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THE BALLANTYNE PRESS 
TAVISTOCK ST, LONDON 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Raphael Santi or Sanzio. By Edgcumbe Staley vii 

List of the Principal Works of Raphael . xxiii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

t/The Betrothal of the Virgin 

Vision of a Knight . i 

v Madonna degli Ansidei 2 

St. Catherine of Alexandria 3 

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes 4 

St. Peter and St. John in the Temple 5 

Camera della Segnatura ... 6 

Poetry 7 

Theology . 8 

Adam and Eve 9 

Parnassus 10 

School of Athens 1 1 

Disputa 12 

Heliodorus driven out of the Temple 13 

Attila repulsed by Saint Leo 14 

St. Eeter delivered out of Prison 15 

The Mass of Bolsena ' 16 

The Oath of Saint Leo 17 

The Fire in the Borgo 18 

Arabesques in the Loggie 19 

^ The Transfiguration 20 

v' Madonna di Foligno 21, 

V Coronation of the Virgin 22 

v The Entombment 23 

The Annunciation 24 

The Adoration 25 

The Presentation 26 

Faith, Hope and Charity 27 

v 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS continued. 

Page 

The Three Graces .28 

Psyche conducted by Mercury to Olympia 29 

Venus pointing out Psyche to Mercury 30 

Venus, Juno and Ceres 31 

The four Sibylls 32 

The Sibylls (Detail) . 33 

Madonna del Gran' Duca 34 

Portrait of Agnolo Doni 35 

/ Madonna del Baldacchino 36 

Vision of Ezekiel 37 

Madonna dell' Impannata 38 

Madonna della Sedia 39 

La Donna Velata 40 

Portrait of Pope Leo X. with two Cardinals . . 41 

Saint John the Baptist .42 

Portrait of the Artist 43 

Portrait of Pope Julius II 44 

Saint Cecilia 45 

The Trinity 46 

Madonna del Divino Amore 47 

Saint Sebastian .48 

Madonna la belle Jardiniere ,. 49 

Madonna au Diad^me . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 

Portrait of a Young Man : 51 

The Archangel Michael 52 

The Large Holy Family 53 

Portrait of Joanna of Aragon . .54 

Holy Family with Saint Jerome and Saint Francis 55 

v/Madonna di San Sisto 56 

\/ Madonna della Casa d'Alba 57 

Saint George and the Dragon 58 

Christ bearing His Cross -59 

The Visitation . . . 60 

Madonna del Legardo .... 61 

Madonna della Perla 62 

Portrait of Cardinal Bibbiena 63 

Madonna del Pesce 64 




RAPHAEL SANTI, OR SANZIO 

BY EDGCUMBE STALEY 




A.PHAEL SANTI, or Sanzio, was born at Urbino on 
March 28, 1483. His parents were in comfortable 
circumstances. His father, Giovanni Santi, was an 
excellent draughtsman ; much of his skill he learned 
from Pietro Vannucci (Perugino), who frequently 
visited Urbino, and made his home with the Santis. 
As a painter too, Giovanni Santi had a considerable 
reputation ; he studied under Melozzo da Forli, and 
assisted him in the decoration of the Ducal Library. 

Raphael's mother was Magia Ciarla, a woman of great sweetness of 
character ; but unhappily for her little son, she died when he was only 
eight years old. Giovanni Santi' s young second wife never took a liking 
to the little lad ; but his father, until his early death in 1494, was very 
good to him, giving him his first lessons in drawing, and doing every- 
thing to encourage him to follow in his own steps as a painter. 

The associations of young Santi's boyhood were refined not to say 
aristocratic. The Court of Urbino was "the mirror of manners" for 
the rest of Europe; her courtiers, as Count Castiglione has so cha- 
racteristically told us, gave a high tone to the people of every class. 

The rulers of the Duchy, Dukes Federigo and Guidobaldo di Monte- 
felt ro, were the most cultured and the most progressive princes of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. They were at the pains to know 
intimately each of their subjects, and indeed every visitor, who evinced 
genius or abilities in any direction ; and to lend them every encourage- 
ment in their power. 

Duke Federigo had taken Giovanni Santi under his direct patronage , 
and Duke Guidobaldo continued his father's favours to his son. 

vii 6 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

The years between the death of Raphael's father and his seventeenth 
birthday were passed pretty much under the care of his good uncle, 
Father Bartolommeo. Possibly in the monastery his art-training, no 
less than his general education, was duly attended to. Then the lad 
passed into the Duke's school, and, mixing with the youths in the ex- 
cellent curriculum of that renowned University, acquired the talents 
and the manners of a perfect courtier. 

Among his principal teachers was Timoteo Viti, one of the foremost 
painters of the day, who had come at the Duke's invitation straight from 
the studio of Francesco Francia at Bologna. Between master and pupil 
sprang up an intimate friendship which continued through life. 

Perhaps the first important step in the young artist's life was taken 
in the year 1500, when in company with other young fellows he visited 
Perugia to watch Perugino, who was decorating the Sola del Cambio, or 
Banker's Exchange. His fame had been wafted far and wide, and his 
pure and exalted idealic style made an immense impression upon his 
youthful visitor. The long and short of it was that he offered himself as 
a pupil to his father's old friend, and was cordially received by him. 

Before leaving Urbino, Raphael had, of his own accord, studied dili- 
gently a number of pictures painted in the Palace Library, by a Flemish 
painter called Justus of Ghent. He made numerous copies of the series 
entitled The Philosophers. In the same building The Arts and The Sciences 
by Melozzo da Forli, also busily engaged the young draughtsman's pencil. 
Some of these studies are preserved in collections in Rome, London, 
and Berlin. They are in two crayons, and exhibit delicacy of touch and 
simplicity of outline quite unusual in so young a copyist. 

Within a year of his admission to Perugino's studio, we find 
Raphael actively assisting his master in the details of work at the Ex- 
change. These required much labour in grinding colours, preparing 
grounds, tracing drawings, making transfers, &c. &c. In all these 
matters doubtless, Perugino found clever young Santi very useful. 
But he was called to do more interesting work than this, for he had 
to design and to colour some of the little pictures with which, after the 
fashion of the day, greater compositions were surrounded. Many such 
exquisite " little bits " are found in galleries, which are manifestly the 
handiwork of Raphael. 

In the following two years many original studies and more ambitious 
compositions, too, were done. They were chiefly religious in character 
the " Madonna " already taking a pre-eminent place. Some, neverthe- 
less, were martial scenes, for example the Departure of <Eneas Sylvius, 
now at the Uffizi. 

The Academy of Venice is particularly rich in samples of early work 
at Perugia. In' them we see unmistakedly the influences of Perugino. 
" The Venice Sketch Book " is a treasury of such studies. 

Raphael, too, made copies without end of the works of Mantegna, 
Pinturicchio, Signorelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Pollaiuolo, and of his master. 

viii 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

All these are marked by a singular sense of restraint, or abstraction, which 
accorded well with the ethics of his training. 

The young artist's first important composition in oils was probably 
the Solly Madonna, now in Berlin ; it was painted in Perugino's studio 
in 1502, just before the latter's departure for Florence. In it there is 
a trace of a distinct personality the suppressed animation of the 
figures which indicate in what direction we may look for future de- 
velopments. 

Other " Madonnas " followed rapidly, until in 1503 we find ourselves 
face to face with a picture, which asserts not only the personality 
but the power of the rising painter this was The Coronation of The 
Virgin. 

Then came Vision of a Knight, and several Holy Families, and 
Figures of Saints, each one proclaiming greater freedom and release 
irom mannerism and convention. The Vision of a Knight, in the 
London National Gallery, is interesting as being the first highly finished 
composition not strictly of a religious character. It shows also, how 
precocious, and yet how fixed were the painter's rhythmic appreciation of 
the ideal. It was painted probably at Siena, to which art city the young 
man made many expeditions, the attraction being Pinturicchio, busy with 
his magnificent Piccolomini frescoes in the cathedral and library. 

Raphael also visited Citta del Castello, Bologna, and Florence not 
once but many times in the enjoyment of the pleasant fashion which 
made the interchange of visits a leading feature in the mutual inter- 
course of men of like tastes and pursuits. At the former place he was 
hospitably entertained by Signorelli, and painted under his auspices 
.several church banners and a few easel pictures. Perhaps the best-known 
work connected with Citta del Castello is the lovely Betrothal of the Virgin, 
in the Brera, Milan. Nothing sweeter or more beautifully conceived ever 
came from any painter's brush. This picture certainly carried the art of 
Umbria to its highest pinnacle. It is a remarkable proof of early ripened 
.genius, Raphael being just barely twenty-one. 

The end of 1504 saw him once more in Urbino, where he was received 
by Duke Guidobaldo with distinction and honours. In that hand- 
some and gifted crowd of courtiers men of letters, artists, and philoso- 
phers who thronged that brilliant Court, none bore himself more grace- 
fully than did young Santi. 

Once more he entered into the intellectual and physical culture of 
the little capital with all the zest of an ardent sympathetic nature. Ex- 
hilaration of temperament found its outlet in the exuberant brush-work 
of his Saint Michael and Saint George each of them quite the most 
spirited work he had yet accomplished. One of those who welcomed the 
comely youth, and had been fascinated by his art, was the Duke's sister 
the Duchess Giovanni della Rovere and she assumed the office of his 
patroness-in-chief. 

Thrilling reports began to find their way at this moment, into the 

ix 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

Umbrian mountain studios of a marvellous exhibition in Florence, where 
Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo Buonarroti were competing for 
first honours. Their rival battle cartoons were hung up at the Palazzo 
Vecchio, and all the artist world was greatly moved. 

Raphael's thoughts turned thitherwards, whilst the attraction of his 
old master's residence and work in the Tuscan capital made further 
appeals. Consequently, late in the summer of 1504, he packed up his 
belongings, and, bidding adieu to his kind patrons and his congenial 
associates, he set off for Florence. In his satchel he carried a letter from 
his good friend the Duchess, commending him to the favour of the Gon- 
faloniere Piero Soderini. 

" The painter, Raphael," she wrote, " of Urbino, by the talent he 
possesses has decided to come to Florence for a time, to perfect himself 
in his art. His father was dear to me for his many excellent qualities ; 
and I had not less affection for his son, who is a modest and agreeable 
young man, and one who will, I hope, make all possible progress . . . .'* 
The letter is dated October i, 1504. 



II 

RAPHAEL SANTI'S arrival in Florence synchronised with trie- 
highest period of her prosperity. The " hub " of the industries 
and the key of the commerce of Europe, she was also the cradle 
of the arts and sciences, and the fount of literature and poetry. 

It was a striking contrast for the young man well accustomed to the 
dignified amenities of the Ducal Court, and the idyllic life of romantic 
Perugia and Siena, to find himself hustled about by the busy everyday 
life of Florence. 

Those great dreamy eyes of his and those calm features learnt new 
expressions, as strange impressions of the world around him rushed pell- 
mell through his brain. His dark, wavy hair took crisper curl and his 
nervous hands laid firmer hold of pencil and of brush. 

Raphael was in the midst of a strenuous city full of giants in 
mind and body. Of all the great men by whom he found himself sur- 
rounded, his earliest affections went out to Leonardo da Vinci, Barto- 
lommeo della Porta, and Andrea del Sarto ; later on Michael Angelo 
grasped his hand. Masaccio, Filippino Lippi, Donatello, and Luca della 
Robbia, each gave fresh impulse to his art. 

In the crowd of artists, students, and art-lovers in general, which 
stood entranced in the Palazzo Vecchio, before the great cartoons of 
da Vinci and Buonarroti none made better use of his opportunities than 
did Raphael Santi. The "Venice Sketch Book" has preserved much 
that he thought, and saw, and did, for many sketches and studies did 
he make of those renowned creations. 

Next he attacked Michael Angelo's David copying it time after time ;. 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

as also Leonardo's Mono, Lisa. He dallied here and sauntered there 
as if waking out of an enchanting dream. 

Inspired by new emotions for beauty in real life, he composed, 
what is judged by many, to be, his most lovely, because most natural, 
Madonna the Gran 9 Duca. It fulfils every requirement of physical 
arid: spiritual beauty Mother and Babe are simple living figures, full 
of human tenderness. 

Raphael spent four fruitful years in Florence. The catalogue of his 
works, during this period, is as lengthy as it is noteworthy. It contains 
such masterpieces as Madonna del Cardellino, Madonna delta Casa Tempi, 
Madonna degli Ansidei, Madonna la belle Jardiniere, Madonna di Sant 9 
Antonio, Madonna del Baldacchino, Madonna Canigiani, The Three Graces, 
St. Catherine of Alexandria, St. Francis and St. Anthony of Padua, The 
Entombment, The Portrait of Duke Guidobaldo, his own delightful portrait, 
in the Uffizi, and many others. 

Some forty Madonnas are " attributed" to Raphael, the greater 
number undoubtedly by his own hand alone, and most of them weredojc^ 
at Florence. This suite of fascinating delineations of all thaj^is^fairest, 
noblest, and purest in happy maternity and child-like imaec'ence, forms, 
together with his work in the Vatican, Raphael's uncoiffestable claim to 
the chief est throne in the hierarchy of painters. 

Along with his achievements in oils, his pencil and! his crayon were 
no laggards in their course. None of the great masters, save perhaps 
" the inimitable Leonardo," excelled Raphael in delicate sense of contour, 
whilst he is easily first in his feeling for strict outline. v 

To study Raphael's drawings is a revelation of how intense were his \ 
yearnings after " the Beautiful." He seems to have been something of a 
clairvoyant too, for he drew men, women, and children, with all their 
associations and accessories, not merely as they actually were, but as he 
considered they ought to be. The forces of the ideal are clearly shadowed 
forth, while the powers of natural life are as plainly substantiated. 

Raphael's Florentine work is a supreme manifestation of the 
pyramidal form of composition. This he seems to have learned from 
Bartolommeo, the painter par excellence of Florence, whose manner 
was so greatly affected by all the sixteenth- and seventeenth- century 
painters. The most eminent example of this is the Madonna la belle 
Jardiniere, in the Louvre. In studying Raphael's Florentine easel-work 
we see quickly enough how greatly his art developed, in a healthy 
direction, amid the vigorous activities of his environment. 

Go where he would, in the Mercato Vecchio, in the Via Calimala, in 
the Via de 9 Bardi, down by the river quays, or away in the wide Contado, 
his eyes met men and women, gentle born and base, remarkable for graceful 
bearing and intellectual faces. 11 Then, in San Giovanni, he saw daily, 
such babies brought to the church's font, as only such fine parentage 
could produce. In the streets and piazzas, too, boys and girls played 
their merry games and waged their mimic battles, or, early entered the 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

lists with wily Cupid, possessed of such physical charms as, perhaps,, 
only Florence could offer. Raphael needed, amid such a wealth of 
graceful models, to clothe his figures with but the faintest golden vaghesse 
of eclectic beauty. 

One delightful trait he caught directly from Luca della Robbia. Over 
a doorway, in the Via del Agnolo, is still a lovely lunette in glazed terra- 
cotta. It gives us the new type of the Renaissance. The Mother alert 
and human, is regarding the effect of her Son's blessing upon the 
bystanders and is not merely the reverent worshipper of her Child. The 
encompassing angels holding aloft their pots of growing lilies, emblems 
of the City of the Lily, are almost laughing in their joy at the power of 
the New Birth. Raphael fastened his eyes upon this chef-d'ceuvre of the 
sculptor-potter-painter's art, and unto his soul passed the breath of 
knowledge. 

Silence, amounting almost to mystery, surrounds Raphael's Floren- 
tine life. Aging before his time, in seriousness of demeanour, in sim- 
plicity of life, and in every function of his art, he worked incessantly day 
in, day out. Art was a serious business the whole city was full of it. It 
ruled in the home, in the workshop, and in the amusements of the citizens. 

What effect Boccaccio, Sacchetti, Pulci, and Buffalmacco had upon 
the devout painter, we know not, but probably Dante, Petrarch, 
Castiglione, and Machiavelli were more to his liking. 

That he was a perfect courtier goes without saying. No man from 
Urbino would be likely to fail at any point, even when his abode was 
with the dignified Messeri of the great Merchant Guilds, and the freedom 
loving Genii of the busy Crafts of Florence. 

The " harvest of a quiet eye " was his, and his hand has flung generously 
upon his panels, the fruit of gentle intercourse with Ghirlandajo, Botti- 
celli, Cellini, and the rest. 

Raphael loved Florence, and Florence loved him. His personality 
no less than his art appealed to the noblest instincts of her citizens they 
took him to their hearts, as would a devoted mother her child. 

Every wealthy merchant and every notable artist made Raphael 
his own patron and friend in one the Rucellai, the Strozzi, the Doni, 
with Taddeo Taddei, Lorenzo Nasi, and many a one beside. 

Many heads turned to look at that remarkable trio, da Vinci, 
Buonarroti, and Santi, as they crossed the Piazza Signoria, on their way 
to Michael's studio. Chatting now with animation, and now pacing 
in serious mood, they discussed, perchance the latest achievement of the 
artist world, or, laughing sedately, they retailed some gossip of Bur- 
chiello's. 

But time was hurrying on, when suddenly a summons came to Raphael 
to quit his congenial life beneath the shadow of Brunelleschi's dome, and 
to take up his abode under a still more famous cupola in Rome. In the 
autumn of 1508, Pope Julius II. commanded Raphael to decorate some 
apartments in the Vatican. 



- 



M^l 

v,'.<:^ 




RAPHAEL SANTI 



III 



RAPHAEL was welcomed in Rome with an enthusiasm unparalleled 
in the archives of Art. The Pope, through his personal relationship 
with Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino, knew his antecedents and appre- 
ciated his accomplishments. The people of the Eternal City had 
heard flattering reports of his work in Florence, and many had seen his 
facile brush in operation. Everybody regarded Raphael as the one man 
who could restore the metropolis to her ancient splendour. 

Bramante of Urbino and Buonarroti of Florence, were already hard 
at work, one rebuilding St. Peter's, the other decorating the Vatican 
both were warm friends of Raphael. Together they had attained the goal 
of all artists. 

Raphael began to paint in the Camera delta Segnatura, one of the 
three Stanze of the Vatican, at the end of 1508. Perugino, Sodoma, Sig- 
norelli, Bramantino, Piero della Francesca and Peruzzi had already done 
some beautiful work on walls and ceilings, but these were swept away 
by the Pope's command. 

This was Raphael's great opportunity, and how he used it we may 
judge with our own eyes, not only on the spot, but in the collections of 
drawings at Milan, Lille, the Louvre, the Albertina, and at Oxford and 
Windsor. Brain and hand were set hard at work. Advice and counsel were 
sought from old Urbino friends settled in Rome, Bembo, Bibbiena and 
Castiglione. Authorities were looked up, and Ariosto was called to assist. 
It is somewhat difficult to describe the subject, or range of subjects, 
with which Raphael had to deal. Perhaps the key may be seen in the 
four medallions of the ceiling. Theology, Philosophy, Poetry, and Justice. 
Into the first of these Raphael threw his whole soul. The woman- 
goddess shows how superbly Raphael, thus early in his third period, 
blended memories of Urbino and its library" with the beautiful 
" Madonnas " of Florence. 

On the walls of the Stanza are painted Parnassus, School of Athens 
and Disputa del Sacramento. These three frescoes provide us with a 
whole university "in little." The humanists of the fifteenth century, one 
and all, had striven hard to reconcile pagan philosophy and Christian 
theology. Raphael, in the early years of the sixteenth, here realises their 
aspirations. No one was better fitted for the task. Urbino and Perugia 
had imparted inspirations of the ideal, Florence had impressed the in- 
fluence of realism, and now Rome was to weld the two strains into one, / 
and to dower the young Umbrian painter with the sublimities of classical / 
eclecticism. 

But what pen shall fitly describe the glories of Raphael's incomparable 
achievement ? 

The three great frescoes, with the ceiling medallions, proclaim the Story 
of Human Progress in things of the imagination, of reason and of faith. 
Doubtless Raphael had seen and studied Giotto's Gospel of Labour, 

xiii 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

sculptured upon his renowned Campanile in Florence ; and so he frescoed, 
with his fertile hand, the ruling principles of the Universe, Romance, 
Philosophy, and Religion. 

Into his fascinating work he has introduced the charm of living por- 
traiture. In the Parnassus he shows us Ariosto, Boccaccio, Petrarch, 
Tebaldeo, and others. In the School of Athens we see Castiglione, as 
Zoroaster, Duke Francesco of Urbino, the tall youth in gold and white, 
Federigo Gonzaga, the curly headed lad, an hostage in Rome, and the 
Pope's pet and plaything, with himself and Sodoma his assistant in 
the decorative details. In the Disputa, both Dante and Savonarola are 
introduced. Under the Parnassus is the date 1511, which adds, to 
unbounded admiration of the artist's power, intense amazement at his 
rapidity of execution. 

For the whole of the Stanza Raphael received 1200 ducats nearly 
"2500 an immense sum in those days, and an entirely unprecedented 
amount for so young a painter. 

Julius went into ecstacies over Raphael's success, and, showering honours 
richly upon him, he admitted the young Master to his intimate friendship. 
He at once commissioned him to decorate the other two Stanze. 

Here Raphael was faced with a serious difficulty? he was called upon 
to paint subjects already mapped out by others. His inventive powers 
were consequently greatly curtailed, but Raphael was nothing if he was 
not humble, resourceful, and thorough. He gathered around him a 
band of skilful assistants and enthusiastic pupils amongst the latter 
were Giulio Romano, Pierino del Vaga, Giovanni da Udine, and Francesco 
Penni. 

He also took brotherly counsel with Sebastiano del Piombo, who 
was at the moment decorating the villa of Agostino Chigi, a wealthy 
Roman banker. From him Raphael learned some of the secrets and 
methods of the great Venetian colour-masters. 

The whole "School" of Raphael attacked the work with admirable 
zeal. Studies were prepared and designs were roughed out, which passed 
under the young Master's acute eye and were corrected and improved 
by his cunning hand. These were in the form of cartoons. 

The subjects of the frescoes had been chosen by the Pope and his 
immediate Court for the purpose of illustrating the triumph of the Catholic 
Faith : Heliodorus driven out of the Temple, Attila repulsed by Saint Leo, 
The Deliverance of Saint Peter, and The Mass of Bolsena. 

In the first of these, Raphael shows conclusively that he has mastered 
the secrets of the Venetian colourists. The introduction of Julius II 
on the Sedia geslatoria was given us, among the bearers, the finely painted 
likenesses of Pietro di Folcari, Baltassare Peruzzi, and Marc' Antonio 
Raimondi some say Albrecht Diirer, who about this time sent Raphael 
a portrait of himself done in tempera. 

The Mass of Bolsena is a marvellous work. Raphael had to contend 
with an ill-shaped wall space and a bad light. Only an original mind 

xiv 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

like his could have made of the intruding doorway a telling feature in 
the composition. The entire fresco was painted by his own hand. 

But now came to Raphael a heavy sorrow his amiable and munifi- 
cient patron Julius II. died, yielding up, in 1513, the triple crown to 
Leo X. 

The new Pontiff, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was animated 
happily not only with the zeal and ambitions of his house, but with the 
liveliest sympathy for art and artists, and for none of the latter more than 
for Raphael Santi, whom he had known and loved in Florence. 

The first piece of preferment under the new Pope, which came to 
Raphael, was his appointment, upon the death of Bramante in 1513, 
as architect-in-chief of St. Peter's, with absolute authority over all 
monuments, buildings, and ruins within a circuit of ten miles round 
Rome. 

This might have proved an embarrassing office to the gentle painter, 
but his qualifications were undoubted. The splendid new buildings of 
Florence had given further impulse to Raphael's sense of proportion 
and perspective. 

With Vitruvius for his guide, he at once began a thorough study of 
archaeology. His drawings became eloquent of artistic antiquities. 
Every inscribed stone which was discovered was brought to him, whilst 
he entirely stopped the wholesale plundering of rich marbles and sculp- 
tured fragments. 

Two important matters in connection with St. Peter's called for his 
prompt attention : (i) the strengthening of the foundations generally, 
and (2) the addition of pillars and buttresses to support the dome. 
Although he made no radical change in the administration of his new 
office, he is credited with a scheme for the entire re-building of the 
Cathedral. Very many plans, elevations, and details remain to attest 
his distinction as a practical and capable builder. 

In 1514 Raphael began to paint in the third Stanza. At his urgent 
request the ceiling-painting, which was the work of his master Perugino, 
was spared ; but on the walls were frescoed The Coronation of Charlemagne, 
The Oath of Leo ///., The Battle of Ostia, and The Fire in the Borgo. 

In the first two the Pontiff bears the features and figure of Leo X., 
and the Emperor is Francis I. The remarkably dignified bearing of Leo 
is in accordance with the papal maxim propounded at the Lateran 
Council, then in session : " It is for God, not man, to judge bishops." 

This third Stanza gave Raphael even less scope than the second, 
and, whilst Giulio Romano's hand is evident in the third composition, 
the Master is supreme in the other three, but he does not maintain 
the high standard of the Camera della Segnatura. The last fresco shows 
the influence of Michael Angelo, who was painting in the Sistine 
Chapel hard by ; it is distinguished by a vigour and a massiveness some- 
what unusual in Raphael's more gentle style. 

His popularity rapidly increased, and commissions were thrust upon 

XV 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

him from all quarters. As grew his fame so too grew the number of 
his pupils and assistants. 

In 1517 Raphael purchased land in the Borgo Nuovo, quite near 
the Vatican, and there he built a fine palace which became almost a 
second Castle of Urbino. A "School" of painters, sculptors, architects, 
engravers, carvers in wood, gilders, and craftsmen of all kinds sprang up 
like magic around the " Divine Master," as he was affectionately called. 
Although Raphael lived like a prince, he personally superintended the 
studies of his pupils both general and artistic as well as their physical 
culture. He was daily escorted to and from St. Peter's and the Vatican 
by upwards of fifty young men, by way of a guard of honour. It is said 
that one day Michael Angelo met the cortege, and, in his usual sarcastic 
manner, saluted Raphael with : " You'll walk, I expect, one of these 
days like a general at the head of an army ! " 

The third Stanza was finished in 1517, but it did not represent any- 
thing like all his work during those busy four years. Raphael had never 
forsaken his easel, and a second sequence of "Madonnas" came forth 
from his hand. 

These Roman " Madonnas " are most interesting they display the 
classical combination of the ideal and the real. Some of the most noted 
are Colonna, The Bridgewater, del Divino Amore, di Foligno,Aldobrandini, 
della Casa d'Alba, del Pesce, and the della Sedia. 

And who were his models ? Whence came these halos of innocence 
and romance ? who inspired their pose ? Raphael, the scholar, and 
the courtier, of Urbino the companion of men of wealth and taste in 
Florence the friend of popes and princes in Rome could never bend to 
unworthy folk. If the Roman contadina had not the grace and good 
looks of her Florentine sister, she was, all the same, a dignified and 
inspiring subject for the Master-painter of Eclectic Beauty ! 

Some have sought to wind around the personality of the great Master 
the fatuous meshes of romantic love. Whether Fornarina existed 
or not, or whether other so-called innamorate ever cast their fascinations 
over the noble soul of the pure-minded painter of the " Madonna," will 
never be satisfactorily settled. 

There was certainly what looks like a love affair. In two Sonnets, 
which Raphael wrote in the book of one of his studies for the Disputa, 
he addresses the beauteous mistress of his dreams as one far above him 
in every excellence, and he vows therein that he will never utter her 
name to a soul ! May not this have been a reverie, after the manner 
of Dante and Beatrice ? Or, had he in his mind another rhapsody, in 
which his friend Michael Angelo figured with Vittoria Colonna ? 

The identity however of this fair one has been fixed, and her sweet 
face looks out of a gilded frame in the Pitti, which bears the inscription : 
La Donna Velata" The Lady with the Veil," and is dated 1518. 
She is also portrayed as St. Mary Magdalene, in the Santa Cecilia 
masterpiece at Bologna; and she is marvellously depicted in that 

xvi 




RAPHAEL SANTI 

most exquisite Virgin the sweetest of them all Madonna di San 
Sisto at Dresden. Her name is said to have been Margherita, and 
she is reputed to have been the daughter of a member of the Guild 
of Millers and Bakers, who lived in Trastevere hence the title La For- 
narina the Baker's Girl. Be these surmises what they may, the real 
secret of Raphael's love, if such he had, lies buried with him in his grave. 

At Vasari's door lies the blame if blame it be, of the Raphael-For- 
narina gossip. Innocence and a negative are ever least easy of proof. 

But the same admirable historian is on safer ground when he tells 
the story of Maria Bibbiena, the niece of his old Urbino friend, Cardinal 
Bibbiena. Probably she and Raphael were betrothed, but the offer 
of a Cardinal's hat by the Pope, who never countenanced the match, 
offered greater inducements, and, before the union was consummated, 
Maria died. She was buried in the Pantheon, where, later on, Raphael, 
was laid, by his own request, by her side. 

The truth is that, like Luca della Robbia " the Raphael of Sculp- 
ture," the Urbino Master held women in such high esteem that the 
question of marriage hardly ever seriously entered into his head. Mary 
symbolising all that was lovely in mind and body in woman was 
Raphael's goddess ; at her shrine he worshipped, and drank in his divine 
inspirations. And, as Mary reared the Christ-child to be the most 
beautiful of mankind, so Raphael's art created frescoes and pictures, 
wherein human nature is revealed at its purest, its happiest, its noblest, 
and its best. This is the secret of his strength, his innocence, and his love. 

For seven years he found himself saddled with the anxious care of the 
great Basilica. He wrote thus to his cousin Simone di Ballista di Ciarla, 
of Urbino, in 1514 : "As to my stay in Rome, I cannot live anywhere else 
for any time, if only because of the building of St. Peter's, as I am in 
place of Bramante ; but what place is in the world more worthy than 
Rome, what enterprise more worthy than St. Peter's. . . ." 

In the same letter he discusses, almost cynically, the question of 
marriage, which had been urged upon him by his relatives and others, 
and ends up devoutly thankful that he did not marry early, and considers 
that marriage would, even later in life, prove a bar to his success as a 
inter ! 

Both as draughtsman and painter, Raphael showed an intense feeling 
for form. He had never gone through as artists were begining to do, a 
course of anatomical studies ; indeed the idea of dissection of human 
bodies was over-poweringly abhorrent to his sensitive nature. On the 
other hand he devoted the closest study to the anatomical drawings of 
Antonio Pollaiuolo, the first Florentine painter who made dissection 
an essential matter, Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo. He knew 
their different styles by heart, and copied diligently all their studies of 
the nude. 

This sense of form had come upon him with irresistible force as 
he stood gazing in 1508, in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, at the 

xvii 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

competing cartoons of " The Inimitable " and " The Terrible " Masters. 
Their influence was strikingly apparent in the easel-picture The Entomb- 
ment. 

Raphael's excursions into the regions of sculpture were worthy of his 
fame. In 1516, he designed architectural details, sculptured ornaments 
and mosaics for the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo. These were 
carried out with the assistance of Ludovico da Pace of Verona. For 
his friend Agostino Chigi he modelled in clay a figure of Jonah the 
Prophet, which was sculptured in marble by his pupil Pietro d'Ancona. 

Perhaps The Dead Boy and Dolphin, at St. Peter's, is Raphael's best 
and most authentic work in marble ; but there are many figures great 
and small, which are more or less authoritatively " attributed " to him. 

Leonardo Borgherini, a saddler friend of Sebastiano del Piombo, 
writing in 1516, says : " Michael Angelo must look to his laurels for 
Raphael Urbino has actually modelled a child in clay for Pietro d'Ancona." 

A word must be said about the Sistine Chapel tapestries. Leo X., 
wishing to complete the decorations of that beauteous shrine, turned again 
to Raphael, whom he styled "The gentle-souled painter of Urbino." He 
wished to cover the lower portion of the walls with hangings, which should, 
by their woven designs, set forth the establishment of Christ's Kingdom 
upon earth. 

This was new ground, but Raphael bethought him of Masaccio's del 
Carmine frescoes ; and with colours, few and simple, he realised the 
sublimity of his classical ideals. Two years were spent in making the 
cartoons the finest examples of his relief-outline compositions. The 
ten subjects were finished, with the assistance of his pupils, in 1516, and 
were despatched forthwith to the tapestry looms of Pietro van Aelst, at 
Brussels. In 1520 they were completed and were hung in the chapel 
just before the untimely death of their designer. In 1527 they were 
carried off and pawned, and were lost sight of till 1798, when a French 
dealer bought them at an auction and restored them but in rags ! They 
may still be seen in a lumber room of the Vatican in a hopeless 
condition. 

But now came something like a decadence in the style of the Master. 
He undertook, far and away, more work than one pencil and one brush 
could achieve. Gradually Raphael's predominance yielded to the 
personalities and peculiarities of his pupils. After 1517 he rarely carried 
to a finish anything with his own hand. 

His last two great decorative schemes were the frescoes in the Loggie 
of the Vatican and in the Farnesina. The former work, commenced in 1513, 
was in progress right up to the hour of his death. It consisted of fifty- 
two frescoes in the Cupolas of the Loggie, which were open galleries giving 
upon the Vatican courtyards and gardens. The buildings themselves 
were partly the work of Bramante and partly of Raphael himself. 

The subjects are all from the Sacred Story, and the suite has in con- 
sequence gained the designation of " Raphael's Bible." The simplicity 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

of composition, the perfection of drawing, and the beautiful blending 
of colours, make such an affecting appeal, that we may well say, Raphael 
used for his painting medium, nothing else than the running narrative 
itself ! 

This creation raised Raphael's art to the very highest place in decora- 
tive painting, not even excepting Michael Angelo's superb achievements 
in the Sistine Chapel. 

In the arabesques and grotesques he dreamt of Pompei and her ex- 
quisite wall paintings, but he confided the execution of his designs to 
his pupils, Giovanni da Udini and Giulio Romano. 

Whilst he was busy with his " Bible " in the Loggie, his opulent 
banker friend, Agostino Chigi, besought him to decorate the stately villa 
he had built in Trastevere. His Galatea, finished in 1514, was already 
there. About this he wrote thus to his old Urbino friend, Castiglione, 
" In order to paint a beautiful woman I have need to look at very many, 
then I turn to the ideal, which I am able to create in my imagination." 
This was the very source of his cult of Eclectic Beauty. 

The History of Cupid and Psyche is the sweetest of all love romances, 
and Raphael undertook it, in 1518, when he was under the spell of the 
Lady with the Veil she was his Psyche and he her Cupid. Raphael perfectly 
revelled in this blissful occupation, almost, if not quite, as fascinating as 
that of painting the Madonna. The subject is worked out in panels 
which are triumphs of spacing. The designs and instructions for his 
pupils, who largely assisted him, nil all the principal collections of 
drawings in Europe. 

In spite of all these immense and absorbing demands upon his in- 
vention his genius projected a third suite of easel-pictures, and lo ! six 
more sweet Madonnas stepped off his rich palette including that most 
lovely one of all the Madonna di San Sisto. 

This, Raphael evidently meant to be his supreme effort, and no hand 
but his touched it. No "other model but the bewitching Margherita 
would do. To her Roman charms he has added the alert nobility of 
the Florentine ; and the Babe, she carries on her arm, is Raphael's highest 
ideal of what an unspeakably beautiful child should be. All the illumina- 
tion of the picture comes blazing forth from this art child of the artist lover ? 
Angels must have mixed his colours, whilst the Spirit of God guided his 
brush ! 

This Madonna di San Sisto is, perhaps, the greatest picture in the 
world. It inspired Goethe's muse, who sings thus of it : 

Model for mothers queen of women 
A magic brush has, by enchantment, 
Fixed her there. 

Other remarkable masterpieces distinguished the years 1517-1520, 
among them St. Cecilia, The Archangel Michael, The Visitation, and last 
of all thdugh by many counted first and chiefest The Transfiguration. 

xix 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

At the time of the inception of The Transfiguration, Raphael's greatest 
rival, Sebastiano del Piombo, was working for Agostino Chigi at his 
superb Raising of Lazarus, and Raphael put forth his whole strength to 
maintain his superiority. 

His subject was sublime, but its thrall, and the strain of its composition, 
exhausted the efforts and the life force of its author, and on March 27, 
1520, Raphael fell ill of fever perhaps further induced by his diligent 
archaeological researches among the ruins. 

In spite of his cheerful disposition, his excellent physique, and blame- 
less life, the end came suddenly after making his will, whereby he left 
30,000 (sixteen thousand ducats), to his relatives at Urbino, and his 
drawings and his unfinished pictures to Giulio Romano, Francesco Penni, 
and other pupils. He directed that his body should be laid in the Pantheon. 
On Good Friday, April 6, 1520, his pure spirit took its flight. 

The whole of Rome was plunged in grief it is said the Pope shed 
tears. On Holy Saturday a vast concourse, including princes and peasants, 
followed the saintly painter to his last resting-place, and there they laid his 
body, at the foot of the Altar of the Madonna whom he had loved so 
enthusiastically and had painted so incomparably. 

It was said that on that sad day the walls of the Loggie cracked, 
and the people cried out : " Why, the stones are cut as deeply as our 
hearts." 

His life-long friend Cardinal Bembo wrote his epitaph : 

Nature, while Raphael lived for ever loved his brush- 
He died and she hid herself in silent, tearful hush. 

One feature of Raphael's work has been very slightly touched upon 
his gifts as a portrait-painter. Twenty portraits, at least, are evidence 
of his rare skill in delineating living men and women. Perhaps the most 
famous are Agnolo Doni, Maddelina Strozzi-Doni, his own portrait, Duke 
Guidobaldo, Julius II., LeoX. alone, and with Cardinal Giulio de* Medici 
and Luigi de Rossi, Cardinal Bibbiena, Count Baldazzare Castiglione, and 
Fedra Inghirami. It is not too much to say that no painter of the 
Renaissance attained a higher level, or produced more life-like results, 
than did Raphael in his portraiture. 

Giulio Romano, Francesco Penni, and Giovanni da Udine carried on 
the fame of Raphael's Palace studio for many years after the Master's 
death. A great number of compositions were produced under his name, 
very many of which, doubtless, were designed by him, and finished by 
his " School." 

Marc Antonio Raimondi was the first principal engraver of the Work of 
Raphael, and when he died Baverio Carroci of Parma also a pupil of the 
Master continued the enterprise. Many men joined him, and soon a 
School of Engraving entirely devoted to Raphael was in active operation. 

Raphael has been justly styled the " Foster-father " of the Academy 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

of St. Luke, in Rome. On his arrival in the Eternal City in 1508, only 
some eight or nine painters were at work there. By 1535 but fifteen 
years after his death the " School of Raphael " counted as many as one 
hundred and ninety resident holders of the palette ! 

Of Raphael it may truly be said : " He came, he saw, he conquered ! " 




LIST OF THE CHIEF WORKS 
OF RAPHAEL 

GREAT BRITAIN 

LONDON PUBLIC GALLERIES 

NATIONAL GALLERY 

VISION OF A KNIGHT (1503) 

Painted when young Santi was at Perugino's. Formerly 
in the Borghese Gallery in Rome. At the end of the eighteenth 
century Mr. W. Y. Ottley became possessed of it, and among 
other owners in turn, were Sir Thomas Lawrence, Lady Sykes, 
and Rev. T. Egerton. Mr. Egerton sold it to the National 
Gallery in 1847 for 1050. Square, 7 in. 

MADONNA DEGLI ANSIDEI (1506) 

Painted for the Ansidei family of Perugia, for their chapel 
in the Servite Church of San Fiorenzo. It remained there 
till 1764, when it was purchased by Lord Robert Spencer, 
and presented to his brother, the Duke of Marlborough. At 
the Blenheim Sale in 1885, it was purchased for the National 
Gallery for 70,000. The predella has been broken up ; 
one of the three subjects alone remains, The Preaching of St. 
John the Baptist, and it is in possession of the Marquis of 
Lansdowne. 

7 ft. x 4 ft. 10 in. 

SAINT CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA (1508) 

Originally in the Aldobrandini Collection, in the Borghese 
Gallery, Rome. Mr. Day, Lord Northwick, and Mr. Beckford 
in turn possessed it ; the last sold it to the National Gallery 
in 1839. 

2 ft. 4 in. x i ft. 9 in. 

PORTRAIT OF POPE JULIUS II. (1510) 

Passavant has traced nine replicas of this picture. This one 
was originally in the Falconieri Palace, Rome. Mr. Angerstein 
purchased it, and at his sale in 1824. it was secured for the 
National Gallery. 

3 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. 

THE GARVAGH RAPHAEL (l5ll) 

Formerly in the Aldobrandini Collection in the Borghese 
Gallery, Rome. Mr. Day brought it to England at the end 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

of the eighteenth century, and in 1818 sold it to Lord Garvagh. 
It was purchased from Lady Garvagh for 2000 in 1865. There 
are many repetitions of this picture at Bergamo, Urbino, 
Milan, and other places. This example is probably by Giulio 
Romano after Raphael's drawing. It is also called Madonna 
dell 1 Aldobrandini. 

I ft. 3 in. X I ft. I in. 

VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM 

CARTOONS (1515-1516) 

There were originally ten. Seven only are in London. 
They were purchased by Charles I. in 1630, at Brussels, on the 
advice of P. P. Rubens, but it was, strange to say, Cromwell 
who brought them to England. They are painted' in tempera 
upon paper. The tapestries, for which they were designed 
and coloured by the Master, hung for a short time only in the- 
Sistine Chapel at the Vatican. The subjects are as follows : 
The Draught of Fishes, The Charge to St. Peter, St. Peter and: 
St. John in the Temple, Death of Ananias, St. Paul at Athens, 
St. Paul and St. Barnabas at Lystra, and Elymas struck blind. 

These " cartoons " occupy a unique place in the history of 
the Renaissance. They set forth the culmination of the efforts 
of all previous painters, and mark also the final manner of 
Raphael the purely classical. 

The other three which were lost in Rome or during their 
sojourn in Flanders were : The Stoning of St. Stephen, The- 
Conversion of St. Paul, and The Escape of St. Paul from Prison. 

THE DULWICH GALLERY 

ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA AND ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI (1507-1508) 

Part of the Predella of the Madonna di Sanf Antonio. 
9 in. x 6 in. 

PRIVATE COLLECTIONS IN ENGLAND 
EARL OF ELLESMERE 

MADONNA UNDER THE PALM (1506) 

Painted for Raphael's friend, Taddeo Taddei. Its history 
is a blank until 1680, when trie Comtesse de Cheverini of Paris 
sold it to M. de la Moue, who disposed of it to the Orleans 
Collection. It was last bought in 1792 for 1200. 

Circular. 3 ft. 4 in. in diameter. 

xxiv 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

MADONNA DEL PASSAGGIO (1515) 

" Attributed " to Raphael, but probably by Francesco 
Penni, from a sketch by the Master. 
2 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. 

THE BRIDGE WATER MADONNA (l5ll) 

Doubts have been expressed about its authenticity, but 
it is, at any rate, marked by very careful drawing, and it is 
in Raphael's purest Florentine manner. It first appeared 
catalogued in the Seignelay Collection, whence it passed into 
that of Orleans. Its British owner gave 3000 for it. 

2 ft. 8 in. x I ft. 10 in. 

EARL COWPER 

THE SMALL MADONNA (1505) 

Bought by Lord Cowper at Florence. It is an ideal com- 
position much influenced by Perugino. 
2 ft. x i ft. 5 in. 

THE LARGE MADONNA (1508) 

On the Virgin's robe is " MDVIII. R.U.Pin." It was 
originally known as Madonna delta Casa Nicolino, and Lord 
Cowper bought it from the descendants of that family. It 
has something of Giotto about it, and may have been Raphael's 
first Florentine Madonna. 

2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 7 in. 

EARL OF DUDLEY 

THE THREE GRACES (1506) 

From the Borghese Gallery, Rome. It belonged to Sir 
Thomas Lawrence. It is said that Raphael, when a mere youth, 
greatly admired a Sienese marble group after the antique, and 
his friends urged him to make a coloured copy in oils. His 
actual models, however, were good-looking Florentine maidens. 
The same figures he reproduced in the decorations of the 
Farnesina, Rome. 

7 in. x 5 in. 

MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE 

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST PREACHING (1506) 

Part of the Predella of Madonna degli Ansidei. 
i ft. 8 in. x 10 in. 

DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND 

ST. MARY MAGDALENE AND ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA (l50I ?) 

Two small panels painted, with Perugino's corrections, at 
Perugia. 



RAPHAEL SANTI 
MR. LUDWIG MOND 

THE CRUCIFIXION (1501-2) 

Painted for the Gavari Chapel in San Domenico, at Citta 
del Castello, where it remained until 1693, when the poverty 
of the clergy forced its sale. It has passed through the hands 
of Cardinal Fesch and the Earl of Dudley. 

8 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 5 in. 

SIR J. C. ROBINSON'S EXECUTORS 

MADONNA DE 5 CANDELABRI (1515) 

The angels are not by Raphael ; the picture was brought to 
England in 1830. 

Circular. 2 ft. in diameter. 

Miss MACKINTOSH 

MADONNA DELLE TORRE (l5lO) 

Came from the Orleans Collection. It is also called The 
Rogers Madonna, because Mr. R. J. Mackintosh bought it 
at the sale of the poet's effects. Mr. Willett purchased it from 
the Orleans Collection in 1792 for 150. It has suffered much 
by transference to canvas. 

MR. DAWSON 
PIETA (1508) 

One of the five parts of the Predella of the Madonna di 
Sanf Antonio. 

9 in. x ii in. 

SIR HENRY MILES, Bart. 

GOLGOTHA (1508) 

Part of the same Predella. 
9 in. x ii in. 

BARONESS BURDETT-COUTTS 
AGONY IN THE GARDEN (1507-8) 
Part of the same Predella. 
9 in. x ii in. 

MR. J. PIERPONT MORGAN 

MADONNA DI SANT 5 ANTONIO (1504-1508) 

Painted by order of the nuns of Saint Antonio of Padua at 
Perugia, who required that the two children should be fully 
clothed. 

xx vi 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

The nuns became impoverished in 1677, and besought the 
Pope that they might dispose of the picture to pay their debts. 
A noble Perugian, Antonio Bigazzini, bought it for the Colonna 
family for 2000. It found its way into the Royal Palace in 
Naples, where it remained until the expulsion of the Bourbons. 
Then the Duke of Ripaldi obtained possession of it, and offered 
it for sale for 40,000. It was for some time in exhibition in 
London, at the old South Kensington Museum. In 1899 it 
went to Paris to M. C. Sedelmeyer, from whom Mr. B. Colnaghi 
obtained it. Mr. Morgan purchased the picture in 1902 for 
the enormous sum of 100,000. It is temporarily hung in the 
National Gallery. 



ITALY 

ROME. THE VATICAN 
THE STANZB 

CAMERA DELLA SEGNATURA (1508-1511) 

Ceiling: (Medallions) Poetry, Theology, Philosophy, Justice. 
Ceiling: (Pendants) Apollo and Marsyas, Adam and Eve, 

Astronomy, Solomon's Judgment. 
Walls (Above) : Parnassus, School of Athens, Disputa. 
Walls (Below) : Alexander depositing Homer's Works in the 

Tomb of Achilles, Augustus preventing the Burning of the 

MSS. of the JEnid. 
Walls (Lunette) : Jurisprudence, with Justinian delivering the 

Institutes, and Gregory IX. promulging the Decretals under- 
neath. 
Window-embrasures : Judgment of Seleucus and Christ and the 

Apostles. 
On the Dado : The Tiburtine Sibyl, Solon teaching the Greeks, 

Siege of Syracuse, Death of Archimedes, A Pagan Sacrifice, 

and Eastern Magicians. 

CAMERA D'ELIODORO (1511-1514) 

Ceiling: God appearing to Noah, Abraham's Sacrifice, Jacob's 

Dream, and Moses at the Burning Bush. 
Walls (Above) : Heliodorus driven out of the Temple, Attila 

repulsed by St. Leo, St. Peter delivered out of Prison, and The 

Mass of Bolsena. 

Walls (Below) : Eleven allegorical figures and four caryatides. 
Window-embrasures: Arabesques, &c., in grisaille. 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

CAMERA DELL' INCENDIO (1514-1517) 

Walls: Coronation of Charlemagne, The Oath of St. Leo, The 
Battle of Ostia, and The Fire in the Borgo. 

The Sola di Constantino has frescoes " attributed " to 
Raphael, but there are no records showing that they were 
painted, or even designed, by the Master. They are certainly 
after his manner. 

THE LOGGIE 

RAPHAEL'S BIBLE (so-called) (1513-20) 

Ceiling : In the fifty-two shallow cupolas forty-eight Old 
Testament subjects, beginning with The Creation and ending 
with The Building of Solomon's Temple; and four New 
Testament The Nativity at Bethlehem, The Visit of the 
Magi, The Baptism of Christ, and The Last Supper. 
Walls : Very much decorative work, arabesques and grotesques 
connecting and surrounding small medallions containing 
classical subjects. 

Most of these frescoes were by Raphael's pupils especially 
Pierino di Vaga after his designs, but the finishing touches 
were by the Master. 

THE PICTURE GALLERY 

THE TRANSFIGURATION (1520) 

The last work of Raphael, and left unfinished at his death. 
Painted for Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, for the decoration of 
the Cathedral of Narbonne, of which he had been named 
Bishop. Leo X. refused to allow its removal, but ordered it 
to be placed over the High Altar of San Pietro in Montorio. 
There it remained until Napoleon took it off to Paris in 1797. 
It was returned to Rome in 1816, and set up in its present position. 
It is said that this picture was designed for the same patron 
and place, in friendly rivalry with Sebastiano del Piombo's 
Raising of Lazarus, which is now in the National Gallery of London. 

13 ft. 4 in. x 9 ft. 3 in. 

MADONNA DI FOLIGNO (l-5I2) 

A votive painting, done for Sigismondo Conti, the Pope's 
Chamberlain, for the Church of Ara Coeli. His daughter, 
Anna Conti, in 1565, removed it to Foligno hence its name. 
The French took it to Paris in 1797, where it was transferred 
to canvas, the panel being rotten and worm-eaten, but it was 
returned to Rome in 1816, and placed in its present position. 
It is only surpassed in loveliness by The Madonna di San Sisto. 
There is some of the Venetian influence of Sebastiano del 
Piombo, especially in the rich colouring. 

10 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 4 in. 

xxviii 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN (1502-3) 

A very early work of the Master. It was painted for 
Maddelini degli Oddi, a noble Perugian lady, for the Church 
of San Francesco, at Perugia. Taken to Paris in 1797, it 
was restored in 1816, but the Pope refused to let it go back 
to Perugia, and hung it in the Vatican. 

BORGHESE GALLERY 

THE ENTOMBMENT (1507) 

Painted for Donna Atalanta Baglioni, for the Church of 
San Francesco, at Perugia, as a votive offering upon the murder 
of her son, Griffone, at a marriage feast. In 1607 Pope Paul V. 
purchased it, and placed it where it now hangs. In 1797 it 
was taken to Paris, but restored in 1816. It is one of the 
Master's grandest compositions, and is most tenderly carried 
out. He took pains to give the Christ the figure and features 
of the unfortunate youth, whilst the Mary is a likeness of the 
disconsolate mother. 

Square. 6 ft. 

PREDELLE 

Three belonging to the Coronation, the Annunciation, the 
Adoration, and the Presentation. 

One belonging to the Entombment Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
accompanied by youthful angels, with half-fledged wings. 

The four were removed by the French in 1797, but restored 
in 1816, and placed in their present position. 

VILLA FARNESINA 

GALATEA (1514) 

A representative composition, showing what the humanists 
of Leo X.'s period regarded as typical of classical ideas. The 
subject is founded upon a poem by Politian. The figure of 
the goddess is entirely by the Master ; the Tritons are by Giulio 
Romano. It was painted for its present position for Agostino 
Chigi, the princely owner of the Farnesina. Writing to his 
old friend Count Baltassare Castiglione, Raphael says : " If I 
am to paint a beautiful woman I must see several, and have 
you at my side to choose the fairest. Meanwhile . * . I make 
use of a certain ideal that is in my mind." 

CUPID AND PSYCHE (1518-19) 

The ceiling has two large frescoes, which, with the deco- 
ration of fourteen lunettes and ten pendants, were all designed 

xxix 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

by the Master. The story by Apuleius furnished the subject, 
and the details were supplied from bits of ancient wall-deco- 
rations discovered by Raphael himself in the Baths of Titus. 
The Master's hand, however, coloured only The Three Graces, 
and, possibly, Psyche conducted by Mercury to Olympia. Much 
of the work was done by Giovanni Francesco Penni, who 
gained, by his absolute fidelity to his Master, the title of il 
fattore the agent. Every part was restored and much 
touched up by C. Maratta. 

SANT* AGOSTINO 

THE PROPHET ISAIAH (1512) 

Painted in tempera on a pillar of the church for Joannes 
Goritz of Luxembourg, Collector of Petitions to Pope Julius II. 
It is much after the robust manner of Michael Angelo. Soon 
after Raphael's death it showed signs of perishing, and Daniele 
da Volterra was directed to repaint it. 

8 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 4 in. 



SANTA MARIA BELLA 

PROPHETS AND SIBYLLS (1515-1519) 

Frescoes painted for Agostino Chigi, who paid Raphael 
500 ducats. The four " Sibylls " are wholly the Master's 
work, but the four prophets, Daniel, Jonah, David, and Hosea, 
were done by Timoteo Viti, after drawings by Raphael. 

SANTA MARIA DEL POPOLO 

THE PLANETS (1514) 

Plainly here Raphael sought to rival Michael Angelo's work 
in the Sistine Chapel. Only the God the Father and the Planets 
in the cupola were done by the Master, all the rest of the 
subsidiary subjects and the decorative work were by the hands 
of pupils, but after his designs. 

[In an apartment of the Vatican, originally Cardinal 
Bibbiena's bath-room, but later converted into a chapel, between 
1514-19, Raphael painted The Loves of Venus and Cupid seven 
large subjects with connecting arabesques, much after the 
style of the frescoes at Pompei, in black on a reddish ground. 
Their existence was attested by Passavant in 1835, but they 
have since been covered with wooden panelling and all access 
is denied.] 

XXX 



RAPHAEL SANTI 
FLORENCE 



PITTI GALLERY 



MADONNA DEL GRAN* DUCA (1504) 

Also known as Madonna del Viaggio, because the Grand 
Duke Ferdinand III. carried it about with him wherever he 
went. It originally belonged to Carlo Dolci, and passed from 
him into the possession of the Grand Ducal family late in the 
eighteenth century for the sum of 136. 

Another version is that a poor widow had become possessed 
of it, and not knowing anything about it, sold it to the Grand 
Duke for 4. 

2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 9 in. 

PORTRAIT OF AGNOLO DONI (1505) 

The Grand Duke Leopold II. of Tuscany bought this and 
the following picture for 1100 from the descendants of Doni, 
in 1823. Its style is very much that of Domenico Ghirlandajo. 

2 ft. x i ft. 5 in. 

PORTRAIT OF MADDELINA DONI, OR STROZZI-DONI (1506) 

Companion to the foregoing with a similar history. Raphael 
evidently had seen Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, and had 
obtained so vivid an impression that his picture is almost an 
exact copy. It lacks only the smile, which, of course, was 
inimitable. 

2 ft. x i ft. 5 in. 

MADONNA DEL BALDACCHINO (1508) 

The last picture Raphael painted in Florence. It was 
commissioned by the Dei family for their chapel in San Spirito. 
A very interesting composition, and it shows the influence 
of Fra Bartolommeo, and also something of the manner of 
Timoteo Viti, one of the Master's chief associates. The picture 
was finished after Raphael's death by his pupils, and it belonged 
to the Master's executor, Baldassare Turini of Pescia, by whom 
it was hung in the cathedral of that town. In 1697 it was 
sold to the Grand Duke Ferdinand de' Medici, and went to the 
Pitti Palace. 

10 ft. x 6 ft. 

PORTRAIT OF JULIUS II. (1510) 

Some critics affect to see a trace of Venetian workmanship 
perhaps Sebastiano del Piombo had some influence. The 
original cartoon is in the Corsini Palace, Florence. 

3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 8 in. 

xxxi 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

VISION OF EZEKIEL (1510) 

There is something of Michael Angelo in its boldness and 
vigour, the effect, doubtless, of Buonarroti's work in the Sistine 
Chapel. Perhaps Raphael's idea was suggested by the ancieot 
mosaics of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore. 

1 ft. 7 in. x i ft. 2 in. 

MADONNA DELL' IMPANNATA (1513) 

Painted for Bindo Altoviti, a rich banker, whose portrait 
by Raphael is at Munich. Its name is derived from the linen 
curtain which hangs at the window. 

It came early into the possession of the Grand Duke Cosimo 
and was placed by him over the altar of his chapel Stanza 
Nova, at the Pitti. Giulio Romano's hand is seen in the 
figure of St. John, and probably Francesco Penni did St. 
Elizabeth. 

5 ft. i in. x 4 ft. 

PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL BIBBIENA (1519) 

Raphael's Urbino-Roman friend and patron. He painted 
him frequently. This portrait was formerly in the Casa Dovizi 
at Bibbiena. The cardinal is here represented as prematurely 
aged, in fact he was painted only a year before his death. 

2 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 2 in. 

PORTRAIT OF TOMMASO (" FEDRA ") INGHIRAMI (1514) 

He was secretary to the Conclave of 1513, which elected 
Leo X., and also of the Lateran Council, as Bishop of Ragusa. 
Librarian of the Vatican he became a great friend of Erasmus. 
His literary name was " Phaedrus " or " Fedra." The original, 
of which this is an inferior copy, is hidden away in the palace 
of the Inghirami at Volterra. 

Has been much damaged by water, needle, and paste ! 

3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 4 in. 

MADONNA DELLA SEDIA OR SEGGIOLA (1510-14) 

Was in the Medici Collection as early as 1589, and installed 
in the Tribuna at the Uffizi, having been painted for Cardinal 
Giovanni de* Medici. It is perhaps the most natural of all 
Raphael's Madonnas, and is in his purest Florentine manner. He 
learnt doubtless, some of the alertness of the Virgin's pose from 
the glazed terra cottas of Luca della Robbia. 

Circular. 2 ft. 5 in. diameter. 

LA DONNA VELATA (1518) 

Raphael's Inamorata. The same model appears in The 
Madonna di San Sisto and in The St. Cecilia. Matteo Botti 
of Florence gained possession of the picture, and Cinelli, writing 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

in 1677, says it was still in his house. Thence it passed into 
the Medici Collection, and remained in the Grand Ducal Villa 
of Poggio Reale till 1824, when it was installed at the Pitti. 

2 ft. 9 in. X I ft. ii in. 

PORTRAIT OF POPE LEO X., WITH TWO CARDINALS (1518) 

Giulio de' Medici, afterwards Pope Clement VII., left; 
Luigi de' Rossi, right. The picture was looted by the French 
in 1797, but returned in 1816. Andrea del Sarto finished a 
portrait of Leo X. by Raphael ; this may be the picture in 
question. 

5 ft. x 3 ft. ii in. 

UFFIZI GALLERY 

MADONNA DEL CARDELLINO (1506) 

Painted for Lorenzo Nasi. It is a beautiful example of 
the pyramidical arrangement which the Master loved so well. 
He made many studies with variations, each one in attainment 
of a satisfactory triangle. 

3 ft. x 2 ft. 5 in. 

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST (1520) 

" Attributed " to Raphael, but more likely by Giulio 
Romano. Cardinal Colonna certainly commissioned Raphael 
to paint a St. John Baptist, which appears to be lost. 

5 ft. 9 in. x 5 ft. 2 in. 

PORTRAIT OF HIMSELF (1506) 

Until 1588 it was at Urbino, according to Passavant. It 
was painted for his relatives there. Federigo Zaccheri took 
it to Rome, and gave it to St. Luke's Academy, Cardinal 
Leopoldo de } Medici purchased it from the Academy and sent 
it to Florence. The likeness is characteristic of a high-toned, 
intellectual young man. 

I ft. 6 in. x i ft. 

PORTRAIT OF POPE JULIUS II. (l50l) 

There is a replica in the Pitti, another in the Royal Museum 
at Naples, and another in the National Gallery of London. 
Which of the three is the original no one can possibly say. 
The sizes of the panels vary somewhat. Its position in the 
Tribuna marks its importance. 

3 ft. 6in. x 2 ft. 8 in. 

PORTRAIT OF A LADY (1504-1510) 

"Attributed" to Raphael and placed in the Tribuna. 
Called by many La Fornarina, but in error. The " Lady " 

jutxiii 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

is an unknown ! The picture is almost certainly by Sebastian o 
del Piombo, and its right designation is La Improvisatrice. 
The bracelet bearing the words Raphael Urbinos is by another 
hand. 

BOLOGNA 

PlNACOTECA 

ST. CECILIA (1515-17) 

Painted by order of Cardinal de' Pucci for his kinswoman 
Elena Dugeroli, and given by her to the nuns of San Giovanni- 
in-Monte, near Bologna. The Magdalen is the Master's 
Inamorata, " La Donna Velata." The accessories were done by 
Giovanni da Udini. The whole composition is an ecstasy of 
painting. The angelic choir is a dream in colours. The picture 
was taken to Paris by Napoleon in 1797, where it was stretched 
on canvas by Hacquin, and was much injured. Its restoration 
took place in 1816. 

7 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. 

PERUGIA 
PICTURE GALLERY 

GOD THE FATHER (1507) 

The lunette for The Entombment (1507) in the Villa Borghese, 
Rome. The angels were probably added by a pupil. 

THE SAVIOUR, WITH ST. MARY, ST. JOHN BAPTIST, ST. PAUL, AND 
ST. CATHERINE. 

Called from the group The Five Saints. Very much the same 
arrangement as the St. Cecilia at Bologna. 

SAN SEVERO 

THE TRINITY (1505) 

This was undoubtedly Raphael's first attempt at fresco- 
painting, but was left unfinished when he went to Florence. 
The six saints were added by Perugino after Raphael's death. 

MILAN 
BRERA GALLERY 

THE BETROTHAL OF THE VIRGIN (La SpOSalizio) (1504) 

Painted for the church of San Francesco at Citta del 
Castello, and remained there until the French General Lecchi 
stole it in 1798. He sold it to a citizen in Milan for a mere 
trifle, who disposed of it in 1804 to the authorities of the city 
for 2200. It is remarkable for the absolutely natural grouping 
of the figures. 

i ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

NAPLES 
ROYAL MUSEUM 

MADONNA DEL DIVINO AMORE (1518) 

Painted for Domenico Carpi. It passed into the possession 
of the Farnese family, who transferred it to the Royal Collection. 
Some judges attribute it to Giulio Romano, and it is very much 
like his work. Called also The Madonna of the Long Leg, from 
the extreme length of one of the legs of the Virgin. 

i ft. ii in. x i ft. 7 in. 

PORTRAIT OF LEO X. 

A replica of the Pitti picture. 

BERGAMO 
LOCHIS GALLERY 

(?) ST. SEBASTIANO (1503) 

" Attributed " to Raphael. Belonged for a time to the 
late Professor Longhi of Milan. 
I ft. 5 in. x i ft. 

BRESCIA 
Tosi GALLERY 

PAX VOBISCUM (1505) 

Was for many years in the possession of the family of 
Mosca at Pesaro. 
12 in. x 9 in. 

CITTA DEL CASTELLO 
PICTURE GALLERY 
THE TRINITY (1503) 

A processional banner. 

AUSTRIA HUNGARY 

VIENNA 
THE BELVEDERE GALLERY 

MADONNA IN THE MEADOW, OR " IN GREEN " (1506) 

Painted for Taddeo Taddei, and sold by one of his descen- 
dants to the Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria, whence 
it passed into the Imperial Gallery in 1773. Till 1663 it was 
at Innsbruck, thence it went to Schloss Ambras in Tyrol. 
Raphael took great pains with this Madonna; she approaches 
his Florentine manner, and is the least ideal of all his earlier 
works. 

3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. 

XXXV 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

PESTII 
ESTERHAZY GALLERY 

MADONNA ESTERHAZY (1510-1513) 

Given by Pope Clement XI. to Elizabeth of Austria, who 
gave it to Kaunitz, and so it passed into the possession of the 
Esterhazy family. On the back of the panel is the following 
inscription in German : " This pictuie is of a Virgin by 
Raphael, which, with its box garnished with precious stones, 
was given to me as a present by Pope Albany Clement XL 
(1700-1728). "Eliz. K." 
10 in. x 8 in. 

FRANCE 

PARIS 
LOUVRE 

THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL (1504) 

Called the Small St. Michael. It was painted for Duke 
Guidobaldo of Urbino. Cardinal Mazarin acquired it in 1656, 
and gave it to Louis XIV. The archangel bears a sword in 
contradistinction to his lance in the Great St. Michael. 
i ft. x 10 in. 

SAINT GEORGE (1504) 

The same history as the foregoing, 
i ft. x 10 in. 

APOLLO AND MARSYAS (1506) 

"Attributed" to Raphael. It belonged to the Barnard 
Collection, which was dispersed in 1770, and then to Mr. Morris 
Moore, of Rome. 

i ft. 3 in. x ii in. 

MADONNA LA BELLE JARDINIERE (1507) 

It passed through the hands of Rodolfo Ghirlandaio and of 
Filippo Segardi to those of Francis I. Quite the most beautiful 
of the Master's Umbrian manner. No one knows who the 
lovely gardener was. Perhaps a pretty flower-girl in the 
Mercato Nuovo at Florence, noted by Raphael in one of 
his early visits to the " City of Flowers." Some experts doubt 
the authenticity of this picture. 

4 ft. x 2 ft. 7 in. 

MADONNA AU DIADEME (1512) 

So called because St. Mary wears a golden crown. It was 
known to be in Paris, in the Vrilliere Collection, as early as 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

1620. In 1728 Prince Carignani bought it, from whom it passed 
into the possession of Louis XV. It is sometimes called The 
Sleeping Jesus, from the excellence of the artistic feat in painting 
an awakening child. It has suffered greatly. 
2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 5 in. 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN (1516 ?) 

It belonged also to Louis XV. Possibly it is the panel of 
which Bembo wrote : "He (Raphael) has made a portrait of 
our young friend, Tebaldeo, so natural that it is more like 
him than himself ! " A thoroughly typical Florentine youth 
scholar, artist, athlete combined, and very good-looking. 

2 ft. x i ft. 5 in. 

PORTRAIT OF COUNT BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE (1516) 

The first likeness Raphael painted of his Urbmo-Roman 
friend. The Count, when he went away from home, used to 
leave this portrait about so that his little boy might see it 
and exclaim, " My Father ! " Castiglione took it to Spain, 
and, when he died, it was sent to the Gonzaga Gallery at Mantua, 
where Castiglione had been educated. Thence it travelled to- 
the Van Usselen Collection, in Amsterdam, where it was copied 
as a work of rare genius by both Rembrandt and Rubens. 
After a brief visit to London, it settled down for a time in the 
Mazarin Collection, whence it took its last j ourney to the Louvre. 

I ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. i in. 

THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL (1518) 

Called the Great St. Michael, to distinguish it from the small 
picture of 1504. It is " attributed " to Raphael, but, in all 
probability, it was painted by Giulio Romano after a drawing 
by the busy Master. Leo X. gave it to Francis L, who was 
Grand Master of the " Order of Chivalry," which was placed 
under the patronage of the Great Archangel. 

8 ft. 9 in. x 5 ft. 3 in. 

THE LARGE HOLY FAMILY (1518) 

Partly painted by Giulio Romano, carrying out Raphael's- 
idea and work. Leo X. gave it, also, to Francis L, from which 
it is often called Madonna di Francesco /. The two pictures* 
were somewhat hurriedly finished, and despatched on mule- 
back to Fontainebleau. 

6 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 3 in. 

PORTRAIT OF JOANNA OF ARAGON (1518) 

Painted for Cardinal Bibbiena, who gave it to Francis I. 
It is said that Raphael sent his favourite pupil, Giulio Romano, 
to Naples to take a sketch of the Princess, who never sat to- 
the Master. As early as 1540 it was restored by Primaticcio. 

4 ft. x 3 ft. 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

MADONNA " LA PETITE " (l52O ?) 

Also called Madonna au Berceau. It was painted for 
Cardinal de Boisy. Some authorities say Raphael only made 
the study, and it was coloured by Giulio Romano. 

i ft. 3 in. x ii in. 

SAINT MARGARET (1519) 

" Attributed " to Raphael. A replica at Vienna very 
much resembling this picture in technique, &c., was undoubtedly 
the work of Giulio Romano. This painting may have been 
finished by the same hand. It was certainly painted for 
Marguerite de Valois, sister of Francis I. It was restored 
quite early by Primaticcio in 1540. 

6 ft. x 4 ft. 2 in. 

SAINT JOHN IN THE DESERT (l52O ?) 

A replica of the picture in the Uffizi. The scroll held by 
the youthful saint bears the inscription : DEL 

BARON ALPHONSE DE ROTHSCHILD'S COLLECTION 
LE VIOLONISTE (1518) 

Probably the last portrait painted by Raphael. Its Vene- 
tian colouring has led many to " attribute " it to Sebastiano 
del Piombo. On the other hand, none but Raphael's hand 
could produce such a simple, alert, and truthful likeness. It 
is also called // Suonatore, and came from the Palazzo Sciarra- 
Colonna in Rome. 

CHANTILLY 
GALLERY OF PICTURES 

MADONNA D'ORLANS (1506) 

From the old Orleans Collection, hence its name. Its first 
known owner was Louis XIV. Mr. Hibbert bought it in 1798 
for 500. 

It changed hands many times until the Due d' Aumale acquired 
it at the Delessert sale in 1869, for 6250 ; at his death he 
bequeathed it, with the Palace, to the French nation. Its 
preservation is perfect, it has escaped the ravages of time 
and restoration. 
ii in. x 14 in. 

GERMANY 

BERLIN 
NATIONAL MUSEUM 

HOLY FAMILY, WITH ST. JEROME AND ST. FRANCIS (1503) 

From the Borghese Collection. Purchased by the King of 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

Prussia in 1829. It bears the alternative designation of The 
Three Saints. The Madonna has no halo, 
i ft. 3 in. x ii in. 

" SOLLY " MADONNA, OR " MADONNA WITH THE FRUIT " (1500) 

Acquired in 1821. Perhaps Raphael's first Madonna. The 
Child has no halo. This picture has suffered from the hands of 
"restorers" so-called as have so many in the German 
Galleries. The name was acquired in 1821 when it belonged to 
the Solly Collection. 

1 ft. 9 in. x i ft. 3 in. 

MADONNA DIOTALEVI (1504) 

" Attributed " to Raphael, probably by Perugino. Pur- 
chased from Marquis Diotalevi in 1842, at Rimini, for 147. 
The halo is the old Umbrian form. 

2 ft. x i ft. 8 in. 

MADONNA DI TERRANUOVA (1504-5) 

Bought from the Duke di Terranuova in 1854, hence its 
very modern name. The introduction of a third child is unusual 
and discordant. The Virgin shows the influence of Leonardo 
da Vinci. 

Circular : 2 ft. 10 in. diam. 

MADONNA COLONNA (1508 ?) 

" Attributed " to Raphael. Neither Mother nor Child has 
the halo, but this may have been destroyed by " cleaners ! " 
The arrangement of the two figures is perfect. Probably it 
was designed and begun by Raphael, and left unfinished until 
his pupil Domenico Alfani one day discovered it in the Master's 
studio, and attempted to complete it. Raphael, it seems, also 
put some work into it, but it was never really finished. It 
belonged first to the Salviati family in Florence, who sold it to 
the Colonnas. It was purchased by Chevalier Bunsen for the 
Prussian Government from the Colonnas. 

2 ft. 6 in. x i ft. 10 in. 

PREDELLE 

Three small pictures, evidently parts of the " Predella " 
of a picture, of which all traces have been lost. The subjects 
are : Christ seated on a Tomb, St. Lodovico, and St. Hercolano. 
" Attribution " is somewhat doubtful. 

Circular: 6 in. diam. 

DRESDEN 
ROYAL GALLERY 

MADONNA DI SAN SISTO (1519) 

The last Madonna painted entirely by Raphael's own hand. 
It was done at the request of Cardinal Antonio de* Monti, for 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

the Benedictines of San Sisto at Piacenza, hence its name. 
Augustus III. of Saxony bought it from the monks in 1753 for 
9000. Napoleon packed it off to Paris in 1797, but it was 
restored at the Peace of 1816. It is the only considerable 
easel painting on canvas all the rest are on panels. The 
Virgin is modelled from the beautiful Roman girl. " La Donna 
Velata." 

9 ft. 3 in. x 7 ft. 

MUNICH 

OLD PlNAKOTHEK 

MADONNA DI CASA TEMPI (1506) 

The pictorial annals of Raphael's time make no mention 
of it. In 1677 it was catalogued as being in the Casa Tempi, 
Florence. King Ludwig of Bavaria bought it in 1829 for 
16,000 scudi. It is a very beautiful- composition, much after 
Leonardo da Vinci. 

2 ft. 4 in. x i ft. 7 in. 

MADONNA CANIGIANI (1507) 

Painted for Domenico Canigiani to celebrate the nuptials 
of Anna de' Medici, daughter of Cosimo III., and Johann Wilhelm 
Pflaz, Count of the Rhine. It was by the latter presented 
to the electors of Diisseldorf . The contrast between the youthful 
Virgin and the aged St. Elizabeth reminds one of Luca della 
Robbia's glazed terra-cotta group, The Visitation, at Pistoja. 
The dominance of St. Joseph is unusual. 

4 ft. x 3 ft. 3 in. 

MADONNA DELLA TENDA (1517) 

" Attributed " to Raphael. The name is due to the tenda, 
or curtain, in the background. The arrangement is very much 
like that of the Madonna della Sedia. Probably it was painted 
by Domenico Alfani, though Perino del Vaga is also credited 
with it. The picture was taken to France, where Sir Thomas 
Baring purchased it for 4000. At the sale of the Baring 
Collection in 1814, it was bought by Crown Prince Ludwig of 
Bavaria for 5000. There are several replicas. 

2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 10 in. 

PORTRAIT OF MESSER BINDO ALTOVITI (1512) 

A young friend of the Master. Although only twenty-one, 
he was a great patron of artists, and encouraged especially 
along with Raphael Michael Angelo and Benvenuto Cellini. 
It hung in the Altoviti Palace till 1808, when the Crown Prince 
Ludwig of Bavaria bought it. 

9 in. x 7 in. 

xl 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN (1504) 

A member of the Riccio family of Urbino. Raphael drew 
and painted a number of good-looking young fellows in the 
Duke of Urbino's famous school, 

I ft. 9 in. x i ft. 4in. 



RUSSIA 
ST. PETERSBURG 

THE HERMITAGE GALLERY 

MADONNA DELLA CASA D* ALBA (1508-10) 

Painted by Raphael, unassisted, for Julius II., and presented 
by him to the Olivetan Monks of Nocera. It came into the 
possession of the famous Duca d' Alba in 1793. It was sold 
in 1836 to the Czar of Russia for 24,000. It is quite Florentine 
in manner. Originally on a panel, it was transferred to canvas 
after its sale to the Czar. 

Circular : 3 ft. i in. diam. 

MADONNA CONNESTABILI, OR STAFFA (1504) 

Very much like Perugino's work. It was purchased in 
1871 at Perugia by the Empress Marie Feodovna of Russia 
from the late Count Connestabili. Its history does not travel 
back beyond the late seventeenth century, when it belonged to 
the Due d'Angouleme. 

Circular (frame and picture) : 6 in. diam. 

MADONNA WITH A BEARDLESS ST. JOSEPH (1506) 

A very unconventional treatment of the spouse of Mary. 
2 ft. 4 in. x i ft. 10 in. 

ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON (1506) 

Painted for Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino, who sent it by the 
hand of Count Castiglione to Henry VII. of England in acknow- 
ledgement of the " Order of the Garter " bestowed upon the 
Duke. It remained in possession of the Crown until the reign 
of Charles I. Nobody seems to know how it got to St. Peters- 
burg. The composition was suggested by a small bas-relief 
by Donatello at Or San Michele. 

i ft. x 9 in. 

xli 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

SPAIN 

MADRID 
PRADO MUSEUM 

CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS (1516) 

Painted for the monastery of Santa Maria dello Spasimo 
at Palermo, hence called Lo Spasimo di Sicilia. The head 
of the Christ is that of Martin Schoen of Colmar, a well-known 
engraver-painter. The Virgin is Donna Atalanta Baglioni of 
Perugia. On its way to Sicily it was shipwrecked in the Gulf 
of Genoa, and for a time found a home in the " City of Palaces." 
Philip IV. purchased it secretly from the monks of Palermo in 
1650, after it had been surrendered by Genoa. A woodcut 
of Diirer's Great Passion probably suggested the arrangement 
and pose. It was taken to Paris in 1813 and transferred to 
canvas, but it was restored in 1822. 

10 ft. 7 in. x 7 ft. 8 in. 

THE VISITATION (1518) 

Commenced by Raphael and finished by Giulio Romano for 
Giovanni B. Branconio, who gave it to the church of San 
Salvestro at Aquila. Philip II. bought it, and deposited it in 
the Escurial in 1655. 

6 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. 

MADONNA DEL LEGARDO (1513-1517 ?) 

" Attributed " to Raphael, but " Raphael Pinx." may be 
read upon the cradle. The lizard gives the designation. 
4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. 

MADONNA DELLA PERLA (1518) 

" Attributed " to the Master, but probably by Giulio Romano 
after a study by Raphael. It was painted for Conte Ludovico 
Canossa of Verona, an old Urbino friend. It belonged for 
a time to Charles I. of England, and was hung in the old Palace 
of Whitehall. Philip IV., who bought the unhappy king's 
pictures, gave it its name, " The Pearl'' because he considered 
it the most beautiful painting in Spain. It was taken to Paris 
by King Joseph Buonaparte in 1813, but restored to the Escurial 
in 1822. 

4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. 

MADONNA DEL CORDERO, OR " HOLY FAMILY " (1507) 

The " Child " is astride a sheepan unusual pose. The 
combination of three primary colours dark blue and bright 
crimson in Mary's robe, and warm yellow in Joseph's cloak 



RAPHAEL SANTI 

is very effective. It has no contemporaneous history, but was 
discovered by mere chance in the Gallery of the Escurial, but 
without any trace of how it got there. It bears the signature, 
" Raphael, Urbino, MDVII." 
ii in. x 8 in. 

MADONNA DEL PESCE (1514) 

Painted at the request of Cardinal Riario for the Church of 
San Domenico at Naples. The General of the Order permitted 
its removal by the Spanish Viceroy in 1638. It reached Madrid 
in 1644, and the following year became the property of Philip 
IV. It was carried off to Paris in 1813, and then transferred 
to canvas. Its return to Madrid was in 1822. The presence 
of the Angel and Tobit with a fish hence the name of 
the picture explains its story. The Neapolitans suffered so 
much from ophthalmia that a chapel was built where the 
afflicted might pray for recovery, and over the altar this picture 
was placed. This splendid composition holds its own although 
surrounded by grand examples of Velazquez and Murillo. 

6 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 2 in. 

MADONNA DELLA ROSA (1519) 

A doubtful " attribution." Giulio Romano very likely 
painted it after a drawing by Raphael. The name was acci- 
dental some object had been indistinctly pencilled on the 
parapet, and a rose was introduced tentatively, and then 
retained. 

3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 9 in. 

PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL BIBBIENA (1515) 

Painted when this bosom friend of Raphael was in the 
prime of life. He was known by his associates at Urbino by 
the name of " bel Bernardo." He was the author of " La Calandra" 
and was the most influential prelate at the Papal Court. This 
portrait was left by the Cardinal on his death to Count Castiglione, 
who took it to Spain. 

Collections of Raphael's Drawings, Studies, Sketches, Roughings- 
out, and faintly indicated outlines and details of all kinds are found 
all over Europe. The Public Galleries of London, Paris, Rome, Florence, 
Venice, Vienna, are especially rich in examples, and so are the collections 
in Oxford, Windsor, and Chatsworth. 



xJiii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



\ 




VISION OF A KNIGHT 



Photo, Manse// 

NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON 




MADONNA DEGLI ANSIDEI 



Photo, Mansell 

NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON 




SAINT CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA 



Photo, Hattfstaeitgl 

NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON 




POETRY 



CAMERA DELL A SEGNATURA 




THEOLOGY 



Photo, Alinari 

CAMERA DELLA SEGNATURA 




ADAM AND EVE 



Photo, Anderson 

CAMERA DELLA SEGNATURA 



10 




12 




i6 




i8 








ARABESQUES IN THE LOGGIE 



Photo, Alinari 

VATICAN 



20 




THE TRANSFIGURATION 



PICTURE GALLERY, VATICAN 



21 




MADONNA DI FOLIGNO 



Photo, Anderson 

PICTURE GALLERY, VATICAN 



22 




CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN 



riwto, Alinan 

PICTURE GALLERY, VATICAN 




THE ENTOMBMENT 



Photo, Anderson 

BORGHESE GALLERY, VATICAN 



26 





FAITH, HOPE AND CHARITY 



Photo, Anderson 

BORGHESE GALLERY, VATICAN 



28 




THE THREE GRACES 



VILLA FARNESINA, ROME 




PSYCHE CONDUCTED BY MERCURY TO OLYMPIA VILLA FARNESINA, ROME 




VENUS POINTING OUT PSYCHE TO MERCURY VILLA FARNESINA, ROME 




VENUS, JUNO AND CERES 



VILLA FARNESIXA. ROME 



lit 




33 




THE SIBYLLS (DETAIL) 



Photo, Anderson 

SANTA MARIA DELLA PACE, ROME 



34 




MADONNA DEL GRAN' DUCA 



Photo, Anderson 

PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE 



35 




PORTRAIT OF AGNOLO DON I 



Pit o'o, Alinari ' 

PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE 




MADONNA DEL BALDACCHINO 



Photo, Alinari 

PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE 



37 




I VISION OF EZEKIEL 



Photo, Anderson 

PITT! GALLERY, FLORENCE 




MADONNA DELL' IMPANNATA 



Photo, Anderson 

PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE 



39 




MADONNA DELLA SEDIA 



PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE 



4 




LA DONNA VELATA 



Photo, Anderson 

PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE 




PORTRAIT OF POPE LEO X. 
WITH TWO CARDINALS 



Photo, Anderson 

PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE 




SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST 



Photo, Anderson 

UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE 





PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST 



Photo, Anderson 

UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE 



44 




PORTRAIT OF POPE JULIUS ,11. 



Photo, Braun 

UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE 




SAINT CECILIA 



Photo, Braiui 

riNACOTECA, BOLOGNA 




THE TRINITY 



Photo, Alinari 

SAN SEVERO, PERUGIA 



47 




MADONNA DEL DIVING AMORE 



Pho'.o, Anderson 

ROYAL MUSEUM, NAPLES 




SAINT SEBASTIAN 



Photo, Alinari\\ 

LOCHIS GALLERY, BERGAMO 



49 




[MADONNA LA BELLE JARDINIERE 



Photo, B,au,t 

LOUVRE, PARIS 




MADONNA AU DIADEME 



Photo, Braun 

LOUVRE, PARIS 








PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN 



Photo, Braun. 

LOUVRE, PARIS 




THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL 



Photo, Braun 

LOUVRE, PARIS, . \ 



53 







THE HOLY FAMILY OF FRANCIS I. 



Photo. Braun 

LOUVRE, PARIS 




PORTRAIT OF JOANNA OF ARAGON 



Photo, flrai/n 

LOUVRE, PARIS 




HOLY FAMILY WITH SAINT 
JEROME AND ST. FRANCIS 



Htoto, Hanfstaengl 

NATIONAL MUSEUM, BERLIN 



5*5 




MADONNA DI SAN SISTO 



Photo, Bruckmanns 

ROYAL GALLERY, DRESDEN 



57 




MADONNA BELLA CAS A D'ALBA 



Photo, Hanfstaengll 

THE HERMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG 




ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON 



THE HERMITAGE, 



Photo, Hanfstaengl 

ST. PETERSBURG 



59 




CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS 



Photo, Braun 

PRADO, MADRID 



6o 




THE VISITATION 



Photo ', Braiin 

PRADO, MADRID 



6i 




MADONNA DEL LEGARDO 



Ph >to, Kraiiit 

PRADO, MADRID 



62 




MADONNA DELLA PERLA 



Photo, Krann 

PRADO, MADRID 




PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL BIBBIENI 



Photo, I.czy 

PRADO, MADRID 



6 4 




MADONNA DEL PESCE 



Photo, Brann 

PRADO, MADRID 









I 

. 

"