 6 o'clock, P. M. I met in the Abbey a gentleman 
from West Virginia. We remained until about dark and 
listened to the custodian, who never tired showing the 
resting places of those buried within its walls and tell- 
ing of their heroic deeds, such as Douglas, King Robert 
Bruce, whose heart is buried there, Michael Scott, the 
famous Wizard, Murdoch, the first Master of Melrose 
Lodge A. F. and A. M., which, with Kilwinning is said 
to be the oldest in Scotland, and of many others : 

" Within the pile no common dead 
Lay blended with their kindred mould : 
Theirs was the hearts that prayed or bled, 
In cloister dim or death-plain red, 
The pious and the bold." 

" The pillared arches over their head," 



328 

the finest in finish o^ any I saw anywhere, engaged our 
attention quite awhile. "There is one cloister, along the 
whole length of which runs a cornice of flowers and 
plants, entirely unrivalled, to my mind, by anything 
elsewhere extant, I do not say in Gothic architecture 
merely, but in any architecture whatever." Just east of 
the Tower Base is a stone in front of a large window in 
the perpendicular style and just by the tomb of Michael 
Scott the " Wizard " of the " Lay," on which Sir Walter 
used to sit for hours meditating and composing, often 
till late at night, for, 

" If tliou -wouldst view fair Melrose ariglit 
Go visit it by the pale moon-light. 
When buttress and buttress alternately 
Seem framed of ebon and ivory ; • 

■Wlien silver edges the imagery, 
And the scrolls that teach thee to live and die : 
When distant Tweed is heard to rave, 
Then go— but go alone the while- 
Then view St. David's ruined pile ; 
And home returning, soothly swear, 
Was never scene so sad and fair !" 

— Lady of the Lake. 

Xext morning Ave went up to Abbottsford, called the 
* Eomance," Sir Walter's home, built on the grounds 
where was the scene of the last feudal conflict of the 
Borders; near by is Dry burgh Abbey, the Eildon Hills, 
" for weirdly deeds renowned," Ettrick Forest and the 
" dowie dens o' yarrow," and only half a mile to 

" Where gallant Cessford's life-blood dear 
Reeked on dark Elliot's border spear." 

This was the last battle of Melrose, the last great clan 
battle of the Borders, fought 1526, for the body of 
James V. 

Sir Walter greatly enlarged this estate and planted on 



329 

it 2,000 sweet briers, 3,000 each of laburnums, scotch 
elms and horse chestnuts, loads of hollies, poplars, 
filberts and 100,000 birches. Mr. Rokeley called it a 
" Caledonian Eden." It is situated about three miles 
from Melrose, on the banks of the Tweed. It is a fairy 
glen, favorable for study, with the mumuring Tw^eed, 
impending hills, flowers, ferns and forestry to inspire his 
genius. As Rae-Brown says : 

" Scott, witli a poet-painter's skUl, 
Immortalized lake, tree and nill, 
Till Scotia seemed the brightest gem 
That shone on nature's diadem." 

One is shown his armory, a fine selection, containing 
the pair of pistols carried by Napoleon Bonaparte at 
Waterloo, with many other valuable relics ; his library 
of 20,000 volumes and many fine paintings ; his study^ 
with his desk, book-holder and the room in which he- 
died, containing a bronze cast taken while he lay in state.. 
Other- things than arboriculture also occupied the acquis 
sitive Laird of Abbotsf ord. Writing to his sister-in-law 
(Mrs. Thomas Scott) he says : "In despite of these hard: 
times, which affect my patrons, the booksellers, verj 
much, I am buying old books and old armour as usual^ 
and adding to what your old friend Burns calls 

•' A fouth of auld nick-nackets, 
Rusty airn caps and jingling jackets, 
Wad hand the Lothians three in tackets 

A townmont guide ; 
And parritch pats and auld saut toackets: 

Afore the flude." 

We spent one day — the Queen's birthday — in the learn- 
ed city of Edinburgh. Queen Street is thought by 
many to be the finest street in the worlds but the crowd 




SIR WALTER SCOTT S MONUMENT. 



331 

was so great one had to struggle to get^aloiig instead of 
leisurely admiring objects of beauty aroundjiim. 

We ascend Gallon Hill, which gives an extended view, 
embracing the city of Leith, Arthur's seatQand the har- 
bor on the Firth of Forth. An iron globe passes up and 
falls on a percussion cap discharged by electricity from 
the chronometer at Greenwich; this tires a cannon 
piecisely at 12 o'clock, M., every day. Here also 
are the incomplete National, N"elson and Stewart 
monuments. Below the hill on the way to Holyrood is 
the monument to Robert Burns, at the unveiling of 
which his mother said : " He asked for bread, but they 
gie him a stein," meaning the stone material^of which it 
was composed. 

The Gastle which covers 7 acres, and has endured 
many sieges, where James I. of England or VI. of Scot- 
laud was born, containing the ancient regalia of Scotland 
consisting of a crown, sceptre, sword of State, and the 
Lord Treasurer's rod of oflBce, the room of Mary, Queen 
of Scots, Queen Margaret's Ghapel, the smallest church in 
the world, perhaps, Mons. Meg, a historic cannon of 1497, 
with the Highlanders crowned with helmets plumed 
with Ostrich feathers worth $25, and tartan frocks that 
reach only to the knee, the rest of the leg and foot being 
bare, and the Scott monument below costing $2,04)0,000, 
with its churches and schools, all would tempt one to 
linger in this classic town, but only one more day remains 
for Glasgow and the country between ere the S. S. State 
of Nebraska will sail for New York and bear me to my 
native land. 

Glasgow claims to be the third city of Great Britain, 
and is indebted for her prosperity to her facility for 
uniting commerce and manufactures. Four things con- 



332 

Sumed my time for one day ; the Cathedral, which has 
one of the finest crypts in existence, with 33 columns 
and 20 pilasters supporting the ceiling, and stained glass 
windows from Munich ; the Necropolis, just over the 
" Bridge of Sighs," that holds, with many others, the 
ashes of John Knox. On a single Doric column 
rising above his remains we read that the regent said at 
his funeral : " Here lieth he who never feared the face 
of man." Many events connected with the reformation 
in Scotland are inscribed on the monument and a fine 
statute of Knox surmounts the shaft. We spent a few 
hours in the Hunterian Museum of the University, which 
has a fine natural history collection ; and the shipyards 
on the Clyde, where are made the great ocean-going 
steamers ; fully one hundred, of various sizes, were in 
course of construction, made throughout of iron. They 
are built on an inclined plane, on a line cutting the shore 
diagonally, and are launched stern foremost. 

We went through a large factory which employs sev- 
eral hundred blind people, who were Aveaving, making 
brooms, brushes, sieves and many other useful articles, 
all executed with surprising precision and dispatch. 

Many emigrants sail from Glasgow to America. About 
200 were on the State of Nebraska. Fully 2,500 people 
w^ere oif the wharf to see her sail and bid friends adieu ; 
some wept, some laughed, while others cheered. 

There is a solemnity about the sailing of a steam-ship 
laden with passengers bound for some foreign land. 
AVhat fate awaits them, who can tell ? Many have gone 
with as gleeful spirits as they, never to be heard of 
again. 

Slowly we moved down the Clyde by the great ship- 



333 

yards. By and by we passed Greenock, birthplace of 
James Watt, and Avliere Burns' Highland Mary is buried; 
on the opposite side, almost in sight, is the Whistler's 
Glen, where Donacha Dhu and the poor boy of Effie 
Deans rendezvoused as Scott relates in " Heart of Midlo- 
thian." Soon we run into Gourock bay " where the yacht 
clubs fit out their crack cutters, yawls and schooners for 
the summer races." It is said to be a lucky bay to sail 
from, especially if ballast be taken from Granny Kem- 
poch, a rock on the cliff at Kempoch Point. Across 
from Gourock bay Loch Long branches off, on au arm of 
which (Loch Goil) Lord Ullin vainly called to his elo- 
ping child and her Highland chief 

" ' Come back ! come back !" lie cried in grief, 
' Across tliis stormy water ; 
And I'll forgive your Higniand cnief , 
My daughter, oh, my daughter !" 

'Twas vain ; the loud waves lash'd the shore, 

Return, or aid preventing ; 

The waters wild went o'er his child, 

And he was left lamenting." 

" Holy Loch is separated from L. Long by Strone Point 
projecting into the Clyde, here the scenery is Alpine, 
with precipice, crag, pyramidal hills, contrasted with 
others whose smooth, verdant sides swell into aerial 
heights. Particularly fine is Argyll's Bowling Green. It 
is a matchless amphitheater with downy fronts and lofty 
summits." Across the Firth to the left rise the Renfrew- 
shire and Ayershire hills, land of Burns. Rothsay, a 
favorite watering place, was passed ; here stands a castle 
dating back to 1098, where Robert II. resided for a time 
and where he died. It contains a stair known as the 
" Bluidy Stair " where tradition says a deed of horror oc- 
curred. 



334 

The morning woke on the Ladye's bower, 

But no Isabel was there ; 
The morning woke on Rothesay tower, 

And bluid was on the stair. 



And aft in the mirk and midnight hour, 

WTien a' is silent there, 
A shriek is heard and a Ladye is seen 

On the steps o' the Bluidy Stair." 

The Firth of Clyde widens out and the shades of night 
shut out from our vision the enchanted land of Scott 
and Burns, of Wallace and Bruce, of McLeod and Knox. 

We awoke to look upon Erin's emerald isle. Our ship 
spent a day at Larne, completing- her cargo, affording 
passengers opportunity to run up to Belfast and spend a 
few hours. 

Late in the afternoon our vessel was loosed from her 
mooring and steamed northwards through the north 
channel skirting the j^icturesque coast of Ireland home- 
ward bound. 

One of the pleasant features of a sea-voyage is the 
number of nice people one meets. I was very fortunate 
on this trip. There were five ministers aboard, two of 
whom were Methodists, three Avere Presbyterians. We 
were eleven days crossing, including two Sundays. On 
one of these Mr. Langiey, of Canada, preached, and I on 
the second. During the day there was music and many 
kinds of games for those fond of amusement, and a good 
library for those who wish to read, while others write 
letters, still others look for whales and icebergs. We 
had two concerts and charades at night. It fell to my 
lot in one of these to feebly portray the desirable quali- 
ties and inexhaustible resources of our own Southland, 
and. urge on all those seeking homes in the new world 
the benefits of locating amongst us. 



335 

I greatly enjoyed the association of Dr. Hobbs, a yonng 
alnmnus of Johns Hopkins, who had been to Germany 
to study there. He belongs to the U. 8. Coast Survey 
and is the author of a learned treatise on the " Rocks oc- 
curring in the neighborhood of Ilchester, Maryland." 
.1 enjoyed no less the acquaintance of the Rev. B. Lang- 
ley and wife and the Rev. Jas. Lanman and wife Avhom I 
first met on the Luther Platz in Worms. 

On the morning of June 5th we passed Sandy Hook, 
the Statue of Liberty, and soon stood on American soil. 

My heart thanked that faithful Friend under whose 
protecting hand our ship had reached this shore in safety 
and whose defenses had been about me since January. I 
had travelled so many thousands of miles without acci- 
dent, sickness, loss of any kind, (except a package sent 
home), or even missing a single connection by rail or 
steamer, or receiving a line of news from home to rob my 
journey of enjoyment. 

" 'Tis sweet to hear the watch-dog's honest hark, 
Bay deep-mouthed welcome as we draw near home ; 
'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark 
Our coming, and look brighter when we come," 

FINIS.