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THE BALLANTYNE PRESS
TAVISTOCK ST, LONDON
Raphael Santi or Sanzio. By Edgcumbe Staley vii
List of the Principal Works of Raphael . xxiii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
t/The Betrothal of the Virgin
Vision of a Knight . i
v Madonna degli Ansidei 2
St. Catherine of Alexandria 3
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes 4
St. Peter and St. John in the Temple 5
Camera della Segnatura ... 6
Theology . 8
Adam and Eve 9
School of Athens 1 1
Heliodorus driven out of the Temple 13
Attila repulsed by Saint Leo 14
St. Eeter delivered out of Prison 15
The Mass of Bolsena ' 16
The Oath of Saint Leo 17
The Fire in the Borgo 18
Arabesques in the Loggie 19
^ The Transfiguration 20
v' Madonna di Foligno 21,
V Coronation of the Virgin 22
v The Entombment 23
The Annunciation 24
The Adoration 25
The Presentation 26
Faith, Hope and Charity 27
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS continued.
The Three Graces .28
Psyche conducted by Mercury to Olympia 29
Venus pointing out Psyche to Mercury 30
Venus, Juno and Ceres 31
The four Sibylls 32
The Sibylls (Detail) . 33
Madonna del Gran' Duca 34
Portrait of Agnolo Doni 35
/ Madonna del Baldacchino 36
Vision of Ezekiel 37
Madonna dell' Impannata 38
Madonna della Sedia 39
La Donna Velata 40
Portrait of Pope Leo X. with two Cardinals . . 41
Saint John the Baptist .42
Portrait of the Artist 43
Portrait of Pope Julius II 44
Saint Cecilia 45
The Trinity 46
Madonna del Divino Amore 47
Saint Sebastian .48
Madonna la belle Jardiniere ,. 49
Madonna au Diad^me . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Portrait of a Young Man : 51
The Archangel Michael 52
The Large Holy Family 53
Portrait of Joanna of Aragon . .54
Holy Family with Saint Jerome and Saint Francis 55
v/Madonna di San Sisto 56
\/ Madonna della Casa d'Alba 57
Saint George and the Dragon 58
Christ bearing His Cross -59
The Visitation . . . 60
Madonna del Legardo .... 61
Madonna della Perla 62
Portrait of Cardinal Bibbiena 63
Madonna del Pesce 64
RAPHAEL SANTI, OR SANZIO
BY EDGCUMBE STALEY
A.PHAEL SANTI, or Sanzio, was born at Urbino on
March 28, 1483. His parents were in comfortable
circumstances. His father, Giovanni Santi, was an
excellent draughtsman ; much of his skill he learned
from Pietro Vannucci (Perugino), who frequently
visited Urbino, and made his home with the Santis.
As a painter too, Giovanni Santi had a considerable
reputation ; he studied under Melozzo da Forli, and
assisted him in the decoration of the Ducal Library.
Raphael's mother was Magia Ciarla, a woman of great sweetness of
character ; but unhappily for her little son, she died when he was only
eight years old. Giovanni Santi' s young second wife never took a liking
to the little lad ; but his father, until his early death in 1494, was very
good to him, giving him his first lessons in drawing, and doing every-
thing to encourage him to follow in his own steps as a painter.
The associations of young Santi's boyhood were refined not to say
aristocratic. The Court of Urbino was "the mirror of manners" for
the rest of Europe; her courtiers, as Count Castiglione has so cha-
racteristically told us, gave a high tone to the people of every class.
The rulers of the Duchy, Dukes Federigo and Guidobaldo di Monte-
felt ro, were the most cultured and the most progressive princes of the
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. They were at the pains to know
intimately each of their subjects, and indeed every visitor, who evinced
genius or abilities in any direction ; and to lend them every encourage-
ment in their power.
Duke Federigo had taken Giovanni Santi under his direct patronage ,
and Duke Guidobaldo continued his father's favours to his son.
The years between the death of Raphael's father and his seventeenth
birthday were passed pretty much under the care of his good uncle,
Father Bartolommeo. Possibly in the monastery his art-training, no
less than his general education, was duly attended to. Then the lad
passed into the Duke's school, and, mixing with the youths in the ex-
cellent curriculum of that renowned University, acquired the talents
and the manners of a perfect courtier.
Among his principal teachers was Timoteo Viti, one of the foremost
painters of the day, who had come at the Duke's invitation straight from
the studio of Francesco Francia at Bologna. Between master and pupil
sprang up an intimate friendship which continued through life.
Perhaps the first important step in the young artist's life was taken
in the year 1500, when in company with other young fellows he visited
Perugia to watch Perugino, who was decorating the Sola del Cambio, or
Banker's Exchange. His fame had been wafted far and wide, and his
pure and exalted idealic style made an immense impression upon his
youthful visitor. The long and short of it was that he offered himself as
a pupil to his father's old friend, and was cordially received by him.
Before leaving Urbino, Raphael had, of his own accord, studied dili-
gently a number of pictures painted in the Palace Library, by a Flemish
painter called Justus of Ghent. He made numerous copies of the series
entitled The Philosophers. In the same building The Arts and The Sciences
by Melozzo da Forli, also busily engaged the young draughtsman's pencil.
Some of these studies are preserved in collections in Rome, London,
and Berlin. They are in two crayons, and exhibit delicacy of touch and
simplicity of outline quite unusual in so young a copyist.
Within a year of his admission to Perugino's studio, we find
Raphael actively assisting his master in the details of work at the Ex-
change. These required much labour in grinding colours, preparing
grounds, tracing drawings, making transfers, &c. &c. In all these
matters doubtless, Perugino found clever young Santi very useful.
But he was called to do more interesting work than this, for he had
to design and to colour some of the little pictures with which, after the
fashion of the day, greater compositions were surrounded. Many such
exquisite " little bits " are found in galleries, which are manifestly the
handiwork of Raphael.
In the following two years many original studies and more ambitious
compositions, too, were done. They were chiefly religious in character
the " Madonna " already taking a pre-eminent place. Some, neverthe-
less, were martial scenes, for example the Departure of <Eneas Sylvius,
now at the Uffizi.
The Academy of Venice is particularly rich in samples of early work
at Perugia. In' them we see unmistakedly the influences of Perugino.
" The Venice Sketch Book " is a treasury of such studies.
Raphael, too, made copies without end of the works of Mantegna,
Pinturicchio, Signorelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Pollaiuolo, and of his master.
All these are marked by a singular sense of restraint, or abstraction, which
accorded well with the ethics of his training.
The young artist's first important composition in oils was probably
the Solly Madonna, now in Berlin ; it was painted in Perugino's studio
in 1502, just before the latter's departure for Florence. In it there is
a trace of a distinct personality the suppressed animation of the
figures which indicate in what direction we may look for future de-
Other " Madonnas " followed rapidly, until in 1503 we find ourselves
face to face with a picture, which asserts not only the personality
but the power of the rising painter this was The Coronation of The
Then came Vision of a Knight, and several Holy Families, and
Figures of Saints, each one proclaiming greater freedom and release
irom mannerism and convention. The Vision of a Knight, in the
London National Gallery, is interesting as being the first highly finished
composition not strictly of a religious character. It shows also, how
precocious, and yet how fixed were the painter's rhythmic appreciation of
the ideal. It was painted probably at Siena, to which art city the young
man made many expeditions, the attraction being Pinturicchio, busy with
his magnificent Piccolomini frescoes in the cathedral and library.
Raphael also visited Citta del Castello, Bologna, and Florence not
once but many times in the enjoyment of the pleasant fashion which
made the interchange of visits a leading feature in the mutual inter-
course of men of like tastes and pursuits. At the former place he was
hospitably entertained by Signorelli, and painted under his auspices
.several church banners and a few easel pictures. Perhaps the best-known
work connected with Citta del Castello is the lovely Betrothal of the Virgin,
in the Brera, Milan. Nothing sweeter or more beautifully conceived ever
came from any painter's brush. This picture certainly carried the art of
Umbria to its highest pinnacle. It is a remarkable proof of early ripened
.genius, Raphael being just barely twenty-one.
The end of 1504 saw him once more in Urbino, where he was received
by Duke Guidobaldo with distinction and honours. In that hand-
some and gifted crowd of courtiers men of letters, artists, and philoso-
phers who thronged that brilliant Court, none bore himself more grace-
fully than did young Santi.
Once more he entered into the intellectual and physical culture of
the little capital with all the zest of an ardent sympathetic nature. Ex-
hilaration of temperament found its outlet in the exuberant brush-work
of his Saint Michael and Saint George each of them quite the most
spirited work he had yet accomplished. One of those who welcomed the
comely youth, and had been fascinated by his art, was the Duke's sister
the Duchess Giovanni della Rovere and she assumed the office of his
Thrilling reports began to find their way at this moment, into the
Umbrian mountain studios of a marvellous exhibition in Florence, where
Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo Buonarroti were competing for
first honours. Their rival battle cartoons were hung up at the Palazzo
Vecchio, and all the artist world was greatly moved.
Raphael's thoughts turned thitherwards, whilst the attraction of his
old master's residence and work in the Tuscan capital made further
appeals. Consequently, late in the summer of 1504, he packed up his
belongings, and, bidding adieu to his kind patrons and his congenial
associates, he set off for Florence. In his satchel he carried a letter from
his good friend the Duchess, commending him to the favour of the Gon-
faloniere Piero Soderini.
" The painter, Raphael," she wrote, " of Urbino, by the talent he
possesses has decided to come to Florence for a time, to perfect himself
in his art. His father was dear to me for his many excellent qualities ;
and I had not less affection for his son, who is a modest and agreeable
young man, and one who will, I hope, make all possible progress . . . .'*
The letter is dated October i, 1504.
RAPHAEL SANTI'S arrival in Florence synchronised with trie-
highest period of her prosperity. The " hub " of the industries
and the key of the commerce of Europe, she was also the cradle
of the arts and sciences, and the fount of literature and poetry.
It was a striking contrast for the young man well accustomed to the
dignified amenities of the Ducal Court, and the idyllic life of romantic
Perugia and Siena, to find himself hustled about by the busy everyday
life of Florence.
Those great dreamy eyes of his and those calm features learnt new
expressions, as strange impressions of the world around him rushed pell-
mell through his brain. His dark, wavy hair took crisper curl and his
nervous hands laid firmer hold of pencil and of brush.
Raphael was in the midst of a strenuous city full of giants in
mind and body. Of all the great men by whom he found himself sur-
rounded, his earliest affections went out to Leonardo da Vinci, Barto-
lommeo della Porta, and Andrea del Sarto ; later on Michael Angelo
grasped his hand. Masaccio, Filippino Lippi, Donatello, and Luca della
Robbia, each gave fresh impulse to his art.
In the crowd of artists, students, and art-lovers in general, which
stood entranced in the Palazzo Vecchio, before the great cartoons of
da Vinci and Buonarroti none made better use of his opportunities than
did Raphael Santi. The "Venice Sketch Book" has preserved much
that he thought, and saw, and did, for many sketches and studies did
he make of those renowned creations.
Next he attacked Michael Angelo's David copying it time after time ;.
as also Leonardo's Mono, Lisa. He dallied here and sauntered there
as if waking out of an enchanting dream.
Inspired by new emotions for beauty in real life, he composed,
what is judged by many, to be, his most lovely, because most natural,
Madonna the Gran 9 Duca. It fulfils every requirement of physical
arid: spiritual beauty Mother and Babe are simple living figures, full
of human tenderness.
Raphael spent four fruitful years in Florence. The catalogue of his
works, during this period, is as lengthy as it is noteworthy. It contains
such masterpieces as Madonna del Cardellino, Madonna delta Casa Tempi,
Madonna degli Ansidei, Madonna la belle Jardiniere, Madonna di Sant 9
Antonio, Madonna del Baldacchino, Madonna Canigiani, The Three Graces,
St. Catherine of Alexandria, St. Francis and St. Anthony of Padua, The
Entombment, The Portrait of Duke Guidobaldo, his own delightful portrait,
in the Uffizi, and many others.
Some forty Madonnas are " attributed" to Raphael, the greater
number undoubtedly by his own hand alone, and most of them weredojc^
at Florence. This suite of fascinating delineations of all thaj^is^fairest,
noblest, and purest in happy maternity and child-like imaec'ence, forms,
together with his work in the Vatican, Raphael's uncoiffestable claim to
the chief est throne in the hierarchy of painters.
Along with his achievements in oils, his pencil and! his crayon were
no laggards in their course. None of the great masters, save perhaps
" the inimitable Leonardo," excelled Raphael in delicate sense of contour,
whilst he is easily first in his feeling for strict outline. v
To study Raphael's drawings is a revelation of how intense were his \
yearnings after " the Beautiful." He seems to have been something of a
clairvoyant too, for he drew men, women, and children, with all their
associations and accessories, not merely as they actually were, but as he
considered they ought to be. The forces of the ideal are clearly shadowed
forth, while the powers of natural life are as plainly substantiated.
Raphael's Florentine work is a supreme manifestation of the
pyramidal form of composition. This he seems to have learned from
Bartolommeo, the painter par excellence of Florence, whose manner
was so greatly affected by all the sixteenth- and seventeenth- century
painters. The most eminent example of this is the Madonna la belle
Jardiniere, in the Louvre. In studying Raphael's Florentine easel-work
we see quickly enough how greatly his art developed, in a healthy
direction, amid the vigorous activities of his environment.
Go where he would, in the Mercato Vecchio, in the Via Calimala, in
the Via de 9 Bardi, down by the river quays, or away in the wide Contado,
his eyes met men and women, gentle born and base, remarkable for graceful
bearing and intellectual faces. 11 Then, in San Giovanni, he saw daily,
such babies brought to the church's font, as only such fine parentage
could produce. In the streets and piazzas, too, boys and girls played
their merry games and waged their mimic battles, or, early entered the
lists with wily Cupid, possessed of such physical charms as, perhaps,,
only Florence could offer. Raphael needed, amid such a wealth of
graceful models, to clothe his figures with but the faintest golden vaghesse
of eclectic beauty.
One delightful trait he caught directly from Luca della Robbia. Over
a doorway, in the Via del Agnolo, is still a lovely lunette in glazed terra-
cotta. It gives us the new type of the Renaissance. The Mother alert
and human, is regarding the effect of her Son's blessing upon the
bystanders and is not merely the reverent worshipper of her Child. The
encompassing angels holding aloft their pots of growing lilies, emblems
of the City of the Lily, are almost laughing in their joy at the power of
the New Birth. Raphael fastened his eyes upon this chef-d'ceuvre of the
sculptor-potter-painter's art, and unto his soul passed the breath of
Silence, amounting almost to mystery, surrounds Raphael's Floren-
tine life. Aging before his time, in seriousness of demeanour, in sim-
plicity of life, and in every function of his art, he worked incessantly day
in, day out. Art was a serious business the whole city was full of it. It
ruled in the home, in the workshop, and in the amusements of the citizens.
What effect Boccaccio, Sacchetti, Pulci, and Buffalmacco had upon
the devout painter, we know not, but probably Dante, Petrarch,
Castiglione, and Machiavelli were more to his liking.
That he was a perfect courtier goes without saying. No man from
Urbino would be likely to fail at any point, even when his abode was
with the dignified Messeri of the great Merchant Guilds, and the freedom
loving Genii of the busy Crafts of Florence.
The " harvest of a quiet eye " was his, and his hand has flung generously
upon his panels, the fruit of gentle intercourse with Ghirlandajo, Botti-
celli, Cellini, and the rest.
Raphael loved Florence, and Florence loved him. His personality
no less than his art appealed to the noblest instincts of her citizens they
took him to their hearts, as would a devoted mother her child.
Every wealthy merchant and every notable artist made Raphael
his own patron and friend in one the Rucellai, the Strozzi, the Doni,
with Taddeo Taddei, Lorenzo Nasi, and many a one beside.
Many heads turned to look at that remarkable trio, da Vinci,
Buonarroti, and Santi, as they crossed the Piazza Signoria, on their way
to Michael's studio. Chatting now with animation, and now pacing
in serious mood, they discussed, perchance the latest achievement of the
artist world, or, laughing sedately, they retailed some gossip of Bur-
But time was hurrying on, when suddenly a summons came to Raphael
to quit his congenial life beneath the shadow of Brunelleschi's dome, and
to take up his abode under a still more famous cupola in Rome. In the
autumn of 1508, Pope Julius II. commanded Raphael to decorate some
apartments in the Vatican.
RAPHAEL was welcomed in Rome with an enthusiasm unparalleled
in the archives of Art. The Pope, through his personal relationship
with Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino, knew his antecedents and appre-
ciated his accomplishments. The people of the Eternal City had
heard flattering reports of his work in Florence, and many had seen his
facile brush in operation. Everybody regarded Raphael as the one man
who could restore the metropolis to her ancient splendour.
Bramante of Urbino and Buonarroti of Florence, were already hard
at work, one rebuilding St. Peter's, the other decorating the Vatican
both were warm friends of Raphael. Together they had attained the goal
of all artists.
Raphael began to paint in the Camera delta Segnatura, one of the
three Stanze of the Vatican, at the end of 1508. Perugino, Sodoma, Sig-
norelli, Bramantino, Piero della Francesca and Peruzzi had already done
some beautiful work on walls and ceilings, but these were swept away
by the Pope's command.
This was Raphael's great opportunity, and how he used it we may
judge with our own eyes, not only on the spot, but in the collections of
drawings at Milan, Lille, the Louvre, the Albertina, and at Oxford and
Windsor. Brain and hand were set hard at work. Advice and counsel were
sought from old Urbino friends settled in Rome, Bembo, Bibbiena and
Castiglione. Authorities were looked up, and Ariosto was called to assist.
It is somewhat difficult to describe the subject, or range of subjects,
with which Raphael had to deal. Perhaps the key may be seen in the
four medallions of the ceiling. Theology, Philosophy, Poetry, and Justice.
Into the first of these Raphael threw his whole soul. The woman-
goddess shows how superbly Raphael, thus early in his third period,
blended memories of Urbino and its library" with the beautiful
" Madonnas " of Florence.
On the walls of the Stanza are painted Parnassus, School of Athens
and Disputa del Sacramento. These three frescoes provide us with a
whole university "in little." The humanists of the fifteenth century, one
and all, had striven hard to reconcile pagan philosophy and Christian
theology. Raphael, in the early years of the sixteenth, here realises their
aspirations. No one was better fitted for the task. Urbino and Perugia
had imparted inspirations of the ideal, Florence had impressed the in-
fluence of realism, and now Rome was to weld the two strains into one, /
and to dower the young Umbrian painter with the sublimities of classical /
But what pen shall fitly describe the glories of Raphael's incomparable
The three great frescoes, with the ceiling medallions, proclaim the Story
of Human Progress in things of the imagination, of reason and of faith.
Doubtless Raphael had seen and studied Giotto's Gospel of Labour,
sculptured upon his renowned Campanile in Florence ; and so he frescoed,
with his fertile hand, the ruling principles of the Universe, Romance,
Philosophy, and Religion.
Into his fascinating work he has introduced the charm of living por-
traiture. In the Parnassus he shows us Ariosto, Boccaccio, Petrarch,
Tebaldeo, and others. In the School of Athens we see Castiglione, as
Zoroaster, Duke Francesco of Urbino, the tall youth in gold and white,
Federigo Gonzaga, the curly headed lad, an hostage in Rome, and the
Pope's pet and plaything, with himself and Sodoma his assistant in
the decorative details. In the Disputa, both Dante and Savonarola are
introduced. Under the Parnassus is the date 1511, which adds, to
unbounded admiration of the artist's power, intense amazement at his
rapidity of execution.
For the whole of the Stanza Raphael received 1200 ducats nearly
"2500 an immense sum in those days, and an entirely unprecedented
amount for so young a painter.
Julius went into ecstacies over Raphael's success, and, showering honours
richly upon him, he admitted the young Master to his intimate friendship.
He at once commissioned him to decorate the other two Stanze.
Here Raphael was faced with a serious difficulty? he was called upon
to paint subjects already mapped out by others. His inventive powers
were consequently greatly curtailed, but Raphael was nothing if he was
not humble, resourceful, and thorough. He gathered around him a
band of skilful assistants and enthusiastic pupils amongst the latter
were Giulio Romano, Pierino del Vaga, Giovanni da Udine, and Francesco
He also took brotherly counsel with Sebastiano del Piombo, who
was at the moment decorating the villa of Agostino Chigi, a wealthy
Roman banker. From him Raphael learned some of the secrets and
methods of the great Venetian colour-masters.
The whole "School" of Raphael attacked the work with admirable
zeal. Studies were prepared and designs were roughed out, which passed
under the young Master's acute eye and were corrected and improved
by his cunning hand. These were in the form of cartoons.
The subjects of the frescoes had been chosen by the Pope and his
immediate Court for the purpose of illustrating the triumph of the Catholic
Faith : Heliodorus driven out of the Temple, Attila repulsed by Saint Leo,
The Deliverance of Saint Peter, and The Mass of Bolsena.
In the first of these, Raphael shows conclusively that he has mastered
the secrets of the Venetian colourists. The introduction of Julius II
on the Sedia geslatoria was given us, among the bearers, the finely painted
likenesses of Pietro di Folcari, Baltassare Peruzzi, and Marc' Antonio
Raimondi some say Albrecht Diirer, who about this time sent Raphael
a portrait of himself done in tempera.
The Mass of Bolsena is a marvellous work. Raphael had to contend
with an ill-shaped wall space and a bad light. Only an original mind
like his could have made of the intruding doorway a telling feature in
the composition. The entire fresco was painted by his own hand.
But now came to Raphael a heavy sorrow his amiable and munifi-
cient patron Julius II. died, yielding up, in 1513, the triple crown to
The new Pontiff, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was animated
happily not only with the zeal and ambitions of his house, but with the
liveliest sympathy for art and artists, and for none of the latter more than
for Raphael Santi, whom he had known and loved in Florence.
The first piece of preferment under the new Pope, which came to
Raphael, was his appointment, upon the death of Bramante in 1513,
as architect-in-chief of St. Peter's, with absolute authority over all
monuments, buildings, and ruins within a circuit of ten miles round
This might have proved an embarrassing office to the gentle painter,
but his qualifications were undoubted. The splendid new buildings of
Florence had given further impulse to Raphael's sense of proportion
With Vitruvius for his guide, he at once began a thorough study of
archaeology. His drawings became eloquent of artistic antiquities.
Every inscribed stone which was discovered was brought to him, whilst
he entirely stopped the wholesale plundering of rich marbles and sculp-
Two important matters in connection with St. Peter's called for his
prompt attention : (i) the strengthening of the foundations generally,
and (2) the addition of pillars and buttresses to support the dome.
Although he made no radical change in the administration of his new
office, he is credited with a scheme for the entire re-building of the
Cathedral. Very many plans, elevations, and details remain to attest
his distinction as a practical and capable builder.
In 1514 Raphael began to paint in the third Stanza. At his urgent
request the ceiling-painting, which was the work of his master Perugino,
was spared ; but on the walls were frescoed The Coronation of Charlemagne,
The Oath of Leo ///., The Battle of Ostia, and The Fire in the Borgo.
In the first two the Pontiff bears the features and figure of Leo X.,
and the Emperor is Francis I. The remarkably dignified bearing of Leo
is in accordance with the papal maxim propounded at the Lateran
Council, then in session : " It is for God, not man, to judge bishops."
This third Stanza gave Raphael even less scope than the second,
and, whilst Giulio Romano's hand is evident in the third composition,
the Master is supreme in the other three, but he does not maintain
the high standard of the Camera della Segnatura. The last fresco shows
the influence of Michael Angelo, who was painting in the Sistine
Chapel hard by ; it is distinguished by a vigour and a massiveness some-
what unusual in Raphael's more gentle style.
His popularity rapidly increased, and commissions were thrust upon
him from all quarters. As grew his fame so too grew the number of
his pupils and assistants.
In 1517 Raphael purchased land in the Borgo Nuovo, quite near
the Vatican, and there he built a fine palace which became almost a
second Castle of Urbino. A "School" of painters, sculptors, architects,
engravers, carvers in wood, gilders, and craftsmen of all kinds sprang up
like magic around the " Divine Master," as he was affectionately called.
Although Raphael lived like a prince, he personally superintended the
studies of his pupils both general and artistic as well as their physical
culture. He was daily escorted to and from St. Peter's and the Vatican
by upwards of fifty young men, by way of a guard of honour. It is said
that one day Michael Angelo met the cortege, and, in his usual sarcastic
manner, saluted Raphael with : " You'll walk, I expect, one of these
days like a general at the head of an army ! "
The third Stanza was finished in 1517, but it did not represent any-
thing like all his work during those busy four years. Raphael had never
forsaken his easel, and a second sequence of "Madonnas" came forth
from his hand.
These Roman " Madonnas " are most interesting they display the
classical combination of the ideal and the real. Some of the most noted
are Colonna, The Bridgewater, del Divino Amore, di Foligno,Aldobrandini,
della Casa d'Alba, del Pesce, and the della Sedia.
And who were his models ? Whence came these halos of innocence
and romance ? who inspired their pose ? Raphael, the scholar, and
the courtier, of Urbino the companion of men of wealth and taste in
Florence the friend of popes and princes in Rome could never bend to
unworthy folk. If the Roman contadina had not the grace and good
looks of her Florentine sister, she was, all the same, a dignified and
inspiring subject for the Master-painter of Eclectic Beauty !
Some have sought to wind around the personality of the great Master
the fatuous meshes of romantic love. Whether Fornarina existed
or not, or whether other so-called innamorate ever cast their fascinations
over the noble soul of the pure-minded painter of the " Madonna," will
never be satisfactorily settled.
There was certainly what looks like a love affair. In two Sonnets,
which Raphael wrote in the book of one of his studies for the Disputa,
he addresses the beauteous mistress of his dreams as one far above him
in every excellence, and he vows therein that he will never utter her
name to a soul ! May not this have been a reverie, after the manner
of Dante and Beatrice ? Or, had he in his mind another rhapsody, in
which his friend Michael Angelo figured with Vittoria Colonna ?
The identity however of this fair one has been fixed, and her sweet
face looks out of a gilded frame in the Pitti, which bears the inscription :
La Donna Velata" The Lady with the Veil," and is dated 1518.
She is also portrayed as St. Mary Magdalene, in the Santa Cecilia
masterpiece at Bologna; and she is marvellously depicted in that
most exquisite Virgin the sweetest of them all Madonna di San
Sisto at Dresden. Her name is said to have been Margherita, and
she is reputed to have been the daughter of a member of the Guild
of Millers and Bakers, who lived in Trastevere hence the title La For-
narina the Baker's Girl. Be these surmises what they may, the real
secret of Raphael's love, if such he had, lies buried with him in his grave.
At Vasari's door lies the blame if blame it be, of the Raphael-For-
narina gossip. Innocence and a negative are ever least easy of proof.
But the same admirable historian is on safer ground when he tells
the story of Maria Bibbiena, the niece of his old Urbino friend, Cardinal
Bibbiena. Probably she and Raphael were betrothed, but the offer
of a Cardinal's hat by the Pope, who never countenanced the match,
offered greater inducements, and, before the union was consummated,
Maria died. She was buried in the Pantheon, where, later on, Raphael,
was laid, by his own request, by her side.
The truth is that, like Luca della Robbia " the Raphael of Sculp-
ture," the Urbino Master held women in such high esteem that the
question of marriage hardly ever seriously entered into his head. Mary
symbolising all that was lovely in mind and body in woman was
Raphael's goddess ; at her shrine he worshipped, and drank in his divine
inspirations. And, as Mary reared the Christ-child to be the most
beautiful of mankind, so Raphael's art created frescoes and pictures,
wherein human nature is revealed at its purest, its happiest, its noblest,
and its best. This is the secret of his strength, his innocence, and his love.
For seven years he found himself saddled with the anxious care of the
great Basilica. He wrote thus to his cousin Simone di Ballista di Ciarla,
of Urbino, in 1514 : "As to my stay in Rome, I cannot live anywhere else
for any time, if only because of the building of St. Peter's, as I am in
place of Bramante ; but what place is in the world more worthy than
Rome, what enterprise more worthy than St. Peter's. . . ."
In the same letter he discusses, almost cynically, the question of
marriage, which had been urged upon him by his relatives and others,
and ends up devoutly thankful that he did not marry early, and considers
that marriage would, even later in life, prove a bar to his success as a
Both as draughtsman and painter, Raphael showed an intense feeling
for form. He had never gone through as artists were begining to do, a
course of anatomical studies ; indeed the idea of dissection of human
bodies was over-poweringly abhorrent to his sensitive nature. On the
other hand he devoted the closest study to the anatomical drawings of
Antonio Pollaiuolo, the first Florentine painter who made dissection
an essential matter, Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo. He knew
their different styles by heart, and copied diligently all their studies of
This sense of form had come upon him with irresistible force as
he stood gazing in 1508, in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, at the
competing cartoons of " The Inimitable " and " The Terrible " Masters.
Their influence was strikingly apparent in the easel-picture The Entomb-
Raphael's excursions into the regions of sculpture were worthy of his
fame. In 1516, he designed architectural details, sculptured ornaments
and mosaics for the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo. These were
carried out with the assistance of Ludovico da Pace of Verona. For
his friend Agostino Chigi he modelled in clay a figure of Jonah the
Prophet, which was sculptured in marble by his pupil Pietro d'Ancona.
Perhaps The Dead Boy and Dolphin, at St. Peter's, is Raphael's best
and most authentic work in marble ; but there are many figures great
and small, which are more or less authoritatively " attributed " to him.
Leonardo Borgherini, a saddler friend of Sebastiano del Piombo,
writing in 1516, says : " Michael Angelo must look to his laurels for
Raphael Urbino has actually modelled a child in clay for Pietro d'Ancona."
A word must be said about the Sistine Chapel tapestries. Leo X.,
wishing to complete the decorations of that beauteous shrine, turned again
to Raphael, whom he styled "The gentle-souled painter of Urbino." He
wished to cover the lower portion of the walls with hangings, which should,
by their woven designs, set forth the establishment of Christ's Kingdom
This was new ground, but Raphael bethought him of Masaccio's del
Carmine frescoes ; and with colours, few and simple, he realised the
sublimity of his classical ideals. Two years were spent in making the
cartoons the finest examples of his relief-outline compositions. The
ten subjects were finished, with the assistance of his pupils, in 1516, and
were despatched forthwith to the tapestry looms of Pietro van Aelst, at
Brussels. In 1520 they were completed and were hung in the chapel
just before the untimely death of their designer. In 1527 they were
carried off and pawned, and were lost sight of till 1798, when a French
dealer bought them at an auction and restored them but in rags ! They
may still be seen in a lumber room of the Vatican in a hopeless
But now came something like a decadence in the style of the Master.
He undertook, far and away, more work than one pencil and one brush
could achieve. Gradually Raphael's predominance yielded to the
personalities and peculiarities of his pupils. After 1517 he rarely carried
to a finish anything with his own hand.
His last two great decorative schemes were the frescoes in the Loggie
of the Vatican and in the Farnesina. The former work, commenced in 1513,
was in progress right up to the hour of his death. It consisted of fifty-
two frescoes in the Cupolas of the Loggie, which were open galleries giving
upon the Vatican courtyards and gardens. The buildings themselves
were partly the work of Bramante and partly of Raphael himself.
The subjects are all from the Sacred Story, and the suite has in con-
sequence gained the designation of " Raphael's Bible." The simplicity
of composition, the perfection of drawing, and the beautiful blending
of colours, make such an affecting appeal, that we may well say, Raphael
used for his painting medium, nothing else than the running narrative
This creation raised Raphael's art to the very highest place in decora-
tive painting, not even excepting Michael Angelo's superb achievements
in the Sistine Chapel.
In the arabesques and grotesques he dreamt of Pompei and her ex-
quisite wall paintings, but he confided the execution of his designs to
his pupils, Giovanni da Udini and Giulio Romano.
Whilst he was busy with his " Bible " in the Loggie, his opulent
banker friend, Agostino Chigi, besought him to decorate the stately villa
he had built in Trastevere. His Galatea, finished in 1514, was already
there. About this he wrote thus to his old Urbino friend, Castiglione,
" In order to paint a beautiful woman I have need to look at very many,
then I turn to the ideal, which I am able to create in my imagination."
This was the very source of his cult of Eclectic Beauty.
The History of Cupid and Psyche is the sweetest of all love romances,
and Raphael undertook it, in 1518, when he was under the spell of the
Lady with the Veil she was his Psyche and he her Cupid. Raphael perfectly
revelled in this blissful occupation, almost, if not quite, as fascinating as
that of painting the Madonna. The subject is worked out in panels
which are triumphs of spacing. The designs and instructions for his
pupils, who largely assisted him, nil all the principal collections of
drawings in Europe.
In spite of all these immense and absorbing demands upon his in-
vention his genius projected a third suite of easel-pictures, and lo ! six
more sweet Madonnas stepped off his rich palette including that most
lovely one of all the Madonna di San Sisto.
This, Raphael evidently meant to be his supreme effort, and no hand
but his touched it. No "other model but the bewitching Margherita
would do. To her Roman charms he has added the alert nobility of
the Florentine ; and the Babe, she carries on her arm, is Raphael's highest
ideal of what an unspeakably beautiful child should be. All the illumina-
tion of the picture comes blazing forth from this art child of the artist lover ?
Angels must have mixed his colours, whilst the Spirit of God guided his
This Madonna di San Sisto is, perhaps, the greatest picture in the
world. It inspired Goethe's muse, who sings thus of it :
Model for mothers queen of women
A magic brush has, by enchantment,
Fixed her there.
Other remarkable masterpieces distinguished the years 1517-1520,
among them St. Cecilia, The Archangel Michael, The Visitation, and last
of all thdugh by many counted first and chiefest The Transfiguration.
At the time of the inception of The Transfiguration, Raphael's greatest
rival, Sebastiano del Piombo, was working for Agostino Chigi at his
superb Raising of Lazarus, and Raphael put forth his whole strength to
maintain his superiority.
His subject was sublime, but its thrall, and the strain of its composition,
exhausted the efforts and the life force of its author, and on March 27,
1520, Raphael fell ill of fever perhaps further induced by his diligent
archaeological researches among the ruins.
In spite of his cheerful disposition, his excellent physique, and blame-
less life, the end came suddenly after making his will, whereby he left
30,000 (sixteen thousand ducats), to his relatives at Urbino, and his
drawings and his unfinished pictures to Giulio Romano, Francesco Penni,
and other pupils. He directed that his body should be laid in the Pantheon.
On Good Friday, April 6, 1520, his pure spirit took its flight.
The whole of Rome was plunged in grief it is said the Pope shed
tears. On Holy Saturday a vast concourse, including princes and peasants,
followed the saintly painter to his last resting-place, and there they laid his
body, at the foot of the Altar of the Madonna whom he had loved so
enthusiastically and had painted so incomparably.
It was said that on that sad day the walls of the Loggie cracked,
and the people cried out : " Why, the stones are cut as deeply as our
His life-long friend Cardinal Bembo wrote his epitaph :
Nature, while Raphael lived for ever loved his brush-
He died and she hid herself in silent, tearful hush.
One feature of Raphael's work has been very slightly touched upon
his gifts as a portrait-painter. Twenty portraits, at least, are evidence
of his rare skill in delineating living men and women. Perhaps the most
famous are Agnolo Doni, Maddelina Strozzi-Doni, his own portrait, Duke
Guidobaldo, Julius II., LeoX. alone, and with Cardinal Giulio de* Medici
and Luigi de Rossi, Cardinal Bibbiena, Count Baldazzare Castiglione, and
Fedra Inghirami. It is not too much to say that no painter of the
Renaissance attained a higher level, or produced more life-like results,
than did Raphael in his portraiture.
Giulio Romano, Francesco Penni, and Giovanni da Udine carried on
the fame of Raphael's Palace studio for many years after the Master's
death. A great number of compositions were produced under his name,
very many of which, doubtless, were designed by him, and finished by
his " School."
Marc Antonio Raimondi was the first principal engraver of the Work of
Raphael, and when he died Baverio Carroci of Parma also a pupil of the
Master continued the enterprise. Many men joined him, and soon a
School of Engraving entirely devoted to Raphael was in active operation.
Raphael has been justly styled the " Foster-father " of the Academy
of St. Luke, in Rome. On his arrival in the Eternal City in 1508, only
some eight or nine painters were at work there. By 1535 but fifteen
years after his death the " School of Raphael " counted as many as one
hundred and ninety resident holders of the palette !
Of Raphael it may truly be said : " He came, he saw, he conquered ! "
LIST OF THE CHIEF WORKS
LONDON PUBLIC GALLERIES
VISION OF A KNIGHT (1503)
Painted when young Santi was at Perugino's. Formerly
in the Borghese Gallery in Rome. At the end of the eighteenth
century Mr. W. Y. Ottley became possessed of it, and among
other owners in turn, were Sir Thomas Lawrence, Lady Sykes,
and Rev. T. Egerton. Mr. Egerton sold it to the National
Gallery in 1847 for 1050. Square, 7 in.
MADONNA DEGLI ANSIDEI (1506)
Painted for the Ansidei family of Perugia, for their chapel
in the Servite Church of San Fiorenzo. It remained there
till 1764, when it was purchased by Lord Robert Spencer,
and presented to his brother, the Duke of Marlborough. At
the Blenheim Sale in 1885, it was purchased for the National
Gallery for 70,000. The predella has been broken up ;
one of the three subjects alone remains, The Preaching of St.
John the Baptist, and it is in possession of the Marquis of
7 ft. x 4 ft. 10 in.
SAINT CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA (1508)
Originally in the Aldobrandini Collection, in the Borghese
Gallery, Rome. Mr. Day, Lord Northwick, and Mr. Beckford
in turn possessed it ; the last sold it to the National Gallery
2 ft. 4 in. x i ft. 9 in.
PORTRAIT OF POPE JULIUS II. (1510)
Passavant has traced nine replicas of this picture. This one
was originally in the Falconieri Palace, Rome. Mr. Angerstein
purchased it, and at his sale in 1824. it was secured for the
3 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 8 in.
THE GARVAGH RAPHAEL (l5ll)
Formerly in the Aldobrandini Collection in the Borghese
Gallery, Rome. Mr. Day brought it to England at the end
of the eighteenth century, and in 1818 sold it to Lord Garvagh.
It was purchased from Lady Garvagh for 2000 in 1865. There
are many repetitions of this picture at Bergamo, Urbino,
Milan, and other places. This example is probably by Giulio
Romano after Raphael's drawing. It is also called Madonna
dell 1 Aldobrandini.
I ft. 3 in. X I ft. I in.
VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM
There were originally ten. Seven only are in London.
They were purchased by Charles I. in 1630, at Brussels, on the
advice of P. P. Rubens, but it was, strange to say, Cromwell
who brought them to England. They are painted' in tempera
upon paper. The tapestries, for which they were designed
and coloured by the Master, hung for a short time only in the-
Sistine Chapel at the Vatican. The subjects are as follows :
The Draught of Fishes, The Charge to St. Peter, St. Peter and:
St. John in the Temple, Death of Ananias, St. Paul at Athens,
St. Paul and St. Barnabas at Lystra, and Elymas struck blind.
These " cartoons " occupy a unique place in the history of
the Renaissance. They set forth the culmination of the efforts
of all previous painters, and mark also the final manner of
Raphael the purely classical.
The other three which were lost in Rome or during their
sojourn in Flanders were : The Stoning of St. Stephen, The-
Conversion of St. Paul, and The Escape of St. Paul from Prison.
THE DULWICH GALLERY
ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA AND ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI (1507-1508)
Part of the Predella of the Madonna di Sanf Antonio.
9 in. x 6 in.
PRIVATE COLLECTIONS IN ENGLAND
EARL OF ELLESMERE
MADONNA UNDER THE PALM (1506)
Painted for Raphael's friend, Taddeo Taddei. Its history
is a blank until 1680, when trie Comtesse de Cheverini of Paris
sold it to M. de la Moue, who disposed of it to the Orleans
Collection. It was last bought in 1792 for 1200.
Circular. 3 ft. 4 in. in diameter.
MADONNA DEL PASSAGGIO (1515)
" Attributed " to Raphael, but probably by Francesco
Penni, from a sketch by the Master.
2 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft.
THE BRIDGE WATER MADONNA (l5ll)
Doubts have been expressed about its authenticity, but
it is, at any rate, marked by very careful drawing, and it is
in Raphael's purest Florentine manner. It first appeared
catalogued in the Seignelay Collection, whence it passed into
that of Orleans. Its British owner gave 3000 for it.
2 ft. 8 in. x I ft. 10 in.
THE SMALL MADONNA (1505)
Bought by Lord Cowper at Florence. It is an ideal com-
position much influenced by Perugino.
2 ft. x i ft. 5 in.
THE LARGE MADONNA (1508)
On the Virgin's robe is " MDVIII. R.U.Pin." It was
originally known as Madonna delta Casa Nicolino, and Lord
Cowper bought it from the descendants of that family. It
has something of Giotto about it, and may have been Raphael's
first Florentine Madonna.
2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 7 in.
EARL OF DUDLEY
THE THREE GRACES (1506)
From the Borghese Gallery, Rome. It belonged to Sir
Thomas Lawrence. It is said that Raphael, when a mere youth,
greatly admired a Sienese marble group after the antique, and
his friends urged him to make a coloured copy in oils. His
actual models, however, were good-looking Florentine maidens.
The same figures he reproduced in the decorations of the
7 in. x 5 in.
MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST PREACHING (1506)
Part of the Predella of Madonna degli Ansidei.
i ft. 8 in. x 10 in.
DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND
ST. MARY MAGDALENE AND ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA (l50I ?)
Two small panels painted, with Perugino's corrections, at
MR. LUDWIG MOND
THE CRUCIFIXION (1501-2)
Painted for the Gavari Chapel in San Domenico, at Citta
del Castello, where it remained until 1693, when the poverty
of the clergy forced its sale. It has passed through the hands
of Cardinal Fesch and the Earl of Dudley.
8 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 5 in.
SIR J. C. ROBINSON'S EXECUTORS
MADONNA DE 5 CANDELABRI (1515)
The angels are not by Raphael ; the picture was brought to
England in 1830.
Circular. 2 ft. in diameter.
MADONNA DELLE TORRE (l5lO)
Came from the Orleans Collection. It is also called The
Rogers Madonna, because Mr. R. J. Mackintosh bought it
at the sale of the poet's effects. Mr. Willett purchased it from
the Orleans Collection in 1792 for 150. It has suffered much
by transference to canvas.
One of the five parts of the Predella of the Madonna di
9 in. x ii in.
SIR HENRY MILES, Bart.
Part of the same Predella.
9 in. x ii in.
AGONY IN THE GARDEN (1507-8)
Part of the same Predella.
9 in. x ii in.
MR. J. PIERPONT MORGAN
MADONNA DI SANT 5 ANTONIO (1504-1508)
Painted by order of the nuns of Saint Antonio of Padua at
Perugia, who required that the two children should be fully
The nuns became impoverished in 1677, and besought the
Pope that they might dispose of the picture to pay their debts.
A noble Perugian, Antonio Bigazzini, bought it for the Colonna
family for 2000. It found its way into the Royal Palace in
Naples, where it remained until the expulsion of the Bourbons.
Then the Duke of Ripaldi obtained possession of it, and offered
it for sale for 40,000. It was for some time in exhibition in
London, at the old South Kensington Museum. In 1899 it
went to Paris to M. C. Sedelmeyer, from whom Mr. B. Colnaghi
obtained it. Mr. Morgan purchased the picture in 1902 for
the enormous sum of 100,000. It is temporarily hung in the
ROME. THE VATICAN
CAMERA DELLA SEGNATURA (1508-1511)
Ceiling: (Medallions) Poetry, Theology, Philosophy, Justice.
Ceiling: (Pendants) Apollo and Marsyas, Adam and Eve,
Astronomy, Solomon's Judgment.
Walls (Above) : Parnassus, School of Athens, Disputa.
Walls (Below) : Alexander depositing Homer's Works in the
Tomb of Achilles, Augustus preventing the Burning of the
MSS. of the JEnid.
Walls (Lunette) : Jurisprudence, with Justinian delivering the
Institutes, and Gregory IX. promulging the Decretals under-
Window-embrasures : Judgment of Seleucus and Christ and the
On the Dado : The Tiburtine Sibyl, Solon teaching the Greeks,
Siege of Syracuse, Death of Archimedes, A Pagan Sacrifice,
and Eastern Magicians.
CAMERA D'ELIODORO (1511-1514)
Ceiling: God appearing to Noah, Abraham's Sacrifice, Jacob's
Dream, and Moses at the Burning Bush.
Walls (Above) : Heliodorus driven out of the Temple, Attila
repulsed by St. Leo, St. Peter delivered out of Prison, and The
Mass of Bolsena.
Walls (Below) : Eleven allegorical figures and four caryatides.
Window-embrasures: Arabesques, &c., in grisaille.
CAMERA DELL' INCENDIO (1514-1517)
Walls: Coronation of Charlemagne, The Oath of St. Leo, The
Battle of Ostia, and The Fire in the Borgo.
The Sola di Constantino has frescoes " attributed " to
Raphael, but there are no records showing that they were
painted, or even designed, by the Master. They are certainly
after his manner.
RAPHAEL'S BIBLE (so-called) (1513-20)
Ceiling : In the fifty-two shallow cupolas forty-eight Old
Testament subjects, beginning with The Creation and ending
with The Building of Solomon's Temple; and four New
Testament The Nativity at Bethlehem, The Visit of the
Magi, The Baptism of Christ, and The Last Supper.
Walls : Very much decorative work, arabesques and grotesques
connecting and surrounding small medallions containing
Most of these frescoes were by Raphael's pupils especially
Pierino di Vaga after his designs, but the finishing touches
were by the Master.
THE PICTURE GALLERY
THE TRANSFIGURATION (1520)
The last work of Raphael, and left unfinished at his death.
Painted for Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, for the decoration of
the Cathedral of Narbonne, of which he had been named
Bishop. Leo X. refused to allow its removal, but ordered it
to be placed over the High Altar of San Pietro in Montorio.
There it remained until Napoleon took it off to Paris in 1797.
It was returned to Rome in 1816, and set up in its present position.
It is said that this picture was designed for the same patron
and place, in friendly rivalry with Sebastiano del Piombo's
Raising of Lazarus, which is now in the National Gallery of London.
13 ft. 4 in. x 9 ft. 3 in.
MADONNA DI FOLIGNO (l-5I2)
A votive painting, done for Sigismondo Conti, the Pope's
Chamberlain, for the Church of Ara Coeli. His daughter,
Anna Conti, in 1565, removed it to Foligno hence its name.
The French took it to Paris in 1797, where it was transferred
to canvas, the panel being rotten and worm-eaten, but it was
returned to Rome in 1816, and placed in its present position.
It is only surpassed in loveliness by The Madonna di San Sisto.
There is some of the Venetian influence of Sebastiano del
Piombo, especially in the rich colouring.
10 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 4 in.
CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN (1502-3)
A very early work of the Master. It was painted for
Maddelini degli Oddi, a noble Perugian lady, for the Church
of San Francesco, at Perugia. Taken to Paris in 1797, it
was restored in 1816, but the Pope refused to let it go back
to Perugia, and hung it in the Vatican.
THE ENTOMBMENT (1507)
Painted for Donna Atalanta Baglioni, for the Church of
San Francesco, at Perugia, as a votive offering upon the murder
of her son, Griffone, at a marriage feast. In 1607 Pope Paul V.
purchased it, and placed it where it now hangs. In 1797 it
was taken to Paris, but restored in 1816. It is one of the
Master's grandest compositions, and is most tenderly carried
out. He took pains to give the Christ the figure and features
of the unfortunate youth, whilst the Mary is a likeness of the
Square. 6 ft.
Three belonging to the Coronation, the Annunciation, the
Adoration, and the Presentation.
One belonging to the Entombment Faith, Hope, and Charity,
accompanied by youthful angels, with half-fledged wings.
The four were removed by the French in 1797, but restored
in 1816, and placed in their present position.
A representative composition, showing what the humanists
of Leo X.'s period regarded as typical of classical ideas. The
subject is founded upon a poem by Politian. The figure of
the goddess is entirely by the Master ; the Tritons are by Giulio
Romano. It was painted for its present position for Agostino
Chigi, the princely owner of the Farnesina. Writing to his
old friend Count Baltassare Castiglione, Raphael says : " If I
am to paint a beautiful woman I must see several, and have
you at my side to choose the fairest. Meanwhile . * . I make
use of a certain ideal that is in my mind."
CUPID AND PSYCHE (1518-19)
The ceiling has two large frescoes, which, with the deco-
ration of fourteen lunettes and ten pendants, were all designed
by the Master. The story by Apuleius furnished the subject,
and the details were supplied from bits of ancient wall-deco-
rations discovered by Raphael himself in the Baths of Titus.
The Master's hand, however, coloured only The Three Graces,
and, possibly, Psyche conducted by Mercury to Olympia. Much
of the work was done by Giovanni Francesco Penni, who
gained, by his absolute fidelity to his Master, the title of il
fattore the agent. Every part was restored and much
touched up by C. Maratta.
THE PROPHET ISAIAH (1512)
Painted in tempera on a pillar of the church for Joannes
Goritz of Luxembourg, Collector of Petitions to Pope Julius II.
It is much after the robust manner of Michael Angelo. Soon
after Raphael's death it showed signs of perishing, and Daniele
da Volterra was directed to repaint it.
8 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. 4 in.
SANTA MARIA BELLA
PROPHETS AND SIBYLLS (1515-1519)
Frescoes painted for Agostino Chigi, who paid Raphael
500 ducats. The four " Sibylls " are wholly the Master's
work, but the four prophets, Daniel, Jonah, David, and Hosea,
were done by Timoteo Viti, after drawings by Raphael.
SANTA MARIA DEL POPOLO
THE PLANETS (1514)
Plainly here Raphael sought to rival Michael Angelo's work
in the Sistine Chapel. Only the God the Father and the Planets
in the cupola were done by the Master, all the rest of the
subsidiary subjects and the decorative work were by the hands
of pupils, but after his designs.
[In an apartment of the Vatican, originally Cardinal
Bibbiena's bath-room, but later converted into a chapel, between
1514-19, Raphael painted The Loves of Venus and Cupid seven
large subjects with connecting arabesques, much after the
style of the frescoes at Pompei, in black on a reddish ground.
Their existence was attested by Passavant in 1835, but they
have since been covered with wooden panelling and all access
MADONNA DEL GRAN* DUCA (1504)
Also known as Madonna del Viaggio, because the Grand
Duke Ferdinand III. carried it about with him wherever he
went. It originally belonged to Carlo Dolci, and passed from
him into the possession of the Grand Ducal family late in the
eighteenth century for the sum of 136.
Another version is that a poor widow had become possessed
of it, and not knowing anything about it, sold it to the Grand
Duke for 4.
2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 9 in.
PORTRAIT OF AGNOLO DONI (1505)
The Grand Duke Leopold II. of Tuscany bought this and
the following picture for 1100 from the descendants of Doni,
in 1823. Its style is very much that of Domenico Ghirlandajo.
2 ft. x i ft. 5 in.
PORTRAIT OF MADDELINA DONI, OR STROZZI-DONI (1506)
Companion to the foregoing with a similar history. Raphael
evidently had seen Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, and had
obtained so vivid an impression that his picture is almost an
exact copy. It lacks only the smile, which, of course, was
2 ft. x i ft. 5 in.
MADONNA DEL BALDACCHINO (1508)
The last picture Raphael painted in Florence. It was
commissioned by the Dei family for their chapel in San Spirito.
A very interesting composition, and it shows the influence
of Fra Bartolommeo, and also something of the manner of
Timoteo Viti, one of the Master's chief associates. The picture
was finished after Raphael's death by his pupils, and it belonged
to the Master's executor, Baldassare Turini of Pescia, by whom
it was hung in the cathedral of that town. In 1697 it was
sold to the Grand Duke Ferdinand de' Medici, and went to the
10 ft. x 6 ft.
PORTRAIT OF JULIUS II. (1510)
Some critics affect to see a trace of Venetian workmanship
perhaps Sebastiano del Piombo had some influence. The
original cartoon is in the Corsini Palace, Florence.
3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 8 in.
VISION OF EZEKIEL (1510)
There is something of Michael Angelo in its boldness and
vigour, the effect, doubtless, of Buonarroti's work in the Sistine
Chapel. Perhaps Raphael's idea was suggested by the ancieot
mosaics of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
1 ft. 7 in. x i ft. 2 in.
MADONNA DELL' IMPANNATA (1513)
Painted for Bindo Altoviti, a rich banker, whose portrait
by Raphael is at Munich. Its name is derived from the linen
curtain which hangs at the window.
It came early into the possession of the Grand Duke Cosimo
and was placed by him over the altar of his chapel Stanza
Nova, at the Pitti. Giulio Romano's hand is seen in the
figure of St. John, and probably Francesco Penni did St.
5 ft. i in. x 4 ft.
PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL BIBBIENA (1519)
Raphael's Urbino-Roman friend and patron. He painted
him frequently. This portrait was formerly in the Casa Dovizi
at Bibbiena. The cardinal is here represented as prematurely
aged, in fact he was painted only a year before his death.
2 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.
PORTRAIT OF TOMMASO (" FEDRA ") INGHIRAMI (1514)
He was secretary to the Conclave of 1513, which elected
Leo X., and also of the Lateran Council, as Bishop of Ragusa.
Librarian of the Vatican he became a great friend of Erasmus.
His literary name was " Phaedrus " or " Fedra." The original,
of which this is an inferior copy, is hidden away in the palace
of the Inghirami at Volterra.
Has been much damaged by water, needle, and paste !
3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 4 in.
MADONNA DELLA SEDIA OR SEGGIOLA (1510-14)
Was in the Medici Collection as early as 1589, and installed
in the Tribuna at the Uffizi, having been painted for Cardinal
Giovanni de* Medici. It is perhaps the most natural of all
Raphael's Madonnas, and is in his purest Florentine manner. He
learnt doubtless, some of the alertness of the Virgin's pose from
the glazed terra cottas of Luca della Robbia.
Circular. 2 ft. 5 in. diameter.
LA DONNA VELATA (1518)
Raphael's Inamorata. The same model appears in The
Madonna di San Sisto and in The St. Cecilia. Matteo Botti
of Florence gained possession of the picture, and Cinelli, writing
in 1677, says it was still in his house. Thence it passed into
the Medici Collection, and remained in the Grand Ducal Villa
of Poggio Reale till 1824, when it was installed at the Pitti.
2 ft. 9 in. X I ft. ii in.
PORTRAIT OF POPE LEO X., WITH TWO CARDINALS (1518)
Giulio de' Medici, afterwards Pope Clement VII., left;
Luigi de' Rossi, right. The picture was looted by the French
in 1797, but returned in 1816. Andrea del Sarto finished a
portrait of Leo X. by Raphael ; this may be the picture in
5 ft. x 3 ft. ii in.
MADONNA DEL CARDELLINO (1506)
Painted for Lorenzo Nasi. It is a beautiful example of
the pyramidical arrangement which the Master loved so well.
He made many studies with variations, each one in attainment
of a satisfactory triangle.
3 ft. x 2 ft. 5 in.
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST (1520)
" Attributed " to Raphael, but more likely by Giulio
Romano. Cardinal Colonna certainly commissioned Raphael
to paint a St. John Baptist, which appears to be lost.
5 ft. 9 in. x 5 ft. 2 in.
PORTRAIT OF HIMSELF (1506)
Until 1588 it was at Urbino, according to Passavant. It
was painted for his relatives there. Federigo Zaccheri took
it to Rome, and gave it to St. Luke's Academy, Cardinal
Leopoldo de } Medici purchased it from the Academy and sent
it to Florence. The likeness is characteristic of a high-toned,
intellectual young man.
I ft. 6 in. x i ft.
PORTRAIT OF POPE JULIUS II. (l50l)
There is a replica in the Pitti, another in the Royal Museum
at Naples, and another in the National Gallery of London.
Which of the three is the original no one can possibly say.
The sizes of the panels vary somewhat. Its position in the
Tribuna marks its importance.
3 ft. 6in. x 2 ft. 8 in.
PORTRAIT OF A LADY (1504-1510)
"Attributed" to Raphael and placed in the Tribuna.
Called by many La Fornarina, but in error. The " Lady "
is an unknown ! The picture is almost certainly by Sebastian o
del Piombo, and its right designation is La Improvisatrice.
The bracelet bearing the words Raphael Urbinos is by another
ST. CECILIA (1515-17)
Painted by order of Cardinal de' Pucci for his kinswoman
Elena Dugeroli, and given by her to the nuns of San Giovanni-
in-Monte, near Bologna. The Magdalen is the Master's
Inamorata, " La Donna Velata." The accessories were done by
Giovanni da Udini. The whole composition is an ecstasy of
painting. The angelic choir is a dream in colours. The picture
was taken to Paris by Napoleon in 1797, where it was stretched
on canvas by Hacquin, and was much injured. Its restoration
took place in 1816.
7 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. 9 in.
GOD THE FATHER (1507)
The lunette for The Entombment (1507) in the Villa Borghese,
Rome. The angels were probably added by a pupil.
THE SAVIOUR, WITH ST. MARY, ST. JOHN BAPTIST, ST. PAUL, AND
Called from the group The Five Saints. Very much the same
arrangement as the St. Cecilia at Bologna.
THE TRINITY (1505)
This was undoubtedly Raphael's first attempt at fresco-
painting, but was left unfinished when he went to Florence.
The six saints were added by Perugino after Raphael's death.
THE BETROTHAL OF THE VIRGIN (La SpOSalizio) (1504)
Painted for the church of San Francesco at Citta del
Castello, and remained there until the French General Lecchi
stole it in 1798. He sold it to a citizen in Milan for a mere
trifle, who disposed of it in 1804 to the authorities of the city
for 2200. It is remarkable for the absolutely natural grouping
of the figures.
i ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 9 in.
MADONNA DEL DIVINO AMORE (1518)
Painted for Domenico Carpi. It passed into the possession
of the Farnese family, who transferred it to the Royal Collection.
Some judges attribute it to Giulio Romano, and it is very much
like his work. Called also The Madonna of the Long Leg, from
the extreme length of one of the legs of the Virgin.
i ft. ii in. x i ft. 7 in.
PORTRAIT OF LEO X.
A replica of the Pitti picture.
(?) ST. SEBASTIANO (1503)
" Attributed " to Raphael. Belonged for a time to the
late Professor Longhi of Milan.
I ft. 5 in. x i ft.
PAX VOBISCUM (1505)
Was for many years in the possession of the family of
Mosca at Pesaro.
12 in. x 9 in.
CITTA DEL CASTELLO
THE TRINITY (1503)
A processional banner.
THE BELVEDERE GALLERY
MADONNA IN THE MEADOW, OR " IN GREEN " (1506)
Painted for Taddeo Taddei, and sold by one of his descen-
dants to the Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria, whence
it passed into the Imperial Gallery in 1773. Till 1663 it was
at Innsbruck, thence it went to Schloss Ambras in Tyrol.
Raphael took great pains with this Madonna; she approaches
his Florentine manner, and is the least ideal of all his earlier
3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. 10 in.
MADONNA ESTERHAZY (1510-1513)
Given by Pope Clement XI. to Elizabeth of Austria, who
gave it to Kaunitz, and so it passed into the possession of the
Esterhazy family. On the back of the panel is the following
inscription in German : " This pictuie is of a Virgin by
Raphael, which, with its box garnished with precious stones,
was given to me as a present by Pope Albany Clement XL
(1700-1728). "Eliz. K."
10 in. x 8 in.
THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL (1504)
Called the Small St. Michael. It was painted for Duke
Guidobaldo of Urbino. Cardinal Mazarin acquired it in 1656,
and gave it to Louis XIV. The archangel bears a sword in
contradistinction to his lance in the Great St. Michael.
i ft. x 10 in.
SAINT GEORGE (1504)
The same history as the foregoing,
i ft. x 10 in.
APOLLO AND MARSYAS (1506)
"Attributed" to Raphael. It belonged to the Barnard
Collection, which was dispersed in 1770, and then to Mr. Morris
Moore, of Rome.
i ft. 3 in. x ii in.
MADONNA LA BELLE JARDINIERE (1507)
It passed through the hands of Rodolfo Ghirlandaio and of
Filippo Segardi to those of Francis I. Quite the most beautiful
of the Master's Umbrian manner. No one knows who the
lovely gardener was. Perhaps a pretty flower-girl in the
Mercato Nuovo at Florence, noted by Raphael in one of
his early visits to the " City of Flowers." Some experts doubt
the authenticity of this picture.
4 ft. x 2 ft. 7 in.
MADONNA AU DIADEME (1512)
So called because St. Mary wears a golden crown. It was
known to be in Paris, in the Vrilliere Collection, as early as
1620. In 1728 Prince Carignani bought it, from whom it passed
into the possession of Louis XV. It is sometimes called The
Sleeping Jesus, from the excellence of the artistic feat in painting
an awakening child. It has suffered greatly.
2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 5 in.
PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN (1516 ?)
It belonged also to Louis XV. Possibly it is the panel of
which Bembo wrote : "He (Raphael) has made a portrait of
our young friend, Tebaldeo, so natural that it is more like
him than himself ! " A thoroughly typical Florentine youth
scholar, artist, athlete combined, and very good-looking.
2 ft. x i ft. 5 in.
PORTRAIT OF COUNT BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE (1516)
The first likeness Raphael painted of his Urbmo-Roman
friend. The Count, when he went away from home, used to
leave this portrait about so that his little boy might see it
and exclaim, " My Father ! " Castiglione took it to Spain,
and, when he died, it was sent to the Gonzaga Gallery at Mantua,
where Castiglione had been educated. Thence it travelled to-
the Van Usselen Collection, in Amsterdam, where it was copied
as a work of rare genius by both Rembrandt and Rubens.
After a brief visit to London, it settled down for a time in the
Mazarin Collection, whence it took its last j ourney to the Louvre.
I ft. 8 in. x 2 ft. i in.
THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL (1518)
Called the Great St. Michael, to distinguish it from the small
picture of 1504. It is " attributed " to Raphael, but, in all
probability, it was painted by Giulio Romano after a drawing
by the busy Master. Leo X. gave it to Francis L, who was
Grand Master of the " Order of Chivalry," which was placed
under the patronage of the Great Archangel.
8 ft. 9 in. x 5 ft. 3 in.
THE LARGE HOLY FAMILY (1518)
Partly painted by Giulio Romano, carrying out Raphael's-
idea and work. Leo X. gave it, also, to Francis L, from which
it is often called Madonna di Francesco /. The two pictures*
were somewhat hurriedly finished, and despatched on mule-
back to Fontainebleau.
6 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 3 in.
PORTRAIT OF JOANNA OF ARAGON (1518)
Painted for Cardinal Bibbiena, who gave it to Francis I.
It is said that Raphael sent his favourite pupil, Giulio Romano,
to Naples to take a sketch of the Princess, who never sat to-
the Master. As early as 1540 it was restored by Primaticcio.
4 ft. x 3 ft.
MADONNA " LA PETITE " (l52O ?)
Also called Madonna au Berceau. It was painted for
Cardinal de Boisy. Some authorities say Raphael only made
the study, and it was coloured by Giulio Romano.
i ft. 3 in. x ii in.
SAINT MARGARET (1519)
" Attributed " to Raphael. A replica at Vienna very
much resembling this picture in technique, &c., was undoubtedly
the work of Giulio Romano. This painting may have been
finished by the same hand. It was certainly painted for
Marguerite de Valois, sister of Francis I. It was restored
quite early by Primaticcio in 1540.
6 ft. x 4 ft. 2 in.
SAINT JOHN IN THE DESERT (l52O ?)
A replica of the picture in the Uffizi. The scroll held by
the youthful saint bears the inscription : DEL
BARON ALPHONSE DE ROTHSCHILD'S COLLECTION
LE VIOLONISTE (1518)
Probably the last portrait painted by Raphael. Its Vene-
tian colouring has led many to " attribute " it to Sebastiano
del Piombo. On the other hand, none but Raphael's hand
could produce such a simple, alert, and truthful likeness. It
is also called // Suonatore, and came from the Palazzo Sciarra-
Colonna in Rome.
GALLERY OF PICTURES
MADONNA D'ORLANS (1506)
From the old Orleans Collection, hence its name. Its first
known owner was Louis XIV. Mr. Hibbert bought it in 1798
It changed hands many times until the Due d' Aumale acquired
it at the Delessert sale in 1869, for 6250 ; at his death he
bequeathed it, with the Palace, to the French nation. Its
preservation is perfect, it has escaped the ravages of time
ii in. x 14 in.
HOLY FAMILY, WITH ST. JEROME AND ST. FRANCIS (1503)
From the Borghese Collection. Purchased by the King of
Prussia in 1829. It bears the alternative designation of The
Three Saints. The Madonna has no halo,
i ft. 3 in. x ii in.
" SOLLY " MADONNA, OR " MADONNA WITH THE FRUIT " (1500)
Acquired in 1821. Perhaps Raphael's first Madonna. The
Child has no halo. This picture has suffered from the hands of
"restorers" so-called as have so many in the German
Galleries. The name was acquired in 1821 when it belonged to
the Solly Collection.
1 ft. 9 in. x i ft. 3 in.
MADONNA DIOTALEVI (1504)
" Attributed " to Raphael, probably by Perugino. Pur-
chased from Marquis Diotalevi in 1842, at Rimini, for 147.
The halo is the old Umbrian form.
2 ft. x i ft. 8 in.
MADONNA DI TERRANUOVA (1504-5)
Bought from the Duke di Terranuova in 1854, hence its
very modern name. The introduction of a third child is unusual
and discordant. The Virgin shows the influence of Leonardo
Circular : 2 ft. 10 in. diam.
MADONNA COLONNA (1508 ?)
" Attributed " to Raphael. Neither Mother nor Child has
the halo, but this may have been destroyed by " cleaners ! "
The arrangement of the two figures is perfect. Probably it
was designed and begun by Raphael, and left unfinished until
his pupil Domenico Alfani one day discovered it in the Master's
studio, and attempted to complete it. Raphael, it seems, also
put some work into it, but it was never really finished. It
belonged first to the Salviati family in Florence, who sold it to
the Colonnas. It was purchased by Chevalier Bunsen for the
Prussian Government from the Colonnas.
2 ft. 6 in. x i ft. 10 in.
Three small pictures, evidently parts of the " Predella "
of a picture, of which all traces have been lost. The subjects
are : Christ seated on a Tomb, St. Lodovico, and St. Hercolano.
" Attribution " is somewhat doubtful.
Circular: 6 in. diam.
MADONNA DI SAN SISTO (1519)
The last Madonna painted entirely by Raphael's own hand.
It was done at the request of Cardinal Antonio de* Monti, for
the Benedictines of San Sisto at Piacenza, hence its name.
Augustus III. of Saxony bought it from the monks in 1753 for
9000. Napoleon packed it off to Paris in 1797, but it was
restored at the Peace of 1816. It is the only considerable
easel painting on canvas all the rest are on panels. The
Virgin is modelled from the beautiful Roman girl. " La Donna
9 ft. 3 in. x 7 ft.
MADONNA DI CASA TEMPI (1506)
The pictorial annals of Raphael's time make no mention
of it. In 1677 it was catalogued as being in the Casa Tempi,
Florence. King Ludwig of Bavaria bought it in 1829 for
16,000 scudi. It is a very beautiful- composition, much after
Leonardo da Vinci.
2 ft. 4 in. x i ft. 7 in.
MADONNA CANIGIANI (1507)
Painted for Domenico Canigiani to celebrate the nuptials
of Anna de' Medici, daughter of Cosimo III., and Johann Wilhelm
Pflaz, Count of the Rhine. It was by the latter presented
to the electors of Diisseldorf . The contrast between the youthful
Virgin and the aged St. Elizabeth reminds one of Luca della
Robbia's glazed terra-cotta group, The Visitation, at Pistoja.
The dominance of St. Joseph is unusual.
4 ft. x 3 ft. 3 in.
MADONNA DELLA TENDA (1517)
" Attributed " to Raphael. The name is due to the tenda,
or curtain, in the background. The arrangement is very much
like that of the Madonna della Sedia. Probably it was painted
by Domenico Alfani, though Perino del Vaga is also credited
with it. The picture was taken to France, where Sir Thomas
Baring purchased it for 4000. At the sale of the Baring
Collection in 1814, it was bought by Crown Prince Ludwig of
Bavaria for 5000. There are several replicas.
2 ft. 3 in. x i ft. 10 in.
PORTRAIT OF MESSER BINDO ALTOVITI (1512)
A young friend of the Master. Although only twenty-one,
he was a great patron of artists, and encouraged especially
along with Raphael Michael Angelo and Benvenuto Cellini.
It hung in the Altoviti Palace till 1808, when the Crown Prince
Ludwig of Bavaria bought it.
9 in. x 7 in.
PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN (1504)
A member of the Riccio family of Urbino. Raphael drew
and painted a number of good-looking young fellows in the
Duke of Urbino's famous school,
I ft. 9 in. x i ft. 4in.
THE HERMITAGE GALLERY
MADONNA DELLA CASA D* ALBA (1508-10)
Painted by Raphael, unassisted, for Julius II., and presented
by him to the Olivetan Monks of Nocera. It came into the
possession of the famous Duca d' Alba in 1793. It was sold
in 1836 to the Czar of Russia for 24,000. It is quite Florentine
in manner. Originally on a panel, it was transferred to canvas
after its sale to the Czar.
Circular : 3 ft. i in. diam.
MADONNA CONNESTABILI, OR STAFFA (1504)
Very much like Perugino's work. It was purchased in
1871 at Perugia by the Empress Marie Feodovna of Russia
from the late Count Connestabili. Its history does not travel
back beyond the late seventeenth century, when it belonged to
the Due d'Angouleme.
Circular (frame and picture) : 6 in. diam.
MADONNA WITH A BEARDLESS ST. JOSEPH (1506)
A very unconventional treatment of the spouse of Mary.
2 ft. 4 in. x i ft. 10 in.
ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON (1506)
Painted for Duke Guidobaldo of Urbino, who sent it by the
hand of Count Castiglione to Henry VII. of England in acknow-
ledgement of the " Order of the Garter " bestowed upon the
Duke. It remained in possession of the Crown until the reign
of Charles I. Nobody seems to know how it got to St. Peters-
burg. The composition was suggested by a small bas-relief
by Donatello at Or San Michele.
i ft. x 9 in.
CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS (1516)
Painted for the monastery of Santa Maria dello Spasimo
at Palermo, hence called Lo Spasimo di Sicilia. The head
of the Christ is that of Martin Schoen of Colmar, a well-known
engraver-painter. The Virgin is Donna Atalanta Baglioni of
Perugia. On its way to Sicily it was shipwrecked in the Gulf
of Genoa, and for a time found a home in the " City of Palaces."
Philip IV. purchased it secretly from the monks of Palermo in
1650, after it had been surrendered by Genoa. A woodcut
of Diirer's Great Passion probably suggested the arrangement
and pose. It was taken to Paris in 1813 and transferred to
canvas, but it was restored in 1822.
10 ft. 7 in. x 7 ft. 8 in.
THE VISITATION (1518)
Commenced by Raphael and finished by Giulio Romano for
Giovanni B. Branconio, who gave it to the church of San
Salvestro at Aquila. Philip II. bought it, and deposited it in
the Escurial in 1655.
6 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 9 in.
MADONNA DEL LEGARDO (1513-1517 ?)
" Attributed " to Raphael, but " Raphael Pinx." may be
read upon the cradle. The lizard gives the designation.
4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 7 in.
MADONNA DELLA PERLA (1518)
" Attributed " to the Master, but probably by Giulio Romano
after a study by Raphael. It was painted for Conte Ludovico
Canossa of Verona, an old Urbino friend. It belonged for
a time to Charles I. of England, and was hung in the old Palace
of Whitehall. Philip IV., who bought the unhappy king's
pictures, gave it its name, " The Pearl'' because he considered
it the most beautiful painting in Spain. It was taken to Paris
by King Joseph Buonaparte in 1813, but restored to the Escurial
4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 9 in.
MADONNA DEL CORDERO, OR " HOLY FAMILY " (1507)
The " Child " is astride a sheepan unusual pose. The
combination of three primary colours dark blue and bright
crimson in Mary's robe, and warm yellow in Joseph's cloak
is very effective. It has no contemporaneous history, but was
discovered by mere chance in the Gallery of the Escurial, but
without any trace of how it got there. It bears the signature,
" Raphael, Urbino, MDVII."
ii in. x 8 in.
MADONNA DEL PESCE (1514)
Painted at the request of Cardinal Riario for the Church of
San Domenico at Naples. The General of the Order permitted
its removal by the Spanish Viceroy in 1638. It reached Madrid
in 1644, and the following year became the property of Philip
IV. It was carried off to Paris in 1813, and then transferred
to canvas. Its return to Madrid was in 1822. The presence
of the Angel and Tobit with a fish hence the name of
the picture explains its story. The Neapolitans suffered so
much from ophthalmia that a chapel was built where the
afflicted might pray for recovery, and over the altar this picture
was placed. This splendid composition holds its own although
surrounded by grand examples of Velazquez and Murillo.
6 ft. 7 in. x 5 ft. 2 in.
MADONNA DELLA ROSA (1519)
A doubtful " attribution." Giulio Romano very likely
painted it after a drawing by Raphael. The name was acci-
dental some object had been indistinctly pencilled on the
parapet, and a rose was introduced tentatively, and then
3 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 9 in.
PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL BIBBIENA (1515)
Painted when this bosom friend of Raphael was in the
prime of life. He was known by his associates at Urbino by
the name of " bel Bernardo." He was the author of " La Calandra"
and was the most influential prelate at the Papal Court. This
portrait was left by the Cardinal on his death to Count Castiglione,
who took it to Spain.
Collections of Raphael's Drawings, Studies, Sketches, Roughings-
out, and faintly indicated outlines and details of all kinds are found
all over Europe. The Public Galleries of London, Paris, Rome, Florence,
Venice, Vienna, are especially rich in examples, and so are the collections
in Oxford, Windsor, and Chatsworth.
VISION OF A KNIGHT
NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON
MADONNA DEGLI ANSIDEI
NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON
SAINT CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA
NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON
CAMERA DELL A SEGNATURA
CAMERA DELLA SEGNATURA
ADAM AND EVE
CAMERA DELLA SEGNATURA
ARABESQUES IN THE LOGGIE
PICTURE GALLERY, VATICAN
MADONNA DI FOLIGNO
PICTURE GALLERY, VATICAN
CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN
PICTURE GALLERY, VATICAN
BORGHESE GALLERY, VATICAN
FAITH, HOPE AND CHARITY
BORGHESE GALLERY, VATICAN
THE THREE GRACES
VILLA FARNESINA, ROME
PSYCHE CONDUCTED BY MERCURY TO OLYMPIA VILLA FARNESINA, ROME
VENUS POINTING OUT PSYCHE TO MERCURY VILLA FARNESINA, ROME
VENUS, JUNO AND CERES
VILLA FARNESIXA. ROME
THE SIBYLLS (DETAIL)
SANTA MARIA DELLA PACE, ROME
MADONNA DEL GRAN' DUCA
PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE
PORTRAIT OF AGNOLO DON I
Pit o'o, Alinari '
PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE
MADONNA DEL BALDACCHINO
PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE
I VISION OF EZEKIEL
PITT! GALLERY, FLORENCE
MADONNA DELL' IMPANNATA
PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE
MADONNA DELLA SEDIA
PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE
LA DONNA VELATA
PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE
PORTRAIT OF POPE LEO X.
WITH TWO CARDINALS
PITTI GALLERY, FLORENCE
SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST
UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE
PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST
UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE
PORTRAIT OF POPE JULIUS ,11.
UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE
SAN SEVERO, PERUGIA
MADONNA DEL DIVING AMORE
ROYAL MUSEUM, NAPLES
LOCHIS GALLERY, BERGAMO
[MADONNA LA BELLE JARDINIERE
MADONNA AU DIADEME
PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN
THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL
LOUVRE, PARIS, . \
THE HOLY FAMILY OF FRANCIS I.
PORTRAIT OF JOANNA OF ARAGON
HOLY FAMILY WITH SAINT
JEROME AND ST. FRANCIS
NATIONAL MUSEUM, BERLIN
MADONNA DI SAN SISTO
ROYAL GALLERY, DRESDEN
MADONNA BELLA CAS A D'ALBA
THE HERMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG
ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON
CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS
Photo ', Braiin
MADONNA DEL LEGARDO
Ph >to, Kraiiit
MADONNA DELLA PERLA
PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL BIBBIENI
MADONNA DEL PESCE