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Full text of "Over the range to the Golden Gate; a complete tourist's guide to Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, Oregon, Puget Sound, and the great Northwest"




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San Francisco, California 
2008 



Over the Range to the 
Golden Gate 





A Complete Tourist's Guide 






To 


Colorado, 


New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, 




O 


regon, Puget Sound, and the Great 
Northwest 

By Stanley Wood 

Revised to 1904 by C. E. Hooper 
Chicago 




R. 


R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Publishers 
1904 



copyright 

By S. K. hooper 

1894 

revised edition copyright 
By S. K. hooper 

1904 



Eht Hakfsitie ^rtsi 

R. R. DONNELI.KY \- SONS COMPANY 
CHICAGO 




PREFACE. 



^T is no light undcrtakinc; to prepare a guide-book which shall ade- 
quately describe the places of interest on the great trunk lines 
between Denver on the hither side of the Rocky Mountains, San 
Diego at the southern extremity of California, and Portland, Seattle, 
and Tacoma, the three commercial entrepots of the Great North- 
west. Yet such is the undertaking purposed. In a work of this 
character fact must ever stand paramount to fancy, and lucidity of expression 
take the precedence. No attempt will be made at "fine writing"; every effort 
will be made to state just such facts as the traveler would like to know, and to state 
these facts in clear and explicit language. 

The country traversed is most interesting, abounding in scenes of the greatest 
variety, from the broad and billowy expanse of the boundless prairie to the rugged 
grandeur of the American Alps, from the picturesque quaintness of New Mexico 
and the nomadic wildness of the Indian reservations to the polished civilization of 
metropolitan cities. There is no journey which can be taken on the continent of 
North America that presents so much of interest to the tourist, and which can be 
taken with such a comparatively moderate outlay of lime and money, as the one 
described in the following pages. New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, California, 
Oregon, Washington Territory! What a field for investigation, investment or 
pleasure! These are the lands of gold, of silver, of coal, of agriculture, of all 
fruits known to the temperate and sub-tropical zones. These are the lands of 
new endeavors, of fresh impulses, and for these reasons are of special interest 
to tourists, business men, and seekers after health and pleasure. Aside from the 
interesting character of the subject discussed, there is also a special value in the 
work now presented to the reader, inasmuch as great care has been taken to gather 
information that shall be found statistically accurate. In a work of this character 
it is diflficult to combine accurate information with matters of general interest in 
such a way that neither shall have an undue prominence. The writer has endeav- 
ored to attain this desirable medium. One thing is certain, nothing in this book is 
venal in its character. The opinions here expressed are those of the writer; the 
descriptions of scenes given here are reproductions of the feelings inspired by those 
scenes. There has been no bias in any direction. On the contrary, every effort 
has been made to write judicially, and at the same time, retain the enthusiasm 
which the traveler naturally feels in beholding new sights and scenes. 

As an aid to the traveler abundant illustrations have been prepared, which 
will give the purchaser of this book an idea of what he may expect to see; and which, 
after he has beheld these places, will serve as a reminder of those pleasant scenes 
which by their assistance can never fade from his memory. 

It has been the endeavor of the writer to meet as nearly as possible the wants of 
all classes of travelers. Information of value to the tourist for pleasure, the health 
seeker, the sportsman, and the man of business, will be found in the pages of this 
book. Nothing has been written in the interests of any clitiue or class. The 

5 




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PREFACE. 7 

truth, and nothing but the truth, has been told. If there are errors they are such 
as must necessarily occur in the compilation of a work covering such a vast extent 
of territorv. Accuracy has been aimed at, and as a whole, the writer can vouch 
for the accuracy of what will be found herein. The book is one written in the field 
and not in the study. Facts are not taken at second hand. The author writes 
of what he saw with his own eyes, and not what he read. The statistics have been 
gathered from authentic sources, and have been condenst'd into the most compact 
and convenient form. Hoping the book may prove a useful companion to the 
traveler, it is submitted without further comment to the jjublic. 




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FROM THE MISSOURI RIVER TO DENVER. 







HE Missouri River has come to be regarded, in a general way, 
as the boundary line between the East and the West, although, 
in truth, the terms cast and west are extremely elastic in their appli- 
cation. However, for the purposes of this book we will consider 
that all on the sundown side of the Missouri River is West, and 
that the traveler has reached one of the three great entrepots to 
this vast country and finds himself in Omaha, St. Joseph, or Kansas City. From 
either of these thriving cities the journey to Denver can be taken by way of first- 
class transportation lines provided with all the modern conveniences and luxuries. 

From Omaha one has choice of the Burlington Route, the Rock Island, and 
the Union Pacific, and from Kansas City one can travel by any of the above lines 
with an additional choice between the Missouri Pacific, or the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fc railroads. With Chicago or St. Louis as the initial point one can go 
direct by any of the trunk lines to the Missouri River and continue his journey to 
Denver over 'his choice among the routes mentioned above. 

The trip across the great plains from the Missouri River to Denver is full of 
interest and variety to one who beholds this vast ex-panse for the first time. 
Nothing can give such a vi\id impression of the greatness of our country, and the 
adventurous character of our people, as the sight of these boundless prairies and the 
habitations of the hardy pioneers who are rapidly turning the buffalo sod and 
exposing the rich black soil to the fertilizing action of the sun and air, and 
substituting for nature's scant forage, abundant hars^ests of corn and wheat. 
The railroads, for a distance of three or four hundred miles to the west 
of the Missouri River, pass through thriving cities, to which a com- 
paratively thickly settled agricultural countrj- is tributary. Then the 
newer territory is reached, the towns are of less frequent occurrence and 
smaller in size, the plains appear more nearly in their native state, only dotted 
here and there with the claim cabins of the settlers. As the traveler looks 
out of the car window across the billowy expanse, he sees herds of cattle and 
sheep, grazing on the rich bunches of buffalo-grass, and occasionally he will catch 
a glimpse of the flpng form of an antelope disappearing over the brow of a distant 
rise of land. Not uninteresting are the prairie dog \-illagcs with their preternaturally 
grave inhabitants sitting on their haunches like diminutive kangaroos, and the 
writer has seen a whole carload of people filled with the most pleasureable excite- 
ment over the efforts of a jack-rabbit to outspeed the iron horse. With these and 
many other novel and interesting sights the time is whiled away until some traveler, 
more experienced, or more sharp of sight, suddenly cries out, "The Mountains!" 
There is a rush to his side of the car and everybody gazes earnestly, and amidst 
eager explanations and doubting comments the blue of the sky is at last disintegrated 
from the blue of the mountains, and the most skeptical at length acknowledges 
that the stain of ultramarine, with its undulating sweep against the western horizon 
is really the distance-enchanted range of the Rocky Mountains. Soon patches of 

9 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. II 

fleecy white ai)])car, and with a sigh of disappointment the traveler decides that the 
clouds are dropjnng down and will soon shut out the view of those "sentinels of 
enchanted land," but gazing more intently, it dawns upon the mind at last that 
those glimmering expanses are not veils of cloud, but arc in fact mountain fields 
of everlasting snow! The Snowy Range has at last declared itself, and from this 
moment until the transcontinental journey shall have been accomplished, the 
traveler will have the immediate memory or the intimate presence of the mountains 
with him continually. 

The view of the Rocky Mountains which the traveler gains on approaching 
Denver from the east is one of unsurpassed beauty, and that this statement may 
not rest on the dictum of this book, let us take the testimony of the greatest traveler, 
and the most graceful descriptive writer America has yet produced. Bayard 
Taylor says; "I know no external picture of the Alps that can be placed beside it. 
If you take away the valley of the Rhone, and unite the Alps of .Savoy with the 
Bernese Overland, you might obtain a tolerable idea of this view of the Rocky 
Mountains. Pike's Peak would then represent the Jungfrau, a nameless snowy 
giant in front of you, Monta Rosa and Long's Peak, Mount Blanc. The altitudes 
very nearly correspond, and there is a certain similarity in forms. The average 

height of the Rocky Mountains, however, surpasses that of the Alps 

From this point there appears to be three tolerably distinct ranges. The first rises 
from two to three thousand feet above the level of the plains, is cloven asunder by 
the caiions of the streams, streaked with the dark lines of the pine, which feather its 
summits and with sunny, steep slojics of pasture. Some distance behind it appears 
a second range, of nearly double the height, more irregular in its masses, and of a 
dark velvety violet hue. Beyond, leaning against the sky, are the snowy peaks, all 
of which are from thirteen to (nearly) fifteen thousand feet above the sea. These 
three chains, with their varying but never discordant undulations, are as inspiring 
to the imagination as they arc enchanting to the eye. They hint of concealed 
grandeurs in all the glens and parks among them, and yet hold you back with a 
doubt whether they can be more beautiful near at hand than when beheld at this 
distance." 

The doubt so gra^•cly expressed in tlu- last sentence of oiu* quotation, the trav- 
eler, when he shall have taken the transcontinental tour, will be fully able to 
resolve for himself. He will have beheld a bewildering variety of beauty, and in 
the riuiet evenings at home, he will fmd material for the most cxfjuisite enjoyment 
of pleasing reminiscence and reverie. 

With such an approach, Denver must needs be something more than ordinary 
not to strike the traveler as a discord in the grand harmony of the scene. It is a 
fact, and it is a pleasure for the writer to record it, that Denver is never a disap- 
pointment. What its peculiar charms may be, and how it appears \.o the stranger 
within its gates, will be described in the succeeding chapter. 




VIEW OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS, DENVER 



P08T0FFICE AND CUSTOM HOUSE. 



COURT HOUSE, CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER. STATE CAPITOL BUILDING. 



FROM DENVER TO PUEBLO. 



DENVER, 

Capital of Colorado. 

Population, 170,000. 
Elevation, 5,198 feet. 



There are only a few cities in the world that 
please at first sight. Denver is one of this favored 
few. The liking one gets for Boston, Philadelphia 
or London is an acquired taste, but one falls in love 
at once with Paris, Denver, or San Francisco. It 
does not follow that because the cities mentioned 
are immediately pleasing, they must of necessity 
resemble each other, any more than that a peach, 
an apple, or an orange should have a similar flavor. 
We like the fruit and we like the cities without having to learn to like them, but not 
for the same reasons. One feels a sense of exhilaration in the atmosphere of Den- 
ver. The grand view of the Snowy Range of mountains to the north and west, 
and the broad expanse of horizon-bounded plains to the east and south exalt the 
spirits, the bland but bracing breezes cool the fevered pulse, and the abundant 
oxygen of the air thrills one like a draught of effervescing champagne. A beau- 
tiful city, beautifully situated, is Denver, with broad, tree-shaded streets, with 
public buildings of massive proportions and attractive architecture, with residences 
erected in accordance with the canons of good taste, with innumerable lawns of 
shaven grass, ornamented with shrubs and flowers, wdth charming suburbs and an 
outlying country, studded with fertile farms and flowering or fruiting orchards, 
peace is within her dwellings and plenty within her palaces. Denver has now nine- 
teen railroads, an extensive street railway system operating one hundred and sixty 
miles of electric railroad, reaching all the various portions of the city. Strangers 
will find that the most convenient and satisfactory manner of viewing the city is 
from the windows of the street cars, and to this end is operated a "Seeing Denver" 
car, which makes a tour, twice daily, of almost the entire city. The town is lighted 
by gas and electricity, its principal streets are paved with asphaltum, has paid fire 
and police departments, and obtains its water from mountain sources by means of 
Holly works, and from over 600 artesian wells, varying in depth from 350 to 1,600 
feet. The public buildings, exclusive of churches and schools, cost $4,771,000. 
The real estate belonging to the city is worth $3,439,207, the bonded debt is 
$1,422,800, and the assessed valuation of Denver is nearly $110,000,000. The 
commerce of Denver is now annually not less than one hundred and fifty millions of 
dollars. Denver is situated at the junction of Cherry Creek and the Platte River, 
and is the capital of the State, and the seat of the "City and County of Denver." 
All the railroads which enter Denver land their passengers at the Union Depot, a 
massive and handsome edifice of native stone; originally built in 1880, and destroyed 
by fire in the spring of 1894, now re-erected, more beautiful and complete than before. 
Opposite the main entrance of the Union Depot, on Seventeenth Street, and at the 
south end of the building, on Sixteenth Street, electric car lines diverge to all parts 
of the city, passing the principal hotels and all points of interest. On the towm- 
ward side of the Union Depot are the carriage stands, and if arrangements for 

13 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



15 



tiansportation have not alreafly liccn made on the train, with tlic carriage company's 
assent, before reaching the cit\-, a carriage can he engaged here. Prices are regu- 
lated by ordinance, and extortion prohibited by law. There arc many objects of 
interest to see in Denver: The smeUers, the public buildings, the Tabor Grand 
Opera House, the Broadway Theater, Brown Palace Hotel — proV^ably the finest in 
the I'nited States — magnificent business bk^cks, beautiful parks, the beau- 
tiful private residences, the homes of mining princes and cattle barons, the lovely 
suburbs, and Fort I^ogan, the United Stales Military Post. The hotel accom- 




COURT HOUSE. CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER. 



modations of Denver arc probably the most complete of an\' city of its po])ulation 
in the country. There are ten first-class hotels, providcfl with all modern improve- 
ments, to say nothing of some sixty odd less pretentious ones. A day, or better two 
days, can be jirofitably spent in D':;:vcr, and then, refreshed and rested from the 
long ride across the plains from the Missouri River or beyond, the tounst is ready to 
resume his transcontinental journey. If he wishes to behold the wonders of 
nature, and to get a familiar acquaintance with the grandeur of the mountains, he 
will take the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, which by uni\ersal acclaim has been 
designated "The Scenic Line of the World." 

Seated in a comfortable car, whose large windows give an excellent outlook 
on the scenery, the traveler is ready and anxious to be off. The busy Union Depot 



i6 



OVER THE RANGE 



may amuse him for a moment, but anticipation of the wonders in store makes him 
impatient of delay. Soon the conductor gives the signal to the engineer, the inev- 
itable late passenger is seen chasing the rear end of the Pullman out of the depot, and 
whether he catches it or not, one thing is assured, the journey to the Pacific coast 
has begun, and from this time on the eye and mind will both find plenty to 
do in noting and recording Nature's most marvelous works. The first stop is 
made at 

Surilliaill. The station for the suburb of West Denver and the site of the 
great shops of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The buildings of the machine 
shops cover an area of five acres, and were erected at a cost of $300,000. (Distance 
from Denver, 2 miles.) 

Overland Park is a pleasant suburb to the southwest of Denver, and is 







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COLORADO STATE CAPITOL, DENVER. 



suppUed with one of the best race courses in the West. It is a fashionable resort, 
and connected with Denver by the suburban train service of the Denver & Rio 
Grande Railroad. 

Petersburg' is a small town surrounded by farms, market gardens, and 
plats laid out as additions to Denver. (Distance from Denver, 8 miles.) To 
the west of Petersburg, 2 J miles distant, lies Fort Logan, the United States Mili- 
tary Post. 

Fort Logan. A regimental post of United States troops has been here 
established, and has become the center of great interest. The quarters are ele- 
gant and substantial, consisting of handsome brick edifices. The parade ground 
is amjile in proportions, and no expense has been spared to make this Post a model 
of its kind. The inilitary band gives frequent concerts, and the citizens of Denver 
take great interest in and make frequent excursions to the Post. The Denver & 
Rio Grande Railroad has cstabUshed a very complete suburban train service 
for the accommodation of the Post and the general public, which is very largely 
patronized. 

Littleton is prettily situated on the east bank of the Platte River, is the 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 17 

center of a good agricultural country, and is destined to be the location of the 
suburban residences of many of Denver's best citizens. Already an adequate 
suburban train servdce has been inaugurated for the convenience of persons having 
country homes at this dehghtful spot. (Population, 1,200. Distance from Den- 
ver, 10 miles. Elevation, 5,372 feet.) 

Wollllirst. Four miles beyond Littleton, the home of former United States 
Senator Wolcott. 

Acequia. A small station for the accommodation of ranchmen. Here the 
High Line Canal, one of those great irrigating ditches characteristic of Colorado, 
crosses the track and takes its winding way to the northeast over the rolling plains, 
ha\dng under its fertilizing power at least a hundred thousand acres of other\\ise 
arid land. (Population nominal. Distance from Denver, 17 miles. Elevation, 
5,530 feet.) 

Seclalia. A little x-iUage. Home market and post-office for cattle-growers 
and ranchmen. (Population, 200. Distance from Denver, 25 miles. Elevation, 
5.835 feet.) 

Castle Rock. The town takes its name from a peculiar upthrust of rock 
on the summit of a conical hill, resembling, in the distance, an old martelle tower, 
and nearer by an irregular pentagonal structure. Under the shadow of this hill 
and surmounting tower lies the town, which is a pretty village and the county seat 
of Douglas County. Fine quarries of red sandstone are worked here, and pastoral 
industries contribute to the prosperity of the town. (Population, 500. Distance 
from Denver, 33 miles. Elevation, 6,219 feet.) 

Doilg'las. A station near which are stone quarries and grazing lands. (Popu- 
lation nominal. Distance from Denver, 35 miles. Elevation, 6,325 feet.) 

Between Douglas and Palmer Lake are the small stations of Glade, Larkspur, 
and Greeland. 

Perry Park is reached by stage from Larkspur station. This park abounds 
in curious formations of red sandstone; is watered by sparkling brooks and is one 
of the most popular resorts near Denver. 

As the train rolls into the station the traveler 



PALMER LAKE. 

Health and Pleasure 

Resort. 

Population, 250. 

Distance from Denver, 

52 miles. 

Elevation, 7,237 feet. 

Eating Station. 



sees to his left a beautiful little lake cradled in 
the hills. Along the shore has been placed a hand- 
some cut stone embankment, and a neat and taste- 
ful boat-house has been erected and well stocked 
with boats. The lake is a natural body of water, 
though the fact that a fountain plays in its center, 
casting a jet of water to the height of 80 feet, leads 
many to suppose that it is entirely artificial. Palmer 
Lake in addition to being a place of great beauty, is a natural curiosity, poised 
as it is, exactly on the summit of the "di\'ide, " a spur of the outlying range of the 
Rockies extending eastward into the great plains and from the crest of this 
summit the waters di\dde flo\ring northward into the Platte, which empties into the 
Missouri, and southward into the Arkansas as it wends its way to the Mississippi. 
Red-roofed picturesque cottages nestle here and there among the hills, gayly painted 
boats float gracefully upon the bright blue waters, and on either hand rugged peaks, 
pine clad and broken by castellated rocks, rise into a sky whose cerulean hue is 
reflected in the placid waters of the lake. Excellent hotel and liver}' establishments 
furnish good accommodations for sojourners. 



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TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 1 9 

Glen Park, an assembly ground modeled afti-r the famous Chautauqua, and 
destined to become equally as popular in the West as its prototv])e in the East, 
is only half a mile beyond Palmer Lake. Objects of natural interest are abundant 
and the walks anfl drives U) C.lcn D'eau, Bellview Point, Ben Lomond, the Arched 
Rocks and the canons and glens adjacent afford material for enjoyment in the 
seeing and for many pleasant memories. One hundred and fifty acres are com- 
prised in the town site. The park is at the foot of the Rocky Mountain Range, 
and is sheltered at the rear by a towering cliff 2,000 feet high, and on the two sides 
by small spurs of the range. .V noble growth of large pines is scattered over the 
Park. A skillful landscaj^e engineer has taken advantage of everv natural beautv 
and studied the best topographical effect, in laying out the streets, parks, reservoirs, 
drives, walks, trails, and lookout points. It is a spot that must be seen to be appre- 
( iatcd, and every visitor, whose opinion has been learned, has come away captivated. 
There are building sites for all tastes. Some have a grand lookout, taking in a 
sweep of the valley for a distance of 50 miles, with the fountain in Palmer Lake 
and the beautiful lake itself in view. Elephant Rock, Table Mountain, the town 
of Monument, the railroad trains from both ways for over an hour before reaching 
the station can be seen. Others have pretty vistas, partly hidden bv the pine 
branches, promises, so to speak of grand -views, but not so ambitious as the first. 
Still others are sylvan nooks where the shades are deepest and the murmur of the 
cool waters of the babbling brooks makes music forever. 

Moiillilieilt. The five miles ride from Palmer Lake to Monument is interest- 
ing. On the left are giant upthrusts of brilliant red rocks castellated in shape and 
reaching an altitude of two and three hundred feet. The town takes its name from 
the creek which flows near, and the creek is so designated from the curious monu- 
mental forms of rock alonr its course. To the right is the Front Range of the 
Rockies, which the road parallels from Denver to Pueblo, and near the center of this 
stretch of one hundred and twenty miles, stands Pike's Peak. Agriculture and 
pastoral industries are tributary to Monument. (Population, 500. Distance from 
Denver, 56 miles. Elevation, 6,g74 feet.) 

Two miles beyond is Borst, and four miles further Husted, both mere side 
tracks for convenient shipping of cattle and produce. 

3I<HlUllieilt Park is reached by private conveyance from Edgerton Station — 
distance from Denver, 67 miles. This valley is quite remarkable for the very 
fantastic forms into which the action of air and water, through long reaches of time, 
have worn the sandstone rocks, forming grotesque groups of figures that verv 
generally keep their broad brimmed sombreros, formed of iron stained cap-rock. 
Visitors to Monument Park obtain a fine view of Pike's Peak and Cheyenne Moun- 
tain Range. A hotel in the Park is open at all 
times for the accommodation of guests, and can 
furnish saddlehorses anil carriages on premises. 
The grotesque group of figures into which the 
cream-colored sandstone rocks have been worn, 
some of them resembling human forms, have been 
given quaint, descriptive titles, viz.: Dutch Wedding, 
Quaker Meeting, Lone Sentinel, Dutch Parliament, 
\'ulcan's Anvil, and Workshop, Romeo and Juliet, 
Necropolis or Silent City, The Duchess, Mother 



Colorado Springs. 

Residence City and 
Health Resort. 

Population, 25,000. 

Distance from Denver 
75 Miles. 

Elevation, 5,992 feet. 



Judv, and Colonnade; all of these and many others too numerous to mention are 
within easy walking distance to "The Pines." The Park is a favorite resort and 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



21 



has comfortable accommodations for guests. (Population, nominal. Distance 
from Denver, 67 miles. Elevation, 6,354 feet.) 

Many of the most influential business men of Colorado have their residence 
in Colorado Springs. No more delightful home city can be found than this. 
Mansions and cottages of the highest architectural beauty abound, and the society 
is composed of cultivated and wealthy people. 

The town was originally laid out as a health resort, and while it still maintains its 
superiority in this respect, has grown beyond that single characteristic, and is now a 
thriving commercial place, in addition to being 
a favorite residence city. The town is sheltered 
on the west by the range of mountains with 
Pike's Peak in the center, on the east by bluffs, 
on the north by the spur of the mountains called 
the " Divide, " and on the southwest by Chey- 
enne Mountain. The streets are unusually 
wide, one hundred feet, and the avenues are 
1 60 feet broad. Trees line both sides of the 
streets, and on Nevada Avenue, the central 
street of the city, there are six rows of trees, 
two on each side and two down the center. 
Water for irrigation is brought into the town 
by means of a winding canal, and cold, clear 
water, for domestic uses, is conducted from 
mountain sources in iron pipes. The pres- 
sure is such that no fire engines are necessir\ , 
the water being forced from hydrants to the 
tops of the tallest buildings. Monument 
Creek flows west of the town, and the Fon- 
taine qui Bouille to the south, where the t\\o 
streams form a junction. The scenery 
around Colorado Springs Is of a very inter- 
esting and attractive character. The hotels 
of Colorado Springs are noted for their excel- 
lence; special attention being paid to the 
entertainment of tourists. There are am- 
ple accommodations and of different grades to suit all tastes and pockets. The 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad has a very handsome stone depot, erected in 
accordance with good taste and correct architecture. The plains to the east and 
the mountains to the west give unlimited variety. Cheyenne Caiion, Austin's 
Bluffs, Crystal Park, Broadmoor, Cameron's Cone Monument Park, and Manitou, 
with its environs, are all within the radius of nine miles, and accessible by trolley lines. 

Clieyeuiie ]>roiliitaiii. It is impossible to contemplate the grandeur of 
Cheyenne's bold outlines and great massiveness, and to become in the least familiar 
with its ever-varpng play of light and shadow, mthout acknowledging the striking 
beauty of this noble mountain. From Colorado Springs, a superb view of its front 
is seen. Looking at the mountain it will be observed that at almost the nearest 
point, in reality four miles distant, the base of the mountain is deeply cleft by two 
yawning chasms, the outer rocks of which present sharp, jagged points. These 
clefts are, respectively, the North and South Cheyenne Canons. They certainly 
should be visited by every traveler who has an eye for the beautiful. On the eastern 




RAINBOW FALLS. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 23 

side of Cheyenne Mountain, and accessil:)lc from South Cl^eyenne Canon, is the 
grave of thi' well-known author and poet, "H. II." The direct road from Manitou 
takes the tourist a distance of eight miles, turns off to the southward from the road 
to Colorado Springs, on the top of the liill half a mile frtim the town; they can also 
be reached by making a detour of one and a half miles through Colorado Springs. 
and following the continuation of Nevada avenue to the southward. Either road is 
pleasant, and the drive or ride is one replete with interest, and abounding in 
attractive scenery. An electric car line connects Colorado Springs with the foot of 
the mountain and the canons. 

Broadmoor. Nestling under the shadow of Cheyenne Mountain lies the 
famous Broadmoor resort. Connected with Colorado Springs and Manitou by an 
electric railway, and therefore easy of access from either of these places, this beau- 
tiful spot, with its fine casino, lake, drives, etc., is one of the many attractions sur- 
rounding the Western Spa. 

Colorado City. This town, once the seat of the State capital, is two 
miles west of Colorado Springs, on the Manitou branch of the Denver & Rio 
Grande Railroad. Located in this thriving little town are extensive railroad repair 
shops, three large cyanide ore reduction works for handling the output of the 
famed Cripple Creek mines, making it one of the principal cities of the State. 
(Population, 3,500. Distance from Denver, 77 miles. Elevation, 6,110 feet.) 

The one resort of all the West is certainly 
Manitou. The attractions of this watering place 
have secured for it fame, and fame secures for it 
largely increasing patronage each year. No resort 
has had a more rapid growth than this, and none 
has more truly deserved its prosperity. There are 
more places of extraordinary interest to \isit in the 
vicinity of Manitou than can be found contiguous to 
any other resort in the world. It is situated six 
miles from Colorado Springs, immediately at the 
foot of Pike's Peak. Here are the famous effervescent soda and iron springs which 
in an early day gave the name of "Springs" to the town of Colorado Springs. 
A branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad unites the two places, over which 
trains run daily with sufficient frecjuency to accommodate the most exacting. 
A trolley line also connects the three towns of Colorado Springs, Colorado City, and 
Manitou. There are a thousand ways in which to enjoy one's self in Manitou. A 
favorite pleasure is that of riding. The saddle horses are excellent. Comfortable 
saddles for ladies, and well-trained horses are furnished by all the liverv stables at 
reasonable prices. A burro (donkey) brigade is a feature for the special benefit of the 
children, a careful guide taking the little ones for a ride every morning. Carriage 
riding and excursions on foot are excellent means of diversion. Following is a jiartial 
list of places of interest near Manitou, with the distance in miles from town attached: 

Manitou Grand Caverns 2 

Cave of the Winds i 

Ute Pass and Rainbow Falls 1 1 

Red Canon ^5 

Crystal Park ^ 

Garden of the Gods ^ 

Glen Eyrie 2 



MANITOU. 

Watering Place, 

Mineral Springs and 

Health Resort. 

Population, 2,000. 

Distance from Denver, 
80 miles. 

Elevation, 6,3i8 feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



25 



Summit of Pikes, by rail g 

Summit of Pikes, by trail 13 

Seven Lakes, by horse trail g 

Seven Lakes, by carriage road 25 

North Cheyenne Canon 8^ 

South Cheyenne Caiion 9 

Broadmoor Casino, by electric railway 7 



In addition to these well-known localities there are scores of canons, caves, 
water-falls, and charming nooks which the sojourner for health or pleasure can seek 
out for himself. The ^'illage is thronged with visitors throughout the sum- 
mer months; it is some- 
what cooler and less dry 
than Colorado Springs in 
the summer, and warmer 
in winter. The springs all 
contain more or less soda, 
and some iron. They are 
peculiarly adapted for the 
dyspepsia of the consump- 
tive, and the Ute Iron 
Spring is especially remark- 
able for its blood-making 
qualities. For the pleasure 
seeker and the invalid, 
Manitou is one of the most 
satisfactory resorts in the 
State. During the season 
the hotels are filled with 
guests from all parts of 
the Union. Society is 
represented by many of its 
best people, the evenings 
are made merry with hops 
and social gatherings, and 
the days delightful with 
drives and rides and walks 
among the myriads of at- 
tractions this place atYords. 

The Cripple 
Creek Short Tjiiie. 
From Colorado Springs to 
Cripple Creek and Victor 
runs the recently con- 
structed Colorado Springs 
& Cripple Creek District 
Railway, primarily built into 
the marvelously rich min- 
ing region of Cripple Creek 
as a means of hauUng out JHE SEVEN FALLS, CHEYENNE CANON. 




TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 27 

its gold and sOvtr ores, but more iiotcrl perhaps cm account of its most astoundingly 
beautiful scenery. The ride of 45 miles from Colorado Springs to Cripple Creek 
District is one continuous panorama of nature's most gorgeous mountain and 
canon scenery, condensing, as it were, the glories of the world within the compass 
of a two and a half hours' trij). It starts where the beauty begins, it chooses the 
most lovely spots as its [)athway, and seems to lead us to a ver\' high mountain 
apart, whence we may behold the glories of the world. 

The Great Gold Camp of Cripple Creek. Statistics are usually dry 
reading, but the record of this wonderful district is so remarkable that a few figures 
will prove interesting. But twelve years ago gold was first discovered here in pav- 
ing quantities. In that brief period it has become one of the greatest gold pro- 
ducing regions in the world, and in rapid development and in the richness of its 
ores, nothing like it has ever been known before. In twelve years the cattle ranges 
have been transformed into a populous district with 60,000 people. 

The production to date approximates 8136,000,000 in value. In 1902 it was 
$22,000,000. The dividends jxiid to date amount to over $26,000,000, nearlv 
83,000,000 having been jjaid in iyo2. 

Before Ct)lorado had acrjuired a name, Pike's 
Peak was the landmark of the Indian, the trapper, 
and the explorer. In later times it was the beacon 
by which the adventurous gold-hunters steered their 
prairie schooners into the wonderful and mysterious 
West; now it has become the goal of those in search 
of the grand and beautiful in Nature, the enjoy- 
ments of an attractive summer resort, or the resto- 
ration of impaired health. The mountain is one of 
great beauty, and never entirely discrowned of snow. The Cog Wheel Railroad to 
the summit of Pike's Peak is the most novel railway in the world. When it reaches 
its objective point above the clouds, at a height of 14,147 feet above sea-level, it 
renders almost insignificant, by comparison, the famous cogway up ISIt. Washington 
and the incline railway up the Rhigi in Switzerland. From its station in Manitou, 
just above the Iron Springs, to the station on the summit of Pike's Peak, the Manitou 
& Pike's Peak Railway is just eight and thrce-ciuarters miles in length. The cost 
of construction of the road was a half million of dollars. While it could have been 
built for many thousands of dollars less by putting in wooden bridges and trestles, 
light ties and light rails, those in charge of the building of the road would not con- 
sent to the use of any flimsy material for the sake of the saving of any sum of money 
— a substantial road that would insure absolute safety being economical, as well as 
a guarantee for putting the road from the start on a paying basis. The railroad 
closely follows Ruxton Creek, generally at an elevation of two or three hundred 
feet above it; the sides of the Glen are clothed with beautiful pines and spruces. 
Some very pretty falls are f)asscd on the wa\', two of which are named respectively, 
the Shelter and the ISIinnehaha. Stu])cndous granite boulders are in places piled 
up in chaotic confusion over the stream, frequently hiding it from \iew. Two 
prominent ones are plainly visible from Manitou, and are appropriately named Gog 
and Magog. One of the most charming features during the ascent is the oppor- 
tunity afforded for exquisite views of the world below, on looking back through the 
pine trees with the far-stretching plains glowing in the sun and forming a golden 
horizon. It goes without saying that the view from the summit is grand beyond 
description. To any one accustomed to mountain climbing, no guide is recjuired in 



PIKE'S PEAK. 

Colorado's Landmark. 

Elevation, 
14,147 feet. 



PUEBLO. 

Commercial and 
Manufacturing City. 

Population, 45,000. 

Distance from Denver, 
120 miles. 

Elevation, 4,672 feet. 
Dining Station. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 29 

making the ascent of Pike's Peak, as the trail is good and well defined, and there is 
a station on the summit where \'isitors can ob ain food and shelter. 

Fountain. A pretty little town on the Fontaine qui Bouille Creek, fourteen 
miles south of Colorado Springs. The town has taken a new growth wathin recent 
years, and being surrounded by a good grazing and agricultural countr\% has a 
fair prospect of permanent improvement. (Population, 200. Distance from Den- 
ver, 88 miles. Elevation, 5,568 feet.) 

There are between Fountain and Pueblo, side-track stations as follows: Buttes, 
Wigwam, Piiion, Eden and Dundee. These places are useful to the railroad and 
convenient for the residents of the surrounding country, but they possess little or 
no interest for the traveler. All the way from Denver to Pueblo the traveler has the 
Front Range of mountains on his right, to the west, while on his left are the great 
plains. Below Colorado Springs the countr}' is very fertile, and good crops are 
grown wherever water for irrigation can be procured. 

"The Pittsburg of the West" is a title often 
conferred on Pueblo, and it is the name which 
pleases its citizens best, and which comes the 
nearest to expressing the salient characteristics 
of the town. It is a Uve city, full of enterprise 
and push, and it has been favored by Nature, 
both in the matter of its immediate situation and 
of its surroundings. Plenty of coal is found not 
fifty miles away, iron ore is not more distant, and 
on the m.esa, just south of the town, is Minnequa, 
the site of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Works, one of the largest plants of this 
character in the world. There are also many great smelters for the reduction of 
gold and silver ores, together with a large number of manufactories, planing mills, 
flouring mills, machine shops, etc. The city of Pueblo is surrounded by great 
stretches of rich agricultural land, which in places here and there is under a high 
state of cultivation. But it is only here and there that cultivation shows its elevating 
work. Tourists wonder at this, and cannot di\dne why, if the land is rich, it should 
he fallow and uncultivated. The answer is easy to find. All this land is arid. 
Crops will not grow without water, and the rains of heaven are not half copious 
enough to promote the growth of vegetation. Where the land is watered by irri- 
gation it is as fertile as the valley of the Nile, where it is not irrigated it is nearly as 
sterile as the desert of Sahara. Tliis condition of affairs will not long remain. 
Storage reservoirs to conserve the winter and spring rainfall and snow deposits are 
in course of construction, also a scries of great canals to be taken from the .Arkansas 
river to carrj' the water on to the waiting land. In the mean time this uncultivated 
country, which appears so barren, supports tens of thousands of sheep and cattle. 
The short, dry, crisp, curled buffalo-grass, which looks about as succulent as shav- 
ings, actually contains great nutritive equalities, and if cattle or sheep can get enough 
of it they grow fat and command the highest price in the markets. Pastoral and 
agricultural interests contribute to Pueblo's prosperity, five trunk lines of railroad 
center here, and manufactories increase the business of the town. Many people 
of great wealth make Pueblo their home and do business here. Handsome man- 
sions, pretty cottages, large business blocks, and fine stocks of all kinds of merchan- 
dise testify to the good taste and enterprise of Pueblo's citizens. It is admitted 
on all sides that this must of necessity become the leading manufacturing town 
between the Missouri River and the Pacific coast, and the manufacturers in the Eas* 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



31 



who contemplate extending or removing their works, are now carefully studying 
the resources of Pueblo. Puelilo is well provided with hotels, one of them repre- 
senting an expense of $250,000 in its erection. All grades of excellence can be 
found among the hostelries, and the traveler will find no difficulty in securing 
accommodations suited to his tastes. Through Pueblo, the traveler passes to 
reach Sante Fc, Espanola, Durango, and Silvcrton on the south, Canon City, 
Salida, Leadville, Glenwood Springs, Aspen, Grand Junction, Salt Lake City, and 
Ogden on west en route to San Francisco; and Gunnison, Montrose, and Ouray, 
via the narrow gauge line over Marshall Pass. 

Pariias.SU.S Spring's. A pleasant drive of twelve miles, southwest of Pueblo, 
takes us to Parnassus Springs, among the foothills of the Greenhorn Mountains. 
These waters — muriated alkaline — have been tested with marked benefit, espe- 
cially in cases characterized as gastric complaints. 

Carlile Spring's are situated twenty miles above Pueblo, on the Arkansas 
River. These purgative alkaline waters are as yet unimproved, but give good prom- 
ise of becoming popular on account of their medicinal qualities. 

Clai'k's Magnetic Mineral Springs. This celebrated spring in the 
city of Pueblo has recently been improved by the erection of a large bath-house 
and fine hotel, fitted up with all the latest improvements and conveniences for 
bathing. 




uk:ted states mint, denver. 



PUEBLO TO OGDEN. 




a^waw.as :J°ROM Denver to Pueblo, a distance of one hundred and twenty miles, 
the traveler has follovsred the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains 
and kept his course mainly to the south. At Pueblo, however, 
he turns his face westward, and this wall be his outlook, in the main, 
until he finds himself standing on the shore of the Pacific Ocean, 
watching the descent of the sun into the wilderness of waters. 
The country between Pueblo and Florence is fine agricultural land, being the 
bottoms of the Arkansas River, up whose course the railroad follows until Salida 
is reached, ninety-seven miles from Pueblo. Back from the river rise high buttes 
of sandstone worn into fantastic shapes by the action of the elements. Banded with 
a great variety of colors and dotted here and there by groups of pines, the scene is 
one of much interest and adds an element of variety to the journey, which is exceed- 
ingly grateful to the traveler. The river bottoms are irrigated by means of ditches 
taken from the river, and the result is crops of marvelous growth and yield. One 
interesting and peculiar feature is the frequent occurrence of the ancient Egyptian 
water-wheels suspended in the current of the Arkansas. This method of securing 
water for irrigation is rarely observed in Colorado. This valley of the Arkansas is 
also a good fruit country, and grapes and apples grow in abundance and of fine 
quality. 

Florence. This town is in the center of the petroleum fields of Colorado. 
Glancing from the car window the traveler will here see the tall derricks of the well 
machinery and the tanks for storing, together with the tank cars for transporting 
the oil, and several large refineries. There are a very large number of wells already 
in operation and more are being sunk. The oil is used for lubrication, fuel, 
and illumination, and gives the best of satisfaction. Florence is the junction point 
of the Denver & Rio Grande and the Florence & Cripple Creek Railroads; the 
latter line having been completed and opened for business to Colorado's famous 
Gold Camp — Cripple Creek — on July 4, 1894. This new railroad has made this 
bustling little city one of the foremost in the stale. (Population, 5,000. Distance 
from Denver, 152 miles. Elevation, 5,199 feet.) 

The Florence and Cripple Creek 



CRIPPLE CREEK. 



Great Gold Mining: 

Town. 

Population, 15,000. 

Elevation, 9,400 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 193 
Miles. 



Railroad. This railroad, 40 miles in length, 
was built for the purpose of opening up to com- 
merce the vastly rich gold fields of Cripple Creek 
and vicinity. The principal points on the line 
are Arequa, Anaconda, Victor, and Cripple Creek 
itself, all of which are heavy shippers of rich gold 
ores. The scenery on this Hne from beginning to 
end is of a most beautiful character, canons and 
gorges, mountain i)eaks and passes, valleys and 
vales — combined in a panorama of startling loveliness. 

The town of Cripple Creek has advanced with the prosperity of the mining 

32 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 33 

district of which it is tlic center. From a camp of a few wooden shanties and 
tents, a few years ago, it has risen to a well-built, well-dehned mining town. 
Brick buildings are being erected in the business center and dwellings of a 
permanent character arc dotting the slopes around the town. There is a stability 
about it which is most encouraging. The hotel accommodations arc first-class, 
considering the age of the town. The population is about 15,000. There is an 
excellent water service, the supply being piped from the mountains above, and the 
town is peaceably and well governed. The advent of the railroads, the great 
attention being paid to gold mining, and the immense cjuantities of ore that are 
being uncovered in the mining district all go to show that Cripple Creek is but 
entering upon an era of great prosperity. 

The Cripple Creek Gold Mining' District is situated near 
the western base of Pike's Peak, at an elevation of 9,400 feet. It consists of rolling 
hills, sparsely wooded, and small valleys and gulches. Lying a little south of west 
from Colorado Springs at a distance of about twenty miles in an air line, seventy 
miles from Denver, and forty-four miles from Pueblo, down to 1891 it was to all 
intents and purposes exclusively a pastoral district. It is true that for many years 
past, in fact ever since 1859, prospectors have, from time to time, been over the 
ground and brought back samples which demonstrated the presence of gold. How- 
ever, no serious efforts were made toward development, though some exploration 
work was done, as for instance in 1874 when a tunnel was driven in Arequa Creek, 
and again in 1879 in Poverty Gulch. In these, as in other instances, prospectors 
were unfortunate and just missed the ore which is now being profitably mined. 

In February, 1891, some Colorado Springs men determined upon a serious 
attempt to test the capabilities of the district, taking up several claims which 
promised so well that, during the following spring and summer, many prospectors 
flocked in, and by the close of the year some 2,000 people were there, really deter- 
mined to prove its worth. The camp is now well under way and during 1892 its 
progress was rapid. Work was mainly confined to the location and establishment 
of claims, and testing their value. In the course of that year some ten or a dozen 
mines became regular shippers of ore, and their output reached a total of some 
$600,000. 

Since the period of original discovery progress has been remarkably rapid. 
Numerous new claims have been located and the number of regular shipping 
mines has increased to nearly one thousand, while many others not actual shippers 
have pay ore in sight, and the total outi)Ut has increased to $18,291,229 for the year 
of 1902. 

Coal Creek Braiiell. A branch line of the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad runs from Florence to Coal Creek, a distance of six miles, where excellent 
and extensive coal mines are in operation. This 
line is one of great commercial importance, opening 
one of the most extensive coal fields in the State. 

Coal Creek is at the terminus of this branch 
of the line. It is well supplied with stores and 
shops of all kinds and does a thriving business. 
(Population, 1,800. Distance from Denver, 155 
miles. Elevation, 5,360 feet.) 

This city is rightly named, for it stands at the 
entrance to the greatest canon penetrated by any railroad. The Grand Canon of 
the Arkansas is acknowledged by a universal consensus of opinion to be one of 



CANON CITY. 

Health and Pleasure 

Resort. 

Business Center. 

Distance from Denver, 

■ 60 Miles. 

Population, 5,500. 

Elevation, 5.343 *eet. 



34 OVER THE RANGE 

the great wonders of the world. The Arkansas River, which rises in Fremont 
Park, one hundred and seventy miles to the northwest of Canon City, here breaks 
its way through the Front Range of mountains and enters upon its uneventful 
course to the Mississippi. The town is one of the oldest in Colorado, and is essen- 
tially a place of pleasant homes. It is the county-seat of Fremont County, and is 
the seat of the State Penitentiary. Its warm and equable climate makes it a favorite 

resort for invalids. In ad- 
dition to its pleasant cli- 
mate it possesses valuable 
mineral springs, both hot 
and cold. The water of the 
cold springs is almost icy in 
temperature, and strongly 
iinpregnated with soda. 
The cold springs are situ- 
ated just above the peniten- 
tiary. The scenery round 
about Canon City is ex- 
ceedingly attractive. The 

,.,^^^__^_^^ drive of about twelve miles 

to the brink of the Royal 
<,• 'f'^a^'i ( lorge and the view of that 
^'^^^^^' ' ^^'j^M^BBk wonderful chasm from the 
top, which can there be ob- 
tained, are experiences never 
to be forgotten. The town 
and its contiguous country 
' 3^^H [possess the finest orchards 
V' ' * "^IM^i^WIIIMilHiM in the State, and the culti- 

^jmM •r.-Mcm mrf/x.,^1 j ■hmh.jimjiiu^.^iim^^ vatiou of f ruit is the leading 

<'~'^'" '■* '^''' ■' >'5sof^ r\jfy-^ industry. The city is well 

built, has handsome busi- 
CANON OF THE GRAND. ness blocks, and comfort- 

able and elegant residences. 
The Florence and Cripple Creek Railroad has a terminal here, as well as at Florence, 
and tourists en route to the Cripple Creek district will find the change of trains 
at this point fully as convenient as at Florence. 

The Hot Spring's. Having left Canon City and traversed a mile to the 
westward, the traveler will observe to Ms left a picturesque, many-gabled building, 
across the river, a rustic foot-bridge leading thereto. This is the Royal Gorge 
Hotel, situated at the Hot Springs. The hotel has excellent accommodations for 
guests, and is a favorite resort for health and pleasure seekers. The springs are 
recommended by physicians as excellent in cases of cutaneous and blood diseases. 

Prof. Loew's analysis of the waters is as follows : 

Grains in a Gallon of Water. 
Temperature of 104° Fall. 

Chloride of Sodium 18.2 

Sulphate of Soda 7Q.3 

Carbonate of Soda 73.2 

Carbonate of Lime 33.5 

Carbonate of Magnesia 12.8 

Lithia Trace. 

217.0 





THE ROYAL GORGE. 



ROYAL 


GORGE. 


Distance from Denver, 


163 


miles. 


Greatest 


Height of 


Walls, a 


,627 feet. 


Length, 


7 miles. 



36 OVER THE RANGE 

Baths have been provided at the hotel and are supplied with all the modem 
conveniences. 

Just beyond Cafion City the railway enters the Grand Canon of the Arkansas, 
the narrowest portion of which is known as the Royal Gorge. When first examined 
it seemed impossible that a railway could ever be constructed through this stupen- 
dous canon to Leadville and the west. There was scarcely room for the river 
alone, and granite ledges blocked the path with 
their mighty bulk. In time, however, these obstruc- 
tions were blasted away, a roadbed closely following 
the contour of the clifTs was made, and to-day the 
caiion is a well-used thoroughfare. But its grandeur 
still remains. After entering its depths, the train 
moves slowly along the side of the Arkansas, and 
around projecting shoulders of dark-hucd granite, 
deeper and deeper into the heart of the range. 
The crested crags grow higher, the river madly 
foams along its rocky bed, and anon the way be- 
comes a mere fissure through the heights. Far above the road the sky forms a 
deep blue arch of light; but in the Gorge hang dark and somber shades which the 
sun's rays have never penetrated. The place is a measureless gulf of air, ^\•ith solid 
walls on either side. Here the granite cliffs are a thousand feet high, smooth and 
unbroken by tree or shrub; and there a pinnacle soars skyward for thrice that dis- 
tance. No flowers grow, and the birds care not to penetrate the solitudes. The 
river, somber and swift, breaks the awful stillness with its roar. Soon the cleft 
becomes still more narrow, the treeless cliffs higher, the river closer confined, and 
where a long iron bridge hangs suspended from the smooth walls, the grandest 
portion of the canon is reached. Man becomes dwarfed and dumb in the sublime 
scene, and Nature exhibits the power she possesses. The crags menacingly rear 
their heads above the daring intruders, and the place is like the entrance to some 
infernal region. Escaping from the Gorge, the narrow valley of the upper Arkan- 
sas is traversed, with the striking serrated peaks of the Sangre de Cristo close at 
hand on the west, until Salida is reached. 

Parkclale. This is the point where tourists who desire only to see the 
famous Royal Gorge disembark from the west-bound train, to return again to 
Pueblo, Colorado Springs, or Denver. (Population nominal. Distance from Den- 
ver, 172 miles. Elevation 5,800 feet.) 

Beautiful Moillltaiu View. Emerging from the canon, a most 
beautiful mountain view is obtained; to the left stretch the serrated summits of 
the Sangre de Cristo Range, while to the front and right are the towering ])caks 
of the Collegiate Mountains. 

Texas Creek. This is the junction j)oint of the West Cliff branch with the main 
line. (Population, nominal. Distance from Denver, 185 miles. Elevation, 6,210 feet.) 
West Clift' Braiicll. Realizing the vast importance of the Wet Mountain 
Valley as a mining and agricultural region, the Denver & Rio Grande in lyoi 
constructed a branch line extending from Texas Creek station to West Cliff, Sihcr 
Cliff, and Rosita, heretofore reached by stage lines. This branch is but anollur 
addition to the already large number of i)aying and interesting branches. The 
scenery on the new line is equal to that on the main line, with gorges and passes, 
mountains and valleys, difTicult feats of engineering, and altogether well worthy 
a side trip from the main line. 



38 



OVER THE RANGE 




THE ROYAL GORGE. 



AVest Clift'. This town is beautifully situated in the Wet Mountain 
Valley, surrounded by a line grazing and agricultural country. The view is a 
grand one, lofty mountains bounding the entire circle of the horizon. A mile from 
the station is Silver Cliff, which after the discovery of the Racine Boy mine, was 
the center of a tremendous rush of miners, resulting in several other great discov- 
eries, but the large mines were few in number and the prospectors left for other 
fields. The good mines are still productive and add their (|uota to the prosperity 
of the valley. West Cliff is the shipping point for Silver Cliff and Rosita, being the 
railroad station. (Population, i,ooo. Distance from Denver, 210 miles. Eleva- 
tion, 7,861 feet.^ 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



39 



Wellsville Hot Spring's are on our left across the Arkansas River, six 
miles before Salida is reached. Here is a natural warm plunge bath, the waters 
of which are strongly impregnated with medicinal qualities. The Wellsville Springs 
are a favorite resort, and are made the objective point for many pleasant excursion 
parties. 

This prosperous town is situated on the right 
bank of the Arkansas River, and is the converging 
point of the four great divisions of the Denver & 
Rio Grande Railroad. The first division being 
the line to the east; the second is the main line 
to the west via Leadville, Glenwood Springs, and 
Grand Junction; the third is the narrow gauge 
line to Grand Junction over Marshall Pass and 
via Gunnison and Montrose, and the fourth is the 
southern extension to Alamosa, Durango, Silverton, 
and Santa Fe. In addition to its importance as a 
railway point, Salida is admirably situated for smelting purposes. One large 
modern smelting plant is in operation, one under construction, and a third in con- 
templation. These industries will largely enhance the importance of this growing 



SALIDA. 

Health and Pleasure 

Resort and 

Business Center. 

Population, 5,000. 

Distance from Denver, 
217 miles. 

Elevation, 7,050 feet. 
Eating Station. 




THE PORTALS 



city. The \aew of the mountains from Salida is especially grand. The Collegiate 
Range rises to the west \\'ith Yale, Harvard, and Princeton Peaks in plain view 
crowned with perpetual snow, while to the south stands the Sangre de Cristo Range, 
and in the southwest tower Ouray and Shaveno. The beauty of its situation, the 
near proximity to hot medicinal springs, the wonderful salubrity of "ts climate, make 
Salida an extremely popular health and pleasure resort. Tributary to the town 
are mines of copper, silver, gold, iron, and coal; great quantities of charcoal are 
burned near Salida, and the agricultural and pastoral interest arc of great extent. 

The trip from Salida to Grand Junction and Ogden abounds in interest for 
the tourist. It leads one through a most varied country, and presents to the inspec- 
tion of the traveler almost every variety of industry, from the agriculture and 



40 OVER THE IL4.NGE 

stock raising of the Arkansas, Eagle, and Grand River valleys, to the gold and 
silver mining of Lead\-ille and Aspen, and it may be said, in passing, that Lcadville 
and Aspen are two of the greatest mining camps in the world, and well worthy 
of a ^dsit. The scenery after Salida is passed grows in interest with each mile of 
advance. We are steaming up the left bank of the Arkansas River, and are crossing 
the western border of the Great South Park. The mountains capped with snow 
shut us in throughout the whole circle of the horizon. The Collegiate Range, 
including the peaks of Yale, Harvard, and Princeton to our left, and beyond, the 
great volcano-made cones of Ouray and Shaveno, which tower above Marshall 
Pass. Away off to the right are the Kenosha Hills. Agriculture and stock raising 
are the main industries of South Park, and the ranchmen find these pursuits of 
an exceedingly lucrative character. A number of small stations are passed beyond 
Salida as follows: Brown's Canon, Hecla Junction, Nathrop, and Midway. 

Brown's Canon. After passing the station of Brown's Canon, fine 
views of the Sangre de Cristo peaks present themselves close by, and then the rocks 
are heaped up again into the grand defile of Brown's Caiion, where one of our 
illustrations was made. 

Buena Vista. Buena Vista is the county seat of Chaffee County. The 
town was incorporated in the month of December, 1879, and, for its age, is a won- 
derfully thri\dng place. It is beautifully situated on the Arkansas River, thirty-si.x 
m'les below Lead\'ille, and 242 miles from Denver. The town is r[uite an impor- 
tant station, and is surrounded by good mines of gold and silver, fine pasture lands 
for stock and many improved ranches. The state reformatory is situated here. 
The city has an abundance of pure water, fine shade trees, churches, schools, stores, 
etc. (Population, 1,800. Distance from Denver, 240 miles. Elevation, 7,967 
feet.) 

Cottonwood Springs. The Cottonwood Hot Springs have long been 
famous in Colorado for their curative properties. They were the resort of the 
Indians before the whites took possession of the country, and have since been 
greatly improved and made accessible to invalids and tourists. The springs are 
situated six miles from Buena Vista, whence a stage line conveys passengers arriving 
on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad to the springs. For cases of inflammatory 
rheumatism, lead poisoning, and diseases of the blood, these waters possess remark- 
able curative properties. The scenery of the valley in which the springs are situated 
is of great loveliness, the Collegiate Range of mountains forming an imposing 
background. Fine trout fishing can be found in ten minutes' walk up and down 
Cottonwood Creek, and the neighboring hills abound in game. There are good 
accommodations here for tourists and invalids. 

Mount Princeton Hot Sprinji"-'^ are located nine miles from Buena 
Vista. There are about forty of these springs, with a flow of hot water aggregating 
1,000,000 gallons daily. These \vaters are especially beneficial for rheumatism, 
cutaneous diseases, paralysis, etc. The temperature is 130° F. The climate and 
scenery arc superior, and good hotel accommodations will be found. 

After leaving Buena Vi.sta the following small stations are passed: Americus, 
Riverside, and Pine Creek. 

Granite. At this jioint the stage line to Twin Lakes lonncits with the 
trains. Placer mining by huge hydraulic systems are in full operation and have 
been successfully worked for the past twenty years. (Population, 300. I-levation, 
8,940 feet. Distance from Denver, 257 miles.) 

These most beautiful mountain tarns are best reached by a se\en miles stage ride 



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TWIN LAKES. 

Pleasure Resort. 
Elevation, 9.367 *eet. 



42 OVER THE RANGE 

from Granite Station. The drive is in itself a delightful experience, and the lakes 
prove a most charming culmination. You find yourself in a little valley about 
seven miles in area, .\round you on all sides, looming up grand and precipitous, are 
snow-capped mountain peaks, each of them towering fully a mile high, from where 
you stand, completely walling you in from the outer world. These mountains are 
Mount Elbert, La Plata, and Twin Peaks, each 
of them higher than the famous Pike's Peak, 
Lake Mountain, Mount Sheridan, and Park Range. 
They are all more or less covered, up to the timber 
line, with fir and spruce trees, the fragrance of 
which perfumes the atmosphere, and, owing to the 
rarified air, the tops of the peaks, on which rest 
the eternal snows, seem so near that you think you 
could almost throw a stone to their summits, though 
in fact the length of that very uphill stonethrow would be considerably more than a 
mile. For about three-fourths of its area the valley is occupied by the lakes, and 
to an ordinary observer it is plain that these lakes were formerly one and occupied 
the whole valley up to the very foot of the mountains. At present, however, they 
are twins — Siamese twins for they are connected by a mountain stream, which, 
as well as the lakes themselves, abound in the most delicious mountain trout that 
ever nibbled at a hook or smoked on a platter. 

Now let us row out into the middle of the upper lake. It seems as if you were 
in the center of a mighty amphitheater, the arena of which is water, the sloping 
sides fir-clad mountains, and the roof a great bowl inverted, painted a gorgeous 
blue, and lightly resting on the snow-capped mountains. The sizzling dweller of 
cities may ask what is the thermometer here ? I do not know. I never saw one 
here. These people have no more use for a thermometer than a toad has for a 
pocketbook. Old Sol rises bright and fierce-looking every morning in an Italian 
sky, but his rays are so tempered by the breezes from the mountains that by the 
time they reach the valley they are just pleasantly warm and exhilarating. But 
there is one thing his rays will do, and city folk would better beware of them if they 
do not want to peel ofT their outer cuticle, they will sunburn as effectually as if 
conveyed through the medium of a burning glass; this is owing to the rarity of the 
atmosphere. Flannels can and ought to be worn here every day, and a person 
sitting reading or writing indoors for an Jiour or so, in a rooin where there is no fire, 
and while the sun is shining brightly outside, will find the cold stealing up his 
nether limbs. 

Returning to Granite and resuming the journey, the following small stations are 
passed: Twin Lakes, Hayden, Gordon, and Malta. At Malta the main line turns 
to the left, while a branch line continues on to Leadville. Suburban trains arc 
operated between Malta and Leadville, and we will take advantage of this service 
and go to the "Great Carbonate Camp." 

This wonderful Cloud City first became known to fame in 1859 as California 
Gulch, one of the richest placer camps in Colorado. From 1859 to 1864, 
$5,000,000 in gold-dust were washed from the ground of this gulch. The camp 
was afterwards nearly abandoned, and it was not until 1876 llial the caHx)nati' 
beds of silver were discovered. Immediately after this discovery a great rush en- 
sued to the carbonate camp, which was named Leadville, and tlie population 
rose from a nominal number to 30,000. Leadville is the county-seat of Lake 
County. It is the fourth city in size in Colorado, and the greatest and most 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 43 

unique c;ir1x)natc mining camp in the world. The visitor to Leadville is irre- 
sistibly reminded of the words of Joaquin Miller: "Colorado, rare Colorado! 
Yonder she rests; her head of gold pillowed on the 



LEADVILLE. 

The "Great Carbonate 
Camp." 

Population, 20,000. 

Elevation, 10,200 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 
277 miles. 



Rocky Mountains, her feet in the brown grass; the 
boundless plains for a playground; she is set on a 
hill before the world, and the air is very clear, so 
that all may see her well." The city is lighted by 
gas and electricity; has telephonic communication 
with surrounding points; has the usual conven- 
iences and luxuries of cities of corresponding size, 
and in all respects ranks as one of the greatest cities 
of this great State. Leadville is one of the most in- 
teresting cities in the world to the tourist. It abounds in scenes of a novel and char- 
acteristic nature, and presents views of life entirely foreign to the conventional. Min- 
ing methods are here fully illustrated in every form, from lode mining to hydraulic 
and sluicing work. Leadville has a handsome theater, the Tabor Opera House, 
having a seating capacity of 1,000. The scenery around Leadville is magnificent. 
It is walled in on all sides by towering mountains whose summits are crowned with 
eternal snow. Occupying so high an altitude, the eiJect is remarkable, and tourists 
can find no more striking nor interesting scenes than those presented by Leadville 
and its weird and wonderful surroundings. Leadville is well supplied with good 
hotels. Livery accommodations are first-class, and the boulevard affords one of the 
finest drives in the State. Situated on the front of Mount Massive, at the mouth of 
Colorado (iulch, and distant five miles from Leadville, are the popular Soda Springs 
and Evergreen Lakes. The boulevard, a carefully constructed drive, one hundred 
feet in width, and as smooth as a race track, gives access to the springs and lakes, a 
stage connecting with Lcad\ille twice a day. The springs are strongly impregnated 
wdth soda, and are of a highly medicinal character. There is e.xccllent trout fishing 
within a few minutes' walk of the springs, pleasant drives and rides are numerous, 
and placer as well as lode mining are in progress in near pro.ximity, easily accessible 
to the inspection of the tourist. Near the Evergreen I>akes is located an extensive 
United States Fish Hatchery, under the direction of the government, and from it 
millions of trout fry are yearly planted in all the streams of the State of Colorado. 
As a business point, Leadville is recognized as among the first in the State; with its 
large population, great smelting works, and vast mining industry, it cannot help 
commanding the attention of business men and investors. 

Chrysolite Extension. This branch of the Denver & Rio Grande System 
extends from Leadville to all the principal mines of the famous Leadville mining 
district. No passenger trains are operated thereon, but the net-work of tracks 
zigzagging up the mountain sides, with marvelous switchbacks, sharp curves, and 
heavy grades is extremely interesting from an engineering standpoint. 

Between Leadville and Tennessee Pass are the following unimportant stations: 
Leadville Junction, Keeldar, and Crane's Park. 

Tennessee Pass. Rising along a tortuous path ( ut at a heavy grade, 
as usual, into the side hills, we mount slowly into Tennessee Pass, which feeds the 
head of Eagle River on the west side, and one source of the Arkansas on the east 
side. It is a comparatively low and easy pass, covered everywhere with dense 
timber, and a wagon road has long been followed through it. Reaching an eleva- 
tion of quite 10,240 feet, the train darts into a tunnel half a mile long, and on 
emerging at the western end, we are on the Pacific slope. There is nothing to be 



44 OVER THE RANGE 

seen except an occasional pile of ties, or a charcoal oven, save that now and then a 
gap in the hills shows the gray, rough summits of Galena, Homestake, and the 
other heights that guard the Holy Cross. At each end of the Pass is a little open 
glade or "park," where settlers have placed their cabins and fenced off a few acres 
of level ground whereon to cut hay, for nothing else will grow at this great elevation. 
We can do no better service to the tourist than to quote Ernest Ingersoll's 
description of this famous mountain given in "The Crest of the Continent." He 
says: "One of the side valleys, coming down to the track at right angles from the 
southwestward — I think it is Homestake Gulch — 
leads the eye for a momentary glimpse up through 
a glorious Alpine avenue to where the cathedral 
crest of a noble peak pierces the sky. It is a sum- 
mit that would attract the eye anywhere — its feet 
hidden in verdurous hills, guarded by mighty crags, 
half-buried in seething clouds, its helmet vertical, 
frowning, plumed with gleaming snow — 

'Ay, every inch a king.' 



MOUNT OF 

THE 

HOLY CROSS. 

Elevation, 14,176 feet. 



"It is the Mount of the Holy Cross, bearing the sacred symbol in such heroic 
characters as dwarf all human graving, and set on the pinnacle of the world as 
though in sign of possession forever. The Jesuits went hand in hand with the 
Chevalier Dubois, proclaiming Christian Gospel in the northern forests; the Puritan 
brought his Testament to New England; the Spanish banners of victory on the 
Golden shores of the Pacific were upheld by the fiery zeal of the friars of San Fran- 
cisco; the frozen Alaskan cliffs resounded to the chanting of the monks of St. Peter 
and St. Paul. On every side the virgin continent was taken in the name of Christ, 
and with all the eclat of religious conquest. Yet from ages unnumbered, before 
any of them, centuries oblivious in the mystery of past time, the Cross had been 
planted here. As a prophecy during unmeasured generations, as a sign of glorious 
fulfillment during nineteen centuries, from always and to eternity, a reminder of 
our fealty to heaven, this divine seal has been set upon our proudest eminence. 
What matters it whether we write 'God' in the constitution of the United States, 
when here in the sight of all men is inscribed this marvelous testimony to His 
sovereignty! Shining grandly out of the pure ether, and above all turbulence of 
earthly clouds, it says: Humble thyself, O man! Measure thy fiery works at their 
true insignificance. Uncover thy head and acknowledge thy weakness. Forget 
not, that as high above thy gilded spires gleams the splendor of this ever-living 
Cross, so are My thoughts above thy thoughts, and My ways above thy ways." 

Crane's Park is a beautiful park in the mountains at the western foot of 
Tennessee Pa.ss. Here are to be seen the kilns of charcoal burners, and a wonderful 
valley and mountain view. 

Red Clitt" Canon. Just beyond Crane's Park the railroad enters Red 
Cliff Canon, a comparatively short but very interesting gorge in the mountains. 

Red Cliff. This picturesque little town is the county-seat of Eagle 
County, and the entrcpOt of a large mining district. The mines of the Battle 
Mountain and other districts contribute greatly to the business of the place. Lead- 
ville, with its smelters, is only 25 miles distant, and this fact is also an element of 
success among the many which give promise of future prosperity to tlu- town. 
The scenery around Red Cliff is of the grandest and most beautiful description. 
To reach the town the traveler makes the ascent and descent of Tennessee Pass, 



46 



OVER THE RANGE 



EAGLE RIVER 
CANON. 



Height of Walls. 
2,000 feet. 



and obtains the best distant view that can be had of the famous Mount of the Holy 
Cross. Just beyond Red Cliff are the wonders of Eagle River Canon. (Popu- 
lation, 1,000. Distance from Denver, 293 miles. Elevation, 8,608 feet.) 

Beyond Red Cliff the Eagle River Canon opens 
to the \iew at first a comparatively ^\'ide expanse, 
later more narrow, walled in on each side by cliflfs 
of vari-colored rocks, whose lofty and apparently 
insurm.ountable summits bear the dark banners of 
the pine. Admiration and awe at this stupendous 
work of Nature take possession of the mind, when 
suddenly these emotions are overshadowed by 
wonder and almost incredulous surprise at the daring 
of man, for there above us on ttie right, perched Uke the nest of heaven-scaling 
eagles, rest the habitations of men! There are the shaft houses and abiding places 
of adventurous miners, who, having climbed these cliffs, pick in hand, have here 
discovered rich veins of the precious metal, which, being blasted from its matri.x, 
is conveyed to the railroad track 2,000 feet below, by a most ingenious system 
of tramways and endless steel ropes. There is something very impressive in the 
sight of these frail cliff-perched dwellings; and the shaft-penetrated, tunnel-pierced 
peaks suggest irresistibly the fabled cavernous labyrinths of "Kor. " Nowhere can 
the traveler find a more interesting and instructive illustration of mining methods 
than is here presented by the shaft-scarred sides of Battle Mountain and the pinna- 
cle-perched eyries of Eagle River Canon. 

Miuturil. Having passed through the canon, the train brings up at the 
divisional and eating station at Minturn. At this point is located extensive round 
houses and repair shops of the railway. (Population, 500. Elevation, 7,825 feet. 
Distance from Denver, 302 miles.) 

The Valley of the Eagie. Leaving Minturn, one enters the 
Valley of Eagle River. Quieter scenes of pastoral and agricultural achievements 
follow. Here are comfortable ranch houses surrounded by fertile fields; there are 
herds of cattle feeding contentedly in natural pastures; while on all sides are seen 
evidences of peace, prosperity, and plenty. The Eagle River, a beautiful stream, 
whose pellucid waters do not conceal the bright colored gravel of its bed, meanders 
through the valley, adding to the beauty of the scene, and carrj'ing with it the prac- 
tical benefits of irrigation, without which the soil would produce nothing but vege- 
tation suitable for grazing purposes. The clear, cold water swarms with trout, 
augmented yearly by additions from the hatchery at Leadville, and here the 
disciples of old Izaak Walton cannot fail to find am- 
ple room and verge for plying their gentle craft. 

In our journey through the valley we pass the fol- 
lowing stations: Avon, AUenton, Wolcott, Sherwood, 
Eagle, Gypsum, Dotsero, Shoshone, and Sulphur 
Springs. 

Leaving the railroad at \\'olcott station, the 
tourist can go by stage or private conveyance to 
Steamboat S{)rings, distant eighty miles, and reached 
by a most interesting and picturcscjue route. The 
road follows up the divide between the Eagle and Grand rivers through a fine 
grazing country, clotted here and there with beautiful little lakes. The Kokomo 
and Sheephorn ranges rise to the east, while the Mount of the 'Holy Cross 



STEAMBOAT 
SPRINGS. 

Wonderful Hot Springs 
of Routt County. 

Population, 500. 

Elevation, 6,500. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 47 

towers to the south. From the summit of the di\idu a fmc view of the 
Flat Top Mountains can be obtained. Descending, the traveler enters Egeria 
Park, famous for its lovely scenery, a noted feature of which is the Topanas, or 
"Sleeping Lion." Finger Rock, 265 feet high from base to top, is also a remark- 
able landmark. The first stream crossed is the Roaring Fork of the Yampa River, 
along which is to be found the finest trout-fishing in Colorado. Elk, deer, bear, and 
mountain-sheep abound here. Progressing, " Court-House Rocks" come into view 
and beyond is the " De^i^s Grave." This curious uplift in the form of a grave, with 
a great headstone rising from one extremity, is an object of great interest. Passing 
through Yellow Jacket Pass, the Harrison Bottoms fine grazing lands are entered 
and soon the famous "Steamboat Springs" are reached. The springs send off 
clouds of steam and its escape makes a pecuKar puffing noise, whence the name. 
There are sixty of these springs, embracing those characterized by sulphur, mag- 
nesia, iron, and soda. The springs vary from 156 degrees of heat to cold. The 
scenery around the Springs is exceedingly attractive. The Storm Mountains, 
around whose summits storm clouds always gather, Crystal Park, Soda Park, 
Sheddeggcr's Park, and Fish Creek Falls are all objects of interest, and within a 
radius of ten miles. The Fish Creek Falls are three miles east of Steamboat 
Springs, they are 150 feet in height, and have a \\'idth of eighty feet. Those in 
search of health, the beautiful in nature, or who enjoy the recreation of the sports- 
man or fishemian cannot do better than make a ^^[sit to Steamboat Springs. 

The town of Steamboat Springs is a thriving village with a wonderful future. 
It has free public library, public schools, churches, fine water supply, an unusually 
large number of mercantile establishments, banks, planing mill and flouring mills. 
Good hotel accommodations for sportsmen and health seekers. 

Returning to the railway after our pilgrimage 
to Steamboat Springs, we again resume the journey 
by rail through the Cafion of the Grand. 

Gradually the valley narrows, high bluffs hem 
us in on the left, the river is close to the track on 
the right, and its fertile banks suddenly change into 
a tumbled, twisted, black, and blasted expanse of 
scoria, the outpouring of some ancient volcano of 
tremendous activity. The few trees on the hither side 
of the stream are also black ; an inheritance of fire; 
the waters under the black banks, and reflecting the 
blackened trees, take on a swarthy hue — a stygian jjicture! Just beyond, a distant 
glimpse of fertile country, and the clear waters of the Eagle are lost in the muddy 
current of the Grand, and a canon greater in extent and more varied in character 
than that of the Arkansas opens before us. .\s the train speeds downward, the 
mountains on the horizon behind us seem to rise up towards the zenith as 
though the miracle of creation was being repeated before our eyes. Soon, how- 
ever, the distant mountains are shut out and only the sky above, the river and track 
beneath and the cUffs around are visible; and here begins a panorama, kaleidoscopic 
in its ever changing forms and colors, the wonder of the one who sees, the despair 
of the one who wished to tell others what he saw. 

In places the effect is that of giant Eg}-ptian art and architecture. \'ast bastions 
of granite, strata on strata, rise to a stupendous height, braced against rock masses 
behind them, infinitely vaster. Suggestions of the Sphinx and of the Pyramids can 
be caught in the severe and gigantic rock-piled structures on every hand. These 



CANON 

OF THE 

GRAND RIVER. 

A Marvelous Gorge. 

One of the World's 
Wonders. 



48 



OVER THE RANGE. 



are not made up of boulders, nor are they solid monoliths, like those in the Royal 
Gorge. On the contrary, they are columns, bastions, buttresses, walls, pyramids, 
towers, turrets, even statues, of stratified stone, \^'ith sharp cleavage, not in the 
least weather-worn, presenting the appearance of Brobdingnagian masonn,' — hence 

I use the phrase " rock-piled 
structures" advisedly and as 
best descriptive of what 
there exists. 

But the kaleidoscope is 
shaken and the rock pieces 
are rearranged. The effect 
is startling. We have left 
Egypt, with her shades of 
gray and her frowning, 
massive, and gigantic forms. 
We are in a region of glow- 
ing colors, where the ver- 
milion, the maroon, the 
green, and the yellow 
abound and mingle and 
contrast. What strange 
country was the prototype 
of this? Ah! yonder is 
something characteristic — a 
terraced pyramid banded 
with brilliant and varied 
colors — the teocoli of the 
Aztecs. 

'Whirling around a head- 
land of glowing red rock, 
which it seems ought to be 
called "Flamingo Point," 
\w are in a region of ruddy 
color and of graceful forms. 
Minarets, from whose sum- 
mits the muezzin's call 
might readily be imagined 
falling upon the cars of the 
dwellers in this "Orient in 
the West," sj)ires more 
graceful than that of Bruges, 
more lofty than that of 
Trinity, towers more mar- 
velous than Pisa's leaning 
wonder, columns more curi- 
ous than that of \'endome, 
splintered and airy pinna- 
cles, infinite in variety, in- 
numeraV)le! inimitable! in- 
EXPLORINC THE WALLS. describablel 




■■S2^' 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 49 

In a moment darkness and the increased rumble of wheels; then light and 
another marvelous view. We have passed tunnel No. i, the portcullis; darkness 
again for a moment, then the blue sky above us. We have entered through the 
postern gate; darkness for the third time — absolute, unmitigated blackness of dark- 
ness; this must be "the deepest dungeon 'neath the castle moat." But soon again 
we see the blessed light, and there before us lies Glenwood Springs! — Colorado's 
Greatest Resort. 

GleilAVOod Spring's is the pleasure and 



Glenwood Springs. 

Health and Pleasure 
Resort. 

Wonderful Hot 
Springs. 

Distance from Denver, 
360 miles. 

Elevation, 5,758 feet. 

Population, 3,000. 



health resort of Colorado, as well as a flourishing 
and growing town. It is the county-seat of Gar- 
field County. The picturesque scenery of the 
Grand River, from its source midst the peaks and 
crags of the Rockies, to its debouch into the mag- 
nificent waters of the broad Colorado, has been the 
theme of able writers in prose and poetry, but at no 
spot in its rapid march to the sea, do the waters of 
the Grand glisten and ripple upon the shores of a 
lovelier valley than at its confluence with the Roar- 
ing Fork, where arc situated the springs and city of Glenwood. Here the sentinel 
ranges, which have guarded the stormy passage of the turbulent stream through 
mountain pass and precipitous caiion, seem to have deployed their ranks, that they 
might surround and embrace a valley so lovely in its landscape and set in a frame 
of such scenic grandeur. The springs themselves are phenomenal, innumerable 
fountains bubbling up over an area covering both sides of the river, and varying in 
volume from twenty to one thousand cubic inches per second. The principal springs 
on the north side of the Grand River discharge an immense body of water, heated 
in nature's furnace to 140° Fahrenheit, which flows in a broad stream to its outlet 
through an aqueduct recently constructed, forming a beautiful island, upon which 
is erected a commodious and well-appointed bathing-house, provided with every 
convenience for sitz, plunge, and vapor bathing. The waters have been found of 
great benefit to invalids, and as a result the springs are largely patronized. Aside 
from the beautiful valley selected for its site, and the attractions presented by its 
wonderful springs, Glenwood City possesses many advantages and material 
resources which are destined to make it one of the most important points on the 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The town has electric lights, waterworks, and 
all of the modern improvements. Glenwood is well supplied with hotels. The new 
Hotel Colorado, which cost $350,000, is probably one of the finest resort hotels in. 
the United States. It is built of Roman tiles and Colorado peach-blow stone, and 
contains two hundred guest rooms and forty private baths, is built in Italian style, 
and located under the shadow of the mountains, with the banks of the famous 
Pool immediately in front of it. It is surrounded by beautiful parks and drives, 
and withal, is a most delightful place to spend a season. There are other hotels, 
though less pretentious, the Hotel Glenwood, the Kendrick, the Grand being 
among the number. 

Accommodations for Bathing'. The bath-house erected at the won- 
derful hot springs here is of the most elegant design. It is built of red sandstone, 
and the walls of all rooms are of red or cream colored pressed brick, wainscoted 
with Te.xas pine and colored enamels. There are forty-four large bath-rooms, in 
two departments, for the res])ective se.xes. Each bath-room has two compartments. 
One is lined with enamel and set with a porcelain tub, having bronze appliances for 



5° OVER THE RANGE 

readily supplying hot, warm or cold mineral water, and hot, warm or cold fresh 
water, also showers of warm or cold water. Any desired temperature, from 45° up 
to 120° Fahrenheit, can be supplied. The other compartment is furnished as a 
dressing room, and prox-ided with a settee for reclining after the bath. These 
compartments have high ceilings, and are well lighted from elevated windows by 
day, and by incandescent electric lamps at night. Light refreshments are served in 
each room by ■ attendants summoned by electric bells. Massage treatment is 
administered in a room for that purpose. Besides the bath-rooms, the building 
contains handsome sitting and smoking rooms with open fires, physician's room, 
billiard-room, coffee kitchen, linen-rooms, hairdressing-rooms, laundry, etc. All 
rooms are kept supplied wth fresh air at an equable temperature throughout the 
year. " Every accessory for the luxurious and health-gi\'ing bath is provided in the 
building. The baths are supplied from the main or Yampa spring, which yields a 
constant flow of 2,500,000 gallons per day of highly mineralized hot water, at a 
temperature of 124.2° Fahrenheit. This water is a remarkable remedial agent, 
aiding or effecting cures of scrofula, rheumatism, gout, lead poisoning, diabetes, 
Bright" s disease, and all skin and blood diseases. The new bath-house stands on 
the margin of the Mammoth Swimming Pool. 

Tlie Bathing" Pool. This is remarkable for its size and the completeness 
of its conveniences. It is six hundred feet in length, by one hundred and ten feet in 
width at the widest part. Its depth gradually increases from three and one-half feet 
at one end to six feet at the other. The walls are of red sandstone, and the bottom 
is paved with hard pressed brick. Its surface area is 43,000 square feet, or one 
acre, and the capacity 1,500,000 gallons. It is constantly supplied with mineral 
water from the main or Yampa Spring, and kept at a temperature of about 95° 
Fahrenheit. There are one hundred and thirteen dressing-rooms, in separate 
departments for the sexes. These are warmed in winter, and a hooded way leads 
into the water. At night the pool is brilliantly lighted by arc electric lights. 
Bathing suits are supplied at a moderate charge. Thousands who have tried 
bathing in the pool pronounce it the most delightful of baths. The exercise which 
it admits of while bathing is deemed especially beneficial to many kinds of invalids. 

The Vapor Caves. A remarkable feature of these springs are the va])or 
caves — natural openings in the rocks to which the steam from the hot springs 
obtains access. In one of these natural caves the company has erected a unique 
vapor bath-house, with ample dressing-rooms, a number of private vapor rooms, 
shower bath-room, etc., all lighted by electric lights, affording vapor baths in either 
cave or private rooms at a temperature of 150° to 110° Fahrenheit. These baths 
are not only a luxury to those who are well, but are especially recommended by 
physicians for a number of serious ailments. 

Aspen liraiieh. Extending from Glenwood Springs in a southeasterly 
direction is the branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad to Aspen, and its 
wonderful mines. The following points are on this line: 

Carboilrtale. Situated at the confluence of Rock Creek and Roaring Fork, 
twelve miles south of (jlenwoofl Springs. Tliis is the junction with the Crystal 
River Railroad leading to the coke ovens and coal mines owned and operated by 
the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company. (Population, 500. Distance from Denver, 
373 miles. Elevation, 6,181 feet.) 

The Crystal Kiver Railway, starting at Carhondaie, where it con- 
nects with the Aspen branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, runs up the 
valley of Rock Creek, in a southerly direction, for about twenty miles, to Placita, 



5^ OVER THE RANGE 

with a branch from Redstone to Coal Basin, a distance of twelve miles. This rail- 
way is owned by the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, and is an important feeder 
to the Rio Grande System, bringing to the main line vast quantities of coal and coke. 
Avalanche Creek. Twelve miles from Carbondale. This will be the 
shipping-point for silver and iron ores located six to eight miles up Avalanche Creek. 
Penny's Hot Spring's. Fourteen miles south of Carbondale, on Rock 
Creek. These springs are said to be equal to those of Glen wood in healing and 
restorative power. 

Redstone. The junction of the Coal Basin branch, and seat of the summer 
home of the president of the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company. 

Coal Basin. Nineteen miles from Carbondale. At this station all the 
coal from Coal Basin is received. This is the largest and finest body of coking 
coal in Colorado, and is controlled by the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company. 
Extensive coking ovens have been erected at this point. 

l*lacita. Twenty miles from Carbondale. At this point is located the 
coal breaker and extensive plant of the company, who own the extensive anthra- 
cite coal-fields of Chair Mountain. This company is shipping large quantities of 
anthracite coal daily. This coal is said to be equal to the best red ash conl of 
Pennsylvania. 

Scenic Attraction. The line passes the base of Sopris Mountain and 
Chair Mountain, and terminates in the great elbow of the Elk Mountains at Placita. 
No finer scenery can be found in the West. In a ride of two hours the tourist can 
be transported from the beautiful valley of Roaring Fork nearly to the summit of 
the Elk Mountain Range, and can view nearly all the prominent peaks from Mount 
Massive west. 

Returning to Carbondale, the stations on the main line to Aspen are as follows: 
Emma, Rose, and Woody Creek. 

Aspen, the county-seat of Pitkin County, is 
located in one of the most noted mining regions 
of Colorado, and is the terminus of the Aspen 
branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. 
The valleys of the Roaring Fork River and its 
confluents, Castle, Hunter's, and Maroon creeks, 
are especially fitted for agriculture, and the hills 
and mesas adjacent form a fine range for stock, 
which in addition to the mining interests will surely 
make Aspen one of the most prosperous cities in the 
State. Stores and shops of all kinds, carrying large 
lines of goods, are abundant and the business done here would do credit to a town 
boasting five times its present population. The good faith of the people is mani- 
fested by the character of the buildings they have erected. It is a town of beauti- 
ful homes, and has most excellent society. All the principal religious denomina- 
tions have suitable houses of worship, and the public schools are of an excellent 
order. The hotels are good, there is a fine opera house and hotel, and the town 
is supplied with pure water from Castle Creek. An electric-light plant illuminates 
the principal jjlaccs of business as well as the streets. The climate is delicious 
and especially beneficial in all pulmonary complaints. Aspen is a garden town, 
and disjjlays many beautiful lawns, sprinkled and beautified by flowers. 

The main industry of Pitkin County, of which Aspen is the county-seat, is 
mining. The town is situated uuon the great zone or belt which passes through 



ASPEN. 

Great Mining Town. 

Health and Pleasure 
Resort. 

Population, 5,000. 

Elevation, 7,874 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 
402 miles. 



54 



OVER THE RANGE 



the country in a northeasterly and southwesterly course, and has tributary territory 
for from twenty to thirty miles each way. The ores are of good grade and are 
found in remarkably large deposits. The Great Central lead, with its spurs and 
lateral feeders, resembles a river with many branches. Silver and lead are the 

principal mineral products, 
although gold has been 
found and profitably worked 
at Independence, in the 
eastern part of the county, 
and the iron ores at Coop- 
er's Camp, in the south- 
western part, are found in 
immense deposits, and are 
of the very finest quality. 
Building stone is found, and 
the rock is unsurpassed in 
texture or color, and the 
surrounding hills will be 
great producers for out- 
side markets. Some coal 
is found in Pitkin County, 
but not in extensive meas- 
ures as in Garfield, the 
great coal county of the 
United States, which ad- 
joins upon the north. There 
is no territory of similar 
area with richer or more 
varied products than Pit- 
kin County. The scenery 
around this thriving city is 
wonderfully varied and 
beautiful. Situated in the 
heart of the mountains, 
and surrounded by the 
most wonderful works of 
nature, Aspen will always 
be an attractive place to 
the tourist and the lover 
of the grand and marvel- 
ous. Hunting and fishing 
are found here in their per- 
fection. Nature seems to 
have made Asi)cn her 
favorite child, and has poured out at her feet all the rit li gifts of lier (ornu- 
cof)ia. (Population, 5,000. Distance from Denver, 40J miles. l'",kv:ition, 
7,874 feet.) 

Returning to Glenwood Sj)rings, we cross to the western bank of the river, 
and resume our journey towards thi' Occident, down the beautiful valley of the 
Grand. 




MARBLE CANON. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 55 

New Castle. Here are located extensive coal-mines and coking oven= 
of the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company. (Distance from Denver, 373 miles. 
Population, 1,000. Elevation, 5,562 feet.) 

Rifle. The debarking point for Meeker and other points reached bv stage 
lines. Excellent hunting and fishing grounds surround Rifle in all directions. 
Elk, deer, bear, trout, and all kinds of game are in abundance. (Distance from 
Denver, 387 miles. Population, 500. Elevation, 5,310 feet.) 

Meekei*. (45 miles north of Rifle by daily stage.) Meeker is situated in 
the heart of the finest fishing and game country in the state, and naturally the great 
goal for hunters, fishermen, health, and ])leasure seekers generally. Meeker 
has excellent stores, livery, and is headcjuarters for guides, and with this point as 
a base, excursions into the game country, varying in distance from 5 to 100 miles, 
may be made, well repaying the participants for the outlay of time and money. 
The principal hunting and fishing resorts are along the north and south forks of 
the White River and on the White River itself, Marvin Creek, Trapper's Lake, 
Marvine Lakes and numerous tributaries of the streams named. Guides, horses, 
wagons, pack-horses, dogs, fishing-tackle, guns, ammunition, tents, and camp 
equipage, together with all manner of food supplies,, are obtainable at Meeker at 
reasonable rates. The game country around Meeker is prolific in all kind« of 
big game and in the open seasons is the mecca of many sportsmen from all over 
the United States. It was from this point that President Roosevelt made his 
famous lion -hunting expedition. The agent for the Denver & Rio Grande at 
Meeker will give his personal attention to any requests for information, or will 
make advance arrangements for parties desiring to visit this region. 

The Orainl Valley is noted for its agricultural resources, being one 
of the most prolific producing portions of the state. All manner of grains are raised 
in great abundance, and the fruits, especially peaches, grown in this valley are unsur- 
passed. The principal railroad points are Parachute, DeBeque, and Palisade. 

In the Vafley of the Grand River, and sur- 
rounded by a fertile and well-watered country. 
Grand Junction is the leading city of western 
Colorado. An extensive system of irrigating 
ditches has been established, and all the land 
under these ditches taken up, and most of it culti- 
vated. The comparatively low altitude of this 
valley (it being the lowest among the Rocky Moun- 
tains, with but one exception, in Utah) makes it 
especially adapted to the cultivation of fruit and 
sugar beets. Peaches, grapes, apricots, pears, and 
small fruits flourish here in great luxuriance, and 
most of the farmers have planted orchards and 
vineyards of greater or less extent. The usual 
farm products thrive in the valley, and large crops can be counted on with the 
greatest confidence. The discovery that sugar beets could be raised cheaply and 
satisfactorily in the country around Grand Junction, led the capitalists of the State 
to invest in the construction of a plant for the conversion of this vegetable into 
sugar. The plant is large and has enormous capacity and as the production of 
beets increase can easily enlarge this capacity. The beets raised in the vicinity 
are particularly valuable for sugar manufacture, running as high as fifteen and eigh- 
teen per cent in saccharine matter and being fully ninety per cent pure. Farmers 



Grand Junction. 

Chief City of 

Grand River Valley, at 

Junction of Grand and 

Gunnison Rivers. 

Population, 5,000. 

Distance from Denver, 
450 miles, via Standard 

Gauge Line; 424 miles 
via Narrow Gauge Line. 

Elevation, 4,594 feet. 

Eating Station. 



OVER THE RANGE. 




GRAND CANON OF THE COLORADO. 



in the neighborhood are devoting large acreages to the cultivation of the beet, 
as remunerative crops, w'th the aid of irrigation, is assured. This industry is also 
being developed in other parts of the State, and the day is not far distant when 
Colorado will rank among the foremost in the production of sugar, a truly valuable 
and interesting addition to its long list of business interests. Grand Junction is 
the county-seat of Mesa County, and has business and public buildings of a sub- 
stantial character. Shade trees have been planted on each side of the streets 
giving the town a most pleasing and attractive appearance. There is one thing 
sure about the Grand River Valley, and that is, it will never want for water; and 
with plenty of water for irrigation secured, the future urosperity of the valley and 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. SI 

the consequent growth of Grand Junction are both assured. Back in the hills 
great herds are pastured, and extensive coal-mines reached by the Little Book 
ClilT Railroad and large natural gas wells add to the many resources of this thriv- 
ing city. 

Grand Junction is well named, for here is the converging point of the standard 
and narrow-gauge lines of the Denver &r Rio Grande Railroad with the Rio Grande 
Western line for Ogden, Salt Lake, and the Pacific coast, as well as the confluence 
of the two largest rivers in Colorado, the Grand and the Gunnison. 

Fl'llita is the next station to the west, and is in the heart of a most magnificent 
fruit-growing region. The peaches, apricots and nectarines reaching a high degree 
of perfection and of phenomenal yield. (Population, 300. Distance from Denver, 
460 miles. Elevation, 4,510 feet.) 

The Utah Desert. For a stretch of about 160 miles beyond Fruita 
no agricultural country will be seen — over one hundred miles of this, in fact, is 
known as the "Utah Desert." But well-informed people assert that all this desert 
needs to be made fertile is irrigation. Water can be got on this land from the 
Grand River or Green River, and perhaps before another decade has passed 
away the "Utah Desert" will be ranked with that geographical myth of twenty 
years ago, "The Great American Desert." 

The Book Clitls. The intervening space of one hundred miles be- 
tween the Grand River and the Green would be monotonous were it not for the 
glimpses one obtains, to the left, of the snow-crowned San Rafael and Sierra La Sal 
Mountains, and the constant presence, to the right, of the multiform and vari- 
colored Book Cliffs. These Cliffs are the northern shore of what in former ages 
must have been a great inland sea, across whose basin the railroad runs. They 
vary in altitude from seven thousand to nine thousand feet and divide the waters of 
the Grand River from those of the White, extending two hundred miles from east 
to west. 

Thompson's. Distance from Denver, 528 miles. Elevation, 5,160 feet. 
Population nominal. At this point, during the season, vast droves of sheep are driven 
in from the south, the wool clipped, and shipped to market. The region to the south, 
of which Moab, Utaii, is the center, contributes large quantities of fruit to the 
Denver and Salt Lake City markets, wliich is all brought to Thompson's by wagon, 
and thence by rail to the cities named. West of Thompson's there are no stations 
of importance until the crossing of the (irecn River. 

Green RiA'er is an oasis in the desert, and on alighting from the cars 
the traveler is astonished at the beauty of the surroundings, situated as it is, away 
out on the edge of the desert. A handsome lawn of shaven grass surrounds the 
station, ornamented with trees, shrubs, and flowers. Green River is a ship])ing 
point of considerable importance for stock. (Population nominal. Distance from 
Denver, 555 miles. Elevation, 4,080 feet.) 

Grand Canon of the Col<)ra<lo. From the bridge across Green 
River the traveler can, if the day is clear, catch a glimpse of the rugged walls of 
the Grand Canon of the Colorado, scarcely fifty miles to the southward. 

Clinibins" the Wasateh Rangre. From Green River to Soldier Sum- 
mit, a distance of ninety-nine miles, the grade is a constant ascent, the scenery 
growing wilder and more varied as the advance is made. The road extends to the 
northwest, and, after passing Sphinx, Desert Switch, and Cliff Siding, unimpor- 
tant sidetracks, reaches Woodsifle, Iwenty-tivc miles from Green River. 

Wootlsicle is situated on Price River in the midst of interesting scenery. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 59 

Stock raising is tributary to the station. (Population nominal. Distance from 
Denver, 580 miles. Elevation, 4,645 feet.) 

Price Situated on the south fork of llie Price River, the town has a very 
fertile valley, though of limited extent, surrounding it. What arable land tliere is 
has been carefully utilized, and large cro])s of potatoes, alfalfa, oats, and vege- 
tables are raised here, through the aid of irrigation. There are mines of asphaltum 
to the northward, which are worked extensively, and the product shijjped to the 
East. Price is also an important shipping-point for cattle, sheep, and wool. The 
scenery here is very attractive, and the hunting and fishing are excellent. (Popu- 
lation, 100. Distance from Denver, 6ig miles. Elevation, 5,547 feet.) 

Fort du Chesiie. Eighty miles to the northward from Price, on the 
Uintah and L'nv.omi)ahgre Indian reservation, is Fort Du Chesne, the Government 
post, supplies for which arc forwarded from Price. Fort Du Chesne has four 
companies of infantrv, and two of cavalry, numbering in all three hundred men. 
There are 4,000,000 acres in the reservation, all of which are at the service of only 
2,500 Indians. 

H'c'lper. End of the railroad divisions and dining station. (Population, 
500. Distance from Denver, 626 miles. Elevation, 5,840 feet.) 

Your miles beyond Helper station the train 
enters the famous portals of Castle Gate, which 
stand at the entrance of the Price River Cafion. 
Castle Gate is similar in many respects to the gate- 
way in the Garden of Gods. The two huge pillars, 
or ledges of rock composing it, are offshoots of the 
cliffs behind. They are of different heights, one 
measuring five hundred, and the other four hundred 
and fifty feet, from top to base. They are richly 
dyed with red, and the firs and pines growing about them, but reaching only to 
their lower strata, render this coloring more noticeable and beautiful. Between the 
two sharp promontories, which are separated only by a narrow space, the river and 
the railwav both run, one pressing closely against the other. The stream leaps 
over a rocky bed, and its banks are Hned with tangled brush. Once past the gate, 
and looking back, the bold headlands forming it have a new and more attractive 
beauty. They are higher and more massive, it seems, than when we were in their 
shadow. No other pinnacles approach them in size or majesty. They are land- 
marks up and down the canon, their lofty tops catching the eye before their bases 
are discovered. It was down Price River Canon, and past Castle Gate, that 
Albert Sidney Johnston marched his army home from Utah. For miles now, and 
until the mountains are crossed, the route chosen by the General is closely followed. 
The gateway is hardly lost to view by a turn in the cafion before we are scaling the 
wooded heights. The river is never lost sight of. The cliffs which hem us in are 
filled with curious forms. Now there is seen a mighty castle, with moats and 
towers, loopholes and wall; now a gigantic head appears. At times side canons, 
smaller than the one we are in, lead to verdant heights beyond, where game of 
every variety abounds. 

Kyune. Large stone quarries are worked here. (Distance from Denver, 
639 miles. Elevation, 6,960 feet.) 

Colton. This little town is situated in the midst of rich and extensive coal 
measures. A branch road runs to the coal-mines, a distance of about twenty miles 
to the southward. The coal is valuable for coking, and is used in the various 



CASTLE GATE. 

Entrance to 
Price River Canon. 

Height, 500 feet. 



6o OVER THE RANGE 

smelters of the territon^ and is shipped in large quantities to the Pacific Coast. 
(Population, 200. Distance from Denver, 644 miles. Elevation, 7,071 feet.) 

Pleasant Valley Braiioll. From Colton the branch extends to Clear 
Creek, a distance of twenty miles. The intervening stations arc Hale, Scofield, 
and Winter Quarters. The chief business of the road is the transportation of coal, 
which is mined extensively here. 

Soldier Summit. Here we are on the highest railroad point on the 
Wasatch Range, and at this j)oint General A.S. Johnston crossed the range in his 
march to Utah, and here is buried one of his soldiers, hence the name of the station. 
Good pasturage covers the mountain tops, and great herds of cattle, horses, and 
sheep graze here among the sage brush. The scenery here is wild and picturesque, 
and the view is wide, embracing a great sweep of serrated mountain summits. 
(Population nominal. Distance from Denver, 652 miles. Elevation, 7,454 feet.) 
From this point the descent is made to the Utah Valley. 

Ke<l Narrows. Here the cliffs rise on each side of the track, assuming 
fantastic forms, and glowing with varied colors, among which red is predominant; 
hence the name. 

Tlli.stle Junction. This is the junction point of the main line and the 
San Pete branch extending to Marysvale. (Population, 100. Elevation, 5,033 
feet. Distance from Denver, 677 miles.) 

The San Pete Branch of the Rio Grande System starts toward the vast 
mines and quarries, grain fields and fruit gardens that lie toward the south from 
Thistle. Glance for a moment down this branch line. Two miles from Thistle is 
Asphaltum station, where there is a bed of nearly pure asphaltum, covering a 
square mile, and from eight to fourteen feet thick. Six miles further, and at Pines, 
a view is caught of Mount Nebo, one of the tallest and grandest peaks in Utah, 
snow-capped all the year. About a mile below Pines the road enters the Indian 
Reservation, and seven miles onward is Indianola, around which cluster the adobe 
houses and tepees of a branch of the great Ute tribe, whence Utah has its name. 
They do a little farming and stock-raising, and a good deal of hunting and fishing, 
and, all things considered, are generally doing well. Whirling on through twenty 
miles of pastures and farms, past Hilltop and Milburn, at Fairview a glorious view 
of the San Pete Valley, "the granary of Utah," bursts upon the enchanted eye. 
The whole country for fifty miles is a mingUng of field and garden. Only six miles 
more, and the train sweeps into Mount Pleasant, nestled in peach and apricot, 
apple, pear, and plum trees, all bowed down with their loads of fruit. The town 
stands at the foot of the mountain on a commanding site. It has about 3,000 
population, a flouring-mill and planing-mill, and is the seat of Wasatch Academy, 
a Presbyterian school of some repute. Five miles in twelve minutes, and Spring 
City is passed, with great masses of snow-crowned mountains east and southeast of 
it, and in ten miles more, Ephraim's bowers of fruit and shade are entered. In a 
])opulation of 2,200 there are 800 school children, besides all those too young for 
schooling. A new depot, new hotel, and many other new buildings tell the story of 
prosperity. 

A dash of seven miles onward, and Manti is reached, with 2,500 people, and 
hardly a poor man among them. Here, at the top of four lofty terraces hewn from 
the mountain side, stands the magnificent Mormon temple, which has cost 
$2,500,000, and is only second to the one in Salt Lake City. It is nearly two hun- 
dred feet long, one hundred wide, and one hundred high, with massive towers at 
each end, rising one hundred and seventy-five feet in the air. It is built of snow- 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 6l 

white oolite, quarried out of the site on which it stands, and the whole workmanship 
is exquisite. It can be plainly seen for forty miles up and down the valley. A hot 
spring on the edge of the town pours out a hundred cubic feet a minute of water 
gifted with remarkable medicinal qualities. Just below Manti are the strange 
"Saleratus Beds," where for two miles or more the road runs through vast deposits 
of soda pure enough for cooking purposes. 

The train rushes on through a continuous succession of grain fields and orchards. 
Sterhng, Gunnison, and Axtell are passed, the Sevier Valley is entered, and the 
locomotive screams its greeting to Salina, a thriving town of i,ooo industrious 
citizens. Just back of the town are mountains of rock salt, much of it as clear as 
cr}'Stal, and absolutely pure. Millions on millions of tons of it can be blasted 
out as cheap as dirt. About a mile south of these mountainous monuments to 
the memory of Lot's wife is a mountain of almost pure gypsum, and there is 
kaolin enough to furnish all the potteries and candy-makers of the world. The 
whole region abounds with game and tish. The railway company are now con- 
structing a branch line in a northeasterly direction from Salina to a connection 
with the main line at a point near Green River, thus shortening the distance be- 
tween the east and this rich valley by almost one hundred miles.. Leaving Salina 
the San Pete Branch continues to the southward past Richfield, Elsinore, and 
Sevier to Marysvale, a distance of forty-seven miles. Through this stretch of 
beautiful valley will be found many charming orchards and fields of waving 
grain, and back in the hills the mines give forth their hoard of precious metals. 
Marysvale is destined to be a city of great importance at no distant day, as all 
southern Utah and Nevada will be tributary to it, and projected lines of railway 
to southern California have their northern terminals here. Returning again to 
the main line we find that the 

Spailisli Fork Canon is charmingly picturesque, and a spot which 
would delight the artist. It is characterized by fresh foliage, soft contours, charm- 
ing contrasts, and sparkling waters. Emerging from the canon the traveler realizes 
that one stage of his mountain journey has been achieved, and before him lies one 
of the most fertile valleys in the world. 

Utall Valley. This favored spot presents the appearance of a well-culti- 
vated park. It has an Arcadian beauty, and resembles the vales of Scotland. In 
the center rests LHah Lake, where 

"... the stars and mountains view 
The stillness of their aspect in each trace 
Its clear depth yields of their far height and hue." 

A little back from the lake stand the towns of Springville and Provo, shaded by 
the near peaks of the range. Utah Valley possesses a fertile soil, a delightful 
climate, and is one of the best farming sections of Utah. Fruit trees and grape 
vines grow as readily as hay and cereals, and the sugar beet is rapidly proving a 
source' of great wealth to the farmers in this favored region. Eastward the oblong- 
shaped basin is shut in by the Wasatch Mountains; and on the west in the Oquirrh 
Range. Northward are low hills, or mesas, crossing the valley and separating it 
from that of the Great Salt Lake; while in the south, the east and west ranges 
approach each other and form blue-tinted walls of uneven shape. To the left of 
this barrier Mount Nebo, highest and grandest of the Utah peaks, rises majestically 
above all surroundings. Its summit sj)arkles with snow, its lower slopes are wooded 
and soft, while from it, and extending north and south, run vast, broken, vari- 
colored confreres. The valley is like a well-kept garden; farm joins farm; crystal 



62 OVER THE RANGE 

streams water it; and scattered about in rich profusion are long lines of fruit trees, 
amid which are trim, white houses. All these evidences of prosperity testify to 
the virtues of industry, frugality, and perseverance, which no one can deny are 
possessed by the Mormon farmers. 

Sl)rillg"villo. This is a typical INIormon town, and is really the first Mor- 
mon settlement we enter. The town derives its name from the fact that a strong 
hot spring pours its waters into a stream just above the town, in Hobble Canon. 
The water does not freeze in winter, and thus a flouring mill run by it is enabled to 
work the year round. (Population, 3,500. Distance from Denver, 692 miles. 
Elevation, 4,555 feet.) 

Tilltic Braiicll extends southward from Springville, on through Spanish 
Fork, Payson, and Goshen, a region rich in all agricultural productions. West of 
Goshen, the branch line enters Pihon Canon, and runs for ten miles through as 
wild and rugged scenes as can be found in all this region of scenic wonders. The 
track through the canon is a dizzy puzzle in engineering. It winds and climbs, 
twists, turns, and wriggles, and at last absolutely crosses itself backward and for- 
ward, tv-ing itself into a loop like a double bow-knot. There are but two similar 
track tangles in the United States, one in California and the other, in Colorado. 
Out of this canon labyrinth, the line emerges at Silver City in the far-famed Tintic 
mining-camp; and just on beyond that, will doubdess ere long rush its iron horse 
into the newly discovered Deep Creek bonanza region, whose richness is now 
attracting wide-spread attention. 

Spailisll Fork. This is the first town on the Tintic Branch that the 
tourist enters. It is situated on the Spanish Fork River, and is a most pleasant 
rural village. Fruit and shade trees abound. Agricultural, horticultural, and 
pastoral industries are pursued by the inhabitants. Vineyards flourish, wine is 
made, dairy products are a specialty, and ihe cereals and all kinds of vegetables 
are cultivated. (Population, 3,000. Distance from Denver, 695 miles. Eleva- 
tion, 4,570 feet.) 

This pretty little city belongs to the best type 
of Mormon towns, and a description of it will 
serve to give the reader a good idea of the charac- 
teristics of all the towns built by the Mormons. 
The dwellings, as a rule, are comfortable, but not 
imposing in appearance. Many of them are con- 
structed of adobe or sun-dried bricks, and all are 
situated in lots of generous proportions and sur- 
rounded by ornamental and fruit trees. Water 
for irrigating purposes flows down each side of the 
streets, and shade trees in abundance and of luxuri- 
ant growth render the walks cool and inviting. 
Gardens filled with fruits, flowers, and vegetables are the rule, and a ([uiet,. peace- 
ful, industrious, semi-rural life is the good fortune of the residents here. The town 
is eminently fitted for a health and pleasure resort, and has also great advantages 
as a manufacturing center. The Timpanogas River furnishes unexcelled water 
power, while inexhaustible supplies of artesian water are to \tv found at a (le]>lli of 
from forty to two hundred feet. The city has, in fact, the finest water supply of 
any in Utah Territory. Provo has a fine public school system and is the seat of the 
Brigham Young Academy, which was amply endowed by the first president of 
the Mormon Church, from whom the school takes its name. Its churches and pub- 



PROVO. 

County-Seat of Utah Co. 
Summer Resort. 

Population. 6,500. 

Distance from Denver, 
696 miles. 

Elevation, 4,512 feet. 



64 OVER THE RANGE 

lie buildings, including an opera house, are a credit to its people, who are of a 
literary taste and inclined to liberality of thought. Utah Lake, a fine body of 
fresh water, lies to the southwest, and to the north and east are the Wasatch Moun- 
tains. Farming and beet sugar raising, horticulture, and the raising of cattle and 
sheep are tributary industries, while in the town are large saw-milis, sugar 
factories, flouring mills, and woolen mills, the most extensive in Utah. 

Provo Caiiou or Heber Brancb. This branch traverses its entire length 
the beautiful Provo Canon. The railway follows the windings of the Provo River 
from the mouth to the head of the canon, where it widens into the picturesque 
Heber valley. It offers, therefore, innumerable shady spots along a stream that 




LAKE SAN CRISTOVAL. 

abounds ^^•ith mountain trout. At Bridal Veil Falls, whose waters dash over a 
precipice 400 feet high, likewise at the Forks of the River, accommodations for 
tourists have been provided. A trip through this canon to Afidway, the Natural 
Hot Pots and Heber will convince you that no lovelier or more healthful spot exists 
in the state. The "Hot Pots" are natural craters of boiling waters, and here has 
been established a comfortable sanitarium, with baths of all temperatures and 
description. This is also the route to the Strawberry and Duchesne valleys. 
Ell route are passed Caryhurst, Nunns, and Charleston, the latter a charming N-illage 
of 250 inhabitants. At Heber, the terminus of the branch, we Hnd a thriving town 
of 1,600 people. (Distance from Denver, 722 miles. Elevation, 5,55<) feet.l 

Utab Lako. Mention has already been made of tliis beautiful body of 
water, but the statistical traveler may want to know something more delinite about 
its dimensions. The lake is thirty miles long, six miles wide, and is fed by the 
American Fork, Sj)anish Fork, a'nd Provo Rivers, and Salt, Pe.teetweet, and Hobble 
Creeks. Its outlet is the Jordan River which, flowing northward, empties into 
Great Salt Lake. There are plenty of fish in Utah Lake, chiefly trout and mullet. 

AllK'vifaii F<U'k. On the western extremity of Utah Lake, is American 
Fork, a thriving town beautifully situated and embowered in trees. Agricultural 
and pastoral industries are tributary to its prosperity. (Population, 3,000. Dis- 
tance from Denver, 7cq miles. Elevation, 4,563 feet.) 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



65 



Lelli. Four miles from American Fork is Lehi, another thriving town also 
on Utah Lake. Fruit and shade trees abound and make the town a place of sylvan 
beauty. The same industries thrive here as in the sister town mentioned above. 
Situated at Lehi is the main establishment of the Utah Sugar Co.'s beet sugar 
plant. Here the beet is reduced in vast quantities to commercial sugar of excellent 
quality. At several other points in the Utah Valley the Sugar Company have 
crushing plants, where the syrup is extracted from the beets and pumjjcd in long 




THE BALANCED ROCK. 



pipe lines to the works at Lehi for final refining. Much could be written on the 
beet sugar industry, but suffice here to say, that this new source of wealth bids 
fair to place Utah at the head of her sister states in the production of sugar, and of 
wealth consequent thereon. The plants mentioned herein are of most recent 
and modern construction and capable of handling an enormous amount of beets 
daily. (Population, 3,000. Distance from Denver, 713 miles. Elevation, 4,544 
feet.) 

Billg'liaiii Junetioil. This station is at the junction of the Bingham 
and Alta branches of the road, and therefore is quite a bustling place in the way 
of railroad business, though it has but a nominal population. (Distance from Den- 
ver, 730 miles. Elevation, 4,365 feet.) 



66 OVER THE RANGE 

Billg'hain Branch. This branch extends southwest to Bingham, a 
distance of fourteen miles. The intervening stations are Revere, Lead Mine, and 
Terra Cotta. 

Billg'liaill. The town may almost be classed as a suburb of Salt Lake 
City, as it is less than an hour's ride from the capital of Utah Territory. The 
main industry of the surrounding population is mining. (Population, 900. Dis- 
tance from Denver, 744 miles. Elevation, 5,862 feet.) 

Little Cottonwood Branch. This branch extends to the northward 
from Bingham Junction to Wasatch, a distance of ten miles. The intermediate 
stations are Sandy and Davenport. The line passes through the Little Cottonwood 
Canon en route. 

Alta. This is a mining town known all round the world. The place is not 
only entertaining in itself, but in its neighborhood are a large number of easily 
accessible gorges, lakes, and hilltops full of artistic material and of trout fishing; or, 
if the tourist goes late in the season, of good shooting and ample opportunit)' for 
dangerous adventures in mountaineering. The Little Cottonwood canon is one 
of those great crevices between the peaks of the Wasatch Range, plainly visible 
from Salt Lake City, and distinguished by its white walls, which, when wet with 
the morning dews, gleam like monstrous mirrors as the sunlight reaches them from 
over the top of the range. Alta is reached by a narrow gauge tram from Wasatch 
a distance of about eight miles. 

The River Jordan. After the valley of Utah Lake has been left behind, 
en route to Salt Lake City, on the left of the track is seen a small river of yellow 
water meandering through the sage brush and volcanic scoria. The river is the 
Jordan, so called because it connects the Utah with the Great Salt Lake, as its 
namesake does Galilee and the Dead Sea. 

In July, 1847, Brigham Young stood on Ensign 
Peak, the "Mount of Prophecy,'' and announced 
to his followers that down in the valley below 
should be founded the new "City of Zion, " the 
future home of the Latter Day Saints. Up to 
187T the original settlers virtually lived apart from 
the rest of the world. This was owing to the 
religious views of the Mormons, which made them 
a peculiar and isolated people. To mining is due 
the first incursion of Gentile population, which 
population has steadily increased, until at present the community of Salt Lake 
City differs but Uttle from any other in its social, business, or religious aspect, except 
that it possesses, in addition to the accepted religious associations which exist else- 
where, one which differs from all others. The city is situated at the base of the 
Wasatch Mountains, which are a part of the great Continental Range dividing the 
Far West from the plains which extend from the base of the Rockies to the Missouri 
River. The fmest residence portion of the city occupies the mountain bench, once 
the shore of a great inland sea, known to geologists and scientists as "Lake Bonne- 
ville," from which, ages ago, the waters receded until they settled in the basin of 
the Great Salt Lake, distant eighteen miles from the water marks yet plainly to be 
seen above the city. The location is such as to command a view of the entire 
valley, both ranges of mountains, and the southern portion of the lake. The 
streets are one hundred and thirty-two feet wide and bordered on each side with 
long rows of shade trees. Streams of pure water are conducted in ditches along 



SALT LAKE CITY. 

Capital of the State 
of Utah. 

Population, 70,000. 

Elevation, 4,225 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 
741 miles. 



68 OVER THE RANGE 

both sides of all the streets. The business sections are well built, and the business 
streets are paved. One of the largest business enterprises of the city is the Co-opera- 
tive Establishment. For convenience it is universally called the "Co-op."; its title 
in full is the " Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution. " It has a central building 
for headquarters and branches throughout the city and State. Whenever 
one sees a building with the mystic initials "Z. C. M. I." on its sign, one may 
know it is a branch of the great "Co-op." The headquarters of this institution 
are of brick, three hundred and eighteen by fifty-three feet in size, three stories 
high, and built over a large cellar. This building is crowded with merchandise 
of every description, and does an extensive wholesale and retail business. " Tem- 
ple Square" is a great attraction for the tourist. Here are situated the Mormon 
Temple, Tabernacle, and Assembly Hall. The Tabernacle is immense in its pro- 
portions, the roof resembling an upturned boat, and is visible from nearly every part 
of the city. The Temple is, with the single exception of St. Patrick's Cathedral 
in New York, the grandest and costliest ecclesiastical structure in this countr}-. 
It was begun in 1853, completed in 1893, and cost nearly $6,000,000. It is two 
hundred feet long, a hundred feet vwde, and a hundred feet high, with four towers, 
one at each corner, two hundred and twenty feet in height. The walls are ten feet 
thick, and the massivcness and solidity of its construction insure its defiance of 
the ravages of time for ages to come. It is built wholly of .snow-white granite from 
the Cottonwood Canon; and, standing on one of the loftiest points in the city, can 
be seen for fiity miles up and down the valley. Near by are the Bee Hive and Lion 
Houses, once the homes of Brigham Young and his many vnves. The 
Hot Spring's and the Warm Spring's of Salt Lake are highly 
medicinal, and the large baths at both places are resorted to for many 
ailments. Within a short radius of the city the attractions are varied and 
numerous. Fort Douglas, the Lake, Emigration City, Bingham, Little 
and Big Cottonwood Canons, the Hot Pots at Heber are easily reached. 
From Ensign Peak a panoramic view of the surrounding country is had. One 
may look from it down the greater part of Utah's length, while near at hand lie 
the city and lake. The Fort is also a popular resort, and not only commands an 
extensive view, but affords excellent opportunities of studying garrison life. The 
rides, drives, and rambles are innumerable. Every taste is catered to. For those 
who love grandeur, there are the mountains, vdth their narrow trails, secluded 
parks, wild caiions and deep gorges; for those preferring gentler aspects, the valley, 
glowing with freshness, affords continual pleasure; for those craving the mysterious, 
there is the lake, large, silent, and strange. The hotels arc excellent, the cHmate 
unexcelled, and days may be passed delightfully in exploring and in studying the 
wealth of attractions. There are theaters, reading rooms, good horses, excellent 
electric railways reaching to all parts of the city and suburbs, perfect order and 
universal cleanliness. Many of the private houses are palatial, and altogether the 
city is one of rare beauty and interest. 

As far as can be learned, the first mention in history of the Great Salt Lake 
was by the Baron La Houtan, in 1689, who gathered from the Western Indians 
some vague notions of its existence. Captain Bonneville sent a party from 
Green River in 1833 to make its circuit, but they seem to have given up the 
enterprise on reaching the desert on the northwest, on which they lost their 
way, and after weeks of aimless wandering found themselves in Lower California. 
To General John C. Fr6mont must be given the credit of first navigating its 
waters. In 1842, on his way to Oregon, General Fremont pushed out from the 



Great Salt Lake. 

Area, 2,500 square 
miles. 

Mean Depth, 20 feet. 

Specific Gravity, 1.107, 

Lengtli, 126 miles. 

Breadth. 45 miles. 



70 OVER THE RANGE 

mouth of Webber River, in a rubber boat, for the nearest island. He found it to 
be a desolate rock, fourteen miles in circumference and named it Disappointment 
Island. Captain Stansbury, on a subsequent visit, 
re-named it Fremont's Island, which name is re- 
tained. In 1850 Captain Stansbury spent three 
months in making a detailed survey of the Lake, 
its shores and islands. In brief, he found the west 
shore a salt-encrusted desert; the north shore com- 
posed of wide salt marshes, overflowed under steady 
winds from the south; the east shore possessed good, 
irrigable lands; the south shore was set vvith moun- 
tain ranges standing endways towards the lake, \dth 
the grassy valleys. Spring, Toelle, and Jordan, inter- 
vening. The principal islands are Antelope and 
Stansbury, rocky ridges ranging north and south, rising abruptly from the water to r. 
height of three thousand feet. Antelope is the nearest to Salt Lake City, and is six- 
teen miles long. Stansbury is twenty miles to the westward and is twelve miles in 
length. Both have springs of fresh water and good range for the stock, with which 
they are now covered. Of minor islands there are Fremont, Carrington, Gunni- 
son, Dolphin, Mud, Egg, and Hat, besides several small insular promontories without 
names. The first white man's boat to navigate the lake was probably that of 
Fremont; Captain Stansbury came next with his exploring boat curiously named 
the "Salicornia"; next in order were the Walker brothers, merchants of Salt Lake 
City, who sailed for some years a lonesome pleasure yacht. The lake covers an 
area of 2,500 square miles. Its mean depth does not probably exceed twenty feet, 
while the deepest place between Antelope and Stansbury is sixty feet. From 
1847 to 1856 the lake gradually filled five or six feet, and then slowly subsided to 
its old level. In 1863 it began to fill again, and in four or five years reached a 
point considerably higher than its present level, perhaps four or five feet. In the 
year 1875 a pillar was set up at Black Rock, by which to measure the rise and fall, 
resembUng a tide, but having no ascertained time. It is very slight compared vrith 
what it formerly was. Professor Gilbert of the Geological Survey, says that t\\-ice 
within recent geological time it has risen nearly a thousand feet higher than its 
present stage, and, of course, covered vastly more ground. He calls that lake 
after Captain Bonnevdlle, the original e.xplorer of these regions, and whom Irving 
has immortalized. Lake Bonnevdlle. Causes which learned men assign as ])rodu- 
cing what they call a glacial period might easily fill the lake until it extended nearly 
the whole length of Utah. During the last high stage, Professor Gilbert says there 
were active volcanoes in it. It is generally agreed that its first outbreak was via 
Marsh Creek, and the Portneuf into the Snake. .\t the present height of that 
channel (where the Oregon Short Line passes out of Cache Valley) it remained a 
long time stationary and then seems to have receded rapidly to a scconil stationary 
point, and so on down to its present stage. There is one very heavy beach-mark 
on all the hills surrounding its extended area and on the hills, which were then 
islands, and a curious thing is the fact that this beach-mark varies in altitude from 
one hundred to three hundred feet, showing that the earth in this valley is still far 
from having reached a stable equilibrium. 

The most mysterious thing about this inland sea, aside from its saltncss, is the 
fact that it has no known outlet. A great number of fresh water streams pour into 
the lake from all sides, yet the water remains salt and the lake docs not overflow. 



72 



OVER THE RANGE 



The saline or solid matter held in solution by the water varies as the lake rises and 
subsides. In 1842 Fremont obtained "fourteen pints of very white salt" from five 
gallons of the water evaporated over a camp-fire. The salt was also very pure, 
assaying 97.80 fine. In 1850 Dr. L. D. Gale analyzed a sample of it which pelded 
twenty per cent of pure common salt, and about two per cent of foreign salts, chlo- 
rides of lime and magnesia. Sergeant Smart, U. S. A., analyzed a sample in 1877, 
and found an imperial gallon to contain nearly 24^ ounces of saline matter, amount- 
ing to fourteen per cent, as follows: 



Common salt 1 1.735 



Lime carbonate 

Lime sulphate 

Epsom salt 

Chloride of magnesia . 



.016 

•073 
1. 123 

■843 



Percentage of solids 13 -790 

Water 86.210 



One hundred grains of the dry solid 
matter contained: 

Common salt 85 .089 

Lime carbonate .117 

Lime sulphate .531 

Epsom salt 8.145 

Chloride of magnesia 6.1 18 



It compares with other' saline waters 
about as follows: 

Water. Solid. 

Atlantic Ocean 96.5 .... 3.5 

Mediterranean 96.2 .... 3.8 

Dead Sea 76 24. 

Great Salt Lake 86.2 .... 13.8 



And in specific gra\dty, distilled 
water being unity: 



Ocean water i .026 

Dead Sea 1.116 

Great Salt Lake 1.107 



The solid matter in the water varies between spring and fall, between dry 
and wet seasons, and also between different parts of the lake, for nearly all the 
fresh water is received from the Wasatch on the east. It is the opinion of salt 
makers that an average of the lake at its present stage would show the presence of 
seventeen per cent of solid matter. 

Salt Lake has become a fashionable bathing resort. In the long sunny days of 
June, July, August, and September the water becomes dcliciously warm, much 
warmer in fact than the ocean, and this pleasant temperature is reached a month 
earlier and remains a month later. The water is so dense that one is sustained 
without effort, and vigorous constitutions experience no inconvenience from remain- 
ing in it a long time. A more delightful and healthy exercise than buffeting its 
waves when it is a little rough can hardly be imagined. There is a magnificent 
bathing resort on the Lake, near Salt Lake City. 

Saltair. The bathing resort is at Saltair, on the Great Salt Lake, about eigh- 
teen miles from the city. During the season bathing trains are run almost hourly 
from Salt Lake City to Saltair. These trains enable all overland passengers 
stopping off at Salt Lake City to have a bath in the great dead sea. Here is located 
the finest bathing pavillion on the continent; each of the elegant bath-rooms is 
fitted with shower-bath, stationary water-bowls, mirrors, chairs, incandescent 
electric lights, etc., making Saltair one of the most attractive watering places on the 
continent. There is a first-cliss restaurant; careful male and female attendants 
and a silver-cornet band furnishes music day and evening, and one of the finest and 
largest dancing pavillions in the world. Professor John Muir, the celebrated scientist 
and litterateur, speaks as follows concerning a bath in the Great Salt Lake: 

"Since the completion of the trans-continental railways this magnificent lake 



TO TFIE GOLDEN GATE. 73 

in the heart of the continent has become as accessible as any watering place on 
either coast, and I am sure that thousands of travelers, sick and well, would throng 
to its shores every summer were its merits but half known." Saltair is only a 
few minutes' ride from the city and has good hotel accommodations, and then Ijesides 
the bracing waters, the climate is delightful. The mountains rise into a cool sky, 
furrowed with canons almost Yosemitic in grandeur and filled with a glorious 
profusion of flowers and trees. Lovers of science, lovers of wilderness, lovers of 
pure rest, will find here more than they ever may hope for. 

Park City Braiicll. The Park City line of the Rio Grande system 
traverses the beautiful Parley's Caiion. Nearly the whole distance from Salt Lake 




OURAY. 

City to Park City is a succession of camping-out and shade places and resorts with 
the railroad and the mountain stream in close company. At Pharaoh's Glen, the 
Old Arm-Chair, Mountain Dell, and Felt's Resort, there are cool, cozy nooks, 
Alpine walks and climbs, groves of quaking asp, birch, maple, and pine, rugged 
crags, and mossy brooks that dance down over a hundred tiny waterfalls. This 
is an ideal outing canon, \\-ith hunting and fishing in the %'icinity. Cabins, cottages, 
and tents for rent; guides and saddle-horses for hire. Visitors from Salt Lake 
City, picnic parties, etc., may leave the train at the various resort points at which 
it stops and select their own camping-place in the caiion. 

Park City. At the head of the caiion lies Park City, one of the greatest 
gold, silver, and lead minmg camps in Utah— an extremely interesting point to visit. 
(Population, 4,000. Elevation, 6,970 feet. Distance from Denver, 771 miles.) At 
Park City stage can be taken over the hills to Heber Hot Pots and Prove caiion, 
returning to Salt Lake City by way of the valley of the Jordan. Or stage may be 
had for Brighton's, ten miles distant, a summer resort 9,000 feet above sea level. 
Brighton's is an entrancing spot surrounded by Silver Lake, Lake Mary, and Lake 
Blanche, in the very heart of the Wasatch Mountains. It has the combined attrac- 



74 



OVER THE RANGE 



tions of mountain, lake, and stream, and is the favorite resort for Salt Lake's bon 
ton. Good hotel and cottages. En route through the Canon are passed Roper, 
Pharaoh's Glen, Old Ami-Chair, Altus, and Gogorza. 

Salt Lake to Og-den. From Salt Lake to Ogden the Denver & 
Rio Grande system traverses a narrow plain. On the west lies the Great Salt Lake, 
while to the north and east rise the serrated peaks of the Wasatch Mountains. 
This region is under a high state of cultivation. Farms reach their golden or green 
fields over its length and breadth, and little streams run in bright threads out of 
the mountain canons down across the meadows. The lake is in full view of the 
traveler most of the way, and is a never-ending source of interest. The train speeds 
on, and entering an amphitheater, set around with mountains, reaches Ogden, the 
western terminus of the Denver & Rio Grande and Union Pacific Railroads, and 
the eastern end of the Southern Pacific — as well as the southern outlet of the Oregon 
Short Line. (Population, 25,000. Distance from Denver, 778 miles. Elevation, 
4,293 feet.) 




QUEEN'S CANON 




GRAND CANON, FROM TO-RO-WASP. 



SALIDA TO GRAND JUNCTION 



VIA MARSHALL PASS. 




T Salida the tourist holding tickets over the line of railroad with 
which this book treats, may have the choice of two routes to Grand 
Junction. Either the standard gauge line via Leadville and Glen- 
wood Springs, as described in the foregoing pages, or the narrow 
gauge line via Marshall Pass, Gunnison, and Montrose. At Grand 
Junction these two lines unite and continue on to Salt Lake City and 
Ogden. The points of interest en route are as follows: 

Poiiclia. This h'ttle town, five miles west of Salida, is the station for 
Poncha Hot Springs and the junction of the Monarch Branch with the main line. 
It is really a suburb of Salida, and is connected with that town by a beautiful boule- 
vard, which is one of the pleasantest of drives. 

Moiiarcll Branch. From Poncha this branch runs in a rich mining 
country, its terminus is Monarch, a prosperous mining town, 235 miles from Denver 
and 15 miles from Poncha. The intermediate stations on the line are Mays\ille 
and Garfield. Mining is the chief industry. 

As a resort for invalids, Poncha Hot Springs 
offers superior inducements, especially to those 
suffering from chronic troubles. The sick get 
well here in less time and with less medicine than 
in any other sanitarium outside cA Colorado. The 
return to health here is made radically permanent. 
A great variety of diseases are cured by the peculiar 
earth-heated and earth-medicated waters and an 
intelligent system of baths. The effect on the sick 
is wonderfully beneficial, correllating a specific 
energy with the climate and pure atmosphere, and 
the very feeble are enabled to tolerate much hotter baths than in damper or lower 
altitudes, and secure correspondingly greater results. The analysis of the Poncha 
Hot Springs corresponds almost exactly with the waters of the Hot Springs in 
Arkansas. The temperature of the various Arkansas Hot Springs varies from 
90° to 175°, that of the Poncha Springs varies from 90° to 185° Fahrenheit. The 
water is as clear as crystal and perfectly odorless and tasteless. It quenches thirst 
whether cold or hot, and docs not disturb the stomach in any manner. There are 
one hundred of these Hot Springs, all flowing from a great field of tuja, the natural 
precipitation of ages, loss of temperature from contact with the atmosj)here and 
chemically the same as the tu!a of the Arkansas Hot Springs. The springs have 
a capacity large enough to bathe 40,000 persons daily. The following is an analysis 
of the Poncha Hot Springs: 



Poncha Springs. 

Hot Springs, 

Watering Place, 
and Health Resort. 

Distance from Denver, 
220 miles. 

Elevation, 7,480 feet. 



76 




\^,f0^''^^^^^K^^ 







78 OVER THE RANGE 



Silicic Acid 32-73 

Sesqui-oxide of Iron 1.27 

Alumina 5.20 

Lime 20.00 

Magnesia 74 

Chlorine 06 

Carbonic-Acid Gas 22.50 



Organic Matter 6.24 

Water 1.72 

Sulphuric Acid 4-46 

Potash 2.08 

Soda 1 .00 

Iodine i .50 

Bromine 1.50 



The waters are said to be a sure cure for rheumatism and all blood and skin 
diseases, and catarrhal affections. 

Ponclia Pass. After leaving Poncha Station the railroad begins to 
climb the mountains, and makes its entry into Marshall Pass by way of Poncha 
Pass. As the train makes a long curve around the side of a great hill, about two 
miles above the town of Poncha, the tourist can see the Hot Springs on the side 
of the opposite hill to the left, a deep gorge intervening, at the bottom of which 
flows a clear mountain stream. The scenery here is wild and beautiful, and the 
interest increases with each mile of the ascent. 

Mears Jlllietioil. This little station, 226 miles from Denver, in the 
heart of the hills, is the junction of the San Luis Valley branch with the main line, 
and from this point the real ascent of Marshall Pass begins. 

San Luis A'alley Branch. This branch of the Denver & Rio Grande 
extends from Mears Junction to Alamosa where it connects with the line coming 
over Veta Pass, to Silverton, and to Creede, as described elsewhere in this volume 
En route the first station of importance is 

Villa Grove. This town is situated at the northern extremity of the 
great San Luis Valley, and is surrounded by a rich agricultural country. There are 
many good mines of gold, silver, and coal in the near vicinity. Eight miles from 
Villa Grove, on the Orient Branch, is located the famous Orient Iron mine, from 
which is annually produced about 100,000 tons of a fine cjuality of iron ore. This 
ore is smelted and formed into all kinds of commercial iron and steel at the works 
of the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company located at Minnequa, near Pueblo. (Popu- 
lation, 500. Distance from Denver, 245 miles. Elevation, 7,972 feet.) 

Valley VieiA^ Hot Spring's. Five miles beyond Villa Grove is situated 
a group of hot springs of great medicinal value. There are so many of these 
springs in Colorado that all of them have never been fully developed, and this 
particular group of springs has not been given the attention they really deserve. 

For a distance of fifty-two miles this branch extends through the grand San 
Luis valley in an absolutely straight line with a gradual descent towards the south. 
Moffat, Hooper, and Mosca are the principal stations eii route and are all towns 
of considerable importance as entrepots for this wonderful agricultural valley. 
There are a number of small lakes in the valley, insuring water in abundant quan- 
tities for irrigating purposes and constituting a home for myriads of wild fowl. 
Hunters from Denver, Pueblo, Leadville, Salida, and Alamosa, and in fact from 
all parts of the state, visit this valley each season. From Moffat station a branch 
line extends to the rich mines at Crestone, a distance of seventeen miles from Moffat 
and 279 miles from Denver. Crestone is rapidly becoming one of Colorado's 
prominent mining towns. (Population, 300. Elevation, 788 feet.) Alamosa, 
the end of this division, will be found fully described in another part of this 
book. 

Resuming the journey to the westward, after leaving Mears Station on the 
main line the road advances by means of a series of curves absolutely bewildering, 
following the convolutions of the gulches. As the altitude grows greater, the view 




MARSHALL PASS. 



So 



OVER THE RANGE 



becomes less obstructed by mountain sides, and the eye roams over miles of cone- 
shaped summits. The timberless tops of towering ranges show him that he is 
among the heights and in a region familiar with the 
clouds. Then he beholds, stretching away to the 
left, the most perfect of all the Sierras. The sun- 
light falls with a white, transfiguring radiance upon 
the snow-crowned spires of the Sangre de Cristo 
Range. Their sharp and dazzling pyramids, 
which near at hand are clearly defined, extend 
to the southward until cloud, and sky and snowy 
peak commingle and form a vague and bewilder- 
ing vision. To the right, towers the fire-scarred 
front of old Ouray, gloomy and grand, solitary and forbidding. Ouray holds the 
pass, standing sentinel at the rocky gateway to the fertile Gunnison. Slowly the 
steeps are conquered until at last the train halts at the station, upon the Summit of 
Marshall Pass. The awful silence of the storm-tossed granite ocean lies beneath. 



Marshall Pass. 

Railroading 
Among the Clouds. 

A Marvel 
of Engineering Skill. 

Elevation, 10,856 feet. 




CRESTED BUTTE MOUNTAIN AND LAKE. 



The traveler looks down uy)on four lines of road, terrace beyond terrace, the last so 
far below as to be quite indistinct to view. These arc only loops of the almost 
spiral pathway of descent. Wonder at the triumphs of engineering skill is strangely 
mingled with the feelings of awe and admiration at the stupendous grandeur of 
the scene. 

MarsllJlll Pass Station is directly on the summit of the jia.ss, and 
the track is inclosed by a large snow slicd. Fine views can be ()l)tained, however, 
from the looj) holes, from either end of the shed or from tlie observatory, erected 



82 



OVER THE RANGE 



above the station. The elevation is 10,856 feet above the sea. The descent begins, 
and the road winds around projecting headlands, on the verge of vast precipices, 
threads dark recesses vi'herc patches of light fall through leafy canopies upon the 
green slopes, follows the windings of the Tomichi, and later courses through culti- 
vated meadows dotted with hay-stacks and small ranch houses. As the train rolls 
swiftly on, a backward glance gives the traveler a comprehensive idea of the vast 
heights overcome in the passage. The stations between ISIarshall Pass and Gunni- 
son are as follows: Shawano, Chester, Buxton, Sargent, Elko, Crookton, Doyle, 
Bonita, Parlin, and Mounds. These stations are all small, but situated in the midst 
of beautiful scenery. 

The Wannita Hot Spriug-S are situated ten miles from Doyle. The 
waters have long been famous for their great medicinal qualities, and they have 
been frequented by those suffering from ill health with the most surprising and 
gratifying results. First-class hotel and bathing accommodations have been 
pro\ided for guests. A daily stage-line is operated from Doyle connecting with 
all trains. The scenery surrounding the Springs is unsurpassed, and no pleasanter 
place can be found by the searcher after health or pleasure. 

Camp Boweriliail. Four miles beyond Waunita is located the most 
recently discovered gold camp of Colorado. Gold was discovered here in July, 
1903, in very rich veins and what a few months ago was a barren and uninhabited 
region, is now a lively and prosperous mining camp. 

Toniiolii Meadows. Beyond Parlin the line crosses a -wide expanse of 
natural meadowland, through which meanders the beautiful Tomichi Creek. 

Gunnison is the county-seat of Gunnison County, 
and is situated on the Gunnison River. From 
its central position in the great Gunnison \'alley, 
it must of necessity always be the distributing 
point; and therefore its growth is assured as 
being coincident with that of the country in which 
it is situated. From Gunnison extends a branch 
of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad up to Crested 
Butte and Floresta, situated in the heart of a rich 
gold and silver mining country, and being the center 
of the wonderful anthracite coal measures of the state. The town is beautifully 
situated and is in such close proximity to some of the most attractive scenery in 
the Rocky Mountains, that it has become a favorite objective point with tourists. 
The Gunnison River and its many confluent trout brooks olTer fine sport for the fish- 
erman, and the liills abound in game. The La Veta Hotel, the eating station for 
passengers, is one of the most magnificent in Colorado, having been erected at an 
expense of $225,000. It is elegantly furnished, and offers first-class accommoda- 
tions for the tourists who may wish to spend a few days or weeks here, hunting and 
fishing. 

Crested IJutte Braiieh. From Gunnison the Crested Butte branch 
of the road extends to the northwest to Crested Butte, a distance of twenty-eight 
miles. The line extends up the Gunnison River, which swarms with trout and is 
an extremely picturesque stream. The Elk Mountains are in plain view, and add 
grandeur to the scene. The intervening stations are Almont, at which place is a 
recently erected "Sportsman's Lodge," Jack's Cabin, and Glaciers. 

Crestt'd I?utte. This pretty village is situated most delightfully among 
the mountains, one castellated peak directly opposite the town conferring the name 



GUNNISON. 

Population, 2,500. 

Distance from Denver, 
288 miles. 

Elevation, 7,683 feet. 

Eating Station. 




EAGLE RIVER CANON. 



§4 OVER THE RANGE 

it bears. This is the center of the most remarkable coal region yet discovered in 
Colorado, and abounding also in rich mines of gold and silver. At Crested Butte, 
just back of the village, is found abundant measures of exceedingly bituminous 
coal, which is mined largely and made into coke. A few miles north of the town 
at Floresta anthracite coal, equal in every respect to the best found in Pennsylvania, 
is taken from the top of a mountain, and shipped all over Colorado and Utah. 
The fishing and hunting in the mountain streams, and over th6 wooded hills, furnish 
abundant sport for the residents and tourists, and the rides and drives afford an 
almost infinite variety. (Population, 1,200. Distance from Denver, 316 miles. 
Elevation, 8,878 feet.) 

Floresta. Eleven miles beyond Crested Butte. The present terminus of 
this branch, and the shipping point for the anthracite coal mined in the vicinity. 

Sapiliero stands at the eastern entrance to the Black Canon, and is beauti- 
fully situated on the banks of the Gunnison River. The town was named after a 
sub-chief among the Utcs, who was regarded by the whites as a man of unusual 
intellectual and executive ability. In addition to commanding the entrance to 
the canon, Sapinero is the junctional point for the Lake City extension of the line. 
(Population, 100. Distance from Denver, 314 miles. Elevation, 7,255.) 

Lake City Braiicll. This extension is thirty-six miles in length, and 
has its terminus at Lake City. The line turns to the left about a mile west of Sapi- 
nero, and passes through remarkable Lake Fork canon en route. 

Lake Fork Canon. This canon is a most attractive bit of scenery. It 
is noted for its narrowness, and the height and grandeur of its walls. For thirteen 
miles the railroad winds through this tortuous chasm, the walls rising on each hand 
to a height varying from eight hundred to thirteen hundred feet. The river claims 
the right of way but the railroad also asserts its rights, and by the exercise of engi- 
neering skill has forced a passage. In many places the solid wall of granite has been 
blasted away, and from the fallen blocks a sob'd embankment constructed, upon 
which the rails have been laid. The Lake Fork is a rapid and tumultuous stream, 
abounding in rapids and presenting a most interesting, varied, and exhilarating 
panorama to the eye. Emerging from the canon and gaining a greater altitude, the 
view is one of magnificent extent and grandeur. Northward the peaks of the Elk 
Range form a long line of well-separated summits. Northeastward, the vista 
between nearer hills is filled with the clustered heights of the Continental Divide 
in the neighborhood of the Mount of the Holy Cross. Just below them confused 
elevations show where Marshall Pass carries its lofty avenue, and to the southward 
of that stretches the splendid, snow-trimmed array of the Sangre de Cristo. 

The enterprising and thriving mining town of Lake City stands in a little park 
at the junction of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison 
River with Hensen Creek, both typical mountain 
streams. A substantial and pretty town has been 
established. Mines of marvelous value surround 
the town, and give life and energy to uU the 
commercial and speculative projects of the people. 
The development of her mining resources has been 
carried on steadily, and the shipments of precious 
ores has reached a very heavy tonnage. It will 
not be long before Lake City's mines will become 
as famous as those of her fortunate sisters in the wide circle of the San Juan silver 
region. The romantic surroundings of this pretty town — the lovely lake, San 



LAKE CITY. 

Picturesque Mining 

Town. 

Population, 1,000. 

Distance from Denver, 

350 miles. 
Elevation, 8,686 feet. 




GATE OF LADORE. 



BLACK CANON 

OF THE 

GUNNISON. 

Height of Walls, 
2,500 feet. 

Length of Canon, 
14 miles. 



86 OVER THE RANGE 

Cristoval, from which it takes its characteristic name, the grand mountains and 
the grassy parks — have made it a favorite for the lovers of nature in the past, and 
will still attract them in the future. This is a paradise for a sportsman. Over 
these rolling uplands, among the aspen groves, upon the foothills and along the 
willow-bordered creek deer now throng, and even an occasional elk and antelope 
are to be seen. In the rocky fastnesses the bear and panther find refuge, and every 
little park is enlivened by the flitting forms of timid hares and the whirring escape 
of the grouse disturbed by our passing. 

Beyond Gunnison, the railway traverses the 
valley of the same name, following the river closely 
and encountering nothing but meadows and low, 
grajish cliffs. The Gunnison River abounds in trout, 
and is a great resort for the discir>les of Isaac Walton. 
Soon, however, the channel, which the stream 
has worn, becomes narrower. The cliffs grow 
higher and steeper, the vegetation is less abundant, 
and suddenly the sunlight is cut off by broken sum- 
mits, and directly after leaving Sapinero, the Black 
Canon holds us fast in its embrace. This gorge is 
grander, deeper, darker, and yet more beautiful than 
the one we have so lately penetrated. It is twice as long, has more verdure, and, 
although the walls are dark hued enough to give the place its name, still they are 
of red sandstone in many places, and from their crevices and on their tops, shrubs, 
cedars, and pinons grow in rich abundance. The river has a deep, seagreen color, 
and is followed to Cimarron Creek, up which the road continues, still through rocky 
depths, to open country beyond. The Black Caiion never tires, never becomes 
commonplace. 

Cllipettl Falls starts from a dizzy height, is dashed into fragments by 
lower terraces, and, tossed by the winds, reaches the river in fine white spray; there 
another cataract leaps clear of the walls, and thunders unbroken upon the ground 
beside us. In the cliffs are smaller streams which trickle down and are lost in the 
river below. At times the canon narrows, and is full of sharp curves, but again 
has long wide stretches, which enable one to study the steep crags that lower heaven- 
ward two or three thousand feet. 

Curecailti Needle, the most abrupt and isolated of these pinnacles has 
all the grace and symmetry of a Cleopatra obelisk. It is red-hued from point to 
base, and stands hke a grim sentinel, rising to an elevation of 1,500 feet above the 
track, watchful of the caiion's soUtudes. .'\t the junction of the Gunnison and 
the Cimarron a bridge spans the gorge, from which the beauties of the caiion arc 
seen at their best. Somber shades prevail; the stream fills the space with its heavy 
roar, and the sunlight falls upon the topmost pines, but never reaches down the 
dark red walls. Huge boulders lie scattered about; fitful winds sweep down the 
deep clefts; Nature has created everything on a grand scale; detail is supplanted 
by magnificence, and the place is one appealing to our deepest feelings. It greets 
us as a thing of beauty, and will remain in our memory a joy forever. Long ago 
the Indians of this region built their council fires here. By secret paths, always 
guarded, they gained these fastnesses, and held their grave and somber meetings. 
The firelight danced across their swarthy faces to the cliffs encircling them. The 
red glow lit up with Rembrandt tints the massive walls, the surging streams and 
clinging vines. They may not have known the place had beauties, but they realized 



S8 



OVER THE RANGE 



its isolation, and fearing nothing in their safe retreat, spoke boldly of their 
plans. 

Cimarron. Is a most attractive little station, nestled among the gulches 
on the banks of the sparkling Cimarron Creek. Sportsmen make headquarters 
at Cimarron, for the hills are full of game and the streams abound in trout. 
(Population, 200. Distance from Denver, 329 miles. Elevation, 6,906 feet.) 

Cimarron Canon. Where Cimarron Creek empties into the Gunnison 
through a short canon the road leaves Black Canon which continues on with the 
larger stream, heightening in awfulness. Down there the fall of the river inrreases 




ASCENDING PIKE'S PEAK. 

SO rapidly that to follow it to the end, the railroad would emerge a thousand feet 
below the valley which it seeks, if a practicable grade should be kept, so the engineers 
have turned the road out to the valley through Cimarron Caiion, and in four or 
five miles a verdureless expanse is reached, and for a short time the road traverses 
a region which is picturesque in its poverty and desolation; and in the summer the 
distant and sun-heated buttcs, with the arid plains between, remind the traveler of 
the Wastes of Arabia Pctra. 

Cerro Summit is reached directly after 
emerging from Cimarron Canon. From here the 
Uncompahgre Valley, its river, and the distant, pic- 
turesque peaks of the San Juan arc within full sight 
of the traveler. Descending to the valley and follow- 
ing the river past Montrose, the Cunnison is again 
encountered at Delta. 

The town of Montrose can take just j)ride in 
llie grandeur of its mountain view. Situated in the 
Uncompahgre Valley, Montrose is almost surrounded by mountains. The San 
Juan Mountains tower into the heavens to the south, captained by Mounts 



MONTROSE. 

Population, 2,000. 

Distance from Denver, 
351 miles. 

Elevation, 5,811 feet. 



90 



OVER THE RANGE 



Sneffles and Uncompahgre, both over fourteen thousand feet high. Along the 
western horizon trend the Uncompahgre Peaks to where the Dolores joins the 
Grand River, a distance of over one hundred and fifty miles. The I'ncompahgre 
Valley is fertile, and along the branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Rail- 
road, from Montrose to Ouray and Delta, is under high state of cultivation. 
The cereals, fruit, and vegetables, together with forage plants, flourish here 
in the greatest luxuriance. Here was the Indian reservation, and here lived 
Ouray, the friend of the white man. It is only a few years since the good 
chief died, and his farm and buildings are still pointed out to the traveler, 
on the hne to the town of Ouray, about two miles south of Montrose. 




TROUT LAKE. 



The land in the valley surrounding Montrose is gradually being brought 
under cultivation. Irrigating canals have been constructed, and the rich soil 
responds generously to the demands of the fanner. The Unitefl States govern- 
ment has undertaken the construction of a tunnel, five miles in length, through the 
mountains to tap the Gunnison River, and thereby provide a never failing supply 
of water for irrigating this wonderful valley. Mining and pastoral industries, par- 
ticularly the raising of fruits, also contribute greatly to the success of Montrose. 
There can be found excellent hunting and fishing in the vicinity. 

Delta is twenty-one miles from Montrose, and is the county-seat of Delta 
County. It is .situated in the delta formed by the junction of (he TncomiJahgre 
and the Gunnison rivers. The town is situated in the heart of the most ])rolific 
fruit-raising region of the state. There are located here several fruit canneries, and 
the industry is making this valley and town among the richest and most noted 
in the state. Delta is the junction point with the North Fork Branch to Hotchkiss 
and Paonia. It is destined to become in time, a considerable business center. 
(Po])ulation, 1,200. Di.stance from Denver, 373 miles. Elevation, 4,q8o feet.) 

North Fork Braiicll. In t()02 the Denver & Rio Grande constructed a 
branch line designated as above, extending in a northeasterly direction from Delta 



o 

> 

o 

z 




92 OVER THE RANGE 

a distance of forty-four miles through the remarkably rich fruit and agricultural 
country adjacent to the North Fork of the Gunnison River and following this stream 
amid a profusion of magnificent scenery through the towns of Hotchkiss and Paonia. 

Hotcllkiss. The town of Hotchkiss, incorporated in 1900, has a thrifty popu- 
lation of about 500. Situated on the north fork of the Gunnison near the mouth 
of Leroux Creek and on the "North Fork Branch" of the Denver & Rio Grande, 
its location is such that it is the agricultural center of the eastern portion of the 
county. It supports two banks and half a dozen mercantile houses, all of which 
do a good business. The Fire Mountain Canal, with a capacity of 125 cubic feet 
of water, affording sufficient to reclaim 6,000 acres of land which is tributary to 
Hotchkiss, will greatly add to its importance. The town is regularly laid out and 
has a number of substantial brick structures. (Population, 500. Elevation, 5,369 
feet. Distance from Denver, 398 miles.) 

Paouia. Paonia is on the "North Fork Branch" of the Denver & Rio Grande, 
near the eastern line of Delta County. It is in the oldest fruit region of the Western 
Slope, and sustains a well-deserved reputation in that line. The town has fine 
churches and school houses, two banks, a system of water works, and well-kept 
streets and walks. (Population, 359. Elevation, 5,689 feet. Distance from Den- 
ver, 406 miles.) 

Cedaredge, Cory, Crawford, and Eckert are hamlets adjacent to the "North 
Fork Branch" with from 50 to 100 population. Each is the center of a prosperous 
community. 

Between Delta and Grand Junction there are a number of small stations wliich 
will not interest the traveler, but the scenery through which the railroad passes 
(while it is not especially startling) will interest him. After passing Delta the road 
crosses the Uncompahgre and follows the west bank of the Gunnison (the same 
river that was left at Cimarron, forty-four miles behind us). In about five miles 
we cross to the east bank of the Gunnison and roll along beneath cliffs which tower 
on our right above the train, leaving but little room between rocks and river. At 
Bridgeport the cars plunge into the Bridgeport Tunnel, 2,256 feet in length, one of 
the longest tunnels on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. Shortly an iron bridge, 
over a fine stream (the Grand River) is passed, and we find ourselves at the junction 
of the Gunnison with the Grand River; and of the two main lines ^of the Denver 
& Rio Grande Railroad with its western division, the Rio Grande Western Railway. 



PUEBLO TO ALAMOSA. 




ROM Pueblo to Cuchara Junction, a distance of 50 miles, the rail- 
road extends to the southward across the plains which stretch in 
one vast unbroken expanse to the eastern horizon, while to the west 
lies the Greenhorn Range with its intervening foothills. 

Spani.sll Peaks. To the south rise the famed Spanish 
Peaks, springing directly from the plains, remarkable for their 
sjTnmetry of outline, and reaching an altitude respectively of i,-^,620 and 12,720 
feet. The Indians, with a touch of instinctive poetry, named these beautiful 
mountains "Wahatoya," or twin breasts. As a matter of orthographical interest, 
the reader may be pleased to know that the Indian speUing of the word is as follows: 
"Huacjatollas!" 

Trinidad Branch. From Cuchara Junction, one line of the road e.x- 
tends in a southern direction to Trinidad, the largest city in Southern Colorado, 
and the center of the famous coal measures of El Moro. 

This branch of the road does not pass directly through grand scenery, as it 
extends to the southward across the plains, and to the east of the mountains; but 
the line is of great commercial importance, as by its connections at Trinidad it 
affords a direct through route to the Gulf of Mexico. Locally, also, it is of especial 
importance as El Moro and Trinidad are in the heart of one of the greatest coal 
and coke regions in the west, and the agricultural and pastoral industries of the 
plains are of large proportions. From Cuchara Junction the stations occur in the 
follo\^-ing order: Tuna, Rouse Junction, Santa Clara, Boaz, Apishapa, Barnes, 
Chicosa, and El ISIoro. 

El Moro is worthy of special mention because of its extensive coal mines 
and coking ovens; the latter are 500 in number, and the greatest in the State. The 
town derives its name from the great butte (El Moro) which towers above it, pre- 
senting a very striking object to the view. (Population, 500. Distance from 
Denver, 206 miles. Elevation, 5,879 feet.) 

This is the metropolis of southeastern Colo- 
rado, and the terminus of this branch of the Denver 
& Rio Grande Railroad. Trinidad is the trade 
and money center for an immense territory, includ- 
ing portions of northern Texas, southern Colorado, 
and northern New ^Mexico. In natural resources, 
Trinidad is exceedingly rich, being the center of 
the largest coal belt in the world, and the supply 
depot for most of the coke used in the Great ^\'est. 
In addition to coal and coke in the immediate 
vicinity, iron exists in unlimited fjuantities. The 
supply of g>'psum, granite, alum, fire-clay, silica, grit, or grindstone, limestone, 
and the finest of building stone is absolutely inexhaustible. Trinidad, from the 
natural deposit alone, must of necessity become a manufacturing renter of vast 

93 



TRINIDAD. 

Commercial and Manu= 
facturing City. 

Population, 8,000. 

Elevation, 5,994 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 
210 miles. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 95 

importance, and has already taken advanced steps in this regard. The manu- 
facture of cement, mineral paint, lime, and plaster of pans, are all important indus- 
tries, while the production of building brick is very large in its proportions. Fire- 
brick and silica brick are an additional industry. In and around Trinidad no 
less than five thousand laborers are now employed, and this large and daily increas- 
ing number of men spend their money in Trinidad. The city has water works, 
gas works, electric light, street cars, and other metropolitan improvements. The 
schools and churches are very superior, while the business houses and residences 
are a credit to the city. Its elevation above the level of the sea insures a delightful 
climate, free from malaria and other poisons common to lower altitudes, while 
the scenic surroundings are unsurpassed, Raton Peak and the distant range adding 
their grandeur to the beauty of the scene. Trinidad is a railroad center, with 
three great trunk lines in operation; is the most important wool center in Colorado, 
being the original market for 3,000,000 pounds, and is also a great cattle center and, 
for that reason, the largest hide and pelt receiving point in the State. Resuming 
the journey to Alamosa, the tourist returns to 

Clieliara Junction. A small town at the junction of the New Mexico 
and Trinidad extensions of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The supporting 
industries are pastoral and agricultural pursuits. (Population, 200. Distance from 
Denver, 169 miles. Elevation, 5,942 feet.) 

Walsenblirg". A flourishing town doing a large business, both at home 
and abroad. It is surrounded by a fine pastoral country, and also derives revenue 
from agriculture. Coal is mined near here in large quantities. (Population, 
1,000. Distance from Denver, 175 miles. Elevation, 6,187 feet.) 

La Veta. A prosperous \illage surrounded by a pastoral country and in 
the midst of most beautiful scenery, being near the foothills of La Veta Mountain 
and the famous pass known by the same name. The Spanish Peaks are also in 
plain \'iew to the east. (Population, 500. Distance from Denver, 190 miles. 
Elevation, 7,024 feet.) 

During the summer of iSqq the line from 
Cuchara Junction via \'eta Pass to Alamosa was 
changed from narrow to standard gauge, and in 
seeking easier grades and curves the famous "\'eta 
Pass" and "Muleshoe Curve" were abandoned and 
an entirely new route followed over the range. The 
new pass is called La Veta Pass, and the scenery 
if possible, is superior to that of the old route. 

The road climbs in tortuous windings around the 
foot of gigantic hills covered with virgin forests of spruce and pine. 

The view to the eastward is one of great extent and magnificence. The plains 
stretch onward to the dim horizon line like a gently undulating ocean, from which 
rises the twin cones of the Wahatoya, strangely fascinating in their symmetrical 
beauty. 

\'eta Mountain is to the right, as the ascent of the pass is made, and rises with 
smooth sides and splintered pinnacles to a height of 11,176 feet above the sea. 
The stupendous proportions of this mountain, the ilUmitaV)lc expanse of the 
plains present a picture upon which it is a never-ceasing delight for the eye to 
dwell. 

The train rolls steadily forward on its winding course, at last reaching the 
apex, glides into the timber and halts at the summit, 9,242 feet above the level of 



LA VETA PASS. 

Elevation, 9,242 feet. 
Maximum Grade, 211 

feet to the mile. 

Distance Across Pass, 

20 miles. 



96 



OVER THE RANGE 



the distant sea. The downward journey is past Sierra Blanca and Old Fort Gar- 
land and through that pastoral and picturesque park known as San Luis Valley, 
and rejoins the old roadbed at Wagon Creek Junction and continues through the 
fertile valley to Alamosa. 

The changing of the gauge of this piece of road has largely increased the business 
and shipments of the San Luis Valley, and enables the farmers and grain dealers to 
ship the wheat and other grains grown in the valley to the eastern markets in un- 
broken car-load lots. 

The line has also been made standard gauge to Creede, the famous gold and 
silver camp at the terminus of the Creede branch; and to Antonito, twenty-eight 
miles south of Alamosa, the junction point of the main line and the Santa Fc branch. 




BAKER'S PARK, SULTAN MOUNTAIN 



Wag'Oll Creek .Tllliction. At Wagon Creek Junction, one can say that 
the descent of La Veta Pass has been accomplished, although it is still down grade 
as far as Alamosa. This station is situated on the eastern border of the San Luis 
Valley and at the western extremity of La Veta Pass. Good hunting and fishing 
can be found in the neighboring foothills. (Population, nominal. Distance 
from Denver, 217 miles. Elevation, 8,271 feet.) 

Garland. This town was formerly known as Fort Garland, and was 
a United States miUatry post. Sierra Blanca, elevation 14,483 feet, the highest 
mountain in the United States with one exception, is seventeen miles distant. Good 
trout fishing and shooting can be found in the adjacent foothills. Garland's tribu- 
tary industries are agriculture and stock raising. (Population, 200. Distance 
from Denver, 228 miles. Elevation, 7,936 feet.) 

Sierra Blanca is the monarch of the Rocky Range, and is characterized by 
the peculiarity of a triple peak. The mountain rises directly from the plain 



SIERRA BLANCA. 

Highest Mountain 

of 

The Rocky Range. 

Elevation, 

14,483 feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 97 

to the stupendous height of 14,483 feet, over two miles and three-fifths of 
sheer ascent. A magnificent view of this mountain is obtained from the cars 
as soon as the descent from La Veta Pass into the 
San Luis Valley has been made. Surely it is 
worth a journey across the continent to obtain a 
view of such a mountain! Although a part of the 
range, it stands at the head of the valley, like a 
monarch taking precedence of a lordly retinue. 
Two-thirds of its height is above timber-line, bare 
and desolate, and except for a month or two of 
mid-summer, dazzling white with snow, while in 
its abysmal gorges it holds eternal reservoirs of ice. 

"O, sacred mount with kingly crest 
Through tideless ether reaching. 
The earth world kneels to hear the prayer 

Thy dusky slopes are teaching. 
With mystic glow on sunset eyes 
All trembling lie thy blood-red eaves, 
Their silken veins with gold inwrought, 
Oh, glorious is thy world-wide thought." 

The lower slopes of the mountain are clad in vast forests of pine and hemlock, 
while its grand triad of gray granite peaks lift into the sky their sharp pyramidal 
pinnacles, splintered and furrowed by the storm-compelHng and omnipotent hand 
of the Almighty. To the north and south, for a distance of nearly two hundred 
miles, it is flanked by the serrated crests of the Sangre de Cristo Range, the whole 
forming a panorama of unexampled grandeur and beauty. 

Sau Llli,S Valley. This great and fertile valley is located in south- 
ern Colorado, bordering New Mexico, and is drained by the Rio Grande, one of 
the largest of Colorado's rivers, into which flows from the lofty mountain ranges 
surrounding the valley, almost numberless little mountain streams. This valley, 
which was once the bottom of a vast mountain lake, contains fully 10,000 square 
miles — equal to the entire area of Massachusetts. The soil is alluvial, from six 
to fifteen feet deep, and the surface is naturally well adapted for irrigation, which 
the rivers and streams in the valley are abundantly capable of providing. The 
park, or valley, as it is more frequently called, is from 7,000 to 7,300 feet above 
sea level. This elevation insures a light, pure atmosphere, free from all malarial 
conditions, and especially favorable for those disposed to pulmonary affections. 
The climate is cool in the summer, and not severe in the winter — scarcely ever 
more than an occasional snowfall of two or three inches in the valley. Too much 
in praise of the attractions and beauty of the climate of the San Luis Valley cannot 
be said. The grand chain of mountains, which entirely surround the park, present 
scenery unsurpassed in the world. Spring wheat will yield from thirty to fifty- 
bushels to the acre, oats from fifty to seventy-five bushels, peas from thirty to forty 
bushels, potatoes from two hundred to three hundred bushels to the acre; beans, 
cabbage, all kinds of root crops, including the sugar beet, are unexcelled anywhere. 
Hops do well; tomatoes and melons are grown, but with some effort. Corn, in 
consequence of the elevation, except for garden purposes, does not pay. Alfalfa 
— the clover of the mountains — does well, yielding from four to six tons in two 
cuttings. Common red clover, timothy and red top do well. The native grasses, 
by irrigation, yield two tons per acre. All kinds of small fruit do exceedingly well. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 99 

Apples and cherries do well, plums and pears may, but peaches cannot be grown 
as well as on the western slope. Surrounding the valley, embracing the foothills 
and lower mountain ranges, is a range covering millions of acres, where cattle, 
horses, and sheep can feed for more than nine months in the year. The grasses 
are more abundant and nutritious than upon the lower elevations. The stock 
so grazed upon these free ranges in the summer and fed upon the home farms in 
the valley in the winter, can be handled without hazard, and with certainty of 
profitable return to the farmer and large ranchmen. 

This is one of the most considerable towns 



ALAMOSA. 

Junctional City. 

Eating Station. 

Population, 1,500. 

Distance from Denver, 

Via La Veta Pass, 

252 miles. 

Via Salida, 300 miles. 

Elevation, 7,546 feet. 



of the San Luis Valley. It is situated on the west 
bank of the Rio Grande river, and at the junction 
of the New Mexico, San Luis, and Creede branches 
of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The 
resources of the San Luis Valley have been described 
above, and it goes without saNang that these resources 
are naturally tributary to the welfare of Alamosa. 

The town is well supplied with stores of all 
kinds, which carry large stocks of goods. Great 
quantities of lumber, hay, and grain, and farm 
produce generally, are shipped from this station, which also commands a large 
local trade. Within a short distance of the town a natural gas supply has been 
discovered, which only needs adequate development to make it an element of great 
prosperity to the city. There are, also, a large number of ever-flowing artesian 
wells near the city, which insure a never-failing source of pure water. The eating 
house at Alamosa, the Victoria Hotel, furnishes one of the best meals to be obtained 
anywhere, and has a wide-spread and well-deserved reputation. The scenery 
surrounding the town is grand, and the near proximity of the river makes it a 
favorite resort for sportsmen. 

Creede Braucll. From Alamosa a branch of the Denver & Rio 
Grande extends up the valley a distance of seventy miles to the great hot springs 
at Wagon Wheel Gap, and the famous gold and silver mining camp of Creede. The 
line passes through an exceedingly fertile agricultural country lying on both sides 
of the Rio Grande, and irrigated by the great canals taken out from the river. In 
the proper season of the year thousands of acres of wheat and oats, alfalfa, and 
other farm produce can be seen gro%ving in the greatest luxuriance on both sides of 
the track. 

Monte "Vista. This flourishing town is an example of rapid growth and a 
proof of the self-sustaining character of the country. The surrounding country 
is full of coal, oil, and gas. Very rich mines are being developed (ore running from 
$1,000 to $2,000 per ton) in the mountains southwest of Monte Vista, which is 
located in the midst of 300,000 acres of the richest irrigable land with abundance 
of water to supply it. Monte Vista is a new, growing, enterprising prohibition 
town, and has a superior class of citizens. It is rapidly becoming an extra desirable 
residence locality. It has a first-class roller-process flouring mill, fifteen stores, 
two banks, a planing mill, three lumber yards, three weekly papers, three livery 
stables, large public library, an $8,000 school-house, a $75,000 hotel, seven church 
organizations, a secular Sunday society, secret societies, cornet band, etc. In the 
vicinity is one farm of 7,000 and another of 4,000 acres. The Colorado home for 
Disabled Volunteer Soldiers and Sailors is located here. Some two hundred vet- 
erans occupy the magnificent building and surrounding cottages, enjoying, in their 



lOO OVER THE RANGE 

declining years, a well-earned respite from the turmoil of war. (Population, 1,200. 
Distance from Denver, 269 miles. Elevation, 7,665 feet.) 

Del Norte. This is the oldest town in what is known as the San Juan 
country, and is the county-seat of Rio Grande County. The town is so situated 
as to be on the line between the agricultural and mining sections. To the north 
and east of the town are the rich and rapidly settling agricultural and pastoral 
lands of the San Luis Valley, to the south and west are the great mines of San Juan. 
Del Norte is beautifully situated in a basin at the foot of the mountains, sheltered 
from the blasts of winter and having the most delightful weather in summer. The 
Rio Grande flows through the edge of the Del Norte town site, and offers to manu- 




CHIPETA FALLS. 



facturing interests exceptionally fine water power. Del Norte has some excellent 
business and dwelling houses, fme public school buildings, two good church build- 
ings — above the average — the Presbyterian College of the Southwest (a staunch 
educational institution), a fine flouring mill of the latest roller process, a large 
brewery using home-grown barley, two banks, court-house costing $30,000, the 
United States land office, where all business regarding lands in this district must 
be transacted, and countless other enterprises that cannot be mentioned here. On 
Lookout Mountain, 600 feet above the town, is mounted a large telescope, to be 
used in connection with the Presbyterian College of the Southwest. The view 
from the Lookout observatory is grand in the extreme. The streets of Del Norte 
arc wide and the town is noted for its growth of trees — mostly cottonwoods. Water 
for irrigating purposes is supplied by means of a main canal from the Rio Grande, 
with laterals over the town site along the sides of streets. Del Norte is certainly 
a very attractive town. (Population, 1,200. Distance from Denver, 283 miles. 
Elevation, 7,880 feet.) From Del Norte the line follows the river amidst most 
attractive scenery. South Fork is a small station on the river, and is a favorite 
stopping place for angler?. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



lOI 



Wagon Wheel Gap 
Hot Springs. 

Distance from Denver, 
312 miles. 

Elevation, 8,449 teet. 



The hot springs at Wagon Wheel Gap, together 
with the magnificence of the scenery, make it 
one of the most attractive pleasure resorts in Colo- 
rado. As the Gap is approached the valley nar- 
rows until the river is hemmed in between massive 
walls of solid rock, that rise to such a height on 
either side as to throw the passage into a twilight 
shadow. The river rushes roaring down over 
gleaming gravel or precipitous ledges. Progressing, 
the scene becomes wilder and more romantic, until at last the waters of the Rio 
Grande pour through a cleft in the rocks just wide enough to allow the construction 
of a road at the river's edge. On the right, as one enters, 
tower cliffs to a tremendous height, suggestive in thier 
appearance of the palisades no 
the Hudson. On the left rises 
the round shoulder of a massive 
mountain.' The vast wall is un- 
broken for more than half a mile, 
its crest presenting an almost 
unserrated sky line. Once through 
the gap the traveler, looking to 
the south, sees a valley encroached 
ujjon and surrounded by hills. 
Here is the old stage station, a 
primitive and picturesque struc- 
ture of hewn logs and adobe, one 
story in height, facing the south, 
and made cool and inviting by 
wide-roofed verandas extending 
along its entire front. Not a 
hundred feet away rolls the Rio 
Grande swarming with trout. A 
drive of a mile along a winding 
road, each turn in which reveals 
the famous springs. The medi- 
cold and hot springs, have been 
very superior quality. Lieutenant 




UP THE RIO GRANDE, 



new scenic beauties, brings the tourist to 
cinal qualities of the waters, both of the 
thoroughly tested and proved to be of a 
Wheeler, U. S. A., gives the following analysis of these springs: No. i has a tem- 
perature of about 150° Fahrenheit, is bubbling continually, and is about eight feet 
wide by twelve feet long; No. 2 is a small bubbUng spring, cold, and about one 
foot in diameter, and gives out a strong odor of sulphuretted hydrogen; No. 3 is 
situated some distance from Nos. i and 2, at the foot of a hill, it bubbles continually 
and is of a temperature of 140° Fahrenheit. This spring is about three feet wide 
and the same in length; it is called the Soda Spring. In one thousand parts of 
the water of the springs of Wagon Wheel Gap are contained parts as follows: 



No. 2. 


No. ,s. 


Trace. 


144-50 


Trace. 


Trace. 


31.00 


22.42 


5.10 


22.42 


Trace. 


Trace. 


10.50 


1376 


11.72 


33-34 


1.07 


4.72 


Trace. 




12.00 





TO THE GOLDEN GATE. JO^ 

No I. 

Sodium Carbonate 69.42 

Lithium Carbonate Trace. 

Calcium Carbonate 14.08 

Magnesium Carbonate lo.gi 

Potassium Sulphate Trace. 

Sodium Sulphate 23.73 

Sodium Chloride 29.25 

Silicic Acid 5.73 

Organic Matter Trace. 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen Trace. 

Total 152.12 71-39 218.77 

There are two good hotels at Wagon Wheel Gap, one at the springs, another 
close to the station, giving ample accommodation for invalids and sportsmen. 
The Hot Springs Hotel, at the springs, has recently been rebuilt and refurnished, 
and is now in condition to furnish accommodations of the first class. The bathing 
facilities at the springs consist of a first-class stone bath-house, erected in 1902 at 
an expense of $25,000 and is complete and modern in every detail. 

Antelope Spring's. Twenty miles west of Wagon Wheel Gap, in 
Antelope Park, a:e situated Antelope Springs, in a region which is becoming a 
great resort for sportsmen and abounding in fish and game. The waters of the 
springs are medicinal and resemble the more widely known mineral waters of the 
Gap, in that they are both hot and cold, and differ among themselves in their 
mineral constituents. The scenery is wild and beautiful. For a hunting party, 
or as a place for a few day's outing in camp, no more pleasing spot can be found. 

Tront Fi.shing' in the Rio Grande. There is no stream on the 
eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains that affords finer trout fishing than the Rio 
Grande. Trout reaching the wonderful weight of nine pounds have been fre- 
quently taken, and those weighing from one to three pounds can be caught in great 
abundance. This is undoubtedly one of the best fishing resorts in America. 

Ten miles beyond Wagon Wheel Gap on Willow 



CREEDE. 



Great Mining Camp. 

Population, 2,000. 

Distance from Denver, 

321 miles. 
Elevation, 8,852 feet. 



Creek, a tributary of the Rio Grande, is Creede, 
the famous mining camp. This camp was located 
but a few years ago, and is to-day one of the largest 
producing camps in the State, and has a population 
of two thousand. While Creede is known as a 
silver camp, it is not distinctly so. The ore in that 
district varies, and almost every property has more 
or less of a percentage of gold. The vein matter is so rich in the leading mines that 
even did they not contain gold they could be worked at a profit. But with Lead- 
ville, so with Creede. The deeper the mines are going, the hcancr the percentage 
of gold. This has been the invariable rule with the large producing properties, 
which, from the indications, will soon have enough gold to pay for their working. 
The camp is active and is progressing. A great deal of development work is going 
on, contracts being let for extensive work every day. New districts are being opened 
up, revealing new formations and good pajdng ore. The properties that first 
brought the camp into prominence are continuing their large output. 

There are several good hotels in Creede, and the wayfarer will be assured of all 
modern comforts. 



ALAMOSA TO ESPANOLA AND SANTA FE. 



HE New Mexico branch of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad 
extends southward from Alamosa to Santa Fe, passing through 
an interesting country to the tourist, especially after New Mexico 
has been entered. Here can be seen what remains of the ancient 
Spanish civilization, as well as the habitations of the Pueblo Indians 
and the ruins of the pre-historic Cliff Dwellers. Leaving Alamosa 
the road turns to the south and crosses the southern portion of the San Luis \'alley. 




k 




EMBUDO, RIO GRANDE VALLEY. 



La Jara. Within the last few years many new towns have sprung up in 
the valley, owing to the development of its agricultural industries, through the con- 
struction of great irrigating canals. Old settlements have acquired new \ngor 
and advanced greatly in prosperity. La Jara is one of the towns that has received 
this new impulse. Its people are enterprising and industrious. Agriculture and 

I OS 



io6 



OVER THE RANGE 



pastoral pursuits contribute to the town's success. (Population, 300. Distance 
from Denver, 266 miles. Elevation, 7,609 feet.) 

Romeo. This is a village seven miles south of La Jara and in the heart of a 
fine agricultural region. 

Alltonito. This town is a thriving and prosperous place, the last one of 
any special importance on the railroad in the southern part of the San Luis Valley. 
Stock raising and agriculture occupy the attention of the surrounding population. 
There is a fine stone depot here, and there are many creditable business blocks. 
It is the station for Conejos, one mile distant; and for San Rafael, four miles distant. 
Its position in the heart of the San Luis Valley (for full description of which see 




OLD CHURCH OF SAN JUAN. 



Alamosa) insures it a generous and constantly increasing support from agricultural 
and pastoral industries. Being the junctional point of the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad's New Mexico and San Juan branches gives it a large railroad business. 
Tourists will do well to stop at Antonito and visit the old Mexican town of Conejos, 
which is the most accessible town of the typical Mexican character in Colorado. 
Here may be found the plazas, churches, and ancient adobe houses peculiar to 
the early civilization of the Spanish. Fine fishing can be found near Antonito. 
Antonito itself is a modern town with all the life and push of the American, full 
of business and enterprise. (Population, 400. Distance from Denver, 280 miles. 
Elevation, 7,888 feet.) 

I'allllilla is eleven miles from Antonito, and here the road enters the 
Territory of New Mexico and i)asses through a number of small stations of no 
especial interest to the tourist. As a matter of statistics, the names of these stations 
and their distances from Denver are given; Palmilla, 291 miles; Volcano, 299 miles; 
No Agua, 308 miles; Tres Piedras, 315 miles; Serviletta, 324 miles; Caliente, 336 
miles; Barranca, 345 miles; Embudo, 352 miles; Alcalde, 360 miles; Chamita, 
367 miles; Espanola, 371 miles. The traveler will notice that the names of the 
stations have assumed a Spanish form, and should he happen to address any of 
the swarthy men that chance to be lounging around the stations, he would very 
likely receive a reply in the language of Ilispania. The Spanish spoken is not 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



107 



T-tfC-: 




A SOUTHERN UTE. 



Castilian by any means, but is about as near it as "pidgin English" is to genuine 
Chinese, being a mixture of English, Spanish, and Indian dialects. 

Barranca is a quiet httle station in New 
Mexico, 34^ miles from Denver. Its only claim for 
special mention is the fact that here the traveler takes 
the stage for Ojo Caliente, the celebrated hot springs, 
which lie among the hills, eleven miles to the west- 
ward. Stages to and from the springs connect with 
passenger trains, making quick time over an excel- 
lent road. The altitude of the springs is 6,oig feet 
and the climate at all seasons of the year mild and 
pleasant. The springs have been noted for their 
curative properties and from time immemorial, hav- 



OJO CALIENTE. 

Famous Hot Springs. 

Health and Pleasure 
Resort. 

Elevation, 6,019 feet. 



loS 



OVER THE RANGE 



ing been frequented by the Indians previous to Spanish occupation and highly 
esteemed by both races since that date. They have proved remarkably suc- 
cessful in the treatment of rheumatism, skin diseases, derangement of 
the kidneys and bladder, and especially of all venereal diseases. Cases of paralysis, 
after resisting the usual appliances of medicine, have been sent to Ojo Caliente, 

and immediately and permanently 
reheved. The springs he in a 
pleasant valley, nine hundred feet 
lower than Barranca, surrounded 
by high bluffs capped with basaltic 
cliffs. On the top of these cliffs 
are table-lands on which are found 
the ruins of prehistoric buildings, 
not unlike the Indian pueblos of 
the present day, but of which the 
Indians know nothing and even 
their traditions furnish no account. 
Four miles above the village are 
larger springs of tepid water, the 
mineral deposits from which have 
built up great mounds, full of 
strange caves and glittering with 
saline incrustations. About three 
miles from Ojo Caliente is a high 
mountain called Cerro Colorado, 
from its peculiar reddish brown 
color, which, according to the 
statement of the inhabitants, ex- 
hibited marked evidences of vol- 
canic action about seventy years ago. It has a well-defined crater, and offers an 
inviting field for the investigations of the geologist. 

Comanche Canon. Six miles below Barranca the train enters Comanche 
Cafion. Through this canon the road makes its descent into the Rio Grande Val- 
ley. Rugged, difficult, and striking, the canon- commands the admiration of the 
spectator. Through breaks in the walls can be caught glimpses of the vaUey 
and river, the noble Rio Grande beneath. Experienced travelers who have made 
the "grand tour" say that this scene resembles choice bits in Switzerland. Ernest 
Ingersoll thus describes the valley in his charming book, "The Crest of the Con- 
tinent": "Emerging from Comanche Canon, a bend to the southward is made 
along the western bank of the lower part of the canon of the Rio Grande. In many 
portions of this narrow valley, only about twenty miles in length, features of great 
interest to the eye occur, ccjualing the walls of Comanche, which was itself ignored 
until the railway brought it to the light. The river here is about sixty yards wide, 
and pours with a swift current troubled by innumerable fallen rocks. At times 
it is swollen and yellow with the drift of late rains, but in clear weather its waters are 
bright and blue, for it has not yet soiled its color with the fine silt which will thicken 
it between Texas and Mexico. On the opposite bank, near the level of the river, 
runs the wagon road that General Edward Hatch, formerly commander of the de- 
partment of New Mexico, cut some years ago to give ready communications between 
his headcjuarters at Santa Fe and the posts in the northern part of the Territory 




PUEBLO INDIANS. 



SANTA CRUZ. 

PUEBLO OF SAN 
JUAN. 

PUEBLO DE 
TAOS. 



no OVER THE RANGE 

and in southern Colorado. This is the track now followed by all teamsters, but 
the old road from the south to Taos ran over the hills far to the eastward, passing 
through Picuris." 

Ellllmdo. At the mouth of Comanche Canon stands an odd conical hill 
dixiding the current of the river. Noticing its resemblance to a funnel the Mexi- 
cans called it Embudo, and the station here takes the same name. Embudo is 
chiefly important as the point of departure for Taos, whose remarkable pueblo 
is described further on. 

Espaiiola. This Httle village is of interest to the tourist because of its 
contiguity to ancient pueblos and the ruins of Cliff dwellings. Espanola's tribu- 
tary industries are pastoral and agricultural. (Population, loo. Distance from 
Denver, 372 miles. Elevation, 5,590 feet.) 

Places of Interest If ear Espaiiola. 
Santa Cruz is a most interesting old Mexican town, 
situated on the Rio Grande del Norte, directly 
opposite Espahola. Its chief attraction is the 
ancient church erected in the sixteenth century, 
which contains several paintings and images sent 
over from Spain. 

Tlie Pueblo of San Jiiail is situated on 
the Rio Grande, about four miles above Espahola, 
and one and one-half miles from the railroad. There are twenty-six similar Indian 
towns, nineteen of which are situated in New Mexico, and seven in Arizona. Nine 
of them are on the line of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, or its immediate 
vicinity, \az.: Taos, Picuris, San Juan, Santa Clara, San Yldefonso, Pojuaque, 
Nombe, Cuyamauque, and Tesuque. The different pueblos closely resemble 
each other in construction. The dv.-ellings are all built of mud-colored adobes, or 
sun-dried bricks, and are arranged so as to inclose a plaza or public square. The 
walls are from two to four feet in thickness, and the roofs are of timber, covered 
vrith dirt a foot or more in depth; many houses are two, and some even four and five 
stories, or rather terraces, in height, each successive story being set back some 
twelve or fifteen feet from the side walls of the next story below. The usual manner 
of entering these dwellings is by ascending a ladder outside the building to the 
roof, and through a hole descending to the interior by another ladder; though some, 
as a modern improvement, have doors cut through the side walls. This method 
was doubtless adopted as a defensive measure during troublesome times, when it 
was often necessary to convert the pueblo into a fortress from which to repel hostile 
invasions. 

Pueblo of Santa Clara. A few miles below the pueblo of San 
Juan is the pueblo of Santa Clara, just across the river from Chamita, a station on 
the Denver & Rio Grande line. Its characteristics are similar to those of the 
pueblos already described. 

The Pueblo de Taos. Thirty miles above Embudo is the Pueblo 
de Taos. This is considered the most interesting as well as the most perfect speci- 
men of a Pueblo Indian fortress. It consists of two communistic houses, each five 
stories high, and a Roman Catholic church, now in a ruined condition, which stands 
near, although apart from, the dwellings. Around the fortress are seven circular 
mounds, which at first suggest the idea of being the work of Mound Builders. On 
further examination they ])rove to be the sweating chambers, or Turkish bath, of 
this curious people. The largest appears also to serve the purpose of a council 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



I II 



chamoei and mystic hall, where rites peculiar to the tribe, about which they are 
very reticent, are performed. The Pueblo Indians delight to adorn themselves 
in gay colors, and form very interesting and picturesque subjects for the artist, 
especially when associated with their quaint surroundings. They are skilled in 
the manufacture of pottery, basket making, and bead work. The grand annual 
festival in honor of San Geronimo (St. Jerome) of these Indians occurs on the 30th 
of September, and the ceremonies are of a peculiarly interesting character. 

All of these ancient pueblos are easy of access via the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad, and abound in objects of interest dating back many hundreds of years 




NEW MEXICAN INDIAN LIFE. 



before the occupation of the country by the whites, and will fully repay the tourist 
for the time and expense necessary to visit them. 

Espaiiola to Santa Fe. From Espanola the line of the Denver & 
Rio Grande continues still further southward to the capital of New Mexico, one of 
the most interesting cities on the North American continent, Santa Fc. En route 
one can catch a glimpse of the ruins of ancient cliff dwellings perched in the alcoves 
of the perpendicular bluffs which rise near the 
track. The journey is only a distance of thirty- 
four miles through a country presenting novelty to 
the eyes of those unfamiliar to sub-tropical scenes, 
but not of an especially startling character. 

The capital of the territory of New Mexico is 
the oldest city in the United States, there being 
evidence to show that it was inhabited as early 
as 1325, or nearly three hundred years before the 
pilgrim fathers landed on Plymouth Rock, and 167 
years before the landing of Columbus. The city 
of Holy Faith is situated on both sides of the Santa 
Fe Creek. The streets are narrow, and the build- 
ings are almost all constructed of adobe, and only one story in height. The city is 
filled with anti(|uilic'S, the most remarkable of which, perhaps, is the church of San 



SANTA FE. 

The Oldest Town in the 
United States. 

Commercial City and 
Health Resort. 

Population, 7,000. 

Distance from Denver, 
405 miles. 

Elevation, 6,968. 



112 OVER THE RANGE 

Miguel, built in 1582, and the Palace, erected in 17 10. The city is free from malaria 
and excessive heat and cold, and from wind and sand storms. It is supplied with 
pure water and pure air from the mountains surrounding; it has delightful scenery 
beneath bright sunshine with glorious sunsets; it has trout in its streams, and game 
in the adjacent hills and mountains; the people are daily supplied at their doors \vith 
the freshest and choicest esculents of home production; and besides possessing 
wonderful health-giving properties, it is one of the most comfortable residence 
cities in the world. This fact is rapidly becoming known and appreciated, as wit- 
ness its growing popularity both as a summer residence for people from the South, 
and as a winter residence for people from the North, and as an all-the-year-round 
residence and sajiitarium for people variously in search of health, comfort, pleasure, 
and business. 

Santa Fe is the chief money center of the Territory. It has two old and well 
established national banking houses, besides hundreds of thousands of dollars for 
loan in private hands. It has a live board of trade, the most able and distin- 
guished bar in the Southwest. The capitol of the territory, penitentiary, and 
public buildings are of great beauty and value. A splendid agricultural, pastoral, 
and mining country is tributary to the city. (Population, 7,000. Distance from 
Denver, 405 miles. Elevation, 6,968 feet.) 




ALAMOSA TO SILVERTON. 




T Antonito the line branches, that to Espafiola and Santa Fe extend- 
ing due south and that to Durango and Silvcrton turning to the 
westward. The trip from Antonito to Silverton is one of great 
interest and abounds in scenic attractions. The road gradually 
climbs out of the valley of San Luis and up the eastward slope to 
the Conejos range of mountains. The line from Big Horn to 
Arboles is constantly among the hills, and the stations are either for the convenience 
of stockmen or sHpping points for lumber, and while of commercial importance 
to the railroad, of little interest to the tourist. During the summer the Conejos 
Mountains furnish one of the finest ranges for stock in Colorado, and it goes without 
saving that these grass-carpeted hills and vales are fully occupied. The forest 
growth on the western slope is of a larger and more dense character than that of 
the eastern. Many sawmills have been here estabhshed, and the manufacture 
of lumber is a large industry. The climb to Chama is full of interest. The line 
pursues a tortuous course, following the convolutions of the hills and making the 
ascent up the less difficult grades of the gulches. 

LiOH PillOS Valley. Describing a number of large curves around con- 
stantly deepening depressions, we reach the breast of a mountain, whence we 
obtain our first glimpse into Los Pinos Valley, and it comes like a sudden revela- 
tion of beauty and grandeur. The approach has been picturesque and gentle in 
character. Now we find our train clinging to a narrow pathway carved out far 
up the mountain's side, while great masses of a volcanic conglomerate tower over- 
head, and the faces of the opposing heights are broken into bristling crags. The 
river sinks deeper and deeper into the narrowing vale, and the space beneath us to 
its banks is e.xcitingly precipitous. We crowd upon the platform, the outer step of 
which sometimes hangs over an abyss that makes us shudder, till some friendly 
bank places itself between us and the almost unbroken descent. But we learn to 
enjoy the imminent edge, along which the train creeps so cautiously, and begrudge 
every instant that the landscape is shut out by intervening objects. To say that 
the vision here is grand, awe-inspiring, impressive, or memorable, falls short of the 
truth in each case. It is too much to take in at once. We are so high that not only 
the bottom of the valley, where the silvery ribbon of the Los Pinos trails in and out 
among the trees, and underneath the headlands, but even the wooded tops of the 
further rounded hills are below us, and we can count the dim, distant j)eaks in 
New Mexico. 

Pliailtoin Curve. One of the most striking scenes on the line of this 
ascent is Phantom Curve. Just after the side-track station of Sublette (306 miles 
from Denver) has been passed, the road makes a great bend around the side of a 
mountain; on the left rise tall monuments of sandstone, cut by the elements into 
weird and fantastic figures. Here is indeed a wild spot, with the valleys so deep 
below, the grotesque, red monumental rocks around, the tall, shelving clilTs above. 
A mile beyond the Curve the railroad crosses the head of the ravine on a high 

"3 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



"5 



TOLTEC GORGE, 

A Scenic Wonder. 

Depth of Qorge, 
1,500 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 
315 miles. 



bridge. From this point the track runs directly toward the valley, on a line almost 
at right angles with it, to where it narrows into a mere fissure in the rocks at Toltec 
Gorge. 

The approach to this great scenic wonder pre- 
pares the traveler for something extraordinary and 
spectacular. A black speck in the distance against 
the precipitous surface of a frowning cliff is beheld 
long before Toltec is reached, and is pointed out 
as the entrance to the tunnel which is the gateway 
to the Gorge. As the advance is made around 
mountain spurs and deep ravines, glimpses are 
caught of profound depths and towering heights, 
the black speck widens into a yawning portcullis, 
and then the train, making a detour of four miles around a side caiion, plunges 
into the blackness of Toltec tunnel, which is remarkable in that it pierces the sum- 
mit of the mountain instead of its base. Fifteen hundred feet of perpendicular 
descent would take one to the bottom of the gorge, while the seared and wrinkled 
expanse of the opposite wall confronts us, lifting its massive bulwarks high above us. 

" Fronting heaven's splendor, 
Strong and full and clear." 

When the train emerges from the tunnel it is upon the brink of a precipice. A 
solid bridge of iron and masonry, set in the rock after the manner of a balcony, 
supports the track, and from this coigne of vantage the traveler beholds a 
most thrilling spectacle. The tremendous gorge, whose sides are splintered rocks 




INDIAN ENCAMPMENT. 



and monumental crags and whose depths are filled with the snow-white waters of a 
foaming torrent, lies beneath him, the blue sky is above him and all around the 
majesty and mystery of the mountains. 

Garflelrt Memorial. To the left of the track, just beyond the bridge, 
stands a monument of granite. Curiosity is naturally excited at beholding this 
polished shaft, and the rjuestions which arise as to its origin can be briefly answered 
as follows: On the 26th day of September, 1881, the American Association of 




TOLTEC GORGE. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



117 



General Passenger Agents (then on an excursion over the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad), at the time President Garfield was being buried in Cleveland, held 
memorial services at the mouth of Toltec tunnel and since have erected this beauti- 
ful monument in commemoration of the event. 

Cumbres. This small station is on the summit of the Conejos Range, 
which we are now crossing, and, having passed it, we are on the Pacific slope. 
(Distance from Denver, 330 miles. Elevation, 10,015 feet.) 

Cliailia. This is an eating station, where, in spite of primitive accommoda- 
tions, an excellent meal can be obtained. Large quantities of lumber, sheep, and 
wool are shipped from here, and the surrounding countrj' is an excellent range for 
stock. (Population, 300. Distance from Denver, 344 miles. Elevation, 7,863 feet.) 




PUEBLO DE TAOS. 

Luillberton. At this station will be encountered the first of the aborigines 
to be met on this journey. They are the Jacirilla Apaches, whose agency build- 
ings are located at Dulce, the next station beyond. This tribe are particularly 
adept in weaving baskets and their handiwork bring fancy prices in the curio shops 
of Denver and elsewhere. Lumberton is the junctional point with the Rio Grande 
and Pagosa Springs Railway, extending northward a distance of eight miles to 
Edith, a lumbering town in the midst of magnificent forests. Train loads of fine 
lumber and timber are brought out daily. 

Lumberton has a population of several hundred, is 369 miles from Denver, and 
an elevation of 6,900 feet. 

Dlllce. White population, nominal; but this being the agency for the Jacirilla 
Apache Indians, many of their tepees will be seen 
in the neighborhood. (Distance from Denver, 373 
miles, Elevation, 6,779 feet.) 

Pag'O.sa Jlliiction. (Population nominal. 
Distance from Denver, 390 miles. Elevation, 6,271 
feet.) At this point connects the Rio Grande, 
Pagosa & Northern Railway, which leads northerly 
a distance of thirty-one miles, through a region 
marvelously rich in fine forests of pine and spruce 
to the famous resort of Pagosa Springs. 

Pagosa Springs, the far famed "big medicine" 
of the Utes, the greatest thermal fountains on the continent, are situated in. 
Archuleta County, thirty-one miles northwest of Pagosa Junction, on the New 
Mexico extension of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad and reached by the Rio 



Pagosa Springs. 

The "Big Hedicine" of 
the Indians. 

Hot 5prings. 

Health and Pleasure 
Resort. 

Elevation, 7,108 feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. II9 

Grande, Pagosa & Northt-rn Railway from the Junrlion. Tlicsc Springs lie upon 
the northern bank of the San Juan Rivei , at an altitude of seven thousand feet, and 
in a situation combining numerous advantages and attractions. To the north are 
the peaks of the San Juan range, east and west are the grassy plains dotted with 
immense pines, and far to the south the undulating prairie stretches into New Mexico. 
With such an environment, the Pagosa Springs must ere long gain the celebrity to 
which their medicinal qualities undoubtedly entitle them. The Indians having long 
been aware of the healing powers of these "great medicine waters, " have, until 
recently, jealously guarded their possession. It is not surprising that these children 
of the wilderness, who find relief from distress mainly from the medications of 
Nature, should deplore the loss of these powerful thermal waters. Within a basin 
seventy feet long and fifty feet wide formed from its own alkaline deposits, which 
are twenty or thirty feet thick, the water bubbles up at a temperature of 153° Fahren- 
heit. There are four other springs in the immediate locality, their similarity to 
the main source, as shown by analysis, suggesting a common origin. Upon a cold 
morning the steam which rises from these different springs can be seen at a distance 
of several miles. These purgative, alkaline waters, with the large excess of sulphate 
of soda, so much increased in medicinal \'irtue by the degree of temperature, would 
seem to designate Pagosa as the Bethesda for sufferers from calculus disorders, 
gravel with uric diathesis, rheumatism, and skin diseases, when alterative and de- 
pleting treatment is indicated. New bath-houses and hotels have been erected, 
and the tourist will find good accommodations here. 

Tlie Pacific Slope. From Chama to Durango, the ride is down grade 
and through a most interesting country. Hills and valleys of great beauty, mead- 
ows covered with thick growing grass, forests of giant trees, are some of the many 
attractions of this trip. 

Ig'liacio. At Ignacio the Ute Indian reservation is reached and the rude 
tepees of the Southern Utes can be seen pitched along the banks of the Rio de las 
Florida. Occasionally a glimpse can be caught of a stolid brave, tricked out in 
all his savage finery, gazing fixedly at the train as it speeds by. Frequently there 
is quite a little group of these aborigines at the station, and they are always ready 
to exchange bows and arrows, trophies of the chase, or specimens of their rude 
handiwork, in return foi- very hard cash. 

This thriving city is the county-seat of La Plata 
County, Colorado, and is the commercial center of 
southwestern Colorado. It is the market for the 
agricultural region of Farmington and Bloomfield, 
New Mexico, and the valleys of the Rio de las 
Animas, the Rio Florida, etc. 

Two miles below Durango is the wonderful 
"ninety-two feet thick" vein of coal, one of the 
largest in the State, and here are, also, great coke 
ovens. All the surrounding hills are more heavily 
timbered than in any other part of Colorado. In 
addition to its many other resources Durango boasts of two of the largest smelters 
in the State, reducing from their native state the precious ores of the wonderfully 
rich mines of the entire San Juan. 

With two railroads in operation, and several in contcnii)Iation, and with its 
natural resources Durango will in time, and a very short time too, jjrove to be the 
metropolis of the Great Southwest. 



DURANGO. 

Metropolis of the 

San Juan. 

Population, 5,000. 

Distance from Denver, 

via Veta Pass, 452 miles. 

Via Salida, 500 miles. 

Via Ridgway, 539 miles. 

Elevation, 6,520 feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 121 

The famous Cliff Ruins, a description of which will be found further on, are 
reached from Durango, by the Rio Grande Southern Railroad to Mancos Station, 
thence by saddle horses or wagons. 

In a word, Durango is one of the most progressive towns in Colorado, and is 
surrounded by a country of unexampled richness. Mining, agricultural and 
pastoral pursuits all contribute to her success; but best of all her business men are 
alive, and by their liberality, generosity, and push insure a good future for the city. 

Farniiug"toii, Bloomficld, and Aztec arc growing towns in New 
Mexico, just over the southern line of La Plata County. They are in the heart of a 
large agricultural and stock growing district, and near many ruins of the homes of 
the ancient Cliff Dwellers. 

Trfmble Hot Spring's are reached nine miles above Durango. The 
spacious hotel stands within a hundred yards of the road to the left of the track. 
Here are medicinal hot springs of great curative value, and here, in the season, 
gather invalids and pleasure seekers to drink the waters and enjoy the delights of 
this charming resort. The water as it pours out of the rock is at a temperature of 
120 degrees, and runs constantly in a stream three inches in diameter. Within 
two feet of it is another spring flowing as much more in a stream of cold water. 
Bath-houses have been erected, and the hot and cold water can be mixed. The 
medicinal properties of these springs are beyond question. Four miles further up 
the Animas valley are the Pinkerton springs of warm water, closely resembling 
in properties those at Trimble's. Leaving the springs behind, the train speeds up 
the valley, which gradually narrows as the advance is made, the ascending grade 
becomes steeper, the hills close in, and soon the view is restricted to the rocky 
gorge within whose depths the raging waters of the Animas sway and swirl. 

Mag'Hificeilt Scenery. From Durango, the metropolis of the San 
Juan, to Silverton, the scenery is of surpassing grandeur and beauty. The railroad 
follows up the course of the Animas River (to which the Spaniards gave the musical 
but melancholy title of "Rio de las Animas Perdidas, " or River of Lost Souls) until 
the picturesque mining town of Silverton is reached. The valley of the Animas 
is traversed before the canon is entered, and the traveler's eyes are delighted with 
succeeding scenes of sylvan beauty. To the right is the river, beyond which rise 
the hills; to the left are mountains, increasing in rugged contour as the advance is 
made; between the track and the river are cultivated fields and cosy farm-houses, 
while evidences of peace, prosperity, and plenty of are be seen on every hand. 

This beautiful canon has characteristics pecu- 
liarly its own. The railroad does not follow the 
bed of the stream, but clings to the chfTs midway 
of their height, and a glance from the car windows 
gives one the impression of a view from a balloon. 
Below, a thousand feet, are the waters of the river, 
in places white with foam, in quiet coves, green as 
ocean's depths. Above, five hundred feet, climb 
the combing cliffs, to which cling pines and hem- 
locks. The canon here is a mere fissure in the mountain's heart, so narrow that 
one can easily toss a stone across and send it bounding down the side of the oppo- 
sing rock-wall until it falls into the waters of the river rushing through the abyss 
below. Emerging from this wonderful chasm, the bed of the gorge rises until the 
roadway is but a few feet above the stream. The close, confining, and towering 
walls of rock are replaced by mountains of supreme height. The Needles, which 



ANIMAS CANON. 

A Gem of Beauty. 

Depth, 1,500 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 
470 miles. 








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TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 123 

are among the most peculiar and striking of the Rockies, thrust their sharp and 
splintered peaks into the regions of eternal frost. 

Klk Park is a quiet little nook in the midst of the range, with vistas of 
meadow and groves of pines, a spot which would furnish the artist many a subject 
for his canvas. At the end of Elk Park stands Garfield Peak, lifting its summit a 
mile above the track. Beyond arc marshaled the everlasting mountains, and 
through them for miles extends, in varying beauty and grandeur, the Cafion of 
the Animas. Frequent waterfalls glisten in the sunlight, leaping from crag to 
crag only to lose themselves at last in the onflowing river. Emerging finally from 
this environment of crowding cliffs, the train sweeps into Baker's Park and arrives 
at Silverton in the heart of the San Juan. 

This thriving and picturesque little city is the 
county-seat of San Juan County, Colorado, and 
derives its support from the surrounding mines, 
which are scattered in every portion of the county. 
The output of the camp has swelled from an annual 
product of $40,000 to $2,000,000 in three years. 
From 600 to t,ooc tons of ore are shipped weekly 
from Silverton, and the product is constantly in- 
creasing. An industry of no small importance, and 
which is rapidly assuming large dimensions, is the 
system of leasing mines, and it may be said that at 
least one-half of the producing mines are now being worked by lessees. Hundreds 
of prospects that are in a condition to ship paying mineral are now laying idle, 
awaiting the arrival of thrifty miners to take and work them under this system. The 
scenery around Silverton is of the most beautiful and attractive character. En- 
trance to Baker's Park, in which the town lies, is made through the famous Animas 
Caiion. Hid in a theater of hills, the picturesqueness of the surroundings cannot 
be adequately described. Sultan Mountain, one of the grandest of the San Juan 
Range, towers above the town; its summit crowned with snow from which descend 
innumerable rills, glittering like silver in the sunbeams. Three small railways, 
the Silverton, the Silverton Northern, and the Silverton, Gladstone & Northerly 
radiate from the town to the various mining camps, of Eureka, Red Mountain, 
Ironton, Gladstone, and others situated in the vicinity of Silverton, and haul 
immense quantities of gold and silver ores to the main railway, and thence to the 
smelters at Durango. 



SILVERTON. 

Picturesque nining 
Town. 

Population, 2,500. 

Distance from Denver, 
497 miles. 

Elevation, 9,300 feet. 



DURANGO TO RIDGWAY" 

VIA RIO GRANDE SOUTHERN RAILROAD. 




EAVING Durango via the Rio Grande Southern Hne, the tourist 
is whisked across the Rio dc Las Animas up Lightner Creek, past 
the silver and gold smelters with their seething furnaces and smoke 
and dust-begrimed workmen, and shortly past the famous coal 
banks where the black diamond is dug from the bowels of Mother 
Earth, and from there hauled to the smelters where it is used for the 
reduction and refining of its more exalted, but not more useful brethren. 

Up through the valley the train speeds along among huge pines which thus far 
have escaped the woodman's axe, and which will be free from such invasion as 
long as Uncle Sam claims this particular spot as the especial reservation for the 
abandoned military post at old Fort Lewis. 

From Fort Lewis the line passes through seemingly endless forests of pine 
trees, and after the reservation is passed an occasional saw-mill is sighted. De- 
scending the mountain into the valley, the beholder looks out on a broad expanse 
of fertile, well-watered country, surrounded on all sides by snow-capped moun- 
tains, and dotted with the rancheros of the hardy pioneer, who has been well repaid 
for his daring in locating in this far-away but beautiful valley, by its productive- 
ness, and now that the railroad, that greatest of all civilizers, has come, he has 
abundant o]jportunitics for the disposition of his products. 

One of the most attractive portions of Colo- 
rado, to the scientist, antiquarian, and indeed the 
general tourist, is that part in which are found 
the cliff-dwellings of a long extinct race. Some 
of the most remarkable of these ancient ruins are 
situated in the Mancos Caiion, but a few miles from 
Mancos station, and within a day's ride of Durango. 
A brief description of one of these will serve as a 
characterization of all. Perched seven hundred feet 



The 
Cliff Dwellings. 

Relics of a Pre=Historic 
Race. 

Ruins Older than 
History. 



above the valley, on a little ledge only just large enough to hold it, stands a two-story 
house made of finely cut sandstone, each block about fourteen by six inches, accur- 
ately fitted and set in mortar, now harder than the stone itself. The floor is the 
ledge of the rock, and the roof the overhanging cliff. There are there rooms on 
the ground floor, each one six by nine feet, with partition walls of faced stone. 
Traces of a floor which once separated the upper from the lower story still remain. 
Each of the stories is six feet in height, and all the rooms arc nicely plastered and 
painted, what now looks a dull brick-red color, with a white band along the floor. 
The windows are "T" shaped apertures with no signs of glazing, commanding 
a view of the whole valley for many miles. One of our illustrations shows a forti- 
fied watch-tower, indicating that these strange cliff-dwelling people were prepared 
to resist assault. Traditions are few and of history there is nothing concerning 

1-5 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 1^7 

this lost race. Their ruined houses only remain, and some broken fragments of the 
implements made use of in war and peace. Researches are in progress concerning 
these extremely interesting ruins and new facts are being developed concerning their 
architecture; but it is quite improbable that any certain light will ever be thrown 
on their origin or history. 

To the south of Mancos station, within a day's ride, and easily accessible, are 
the principal ruins of the strange habitations of this e.xtinct and mysterious race. 
To those seeking curiosities and wonders, the great Canon of the Mancos, the 
Montezuma Valley, the McElmo Canon, the Lower Animas Valley, and the Chaco 
Canon are the wonderlands of the world. They contain thousands of homes, and 
a town of the ancient race of Mound Builders and "Cliff Dwellers," that has 
attracted the curious ever since the discovery of America. The Mancos Canon 
contains hundreds of these homes which were built and occupied thousands of 
years ago. Yet many of them are in a good state of preservation, and in them 
have been found many specimens of pottery and implements of husbandry and 
warfare. This canon is cut through Mesa Verde, a distance of thirty miles, and the 
walls on either side rise to a perpendicular height of two thousand feet. These 
cUff dwelHngs are built in the sides of the canon, as shown in the illustration. Fif- 
teen miles farther west from the Mancos is situated the Montezuma Valley, where 
thousands of fine specimens of pottery have been found among the ruins of that 
ancient people. On the west side of this valley is the McElmo Canon, also full of 
the ancient homes of the " Cliff Dwellers. " Thirty-five miles south of Durango, in 
the valley of the Animas, are some extensive ruins of the Aztecs, and fifty miles 
farther south are the wonderful ruins in the Chaco Canon. These ancient Pueblos 
are, without doubt, the most extensive and the best preserved of any in the United 
States. Of these Professor Hayden, in his report of the Geological Survey of the 
United States for the year 1866, says: "The great ruins in the Chaco Canon are 
pre-eminently the finest examples of the works of the unknown builders to be found 
north of the seat of ancient Aztec Empire in Mexico." There are eleven extensive 
Pueblos in this^ canon, nearly all in a good state of preservation, and their appear- 
ance indicates that they were once the home of fifteen hundred to three thousand 
people each. From the thousands of ruins of cities, towns, and families found 
throughout this great San Juan Valley, it is evident that once this great valley was 
the home of hundreds of thousands of this extinct race. That they were a 
peaceful and agricultural race of people is evidenced by the large number of their 
implements of husbandry and the specimens of corn and beans found in these 
ruins, besides irrigating ditches and reservoirs for the storage of water. 

3IailCOS. The debarking point for the chff ruins as inentioned above 
and the leading town of the valley. Shipping point for large numbers of cattle 
and sheep. (Distance from Denver, 490 miles. Population, 500. Elevation, 
7,008 feet.) 

Leaving Mancos, the road ^-inds up the sloping sides of a flat-topped mountain, 
and there on its summit, among huge pines centuries old, bubbles up a clear, cold 
spring of sparkhng water, forming the stream that flows down through the beautiful 
Lost Caiion, and which is called by the unpoetic name of "Lost Canon Creek." 

Lost Canon is a novelty in itself, as its sides are densely wooded and softly 
carpeted wdth a thick bed of moss and leaves, beautifully colored by millions of 
Colorado wild flowers whose delicate beauty is unrivaled. 

Emerging from Lost Canon the traveler is whirled up to the beautiful Valley 
of the Dolores River, with its many ranches and farms, past the town of the same 




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TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 1 29 

name. Off to the left, flowing to the eastward, comes bubbling down the mountain 
side into the larger river, the West Dolores, and no more famous or prolific trout 
stream exists than this. 

Dolores. One of the principal towns in Southwestern Colorado. It is 
the shipping-point for the southeastern part of Utah and from whence the gold 
hunters start on their prospecting trips to the canons of the San Juan and Colo- 
rado Rivers. (Population, 300. Distance from Denver, 511 miles. Elevation, 
6,957 feet.) 

Dolores Canon. Continuing on up the main river, the valley begins to 
narrow down, until we are once more within the walls of a caiion which takes its 
name from the stream flowing through it. While this canon is not particularly 
deep, its natural beauties are manifold and are sure to make a lasting and delightful 
impression on the beholder. 

Rushing out of the canon the tourist is now landed at Rico. 

Klco is one of the most important mining towns of the State, whose mines 
dot the mountain sides, and whose product is packed to the cars on the backs of 
the ever patient and faithful burro, without which no mining camp can be complete. 

Rico ranks among the "cities of the first class" and has all the facilities and 
improvements of a town of ten times its population. Its principal industries are 
those connected with mining interests, though considerable agricultural country 
surrounds it. The town is located in what was at one time the crater of a large 
volcano. Precipitous mountains with poetic names arise upon all sides of it, 
gradually widening, until by describing a circle of their summits they appear as 
the top of a huge funnel. Among them is the famous Telescope Mountain, a 
freak of nature only to be seen to form a proper realization of the aptness of its 
name. The place has much of historic interest, as evidences of early Spanish dis- 
coveries are found on many sides. (Population, 1,000. Distance from Denver, 
via Ridgway, 443; via Durango, 547 miles. Elevation, 8,737 feet.) 

Lizard Heart Pass. Leaving Rico, the hne continues up the Dolores, 
which grows smaller and smaller, until it becomes a mere silver thread winding 
in and out among huge rocks and boulders. Thirteen miles north of Rico, and 
after climbing many miles of three and four per cent grades, the summit of the 
Lizard Head Pass is reached at an elevation of nearly 11,000 feet. From the sum- 
mit and to the left will be seen the Liznrd Head, a peculiar rock formation capping 
a tall, bare mountain. This rock derives its name from its resemblance to the head 
of a mountain lizard, though at the same time it may be said to resemble the shaft 
of some large monument. 

Descending the pass through the mountain gorges over rushing mountain 
streams, one finds one's self at 

Trout Lake. No more graphic description of this sheet of beautiful blue 
water can be given than a verse from a poem by " H. H. " 

"The mountains wall in the water; 

It looks like a great blue cup; 
And the sky looks like another 
Turned over, bottom side up." 

Here the sport-inclined tourist may spend a few days, for the lake is inhabited 
by thousands and thousands of mountain trout. Accommodations of a primitive, 
though wholesome character, can be obtained of the neighboring ranchmen. (Popu- 
lation, nominal. Distance from Denver, via Ridgway, 427 miles; via Durango, 
563 miles. Elevation, 9,802 feet.) 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 131 

Shortly after leaving Trout Lake, the famous 

Opllir Loop is passed. Here the skill of the engineer was taxed to its 

utmost, for the track winds in zigzags down the mountainside, rushing through 
a deep cut here, over a mountain torrent and a high bridge there, darting around 
sharp curves, in and out of snowsheds, until on the opposite mountain and high 
above us is to be seen a line of freshly turned earth, which the knowing ones say 
is the track over which we have just passed. 

From Vance JllUCtioil a side trip of ten miles, which will repay the 
tourist, can be made to 

Tellliritle, a mining town of some 3,500 inhabitants, nestling among snow- 
capped mountains, rising to stupendous heights, and rich in gold and silver. Like 
all the towns of the San Juan, mining is the principal resource of the city; at Tellu- 
ride are located some of the largest and richest mines in the country. (Distance 
from Denver, via Ridgway, 423 miles; Elevation, 8,756 feet.) 

From Vance Junction the journey is continued down the San Miguel River, 
past Placerville, the debarking point for the famous Paradox Valley and the rich 
copper-mining district of the Blue and La Sal mountains, until the river leaves the 
rail, and again we commence to go up; this time over the Dallas Divide. This 
pass resembles Marshall Pass, though not quite so long. After reaching the sum- 
mit, the line runs down the eastern slope along Leopard Creek, high above it on 
the mountainside, giving a most magnificent view of the Uncompahgre Range 
to the south with its gentle slopes softly colored by the deep, dark foliage of dense 
pine and fir forests gradually rising until the mountains develop into a huge mass 
of shattered pinnacles, their topmost points covered with the everlasting snow. 

ltidg"\vay. This bustling little town is the northern terminus of the Rio 
Grande Southern Railroad, and its junction point with the Ouray branch of the 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The shops and headquarters are here, giving 
employment to a large portion of its inhabitants. A fine agricultural, as well as a 
very rich mining region, surround Ridgway, and give promise of making it a large 
and prosperous city. (Distance from Denver, 377 miles; via Durango, 613 miles. 
Population, 1,000. Elevation, 7,002 feet.) 




CATHEDRAL SPIRE— OPHIR LOOP. 



SILVERTON TO MONTROSE. 




^^HE trip from Silverton to Montrose, across the intervening range of 
mountains, is not at all the difficult undertaking it looks to be. 
Here, blocking the way, is one of the most rugged and lofty chains 
of the great Rocky Mountain systems, which but recently only the 
adventurous prospector and his sure-footed burro (donkey) dared to 
cross; but now the journey has been rendered an easy accomplish- 
ment by the building of the Silverton Railway, from Silverton to Red Mountain, 
from which point comfortable stages carry the tourist a distance of twelve miles to 
Ouray, where the trip is continued by way of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. 
The construction of the Silverton Railway was a task of great magnitude, and one 
remarkable feature about it is that it owes its existence to the enterprise and daring 
of one man, Mr. Otto Mears, the "pathfinder" of the San Juan. The result has 
been one of the most remarkable achievements in engineering of modern times. 
The road has the same gauge as that of the Denver & Rio Grande, and like it 
finds no grade so stubborn as to be insurmountable. Taking the cars at the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande depot, at Silverton, the ascent of the mountains is at once 
begun. There is no preliminary skirmishing along level ground, for Silverton lies 
at the bottom of a bowl-shaped valley, and the mountains rise round about on all 
sides to tremendous heights. With curves, whose sinuosity surpasses that of the 
serpent's trail, the railroad climbs up the gulches, until at the mining station of 
Chattanooga the track makes an almost perfect loop, the cars traveling several miles 
forward and the same distance back — and there lies Chattanooga directly beneath 
us! All that has been gained is altitude. This is equivalent, however, to a direct 
progress of a thousand feet, though it has taken a journey of fifteen thousand feet 
to accomplish it. At the summit of the range the railroad reaches an altitude of 
11,235 feet, and the view is something to be remembered a lifetime. At one point 
of the descent it has been necessary to construct a switch-back reversing the course 
of the train, and yet continuing the descent. This switch-back is a novel applica- 
tion of engineering science, and is an exceedingly interesting piece of railroad 
work. The ascent and descent of Red Mountain Ijy this wonderful railway, give 
the tourist not only an opportunity to behold the grandest of mountain scenery, 
but also the privilege of witnessing on all sides the progress of mining operations. 
The shafts, shaft houses, tunnels, and "prospect" holes of mines in fact or /;: 
luturo, are to be seen on all sides. The mines of Red Mountain are numerous, and 
several of them rank among the richest in the world. 

A KoiilJilltic Stag'e Kide. The stage ride forms one of the most 
attractive features of this most attractive journey. Lasting only three hours, pass- 
ing over the summits of ranges and through the depths of caiions, the tourist will 
find this a welcome variation to his method of travel, and a great relief and recrea- 
tion. The old-fashioned stage, with all its romantic associations, is rapidly becom- 
ing a thing of the past. A year or two more and it will have disappeared entirely 
from Colorado. Here, in the midst of some of the grandest scenery on the conti- 

133 



^34 



OVER THE RANGE 



nent, the blue sky above, and the fresh, pure exhilarating mountain air sending the 
blood bounding through one's veins, to clamber into a Concord coach and be 
whirled along a splendidly constructed road, as solid as the living rock from which 
it has been carved at an expense in some instances of $40,000 a mile, and as smooth 
as a city boulevard, is surely a novel and delightful experience. The scenery on 
this journey between Silverton and Ouray is of the greatest magnificence. This is 
especially true of this portion of the route traversed by stage. The Silverton and 
Ouray toll road has long been noted for its attractions in the way of scenery, the 
triangular mass of Mount Abraham's towers to the left, while the road winds 
around the curves of the hills with the sinuosity of a mountain brook. 




SIERRA BLANCA. 



Bear Creek Falls. The scene from the bridge over Bear Creek is one 
which once beheld can never be forgotten. Directly under the bridge plunges a 
cataract to the depth of two hundred and fifty-three feet, forming a most note- 
worthy and impressive scene. The toll road passes through one of the most famous 
mining regions in the world, and the fame of Red Mountain is well deserved, both 
from the number and richness of its mines. Before Ourav is reached the road 
passes through Uncompahgre Canon. Here the roadbed has been blasted from 
the solid rock wall of the gorge, and a scene similar in nature and rivaling in 
grandeur that of Animas Caiior is bchrld. 

This is one of the most beautifully situated 
towns to be found anywhere. Its scenery is idyllic. 
The village is cradled in a lovely valley, sur- 
rounded by rugged mountains. The situation of 
the town is thus briefly described in the Crcsl of the 
Continent: "The valley in which the town is built 
is pear-shaped, its greatest width being not more 
than half a mile while its length is about twice that 
down to the mouth of the canon. Southward — that 
is, toward the heart of the main range — stand the 
two great peaks, Hardin and Haydcn. Between is 
the deep gorge down which the Uncompahgre finds its way; but this is 
hidden from view by a ridge which walls in the town and cuts off all 



OURAY. 

The Qem of the Rockies. 

Health and Pleasure 
Resort. 

Elevation, 7,721 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 
388 miles. 

Population, 3,000. 




BEAR CREEK FALLS. 



136 



OVER THE RANGE 



the further \'iew from it in that direction, save where the triangular top of 
Mount Abrams peers over. Westward are grouped a series of broken ledges, 
surmounted by greater and more rugged heights. Down between these and the 
western foot of Mount Hayden struggles Canon Creek to join the Uncompahgre; 
while Oak Creek leaps down a line of -cataracts from a notch in the terraced heights 
through which the quadrangular head of White House Mountain becomes grandly 
discernible — the eastermost buttress of the wintry Sierra San Miguel. At the 
lower side of the basin, where the path of the river is beset with close canon-walls, 
the cliffs rise vertical from the level of the village, and bear their forest growth 
many hundreds of feet above. These mighty walls, two thousand feet high in some 




CHIEFS OF THE UNCOMPAHGRE UTES. 



places, are of metamorphic rock, and their even stratification simulates courses of 
well-ordered masonry. Stained by iron and proljably also by manganese, they are 
a deep red maroon; this color does not lie uniformly, however, but is stronger in 
some layers than in others, so that the whole face of the cliff is banded horizontally 
in pale rust color, or dull crimson, or deep and opacjue maroon. The western cliff 
is bare, but on the more frequent ledges of the eastern wall scattered spruces grow, 
and add to its attractiveness. Yet, as though Nature meant to teach that a bit of 
motion, — a suggestion of glee was needed to relieve the sombcrness of utter immo- 
bility and grandeur, however shapely, she has led to the sunlight, by a crevice 
in the upper part of the eastern wall tliat we cannot see, a brisk torrent draining 
the snowfields of some distant plateau. This little stream, thus beguiled by the 
fair channel that led it through the spruce woods above, has no time to think of its 
fate, but it is flung out over the sheer precij)ice eighty feet into llu- valley below. 



138 OVER THE RANGE 

We see the white ghost of its descending, and always to our ears is murmured the 
voice of the Naiads, who are taking the breathless plunge. Yet by what means the 
stream reaches that point from above cannot be seen, and the picture is that of a 
strong jet of water bursting from an orifice through the crimson wall, and falling 
into rainbow-arched mist and a tangle of grateful foliage that hides its further 
flowing." 

The town has one hotel of great magnificence worthy of a city of ten times its 
population, besides a good supply of other hostelries of a less splendid character. 
Ouray is a health resort worthy of patronage by invalids, possessing hot springs of 
a fine medicinal character and abounding in attractions to divert the mind. Plenty 
of sport can be had about here. The mountain sheep and wapiti have not yet been 
killed off; deer and trout are abundant. The rides up the roads and trails to 
neighboring mines and mining camps, through valley and canon, and over moun- 
tain and mesa, are not soon exhausted, and the lover of botany or geology, or the 
student of mineralogy and mining, could scarcely find a finer field anywhere than 
in the neighborhood of Ouray. 

Ouray to Moutrose. Leaving Ouray, a ride of thirty-six miles, via the 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, brings the traveler to Montrose, on the main nar- 
row-gauge line of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, between Denver and Salt 
Lake City. Two miles from Ouray the country begins to become open and soon 
one is passing through farms and an excellent agricultural valley. En route one 
passes the confluence of the Uncompahgre and Dallas, and the mesas and terraces 
on either side abound with almost every species of game, deer, elk, mountain sheep, 
bear, and smaller animals. 

Kitlg'way. Eleven miles from Ouray. The junction point with the 
Rio Grande Southern Railroad. A description of this charming little city will 
be found elsewhere in this volume. Further on, twenty-two miles from Ouray, 
you come to the old Los Pinos Agency, where Chiefs Douglas, Jack, Colorow, 
Piah, and other Indians who participated in the massacre of Thornburg and 
the Meekers, tested the nerve of General Hatch and his associates in 1879. The 
store-house, council chamber, etc., are still standing. The abandoned site of old 
Fort Crawford is passed twenty-six miles from Ouray, and five miles further on, one 
reaches the residence of Chipeta, the widow of Ouray, the dead Ute chief, who, 
during his reign, held the Utes in check, and was always the friend of the white man. 
At Montrose the tourist can again take the main narrow-gauge line of the Denver & 
Rio Grande Railroad and resume the trans-continental journey. 




TWIN LAKES. 



LEADVILLE TO DILLON. 



WA 





A ROCKY MOUNTAIN BEAUTY SPOT. 



From Lcadville a branch line of 
the widely radiating Denver and Rio 
Grande system extends over Fremont 
Pass to Dillon. The general direction 
taken by the line is to the northeast, 
with a deflection from Frisco to Dillon 
to the northwest. The Great Middle 
Park of Colorado lies to the north of Dil- 
lon, just over the range of the Williams 
River Mountains. The country between 
Leadville and Dillon is extremely moun- 
tainous, and mines of great value have 
been discovered in this region. The rail- 
road crosses the Park Range at Fremont 
Pass, and in the valley at the foot of the 
pass the Arkansas River has its sources. 
The blue river heads on the Pacific slope 
near the pass, and the south branch is 
crossed l)y the railroad near the small 
station of Wheeler, the iiorlli hraiu h is encountered at Frisco in the vicinity of which 
the two join and form the main stream, which empties into the Grand in the south- 
west corner of Middle Park. 

The ride from Leadville to Fremont Pass is one of great interest to lovers of 

140 



142 OVER THE RANGE 

the grand and beautiful in nature. The mountain ranges which surround the "Car- 
bonate Camp" are in plain view, and every turn in the road reveals new attrac- 
tions. This extension of the line is known as the Blue River branch. It is ttiirty- 
six miles in length, with its terminus at Dillon. The intervening stations are 
Bird's Eye, AHcante, Fremont Pass, Robinson, Kokomo, Wheeler, Frisco, and Dillon. 
Source of the Arkansas. The line from Leadville follows up the 
Arkansas River, and here we have an object lesson in the growth of rivers. We 
see from what small beginnings great things in the way of water courses grow. 
We see how a httle brook which one could dam with a couple of shovels of mud 
may push its way along, "undermining what it cannot overthrow; sliding around 
the obstacle that deemed itself impassable, losing itself in willowy bogs, tumbling 
headlong over the error of a precipice or getting heedlessly entrapped in a confined 
canon, escaping down a gorge with indescribable turmoil, and always growdng 
bigger, bigger, broader, and stronger, deeper and more dignified; till it can leave 
the mountains and strike boldly across a thousand miles of imtracked plain to 
'fling its proud heart into the sea.' " 

Almost in the very springs of the river, where an amphitheatre of gray quartzite 
peaks stand like stiffened silver-gray curtains between the Atlantic and the Pacific, 
we curl round a perfect shepherd's crook of a curve, and then climb its straight 
staff to the summit of Fremont Pass. 

Through a charming valley the approach to 
Fremont Pass is made. A famous pass, with the 
historic name of him who has been called "The 
Pathfinder," although a later day has witnessed 
greater achievements than his among the Rocky 
Mountains. A journey here deserves the title of a 
pilgrimage, for from the summit of this pass the 
traveler can discern the Mount of the Holy Cross. 
The scene is one replete with vivid interest. Fainter 
and fainter grow the lines of objects in the valley, 
until at last the clouds envelope the train, and at the next moment the observer 
looks down upon a roUing mass of vapor through which the light strikes in many 
colored beams. The sublimity of the scene forbids all thoughts other than those 
of reverence and rapture. 

"The snow-crowned monarchs of an upper world, 
Rugged and steep and bare, the mountains rise" 
Their very feet are planted in the skies; 
Adown their sides are avalanches hurled. 

"Time was when few and daring were the men 
Who might behold this pass that Fremont gained 
Through toil and danger, and its heights attained, 
Perils beset the long leagues down again. 

"Now all may come who seek, afar from crowds, 
The grand in nature, for we now engage 
The potent genii of this iron age, 
Fire, steam, and steel, and rise above the clouds!" 

The railroad crosses the pass at an elevation of about two miles above the 
level of the sea, and ranks among the highest railroad passes in the world. 

Mount of the Holy Cross. From the crest of I'remont Pass the 
traveler looks eagerly about and soon catches sight of the sacred symbol which 
gives name to the famous mount. The snow-white emblem of Christian faith 



FREMONT PASS. 

One of the Highest 

Railroad Passes in the 

World. 

Elevation, 11,330 feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



143 



gleams with bright splendor against the azure sky. The wayfarer at last realizes 
that he has reached the height "around whose summit splendid visions rise." 
This is one of the best points of view from which to behold this wonderful moun- 
tain, a more extended description of which will be found in the chapter entitled, 
"From Leadville to Aspen." 

D <) vvii Avsird to 
Dillon. On the Pacific 
Slope are the mines which 
made this region famous. 

Moving on down the 
pleasant vallev, whose level 
bottom is carbonate tinted, 
not with ore dust, but with 
an almost continuous thick- 
et of stunted red willows, we 
pass the Chalk IMountain 
mines, the Carbonate Hill 
district, Clinton Gulch 
where gold ore is alleged to 
be worth more attention 
than it is receiving, and so 
come to Elk Mountain and 
Kokomo. The ore found 
here is a hard carbonate, 
running about twenty-five 
ounces in silver and twenty- 
five per cent in lead, be- 
sides a third of an ounce 
in gold, which is carefully 
separated at the smelter. 
Much of it is so admirably 
constituted that it "smelts 
itself," — that is, it requires 
little or no addition of lead, 
iron, and other accessories 
to its proper flu.xion. Con- 
tinuing the journey we be- 
hold alluring pictures of 
mountains and canons, of 
belts of timber and pleasant 
uplands, of green meadows 
and sparkling streams be- 
loved of gamey trout and 
the haunts of deer and elk. 
This country is a paradise for the sportsman, and the rod and gun find ample range. 

l>illou is the terminus of the Blue River branch and is situated in a mining 
country. The station is the nearest point for the lower Blue River Valley, into 
which good roads extend. Saddle horses and wagons can be hired to go down 
this river into the hunting and fishing grounds of Middle Park. (Population, 300. 
Distance from Denver, 312 miles. Elevation, 8,859 feet.) 




CASCADES OF THE BLUE. 



OGDEN TO SAN FRANCISCO 



OQDEN. 

Railroad and Hanufac^ 
turing Town. 

Population, 32,000. 

Elevation, 4,293 feet. 

Distance from Denver, 

via riarshall Pass Line, 

753 miles. 

Via Standard Gauge Line, 

778 miles. 

Distance from San 
Francisco, 883 miles. 



At Ogden the tourist changes from the line of 
the Denver & Rio Grande system to that of the 
Southern Pacific, both Knes using the magnificent 
new Union Station. The train service of the two 
fines is continuous and no change of cars is necessary. 
A glance around will show one that Ogden is beau- 
tifully situated on the west slope of the Wasatch 
Mountains. It is well laid out and substantially 
built; the streets are wide, regular, well paved, lined 
with shade and ornamental trees, and lighted with 
electricity. By a good system of water works the 
mountain streams and springs are made to supply 
an abundance of pure water. Many of the private 
residences and grounds are very handsome, and the business blocks solid and ele- 
gantly constructed. Of the climate too much cannot be said. Utah claims the 
finest climate in the United States. Colorado makes the same assertion; so does 
California. There is no doubt that each of these great commonwealths has good 
grounds for its claims. Colorado and Utah have similar characteristics, while 
California is quite different; circumstances are said to alter cases, and this saying 
holds true in climate as well as in other matters. While the climate of Colorado 
or Utah might be a specific for one class of diseases, that of California might be 
much more beneficial for another class. The advice of an intelligent and unpre- 
judiced physician should be taken before an invalid decides on his choice of loca- 
tion. In Utah the winters are short and mild, and the spring and fall months give 
almost perfect weather; the summers are warm, but not oppressively hot, and the 
nights are always cool and never moist. Pulmonary troubles will surely find 
relief, and generally a cure. Ten miles north of Ogden are Hot Springs, whose 
sulphur water possesses peculiar medicinal properties, and are pronounced superior 
to the Arkansas Springs. Hundreds of invalids visit these springs annually, and 
they are steadily growing in popularity. The educational and religious advan- 
tages of Ogden are on a par with those of eastern cities of the same size. Here is 
the center of one of the richest agricultural and mining districts of Utah. Ogden 
has better railroad facilities than any other town in the territory. It is affection- 
ately called by its inhabitants the "Junction City of the West." It is the terminus 
of four leading trunk lines, namely: The Denver & Rio Grande, the Union Pacific, 
the Southern Pacific, and the Oregon Short Line. The outlook for manufacturing 
is excellent, the Weber River furnishing almost unlimited water power. A large dam 
across this stream a few miles from Ogden, provides water power for a large electrical 
power plant, and the electric current is transmitted to many manufacturing plants and 
mines and smelters. Iron ore is found in great quantities in the near vicinity, while 
the wool chp of the territory, and those of Idaho, Wyoming, Montana, and Nevada 
is enormous, and could Ix- advantageously manufactured into cloth at this point. 

144 



TO THE GOLDBN GATE. 145 

Geolog'ical Features. Looking from the car window after passing 
Ogden, the traveler can see many things in this region indicating a thriUing geologi- 
cal history. That striation, extending along the side of the foothills to the right, 
marks the water-line of a vast, prehistoric inland sea known to geologists as "Lake 
Bonneville," that shrunk ages ago to the comparatively small proportions of the 
present Salt Lake. The whole area between the Wasatch Mountains and the Sierra 
Nevadas was once covered by this immense body of water, in which the mountain 
ranges rose as islands. The lakes of the present day are all that remain of this vast 
prehistoric sea. The deposits which cover the lowlands are chiefly calcareous, 
and are often filled with fresh water and land shells, indicating a comparatively 
modem origin. The formation of the islands and the shore ranges of Salt Lake 
is metamorphic, the strata are distinctly marked and highly inclined, but attaining 
no great elevation, being generally overlaid with sandstone and limestone of the 
carboniferous age, but partly altered, the former constituting the loftier eminence, 
in places it is rich in fossils, while in others it loses the granular character, and 
becomes sub-crystalline or threaded by veins of calcareous spar, the sandstones, 
from metamorphic action, taking the character of cjuartz. As the train advances, 
evidences of volcanic action become numerous. 

Corilllie. Between Ogden and Corinne the Bear River is crossed by a 
bridge twelve hundred feet in length. The town of Corinne has a good agricultural 
country around it, and wherever irrigation has been secured large crops have 
responded to industrious cultivation. The raising of stock, is also a tributary 
industry, and cattle do well on the surrounding excellent ranges, which are found 
in the greatest perfection north of the town. (Population, 500. Distance from 
Ogden, 24 miles. Elevation, 4,233 feet.) 

A small station surrounded by country covered 
with sage brush, and only worthy of mention for its 
history. At this point, on Monday, May 10, 1869, 
the Union Pacific Railroad, building west and the 
Central Pacific Railroad, building east, met. The 
junction was made, and the news flashed all over 
the world that the first great trans-continental rail- 
road of America had become an accomplished fact. 
The importance of that event cannot be overesti- 
mated, and to enumerate the results emanating from that meeting would be the 
task of a historian. An epitome of what that meeting meant can be best expressed 
by quoting that clever and quaintly humorous poem, written by Bret Harte, com- 
memorative of the occasion, under the title of 

WHAT THE ENGINES SAID. 

What was it the Engines said, 
Pilots touching — head to head, 
Facing on a single track. 
Half a world behind each back? 
This is what the Engines said 
Unreported and unread : 

With a prefatory screech, 
In a florid Western speech. 
Said the Engine from Ihe West, 
"I am froiTi Sierra's crest; 
And if altitude's a test, 
Why, I reckon, it's confessed 
That I've done my level best." 



PROMONTORY. 

A Point of 
Historical Interest. 



H^ OVER THE RANGE 



Said the Engine from the East : 
"They who work best talk the least. 
S'pose you whistle down your brakes, 
What you've done is no great shakes, — 
Pretty fair — but let our meeting 
Be a different kind of greeting. 
Let these folks with champagne stuffing,. 
Not their Engines, do the Puffing " 

"Listen! Where Atlantic beats 
Shores of snow and summer heats. 
Where the Indian autumn skies 
Paint the woods with wainpum dyes, 
I have chased the flying sun. 
Seeing all he looked upon. 
Blessing all that he has blest. 
Nursing in my iron breast 
AH his vivifying heat. 
All his clouds about my crest; 
And before my flying feet 
Every shadow must retreat," 

Said the Western Engine. Phew!" 
And a long, low whistle blow. 
"Come now, really that's the oddest 
Talk for one so very modest — 
You brag of your East! you do? 
Why. I bring the East to you! 
All the Orient, all Cathay, 
Find through me the shortest way. 
And the sun you follow here 
Rises in my hemisphere. 
Really — if one must be rude — 
Length, my friend, ain't lor.git'.ide." 

Said the Union, "Don't reflect, or 
I'll run over some Director." 
Said the Central, "I'm Pacific, 
But, when riled, I'm quite terrific. 
Yet, to-day we shall not quarrel. 
Just to show these folks this moral. 
How two Engines — in their vision — 
Once have met without collision. 

That is what the Engines said, 
Unreported and unread ; 
Spoken lightly through the nose, 
With a whistle at the close. 

Moimiueilt. Before Monument is reached the side track stations of Rozel 
and Lake are passed. At Rozel, the great Salt Lake is close to the track on the 
left, and at Monument, a point of the same name extends into the lake. Here 
we take our last view of the interesting and mysterious sea which has been our 
almost constant companion since leaving Salt Lake City. Before us stretches 
a vast, unfertile country, and here, if anywhere, can be found that makeshift of the 
easy going and old-fashioned geography — the "Great American Desert." 

Keltoil. This little place is situated on the eastern edge of the desert, and 
here the water-trains of the railroad company obtain their supply of the a(|ucous 
flu'd and deliver to the stations to the westward on this division. Looking to 
the north the traveler will see the Red Dome Mountains, while to the southeast 
rises Pilot Knob, a prominent feature in the landscape. (Population, nominal. 
Distance from Ogden, 92 miles. P^levation, 4,225 feet.) 



148 OVER THE RANGE 

Towns in the Desert. From Kelton to Toano the road traverses 
the northern edge of the desert, amidst a scene of general desolation. In a general 
way this unfertile region may be described as sixty square miles of alkahne sands, 
evidently a portion of the great ocean bed already referred to. Like the arid 
country, between Fruita and Green River, in Utah, through which we came, on 
the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, which only needs irrigation to become fer- 
tile, this region is the counterpart. The stations on the desert are of no special 
interest, but as a matter of record may be named as follows: Ombey, Matlin, 
Terrace, Bovine, Lucin, Tecoma, Montello, and Loray. The train has been 
ascending the grade, and from Kelton, with an altitude of 4,225 feet to Toano, 
wdth an altitude of 5,970 feet, we have made a net gain of 1,747 feet. The moun- 
tains to the south are the Toano Range, where mines have been discovered, and 
which gave a phenomenal output of ore some years ago, but concerning which, 
since that time, little has been heard. The great peak almost directly south, 
which has been our landmark for the last fifty miles, is Pilot Knob, rising to a 
height of twenty-five hundred feet directly from the plains. This Knob was the 
beacon of the early emigrant by which he steered his ship of the desert, knowing 
that near it lay Humboldt Wells, where plenty of water and grass could be obtained 
for his almost famished stock. 

Toano. A little station marking the western verge of the desert, and the 
first stop after crossing the line from Utah into Nevada. (Population, nominal. 
Distance from Ogden, 183 miles. Elevation, 5,970 feet.) 

From Toano the ascent of Cedar Pass is begun. 
For ten miles the grade is upward, though not re- 
markably steep, the road rising 216 feet. The 
Cedar Pass Range is comparatively low and extends 
from north to south, the south fork of the Hum- 
boldt River flows through these hills. The Ruby 
Valley lies to the east, and is sixty miles long by 
ten wide. The valley is occupied by farmers and 
is very fertile. There are a number of small 
lakes in the valley, among which may be mentioned Ruby and Franklin. 

Moores. This station occupies the summit of Cedar Pass. Snow sheds 
and fences, which can be seen here and for some distance beyond, testify to the fact 
that the elevation is such as to cause protection against the danger of snow block- 
ades. (Population, small. Distance from Ogden, 210 miles. Elevation, 6,165 
feet.) 

Wells. The grade has been a descending one since we left Moores and 
the descent will be continued for nearly three hundred miles. The railroad com- 
pany has adopted the monosyllabic title of Wells for this station, but for nearly 
half a century this place has borne the popular title of "Humboldt Wells." Here 
the railroad repair shop and roundhouse are located, and the town consists of these 
and many other buildings, including good hotels. The trade of the Clover Valley, 
and the business of the mines at Cherry Creek, and Salmon River, together with 
extensive cattle raising on the nearby ranges, center at Wells making it one of the 
important towns of Eastern Nevada. In this vicinity, the emigrants in the old days 
of overland travel to California were wont to make their camp and recuperate their 
stock after the trying ordeal of the desert. The wells from which the place takes 
its name are very curious, consisting of circular openings in the ground varying 
in size, being from four to eight feet in diameter, and filled to the brink with water. 



CEDAR PASS. 

The Divide between ttie 
Desert and Hum- 
boldt Valley. 

Highest Elevation, 
6,186 feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 149 

No bubbles arise on the surface of the water, which trickles off through the grass 
and sinks into the porous soil. It is said that the wells have been frequently sounded 
and no bottom found. The water is somewhat brackish. There are about twenty 
of these pools in the little valley, and their Kfe-giving influence can be seen 
in the abundant growth of grass. Because of these peculiar pools Wells is a station 
of considerable interest to the tourist. (Population, 500. Distance from Ogden, 
219 miles. Elevation, 5,631 feet.) 

Valley of the Humboldt. After the journey across the desert, the 
Valley of the Humboldt presents a most delightful appearance to the eyes of the 
traveler, who is considerably wearied by the constant view of sand and sagebrush. 
The valley is eighty miles in length and ten in breadth and is occupied by agricul- 
turists and stock raisers. The river which makes this section of the country fertile 
rises thirty miles northwest of Wells, and, flowing southwest nearly three hundred 
miles, empties into Humboldt Lake, which has no outlet. The railroad follows the 
river closely for two hundred and seventy miles and leaves it at Brown's Station, 
where one has a fine view of the lake. The railroad follows for the greater part 
of the way the north side of the river, while the old emigrant trail, parts of which 
can yet be seen, pursues its course on the opposite side of the stream. 

Tulasco, Bishops, Deeth, Halleck, Peko, Osino, are all small side track sta- 
tions, useful to the residents of the valley and to the railroad, but of no especial 
interest to the tourist. After passing Peko, the railroad crosses the north fork of 
the Humboldt River and at Osino a canon of the same name is entered, and we 
leave behind us the pleasant valley of the Humboldt. 

Elko. This is one of the largest towns on the line since leaving Ogden. 
It is the county-seat of Elko County and is well supplied with churches, schools, 
business blocks, and comfortable residences. It is also the seat of the state uni- 
versity. Elko is an important shipping point for stock and for the output of the 
Eureka, Tuscararo White Pine, and Cape mines, all being within a radius of from 
twenty-five to one hundred miles. Beyond Elko some ten miles the South Fork of 
the Humboldt joins the river on the south, watering along its course an excellent 
grazing country. (Population, 1,000. Distance from Ogden, 275 miles. Eleva- 
tion, 5,066 feet.) 

Carlill. Between Elko and Carlin is the small station of Molcen. Some 
hay meadows intervene and the road passes through Five Mile Canon, where the 
tourist will behold some rugged scenery. Carlin is the divisional terminus of the 
railroad, and here engines and crews are changed. Gold and silver mines within a 
radius of twenty miles are tributary to the town. (Population, 200. Distance from 
Ogden, 299 miles. Elevation, 4,905 feet.) 

Twelve Mile Canon. The road pene- 
trates the range of mountains (which trends from 
north to south) by way of this canon. The walls 
rise on either side in rugged grandeur attaining in 
places a height of a thousand feet. From the pecu- 
liar stratification of the rocks resembling that of 
the famous rock walls of the Hudson, this canon has 
been called the Palisades of the Humboldt. Red 
Cliff is a striking promontory in the midst of the 
caiion, stained with rubescent colors and rising 
above the track for more than five hundred feet. 

Palisade. This little town nestles in the heart of Twelve Mile Canon, 



The Palisades of 
the Humboldt. 

Height of Walls, 
1,000 feet. 

Objects of Interest, 

Red Cliff and Devil's 

Peak. 



150 OVER THE RANGE 

and is the junction point of the Eureka and Pahsade Railroad with the Southern 
Pacific. The former road is a narrow gauge and was built mainly to convey ore and 
bullion to the great trunk line. Eureka, its terminus, is a mining town of about 
six thousand population, engaged principally in mining. Here are stamp mills 
and smelters handling fifty tons of ore daily. Palisade is the site of the machine 
shops of the Eureka and Palisade Railroad and is the shipping point for the agricul- 
tural regions of Pine and Diamond Valleys, and for the silver and lead ores from 
Eureka en route to the smelters at Salt Lake. Beyond Palisade Station is Devil's 
Peak, an isolated projection on the south side of the river, rising from the water to 
the height of three hundred feet. (Population, 200. Distance from Ogden, 308 
miles. Elevation, 4,843 feet.) 

Clliro. A small .station which stands at the lower entrance of Twelve Mile 
Canon, and is worthy of mention for this fact. 

G-ravelly Ford. This place is entitled to mention because of its his- 
toric interest. It was here that the old California trail crossed the river. The 
"Ford" was often the scene of Indian raids, and the hardy pioneers and the abo- 
rigines more than once tried conclusions here, and the blood of both the white and 
the red man often stained the flow of the Humboldt. 

Beowawe. At this point the Humboldt forces its way through the Red 
Range of Mountains forming a natural "gate," which is the significance of the 
name Beowawe in the Indian tongue. Beyond the station the road passes through 
bottom lands covered with a thick growth of shrubbery, the willow predominating. 
To the south eight or ten miles lies Hot Springs Valley, taking its title from the 
hot springs which are found there in great number. These springs are inter- 
mittent in their flow, resembling in this characteristic, though in a lesser degree, 
the geysers of the Yellowstone. Beowawe is a station of no very great commer- 
cial importance, but possesses interest because of the peculiar features of the sur- 
rounding country. (Distance from Ogden, 326 miles. Elevation, 4,697 feet.) 

The Valley Keg'ioil. To the north and south of the Humboldt and 
nearly opposite Argenta, are several valleys; among the most important is Paradise 
Valley — to the north — sixty miles long by ten miles wide, and settled by prosperous 
ranchmen. Eden Valley, also to the north, is twenty miles long by five miles 
broad, and thickly settled. Reese River Valley is to the south, of variable width, 
not wider than ten miles, and about seventy-five miles in length. The Reese 
River possesses the peculiarity of sinking into the sand before it reaches the Hum- 
boldt, and only in times of great abundance of water docs it flow beyond the point 
of its subsidence. 

Battle Mountain. Im[)ortant as a shipping station for the mining 
regions in the hills to the north and south; also the junction of the Nevada Central 
Railroad with the Southern Pacific. This is a narrow gauge, and its southern 
terminus is Austin, ninety-three miles distant from Battle Mountain, with a popu- 
lation of two thousand. The Nevada Central penetrates the rich mining districts 
of Galena, Pittsburg, Copper Canon, and many others, all contributing to its pros- 
perity. Battle Mountain takes its name from the range of mountains to the 
north of the Humboldt, between the Reese River and Owyhee ranges. (Pc)])ulation, 
600. Distance from Ogden, 359 miles. Elevation, 4,513 feel.) 

CiroltroiKla. (lolconda has hot springs which in any Eastern State would 
attract invalids and pleasure-seekers by the thousands. The benefits derived from 
the use of these waters has been proven, by many patients afBicted with rheumatism, 
nervousness and other diseases. Fine hotel is connected with the baths. Immense 



152 OVER THE RANGE 

deposits of copper ore lie nearby and extensive furnaces have been built for their 
reduction. Fine ranches on the river and cattle and sheep ranges in the hills add 
to the importance of the town. (Population, 200. Distance from Ogden, 402 
miles. Elevation, 4,391 feet.) 

WiniieillUCCa. The town derives its name from a noted Indian Chief who 
made his home in this region. Winnemucca is the county-seat of Humboldt County 
and supports two daily newspapers, fine schools, churches, lodges, and many stores, 
shops, etc. Its trade reaches far into Oregon and covers stock-raising, mining, and 
kindred industries. The old town is in the lowland fronting the station, and is 
hidden from sight until you approach the bank and look over. (Population, 2,000. 
Distance from Ogden, 419 miles. Elevation, 4,330 feet.) 

The Nevada Desert. We have now fairly entered upon the Nevada 
Desert, which we shall travel over to the westward until Wadsworth is reached, a 
distance of 135 miles. This stretch of country is the most desolate and the most 
uninteresting of any of the deserts crossed on the transcontinental journey. It 
is characterized by an almost total absence of vegetation of any kind, and by a 
remarkable distribution of scoria, the remains of extinct volcanic action. These 
deposits of black lava are scattered over a grayish expanse of sand, and are of a 
general cubical form, varying in size from that of a pea to that of a good-sized 
house. The railway stations between Winnemucca and Humboldt are Benin, Rose 
Creek, Lima, Cosgrave, Mill City, and Imlay. 

As the train stops at Humboldt, the passengers 
are surprised to see a beautiful little park filled with 
thrifty trees and carpeted with luxuriant green- 
sward. This oasis in the desert is the result of 
irrigation, and the fountain of cold, clear water that 
throws its rainbow-tinted spray into the air, tells the 
story as to how this magical transformation has been 
brought about. The charm of contrast is complete, 
and taking all things into consideration, I know of 
no place to be met with on the trip acro.ss the 
continent that the tourist ^\ill regard with more 
pleasure than the unexpected ^dsion of this emerald 
of the desert. Star Peak, the highest mountain in the Humboldt Range, crowned 
with perpetual snow, can be seen only seven miles distant to the northeast, and 
it is a pleasure to learn that the desert gives way to the Lanson Meadows five miles 
to the northwest, from which large crops of hay are cuf. 

JRye Patch. A small station, which derives its name from the fact that 
wild rye grows here in great quantities. There is in operation here a ten-stamp 
mill which is supphed with ore from the Eldorado and Rye Patch mining districts 
lying to the east within a radius of fifteen miles. (Population, nominal. Distance 
from Ogden, 470 miles. Elevation, 4,258 feet.) 

Oreana. A small station of no especial interest. A smelter is located 
here, and the widened expanse of the river at this point is owing to the fact that 
a dam has been thrown across it to secure water power. The railroad crosses the 
Humboldt five miles west of Oreana. (Population, nominal. Distance from 
Ogden, 480 miles. Elevation, 4,159 feet.) 

Lovelocks. This town has a brilliant outlook. Its alfalfa fields, its sheep 
and cattle market, the dozen mining districts tributary to it, insure the future of 
this valley town. There are many highly cultivated farms and gardens in the 



HUMBOLDT. 

An Oasis in the Desert. 

The Effect of lrriga=- 
tion. 

Distance from Ogden, 
459 miles. 

Elevation, 4,237 feet. 



The Lake Region. 

Facts Concerning: 

Interesting Bodies of 

Water. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 1 53 

vicinity. (Population, 900. Distance from Ogdcn, 403 miles. Fleva(!:n, 
3,980 feet.) 

BrOAVlls. At Browns station the tourist has a good view of Humboldt 
Lake, as the road apjiroaches it closely. The town itself is of minor imjwrtance. 
(Population, nominal. Distance from Ogden, 508 miles. Elevation, 3,933 feet.) 

Mirag'e. Side track station, deriving its name from the phenomenon 
peculiar to the desert, which has allured many an early emigrant to destruction 
through its deceptive influences. The green trees, the lake of bright water in 
which can be seen the reflection of surrounding objects, which the mirage presents 
to view, are only optical illusions, and those who left the beaten track to seek the 
refreshment apparently at hand frequently paid the penalty of their rashness with 
their lives. (Population, nominal. Distance from Ogden, 520 miles. Elevation, 
4,247 feet.) 

A glance at the map of Nevada will reveal the 
fact that we have now reached what may very 
appropriately be called the lake region. These 
lakes have not the clear, sweet water which one 
generally associates with the term; but on the con- 
trary are brackish, and hold great cjuantitics of 
alkali and chloride of sodium in solution. The 
most important of these lakes are: 

Hlllllbolrtt Lake. This sheet of water takes its name from the river 
which flows into, or rather through, it; the fact being that the waters of the river 
are collected in this basin, and are then conducted further west into Carson Sink — 
or Lake. All the drainage carried in the channel of the Humboldt River, in its 
course of three hundred and fifty miles, is concentrated here; the surplus, as has 
been said, passing south into Carson Lake, which has no outlet. Humboldt Lake is 
thirty-five miles long by ten miles wide. 

Car.SOll Lake. This lake, which receives the waters of the Humboldt 
River, through Carson Sink, is due south from Humboldt Lake, and has no outlet. 
The map shows two distinct bodies of water, namely: Carson Sink and Carson 
Lake; but during the prevalence of rain both are united, and cover a large extent 
of country. Carson Lake proper is twenty miles long by ten wide. 

Miul Lalie is situated north of Granite Point, some fifty miles. The 
famous "Black Rock" stands at the head of Mud Lake. This promontory is 
eighteen hundred feet in height, and a strong feature in the landscape. The name 
of this lake is especially descriptive of its peculiar characteristics, especially during 
the summer when the water is low and muddy. It has no outlet, and at its season 
of greatest enlargement is fifty miles long by twenty broad. 

Wiuiieimicca Lake is of small e.xtent, being about fifteen miles long by 
ten wide; it has connection with Pyramid Lake, which lies a short distance to the 
eastward. 

Pyramid Lalve is made the receptacle of the waters of the Truckcc River, 
the outlet of Lake Tahoc, and is about twice the size of Winnemucca Lake, being 
thirty miles long by twenty broad. 

Walker's Lake has no outlet. It is fifty mill's long by twenty wide, and 
lies aboui a hundred miles to the south of Mirage. 

Hot Spring's. .\ small station, taking its name from the springs which 
send up the steam from their heated waters on the right of the track. (Population, 
nominal. Distance from Ogden, 535 miles. Elevation, 4,074 feet.) 



^54 OVER THE RANGE 

Desert. This is the last station in the Nevada Desert, marking its western 
boundary. From here the grade is an ascending one, and when Wadsworth is 
reached, nine miles beyond, the desert will have been left entirely. (Population, 
small. Distance from Ogden, 546 miles. Elevation, 4,020 feet.) 

WadsW'Ortll. The tourist finds a pleasant greeting at Wadsworth, for on 
arriving at the station he sees a beautiful little park, neatly inclosed and orna- 
mented with a carefully ':ept lawn and handsome shade trees. The park is not so 
extensive as that at Humboldt, but is none the less a delight after the long journey 
across the desert. The town is situated on the eastern bank of the Truckee River, 
and is prosperous and well built. Here are located the railroad shops for this 
division of the railroad, and considerable freight business is transacted with the 
mining camps situated to the south. The Truckee River has its source in lakes 
Tahoe and Donner, and is a pure and sparkling stream. Six miles south are the 
Pine Grove Copper Mines, while ten miles south are the Desert Gold Mines, tribu- 
tary to Wadsworth. (Population, 1,500. Distance from Ogden, 555 miles. Eleva- 
tion, 4,085 feet.) 

In addition to being the county-seat of Washoe 
County, Reno is a thriving business center. It 
possesses all the modern improvements, including 
electric lights. Its business blocks are well built 
and its public buildings creditable to the city. The 
State University is located here and the handsome 
buildings attract the attention of travelers. The 
town was named after General Reno, who lost his 
life in the battle of South Mountain. This is the 
junctional point for the Nevada, California & Oregon 
Railroad, a narrow gauge, leading northward into 
Lassen County, ^\'ith a branch line into Plumas County. Here, also, the tourist 
can take the Virginia & Truckee Railroad for Carson City, Virginia City, and points 
to the north and south. Condensing the statement of connections, they are as 
follows: Virginia & Truckee Railroad for Carson, Virginia, and Mound House, con- 
necting there with Carson & Colorado Railroad for Hawthorne, Belleville, Cande- 
laria, and Keeler; Nevada, California & Oregon Railroad for points north. Stages 
can also be taken to Eagleville, Alturas, Cedarville, and Lake View or Davis Creek. 
Reno possesses a lively interest to the traveler, as it is the junction point to the 
world-famed Comstock Mines. 

Carson City is the State capital. It is a beautiful little city of about 2,500 
people, lying in Eagle Valley on Carson River. Stages run from here to Lake 
Tahoe and other summer resorts in the mountains. The public buildings of Carson 
are creditable to the State. The United States branch mint is located here; the 
capitol is in the center of a plaza, surrounded by an iron fence. There are good 
hotels, churches, schools, and daily newspapers. It is the oldest town in the State, 
is tastefully adorned with shade trees, and has an abundance of good water. It is 
the center of a large trade for all parts of southwestern Nevada and Mono and Inyo 
counties of California. 

Virs'iliia City. This famous place is on the slope of Mt. Davidson at an 
elevation of 6,200 feet, built along the side of the mountain. It has one main street 
with many steep cross-streets. In its earlier days it was a vortex of immense activity 
and its mines under the city were treasure houses of wealth almost beyond reckon- 
ing. The Consolidated Virginia and California mines cleared each about $1,080,- 



RENO. 

Junctional Point. 

Distance from Ogden, 
589 miles. 

Population, 4,500. 

Altitude, 4,497 feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 1 55 

ooo monthly for many months. The Ophir also paid fabulous dividends for years- 
The products of these mines at one time excited the world. The city has declined 
in population, but the mines are still yielding ore, and with modern machinery will 
have many years of acti\'ity. 

Cliiiibingr the Sierra Nevada Range. After lca\ing Reno the 
grades grow steeper, and the traveler prepares himself for the grand and striking 
scener)' w-hich he will have the pleasure of beholding until the passage of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains has been made. For fifty miles the ascent continues until 
Summit Station is reached, the highest point attained by the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road on its transcontinental line from Ogden to San Francisco. From Reno the 
road follows up the course of the Truckee River, and soon enters Truckee Canon. 
The course of the river is tortuous and the road quickly changes sides, giving 
varied and interesting \dews of towering rocks, foaming waters, and pine-clad 
mountains. In quick succession the following small stations are passed: 

Verdi, Floriston, Boca. The countn,- between Verdi and Truckee seems prettv 
well given up to the production of lumber, great quantities of ties, logs, and boards 
being piled beside the track. The river is used as a facile means of transporting 
these products of the forest. Ice store houses and paper pulp mills also abound here. 

Truckee stands at the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and 
the first station we reach after crossing the line between Nevada and California. 
The towm is well built and extends mainly along the north bank of the Truckee 
River. Lumber is the leading industry, and where the town now stands, once stood 
a dense forest. It is estimated that the Truckee Basin will supply at least 4,000,- 
000,000 feet of lumber, or enough to keep the sawmills going at their present rate 
for a hundred years. The roundhouse for this 'di\ision of the railroad is located 
here. Truckee is the shipping-point for Donner Lake and the towns of the Sierra 
Valley. Stages can be taken for Lake Tahoe (fourteen miles), Donner Lake 
(two miles), and Webber Lake; also for Sierra ville. Sierra City, and Plumas, Eureka 
Mine. (Population, 1,500. Distance from Ogden, 624 miles. Elevation, 5,819 
feet.) 

Lake Talioe. "There is a grandeur and enchantment at all times in the 
scenery which environs the lakes of this region and never-ending means of pleasure 
and exhilaration on their waters; and the panorama of mountain and valley, meadow- 
land and woodland, sunshine and cloud, as viewed from Tahoe City is spacious, 
inspiriting and impressive. This \-iew is an unspeakably fine one; ^\-ithin the mag- 
nificent frame of the Tahoe range is I^ake Tahoe, sometimes tranquil, sometimes 
turbulent, but always lovely. The summer sunsets on Lake Tahoe are remarkable 
for their great beauty and wealth of coloring and are grander than those mirrored 
on Lakes Como and Maggiore. No painter would ever dare to put upon canvas 
the variegated colors of Tahoe's waters in a summer sunset. It would appear 
such an exaggeration that he would lose caste among those who demand that the 
artist's pencil shall be true to nature. None but those who have \\'itnessed the 
scene would be persuaded of its reality. Such beauty could not be were it 
not for the highly reflective qualities of the pure translucent waters which ser\-e 
as a polished mirror of French plate-glass." Such is the glowing language of a 
much traveled author, whose w-ords, though eloquent, fail of depicting the entranc- 
ing loveliness of the scenes which one can here behold. But it is no reflection upon 
the descriptive powers of any writer to say that he has fallen short of the reality. 
Surely if these scenes are beyond the powers of the artist, no discredit can follow 
when the writer's pen fails to attain to the full measure of their grandeur and beauty. 



156 



OVER THE RANGE 



Lake Tahoc, one of the most beautiful moun- 
tain lakes in the world, lies in the heart of the 
Sierras, 6,280 feet above the sea, while mountain 
peaks surround it, rising to an additional height of 
from two to four thousand feet. It is 23 miles in 
length, 13 miles in breadth, and from 100 to 1,800 
feet in depth. Its waters are famous the world over 
for their crystal purity, and their transparency is so 
absolute that the fish, which abound in great 
numbers, can be seen distinctly as they swim 
beneath you, at a distance of eighty feet. On its 
lovely shores are situated some of the most delight- 
ful summer resorts. The mid-summer air is cool 
and invigorating, the hunting and fishing excellent, 
and the landscape picturesque and a never-ending delight to the eye. It is reached 
from Truckee by the Lake Tahoe Railway or by stage. The ride by stage from 
Truckee to the lake, is a most charming experience, and is thus described by Mr. 
N. H. Chittenden, a traveler of some distinction: "It was a glorious morning, 
bright and cool, a rain having fallen the previous evening, tempering the dry moun- 
tain air fragrant with the sweet odor of the pines, to a delicious, exhilarating fresh- 



LAKE TAHOE. 

The "Gem of the 
Mountains." 

Distance from Truckee, 
15 miles. 

Length of Lake, 
23 miles. 

Breadth of Lake, 
13 miles. 

Depth, 1,800 feet. 







LAKE TAHOE. 



ncss, and also effectually laying the dust. It is a magnificent drive, following up 
the dashing Truckee, a fitting outlet for the world's crowning gem of mountain 
i ikes. From thirty to fifty feet in width, clear as crystal, pure and cold, it courses 
swiftly down the mountains, frequently a foaming rapid, but interrupted in its 
headlong descent by several dams. The valley is from three-quarters to a mile 
across, the mountains generally not precipitous or very high, though presenting 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



157 



several bold, towering granite clilTs and peaks from five hundred to one thousand 
and eight hundred feet above the river. The most prominent of these, from their 
resemblance to the human face, are known as the 'Old Woman' and 'Old Man' 
of the mountains, and the 'Duke of Wellington.' Thick forests of red, yellow, and 
sugar pine, fir, and cedar, extend the whole way, e.xcept where cleared by the 
lumbermen. The great saw-mill companies are annually cutting millions of feet 
of the choicest trees, having already advanced about eight miles up the river and 
back three or four miles therefrom. The lumber flumes extend from the great 
mills at Truckee to the farthest camps, and the sides of the mountains are grooved 
with log chutes. Down the former are run vast quantities of wood and timber. 



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DONNER LAKE. 



while down the latter immense logs are shot, with the velocity of thunder- 
bolts, into the river. At the Eight-Mile Crossing, a five-foot monster plunged 
in as we passed, striking a forerunner fairly end^^•ise, with terrific force, and 
the noise of distant thunder. Horse railways and long ox teams are also employed 
in hauling out the logs from over the summit of the mountains." 

The tour of the lake is made by an excursion steamer which is taken at Tahoe 
City. The surroundings of the lakes are picturesque in the extreme. Beginning 
at the right, the coronet of mountains, which surrounds the lake, may be named as 
follows: the Rubicon Peaks, 9,287 feet above the sea; Mount Tallac, 9,715 feet 
in height; Mount Ralston, 9,140 feet; Pyramid Peak, 10,052 feet; Job's Peak, 
10,637 fsst; Geneva Peak, 9,135, and the summits of the Tahoe Range. Down the 
steep, forest-covered sides of these mountains swiftly descend numerous beautiful 
streams, Ward's Creek, Blackwood's, McKinney's, Phipp's, Mcek's Bay, Lonclv 
Gulch, Cascade Falls, Cascade Lake, Taylor, Little Truckee River, Big Truckee 
River, Jim Small's Creek, Sevory Cove Creek, Glenbrook, Secret Harbor, Big, 
Griffin's, Cornelian Bay, and Gordon's Creek being the most important. 



158 OVER THE RANGE 

The shores of Lake Tahoe are indented with beautiful bays, Cr}-stal, Corne- 
lian, Meeks, and Emerald, the latter being the largest and most frequented. It is 
about eighteen miles from Tahoc City, three miles long, and about half a mile in 
width. Ben Holladay built a summer residence here, which his family occupied 
until it was burned in 1879. 

Captain Dick, an eccentric old English sailor, chose this wild mountain retreat 
for his home, built a cabin, and chiseled out a tomb in the solid rock, on the lonely 
rock-bound island near the entrance. Falling overboard, while intoxicated. Lake 
Tahoe, which it is said, never gives up its dead, became his last resting-place, in- 
stead of the grave he had prepared. 

The shores of the lake are dotted with summer residences and pleasure resort 
villages. Among the latter may be mentioned Tahoe City, Glenbrook, Tallac, 
Rowlands, and ISIcKinneys. Glenbrook is a very pretty village and is the business 
centre for Lake Tahoe. The thousand and one attractions of this lovely lake can 
obtain but Httle justice in so brief a description as can be given here; indeed, the 
most elaborate description would fall far short of the reality, and only he who has had 
the extreme good fortune to visit the spot can form an adequate idea of its charms. 

Doillier Lake. Made memorable by the 
terrible fate of the Donner party, thirty-four of 
whom died of starvation on its shores in the year 
1846, and taking its name from the leader of this 
unfortunate company, Donner Lake commands 
especial attention for its historical associations. Its 
beauty gives it a leading position among the lakes 
of the Sierras and has been made familiar through 
the well-known paintings by Bierstadt. Only three 
miles from Truckee, it is easy of access. It is 
about three miles long, one and a half miles 
wide, and two hundred and fifty feet deep. Its 
shores are gravelly and the lake is surrounded by great forests of pine, fir, and 
tamarack. 

Wel>l>ev Lake, a perfect gem, lies in the Sierra Nevadas, about twenty- 
six miles from Truckee, at an altitude of 6,925 feet above the sea level. It is cir- 
cular in shape; its waters crystal white, and with a depth of eighty-four feet. It 
is considered one of the finest fishing grounds in California, the trout being large 
and numerous, gamcy, and delicious. About three-quarters of a mile away from 
the lake are the falls, having a descent of 105 feet. 

Independence Lake, sixteen miles from Truckee, and ten miles from 
Webber, is another one of those beautiful gems. It is two and one-half miles long 
and three-quarters of a mile -wdde. Its waters are alive vnth trcut. 

Clinil>iii5^" the Sierra Nevada Range. The ascent of the Sierras 
begins at Truckee. In order to protect travelers from delay in inclement weather, 
the railroad company have constructed an almost uninterrupted line of snow- 
sheds for forty miles. These sheds interrupt the view, but they serve an eminently 
practical purpose and are necessary for winter travel. Through the loopholes cut 
in the sides of the sheds the tourist catches tantalizing glimpses of magnificent 
scenery. Donner Lake can be seen below us, gleaming like a diamond in its 
granite setting, while a panorama of pine-clad hills and splintered mountain pinna- 
cles is spread before us. Plunging onward through the snow-sheds, the two great 
engines drag the train upward, while below can be seen the winding roadway we 



Donner, Webber, 

and 

Independence 
Lakes. 

Waters of Crystal 
Whiteness. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 159 

are ascending. Rumbling through a tunnel the train comes to a halt on the highest 
railroad point in the Sierras. 

Appropriately named, this station is the sum- 



SUMMIT. 

The Highest Railroad 

Point in the Sierra 

Nevadas. 

Elevation, 7,018 feet. 

Distance from Ogden, 
638 miles. 



mit of our railroad ascent. For many years it 
held the j)re-eminence as the highest railroad point 
in North America, and it still deserves renown 
as the first to lay claim to so lofty an estate. This 
is the "divide" from which flow various streams 
through devious courses to empty at last at widely 
divergent points into the great Sacramento. Among 
these streams are the Bear, the American, and the 
South Yuba Rivers. The scener}' around Summit is 
of the grandest description. The mountains tower above us to an altitude of ten 
thousand feet. Lakes lie below us and waterfalls glimmer down the sides of dis- 
tant precipices. Here the sportsman can find ample scope for enjoyment. Bear 
and deer and a vast variety of game haunt the wooded fastnesses and the streams 
abound in trout. The east-bound tourist who wishes to visit Lakes Tahoe and 
Donner can take the stage at Summit, and, after enjoying the delights of the moun- 
tain drive and an unobstructed view of the scenery, together with a satisfying 
visit to the lakes, can again resume his journey by taking the cars at Truckee, thus 
avoiding the up-grade return to Summit. 

Cascade. Six miles beyond Summit we pass Cascade, crossing a branch of 
the Yuba River. To the westward lies Summit Valley, a charming spot for a sum- 
mer resting-place. It is well watered and abounds in luxuriant meadows, which 
are utilized by stock and dairy men, who have found here an ideal spot for their 
purposes. Cascade is a growing shipping-point for cattle and their products. 
(Population, nominal. Distance from Ogden, 644 miles. Elevation, 6,645 feet.) 
Soda Spi'illg'S. Many large soda springs give their name to this side 
track. Their waters are pleasant to the taste and medicinal in character. One of 
the springs has been improved and its waters are bottled for shipment. There are 
also hot springs in the near vicinity. (Population, small. Distance from Ogden, 
647 miles. Elevation, 6,749 feet.) 

Elllig'railt Gap. Here we catch the last sight of the old emigrant wagon 
road, which we have seen from time to time for the last two hundred and fifty 
miles. (Population, 200. Distance from Ogden, 660 miles. Elevation, 5,225 
feet.) 

Blue Caiion, Shady Run, Towles, and Alta are small stations which we pass 
in rapid succession. 

Dlltcb. Flat, Population, 700. (Distance from Ogden, 675 miles. Eleva- 
tion, 3,595 feet.) 

Historic Ground. To the "men of '49" the names of Aha and 
Dutch Flat call up many memories of stirring times. The stages still run from 
Dutch Flat to "You Bet" and "Little York," where mines arc still worked; but 
the palmy days made historic by the achievements of the "John Oakhursts, " 
"Sandy McGees," and "Hank Monks" have passed away. A glimpse can be 
caught of a scenic attraction of paramount interest as the train passes Shady Run. 
This is the famous American Caiion, with walls two thousand feet high, and of 
such wonderful perpendicularity that the American River, which flows between 
them, has never been ascended for a distance of two miles — the e.xtent of the 
canon. 



CAPE HORN. 



A Scenic Wonder. 



1 60 OVER THE RANGE 

There arc few mountain passes more famous 
than that known to the world as "Cape Horn." 
The approach to it is picturesque. The north 
fork of the American River is seen raging and 
foaming in its rocky bed, fifteen hundred feet 
below and parallel mth the track. A little further 
on we see the north fork of the North River leap- 
ing in snowy cascades down the mountainside. 
The train rolls on and soon is clinging to the side 
of a mountain wall, which climbs to the clouds above it and drops to the waters 
beneath; a hand thrust from the window of the car could drop a stone straight 
as the plummet falls, into the chasm, two thousand five hundred feet below. We 
are rounding Cape Horn! The road having been carved from the solid rock, 
the workmen, when building the same were suspended from the cUff above by 
means of ropes until they had blasted sufficient to gain a foothold. A beautiful 
valley lies beneath us to the left, and across this vale on the opposite side can be 
seen the Kne of road on which we shall soon appear. The descent now begins, and 
Rice's Ravine is crossed, the trestle bridge being 878 feet in length and 113 feet in 
height. The narrow gauge railroad, which we see beneath us, is the Hne from 
Colfax to Nevada City. From the trestle we pass to an embankment, and from 
the embankment to the solid roadway on the side of the bluff. We have followed 
the curving road until now we are opposite the tremendous precipice, from whose 
fearful height we have but just descended. 

Colfax. Named after the statesman, Schuyler Colfax, a steadfast friend to 
the Southern Pacific Railroad during the early days of its e.xistence. This town is 
thriving and prosperous. Fruit raising has taken the place of the original industry 
of mining, and the financial results appear to be eminently satisfactory. There is 
a large and handsome depot erected at this place, it being the distributing point 
for Grass Valley, Nevada City, and a large area of agricultural and mining country- 
The trains of the Nevada County Railroad (narrow gauge) run to and from this 
depot. (Population, 700. Distance from Ogden, 689 miles. Elevation, 2,422 
feet.) ' 

Allbliril. The approach to Auburn is made through a rugged countrv, a 
tunnel seven hundred feet in length being passed just before reaching Clij)pcr Gap 
— beyond this can be seen the famous gold-fields, now abandoned. The town of 
Auburn is embowered with fruit trees, is well built and prosperous, having first- 
class hotels, good water, electric lights, street railway, and all "modern improve- 
ments." Many of the residents of San Francisco and Sacramento spend a part 
of their summers at this mountain town. Fruit raising has usurped the place of 
mining among these foothills of the western slope — vineyards, orchards, and vege- 
table gardens, are now seen on all sides. This condition of things exists all along 
the slope, and for a distance of twenty miles we pass through California's semi- 
tropical fruit belt. The quarrying of stone and stock raising arc also important 
industries. (Population, 2,500. Distance from Ogden, 708 miles. Elevation, 
1,360 feet.) 

NeAVcastle. Is situated in the midst of a rich farming region, and is an 
important shijjping point for the Placer County fruit belt. Here are, also, a 
number of extensive canning and fruit drying establishments, with unlimited ca- 
pacity. The early citrus fruits are grown and shipped from this point. (Popula- 
tion, 500. Elevation, 970 feet. Distance from Ogden, 712 miles.) 



i62 OVER THE RANGE 

Leaving Newcastle we pass Penryn and Loomis, both of which are fast becoming 
famous as distributing points for the fruits of this fruitful region. 

Rocklin. This little town lies at the base of the foothills, and is famed for 
the excellent quality of the granite found in its quarries. The roundhouse and 
macliine shops of the railroad company, located here, are built of this material. 
The State House at Sacramento, and many of San Francisco's "sky scrapers," 
are erected of Rocklin granite. (Population, i,ioo. Distance from Ogden, 721 
miles. Elevation, 249 feet.) 

Roseville. This station is the junction point for the east side of the great 
Sacramento Valley and Portland, Oregon; it is here the "Shasta Route" of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad intercepts the main Transcontinental Line. (Popula- 
tion, 450. Distance from Ogden, 725 miles. Elevation, 163 feet.) 

The Plains Rej»"ioil. A glance from the car window, or a reference to 
the elevation of Roseville, given in the paragraph above, will show the tourist 
that the region of mountains and foothills lies behind him, and that the fertile 
plains of California have been reached. Broad expanses of gently rolling country 
greet the eye, dotted here and there with the round-topped, dark-foliaged live- 
oaks, which form strikingly characteristic features in the landscape. Here and 
beyond in the Sacramento Valley are the great wheat-fields of the State, famous 
in the past for their enormous yield and the magnificent scale upon which the 
raising of this cereal is carried on. Now, however, fruit raising is gradually usurp- 
ing this territory, and orchards and vineyards are frequently seen. 

Aiiierieail Kiver Bridg-e. This bridge spans the current of the 
American River, and Sacramento is only three miles distant. (Distance from 
Ogden, 740 miles. Elevation, 49 feet.) 

As is the almost universal rule in the case 
of large cities one gets a very unsatisfactory \iew 
of the town from the railroad station. Several 
days can be pleasantly and profitably spent by the 
tourist in Sacramento. It is handsomely built, and 
its shaded streets and flower-ornamented yards pre- 
sent an exceedingly attractive appearance. It has 
a complete system of electric street railways. 
Being the capital of California, the county-seat of 
Sacramento County, and the third commercial city 
in the State, it has a most prosperous present and 
promising future. More trains arrive and depart each day than in any other town 
or city in the State. Sacramento, being the geographical center, it is the 
great distributing point for California. Three-fourths of all the fruits shipped 
from this State each year are shipped from this point. It is at this place 
all the principal buyers and shippers locate for the purchase of fruits 
and vegetables. The Southern Pacific Company's shops (which employ from 
2,000 to 3,000 men constantly, covering an area of twenty-five acres of 
land), the largest cannery and packing-houses in the State, a woolen mill, 
foundry, machine shops, etc., are located in Sacramento. For a manufacturing 
town, the location of Sacramento cannot be excelled. It is ninety miles 
from San Francisco, with which it is connected by numerous daily trains, 
and by river steamers. Many of its wholesale houses rival those at San Francisco 
in the amount of business transacted. It has fine wide streets lined with shade 
trees, manv substantial business blocks, elegant residences, and good hotels. The 



SACRAMENTO. 

California's Capital. 

Population, 35,000. 

Elevation, 30 feet. 

Distance from Ogden, 
743 miles. 




FEBRUARY, SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 





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VINEYARD, SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 



i^H OVER THE RANGE 

State Capitol, State Printing Office, State Agricultural F^xposition Building (the 
largest west of the Missouri River), a Free Library, the largest Art Gallery (with one 
or two exceptions) in the United States, an Old Ladies' Home (where old ladies 
have the same care and attention, if not better, than they would have in their own 
homes), are located in Sacramento, the two latter were donated to the city by that 
most estimable and philanthropic of ladies, Mrs. E. B. Crocker. In fact, Sacra- 
mento is the great metropolis of the Sacramento valley. 

The first railroad in California, extending from Sacramento into El Dorado 
County, was formally opened on February 22, 1856. Work on the Central Pacific 
Railroad was inaugurated at Sacramento January 8, 1863, and the last spike was 
driven May 10, 1869. Sacramento is on the line of the California & Oregon, 
Western Pacific, Central Pacific, California Pacific, and Sacramento & Placerville 
Railroads. All these roads are of the Southern Pacific System. The Company's 
principal hospital is also located in this city. A line of steamboats runs to San 
Francisco on the Sacramento River and the bay, and another as far up the same 
stream as Red Bluff. The Sacramento River is spanned opposite the city by a 
railroad and wagon bridge, connecting it with the town of Washington, Yolo 
County; and the American River is bridged on the line of Twelfth Street, and also 
by a railroad bridge a short distance above. All the bridges in the county and 
all roads are free. The capital of California was permanently located at Sacra- 
mento February 25, 1854, and in 1869 the present capitol building was com- 
pleted, at a cost of about $3,000,000. The building is the finest in the state. In 
the Capital Park are also the exposition pavilion of the State Agricultural Society, 
and the State Printing Office, in which are printed, in addition to the usual work 
for the state, the text-books for use in the public schools. The State Agricul- 
tural Society has also an extensive park for the exhibition of stock, and one of the 
finest race tracks in the world. The State fairs are annually held in September. The 
Masons and Odd Fellows have each imposing temples, in which their lodge-rooms 
are located. The United States Government has erected a postoffice building, 
for which an appropriation of $100,000 was made. The County Court House 
(formerly used for a state capitol) cost $200,000; and a brick and iron hall of records 
has recently been completed at a cost of $50,000. The County Hospital, built 
on the pavilion plan, can accommodate one hundred and seventy five patients, and 
cost $75,000. The State Library contains some sixty thousand volumes; the Free 
Public Library, of twelve thousand volumes, with the two-story building in which 
it is contained, is the property of the city, and is maintained by a city tax. The 
order of Odd-Fellows maintain a library of about eight thousand volumes. The 
Crocker Art Gallery is also the property of the city. It is a brick and iron building, 
three stories high, and in it are contained some of the finest paintings and statuary, 
together with an extensive cabinet of minerals, the property of the State. 

VVeb.ster. Leaving Sacramento, and crossing the Sacramento river on 
a bridge 600 feet in length, the train passes through Webster, which is a suburb 
of the city. Beyond we cross a belt of swamjjy country known locally as "The 
Tules." The track is elevated above the danger of f^.oods by means of embank- 
ments and a trestle bridge. 

Davi.S. This place is the junction with the main iini' of a branch passing 
through the west side of liie Sacramento Valley to Tehama, the country round 
about being rich and fertile, and capable of producing an unhmited amount of 
'^ruit, cereals, and vegetables. Distance from Ogden, 736 miles. 

Tremont, Di.xon, Batavia, are soon passed, when we arr-'ve a,t 



l66 OVER THE RANGE 



ELMIRA. 

Junction Point 

to 

Vaca and Capay 

Valleys. 



At this point the tourist will do well to take the 
side trip through the great Vaca and Capay Valleys. 
These valleys supply all the earliest fruits and 
vegetables. The soil is of surprising fertility, 
yielding bountifully of every crop with no necessity 
for irrigation. The climate is superb, it being a 
continual Indian summer the entire year. The 
health of the inhabitants, their industry, wealth, and 
prosperity, have all tended to make this place the 
most desirable for settlement. Semi-tropical and citrus fruits grow luxuriantly, 
and are of unusual size and lusciousness. These valleys are veritable gardens of 
Eden, and a continuous panorama of a beautiful and picturesque country. Van- 
den and Suisun are more or less important stations, but of no especial interest 
to the tourist. Having passed Suisun the waters of Suisun Bay approach the 
track, and at high tide ripple against the embankment. For twelve miles this bay 
is always in close proximity. 

Army Point. Distance from Ogden, 797 miles. This is the station for 
the headquarters of the United States army in California. 

Beilicia. Situated on the southern slope of the Suscol hills, Benicia extends 
down to the bank of the Sacramento River. This is the head of navigation for 
sea-going ships and is a very charmingly situated city. Benicia was at one time 
the cajjital of California, but is now a quiet residence town, with a number of large 
manufacturing interests to maintain its commercial importance. (Population, 
3,000. Distance from Ogden, 800 miles. Elevation 10 feet.) 

Crossing- tlie Straits of Carqninez. From Benicia to Port Costa 
the journey is continued on the Solano, the largest ferry-boat in the world. This 
boat can transport at one time fifty-four loaded freight cars and consequently finds 
no difficuUy in bearing our entire train, including the monster locomotive, safely 
across the straits, a distance of one mile, with an expenditure of little, if any, more 
than twenty minutes of time. To most, this experience is a novel one, and the cars 
are quickly emptied by their occupants, and the tourists gaze delightedly at the 
broad expanse of v/aters and inhale gratefully the invigorating saline odors wafted 
from the neighboring ocean. The cars are run directly onto the boat and when 
Port Costa is reached the journey by rail is resumed. 

Port Costa. Here the sea-going ships can be seen lying close to the 
wharfs, and the tourist begins to appreciate the fact that his long journey to the 
Pacific coast is nearly completed. At this point the Southern Pacific's line to Los 
Angeles and the San Joatiuin Valley branches to the southwest. 

Vallojo Junction. Vallejo lies across the straits a distance of two miles. 
At this junction a branch line runs to Napa and Calistoga, also to Santa Rosa. 
Pinoh'. Another town of wharfs and warehouses. 

Sixteontll Street, Oakland. This is the small station for the large city 
of Oakland. The great Bay of San Francisco lies to our right and l)eyi)nd can be 
seen the spires of San Francisco. 

Oakland Mole. This marvel of engineering has been constructed for two 
miles directly out into the bay. At its terminus is an immense building containing 
waiting-rooms and all necessary accommodations for the convenience of the great 
army of travelers who disembark on the arrival of trains. All the passenger trains 
for the east, north, or south are made up at this depot, and here all incoming passen- 
gers leave their trains and an- transported on magnifuent ferry-boats to San Francisco. 



SAN FRANCISCO TO SAN DIEGO. 



5AN FRANCISCO. 

The Great City 

by 

The Golden Gate. 

Population, 450,000. 



The first view of San Francisco which the over- 
land tourist obtains from the bow of the ferry-boat 
that bears him from Oakland Mole to the foot of 
Market Street, is most enchanting. A city set on a 
hill, beautiful for situation, it commands attention 
and demands the most enthusiastic admiration. 
Nor does " familiarity breed contempt." The first 
pleasant impression is confirmed and deepened by 
every day's experience wdthin the gates of this most 
hospitable and beautiful city. Fitz Hugh Ludlow, 
whose early death was a great loss to literature, if 
one may judge by the early fruitage of a tree too 
soon cut down by cruel frost, speaks glowing words, and true ones, of this city by 
the sea. He says: "To a traveler paying his first visit, it has the interest of a new 
planet. It ignores the meteorological laws which govern the rest of the world. 
There is no snow. There are no summer showers. The tailor recognizes no 
aphelion or perihelion in his custom; the thin woolen suit made in April, is com- 
fortably worn until April again. Save that in so-called winter frc(|uent rain falls 
alternate with spotless intervals of amber weather, and that soi-disa)!/ summer 
is an entire amber mass, its unbroken divine days concrete in it there is no inetjuality 
on which to forbid the bans between May and December. In San Francisco 
there is no work for the scene-shifter of Nature. The wealth of that great dram- 
atist, the year, resulting in the same manner as the poverty of dabblers in private 
theatricals — a single flat doing service for the entire play. Thus, save for the 
purposes of notes of hand, the almanac of San Francisco might replace its mutable 
months and seasons with one great, kindly, constant, sumptuous All the Year 
'Round. Out of this benignant sameness what glorious fruits are produced! 
Fruit enough, metarphorical, for the scientific man or artist who cannot make 
hay while such a sun shines, from April to November, must be a slothful laborer 
indeed. But, fruit also literal; for what joy of vegetation is lacking to the man 
who, every month in the year, can look through his study window on a green lawn, 
and have strawberries and cream for his breakfast. Who can sit down to this 
royal fruit, and at the same time to apricots, peaches, nectarines, blackberries, rasj)- 
berries, melons, figs, both yellow and purple, early apples, and grapes of many kinds." 
But aside from the claims of climate, which appealed so strongly to Ludlow, 
San Francisco has artistic and architectural claims that command respect and 
admiration, to say nothing of her vast commerc ial and iiurrantile interests. 

San Francisco has suffered greatly from fire in the past, but has always arisen 
from its ashes in renewed beauty. A condensed history of these great conflagra- 
tions may be of interest: ' 

December 24, 1849. First great fire. More than $1,000,000 worth of prop- 
erty destroyed. 

168 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 1^9 

May 4, 1850 Second great fire. Three l^locks of l)uilcUiigs consumed. Loss, 
$4,000,000. 

June 14, 1S50. Third great fire. Loss, $5,000,000. 

September 17, 1850. Fourth great fire. An extensive area of comparatively 
inexpensive buildings destroyed. Loss, $500,000. 

December 14, 1850. Fire on Sacramento and Montgomery streets. Loss, 
$1,000,000. This is not generally classed among the great fires. 

May 4, 185 1. Fifth great fire. Eighteen blocks entirely burned, and parts 
of six others destroyed. The length of the burned district was three-fourths of a 
mile, and its width half a mile. Loss, $10,000,000, to $12,000,000. 

June 22, 185 I. Sixth great fire. Ten blocks and parts of six others destroyed. 
Loss, $3,000,000. 

When the Oakland ferry-boat, a most magnificent steamer by the way, enters 
her pier, at the magnificent ferry depot, at the foot of Market Street, the traveler 
will find ample means of conveyance to any hotel. If of an economical turn of 
mind he can board a cable or an electric car, after running the gauntlet of vociferous 
"cabbies," and for five cents be carried smoothly and quickly to almost any part of 
the city; or, handing his baggage checks to one of the agents of the United Carriage 
Company, he can drive to his destination in considerable more " style, " and at a mod- 
erate expense, the amount being determined by the distance traveled — but extortion 
need not be feared, as cab fares are regulated by a city ordinance. Once at home 
in hotel or lodgings — and San Francisco can furnish either of these of the very best 
character — the traveler can map out excursions in the city and its enNdrons that 
will pleasantly occupy his time for a fortnight, or which can be crowded into the 
space of three or four days. 

Everybody has heard of the Cliff House and 
the Seal Rocks. These attractions are pretty sure 
to command first attention. The Cliff House may 
be reached by three carriage routes. These are 
tersely described by Mr. Charles Turrell, in his val- 
uable California notes, as follows: "One of these 
routes is the old road that begins at the Mission and 
winds over the liills, affording many attractive views 
of the city and the bay beyond, the Contra Costa 
Mountains and Mount Diablo towering in the re- 
mote east. This road descends to the ocean beach, passing near Merced Lake — 
Laguna de la Merced — the largest lake in the county. From the Ocean Side House 
to the CHff House, a distance of some two and a half miles, the road follows the 
sandy beach. As this road is quite long, and the latter part very heavy, but few 
follow it. Another route is by Point Lobos Avenue, a broad, well-paved 
street, commencing at the western end of Geary Street and continuing in a straight 
line to the ocean beach. This was for many years the fashionable drive for San 
Franciscans. However, since the Golden Gate Park has been opened, and its 
serpentine drives to the beach completed, the Point Lobos road has fallen into 
disuse." This drive is the one we took, and we found it a most charming way. 
There are several street railway lines leading direct to the Cliff House, and by the 
use of the liberal "transfer" system a journey to the ClitT House can be made for 
ten cents. These car lines pass through the residence portion of the city and serve 
a double purpose, that of viewing the city while en route to its confines. From 
Inspiration Point we obtained a fine view of the Pacific Ocean and the Golden 



CLIFF HOUSE 

AND 

SEAL ROCKS. 

Novel and Characteristic 
Attractions. 



170 



OVER THE RANGE 




Gate. The most characteristic objects of interest at the terminus of this drive, or 
car ride, are the Seal Rocks and their curious occupants. The rocks a-:; conical 
in shape, three in number, and vary in height from twenty to fifty feet. These 
rocks are the haunts of seals, and it is said that there is never a moment when scores 
of these curious marine-mammals may not be seen basking in the rays of the sun 
on these rocks, or struggling among themselves for a place thereon. These seals 
are protected by law, and there is, therefore, no great danger of future travelers 
visiting Seal Rocks only to be disappointed. 

The CUff House is conducted as a first-class hotel and restaurant, and all crea- 
. . __ , ture comforts are here obtainable. 

There are numerous other attrac- 
tions in the vicinity of the Cliff House, 
notably among them being Sutro 
Heights, the private grounds and art 
collections of former Mayor Sutro, a 
beautiful spot overlooking the Cliff 
House and Seal Rocks and the ocean. 
The Sutro baths are also here, being 
an extremely large and very complete 
bathing establishment, with one of the 
largest plunge pools in the world. 

Golden Gate Park. In this 
magnificent expanse of shaven lawns, 
serpentine drives and shady walks, gor- 
geous flowers, groves of tropical and 
semi-tropical trees and shrubs, charming- 
ly cool and inviting nooks, its aviary, its 
zoological collections, museums, monuments, and conservatories, San Francisco pos- 
sesses, perhaps, the most complete and beautiful public park on the continent. A few 
years ago this veritable "Garden of Eden" was a waste tract of more than a thou- 
sand acres of shifting sand dunes, bleak, dreary, and uninviting; to-day — the hang- 
ing gardens of Babylon were a failure when compared with the achievements here. 
When visiting San Francisco there are many places to be seen and visited, but the 
Golden Gate Park should be the first, and then the last, and bear away with you 
an impression of nature in all her loveliness. 



1 1 ffr nF^rrtmi 
jfltiiliiiHHIiii 
Wiiiilifi^^llilliBi 



^;..f 




CLIFF HOUSE. 




CONSERVATORY, GOLDEN GATE PARK. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



171 



San Francisco Bay. As a harbor it 
ranks among the few great seaports of the world. 
A land-locked sheet of water, some fifty miles long, 
and of varying width. It has the advantage of 
l3ang at the central edge of a great area of agricul- 
tural land. The shipments through this port are 
very heavy, giving constant em[)loyment to a large 
fleet of steamers and sailing vessels. It is, also, the 
terminal point of the great transcontinental routes^ 
If the tourist will take a seat on the dummy of 
either the California Street or Jackson Street cable cars and ride as far as Mason 
Street, the trip will be amply rewarded. Perhaps the best time to view this mag- 



SAN FRANCISCO 
BAY. 

A Beautiful Sheet of 

Water, and 
Land-Locked Harbor 
of Inestimable Value. 









^^^^KuM^>M^Lli^^^_^^^^^H^^^^^H^R^^HI 





SAN FRANCISCO AND BAY. 



nificent panorama would be in the forenoon. To the left we have the Golden Gate, 
the wonderfully beauteous entrance to the still more beautiful bay; to the right 
the sheet of water merges into the distant hills bordering the Santa Clara Valley. 
Before us lie, in semi-circular form, Mt. Tamalpais, standing on the northern side 
of the Golden Gate; Saucelito, San Pablo Bay, the deboiichere of California's two 
great rivers — the Sacramento and San Joaquin; then we have the Contra Costa 
Mountains, and, just beyond. Mount Diablo's graceful peak, while nestling at their 
base we distinctly trace the towns of Berkeley, Oakland, Alameda, Haywards, 
and Oakland Mole. The steamers of the ferry lines may be \aewed plowing their 
rapid way to and from San Francisco. Close to the Pier, Goat Island rises three 
hundred and forty feet out of the water. It is the most southerly island, in the 
bay, save the Mission Rock, now surrounded by warehouses, etc. West of Goat 
Island is Alcatraz Island, situated about one mile due cast of the Golden Gate, 
whose entrance it commands. It is one-third of a mile long and one-tenth of a 
mile wide, irregular in shape, and contains about twelve acres, composed mainly 
of solid rock. A perfect belt of batteries surround the island, mounting several 
very heavy guns on all sides as well as on the top. On the highest point of the 
island stands a light-house, whose light can be seen, on a clear night, twelve miles 
at sea, outside of the Golden Gate. Next in succession is Angel Island, three 



172 OVER THE RANGE 

miles north of San Francisco, the largest and most valuable island in the hav. It 
contains six hundred acres of excellent land, watered in many places bv natural 
springs. Three fixed batteries, mounting large, heavy guns, are here besides 
large barracks, accommodating the garrison. On the bay w^e see craft of every 
kind, from the tiny skiff to the monster ocean steamers. Scows and steamers 
may be seen in every direction; the propeller, the paddler, are all here in busy 
activity. Fringing the water front is a forest of masts, the black hulls from whence 




MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 

they spring being scarcely vi.sil)le on account of the long line of the sea-wall and 
warehouses that intercept the view. In every direction, lying peacefully at anchor, 
are vessels just arrived or about to dejxirl. Here, too, snugly harbored, arc the 
little yachts of the different clubs — white-winged birds of pleasure. 

There are several "squares" in San Francisco, the mo.st noted of which is 
Portsmouth Square, with an area of 275 by 204 feet 2 inches. Its history is 
important. On July 8, 1846, Captain Montgomery, of the United States sloop- 
of-war Portsmouth, then lying in the bay, at the command of Commodore Sloat, 
raised the American flag on the plnza of what was then called "Yerba Buena" — 
now San Francisco-. A sahiti' of iweiily-om- guns from the Portsmouth announced 
the fact that the United Slates had taken possession of northern California. This 
square was then named Portsmouth Sciuarc, and at the same time Montgomery 
Street was named in honor of the captain. 



The 

Mission Dolores 

Oldest Building- in 

San Francisco. 

Founded Oct. 8, 1776. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 173 

Telegraph Hill is dear to the hearts of old Californians. In 1849 a signal 
station was established on this elevation, and the dwellers at the "Bay" were 
notified of the approach of vessels from sea by means of a well-understood system of 
signals. A tract of 275 feet scjuare on the summit of the hill has recently been pur- 
chased by some public-spirited citizens and presented to the city for a perf)etual park. 
Many tourists take interest in the cemeteries of a city; to such a brief mention 
of those in San Francisco will be interesting. Most of these " cities of the dead" are 
Ijest reached via the Geary Street cable line. Laurel Hill Cemetery, near the 
foot of a solitary hill, called Lone Mountain, presents the finest examples of mau- 
soleum architecture in California. Landscape gardening contributes greatly to 
the beauty of the scene. 

The four principal cemeteries of the city surround Lone Mountain. They are 
"Laurel Hill," "Calvary," the Roman CathoHc burial ground, and the cemeteries 
of the Masons and the Odd Fellows. 

The oldest building in San Francisco and the 
one most noted, considered historically, is the Mission 
Church, on the corner of Dolores and Seventeenth 
Streets. Considerable of the original building re- 
mains and many of the interior decorations have 
been, to a certain degree, retained in their pristine 
state — sufficient to recall the times of the early 
fathers. The adobe walls are three feet thick, rest- 
ing on a low foundation of rough stone, not laid in mortar; and the roof is covered 
with heavy semi-cylindrical tiles. The floor is of earth, except near the altar, and 
the entire structure rude in character and still used for purposes of worship. Ad- 
joining it is the Mission Cemetery, not used for purposes of interment since 1858. 
Many of the inscriptions on the tombs are in Spanish. Clustering around the 
mission are a few adobe buildings, red tiled but dilapidated, yet speak to the thought- 
ful of five score years and more. It is best reached by taking the Castro Street 
cable car. 

The theaters are numerous and first class, but English theaters are the same 
in kind the world over, and need no special description. Not so, however, with 
the Chinese theater. This is siii generis, entirely novel and of remarkable interest- 
There are two or three of these theaters in San Francisco, and the histrionic pecu- 
liarities of the Celestrial drama can here be seen in greater perfection than in any 
other city in the world, vrith the exception of those of China. There is no danger in 
visiting these theaters, as they are as well conducted, in their peculiar Chinese way, 
as any other place of amusement; but if there is a party, especially if it contains 
ladies, the escort of a guide should be secured. Through his influence and acquaint- 
ance seats can be obtained upon the stage, and a fine \'iew of the wonderful perform- 
ance obtained. The stage has no scenery. The orchestra occupies the back of 
the stage, and the most industrious member of it is the man who manipulates the 
big bronze cymbals and the gongs. This fellow punctuates the dialogue with 
vigorous blows on his loud-resounding instruments, giving to the drama the char- 
acteristic of operatic recitative. The other instruments are the Chinese violin 
and fife. The result is a queer kind of barbaric harmony, but to the English ear 
there is absolutely no melody. The "property" man sits on the stage in full view 
of the audience and supplies the actors with such properties as they may need 
during the action of the play. The actors are masters of their art. They possess 
great facial mobility, and even through their conventional "make up" one can 



174 OVER THE RANGE 

recognize their histrionic ability. No women are allowed to act in the Chinese 
dramas, and all female characters are played by men. These actors are exceedingly 
clever, and in voice and action imitate the weaker sex most admirably. A good 
female impersonator receives a very large salary from the management. Whenever 
it is necessary to personate a death upon the stage, the actor lies rjuietly for a 
moment, and then calmly rises and walks off. A stick with a tuft of horsehair 
represents a horse, and a gesture of the leg signifies that the cavorting animal has 
been mounted. After all, these conventionalities are not much more crude than 
those of the Shakesperian age. The dramas are historical, and some of them are 
more extended even than a Wagnerian trilogy — recjuiring from three to four 
weeks to present a single play. 

It would be vain for the writer to attempt to give a circumstantial description 
of the attractions of San Francisco. It would require a volume, and the pen of a 
Bayard Taylor to do the city justice. As a convenience for strangers, the following 
list of places of amusement and points of general interest is annexed: 

THEATERS. 

Alcazar - - - - - - ii6 O'Farrell 

Alhambra - - - - - N. E. cor. Eddy and Jones 

California ----- 414 Bush, bet. Kearny and Grant Avenue 

Central ------ Market, near Eighth 

Chinese - - - - - 623 Jackson and 816 Washington 

Columbia ----- 9 Powell, between Eddy and Ellis 

Fischer's - - - - - 122 O'Farrell 

Grand Opera House - - - N. side Mission, bet. Third and Fourth 

Grauman's ----- Seventh and Market 

Orpheum ----- 119 O'Farrell 

Republic ----- Fifth, near Market 

Tivoli ----- 30 Eddy 

Oolrteu G-ate Park contains over 1,000 acres; extends from Baker 
Street to the Pacific Ocean, three and a half miles. Reached by Market Street 
railway via Haight, Hayes, or McAllister streets, from ferries; or, Geary Street 
cable, from corner of Kearny and Geary streets; and via Powell or California 
Street cable. It was in this beautiful park that the Midwinter Fair of 1894 was 
located. 

Golden Gate Park comprises a most magnificent park with dense foliage and 
flowers blooming the entire year. Among the points of interest are the conserva- 
tory, aviary, museum, music stand, Egyptian art building, buffalo paddock, 
Japanese garden. Stow Lake, Huntington Falls, Strawberry Hill, Lake Alvord, 
Children's House and Playground, Commissioner's Lodge, and several monuments. 
Most of these can be seen by driving through the park. 

Hopkins' fiistitllte of Art displays a large collection of fine paintings 
and sculpture. The interior is richly finished with rare inlaid woods. Located at 
the corner of California and Mason streets and commands a fine panoramic view of 
the bay and city. Admission, 25 cents. Free first Friday of each month, during 
the daytime. 

New City Hall was in course of construction for twenty years and cost about 
$6,000,000. The large dome is of s])ecial interest. The building covers four acres 
of ground. The Lick statuary fronting the hall represents four periods in the his- 
torv of California. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



175 



Cliff House and Seal Rooks. Point Lobos, 6 miles from city hall. 
A magnificent drive over a perfect road leading through Golden Gate Park; or, can 
be reached b)^ Market Street cable railroad, Haight Street division connecting 
at terminus with trains of Park & Ocean railroad direct to Ocean Beach, near 
Cliff House. Distance from Oakland Ferry, about 8 miles; time, 55 minutes; 
fare, 10 cents. Also reached by Powell Street cable railroad and ferries and Cliff 
House railroad. 

Slltro Heig'llts. The private garden of former Mayor Adolph Sutro, made 
beautiful beyond description by the gardener and artist, is just back of the Cliff 
House, but higher up. Open daily from 10 A. m to 5 p. m. 




INTERIOR CHINESE RESTAURANT, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Sutro BatllS are considered the grandest and largest in the world. There 
are several bathing tanks var}ing in size, depth, and temperature, ^^'ith swimming 
accommodations for two thousand bathers. A large rock basin reservoir catches 
the ocean water at high tide to supply the tanks. When the tides are low during 
the summer season a pumping plant is put in action. The museum in the building 
contains a fine collection of interesting articles from all parts of the world. Adja- 
cent to cuff House and Sutro Heights. 

Presidio Reservation. Fronts on the Golden Gate for about two miles. 
It has several beautiful drives, is owned by the government, and its barracks have 
the largest military force on the Pacific coast. The principal fortifications, and 
batteries of huge ten and twelve inch rifles and mortars, protecting San Francisco, 
are all located ^vithin the Presidio Reservation. Drive out California Street, or 
take CaHfornia Street, Jackson Street, or Union Street cable cars. 

PostofH.ce, corner of Washington and Battery streets. General delivery is 
open from 7:30 A.M. to 11 p.m. every day, Sundays excepted; Sundays, from 
I to 2 P.M. Branch postoffice, station "A," 1309 Polk Street; "B," City Hall. 
"C," Twentieth and Mission streets; "D," Market Street wharf; "E," Third 
and Townsend streets; "F," Post and Devisadero streets; "G," 17th and Market 



176 OVER THE RANGE 

streets; "H," Laguna and Ivy Avenue; "J," Stockton and Union; "K," 30 New 
Montgomery. Branch offices are open from 8 A. m. to 6 p. M. daily except Sunday. 
Open on Sundaj's from i p. m. to 2 p. m 

Principal Libraries. Academy of Sciences, S19 Market Street, 10,000 
volumes. Free Public Library, city hall, open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.; Sundays, 1:30 
to 5 P. M., 120,000 volumes and 6,000 p&mphlets. French, Spring Valley building, 
Stockton and Geary streets, 20,000 volumes. Italian, 32 Montgomery Avenue, 5,000 
volumes. Mechanics', 31 Post Street, a splendid library, reading and chess 
rooms, 75,000 volumes. Mercantile, Van Ness and Golden Gate avenues, 75,000 
volumes. San Francisco- Law, city hall, 30,000 volumes. San Francisco Verein, 
336 Post Street, 21,000 volumes. Spanish, 531 California Street, 2,500 volumes. 

Markets for fruit, flowers, fish, game, and other produce: California Market, 
California Street, below Kearney; Center Market, Sutter and Grant avenues. Visit 
early in morning. Semi-tropical fruits and flowers all the year round. 

United States Mint, Fifth and Mission streets. Visitors admitted from 
9 A. M. to 12 noon, except Saturday and Sunday. 

Mission Dolores, founded 1776; 17th and Dolores streets. Reached by 
Valencia Street division of Market Street cable railway. 

Aloatraz Island and Angel Island. Permission to visit these may 
be secured at department headquarters, Phelan Building, Market Street, e.xcept 
Sundays. Steamer General McDowell visits them daily. 

Eastern Railway Lines. The offices of all agents of eastern railroads 
represented in San Francisco, are on Montgomery, Market, and New Montgomery 
streets; in close proximity to Palace, Grand, and Occidental hotels. 

Mount Tanialpais is fast becoming one of the most popular and eagerly 
sought resorts in America, situated within easy distance of San Francisco, just north 
of the entrance to the Golden Gate. It commands a view which is unsurpassed 
from any other mountain peak in the world. Although but about half a mile in height 
(2,592 feet) a trip to the summit of Mt. Tamalpais over its world-renowncci railway 
with its marvel of engineering ingenuity is an hour's ride which affords a wonderful 
panorama of mountain scenery, ever picturesque, ever new, ever changing. Through 
forest of California redwoods {Sequoia Siipcrvirens), oaks, laurels, and madronas. 

Oakland. It is to be supposed that the 
tourist in his stay in San Francisco has not neglected 
to visit this garden city. The town is beautifully 
situated on the east shore of the bay, the land slop- 
ing gradually down to the waters from the Contra 
Costa Mountains, which rise back of the city at a tlis- 
tance of a few miles. The foothills are crowned 
with the suburban villas of wealthy merchants of 
Oakland and San Francisco, and from their veran- 
das can be obtained a most extensive and pleasing 
view of the bay, San Francisco, and the Ocean 
beyond. Oakland is one of the most beautiful resi- 
dence cities in the world, and in point of sylvan beauty has few if any rivals. The 
houses are tastefully buill, many of them of the greatest elegance, surrounded by 
extensive and well-kept grounds, embowered in trees and glowing with a lavish 
wealth of roses. It must not be supposed, however, that Oakland is not also a 
business town. On the contrary, it possesses large mercantile and manufacturing 
establishments. Electric lights illuminate tlie wide and well-paved streets; cable 



OAKLAND. 

Beautiful Residence 
City. 

Population, 75,000. 

Distance from 
San Francisco, 8 miles. 

Elevation, 12 feet. 









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1/8 



OVER THE RANGE 



and electric car lines are numerous and none of the modern improvements lacking. 
Schools and churches abound. Oakland is a city of colleges, and numbers among 
these institutions of higher education the following: The State University School, 
the Oakland Military School, the Convent of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, 
the Oakland Female Seminary, the Female College of the Pacific, and the Univer- 
sity of California, at Berkeley, four miles distant. Among the large manufacturing 
establishments may be mentioned the extensive machine shops of the Southern 
Pacific Company, the Judson Manufacturing Company, the Pacific Iron and 
Nail Company, besides cotton mills, jute nulls, flour mills, and innumerable other 
institutions, employing a large amount of capital and thousands of men. women, 




OAKLAND. 



and children. One can reach San Francisco from Oakland every fifteen minutes 
by train and ferry. Oakland is a most charming place, and is the home of an 
enterprising, hospitable, and intelligent class of people. 

Southward Bound. Ha%ing spent a most delightful season in San 
Francisco, the tourist's face is turned southward, and the journey to Los Angeles 
and San Diego begins. Two routes are available for this journey, either via the line 
through the San Joaquin Valley, or the more recently constructed "Coast Line." 
We wall describe the southward journey via the valley route or the "Inside track" 
and return via the "Coast Line." Taking the Oakland ferry, at the foot of Market 
Street, one is borne pleasantly over the waters of the bay and lands at Oakland pier, 
where he takes the Southern Pacific train for Los .Angeles. 

I)oul>liiij'- on Our Track. From Oakland to Port Costa we follow the 
same line as that upon which we entered San Francisco, therefore it is not neces- 
sary to make mention of the intervening stations. Passing Port Costa, the 
line has the Sacramento River on its left, and rolling hills on its right. Beyond 
the river can be seen the town of Benicia nestling among the coves of the Suscal 
Hills. 

Martinez. A pleasant village among the hills. Fruit trees and \'ines 
abound, and the inhabitants of the towns and surrounding country are mainiv 
engaged in horticulture. Martinez is the county-seat of Contra Cista County, 
and is a most quiet and charming place of residence. Citrus fruit, grapes of al! 
varieties, and deciduous fruits flourish without irrigation, and the climate is so 



l8o OVER THE RANGE 

mild that semi-tropical plants grow out of doors without any special protection. 
(Population, 1,500. Distance from San Francisco, 36 miles.) 

Avon, Bay Point, and Cornwall are small intermediate stations. A branch line 
extending from Avon to San Ramon, through a valley of the same name. At Bay 
Point are situated a smelter and chemical works. 

From Martinez to Antioch the road passes through a hill country on our right, 
with the river to the left. Many deep cuts occur, and numerous small tributaries 
flow down the gulches, into the river. Up these gulches we catch glimpses of neat 
farmhouses, surrounded by well-cultivated fields and orchards. Mount Diablo 
rises to the south, and reaches an elevation of 3,896 feet. Among the foothills 
of this mountain are the mining towns of Stewartville, Empire, Nortonville, and 
Somerville. At Cornwall to our left lies Suisun Bay, and here the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento rivers have their junction. 

Alltiocll. A shipping point for coal. The town itself is a mile north on 
the banks of the San Joaquin River. From this point, also^ large quantities of vege- 
tables, strawberries, fruit, etc., are shipped to San Francisco. A paper mill and 
extensive lumber yards are located here. (Population, 700. Distance from San 
Francisco, 55 miles. Elevation, 46 feet.) 

Beiltwood. Wheat-fields begin to appear here, dotted with live-oaks. 
The town is small and supported by agricultural industries. It is situated on the 
Marsh Grant of 13,000 acres, on which much stock is fed. 

Byron. The most attractive thing about 
this station, to the invalid and the tourist, is, its 
near pro.ximity to the Byron Hot Springs, situated 
two miles to the south. The country roundabout 
is famous for its production of wheat, alfalfa, fruit, 
and grapes. This being a portion of the great wheat 
belt. The hot springs have attracted much atten- 
tion, and a large hotel and bath-houses have been 
erected. The springs arc varied in their characteristics, being both hot and cold, 
and possessing in turn the constituents of sulphur, iron, soda, and magnesia. There 
are mud baths, and in fact all varieties of bathing. The temperature of some of 
the springs is as high as 130° Fahrenheit. 

Tracy. The junction of the old Western Pacific route from San Francisco 
to Sacramento via Livermore Pass with our line to the south. Tracy is surrounded 
by broad wheat-fields, which extend to the northward beyond the reach of vision. 
(Population, 600. Distance from San Francisco, 83 miles. Elevation, 64 feet.) 

Baiita. Small station three miles from Tracy, after passing which we cross 
the San Joaquin River on a very long drawbridge. (Population, 500. Distance 
from San Francisco, 86 miles. Elevation, 30 feet.) 

Ijatlirop. Junction of the old Western Pacific and the Sunset Route. This 
is a regular meal station and here the railroad company have erected a large hotel, 
in which are also their ofl'iccs. Lathrop is in the heart of the great San Joaquin 
wheat belt. (Population, 600. Distance from San Francisco, 94 miles. Elevation, 
26 feet.) 

The San Joaquin Valley. After crossing the San Joaquin river and 
turning to the right, our course is up the famous San Joaquin Valley — the great 
granary of California. Here are five million acres of the best wheat land in the 
world. A valley two hundred miles long by thirty miles broad, which when vivified 
by the magic touch of irrigation, ])n)duces not only wheat but also almost every- 



BYRON 
HOT SPRINGS. 

Bathing and Health 
Resort. 



l82 



OVER THE RANGE 



thing that can be raised in tropical or temperate zones — wheat, corn, oats, flax, 
apples, oranges, lemons, figs, nuts, olives — the list is too extended for recapitulation. 
Properly conserved there is water enough to irrigate the whole valley, and in many 
places the natural supply of water has been supplemented by that flowing from 
artesian wells. After passing Lathrop, we rattle through a number of small stations, 
all of them ^^ath large shipping warehouses, speaking eloquently of the generous 
output of the soil. 

While not on our direct route, a short side trip from Lathrop, on the line to 
Sacramento brings us to 

Stockton. This handsome, well-built city of nearly 25,000 people, is the 
commercial center of the San Joaquin. It is at the head of tide-water navigation, 
and at the junction of the Southern Pacific Railway and the Santa Fe. It is a 
prosperous city, -with a great future before it. Stockton has superior advantages 
for manufacturing, and for the distribution of its products of factory and field. 
Flour and woolen mills, harvesters and other agricultural implements, mining 
machinery, street cars and railway cars, pottery and briquettes, the latter a com- 
bination of coal and crude oil, are among its principal industries. Fruit canning 
and packing, too, has a large place. The annual output of its factories and packing 
houses is over $14,000,000. Fuel is cheap here. The coal-fields of Tesla are near 
by, the product of which is distributed chiefly through this citv. Natural gas is 
supplied at a low rate, and is used in factories, and for heat and light in private 
houses. Unlimited electric power, generated 45 miles away, is also at command. 

River Traffic . Steamers, barges, and sailing vessels ply between Stockton 
and the Bay, the river traffic being very large. The distance is about 100 miles, 
and the volume of tralKc is not exceeded by more than three rivers in America. 
The annual freightage is estimated at a million and a half of tons, and 150,000 
passengers. The county has 873,000 acres, nearly all of which is productive. 
Below the city is found the peat land, so rich that $50 an acre is paid for the use 
of it for truck farming. This is not an unusual figure. This vegetable mould 
yields enormous crops of onions, potatoes, etc. The returns, both in quantity and 
size, are almost incredible. Much asparagus is raised on the islands of the San 
Joaquin. Vast quantities of potatoes are grown in this county. The }deld is 
often 200 bushels to the acre. The early crop is planted in December and the main 
crop from March to June. They are harvested from May to January. It is a 
common sight to sec men planting potatoes in one end of a field while digging is 
going on in the other. 

Owing to the relation of Stockton to the Golden Gate, it has a daily ocean 
breeze, and is one of the healthiest cities in the union. Its water supply is from 
artesian wells. The zone of variable winds which draw in from the sea, and em- 
brace the whole region, provides an average rainfall sufiicient for most needs, but 
irrigation is steadily extending its area. For local irrigation, water is found not 
far below the surface, and windmills are in sight in many directions. 

The city has a half-tropical air, and palms and bananas, a profusion of flower- 
ing shrubs, and a variety of shade trees, beautify the streets and grounds of private 
residences. Seen from some elevation, the whole region seems a bower of green. 

Public Utilities. The court house is a fine granite structure, occupying a 
square, and surrounded by a terraced lawn. A free library building is of native 
marble, and cost $100,000. The State Hospital for the Insane embraces a grouj) 
of handsome buildings, with wcll-kc])t grounds, and cost about $1,000,000. A new 
postofl&ce is arranged for, the appropriation being $200,000. Work is ready to begin. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



1S3 



The natural metropolis of a vast region, the future of Stockton is well assured. 
The growth of the city will keep pace with the development of the country, and 
there is room in the county alone for 200,000 people who shall till the soil. Good 
land can be had for $20 to $100 an acre, on easy terms. Here is rich soil and a 
hungry market. The State wants nothing so badly as farmers. 

Passing through Morrano, Ripon, and Salida, small wheat shipping stations 
for Stanislaus County, we reach 

Modesto. County-scat of Stanislaus County, and a prosperous and pretty 
town, surrounded by an industrious agricultural people. (Population, 2,500. 
Distance from San Francisco, 114 miles. Elevation, 91 feet.) 

Between Modesto and Merced are the unimportant stations of Ceres, Keyes, 
Turlock, Delhi, Arena, and Atwater. 




DRYING RAISINS, SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY. 

Merced. A well-built town, the county-seat of Merced County. Possessed 
of good public buildings, fine private residences, and surrounded by an exceedingly 
rich agricultural country, and destined to be a great manufacturing center, Merced 
has prospered and will continue to prosper. The county has a population of 75,000, 
nearly all engaged in agricultural pursuits. (Population, 2,000. Distance from 
San Francisco, 152 miles. Elevation, 171 feet.) 

Atllloiie. Before Athlone is reached we 
cross the Mariposa River, and after it is passed the 
Conchilla River. Wheat-fields are on every hand. 
Irrigating ditches abound. Vineyards are frequent- 
ly to be seen. And Athlone, a quiet little village, sits 
in the midst of fertile fields. (Distance from San 
Francisco, 162 miles. Elevation, 210 feet.) 

This station is situated at the junction with the 
main line of the Yosemite extension of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, which extends to Raymond, a dis- 
tance of twenty-one miles to the eastward. From 
Ra}Tnond a stage line extends to Wawona, the 
Yosemite, and the Big Trees. From Berenda a good view of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains can be had. Among the highest peaks in view are those of Mount 



BERENDA. 

Junction Point 

to the 
World's Famous 
Yosemite Valley. 

Big Trees, etc. 



1^4 OVER THE RANGE 

Lyell, Mount Tyndal, Mount Goddard, and Mount Whitney. These mountains, 
which exceed 14,000 feet in aUitude, impress one deeply with their vast propor- 
tions, more especially because we are so near the sea level, being at an elevation 
of less than three hundred feet. Berenda has an agricultural and grazing country 
directly tributary to it. (Population, 200. Distance from San Francisco, 180 
miles. Elevation, 256 feet.) 

Madera. This is a leading shipping point for lumber, which is delivered 
to this point from the foothills by means of a flume iifty-eight miles in length. The 
great work of constructing this flume was completed in 1876, which has been in 
service ever since. The amount of lumber delivered in this way during the last ten 




BIG TREES. 

years is something enormous, as may readily be gathered from the fact that one 
year's delivery amounted to over twenty-two million feet. A 1,000 acre vineyard 
and agricultural lands add to the importance of this growing city. It is the county- 
seat of Madera County. (Population, 2,500. Distance from San Francisco, 185 
miles. Elevation, 278 feet.) 

Fresno. Between Madera and Fresno there is some interesting country. 
Just after leaving Madera we cross the Fresno River, beyond Sycamore the San 
Joaquin River, and at Borden, Cottonwood Creek. The sand dunes vnll attract 
your attention beyond Sycamore — queer little hills of sand fifteen to twenty-five 
feet in diameter and three to six feet high. Fresno is the county-seat of Fresno 
County, the geographical center of the state, and is a most thriving and prosperous 
city, and the center of the great raisin belt. It has electric lights, telephones, street 
railroads, water works, in short, all the modern improvements. Redwood and 
pine is the material mostly in use for building purposes, and the town possesses 
many elegant public and private edifices. A great variety of industries are tribu- 
tary to the town. Fresno County has a vast territory planted to grapes, and pro- 
duces annually about 75,000,000 pounds of raisins, the seedless variety being 
particularly fine. Smyrna figs are also grown successfully. The shipments of 
various farm products reach a very high figure. There is an abundant supply 
of water for irrigation, being brought from the mountains by means of canals having 
an aggregate length of eleven hundred miles and costing two million dollars. The 
capacity of these canals for irrigation covers a sjwce of over seven hundred thousand 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



185 



acres, thus making Fresno County one of the richest agricultural regions in the 
world. Lombardy or the Nile Valley are not richer in possibilities. Many colonies 
have formed settlements in the vicinity of Fresno. These enterprises, through 
intelligent and united industry, have proved very successful. With a salubrious 
climate, fine scenery, fertile land, and an industrious people, Fresno has every reason 
to anticipate a continuance of her phenomenal success. (Population, 15,000. Dis- 
tance from San Francisco, 207 miles. Elevation, 293 feet.) 




BIG TREE "WAWONA." 



Clovis, Pollasky, and Malaga are small towns, whose industries are lumber, 
horticultural and agricultural. 

Selllia. Surrounded by a wheat-growing country and sup])lied with good 
liouring mills, this town is in a flourishing condition. A great deal of wheat is 
shipped from this station — twenty million pounds last year. Peaches thrive in 
the neighborhood and reach a high state of perfection in size and flavor. The 
town has most all the modern improvements. (Population, 2,200. Distance from 
San Francisco, 221 miles. Elevation, 311 feet.) 

Killg'slmrg". This enterprising little town owes its jjrosperity to the fact 
that it is situated in the famous wheat belt. Here are to be seen big warehouses 



iS6 



OVER THE RANGE 



for storing wheat, large quantities of which arc shipped from this station annually 
Soon after leaving the town, we cross King's River on a trestle bridge, the approach 
to which is made over a long, high embankment. (Population, 300. Distance 
from San Francisco, 227 miles. Elevation, 300 feet.) 

Killg''s River, a large, clear body of water, rises in the Sierras to the 
northeast, and flows southwesterly in a broad and tortuous channel, irrigating a 




HOME, FRESNO. 



large scoj)c of territory. King's River is the boundary line between Fresno and 
Tulare counties. 

TrjlVOr. This is a new town, showing evidence of prosperity and thrift, 
possesses a flouring mill, machine shops, planing mills and other business enter- 
prises of commercial importance. (Population, 250. Distance from San Francisco, 
232 miles. Elevation, 291 feet.) 

GrOSlieil. The junction of the Goshen division, which extends a distance 
of sixty miles to Alcalde. (Population, 200. Di.stance from San Francisco, 241 
miles. Elevation, 286 feet.) 

TIk"! OosIk'U Division, 'J'here are a number of small towns on this 
branch, as follows: Hanford, Armona, Grandeville, Lemore, Huron, and Alcalde. 
The land through which the road pa.sses is very fertile, and prices for it range from 
one hundred and fifty to three hundred dollars per acre. Oil has been found on 
this line in paying r|uantilies. 

VisalijI. Tills town is the coimty-seat of Tulare County, and is situated 
to the eastward of Goshen, l)eing connected with that stalion by nu'ans of a branch 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. iSy 

road. Its tributary industries are varied, and among them may be mentioned a 
condensed milk factory. The Kaweah River flows through VisaHa and aids in 
irrigating this most fertile region. (Po])ulation, 3,500. Distance from San Fran- 
cisco, 254 miles. Elevation, 290 feet.) 

Resources of Tuliire ("ouilty. The resources of this county are 
most varied, the plains and the mountains meeting here; hence, the farming and 
fruit raising of the one are supplemented by the mining, lumber industries, and stock 
raising of the other. There are about two million and a half acres of territory in 
the mountains, about eight hundred thousand acres among the foothills, eleven 
hundred thousand acres of valley, and two hundred thousand acres in Tulare Lake 
and its surrounding "tule" lands. The mountains are covered with timber, and 
mines of gold, iron, copper, and zinc are worked. The foothills produce almost every 
variety of deciduous and citrus fruits, together with grapes — both wine and raisin. 

Ten miles beyond Goshen we come to Tulare, 
a thriving town of recent growth, with railroad 
roundhouse, shops, and good station building. 
This is a large shipping point not only via the rail- 
road, but by means of wagons to interior points. 
Wheat growing and stock raising are the principal 
industries, though wine, grape, and fruits do well. 
Irrij»atioii in the Artesian Belt. The 

question of irrigation in California has been one 
of much vexation and exceedingly difficult of solu- 
tion. The supply of water has been so very limited 
that millions of acres of land, as fertile as anv in 
the world if irrigated, and absolutely worthless 
without water, have lain fallow for years. Fortunately for California, it has b.=en 
discovered that this lack of water can be supplied in many instances through the 
agency of artesian wells. In certain sections of the country these resources have 
been developed, and the result has been the establishment of what are popularly 
known as "artesian behs." One of these zones extends from Caliente to Stockton, 
the greatest development being in Merced, Fresno, Tulare, and Kern counties, 
where many hundreds of flowing wells have been established. These wells are 
from 250 to 700 feet in depth, and an average well will irrigate about 150 acres of 
land. The capacity of each well can be largely increased by means of storage 
reservoirs. After leaving Tulare the derricks of artesian well-borers can be seen 
on each side of the railroad in great numbers. Near Tulare is established one of 
the CaHfornia experimental stations, where all manner of agricultural and horti- 
cultural products are tested and reported upon — fruits, seeds, and grain. 

Tipton is a small station of no very great importance, except from the fact 
that it is the shipping point for sheep, which are raised in great numbers in the 
surrounding country. Seven miles to the west lies Tulare lake, which is quite 
a large body of water, being thirty miles long by twenty-five miles wide, and abound- 
ing in fish and water fowl. Tipton is surrounded by a good agricultural country, 
and enjoys its full measure of prosperity. (Population, 400. Distance from San 
Francisco, 262 miles. Elevation, 267 feet.) 

Beyond Tipton are to be seen great numbers of windmills, used particularly for 
the work of irrigation. Immense groves of eucalyptus, or blue gum trees can be 
seen from the train. Pixlcy, Alila, Delano, and Famoso are small stations of 
minor importance. We cross the Kern River between Famoso and Bakcrsfield. 



TULARE. 

Commercial and 
Agricultural Center. 

Population, 4,000. 

Distance from 

San Francisco, 

251 miles. 

Elevation, 282 feet. 



iSS OVER THE RANGE 

FaillOSO is the junction with the loop Hne swinging toward the Sierra foot- 
hills, which left the main line at Fresno. 

Baker.sfleld is the county-seat of Kern County, situated at the junction 
of the two forks of Kern River. The town has the usual complement of public 
and private buildings, paved streets, electric street railways, sewers, foundries, 
planing mills, packing houses, ice plants, etc., etc. It is surrounded by an exceed- 
ingly fertile country. Fourteen miles southwest is Kern Lake, seven miles long by 
four wide, while si.x miles farther is Buena Vista lake, a somewhat larger body 
of water. Irrigation has been brought to great perfection in this county, there 
being seven hundred miles of irrigating canals within its limits, the largest having 
a width of one hundred feet and a length of forty miles. The lakes, streams, and 
artesian wells furnish a bountiful supply of water. Twenty-five miles southwest 
of Bakersfield is the Kern County oil region, eight miles long by three miles, wide. 
Bakersfield has, as may be seen by the above, a most productive country surrounding 
it. (Population, 8,000. Distance from San Francisco, 314 miles. Elevation, 415 feet.) 

MoKittrick. A branch line runs from Bakersfield west to Olig, a shipping 
station beyond McKittrick; from Oil Junction a short line runs east to Oil City, 
and a third diverges from Gosford to Sunset, some miJes south of McKittrick. 
These are oil districts, and what are known as the Kern fields have contributed 
much to the growth of Bakersfield. McKittrick is about 50 miles west, located in 
the low hills of the Santa Maria Mountains. It is a sterile region, once volcanic, 
the ground still broken and blackened as if recently the gas had broken up through 
the thin crust, giving vent to the pressure below. Jumbled piles of dried asphalt 
and hardened oil sand, and oil seepages, indicate the character of the deposits 
beneath the surface. Since the wells were sunk here, the yield has been continuous 
and abundant. The first drill was sent down in 1899. 

Kerii Kiver Oil Ke^'ioii. An old prospector who had seen the oil excite- 
ment in Pennsylvania, digging a well on the banks of Kern River, struck oil instead 
of water, at a depth of si.xty feet. Now the region is a forest of derricks for miles, 
and while the wells have had to be driven from 500 to 1,000 feet, the yield of this 
Kern River district has been steady and with promise of permanence. An industry 
in itself, this fosters so many others as to be of incalculable value. Here are the 
raw materials; here is a great market opening; here is a climate that permits every 
branch of manufacture to be carried on all the year without the expense of heating 
operating rooms. The one thing lacking was cheap fuel, and now this is at hand. 
It means new life to the State. Factories are decreasing their expenses by its use; 
steamships and railroads are using it, and mine owners find it possible to work 
low-grade ore where oil can be used in place of wood for furnaces. The settlement 
of great tracts of rich land, and the building up of towns and cities, will be hastened 
by the discovery of oil. Naturally, Bakersfield is the metropolis cf the oil industry 
at the head of the great valley. Oil trains are constantly moving, carrying great 
cylindrical tanks to the cities northward, and the growth of Bakersfield has been 
greatly accelerated. The rich farming and fruit country tributary, will maintain 
and increase what she has gained from having "struck oil." 

Calh'ute. This station is at the entrance to the famous Tchachapi Pass 
and is located in the embrasure of a deep and narrow canon, up which the train 
takes its difficult way. This is a shipping point for freight from interior points 
delivered to the road by wagons. It is also quite a stage station, stages leaving 
Caliente for Basin, Havilah, Hot Springs, Weldon, and Kernville. (Population, 50. 
Distance from San Francisco, 336 miles. Elevation, 1,290 feet.) 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



1 89 



The Famous Loop, 

Tehachapi Pass. 

Distance from San 
Francisco, 362 miles. 

Length of Loop, 
3,795 feet. 

Altitude of Tunnel, 
3,956 feet. 

Altitude of Crnssinj;, 
3,034 feet. 

Altitude Gained, 
78 feet. 



cerning this famous pass, Mr 
"As the Sierra Nevada and 
peak of Shasta (41° 24'), so in 



The twenty-four miles of journey up and down 
the Sierra Nevadas, at the point where the railroad 
makes the passage of this range dividing the broad 
valley of the San Joaquin and the desert of Mojave, 
is a most remarkable experience, and brings before 
our eyes the wonderful triumph of railway engineer- 
ing skill. It is alleged that three civil engineers of 
great reputation first undertook to survey a passage 
through these peaks and crags, and, after repeated 
attempts, declared the route impassable. A boy 
of twenty took up the work where his elders had 
forsaken it, and this miraculous railway path over 
and through the mountains is the result. Con- 
. E. McD. Johnstone writes graphically as follows: 
Coast Ranges in the north culminate in the great 
the neighborhood of Tehachapi Pass (35°), these two 




TEHACHAPI LOOP. 



great chains blend their distinguishing features of fern slope and icy crag, and 
are lost in an inextricable mass of jumbled up peaks of every conceivable form and 
variety. Although nature has reared no such colossal masterpiece as Shasta in the 
welding of her great rock bands in the South, she has managed to throw up her 
earth-works in a manner so impregnable as to seemingly defy the art of man to 
penetrate. The physical features of this Tehachapi country (the lowest pass 
being 4,000 feet altitude) seemed to, and did for a time, baffle the shrewdest en- 
gineers, but finally the track, by doubling back upon, and crossing itself, by 
climbing, squirming, and curving, resulted in a success and gave us one of the 
most famous and de.xtrous pieces of railroad engineering in the world." 

Tehachapi Suniniit. The station at the summit of the pass is at an 
elevation of 3,964 feet, and is the highest point on this extension of the line. Sheep 



19° OVER THE RANGE 

feed on the grass, which is abundant in the valleys and gulches which surround 
the station. 

Desceiicliug- to the Desert. For several miles the train rolls along 
on a level plateau on the summit of this range before the descent to the Mojave 
Desert is made. A small salt lake is passed, where abundance of the chloride 
of sodium, that important article of commerce, can be shoveled up from the bed of 
the lake, it being entirely exposed during the summer by the evaporation of its 
waters. 

Cameron is a small station passed about midway between the summit and 
Mojave, at the base of the range. 

Mojave is on the edge of the desert of the same name, and the water used 
is brought in pipes from Cameron, a distance of ten miles. This place is the 
junction of the Santa Fe railroad with the Southern Pacific. (Population, 400. 
Distance from San Francisco, 382 miles. Elevation, 2,751 feet.) 

The Mojave Desert. A desert isn't, as a general rule, much of an 
object of interest to travelers, especially to those who have made the transcontinental 
journey and experienced the monotony of the deserts of Utah and Nevada. How- 
ever, we must say this, that we found many things to interest us while traversing the 
famed sand wastes of Mojave. In the first place, there were the giant cacti or 
yucca palm, a sight novel to our eyes, and peculiar in and of itself. This cactus 
grows to the size of a tree, reaching an average height of twenty-five feet, and 
attaining very often that of fifty feet. Its diameter is often that of two feet, and 
sometimes even greater; with its spreading club-like branches, its trailing bark and 
peculiar form, the yucca palm is indeed an interesting feature in the landscape. 
Another attraction is the peculiar form of the buttes, which rise from the desert 
sands on every side. Varying in height from two to five hundred feet, grooved 
and channeled by the elements, they give variety and interest to the landscape. 
One must not neglect to mention the mirage as a third element of variety. We do 
not remember ever to have seen more complete or deceptive mirage effects than 
those of the Mojave Desert. 

Rosamond, Lancaster, Acton are desert stations of small interest. The Solidad 
Mountains tower to our right as Rosamond is passed, and we later on make our 
way through this range by means of what is known as the Solidad Pass, reaching 
an altitude of 3,211 feet. 

New^hall. This station is not very large but boasts a large hotel, capable 
of entertaining one hundred and fifty guests. From here may be plainly seen the 
San Fernando Mountains, exceedingly perpendicular, and rising to an altitude of 
three thousand feet. These mountains could not be passed until a tunnel 
6,967 feet long had been made. 

In this vicinity are oil refineries producing about five thousand Ijarrcls of oil 
per day. The oil fields are but a short distance from Newhall. 

San Fernan<h) Tunnel. From Newhall we ascend the grade through 
cuts until the tunnel is reached. The grade is one hundred and sixteen feet to the 
mile, and as we approach from the north in the tunnel, it is thirty-seven feet per 
mile, the grade on the south from the exit is one hundred and six feet, while the 
elevation of the tunnel is one thousand four hundred and sixty-nine feel. 

San Fernando. The valley of San Fernando bursts on our vision as we 
emerge from the tunnel, a land of orange groves and olive trees, the very opposite 
in character from the arid waste we have just left behind us. The town of San 
Fernando is (juitc a place, and growing daily in jjopulalion. 



LOS ANQELES. 

The Metropolis 

of 

Southern California. 

A City of Tropical 
Magnificence. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 191 

Through cultivated fields, past suburban residences we roll, pausing for a 
moment at Burbank, only eleven miles from Los Angeles. Beyond this place we 
journey through villages de facto, de jure or /;/ juturo. There are plenty of lot 
stakes and the suburbs of Los Angeles will certainly be widespread, if they ever 
cover the ground now laid out. 

The valley of the San Joaquin has been passed, 
the heights of Tehachapi have been scaled, the desert 
of Mojave has been crossed, and we are here at last! 
From our cheery heights, as we approach the town we 
gaze on a scene of entrancing beauty. Mountain- 
girdled, garden-dotted city, lying on the slope of the 
San Gabriel Mountains, and watered by streams 
from the heights above, one hardly knows whether to 
call it a city of gardens and groves, or an immense 
grove and garden sprinkled with palaces and de- 
lightful homes. Health and prosperity seem to have made themsehes the presiding 
deities of the place. We gratefully decide that we have arrived at a point where it 
were well to let the train, like the busy world it typifies, pass on and away, while we 
rest in this paradise — a home indeed fit for the angels — and while we bask in its 
sunshine, gaze at its mountam peaks, catch glimpses of the ocean, breathe the fra- 
grance of its roses and geraniums, or listen to its mockingbirds and nightingales, we 
unite many a time and oft in thanks to the kindly fate which led our steps to southern 
California and the City of the Angels. There is no city whose growth can be 
compared to Los Angeles — in fact, no city west of the Rocky Mountains can boast 
of such rapid improvements. Thousands have come to southern California simply 
to pay a visit, but soon become charmed with its wonderful climate and beautiful 
surroundings, so much so that they conclude to remain permanently in this land of 
sunshine and flowers. A great deal has been written of this section, but the half 
has never been told. With the greatest climate in the universe, the richest and 
most inexhaustible soil, the vast amount of valuable land in and around Los Angeles, 
it is no wonder that her present condition is so prosperous. The beautiful avenues 
extending away to the foothills on the east and to the ocean on the south, the orange 
groves within her corporate limits, the magnificent public and private buildings, 
all tend to make the Angel City a place of wonder. Main Street, one of the prin- 
cipal streets in town, is the dividing line for east and west; First Street the division 
for north and south. The wholesale houses are scattered along Los Angeles, Com- 
mercial, Aliso, and Requena streets, while the large retail establishments are to 
be found on Spring Street and Broadway, which are to Los Angeles what State 
Street and Wabash Avenue are to Chicago. The streets are wide, well paved, and 
bordered by composition and granite curbing. There are many beautiful parks 
within the city limits, and the ocean can be reached in less than an hour's ride, and 
by a dozen different steam and trolley lines. 

It may be stated that the much-abused word "climate" has doubtless been a 
powerful factor in producing grand results. Furthermore, the fact that hundreds 
of those who were deemed hopeless invahds on their arrival here are to-day enter- 
prising, energetic, and successful capitalists, merchants, manufacturers, farmers, and 
orchardists, attesting the effects of this sun-kissed land and health-renewing climate 
on the human system; and so long as there are any sufferers from the blizzards, 
cyclones, and other life-destroying elements cast of the Rocky Mountains, just so 
long will southern California, and Los Angeles in particular, continue to receive 



192 OVER THE RANGE 

thousands annually of the best citizens of the republic, until it becomes the most 
densely populated portion of the United States. 

Los Angeles is reached by the Southern Pacific railroad, via either its line 
through the San Joaquin Valley or via the beautiful Coast Line, in sixteen hours 
from San Francisco — distance, 482 miles — or by steamer. It is a most beautiful 
city, of 135,000 people, is growing rapidly, and is a commercial point of much 
importance, as well as the center of an agricultural paradise, it being the principal 
city between San Francisco and Kansas City on the transcontinental line formed 
by the connection at Mojave or El Paso. It is also the largest city between 
San Francisco and San Antonio, Texas, by the great "Sunset Route." The city 
has many elegant buildings, wide, clean streets, with electric railways. A day's ride 
over the lovely country surrounding Los Angeles, through miles of long, straight 
avenues of orange trees and thousands of acres of grapes, seeing every kind of semi- 
tropic fruit growing side by side with the more hardy fruits, both being in the 
greatest profusion and of the finest quality, will convince the traveler from almost 
any part of the earth that there is surely the paradise of America, if not of the world. 

No city in the United States has improved so rapidly within the past few years 
as Los Angeles. Nearly every one of the principal business streets have been 
paved with asphalt, and the main residence thoroughfares with asphalt or con- 
crete, thus making a drive equal to any avenue in the union. There are no im- 
provements which have been of more benefit to Los Angeles than that of pave- 
ment. The immense amount of daily traffic necessitated this movement, and there 
is scarcely a block within the corporate hmits which is not in proper condition. 
Curbing has also received its share of attention, while the cement sidewalk is be- 
coming universal. The city has an almost perfect sewerage system, which requires 
an outlay of nearly $750,000. 

Los Angeles is essentially a city of schools. The public, high, and normal schools 
are supported by state taxation, and their doors are open to all. Besides, there are 
numerous universities, colleges, and academies. The majority of children, after 
obtaining an education in the public schools, by force of circumstances are com- 
pelled to take up the battle of life for themselves; but to those who thirst for deeper 
draughts at the fountains of knowledge, the higher schools await them. 




LOS ANGELES. 



SHORT TOURS ADJACENT TO LOS 
ANGELES. 

TO SAN PEDRO AND CATALINA. 



Florence. This prettv town, embowLTcd in an abundance of shrubs and 
fruit trees, is surrounded by well-cultivated and fertile fields. Here the line branches, 
the San Diego division extending to the left. (Population, 800. Distance from Los 
Angeles, si.x miles. Elevation, 151 feet.) 

Coiliptoil. This is the largest town on the division between Los Angeles 
and San Pedro. It is in the heart of an extremely well cultivated and productive 
fruit belt. Grapes, citrus fruits, and berries grow in great abuiidance. The yield 
is extraordinary, and is especially true as to small fruits, such as blackberries, straw- 
berries, raspberries, etc. (Population, 800. Distance from Los Angeles, eleven 
miles. Elevation, 76 feet.) 

Ten miles beyond Compton evidences of our near approach to the grand old 
ocean begin to appear. Salt marshes begin to make their appearance, and the fer- 
tile soil gives place to stretches of shifting sands. 

Wilson's Colleji'e. This is a Protestant institution of learning, eigbteer 
miles distant from Los Angeles, situated on the site of the old Headquarters of 
the United States Mihtary Department for southern California and Arizona, which 
was abandoned about twenty years ago and sold to private parties. About a mile 
beyond the college the junction for Long Beach is passed, and San Pedro, the rail- 
road terminus, is soon reached. 

San Pedro. This is one of the largest and best harbors between San 
Francisco and San Diego. It has over a mile of docks, with between eighteen and 
twenty feet of water at low tide. Ships receive and unload freight to and from the 
railroad cars direct, though from some shij)S, of great tonnage, the freight is taken 
by means of lighters. The government has improved the harbor to a great extent 
and the results have been fully commensurate with the expense incurred. Further 
extensive improvement, in the construction of a deep-water harbor, is now under 
way, and in a few years the harbor of San Pedro will be one of the best on the Pacific 
coast. The commerce of San Pedro is f[uite extensive. Sometimes as many as 
fifty ships can be seen riding at anchor or tied up to the wharf, busily engaged in 
loading or unloading freight. Great quantities of lumber are shipped to San Pedro 
from the great timber forests of the Pugct Sound country, and all nations are repre- 
sented during the year by ships in this harbor hailing from every part of the world. 
Coal comes here from the upper coast and from England, and in the case of English 
vessels a cargo of grain is taken back. The history of San Pedro dates back to the 
earliest settlement of CaUfornia, but as a i)ort of any imijorlance its growth began 
less than ten years ago. Before that time it was merely an open roadstead, 
and lighters carried all freight to and from Willmington. 

Santa Catalina. From San Pedro .steamers plow the Pacific (in the summer 

194 



196 OVER THE RANGE 

daily or twice a day) on "a twenty-thrce-milc trip to Santa Catalina Island, the great 
island resort of the Pacific coast, and but three and a half hours from Los Angeles. 

The fame of the island runs now where man can read, .'\valon Bay- and the 
Isthmus are ideal resorts. The twenty-two miles of island, mountain, cliff, valley, 
forest, peninsula, possess a magnificent scenic stage road, wonderful views, fine goat 
and quail hunting, winding trails, deep gorges, and water-falls, among the attrac- 
tions of the interior; yet perhaps the larger number of visitors find most enjoyment 
in or upon the water. It is a summer isle, with the surf beating on the rocky cliffs 
of the south and west coasts, and with the ocean sleeping in glassy stillness along 
the sandy and pebbly beaches to the north and east. 

In the bay of Avalon, children paddle about unattended in boats that they can- 
not upset. Indeed, everybody goes rowing and bathing here. There is no surf 
and no wind, and so clear is the water that all the wonderful vegetable and animal 
life on the bottom of the ocean may be seen through the bottom of a glass-bottomed 
boat, as if the water were of crystal. Seals (sea-lions), unmolested, clamber on the 
rocks. It is a wonderful fishing-ground, and on a summer morning a fleet of row- 
boats and naphtha launches may be seen outward-bound in search of the giant sea 
bass (reaching a weight of 500 pounds), the leaping tuna (gamiest of all fish), the 
frolicsome and plentiful yellowtail, the albicore, the barracuda, that philosopher's 
fish, the grouper, the white and rock bass, the halibut, and other denizens of the 
salty deep. An expert with the rifle hunts the flying-fish. 

In the height of the summer season, there are often 5,000 or 6,000 people on 
Catalina Island. There are a number of good hotels, but the tent villages, with their 
macadamized streets, and with rows of shade trees, are very attractive, and here the 
crowd lives. The furnished tents are rented very cheaply, and, at the delicacy 
stores, dinners hot from the range, may be purchased less expensively than an in- 
dulgence in home cooking. Illuminations, nightly concerts in a fine pavilion, fol- 
lowed by dancing, a skating rink, and the unconventional social life that a respecta- 
ble company makes possible, make life very pleasant upon the Island. 

Long" Beacll. We have already described the greater portion of the trip 
from I>os Angeles to Long Beach in that portion of this book devoted to the journey 
from Los Angeles to San Pedro. We follow the same line in our excursion to the 
Beach as far as the junction, at which point our train takes the line to the left, and 
rolling along through a level country, encroached upon here and there by the salt 
marshes of the ocean, but passing many fertile and attractive spots, soon reaches 
Long Beach, the goal of our journey. This ]iopular resort is only twenty-five miles 
distant from Los Angeles, and can be reached i.i an hour's ride from the city. Elec- 
tric railways are in operation, and the service is frequent and rajiid. Surf-bathing 
may be enjoyed here the year round, and the accommodations are comjjletc in every 
respect. The beach itself is one of the greatest attractions of the place. The sands 
are left hard and compact by the retiring tide, and the drive along the margin of 
the ocean is undoubtedly the finest to be found anywhere on the California coast. 
Long Beach has a wharf which extends a distance of 750 feet in the ocean, reaching 
water deep enough to float vessels of the heaviest tonnage by its side. Long Beach 
has already become a resort of great popularity, and llie cxci'lkMice of its beach, 
its attractive scenery, and fine hotel combine to render this popularity greater every 
day. 

The trip from Los Angeles to Santa Monica, one of the famous bathing 
resorts of the Pacific coast, is not only justified l)y what one finds at the end of his 
journey, but also by the pleasures enjoyed en route. The Southern Pacific Com- 



SANTA MONICA. 

The 

Long Branch 

of the 

Pacific. 

A Charming Sea^Shore 

Watering Place. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 197 

pany runs four trains to the beach each day — a distance of nineteen miles; and 
there are three electric hnos, with frccjuent and rapid service. On Sunday the 
exodus to this famed seaside resort is something 
extraordinary. For three or four miles after leav- 
ing, we pass through suburbs of Los Angeles. Hand- 
some villa residences, surrounded by beautiful and 
most attractive grounds, are to be seen on every 
side. At last, reaching the open country, we pass 
through a constant succession of vineyards and fruit 
orchards, until the near presence of the ocean is made 
known by refreshing saline breezes and the occur- 
rence of sand dunes and salt marshes. The train 
stops at a handsome depot, beyond which extends a 
large, well-kept, and beautiful park. It is difTicult 
for one accustomed to the varying seasons of the lands across the mountains to com- 
prehend the fact that this beautiful park, with its luxuriance of sub-tropical vegeta- 
tion, its affluence of delicate and vari-tinted flowers, is never less verdant, less bril- 
liant, or less attractive than it is now. It is not easy to grasp the fact that all the year 
round, equally as comfortably on the first of January as on the first of June, one can 
sport among the combing billows that come rolling in across the blue, serene Pacific. 
The attractions of Santa Monica are manifold — beach-driving, surf-bathing, fishing, 
boating, yachting, are the seaward delights; while on the shore are all the charms 
which nature has so opulently spread for the pleasure of those who visit this favored 
spot, together with all the ingenious devices invented by man for amusement and 
relaxation. Of course it goes without saying that there is a magnificent beach hotel, 
whose broad verandas face the sea, and whose appointments are complete in all 
respects; also, of course, there are bath-houses of ample accommodations. 

There are many points of scenic interest within easy reach of Santa Monica. 
One of the most charming is that to Santa Monica canon, to which the Southern 
Pacific Company has extended its line, and Manville Glen, a spot made cool and 
inviting by ancient forest trees and a rippling brook, all embraced by rugged moun- 
tain surroundings. This is a favorite camping-ground, where pleasure and health 
seekers pitch their tents and spend months in the calm enjoyment of this sylvan 
retreat. Santa Monica is a great health resort, and experience has proved its ex- 
cellence in this regard. It possesses, the year round, one of the most enjoyable 
and healthy climates in the world, being from ten to fifteen degrees cooler than Los 
Angeles and the interior country in summer, and warmer in winter. There is a 
magnificent driving beach stretching away for fifteen miles, good sea fishing, an 
abundance of water-fowl in the neighboring lagoons, and game in the mountains a 
few miles distant. The climate of Santa Monica and vicinity is worthy of somewhat 
extended notice. In a general way we can sum up the climatic conditions of the 
southern California coast as follows: So far as the amount of rainfall is concerned 
throughout southern California, the rainy season simply signifies that during that 
period, exclusively, not exceeding i8 inches may fall. The average annual rainfall 
at San Diego is only 10.43 inches. Following up the coast to San Francisco, it 
increases at the rate of about 2 inches for every 100 miles. Santa Monica receives 
about 13 inches, Santa Barbara 15 inches, Monterey 17 inches, and San Francisco 
21 inches. The Coast Range of mountains, rising to an elevation of from 2,000 to 
4,000 feet, robs the ocean rain freighted clouds of all their precious burden before 
reaching the interior plains and valleys. At Fort Yuma, on the Colorado River and 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. I99 

Desert, the mean annual rainfall is only 2.54 inches; among the little vallevs extend- 
ing from San Diego to the San Jacmto Mountains, from 7 to g inches; in the valley of 
San Bernardino, and at Colton, Riverside, and Cocamongo, ro inches; advancing 
toward the coast, Spadra and El Monte receive about ri inches; and Los Angeles- 
situated 20 miles from the ocean, about 14 inches. Crossing the San Bernardino 
Mountains to the Mojave Plains, the yearly rainfall is only from 3 to 4 inches, and 
from thence up the San Joaquin Valley as far as Goshen, in latitude 36 degrees, it 
ranges from 3 to 6 inches; from thence, northward, it increases to 15.10 at Stockton 
and 18.23 ^t Sacramento. Taking it all in all Santa Monica is a place of great 
interest. We have said nothing about the town so far, but must not neglect to state 
that there is a town, and a very pretty one at that. It is situated on the level mesa, 
which stretches back landward from the brink of the natural sea wall, from whose 
foot extends the level beach outward to the ocean rim. The residences are taste- 
ful, many of them elegant, the business blocks substantial, and every clement of com- 
fort and convenience for the health or pleasure seeker can be found here. 
■ Port Los Allg-eles. Twenty miles west of the city of Los Angeles is 
where the Southern Pacific Company have built their mammoth wharf, the longest 
ocean pier in the world. The total length of the structure is 4,620 feet. The coal 
bunkers are fitted with every convenience for rapid handling of coal cargoes from 
ship to bunker and then to car, and are 8.6 feet long, 36 feet wide, and 36 feet high 
with a capacity for 8,000 tons of coal. Depot buildings and freight sheds arc 384 
feet in length, containing ample waiting-room accommodations and an excellent 
restaurant. The fishing from the wharf is the best on the coast. Bait and tackle 
can be had on the wharf. The large steamers of the P. C. S. S. Co. stop at Port 
Los Angeles north and south bound for passengers and freight, while deep sea and 
coasting vessels are coming and going at all times. 

Soldiers' Home. A mile from Home Junction, on the Santa Monica 
Branch, on a loop line, and sixteen miles from Los .\nge!es, is the home that a 
government that would nourish the wonted fire of patriotism maintains for its 
disabled volunteer soldiers. Two thousand veterans, heroes of the faded blue, are 
here at home; the great group of fine buildings, the extensive grounds, with their 
arboreal and floral wealth, the model farm of nearly 500 acres, and above all the 
veterans themselves, make this square mile a place of intense interest. Street-car 
service through a beautiful country connects the home with Santa Monica, and with 
the excellent suburban service of the Southern Pacific Company, enables the 
sightseer to visit both places in one day. 

One of the loveliest towns in the world lies 
before us as we enter Pasadena. From a sheep 
range in 1873 to the paradise of fruits and flowers 
and \erdure which greets our eyes to day is a magic 
transformation. Yet such, in a word, is the history 
of Pasadena. The semi-tropical luxuriance of floral 
and arboreal growth which delights us here has 
sprung into existence within the marvelously short 
sj)are of a decade and a half, and, nestling here 
among the orange groves and fruiting vineyards is 
a city whose beauty of architecture is a glowing testimonial to the good taste, 
wealth, and fiberality of its residents. I know of no plcasanter or more interesting 
drives than those which may be taken along the broad, Iree-liiud avenues of Pasa- 
dena. Within spacious enclosures on each hand may be seen elegant villa resi- 



PASADENA. 

An Orchard City. 

Beautiful for Situation. 

A Delightful 

Health and Pleasure 

Resort. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



tOl 



dences or splendid mansions surrounded by ornamental grounds of the greatest 
beauty. Palm-trees, magnolias, century-plants, fig-trees, ancient live-oaks, sur- 
vivals of the days when this was only grazing ground for flocks and herds, pepper- 
trees, blue gums, and an infinite variety of ornamental shrubbery, makes these 
drives entirely novel, interesting, and charming. The cily ol)lains an abundant 
supply of water from the Arroyo Scco Canon, and the results of irrigation confront 
one in the wonderful groves of citrus 
and deciduous trees. Pasadena has a 
round dozen of churches, representing 
an expenditure of nearly half a million 
dollars. It has business blocks of 
metropolitan proportions, spacious 
and elegant theaters, four banks, a 
score of hotels, large manufacturing 
establishments, canning factories, elec- 
tric-car lines, telephone system, elec- 
tric lights — in short, all of the modern 
conveniences. As a place of residence 
we know of no more charming city 
than Pasadena, whose ten thousand 
inhabitants have every reason to con- 
gratulate themselves that their lines 
have fallen in such pleasant j)laccs. 
The wonderful climate of Pasadena 
is one of its chief attractions. Tour- 
ists who arrive in November or Oc- 
tober are constantly on the watch for 
winter. Finally a rain-storm comes, 
drenching the earth, and a few weeks 
later the ground the length anfl 
I readth of the land is carpeted with 
flowers, form succeeding form, until 
color and variety, tint and hue, seem 
to have run riot; by this token you 
may know that the winter has come. 
The tops of the Sierras are clothed 

with snow, so near that you can see the snow blown high in air by the mountain's 
blizzard, so near that in two hours' ride you can go snow-balling or tobogganing, 
yet here at Pasadena the ground is white with the blossoms of the orange, there 
is a carnival of flowers in every dooryard, and to the student who arranges his 
plants according to their altitudinal horizons it is a puzzle. Here, in the same 
latitude as Wilmington, N. C, we find the banana, fig, pomegranate, guava, alli- 
gator pear, cocoanut, the fan-palm, sago-palm, cactus, the yucca, century-plant, 
cork-tree, the rubber-tree, the olive, orange, lime, lemon, and a host of other 
tropical forms, yet it cannot be a tropical climate, as side by side with these is 
seen every pine known from Norfolk Island to the shores of the Arctic Sea, firs, 
spruces; and as for fruits, we see the apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum, nectarine, 
all the small fruits, everything found in the gardens of New York State. 

The seasons are difficult to understand. The summer mean temperature at 
Pasadena is 66.61 degrees; that of Mentone in the Riviera, 73 degrees; of Jackson- 




MOUNT LOWE RAILWAY. 



202 OVER THE RANGE 

villc, Fla., 8i degrees; of New York, about 73 degrees. Thus it will be seen Pasa- 
dena cannot have remarkably warm weather. The summer, with the exception 
of one or two days, is not unpleasantly warm, and it is always pleasant and com- 
fortable in the shade, while every night is sufficiently cool to require a blanket. Not 
a case of prostration from heat, not a squall or wind-storm, seldom a thunder-clap or 
sign of lightning, and hardly a cloud in the sky; this is the record of the summer here. 
Every day is a pleasant one, and such heat as is experienced in New York City 
in the summer is never felt. 

Three hundred and forty days out of the year will permit of continuous out-of- 
door life in the open sunlight, and at least half of the others may be enjoyed. This 
is the great secret. The country is the land of the open air winter and summer, and 
the conditions of altitude and nearness to large cities, allowing of all the luxuries and 
comforts, add to its attractions. 

Pasadena is connected with Los Angeles by three steam and two electric lines, 
and communication between the two towns is excellent, cars and trains running very 
frequently. 

Mount LiOAVe. From Pasadena extends an electric railway to Altadena, 
where a marvelous cable road Hfts the traveler up to Echo Mountain, site of the 
Mount Lowe observatory, which has gained fame in the astronomical world through 
the discoveries of Dr. I^ewis Swift and other star-gazing scientists. From Echo 
Mountain to Mount Lowe extends an electric railway, which is one of the marvels 
of engineering. At Mount Lowe is Alpine Tavern (aUitude about 5,000 feet), an 
attractive resort visited yearly by thousands of tourists. 

San Gabriel. This is the site of the famous Mission of San Gabriel, or, 
to give it the full honors of its stately Spanish title, "El Mission de San Gabriel 
Arcangel." The mission was founded September 8, 1771, and was moved from the 
original site to its present position in 1775. The mission church is a most interesting 
relic of what in the new world may be called antiquity, having been erected in 1804 
of material imported from the mother country, Spain. An electric line running from 
the heart of the city lands the tourist at the mission. 

Beyond San Gabriel are the suburban towns of Alhambra, Shorb, and Aurant. 



LOS ANGELES TO SANTA ANA, WHIT- 
TIER, TUSTIN, AND LOS ALAMITOS. 




OUTH of Los Angelos in the county of that name, and the neighbor- 
ing county of Orange, is a richly productive section that raises prettv 
nearly everything under the sun, except tornadoes, floods, snow- 
storms, sunstrokes, and torrid nights, vi^hich are not indigenous to 
California, and which no weather prophet has been able success- 
fully to import. 
OoAA^liey. Leaving the Arcade Depot, the great city station of the South- 
ern Pacific Company, reached from all parts of the city by electric lines, the trip 
is southward through the hog and hominy land, past Florence and Vinvale to 
Downey, an enterprising town surrounded by an agricultural section that would 
make any farmer's heart glad. Potatoes, walnuts, vegetables, small fruits, corn, 
etc., are profitable crops, and the "lay of the land" is everywhere indicated by the 
cackling hen. 

From Studebaker, fifteen miles from Los Angeles, a branch extends to \\'hittier 
through a country that is proving particularly well adapted to the cultivation of 
fruits and walnuts. 

Wllittier. The Quaker colony of southern California, Whittier, is like Red- 
lands, an example of marvelous growth. Ten years ago simply a vast barley-field, 
now it is tree-clothed, and hundreds of homes make this an ideal foothill city. The 
Whittier college of the Society of Friends is a very successful institution. "If thee 
would find a place more beautiful than this, thee'd search far." Of interest is the 
state reformatory institution, where the wayward youth are guided back into the 
proper path. Whittier possesses city improvements and wealth; every year it ships 
several hundred carloads of fruits, vegetables, and walnuts. Its cannery is one of 
the largest in the State. 

Norwalk. Returning to the Santa Ana line we pass the thriving village of 
Norwalk. Ostriches of all stages are here, from those who have just been shelled out 
to the bald-headed old gentleman, who, however, is not a bit stitT-necked. There 
are two ostrich farms near Norwalk. 

BueUil l*ark. Buena Park is decidedly in the cow country. It has a con- 
densed milk manufactory that expends $15,000 per month, using thousands of gal- 
lons daily. A beautiful avenue is one of its greatest attractions. 

Aualieilll. Anaheim is forty-three years old, but has the perennial youth of 
every southern California colony. A colony of Germans, possessing good judgment, 
chose it in 1857 as a good place in which to live — and that good judgment has never 
been disputed. Few cities are more prosperous, and its 2,500 people not only pos- 
sess, but own a large area of cultivated country, orange groves, vineyards, walnutsi 
and small fruits. The city has fine avenues, electric lights, street cars, and other 
public utilities. There are several points of historic interest in the neighborhood. 
liOS Alaiuitos. Los Alamitos is nine miles from Anaheim, on a branch line 

203 



204 OVER THE RANGE 

recently built. A sheep range a few years since, it is now the site of a large beet 
sugar factory with a capacity of 700 tons of beets per day. It has a school-house, of 
course, a church, two hotels, and several stores. It is the railroad station for Ana- 
heim Landing and Bolsa-Chico Bay, one of the new seaside resorts. 

Orailg'e. Orange has fine avenues, an excellent public library, and a miniature 
park in a plaza, but its chief distinction is its ideal homes and their lovely surround- 
ings. Three miles from Santa Ana, its sources of commercial prosperity are those 
of its neighbor. 

Santa Ana. Santa Ana is thirty-four miles from Los Angeles, and is the 
metropolis, commercial and political, of Orange County. It is a modern city with fine 
business buildings, paved streets, electric lights, four banks, and an opera house that 
would be a credit to any place on the coast. Its electric street-car system connects 
with Orange, and is to be extended throughout the valley. Prosperity is very evi- 
dent in Santa Ana, and that is not to be wondered at, for the surrounding county 
of Orange is one of the richest sections of California, with a wonderful variety of 
profitable products. That explains the four banks. A great many new houses are 
being built, several new business blocks have just been completed, and there is every 
prospect that the year 1904 will be one of unexampled growth in both city and coun- 
ty. A new canning establishment, that is capable of turning out 50,000 cases of 
Orange County products every day, is now in operation. A fine new court-house 
has just been finished. Santa Ana has a public park worth considerable pride, a 
good public library, fine schools, an enterprising chamber of commerce, an Ebell 
society for the ladies, and a Sunset club for the gentlemen. The northern part of 
the city is noted for its beautiful homes. The county has been generously favored 
by Mr. Irvine in its picturesque park in Santiago canon. Near by is the fifty-acre 
tract of the Santa Ana Golf Club, also a gift of the same gentleman. The city is the 
junction of the Santa Ana and Newport branch with the main line. 

Newport. Newport is a famous place for those who love the ocean for its own 
sake, and not because of beach brass bands or merry-go-rounds. The man with 
the broad-brimmed hat and the long fishing-pole, with a family who like to be* sum- 
mering along a delightful beach, comes here. It has a sand peninsula with quiet 
water on one side and tumbling breakers on the other, a delightful bit of headland 
scenery, and a bay perfect for bathing and boating. Its wharf and hotels are all 
attractive. A branch of the railroad extends to Smeltzer and the famous peat lands, 
where are grown the hundreds of carloads of celery that find their way to the Eastern 
market everv year. Wry productive are these peat lands, and grow almost any- 
thing in abundance, save large timber that have "too heavy a step." Every tourist 
should make a visit to this interesting section, where he can produce an earthquake 
"all by himself." The tri]) from Newport to Smeltzer is one of much scenic beauty. 

Tustill. Tuslin is the center of one of the older fruit districts of \\w South, and 
has many magnificent groves. The town is the center of a community well known 
for its wealth and refinement. Near by is the famous San Joaquin ranch of a hundred 
thousand undivided acres that extends from the mountains to the sea. There arc 
goofl roads in all this country, a jieculiar rock formation known as "Tustin cement" 
being responsible for many of them. 



LOS ANGELES TO SAN DIEGO. 




HE trip from Los Angeles to San Diego abounds in interest, and if 
one obeyed one's inclinations, and made a stop at all the attractive 
stations which intervene between the inland city and the city on 
the ocean side, it would take an entire vacation to accomplish the 
one hundred and eighty-nine miles of the journey. Leaving Los 
Angeles on the Santa Fe Pacific Railway at a comfortable hour in the 
morning, wc are soon speeding through the suburbs of the City of Angels. It is 
difficult for us to tell just when we have passed beyond the confines of the city, 
because the country is so fully occupied by handsome villa residences and the 
suburban stations are of such frequent occurrence that one is puzzled to determine 
where the town ends and the country begins. Downey Avenue, Morgan, Highland 
Park, Gravanzo, Lincoln Park, South Pasadena, Raymond, Pasadena, Olivewood, 
Fair Oaks, and Lamanda Park are all busy stations disposed within a distance of 
thirteen miles from Los Angeles. It is therefore not to be wondered at that the 
traveler is confused and at a loss to know just when he is "out of town." Beyond 
Lamanda Park the stretches of open country between stations begin to widen, and 
one can look out of the window at least twice before another town appears in view. 
Kaymoild, As this station is approached one sees on the right an aspiring 
hill adorned with handsome lawns, ornamental shrubbery, trailing vines, and 
umbrageous trees. The summit of this hill is crowned by a massive and stately 
edifice that at once attracts attention and excites curiosity. On inquiry we learn 
that this is the Hotel Raymond, and that here are entertained the hundreds of 
guests brought hither by the well-known excursion managers Messrs. Raymond 
and Whitcomb. This, however, forms but a small part of the patronage of the 
Hotel Raymond, for from its excellent management, beautiful situation, and health- 
ful location the hotel has become exceedingly popular. Of course there is a town- 
site here, and what is not always the case in this country of town-sites, there is a 
town as well, with the prospects of a city. Passing through Pasadena, described 
elsewhere, we come to 

Lailiailtla Park. We wish to do the tourist who reads this book a good 
turn, having his comfort and enjoyment at heart, therefore we advise him to stop 
at Lamanda Park and make his headquarters for a day, or a week, or a fortnight, 
in this delightful spot. In the first place, one can find here a homelike and com- 
fortable hotel; in the second place, this is an excellent point from which to make 
radiating trips through the charming San Gabriel Valley or among the foothills and 
up the peaks of the Sierra Madre Mountains. Within an hour's drive are Sierra 
Madre Villa, the famous Rose Vineyards, Baldwin's Ranch, where, besides miles 
of orange avenues are to be found, at Santa Anita, the stables made famous by the 
fast horses owned by the "bonanza king." Orange orchards, avenues of English 
walnut-trees, lemon groves, vineyards, veritable forests of deciduous fruit trees and 
a tropic luxuriance of splendid floral beauties surround this place, which, though 
modest in size, is, as we have said, a charming resting-spot and a most convenient 

20S 



SIERRA MADRE 
VILLA. 

An Ideal Pleasure 

and 

Health Resort. 

In the Heart of Orange 

Qroves, on the 

Slope of the Sierra 

Madre Mountains. 



206 OVER THE RANGE 

point from which to radiate in all directions and view either the grandeur of the 
mountains or the more quiet but none the less attractive beauties of the valley. 

The fame of the Sierra Madre Villa is world- 
wide. On its shaded verandas congregate daily the 
most cultivated and intelligent people. It is not 
always the same company that gathers here, but 
it is always a company which it gives pleasure for 
one to meet. The class of guests is of the best, 
because the reputation of the \\\\a. naturally attracts 
that class. This ideal pleasure and health resort is 
located on the southern slope of the Sierra Madre 
Mountains, fourteen hundred feet above the level 
of the sea. This elevation gives it complete im- 
munity from the fogs of the sea and valley, and 
also gives a view of the most wide-horizoned beauty- 
Here we are only fourteen miles from Los Angeles, far enough away to escape the 
turmoil of the city, and near enough to enjoy all of its advantages. Theater trains 
are run three or four nights each week, and one can go to Los Angeles by train at 
almost any hour in the day. The Santa Fe Pacific passes within a mile and a half 
of the villa, Lamanda Park being the station. The views from the A'illa overlook- 
ing the beautiful San Gabriel Valley, are a glorious panorama of rugged mountain 
ranges, extensive orange groves — in one of which ihe Villa stands — vineyards, and 
the distant ocean with its shadowy islands. Here is, indeed, an ideal home with 
good food skilfully prepared, pure air, and sparkling mountain water. With all 
these essentials for health, comfort, and luxury, the tourist cannot fail to enjoy his 
sojourn here. The fame of the Villa for its beautiful and healthful location, and 
superi(3r accommodations, with all modern improvements for over one hundred 
guests, has become international. There are fine suites of sunny rooms, broad 
verandas, inclosed with glass to keep out chilly air if desired, a beautiful lawn, 
flowers, etc., and the most genial climate under the sun. Good roads and a beau- 
tiful drive from Los Angeles to the Villa. 

Tlie Sail Gabriel Valley. The remarkable growth of the San Ga- 
briel Valley of southern California may be traced to a single imperishable feature — 
its climate. Towns and cities have appeared like magic; not the mushroom growth 
one expects and finds where a mining excitement has been the magnet, but towns 
which in completeness, architectural beauty, taste and culture of the people, will 
equal manv in the East dating back fifty years or more. Ten years ago the San 
Gabriel Valley was, comparatively speaking, unoccupied. Several small towns, as 
Duarte, San Gabriel, Puente, were the chief centers, and the entire land was cut up 
into large holdings or ranches. To-day we find towns by the dozen larger than 
these pioneers, three lines of transcontinental railway, and one city, Pasadena, 
with a summer or permanent population of fifteen thousand persons, and a winter 
one ranging from twenty thousand to forty tho'isand. The San Gabriel \'alley is 
about ten miles wide and thirty miles long. Upon the north are the California 
Maritime Alps — the Sierra Madre range — rising directly from the j)lains in a series 
of parallel ridges, in peaks from four thousand to fourteen thousand feet above the 
sea. To tlie west, spurs of the main range, tlic Sierra Santa Monica, the San 
Rafael and the Verdugo Mountains form a ])rolc'<tivi- boundary, while to the south 
the Puente Hills rise, l)eyond which, faintly visihle, twent\--live miles awav, is the 
Pacific. The A^illey Is therefore com])letely environed on all sides, having abso- 



2o8 OVER THE RANGE 

lute protection from prevailing winds from the north, in this respect again resem- 
bling the Riviera of Europe. The presence of these mountains and canons rising 
so abruptly from the valley, gives to the locality a scenic charm difficult to describe, 
and for its peculiar charm the view of the Sierra Madre range at Pasadena is 
unequaled in this country. 

Monrovia. This handsome little city has been christened by its admirers 
"The Gem of the Foothills," and, in fact, there is quite as much truth as poetry 
in the title. It has a most attractive site, commanding a comprehensive view of 
the San Gabriel Valley to the front, while the background is filled in with the 
massive range of the Sierra Madre Mountains. The town has two lines of street 
railway and an electric line to Los Angeles. It possesses an elegant and costly 
hotel, furnished with all the modern improvements, handsome school-houses, first- 
class business blocks, fine private residences, and no saloons. 

l>liarte. This is one of the oldest of the settlements of the Valley and is 
surrounded by a country of great productiveness. Farming is a considerable 
industry, and great quantities of corn and alfalfa, in addition to fruit, are raised. 

Azusa is near the upper end of the San Gabriel Valley and is in the center 
of the great ranch from which it takes its name. The stations now follow in quii k 
succession until San Bernardino is reached. In fact, the train never makes more 
than four miles advance without either stopping at a station or passing through 
one. To give the reader an idea of the frequent occurrence of these towns we 
append a list, with the distance of each from Los Angeles: Glendora, 27; San 
Dimas, 31; Lordsburg, 34; North Pomona, 35; Claremont, 36; North Ontario, 41; 
North Cocamonga, 45; Etiwanda, 47; Rialto, 57; and San Bernardino, 60. One 
of the most marvelous things connected with this journey of si.xty miles from Los 
Angeles to San Bernardino, aside from the marvels of nature, is that for an average 
of every three miles of the journey there is a station, and that at many of these 
stations there are considerable towns, and at several of them thriving cities. 

At San Bernardino we stop for dinner, and 
change cars, taking the Southern California Rail- 
road for San Diego. The station is a large and 
S[)acious building, admirably fitted for the ])ur- 
jjoses to which it is dedicated. The city of San 
Bernardino lies in a most beautiful and fertile valley. 
The county embraces 23,476 square miles, and con- 
tains not only some of the finest farming land, citrus 
and deciduous fruits of countless varieties, but also 
rich mines, and many mineral springs and health 
resorts. The scenery is magnificent and varied, the mountains abound in timber, 
and game is plentiful. The climate is sui)crb and invigorating. The city of San 
Bernardino is situated in the center of a valley one mile square, and has a pojju- 
lation of 10,000, and is rapidly increasing in size and wealth. Among other notable 
buildings are the finest brick grammar school in southern California; a court-house 
which cost $40,000; the Stewart Hotel, costing $125,000; an opera house; an excel- 
lent hospital; and elm re lies of all denominations. There is an abundance of 
arte?ian water. Three lines of railroads cross the county — the Southern T'ai il'u. 
through Los Angeles and Colton, to Yuma and Arizona; and the Southi in Cali- 
fornia, from San Diego, through San Bernardino to Barstow; and the Southern 
California Railroad, which runs on a straight line between the two lilies. There 
is also the Valley Railroad, from the city to Gladysta, Lugonia, Redlands, and 



SAN 

BERNARDINO. 

rianufacturing and 

riercantile Center. 

A Beautiful 

Residence City. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 209 

Mentone, to the west line of High View. A motor road also runs continuously 
between this city and Colton, a distance of three miles, and the San Bernardino & 
Redlands Motor Road to Redlands and Lugonia via Victoria and Old San Ber- 
nardino orange groves. Also the Sao Bernardino & Arrowhead Narrow Gauge 
to Arrowhead Hot Springs. Street cars are running to all parts of the city. 
Building material is abundant and cheap. Among the varied products that attain 
perfection here we may mention oranges, raisins, wines, fruits and flowers of all 
kinds, alfalfa, corn and barley, while gold, silver, and borax are found in large 
quantities in the near mountain ranges. 

A Fertile Valley. The county of San Bernardino is the largest in 
California, and includes within its limits the valley of the same name. It con- 
tains much land which is now lying fallow, but which will in time be irrigated and 
made very productive. In its southwest corner are several large valleys, well 
irrigated, and of unusual fertility. Within them are long stretches of almost level 
plains, from which the gently undulating mesas gradually rise until they reach the 
foothills. The lower level lands are sufficiently moist to grow alfalfa, corn, and 
vegetables, without irrigation; and the soil is mainly a black sandy loam. The 
higher lands become more sandy, while the foothills contain the gravel washings 
from the mountains. These higher lands grow vines and deciduous fruits with 
the natural moisture; oranges and lemons alone require artificial irrigation. The 
higher lands are better for deciduous fruits, the mesas or table-lands for citrus 
fruits, the lower lands for vegetables and general farming. There are some 
immense vineyards in the country, and a vast quantity of excellent wine is made. 
After a barley crop is harvested, it is succeeded on the damp or irrigated lands by 
a crop of corn Alfalfa yields well and is cut from three to seven times in the 
season. About two tons are taken off each acre at a cutting. The heavy black 
loam of the mountain sides grows exceptionally fine potatoes. Vegetables and 
edible roots of all kinds attain an enormous growth in the valley. Besides the 
semi-tropical fruits, all those (jf more northern latitudes can be raised. These 
valleys surpass any others in the southern part of the State in the matter of an 
abundant supply of water for irrigating purposes. The Chino Ranch and Ontario 
lands are in this county. 

Colton. This hve town is at the crossing of the southern California and 
the Southern Pacific railroads, and an unusually handsome station and large hotel 
are to be seen here. The town is only four miles from San Bernardino, and the 
time is not far distant when they will be one city. The citizens of Colton are 
enterprising and liberal, and as a result the town is making rapid and large im- 
provement. Canning factories are established here, and the shipments of pre- 
pared fruit and fruit in its natural state are something extraordinary. The 
surrounding country is of unsurpassed fertility, and a drive of half a day through 
the never-ending groves of orange-trees and in the midst of most entrancing 
scenery will convince one that Colton has every requisite for becoming a large and 
flourishing city. It is surely a most delightful place of residence. 

East Riverside is the station for Riverside, reached by a branch line. 
South Riverside, on the Southern California Railwa)', fifteen miles 
southwest of Riverside, is remarkable for the beauty of its situation and the sym- 
metry of its design. The projectors of this delightful town had original ideas and 
the town-site is exactly circular in form. Fruit raising is one of the leading indus- 
tries, while manufacturing is receiving a great deal of attention, and has already 
been firmly established here. 



2IO 



OVER THE RANGE 



RIVERSIDE. 

The 
Orange Qrove City 

of 
Southern California. 



Washington has been wittily denominated "the 
city of magnificent distances," but here in southern 
California we have lound a city equally as deserv- 
ing of that characterization. Riverside manages to 
cover twenty-five thousand acres, and this great 
extent of territory has upon it between three and 
four thousand inhabitants. But did ever any one 
behold a more beautiful sight than this orchard city, reclining in the midst of 
orange groves, its magnificent avenues lined with ornamental trees, among which 
the oriental palm is most conspicuous^ its artistic villa residences surrounded with 
grounds in which the care of the landscape gardener can be seen, its fine business 

blocks of brick and stone, 
its handsome hotels, and its 
surrounding vineyards mak- 
ing it a perfect bower of 
beauty. 

Resuming our journey 
on the main line from East 
Riverside, we pass through 
Box Springs, Alessandro, 
and Ferris, which latter 
place Ik situated on the San 
Jacinto River, which emp- 
ties in Lake Elsinore, some 
twelve miles farther on. 
The country has become 
more rugged, for we are 
now skirting the San Jacinto 
hills. We pass through 
deep cuts and around projecting spurs, and finally enter a very pretty canon, 
emerging from which we pause at Elsinore on the margin of 

Lake Elsinore. This is a lovely little sheet of water, cradled in the 
highlands, with a bold mountain range to the west. The lake is four miles long, 
and about half a mile wide, and forms a charming feature in the landscape. 

Wildomar. At the foot of Elsinore Lake is Wildomar. This town has a 
very picturesque situation, and considerable expense has been incurred in planting 
trees, grading the streets, and bringing water in j)ipes from the adjacent moun- 
tains. It has schools, churches, good business houses, and a population of about 
two hundred. 

Marietta. This is a regular meal station, and on that account is of inter- 
est to the traveler. It is situated on the Margurita ranch, which comprises 
208,000 acres of land, especially and solely adapted for grazing. San Margurita 
Creek flows through the town, and the railroad follows this stream for thirty-seven 
miles, and then, over the brow of a rolling mesa to our right, the great Pacific 
Ocean bursts on our view. 

Ocean Side. This thriving town of a thousand inhabitants has a com- 
manding situation on a mesa two hundred feet above the level of the ocean. From 
this point of view the coast line can be followed in cither direction as far as the eye 
can reach. Here there is one of the finest hotels (the South Pacific") on the coast, 
and here great improvements have been inaugurated l>y the enterprising citizens- 




NEW GLENWOOD HOTEL, RIVERSIDE, 



SAN DIEGO. 

The Naples of the 

New World. 

The Great Bay City 

of Southern California. 



212 OVER THE RANGE 

The accommodations for sea bathing are most complete, and Ocean Side is sure to 
become an exceedingly popular pleasure resort. Between Ocean Side and San 
Diego, a distance of forty-seven miles, there are just a "baker's dozen" of sta- 
tions. At some of them one can see hotels of the most imposing size and beau- 
tiful architecture, a house or two, and thousands of lot stakes, but no great showing 
of business or population. The stations occur in the following order: Carlsbad, 
Leucadia, Encinitas, Del Mar, Cardero, Sorrento Alpine Selwyn, La Jolla, Roses 
Siding, Morena, and Old Town. 

The magnificent natural advantages of San 
Diego cannot fail to make this the great city of 
southern California. It lies upon a slope facing 
San Diego Bay. This slope extends back perhaps 
an average mile, where it reaches an altitude of 
two hundred feet above the level of the sea, and 
from which point the country extends back in a 
broad, rolling mesa. With such a slope, and with 
such an ascending altitude, opportunities are 
offered for the most wide-sweeping and magnificent 
views. At the foot of the city lies the land-locked bay, one of the most beautiful 
in the world, glistening like a sheet of silver in the genial rays of an unclouded sun. 
Between the bay and the ocean is the Coronado peninsula, on the expanded part of 
which is the town of Coronado, with the largest hotel in the world. Beyond 
Coronado is the Pacific Ocean, whose long, rolling swells break upon a level and 
far-extending beach, their combining crests breaking into snow-white foam as they 
fall with majestic regularity upon the shining sands. The distant background is 
formed by the mountains, with the Jamul, old San Miguel, and El Cajon standing 
well forward, the advance guard of an army of giants. To the right is the receding 
mesa; to the left the table-lands and mountains of Old Mexico. The landscape in 
garb of varying green, the bay and ocean with their ever-changing shades from 
shining silver to deep, dark blue, form a picture of such entrancing beauty that 
neither pen nor pencil can adequately depict. With such natural attractions, to 
which should be added the attractions of climate, it is not a matter of wonder that 
the population of San Diego has increased rapidly since overland transportation 
facilities have been provided. The city's population in November, 1885, was but 
the population of a healthy village, say about four thousand; a year later saw it 
advance to a city of between ten and twelve thousand; and by November, 1887, 
the population had doubled again, and reached a total of twenty-five thousand 
souls. The increase since has been steady, and the common but conservative 
estimate of the population to-day is thirty thousand. The character of the popu- 
lation is truly American. Because to the Eastern mind San Diego is " away in the 
West," the impression prevails with some that its population is of that Western 
character to be found in romance of the light order. A greater mistake could not 
be imagined. San Diego is as typical an American city as any to be found in the 
land of Americans. If the influence of any one city may be said to prevail here, 
it is the influence of the city of Boston; and there is reason for it. The Santa Fe 
Railroad, whose western terminus is at this harbor, is an institution maintained by 
Boston men and Boston capital. This has naturally created in Boston a financial, 
and finally a social, interest in San Diego, which has resulted in the transplanting 
of many Boston men and women from the metropolis of New England to the new 
city by the sunset sea. They have found here a genial, social climate. In a city 



214 OVER THE RANGE 

covering as much ground as does San Diego, the matter of transportation is of firsl 
importance. This has been looked after by the enterprising citizens. Electric 
railway systems supply the needs of the inhabitants. 




CLUSTER OF ORANGES. 



SAN DIEQO BAY. 

A Thing: of Beauty 

and a 

Great Commercial 

Factor. 



The bay of San Diego is one of the most beau- 
tiful in the world; it is also a great factor in the 
success of the city. There are larger harbors than 
this, but for the uses to which harbors are devoted, 
there are none better anywhere than that of San 
Diego, and it is large enough to afford a safe refuge 
for the entire merchant fleet of the United States. 
The bay is thirteen miles long, and the total area 
of water is twenty-two square miles. Commodore 
C. P. Patterson, Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, wrote 
in 1878: 

"I have crossed this bar at all hours, both day and night, with steamers of 
from 1,000 to 3,000 tons burden, during all seasons of the year, for several years, 
without detention. It is the only land-locked harbor south of San Francisco and 
north of San Quintin, Lower California, and from a national point of view its 



2l6 



OVER THE RANGE 



importance is so great that its preservation demands national protection, and justi- 
fies National expenditure." 

The history of this wonderful city reads like a romance. Previous to No"''m- 
ber, 1885, San Diego existed chiefly as a town-site, and, measured by the corpora- 
tion limits, it contained an amplitude of area. It was in 1833 that the Pueblo of 
San Diego was organized; but it was not until eleven years later, in the latter part 
of the year 1844, that the people followed the usual customs of those times, and 
petitioned the Government of Mexico (this whole country was then under Mexican 
rule) for a tract of land. A few acres more or less was of no particular account to 
the Mexican Government at that time, and a grant of seventy-five square miles was 




SAN BERNARDINO. 



made, "to be used, controlled, and disposed of by the legally authorized representa- 
tives of the city." These seventy-five square miles, or, to be exact and use the 
figures of the surveyor who traced the lines subsequently for the Government, and 
who reported that the entire Pueblo consisted of 48,556.69 acres, do now, minus 
1,233.8 acres reserved by the Government for military purposes, constitute the area 
of the corporation of San Diego. The question of title never arises here. That 
original grant has been confirmed and upon it rests all instruments of sale. 

The shores of the bay are dotted with suburban towns, which share the benefits 
of San Diego harbor. They are separated from the City of San Diego by distinct 
bounds, but it is only a matter of time when they will become integral parts of the 
parent city. These towns are known as National City, Roseville, and Coronado. 

National City is located four miles down the bay, reckoning the distance 
from the center of the business community of each city. The two cities are, how- 
ever, already practically merged into one, as they are one in interest and in sentiment. 
National City has a population of 3,000. It is the terminus of the Santa Fe system on 
the Pacific coast, and of the National City & Otay Railway Company. A capacious 
wharf furnishes facilities for deep-sea vessels to unload, and here, too, ship and rail 
are brought together. An olive-oil mill having been established, National City is 
the olive market for Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties. It is 
furnished with water from the recently completed Sweetwater reservoir, which has 
a capacity of six billion gallons, and insures a supply sufluient ior a city of twenty- 
five thousand inhabitants. 




VIEW IN SAN ANTONIO CANON. ONTARIO. GAL. 



2l8 OVER THE RANGE 

Coronaclo. On Coronado Beach, just across the bay from San Diego, is a 

citv which has already become famous throughout the country. In two years' time 
this wild waste of land has been transformed into a city with a population of two 
thousand. It has one hotel which cost one million dollars, and others which cost 
large sums; it has elegant and substantial residences; it has an iron foundry in 
operation, and half a dozen factories of various kinds; it has ship-ways with a 
capacity for dry-docking the largest coast steamers on an hour's notice; it has 
complete water, gas, and sewer systems, and, as a whole, has been converted into 
a veritable garden, the streets being uniformly lined with tropical trees, shrubs, and 
flowers. The surf-bathing of Coronado Beach is the best on the entire coast, 
and probably the finest in the world. The beach slopes gently, and the sand is 
hard and free from stones and ragged shells, and there is no undertow. The tem- 
perature of the air and of the sea is about equal both in winter and summer; 
consequently there are extraordinary inducements for surf-bathing all the 
year round. 

Roseville and New Ro.seville are located not far from the entrance 
to the harbor. .\ fine wharf has been built there, regular ferries established, and 
the works of the San Diego Nail Factory are now being erected. They will have 
a capacity of 500 kegs of nails a day, and will be one of the important industries of 
the San Diego region. 

The SAVeetwater Dam. This dam is one of the engineering wonders 
of this region, and an excursion to it is a most enjoyable experience. It is situ- 
ated about six miles back of National City, and is reached by the National City & 
Otay Railroad. The dam, together with sixty-five miles of wrought-iron pipe laid 
from the reservoir to National City, and to various points in that section for irriga- 
tion purposes, cost a total of $Soo,ooo. The dimensions of the dam are as follows: 
46 feet in thickness at the base, 12 feet in thickness at the top, 75 feet in length at 
the base, 396 feet in length at the top. The reservoir is three miles long, three- 
fourths of a mile wide, and covers 700 acres. When full it will hold si.x billion gal- 
lons of water, a quantity suflicient to irrigate 30,000 acres of land and supply a city 
of t;o,ooo people for one year, or irrigate 50,000 acres of land one year. 

The climate of this region is a perpetual source 

of wonder to visitors. It is staling the simple, 

unquestionable fact to say that it has no equal 

among the health resorts of the world. From the 

compiled records of the I^. S. Signal station here 

we extract the following: From 1876 to 1885, 

both years inclusive, covering a period of ten years, 

and embracing a period of 3,653 days, there were 

3,533 days on which the mercury did not rise above 

80°; and only 1 20 days in ten years in which the 

thermometer marked a higher temperature than 

80°. During these ten years there wire neviT more tiian two days in any one 

month in which the mercury rose as high as 85°, exce])t June, 1877, four days; 

September, 1878, five days; June, 1879, two days; September, 1879, four days. 

Retlirninj'" to IjOS Anj»'eles. The lovers of fine scenery, yachting, 
ocean bathing, sidt-sea fishing, outings among the hills, and those who delight in 
a summer which circles the entire year will most reluctantly tear themselves away 
from the charms of San Diego. But one can't travel and .stand still at the same 
lime; so we take a night train northward on the same line we came in on, and 



THE CLIMATE. 

Summer the Year 

Round. 

The Home of Health 

and Pleasure. 



220 



OVER THE RANGE 



sleep sweetly in one of Pullman's Palaces until we reach Colton. Here, after a 
good breakfast, we take the Southern Pacific road for Los Angeles, thus passing 
through new scenes from this point on to our destination. The first station reached 
after leaving Colton is 

Cucainoilg'a. This town is situated in the region made familiar to the 
pubhc by the Cucamonga wine, the grapes here being noted for their fine quality. 
Slover Mountain is near Cucamonga, and is remarkable for containing quarries of 
onyx, lime, marble, and cement. The "Mountain" is in reality only a moderate- 
sized conical hill, but its rich deposits make it more valuable than a whole range of 
its big brothers. The marble is of the best quality, and can be quarried in great 
blocks, fifty feet long, if desired, and with a width of from five to six feet. The 




'fs>- 



-„Aiiil_A' 



EUCLID AVENUE, ONTARIO, CAL. 



onyx is white, and is mined in large quantities for ornamental uses. Along the 
southern foot of Slover Mountain flows the river Santa Ana. 

Ontario is located on the main lines of the Southern Pacific and the Santa 
Fe Railways, the main depot being on the Southern Pacific, 38 miles from Los 
Angeles and 20 from Colton, while the Santa Fe runs two miles north, the station 
being North Ontario. From the Southern Pacific depot, a branch line extends to 
Chino. The Southern Pacific and Santa Fe run also three trains daily each 
way, thus affording first-class railway facihties. Ontario comprises some twelve 
thousand acres, located on the mesa, which slopes south gradually from the Sierra 
Madre Mountains to the Santa Ana River. It is in the west part of what is 
commonly known as the San Bernardino Valley, and occupies the highest point 
passed by rail or carriage road between Los Angeles and San Bernardino. The 
lands reach from the mountains around the San Antonio canon to the Chino 
Ranch, a distance of about nine miles, and the Colony ranges in width from 
one to three miles. The altitude is a little less than one thousand feet at the 
ranch line, and the grade is about one hundred feet to the mile, increasing a 
little nearer the mountains, the mouth of the cafion being about two thousand 
two hundred feet above sea level. 

The scenery around Ontario is of the most striking and attractive char- 



232 



OVER THE RANGE 




SAN ANTONIO FALLS, ONTARIO, CAL. 



acter. To the northwest rise the 
Sierra Madre Mountains, while to the 
cast towers the San Bernardino Range, 
and to the west slumbers the dreamy 
Pacific Ocean. As special landmarks 
in this striking scene are the four 
highest peaks of Southern California, 
namely: Mount San Bernardino and 
Old Grayback to the east, San Jacinto 
to the southeast, and Mt. San Antonio 
(Old Baldy) adjoining the Ontario 
tract on the north. Ontario occupies 
the elevated plateau between the San 
Bernardino Mountains and the ocean. 
The mountains being closely adjacent, 
and the sea being forty miles distant. 
The settler can choose his altitude 
from nine hundred to two thousand 
five hundred feet, and by so doing 
find exactly the climate that is suited 
to his personal tastes. On the higher 
slopes of Ontario we can see orange 
groves bearing fruit and flowers in 
delightful profusion, suggesting the 
breezes of "Araby the blest," while 
half a dozen miles distant on the 
mountain peaks gleams the arctic 
snows. Nowhere in the world are 
summer and winter brought into 
closer juxtaposition. The zones of 
perpetual suminer and never-ending 
winter are separated only by the 
San Antonio Canon. Nor is it 
scenery alone which recommends the 
"Model Colony" of Ontario. Here 
are the best fruit lands in this coun- 
try of fruit-producing acres. Here 
the orange and the lime grow most 
])erfcctly and most abundantly; here 
deciduous fruits flourish, and heie, 
in a word, is the fruit-grower's ])ara- 
dise. It is alleged that orange groves 
at less than four years of age have 
liroduccd, and frequently do produce, 
from three iuuidred to five hundred 
dollars worth of fruit per acre. So 
great is the fertility, indeed, that 
three-year-old trees have been known 
to j)ro<luce a full box of oranges each. 
But oranges are not the sole pro- 



POMONA. 

Health and Pleasure 

Resort. 

A Fruit-Growing 

Paradise. 



TO THE COLD EN GATE. 223 

ducts of this wonderful soil. There arc grown in great profusion the olive, 
peach, apricot, guava, prune, pear, apple, persimmon, plum, raisin, and grape, 
and when one has mentioned these, he has only Ijcgun the list. For residence 
there can be no pleasanter place than Ontario, and for horlic ulture and aboricul- 
ture surely no jjlace can claim ])re( edcnce. 

One of the ])rettiest towns in the San Bernar- 
dino Valley is Pomona, in the eastern jmrt of Los 
Angeles County, thirty miles from the city of Los 
Angeles and thirty miles from the Pacific Ocean 
northward and fifty miles eastward. The Sierra 
Madre range of mountains — average elevation of 
nine thousand feet above the sea, with snow-capped 
peaks — are distant six miles north, and Mt. San 
Bernardino (height eleven thousand feet) and Mt. 
San Jacinto (about the same height) forty and fifty 
miles eastward. The lower range, called the San 
Jose Hills, midway between the Sierra Madre Range and the ocean, terminates 
at the city, and the great valley widens at this point to twenty-five and 
thirty miles. 

Thus these high mountain ranges protect this valley equally from harsh sea 
winds and the unpleasant dry winds and sand storms of the desert. The altitude 
of the city is eight hundred and sixty feet above the sea, the valley rising gradually 
to two thousand feet at the foot of the mountains. The immediate locality bears 
a similar relation to the mountains and the ocean as the celebrated health resorts 
of Mentone and Nice. 

A ride through the streets of the city, or along the many roads traversing the 
country in every direction, will disclose many fine residences; also cosy, comfortable 
homes. Houses, which are neither large nor costly, show the refinement of true 
comfort and adaptation to the wants of the owners. The mild, open winters, and 
consequent freedom from cold, do not require as expensive houses as in eastern 
and northern cUmates; therefore the house is open, cheery, and homelike in its 
appointments, many with broad verandas for the open-air life of the occupants 
during most of the days of the year; and yet the individuality of the owner is as 
plainly seen in the architecture and plan of the modest home as the more preten- 
tious buildings of the city or in older communities; for these quiet homes are sur- 
rounded by groves of trees, many of them evergreen — rows of vines extending 
almost as far as the eye can reach — with roses and flowers from the roadside to 
and surrounding the house, the whole deeply impressing the visitor with the air of 
homelike comfort and cheerfulness everywhere prevailing. 

The town is fortunate in having an abundant supply of water at all seasons 
of the year, this precious fluid being obtained from three sources namely, 
San Antonio Canon, numerous cienegas which encircle the valley, and which are 
fed by subterranean streams from the high mountains, and artesian wells. There 
are in this valley some of the finest flowing wells upon the continent, some of which 
have given an undiminished flow for nearly ten years. There are now flowing in 
the Pomona \'alley sixty-seven wells, fifty-two of which are owned by the Pomona 
Land and Water Company, who are extending their works at different points and 
increasing the number. 

These waters are alike free from alkaline, saline, or mineral taint, and deli- 
ciously cool and invigorating. The right to use water for irrigation is sold with 



224 



OVER THE RANGE 



the land, so that there need be no fear of a lack of this necessity upon the part of 
those who settle here. 

Beyond Pomona arc a number of small stations possessing all the requisites of 
climate, soil, and scenery to become thriving towns; which, doubtless, will be the 
outcome in a few years. At present, however, they possess only a statistical value 
to the tourist. These stations occur in the following order: Spadro, Lemon, 
Puenta, Monte, and Savanna. 




THE COAST LINE. 

LOS ANGELES TO SAN FRANCISCO. 




UCH time having been spent with pleasure and profit in the vicinity 
of Los Angeles, we reluctantly turn our faces to the north and take up 
our journey by way of the new and beautiful Coast Line, with San 
Francisco again ovir destination. 

Los Angeles to Santa Barbara. Northward from 

Los Angeles the Southern Pacific Company's line strikes boldly 

b:?tween the Sierra Madre and San Rafael ranges, and turning to the left from 

Saugus, between beetling cliffs and the ocean, forms the famous shore line to Santa 

Barbara. 

Tropico. Tropico is a beautiful suburb of Los Angeles, thirteen minutes 
away. It is the station for East and West Glendale, Verduga, and Eagle Rock. H 
is famous for small fruits, especially winter strawberries, and ships 200 carloads of 
oranges per year. Its beautiful location is making it very popular as a place of 
homes. 

Blirbank. Burbank is the center of enough rich land to sujiport a city. An 
irrigating system will shortly double values about this handsome town. Agriculture 
means prosperity hereabouts. 

Cliatswortll Park. Chatsworth Park, the terminus of a branch from Bur- 
bank, is in a few months to be on the main line. A glance at the map will show 
how the new through line will appear when the work on the gap between Oxnard 
and Chatsworth Park, now being carried on, is completed. The contract has been 
let for the last great tunnel necessary to complete the cut-off. This country is of 
the good old-fashioned agricultural kind that produces many bushels to the acre, 
and the crop returns fill many carloads. 

Fernando. In the north end of the San Fernando valley is the town of Fer- 
nando, proud of an old mission and a new mission, too. The old affair is being 
looked after by the Landmark Club; the new one is being cared for by Fernando's 
confident and energetic citizens. Orange, lemon, and olive groves are profitably in 
evidence. There is one little olive grove of 1,200 acres planted a short time ago 
that is worthy of attention. Artesian wells furnish good water. The climate is 
of the best. 

Mission San Fernando de Espaiio is near the station, and is noted both for its 
own beauty and the loveliness of its surroundings. The historic structure with its 
great arches, tile-paved floor, its long cloister and ruined fountain, bring vividly to 
mind the self-sacrificing toil of generations gone. 

Newliall. Newhall has two industries that are factors in prosperity; oil wells 
and placer gold mines, both of which are adding to the jolly appearance of its inhab- 
itants. It has one oil well that produces pure petroleum, claimed to be a specific 
for rheumatism. The town is a natural sanitarium. 

Saug"US, Saugus is the junction point of the Santa Barbara branch and the 

225 



32 6 OVER THE RANGE 

main line. It claims fame as a health resort, and at least one Southern Pacific agent 
owes his life to the worth of its climate. To the north on the main line are in succes- 
sion Lang, Ravenna, Acton, Vincent, Palmdale, Lancaster, Mojave, and Tehac'-api. 

Actoil . Acton is becoming prominent as a health resort, its altitude, equitable 
temperature, dry climate, and interesting surroundings making it a first-class place 
wherein to laugh and grow fat. At no place in California can tourists see with less 
trouble gold mines in operation than here. There are about twenty gold mines, one 
extending 750 feet underground, and many of them very productive. 

Acton is the gateway to the new resort on Mt. Gleason, destined to be one of the 
great popular pleasure places on the coast. From its 6,000-foot elevation may be 
seen mountain, desert, valley, ocean. Trees up there are 200 feet high; but if you 
do not care for climbing, hunting, exploring, and quartz-collecting are enjoyable 
pastimes. 

Mojave. Mojave is the junction of the Southern Pacific Company and the 
Santa Fe Pacific Railroad, and is a railroad center of some importance, A large 
mining country is tributary to it, and recent developments promise well for 
Mojave. 

Camulos. Westward the Santa Barbara branch passes through picturesque 
Camulos, ever dear to the lovers of literature as the home of "Ramona." Here by 
the Santa Clara River with the mountains of San Fernando on the south, and to the 
north the gentle foothills, lived Ramona. The corrals, vineyards, and orchards, and 
the old chapel, still stand as of old, vivid proof of the power of word-picturing 
possessed by Helen Hunt Jackson. 

Piril. At Piru all kinds of fruit are at home, and many a valuable orchard 
bears evidence by the carload of the value of good land and perfect climate. 

Fillmore (Sespe Caiiou). Fillmore and more oil, near the mouth of the 
interesting Sespe Caiion, a delightful hunting and fishing country. Here the busv 
bee gathers sweetness from untold acres of blossom and boxes it for the lazy man to 
sweeten his taste upon. Fillmore is the center of the citrus belt of \'entura County, 
with a fine irrigating system. 

Santa Paula, oil moves the wheels of commerce smoothly in Santa Paula, 
and the growth of the town has been steady since the development of the oil industry. 
The famous Sulphur Mountain Springs are near here. Citrus and deciduous fruits 
and corn, beans, and walnuts are raised in abundance. The city is well built, paved, 
and possesses fine public buildings. 

Saticoy. Saticoy is noted for its twenty acres of sparkling springs and its 
artesian wells; it is a deciduous fruit center, and walnuts and beans rival each other 
in profit. 

Moiltalvo. One of the principal shipping iioints on the coast line is Mon- 
talvo, surrounded by great orchards of fruit, apricots and walnuts being extensively 
grown. It is the junction of the new five-mile branch to Oxnard. 

Oxiiavd. Oxnard is a city of 2,000 people. Its site a few years ago was an 
ordinary j)roduclive ranch. To-day it has fine brick business blocks, beautiful 
homes, four churches, 400 school children, school buildings costing $48,000, good 
hotels, a bank and one of the largest beet-sugar factories in America. The factory 
can crush 2,000 tons of beets daily. It produced last year several hundred caT'loads 
of sugar, a hundred carloads of Ijeans, and a large amount of grain, nuts, and pota- 
toes. Several thousand head of cattle are being successfully fed on beet pulp. 

Oxnard has a fine avenue to a fine ocean beach, thirty minutes' drive. It is well 
located in the fertile Santa Clara Valley (not to be confused with the larger Santa 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 227 

Clara Valley, of which San Jose is the center). It will soon be on the main Coast 
line of the Southern Paciiic, and its future is most promising. 

An immense beet-sugar factory, valued at $2,000,000, and with a capacity of 
2,000 tons of beets per day, and thousands of acres of sugar beets, are the cause of 
Oxna,rd's prosperity. Three and a half miles from Huenemc, on the coast, it has 
a perfect climate. 

Somi.S. On the Oxnard bram h now but within a year to be on the new main 
coast line. Somis is to be a town of importance. From an elevation of 250 feet it 
overlooks the pretty Las Posas Valley and the ocean, eleven miles away. Beans, 
nuts, citrus and deciduous fruits all do well here, and fine crops of barley, corn, 
wheat, and oats are grown. 

San Buenaventura. They know beans here, and grow beans, too. Not 
in garden patches, but in broad fields that stretch away to the mountains — beans by 
the carload, beans by the trainload, beans that are excellent boiled in primitive 
hunter's fashion, or baked in approved Boston style. 

San Buenaventura is the county town of Ventura County, and is a pretty, energetic 
seaside city of 3,000 people. It is the junction of the Ojai valley branch with the 
Santa Barbara line. The country is noted not only for its beans, but as well for the 
variety and quantity of its fruits; a cannery has just been built, and the business 
section improved by the addition of fine new blocks. Cattle-raising, dairying, and 
hog-raising are important industries. 

Mission San Buenaventura, southernmost of the Channel missions, is in a state 
of good preservation. It is in the city, within five minutes' walk of the railroad 
station. The city of Ventura is the home of U. S. Senator Bard. It is a great health 
resort, and among the best governed of cities. The Elizabeth Bard Memorial Hos- 
pital has just been built. 

Xorcllioff. A trip through the fertile Ojai valley to Nordhoff is entrancing. It 
is a park -like country, with trees hidden with climbing ivy, a country of beautiful 
views. Nordhoff is in a mountain encompassed oasis, a beauty panorama of moun- 
tains all about it. With its added perfect climate, good fishing and hunting, and 
neighboring hot springs, it is a most pleasant vacation headcjuarters. The Oak 
Glen cottages, a mile distant, form one of California's most charming places. The 
wild flowers of Nordhoff arc famous the world over. 

Matilija Hot Spring's. Only three miles from NordholT are Matilija 
Hot Springs, a wonderfully good place in which to get well if you dre ill. Accommo- 
dations are excellent, including a fine hotel, electric lights, telephone, etc. 

Few trips by rail are more interesting than that along the shore line to Santa 
Barbara. On the one hand cliff's, castled and domed, and on the other, within the 
easy pitch of a stone, the pellucid waters of the Santa Barbara channel. Like blue 
clouds upon the horizon lie th:; islands. With every turn of nature's picturesque 
pathway comes some new bit of entrancing scenery — a glimpse of the sunlit ocean, 
or of some half-hidden Eden. 

Carpinteria. Seventeen miles beyond Ventura is Carpinteria, an old 
Spanish settlement in the land of the fig-tree and vine. Oranges, bananas, lemons, 
guavas, walnuts, and strawberries flourish. Here is the largest grapevine in the 
world, sixty years old, and now some eight feet in circumference at its base. Five 
miles more of delightful ride and Summerland is reached. Five miles distant is a 
pretty mountain resort — Shepard's Inn. 

Suninierlaml. Enjoying fame for many years as a resort place, it now, in 
the light of a singular development, promises great commercial importance. At 



228 OVER THE RANGE 

no other place in the world are oil wells bored in the ocean and oil taken from the 
depths. At last oil and water seemingly are near to mingling. Making the ocean 
yield up its oil a quarter of a mile from land is a feat unique enough to be worth a 
journey. 

THE CHANNEL COUNTRY AND THE LOMPOC AND 

SANTA MARIA VALLEYS. 

Santa Barbara. The city of the "smiling channel," one of the great 
resort places of the world, should hardly be passed by here with only a word. It 
was a famous resort thirty years ago, when travelers had no railway, but had to 
depend on steamer service. Naturally beautiful, lying between the broad beach at 
the water edge and the Santa Ynez Mountains, it has been helped by all that wealth 
and art and leisure could offer. On slopes and terraces its artistic homes have a 
background of ever-blooming flowers, of shrubs and trees such as grow best in a 
semi-tropic clime. The one business street. State Street, starts at the water's 
edge at the end of the steamship wharf and extends back through the town up the 
slope. On either side are ranged business blocks that give a stranger the impres- 
sion of a city of twenty thousand people. The charms of Santa Barbara, its great 
ocean boulevard, its fine mountain drives, its beautiful plaza and bath-house, its 
fine Hotel Arlington, and the magnificent Hotel Potter just completed on Burton 
Mound, and costing five hundred thousand dollars; its perfect climate the year 
round, its mountain and valley tours, its fishing and boating and bathing, its horse- 
back riding, polo playing, golfing, yachting — all these are so common to Santa 
Barbara as to seem hardly necessary to mention. What one of the finest resorts 
should have, that Santa Barbara owns. The city is an educational and artistic 
center. It is the resort home of many Eastern people of wealth who come to spend 
leisure time here in their magnificent country places. 

The city, of course, is well kept. It has paved streets, good electric car system, 
good lights, good water, and is well built. A fine new high school building has 
just been completed. 

Commercially, the city is very prosperous. It is exceedingly well governed. 
It has an enterprising Board of Trade. The products include lemons and oranges, 
English walnuts, lima beans, grain, pampas plumes, all kinds of deciduous fruits, 
wool, honey, live stock, stone, lumber, and petroleum. The mean winter tem- 
perature is fifty-five degrees; the summer sixty-four degrees. Very seldom does the 
temperature rise above eighty degrees or go below forty degrees. Santa Barbara 
is not altogether synonymous with dolce Jar nienic. It is a most excellent place 
in which to dream dreams, but better still in which to live a pleasantly strenuous 
life. Do not let the word "resort" deceive you; there's a tonic in the Santa Bar- 
bara atmosphere, even though it has no month so cold as April at Atlantic City, 
nor any month so warm as Atlantic City's June. 

Mission Santa Barbara Virgen y Mai'tyr still serves the work to 
which it was consecrated when jjeace had but come to the American republic, and its 
wise men were struggling with the question of a constitution. The church is of 
dressed stone, with massive walls heavily buttressed. The two-story towers yet shel- 
ter the chime of bells, and the famous garden with its fountain, so often pictured, 
still scents the air with fragrance. The mission has been carefully preserved, and 
to-day is one of the most interesting and imposing of them all. It is a lighthouse 
of hope from the sea, a beautiful landmark in white relief against the surrounding 



230 



OVER THE RANGE 



green of the hilltops, its double towers in stately dignity overlooking their pleasant 
surroundings as they did two generations ago. Back, of Santa Barbara is the 
lovely vale of Montecito, most beautiful of all valleys. 

Croleta. In the valley of that name is the center of a vast orchard of lemons, 
walnuts, olives, oranges, and pampus plumes, interspersed with bean and sugar 
beet fields and vegetable gardens. The valley hes parallel with the Pacific Ocean, 
separated from it by beautiful oak-covered headlands. To the north lie the Santa 
Ynez Mountains. It is a place of magnificent estates. Many such places as the 
"Island" offer such charms for country homeseekers as are irresistible. Other 
stations are La Patera, Coromar and Elwood. 




MISSION, SANTA BARBARA. 



ElAVOOrt. This orchard-surrounded village in the upper part of the valley is 
famous because of the work of that pioneer orchardist, Elwood Cooper, whose 
olives, olive oil, persimmons, and lemons are famous the world over. 

Tlie ClifF Trip. The traveler from Los Angeles has an entrancing view of 
the Santa Barbara Channel between Ventura and Santa Barbara, the ride skirting 
the water's edge the entire way; and the journey northward along the Coast Line 
from Santa Barbara is along the cliffs of the Pacific as far as Tangair, if we except 
the short ride through that flower and fruit basket, the Goleta Valley. 

So, from Ventura to the mouth of the Santa Ynez River and a little way beyond, 
an even hundred miles, the passenger enjoys the greatest railroad ride along the 
ocean in the world. There is nothing with which to compare it. 

The journey is not at sea level, but all the way on cliffs from fifty to two hun- 
dred feet above the ocean. The road runs along the very edge of these cliffs, which 
descend as precipices to the beach below. One may walk or drive for miles at low 
tide upon the sands at the foot of the cliffs and find few places in which the ascent 
to the railroad grade along the verge of the precipices above can be easily made. 
The way is broken with narrow, deep canons or arroyos from the Santa Ynez 
Mountains, and these are either filled or spanned by steel viaducts over which the 
railroad crosses. 



233 OVER THE RANGE 

The marine view on this hundred-mile journey along the border line of the 
continent, looking over the beautiful Santa Barbara Channel, is indescribable. 
For but a few years has it been wholly accessible to travelers; indeed, before 
the completion of the Coast Line there was not even a wagon-road west of Gaviota 
along that picturesque headland, stretching to Points Concepcion and Arguello. 
The magnificent panorama of sea and sky with the mountainous islands of the 
Channel rising between, the changing colors of the ocean, and the particularly 
vivid contrast of the green shore waters and the deep blue of the more distant sea, 
the varied pathway of rocky headlands, deep canons with live-oaks and sycamores, 
of green mesa and rounded peninsula and the background of the Santa Ynez 
Mountains, give the wayfarer something not elsewhere to be found in all the world. 

Naples. Naples station is on a headland commanding a particularly fine 
\dew, but the village itself is hidden among the sycamores and oaks of the canon 
just beyond, owning a never-failing stream of mountain water. 

THE CANONS OF THE COAST LINE. 

The country from Naples to Point Arguello (the western pillar of the Santa 
Barbara Channel) is much alike throughout. The mountains are parallel 'svath 
the shore, and mesas run down from their foot to the cliffs. These mesas are 
broken at tolerably regular intervals with canons. Many of these are deep and 
broad, but they have been so nicely chiseled out of the mesa that they are not to 
be noted until one comes squarely upon them. All are possessed of mountain 
streams in winter; many have waters running to the sea perennially, and back in 
the mountains nearly all have never-failing brooks. Each of these canons is 
richly wooded with oak and sycamore, and each widens out back in the moun- 
tains into a little valley, or perhaps a series of little valleys. Each canon is already 
the home of many people, and as they become better known they are to be the 
beautiful country estates of hundreds of people who wish an ideal climate Avith an 
ideal rural environment. In driving or walking up these rifts, one notes the wealth 
of vegetables and small fruits, of limes, lemons, Hma beans, and oranges, and 
particulariy English walnuts. The mountain walls are varied, rugged, and pictur- 
esque, the woodland scenes are unsurpassed in beauty, and the whole canon such 
an ideal home spot that one wishing to get apart for awhile from the madding 
crowd, would instinctively stop here. The canon, and the mesas between, belong 
to a few large estates which have been held since the days of the old Spanish grants. 
Of these some spots have been sold, and some sections are for sale; but there are 
others which the owners desire for homes and will not part from, considering them 
indeed as priceless. The beauty of the canons is shyly hid by protecting moun- 
tains and groves; yet enough may be seen, together with the great beaches by the 
cUffs, to make one dream of the not far distant day when along the shore line from 
Santa Barbara to Surf there shall be one continuous succession of magnificent 
homes and resorts; for the climate is all the way of that charming quality that made 
Santa Barbara famous before the railroad crossed the Sierras. 

The fertility of the canons and their valleys has been mentioned; the produc- 
tiveness of the mesa is also remarkable. From the train the Santa Ynez Moun- 
tains, picturesque and attractive as they are, show small cover of timber; but it 
must not be inferred from this that the country lacks in fertility or in water. A 
trip through the canons will disj)el that idea. Those who know of the rather light 
rainfall along the coast between Santa Barbara and Surf may be incredulous when 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. ^33 

it IS said that a crop failure is unknown. But it is true. The highest mesa, if 
cultivated, yields a paying harvest. The soil is of such character that a rainy season 
is not beneficial; there seems to be a reservoir beneath this land, and the capillary 
attraction is sufficient to show it the way to the surface. The running springs out 
on the very backbone of Point Concepcion, where the grass is green — when nearly 
all California has donned its robe of russet — tells of the plant life of the shore 
country. 

The mesa products are at present cattle, sheep, grain, hay, and oak wood. 
These will be vastly varied and increased as the estates are subdivided. 

Ertwarrts City. Only a siding now across the canon westward from Naples, 
but with that point soon to become a fine resort. Note the vie ■ from the headland 
with its great oaks. 

Capitail, Orella, Tajig'Uas. Canon stations which will increase in 
importance as the tributary estates are subdivided and sold. You catch glimpses 
of beautiful beaches along here; the shell-gatherers will soon know them as among 
the finest of the coast. Bathing may be enjoyed here the year round. 

Alcatraz. Known for its great asphalt and oil plant. Oil is piped here from 
the Cuyama wells. It is a model industrial colony, and the great rows of eucalyptus 
trees, the pretty cottages, the well-kept grounds and buildings, all help make it very 
attractive. One should note the historic old stage road that from Santa Barbara to 
Gaviota is near the railroad. A hundred and twenty-five years ago it was "el 
camino real" of the Franciscan friars, and for the last century has been one of the 
famous stage highways ol the West. 

Gaviota. The station is midway between the Gaviota canon and Alcatraz on 
the mesa. The little settlement of Gaviota may be seen crossing the high viaduct 
above the wharf. It is a stage station, and daily stages run to Los Olivos twenty miles 
distant through Gaviota Pass. It may also be noted that the stage office is a private 
dwelling, a farm-house, a post-office, a restaurant, a telephone office, a steamship 
office, a general store, and a hotel. The Gaviota Pass to the north is beautiful. A 
mile from the emporium, the backbone of a mountain has been worn through by the 
stream, each portal being immense rocks several hundred feet high, and so scarred 
and twisted, with such varying strata, as to justify close study. 

Tlie Overliailg'illg' Kock. The stream wore only a passageway for its 
narrow width, so a bridge must need span it between these portals. Just beyond is 
the marvelous overhanging rock. One can stand in the roadway and look up at this 
great mass of granite, hundreds of tons in weight, hanging direct overhead fifty feet 
above you. It is not the projecting arm of the cliff, but a separate rounded rock that 
seems to cHng to the cliff side without any reason whatever. It is said that every 
person whose attention has been unexpectedly called to this overhanging boulder 
has instinctively "moved on." Here the Indians proposed to waylay General 
Fremont on his Cahfornia journey, in 1846, but he wisely chose a less rocky pass. 
Just above are two locally famous hot springs, which time will develop. 

Sacate, Sauta Anita, Sau Augustine, Gato, stations which 
mark pretty beaches, fertile fields, and cattle ranches. 

Concepcion. The station is in the center of the neck of the point near the 
cold springs. Seaward rises the great rock, two hundred and fifty feet high, on which 
the white houses of the light house-keepers' stand. It marks the end of Point Con- 
cepcion, and is perhaps the most picturesque cUff on the Pacific Coast. It is the end 
of the Santa Barbara Channel, and on its western side is washed by the waters of 



234 OVER THE RANGE 

the Pacific. The hghthousc is not visible from the train until one is many miles 
west. It is not on the top of the gigantic shelf, but on a rocky shelf part way down. 
The fuel, etc., for the lighthouse are chuted from the top of the rock some hundred 
feet down to this shelf, to which a narrow stair also leads, l-'rom the top of the rock 
is one of the finest ocean views on the Pacific Coast. The surf effects at the foot of 
the rock during or soon after a storm are tremendous beyond description. The Point 
Concepcion peninsula is itself very pretty and fertile. Many thousands of cattle 
find pasture hereabouts. 

The hot springs of the point are already well known, and this with the fine beach 
and equitable climate, make the success of the proposed resort unquestioned. 

Jalaiua. On the inner curve of the bay between Points Concepcion and Ar- 
guello, at the mouth of Jalama Creek, which leads back into the mountains into a 
beautiful valley, the ruins of adobe ranch-houses a century old tell of the 
good judgment of the Franciscan friars. They found the beautiful places of the 
Pacific Coast seemingly without effort. The Jalama Hot Springs are worthy of 
mention. 

Point Arguello. A jagged, sea-worn point, which perhaps better than 
Point Concepcion marks the meeting-point of ocean and channel. The government 
has recently erected a lighthouse, in which the revolving light is operated by com- 
pressed air. Here the line turns northward. We pass Honda and Weser (fertile 
country in the interior), and reach 

Surf, set on a rocky, shelf-like cliff between the sand dunes and the scd. Here 
the Pacific is unrolled as one great picture. It is the junction of the main line with 
the Lompoc branch. 

Loilipoc ail«l Lompoc Valley. The Lompoc Valley, watered by the 
Santa Ynez River, is one of California's finest valleys. It extends eastward under 
the brow of the Santa Ynez Mountains. Tributary to Lompoc are one hundred and 
forty thousand acres of farming and grazing land. Of the twenty-seven thousand 
acres of rich farming land, fifteen thousand acres are ir. the Lompoc Valley proper, 
all of which in time will doubtless be given over to appl.s, apricots, prunes, cherries, 
and vegetables and small fruits, requiring intensive farming. The Santa Ynez 
River is available for irrigation at nominal expense, and while there have never 
been crop failures, irrigation, as more scientific, will be adopted in time. 

The Lompoc Colony was organized in 1874, and so well pleased were the fifteen 
hundred people who came in during the next five years by stage and steamer, that 
none left willingly. Now that the valley is crossed by the main Coast Line, its four 
thousand population is expected to increase largely. 

The climate is unexcelled, the summer maximum being eighty-nine degrees, and 
the winter minimum twenty-four degrees. The nights are always cool, the distance 
to the sea being but nine miles. Ocean Avenue, eighty feet wide, all macadamized 
and sprinkled daily, runs from the town to the beach. There are many fine scenic 
drives among the mountains, including one through Miguelito Caiion to the cave on 
the Hondo, where a prehistoric artist has put to blush the old masters with his 
quaint drawings. In the winter and spring the valley is a wild-flower garden. 

La Purissima Mission is three miles from the town; founded in 1787, and is one 
of the most interesting of the missions, but is now rapidly crumbling. 

The products of the valley are indicated by the exports in carload lots of barley, 
lime rock, potatoes, apples, mustard seed, infusorial earth, apricots, beets, and beans, 
the total amounting to over a thousand cars per annum. Lompoc apples captured 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 235 

first medals at the New Orleans Exposition and the Chicago World's Fair. The 
valley raises one-half of the mustard seed used in this country, and is the second 
apple-producing section in California. Land is worth from twenty to one hundred 
and twenty-five dollars per acre. 

The town is well built with many fine homes. It is well lighted, has good side- 
walks, macadamized streets, a fine water system, grammar and high school buildings. 
There are seven churches, a bank, two hotels, and two newspapers. Fraternal orders 
are unusually strong. Lompoc adjoins the foothills, its orchards and fields in front 
of it. There is fine hunting and fishing in the wild mountains surrounding the 
valley, with deer, mountain lion, and even bear now and then to lend excitement to 
the chase, regardless of who is chased. 

Taiig'air, Narlon, and Antonio. In order, after crossing the Santa 
Ynez River are stations for the "back country," with oak-covered hills and valleys 
full of wheat. A country of great oil and asphalt deposits and many cattle and 
dairy ranches. 

Casnialia. Shipping-point for fertile interior valleys and hills. It is the rail- 
road station for large asphalt mines, and for oil wells some nine or ten miles in the 
interior. It may be mentioned here that the asphalt deposits of Santa Barbara 
County along the Coast Line are of vast extent, and the product is of the greatest 
purity known, running up to seventy-six degrees in the raw material. The country 
about Casmalia is rich in dairy and farming possibihties. Large cjuantities of butter 
and eggs are shipped daily. Beans and mustard seed have proved in the last few 
years to be fine crops. Hogs, potatoes, asphalt, wheat, oats, and barley are shipped 
in carload lots, and as soon as a pipe line is completed from the oil wells in the 
interior oil shipments will be heavy. The wealth of this section so far has gone 
almost unrealized and unknown; but the "closing of the gap" will soon change 
all that. 

Sclinniann and "Waldorf. These are flag stops along the edge of the 
beautiful Santa Maria Valley, which appears in view just after leaving Casmalia. 
Waldorf lies near a famous asphalt mine. 

Gnadalnpc The railroad leaves the mountains and crosses the mouth of the 
great Santa Maria Valley. Midway is the old Spanish town of Guadalupe, now 
awakening from a long time sleep to a commercial activity that could not be avoided 
after the completion of the Coast Line. The town itself, lying slightly north of the 
station, is a pleasant place of five hundred people, with a bank, warehouse, brick 
business blocks, and several creameries. The land about it is unexcelled for bean, 
beet, potato, and barley culture. There are two beautiful drives to the famous Pismo 
Beach. 

The Santa Maria Valley, largest in all Santa Barbara County, and third among 
those of the Coast section, is forty miles long by ten miles wide. From the sea its 
direction is eastward, trending southerly midway. Lying between the ranges of the 
Coast Mountains, with a famous climate and a richness of soil not anywhere exceeded, 
this great valley will, within ten years' time, have tripled its present population. 
There are not five thousand people in the valley, and it could easily support fifty 
thousand. In driving through it, one is impressed by the uniform richness of the 
land. Even more so than the Lompoc Valley is the area between the mountains 
level. The soil is a rich black deposit, like that of Illinois or Iowa, save the more 
sandy stretches along the Santa Maria River. Every acre is richly productive. 
Here, as in the Lompoc Valley, good valley land can be bought for fifty to one hun- 



236 OVER THE RANGE 

dred and fifty dollars per acre, depending upon the nearness to town, etc. Cattle 
ranches and hill lands generally are much cheaper. 

The oldest settler in Santa Maria, who has lived there forty years, says that they 
have never had a crop failure. In the two driest years California ever had they did 
not suffer. Indians vfere at one time very plentiful, as also was game of all kinds. 
The bears, three or four in a sociable party, thought nothing of walking through 
the streets of Santa Maria town by night. Now the Indians for the most part have 
taken the low trail over the ridge. Back in the mountains bear are still at home, 
and in the wilderness of hills and valleys about the central valley is most excellent 
hunting and fishing. 

The Santa Maria Valley will produce eight to ten thousand acres of beans, si.x 
thousand acres of sugar beets, several thousand acres of grain — chiefly barley — 
considerable fruit, potatoes, onions, and vegetables, twenty cars of butter, eggs, 
and cheese, a few hundred cars of hogs and cattle, some mustard, and large quan- 
tities of oil and asphalt per annum. The resources of the country are scarcely 
scratched. 

Just before reaching Guadalupe, we look down from the train on the hillside 
upon the large buildings of the Union Sugar Company, located on a spur five miles 
from Guadalupe station, at Betteravia. This side will be noted Guadalupe Lake, 
which is almost a half a mile wide and four miles long, having two arms. It is a 
beautiful lake with green banks. Fishing and duck hunting are good. 

The factory, which draws its water supply from the lake, can crush five hundred 
tons of beets daily. The buildings cost five hundred thousand dollars. The farm 
belonging to the factory has four thousand two hundred acres, of which a large part 
is given over to beets. Limestone is brought from the Lompoc Valley. It is ex- 
pected that in a few years the one hundred thousand acres of good beet land, tribu- 
tary to the factory, will cause it 'to increase its capacity tenfold. This season it will 
crush about eighty-five thousand tons of beets. 

Santa Mliria, the business center of the valley, is about ten miles from Guada- 
lupe, its Southern Pacific station. Stages afford connections with all trains. The 
town is well planned, with very broad streets, good business blocks, and fine homes, 
with an unusual amount of fruit and flowers. Set in the center of the valley, in the 
midst of a large level area, the view of the encircling mountains is superb. Santa 
Maria is a lively and prosperous town, and would be heard of more often were it in 
closer touch with the outside world. A narrow-gauge railroad (P. C. R. R.) runs 
to San Luis Obispo and to Los Olivos, and a broad gauge branch from Guadalupe 
is looked for. The mercantile business done is all out of proportion to the size of 
the town. It has two papers, a bank, and a savings bank, several fraternal orders, a 
good water system, etc. The people are all prosperous, there not being a single 
industry that is going backward. The apple and apricot crops are becoming 
important. Water supply, springs and surface water, is abundant. 

It is doubtful, indeed, if any part of the country offers any one willing to work 
greater opportunities, from an agricultural or horliiuitural point of view, than 
the Lompoc and Santa Maria Valleys. 

Broiuola and Calleinler are in the Santa Maria Valley and are enjoying 
prosperity. Many beans are shijjpcd from Bromela. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 2 37 

OCEANO TO SAN MIGUEL, SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 

OceailO. A town of one hundred people, lies within a few hundred yards of 
the Pismo Beach, which is sixteen miles long and several hundred yards wide. It 
has, therefore, fine possibilities with the neighboring stations to the north as a resort 
place, but its importance as a commercial station is already deserving of attention. 
It is the entrance to the rich Arroyo Grande valley. Three miles away is the town 
of Arroyo Grande. Near it is the famous McClure seed farm of four hundred acres, 
whence are shipped each year hundreds of tons of garden and vegetable seeds to 
the leading seed houses of the east and Europe. The Arroyo Grande district is of 
unexcelled richness. Its lower districts produce immense crops of beans, celer}', 
beets, strawberries, blackberries, onions, potaoes, and all garden truck; its apples, 
walnuts, oranges, pears, apricots and peaches are famous, and on its hillsides thou- 
sands of tons of barley are grown annually. The water supply is fine and unfailing. 
A large part of the area under cultivation is "cleared willow land." 

Arroyo Graude. The town of Arroyo Grande is beautifully located on the 
stream of that name in the center of the district bearing its name, a collection of very 
rich valleys and arroyos with low cultivated hills intervening. The population is 
one thousand. There are several fine stores, a bank, a good schoolhouse, a news- 
paper, a hotel and some of the prettiest homes in the State. The town is growing 
rapidly. While Oceano is its principal railway station, the Pacific Coast Narrow 
Gauge Railway gives connection with San Luis Obispo and Santa Maria. The 
walnuts, apples and lemons of .Arroyo Grande Valley are not surpassed anywhere, 
and as a vegetable country it certainly knows beans. Newsom Hot Springs, six 
miles from Arroyo Grande, are destined to become a fine resort. Good hotel and 
bath accommodation are now afforded. 

Tlie Great Beach Drive. Pismo Beach has already been referred to 
as the finest beach in America. A magnificent trip is the drive from Oceano along 
this beach to Pismo, thence up the canon via the famous Sycamore Hot Springs 
to San Luis Obispo, or vice versa — a combination of sea and mountain, beach and 
canon. A letter to the secretary of the San Luis Obispo Board of Trade will 
result in a team meeting you at Oceano. 

Grover. Grover adjoins Pismo Beach, and in a few years will be one of the 
best summer resorts of that magnificent beach. Already hundreds of people camp 
here during the summer. 

Edna. A progressive community on the Corral de Piedro Rancho of thirty 
thousand acres, six miles south of San Luis Obispo. It is famous for its walnuts, and 
raises fine crops of grain, sugar beets, beans, cattle, hogs, and horses. The fruit 
orchards and vineyards pay well. The population of two hundred is too healthy to 
support a physician. Valley land is worth one hundred dollars {)er acre, and hill 
land from ten dollars up. 

San Lillis Obispo. City of the Pyramids, the county-seat of San Luis Obispo 
County, home of the mission of the same name, the commercial center of one of the 
richest and most varied sections of California, and withal a beautiful town with old 
fig and olive trees, orange and walnut trees, and vines with flowers everywhere adorn- 
ing it tastefully. It is built amid a cluster of pyramidal mountain peaks, isolated 
and on the different sides of the town, lending with the ridges elsewhere a picturesque 
outline to the horizon. The city is by a plunging stream, San Luis Obispo Creek, 
that comes from the canon above the town. The site of San Luis Obispo is undu- 



238 OVER THE RANGE 

lating, so that one may be on a hill, a hillside, a level, or in an arroyo and not go 
far; yet each seems to have an easy way of approach, so that a comprehensive 
journey is not tiresome. The well-laid out city is finely built, ^^dth many shade 
trees, excellent water system, electric light and gas systems, etc. In location it 
resembles Los Angeles, though nearer the ocean. The summer temperature has a 
maximum of ninety-four degrees; the winter minimum is thirty-two degrees. Lemon 
trees thrive throughout the town, and roses grow the year round. 

San Luis Obispo, though a very busy commercial place, offers unusual attrac- 
tions to tourists. The Hotel Ramona, with its two hundred well-furnished rooms 
has a commanding location for the sightseers to whom it caters. 

The many drives include a twelve-mile ride to the magnificent Pismo Beach 
already spoken of, a seven-mile trip to the famous Sycamore Hot Springs with its 
good sulphur plunge and private bath located amid a beautiful sycamore grove, a 
nine-mile journey to Avila Beach, near Port Harford, a visit to the picturesque 
Port Harford itself, a fourteen-mile excursion to fam.ous Morro, with its singular 
rock towering out of its bay, and a seven-mile ride, up beautiful Reservoir canon. 
Port Harford, Avila, and Sycamore Springs are also reached by the Pacific Coast 
Narrow Gauge Railway. Pleasant trips to the interior are made over the Cuesta 
grade to Oak Park and Arroyo Grande. In the heart of the city is the old mission, 
San Luis Obispo del Tolosa, founded in 1772; visitors are welcomed. 

San Luis Obispo has indeed all the necessary attractions to make it a most charm- 
ing place of residence for people seeking temporarily or permanently a place of 
great attractiveness and ideal climate. 

The city has three banks, five churches, thirteen hundred school-children, high 
school, grammar school, etc., and leading fraternal orders are represented. The 
new state polytechnic school is to be located here, the site having been purchased by 
the trustees. Extensive railroad terminals and shops are being built, and the town 
is growing faster than at any previous period. The streets are broad, lined with 
poplars, eucalyptus, and pepper trees, and in the business section are paved. The 
business blocks are of stone and brick and are imposing. The city owns its water 
system. The sewer, gas, and electric systems are good. The value of city 
improvements is about one million five hundred thousand dollars. The Board 
of Trade is unusually active. 

North of San Luis Obispo is one of the best cattle, grain, and dairy sections on 
the Coast. South and west large crops of beans and mustard seed are raised, and 
to the southeast much fruit and nuts. In Los Osas Valley citrus fruits pay, while 
over towards the coast about Mono and Cayucos dairy products each year means 
hundreds of carloads. Beyond is the historic mining town of Cambria, with its 
quicLsilver and other mines. Yet beyond is the magnificent Piedras Blancas Ranch 
of forty-eight thousand acres. Six miles north of its port, San Simeon, is the tall 
tower of the Piedras Blancas Lighthouse. 

In San Luis Obispo County there are perennial streams evervwherc. It is a 
well-watered country, and irrigation is little practiced because of ])k'iuiful rainfall 
on the sea side of the ranges; but scientific farming is going to irrigate. 

The population of the county is about eighteen thousand, and the assessed valua- 
tion eleven millions five hundred thousand dollars. It can easily support ten times 
the present number of its inhabitants. 

The Horseshoe I lU-liue. Leaving San Luis Obispo the Coast Line climbs 
upwards into the Santa Lucia Mountains. Just above San Luis Obispo is a remark- 
able inclined horseshoe that as an engineering feat is far more piclurestjuc than 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 239 

that of the Pennsylvania. The road crosses the stream some two hundred feet above 
its surface, and then describes a horseshoe that all the way is on a steady grade. 
Within two miles of the bridge crossing one may look down from the upper arm of 
the horseshoe and sec the track over which the train has just passed, some two hun- 
dred feet below and apparently running abruptly into the mountainside at right- 
angles to the present line of motion. 

The trip through the Santa Lucia Mountains is beautiful. Of this Edouard de 
Reszke said, in the winter of 1902, "Nothing in Switzerland I have seen is so beau- 
tiful." The road clings to the face of the wall, and looking down charming views 
are had of the fertile little valleys far below. The Santa Lucia Mountains are 
vividly green a large part of the year, and are well watered with some thirtv inches 
annually of rain. There is fine trout-fishing and good hunting in these half -unex- 
plored mountains. Passing Goldtree, an important grain-shipping point, Serrano, 
and Cuesta we reach Santa Margarita. 

Sauta Marg"arita. A shipping-point of importance for some of the finest 
hay that ever grew, and for cattle, sheep, and hogs, also wood. The town of four 
hundred people is pleasantly located in the forest of oaks. Its elevation is a thou- 
sand feet. It rains here in winter forty to forty-five inches, and irrigation lecturers 
get no hearers. Surrounding the town is the famous Santa Margarita Ranch of 
twenty-five thousand acres. 

From Santa Margarita the way leads downward through magnificent oak forests 
into the great Salinas Valley. On the way we pass Havel, Atascadero, and Asuncion, 
bordering the great Henry Ranch, rich in timber, grain, hay, and stock. Some day 
this great stretch of land subdivided, with its five mountain streams, rolling hiils 
and fertile valleys, will afford homes for thousands. There are beautiful waterfalls 
back in the mountains. 

Templetou. Is a lively town of four hundred pcojilc at the head of the Salinas 
Valley. Several thousand tons of wheat, unexcelled anywhere, are shipped each 
year, while the local flour mill takes care of its share. Crops are assured by an 
annual rainfall of over thirty inches. Wheat, while the staple, is by no means the 
overshadowing product. Templeton is one of the chief wood-shipping points in 
the State, several hundred cars being shipped each year. 

Among the fruits grown successfully are apples, prunes, peaches, figs, cherries, 
plums, and grapes. Land prices are marvelously low, fertility considered, running 
from twenty to fifty dollars per acre. There are several thousand acres of paying 
vineyards and orchards, one apple orchard covering two hundred acres. 

The upper Salinas Valley is remarkable as a place for poultry, hogs, and live 
stock, which seem here to be j^articularly favored by the delightful climate. A 
rancher may pav his living expenses from his poultry alone. 

Templeton is built in a live-oak park, with an acre of beauty in the center reserved. 
It has a fine school-house and good schools. Excellent roads lead into the mountain 
passes and neighboring valleys. We follow the Salinas River another five miles 
and then come upon the second city of San Luis Obispo Count}', and one t)f the 
most famous hot springs resorts of America. 

Paso Kobles and Paso Kobles Hot Springs. Beautiful El Paso 
de Robles, the pass of oaks, is a charming town of fifteen hundred people, lying be- 
tween the Santa Lucia Mountains to the west and the main coast range to the east in 
the upper Salinas Valley. It is built between the Salinas River bank and the foot- 
hills of the Santa Lucia. The city is amid a natural oak park. In its center is a 
plaza of trees and flowers, and opposite is the great Hot Springs hotel. 



240 OVER THE RANGE 

The Hotel El Paso Robles is surrounded by beautiful grounds. It is a threes 
story brick structure and, of course, has all modern improvements. The 
spacious verandas of the hotel, unsurpassed in California, are an enjoyable 
feature. In connection with the hotel are run the wonderful Paso Robles Hot 
Springs, which have made the town famou.^. The main bath-house, costing 
twenty-five thousand dollars, is near the hotel. There are also mud-baths and sand- 
baths under the hotel management. People suffering from rheumatism, chronic 
and inflammatory, or from any of the long list of nervous, circulatory, and skin dis- 
orders, are cured here so readily that crutches and similar badges of discourage- 
ment are like drugs on the market in Paso Robles — unnecessary. There is a resi- 
dent physician to take charge of the crutches. 

Paso Robles is not a health-resort only. It is one of the most pleasant pleasure 
places ever visited. Quail, rabbits, wild pigeons, and doves — it is the most notable 
dove section in the world — and trou*^ in the mountain streams, meet sportsmen more 
than half-way. What J. Ross Browne wrote of this section of the valley, then known 
as Santa Margarita, is, as Charles Howard Shinn has said, a description that appeals 
as true: 

"I have wandered over many a bright and beautiful land, but never have I seen 
a country so richly favored by nature as California, and never a more lovely valley 
than Santa Margarita, in the whole wide world. There is nothing comparable to 
the mingled wildncss and repose of such a scene, the rich and glowing sky, the illim- 
itable distance." 

Paso Robles' climate is of such healthful character that doctors depend upon 
visitors. The midsummer days are sometimes rather warm; the nights are inva- 
riably cool. In winter frost sometimes comes. No germs exist here, the sulphur in 
the atmosphere discouraging them. Fever and ague die on the road, smallpox would 
not remain over night, and the old residents have no such word as malaria in their 
vocabulary. 

Commercially, the town has a magnificent territory extending twenty miles west- 
ward, sixty east. Paso "Robles is connected by stage with the tributary towns, 
Cholame, Creston, and Shandon to the east and Adelaide to the west. The territory 
to the east is devoted to grain and stock; to the west quicksilver mines are becoming 
industries of great importance. The upper Salinas Valley is a great wheat country, 
and recently from Paso Robles alone were forwarded nearly fifteen hundred carloads 
of wheat, flour, and millstuffs. Dairying, fruit-growing, poultry-farms, wine-mak- 
ing, and cattle and hog raising offer good returns. Apples and pears are to be very 
profitable crops. The Salinas Valley furnishes an unlimited water-supply, and 
while the annual rainfall is always sufficient, if at the right time, irrigation is so easy 
and inexpensive that the scientific use of water through that channel is becoming 
more and more popular. Paso Robles has a high school and lower grades, a twenty- 
five-thousand-dollar school-house, churches, fraternal orders, etc. There is a pro- 
gressive board of trade. 

Stlllta Y.salx'l. Is a magnificent estate, with hills and lowlands, canons and 
mesa. There is an old bungalow there, which is mostly veranda and latticed windows, 
and hammocks, where the sun never interferes with the interior, because the roses 
climb everywhere protcctingly in the way. There are more beautiful rides and 
drives through oak -dotted uplands and unfenced parks than the most energetic vdll 
become acquainted with in a month. Then there is the lake. 

Lake Ysabcl lies a little way from the farm-house, a pleasant caiion walk. Think 
of a lake, an actual lake of mineral water such as you i)uy fifty cents a quart for 



242 OVER THE RANGE 

to drink, lying in a beautiful canon, sufficiently warm to go bathing in in mid-winter, 
and no different in mid-summer. It's unicjuc, a. id really affords a plunge that has 
no parallel. Further up the caiion are the great springs, the largest hot springs in 
California, with individual tub-baths, which are just a little different from any other. 

Standing on Ysabel Summit and looking out over the five hundred square miles 
of valleys and rolling hills, of mountain ridges and river sands, seeing in the fall the 
russet and gold of autumn ripened among the oak-forests, or in the spring the vivid 
green of a carpet of new life bounded by the horizon along the ridges, one must 
recognize the beauty of the Upper Salinas; as vividly recognize it as its clear atmos- 
phere sets forth, photochrome like, its wealth of color, its variety of detail, and its 
bewildering immensity. 

The government has chosen the Nacimiento Ranch of twenty thousand acres as 
a permanent camp and manceuvcring ground for the army in the west. The site is 
a magnificent one, and the camp will be another attraction of the towns of Paso 
Robles and San Miguel. After Wellsona, r flag-station, the thriving town of San 
Miguel is at hand. Hereabouts we may see the great combined reapers and thresh- 
ers in the wheat-fields. 

Sail Miii'Uel . San Miguel is also of the oaks, and shares the advantages of the 
Upper Salinas with Templeton and Paso Robles. It has a place of unusual interest 
in San Miguel Mission, founded in 1797, by Father Lasuen, one of the Franciscan 
friars. The mission is built to withstand the centuries. At one time there was an 
aqueduct eight miles long and fifteen-foot adobe wall two miles long surrounding 
the buildings and plaza. It speaks volumes for the fertility of this country, when 
it is learned that within twenty years these peaceful friars, coming unheralded among 
the savages, had livestock under the care of the mission worth over three million 
dollars and used land valued at ten million dollars. 

San Miguel is a shipping-point for wheat and flour, like Paso Robles. Its popu- 
lation is about five hundred, and its future is very bright. There are many beauti- 
ful trips to be made from San Miguel into Indian Valley, up Nacimiento and San 
Antonio rivers. The Improvement Club is a mine of information. 

Before leaving this section, mention should be made . the Carisa plain east of 
the mountains that one sees eastward from the train. This plateau is over fourteen 
hundred feet in average elevation, and in the southwest part is Painted Rock, a 
hollow sandstone hill with a chamber in the center two hundred and twenty-five feet 
long and one hundred and twenty feet wide, with the sky for a roof. The United 
States Bureau of Ethnology has dissertated upon the wonderful Indian petroglyphics 
that are painted in red, white, and black upon the walls of this chamber, and arrived 
at conclusions equally interesting with those of Mr. Pickwick's learned society. 
They are worthy of a visit from either Paso Robles or San Miguel. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 

Bradley, San Arrto, and San Lucas. Are business centers, with fiag. 
stations of Wunpost and Upland alternating, of a country so rich that it would make 
the Blue Nile country blue indeed to know of it. Needs more extensive irrigation 
systems, because the rainfall is irregular, though the inhabitants are prosperous. 
Some of them, with an awakened ambition to become millionaires, arc now irrigat- 
ing. The people hereabout sell several million pounds of wheat and large 
quantities of butter, eggs, and wool, and Angora goats. They ship several 
trains of cattle, and, like the older towns on both sides, have good asphalt, oil, 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 243 

and coal indications awaiting enterprise. The promising Stone Canon Coal 
Mine has a ledge of fine steam coal sixteen feet thick, and of unmeasured 
depth, twenty-five miles northeast of Bradley. Oil experts predict that this 
will become one of the great oil sections of California. Nearly a thousand 
square miles of territory are tributary to these stations. Irrigation and extensive 
farming will increase the products and land values hereabout tenfold. The climate 
is delightful, never oppressively hot in the summer, and never very chill in the winter. 
The old inhabitants neither die nor move away, but remain to speak well of the 
climate and the hard winter they spent when they went East in '57. 

San Antouio Mission. West of San Lucas twelve miles (but reached more 
easily by stage from Kings City) is the beautiful Jolon Valley, a fine fruit section, 
and beyond the wonderful San Antonio country, where the discerning eyes of the 
Mission Fathers saw so fair a spot that they founded a mission there July 14, 1771, 
when Boston was yet paying tribute to the king. The mission is crumbling sadly 
because of lack of care. Through the rich valley runs the broad San Antonio River, 
joining the Salinas near Bradley. Dr. A. A. Wheeler describes the mountains back 
of the mission as among the most interesting, scenically and geologically, in 
America. 

King's City. This station has a large tributary area, with a great deal of fertile 
land yet unimproved. Here an irrigation system is making excellent headway. It is 
the forerunner of an immense irrigation system with a reservoir in the mountains to 
the west. Kings City speaks of the wealth of its surrounding country in trainload after 
trainload of barley, wheat, sugar-beets, hogs, cattle, and sheep. Land under the 
irrigation system draining from the Salinas River sells for fifty dollars an acre and 
upward; hill land, to be very valuable in a few years, is held at fifteen or sixteen dol- 
lars per acre. The pleasant climate is very beneficial for lung trouble sufferers. 
There are many mountain resorts near by. There are good hotels, schools, and 
churches, and several fraternal orders. Almost any farm product can be produced 
in this rich countiy, but scientific farming demands that it shall be under irrigation. 
The winters are no colder than those of Southern California; the summer days get 
the Monterey Bay breezes, and are pleasant. 

Metz. Is a grain, beet, and cattle-shipping station, growing every year in im- 
portance. 

Soletlad. A town of two hundred people, twenty-five miles south of Salinas, 
with a good hotel, schools, and the ruins of the old famous Soledad Mission. This 
mission was founded in 1791, and is one of the oases provided by the padres for 
sundown stops between San Diego and San Francisco. Soledad is rich in its pro- 
duction of sugar-beets, potatoes, beans, alfalfa, and onions, with forty thousand acres 
of wheat and barley as a mainstay. Ruins of an aqueduct eight miles long, from 
the Arroyo Seco, built by the Franciscans a hundred years ago, are yet visible, a 
lesson for the residents of to-day, who have to learn well the use of an irrigation 
ditch. Near by is the Salvation Army colony. 

Three hours east of Soledad are the Pinnacles; to the south is the romantic 
Arroyo Seco, with its trout and quail and deer and mountain scener}-, awaiting 
sportsman and naturalist. Off in the Santa Lucia Mountains is a wilderness of 
beautiful country, named La Calera by the Spaniards and known to us Americans 
as the Lost Valley. In beauty and grandeur of scenerj' it has few equals, even in 
California. The best known resort near Soledad is Paraiso Springs. 

The Pinnacles. Fourteen miles east of Soledad are The Pinnacles. 

Vancouver, the famous voyaeer, was sent out by the British Government a few 



244 OVER THE RANGR « 

years after the close of the Revolutionary war to explore the west coast of California. 
He spent several years on the coast, and by order of the king, his voyages were 
published about the beginning of the last century. 

In these old volumes is an engraving of a castle-like mountain. The text 
describes a wonderful mountain near Monterey, which resembled, ^vith its pin- 
nacles, domes, and spires, an old castle. It impressed Vancouver as the most 
remarkable scenic feature on the Pacific coast. 

A \'isit reveals one of the greatest natural wonders of America. Some ten 
sciuare miles of volcanic mountain is riven and cleft into great domes and turrets 
of rocks surmounted with spires and pinnacles. Many of the gorges are roofed 
over by immense masses of conglomerate two hundred feet or more in each dimen- 
sion falling from the precipice edges above. Here are sheer walls of fifteen hundred 
feet, great caves, and curious shapes of conglomerate rock similar to the Colorado 
Garden of the Gods. 

The Pinnacles may be reached via HoUister and Tres Pinos from the north or 
eastward from Soledad. The wagon roads are good. 

Paraiso Spring's. This Carlsbad of America, with its arsenic, soda, and sul- 
phur springs, is an hour's ride from Soledad, among the pines and oaks of the Santa 
Lucia Mountains between Soledad and the sea. The springs cure almost every- 
thing, the prices are reasonable, and the accommodations excellent. It is a fine 
place to go to get well, and better, if well, to have a good time. Here is mountain- 
climbing, fishing, deer and quail hunting. Paraiso has its own fine orange orchard, 
berry farm, dairy, apple orchard, etc., and hundreds of people spend a month here 
every year. 

Ooiizales. Tributary to this town of five hundred people are sixty thousand 
acres of rich land. The place has three churches, excellent schools, a bank, and 
several large business houses. Fruit-growing is a remunerative industry. Belle- 
fleur and Newtown pippins among apples, and all varieties of prunes, pears, 
peaches, apricots, berries, cherries, and plums are excellent bearers. Sugar-beets 
and potatoes have yielded large returns in the last two years, and dairying perhaps 
is at present the best paying industry of all. Cheese and butter from alfalfa grown 
on river lands, constitute large daily shipments. Here, as elsewhere along the 
entire Salinas Valley, irrigation by using the inexhaustible supply of sub-surface 
water of the Salinas River is a simple proposition. The Gonzales Water Company 
has found within thirty feet of the surface an immeasurable supply of water, and the 
trade winds and the windmills do the rest. 

Clllialav. Chualar has a tributary section of twenty thousand acres, of which 
sixteen thousand belong to one man. The soil is of great richness, just as it is else- 
where in the Salinas Valley, and only subdivision and irrigation are necessary to 
give a comfortable living to hundreds of families on twenty to thirty acre holdings. 
The climate is excellent. Eighty-seven degrees is the summer's maximum, and 
thirty degrees above, the winter's minimum; but the present system of tenant farm- 
ing in this beautiful locality does not tend toward permanent improvements. 
Chualar ships a hundred cars of products annually. The schools are good, old 
settlers are numerous and very healthy. 

We ride through the lower valley into Salinas, through Spence, a barley-shipping 
point, and Spreckels Junction, whence a three-mile branch goes to the door of the 
great sugar factory. 

Salinas. The metro[)olis of the- lower Salinas \'a]ley, and the county-seat of 
Monterey County, is charmingly located betwi'cn Gabilan and Santa Lucia Ranges 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 245 

ot the Coast Mountains ten miles from Monterey Bay, which marks the end of the 
valley. Its population is t"hree thousand five hundred. It has three of the best 
hotels in the state, a good fire department, a main street lined with brick business 
houses that would be a credit to a town of twenty thousand inhabitants, good street 
pavements and sidewalks, three prosperous banks, gas and electric works, opera- 
house, etc. The fraternal orders arc very strong, and there are seven church build- 
ings. The Salinas high school is accredited to the State I'niversity. Twenty 
teachers point the way of progress. The town is a train-terminal, and the railroad 
payroll is large. The houses are pretty and well kept, with an amazing wealth of 
flowers. 

The climate of Salinas is unsur])asscd by that of any other section. The winter 
minimum rarely touches the frost line, and the summer ma.ximum falls short of 
ninety degrees. Proximity to Monterey Bay, with its superb evenness of temi)erature, 
is responsible. 

SaHnas is a place of interest to tourists, and is attracting much attention. A new 
and charming fifteen-mile drive to Mt. Toro is being laid out. From Mt. Tore one 
may look down upon the green Salinas Valley, with its silver thread of a river wind- 
ing northward, and turning, watch the blue waters of Monterey Bay break in their 
crescent line upon the wooded shores. A hundred and fifty miles eastward the snow 
roofs of the Sierras glisten, and off to the south peaks lean upon peaks, mountain 
walls terrace one another, and green valleys show gayly amid the darker foliage of 
the shadowing hills. Another charming drive is to Watsonville, and there are many 
others also; but of all, the finest is to Del Monte and Monterey. Among the most 
pleasant trips in the Coast Line country is the bicycle ride from Salinas to Del 
Monte. The way is over a good road across the Salinas Valley, by the Spreckles 
factory, over the river, and then between oak and pine and redwood covered moun- 
tains down to the shores of Monterey Bay, with such changing vistas, by such 
templed hills, underneath arching woods, around the mountain brows — mountain, 
valley, and bay flashing upon the view — that one carries away an impression in- 
effaceable as it is indescribable. Visitors can well afford to stop off at Salinas 
and reach the famous Del Monte, Monterey, and Pacific Grove over this charm- 
ing road. 

The country around Salinas is so ijroductive, that it may hv well to pre[)are your 
mind with a few figures. The Spreckels Sugar Factory, three miles from town, 
crushed in 1901 two hundred and seventy-one thousand three hundred and twenty- 
two tons of sugar-beets, of which one hundred and forty-one thousand two hundred 
and eighty tons were grown immediately tributary to Salinas. Here is one of the 
large flour mills of California, shipping by the carload every day to China and points 
nearer by. Train load after train loadof barley and potatoes is forwarded, .\mong 
the carload products may be mentioned cattle, potatoes, hogs, hay, oats, onions, 
horses, goats; and from Spreckels sugar, beet-pulp, apples, and molasses. 

Many potato growers in the Salinas and Pajaro valleys have cleared from 
one hundred and twenty-five to two hundred dollars per acre. The sugar-beet 
farmers received at the factory four dollars and fifty cents per ton, the price 
being fixed in advance. The yield ranged from eight to thirty tons per acre, 
the average being thirteen, so that, investment and assurance of returns considered, 
the results to the farmers are very satisfactory. The cattle-owners are making 
money rapidly, and, as elsewhere, the dairy farmers have more money than they 
know how to invest. A Salinas banker said that — and he knows. Of course the 
vegetable returns last season were exceptional, but no potato-grower is apt to leave 



246 OVER THE RANGE 

that business for any other very soon. The Salinas Burbank potato commands the 
highest price in every market in which it has been sold. 

Deciduous fruits and berries do well here, and are attracting much attention. 
Apples, pears, quinces, plums, cherries, nectarines, prunes, figs, almonds, walnuts, 
raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, currants, etc., are being grown with profit. 
The average rainfall at Salinas during the last twenty years has been fifteen inches, 
the minimum nine inches and the maximum twenty-one. Irrigation is practiced 
some with such results that an immense reservoir is soon to be constructed in the 
mountains. 

Tassajara Spring's. Among the charming mountain resorts near Salinas 
are Tassajara Springs. They are reached by stage from Salinas. These eighteen 
mineral springs, varying from cold water to that of one hundred and forty- five 
degrees, are pronounced by the Smithsonian Institute equal to any known. 

The springs are in the midst of a wilderness above that superb scenic river, the 
Arroyo Seco, one of the best trout streams in the state. The hunting in this 
wildest part of the Coast Range is also excellent. The two-story stone hotel fur- 
nishes good accommodations. The location, eight miles from the ocean, sixteen 
hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea, surrounded by peaks and crags, 
forest-covered, speaks for the climate. A road from a nearer point on the railroad 
s projected, but as a matter of fact the wildness and comparative isolation of Tas- 
sajara, with its hundred or more guests, are but added charms to the mountain lover. 

Spi'eckels Sllg'ar Relinery , three miles west of Salinas on the banks of the 
river near the foot of the mountains; the most prominent object on the level floor of the 
valley is this great refinery, largest in the world, crushing in the busy season three thou- 
sand tons of beets daily. The works are models of ingenuity. The factory has an 
interior electric railway, which will serve to illustrate the scientific nature of its equip- 
ment. Cars run automatically to chutes, stop automatically, and enter an elevator, 
and are taken thence automatically to another floor, where they leave the elevator 
of their own accord, and automatically dispose of their loads to the proper place, 
returning automatically by another elevator to renew the trip. These inteUigent 
machines require the services of only one man to see that the tracks are not blocked 
by sugar, which may spill overboard. There is a model town, school, and post-office 
in connection with the factory. A narrow-gauge railway to Watsonville and a 
Southern Pacific spur provide transportation facilities. 

North of Salinas we pass through a vegetable and dairy country of exceeding 
x'chness along the great Elkhorn Slough, a famous place for ducks. This is the 
lowland of the coast section back of Monterey, and near here the Salinas River from 
the south, and the Pajaro from the north join the ocean. 

X Castro ville. The junction of the main line and the Monterey Branch, 
three miles from Monterey Bay (Moss Landing beach). Two miles northeast of 
town are the mysterious lakes of Espinosa and Merritt. No one knows whence these 
beautiful lakes draw their water supply, but they are pleasure places of much value 
to boaters, fishers, and hunters. Castrovillc has twelve hundred people, several 
churches, a good hotel, fraternal orders, good schools, an excellent creamery, and is 
the shipping-point for large quantities of potatoes, onions, sugar-beets, dairy produce 
and poultry, hay, grain, beans, peas, and shortly will be an important apple center. 
The surrounding country is of exceeding richness, and never lacks for rainfall. 

Morocojo and Neponsot. On the way to Monterey we pass unpreten- 
tious Morocojo, which, however, is in the center of the vegetable country, and in that 
line is nearly first among shipping-points. The train runs along underneath the 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 247 

shadow of an ocean -bluff, and we glide suddenly into the grounrls of famous Del 
Monte. 

^ Del Monte. The builders of Del Monle had the unrivaled attractions 
of California to choose among, and they placed their faith here by the shores 
of Monterey Bay, where four hundred years ago civilization first sought a 
landing-place on our Western shore. A climate of perennial spring, river and 
forest, ocean and bay, lake and mountain, wild cliffs and gentle beaches, a 
wealth of strange sea things, and of the life of the wilderness, and withal charm- 
ing historic association and the tales of tradition; these they found and encom- 
passed into one principality, directed nature, encouraged her, added where 
addition meant charm, lost none of the grace of wildness, but gained the beauty c.f 
accessibility. Then they built a palace of delight, where those who live out-of-doors 
might have a shelter within walls equally pleasing, er^ually enchanting. To wield 
a wand to create such an abiding place was most difficult, but Hotel Del Monte, with 
its magnificent appointments, its great verandas, parlors, halls, recreation-rooms, 
its magnificent suites, its own lighting, heating, and waf^r plants, its artistic harmony 
in colors and management everywhere, meets the needs so that no one returning from 
sunset on the shore with the forest of Del Monte sighing a lullaby need go indoors 
regretful because of repellent walls, or lack of cheery invitation. The fireplaces at 
Del Monte roar and crackle and sparkle as if there were a smiling snowstorm with- 
out; the high ceilings are lost in shadow; outline of window and door are gone; softly 
and dreamily this place greets one by firehght. 7 ^ i) ^-f/'^^'ly^U^^-^ 

Becoming more material and specific, it should be noted that Del Monte has a 
fmc club-house, a magnificent new bathing pavilion, the best polo-grounds in 
America, tennis-courts and golf-courses on which championship matches are played, 
glass-bottomed boats to view the wonders of the ocean, a fine lake for boating, a 
mysterious maze for those who wish to lose themselves, an Arizona garden growing 
everything desert-like, e.xcept Indian warwhoops and mirages, flowers, walks, drives, 
groves unnumbered, and the magnificent seventeen-mile drive. 

The drive is macadamized throughout. It is through the historic town of 
Monterey, along the shore to Pacific Grove, westwardly to Carmel Bay over the 
the ridge and again through Monterey. It is a wonderful drive, and only a few of 
the principal sights can be mentioned — the monument in honor of Father Serra, the 
old lighthouse on Point Pinos, the great pines of the ridge, Cypress Point and its 
wonderful cypress-trees, the seal-rookeries. Moss Beach, beautiful Carmel Bay, 
Carmel Mission (a side-trip), and the quaint town of Monterey. 

To rest at Del Monte is ecstasy, but for those who would play there are games of 
tennis, croquet, golf, and polo; riding, driving, fishing, sailing, and special social fes- 
tivities. The domain of Del Monte includes some wild and almost unexplored 
mountains, with fine trout-streams, where the sportsman may spend happy days. 

Del Monte must, of course, be taken to be enjoyed; it does not grow l)y descrip- 
tion nor cast its charm through words. 

Both the Southern Pacific and an electric line connect Del Monte with Monterey 
and Pacific Grove. 
X Monterey. One mile from Del Monte and we are in Monterey. It is a city of 
quaini and pleasant homes, of old-time adobes a::d of historic buildings and monu- 
ments. Tne town of two thousand people lies in a hollow between the wooded hills 
to the west and Del Monte to the east. The place is progressive, with fine streets, 
schools, electric-light plant, good water system, bank, park, etc. It has an excellent 
beach. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 249 

Historically, Monterey is the most interesting point on the coast. On the first 
of September, 1849, ^ convention met here and framed a State constitution under 
which Peter H. Burnett was elected governor in the following December. The 
building in which the convention met is now used as a hall. 

Monterey was California's first capital. Here were the first brick and wood 
buildings, the first post-office and the first theater in California. 

The Bay of Monterey is second only to San Francisco as a harbor, and through 
that Monterey is yet to have an era of great importance. The scenic and climatic 
attractions of this vicinity are so unusual and so famous that the material side of 
affairs has been the subject of little comment. Yet Monterey exports many train- 
loads of dairy products, potatoes, beans, sugar-beets, honey, fruit, and cattle every 
year. It is the most important tan-bark shipping place on the coast. The canning 
and drying of fish and abalone are important industries. The back country is 
chiefly "down the coast" in that sixty miles of semi-wilderness, valleys, and moun- 
tains south of Monterey along the ocean. The rich Carmel Valley is responsible for 
a large part of Monterey's shipments, but the country as a whole holds its resources 
practically undeveloped. Fishing and hunting in such a well-watered, well-tim- 
bered country are, of course, good. The government has recently established a 
militar)' post here, with building accommodations for several thousand troops. 
V Pacific G-rove. Pacific Grove is on the shores of the bay two miles ocean- 
ward from Monterey. It is the terminus of the branch line, and is one of the most 
popular of the higher-class, inexpensive seaside resorts of Califorina. It is the annual 
meeting-place of many educational, religious, and fraternal societies. The town is 
built on a wooded promontor}', commanding an excellent view of Monterey Bay and 
the Pacific ocean. 

The Chautauqua has assembled here annually for the last twenty years, and it is 
a favorite Methodist resort. There are no saloons. All the leading churches have 
strong organizations. "Housekeeping cottages" are plentiful, and rent reasonable. 
It is an ideal family resort, summer and winter. The town with its permanent popu- 
lation of two thousand people, has all urban conveniences. It is very well built 
indeed, and has good hotels, boarding-houses, and bath-houses. The six miles of 
ocean front between Pacific Grove and Carmel Bay include many famous points 
of interest — the lighthouse. Lake Majella, Moss Beach, the clashing currents at 
Point Joe, Seal Rock, with its diving inhabitants, and Cypress Point, with its rare 
cypress grove, the only one on the American continent. These "Cedars of Lebanon," 
wind-swept, stand protectingly together, facing the stormblows of the Pacific now 
as unflinchingly as they have for the past thousand years. These arc all on the 
seventeen-mile drive, and beyond the cypress grove the road leads out upon a clitT 
high above the beautiful Carmel Bay. A short side-trip takes one to the famous 
Carmel Mission, now one hundred and thirty years old. 

Pacific Grove and Monterey have glass-bottomed boats, tlirough which to study 
the wonderful life of Monterey Bay. The former is the site of the Hopkins Seaside 
Laboratory, where students gather from all parts of the country to study marine 
life. It is the result of exhaustive investigations that proved Monterey Bay to have 
greater variety of sea-life than any other body of water in the world. Fishing and 
bathing are excellent. There are times when the fish in the bay are .so plentiful 
that they may be scooped in by hand. Monterey Bay is the only regularly sched- 
uled stopping-point for whalers en route between the Arctics and the Tropics. El 
Carmelo and the Pacific Ocean House arc resort hotels. Del Monte, Monterey, and 
Pacific Grove — there is no pleasing him who is not satisfied with their offerings. 



250 OVER THE RANGE 



SANTA CRUZ FROM THE BROAD-GAUGE LINE. 

Returning to the main Coast Line, ten miles from Castroville we arrive at Pajaro, 
or, as it is now called, East Watsonville. It is the junction of the Santa Cruz branch 
with the main line, and being but a mile to the city of Watsonville is a part of that 
city commercially, and one of its two stations. 

The local branch to Santa Cruz is twenty miles in length, touching first the city 
of Watsonville. 

Watsonville and Pajaro Valley. Watsonville is the commercial 
center of one of the most wonderful valleys in the world. It is a small valley, as 
valleys go in California, extending from the shores of Monterey Bay to the foot of 
the Gabilan Mountains, ^vith a level area of perhaps fifty square miles. If, however, 
there is any more productive soil in America, the returns are not in. The Pajaro 
is the center of the apple industry of the Pacific Coast. 

But the Pajaro Valley is rich, and not alone in apples. Its sugar-beet crop, 
averaging nearly twenty tons to the acre, and worth at the factory four dollars and 
fifty cents per ton, amounts to seventy-five thousand tons annually. There are 
some thirty-five hundred acres of potatoes and onions in the Pajaro Valley, and the 
section immediately south near the shores of Monterey Bay, and last season almost 
fabulous returns were reaped in a harvest of high prices — as high as two hundred 
dollars per acre. The berries of the Pajaro Valley are one of the best results of 
intensive cultivation in the state. Last year's berry crop exceeded over four hun- 
dred carloads; in addition to these commodities there were shipments of pears, 
apricots, prunes, beans, hay, lumber, hops, and oats in considerable quantities. 

Watsonville is, of course, as the center of such a valley, one of the most prosper- 
ous towns in the state. The climate is similar to that of Monterey, and Watson- 
ville is a delightful place in which to live. Its seaside resort is Moss Landing, a few 
miles distant, where there is a fine beach. Watsonville has the best of schools and 
churches and commercial houses that will compare favorably with those of large 
cities. Of course sewers, light, etc., arc well looked after. The business part of 
town always impresses one with its unusual activity. There is a fine public square 
in the center and many handsome buildings on the main street. Residence build- 
ing at present is very active. 

Watsonville has a large sugar factory operated jointly with the one at Spreckles. 
It also has lumber mills, evaporators, foundries, etc., and a company has been 
organized to start a cannery. 

The Shore Trip to Sauta Cruz. The ride from Watsonville to Santa 
Cruz is a beautiful one, a great part of the way being along the clitTs of Monterey 
Bay in full view of that historic and beautiful body of water. To the right is a 
range of the Santa Cruz Mountains, with fertile fields and orchards in the foreground. 
Through the car-windows is given a changing panorama of wooded headlands, the 
waters of the bay, the peninsula beyond, the beaches surf-margined, and across the 
way the arroyos of woodland streams. 

Aptos. Once a famous resort of Monterey Bay, but now sleeping through the 
summers. The cottages are filled by people who want peace and quietude. It is a 
favorite resort of artists seeking the picturesque in mountains and shores. Back 
of Aptos is one of the Spreckels estates, the beautiful Aptos Ranch. The mountains 
have lost most of their timber, but are yet haunts of campers and sportsmen. Large 
quantities of wood and a great deal of fruit are shij)pe(l hence. 




SANTA CRU. 



^5^ OVER THE RANGE 

Ol)al. A picturesque point, shipping-place for a large lumber company, the 
mountains to the back of the station providing much timber and wood. 

Capitola. One of the best known of California summer resorts, well con- 
ducted and increasing in popularity year by year, the records showing an increase 
of travelers every season. 

Capitola is at the mouth of Soquel Caiion, partly on the beach and partly on the 
wooded meadow at the back of it. It is a resort and a resort only. The rows of 
cottages, vine and flower-clad, amongst the trees, are for summer pleasure-seekers; 
so is the dancing-pavilion, with the stage, the pleasure-wharf, the grove of quaint 
oaks, the well-kept beach with its southern exposure, and the fine hotel. 

The climate is most delightful the year round, and many of the pleasure-seekers 
own their homes here, coming and going as inchnation suggests; fishing, boating, 
bathing, riding, clam-bakes, dances, theatricals, mountain-climbs, golf, tennis, etc., 
take up the time of the energetic. 

An electric line runs to Santa Cruz, whence special Southern Pacific trains are 
run on midsummer nights to the Big Trees. 

Santa Criiz. The city of the holy cross is at the northern end of Monterey 
Bay on a picturesque headland, where it climbs on terraced hills up toward the 
blue peak of Loma Prieta rising four thousand two hundred feet above the city 
by the sea. 

Santa Cruz is one of the prettiest, best built, best governed, and most pictur- 
esquely located cities in the United States. Few indeed can compare with it. Santa 
Cruz City was the first in its size on the coast to own an electric-lighting plant, sewer 
system, water-works, and a free library. The city has nine churches, ^vith good 
edifices, eight pubhc schools, with property valued at one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars, high school with graduates accredited to the State University, and 
several private schools. The assessed valuation of this city of seven thousand 
people is about five million dollars, and its bank deposits nearly two million dol- 
lars. It has seventy-two miles of bituminous sidewalks, six miles of paved streets 
thirty miles more graded, and an eight-mile electric railway. The streets are 
sprinkled by sea-water pumped into a tank by a wave-motor, a local invention. 
The city water supply comes from mountain springs. The homes of this remarkable 
city "of endless summer with no last rose" are, of course, beautiful. 

Amusements about Santa Cruz are too numerous to describe fully — out-of-door 
games of all kinds in summer or winter, yachting, rowing, swimming, fishing, 
driving, loafing in the flower-gardens, whipping any one of the twenty good trout- 
streams in the Santa Cruz Mountains — surely there is enough to do in the city of 
the bay, the ocean, the mountains, and the forest. 

Commercially, Santa Cruz is of much importance. It is the terminus of the 
broad-gauge branch and the narrow-gauge main line of the Southern Pacific. The 
soil is very rich, and the orchards and vineyards very remunerative. The powder- 
works, among the largest in the world, are in a caiion of their own, three miles from 
town. The vines and apples of Santa Cruz have captured many medals. Here 
as elsewhere there are many industries awaiting development, much land needing 
intensive cultivation. 



254 OVER THE RANGE 

SAN BENITO COUNTY. -THE VALLEYS OF SAN BENITO 
AND SAN JUAN. 

The trip over the narrow-gauge from Santa Cruz to San Jose and Alameda is 
another chapter. It is best first to return to the main Coast Line at Pajaro (Paharo 
— bird), and go northward. 

In the Pajaro Valley we pass Vega, one of the greatest berry-shipping points, 
Aromas, growing in importance as an apple-forwarding station, and then enter the 
scenic pass through the Santa Cruz Mountains. We cross the Pajaro River over 
a fine steel bridge, stop a moment at that dairy center and apple-station, Chittenden, 
amid pretty environment, and then for another moment have fleeting glimpses of 
the beautiful valley of San Juan and the white-walled town of the same name on the 
hillside three miles away. Here is Betabel, a spur-track, where the farmers of San 
Juan haul 40,000 tons of beets each season to be sent to the Spreckels factory. A 
little way beyond is the passenger-station Sargent, lying between the river bank and 
the hills. It is an important shipping-point for farm produce and cattle, just above 
being the famous Sargent Ranch; but it is chiefly important as the railroad station 
of the San Juan Valley. 

Sail Jlian. It is a beautiful drive along the wooded Pajaro, up through the 
vegetable fields and orchards to San Juan. This town of a thousand people is of 
great historic interest, and to-day among the quaintest, prettiest puablos of all Cali- 
fornia. Before the railroad came south from San Francisco, San Juan was the most 
important point between San Jose and Los Angeles. Stages ran to Visalia, to Santa 
Barbara, and Los Angeles, to Salinas and Monterey and to Hollister. Its strategic 
value in the matter of passes is recognized to-day by the telephone company, the 
lines of which diverge from San Juan in the direction that the coach and six fifty 
years ago went lumbering down the roads. 

The broad, sandy streets are over-arched with old trees. There is an inde- 
scribable air of early California about San Juan. The older inhabitants are for the 
larger part residents of a half-century or more, who are satisfied with their quiet 
prosperity. 

Crowning the hill and overlooking the town and valley is the ancient plaza, sur- 
rounded by the famous San Juan Bautisto Mission, the governor's house, and other 
ancient buildings. The mission and its environment inore faithfully reflect the early 
life of the Spanish padres and their neophytes than any other in the state. On the 
side of the plaza adjoining, is a picturesque old adobe — the governor's house, head- 
quarters of the Mexican General, Seiior Castro, commanding the Mexican forces, 
during the Mexican War. Here news of the declaration of war came to Fremont, 
and changed a host into an enemy. Down the hill Fremont fought his first skirmish 
— over on yon mountain peak he first unfolded in California the American flag. It 
was in March, 1846, that Captain Fremont and his command, ex])loring California 
"for scientific purposes," stopped at San Juan to rest his tired command. Permission 
was given, but the disposition of his troop to trade for the best horses in the valley, 
his evident desire to buy all the portable supplies of the mission, and the rumors of 
war caused General Castro to invite him to take to the trail. To this the Pathfinder 
replied to the effect that when he was through trading he would go — and not before. 
Thereupon the General summoned the faithful of Mexico to drive the Americanos 
del Norte into the sea. Captain Fremont retreated uj) the beautiful San Juan 
Canon to Gabilan (Fremont) Peak, and there, on March 10, 1846, he unfurled the 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 255 

stars and stripes and awaited attack from the five hundred armed and mounted 
Mexicans. The latter paraded in the valley with all the pomp and circumstance of 
war, but did not attack, the General tersely explaining the situation in a proclama- 
tion, saying they gathered together to fight — not to climb mountains. The procla- 
mation ended with "Salganse al plan; yo no soy cierbo" (Come down to the plain; I 
am not an elk). Fremont came down, into the San Joaquin Valley, which was 
perhaps as well for the Mexican caballeros. 

Aside from its great historic interest, the San Juan Valley, with its forty thousand 
arable acres of hill and valley land, is noted for its productions. Apples and pears 
grow to perfection; mustard, potatoes, onions, berries, asparagus, beans, sugar-beets, 
and prunes )aeld heavy crops; while the grain, hay, cattle, and dairy produce of 
San Juan have made it famous for forty years. There is the quaintest old adobe 
hotel imaginable in San Juan, while Cottage Grove Farm near by is a summer resort 
with many attractions, including fishing, hunting, riding, tennis, etc. The climate 
of the San Juan Valley is perfect, or as nearly so as one can desire it. 

HoUister. The beautiful town of Hollister is not far from the Gabilan Moun- 
tains, at the foot of a high mound, which commands an excellent view of the valley- 
This mound or hill is the city's park. On the level valley floor at its foot are the 
houses of Hollister. No town in all the country in proportion to its size has so many 
beautiful shade-trees as Hollister, and none more flowers. There are many unusu- 
ally fine residences in this prosperous town of two thousand people. It is the county- 
seat, and even the jail and court-house show the result of civic pride — albeit the town 
has the remarkable record of having had one criminal case in three years' time to 
consider. A force of men is kept constantly at work upon sidewalks, shade-trees, 
and streets under the city's direction. 

THE SANTA CLARA VALLEY AND SAN JOSE. 

The Santa Clara Valley proper begins with the section about the junction of the 
main line with the Hollister branch, and extends northward to Palo Alto. 

This dustless valley is in many respects the most remarkable valley in the world. 
It in many things more nearly represents the ideal in rural homes than any other 
section, and its progress in that direction is worthy of close study by the sociologist. 

A glance at the map will show the ba^ of San Francisco to run southward for 
some forty miles with the San Francisco peninsula to the left. Just south of these, 
fronting on the southern end of the bay and narrowing to the left into the peninsula, 
is the Santa Clara Valley. The climate is superb. Anywhere in the million acres 
of this fertile land one may enjoy a perfect climate. The word "perfect" is used 
advisedly. The climate of Santa Clara Valley is tonic; not too hot, not too cold. It 
has the proper changes of dampness, of dryness, of crispness, and dry warmth. Its 
nights are invariably comfortable. The sunshiny days are as numerous as in 
any part of the state. Its season's rainfall is ample, and at the oropcr time in 
winter. The summers are cloudless. 

Scenically, the valley is beautiful. The mountains surrounding it possess an 
infinite variety, and never tire. The walls to the east are green to the very top of 
Mt. Hamilton in spring and a rampart of gold in autumn. In the spring, when the 
one hundred and twenty-five square miles of orchards are in bloom, the valley is 
submerged in an ocean of dazzling white that rolls up the mountain-sides, covers the 
floor, fills every ravine, and encompasses the green-walled cities. 

The roads of Santa Clara Valley are of the features that have made its rural homes 



256 OVER THE RANGE 

famous. There are over three hundred miles of graded boulevards, sprinkled 
throughout the dry season by the county. Through the endless orchards, go where 
you will, bicycles, carriages, automobiles, and riding-horses are always in evi- 
dence. The topography of the valley, as well as the roads, has much to do vAih this. 
The valley floor is almost flat, though the foothills and mountains afford a very 
different country with different drives. 

One may drive all day without seeing an ill-kept orchard or a home without its 
flowers, ornamented grounds, and drives. 

What is the material side of the picture ? Forty-five cured and green fruit pack- 
ing-houses, eight canneries, twenty wineries answer for the fruits. Out of these go 
annually (measured by ten-ton cars) over one thousand two hundred cars of canned 
goods, over one thousand cars of green fruit, over six thousand cars of cured fruit, 
and one thousand cars of berries and vegetables. Its quicksilver mines are the 
largest in America, its lumber mills among the most important in the state, its cattle, 
dairy, hay, and grain interests very large. 

Cariiatlero. At this junction is one of the famous Morse seed farms. It 
has an area of one thousand two hundred acres, and hundreds of men are employed. 
Hundreds of tons of garden and flower seed are shipped east and to Europe, there 
to be distributed by the wholesale seedmen. From here is also shipped thousands 
of tons of sugar-beets each year to the Spreckels factory. One of the Spreckels large 
ranches hes to the east of Carnadero, the warm farm-house being located pictur- 
esquely amid beautiful grounds on a hilltop. Just below is the famous Soap Lake, 
now only of thirty or forty acres, but before drainage reduced its area occupying 
several hundred acres. This section by the foothills, with its rich lowlands, suitable 
for both orchards and vegetables, is known as San Felipe. 

Gilroy . The thriving city of Gilroy, with a population of about two thousand, 
is the metropolis of the southern part of the Santa Clara Valley. It is two miles 
north of Carnadero Junction. Gilroy, Hke Hollister, has beautiful houses, with 
well-shaded streets. It is supplied with gas and an electric plant. Ten miles of 
street are paved and graded. The little city has an assessed valuation of over 
$1,500,000. There are eight hundred school-children, good schools, two papers, 
one bank, good hotels, six churches, etc. The oldest inhabitants settled here (Old 
Gilroy) in 1845, and have found it good enough ever since. Indeed, you cannot 
drive the old residents from Gilroy, and they die only as a matter of variety. 

The valley here is four miles wide. The mountain and valley territory tributary 
to the town is one hundred square miles. Land values in the valley range from 
fifty to three hundred dollars per acre. A fruit-packing house is being built, and 
there is a good opening for a fruit and vegetable cannery. 

The products of this part of the Santa Clara speak for the wonderful richness of 
the soil. The town is encompassed with prune, peach, almond, pear, and 
apple orchards yielding a thousand tons of cured fruit last season, besides 
fruit shipped green. Grain and hay are sure crops in this section, hundreds of car- 
loads being marketed. The Santa Cruz Mountains to the west have good forests 
of oak and redwood, and the lumber products form a considerable item in shipments. 

Gilroy is very prosperous and is growing steadily. Rainfall is ample, and the 
water supply excellent and there are artesian wells all over the valley. 

Gilroy Hot SpriiijfS. There are many beautiful drives to be made in the 
neighborhood of Gilroy, and among them the one to Gilroy Hot Springs is best 
known. A daily stage talccs the traveler eastward thirteen miles to this famous 
resort in the coast Range, where one is charged twelve dollars a week for board, 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



257 



lodging, and the privilege of getting well. These hot springs are among the best 
known in the state. 

Passing Rucker, station for a rich subdivision north of Clilroy, wc cross Llagas 
Creek and reach San Martin. 

Sail Martin. This little town of a hundred people is the center of a very rich 
section now being subdivided and sold to settlers at reasonable rates. It has several 
business houses, a fine school, hotel, etc. Near here is the well-known San Martin 
Ranch, on which several hundred people have planted orchards and vineyards in the 
last few years. 

Passing Tennant Station, the next important stop is Morganhill. 

Morg'ailllill. This successful colony of a thousand people is growing at the 
rate of forty percent a year. It is charmingly located at the foot of an isolated peak 




SAN JOSE. 



known as Nob Hill, and not far from Murphy's Peak, whence beautiful views are 
obtained. 

Morganhill is a temperance town, with four churches, good schools, three school- 
houses, a good water system, a weekly paper, a fine depot, several large stores, etc. 
The town is only ten years old. Fruit, wine, wood, hay, and grain are the principal 
products. There is room for a good dairy and for a packing-house. Land is sold 
at prices ranging from fifteen to one hundred and fifty dollars per acre. 

Madroiie, within fourteen miles of San Jose. Madrone is a pleasant town of 
several hundred people, and is the station for many resorts. Mountain Home, with 
its deer-hounds, hunting and fisliing clubs, etc., is reached by a two hours' westward 
ride three times a week. In the opposite direction Madrone Mineral Springs is 
about the same distance, reached tri-weekly by stage. Its altitude is two thousand 
feet, and its waters are particularly good for stomach troubles. The Indians knew 
them as "Great Medicine," and it is said that the tribe that camped in that vicinity 
surprised the Spanish padres with their appetites. There are several other resorts, 
such as Glen Willis (three miles away). 

Eden Vale. Several miles south of San Jose in a magnificent orchard coun- 
try, is Eden Vale. It is not a town, just a settlement of beautiful homes, with rural 
mail delivery, and practically all the advantages of city life, with no disadvantages. 
All deciduous fruits do vcrv well. The rich soil is thirty feet deep. 



258 



OVER THE RANGE 



Passing Valbrick we are taken through the suburbs of San Jose to the center of 
that charming city. 

San Jose. San Jose is a city of thirty thousand jjcople, of whom some twenty- 
three thousand Hve within the narrow city limits. It is unHke any other California 
town. To all who have visited San Jose, the word recalls something strongly 
individual. In public buildings and in business blocks there are few cities of its 
size to rival it. It is almost in the center of the main Santa Clara Valley, and 
through railroads and wagon-roads commands the entire valley and the surrounding 
mountains, five miles distant to the east and eight miles away to the west. The 
broad-gauge lines of the Southern Pacific extend northward along the peninsula to 

San Francisco (fifty miles away), south to Los An- 
geles and beyond, eastward via Niles to eastern 
and northern California and beyond, besides local 
lines to the quicksilver mines of New Almaden and 
Los Gatos. The narrow-gauge extends from San 
Jose through the Santa Cruz Mountains southwest 
to the sea at Santa Cruz; and northeastward via 
the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay to Alameda 
and San Francisco. County turnpikes extend in 
all directions from San Jose as a center. 

San Jose as a health resort has the same ad- 
vantages as the valley at large. In the summer 
the highest temperature — unless there be a forest- 
fire — is rarely above ninety degrees, ninety-four 
degrees being the maximum in 1901. The air 
lacks humidity, and there is never any evidence of 
that stifling summer heat known in the east. San 
Jose is indeed better known as a summer resort 
than as a winter one. The nights are invariably 
cool, and in the shade the hottest days are very 
pleasant. Sunstroke, like cholora-infantum and 
typhoid-fever, is unknown. The air is a tonic sum- 
mer and winter; never a burden like an overheated 
blanket. In the winter the climate is almost semi- 
tropic. The city possesses two resort hotels, besides several commercial houses, 
and many good boarding-houses. Nicely furnished rooms are to let to transient 
-esidents. The reasonableness of the charges will be surprising. The hotel Ven- 
dome, best known of Santa Clara Valley hostelries, occupies a park of its own in 
the heart of town. There is a large swimming-pavilion, with bowling-alley, club- 
rooms, etc. The golf-links and tennis-grounds are of the best. The hotel St. 
James is near the business center of town, opposite St. James Park. 

The nearest of San Jose's principal attractions :s Alum Rock CafKMi Hot Springs 
and park, five miles east of the city. This six-hundred-acre park with its sixteen 
curative mineral springs is the city's ])ride. It includes a magnificent mountain 
caiion with high walls, perennial stream, groves, springs, walks, and drives. There 
ire deer-parks, aviary, plunge and tub-baths, restaurant, fountains, etc. An 
electric line gives half-hourly service. Alum Roik Canon gives tourists the best 
opportunity in California to visit a wild mountain canon. From its mouth the road 
climbs upward to Mt. Hamilton. 

Lick Observatory. The great seven hundred and fifty thousand dollar ob- 




MT. HAMILTON. 



36o 



OVER THE RANGE 



scrvatory, given to the world by James Lick, who rests beneath its base, is twenty-seven 
miles from San Jose, and four thousand four hundred and forty feet above sea-level. 
Santa Clara County spent one hundred thousand dollars in building the best moun- 
tain road in the world to its site. The trip is made by stage, automobile, or bicycle; 
the stage trip occupies about four hours each way. A day is given to the trip, except 
that on Saturday the start is made at noon and San Jose reached, returning at mid- 
night, the great telescope being given over to the public on that night. This thirty- 
six-inch refractor is the second largest in the world, and anybody after new worlds 
to concjuer can find any number with its aid. 



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I -- ^-J - 




^S^^^^Z^ikSilStttlKim 




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^^^^^^^■^^■kT' '^n^hKbQ 




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LICK OBSERVATORY. 



Tlie Santa Clara Missitm. Is reached by a three-mile electric line ride 
from San Jose along the beautiful Alameda, and is more fully described under the 
heading of Santa Clara. 

Congress Springs is twelve miles distant from San Jose in the Santa Cruz moun- 
tains, reached by a lovely orchard-lined drive with an electric line, or via Los Gatos. 
The New Almaden rjuicksilver mines, twelve miles away, are the objective points 
of another day's journey by narrow or broad-gauge rail line. Beautiful Lomas 
Azulas, ten miles to the southeast, and as fine a foothill paradise as Smiley Heights 
in Redlands, gives another delightful day. Los Gatos is reached in twenty minutes 
by the train, and Stanford University in a half-hour. Lovely drives along the 
shaded avenues may be made to the Willows, to Ecrrycssa, to Campbell, to Cuper- 
tino, and Saratoga, great fruit-growing centers. Tin- quays of the south Bay \'arlu 
Club are reached in a nine-mile drive. There are a dozen mountain trout-streams 
to be encountered in four or live miles, (jood quail-hunting is near by, and the 
wilder mountains have plenty of deer, and even mountain-lion and Iiear. The 
roads are unexcelled for automobiling, driving, riding, and cycling. The riimate 
gives one the out-of-door fever the year round. There are more automobiles in San 
Jose now than in any other place in California, outside of San Francisco, and possibly 
Los Angeles. The Big Trees — the famous giants of the redwood groves — are an 
hour's ride away. With such attractions, and with a wealth of fruit and flowers 
that is amazing, it is not surprising that San Jose is looking forward to tlie time 
when it shall be unsurpassed among the resort -places of the world. 

San Jose claims to be the educational center of the Pacilic Slopi'. Stanford 
University is almost suburl)an to it; Santa Clara College is three miles away, and 



262 OVER THE RANGE 

the famous University of the Pacific, the College of Notre Dame, the State Normal 
School, and high schools, grammar schools, etc., are in the city limits. 

The city has in addition to Alum Rock Caiion, two parks (of about thirty-three 
acres) in the city limits. The public utilities include a $250,000 city hall, a 
$50,000 Carnegie library, seven school buildings, worth from $15,000 to $75,000 
each, a $200,000 Normal School, a $200,000 Postoffice, county court-house and hall 
of records, valued at $500,000, thirl \- miles of electric street railway, fifty-five miles 
of sewers, thirty passenger-trains daily, gas and electricity, and many of the most 
attractive homes in California. As a business center it is the most important place 
between Tos Angeles and San Francisco. 

Santa. Clara. This city of four thousand people is but three miles from San 
Jose. Their destinies are one. They are connected by an electric line, and possess 
identical interests. Santa Clara possesses many charming homes, and the old Santa 
Clara Mission has much of romantic and historic interest. It was founded January 
12, 1777, and has many rare and ancient relics. The Mission is in the hands of the 
Santa Clara College; visitors are welcomed. The Court of Flowers is of signal 
beauty. 

A hundred and twenty-five years ago some beautiful-toned bells were given Santa 
Clara Mission with the understanding that they should ring each day forever — and 
to this day the promise has been kept. So Santa Clara seems destined to keep all 
promises made for it, and to be a fitting companion of San Jose. 

Lawrence. A place of two hundred people in the midst of a rich seed, hav, 
wine, and dairy country. Supplies San Francisco with much cream and milk. 

Sunnyvale. In a very rich fruit section; an important shipping point for 
green fruit and wine; needs a packing-house. 

Mountain View. At the upper end of the Santa Clara Valley, eleven miles 
from San Jose, Mountain View is this growing and progressive town. Its products 
are wine, hay, grain, fruit, brick, and beets in the order named. \\'ineis shipped 
hence all over Europe and America. The population of this prettily built town 
among the oaks is about twelve hundred, with a tributary population of about three 
thousand five hundred. 

Mayfleld. This beautiful town, a mile and a half from Stanford University, 
has a population of one thousand. It is well built, has electric lights, good water 
system, a fine new school building, a newspaper, etc. It is rich in wines, fruit (ber- 
ries particularly), hay, dairy products, and vegetables. Its nearness to the University 
adds to its desirability as a residence section. 

Palo Alto. A mile north of Mayficld is the growing university town of Palo 
Alto, a place of twenty-five hundred people. Its proximity to the grounds of Stan- 
ford University, its fine climate and excellent society, the character of its government, 
making it ideal for homes, has resulted in unexampled prosperity. The place has 
kindergartens, private schools, two preparatory academies, grammar and high- 
schools, etc. The public-school buildings cost fifty thousand dollars. The town 
owns an electric light, .sewer, and water system, has a free library, bank, newspapers, 
and many business houses. 

Lieland Stanford Junior University. The gateway to the University 
is opposite the town of Palo Alto. It is surrounded by part of its endowment, the 
magnificent Palo Alto estate of seventy-three hundred acres. The value of ihr total 
endowment is estimated at thirty-five million dollars. The I'niversity buildings are the 
most beautiful grou]) of public buildings in America. TIk'v are but ]Kirts of one ])lan, 
and are constructed of Santa Clara Vallc'y brown sandstone throughout — beautiful 



364 OVER THE RANGE 

and restful in color, and in pleasing contrast to the walls of green of the surrounding 
hills and the great campus in front. The buildings of the University are not piled 
sky-hign, but with long corridors rise two stories for the most part completely inclos- 
ing a beautiful quadrangle, in itself about a ninth of a mile long by eighty yards 
broad. The massive memorial arch in front, and the beautiful memorial church 
with its cathedral-like interior, great arches and allegorical windows are the most 
imposing features of the group. Flanking the main buildings to the right is Encina 
Hall for the boys and Roble Hall for the girls, while across the campus are the new 
chemistry building and the museum. Tuition at the University is free, and the 
equipment is that naturally to be expected in the richest endowed university in 
the world. The students of the present semester number fifteen hundred. 

Stanford Stock Farm. Adjoins the University grounds, and is one of the 
famous stock-farms of America. Many record-breaking horses were raised here by 
Senator Stanford, and many lie buried beneath its sod. 

Meillo Park. A mile north of Palo Alto, "the village of beautiful homes," is 
a place of suburban homes for many wealthy residents of San Francisco. Here are 
beautiful estates, both to the mountains and to the shore. The country here, as 
about Palo Alto, is especially rich in berries, nursery-stock, and conservatories. It 
has a boys' school, good schools, three churches, three commer.ial hotels, the 
Academy of the Sacred Heart, and St. Patrick's Seminary. Like the other penin- 
sula towns, Menlo Park has a good water and electric system, etc. 

Fair Oak.s. Sister of Menlo Park, with equally attractive environment. 

Itedwoort City. The county-seat of San Mateo County and a place of much 
commercial and manufacturing importance. Its population of twenty-five hundred 
people is engaged at home; only recently has the town given any attention to secur- 
ing suburban settlers from San Francisco. It possesses the largest tannery in the 
state, employing one hundred and seventy-five men, and has two others. The Light 
and Power Company use Redwood as a distributing-point for the peninsula. It is 
the chief lumber-shipping point of the north coast line, the lumber being hauled from 
the mountains rising back of it. 

The Kedwood Forest, La Honda, and Peseadero. Redwood 
and San Mateo have a "back country." One may go to the pleasant village of 
Woodside, three miles distant, to Portola Valley, a pretty summer resort place, or on 
beyond over the ridge-top to Peseadero. At Grand View we can see San Francisco 
Bay, the Santa Clara Valley, Mt. Hamilton, Mt. Diablo, and the peninsula towns. 
Seventeen miles from Redwood on this road is La Honda, a famous resort amid 
redwoods, with excellent hunting and fishing. Many j)eople from San Francisco 
spend summer after summer in this charming camp. Passing the camp village of 
Harrison, we arrive at Peseadero, thirty miles from Redwood, and near the ocean. 
Pebble Beach, with its acres of mock brilliants, the San Grcgorio Lagoon and 
its tributary stream, where the fish flock to meet the stranger, the Big Basin a few 
hours' ride away — these are the attractions of Peseadero. Accommodations, hotel 
and camp, are good at all the points named. 

San Carlos. The town of San Carlos is an i<ie:il residence \)hn\\ two miles 
north of Redwood City. 'Vhv beauty of its surrounding hills and the loveliness of its 
drives cannot be described. 

Kelniont. Another residence town suburban to San Franci.sco, a mile north 
of San Carlos. It has an excellent military .school. 

Bcresford. Yet another village where the city people find the comforts of 
home. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 265 

San Mateo. A town of twenty-five hundred pco])le, and one of San Francisco's 
finest suburban home places. It is popular the year round, but in summer is esiie- 
cially favored by the people of San Francisco. Tn the town itself are many beautiful 
homes of people of moderate means who have business in San Francisco. Sur- 
rounding the central ])art of town and extending up to and beyond Burlingamc arc 
magnificent country homes, with grounds in size from an acre up to a thousand. 
The excellent climate of San Mateo, its wealth of natural beauty in rolling hills, 
picturescjue beach and great oaks, have made it one of the most charming residence 
districts in the United States. The San Mateo beach is unusually fine, with warm 
water, owing to the protected position and the tide movement over warm sand. 
Bath-house accommodations are good. A Yacht Club has its headquarters here. 
The drives include a canon of remarkable beauty, interior lakes and high ridges 
amid beautiful estates. The hotel is in a park of its own, and caters to "tourist" 
travelers. Home sites cost from one hundred to one thousand dollars per acre. 

Blirlillg"ailie. Is just north of San Mateo, and its attractions, environment, 
and location is not in any way different. It is perhaps the most exclusive home town 
in California, and here San Francisco society has its country headquarters. The 
homes are marvels of beauty, and it is everywhere evident that money and good 
taste have been important partners with nature in making Burlingame beautiful. 
The Country Club, with its magnificent home and two hundred and fifty wealthy 
members, the many golf-links, polo-grounds, etc., bespeak the character of this 
place. 

M.iIlbrao. The center of the great dairy section just south of San Francisco. 
This little town sends daily nearly a thousand gallons of milk to San Francisco by 
rail. Its population of three hundred, and its surrounding neighborhood are en- 
gaged almost exclusively in dairying. A beautiful drive may be taken from San 
Alateo through El Cerrito Park, along the county road by the massive Spring Valley 
Dam and Crystal Springs and San .Andreas Lakes to Millbrae or vice versa. 

San BrilllO. Tributary to this station are many dairies, vegetable gardens, 
etc. 

South San Franoisco. Is on the "new" line, several trains running via 
this station. It is an industrial town of about fifteen hundred people, and has more 
manufactures in proportion to population than any other town in California. The 
meat company, the pottery works, paint works, brick yard, ice works, etc., 
handle in and out large quantities of cattle, fresh and cured meats, ice, paint, lard, 
hay, hides, tallow, pipe, and brick. The town has good schools, streets, and side- 
walks, and a very promising industrial future. 

Baden. In the midst of a vegetable section. 

Coliua. Is the business station for the beautiful San Francisco cemeteries — 
Mt. Olivet, Cypress Lawn, Sholim, Home of Peace and Holy Cross, which are in full 
view from the train. Colma has an unexcelled dairy, hog and vegetable country 
tributary to it, and supphes San Francisco's tables to a noticeable extent. The town 
has about seven hundred people, and is growing. Union Coursing Park is near 
here. 

Oeean A'ieAV ami Valencia Street. Are San Francisco's residence 
district stations. 



266 OVER THE RANGE 



THE NARROW-GAUGE LINE: SANTA CRUZ MOUN- 
TAINS AND BAY SHORE. 

Seventy-seven miles of picturesque country lie between Santa Cruz and Alameda 
along the narrow-gauge — mountains, valleys, and bay shore. Once at Santa Cruz, 
via the broad-gauge hnc, one should go as far as San Jose at least, over the narrow- 
gauge. 

From the union Santa Cruz Station the line runs through the city, and out 
through a tunnel-gateway. Thence the road climbs steadily along the western and 
northern slope of San Lorenzo Canon, amid the redwood, madrone, laurel, and pine, 
up into the Santa Cruz Mountains. Below the San Lorenzo runs musically down 
its terraced pathway, while above the rounded hills swell out one above the other, 
forest-covered, or turned into oases of orcliard and vineyard. 

The seven miles between Santa Cruz and the Big Trees is a beautiful journey 
over the well-kept country boulevard, or by rail. 

Big' Trees. The Big Trees of the Santa Cruz Mountains are of the great 
redwood forests of California, the Sequoia sempervirens. They are cousins of the 
Sequoias of the Sierras {Sequoia gigantea), and in massiveness second only to them. 
A hundred yards' walk from the Big Trees Station takes one to the foot of the largest, 
the Giant. Other trees towering up in the sky beyond the power of the eye to 
measure accurately are near by in groups, or singly in this hillside hollow above the 
San Lorenzo. 

General Grant and General Sherman are dignified trees; and the hollow tree, 
in which Fremont found shelter in 1846, bears his name. 

These trees are remarkable for both height and girth, single ones now standing 
reaching up two hundred and seventy-five feet, and being si.xty-five feet around. 
"Family" trees, groups from a single root, have a yet greater base circumference; 
one family, now almost gone, save the historic ridge or root upon the ground, has a 
circumference over one hundred feet. 

Whether one thousand, or two or three thousand years old, for scientists do not 
agree, these trees give such an aspect of dignity to the scene, create a templed grove 
of such majesty, that man measuring his temporal life with so narrow a span, may 
well look upon them as the Immortals. 

FeltOll. A mile beyond is Felton, junction for the Boulder Creek Branch, 
station for the town a little way up stream, and shipping-point for ^^neyards 
and fruit ranches of Ben Lomond Mountains, Zayante and Scott's Valleys. Wood 
and Ume are important products also. 

Near Felton are many of the summer resorts hotels and camps that have made 
the Santa Cruz Mountains famous. 

The country hereabouts is a vast playground for city [jcople in midsummer, who 
live here inexpensively — camping, riding, swimming, fishing, hunting, living out of 
doors. 

The Boulder Creek Branch runs north in the canon of the San Lorenzo for eight 
miles, crossing that stream as many times to a junction of Boulder Creek, Bear 
Creek, and the San Lorenzo. 

Ben IjOIIIOIUI. Is a great resort town, one of the favorites of the mountains. 
Rowardennan is reached from here by stage. 

Boulder Creek. Is a newly incorporated town of eight hundred people, the 
terminus of the branch, and one of the great lumber towns of the coast. From its 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 267 

three tributary canons, and from over the ridge-tops come each summer thousands 
upon thousands of wagon-loads of lumber, wood, bark, pickets, posts, and shingles — 
redwood, pine, and oak. While ninety-five percent of its shipments are now of the 
forest, wine and table-grapes and apples will change that ere long. Boulder Creek 
is growing too as a resort point. 

The sawmills, save two or three, are several miles from town in a country beauti- 
ful with a luxuriance of flowers and vine, of shrubs and forest. 

Here, among redwoods and pines, the great ox-teams yet haul their train of 
twenty logs down greased skids to the mill; and here one wishing to acquire strenu- 
ousness in the use of language may listen to advantage. 

The fishing is good; deer, quail, wild-pigeons, squirrels, etc., have a covert that 
is protection enough to make hunting interesting to hunters as well as hunted. 

Boulder Creek has good water-works, electric lights, a new sewer system, three 
churches, a public school, a free library, and business houses commensurate with 
its lively importance. 

Arcadia, Union Mill, Meehaii, Zayante, and Clem. Return- 
ing to the main narrow-gauge line at Felton our trip is amid mountain-tops, a wild 
country, and yet hiding many a fine orchard and vineyard. We travel tunnel-wise 
here also, among the tunnels being the second longest on the system. The names 
in the margin speaks of resorts and mountain homes. 

Gleiiwood. This summer-resort station has six summer hotels tributary to 
it, from one-quarter of a mile to seven miles distant. It possesses a redwood forest 
park of eighty acres, free to every one. 

The finest table-grapes in the world arc faised hereabouts, and sent by the car- 
load East. Apples and peaches and wine-grapes are important products, the local 
winery making 200,000 gallons of wine this season. The large redwoods are nearly 
three hundred feet high. 

Lianrel. Like Glenwood, Laurel has a vast area of rich mountain land adapted 
to the cultivation of wine and table grapes, to apples and other deciduous fruits. 
Already the annual green-fruit crop sent to market exceeds five hundred tons, and 
one hundred tons more are forwarded dried. The inhabitants report that the 
climate "is healthy beyond belief." Magnificent views arc had from Laurel of 
Monterey Bay and the ocean. 

The station has, of course, many resort hotels tributary. 

Wrig'llt. A pleasant summer resort, with a fine fruit country, as elsewhere in 
the Santa Cruz Mountains. The hills that close in about it produce fifty carloads of 
table-grapes, twenty carloads of pears, twenty carloads of plums, and seventy-five 
carloads of prunes, peaches, etc. (green), and you can hardly see where the earth is 
scratched. 

Sunset Park, a popular picnic-ground, is three hundred yards from the 
depot. 

Alma. Alma is like its western neighbors, a summer-resort station, with a fine 
country of forty square miles tributary. The six hundred i)e()])le in this mountain 
land have hotels or raise fruit or cut wood. A million pounds of fruit and a million 
pounds of wine went out and through Alma last season. It possesses possibilities 
in the way of oil-development that may make it famous. Here, indeed, was pro- 
duced the first oil of the coast in a considerable quantity — successfully burned, by 
the way, on locomotives nearly twenty years ago. 

IjOS Gatos. The town has a population of about two thousand five hundred 
people, one-half of whom have come here to enjoy the money acquired elsewhere. 



268 OVER THE RANGE 

The producing population writes its returns upon waybills in millions of pounds 
of canned goods, dried fruit, green fruit, wine, ice, and limestone annually. 

Under the brow of the mountains, tempered by the Bay of San Francisco, with 
a good rainfall in winter and none in summer, seven hundred feet above sea-level, 
Los Gatos is one of the most charming all-year resorts in the world. The lowest 
temperature in 1900 was twenty-nine degrees above zero, in 1901, thirty-two degrees 
above. The orange orchards, one of which is some twenty years old, produce 
oranges equal to any. There are no frosts, and fresh fruits are ripened in the town 
every day in the year. 

The town has two good hotels now and a large resort hotel planned. It has 
electric light, gas and ice plants. A fifteen-thousand-dollar Carnegie library is now 
being built. 

SaratojJ'a au<l CongTCSS Sprillg'.S. Saratoga is the western village of 
Santa Clara County, and like Los Gatos, lies at the mouth of a pass through the moun- 
tains — five miles north from Los Gatos and ten west from San Jose. Saratoga from 
its foothill eminence commands a magnificent view of the Santa Clara Valley. This 
vine-clad, rose-garlanded village has all the attractions of Los Gatos in climate, 
products, and scenery. Two miles beyond up the caiion are beautiful Congress 
Springs and Hall (known also as Saratoga Springs), with a fine hotel, baths, walks, 
drives, lake, springs, and streams. The water, which is extensively bottled, has 
many medicinal qualities. 

Both Saratoga and Congress Springs are reached b}- stage from Los Gatos or 
San Jose. 

Cupertino. Another pretty west Santa Clara \'alley village without a railroad 
is Cupertino (West-side), some five miles from Sunnx-vale and eight miles from San 
Jose. 

Just west of Campbell a narrow-gauge branch runs .southward ten miles to 

New Alllia<leil. The Almaden c[uicksilvcr mines have been described else- 
where. The land along the branch is a fertile orchard, vineyard, and hay countrv- 

LiG Franc. Is a ^vine-shipping point, and the station for the Gaudalupe quick- 
silver mines in the carion of that name, famous long ago as quicksilver producers- 
They are once again the scene of activity. Water is being pumjjed from manv miles 
of levels, and a hundred men will soon be at work five hundred feet below the earth's 
surface. 

Campbell. Four miles southwest of San Jose, on the narrow-gauge main line 
five miles northeast of Los Gatos, is the model village of Campbell. 

With its park, public library, churches, grammar and high schools, with its 
broad streets, shaded with pepper, olive, acacia, umbrella, and English walnut trees, 
Campbell is one of the most desirable of residence communities. Its population of 
seven hundred and fifty is increasing largely because of its attractions as a home 
towfl. 

Its industrial estal)lishments include a large cannery, an inmu'iise co-operative 
dried fruit-j)acking establishment, and another i)ac king-house. Tiie village is in 
thf center of an unsurpassed orchard district 

At San Jose the narrow-gauge main line joins the broad-gauge line and con- 
tinues with it to Santa Clara (both San Jose and Santa C'lara have been desc ribid 
elsewhere). It should be noted that a third-rail, giving broad-gauge servii i', extends 
from San Jose to Los Gatos. 

To Alameda Pier the narrow-gauge railway follows the eastern shore of San 
Francisco Bay, paralleling the broad-gauge Niles route, which is furtlur inland. The 



TO THE GOLDEN GATIL 2(39 

towns of the Nilcs route arc described elsewhere, hut it may not be amiss 
to say of those near San Jose that Milpitas is a hvcly town in a rich fruit and vege- 
table district, with a large cannery. Warm Sj)rings and Irvington are also sur- 
rounded bv <lair\-, vegetable, and fruit sections of great wealth, and Irvington 
is as well an educational ix-iUcr, and the station fur the historii old mission of 
San Jose. 

Aj»"Iie\VS. Five miles from San Jose is the seal of an asylum for the insane. 
Recently a large j)lant for the manufacture of alcohol from ri'fuse molasses from 
sugar factories has been built. The town is famous for its seed, its apples, Bartlelt 
pears, berries, asparagus, and other vegetables. One orchard of forty acres in pears, 
yielding ten thousand dollars in one crop (1890). The population of the town is 
about two hundred. 

Alviso. Eight miles from San Jose, on a slough from San Francisco Bay, is San 
Jose's "seaport." Here is the gathering-place of the South Bay Yacht Club. There 
are row-boats to be had, and the marshes afford fine duck-hunting. All along this 
part of the narrow-gauge line arc gun-club houses and preserves. The ducks come 
here by the thousands in autumn and winter. The tributary section is rich in 
vegetables and berries. 

Passing Mowry we reach 

NeAVark. The town is a pretty place, built on a part of the grant of the San Jose 
Mission (1776). Fruit of all kinds does well, and there is a large and increasing 
output of asparagus, onions, and tomatoes. The soil is very rich. Land is worth 
here, as elsewhere, in the lower valley from sixty to two hundred dollars per acre. 
There are both high school and lower grades. The population is about seven hun- 
dred. 

Newark is a manufacturing point of importanc e, with two stove-foundries, car- 
building shops. Southern Pacific repair shops, salt-works, jilaning-mil!, etc. 

Ceiltei'Ville. In the center of the valley, is about three miles from Niles, 
Decoto, and Newark, and is reached from the last named point by a Southern Pacific 
combined street-car and freight-car system, probably not met with elsewhere. The 
old town is a progressive, pretty place of five hundred peojjlc, and is rich in fruit, 
grain, hav, and vegetables. It has a good old-fashioned country inn. 

Alvarjldo. Has a population of about nine hundred, of which the beet-sugar 
factory and the foundry employ the majority. The land hereabouts is very valuable, 
and raises vegetables, sugar-beets, and small fruits to perfection. The salt industry 
is growing in importance. 

Mount Eden. Is another place of value in the way of vegetables, small fruits, 
hiw, and grain. It should be noted that these narrow-gauge-line villages along the 
bay shore have an unsurpassed climate summer and winter. 

Russell, We.st Sau Lorenzo, AVest San Lean«lro. Russell is a 
vegetable and berry shipjjing station, while West San Lorenzo and West San 
Leandro arc narrow-gauge shipping-stations for the fertile fruit and vegetable 
districts that have their home centers nearer the hills. 

Alameda Point. Is a ship-building and water-shipping station south of 
Alameda. It has water-front facilities of increasing value. 

Alameda, which is from thirty-three minutes' to forty-eight minutes' ride, ac- 
cording to station, from San Francisco, is chiefly a home place for business people of 
San Francisco, who by the thousand travel back and forth each day on the Southern 
Pacific Ferry boats and trains, running every fifteen minutes, alternating broad and 
narrow gauge trains, which service is al.so given the neighboring suburban cities of 



270 OVER THE RANGE 

Oakland, Berkeley, and Fruitvale, so that the whole eastern mainland shore is the 
home of many thousands of people, who gain their living in San Francisco. 

Alameda has a population of about eighteen thousand, and is noted for its mag- 
nificent streets, houses, and even climate. 

On the bay shore are several pretty beaches, and in the summer the high-tide 
coming in over the warm sand furnishes ideal bathing. The climate is milder than 
that of the city, freer from fog and wind, a little warmer, and altogether very pleasant. 
The soil is fertile, and that accounts largely for the forest of trees that overhangs the 
streets, the endless flower-gardens, and bright lawns. The city has forty miles of 
cement sidewalks. The streets are all good. No city in the country has any finer 
boulevards. The land is level as if rolled. For bicycles and automobiles Alameda 
"streets are unsurpassed. 

Alameda has bath-houses for hot and cold salt water bathing along the pictur- 
esque bay shore. In the opposite direction electric cars and boulevards lead off to 
the hills about Mills Seminary and Leona Heights, Diamond and Redwood Canons. 
Lake Chabot and Castro Valley are destinations of pleasant pleasure trips. 

The city owns its electric-light plant. The public library has twenty-four thou- 
sand volumes. The schools are of the best in the state, the high-school bearing a 
wide reputation for e.xcellence. The sewerage and drainage systems are perfect, 
and good water is obtained from artesian wells. Fifteen miles of electric lines 
traverse the streets. Churches, banks, business houses, etc., are in keeping with 
the city's other characteristics. 

Alameda Mole. Is the bay terminus of the narrow-gauge railway. Here the 
trains meet the ferry-boats plying between the Mole and the Union Ferry Depot, ' 
San Francisco. 



TO THE YOSEMITE. 




O one who visits San Francisco can afford to return home wnthout 
seeing nature's great temple of wonders — the Yosemite. The way 
thither has been greatly smoothed by the Southern Pacific Railroad, 
and each succeeding year sees improvements in this direction. 
What was formerly an undertaking of considerable magnitude and 
difliculty, has now become an easy journey, and one fraught with 
pleasure. It is only a vacation jaunt, requiring four days to make the round trip. 
The valley is 259 miles from San Francisco, 178 miles to Berenda, on the route 
already described in the trip to Los Angeles, thence twenty-one miles by rail to 
Raymond, and si.xty miles by stage to the valley. It is now all rail to the f«ot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where the traveler is transferred to the most 
approved pattern of stages (or carriages, really), and is delightfully whirled up 
into the Land of Wonders over an excellent road, through giant timber, across 
ice-cold rivulets, and past cataracts which send their spray into the sunlight, em- 
bellished with the colors of the rainbow. Air. Ben C. Truman, the veteran trav- 
eler and writer of the Pacific coast, speaks as follows concerning this wonderland: 
"Some few years ago we visited the Yosemite in company with a gentleman who 
had traveled largely, and who had written much of the scenic attractions of Europe, 
Asia, and America, and who exclaimed, as we reached 'Inspiration Point': 'My 
God! self-convicted as a spendthrift in words, the only terms appHcable to this 
spot I have wasted on minor scenes.' And it was unfortunately true, that language 
failed to give adequate utterance to the emotion of my friend upon that occasion, 
and his hitherto facile pen failed to perform its functions with its characteristic 
felicity and brilliancy. This has been the case with many, however, if not with 
all others; and thus the pre-eminent grandeur and magnificence of the Yosemite 
remains, after all, untold. Indeed its charms must really be seen and felt, for it 
is an absolute fact that neither pencil nor brush nor ])hotogra])hic process can 
give them faithful portraiture." 

The Yosemite Valley is about 150 miles, in an 
almost easterly direction, from San Francisco, and 
nearly midway of the state between the northern 
and southern boundaries. It was for many years 
the rendezvous, or permanent abiding place, of hos- 
tile Indians, who had a legend for every point of 
interest, whether of water or rock. The place was 
first seen in 1850 by a number of white men who 
had formed themselves into a military company to 
punish or compel peace with bands of murderous Indians. It was taken posses- 
sion of in March, 185 1, by an expedition under the command of Captain Boling, 
which invaded the oboriginal stronghold, killed several of its defenders, and either 
stampeded or compelled peace with the rest. The valley is some fifteen miles 
long by about one-third of that distance in width, and is undoubtedly the most won- 

271 



YOSEMITE. 


A Valley 


of Wonders. 


The 


Climax 




of 


Grandeur 


and Beauty. 




EL CAPiTAN, YOSEMITE VALLEY. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 273 

derful combination of chasm and dome, cliff and canon, mountain and valley, 
river and waterfall, cataract and streamlet, winter and summer, and sunshine and 
shadow, to be seen in the world — especially within a radius of eight or ten miles. 
Among the most noted and majestic elevations, which rise right up vertically, 
many of these seeming like hewn rock, are: El Capitan, 3,300 feet above the floor 
of the valley; Cathedral Rock, 2,660 feet above the valley; Three Brothers, 3,830 
feet; The Sentinel, 3,043 feet, with cascades of 3,000 feet fall; Washington Col- 
umn, 1,875 f'^ct; Dome and Royal Arches, 3,568 feet, down which descends a cat- 
aract of 1,000 feet; the Half Dome, 4,737 feet; Cloud's Rest, 6,150 feet; Glacier 
Point, 3,200; Sentinel Dome, 4,150; Eagle Point, 4,200, and many others of greater 
or less altitudes. The most noted waterfalls are the Yoscmite, which first dis- 
plays an unbroken descent 1,500 feet, then 600 feet of partly hidden cataracts, 
and a final leap of 400 feet, 2,526 in all; Bridal Veil, 900 feet; Vernal Falls, 400, 
and Nevada Falls, 600 feet. There are many other points of interest, conspicu- 
ous among which are the Merced River, Mirror Lake, and romantic drives and 
climbs without number. There are a number of good hotels in the valley and 
tourists are driven right up to their doors. The best time for visiting the falls is 
from the first of April until the end of July, but it is accessible until the snows of 
November close up its means of ingress and egress for several months. 

The Big" Trees. Thirty-five miles from Raymond is the Wawona 
Hotel (formerly Clark's), one of the most exquisite spots in the Sierra Nevada. 
There is an abundance of game near by, such as bear, deer (in great plenty), moun- 
tain quail, grouse, and smaller game, while the adjacent streams abound in trout. 
It is from this hotel that tourists make their pilgrimage to the Mariposa Big Tree 
Grove, which is si.x miles, and is made in a carriage, and for which there is no extra 
charge for those holding through tickets to and from the Yosemite Valley. In 
this mighty grove there may be seen a large number of trees more than 300 feet 
in height, and varying from 50 to 93 feet in circumference, according to Professor 
Whitney's official measurement. 

The C-alavera.S Orove, which was the first one discovered (by a hunter 
named A. T. Dowd, in 1852), has a magnificent lot of mammoth trees, also pierc- 
ing the clouds at heights exceeding 300 feet, and measuring 80, 90, and 100 feet 
around at the ground. Most of these have marble slabs containing the names of 
distinguished soldiers, navigators, statesmen, poets, travelers, and authors. The 
Calaveras Grove is 131 miles from San Francisco by rail, and 44 by stage, 175 
miles in all. The Mammoth Grove Hotel has been lately enlarged, and can now 
accommodate one hundred guests. There is a post-office, express and telegraph 
office at the hotel. It faces the grove, having the greater number of trees to the 
left, looking from the veranda, and the two sentinels immediately in the front, 
about two hundred yards to the eastward. The valley in which the hotel is situ- 
ated contains of the Scr[uoia trees, ninety-three, not including those of from one 
to ten years' growth. 

The sequoia is a representative of a family of trees, related to the cypresses, which 
has survived from a time more ancient than almost any other family of tfees. 
Its nearest relative is in Japan. The name was given by the botanist, Asa Gray 
in honor of Sequoyah, the Cherokee chieftain. Besides the 5. gif;auten, there is 
still another species, the S. sempervireiis, which exists in forests along the seaward 
side of the Coast Range from San Francisco Bay northward for over 100 miles. 
It is these forests which furnish the celebrated redwood lumber. Many specimens 
of the redwood rival their big cousins near Yoscmite in size, and the whole forest 
will average 250 feet in height, where full grown. 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO THE GREAT 
NORTHWEST. 




LONG reach of most interesting country lies between San Francisco 
and Portland, Oregon. Seven hundred and seventy-two miles in- 
tervene between the two great cities, and it is our purpose to take the 
reader \\-ith us on this journey. There are two routes by rail, and of 
course the ocean highway is open to all who wish to go by steamer. 
The rail routes are east of the Sacramento River to Tehama, and 
west of the river to the same point, 213 miles from San Francisco, where the two lines 
form a junction. The route generally taken is that east of the river, and this is 
the route chosen for our journey. From San Francisco we return on the Overland 
route (by which we entered the city), as far as Roseville, eighteen miles beyond 
Sacramento. Here we turn northward, leaving the main line behind us, and are 
fairly embarked on our journey to the great northwest. 

Lilifolli is a small manufacturing town, where great quantities of pottery 
and sewer pipe are made. (Population, 1,100; distance from San Francisco, 118 
miles; elevation, 167 feet.) 

Passing through Ewing and Sheridan, small villages surrounded by grazing 
lands, we come to 

AVheatlaiid. Fitly named, it being in the center of a fine wheat region. 
The town is well built, and has the usual complement of good business houses," 
churches, schools, etc. (Population, 600; distance from San Francisco, 129 miles; 
elevation, 90 feet.) 

The Yiiba River. Leaving Wheatland, we are soon crossing the bot- 
tom lands of what the latest maps call the Bear River, but which "old timers" 
know as the Yuba, a name which, it seems to us, should by all means be retained. 
The Yuba here is a vagrant stream, inclined to "spread itself" entirely too much 
for the convenience and comfort of the farmers; hence, it has been confined within 
great dykes, which extend as far as the eye can 
reach up and down the river. The road crosses 
the bottoms on trestle work. 

This thriving place is the leading town of north- 
ern California, the depot for the product of Yuba 
and Sutter counties, and is situated at the head of 
navigation on Feather River, and on the right bank 
of the Yuba. It has a population of 5,000. It is 
known throughout California as being the neatest 
built city in the state. Splendid business blocks, 
fine residences, magnificent gardens, where flowers 
bloom the year round; best of schools and acad- 
emies, eight churches, large manufacturing interests, flour mills, finest woolen 
mill in the state, fruit cannery, iron foundry, etc. The city is lighted by gas 

275 



MARYSVILLE. 

Flourishing 

Commercial City. 

County-Seat of Yuba 

County. 

Population, 5,000. 

Distance from San 

Francisco, 142 Miles, 

Elevation, 66 Feet. 



^76 



OVER THE RANGE 



and electricity. The water supply is considered the best in the state. The 
trade of Marysville to-day is greater than any town north of Sacramento. It is 
the trade center for a large country outside of Yuba County. It enjoys the trade 
of all Yuba and .Sutter, and part of Butte, Colusa, Sierra, Placer, and Nevada coun- 
ties. In addition to excellent natural facilities, steamers and barges ply on the 
river, carrying freight to and from San Francisco. It is one of the junctional points 
of the railroad. In climate, Marysville cannot be excelled. No extremes of 
heat and cold, but a i^lcasant, equable temperature, equal lo, if not the superior of, 
the climate of Italy. Epidemic diseases of any kind never obtain a footing here; 
Marysville has been singularly free from such afflictions. \\'ith the fast-increasing 




SIR JOSEPH HOOKER OAK, CHICO VECINO. 
29 Feet in Circumference. 



tide of immigration, which is now turning to California, and with the new and 
varied industries which are now springing up here, as the producing power of the 
lands are becoming known, Marysville will, in a short space of time no doubt, be 
one of the leading towns of California. Frosts are very rare, and when they do 
occur very little damage to vegetation results, owing to the great dryness of the 
atmosphere. The same characteristics also make life very enjoyable, and render 
this section one of the healthiest in the stale. At Marysville a profitable side-trip 
may be taken to Oroville. 

Ol'oville is situated on the Feather River, 28 miles from Marysville. It 
is the northern terminus of the Oroville branch of the Southern Pacific, which runs 
from Marysville, 28 miles to the north. The town is well built, the business build- 
ings being of brick, and the residences are almost universally neat and handsome, 
surrounded with lawns set with a wealth of flowers, palms, and blooming orange- 
trees. The church and school facilities are all that could be desired. There is 
abundant water-power awaiting the establishment of manufactories, and a flour- 
ing mill and a large sash and door factory are now in opi'ration. Put the glory 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 277 

of Orovdlle is mainly in the region about it. The western part of Butte County, 
near the Sacramento River, is level; the eastern part includes the western slope of 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains, while the central portion consists of low foothills 
gradually increasing in altitude as the mountains are ncared. This strip of sloping 
foothills, twenty miles in width, consists of a rich gravelly soil, remarkably pro- 
ductive. The climate of this region, which is known as the "Thermal Belt," is of 
peculiar salubrity, being milder both in winter and summer than in the lower por- 
tion of the valley, and resembling that of the most favored countries about the 
Mediterranean Sea. The summer's heat is here tempered to an even mildness, 
and in the winter the formation of thin ice in the open air is of rare occurrence. 
Snow is a natural curiosity, and outdoor work is uninterrupted the year round. 
The average rainfall is about twenty-two inches. Experiment has shown that 
the conditions of climate and soil make this region the natural home of the orange, 
olive, lemon, fig, and other scmf-tropical fruits, while all the known deciduous fruits, 
including the hardy apple, flourish and yield in unsurpassed abundance. The 
country about Oroville is undoubtedly the greatest fruit-producing region in the 
state, offering great inducements to settlers, while it is c([ually wealthy in a great 
variety of other resources. 

Returning to Marysville, we resume our northward flight, the Sacramento 
Valley being on our left, while the Valley of "the Rio de Los Plumas, or, as it is now 
popularly called, the Feather River Valley, is on our right. Following this course 
we pass through Gridlcy, Biggs, Nelson, Durham, and arrive at 

The largest town in Butte County, Chico, situ- 



CHICO. 

An Ideal Residence 

City. 
Population, 4,000. 

Distance 
from San Francisco, 

1S6 Miles. 
Elevation, 193 Feet. 



atcd on Chico Creek, five miles from the Sacra- 
mento River. Chico is the centre of the finest agri- 
cultural portion of the county — perhaps the finest 
in the State. The famous "Rancho Chico" prop- 
erty of Gen. John Bidwell adjoins the town on the 
north, the rich and varied fruits of which have at- 
tracted such marked attention at all fairs and expo- 
sitions throughout the United States. Chico Creek 
is a clear and beautiful mountain stream, flowing 
sufficient water all the year to sujjply power for General Bidwell's large flour mill, 
until its capacity was so enlarged as to n-i|uirc the supplemental aid of steam. 
Steamers run on the Sacramento River to Chico Landing and points above, carry- 
ing immense quantities of grain to the bay on barges. Chico is a beautiful city, 
and its population is principally American, agriculture and its adjunct employ- 
ments being the chief elements of its life. But it has also tributary to it a fine mining 
region, up Butte Creek, and an immense lumber region to the east and north. 
In this latter there are five or six large mills at work. A V-flume comes to the city 
from the mountains, in which the lumber is floated from the mills to the town, .so 
rapidly that a few years ago a beam of timber was sawn in the mill, thirty miles 
away, flumed to Chico, drawn through the town to the water-works building, fitted 
for its purpose and wrought into the building, all within the working hours of a 
single day. Chico has a regular town government, with police officers and an ex- 
cellent fire department. It has gas and water-works, .ind is supplied with electric 
light. There are two banks, fn flourishing condition. Seven churches, repre- 
senting as many denominations, adorn the city; a state normal school and large 
and elegant public school buildings and ])rivate academies are filled with students. 
The streets arc wide, well kept, anri shadecl. Very many private residences are 



278 OVER THE RANGE 

large and handsome, and the homes of the people all indicate intelligence and com- 
fort. 

C'llifO Vec'illO. This is an attractive suburb of Chico, included ^^'ithin the 
boundaries of the well-known "Rancho Chico." There are one thousand acres in 
the town site, the plat of which has been laid off in five-acre tracts. Here there 
soon will be one of those delightful fruit-raising colonies for which CaUfornia is 
becoming famous. From Chico to Tehama we roll along through a fine fruit 
and agricultural country, passing the stations of Nord and Vina. 

Tehama is the junction of the Willows branch of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad with the main line. It is situated in a good wheat-growing country on 
the west bank of the Sacramento River, and here irrigation is not found necessary 
for the production of crops. The oHve does magnificently here, and the sugar- 
beet bids fair to make a profitable crop. A sugar factory is in contemplation. 
Stock-raising and lumbering are large tributary industries. (Population, 700; 
distance from San Francisco, 213 miles; elevation, 222 feet.) 

Seven miles beyond Tehama we pass through Rawson, and five miles farther 
on reach 

Ked Bluff, the county-seat of Tehama County, which is one of the most 
thriving towns of the state, with a population of 3,000. It is a growing town in 
one of the richest sections, and it has an elevated and sightly location. Its streets 
are wide and well graded, lighted by electricity, and there is no place in the 
United States better drained. The Sacramento River here is a clear, rapid 
stream, fined with beautiful trees and vines. On all the three other sides 
there are ravines or valleys through which streams run, which give the perfec- 
tion of drainage. Its public and business buildings are fine architectural 
structures, and its private residences are nowhere excelled for taste, elegance 
and the beauty and the wealth of their floral surroundings. The streets are 
lined with poplar, elm, white maple, locust, acacia and pepper trees, which 
will soon make a veritable forest city. There are also many fine residences. Te- 
hama County is the great grain-growing county of the state, 8,000,000 bushels of 
wheat and 2,500,000 bushels of barley have been harvested in one season from its 
fertile lands. Tehama has about 400,000 sheep, which produce 2,500,000 pounds 
of wool annually. The numbers of cattle, horses, mules, and swine are large. In 
this county the celebrated Vina Ranch is located, embracing 56,000 acres, a princely 
property, which, through the unexampled generosity of Senator and Mrs. Stanford, 
has become the heritage of the children and of the coming generations of the Pacific 
coast. (Population, 3,000; distance from San Francisco, 225 miles; elevation, 
307 feet.) 

The grade is now steadily upward, as we press onward in our journey. From 
Red Bluff to Sissons, a distance of 113 miles, we make an ascent of 3,245 feet. 
Through a broken country, and crossing a number of rajiidly flowing creeks, we 
pass through Cottonwood, and arrive at 

Alulei'SOll, which is a beautiful and very lively town of t,ooo inhabitants. 
It lies a mile and a half from the Sacramento River, 12 miles south of Redding, 
and 222 miles north of Sacramento. The town is attractively laid out, with wide, 
well-shaded streets, lined with cozy and beautiful homes. The leading hotel in 
the place is a fine one, costing $20,000. There are fine schools, the usual churches, 
a fine roller flouring mill, good, substantial brick business buildings, water-works, 
furnishing an abundant supply of ])urc water from the mountains, besides many 
Other evidences of enterprise and progress. The semi-trojiical climate of the Sac- 



2 So OVER THE RANGE 

ramento Valley generally prevails in the region about Anderson, which is noted 
for its healthfulness. The summers are rather warm, though dry, and the mercury 
rarely reaches 105 degrees, 85 degrees being about the average. The winter, or 
rainy season, is delightful, and resembles April or May in the Eastern states. (Pop- 
ulation, 1,000; distance from San Francisco, 248 miles; elevation, 432 feet.) 

Redding'. No town of northern California has -a more promising future, 
and exhibits at the present time more enterprise, activity, and rapidity of growth 
than Redding, in the southwestern part of Shasta County, of which it is the county- 
seat. It is at the upper end of the great Sacramento Valley, 230 miles north of 
Sacramento, and is built on a plateau on the bank of the Sacramento River, here a 
clear mountain stream which sweeps around the town to the cast and south. No 
town in the state has a more charming and picturesque location. The brief history 
of Redding is one of rapid progress, and never has it been more marked than now. 
Its population has increased from 500, in 1883, to over 3,000 at the present time, and 
vwth the rapid development of the county and the vast territory that is tributary to 
Redding, extending, in some directions, a hundred and fifty miles, a rapid and con- 
tinued growth is assured; The city has water and gas works, a great variety 
of manufactories, many important buildings, a fine court-house and jail, two news- 
papers, good schools, and several churches. The river here affords fine water- 
power, and the lumber interests of the country tributary to Redding are immense. 
The future of this lively place depends largely on the development of the country 
about it; and with the great variety of soil, climate, and products, the thousands 
of acres of cheap, unoccupied lands that only await intelligent cultivation to yield 
great profits, and with the other almost inexhaustible resources which the country 
possesses, there can be no c[ucstion on tliis point. During the past few years the 
country has made rapid strides, many settlers have invested, building has amounted 
alnaost to a boom, new industries started, and thousands of acres of orchards and 
vineyards have been planted. No part of California offers such inducements 
to the farmer, the laboring man, the capitalist, or the home-seeker as Shasta County. 
There is a delightful semi-tropical climate in the valleys and plateaus of the south, 
and a gradual change is noted as higher altitudes are reached, that of the moun- 
tains resembling the New England states. The climate of the southern portion 
of the county is indicated by the fact that orange-trees flourish and bear abund- 
antly. The county is noted for the number and beauty of its clear, sparkling 
streams, which burst from the mountains through wild, picturesque canons, and 
flow onward through small, fertile valleys of great beauty. In these mountain 
streams the finest trout fishing in the state is found. (Population, 3,000; distance 
from San Francisco, 260 miles; elevation, 551 feet.) 

Keswick. This is a new town of about 2,000 people, brought into existence 
' by the smelting industry. A large plant is erected here, owned by the Mountain 
Copper Company. The modern methods of treating ore make this the base metal 
era, and smelters are coining money. This stimulates quartz-mining, for the smel- 
ter must have a certain amount of ore for a flux. Three large smelting plants are 
at work in this vicinity, and towns are building, jiopulation growing, and markets 
active. Trinity Count)', like Shasta, has a vast territory heavily mineralized, 
while the former has also extensive gravel deposits. The largest hydraulic mining 
property in the world, perhaps, is opening now, and water is being piped over 
twenty miles of almost inaccessible country. An immense sum was paid for the 
acres of golden gravel . 

Many cozy little homes are scattered through the mountains. The farmer, 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 28 1 

with a few acres of fruit and a little field for grain or i)asturage, is often a miner also 
working a small claim at intervals. One such, three or four years ago, struck a 
pocket, taking out about $33,000 in a single day. That is one of the possibilities 
which make mining so fascinating. 

THE SHASTA REGION. 

The Canon. We return from prospecting in the hills and resume our journey. 
We are now in the canon of the Sacramento, crcejjing along the breast of clilTs, and 
through tunnels, and crossing and recrossing the river, amid scenes of great beauty 
and sublimity. From Redding, the great white cone of Shasta was seen, seeming to 
rise out of a forested horizon, and as we go upward, it gleams ujjon the sight again 
and again, a thing of beauty and of majesty. Its glory is best seen at a distance an 
from below. Then its dark lavas are sulTusicl wiih a jialc rosy glow, its while 
summit outlined softly against the sky, and the wide, placid sweep of its base is full 
of repose. 

Here the eastern wall besi<le us is broken by a rugged canon, and the McCloud 
River comes pouring its cold flood into the Sacramento. Back among the hills it 
first joins the Pitt River, and the two streams, swollen by many mountain sjmngs, 
add their volume to the Sacramento. All the region wateretl l)y the streams is 
wild and virgin. It is a district full of fine forest trees, with many deer in the 
depths of the woods, and trout in the icy waters of the streams. The Pitt River 
cuts its way from the volcanic regions of the northeast, acro.ss a billowy sea of hills, 
and falls toward the west in a series of white rapids. The McCloud has the ice 
chill of Mt. Shasta upon it, and has worn its way through lava rocks, and tumbled 
down steep gorges, to lose itself in the larger stream that rolls down to the bay. 

The Sacramento is mudd}' and sluggish far down tlie ^-alU-}-, but here is clear 
and bright and turbulent, rushing and foaming among the rocks, a very ideal trout 
stream, and a line of light in the landscape. 

Sims. This was a sportsmen's hotel in the days when only the Oregon stage 
woke the echoes among the hills. It stands back from the station among 
orchards of apples and other fruits, on a fine ])latcau, in the most rugged jiortion 
of the Sacramento caiion. Trout, game in its season, fruit and berries fresh from 
the fields, milk and butter from their own cows, and an old-time hospitalit}- make 
this a restful place. 

Sweet Brier, Cra,J>" A'iew, Bailey's. These are camjiing-iilaces and 
hotels, close together, in a very attractive part of the canon. The fine views, the 
delightful climate, the pure water, the numberless excursions into the hills, the 
wild flowers, the lu.xuriant ferns, the bathing and fishing, make these resorts very 
popular in this season. 

Castle Cl'ay. I'he fine hotel here was burned down and has not been rebuilt, 
but the crags remain one of the most .striking rock ])iles of any country. The 
buttresses of this giant slructuri' reai h down (o the bottom of the cation, anrl the 
columns and minarets of gray, steel\- granite, lifted high against the sky, are very 
impressive. They reach an altitude of four thousand feet, and easily and naturally 
suggest the towers and minarets of some lofty and impregnable castle of the MiddL- 
Ages. Back of these splintered peaks, at an elevation of nearly seven thousand feet, 
lies Castle Lake, a lonely bit of crystal water, resting in its granite cup, over whose 
lip the wild azalea droops, and in whose depths the silvery trout fioats like a shadow. 
The lake is accessible from this point by a steep trail, or farther up by horseback. 



252 OVER THE RANGE 

Upper Soda SprillJfS. Numerous fine soda springs are found in the canon, 

and this is one of the most noted. It is an old and homeUke place, in one of the 
wildest and most picturesque parts of the caiion. Shasta is but fifteen miles away, 
the fine coniferous forests, full of splendid sugar-pine, spruce, and cedar, and here 
and there, on sloping mountain sides or on top of dividing ridges, lie lovely meadows 
the wild gardens of the deer, lush with grass and starred with flowers. Nothing is 
finer; and you cannot cross one of these forest-hidden gardens without finding, 
perhaps still warm, the couch of the red deer, or, flaming in the sunlight, the brown 
and orange spotted tiger-lily, or a bed of blue and white violets and daisies. The 
water of the Soda Springs is cold and palatable, and for certain diseases very bene- 
ficial. The fish commissioners keep the river stocked with salmon and trout, and 
game can be found deep in the solitude of the hills. 

Shasta Sjirillg'S. This mineral spring is but a few steps from the track of 
the Southern Pacific, and is a regular stopping-place for all trains. Everybody 
"drinks" here, and many fill bottles or demijohns for later refreshment. The 
water is bottled here for a wide market. On a fine plateau above the springs are 
cottages, and many come here for rest and the benefits hoped for from the water. 

Sliasta .Retreat. This is a camping spot, grouped about a magnificent 
spring, pouring out a great volume of icy water. Several fine mineral springs are 
also on the grounds, and Shasta is in full view. Plants and flowers grow in great 
profusion, and the air is full of the balsam of pine and spruce and fir. The retreat is 
under church control, and has a tabernacle for public services. The Chautauqua 
assembly is one of the summer attractions. There is a tavern with airy rooms, and 
comfortable cottages. 

Mott. Here a fine view of Shasta is obtained, and this is the visual center for all 
the region. The lover of the grand and beautiful will look up to it at noonday, pale 
and shadowy against the sky; will linger at evening to see the great lava cone glow 
wdth light, when the canon is dark with the gathering gloom of night; and will even 
"turn out" to see its dark head outlined at dawn amid the fading stars, or strongly 
set upon the arch of rose which heralds the coming sun. 

Turning the glance back over the route we have traveled, the slopes of the great 
canon are seen, and the outlying cliffs of Castle Crags, while to the west, Scott Moun- 
tain looms up in majesty. 

Sissoil. The rambling, picturesque, and homelike hotel long known as "Sis- 
sons" has disappeared. It had its day, and many a sojourner at the old, romantic 
inn thinks of it with a sigh of regret. The fame of the place was \videspread, and the 
old homestead was enlarged, and patched, and added to from year to year until it had 
a character of its own, and was as original in appearance as it was homelike in the 
experience of its guests. Strawberry Valley, full of willows and brush, became a 
meadow, with a background of dark velvety pines, and above that belt of green rose 
the white, triple cone of the great mountain. It was worth ten years of common 
life to sit on the veranda at Sisson and look out over that peaceful mountain meadow 
and up the shining slope of that 

"BuriH'(l-(.iut crater, liealeil with snow," 

and watch the play of light on granite crag or lava flow, or to sit in the sunlight of 
July and see a snow-storm raging about the mountain summit, and rain falling in 
the valley at its feet. 

The railroafl is here now, a hustling town is in the \alley, and a hundred things 
have changed. But the new "Sissons" is attractive if it is modern, the old-time 



SHASTA. 

The Monarch of the 
Range. 

Altitude, 14,440 Feet 
Above the Sea. 

Local Elevation, 
10,885 Feet. 



284 OVER THE RANGE 

hospitality is there, and the mountain is unchanged. A dehghtful summer resort 
it often has weeks of excellent sleighing, and then the tavern is alive with guests 
from the city to whom the snow and the sleigh-ride is a novelty. 

As we near Sisson, Mount Shasta, of which we 
have obtained brief glimpses through the pines, 
bursts into full view in all its sublime magnificence. 
This noted snow-capped peak towers to the height 
of 14,440 feet. . It is an extinct volcano, and its snows 
and glaciers feed hundreds of streams which thread 
the wild region in every direction. At Sisson is 
obtained the finest view of Shasta, and it is the only 
convenient point from which the ascent can be made. 
But few parties succeed in reaching the summit, and 
the attempt is only made in midsummer, and then 
with trusty guides. The feat is exciting, but the 
view is grand beyond description. The region about Shasta is a paradise for the 
sportsman and the lover of nature. Grizzly, black, and cinnamon bears abound, 
elk, deer, and mountain sheep are plenty, as well as a great variety of smaller game. 
The mountain streams teem with trout, and often the sport loses its zest through 
the very abundance of the beauties. The McCloud and the Pitt Rivers are the 
most noted streams, though others are equally attractive. The McCloud runs 
through the most uninhabited and unexplored region on the coast. No region in 
the state is so delightful for camping, and hundreds of parties go there every year. 
At Sisson, camping and hunting parties can be provided with complete outfits at 
moderate cost. From Redding northward the Southern Pacific road is the scenic 
route of California; and at the base of Mount Shasta, eighty miles north of Redding, 
the acme of interest is reached. While there are many places in California replete 
with beauty and grandeur, there are none which, for infinite variety of scenery, wild- 
ness, and abundance of everything to delight the sportsman, artists and tourist, 
can compare with the region about Shasta. 

Mllir's Peak. After leaving Sisson we circle the base of Muir's Peak, locally 
known as "Black Butte," which rises to a perpendicular height of three thousand 
feet above our heads. It is black, bare, and desolate — an extinct volcano, with 
half a dozen craters in jilain view. 

Upton. Here we diverge a little, taking the short line called the "McCloud 
River Railroad." It is chiefly a lumber lini-, penetrating the rich forest region to the 
east. Of old time we went from Sissons to the Big Bend in a stage-coach, twenty- 
five miles of delightful ride. Now we take this odd "switch back" railway and 
climb the grades and round the hills, until we reach McClouds, where are noisy 
mills and logging trains and mountain homes. The river, a few miles beyond, is 
a fiuict stream, its source not far away in the green meadows at the foot of Shasta 
on the east. Its mother is Mt. Shasta, and it wells up out of the earth, icy cold. 
It grows ra]ii(ily, a hundred rills and springs adding to its volume, so that a dozen 
miles shows a broad tumultuous river, dark in the shadows of the great trees, and 
gathering strength with every mile. It has immense attractions for the nature- 
lover and the sportsman. The noblest trout of all the tribe, the "Dolly Varden," 
lurks in this dark green water, wary and full of vigor. Deer and bear are in the 
wilder regions, whiTe the mill men have not penetrated, and mountain lions are 
not seldom seen. Fine views of Shasta arc obtained as one climbs along the trails. 
The region is full uf splendid timber, the finest bugar-])inc forests of the state, or of 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



285 



any state, being found in the McCIoud Basin. Going northward again, toward 
Oregon, we note the lessening forest growth until we reach 

Kdg'eAVOort. The name is suggestive. It is literally the edge of the forest. 
Thereafter, climbing to the Siskiyou summit, a distance of twenty-five miles, there 
is very little timber. The country is broken and rolling, with farms here and there, 
and extensive cattle ranges. 

M.(>utag'Ue. This is forty miles north of Sisson and is the junction point of 
the Yreka Railroad, running to the town of the same name, the county-seat of 
Siskiyou County. It is a town of considerable importance. Mining, lumbering 




MOSSBRAE FALLS, MT. SHASTA COUNTRY. 



and cattle raising are the chief industries. Farms are in the small valleys, and the 
whole country is prosperous. 

Ager. From this point a stage line runs to Klamath Hot Springs, eighteen miles 
distant, and near the border line between California and Oregon. It is one of the 
most attractive mineral spring resorts in the state, partly because of the excellence 
of its waters, and partly because of its beautiful scenery and the charm of the trout 
stream at its doors. The Klamath is a dashing mountain stream, alive with 
trout. The elevation is about two thousand seven hundred feet, and the temjjcra- 
ture never high. Salmon, silver and rainbow trout can be found within sight of 
the hotel. 

The Siskiyou Mountains run over into Oregon. From their sunmiit wc look 
down into the faraway Rogue River Valley, one of the finest of Oregon's many fine 



286 OVER THE RANGE 

valleys. Going on a little, wc cross the head waters of the Klamath River, rolling 
westward to the Pacitic, and at Cole's we leave California, and the next stop is 
Oregon. 

THE WEST SIDE. 

Before leaving California it will be of interest to enter here a brief description 
of the West Side Line extending between Woodland and Tehama, and by which 
line the tourist may travel if he so desire. Leaving Tehama for the south the first 
station is 

Filiello. This town, on the north side of Thomas Creek, is a small business 
center for a grain-growing district. It is on the edge of the old-time regime in farm- 
ing methods. 

Kicllfield. This is a colony center, separated from Finello by Thomas Creek, 
and not more than two miles distant. It marks the transition to a more stable 
form of agricultural Hfe, and settles up the country. Children born belong to the 
land-; school-houses are builded, and communities formed, and an independent 
citizenship takes the place of renters and employees, whose only interest in the 
country is what they can get out of it. 

Coming'. This is an old-time town of about eleven hundred people, quite 
surrounded by the colonies which have been planted in the wheat-fields, and have 
transformed the face of the country. Conservative ranchers stick to cattle and 
grain. One sold off part of his holding to the colony managers for twenty-five 
dollars per acre, and when he saw what could be done with the land bought a good 
share of it back at seventy-two dollars per acre. Many are in the ruts of habit 
and method, and do not see the possibilities of development until it is actually 
demonstrated before their eyes; they stay by the forms of industry which they 
know. 

MayAVOod Colony, This is a striking example of what this region and a hun- 
dred hke it are capable of, and what courage, confidence, foresight, and intelligent 
energy will do. In 1890 this was a wheat-field. At first four thousand acres were 
subdivided; but additions were quickly made. As fast as one tract was settled up 
another was thrown open, and settlers soon found to occupy it, until the original 
four thousand acres had expanded to twenty-seven thousand. To-day Maywood 
Colony is a prosperous, contented, industrious, and successful aggregation of home- 
builders. A plot of the central group of colonies shows the town of Corning com- 
pletely invested with orchards and farms, nearly every lot being sold and occupied. 
There are hundreds of comfortable homes, fine business blocks, well-equipped 
hotels, schools, churches, an opera house, and all the evidences of a progressive and 
successful enterprise. Oranges do as well as anywhere; olives are profitable as 
pickles, or converted into oil, peaches, pears, apricots, vegetables, grain, poultry, 
melons, sugar-beets — everything goes. A huge fir-tree, five feet in diameter, and 
a black walnut, eighty feet high, hint the wide range of tree growth. Peas and 
tomatoes are produced by the ton, the cannery taking all that can be grown. A 
herd of one thousand to one thousand five hundred turkeys is not an uncommon 
sight in the region. 

The Colony district ten years ago had but about one hundred people, exclusive 
of Corning. It now numbers two thousand, and with the old town fully one thou- 
sand more. The new-comers are Eastern peoi)lc, wlio had but lit lie capital and no 
knowledge of farming and fruit-raising, as practiced here. Competent California 



28J5 OVER THE RANGE 

farmers guided the first efforts, and no difficulty or hardship has been experienced 
in "getting started." Back of all has been a wise management, a liberal and 
enlightened policy. Then soil and climate. The growth can be duplicated on 
hundreds of thousands of acres in this rich valley. It requires only the initiative 
fair treatment, intelligence, and wide advertising. Multitudes only want to know 
the facts about California. There are hundreds of chances here to one in the older 
communities, and no unequal contest with nature, with cold and frost and storm. 

Kirkwootl. Outside of the limits of the colony just left, we dip into the con- 
servatism of farm life again. This is a market town for a district given to grain- 
growing, to livestock, and a little fruit. But the object-lessons in many localities 
are breaking into the old cultural habits, and new life and growth begin to appear. 

Orlaild. This is Glenn County — a few years ago a vast wheat-field. But 
change is in the air — transition to new methods. Orland is growing, and the region 
roundabout filling up, and a diversity of the products of the land gives the tiller of 
the soil an immense advantage. He has always something to turn off". Here is 
alfalfa, and butter, and honey, melons, oranges, lemons, all kinds of deciduous fruit, 
and all kinds of vegetables. Olives and almonds flourish. One tract of sixty-six 
acres set to almonds returned, in igoi, nineteen tons, which sold for eleven cents a 
pound; net result about thirty-five hundred dollars. Oranges and lemons are being 
planted. The Lemon Home Colony is two miles out from Orland, with good land, 
well watered. It is monotonous to repeat that citrus fruits will do well at a hundred 
points hitherto untried. We are trying to tell the truth about a vast region. It is 
nature's fruit realm. It has millions of acres as well adapted to oranges and 
lemons as Sicily, Malta, the Grecian Archipelago, the south of France, or the best 
section of Spain. The soil and the climate here insure the success of oranges, 
lemons, olives, apricots, peaches, prunes, and almonds. But increasing attention 
is being given to water and to alfalfa, as in many other places. The town is grow- 
ing. You may see here a single acre which for twenty years has supported the 
owner and his wife in comfort. 

Land is not high, it is cheap. As in many places, it is men that are wanted — ■ 
men who can plow a straight furrow, who know good land when they see it, and 
who have something to sell every time they go to town. Land is plenty, and men 
with intelligence and energy can make a fresh start anywhere in this valley with 
half the effort theii fathers put forth to clear the forests or break the soil of the 
Middle West. 

Gerinaiitowil. The business center again of a wide area devoted to grain 
and stock. Land can be bought for from twenty to sixty-five dollars, land under 
cultivation, but without improvements. It is a good region. 

Willows. This little city has a population of about sixteen hundred, and is 
full of life. The tributary country is rich in grain and fruit. Willows is the junc- 
tion point of a branch line that traverses a productive region as far as Fruto. This 
euphonious name indicates the prevailing industry. Yet stock-raising, dairying, 
and general farming is in vogue. One man grows ten acres of tomatoes, netting 
him .from seven hundred to a thousand dollars a year. Another raises barley, 
alfalfa, and potatoes, and from thirty-seven acres netted, in 1901, two thousand six 
hundred dollars. River bottom-land set to peaches returned one hundred and 
twenty dollars per acre from a large tract. 

Norman. Another market-place and shipping-point for grain and stock. The 
western foothills furnish good pasture, and in the rougher brush lands the Angora 
is profitable. From a flock of five hundred, one owner sheared two thousand five 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 2S9 

hundred pounds mohair, selling for thirty cents a pound. His flock was increased 
by four hundred kids. There is a growing market for the long silky fleece. 

Maxwell. We are still in the midst of wheat-fields, wide, flat reaches of 
country. Diversified farming is growing in favor, and the monotony of yellow grain- 
fields will soon disappear. 

Hogs are seen in the fields, and other stock, and more attention will be given 
cows and the dairy. The character of the soil will reveal itself at a glance. 

The mountains on the west side are full of delightful camping-places, and some 
of the most famous mineral springs are easily reached. Deer and bear are plenty, 
and foxes, coyotes and panthers are readily found. On the east the Sacramento 
River offers good fishing, and ducks and geese in their season. 

Colusa Junction. This is the connecting point with the "Colusa and Lake 
Railroad." It runs east to Colusa and northwest to Sites, and from the latter by 
stage to Bartlett Springs and other Clear Lake points; Sites is a small foothill town. 
The foothills of both mountain ranges, the Sierra and the Coast, have many fine 
and fertile little valleys, and the climate is always exceptionally fine. Where water 
can be had they make ideal places for fruit. Along the Coast foothills, water can 
usually be had by digging wells. 

Colusa is a town of nearly two thousand people — with its extensions, two thou- 
sand two hundred. Electric power has been brought in, and is available for pump- 
ing for irrigation, and for other mechanical purposes. A great body of magnificent 
alluvial land is here, that will grow anything, with plenty of water for purposes of 
irrigation. Lands are being cut up into small farms, and fruit-growing will sup- 
plant wheat farms. Oil is found of a superior quality, and may prove very pro- 
ductive. The lands along the river are protected by levees, and the river itself is 
made to serve for winter irrigation. Bartlett Springs, which is not far from here, 
is very celebrated, and much resorted to for the cure of certain diseases. Other 
springs in the county are used as summer resorts, and for the healing virtue of 
their waters. The Colusa stone quarries are drawn upon from all parts of the 
state. The fine quality of the stone shows in the new Ferry Building at San Fran- 
cisco, and in the band-stand at Golden Gate Park. Considerable land is for sale 
here at fair prices. 

William.s. The population is about twelve hundred, and the town is in the 
midst of vast grain-fields. The increased value of stock is being recognized, and 
this industry, with fruit-farming, and greater diversity of farm products, is 
growing. 

Arbuckle. The whole region is devoted to grain and stock. The town serves 
as a shipping-point, and for market purposes and social life. 

Dunuig"an. When some pastoral bard arises — some modern Virgil, surveying 
these boundless wheat plains, wdll he find poetry in the scene ? There are figures 
for the census, but not much to inspire the poet. The barns are not ideally colored, 
like Eastman Johnson's, and where there are any at all, they are not "as wide as a 
Dutchman's barn," the monotony of endlessly pleasant weather dispensing with 
the necessity for barns in most cases. The country tributary to Dunnigan produces 
grain — and a great deal of it. 

Yolo. Poetry is still immolated here under the wheels of giant combined reap- 
ing and threshing machines, or buried by the gang plow. It is a vast industr}', but 
too easy for profit in these competitive days. A brief period of plowing and sowing^ 
another of harvesting, and then the employees drift away to the towns or cities, and 
the rancher waits for next year. Meantime, California imports a hundred things 



290 OVER THE RANGE 

she consumes, and ought to produce at home. Pork, condensed milk, preserves, 
jeUies, jams, poultry, eggs, sugar — all ought to be provided in this opulent state. 
Woodland, the next station, we saw on our way north. 

OREGON AND THE SISKIYOU. 

Tlie State Line. Resuming the northward journey, two miles beyond Coles 
station we cross the state line, and entering Oregon, begin the ascent of the Siskiyou 
Mountains. This ascent is a wonder of railway engineering. The statistical facts 
concerning this achievement may be condensed as follows: 

Elevation at State Line 2,859 feet 

" Coles Springs 3i775 

" Tunnel No. 13 3> 108 

" Tunnel No. 15 3>7io 

" Tunnel No. 16 2,977 

Length of Tunnel No. 13 4,160 

The mathematician has the advantage here. He can tell exactly the facts concern- 
ing this great work; but the descriptive writer strives in vain to convey to the reader 
the beauty and grandeur of the scene. The southern slope of the range is denuded 
of trees, while the northern side is covered with a dense growth of pine. 

Si.skiyOJl Station. This is the summit of the range, and the highest point 
on the entire line, being 4,135 feet above the level of the sea. The mountain viev/ 
from this coign of vantage is indescribably magnificent. To the east is the Cascade 
Range, extending to the north for full four hundred miles; to the northeast is Mount 
Pitt, while still farther on are Mounts Scott, Threlson, and Diamond Peak — mon- 
archs of the Cascades. To the west are the peaks of the Siskiyou and Coast ranges; 
to the south are the two Sisters, Mount Lassen, and above all imperial Shasta rears 
his head. Lakes, rivers, and valleys lie spread out before us like a map; and in a 
word, for variety, grandeur, beauty, and extent, this view has no equal on the con- 
tinent. 

Aslllaud. At the foot of the Siskiyou Range, on the eastern slope, is situated 
this beautiful little town, in a delightful valley. The town was established in 1850; 
and in 1887, on December 17th Mr. Charles Crocker, of San Francisco, drove the 
last spike which completed the railroad connection between California and Oregon. 
The town of Ashland has entered upon a season of great prosperity, being the seat 
of the State Normal School, and having the White Sulphur Springs within near 
proximity. It is a large shipping-point for wheat, and also for fruit. (Population, 
3,000; distance from San Francisco, 431 miles; elevation, 1,891 feet.) 

RoUing along through the valley we pass Phcx^nix and Medford, prosperous 
towns of moderate size. 

Jacksonville is the county-scat of Jackson County, and is connected with 
Medford, four miles distant, by stage. (Population, 1,000; distance from San 
Francisco, 450 miles; elevation, 1,399 feet.) 

l{,oj»'iie Riv<'r A"all«'.v. We are now in the Rogue River Valley, and are 
following the stream in its downward course. The valley averages about three 
miles in width, with high hills on each side, covered with a strong growth of grass, 
and in places heavily timbered. The products of this valley are berries, nuts, and 
fruit. Fishing and hunting can he found here of the best ([uality. The stations 







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SCENIC 
ATTRACTIONS. 

A Panorama of 

the 

Grand and Beautiful 

in Nature. 



292 OVER THE RANGE 

which follow Medford are: Gold Hill, Grant's Pass, Merlin, Leland, Wolf Creek, 
Glendale, West Fork, Riddle, Myrtle Creek, and Dillard. 

For a stretch of over one hundred and fifty miles 
from Grant's Pass, the country presents a wonder- 
ful panorama of grand and beautiful scenery. 
Mountains are all around us. To the right the 
Cascade Range, to the left the Coast Range. Gorges 
before us! Canons behind us! Little valleys of 
entrancing loveliness are crossed; sparkling streams 
abound; forests of oaks and pines, of hemlocks and 
madrones, are threaded; in a word, the variety is 
infinite, the beauty indescribable. 

Rosel)lirg" is the county-seat of Douglas County. Through the town flow 
the Umpqua River and Deer Creek, which furnish water-power and a plentiful 
supply of pure water for domestic purposes. Agriculture, horticulture, and pastoral 
industries are tributary. (Population, 2,000; distance from San Francisco, 
574 miles; elevation, 487 feet.) 

The Valley of the Umpqua. This valley, situated between the 
Coast Range of mountains and the Calapooias, is exceedingly fertile, being especially 
adapted to agriculture and the growing of fruit. The valley ranks third in size 
among those of Oregon, those of the Willamette, and Umatilla being greater in area. 
A historical interest attaches itself to the Umpqua Valley, for in its quiet confines lie 
the remains of the brave soldier and public-spirited citizen General Joseph Lane. 
His grave is in a little churchyard, a mile from Roseburg. After leaving Roseburg, 
the stations occur in the following order: Wilbur, Oakland, Rice Hill, Youcalla, 
Drains, and Comstocks. 

Divide is on the water-shed between the waters of the Umpqua and Willa- 
mette Rivers. Latham, Cottage Grove, Walkers, Creswell, Goshen, and Springfield 
are the succeeding stations. 

Eug'eiie is the county-seat of Lane County, situated on the right bank of 
the Willamette River, and is a thriving, prosperous town. Here has been estab- 
lished the University of Oregon, which is one of the leading educational institutions 
of the state. The Willamette is navigable from Portland to this point for steamers 
of light draught; but freight trafi&c is now carried mainly by the railroad. This is a 
fine agricultural and fruit country, and shipments of these products from Eugene 
are large. (Population, 4,000; distance from San Francisco, 649 miles; eleva- 
tion, 455 feet.) 

Beyond Eugene are Irving, Junction City, Harrisburg, Muddy, Halsey, Shcdds, 
Tangent, and Albany Junction. 

Alhaiiy, the county-seat of Linn County, is an enterprising, growing town. 
For a country which Eastern people consider so "new," this town has great "an- 
tiquity," having been established in 1848. Here is located the Albany College and 
other schools of excellent quality. The town has good business and private build- 
ings, water-works — in fact, all of the modern improvements. (Population, 5,000; 
distance from San Francisco, 692 miles; elevation, 240 feet.) 

Millersburg, Jefferson, Marion, and Turner are the stations passed after leaving 
Albany before Salem is reached. 

Salem is the state capital and the county-seat of Marion County. It is 
situated on the left bank of the Willamette River, which furnishes unlimited water- 
power. Here are loccitcd the state institutions, including the Insane .\sylum, the 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 293 

School for the Deaf and Dumb and BUnd, the Penitentiary and the Indian Training 
School. Steamers ply regularly between Portland and Salem, and the amount of 
lumber shipped annually exceeds three million feet. The capitol building occupies 
an entire block, and may be seen from the car window, to our left, after leaving the 
depot. It need not be said that Salem is a well-built, prosperous city, for the fact that 
it is the state capital makes such a statement superfluous. (Population, 6,000; dis- 
tance from San Francisco, 720 miles; elevation, 190 feet.) 

After we have left Salem we j)ass the state fair grounds, two miles from the 
city, and four miles farther on Chemawa is reached, which is the immediate site of 
the Indian Training School. Beyond are the stations of Brooks, Woodburn, Hub- 
bard, Aurora, Barlow, Canby, New Era, and Canemah. 

Oreg'Oll City is the county-seat of Clackamas County, and is noted for its 
magnificent water-power, being located at the great falls of the Willamette River. 
Here were constructed the canal and lock system which make the Willamette navi- 
gable beyond the falls. This system cost half a million dollars. Oregon City is a 
thriving town, boasting all the modern improvements, and doing a large business. 
(Population, 4,000; distance from San Francisco, 756 miles; elevation, 95 feet.) 
Beyond Oregon City we pass through the following stations: Clackamas, Mil- 
waukee, Willsburg, Car Shops, and East Portland. These are really suburbs of 
Portland, as the distance between Oregon City and Portland is only 15 miles. 

This metropolitan city, with its population of 
one hundred thousand souls, sits on the west bank of 
the Willamette River, twelve miles from its conflu- 
ence with the Columbia, and one hundred and fifteen 
miles, by river, from the Pacific Ocean. The first 
settlers came here in 1843, and in 185 1 the settle- 
ment was incorporated as a city. It is now the 
mctropohs of the Pacific Northwest, and the third 
richest city in the world, in proportion of the wealth 
to per capita of population. On the east side of 
the Willamette, directly opposite Portland, is the city of East Portland, and on the 
same side, to the northward, around the bend of the river, the city of Albina, both 
of which contain a population of about ten thousand souls, and are connected with 
Portland by two bridges. Numerous ferry-boats also ply on the river between 
Portland and her trans-Willamette suburbs. Thus, there are clustered here under 
three corporate names, a community of one hundred and ten thousand people, 
whose business intermingles, and who are actively engaged in its diversified indus- 
tries. 

The favorable position which Portland occupies for an important commercial 
city, can be best understood by gaining a knowledge of its location, relative to a 
large area of very rich country. The Willamette Valley, at the foot of which Port- 
land is situated, contains four million acres of land, and its products are abundant 
to furnish sustenance for over a million people. Most of this territory is now under 
cultivation. Wheat has been the chief crop raised, but other cereals, root crops, and 
fruits are now occupying the attention of the farmers, and on the slopes of the 
mountains that border the valley, stock-raising and dairying are found to be profit- 
able industries. The finest flavored fruits in the world are raised here — apples, 
pears, prunes, peaches, plums, small fruits, melons, etc. In fact, all the products 
of the temperate zones can be successfully grown in the Willamette Valley. The 
surplus product of this fertile valley, of course, flov.'s through Portland, to which 



PORTLAND. 

The Metropolis of the 
Pacific Northwest. 

A City of Magnificent 

Achievements and 

High Hopes. 



294 



OVER THE RANGE 



port it is transported by boats which ply on the Willamette, and railroads which 
penetrate the country on each side of the river. The Columbia River, before pierc- 
ing the Cascade Mountains, flows through and drains a tract of c(juntry more 
than four times as large as the state of New York, and with a soil of wonderful 

productiveness. The improve- 
ment of that vast region is 
scarcely begun, yet the pro- 
duct has already grown be- 
yond the facilities for moving 
it, though they are great, 
and beyond all cxjiectations. 
Ikit the transportation facil- 
ities are increasing rapidly, 
and that trouble will not 
last. Anything that can be 
grown on fertile soil in a 
mild climate is produced in 
this basin in abundance, and 
from Idaho, Washington Ter- 
ritory, and Oregon a constant 
stream flows to Portland. 

The mines of Oregon, in- 
cluding those of gold, silver, 
iron, copper, etc., and the vast 
mineral output of Montana, 
Idaho, and Washington con- 
tribute an important amount to 
the business of this commercial 
metropolis. The timber pro- 
duct is by no means inconsider- 
able, large quantities of lumber 
being annually turned out. 
The most extensive salmon 
fishing in the world, and the 
general piscatorial industry of 
the Columbia and Willamette 
rivers, have their main springs 
of cajjital in Portland. Situated 
as she is, at the gateway to the 
regions mentioned, the rcsoiUTCS 
of which arc practically illim- 
itable, and easily transported on 
the rixers that drain them, be- 
ing accessible to ocean craft, and having a demand for trade from across the 
sea, being at a jjoint of interchange of foreign and domestic traffic, having a 
situation favorable ^for utilizing these various agencies for promoting growth, 
Portland certainly possesses advantages of location ef|ualed by few cities in the 
world. 

There arc five lines of railroad centering in Portland. The Northern Pacific 
runs north to Taconui, thence east to St. Paul. It also connects, at Waliula June- 




TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 295 

tion, with the O. R. & N., making a shorter route from Portland to the east. The 
Oregon Railway & Navigation Company has a line passing up the Columbia 
River to Wallula Junction and branching out into various feeflers, built and in 
process of construction, ramifying the south-central portion of the great Inland 
Empire. The connection of the O. R. & N. with the Oregon Short Line gives a 
direct trans-continental line between Portland and Missouri River points by way 
of Ogden and Salt Lake, .\nother line, the Oregon & California, starts from 
Portland, and running up the west side of the river, forms a valuable feeder, 
penetrating the heart of the garden of Oregon. This line connects, at Corvallis, 
with the Oregon Pacific, extending westward to Yac[uina Bay, and will soon 
reach a rich, but as yet undeveloped, region in eastern Oregon. Then the Yam- 
hill Division of the Southern Pacific Company affords another outlet for the 
valley through Portland. Thus, the city is made a terminus for three trans- 
continental railway systems, and has all the advantages of five local roads, besides 
the water transportation on the Willamette and Columbia rivers and the Pacific 
Ocean. The Canadian Pacific is also comj)eting for Portland business, running 
a steamer between here and Vancouver, B. C., to connect with its China line of 
steamers, and bidding eagerly for freight and passenger business between Portland 
and the Eastern states. The Northern Pacific Terminal Company has erected 
shops in Albina at a cost of over $500,000, with a capacity for the employment 
of a thousand men. The company owns nearly eight thousand feet of water 
front. Besides the shops, there are large grain warehouses, coal bunkers, and a 
dry dock, owned by the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company. 

On the Portland side of the river is the site of the union passenger and freight 
buildings and freight yards. The completion of the bridge over the Willamette, 
which the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company has constructed, enables 
the improvements for the Portland yards and building to be carried out. This 
bridge is a steel structure, consisting of a draw span of three hundred and forty 
feet, and a fixed span of three hundred and twenty feet. It is a through bridge, 
wdth carriage way and foot-walls above the railroad tracks, and connects Third 
Street, Portland, and Holladay .\ venue. East Portland. 

Modem liuprov«'inents. The streets of Portland are lighted by 
incandescent and arc electric lights. The city owns its water-works system. In 
order to purchase the water-works plant from the private corporation which owned 
it, the city issued 5 per cent bonds to the amount of $500,000, which were readily 
sold at an average ])rice of Si. 08, showing the confidence in the city's financial 
condition. The city has fifty miles of water mains, and the pumping capacity 
of the works is twenty million gallons per day. The supply is obtained from the 
Willamette River, about five miles up the stream. The average daily consumption 
is five million gallons. 

The Portland paid fire department is an etTuient organization, operating under 
the city board of fire commissioners. A fireman's mutual relief association is 
in operation in connection with the fire department. 

MaimfacturillJi'. The manufacturing advantages of Portland and vicinity 
are not utilized to an extent at all commensurate with their importance. There is 
abundant raw material in Oregon, cheap and reliable water-power, and generally 
favorable conditions for the growth of varied manufacturing enterprises. The 
comparatively recent discovery of the resources of the region must account for 
the small amount of .manufacturing that is done where circumstances are so 
favorable. People from the East, accustomed to the closer and fuller develop- 



296 OVER THE RANGE 

ment of their resources, and alive to the advantages of manufacturing as near 
the source of supply as possible, are surprised at the neglected opportunities 
which they observe on the Pacific Slope, and particularly in and about the com- 
mercial center of a region incalculably rich in the elements that promote manu- 
facturing prosperity. Still, that branch of industry is well established, and is 
constantly increasing in volume and importance. (Population, 100,000; dis- 
tance from San Francisco, 772 miles.) 

Picturesque SlirroulldillJ»".s. Aside from the advantages of its rela- 
tive location, Portland has a very admirable site for a beautiful city. From the 
docks at the river's side, the land gradually ascends to the vi'est and southwest, 
finally breaking in elevated and picturesque hills, upon which the residence por- 
tion of the city is already encroaching. These hills form an important feature 
in the topography of the city. The lower and more level part of the town is 
occupied by business houses and manufactories. The heights are visible from 
almost any point. They are ascended by means of roadways winding along the 
hillsides, affording magnificent view as the prospect unfolds. From the summit of 
Robinson's Hill, on a clear day, the sight is most grand and inspiring. Within a 
radius of a hundred miles, which the eye sweeps from this elevated outlook, north, 
east, and southeast, five perpetually snow-clad mountain peaks are visible. The most 
prominent of these is Mount Hood, which rests upon the long, bluish bank of the 
Cascade Mountains, and rears its lofty summit to the sky. Its covering of snow and 
glaciers sparkles in the sunlight, and when suffused with the soft glow of the setting 
sun, reflects the most delicate tints of purple, crimson, and gold, giving it a majestic 
splendor inspiring to the beholder. To the south is Mount Jefferson, and to the north 
Mounts Adams, St. Helens and Rainier, the latter the loftiest peak of the Cascade 
Mountain range, all of them capped with snow and ice, and relieving a landscape 
of charming beauty. Breaking through the ridge of the Cascades, the great "River 
of the West," the Columbia, pours its mighty tide toward the sea. The Willamette 
threads the broad valley to the south like a ribbon, its course being visible for many 
miles, and finally being lost among the farms and villages that dot its banks. 

Tacoma's commanding position among the 
cities of Washington Territory has been earned 
step by step by a struggle in which the odds were 
against her. The general apprehension, justified 
probably by the history of many cities and towns, 
that in the West all one need to do is to stake ofT a 
few lots, build a cabin or two, select a name, and a 
city will grow up much after the fashion of vege- 
tables in a garden, is in nowise true of Tacoma. 
When Tacoma was established other towns on Puget Sound had existed for many 
years, and naturally they did not extend any encouragement to a new town. Instead 
of receiving, from the beginning, as in the case of many cities of the West, the ex- 
clusive support and encouragement of an extensive business district, Tacoma 
found the older towns already in possession, and ready to contest every step taken 
by the new claimant for public favor and support. Figuratively speaking, Tacoma's 
first breath of life was a battle-cry, and although the cry was not at first very loud, 
it was firm, full of confidence and pluck. The town did not remain long in its 
swaddling-clothes. Its voice gained in strength. At first Puget Sound only heard 
it. Then it reachcfl the ears of everybody in Washington Territory, and they were 
pleased with it. The Pacific Northwest then realized that there was a new voice 



TACOMA. 

A City Whose Fame 
Has Become Inter- 
national. 

'The City of L'estiny.' 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 297 

in the business world, and stopped to listen, and soon the entire Pacific Coast was 
talking about it. Then the great and populous East heard Tacoma's voice, and 
when it said "Come," thousands responded. Then England came thousands of 
miles by sea, in great ships, to learn more about Tacoma, a city whose fame had 
crossed the Atlantic. China and Japan sent teaships at this infant's demand, and 
even far-off Austraha heard it, and was so pleased that the ocean pathway between 
Tacoma and that continent is marked by an ever-increasing fleet of ships going and 
coming. Tacoma helps to feed the world, helps to build the world's houses, and 
yet its voice is stronger than ever, and is being used more than ever. The thou- 
sands of people who listened and responded to Tacoma's invitation were not flis- 
appointed. And Tacoma grew and flourished, until its jircsent commanding posi- 
tion was reached. 

From a town of only a few hundred people, Tacoma now has a population 
estimated at 45,000. Its property has increased to twenty times its value ten 
years ago. Its business relations extend to all parts of the civilized world, a fact 
which is true of no other city in Washington Territory. In railroads, shipping, 
manufactories, and business generally, Tacoma's prosperity has been very great; 
so great indeed, that whereas it a few years ago was only a small and relatively 
unimportant village, it is now a city, possessing all the characteristics and con- 
veniences of a city. 

Tacoma was originally planned on a large scale, and the expectations of the 
founders of the city, however sanguine they may have been, have doubtless been 
more than realized at this time. Probably no one expected Tacoma to grow so 
rapidly, to earn so speedily such e.xtraordinary trade relations with the markets of 
the world. The streets are wide and laid off with special relation to convenience 
and beauty. Pacific and Tacoma avenues are without superiors for beauty and 
length in the Northwest. These and other public highways arc well graded, and 
sidewalks are constructed of a substantial character. 

The location of the Methodist University in Tacoma has given the city a not- 
able addition to its already large number of educational institutions. The Tacoma 
people subscribed a bonus of $75,000 to this great institution. The Annie Wright 
Seminary, the Washington College, and the numerous public schools speak more 
than words can tell of the public spirit manifested by Tacoma people, of their abilitv 
to meet every demand of a hberal and progressive population, and of the existence 
of a breadth of public sentiment which proves the stable character of the city's 
progress. Of the many church buildings, some possess architectural beauties 
equal to those to be seen anywhere. Private residences of handsome architecture 
may be seen in all parts of the city. The hotels number twenty, and yet they are 
not sufficient to accommodate the multitude of people who daily arrive in this flour- 
ishing city. 

The Northern Pacific Railroad Company has erected a magnificent brick 
building for the offices of the company. 

These features of Tacoma are worthy of special attention as evidencing the 
solid character of the city's progress. They rebut every idea that Tacoma's growth 
and the expansion of her industries arc "mushroomy" in character. The city 
itself is the best commentary on the character of its resources. (Population, 45,- 
000; distance from San Francisco, 917 miles.) 

The Climate of Puj>et Sound. The following extract from a recent 
compilation so accurately sets forth the characteristics of this climate, that to 
employ other words would add nothing to the facts contained in it: 



298 OVER THE RANGE 

The climate of the Puget Sound country is wholly unlike anything experienced 
on the Atlantic slope or in the Mississippi Valley; or, indeed, anywhere on the 
American continent except in the Pacific Northwest. The summers are cool, and 
the winters singularly mild. A temperature of 80° in midsummer is very rare, 
and not often in winter does the mercury go much below the freezing-point. The 
following meteorological table, which is for an average year, is compiled from 
observations taken daily at 7 A. M., 2 P. M., and 9 P. M. A minute's study of it 
will show how remarkably free from trying extremes the climate is. 

ANNUAL METEOROLOGICAL TABLE. 

Monthly 

Rainfall 

Lowest. Highest. Mean, in Inches. 

January 30° 62° 37-9° 4.20 

February 31 59 44.5 4.16 

March 32 68 48.0 i.oi 

April 35 75 50.8 0.47 

May 43 80 60.5 2.89 

June 47 76 57.0 0.49 

July 51 86 66.4 0.26 

August 52 84 64.5 

September 46 74 58.8 2.44 

October 39 64 51.4 2.47 

November 34 60 45-5 8.22 

December 28 60 41 -4 6.14 

Total annual rainfall 32-74 

As suggested, if the above extract is carefully studied it will tell more than 
many words of explanation. 

Trade Avith South America and Mexico. The condition upon 
which trade relations will be established with South American and Mexican Pacific 
coast points are of such a promising character that it will not be long until a most 
valuable commerce will be carried on. The peculiar conditions which justify the 
hope of establishing very extensive relations with that country are found in the 
products of the countries. The purposes of this article will not admit of a minute 
examination of these conditions, but any one who will examine the subject will 
find that the products of Washington Territory supply what the South American 
countries referred to do not have, and those countries produce that which will find 
a ready market in the Northwest. Hard woods, tropical fruits, valuable ores and 
minerals on the one hand, with soft woods, iron, grain, fish, and many other of the 
resources of the Northwest — these, any one can easily see, furnish all the con- 
ditions upon which most extensive commercial relations may be established. The 
relations will be those of exchange of products. Such conditions are especially 
promising, as they will afford cargoes both going and coming. 

Tacoma's commercial relations with the Pacific coast are now so well known 
that it is almost unnecessary to make reference to them at all, except to make this 
array of evidence complete. Reference to the record of Tacoma's shipping, as set 
forth already in this article, will show how extensive are Tacoma's relations with 
San Francisco and other coast ]5oints. 

The thoughtful man will reason that if Tacoma enjoys such extraordinary 



TO THE GOLD EN GATE. 299 

advantages now, what will tlu- fntnrc bring? He will then understand the peculiar 
significance of the poetical i)hrase, "The City of Destiny." 

A Maji'lliflceilt Harbor. The general measure of Tacoma's appre- 
ciation of this most remarkable body of water would be expressed in miles rather 
than particular instances. To say that there arc saw-mills at particular points, coal 
bunkers at others, wheat warehouses near by, magnificent docks elsewhere, various 
harbor improvements and railroads, would certainly be very suggestive of what 
Tacoma has accomplished in a few years. But to say that these improvements 
extend along the water front for a distance of about six miles, gives a largiT idea of 
their extent. 

These features of Tacoma's enterprise and prosperity have a special meaning. 
They are not constructed simply as a matter of ornament. Business men do not 
do things that way. Business methods arc not fancy in their character. These 
improvements indicate that demands exist and are being suppUed. And Tacoma 
is doing the supplying. 

Terminal and Shippiiij*' Facilities. The fact that the Northern 
Pacific Railroad has made Tacoma its terminal ])oint is, of itself, enough to satisfy 
any one without further explanation that the terminal and shipping facilities would 
be commensurate with the importance of a great trans-continental railroad com- 
pany's interests. 

The immense docks, at which railroad and ocean traffic unite, are so large and 
involve so many distinct features that it would be difticult to impart to any one not 
familiar with such improvements an adccjuatc idea of their extent and importance. 
It is not an uncommon sight to see lying along these immense docks, only a 
few feet away from the railroad tracks, an ocean sailing-vessel, several ocean steam- 
ships, Alaska steamers, besides a host of smaller craft. This will suggest the char- 
acter and extent of these docks. The Northern Pacific Company has immense 
warehouses erected on these docks, and all the conveniences incident to the prompt, 
careful, and expeditious handling of freights. It is often a difficult matter for local 
craft to secure dock accommodations, so crowded with steamers and sailing-vessels 
do the docks become. 

These conveniences are such that the handling of immense cargoes is accom- 
plished with ease and dispatch scarcely conceivable. The ships laden with tea 
are drawn up within a few feet of the great warehouses, alongside of which are the 
railroad switches. The San Francisco steamers also discharge their freight into 
these warehouses. I^xtensive additions have been made to these docks to accom- 
modate the ever-increasing demand for room, and more extensions are in 
contemplation. 

Trade Avitli tlu> Middle AV'est. The trade with the .Middle West and 
in the Far East is made up of tea and lumber and shingles. In lumber and shingles 
most promising trade relations have been cstablisherl with the sections referred 
to, and the trade in these products is constantly increasing in \olumi'. The excel- 
lence and durability of the cedar shingles manufactured in Tacoma and vicinity 
make them superior to any manufactured elsewhere, and large quantities are now 
being shipped East. The fiualities of Puget Sound lumber has made it famous 
all over the world. Tacoma, being the terminal point of that great trans-conti- 
nental artery of commerce, the Northern Pacific Railroad naturally enjoys the 
results of such special advantages. It does not reriuire elaborate reasoning to 
convince any man that the same conditions which gave rise to such trade will in- 
crease its volume rapidly the longer the relations exist. 



SEATTLE. 

A Town of Marvelous 
Growth. 

" The Queen City 

of 

Puget Sound." 



300 • OVER THE RANGE 

Tea Trade with the Orient. It was only a few months after the 
completion of the Northern Pacific Railroarl Company's Cascade branch that the 
first tea-ship arrived in Tacoma from Yokahama. This shows how quickly Ori- 
ental and American merchants realized the advantages attending the shipping of 
tea to Tacoma. The great gain in time and reduction in expense were the consid- 
erations which have brought to Tacoma such an important branch of San Fran- 
cisco trade. Is there need to expand on the significance of these relations? Is 
there need to repeat the fact that trade brings trade ? Tea and lumber will not 
always be the only articles of commerce between the Orient and Tacoma. This 
is only the beginning, and it does not require much imagination to picture, in the 
near future, a constant stream of vessels, both steam and sail, between Tacoma 
and the various commercial cities along the western Pacific coast. Tacoma 
has first secured these trade relations. Such relations are very tenacious. 

Seattle is ttic county-seat of King County, and 
is known far and near as the "Queen City of Puget 
Sound." 

It has a present population of 90,000, against 
3,500 in 1880. The city contains national and pri- 
vate banks, daily and weekly journals, mortgage, 
loan, and trust companies; twenty churches, public 
school buildings, two of which cost $30,000 and 
$42,000 each; a territorial university, two private 
colleges, and a girl's academy, besides numerous 
private schools, three hospitals, and an orphan's 
home. The wholesale and retail stores are too many to enumerate, some of the 
former doing a business annually of $500,000 to $1,000,000 each. The city is 
admirably supplied with pure water, both by numerous private companies on a 
small scale and by the mammoth works of the Spring Hill Water Company, located 
at Lake Washington. This company has completed a great reservoir on Central 
Hill, 315 feet above tide level. Connected with it in the city are hydrants, from 
which fire-extinguishing streams are thrown far above the highest buildings in the 
business part of the city. This city has a splendid system of gas works and elec- 
tric lighting. Both arc and incandescent lights illuminate the streets. Two lines 
of street railway are in operation and steadily extending outward, and several other 
lines are projected. It contains more than forty benevolent societies and fraternal 
lodges, also four well drilled and equipped militia companies. During the past 
few years there have been added to its municipal improvements twenty-five miles 
of graded streets and sixty miles of sidewalk. Some of the recent steps in the pro- 
gress of Seattle as a metropolis are here given. On October i, 1887, the free postal 
delivery system went into effect in the city. A few weeks later Seattle was made 
the terminus and center of distribution for all the mails for the entire Puget Sound 
country. In consequence it has become the central headquarters and home port 
for destination and departure of the steamboat system of the Sound. Within its 
maritime jurisdiction arc now plying more than one hundred and fifty steamers. 
On December i, 1887, the United States District Land Office was removed to 
Seattle, making this city the principal seat of the jjublic land business in western 
Washington. 

The city of Seattle contains ten saw-mills, whose plants cost $4,000,000, which 
employ over a thousand men; and also has tributary to it, within a radius of thirty- 
five miles, the mammoth lumbering establishments of Port Blakely, Port Madison, 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 



30t 



Port Discovery, Port Gamble, Port Ludlow, Utsalady and Scabeck, said to be the 
largest saw-mills in the world, some of them having a capacity of 350,000 feet per 
diem, and employing scores of sea-going ships. There are three or four brick 
yards and tile factories, four breweries, numerous bakeries, candy factories, a 
cracker factory, several sash, door and blind factories, shingle factory, soap works, 
furniture factory, soda works, bottling establishments, carpet-weavers, match 
factory, harness and saddlery, blank books and bindery, book-printing, several 




•- -. /rtrv^^ IV 






boiler works, foundries, iron and brass works, etc.; numerous boot and shoe shops 
and tailoring establishments, factories of shirts and underwear, cigars, millinery 
goods, chair stock, barrels, plaster decorations, etc.; four marble and stone-cutting 
works, patent medicines, dressmakers, hairwork, carriage-makers, wagon-shops, 
fish -packers, coffee and spice mill, cabinetmakers, boat-builders; and numerous 
dentists, jewelers, watchmakers, florists, nurserymen, fancy poultry breeders and 
stockmen, furriers, gun and locksmiths, hatters, meat packers, photographers, 
picture-framers and painters, metallic-roof works, scroll-saw works, shipyards, tin 
shops, taxidermists, chemists, undertakers, etc. 

The export trade of Seattle and Puget Sound is very large and is rajjidly increas- 
ing. As Seattle is the chief metropolis of the entire Puget Sound region, it is not 



302 OVER THE RANGE 

far out of the way to credit the most of this business as her commerce, since it is 
largely contributory to her growth. Besides the ordinary shipments of coal, lum- 
ber, hops, oats, wheat, potatoes, furs, lime, canned and barreled salmon, the daily 
routine export trade to the neighboring British ports of Victoria and British Colum- 
bia forms an enormous item. 

Advailtag"es of" Seattle. The special advantages of Seattle are too 
numerous to mention in full. A few may be specified, as: First — A splendid 
harbor, scarcely equaled in the world for the varied purposes and conveniences of 
commerce. Second — Its central position relative to the commerce of the world, as 
the great seaport on the Pacific Ocean of North America, and directly facing 
the teeming population of Asia and the great and rich islands of the South Seas. 
It is already the chief port of supply for the growing trade of Alaska — a great 
region, more extensive than the thirteen original states of the Union, with an ocean 
coast line of thousands of miles, that is beginning now to loom up as a great coming 
source of supply of the precious metals, as well as of furs, fish, whale oil, yellow 
cedar and ice. Third — It has an excellent and most productive soil for fruits, flowers 
and garden produce, of such a nature as not to be very dusty in summer nor muddy 
in winter. Fourth — Its exceptional healthfulness. The death-rate in Seattle is 
only seven in one thousand per annum, which is less than one-third that of the 
Northern cities of the Union. Fifth — Its mild, even, and delicious climate, free from 
all dangers from the clouds above, from vapors or miasma around, or the fires 
beneath. Sixth — Its surroundings on all sides, except the magnificent harbor 
front, by grand lakes and deep, navigable rivers, which have caused it to be officially 
designated as the location of a great naval station and construction yard. Seventh — 
The one-third mile canal now completed between Lakes Union and Washington 
in the suburbs of the city, furnishes a great water-power of incalculable value for 
manufacturing and motive power. 

Seattle has two lines of local railroad completed and in operation, the Colum- 
bia & Puget Sound, with two branches, one twenty miles long, running to New- 
castle, the other forty miles long, running to the Black Diamond and Franklin 
collieries; and the Puget Sound Shore Line, extending through a link of the North- 
ern Pacific Railroad, and placing the city in connection with the Northern Pacific, 
the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company, the Oregon Short Line, the Rio 
Grande system, the Union Pacific, the Oregon & California, the Southern Pacific, 
and the general railroad system of the United States. 

The Canadian Pacific has been pushed through the Canadian Dominion by 
British capital, to a Pacific terminus, something over a hundred miles north of 
Seattle, and the Seattle & West Coast Railroad, which furnishes the connecting 
link, and makes Seattle the American terminus of this great svstem. This line, as 
regards the carrying trade, is as much an element in the transportation problem of 
the Northwest as any of the American roads. 

Beauty of tlie City. The city presents a beautiful and striking 
appearance from whatever side it is approached. It rises from the water front 
to the crest of a hill in a gradual slope. The site is most beautiful. The city 
extends about four miles along the water front. The whole water front is lined 
with mills, manufacturing establishments of various kinds, commission and storage, 
and warehouses. 

Steamers are constantly arriving and departing; regular lines run to Tacoma 
and Olympia, to Port Townsend and Victoria, to Whatcom and other points on 
Bellingham Bay, and to the Skagit River; there are regular steamers to Alaska, 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 303 

San Francisco, San Diego, and (jlhcr ])oinls in California. Shi]).s from China, 
Japan, Australia, crowd its docks. In addition to the great and varied industries 
on the water front, there are business blocks, higher uj), that would do credit to any 
Eastern city. The residence portion of Seattle is unsurpassed for beauty. There 
are hundreds of homes costing from three thousand to fifty thousand dollars, sur- 
rounded by charming grounds, and so located and constructed as to command 
magnificent views of the Sound, the Olympic and Cascade Ranges of mountains, 
always covered with snow, and the mighty peaks of Mounts Rainier and Baker. 
To the north of the city and close up to it lies the beautiful Lake Union, a body of 
fresh water covering a section or two of land, and of immense depth. The heights 
about this lake arc being covered with pleasant homes, and in the near future it will 
be a most delightful resort. To the east of the city, four miles from the bay, but 
now hardly a mile from the city limits, lies Lake Washington, twenty-five miles in 
length by from two to four in width. It is clear, fresh, sparkling water, so deep 
that it cannot or has not yet been sounded. The lake is hemmed in by hills 
covered with giant forest trees. The water supply of Seattle is drawn from this 
lake. It is connected with Lake Union by a small stream, which is being enlarged 
into a ship canal, so that within a year or two the largest steamer? and ships will go 
directly from the salt water of the Sound into the clear, fresh water of Lake Wash- 
ington. It wall make one of the finest ship-building points and dry-dock stations 
in the world, and will certainly be utilized for such purposes, cither by the National 
Government or private enterprise. There is certainly not within the national 
domain such an eligiVjle location for a great navy yard. Special attention is being 
paid to the establishment of manufacturing industries in Seattle, and almost every 
week some new enterprise is materialized. Henry Villard, in his visit to the city 
in 1878, designated it "The Queen City." Situated as it is, in the heart of western 
Washington, with railwavs running out in many directions, with a harbor equal 
to any in the world, the city well deserves the title. The city is the nucleus of 
territorial commerce; all the prosperity of the country is reflected in the general 
progress of the city. The history of the city is the history of the whole Northwest. 
It is the supply depot and shipping port for a ([uarter of a million people; it is the 
wholesale and retail market for a vast territory. Its commerce within the last two 
years has assumed enormous proportions. It is the coal and lumber shijjping 
depot for the whole Pacific coast. It is the heart of navigation of Puget Sound. 
Nearly two hundred steamers radiate from the wharves to diflVrent local points. 
(Population, 90,000; distance from San Francisco, 940 miles.) 



OGDEN TO PORTLAND 

VIA THE OREGON SHORT LINE AND THE OREGON 
RAILWAY AND NAVIGATION CO. 




HE lines of the Oregon Short Line Railway and the Oregon Railway 
S| i^ (^^o and Navigation Company, both rail and water routes, form an exten- 
' sive line of complete communication between all points in the great 
northwest. The main line extends from Ogden in a northwesterly 
J direction to Portland, with branch lines reaching to Butte and 
Helena, Montana, to the famed Yellowstone Park, to the rich mining 
regions of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, 

The scenery on this route is equal in many respects to that of the lines described 
in the preceding pages, and the beautiful country descending the Columbia River 
from Umatilla to Portland is replete with grand views of mountain, meadow, and 
valley. 

Og"flen, Utah. The southern terminus of this line is described elsewhere 
in this volume, and boarding one of the elegant trains of the Oregon Short Line 
at the Union station at Ogden we start on our Journey to the northwest and reach, 
as the first station on our trip 

Hot Spring's, Utjlll. Very picturesque as to location, being surrounded 
by rugged mountains, which attain an altitude of more than a mile above the 
springs, which are situated four thousand two hundred and forty-six feet above the 
sea level. 

Brigiiam, Utah, population 3,000, is a county-seat of Box Elder County; 
has a bank, opera-house, electric lights, telephone exchange, flour-mill, planing- 
mill, and knitting factory, marble and onyx works, creamery, schools, the 
largest of which cost Wenty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, three churches. 
Principal industry, fruit-shipping; specialty, strawberries, cherries, peaches, and 
cantaloupes. The commercial center of Bear River Valley, irrigated by the Bear 
River Land, Orchard and Beet Sugar Company, which company operates one of 
the largest canals in the Uinted States, covering one hundred and fifty thousand 
acres of choice land. Finest duck-shooting grounds in the inter-mountain region, 
fifteen miles distant. 

Dewey, Utah, yiojnilation, 200, is the shipping-])oint for Bear River 
Valley, one of the finest farming sections in the state, (jood duck-hunting, good 
grain, hay, and fruit section. 

Colli.stcHi, Utah. Population, 100, a tributary population of 3,000 in 
surrounding country. Principal business carried on is farming and stock-raising. 
Bear River Water Company has fine canal running through country, and now 
is opening up a branch of canal on cast side of river ne.xt the station; a 
power company is now surveying for an electric plant, to l)e established close to 
Station. 

Cache Junction, Utall. r()i)ulation, 300. C.ood farming and cattle 

304 




A MIGHTY CLIMB. CRIPPLE CREEK SHORT LINE. 




ST. PETER'S DOME. CRIPPLE CREEK SHORT LINE. 



3o6 OVER THE RANGE 

country. Is the junctional point with the branch to Preston. On the Preston 
branch we soon reach 

IjOg"ail, XJtall. Population, 6,000. County-seat of Cache County, one 
hundred miles north of Salt Lake City. Lighted by electric lights. Has complete 
water system owned by city, good public schools, and in addition has the State 
Agricultural College, Brigham Young College, and New Jersey (Presbyterian) 
Academy. Has two newspapers, opera-house, eight hundred capacity; two banks, 
beet-sugar factory, four flour-mills, four planing-mills, two knitting factories, one 
woolen mill, two breweries, one agricultural implement factory, one steam laundry, 
one grain elevator, two cold-storage houses, two creameries, one foundry. 

Franklin, Idaho. Population, 850. Principal industries, agriculture 
and stock-raising, creamery, flour-mill, planing-mill, woolen mill, and brick-making. 
Excellent trout-fishing within two blocks of Oregon Short Line depot. Special 
rates at hotels to fishing parties. 

Preston, IdallO, population, 1,500, is in Oneida County, and situated in 
the extreme southeastern portion of the state, it being the terminus of the Cache 
Valley, or Preston branch of the Oregon Short Line Railroad. It is in a 
very fertile and productive district. The principal industries are farming and 
stock-raising. There are about twenty thousand acres of land under irrigation in 
the vicinity, the going price of which, with water-rights, is fifty to sixty dollars per 
acre, the price of dry farm land being from ten to twelve dollars per acre. Wheat 
is the principal farm product. 

Returning to the main line at Cache Junction, and resuming our northward 
journey, we pass Ransom, a small station, being the last one in Utah. 

Oxford, Idaho. Population, 400. Industries, agriculture, stock-raising, 
and dairying. 

McCaninion, Idaho. Population, 300. Fine surrounding valleys, well 
settled. Farming community; cattle, horses, and sheep handled in large cjuanti- 
ties; flour-mill, capacity one hundred and fifty barrels per day, takes care of all 
wheat raised in vicinity. Portneuf River, running through town, has numerous 
falls of from six to twenty-four feet, affording large water-power, which at present 
is unused and generally unclaimed. About ten thousand acres of farming land 
within ten miles of town, practically all under irrigation ditches, price with water- 
right ranges from forty to one hundred dollars per acre. Junctional jioint with the 
branch line to Granger, Wyo. 

PocateHo, Idaho. Population, 5,000. Commands only gateway into 
central Idaho from east and south; is at intersection of the two main trunks of the 
Oregon Short Line system, one connecting Salt Lake and Butte and the other 
Portland and river points. It is the southern terminal for the St. Anthony branch, 
and for the newly constructed Salmon River Railroad piercing central Idaho. Has 
the largest railroad shops on the Oregon Short Line system, and work to rebuild 
plant at a cost of eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars has just begun; the 
present shop force is five hundred men, and will be increased to eight hundred men 
with the new plant. The present population and commercial importance has been 
secured in ten years. The city has well-graded streets and shade trees, splendid 
water system, mountain springs, electric light, and telephone systems, with connec- 
tions with all inter-mountain points; has substantial brick and stone business blocks^ 
handsome private residences, splendid public school system, all religious denomina- 
tions represented with modern church edifices. Is the county-seat of Bannock 
County, and has under construction a twenty thousand dollar courl-house, and 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. ■ 30^ 

work is just beginning on the Academy of Idaho, which is to cost two hundred 
thousand dollars. 

From Pocatello wc will find it interesting to take a short side trip to the Yellow- 
stone and Butte. 

Blackf'oot, l4lall<>. Population, 1,500. The first station north of Pocatello 
and connecting-point of the Salmon River Railroad branch road. It is the county- 
seat of Bingham County; also the seat of the United States Land OfTicc of the 
largest district in the state, and also one of the state institutions — the Insane 
Asylum. Blackfoot is the shipping-point for all the mining camps in Custer 
County. The principal industries are farming, stock-raising, and placer-mining 
along Snake River. Fruit-raising is one of the coming industries. Large quanti- 
ties of small fruits are shipped each season. Bingham County has more miles of 
canals and irrigation ditches than any county in the state. Thousands of acres of 
government land are subject to entry at the local land office, while valuable farms, 
well improved, can be bought from eight to twenty-five dollars per acre. 

IdallO Falls, I<la1lo. Population, 1,700. Electric lights, waterworks, 
long-distance telejjhone, also city exchange, seven churches, public schools, 
creamery, planing-mill, five large flour mills; surrounding country exclusively 
engaged in stock-raising and agriculture. Finest farming country in the state, 
crop failures unknown. Soil adapted to lucerne, potatoes, and small grain. The 
country is developing raj^idly. Thousands of acres of the richest farming land in 
the Snake River Valley under successful irrigation. 

Market Lake, Idaho. Population, 150. Good schools, principal 
industries farming and stock-raising. Plenty of good free range west of town. 
Butte and Market Lake Canal runs close to the town, and covers about seventeen 
thousand acres of fine farming land. 

Dubois, Idaho. Population, 200. Industries, stock-raising exclusively. 
Speiioer, Idaho. Pojiulation, 50. Sheep-raising is the chief industry, 
being the headquarters for live stock. The surrounding country afTords a fine 
summer range. 

Moilida, Montana. Population, 50. Situated on the summit of the 
Rocky Mountains, 6,969 feet above level of the sea. Stock-raising is the principal 
industry in the immediate xdcinity, but back in the country about thirty or forty 
miles grain is raised to some extent. In what is known as the Centennial Valley 
a vein of very rich gold ore has been located, which tends to increase the value of 
the country to a great extent. At this point we leave the railway for the stage 
tour of the Yellowstone Park. 

The YelloAVStoiie Park, Montana. Monida, a station on the 
Oregon Short Line Railroad, on the crest of the Rocky Mountains, seven thousand 
feet above the tide, is the starting-point for the stage ride, and is less than one 
day's coaching distance from the Yellowstone Park. The name "Monida" is a 
composite of the first syllables of "Montana" and "Idaho." 

The lower Geyser Basin in the park is about the same elevation as Monida, so 
that the stage route passes through a level country, and all the way is lined with 
picturesque scenes, making the coaching trip one of the most delightful in the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, who, with his party, visited Salt Lake City and other 
portions of the west during the summer of 1898, says: "But the most delightful 
part of this American continent is the Yellowstone Park. My two visits there made 
upon me an impression that will last forever. Go in via the Monidda route, as we 



3oS OVER THE RAXGE 

did this summer, and save two hundred and fifty miles of railroading, your stage 
coach taking you through a day of scenery as captivating and sublime as Yellow- 
stone Park itself." 

The stage road from Monida to the park threads the foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains, skirting beautiful Centennial Valley, the Red Rock Lakes, and after 
passing through Alaska Basin, crosses the Divide to Henrj' Lake in Idaho, whence 
it recrosses the range into Montana via Targhe Pass, near the Western entrance to 
the park. Red Rock Lakes are one of the sources of the Missouri River, and in 
Henry Lake originates one of the branches of the Snake. From Henry Lake are 
distinctly ^^sible the famous Teton Peaks. Near the western entrance to the park 
prettily situated on the south fork of the Madison River, is GrayHng Inn (Dwelles), 
the night station for tourists going in and out of the park. After passing Grayling 
Inn the road enters the reservation, winding through Christmas Tree Park to 
Riverside Military station, following the beautiful Madison River and caiion to the 
P'ountain Hotel in Lower Geyser Basin. 

The Yellowstone Xatioiial Park, 3Ioiitaiia. Lies principally 
in the northwest corner of Wyoming, though portions of it creep over into 
Montana and Idaho. In 1872 its 3,344 square miles were withdrawn from the 
public domain by an Act of Congress, "and dedicated and set apart as a public 
park, or pleasure ground, for the benefit and enjoyment of the people." It is 
nature's great curiosity shop. Around it are ranges ha\ing peaks fourteen hundred 
feet high, and within it are a diversity of incomparable marvels of nature which 
neither pen nor tongue can fitly depict. 

Here, amid the grandeur of Alpine scenery, tinted with colors of indescribable 
variety and beauty, are geysers spouting at precise intervals their scalding waters 
skyward; terrace-building fountains; pools of steaming clay; everlasting springs 
iced in earth's depths or boiling from her furnaces; and the Yellowstone Lake, a 
mile and a half above sea level; and romantic vales and shaded glens; and all else 
that prodigal creative genius could furnish to fill the land with wonders. 

The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, Montana. A gash 
in the earth ten miles long and one thousand two hundred feet deep — its awful 
depths stirred by the music of the rushing river; its great falls roaring and whisper- 
ing every sound described in the swinging old rhyme, "The Way the Waters Come 
Down at Ladore;" its painted walls, lurid with every tint from the palette of the 
Master; and all the blended colors of all the paint-pots ever mi.xed by mortal or 
immortal hands; its shadows, somber and gray; its sun-gilded pinnacles — who 
shall describe that ? 

What an awful, what a majestic, ^vhat an incomparable wonder it is ? To see 
its cliffs of volcanic glass, its unsurpassed water effects, its mountains of petrifac- 
tions, its hills of brimstone, its perpetually snow-covered peaks, is to gaze upon a 
spectacle of grandeur such as the world elsewhere cannot produce. 

The rivers and lakes of Y'ellowstone abound in trout, the United States Fish 
Commission having stocked many of the waters. Native trout only are found in 
the Yellowstone Lake and River, but the Fire Hole, Gibbon, and Nez Perces Rivers, 
and Indian, Willow, and Shoshone creeks are filled with eastern trout. 

In Madis(m River native and eastern trout, whitefish and grayling abound. 

Rainbow trout were once planted in the Gibbon River, but they sought the 
deeper waters of the Madison, from whence sjjecimens weighing six pounds and 
over have been taken . 

There are land-locked salmon twenty to thirty inches long in Shoshone Lake. 



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3IO OVER THE RANGE 

The rules of the park as to hunting and fishing are very strict, but as yet few 
regulations have been interposed to the use of the rod. Ladies enjoy trout fishing 
in Yellowstone Lake, where rowboats and guides are easily obtained. 

Two companies of United States cavalry are stationed at Fort yellowstone 
(Mammoth Hot Springs). During the summer detachments of these troops are 
placed at different localities in the reservation. Their duties are to patrol the park, 
prevent the spreading of forest fires and the commission of acts of vandalism. The 
troops have authority to arrest for any violation of park regulations. Hunting is 
especially prohibited, and all guns are officially sealed at the entrance to the park. 

The commanding officer at Fort Yellowstone is acting superintendent of the 
reservation. 

All rules and regulations emanate from the department of the interior, and 
printed copies of the same will be found at every hotel. 

Returning to Monida after our tour of the park we resume our northward 
journey. 

Liillia, Montana. Population, 500. Source of revenue arc railroad em- 
ployment, the machine shops, round-house, and fine gravel pit. Horses, cattle, 
sheep, wool, hay, and grain; twenty-five thousand acres of land under irrigation 
are tributary. Valuable deposits of gypsum, white and red sand-stone, as well as 
good supply of timber, can be found in mountains nearby, while copper deposits 
are plentiful in Sheep Creek, twelve miles distant; good water supply. 

Keel Rock, Montana. Population, 50. Red Rock is the center of 
extensive stock interest, very considerable shipments of cattle, horses, and sheep 
being made. It is the nearest railroad and shipping point for Lemhi County, 
Idaho, and extensive gold and copper-mining districts around Salmon City and 
Blackbird, Idaho. The recent developments in this section of country are bringing 
it greatly into prominence. Stage leaves daily for all these points. 

Dillon, Montana. Population, 2,500. It is one of those marvels of the 
aggressive west, and is to-day one of the solid, substantial towns of the great 
northwest. It is the county-seat of Beaverhead County, and is most beautifully 
laid out in one of the prettiest mountain valleys. It is the metropolis of a region 
two thousand sfjuare miles in extent, and is the distributing-point for the richest 
and most productive country in the state of Montana, half of which is mountainous, 
highly mineralized, and also utilized for grazing lands for vast herds of cattle, 
horses, and sheep. The other half is farming land, very fertile. No other section 
is so favored for the settler or the capitalist. All the comforts of life arc to be had 
in Dillon. The public school facilities are unexcelled. 

Melrose, Montana. Population, 200. Located about midway between 
Dillon and Butte in the Big Hole Valley, twelve miles from the mining town of 
Rochester, with a population of five hundred, and a good market for all kinds of 
produce. Industries, mining, farming, and stock-raising; principal crops grown, 
potatoes, hay, and oats. 

I>ivi<le, Montana. Population, 50. Located on the bank of the Big 
Hole River, about twenty-seven miles south of Butte. Principal industries, agri- 
cultural and stock-raising. In this valley there are about three thousand acres 
of land under water. Divide is the distributing-point for the Big Hole Basin, 
which lies some twenty miles to the west. The Basin is about fifty miles scjuarc, 
mostly under water. Industries in this Basin, livestock only, all fine hay land. 
Hunting and fishing all through this vicinity; grayling, trout, and whitcfish; deer, 
bear, elk, moose, and small game. 



TO THE COLDKX GATE. 31 I 

Silver Bow, Montana. Population, 120. Tlu- terminus of this branch 
of the Oregon Short Line. From this point to Butte the trains run over the tracks 
of the Northern Pacific Company. 

Butt<', Montana. Population, 30,470. Gas and electric light; com- 
mercial center of Montana; greatest mining camp in America. Junction point of 
Oregon Short Line and Great Northern Railways, on main line Northern Pacific. 
City growing rapidly, immense amount building in operation; electric cars to all 
parts of the city; largest dancing-hall in northwest at Columbia gardens; fishing 
and hunting on the Big Hole River is delight of good sportsmen. The Thornton 
Hotel is now open for visitors; each room is connected with office bv telephone; 
hot and cold water, and private bath is in each room. Besides the Thornton, 
there are several other fine hotels; all American and European plan. 

Having visited the famous copper mines of Butte, the City of Helena, and other 
points of interest in this vicinity, we return to Pocatello and resume our journey 
toward Portland. 

American Falls, Tdalio. Population, 75. Principal indu.stries, agri- 
cultural, in small grains and fruit; stock-raising is the largest industry. Placer- 
mining in Snake River. Available land now under water, which is all taken up, 
about three thousand acres. There is under construction now an irrigation canal 
of sixty-four miles in length; water taken from Snake River at Blackfoot, Idaho, 
and will extend thirteen miles below this town. This canal will irrigate about 
four hundred thousand acres of good soil, available to raise any grain or fruit sub- 
ject to this country. A power-plant is also located here and run by water-power, 
and generates three thousand horse-power, and light and power is furnished for 
all surrounding towns. 

Minidoka, Idaho. Population, 1,200. Daily stage for Albion and Oak- 
ley, which are the trading-points for the best and one of the wealthiest farm and 
fruit-growing spots of the west. Albion supports the state normal school, which 
has only the best faculty and educational facilities. Snake River is the scene of 
much placer and dredge mining, and within a radius of ten miles from Minidoka 
there are hundreds of thousands of dollars washed from the sands of this river 
yearly. 

Ivimania, Idaho. Population, 25. Situated upon the great rocky desert 
of Idaho. Kimama is forty miles north of Oakley, Idaho; sixty miles northeast of 
Rock Creek, Idaho. No farming nearer than the two above-named places. 
Thousands of ; '-cep and horses are herded in this vicinity. 

Shoshone, Idaho. Population, 500. Is the county-seat of Lincoln 
County, situated in the center of the great lava desert. Shoshone and vicinity are 
well watered by the two mountain streams. Big and Little Wood River, is trans- 
formed into a veritable oasis in the midst of the desert. These streams furnish 
water for the many fertile farms and orchards, for which this [)art of Idaho is 
becoming famous. Wool-growing is the principal industry. Placer mining is also 
extensively carried on along the shores of Snake River. The great attraction for 
sight-seers is the Shoshone Falls, situated about twenty-five miles southeast of 
Shoshone on Snake River; a daily stage connects them with main line at that place. 
Shoshone is the junction-point with the Wood River branch to Belle\Tje, Hailey, 
and Ketchum. 

Bellevne, I<laho. Population, 800. Bellevuc is the supply-point for the 
agricultural sections of Silver Creek, Spring Creek, Little Wood River, and Muldoon, 
from ten to twenty-two miles distant. The great summer range for the vast cattle 



$li OVER THE RANGE 

and sheep herds supports a large agricuUural section. Wheat, oats, and hay, also 
the best fruits of all kinds, are raised here. Wood River, Silver Creek, and Little 
Wood River furnish ample water for irrigating-ditchcs. Silver and lead mining 
is a great industry for this section. The Minnie Moore mine that has produced 
over seven million dollars in dividends, is being worked by Chicago capitalists, 
and is only one mile from Belle vuc. 

Hililey, IrtallO. Population, 1,460. Is the county-seat of Blain County, 
situated on Big Wood River, surrounded by rich mining country. Has electric 
lights, long-distance telephone, also city exchange. Hot springs one mile west of 
town, surrounded by beautiful mountains, where bathing can be had. First-class 
hotel, all modern conveniences. Good schools, churches, etc. Fish and game in 
abundance. 

Ketolmill, Idaho. Population, 300. At the northern extremity of the 
Wood River branch; is an excellent summer resort. The chief industries are mining 
and stock-raising. About one thousand acres of land are under irrigation, and a 
large acreage is available. Three miles west of Ketchum are the Guyer Hot 
Sulphur Springs, where there is located a roomy hotel, with beautiful grounds, 
surrounded by numerous cottages, and good fishing and hunting. Facilities are 
provided for steam, tub, and plunge baths, and accommodations for one hundred 
people. 

Bliss, Idaho. Again on the main line. Population, 500. Nearest station 
to Hagerman, reached by stage. Principal industry, farming and stock-raising; 
good fishing in vicinity. 

Glenn's Ferry, Idaho. Population, about 500. Stock-raising is about 
the only business of any note, although there is some ranching. 

Mountain Hcnno, Idaho. Population, 1,000. County-scat of Elmore 
County. Stock-raising principal industry. Mining and farming carried on quite 
extensively. About five thousand acres of land under water. 

Nanipa, IdallO. Population, 1,500. Industries, fine agricultural and fruit, 
and exceptional stock-raising facihties. Iron foundry, canning, and evaporating 
establishments; creamery. One hundred and fifty thousand acres fine land now 
under water; forty thousand acres under cultivation, balance will be irrigated upon 
completion of present irrigation plants. Junctional point with branch line to Boise. 

Meridian, Idaho. Population, 300. Midway between Nampa and Boise, 
Two churches, fine creamery, school-house, accommodating the largest school in 
Ada County, outside of Boise, and four general stores. The town is comparatively 
new, but is being pushed ahead by thickly settled farming settlement surrounding it. 
The principal industries are fruit-growing, hay, and stock-raising. Land is valued 
at fifteen to forty dollars per acre. Plenty of water for present necessities and 
for considerable more land than is under cultivation, with good j)rospecls for much 
more available in the near future. 

Boise City, Tdaho. Population, 5,957. Is the caijilal of Idaho. The 
city has electric lights, waterworks, and paved streets; many of the buildings are 
heated by natural hot water. The natatorium is one of the very finest bathing- 
resorts in the inter-mountain country. The princi[)al industries carried on in the 
vicinity are mining, fruit-growing, agriculture, cattle and shee]i raising; a vast wool 
production centers in the city. There arc two national and twn stale banks in 
Boise. There is one hundred. thousand acres of available land in the Boise Valley 
not yet under cultivation, but under water; land for agricultural ])urposes ranges 
in price in the raw state from ten to fifteen dollars per acre; nearer the city land is 



314 OVER THE RANGE 

valued at from twenty-five to forty dollars per acre. All this land is adapted to 
fruit-growing, but that nearer the city has a special value for that purpose. 

Caltlwell, Idalio. Population, 1,500. Stock-raising and agricultural. 
Available land under water, five thousand acres. Four newspapers and two banks. 

Payette, Idaho. Population, 1,200. In the Payette and Snake River 
Valleys, surrounded by very fertile lands, irrigated by waters from these streams, 
contiguous to unlimited open range and possessing a very mild climate, this is an 
ideal agricultural and stock-raising district. Fruit-growing is the largest and most 
profitable industry; the principal fruits grown are prunes, apples, and pears; cante- 
loupes produced here have made a wide and favorable reputation, large rjuantities 
of them are grown and shipped. Stock-raising is next in importance, many sheep 
and cattle being owned, ranged, and fed in this vicinity. A sawmill on the banks of 
the Payette River manufactures lumber from logs of fir and yellow pine, which are 
cut from large forests at the headwaters and floated down this stream. 

AVeiser, I<lall(>. Population, 1,670. Two banks, wholesale and retail 
mercantile houses and other business houses up to the standard. The town is 
substantially built of brick, with modern residences, handsome lawns and shade 
trees. The school facilities are of the best. Weiser College and Academy, and 
Idaho Industrial Institute. Weiser is the commercial and banking center for a 
rich country extending one hundred and fifty miles north. It is adjacent to exten- 
sive ranges, and is immediately surrounded by the finest agricultural and fruit land 
in the west. It is the gateway to the Seven Devils copper mines, and includes in its 
resources the mining of all precious metals, timbering, stock-raising, husbandry, 
and fruit-growing. Ships two million pounds of wool each year, with corresponding 
output of mutton and other livestock. It has the largest fruit evaporator and 
flour mill in the state. 

Hlllltillg'ton, Ores'On. Population, 850. Junction of Oregon Railroad 
& Navigation Company and Oregon Short Line systems. Three churches, fine 
school building, several general merchandise stores, livery barns and storage ware- 
houses. Principal industries are stock-raising, mining, and fruit-growing; also 
manufacturing lime and plaster of first quality, in large quantities. Is also point of 
supply for large interior country, embracing Harney and Malheur Counties. The 
Oregon Lime & Marble Company, three and a half miles west of town, mnaufacture 
and ship large quantities of lime, plaster, and gy[)sum. The Eastern Oregon Land 
& Irrigation Company, capitalized at five hundred thousand dollars, has its head- 
quarters here. The Pomeroy Dredger Mining i)lant is operated on a large scale 
at Weathcrby on Burnt River, a few miles west. 

OREGON RAILWAY AND NAVIGATION COMPANY. 

Leaving Huntington, we are on the lines of the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
Company, and the first station we ])ass is 

I)urlv<'e, Oreji"oii. Population, 200. Paying mines with stamp mills 
running, and many small mines and promising jirospects; two large irrigation 
ditches, watering ten thousand acres of rich farming lands. A favorite winter 
feeding-place for stockmen, many of whom drive their flocks and herds long dis- 
tances to winter here. 

l*l<'asailt A'alley, Oreji'Oll. I'opulalion, 150. C'hirf industries, mining, 
lumbering, and stock-raising. 

Saker City, Oreg'Oll. Population, 6,663. Counly-.seat of liaker Count}'. 



TO THE GOLD EX GATE. 315 

Baker City is the center and metropolis of the Eastern Oregon gold fields, including 
fourteen thousand sfjuarc miles of gold-ribbed mountains and gold-strewn gulches 
and creek beds. It is situated three hundred and fifty-five miles southeast of Port- 
land, at an altitude of three thousand f(^ur hundred and forty feet above the level of 
the sea. Its climate is unsurpassable in all healthful and invigorating (jualities 
The whole region is rich in agricultural and horticultural possibilities on the surface 
and mineral resources underneath. There are over five hundred tributary mines 
in operation, or in process of develojjmenl, several of them producing from five 
hundred to one thousand five hundred dollars a day each. The Bonanza mine, 
which could not be sold for one thousand dollars a few years ago, turned out one 
hundred and two thousand dollars in gold bricks in the single month of March, 
looi. Baker City has ore-sampling works and a custom mill, a one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollar gravity water system, gas and electric light systems; six saw 
and plaining mills, with a daily capacity of one hundred and .seventy-five thousand 
feet of lumber, or fifty-five million feet a year, one company alone employing over 
three hundred hands; two breweries costing seventy-five thousand dollars; two 
foundries and machine shops; a telephone system with five hundred subscribers; 
street railways; a chamber of commerce, churches of all denominations; a Masonic 
temple, and halls of all the other fraternal orders; a thirty-five thousand dollar opera 
house; three daily newspapers; free postal delivery, and the third post-office in the 
state in volume of business; a superb natatorium, and a si.xty thousand dollar hos- 
pital. The public schools of the city won the gold medal at the Omaha E.xjjosition 
and the Sisters of St. Francis have an academy with buildings that have cost fifty 
thousand dollars. The two banks of the city carry one million five hundred thou- 
sand of deposits. More than fifty handsome business blocks, and scores of residences 
have recently gone up, and there are fifteen hotels. Baker City is the junction-point 
with the Sumpter Valley Railway, leading to Lockhart, McEwen, and Sumpter, 
thirty-one miles distant. 

Union, Oreg'on. County-seat of Union County. Population of town alxjut 
2,000, of county, 17,000. Has woolen mills, flouring mills, sawmills, ])laning-mill.s, 
bo.x factory, largest fruit evaporator in Eastern Oregon, creamery, state experi- 
ment station, electric lights, gravity water works, two schools, two-story brick court- 
house, and county jail, city hall, six churches, national bank, telephones, suburban 
railroad, two daily stage lines, two newspapers, hot mineral springs, undeveloped 
water powers, projected railroad to timber and mines adjacent, in the midst of fertile 
fruit, sugar-beet and agricultural lands, in the best watered .section of Eastern 
Oregon. Nearly all lines of ordinary business represented. 

Hot IjSlke, ()rej»"Oii. Union County, 313 miles east of Portland, on the 
main line of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company. What the famous Hot 
Springs of Arkansas are to that state and the East, Hot Lake is to Oregon 
and the West. For untold ages the springs have poured forth their volcanic- 
heated water, and the locality has always been known as the "Big Medicine" 
camp of the Indian. The flow of the springs is about 2,500,000 gallons a day, 
or over 100,000 gallons an hour. The temperature of the water, where it spouts 
out of the earth, is 198 degrees, and that of the lake, which has an area of eighty 
acres, and which discharges through a creek into Grande Ronde River, from 70 
to 80 degrees throughout the entire winter. 

The water, pleasing to the taste, has cured and restored to health innumerable 
invalids, who had tried in vain much-advertised and noted resorts. A sanatorium, 
costing $150,000, pro\-ides luxurious accommodations for invalids and tourists. 



3i6 OVER THE RANGE 

La Grande, Orejfou. Population, 2,991; township, 6,000; county, 15,000. 
Heart of the celebrated Grande Ronde Valley. Eight churches, four schools 
two banks, three newspapers. La Grande's beet-sugar factory last year produced 
1,800,000 pounds of fine sugar, and it has a flourishing creamery. The region 
is rich in all agricultural and horticultural resources, and has room for thousands 
of industrious farmers, beet-growers and stock-raisers. La Grande is the junction- 
point for Elgin. 

Klg'ill, Oreg'Oll. Township population, 2,400. Four churches, two schools, 
two hotels, one newspaper, one flouring mill, with a capacity of seventy barrels a 
day; several sawmills, one planing mill, a fine brown stone quarry. Soil fertile, 
producing heavy crops of grain, grass, vegetables, and fruits. Good pasturage. 
Abundance of timber, pure, soft water, climate mild and healthful. Elgin is the 
main shipping-point for Wallowa County, with its 6,000 population. It offers 
many advantages to homeseekers. 

Perry, Oreg'Oll. Population, 350. A school, a lumbering plant, country 
rugged and heavily timbered. 

Hilg'ard, Oregon. An important lumbering point, three adjacent saw 
mills having an aggregate capacity of 64,000 feet a day, the product going to 
all parts of Idaho, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. 

Kaniela, Oregon. Population, 220. Railroad round-house. Wood and 
timber-handling point. 

Meaoliani, Oregon. Population, 300. Much lumber and cordwood 
shipped. Scenery superb, climate cool and delightful, fme hunting and fishing, 
lovely camping grounds. Here is the famous Log Cabin Eating House, favorably 
known by traveling people all over the country.' 

Bingham Spring-.s, Oregon. In the very heart of the pretty Blue 
Mountains, and reached after a most enjoyable six-mile drive over a tree-shaded 
road from Bingham Station, 252 miles east of Portland, on the main line of the 
Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company, are Bingham Springs, having an eleva- 
tion of 2,200 feet, and surrounded by peaks from 3,500 to 7,000 feet high. 

Bursting, at varying heights, from the face of an almost perpendicular preci- 
pice of rock, the springs — several in number — have an aggregate flow of about 
120,000 gallons a day, discharging into the Umatilla River. All of the springs 
contain sulphur, and have a uniform temperature of about 100 degrees, but vary 
greatly in composition, several being as highly charged with gas as champagne, 
and one is sharply acid. The waters have proven beneficial in many forms of 
nervous disorders, stomach and liver trouble, and the milder types of gout, rheu- 
matism, and kidney disease. 

The accommodations are good, and there is a resident physician in attendance. 
Good saddle horses are always to be had, and the roads lead to some most inviting 
mountain places, where trout and salmon fishing is splendid, and game easily found. 

Pendleton, Oregon. County seat of Umatilla County, which, with 
scarcely 15,000 population, produces i per cent of all the wheat raised in the United 
States. Its crop in 1900 was 5,000,000 bushels, worth, at that time, $3,750,000 in 
gold, or $250.00 for every man, woman, and child in its borders. The assessed 
valuation of the county is $7,355,662 — nearly $500.00 for every inhabitant, old and 
young. It is in the very heart of the famous wheat belt, where from 40 to 60 bushels 
to the acre is not an uncommon yield, and 80 bushels to the acre have been pro- 
duced. Pendleton is 231 miles east of Portland. It has 6,000 population, an 
increase of 1,094 since the census of 1900. It has broad, well paved streets, a splendid 



31 8 OVER THE RANGE 

electric light system, water works that cost $75,000, two flouring mills with a daily 
capacity of 1,500 barrels, and wool scouring mills with a capacity of 50,000 pounds 
a day. The town handles from 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 pounds of wool a year, 
and one of its woolen mills manufactures the famous "Pendleton Indian Robe" 
which is almost fire and water proof. It has churches of all denominations, three 
pubHc schools and two academies, a live daily newspaper, a weekly and semi- 
weekly, and a monthly devoted to live stock interests, and many handsome public 
and private buildings. Three dairies and creameries cannot supply the demand 
for their products. The two banks carry deposits running from $1,200,000 to 
$1, 500,000. Pendleton is the junction-point with the Hne leading north to Grange 
City, where it makes another connection with the Hne from Umatilla to Spokane. 
On this branch line we pass Saxe, Havana, Eastland, Adams, and 

Athena, Oreg"Oll. Population of township, 1,250. An important wheat 
shipping-point. Surrounding country rich in agricultural capabilities. Fine trout 
fishing in all the streams. Climate dehghtful. Then come, in the order named, 
Weston, Downing, Blue Mountain, Bates, Melton, Spofford, and then we reach 

Walla Walla, Wasllillg'toil. County seat of Walla Walla County, 
one of the garden spots of the Pacific Northwest. The town is situated 218 miles 
east of Portland and 204 miles southeast of Spokane. It has a population of 
10,048, thirteen churches, four public schools, si.x collegiate institutions, including 
two Catholic, one Episcopalian, one Adventist, one business college and Whitman 
college, two extensive manufactories of threshing machines and agricultural imple- 
ments, and ice, broom, saddle-tree, and sash and door factories, a distillery, two 
breweries, four newspapers and three banks, carrying deposits running from $2,500,- 
000 to $3,500,000. Walla Walla has a five-troop United States cavalry post, and 
the Wasliington State penitentiary is located here. It has three hotels and numer- 
ous restaurants and lodging houses. It is also an important railway center, the 
O. R. & N. Co.'s branches to Wallula, Dixie, and Dudley having their termini 
here. Continuing northward, we pass in quick succession Valley Grove, Hadley, 
and Prescott, then comes 

Bolles, Waslliii!H-t<m. In the rich Walla Walla Valley. Population, 50. 
Grain shipping-point. Lands productive and high priced. The junction with the 
branch to 

Waitslmrj*-, Wasliiiij;'t<)ii. Population, 1,000. Four churches, a jnib- 
lic school and a denominational academy, planing mill and chop mill, a combined 
harvester manufactory, a bank, a flouring mill with a capacity of 350 barrels a day. 
Surrounding region rich in soil. And to 

Dayton, Washinji'ton. Population, 3,000. Eleven churches, four 
schools, a brewery and malt house, two flouring mills. Surrounded by rich grain- 
growing lands, where there never was a crop failure. Good timber, convenient 
and fine trout streams. Again we take the main line and continue our northward 
journey. Menoken and Alto arc jiassed, and we arrive at 

Starbnck, \Vasliinj;-ton. Population, 371. About 6,000 acres of rich 
wheat lands tributary. Some government lands yet open, chiefly suited for grazing. 
The junction points with the branch for Delaney, Chard, Zumwalt, and 

Ponioroy, Washinji'ton. Township population, 1,200. Six churches, 
a grammar school of eight grades, and a high school, one bank, two newspapers, 
a flouring mill, a feed mill, and a i)laning mill. In the heart of one of the richest 
grain, fruit, and vegetable growing regions on the Pacific Coast. Land from $5.00 
to $25.00 an acre. Two hotels at $1.00 a day and up. The next station is 



TO THE COLDRN GATE. 319 

Grange City, which will be described in place on the line to Spokane, and we 
retrace our steps to Pendleton, take u[) again the main line, and after passing 
Barnhart, Yorkum, and Nolin, we reach 

EcllO, Ore^'OH. Population, tributary, iSoo. (jcjod school, two churches, 
flouring mill with a capacity of 150 barrels a day. Three irrigation ditches leave 
the Umatilla River near Echo, and water a large body of rich lands. .Ml 
kinds of grain, grasses, and vegetables flourish. (Jood opportunities for 
homeseekers. 

Umatilla, Ol'ej»"<>n. Population, 250. Junction of Spokane and Hunt- 
ington lines of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company. District school, 
Umatilla and Stokes irrigation ditch, seven miles long; soil, under irrigation, good 
for grass and fruit, especially melons. 

Here we decide to make a side trip, in a northeasterly clirection, to Spokane and 
its interesting environments. Following the banks of the beautiful Columbia, 
we pass Cold Springs and Juniper and arrive at 

AVallula, Wasliillji'tcm. A town of 500 inhabitants, anfl principally 
important as a railway junction-point, for here converge the several branches of 
the O. R. & N. Co. and the Washington & Columbia River railroad. 

Leaving Wallula, we are taken along the banks of the beautiful Snake River, and 
pass rapidly the small stations of Humorist, Snake River, Page, Simmons, Walkers, 
Scott, Moore, and Ayer, and reach Grange City, where the line from Pendleton has 
its connection. Crossing the Snake River we are landed at Riparia, where we may 
leave the train and take the O. R. & N. Co.'s steamers, "Spokane" or "Lewiston," 
for the trip up the Snake River to 

Le^viston, I<lall(>. Population, 3,000. County seat of Nez Perce County, 
beautifully situated at the junction of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, and sur- 
rounded by one of the richest farming, fruit-growing, stock-raising and mining re- 
gions in the Pacific Northwest. The town has fine waterworks, electric light and 
sewerage systems; five churches, the State Normal School, private academies for 
boys and girls, and good public schools; three banks, a number of the largest mercan- 
tile houses in the state, two flouring mills, two sawmills, a foundry, and a sash and 
door factory. The United States land office is here, and a splendid steel 
bridge unites Lewiston with Clarkston, on the opposite side of Snake River, 
thus virtually combining the names of the two famous explorers in a dual city. 
The Clarkston Irrigation Company has invested $1,000,000 in canals, ditches, 
and other improvements. The city is the supply and distribution point for all 
the great mining regions about Buffalo Hump, Elk City, and Florence, and has daily 
lines of stages to all important camps. Returning to Riparia we again resume the 
rail journey. 

La Cros.se, Wasllilig'toil. Population, nominal; is the junction with 
the branch to Pampa, Hoojier, Washtucna, Kahlotus, Sulpher, and Conncll. 

Colfax, WasllillJ4"toil. Population, 3,500. County seat of Whitman 
County, which has produced $4,500,000 worth of wheat in a single year's crop, or 
$180.00 for every man, woman, and child in its borders, besides hundreds of thou- 
sands more in other grains, fruit, vegetables, live stock, wool, and dairy stuff. The soil 
is unsurpassed on earth in fertility. Near Colfax has been raised 83 bushels of wheat 
to the acre, and five miles north of the town there have been harvested 706 bushels 
from ten acres. Crops of 90 bushels of barley and 1 25 bushels of oats to the acre are 
not uncommon. Three public schools and one private school, a college, eight 
churches, a hospital, two newspapers, three banks, two of them national, that have 



320 OVER THE RANGE 

for several years past paid annual profits of 35 per cent.; a sawmill, a flouring mill, 
iron works, roller feed-mill factory, elevators, warehouses, and all ordinary business 
houses, electric lights, waterworks and grain elevator factory. An important grain 
and fruit shipping-point. Whole region fertile, growing and prosperous, and new 
settlers coming in every day. 

Pllllniaii, AVa.shillJi'toil. Population of township, 2,000. Seat of State 
Agricultural College and Experimental Station, good pubhc schools, two banks, two 
newspapers, churches of various denominations. Surrounding country rich in soil, 
and yielding heavy crops of wheat, oats and barley, vegetables and fruits. 

MoscOAV, Idaho. County seat of Latah County. Population, 5,000. Seat 
of State University of Idaho. Has waterworks, electric light, telephone, and sewer- 
age systems; a high school and three public schools, nine churches, three banks, four 
newspapers, eight grain warehouses, one flouring mill, two feed mills, three saw- 
mills, one brick factory. Placer and quartz mines near. Surrounding region rich 
in soil, producing all varieties of grains, grasses, fruits. 

Oakesdale, AVa.sllillJ'"toil. Population immediately tributary, 6,000. 
Si.x churches, fine public school with handsome brick building of eight rooms, a 
flouring mill with capacity of 100 barrels a day, one newspaper, machine shops, 
and lumber yard. Country rich in resources for farming, fruit-growing and stock- 
raising. 

Garfield, Wasllillj»"t<m. Population, 1,000. Four churches, a school 
with eight departments, a bank, a live weekly paper. Supply point for the Coeur 
d'Alene mines that lie east of it. Surrounded by one of the richest agricultural 
regions in the country. 

Tekoa, Wasllinji'toil. Junction of Oregon Railroad & Navigation Co. 
Spokane line and Cceur d'Alene branch. Three churches, two schools, an opera 
house, and lodges of all the fraternal orders, a flouring mill, creamery, fruit drier, 
sash and door and box factories under construction. Rich agricultural region and 
mineral belt near. On the Coeur d'Alene branch are 

Harrison, Idalio. Population, 1,100. Five churches, a good school, one 
newspaper, six sawmills, shipping 300 carloads of lumber a month; several promis- 
ing mines being developed. The town is situated on Coeur d'Alene Lake at the 
mouth of St. Joseph River, in a picturesque region with a delightful climate, and is 
becoming a popular summer resort. Soil of the St. Joe Valley wonderfully pro- 
ductive. 

Wardlier, Idalio. Populationof township, 3,200. Three mines in opera- 
tion, and promising prospects in every direction; three concentrators, four churches, 
two schools, one newspaper, one bank, one hospital, and business houses in all 
usual lines, and a free reading-room. Many excellent opportunities for mining 
men, either as prospectors or investors. Fine fishing and hunting, deer, bear, 
grouse, and trout. Delightful summer climate. 

Wallace, Idalio. Population, 2,500. In the heart of the famous Ccrur 
d'Alene mining region, which, since its discovery in 1884, has produced nearly 
$80,000,000 in gold, silver and lead, and which shipped 34,851 tons of ore during the 
single month of October, 1900. Ten mines in operation, extensive sampling works, 
four churches, two banks, three newspapers, two hospitals, a high school, a 
foundry, two breweries, a ])laning mill, wholesale grocery and hardware houses. 
From Wallace extend branches to the mining regions of Burke and Mullan. On 
the main stem again, we encounter 

Latall, Wasllillj;"toil. Population of township, 1,200. Three churches, 



322 OVER THE RAXGE 

one school, a bank and a weekly ]japer. Silualed in a great grain and cattle-raising 
region, where dairying is profitable. 

Fairfield, Wa,shillg-t<Ul. Populationof township, 769. Five large grain 
warehouses, planing mill, two churches, a good school. Surrounding region as rich 
as a garden, yielding unfailing crops of grain, sugar-beets and all ordinary fruits 
and vegetables. Pure, soft water found everywhere at a depth of 15 to 25 feet. 
From Fairfield a short branch extends to 

AVaverly, Washiii<»-t<m. Population, 600. A beet-sugar factory that 
used 6,000 tons of beets last year, three stores, two churches, a good public school 
and two large warehouses. 

Rockford, WaslliiijJi'toii. Population of township, 2,000. A flouring 
mill, with capacity of 300 barrels a day, three sawmills, a brick and tile plant, five 
general merchandise stores, one bank, a weekly newspaper, three churches, good 
public schools. Fine timber land to the north, and rich prairie south. Abun- 
dance of pure, soft water, and good chances for homeseekers. 

Spokane, "VVashillg'toil. The falls of the Spokane River, in the heart 
of the city, have 374,000 possible horse-power, or more than four times as much as 
St. Anthony's Falls at Minneapolis. The minimum is 32,000 horse-power, of which 
only about 7,000 is utilized. The population in 1880 was 300; in 1890 it was 
19,222, an increase of 6,200 per cent in ten years. It is now 37,047, an increase of 
245 per cent since the census of 1890. In 1880 the total assessed valuation was 
$1,800, in 1900 it was $19,636,621, an increase of 1,090,900 per cent. Nine rail- 
roads center in the city, four trans-continental and live local, and twenty-two pas- 
senger trains arrive and depart dail}'. The city owns its waterworks systems, which 
cost $1,000,000, and pays a yearly cash revenue of $115,000. It has seventy-five 
miles of graded streets, thirty-five miles of electric railway, excellent electric light, 
gas, and sewerage systems; two daily and eight weekly newspapers, besides a number 
of monthlies, and five banks, with a capitalization of $1,500,000 and deposits 
amounting to $5,550,000. Its bank clearings have increased 300 per cent in five 
years, aggregating now $65,000,000 a year. It has sixty-one churches, eighteen 
public schools, including a high school, with buildings and property valued at 
$700,000; three business colleges and a number of private and denominational 
institutions, while but a short distance away are the State Normal School at Cheney, 
and the State Agricultural College and Experimental Station at Pullman. New 
buildings, costing $1,500,000, are now in process of construction, and ten and one- 
half miles of new pavements were laid last year. The city has four flouring mills, 
with a capacity of 3,000 barrels a day, and has, in a single season, shipped 537,000 
barrels of flour to China and Japan. It has over 200 manufacturing establish- 
ments, including flour, lumber, shingle, and planing mills; foundries, iron works, 
machine and car shops; furniture and sash and door factories, breweries, bakeries, 
tanneries, woolen mills, and a beet-sugar factory near at han<l; cigar, cracker, pickle, 
soap, broom, and tent and awning factories; potteries, tile and terra-cotta works, 
brickyards, and stone and marble works; soda, mineral-water, vinegar, cider, 
and bottling works. Fort Wright, in the edge of lln' city, is one of the most beau- 
tifully situated army jjosts in the United States. There are six large modern hotels. 
Sijokanc is the debarking points for the famous Kootenai mining region of British 
Columbia. 

Returning, without delav, to I'malilla, we again rcsunu- the jouriu'v toward 
Portland. From riiialilla to Portland the line of the railway c lings close])' to the 
banks of the beautiful Columbia i\i\cT. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 323 



MIGHTY 
COLUMBIA. 

Peerless in Beauty. 



Historic in interest and peerless in the pictur- 
(■sfjue beauty of its surroundings, the mighty Co- 
lumbia River, with a flow at times of over 1,600,000 
cubic feet of water every second — greater than the 
Mississippi or St. Lawrence ever attains — fed by 
the everlasting snow fields and glaciers, gracefully 
winds its way through the Pacific Northwest, grow- 
ing in .size until, at a point fifteen miles above its 
mouth, it reaches the remarkable width of seventeen miles. 

For two hundred miles or more it forms the boundary line between Oregon and 
Washington, and for the greater part of this distance the scenery is unsurpass- 
able. He who travels along or sails upon this matchless river for the first time 
is overwhelmed. From the Pacific Ocean to Portland, one hundred and ten miles, 
the Columbia and Willamette are navigable to the large ocean-going vessels, while 
from Portland to the Dalles, nearly one hundred miles, lines of steamers ply, pass- 
ing through the Cascade Locks, where the United States government has recently 
expended over $3,000,000 in order to overcome the rapids at that point. 

There is much of interest in the story of the discovery of the Columbia river, 
and in the history of its exploration during the half-century or more following. To 
Captain Robert Gray, in the American ship, Columbia, of Boston, belongs the 
honor of first sailing the river which bears the name of his vessel. The Columbia 
and its sister ship, the Washington, were sent out from Boston in 1787, on a fur- 
trading expedition to the North Pacific Coast. In May, 1792, when opposite the 
point now known as Fort Stevens, noticing that an immense body of water poured 
from the land into the ocean, Captain Gray determined to investigate, resulting 
in the discovery of the great stream. Captain Cook, on his exploring e.xpedition 
of 1778, failed to notice the entrance, and the ships of Vancouver, which had 
passed up the coast a few weeks previously, learned first of the great river from 
Captain Gray, whose vessel they fell in with at sea. Soon afterwards explorers 
sailed up the river for a considerable distance, and penetrated far into the interior. 
Heppiier Jlllictioil, Oreg'Oll. Population, 50, 152 miles east of Port- 
land. Junction of Heppner branch with main line of Oregon Railroad & Navigation 
Company. Shipping-point for live stock, wool, and grain. Seven miles of 
irrigation ditches in vicinity. Soil fertile in grass, grain, and fruit. Good winter 
grazing. 

Heppner, Oregon. Population, 1,146. County seat of Morrow County. 
Both town and county are new, both growing daily. It has five churches, a public 
school employing eight teachers, two live newspapers, splendid [waterworks and 
electric Ught system, a national bank carrpng $500,000 of deposits, four 
wholesale and retail general merchandise houses, a planing mill, two large grain 
and wool warehouses, a cold-storage plant. It has a flouring mill that runs day 
and night, and turns out seventy barrels of liigh-grade flour a day. The Heppner 
Mining Company is developing the Ma}^ower group of mines in the Susan\'ille 
district, with fine gold prospects. The surrounding country, though as yet thinly 
settled, is rich in all agricultural and pastoral resource*. With a total population 
of but 4,151, the county last year produced 1,000,000 bushels of wheat, worth $450,- 
000. Heppner handles 3,000,000 pounds of wool a year, and is the trading-point 
for large sections of Morrow, Grant, Crook, Wheeler, Gilham, and Malheur coun- 
ties. Again on the main fine, we come to 

Arling'ton, Oreg'iui. Population, 488. Two churches, one graded school, 



324 OVER THE RANGE 

one national bank, one weekly newspaper, two hotels, an extensive cold-storage 
plant. Ships much wheat, wool and live stock. Rich soil. 

Big'g'S, Oreg'<nl. Junction of Columbia Southern Railway \\-ith Oregon 
Railroad & Navigation Company. Important grain shipping-point. Sherman 
County, in which it is situated, with but 900 voters, produced 3,000,000 bushels 
of wheat in 1900, worth, at fifty cents a bushel, $1,500,000. 

At Dalles we enter the beautiful scenery of the lower Columbia. 

Mosier, Oregon. Population, 300. Surrounded by rich farming region; 
soil adapted to every variety of grain, grass, fruit, and vegetable. Fine fishing 
in neighboring streams. 

Hoo«l Itiver, Ol^egoii. Population, 700. Three churches, one school. 
Center of one of the greatest fruit-growing regions in the world. Hood River took 
sixteen medals on fruit at the Chicago Exposition, including seven on apples. It 
ships from 75 to 125 carloads of strawberries each season. Cherries have paid 
as much as $1,950 an acre, clear profit for a single crop; strawberries, $900, and 
apples, $25.90 from a single tree. Hood River apples are sold all over the United 
States. Numerous extensive fruit-shipping companies and a lumbering plant, 
and business houses of all kinds. Many inducements to farmers and fruit-raisers. 

Centered in delightful and charming surroundings, sixty-six miles east of Port- 
land, on the line of the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company, nestles the pros- 
perous and enterprising little town of Hood River, the mart of the famous fruit 
valley of the same name. The climate is ideal the year round, the rigors of winter 
and the extremes of summer being unknown. 

For scenic charms few spots equal it, and it is rapidly coming to the front as 
the popular summer resort of the Upper Columbia River, offering the happy com- 
bination of rest and quiet hfe with pure and exhilirating mountain air. In the 
foreground is the majestic Columbia; across the river, in Washington, towering 
high above the other nearby peaks is snow-crowned Mount Adams, 12,470 feet 
high; in the opposite direction — to the south twenty-seven miles — is Mount Hood, 
perpetually covered with snow, rearing its head heavenward 11,225 feet, and form- 
ing a picturesque background to the valley; and on the east and west are the forest- 
covered foot-hills of the Cascades. 

Nowhere else in the entire world is there a simi- 
lar-sized section where Nature has provided such 
an abundance of unparalleled mountain scenery as 
in the Pacific Northwest. Three general ranges, 
linked by numerous cross-spurs, traverse it in a 
north and south direction^the Coast ten to twenty 
miles from the ocean, having an extreme altitude of 
of 4,000 feet; the Cascades, one hundred to one hun- 
dred and fifty miles inward, ranging in height from 6,000 to 12,000 feet, and the 
Blue Mountains, in Eastern Oregon and Washington, from 3,000 to 10,000 feet. 

But the trip of all mountain trips in this matchless scenic wonderland of the 
Pacific Northwest, is to the snow-capped summit of one of the mighty and silent 
sentinels which tower high above the lesser peaks. Mount Adams, Mount Saint 
Helen, Mount JefTerson, and Mount Rainier, perpetually crowned vrith snow, 
stand forth in wondrous fascination. But more beautiful and impressive than 
all combined is Mount Hood, the pride of the mountain climbers and tourists. 
Fifty miles cast of Portland by air-line and ninety-three by shortest route, this favor- 
ite proudly rears its head 11,225 ^^'^^ heavenward, thousands of feet above every 



MOUNT HOOD. 

Cloud Cap Inn. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 325 

neighboring object. It is one of the most notable peaks in the West, serving as 
a guide-post to Le^^•is and Clark on their memorable trip of exploration to the 
coast in 1805-6, and later to the pioneers who passed over the latent gold ledges 
of the rich Sumpter district, glanced at the beautiful valleys, climbed the mountains 
through forests of pine and fir, slept on the bunch-grass plains — Oregon's future 
grain fields — and with one eye on Mount Hood, hastened on to Western Oregon. 

Easily accessible, hundreds climb to its summit every summer. The trij) is 
delightful in every particular, those who have once experienced it always being 
eager to repeat the pleasure. 

From Alount Hood Station conveyance is taken for a coaching trip to Cloud 
Cap Inn, which stands on the northeastern slope of the mountain, at an elevation of 
6,800 feet. Up through the pretty and prosperous town the coach starts on its 
twenty-seven mile spin, the road leading past scores of well-kept apple and straw- 
berry farms, for which the valley is noted, the unique and picturesque cabin, sur- 
rounded by smaller ones, being reached in time for supper. Comfortably furn- 
ished, with pine logs blazing in the huge fireplaces, and wdth a table supplied with 
even,-thing that a hungry visitor could wish, the place is most inviting. 

From Cloud Cap Inn the summit of Mount Hood seems but a step away, but 
in fact the distance to its top is four miles. A three minutes walk from the Inn 
brings the mountain climber to Eliot Glacier, on the northeast slope of the moun- 
tain, a mile long by a third of a mile wide. From its base the stream of Hood River 
has its source. Coe Glacier hes on the north slope of the mountain, Sandy Glacier 
on the southwest. Zigzag Glacier, west of south, White River Glacier, east of south, 
Newton Clark Glacier, southeast, and one vast unnamed icefield southwest of 
the Ladd Glacier. 

For three miles, from the Inn to the top of Cooper's Spur, the way leads over 
ground devoid of snow, then for a mile snow and ice are encountered. The rope 
line begins about 900 feet from the summit, and for a fourth of this distance alpen- 
stock and pluck are also needed, but the top once reached, the plucky climber is 
well repaid for the effort. To the north, sixty miles, is Mount Adams, 12,470 feet 
high; on Puget Sound, one hundred and fifty miles away, is Mount Rainier, 14,440 
feet; and to the west is Mount Saint Helen, 9,750 feet. For miles and miles the 
mighty Columbia is seen winding its way through the great section, while in 
every direction, as far as eye can sec, stretch bounteous fields of grain and fertile 
valleys. 

Those who do not care to scale the summit of the mountain have ample oppor- 
tunity to hunt and fish, the forests in the vicinity of Cloud Cap Inn abounding with 
deer, bear, cougars, grouse, quail, and other game, wjiile the streams are filled with 
speckled beauties. 

Vieilto, Oregon. An important lumber manufacturing point, surrounded 
by fine timber. Good fishing and hunting. United States fish hatchery just across 
the Columbia River opposite the station. 

Cascade LiOcks, Orejjoii. Where the United States Government has 
expended over four million dollars in constructing a canal around the falls of the 
Columbia River. Forty-five miles east of Portland. Population, 375. Two churches, 
a pubhc school, a sawmill, fish wheels and extensive salmon fisheries. Amid the 
grand scenery of the Cascade Mountains and Columbia River Gorge. Fine, trout 
stream. Charming summer resort. 

Bonneville, <)r«'j»"<>ll. Forty-one miles east of Portland. Beautiful pic- 
nic and camping grounds, splendid scenery, streams alive with trout. A Ay spent 



326 OVER THE RANGE 

here at the foot of the Cascades, with rich trout streams on every hand, is rest 
that is refreshing. 

Multonomall Falls, Oregon. Multonomah, the grandest of all 
Columbia's falls, at the very foot of which the train makes a four-minute stop 
that passengers may leave the cars and, from a specially constructed platform, 
behold the beautiful spectacle as it tumbles over the top of a precipice eight hun- 
dred and forty feet high. 

Gordon Falls, Mist and Bridal Veil follow in quick succession. 

Latourelle, Oreg'Oii. Population, 350. Two schools, extensive saw- 
mills and lumbering-plant. Latourelle Falls, two hundred and twenty-five feet 
high, and one of the most picturesque cataracts in the state. Far-famed Rooster 
Rock within one and a half miles. 

Trontdalo, Orej»"<)ll. Population, 500. Two churches, one school, large 
slaughter and packing houses, one of the largest establishments of the kind on 
the coast. Surrounded by a rich farming region; fine scenery, gravel roads and 
bicycle paths, streams full of trout. 

FairviCAV, Oreg'Oll. Population, 250. Two churches, one school, flour- 
ishing creamery, and cheese factory. Rich agricultural region. 

Then comes Portland, the metropolis of the northwest (described elsewhere in 
this volume), and we have completed our journey, so far as the railway is con- 
cerned, but we should not overlook the 



PACIFIC OCEAN TRIP: PORTLAND TO 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

And pleasurable as are all these trips offered by the Oregon Railroad & Navigation 
Company — up and down the Columbia, to the mountains, beaches, and inland 
resorts — one yet remains — by ocean steamer from Portland to San Francisco — 
that possesses delights and charms not enjoyed on the others. Staunchly built and 
thoroughly equipped in every particular, the steamsliips of the Oregon Railroad & 
Navigation Company make the trip in about fifty hours, and there is rest and new 
life in every one of the seven hundred and sixty-five miles. 

The steamship Columbia, having accommodations for nearly two hundred first- 
class passengers, and almos as many second-class, is a type of the line and the 
pride of the ocean-traveling pubUc between the two places. She is safe, complete, 
and perfect in every detail, thousands of dollars having recently been expended in 
improving, refitting, and furnishing her. She is two hundred and tWrty-four feet 
long, forty feet wide, and twenty-two feet deep; has the latest and most improved 
engines, with two thousand two hundred horse-power, steam-steering gear, and 
electric lights and bells. She has spacious aad well-furnished saloons, and her 
staterooms, bathrooms, and toilet-rooms are models of completeness. The meals 
are in keeping with the splendid equipment and reputation of the steamship. The 
officers are always obliging and courteous, and spare no pains in making the 
passengers comfortable and the trip pleasant. No accident has ever occurred to 
the Columbia, or to her sister ships of this line, but as a precaution she carries seven 
life-boats, six large life-rafts and hundreds of life-preservers. 

The scenery on this trip includes the beauties of the Lower Columbia through 
miles and miles of the famous salmon-fishing waters, past Astoria, and out the 
mouth of the great river, between Fort Canby and North Head on the right, and 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 327 

Fort Stevens and the costly government jetty on the left. The forest-covered 
slopes of the Coast mountains form a pretty and striking background to the point 
where water and shore meet. Speedily the steamship plows her way southward 
through the liquid sapphire, past lonely Tillamook lighthouse, dangerous Rogue 
River Reef, Cape Mendocino, Humboldt Bay, and Point Arena, then into California's 
beautiful and world-famed Golden Gate, shortly afterward pulling alongside the 
corripany's wharf, where the passengers, refreshed, invigorated, and captivated by 
their ocean jaunt, with reluctance, leave the boat. 



328 



OVER THE RANGE 



ALTITUDE OF MOUNTAIN PEAKS OF THE ROCKY 

MOUNTAINS. 

Colorado and Utah. 



EAMPABT RANGE. 



Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

14,147 Pike's Peak El Paso ." Mauitou Springs. 

FRONT RANGE. 

From Lulu Pass to Canon City in the transverse valley of the Arkansas. This range 
divides Grand County from Boulder County, passes through Gilpin County, Clear Creek County, 
and Park County, and ends in Fremont County. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Height. Navic. County. Nearest Point. 

14,271.. Long's Peak . .Boulder.. .Boulder. 14.336. .Torrey'sPeak.ClearCreek.Georgetown. 

13,173. .Audubon Boulder. . .Sunset. 14,411. .Gray's Peak.. .Clear Creek.Georgetown. 

13,520. .Arapahoe Boulder. . .Sunset. 14,321. .Evans Peak.. .Clear Creek.Georgetown. 

13,283. .James Peak. . .Gilpin Central City. 14,340. .Mt. Rosalie.. .Clear Creek.Georgetown. 

13, 133. .Perry's Peak. .Gilpin Central City. 12,446. .Bison Peak. . .Park Fairplay. 

12,873.. Mount Flora. .Gilpin Central City. 

MEDICINE BOW RANGE. 

Is due northern continuation of the North Range. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

13,832 Haynes Peak Larimer 

13,167 Clark's Peak Larimer 

BLUE RIVER RANGE. 

Sometimes called Eagle River Mountains; runs parallel with the Park Range through 
Summit County. It ends in the western part of Park County. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

13.398.. Mount Powell. Summit. .Dillon. 13,565. Mount Guyot Summit. Breckenridge. 

12,382. .Red Peak Summit. .Dillon. 13,800. Mount Hamilton. Summit. Breckenridge. 

12,890.. Miles Peak.. . .Summit. .Dillon. 13,835. Silver Heel Park . . . . Como. 

13,200. .Whale Peak. . . Park Breckenridge. 

PARK RANGE. 

Begins In the northern boundary of the State, marking the boundary lines of Routt and 
Larimer and ends in the transverse range of the Arkansas Mountains, passing through Eagle, 
Summit, Lake, Park, and Chaffee Counties. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

12,126. .Mount Zirkel. Larimer. 14,008. .Sherman Paik Alma. 

14,269.. Quandary Summit .Breckenridge. 13,750. .Sheridan (No. 2). Park Fairplay. 

14,297. .Lincoln Park Alma. 13,909. .Horseshoe Park Fairplay. 

13,796. .Arkansas Park Alma. 13,738. .Ptarmigan Park Fairplay. 

13,96 1 . . Buckski n Park Alma. 13,328 . . Buif alo Peak Parfi Fairplay. 

14,185..Bro.ss Park Alma. 14,132. .Goat's Peak Park Fairplay. 

13,660. .Evans (No. 2).Park Alma. 

SAGUACHE RANGE. 

Begins in Eagle County and runs parallel with the Park Range, the Arkansas River flowlnR 
between them In the southern region. It traverses Lake and Chaffee counties and ends in the 
Cochetopa Hills, the central part of the Continental Divide. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Height. Name. County. Nearest Point, 

,. -,r.R < Mount of the ) p..,,,. T?BrirnfF 1 4,375.. Harvard Chaff ee....Buena Vista. 

14,1(6 J Holy Cross, s'^'**''®-"-^^®'**^^''*' 14,187. .Vale Chaffee. . ..Buena Vista. 

13,073.. Homestake Eagle.... Red Cliff. 14,199. .Princeton. ...Cliaffee. ...Sallda. 

14,424 .Mount Massive. Like Loadville. 14 245. .Antcro (niafTee — Salida. 

14,436 . . Elbert Lake Leadville. 14,239. . Shavano Cliaffee Maysville. 

14,302. .La Plata Peak.. Chaffee. . Buena Vista. 14,065. .Ouray Chaffee. . ..Marshall Pass. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 329 

ELK MOUNTAINS OR ASPEN GROUP. 

This ransre is a jjreat semi-cirole Ox mountains In Pitkin County, with Aepen In the center 

and witlx spurs rnnuing into the adjoining county of Gunnison. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Height. Name. County. Netirest Point. 

12,823. .Sopris Peak.. . .Pitkin Carbondale. 13,327. .White Back. . .Gunnison. Crested Rutte. 

13,997. .Capital Peak. . .Pitkin Aspen. 13,113. .Teocalli Peak. Gunnison. Crested Butte. 

13, 978.. Snow Mass Pitkin Aspen. IS.g.'Se. .Grizzly Pitkin Aspen. 

14,008. .Maroon Peak. .Pitkiti Aspen. 13,3.50. .Italian Peak . .Gunnison. Crested Butte. 

13,885. .Pyramid Peak. . Pitkin Aspen. 13,357. .White Rock. . .Pitkin Aspen. 

14,115. .Castle Peak. . . .Pitkin Aspen. 



WEST ELK MOUNTAINS. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point, 
13,102 West Elk Peak Gunniaon OunnlsOD. 



SANGKE DE CRISTO RANGE. 

It unites at its northern point with the Arkansas Hills, which run east and west, and with 
the Cochetopa Hills, which run from the southwest to the northeast and which form a part of 
the Continental Divide. 

N. B.— There are many unnamed peaks above 13,000 feet in this range. 

Height. Name. County. Neiiresf Point. Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

12.446. .Hunt's Peak... Fremont.. Poncha. 14,233. .Crestone Orant Moffat. 

12,863.. Rito Alto Custer Villa Grove. 14,041. .Humboldt Custer Silver Cliff. 

13,600. .Silesia Peak.. .Custer Hot Sprinpfs. 14,483. .Sierra Blanca. .Costilla Alamosa. 

13,729. .Gibson Peak. ..Custer Hot Springs. 14,176. .Old Baldy Costilla Blanca. 

13.447. .Horn Peak Custer Moffat. 13,615. .Grayback Costilla Blanca. 



CULEHA RANGE. 

Is a continuation of the Sangre de Cristo Range. 

Height , Name. County. NcareM Point. 

14,079 Culeha Peak Las Animas Trinidad. 

1 3,61 1 Trinchera Las Animas Trinidad. 

18,718 Spanish Peak Las Animas Trinidad. 



THE SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS. 

This range is the southern part of the Continental Divide. It has many lateral ranges, 
like buttresses, and its general coiu-se is from southeast to northwest, where it joins with the 
Uncompahgre Range and the Cochetopa Hills. It is very little known, and contains many high 
unnamed mountains. It is spread over Saguache, Hinsdale (.southern part), Archuleta, Rio 
Grande and Conejos counties. 
Height. Name. Cminty. Nearest Point. Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

H'?^^- •i*^'?''* P|»k Saguache. .Lake City. 13454. Macomb's Peak.. Hinsdale, j whS^lGan 
14, 100.. San Luis Peak. .Saguache.. Lake City. ,^ ,*T, ?P' 

13,131. .Mesa Peak Saguache. .Lake City. 12.673. Rellevue Peak.. .RIoGraiide.Del Norte. 

12,840. .Bristol Head. .. .Hinsdale.. . 13,081 .Del Norte Peak. .Rio Gran.le.Del Norte. 

14,092.. Red Cloud Hinsdale.. Lake City. 13,347. Conejos Rio Grande. > Pagosa 

14, 149.. Handles Peak... Hinsdale... Lake City. 12,824. Banded Peak Archuleta.. S Springs. 

13,400. .Pole Creek Peak.Hinsdale.. .Lake City. 14,065. Simpson's Peak..Kio Orande.Del Norte. 

12,506. .San Juan Peak. .Hinsdale.. . 



NEEDLE MOUNTAINS. 

A series of short ranges on the west side of the Grand Divide, buttressing the San Jnan 
Mountains. It contains many high isolated peaks named and unnamed. 

Height. Name. County. Xeareft Point. Height. Nanu: County. Nearest Point, 

12,305 \ ^^''l^^\^^''^ \ La Plata. . .Durango. 14,055 ) ^py^/n/i^.*' \ • ^a" J"«"- • • -Needleton. 

14 054 Moh\s La Plata... Durango. 13.542. Mount Kendall.San .Tuan. .. .Silvert^n. 

14, 051.. Needle Peak La Plata.. .Durango. 13,.3.56. .Mount Canhy..San .luan. .. .Silverton. 

13,755 Mount Oso La Plata. . .Durango. 13,550. . King Solomon. San Juan . . . .Silverton. 

13,928. .Pigeons Peak. . . .La Plat^. . .Durango. 13,601. .Sultan San Juan. . . .Silverton. 

13,357.. The Hunchback. San Juan. .Durango. 



33° OVER THE RANGE 



OURAY MOUNTAINS. 

A prolongation of the San Miguel Mountains to the north, uniting with the Uncompahgre 
chain, which runs from west to east. 

Height. Name. County. Xr(ii-est Pnint. 
14,340 Mount SnefEels Ouray Ouray. 

SAN MIGUEL MOUNTAINS. 

Nearest 
Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Height. Name. County. Point. 

14,075. .Unnamed San Miguel.Telluride. 13.890. .Unnamed Dolores Rico. 

14,160. .Lizard Head . .San Miguel. Trout Lake. 12,703. .Mount Freeman. Dolores Rico. 

14,309.. Mount Wilson. Dolores Ophir. 13,516. .Mount Elliott. ...Dolores Rico. 

13,502. .Dolores Peak. Dolores Ophir. 12,542. .Anchor Doleres Rico. 

12,703 . . MountDolores.Dolores Rico. 12,635 . . Lone Cone San Miguel.Telluride. 

LA PLATA MOUNTAINS. 

Are a prolongation south of the San Miguel Range. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

13,376 Hesperus Montezuma Dolores, 

13.456 Babcock La Plata Durango. 

UNCOMPAHGRE MOUNTAINS. 
This range is short and runs from west to east. It contains some very high mountains, 
usually at right angles' to the chain. 
Height. Name. County. Nearest Paint. 

14,419 Uncompahgre Hinsdale Ouray. 

14,069 The Wetterhorn Hinsdale Ouray. 

WASATCH MOUNTAINS (UTAH). 

This is the principal mountain range of Utah and extends from north to south through the 

central part of the state. Salt Lake City lies at its feet. Some of its peaks are snow-capped the 

year round. Nearest 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Heiglit. Name. County. Point. 

12,080. .Twin Peaks. . . .Salt Lake.. Salt Lake City. Timpanogos . . . .Utah Provo. 

12,194. .Monte Cristo.. .Weber Ogden. 10,100. .Mount Heber. . .Wasatch Heber. 

12,062. . Clayton'sPeak. Wasatch. . .Park City. 

UINTAH MOUNTAINS (UTAH). 

The general trend of this range is east and west. It is just north of the Uintah Indian 
reservation near the Wyoming line. 
Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Heiaht. Name. County. Nearest Point. 

11,730. .Mount Baldy. . .Wasatch Heber, 13,787. .Gilbert Wasatch Heber. 

12,000. .Mount Agaasiz. Summit Heber. 12,000. .Mount Nebo .Juab Goshen. 

13,000. .Wilson's Peak. .Wasatch Heber. 

OQUIRRH RANGE (UTAH). 
This is the beautiful range of moinitains that skirts the western shores of Great Salt Lake 
and extends north and south parallel with tlie Wasatcli Mountains. It has no prominent peaks, 
the entire range averaging an elevation of 9,000 to 10,000 feet. Mount Nebo might be 
considered In this range, which joins hands on the south with the mighty Wasatch. 

HENRY MOUNTAINS (UTAH). 
Away in the southeastern corner of the state lie the Henry Mountaitis, the Elk Range, tlie 
La Sals, and the Blue Mountains. These have recently come into prominence by location of 
valuable mineral deposits. 

Height. Name. County. Nearest Point. Heiglit. Name. County. Nearest I'oinl. 

11,470.. MountEllen Garfield. .Green River. 13,000. .Mount Peale San Juan. .Thompson. 

11,050. .Mount Pennel.. .Garfield. .Green River. 12,271 . .Mount Tomaski.Gi'and Thompson. 

11,000. .Mount Linnaeus. San Juan.Thomp.son. 12,586. .Mount Waas Grand Thompson. 

DEKP CREEK MOUNTAINS (TTTAll). 
The Deep Creek Range extends north and south along tlie border between Utah and 
Nevada. These mountains, like the Parowan, Iron, and numerous other .small ranges in the 
southwestern poi'tion, are Init spurs of the main mountain range known as the Wasatch and of 
which the Ofjuirrlis are a jiiirt. There are numerous peaks with an elevation of 8,000 to 10,000 
feet. 



TO THE GOLDEN GATE. 
MOUNTAIN PASSES. 



331 



Feel. 

Alpine Pass ] 3.550 

Argentine Pass 13,100 

Cochetopa Pass 10,032 

Hayden Pass 10,780 

Trout Creek Pass 9,346 

Berthoud Pass 1 1,349 

Marshall Pass 10.856 

Vcta Pass 9,392 



Feet. 

Poncha Pass 8,945 

Tennessee Pass 10,240 

Tarryall Pass 12,176 

Breckenridite Pass 9,490 

Cottonwond Pass 13,500 

Fremont Pass 11.540 

Mosquito Pass 13.700 

Ute Pass 11,200 



ELEVATION OF LAKES. 



Feet. 

Twin Lakes 9,357 

Grand Lake 8,153 

Green Lakes 10,000 

Chicago Lakes 11 ,500 

Evergreen Lakes 10,500 



Feet. 

Seven Lakes 11,806 

Palmer Lake ■ 7.238 

Cottonwood Lake 7,700 

Trout Lake 9.800 



ALTITUDES OF TOWNS AND CITIES. 

REVISED SINCE FIRST EDITION PROM ENGINEER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



Feet. 

Alaraosa 7,546 

Animas City 6,554 

Animas Forks 11,200 

Antonito 7,888 

Aspen 7,874 

Buena Vista 7,970 

Canon City 5,344 

( 'iistle Ki ick 6,220 

Colorado Spriiifjs 6,992 

Crested Butte 8,875 

Creede 9,016 

Conejos 7,880 

Cottonwood .Springs 8,950 

Cuchara 5,943 

Cumbres 10,015 

Delta 4.983 

Del Norte V,880 

Denver 5,196 

Durango 6,520 

El Moro 5,879 

Garland 7.936 

Granite 8,945 

Grand .Junction 4,594 

Gunnison 7,680 

Glenwood Spi-ings 5,758 

Howardsville 9,700 

Irwin 10,500 

Kokomo 10,614 

Lake City 8,686 



Feet. 

La Veta 7,024 

Leadville 10,200 

Los Plnos 9,637 

Montrose 5,811 

Malta 9,580 

Mancos 7.008 

Manltou 6.3 1 8 

Ojo Callente 7.324 

Ouray 7,72 1 

Ogden, Utah 4,286 

Pagosa Springs 7,108 

Plnos, Chama Smnniit 9,902 

Poncha Springs 7,480 

Palmer Lake 7,238 

Pueblo 4,669 

Bed Cliff 8,61 5 

Ridgway 7,002 

Robinson '. 10,86 1 

Kosita 8,500 

Rnhv Camp .• 10,500 

Saguaclie 7,723 

Salt Lake City 4,228 

Silver Cliff 7,816 

Silverton 9,224 

Salida 7,050 

Tellurlde 8,756 

Trimble Springs 6,57.5 

Westcliffe 7,864 

Wagon Wheel Gap 8,449 



PRONUNCIATION OF PROPER NAMES. 



Acequla A-sa-kia 

Crested Butte Crested Bute 

Costlllia Costea 

Canon Can-yon 

Cumbres Cum-breez 

Cuchara Cu-cha-ra 

Canejos Co-na-hos 

Chihuahua Clie-wa-wa 

Huerfano Wa-far-no 

La Junta La Hun-ta 

La Jara La Hara 

La Veta La Va-ta 

Manltou Man-i-too 

Monero Mo-na-ro 

Navajo Na-va-ho 



Ojo Callente O-ho Cal-1-en-te 

Ojo O-ho 

Pueblo de Taos Pueblo-de-Tows 

Plfion Pin-yon 

Saguache Si-watch 

Sierra Mojeda Sierra Mo-ya-da 

Santa Fe San-ta Fay 

San Juan San Wan 

San Miguel San-megil 

Saplnero Sapl-na-ro 

Tlerra Amarilla Tier Ama-rea 

Trinchera Trin-chara 

Vallejo Vall-a-ho 

Wahatoya Wa-ha-toy-ya 



INDEX 

OF TOWNS AND POINTS OF INTEREST. 



COLORADO. 



Acequia 

Alamosa to Espanola and Santa Fe. 

Alamosa to Silverton 

Alamosa 

Animas Canon 

Antelope Springs 

Antonito 

Arkansas River 

Aspen 

Aspen Branch (D. & R. G. R. R. ). 

Avalanche Creek 

Bathing at Glenwood Springs .... 
Bathing Pool at Glenwood Springs. 

Bear Creek Falls 

Black Canon of the Gunnison .... 

Bowerman, Camp 

Broadmoor 

Brown's Canon 

Buena Vista 

Burnham 

Canon City 

Canon of the Grand River 

Carbondale 

Carlile Springs 

Castle Rock 

Cerro Summit 

Cimarron 

Cimarron Canon 

Chama 

Cheyenne Mountain 

Chipeta Falls 

Chrvsolite Extension (D. &: R. G. 

R.R.) 

Clark's ^Magnetic Sjirings 

ClilT Dwellings 

Coal Basin 

Coal Creek Branch 

Coal Creek 

Colorado City 

Colorado S])rings 

Cottonwood Springs 

Crane's Park 

Creede 

Creede Branch 

Crested Butte 

Crested Butte Branch 

Cripple Creek 

Cripple Creek District 

Cripple Creek Short Line 

Crystal River Railroad 



1/ 
105 
"3 

99 
121 

103 

106 

142 

52 

50 

52 

49 

50 

134 

86 

82 

23 
40 

40 
16 
33 

44 
50 
31 



88 
88 
117 
21 
86 

43 
31 

125 
52 
33 
33 
-3 
19 
40 
44 

103 
99 
82 
82 
27 
32 



50 



PAGE. 

Cuchara Junction 95 

Cumbres Pass 117 

Curecanti Needle 86 

Del Norte 100 

Delta 90 

Denver 13 

Denver to Pueblo 13 

Dillon 143 

Dolores 1 29 

Dolores Canon 129 

Douglas 17 

Downward to Dillon 143 

Dulce 117 

Durango 119 

Durango to Ridgway 125 

Eagle River Canon 46 

Eagle River Valley 46 

Elk Park 123 

El Moro 93 

Florence 32 

Florence & Cripple Creek R. R. .. 32 

Floresta 84 

Fort Logan 1 6 

Fountain 29 

Fremont Pass 142 

Fruita 57 

Garfield Memorial 115 

Garland 96 

Glen Park 19 

Glenwood Springs 49 

Grand Junsction 55 

Grand River Canon 47 

Grand Valley 55 

Granite 40 

Gunnison 82 

Gunnison, Canon of the 86 

Gunnison River 86 

Hotchkiss Q2 

Ignacio 1 1 

La Jara 105 

Lake City 84 

Lake City Branch 84 

Lake Fork Canon 84 

La Wta 95 

La Veta Pass 95 

Lcadvillc 43 

Leadvillc to Dillo 1 140 

Littleton 16 

Lizard Head Pass 129 

Los Pinos Valley 113 



333 



334 



IXDEX. 



COLORADO — Continued. 



Lost Canon 

Lumberton 

Mancos 

Manitou 

Marshall Pass 

Minturn 

Missouri River to Denver 

Mears Junction 

Meeker 

Monarch Branch 

Monte Vista 

Montrose 

Monument 

Monument Park 

Mount of the Holy Cross 44, 

Mount Princeton Hot Springs .... 

New Castle 

North Fork Brancli 

Ophir Loop 

Ouray 

Ouray to Montrose 

Overland Park 

Pagosa Junction 

Pagosa Springs 

Palmer Lake 

Palmilla 

Paonia 

Parkdale 

Parnassus Springs 

Penny's Hot Springs 

Perry Park 

Petersburg 

Phantom Curve 

Pike's Peak 

Placita 

Poncha 

Poncha Pass 

Poncha Springs 

Preface 

Pueblo 

Pueblo to Ogden 

Pueblo to Alamosa 

Red Cliff 



AGE. 
127 
117 

127 

23 
80 
46 

Q 

78 
55 
76 

99 

88 

19 

19 

142 

40 

55 
90 

131 
134 
138 
16 
117 
117 

17 
106 
92 
36 
31 
52 

17 
16 

113 

27 

52 
76 
78 
76 

5 
29 
32 
93 
44 



Red Cliff Canon 44 

Redstone 52 

Ridgway 131, 138 

Rico 129 

Rifle 55 

Romeo 106 

Royal Gorge 36 

Royal Gorge Hot Springs 34 

Sahda 39 

Salida to Grand Junction 76 

San Luis Valley Branch 78 

San Luis Valley 97 

Sapinero 84 

Sedalia 17 

Sierra Blanca 97 

Silverton 123 

Silverton to Montrose 133 

Spanish Peaks 93 

Stage Ride, Ouray Toll Road .... 133 

Steamboat Springs 46 

Telluride 131 

Tennessee Pass 43 

Te.xas Creek 36 

Toltec Gorge 115 

Tomichi Meadows 82 

Trimble Hot Springs 121 

Trinidad 93 

Trinidad Branch 93 

Trout Fishing in the Rio Cirande . . 103 

Trout Lake 129 

Twin Lakes 42 

Valley View Hot Springs 78 

Vance Junction 131 

Vapor Caves, Glenwood Springs . . 50 

Villa Grove 78 

Wagon Creek Junction 96 

Wagon Wheel Gap loi 

Walsenburg 95 

Waunita Hot Spring 82 

Wellsville Hot Springs -59 

West Cliff \8 

West Cliff Branch 36 

Wolhurst 17 



UTAH. 



Alta 66 

American Fork 64 

Bingham 66 

Bingham Branch 66 

Bingham Junction 65 

Fook Cliffs 57 

Brigham 304 

Cache Junction 304 

Castle Gate 59 

Climbing the Wasatch 57 

Collision 304 

Colton 59 

Corinnc 145 

Cottonwood Branch 66 



Dewey 304 

Fort du Chesne 59 

Geological Features 145 

Grand Canon of the Colorado .... 57 

Great Salt Lake 70 

Green Riyer 57 

Helper 59 

Hot Springs 68 

Hot Springs 304 

Jordan River 66 

Kelton 146 

Kyune 59 

Lehi 65 

Logan 306 



INDEX. 



335 



UTAH — Continued. 



Monument 146 

Ogden 144, 304 

Ogden to San Francisco 144 

Ogden to Portland 304 

Oregon Short Line 304 

Park City 73 

Park City Branch 73 

Pleasant \"alk'y Branch 60 

Price 59 

Promontory 145 

Provo 62 

Provo Canon Branch 64 

Red Narrows 60 

Saltair 72 

Salt Lake 70 

Salt Lake Citv 66 



Salt Lake City to Ogden 74 

San Pete Branch 60 

Soldier's Summit 60 

Spanish Fork 62 

Spanish Fork Canon 61 

Springville 62 

Thistle Junction 60 

Thompson's 57 

Tintic Branch 62 

Towns in the Desert 148 

Utah Desert 57 

Utah Lake 64 

Utah Valley 61 

Warm Springs 68 

"What the Engines Said" 145 

Woodside 57 



NEW MEXICO. 



Aztec 121 

Barranca 107 

Bloomfield 121 

Chama 117 

Comanche Canon 108 

Dulce 117 

Embudo no 

Espanola no 

Espanola to Santa Fe in 



Farmington 121 

Indian Pueblos no 

Lumberton 117 

Ojo Caliente 107 

Pueblo Santa Cruz no 

Pueblo San Juan no 

Pueblo de Taos no 

Santa Fe in 



NEVADA. 



Battle Mountain 150 

Beowawe 150 

Brown's 153 

Carlin 149 

Carson Lake 153 

Carson City 154 

Cluro 150 

Desert 154 

Elko 149 

Golconda 150 

Gravelly Ford 150 

Hot Springs 153 

Humboldt 152 

Humboldt \'alley 149 

Humboldt Palisades 149 

Humboldt Lake 153 

Lake Region 153 

Lovelocks 152 

Mirage i>,s 



Moores , 

Mud Lake 

Nevada Desert 

Oreana 

Palisades of the Humboldt 

Palisade 

Pyramid Lake 

Rye Patch 

Reno 

Sierra Nevada Range .... 

Toano 

Twelve Mile Canon 

Valley Region 

Virginia City 

Wadsworth 

Walker's Lake 

Wells 

Winnemucca 

Winnemucca Lake 



CALIFORNIA. 



Acton 226 

Ager 285 

Agnews 269 

Alameda 269 

Alameda Mole 270 

Alameda Point 269 

Alcatraz Island 176 



Alcatraz 233 

Alma 267 

Alvarado 269 

Alviso 269 

American River Bridge 162 

Anaheim 203 

Anderson 278 



336 



INDEX. 



CALIFORNIA — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Angel Island 176 

Antioch 180 

Antonio 235 

Aptos 250 

Arbuckle 289 

Arcadia 267 

Army Point 1 66 

Arroyo Grande 237 

Athlone 183 

Auburn 160 

Azusa 208 

Baden 265 

Bailey's 281 

Bakersfield 188 

Banta 166 

Bay Shore 266 

Beach Drive 237 

Belmont 264 

Benicia 166 

Ben Lomond 266 

Bentwood 180 

Berenda 183 

Beresford 264 

Big Trees 266, 273 

Boulder Creek 266 

Bradley 242 

Bromela 236 

Buena Park 203 

Burbank 225 

Burlingame 265 

Byron 1 80 

Byron Hot Springs 180 

Calaveras Grove 273 

Caliente 188 

Callender 236 

Cameron igo 

Campbell 268 

Camulos 226 

Canons of the Coast Line 232 

Cape Horn r6o 

Capitan 233 

Capitola 252 

Carnadero 256 

Carpinteria 227 

Carquinez Straits r66 

Cascade 159 

Casmalia 235 

Castle Crag 281 

Castroville 246 

Centerville 269 

Channel Country 228 

Chatsworth Park 225 

Chico 277 

Chico Vecino 278 

Chualar 244 

City Hall (San Francisco) 174 

Clem 267 

Cliff House 1 69, 1 75 

Cliff Trip 230 

Climate 218 



Climbing the Sierra Nevadas 158 

Coast Line 225 

Colfa.x 160 

Colma 265 

Colton 2og 

Colusa Junction 289 

Compton 194 

Concepcion 233 

Congress Springs 268 

Corning 286 

Coronado 218 

Crag View 281 

Cucamonga 220 

Cupertino 268 

Davis . . 164 

Del Monte 247 

Donnor Lake 158 

Downey 203 

Duarte 208 

Dunnigan 289 

Dutch Flat 159 

Eden Vale 257 

Edgewood 285 

Edna 237 

Edwards City 233 

Elmira 166 

Elsinore Lake 210 

Elwood 230 

Emigrant Gap 159 

Fair Oaks 264 

Famoso 188 

Felton 266 

Fernando 225 

Fillmore 226 

Finello 286 

Florence 194 

Fresno 184 

Gato 233 

Gaviota 233 

Germantown 288 

Gilroy 256 

Gilroy Hot Springs 256 

Glenwood 267 

Goleta 230 

Golden Gate Park 170, 1 74 

Gonzales 244 

Goshen 186 

Goshen Division 186 

Grovcr 237 

Guadalupe 235 

Historic Ground 159 

Hollistcr 255 

Hopkins Institute of Art 174 

Horn, Cape 160 

Horseshoe Incline 238 

Independence Lake 158 

Irrigation 187 

Jalama 234 

Kern River Oil Region 188 

Keswick 280 



INDEX. 



337 



CALIFORNIA — Continued. 



PACE. 

Kingsburg 185 

King's City 243 

King's River 186 

Kirkwood 288 

La Honda 264 

Lake Tahoe 155 

Lamanda Park 205 

Lathrop 1 80 

Laurel 267 

Lawrence 262 

Le Franc 268 

Libraries (San Francisco) 176 

Lick Observatory 25S 

Lincoln 275 

Lompoc 234 

Lompoc Valky 228, 234 

Long Beach 196 

Los Alamitos 203 

Los Angeles 191 

Los Angeles to San Diego 205 

Los Angeles to Santa Barbara .... 225 

Los Gatos , 267 

Madear 184 

Madrone 257 

Markets (San Francisco) 176 

Martinez 1 78 

Marysville 275 

Matilija Hot Springs 227 

Mayfield 262 

Maywood Colony 286 

Maxwell 289 

McKittrick 188 

Meehan 267 

Menlo Park 264 

Merced 183 

Metz 243 

Millbrae 265 

Mint (San Francisco) 176 

Mission Dolores 173, 176 

Mission Santa Barbara 228 

Monterey 247 

Monterey County 242 

Modesto 183 

Mojave iqo, 226 

Mojave Desert 190 

Monrovia 208 

Montague 285 

Montalvo 226 

Morganhill 257 

Morocojo 246 

Mott 282 

Mount Eden 269 

Mount Lowe 202 

Mount Tamalpais 176 

Mountain \'ie\v 262 

Murietta 210 

Muir's Peak 284 

Naples 232 

Narlon 235 

Narrow Gauge Line 266 



PAOE. 

National City 216 

Neponset 246 

New .'\lmadt-n 268 

Newark 269 

New Castle 160 

Newhall 190, 225 

Newport 204 

New Roscville 218 

Nordhoff 227 

Norman 288 

Norwalk 203 

Oakland 1 76 

Oakland Mole 166 

Oceano 237 

Oceano to San Miguel 237 

Oceanside 210 

Oceanview 265 

Ontario 220 

Opal 252 

Orange 204 

Orella 233 

Orland 288 

Orovillc 276 

Overhanging Rock 233 

O.xnard 226 

Pacific Grove 249 

Pajaro 250 

Palo Alto 262 

Paraiso Springs 244 

Pasadena 199 

Paso Robles 239 

Paso Robles Hot Springs 239 

Pescadero 264 

Pinnacles, The 243 

Pinole 166 

Piru 226 

Plains Region 162 

Point -Arguello 234 

Pomona 223 

Port Co.sta 166 

Port Los Angeles 199 

Post Ot^ice (San Francicso) 1 75 

Presidio Reservation 1 75 

Railway Offices (San Fransicso) .. 176 

Raymond 20:; 

Red BlutT 278 

Redding 280 

Redwood City 264 

Redwood Forest 264 

Richfield 286 

Riverside, East 209 

Riverside, South 209 

Riverside 210 

River Traffic 182 

Rocklin 162 

Roseville Junction 162 

Roscville 218 

Russell 269 

Sacate 233 

Sacramento 162 



338 



INDEX. 



CALIFORNIA Continued. 



Sacramento Canon 

Salinas 

San Antonio Mission 

San Ardo 

San Augustine 

San Benito County 

San Benito Valley 

San Bernardino 

San Bernardino Countv and 

Valley '. 

San Bruno 

San Buenaventura 

San Carlos 

San Diego 

San Diego Bay 

San Diego to Los Angeles 

San Fernando 

San Fernando Tunnel 

San Francisco 

San Francisco, South 

San Francisco Bay 

San Francisco to San Diego 

San Francisco to the Great North- 
west 

San Gabriel 

San Gabriel Valley 

San Joaquin Valley 

San Jose 255, 

San Juan 

San Juan County 

San Lucas 

San Luis Obispo 

San Luis Obispo Countv 

San Martin 

San Mateo 

San Miguel 

San Pedro 

Santa Ana 

vSanta Anita 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Catalina 

Santa Clara 

Santa Clara Mission 

Santa Clara Valley 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Cruz and Broad Gauge Line. 

Santa Cruz Mountains 

Santa Margarita 

Santa Maria 

Santa Maria Valley 

Santa Monica 

Santa Paula 

Santa Ysabel 

Saratoga Springs 

Saticoy 

Saugus 

Schumann 

Seal Rocks 1 6(), 

Selma 

Sesoe Canon 



AGE. 
281 
244 

242 

254 
254 
208 

209 
265 
227 
264 
212 
214 
218 
190 
190 
168 
265 
171 
168 

275 
202 
206 
180 
258 

254 

254 

242 
237 
237 
257 
265 
242 
194 
204 

233 
228 
194 
262 
260 

255 
252 
250 
266 
239 
236 
228 
197 
226 
240 
268 
226 
225 
235 
175 
185 
226 



Page. 

Shasta 284 

Shasta Region 281 

Shasta Retreat 282 

Shasta Springs 282 

Shore Trip to Santa Cruz 250 

Short Tours Adjacent to Los 

Angeles 194 

Sierra Madre Villa 206 

Sierra Nevada Range 158 

Sims 281 

Sisson 282 

Sixteenth St. Station 166 

Soda Springs 1^9 

Soledad _ 243 

Soldier's Home 199 

Somis 227 

Southward Bound 178 

Spreckle's Sugar Factory 246 

Stanford Stock Farm 264 

Stanford University 262 

Stockton 182 

Summerland 227 

Summit (Sierra Nevadas) 159 

Sunnyvale 262 

Surf : 234 

Sutro Baths 175 

Sutro Heights 175 

Sweet Brier 281 

Sweetwater Dam 218 

Tahoe, Lake 155 

Tajiguas 233 

Tangair 235 

Tassajara Springs 246 

Tehachapi Pass 189 

Tehachapi Summit 189 

Tehama 278 

Templeton 239 

Tipton 187 

Tracy 180 

Traver 186 

Tropico 225 

Truckee 15:; 

Tulare 187 

Tulare County 187 

Tustin 204 

Union Mill 267 

Upper Soda S])rings 282 

Upton 284 

Valencia Street 265 

Vallejo Junction 166 

Visalia 186 

Waldorf 235 

Watson ville 2';o 

Webber Lake 158 

Webster 1 64 

West San Leandro 269 

West San Lorenzo 269 

West Side 286 

Wheatland 275 

Whiuier 20/ 



INDEX. 



339 



CALIFORNIA — Continued. 



I" AGE. 

Wildomar 210 

Williams 28Q 

Willows 288 

Wilson's College 194 

Wright 267 



Yolo 289 

Yosemitc, To the 271 

Yosemite Valley 271 

Yuba River 275 

Zayante 267 



IDAHO. 



American Falls 311 

Bellevue 311 

Blackfoot 307 

Bliss 312 

Boise City 312 

Caldwell 314 

Dubois 307 

Franklin 306 

Glenn's Ferry 312 

Hailey 312 

Harrison 320 

Idaho Falls 307 

Ketchum 312 

Kimama 311 

Lewiston 31Q 

Market Lake 307 



McCammon 306 

Meridian 312 

Minidoka 311 

Mountain Home 312 

Moscow 320 

Nampa 312 

Oxford 306 

Payette 314 

Preston 306 

Pocatello 314 

Shoshone 311 

Spencer 307 

Wallace 320 

Wardner 320 

Wciser 314 



MONTANA. 



Butte 311 

Dillon 310 

Divide 310 

Grand Canon of the Yellowstone . . 308 

Lima ^10 



Melrose 310 

Monida 307 

Silver Bow 311 

Yellowstone National Park . . .307, 308 



OREGON. 



Albany 292 

Ashland 290 

Arlington 323 

Athena 318 

Baker City 314 

Beggs 324 

Bingham Springs 316 

Bonneville 325 

Cascade Locks 325 

Columbia River ;]2;^ 

Dalles 324 

Divide 292 

Durkee 314 

Echo 31Q 

Elgin 316 

Eugene 292 

Fairview 326 

Heppner 323 

Heppner Junction 323 

Hilgard 316 

Hood, Mount 324 

Hood River 324 

Hot Lake 315 

Huntington 314 



Jacksonville 

Kamela 

Lalourelle 

Le Grande 

Manufacturing 

Magnificent Harbor 

Meacham 

Modern Improvements 

Mosier 

Multonomah Falls 

Mount Hood 

Oregon City 

Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. 

Oregon and the .Siskiyou 

Pacific Ocean Trip 

Pendleton 

Perry 

Picturesque Surroundings 

Pleasant \'allcy 

Portland . .. .'. 

Portland to San Francisco 

Rogue River \'alley 

Roseburg 

Salem 



290 
316 
326 
316 

295 
299 

295 

324 
326 

324 
293 
314 
290 
326 
316 

316 
296 
314 
293 
326 
290 
292 
292 



340 



INDEX. 



OREGON — Continued. 



Scenic Attractions 2Q2 

Siskiyou Station 290 

State Line ago 

Troutdale 326 



Umatilla 319 

Umpqua \^alley 292 

Union 315 

Viento 325 



WASHINGTON. 



Bolles 318 

Climate of Puget Sound 207 

Colfax 3 iQ 

Dayton 318 

Fairfield 322 

Garfield 320 

La Crosse 319 

Latah 320 

Magnificent Harbor 299 

Okesdale 320 

Pomeroy 318 

Pullman 320 

Rockford 322 

Seattle 300 

Seattle, Advantages of 302 



Seattle, Beauty of 

Spokane 

Starbuck 

Tacoma 

Tea Trade with the Orient 

Tekoa 

Terminal and Shipping Facilities. 

Trade with the Middle West 

Trade with South America and 

Mexico 

Waitsburg 

Walla Walla 

Wallula 

Waverlev 



322 
318 
296 
300 
320 
299 
299 

298 
318 
318 

319 

322 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Mountain Peaks and 



Altitude of 

Passes 328 

Altitude of Mountain Passes 331 



Altitude of Lakes 331 

Altitudes of Towns and Cities ... - 33^ 
Pronunciation of proper names ... 331