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Full text of "The rat; reference tables and data for the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus) and the Norway rat (Mus norvegicus)"

THE RAT 

DATA AND REFERENCE TABLES 



HENRY H. DONALDSON 




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MEMOIRS 

OF 

THE WISTAR INSTITUTE OF ANATOMY AND BIOLOGY 

No. 6 



THE RAT 



REFERENCE TABLES AND DATA 

FOR 

THE ALBINO RAT 

(MUS NORVEGICUS ALBINUS) 
AND 

THE NORWAY RAT 

(MUS NORVEGICUS) 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY 

HENRY H. DONALDSON 



PHILADELPHIA 
1915 




C 1 / N ,' 



COPYRIGHT 1915 
BY HENRY H. DONALDSON 



PREFACE 

For a number of studies on the growth of the mammalian 
nervous system made by my colleagues and myself we have used 
the albino rat. In the course of the work we frequently felt 
the need of referring to other physical characters of the rat to 
which the nervous system might be related. This led us to col- 
lect such data as were already in the literature and also led us 
to make further investigations. The facts gathered in this way 
have proved useful to us and are here presented in the hope 
that they will be useful to others also. 

The plan of the presentation is simple. An introduction treats 
of the rat as a laboratory animal, indicates the methods of gather- 
ing the data, and also gives examples of our use of the tables. 
This is followed by an outline of the classification of the com- 
mon rats and by a brief statement of the history of the rat 
since it arrived in western Europe. 

The rest of the book falls into two parts. The first part deals 
with the domesticated albino rat concerning which we have 
the larger amount of information. 

The second part deals in a similar way with the wild Norway 
rat the form from which the Albino has been derived. In 
connection with each part the several reference tables and the 
formulas employed for them and for the corresponding graphs 
are given, and at the end of the book a list of papers on the rat 
is added. 

In the two parts which form the body of the book the purpose 
is to present for the rat under normal conditions the funda- 
mental observations giving data and conclusions only. It is 
hardly necessary to add that in most directions our information 
is fragmentary. 

For all the formulas which apply to the data coming from the 
laboratories of The Wistar Institute, I take pleasure in thanking 
my colleague, Dr. S. Hatai. 



IV PREFACE 

For aid in the preparation of these pages I am also much 
indebted to those unnamed assistants to whose lot has fallen 
the greater part of the computations for the tables and whose 
devotion to their work has added a human interest to a task 
otherwise monotonous. 

To the many authors whose results are here briefly cited or 
quoted in extenso I take the opportunity to express my obliga- 
tions very sincere obligations for experience shows that such 
results come only by hard labor. 

Many of the illustrations have been taken from the journals 
in which they were originally published and my thanks are due 
to the editors and publishers of these journals for the privilege 
of reprinting the illustrations here. 

During the preparation of this book my immediate colleagues 
have given me encouragement and aid, and I cherish the hope 
that, should the occasion arise, both of these will be again forth- 
coming to help mend the gaps and rectify the errors which a 
close scrutiny of these pages is certain to reveal. 




CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface iii 

Introduction 1-7 

Classification 7-10 

Early records and migrations of the common rats 10-15 

PART I 

ALBINO RAT MUS NORVEGICUS ALBINUS 

Chapter 1 Biology 19-28 

Chapter 2 Heredity 29 

Chapter 3 Anatomy 30-57 

Chapter 4 Physiology 58-62 

Chapter 5 Growth in total body weight according to age 63-72 

Chapter 6 Growth of parts or systems of the body in weight 73-85 

Chapter 7 Growth of parts and organs in relation to body length and 

in relation to age 86-175 

Chapter 8 Growth in terms of water and solids 176-179 

Chapter 9 Growth of chemical constituents 180-184 

Chapter 10 Pathology 185-186 

PART II 

NORWAY RAT MUS NORVEGICUS 

Chapter 11 Life history and distinguishing characters 189-194 

Chapter 12 Growth in weight of parts and systems of the body 195-197 

Chapter 13 Growth of organs in relation to body length 198-210 

Chapter 14 Growth in terms of water and solids 211-213 

Chapter 15 References to the literature 214-267 

Index.. . 269-278 




THE RAT 

INTRODUCTION 

The Norway rat, Mus norvegicus, is the one mammal now 
easily obtainable both wild and as a domesticated form. This 
latter is represented by either the Albino or the pied rats so com- 
mon in our laboratories. 

The Albinos are clean, gentle, easily kept and bred, and not 
expensive to maintain. They are omnivorous, thriving best on 
table scraps. The span of life is about three years and breeding 
begins at about three months. Furthermore the species is cos- 
mopolitan. The litters are large and may be had at any sea- 
son. The young are immature at birth. The domesticated 
Albino crosses readily with the wild Norway. The rat, both wild 
and domesticated, takes exercise voluntarily and is susceptible 
to training. It is also highly resistant to the usual wound- 
infecting organisms. For a number of lines of study therefore, 
the rat seems to be a peculiarly suitable animal. 

Through the researches of several investigators at The Wistar 
Institute (since 1906) and through those of E. H. Dunn and of 
J. B. Watson at the University of Chicago, of Chalmers Watson 
and Sir Edward Schafer at Edinburgh, of C. M. Jackson and 
L. G. Lowrey at the University of Missouri, of J. R. Slonaker 
at Leland Stanford University, of T. H. Osborne and L. B. Mendel 
at Yale University, of E. V. McCollum at the University of 
Wisconsin, as well as through those of several other investigators 
both in this country and abroad, there has been gathered a con- 
siderable body of data applying to the weight and size of the do- 
mesticated albino rat and its parts, as well as some similar data 
applying to the wild Norway rat, the parent species. It is the 
body of facts so gathered that it is our purpose to present, as 
far as possible in tabular form. 

1 



2 INTRODUCTION 

Attention should be called to the fact that the observations 
presented in the tables have been made mainly on rats in the 
first year of life and but rarely on those which are older. It 
follows from this that the data apply to the rat in its most vigor- 
ous period and do not give information that can be used for the 
study of old age. 

Since the quantitative data appearing in the tables are biologi- 
cal, they naturally exhibit more or less variability and reflect in 
each instance something of the conditions under which they have 
been obtained. It follows therefore that they must not be ex- 
pected to possess the precision of physical or chemical determi- 
nations. Nevertheless, so long as the values here presented are 
not mistaken for absolute standards representing ideal or final 
determinations, they may be used with advantage. 

Most of the matter presented is taken from researches already 
published in full, but in a few instances data from work in prog- 
ress have been included also. In the latter instance the author's 
name is followed by (MS with date) when it is based on work 
conducted at The Wistar Institute while in other instances the 
laboratory is also named. 

In a few of the published tables mainly from our own lab- 
oratory it has been found necessary to make corrections so 
that when the tables here printed do not agree with the origi- 
nals, it is to be assumed that the changes are due to revision. 

Owing to the absence of tables for the normal animal or to 
the failure of the authors to express their results in a quantita- 
tive form, much of the literature which is cited is unaccompanied 
by any text. Such papers however often contain valuable in- 
formation on either the Albino or Norway rat and the citation 
of them serves to indicate the range of the studies in which 
this animal has been used. 

Extensive reference tables have been computed for the various 
characters only as these appear under normal conditions, while 
the modifications which may be experimentally induced in these 
characters are merely mentioned in the text or presented very 
briefly. 



USE OF TABLES 6 

In a number of cases the results are represented by both graphs 
and tables. The purpose of the graphs is merely to furnish a 
general view of the form of change which occurs, while for the 
exact values, the tables must always be consulted. In those 
tables which are based on size, the body length of the rat, be- 
cause it is least subject to incidental variations, is the measure- 
ment to which the others have been referred. 

It is recognized however that some of the characters are func- 
tions of age and in that case it is of course necessary to know the 
age of the animal in order to obtain satisfactory results. 

All of the longer tables are based on formulas. These formu- 
las are those for the graphs which most closely fit the observed 
values and their utility lies in giving precision to the values ob- 
tained and in making possible interpolations : as a rule however 
they cannot be used for extrapolation. In this connection de- 
terminations of the normal variability are always wanted, yet 
although this need has been met in a measure, it is far from being 
satisfied. 

Since heretofore tables of this nature have not been commonly 
available, a word as to their use is in order. 

There exist now and there will probably continue to appear 
strains of the Albino having physical peculiarities related to the 
locality in which they are bred: e.g., a relatively short tail. 
The treatment of such an instance by the use of the tables is 
considered in the paragraph which follows. 

As has been stated, the tabular values here given apply to the 
stock strain reared at The Wistar Institute and furnish data from 
which deviations found in other local strains can be measured. 
In all experimental work it is now generally agreed that the 
control and the test animals should be taken from the same lit- 
ter, and the determinations of any modification made within the 
litter the results for the several litters being given the same 
statistical weight in the subsequent computations. While this 
procedure might at first seem to render the reference tables su- 
perfluous, yet to compare the results from two laboratories work- 
ing with different local strains, having according to the example 
chosen different normal tail lengths, a series of reference values 



4 INTRODUCTION 

such as the tables furnish, serves to reveal the relations in which 
the control animals from the respective laboratories stand to one 
another, and thus permits a more trustworthy comparison of 
the experimental results. 1 

Moreover in the course of routine work on the same colony 
one cannot be sure that the animals retain during successive 
years the same relations to the reference table values. For this 
reason we have been following the custom of referring all meas- 
urements to the reference tables and using the difference in devia- 
tion shown by the controls and by the test animals respectively 
as the measure of the modification experimentally produced, 

By using such a procedure in place of the assumption that 
the control animals from the same colony remain similar the 
experimental results obtained from year to year are made fairly 
comparable with one another. 2 

But there is still another use of the tables which is perhaps the 
most important of any. In all experiments on the relative 
weights of parts or organs in which the size of the test animals 
differs from that of the controls, we readily obtain by weighing 
or measuring the differences for the entire animal. If however 
we wish to determine whether the relative size (weight or length) 
of the parts or organs of the test animals has been affected, we 
find that this cannot be done by comparing the test and control 
groups directly for the relative values of parts and organs differ 
with the absolute size of the animal but it can be done by 
reference to the tables in which the desired values are given ac- 

1 If a strain appears in which the length of the tail is on the average 4 per 
cent below the reference table value then if we compared directly with them the 
test animals which came from a strain normally in agreement with the reference 
tables but which through experiment had had their tail length reduced by 3 
per cent it follows that the test animals, though modified by experiment, would 
still have relatively longer tails than the first strain. 

Consequently to compare with each other the results obtained from the two 
strains, the deviations of both the controls and the test animals from the refer- 
ence table values must be determined in both series and the differences within the 
series be used for the cross comparison. 

2 The same principle and procedure as described in Note 1 applies to the treat- 
ment of different series taken, for example from our own colony, at different 
times. 



USE OF TABLES 



cording to body weight or body length or age, as the case may 
be. Thus by the use of the tables the determinations of the 
deviations shown by the test animals taken individually can be 
made and these values compared with the corresponding indi- 
vidual determinations for the control group. 3 

One further use of the tables when these are based on age, 
may be mentioned. The comparison of the experimental re- 

3 When the experimental conditions produce control and test animals different 
in size a determination of the relative size of any organ cannot be made directly 
or by the assumption that its normal size is in proportion to the body lengths or 
body weights of the contrasted groups but only by comparison of the observed 
values with previously established normal values. 

The following observed values are taken from Hatai ('15 a), Table 3. D. Nor- 
mal females 1914 series. They read as follows: 



GROUP 


RATION 


BODY LENGTH 


BODY WEIGHT 
FINAL 


BRAIN WEIGHT 






mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


Controls 


Mixed 


185 


137 


1 729 


Test animals 


Lipoid free 










and egg fat 


162 


100 


1.569 



It is desired to determine in this case whether the relative brain weight of th 
test animals has been modified by the lipoid-free ration. 

The absolute brain weight of the test animals is 0.160 grams less than that of 
the controls or 9.2 per cent of the larger number. If we assume that it should 
be in proportion to the observed body lengths it appears that the expected brain 
weight in the test animals would be 1.540. Hence the observed value, 1.569, is 
about 2 per cent high by such a determination. 

If we assume on the other hand that it should be in proportion to the observed 
body weights it appears that the expected brain weight in the test animals would 
be 1.262. Hence the observed value is some 20 per cent too high by this determi- 
nation. No one of these procedures is justifiable though examples of their use 
can be found in the literature. The only correct method is to compare the ob- 
served values with the reference table values for the brain weights of animals 
having the body lengths of the controls and test animals respectively to de- 
termine in each case the percentage difference between the observed and the 
table value and finally to compare these percentages. 

Using table 68 and reading the values for the females, we find that in this 
case the controls are 0.053 grams or 2.97 per cent below the table value while 
in the test animals the corresponding differences are 0.103 grams or 6.16 per cent. 

The brain in the test animals is therefore smaller than that of the controls by 
(6.16-2.97) = 3.19 per cent and this value may be taken as expressing the experi- 
mental modification of the brain in this series. 

The foregoing represents the procedure to be generally used for determining 
modifications in the relative weight of any organ. 



6 



INTRODUCTION 



suits obtained on animals with the corresponding results on man 
has heretofore been difficult because of the absence of a good 
basis for comparison. We have found reason to assume that in 
the case of the rat the postnatal span of life of three years is 
approximately equivalent to the span of ninety years in man 
or to put it another way, that the rat grows thirty times as fast 
as man. This ratio appears to hold for fractions of the span of 
life, as well as for the entire span. All of the data for the Albino, 
based on postnatal age, may therefore be compared fairly with 
the corresponding data for man, if the time intervals are taken 
as one for the rat to thirty for man. 4 

Finally it is desirable to explain here a seeming inconsistency 
in the arrangement of the material presented. In the Preface 
the statement is made that Part I deals with the albino jat, 
while Part II deals with the Norway. So far as all of the im- 
portant tables and records are concerned this statement does 
not need revision. 

4 As an example of the comparison of the rat with man in respect to certain 
changes which are related to age the observations on the percentage of water in 
the brain may be quoted Donaldson ('10) : 

TABLE 1 

Comparison of the percentage of water in the encephalon of man and the albino rat 

at corresponding ages 

W = Weisbach, 1868 K = Koch and Mann, '09 



MAX 


RAT 


Age, years 


Percentage of water 


Percentage of water 


Age, days 


Birth 


88.3 (W) 
81.1 (K) 
79.2 (W) 
77.0 (W)\ 
77.8 (K)J 


87.7 
81.3 
78.6 

77.7 


Birth 
26 days 
115 days 

290 days 


2 years 


9.5 years 


25 years maturity . . . 





In table 1 the data for man, collected from various studies, are compared with 
data for the rat on the assumption that the conditions in the rat brain at any 
age will be represented by those in the human brain at that age multiplied by 
thirty. 



CLASSIFICATION 7 

It has been found however in arranging the literature that it 
would prove most useful to include in Part I all of the incidental 
and general observations on the wild Norway, on the ground 
that these applied to the entire species, and to reserve for Part 
II the more precise data which apply to the wild Norway, as 
contrasted with the domesticated Albino. 

The reader therefore will find in the literature cited in Part 
I papers referring to M. decumanus, M. norvegicus and Epimys 
norvegicus as well as to the Albino (M. norvegicus albinus or 
var. Albino), sometimes designated the 'white' rat. 

As will be pointed out in the section on The Early History 
of the rat, there is one more complication in this connection. 
Through an error, unfortunately perpetuated by some of the 
natural histories, the common Albino has been described as an 
Albino of the house rat Mus rattus. 

It thus happens that in some of the papers cited it is reported 
that the observations had been made on Mus rattus or ratus 
(sic), the word albino being sometimes added sometimes 
omitted. In a few instances it is impossible to determine whether 
M. rattus is used for the Albino or whether the house rat was 
really studied. 

In forming a judgment on these cases it must be kept in mind 
that for the last half century the house rat has been rare and 
hard to obtain both in western Europe and in the northern 
United States, so that unless the author gives good evidence for 
the name he has employed, it becomes highly probable that he 
was working with some form of the Norway. For these reasons 
it has been found most convenient to include also in Part I all 
the references to the house rat (Mus rattus). 

CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE OF THE COMMON RATS 

Up to 1881 Mus (Linnaeus, 1758) was used as the generic des- 
ignation for both the rats and mice. In 1881 Trouessart pro- 
posed the subgenus Epimys for the larger forms, the rats, reserv- 
ing Mus for the smaller forms, the mice Mus musculus being 
the type. In 1910 Miller established the use of Epimys for the 
rats and the change has been accepted. 



8 THE COMMON RATS 

In the pages which follow however the designation Mus has 
been retained for the rat as the older term is well understood, 
while the new term Epimys is at present generally unfamiliar. 

The following condensed citations of the place of the original 
descriptions with some of the associated references serve to 
give a brief history of the nomenclature. 

MUS, Linnaeus, 1758 
EPIMYS, Trouessart, 1881 Miller, 1910. 

norvegicus, Erxleben (1777 descr. orig.) 

decumanus, Pallas (1778). 
aquaticus, Gessner, 1551. 

Cosmopolita; ab Asia Occident, in Europam navibus translat. et 
inde in omnes Orbis Regiones. 

rattus, Linnaeus (1758 descr. orig.) 

Cosmopolita; ab Asia Occident., in Europam a navibus trans- 
lat., et inde in omnes orbis regiones. 

alexandrinus. Geoffroy, (1812 (or 1829 vide Sherborn, 1897) descr. 
orig.) 

Asia minori, Arabia, Aegyptus, Algeria, etc. 
Italia, Hispania, Gallia merid. orient, et occid., et inde in om- 
nes orbis regiones. 

Since attention was called to Erxleben's description in 1777 
(Rehn, 1900) his specific name, norvegicus, as the designation 
for the common brown or Norway rat, has been used in place of 
decumanus (Pallas, 1778). The designation norvegicus is now 
well established and will be used here. 

There seems no question that Mus rattus and Mus r. alexan- 
drinus are related to one another as color varieties of the same 
species (de 1'Isle, 1865; Millais, '05) and they are so considered 
in the following pages. For convenience we shall use the term 
Norway or Norway rat for Mus norvegicus and the term Rat- 
tus or house rat as a general designation for both Mus rattus 
rattus and M. rattus alexandrinus unless the occasion calls for 
the precise name. 

Albinos of the house rat have without doubt existed in the 
west of Europe at one time or another ever since this form over- 
ran that region (Topsell, 1658) and one or more such skins as 
well as pied skins, from animals taken within the past fifty years, 
are in several of our United States museums. 



CLASSIFICATION 9 

At present Albinos of the house rat appear to be not uncom- 
mon in India (Lloyd, '12) where the house rat population is large. 
In western Europe and other regions in which the house rat pop- 
ulation is waning, a careful search by several investigators dur- 
ing the last decade .has failed to reveal a living albino specimen. 

At the present time, therefore, the Albino of Mus norvegicus 
is the only albino variety generally found. In these pages this 
form is designated Mus norvegicus albinus when the name is 
given in full, but where possible the single word Albino is used 
for it. 

When the albino variety is mentioned here the strain as com- 
monly reared is the one meant. As a rule this strain is far re- 
moved from its wild ancestor and moderately inbred. It may 
be conveniently designated as the common albino strain. In the 
colony at The Wistar Institute, we have in addition to this a 
closely inbred strain reared by Dr. King and also a strain of 
'extracted' Albinos. These latter are the Albinos descended 
from the F 2 generation of hybrids from the wild Norway and 
the domesticated Albino. 

During the first few generations after their appearance, these 
extracted Albinos show clearly certain Norway characters, which 
distinguish them from the rats with a longer albino ancestry. 
With the peculiarities of either the inbred or of the extracted 
strain, we are however not specially concerned at the present time. 

While all Albinos breed true as to color, the composition of 
the gametes is undoubtedly different among them in accordance 
with their remote ancestry. Mudge ('10) recognizes thirteen 
gametic types. The gametic dissimilarity of various Albinos 
in respect to hair color is shown by the fact that in breeding 
tests (Doncaster, '06 and Mudge, '10) Albinos extracted from 
ancestors with characteristic differences in pigmentation will 
reveal their origin by producing, when crossed with the pigmented 
strain, characteristically pigmented descendents, the markings of 
which can be predicted. 

We are naturally concerned with the gametic composition of 
the general population of Albinos constituting our colonies today. 
As the several colonies stand, the Albinos forming them do not 



10 THE COMMON RATS 

form a strictly homozygous population, even from the standpoint 
of color, since in subsequent crosses with pigmented forms they 
give offspring with different color markings according to their 
several latent characters. On the other hand it may be fairly 
said that as yet we have no evidence for any correlation of the 
somatic characters so far studied, with those slight differences 
in gametic composition of the common albino strain which we 
can recognize. It is to be noted moreover that the difficulty 
which thus appears in the case of the albino rat repeats itself 
for other mammals also, and therefore it does not constitute a 
peculiarity of this animal. 

CLASSIFICATION: REFERENCES 

Alston, 1879-1882. Blasius, 1857. Doncaster, '06. Erxleben, 1777. Geof- 
froy, 1812. Gesner, 1551. 1'Isle, 1865. Linnaeus, 1758, 1766. Lloyd, '12. Mil- 
lais, '05. Miller, '10. Mudge, '10. Pallas, 1778. Rehn, 1900. Topsell, 1658. 
Trouessart 1881, 1897, '10. Tullberg, 1900. 

EARLY RECORDS AND MIGRATIONS OF THE COMMON RATS 

The common wild rats in the United States usally live in 
close association with man. There are two species of these, both 
of which have been introduced from Europe. These are Mus 
rattus (Linnaeus, 1758; 1766 = Mus rattus rattus, Millais, '05) 
together with its gray form, Mus alexandrinus (Goeffroy, 1812; 
= Mus rattus alexandrinus, Millais, '05) and Mus norvegicus 
(Erxleben, 1777 = Mus decumanus, Pallas, 1778). This last 
species is our common gray, brown or Norway rat. In addi- 
tion to these, all of which are wild, there is a fourth form the 
albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus) a variety of Mus norvegicus 
(Hatai, '07) which is known at present only as a domesticated 
strain (Donaldson, '12 b). 

Mus rattus the house rat the first species described in west- 
ern Europe, is probably indigenous to India. 1 As now found, 

1 Fossil remains of the rat (Mus rattus) are reported in the pliocene in Lom- 
bardy (Cornalia, 1858) and in the quaternary at Molina di Anosa near Pisa (For- 
syth Major) and again from the pleistocene cave deposits of the island of Crete 
(Bate '12). This species appears in glacial times (Diluvialzeit) and in associa- 
tion with man in the remains of the Lake dwellers in western Germany and in 
Mecklenburg (Blasius, 1857). It is reported also from the diluvial deposits in 
Bohemia (Woldfich, 1880). 



EARLY RECORDS AND MIGRATIONS 11 

the melanic form of Mus rattus (or Mus rattus rattus, Millais) 
the 'black' rat, is more frequent in the colder latitudes, and Mus 
rattus alexandrinus (Millais) the gray form (the 'roof or 'snake' 
rat) in the warmer latitudes, but the two are not sharply segre- 
gated. At the same time both of these seem more dependent 
on warmth, or more resistant to it, than the Norway rat. 

Although we shall have little to say in the following pages 
about Mus rattus, yet it is desirable to give its history in order 
to obtain the proper setting for Mus norvegicus, at present the 
dominant species. The geological evidence just given indicates 
the very early appearance of the house rat in Europe but our 
records of its migrations all fall within the present era. 

The history of the early migrations is of necessity vague and 
incomplete, and even in the later times when dates are given it 
must be remembered that such animals might have been present 
for some time without appearing in numbers sufficient to cause 
comment. 

There is no good evidence that the Greeks or Romans before 
the present era were familiar with the rat as a pest, and there- 
fore, even if present, it was probably not abundant at that 
period on the shores of the Mediterranean. 

The history of the house rat from the earliest times to the 
eleventh century makes an interesting archaeological study, but 
the conclusions which may be drawn from the scanty records 
and indefinite allusions are too uncertain to be of value for our 
present purpose and we therefore pass directly to the later 
authors. 

Possibly as far back as the migration of the hordes (Volker- 
wanderung, 400-1100 A. D.) and later in consequence of the 
increasing use of trade routes with the East, the house rat en- 
tered western Europe in appreciable numbers (Hehn, '11). It 
is reported to have arrived there after the twelfth century (Kel- 
ler, '09, citing Theodores Prodromes). Giraldus Cambrensis, 2 
(1146?-1220) records several anecdotes concerning it. 

2 Albertus Magnus (d. 1280) is sometimes cited as having mentioned the black 
rat. This is not correct. A. de PIsle (1865) has pointed out that the description 
in question applies to the dormouse Myoxus quercinus. 



12 THE COMMON RATS 

As the Norway rat did not reach western Europe until 1727- 
1730 it follows that the European rat of the middle ages, the 
rat of the legends of the Pied Piper 3 (1284), of the great plagues 
(before 1700) and of the early anathemas against vermin, was 
Mus rattus. 

The species first brought to South America on the ships of 
the very early explorers was Mus rattus (Vega, 1609; de Ovalle, 
1646). Pennant (1781) gives 1544 as the date of arrival in Peru. 4 
We have also a notable instance of a plague of these rats in the 
Bermudas in 1615 (Lefroy, 1882). 

Of the two species in question, Mus rattus is alone recognized 
by Linnaeus in his Fauna suesica 1746, and in his Systema 
(1758 and 1766). It does not concern us here to follow the his- 
tory of Mus rattus in the United States further than to say that 
this species only (represented by the two forms) was present up 
to the time of the arrival of the Norway rat in North America 
toward the end of the eighteenth century, and that Mus rattus 
rattus the black rat is still found in a number of scattered 
localities in the northern United States, while in the southern 
states, Mus rattus alexandrinus is much the more common. It 
does not appear that either of these forms has ever penetrated 
far into the interior of the country. 

Turning to the cosmopolitan Mus norvegicus the species at 
present established in China, Japan, India, western Europe and 
temperate North America we find that the historical record of 
its movements, though by no means complete, has the virtue of 
being recent. 

v. Gesner (Historia animalium, 1551) mentions a Mus aquati- 
cus which appears to be the form now called Norvegicus, but 
apparently he himself had never seen it. 

According to Pallas (1831) the Norway rat invaded Europe 
from the East early in the eighteenth century and was observed 

3 It may be noted in passing that the ancient inscriptions in Hameln relating 
to the Pied Piper do not mention the rat (Meinardus, 1882). 

4 Pennant (1781) says there were no rats in South America before the time of 
Blasco Minez. Minez is evidently a misprint for Nunez; Blasco Nunez being 
the first Viceroy of Peru, from 1544-1546. 



EARLY RECORDS AND MIGRATIONS 13 

in large numbers crossing the Volga in the Russian province of 
Astrakhan. Pallas gives 1727 as the year of this migration. In 
view of other dates, this can hardly be the date of the first in- 
vasion. The Norway rat reached England probably by ships 
about 1728-1730 (Donndorff, 1792) and was soon designated 
the 'Hanover' rat by those who wished to connect the misfortunes 
of the country with the recently established house of Hanover. 

There is however no reason to suppose that the Norway rat 
had yet reached Germany and the name has a political rather 
than a scientific interest. 

In 1750 the Norway rats are reported (Donndorff, 1792) to 
have reached eastern Prussia and in 1753 they were noticed in 
Paris (Donndorff, 1792). Their early distribution to other lo- 
calities in Europe need not be recounted, but there is evidence 
that they spread rapidly and soon displaced more or less com- 
pletely the Mus rattus which had preceded them. 

This historical sketch shows that the migration of Mus rattus 
into western Europe antedated that of Mus norvegicus certainly 
by some six hundred years, but the Norway rat being the more 
pugnacious and powerful species has become dominant wherever 
it has followed the earlier form. 

This dominance is undoubtedly due in part to these charac- 
ters of the Norway, but it seems probable that the progressive 
disuse of wood as a building material has been a factor also 
(Przibram, '12). 

We find however that in many places, both in Europe and the 
United States, where the house rat was thought to have been 
exterminated, it still survives in small numbers. 

The arrival of the Norway rat on the north Atlantic seaboard 
of the United States is usually given as 1775 (Harlan, 1825). 
The exact date, though of interest, is hardly important for our 
present purpose. 

Mus rattus was already in possession, but in the course of the 
years, how rapidly we do not know, the Norway rat became the 
dominant form in the northern latitudes of this country moving 
along the trade routes to all points which furnish a continuous 
food supply and a moderate summer temperature. 



14 THE COMMON RATS 

In the present connection our interest in the Norway rat is 
due mainly to the fact that the common albino rat (M. n. a bi- 
nus) kept as a pet or laboratory animal, and concerning which 
we desire all possible information, is a variety of the Norway 
rat. This relationship is shown not only by the usual methods 
of comparison, but also by the haemoglobin crystals (Reichert 
and Brown, '09) the shape of skull (Hatai, '07 c) and the fact 
that the two forms interbreed freely. 

Concerning the place and time of origin of the albino strain 
there is little information at hand. Allusions to albino rats be- 
fore the time when the Norway rat appeared in Europe clearly 
show that there must have been an albino strain of Mus rattus. 
What we know of the present distribution of Albinos of Mus rat- 
tus has been given on pages 8 and 9 in the preceding chapter. 

By some curious slip however, many of the natural histories 
and books of reference speak of the common Albino as an Albino 
of Mus rattus. This of course is not correct, but owing to the 
confusion thus early introduced, it is difficult to trace the history 
of the present albino variety 5 of the Norway. 

We do not know whether the common albino variety had a 
single or multiple origin, or whether the colonies found in Europe 
(Rodwell, 1858) are directly related to those now existing here. 
Moss, 1836, mentions Albinos in or near Bristol, England about 
1822. In their general physical characters the European and 
American Albinos are similar (Donaldson, '12 and '12 a). Judg- 
ing from the way in which the Albinos of other species arise, we 
may safely assume that the present strain is derived from one or 
more albino mutants or sports (Hatai, '12). These must have 
been captured and the albino descendents segregated and kept 

5 Unfortunately there is one more complicating circumstance namely, the 
existence of a melanic variety of Mus norvegicus. This melanic variety is often 
mistaken for Mus rattus rattus because of its color, and this leads to errors of 
statement concerning the distribution of Mus rattus and also concerning the 
ability of the two species rattus and norvegicus to interbreed. They are in 
fact mutually infertile (Morgan, '09) . The number of incidental allusions to this 
melanic variety of norvegicus shows its occurrence to be widespread. See : Ed- 
wards, 1871, 1872. Hamy, '06. PIsle, 1865. Lapicque and Legendre, '11. Schaff, 
1891. Webster, 1892. 



EARLY RECORDS AND MIGRATIONS 15 

as pets, as at present 6 there is nowhere to be found an established 
colony of Albinos living in open competition with the common 
Norway s or with forms of Mus rattus, but all of the colonies are 
maintained practically under conditions of domestication. 

In the northern United States, except along the water front 
of the larger ports, where the house rat arrives from time to 
time on vessels, we have therefore to deal almost exclusively 
with the Norway rat. The Norway has been in this region prob- 
ably not more than a hundred and fifty years. Though living 
wild, it is more or less dependent on the food conditions found 
where man is established. The familiar Albino Mus norvegi- 
cus albinus is a sport derived from the wild Norway, and is 
the form on which most of the investigations here presented 
have been made. 

EARLY RECORDS AND MIGRATIONS! REFERENCES 

Albertus Magnus, b. 1206 d. 1280. Barrett-Hamilton, 1892. Bate, '12 
Baumgart, '04. Blasius, 1857. Borcherding, 1889. Campbell, 1892. Clarke. 

1891. Cornalia, 1858-1871. Cornish, 1890. Donaldson '12 '12 a. '12 b. Donn- 
dorff, 1792. Edwards, 1871, 1872. Fischer, 1869. Geisenheymer, 1892. Geof- 
froy, 1812. Gesner, 1551. Giraldus Cambrensis, b. 1146? d. 1220. Godman, 
1826-1828. Gourlay, '07. Hamy, '06. Harlan. 1825. Hatai, '07, '07 c, '12. 
Hehn, '11. Hossack, '07, '07 b. 1'Isle, 1865. Keller, '09. Keller-Zschokke, 

1892. Lantz, '09. Lapicque, '11. Lefroy, 1882. Liebe, 1891. Lindner, 1891. 
Linnaeus, 1746, 1758. Lloyd, '10. '12. Lons, '08. Major (see Baumgart, '04). 
Meinardus, 1882. Messer, 1889. Middendorff, 1875. Millais, '04. Mojsisovics, 
'97. Moss, 1836. Murray, 1866. Ovalle, 1646. Pallas, 1831. Pennant, 1781. 
Prodromus, Theodorus (see Keller, '09). Przibram, '12. Reichert and Brown, 
'09. Rodwell, 1858. Schaff, 1891. Vega, 1688. Ward, '06. Webster, 1892. 
Woldfich, 1880-1884. 

Rattenkonig. 

Ahrend, '03. Demaison, '06. Dollfus, '06. Koepert, '04. 

6 Rodwell, 1858, page 10, mentions what may have been a colony of Albinos 
living wild at the Ainsworth Colliery near Bury, England. 



PART I 

ALBINO RAT MUS NORVEGICUS ALBINUS 



CHAPTER 1 
BIOLOGY 

1. Life history. 2. Span of life. 3. Puberty ovulation menopause. 4. 
Period of gestation lengthening of the gestation period. 5. Superfecundation 
Superfetation. 6. Fecundity and weight at birth. 7. Recognition of sex. 8. 
Sex ratio. 9. Body weight according to sex. 10. Behavior, a) Under natural 
conditions, b) Under experimental conditions. 

1. Life history. The albino rat is born blind, hairless, with 
a short tail, closed ears and undeveloped limbs. It responds to 
contacts and olfactory and taste stimuli, utters a squeaking 
sound and is capable of some locomotory movements which are 
a combination of wriggling and paddling. The head is always 
searching. The young can find their way back to the mother at 
about ten days of age (Watson, '03) . The eyes open at from the 
14th to the 17th days, most often on the 15th or 16th. King has 
also observed that in a given litter the eyes of the females usu- 
ally open some hours before those of the males. For some seven 
days more, i.e., up to the time when the young rats are 21-22 
days of age, they are dependent on the mother. After this they 
may be weaned, although if permitted, the young will depend 
partly on the mother for some days longer. 

This adjustment of relations fits with the fact that the female 
may be impregnated one or two days after casting a litter (Kirk- 
ham, '10; Kirkham and Burr, '13) and since the gestation period 
is about 21.5-22.5 days, this would enable the female to free 
herself from the first litter before the second one was born. As 
will be pointed out later, the gestation period may be prolonged 
in nursing animals. 

When the young rats become habituated to independence, i.e., 
at about 25 days, they enter on a period of activity, the phases 
of which have been followed by Slonaker ('07, '12). In the cases 
which he observed, it was found that increasing age was accom- 

19 



20 



BIOLOGY 



panied by increasing activity up to the age period of 87-120 
days, after which the activity declined. 

On the assumption that the span of life in man is thirty times 
that of the albino rat (Donaldson, '08) this age of greatest ac- 
tivity would correspond to the age of 7.5-10 years in man. 

As shown by the records of activity (Slonaker, '12) the albino 
rat is nocturnal. This habit can be modified more or less by 
feeding or by disturbance during the day time. 

The measure of activity in the cases observed by Slonaker 
was the number of turns of the revolving cage in which the ani- 
mal was kept, the cage being set in motion by the voluntary run- 
ning or other movements of the animal, and the revolutions be- 
ing automatically recorded. In the case of four rats kept in 
separate revolving cages from 30 days of age until natural death, 
the following record of activity was obtained (Slonaker, '12). 

TABLE 2 
Total number of miles run during life 



AGE IN MONTHS 
AT DEATH. 


RAT NO. 1 
M. MILES 


NO. 4 

M. MILES 


NO. 2 
M. MILES 


NO. 3 
F. MILES 


25 


1265 








26 




1391 






32 






2098 




34 








5447 













This table shows not only great variability in the total per- 
formances, but also for the one female a record of over five thou- 
sand miles in a little less than three years. On the average, three- 
fourths of the total distance is run before the rat has reached 
middle life, and the last months of old age are always marked 
by greatly lessened activity. 

2. Span of life. The assumption has been made (Donald- 
son, '08) that dating from birth, the span of life of the albino 
rat is three years. A rat three years old therefore may be re- 
garded as corresponding to a man ninety years old. So far 
as this assumption has been tested, it appears to be a useful 
approximation. 



SPAN OF LIFE PUBERTY PERIOD OF GESTATION 21 

Slonaker ('12, '12 a) working at Leland Stanford University 
under the favorable climatic conditions of California, has made 
some direct tests. 

Four albino rats living in revolving cages attained an average 
age of 29.5 months, while three control animals reared in sta- 
tionary cages, but under conditions otherwise similar, attained 
an average age of 40.3 months. In all these cases, death was 
reported as due to 'old age.' 

The average age of these seven individuals was about 34 
months, while the greatest age, attained by one of the controls, 
was 45 months. The three controls all lived longer than any of the 
four in the revolving cages. It appears from this that living in the 
revolving cage shortened the span of life an unexpected result. 

3. Puberty Ovulation and Menopause. Sexual maturity as 
indicated by the structure of the gonads usually occurs in both 
males and females at the age of about two months or less. 

According to our observations, puberty in the female may oc- 
cur at 60-70 days after birth although the females usually be- 
gin to breed at 90-100 days. On the other hand there are oc- 
casional instances of remarkable precocity. In the breeding Al- 
bino it is found that impregnation most readily follows 1-4 days 
after a litter has been cast. This accords with the time of ovu- 
lation (Kirkham, '10; Sobotta and Burckhard, '10; Kirkham 
and Burr, '13). During the breeding season of the female ovu- 
lation occurs at intervals of about three weeks, but only from 
April to October do the females regularly ovulate 20-48 hours 
after parturition (Kirkham and Burr, '13). The menopause 
commonly appears at the age of 15-18 months, but King (MS., 
'15) reports a female 22 months old crossed with a male of 
like age giving birth to a litter of one. 

4. Period of gestation. The gestation period of the non-lac- 
tating albino rat is usually stated to be about 21-22 days. In 
the cases where the gestation period has been exactly recorded in 
our colony the exact tune of copulation and of birth having been 
observed, Stotsenburg (MS '14) has found it to be from 21 days 
and 15 hours to 22 days and 16 hours. 



22 BIOLOGY 

Lengthening of gestation period. King ('13), makes the follow- 
ing statements which apply to lactating Albinos, maintained 
on a mixed diet. 

The gestation period in lactating albino rats is of normal length if 
the female is suckling five or less young and is carrying five or less young. 

The gestation period may be prolonged from one to six days if an al- 
bino female, suckling five or less young, is carrying six or more young. 

The period of gestation is always prolonged when a female is suckling 
six or more young. In these cases the number of young in the second 
litter seems to have less influence on the length of the gestation period 
than has the number of young suckled; but if both litters are very 
large the gestation period may be extended to 34 days. 

5. Super fecundation and super fetation. Superfecundation oc- 
curs occasionally in the albino rat and causes an interval of two, 
three or more days between the birth of different members of 
the litter (King, '13). 

In support of this statement the following instances are cited: 

1) Litter born October 27, 1911; examined November 10, 
1911, 12 individuals 11 of these weighed about 14 grams each. 
The remaining one had very little hair, weighed 7.1 grams and 
appeared 4-5 days old. 

2) Litter born December 20, 1911; examined January 2, 1912, 
10 individuals 9 of like size weighed 16-17 grams each. The 
remaining one small; hair just appearing; weighed 10.8 grams. 

3) Litter born February 26, 1912; examined March 11, 1912, 
10 individuals 3 had their eyes open and weighed 10.1-10.5 
grams. The remaining seven were apparently but one or two 
days old and weighed 4.2 grams on the average. 

In rare instances ovulation takes place in the albino rat dur- 
ing pregnancy and superfoetation occurs. In two cases of this 
kind litters have been produced at intervals of about two weeks 
(King, '13, pp. 388 and 389). 

6. Fecundity and weight at birth. At the beginning of ovula- 
tion in the albino rat Sobotta and Burckhard ('10) find on the 
average a total of thirteen ova in both fallopian tubes. The 
largest litter we have noted in the common Albino contained 
sixteen. One instance also of sixteen fetuses 18 days old has 
been observed Stotsenburg (MS '15). 



FECUNDITY AND WEIGHT AT BIRTH 23 

Kolazy ('71) reports litters consisting of 5-17 young. Crampe 
('84) records for 2503 young represented by 394 litters, an av- 
erage of 6.3 per Utter. From 1911-1913, 275 litters (1928 in- 
dividuals) in our colony gave an average of 7.0 individuals per 
litter, and in 1914, 814 litters (5691 individuals) gave an average 
of 6.99 individuals per litter. Litter size does not appear to be 
influenced by season (King and Stotsenburg, '15). 

Under certain food conditions the size of the litters is much 
modified. When an exclusive diet of ox flesh is given to Albi- 
nos 2-4 months of age at the beginning of the experiment 
and these are compared with control rats fed on bread and milk, 
Chalmers Watson ('06 a) finds in the meat fed Albinos preg- 
nancy less frequent, the weight of the mammae less, and the 
average number of young in a litter, as well as the average weight 
of the young, both smaller than in the controls. Such an ex- 
clusive meat diet is therefore unfavorable both for breeding and 
for early growth. On the other hand, Stotsenburg (MS '15) 
found that mothers fed on a table scrap diet produced a larger 
number of fetuses than those fed on bread and milk. 

As to the size of the litters at different periods in the life of 
the female, there are a few observations. Lloyd ('09 a) in his 
studies on two strains of the house rat, published tables which 
he interpreted to mean that the number of individuals in a litter 
was independent of the body weight of the mother. Pearson 
('10) however was able to show from Lloyd's data that in both 
groups the number in a litter increased with the body weight of 
the mother. 

It seems probable however that the heavier rats were also 
older, as Pearson suggests, and that the proper interpretation of 
the increase in the size of the litter is to relate it with the age of 
the mother. In these groups none of the animals were beyond the 
prune of life and hence the explanation is very probably correct. 

There is now available some detailed information on the rela- 
tion between the weight and age of the mother and the charac- 
ters of the young. 

A study of 11 litters of common albino rats containing 91 
young bred by King (MS '15) at The Wistar Institute, gives 



24 



BIOLOGY 



the average individual birth weight for the male as 4.72 grams 
and for the female 4.56 grams. 

The data from these 11 stock litters used for tables 3, 4, 5, 6 
have not been published elsewhere in a separate form. In the 
paper by King ('15) , however these data are combined with corre- 
sponding data for the inbred Albinos to form similar tables. 
The results obtained from the stock data here given are quite in 
agreement with those from the combined data of King (' 15) . The 
birth weight may be modified by a series of conditions as shown 
in the following tables. 

TABLE 3. 
Influence of the age of the mother on birth weight 



NUMBER OF 
MOTHERS 


MOTHER 


AVERAGE WEIGHT INDIVIDUALS 


Body weight 


Age in days 


Males No. 


Females No. 


(4).., 


gms. 

165 
201 
225 


114 
143 
217 


4.50 (12) 
4.52 (14) 
4.97 (18) 


4.52 (20) 
4.49 (14) 
4.81 (13) 


(3) 


(4) 





Table 3 shows that with increasing age up to 217 days the indi- 
vidual birth weight increases with the age of the mother. At 
the same time it is to be seen that the body weight of the mother 
also increases. 

When the same data are arranged according to the bodyweight 
of the mother, we get the relations shown in table 4. 

TABLE 4 

Influence of weight of mother on birth weight 



NUMBER OF 
MOTHERS 


MOTHER 


AVERAGE WEIGHT INDIVIDUALS 


Body weight 


Age in days 


Males 


Females 


(4) 


gms. 

165 
200 
226 


114 
150 
211 


4.53 (12) 
4.65 (14) 
4.88 (18) 


4.40 (20) 
4.55 (16) 
4.76 (11) 


(3)... 


(4) 





Here the birth weight increases with the increasing body- 
weight, but the age is also increasing hi the successive groups. 
The influence of the size of the litter on birth weight does not 



FECUNDITY AND WEIGHT AT BIRTH 



25 



give regular results, but if we take the extreme records, we find 
that in the small litters of 6.5 the individual birth weight is 
higher than in the large litters of 10 or more (table 5). 

The failure to get regular results is probaby due to the small 
number of cases here used. 

TABLE 5 
The influence of the size of the litter on the individual birth weight 



NUMBER OF 
MOTHERS 


MOTHER 


AVERAGE WEIGHT 
INDIVIDUALS 


Body weight 


Age in days 


No. in litter 


Males 


Females 


(4).. 


gms. 

195 
199 
195 


165 
149 
139 


6.5 
8.3 
10.0 


4.99 (14) 
4.56 (13) 
4.60 (17) 


4.65 (12) 
4.42 (12) 
4.53 (23) 


(3).., 


(4) 





Finally, if we take the individual birth weights as the criterion 
and compare the birth weights under 4.5 grams (for the male) 
with the birth weights of 5 grams or more (for the male) it ap- 
pears that the heavier birth weights are associated with the heav- 
ier weight of the mother as we should expect from table 4. At 
the same time it is to be noted that the age at which the heavier 
birth weights are recorded is greater. 

TABLE 6 
The individual birth weight in relation to body weight of mother 



NUMBER OF 
MOTHERS 


MOTHER 


AVERAGE WEIGHT INDIVIDUALS 


Body weight 


Age in days 


Males 


Females 


(6) 


gms. 

179 
201 
244 


133 
144 
263 


4.37 (23) 
4.96 (13) 
5.31 (8) 


4.28 (28) 
4.80 (14) 
5.26 (5) 


(3).., 


(2) 





These relations exhibited by table 6 and based on this small 
number of stock Albinos agrees with those already determined 
by King on a much larger series which combines the data here 
used with a large series of litters from inbred Albinos. 

This agreement shows that in these respects there is no signi- 
ficant difference between the stock Albinos and the inbred strain 



26 



BIOLOGY 



of King. The general conclusion which King reaches is that 
increasing weight or increasing age of the mother (the two being 
correlated) give a heavier birth weight, while the increase in the 
number in a litter tends to diminish the individual birth weight. 
There is to be observed also a diminution in birth weight in 
those litters born of mothers below the standard in size, or suffer- 
ing from infectious disease. With the larger material just men- 
tioned, it is also possible for King and Stotsenburg ('15) to show 
a modification of the birth weight in relation to the place of the 
litter in the series of litters born by a given female, see table 7. 



TABLE 7 



Showing the sex ratios and average number oj young in 75 litters of stock albino 
rats. Data arranged according to the position of the litters in the litter series 



LITTER SERIES 


NUMBER OF 
LITTERS 


NUMBER OF 
INDIVIDUALS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


NUMBER 
MALES TO 
100 
FEMALES 


AVERAGE 
NO. YOUNG 
PER 
LITTER 


1 


21 


131 


72 


59 


122.0 


6.2 


2 


21 


162 


85 


77 


110.4 


7.7 


3. 


18 


127 


64 


63 


101 6 


7.0 


4 


15 


96 


41 


55 


74.5 


6.4 


















75 


516 


262 


254 


102.1 


6.8 



The observations indicate that the number of individuals in 
the litter generally increases from the first to the second litter, 
and after that decreases. These results would quite accord 
with Crampe's conclusions. According to Crampe ('84) the 
second litter of albino rats is the best. The majority of albino 
females do not produce more than four or five litters. 

7. Recognition of sex. The recognition of sex through ex- 
ternal characters in -the young rat has been studied by Jackson 
('12). He finds in brief that the male, as contrasted with the 
female, may be recognized by (1) The larger size of the genital 
papilla; (2) the greater ano-genital distance (see table 8); (3) 
the absence of clearly marked nipples. (This test is applicable 
only up to the age of 16 days, i.e., before the development of 
hair on the ventral surface.) (4) Small extent of the bare area 
just ventral to the anus (test applicable only after the 16th day). 



RECOGNITION OF SEX SEX RATIO BODY WEIGHT 



27 



As a rule the descent of the testes occurs about the fortieth day 
of age or somewhat earlier. The following is a condensed form 
of Jackson's table for the ano-genital distance. 

TABLE 8 
Ano-genital distance in young albino rats of various ages 



ACE 


NUMBER OF EACH SEX 


AVERAGE GROSS BODY 
WEIGBTT 


AVERAGE ANO-GENITAL 
DISTANCE 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


New born . . 


10 
17 
13 
19 
19 


12 
26 
15 
26 
13 


gms. 

5.7 
11.0 
19.5 
27.4 
73.3 


gms. 

5.4 
10.4 
18.2 
27.4 
71.0 


gms. 

2.8 
5.2 
8.2 
12.0 
21.0 


gms. 

1.2 
2.7 
4.9 
7.0 
13.0 


7 days 


14 days 


20 days 


42-50 days 





8. Sex ratio. On the basis of 30 litters comprising 255 indi- 
viduals, Cuenot ('99) reports among albino rats when the litters 
are examined shortly after birth 105.6 males to each 100 females. 

King ('11 b)in 80 litters containing 452 individuals, found 107.3 
males to 100 females, and in a later series of 120 litters (which 
includes the 80 litters just mentioned) containing 690 individu- 
als, a sex ratio of 107.8 males to 100 females. Finally, in a 
group of 814 litters, comprising 5691 individuals, King and Stot- 
senburg ('15) found 108.1 males to 100 females. 

In a thriving colony therefore a ratio of about 108 males it 
to be expected. This however is subject to a seasonal variation. 
At the two periods of greatest reproductive activity in the spring 
(March-May) and again in the autumn (September-November) 
the proportion of males (the sex ratio) is low. 

In the first litters of young females the sex ratio tends to be 
higher than in the later litters but no relation of sex ratio to 
size of litter has been found (King and Stotsenburg, '15). 

9. Body weight according to sex at maturity. At maturity 
the body weight of the male Albino is much greater than that of 
the female. According to our records for the common strain 
ages not known the four largest males thus far examined 
weighed 320, 327, 343 and 438 (fat) grams respectively, and the 
four largest females 280, 287, 319 and 359 (fat) grams. In Albi- 



28 



BIOLOGY 



nos of the common strain, the following maximum weights for 
each sex at known ages have been observed by King (MS '15). 

TABLE 9 
Body weight in grams 



AGE IN DAYS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


395 




284 


425 


397 




455 


409 




485 


437 


f265 






\324 



10. Behavior, a) The normal activities of the rat under 
natural conditions have been studied and described by a num- 
ber of observers (see references). 

b) As the albino rat is easily tamed and responds readily to 
training it has already been used for a number of studies in which 
behavior tests have been employed. Studies have been made 
for example on imitation, temperament, the influence of prac- 
tice, retentiveness, the role of the several organs of sense and 
the relation of the learning rate to age and to the relative brain 
weight (see references). 

BIOLOGY: REFERENCES 

Life history. Donaldson, '08. King, '13. Kirkham, '10. Kirkham and 
Burr, '13. McCoy. '09. Slonaker, '07, '12. Stewart, 1898. Watson, '03. 

Span of life. Donaldson, '08. Slonaker, '12, '12 a. 

Puberty, Ovulation, Menopause. Hewer, '14. Kirkham and Burr, '13. 
Sobotta and Burckhard, '10. 

Period of gestation. King, '13. 

Super fecundation. King, '13. 

Fecundity and weight at birth. Crampe, '84. King, '15. King and Stotsen- 
burg. '15. Kolazy, 1871. Lloyd, '09 a. Pearson, '10. Sobotta and Burckhard, 
'10. Watson, '06 a. 

Recognition of sex. Jackson, '12. 

Sex ratio. Cuenot, 1899. King, '11 a, 11 b. King and Stotsenburg, '15. 

Body weight according to sex. King and Stotsenburg, '15. 

Behavior, a) Under natural conditions. Advisory Committee, '12. Bech- 
stein, 1801. Bell, 1837-1874. Buckland, 1859. Buffon, 1749-1789. Dehne, 
1855. Fisher, 1872. Hewett, '04. Kolazy, 1871. Lambert, '10. Lantz, '10. 
Manouvrier, '05. Mitchell, '11. b) Under experimental conditions. Adams, 
'13. Basset, '14. Berry, '06. Carr and Watson, '08. Cesana, '10. Hubbert, 
'14, '15. Hunter, '12, '13. Lashley, '12. Richardson, '09. Small, 1899, 1900, 
'01. Szymanski, '14. Ulrich, '13. Vincent, '12, '13/15, '15 a, '15 b. Watson, J. 
B., '03, '07, '13, '14. 



CHAPTER 2 
HEREDITY 

1. General. 2. Coat color 

Inbreeding brother and sister from the same litter of Albinos 
for twenty successive generations (King, 1911-1915, MS) has 
not been followed by any physical deterioration. 

Studies on heredity in the Norway rat have been concerned 
mainly with the inheritance of coat color. The gray coat of 
the wild Norway is dominant in crosses between the wild gray 
and the Albino. The Albinos in the F 2 generation appear in the 
proportion of one Albino to three pigmented. In the F 2 and in 
the later generations pied animals may be had and the color 
pattern both fixed and modified by selection (Castle, '12, 12 a, 
and Castle and Phillips, '14). The inheritance of brain weight 
in the reciprocal crosses Norway X Albino has been studied 
byHatai (MS '13). 

The references to the literature are grouped into 1) those 
touching the general problem and 2) those especially applying 
to coat color. 

HEREDITY: REFERENCES 

1. General. Castle, '11, '12, '12 a. Castle and Phillips, '14. Crampe, 1883, 
1884. Darwin, 1883. Hagedoorn, '11, '14. Hatai, '11 a, '12. Lloyd, '08, '09, 
'11. Pearson, '11. Przibram, '07, '10, '11. Ritzema-Bos, 1894. Yerkes, '13. 

2. Coat color. Bateson, '03. Castle, '14 a, '14 b. Castle and Phillips, '14. 
Crampe, 1877. Doncaster, '06. Fischer, 1874. Fr6de>ic, '07. Haacke, 1895. 
MacCurdy and Castle, '07. Morgan, '09. Mudge, '08, '08 a, '09. 



29 



CHAPTER 3 
ANATOMY 

1. Anatomy, general. 2. Embryology, a) Spermatogenesis. b) Ovulation. 
c) Earlier stages, d) Later stages. 3. Bones, joints and connective tissues, 
a) Teeth. 4. Muscles. 5. Vessels and lymphatics, a) Blood. 6. Nervous sys- 
tem, a) Central 1) Brain. 2) Spinal cord, b) Peripheral. 1) Cerebral. 
2) Spinal nerves and ganglia. 3) Autonomic. c) Technical methods. 7. Sense 
organs. 8. Integument. 9. Gastro-pulmonary system, a) Gastro-intestinal 
system, b) Pulmonary system. 10. Uro-genital system. 11. Endocrine 
system. 

Since this book purposes to present mainly those results that 
can be systematically arranged and are in a quantitative form 
there will appear several divisions of this chapter marked only 
by references to the literature. 

Further, even in those divisions for which there are some 
available data it happens in many instances that the presentation 
of them can be better given in the chapters which treat of growth 
and in such instances the reader is merely referred to the later 
place of presentation. These general statements apply to the 
subsequent chapters as well. 

1. Anatomy, general. In only two instances has the rat been 
used as the basis for a general presentation of mammalian anat- 
omy. These are in the books by Martin and Moale, 1884, and 
Goto, 1906. The remaining references are to studies which ap- 
ply to portions or systems only (see classified references at the 
end of the chapter). 

2. Embryology, a) Spermatogenesis. According to Hewer 
(14): 

In the newborn animal, active mitosis is occurring in the testis, and 
at 3^ weeks the spermatogonia can be distinguished from the spermato- 
cytes. No lumen begins to appear in the tubules as a rule until 7 
weeks. At 8 weeks spermatids are easily distinguishable: at 8| weeks 
isolated spermatozoa may occasionally be seen. At 9 weeks typical 
ripe spermatozoa are plentiful, but the fully formed epididymis con- 
tains no free spennatozoa. At 10 weeks all the tubules show active 

30 



EMBRYOLOGY 



31 



spermatogenesis : the second crop of spermatozoa is appearing, while 
the first crop can be seen in the epididymis. Reduced number of chro- 
mosomes 19. Allen (MS '15). 

6) Ovulation. According to the observations of Sobotta and 
Burckhard, '10, ovulation is simultaneous in both ovaries as 
many as 13 egg cells have been found discharged. The ovum 
after fixation with Zenker's solution containing somewhat less 
than the usual proportion of acetic acid measured 60-65 n in 
diameter with a nucleus about 25 n in diameter. The reduced 
number of chromosomes is 16. The full number of chromosomes 
32. The authors incorrectly assume that the common Albino is 
a variety of Mus rattus. 

For the diameter of the living unsegmented egg Kirkham and 
Burr ( ? 13) give 79 n as a mean value. 

For the volume of the ovum see table 11. 

c) On the early stages of development we have the observations 
of Huber ('15 a). His description is as follows: 

The material at hand permits the conclusion that in the albino rat 
the segmenting ova pass from the oviduct to the uterine horn at the 
end of the fourth day after the beginning of insemination, probably 
in the 12-cell to 16-cell stage. With the beginning of the fifth day, as 
will appear from further discussion, all of the ova are to be found in 
the uterine horn. 

The following summary of the data gained by a study of the models 
of oviducts containing ova in stages from the pronuclear to 12-cell to 

TABLE 10 

Showing the distance of the ova jrom the fimbria at various ages. Based on table 

3, Huber ('15a) 













H 


o 3 


















K 


fc H 


RECORD NUM- 


SIDE 
RECON- 


AOE 


NUM- 
BER OF 


STAGE 


fa. 
o 


s 


J a 


BER 


STRUCTED 




OVA 




w H 


ii 


> t> w 

H ^ 














H K 


3 ft* 












7\ r\ 

w H 


to ft, 
















a 


3 












cm. 


cm. 




106 


R. 


1 dav 


8 


Pronuclear 


3.2 


0.8 


0.25 


59 


R. 


*~Mt7 

2 days 


4 


2-cell 


2.29 1 


1.4 


0.63 


62 


L. 


2 days 22 hrs. 


5 


2-cell 


2.45 1 


2.0 


0.84 


50 


R. 


3 days 1 hour 


4 


4-cell 


2.8 


2.5 


0.90 


51 


L. 


4 days 


5 


12 to 16 cell 


2.86 


2.86 


1.00 



















Not the entire length of oviduct was available for reconstruction. 



32 



ANATOMY 



16-cell stages in which latter stage transit to the uterine horn occurs, 
is presented to indicate rate of transit within the oviduct. The regu- 
larity of the rate of transit as revealed in the summary may perhaps 
speak for the trustworthiness of the age data as concerns my material. 

It will be observed that the ova approach the uterine end of the ovi- 
duct while in the 2-cell stage (see table 10); transit through the last 
portion of the oviduct, where the greater part of the segmentation oc- 
curs, being relatively slow. It is hoped that these data, for the accuracy 
of which I am dependent on reconstructions, may be of service to others 
who may desire to collect segmentation stages of the albino rat. 

In order to obtain the volume changes of the ova during transit 
through the oviduct, beginning with the pronuclear and extending to 
the 8-cell to 11-cell stages, reconstructions were made at a magnification 
of 1000 diameters of ova presenting the stage in question. The respec- 
tive volumes of these models were determined and the data reduced to 
the actual volumes. 

TABLE 11 
Volumes of ova and embryos. Based on table 4 Huber ('15 a) 



RECORD 
NUMBER 


AGE 


STAGE 


ACTUAL VOL. OF 
EGG MASS IN 
C. MM. 


AVERAGE VOL. PER 
STAGE GIVEN IN 
C. MM. 


Days 


Hours 


106 


1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 









1 

1 

17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 


Pronuclear 
Pronuclear 
Pronuclear 
Pronuclear 
2 cell 
2 cell 
4 cell 
4 cell 
8 cell 
8 cell 
8 cell 
8 cell 
8 cell 
11 cell 


0.000151 
0.000143 
0.000158 
0.000171 
0.000162 . 
0.000183 
0.000183 
0.000155 
0.000189 
0.000160 
0.000187 
0.000182 
0.000200 
0.000210 


0.000156 

0.000173 
0.000162 
0.000184 

0.000210 


106 


106 


106 


59 


59 


50 


50 


57 


57 


57 


57 


57 


57 





The uniformity of the figures giving the actual volume of the egg 
mass, as determined by the weight of the water displaced by the models 
of the respective ova reconstructed, leads me to feel that the errors com- 
mitted in reconstruction were not serious. The last column of the 
table, giving averages, is of interest since it shows a very slight increase 
in the volume of the egg mass during segmentation and transit through 
the oviduct. Following the pronuclear stage, which, as has been seen, 
extends through a relatively long period and into the beginning of the 
second day, by which time the ova have migrated about one-fourth of 



BONES, JOINTS, CONNECTIVE TISSUES 33 

the length of the oviduct, there occurs only three successive mitotic 
divisions, including the first segmentation division, namely mitoses re- 
sulting in 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-cell stages while the ova are in transit in 
the oviduct. In making this statement it is assumed that in the suc- 
cessive segmentations, the several cells divide synchronously, which is 
not in conformity with the fact. These three mitotic divisions are 
spaced at intervals of about 18 hours. 

In the next following division, the fourth, the ovum passes from the 
oviduct to the uterine horn. Since the normal gestation period of the 
non-lactating albino rat is only 21 to 23 days, this slow rate of increase 
in volume and multiplication of cells during the first four days of de- 
velopment is of especial interest and is very probably to be accounted 
for by the inadequacy of the food supply of the ovum during its transit 
through the oviduct. 

d) Later stages. Observations have been made by Stotsen- 
burg (MS '15) on the daily increase in the weight of the fetus 
from the 13th to the 22nd day after insemination. The data 
and graph are given in chapter 5, pp. 64 and 65. 

3. Bones, joints and connective tissues. On the following page 
is an enumeration of the bones forming the skeleton of the rat. 

For data on the growth of the entire skeleton see Chapter 6. 

Skull measurements have been made by Hatai ('07 c). The 
following description is extracted from his paper. 

For this study 53 male and 51 female skulls of mature Albinos (rats 
more than 150 days old) were measured. These skulls had been care- 
fully cleaned and dried at room temperature. The following measure- 
ments were made with vernier calipers: 1) the length of the entire 
skull; 2) the fronto-occipital length; 3) the zygomatic width; 4) the 
length of the nasal bone; 5) the height of the skull; 6) the width of 
the cranium or the squamosal distance. In every case the maximum 
length alone was recorded in millimeters. 

The horizontal straight line joining the tip of the nasal bone to the 
end of the occipital bone is called the length of the entire skull. This 
however is not exactly equal to t^ie sum of the length of the nasal bone 
and that of the fronto-occipital. 

The fronto-occipital length was determined in the following way: 
Since the length measured with the calipers from the tip of the nasal 
bone to the posterior end of the inter-parietal bone is usually less than 
the length measured from the same point to the end of the occipital 
bone, both measurements were taken (see fig. 1). The difference be- 
tween these two measurements was added to the length from the tip 
of the frontal bone to the end of the inter-parietal bone, and the sum 
was called the fronto-occipital length. 

The width of the cranium (squamosal distance) was determined by 



34 



ANATOMY 



Skull 



Cranium 



LIST OF BONES 

Nasals 2 

Premaxillae 2 

Maxillae 2 

Jugals 2 

Palatines 2 

Vomer 1 

Lachrymals 2 

Ethmoid 1 

Frontals 2 

Sphenoid 1 

Presphenoid 1 

Parietals 2 

Squamosals 2 

Interparietal 1 

Occipital 1 

Periotic capsules 2 

Tympanic bones 2 

f Malleus... 2 



Ear 
bones 



Mandible. 



\ Incus 2 

[Stapes 2 

2 



Teeth 16 

Hyoid 1 

Cervical 7 

Dorsal or thoracic 13 

Vertebrae Lumbar 6 

Sacral 4 

Caudal (about) 30 

[Vertebro-sternal 14 

Ribs I Vertebro-costal 6 

[Vertebral 6 



Sternum 6 

Shoulder /Scapula 2 

girdle \Clavicle 2 



f Ilium. . 


2 


Pelvic 
{ Ischium. . , 


2 


girdle , . 
[Os pubis 

Humerus 


. 2 
2 


Ulna 


2 


Radius. .. 


a 



[Carpus 16 

Fore feet < Metacarpus.. 10 

[Phalanges.... 28 

Femur 2 

Tibia 2 

Fibula 2 

[Patellae 2 

Sesamoid { 2 back of 

bones [ Femur 4 

[Tarsus 16 

Hind feet \ Metatarsus... 10 

[Phalanges.... 28 



281 



Nails (20) omitted 



taking the maximum distance between the two points (right and left) 
where the zygomatic bones rest on the lateral walls of the cranium. 
The height of the skull was determined by measuring a perpendicular 
distance between the greatest convexity of the parietal bone in the me- 
dian line and the junction line between the basi-occipital and the basi- 
sphenoidal bones on the ventral surface. 

The cranial capacity was determined in the following way: The skull 
was held vertically, with the nose downwards and was filled with fine 
shot (no. 11) to the upper level of foramen magnum and then the nose 
of the skull gen\tly struck twice against the palm of the hand. 

The space thus formed was again filled. Although this is a simple 
procedure yet it needs the greatest care to produce uniform results. 



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36 



ANATOMY 



By practice Hatai has been able to reduce the difference between the 
first and second filling to less than one per cent. The cranial capacity 
thus determined in the terms of shot weight can be transformed into 
brain weight as follows: by dividing the weight of the shot in the case 
of the males by 5.980 and in the case of the females by 6.009. The re- 
lations between the cranial capacity, in terms of shot weight, and the 
body weight are represented by the formulas (8) and (9). 

TABLE 13 

Showing the range of variates and rate of increase for various characters according 

to sex Hatai ('07 c) 





MALE 


FEMALE 


Mini- 
mum 


Mean* 


Maxi- 
mum 


Maxi- 
mum 


Meant 


Mini- 
mum 




mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


Length of the entire cran- 














ium 


39.4 


43.3 


47 .4 


44.5 


41.5 


38.9 


Rate 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


Zygomatic width. 


19.6 


21.7 


24.8 


23.4 


20.9 


18.9 


Rate 


49.8 


50.2 


52.3 


52.5 


50.3 


48.5 


Length of the nasal bone. 


14.7 


17.0 


18.7 


17.8 


15.7 


14.4 


Rate 


37.3 


39.2 


39.3 


40.0 


37.7 


37.0 


Fronto-occipital length. 


24.9 


27.3 


28.8 


28.2 


26.4 


24.9 


Rate 


63.2 


63.0 


60.7 


63.3 


63.5 


64.0 


Squamosal distance. 


14.6 


15.3 


16.2 


16.2 


15.1 


14.4 


Rate 


37.0 


35.3 


34.1 


36.4 


36.2 


37.0 


Height of cranium 


10.4 


11.5 


13.0 


12.2 


11.1 


10.3 


Rate 


26.4 


26.5 


27.4 


27.4 


26.8 


26.4 



1 Taken from Table 12. 




B 
FIG 1. A. Fronto occipital length. B. Squamosal distance. 



BONES, JOINTS, CONNECTIVE TISSUES 37 

The greatest difference found between the measurements of 
the skulls for the two sexes is in the nasal bones, which are 
nearly 2 per cent longer in the male skull. The greater relative 
length of the nasal bones in the male may be regarded as a sec- 
ondary sexual character (Hatai). 

a) Teeth. Addison and Appleton ('15) report as follows on 
the size and growth of the incisor teeth in the Albino. 

The dental formula of the albino rat is 



There is only one set of teeth, and hence the dentition is mono- 
phyodont. The time of eruption of the various teeth extends 
over a period of 3| weeks. The incisors are the first to appear, 
viz., at 8 to 10 days after birth. The first and second molars 
erupt at about the 19th and 21st days respectively, and it is 
after this latter period that the young animals may be weaned 
and are able to maintain an independent existence, as far as food 
is concerned. The third molars are delayed until two weeks 
later and do not appear until about the 35th day. 

The incisors are permanently-growing (or rootless) teeth, while 
the molars have a definite limited period of development and 
acquire roots. A wide diastema separates the incisors from the 
molars as may be seen by reference to figure 1 (loc. cit.) The 
incisors are strongly curved and Owen (1840-1845) has described 
the lower incisor as being the smaller segment of a larger circle, 
and the upper incisor as the larger segment of a smaller circle. 
In the case of lower incisor of the albino rat this statement 
needs a slight modification. 

The times of the early stages of development of the incisors 
were as follows: 

14 day fetus slight thickening of oral epithelium. 

15 day fetus distinct thickening and growth inwards of oral epithelium. 

16 day fetus dental ledge and beginning of flask-shaped enamel organ. 

17 day fetus dental papilla with crescentic enamel organ capping it. 
19 day fetus both ameloblasts and odontoblasts differentiated. 
New-born animal enamel and dentine formation begun. 

8 to 10 days eruption of the tooth. 



38 



ANATOMY 



The rate at which the teeth increase in length during their 
formative period and prior to attrition is given in the following 
table : 



TABLE 14 





LENGTH OF INCISORS 


Upper 


Lower 


1 day old 


mm. 

2.3 
3.6 
5 

7 


mm. 

3 
5 

7-8 
11 


4 days old 


7 days old 


10 days old 





Average growth of upper incisor 0.52 mm. and of lower incisor 0.88 mm. per 
day. 



TABLE 15 





Upper 


Lower 


Total thickness 


It 
100-110 


p 

140-150 


Outer fibrous layer 


30-40 


20-30 


Pigmented portion of outer fibrous layer 


8-10-12 


6-8 


Inner plexiform layer 


70 


120-125 









TABLE 16 




23 

DAYS 


41 

DAYS 


10 

WEEKS 


15 

WEEKS 


5 

MONTHS 


8 

MONTHS 


10 

MONTHS 


Naso-occipital length 


mm. 

29.7 
13.7 
7.4 
12.8 

5.1 
4.6 
18.1 

6.5 


mm. 

32.5 
14 
9.5 
15 

5.5 
5 
21.7 

7 


mm. 

39 
14.5 
10 
18.3 

7 
5.6 
25.5 

10.5 


mm. 
40 
14.6 
11.4 
20.3 

8.4 
6 
26.4 

11.4 


mm. 

43 
15.4 
12.3 
23.3 

8.7 
6.7 
29.4 

11.6 


mm. 

44 
15.1 
12.5 
23.7 

9 
7 
29.9 

12 


mm. 

46.5 
15.5 
13 
26.2 

9.3 
6.8 
31.3 

12.4 


Interzygomatic 1 


Upper diastema 


Upper incisor total length 


Upper incisor extra alveolar 
length 


Lower diastema 


Lower incisor total length 


Lower incisor extra alveolar 
length 





1 Same as 'squamosal distance,' figure 1, p. 36. 



VESSELS AND LYMPHATICS 



39 



Throughout life growth continues, and in the adult animal 
is on the average 2.2 mm. per week in the upper and 2.8 mm. per 
week in the lower incisor. 

In a five months animal the thickness of the enamel and its 
constituent layers measured in the mid-line of the teeth is given 
in table 15. 

Measurements of the incisors and skulls of animals of different 
ages were made and are shown in table 16. 

The lower incisor of a five months animal forms a segment of 
about four-fifths of a semicircle (140-145). 

4. Muscles. Morpurgo (1898) has furnished data on the Muse. 
radialis of the albino rat; giving the number of muscle fibers and 
of nuclei at different ages (table 17). 

TABLE 17 



AGE 


NO. OF 

MUSCLE FIBERS 


NO. OF NUCLEI 
PER CUBIC MM. 


AREA OF CROSS 
SECTION IN 
MM. X 37 DIAM. 


Newborn 


5919 


570645 


552 


15 days 


7252 


357764 


868 


16 days 
(very well grown) . . . 
30 days 


7587 
7625 


347343 
139861 


1010 
2766 


420 days 


8014 


37542 


11817 











5. Vessels and lymphatics, a) Blood. Specific gravity 1.056 
(Sherrington and Copeman, 1893). The diameter of the erythro- 
cytes is as follows (White, '01) : 



FOR M. DECUMANUS 



DIAMETERS 
IN It 



Determination by (Treadwell) 


6.5 


Determination by (Wormley, 1888) 


7.0 


Determination by (Gulliver, 1875) 


6.5 







1} Percentage of water in the blood. Hatai (MS '15) has deter- 
mined the percentage of water in the blood of a small series of 
Albinos. 



40 



ANATOMY 



The Albinos were from The Wistar Institute stock strain, 
grown on the scrap diet and examined before the day's feeding. 
The rat was chloroformed, but before the heart ceased beating 
it was exposed in situ, the tip clipped away and the blood from 
it caught in a small glass weighing bottle. The fresh weight 
was immediately taken and after drying at 95C. for a week 
the weight of the residue was obtained. 

The results are given in table 18. 

TABLE 18 
Percentage of water in the blood of the Albino, Hatai (MS. '15) 



8EX 


NO. OP 
CASES 


BODT WEIGHT 
RANGE 


MEAN 


PERCENTAGE OP WATER 
IN BLOOD 


Range 


Mean 


M 


4 
4 
5 
6 


106-127 
135-194 
72-100 
105-125 


gms. 
121 
157 

88 
117 


79.47-81.05 
79.05-81.15 
78.13-81.12 
80.25-80.97 


80.09 
80.00 
79.88 
80.30 


M 


F 


F 





In 50 rats (27 males -f 23 females) between the weights of 50 
and 150 grams the average number of erythrocytes was found 
by Chisolm ('11) to be 8.8 millions and the average hemoglobin 
content 87.8 per cent as measured on the human scale. 

TABLE 19 

Rivas (University of Pennsylvania MS. '14). Observations on the Albino rat 

blood normal. 



PERCENTAGE 
OP 
HEMOGLOBIN 


IN 1 CU. MM. 


PERCENTAGES OF 


Erythro- 
cytes in 
millions 


Leuco- 
cytes 


Poly- 
morph. 


Small 
lymph. 


Large 
lymph. 


Eosinoph. 


Basoph. 


85 


8.6 
9.2 
8.2 
7.4 
8.0 
8.4 
8.4 
7.6 
7.6 
8.4 


8,800 
7,200 
8,400 
8,000 
8,000 
9,400 
16,000 
11,600 
8,800 
9,400 


68.5 
56.5 
47.5 
44.9 
69.9 
42.4 
43.6 
71.6 
56.4 
51.2 


24.9 
34.4 
44.9 
49.3 
25.4 
50.5 
51.9 
20.7 
37.6 
42.1 


6.2 
9.1 
5.9 
5.2 
4.2 
4.0 
4.3 
4.1 
4.5 
6.2 


0.4 
3.0 
0.9 
0.7 
0.0 
0.5 
0.6 
1.5 
0.7 




0.85 

0.70 

0.26 





85 


88 


90 


90 


90 


93 


95 


97 


100 





NERVOUS SYSTEM 



41 



In addition the observations of Rivas, University of Pennsyl- 
vania (MS '14) are given in table 19. The data are arranged 
according to the increasing haemoglobin content. 

For the wandering cells we have tables 20 and 21 by Kan- 
thack and Hardy, 1894. 

TABLE 20 

Showing the percentage and size of the various forms of the wandering cells of the 

blood in the rat 



TYPE OF CELL 


GRANULATION 


PERCENTAGE OF TYPE 


DIAMETERS IN Jl 


Oxyphile 


( Coarse 


2 


10 


Basophile 


\Fine 
(absent) 


45 


7-8 


Hyaline 




2 


8-10 


Lymphocytes 




50 


6 











TABLE 21 

(From the same authors) 

Shows the percentage and size of various forms of the wandering cells in the peritoneal 

fluid of the rat 



TYPE OP CELL 


GRANULATION 


PERCENTAGE OF TYPE 


DIAMETERS IN ft 


Oxyphile 


/Coarse 


20-40 


10 


Basophile 1 


\Fine 
f Coarse 


(absent) 
5-10 


18 


Hyaline \ 


\Fine 


(absent) 

( 65-so > 


13 


Lymphocytes J 




I / 


6.5 



Basophile cells in connective tissue 23 v in diameter. 



6. Nervous system, a) Central. 1) Brain. Specific gravity 
1.050-1.056, Reichardt ('06). For brain weight see Chapter 7, 
p. 90, and table 68. For the percentage of water see Chapter 8, 
p. 176 and table 74. For the chemical composition see Chapter 
9, p. 181 and tables 80, 81. Cell division in the central nervous 
system continues after birth. The observations of Hamilton 
('01) are given in table 22. 



42 



ANATOMY 



TABLE 22 



The number of mitoses in 13 consecutive sections, each section 6.75 p in thickness, 
from the brain and spinal cord of rats at different stages of development. The 
jetus weighed 0.78 gms. and had a crown-rump length of 17 mm. It was probably 
at 17.5 days of gestation. 



STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT 


BRAIN 


Ventricular mitoses 


Extra-ventricular mitoses 


Foetus 


2196 
390 
24 
115 


966 
595 
386 
443 


Birth 


24 hours 


4 days 






LUMBAR COBD 


Ventricular mitoses 


Extra-ventricular mitoses 


Foetus 


28 
8 
1 
8 


18 
45 
13 
64 


Birth 


24 hours 


4 days 





For the first 25 days after birth Allen ('12) has obtained the 
results given in table 23. 

TABLE 23 

Showing the number of mitoses per cubic millimeter of nerve tissue in the central 
nervous system of the stock Albino at certain levels. The figures are taken from 
calculations of the volume of tissue and based on the number of mitoses in the con- 
secutive sections at each level of the cord, five in the largest portion of the cere- 
bellum and five in the cerebrum in the region of the optic chiasma. The letters 
(a) (b) and (c) refer to different rats of the same age 







CORD 










Cervical 


Thoracic 


Lumbar 






1 


208 


115 


259 


1597 


430 


4 


437 


176 


351 


2111 


447 


6 


446 


236 


320 




193 


7 








4848 




12 


46 


75 


14 


839 


37 


20 


00 


00 


00 


(c) 520 




20 


00 


00 


00 


(b) 61 


(b) 27 


20 


00 


00 


00 


(a) 00 


(a) 18 


25 


00 


00 


00 


00 


27 















NERVOUS SYSTEM 



43 



The diameters of the Purkinje cells have been studied by 
Addison, '11. 

The Albinos were from the stock colony of The Wistar Institute, 
reared on the scrap diet. The cerebellum was fixed in Ohlmach- 
er's solution (King, '10) imbedded in paraffin and stained with 
carbol-thionine and acid fuchsin. The values for the respective 
diameters given in table 24 are in each instance averages of ten 
measurements from the largest cells found in equivalent areas at 
the several ages. The measurements stop at 20 days of age. 
After this age there is but little change in the diameters of the 
largest cells. 



TABLE 24 



Diameters of Purkinje cells and their nuclei 



AGE IN DAYS 


DIAMETERS IN M 


Cell 


Nucleus 


Birth 


12 X 7 
14 X 8 
18 X 12 
21 X 14 
(largest) 24 X 19 


8 X 6.3 
8.3 X 7.4 
11 X 8.5 
12 X 9.0 


3 


8 


10-20 





2) Spinal cord. For the weight of the spinal cord see Chapter 

7, p. 90, and table 68. For the percentage of water see Chapter 

8, p. 176, and table 74. For the chemical composition see Chap- 
ter 9, p. 180 and table 80. Cell division in the spinal cord after 
birth has been studied by Hamilton, '01, see table 22 and Allen 
(12) see table 23. 

6) Peripheral. 1) Cerebral nerves. Fortuyn ('14) counted 
3000 myelinated fibers in the n. cochlearis of the Norway rat. 

Boughton ('06) studied the increase with age (body weight) 
in the number of myelinated fibers in the oculomotor nerve in 
the albino rat and measured the areas of the entire fiber and the 
axis in osmic preparations. The results are given in table 25. 

2) Spinal nerves and ganglia. One of the larger spinal 
ganglia from a cervical nerve root of an Albino weighing 140 
grams was fixed in a formalin-acetic sublimate mixture (6, loc. 



44 



ANATOMY 



TABLE 25 
Oculo motor nerve 



BODY WEIGHT IN 
GRAMS AND SEX 


NUMBER OF FIBERS 


AREAS IN M 2 


PERCENTAGE 
OF AXIS 


Large 


Small 


Total 


Entire fiber 


Axis 


11 M 


764 

880 
885 
926 
887 
888 
882 
932 
925 
926 
901 
930 
928 


38 
220 
227 
290 
329 
465 
316 
383 
471 
566 
379 
408 


764 
918 
1105 
1153 
1177 
1217 
1347 
1248 
1308 
1397 
1467 
1309 
1336 


13.2 
41.8 

56.7 


6.6 
21.2 

27.3 


50 
51 

48 


14 M 


44 M 


51 F 


80 F 


109 F 


172 M 


192 M 


213 M 


218 M 


278 M 


318 M 


414 M 





cit. p. 3) by Hatai ('01) and cut in paraffin sections 6-7 /* 
thick. 

Selecting cells according to size from large to small the meas- 
urements of the cell body and the nucleus were made as in table 
26. 

TABLE 26 



SERIES 


NO. OF CELLS 


AVERAGE DIAMETERS IN M 


Cell body 


Nucleus 


A 


10 
10 

5 
5 


55 X 46 

38 X 25 
26 X 23 

19 X 17 


18 X15 
15 X 14 
13 X 12 
10 X 10 


a 


B 


b 





Further studies on the spinal roots and ganglia were made by 
Hatai ('02) and ('03 b). 

From a series of male Albinos the spinal ganglia with accom- 
panying dorsal root nerves were fixed in one per cent osmic acid 
and cut in paraffin. The measurements on this material Hatai 
('02) are given in table 27. Incorporated in the same table 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 



45 



are the enumerations for the myelinated fibers in the ventral 
roots (Hatai, '03 b). 

It was found that the number of myelinated fibers in the ven- 
tral roots diminishes from sections near the spinal cord to those 
near the spinal ganglion. The amount of the diminution de- 
creases with the age (body weight) of the rat. The increase in 
the number of cells in the spinal ganglia from the small to the 
large rats is certainly due in part to the fact that in the small 
animals some of the smallest ganglion cells escape enumeration. 

The increase in the number of myelinated fibers in the spinal 
roots with advancing age is due mainly to progressive myelina- 
tion. Both roots at maturity still contain functional fibers with- 
out myelin sheaths (Ranson, '06). 

TABLE 27 

Number of ganglion cells and number and size of myelinated root fibers in spinal 
nerves from three levels of the spinal cord at five ages (body weights) 
Results from Tables II, VI and VIII combined. Hatai ('02) 
Also data on ventral root fibers from Hatai ('03 b) 















MEAN 


BODY WEIGHT 
IN QMS. 


TOTAL OF 
MYELINATED 
VENTRAL 
ROOT 
FIBERS 


TOTAL OF 
GANGLION 
CELLS 


TOTAL OF 
MYELINATED 
DORSAL BOOT 
FIBERS 


TOTAL 
COMPOSED 
OF MATURE 
FIBERS 


IMMATURE 
FIBERS 


DIAMETER 
IN It OF 20 

largest DOB- 
SAL ROOT 
FIBERS 














ENTIRE 


"3 

_0 


10.3 
24.5 


558 

1007 


10996 

9793 


1998 
2569 


1043 
2263 


955 
306 


7.5 
11.6 


Q 


68.5 


1302 


11772 


3683 


3569 


114 


13.3 




167.0 


1474 


12200 


4227 


4173 


54 


13.9 


HH 


264.3 


1522 




4028 








Thoracic 


10.3 
24.5 
68.5 
167.0 


286 
434 
561 
613 


7142 
7068 
7611 
7406 


607 
683 
1420 
1522 


283 
497 
1259 
1460 


424 
366 
161 

82 


4.8 
7.1 
8.9 
11.6 


HH 


264.3 


772 




1650 








'. Lumbar 


10.3 

24.5 
68.5 
167.0 


333 

698 
704 
1028 


8315 
8200 
9514 
9442 


723 
911 
1317 
1644 


303 
678 
1181 
1565 


420 
233 
136 

79 


5.1 
8.0 
11.3 
12.0 


^^ 



264.3 


965 




2102 









46 



ANATOMY 



For the numerical relations of cells and fibers in the second 
cervical nerve data have been furnished by Ranson ('06). 

TABLE 28 

Second cervical nerve 
Observations on normal male rats (Albinos.) Osmic acid fixation paraffin sections 



AGE IN DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


CELLS IN 
GANGLION 


NUMBER OF MYELINATED FIBERS 


Dorsal root 


Ventral root 


72 


110 
110 

110 
110 
155 
161 

188 
188 
302 


7721 
8116 

9343 
8624 


2472 
2394 
1959 
2217 

2090 
2689 
2891 
2386 


689 
660 
590 
591 

672 
703 
773 

646 


72 


72 


72 


72 


240 (leftside)... 
240 (right side) . 



When the number of myelinated fibers in the two rami on the 
distal side of the II cervical spinal ganglion is compared with 
the total number found in the two roots a distal excess in the 
number of fibers is found. This is shown in table 29. The dis- 
tal excess appears to be due to branching of the fibers in their 
course, Ranson ('06). 

TABLE 29 



BODY 
WEIGHT 
CMS. 


IN ROOTS 


DISTAL EXCESS 


IN RAMI 


Ventral 


Dorsal 


Sum 


Absolute 


Percent- 
age 


Sum 


Ventral 
Ramus 


Dorsal 
Ramus 


161 


672 
646 


2090 
2386 


2762 
3032 


276 
257 


10 

8 


3098 
3289 


708 
887 


2390 
2402 


302 





Enumerations of the myelinated fibers in the ventral roots 
of the II spinal nerve of the Albino have been made by Dunn 
('12). Each record is the mean of two enumerations of rats of 
like age. Areas in ju 2 of the entire fiber and of the axis together 
with the percentage value of the axis. Each entry is based on 
the mean of the 20 largest fibers. In this series there is a change 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 



47 



in the relative area of the axis with age, as well as a decrease in 
the total areas in the oldest group. 



TABLE 30 



Giving for Albinos of different ages the numbers of my elinated fibers in the ventral 
root of the second cervical nerve and the areas of the fibers. Dunn ('12) 



AGE, NUMBER, SEX 


WEIGHT 


NUMBER 
FIBERS 


AVERAGE AREA 
TEN LARGEST 
FIBERS 


AVERAGE AREA 
OF AXES 
IN^l2 


PERCENTAGE 
OF AXIS 




grams 










7 days 
Two females... . 
Two males 


8.59 
9.33 


368 

366 


17.2 
22.3 


10.6 
13.9 


61.6 
62.3 


14 days 
Two females . . . 
Two males 


20.92 
21.33 


542 
565 


38.5 
32.9 


18.1 
15.2 


47.0 
46.2 


36 days 
Two females . . . 
Two males 


42.24 
41.93 


653 
613 


78.2 
80.6 


31.2 
31.7 


40.0 
39.3 


75 days 
Two females... . 
Two males 


136.70 
169.55 


560 
668 


115.4 
116.9 


49.6 
52.8 


43.0 
45.1 


132 days 
Two females .. . 


164.26 


683 


136.0 


59.3 


43.6 


Two males 


267.00 


625 


141.0 


63.2 


44.8 


180 days 
Two females... . 


212.50 


518 


168.8 


75.9 


44.9 


Two males 


264.80 


609 


201.3 


98.2 


48.7 


270 days 
Two females... . 


176.91 


776 


261.0 


133.4 


51.3 


Two males 


340.05 


617 


216.8 


107.1 


49.4 


640 days 
Three males. .. . 


334.47 


864 


170.7 


78.2 


45.8 



From a study of the diameters of the cell bodies and their 
nuclei in the second cervical spinal ganglion of the adult Albino, 
values which apply to the mean of the entire cell 'population' of 
this ganglion have been obtained (Hatai, '07 b) . The ganglion 
examined was from a mature male weighing 194 grams. The 



48 



ANATOMY 



ganglion was fixed in osmic acid and imbedded in paraffin. The 
mean values are as follows: 



TABLE 31 





MEAN DIAMETER 


STANDARD DEVIATION 


COEFFICIENT OF 
VARIATION 


Cell bod}' 


M 
28.6 


14.9 


18.4 


Nucleus. .. 


13.1 


1.8 


13.7 



On the basis of these observations, formula (12) was devised 
for computing the diameter of the nucleus from the diameter of 
the cell body. 

For comparison with the data in table 31 see data in table 
26 obtained by a different method of fixation. 

The number of myelinated fibers in the peroneal nerve of the 
normal Albino is given from Greenman's observations ('13) in 
table 32. Ages not known. 

TABLE 32 



LEVEL OF SECTION COUNTED 


BODY WEIGHT 
104 F. 
RIGHT NERVE 


BODY WEIGHT 
117 F. 
RIGHT NERVE 


BODY WEIGHT 
182 M. 
LEFT NERVE 


AVERAGES 


1. Proximal 


2240 


2430 


2192 


2288 


Distance from 1 to 2 in 
mm 


3 


4 7 


3 1 




2. Middle 


2118 


2292 


2418 


2276 


Distance from 2 to 3 in 
mm 


4 5 


2 3 


3.3 




3. Distal 


2392 


2213 


2364 


2323 












Averages. . . 


2250 


2312 


2325 


2296 



TABLE 33 
Normal Albinos: Sectional area of ten largest inn"; relation of axis to sheath 



PROXIMAL END 


DISTAL END 


Body weight 


Entire fiber 


Axis 


Per cent of 
axis 


Entire fiber 


Axis 


Per cent of 
axis 


104 


109.8 
137.7 
150.3 


55.6 
75.2 
82.9 


50.6 
54.6 
55.1 


85.0 
85.8 
113.0 


42.3 
42.6 
56.7 


49.7 
49.6 
50.1 


117 


182 




Average 
135 


132.6 


71.2 


53.7 


94.6 


47.2 


49.9 





NERVOUS SYSTEM 



49 



Greenman ('13) also found in osmic preparations the sectional 
areas of the 10 largest myehnated fibers and the areas of their 
axes. The length of nerve used was 10 mm. The results are 
given in table 33. 

3} Autonomic. In the course of a study intended primarily 
to determine whether the small myelinated fibers in the spinal 
accessory could be regarded as representing the fibers of the 
rami communicantes, Roth ('05) in a series of cervical nerves, 
counted on one side the number of myelinated fibers 4 n or 
less in diameter, and in the corresponding ramus communicans 
he also counted the myelinated fibers of like size. His findings 
are given in table 34. 



TABLE 34 



NERVE 


MYELINATED FIBERS LESS THAN 4 M IN 
DIAMETER IN VENTRAL ROOT 


MYELINATED FIBERS 
LESS THAN 4 /I IN 
RAMUS COMMUNICANS 


Rat I 


Rat II 


2nd cervical 


130 
105 
380 
432 


168 
126 
363 

449 


None 
None 
195 
220 


3rd cervical 


4th cervical 


5th cervical 





c) Technical methods. To determine the effects of various 
fixatives on the brain of the rat, King ('10) carried through a 
series of weighings of mature rat brains which had been sub- 
jected to the action of various fixatives. A summary of the 
results is given in table 35. 

The solution of Ohlmacher ('97), the formula for which is as 
follows : 

Absolute alcohol, 80 parts. 

Chloroform, 15 parts. 

Glacial acetic acid, 5 parts. 

Corrosive sublimate to saturation (about 20 per cent) 
was found to give excellent results with the cells of the cerebral 
cortex. 



50 



ANATOMY 



TABLE 35 
Summary of Data Collected (King ' 



RAT NO. 


K 

H 

o> 


BODY WEIGHT IN GRAMS 


BODY LENGTH IN MM. 


NORMAL WEIGHT OF 
FRESH BRAIN COMPUTED 


SOLUTIONS USED FOR 
FIXATION 


NO. HOURS SOLUTIONS 
ACTED 


WEIGHT OF BRAIN IN 
GRAMS WHEN REMOVED 
PROM SOLUTION 


PER CENT GAIN OR LOSS 
IN WEIGHT 


WEIGHT OF BRAIN IN 
GRAMS AFTER REMAIN- 
ING IN 70% ALCOHOL 
FOR 48 HOURS 


1 

o 

8 


M 

go 
|g 

~ z 


1 
2 

3 

4 
5 


cf 
cf 
9 
9 
9 


277 
163 
158 
129 
164 


219 
196 
199 
183 

188 


1.94 

1.83 
1.85 
1.78 
1.80 


4% Formaldehyde... . 
4% Formaldehyde... . 
Formol-Muller (cold) 
4% Formaldehyde... . 
Formol-Muller 
(warm) 


48 
48 
20 
48 

3 


2.5750 

2.8200 
2.2437 
2.6778 

2.1880 


+33 

+54 
+21 
+50 

+22 


1.5706 
1.6463 
1.5537 
1.6577 

1.8711 


-19 
-10 
-16 

- 7 

+ 4 


6 


rf 


187 


198 


1 85 


Ohlmacher 


5 


1.6100 


-12 


1.4471 


22 


7 


9 


137 


184 


1 78 


Ohlmacher 


2 


1.7389 


- 2 


1.4099 


-21 












/ Zenker. . 


6 


1.8716 


+ 3 


1.6666 


- 8 


8 


o 1 


160 


190 


1.81 


\ Miiller 


48 




















/ Dahlgren 


4 


1.9000 


+ 3 


1.7273 


- 7 


9 


V 


i;o 


19; 


1.84 


\ Muller 


48 










10 


^ 


18,2 


186 


1 79 


Picro-formol 


4 


1.7881 


- 


1.4663 


-18 


11 


rf 


275 


228 


1 98 


Ohlmacher 


6 


1.8267 


- 8 


1.6248 


-18 


12 


rf 


206 


207 


1 88 


Ohlmacher 


2 


1.6924 


-10 


1.5748 


-16 


13 


rf 


228 


210 


1 90 


Ohlmacher 


4 


1.5787 


-17 


1.4498 


-25 


14 


rf 


169 


194 


1 83 


Ohlmacher. . '. 


3 


1.5458 


-16 


1.4633 


-20 


15 


rf 


126 


157 


1 65 


Ohlmacher 


3 


1.3978 


-16 


1.3099 


-21 


16 


rf 


158 


181 


1 77 


Ohlmacher 


3 


1.4590 


-18 


1.4000 


-21 


17 


rf 


232 




1 85 


Ohlmacher 


3 


1.6390 


-11 


1.4875 


-20 


18 


9 


111 


154 


1 63 


Zenker-formol 


H 


1.6040 


2 


1.3297 


-18 


19 
20 


9 
rf 


106 
6 


159 


1.66 
30 


Zenker (modified) 
Ohlmacher 


U 
1 


1.7451 
0.2523 


+ 5 
-16 


1.3167 
0.2074 


-21 
-31 


21 


9 


6 




29 


Ohlmacher 


2 


0.2489 


-14 


0.2011 


-30 




rf 


108 


156 


1 64 


2% K 2 Cr 2 O 7 


48 


2.8445 


+73 


2.1409 


+31 


23 


rf 


88 


163 


1 68 


2% K 2 Cr 2 O 7 


48 


2.5594 


+52 


1.7518 


+ 4 


24 


rf 


162 


187 


1 79 


Alcohol K 2 Cr 2 O 7 


48 


2.5073 


+40 


1.8885 


+ 6 


25 
26 


cf 
H" 


190 
174 


207 

184 


1.88 
1 78 


Alcohol K 2 Cr 2 O 7 
Weak alcohol . . 


48 
27 


2.8169 
1.7753 


+50 
-00 


2.1797 
1.6201 


+16 
- 9 


27 


rf 


168 


191 


1 81 


Alcohol-formol 


24 


1.6392 


-10 


1.5147 


-16 


28 


rf 




198 


1 85 


95% Alcohol 


24 


1.4418 


-22 


1.4611 


-21 


29 
30 


cf 

rf 


151 
213 


184 
202 


1.78 
1 86 


Sublimate-acetic 
Carney's fluid 


3 


1.8604 
1.8192 


+ 5 
+ 2 


1.4484 
1.4077 


-19 
-24 


31 


rf 


181 


194 


1 82 


Carney's fluid 


4 


1.7575 




1.3042 


-23 


32 
33 
34 


9 
cf 
9 


141 
165 
149 


178 
191 
184 


1.75 
1.81 
1.77 


Graf (5% formalin) 
Graf (10% formalin) 
Carnov's fluid. . 


H 
19 


2.1520 
1.9283 
1.7416 


+23 

+ 7 
2 


1.7421 
1.5994 
1.3110 


-00 

-12 
-28 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 



51 



TABLE 35 Concluded. 



HAT NO. 


X 
H 


BODY WEIGHT IN GRAMS 


BODY LENGTH IN MM. 


NORMAL WEIGHT OF 
FRESH BRAIN COMPUTFD 


SOLUTIONS USED FOR 
FIXATION 




o 

H 

3 
2 

p 

83 H 


WEIGHT OF BRAIN IN 
GRAMS WHEN REMOVED 
FROM SOLUTION 


31 
O 

K 
O 

K a 
>s 
* 

2 


WEIGHT OF BRAIN IN 
GRAMS AFTER REMAIN- 
ING IN 70% ALCOHOL 
FOR 48 HOURS 


1 
3 

o 

2 2 

* f 

2 


35 


9 


167 


189 


1 80 


Lang's fluid 


?0 


2.0670 


+15 


1.6794 


7 


36 


0" 


?OS 


?,03 


1 86 


Lang's fluid 


4 


2.0429 


+10 


1.7970 


- 3 


37 


9 


173 


194 


1 82 


Marina's fluid 


7? 


1.2219 


-33 


1.2913 


-29 


38 


ef 


197 


201 


1 86 


Marina's fluid 


% 


1.2146 


-35 


1.2546 


-33 


39 


rT 


?59 


214 


1 92 


Cor. sublimate 


4 


2.0760 


+ 8 


1.4695 


-23 


40 




177 


195 


1 83 


Cor. sublimate 


?0 


2.0229 


+ 11 


1.4087 


-23 


41 
42 
43 


d 1 

d 1 
9 


265 
213 
?13 


216 
203 
?04 


1.92 
1.86 
1 86 


Sublimate-formol 
NaCl + sublimate... . 
Tellyesniczky 


4 

4 

48 


2.3315 
1.9927 
1.9643 


+21 

+ 7 
+ 6 


1.6565 
1.3947 
1.6372 


-14 
-25 
-12 


44 


9 


137 


177 


1 74 


Telly esniczky 


94 


1.7981 


+ 3 


1.4906 


-14 


45 
46 
47 


d 1 
9 

rf" 


196 
135 
141 


200 
179 
179 


1.85 
1.75 
1 75 


NaCl + sublimate 
Sublimate-formol .... 
Cox (osmic) 


20 
20 

48 


2.1549 
2.0512 
1.9917 


+16 
+17 

+ 2 


1.5074 
1.3687 
1.5483 


-19 

-22 
-12 


48 


d! 


150 


18? 


1 76 


Cox (osmic) 


7? 


2.1555 


+22 


1.8365 


+ 4 


49 
50 


d 1 
d 1 


171 
137 


192 

178 


1.81 
1.75 


Cox (formol-acetic) . . 
Cox (formol-acetic).. 


48 

72 


1.7687 
1.8944 


- 2 
+ 8 


1.5003 
1.5221 


-17 
-13 



In a later study King ('13 a) followed in some detail the ef- 
fects of formaldehyde on the brain of the Albino. The conclu- 
sions reached were as follows: 

1. A 4 per cent solution of formaldehyde causes a pronounced swell- 
ing in the brains of rats of all ages. 

2. A solution of formaldehyde undergoes some chemical change on 
standing, since a solution five months old causes less swelling in the 
brain of the rat than does a freshly made solution. 

3. A 4 per cent solution of formaldehyde neutralized with NaCO 3 
produces a much greater amount of swelling in the brain of the rat 
than does a solution that has a faintly acid reaction. 

4. A strong neutralized solution of formaldehyde causes a greater 
percentage weight increase in the ratfe brain than does a weak neutral- 
ized solution. A reverse result is obtained when the solutions are not 
neutralized. 



&& 

3$/$~*~ 



^ 



52 ANATOMY 

5. If rats' brains are subjected to the action of a solution of for- 
maldehyde that is kept at a constant temperature of 36C., they under- 
go a greater amount of swelling than is produced when the solution is 
kept at a temperature of 8 to 11C. The maximum weight increase 
in the brains is reached by the end of the first day in the former case, 
and not until the third day in the latter case. 

6. When the conditions under which the solution acts are uni- 
form, the maximum weight increase in rats' brains subjected to the 
action of a 4 per cent solution of formaldehyde is attained in all cases 
by the third day, and there is then a gradual decrease in weight. Brains 
of very young animals tend to reach the maximum earlier than do those 
of older animals. 

7. The percentage weight increase in rats' brains as the result of 
the action of a 4 per cent formaldehyde solution tends to be greater 
in the brains of young animals than in those of adults. 

8. In animals of the same age the larger brain does not show a greater 
percentage weight increase after treatment with a solution of formal- 
dehyde than does the smaller one. 

9. A 4 per cent solution of formaldehyde extracts solids from the 
brains of rats of all ages. This is shown by the fact that the percentage 
of solids in brains that have been subjected to the action of such a 
solution is always less than that found in the fresh brains of animals of 
the same age. Brains of very young rats lose much more of their solids 
than do brains of older animals. 

10. Brains of animals infected with pneumonia show a slightly 
greater percentage weight increase when treated with a 4 per cent 
solution of formaldehyde than do the brains of healthy animals. 

11. Even under the most favorable conditions an aqueous solution 
of formaldehyde is not a satisfactory fixative for the cell structures in 
brain tissues, as it causes a pronounced distention of the nuclei and 
gives a poor preservation of the nuclear contents. 

The more important data are given in tables 36, 37, 38, 39, 40. 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 



53 



TABLE 36 



Percentage weight increase in rats' brains, each kept for ten weeks on 40 cc. of a 
neutralized solution of 4 per cent formaldehyde made five months before the experi- 
ments began (averages for three brains at each age) 











AGE 


F BATS 








TIME SOLUTION ACTED 


New- 
born 


10 
days 


20 
days 


40 

days 


50 

days 


70 
days 


100 
days 


200 
days 


1 day . . 


29 7 1 


28.8 


25.0 


25.2 


26. 9 1 


24.5 


28. 3 1 


15.3 


3 days 


28.0 


35. 1 


28. 3 1 


26. 3 l 


26.8 


27. 3 1 


26.8 


21. O l 


7 days 


27.3 


33.0 


27.3 


25.0 


25.1 


25.1 


25.7 


18.6 


2 weeks 


23.9 


31.9 


27.3 


24.5 


25.1 


25.3 


26.3 


18.9 


3 weeks 


23.4 


31.4 


28.3 


24.9 


25.5 


24.4 


25.3 


19.3 


4 weeks ... 


22.5 


30.5 


26.7 


24.5 


24.8 


25.6 


26.2 


19.4 


10 weeks 


17.6 


27.9 


26.9 


24.7 


25.2 


25.6 


25.0 


19.2 




















Average percentage gain . . 


24.6 


31.2 


27.1 


25.0 


25.6 


25.4 


26.2 


18.8 



Maximum weight increase. 



TABLE 37 



Percentage weight increase in rats' brains, each kept for ten weeks in 40 cc. of a 
neutralized solution of 4 per cent formaldehyde made at the time the experiments 
began (averages for three brains at each age) 



AGE OF BATS 



TIME SOLUTION ACTED 


New- 
born 


10 
days 


20 
days 


40 
days 


50 
days 


70 
clays 


100 
days 


200 

days 


1 day. . . 


44 4 1 


58 2 


39.5 


37. 9 1 


39. 3 1 


34.4 


45. 6 1 


32.4 


3 days 


42 


64. 6 1 


41. 5 1 


37.6 


38.5 


38. 6 1 


43.1 


34. 7 1 


7 days 


41.5 


62.1 


40.1 


36.4 


35.6 


34.1 


41.1 


30.9 


2 weeks 


38 


62.9 


39.7 


35.9 


36.1 


34.9 


41.0 


30.8 


3 weeks 


37.7 


63.4 


40.0 


35.7 


36.9 


34.3 


40.4 


31.2 


4 weeks 


36 1 


62.8 


39.9 


35.5 


35.4 


35.7 


40.5 


31.6 


10 weeks 


33 9 


61 4 


39 4 


35 5 


36 1 


35.5 


37.7 


31.8 




















Average percentage gain . . 


39.1 


62.2 


40.0 


36.4 


36.7 


35.4 


41.3 


31.9 



Maximum weight increase. 



54 



ANATOMY 



TABLE 38 



Percentage weight increase in rats' brains, each kept for four weeks in 40 cc. of a 
neutralized solution of 4 per cent formaldehyde made fresh for each lot of animals 
killed (averages for two brains at each age) 











AGE O 


f BATS 








TIME SOLUTION' ACTED 


New- 
born 


10 
days 


1 

days 


40 

days 


50 
days 


70 

days 


100 
days 


200 
days 


1 day . - 


60.4 


54.7 


45.8 


47. 6 1 


50. 4 1 


44.9 


44. 2 1 


36 1 


3 days 


65. 8 1 


58. 5 1 


52. 9 1 


47.4 


47.7 


48. 8 1 


42.7 


40. 1 1 


7 days . 


65 4 


58.5 


48.3 


45.6 


45.1 


44.2 


38 3 


36 2 


2 weeks 


65.1 


58.4 


48.9 


45.3 


44.8 


43.2 


38.6 


33 


3 weeks 


64.8 


58.2 


48.9 


44.7 


45.2 


43.9 


38.8 


34.7 


4 weeks 


61.7 


57.8 


50.4 


45.1 


45.4 


44.9 


39.3 


34.9 




















Average percentage gain . . 


63.4 


57.7 


49.2 


35.9 


46.4 


44.8 


40.3 


35.8 



1 Maximum weight increase. 



TABLE 39 

Percentage weight increase in rats' brains, each kept for four weeks in 40 cc. oj 
non-neutralized solution of 4 per cent formaldehyde made fresh for each lot of 
animals killed (averages for two brains at each age) 



AGE OF RATS 



TIME SOLUTION ACTED 


New- 
born 


10 
days 


20 
days 


40 

days 


50 
days 


70 
days 


100 

days 


200 

days 


1 day 


34. 5 1 


37.3 


36.7 


39. 7 1 


44. 2 1 


39.5 


41. 1 1 


32.2 


3 days 


18.6 


45. 1 1 


45. 4 1 


39.1 


42.8 


42. 3 1 


39.4 


35. 4 1 


7 days 


9.9 


37.8 


38.2 


35.6 


38.1 


34.3 


33.8 


30.2 


2 weeks 


3.5 


30.4 


34.6 


31.5 


32.6 


31.5 


29.0 


26.7 


3 weeks 


0.4 


25.9 


30.7 


28.3 


30.6 


29.5 


27.4 


24.5 


4 weeks 


-1.5 


23.5 


27.9 


26.6 


27.8 


27.3 


24.3 


24.5 




















Average percentage gain . . 


13.1 


33.3 


35.6 


33.5 


36.0 


34.1 


32.5 


28.9 



1 Maximum weight increase. 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 



55 



TABLE 40 



The percentage of solids in brains of rats of various ages kept from four to eighteen 
weeks in solutions of 4 'P er cen ^ formaldehyde (computations made from original 
brain weights) 



EXPERIMENTS 


AGE OF RATS 


New- 
born 


10 
days 


20 
days 


40 
days 


50 
days 


70 
days 


100 

days 


200 
days 


Brains kept 18 wks. in neu- 
tralized stock solutions 
Brains kept 10 wks. in sol. 
5 mos. old . . . 


8.1 
8.1 

7.8 
8.2 
9.6 
9.2 
10.5 
9.7 

8.3 


10.3 

10.1 
10.3 
10.1 
10.9 
9.8 
10.9 
9.8 

10.6 


14.7 
16.5 
16.0 
16.4 
16.7 
16.2 
16.3 
15.1 

16.3 


18.4 
19.4 
19.2 
19.3 
19.3 
19.7 
19.0 
18.7 

19.2 


19.4 
19.4 
19.5 
19.6 
19.1 
20.5 
20.0 
19.4 

19.0 


19.5 
20.5 
20.1 
19.6 
20.7 
19.9 
20.1 
19.8 

20.1 


19.7 
20.1 
20.9 
20.1 
20.2 
20.8 
20.1 

20.1 


20.9 
20.5 
21.6 
21.8 
21.1 
21.5 
21.6 
20.1 

21.7 


Brains kept 10 wks. in 
freshly made sol. . . . 


Brains kept 4 wks. in 40 
cc. neutral sol. 


Brains kept 4 wks. in 40 
cc. acid sol. 


Brains kept 4 wks. in 20 
cc. neutral sol 


Brains kept 4 wks. in 20 
cc. acid sol 


Brains kept 4 wks. in neu- 
tral sol. at temp. 26 C. . 
Brains kept 4 wks. in neu- 
tral sol. at temp. 8 to 
11C 




Averages for above series 
Normal percentage of sol- 
ids in rats' brains (Don- 
aldson) 


8.6 
12.2 
29.5 


10.6 
14.6 
29.4 


16.3 
17.5 

7.4 


19.2 
19.5 
1.5 


19.6 
20.9 
6.2 


20.1 

21.1 
4.7 


20.3 
21.3 

4.7 


21.2 
21.6 
1.8 


Percentage loss of solids 
as result of action of 
formaldehvde. . . 



7. Sense organs. The cochlea makes 2| turns (Fortuyn, '14, 
p. 348). 

8. Integument (see references). 

9. Gastro-pulmonary systems. For the weights of the various 
viscera see tables 68-72. 

a) Gastro-intestinal system. The volumes of the liver and pan- 
creas cells with those of their respective nuclei have been de- 



56 



ANATOMY 



termined by Morgulis ('11). The organs were fixed in Zenker's 
solution and imbedded in paraffine and were taken from one 
normal Albino 110 days old; body length 176 mm. ; body weight, 
137.7 grams. 



TABLE 41 

Liver cells 



NO. OF 

MEASUREMENTS 
OF CELI 8 


VOLUME IN if OF 


NO. OF 
MEASUREMENTS 
OF NUCLEUS 


DIAMETERS OF 
NUCLEUS IN ft 


Entire cell 


Nucleus 


100 


5075 


247.2 


50 


7.56 X 8.25 





Pancreas cells 



100 


1829 


94.3 


40 


5.48 X 6.00 













b) Pulmonary system (see references), also table 70. 

10. Uro-genital system (see references), also table 70. 

11. Endocrine system (see references), also table 77. 

ANATOMY: REFERENCES 

1. Anatomy, general. Akamatsu, '05. Brisson, 1756. Duesberg, '07. Flower, 
1872. Goto, '06. Hewer, '14. Krause, 1876. Leydig, 1854, 1857. Martin and 
Moale, 1884. Meyer, 1800. Morrell, 1872. Owen, 1868. Waller, 1693. 

2. Embryology, a) Spermatogenesis. Benda, 1887. Brown, 1885. Dues- 
berg, '08, '08 a, '09. Ebner, 1888. Hewer, '14. Jensen, 1887. Leeuwenhoeck, 
1693. Lenhoss6k, 1898. Meves, 1898. Montane, 1889. Regaud, '04. Renson, 

1882. Retzius, '09. Wiedersperg, 1885. 6) Ovulation. Bellonci, 1885. Blanc, 
1892. Coe, '08. Kirkham, '10. Kirkham and Burr, '13. Mark and Long, '12. 
Sobotta and Burckhard, '10. Tafani, 1889, 1889 a. c) Early stages. Cristiani, 
1892. Fraser, 1883. Huber, '15, '15 a, '15 b. Klebs, 1891. Melissinos, '07. Rob- 
inson, 1892, '04. Ryder, 1888. Selenka, 1883, 1884. Solger, 1889. d) Later stages. 
Adloff, 1898. Askanazy ,'08. Braun, 1882. Brunn, 1887. Chievitz, 1885. Freund, 
1892. Glas, '04. Gottschau, 1883. Henneberg, 1899, 1900. Lewis, '15. Mey- 
erheim,' 1898. Robinson, 1889, 1892, 1892a, 1896. Souli<,'03. Tandler,'02. Uskow, 

1883. Weiss,'01. Widakowich,'09. Willach, 1888. Williams,'96. Zuckerkandl, '03. 

3. Bones and joints and connective tissues. Bignotte, 1900. Donaldson, '12 a. 
Hansemann, '04. Hartley, '07. Hatai, '07 c. Hyrtl, 1845. Katzenstein, '03. 
Kohlmeyer, '06. Renaut, '04. Retterer, '05. Weiss, 1900. a) Teeth. Addison 
and Appleton, '15. Beretta, '13. Brunn, 1880. MacGillavry, 1875, 1876. Owen, 
1840-1845. Terra, '11. Wiedersheim, '03. 

4. Muscles, Bell, '11. Gulliver, 1839, 1842. Kolster, '01. McMunn, 1884. 
Meek, '99. Mellanby, '08. Morpurgo, 1898, 1899, 1899 a. Rosenfeld, 1899. 
Schafer, 1900a. Stirling, 1883. 



ANATOMY REFERENCES 57 

5. Vessels and blood. Chisholm, '11. Gamgee, '98. Gulliver, 1875. Halli- 
burton, 1888. Hober, '11. Job, '15. Jolly and Stini, '05. Kanthack and Hardy, 
1894. Minot, 1900. Preyer, 1866, 1871. Quinquaud, 1873. Reichert and 
Brown, '09. Schafer, 1898. Sherrington and Copeman, 1893. Tandler, 1899; 
White, '01. Wormley, 1888. 

6. Nervous system, a) Central. 1) Brain. Addison, '11. Allen, '12. Bech- 
terew, 1890. Bradley, '03. Cajal, 1897, 1909-1911. Donaldson, '08, '09, '10, '11, 
'11 a, '11 b. Donaldson and Hatai, '11, '11 a. Fortuyn, '14. Gentes, '03. Gold- 
stein, '04. Haller, '10. Hamilton, '01. Hatai, '03, '09, '09 a. King, J. L., '10. 
King, H. D., '11. Lapicque, '07. Lewis, 1881. Meek, '07. Reichardt, '06 
Retzius, 1894. Watson, '03. Wagner, 1841. 2) Spinal cord. Allen, '12. Bar- 
deleben, 1899. Hatai, '02 b. Lenhossek, 1889. Pontier and G6rard, 1900. Ran- 
son, '13, '14 a. Retzius, 1893. Robinson, 1892 a. Spitzka, 1886. Sterzi, '04. 
Stieda, 1869. Van der Vloet, '06. b) Peripheral. 1, 2) Cerebrospinal. Beck, 
1896. Benedicenti, 1892. Berkley, 1893, 1895. Bischoff, 1832. Boughton, '06. 
Cabibbe, '04. Cannieu, '94. Donaldson, 1900, '05. Dunn, '12. Fortuyn, '14. 
Greenman, '13. Hamilton, '01. Hatai, '01, 'Ola, '02, '02 a, '03, '03 b, '03 c, 
'03 d, '04, '07 b. Krause, 1870. Ploschko, 1897. Ramstrom, '05. Ranson, '06. 
Stirling, 1883. S) Autonomic. Apolant, 1896. Asp, 1873. Barteneff, 1891. 
Cajal, 1893. Carpenter and Conel, '14. Fusari and Panasci, 1891. Fusari, 
1894. Korolkow, 1892. Martinotti, 1889. Roth, '05. c) Technical methods. 
Cajal, 1889, '03. King, '10, '13 a. Ohlmacher, 1897. Turner, '04. 

7. Sense organs. Asai, '08. Bulle, 1887. Ebner, 1873. Fortuyn, '14. 
Gmelin, 1892. Honigschmied, 1873. Koganei, 1885. Lauber, '01. Love"n, 1868, 
Mayer, 1843. Munch, 1896. Schafer, 1900 a. Stahr, '03. Tello, '06. Tucker- 
man, 1892. Wyss, 1870. 

8. Integument. Calef, 1900. Durham, '04. Peters, 1890. Romer, 1896. 

9. Gastro-pulmonary systems, a) Gastro-intestinal . Asher, '08. Asher and 
Erdely, '03. Asp, 1873. Briimmer, 1876. Bujard, '05, '09. Custor, 1873. Cu- 
vier, 1805. Demjanenko, '09. Edelmann, 1889. Ellenberger and Guenther, 
'08. Falcone, 1898. Frenkel, 1892. Gamier, 1897. Gillette, 1872. Heuser, 
'14. Home, 1807. Hoyer, 1890. Klein, 1871. Kupffer, 1876. Langley, 1882. 
Loewenthal, 1894, 1894 a, 1900, '08. Mayer, 1894. Mazzarelli, 1890. Morgulis, 
'11. Mouret, 1895. Miiller, 1830. Nicolas, 1890. Podwisotzky, 1878. Pod- 
wyssotzki, 1882. Ranvier, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1886 a. Rapp, 1839. Retzius, 
1841. Rubeli, 1890. Salter, 1859. Saviotti, 1869. Schmidt, 1863. Schwalbe, 
1872. Severin, 1885. Toepfer and Fleischmann, 1891. Watney, 1874. Zillin- 
berg-Paul, '09. Zumstein, 1891. b) Pulmonary system. Arnstein, 1877. Frank- 
enhaeuser, 1879. Fuchs-Wolfring, 1898. Gegenbaur, 1892. Guieysse/ 1898. 
Hansemann, 1895. Klein, 1875. Linser, 1900. Livini, 1896. Miller, 1893. 
Schulze, 1871. Zumstein, 1890. 

10. Urogenital system. Beiling, '06. Belloy, 1899. Disselhorst, 1897, 1897 a, 
'04. Fischel, '14. Harz, 1883. Leydig, 1850. Lowenthal, 1897. Mueller, '02. 
Oudemans, 1892. Rauther, '03. Regaud, 1900, 1900 a, 1900 b, 1900 c, '01, 01 a, 
'01 b, '01 c, '01 d, '02, '02 a, '03. Stutzmann, 1898. Watson and Campbell, '06. 

11. Endocrine system (see also Endocrine system under Physiology). Dos- 
toiewsky, 1886, 1886 a. Elliot and Tuckett, '06. Erdheim, '06. Gemelli, '03, 
'05, '06. '06 a. Hatai, '14, '14 a. Sandri, '08. Stendell, '13. Tilney, '11, '13. 
Vincent, '10. Watson, C., '07, '09. 



CHAPTER 4 
PHYSIOLOGY 

1. Muscle and nerve. 2. Nervous system, a) Central, b) Peripheral, b 1 ) 
Degeneration, b 2 ) Regeneration. 3. Special senses. 4. Blood and lymph. 5. 
Circulation blood and lymph. 6. Respiration. 7. Digestion and secretion 
(exclusive of ductless glands). 8. Nutrition, a) Body temperature. 9. Repro- 
duction. 10. Endocrine system. 

The quantitative data for the functions of the normal Albino 
are rather scanty. Those available are given in their topical 
order and the references at the end of the chapter are also ar- 
ranged by topics as usual. 

Tabular records for the very important studies of Osborne 
and Mendel on the modifications of body growth by the use of 
various proteins are reluctantly omitted because of the general 
plan of presenting in these pages data for the normal rat only. 

8. Nutrition. A study of the nitrogen excretion has been 
made by Hatai ('05). Chicago Colony, ration: Uneeda biscuit 
and water. 

From observations on 89 male rats at different ages and weights the 
following results were obtained: 

1. The total amount of urine increases with the weight up to 120 
grams, then decreases very decidedly. From 180 grams it again in- 
creases up to 220 grams, beyond which weight it remains rather constant. 
A diminution of urine in animals between 120 and 180 grams, or ap- 
proximately 70-125 days old, seems to be a normal phenomenon rather 
than mere statistical variation. Whether or not this is a phenomenon 
of adolescence needs further investigation. It must be noted, how- 
ever, that puberty in the rat begins at about seventy days after birth. 
The smaller animals excrete a relatively greater quantity of urine than 
the larger animals. 

2. The total amount of nitrogen is quite independent of the amount 
of urine, and increases constantly and continuously throughout life. 
The smaller rats, however, excrete a relatively greater quantity than 
the larger animals. 

3. The percentage value of urinary nitrogen is 91 per cent of the 
total in the case of smaller animals, and 89 per cent in the case of the 
larger. 

58 



NUTRITION 



59 



TABLE 42 

Showing the amount of urine, feces, and nitrogen during three days, 
rats alone were used 



Male 



BODY 

WEIGHT 


NO. OP 
ANIMALS 


URINE 


FECES 


NITHOGF.N 
IN URINE 


NITROGEN 
IN FECES 


TOTAL 
NITROGEN 


BODY 

WEIGHT 


NO. OP 

ANIMAI 8 


URINE 


FECES 


NITROGEN 

IN URINE 


NITROGEN 
IN FECES 


TOTAL 
NITROGEN 


gm. 
38 


8 


CC. 

5.75 
6.25 
5.00 


mgm . 
327 
217 
105 


mgm. 
52 
45 
42 


mgm. 
4 
4 
1 


mgm. 
56 
49 
43 


gm. 
162 


4 


CC. 

16.13 
11.50 
12.00 


mgm. 
748 
208 
227 


mgm. 
162 
140 
141 


mgm. 
32 
11 
16 


mgm. 
194 
151 
157 


Average 


5.7 


216 


46 


3 


50 


Average 


13.2 


394 


148 


20 


168 


53 


7 


12.62 
9.52 
9.17 


347 

57 


85 
65 
54 


11 

3 


96 
65 
57 


178 


4 


12.13 
12.00 
13.38 


379 
482 
374 


187 
154 
162 


17 

21 
15 


204 
175 
177 


Average 


10.4 


135 


68 


5 


73 


Average 


12.5 


412 


168 


18 


185 


70 


8 


16.69 
10.87 
10.41 


395 
205 
68 


93 
103 
92 


13 

7 
3 


106 
110 
95 


191 


3 


16.00 
17.30 
11.30 


177 
163 

348 


194 
185 
164 


9 
9 
17 


203 
194 
181 


Average 


12.8 


223 


96 


8 


104 


Average 


14.9 


229 


181 


12 


193 


85 


5 


15.9 
12.4 
9.5 


438 
219 
330 


97 
102 
83 


22 
4 
13 


119 
106 
96 


207 


4 


19.30 
10.80 
19.00 


776 
516 
195 


158 
182 
181 


29 
24 
7 


187 
206 
188 


Average 


12.6 


329 


94 


13 


107 


Average 


16.4 


496 


174 


20 


194 


99 


6 


15.50 
10.83 
8.98 


556 

38 
199 


137 
124 
100 


20 
3 
5 


157 

127 
105 


220 


2 


24.00 
20.00 
19.00 


809 
235 
382 


217 
181 
148 


42 
8 
' 29 


259 
189 
177 


Average 


11.8 


264 


120 


9 


130 


Average 


21.00 


475 


182 


26 


208 


106 


6 


15.41 
17.67 
17.33 


374 

294 

248 


122 
119 
110 


10 
5 

18 


132 
124 
128 


239 


4 


18.80 
17.80 
18.00 


794 
502 
404 


207 
175 
178 


30 
15 
16 


237 
190 
194 


Average 


16.8 


305 


117 


11 


128 


Average 


18.2 


566 


187 


20 


207 


116 


5 


22.3 
14.5 
18.0 


776 
138 
39 


143 
135 
123 


26 

8 



169 
143 
123 


266 


4 


20.38 
24.00 
22.00 


333 
896 
690 


204 
225 
259 


21 
32 
28 


225 
257 

287 


Average 


18.3 


318 


134 


11 


145 


Average 


22.1 


639 


229 


27 


256 


127 


4 


18.25 
13.00 
18.75 


906 
346 
127 


120 
115 

129 


26 
17 
6 


146 
132 
135 


298 


5 


20.25 
18.00 
17.35 


956 
638 

598 


246 

272 
262 


37 

26 
24 


283 

298 

286 


Average 


16.7 


460 


121 


16 


138 


Average 


18.5 


731 


260 


29 


289 


144 


5 


17.58 
16.25 
15.00 


359 
360 
49 


153 
166 
113 


15 
10 
1 


168 
176 
114 


333 


3 


16.88 
26.50 
19.50 


1424 
475 

857 


261 
280 

297 


25 
20 
37 


286 
300 
334 


Average 


16.3 


256 


144 


9 


153 


Average 


20.9 


919 


279 


27 


306 


156 


5 


13.90 
13.90 
15.75 


425 
638 
445 


126 
151 

169 


14 
16 

17 


140 
167 
186 


370 


3 


13.00 
12.80 
19.30 


877 
817 
217 


250 
289 
291 


45 
32 

9 


295 
321 
299 


Average 


14.5 


503 


149 


16 


165 


Average 


15.00 


637 


277 


29 


306 



60 



PHYSIOLOGY 



4. The total, amount of nitrogen eliminated by the rat during twenty- 
four hours at different weights may be determined with a high degree 
of accuracy by the formula (33). 

The normal protein metabolism of the rat has been studied 
by Fomvand Morris ('13). They find a distribution of nitro- 
gen in the urine as shown in tables 43, 44. 

TABLE 43 
Female rat weighing 290 grams. Average of 5 days 





MGU. 


PER CENT 


Total N 


173.50 


100 00 


Urea N 


143 20 


77 30 


Ammonia N 


9.10 


5.20 


Uric Acid N 


0.69 


0.40 


Creatinine N 


4 50 


2 65 


Creatinine + Creatine N 


4.70 


2.71 









TABLE 44 
Male rat weighing 197 grams. Average of 6 





MGM. 


PER CENT 


Total N 


126.00 


100.00 


Urea N 


105 90 


84 00 


Ammonia N 


6.70 


5 30 


Uric Acid N 


0.52 


0.41 


Creatinine N 


2 90 


2 30 


Creatinine + Creatine N 


3.00 


2.38 









"It will be seen from examination of the average results that 
the percentage composition of rat urine differs but little from 
that of human urine." 

a) Body temperature. Using the mercurial thermometer in the 
rectum, Pembrey ('95) reports a body temperature of 37.5C. 
in adult Albinos. Macleod ('07) by the same method finds a 
range of 37.5-38.5C. with a mean of 37.9C.; Congdon ('12) 
also by the same method a temperature of 37.9C. in the young; 
in the adult, when reared at 16C., a temperature of 36.2C. 
and when reared at 33C., of 37.2C. Graham and Hutchison 



NUTRITION 



61 



('14) using the thermoelectric method of Philips and Demuth 
obtained the following: 



TABLE 45 



EXTERNAL TEMPERATURE 


BODY TEMPERATURE (C.) 


High 


Low 


5 C Series (a) 


36.1 
34.9 

38.7 
41.8 


21.1 
19.0 
32.4 
32.9 


Series (b) 
21 C 


37 C 





PHYSIOLOGY: REFERENCES 

1. Muscle and nerve. Boinet, 1895. Engelmann, 1877. Lee, '10. Mellanby, 
'08. 

2. Nervous system, a) Central. Terrier, 1886. Hatai, '03 a, '04 a, '07 a, '08, 
'15 a. Mills, 1897. Schafer, 1900. Watson, '05. 6) Peripheral. 6 1 ) Degenera- 
tion. b 2 ) Regeneration. Greenman, '13. Ranson, '03, '04, '06, '14. Tournade, 
'13. 

3. Special Senses. Bogardus and Henke, '11. Hunter, '14. Vincent, '12, 
'13, '15, '15 a, '15 b. 

4. Blood and Lymph. Erddly, '05. Robertson, 12. Rywosch, '07. Tromms- 
dorf, '09. 

5. Circulation. Rattone and Mondino, 1888, 1888 a, 1889, 1889 a. 

6. Respiration. Bert, 1878. Boycott and Damant, '08 a. Boycott and Da- 
mant and Haldane, '08. Pembrey, 1895. Pembrey and Spriggs, '04. 

7. Digestion and Secretion (exclusive of the ductless glands). Ackroyd, '14, 
'15. Astaschewsky, 1877. Basch, 1870. Easier, '09. Bohlen, 1894. Drasch, 
1886. Eimer, 1869. Ellenberger, '06. Elliott and Barclay-Smith '04. Gruetz- 
ner, 1875, 1878, 1894, 1898, '05. Hohmeier,'01. Jolyet and Chaker, 1875. Langley 
and Sewall, 1879. Langley, 1879. Matthes and Marquardsen, 1898. Paneth, 
1888, 1888 a. Ranvier, 1887, 1888, 1894. Schiff, 1859. Zawarykin, 1883. 

8. Nutrition and body temperature. Aldrich, '12. Aron, '12, '13. Briining, 
'14, '14 a. Chidester, '12. Congdon, '12. Cook, '13. Czermak, 1895. Falta 
and Noeggerath, '05. Folin and Morris, '13. Forbes and Keith, '14. Frank 
and Schittenhelm, '12. Gevaerts, '01. Graham and Hutchison, '14. Greg- 
ersen, '11. Gudernatsch, '15. Hart and McCollum, '13. Hatai, '05. Hewer, 
'14. Heymann, '04. Hill, '13. Hill and Macleod, '03. Hopkins, '12. Hop- 
kins and Neville, '12. Hunt, '10. Hunter, Givens and Guion, '14. Jackson, 
'15b. Jacob. '06. Knapp, '08. Kreidl and Neumann, '08. Lane-Claypon, '09. 
Langlois and Loir, '02. McCollum, '09. McCollum and Davis, '13, '13 a, '14. 
Macleod, '07. Mendel, '13. Morgulis, '11. Osborne, '13. Osborne and Men- 
del, '11, '11 a, '11 b, '12, '12 a, '12 b, '12 c, '12 d, '12 e, '12 f, '12 g, '13, '13 a, '13 b 
'14, '14 a, '14 b, '14 c, '14 d, '14 e, '15. Paul, '06. Pembrey. 1895. Pitts, 1898. 
Poljakoff, 1888. Rohde" and Jones, '09. Watson, B. P., '07. Watson, C., '06, 



62 PHYSIOLOGY 

'06 a, '06 b. '07 a, '07 b, '07 c, '07 d, '10 '12. Watson and Lyon, '06. 
Watson and Gibbs, '06. 

9. Reproduction. Carmichael and Marshall, '07. Cuenot, 1899. Fischel, 
'14. Hewer, '14. Marshall and Jolly, '07, '08. Regaud, 1900 d, 1900 e, 1900 f. 
Steinach, '10, '11, '12, '13. 

10. Endocrine System. Barnabo, '13. Biedl, '13. Boinet, 1895, 1895 a. 
Brown-Sequard, 1856. Cristiani, 1893, 1893 a, 1893 b, 1895, 1900. Cristiani and 
Cristiani, '02, '02 a, '02 b, '02c, '02 d. Erdheim, '06 a, '07, '11, '11 a, 'lib. 
Gemelli, '06. Goetsch and Gushing, '13. Goldmann, '09, '12. Harley, 1857, 
1858, 1858 a, 1858 b. Hohlbaum, '12. Hunt and Seidell '09. Iselin, '08. 
Leischner, '07. Leischner and Kohler, '11. Leopold and Reuss, '08. Olds, '10. 
Poll, 1898, 1899. Schafer, '08. Schiff, 1884, 1884 a. Steinach, 1894. Strehl and 
Weiss, '01. Toyofuku, '11. Vincent, 1897, 1897 a. '12. Vincent and Jolly, '05, 
'06. Watson, C., '14. Wiesel, 1899, 1899 a. 



CHAPTER 5 

GROWTH IN TOTAL BODY WEIGHT ACCORDING TO 

AGE 

1. Introduction. 2. Growth before birth. 3. Growth between birth and 
maturity. 4. Modifications of growth in total body weight. 5. Weight-length 
ratios. 

1. Introduction. Under the general caption of growth several 
series of data are grouped in this chapter and in the four chapters 
which follow it. The chapter heads explain the several group- 
ings and show that some data are presented according to age 
and other data according to some bodily measurement. 

The reasons for this procedure will be evident in each instance. 
The effort has been made to gather as much of the data as pos- 
sible under the caption of growth as this seemed the best way 
to make the records available for reference. 

The following tables present the size, weight and composition 
of the albino rat and some of its parts, under conditions which 
may be considered normal. 

As regards absohite measurements, it must be borne in mind 
that the Albino is very responsive to external conditions as rep- 
resented by food, housing, temperature, exercise, and incidental 
disturbances, especially light and noises. 

No two colonies today are kept under more than approximately 
similar conditions and it follows that the average size of the 
animals from different colonies varies. The conditions just 
noted also appear to influence the relative weights of some of 
the viscera. For these reasons, each set of determinations will 
be accompanied by a statement, as complete as possible, con- 
cerning the special conditions surrounding the animals on which 
the observations were made. 

2. Growth before birth. For the data on growth during the 
first few days of fetal life, see Chapter 3, Embryology, early 
stages, pp. 31-33 Huber ('15 a) and other references there given. 

63 



64 



GROWTH IN TOTAL BODY WEIGHT 



At about the 13th day after insemination the fetus is large 
enough to be directly weighed and from this date to birth the 
growth has been followed. 

In a series of 38 females, each of which had already born one 
litter, Stotsenburg (MS '15) has observed exactly the time of 



Fetus of albino rat 



Weight in grams 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 21 22 Days 



Chart 1 shows the course of fetal growth from the 13th to the 22nd day 
gestation. Stotsenburg (MS '15). The data are given in table 46. 

insemination and then weighed the fetuses at the ages given in 
table 46. Before weighing the membranes were removed and in 
some instances the crown-rump length was measured (table 
47) . The graph representing the growth before birth from the 
13th day on is given in chart 1, the interval used for one day be- 
ing two-fifths of that used for one gram. 



GROWTH BETWEEN BIRTH AND MATURITY 



65 



3. Growth between birth and maturity. The first observations 
were made at the University of Chicago by Donaldson, Dunn 
and Watson ('06) on stock rats fed mainly on milk-soaked bread 

TABLE 46 
Showing the mean weights of the fetuses at ten ages during gestation 



AGE IN DAYS 


NUMBER OF FETUSES 


'AVERAGE WEIGHT OF 
FETUS IN GRAMS 


RATE OF INCREASE 
IN WEIGHT 


13 


34 


0.040 


per cent 


14 


44 


0.112 


179 


15 


37 


0.168 


50 


16 


44 


0.310 


83 


17 


21 


0.548 


77 


18 


43 


1.000 


83 


19 


30 


1.580 


58 


20 


25 


2.630 


65 


21 


42 


3.980 


51 


22 


10 


4.630 


16 











TABLE 47 



Giving the crown-rump length of fetus in millimeters. Scrap diet only, 
here measured are part of those used for Table 46 



The fetuses 



SERIAL NUMBER 


AGE IN 
DAYS 


NUMBER 
IN LITTER 


AVERAGE 
WEIGHT OF 
FETUS IN 
GRAMS 


AVERAGE 
CROWN- 
RUMP 
LENGTH 
IN MM. 


RANGE OF 
LENGTH 
IN MM. 


42 


14 


8 


0.093 


9.5 


9.0-10.0 


43 


15 


12 


0.107 


9.4 


9.0-10.0 


37 


15 


8 


0.218 


12.1 


12.0-12.5 


41 


16 


11 


0.322 


13.0 


12.5-13.0 


40 


17 


7 


0.525 


16.3 


16.0-17.0 


36 


18 


9 


0.947 


19.1 


18.0-21.0 


37 


19 


8 


1.490 


22.7 


20.5-24.0 


35 


20 


10 


2.510 


27.7 


24.0-32.0 


34 


21 


9 


4.070 


36.7 


35.0-39.0 


44 


22 


10 


4.630 


39.2 


36.0-41.0 















with corn as a staple. The values before fourteen days of age 
were obtained from weighing different litters, each litter being 
weighed only once. The original values at birth and for the first 
ten days were plainly too high and have been replaced by new 



66 



GROWTH IN. TOTAL BODY WEIGHT 



data (Donaldson, MS '14). After the 14th day the weighing 
of 19 males and 17 females was made at frequent intervals, so 
long as the animals kept in good condition. Tables 63 and 64 
give for males and females respectively not only the mean values 
but the range, and in the case of the females, after 90 days, the 




Chart 2 Growth in body weight on age. Male albino rat. 

A. Observations of Donaldson, Dunn and Watson ('06) . See table 63. 

B. Observations of Ferry, '13. See table 65. 

B'. Observations of Ferry, '13. See column 2, table 65. 

C. Observations of King (MS '15). Data from two series combined. See 
table 67. 

observed values for the unmated animals are accompanied by 
a second series of values computed for mated rats on the basis of 
Watson's ('05) observations which show that mated females gain 
in weight about 0.03 per cent per diem faster than the unmated. 
These data are used for graph A, chart 2, males, and graph A, 
chart 3, females. 



GROWTH BETWEEN BIRTH AND MATURITY 



67 



Using the mean values in table 63 for the males from 10 days 
of age on, and the corresponding values in table 64 for the fe- 
males and taking the records for the mated females where given, 
Hatai has determined the graph for which formulas 34 and 35 
give the values for the male, and formulas 36 and 37 the values 
for the female for this special series. By the use of these formu- 
las the body weights have been computed for each day of age 



Growth in body weight Albino Rat 




Chart 3 Growth in body weight on age. Female albino rat. 

A. Observations of Donaldson, Dunn and Watson ('06). See table 64. 

B. Observations of Ferry, '13. See table 65. 

C. Observations of King (MS '15). Data from two series combined. See 
table 67. 



from 10-100 days and at intervals of five days from 100-365 
days (see table 62). 

The values given for the first ten days of age in table 62 have 
been obtained from a revised series of direct observations Don- 
aldson (MS '14). 

The weight at birth as here given, is for rats that have suckled. 

A second series of data for body weight on age have been 
gathered by Miss Ferry. 



68 GROWTH IN TOTAL BODY WEIGHT 

Using the rats from the colony maintained for the experiments 
of Osborne and Mendel at the Connecticut Agricultural Station 
in New Haven, Ferry ('13) has recorded the growth with age 
from the 10th to the 280th day of life. 

The diet of the rats consisted of Austin's dog-biscuit, and 
sunflower seeds with fresh vegetables (chiefly carrots or corn and 
string beans) two or three times a week, and a small amount of 
cooked meat twice a week. A little salt was always kept in the 
cage. The cages were small. 

Table 66 gives the numbers of rats weighed at the several ages 
and table 65 the mean values for each sex. The females were 
unmated. In chart 2 graph B shows the values for the males and 
in chart 3 graph B shows the values for the females. 

The broken line record marked B' in chart 2 gives the values 
found in column 2, table 65, and probably gives the truer picture 
for the normal weight change. 

Finally at The Wistar Institute King (MS '15) has conducted 
two series of observations (1912-1913) (1913-1915) on the in- 
crease in body weight with age in stock Albinos. There were 23 
males and 23 females in the first series and 27 of each sex in the 
second. The records for the two series have been combined. 
The observations extend from 13^85 days and the weighings 
were made at the ages given in table 67. These rats received a 
'scrap' diet (i.e., a diet composed of table refuse from which 
materials known to be injurious had been removed). 

In chart 2 the record for the males is given by graph C and in 
chart 3 the record for the females by graph C. In chart 4 the 
graphs for both sexes appear extended to 485 days. 

In 1913 Jackson ('13) published a series of body weights for 
both sexes according to age, but as these animals did not grow 
well after about 70 days of age, the table has not been copied here. 

On comparing the graphs for the males in the several series 
(see chart 2) it appears that the males reared by King grew best 
while in the graphs for the females (chart 3) the record by 
Ferry shows the poorest growth for the females. It appears 
therefore that laboratory conditions including diet (assumed in 
each case to be wholesome) may modify the growth and that 
the two sexes are not necessarily affected to a like degree. 



MODIFICATIONS IN TOTAL BODY WEIGHT 



69 



4. Modifications of growth in total body weight. No change 
occurs in the growth of castrated males, Stotsenburg ('09). 

A slight increase in growth was observed by Hatai ('03 a, 
p. 61) after lecithin feeding. 

Increased growth occurs in spayed females, Stotsenburg ('13). 
This increase is in part due to the accumulation of fat and in 
part to general enlargement. 



Growth in body weight Albino Rat 



Body n>om m ar.m. 



Chart 4 Growth in body weight on age for 485 days. Males and females. Observations 
by King (MS., '15). Data from two series combined. See table 67. 

Bearing young also causes an increase in body weight in the 
females, J. B. Watson ('05). 

A decrease follows all forms of underfeeding (Hatai, '04 a, 
'07 a, '08; Donaldson, '11 a) including feeding with certain vege- 
table proteins. See many references to Osborne and Mendel in 
chapter 4, Physiology: Nutrition, p. 61. 

Decrease also follows an excessive meat diet when begun with 
young animals (Mus norvegicus) (C. Watson, '06, '06 a, '06 b). 



70 



GROWTH IN TOTAL BODY WEIGHT 



TABLE 48 

Giving in grams the values obtained by dividing the body weight by body length in 
millimeters. Based on data in Table 68 



BODY 

LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODY 

LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODY 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


50 


0.10 


0.10 


86 


0.22 


0.23 


121 


0.37 


0.39 


51 


0.10 


0.10 


87 


0.23 


0.24 


122 


0.37 


0.39 


52 


0.10 


0.10 


88 


0.23 


0.24 


123 


0.38 


0.40 


53 


0.10 


0.11 


89 


0.23 


0.24 


124 


0.38 


0.40 


54 


0.10 


0.11 


90 


0.24 


0.25 


125 


0.39 


0.41 


55 


0.11 


0.11 








126 


0.39 


0.41 


56 


0.11 


0.12 


91 


0.24 


0.25 


127 


0.40 


0.42 


57 


0.11 


0.12 


92 


0.24 


0.26 


128 


0.40 


0.43 


58 


0.12 


0.12 


93 


0.25 


0.26 


129 


0.41 


0.43 


59 


0.12 


0.13 


94 


0.25 


0.27 


130 


0.41 


0.44 


60 


0.13 


0.13 


95 


0.26 


0.27 














96 


0.26 


0.27 


131 


0.42 


0.44 


61 


0.13 


0.14 


97 


0.26 


0.28 


132 


0.42 


0.45 


62 


0.13 


0.14 


98 


0.27 


0.28 


133 


0.43 


0.45 


63 


0.14 


0.14 


99 


0.27 


0.29 


134 


0.43 


0.46 


64 


0.14 


0.15 


100 


0.28 


0.29 


135 


0.44 


0.47 


65 


0.14 


0.15 








136 


0.44 


0.47 


66 


0.15 


0.16 


101 


0.28 


0.30 


137 


0.45 


0.48 


67 


0.15 


0.16 


102 


0.28 


0.30 


138 


0.46 


0.48 


68 


0.16 


0.16 


103 


0.29 


0.30 


139 


0.46 


0.49 


69 


0.16 


0.17 


104 


0.29 


0.31 


140 


0.47 


0.50 


70 


0.16 


0.17 


105 


0.30 


0.31 














106 


0.30 


0.32 


141 


0.47 


0.50 


71 


0.17 


0.18 


107 


0.30 


0.32 


142 


0.48 


0.51 


72 


0.17 


0.18 


108 


0.31 


0.33 


143 


0.48 


0.52 


73 


0.17 


0.18 


109 


0.31 


0.33 


144 


0.49 


0.52 


74 


0.18 


0.19 


110 


0.32 


0.34 


145 


0.50 


0.53 


75 


0.18 


0.19 








146 


0.50 


0.54 


76 


0.18 


0.19 


111 


0.32 


0.34 


147 


0.51 


0.54 


77 


0.19 


0.20 


112 


0.33 


0.34 


148 


0.52 


0.55 


78 


0.19 


0.20 


113 


0.33 


0.35 


149 


0.52 


0.56 


79 


0.19 


0.21 


114 


0.34 


0.35 


150 


0.53 


0.56 


80 


0.20 


0.21 


115 


0.34 


0.36 














116 


0.34 


0.36 


151 


0.54 


0.57 


81 


0.20 


0.21 


117 


0.35 


0.37 


152 


0.54 


0.58 


82 


0.21 


0.22 


118 


0.35 


0.37 


153 


0.55 


0.58 


83 


0.21 


0.22 


119 


0.36 


0.38 


154 


0.56 


0.59 


84 


0.21 


0.23 


120 


0.36 


0.38 


155 


0.56 


0.60 


85 


0.22 


0.23 








156 


0.57 


0.61 



WEIGHT LENGTH RATIOS 



71 



TABLE 48 Concluded 



BODY 

LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODY 

LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODY 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


157 


0.58 


0.61 


188 


0.84 


0.90 


219 


1.22 


1.32 


158 


0.58 


0.62 


189 


0.85 


0.91 


220 


1.24 


1.34 


159 


0.59 


0.63 


190 


0.86 


0.92 








160 


0.60 


0.64 








221 


1.25 


1.36 








191 


0.87 


0.94 


222 


1.27 


1.38 


161 


0.60 


0.65 


192 


0.88 


0.95 


223 


1.28 


1.40 


162 


0.61 


0.65 


193 


0.89 


0.96 


224 


1.30 


1.41 


163 


0.62 


0.66 ' 


194 


0.90 


0.97 


225 


1.32 


1.43 


164 


0.63 


0.67 


195 


0.91 


0.98 


226 


1.33 


1.45 


165 


0.63 


0.68 


196 


0.92 


1.00 


227 


1.35 


1.47 


166 


0.64 


0.69 


197 


0.94 


1.01 


228 


1.37 


1.49 


167 


0.65 


0.70 


198 


0.95 


1.02 


229 


1.38 


1.51 


168 


0.66 


0.70 


199 


0.96 


1.03 


230 


1.40 


1.52 


169 


0.67 


0.71 


200 


0.97 


1.05 








170 


0.67 


0.71 








231 


1.42 


1.54 








201 


0.98 


1.06 


232 


1.44 


1.56 


171 


0.68 


0.72 


202 


0.99 


1.07 


233 


1.45 


1.58 


172 


0.69 


0.73 


203 


1.01 


1.09 


234 


1.47 


1.60 


173 


0.70 


0.75 


204 


1.02 


1.10 


235 


1.49 


1.62 


174 


0.71 


0.76 


205 


1.03 


1.11 


236 


1.51 


1.64 


175 


0.72 


0.77 


206 


1.04 


1.13 


237 


1.53 


1.67 


176 


0.73 


0.78 


207 


1.06 


1.14 


238 


1.55 


1.69 


177 


0.73 


0.79 


208 


1.07 


1.16 


239 


1.56 


1.71 


178 


0.74 


0.80 


209 


1.08 


1.17 


240 


1.58 


1.73 


179 


0.75 


0.81 


210 


1.10 


1.19 








180 


0.76 


0.82 








241 


1.60 


1.75 








211 


1.11 


1.20 


242 


1.62 


1.78 


181 


0.77 


0.83 


212 


1.12 


1.22 


243 


1.64 


1.80 


182 


0.78 


0.84 


213 


1.14 


1.23 


244 


1.67 


1.82 


183 


0.79 


0.85 


214 


1.15 


1.25 


245 


1.69 


1.84 


184 


0.80 


0.86 


215 


1.17 


1.26 


246 


1.71 


1.87 


185 


0.81 


0.87 


216 


1.18 


1.28 


247 


1.73 


1.89 


186 


0.82 


0.88 


217 


1.19 


1.29 


248 


1.75 


1.92 


187 


0.83 


0.89 


218 


1.21 


1.31 


249 


1.77 


1.94 














250 


1.79 


1.97 



5. Weight-length ratios. Although it is not our purpose to in- 
troduce derived values among the tables, yet it seemed desir- 
able in this connection to put in a table showing the ratio of body 
weight to body length. This gives the weight value of a running 
millimeter of the animal. By the use of this table it can be de- 



72 GROWTH IN TOTAL BODY WEIGHT 

termined whether a given rat is emaciated or fat. The values 
for the weights and lengths as given in table 68 have been used 
for obtaining these ratios. 

GROWTH IN TOTAL WEIGHT: REFERENCES 

2. Growth before birth. Huber, '15 a. 3. Growth after birth. Chisolm, '11. 
Donaldson, '06, '12 c. Dunn, '08. Ferry, '13. Jackson, '13. King, '15. King 
and Stotsenburg, '15. Robertson, '08. 4. Modifications of growth. Donaldson, 
11 a. Hatai, '03 a. '04 a, '07 a, '08, '13 a, '15. Jackson, '15, '15 a, '15 b. Os- 
borne and Mendel (See Physiology: Nutrition). Schafer, '12. Stotsenburg, 
'09, '13. Watson, C., '06, '06 a, '06 b. Watson, J. B., '05. 



CHAPTER 6 

GROWTH OF PARTS AND SYSTEMS OF THE BODY IN 

WEIGHT 

1. Larger divisions. 2. Systems. 3. Teeth. 4. Blood. 5. Fat. 

1. Larger divisions. The relative growth of the component 
parts (head, trunk and limbs) and of the systems (integument 
ligamentous skeleton, musculature and viscera) has been studied 
by Jackson and Lowrey ('12). 

The rats were reared at the University of Missouri and fed 
daily' with wheat bread soaked in whole milk a supply of 
chopped corn being kept constantly in the cages. In addition 
fresh beef was given once a week. The rats were well grown 
except at five months and one year, when both sexes were some- 
what low in body weight the deficiency being most marked in 
the females. 

The report of the work by Jackson and Lowrey ('12) is given 
largely in their own words. 

The method of dissection was as follows. The animal was taken 
in the morning before feeding and killed by chloroform. The gross 
body weight, and the lengths of body and tail were recorded. The 
head (with skin) was then removed (just posterior to the foramen mag- 
num and anterior to the larynx) and weighed. In the meantime, the 
trunk was suspended and the blood (unmeasured) was allowed to es- 
cape. Then the viscera were carefully removed and weighed indi- 
vidually (including brain, spinal cord, eyeballs, thyroid, thymus, heart, 
lungs, liver, spleen, stomach and intestines, both with contents and 
empty, suprarenals, kidneys and gonads). Urine was estimated if 
present. The extremities were separated at the shoulder and hip joints 
and weighed with skin. The skin (including ears, claws and adherent 
subcutaneous tissue) was next removed and weighed. The trunk 
weight was estimated by substracting the weight of the head and ex- 
tremities from the net body weight. 

Then the musculature with skeleton was weighed, the few remaining 
additional structures ( genitalia, large vessels, pharynx and oesophagus, 
larynx and trachea, and masses of fat connected with the musculature) 
having been carefully removed. Finally the musculature was care- 

73 



74 



GROWTH IN PARTS 



fully dissected off and the skeleton, including bones, cartilages and liga- 
ments, was weighed. This weight, subtracted from that of the skele- 
ton and musculature together, gives the weight of tlie musculature, in- 
cluding the tendons. Evaporation was reduced to a minimum by 
keeping the various structures in a closed moist container, so far as 
possible. The net body weight, which is the gross body weight minus con- 
tents of stomach, intestines and urinary bladder, was used as the basis in 
calculating the percentage weights. The percentages therefore differ 
slightly from those calculated upon the gross body weight. The dif- 
ference is not of material importance in the case of the albino rat, 
however, as the intestinal and other contents do not average more than 5 
per cent of the body at the ages observed (excepting at 6 weeks, where 
the average was about 8 per cent.) The observations were grouped at 
seven ages, chosen for the following reasons. At one week the weight 
at birth has about doubled. At three weeks it has about doubled 
again, and this moreover is the age at which the animal is usually 
weaned. At six weeks the body weight has again about doubled, and 
the animal is well established upon its permanent diet. Ten weeks 
represents the age of puberty, and the body weight of six weeks has 
again about doubled. At one year the body weight has again nearly 
doubled, and this represents nearly the adult weight. Five months 
was arbitrarily selected as the time when the body weight is approxi- 
mately half way between those of ten weeks and one year. While 
therefore observations are not available for the various intermediate 
age periods, these are sufficiently close together so that no important 
change in the relative weights of the constituent parts is likely to be 
overlooked. Moreover, on account of the variations at the different 
ages in the body weights, these form a fairly continuous series ; and the 
relative weights of the various constituent parts are apparently more 
closely correlated with the body weight than with the age. 

The relative weights of the component parts examined are 
given in table 49 (modified from table 2, p. 455, loc. cit.). 

TABLE 49 

Albino rat Average percentage weight of head, trunk and extremities at various 
ages sexes combined (Jackson and Lowrey, '12) 



AGE, DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


HEAD 


FORE-LIMBS 


HIND-LIMBS 


TRUNK 


o 


gms. 

5.4 


per cent 

21.65 


per cent 

7 39 


per cent 

9.45 


per cent 

61.51 


7 


11.6 


23.70 


8.92 


11.97 


55.41 


21 


25.5 


20.22 


9.25 


14.87 


55.66 


42 


79.2 


11.80 


6.72 


14.94 


66.54 


70 .. 


141 9 


9.56 


5.32 


15.59 


69.53 


150 


190.7 


9.42 


5.87 


15.64 


69.07 


365 


222 2 


9.29 


4.76 


14.63 


71.32 















GROWTH OF SYSTEMS 



75 



The authors call attention to the relative increase in the weight 
of the head during the first week as peculiar in the rat and 
also point out that the maximum relative weight is shown by the 
head at one week by the forelimbs at three weeks, by the hind 
limbs at five months and by the trunk at a year the wave of 
most active growth thus passing from the head caudad with ad- 
vancing age. 

2. Systems. The relative growth of the various systems is 
also given for the integument, ligamentous skeleton, musculature 
and viscera. The method of preparing each system has been 
previously noted. The following table is based on table 4 (loc. 
cit., p. 460) to which has been added the average values of the 
net body weights. 

It is to be noted that the percentages in tables 49 and 50 are 
based on the 'net body weight' of the rats. According to Jack- 
son and Lowrey this is about 95 per cent of the gross weight, 
and this factor can be used therefore to transform net into gross 
weight. 

TABLE 50 

Average percentage weights of integument, ligamentous skeleton, musculature, 
viscera and remainder. Based on Jackson and Lowrey ('12), table 4- for the 
corresponding absolute weights see table 51 



AGE IN DAYS 


SEX AND 
NUMBER 


BODY 
WEIGHT 


PERCENTAGE VALUES SEXES COMBINED FOR 


Integument 


Liga- 
mentous 
skeleton 


Muscula- 
ture 


Viscera 


Remainder 





I'M. 9 
\F. 9 
fM. 8 
\F. 11 

fM. 7 

\F. G 

fM. 6 

\F. 8 

/M. 5 

\F. 5 

/M. 6 

\F. 7 

fM. 4 
\F. 2 


qms. 

| 4.7 
] 10.1 
j 24.8 
| 64.5 
| 130.5 
J 184.3 
} 234.6 


19.8 
25.9 
22.4 
20.9 

18.7 
18.1 
18.0 


17.3 
18.5 
16.6 
14.0 
11.7 
11.5 
10.9 


24.4 
22.8 
26.9 
32.7 
41.1 
42.6 
45.4 


18.1 
19.2 
21.3 
20.4 
16.0 
14.8 
13.3 


20.4 
13.6 
12.8 
12.0 
12.5 
13.0 
12.4 


7 


21 


42 .... 


70 


150 


365 





76 



GROWTH IN PARTS 



TABLE 51. 

Shows for the series of body weights of the albino rat by Jackson and Lowrey 
('12) the absolute weights of integument, ligamentous skeleton, musculature, 
viscera and remainder determined by the use of the percentage values given in 
the preceding table 50 



AGE 
IN 


MEAN BODT 


SEX NO. 


INTEGUMENT 


LIGAMEN- 
TOUS 


MUSCULATURE 


VISCERA 


REMAINDER 


DAYS 








SKELETON 










Average 




gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 





M. + F. 
















5.11 


M. 9 


1.00 


0.87 


1.19 


0.90 


1.15 




4.27 


F. 9 


0.85 


0.75 


1.09 


0.79 


0.79 




4.69 




0.93 


0.81 


1.15 


0.85 


0.97 


7 


10.47 


M. 8 


2.79 


1.93 


2.40 


2.00 


1.36 




9.83 


F. 11 


2.33 


1.70 


2.24 


1.90 


1.30 




10.10 




2.62 


1.87 


2.30 


1.94 


1.37 


21 


26.91 


M. 7 


6.35 


4.20 


7.45 


5.71 


3.23 




22.31 


F. 6 


4.69 


3.97 


5.78 


4.77 


3.08 




24.78 




5.55 


4.11 


6.67 


5.28 


3.17 


42 


60.10 


M. 6 


12.14 


9.08 


19.41 


12.86 


6.67 




67.80 


F. 8 


14.51 


8.95 


22.37 


13.36 


8.61 




64.50 




13.48 


9.03 


21.09 


13.16 


7.74 


70 


143.60 


M. 5 


26.14 


15.94 


57.15 


23.26 


21.11 




117.50 


F. 5 


22.56 


14.34 


49.94 


18.68 


11.99 




130.50 




24.40 


15.27 


53.64 


20.88 


16.31 


150 


218.70 


M. 6 


41.99 


22.84 


93.38 


29.96 


25.52 




154.80 


F. 7 


26.62 


18.73 


65.94 


24.30 


19.20 




184.30 




33.36 


21.38 


78.51 


27.28 


23.77 


365 


260.20 


M. 4 


44.75 


25.50 


120.99 


33.83 


35.13 




183.50 


F. 2 


35.78 


24.22 


79.46 


25.32 


18.72 




234.60 




42.23 


25.57 


106.51 


31.20 


29.09 



Ligamentous skeleton. Since the values for the skeleton as 
given in tables 50 and 51 were obtained by dissection of the soft 
parts from the bones, it is evident that these determinations for 
the skeleton, which here corresponds to the 'ligamentous skeleton' 
would be high as compared with those obtained after the soft 
parts had been completely removed by maceration thus giving 
the 'cartilaginous skeleton' in the strict sense. 

In view of this difference we have made recently a series of 
determinations of the relative weight of the cartilaginous skeleton 
after maceration, Conrow (MS '15). Using these determinations 
as a basis, table 52 has been formed which gives the values thus 



GROWTH OF SYSTEMS 



77 



obtained. The differences between the values for the moist 
skeleton after maceration and those obtained after gross dissec- 
tion may be designated as values for the 'periosteum, ligaments, 
etc.' and are so entered in table 52. 

It is thus possible from these two tables to compare subse- 
quent determinations of the skeleton after either dissection or 
maceration. 

If rats normal in body weight for their age are compared, we 
find that the cartilaginous skeleton at birth represents 52.5 per 




Chart 5 Giving for the sexes combined the percentage of the entire body 
weight represented by each of the several systems. Plotted on age in days. 
Table 50, Jackson and Lowrey ('12). 

cent of the weight of the ligamentous skeleton, while at one year 
it represents 64.5 per cent. The ratio for the weight of the bony 
skeleton rises therefore one point for each .23 grams increase in 
body weight, or for each gram of increase in body weight the ratio 
rises about 0.044 of a point. Within the age limits here given, 
these factors may be used for transforming one set of values into 
the other. 



78 



GROWTH IN PARTS 



Jackson and Lowrey conclude (p. 472) that the data indicate 
no noteworthy differences between the sexes in the relative weights 
of the various parts and systems, and that the body of the al- 
bino rat has practically reached the adult proportions in its com- 
ponent parts and systems at the age of ten weeks. 

Corresponding observations, though less extensive, made on 
the Norway rat are given in chapter 12. 

TABLE 52 

Giving the percentage values for the cartilaginous skeleton when this has been pre- 
pared by maceration (Conrow, MS. '15), also giving by difference between these 
values and those in table 50 the percentage values for the "periosteum, ligaments, 
etc." 



AGE IN DAYS 


SEX AND 


NUMBER 


BODY WEIGHT NET 
BOTH SEXES 


PERCENTAGE VALUE OF MOIST 


Cartilaginous 
skeleton 
(by maceration) 
Conrow 


Periosteum 
ligaments, etc. 
Based on table 50 


o 


/M. 

IF. 

/M. 

IF. 

fM. 

IF. 

/M. 

IF. 

/M. 

IF. 

/M. 

IF. 

fM. 

IF. 


1 

9J 

8 ) 
11J 

7 ) 
6J 

6 ) 

8J 

5 ) 

5J 

6 ) 

7J 

4) 
2/ 


4.7 
10.1 
24.8 
64.5 
130.5 
184.3 
234.6 


8.95 
9.36 
9.61 
7.46 
7.32 
6.32 
6.04 


8.35 
9.14 
6.99 
6.54 
4.38 
4.18 
4.05 


7 


21 


42 


70 


150 


365 





Weight of entire cartilaginous skeleton. Using a 2 per cent so- 
lution of the commercial gold dust washing powder ('Gold dust 
washing powder' consists of about 45 per cent sodium carbonate, 
30 per cent soap powder, and 25 per cent water), the skeletons 
of some 70 inbred Albinos (King) have been carefully prepared 
by Conrow (MS '15) at The Wistar Institute. The animals 
were reared on a scrap diet. A careful comparison with the stock 
Albinos has not yet been made, but at the same time there is no 
suggestion thus far that the values for the inbreds differ from 



GROWTH OF SYSTEMS 



79 



those for the stock, when both age and body weight are taken into 
consideration. The weight of the skeleton is given in relation to 
the body weight. The value for the body used here is that 
normal to the body length (see table 68) when the observed 
body weight is less than that to be expected but the observed 
body weight is used when that is above the normal for the body 
length. In the case of old rats undergoing senile loss of body 
weight the maximum body weight is the one used. 

The weight of the teeth is included with that of the skeleton 
but the weight of the nails is excluded. Under these condi- 
tions the following table gives the weight of the moist carti- 
laginous skeleton immediately after complete cleaning, and also 

TABLE 53 

Giving data on the cartilaginous skeleton of the (inbred) Albino (Conrow MS '15). 
The weights for the moist skeleton are given but not for the room dried skeleton. 
The percentage values for both on the body weight have been computed. 





AGE 


BODY 


BODY 


SKELETON 


PEBCENTAG] 


2 VALUE OF 




IN DAYS 


LENGTH 


WEIGHT 


MOIST 


Moist 
skeleton 


Dry 

skeleton 


M 


New born 


mm. 

45 


gms. 

4.0 


0.379 


9 38 


1.78 


M 


New born 


47 


4.0 


0.401 


10.03 


2.35 


F* 


New born 


47 


4.7 


0.351 


7 43 


1.70 


M 


4 


58 


6.8 


0.791 


11.59 


2.48 


M... 


2 


59 


7.1 


0.986 


13 85 


3.51 


M 


3 


59 


7.1 


0.613 


8.59 


2.24 


M 


11 


65 


9.4 


0.909 


9 63 


2.47 


F 


10 


65 


9.9 


0.904 


9.09 


2.67 


F 


17 


76 


14.8 


1.469 


9 89 


3.61 


F 


20 


90 


22.4 


2.114 


9.40 


3.59 


F 


22 


102 


30.5 


3.005 


9.82 


3.81 


M 


28 


103 


29.6 


2.543 


8.56 


3.91 


M. . 


29 


113 


37.3 


3.301 


8 82 


3.91 


M 


33 


118 


41.6 


3.532 


8.46 


3.72 


M 


34 


123 


46.3 


4.030 


8 73 


4.06 


M 


32 


125 


48.3 


3.965 


8.18 


3.84 


F 


41 


126 


52 3 


3.959 


7.54 


3.89 


M 


40 


131 


54.7 


4.374 


7.97 


3.85 


M 


36 


133 


56.9 


4.662 


8.16 


3.74 


M 


43 


135 


59.3 


4.620 


7.76 


3.89 


F... 


46 


140 


69.5 


4.997 


7.16 


4.03 



80 



GROWTH IN PARTS 

TABLE 53 Concluded 





AGE 


BODY 


BODY 


SKELETON 


PERCENTAGl 


S VALUE OF 




IN DAYS 


ENGTH 


WEIGHT 


MOIST 


Moist 
skeleton 


Dry 
skeleton 


F 


73 


mm. 

145 


gms. 

76 7 


5 930 


7 70 


4 84 


F 


54 


148 


81 3 


6 349 


7 78 


4 34 


F 


102 


153 


89 4 


7 278 


8 12 


5 20 


F 


84 


164 


109 9 


8 114 


7 36 


4 79 


F 


117 


164 


109 9 


7 424 


6 74 


4 58 


F 


106 


171 


125 


8 876 


7 08 


4 72 


F 


189 


172 


127 3 


9 665 


7 57 


5 36 


F 


119 


181 


149 7 


10 209 


6 80 


4 77 


F 


120 


183 


155 2 


9 983 


6 41 


4 43 


F 


135 


185 


160 8 


11.155 


6 92 


4 56 


M 


99 


185 


149 6 


10 609 


7 07 


5 03 


M 


105 


186 


152 3 


10 539 


6 90 


4 74 


F 


125 


188 


169 6 


11.469 


6.74 


4.79 


F 




190 


175 7 


11 888 


6 75 


5 00 


F 


320 


196 


223.0 


13 386 


5.98 


4 00 


M 


173 


197 


184.3 


11.283 


6.10 


4.00 


F 


281 


199 


205 8 


13.132 


6 36 


4 64 


M 


253 


199 


190.8 


12.557 


6.56 


4.82 


M 


196 


200 


194.1 


12.409 


6.38 


4.53 


F 


299 


202 


216 8 


14.378 


6.62 


4 57 


F 


302 


203 


220.7 


13.974 


6.32 


4.69 


F 


392 


203 


220.7 


12.911 


5.84 


3.56 


M 


121 


207 


218 7 


13 594 


6.22 


4.37 


M 


203 


211 


234.1 


14.600 


6.23 


4.21 


M 


371 


211 


295.0 


15.019 


5.08 


3.42 


M 


169 


214 


246.3 


15.543 


6.30 


4.52 


M 


205 


215 


250.5 


15.688 


6.25 


4.58 


M 


304 


216 


307.0 


16.810 


5.47 


3.76 


M 


367 


219 


318 


19.321 


6.07 


4.26 


M 


221 


219 


267.9 


16.158 


6.02 


4.09 


M 


314 


221 


344.0 


20.078 


5.83 


4.05 


M 


462 


223 


342 9 


20.277 


5.90 


4.22 


M 


357 


225 


410.0 


19 . 147 


4.66 


3.47 


M 


518 


226 


343.0 


20.433 


5.95 


4.29 


M 


332 


226 


419.0 


22.257 


5.30 


3.93 


M... 


474 


228 


355 


19.518 


5.49 


3.88 


M 


276 


228 


413.0 


22.323 


5.40 


3.96 


M 


726 


230 


446.0 


21.720 


4.86 


3.55 


M 


255 


238 


420.0 


25.390 


6.04 


4.49 


M 


253 


240 


440.0 


23.698 


5.38 


4.01 


M 


408 


252 


463.4 


23.823 


5.03 


3.79 

















GROWTH OF SYSTEMS 



81 



the weight of the dry skeleton after drying in open, but dust 
free vessels, for thirty days or more at room temperature (17- 

23C.). 

In table 54 the same material has been used to show the lengths 
of the femur and tibia and the humerus and ulna together with 
some simple relations. In the case of the Albinos less than 30 
days of age, drying in the air may cause so considerable a reduc- 
tion in the lengths of these bones that no measurements are 
given in table 54 for dried long bones younger than 30 days 
at which time the skeleton is fairly well calcified. 

TABLE 54 

From some of the same (inbred) Albinos as were used for table 53 the lengths of the 
femur, tibia, humerus and ulna have been determined and also the percentage 
lengths of the humerus and ulna on the femur and tibia, as well as the relation of 
both of these pairs to the body length (Conrow, MS '15) 



SEX 


AGE 
DATS 


BODY 

LENGTH 


MEAN LENGTHS IN mm. OF 


PERCENTAGES OF 


Femur 


Tibia 


Humerus 


Ulna 


H. + U. 


F. T. 


H. u. 


I.+T. 


Bd. L. 


Bd. L. 






mm. 
















M 


32 


125 


18.7 


23.0 


15.9 


18.8 


83 


33 


27 


F 


41 


126 


18.7 


23.0 


15.4 


18.3 


80 


33 


26 


M 


40 


131 


18.2 


22.9 


15.4 


18.7 


82 


31 


26 


M 


36 


133 


20. 9 


25.0 


16.9 


20.2 


80 


34 


28 


M 


43 


135 


19.8 


23.6 


16.0 


18.9 


80 


32 


25 


F 


46 


140 


21.2 


24.6 


17.1 


19.7 


80 


32 


26 


F 


73 


145 


23.1 


26.4 


17.8 


21.4 


79 


34 


27 


F 


54 


148 


23.5 


27.4 


18.4 


22.0 


79 


34 


27 


F 


102 


153 


25.3 


29.3 


20.5 


23.6 


80 


35 


28 


F 


84 


164 


26.1 


29.8 


20.7 


24.6 


81 


34 


27 


F 


117 


164 


27.3 


31.5 


21.3 


25.7 


79 


35 


28 


F 


106 


171 


27.8 


31.5 


22.1 


25.8 


80 


34 


28 


F 


189 


172 


28.8 


32.2 


22.6 


26.8 


80 


35 


28 


F 


119 


181 


30.3 


33.0 


23.6 


27.1 


80 


34 


27 


F 


120 


183 


29.0 


32.9 


22.7 


27.1 


80 


33 


27 


M 


119 


183 


30.7 


33.6 


23.9 


26.6 


78 


35 


27 


F 


135 


185 


31.5 


34.6 


24.6 


28.3 


80 


35 


28 


M 


99 


185 


30.6 


34.0 


23.9 


27.1 


78 


34 


27 


M 


105 


186 


30.8 


33.8 


24.1 


27.4 


79 


34 


27 


F 


125 


188 


30.6 


33.8 


23.6 


28.1 


80 


34 


27 


F 




190 


30.7 


34.6 


24.4 


28.6 


81 


34 


27 


F 


730 


193 


33.5 


36.5 


26.3 


31.5 


82 


35 


29 



82 



GROWTH IN PARTS 



TABLE 54 Concluded 



SEX 


AGE 
DAYS 


BODY 
LENGTH 


MEAN LENGTHS IN mm. OF 


PERCENTAGES OF 


Femur 


Tibia 


Humerus 


Ulna 


H. + U. 


F. T. 


H. U. 


F. + T. 


Bd. L. 


Bd.L. 






mm. 
















F 


320 


196 


34.8 


36.5 


26.8 


30.5 


80 


36 


29 


M 


173 


197 


32.8 


35.6 


25.5 


28.9 


79 


34 


27 


M 


253 


199 


34.3 


37.4 


26.8 


31.4 


81 


35 


29 


F 


281 


199 


32.9 


36.5 


25.9 


30.8 


81 


34 


28 


M 


196 


200 


33.9 


36.9 


26.3 


30.3 


79 


35 


28 


F 


392 


203 


32.1 


35.1 


25.0 


29.3 


80 


33 


26 


F 


302 


203 


34.5 


37.8 


26.6 


31.9 


80 


35 


28 


M 


121 


207 


34.1 


36.9 


26.7 


30.2 


80 


34 


27 


M 


203 


211 


34.6 


38.6 


26.9 


31.6 


79 


34 


27 


M 


371 


211 


37.0 


39.2 


28.3 


32.5 


79 


36 


28 


M 


169 


214 


35.0 


37.3 


27.3 


30.7 


80 


33 


27 


M 


205 


215 


35.1 


37.7 


27.1 


31.3 


80 


33 


27 


M 


304 


216 


37.9 


41.7 


29.8 


34.6 


81 


36 


29 


M 


221 


219 


37.5 


39.8 


28.7 


32.3 


78 


35 


27 


M 


367 


219 


37.3 


38.6 


28.9 


31.8 


79 


34 


27 


M 


314 


221 


38.6 


40.4 


29.9 


34.1 


81 


35 


28 


M 


462 


223 


37.3 


39.2 


29.4 


32.1 


80 


34 


27 


M 


357 


225 


39.2 


41.5 


30.5 


34.1 


80 


35 


28 


M 


518 


226 


37.7 


39.2 


29.6 


32.4 


80 


34 


27 


M 


332 


226 


38.2 


41.5 


29.6 


34.6 


80 


35 


28 


M 


276 


228 


38.3 


39.7 


29.8 


32.5 


79 


34 


27 


M 


474 


228 


40.0 


41.3 


30.9 


34.2 


80 


35 


28 


M 


726 


230 


39.2 


40.9 


30.5 


33.1 


79 


34 


27 


M 


255 


238 


39.6 


42.5 


30.7 


35.9 


81 


34 


27 


M 


253 


240 


40.7 


43.8 


32.0 


36.0 


80 


35 


28 


M 


408 


252 


41.0 


43.1 


31.7 


36.1 


80 


33 


26 



Tests show that after 30 days of age, drying at room tempera- 
ture causes less than one per cent of shrinkage in the absolute 
lengths of the bones. The values for the bone lengths given in 
the table are means for the right and left sides the length for 
the two sides usually being very nearly the same. The 
body length in every case is taken on the rat immediately after 
chloroforming. 

Weight of cranium. Determinations of the weight of the 
cranium dried at room temperature have been made, Donald- 
son ('12 a). By the cranium is meant the skull with upper 



GROWTH OF CRANIUM 



83 



teeth, minus the mandible with lower teeth and minus the ear 
bones. The mean weights are given in table 55. 

TABLE 55 

The mean weight in grams of the crania in each body weight group of the four series 
of albino rats from Paris, London, Philadelphia, Vienna (based on table 4) Donald- 
son ('12 a). Each weight group is based on six cases, three males and three females 



BODY WEIGHT GROUP 


WEIGHT OF CRANIA IN GRAMS 


London 


Paris 


Philadelphia 


Vienna 


grams 

125 


0.89 
1.23 
1.52 

1.79 


1.03 
1.27 
1.52 


1.05 
1.41 
1.51 

1.87 
2.15 


1.00 
1.40 
1.73 
2.10 


175 


225 


275 


325 





For the corresponding weights of the Norway crania see Table 84. 

3. Teeth. For the data on the growth of the incisor teeth (Ad- 
dison and Appleton, '15), see chapter 3, p. 37-39. 

4. Blood. By means of a formula (19) based on his observa- 
tions Chisolm ('11) was able to compute approximately the vol- 
ume of the blood in rats of different body weights. Hatai (MS 
'14) has added two formulas (19 a) (19 b) based on that of 
Chisolm and giving results somewhat closer to the observations 
when the determinations are made according to sex. 

These three formulas have been transformed in turn from vol- 
ume to weight by using as a factor 1.056 the specific gravity 
of the blood and three formulas for blood weight (20) (20 a) 
(20 b) have been thus obtained. These last have been used to 
compute the weight of the blood as given in table 70. Table 
56 here given presents Chisolm' s data on the other growth 
changes in the blood. 

5. Fat. Boycott and Damant ('08, '08 a) have recorded the 
proportion of fat in rats of both sexes and of increasing body 
weights. 

The total fat was determined in healthy animals living under 
ordinary laboratory conditions as to food. No details given. 
The fat was estimated by Leathes' modification of Liebermann's 



84 



GROWTH IN PARTS 



TABLE 58 

Showing growth changes in the blood in rats of increasing age (body weight) . Sexes 
combined based on tables I and II, Chisolm ('11) 



NO. OF 
ANIMALS 


AGE IN 
DATS 


BODY WT. 
IN QMS. 


LENGTH 
OF BODY 
IN MM. 


HB 

PER CENT 


Oz CAPACITY IN CC. 


BLOOD VOLUME IN CC. 


Total 


Per kilo 
body wt. 


Total 


Per kilo 
body wt. 


2 


1 


3.6 




89.0 


0.0411 


11.59 


0.249 


70.3 


5 


2 


4.8 


47 


72.0 


0.0466 


9.79 


0.350 


73.5 


3 


8 


10.0 


59 


50.3 


0.0485 


4.83 


0.522 


52.0 


9 


16 


12.8 


72 


63.0 


0.0639 


4.99 


0.544 


42.5 


3 


21 


14.2 


82 


49.0 


0.0773 


5.44 


0.863 


60.4 


3 


28 


14.3 


84 


44.7 


0.0891 


6.17 


1.070 


74.4 


9 




37.0 


112 


76.0 


0.3730 


10.00 


2.620 


70.0 


8 




57.0 


134 


84.6 


0.5630 


9.92 


3.610 


63.7 


8 




66.0 


140 


85.1 


0.6490 


9.88 


4.120 


62.7 


12 




75.0 


144 


79.9 


0.7220 


9.60 


4.940 


65.7 


15 




86.0 


148 


82.4 


0.8600 


10.02 


5.670 


66.0 


8 




95.0 


155 


84.0 


0.9550 


10.02 


6.070 


63.9 


8 




106.0 


159 


82.4 


1.0270 


9.74 


6.810 


64.5 


11 




115.0 


166 


92.5 


1.2130 


10.51 


6.970 


60.5 


9 




125.0 


169 


92.6 


1.2410 


9.89 


7.260 


57.9 


8 




146.0 


178 


89.1 


1.4460 


9.92 


8.870 


60.8 


8 




165.0 


180 


92.0 


1.6630 


10.10 


9.890 


59.3 


7 




194.0 


189 


92.4 


1.9880 


10.28 


11.820 


61.0 


10 




227.0 


201 


89.9 


2.1860 


9.68 


13.180 


58.2 


8 




268.0 


206 


85.4 


2.2300 


8.36 


14.150 


53.0 



methods (see Hartley, '07) which is easily applicable to the 
entire carcasses of animals. The figures, given as percentages of 
fatty acid on the crude weight of the animal, represent therefore 
masked as well as anatomical fat. 

From the table 57 based on body weight it appears that the 
proportion of fat tends to be greater in the heavier animals, and 
from the tables based on the data grouped according to sex, it 
appears that the females have a somewhat larger percentage of 
fat than do the males. 



GROWTH OF FAT 



85 



TABLE 57 



Giving the proportion of fat (fatty acids) with increasing age (body weight.) Based 
on table A, Boycott and Damant ('08 o) 



NUMBER AND SEX 


BODY WEIGHT 
IN GM8. 


PERCENTAGE OF FATTY ACIDS 


M. F. 


Max. 


Min. 


Average 


15 10 


20- 49 


9.2 


0.85 


4.1 


8 7 


50- 99 


6.1 


1.00 


4.0 


19 25 


100-149 


16.1 


0.80 


6.1 


11 17 


150-199 


14.6 


1.30 


7.6 


7 2 


200-247 


9.7 


1.30 


5.8 



Eighty-three rats arranged according to sex . 

Males 41 11.3 0.8 4.4 

Females 42... . 16.1 1.0 5.6 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND SYSTEMS: REFERENCES 

1. Larger divisions. Jackson and Lowrey, '12. 2. Systems. Donaldson, '11, 
'11 c, '12, '12 a. Donaldson and Hatai, '11, '11 a. Jackson and Lowrey, '12. 

3. Teeth. Addison and Appleton, '15. MacGillavry, 1875. Meyerheim, 1898. 

4. Blood &nd5.Fat. Boycott and Damant, '08, '08 a. Chisolm, '11. Hartley, '07. 



CHAPTER 7 

GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS IN RELATION 
TO BODY LENGTH AND IN RELATION TO AGE 

1. Introduction. 2. Methods of examination and graphs. 3. Body length 
on body weight. Body weight on body length. Tail length on body length. 
4. Organs with an early rapid growth: Brain, spinal cord, eyeballs. 5. Organs 
with a nearly uniform growth: Heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs, blood, ali- 
mentary tract, thyroid, hypophysis and suprarenals. 6. Organs with a rapid 
growth just preceding puberty. Ovaries, testes, thymus (on age). 7. Determi- 
nations of variation. 8. General tables, a) Tables, weight of entire body on 
age. Before birth; from birth on. 6) Tables, increase in the length and weight 
of parts and organs on body length. 9. Table, weight of thymus on age. 10. 
Table, weight of all viscera combined. 11. Tables, values for characters linked 
with age. 12. Formulas. 

1. Introduction. The organs, the growth of which has been 
followed are tail (length), brain, spinal cord, eyeballs, heart, 
kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs (blood), alimentary tract, testes, 
ovaries, hypophysis, suprarenals, thyroid and thymus. 

All the observations were made on stock Albinos from the colony 
at The Wistar Institute, except those for the total blood which are 
based on the records of Chisolm, '11. 

The mean values for the several organs were in each instance 
charted and with these as a guide a theoretical graph was found 
which could be expressed by a formula or a series of formulas. 
All the formulas were devised by Hatai. 

To present the results in a convenient form the organs are 
grouped in the text according to the manner of their growth, 
each organ is accompanied by a chart showing the original data 
and the graph based on these data. 

In each case reference is made to the formula or formulas on 
which the graph is based, but as a matter of convenience, the 
formulas utilized here for the graphs are grouped in the section 
entitled "Formulas" pp. 158-175. 



BODY LENGTH ON BODY WEIGHT 87 

The charts serve to show the form of the graph of growth in 
each instance, but the precise weight values of the organs are to 
be read from the tables. For those who desire to find the weight 
of an organ in a rat of any body length or body weight a series of 
values computed by the aid of the appropriate formulas are 
given in tables 68-71 inclusive. 

In making these tables the determinations for the correspond- 
ing body weights for each millimeter of length in each sex were 
first made by formulas (2 a) and (2b) and the body weights so ob- 
tained were then used in computing the weights of the several 
organs. 

In table 72 for the thymus however, it was found necessary to 
enter the weight values of the organ according to the age of the 
rat. 

In table 73 the computed weight of the thymus on body weight 
is given on the assumption that the body weights are normal to 
age in conformity with the data in table 62. 

2. Methods of examination and graphs. Unless otherwise 
stated the following determinations were made on stock Albinos 
taken from the colony at The Wistar Institute. The animals 
were killed with chloroform twenty hours after the last feeding 
and were dissected according to a fixed procedure. 

3. Body length on body weight. Technic: Immediately after 
killing the rat was laid on its back and gently extended the 
tail being drawn out straight. With jointed calipers the dis- 
tance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail was taken 
and its values in millimeters found by applying the points to a 
scale. Next the distance from the tip of the nose to the center 
of the anus was found and its value in millimeters determined 
in the same way. These measurements give first the total 
length, second, the body length and by the difference, the tail 
length. 

Chart 6 gives the body length on the body weight. The data 
used are given in table 68. The values were computed by for- 
mula (1). The graphs show that for a given body weight the 
male has the greater body length. Donaldson '09; Donaldson 
and Hatai '11. 



88 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



Body weight on body length. The entire rat was next weighed 
to one-tenth of a gram. The weight thus obtained was not cor- 
rected for the contents of the alimentary canal which accord- 
ing to Jackson and Lowrey ('12) amounts to about 5 per cent 
of the gross body weight. In gravid females a correction was 
made however by subtracting the weight of the uterus and fetuses 
from the observed value. The weight of the body on the body 



BOPY LENGTH 



Lr 

rim 




&ODY weiGm 
' 



Chart 6 Giving for the males and females respectively the body length on 
the body weight. Formula (1), table 68. 

length is given in chart 7. The values for each millimeter of 
body length in each sex are given in table 68. The graphs were 
computed by formulas (2a) and (2b), and show that for a given 
body length the female has a greater body weight. Donaldson 
'09, Donaldson and Hatai, '11. 

Tail length on body length. The method of obtaining the 
tail length has been given under body length. The values for 



TAIL LENGTH ON BODY LENGTH 



89 



500 BOPV WEIGHT 



&OOY LENGTH 

-r I I I Wffl f. 



Chart 7 Giving for the males and females respectively the body weight on 
the body length. Formulas (2 a) and (2 b), table 68. 



TAIL LEN5TM 

mm. 



"ft 



so' 'ah' 160 ija \M 
Chart 8 Giving the length of tail in millimeters on the body length, males, 
females. Formulas (4) and (5), table 68. 



90 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

the graphs in chart 8 and for the table 68 were determined by 
formulas 4 and 5. The tail hi the female is relatively longer 
than in the male. Hatai (MS '14). 

4. Following the plan of grouping the organs according to the 
manner of their growth we shall first consider the weights of the 
brain, the spinal cord and both eyeballs. All of these organs have 
an early rapid growth. 

Brain weight on body weight. Technic: The rat was first 
eviscerated this leaves in the brain a minimal amount of blood. 
The bones of the skull were removed from above the meninges 
being left intact. Care was taken to preserve the flocculi which 
lie in bony pockets. The brain was severed from the cord by a 
section at the level of the first cervical nerve coinciding as a 
rule with the tip of the calamus as seen from the dorsal aspect. 
The brain was then raised from the floor of the cranium the 
nerves being clipped close to the base. The hypophysis was not 
included. Care was taken to obtain the olfactory bulbs entire. 
Thus prepared the brain was dropped into a small glass stoppered 
weighing bottle in which it was weighed to the tenth of a milli- 
gram. In this instance, as in the case of all of the other organs, 
the dissection was made under a glass hood to protect the oper- 
ator from all drafts which might dry the organ during its prepa- 
ration. The values for the graph, males only, chart 9 and for 
table 68 were computed by formulas (6) and (7). 

The graph for the male alone is given. As will be seen from 
table 68, for the same body length the female has a slightly 
lighter brain and this difference increases to about 1.5 per cent 
when the female is of the same body weight. 

Spinal cord weight on body weight. Spinal cord Technic : 
Following the removal of the brain (vide ante) the spinal cord 
was exposed by removing the arches of the vertebrae from neck 
to sacrum. The filum terminale was found and the cord raised 
so that the roots of the spinal nerves could be clipped close to 
the cord. The mass thus removed with meninges was placed 
in a glass stoppered weighing bottle and weighed to the tenth of 
a milligram. The values for the graph, males only, in chart 9 
and for table 68 were computed by formula (11). Donaldson 
('08), ('09); Hatai, ('09a). 



WEIGHT OF EYEBALLS ON BODY WEIGHT 



91 



For convenience the graph for the spinal cord is given on the 
same chart as that for the brain. The graph for the male only 
is entered. For the same body length as the male the spinal 
cord in the female is about 5 per cent heavier, and for the same 
body weight, about 2 per cent heavier. Donaldson ('08, '09) ; 
Hatai ('09a). 



.. WEIGHT ama. 

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Chart 9 Giving the brain weight on the body weight. Males only. Formu- 
las (6) and (7), table 68. Also spinal cord weight on the body weight. Males 
only. Formula (11), table 68. 

Weight of both eyeballs on body weight. Technic: Care being 
taken to remove the muscle attachments, both eyes were 
weighed in a closed weighing bottle. There is usually a close 
similarity in the weight of the right and left eyeballs. The 
graph is based on rats studied by Jackson ('13). His results 
have been corroborated by studies on the stock Albinos from the 
colony of the Wistar Institute, Hatai ('13). The values for the 
graph in chart 10 and those given in table 68 are based on 
formula (13). The graph for the male only is entered, but the 
values for the female are like those for the male of the same body 
weight. Under unfavorable nutritional conditions the weight of 
the eyeballs follows the age rather than the body weight. Hatai 
(MS '14). 



92 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



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BODY WEIGHT GRAMS 


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3 50 10O 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 



Chart 10 Showing the weight of eyeballs of the male albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 149 male rats (Jackson) . 
Table 68, formula (13). 

Observed weight. Calculated weight. 

5. Organs with a nearly uniform growth after the first very early 
phase of rapid growth heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs (blood), 
alimentary tract, hypophysis, suprarenals and thyroid. 

In case of all of the organs to be described the preparation was 
carried on beneath a glass hood to prevent drying. The organ 
was weighed in a small glass stoppered bottle and the weight was 
taken to a tenth of a milligram. 

The weight of the heart on body weight. Technic: The heart 
was removed after cutting all its vessels close to their proximal 
ends. It was then opened by longitudinal slits through its walls 
and the clots removed from the cavities thus exposed. 

The graph given in chart 11 and the values in table 69 have 
been determined by formula (14). 

The weight of the heart is closely correlated with that of the 
body and no difference according to sex has been noted. Hatai 
(13); Jackson ('13). 

Weight of both kidneys on body weight. Technic: All vessels 
were cut close to the hilum and any superficial fat removed. 

The graph given in chart 12 and the values in table 69 were 
determined by formula (15). 



WEIGHTS OF HEART AND KIDNEYS 



93 



1.7 - 


1 


1 






































































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1.0 
0.5 
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WEIGHT GRAM 


































































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50 100 "150' 200 250 300 350 400 450 

Chart 11 Showing the heart weight of the male albino rat according to body 
weight. The observed weights are represented by 134 male rats. Table 69, for- 
mula (14). 

Observed weight. - Calculated weight. 



3.5 
3.0 
2.5 
2.0 
t6 
1.0 
0.5 

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KIDNEYS 2 

WEIGHT GRAMS 






































































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BODY WEIGHT GRAMS 























































































































) 50 100 150 200 250 300 


350 400 450 



Chart 12 Showing the weight of kidneys of the male albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 136 male rats. Table 
69, formula (15). 

Observed weight. - Calculated weight. 



94 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



No sex difference was observed but the graph represents the 
determinations for the male only. Hatai ('13) ; Jackson ('13). 

Weight of the liver on the body weight. Technic: The vessels 
were cut close to their entrance into the liver and the blood 
in the larger vessels gently pressed out. The graph given in 
chart 13 and the values in table 69 were determined by 
formula (16). 



19. 

18. 
17. 
16. 


LIVER 

WEIGHT GRAMS 
























































































































































































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BODY WEIGHT GRAMS 




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) 50 100 150 200 250 


300 350 400 450 



20. 



15. 



10. 



Chart 13 Showing the weight of liver of the male albino rat according to body 
weight. The observed weights are represented by 136 male rats. Table 69, for- 
mula (16). 

Observed weight. Calculated weight. 

No sex difference in the weight of the liver has been noted 
but the graph is given for the males only. Considerable vari- 
ability is to be expected in the weight of an organ with such com- 
plex functions as those of the liver and this appears. A heavy 
liver usually accompanies a heavy spleen (Hatai). Hatai ('13); 
Jackson ('13). 



WEIGHT OF LUNGS ON BODY WEIGHT 



95 



The weight of the spleen on the body weight. Technic: The 
vessels were cut close to the hilum. The determination of the 
weight of the spleen is complicated by the occurrence of "en- 
larged spleens" so called. These differ from the normal by 
being often several tunes the normal weight, darker in color, soft 
to the touch and showing on the surface dark or grayish patches. 
Spleens with these characters plainly marked were not used. 
The graph in chart 14 and the values in table 69 were determined 



1.4 
1.3 
1.2 
1.1 
1.0 
0.9 
0.8 
0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
n A 


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SPLEEN 

WEIGHT GRAMS 












































































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50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 

Chart 14 Showing the weight of spleen of the male albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 87 male rats. Table 69, 
formula (17). 

Observed weight. Calculated weight. 

by formula (17). No sex difference was observed but the graph 
is based on male records only. Hatai ('13); Jackson ('13). 

The weight of both lungs on the body weight. Technic: The 
lungs are severed from the trachea and the portion of the esoph- 
agus usually taken out with them is removed. After the first 
three months of life the lungs of the rat are often infected. Such 
infected lungs may be highly altered but are always abnormally 
heavy. The endeavor has been made to exclude infected lungs 
from the series but doubtless some have been used. The 
graph in chart 15 and the values in table 70 were determined by 



96 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 





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, J 












































































. 


1 












































































,. J 














































BODY. WEIGHT GRAMS 

i i ii. i 








































































































50 



100 



150 



200 



250 



300 



350 



400 



Chart 15 Showing the weight of lungs of the male albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 90 male rats. Table 70, 
formula (18). 

Observed weight. Calculated weight. 

formula (18). No sex difference has been noted but the graph 
is based on male data alone. Hatai ('13); Jackson ('13). 

Weight of the total blood on body weight. Technic: The 
observations on this relation were made by Chisolm '11 on Al- 
binos and pied rats. His methods are given in the paper cited 
above (pp. 207-208) and depend on determinations of the oxygen 
capacity. Chisolm's formulas have been revised by Hatai 
(MS '14). The graph in chart 16 and the values in table 70 have 



WEIGHT Of BLOOP 

- 



Chart 16 Giving weight of total blood on body weight. Males, females. 
Formulas (20), (20 a), and (20b), table 70. 



WEIGHT OF THYROID GLAND ON BODY WEIGHT 



97 



been determined by formulas (20), (20 a), and (20 b). The data 
are for both sexes combined. Chisolm ('13) ; Jolly and Stini ('05). 
The weight of the alimentary tract on body weight. Technic: 
The digestive tube from the level of the diaphragm to the onus 
was removed in its entirety the pancreas, mesentery and small 
masses of fat being left adherent. The stomach and the large 
intestine were cut open and the contents removed while gentle 



50 



150 



200 



250 



300 



17. 

16. 
15. 
14. 
13. 
12. 
11. 
10. 
9. 
8. 
7. 
6. 
5. 
4. 
.3* 
2. 
1, 


ALIMENTARY TRAC 

WEIGHT GRAMS 


T 








































/ 






15. 
10. 
5. 




































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/ 












































BODY WEIGHT GRAMS 




/ 












































, 














































350 



400 



450 



Chart 17 Showing the weight of alimentary tract of the male albino rat ac- 
cording to body weight. The observed weights are represented by 112 (Jackson) 
rats below 50 grams in body weight, and 82 (Wistar) rats above 50 grams in body 
weight. Table 70, formula (21). 

Observed weight. Calculated weight. 

pressure on the small intestine exerted from above down- 
wards served to expel what it contained. The records are 
based on one series examined by Jackson ('13) and another series 
from The Wistar Institute colony. All are males. The graph in 
chart 17 and the values in table 70 were determined by formula 
(21). Hatai ('13); and Jackson ('13). 

Weight of the thyroid gland on body weight. Technic: Sev- 
eral minute muscles nearly the color of the gland must be re- 



98 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



moved before weighing. The data are from observations by 
Jackson ('13), as well as from those made at The Wistar Institute. 
A study of the data has not revealed any difference according to 
sex and the graph therefore is for both sexes combined. The 
graph in chart 18 and the values in table 71 have been determined 
by formula (32). Hatai ('13); Jackson ('13). 



06 
05 
04 
03 
02 
.01 






1 1 1 1 1 i 








































































/ 






.08 

.04 
.02 


THYROID 

WEIGHT GRAMS 


































































X 


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, 




























































































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'o 


























































































rf 


























































































C 






























































BODV WEIGHT GRAMS 


2 






























































a 































































50 



150 



200 



250 



300 



350 



400 



450 



Chart 18 Showing the weight of thyroid gland of the albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 42 (Jackson) female 
rats below 50 grams in body weight, and 49 (Wistar) male rats above 50 grams in 
body weight; and 36 (Jackson) female rats below 50 grams in body weight, and 
27 (Wistar) female rats above 50 grams in body weight. Table 71, formula (32) . 

Observed weight male. Calculated weight for both sexes, o Observed 

weight, female. 

The weight of the hypophysis on body weight. Technic: After 
the removal of the brain, the hypophysis is readily picked 
up from the floor of the skull with a small forceps. It is weighed 
as removed. 

At about 40-50 days of age there appears a difference in the 
weight of the hypophysis according to sex and with advancing 
age this difference tends to increase. The female has the heavier 
hypophysis. The graph for the male in chart 19 and the values 
for the male in table 71 have been determined by formula (28). 



WEIGHT OF SUPRARENALS ON BODY WEIGHT 



99 



The graph for the female and the corresponding tabular values 
by|formulas (28) and (29). Hatai ('13). 

The weight of the suprarenals on body weight. Technic: The 
suprarenals are usually imbedded within some fat tissue but 
with a little practice they may be dissected out cleanly. At 
about 40-50 days of age there appears a difference hi the weight 



022 


HYPOF 

WEIGHT 


'HYSIS 




















































GRAMS 






/ 
























































































/ 















































































































018 








































, 


























































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BODY WEIGHT GRAMJ 




tf> 












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50' 100 150 200 250 300 390 400 450 

Chart 19 Showing the weight of hypophysis of the albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 78 male and 80 female 
rats. Table 71, formulas (28) and (29). 

Observed weight, male. o Observed weight, female. 

Calculated weight, male. Calculated weight, female. 

of the suprarenals according to sex and with advancing age this 
difference tends to increase. The female has the heavier supra- 
renals. The graph for the male in chart 20 and the values for 
the male in table 71 have been determined by formula (30). The 
graph for the female and the corresponding tabular values, by 
formula (31). Hatai (13); Jackson (13). 



100 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



6. The third group of the organs here considered is formed by 
those the growth of which is represented by a sinuous graph in 
which the most marked rise appears shortly before puberty. These 
organs, so far as examined, are the ovaries, the testes and the thymus. 



.07 
.06 
.05 
.04 
,03 
.02 
.01 

( 


SUPRARENALS 

WEIGHT GRAMS 


Z 






































































.u 
.06 
.04 
.02 








































































































































































' 


























































































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f 












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& 




























































BODY WEIGHT GRAMS 


I 


























































































































) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 



Chart 20 Showing the weight of suprarenals of the albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 92 (Jackson) male rats 
below 50 grams in body weight, and 53 (Wistar) male rats above 50 grams in 
body weight; and 84 (Jackson) female rats below 50 grams in body weight, and 
29 (Wistar) female rats above 50 grams in body weight. Table 71, formulas 
(30) and (31) . 

Observed weight, male. o Observed weight, female. 

Calculated weight, male. Calculated weight, female. 

The weight of both ovaries on the body weight. Technic: The 
ovaries must be carefully dissected from their capsules and 
from the end of the fallopian tube. When the animal is small it 
is sometimes necessary to do this under a dissecting microscope. 
The data collected by Jackson ('13) are those used. The graph 
in chart 21 and the values in table 70 have been determined by 
formulas (25), (26), and (27). Hatai ('13, '14a); Jackson ('13). 



WEIGHT OF OVARIES ON BODY WEIGHT 



101 



.05 
.04 
.03 


OVARIES 2 

WEIGHT GRAMS 


















































.04 
.02 

O 










































































































































































































o 














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h 
























































































































































































.02 
.01 
1 
























































































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9 


o- 


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' 


































































\J 






































IODY WEIGHT GRAMS 




6 






































I 


g 










































1 50 TOO 150 200 250 300 35 



Chart 21 Showing the weight of ovaries of the female albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 136 (Jackson) rats. 
Table 70, formulas (25) , (26) and (27) . 

O Observed weight. Calculated weight. 

3.5 



3.0 





rESi 

EIGHl 


ES 2 

r GRAMS 


































































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BODY WEIGHT GRAMS 






/ 




























































*" 





























































2.0 1- - 



1.5 



1.0 



0.5 



50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 

Chart 22 Showing the weight of testes of the male albino rat according to 
body weight. The observed weights are represented by 121 male rats. Table 
70, formulas (22), (23) and (24). 

Observed weight. Calculated weight. 



102 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



The weight of both testes on body weight. Technic: The epi- 
didymis was removed before the testes were weighed. The 
graph in chart 22 and the values in table 70 were determined by 
formulas (22), (23) and (24). Hatai ('13); Jackson ('13). 



.35 



.30 



.25 



.20 



.15 



.10 



.05 



THYMUS GLAND 
weight grams 



35 



Age in days. 



280 



300 



350 



30 



25 



20 



15 



10 



05 



Chart 23 Showing the weight of thethymus of the albino rat according to age. 
The observed weights are represented by 229 males (164 Jackson and 64 Wistar) 
and 207 females (179 Jackson and 28 Wistar). Table 72, formulas (38) and (39) . 

Observed weight male, O female, computed weight. 

Weight of thymus on age. In the case of the thymus the data 
are more useful when presented according to age than when pre- 
sented according to body weight. 

Technic: In preparing the thymus care must be taken to dis- 
sect away the large lymph glands as well as the fat lying about 
it. The records by Jackson ('13) have been combined with those 
from The Wistar Institute. The graph in chart 23 and the values 
in table 72 have been determined by the formulas (38) and (39). 
No weight difference according to sex has been noted. Hatai 
('14); Jackson ('13). 



DETERMINATION OF VARIATION 



103 



7. Determinations of variation. Variation in body weight and 
organ weight. In table 58 Jackson ('13) gives a series of determi- 
nations of the coefficient of variation for body weight on a litter 
basis and in age groups. The animals were selected by the 
method of 'random sampling.' These values are to be compared 
with those determined by King (MS '15). In King's series the. 
same groups of rats were examined at different ages (table 67) . 

For the same animals as were used in table 58 Jackson ('13) 
also gives for the several organs the coefficient of variation 
(table 59) and the coefficients of correlation with the body weight 
(table 60) . The coefficients of variation for body weight on age 
are given by King (MS '15) in her growth series (table 67). 



TABLE 58. 



Coefficient of variation in body weight for total population by ordinary method, and 
on litter basis (fraternal variation) estimated by various methods (Jackson, 'IS). 





x 





NEWBORN 


8} 
ft 

d 

t- 



> 

< 
o 




6 WEEKS 


10 WEEKS 


5 MONTHS 


Total population 


/ Male 


13. 6 1 


16. 9 1 


24. 4 2 


20. 8 2 


18. 8 1 


18. 5 1 


(ordinary method) 


\ Female 


9.9' 


13. 7 1 


29. 4 2 


24. 2 2 


16. 8 1 


15. 3 1 


Litter basis 


/ Male 


7.0 


6.1 


5.7 


6.6 


5.8 


7.4 


(average of litters calcu- 


\ Female 


4.4 


5.4 


4.0 


5.9 


12.0 


10.4 


lated by ordinary me- 
















thod) 
















Litter basis 


/ Male 


6.8 


7.6 


6.8 


7.1 


6.1 


8.1 


(calculated from Yule's 


\ Female 


5.2 


4.4 


4.5 


7.9 


12.2 


9.3 


formula) 
















Litter basis 


/ Male 


7.3 


8 4 


6 


7 2 


6 7 


8.5 


(from Kellogg's for- 


\ Female 


5.2 


4.5 


4.1 


8.5 


12.0 


9.0 


mula) 

















1 For net body weight. 

2 For gross body weight, larger series. 



104 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 59 



Coefficients of variation in organ weights, albino rat at different ages. Arranged 
according to mean values in the last column (Jackson, '12). 





DAYS 


7 DATS 


21 DAYS 


42 DAYS 


TODAYS 


150 DAYS 


AVERAGE 


Brain 


12 




7 


12 






10 


Eyeballs 


16 


15 


13 


8 


11 


9 


12 


Head 


10 


11 


15 


10 


14 


13 


12 


Total body 


12 


16 


28 


21 


20 


19 


19 


Lungs 


23 


17 


24 


19 


21 




21 


Kidneys 


24 


22 


34 


15 


17 


19 


22 


Heart 


18 


20 


34 


30 


18 


21 


24 


Liver 


22 


19 


41 


19 


33 


25 


26 


Suprarenals 


24 


20 


33 


22 


21 


39 


26 


Testes 


25 


18 


30 


27 


35 


41 


29 


Thymus 


31 


32 


43 


50 


25 


22 


34 


Spleen 


39 


34 


51 


26 


38 


19 


34 


Intestinal canal 
(plus contents) 
Ovaries 


38 


29 


42 
42 


30 
47 


51 


33 


35 

43 


















Average of viscera 


23 


22 


31 


24 


26 


24 


'25 



TABLE 60 

Coefficients of correlation of organ weights with the body weight: albino rat at different 
ages. Arranged according to mean values in the last column (Jackson, '13) . 





DAYS 


7 DAYS 


21 DAYS 


42 DAYS 


70 DAYS 


150 DAYS 


AVERAQB 


Head 


76 


89 


0.93 


0.95 


0.75 


85 


86 


Kidneys 


0.70 


0.79 


0.96 


0.92 


0.90 


0.91 


86 


Liver 


0.76 


0.76 


0.97 


0.84 


0.74 


0.87 


0.83 


Lungs 


0.74 


80 


0.87 


0.94 


62 




80 


Brain 


0.69 




0.78 


0.88 






0.78 


Heart 


58 


50 


91 


97 


86 


84 


78 


Testes 


0.67 


0.75 


95 


0.75 


0.48 


0.88 


0.75 


Ovaries 






73 


64 


82 


81 


75 


Intestinal canal 
(plus contents) . . 
Thymus 


0.29 
0.67 


0.59 
0.74 


0.84 
0.89 


0.76 
0.90 


0.51 


-0.09 


0.62 
0.60 


Spleen . 


54 


44 


97 


50 


0.41 


0.46 


55 


Eyeballs 


0.67 


0.52 


0.67 


0.31 


0.22 


0.32 


0.45 


Suprarenals 


0.51 


0.13 


0.58 


0.41 


0.41 


0.35 


0.40 


















Average 


0.63 


0.63 


0.85 


0.75 


0.62 


0.70 


0.70 



















WEIGHTS OF FETUSES 



105 



8. General Tables. The tables which are not represented by 
charts in the text are usually short and have been introduced 
where they are mentioned, but as a matter of convenience all of 
those which are so represented are here grouped together as 
general tables under the following heads : 

a) . Tables for the increase in the weight of the entire body on 
age. Tables 61-67. 

b). Tables for the increase in the length of the tail, in the weight 
of the entire body, and in the weight of several of the viscera 
according to body length. Tables 68-71 (72). 

9. Table 72 for the weight of the thymus based not on body 
length but on age. 

10. Weight of all the viscera combined. Table 73. 

11. Tables giving the values for characters other than body weight, 
linked with age. Table 74. 

For the most part the tables are preceded by a slight descrip- 
tive heading only. Reference is made to the corresponding 
charts in connection with which all the details concerning them 
have been noted. 

Tables showing the increase in the weight of the entire body with 
age. 

Growth before birth, Stotsenburg (MS '15) (p. 64), table 61. 
This table duplicates table 46, but gives one additional entry. 

TABLE 61 

Showing the mean weights of the fetuses at ten ages during gestation and at birth. 
Stotsenburg (MS '15). Chart 1 



AGE IN DAYS 


NUMBER OF FETUSES 


AVERAGE WEIGHT OF 
FETUS 


RATE OF INCREASE IN 
WEIGHT 


13 


34 


grams 

040 


per cent 


14 


44 


112 


179 


15 


37 


168 


50 


16 


44 


310 


83 


17 


21 


548 


77 


18 


43 


1 000 


83 


19 


30 


1 580 


58 


20 


25 


2 630 


65 


21 


42 


3.980 


51 


22 


10 


4 630 


16 


Strictly new born 


37 


4.680 





106 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



Growth after birth, tables 62-67. 

TABLE 62 

Body weight on age both sexes. Based on records by Donaldson, Dunn and 
Watson ('06) and computed from 10-865 days , by formulas (34), (S5) males; (36), 
(37) females. The values for the first ten days are from direct observation, 
Donaldson (MS '15). Not charted 



AGE 

DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


AGE 
DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


AGE 
DAYS 


BODY -WEIGHT 


AGE 
DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


B. 


4.8 


4.7 


33 


32.8 


34.4 


66 


94.5 


89.4 


99 


164.3 


145.1 


1 


5.5 


5.4 


34 


34.1 


35.7 


67 


97.0 


91.5 


100 


165.8 


146.2 


2 


5.9 


5.8 


35 


35.4 


37.0 


68 


99.5 


93.6 








3 


6.4 


6.3 


36 


36.8 


38.3 


69 


102.1 


95.8 


105 


172.7 


151.4 


4 


6.9 


6.8 


37 


38.1 


39.6 


70 


104.7 


98.0 


110 


179.1 


156.3 


5 


7.6 


7.5 


38 


39.6 


40.9 








115 


185.2 


160.9 


6 


8.5 


8.4 


39 


41.0 


42.3 


71 


107.3 


100.2 


120 


190.9 


165.2 


7 


9.5 


9.4 


40 


42.5 


43.7 


72 


110.0 


102.4 


125 


196.2 


169.2 


8 


10.5 


10.4 








73 


112.7 


104.7 


130 


201.2 


173.0 


9 


11.8 


11.6 


41 


44.1 


45.1 


74 


115.5 


107.0 


135 


206.0 


176.5 


10 


13.5 


13.0 


42 


45.7 


46.6 


75 


118.3 


109.3 


140 


210.5 


179.9 








43 


47.3 


48.1 


76 


121.1 


111.6 


145 


214.7 


183.1 


11 


13.9 


13.7 


44 


48.9 


49.6 


77 


124.0 


114.0 


150 


218.7 


186.1 


12 


14.4 


14.4 


45 


50.6 


51.1 


78 


126.8 


116.4 








13 


14.9 


15.1 


46 


52.3 


52.7 


79 


129.8 


118.8 


155 


222.5 


188.9 


14 


15.5 


15.8 


47 


54.1 


54.3 


80 


132.8 


121.3 


160 


226.0 


191.6 


15 


16.1 


16.5 


48 


55.9 


55.9 








165 


229.4 


194.2 


16 


16.7 


17.3 


49 


57.7 


57.5 


81 


134.7 


122.6 


170 


232.6 


196.5 


17 


17.3 


18.1 


50 


59.6 


59.2 


82 


136.5 


124.0 


175 


235.7 


198.8 


18 


18.0 


18.9 








83 


138.4 


125.4 


180 


238.6 


201.0 


19 


18.7 


19.8 


51 


61.5 


60.9 


84 


140.2 


126.8 


185 


241.3 


203.0 


20 


19.5 


20.7 


52 


63.4 


62.6 


85 


142.0 


128.1 


190 


243.9 


204.9 








53 


65.4 


64.3 


86 


143.7 


129.5 


195 


246.3 


206.7 


21 


20.3 


21.6 


54 


67.4 


66.1 


87 


145.5 


130.8 


200 


248.6 


208.4 


22 


21.1 


22.5 


55 


69.5 


67.9 


88 


147.2 


132.1 








23 


22.0 


23.4 


56 


71.6 


69.7 


89 


148.9 


133.4 


205 


250.9 


210.1 


24 


22.9 


24.4 


57 


73.7 


71.6 


90 


150.5 


134.6 


210 


253.1 


211.6 


25 


23.9 


25.4 


58 


75.9 


73.4 








215 


254.9 


213.1 


26 


24.9 


26.5 


59 


78.1 


75.3 


91 


152.1 


135.8 


220 


256.8 


214.4 


27 


25.9 


27.5 


60 


80.3 


77.3 


92 


153.7 


137.1 


225 


258.6 


216.8 


28 


27.0 


28.6 








93 


155.3 


138.3 


230 


260.2 


217.0 


29 


28.1 


29.7 


61 


82.5 


79.2 


94 


156.9 


139.4 


235 


261.9 


218.1 


30 


29.2 


30.9 


62 


84.9 


81.2 


95 


158.4 


140.6 


240 


263.3 


219.2 








63 


87.2 


83.2 


96 


160.0 


141.8 


245 


264.8 


220.3 


31 


30.4 


32.0 


64 


89.6 


85.2 


97 


161.4 


142.9 


250 


266.1 


221.2 


32 


31.6 


33.2 


65 


92.0 


87.3 


98 


162.9 


144.0 









BODY WEIGHT ON AGE 



107 



TABLE 62 Concluded 



AGE 
DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


AGE 
DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


AGE 
DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


AGE 
DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


255 


267.3 


222.1 


290 


274.2 


226.9 


320 


277.7 


229.3 


355 


279.7 


230.4 


260 


268.5 


223.0 


295 


274.9 


227.4 


325 


278.1 


229.5 


360 


279.8 


230.4 


265 


269.6 


223.7 


300 


275.5 


227.9 


330 


278.5 


229.8 


365 


279.9 


230.4 


270 


270.7 


224.5 








335 


278.8 


229.9 








275 


271.6 


225.1 


305 


276.2 


228.3 


340 


279.1 


230.1 








280 


272.5 


225.8 


310 


276.8 


228.7 


345 


279.3 


230.2 








285 


273.4 


226.4 


315 


277.2 


229.0 


350 


279.6 


230.3 









108 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 63 

Body weight on age. Male Albinos unmated. Chicago colony. Donaldson, Dunn 
and Watson, ('06) . The records for the first ten days as given in the original table 
are here omitted. Those values may be obtained from table 62. In addition to 
the average values the highest and lowest are also given. See graph A in chart 2 



AGE IX DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT IN GRAMS 


NUMBER OF 
ANIMALS 


Average 


Lowest 


Highest 


11 


13.3 

14.8 
15.3 
15.2 
16.5 
17.8 
19.5 
21.2 
22.9 
25.3 
27.4 
29.5 
31.8 
34.9 
37.8 
42.2 
46.3 
50.5 
56.7 
62.5 
68.5 
73.9 
81.7 
89.1 
99.3 
106.6 
113.8 
121.3 
128.2 
135.0 
143.8 
148.4 
152.3 
160.0 
168.8 
177.6 
183.8 


13.0 
11.4 
14.1 
14.0 
12.5 
13.9 
15.2 
14.6 
17.9 
19.0 
19.8 
22.1 
25.9 
27.4 
28.5 
30.8 
33.7 
35.9 
38.9 
39.8 
40.6 
45.1 
49.0 
52.7 
57.7 
71.2 
71.4 
89.8 
97.0 
105.1 
117.0 
124.5 
124.0 
124.0 
120.0 
120.0 
125.0 


13.6 
19.5 
16.0 
17.6 
22.4 
24.0 
26.0 
30.1 
32.5 
35.8 
38.3 
39.3 
41.2 
43.3 
48.0 
52.2 
62.4 
66.2 
73.9 
82.5 
87.5 
100.1 
116.6 
129.6 
140.2 
148.5 
152.4 
157.5 
161.2 
165.5 
168.5 
174.0 
179.6 
180.7 
192.2 
206.0 
215.6 


4 
6 
5 

6 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


12 


13 


14 


15 


17 


19 


21 


23 


25 


27 


29 


31 


34 


37 


40 


43 


46 


49 


52 


55 


58 


61 


64 


67 


70 


73 .... 


76 


79 ... 


82 


85 


88 


92 


97 


102 


107 


112.. 





BODY WEIGHT ON AGE 



109 



TABLE 63 Concluded 



AGE IN DATS 


BODY WEIGHT IX GRAMS 


NUMBER OF 
ANIMALS 


Average 


Lowest 


Highest 


117 


191.4 
197.3 
202.5 
209.7 
218.3 
225.4 
227.0 
231.4 
235.8 
239.4 
239.8 
252.9 
265.4 
279.0 
308.5 


130.0 
123.0 
132.4 
145.6 
155.5 
162.4 
162.4 
159.0 
165.2 
167.9 
176.0 
190.5 
190.5 
203.6 
285.0 


223.0 

238.2 
249.2 
248.4 
259.4 
268.2 
271.4 
271.8 
289.0 
291.2 
294.0 
294.5 
310.0 
320.0 
375.6 


19 

19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
17 
17 
17 
15 
10 
10 
6 
6 


124 


131 


138 


143 


150 


157 


164 


171 


178 


185 


216 


256 


365 


730 





110 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 64 

Body weight on age. Female albinos unmated. Values for 'mated 1 computed (Watson 
'05) Chicago colony. Donaldson, Dunn and Watson, ('06). The records for 
the first ten days as given in the original table are here omitted. Those values 
may be obtained from table 62. In addition to the average values the highest and 
lowest are also given. See graph A, in chart 8. 



AGE IN DAYS 


BOOT WEIGHT IN GRAMS 


NUMBER OF 
ANIMALS 


Average 


Lowest 


Highest 


11 


12.8 
15.1 
15.1 
15.6 
17.7 
19.2 
20.6 
22.6 
24.9 
27.4 
30.0 
31.4 
32.9 
35.7 
39.6 
43.7 
47.9 
52.0 
57.7 
62.9 
68.4 
74.6 
78.4 
85.8 
96.0 
99.8 
105.6 
110.4 
118.8 
124.7 
131.5 mated 
136.0 
139.6 139.8 
145.9 146.3 
152.4 153.1 
154.9 155.8 
160.2 161.4 


12.1 
13.6 
14.7 
13.5 
13.1 
15.1 
16.9 
16.1 
17.3 
20.8 
23.9 
24.0 
26.3 
26.4 
29.8' 
30.6 
35.0 
41.4 
42.0 
41.7 
49.8 
53.6 
56.2 
57.5 
71.2 
79.0 
80.2 
89.6 
97.7 
101.0 
105.0 mated 
115.6 
118.7 118.9 
119.6 120.0 
124.6 125.2 
129.6 130.3 
138.5 139.5 


13.6 
17.7 
16.0 
18.1 
23.2 
24.5 
27.0 
30.1 
33.3 
36.0 
38.5 
39.0 
42.8 
44.1 
47.4 
52.4 
60.7 
63.0 
69.2 
74.8 
80.7 
86.6 
96.7 
106.8 
114.1 
122.6 
126.5 
131.6 
136.0 
139.2 
143.2 mated 
157.4 
161.4 161.6 
174.5 175.0 
185.7 186.5 
191.4 192.5 
193.6 195.0 


2 
5 
5 
5 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
16 
16 
16 
13 
13 
13 
12 
12 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


17 


19 


21 


23 


25 


27 


29 


31 


34 


37 


40 


43 


46 


49 


52 ......... 


55 


58 


61 


64 


67 


70 


73 


76 


79 


82 


85 


88 


92 


97 


102 


107 


112 





BODY WEIGHT ON AGE 
TABLE 94 Concluded 



111 



AGE IN DAYS 


BODY WEIGHT IN GRAMS 


NUMBER OF 
ANIMALS 


Average 


Lowest 


Highest 


117 


166.5 168.0 
170.7 172.6 
178.6 181.0 
182.2 185.0 
183.4 186.6 
184.6 188.2 
184.0 188.0 
185.1 189.5 
187.4 192.2 
191.7 197.0 
194.2 200.0 
195.9 202.2 

226.4 


142.5 143.8 
146.4 148.0 
151.2 153.0 
151.0 153.3 
154.0 156.7 
153.7 156.7 
154.9 158.2 
154.0 157.6 
154.0 158.0 
153.0 157.2 
152.0 156.6 
155.0 160.0 

171.4 


199.0 200.8 
206.7 209.0 
214.7 217.5 
210.2 213.4 
219.4 223.4 
220.7 225.0 
217.6 222.4 
215.0 220.1 
210.0 215.4 
215.0 221.0 
215.0 221.4 
217.0 224.0 

280.0 


11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11. 
11 
11 
11 
11 

7 


124 


131 


138 


143 


150 


157 


164 


171 


178 


185 


192 


365 





112 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 65 

Increase in the body weight of the albino rat with age, based on a personal communi- 
cation, Ferry ('IS). New Haven Colony. See graphs B and B 1 Chart 2, and 
B, Chart S 







BODY WEIGHT 






Males 

(1) 




Females 
) 


10 


grams 

14 6 




grams 

13 


20 


22.3 




25 


30 


35.3 




38 


40 


51.7 




54 


50 


73.1 




73 


60 


96.8 




89 


70 


113 6 




100 


80 


127.7 




105 


90 


143.7 




115 


100 


157.3 




120 


110 


168.3 




125 


120 


180.8 




133 


130 


190.4 




137 


140 


197.4 




146 


150 


208 3 




150 


160 


211.9 


Males. 


152 


170 


218.3 




158 


180 


225 7 




160 


190 


233.5 


(2) 


164 


200 


243.1 




168 


210 




254.0 


169 


220 


253.3 


262.0 


172 


230 




264.0 


172 


240 


268.2 


270.0 


172 


250 




272.0 


170 


260 


259.1 


276.0 


171 


270. ... 




280.0 


173 


280 


265.2 


287.0 


176 


300 


267.4 















Column 1, males, includes some rats declining in body weight after 200 days. 

Column 2, males, contains values from the normal growth curve (New Haven 
series). 

Column 3, females, contains values read directly from normal growth curve, 
New Haven. 



VARIATION IN BODY WEIGHT 



113 



TABLE 66 



Giving the number of animals used by Ferry, ('18) in computing her growth table 65, 
for the rats at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven. 
(Personal Communication). 
In both groups the maximum number of observations was made at SO days of age 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Age in days 


Number of rats 


Age in days 


Number of rats 


20- 80 


47-81 


20- 90 


39-68 


90-170 


30-40 


100-160 


20-37 


180-210 


18-27 


170-190 


11-14 


220-280 


6-12 


200-280 


6- 8 



TABLE 67 

Giving the increase in body weight with age stock Albinos. Mean of two series 
King (MS '15) and giving also the coefficients of variation with their probable er- 
rors. The Wistar Institute Colony. See graph C, Charts 2 and S, and Chart 4- 



Age in 
days 


No. 
individuals 


Average 
bd. wt. 


Coefficient of 
variation 


No. 
individuals 


Average 
bd. wt. 


Coefficient of 
variation 






grams 






grams 




13 


50 


17.2 


11.80.795 


50 


15.7 


11.40.768 


30 


50 


48.5 


10.20.687 


50 


45.7 


11.00.741 


60 


50 


122.9 


17. 1.140 


50 


107.1 


15. 7=*= 1.050 


90 


50 


184.8 


14.80.998 


39 


148.0 


12.50.951 


120 


50 


223.2 


13.40.903 


42 


173.4 


10.30.755 


151 


50 


244.8 


13.30.896 


45 


186.3 


10.40.735 


182 


50 


258.4 


14.21.220 


42 


196.5 


12.30.903 


212 


48 


268.0 


14.00.964 


42 


197.3 


12.40.910 


243 


44 


279.7 


13.90.998 


43 


209.6 


12.60.910 


273 


41 


280.9 


13.40.997 


38 


210.8 


11.50.890 


304 


36 


296.1 


14.01.110 


38 


219.1 


10.30.795 


334 


33 


300.8 


13. 7 1.130 


35 


222.4 


10.80.870 


365 


28 


306.1 


13.01.160 


31 


223.1 


10.70.910 


395 


24 


314.1 


12.61.220 


31 


220.5 


11.50.984 


425 


23 


312.2 


13. 4 1.320 


30 


215.8 


10.90.944 


455 


15 


323.9 


13.6=tl.670 


18 


220.2 


8.90.998 


485 


12 


326.0 


15.0^2.060 


13 


234.7 


13. 4 1.770 



114 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

The four tables 68, 69, 70 and 71 which follow have been worked 
out on the basis of body length by the use of the appropriate 
formulas. The details touching the organs represented, as well 
as the corresponding graphs, are to be found in the earlier para- 
graphs of this chapter. The values for the body weights are 
repeated in each table. 

Weights of viscera combined. Using the data in tables 68- 
71 (72) the total weight of the viscera brain, spinal cord, both 
eyeballs, heart, both kidneys, liver, spleen, both lungs, alimen- 
tary tract, both testes, both ovaries, hypophysis, both supra- 
renals, thyroid and thymus (given separately) has been entered 
after the total body weight at each millimeter of body length 
and for each sex. For obvious reasons the weight of the total 
blood (see table 70) has not been included. 

For the thymus, the weight of which is most closely correlated 
with age, the following procedure has been employed. Using 
table 62 for the values for the body weights at given ages, the 
relation between age, body weight and thymus weight has been 
directly tabulated, and using these data as a basis, the values 
of the thymus for the body weight which is assumed to be nor- 
mal to the age have been determined as given in table 73. 
Owing to the manner in which they have been obtained, it has 
seemed best to give the thymus values in a separate column. 

The entries for the thymus cease after a body length of 221 mm. 
for males and 198 mm. for females, as these mark the limit of the 
data in table 62. But in animals of this size or larger, the value 
for the thymus has become very small both absolutely and 
relatively. 

Tables giving characters which depend primarily on age. 

Table 74 gives the percentage of water in the brain and in the 
spinal cord for each sex from birth to 365 days. These values 
have been computed by formulas (40) , (41) and (42) . The graphs 
corresponding to these data for the males are given in chart 26. 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



115 



TABLE 68 



Giving for each sex the tail length and the weights of the brain, spinal cord and both 
eyeballs for each millimeter of body length. See Charts 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 


in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 


in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 






gma. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 


47 


14.9 


4.9 


0.226 


0.033 


0.029 


15.4 


4.7 


0.211 


0.033 


0.028 


48 


15.8 


4.9 


0.226 


0.033 


0.029 


16.6 


4.7 


0.214 


0.033 


0.028 


49 


16.9 


5.0 


0.232 


0.034 


0.030 


17.8 


4.9 


0.217 


0.034 


0.029 


50 


18.0 


5.1 


0.238 


0.034 


0.031 


19.0 


5.0 


0.222 


0.035 


0.029 


51 


19.2 


5.2 


0.252 


0.035 


0.031 


20.2 


5.1 


0.227 


0.035 


0.030 


52 


20.4 


5.3 


0.266 


0.036 


0.032 


21.5 


5.3 


0.255 


0.036 


0.032 


53 


21.6 


5.4 


0.280 


0.037 


0.033 


22.7 


5.5 


0.283 


0.038 


0.034 


54 


22.7 


5.6 


0.300 


0.038 


0.034 


23.9 


5.8 


0.323 


0.041 


0.036 


55 


23.9 


5.8 


0.320 


0.040 


0.036 


25.2 


6.2 


0.361 


0.044 


0.039 


56 


25.0 


6.1 


0.358 


0.043 


0.039 


26.4 


6.5 


0.398 


0.048 


0.041 


57 


26.2 


6.. 4 


0.395 


0.046 


0.041 


27.6 


6.9 


0.433 


0.051 


0.044 


58 


27.3 


6.8 


0.431 


0.049 


0.044 


28.8 


7.2 


0.468 


0.054 


0.046 


59 


28.5 


7.1 


0.465 


0.052 


0.046 


30.0 


7.6 


0.500 


0.057 


0.049 


60 


29.6 


7.5 


0.498 


0.055 


0.048 


31.2 


8.0 


0.532 


0.061 


0.051 


61 


30.7 


7.9 


0.530 


0.059 


0.050 


32.3 


8.4 


0.564 


0.064 


0.053 


62 


31.9 


8.2 


0.561 


0.062 


0.052 


33.5 


8.7 


0.594 


0.068 


0.055 


63 


33.0 


8.6 


0.591 


0.065 


0.054 


34.7 


9.1 


0.624 


0.071 


0.057 


64 


34.1 


9.0 


0.621 


0.068 


0.056 


35.9 


9.5 


0.652 


0.074 


0.059 


65 


35.2 


9.4 


0.650 


0.071 


0.058 


37.0 


9.9 


0.679 


0.077 


0.061 


66 


36.3 


9.8 


0.678 


0.075 


0.060 


38.2 


10.3 


0.703 


0.081 


0.063 


67 


37.4 


10.1 


0.695 


0.078 


0.062 


39.4 


10.8 


0.726 


0.084 


0.065 


68 


38.5 


10.6 


0.711 


0.081 


0.064 


40.5 


11.2 


0.772 


0.088 


0.067 


69 


39.6 


11.0 


0.761 


0.084 


0.066 


41.7 


11.6 


0.811 


0.091 


0.068 


70 


40.7 


11.4 


0.803 


0.088 


0.068 


42.8 


12.0 


0.846 


0.095 


0.070 


71 


41.8 


11.8 


0.840 


0.091 


0.069 


43.9 


12.5 


0.876 


0.098 


0.072 


72 


42.9 


12.2 


0.872 


0.094 


0.071 


45.1 


12.9 


0.904 


0.101 


0.073 


73 


44.0 


12.7 


0.901 


0.098 


0.073 


46.2 


13.4 


0.929 


0.105 


0.075 


74 


45.1 


13.1 


0.928 


0.101 


0.074 


47.3 


13.9 


0.952 


0.108 


0.077 


75 


46.2 


13.6 


0.952 


0.104 


0.076 


48.5 


14.3 


0.974 


0.112 


0.078 


76 


47.2 


14.0 


0.974 


0.107 


0.077 


49.6 


14.8 


0.994 


0.115 


0.080 


77 


48.3 


14.5 


0.995 


0.111 


0.079 


50.7 


15.3 


1.013 


0.119 


0.082 


78 


49.4 


15.0 


1.015 


0.114 


0.081 


51.8 


15.8 


1.031 


0.122 


0.083 


79 


50.4 


15.4 


1.033 


0.117 


0.082 


52.9 


16.3 


1.047 


0.126 


0.085 


80 


51.5 


15.9 


1.051 


0.121 


0.084 


54.0 


16.8 


1.064 


0.129 


0.086 



116 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 68 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Tail 

length 


Body 
weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 



81 


52.6 


16.4 


1.067 


0.124 


0. 


085 


55.1 


17.3 


1.079 


0.133 


0.088 


82 


53.6 


16.9 


1.083 


0.128 


0. 


087 


56.3 


17.9 


1.093 


0.136 


0.089 


83 


54.7 


17.4 


1.098 


0.131 


0. 


088 


57.4 


18.4 


1.107 


0.140 


0.091 


84 


55.7 


18.0 


1.112 


0.134 


0. 


090 


58.5 


19.0 


1.121 


0.143 


0.093 


85 


56.8 


18.5 


1.126 


0.138 


0. 


091 


59.5 


19.5 


1.134 


0.147 


0.094 


86 


57.8 


19.0 


1.139 


0.141 


0. 


093 


60.6 


20.1 


1.146 


0.150 


0.095 


87 


58.9 


19.6 


1.152 


0.144 


0. 


094 


61.7 


20.7 


1.159 


0.154 


0.097 


88 


59.9 


20.1 


1.165 


0.148 


0. 


095 


62.8 


21.2 


1.170 


0.158 


0.098 


89 


61.0 


20.7 


1.177 


0.151 





097 


63.9 


21.8 


1.181 


0.161 


0.100 


90 


62.0 


21.3 


1.188 


0.155 





098 


65.0 


22.4 


1.193 


0.165 


0.101 


91 


63.0 


21.9 


1.200 


0.158 





100 


66.1 


23.1 


1.203 


0.168 


0.103 


92 


64.1 


22.4 


1.211 


0.162 





101 


67.2 


23.7 


1.214 


0.172 


0.104 


93 


65.1 


23.0 


1.221 


0.165 





102 


68.2 


24.3 


1.224 


0.176 


0.105 


94 


66.2 


23.7 


1.231 


0.168 





.104 


69.3 


25.0 


1.234 


0.179 


0.107 


95 


67.2 


24.3 


1.242 


0.172 





105 


70.4 


25.6 


1.244 


0.183 


0.108 


96 


68.2 


24.9 


1.252 


0.175 





107 


71.4 


26.3 


1.253 


0.186 


0.109 


97 


69.2 


25.6 


1.261 


0.179 





108 


72.5 


27.0 


1.262 


0.190 


0.111 


98 


70.3 


26.2 


1.271 


0.182 





109 


73.6 


27.7 


1.271 


0.194 


0.112 


99 


71.3 


26.9 


1.280 


0.186 





.111 


74.6 


28.4 


1.280 


0.197 


0.114 


100 


72.3 


27.5 


1.289 


0.189 


0.112 


75.7 


29.1 


1.289 


0.201 


0.115 


101 


73.3 


28.2 


1.298 


0.193 





.113 


76.8 


29.8 


1.298 


0.205 


0.116 


102 


74.3 


28.9 


1.307 


0.197 





.115 


77.8 


30.5 


1.306 


0.209 


0.118 


103 


75.4 


29.6 


1.315 


0.200 





.116 


78.9 


31.3 


1.314 


0.212 


0.119 


104 


76.4 


30.3 


1.323 


0.204 





.117 


79.9 


32.0 


1.322 


0.216 


0.120 


105 


77.4 


31.1 


1.332 


0.207 





.119 


81.0 


32.8 


1.330 


0.220 


0.122 


106 


78.4 


31.8 


1.340 


0.211 





.120 


82.0 


33.6 


1.338 


0.223 


0.123 


107 


79.4 


32.5 


1.348 


0.214 





.121 


83.1 


34.4 


1.346 


0.227 


0.124 


108 


80.4 


33.3 


1.356 


0.218 





.123 


84.1 


35.2 


1.354 


0.231 


0.126 


109 


81.4 


34.1 


1.363 


0.221 





.124 


85.2 


36.0 


1.361 


0.235 


0.127 


110 


82.4 


34.9 


1.371 


0.225 





.125 


86.2 


36.9 


1.368 


0.238 


0.128 


111 


83.4 


35.7 


1.378 


0.228 





.126 


87.3 


37.7 


1.376 


0.242 


0.1,30 


112 


84.4 


36.5 


1.386 


0.232 





.128 


88.3 


38.6 


1.383 


0.246 


0.131 


113 


85.4 


37.3 


1.393 


0.236 





.129 


89.4 


39.5 


1.390 


0.250 


0.132 


114 


86.4 


38.2 


1.400 


0.239 





.130 


90.4 


40.3 


1.397 


0.253 


0.134 


115 


87.4 


39.0 


1.407 


0.243 





.132 


91.4 


41.3 


1.404 


0.257 


0.135 


116 


88.4 


39.9 


1.414 


0.246 





.133 


92.5 


42.2 


1.411 


0.261 


0.136 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



117 



TABLE 68 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 

length 


Body 

weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 



117 


89.4 


40.8 


1.421 


0.250 


0. 


134 


93.5 


43.1 


1.418 


0.265 


0.138 


118 


90.4 


41.6 


1.428 


0.254 


0. 


136 


94.5 


44.1 


1.424 


0.268 


0.139 


119 


91.4 


42.6 


1.435 


0.257 


0. 


137 


95.6 


45.0 


1.431 


0.272 


0.140 


120 


92.4 


43.5 


1.442 


0.261 


0. 


138 


96.6 


46.0 


1.438 


0.276 


0.142 


121 


93.4 


44.4 


1.448 


0.265 


0. 


140 


97.6 


47.0 


1.444 


0.280 


0.143 


122 


94.4 


45.4 


1.455 


0.268 


0. 


141 


98.7 


48.0 


1.450 


0.284 


0.144 


123 


95.4 


46.3 


1.461 


0.272 


0. 


142 


99.7 


49.1 


1.457 


0.287 


0.146 


124 


96.4 


47.3 


1.468 


0.276 


0. 


143 


100.7 


50.1 


1.463 


0.291 


0.147 


125 


97.4 


48.3 


1.474 


0.279 


0. 


145 


101.7 


51.2 


1.469 


0.295 


0.148 


126 


98.4 


49.3 


1.480 


0.283 


0. 


146 


102.8 


52.3 


1.476 


0.299 


0.150 


127 


99.3 


50.4 


1.487 


0.287 





147 


103.8 


53.4 


1.482 


0.303 


0.151 


128 


100.3 


51.4 


1.493 


0.290 


0. 


149 


104.8 


54.5 


1.488 


0.307 


0.153 


129 


101.3 


52.5 


1.499 


0.294 


0, 


150 


105.8 


55.6 


1.494 


0.310 


0.154 


130 


102.3 


53.6 


1.505" 


0.297 


Q, 


151 


106.8 


56.8 


1.500 


0.314 


0.155 


131 


103.3 


54.7 


1.511 


0.301 





153 


107.9 


58.0 


1.506 


0.318 


0.157 


132 


104.2 


55.8 


1.517 


0.305 


0. 


154 


108.9 


59.2 


1.512 


0.322 


0.158 


133 


105.2 


56.9 


1.523 


0.309 





155 


109.9 


60.4 


1.518 


0.326 


0.159 


134 


106.2 


58.1 


1.529 


0.312 





.157 


110.9 


61.6 


1.523 


0.330 


0.161 


135 


107.2 


59.3 


1.535 


0.316 





158 


111.9 


62.9 


1.529 


0.334 


0.162 


136 


108.2 


60.5 


1.541 


0.320 


0. 


160 


112.9 


64.2 


1.535 


0.338 


0.164 


137 


109.1 


61.7 


1.546 


0.323 





161 


114.0 


65.5 


1.540 


0.341 


0.165 


138 


110.1 


62.9 


1.552 


0.327 





.162 


115.0 


66.8 


1.546 


0.345 


0.166 


139 


111.1 


64.1 


1.558 


0.331 





.164 


116.0 


68.1 


1.552 


0.349 


0.168 


140 


112.1 


65.4 


1.563 


0.335 





.165 


117.0 


69.5 


1.557 


0.353 


0.169 


141 


113.0 


66.7 


1.569 


0.338 





.166 


118.0 


70.9 


1.563 


0.357 


0.171 


142 


114.0 


68.0 


1.575 


0.342 





.168 


119.0 


72.3 


1.568 


0.361 


0.172 


143 


115.0 


69.3 


1.580 


0.346 





.169 


120.0 


73.7 


1.574 


0.365 


0.174 


144 


115.9 


70.7 


1.586 


0.349 





.171 


121.0 


75.2 


1.579 


0.369 


0.175 


145 


116.9 


72.1 


1.591 


0.353 





.172 


122.0 


76.7 


1.585 


0.373 


0.177 


146 


117.9 


73.5 


1.597 


0.357 





.173 


123.0 


78.2 


1.590 


0.377 


0.178 


147 


118.8 


74.9 


1.602 


0.361 





.175 


124.0 


79.7 


1.595 


0.380 


0.180 


148 


119.8 


76.3 


1.607 


0.365 





.176 


125.0 


81.3 


1.601 


0.384 


0.181 


149 


120.8 


77.8 


1.613 


0.368 





.178 


126.0 


82.8 


1.606 


0.388 


0.182 


150 


121.7 


79.3 


1.618 


0.372 





.179 


127.0 


84.4 


1.611 


0.392 


0.184 


151 


122.7 


80.8 


1.623 


0.376 





.181 


128.0 


86.1 


1.616 


0.396 


0.186 


152 


123.7 


82.4 


1.629 


0.380 





.182 


129.0 


87.7 


1.622 


0.400 


0.187 



118 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 68 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Tail 

length 


Body 
weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gma. 






gms. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 



153 


124.6 


83.9 


1.634 


0.383 


0.183 


130. 





89.4 


1.627 


0.404 


0.189 


154 


125.6 


85.5 


1.639 


0.387 


0.185 


131. 





91.1 


1.632 


0.408 


0.190 


155 


126.5 


87.1 


1.644 


0.391 


0.186 


132.0 


92.9 


1.637 


0.412 


0.192 


156 


127.5 


88.7 


1.649 


0.395 


0.188 


133. 





94.6 


1.642 


0.416 


0.193 


157 


128.5 


90.4 


1.654 


0.398 


0.189 


134. 





96.4 


1.647 


0.420 


0.195 


158 


129.4 


92.1 


1.659 


0.402 


0.191 


135. 





98.3 


1.652 


0.424 


0.196 


159 


130.4 


93.8 


1.664 


0.406 


0.192 


136 





100.1 


1.657 


0.428 


0.198 


160 


131.3 


95.6 


1.670 


0.410 


0.194 


137 





102.0 


1.662 


0.432 


0.200 


161 


132.3 


97.3 


1.675 


0.414 


0.196 


137 


,9 


103.9 


1.667 


0.436 


0.201 


162 


133.3 


99.2 


1.680 


0.417 


0.197 


138 


.9 


105.9 


1.672 


0.440 


0.203 


163 


134.2 


101.0 


1.685 


0.421 


0.199 


139 


.9 


107.9 


1.677 


0.444 


0.204 


164 


135.2 


102.8 


1.690 


0.425 


0.200 


140 


.9 


109.9 


1.682 


0.448 


0.206 


165 


136.1 


104.7 


1.695 


0.429 


0.202 


141 


.9 


111.9 


1.687 


0.452 


0.208 


166 


137.1 


106.7 


1.699 


0.433 


0.203 


142 


.9 


114.0 


1.692 


0.456 


0.209 


167 


138.0 


108.6 


1.704 


0.436 


0.205 


143 


.9 


116.1 


1.697 


0.460 


0.211 


168 


139.0 


110.6 


1.709 


0.440 


0.207 


144 


.9 


118.3 


1.702 


0.464 


0.213 


169 


139.9 


112.6 


1.714 


0.444 


0.208 


145 


.9 


120.5 


1.707 


0.468 


0.215 


170 


140.9 


114.8 


1.719 


0.448 


0.210 


146 


.8 


122.7 


1.711 


0.472 


0.216 


171 


141.8 


116.7 


1.724 


0.452 


0.212 


147 


.8 


125.0 


1.716 


0.476 


0.218 


172 


142.8 


118.9 


1.729 


0.456 


0.213 


148 


.8 


127.3 


1.721 


0.480 


0.220 


173 


143.7 


121.0 


1.734 


0.459 


0.215 


149 


.8 


129.6 


1.726 


0.484 


0.222 


174 


144.7 


123.2 


1.738 


0.463 


0.217 


150 


.8 


132.0 


1.731 


0.488 


0.223 


175 


145.6 


125.4 


1.743 


0.467 


0.218 


151 


.8 


134.4 


1.735 


0.492 


0.225 


176 


146.6 


127.7 


1.748 


0.471 


0.220 


152 


.7 


136.8 


1.740 


0.496 


0.227 


177 


147.5 


130.0 


1.753 


0.475 


0.222 


153 


.7 


139.3 


1.745 


0.500 


0.229 


178 


148.5 


132.3 


1.757 


0.479 


0.224 


154 


.7 


141.9 


1.750 


0.504 


0.231 


179 


149.4 


134.6 


1.762 


0.483 


0.225 


155 


.7 


144.4 


1.754 


0.508 


0.232 


180 


150.4 


137.0 


1.767 


0.486 


0.227 


156 


.7 


147.1 


1.759 


0.512 


0.234 


181 


151.3 


139.5 


1.771 


0.490 


0.229 


157 


.6 


149.7 


1.764 


0.516 


0.236 


182 


152.3 


142.0 


1.776 


0.494 


0.231 


158 


.6 


152.4 


1.768 


0.520 


0.238 


183 


153.2 


144.5 


1.781 


0.498 


0.233 


159 


.8 


155.2 


1.773 


0.524 


0.240 


184 


154.1 


147.0 


1.785 


0.502 


0.234 


160 


.6 


158.0 


1.778 


0.528 


0.242 


185 


155.1 


149.6 


1.790 


0.506 


0.236 


161 


.5 


160.8 


1.782 


0.532 


0.244 


186 


156.0 


152.3 


1.795 


0.510 


0.238 


162 


.5 


163.7 


1.787 


0.536 


0.246 


187 


157.0 


155.0 


1.799 


0.513 


0.240 


163 


.5 


166.6 


1.791 


0.540 


0.248 


188 


157.9 


157.7 


1.804 


0.517 


0.242 


164.5 


169.6 


1.796 


0.544 


0.250 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



119 



TABLE 68 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 



189 


158.9 


160.5 


1.808 


0.521 


0.244 


165 


4 


172.6 


1.801 


0.548 


0.252 


190 


159.8 


163.3 


1.813 


0.525 


0.246 


166 


4 


175.7 


1.805 


0.552 


0.254 


191 


160.7 


166.2 


1.818 


0.529 


0.248 


167 


,4 


178.8 


1.810 


0.556 


0.256 


192 


161.7 


169.1 


1.822 


0.533 


0.250 


168 


,4 


182.0 


1.814 


0.560 


0.258 


193 


162.6 


172.0 


1.827 


0.537 


0.252 


169 


3 


185.2 


1.819 


0.564 


0.261 


194 


163.6 


175.0 


1.831 


0.541 


0.254 


170 


.3 


188.5 


1.823 


0.569 


0.263 


195 


164.5 


178.1 


1.836 


0.545 


0.256 


171 


,3 


191.9 


1.828 


0.573 


0.265 


196 


165.4 


181.2 


1.840 


0.548 


0.258 


172 


.2 


195.3 


1.832 


0.577 


0.267 


197 


166.4 


184.3 


1.845 


0.552 


0.260 


173 


.2 


198.7 


1.837 


0.581 


0.269 


198 


167.3 


187.5 


1.849 


0.556 


0.262 


174 


.2 


202.2 


1.841 


0.585 


0.272 


199 


168.3 


190.8 


1.854 


0.560 


0.264 


175 


.1 


205.8 


1.846 


0.589 


0.274 


200 


169.2 


194.1 


1.858 


0.564 


0.266 


176 


.1 


209.4 


1.850 


0.593 


0.276 


201 


170.1 


197.4 


1.863 


0.568 


0.268 


177 


.1 


213.1 


1.855 


0.597 


0.278 


202 


171.1 


200.8 


1.867 


0.572 


0.271 


178 


.0 


216.8 


1.859 


0.601 


0.281 


203 


172.0 


204.3 


1.872 


0.576 


0.273 


179 


.0 


220.7 


1.864 


0.605 


0.283 


204 


172.9 


207.8 


1.876 


0.579 


0.275 


180 


.0 


224.5 


1.868 


0.609 


0.286 


205 


173.9 


211.4 


1.880 


0.583 


0.277 


180 


.9 


228.4 


1.872 


0.613 


0.288 


206 


174.8 


215.0 


1.885 


0.587 


0.280 


181 


.9 


232.4 


1.877 


0.617 


0.290 


207 


175.7 


218.7 


1.889 


0.591 


0.282 


182.9 


236.5 


1.881 


0.621 


0.293 


208 


176.7 


222.5 


1.894 


0.595 


0.284 


183 


.8 


240.6 


1.886 


0.625 


0.295 


209 


177.6 


226.3 


1.898 


0.599 


0.288 


184 


.8 


244.8 


1.890 


0.630 


0.298 


210 


178.5 


230.2 


1.903 


0.603 


0.289 


185 


.8 


249.1 


1.894 


0.634 


0.301 


211 


179.5 


234.1 


1.907 


0.607 


0.291 


186 


.7 


253.4 


1.899 


0.638 


0.303 


212 


180.4 


238.1 


1.911 


0.611 


0.294 


187 


.7 


257.8 


1.903 


0.642 


0.306 


213 


181.3 


242.2 


1.916 


0.615 


0.296 


188 


.7 


262.3 


1.908 


0.646 


0.308 


214 


182.3 


246.3 


1.920 


0.619 


0.299 


189 


.6 


266.9 


1.912 


0.650 


0.311 


215 


183.2 


250.5 


1.924 


0.623 


0.301 


190.6 


271.5 


1.916 


0.654 


0.314 


216 


184.1 


254.7 


1.929 


0.626 


0.304 


191 


.5 


276.2 


1.921 


0.658 


0.317 


217 


185.0 


259.1 


1.933 


0.630 


0.306 


192 


.5 


281.0 


1.925 


0.662 


0.319 


218 


186.0 


263.5 


1.937 


0.634 


0.309 


193 


.5 


285.8 


1.929 


0.666 


0.322 


219 


186.9 


267.9 


1.942 


0.638 


0.312 


194 


.4 


290.8 


1.934 


0.670 


0.325 


220 


187.8 


272.5 


1.946 


0.642 


0.314 


195 


.4 


295.8 


1.938 


0.675 


0.328 


221 


188.8 


277.1 


1.950 


0.646 


0.317 


196 


.3 


300.9 


1.942 


0.679 


0.331 


222 


189.7 


281.8 


1.955 


0.650 


0.320 


197 


.3 


306.1 


1.947 


0.683 


0.334 


223 


190.6 


286.5 


1.959 


0.654 


0.322 


198 


.3 


311.3 


1.951 


0.687 


0.337 



120 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 68 Concluded 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 
length 


Body 

weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Tail 
length 


Body 

weight 


Weight in gms. 


Both 
eye- 
balls 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 






gms. 


mm. 


gms. 






Qma. 



224 


191.5 


291.4 


1.963 


0.658 


0.325 


199. 


2 


316.7 


1.955 


0.691 


0.340 


225 


192.5 


296.3 


1.968 


0.662 


0.328 


200. 


2 


322.1 


1.960 


0.695 


0.343 


226 


193.4 


301.3 


1.972 


0.666 


0.331 


201. 


1 


327.7 


1.964 


0.699 


0.346 


227 


194.3 


306.4 


1.976 


0.670 


0.334 


202. 


1 


333.3 


1.968 


0.703 


0.349 


228 


195.3 


311.5 


1.981 


0.673 


0.337 


203. 





339.0 


1.972 


0.707 


0.352 


229 


196.2 


316.8 


1.985 


0.677 


0.340 


204. 





344.8 


1.977 


0.712 


0.355 


230 


197.1 


322.1 


1.989 


0.681 


0.343 


205. 





350.7 


1.981 


0.716 


0.359 


231 


198.0 


327.5 


1.993 


0.685 


0.346 


205. 


9 


356.7 


1.985 


0.720 


0.362 


232 


198.9 


333.0 


1.998 


0.689 


0.349 


206. 


9 


362.8 


1.989 


0.724 


0.365 


233 


199.9 


338.6 


2.002 


0.693 


0.352 


207. 


8 


369.0 


1.994 


0.728 


0.369 


234 


200.8 


344.3 


2.006 


0.697 


0.355 


208 


8 


375.3 


1.998 


0.732 


0.372 


235 


201.7 


350.0 


2.010 


0.701 


0.358 


209, 


.7 


381.7 


2.002 


0.736 


0.375 


236 


202.6 


355.9 


2.014 


0.705 


0.361 


210 


7 


388.2 


2.006 


0.740 


0.379 


237 


203.6 


361.9 


2.019 


0.709 


0.365 


211 


6 


394.9 


2.011 


0.744 


0.383 


238 


204.5 


367.9 


2.023 


0.713 


0.368 


212 


6 


401.6 


2.015 


0.749 


0.386 


239 


205.4 


374.1 


2.027 


0.717 


0.371 


213 


.5 


408.4 


2.019 


0.753 


0.390 


240 


206.3 


380.3 


2.031 


0.721 


0.375 


214.5 


415.4 


2.023 


0.757 


0.393 


241 


207.3 


386.6 


2.036 


0.725 


0.378 


215 


.4 


422.4 


2.028 


0.761 


0.397 


242 


208.2 


393.1 


2.040 


0.729 


0.382 


216 


.4 


429.6 


2.032 


0.765 


0.401 


243 


209.1 


399.6 


2.044 


0.733 


0.385 


217 


.3 


436.9 


2.036 


0.769 


0.405 


244 


210.0 


406.3 


2.048 


0.737 


0.389 


218 


.3 


444.3 


2.040 


0.773 


0.409 


245 


210.9 


413.1 


2.052 


0.741 


0.392 


219 


.2 


451.9 


2.044 


0.777 


0.413 


246 


211.9 


419.9 


2.057 


0.745 


0.396 


220 


.2 


459.5 


2.049 


0.782 


0.417 


247 


212.8 


426.9 


2.061 


0.748 


0.400 


221 


.1 


467.3 


2.053 


0.786 


0.421 


248 


213.7 


434.0 


2.065 


0.752 


0.403 


222 


.1 


475.2 


2.057 


0.790 


0.425 


249 


214.6 


441.2 


2.069 


0.756 


0.407 


223 


.1 


483.3 


2.061 


0.794 


0.429 


250 


215.5 


448.5 


2.073 


0.760 


0.411 


224 


.0 


491.5 


2.065 


0.798 


0.433 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



121 



TABLE 69 



Giving for each sex the weights of body, heart, both kidneys, liver and spleen for 
each millimeter of body length. See Charts 11, 12, 18 and 14 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



47 


4.9 


0.031 


0.046 


0.21 


0.009 


4.7 


0.030 


0. 


046 


0.20 


0.008 


48 


4.9 


0.031 


0.047 


0.21 


0.009 


4.7 


0.030 


0. 


046 


0.20 


0.008 


49 


5.0 


0.032 


0.048 


0.22 


0.009 


4.9 


0.032 





048 


0.21 


0.009 


50 


5.1 


0.033 


0.049 


0.22 


0.009 


5.0 


0.033 


0. 


050 


0.22 


0.009 


51 


5.2 


0.033 


0.052 


0.22 


0.010 


5.1 


0.034 


0.052 


0.23 


0.009 


52 


5.3 


0.034 


0.055 


0.23 


0.010 


5.3 


0.035 





055 


0.23 


0.009 


53 


5.4 


0.035 


0.058 


0.23 


0.010 


5.5 


0.036 





062 


0.24 


0.011 


54 


5.6 


0.036 


0.064 


0.24 


0.011 


5.8 


0.038 





070 


0.25 


0.012 


55 


5.8 


0.038 


0.070 


0.25 


0.012 


6.2 


0.042 





.081 


0.27 


0.014 


56 


6.1 


0.041 


0.078 


0.26 


0.014 


6.5 


0.044 





.088 


0.28 


0.015 


57 


6.4 


0.043 


0.086 


0.28 


0.015 


6.9 


0.047 





.097 


0.30 


0.017 


58 


6.8 


0.046 


0.095 


0.29 


0.017 


7.2 


0.049 





103 


0.32 


0.018 


59 


7.1 


0.049 


0.101 


0.31 


0.018 


7.6 


0.052 





.112 


0.34 


0.020 


60 


7.5 


0.052 


0.110 


0.33 


0.020 


8.0 


0.056 





.119 


0.36 


0.022 


61 


7.9 


0.055 


0.117 


0.35 


0.021 


8.4 


0.058 





.127 


0.38 


0.023 


62 


8.2 


0.057 


0.123 


0.37 


0.023 


8.7 


0.061 





.132 


0.40 


0.025 


63 


8.6 


0.060 


0.130 


0.40 


0.024 


9.1 


0.064 





.139 


0.43 


0.026 


64 


9.0 


0.063 


0.137 


0.42 


0.026 


9.5 


0.067 





.145 


0.45 


0.028 


65 


9.4 


0.066 


0.143 


0.45 


0.027 


9.9 


0.069 





.151 


0.48 


0.029 


66 


9.8 


0.069 


0.150 


0.48 


0.029 


10.3 


0.072 





157 


0.52 


0.031 


67 


10.1 


0.071 


0.154 


0.50 


0.030 


10.8 


0.076 





,165 


0.59 


0.033 


68 


10.6 


0.074 


0.162 


0.56 


0.032 


11.2 


0.079 





171 


0.63 


0.034 


69 


11.0 


0.077 


0.168 


0.61 


0.033 


11.6 


0.081 





.176 


0.68 


0.036 


70 


11.4 


0.080 


0.173 


0.66 


0.035 


12.0 


0.084 





.182 


0.73 


0.037 


71 


11.8 


0.083 


0.179 


0.71 


0.036 


12.5 


0.087 





.188 


0.79 


0.039 


72 


12.2 


0.085 


0.184 


0.75 


0.038 


12.9 


0.090 





.194 


0.83 


0.040 


73 


12.7 


0.089 


0.191 


0.81 


0.039 


13.4 


0.093 





.200 


0.89 


0.042 


74 


13.1 


0.091 


0.194 


0.85 


0.041 


13.9 


0.097 





.206 


0.94 


0.044 


75 


13.6 


0.095 


0.203 


0.91 


0.042 


14.3 


0.099 





.211 


0.98 


0.045 


76 


14.0 


0.097 


0.207 


0.95 


0.044 


14.8 


0.102 





.217 


1.03 


0.047 


77 


14.5 


0.100 


0.214 


1.00 


0.046 


15.3 


0.105 





223 


1.09 


0.048 


78 


15.0 


0.104 


0.220 


1.06 


0.047 


15.8 


0.109 





.229 


1.14 


0.050 


79 


15.4 


0.106 


0.224 


1.10 


0.049 


16.3 


0.112 





.235 


1.19 


0.051 


80 


15.9 


0.109 


0.230 


1.15 


0.050 


16.8 


0.115 





.241 


1.24 


0.053 



122 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 
TABLE 69 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 

weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


am. 


I/IIIX. 


gms. 


gins. 


gms. 


firm*. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



81 


16.4 


0.112 


0.236 


1.20 





052 


17.3 


0.118 


0.246 


1.28 


0.055 


82 


16.9 


0.115 


0.242 


1.24 


n 


053 


17.9 


0.121 


0.253 


1.34 


0.057 


83 


17.4 


0.118 


0.247 


1.29 





055 


18.4 


0.124 


0.258 


1.39 


0.058 


84 


18.0 


0.122 


0.254 


1.35 





.057 


19.0 


0.128 


0.265 


1.44 


0.060 


85 


18.5 


0.125 


0.259 


1.40 





059 


19.5 


0.131 


0.270 


1.49 


0.062 


86 


19.0 


0.128 


0.265 


1.44 





060 


20.1 


0.134 


0.277 


1.54 


0.064 


87 


19.6 


0.131 


0.271 


1.50 





062 


20.7 


0.138 


0.283 


1.59 


0.065 


88 


20.1 


0.134 


0.277 


1.54 





064 


21.2 


0.141 


0.288 


1.64 


0.067 


89 


20.7 


0.138 


0.283 


1.59 





065 


21.8 


0.144 


0.294 


1.69 


0.069 


90 


21.3 


0.141 


0.289 


1.64 





067 


22.4 


0.147 


0.300 


1.74 


0.071 


91 


21.9 


0.145 


0.296 


1.69 


0. 


069 


23.1 


0.151 


0.307 


1.79 


0.073 


92 


22.4 


0.147 


0.300 


1.74 





.071 


23.7 


0.155 


0.313 


1.84 


0.075 


93 


23.0 


0.151 


0.306 


1.79 





.072 


24.3 


0.158 


0.319 


1.89 


0.076 


94 


23.7 


0.155 


0.313 


1.84 





075 


25.0 


0.162 


0.326 


1.95 


0.078 


95 


24.3 


0.158 


0.319 


1.89 





076 


25.6 


0.165 


0.332 


1.99 


0.080 


96 


24.9 


0.161 


0.325 


1.94 





078 


26.3 


0.169 


0.339 


2.05 


0.082 


97 


25.6 


0.165 


0.332 


1.99 





080 


27.0 


0.172 


0.344 


2.10 


0.084 


98 


26.2 


0.168 


0.338 


2.05 





.082 


27.7 


0.176 


0.352 


2.15 


0.086 


99 


26.9 


0.172 


0.345 


2.09 





.084 


28.4 


0.180 


0.359 


2.21 


0.088 


100 


27.5 


0.175 


0.350 


2.14 





,086 


29.1 


0.183 


0.365 


2.26 


0.090 


101 


28.2 


0.178 


0.357 


2.19 





.088 


29.8 


0.187 


0.372 


2.31 


0.092 


102 


28.9 


0.182 


0.364 


2.24 





.090 


30.5 


0.190 


0.378 


2.36 


0.094 


103 


29.6 


0.186 


0.370 


2.29 





092 


31.3 


0.194 


0.386 


2.41 


0.097 


104 


30.3 


0.189 


0.377 


2.34 





,094 


32.0 


0.198 


0.392 


2.46 


0.099 


105 


31.1 


0.193 


0.384 


2.40 





.096 


32.8 


0.202 


0.400 


2.52 


0.101 


106 


31.8 


0.197 


0.390 


2.45 





.098 


33.6 


0.206 


0.407 


2.57 


0.103 


107 


32.5 


0.200 


0.397 


2.50 





.100 


34.4 


0.209 


0.414 


2.63 


0.106 


108 


33.3 


0.204 


0.404 


2.55 





.102 


35.2 


0.213 


0.421 


2.68 


0.108 


109 


34.1 


0.208 


0.411 


2.61 





.105 


36.0 


0.217 


0.428 


2.73 


0.110 


110 


34.9 


0.212 


0.419 


2.66 





.107 


36.9 


0.221 


0.436 


2.79 


0.113 


111 


35.7 


0.216 


0.426 


2.71 





.109 


37.7 


0.225 


0.444 


2.84 


0.115 


112 


36.5 


0.219 


0.433 


2.77 





.112 


38.6 


0.229 


0.451 


2.90 


0.117 


113 


37.3 


0.223 


0.440 


2.82 





.114 


39.5 


0.234 


0.459 


2.96 


0.120 


114 


38.2 


0.227 


0.448 


2.88 





.116 


40.3 


0.237 


0.466 


3.01 


0.122 


115 


39.0 


0.231 


0.455 


2.93 





.118 


41.3 


0.242 


0.475 


3.07 


0.125 


116 


39.9 


0.235 


0.463 


2.98 





.121 


42.2 


0.246 


0.483 


3.13 


0.127 


117 


40.8 


0.239 


0.471 


3.04 





.123 


43.1 


0.250 


0.491 


3.18 


0.130 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 
TABLE 69 Continued 



123 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


mm. 


gmt. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



118 


41.6 


0.243 


0.478 


3.09 


0. 


126 


44.1 


0.254 


0.499 


3.24 


0.133 


119 


42.6 


0.248 


0.486 


3.15 


0. 


128 


45.0 


0.258 


0.507 


3.29 


0.135 


120 


43.5 


0.252 


0.494 


3.20 


0. 


131 


46.0 


0.263 


0.515 


3.35 


0.138 


121 


44.4 


0.256 


0.502 


3.26 


0. 


133 


47.0 


0.267 


0.524 


3.41 


0.141 


122 


45.4 


0.260 


0.510 


3.32 


0. 


136 


48.0 


0.272 


0.532 


3.47 


0.143 


123 


46.3 


0.264 


0.518 


3.37 


0. 


139 


49.1 


0.276 


0.542 


3.53 


0.146 


124 


47.3 


0.269 


0.526 


3.43 


0. 


141 


50.1 


0.281 


0.550 


3.59 


0.149 


125 


48.3 


0.273 


0.535 


3.49 


0. 


144 


51.2 


0.285 


0.559 


3.65 


0.152 


126 


49.3 


0.277 


0.543 


3.54 


0. 


147 


52.3 


0.290 


0.568 


3.71 


0.155 


127 


50.4 


0.282 


0.553 


3.61 


0. 


150 


53.4 


0.295 


0.578 


3.77 


0.158 


128 


51.4 


0.286 


0.561 


3.66 


0. 


152 


54.5 


0.299 


0.587 


3.83 


0.161 


129 


52.5 


0.291 


0.570 


3.72 


0. 


155 


55.6 


0.304 


0.596 


3.89 


0.164 


130 


53.6 


0.295 


0.579 


3.78 


0. 


158 


56.8 


0.309 


0.606 


3.96 


0.167 


131 


54.7 


0.300 


0.588 


3.84 


0, 


161 


58.0 


0.314 


0.616 


4.02 


0.170 


132 


55.8 


0.305 


0.598 


3.90 





164 


59.2 


0.319 


0.626 


4.09 


0.173 


133 


56.9 


0.309 


0.607 


3.96 


0. 


167 


60.4 


0.324 


0.635 


4.15 


0.177 


134 


58.1 


0.314 


0.617 


4.03 


0. 


171 


61.6 


0.328 


0.645 


4.21 


0.180 


135 


59.3 


0.319 


0.626 


4.09 


0. 


174 


62.9 


0.334 


0.656 


4.28 


0.183 


136 


60.5 


0.324 


0.636 


4.15 


0.177 


64.2 


0.339 


0.666 


4.35 


0.187 


137 


61.7 


0.329 


0.646 


4.22 


0. 


180 


65.5 


0.344 


0.677 


4.41 


0.190 


138 


62.9 


0.334 


0.656 


4.28 





183 


66.8 


0.349 


0.687 


4.48 


0.194 


139 


64.1 


0.338 


0.666 


4.34 





186 


68.1 


0.354 


0.698 


4.54 


0.197 


140 


65.4 


0.344 


0.676 


4.41 





190 


69.5 


0.360 


0.709 


4.61 


0.201 


141 


66.7 


0.349 


0.687 


4.47 





193 


70.9 


0.365 


0.720 


4.68 


0.204 


142 


68.0 


0.354 


0.697 


4.54 





.197 


72.3 


0.370 


0.732 


4.75 


0.208 


143 


69.3 


0.359 


0.708 


4.60 





.200 


73.7 


0.376 


0.743 


4.82 


0.212 


144 


70.7 


0.364 


0.719 


4.67 





.204 


75.2 


0.382 


0.755 


4.89 


0.216 


145 


72.1 


0.370 


0.730 


4.74 


0.208 


76.7 


0.387 


0.767 


4.97 


0.220 


146 


73.5 


0.375 


0.741 


4.81 





.211 


78.2 


0.393 


0.779 


5.04 


0.224 


147 


74.9 


0.380 


0.752 


4.88 





.215 


79.7 


0.399 


0.791 


5.11 


0.228 


148 


76.3 


0.386 


0.764 


4.95 


o 


.219 


81.3 


0.405 


0.803 


5.19 


0.232 


149 


77.8 


0.391 


0.775 


5.02 





.223 


82.8 


0.410 


0.815 


5.26 


0.236 


150 


79.3 


0.397 


0.787 


5.09 





.227 


84.4 


0.416 


0.828 


5.33 


0.240 


151 


80.8 


0.403 


0.799 


5.16 





.230 


86.1 


0.422 


0.841 


5.41 


0.244 


152 


82.4 


0.409 


0.812 


5.24 





.235 


87.7 


0.428 


0.854 


5.48 


0.248 


153 


83.9 


0.414 


0.824 


5.31 





.239 


89.4 


0.435 


0.867 


5.56 


0.253 



124 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 69 Continued 



MA.LES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


Body 

weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



154 


85.5 


0.420 


0.836 


5.38 


0.243 


91. 


1 


0.441 


0.880 


5.64 


0.257 


155 


87.1 


0.426 


0.849 


5.46 


0.247 


92. 


9 


0.447 


0.894 


5.72 


0.262 


156 


88.7 


0.432 


0.862 


5.53 


0.251 


94. 


6 


0.453 


0.908 


5.80 


0.266 


157 


90.4 


0.438 


0.875 


5.61 


0.255 


96. 


4 


0.460 


0.922 


5.88 


0.271 


158 


92.1 


0.444 


0.888 


5.68 


0.260 


98. 


3 


0.467 


0.937 


5.96 


0.276 


159 


93.8 


0.450 


0.901 


5.76 


0.264 


100. 


1 


0.473 


0.951 


6.04 


0.281 


160 


95.6 


0.457 


0.916 


5.84 


0.269 


102. 





0.480 


0.965 


6.12 


0.285 


161 


97.3 


0.463 


0.929 


5.92 


0.273 


103. 


9 


0.486 


0.980 


6.21 


0.290 


162 


99.2 


0.470 


0.944 


6.00 


0.278 


105. 


9 


0.493 


0.996 


6.29 


0.295 


163 


101.0 


0.476 


0.958 


6.08 


0.283 


107. 


9 


0.500 


1.011 


6.38 


0.301 


164 


102.8 


0.483 


0.971 


6.16 


0.287 


109. 


9 


0.507 


1.026 


6.47 


0.306 


165 


104.7 


0.489 


0.986 


6.24 


0.292 


Ill 


9 


0.514 


1.042 


6.55 


0.311 


166 


106.7 


0.496 


1.002 


6.33 


0.298 


114 





0.522 


1.058 


6.64 


0.316 


167 


108.6 


0.502 


1.016 


6.41 


0.302 


116 


1 


0.529 


1.074 


6.73 


0.322 


168 


110.6 


0.510 


1.032 


6.50 


0.308 


118 


3 


0.536 


1.091 


6.82 


0.327 


169 


112.6 


0.517 


1.047 


6.58 


0.313 


120 


5 


0.544 


1.108 


6.92 


0.333 


170 


114.7 


0.524 


1.063 


6.67 


0.318 


122 


,7 


0.551 


1.125 


7.01 


0.339 


171 


116.7 


0.531 


1.079 


6.76 


0.323 


125 


.0 


0.559 


1.142 


7.10 


0.344 


172 


118.9 


0.538 


1.096 


6.85 


0.329 


127 


.3 


0.567 


1.160 


7.20 


0.350 


173 


121.0 


0.545 


1.112 


6.94 


0.334 


129 


.6 


0.575 


1.178 


7.29 


0.356 


174 


123.2 


0.553 


1.129 


7.03 


0.340 


132 


.0 


0.583 


1.196 


7.39 


0.362 


175 


125.4 


0.560 


1.145 


7.12 


0.345 


134 


.4 


0.591 


1.214 


7.49 


0.368 


176 


127.7 


0.568 


1.163 


7.22 


0.351 


136 


.8 


0.599 


1.232 


7.59 


0.375 


177 


130.0 


0.576 


1.181 


7.31 


0.357 


139 


.3 


0.607 


1.251 


7.69 


0.381 


178 


132.3 


0.584 


1.198 


7.40 


0.363 


141 


.9 


0.615 


1.271 


7.79 


0.387 


179 


134.6 


0.591 


1.216 


7.50 


0.369 


144 


.4 


0.624 


1.290 


7.89 


0.394 


180 


137.0 


0.599 


1.234 


7.60 


0.375 


147 


.1 


0.632 


1.311 


8.00 


0.401 


181 


139.5 


0.607 


1.253 


7.70 


0.381 


149 


.7 


0.641 


1.330 


8.10 


0.407 


182 


142.0 


0.616 


1.272 


7.80 


0.388 


152 


.4 


0.650 


1.351 


8.21 


0.414 


183 


144.5 


0.622 


1.291 


7.90 


0.394 


155 


.2 


0.659 


1.372 


8.32 


0.421 


184 


147.0 


0.632 


1.310 


8.00 


0.400 


158 


.0 


0.668 


1.393 


8.43 


0.428 


185 


149.6 


0.641 


1.330 


8.10 


0.407 


160 


.8 


0.677 


1.414 


8.54 


0.435 


186 


152.3 


0.649 


1.350 


8.21 


0.414 


163 


.7 


0.686 


1.436 


8.65 


0.443 


187 


155.0 


0.658 


1.370 


8.31 


0.421 


166 


.6 


0.696 


1.458 


8.77 


0.450 


188 


157.7 


0.667 


1.391 


8.42 


0.428 


169 


.6 


0.705 


1.481 


8.88 


0.458 


189 


160.5 


0.676 


1.412 


8.53 


0.435 


172 


.6 


0.715 


1.503 


9.00 


0.465 


190 


163.3 


0.685 


1.433 


8.64 


0.442 


175 


.7 


0.725 


1.526 


9.12 


0.473 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 
TABLE 69 Continued 



125 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


mm. 


gins. 


gms. 


gms. 


gma. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



191 


166.2 


0.694 


1.455 


8.75 


0.449 


178, 


,8 


0.734 


1.550 


9.23 


0.481 


192 


169.1 


0.704 


1.477 


8.86 


0.456 


182 


,0 


0.744 


1.574 


9.36 


0.489 


193 


172.0 


0.713 


1.499 


8.98 


0.464 


185, 


,2 


0.755 


1.598 


9.48 


0.497 


194 


175.0 


0.722 


1.521 


9.09 


0.471 


188 


,5 


0.765 


1.622 


9.60 


0.505 


195 


178.1 


0.732 


1.544 


9.21 


0.479 


191 


,9 


0.776 


1.648 


9.73 


0.514 


196 


181.2 


0.742 


1.568 


9.33 


0.487 


195 


.3 


0.786 


1.673 


9.86 


0.522 


197 


184.3 


0.752 


1.591 


9.45 


0.495 


198 


,7 


0.797 


1.699 


9.99 


0.531 


198 


187.5 


0.762 


1.615 


9.57 


0.503 


202 


,2 


0.808 


1.725 


10.12 


0.540 


199 


190.8 


0.772 


1.640 


9.69 


0.511 


205 


,8 


0.819 


1.752 


10.25 


0.549 


200 


194.1 


0.782 


1.664 


9.82 


0.519 


209 


.4 


0.830 


1.779 


10.39 


0.558 


201 


197.4 


0.793 


1.689 


9.94 


0.528 


213 


.1 


0.841 


1.806 


10.52 


0.567 


202 


200.8 


0.803 


1.714 


10.07 


0.536 


216 


.8 


0.853 


1.834 


10.66 


0.577 


203 


204.3 


0.814 


1.740 


10.20 


0.545 


220 


,7 


0.865 


1.863 


10.80 


0.586 


204 


207.8 


0.825 


1.767 


10.33 


0.554 


224 


.5 


0.876 


1.891 


10.94 


0.596 


205 


211.4 


0.836 


1.793 


10.46 


0.563 


228 


.4 


0.888 


1.920 


11.09 


0.606 


206 


215.0 


0.847 


1.820 


10.59 


0.572 


232 


.4 


0.900 


1.950 


11.23 


0.616 


207 


218.7 


0.859 


1.848 


10.73 


0.581 


236 


.5 


0.913 


1.980 


11.38 


0.626 


208 


222.5 


0.870 


1.876 


10.87 


0.591 


240 


.6- 


0.925 


2.011 


11.53 


0.636 


209 


226.3 


0.882 


1.904 


11.01 


0.600 


244 


.8 


0.938 


2.042 


11.68 


0.647 


210 


230.2 


0.894 


1.933 


11.15 


0.610 


249 


.1 


0.951 


2.074 


11.84 


0.657 


211 


234.1 


0.905 


1.962 


11.29 


0.620 


253 


.4 


0.964 


2.106 


11.99 


0.668 


212 


238.1 


0.918 


1.992 


11.44 


0.630 


257 


.8 


0.977 


2.138 


12.15 


0.679 


213 


242.2 


0.930 


2.023 


11.59 


0.640 


262 


.3 


0.990 


2.171 


12.31 


0.691 


214 


246.3 


0.942 


2.053 


11.74 


0.650 


266 


.9 


1.004 


2.205 


12.47 


0.702 


215 


250.5 


0.955 


2.084 


11.89 


0.661 


271 


.5 


1.018 


2.239 


12.64 


0.713 


216 


254.7 


0.968 


2.115 


12.04 


0.671 


276 


.2 


1.032 


2.274 


12.80 


0.725 


217 


259.1 


0.981 


2.148 


12.20 


0.683 


281 


.0 


1.046 


2.310 


12.97 


0.737 


218 


263.5 


0.994 


2.180 


12.35 


0.694 


285 


.8 


1.060 


2.345 


13.14 


0.749 


219 


267.9 


1.007 


2.213 


12.50 


0.704 


290 


.8 


1.075 


2.382 


13.32 


0.762 


220 


272.5 


1.021 


2.247 


12.67 


0.716 


295 


.8 


1.090 


2.419 


13.50 


0.774 


221 


277.1 


1.034 


2.281 


12.84 


0.727 


300 


.9 


1.105 


2.457 


13.67 


0.787 


222 


281.8 


1.048 


2.316 


13.00 


0.739 


306 


.1 


1.120 


2.495 


13.86 


0.800 


223 


286.5 


1.062 


2.350 


13.17 


0.751 


311 


.3 


1.135 


2.533 


14.04 


0.813 


224 


291.4 


1.077 


2.386 


13.34 


0.763 


316.7 


1.151 


2.573 


14.23 


0.826 


225 


296.3 


1.091 


2.423 


13.51 


0.775 


322 


.1 


1.167 


2.613 


14.41 


0.840 


226 


301.3 


1.106 


2.460 


13.69 


0.788 


327 


.7 


1.183 


2.654 


14.61 


0.854 


227 


306.4 


1.121 


2.497 


13.87 


0.801 


333 


.3 


1.200 


2.695 


14.80 


0.868 



126 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 69 Concluded 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 

weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


Body 
weight 


Heart 


Both 
kidneys 


Liver 


Spleen 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gmt. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


228 


311.5 


1.136 


2.535 


14.05 


0.813 


339.0 


1.216 


2.737 


15.00 


0.882 


229 


316.8 


1.152 


2.574 


14.23 


0.826 


344.8 


1.233 


2.780 


15.20 


0.896 


230 


322.1 


1.167 


2.613 


14.41 


0.840 


350.7 


1.250 


2.823 


15.40 


0.911 


231 


327.5 


1.183 


2.652 


14.60 


0.853 


356.7 


1.268 


2.867 


15.61 


0.926 


232 


333.0 


1.199 


2.693 


14.79 


0.867 


362.8 


1.285 


2.912 


15.82 


0.941 


233 


338.6 


1.215 


2.734 


14.99 


0.881 


369.0 


1.303 


2.957 


16.03 


0.956 


234 


344.3 


1.232 


2.776 


15.18 


0.895 


375.3 


1.321 


3.004 


16.24 


0.972 


235 


350.0 


1.248 


2.818 


15.38 


0.909 


381.7 


1.340 


3.050 


16.46 


0.988 


236 


355.9 


1.265 


2.861 


15.58 


0.924 


388.2 


1.358 


3.098 


16.68 


1.004 


237 


361.9 


1.283 


2.905 


15.79 


0.939 


394.9 


1.377 


3.147 


16.91 


1.021 


238 


367.9 


1.300 


2.949 


15.99 


0.954 


401.6 


1.397 


3.196 


17.14 


1.037 


239 


374.1 


1.318 


2.995 


16.20 


0.969 


408.4 


1.416 


3.246 


17.37 


1.054 


240 


380.3 


1.336 


3.040 


16.42 


0.984 


415.4 


1.436 


3.297 


17.61 


1.072 


241 


386.6 


1.354 


3.086 


16.63 


1.000 


422.4 


1.456 


3.349 


17.84 


1.089 


242 


393.1 


1.372 


3.134 


16.85 


1.016 


429.6 


1.477 


3.401 


18.08 


1.107 


243 


399.6 


1.391 


3.182 


17.07 


1.032 


436.9 


1.497 


3.455 


18.33 


1.125 


244 


406.3 


1.410 


3.231 


17.30 


1.049 


444.3 


1.518 


3.509 


18.58 


1.143 


245 


413.1 


1.429 


3.280 


17.53 


1.066 


451.9 


1.540 


3.564 


18.83 


1.162 


246 


419.9 


1.449 


3.330 


17.76 


1.083 


459.5 


1.561 


3.620 


19.09 


1.181 


247 


426.9 


1.469 


3.381 


17.98 


1.100 


467.3 


1.583 


3.677 


19.35 


1.200 


248 


434.0 


1.489 


3.433 


18.23 


1.118 


475.2 


1.606 


3.734 


19.61 


1.220 


249 


441.2 


1.509 


3.486 


18.47 


1.136 


483.3 


1.628 


3.794 


19.88 


1.240 


250 


448.5 


1.530 


3.539 


18.72 


1.154 


491.5 


1.652 


3.853 


20.15 


1.260 



127 



TABLE 70 

Giving for each sex the weights of body, lungs, blood, alimentary tract and gonads 
(testes and ovaries') for each millimeter of body length. See Charts 15, 16, 17, 
21 and 22. 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Testes 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Ovaries 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


47 


4.9 


0.078 


0.44 


0.14 


0.004 


4.7 


0.078 


0.41 


0.14 


0.0006 


48 


4.9 


0.079 


0.44 


0.14 


0.004 


4.7 


0.079 


0.41 


0.14 


0.0006 


49 


5.0 


0.080 


0.45 


0.15 


0.004 


4.9 


0.080 


0.43 


0.15 


0.0008 


50 


5.1 


0.081 


0.45 


0.15 


0.004 


5.0 


0.081 


0.44 


0.15 


0.0009 


51 


5.2 


0.082 


0.46 


0.15 


0.004 


5.1 


0.082 


0.45 


0.15 


0.0009 


52 


5.3 


0.083 


0.47 


0.16 


0.006 


5.3 


0.084 


0.47 


0.16 


0.0010 


53 


5.4 


0.085 


0.48 


0.16 


0.006 


5.5 


0.086 


0.49 


0.16 


0.0011 


54 


5.6 


0.087 


0.50 


0.17 


0.007 


5.8 


0.090 


0.51 


0.18 


0.0013 


55 


5.8 


0.090 


0.51 


0.18 


0.007 


6.2 


0.094 


0.54 


0.19 


0.0015 


56 


6.1 


0.093 


0.53 


0.19 


0.009 


6.5 


0.097 


0.56 


0.20 


0.0016 


57 


6.4 


0.096 


0.56 


0.20 


0.011 


6.9 


0.102 


0.60 


0.22 


0.0019 


58 


6.8 


0.101 


0.59 


0.21 


0.013 


7.2 


0.105 


0.62 


0.23 


0.0020 


59 


7.1 


0.104 


0.61 


0.22 


0.016 


7.6 


0.109 


0.65 


0.24 


0.0022 


60 


7.5 


0.108 


0.64 


0.24 


0.019 


8.0 


0.113 


0.68 


0.25 


0.0024 


61 


7.9 


0.112 


0.67 


0.25 


0.023 


8.4 


0.117 


0.71 


0.27 


0.0025 


62 


8.2 


0.115 


0.69 


0.26 


0.026 


8.7 


0.120 


0.73 


0.27 


0.0026 


63 


8.6 


0.119 


0.73 


0.27 


0.031 


9.1 


0.124 


0.76 


0.28 


0.0028 


64 


9.0 


0.123 


0.76 


0.28 


0.036 


9.5 


0.128 


0.79 


0.30 


0.0029 


65 


9.4 


0.127 


0.79 


0.29 


0.041 


9.9 


0.131 


0.82 


0.31 


0.0031 


66 


9.8 


0.130 


0.82 


0.30 


0.047 


10.3 


0.135 


0.85 


0.34 


0.0032 


67 


10.1 


0.133 


0.84 


0.31 


0.050 


10.8 


0.139 


0.89 


0.41 


0.0034 


68 


10.6 


0.138 


0.88 


0.39 


0.051 


11.2 


0.143 


0.92 


0.47 


0.0035 


69 


11.0 


0.141 


0.91 


0.44 


0.052 


11.6 


0.146 


0.95 


0.52 


0.0036 


70 


11.4 


0.145 


0.93 


0.50 


0.053 


12.0 


0.150 


0.98 


0.58 


0.0037 


71 


11.8 


0.148 


0.96 


0.55 


0.054 


12.5 


0.154 


1.02 


0.64 


0.0039 


72 


12.2 


0.152 


0.99 


0.60 


0.055 


12.9 


O.T57 


1.04 


0.69 


0.0040 


73 


12.7 


0.155 


1.03 


0.67 


0.057 


13.4 


0.161 


1.08 


0.76 


0.0041 


74 


13.1 


0.159 


1.06 


0.72 


0.058 


13.9 


0.165 


1.12 


0.82 


0.0042 


75 


13.6 


0.163 


1.10 


0.78 


0.060 


14.3 


0.169 


1.13 


0.87 


O.C043 


76 


14.0 


0.166 


1.12 


0.83 


0.061 


14.8 


0.173 


1.18 


0.93 


0.0044 


77 


14.5 


0.170 


1.16 


0.89 


0.063 


15.3 


0.177 


1.22 


0.99 


0.0046 


78 


15.0 


0.174 


1.20 


0.95 


0.065 


15.8 


0.180 


1.25 


1.04 


0.0047 


79 


15.4 


0.177 


1.23 


1.00 


0.067 


16.3 


0.184 


1.29 


1.10 


0.0048 


80 


15.9 


0.181 


1.26 


1.05 


0.069 


16.8 


0.188 


1.33 


1.16 


0.0049 



128 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 
TABLE 70 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Body 

weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Testes 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Ovaries 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gmt. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



81 


16.4 


0.185 


1.30 


1.11 





.071 


17.3 


0.192 


1.36 


1.21 


0.0050 


82 


16.9 


0.189 


1.33 


1.17 


0.073 


17.9 


0.196 


1.40 


1.28 


0.0051 


83 


17.4 


0.193 


1.37 


1.22 





.076 


18.4 


0.200 


1.44 


1.33 


0.0052 


84 


18.0 


0.197 


1.41 


1.29 





.078 


19.0 


0.204 


1.48 


1.39 


0.0053 


85 


18.5 


0.201 


1.45 


1.34 





.081 


19.5 


0.208 


1.52 


1.44 


0.0054 


86 


19.0 


0.204 


1.48 


1.39 





.084 


20.1 


0.212 


1.56 


1.50 


0.0055 


87 


19.6 


0.209 


1.52 


1.45 





.087 


20.7 


0.216 


1.60 


1.56 


0.0056 


88 


20.1 


0.212 


1.56 


1.50 





.089 


21.2 


0.220 


1.63 


1.61 


0.0057 


89 


20.7 


0.216 


1.60 


1.56 





.093 


21.8 


0.224 


1.68 


1.67 


0.0058 


90 


21.3 


0.221 


1.64 


1.62 





.096 


22.4 


0.228 


1.72 


1.73 


0.0058 


91 


21.9 


0.225 


1.68 


1.68 





100 


23.1 


0.233 


1.76 


1.79 


0.0059 


92 


22.4 


0.228 


1.72 


1.73 





103 


23.7 


0.237 


1.81 


1.85 


0.0060 


93 


23.0 


0.232 


1.76 


1.78 





107 


24.3 


0.241 


1.85 


1.90 


0.0061 


94 


23.7 


0.237 


1.81 


1.85 





112 


25.0 


0.246 


1.90 


1.96 


0.0062 


95 


24.3 


0.241 


1.85 


1.90 





116 


25.6 


0.250 


1.94 


2.02 


0.0063 


96 


24.9 


0.245 


1.89 


1.96 


0. 


120 


26.3 


0.254 


1.98 


2.08 


0.0064 


97 


25.6 


0.250 


1.94 


2.02 





125 


27.0 


0.259 


2.03 


2.14 


0.0065 


98 


26.2 


0.254 


1.98 


2.07 





130 


27.7 


0.264 


2.08 


2.20 


0.0066 


99 


26.9 


0.258 


2.02 


2.13 





135 


28.4 


0.268 


2.13 


2.25 


0.0067 


100 


27.5 


0.262 


2.06 


2.18 





.140 


29.1 


0.273 


2.17 


2.31 


0.0067 


101 


28.2 


0.267 


2.11 


2.24 





145 


29.8 


0.277 


2.22 


2.37 


0.0068 


102 


28.9 


0.271 


2.16 


2.30 





151 


30.5 


0.282 


2.27 


2.42 


0.0069 


103 


29.6 


0.276 


2.21 


2.35 


0. 


157 


31.3 


0.287 


2.32 


2.49 


0.0070 


104 


30.3 


0.280 


2.25 


2.41 





163 


32.0 


0.291 


2.37 


2.54 


0.0071 


105 


31.1 


0.285 


2.31 


2.47 





171 


32.8 


0.296 


2.42 


2.60 


0.0071 


106 


31.8 


0.290 


2.35 


2.53 





.177 


33.6 


0.301 


2.47 


2.66 


0.0072 


107 


32.5 


0.294 


2.40 


2.58 





184 


34.4 


0.306 


2.53 


2.72 


0.0073 


108 


33.3 


0.299 


2.45 


2.64 





192 


35.2 


0.311 


2.58 


2.78 


0.0074 


109 


34.1 


0.304 


2.51 


2.70 





200 


36.0 


0.316 


2.63 


2.84 


0.0075 


110 


34.9 


0.309 


2.56 


2.76 





208 


36.9 


0.321 


2.69 


2.90 


0.0075 


111 


35.7 


0.314 


2.61 


2.82 


0. 


216 


37.7 


0.326 


2.74 


2.96 


0.0076 


112 


36.5 


0.319 


2.66 


2.88 


0. 


225 


38.6 


0.332 


2.80 


3.02 


0.0077 


113 


37.3 


0.324 


2.72 


2.93 





234 


39.5 


0.337 


2.86 


3.09 


0.0078 


114 


38.2 


0.329 


2.78 


3.00 





244 


40.3 


0.342 


2.91 


3.14 


0.0078 


115 


39.0 


0.334 


2.83 


3.05 





253 


41.3 


0.348 


2.98 


3.21 


0.0079 


116 


39.9 


0.339 


2.89 


3.11 





264 


42.2 


0.353 


3.04 


3.27 


0.0080 


117 


40.8 


0.345 


2.95 


3.17 





275 


43.1 


0.358 


3.09 


3.33 


0.0081 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 

TABLE 70 Continued 



129 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Testes 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Ovaries 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



118 


41.6 


0.349 


3.00 


3.23 


0.285 


44.1 


0.364 


3.16 


3.39 


0.0081 


119 


42.6 





.355 


3.06 


3.29 


0.298 


45.0 


0.369 


3.22 


3.45 


0.0082 


120 


43.5 





.361 


3.12 


3.35 


0.309 


46.0 


0.375 


3.28 


3.51 


0.0083 


121 


44.4 





.366 


3.18 


3.41 


0.321 


47.0 


0.381 


3.35 


3.58 


0.0084 


122 


45.4 





.372 


3.24 


3.47 


0.335 


48.0 


0.387 


3.41 


3.64 


0.0084 


123 


46.3 





.377 


3.30 


3.53 


0.348 


49.1 


0.393 


3.48 


3.71 


0.0085 


124 


47.3 





.383 


3.36 


3.59 


0.362 


50.1 


0.399 


3.54 


3.77 


0.0086 


125 


48.3 





.389 


3.43 


3.66 


0.377 


51.2 


0.405 


3.61 


3.83 


0.0086 


126 


49.3 





.394 


3.49 


3.72 


0.392 


52.3 


0.411 


3.68 


3.90 


0.0087 


127 


50.4 





.401 


3.56 


3.78 


0.408 


53.4 


0.418 


3.75 


3.96 


0.0088 


128 


51.4 





.406 


3.63 


3.84 


0.424 


54.5 


0.424 


3.82 


4.03 


0.0089 


129 


52.5 





.413 


3.69 


3.91 


0.442 


55.6 


0.430 


3.89 


4.09 


0.0089 


130 


53.6 





.419 


3.76 


3.97 


0.460 


56.8 


0.437 


3.97 


4.15 


0.0090 


131 


54.7 





.425 


3.83 


4.04 


0.478 


58.0 


0.444 


4.04 


4.22 


0.0091 


132 


55.8 





.431 


3.90 


4.10 


0.497 


59.2 


0.450 


4.12 


4.29 


0.0091 


133 


56.9 





.437 


3.97 


4.16 


0.516 


60.4 


0.457 


4.19 


4.36 


0.0092 


134 


58.1 





.444 


4.05 


4.23 


0.537 


61.6 


0.464 


4.27 


4.42 


0.0093 


135 


59.3 





.451 


4.12 


4.30 


0.559 


62.9 


0.471 


4.35 


4.49 


0.0093 


136 


60.5 





.458 


4.20 


4.36 


0.581 


64.2 


0.478 


4.43 


4.56 


0.0094 


137 


61.7 





.464 


4.27 


4.43 


0.604 


65.5 


0.485 


4.51 


4.63 


0.0095 


138 


62.9 





.471 


4.35 


4.49 


0.627 


66.8 


0.492 


4.59 


4.70 


0.0099 


139 


64.1 





.477 


4.42 


4.56 


0.651 


68.1 


0.499 


4.67 


4.77 


0.0102 


140 


65.4 





.485 


4.50 


4.63 


0.677 


69.5 


0.507 


4.76 


4.84 


0.0106 


141 


66.7 





.492 


4.58 


4.70 


0.704 


70.9 


0.515 


4.84 


4.91 


0.0110 


142 


68.0 





.499 


4.66 


4.76 


0.731 


72.3 


0.522 


4.93 


4.98 


0.0115 


143 


69.3 





.506 


4.74 


4.83 


0.759 


73.7 


0.530 


5.01 


5.05 


0.0120 


144 


70.7 





.514 


4.83 


4.90 


0.790 


75.2 


0.538 


5.11 


5.13 


0.0126 


145 


72.1 





.521 


4.92 


4.97 


0.821 


76.7 


0.546 


5.20 


5.20 


0.0132 


146 


73.5 





.529 


5.00 


5.04 


0.853 


78.2 


0.554 


5.29 


5.27 


0.0139 


147 


74.9 





.536 


5.09 


5.11 


0.885 


79.7 


0.562 


5.38 


5.35 


0.0147 


148 


76.3 





.544 


5.17 


5.18 


0.918 


81.3 


0.571 


5.48 


5.42 


0.0155 


149 


77.8 


0.552 


5.27 


5.26 


0.955 


82.8 


0.579 


5.57 


5.50 


0.0164 


150 


79.3 





.560 


5.36 


5.34 


0.991 


84.4 


0.587 


5.67 


5.57 


0.0173 


151 


80.8 





.568 


5.45 


5.40 


1.031 


86.1 


0.596 


5.77 


5.65 


0.0184 


152 


82.4 





.577 


5.54 


5.48 


1.055 


87.7 


0.605 


5.86 


5.72 


0.0195 


153 


83.9 


0.585 


5.64 


5.55 


1.078 


89.4 


0.614 


5.97 


5.80 


0.0207 



130 



GEOWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 70 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alitnen. 
tract 


Testes 


Body 

weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Ovaries 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



154 


85.5 


0.593 


5.73 


5.63 


1 


.102 


91.1 


0.623 


6.07 


5.88 


0.0219 


155 


87.1 


0.602 


5.83 


5.70 


1 


.125 


92.9 


0.632 


6.18 


5.96 


0.0233 


156 


88.7 


0.610 


5.92 


5.77 


1 


.148 


94.6 


0.641 


6.28 


6.04 


0.0247 


157 


90.4 


0.619 


6.03 


5.85 


1 


.173 


96.4 


0.651 


6.39 


6.12 


0.0262 


158 


92.1 


0.628 


6.13 


5.93 


1 


.196 


98.3 


0.661 


6.50 


6.20 


0.0279 


159 


93.8 


0.637 


6.23 


6.00 


1 


.219 


100.1 


0.670 


6.61 


6.28 


0.0296 


160 


95.6 


0.646 


6.34 


6.08 


1 


.243 


102.0 


0.680 


6.72 


6.46 


0.0314 


161 


97.3 


0.655 


6.44 


6.16 


1 


.265 


103.9 


0.690 


6.83 


6.44 


0.0334 


162 


99.2 


0.665 


6.55 


6.24 


1 


.290 


105.9 


0.700 


6.95 


6.53 


0.0344 


163 


101.0 


0.675 


6.66 


6.32 


1 


.313 


107.9 


0.711 


7.07 


6.62 


0.0377 


164 


102.8 


0.684 


6.77 


6.40 


1 


.335 


109.9 


0.721 


7.18 


6.70 


0.0400 


165 


104.7 


0.694 


6.88 


6.48 


1 


.358 


111.9 


0.731 


7.30 


6.78 


0.0411 


166 


106.7 


0.704 


7.00 


6.56 


1 


.382 


114.0 


0.742 


7.43 


6.87 


0.0419 


167 


108.6 


0.714 


7.11 


6.65 


1 


.404 


116.1 


0.753 


7.55 


6.96 


0.0425 


168 


110.6 


0.725 


7.23 


6.73 


1 


.428 


118.3 


0.764 


7.68 


7.05 


0.0431 


169 


112.6 


0.735 


7.34 


6.81 


1 


.450 


120.5 


0.776 


7.81 


7.14 


0.0435 


170 


114.7 


0.746 


7.47 


6.90 


1 


.473 


122.7 


0.787 


7.93 


7.23 


0.0439 


171 


116.7 


0.756 


7.58 


6.98 


1 


.495 


125.0 


0.799 


8.07 


7.32 


0.0443 


172 


118.9 


0.768 


7.71 


7.07 


1 


.519 


127.3 


0.811 


8.20 


7.41 


0.0446 


173 


121.0 


0.778 


7.83 


7.16 


1 


.541 


129.6 


0.822 


8.33 


7.50 


0.0449 


174 


123.2 


0.790 


7.96 


7.25 


1 


.564 


132.0 


0.835 


8.47 


7.60 


0.0452 


175 


125.4 


0.801 


8.09 


7.33 


1 


.586 


134.4 


0.847 


8.61 


7.69 


0.0455 


176 


127.7 


0.813 


8.22 


7.43 


1 


.609 


136.8 


0.859 


8.75 


7.78 


0.0457 


177 


130.0 


0.824 


8.36 


7.52 


1 


.632 


139.3 


0.872 


8.89 


7.88 


0.0459 


178 


132.3 


0.836 


8.49 


7.61 


1 


.654 


141.9 


0.885 


9.04 


7.98 


0.0462 


179 


134.6 


0.848 


8.62 


7.70 


1 


.675 


144 .4 


0.898 


9.19 


8.07 


0.0464 


180 


137.0 


0.860 


8.76 


7.79 


1 


.698 


147.1 


0.911 


9.34 


8.18 


0.0466 


181 


139.5 


0.873 


8.90 


7.89 


1 


.721 


149.7 


0.925 


9.49 


8.28 


0.0468 


182 


142.0 


0.886 


9.05 


7.98 


1 


.743 


152.4 


0.938 


10.22 


8.38 


0.0469 


183 


144.5 


0.898 


9.19 


8.08 


1 


.765 


155.2 


0.952 


10.39 


8.48 


0.0471 


184 


147.0 


0.911 


9.26 


8.17 


1 


.787 


158.0 


0.967 


10.56 


8.58 


0.0473 


185 


149.6 


0.924 


9.33 


8.27 


1 


.809 


160.8 


0.981 


10.73 


8.69 


0.0474 


186 


152.3 


0.938 


9.40 


8.37 


1 


.832 


163.7 


0.995 


10.90 


8.79 


0.0476 


187 


155.0 


0.951 


9.50 


8.47 


1 


.854 


166.6 


1.010 


11.07 


8.90 


0.0477 


188 


157.7 


0.965 


9.64 


8.57 


1 


.876 


169.6 


1.025 


11.25 


9.01 


0.0479 


189 


160.5 


0.979 


9.80 


8.68 


1 


.898 


172.6 


1.040 


11.43 


9.12 


0.0480 


190 


163.3 


0.993 


9.95 


8.78 


1 


.920 


175.7 


1.055 


11.62 


9.23 


0.0482 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 

TABLE 70 Continued 



131 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Testes 


Body 
weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Ovaries 


mm. 


gms. 


gm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



191 


166.2 


1.008 


10.11 


8.88 


1 


,942 


178.8 


1.071 


11.80 


9.34 


0.0483 


192 


169.1 


1.022 


10.27 


8.99 


1, 


964 


182.0 


1.087 


11.99 


9.45 


0.0484 


193 


172.0 


1.037 


10.43 


9.09 


1. 


985 


185.2 


1.103 


12.18 


9.56 


0.0485 


194 


175.0 


1.052 


10.59 


9.20 


2, 


007 


188.5 


1.119 


12.38 


9.68 


0.0487 


195 


178.1 


1.067 


10.76 


9.31 


2 


030 


191.9 


1.136 


12.58 


9.80 


0.0488 


196 


181.2 


1.083 


10.93 


9.42 


2 


.051 


195.3 


1.153 


12.78 


9.92 


0.0489 


197 


184.3 


1.098 


11.10 


9.53 


2, 


.073 


198.7 


1.170 


12.98 


10.03 


0.0490 


198 


187.5 


1.114 


11.27 


9.64 


2, 


094 


202.2 


1.188 


13.18 


10.15 


0.0491 


199 


190.8 


1.131 


11.45 


9.76 


2 


.117 


205.8 


1.206 


13.39 


10.28 


0.0492 


200 


194.1 


1.147 


11.63 


9.87 


2 


.138 


209.4 


1.223 


13.61 


10.40 


0.0493 


201 


197.4 


1.164 


11.81 


9.99 


2.159 


213.1 


1.242 


13.82 


10.53 


0.0494 


202 


200.8 


1.181 


11.99 


10.11 


2 


.181 


216.8 


1.260 


14.04 


10.65 


0.0495 


203 


204.3 


1.198 


12.18 


10.23 


2 


.203 


220.7 


1.279 


14.26 


10.78 


0.0496 


204 


207.8 


1.215 


12.36 


10.35 


2 


.224 


224.5 


1.298 


14.48 


10.91 


0.0497 


205 


211.4 


1.233 


12.56 


10.47 


2 


.246 


228.4 


1.317 


14.71 


11.04 


0.0498 


206 


215.0 


1.251 


12.75 


10.59 


2 


.267 


232.4 


1.337 


14.94 


11.17 


0.0499 


207 


218.7 


1.269 


12.95 


10.71 


2 


.289 


236.5 


1.357 


15.18 


11.31 


0.0500 


208 


222.5 


1.288 


13.15 


10.84 


2 


.311 


240.6 


1.378 


15.42 


11.44 


0.0501 


209 


226.3 


1.307 


13.35 


10.97 


2 


.332 


244.8 


1.398 


15.66 


11.58 


0.0502 


210 


230.2 


1.326 


13.46 


11.10 


2 


.354 


249.1 


1.419 


15.90 


11.72 


0.0503 


211 


234.1 


1.346 


13.76 


11.23 


2 


.375 


253.4 


1.441 


16.15 


11.86 


0.0504 


212 


238.1 


1.365 


13.98 


11.36 


2 


397- 


257.8 


1.462 


16.41 


12.00 


0.0505 


213 


242.2 


1.386 


14.19 


11.49 


2 


.418 


262.3 


1.484 


16.66 


12.14 


0.0506 


214 


246.3 


1.406 


14.41 


11.63 


2 


.439 


266.9 


1.507 


16.92 


12.29 


0.0507 


215 


250.5 


1.426 


14.63 


11.76 


2.461 


271.5 


1.530 


17.19 


12.44 


0.0508 


216 


254.7 


1.447 


14.85 


11.90 


2 


.482 


276.2 


1.553 


17.45 


12.59 


0.0508 


217 


259.1 


1.469 


15.08 


12.04 


2 


.503 


281.0 


1.576 


17.73 


12.74 


0.0509 


218 


263.5 


1.490 


15.31 


12.18 


2 


.525 


2&5.S 


1.600 


18.00 


12.89 


0.0510 


219 


267.9 


1.512 


15.54 


12.32 


2 


.546 


290.8 


1.624 


18.28 


13.05 


0.0511 


220 


272.5 


1.534 


15.78 


12.47 


2 


.567 


295.8 


1.648 


18.57 


13.21 


0.0512 


221 


277.1 


1.557 


16.02 


12.62 


2 


.588 


300.9 


1.673 


18.85 


13.36 


0.0512 


222 


281.8 


1.580 


16.26 


12.77 


2 


.609 


306.1 


1.705 


19.15 


13.53 


0.0513 


223 


286.5 


1.603 


16.55 


12.91 


2 


.630 


311.3 


1.724 


19.44 


13.69 


0.0514 


224 


291.4 


1.627 


16.76 


13.07 


2 


.652 


316 7 


1.751 


19.74 


13.85 


0.0515 


225 


296.3 


1.651 


17.02 


13.22 


2 


.673 


322.1 


1.777 


20.05 


14.02 


0.0516 


226 


301.3 


1.675 


17.27 


13.38 


2 


.694 


327.7 


1.804 


20.36 


14.19 


0.0516 


227 


306.4 


1.700 


17.54 


13.54 


2 


.715 


333.3 


1.831 


20.67 


14.36 


0.0517 



132 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 70 Concluded 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 

weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Testes 


Body 

weight 


Lungs 


Blood 


Alimen. 
tract 


Ovaries 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


ams. 


gms. 


228 


311.5 


1.725 


17.80 


13.74 


2.736 


339.0 


1.859 


20.99 


14.54 


0.0518 


229 


316.8 


1.751 


18.07 


13.86 


2.757 


344.8 


1.887 


21.31 


14.71 


0.0519 


230 


322.1 


1.777 


18.34 


14.02 


2.778 


350.7 


1.916 


21.64 


14.89 


0.0519 


231 


327.5 


1.803 


18.62 


14.19 


2.799 


356.7 


1.945 


21.97 


15.07 


0.0520 


232 


333.0 


1.830 


18.90 


14.35 


2.820 


362.8 


1.975 


22.31 


15.26 


0.0521 


233 


338.6 


1.857 


19.19 


14.52 


2.841 


369.0 


2.005 


22.65 


15.44 


0.0522 


234 


344.3 


1.885 


19.47 


14.68 


2.862 


375.3 


2.035 


23.00 


15.63 


0.0522 


235 


350.0 


1.913 


19.77 


14.87 


2.883 


381.7 


2.067 


23.35 


15.82 


0.0523 


236 


355.9 


1.941 


20.07 


15.05 


2.904 


388.2 


2.098 


23.71 


16.01 


0.0524 


237 


361.9 


1.970 


20.37 


15.23 


2.926 


394.9 


2.130 


24.08 


16.21 


0.0524 


238 


367.9 


2.000 


20.68 


15.41 


2.946 


401.6 


2.163 


24.45 


16.41 


0.0525 


239 


374.1 


2.030 


20.99 


15.59 


2.967 


408.4 


2.196 


24.82 


16.61 


0.0526 


240 


380.3 


2.060 


21.30 


15.78 


2.988 


415.4 


2.230 


25.20 


16.82 


0.0526 


241 


386.6 


2.090 


21.62 


15.97 


3.009 


422.4 


2.264 


25.58 


17.02 


0.0527 


242 


393.1 


2.122 


21.95 


16.16 


3.030 


429.6 


2.298 


25.98 


17.23 


0.0528 


243 


399.6 


2.153 


22.27 


16.35 


3.051 


436.9 


2.334 


26.37 


17.45 


0.0529 


244 


406.3 


2.186 


22.61 


16.55 


3.072 


444.3 


2.369 


26.77 


17.66 


0.0529 


245 


413.1 


2.219 


22.95 


16.75 


3.093 


451.9 


2.406 


27.18 


17.88 


0.0530 


246 


419.9 


2.251 


23.28 


16.95 


3.113 


459.5 


2.443 


27.60 


18.10 


0.0531 


247 


426.9 


2.285 


23.64 


17.15 


3.134 


467.3 


2.480 


28.02 


18.33 


0.0531 


248 


434.0 


2.320 


23.99 


17.36 


3.155 


475.2 


2.518 


28.45 


18.55 


0.0532 


249 


441.2 


2.354 


24.35 


17.57 


3.176 


483.3 


2.557 


28.89 


18.79 


0.0532 


250 


448.5 


2.390 


24.71 


17.78 


3.197 


491.5 


2.597 


29.32 


19.02 


0.0533 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



133 



TABLE 71 



Giving for each sex the weights of body, hypophysis, suprarenals and thyroid Jor 
each millimeter of body length. See charts 18, 19, and 20. 



MALES 


FEMALES 


A 
$1 


Body 
weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


Body weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



50 


5.1 


0.0005 


0.0017 


0.0015 


5.0 


0.0005 


0.0017 


0.0014 


51 


5.2 


0.0005 


0.0017 


0.0015 


5.1 


0.0005 


0.0017 


0.0015 


52 


5.3 


0.0005 


0.0017 


0.0015 


5.3 


0.0005 


0.0018 


0.0015 


53 


5.4 


0.0005 


0.0018 


0.0016 


5.5 


0.0006 


0.0019 


0.0016 


54 


5.6 


0.0005 


0.0019 


0.0016 


5.8 


0.0006 


0.0021 


0.0017 


55 


5.8 


0.0006 


0.0021 


0.0017 


6.2 


0.0006 


0.0024 


0.0018 


56 


6.1 


0.0006 


0.0023 


0.0018 


6.5 


0.0006 


0.0026 


0.0019 


57 


6.4 


0.0006 


0.0025 


0.0018 


6.9 


0.0007 


0.0028 


0.0020 


58 


6.8 


0.0007 


0.0027 


0.0019 


7.2 


0.0007 


0.0030 


0.0021 


59 


7.1 


0.0007 


0.0029 


0.0020 


7.6 


0.0007 


0.0032 


0.0022 


60 


7.5 


0.0007 


0.0031 


0.0021 


8.0 


0.0008 


0.0034 


0.0023 


61 


7.9 


0.0008 


0.0034 


0.0022 


8.4 


0.0008 


0.0036 


0.0024 


62 


8.2 


0.0008 


0.0035 


0.0023 


8.7 


0.0008 


0.0038 


0.0025 


63 


8.6 


0.0008 


0.0037 


0.0024 


9.1 


0.0009 


0.0040 


0.0026 


64 


9.0 


0.0009 


0.0039 


0.0025 


9.5 


0.0009 


0.0042 


0.0027 


65 


9.4 


0.0009 


0.0041 


0.0026 


9.9 


0.0009 


0.0044 


0.0028 


66 


9.8 


0.0009 


0.0043 


0.0027 


10.3 


0.0009 


0.0045 


0.0029 


67 


10.1 


0.0009 


0.0045 


0.0028 


10.8 


0.0010 


0.0048 


0.0030 


68 


10.6 


0.0010 


0.0047 


0.0030 


11.2 


0.0010 


0.0049 


0.0031 


69 


11.0 


0.0010 


0.0049 


0.0031 


11.6 


0.0010 


0.0051 


0.0032 


70 


11.4 


0.0010 


0.0050 


0.0032 


12.0 


0.0011 


0.0053 


0.0033 


71 


11.8 


0.0011 


0.0052 


0.0033 


12.5 


0.0011 


0.0055 


0.0034 


72 


12.2 


0.0011 


0.0054 


0.0034 


12.9 


0.0011 


0.0056 


0.0035 


73 


12.7 


0.0011 


0.0056 


0.0035 


13.4 


0.0012 


0.0058 


0.0037 


74 


13.1 


0.0011 


0.0057 


0.0036 


13.9 


0.0012 


0.0060 


0.0038 


75 


13.6 


0.0012 


0.0059 


0.0037 


14.3 


0.0012 


0.0062 


0.0039 


76 


14.0 


0.0012 


0.0061 


0.0038 


14.8 


0.0012 


0.0064 


0.0040 


77 


14.5 


0.0012 


0.0063 


0.0039 


15.3 


0.0013 


0.0065 


0.0041 


78 


15.0 


0.0013 


0.0064 


0.0041 


15.8 


0.0013 


0.0067 


0.0042 


79 


15.4 


0.0013 


0.0066 


0.0042 


16.3 


0.0013 


0.0069 


0.0044 


80 


15.9 


0.0013 


0.0067 


0.0043 


16.8 


0.0014 


0.0070 


0.0045 


81 


16.4 


0.0013 


0.0069 


0.0044 


17.3 


0.0014 


0.0072 


0.0046 


82 


16.9 


0.0014 


0.0071 


0.0045 


17.9 


0.0014 


0.0074 


0.0047 


83 


17.4 


0.0014 


0.0072 


0.0046 


18.4 


0.0014 


0.0076 


0.0049 



134 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 
TABLE 71 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


J 


Body 
weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 

renals 


Thyroid 


Body weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms 



84 


18.0 


0.0014 


0.0074 


0.0048 


19.0 


0.0015 


0.0078 


0.0050 


85 


18.5 


0.0015 


0.0076 


0.0049 


19.5 


0.0015 


0.0079 


0.0051 


86 


19.0 


0.0015 


0.0078 


0.0050 


20.1 


0.0015 


0.0081 


0.0052 


87 


19.6 


0.0015 


0.0079 


0.0051 


20.7 


0.0016 


0.0083 


0.0054 


88 


20.1 


0.0015 


0.0081 


0.0052 


21.2 


0.0016 


0.0084 


0.0055 


89 


20.7 


0.0016 


0.0083 


0.0054 


21.8 


0.0016 


0.0086 


0.0056 


90 


21.3 


0.0016 


0.0084 


0.0055 


22.4 


0.0017 


0.0087 


0.0058 


91 


21.9 


0.0016 


0.0086 


0.0056 


23.1 


0.0017 


0.0089 


0.0059 


92 


22.4 


0.0017 


0.0087 


0.0058 


23.7 


0.0017 


0.0091 


0.0060 


93 


23.0 


0.0017 


0.0089 


0.0059 


24.3 


0.0017 


0.0093 


0.0062 


94 


23.7 


0.0017 


0.0091 


0.0060 


25.0 


O.C018 


0.0094 


0.0063 


95 


24.3 


0.0017 


0.0093 


0.0062 


25.6 


0.0018 


0.0096 


0.0064 


96 


24.9 


0.0018 


0.0094 


0.0063 


26.3 


0.0018 


0.0098 


0.0066 


97 


25.6 


0.0018 


0.0096 


0.0064 


27.0 


0.0019 


0.0100 


0.0067 


98 


26.2 


0.0018 


0.0098 


0.0066 


27.7 


0.0019 


0.0101 


0.0069 


99 


26.9 


0.0019 


0.0099 


0.0067 


28.4 


0.0019 


0.0103 


0.0070 


100 


27.5 


0.0019 


0.0101 


0.0068 


29.1 


0.0020 


0.0105 


0.0072 


101 


28.2 


0.0019 


0.0103 


0.0070 


29.8 


0.0020 


0.0106 


0.0073 


102 


28.9 


0.0020 


0.0104 


0.0071 


30.5 


0.0020 


0.0108 


0.0075 


103 


29.6 


0.0020 


0.0106 


0.0073 


31.3 


0.0021 


0.0110 


0.0076 


104 


30.3 


0.0020 


0.0108 


0.0074 


32.0 


0.0021 


0.0112 


0.0078 


105 


31.1 


0.0021 


0.0109 


0.0076 


32.8 


0.0021 


0.0114 


0.0079 


106 


31.8 


0.0021 


0.0111 


0.0077 


33.6 


0.0022 


0.0117 


0.0081 


107 


32.5 


0.0021 


0.0113 


0.0079 


34.4 


0.0022 


0.0119 


0.0082 


108 


33.3 


0.0021 


0.0114 


O.C080 


35.2 


0.0022 


0.0121 


0.0084 


109 


34.1 


0.0022 


0.0116 


0.0082 


36.0 


0.0023 


0.0123 


0.0085 


110 


34.9 


0.0022 


0.0118 


0.0083 


36.9 


0.0023 


0.0126 


0.0087 


111 


35.7 


0.0022 


0.0120 


0.0085 


37.7 


0.0023 


0.0128 


0.0089 


112 


36.5 


0.0023 


0.0121 


0.0086 


38.6 


0.0024 


0.0130 


0.0090 


113 


37.3 


0.0023 


0.0123 


0.0088 


39.5 


0.0024 


0.0133 


0.0092 


114 


38.2 


0.0024 


0.0125 


0.0090 


40.3 


0.0024 


0.0135 


0.0094 


115 


39.0 


0.0024 


0.0126 


0.0091 


41.3 


0.0025 


0.0138 


0.0096 


116 


39.9 


0.0024 


0.0128 


0.0093 


42.2 


0.0025 


0.0140 


0.0097 


117 


40.8 


0.0025 


0.0130 


0.0095 


43.1 


0.0025 


0.0143 


0.0099 


118 


41.6 


0.0025 


0.0132 


0.0096 


44.1 


0.0026 


0.0145 


0.0101 


119 


42.6 


0.0025 


0.0134 


0.0098 


45.0 


0.0026 


0.0148 


0.0102 


120 


43.5 


0.0026 


0.0135 


0.0100 


46.0 


0.0027 


0.0150 


0.0104 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



135 



TABLE 71 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


4 
fj 

H 


Body 
weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


Body weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


mm. 


g ms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


121 


44 .4 


0.0026 


0.0137 


0.0101 


47.0 


0.0027 


0.0153 


0.0106 


122 


45.4 


0.0026 


0.0139 


0.0103 


48.0 


0.0027 


0.0156 


0.0108 


123 


46.3 


0.0027 


0.0141 


0.0105 


49.1 


0.0028 


0.0159 


0.0110 


124 


47.3 


0.0027 


0.0142 


0.0106 


50.1 


0.0028 


0.0161 


0.0111 


125 


48.3 


0.0027 


0.0144 


0.0108 


51.2 


0.0029 


0.0164 


0.0113 


126 


49.3 


0.0028 


0.0146 


0.0110 


52.3 


0.0029 


0.0167 


0.0115 


127 


50.4 


0.0028 


0.0148 


0.0112 


53.4 


0.0030 


0.0170 


0.0117 


128 


51.4 


0.0029 


0.0150 


0.0114 


54.5 


0.0031 


0.0173 


0.0119 


129 


52.5 


0.0029 


0.0152 


0.0116 


55.6 


0.0031 


0.0176 


0.0121 


130 


53.6 


0.0029 


0.0154 


0.0117 


56.8 


0.0032 


0.0179 


0.0123 


131 


54.7 


0.0030 


0.0155 


0.0119 


58.0 


0.0033 


0.0182 


0.0125 


132 


55.8 


0.0030 


0.0157 


0.0121 


59.2 


0.0034 


0.0185 


0.0127 


133 


56.9 


0.0031 


0.0159 


0.0123 


60.4 


0.0035 


0.0188 


0.0129 


134 


58.1 


0.0031 


0.0161 


0.0125 


61.6 


0.0035 


0.0191 


0.0131 


135 


59.3 


0.0031 


0.0163 


0.0127 


62.9 


0.0036 


0.0195 


0.0133 


136 


60.5 


0.0032 


0.0165 


0.0129 


64.2 


0.0037 


0.0198 


0.0135 


137 


61.7 


0.0032 


0.0167 


0.0131 


65.5 


0.0038 


0.0201 


0.0137 


138 


62.9 


0.0033 


0.0169 


0.0133 


66.8 


0.0039 


0.0204 


0.0139 


139 


64.1 


0.0033 


0.0171 


0.0135 


68.1 


0.0040 


0.0208 


0.0142 


140 


65.4 


0.0034 


0.0173 


0.0137 


69.5 


0.0041 


0.0211 


0.0144 


141 


66.7 


0.0034 


0.0175 


0.0139 


70.9 


0.0042 


0.0215 


0.0146 


142 


68.0 


0.0034 


0.0177 


0.0141 


72.3 


0.0043 


0.0218 


0.0148 


143 


69.3 


0.0035 


0.0179 


0.0143 


73.7 


0.0044 


0.0222 


0.0150 


144 


70.7 


0.0035 


0.0181 


0.0146 


75.2 


0.0045 


0.0226 


0.0153 


145 


72.1 


0.0036 


0.0183 


0.0148 


76.7 


0.0046 


0.0230 


0.0155 


146 


73.5 


0.0036 


0.0185 


0.0150 


78.2 


0.0047 


0.0233 


0.0158 


147 


74.9 


0.0037 


0.0187 


0.0152 


79.7 


0.0048 


0.0237 


0.0160 


148 


76.3 


0.0037 


0.0189 


0.0155 


81.3 


0.0049 


0.0241 


0.0162 


149 


77.8 


0.0038 


0.0192 


0.0157 


82.8 


0.0050 


0.0245 


0.0164 


150 


79.3 


0.0038 


0.0194 


0.0159 


84.4 


0.0051 


0.0249 


0.0167 


151 


80.8 


0.0039 


0.0196 


0.0161 


86.1 


0.0052 


0.0253 


0.0169 


152 


82.4 


0.0039 


0.0198 


0.0164 


87.7 


0.0053 


0.0257 


0.0172 


153 


83.9 


0.0040 


0.0200 


0.0166 


89.4 


0.0055 


0.0261 


0.0175 


154 


85.5 


0.0040 


0.0203 


0.0169 


91.1 


0.0056 


0.0266 


0.0177 


155 


87.1 


0.0041 


0.0205 


0.0171 


92.9 


0.0057 


0.0270 


0.0180 


156 


88.7 


0.0041 


0.0207 


0.0173 


94.6 


0.0058 


0.0274 


0.0182 


157 


90.4 


0.0042 


0.0210 


0.0176 


96.4 


0.0060 


0.0279 


0.0185 



136 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 71 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


"O 3 
M~~ 


Body 
weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


Body weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


158 92.1 0.0042 0.0212 0.0179 98.3 0.0061 0.0283 0.0188 
159 93.8 0.0043 0.0214 0.0181 100.1 0.0062 0.0288 0.0190 
160 95.6 0.0044 0.0217 0.0184 102.0 0.0064 0.0293 0.0193 



161 


97.3 


0.0044 


0.0219 


0. 


0186 


103. 


9 


0.0065 


0. 


0297 


0.0196 


162 


99.2 


0.0045 


0.0222 


0. 


0189 


105. 


9 


0.0067 


0, 


0302 


0.0199 


163 


101.0 


0.0045 


0.0224 


0.0191 


107. 


9 


0.0068 


0. 


0307 


0.0201 


164 


102.8 


0.0046 


0.0226 


0. 


0194 


109. 


9 


0.0070 


0. 


0312 


0.0204 


165 


104.7 


0.0046 


0.0229 


0. 


0197 


111. 


9 


0.0071 


0. 


0317 


0.0207 


166 


106.7 


0.0047 


0.0231 


0. 


0200 


114. 





0.0073 


0. 


0322 


0.0210 


167 


108.6 


0.0048 


0.0234 


0. 


0202 


116. 


1 


0.0074 


0. 


0327 


0.0213 


168 


110.6 


0.0048 


0.0236 


0. 


0205 


118. 


3 


0.0076 


0. 


0333 


0.0216 


169 


112.6 


0.0049 


0.0239 


0. 


0208 


120. 


5 


0.0077 


0. 


0338 


0.0219 


170 


114.7 


0.0050 


0.0242 


0. 


0211 


122. 


7 


0.0079 


0. 


0343 


0.0222 


171 


116.7 


0.0050 


0.0244 


0. 


0214 


125. 





0.0081 


0. 


0349 


0.0225 


172 


118.9 


0.0051 


0.0247 


0. 


0217 


127. 


3 


0.0082 


0.0355 


0.0228 


173 


121.0 


0.0052 


0.0250 


0. 


0220 


129. 


6 


0.0084 


0. 


0360 


0.0232 


174 


123.2 


0.0052 


0.0252 


0. 


0223 


132. 





0.0086 


0. 


0366 


0.0235 


175 


125.4 


0.0053 


0.0255 


0. 


0226 


134. 


4 


0.0088 


0. 


0372 


0.0238 


176 


127.7 


0.0054 


0.0258 


0. 


0229 


136 


8 


0.0089 





0378 


0.0241 


177 


130.0 


0.0054 


0.0261 


0, 


0232 


139 


3 


0.0091 





0384 


0.0245 


178 


132.3 


0.0055 


0.0264 





0235 


141 


9 


0.0093 





.0390 


0.0248 


179 


134.6 


0.0056 


0.0266 





0238 


144 


4 


0.0095 





.0396 


0.0251 


180 


137.0 


0.0056 


0.0269 





,0242 


147 


.1 


0.0097 





.0402 


0.0255 


181 


139.5 


0.0057 


0.0272 





.0245 


149 


.7 


0.0099 





.0409 


0.0258 


182 


142.0 


0.0058 


0.0275 





.0248 


152 


.4 


0.0101 





.0415 


0.0262 


183 


144.5 


0.0059 


0.0278 





.0252 


155 


.2 


0.0103 





.0422 


0.0266 


184 


147.0 


0.0059 


0.0281 





.0255 


158 


.0 


0.0105 





.0429 


0.0269 


185 


149.6 


0.0060 


0.0284 





.0258 


160 


.8 


0.0108 





.0435 


0.0273 


186 


152.3 


0.0061 


0.0287 





.0262 


163 


.7 


0.0110 





.0442 


0.0277 


187 


155.0 


0.0062 


0.0291 


0, 


.0265 


166 


.6 


0.0112 





.0449 


0.0280 


188 


157.7 


0.0063 


0.0294 





.0269 


169 


.6 


0.0114 





.0457 


0.0284 


189 


160.5 


0.0063 


0.0297 





.0272 


172 


.0 


0.0117 





.0464 


0.0288 


190 


163.3 


0.0064 


0.0300 





.0276 


175 


.7 


0.0119 





.0471 


0.0292 


191 


166.2 


0.0065 


0.0304 





.0280 


178 


.8 


0.0121 





.0479 


0.0296 


192 


169.1 


0.0066 


0.0307 





.0284 


182 


.0 


0.0124 





.0486 


0.0300 


193 


172.0 


0.0067 


0.0310 





.0287 


185 


.2 


0.0126 





.0494 


0.0304 



WEIGHTS OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 

TABLE 71 Continued 



137 



MALES 


FEMALES 


5 


Body 

weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


Body weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


H 


















mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



194 


175.0 


0.0068 


0.0314 





0291 


188 


5 


0.0129 





.0502 


0.0308 


195 


178.1 


0.0068 


0.0317 





0295 


191 


,9 


0.0131 





.0510 


0.0312 


196 


181.2 


0.0069 


0.0321 





0299 


195 


3 


0.0134 





.0518 


0.0317 


197 


184.3 


0.0070 


0.0324 





0303 


198 


.7 


0.0136 


0.0526 


0.0321 


198 


187.5 


0.0071 


0.0328 





0307 


202 


.2 


0.0139 





.0535 


0.0325 


199 


190.8 


0.0072 


0.0331 





0311 


205 


.8 


0.0142 





.0543 


0.0330 


200 


194.1 


0.0073 


0.0335 





0315 


209 


.4 


0.0145 





.0552 


0.0334 


201 


197.4 


0.0074 


0.0338 


0.0319 


213 


1 


0.0148 





.0560 


0.0339 


202 


200.8 


0.0075 


0.0342 





0323 


216 


.8 


0.0150 





.0569 


0.0343 


203 


204.3 


0.0076 


0.0346 





.0328 


220 


.7 


0.0153 





.0579 


0.0348 


204 


207.8 


0.0077 


0.0350 





.0332 


224 


.5 


0.0155 





.0588 


0.0352 


205 


211.4 


0.0078 


0.0354 





,0336 


228 


.4 


0.0159 





.0597 


0.0357 


206 


215.0 


0.0079 


0.0358 





.0341 


232 


.4 


0.0162 





.C606 


0.0362 


207 


218.7 


0.0080 


0.0362 





0345 


236 


.5 


0.0166 





.0616 


0.0367 


208 


222.5 


0.0081 


0.0366 





.0350 


240 


.6 


0.0169 





.0626 


0.0372 


209 


226.3 


0.0082 


0.0370 





.0355 


344 


.8 


0.0172 





.0636 


0.0377 


210 


230.2 


0.0083 


0.0374 





.0359 


249 


.1 


0.0175 





.0646 


0.0382 


211 


234.1 


0.0084 


0.0378 





.0364 


253 


.4 


0.0179 





.0656 


0.0387 


212 


238.1 


0.0086 


0.0382 





.0369 


257 


.8 


0.0182 





.0667 


0.0392 


213 


242.2 


0.0087 


0.0387 





.0374 


262 


.3 


0.0186 





.0677 


0.0398 


214 


246.3 


0.0088 


0.0391 





.0379 


266.9 


0.0189 





.0688 


0.0403 


215 


250.5 


0.0089 


0.0395 





.0384 


271 


.5 


0.0193 





.0699 


0.0408 


216 


254.7 


0.0090 


0.0400 





.0389 


276 


.2 


0.0196 


0.0710 


0.0414 


217 


259.1 


0.0092 


0.0404 





.0394 


281 


.0 


0.0200 





.0721 


0.0420 


218 


263.5 


0.0093 


0.0409 





.0399 


285 


.8 


0.0204 





.0733 


0.0425 


219 


267.9 


0.0094 


0.0414 





.0404 


290 


.8 


0.0208 





.0744 


0.0431 


220 


272.5 


0.0095 


0.0418 





.0410 


295 


.8 


0.0212 





.0756 


0.0437 


221 


277.1 


0.0097 


0.0423 





.0415 


300 


.9 


0.0216 





.0768 


0.0443 


222 


281.8 


0.0098 


0.0428 





.0421 


306 


.1 


0.0220 





.0781 


0.0449 


223 


286.5 


0.0099 


0.0433 





.0426 


311 


.3 


0.0224 





.0793 


0.0455 


224 


291.4 


0.0101 


0.0438 


0.0432 


316 


.7 


0.0228 





.0805 


0.0461 


225 


296.3 


0.0102 


0.0443 





.0437 


322 


.1 


0.0232 





.0818 


0.0467 


226 


301.3 


0.0103 


0.0448 





.0443 


327 


.7 


0.0237 





.0831 


0.0474 


227 


306.4 


0.0105 


0.0453 





.0449 


333 


.3 


0.0242 





.0845 


0.0480 


228 


311.5 


0.0106 


0.0458 





.0455 


339 


.0 


0.0246 


o 


.0858 


0.0486 


229 


316.8 


0.0108 


0.0464 





.0461 


344 


.8 


0.0250 





.0872 


0.0493 


230 


322.1 


0.0109 


0.0469 





.0467 


350 


.7 


0.0255 





.0885 


0.0500 



138 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 71 Concluded 



MALES 


FEMALES 


J 

O 


Body 

weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


Body weight 


Hypo- 
physis 


Supra- 
renals 


Thyroid 


mm. 


gtu.". 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



231 


327.5 


0.0111 


0.0474 





.0473 


356 


.7 


0.0259 





.0899 


0.0507 


232 


333.0 


0.0112 


0.0480 





.0480 


362 


.8 


0.0264 





.0914 


0.0513 


233 


338.6 


0.0114 


0.0485 





.0486 


369 


.0 


0.0269 





.0928 


0.0520 


234 


344.3 


0.0115 


0.0491 





.0493 


375 


.3 


0.0274 





.0943 


0.0527 


235 


350.0 


0.0117 


0.0497 





.0499 


381 


.7 


0.0279 





.0958 


0.0535 


236 


355.9 


0.0118 


0.0503 





.0506 


388.2 


0.0284 





.0973 


0.0542 


237 


361.9 


0.0120 


0.0509 





.0512 


394 


.0 


0.0290 





.0989 


0.0549 


238 


367.9 


0.0122 


0.0514 





.0519 


401 


.6 


0.0295 


0, 


.1005 


0.0557 


239 


374.1 


0.0123 


0.0521 





.0526 


408 


.4 


0.0300 





.1021 


0.0564 


240 


380.3 


0.0125 


0.0527 





.0533 


415 


.4 


0.0306 





1037 


0.0572 


241 


386.6 


0.0127 


0.0533 





.0540 


422 


.4 


0.0311 


0. 


1053 


0.0580 


242 


393.1 


0.0129 


0.0539 





.0548 


429 


.6 


0.0317 





1070 


0.0588 


243 


399.6 


0.0130 


0.0546 





.0555 


436 


9 


0.0323 


0, 


1087 


0.0596 


244 


406.3 


0.0132 


0.0552 





.0562 


444 


,3 


0.0329 


0. 


1105 


0.0604 


245 


413.1 


0.0134 


0.0559 





0570 


451 


9 


0.0335 


0. 


1122 


0.0613 


246 


419.9 


0.0136 


0.0565 





0577 


459 


5 


0.0341 


0. 


1140 


0.0621 


247 


426.9 


0.0138 


0.0572 





,0585 


467 


3 


0.0347 


0. 


1158 


0.0630 


248 


434.0 


0.0140 


0.0579 





0593 


475 


,2 


0.0353 


0. 


1177 


0.0638 


249 


441.2 


0.0142 


0.0586 





0601 


483 


3 


0.0359 


0. 


1196 


0.0647 


250 


448.5 


0.0144 


0.0593 





0609 


491. 


5 


0.0366 


0. 


1251 


0.0656 



WEIGHT OF THYMUS ON AGE 



139 



TABLE 72 



Giving the weight of the thymus in grams sexes combined for the first 400 days 

of life. See Chart 23 



AGE IN 

DAYS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


AGE IN 
DAYS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


AGE IN 

DAYS 


WEIGHT OP 
THYMUS 


AGE IN 
DAYS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


B. 


0.008 


38 


0.114 


75 


0.283 


113 


0.250 


1 


0.008 


39 


0.118 


76 


0.285 


114 


0.249 


2 


0.010 


40 


0.123 


77 


0.286 


115 


0.247 


3 


0.012 






78 


0.288 


116 


0.246 


4 


0.015 


41 


0.128 


79 


0.289 


117 


0.245 


5 


0.017 


42 


0.133 


80 


0.290 


118 


0.244 


6 


0.018 


43 


0.139 






119 


0.243 


7 


0.020 


44 


0.144 


81 


0.290 


120 


0.242 


8 


0.021 


45 


0.149 


82 


0.291 






9 


0.022 


46 


0.154 


83 


0.291 


121 


0.241 


10 


0.024 


47 


0.160 


84 


0.290 


122 


0.240 






48 


0.165 


85 


0.290 


123 


0.239 


11 


0.026 


49 


0.171 


86 


0.289 


124 


0.238 


12 


0.028 


50 


0.176 


87 


0.288 


125 


0.237 


13 


0.029 






88 


0.287 


126 


0.236 


14 


0.031 


51 


0.181 


89 


0.285 


127 


0.234 


15 


0.034 


52 


0.187 


90 


0.283 


128 


0.233 


16 


0.036 


53 


0.192 






129 


0.232 


17 


0.038 


54 


0.198 


91 


0.281 


130 


0.231 


18 


0.040 


55 


0.203 


92 


0.278 






19 


0.043 


56 


0.208 


93 


0.276 


131 


0.230 


20 


0.046 


57 


0.213 


94 


0.273 


132 


0.229 






58 


0.218 


95 


0.270 


133 


0.228 


21 


0.048 


59 


0.224 


96 


0.269 


134 


0.227 


22 


0.051 


60 


0.229 


97 


0.268 


135 


0.226 


23 


0.054 






98 


0.266 


136 


0.225 


24 


0.057 


61 


0.233 


99 


0.265 


137 


0.224 


25 


0.061 


62 


0.238 


100 


0.264 


138 


0.223 


26 


0.064 


63 


0.243 


101 


0.263 


139 


0.222 


27 


0.067 


64 


0.247 


102 


0.262 


140 


0.221 


28 


0.071 


65 


0.251 


103 


0.261 






29 


0.075 


66 


0.255 


104 


0.260 


141 


0.220 


30 


0.079 


67 


0.259 


105 


0.259 


142 


0.219 






68 


0.263 


106 


0.257 


143 


0.218 


31 


0.083 


69 


0.267 


107 


0.256 


144 


0.217 


32 


0.087 


70 


0.270 


108 


0.255 


145 


0.216 


33 


0.091 






109 


0.254 


146 


0.215 


34 


0.095 


71 


0.273 


110 


0.253 


147 


0.214 


35 


0.100 


72 


0.276 






148 


0.213 


36 


0.104 


73 


0.278 


111 


0.252 


149 


0.212 


37 


0.109 


74 


0.281 


112 


0.251 


150 


0.211 



140 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 72 Continued 



AGE IN 
DATS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


AGE IN 
DATS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


AGE IX 
DAYS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


AGE IN 
DAYS 


WEIGHT IN 
THYMUS 


151 


0.210 


191 


0.172 


231 


0.138 


271 


0.108 


152 


0.209 


192 


0.171 


232 


0.137 


272 


0.107 


153 


0.208 


193 


0.170 


233 


0.136 


273 


0.106 


154 


0.207 


194 


0.169 


234 


0.135 


274 


0.106 


155 


0.206 


195 


0.168 


235 


0.134 


275 


0.105 


156 


0.205 


196 


0.167 


236 


0.134 


276 


0.104 


157 


0.204 


197 


0.166 


237 


0.133 


277 


0.104 


158 


0.203 


198 


0.165 


238 


0.132 


278 


0.103 


159 


0.202 


199 


0.164 


239 


0.131 


279 


0.102 


160 


0.201 


200 


0.164 


240 


0.130 


280 


0.102 


161 


0.200 


201 


0.163 


241 


0.130 


281 


0.101 


162 


0.199 


202 


0.162 


242 


0.129 


282 


0.100 


163 


0.198 


203 


0.161 


243 


0.128 


283 


0.099 


164 


0.197 


204 


0.160 


244 


0.127 


284 


0.099 


165 


0.196 


205 


0.159 


245 


0.127 


285 


0.098 


166 


0.195 


206 


0.158 


246 


0.126 


286 


0.098 


167 


0.194 


207 


0.157 


247 


0.125 


287 


0.097 


168 


0.193 


208 


0.157 


248 


0.124 


288 


0.096 


169 


0.192 


209 


0.156 


249 


0.124 


289 


0.096 


170 


0.191 


210 


0.155 


250 


0.123 


290 


0.095 


171 


0.190 


211 


0.154 


251 


0.122 


291 


0.094 


172 


0.189 


212 


0.153 


252 


0.121 


292 


0.094 


173 


0.188 


213 


0.152 


253 


0.121 


293 


0.093 


174 


0.187 


214 


0.152 


254 


0.120 


294 


0.092 


175 


0.186 


215 


0.151 


255 


0.119 


295 


0.092 


176 


0.185 


216 


0.150 


256 


0.118 


296 


0.091 


177 


0.184 


217 


0.149 


257 


0.118 


297 


0.090 


178 


0.183 


218 


0.148 


258 


0.117 


298 


0.090 


179 


0.183 


219 


0.147 


259 


0.116 


299 


0.089 


180 


0.182 


220 


0.147 


260 


0.115 


300 


0.089 


181 


0.181 


221 


0.146 


261 


0.115 


301 


0.088 


182 


0.180 


222 


0.145 


262 


0.114 


302 


0.087 


183 


0.179 


223 


0.144 


263 


0.113 


303 


0.087 


184 


0.178 


224 


0.143 


264 


0.113 


304 


0.086 


185 


0.177 


225 


0.142 


265 


0.112 


305 


0.085 


186 


0.176 


226 


0.142 


266 


0.111 


306 


0.085 


187 


0.175 


227 


0.141 


267 


0.110 


307 


0.084 


188 


0.174 


228 


0.140 


268 


0.110 


308 


0.084 


189 


0.173 


229 


0.139 


269 


0.109 


309 


0.083 


190 


0.172 


230 


0.138 


270 


0.108 


310 


0.082 



WEIGHT OF THYMUS ON AGE 
TABLE 72 Concluded 



141 



AGE IN 
DAYS 


WEIGHT OP 
THYMCS 


AGE IN 
DAYS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


AGE IN 
DAYS 


WEIGHT OP 
THYMUS 


AGE IN 
DAYS 


WEIGHT OF 
THYMUS 


311 


0.082 


334 


0.069 


357 


0.057 


379 


0.047 


312 


0.081 


335 


0.068 


358 


0.057 


380 


0.047 


313 


0.081 


336 


0.068 


359 


0.056 






314 


0.080 


337 


0.067 


360 


0.056 


381 


0.047 


315 


0.080 


338 


0.067 






382 


0.046 


316 


0.079 


339 


0.066 


361 


0.055 


383 


0.046 


317 


0.078 


340 


0.066 


362 


0.055 


384 


0.045 


318 


0.078 






363 


0.054 


385 


0.045 


319 


0.077 


341 


0.065 


364 


0.054 


386 


0.045 


320 


0.077 


342 


0.065 


365 


0.054 


387 


0.044 






343 


0.064 


366 


0.053 


388 


0.044 


321 


0.076 


344 


0.064 


367 


0.053 


389 


0.043 


322 


0.075 


345 


0.063 


368 


0.052 


390 


0.043 


323 


0.075 


346 


0.063 


369 


0.052 






324 


0.074 


347 


0.062 


370 


0.051 


391 


0.043 


325 


0.074 


348 


0.062 






392 


0.042 


326 


0.073 


349 


0.061 


371 


0.051 


393 


0.042 


327 


0.073 


350 


0.061 


372 


0.050 


394 


0.041 


328 


0.072 






373 


0.050 


395 


0.041 


329 


0.072 


351 


0.060 


374 


0.050 


396 


0.041 


330 


0.071 


352 


0.060 


375 


0.049 


397 


0.040 






353 


0.059 


376 


0.049 


398 


0.040 


331 


0.071 


354 


0.059 


377 


0.048 


399 


0.040 


332 


0.070 


355 


0.058 


378 


0.048 


400 


0.039 


333 


0.069 


356 


0.058 











142 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 73 



Weights of viscera combined plus that of thymus for each sex and at each millimeter 
of body length. Not charted. The percentage of the body weight represented by 
the weight of the viscera is however given under 'viscera' in table 50, and chart 5. 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


Body 

weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


47 4.9 0.806 0.007 4.7 0.775 0.007 
48 4.9 0.808 0.007 4.7 0.779 0.007 
49 5.0 0.839 0.007 4.9 0.810 0.007 



50 


5.1 


0.853 


0.007 


5.0 


0.834 


0.008 


51 


5.2 


0.873 


0.008 


5.1 


0.854 


0.008 


52 


5.3 


0.916 


0.008 


5.3 


0.901 


0.008 


53 


5.4 


0.938 


0.008 


5.5 


0.955 


0.008 


54 


5.6 


0.991 


0.008 


5.8 


1.046 


0.010 


55 


5.8 


1.047 


0.010 


6.2 


1.141 


0.012 


56 


6.1 


1.130 


0.011 


6.5 


1.218 


0.015 


57 


6.4 


1.218 


0.012 


6.9 


1.318 


0.015 


58 


6.8 


1.301 


0.015 


7.2 


1.401 


0.016 


59 


7.1 


1.387 


0.015 


7.6 


1.487 


0.017 


60 


7.5 


1.486 


0.016 


8.0 


1.573 


0.017 


61 


7.9 


1.573 


0.016 


8.4 


1.665 


0.018 


62 


8.2 


1.656 


0.017 


8.7 


1.735 


0.020 


63 


8.6 


1.751 


0.017 


9.1 


1.825 


0.020 


64 


9.0 


1.837 


0.018 


9.5 


1.914 


0.020 


65 


9.4 


1.931 


0.020 


9.9 


1.998 


0.021 


66 


9.8 


2.026 


0.020 


10.3 


2.114 


0.021 


67 


10.1 


2.091 


0.021 


10.8 


2.300 


0.021 


68 


10.6 


2.272 


0.021 


11.2 


2.467 


0.022 


69 


11.0 


2.441 


0.022 


11.6 


2.622 


0.023 


70 


11.4 


2.614 


0.022 


12.0 


2.787 


0.024 


71 


11.8 


2.770 


0.023 


12.5 


2.958 


0.025 


72 


12.2 


2.911 


0.024 


12.9 


3.093 


0.026 


73 


12.7 


3.093 


0.025 


13.4 


3.270 


0.026 


74 


13.1 


3.226 


0.026 


13.9 


3.424 


0.027 


75 


13.6 


3.396 


0.027 


14.3 


3.554 


0.027 


76 


14.0 


3.524 


0.028 


14.8 


3.704 


0.028 


77 


14.5 


3.679 


0.028 


15.3 


3.864 


0.028 


78 


15.0 


3.842 


0.029 


15.8 


4.001 


0.031 


79 


15.4 


3.967 


0.031 


16.3 


4.147 


0.032 


80 


15.9 


4.107 


0.032 


16.8 


4.294 


0.033 



WEIGHT OF VISCERA 
TABLE 73 Continued 



143 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



81 


16.4 


4.255 


0.034 


17.3 


4.419 


0.034 


82 


16.9 


4.393 


0.036 


17.9 


4.584 


0.034 


83 


17.4 


4.529 


0.038 


18.4 


4.717 


0.035 


84 


18.0 


4.698 


0.037 


19.0 


4.864 


0.037 


85 


18.5 


4.834 


0.040 


19.5 


4.996 


0.038 


86 


19.0 


4.958 


0.041 


20.1 


5.138 


0.040 


87 


19.6 


5.115 


0.043 ' 


20.7 


5.283 


0.043 


88 


20.1 


5.239 


0.044 


21.2 


5.413 


0.044 


89 


20.7 


5.385 


0.046 


21.8 


5.555 


0.046 


90 


21.3 


5.531 


0.048 


22.4 


5.697 


0.048 


91 


21.9 


5.679 


0.050 


23.1 


5.840 


0.050 


92 


22.4 


5.809 


0.052 


23.7 


5.983 


0.052 


93 


23.0 


5.943 


0.054 


24.3 


6.112 


0.054 


94 


23.7 


6.102 


0.056 


25.0 


6.266 


0.055 


95 


24.3 


6.236 


0.057 


25.6 


6.396 


0.057 


96 


24.9 


6.381 


0.059 


26.3 


6.547 


0.059 


97 


25.6 


6.528 


0.061 


27.0 


6.687 


0.060 


98 


26.2 


6.672 


0.063 


27.7 


6.831 


0.061 


99 


26.9 


6.810 


0.065 


28.4 


6.972 


0.063 


100 


27.5 


6.942 


0.067 


29.1 


7.112 


0.065 


101 


28.2 


7.088 


0.070 


29.8 


7.254 


0.067 


102 


28.9 


7.237 


0.073 


30.5 


7.384 


0.067 


103 


29.6 


7.372 


0.075 


31.3 


7.537 


0.075 


104 


30.3 


7.517 


0.078 


32.0 


7.666 


0.079 


105 


31.1 


7.678 


0.081 


32.8 


7.820 


0.083 


106 


31.8 


7.824 


0.083 


33.6 


7.960 


0.087 


107 


32.5 


7.959 


0.086 


34.4 


8.112 


0.091 


108 


33.3 


8.110 


0.089 


35.2 


8.254 


0.095 


109 


34.1 


8.268 


0.092 


36.0 


8.395 


0.097 


110 


34.9 


8.418 


0.095 


36.9 


8.546 


0.099 


111 


35.7 


8.566 


0.099 


37.7 


8.690 


0.101 


112 


36.5 


8.727 


0.104 


38.6 


8.841 


0.105 


113 


37.3 


8.866 


0.109 


39.5 


9.005 


0.109 


114 


38.2 


9.037 


0.111 


40.3 


9.134 


0.113 


115 


39.0 


9.177 


0.113 


41.3 


9.300 


0.117 


116 


39.9 


9.330 


0.116 


42.2 


9.451 


0.120 


117 


40.8 


9.493 


0.118 


43.1 


9.595 


0.123 



144 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

TABLE 73 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
ol viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


118 41.6 9.644 0.120 44.1 9.746 0.126 
119 42.6 9.810 0.123 45.0 9.888 0.130 
120 43.5 9.964 0.127 46.0 10.043 0.133 



121 


44.4 


10.127 


0.131 


47.0 


10.207 


0.136 


122 


45.4 


10.294 


0.135 


48.0 


10.360 


0.139 


123 


46.3 


10.448 


0.139 


49.1 


10.525 


0.144 


124 


47.3 


10.616 


0.140 


50.1 


10.679 


0.147 


125 


48.3 


10.794 


0.141 


51.2 


10.832 


0.151 


126 


49.3 


10.950 


0.142 


52.3 


10.999 


0.154 


127 


50.4 


11.134 


0.144 


53.4 


11.156 


0.159 


128 


51.4 


11.290 


0.149 


54.5 


11.320 


0.164 


129 


52.5 


11.474 


0.154 


55.6 


11.474 


0.167 


130 


53.6 


11.644 


0.159 


56.8 


11.640 


0.171 


131 


54.7 


11.827 


0.164 


58.0 


11.808 


0.174 


132 


55.8 


12.002 


0.167 


59.2 


11.984 


0.178 


133 


56.9 


12.174 


0.171 


60.4 


12.150 


0.181 


134 


58.1 


12.373 


0.175 


61.6 


12.306 


0.184 


135 


59.3 


12.560 


0.178 


62.9 


12.485 


0.187 


136 


60.5 


12.740 


0.181 


64.2 


12.663 


0.190 


137 


61.7 


12.936 


0.184 


65.5 


12.829 


0.193 


138 


62.9 


13.116 


0.187 


66.8 


13.007 


0.196 


139 


64.1 


13.305 


0.192 


68.1 


13.176 


0.199 


140 


65.4 


13.509 


0.196 


69.5 


13.356 


0.203 


141 


66.7 


13.703 


0.200 


70.9 


13.536 


0.206 


142 


68.0 


13.898 


0.203 


72.3 


13.715 


0.210 


143 


69.3 


14.093 


0.208 


73.7 


13.898 


0.214 


144 


70.7 


14.303 


0.211 


75.2 


14.089 


0.218 


145 


72.1 


14.513 


0.214 


76.7 


14.281 


0.225 


146 


73.5 


14.723 


0.218 


78.2 


14.464 


0.233 


147 


74.9 


14.934 


0.220 


79.7 


14.654 


0.236 


148 


76.3 


15.147 


0.223 


81.3 


14.848 


0.239 


149 


77.8 


15.374 


0.226 


82.8 


15.038 


0.243 


150 


79.3 


15.600 


0.229 


84.4 


15.222 


0.247 


151 


80.8 


15.811 


0.231 


86.1 


15.427 


0.249 


152 


82.4 


16.039 


0.233 


87.7 


15.612 


0.251 


153 


83.9 


16.241 


0.236 


89.4 


15.819 


0.252 



WEIGHT OF VISCERA 
TABLE 73 Continued 



145 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



154 


85.5 


16.456 


0.239 


91.1 


16.023 


0.253 


155 


87.1 


16.672 


0.241 


92.9 


16.230 


0.254 


156 


88.7 


16.877 


0.244 


94.6 


16.435 


0.256 


157 


90.4 


17.104 


0.247 


96.4 


16.645 


0.262 


158 


92.1 


17.321 


0.249 


98.3 


16.854 


0.269 


159 


93.8 


17.537 


0.251 


100.1 


17.062 


0.270 


160 


95.6 


17.770 


0.253 


102.0 


17.270 


0.273 


161 


97.3 


17.995 


0.256 


103.9 


17.489 


0.276 


162 


99.2 


18.227 


0.259 


105.9 


17.710 


0.278 


163 


101.0 


18.456 


0.262 


107.9 


17.943 


0.280 


164 


102.8 


18.682 


0.264 


109.9 


18.165 


0.283 


165 


104.7 


18.912 


0.267 


111.9 


18.376 


0.285 


166 


106.7 


19.155 


0.270 


114.0 


18.607 


0.286 


167 


108.6 


19.391 


0.272 


116.1 


18.840 


0.288 


168 


110.6 


19.638 


0.274 


118.3 


19.073 


0.289 


169 


112.6 


19.868 


0.276 


120.5 


19.318 


0.290 


170 


114.7 


20.121 


0.278 


122.7 


19.549 


0.291 


171 


116.7 


20.363 


0.280 


125.0 


19.784 


0.290 


172 


118.9 


20.620 


0.282 


127.3 


20.030 


0.289 


173 


121.0 


20.870 


0.285 


129.6 


20.266 


0.288 


174 


123.2 


21 . 127 


0.286 


132.0 


20.522 


0.288 


175 


125.4 


21.368 


0.288 


134.4 


20.767 


0.287 


176 


127.7 


21.647 


0.289 


136.8 


21.015 


0.284 


177 


130.0 


21.905 


0.290 


139.3 


21.273 


0.278 


178 


132.3 


22.160 


0.291 


141.9 


21.532 


0.273 


179 


134.6 


22.425 


0.291 


144.4 


21.781 


0.268 


180 


137.0 


22.693 


0.291 


147.1 


22.062 


0.266 


181 


139.5 


22.972 


0.290 


149.7 


22.322 


0.264 


182 


142.0 


23.244 


0.290 


152.4 


22.594 


0.262 


183 


144.5 


23.521 


0.290 


155.2 


22.867 


0.256 


184 


147.0 


23.791 


0.287 


158.0 


23.142 


0.251 


185 


149.6 


24.073 


0.285 


160.8 


23.424 


0.248 


186 


152.3 


24.367 


0.278 


163.7 


23.700 


0.247 


187 


155.0 


24.648 


0.274 


166.6 


23.995 


0.245 


188 


157.7 


24.943 


0.271 


169.6 


24.282 


0.238 


189 


160.5 


25.246 


0.268 


172.6 


24.579 


0.235 


190 


163.3 


25.541 


0.266 


175.7 


24.876 


0.232 



146 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 
TABLE 73 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



191 


166.2 


25.838 


0.264 


178.8 


25.166 


0.230 


192 


169.1 


26.144 


0.262 


182.0 


25.475 


0.223 


193 


172.0 


26.450 


0.259 


185.2 


25.778 


0.211 


194 


175.0 


26.756 


0.256 


188.5 


26.089 


0.190 


195 


178.1 


27.077 


0.253 


191.9 


26.414 


0.183 


196 


181.2 


27.396 


0.251 


195.3 


26.736 


0.171 


197 


184.3 


27.716 


0.249 


198.7 


27.051 




198 


187.5 


28.036 


0.247 


202.2 


27.378 




199 


190.8 


28.370 


0.245 


205.8 


27.716 




200 


194.1 


28.692 


0.241 


209.4 


28.051 




201 


197.4 


29.035 


0.238 


213.1 


28.380 




202 


200.8 


29.379 


0.230 


216.8 


28.731 




203 


204.3 


29.726 


0.226 


220.7 


29.083 




204 


207.8 


30.071 


0.224 


224.5 


29.433 




205 


211.4 


30.418 


0.222 


228.4 


29.795 




206 


215.0 


30.767 


0.220 


232.4 


30.150 




207 


218.7 


31.127 


0.218 


236.5 


30.526 




208 


222.5 


31.499 


0.210 


240.6 


30.893 




209 


226.3 


31 .871 


0.205 


244.8 


31.272 




210 


230.2 


32.244 


0.197 


249.1 


31.661 




211 


234.1 


32.616 


0.190 


253.4 


32.042 




212 


238.1 


33.002 


0.183 


257.8 


32.432 




213 


242.2 


33.389 


0.177 


262.3 


32.825 




214 


246.3 


33.784 


0.169 


266.9 


33.230 




215 


250.5 


34.172 


0.150 


271.5 


33.645 




216 


254.7 


34.570 


0.140 


276.2 


34.053 




217 


259.1 


34.982 


0.130 


281.0 


34.470 




218 


263.5 


35.384 


0.124 


285.8 


34.888 




219 


267.9 


35.785 


0.118 


290.8 


35.331 




220 


272.5 


36.219 




295.8 


35.774 




221 


277.1 


36.654 




300.9 


36.198 




222 


281.8 


37.082 




306.1 


36.670 




223 


286.5 


37.507 




311.3 


37.109 




224 


291.4 


37.958 




316.7 


37.568 




225 


296.3 


38.339 




322.1 


38.028 




226 


301.3 


38.861 




327.7 


38.510 




227 


306.4 


39.325 




333.3 


38.982 





WEIGHT OF VISCERA 
TABLE 73 Concluded 



147 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymus 


Body 
weight 


Weight 
of viscera 


Weight 
of thymua 


mm. 


gms. 


g ma. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


228 311.5 39.828 339.0 39.476 


229 316.8 40.255 344.8 39.963 


230 322.1 40.723 350.7 40.462 



231 


327.5 


41.210 


232 


333.0 


41.692 


233 


338.6 


42.194 


234 


344.3 


42.678 


235 


350.0 


43.201 


236 


355.9 


43.718 


237 


361.9 


44.250 


238 


367.9 


44.769 


239 


374.1 


45.301 


240 


380.3 


45.854 


241 


386.6 


46.398 


242 


393.1 


46.957 


243 


399.6 


47.514 


244 


406.3 


48.097 


245 


413.1 


48.678 


246 


419.9 


49.262 


247 


426.9 


49.838 


248 


434.0 


50.456 


249 


441.2 


51.066 


250 


448.5 


51.689 



356.7 


40.972 


362.8 


41.492 


369.0 


42.006 


375.3 


42.531 


381.7 


43.068 


388.2 


43.605 


394.9 


44.168 


401.6 


44.731 


408.4 


45.295 


415.4 


45.882 


422.4 


46.451 


429.6 


47.041 


436.9 


47.655 


444.3 


48.258 


451.9 


48.876 


459.5 


49.506 


467.3 


50.147 


475.2 


50.780 


483.3 


51.446 


491.5 


52.105 




148 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 74 

Giving the percentage of water inthebrain and in the spinal cord for each sex, on age. 

See Chart 26. 



AOE 
IN 
DAYS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 
gma. 


Brain 
weight 
gma. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per 

cent of 
water 
cord 



B 


4.7 


0.217 


88.00 


0.033 


86.75 


4.6 


0.213 


88.00 


0.033 


86.75 


1 


5.5 


0.290 


87.95 


0.038 


86. 


42 


5.4 


0.269 


87.95 


0.037 


86.42 


2 


5.9 


0.333 


87.90 


0.041 


86. 


08 


5.8 


0.323 


87.90 


0.041 


86.08 


3 


6.4 


0.395 


87.85 


0.046 


85.74 


6.3 


0.373 


87.85 


0.045 


85.74 


4 


6.9 


0.442 


87.83 


0.050 


85. 


41 


6.8 


0.421 


87.83 


0.050 


85.41 


5 


7.6 


0.509 


87.79 


0.056 


85. 


07 


7.5 


0.492 


87.79 


0.056 


85.07 


6 


8.5 


0.581 


87.70 


0.064 


84. 


73 


8.4 


0.564 


87.70 


0.064 


84.73 


7 


9.5 


0.657 


87.50 


0.072 


84. 


40 


9.4 


0.645 


87.50 


0.073 


84.40 


8 


10.5 


0.708 


87.30 


0.081 


84. 


06 


10.4 


0.697 


87.30 


0.082 


84.06 


9 


11.8 


0.840 


87.05 


0.091 


83. 


73 


11.6 


0.811 


87.05 


0.091 


83.73 


10 


13.5 


0.947 


86.72 


0.104 


83. 


40 


13.0 


0.909 


86.72 


0.102 


83.40 


11 


13.9 


0.969 


86.26 


0.106 


82. 


98 


13.7 


0.940 


86.26 


0.107 


82.96 


12 


14.4 


0.991 


85.82 


0.110 


82. 


57 


14.4 


0.979 


85.82 


0.112 


82.52 


13 


14.9 


1.011 


85.39 


0.114 


82. 


17 


15.1 


1.003 


85.40 


0.117 


82.10 


14 


15.5 


1.037 


84.97 


0.118 


81. 


77 


15.8 


1.031 


84.98 


0.122 


81.68 


15 


16.1 


1.057 


84.58 


0.122 


81.39 


16.5 


1.048 


84.59 


0.127 


81.28 


16 


16.7 


1.077 


84.19 


0.126 


81. 


00 


17.3 


1.079 


84.20 


0.133 


80.88 


17 


17.3 


1.095 


83.82 


0.131 


80. 


63 


18.1 


1.099 


83.82 


0.138 


80.49 


18 


18.0 


1.112 


83.46 


0.135 


80 


26 


18.9 


1.118 


83.47 


0.142 


80.11 


19 


18.7 


1.131 


83.12 


0.139 


79 


90 


19.8 


1.140 


83.13 


0.148 


79.73 


20 


19.5 


1.150 


82.80 


0.144 


79 


,55 


20.7 


1.159 


82.82 


0.154 


79.47 


21 


20.3 


1.169 


82.49 


0.149 


79 


21 


21.6 


1.177 


82.51 


0.160 


79.02 


22 


21.1 


1.184 


82.19 


0.154 


78 


,87 


22.5 


1.195 


82.21 


0.165 


78.67 


23 


22.0 


1.202 


81.91 


0.159 


78 


54 


23.4 


1.208 


81.93 


0.170 


78.33 


24 


22.9 


1.219 


81.64 


0.165 


78 


.22 


24.4 


1.226 


81.66 


0.176 


78.00 


25 


23.9 


1.237 


81.39 


0.169 


77 


90 


25.4 


1.241 


81.41 


0.182 


77.67 


26 


24.9 


1.252 


81.15 


0.175 


77 


,59 


26.5 


1.251 


81.17 


0.187 


77.36 


27 


25.9 


1.266 


80.93 


0.179 


77 


,29 


27.5 


1.269 


80.95 


0.193 


77.06 


28 


27.0 


1.282 


80.72 


0.186 


77 


00 


28.6 


1.282 


80.74 


0.198 


76.76 


29 


28.1 


1.297 


80.53 


0.193 


76 


.71 


29.7 


1.297 


80.55 


0.204 


76.47 


30 


29.2 


1.311 


80.35 


0.198 


76 


.43 


30.9 


1.310 


80.37 


0.210 


76.19 


31 


30.4 


1.324 


80.19 


0.204 


76 


.16 


32.0 


1.322 


80.21 


0.216 


75.92 


32 


31.6 


1.338 


80.04 


0.210 


75 


.90 


33.2 


1.334 


80.07 


0.221 


75.66 


33 


32.8 


1.351 


79.91 


0.215 


75 


.64 


34.4 


1.346 


79.94 


0.227 


75.40 


34 


34.1 


1.363 


79.79 


0.221 


75 


.39 


35.7 


1.358 


79.82 


0.233 


75.16 


35 


35.4 


1.375 


79.69 


0.227 


75 


.15 


37.0 


1.369 


79.72 


0.239 


74.92 


36 


36.8 


1.389 


79.60 


0.233 


74 


.91 


38.3 


1.380 


79.63 


0.245 


74.69 



PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN BRAIN AND CORD 



149 



TABLE 74 Continued 



AOE 
IN 
DAYS 


HALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 
gma. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 

weignt 
gms. 


Per 
cent of 
water 
cord 


37 


38.1 


1.399 


79.52 


0.239 


74.68 


39.6 


1.391 


79.55 


0.250 


74.47 


38 


39.6 


1.411 


79.46 


0.245 


74.46 


40.9 


1.400 


79.49 


0.255 


74.26 


39 


41.0 


1.423 


79.42 


0.251 


74.25 


42.3 


1.411 


79.45 


0.261 


74.06 


40 


42.5 


1.434 


79.39 


0.257 


74.04 


43.7 


1.422 


79.42 


0.267 


73.86 


41 


44.1 


1.446 


79.36 


0.264 


73.95 


45.1 


1.432 


79.39 


0.272 


73.78 


42 


45.7 


1.457 


79.34 


0.269 


73.87 


46.6 


1.441 


79.37 


0.278 


73.72 


43 


47.3 


1.468 


79.32 


0.276 


73.74 


48.1 


1.451 


79.35 


0.284 


73.60 


44 


48.9 


1.478 


79.30 


0.281 


73.62 


49.6 


1.460 


79.33 


0.289 


73.50 


45 


50.6 


1.488 


79.28 


0.288 


73.50 


51.1 


1.468 


79.31 


0.294 


73.39 


46 


52.3 


1.498 


79.26 


0.293 


73.39 


52.7 


1.478 


79.29 


0.300 


73.30 


47 


54.1 


1.507 


79.24 


0.299 


73.28 


54.3 


1.487 


79.27 


0.306 


73.21 


48 


55.9 


1.518 


79.22 


0.305 


73.17 


55.9 


1.495 


79.25 


0.311 


73.12 


49 


57.7 


1.527 


79.21 


0.311 


73.07 


57.5 


1.503 


79.24 


0.316 


72.05 


50 


59.6 


1.537 


79.19 


0.317 


72.97 


59.2 


1.512 


79.23 


0.322 


72.97 


51 


61.5 


1.546 


79.17 


0.323 


72.88 


60.9 


1.520 


79.21 


0.327 


72.88 


52 


63.4 


1.555 


79.15 


0.329 


72.79 


62.6 


1.528 


79.19 


0.332 


72.79 


53 


65.4 


1.563 


79.14 


0.334 


72.69 


64.3 


1.535 


79.18 


0.338 


72.69 


54 


67.4 


1.572 


79.12 


0.340 


72.60 


66.1 


1.543 


79.16 


0.343 


72.60 


55 


69.5 


1.581 


79.10 


0.346 


72.51 


67.9 


1.551 


79.14 


0.348 


72.51 


56 


71.6 


1.589 


79.08 


0.352 


72.43 


69.7 


1.558 


79.12 


0.353 


72.43 


57 


73.7 


1.597 


79.07 


0.358 


72.35 


71.6 


1.565 


79.11 


0.359 


72.35 


58 


75.9 


1.606 


79.05 


0.363 


72.27 


73.4 


1.573 


79.09 


0.364 


72.27 


59 


78.1 


1.614 


79.04 


0.369 


72.19 


75.3 


1.580 


79.08 


0.370 


72.19 


60 


80.3 


1.622 


79.02 


0.375 


72.11 


77.3 


1.587 


79.06 


0.375 


72.11 


61 


82.5 


1.629 


79.00 


0.380 


72.04 


79.2 


1.594 


79.04 


0.380 


72.04 


62 


84.9 


1.637 


78.99 


0.386 


71.97 


81.2 


1.601 


79.02 


0.385 


71.97 


63 


87.2 


1.644 


78.97 


0.391 


71.91 


83.2 


1.607 


79.01 


0.389 


71.91 


64 


89.6 


1.652 


78.96 


0.397 


71.84 


85.2 


1.614 


78.99 


0.394 


71.84 


65 


92.0 


1.659 


78.94 


0.402 


71.77 


87.3 


1.621 


78.98 


0.399 


71.77 


66 


94.5 


1.666 


78.93 


0.407 


71.71 


89.4 


1.627 


78.97 


0.404 


71.72 


67 


97.0 


1.673 


78.92 


0.413 


71.65 


91.5 


1.633 


78.96 


0.409 


71.66 


68 


99.5 


1.681 


78.90 


0.418 


71.60 


93.6 


1.639 


78.94 


0.414 


71.61 


69 


102.1 


1.688 


78.89 


0.424 


71.54 


95.8 


1.645 


78.93 


0.419 


71.54 


70 


104.7 


1.695 


78.88 


0.429 


71.48 


98.0 


1.651 


78.92 


0.424 


71.50 


71 


107.3 


1.702 


78.87 


0.434 


71.43 


100.2 


1.657 


78.91 


0.429 


71.45 


72 


110.0 


1.709 


78.85 


0.439 


71.38 


102.4 


1.663 


78.89 


0.433 


71.41 


73 


112.7 


1.715 


78.84 


0.445 


71.32 


104.7 


1.669 


78.88 


0.438 


71.36 


74 


115.5 


1.722 


78.82 


0.450 


71.27 


107.0 


1.675 


78.86 


0.442 


71.32 



150 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 74 Continued 



AGE 
IN 
DAYS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
weight 
gma. 


Brain 
weight 
gma. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 
gmsr 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per 
cent of 
water 
cord 



75 


118.3 


1.729 


78.81 


0.455 


71.22 


109 


.3 


1.681 


78.85 


0.447 


71.27 


76 


121.1 


1.735 


78.80 


0.460 


71.18 


111 


.6 


1.687 


78.84 


0.451 


71.23 


77 


124.0 


1.741 


78.79 


0.465 


71.13 


114 


.0 


1.692 


78.83 


0.456 


71.19 


78 


126.8 


1.746 


78.77 


0.470 


71.09 


116 


.4 


1.698 


78.82 


0.460 


71.15 


79 


129.8 


1.752 


78.76 


0.475 


71.04 


118 


.8 


1.703 


78.81 


0.465 


71.11 


80 


132.8 


1.758 


78.75 


0.480 


71.00 


121 


.3 


1.709 


78.80 


0.469 


71.07 


81 


134.7 


1.762 


78.74 


0.483 


70.96 


122 


.6 


1.712 


78.79 


0.471 


71.03 


82 


136.5 


1.765 


78.73 


0.486 


70.92 


124 


.0 


1.715 


78.78 


0.474 


71.00 


83 


138.4 


1.769 


78.72 


0.488 


70.89 


125 


.4 


1.717 


78.77 


0.476 


70.96 


84 


140.2 


1.772 


78.71 


0.491 


70.85 


126 


.8 


1.720 


78.76 


0.479 


70.93 


85 


142.0 


1.776 


78.70 


0.494 


70.81 


128 


.1 


1.723 


78.75 


0.481 


70.89 


86 


143.7 


1.779 


78.69 


0.497 


70.78 


129 


.5 


1-.726 


78.74 


0.483 


70.86 


87 


145.5 


1.782 


78.68 


0.499 


70.74 


130 


.8 


1.728 


78.73 


0.485 


70.83 


88 


147.2 


1.785 


78.67 


0.502 


70.71 


132 


.1 


1.731 


78.72 


0.488 


70.80 


89 


148.9 


1.788 


78,66 


0.504 


70.67 


133 


.4 


1.733 


78.71 


0.490 


70.77 


90 


150.5 


1.791 


78.65 


0.507 


70.64 


134 


.6 


1.736 


78.70 


0.492 


70.74 


91 


152.1 


1.794 


78.64 


0.509 


70.61 


135 


,S 


1.738 


78.69 


0.494 


70.72 


92 


153.7 


1.797 


78.63 


0.511 


70.58 


137 


.1 


1.740 


78.68 


0.496 


70.69 


93 


155.3 


1.799 


78.62 


0.514 


70.56 


138 


3 


1.743 


78.67 


0.497 


70.67 


94 


156.9 


1.802 


78.61 


0.516 


70.53 


139.4 


1.745 


78.66 


0.499 


70.64 


95 


158.4 


1.805 


78.60 


0.518 


70.50 


140 


.6 


1.747 


78.65 


0.501 


70.62 


96 


160.0 


1.807 


78.59 


0.520 


70.48 


141 


.8 


1.749 


78.64 


0.503 


70.60 


97 


161.4 


1.810 


78.58 


0.522 


70.45 


142 


.9 


1.751 


78.63 


0.505 


70.58 


98 


162.9 


1.812 


78.57 


0.525 


70.43 


144 


.0 


1.752 


78.62 


0.506 


70.55 


99 


164.3 


1.815 


78.56 


0.527 


70.40 


145 


.1 


1.754 


78.61 


0.508 


70.53 


100 


165.8 


1.817 


78.55 


0.529 


70.38 


146 


.2 


1.756 


78.60 


0.510 


70.51 


101 


167.2 


1.819 


78.54 


0.531 


70.36 


147 


.3 


1.758 


78.59 


0.512 


70.49 


102 


168.6 


1.821 


78.53 


0.533 


70.34 


148 


.3 


1.760 


78.58 


0.514 


70.47 


103 


170.0 


1.824 


78.53 


0.534 


70.32 


149 


.4 


1.762 


78.58 


0.515 


70.46 


104 


171.3 


1.826 


78.52 


0.536 


70.30 


ISO 


.4 


1.764 


78.57 


0.517 


70.44 


105 


172.7 


1.828 


78.51 


0.538 


70.28 


151 


.4 


1.766 


78.56 


0.519 


70.42 


106 


174.0 


1.830 


78.50 


0.540 


70.26 


152 


.4 


1.768 


78.55 


0.520 


60.41 


107 


175.3 


1.832 


78.49 


0.541 


70.25 


153 


.4 


1.770 


78.54 


0.522 


70.40 


108 


176.6 


1.833 


78.48 


0.543 


70.23 


154 


.4 


1.772 


78.53 


0.523 


70.38 


109 


177.9 


1.835 


78.47 


0.544 


70.22 


155 


.3 


1.774 


78.52 


0.525 


70.37 


110 


179.1 


1.837 


78.46 


0.546 


70.20 


156 


.3 


1.775 


78.51 


0.526 


70.36 


111 


180.4 


1.839 


78.45 


0.547 


70.19 


157 


.2 


1.776 


78.50 


0.527 


70.35 


112 


181.6 


1.841 


78.44 


0.549 


70.17 


158 


,2 


1.778 


78.49 


0.528 


70.34 



PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN BRAIN AND CORD 



151 



TABLE 74 Continued 



AGE 
IN 
DAYS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
firms. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 

weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per 
cent of 
water 
cord 



113 


182.8 


1.842 


78.44 


0.550 


70 


.15 


159.1 


1.779 


78.49 


0.530 


70.32 


114 


184.0 


1.844 


78.43 


0.552 


70 


.14 


160.0 


1.781 


78.48 


0.531 


70.31 


115 


185.2 


1.846 


78.42 


0.553 


70 


.13 


160.9 


1.782 


78.47 


0.532 


70.30 


116 


186.4 


1.848 


78.41 


0.555 


70 


.12 


161.8 


1.783 


78.46 


0.533 


70.29 


117 


187.5 


1.849 


78.40 


0.556 


70 


.11 


162.6 


1.785 


78.46 


0.535 


70.28 


118 


188.7 


1.851 


78.40 


0.558 


70 


.09 


163.5 


1.786 


78.45 


0.536 


70.27 


119 


189.7 


1.852 


78.39 


0.559 


70 


.08 


164.3 


1.788 


78.45 


0.538 


70.26 


120 


190.9 


1.854 


78.38 


0.561 


70 


.07 


165.2 


1.789 


78.44 


0.539 


70.25 


121 


192.0 


1.855 


78.37 


0.562 


70 


.06 


166.0 


1.790 


78.43 


0.540 


70.25 


122 


193.1 


1.857 


78.37 


0.563 


70 


.06 


166.8 


1.791 


78.43 


0.541 


70.24 


123 


194.1 


1.858 


78.36 


0.564 


70 


.05 


167.6 


1.793 


78.42 


0.542 


70.24 


124 


195.2 


1.860 


78.36 


0.565 


70 


.05 


168.4 


1.794 


78.42 


0.543 


70.23 


125 


196.2 


1.861 


78.35 


0.566 


70 


.04 


169.2 


1.795 


78.41 


0.544 


70.23 


126 


197.3 


1.862 


78.34 


0.567 


70 


.03 


170.0 


1.796 


78.40 


0.545 


70.23 


127 


198.3 


1.863 


78.33 


0.569 


70 


.03 


170.7 


1.798 


78.39 


0.546 


70.23 


128 


199.3 


1.865 


78.33 


0.570 


70 


.02 


171.5 


1.799 


78.39 


0.546 


70.22 


129 


200.3 


1.866 


78.32 


0.572 


70 


.02 


172.3 


1.801 


78.38 


0.547 


70.22 


130 


201.2 


1.867 


78.31 


0.573 


70 


.01 


173.0 


1.802 


78.37 


0.548 


70.22 


131 


202.2 


1.868 


78.30 


0.574 


70 


.01 


173.7 


1.803 


78.36 


0.549 


70.22 


132 


203.2 


1.870 


78.30 


0.575 


70 


.01 


174.5 


1.804 


78.36 


0.550 


70.22 


133 


204.1 


1.871 


78.29 


0.576 


70 


.00 


175.2 


1.804 


78.35 


0.551 


70.22 


134 


205.1 


1.873 


78.29 


0.577 


70 


.00 


175.9 


1.805 


78.35 


0.552 


70.22 


135 


206.0 


1.874 


78.28 


0.578 


70 


.00 


176.2 


1.806 


78.34 


0.553 


70.22 


136 


206.9 


1.875 


78.27 


0.579 


70 


.00 


176.5 


1.807 


78.33 


0.554 


70.22 


137 


207.8 


1.876 


78.26 


0.580 


70 


.00 


176.9 


1.808 


78.32 


0.555 


70.22 


138 


208.7 


1.877 


78.26 


0.580 


70 


.00 


177.6 


1.809 


78.32 


0.555 


70.22 


139 


209.6 


1.878 


78.25 


0.581 


70 


.00 


178.3 


1.810 


78.31 


0.556 


70.22 


140 


210.5 


1.879 


78.24 


0.582 


70 


00 


179.9 


1.811 


78.30 


0.557 


70.22 


141 


211.3 


1.880 


78.24 


0.583 


70. 


00 


180.6 


1.812 


78.30 


0.558 


70.22 


142 


212.2 


1.881 


78.23 


0.584 


70 


.00 


181.2 


1.813 


78.29 


0.559 


70.22 


143 


213.0 


1.882 


78.23 


0.584 


70 


.00 


181.8 


1.813 


78.29 


0.559 


70.22 


144 


213.9 


1.883 


78.22 


0.585 


70.00 


182.5 


1.814 


78.28 


0.560 


70.22 


145 


214.7 


1.884 


78.22 


0.586 


70 


00 


183.1 


1.815 


78.28 


0.561 


70.22 


146 


215.5 


1.885 


78.21 


0.587 


70 


00 


183.7 


1.816 


78.27 


0.562 


70.22 


147 


216.3 


1.886 


78.21 


0.588 


70 


.00 


184.3 


1.817 


78.27 


0.562 


70.22 


148 


217.1 


1.887 


78.20 


0.588 


70. 


00 


184.9 


1.817 


78.26 


0.563 


70.22 


149 


217.9 


1.887 


78.20 


0.589 


70. 


00 


185.5 


1.818 


78.26 


0.564 


70.22 


150 


218.7 


1.888 


78.19 


0.590 


70. 


00 


186.1 


1.819 


78.25 


0.565 


70.22 



152 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 74 Continued 



AGE 
IN 
DAYS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gmx. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 

weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms . 


Per 

cent of 
water 
cord 


151 


219.5 


1.889 


78.19 


0.591 


70.00 


186.7 


1.820 


78.25 


0.565 


70.22 


152 


220.2 


1.890 


78.18 


0.592 


70.00 


187.2 


1.821 


78.24 


0.566 


70.22 


153 


221.0 


1.891 


78.18 


0.592 


70.00 


187.8 


1.821 


78.24 


0.567 


70.22 


154 


221.7 


1.892 


78.17 


0.593 


70.00 


188.4 


1.822 


78.23 


0.568 


70.22 


155 


222.5 


1.893 


78.17 


0.594 


70.00 


188.9 


1.823 


78.23 


0.568 


70.22 


156 


223.2 


1.894 


78.16 


0.595 


70.70 


189.5 


1.824 


78.22 


0.569 


70.22 


157 


223.9 


1.895 


78.16 


0.586 


70.00 


190.0 


1.825 


78.22 


0.570 


70.22 


158 


224.7 


1.896 


78.15 


0.596 


70.00 


190.6 


1.825 


78.21 


0.571 


70.22 


159 


225.3 


1.897 


78.15 


0.597 


70.00 


191.1 


1.826 


78.21 


0.571 


70.22 


160 


226.0 


1.898 


78.14 


0.598 


70.00 


191.6 


1.827 


78.20 


0.572 


70.22 


161 


226.7 


1.899 


78.14 


0.599 


70.00 


192.1 


1.828 


78.20 


0.573 


70.22 


162 


227.4 


1.900 


78.13 


0.600 


70.00 


192.6 


1.829 


78.19 


0.574 


70.22 


163 


228.1 


1.901 


78.13 


0.600 


70.00 


193.2 


1.829 


78.19 


0.574 


70.22 


164 


228.8 


1.902 


78.12 


0.601 


70.00 


193.6 


1.830 


78.18 


0.575 


70.22 


165 


229.4 


1.902 


78.12 


0.602 


70.00 


194.2 


1.831 


78.18 


0.576 


70.22 


166 


230.1 


1.903 


78.12 


0.603 


70.00 


194.6 


1.832 


78.18 


0.576 


70.22 


167 


230.7 


1.903 


78.12 


0.603 


70.00 


195.1 


1.832 


78.18 


0.577 


70.22 


168 


231.4 


1.904 


78.12 


0.604 


70.00 


195.6 


1.833 


78.18 


0.577 


70.22 


169 


232.0 


1.904 


78.12 


0.604 


70.00 


196.1 


1.833 


78.18 


0.578 


70.22 


170 


232.6 


1.905 


78.12 


0.605 


70.00 


196.5 


1.834 


78.18 


0.578 


70.22 


171 


233.3 


1.906 


78.12 


0.605 


70.00 


197.0 


1.834 


78.18 


0.579 


70.22 


172 


233.9 


1.906 


78.12 


0.606 


70.00 


197.5 


1.835 


78.18 


0.579 


70.22 


173 


234.5 


1.907 


78.12 


0.606 


70.00 


197.9 


1.835 


78.18 


0.580 


70.22 


174 


235.1 


1.907 


78.12 


0.607 


70.00 


198.4 


1.836 


78.18 


0.580 


70.22 


175 


235.7 


1.908 


78.12 


0.608 


70.00 


198.8 


1.837 


78.18 


0.581 


70.22 


176 


236.3 


1.909 


78.12 


0.608 


70.00 


199.3 


1.837 


78.18 


0.581 


70.22 


177 


236.9 


1.909 


78.12 


0.609 


70.00 


199.7 


1.838 


78.18 


0.582 


70.22 


178 


237.4 


1.910 


78.11 


0.609 


69.99 


200.1 


1.838 


78.17 


0.582 


70.22 


179 


238.0 


1.910 


78.11 


0.610 


69.99 


200.6 


1.839 


78.17 


0.583 


70.22 


180 


238.6 


1.911 


78.11 


0.610 


69.99 


201.0 


1.839 


78.17 


0.583 


70.22 


181 


239.1 


1.912 


78.11 


0.611 


69.99 


201.4 


1.840 


78.17 


0.584 


70.22 


182 


239.7 


1.912 


78.11 


0.612 


69.99 


201.8 


1.841 


78.17 


0.584 


70.22 


183 


240.2 


1.913 


78.11 


0.612 


69.99 


202.2 


1.841 


78.17 


0.585 


70.22 


184 


240.8 


1.913 


78.11 


0.613 


69.99 


202.6 


1.842 


78.17 


0.585 


70.22 


185 


241.3 


1.914 


78.11 


0.613 


69.99 


203.0 


1.842 


78.17 


0.586 


70.22 


186 


241.8 


1.915 


78.11 


0.814 


69.99 


203.4 


1.843 


78.17 


0.586 


70.22 


187 


242.3 


1.915 


78.11 


0.614 


69.99 


203.8 


1.843 


78.17 


0.587 


70.22 


188 


242.9 


1.916 


78.11 


0.615 


69.99 


204.2 


1.844 


78.17 


0.587 


70.22 



PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN BRAIN AND CORD 



153 



TABLE 74 Continued 



AGE 
IN 
DAYS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 
weight 
gms. 


Per 
cent of 
water 
cord 


189 


243.4 


1.916 


78.11 


0.615 


69.99 


204.6 


1.844 


78.17 


0.588 


70.22 


190 


243.9 


1.917 


78.11 


0.616 


69.99 


204.9 


1.845 


78.17 


0.588 


70.22 


191 


244.4 


1.917 


78.11 


0.616 


69.99 


205.3 


1.845 


78.17 


0.588 


70.22 


192 


244.9 


1.918 


78.11 


0.617 


69.99 


205.7 


1.846 


78.17 


0.589 


70.22 


193 


245.4 


1.918 


78.11 


0.617 


69.98 


206.0 


1.846 


78.17 


0.589 


70.22 


194 


245.9 


1.919 


78.11 


0.618 


69.98 


206.4 


1.847 


78.17 


0.589 


70.22 


195 


246.3 


1.919 


78.11 


0.618 


69.98 


206.7 


1.847 


78.17 


0.590 


70.21 


196 


246.8 


1.920 


78.11 


0.618 


69.98 


207.1 


1.847 


78.17 


0.590 


70.21 


197 


247.3 


1.920 


78.10 


0.619 


69.97 


207.4 


1.848 


78.17 


0.591 


70.21 


198 


247.8 


1.921 


78.10 


0.619 


69.97 


207.8 


1.848 


78.17 


0.591 


70.21 


199 


248.2 


1.921 


78.10 


0.620 


69.97 


208.1 


1.849 


78.17 


0.591 


70.21 


200 


248.6 


1.922 


78.10 


0.620 


69.97 


208.4 


1.849 


78.17 


0.592 


70.20 


201 


249.1 


1.922 


78.10 


0.620 


69.96 


208.8 


1.849 


78.17 


0.592 


70.20 


202 


249.6 


1.923 


78.10 


0.621 


69.96 


209.1 


1.850 


78.17 


0.592 


70.20 


203 


250.0 


1.923 


78.10 


0.621 


69.96 


209.4 


1.850 


78.16 


0.593 


70.20 


204 


250.4 


1.924 


78.10 


0.622 


69.96 


209.8 


1.851 


78.16 


0.593 


70.20 


205 


250.9 


1.924 


78.10 


0.622 


69.95 


210.1 


1.851 


78.16 


0.593 


70.20 


206 


251.3 


1.925 


78.10 


0.622 


69.95 


210.4 


1.851 


78.16 


0.594 


70.19 


207 


251.7 


1.925 


78.10 


0.623 


69.95 


210.7 


1.852 


78.16 


0.594 


70.19 


208 


252.1 


1.926 


78.10 


0.623 


69.95 


211.0 


1.852 


78.16 


0.594 


70.19 


209 


252.5 


1.926 


78.09 


0.624 


69.94 


211.3 


1.853 


78.16 


0.595 


70.19 


210 


252.9 


1.927 


78.09 


0.624 


69.94 


211.6 


1.853 


78.16 


0.595 


70.19 


211 


253.4 


1.927 


78.09 


0.624 


69.94 


211.9 


1.853 


78.16 


0.596 


70.19 


212 


253.7 


1.928 


78.09 


0.625 


69.94 


212.2 


1.854 


78.16 


0.596 


70.18 


213 


254.2 


1.928 


78.09 


0.625 


69.93 


212.5 


1.854 


78.16 


0.596 


70.18 


214 


254.5 


1.929 


78.09 


0.626 


69.93 


212.8 


1.855 


78.16 


0.597 


70.18 


215 


254.9 


1.929 


78.09 


0.626 


69.93 


213.1 


1.855 


78.16 


0.597 


70.18 


216 


255.3 


1.929 


78.09 


0.626 


69.93 


213.4 


1.855 


78.16 


0.597 


70.18 


217 


255.7 


1.930 


78.09 


0.627 


69.92 


213.7 


1.856 


78.16 


0.597 


70.17 


218 


256.1 


1.930 


78.08 


0.627 


69.92 


213.9 


1.856 


78.15 


0.598 


70.17 


219 


256.4 


1.930 


78.08 


0.627 


69.92 


214.2 


1.856 


78.15 


0.598 


70.17 


220 


256.8 


1.931 


78.08 


0.628 


69.91 


214.4 


1.857 


78.15 


0.598 


70.16 


221 


257.2 


1.931 


78.08 


0.628 


69.91 


214.7 


1.857 


78.15 


0.598 


70.16 


222 


257.5 


1.931 


78.08 


0.628 


69.90 


215.0 


1.857 


78.15 


0.599 


70.16 


223 


257.9 


1.932 


78.07 


0.629 


69.90 


215.2 


1.858 


78.14 


0.599 


70.15 


224 


258.2 


1.932 


78.07 


0.629 


69.90 


215.5 


1.858 


78.14 


0.599 


70.15 


225 


258.6 


1.932 


78.07 


0.629 


69.89 


215.8 


1.858 


78.14 


0.599 


70.15 


226 


258.9 


1.933 


78.07 


0.630 


69.89 


216.0 


1.859 


78.14 


0.600 


70.14 



154 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 74 Continued 



AGE 
IN 
DAYS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 

weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 

weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 

weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 

weight 
gms. 


Per 
cent of 
water 
cord 


227 


259.2 


1.933 


78.07 


0.630 


69.89 


216.2 


1.859 


78.14 


0.600 


70.14 


228 


259.6 


1.933 


78.06 


0.630 


69.88 


216.5 


1.859 


78.13 


0.600 


70.14 


229 


259.9 


1.933 


78.06 


0.630 


69.88 


216.7 


1.859 


78.13 


0.600 


70.14 


230 


260.2 


1.934 


78.06 


0.631 


69.88 


217.0 


1.860 


78.13 


0.601 


70.13 


231 


260.6 


1.934 


78.06 


0.631 


69.87 


217.2 


1.860 


78.13 


0.601 


70.13 


232 


260.9 


1.934 


78.06 


0.631 


69.87 


217.5 


1.860 


78.13 


0.601 


70.13 


233 


261.2 


1.935 


78.05 


0.632 


69.87 


217.7 


1.861 


78.12 


0.601 


70.12 


234 


261.5 


1.935 


78.05 


0.632 


69.86 


217.9 


1.861 


78.12 


0.602 


70.12 


235 


261.9 


1.935 


78.05 


0.632 


69.86 


218.1 


1.861 


78.12 


0.602 


70.12 


236 


262.1 


1.936 


78.05 


0.633 


69.85 


218.3 


1.862 


78.12 


0.602 


70.11 


237 


262.4 


1.936 


78.05 


0.633 


69.85 


218.6 


1.862 


78.12 


0.602 


70.11 


238 


262.8 


1.936 


78.04 


0.633 


69.85 


218.8 


1.862 


78.11 


0.603 


70.11 


239 


263.0 


1.937 


78.04 


0.634 


69.84 


219.0 


1.863 


78.11 


0.603 


70.10 


240 


263.3 


1.937 


78.04 


0.634 


69.84 


219.2 


1.863 


78.11 


0.603 


70.10 


241 


263.6 


1.937 


78.04 


0.634 


69.84 


219.4 


1.863 


78.11 


0.603 


70.10 


242 


263.9 


1.938 


78.03 


0.634 


69.83 


219.6 


1.863 


78.10 


0.603 


70.09 


243 


264.2 


1.938 


78.03 


0.635 


69.83 


219.8 


1.863 


78.10 


0.604 


70.09 


244 


264.5 


1.938 


78.03 


0.635 


69.82 


220.0 


1.864 


78.10 


0.604 


70.08 


245 


264.8 


1.938 


78.03 


0.635 


69.82 


220.3 


1.864 


78.10 


0.604 


70.08 


246 


265.0 


1.939 


78.02 


0.635 


69.81 


220.4 


1.864 


78.09 


0.604 


70.07 


247 


265.3 


1.939 


78.02 


0.636 


69.81 


220.6 


1.864 


78.09 


0.604 


70.07 


248 


265.6 


1.939 


78. C2 


0.636 


69.80 


220.8 


1.864 


78.09 


0.605 


70.06 


249 


265.8 


1.940 


78.01 


0.636 


69.80 


221.0 


1.864 


78.08 


0.605 


70.06 


250 


266.1 


1.940 


78.01 


0.636 


69.79 


221.2 


1.865 


78.08 


0.605 


70.05 


251 


266.3 


1.940 


78.01 


0.637 


69.79 


221.4 


1.865 


78.08 


0.605 


70.05 


252 


266.6 


1.940 


78.01 


0.637 


69.78 


221.6 


1.865 


78.08 


0.605 


70.04 


253 


266.8 


1.941 


78.00 


0.637 


69.78 


221.7 


1.865 


78.07 


0.606 


70.04 


254 


267.1 


1.941 


78.00 


0.637 


69.77 


221.9 


1.865 


78.07 


0.606 


70.03 


255 


267.3 


1.941 


78.00 


0.638 


69.77 


222.1 


1.865 


78.07 


0.606 


70.03 


256 


267.6 


1.941 


78.00 


0.638 


69.76 


222.3 


1.866 


78.07 


0.606 


70.02 


257 


267.8 


1.942 


77.99 


0.638 


69.76 


222.4 


1.866 


78.06 


0.606 


70.02 


258 


268.0 


1.942 


77.99 


0.638 


69.75 


222.6 


1.866 


78.06 


0.607 


70.01 


259 


268.3 


1.942 


77.99 


0.639 


69.75 


222.8 


1.866 


78.06 


0.607 


70.01 


260 


268.5 


1.943 


77.98 


0.639 


69.74 


223.0 


1.866 


78.05 


0.607 


70.00 


261 


268.7 


1.943 


77.98 


0.639 


69.74 


223.1 


1.866 


78.05 


0.607 


70.00 


262 


269.0 


1.943 


77.98 


0.639 


69.73 


223.3 


1.867 


78.05 


0.607 


69.99 


263 


269.2 


1.943 


77.98 


0.640 


69.73 


223.4 


1.867 


78.05 


0.608 


69.99 


264 


269.4 


1.944 


77.97 


0.640 


69.72 


223.6 


1.867 


78.04 


0.608 


69.98 



PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN BRAIN AND CORD 



155 



TABLE 74 Continued 



AGE 
IN 
DATS 


MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

weight 
gms . 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 

weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 
gms. 


Brain 
weight 
gms. 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 

weight 
gms. 


Per 

cent of 
water 
cord 



265 


269.6 


1.944 


77.97 


0.640 


69 


.72 


223.7 


1.867 


78.04 


0.608 


69.98 


266 


269.8 


1.944 


77.97 


0.640 


69 


.72 


223.9 


1.867 


78.04 


0.608 


69.98 


267 


270.0 


1.944 


77.96 


0.640 


69 


.71 


224.0 


1.867 


78.03 


0.608 


69.97 


268 


270.2 


1.944 


77.96 


0.640 


69 


.71 


224.2 


1.867 


78.03 


0.608 


69.97 


269 


270.5 


1.945 


77.96 


0.640 


69 


.70 


224.3 


1.867 


78.03 


0.608 


69.96 


270 


270.7 


1.945 


77.95 


0.641 


69 


.70 


224.5 


1.868 


78.02 


0.609 


69.96 


271 


270.9 


1.945 


77.95 


0.641 


69 


.69 


224.6 


1.868 


78.02 


0.609 


69.95 


272 


271.1 


1.945 


77.94 


0.641 


69 


.69 


224.8 


1.868 


78.02 


0.609 


69.95 


273 


271.3 


1.945 


77.94 


0.641 


69 


.68 


224.9 


1.868 


78.01 


0.609 


69.94 


274 


271.5 


1.945 


77.94 


0.641 


69 


.68 


225.0 


1.868 


78.01 


0.609 


69.94 


275 


271.6 


1.946 


77.93 


0.641 


69 


.67 


225.1 


1.868 


78.01 


0.609 


69.94 


276 


271.8 


1.946 


77.93 


0.641 


69 


.67 


225.3 


1.868 


78.00 


0.609 


69.93 


277 


272.0 


1.946 


77.93 


0.641 


69 


.66 


225.4 


1.86S 


78.00 


0.609 


69.93 


278 


272.2 


1.946 


77.92 


0.642 


69 


.66 


225.5 


1.869 


78.00 


0.610 


69.92 


279 


272.3 


1.946 


77.92 


0.642 


69 


.65 


225.7 


1.869 


78.00 


0.610 


69.92 


280 


272.5 


1.946 


77.92 


0.642 


69 


.65 


225.8 


1.869 


77.99 


0.610 


69.91 


281 


272.7 


1.947 


77.91 


0.642 


69 


.64 


225.9 


1.869 


77.99 


0.610 


69.91 


282 


272.8 


1.947 


77.91 


0.642 


69 


.64 


226.0 


1.869 


77.99 


0.610 


69.91 


283 


273.0 


1.947 


77.91 


0.642 


69 


.63 


226.1 


1.869 


77.98 


0.610 


69.90 


284 


273.2 


1.947 


77.90 


0.642 


69 


,63 


226.2 


1.869 


77.98 


0.610 


69.90 


285 


273.4 


1.947 


77.90 


0.642 


69 


.62 


226.4 


1.869 


77.98 


0.610 


69.89 


286 


273.5 


1.947 


77.89 


0.643 


69 


.62 


226.5 


1.870 


77.97 


0.611 


69.89 


287 


273.7 


1.948 


77.89 


0.643 


69 


.61 


226.6 


1.870 


77.97 


0.611 


69.88 


288 


273.9 


1.948 


77.89 


0.643 


69 


.61 


226.7 


1.870 


77.97 


0.611 


69.88 


289 


274.0 


1.948 


77.88 


0.643 


69 


.60 


226.8 


1.870 


77.96 


0.611 


69.87 


290 


274.2 


1.948 


77.88 


0.643 


69 


.60 


226.9 


1.870 


77.96 


0.611 


69.87 


291 


274.3 


1.948 


77.88 


0.643 


69 


.59 


227.0 


1.870 


77.96 


0.611 


69.86 


292 


274.5 


1.948 


77.87 


0.643 


69 


.59 


227.1 


1.870 


77.95 


0.611 


69.86 


293 


274.6 


1.948 


77.87 


0.643 


69 


.58 


227.2 


1.870 


77.95 


0.611 


69.85 


294 


274.7 


1.948 


77.86 


0.643 


69 


58 


227.3 


1.870 


77.94 


0.611 


69.85 


295 


274.9 


1.948 


77.86 


0.644 


69 


.57 


227.4 


1.870 


77.94 


0.611 


69.84 


296 


275.0 


1.948 


77.86 


0.644 


69 


.56 


227.5 


1.870 


77.94 


0.611 


69.84 


297 


275.2 


1.949 


77.85 


0.644 


69 


.56 


227.6 


1.871 


77.93 


0.612 


69.83 


298 


275.3 


1.949 


77.85 


0.644 


.69 


.55 


227.7 


1.871 


77.93 


0.612 


69.83 


299 


275.4 


1.949 


77.84 


0.644 


69 


.55 


227.8 


1.871 


77.92 


0.612 


69.82 


300 


275.5 


1.949 


77.84 


0.644 


69 


.54 


227.9 


1.871 


77.92 


0.612 


69.82 


301 


275.7 


1.949 


77.84 


0.644 


69 


.53 


228.0 


1.871 


77.92 


0.612 


69.81 


302 


275.8 


1.949 


77.83 


0.644 


69 


.53 


228.0 


1.871 


77.91 


0.612 


68.81 



156 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 



TABLE 74 Continued 





MALES 


FEMALES 


IN 
DATS 


Body 
weight 


Brain 
weight 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 


Brain 
weight 


Per cent 
of water 
Brain 


Cord 
weight 


Per 
cent of 
water 




gms. 


gms. 




gms. 




gms. 


gms. 




gms. 


cord 



303 


275.9 


1.949 


77.83 


0.645 


69.52 


228.1 


1 


.871 


77.91 


0.612 


69.80 


304 


276.1 


1.949 


77.82 


0.645 


69.52 


228.2 


1 


.871 


77.90 


0.612 


69.80 


305 


276.2 


1.949 


77.82 


0.645 


69.51 


228.3 


1 


.871 


77.90 


0.612 


69.79 


306 


276.3 


1.949 


77.82 


0.645 


69.50 


228.3 


1 


.871 


77.90 


0.612 


69.79 


307 


276.4 


1.949 


77.81 


0.645 


69.50 


228.4 


1 


.871 


77.89 


0.612 


69.78 


308 


276.5 


1.949 


77.81 


0.645 


69.49 


228.5 


1 


.871 


77.89 


0.612 


69.78 


309 


276.6 


1.950 


77.80 


0.645 


69.49 


228.6 


1 


.872 


77.88 


0.613 


69.77 


310 


276.7 


1.950 


77.80 


0.645 


69.48 


228.7 


1 


.872 


77.88 


0.613 


69.77 


311 


276.9 


1.950 


77.80 


0.646 


69.47 


228.7 


1 


.872 


77.88 


0.613 


6'.76 


312 


277.0 


1.950 


77.79 


0.646 


69.47 


228.8 


1 


.872 


77.87 


0.613 


69.76 


313 


277.0 


1.950 


77.79 


0.646 


69.46 


228.8 


1 


.872 


77.87 


0.613 


69.75 


314 


277.1 


1.950 


77.78 


0.646 


69.46 


228.9 


1 


.872 


77.86 


0.613 


69.75 


315 


277.2 


1.950 


77.78 


0.646 


69.45 


229.0 


1 


.872 


77.86 


0.613 


69.74 


316 


277.3 


1.950 


77.77 


0.646 


69.44 


229.0 


1 


.872 


77.85 


0.613 


69.73 


317 


277.5 


1.950 


77.77 


0.646 


69.44 


229.1 


1 


.872 


77.85 


0.613 


69.73 


318 


277.5 


1.950 


77.76 


0.646 


69.43 


229.1 


1 


.872 


77.84 


0.613 


69.72 


319 


277.6 


1.950 


77.76 


0.646 


69.43 


229.2 


1 


.872 


77.84 


0.613 


69.72 


320 


277.7 


1.950 


77.75 


0.646 


69.42 


229.3 


1 


.872 


77.83 


0.613 


69.71 


321 


277.8 


1.950 


77.75 


0.646 


69.41 


229.3 


1 


.872 


77.83 


0.613 


69.71 


322 


277.9 


1.951 


77.74 


0.647 


69.41 


229.4 


i 


.873 


77.82 


0.614 


69.70 


323 


278.0 


1.951 


77.74 


0.647 


69.40 


229.4 


i 


.873 


77.82 


0.614 


69.70 


324 


278.0 


1.951 


77.73 


0.647 


69.40 


229.5 


i 


.873 


77.81 


0.614 


69.69 


325 


278.1 


1.951 


77.73 


0.647 


69.39 


229.5 


i 


.873 


77.81 


0.614 


69.68 


326 


278.2 


1.951 


77.72 


0.647 


69.38 


229.6 


i 


.873 


77.80 


0.614 


69.68 


327 


278.3 


1.951 


77.72 


0.647 


69.38 


229.6 


i 


.873 


77.80 


0.614 


69.67 


328 


278.4 


1.951 


77.71 


0.647 


69.37 


229.7 


i 


.873 


77.79 


0.614 


69.67 


329 


278.4 


1.951 


77.71 


0.647 


69.37 


229.7 


i 


.873 


77.79 


0.614 


69.66 


330 


278.5 


1.951 


77.70 


0.647 


69.36 


229.8 


i 


.873 


77.78 


0.614 


69.66 


331 


278.6 


1.951 


77.70 


0.647 


69.35 


229.8 


i 


.873 


77.78 


0.614 


69.65 


332 


278.6 


1.951 


77.69 


0.647 


69.35 


229.8 


i 


.873 


77.77 


0.614 


69.64 


333 


278.7 


1.951 


77.69 


0.647 


69.34 


229.9 


i 


.873 


77.77 


0.614 


69.64 


334 


278.7 


1.952 


77.68 


0.648 


69.34 


229.9 


i 


.874 


77.76 


0.615 


69.63 


335 


278.8 


1.952 


77.68 


0.648 


69.33 


229.9 


i 


.874 


77.76 


0.615 


69.63 


336 


278.9 


1.952 


77.67 


0.648 


69.32 


230.0 


i 


.874 


77.75 


0.615 


69.62 


337 


278.9 


1.952 


77.67 


0.648 


69.32 


230.0 


i 


.874 


77.75 


0.615 


69.62 


338 


279.0 


1.952 


77.66 


0.648 


69.31 


230.0 


i 


.874 


77.74 


0.615 


69.61 


339 


279.0 


1.952 


77.66 


0.648 


69.31 


230.1 


i 


.874 


77.74 


0.615 


69.61 


340 


279.1 


1.952 


77.65 


0.648 


69.30 


230.1 


1.874 


77.73 


0.615 


69.60 



PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN BRAIN AND CORD 



157 



TABLE 74 Concluded 





MALES 


FEMALES 


IN 
DAYS 


Body 

weight 


Brain 
weight 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 


Per cent 
of water 
cord 


Body 
weight 


Brain 
weight 


Per cent 
of water 
brain 


Cord 
weight 


Per 

cent of 
water 




gms. 


gms. 




gms. 




gms. 


gms. 




gms. 


cord 



341 


279.2 


1.952 


77.64 


0.648 


69 


.29 


230.1 


1.874 


77.72 


0.615 


69.59 


342 


279.2 


1.952 


77.64 


0.648 


69 


.29 


230.1 


1.874 


77.72 


0.615 


69.59 


343 


279.3 


1.952 


77.63 


0.648 


69 


.28 


230.2 


1.874 


77.71 


0.615 


69.58 


344 


279.3 


1.952 


77.63 


0.648 


69 


.27 


230.2 


1.874 


77.71 


0.615 


69.57 


345 


279.3 


1.952 


77.62 


0.648 


69.27 


230.2 


1.874 


77.70 


0.615 


69.57 


346 


279.4 


1.952 


77.61 


0.648 


69 


.26 


230.3 


1.874 


77.69 


0.615 


69.56 


347 


279.4 


1.953 


77.61 


0.648 


69 


.25 


230.3 


1.874 


77.69 


0.615 


69.56 


348 


279.5 


1.953 


77.60 


0.648 


69 


.25 


230.3 


1.874 


77.68 


0.615 


69.55 


349 


279.5 


1.953 


77.60 


0.648 


69, 


24 


230.3 


1.874 


77.68 


0.615 


69.54 


350 


279.6 


1.953 


77.59 


0.648 


69 


.23 


230.3 


1.874 


77.67 


0.615 


69.54 


351 


279.6 


1.953 


67.58 


0.648 


69 


.23 


230.3 


1.874 


77.66 


0.615 


69.53 


352 


279.6 


1.953 


77.58 


0.648 


69 


.22 


230.3 


1.874 


77.66 


0.615 


69.52 


353 


279.7 


1.953 


77.57 


0.649 


69 


.21 


230.4 


1.875 


77.65 


0.616 


69.52 


354 


279.7 


1.953 


77.57 


0.649 


69 


.20 


230.4 


1.875 


77.65 


0.616 


69.51 


355 


279.7 


1.953 


77.56 


0.649 


69 


20 


230.4 


1.875 


77.64 


0.616 


69.50 


356 


279.8 


1.953 


77.55 


0.649 


69 


.19 


230.4 


1.875 


77.63 


0.616 


69.50 


357 


279.8 


1.953 


77.55 


0.649 


69 


.18 


230.4 


1.875 


77.63 


0.616 


69.49 


358 


279.8 


1.953 


77.54 


0.649 


69 


.18 


230.4 


1.875 


77.62 


0.616 


69.48 


359 


279.8 


1.954 


77.54 


0.649 


69 


,17 


230.4 


1.875 


77.62 


0.616 


69.48 


360 


279.8 


1.954 


77.53 


0.649 


69 


.16 


230.4 


1.875 


77.61 


0.616 


69.47 


361 


279.8 


1.954 


77.52 


0.649 


69 


16 


230.4 


1.875 


77.60 


0.616 


69.47 


362 


279.9 


1.954 


77.52 


0.649 


69 


.15 


230.4 


1.875 


77.60 


0.616 


69.46 


363 


279.9 


1.954 


77.51 


0.649 


69 


.14 


230.4 


1.875 


77.59 


0.616 


69.45 


364 


279.9 


1.954 


77.51 


0.649 


69 


.14 


230.4 


1.875 


77.59 


0.616 


69.45 


365 


279.9 


1.954 


77.50 


0.649 


69, 


13 


230.4 


1.875 


77.58 


0.616 


69.44 



158 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

12. Formulas. Formulas for computing the length or weight 
of the body and of its several parts, systems or organs, also for 
expressing the values of other characters. 

The formulas for the Albino Group I are given first, then 
those for the Norway Group II. In Group I there are two 
divisions. The first division comprises the formulas based on 
size (body length and body weight). The second division com- 
prises the formulas based on age. These formulas have been 
kept simple in order to facilitate their use. This condition has 
made it sometimes necessary to have different formulas for the 
different parts of the same series of data, but this was deemed 
more desirable than a reduction in the number of the formulas 
at the price of greater complexity. 

After the formula there follows in parenthesis the number by 
which it is designated in the text, and every formula, whether it 
be general or subsidiary, is thus numbered, each subsidiary formula 
carrying the number of the general formula to which it is related, 
followed by a distinguishing letter. A catalog of the formulas, 
given in detail later, is here presented. 

CATALOG OF FORMULAS 

GROUP I. ALBINOS 

First division: Formulas based on size 

Body length on body weight (I). 

Body weight on body length (2), (2 a), (2 b). 

Body weight on brain weight (3). 

Tail length on body length (4), (5). 

Brain weight on body weight (6), (7). 

Cranial capacity on body weight (8), (9), (10). 

Spinal cord weight on body weight (11). 

Diameters of ganglion cell and nucleus (12), (12 a). 

Weight of both eyeballs on body weight (13) . 

Weight of heart on body weight (14). 

Weight of both kidneys on body weight (15). 

Weight of liver on body weight (16) . 

Weight of spleen on body weight (17) . 

Weight of both lungs on body weight (18). 

Volume of blood on body weight (19), (19 a), (19 b). 

Weight of blood on body weight (20), (20 a), (20 b). 

Weight of alimentary tract on body weight (21). 



BODY WEIGHT ON BODY LENGTH 159 

Weight of both testes on body weight (22), (23), (24). 
Weight of both ovaries on body weight (25), (26), (27). 
Weight of hypophysis on body weight (28), (29). 
Weight of both suprarenals on body weight (30), (31). 
Weight of thyroid on body weight (32). 
Weight of nitrogen on body weight (33) . 

Second division: Formulas based on age in days 

Body weight on age (34), (35), (36), (37). 
Weight of thymus on age (38), (39). 

Percentage of water in brain on age (40), (41), (42), (42 a). 
Percentage of water in spinal cord on age (43), (44), (45), (45 a), (45 b), (45 c), 
(45 d). 

GROUP II. NORWAYS 

First division: Formulas based on size 

Body length on body weight (46). 

Body weight on body length (47), (48). 

Body weight Norway on body weight Albino (49) . 

Tail length on body length (50), (51). 

Brain weight on body weight (52) . 

Cranial capacity on body weight (53). 

Spinal cord weight on body weight (54) . 

Spinal cord weight on brain weight (55). 



GROUP I. ALBINOS 

FIRST DIVISION: FORMULAS BASED ON SIZE 

BODY LENGTH ON BODY WEIGHT, (DONALDSON, '09) 

Body length (sexes combined) = 143 log (Bd.wt.+l5) 134 (1) 

A study of tables 1 and 2 in the investigations by Donaldson 
'09 shows that for a given body weight the body length of the male 
is about 2.2 per cent greater than that of the female. If then the 
value found by this formula for any body weight is increased by 
1.1 per cent of itself the sum obtained represents the body length 
for the male. If on the contrary, the value found is decreased 
by 1.1 per cent of itself, the difference obtained represents the 
body length for the corresponding female. 



160 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

BODY WEIGHT ON BODY LENGTH (DONALDSON, 'OJ) 

By transposing formula (1) we obtain 



Body weight (sexes combined) = 10 143 15 (2) 



As the body length for a given body weight is for the male 1.1 
per cent above the value in (2) and for the female 1.1 per cent 
below the value in (2), two new formulas have been made for 
the male and female respectively thus 



(100 Bd. l.-l.l Bd./.)+13400 

Body weight: male = 10 1430 -15 (2a) 



( 100 Bd.l.+l.lBd.l.)+ 13400 

Body weight: female = 10 1430 -15 (2b) 



By use of formulas (2a) and (2b) the body weights corre- 
sponding to body lengths from 50-250 mm have been computed 
for each sex and the values obtained are those entered in the 
accompanying tables. 

To illustrate the procedure with a formula of this sort the 
f ollowing example is given. 

To compute the body weight for a body length of 150 mm. 
(male) by the following formula (2a). 



BODY WEIGHT TAIL LENGTH 161 

(100 Bd. Z.-l.l Bd. n+13400 

Body weight (male) = 10 1430 - 15 



Transpose 15 from right hand side to the left and take the 
logarithm of both sides. We have 

(100 X 150 - 1.1 X 150) + 13400 
log (Bd. wt. + 15) = log 10 X T 

14oUO 

' 15000 -165 + 13400 

14300 



Thus 1.9745 is equivalent to the logarithm of body weight 
plus 15. Therefore body weight + 15 = 94.3 (anti-logarithm 
of 1.9745). Finally, body weight = 94.3 - 15 = 79.3 grams. 

The above procedure is that to be followed with other formulas 
of the same type. 



BODY WEIGHT ON BRAIN WEIGHT (DONALDSON, '08) 

Br. wt. 0.554 

Body weight (sexes combined) = 8.7+10 ^ (3) 



TAIL LENGTH ON BODY LENGTH. (HATAI, MS '14.) 

Tail length : male = 0.852 Bd. 1. + 38.8 (log Bd. I.) - 90 . 5 (4) 
Tail length -.female = 0.874 Bd. I +43.2 (log Bd. 1) - 98.1 (5) 
Formulas (4) and (5) were used for table 68. 



162 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

BRAIN WEIGHT ON BODY WEIGHT. (HATAI, '09, p. 172) 

For the brain weight of sexes combined, the following for- 
mulas have been obtained: 

Brain weight (sexes combined) = 1.56 log (Bd. wt.} 0.87 (6) 

[5 < Bd. wt. < 10 gms.] 

Brain weight (sexes combined) = 

0.569 log (Bd. wt. - 8.7) + .554 (7) 
[Bd. wt. > 10 gms.] 

For a given body weight the average brain weight in the male 
was found to be 1.5 per cent more than in the female, hence the 
determinations of brain weight on body weight by formulas (6) 
and (7) give final values which must be increased by 0.75 per 
cent to represent the male brain and decreased by 0.75 per cent to 
represent the female brain weight. By using this procedure the 
data on brain weight given hi table 68 were obtained. 

CRANIAL CAPACITY ON BODY WEIGHT. (HATAI, '07 c) 

Cranial capacity represented by the weight of the shot con- 
tained is given by 

Cranial capacity (shot wt.) = 0.0072 X (Bd. wt. male) + 9.349 (8) 

To reduce the shot weight to brain weight in the male, the value 
obtained is to be divided by 5.98. 
The corresponding formula for the female is 

Cranial capacity (shot wt.) = 

0.0251 X (Bd. wt. female) + 6.168 (9) 

To reduce the shot weight to brain weight in the female, the 
value obtained is to be divided by 6.009. 



CRANIAL CAPACITY DIAMETER OF NUCLEUS 163 

For the cranial capacity expressed in cc. Donaldson ('12), 
the formula for sexes combined is 

Cranial capacity in cc. = 

1.02 log Bd. wt. - 0.00027 Bd. wt. - 0.596 (10) 
[80 < Bd. wt. < 300] 



SPINAL CORD WEIGHT ON BODY WEIGHT (DONALDSON, '09) 

Spinal cord wt. (sexes combined) = 

0.585 log (Bd. wt. +21) - 0.795 (11) 

In the female the spinal cord is about 2 per cent heavier than 
in the male, therefore when using formula (11) the values ob- 
tained require to be increased by 1 per cent to represent the 
weight of the spinal cord in the female and to be diminished by 
1 per cent to represent its weight in the male. By using this 
procedure, the data on the weights of the spinal cord in table 68 
have been obtained. 



DIAMETER OP SECOND CERVICAL SPINAL GANGLION CELL NUCLEUS ON 
DIAMETER OF CELL BODY (HATAI, '07b) 

Correlation between diameter of cell body and diameter of 
nucleus in /* hi spinal ganglion cells of second cervical nerve. 

Diameter of nucleus in n = 

12.2939 [ 1.0252 + 0.3564^) - 0.0758 (yV | (12) 

where x is the diameter of the cell in n and 1 is a half range of the 
variates. 



164 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

As the value of 1 is 10, the formula (12) may be transformed 
by a series of steps here omitted, to read 



. 

20 J 20 



- 0.9 (12a) 



Where D n = Diameter of nucleus in /* 
and D c b = Diameter of cell body in /z. 
See table 31. 



WEIGHT OF BOTH EYEBALLS ON BODY WEIGHT. (HATAI, '13, p. 112) 

Weight of both eyeballs (sexes combined) = 

0.000428 Bd. wt. +0.098 log Bd. wt. - 0.041 (13) 

Formula (13) was used for table 68. 



WEIGHT OF HEART ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of heart (sexes combined) = 
0.0026 (Bd. wt. + 14) + 0.249 log (Bd. wt. + 14) - 0.336 (14) 

Formula (14) was used for table 69. 



WEIGHT OF BOTH KIDNEYS ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of both kidneys (sexes combined) = 

0.00718 (Bd. wt. - 3) + 0.132 log (Bd. wt. - 3) -0.009 (15) 

Formula (15) was used for table 69. 



LIVER WEIGHT BLOOD VOLUME 165 

WEIGHT OF LIVER ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of liver (sexes combined} = 

0.0303 (Bd. wt. + 5) + 3.340 log (Bd. wt. + 5) - 3.896 (16) 
[Bd. wt. > 10] 

Formula (16) was used for obtaining the values given in table 69 
for body weights of 10 grams or above. For body weights below 
10 grams the weights have been determined by graphic inter- 
polation using the crude records as a basis. 

WEIGHT OF SPLEEN ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of spleen (sexes combined) = 

. 00245 Bd. wt. + Q. 0301 log (Bd. wt.) - 0.025 (17) 

Formula (17) was used for table 69. 

WEIGHT OF BOTH LUNGS ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of both lungs (sexes combined) = 

0.00471 (Bd. wt. + 2) + . 122 log (Bd. wt. + 2) - . 056 (18) 

Formula (18) was used for table 70. 

VOLUME OF THE BLOOD ON BODY WEIGHT (CHISOLM, '11) AND HATAI (MS '14) 

Bd wt - 9 

Blood volume (sexes combined) = '- '- = . 099 Bd. wt. - 9 (19) 

10.1 

[5 < Bd. wt. < 150] 

Blood volume (males') = 

0.099 Bd. wt. - 9 - .03 (.099 Bd. wt.) - 9 (19a) 

= 0.09603 Bd. wt. - 9 
[150 < Bd. wt. < 350] 



166 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

Blood volumes (females) = 

0.099 Bd.wt.- 9 +. 06 (.099 Bd.wt.) - 9 (19b) 

= 0.10494 Bd. wt.- 9 
[150 < Bd. wt. < 350] 

By using the factor 1.056 for the specific gravity of the blood 
corresponding formulas for the blood weight on body weight have 
been obtained as follows: Hatai (MS '14). 

Blood weight (sexes combined) = 

0.099 Bd. wt. - 9 X 1.056 or = 0.1045 Bd. wt. - 9 (20) 

[5 < Bd. wt. < 150] 

Blood weight (males') = 

0. 1045 Bd. wt. - 9 - .03 (0.1045 Bd. wt.) - 9 (20a) 

= 0.101365 Bd.wt. - 9 
[150 < Bd. wt. < 350] 

Blood weight (females) = 

. 1045 Bd. wt. - 9 + . 06 (0.1045 Bd. wt. - 9 ) (20b) 

= 0. 11077 Bd.wt. - 9 
(150 < Bd. wt. < 350) 

These formulas (20), (20 a) and (20 b) for blood weight have 
been used for table 70. 



ALIMENTARY TRACT OVARIES 167 

WEIGHT OF ALIMENTARY TRACT ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of alimentary tract (sexes combined) = 

. 0245 Bd. wt. + 4.720 log (Bd. wt. + 7) - 5.753 (21) 

Formula (21) was used for table 70. 

WEIGHT OP BOTH TESTES ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Wt. of testes = . 022 - 0.00992 Bd. wt. + 0.00127 Bd. wt. 2 (22) 

[4<Bd.wt. <10] 

= 0.043 - 0.000966 Bd. wt. + 0.000163 Bd. wt* (23) 
[W<Bd. wt. <80] 

= 2.910 log Bd. wt. - 4.520 (24) 

[Bd. wt. > 80] 

\ 

For the weight of the testes for body weights of 4r-10 grams, 
the values were obtained by formula (22), while formulas (23) 
and (24) were used for obtaining the values for body weights of 
10 grams or over. Formulas (22) (23) and (24) were used for 
table 70. 

WEIGHT OF BOTH OVARIES ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of both ovaries = 

= 0.00781 log. Bd. wt. - 0.0047 (25) 

(Phase 1) [Bd. wt. < 65] 

= 0.0425 - . 00121 Bd. wt. + 0.0000108 Bd. wt. 2 (26) 
(Phase 2) [65 < Bd. wt. < 110] 

= 0.007 log. (Bd. wt. - 105) + 0.0352 (27) 

(PhaseZ) [Bd. wt. >110] 

Formulas (25) (26) (27) were used for table 70. 



168 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

WEIGHT OF HYPOPHYSIS ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

In the case of the hypophysis a separate formula for each sex is 
required. 

Weight of hypophysis (male) = 

. 0000257 (Bd. wt. + 3) + . 0014 log (Bd. wt. + 3) - . 00097 (28) 

Formula (28) is also used for the female up to 50 gms. in body 
weight then 

Weight of hypophysis (female) = 

0.00205 + . 000081 Bd. wt. - 0.00196 log (Bd. wt.) (29) 
[Bd. wt. > 50] 

Formulas (28) and (29) were used for table 71 in accordance 
with the restrictions indicated. 

WEIGHT OF BOTH SUPRARENALS ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

In the case of the suprarenals a separate formula for each sex 
is required. 

Weight of both suprarenals (male) = 
0.0000855 (Bd.wt. + 3) +0.0113 log (Bd. wt. + 3) - 0.0093 (30) 

Formula (30) is also used for the female up to 30 gms. in body 
weight, then 

Weight of both suprarenah (female) = 

0.00023 Bd. wt. + 0.00388 log (Bd. wt.) - 0.002 (31) 
\Bd. wt. > 30] 



THYEOID BODY WEIGHT ON AGE 169 

Formulas (30) and (31) were used for table 71 in accordance 
with the restrictions indicated. 

WEIGHT OF THYROID ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '13) 

Weight of thyroid (sexes combined} 
0.0000973 (Bd. wt. + 27) + 0.0139 log (Bd. wt. + 27) - 0.0226 (32) 

Formula (32) was used for table 71. 

WEIGHT OF NITROGEN ON BODY WEIGHT (HATAI, '05) 

To determine the amount of nitrogen eliminated by the rat 
during twenty-four hours at different body weights. Ration: 
Uneeda biscuit and water only Chicago colony. 



where N = total nitrogen in milligrams and Bd. wt. = body 
weight in grams. 

Formula 33 is based on the data in table 42. 

GROUP I. ALBINOS 

SECOND DIVISION: FORMULAS BASED ON AGE 

BODY WEIGHT ON AGE FROM 10-365 DAYS, HATAI (MS '14) 

The formulas (34) (35) (36) (37) apply only to the series of 
data published by Donaldson, Dunn and Watson, ('06.) 

Body weight on age in days males = 

11.199 + 0.0475 Age-}- 0.0184 Age- (34) 

[W<Age<SO] 

= 448 log Age - 0.52 Age - 678.2 (35) 



170 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

Body weight on age in days mated females = 

8.071 + 0.367 age -f 0.0131 Age 2 (36) 



= 343 log Age - 0.41 Age - 498.8 (37) 

[80<A0e<365] 
Formulas (34) (35) (36) (37) were used for table 62. 

WEIGHT OF THYMUS ON AGE (HATAI, '14) 

Weight of thymus sexes combined = 

0.01 X lO 1 - 1 ! 1 ' 1884 ^ 5865 ^- 1 )- - 5651 ^- 1 ) 2 } ( 38 ) 
[Age < 95] 

Weight of thymus = 

0.3903 - 0.00139 (age) + 0.00000128 (age} 2 (39) 

[Age > 95] 
Formulas (38) (39) were used for table 72. 

PERCENTAGE OP WATER IN BRAIN. HATAI (MS '14; 
The formulas do not apply to rats under ten days of age. 

Percentage of water in brain (male) = 

92.122-0.614 Age +0.00739 Age 2 (Phase 1) (40) 
[10 <Age <40] 

= 82.756-2.103 log Age (Phase 2) (41) 
[40<4gre<160] 

= 77.671 +0.00537 Age -0.000016 Age 2 (Phase 3) (42) 



COERECTIONS 171 

To transform any determination for the male into that for 
the female, the value for the male at a given age (see formulas 
(40) (41), (42) ) is modified by a plus correction (Hatai). 

Correction (plus) = 0.0555 log (age +3) -0.0606 (42a) 



The foregoing (40)-(42a) replace the formulas given in the 
paper by Donaldson ('10). 

Formulas (40) (41) (42) (42a) were used for table 74. 



PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN SPINAL CORD (HATAI MS '14) 

The formulas do not apply under 10 days of age. The data 
for the first ten days are from direct observations. 

Percentage of water in spinal cord male = 

87.976-0.494 Age +0.00364 Age 2 (Phase 1) (43) 



= 100.3 +0.0548 Age - 17.7 log Age (Phase 2) (44) 
[40<A#e<150] 

= 62.186 -0.0121 ylgre+4.434 log Age (Phase 3) (45) 



To obtain from the values for the male at different ages the 
corresponding value for the female, several corrections are re- 
quired and these differ according to age. 

From ten to fifty days the following correction formula (45a) is 
used: 

Correction (minus) = 0.0006 Age 2 - 0.036 Age +0.3 (45a) 



172 GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

The values thus obtained are subtracted from the computed 
values for the male at the corresponding ages. 

From fifty to sixty-five days no correction is made. 

From sixty-five days to one hundred and thirty-five days, cor- 
rection is made according to the formula (45b) 

Correction (plus) =0.823 log (Age+1) - 0.000542 (Age + 1) -1.4616 

(45b) 

From one hundred and thirty-five to one hundred and sixty- 
five days the correction is uniform thus : 

Correction (plus) =0.22 (45c) 

From one hundred and sixty-five to three hundred and sixty- 
five days correction is made by the following formula : 

Correction (plus) = 0.22 +0.0005 (Age - 165) (45d) 

The foregoing (43)-(45d) replace the formulas given in the 
paper by Donaldson, '10. 
Formulas (43)-(45d) were used for table 74. 



GROUP II. NORWAYS 

FIRST DIVISION: FORMULAS BASED ON SIZE 

BODY LENGTH ON BODY WEIGHT NORWAY (DONALDSON AND HATAI, '11) 

Body length (sexes combined) = 159 log (Bd. wl. + 18) 165 (46) 

The body length for the male is 0.4 per cent above the value 
given by formula (46) and that for the female 0.4 per cent below. 
Formula (46) with above corrections was used for graphs in 
chart 28. 



BODY WEIGHT TAIL LENGTH NORWAY 173 

BODY WEIGHT ON BODY LENGTH (DONALDSON AND HATAI, (11) 

By transforming formula (46) and introducing the correction 
for sex we obtain 



(1) For the male 

Body wsiqht=10 () ' Qmm ( MJ -xioo-UBrf.z.xioo)xo.oo4]+i65oo, __ jg 

_ i AO. 0000029 (Bd. I. X 99.6+16500) __ 1 g 

(2) For the female 

Body weight = IQ ' 0000629 (Bd - L x m+[(Bd L x i)xo.oo4]+i65oo) _ lg 

_ -j rjO.0000629 (Bd . 1. X 100.4 + 16500) _ 1 g 

Formulas (47) (48) were used for table 85. 



BODY WEIGHT OF NORWAY ON BODY WEIGHT OF ALBINO (MALES) (DONALD- 
SON AND HATAI, '11, p. 442) 

Body weight (Norway] = 

137.1 -0.636 Bd. wt. Albino +0.00643 Bd. wt. Albino* (49) 
[160 < Bd. wt. Albino < 300] 



TAIL LENGTH ON BODY LENGTH NORWAY (HATAI, MS '14) 

(1) For the male 

Tail length =0.824 Bd. I. +39.1 (log. Bd. I.) -92.6 (50) 



174 GROWTH .OF PARTS AND ORGANS 

(2) For the female 

Tail length = 0.824 Bd. I +43.1 log (Bd. 1} -98.4 (51) 
Formulas (50) (51) were used for table 85. 

BRAIN WEIGHT ON BOOT WEIGHT, NORWAY (DONALDSON AND HATAI, '11) 

Brain weight (sexes combined] =0.825 log (Bd. wt. 4) +0.233 (52) 

This formula applies only to rats 5 grams or more in body 
weight. To obtain the weights for the male the values given 
by the formula are increased by 1 per cent, and to obtain the 
weights for the female, they are decreased by 1 per cent. 

Formula (52) with corrections mentioned above used for 
table 85. 

CRANIAL CAPACITY ON BODY WEIGHT, NORWAY (DONALDSON, '12) 

Cranial capacity in cc. (sexes combined) = 

0.00105 Bd. wt. +0.548 log Bd. wt. +0.476 (53) 
[80 < Bd. wt. < 380] 

SPINAL CORD WEIGHT ON BODY WEIGHT, NORWAY (DONALDSON AND HATAI, '11) 

Spinal cord weight (sexes combined) = 

0.724 log (Bd. wt. +30) - 1 .082 (54) 

To obtain the weights for the male the values given by the 
formula are increased by 0.15 per cent, and to obtain the weights 
for the female they are decreased by 0.15 per cent. 

Formula (54) with corrections mentioned above was used for 
table 85. 



SPINAL CORD WEIGHT NOKWAY 175 

SPINAL CORD WEIGHT ON BRAIN WEIGHT (SEXES COMBINED) NORWAY (DON- 
ALDSON AND HATAI, '11) 

Br. wt. 0.233 

Spinal cord wt. =0.724 log (10 om + 34) -1.082 (55) 

For the Norway we have no extensive data based on age 
hence there are no formulas based on age. 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND ORGANS: REFERENCES 

Chisolm, '11. Donaldson, '06, '08, '09, '11, '11 c, '12. Donaldson and Hatai, 
'11. Ferry, '13. Hatai, '03 a, '04 a, '07 a, '08, '13, '13 a, '14, '14 a. Jackson and 
Lowrey, '12. Jackson, '13. Jolly and Stini, '05. Watson, '05. 

12. Formulas. Chisolm, '11. Donaldson, '08, '09, '12. Donaldson and Hatai, 
'11. Hatai, '05, '07 b, '07 c, '09 a, '10, '10 a, '11, '14. 



CHAPTER 8 
GROWTH IN TERMS OF WATER AND SOLIDS 

1. In the body as a whole. 2. In the larger divisions of the body and the 
organs. 3. In the brain and spinal cord. 

Water and solids 1) in the body as a whole and 2) in the larger 
divisions and the organs. Data on this head have been pub- 
lished by Lowrey ('13) and are here presented. 

With the exception of one of the old rats the animals used for 
the following table 75 were reared at the University of Missouri. 
They were fed on chopped corn with a daily ration of bread soaked 
in whole milk and once a week a small quantity of fresh beef 
was given them. All were sound except some of the older ani- 
mals which suffered from infected lungs but not to such a de- 
gree as to affect their general nutrition or vigor. Table 75 is 
based on table 1, Lowrey ('13). The data for the two sexes are 
combined. In the original the range of the observations is given 
and also the number of animals used in each instance. In the 
present table the ranges are omitted and the number of animals 
is given for the body weight (net) only. The other determina- 
tions for the systems and organs were based on about the same 
number of animals as were used for the body weight, except hi 
the case of the testes where the numbers are about half as large. 
The oldest animals were somewhat under one year of age. 
3) Percentage of water in the brain and spinal cord. Using stock 
rats from the colony at The Wistar Institute, the percentage of 
water has been determined for the brain and spinal cord by Don- 
aldson (MS '14). The values obtained by this study replace 
those previously published. (Donaldson '10.) The methods of 
removal are given on page 90. The rats were reared on a 
scrap diet. The fresh brain or cord was weighed in a closed 
bottle, then dried at 90-95C. until the dried weight was con- 
stant and the difference taken as the amount of water. 

176 



PERCENTAGE OF DRY SUBSTANCE 



177 



TABLE 75 

Percentages of dry substance in the entire body in several of the systems and in 
some organs. Observations at seven ages. See chart 24 



AGE IN 
DATS 


BODY (NET) 


INTEGUMENTS 


LIGAMENTOUS 
SKELETON 


MUSCULATURE 


No. of 

animals 


Av. fresh 
weight 


Av. % of 
dry subs. 


A v. fresh 
weight 


Av. % of 
dry subs. 


Av. fresh 
weight 


Av. % of 
dry subs. 


Av. fresh 
weight 


Av. % of 
dry subs. 






gms. 




gms. 




gms. 




gms. 







15 


4.200 


11.7 


0.880 


12.3 


0.660 


18.1 


1.100 


10.7 


7 


10 


9.100 


20.1 


2.180 


23.4 


1.710 


22.1 


2.020 


16.2 


20 


9 


24.500 


29.9 


5.020 


41.1 


4.090 


33.3 


6.400 


22.6 


42 


10 


61.300 


29.5 


11.040 


37.1 


8.610 


39.2 


18.730 


23.5 


70 


7 


126.700 


33.0 


20.020 


43.0 


14.840 


45.9 


51.500 


25.2 


150 


10 


182.400 


32.2 


32.200 


44.2 


20.020 


50.4 


76.920 


24.3 


365(?).. 


2 


267.500 


31.5 


37.780 


45.5 


23.180 


52.6 


125.000 


23.8 






ALL VISCERA 


EYEBALLS 


HEART 


LUNGS 







0.780 


15.2 


0.023 


7.4 


0.025 


13.8 


0.077 


15.0 


7 




1.760 


14.2 


0.066 


10.4 


0.061 


14.4 


0.169 


15.8 


20 




5.090 


19.1 


0.110 


14.4 


0.135 


18.0 


0.236 


18.9 


42..'... 




12.170 


20.7 


0.162 


15.3 


0.412 


21.0 


0.404 


19.1 


70 




20.900 


24.4 


0.207 


17.0 


0.625 


21.6 


0.791 


19.2 


150 




26.570 


25.6 


0.279 


19.0 


0.714 


21.2 


1.354 


19.0 


365(?).. 




31.750 


25.1 


0.340 


20.2 


0.934 


22.4 


2.806 


18.4 






LIVER 


SPLEEN 


KIDNEYS 


TESTES 







0.234 


19.4 






0.038 


13.3 






7 




0.307 


20.6 


0.041 


14.3 


0.123 


14.5 






20 




1.200 


24.3 


0.076 


17.2 


0.322 


17.2 


0.106 


12.9 


42 




3.541 


24.2 


0.273 


19.8 


0.832 


20.3 


0.568 


13.3 


70 




6.617 


25.5 


0.588 


20.1 


1.320 


20.8 


1.653 


12.4 


150 




9.236 


25.7 


0.666 


20.6 


1.728 


21.0 


2.425 


12.2 


365(7).. 




9.959 


26.0 


0.722 


22.6 


2.294 


22.9 


2.044 


13.0 



By the use of formulas (40)-(42a) for the brain and formu- 
las (43)-(45d) for the spinal cord, the values for table 74 after 
10 days of age were obtained and also those for the respective 
graphs in chart 26. The data for the first 10 days are from di- 
rect observations. The percentage of water in the brain and 
spinal cord is linked with age and is not readily modified. 



178 



GROWTH IN WATER AND SOLIDS 




Chart 24 Giving the percentage of dry substance in the body as a whole and 
in the several systems at different ages. Table 75, Lowrey ('13). 




Chart 25 Giving in terms of the dry substance of the .entire body the percent- 
age values of the several systems, sexes combined. Plotted on age in days. 
Table 76, Lowrey ('13). 



PERCENTAGE OF DRY SUBSTANCE 



179 




Chart 26 Giving percentage of water in the brain at different ages. Males 
only. Formulas (40)-(42a), table 74, and percentage of water in the spinal cord. 
Males only. Formulas (43)-(45d), table 74. 

TABLE 76 

Giving the percentage weight of the dry substance in the integument, skeleton (liga- 
mentous), musculature, viscera and remainder in terms of the dry substance of 
the entire body, Lowrey 'IS. See chart 25 



AGE IN 
DAYS 


NUMBER 
OF 
ANIMALS 


ABSOLUTE 
WEIGHT OP 
DRY SUB- 
STANCE ENTIRE 
BODY 


PERCENTAGE WEIGHT OF DRY SUBSTANCE OF ENTIRE BODY 
REPRESENTED BY 


Skin 


Skeleton 
(ligamen- 
tous) 


Muscula- 
ture 


Viscera 


Remain- 
der 





7... 
10' 
9 
10 
7' 
10 
2 


0.494 
1.830 
7.320 
17.300 
42.400 
60.600 
84.300 


21.2 
27.9 
28.3 
24.0 
23.3 
23.4 
22.9 


24.3 
20.1 
18.7 
19.8 
16.3 
17.1 
17.5 


23.8 
18.2 
19.6 
26.0 
30.0 
31.7 
35.3 


22.5 
13.9 
13.0 
14.6 
12.1 
11.8 
9.4 


8.1 
19.9 
20.4 
15.6 
18.3 
16.0 
14.9 


7 


20 


42 


70 


150 


365 (?) . . 



1 Skeleton and musculature not separately determined in one instance. 

GROWTH IN TERMS OF WATER AND SOLIDS: REFERENCES 

Cavazzani and Muzzioli, '12. Donaldson. '10, '11 a, '11 b. King, '11. Low- 
rey, '13. Weisbach, 1868. 



CHAPTER 9 



GROWTH OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 

1. In the body as a whole. 2. In the nervous system. 

1. In the body as a whole. For the body as a whole Hatai 
(MS '15) has made a determination of its composition in terms 
of proteins, fat, organic extract and salts, at eight ages. The 
results are given in table 77. 

TABLE 77. 
Giving the chemical composition of albino rat. Hatai (MS '15) 



Ace, days. . . 


Birth 


7 


15 


22 


28 


35 


42 


294 


Body gms 


4.3 


10 2 


13 5 


24 9 


47 3 


52.5 


65 8 


277 5 


Water, per cent 


87.2 


79.8 


72.9 


70.6 


69.6 


70.6 


69.4 


65.3 


Solids, gms 


0.6 


2.1 


3.7 


7.3 


14.4 


15.5 


20.1 


96.4 


Percentages of 
Residue 


56.9 


42.0 


39.9 


38.8 


38.6 


44.9 


44.4 


44.5 


Fat 


14.2 


35.4 


39.2 


36.6 


37.7 


25.9 


27.1 


16.5 


Organic extr 


16.4 


12.8 


12.8 


14.8 


13.8 


18.6 


16.9 


28.2 


Soluble salts 


6.6 


4.6 


3.0 


3.2 


3.3 


1.5 


2.7 


2.5 


Fixed salts 


5.9 


5 2 


5.2 


6.7 


6.5 


9.2 


8.9 


8.3 





















The following paragraphs define the terms used in table 77. 

Residue. The residue is represented by the solids from which all the organic 
substances soluble in both boiling alcohol and in water, as well as the salts have 
been removed. Thus the residue as here defined represents practically all the 
protein substances. 

Fat. Fat is represented by the substances soluble in boiling alcohol from 
which the water soluble organic extractives and salts have been removed. 

Organic extractives. All water soluble substances from which the salts were 
removed are called the organic extractives. 

Soluble salts. The salts here designated were obtained from all the extrac- 
tives with both water and alcohol. 

Fixed salts. The solids from which fat, organic extractives and soluble salts 
had been removed were incinerated and the ash thus obtained is here called the 
fixed salts. Thus these fixed salts present practically all salts present in the 
osseous system. 

180 



CONSTITUENTS OF BODY 



181 



Using a different plan of analysis McCollum ('09) has given data 
on the composition of the rat. The results appear in table 78. 
To obtain the skeleton he boiled the entire animal and then sepa- 
rated the skeleton from the boiled tissues. 

TABLE 78. 

Giving the composition of rats used in experiments with various rations. 

(McCollum '09) 



















FAT AND 










DRY TIS- 






SKELE- 


WATER- 


RATION 


NUMBER 
OF 
BAT 


BODT 
WEIGHT 


SKELE- 
TON 


SUE LESS 
SKELE- 


ETHER 
EXTRACT 


ASH OP 
SKELE- 
TON 


TON PER 
CENT OF 
LIVE 


FREE TIS- 
SUES PER 
CENT OF 
















WEIGHT 


LIVE 


















WEIGHT 






grams 


grams 


grams 


grams 


grams 






Normal 


1 


147 


6.67 


38.0 


8.89 


3.79 


4.54 


19.80 


Normal... 


2 


157 


6.50 


45.0 


10.80 


3.85 


4.14 


21.79 


Normal 


10 


34 


1.33 


9.5 


3.25 


0.68 


3.91 


18.39 





















In connection with a study of the phosphorus compounds in 
the Albino after ovariotomy Heymann ('04) has recorded the 
?2 O 6 distribution in the normal rat (see Keith and Forbes, '14). 
His data for the normal appear in table 79. 

TABLE 79. 
Giving the phosphorus compounds of rats as affected by ovariotomy (Heymann, '04) 





TISSUES, PER CENT OF DRY SUBSTANCE 


BONES, PER CENT 
TOTAL PzOs 


BONES AND 
TISSUES 
TOTAL P2Os 


Lecithin 

P 2 Oo 


Nuclein 
P 2 S 


Phosphate 

P 2 O5 


Total 
P 2 5 


Fresh 
substance 


Dry 

substance 


Per cent of 
total body 
weight 


Normal 


0.4760 


0.0559 


2.4479 


2.9798 


21.2690 


24.0556 


1.9819 


Normal 










18.1665 


22.8105 


1.2980 


Normal 


0.3242 


0.0649 


1.6490 


1.9830' 


17.0315 


19.2083 


? 


Normal 


0.3608 


0.0979 


1.5430 


2.0018 


17.5724 


19.9277 


1.3795 



1 Apparently erroneous since the sum of the figures for nuclein, lecithin and phos- 
phate phosphorus is 2.0381 per cent. 

2. In the nervous system. . With the purpose of following the 
changes in the chemical constituents of the brain with advancing 
age, Koch, W. and M.. L. ('13 a) have made a series of observa- 
tions and to these have been added also observations on one spinal 
cord at 120 days. The results are given in tables 80 and 81. 



182 



GROWTH OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 



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CONSTITUENTS OF BRAIN 



183 



TABLE 81. 



Absolute weights, in milligrams, of the constituents of a single brain of the albino 
rat at different ages (prepared from Table 80) 





AGE IN DAYS 


1 


10 


20 


40 


120 


210 


Moist weight of one 
brain in grams 


0.250 
10.420 

0.026 


0.860 
12.500 

0.107 


1.280 
17.500 

0.224 


1.380 
20.340 

0.281 


1.600 
21.650 

0.347 


1.670 
21.900 

0.365 


Solids in per cent. . . . 
Dry weight of one 
brain in grams 





Absolute weights in milligrams 


Proteins (1)1 


15.140* 
3.950 

0.380 
4.650 

1.870 

0.260 
0.480 


60.450f 
13.160 

2.780 
16.160 

(14.45) 

0.900 
1.600 


119.400* 
47.900 
6.700 
5.600 

32.600 

11.700 

1.5700 
3.7200 


136.000* 
61.300 
16.600 
7.200 

41.700 

18.200 

1.540 
4.300 


165.200* 
74.950 
29.150 
12.300 

33.800 

31.600 

1.940 
4.930 


177.000t 
80.300 
30.660 
16.400 

35.800 

24.800 

2.120 
5.070 


Phosphatides (2) 
Cerebrosides (3) 


Sulphatides (4) 


Organic extrac- 1 
tives. . . 


/ 
Inorganic consti- 
tuents J 


Cholesterol unde- \ 
termined (5) / 
Total sulphur 


Total phosphorus. . . . 


In absolute weight in milligrams of sulphur 


Protein S (1S) 


0.079 
0.008 
0.125 
0.047 


0.398 
0.054 
0.409 
0.039 


0.885 
0.111 
0.449 
0.122 


0.982 
0.149 
0.279 
0.130 


1.199 
0.246 
0.363 
0.132 


1.352 
0.330 
0.307 
0.129 


Lipoid S (4) 


Neutral S (6). 


Inorganic S (7) 




In absolute weight in milligrams of phosphorus 


Protein P (IP) 


0.064 
0.161 
0.260 


0.215* 
0.558 
0.826 


0.220 
1.964 
1.532 


0.374 
2.464 
1.462 


0.360 
3.160 
1.410 


0.345 
3.427 
1.298 


Lipoid P (2) 


Water sol. P (8) 





* Record from average duplicate analyses, 
t Record from one analysis. 

| Figures in parentheses in this section refer to Chart III. See original. 
Figures in parentheses in this and the following sections refer to Chart IV. 
See original. 



184 



GROWTH OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 




Chart 27. Giving in milligrams the absolute weight of the more important 
chemical constituents of the brain. Plotted on age. Table 81. 

In chart 27 are given the graphs for the absolute weights of the 
more important chemical constituents of the brain plotted on 
age (see table 81). 

GROWTH IN CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: REFERENCES 

1. Entire body. Mendel and Daniels, '12. Pembrey and Spriggs, '04. 

2. Nervous system. Bibra, 1854. Hatai, '09, '10. Koch, M., '13. Koch and 
Mann, '09. Koch and Koch, '13, '13 a. 



CHAPTER 10 
PATHOLOGY 

1. Tumors. 2. Parasites and infections (except leprosy and plague). 3. 
Leprosy. 4. Plague. 5. Public hygiene. 6. Descriptive and experimental 
pathology. 7. Economic relations. 

In the various studies on the pathology of the rat there are, of 
course, some data, which might be tabulated or charted. It 
has been thought best however to adhere to our general plan of 
treating in detail the data for the normal animal only and the 
presentation in this chapter is limited therefore to a series of 
references classified according to the subheads given above. 

PATHOLOGY: REFERENCES 

1. Tumors. Bashford and Murray, 1900. Bennett, '14. Bullock, W. E., 
'13. Cramer and Pringle, '10. Eiselsberg, 1890. Flexner and Jobling, '07. 
Freund, '11. Gay, '09. Gaylord, '06. Jensen, '08. Joannovics, '12. Lambert, 
'11. Levin, '08, '10, '10a, '11. Loeb, '01, '02, '02a, '03, '03a, '04, '07. McCoy, 
'10 a. Moreschi, '09. Ordway and Morris, '13. Robertson and Burnett, '13. 
Rous, '11, '14 Sweet, Corson-White and Saxon, '13. Taylor, '15. Uhlenhuth 
and Weidanz, '09. Van Alstyne, '13. Weil, '13. 

2. Parasites and infections (except plague and leprosy). Bacot, '14. Bahr, 
'06. Bancroft, 1893-1894. Bayon, '12 a. Bullock and Rohdenburg, '13. Cam- 
pana, '11. Chick and Martin, '11. Currie, '10. Dean, '03. Fantham, '06. 
Giglio-Tos, 1900. Hurler, '12. Jungano, '09. Jurgens, '03. Laveran and Mes- 
nil, 1900, 1900 a, 1900 b. Loghem, '08. Mallory and Ordway, '09. Mitchell, 
'12. Morpurgo, '01, '02. Ori, '12. Poppe, '13. Pound, '05. Rabinowitsch and 
Kempner, 1899. Robinson, '13. Rosenau, '01. Sabrazes and Muratet, '05. 
Shipley, '08. Stiles and Crane, '10. Stiles and Hassall, '10. Terry, '05. Traut- 
mann, A., '12. Trautmann, H., '12. Wasielewski and Senn, 1900. Webel, 
'13-'14. Wiener, '02, '03. 

3. Leprosy. Bayon, '11, '12, '12 b, '12 c, Chapin, '12. Dean, '05. Duval, 
'10, '11. Duval and Gurd, '11, '11 a. Duval and Wellman, '12. Duval and 
Harris, '13. Hollmann, '12. Jadassohn, '13. Leboeuf, '12. Marchoux, '10, 
'11, '11-'12, '12. Marchoux and Sorel, '12, '12 a, '12 b, '12 c. McCoy, '08. Tids- 
well and Cleland, '12. Wherry, '08. Wolbach and Honeij, '14. Zinsser and 
Carey, '12. 

4. Plague. Advisory Committee, '12 b. Bacot and Martin, '14. Banner- 
man, '06. Blue, '08, '10. Brinckerhoff,'10. Chick and Martin.'ll. Edington,'01. 

185 



186 PATHOLOGY 

'01. Galli-Valerio, '02. Gauthier and Raybaud, '03. Herzog, '05. Hossack, 
'07 a. India Plague Commission, '08. Liston, '05, '05 a. Loghem and Swellen- 
grebel, '14. Martini, '01. McCoy, '10. Petrie, '10. Reports on Plague Inves- 
tigations in India, '06. Thompson, '06. Tiraboschi, '02, '04, '04 a. 

5. Public hygiene. Advisory Committee, '12 a. Bahr, '09, '09 a, '10. Berg- 
mann, '08. Boelter, '09. Buchanan, '10. Calmette, '10, '11. Converse, '10. 
Cook, 1885-1886. Creel, '10. DuPuy, and Brewster, '10. Foster, '09. Fox, 
'12. Foy, '13. Grubbs and Holsendorf, '13. Heiser, '10, '13. Hobdy, '10. 
Kerr, '10. Konstansoff, '10. Kunhardt and Taylor, '15. Lagarrique, '11. 
Lantz, '07, '10 a. Lavrinovich, '10. Mandoul, '08-'09. Munson, '10. Neu- 
mark, '13. Pottevin, '10. Ramachandrier, '08. Reaney and Malcolmson, '08. 
Ringeling, '12. Rosenau, '10. Rucker, '10, '12, '13. Schern, '12. Simpson, 
'13. Suffolk, '10. Symposium, '11. Tailby, '11. Zuschlag, '03. 

6. Descriptive and experimental pathology. Ascher, '10. Aumann, '12. Au- 
nett, '08. Bainbridge, '08-'09. Bircher, '11, '11 a. Boinet, 1897, 1897 a. 
Bullock and Rohdenburg, '15. Cramer, '08. Czerny, 1890. Fibiger, '13, '13 a, 
'13 b, '14. Flexner and Noguchi, '06. Graham and Hutchison, '14. Horton, 
'05. Kolmer and Yui and Tyau, '13. Lewin, '12, '12 a. Loeb, '13. Mallory 
and Ordway, '09. Martin, 1895. Mavrojannis, '03. Mereshkowsky and Sarin, 
'09. Mereshkowsky, '12, '12 a. Metschnikoff and Roux, 1891. Murphy, '14. 
Nerking, '09. Olds, '10. Ophiils, '11. Plimmer and Thomson, '08. Remlin- 
ger, '04. Rowland, '11. Schern, '09. Schiirmann, '08. Sittenfield, '12. Stef- 
fenhagen, '10. 

7. Economic relations. Bruneau, 1886. Galli-Valerio, '08. Klunzinger, '08. 
Landois, 1886. Lantz, '10 b. Lersch, 1871. Loir, '03. 



PART II 

NORWAY RAT 



CHAPTER 11 
LIFE HISTORY AND DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERS 

1. Introduction. 2. Life history, a. Span of life. b. Gestation period, 
c. Number of litters, d. Number in litter, e. Proportion of sexes, f. Open- 
ing of eyes. g. Age of sexual maturity. 3. Comparison of Norway with Albino. 
4. Similarities of Norway s and Albinos in western Europe to those of the United 
States. 

1. Introduction. To obtain more complete information con- 
cerning the rat it is important to note differences which may ap- 
pear between the domesticated Albino and the wild Norway. 
Since the wild Norway represents the parent stock it might seem 
proper to use that form as the standard and to record the devia- 
tions of the Albino from it. As a matter of fact however our in- 
formation with regard to the Albino is so much the more complete 
that the best results will follow from using it as the standard, 
despite the fact that zoologically it is but a variety of the Norway. 

2. Life history of the Norway rat. As regards behavior, the 
Norway rat is very responsive to sounds, gnaws its cage, bur- 
rows when opportunity offers, is hard to handle and appears 
fierce because usually in a state of terror, yet after some days in 
a cage, it often becomes quite docile. 

Mus norvegicus when mature weighs 300-500 grams. (550 
grams = 1 \ pounds avd., has been reported but is very unusual). 
We have recorded one male with a body weight of 523 gms. The 
color above ranges from light gray or orange to brown and dark 
gray, usually with more or less white or light gray on the ventral 
surfaces. Melanic sports occasionally occur (see p. 14, note 5). 
Mus norvegicus is distinguished from Mus rattus, the house rat, 
by the following superficial characters: larger size; blunter head; 
smaller ears which are thicker and more covered with hair; tail 
shorter than body; claws usually relatively dull. Its movements 
are less rapid. Commonly the female Norway has twelve, some- 
times fourteen nipples, while the house rat has very constantly 
ten. 

189 



190 LIFE HISTORY 

a.) Span of life. The span of life of the Norway rat is not 
known. It seems probable that it is between three and four 
years, though here and there individuals may live somewhat 
longer. 

6.) Period of gestation: 21 days Lantz ('09); 23.5-25.5 days 
Miller ('11). The latter periods are possibly due to the effect 
of nursing on gestation. See p. 22. 

c.) Number of litters. Miller ('11) reports seven litters in 
seven months from a single pair, and estimates that, in general, 
five to six litters may be easily reared by a single pair in a year. 

d.} Number of young in a litter. Climate and station appear 
as general modifying influences. Larger litters are reported 
from northern Europe than from India (Lantz, '09). 

Crampe ('84) obtained an average of 10.4 in fourteen litters. 

Zuschlag ('03) states that among the rats examined at Copen- 
hagen in 1899, fetuses to the number of 14 were found four 
times and he himself in 1902 examined one female bearing 16. 
Donaldson (MS, '09) also noted in a rat taken in Paris, 16 
fetuses. 

The India Plague Commission reports ('08) that the average 
number of fetuses found in females was 8.1 from a total of 12,000 
Norway rats. 

According to Lantz ('09) the maximum size of litters recorded 
in England (Field) are 17, 19, 22 and 23; in India however 14. 

The maximum numbers just given as recorded in England are 
not trustworthy as they represent merely the number of young 
found in a single nest. Since two different litters are sometimes 
reared in the same nest the inference from the number in the nest 
to the number in the litter is not convincing. Lantz ('09) as- 
sumes the average litter (in north temperate latitude ) to be about 
10. This is what Miller ('11) (vide infra) and Crampe ('84) 
(vide supra) found. 

Miller ('11) observed in a group of eight litters 7-12 young in a 
litter, with an average of 10.5. 

e.) Proportion of the sexes. Lantz ('09) and others state that 
the males are in excess. Donaldson ('12) found the same in 
trapped series taken in Paris and London. In a small series 



COMPARISON WITH ALBINO 191 

trapped in Vienna however, the females were in excess. There 
are no observations on the proportions of the sexes at birth in 
general population, but in a special study of "extracted" Nor- 
ways made by King (MS., '15) 56 litters from females them- 
selves taken from litters in which the two sexes were equally 
or nearly equally represented gave 212 males and 213 females. 

f.) Opening of eyes. Miller ('11) found the eyes to open at 16 
or 17 days and also states that the young are weaned during the 
sixth week. 

g.) Age of sexual maturity. Miller ('11) gives one instance of 
a female conceiving at the age of 120 days. 

Owing to the difficulty of keeping M. norvegicus happy and 
contented in captivity, it has not yet been possible to get a trust- 
worthy record for increase in body weight with age in the case of 
this form. Neither our own data (Donaldson and Hatai, '11) 
nor those of Miller ('11) show what must be the normal rate of 
increase in body weight. 

3. Comparison of the Norway with the Albino. To determine 
whether the wild Norway form, as trapped in Philadelphia, dif- 
fers in any way from the albino rats in the colony at The Wistar 
Institute, a comparison has been made between the two forms in 
respect to body length, body weight, brain weight, spinal cord 
weight and the percentage of water in both the brain andthe 
spinal cord (Donaldson and Hatai, '11) as well as the weights of 
several of the parts and viscera. (Jackson and Lowrey, '12; 
Hatai, '14 a.) 

In addition to the familiar facts that the Norway rat is more 
wild and difficult to handle, more successful in escaping from cages 
and much more given to gnawing than is the Albino, that it 
grows bigger, breeds later, has larger litters and a longer sexual 
life (Crampe, '84) it is now possible to make several further 
statements. 

At birth the Norway is somewhat heavier than the stock Albino 
(King, '15, table 1) but in their relative body length and the rela- 
tive weights of the brain and spinal cord, as well as in the per- 
centage of water in these two divisions of the central nervous 
system, they are approximately alike. 



192 LIFE HISTORY 

The marked differences between the two forms appear later, 
during the period of rapid growth. Grouping together the gen- 
eral differences subsequently found, we may say that the Norway 
rat is absolutely much heavier, relatively slightly longer, has a 
relatively heavier brain and a heavier spinal cord, and since for 
the same body weight as a given Albino it is younger, it has 
when so compared a higher percentage of water in the central 
nervous system. 

For the same age however, the percentages of water are nearly 
alike; the percentage in the Norway rat being a trifle higher 
(Donaldson and Hatai, '11). The relative weights of the ovaries, 
testes and suprarenals are also greater (C. Watson, 'Q7; Hatai, 
'14). These plus characters of the Norway tend to disappear 
when the Norway is subjected to domestication. 

The deviations of the Norway may be expressed in another way. 
When the body weights of Norway and Albino are the same: 

The Norway rat has a greater body length; a greater brain 
weight; a greater spinal cord weight; a higher percentage of water 
in the central nervous system; heavier ovaries, testes and 
suprarenals. 

When body lengths are the same: 

The Norway rat has a smaller body weight; a greater brain 
weight; a greater spinal cord weight; a higher percentage of 
water in the central nervous system; heavier ovaries, testes and 
suprarenals. 

When brain weights are the same : 

The Norway rat has a smaller body weight; a smaller body 
length; a smaller spinal cord weight; a higher percentage of 
water in the central nervous system. 

When the spinal cord weights are the same: 

The Norway rat has a smaller body weight; a smaller body 
length; a greater brain weight; a higher percentage of water in 
the central nervous system. 

Speaking generally therefore we may say that when compared 
with the domesticated Albino, the wild Norway rat weighs more, 
is longer and possesses a nervous system in which both the brain 
and spinal cord are relatively larger. 



COMPARISON WITH ALBINO 193 

These differences taken together indicate that the albino rat 
has grown less well, and it seems most natural to attribute the 
lack of growth to the whole set of conditions summed up in the 
word 'domestication.' 

The most marked difference in structure thus far described 
between the two forms is in the relative weight of the central 
nervous system. That this is due to the effects of domestication 
seems highly probable, in view of the observations of Darwin 
('83) and Lapicque and Girard ('07). 

There are still other observations which belong here. In a 
study on the weight of some of the ductless glands of the Norway 
and of the albino rat according to sex and variety Hatai, ('14 a) 
an examination was made of the suprarenals, hypophysis, thy- 
roid and gonads hi both forms. The conclusions reached are 
here given. 

In both the Norway and albino rats the suprarenal glands of 
the males are considerably smaller than those of the females. 
When, however, these two forms of rats are compared, both sexes 
of the Norway rats have suprarenals considerably heavier than 
those of the like sexes of the Albino. 

A sex difference is noted in the weight of the hypophysis in both 
the Norway and albino rats. The male hypophysis is lighter 
than that of the female. However, when these two forms of 
rats are compared, the hypophysis of the Norway is found to be 
smaller than that of the albino rat; the greater difference being 
in the case of the female. 

Neither in the Norway nor the albino rat is a sex difference 
found in the weight of the thyroid. Moreover, there is no weight 
difference in the thyroid according to variety in the case of these 
two forms of rats. 

The sex glands (testes and ovaries) of the Norway rats are 
heavier than those of the albino rats. 

Hatai is also of the opinion that the differences noted are again 
the result of a response to domestication. 

4. Similarity of the Norway s and Albinos of western Europe to 
those of the United States. It is to be noted in this connection 
that so far as tests have been made, the albino rats found in Europe 



194 LIFE HISTORY 

are similar to those found in America. For the Albinos from 
Vienna, Paris and London, the determinations were made by 
Donaldson ('12) and Chisolm ('11) has reported on the relation 
of body length to body weight in albino and pied rats in London. 
Chisolm compares his determinations of length with those by 
Donaldson ('09) and when correction is made for the slight dif- 
ference in the methods of measurements, the two sets of results 
agree nicely. 

It is also true that the wild Norways of Europe seem to be 
similar to those of the United States (Donaldson, '12) so that the 
differences above noted probably will be found at whatever 
stations the two forms are compared. 

LIFE HISTORY NORWAY RAT: REFERENCES 

Chisolm, '11. Crampe, 1884. Darwin, 1883. Donaldson, '09, '11, '12. Don- 
aldson and Hatai, '11. Hatai, '14 a. India Plague Commission, '08. Jackson 
andLowrey, '12. Lantz, '09. Lapicque and Girard, '07. Miller, '11. Watson, 
C., '07. Zuschlag, '03. 



CHAPTER 12 



GROWTH IN WEIGHT OF PARTS AND SYSTEMS OF 

THE BODY 

1. Growth of parts. 2. Growth of systems. 3. Weight of cranium. 

1. Growth of parts of the body. For the general conditions 
under which these observations were made by Jackson and 
Lowrey ('12), see pp. 73-74. 

Five Norways only were examined, these having been trapped 
in barns at the University of Missouri. They were probably 
living on gram. As will be seen by reference to table 82 the 
smallest of these, a male, weighed 65 grams and was therefore 
probably from three to five weeks old. The percentage rela- 
tions of the several parts of the body are given in table 82. 



TABLE 82 



Norway rat Percentage weights of head, trunk and extremities. 
(Jackson and Lowrey, '!%) 



Sexes combined 



SEX 


NET BODT 
WEIGHT 


HEAD 


FORE LIMBS 


HIND LIMBS 


TRUNK 


M 


grams 

65.0 


per cent 
14.66 


per cent 

5.95 


per cent 
13.88 


per cent 

65 51 


M 


95 4 


12.17 


5 83 


15 34 


66 66 


F 


107.5 


10.18 


5.58 


15 81 


68 43 


M.... 


164 


9 27 


5 24 


14 94 


70 55 


F 


254 0' 


7 85 


5 02 


13 68 


73 45 















1 Including gravid uterus, which weighed 13.76 grams. 

On comparing the relative values here given with those for the 
albino rat (see p. 74) it appears that for corresponding body 
weights the average values for the fore limbs and hind limbs are 
low, while those for the trunk are high a relation which might 
be expected in view of the greater body length of the Norway 
see tables 49 and 82. 

195 



196 



GROWTH OF PARTS AND SYSTEMS 



TABLE 83 



Norway rat Percentage of total body weight represented by the weight of integument, 
ligamentous skeleton, musculature, viscera and remainder. (Jackson and Lowrey, 



SEX 


NET BODY 
WEIGHT 


INTEGUMENT 


LIGAMENTOUS 
SKELETON 


MUSCULATURE 


VISCERA 


REMAINDER 


M 


grams 

65.0 


per cent 
18.42 


per cent 

13.15 


per cent 

35.39 


per cent 
23.40 


per cent 

9.64 


M 


95.4 


19.29 


13.85 


38.57 


23.21 


5.08 


F... 


107.5 


20.37 


13.86 


42.14 


17.51 


6.12 


M 


164.0 


17.35 


13.29 


41.66 


20.95 


6.75 


F 


254.0' 


19.41 


10.16 


44.21 


16.22 


10.00 

















1 Including gravid uterus, which weighed 13.76 grams. 

2.} Growth of systems. When the values for the five entries in 
table 83 are compared with the last four in table 50 for the albino 
rat, it is noted that in the Norway the values for the musculature 
and viscera are high, while that for the 'remainder' is low. 
This last difference is due in part to the smaller amount of fat 
in the Norway. At the same time there is other evidence to 
show that for the same body weight as the Albino, both the 
trunk and the viscera of the Norway are heavier, as here found. 

3.) Weight of cranium. (Donaldson, '12.) Determinations 
of the weight of the cranium dried at room temperature have 

TABLE 84 

The mean weight in grams of the crania in each body weight group of the four series 
of wild Norway rats from Paris, London, Philadelphia, Vienna (based on table 1 
Donaldson, '12 a.) Each weight group is based on six cases', S males and 3 females 



BODY WEIGHT 



WEIGHT OF THE CRANIA IN GRAMS 



GROUP 


LONDON 


PARIS 


PHILADELPHIA 


VIENNA 


grams 

125 


1 17 


1 27 


1 13 


1 10 


175 


1 58 


1 58 


1 34 


1 37 


225 


1 84 


1 91 


1 71 


1 70 


275 


2 25 


2 17 


2 14 


1 90 


325 


2 69 


2 60 


2 40 


2 27 


375 


3.13 


2 98 


2.86 


2 48 













For the corresponding weights of the albino crania see table 55. 



WEIGHT OF CRANIUM 197 

been made. By the cranium is meant the skull with upper teeth, 
minus the mandible with lower teeth and the ear bones. The 
mean weights are given in table 84. 

GROWTH IN WEIGHT OF PARTS AND SYSTEMS OF THE BODY: REFERENCES 
Donaldson, '12 a. Jackson and Lowrey, '12. 



CHAPTER 13 

GROWTH OF ORGANS IN RELATION TO BODY 
LENGTH NORWAY 

1. Length of tail and weights of body, brain and spinal cord in relation to 
body length. 2. Weight length ratios. 

1) Length of tail, body weight, brain weight and spinal cord 
weight in relation to body length. Before passing to the tables on 
the Norway rat, it should be pointed out that the observations 
used for them have been made on the Norway rat as found in 
Philadelphia. At the same tune it has been shown that the Nor- 
way rat taken in Vienna, Paris and London is similar in its gen- 
eral form to that found in the United States, so that the determi- 
nations in the tables may be applied to the Norway rat in Europe 
also (Donaldson, '12). 

Table 85 contains values for the several characters named 
above, computed by the formulas devised by Hatai; these for- 
mulas being in turn based on series of observations, the number 
of which is given in e.ach case. 

Body length on body weight. From the study of 282 male 
and 318 female Norway rats, trapped in Philadelphia, measure- 
ments have been taken for body weight and body length (Don- 
aldson and Hatai, '11). 

The values for body length sexes combined on body weight 
are given by formula (46). In chart 28 the corresponding graph 
is given and for comparison the graph for the body length of 
the Albino is also drawn (see formula (1)). 

It has been found that for a given body weight, the body length 
is in the male Norway 0.4 per cent above the mean, and in the 
female 0.4 per cent below (Donaldson and Hatai, '11, p. 425). 

Body weight on body length. When the formula (46) is trans- 
formed so as to give the body weight for a given body length and 
the correction for sex is included, we have for the males formula 
(47) and for the females formula (48). In chart (29) are given 
the graphs for both sexes. 

198 



BODY LENGTH BODY WEIGHT 



199 



55 TOO SO 00 



KORVAY 
ALBNO 



BODY V/EJGHT 



Chart 28 Norway rat Giving body length on 
Formula (46), table 85. Inserted for comparison 
the male Albino (see formula (1) . 



the body weight. Males only, 
is the corresponding graph for 



Mot 



BODY LENGTH 

zlo 1260 



Chart 29 Norway rat Giving the body weight on the body length. Males, 
females. Formulas (47), (48), table 85. 



200 



GROWTH OF ORGANS 



Body weight of the Norway on the body weight of the Albino. 
Formula (49) gives the body weight of the Norway on the body 
weight of the Albino for a limited range of Albino body weights. 

Tail length on body length. The tail length on the body 
length has been determined by Hatai (MS '14) and is repre- 
sented by formulas (50) and (51) for the male and female re- 



20 40 



BDBy LENGTH 

, mm. 



LLI 

240 



Chart 30 Norway rat giving the tail length on the body length. Males, 
females. Formulas (50), (51), table 85. 

spectively. As can be seen by consulting table 85 the males have 
the shorter tails a relation which agrees with that found for 
the Albino. In chart 30 are given the corresponding graphs. 

Brain weight on body weight. The direct determinations of 
the weight of the brain have been made on 232 males and 278 
females. The general formula (52) expresses the relation of 
brain weight on body weight for the sexes combined. 

It applies however only to rats with a body weight above 
five grams. 



WEIGHTS OF BRAIN AND CORD 



201 



Using this formula the brain weights have been computed for 
each of the series of body weights as determined by formulas 
(47) and (48). 

It has been found however (Donaldson and Hatai, '11, p. 428) 
that the weight of the male brain is one per cent above the mean 
for the two sexes, and that of the female, one per cent below. 





Chart 31 Norway rat, giving brain weight on the body weight. Males only. 
With the corresponding graph for the Albino inserted for comparison. Formula 
52, table 85. Also the spinal cord weight on the body weight. Males only. With 
the corresponding graph for the Albino inserted for comparison. Formula 54, 
table 85. 



As a consequence, each value gotten by the foregoing compu- 
tations has been corrected by adding one per cent to the value 
found to give the weight for the male brain and by subtracting 
one per cent to obtain the weight for the female brain. 

Chart 31 gives the graph for the male brain weight on the 
body weight and the corresponding graph (male) for the Albino 
(see chart 9) is also drawn for comparison. The marked differ- 
ence in the brain weight of the two forms is clearly shown. 



202 GROWTH OF ORGANS 

Formula (53) gives the cranial capacity for the body weight 
a useful datum in many instances. 

Spinal cord weight on body weight. In the case of the spinal 
cord, the computation was made for the sexes combined by the 
aid of formula (54). Here again there is a difference according 
to sex, the male spinal cord exceeding the female by 0.2 per cent, 
and the value for both sexes combined, by 0.1 per cent. Cor- 
rections similar to those applied to the brain have been made 
in this case also. Chart (31) gives the graph for the male spinal 
cord on body weight and the corresponding graph (male) for 
the Albino (see chart 9) is also drawn for comparison. 

Formula (55) gives the spinal cord weight (sexes combined) 
on the brain weight sexes combined, table 85. 

2. Weight-length ratios. In table 86 are given the values 
for the Norway obtained by dividing the body weight by the 
body length, as these appear in table 85. 

The explanation of the use of this table has been given on 
p. 72 in connection with the corresponding table 48 for the 
Albino. 

GROWTH OF ORGANS IN RELATION TO BODY LENGTH! REFERENCES 
Donaldson, '12, '12 a. Donaldson and Hatai, '11. 



GROWTH OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



203 



TABLE 85 

Gives the tail length, body weight, brain weight and spinal cord weight for each milli- 
meter of body length of the male and female Norway rat respectively. 
See Charts 28, 29, SO, SI. 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 
length 


Body 

weight 


Weight of 


Tail length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



50 


15.0 


4.4 




0.031 


16.0 


4.6 




0.032 


51 


16.2 


4.8 




0.034 


17.2 


4.9 




0.035 


52 


17.3 


5.1 


0.270 


0.037 


18.4 


5.2 


0.307 


0.038 


53 


18.5 


5.4 


0.367 


0.040 


19.6 


5.6 


0.393 


0.041 


54 


19.6 


5.8 


0.443 


0.043 


20.8 


5.9 


0.462 


0.044 


55 


20.8 


6.1 


0.508 


0.046 


21.9 


6.3 


0.522 


0.047 


56 


21.9 


6.5 


0.563 


0.049 


23.1 


6.6 


0.574 


0.050 


57 


23.0 


6.8 


0.611 


0.052 


24.3 


7.0 


0.620 


0.053 


58 


24.1 


7.2 


0.655 


0.055 


25.4 


7.4 


0.661 


0.056 


59 


25.3 


7.6 


0.694 


0.058 


26.5 


7.7 


0.698 


0.059 


60 


26.4 


7.9 


0.730 


0.061 


27.7 


8.1 


0.732 


0.063 


61 


27.5 


8.3 


0.763 


0.064 


28.8 


8.5 


0.763 


0.066 


62 


28.6 


8.7 


0.794 


0.067 


29.9 


8.9 


0.793 


0.069 


63 


29.7 


9.1 


0.823 


0.070 


31.1 


9.3 


0.820 


0.072 


64 


30.8 


9.5 


0.850 


0.074 


32.2 


9.7 


0.846 


0.075 


65 


31.9 


9.9 


0.875 


0.077 


33.3 


10.1 


0.871 


0.078 


66 


32.9 


10.3 


0:900 


0.080 


34.4 


10.5 


0.894 


0.082 


67 


34.0 


10.7 


0.923 


0.083 


35.5 


10.9 


0.916 


0.085 


68 


35.1 


11.1 


0.944 


0.086 


36.6 


11.3 


0.937 


0.088 


69 


36.2 


11.5 


0.965 


0.090 


37.7 


11.8 


0.957 


0.091 


70 


37.2 


11.9 


0.985 


0.093 


38.8 


12.2 


0.977 


0.095 


71 


38.3 


12.4 


1.005 


0.096 


39.9 


12.6 


0.995 


0.098 


72 


39.4 


12.8 


1.023 


0.099 


41.0 


13.1 


1.013 


0.101 


73 


40.4 


13.3 


1.041 


0.103 


42.1 


13.5 


1.031 


0.104 


74 


41.5 


13.7 


1.059 


0.106 


43.1 


14.0 


1.048 


0.108 


75 


42.5 


14.2 


1.075 


0.109 


44.2 


14.5 


1.064 


0.111 


76 


43.6 


14.7 


1.092 


0.113 


45.3 


14.9 


1.080 


0.114 


77 


44.6 


15.1 


1.107 


0.116 


46.4 


15.4 


1.095 


0.118 


78 


45.7 


15.6 


1.123 


0.119 


47.4 


15.9 


1.110 


0.121 


79 


46.7 


16.1 


1.138 


0.123 


48.5 


16.4 


1.124 


0.125 


80 


47.7 


16.6 


1.152 


0.126 


49.5 


16.9 


1.138 


0.128 


81 


48.8 


17.1 


1.166 


0.129 


50.6 


17.4 


1.152 


0.131 


82 


49.8 


17.6 


1.180 


0.133 


51.7 


17.9 


1.166 


0.135 



204 



GROWTH OF ORGANS 



TABLE 85 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 

length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Tail length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



83 


50.8 


18.1 


1.194 


0.136 


52.7 


18.5 


1.179 


0.138 


84 


51.9 


18.7 


1.207 


0.140 


53.8 


19.0 


1.192 


0.142 


85 


52.9 


19.2 


1.220 


0.143 


54.8 


19.6 


1.204 


0.145 


86 


53.9 


19.7 


1.232 


0.146 


55.8 


20.1 


1.216 


0.149 


87 


54.9 


20.3 


1.245 


0.150 


56.9 


20.7 


1.229 


0.152 


88 


55.9 


20.8 


1.257 


0.153 


57.9 


21.2 


1.240 


0.156 


89 


57.0 


21.4 


1.269 


0.157 


59.0 


21.8 


1.252 


0.159 


90 


58.0 


22.0 


1.281 


0.160 


60.0 


22.4 


1.264 


0.163 


91 


59.0 


22.5 


1.292 


0.164 


61.0 


23.0 


1.275 


0.166 


92 


60.0 


23.1 


1.303 


0.167 


62.1 


23.6 


1.286 


0.170 


93, 


61.0 


23.7 


1.315 


0.171 


63.1 


24.2 


1.297 


0.173 


94 


62.0 


24.3 


1.325 


0.174 


64.1 


24.8 


1.307 


0.177 


95 


63.0 


25.0 


1.336 


0.178 


65.1 


25.4 


1.318 


0.180 


96 


64.0 


25.6 


1.347 


0.181 


66.1 


26.1 


1.328 


0.184 


97 


65.0 


26.2 


1.357 


0.185 


67.2 


26.7 


1.338 


0.188 


98 


66.0 


26.9 


1.368 


0.189 


68.2 


27.4 


1.348 


0.191 


99 


67.0 


27.5 


1.378 


0.192 


69.2 


28.0 


1.358 


0.195 


100 


68.0 


28.2 


1.388 


0.196 


70.2 


28.7 


1.368 


0.198 


101 


69.0 


28.8 


1.398 


0.199 


71.2 


29.4 


1.378 


0.202 


102 


70.0 


29.5 


1.408 


0.203 


72.2 


30.1 


1.388 


0.206 


103 


71.0 


30.2 


1.417 


0.207 


73.2 


30.8 


1.397 


0.209 


104 


72.0 


30.9 


1.427 


0.210 


74.2 


31.5 


1.406 


0.213 


105 


73.0 


31.6 


1.436 


0.214 


75.2 


32.2 


1.416 


0.217 


106 


73.9 


32.3 


1.446 


0.218 


76.2 


33.0 


1.425 


0.220 


107 


74.9 


33.1 


1.455 


0.221 


77.2 


33.7 


1.434 


0.224 


108 


75.9 


33.8 


1.464 


0.225 


78.2 


34.5 


1.443 


0.228 


109 


76.9 


34.6 


1.473 


0.229 


79.2 


35.2 


1.452 


0.232 


110 


77.9 


35.3 


1.482 


0.232 


80.2 


36.0 


1.460 


0.235 


111 


78.8 


36.1 


1.491 


0.236 


81.2 


36.8 


1.469 


0.239 


112 


79.8 


36.9 


1.499 


0.240 


82.2 


37.6 


1.477 


0.243 


113 


80.8 


37.7 


1.508 


0.244 


83.2 


38.4 


1.486 


0.247 


114 


81.8 


38.5 


1.517 


0.247 


84.2 


39.3 


1.494 


0.250 


115 


82.7 


39.3 


1.525 


0.251 


85.2 


40.1 


1.503 


0.254 


116 


83.7 


40.2 


1.534 


0.255 


86.2 


40.9 


1.511 


0.258 


117 


84.7 


41.0 


1.542 


0.259 


87.2 


41.8 


1.519 


0.262 


118 


85.6 


41.9 


1.550 


0.262 


88.1 


42.7 


1.527 


0.266 



GROWTH OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



205 



TABLE 85 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Tail length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



119 


86.6 


42.7 


1.558 


0.266 


89.1 


43.6 


1.535 


0.269 


120 


87.6 


43.6 


1.567 


0.270 


90.1 


44.5 


1.543 


0.273 


121 


88.5 


44.5 


1.575 


0.274 


91.1 


45.4 


1.551 


0.277 


122 


89.5 


45.4 


1.583 


0.278 


92.1 


46.3 


1.559 


0.281 


123 


90.5 


46.3 


1.591 


0.281 


93.0 


47.3 


1.567 


0.285 


124 


91.4 


47.3 


1.599 


0.285 


94.0 


48.2 


1.575 


0.289 


125 


92.4 


48.2 


1.606 


0.289 


95.0 


49.2 


1.582 


0.292 


126 


93.4 


49.2 


1.614 


0.293 


96.0 


50.2 


1.590 


0.296 


127 


94.3 


50.2 


1.622 


0.297 


96.9 


51.2 


1.598 


0.300 


128 


95.3 


51.1 


1.630 


0.301 


97.9 


52.2 


1.605 


0.304 


129 


96.2 


52.1 


1.637 


0.305 


98.9 


53.2 


1.613 


0.308 


130 


97.2 


53.2 


1.645 


0.308 


99.8 


54.2 


1.620 


0.312 


131 


98.1 


54.2 


1.652 


0.312 


100.8 


55.3 


1.627 


0.316 


132 


99.1 


55.3 


1.660 


0.316 


101.8 


56.4 


1.635 


0.320 


133 


100.0 


56.3 


1.667 


0.320 


102.7 


57.5 


1.642 


0.324 


134 


101.0 


57.4 


1.675 


0.324 


103.7 


58.6 


1.649 


0.328 


135 


101.9 


58.5 


1.682 


0.328 


104.7 


59.7 


1.657 


0.332 


136 


102.9 


59.6 


1.689 


0.332 


105.6 


60.9 


1.664 


0.336 


137 


103.8 


60.7 


1.697 


0.336 


106.6 


62.0 


1.671 


0.339 


138 


104.8 


61.9 


1.704 


0.340 


107.5 


63.2 


1.678 


0.343 


139 


105.7 


63.0 


1.711 


0.344 


108.5 


64.3 


1.685 


0.347 


140 


106.7 


64.2 


1.718 


0.348 


109.5 


65.6 


1.692 


0.35k 


141 


107.6 


65.4 


1.725 


0.352 


110.4 


66.8 


1.699 


0.355 


142 


108.6 


66.6 


1.732 


0.356 


111.4 


68.0 


1.706 


0.359 


143 


109.5 


67.8 


1.739 


0.360 


112.3 


69.3 


1.713 


0.363 


144 


110.5 


69.1 


1.746 


0.363 


113.3 


70.6 


1.720 


0.368 


145 


111.4 


70.4 


1.753 


0.367 


114.2 


71.9 


1.727 


0.372 


146 


112.3 


71.6 


1.760 


0.371 


115.2 


73.2 


1.733 


0.376 


147 


113.3 


72.9 


1.767 


0.375 


116.1 


74.5 


1.740 


0.380 


148 


114.2 


74.3 


1.774 


0.379 


117.1 


75.9 


1.747 


0.384 


149 


115.2 


75.6 


1.781 


0.384 


118.0 


77.2 


1 754 


0.388 


150 


116.1 


77.0 


1.788 


0.388 


119.0 


78.6 


1.760 


0.392 


151 


117.0 


78.3 


1.794 


0.392 


119.9 


80.0 


1.767 


0.396 


152 


118.0 


79.7 


1.801 


0.396 


120.9 


81.5 


1.774 


0.400 


153 


118.9 


81.2 


1.808 


0.400 


121.8 


82.9 


1.780 


0.404 



206 



GROWTH OF ORGANS 



TABLE 85 Coutinued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 

length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Tail length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



154 


119.8 


82.6 


1.815 


0.404 


122.8 


84.4 


1.787 


0.408 


155 


120.8 


84.1 


1.821 


0.408 


123.7 


85.9 


1.793 


0.412 


156 


121.7 


85.6 


1.828 


0.412 


124.7 


87.4 


1.800 


0.416 


157 


122.6 


87.1 


1.835 


0.416 


125.6 


89.0 


1.807 


0.420 


158 


123.6 


88.6 


1.841 


0.420 


126.6 


90.6 


1.813 


0.424 


159 


124.5 


90.1 


1.848 


0.424 


127.5 


92.1 


1.819 


0.429 


160 


125.4 


91.7 


1.854 


0.428 


128.4 


93.8 


1.826 


0.433 


161 


126.4 


93.3 


1.861 


0.432 


129.4 


95.4 


1.832 


0.437 


162 


127.3 


94.9 


1.867 


0.436 


130.3 


97.1 


1.839 


0.441 


163 


128.2 


96.6 


1.874 


0.441 


131.3 


98.7 


1.845 


0.445 


164 


129.1 


98.2 


1.880 


0.445 


132.2 


100.5 


1.851 


0.449 


165 


130.1 


99.9 


1.887 


0.449 


133.1 


102.2 


1.858 


0.453 


166 


131.0 


101.6 


1.893 


0.453 


134.1 


104.1 


1.864 


0.458 


167 


131.9 


103.4 


1.899 


0.457 


135.0 


105.7 


1 870 


0.462 


168 


132.8 


105.1 


1.906 


0.461 


135.9 


107.5 


1 877 


0.466 


169 


133.8 


106.9 


1.912 


0.465 


136.9 


109.4 


1.883 


0.470 


170 


134.7 


108.7 


1.918 


0.469 


137.8 


111.3 


1.889 


0.474 


171 


135.6 


110.6 


1.925 


0.474 


138.8 


113.1 


1.895 


0.478 


172 


136.5 


112.4 


1.931 


0.478 


139.7 


115.1 


1.901 


0.483 


173 


137.5 


114.3 


1.937 


0.482 


140.6 


117.0 


1.908 


0.487 


174 


138.4 


116.3 


1.944 


0.486 


141.5 


119.0 


1.914 


0.491 


475 


139.3 


118.2 


1.950 


0.490 


142.5 


121.0 


1.920 


0.495 


176 


140.2 


120.2 


1.956 


0.494 


143.4 


123.0 


1.926 


0.499 


177 


141.1 


122.2 


1.962 


0.499 


144.3 


125.1 


1.932 


0.504 


178 


142.1 


124.2 


1.968 


0.503 


145.3 


127.2 


1.938 


0.508 


179 


143.0 


126.3 


1.975 


0.507 


146.2 


129.3 


1.9--4 


0.512 


180 


143.9 


128.4 


1.981 


0.511 


147.1 


131.5 


1.949 


0.516 


181 


144.8 


130.5 


1.987 


0.515 


148.1 


133.7 


1.955 


0.520 


182 


145.7 


132.7 


1.993 


0.520 


149.0 


135.9 


1.962 


0.525 


183 


146.7 


134.9 


1.999 


0.524 


149.9 


138.1 


1.968 


0.529 


184 


147.6 


137.1 


2.005 


0.528 


150.8 


140.4 


1.974 


0.533 


185 


148.5 


139.3 


2.011 


0.532 


151.8 


142.8 


1.980 


0.537 


186 


149.4 


141.6 


2.017 


0.536 


152.7 


145.1 


1.986 


0.542 


187 


150.3 


144.0 


2.023 


0.541 


153.6 


147.5 


1.992 


0.546 


188 


151.2 


146.3 


2.029 


0.545 


154.5 


149.9 


1.998 


0.550 


189 


152.2 


148.7 


2.035 


0.549 


155.5 


152.4 


2.004 


0.554 


190 


153.1 


151.1 


2.042 


0.553 


156.4 


154.9 


2.010 


0.559 



GROWTH OF ORGANS ON BODY LENGTH 



207 



TABLE 85 Continued 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 

length 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Tail length 


Body 

weight 


Weight of 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 



191 


154.0 


153.6 


2.047 


0.557 


157.3 


157.4 


2.016 


0.563 


192 


154.9 


156.1 


2.053 


0.562 


158.2 


160.0 


2.022 


0.567 


193 


155.8 


158.6 


2.059 


0.566 


159.1 


162.6 


2.028 


0.572 


194 


156.7 


161.2 


2.065 


0.570 


160.1 


165.2 


2.034 


0.576 


195 


157.6 


163.8 


2.071 


0.575 


161.0 


167.9 


2.039 


0.580 


196 


158.5 


166.4 


2.077 


0.579 


161.9 


170.6 


2.045 


0.584 


197 


159.4 


169.1 


2.083 


0.583 


162.8 


173.4 


2.051 


0.589 


198 


160.4 


171.8 


2.089 


0.587 


163.7 


176.2 


2.057 


0.593 


199 


161.3 


174.6 


2.095 


0.592 


164.7 


179.1 


2.063 


0.597 


200 


162.2 


177.4 


2.101 


0.596 


165.6 


181.9 


2.069 


0.602 


201 


163.1 


180.2 


2.107 


0.600 


166.5 


184.9 


2.074 


0.606 


202 


164.0 


183.1 


2.112 


0.604 


167.4 


187.8 


2.080 


0.610 


203 


164.9 


186.0 


2.118 


0.609 


168.3 


190.9 


2.086 


0.615 


204 


165.8 


189.0 


2.124 


0.613 


169.2 


193.9 


2.092 


0.619 


205 


166.7 


192.0 


2.130 


0.617 


170.2 


197.0 


2.098 


0.623 


206 


167.6 


195.0 


2.136 


0.622 


171.1 


200.2 


2.103 


0.628 


207 


168.5 


198.1 


2.142 


0.626 


172.0 


203.4 


2.109 


0.632 


208 


169.4 


201.3 


2.148 


0.630 


172.9 


206.6 


2.115 


0.636 


209 


170.3 


204.4 


2.153 


0.635 


173.8 


209.9 


2.120 


0.641 


210 


171.2 


207.7 


2.159 


0.639 


174.7 


213.2 


2.126 


0.645 


211 


172.1 


210.9 


2.165 


0.643 


175.6 


216.6 


2.132 


0.649 


212 


173.1 


214.3 


2.171 


0.647 


176.6 


220.1 


2.138 


0.654 


213 


174.0 


217.7 


2.177 


0.652 


177.5 


223.5 


2.143 


0.658 


214 


174.9 


221.1 


2.182 


0.656 


178.4 


227.1 


2.149 


0.662 


215 


175.8 


224.5 


2.188 


0.660 


179.3 


230.7 


2.155 


0.667 


216 


176.7 


228.1 


2.194 


0.665 


180.2 


234.3 


2.160 


0.671 


217 


177.6 


231.6 


2.199 


0.669 


181.1 


238.0 


2.166 


0.675 


218 


178.5 


235.3 


2.205 


0.673 


182.0 


241.8 


2.171 


0.680 


219 


179.4 


239.0 


2.211 


0.678 


182.9 


245.6 


2.177 


0.684 


220 


180.3 


242.7 


2.217 


0.682 


183.8 


249.4 


2.183 


0.689 


221 


181.2 


246.5 


2.222 


0.686 


184.8 


253.3 


2.188 


0.693 


222 


182.1 


250.3 


2.228 


0.691 


185.7 


257.3 


2.194 


0.697 


223 


183.0 


254.2 


2.234 


0.695 


186.6 


261.3 


2.199 


0.702 


224 


183.9 


258.2 


2.239 


0.699 


187.5 


265.4 


2.205 


0.706 


225 


184.8 


262.2 


2.245 


0.704 


188.4 


269.6 


2.211 


0.710 


226 


185.7 


266.3 


2.251 


0.708 


189.3 


273.8 


2.216 


0.715 


227 


186.6 


270.4 


2.256 


0.713 


190.2 


278.1 


2.222 


0.719 



208 



GROWTH OF ORGANS 



TABLE 85 Concluded 



MALES 


FEMALES 


Body 
length 


Tail 
length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Tail length 


Body 
weight 


Weight of 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


Brain 


Spinal 
cord 


mm. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


mm. 


gms. 


gms. 


gms. 


228 


187.5 


274.6 


2.262 


0.717 


191.1 


282.4 


2.227 


0.724 


229 


188.4 


278.8 


2.268 


0.721 


192.0 


286.8 


2.233 


0.728 


230 


189.3 


283.1 


2.273 


0.726 


192.9 


291.3 


2.238 


0.732 


231 


190.2 


287.5 


2.279 


0.730 


193.8 


295.8 


2.244 


0.737 


232 


191.1 


292.0 


2.285 


0.734 


194.7 


300.4 


2.250 


0.741 


233 


192.0 


296.5 


2.290 


0.739 


195.6 


305.1 


2.255 


0.746 


234 


192.9 


301.0 


2.296 


0.743 


196.5 


309.8 


2.261 


0.750 


235 


193.8 


305.7 


2.301 


0.748 


197.4 


314.6 


2.266 


0.754 


236 


194.7 


310.4 


2.307 


0.752 


198.3 


319.5 


2.272 


0.759 


237 


195.5 


315.1 


2.312 


0.756 


199.2 


324.4 


2.277 


0.763 


238 


196.4 


320.0 


2.318 


0.761 


200.1 


329.4 


2.283 


0.768 


239 


197.3 


324.9 


2.324 


0.765 


201.1 


334.5 


2.288 


0.772 


240 


198.2 


329.9 


2.329 


0.769 


202.0 


339.7 


2.294 


0.776 


241 


199.1 


334.9 


2.335 


0.774 


202.9 


344.9 


2.299 


0.781 


242 


200.0 


340.1 


2.340 


0.778 


203.8 


350.2 


2.305 


0.785 


243 


200.9 


345.3 


2.346 


0.783 


204.7 


255.6 


2.310 


0.790 


244 


201.8 


350.5 


2.351 


0.787 


205.6 


361.1 


2.316 


0.794 


245 


202.7 


355.9 


2.357 


0.791 


206.5 


366.7 


2.321 


0.799 


246 


203.6 


361.3 


2.363 


0.796 


207.4 


372.3 


2.327 


0.803 


247 


204.5 


366.8 


2.368 


0.800 


208.3 


378.0 


2.332 


0.807 


248 


205.4 


372.4 


2.374 


0.805 


209.2 


383.8 


2.337 


0.812 


249 


206.3 


378.1 


2.379 


0.809 


210.1 


389.7 


2.343 


0.816 


250 


207.2 


383.9 


2.385 


0.813 


211.0 


395.7 


2.349 


0.821 


251 




389.7 


2.390 


0.818 




401.7 


2.354 


0.825 


252 




395.6 


2.396 


0.822 




407.9 


2.359 


0.830 


253 




401.6 


2.401 


0.827 




414.1 


2.365 


0.834 


254 




407.7 


2.407 


0.831 




420.4 


2.370 


0.838 


255 




413.9 


2.412 


0.835 




426.9 


2.376 


0.843 


256 




420.2 


2.418 


0.840 




433.4 


2.381 


0.847 


257 




426.5 


2.423 


0.844 




440.0 


2.386 


0.852 


258 




433.0 


2.429 


0.849 




446.7 


2.392 


0.856 


259 




439.6 


2.434 


0.853 




453.5 


2.397 


0.861 


260 




446.2 


2.440 


0.858 




460.4 


2.403 


0.865 



209 



TABLE 86 

Giving in grams the values obtained by dividing the body weight by the body length 
in millimeters. Based on data in table 85 



BODT 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODY 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODT 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


50 


0.09 


0.09 


87 


0.23 


0.24 


124 


0.38 


0.39 


51 


0.09 


0.10 


88 


0.24 


0.24 


125 


0.39 


0.39 


52 


0.10 


0.10 


89 


0.24 


0.24 


126 


0.39 


0.40 


53 


0.10 


0.11 


90 


0.24 


0.25 


127 


0.40 


0.40 


54 


0.11 


0.11 








128 


0.40 


0.41 


55 


0.11 


0.11 


91 


0.25 


0.25 


129 


0.40 


0.41 


56 


0.12 


0.12 


92 


0.25 


0.26 


130 


0.41 


0.42 


57 


0.12 


0.12 


93 


0.25 


0.26 








58 


0.12 


0.13 


94 


0.26 


0.26 


131 


0.41 


0.42 


59 


0.13 


0.13 


95 


0.26 


0.27 


132 


0.42 


0.43 


60 


0.13 


0.14 


96 


0.27 


0.27 


133 


0.42 


0.43 








97 


0.27 


0.28 


134 


0.43 


0.44 


61 


0.14 


0.14 


98 


0.27 


0.28 


135 


0.43 


0.44 


62 


0.14 


0.14 


99 


0.28 


0.28 


136 


0.44 


0.45 


63 


0.14 


0.15 


100 


0.28 


0.29 


137 


0.44 


0.45 


64 


0.15 


0.15 








138 


0.45 


0.46 


65 


0.15 


0.16 


101 


0.29 


0.29 


139 


0.45 


0.45 


66 


0.16 


0.16 


102 


0.29 


0.30 


140 


0.46 


0.47 


67 


0.16 


0.16 


103 


0.29 


0.30 








68 


0.16 


0.17 


104 


0.30 


0.30 


141 


0.46 


0.47 


69 


0.17 


0.17 


105 


0.30 


0.31 


142 


0.47 


0.48 


70 


0.17 


0.17 


106 


0.30 


0.31 


143 


0.47 


0.48 








107 


0.31 


0.31 


144 


0.48 


0.49 


71 


0.17 


0.18 


108 


0.31 


0.32 


145 


0.49 


0.50 


72 


0.18 


0.18 


109 


0.32 


0.32 


146 


0.49 


0.50 


73 


0.18 


0.18 


110 


0.32 


0.33 


147 


0.50 


0.51 


74 


0.19 


0.19 


111 


0.33 


0.33 


148 


0.50 


0.51 


75 


0.19 


0.19 


112 


0.33 


0.34 


149 


0.51 


0.52 


76 


0.19 


0.20 


113 


0.33 


0.34 


150 


0.51 


0.52 


77 


0.20 


0.20 


114 


0.34 


0.34 








78 


0.20 


0.20 


115 


0.34 


0.35 


151 


0.52 


0.53 


79 


0.20 


0.21 


116 


0.35 


0.35 


152 


0.52 


0.54 


80 


0.21 


0.21 


117 


0.35 


0.36 


153 


0.53 


0.54 








118 


0.36 


0.36 


154 


0.54 


0.55 


81 


0.21 


0.21 


119 


0.36 


0.37 


155 


0.54 


0.55 


82 


0.21 


0.22 


120 


0.36 


0.37 


156 


0.55 


0.56 


83 


0.22 


0.22 








157 


0.55 


0.57 


84 


0.22 


0.23 


121 


0.37 


0.38 


158 


0.56 


0.57 


85 


0.23 


0.23 


122 


0.37 


0.38 


159 


0.57 


0.58 


86 


0.23 


0.23 


123 


0.38 


0.38 


160 


0.57 


0.59 



210 



GROWTH OF ORGANS 



TABLE 86 Concluded 



BODY 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODY 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


BODY 
LENGTH 


RATIO 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


161 


0.58 


0.59 


195 


0.84 


0.86 


228 


1.20 


1.24 


162 


0.59 


0.60 


196 


0.85 


0.87 


229 


1.22 


1.25 


163 


0.59 


0.61 


197 


0.86 


0.88 


230 


1.23 


1.27 


164 


0.60 


0.61 


198 


0.87 


0.89 








. 165 


0.61 


0.62 


199 


0.88 


0.90 


231 


1.24 


1.28 


. 166 


0.61 


0.63 


200 


0.89 


0.91 


232 


1.26 


1.29 


167 


0.62 


0.63 








233 


1.27 


1.31 


168 


0.63 


0.64 


201 


0.90 


0.92 


234 


1.29 


1.32 


169 


0.63 


0.65 


202 


0.91 


0.93 


235 


1.30 


1.34 


170 


0.64 


0.65 


203 


0.92 


0.94 


236 


1.32 


1.35 








204 


0.93 


0.95 


237 


1.33 


1.37 


171 


0.65 


0.66 


205 


0.94 


0.96 


238 


1.34 


1.38 


172 


0.65 


0.67 


206 


0.95 


0.97 


239 


1.36 


1.40 


173 


0.66 


0.68 


207 


0.96 


0.98 


240 


1.37 


1.41 


174 


0.67 


0.68 


208 


0.97 


0.99 








175 


0.68 


0.69 


209 


0.98 


1.00 


241 


1.39 


1.43 


176 


0.68 


0.70 


210 


0.99 


1.02 


242 


1.41 


1.45 


177 


0.69 


0.71 








243 


1.42 


1.46 


178 


0.70 


0.71 


211 


1.00 


1.03 


244 


1.44 


1.48 


179 


0.71 


0.72 


212 


1.01 


1.04 


245 


1.45 


1.50 


180 


0.71 


0.73 


213 


1.02 


1.05 


246 


1.47 


1.51 


181 


0.72 


0.74 


214 


1.03 


1.06 


247 


1.49 


1.53 


182 


0.73 


0.75 


215 


1.04 


1.07 


248 


1.50 


1.55 


183 


0.74 


0.75 


216 


1.06 


1.08 


249 


1.52 


1.57 


184 


0.75 


0.76 


217 


1.07 


1.10 


250 


1.54 


1.58 


185 


0.75 


0.77 


218 


1.08 


1.11 








186 


0.76 


0.78 


219 


1.09 


1.12 


251 


1.55 


1.60 


187 


0.77 


0.79 


220 


1.10 


1.13 


252 


1.57 


1.62 


188 


0.78 


0.80 








253 


1.59 


1.64 


189 


0.79 


0.81 


221 


1.12 


1.15 


254 


1.61 


1.66 


190 


0.80 


0.82 


222 


1.13 


1.16 


255 


1.62 


1.67 








223 


1.14 


1.17 


256 


1.64 


1.69 


191 


0.80 


0.82 


224 


1.15 


1.18 


257 


1.66 


1.71 


192 


0.81 


0.83 


225 


1.17 


1.20 


258 


1.68 


1.73 


193 


0.82 


0.84 


226 


1.18 


1.21 


259 


1.70 


1.75 


194 


0.83 


0.85 


227 


1.19 


1.23 


260 


1.72 


1.77 



CHAPTER 14 



GROWTH IN TERMS OF WATER AND SOLIDS 

1. Percentage of water in blood. 2. Percentage of water in brain and spinal 
cord. 

(1) Percentage of water in the blood. Hatai (MS '15) has de- 
termined the percentage of water in the blood of a small series 
of Norways. 

The Norways were recently caught and examined before the 
day's feeding. The rat was chloroformed, but before the heart 
ceased beating it was exposed in situ, the tip clipped away and 
the blood from it caught in a small glass weighing bottle. The 
fresh weight was immediately taken and after drying at 95C. 
for a week the weight of the residue was obtained. The results 
are given in table 87. 

TABLE 87 
Giving the percentage of water in the blood of the Norway rat, Hatai (MS., '15) 



SEX 


NUMBER OF 

CASES 


BODYWEIGHT, GBAMS 


PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN BLOOD 


Range 


Mean 


Range 


Mean 


M 


5 
6 
4 
5 


114-169 
173-440 
103-190 
199-304 


144 
243 
148 
271 


79.02-82.05 
79.92-81.53 
79.82-80.35 
79.52-81.77 


80.34 
80.52 
80.05 
80.82 


M... 


F 


F 





(2) Percentage of water in the brain and spinal cord. Since the 
percentage of water in the nervous system is most closely linked 
with age, a precise determination in the case of the Norway rat 
is wanting, by reason of the difficulty of rearing the Norway in 
captivity. A few data are however at hand. 

From Norways born in captivity from trapped females we 
obtain the percentages according to age, given in table 88. It 

211 



212 



GROWTH IN WATER AND SOLIDS 



TABLE 88. 



Showing the percentage of water in the brain and spinal cord of the Norway rat at 
different ages (sexes combined), (Donaldson and Hatai, '11) 



NUMBER OF CASES 


AGE IN DATS 


BODY WEIGHT 


PERCENTAGE OF WATER 


Brain 


Spinal cord 


5 


1 

10 
13 
15 
16 
19 
25 
40 
47 


grams 

5.1 
12.2 
18.1 
17.7 
26.1 
25.5 
32.6 
35.8 
38.5 


88.2 
86.9 
85.3 
84.5 
82.8 
81.5 
80.9 
79.2 
79.3 


87.0 

83.3 
82.5 
81.0 
79.4 
77.8 
76.7 
74.3 
74.0 


3 


8 


6 


11 


10 


7 


4 


5 





is to be noted that for the most part the rats grew poorly, as 
shown by the body weights. (Donaldson and Hatai, '11. ) 

For Norways trapped in Philadelphia and killed shortly after 
capture, we obtain, according to body weight, sexes combined, 
the percentage values of water in brain and spinal cord which 
are given in table 89. 

A comparison of the values for the Norways and Albinos shows 
that the percentage of water in the Norways tends to run above 
that in the Albinos being + 0.37 per cent for the brain and + 
0.73 per cent for the spinal cord. 



PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN NERVOUS SYSTEM 



213 



TABLE 



Giving the percentage of water in the brain and spinal cord of the Norway rat accord- 
ing to body weight (sexes conbined). Based on Donaldson and Hatai, '11, tables 
11 and 14 



BODT WEIGHT IN GRAMS 


NUMBER OP CASES 
(SEXES COMBINED) 


PERCENTAGE OF WATER (SEXES COMBINED) 


Brain 


Spinal cord 


195 


7 
8 
14 
13 
16 
14 
12 
14 
11 
15 
9 
11 
11 
12 
10 
9 
3 
8 
7 
5 
3 
2 
5 
2 

6 
1 
1 


78.4 
78.4 
78.6 
78.6 
78.5 
78.7 
78.5 
78.3 
78.3 
78.3 
78.6 
78.6 
78.4 
78.0 
78.2 
78.2 
78.3 
78.1 
78.3 
78.0 
78.3 
78.0 
78.4 
78.0 

78.5 
78.0 
78.0 


71.3 
71.7 
71.7 
70.8 
71.4 
71.5 
71.5 
70.1 
70.3 
70.4 
71.0 
70.1 
70.0 
69.3 
70.3 
69.7 
70.7 
68.0 
71.2 
69.6 
69.8 
69.0 
70.2 
69.0 

69.6 
69.0 
67.0 


205 


215 


225 


235... . 


245 


255 


265 


275 


285 


295 


305 


315 


325 


335 


345 


355 


365 


375 


385 


395 


405 


415 


425 


435 


445 


455 


465 





Growth in terms of WATER and Solids: REFERENCES Donaldson and Hatai '11, 



CHAPTER 15 
REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

Introduction. The list of references which follows does not 
claim to be complete and in several directions is intentionally 
selective. For example, many bacteriological investigations in 
which the rat has been used are omitted, as are also a large num- 
ber of descriptive papers belonging to the earlier zoological liter- 
ature. To this list of omissions belong about a dozen titles 
which do not appear to be accessible in any of the larger libraries 
of the United States; the printing of such titles was therefore 
regarded as superfluous. 

On the other hand, it has been my intention to include the 
titles of all the papers which record anatomical investiga- 
tions and physiological studies, so far as these were generally 
available. 

At the outset of such a plan one meets with the difficulty that 
the rat has been used in many cases where the fact is not stated 
in the title of the paper, and moreover in other instances it is 
only one of several animals which have been examined or tested. 

In the selection of the titles of this class the plan has been to 
include everything which gave information no matter how re- 
stricted that applied to the rat. Of course it is inevitable under 
these circumstances that some papers should have been over- 
looked. 

In accordance with the general plan of the book we have in- 
cluded papers not only on the wild Norway and the domesti- 
cated Albino, but also on both forms of the house rat, Mus rattus 
rattus and Mus rattus alexandrinus. 

The specific names and designations as given by the authors 
are quoted without comment but can be revised by reference to 
the foregoing section on nomenclature. Now and then I have 
permitted myself an annotation when this was pertinent. 

214 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 215' 

Thus far the statements apply to the literature which follows 
and which is arranged alphabetically by authors' names and under 
authors by date. 

It was desirable at the same time to get some sort of a subject 
classification, and this has been done in the following manner. 

At the end of each chapter, references to the literature bearing 
on the subject of the chapter are given by author's name and. 
date. The full reference appears in the list of the end of the 
volume. The chapter lists contain not only the citations in the 
text, but also other references which have not been cited there. 
The presentation is not uniform but dictated by the arrangement 
of the chapter. Where possible the references are given in alpha- 
betical order without subdivisions, but where it will be of advan- 
tage to have the references grouped according to the sub-head- 
ings, this is done, although under this plan the same reference 
often appears under more than one sub-heading. 

REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 
ADDENDA: PP. 265-266 

ACKROYD, H. 1914, 1915 On the purine metabolism of rats. Biochem. J., vol. 

8, pp. 434-437. 
ADAMS, HENRY F. 1913 A set of blind white rats which could not learn the 

maze. J. Animal Behavior, vol. 3, pp. 300-302. 

ADDISON, W. H. F. 1911 The development of the Purkinje cells and of the cor- 
tical layers in the cerebellum of the albino rat. J. Comp. Neurol., . 

vol. 21, pp. 459-481. 
ADDISON, W. H. F. AND APPLETON, J. L. 1915 The structure and growth of the 

incisor teeth of the albino rat. J. of Morphol., vol. 26, pp. 43-96. 
ADLOFF, PAUL 1898 Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Nagetiergebisses. 

Inaug.-Diss. Universitat Rostock, Gustav Fischer, Jena. Figs. 77-81 

inclusive. 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE SEE (REPORTS ON PLAGUE INVESTIGATIONS) 
ADVISORY COMMITTEE 1912 Observations on the breeding of Mus rattus in . 

captivity. J. Hyg., Plague Suppl. 1, pp. 193-206. 

1912 a The immunity of the wild rat in India. J. Hyg., Plague Suppl. 

II, 7th Report on Plague Investigations in India, pp. 229-265. 

1912 b Experimental plague epidemics among rats. J. Hyg., Plague 

Suppl. II, 7th Report on Plague Invest, in India, pp. 292-299. 
AHREND 1903 Beitrag zur Geschichte des sog. "Rattenkonigs." Natur. u. 

Haus., vol. 11, pp. 371-373. 
AKAMATSU, KUNITARO 1905 On the brown rat. Zool. Mag. (In Japanese) 

Tokio, vol. 17, no. 203. 



216 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

ALBERTUS, MAGNUS 1206-1280 B. Albert! Magni, Opera Omnia, edited by Au- 
gust Borgnet 38 vols., 1890-1899, Paris. See vol. 12, 1891, p. 420. Mus 

"quod nos ratum vocamus," in Lib. xxii De Animalibus, Tract II, n. 

78. 
ALDRICH, T. B. 1912 On feeding young white rats the posterior and the anterior 

parts of the pituitary gland. Am. J. Physiol., vol. 31, pp. 94-101. 
ALLEN, EZRA 1912 The cessation of mitosis in the central nervous system of 

the albino rat. J. Comp. Neurol., vol. 22, pp. 547-568. 
ALSTON, EDWARD R. 1879-1882 Biologia Centrali Americana. Mammals, p. 

141. 
APOLANT, HUGO 1896 Ueber die sympathischen Ganglienzellen der Nager. 

Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 47, pp. 461-471, p. 466, rats mentioned 

mostly rabbits. 
ARNSTEIN, C. 1877 Zur Kenntnis der quergestreiften Muskulatur in den Lun- 

genvenen. Med. Centralbl., 15 Jahrg., pp. 692-694. Extended to 

veins of small caliber in the rat. 
ARON, HANS 1912 Weitere Untersuchungen liber die Beeinflussung des Wach- 

stums durch die Ernahrung. Verhandl. der 29th Versamml. der Gesel- 

Isch. f . Kinderheilk. in der Abt. fur Kinderheilkunde der 84 Versamml. 

der Gesellsch. deut. Naturforcher und Aerzte in Mtinster. Bergmann. 

Wiesbaden. 
ARON, HANS 1913 Biochemie des Wachstums des Menschen und der hoheren 

Tiere. (In OPPENHEIMER, CARL, Handbuch der Biochemie des 

Menschen und der Tiere Enganzungsband, pp. 610-674. Fischer, 

Jena.) 
ASAI, K. 1908 Die Blutgefasse des hautigen Labyrinthes der Ratte. Beitrage 

zur vergleichenden Anatomie des inneren Ohres. Anat. Hefte, vol. 

36, pp. 711-728. 
ASCHER, L. 1910 Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Rattenkratze. Arch. f. Dermat. 

u. Syph., Wien u. Leipz., vol. 101, pp. 211-220. 2 pi. 
ASHER, LEON AND ERDELY, A. 1903 Ueber die Beziehung zwischen Bau und 

Function des lymphatischen Apparates des Darmes. Centralbl. f. 

Physiol., vol. 16, pp. 705-709. 
ASHER, LEON 1908 Des Verhalten des Darmepithels bei verschiedenen funk- 

tionellen Zustanden. Ztschr. f. Biol., vol. 51, pp. 115-126. 
ASKANAZY, M. 1908 Die Teratome nach ihrem Bau, ihrem Verlauf , ihrer Genese 

und im Vergleich zum experimentellen Teratoid. Verh. deutsch. 

path. Ges., vol. 11, pp. 39-82. 
ASP, GEORG A. 1873 Bidrag till spottkortlarnes mikroskopiska anatomi. pp. 

128, 1 pi. J. C. Frenckell & Son, Helsingfors. 

1873 a Om nervernas andingsatt i spottkortlana. (Ueber die Endi- 

gungsweise der Nerven in den Speicheldriisen.) Nord. med. Ark., vol. 

5, no. 5, pp. 1-9. 

ASTASCHEWSKY, P. 1877 Ueber die diastatische Wirkung des Speichels bei ver- 
schiedenen Tieren. Centralbl. f. d. med. Wiss., pp. 531-534. p. 533, 

saliva of rat remarkably active. 
AUMANN 1912 Vergleichende Untersuchungen iiber die Wirksamkeit bakteri- 

eller und chemischer Rattenvertilgungsmittel. Centralbl. f. Bak- 

teriol., 1 Abt., vol. 63, pp. 212-221. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 217 

AUNETT, H. E. 1908 Virus for the destruction of rats and mice. Brit. M. J., 

Lond., vol. 2, p. 1524. 
BACOT, A. 1914 A study of the bionomics of the common rat fleas and other 

species associated with human habitations, with special reference to 

the influence of temperature and humidity at various periods of the 

life history of the insect. J. Hyg., Plague Suppl. Ill, pp. 447-654. 
BACOT, A. W. AND MARTIN, C. J. 1914 Observations on the mechanism of the 

transmission of plague by fleas. J. Hyg., Plague Suppl. Ill, 8th Report 

on Plague Invest, in India, pp. 423-440. 
BAHR, L. 1906 Ueber das Vorkommen von Trichinen bei der Ratte. Zeitschr. 

Infektionskr. parasit. Krankh. Hyg. Haustiere, vol. 2, pp. 62-65. 

1909 Die Resultate der Versuche zur rationellen Rattenvertilgung ver- 

mittelst Praparate des Laboratoriums. Centralbl. f. Bakteriol., 1 

Abt. vol. 52, pp. 441-455. 

1909 a The rational extirpation of rats by means of ratin prepara- 
tions. Halsovannen, Stockholm, vol. 24, pp. 329-333. 

1910 Zur rationellen Vertilgung von Ratten mit Hilfe von Praparaten 
des Laboratoriums unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung des Ratinsys- 
tems. Ztschr. f. Fleisch. u. Milchhyg., Berl., vol. 20, pp. 389-393. 

BAINBRIDGE, F. A. 1909 On the bacterial nature and efficiency of certain rat 
viruses. J. Path, and Bacteriol., vol. 13, pp. 457-466. 

BANCROFT, T. L. 1894 On the whip-worm of the rat's liver. J. and Proc. Roy. 
Soc. N. South Wales, 1893, Sydney, 1894, xxvii, 86-90, 2 pi. 

BANNERMAN, W. B. 1906 The spread of plague in India. J. Hyg., vol. 6, pp. 
179-211. 

BARDELEBEN, KARL VON 1899 Handbuch der Anatomic, vol. 4, Centralnerven- 
system, I Teil, von Prof. Dr. Th. Ziehen., p. 12. Spinal cord weight; 
rat (Ranke). 

BARNABO, VALENTINO 1913 Ulteriori richerce sperimentali sulla secrezione in- 
terna testicolare. Policlin., vol. 20, pp. 165-192. 

BARRETT-HAMILTON, G. E. H. 1892 Mus alexandrinus in Ireland. The Zoolo- 
gist, vol. 16, p. 75. 

BARTENEFF, L. 1891 On the distribution of the nerves in the plexus of the 
small intestine. Inaug.-Diss. 32 pp. 1 pi. (in Russian). 

BASCH, S. VON 1870 Die ersten Chyluswege und die Fettresorption. Sitz. d. 
k. Akad. d. Wiss. math.-naturw. Cl. Wien, vol. 62, Abt. 2, pp. 617-634. 
Ipl. 

BASHFORD, E. T. AND MURRAY, J. A., ETC. 1900 General results of propagation 
of malignant new growths. The Imp. Cancer Research Fund, 3rd 
Scien. Report, pp. 262-283. 

BASLER, A. 1909 Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Bewegungsvorgange des Blinddarm- 
inhaltes. Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., vol. 128, pp. 251-276, 9 text figures. 

BASSET, GARDNER C. 1914 Habit formation in a strain of albino rats of less 
than normal brain weight. Behavior monographs, vol 2, no. 4, serial 
number 9. 

BATE, DOROTHEA M. A. 1912 On a new species of mouse and other rodent re- 
mains from Crete. Geol. Mag. Dec., V. vol. ix, no. 571, pp. 4-6. Epi- 
mys (Mus) rattus from the pleistocene cave deposits of Crete. 



218 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

B ATESON, W. 1903 The present state of knowledge of color heredity in mice and 
rats. Proc. Zool. Soc., London, vol. 2, p. 71. 

BAUMGART, MARTIN 1904 Vergleichende Untersuchungen iiber Mus rattus und 
Mus decumanus und iiber die Ursachen der Verdrangung der Hausratte 
durch die Wanderratte. Inaug.-Diss. Philos. Fak. Zurich. 

BATON, H. 1911 Demonstration of specimens relating to the culture of the 
leprosy bacillus. Brit. M. J. part 2, pp. 1269-1272. 
1912 Demonstration of acid-fast germs cultivated from cases of lep- 
rosy. Tr. Soc. Trop. M. and Hyg., vol. 5, pp. 103-105. Authors 
mentioned in text; no tables rats. 

1912 a The experimental transmission of the spirochaete of Euro- 
pean relapsing fever to rats and mice. Parasitology (Suppl. to the J. 
Hyg.) vol. 5, pp. 135-149 3 figs.; experiments on white rats, pp. 142- 
145; results summarized, not tabulated. 

1912 b The culture and identification of the germ of leprosy and the 
relationship of the human disease to rat leprosy. Tr. Soc. Trop. M. 
and Hyg., vol. 5, pp. 158-167. 

1912 c On the transmission of leprosy to animals by direct inocula- 
tion. Brit. M. J., part 1, pp. 424-426. 

BECHSTEIN, J. M. 1801 Gemeinniitzige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach 
alien drey Reichen. Zweite Ausgabe, vol 1, Saugethiere, pp. 931-952. 
Leipzig. 

BECHTEREW, W. VON 1890 Ueber die verschiedenen Lagen und Dimensionen 
der Pyramidenbahnen beim Menschen und den Thieren und liber das 
Vorkommen von Fasern in denselben welche sich durch eine frlihere 
Entwickelung auszeichnen. Neurol. Centralbl., pp. 738-741. 

BECK, WILHELM 1896 Uber den Austritt des N. Hypoglossus und N. Cervi- 
calis Primus aus dem Centralorgan beim Menschen und in der Reihe 
der Saugetiere unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der dorsalen \\ur- 
zeln. Anat Hefte, vol. 6, pp. 251-344. Mus rattus, p. 312. 

BEILING, KARL 1906 Beitrage zur makroskopischen und mikroskopischen Ana- 
tomic der Vagina und des Uterus der Saugetiere. Archiv. f. mikr. 
Anat., vol. 67, pp. 573-637. Mus decumanus, p. 588. 

BELL, E. T. 1911 The interstitial granules of striated muscle and their relation 
to nutrition. Internat. Monat. f. Anat. u. Physiol., vol. 28, pp. 297- 
347. 

BELL, THOMAS 1837-1874 British quadrupeds including the cetacea. John van 
Voorst, London; 2nd ed., pp. 310-320. Both rattus and decumanus: 
excellent pictures of each. 

BELLONCI, G. 1885 Del fuso direzionale e della formazione di un globulo polare 
nell'ovulo ovarico di alcuni mammiferi. Atti della R. Accad. dei 
Lincei, Ser 4. Rendiconti, pp. 285-286. 

BELLOT, G. 1899 Recherches sur 1'origine des corps jaunes de 1'ovaire chez le 
rat et le cochon d'Inde. Compt. rend, de 1'Ass. d. Anat. Premiere ses- 
sion, Paris, pp. 47-52. 

BENDA, CARL 1887 Untersuchungen iiber den Bau des funktionirenden Samen- 
kanalchens einiger Saugethiere und Folgerungen fur die Spermatoge- 
nese dieser Wirbelthierklasse. Archiv f. mikr. Anat., vol. 30, pp. 49- 
110. Rat, pp. 58 and 66. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 219 

BENEDICENTI, A. 1892 Recherches sur les terminaisons nerveuses dans la mu- 

queuse de la trachee. Resume de 1'Auteur. Arch. ital. de biol., vol. 

17, pp. 46-48. 
BENNETT, CHARLES B. 1914 The cholesterol content of cancers in rats. J. 

Biol.. Chem., vol. 17. pp. 13-14. 
BERETTA, ARTUR 1913 La normala dentatura dei Roditori in rapporto alle 

anomalie dentali in questi osservate. Stomatol., vol. 10, no. 2 and 3. 
BERGMANN, A. M. 1908 Two methods for the extermination of rats, by the 

culture of Danysz' rat bacillus and ratin. Svensk Veterinartidskr., 

Stockholm, vol. 13, pp. 377-387. 
BERKLEY, H. J. 1893 The intrinsic pulmonary nerves by the silver method. 

J. Comp. Neur., vol. 3, pp. 107-111, 1 pi. Mus decumanus. 

1895 The intrinsic pulmonary nerves in mammalia. Johns Hopkins 

Hosp. Rep. (Baltimore), vol. 4, pp. 72-78 (240-246), 1 pi. 
BERRY, C. S. 1906 The imitative tendency of white rats. J. Comp. Neur. and 

Psychol., vol. 16, pp. 333-361. 
BERT, PAUL 1878 La pression barometrique; rescherches de physiologic experi- 

mentale. G. Masson, Paris. Some observations on rats. 
BIBRA, ERNST VON 1854 Vergleichende Untersuchungen iiber das Gehirn des 

Menschen und der Wirbelthiere. Basssermann and Mathy, Mannheim. 

Hausratte Mus rattus, p. 22. 
BIEDL, ARTUR 1913 Innere Sekretion. 2 vols. Urban and Schwarzenberg, 

Berlin. 
BIGNOTTI, G. 1900 Sul tarso del Mus decumanus. Monit. zool. ital., vol. 11, 

suppl. pp. 17-19. 
BIRCHER, EUGEN 1911 Die kretinische Degeneration (Kropf, endemischer 

Kretinismus und Taubstummheit) in ihrer Beziehung zu anderen Wis- 

sensgebieten. Fortschr. d. Naturwissen. Forschung, vol. 2, pp. 273- 

338, p. 289, figures of the normal and abnormal thyroid of the rat. 

All references by name only. 

1911 a Weitere Beitrage zur experimentellen Erzeugung des Kropf es. 

Die Kropfatiologie ein colloid-chemisches Problem. Ztschr. f. exper. 

Path. u. Therap., vol. 9. 
BISCHOFP, T. L. W. 1832 Nervii accessorii Willisii anatomia et physiologia. 

104 pp., 6 pi. 4. Heidelbergae, typ. Reichardianis. 
BLANC, Louis 1892 Sur un ovule a deux noyaux observ6 dans 1'ovaire de Mus 

decumanus. Ann. de la societe" Linneenne de Lyon Nouv. S6r., vol. 

39, pp. 73-80. 
BLASIUS, J. H. 1857 Fauna der Wirbelthiere Deutschlands und der angrenzen- 

den Lander von Mitteleuropa. Vol. 1, Saugethiere. Braunschweig. 

Viehweg. Descriptions of the several species of rats. 
BLUE, RUPERT 1908 The underlying principles of anti-plague measures. Calif. 

State J. Med., vol. 6, pp. 271-277. 

1910 Rodents in relation to the transmission of bubonic plague. 

Found in "The rat and its relation to the public health," pp. 145-152. 

Treasury Dept. Pub. Health and Mar. Hosp. Service of U. S. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Wash., D. C. 

BOELTER, W. R. 1909 The rat problem. John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Lon- 
don, pp. 165. 



220 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

BOGARDTJS, E. S. AND HsNKE, F. G. 1911 Experiments on tactual sensations 
in the white rat. J. Animal Behavior, vol. 1, pp. 125-137. 

BOHLEN, F. 1894 Ueber die elektromotorischen Wirkungen der Magenschleim- 
haut. Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., vol. 57, pp. 97-122. 

BOINET, ED. 1895 Resistance a la fatigue de 11 rats de"capsules depuis cinq et 
six mois. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 47, pp. 273-274. 
1895 a Ablation des capsules vraies et accessoires chez le rat d'e"gout. 
Compt. Rend. Soc. de Biol., vol. 47, pp. 498-500. 

1897 Diminution de resistance des rats doublement de'capsule's a 
1'action toxique de diverses substances. C. R. Soc. de Biol., p. 466. 
1897 a Dix nouveaux cas de maladie d'Addison exp6rimentale chez le 
rat d'e'gout. C. R. Soc. de Biol., 8th and 15th of May, pp. 439 and 
473. 

BORCHERDING, FR. 1889 tlber das Vorkommen deV Hausratte, Mus rattus L., 
im nordwestlichen Deutschland. Zoolog. Garten, 30 Jahrg., pp. 92- 
93. 

BORGNET, AUGUST See Albertus Magnus. 

BOUGHTON, T. H. 1906 The increase in the number and size of the medullated 
fibers in the oculomotor nerve of the white rat and of the cat at dif- 
ferent ages. J. comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 16, pp. 153-165. 

BOYCOTT, A. E. AND DAMANT, G. C. C. 1908 Experiments on the influence of 
fatness on susceptibility to caisson disease. J. Hyg. Cambr., vol. 8, 
pp. 445-456. Pp. 447-450, tables and notes on experiments with rats 
giving sex, body weight and fatty acids. 

1908 a A note on the total fat of rats, guinea-pigs and mice. J. Phys- 
iol., vol. 37, pp. 25-26. 

BOYCOTT, A. E., DAMANT, G. C. C. AND HALDANE, J. S. 1908 The preven- 
tion of compressed air illness. J. Hyg. Cambr., vol. 8, pp. 342-443. 

BRADLEY, O. Charnock 1903 On the development and homology of the mam- 
malian cerebellar fissures. J. Anat. and Physiol., vol. 37, pp. 112-130. 
Cerebellum: Mus decumanus figs. 38, 39, 40 and 41. 

BRAUN, M. 1882 Entwicklungsvorgange am Schwanzende bei einigen Sauge- 
thierenmit Beriicksichtigung beim Menschen. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys- 
iol., Anat. Abt., pp. 207-241. Taf. XII, XIII. Rat among animals 
used. 

BRINCKERHOFF, WALTER R. 1910 Rat leprosy. Found in "The rat and its re- 
lation to the public health." Pp. 49-53. Treasury Dept. Pub. Health 
and Mar. Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Wash., D. C. 

BRISSON, A. D. 1756 Le regne animal divise" en IX classes, etc. 4 Paris. 
P. 168, description of Mus rattus many references. 

BROWN, HERBERT H. 1885 On spermatogenesis in the rat. Quart. J. Micr. 
Sc., London, vol. 25, pp. 343-369. 

BROWN-SEQUARD, E. 1856 Recherches expe'rimentales sur la physiologie et la 
pathologic des capsules surr&iales. Arch. gdn. de me'd. vol. 2 (ser. 5, 
vol. 8) pp. 385-401; 572-598 (Oct. and Nov). Experiments chiefly on 
rabbits; but mentions another physiologist's observations on rats, p. 
595. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 221 

BRUMMER. JOHANNES 1876 Anatomische und histologische Untersuchungen 
iiber den zusammengesetztenMagen verschiedener Saugethiere. Tafeln 
I-V. Deutsche Ztschr. f. Thiermed., vol. 2, pp. 158-298 and 299-319. 
BRUNEAU 1886 Un tuyau a gaz en plomb coupe par les rats. Ann. d'hyg., 

Par., 3s., xv, 530. 

BRUNING, HERMANN 1914 Experimentelle Studien iiber die Entwicklung neu- 
geborener Tiere bei langerdauernder Trennung von der Saugenden 
Mutter und nachheriger verschiedenartiger kiinstlicher Ernahrung 
(Rats). Jahrb. f. Kinderheilk., vol. 80, pp. 65-85. 6 fig. in text (tables 
and graphs important). 

1914 a Untersuchungen liber das Wachstum von Tieren jenseits der 
Sauglingsperiode bei verschiedenartiger kiinstlicher Ernahrung (Rat). 
Jahrb. Kinderheilk., vol. 79, pp. 305-319. 2 text figs., tables (impor- 
tant). 

BRUNN, A. VON 1880 Notiz iiber unvollkommene Schmelzentwicklung auf den 
Mahlzahnen der Ratte M. decumanus. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 
17, pp. 241-242. 

1887 Ueber die Ausdehnung des Schmelzorganes und seine Bedeutung 
fur die Zahnbildung Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 29, pp. 367-383. 

BUCHANAN, A. 1910 The destruction of rats. Brit. M. J., Lond., vol. 2, p. 
1388. 

BUCKLAND, FRANCIS T. 1859 Curiosities of natural history. Rudd and Carle- 
ton, N. Y. Rats, pp. 87-205. 

BUFFON, GEORGE Louis LE CLERC, COMTE DE 1749-1789 Histoire naturelle, 
gSnerale et particuliere. Paris, vol. 7, 1758, pp. 278-308; vol. 8, 1760, 
pp. 206-218. 

BUJARD, EUG. 1905 Sur les villosit6s intestinales. Bibl. anat., vol. 14, p. 236. 
1909 Etude des types appendiciels de la muqueuse intestinale, en rap- 
port avec les regimes alimentaires. Morphologic compared. Sitio- 
morphoses naturelles et expdrimentales. Internat. Monatschr. f. 
Anat. u. Physiol., vol. 26, pp. 101-192. Plates VI-X, Rats, pp. 123- 
124. 

BULLE, HERMANN 1887 Beitrage zur Anatomie des Ohres. Archiv f. mikr. 
Anat., vol. 29. pp. 237-264. Rat, p. 245. 

BULLOCK, F. D. AND ROHDENBURG, G. L. 1913 Primary sarcoma of the liver of 
the rat originating in the wall of a parasitic cyst. J. Med. Research, 
vol. 28 (n. s. vol. 23) pp. 477-481. 

1915 Tumor-like growths in the rat stomach following irritation. 
Proc. of the Soc. for Exper. Biol. and Med., vol. 12, pp. 161-162. 

BULLOCK, W. E 1913 Contributions to the biochemistry of growth. On the 
lipoids of transplantable tumors of the mouse and the rat. Proc. R. 
Soc., London, vol. 87 B, pp. 236-239. 

CABIBBE, GIACOMO 1904 Histologische Untersuchungen iiber die Nervenendi- 
gungen in den Sehnen und im Perimysium der Ratte und des Meer- 
schweinchens. Monatschr. f. Psychiat. u. Neurol., vol. 15, pp. 81-89. 
3 figs. 

CAJAL, S. RAMON 1889 Neuvas aplicaziones de metodo de colaraci6n de Golgi. 
Gac. med. Catal., vol. 12, pp. 6-8. 



222 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

CAJAL, S. RAMON 1893 Sur les ganglions et plexus nerveux de 1'intestin. 

Compt. rend. soc. de biol., ser. 9, vol. 5, pp. 217-223, Paris. 3 figs. 

1897 Leyes de la morfologia y dinamismo de las c61ulas nerviosas. 

Rev. trimestr. Microgr., vol. 2, pp. 1-28. 

1903 Un sencillo m6todo de coloraci6n del reticulo protoplasmico y 

sus efectos en los diversos centres nerviosos de vertebrados e inverte- 

brados. Rev. trimestr Microgr., vol. 7, pp. 129-221, fig. 33. 

1909, 1911 Histologie du systeme nerveux de 1'homme et des vert6- 

bres. 2 vols. A. Maloine. Paris For rat (vol. 1) figs. 19, 113, 123, 

189, 190; (vol. 2) figs. 20, 21, 46, 246. 
CALEF, A. 1900 Studio istologico e morfologico di un'appendice epiteliale del 

pelo nella pelle del Mus decumanus var. albino e del Sus scrofa. Anat. 

Anz., vol. 17, pp. 509-517. 
CALMETTE, A. 1910 La lutte internationale contre les rats. L'Hygiene, Par., 

no. 9, 5-7.. 

1911 La lutte internationale contre les rats. J. de med. de Par., 2s. 
vol. 23, pp. 588-591. 

CAMPANA, ROBERTO 1911 I bacilli acidi nei topi in Mancuiria; ed altri studi. 
CILn. dermosifilopat d. r. Univ. di Roma, vol. 29, pp. 47-50. 

CAMPBELL, J. MACNAUGHT 1892 On the appearance of the brown rat (Mus de- 
cumanus Pallas) on Ailsa Craig. Ann. of Scott. Nat. Hist. I. no. 2. 
pp. 132-134. 

CANNIEU, ANDRE 1893 Rcherches sur le nerf auditif, ses rameaux et ses gang- 
lions. Revue biol. du Nord de la France, Ann6e VI, pp.87-153. Rat 
among animals used. 

CARMICHAEL, E. S. and MARSHALL, F. H. A. 1907 The correlation of the ovarian 
and uterine functions. Proc. Roy. Soc. S. B. vol. 79, pp. 387-394. Rats 
4 experiments. 

CARPENTER, F. W. AND CONEL, J. L. 1914 A study of ganglion cells in the sym- 
pathetic nervous system, with special reference to intrinsic sensory 
neurones. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 24, pp. 269-281. 

CARR, HARVEY AND WATSON, J. B. 1908 Orientation in the white rat. J. Comp. 
Neur. and Psychol., vol. 18, pp. 27-44. 

CASTLE, W. E. 1911 Heredity. Chapter 6. D. Appleton & Co., N. Y. 

1912 Some biological principles of animal breeding. Am. Breeders 
Mag., vol. 3, pp. 270-282. 

1912 a The inconstancy of unit characters. Am. Naturalist, vol. 46, 
pp. 352-362. 

CASTLE, W. E. AND PHILLIPS, J. C. 1914 Piebald rats and selection. An ex- 
perimental test of the effectiveness of selection and of the theory of 
gametic purity in Mendelian crosses. Carnegie Inst. Wash., no. 
195. 

CASTLE, W. E. 1914 Some new varieties of rats and guinea pigs and their rela- 
tion to problems of color inheritance. Am, Naturalist, vol. 48, pp. 
65-73. 
1914 a Yellow varieties of rats. Am. Naturalist, vol. 48, p. 254. 

CAVAZZANI, E. AND MUZZIOLI, M. 1912 Contribution a 1'etude de 1'eau dans les 
organismes. Arch. ital. Biol., vol. 57, pp. 473-480. 



KEFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 223 

CESANA, G. 1910 Lo sviluppo ontogenico degli atti riflesi (Rat) Arch, di 

Fisiol., vol. 9, pp. 1-120, 43 figs. full tables. 
CHAPIN, C. W. 1912 An acid-fast organism resembling the bacillus of human 

leprosy cultivated from the tissues of a leprous rat. Pub. health rep. 

U. S. Mar. Hosp. Serv., vol. 27, part 1, p. 161. 

CHICK, HARRIETTS AND MARTIN, C. J. 1911 The fleas common on rats in differ- 
ent parts of the world and the readiness with which they bite man. J. 

Hyg., vol. 11, pp. 122-136. 
CHIDESTER, F. E. 1912 Experiments with desiccated thyroid, thymus and su- 

prarenals. Science, vol. 36, no. 932, November 8th. 
CHIEVITZ, J. H. 1885 Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Speicheldrtisen. 

Arch. f. Anat. u. Entwcklngsgesch., pp. 401-436, 1 pi. 
CHISOLM, R. A. 1911 On the size and growth of the blood in tame rats. Quart. 

J. Exper. Physiol., vol. 4, pp. 207-229. 
CLARKE, W. E. 1891 Black and Alexandrine rats at Leith (M. rattus and al- 

exandrinus) Ann. of Scott. Nat. Hist., vol. 3, p. 36. 
COE, W. R. 1908 The maturation of the egg of the rat. Science, vol.27, no. 

690, March 20th, p. 444. 

CONGDON, E. D. 1912 The surroundings of the germ plasm. III. The inter- 
nal temperature of warm-blooded animals (Mus decumanus, M. muscu- 

lus, Myoxus glis) in artificial climates. Archiv f. Entwcklngsmechn. 

d. Organ., vol. 33, pp. 703-715. 
CONVERSE, G. M. 1910 Rat suppression in San Francisco, California. Pub. 

Health Rep., U. S. Mar. Hosp. Serv. Wash., vol. 25, pp. 1003-1005. 
COOK, C. 1886 Poisoning from a rat bite. Indiana M. J., vol. 9, p. 77. 
COOK, F. C. 1913 The importance of food accessories as shown by rat-feeding 

experiments. Science, p. 675. November 7. 
CORNALIA, EMILE 1858-1871 Mammiferes fossiles de Lombardie, Milan being 

2nd Series in Paleonotologie Lombarde par 1'Abbie Antoine Stoppani. 

4. pp. 38-40. Mus rattus. 

CORNISH, THOM. 1890 Black rat in Cornwall. Zoologist, vol. 13, p. 450. 
CRAMER, W. 1908 The gaseous metabolism in rats inoculated with malignant new 

growths. Third Scien. Report Imp. Cancer Research Fund, pp. 427- 

433. 
CRAMER, W. AND PRINGLE, HAROLD 1910 Contributions to the biochemistry 

of growth. The total nitrogen metabolism of rats bearing malignant 

new growths. Proc. R. Soc., London, vol. 82 B, pp. 307-315. 
CRAMPE, HUGO 1877 Kreuzungen zwischen Wanderatten verschiedener Farbe. 

Landwirths. Jahrb., vol. 6, p. 384. 

1883 Zucht-Versuche mit zahmen Wanderratten. I. Resultate der 
Zucht in Verwandtschaft. Landwirths. Jahrb., vol. 12. 

1884 Zucht-Versuche mit zahmen Wanderratten. II. Resultate der 
Kreuzung der zahmen Ratten mit wilden. Landwirths. Jahrb., 
vol. 13. 

CREEL, RICHARD H. 1910 Rat proofing as an antiplague measure. Found in 
"The rat and its relation to the public health," pp. 171-178. Treasury 
Dept. Pub. Health and Mar. Hosp. Service of the U. S. Government 
Printing Office, Wash., D. C. 



224 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

CRISTIANI, H. 1892 L' inversion des feuillets blastodermiques chez le rat albi- 
nos. Arch, de Phys. norm, et pathol., vol. 24 (S. 5, T. 4). 

1893 De la thyroidectomie chez le rat pour servir a la physiologic de 

la glande thyroide. Arch, de physiol. norm, et path., 5th series, vol. 

5, pp. 39-46. 

1893 a Remarques sur 1'anatomie et la physiologic des glandes et 

glandules thyroidiennes chez le rat. Arch, de physiol. norm, et path., 

5th series, vol. 5, pp. 164-168. 

1893 b Des glandules thyroidiennes accessoires chez la souris e le 

campagnol. Arch, de physiol. norm, et path., 5th series, vol. 5, pp. 

279-283. 

1895 De la greffe thyroldienne in gfinfiral et de son Evolution histo- 

logique en particulier. Arch, de physiol. norm, et path., 5th series, 

vol. 7 (vol. 27), pp. 65-76. 

1900 Developpement des greffes thyroldienne; analogic avec le d<5- 

veloppement embryonnaire du corps thyroide et avec la formation du 

goitre hyperplasique. Compt. rend. Soc. de Biol., Paris, vol. 52, pp. 

967-969. 
CRISTIANI, H. AND CRISTIANI, A. 1902 Recherches sur les capsules surrfinales 

(Planche I.) J. de physiol. et de path, gen., vol. 4, pp. 837-844. 

1 902 a De la greffe des capsules surrfinales (Planche II). J. de phy- 
siol., vol. 4, pp. 982-997. 

1902 b Role preponderant de la substance mfidullaire des capsules 

surre"nales dans la fonction de ces glandes. Compt. rend. Soc. de Biol., 

vol. 54, pp. 710-711. 

1902 c Histologie pathologique des greffes de capsules sun-finales. 

Compt. rend. Soc. de Biol., vol. 54, pp. 811-814. 

1902 d De I'insuffisance fonctionelle des greffes de capsules surrenales. 

Compt. rend. Soc. de Biol., vol. 54, pp. 1124-1126. 
CUENOT, L. 1899 Sur la determination du sexe chez les animaux. Bull. sci. 

de la France et de la Belgique, vol. 32. 
CURRIE, DONALD H. 1910 Bacterial diseases of the rat other than plague. 

Found in "The rat and its relation to the public health," pp. 55-57. 

Treasury Dept. Pub. Health and Mar. Hosp. Service of the U. S. 

Government Printing Office, Wash., D. C. 
CUSTOR, J. 1873 Ueber die relative Grosse des Darmcanals und der haupt- 

sachlichsten Korpersysteme beim Menschen und bei Wirbelthieren. 

Diss. Berlin. 
CUVIER, G. 1805 Lecons d' Anatomic compare'e. Paris. T. iii, p. 383. In 

the rat family the stomach presents two divisions. 
CZERMAK, NICOLAY 1895 Emahrungswege einer epithelialen Zelle. Anat. Anz., 

vol. 11, pp. 547-550, 1 Abb. 
CZERNY, ADALBERT 1890 Ueber Riickbildungsvorgange an der Leber. Archiv 

f. mikr. Anat., vol. 35, pp. 87-103. Rat, p. 88 and 101. 
DARWIN, CHARLES 1883 Animals and plants under domestication. Vol. 2, 

p. 65. Varieties of cross-bred rats. 
DEAN, GEORGE 1903 A disease of the rat caused by an acid-fast bacillus. Cen- 

tralbl. f. Bakteriol. u. Parasitenk., vol. 34, part 1, pp. 222-224. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 225 

DEAN, GEORGE 1905 Further observations on a leprosy-like disease of the 

rat. J. Hyg., vol. 5, pp. 99-112. 
DEHNE, A. 1855 Mus decumanus, Pallas: Die Wanderratte u. ihre Varietaten. 

Allg. deutsche Naturhist. Zeit. n. f., vol. 1, pp. 169-174. 
DEMAISON, L. 1906 Sur les rois de rats. Feuille jeun. Natural (4) Ann. 37, 

p. 38. 
DEMJANENKO, K. 1909 Das Verhalten des Darmepithels bei verschiedenen 

funktionellen Zustanden. Ztschr. f. Biol., vol. 52, pp. 153-188. 

(Zweite Mitt, nebst Bemerkung von Leon Asher.) 
DIMOCK, JAMES F. See Giraldus Cambrensis. 
DISSELHORST, RUDOLF 1897 Die accessorischen Geschlechtsdriisen der Wir- 

beltiere. Eine vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchung. Arch. f. 

wissensch. u. prakt. Thierh., vol. 23. 

1897 a Die accessorischen Geschlechtsdriisen der Wirbeltiere, mit be- 

sonderer Beri'icksichtigung des Menschen. viii, pp. 279, 16 pi. 8. 

J. F. Bergmann, Wiesbaden. 

1904 Ausfiihrapparat und Anhangsdriisen der Mannlichen Geschlechts- 

organe. In Oppel, A, "Lehrbuch der Vergleichenden Mikroskopi- 

schen Anatomic der Wirbeltiere.' Vierter Teil. Gustav Fischer. 

Jena. Rodentia Mus decumanus, pp. 263-282. 
DOLLFUS, ADRIEN 1906 Les rois de rats. Feuille jeun. Natural (4) Ann. 36, 

pp. 174-175, 185-188. 
DONALDSON, H. H. 1900 The functional significance of the size and shape of 

the neurone. J. Nerv. and Ment. Dis., vol. 27, no. 10. 
DONALDSON, H. II. AND HOKE, G. W. 1905 On the areas of the axis cylinder 

and medullary sheath as seen in cross sections of the spinal nerves of 

vertebrates. J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 15, pp. 1-16. 
DONALDSON, H. H. 1906 A comparison of the white rat with man in respect to 

the growth of the entire body. Boas Anniversary Volume, pp. 5-26. 

G. E. Stechert & Co., N. Y. 

1908 A comparison of the albino rat with man in respect to the growth 
of the brain and of the spinal cord. J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 
18, pp. 345-392. 

1909 On the relation of the body length to the body weight and to the 
weight of the brain and of the spinal cord in the albino rat (Mus nor- 
vegicus var. albus). J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 19, pp. 155-167. 

1910 On the percentage of water in the brain and in the spinal cord of 
the albino rat. J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 20, pp. 119-144. 

1911 On the influence of exercise on the weight of the central nervous 
system of the albino rat. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 21, pp. 129-137. 

1911 a The effect of underfeeding on the percentage of water, on the 
ether-alcohol extract, and on medullation in the central nervous sys- 
tem of the albino rat. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 21, pp. 139-145. 
1911 b An interpretation of some differences in the percentage of 
water found in the central nervous system of the albino rat and due to 
conditions other than age. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 21, pp. 161-176. 
1911 c Studies on the growth of the mammalian nervous system. J. 
Nerv. and Ment. Dis., vol. 38, pp. 257-266. 



226 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

DONALDSON, H. H. AND HATAI, S 1911 A comparison of the Norway rat with 
the albino rat in respect to body length, brain weight, spinal cord 
weight and the percentage of water in both the brain and the spinal 
cord. J. Comp. Neur. vol. 21, pp. 417-458. 

1911 a Note on the influence of castration on the weight of the brain 
and spinal cord in the albino rat and on the percentage of water in 
them. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 21, pp. 155-160. 

DONALDSON, H. H. 1912 A comparison of the European Norway and albino 
rats (Mus norvegicus and Mus norvegicus albinus) with those of North 
America in respect to the weight of the central nervous system and to 
cranial capacity. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 22, pp. 71-97. 

1912 a On the weight of the crania of Norway and albino rats from 
three stations in western Europe and one station in the United States. 
Anat. Record, vol. 6, pp 53-63. 

1912 b The history and zoological position of the albino rat. J. Acad. 

Nat. Sc. Phila., vol. 15, 2nd series, pp. 365-369. 

1912 c An anatomical analysis of growth. Trans. 15th Internat. 

Cong. Hyg. and Demography, Wash., D. C., Sept. 23-28. 
DONCASTER, L. 1906 On the inheritance of coat color in rats. Proc. Cambridge 

Philos. Soc., vol. 13, pp. 215-228. 
DONNDORFF, J. A. 1792 Zoologische Beitrage zur XIII Ausgabe des Linneschen 

Natursystem. 2 vols. Leipzig. Vol. 1, Die Saugethiere, p. 427. 
DOSTOIEWSKY, A. 1886 Ueber den Bau der Vorderlappen des Hirnanhanges. 

Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 26, pp. 592-598. 

1886 a Ein Beitrag zur mikroskopischen Anatomic der Nebennieren 

bei S'augethieren. Archiv f. mikr. Anat., vol. 27, pp. 272-296. Rat, 

p. 279 and 287. 
DBASCH, O. 1886 Zur Frage der Regeneration und der Aus und Riickbildung 

der Epithelzellen. Sitz. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. math.-naturw. Cl. Wien. 

Vol. 93, Abt III, pp. 200-213, 1 pi. 
DUESBERG, J. 1907 Die Mitochondrial-Apparat in den Zellen der Wirbeltiere 

und Wirbellosen. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 71, pp. 284-296. 

1908 Les divisions des spermatocytes chez le rat (Mus decumanus 

Pall., vari6t6 albinos). Arch. f. Zellforsch., vol. 1. 

1908 a La Spermatognese chez le rat (Mus decumanus Pall., Vari6t6 
albinos) M6moire pr6sent6 pour 1'obtention du titre de docteur 
special en sciences anatomiques, University de Liege. Wilhelm En- 
gelmann. Leipzig. Also (b) Arch. f. Zellforsch., vol. 2, pp. 137-180. 

1909 Note comp!6mentaire sur la spermatogenese du rat. Arch. f. 
Zellforsch., vol. 3, pp. 553-562. 

DUNN, ELIZABETH H. 1908 A study in the gain in weight for the light and heavy 
individuals of a single group of albino rats. Proc. Assoc. Am. Anat. 
in Anat. Record, vol. 2, pp. 109-110. 

1912 The influence of age, sex, weight and relationship upon the 
number of medullated nerve fibers and on the size of the largest 
fibers in the ventral root of the second cervical nerve of the albino rat. 
J. Comp. Neur., vol. 22, pp. 131-157. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 227 

DuPuY, W. A. AND BREWSTER, E. T. 1910 Our duel with the rat. McClure's 

Mag., vol. 35, pp. 69-79. 
DURHAM, FLORENCE M. 1904 On the presence of tyrosinases in the skins of 

some pigmented vertebrates. Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. 74, pp. 310-313. 
DUVAL, C. W. 1910 The cultivation of the leprosy bacillus and the experimental 

production of leprosy in the Japanese dancing mouse. J. Exper. M., 

vol. 12, pp. 649-665. 

1911 Notes on the biology of B. leprae. N. Orl. M. and S. J. , vol. 63, 

pp. 549-559. 
DUVAL, C. W. AND GURD, F. B. 1911 Experimental immunity with reference 

to the bacillus of leprosy. Part 1. A study of the factors determining 

infection in animals. J. Exper. Med., vol. 14, pp. 181-195. 

1911 a Studies on the biology of and immunity against the bacillus 

of leprosy : with a consideration of the possibility of specific treatment 

and prophylaxis. Arch. Int. Med., vol. 7, pp. 230-245. 
DUVAL, C. W. AND WELLMAN, CREIGHTON 1912 A new and efficient method of 

cultivating bacillus leprae from the tissues; with observations on the 

different strains of acid-fast bacilli found in leprous lesions. J. Am. 

M. Ass., vol. 58, p. 1427. 

DUVAL, C. W. AND HARRIS, W. H. 1913 Further studies upon the leprosy bacil- 
lus: its cultivation and differentiation from other acid-fast species. 

J. Med. Research, vol. 26 (n.s. 21), pp. 165-198. 
EBNER, V. VON 1873 Die acinosen Driisen der Zunge und ihre Beziehungen zu 

den Geschmacksorganen. Leuschner und Lubensky, Graz., 66 pp., 2 pi. 

1888 Zur Spermatogenese bei den Saugethieren. Archiv f . mikr. Anat., 

vol. 31, pp. 236-292. Tafel XV, XVI, XVII (Rat). 
EDELMANN, RICHARD 1889 Vergleichend anatomische und physiologische 

Untersuchungen iiber eine besondere Region der Magenschleimhaut 

(Cardiadriisen-region) bei den Saugethieren. Deutsche Ztschr. f. 

Thiermed., vol. 15, pp. 165-214. 

EDINGTON, A 1901 Rattenpest. Centralbl. f. Bacter., vol. 29, p. 889. 
EDWARDS, A. MILNE 1871 Melanism in Mus decumanus. Ann. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

vol. 15, art. 7. 

1872 Note sur la varie'te' me'lanienne du surmulot (Mus decumanus). 

Ann. des. Sc. Nat. Zool., 5th ser., vol. 15. 
EIMER, G. H. TH. 1869 Die Wege des Fettes in der Darmschleimhaut bei seiner 

Resorption. Arch. f. pathol. Anat., vol. 48, pp. 119-177, pi. 4 and 5. 
EISELSBERG, VON 1890 Ueber einen Fall von erfolgreicher Transplantation 

eines Fibrosarkoms bei Ratten. Wiener klin. Wochenschr., no. 48. 
ELLENBERGER, W. 1906 Zum Mechanismus der Magenverdauung. Arch. f. d. 

ges. Physiol., vol. 114, pp. 93-107. Critique of A. Scheunert, ibid., p. 

64. 
ELLENBERGER, WILHELM AND GUENTHER, G. 1908 Grundriss der vergleichen- 

den Histologie der Haussaugetiere. Berl. Parey., 3rd ed. rev. and 

enlarged. 

ELLIOTT, T. R. AND BARCLAY-SMITH, E. 1904 Antiperistalsis and other muscu- 
lar activities of the colon. J. Physiol., vol. 31, pp. 272-304. Rat: pp. 

283-287. Fig. 3. 



228 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

ELLIOTT, T. R. AND TUCKETT, J. 1906 Cortex and medulla in the suprarenal 

glands. J. Physiol., vol. 34, pp. 332-369. 
ENGELMANN, TH. W. 1877 Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der 

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ERDELY, A. 1905 Untersuchungen iiber die Eigenschaften und die Entstehung 

der Lymphe. Fiinfte Mitt. Uber die Beziehungen zwischen Bau und 

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1906 a Tetania parathyreopriva. Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. 
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1907 Tetania parathyreopriva. Med. Press and Circ., vol. 83, pp. 
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1911 Ueber den Kalkgehalt des wachsenden Knochens und des Callus 

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1911 a Zur Kenntnis der parathyreopriven Dentinveranderung. 

Frankfurt Ztschr. f. Path., vol. 7, pp. 238-248. Figs. Rats. No 

tables. 

1911 b Ueber die Dentinverkalkung im Nagezahn bei der Epithel- 

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ERXLEBEN, Jo. CHRIST P. 1777 Systema regni animalis. Classis I. Mam- 
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FALCONE, CESARE 1898 Contribution a 1'histogenese et a la structure des 

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FALTA, W. AND NOEGGERATH, C. T. 1905 Fiitterungsversuche mit kunstlicher 

Nahrung. Beitrage z. chem. Physiol. u. Pathol., vol. 7, pp. 313-322. 
FANTHAM, H. B. 1906 Piroplasma muris Fant., from the blood of the white rat, 

with remarks on the genus Piroplasma. Quart. J. micr. Sc., vol. 50, 

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FERRIER, DAVID 1886 The functions of the brain. 2nd ed. Smith, Elder & 

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FERRY, EDNA L. 1913 The rate of growth of the albino rat. Anat. Record, 

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FIBIGER, J. 1913 Ueber eine durch Nematoden (Spiroptera sp.n.) hervorge- 

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1913 a The nematode (Spiroptera sp. n.) and its capacity to develop 

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1913 b Untersuchung iiber eine Nematode (Spiroptera sp.n.) und deren 

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vol. 13, pp. 217-2SO, 14 pi. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 229 

FIBIGER, J. 1914 Further investigations on Spiroptera cancer in rats. Hosp.- 
Tid., Kobenh., 5 R., 7, 1049; 1081, 3 pi. 

FISCHEL, ALFRED 1914 Zur normalen Anatomic und Physiologic der weib- 
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FISCHER, F. VON 1872 Calculation of possible progeny of one pair of rats in ten 
years. Zool. Garten, pp. 125-126. (48, 319, 698, 843, 030, 344, 720.) 

FISCHER, J. VON 1869 Die Saugethiere des St. Petersburg Governments. Zool. 
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1874 Beobachtungen iiber Kreuzungen verschiedener Farbenspiel- 
artan innerhalb einer Species. Zool. Garten, vol. 15. 

FLEXNER, SIMON AND NOGUCHI, H. 1906 The effect of eosin upon tetanus toxin 
and upon tetanus in rats and guinea-pigs. J. Exp. Med., vol. 8, pp. 
1-7. 

FLEXNER, SIMON AND JOBLING, J. W. 1907 Metaplasia and metastasis of a rat 
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FLOWER, W. H. 1872 Lectures on the comparative anatomy of the Mammalia. 
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FOLIN, OTTO AND MORRIS, J. LUCIEN 1913 The normal protein metabolism of 
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FORBES, E. B. AND KEITH, M. HELEN 1914 A review of the literature of phos- 
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FORTUYN, A. B. DROOGLEEVER 1914 Cortical cell-lamination of the hemi- 
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Fox, C. 1912 The rat guard used in the Philippine Islands. Pub. Health Rep. 
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For, F. A. 1913 Destruction of rats in the port of Rangoon. Brit.M. J., Lond., 
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FRANK, FRANZ AND SCHITTENHEIM, A. 1912 Ueber die Brauchbarkeit tief 
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FRANKENHAEUSER, CONSTANTIN 1879 Untersuchungen iiber den Bau der 
Tracheo-bronchialschleimhaut. Diss. von Dorpat, 120 pp., 1 plate. 
St. Petersburg. 

FRASER, A. 1883 On the inversion of the blastodermic layers in the rat and 
mouse. Proc. Roy. Soc., no. 223. 

FREDERIC, J. 1907 Beitrage zur Frage des Albinismus. Ztschr. f. Morphol. u. 
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FRENKEL, MOISE 1892 Du tissu conjontif dans le lobule hepatique de certains 
mammiferes. Compt. rend. soc. de biol. Annee 44 (ser. 9, v. 4), pp. 
38-39. 



230 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

FREUND, PAULA 1892 Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Zahnanlagen 

bei Nagethieren. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 39, pp. .525-556. 

1911 tTber experimentelle Erzeugung teratoider Tumoren bei der 

weissen Ratte. Inaug.-Diss. Munchen. 
FUCHS-WOLFRING, SorHiE 1898 Ueber den feineren Bau der Driisen des Kehl- 

kopfes und der Luftrohre. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 52, pp. 735-762. 

Rat, pp. 755-756, 1 plate. 
FUSARI, R. AND PANASCI, A. 1891 Les tenninasions des nerfs dans la muqueuse 

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FUSARI, ROMEO 1894 Terminaisons nerveuses dans divers Epitheliums. (Note 

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1908 Dangers et destruction des rats noirs (Mus rattus) et gris (Mus 

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rapid crystalization in rat's blood, p. 206. Oxyhaemoglobin in rat's 

blood highly insoluble. 
GARNIER, CHARLES 1897 Les filaments basaux des cellules glandulaires. Note 

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GAUTHIER, J. C. AND RAYBAUD, A. 1903 Sur le role des parasites du rat dans 

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GAY, F. P. 1909 A transmissible cancer of the rat considered from the stand- 
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GAYLORD, H. R. 1906 Endemisches Vorkommen von Sarkomen in Ratten. 

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GEISENHEYMER, L. 1892 Zum Vorkommen der Hausratte, Mus rattus L. Natur- 

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GEMELLI, EDOARDO 1903 Nuove richerche sull'anatomia e sulFembriologia 

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GEMELLI, EDOARDO after 1904 = GEMELLI, (FRA) AGOSTINO 
GEMELLI, AGOSTINO 1905 Nuovo contributo alia conoscenza della strut tura 

dell'ipofisi dei mammiferi. Rivista di Fisicae Matematica, vol. 12, 

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1906 Contributo alia fisiologia dell'ipofisi. Arch, di fisiol., vol. 3, 

pp. 108-112. 

1906 a Ulteriori osservazioni sulla struttura dell'ipofisi. Anat. Anz., 

vol. 28, pp. 613-628, 14 figures. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 231 

GBNTES, L. 1903 Note sur la structure du lobe nerveux de 1'hypophyse. 

Compt. rend. Soc. de Biol., vol. 55, pp. 1559-1561. Rat among other 

animals. 
GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, ETIENNE 1812 Mus alexandrinus. Descr. Egypt. 

II, p. 733, 1812 (1829). Atlas, p. V, fig. 1, 1809. 
GESNER, C. VON 1551 Conradi Gesneri medici Tigurini Historiae Animalium 

Lib 1 de Quadrupedibus Viviparis. Tiduri Christ Froschoverum Anno 

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GEVAERTS, JACQUES 1901 Diete sous phosphore. La Cellule, vol. 18, pp. 7-33. 
GiGLio-Tos, E. 1900 Un parasite intranucleaire dans les reins du rat des 

6gouts. Arch. ital. de Biol., vol. 34, p. 36. 
GILLETTE 1872 Description et structure de la tunique musculaire de 1'oe- 

sophage chez 1'homme et chez les animaux. J. de 1'anat. et physiol., 

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GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS (11467-1220) 1861-1891 Opera (8 vols.) Vol. 5, 1867, 

vol. 6, 1868, edited by James F. Dimmock, M.A. Published under the 

direction of the Master of the Rolls. Longmans, Green, London. 
GLAS, EMIL 1904 t)ber die Entwickelung und Morphologic der inneren Nase 

der Ratte. Anat. Hefte, vol. 25, pp. 275-341. 
GMELIN 1892 Zur Morphologie der Papilla vallata und foliata. Archiv f. 

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GODMAN, JOHN D. 1826-1828 American natural history. 3 v., 8. H. C. Carey 

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GOETSCH, EMIL AND GUSHING, HARVEY 1913 The pars anterior and its rela- 
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GOLDMANN, E. E. 1909 Die aussere und innere Secretion des gesunden und 

kranken Organismus im Lichte der vitalen Farbung. Beitr. z. klin. 

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1912 Die aussere und innere Sekretion des gesunden und kranken 

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GOLDSTEIN, K. 1904 Zur vergleichenden Anatomic der Pyramidenbahn. Anat. 

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GOTO, SEITARO 1906 A laboratory guide of zoology (In Japanese). 2 vols. 

Kinkodo, Japan. See vol. 2, pp. 297-373 white rat (Mus rattus, X Mus 

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GoTTSCHAtr, M. 1883 Structure und embryonale Entwickelung der Neben- 

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GOURLAY, C. A. 1907 Notes on the rats of Dacca, Eastern Bengal. Records 

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GRAHAM, L. W. AND HUTCHISON, R. H. 1914 The influence of experimental 

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232 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

GREENMAN, M. J. 1913 Studies on the regeneration of the peroneal nerve of 

the albino rat: number and sectional areas of fibers: area relation of 

axis to sheath. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 23, pp. 479-513. 
GEEGERSEN, J. P. 1911 Untersuchungen liber den Phosphorstoffwechsel. 

Zeit. physiol. Chem., vol. 71, pp. 49-99. 
GRUBBS, S. B. AND HOLSENDORF, B. E. 1913 Fumigation of vessels for the 

destruction of rats. Pub. Health Rep., Wash., vol. 28, pp. 1166-1274. 
GRUTZNER, P. 1875 Neue Untersuchungen iiber die Bildung u. Ausscheidung 

des Pepsins. Breslau. 

1878 Ueber Bildung und Ausscheidung von Fermenten. Arch. f. d. 

ges. Physiol., vol. 16, pp. 105-123. 

1894 Zur Physiologic der Darmbewegung. Deutsche med. Wchnschr., 

vol. 20, pp. 897-898. 

1898 Ueber die Bewegung des Darminhaltes. Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., 

vol. 71, pp. 492-522. 

1905 Ein Beitrag zum Mechanismus der Magenverdauung. Arch. f. 

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GUDERNATSCH, J. F. 1915 Feeding experiments on rats. Anat. Record, vol. 9, 

pp. 78-80. In full in Am. J. Physiol., vol. 36, pp. 370-379. 
GUIEYSSE, A. 1898 Sur quelques points d'anatomie des muscles des appareil 

respiratoire. J.de 1'anat. et physiol., vol. 34, pp. 419-432. 5 figs. Rat 

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GULLIVER, GEORGE 1839 Observations on the muscular fibers of the oesophagus 

and heart in some of the Mammalia. Part 1. Proc. Zool. Soc., vol. 

7, pp. 124-129. Mus decumanus, p. 126. 

1842 Observations on the muscular fibers of the oesophagus and heart 

in some of the Mammalia. Part 2. Proc. Zool. Soc., vol. 10, pp. 63- 

72. Mus decumanus, p. 70. 

1875 Observations on the sizes and shapes of the red corpuscles of the 

blood of vertebrates, with drawings of them to a uniform scale, and 

extended and revised tables of measurements. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

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HAACKE, V. W. 1895 Ueber Wesen, Ursachen, und Vererbung von Albinismus, 

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HAGEDOORN, A. L. 1911 The interrelation of genetic and non-genetic factors 

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1914 Studies on variation and selection. Ztschr. f. indukt. Abstam- 

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HALLER, B. 1910 Zur Ontogenie der Grosshirnrinde der S.augetiere. Anat. 

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HALLIBURTON, W. D. 1888 On the haemoglobin crystals of rodents' blood. 

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HAMILTON, ALICE 1901 The division of differentiated cells in the central 

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HAMY, E. T. 1906 Sur la variete" negre du Mus decumanus observee au Muse'um 

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REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 233 

HANSEMANN, DAVID 1895 Ueber die Poren der normalen Lungenalveolen. 
Sitz. d. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., pp. 999-1001 1 plate. Also Math. u. 
naturw. Mitt. d. k. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., vol. 9, pp. 451-454. 

HANSEMANN, VON 1904 Ueber abnorme Rattenschadel. Arch. Anat. Physiol. 
physiol. Abt. 

HARLAN, RICHARD 1825 Fauna Americana. Being a description of the mam- 
miferous animals inhabiting North America Philadelphia, p. 148 
M. Rattus description. 

HARLEY, GEORGE 1857 Report on meeting of the Pathological Society, Novem- 
ber 28, 1857, giving report of Dr. Harley on "Rats from which the supra- 
renal capsules had been removed." Med. Times and Gaz., N. S., vol. 
15 (O. S., vol. 36), pp. 564-565. 

1858 Living specimen of a rat from which both the suprarenal cap- 
sules and the spleen had been removed. Tr. Path. Soc. Lond., vol. 9, 
p. 401. 

1858 a An experimental inquiry into the function of the suprarenal 
capsules, and their supposed connection with bronzed skin (in 2 parts). 
Brit, and For. M.-Chir. Rev., vol. 21, pp. 204-221; 498-510. 
1858 b Diseased suprarenal capsule, removal by operation from an 
apparently healthy animal. Tr. Path. Soc., Lond., vol. 9, pp. 401-402. 
(This volume is a report of the season of 1857-58.) 

HART, E. B. AND McCoLLUM, E. V. 1913 The influence of restricted rations on 
growth. Proc. Soc. Biol. Chemists, vol. 3, pp. 38-39. 

HARTLEY, PERCIVAL 1907 On the nature of the fat contained in the liver, kid- 
ney and heart. J. of Physiol., vol. 36, pp. 17-26. 

HARZ, W. 1883 Beitrage zur Histologie des Ovariums der S v augetiere. Arch. f. 
mikr. Anat., vol. 22, pp. 374-407. 

HATAI, S. 1901 The finer structure of the spinal ganglion cells in the white rat. 
J. Comp. Neur., vol. 11, pp. 1-24. 

1901 a On the presence of the centrosome in certain nerve cells of the 
white rat. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 11, pp. 25-39. 

1902 Number and size of the spinal ganglion cells and dorsal root fibers 
in the white rat at different ages. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 12, pp. 107-124. 
1902 a Preliminary note on the presence of a new group of neurones 
in the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves of the white rat. Biol. Bull., 
vol. 3, pp. 140-142. 

1902 b On the origin of neuroglia tissue from the mesoblast. J. 
Comp. Neur., voj. 12, pp. 291-296. 

1903 The finer structure of the neurones in the nervous system of the 
white rat. Decennial Pub., Univ. of Chicago, vol. 10, pp. 3-14. 

1903 a The effect of lecithin on the growth of the white rat. Am. J. 

Physiol., vol. 10, pp. 57-66. 

1903 b On the increase in the number of medullated nerve fiberfi in 

the ventral roots of the spinal nerves of the growing white rat. J. 

Comp. Neur., vol. 13, pp. 177-183. 

1903 c On the nature of the pericellular network of nerve cells. J. 

Comp. Neurol., vol. 13, pp. 139-147. 



234 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

HATAI, S. 1903 d The neurokeratin in the medullary sheaths of the peripheral 
nerves of mammals. J. Comp. Neurol., vol. 13, pp. 149-156. 
1904 A note on the significance of the form and contents of the nucleus 
in the spinal ganglion cells of the foetal rat. J. Comp. Neur. and 
Psychol., vol. 14, pp. 27-48. 

1904 a The effect of partial starvation on the brain of the white rat. 
Am. J. Physiol., vol. 12, pp. 116-127. 

1905 The excretion of nitrogen by the white rat as affected by age and 
body weight. Am. J. Physiol., vol. 14, pp. 120-132. 

1907 On the zoological position of the albino rat. Biol. Bull., vol. 

12, pp. 266-273. 

1907 a Effect of partial starvation followed by a return to normal diet, 

on the growth of the body and central nervous system of albino rats. 

Am. J. Physiol., vol. 18, pp. 309-320. 

1907 b A study of the diameters of the cells and nuclei in the second 

cervical spinal ganglion of the adult albino rat. J. Comp. Neur. and 

Psychol., vol. 17, pp. 469-491. 

1907 c Studies on the variation and correlation of skull measurements 
in both sexes of mature albino rats (Mus norvegicus var. albus). Am. 
J. Anat., vol. 7, pp. 423-441. 

1908 Preliminary note on the size and condition of the central nervous 
system in albino rats experimentally stunted. J. Comp. Neur. and 
Psychol., vol. 18, pp. 151-155. 

1909 A comparison of the albino with the gray rats in respect to the 
weight of the brain and spinal cord. Proc. of Assoc. of Am. Anat. in 
Anat. Record, vol. 3, p. 245. 

1909 a Note on the formulas used for calculating the weight of the 
brain in the albino rats. J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 19, pp. 
169-173. 

1910 A mathematical treatment of some biological problems. Biol. 
Bull., vol. 18, pp. 126-130. 

1910 a DeForest's formula for "An unsymmetrical probability 
curve." Anat. Record, vol. 4, pp. 281-290. 

1911 An interpretation of growth curves from a dynamical standpoint. 
Anat. Record, vol. 5, pp. 373-382. 

1911 a The Mendelian ratio and blended inheritance. Am. Natural- 
ist, vol. 45, pp. 99-106. 

1912 On the appearance of albino mutants in litters of the common 
Norway rat, Mus norvegicus. Science, n.s. vol. 35, no. 909, pp. 875- 
876, May 31. 

1913 On the weights of the abdominal and the thoracic viscera, the 
sex glands, ductless glands and the eyeballs of the albino rat (Mus 
norvegicus albinus) according to body weight. Am. J. Anat., vol. 15, 
pp. 87-119. 

1913 a The effect of castration, spaying or semi-spaying on the weight 
of the central nervous system and of the hypophysis of the albino rat ; 
also the effect of semi-spaying on the remaining ovary. J. Exper. 
Zool., vol. 15, pp. 297-314. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 235 

HATAI, S. 1914 On the weight of the thymus gland of the albino rat (Mus nor- 
vegicus albinus) according to age. Am. J. Anat., vol. 16, pp. 251-257. 

1914 a On the weight of some of the ductless glands of the Norway 
and of the albino rat according to sex and variety. Anat. Record, 
vol. 8, pp. 511-523. 

1915 The growth of organs in the albino rat as affected by gonadec- 
tomy. J. Exper. Zool., vol. 18, pp. 1-67. 

1915 a Growth of the body and organs in albino rats fed with a lipoid- 

free ration. Anat. Record, vol. 9, pp. 1-20. 
HEHN, VIKTOR 1911 Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere in ihrem Uebergang aus 

Asien nach Griechenland und Italien sowie in das tibrige Europa. 

Achte auflage. Historisch-linguistische Skizzen, Berlin, Gebriider 

Borntraeger. 

HEISER, VICTOR G. 1910 Plague eradication in cities by sectional extermina- 
tion of rats and general rat proofing. Found in "The rat and its rela- 
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Mar.-Hosp. Service of the U. S. Government Printing Office, Wash., 

D. C. 

1913 The rats of our cities ; what becomes of the carcasses of rats dying 

natural deaths? Pub. Health Rep., Wash., vol. 28, p. 1553. 
HENNEBERG, B. 1899 Die erste Entwickelung der Mammarorgane bei der 

Ratte. Anat. Hefte, Wiesb., vol. 13, pp. 1-68. 

1900 Verhalten der Umbilicalarterien bei den Embryonen von Ratte 

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HERZOG, MAXIMILIAN 1905 Zur Frage der Pestverbreitung durch Insecten. 

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HEUSER, CHESTER H. 1914 The form of the stomach in mammalian embryos. 

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HEWER, EVELYN E. 1914 The effect of thymus feeding on the activity of the 

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HEWETT, G. M. A. 1904 The rat. Adam and Charles Black. London. 
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halt des weiblichen Organismus. Arch. Gynakol., vol. 73, pp. 366-405. 

Also Zeit. physiol. Chem., vol. 41, pp. 246-258. 
HILL, A. M. 1913 The effects of high external temperatures on the metabolism 

of rats. J. Physiol., vol. 46, pp. xxxi-xxxii. 
HILL, LEONARD AND MACLEOD, J. J. R. 1903 The influence of compressed air 

on the respiratory exchange. J. Physiol., vol. 29, pp. 492-510. 
HOBDY, WILLIAM C. 1910 The rat in relation to shipping. Found in "The rat 

and its relation to the public health," pp. 207-213. Treasury Dept. 

Pub. Health and Mar.-Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Wash., D. C. 
HOBER, RUDOLF 1911 Physikalische Chemie der Zelle und der Gewebe. Wil- 

helm Engelmann. Leipzig. 3rd Ed., p. 254. Analysen der Plasma- 

hautstruktur bei den Blutkorperchen. 
HOHLBAUM, Jos. 1912 Beitrage zurKenntnis der Epithelkorperchenfunktionen. 

Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path., vol. 53, pp. 91-104. 



236 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

HOHMEIER, F. 1901 Ueber Aenderungen der Fermentmengen im Mageninhalt. 
Inaug.-Diss. Tubingen. 

HOLLMANN, HARRY T. 1912 The cultivation of an acid-fast bacillus from a rat 
suffering with rat leprosy (a preliminary report) Pub. health rep. 
U. S. Mar. Hosp. Serv., vol. 27, part 1, pp. 69-70. 

HOME, SIR EVERED 1807 Observations on the structure of the stomach of dif- 
ferent animals. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., part 1, Plates V-XIII, p. 150. 
The common rat. 

HONIGSCHMIED, JOH. 1873 Beitrage zur mikroskopischen Anatomic iiber die 
Geschmacksorgane der Saugethiere. Zeitschr. f. wissen. Zool., vol. 
23, pp. 414-434. 

HOPKINS, F. G. 1912 Feeding experiments illustrating the importance of acces- 
sory factors in normal dietaries. J. Physiol., vol. 44, pp. 425-460. 

HOPKINS, F. G. AND NEVILLE, ALLEN 1912 A note concerning the influence of 
diets upon growth. Biochem. J., vol. 7, pp. 97-99. 

HORTON, JESSIE M. 1905 The anthracidal substance in the serum of white rats. 
J. of Infect. Dis., vol. 3, pp. 110-115. 

HOSSACK, W. C. 1906 Preliminary note on the rats of Calcutta. Journ. Proc. 
Asiat. Soc., Bengal, vol. 2, pp. 183-186. 

1907 An account of the rats of Calcutta. Mem. Ind. Museum, vol. 1, 
no. 1. PI. I-VIII. Elaborate tables of measurements very com- 
plete. Several colored plates. 

1907 a Aids to the identification of rats connected with plague in 
India. Allahabad, Pioneer Press, 10 pp. 

1907 b The original home of Mus decumanus. Records of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta, vol. 1, pp. 275-276. Discussion of wild coloration. 

HOTER, H. 1890 Ueber den Nachweis des Mucins in Geweben mittelst der 
Farbemethode. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 36, pp. 310-374. Rat in- 
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HXJBBERT, HELEN B. 1914 Time versus distance in learning. J. Animal Be- 
havior, vol. 4, pp. 60-69. 

1915 Elimination of errors in the maze. J. Animal Behavior, vol. 5, 
pp. 66-72. 

HTJBER, G. CARL 1915 The development of the albino rat from the end of the 
first to the tenth day after insemination. Anat. Record, vol. 9, pp. 
84-88. 

1915 a The development of the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). 
Part 1. From the pronuclear stage to the stage of mesoderm anlage; 
end of the first to the end of the ninth day. J. of Morphology, vol. 
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1915 b The development of the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus) . 
Part II. Abnormal ova. End of the first to the end of the ninth day. 
J. of Morphology, vol. 26, pp. 359-386. 

HUNT, REID, AND SEIDELL, A. 1909 Studies on thyroid. I. The relation of 
iodine to the physiological activity of thyroid preparations. Bull. no. 
47 Hyg. Lab. U. S. Pub. Health and Mar. Hosp. Serv., Wash. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 237 

HUNT, REID 1910 The effects of a restricted diet and of various diets upon the 
resistance of animals to certain poisons. Bull. no. 69, Hyg. Lab. U. 
S. Pub. Health and Mar. Hosp. Serv., Wash., pp. 3-93. 

HUNTER, A., GIVENS, M. H. AND GUION, C. M. 1914 Studies in the com- 
parative biochemistry of purine metabolism. I. The excretion of 
purine catabolites in the urine of marsupials, rodents and carnivora. 
J. Biol. Chem., vol. 18, p. 387. 

HUNTER, WALTER S. 1912 A note on the behavior of the white rat. J. Animal 
Behavior, vol. 2, pp. 137-141. 

1913 The delayed reaction in animals and children. Behavior Mono- 
graphs, vol. 2, no. 1, serial number 6, pp. 1-86. 

1914 The auditory sensitivity of the white rat. J. Animal Behavior, 
vol. 4, pp. 215-222. 

HURLER, K. 1912 Vergleichende Untersuchungen iiber den Bacillus paraty- 
phosus B, den Bacillus enteritidis Gartner und die Rattenbacillen : 
Ratinbacillus, Bacillus ratti Danysz, Bacillus ratti Dunbar und Bacil- 
lus ratti Issatschenko. Centralbl. f . Bakteriol., 1 Abt., Jena, vol. 63, 
pp. 341-372. 

HYRTL, JOSEPH 1845 Vergleichend-anatomische Untersuchungen liber das innere 
Gehororgan des Menschen und der Saugethiere. Pp. 1-139, 9 plates. 
Friedrich Ehrlich. Prag. Diameters of the several semi-circular 
canals with their greatest distance from the vestibule for M. decu- 
manus. 

INDIA PLAGUE COMMISSION 1908 Etiology and epidemiology of plague, p. 9. 
Calcutta. 

ISELIN, HANS 1908 Wachstumshemmung infolge von Parathyreoidektomie bei 
Ratten: ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Epithelkorperchen-Funktion bei 
jungen Ratten. Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir., vol. 93, pp.' 494-500. 

L'ISLE, A. DE, 1865 De 1'existence d'une race negre chez le Rat ou de 1'identite 
spe"cifique du Mus rattus et du Mus alexandrinus. Ann. d. sc. nat. 
Zool., 5th series, vol. 4, pp. 173-222. 

JACKSON, C. M. AND LOWREY, L. G. 1912 On the relative growth of the compo- 
nent parts (head, trunk and extremities) and systems (skin, skeleton, 
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449-474. 

JACKSON, C. M. 1912 On the recognition of sex through external characters in 
the young rat. Biol. Bull., vol. 23, pp. 171-174. 

1913 Postnatal growth and variability of the body and of the various 
organs in the albino rat. Am. J. Anat., vol. 15, pp. 1-68. 

1915 Effects of acute and chronic inanition upon the relative weights 
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1915 a Changes in young albino rats held at constant body weight by 
underfeeding for various periods. Anat. Record, vol. 9, pp. 91-92. 
1915 b Changes in the relative weights of the various parts, systems 
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feeding for various periods. J. Exper. Zool., vol. 19, pp. 99-156. 



238 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

JACOB, LTJDWIG 1906 Fiitterungsversuche mit einer aus den einfachen Nah- 
rungsstoffen zusammengesetzten Nahrung an Tauben und Ratten. 
Zeit. Biol., vol. 48 (N. F. 30) pp. 19-62. 

JADASSOHN, J. 1913. Lepra. in (Kolle,Wilhelm und Wassermann, A. von, (eds.) 
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930) . Page 821 , Rattenleprabacillus . 

JENSEN, C. O. 1908 Uebertragbare Rattensarkome. Ztschr. f. Krebsfor- 
schung, vol. 7, p. 45. 

JENSEN, O. S. 1887 Untersuchungen iiber die Samenkorper der Saugethiere, 
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JOANNOVICS, GEORG 1912 Ueber das Verhalten transplantierter Karzinome in 
kiinstlich anamischen Mausen. Wiener Klin. Wochenschr., vol. 25, 
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JOB, THESLE T. 1915 The adult anatomy of the lymphatic system in the com- 
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JOLLY, J. ET STINI, J. 1905 Masse totale du sang chez le rat blanc. Compt. 
rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 58, pp. 835-837. 

JOLYET ET CHAKER 1875 De 1'acte de ronger 6tudie chez les rats. C. R. et 
Mem. Soc. Biol., Paris, Ann. 1875, pp. 73-74. Lateral motion of in- 
ferior incisors. 

JUNGANO 1909 Sur la flore anaerobic du rat. Comp. rend. Soc. de biol., vol. 66, 
p. 112. 

JURGENS, G. 1903 Beitrag zur Biologic der Rattentrypanosomen. Arch. f. 
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KANTHACK, A. A. AND HARDY, W. B. 1894 The morphology and distribution 
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KATZENSTEIN, J. 1903 Ueber die elastischen Fasern im Kehlkopfe mit beson- 
derer Beriicksichtigung der funktionellen Struktur und der Function 
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KELLER, OTTO 1909 Die Antike Tierwelt. I. Saugetiere. pp. 203-205. En- 
gelmann, Leipzig. 

KELLER-ZSCHOKKE, J. 1892 Mus rattus noch in der Schweiz. Zool. Garten, 
33 Jhg.no. 2, p. 60. 

KERR, JOHN W. 1910 The rat in relation to international sanitation. Found 
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ury Dept. Pub. Health and Mar.-Hospt. Service of the U. S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Wash., D. C. 

KING, HELEN D . 1910 The effects of various fixatives on the brain of the albino 
rat, with an account of a method of preparing this material for a study 
of the cells in the cortex. Anat. Record, vol. 4, pp. 214-244. 
1911 The effects of pneumonia and of post-mortem changes on the per- 
centage of water in the brain of the albino rat. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 
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1911 a The effects of semi-spaying and of semi-castration on the sex 
ratio of the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus) . J. Exper. Zool., vol. 
10, pp. 381-392. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 239 

KING, HELEN D. 1911 b The sex ratio in hybrid rats. Biol. Bull., vol. 21, 
pp. 104-112. 

1913 Some anomalies in the gestation of the albino rat (Mus nor- 
vegicus albinus). Biol. Bull., vol. 24, pp. 377-391. 
1913 a The effects of formaldehyde on the brain of the albino rat. J. 
Comp. Neur., vol. 23, pp. 283-314. 

1915 On the weight of the albino rat at birth and the factors that in- 
fluence it. Anatomical Record, vol. 9, pp. 213-231. 

KING, HELEN D. AND STOTSENBURG, J. M. 1915 On the normal sex ratio and 
the size of the litter in the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). Ana- 
tomical Record, vol. 9, pp. 403-420. 

KING, JESSIE L. 1910 The cortico-spinal tract of the rat. Anat. Rec., vol. 4, 
pp. 245-252. 

KIKKHAM, WILLIAM B. 1910 Ovulation in mammals, with special reference to 
the mouse and rat. Biol. Bull., vol. 18, pp. 245-251. 

KIRKHAM, WILLIAM B. AND BURR, H. S. 1913 The breeding habits, maturation 
of eggs and ovulation of the albino rat. Am. J. Anat., vol. 15, pp. 291- 
317. Six excellent plates illustrating the egg in various phases. 

KLEBS, E. 1891 Zur vergleichenden Anatomic der Placenta. Archiv. f. mikr. 
Anat., vol. 37, pp. 335-356. 

KLEIN, EDWARD UNO VERSON, E. 1871 Der Darmkanal. In Strieker's Hand- 
buch der Lehre von den Geweben des Menschen und der Tiere. See 
"Magen,"p.395. 

KLEIN, E. 1875 The anatomy of the lymphatic system. II. The lung. Smith, 
Elder & Co., London, 88 pages, 6 plates. Observations mainly on 
guinea pig. Rat among other animals used. 

KLUNZINGER, C. B. 1908 Ueber unsere Ratten und Mause, deren Schaden und 
Bekampfung. Jahresh. Ver. vaterl. Naturk. Wurttemberg Jahrg., 
64 p. xxxi-xxxviii. 

KNAPP, PAUL 1908 Experimenteller Beitrag zur Ernahrung von Ratten mit 
kiinstlicher Nahrung und zum Zusammenhang von Ernahrungs- 
storungen mit Erkrankungen der Conjunctiva. Zeit. exp. Path. u. 
Ther., vol. 5, pp. 147-169. 

KOCH, MATHILDE L. 1913 Contributions to the chemical differentiation of the 
central nervous system. I. A comparison of the brain of the albino 
rat at birth with that of the fetal pig. J. Biol. Chem., vol. 14, pp. 
267-279. 

KOCH, W. AND MANN, S. A. 1909 A chemical study of the brain in healthy and 
diseased conditions, with especial reference to dementia praecox. 
Archives of Neurol. and Psychiatry (Mott), vol. 4, pp. 201-204. 

KOCH, WALDEMAR AND KOCH, MATHILDE L. 1913 Contributions to the chemical 
differentiation of the central nervous system. II. A comparison of 
two methods of preserving nerve tissue for subsequent chemical exam- 
ination. J. Biol. Chem., vol. 14, pp. 281-282. 

1913 a Contributions to the chemical differentiation of the central 
nervous system. III. The chemical differentiation of the brain of 
the albino rat during growth. J. Biol. Chem., vol. 15, pp. 423-448. 




240 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

KOEPEKT, OTTO 1904 Nochmals der Rattenkonig. Natur u. Haus., vol. 12, pp. 

118-119. 
KOGANEI, J. 1885 Untersuchungen tiber den Bau der Iris des Menschen und 

derWirbelthiere. Archiv. f . mikr. Anat., vol. 25, pp. 1-48. Rat, p. 16 
KOHLMEYER, O. 1906 Topographic des elastischen Gewebes in der Gaumen- 

schleimhaut der Wanderratte, Mus decumanus. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., 

vol. 81, pp. 145-190. 
KOLAZY, JOSEF 1871 Ueber die Lebensweise von Mus rattus, varietas, alba. 

Verhandl. Zool. Bot. Gesellsch. Wien, pp. 731-734. Unusually good 

account. 
KOLMER, J. A. AND Yui, C. V. AND TYAU, E. S. 1913 Concerning the activity 

and fixability of the complement in rat serum. J. Med. Research, vol. 

28 (n.s. vol. 23), pp. 483-495. 
KOLSTER, RUD. 1901 Vergleichend anatomische Studien tiber den M. pro- 

nator teres der Saugetiere. Anat. Hefte, vol. 17, pp. 673-834. Mus. 

rattus, p. 714. 
KONSTANSOFP, S. V. 1910 Organized extermination of rats in general and on 

the territory of the port of Feodossiyz in particular. Vestnik obsh. 

hig., sudeb. i prakt. med., St. Petersb., vol. 46, pp. 777-783. 
KOROLKOW, P. 1892 Die Nervenendigungen in den Speicheldriisen. Rev. d. 

sc. nat. de St. Petersbourg, Ann. 3, pp. 109-112 (Russian). In German 

in Anat. Anz., vol. 7, pp. 580-582, 1 fig., white rat. 
KRAUSE, WILHELM 1870 Die Nervenendigung in der Zunge des Menschen, 

Gottinger Nachr., pp. 423-426. 

1876 Allgemeine und mikroskopische Anatomic. Handbuch der 

menschlichen Anatomie, Bd. 1. Hannover, 1876. (Vol. 1 of KRAUSE, 

CARL F. T. Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie, 3 Aufl.). 
KREIDL, A. UND NEUMANN, A. 1908 Zur Frage der Labgerinnung im Sauglings- 

magen. Zentralbl. f. Physiol., vol. 22, pp. 133-136. (See p. 136). 
KUNHARDT, J. C., TAYLOR, J. AND OTHERS 1915 Epidemiological observa- 
tions in Madras Presidency. VI. Rat and flea prevalence, p. 725. J. 

of Hyg., Plague Suppl. IV, 9th Report on Plague Investigations in 

India. 
KUPFFER, C. W. VON 1876 Ueber Sternzellen in der Leber. Arch. f. mikr. 

Anat., vol. 12, part 2, pp. 352-358. Results verified on rat. 
LAGARRIQUE, MAURICE 1911 La lutte contre le rat. Paris, Jouve & Cie. 102 

pp. 8. 
LAMBERT, R. A. 1910 A note on parabiosis between mice and rats. Proc. Soc. 

Exper. Biol. and Med., 38th meeting, April 20. 

1911 The influence of mouse-rat parabiosis on the growth in rats of a 

transplantable mouse sarcoma. J. Exp. Med., vol. 13, pp. 257-262. 
LANDOIS, H. 1886 tiber Bleirohre von Ratten zernagt. 15 Jahresber. West- 

fal. Prov.-Ver., pp. 12-13. 
LANE-CLAYPON, JANET E. 1909 Observations on the influence of heating upon 

the nutrient value of milk as an exclusive diet for young animals. J. 

Hyg., vol. 9, pp. 233-238. 
LANGLEY, J. N. 1879 On the structure of serous glands in rest and activity. 

Proc. Roy. Soc., London, vol. 29, pp. 377-382. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 241 

LANGLEY, J. N. AND SEWALL, H. 1879 On the changes in pepsin-forming glands 

during secretion. J. Physiol., vol. 2, pp. 281-301; Proc. Roy. Soc., 

London, vol. 29, p. 383. 
LANGLEY, J. N. 1882 On the histology of the mammalian gastric glands, and 

the relation of pepsin to the granules of the chief cells. J. Physiol., 

vol. 3, pp. 269-291. 
LANGLOIS, J. P. AND LOIR, A. 1902 La resistance des rats et des insectes & 

1'acide carbonique et a 1'acide sulfureux. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., 

vol.54, pp. 414-415. 
LANTZ, DAVID E. 1907 Methods of destroying rats. U. S. Dept. of Agr. 

Farmers' Bull . no . 297 . Government Printing Office, Washington, D . C. 

1909 The brown rat in the United States. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Biol. 
survey, Bull. no. 33, Washington, D. C., pp. 12-13. 

1910 Natural history of the rat. Found in "The rat and its relation 
to the public health," pp. 15-27. Treasury Dept. Pub. Health and 
Mar.-Hospt. Service of the U. S., Washington, D. C. Government 
Printing Office. 

1910 a Natural enemies of the rat. Found in "The rat and its rela- 
tion to the public health," pp. 163-169. Treasury Dept. Pub. Health 

and Mar.-Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Printing Office. 

Washington, D. C. 

1910 b The rat as an economic factor. Found in "The rat and its 

relation to the public health," pp. 215-226. Treasury Dept. Pub. 

Health and Mar.-Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Printing 

Office, Washington, D. C. 
LAPICQTJE, Louis 1907 Difference sexuelle dans le poids de Pence"phale chez 

les animaux. Rat et moineau. C. R. Soc. Biol., Paris, vol. 63, pp. 

746-748. 
LAPICQTJE, Louis AND GIRARD, P. 1907 Sur le poids de Pence'phale chez les 

animaux domestiques. Societe" de Biol., vol., 62, p. 1015. 
LAPICQUE, Louis AND LEGENDRE, R. 1911 Sur les rats noirs du Jardin des 

Plantes. Bull, du Museum d'histoire naturelle, no. 6, pp. 1-5. 
LASHLEY, K. S. 1912 Visual discrimination of size and form in the albino rat. 

J. Animal Behavior, vol. 2, pp. 310-331. 
LAUBER, HANS 1901 Beitragezur Anatomic des vorderen Augenabschnittes der 

Wirbeltiere. Anat. Hefte, vol. 18, pp. 371-453. Mus rattus, p. 427. 
LAVERAN, A. AND MESNIL, F. 1900 Sur Pagglutination des trypanosomes du 

rat par divers scrums. C. R. Soc. de Biol., Nov. 10, p. 939. 

1900 a De la longue conservation a la glaciere des trypanosomes du 

rat et de P agglomeration de ces parasites. C. R. Soc. de Biol., Oct. 6, 

p. 816. 

1900 b Sur le mode de multiplication du trypanosome du rat. C. R. 

Soc. de Biol., Nov. 17, p. 976. 
LAVRINOVICH, M. O. 1910 Extermination of rats in St. Petersburg by cultures 

of Danich's bacilli. Vestnik. Obsh. vet., St. Petersb., vol. 22, p. 885. 

(Russian.) 
LEBOEUF, A. 1912 Existence de lepra murium (lepre des rats) en Nouvelle 

Calddonie. Bull. Soc. path, exot., vol. 5, pp. 463-465. 



242 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

LEE, FREDERIC S. 1910 The nature of fatigue. Popular Science Monthly, Feb- 
ruary, pp. 182-195. See fig. 4. 
LEEUWENHOECK, ANT. 1693 On the testicles of a rat and the animalcules 

therein contained; with some observations of small animals found in 

oysters and in the sap of vines. Phil. Trans., vol. 17, pp. 593-594. 
LEFROY, SIR JOHN HENRY 1882 The Historye of the Bermudaes or Summer 

Islands, 1609 By Capt. John Smith (?) Pub. of theHakluyt Soc., 

London. 
LEISCHNER, H. 1907 Ueber Epithelkorperchen-Transplantationen und deren 

praktische Bedeutung in der Chirurgie. Arch. f. klin. Chir., vol. 84, 

pp. 208-222. 
LEISCHNER, H. AND KOHLER, R. 1911 Ueber homioplastische Epithelkorper- 

chen und Schilddriisenverpflanzung. Arch. f. klin. Chir., vol. 94, pp. 

169-185. 
LENHOSSEK, M. VON 1889 Ueber die Pyramidenbahnen im Riickenmarke einiger 

Saugetiere. Anat. Anz., vol. 4, pp. 208-219. 

1898 Untersuchungen liber Spermatogenese. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., 

vol. 51, pp. 215-318. 
LEOPOLD, JEROME S. AND REUSS, A. VON 1908 Ueber die Beziehungen der 

Epithelkorperchen zum Kalkebestand des Organismus. Wien klin. 

Wchnschr., pp. 1243-1246. 
LERSCH, B.M. 1871 Zur Geschichte der Rattophagie. Deutsche Klinik, Berl., 

vol. 23, p. 42. 
LEVIN, ISAAC 1908 The reactive power of the white rat to tissue implantation 

(Second communication.) Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., vol. 5. 

pp. 41-43. 

1910 Immunity to the growth of cancer induced in rats by treatment 

with mouse tissue. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., 38th meeting, 

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1910 a Resistance to the growth of cancer induced in rats by injec- 
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1911 The relation of the reactive stroma formation to the transplant- 
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615. 

LEWIN, C. 1912 Ueber Immunisierung mit Blutserum von spontan geheilten 
Tumorratten. Zeitschr. f. Krebsforsch., vol. 11, p. 334. 

1912 a Immunisierungs und Heilversuche mit Autolysaten bei Rat- 
tentumoren. Zeitschr. f. Krebsforsch., vol. 11, p. 317. 

LEWIS, FREDERIC T. 1915 The comparative embryology of the mammalian 

stomach. Proc. of Am. Assoc. of Anatomists in Anat. Record, vol. 

9, pp. 102-103. 
LEWIS, W. BEVAN 1881 On the comparative structure of the brain in rodents. 

Phil. Trans., 1882, pp. 699-749. 
LEYDIG, F. 1850 Zur Anatomic der mannlichen Geschlechtsorgane und Anal- 

driisen der Saugetiere. Ztschr. f. wiss. Zool., vol. 2, pp. 1-57, Taf. 

I-IV. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 243 

LEYDIG, F. 1854 Kleinere Mitteilungen zur tierischen Gewebelehre. Arch, f . 

Anat. u. Entwcklngsgesch., pp. 296-348, pi. XII and XIII. Mus de- 

cumanus, pp. 341-345. 

1857 Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der Tiere. Frank- 
furt a.M. 551 pp. See p. 374. 
LIEBE, K. TH. 1891 Zu dem Vorkommen der Hausratte (Mus rattus) . Zoolog. 

Garten, 31 Jhg., pp. 156-157. 
LINDNER, FR. 1891 Notiz tiber das Vorkommen der Hausratte (Mus rattus). 

Zoolog. Garten 31 Jhg., pp. 155-156. 
LINNAEUS, C. 1746 Fauna Suecica. Stockholm. 

1758 Systema naturae, etc. Tome 1, Editio 10. p. 61, M. rattus 5 

references. 

1766 Systema naturae, etc. Tome 1, Editio 12 (Mus rattus only). 
LINSER, PAUL 1900 Ueber den Bau und die Entwicklung des elastischen Ge- 

webes in der Lunge. Anat. Hefte, H. 42/43 (Bd. 13, H. 2/3) pp". 307- 

335. 
LISTON, W. G. 1905 Plague, rats and fleas. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., vol. 

16, p. 253. 

1905 a The rats of India. Indian M. Gaz., Calcutta, vol. 40, pp. 130- 

132. 
LIVINI, FERD. 1896 Intorno alia struttura della trachea. Monitore zool- 

ital. Anno 7. Mus decumanus, p. 103. 
LLOYD, R.E. 1908 Remarkable cases of variation, I. Records Indian Museum, 

vol. 2, p. 29. 

1909 The races of Indian rats. Records of Indian Museum, vol. 3, 

pp. 1-100. 

1909 a The relation between fertility and normality in rats. Rec- 
ords Indian Museum, vol. 3, pp. 261-265. 

1910 Further observations on the races of Indian rats. Records of 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta, vol. 5, pt. II, pp. 105-115. Peculiar 
large groups. 

1911 The inheritance of fertility. Biometrika, vol. 8, pp. 244-247. 

1912 The growth of groups in the animal kingdom. London. 1 
colored plate of three color varieties of Mus rattus. 

LOEB, LEO 1901 On transplantation of tumors. J. Med. Research, vol. 6 (n.s. 
vol. 1 continuation of the Journ. of the Boston Soc. of Med. 
Sciences, pp. 28-38. 

1902 Further investigations in transplantations of tumors. J. Med. 
Research, n.s. vol. 3, pp. 44-73. 

1902 a Ueber Transplantationen eines Sarcoms der Thyreoidea bei 
einer weissen Ratte. Arch. f. path. Anat., vol. 167, pp. 175-191. 

1903 Mixed tumors of the thyroid gland. Am. J. Med. Sc., vol. 125, 
pp. 243-256. 

1903 a Uber Transplantation von Tumoren. Arch, f . path. Anat., 
vol. 172, pp. 345-368. 

1904 Ueber das endemische Vorkommen des Krebses beim Tiere 
Centralbl. f . Bakteriol. u. Parasitenk., vol. 37, pp. 235-245. 



244 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

LOEB, LEO. 1907 Observations on the inoculability of tumors and on the 

endemic occurrence of cancer. Internat. Clin., vol. 3, series 17, pp. 

114-130. 

1913 Venom of heloderma. Carnegie Inst., Wash., D. C. Pub. no. 

177, pp. 250. 
LOEWENTHAL, N. 1894 Zur Kenntnis der Glandula infraorbitalis einiger Sau- 

getiere. Anat. Anz., vol. 10, pp. 123-130. 

1894 a Zur Kenntnis der Glandula submaxillaris einiger Saugetiere. 

Anat. Anz., vol. 9, pp. 223-229. White rat, pp. 224-225. 

1897 Note sur le structure fine des glandes de Cowper du rat blanc. 

Bibliogr. Anat., vol. 4, pp. 168-170. (1 text fig.) 

1900 Driisenstudien. II. Die Gl. infraorbitalis und eine besondere 

der Parotis anliegende Druse bei der weissen Ratte. Arch. f. mikr. 

Anat., vol. 56, p. 535. 

1908 Driisenstudien. III. Die Unterkieferdruse des Igels und der 
weissen Ratte. Arch. mikr. Anat., vol. 71, pp. 588-666. 

LOGHEM, J. J. VAN 1908 Some notes on the morphology of Spirochaeta dut- 
toni in the organs of rats. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., vol. 1, pp. 521- 
525. 

LOGHEM, J. J. VAN AND SWELLENGREBEL, N. H. 1914 Kontinuierliche und 
metostatische Pest verbreitung. Ztschr. f . Hyg. u. Infectionskrankh., 
vol. 77, p. 460. 

LOIR, I. M. 1903 De"gats cause's par les rats. Caduce"e Par., vol. 3, p. 89. 

LONS,H. 1908 Mus rattus in Celle. Jahresber. nat. Ges., Hannover, pp. 41-42. 

LovlSN, C. 1868 Bidrag till kannedomen om tungans smakpapiller. Med. 
Arch. Stockholm, vol. 3, 1866-1867. Trans. Beitrage zur Kenntnis vom 
Bau der Geschmackswarzchen der Zunge. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 
4, pp. 96-110. 

LOWREY, LAWSON G. 1913 The growth of the dry substance in the albino rat. 
Anat. Record, vol. 7, pp. 143-168. 

McCoLLUM, E. V. 1909 Nuclein synthesis in the animal body. Am. J.Physiol., 
vol. 25, pp. 120-141. Also in Research Bull. no. 8, Univ. of Wis. Agr. 
Exper. Station, May, 1910. 

McCoLLtiM, E. V. AND DAVIS, MARGUERITE 1913 The influence of the compo- 
sition and amount of the mineral content of the ration on growth. J. 
Biol. Chem., vol. 14, no. 2. 

1913 a The necessity of certain lipins in the diet during growth. J. 
Biol. Chem., vol. 15, pp. 167-175. 

1914 Further observations on the physiological properties of the lipins 
of the egg yolk. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., vol. 11, p. 101. 

McCoy, GEORGE W. 1908 Distribution of the leprosy-like disease of rats in 
San Francisco, Cal. Pub. Health Rep. U. S. Mar. Hosp. Serv., Wash., 
vol. 23, p .1601. 

1909 The keeping and handling of rats for laboratory purposes. N. 
Y. Med. J., vol. 89, p. 275. 

1910 Plague infection in rats. Found in "The rat and its relation 
to the public health," pp. 29-48. Treasury Dept. Pub. Health and 
Mar. Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Printing Office, Wash., 
D. C. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 245 

McCoY, GEORGE W. 1910 a Organic diseases of the rat, including tumors. 

Found in "The rat and its relation to the public health," pp. 59-68. 

Treasury Dept. Pub. Health and Mar. Hospt. Service of the U. S., 

Government Printing Office, Wash., D. C. 
McMuNN, CHARLES A. 1884 On myohaematin, an intrinsic muscle-pigment of 

vertebrates and invertebrates, on histohaematin and on the spectrum 

of the suprarenal bodies. Proc. of Physiol. Soc. in J. of Physiol., vol. 

5, pp. xxiv-xxvi. 
MAcCuRDY, HANSFORD AND CASTLE, W. E. 1907 Selection and cross-breeding 

in relation to the inheritance of coat pigments and coat-patterns in 

rats and guinea-pigs. Carnegie Inst., Wash., Pub. no. 70. 
MACGILLAVRY, T. H. 1875 Les dents incisives du Mus decumanus. Arch. 

Ne'er!. Sc. exact, et nat., Haarlem., vol. 10, 1 pi. Same as paper in 

Dutch, 1876. 

1876 De snitjanden von M. decumanus. Vers. en mededed. der Kon. 

Akad. v. Wetensch., II. R. 9. Amsterdam. 1 pi. 
MACLEOD, J. J. R. 1907 Observations on the excretion of carbon dioxide gas and 

the rectal temperature of rats kept in a warm atmosphere which was 

either very moist or very dry. Am. J. Physiol., vol. 18, pp. 1-13. 
MAJOR, C. J. FORSYTH Mus rattus remains at Molina di Anosa near Pisa. 

Quoted at length by Baumgart, 1904, p. 8. 
MALLORY, F. B. AND ORDWAY, THOMAS 1909 Lesions produced in the rat by a 

typhoid-like organism Danysz virus. J. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 52, 

p. 145. 

MANDOTJL, H. 1909 Rats et pe"trole. Arch, de parasitol., vol. 12, pp. 451-455. 
MANOTJVRIER, L. 1905 Un rapt de proge'niture entre femelles de rat blanc. 

Bull, de 1'Inst. ge"n. psychol., vol. 5, pp. 165-169. 
MARCHOUX, E. 1910 Les migrations du bacille de la lepre. Lepra, vol. 11, pp- 

57-60. (II. Internationale wissenschaftliche Lepra-Konferenz abge- 

haltenvom 16 bis 19 August, 1909, in Bergen. III. Band. Leipzig.) 

1911 Culture d'un bacille acido-re"sistant provenant du mucus nasal 

des le'preux. (Note preliminaire.) Bull. Soc. path, exot., vol. 4, pp. 

89-91. 

1911 and 1912 Human leprosy and rat leprosy; a discussion of their 
respective problems. Tr. Soc. Trop. M. and Hyg., vol. 5, pp. 184-189. 

1912 Role des infections secondaires dans le deVeloppement de la lepre 
du rat. Bull. Soc. path, exot., vol. 5, pp. 466-468. 

MARCHOUX, E. AND SOREL, F. 1912 Lepra murium; infection et maladie ne sont 
pas synonymes. Compt. rend. Soc. de Biol., vol. 72, pp. 169-171. 
1912 a Lepre des rats; comparaison avec la lepre humaine. Compt. 
rend. Soc. de biol., vol. 72, pp. 214-217. 

1912 b Lepre des rats; inoculation experimentale. Compt. rend. Soc. 
de biol., vol. 72, pp. 269-272. 

1912 c Recherches sur la lepre. l er memoire: La lepre des rats (lepra 
murium). Ann. de 1'Inst. Pasteur, vol. 26, pp. 675-700. 

MARK, E. L. AND LONG, J. A. 1912 Studies on early stages of development in 
rats and mice. No. 3. The living eggs of rats and mice with a de- 
scription of apparatus for obtaining and observing them. Univ. Cal. 
Pub. Zool., vol. 9, pp. 105-136. 



246 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

MARSHALL, F. H. A. AND JOLLY, W. A. 1907 Results of removal and transplan- 
tation of ovaries. Tr. Roy. Soc. Edinb., vol. 45, pp. 589-597. 
1908 On the results of heteroplastic ovarian transplantation as com- 
pared with those produced by transplantation in the same individual. 
Quart. J. Exper. Physiol., vol. 1, pp. 115-120. 

MARTIN, CHARLES J. 1895 On the physiological action of the venom of the 
Australian black snake (Pseudechis porphysiacus). J. and Proc. Roy. 
Soc. of New South Wales, Sydney, vol. 29, pp. 146-277. Rat among 
test animals. 

MARTIN, H. N. AND MOALE, W. A. 1884 Handbook of vertebrate dissection. 
Part III. How to dissect a rodent. Macmillan & Co., N. Y. Mus 
decumanus the rodent used. 

MARTINI, E. 1901 Ueber Inhalationspest der Ratten. Ztschr. f. Hyg., vol. 
38, p. 332. 

MARTINOTTI, GIOVANNI 1889 Le reti nervose del fegato e della milza scoperte 
dal Prof. G. Rattone. Gior. d. r. Accad. di med. di Torino, Anno 52, 
vol. 37, pp. 15-30. 

MATTHES, M. AND MARQUARDSEN, E. 1898 Uber die Reaktion des Diinndar- 
minhaltes. Verhaldl. des Congresses fur innere Med. XVI. Wies- 
baden, pp. 358-365. 

MAVROJA.NNIS 1903 L'action cataleptique de la morphine chez les rats. Con- 
tribution a la the'orie toxique de la catalepsie. Compt. rend. Soc. de 
Biol., vol. 55, p. 1092. 

MAYER, F. J. C. 1843 Ueber die ZungealsGeschmacksorgan. Nov. Act.Acad. 
C. L.-C. nat. cur., vol. 20, pp. 721-748. 4 pi. Mentions Mus rattus 
among other forms. 

MAYER, S. 1894 Adenologische Mitteilungen. Anat. Anz., vol. 10, pp. 177- 
191. Rat, p. 179. 

MAZZARELLI, G. F. 1890 Sulla structura dello stomaco del Mus decumanus 
Pall, var. alba, e del Mus musculus L. Internat. Monatsschr. Anat. 
Phys., vol. 7, pp. 91-96, T. 8 (1) pi. VIII, figs. 1, 3 and 4. M. decuma- 
nus var. alba. 

MEEK, ALEXANDER 1899 On the post-embryonal history of voluntary muscles 
in mammals. J. Anat. and Physiol., vol. 33, p. 601. 

MEEK, WALTER J. 1907 A study of the choroid plexus. J. Comp. Neur. and 
Psychol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 286-306. 

MELISSINOS, KONST. 1907 Die Entwicklung des Eies der Mause (Mus musculus 
var. alba u. Mus rattus albus) von den ersten Furchungs-Phanomenen 
bis zur Festsetzung der Allantois an der Ectoplacentarplatte. Arch, 
f . mikr. Anat., vol. 70, pp. 577-628. 

MELLANBY, EDWARD 1908 Creatin and creatinin. J. Physiol., vol. 36, pp. 
447-487. Rat, p. 472. 

MENDEL, L. B. AND DANIELS, AMY L. 1912 The behavior of fat-soluble dyes 
and stained fat in the animal organism. J. Biol. Chem., vol. 13, p. 71. 

MENDEL, L. B. 1913 The role of proteins in growth. Trans. XV Internat. 
Congress on Hyg. and Demography. 

MERESHKOWSKY, S. S. AND SARIN, E. 1909 Ueber das Ratin II. Centralbl. f . 
Bakteriol., 1 Abt., Jena, vol. 51, pp. 6-10. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 247 

MERESHKOWSKY, S. S. 1912 Der Einfluss der Passagen durch graue Ratten 
(Mus decumanus) auf die Virulenz des Bacillus Danysz. Centralbl. 
f . Bakteriol., vol. 62, pp. 3-68. 

1912 a Die Wirkung der 186.-515. in 10 proz.Htihnereiweissdekokt 
erwachsenen Generationen des Bacillus Danysz auf graue Ratten (Mus 
decumanus). Centralbl. f. Bakteriol., 1 Abt., vol. 65, pp. 482-488. 

MESSER 1889 Das Vorkommen der Hausratte, Mus rattus, in Bremen. Zoolog. 
Garten, 30 Jahrg., pp. 26-27. 

METSCHNIKOFF AND Roux 1891 Sur la propriety bacte"ricide du sang de rat. 
Ann. de 1'Inst. Pasteur, no. 8, p. 479. Also Centralbl. f. Bacteriol., 
vol. 10, p. 756. 

MEVES, F. 1898 Ueber das Verhalten der Centralkorper bei der Histogenese 
der Samenfaden von Mensch und Ratte. Verhandl.d.anat. Gesellsch. 
12 Vers., pp. 91-98. Diss. p. 98-100. 

MEYER, NICHOLAUS 1800 Prodromus Anatomiae Murium. Inaug.-Diss. Jena, 
40 pp., 2 pi. (50 figs.). Copper plates based on mouse figures en- 
larged by 3. Gives teeth and ear bones. Dedicated to Goethe. 

MEYERHEIM, MARTIN 1898 Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Entwicklung der Schnei- 
dezahne bei Mus decumanus. Inaug.-Diss. Universitat Leipzig, Pos- 
chel & Trepte, Leipzig. 

MIDDENDORFF, A. v. 1875 Reise in den aussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens. 
Bd.4UebersichtderNaturNordundOst-sibiriens. Teil2. St. Peters- 
burg, Kommission d. Akademie. 

MILLAIS, J. G. 1904 Mammals of Great Britain and Ireland. 4. Pp. 203-232. 
Excellent colored plates for Mus norvegicus and Mus rattus. 
1905 The true position of Mus rattus and its allies. 1 pi. ,2 figs. The 
Zoologist, ser. 4, vol. 9, pp. 201-207. Figures of Mus rattus ater. 

MILLER, GERRIT S. JR. 1910 The generic name of the house rat. Proc. Biol'. 
Soc. Wash., vol. 23, pp. 57-60. 

MILLER, NEWTON 1911 Reproduction in the brown rat (Mus norvegicus). Am. 
Naturalist, vol. 45, pp. 623-635. 

MILLER, W. S. 1893 The structure of the lung. J. Morphol., vol. 8, pp. 165- 
188. 3 plates and other illustrations in text. Rat used with other 
mammals . 

MILLS, WESLEY 1897 The functional development of the cerebral cortex in 
different groups of animals. Trans. R. Soc. Canada, vol. 2, Sect. IV, 
pp. 3-18. 

MILNE-EDWARDS See EDWARDS, MILNE. 

MINOT, C. S. 1900 On a hitherto unrecognized form of blood circulation with- 
out capillaries in the organs of vertebrata. Proc. of Boston Soc. of 
Nat. Hist., vol. 29, pp. 185-215. p. 207, Suprarenal capsule rat. 

MITCHELL, O. W. H. 1912 Bacillus muris as the etiological agent of pneumoni- 
tis in white rats and its pathogenicity for laboratory animals. J. 
Infect. Dis., vol. 10, pp. 17-23. 

MITCHELL, P. C. 1911 Longevity. (Rat, 5-6 years.) Encyc. Britannica, llth 
ed., vol. 16, p. 976 (middle of first column). 

MOJSISOVICS, VON MojsvlR 1897 Das Tierleben der osterr.-ungar. Tiefebenen. 
Wien, Holder, 1897. 



248 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

MONTANE, M. 1889 De la cytodierese dans le testicule du rat. Compt. rend. 

Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 1, 9th series. 
MORESCHI, C. 1909 Beziehungen zwischen Ernahrung und Tumorwachstum. 

Zeitschr. f. Immunitatsforschung, vol. 2, pp. 651-685. 
MORGAN, T. H. 1909 Breeding experiments with rats. Am. Naturalist, vol. 

43, pp. 182-185. 
MORGULIS, SERGIUS 1911 Studies of inanition in its bearing upon the problem 

of growth. I. Arch. f. Ent. d. Organ., vol. 32, pp. 169-268. 
MORPURGO, B. 1898 Uber die postembryonale entwickelung der quergestreif- 

ten Muskeln von weissen ratten. Anat. Anz., vol. 15, pp. 200-206. 

1899 Ueber die Verhaltnisse der Kernwucherung zum Langenwachstum 

an den quergestreiften Muskelfasern der weissen Ratten. Anat. Anz., 

vol. 16, pp. 88-91. 

1899 a Ueber die Regeneration des quergestreiftenMuskelgewebes 

bei neugeborenen weissen Ratten. Anat. Anz., vol. 16, pp. 152-156. 

1901 Ueber eine infectiose Form von Knochenerweichung bei weissen 
Ratten. Verhandl. d. Versamml. d. Gesellsch. f. Kinderh. deutsch. 
Naturf. u. Aerzte, vol. 72. 

1902 Durch Infection hervorgerufene malacische und rachitische 
Skelet-veranderungen an jungen weissen Ratten. Centralbl. f. allg. 
Path. u. path. Anat., vol. 13, pp. 113-119. 

MORRELL, G. HERBERT 1872 Supplement to the anatomy of the mammalia, 
containing dissections of the sheep's heart and brain, rat, sheep's 
head and ox's eye. Longman & Co., London, pp. 153-269. 

Moss, SAMUEL 1836 Notes on the habits of a domesticated white rat and a 
terrier dog (Flora) that lived in harmony together. London Mag. 
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MOURET, J. 1895 Contribution a l'6tude des cellules glandulaires (pancreas). 
J. de 1'anat. et physiol. Ann. 31, pp. 221-236, 1 pi. Mainly on frog 
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MUDGE, G. P. 1908 On some features in the hereditary transmission of the self 
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vol. SOB, pp. 97-121. 

1908 a On some features in the hereditary transmission of the albino 
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1909 Note on the chemical nature of albinism. J. Physiol., vol. 38, 
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1910 Article "Albino." Encyc. Brit., vol 1, p. 510 at the bottom, 
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MUELLER, GLAUS 1902 Uber die Tyson'schen Driisen beim Menschen und eini- 

gen Saugetieren. Inaug.-Diss. Friedrichs-Universitat,Halle-Witten- 

berg. 
MULLER, JOHANNES 1830 De glandularum secernentium structura penitiori 

earumque prima formatione in homine atque animalibus. Leipzig, 

131 pp., 17 pi. 
MtiarcH, FRANCIS 1896 Die Topographic der Papillen der Zunge des Menschen 

und der Saugethiere. Morphol. Arb., vol. 6, pp. 605-690, 2 pi., 53 text 

figs. Rat, pp. 615, 616. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 249 

MTJNSON, T. M. 1910 An efficient rat killing device for use on board ship. U. 

S. Nav. M. Bull., Wash., vol. 4, p. 514. 

MURPHY, JAMES B. 1914 Heteroplastic tissue grafting effected through Roent- 
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MURRAY, ANDREW 1866 Geographical distribution of mammals. London, Day 

and Son. 4. 
NERKING, JOSEPH 1909 Narkose und Lezithin. Munch, med. Wochenschr. 56, 

II, pp. 1475-1478. 

NEUMARK, E. 1913 Ueber die Bedeutung von Bakterienpraparaten als Rat- 
ten vertilgungsmittel. Gesundh.-Ingenieur, Munchen, vol.36, pp.589 

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NICOLAS, A. 1890 Sur les cellules a grains du fond des glandes de Lieberkuhn. 

Bull, des seances de la Soc. des Sciences de Nancy, An. 2, pp. 45-49. 
OHLMACHER, A. P. 1897 A modified fixing fluid for general histological and. 

neuro-histological purposes. J. Exper. Med., vol. 11. 
OLDS, W. H. 1910 The effects of thyroidectomy on the resistance of rats to 

morphine poisoning. Am. J. Physiol., vol. 26, pp. 354-360. 
OPHULS, W. 1911 Spontaneous nephritis in wild rats. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. 

and Med., 42nd meeting, February 15. 
ORDWAY, THOMAS AND MORRIS, J. LUCIEN 1913 The protein metabolism in 

certain tumor-bearing rats. J. Med. Research, vol. 28, (N. S. vol. 23), 

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ORI, A. 1912 Pseudotubercolosi nei topi (M. decumanus) catturati nel porto di 

Venezia. Igiene mod., Genova, v. pp. 233-242. 
OSBORNE, T. B. AND MENDEL, L. B. 1911 Feeding experiments with mixtures 

of isolated food substances. Am. J. Physiol., vol. 27, p. xxvi. 

1911 a Feeding experiments with isolated food substances. Carnegie 

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1911 b The role of different proteins in nutrition and growth. Science 
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1912 The role of proteins in growth. Proc. Am. Soc. Biol. Chem. 
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1912 a Maintenance and growth. Proc. Am. Soc. Biol. Chem., J. 
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1912 b Feeding experiments with fat-free food mixtures. Proc. Soc. 
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1912 c Growth and maintenance on purely artificial diets. Proc. Soc. 
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1912 d Ein Stoffwechselkafig und Fiitterungsvorrichtungen fur Rat- 
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1912 e Beobachtungen iiber Wachstum bei Fiitterungsversuchen mit 
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1912 f The role of gliadin in nutrition. J. Biol Chem., vol. 12, pp. 
473-510. 

1912 g Maintenance experiments with isolated proteins. J. Biol. 
Chem., vol. 13, pp. 233-276. 



250 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

OSBORNE, T. B. 1913 The nutritive value of the proteins of maize. Science, 

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OSBORNE, T. B. AND MENDEL, L. B. 1913 Feeding experiments relating to the 

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1913 a The relation of growth to the chemical constituents of the 

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1913 b The influence of butter-fat on growth. J. Biol. Chem., vol. 

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1914 Some problems of growth. Am. J. Physiol. vol. 33, p. xxviii. 
1914 a Amino acids in nutrition and growth. J. Biol. Chem., vol. 

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1914 b Influence of cod liver oil and some other fats on growth. J. 

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1914 c Nutritive properties of proteins of the maize kernel. J. Biol. 

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1914 d The suppression of growth and the capacity to grow. J. Biol. 

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1914 e The contribution of bacteria to the feces after feeding diets 
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1915 The influence of beef-fat on growth. Given at Soc. for Exper. 
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OUDEMANS, J. TH. 1892 Die accessorischen Geschlechtsdriisen der Saugetiere. 
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OVALLE, ALONSO DE 1646 An historical relation of the Kingdom of Chili, 1646. 
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rat or pericote. 

OWEN, RICHARD 1840-1845 Odontography; or a treatise on the comparative 
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PALLAS, PIETRO 1778 Novae species Quadrupedum e Glirium mordine. 
Erlangen. 1831 Zoographica Rosso-Asiatica. Sistens omnium ani- 
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PANETH, J. 1888 Ueber die secernierenden Zellen des Diinndarm-Epithels. 
Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 31, pp. 113-191., 3 pi. Mainly Triton and 
mouse. Rat: see figs. 30, 31, pi. X. 

1888 a Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Lieberkiihn'schen Krypten. 
Centralbl. f. Physiol., vol. 1, pp. 255-256. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 251 

PAUL, C. B. 1906 On the influence of an excessive meat diet on the male repro- 
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1911 Remarks on Professor Lloyd's note on inheritance of fertility. 

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PEMBREY, M. S. 1895 The effect of variations in external temperature upon the 

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PEMBREY, M. S. AND SPRIGGS, E. I. 1904 The influence of fasting and feeding 

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PENNANT, THOS. 1781 History of quadrupeds. 2 vols. London. Vol. II. 

Rats. M. rattus introduced into South America in 1544 time of Vice- 
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PETERS, Albert 1890 Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Harder'schen Druse. Arch. f. 

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PETRIE, G. F. 1910 Rats and plague. Nature, vol. 85, pp. 15-16. Historical: 

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PITTS 1898 Article "Animal heat" in Schafer's Text Book of Physiol., vol. 1, 

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PLIMMER, H. G. AND THOMSON, J. D. 1908 Further results of the experimental 

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PLOSCHKO, ADAM AND v. ARNSTEIN 1897 Die Nervenendigungen und Ganglien 

der Respirationsorgane. Anat. Anz., vol. 13, pp. 12-22. 1 fig. Rat. 
PODWISOTZKY, VALERIAN 1878 AnatomischeUntersuchungen iiber die Zungen- 

driisen des Menschen und der Saugethiere (bothM.decumanus and M. 

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PODWYSSOTZKI, W. 1882 Beitrage zur Kenntnis des feineren Baues der Bauch- 

speicheldrlise. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 21, pp. 765-768. Rat exam- 
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POLJAKOFF, P. 1888 Ueber eine neue Art von fettbildenden Organen im 

lockern Bindegewebe. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 32, pp. 123-182. 
POLL, HEINRICH 1898 Ueber das Schicksal der verpflanztenNebenniere. Cen- 

tralbl. f. Physiol., yol. 12, pp. 321-326. 

1899 Veranderungen der Nebenniere bei Transplantation. Arch. f. 

mikr. Anat., vol. 54, pp. 440-481. 
PONTIER AND GERARD, G. 1900 De 1'entre-croisement des pyramides chez le 

rat. Leur passage dans le faisceau de Burdach (note preUiminaire) . 

Bibliogr. anat. Nancy, vol. 8, pp. 186-190, Ten figures sections of the 

bulb. 
POPPE, K. 1913 Pseudotuberkulose. in (KOLLE, WILHELM ANDWASSERMANN, 

A. v (eds). Handbuch der pathogenen Mikro-organismen, 2nded.enl. 

vol. 5, part 2, pp. 779-781. 
POTTEVIN, H. 1910 La deratisation rapport sur I'e'tat actuel des me'thodes ap- 

plicables a la destruction des rongeurs et de leurs parasites. Bull. 

de POffice internat. d'hyg. pub. Par., vol. 2, pp. 542-613. 



252 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

POUND, C. J. 1905 On trypanosoma and their presence in the blood of Brisbane 

rats. Proc. R. Soc. Queensland, vol. 19, pp. 33-38. 
PREYER, W. 1866 Quantitative Bestimmung des Farbstoffs im Blute durch 

das Spectrum. Annalen der Chemie u. Pharmacie, vol. 140, pp. 187- 

200. Rat, p. 198. 

1871 Die Blutkrystalle. Mauke's Verlag, Jena. Rat: pp. 3, 13, 16, 

38, 127. 

PRODROMUS, THEODORUS See KELLER, OTTO '09. 
PRZIBRAM, HANS 1907 Demonstrationen iiber Vererbung bei Saugetieren. 

Zentralbl. f. Physiol., vol. 21, p. 257. 

1910 UebertragungenerworbenerEigenschaf ten bei Saugetieren. Ver- 
suche mit Hitze-Ratten. Verh. Ges. deutsch. Nat. Aertze Vers. 81, 
Tl, 2, Halfte 1, pp. 179-180. 

1911 Albinismus bei Inzucht. Verhandl. d. naturf . Ver. in Briinn, 
vol. 49 (Festband fur Mendel). 

1912 Ueber das Vorkommen der Hausratte (Mus rattus L.) in Oester- 
reich. Wochenschr. Das osterreichische Sanitatswesen, no. 16, pp. 
297-299. 

QUINQUATJD 1873 Sur les variations de l'hemoglobine dans la serie zoologique. 

Compt. rend, de 1'Acad. de Science, Paris, vol. 77, pp. 487-489. 
RABINOWITSCH, L. AND KEMPNER, W. 1899 Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Blut- 

parasiten, speciell der Ratten-trypanosomen. Zeitschr. f. Hyg., vol. 

30, p. 251. 
RAMACHANDRIER, P. S. 1908 Rat destruction in India (Abstr.). Med. Times, 

Lond.,vol.36, p.319. 

RAM^N Y CAJAL, S. SeeCAJAL, S. RAM6N. 
RAMSTROM, M. 1905 Untersuchungen und Studien iiber die Innervation des 

Peritoneum der vorderen Bauchwand. Anat. Hefte, vol. 29, pp. 351- 

443. Mus decumanus, p. 372. 
RANSON, S. W. 1903 On the medullated fibers crossing the site of lesions in the 

brain of the white rat. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 13, pp. 185-207. 

1904 Retrograde degeneration in the corpus callosum of the white 

rat. J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 14, pp. 381-389. 

1906 Retrograde degeneration in the spinal nerves. J. Comp. Neur. 

and Psychol., vol. 16, pp. 3-31. 

1913 The fasciculus cerebrospinalis in the albino rat. Am. J. Anat., 
vol. 14, p. 411. 

1914 A note on the degeneration of the fasciculus cerebro-spinalis 
in the albino rat. J. Comp. Neur., vol. 24, pp. 503-507. 

1914 a The tract of Lissauer and the substantia gelatinosa rolandi. 
Am. J. Anat., vol. 16, pp. 97-126. 

RANVIER, L. A. 1883 De 1'existence et de la distribution de Pe'leidine dans la 
muquese bucco-oesophagienne des Mammiferes. C. R. de 1'Acad. des 
Sc. Paris, vol. 97, pp. 1377-1379. 

1884 Les membranes muqueuses et le systeme glandulaire. J. de 
microg., vol. 8, pp. 29-38; 77-86; 142-150; 194-200; 310-317; 419-422. 

1885 Les membranes muqueuses et le systeme glandulaire. Le foie 
(Rat). J. de microg., vol. 9, pp. 6-14; 55-63 ;1 03-109; 155-163; 194-201; 
240-247; 287-295; 334-343; 389-396; 438-445; 480-482. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 253 

RANVIER, L. A. 1886 Les membranes muqueuses et le systeme glandulaire. 
Le foie. J. demicrog., vol. 10, pp. 5-10; 55-58; 160-166; 211-214; 355-362; 
443-447. 

1886 a Etude anatomique des glandes connues sous les noms de sous- 
maxillaire et sublinguale, chez, les mammiferes. Arch, de physiol. 
norm. etpath.,ser.3, vol.8, pp. 223-256. M. decumanus, p. 224, fig.l. 

1887 Le me'canisme de la secretion. M. decumanus, see p. 530. J. 
de microg., vol. 11, pp. 527-534. 

1888 Le me'canisme de la se'cre'tion. J. de microg., vol.12, pp. 3-11; 33 
-41; 65-73; 104-111; 165-173; 212-218; 243-250; 298-303; 329-335; 364- 
368; 389-393. 

1894 Des chyliferes du rat et de 1'absorption intestinale. Compt. rend. 

acad. d. sc. Paris, vol. 118, pp. 621-626. 
RAPP, W.v. 1839 Ueber dieTonsillen. Arch. f. Anat., Physiol., u. wiss. Med., 

pp. 189-199. PI. VII and VIII. Absence of tonsils. 
RATTONE, G. AND MONDINO, C. 1888 Sulla circolazione del sangue nel fegato. 

Giorn. di sc. nat. ed econ., vol. 19, pp. 125-136., 2 pi. 

1888 a Sur la circulation du sang dans le foie. Arch. ital. de biol., 
vol. 9, fasc. 1, pp. 13-15. 

1889 Sur la circulation du sang dans le foie. Arch. ital. de biol., vol. 
12, pp. 156-177, 2 pi. (Abre'ge' d'un travail duquel la 1 partie a 6te 
publiee a Palerme, la 2 dans PArch. per le sc. med., Torino, vol. 13, 
no. 3.) Rat among animals used. 

1889 a Sulla circolazione del sangue nel fegato, pt. 2. Arch, per le 

sc. med., vol. 13, pp. 45-72, 1 pi. 
RAUTHER, MAX 1903 Ueber den Genitalapparat einiger Nager u. Insektivoren, 

insbesondere die accessorischen Genitaldriisen derselben. Jenaische 

Ztschr. f. Naturw., vol. 38, pp. 377-472. 3 pi. 
REANEY, M. F. AND MALCOLMSON, G. E. 1908 Rat destruction in Kamptree. 

Indian M. Gaz., Calcutta, vol. 43, p. 338. 
REGATJD, CL. 1900 Note sur le tissu conjonctif du testicule chez le rat. Compt. 

rend Soc. de Biol., vol. 52, pp. 26-27. 

1900 a De'gen^rescence des cellules seminales chez les mammiferes en 

1'absence de tout etat pathologique. Compt. rend. Soc. deBiol., Paris, 

vol. 52, pp. 268-270. 

1900 b Note sur certaines differenciations chromatique observers 

dans le noyau des spermatocytes du rat. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., 

Paris, vol. 52, pp. 698-700. 

1900 c La se'cre'tion liquide de P epithelium seminal; son processus his- 

tologique. Compt. rend. Soc. de Biol., vol. 52, pp. 912-914. 

1900 d Les phases et les stades de Ponde spermatog^netique chez les 

mammiferes (rat) . Classification rationnelle des figures de la sperma- 

togenese. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 52, pp. 1039-1042. 

1900 e Direction helicoidale du mouvement spermatog^ne'tique dans 

les tubes s^miniferes du rat. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 

52, pp. 1042-1044. 

1900 f Les ph^nomenes s6cr6toires du testicule et la nutrition de Pepi- 

thelium seminal. Compt. rend. Soc. de viol., Paris, vol. 52, pp. 1102- 

1104. 



254 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

REGAUD, CL. 1901 Plurality des karyokineses des spermatogonies chez les 
mammiferes (rat). Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 53, pp. 
56-58. 

1901 a Division directe ou bourgeonnement du noyau des spermato- 
gonies, chez le rat. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 53, pp. 
74-76. 

1901 b Variations de la chromatine nucle'aire au cours de la spermato- 
genese. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 53, pp. 224-226. 
1901 c Sur le mode de formation des chromosomes pendant les karyo- 
kineses des spermatogonies, chez le rat. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., 
Paris, vol. 53, pp. 406-407. 

1901 d Note sur les cellules glandulairesdel'^pididymedu rat. Compt. 
rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 53, pp. 616-618. 

1902 Sur 1'existence de cellules s^minales dans le tissu conjonctif du 
testicule, et sur la signification de ce fait. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., 
Paris, vol. 54, pp. 745-747. 

1902 a Note histologique sur la secretion seminale du moineau do- 
mestique. Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Paris, vol. 54, pp. 583-585. 

1903 Quelques faits nouveaux relatifs aux phenomenes de secretion 
de Pepithe'lium se'minal du rat. Compt. rend, de 1'Ass. d. anat. 
Nancy, vol. 5, pp. 179-186. Bibliographic anatomique Suppl. 1903. 

1904 Variations histochimiques du filament axile pendant le d6 veloppe- 
ment des spermies, chez le rat. C. R. Ass. Anat. Sess. 6, p. 202. 

REHN, JAMES A. G. 1900 An older name for the Norway rat. Proc. Biol. Soc. 

Wash., vol. 13, p. 167. Mus decumanus (Pall) to Mus (Epimys) nor- 

vegicus (Erxleben). Merely a three line note. 
REICHARDT, MARTIN 1906 Ueber die Untersuchung des gesunden und kranken 

Gehirnes mittels der Wage. Arb. a. d. psychiat. Klin, zu Wiirzburg, 

part 1 . 
REICHERT, E. T. AND BROWN, A. P. 1909 The differentiation and specificity of 

corresponding proteins and other vital substances in relation to bio- 
logical classification and organic evolution: The crystallography of 

hemoglobins. Carnegie Inst. of Wash., Wash., D. C., pp. 229-237. 

The blood of the rat. 
REMLINGER, P. 1904 Rage experimentale de la souris et du rat. Compt. rend. 

Soc. de biol., vol. 56, p. 42. 
RENAUT, J. 1904 Les cellules fixes des tendons de la queue du jeune rat sont 

toutes des cellules connectives rhagiocrines. C. R. Soc. Biol. Paris, 

vol. 56, pp. 1067-1069. 
RENSON, GEO. 1882 De la spermatogenese chez les mammiferes. Arch, de 

biol., vol. 3, pp. 291-334. 
REPORTS ON PLAGUE INVESTIGATIONS IN INDIA 1906 Issued by the Advisory 

Committee appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal 

Society and the Lister Institute. J. Hyg., vol. 6, pp. 421-536; vol. 7, 

pp. 324-476; pp. 694-986. 
RETTERER, ED. 1905 Des menisques interarticulaires du genou du Cobaye et 

du Rat. C. R. Soc. Biol. Paris, vol. 58, pp. 44-47. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 255 

RETZIUS,A. 1841 Ueber den Bau des Magens bei den in Schweden vorkommen- 
den Wuhlmausen (Lemmus Nilss., Hypudaeus Jllig.) (A. d.Schwed. 
von F. C. H. Creplin.) Taf. XIV. fig. 2-9. Archiv. fur Anat. u. 
Physiol., pp. 403-420. Comparisons with Mus decumanus. 

RETZITJS, GUSTAF 1893 Biologische Untersuchungen, Neue Folge V. 2. Stud- 
ien iiber Ependym und Neuroglia, pp. 9-15. Samson &Wallin. Stock- 
holm. 

1894 Biologische Untersuchungen. Neue Folge VI, 1. Die Neuro- 
glia der Neurohypophyse der Saugetiere, pp. 1-28. Samson & Wallin, 
Stockholm. 

1909 Biologische Untersuchungen, 14. Die Spermien der Nagetiere. 
Taf. XL-XLVIII, Taf. XLIX, fig. 13-20, pp. 133-162. p. 160, Mus 
norvegicus Erxl. (Mus decumanus Pall) Neue Folge, XIV. Gustav 
Fischer, Jena. 

RICHARDSON, FLORENCE 1909 A study of sensory control in the rat. Psych. 
Monographs, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-124. 

RINGELING, H. G. 1912 Naar aanleiding van een opvallende sterfte onder de 
ratten aan boord van een stoomschips te Amsterdam. Tijdschr. v. 
sociale hyg. Zwolle, xiv, 29-53. 

RITZEMA-BOS, J. 1894 Untersuchungen iiber die Folgen der Zucht in engster 
Blutverwandtschaft. Biol. Centralbl., vol. 14, pp. 75-81. 

ROBERTSON, T. B. 1908 On the normal rate of growth of an individual and its 
biochemical significance. Arch. f. Entwcklngs-mechn. d. Organ., vol. 
25, pp. 571-614. 

1912 Studies in the blood relationship of animals as displayed in the 
composition of the serum proteins. I. A comparison of the serum of 
the horse, rabbit, rat and ox with respect to their content of various 
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ROBERTSON, T.B. AND BURNETT, T.C. 1913 The influence of lecithin and chol- 
esterin upon the growth of tumors. J. exper. Med., vol. 17, pp. 344- 
352. 

ROBINSON, ARTHUR 1889 Observations on the early stages in the development 
of the lungs of rats and mice. J. of Anat. u Physiol., vol. 23, pp. 224- 
241. 

1892 Some points in the early development of Mus musculus and 
Mus decumanus; the relation of the yolk-sac to the decidua and the 
placenta. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sc., 61st Meeting, Cardiff, pp. 690- 
691. 

1892 a Observations upon the development of the spinal cord in Mus 
musculus and Mus decumanus. Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sc., 61st meet- 
ing, Cardiff, pp. 691-692. 

1896 On the formation and structure of the optic nerve, and its rela- 
tion to the optic stalk. J. Anat. and Physiol., vol. 30, pp. 319-333. 
1904 Lectures on the early stages in the development of mammalian 
ova and on the differentiation of the placenta in different groups of mam- 
mals. J. Anat. and Physiol., vol. 38, pp. 186-204. 



256 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

ROBINSON, G. H. 1913 The rats of Providence and their parasites. Am. J. 

Pub. Health, vol. 3, pp. 773-776. 
RODWELL, JAMES 1858 The rat: Its history and destructive character. G. 

Routledge & Co., London. 
ROHD, ALICE AND JONES, WALTER 1909 The purine ferments of the rat. J. 

Biol. Chem., vol. 7, p. 237. 
ROMER, F. 1896 Studien liber das Integument der Saugethiere. I. Entwickel. 

d. Schuppen u. Haare am Schwanze u. an d. Fiissen v.Mus decumanus 

und einigen anderen Muriden. Jenaische Zeitschr. f . naturw., vol. 30, 

pp. 603-622. Two plates mainly from M. n. albinus. 
ROSENAU, M. J. 1901 An investigation of a pathogenic microbe (B. typhi 

murium Danyz) applied to the destruction of rats. Bull. no. 5, Hyg. 

Lab., U. S. Mar. Hosp. Serv. Wash. 

1910 The inefficiency of bacterial viruses in the extermination of rats. 

Found in "The rat and its relation to the public health," pp. 179-204. 

Treasury Dept. Pub. Health and Mar. Hospt. Service of the U. S. 

Government Printing Office, Wash., D. C. 
ROSENFELD, CARL 1899 Zur vergleichenden Anatomic des Musculus tibialis 

posticus. Anat. Hefte, vol. 11, pp. 361-388. Mus rattus, p. 364. 
ROTH, A. H. 1905 The relation between the occurrence of white rami fibers 

and the spinal accessory nerve. J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 

15, pp. 482-493. 
Rous, PEYTON 1911 The rate of tumor growth in underfed hosts. Proc. of Soc. 

for Exper. Biol. and Med., vol. 8, pp. 128-130. 

1914 The influence of diet on transplantable and spontaneous mouse 

tumors. J. Exp. Med., vol. 20, p. 433. 

ROWLAND, SYDNEY 1911 Preliminary observations on the protective and cura- 
tive value for rats of the serum of a horse immunised with a toxic nu- 

cleo-protein extracted from the plague bacillus. J. of Hyg., Plague 

Suppl. 1, 6th Report of Plague Investigations in India, pp. 11-19. 
RUBELI, O. 1890 Ueber den Oesophagus des Menschen und der Hausthiere. 

Ztschr. f. wissensch. Mikr., vol. 7, pp. 224-225. 
RUCKER, WILLIAM C. 1910 Rodent extermination. Found in "The rat and its 

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Health and Mar. Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Printing 

Office, Washington, D. C. 

1912 How to poison rats. Pub. Health Rep., U. S. Mar. Hosp. Serv., 
Wash., vol. 27, p. 1267. 

1913 Deratization of rat-proof buildings. Pub. Health Rep. Wash., 
vol. 28, p. 254. 

RYDER, J A. 1888 A theory of the origin of placental types, and on certain ves- 

tigiary structures in the placentae of the mouse, rat and field mouse. 

Am. Naturalist, vol. 21, pp. 780-784. 
RYWOSCH, D. 1907 Vergleichende Untersuchungen iiber die Resistenz der Ery- 

throcyten einiger Saugethiere gegen hamolytische Agentien. Arch. f. 

d. ges. Physiol., vol. 116, pp. 229-251. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 257 

SABRAZES, J. AND MuRATET 1905 Frequence des Trypanosomes chex Mus rat- 

tus. Rarete chez Mus decumanus et chez Mus musculus. Resistance 

du decumanus et du rat blanc a 1'infestation naturelle. C. R. Soc. 

Biol. Paris, vol. 59, pp. 441-443. 
SALTER, H. H. 1859 Pancreas. (Article in R. B. Todd's "The Cyclopaedia of 

anatomy and physiology.") Vol. 5 (suppl. vol.), pp. 81-114, London. 

Several text figures for the rat. 
SANDRI, O. 1908 Contribution a Panatomie et a la physiologic de 1'hypophyse. 

Resume" de 1'auteur. Riv. di pat. nerv. e ment., vol. 13, pp. 518-550. 

Arch. ital. de Biol., vol. 51, pp. 337-348. Growth of rats fed with hy- 
pophysis. 
SAVIOTTI, GIOVANNI 1869 Untersuchungen tiber den feineren Bau des Pancreas- 

Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 5, pp. 404-414, pi. XXIII and XXIV. 
SCHAFER, E. A. 1898 (see GAMGEE, A.) Rat, haemoglobin of. Text-book of 

Physiol., vol. 1, pp. 193, 194 and 206. 

1900 Rat, motor area of. Text-book of Physiol., vol. 2, p. 732. 

1900 a Rat, muscle spindles of. Text-book of Physiol., vol. 2, p. 

1008. 

1908 Present condition of our knowledge regarding the functions of 

the suprarenal capsules. Brit. M. J., May 30 and June 6, pp. 1-10. 

1912 The effects upon growth and metabolism of the addition of small 

amounts of ovarian tissue, pituitary, and thyroid to the normal dietary 

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SCHAFF, E. 1891 Schwarzliche Varietat von Mus decumanus. Sitzgsber. Ges- 

Naturf. fr. Berlin, no. 4, p. 61. 
SCHERN, K. 1909 Ueber eine durch den Bazillus enteritidis Gartner hervorge- 

rufene Rattenseuche. Arb. a. d. k. Gsndhtsamte, Berl., vol. 30, pp. 

pp. 575-583. 

1912 Ueber das Rattenvertilgungsmittel Virus sanitar A. Centralbl. 

f. Bakteriol., 1 Abt., vol. 62, pp. 468-471. 
SCHIFF, J. MORITZ 1859 Untersuchungen uber die Zuckerbildung in der Leber 

und den Einfluss des Nervensystems auf die Erzeugung des Diabetes. 

Wiirzburg. 

1884 Bericht liber eine Versuchsreihe betreffend die Wirkungen der 

Exstirpation der Schilddruse. Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol., 

vol. 18, pp. 25-34. 

1884 a Resum6 d'une s4rie d'explriences sur les effets de 1'ablation 

des corps thyroldes. Rev. m6d. de la Suisse-Rom., vol. 4, pp. 65-75. 
SCHMIDT, F. TH. 1863 Das folliculare Driisengewebe der Schleimhaut der 

Mundhohle und des Schlundes bei dem Menschen und den Saugetieren. 

Ztschr. f. wiss. Zool., vol. 13, pp. 221-302, pi. XIV-XVI. 
SCHULZE, F. E. 1871 DieLungen. In Strieker's Handbuch der Lehre von den 

Geweben des Menschen und der Tiere. Leipzig. Pp. 464-477. P. 466, 

diameter of alveolar passages, 0.1 mm. in rat. 
SCHURMANN, W. 1908 Ueber eine durch Milben hervorgerufene Erkrankung 

von Ratten. Centralbl. Bakt. Parasit. Abt 1, Orig., vol.48, pp. 167- 

172. 



258 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

SCHWALBE,G. 1872 Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Driisen in den Darmwandungen 
in's Besondere der Brunner'schen Driisen. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., 
vol. 8, pp. 92-140, pi. V. 

SELENKA, EMIL 1883 Studien viber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere., I. 
Keimblatter und Primitivorgane der Maus. C. W. Kreidel, Wies- 
baden. 

1884 Studien tiber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere., 3. Die 
Blatterumkehrung im Ei der Nagethiere. C. W. Kreidel, Wiesbaden. 

SEVERIN, FRIEDRICH 1885 Untersuchungen liber das Mundepithel bei Sauge- 
tieren mit Bezug auf Verhornung, Regeneration und Art der Nervenen- 
digung. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 26, pp. 81-88, 1 pi. Rat included 
among mammals examined. 

SHERBORN, C. DAVIES 1897 On the dates of the natural history portion of Sa- 
vigny's "Description de PEgypte." Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, 1897, 
pp. 285-288. 

SHERRINGTON, C. S. AND COPEMAN, S. M. 1893 Variations experimentally pro- 
duced in the specific gravity of the blood. J. Physiol., vol. 14, p. 54. 

SHIPLEY, A. E. 1908 Rats and their animal parasites. J. Economic Biol., vol. 
3, pp. 61-83. 

SIMPSON, F. 1913 Rat proofing; its practical application in the construction or 
repair of dwellings or other buildings. Pub. Health Rep., Wash., vol. 
28, pp. 679-687, 10 pi. 

SITTENFIELD, M. J. 1912 Influence of anemia and hyperemia on the growth of 
sarcoma in the white rat. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., vol. 9, 
pp. 56-57. 

SLONAKER, J. R. 1907 The normal activity of the white rat at different ages. 
J. Comp. Neur. and Psychol., vol. 17, pp. 342-359. 
1912 The normal activity of the albino rat from birth to natural death, 
its rate of growth and the duration of life. J. Animal Behavior, vol. 
2, pp. 20-42. 

1912 a The effect of a strictly vegetable diet on the spontaneous ac- 
tivity, the rate of growth, and the longevity of the albino rat. Leland 
Stanford Jr. Univ. Pub., Univ. Series. 

SMALL, W. S. 1899 Notes on the psychic development of the young white rat. 
Am. J. Psychol., vol. 11, pp. 80-100. 

1900 An experimental study of the mental processes of the rat. Am. 
J. Psychol., vol. 11, pp. 133-164. 

1901 Experimental study of the mental processes of the rat, II. Am. 
J. Psychol., vol. 12, pp. 206-239. 

SOBOTTA, J. AND BuRCKHARD, G. 1910 Reifung und Befruchtung des Eies 

der weissen Ratte. Anat. Hefte, I Abt., 127 heft (42 band, heft 2), 

pp. 433-492. 
SOLGER, B. 1889 Saugethier-Mitosen im histologischen Kursus. Archiv f. 

mikr. Anat., vol. 33, pp. 517-518. 
SOTJLIE, A. H. 1903 Recherches sur le developpement des capsules surre"nales 

chez les vert^br^s superieurs. J. de 1'Anat. et Physiol., vol. 39, pp. 

197-293; 390-525; 492-533; 634-664. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 259 

SPITZKA, E.G. 1886 The comparative anatomy of the pyramid tract. J.Comp. 

M. and S., vol. 7, p. 46. 
STAHR, HERMANN 1903 Ueber die Ausdehnungder Papilla foliata und die Frage 

einer einseitigen "kompensatorischen Hypertrophie" im Bereiche des 

Geschmacksorgans. Arch. f. Entwcklngsmechn . d. Organ., vol. 16, 

pp. 179-199. 
STKFFENHAGEN, K. 1910 Untersuchungen iiber das Rattenvertilgungsmittel 

Liverpoolvirus. Arb. a. d. k. Gsndhtsamte Berl., vol. 36, pp. 198-220. 
STEINACH, E. 1894 Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden Physiologie der mann- 

lichen Geschlechtsorgane, insbesondere der accessorischen Gesch- 

lechtsdriisen. Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., vol. 56, pp. 304-338. 

1910 Geschlechsttrieb und echt sekundare Geschlechtsmerkmale als 
Folge der innersekretorischen Funktion der Keimdriisen. 

I. Praexistente und echt sekundare Geschlechtsmerkmale. 

II. tiber die Entstehung des Umklammerungsreflexes bei Froschen. 

III. Entwicklung der vollen Mannlichkeit in funktioneller und soma- 
tischer Beziehung bei Saugern als Sonderwirkung des inneren Hoden- 
sekretes. Zentralbl. f. Physiol., vol. 24, pp. 551-566. 

1911 Umstimmung des Geschlechtscharakter bei Saugetieren durch 
Austausch der Pubertatsdriisen. Zentralbl. f. Physiol., vol. 25, pp. 
723-725. 

1912 Willkiirliche Umwandlung von Saugetier-Mannchen in Tiere mit 
ausgepragt weiblichen Geschlechtscharakteren und weiblicher Psyche. 
Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., vol. 144, pp. 71-108. 

1913 Feminierung von Mannchen und Maskulierung von Weibchen. 
Zentralbl. f. Physiol., vol. 27, pp. 717-723. 

STENDELL, W. 1913 Zur vergleichenden Anatomie und Histologie der Hypo- 
physis cerebri. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., vol. 82, pp. 289-332. 

STERZI, GIUSEPPE 1904 Die Blutgefasse des Riickenmarks. Anat. Hefte, vol. 
24, pp. 5-364. Mus decumanus, p. 169. 

STEWART, COLIN C. 1898 Variations in daily activity produced by alcohol and 
by changes in barometric pressure and diet, with a description of re- 
cording methods. Am. J. Physiol., vol. 1, pp. 40-56. 

STIEDA, L. 1869 Studien iiber das centrale Nervensystem der Vogel und Sauge- 
theire. Ztschr. f . wissensch. Zool., vol. 19, p. 68. 

STILES, CH. W. AND CRANE, C. G. 1910 The internal parasites of rats and mice 
in their relation to diseases of man. Found in "The rat and its rela- 
tion to the public health," pp. 87-110. Treasury Dept. Pub. Health 
and Mar.-Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Wash., D. C. 

STILES, CH. W. AND HASSALL, ALBERT 1910 Compendium of animal parasites 
reported for rats and mice (Genus Mus). Found in 'The rat and its 
relation to the public health," pp. 111-122. Treasury Dept. Pub. 
Health and Mar.-Hospt. Service of the U. S. Government Printing 
Office, Wash., D. C. 

STIRLING, W. 1883 A simple method of demonstrating the nerves of the epi- 
glottis. J. Anat. and Physiol., vol. 17, p. 203. Rats included in mam- 
mals observed. 



260 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

STIRLING, W. 1883 a The trachealis muscle of man and animals. J. Anat. 

and Physiol., vol. 17, pp. 204-206. 
STOTSENBURG, J. M. 1909 On the growth of the albino rat (Mus norvegicus 

var. albus) after castration. Proc. Assoc. Am. Anat. in Anat. Record, 

vol. 3, pp. 233-244. 

1913 The effect of spaying and semi-spaying young albino rats (Mus 

norvegicus albinus) on the growth in body weight and body length. 

Anat. Record, vol. 7, pp. 183-194. 
STREHL, HANS AND WEISS, OTTO 1901 Beitrage zur Physiologic der Neben- 

niere. Archiv f. d. ges. Physiol., vol. 86, pp. 107-121. 
STTJTZMANN, J. 1898 Die accessorischen Geschlechtsdriisen von Mus decumanus 

und ihre Entwicklung. Diss. Leipzig. 

SUFFOLK 1910 The epizootic of rat plague. Lancet, Lond., vol. 2, p. 1497. 
SWEET, J.E., CORSON-WHITE, E. P. AND SAXON, G. J. 1913 The relation of 

diets and of castration to the transmissible tumors of rats and mice. 

J. Biol. Chem., vol. 15, p. 181. 
SYMPOSIUM 1911 Ueber die Vertilgung der Ratten. Im Sinne einer Abwehr- 

massregel gegen die Pest. Das 6'sterreichische Sanitatswesen, no. 17 

and 18, 1911. 
SZYMANSKI, J. S. 1914 Lernversuche bei weissen Ratten. Arch. f. d. ges. 

Physiol., vol. 185, pp. 386-418. 
TAFANI, A. 1889 La f6condation et la segmentation. Etudiees dans les oeufs 

des rats. Arch. Ital. de Biol., vol. 11. 

1889 a I primi momenti dello sviluppo dei mammiferi. Studi di 

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T. Accad. d. Lincei, Roma. Ser. 4, Rendiconti, vol. 5, semestre 1, pp. 

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TAILBY, T. M. J. 1911 A plea for the owl (the best of all rat killers). J. Roy. 

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TANDLER, J. 1899 Zur vergl. Anat. der Kopfarterien bei den Mammalia. 

(1898.) Denkschr. der kais. Akad. der Wissensch. in Wien, vol. 67, 

p. 729; Mus rattus albino among those examined. 

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TAYLOR, KENNETH 1915 Observations upon a rat sarcoma treated with emul- 
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TELLO, FRANCISCO 1906 Terminaciones sensitivas en los pelosy otrosorganos. 

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TERRA, PAUL DE 1911 Vergleichende Anatomie des menschlichen Gebisses und 

der Zahne der Vertebraten. Jena. Fischer, p. 301, fig. 125. Teeth of 

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TERRY, BENJAMIN T. 1905 An epidemic of trypanosmiasis among white rats. 

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REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 261 

TILNEY, FREDERICK 1911 Contribution to the study of the hypophysis cerebri 
with especial reference to its comparative histology. Memoirs of The 
Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, no. 2, p. 47. Mus decu- 
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1913 An analysis of the juxta-neural epithelial portion of the hypo- 
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TIRABOSCHI, CARLO 1902 Gli animali propagatori della peste bubbonica. 3 
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1904 Gli animali propagatori della peste bubbonica. 4a Nota. I 
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1904 a Les rats, les souris et leurs parasites cutane"s dans leurs rap- 
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TOEPFER, KARL AND FLEISCHMANN, A. 1891 Die Morphologic des Magens der 
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TOPSELL, EDWARD 1658 History of four-footed beasts. No place. No pub- 
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TOURNADE, A. 1913 Sur les d<lais de regeneration du vague chez le rat blanc. 
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TOYOFUKU, TAMAKI 1911 Ueber die parathyreoprive Veranderung des Rat- 
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TRAUTMANN, A. 1912 Ueber Massenausstreuung von Bacillus enteritidis 
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TRAUTMANN, H. 1912 Zuriickweisung der Versuche Mereschowsky's: Ueber 
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TROMMSDORF, R. 1909 Ueber biologische Eiweissdifferenzierung bei Ratten 
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1910 Faune des mammiferes d'Europe. Berlin. Friedlander. 

TUCKERMAN, FREDERICK 1892 Further observations on the gustatory organs of 
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TULLBERG, TYCHO 1900 Ueber das System der Nagethiere. Nova Acta Reg. 
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254-257. 



262 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

TURNER, JOHN 1904 On the primary staining of the rat's brain by methylene 

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VINCENT, S. B. 1912 The function of the vibrissae in the behavior of the white 

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1897 a On the general physiological effects of extracts of the supra- 
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1912 Internal secretion and the ductless glands. Edward Arnold, 

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decumanus. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 263 

WALLER, R. 1693 Some observations in the dissection of a rat (with illustra- 
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WATSON, B. P. 1907 The effect of a meat diet on fertility and lactation. Proc. 

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WATSON, CHALMERS 1904 Stimulation of the thyroid and parathyroid glands 

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1906 The influence of a meat diet on the thyroid gland in the second 

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1906 a The influence of diet on growth and nutrition. J. Physiol., 

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WATSON, CHALMERS, AND CAMPBELL, M. 1906 The minute structure of the 

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1907 b The effects of captivity on the adrenal glands in wild rats. 

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WATSON, G. W. AND GIBBS, J. H. 1906 The influence of an excessive meat diet 
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Proc. of Physiol. Soc., pp. xvii-xviii. 



264 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 

WATSON, JOHN B. 1903 Animal education. Con. from the Psychol. Lab. Univ. 

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WATSON, JOHN B. AND WATSON, MARY I. 1913 A study of the responses of ro- 
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WEBBL, H. VON 1914 A bacteriological study of a rat epidemic. Proc. N. Y. 

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1901 Die Entwicklung der Wirbelsaule der weissen Ratte, besonders 

der vordersten Halswirbel. Ztschr. f. wissensch. Zool., vol.69, pp. 

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WHERRY, W. B. 1908 Further notes on rat leprosy and on the fate of human 

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WHITE, MOSES C. 1901 Article "Blood stains" in reference Handbook of the 

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WIDAKOWICH, VICTOR 1909 Ueber die erste Bildung der Korperform bei Entypie 

desKeimes. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Ratte. Ztschr. 

f . wissensch. Zool., vol. 94, pp. 240-298. 
WIEDERSHEIM, R. 1903 Ueber ein abnormes Rattengebiss. Anat. Anz., vol. 

22, pp. 569-573. 
WIEDERSPERG, GusTAV VON 1885 Beitrage zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der 

Samenkorper. Archiv f. mikr. Anat., vol. 25, pp. 113-136. Rat, pp. 

117, 118, 119. 
WIENER, E. 1902 Ueber den Bazillus Danyz. Miinchen. med. Wchnschr., 

vol. 49, pp. 401-402. 

1903 Weitere Bemerkungen zur Enstehung von Rattenepizootieen. 

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WIESEL, JOSEF 1899 Ueber accessorische Nebennieren am Nebenhoden beim 

Menschen und tiber Kompensations-hypertrophie dieser Organe bei 

der Ratte. Sitz.-Ber. d. Akad. d. Wissen. in Wien. Math.-naturw. 

Kl., Bd. 108, Abt. 3, pp. 257-280. 1 plate. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE 265 

WIESEL. JOSEF 1899 a Ueber Compensations-Hypertrophie der accessorischen 

Nebennieren bei der Ratte. Centrabl. f . Physiol., vol. 12, pp. 780-783. 
WILLACH, PAUL 1888 Beitrage zur Entwicklung der Lunge bei Saugethieren. 

23 pp, 8. Osterwieck, Harz; A. W. Zickfeldt. 
WILLIAMS, J. LEON 1896 On the formation and structure of dental enamel. 

The Dental Cosmos, vol. 38, pp. 101-127. 

WOLBACH, S. B. AND HoNEU, JAMES A. 1914 A critical review of the bacteri- 
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WOLDRICH, JOB. 1880-1884 Diluviale Fauna von Zudslawitz bei Winterberg 

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WORMLEY, T. G. 1888 Microchemistry of poisons. 2ded. Phila. 
WYSS, HANS VON 1870 Die becherformigen Organe der Zunge. Arch, f . mikr. 

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YERKES, ROBERT M. 1913 The heredity of savageness and wildness in rats. 

J. Animal Behavior, vol. 3, pp. 286-296. 
ZAWARYKIN, TH. 1883 Ueber die Fettresorption im Dunndarm. Arch. f. d. 

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ZILLINBERG-PAUL, OTTILIE 1909 Fortgesetzte Untersuchungen iiber das Ver- 

halten des Darmepithels. III. Mitteil. (Rat.) Ztschr. f. Biol., 

vol. 52, pp. 327-354, pi. VI. 
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rat leprosy. J. Am. M. Ass., vol. 58, pp. 692-695. 
ZUCKERKANDL, E. 1903 Die Entwickelung der Schilddriise und der Thymus 

bei der Ratte. Anat. Hefte, vol. 21, pp. 3-28. 
ZtJMSTEiN, J. J. 1890 Ueber den Bronchialbaum des Menschen und einiger 

Saugetiere. Sitzungsb. d. Gesellsch. z. Beford. d. ges. Natur. zu 

Marburg. Jahrg., 1889, pp. 25-29. (Sitz. vom 26 Marz, 1889.) Rat 

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1891 Ueber die Unterkieferdriise einiger Sauger. 1 Anat. Teil. 

Habilitationsschrift, Marburg, 32 pp. 

ZUSCHLAG, EMIL 1903 Le rat migratoire et sa destruction rationnelle. Copen- 
hagen. 



ADDENDA 

Titles of papers which appeared while this volume was in press or which had 

been overlooked. 

BARBER, ALDA GRACE 1915 The localization of sound in the white rat. J. 

Animal Behavior, vol. 5, pp. 292-311. 
BRUMPT, E. 1907 Phe'nomenes de la parturition chez le rat blanc. Bull. Soc. 

Zool., France, vol. 32, pp. 50-52. 
CONROW, SARA B. 1915 Taillessness in the rat. Anat. Record, vol. 9, pp. 777- 

783. 



266 REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE ADDENDA 

DAELS, F. 1908 On the relations between the ovaries and the uterus. Surg. 

Gynec. and Obst-., vol. 6, pp. 153-159. 
HATAI, S. 1915 b On the influence of exercise on the growth of organs in the 

albino rat. Anat. Record, vol. 9, pp. 647-665. 
HEAPE, WALTER 1900 The "sexual season" of mammals and the relation of 

the "pro-oestrum" to menstruation. Quart. J. Micr. Science, vol. 44, 

pp. 1-70. 
HENNEBERG, B. 1905 Beitrag zur Kenntnis der lateralen Schilddriisenanlage. 

Anat. Hefte, vol. 28, pp. 287-302. 

1909 Uber die Bedeutungder Ohrmuschel. Anat. Hefte, vol. 40, pp. 

95-147. 

1914 Beitrag zur Entwickelung der ausseren genitalorgane beim 
Sauger. Erster Teil. Anat. Hefte, vol. 50, pp. 425-498. 

HUNTER, WALTER S. 1915 The auditory sensitivity of the white rat. J. Ani- 
mal Behavior, vol. 5, pp. 312-329. 

IVANOFF, ELIE 1900 La fonction des vesicules se"minales et de la glande pros- 
tatique dans 1'acte de la fcondation. J. de Phys. et de Path, gen., 
vol. 2, pp. 95-100. 

1907 De la fe"condation artificielle chez lesmammiferes. Arch, des Sc. 
Biol., vol. 12, pp. 377-511. 

KING, HELEN D. 1915 a Growth and variability in the body weight of the 
rat. Anat. Record, vol. 9, pp. 751-776. 

KOCH, R. 1898 Reise-Berichte tiber Rinderpest, Bubonenpest in Indien und 
Afrika, Tsetse oder Surrakrankheit Texasfieber, tropische malaria u. 
Schwarzwasserfieber. J. Springer. Berlin. 136 pp. 8. Trypano- 
somes rat. 

KONIGSTEIN, H. 1907 Die Veranderungen der Genitalschleimhaut wahrend 
der Graviditat und Brunst bei einigen Nagern. Arch. f. d. ges. 
Physiol., vol. 119, pp. 553-570. 

LANE-CLAYPON, JANET E. 1907 On ovogenesis and the formation of the inter- 
stitial cells of the ovary. J. Obst. and Gynaec., vol. 11, pp. 205-214. 

LAVERAN, A., and MESNIL, F. 1901 Recherches morphologique et expe"rimen- 
tales sur le trypanosome des rats. Ann. de 1'Institut Pasteur, vol. 15, 
pp. 673-713. 

MEINARDUS, OTTO 1882 Der historische Kern der Hameler Rattenfangersage. 
Separat Abdruck aus der Ztschr. des Historischen Vereins fur Nie- 
dersachsen, Jahrg. 1882, Hannover. Hahn'sche Buchhandlung. 

OSBORNE, THOMAS B. AND MENDEL, L. B. 1915 a The comparative nutritive 
value of certain proteins in growth, and the problem of the protein 
minimum. J. Biol. Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 351-378. 

1915 b Further observations of the influence of natural fats upon 
growth. J. Biol. Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 379-390. 

1915 c Protein minima for maintenance. J. Biol. Chemistry, vol. 22, 

pp. 241-258. 
OSBORNE, THOMAS B. AND WAKEMAN, ALFRED J. 1915 Does butter-fat contain 

nitrogen and phosphorus? J. Biol. Chemistry, vol. 21, pp. 91-94. 
ROBINSON, ARTHUR 1892 b The nutritive importance of the yolk-sac. J. of 

Anat. and Phys., vol. 26, pp. 308-323. 



REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE ADDENDA 267 

STOTSENBURG, J. M. 1915 The growth of the fetus of the albino rat from the 
thirteenth to the twenty-second day of gestation. Anat. Record, vol. 
9, pp. 667-682. 

VINCENT, STELLA B. 1915 e The white rat and the maze problem. IV. The 
number and distribution of errors a comparative study. J. Animal 
Behavior, vol. 5, pp. 367-374. 

WARREN, JOHN 1915 On th eearly development of the inguinal region in mam- 
malia. Anat. Record, vol. 9, pp. 131-133. 

WIEDERSHEIM, ROBERT 1897 Comparative anatomy of vertebrates. Parker's 
translation, 2d ed., London. 



INDEX 



Page numbers preceded by N refer to the Norway rat. 

Blood (continued) 
Oxygen capacity, 84. 



Activity 

Miles run, 20. 

Age 

Characters which are functions of, 3. 

of opening eyes, 19, N 191. 

of independence, 19. 

of sexual maturity, 21, N 191. 

Span of life, 6, 20, 21, N 190. 

Body weight on, 31-33, 63-72, 105-113. 

Thymus on, 102. 

Percentage of water on, 114. 

Albino Rat (See Rat) 

Anatomy, 30-57. 

General, 30. 

Embryology, 30. 

Bones, joints and connective tissues, 33. 

Muscles, 38. 

Vessels and lymphatics, 39. 

Nervous system, 41. 

Sense organs, 55. 

Integument, 55. 

Gastro-pulmonary systems, 55. 

Uro-genital, 56. 

Endocrine, 56. 

Axis of Nerve Fiber (See Nerves) 

Behavior 

under natural conditions, 28. 
under experimental conditions, 28. 

Biology, 19-28, N 189-194. 

Blood 

Cell elements (number), 40-41. 
Erythrocytes (diameter), 39. 
Growth of, 83. 
Hemoglobin, percentage of, 84. 



Percentage of water in, 40, N 211. 
Specific gravity, 39, 83. 
Volume, 83. 
Wandering cells in, 41. 
Weight of, 83. 

Body Weight (See Growth) 

on age, 31-33, 63-72, 105-113. 

on body length, 88, N 198. 

at maturity according to sex, 27. 

Modified by external conditions, 69. 71. 

Net, 74. 

Variations in weight at birth, 103. 

Bones (See Skeleton) 

Brain (See Organs) 

Composition, chemical, 180-184. 

Growth, 90, N 200-201. 

Methods for fixation, 49-55. 

Water percentage of, 6, 176-179, N 211-213. 

Mitoses in, 41. 42. 

Specific gravity, 41. 

Cell Division (See Mitosis) 
Cells 

Erythrocytes (diameter), 39. 
Erythrocytes (number), 40. 
Leucocytes, 40. 
Wandering cells, 41. 
of peritoneal fluid, 41. 
of liver (diameters), 56. 
of pancreas (diameters), 56. 
of nervous sytem: 

Purkinje cells (diameters), 43. 

in ganglia (numbers and diameters), 44, 
45,46. 



269 



270 INDEX 

Charts 1-31 

1 . The growth of the fetus from the 13th to the 22d day of gestation 64 

2. Growth in body weight on age males. To 365 days 66 

3. Growth in body weight on age females. To 365 days 67 

4. Growth in body weight on age males and females. To 485 days 69 

5. Percentage weights of systems on age. Muscalature, ligamentous skeleton, viscera 

and integument 77 

6. Body length on body weight males and females 88 

7. Body weight on body length males and females 89 

8. Tail length on body length males and females 89 

9. Brain weight on body weight males only. Spinal cord weight on body weight 

males only 91 

10. Weight of both eyeballs on body weight males 92 

11. Weight of heart on body weight males 93 

12. Weight of both kidneys on body weight males 93 

13. Weight of liver on body weight males 94 

14. Weight of spleen on body weight males 95 

15. Weight of both lungs on body weight males 96 

16. Weight of blood on body weight males and females 96 

17. Weight of alimentary tract on body weight males 97 

18. Weight of thyroid on body weight males and females 98 

19. Weight of hypophysis on body weight males and females 99 

20. Weight of both suprarenals on body weight males and females 100 

21. Weight of both ovaries on body weight 101 

22. Weight of both testes on body weight 101 

23. Weight of thymus on age to 400 days 102 

24. Percentage of dry substance in the body as a whole and in the several systems liga- 

mentous skeleton, integument, viscera and musculature on age 178 

25. In terms of the dry substance of the entire body the percentage weight of the dry 

substance of the integument, viscera, ligamentous skeleton and musculature on 
age 178 

26. Percentage of water in brain on age males. Percentage of water in spinal cord 

on age males 179 

27. Absolute weight of the more important chemical constituents of the brain on age 184 

28. Norway rat Body length on body weight males. (Graph for the Albino inserted 

for comparison) 199 

29. Norway rat Body weight on body length. Males and females 199 

30. Norway rat Tail length on body length. Males and females 200 

31. Norway rat Brain weight on body weight males. (Graph for Albino inserted for 

comparison) 

Spinal cord weight on body weight males. (Graph for Albino inserted for com- 
parison) 201 

Chromosomes, Number of, 31. of bones, 181. 

Classification and Nomenclature, 7-10. of brain, 181-182. 

Composition, Chemical (See Water, per- of spinal cord, 182. 

centage of) Correlation, Coefficients of, 103. 
of entire body, 180-181. 



INDEX 



271 



Distribution (See Early Records and Migra- 
tions), 10-15. 

Dry Substance (See Water, percentage of) 
Early Records and Migrations, 10-15. 

Embryology, 30-33. 

Early stages, 31-33. 

Later stages, 33. 

Volumes of ova and embryos, 32. 

Eyes 

Age of opening, 19, N 191. 

Fat 

Fatty acids, 84. 

according to size, 85. 

according to sex, 85. 
Total fat, 83. 

Feces 

Weight of, 59. 

Fecundity, 22. 

Influence of weight of mother, 23. 

Influence of food conditions, 23. 

Fetus 

Crown-rump length, 64-65. 

Weight from 13th day of gestation, 64-65. 

Fibers Nerve 

Number, 44-49. 

Diameter and area, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49. 

Formulas 

Catalogue of, 158-159. 
Use of, 3. 

Fossil Remains 

Mus rattus, 10. 

Functions (See Physiology) 

Circulation, 61. 
Digestion, 61. 
Endocrine glands, 61, 62. 
Muscle, nerve, 61. 
Nervous system, 61. 
Nutrition, 58, 59, 60. 



Functions (continued) 

Body temperature, 60, 61. 
Reproduction, 61. 
Respiration, 61. 
Secretion, 61. 
Special senses, 61. 

Ganglia (See Cells) 
Gestation 

Period of, 21, N 190. 
Lengthening of, 22. 

Growth 

of entire body in weight on length : 

Birth to maturity, 65-69, N 198. 

Weight-length ratio, 72, N 202. 

Body length on body weight, 87, N 198. 

Body weight (Norway) on body weight 

(Albino), N 200. 
of entire body in weight on age : 

before birth, 31-33, 63-64. 

Birth to maturity, 65-72. 

Body weight, net, 74. 

under various external conditions, 63, 

69. 
of parts on body weight : 

Head, trunk, limbs, 73-75, N 195. 

Method of dissection, 73-74. 

Tail length on body length, 88, N 200. 
of systems on body weight : 

Integument, 75, 76, N 196. 

Musculature, 75, 76, N 196. 

Skeleton (ligamentous), 75, 76, N 196. 

Skeleton (cartilaginous), 78. 

Viscera, 75, 76, N 196. 

Teeth, 37-39. 
of organs on body length and weight : 

Methods of examination and graphs, 87- 
102. 

Alimentary tract, 97. 

Blood (weight), 96. 

Brain, 90, N. 200-201. 

Eyeballs, 91-92. 

Heart, 92-93. 

Hypophysis, 98-99. 

Kidneys. 92-93. 

Liver, 94. 



272 



INDEX 



Growth Continued 
Lungs, 95-96. 
Ovaries, 100-101. 
Spinal cord, 90-91, N 202. 
Spleen, 95. 
Suprarenals, 99-100. 
Testes, 101-102. 
Thymus (on age), 102. 
Thymus (on body weight), 114. 
Thyroid, 97-98. 
Viscera combined, 114. 
Variations in organ weight, 103-104. 

Heredity 

in general, 29. 
Coat color, 29. 

Independence 

Attainment of, 19. 

Impregnation 
Time of, 21. 

Length 

of body, 87, N 198. 
of limb bones, 81-82. 
of tail, 88-89, N 200. 

Life History, 19, N 189-191. 
Litter 

Average number in, 26, N 190. 

Second the best, 26. 

Unit for experimental work, 3. 

Litters 

Usual number of, 26, N 190. 

Liver 

Cells and nuclei diameters, 55-56. 

Menopause, 21. 

Metabolism 
Protein, 58-60. 

Methods 

Statistical, 2. 

for fixation of brain 

Various figuratives, 49-51. 

Formaldehyde, 51-55. 



Migrations, 11-13. 

Mitosis 

in brain, 41, 42. 

in spinal cord, 41-43. 

Modification of Body Growth 

Experimental, 69, 71. 
Method of measuring, 5. 

Muscles 

Number of fibers and nuclei, 39. 

Myeline Sheath (See Nerves) 
Nerve Fibers (See Nerves) 

Nerves 

Cerebral 

Number of fibers : 

N. cochlearis, 43. 

N. oculomotorius, 44. 
Spinal nerves and ganglia: 

Number and size of fibers, 45-47. 

Number of ganglion cells, 43-49. 

Diameter of ganglion cells, 44, 48 
Peripheral, 48, 49. 

Number of fibers 

N. peronealis, 48. 
Autonomic 

Fibers less than 4ju, 49. 

Nervous System, 41-49. 
Fixation methods, 49-55. 
Physiology of, 61. 

Nitrogen 

Weight of, excreted, 58, 60. 

Norway Rat (See Rat) 

Number 

of mitoses (nervous system), 41, 42. 

of erythrocytes, 40. 

of leucocytes, 40. 

of nerve cells, 41-49. 

of nerve fibers, 41-49. 

of muscle fibers and nuclei, 39. 

Nutrition (See Functions) 



INDEX 



273 



Organs (See Growth of) 

Alimentary tract, 97. 

Blood (weight and volume), 96. 

Brain, 90, N 200-201. 

Eyeballs, 91-92. 

Heart, 92-93. 

Hypophysis, 98-99. 

Kidneys, 92-93. 

Liver, 94. 

Lungs, 95-96. 

Ovaries, 100-101. 

Pancreas, 56. 

Sense organs, 55. 

Spinal cord, 90-91, N 202. 

Spleen, 95. 

Suprarenals, 99-100. 

Testes, 101-102. 

Thymus, 102, 114. 

Thyroid, 97-98. 

Ovulation, 21, 31. 

Ova distance from fimbria, 31. 
Ova diameter, 31. 
Ova volume, 32. 

Ovum (See Ovulation) 

Pancreas 

Size of cells and nuclei, 56. 

Parts (Larger Divisions of Body) 

Fore-limbs, hind-limbs, head and trunk 73- 
75, N 195. 

Peritoneal Fluid 

Cells of, 41. 

Physiology (See Functions) 58-62. 

Puberty, 21. 

Rat 

Norway, 1. 

= Mus norvegicus, 1, 7, 8. 

= Mus decumanus, 7, 8. 

= Epimys norvegicus, 7. 

gray, brown, or sewer rat Wanderratte 

(G.). 

Surmulot, rat d'e"gout, (Fr.). 
compared with Albino, N 191-193. 
similar to European form, N 193, 194. 
melanic variety, 14. 



Rat (continued) 

Norway Albino = white rat 

= Mus norvegicus albinus, 14. 

= Mus norvegicus albino, 7. 

= Mus norvegicus var. albino, 7. 

= Mus norvegicus var. albus, 7. 

coat color, 9, 29. 
compared with Norway, N 191-193. 

extracted, 9. 

Gametic purity, 9, 10. 

Inbred, 9. 

Laboratory animal, 1. 

Observations mainly for the first year, 2. 

Origin of variety, 14. 

similar to European form, 14. 

strains local, 3. 
House rat black 

Mus rattus rattus (old English black 

rat), 7, 8. 
Ship rat (gray) 

Mus rattus alexandrinus, 8. 
Albino of M. rattus, 8, 9. 
M. n. albinus wrongly identified with Albino 

of M. rattus, 14. 

Mus rattus X Mus norvegicus mutually in- 
fertile, 14. 

Rattenkonig, 15. 

Records, Early, and Migrations, 10-15. 
Mus norvegicus, 12, 13. 
Mus rattus, 11. 

Reference Tables, 2, 3. 

References to Literature By Subject 

Classification, 10. 

Fossil remains, 10. 

Melanic variety, 14. 

Early records and migrations, 15. 

Rattenkonig, 15. 

Albino : 

Biology, 28. 

Heredity, 29. 

Anatomy, 56-57. 

Physiology, 61-62. 

Growth : 

in total body weight, 72. 

of parts and systems, 85. 



274 



INDEX 



References to Literature By Subject 

Continued 

of parts and organs, 175. 
in terms of water and solids, 179. 
of chemical constituents, 184. 
Pathology, 185-186. 
Norway: 

Life history and characters, N 194. 

Growth : 

of parts and systems, N 197. 

of organs, N 202. 

in terms of water and solids, N 213. 

References to Literature By Authors 

Introduction to literature cited, 214. 
Titles by authors, 215-265. 
Addenda, 265-267. 

Sense Organs 

Cochlea, 55. 

Sex 

Body weight according to, 27. 
Sexual maturity, 21, N 191. 
Proportion of sexes, N 190-191. 
Sex ratio, 26-27. 

in first litters, 27. 

according to season, 27. 
Recognition of, in young, 26-27. 
Ano-genital distance, 27. 

Skeleton 

List of bones, 34. 
Cartilaginous skeleton, 76-78. 

Weight of moist skeleton, 79. 

Weight of dry skeleton, 79-80. 
Ligamentous skeleton, 76-78. 

Growth of skeleton, 33, 76-81. 

Tables 



Skeleton (continued) 
Phosphorus content, skeleton, 181. 
Ash, 181. 

Percentage of water, 79. 
Transformation of weights, 77. 
Cranium (skull), 82. 

definition of, 82-83. 

Measurements of, 33-36. 

Weight of, 83, N 196. 
Long bones 

lengths, absolute and relative, 81-82. 

shrinkage on drying, 82. 

Skull (See Skeleton; Cranium) 
Span of Life, 6, 20-21, N 190. 

Specific Gravity 

Blood, 39, 83. 
Brain, 41. 

Spermatogenesis, 30, 31. 

Spinal Cord 

Composition, chemical, 182. 

Growth, 90-91, N 202. 

Water, percentage of, 176-179, N 211-213. 

Mitosis in, 41-43. 

Superfecundation, 22. 
Superfetation, 22. 

Systems (weighed) (See Anatomy) 
Integumentary, muscular, skeletal, visceral, 

75, 76. 

Weight absolute, 76. 
Weight proportional, 75. 
Adult proportions, 78. 



Revision of 2 

Reference tables, use of 2, 3, 5 

List of tables 1-89 in serial order. 

1. Percentage of water in encephalon of rat compared with that in man at correspond- 

ing ages 6 

2. Total number of miles run 20 

3. Influence of age of mother on birth weight 24 

4. Influence of weight of mother on birth weight 24 



INDEX 275 

Tables Continued 

5. Influence of size of litter on the individual birth weight 25 

6. Individual birth weight in relation to body weight of mother 25 

7. Sex ratios and average number for litter 26 

8. Ano-genital distance in young albino rats 27 

9. Maximum body weights 28 

10. Distance of ova from fimbria at various ages 31 

11. Volumes of ova and embryos 32 

12. Measurements of cranium 35 

13. Range and rate of increase in cranial characters 36 

14. Length of incisors 38 

15. Measurements of enamel 38 

16. Growth of incisors and of cranium 38 

17. Number of fibers and of nuclei in Muse, radialis 39 

18. Percentage of water in blood 40 

19. Number of erythrocytes, leucocytes, etc., in blood 40 

20. Wandering cells in blood 41 

21. Wandering cells in peritoneal fluid 41 

22. Mitoses in brain and cord. Hamilton ('01) 42 

23. Mitoses in brain and cord special observations on cerebellum . . 42 

24. Diameters of Purkinje cells and their nuclei 43 

25. Number of myelinated fibers in the oculomotor nerve 44 

26. Range of diameter in cells of cervical ganglion * 44 

27. Number of spinal ganglion cells and number and size of myelinated root fibers of spinal 

nerves from three levels and at five ages (body weights) 45 

28. Number of ganglion cells and of root fibers in the second cervical nerve 46 

29. Number of myelinated fibers in the ventral and dorsal roots of the second cervical 

nerve together with the distal excess of fibers in the nerve 46 

30. Number of ventral root fibers in the second cervical nerve at different ages together 

with the areas of the fibers and of their axes 47 

31. Diameters of cell body and of nucleus in second cervical spinal ganglion together 

with standard deviation and coefficient of variation 48 

32. Number of myelinated fibers in the peroneal nerve 48 

33. Sectional areas of largest fibers and of their axes in peroneal nerve 49 

34. Myelinated fibers less than 4/t in diameter in the ventral roots of the second to the 

fifth cervical nerves 49 

35. Effects of various fixing solutions on the weight of the brain 50-51 

36. Increase in the weight of rats' brains in a neutralized 4 per cent formaldehyde solu- 

tion, made five months before using 53 

37. Increase in the weight of rats' brains in a neutralized 4 per cent formaldehyde solu- 

tion made at the time of using 53 

38. Increase in the weight of rats' brains in a neutralized 4 per cent formaldehyde 

solution freshly made for each lot of animals 54 

39. Increase in the weight of rats' brains in a non-neutralized solution of 4 per cent for- 

maldehyde freshly made for each lot of animals : 54 

40. Percentage of solids in rats' brains after fixation in various 4 per cent formaldehyde 

solutions... 55 



276 INDEX 

Tables Continued 

41. Volumes of cell body and of nucleus: liver cells; volumes of cell body and of nucleus: 

pancreas cells 56 

42. Excretion of urine, feces and nitrogen 59 

43. Protein metabolism nitrogen distribution female 60 

44. Protein metabolism nitrogen distribution male 60 

45. Body temperature under different external temperatures 61 

46. Mean weights of fetuses at daily intervals from the 13th day of gestation 65 

47. Crown-rump lengths of fetuses at daily intervals from the 14th day of gestation 65 

48. Ratios obtained by dividing the body weight in grams by the body length in milli- 

meters for both males and females 70-71 

49. Percentages of the entire body weight represented by the weights of head, trunk, 

fore-limbs and hind limbs 74 

50. Percentages of the entire body weight represented by the weights of the integument, 

ligamentous skeleton, musculature and viscera 75 

51. Absolute weights of integument, ligamentous skeleton, musculature and viscera in 

seven groups, of increasing body weight 76 

52. The percentage values for the weight of the cartilaginous skeleton and by differ- 

ence the percentage values for the periosteum, ligaments, etc., combined 78 

53. Cartilaginous skeleton moist weight and percentage value also percentage value 

of dry skeleton 79-80 

54. Lengths of long bones femur, tibia, humerus and ulna absolute and relative 81-82 

55. Weights of crania in series from London, Paris, Philadelphia and Vienna 83 

56. Growth of blood in volume and oxygen capacity with increasing age (body weight) ... 84 

57. Proportion of fat with increasing age (body weight) 85 

58. Coefficients of variation in body weights 103 

59. Coefficients of variation in organ weights 104 

60. Coefficients of correlation of organ weights with body weight 104 

61. Mean weights of fetuses at daily intervals from the 13th day of gestation and also at 

birth. (Duplicates in full table 46) 105 

62. Growth in body weight on age based on the records of Donaldson, Dunn and 

Watson 006) 106-107 

63. Growth in body weight on age males. Observations of Donaldson, Dunn and 

Watson ('06) 108 

64. Growth in body weight on age females. Observations of Donaldson, Dunn and 

Watson ('06) 110 

65. Growth in body weight on age. New Haven Colony Ferry ('13) 112 

66. The numbers of animals used in computing the values in the growth table 65 113 

67. Growth in body weight on age King (MS '15). Mean of two series, with coefficients 

of variation 113 

68. Increase in the length of the tail, and in the weights of the body, brain, spinal cord 

and both eyeballs, on body length 115-120 

69. Increase in the weights of the body and of the heart, both kidneys, liver and spleen 

on body length 121-126 

70. Increase in the weights of the body and of the lungs, blood, alimentary tract, testes 

and ovaries, on body length 127-132 

71. Increase in the weights of the body and of the hypophysis, suprarenals and thyroid 

on body length 133-138 



INDEX 277 

Tabl es Continued 

72. Weight of the thymus on age in days 139-141 

73. Increase in the weight of all the viscera including the thymus which is entered 

separately on body length 142-147 

74. Percentage of water in the brain and in the spinal cord with increasing age up to 

365 days 148-157 

75. Percentage of dry substances in the entire body, in the several systems and in some 

organs. Observations at seven ages 177 

76. Giving in terms of the dry substance of the entire body the percentage represented 

by the weights of the dry substance of the skin, ligamentous skeleton, musculature 
and viscera seven age groups 179 

77. Chemical composition of the entire rat, Hatai (MS '15) 180 

78. Chemical composition of the entire rat McCollum ('09) 181 

79. The phosphorus compounds of the rat as affected by ovariotomy 181 

80. Chemical composition of the brain at different ages 182 

81. Absolute weights of constituents of one brain at different ages 183 

82. Norway rat Percentages of the entire body weight represented by the weights of 

head, trunk, fore-limbs and hind-limbs 195 

83. Norway rat Percentage of the entire body weight represented by the weights of 

the integument, ligamentous skeleton, musculature and viscera 196 

84. Norway rat Weights of crania in series from London, Paris, Philadelphia and 

Vienna 196 

85. Norway rat Increase in the length of the tail and in the weights of the body, brain 

and spinal cord, on body length 203-208 

86. Norway rat Giving the ratios obtained by dividing the body weight in grams, by 

the body length in millimeters 209-210 

87. Norway rat The percentage of water in the blood 211 

88. Norway rat Percentage of water in the brain and in the spinal cord. Ages known 212 

89. Norway rat Percentage of water in the brain and in the spinal cord of rats of 

increasing body weights. Ages not known 213 

Technic Ovaries, weight, 100. 

Body, length, 87. Testes, weight, 102. 

Body, weight, 88. Thymus, weight, 102. 

Tail, length, 87. Teeth 

Brain, weight, 90. 

Spinal cord, weight, 90. Eruption of, 37. 

Eyeballs, weight, 91. Formula for, 37. 

Heart, weight, 92. Incisors 

Kidneys, weight, 92. Development time relations, 37. 

Liver, weight, 94. Growth of, 37-39, 83. 

Spleen, weight, 95. . Measurement in skull, 38. 

Lungs, weight, 95. Enamel, 38. 

Blood weight 96. Rate of growth before attrition, 38. 

Alimentary tract, weight, 97. Rate of growth after attrition, 38. 

Thyroid, weight, 97. Temperature of Body, 60, 61. 

Hypophysis, weight, 98. 

Suprarenals, weight, 99. Testes, descent of, 27. 



278 



INDEX 



Urine 

Volume, 59. 

Weight of nitrogen in, 59, 60. 

similar to that of man 60. 

Variations Coefficients of 

in body weight 103, 113. 
Cranial measurements, 33-35. 

Water, Percentage of 

in entire body (dry substance), *1 76-179, 180. 
in systems, 177, 179. 
in organs, 176, 177. 



in blood, 40, N 211. 

in brain of rat and of man, 6. 

in brain and spinal cord, 176, 179, N 211-213. 

in skeleton, 78-81. 

Weight at Birth, 22, 24-26. 
According to size of litter, 25. 
According to characters of mothers : 

Age, 24. 

Weight, 24, 25. 

Undergrowth, 26. 

Disease, 26. 

Weight-length Ratio, 72, N 202. 



FINIS