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Presented to the 




Hugh Anson-Cartwright 










author of . .^ 

"thb dictionary of phrase and fable," "a dictionary of miracles," etc. 





All rights reserved 


My father died on March 6, 1897, before he had finished correcting the proofa 
of the revision of this new edition. He left the work to me, and I should like to 
be permitted to thank all who helped in this labour of love. 

The Librarians at the Nottingham, Lancaster, and Eastbourne Free Libraries 
must be specially mentioned. Mr. Briscoe, of the Nottingham Free Library, was 
a personal friend of my father's ; he and his colleagues spared neither time nor 
trouble in searching out dates, and in supplying much useful information. 

I thank, too, most warmly, the proof-reader, who has shown so much 
patience, and has helped me in every possible way in what might have been a 
very hard task ; he made it not only an easy but an exceedingly pleasant one. 

To all my father's friends, kriown and unknown, who have written such kind 
and encouraging letters, I can only say from the bottom of my heart, " Thanks, 
and ever thanks." 


Edwinstowe Vicarage, Newark, 
September, 1898. 


Some further corrections, in addition to those made in the revised edition of 
1902, have been made in this new issue. 

yanuary, 1 91 1. 



The object of this Handbook is to supply readers and speakers with a lucid but 
very brief account of such names as are used in allusions and references, whether 
by poets or prose writers, to furnish those who consult it with the plot of 
popular dramas, the story of epic poems, and the outline of well-known tales. 
"Who has not asked what such and such a book is about ? and who would not be 
glad to have his question answered correctly in a few words ? When the title of 
a play is mentioned, who has not felt a desire to know who was the author of it ? 
for it seems a universal practice to allude to the title of dramas without stating 
the author. And when reference is made to some character, who has not wished 
to know something specific about the person referred to ? The object of this 
Handbook is to supply these wants. Thus, it gives in a few lines the story of 
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, of Virgil's JEneid, Lucan's Pharsalia, and the Thebaid 
of Statius ; of Dante's Divine Comedy , Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, and Tasso's 
Jerusalem Delivered ; of Milton's Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained ; of 
Thomson's Seasons ; of Ossian's tales, the Nibeliingen Lied of the German 
minnesingers, the Romance of the Rose, the Lusiad of Camoens, the Loves oj 
Theaghits and Charicleia by Heliodorus (fourth century), with the several story 
poems of Chaucer, Gower, Piers Plowman, Hawes, Spenser, Drayton, Phineas 
Fletcher, Prior, Goldsmith, Campbell, Southey, Byron, Scott, Moore, Tennyson, 
Longfellow, and so on. Far from limiting its scope to poets, the Handbook tells, 
with similar brevity, the stories of our national faiiy tales and romances, such 
novels as those by Charles Dickens, Vanity Fair by Thackeray, the Rasselas of 
Johnson, Gulliver's Ti-avds by Swift, the Sentimental Journey by Sterne, Don 
Quixote and Git Bias, Telemachus by Fenelon, and Undine by De la Motte 
Fouque. Great pains have been taken with the Arthurian stories, whether from 
sir T. Malory's collection or from the Mabinogion, because Tennyson has iDrought 
them to the front in his Idylls of the King; and the number of dramatic plots 
sketched out is many hundreds. 

Another striking and interesting feature of the book is the revelation of the 
source from which dramatists and romancers have derived their stories, and the 
strange repetitions of historic incidents. Compare, for example, the stratagem of 
the wooden horse by which Troy was taken, with those of Abu Obeidah in the 


siege of Arrestan, and that of the capture of Sark from the French, p. 504. 
Compare, again, Dido's cutting the hide into strips, with the story about the 
Yakutsks, p. 1S2; that of Romulus and Remus, with the story of Tyro, p. 930 ; 
the Shibboleth of Scripture story, with those of the " Sicilian Vespers," and of 
ihe Danes on St. Bryce's Day, p. 1003 ; the story of Pisistratos and his two sons, 
with that of Cosmo de' Medici and his two grandsons, p. 849 ; the death of 
Marcus Licinius Crassus, with that of Manlius Nepos Aquilius, p. 434 ; and the 
famous "Douglas larder," with the larder of Wallace at Ardrossan, p. 297. 
Witness the numerous tales resembling that of Wdliam Tell and the apple, 
p. 1082 J of the Pied Piper of liamelin, p. 843 ; of Llewellyn and his dog Gelert, 
p. 410 ; of bishop Hatto and the rats, p. 474 ; of Ulysses and Polyphemos, 
p. 1 156; and of lord Lovel's bride, p. 712. Witness, again, the parallelisms of 
David in his flight from Saul, and that of Mahomet from the Koreishites, p. 1035 ; 
of Jephthah and his daughter, and the tale of Idomeneus of Crete, or that of 
Agamemnon and Iphigenia, p. 544 ; of Paris and Sextus, p. 988 ; Salome and 
Fulvia, p. 955 ; St. Patrick preaching to king O'Neil, and St. Areed before 
the king of Abyssinia, p. 812 ; of Cleopatra and Sophonisba, with scores of 

To ensure accuracy, every work alluded to in this large volume has been read 
personally by the author expressly for this Handbook, and since the compilation 
was commenced ; for although, at the beginning, a few others were employed for 
the sake of despatch, the author read over for himself, while the sheets were 
passing through the press, the works put into their hands. The very minute 
references to words and phrases, book and chapter, act and scene, often to page 
and line, will be sufficient guarantee to the reader that this assertion is not 

The work is in a measure novel, and cannot fail to be useful. It is owned 
that Charles Lamb has told, and told well, the Tales of Shakespeare ; but 
Charles Lamb has occupied more pages with each tale than the Handbook has 
lines. It is also true that an '* Argument " is generally attached to each book of 
an epic story ; but the reading of these rhapsodies is like reading an index 
few have patience to wade through them, and fewer still obtain therefrom any 
clear idea of the spirit of the actors, or the progress of the story. Brevity 
has been the aim of this Handbook, but clearness has not been sacrificed to 
terseness ; and it has been borne in mind throughout that it is not enough 
to state a fact, it must be stated attractively, and the character described must 
be drawn characteristically, if the reader is to appreciate it, and feel an interest 
in what he reads. 

The unnamed book given as an authority for the various Arthurian names (see 
Arthur, Galahad, Gawain, Lancelot, .Modred, and others) is Malory's 
Morte (f Arthur (for which see p. 729). In most cases where it is quoted from, 
the title of the book is omitted, and only the pari and chapter are given. 

Those verses introduced but not signed, or signed with initials only, are by 
the author of the Handbook. They are the Stornello Verses, p. 1048 ; the aspen 
tree (an epigram), p. 1 130; Nones and Ides, p. 759; the Seven Wise Men, 

viii PREFACE. 

p. 987 ; the Seven Wonders of the World, p. 987 ; and the following translations : 
Lucan's " Serpents," p. 835 ; " Veni Wakefield peramoenum," p. 414 ; specimen 
of Tyrtseos, p. 1154; " Vos non vobis," p. 1183; " Roi d'Yvetot," p. 1236; 
Non amo te," p. 1237 ; Marot's epigram, p. 629 ; epigram on a violin, p. 1 177 j 
epigram on the Fair Rosamond, p. 932 ; the Heidelberg tun, p. 1145 J "Roger 
Bontemps," p. 926; *'Le bon roi Dagobert," p. 745; " Pauvre Jacques," 
p. 816 ; Virgil's epitaph, p. 1 178 ; " Cunctis mare," p. 966 ; ** Ni fallat fatum," 
p. 971 ; St. Elmo, p. 949 ; Baviad, etc., pp. 97, 652 ; several oracular responses 
(see Equivokes, p. 327; Wooden Walls, p. 1227 ; etc.); and many others. 
The chief object of this paragraph is to prevent any useless search after these 

It would be most unjust to conclude this preface without publicly acknow- 
ledging the great obligation which the author owes to the printer's reader 
while the sheets were passing through the press. He seems to' have entered 
into the very spirit of the book ; his judgment has been sound, his queries 
have been intelligent, his suggestions invaluable, and even some of the 
articles were supplied by him. 



% intiicates a faraVel er iiiiiHar tale, and hat been adofUd so that these who wish tejlnd suth duplicates 
tttay do so with the least possible trouble, 
t'ereisn books which have been naturalized {with their >t-lish translations) Have been introducid in the text. 


AA'RON, a Moor, beloved by Tam'- 
ora, queen of the Goths, in tlie tragedy 
of lltus Andron'icus, published amongst 
the plays of Shakespeare ( 1593). 

(The classic name is Androntcus, but 
the character of this play is purely 

Aaron {St.), a British martyr of the 
City of Legions [Newport; in South 
Wales). He was torn limb from limb by 
order of Maximia'nus Hercu'lius, general, 
in Britain, of the army of Diocle'tian, 
Two churches were founded in the City 
of Legions, one in honour of St. Aaron, 
and one in honour of his fellow-martyr 
St. Julius. Newport was called Caerleoa 
by the British. 

. . . two others . . . scaled their doctrine with theJf 

blood ; 
St. Julius, and with him St. Aaron, have their room 
At Carleon, suffering death by Diocletian's doom. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622). 

Aaz'iz (3 syl. ), so the queen of Sheba 
or Saba is sometimes called ; but in the 
Koran she is called Balkis {ch. xxvii.). 

Abad'don, an angel of the bottomless 
pit (/?gz^, ix. 11). The word is derived from 
the Hebrew, ahad, "lost," and means the 
lost one. Tiiere are two other angels intro- 
duced by Klopstock in The Messiah with 
similar names, which must not be con- 
founded with the angel referred to in 
Rev. ; one is Obaddon, the angel of death, 
and the other Abbad'ona, the repentant 
devil. (See Abbadona. ) 

Als'aris, to whom Apollo gave a 
golden an-ow, on which to ride through 
the air. (See Dictionary of Phrase and 
Fable, p. 2.) 

Abbad'ona, once the friend of Ab'- 
diel, was drawn into the rebellion of 
Satan half unwillingly. In hell he con- 
stantly bewailed his fall, and reproved 
Satan for his pride and blasphemy. He 
openly declared to the infernals that he 
would take no part or lot in Satan's 
scheme for the death of the Messiah ; and 
during the crucifixion he lingered about 
the cross with repentance, hope, and fear. 
His ultimate fate we are not told, but 
when Satan and Adramelech were driven 
back to hell, Obaddon, the angel of death, 

" For thee, Abbadona, I have no orders. How long 
thou art permitted to remain on earth 1 know not, nor 
whether thou wilt be allowed to see the resurrection ot 
the Lord of glory . . . but be not deceived, thou canst 
not view Him with the joy of the redeemed." " Yet- 
let me see Him, let me see Xl\xa\"Kloj'stoci : The 
Messiah, xiii. 

Abberville (Lord), a young noble- 
man, 23 years of age, who has for 
travelling tutor a Welshman of 65, 
called Dr. Druid, an antiquary, wholly 
ignorant of his real duties as a guide 
of youth. The young man runs wan- 
tonly wild, squanders his money, and 
gives loose rein to his passions almost 
to the verge of ruin, but he is arrested' 
and reclaimed by his honest Scotch- 
bailiff or financier, and the vigilance 
of his father's executor, Mr. Mortimer, 
This " fashionable lover " promises 
marriage to a vulgar, malicious city 
minx named Lucinda Bridgemore, but 
is saved from this pitfall also. 
Cumberland: The Fashionable Lover 

Abbot {The), the second of thrc 
novels on the Reformation. The first, 
called The Monastery, is by far the 
worst ; and the third, called Kenilworih, 



is the best. The Abbot, Father Ambrose 
{(^.v.), plays a very subordinate part, the 
hero being Roland Groeme. The tale is 
this : Roland, a very young child, was 
nearly drowned by trying to save a toy- 
boat, but he was drawn from the river by 
Wolf, a dog of Lady Avenel's ; and as 
Lady Avenel had no family, she brought 
up Roland as a sort of page. The in- 
dulgence shown by his kind patroness 
drew upon him the jealous displeasure of 
the rest of the household ; and ultimately 
the spirit became so bitter that Lady 
Avenel, when he was between 17 and 18, 
dismissed him from her service. Roland, 
going he knew not whither, encountered 
Sir Halbert Glendinning, the husband of 
the Lady of Avenel, who took him into 
his service, and sent him to the regent 
Murray, who sent him to Lochleven, as 
the page of Mary queen of Scotland, who 
had been dethroned and sent to Lochleven 
as a state prisoner. He was there above 
a year, when Mary made her escape, was 
overtaken by the Reform party, and fled 
to England. 

. * Roland Graeme is discovered to be 
the son of Julian Avenel and Catherine 
Graeme. He married Catherine Seyton, 
a daughter of Lord Seyton, and was 
heir to the barony of Avenel. Mary of 
Scotland is excellently portrayed in this 
novel, and Queen Elizabeth in Kenil- 

Abbotsford Club, limited to 50 
members. It was founded in 1835, for 
the publication (in quarto) of works 
pertaining to Scotch history, antiquities, 
and literature in general. It published 
upwards of 30 volumes. Extinct. 

Abdal-azis, the Moorish governor of 
Spain after the overthrow of king Roderick. 
When the Moor assumed regal state and 
affected Gothic sovereignty, his subjects 
were so offended that they revolted and 
murdered him. He married Egilona, 
formerly the wife of Roderick. Southey : 
Roderick, etc., xxii. (1814). 

Ab'dalaz'iz {Omar ben), a caliph 
raised to " Mahomet's bosom " in reward 
of his great abstinence and self-denial. 
Herbclot, 690. 

He was by no means scnipulous ; nor did he think 
with tlie caliph Omar ben Abdalaziz that it was ncces- 
sarj' to make a hell of this world to enjoy paradise in 
the next. /f. Beckford : yathck{l^^). 

Abdal'dar, one of the magicians in 
the Domdaniel caverns. These spirits 
were destined to be destroyed by one 
of the race of Hodei'rah (3 syl.), so 
they persecuted the race even to death. 

Only one survived, named Thalaba, and 
Abdaldar was appointed by lot to find 
him out and kill him. He discovered 
the stripling in an Arab's tent, and 
while in prayer was about to stab him 
to the heart, when the angel of death 
breathed on the would-be murderer, and 
he fell dead with the dagger in his hand. 
Thalaba drew from the magician's finger 
a ring which gave him command over 
the spirits. Southey: Thalaba the De- 
stroyer, {[., 24 (1797). 

Abdalla, one of sir Brian de Bois 
Gilbert's slaves. -Szr W. Scott : Ivanhoe 
(time, Richard I.). 

Abdallah, brother and predecessor of 
Giaf'fer (2 syl.), pacha of Aby'dos. He 
was murdered by the pacha. Byron : 
Bride of Abydos. 

Abdallah el Hadgi, Saladin's en- 
voy. 5/r W. Scott: The Talisman 
(time, Richard I.). 

Abdals or Santons, a class of re- 
ligionists who pretend to be inspired 
with the most ravishing raptures of 
divine love. Regarded with great vene- 
ration by the vulgar. Olearius, i. 971. 

Abde'rian Laug-bter, scoffing 
laughter, so called from Abdera, the 
birthplace of Democ'ritus, the scoffing or 
laughing philosopher. 

Ab'diel, the faithful seraph who with- 
stood Satan when urged to revolt. 

. . . the seraph Abdiel, faithful found 
Among the faithless ; faithful only lie 
Among innumerable false ; unmoved, 
Unshaken, unseduced. unterrified, 
liis loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal. 
Milton : Paradise Lost, v. 896, etc. (1663). 

Abel Shufllebottom, the name 
assumed by Robert Southey in some 
amatory poems published in 1799, 

Abelliuo, the hero of ' ' Monk " 
Lewis's story, called the Bravo of 
Venice. He appears sometimes as a 
beggar, and sometimes as a bandit, 
Abellino falls in love with the niece of 
the doge of Venice, and marries her. 

Abensberg {Count), the father of 
thirty-two children. When Henirich II. 
made his progress through Germany, and 
other courtiers presented their offerings, 
the count brought forward his thirty-two 
children, " as the most valuable offering 
he could make to his king and country." 

J Cornelia, the daughter of Scipio Africanus, is 
credited with similar sentiment. When a Campanian 
lady boasted in her presence of her magnificent 
jewels, Cornelia sent for her two sons, and said, 
" These are my jewels." 


Aberdeen Philosophical Society, 

instituted 1840. 

Abes'sa, the impersonation of abbeys 
and convents in Spenser's Faerie Qucene, 
i. 3. She is the paramour of Kirk- 
rapine, who used to rob churches and 
poor-boxes, and brin^ his plunder to 
Abessa, daughter of Corceca {blindness 
of heart). 

Abif {Hiram), one of the three 
grand-masters of Freemasonry. The 
other two were Solomon and Hiram of 
Tyre. Hiram, like Pharaoh, is a dynastic 
name, and means Jioble ; and ab of Abif 
means " father ; " ab-i means " my 
father " (see i Kings vii. 13 ; 2 Chron. 
ii. 12-14). 

Ahney, called Young Abney, the 
friend of colonel Albert Lee, a royalist. 
Sir IV. Scoii : Woodstock (time, the Com- 

Abou Hassan, a young merchant of 
Bagdad, and hero of the tale called " The 
Sleeper Awakened," in the Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments. While Abou 
Hassan is asleep he is conveyed to the 
palace of Haroun-al-Raschid, and the 
attendants are ordered to do everything 
they can to make him fancy himself the 
caliph. He subsequently becomes the 
caliph's chief favourite. 

^ Shakespeare, in the induction of 
Taming of the Shreiv, befools "Chris- 
topher Sly" in a similar way, but Sly 
thinks it was "nothing but a dream." 

% Philippe le Don, duke of Burgundy, 
on his marriage with Eleonora, tried the 
same trick. Burton : Anatomy of Melan- 
choly, ii. 2, 4. 

Abra, the most beloved of Solomon's 

Fruits their odour lost and meats their taste, 
If gentle Abra had not decked the feast ; 
Dishonoured did the sparldingf g-oblet stand. 
Unless received from gentle Abra's hand ; . . . 
Nor could my soul approve the music's tone 
Till all was hushed, and Abra sang alone. 

M. Prior : Solojnon (1664-1721). 
*. Solomon had above 1000 concubines, from among 

the Moabites, Ammonites, Sidonians, and Hittites. 

Tlie mother of Rehoboam, his successor, was Naumah, 

an Ammonitess (i Kui^s xiv. 20, 21). 

Ab'radas, the great Macedonian 

Abradas, the great Macedonian pirat, thought every 
one had a letter of mart that bare sayles in the ocean. 
Greene : Pendo/ie's IVeb (1601). 

Abraham, calling his wife " sister " 
[Gen. xii. 11). The special correspondent 
o{\h^ Standard, writing from Afghanistan 
(March 12, 1888), says, " If a Mahometan's 
scruples are overcome to such an extent 

that Ije will permit a Christian physician 
to treat his wife, he will call her his 
" sister." 

ATiraham's Offeringf {Gen. xxii.). 
Abraham at the command of God laid his 
only son Isaac upon an altar to sacrifice 
him to Jehovah, when his hand was stayed 
and a ram substituted for Isaac. 

^ So Agamemnon at Aulis was about 
to offer up his daughter Iphigeni'a at the 
command of ArtSmis {Diana), when 
Artemis carried her off in a cloud and 
substituted a stag instead. 

. This ram was one of the to ani-nals taken to 
heaven, according to Mahomet's teaching. 

Abroc'omas, the lover of An'thia in 
the Greek romance called De Amoribus 
Anthice et Abrocomce, by Xenophon of 
Ephesus (not the historian). 

Absalom. The general idea is that 
Absalom, fleeing through a wood, was 
caught by the hair of his head on the 
bough of a tree, and thus met his death ; 
but the Bible says (2 Sam. xviii. 9), 
' ' Absalom rode upon a mule, and the 
mule went under the thick boughs of a 
great oak, and his head caught hold of 
the oak, and he was taken up between the 
heaven and the earth." Apparently his 
chin was caught by a branch of the oak, 
and the mule ran off. There is nothing 
said about his hair getting entangled in the 
oak. Yet every one knows the doggerel' 

Oh Absalom, oh Absalom, my son, my son, 
Hadst thou but worn a periwig, thou hadst not beea 
undone 1 

Daviifs Latnentfor his Son Absalom. 

Ab'salom, in Dryden's Absalom afid 
Achit'ophel, is meant for the duke of 
Monmouth, natural son of Charles IT. 
{David). Like Absalom, the duke was 
handsome ; like Absalom, he was loved 
and rebellious ; and, like Absalom, his 
rebellion ended in his death (1649-1685). 

Absalom and Achit'ophel, the 

best political satire in the language, by 
Dry den, in about 1000 lines of heroic 
verse, in rhymes. The general scheme 
is to show the rebellious character of the 
puritans, who insisted on the exclusion of 
the duke of York from the succession, 
on account of his being a pronounced 
catholic, and the determination of the 
king to resist this interference with his 
royal prerogative, even at the cost of a 
civil war. 

The great difficulty was where to find 
a substitute. Charles II. had no legal 
male offspring, and, though he had several 
natural sons, the duke of Monmouth was 



the only one who was the idol rf)f the 
people. So the earl of Shaftesbury 
(Achitophel), an out-and-out protestant, 
used every effort to induce Monmouth 
(Adsalom) to compel the king {David) to 
set aside the duke of York. Shaftesbury 
says, ' ' Once get the person of the king into 
your hands, and you may compel him to 
yield to the people's wishes." Monmouth 
is over-persuaded to take up the cause 
" of the redress of grievances," and soon 
has a large following, amongst whom is 
Thomas Thynne {/ssac/iar), a very wealthy 
man, who supplies the duke with ready 
money. When the rebellion grew formid- 
able, the king called his councillors to 
meet him at Oxford, and told them he 
was resolved to defend his prerogatives 
by force of arms, and thus the poem ends. 
. ' A reply in verse, entitled Azaria 
andHushai [q.v.), was written by Samuel 

Mr. Tate has written a second part, which not only 
destroys the unity of the poem, but is of very small 

. The poem begins with a statement that Charles 11. 
{David) had many natural sons, but only Monmouth 
, \Abialom) had any chance of being his successor. He 
tiien remarks that no sort of government would satisfy 
puritans. They had tried several, but all had failed to 
please them. On the puritans' side was the earl of 
Shaftesbury (Achitophet), Titus Gates [Corah), and 
many others. On the king's side advocates of the 
" right divine," were the archbishop of Canterbury 
(Zadoc), the bishop of London (Sa^an), the bishop of 
Rochester and dean of Westmmster, the earl of 
Mulgrave (AbdieD, Sir George Savile (Jotham), Hyde 
Iffushai), Sir Edward Seymour {Amiel), and many 
more. Charles H. is called David; London, Jerusakin; 
catholics, yebusites; puritans, ye7us. France is called 
^gypt; Us king, Pharaoh; and Holland is called Tyre. 

Ab'solon, a priggish parish clerk in 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. His hair 
was curled, his shoes slashed, his hose 
red. He could let blood, cut hair, and 
shave, could dance, and play either on 
the ribible or the gittern. This gay spark 
paid his addresses to Mistress Alison, the 
young wife of John, a wealthy aged car- 
penter ; but Alison herself loved a poor 
scholar named Nicholas, a lodger in the 
house. 7'/i Millers Tale (1388). 

Absolute {Sir Anthony), a testy, but 
warm-hearted old gentleman, who ima- 
gines that he possesses a most angelic 
temper; and when he quarrels with his 
son, the captain, fancies it is the son who 
is out of temper, and not himself. Smol- 
lett's "Matthew Bramble" evidently 
suggested this character. William Dowton 
(1764-1851) was the best actor of this 

Captain Absolute, son of sir Anthony, in 
love with I^ydia Languish, the heiress, to 
whom he is known only as ensign Bever- 

ley. Bob Acres, his neighbour, is his 
rival, and sends a challenge to the un- 
known ensign ; but when he finds that 
ensign Beverley is captain Absolute, he 
declines to fight, and resigns all further 
claim to the lady's hand. Sheridan: 
The Rivals (1775). 

When you saw Jack Palmers in "captain Absolute," 
you thought you could trace his promotion to some 
lady of quality, who fancied the handsome fellow in his 
top-knot, and liad bought him a commission. Charles 

Abu'dah, in the Tales of the Genii, by 
H. Ridley, is a wealthy merchant of Bag- 
dad, who goes in quest of the talisman of 
Oroma'nfis, which he is driven to seek by 
a little old hag, who haunts him every 
night and makes his life wretched. He 
finds at last that the talisman which is to 
free him of this hag {conscience'] is to 
"fear God and keep His command- 

Abu'dali, in the drama called The Siege 
of Damascus, by John Hughes (1720), is 
the next in command to Caled in the 
Arabian army set down before Damascus. 
Though undoubtedly brave, he prefers 
peace to war ; and when, at the death of 
Caled, he succeeds to the chief command, 
he makes peace with the Syrians on 
honourable terms. 

Abydos {Bride of). (See Bride.) 

Acade'mus, an Attic hero, whose 
garden was selected by Plato for the place 
of his lectures. Hence his disciples were 
called the "Academic sect." 

The green retreats of Academus. 
Akenside : Pleasures of hnagination- 

Aca'dia {i.e. Nova Scotia), so called 
by the French from the river Shiiben- 
acadie. In 162 1 Acadia was given to 
sir William Alexander, and its name 
changed ; and in 1755 the old French 
settlers were driven into exile by George 
n. Longfellow has made this the subject 
of a poem in hexameter verse, called 
Evan' geline (4 syl). 

Acas'to {Lord), father of Seri'no, 
Casta'lio, and Polydore ; and guardian of 
Moniniia." the orphan." He lived to see 
the death of bis sons and his ward. 
Polydore ran on his brother's sword, Cas- 
talio stabbed himself, and Monimia took 
Y>o\son.Otivay : The Orphan {1680). 

Accidente ! {3 syl.), a curse and oath 
used in France occasionally. 

Accidente I ce qui veut dire en bon frangais : Puise-tu, 
mourir d'accident, sans confession, dSimi\e.Afans, 
About: Tolla (a talej. 



Aces'tes (3 syl.). In a trial of skill 
Acestes, the Sicilian, discharged his arrow 
uith such force that it took fire from the 
friction of the air. Fir^il: yEneid, v. 

Like Acestes' shaft of old. 
The swift tliought kindles as it flics. 

Lon^J'eUoTU : To a Child. 

Achates [A-ka'-Ute\, called by Virgil 
" fidus Achates." The name has become 
a synonym for a bosom friend, a crony, 
but is generally used laughingly. 

He, like Achates, faithful to the tomb, 

Byron : Don yuan, L 155. 

Acher'ia, the fox, went partnership 
with a bear in a bowl of milk. Before 
the bear arrived, the fox skimmed off the 
cream and drank the milk ; then, filling 
the bowl with mud, replaced the cream 
atop. Says the fox, " Here is the bowl ; 
one shall have the cream, and the other 
all the rest : choose, friend, which you 
like." The bear told the fox to take the 
cream, and thus bruin had only the mud. 
A Basque Tale. 

^ A similar tale occurs in Campbell's 
Popular Tales of the IVesi Highlands 
(\\\. 98), called "The Keg of Butter." 
The wolf chooses the bottom when " oats " 
were the object of choice, and the top 
when " potatoes" were the sowing. 

*ir Rabelais tells the same tale about a 
farmer and the devil. Each was to have 
on alternate years what grew under and 
over the soil. The farmer sowed turnips 
and carrots when the undersoil produce 
came to his lot, and barley or wheat when 
his turn was the over-soil produce. 

Aclieron, the " River of Grief," and 
one of the five rivers of hell ; hell itself. 
^Greek, axorpeo*, "I flow with grief.") 

Sad Acheron of sorrow, black and deep. 

Milton: Paradise Lost, ii. 578 (1663). 

Acliil'les (3 syl.^, the hero of the 
allied Greek army in the siege of Troy, 
and king of the Myr'midons. (See Dic- 
tionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 10.) 

The English Achilles, John Talbot, 
first earl of Shrewsbury (1373-1453). 

The duke of Wellington is so called 
sometimes, and is represented by a statue 
of Achilles of gigantic size in Hyde 
Park, London, close to Apsley House 

The Achilles of Germany, Albert, elec- 
tor of Brandenburg (1414-1486). 

Achilles of Rome, Sicin'ius Denta'tus 
^put to death B.C. 450). 

AcWUes' Heel, the vulnerable part. 
It is said that when Thetis dipped her 
son in the river Styx to make him in- 

vulnerable, she held him by the heel, and 
the part covered by her hand was the 
only part not washed by the water. This 
is a post-Homeric story. 

[Hanover] is tho Achilles' heel to Invulnerable Enff- 


(Sometimes Ireland is called the Achil- 
les' heel of England.) 

^ Similarly, the only vulnerable part 
of Orlando was the sole of his foot, and 
hence when Bernardo del Carpio assailed 
him at RoncesvallGs, and found that he 
could not wound him, he lifted him up in 
his arms and squeezed him to death, as 
Hercules did Antce'os. 

Acliilles' Spear. (See Spear of. . .) 

Achit'ophel, " Him who drew Achit'- 
ophel," Dryden, author of the famous 
political satire oi Absalom and Achitophel. 
"David" is Charles XL; his rebellious 
son "Absalom " is the king's natural son 
by Lucy Waters, the handsome but rebel- 
lious James duke of Monmouth ; and 
"Achitophel" is the carl of Shaftesbury, 
" for close designs and crooked counsels 
fit" (1621-1683). 

Can sneer at him who drew Achitophel. 

Byron : Don yuan, iii. too. 
There is a portrait of the first earl of Shaftesbury 
(Dryden's " Achitophel ") as lord chancellor of Englanci, 
clad in ash-coloure;l robes, because he had never been 
called to the bar. . Yates: Celebrities, xviiL 

Acida'lia, a fountain in Bceo'tia, 
sacred to Venus. The Graces used to 
bathe therein. Venus was called Acidalia 
{Virgil: ALneid, i. 720). 

After she weary was 
With bathing: in the Acidalian brook. 

Spenser : Epithalatnion (1595). 

A'cis, a Sicilian shepherd, loved by 
the nymph Galate'a. The monster Poly- 
pheme (3 syl.), a Cyclops, was his rival, 
and crushed him under a huge rock. The 
blood of Acis was changed into a river of 
the same name at the foot of mount Etna. 

. Gay has a serenata called Acis and 
Galatea,^ which was produced at the Hay- 
market in 1732. Music by Handel. 

Not such a pipe, good reader, as that which Acis did 
sweetly tune in praise of his Galatea, but one of true 
Delft manufacture. IV. Irving. 

Ack'land [Sir Thomas), a royalist. 
Sir IV. Scott: Woodstock (time, the 

Ac'oe (3 syl.), "hearing," in the New 
Testament sense {Rom. x. 17), "Faith 
Cometh by hearing." The nurse of Fido 
\faith\ Her daughter is Meditation. 
(Greek, akoS, "hearing.") 

With him [FattK] his nurse went, careful Acoe, 
Whose hands first from his mother's womb did take 
And ever since have fostered tenderly. 

Phin Fletcher: The Purple Island, \x. (1633). 



Acrasla, Intemperance personified. 
Spenser says she is an enchantress Hving 
in the " Bower of Bliss," in " Wandering 
Island." Sbe had the power of trans- 
forming her lovers into monstrous shapes ; 
but sir Guyon [icmperance], having caught 
her in a net and bound her, broke down 
her bower and burnt it to ashes. /^amV 
Quecne, ii. 12 (1590). 

Ac'rates (3 syL), Incontinence per- 
sonified in The Purple Island, by Phineas 
Fletcher. He had two sons (twins) by 
Caro, viz. Methos {drunkc?iness) and 
Gluttony, both fully described in canto 
vii. [Gretk, akrd/es, "incontinent.") 

Acrafes {3 syl.), Incontinence per- 
sonified in 7%e Faerie Queene, by Spenser. 
He is the father of Cymoch'les and 
Pyroch'lcs. Bk. ii. 4 (1590). 

Acres (Boi), a country gentleman, the 
rival of ensign Beverley, alias captain 
Absolute, for the hand and heart of Lydia 
Languish, the heiress. He tries to ape 
the man of fashion, gets himself up as a 
loud swell, and uses " sentimental oaths," 
i.e. oaths bearing on the subject. Thus 
if duels are spoken of he says, ods triggers 
and flints ; if clothes, ods frogs a fid tam- 
bours ; if music, ods minnums [minims] 
and crotchets ; if ladies, ods Mushes and 
blooms. This he learnt from a militia 
officer, who told him the ancients swore 
by Jove, Bacchus, Mars, Venus, Minerva, 
etc., according to the sentiment. Bob 
Acres is a great blusterer, and talks big 
of his daring, but when put to the push 
"his courage always oozed out of his 
fingers' ends." J. Quick was the original 
Bob Acres. Sheridan : The Rivals { 1775 ). 

As thro' his palms Bob Acres' valour oozed, 
So Juan's virtue ebbed, I know not how. 

Byron : Don yuan, 

Acris'ins, father of Dan'ag. An 
oracle declared that Danae would give 
birth to a son who would kill him, so 
Acrisius kept his daughter shut up in an 
apartment under ground, or (as some say) 
in a brazen tower. Here she became the 
mother of Per'seus {'zsyl.), by Jupiter in 
the form of a shower of gold. The king 
of Argos now ordered his daughter and 
her infant to be put into a chest, and cast 
adrift on the sea, but they were rescued 
by Dictys, a fisherman. When grown to 
manhood, Perseus accidentally struck the 
foot of Acrisius with a quoit, and the 
blow caused his death. This tale is told 
by Mr. Morris in The Earthly Paradise 

Actse'on, a hunter, changed by Diana 
into a stag. A synonym for a cuckold. 

Divulge Pa^e himself for a secure and wilful Actaeon 

[cuckold]. ' 

Shakespeare : Merry Wives, etc., act iii. sc. 2 (1596). 

Acte'a, a female slave faithful to Nero 
in his fall. It was this hetsera w^ho 
wrapped the dead body in cerements, and 
saw it decently interred. 

This Actea was beautiful. She was seated on the 
Efround ; the head of Nero was on her lap, his naked 
body was stretched on those winding--sheets in which 
she was about to fold him, to lay him in his grave upon 
the garden \C\&.Ouida: Ai-iadtie, i. 7. 

Ac'tius Since'rus, the pen-name of 
the Italian poet Sannazaro, called "The 
Christian Virgil" (1458-1530). 

Actors [Female). In 1662 Charles II. 
first licensed women to act women's parts, 
\s hich up to that time had been performed 
by men and boys. 

Whereas the women's parts in plavs have hitherto 
been acted by men in the habits of women, at which 
some have taken offence, we do permit and give leave 
for the time to come, that all women's parts be acted 
by women. 

Actors and Actresses. The last 
male actor that took a woman's character 
on the stage was Edward Kynaston, noted 
for his beauty (1619-1687). The first 
female actor for hire was Mrs. Saunder- 
son, afterwards Mrs, Betterton, who died 
in 1712. 

Acts and Monuments, by John 
Fox, better known as " The Book of 
Martyrs," published in one large vol., 
folio, 1563. It had an immense sale. 
Bishop Burnet says he had "compared 
the book with the records, and had not 
discovered any errors or prevarications, 
but the utmost fidelity and exactness." 
The Catholics call the book " Fox's 
Golden Legends." 

Ad, Ad'ites (2 syl.). Ad is a tribe 
descended from Ad, son of Uz, son of 
Irem, son of Shem, son of Noah, The 
tribe, at the Confusion of Babel, went 
and settled on Al-Ahkaf [the Winding 
Sands'], in the province of Pladramaut. 
Shedad was their fii'st king, but in conse- 
quence of his pride, both he and all the 
tribe perished, either from drought or the 
Sarsar [an icy wind). Sale's Koran, i. 

Woe, woe, to Irem I Woe to Ad I 
Death is gone up into her palaces 1 
They fell around me. Thousands fell around. 

The king and all his people fell ; 

All, all, they perished all. 
Southey : Thalaba the Destroyer, \. 41, 43 (1797). 

A'dah, wife of Cain. After Cain had 
been conducted by Lucifer through the 
realms of space, he is restored to the home 
of his wife and child, where all is beauty, 



gentleness, and love. Full of faith and 
fervent in gratitude, Adah loves her infant 
with a sublime eternal affection. She 
sees him sleeping, and says to Cain- 
How lovely he appears 1 His little cheek* 
In their pure incarnation, vying with 
The rose loaves strewn beneath them. 
And his lips, too. 

How beautifully parted I No ; you shall not 
Kiss him ; at least not now. He will awake soon 
His hour of midday rest is nearly over. 

Byron : Cain. 

'.' According to Arabic tradition, Adah 
was buried at Aboucais, a mountain in 

ADAM. In Greek this word is com- 
pounded of the four initial letters of the 
ciudinal quarters : 

Arktos, apKTot north. 

Dusis, duatt , west. 

Anatole, ii/aroXi'; . east. 

Mesembria, necnjiJi/Spia south. 

The Hebrew word ADM forms the ana- 
gram of A[dam], D[avid], M[essiah]. 

Ada fit, how made. God created the 
body of Adam oi Salzal, i.e. dry, unbaked 
clay, and left it forty nights without a 
souL The clay was collected by Azarael 
from the four quarters of the earth, and 
God, to show His approval of Azarael's 
choice, constituted him the angel of 
death. Rabada7t. 

Adam, Eve, and the Serpent. After 
the fall Adam was placed on mount 
Vassem in the east ; Eve was banished 
to Djidda (now Gedda, on the Arabian 
coast) ; and the Serpent was exiled to the 
coast of Eblehh. 

After the lapse of loo years Adam 
rejoined Eve on mount Arafaith [place of 
retnembrance], near Mecca. D'Ohsson. 

Death of Adam. Adam died on Friday, 
April 7, at the age of 930 years. Michael 
swathed his body, and Gabriel discharged 
the funeral rites. The body was buried 
at Ghar'ul-Kenz \the grotto of treasure], 
which overlooks Mecca. 

His descendants at death amounted to 
40,000 souls. D'Ohsson. 

When Noah entered the ark (the same writer says) 
he took the body of Adam in a coffin with him, and. 
when he left the ark, restored it to the place he had 
taken it from. 

Adam, a bailiff, a jailor. 

Not that Adam that kept the paradise, but that 
Adam that keeps the prison. Shakcspeart : Coi/udy 
0/ Errors, act iv. sc. 3 (1593). 

Adam, a faithful retainer in the family 
of sir Rowland de Boys. At the age of 
four score, he voluntarily accompanied 
his young master Orlando into exile, and 
offered to give him his httle savings. He 

lias given birth to the phrase, "A faithful 
Adam" [or man-servant], Shakespeare: 
As You Like It {is9^). 
Adam Bede. (See Bede.) 
Adam. Bell, a northern outlaw, noted 
for his archery. The name, like those of 
Clym of the Clough, William of Cloudes- 
ley, Robin Hood, and Little John, is 
synonymous with a good archer. or Adamant, the mineral 
called corun'dum, and sometimes the 
diamond, one of the hardest substances 

Alhrecht was as firm as A.Aamas.Schmidt : German 
History (translated). 

Adam.astor, the Spirit of the Cape. 
(See Spirit. . .) Camoens: The Lusiad, 
V. (1569). 

Adam'ida, a planet, on which reside 
the unborn spirits of saints, martyrs, and 
behevers. U'riel, the angel of the sun, 
was ordered at the crucifixion to interpose 
this planet between the sun and the earth, 
so as to produce a total eclipse. 

Adamida, in obedience to the divine command, flew 
amidst overwhelming storms, rushing clouds, falling 
mountains, and swelling seas. Uriel stood on the pole 
of the star, but so lost in deep contemplation on 
Golgotha, that he heard not the wild uproar. On 
coming to the region of the sun, Adamida slackened 
her course, and advancing before the sun, covered its 
face and intercepted all its tz.y^Kloi>stock : The 
Messiah, viii. (1771). 

ADAMS {John), one of the mutineers 
of the ^(/aw^y (1790), who settled in Tahiti. 
In 1814 he was discovered as the patriarch 
of a colony, brought up with a high sense 
of religion and strict regard to morals. 
In 1839 the colony was voluntarily placed 
under the protection of the British Govern- 

Adam.S {Parson), tlie beau-ideal of a 
simple-minded, benevolent, but eccentric 
country clergyman, of unswerving in- 
tegrity, solid learning, and genuine piety ; 
bold as a lion in the cause of truth, but 
modest as a girl in all personal matters ; 
wholly ignorant of the world, being "in 
it but not of it." Fielding: Joseph An- 
drexus (1742). 

His learning, his simplicity, his evangelical purity of 
mind, are so admirably mingled with pedantry, absence 
of mind, and the habit of athletic . . . exercises . . . 
that he may be safely termed one of the richest pro- 
ductions of the muse of fiction. Like don Quixote, 
parson Adams is beaten a little too much and too often, 
but the cudgel lights upon his slioulders . . . without 
the slightest stain to his reputation.^i> ly. Scott. 

'.' The Rev. W. Young, editor of 
"Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary," is said 
to have been the original of Fielding's 
" Parson Adams." 

Adams {The Narrative of Robert), 



who was wrecked in 1810 on the west 
coast of Africa, and kept in slavery for 
3 years. This * ' marvellous but authentic " 
narrative was pubhshed in 18 16. 

Adder [Deaf). It is said in fable that 
the adder, to prevent hearing the voice of 
a charmer, lays one ear on the ground 
and sticks his tail into the other. 

. . . -when man wolde him enchante, 
He leyeth downe one eare all flat 
Unto the grounde, and halt it fast ; 
And eke that other eare als faste 
He stoppeth with his taille so sore 
That he the wordes, lasse or more. 
Of his echantement ne hereth. 
Cower: De Confessione Amantis, i. x. (1482). 

Adder's Tongue, that is, oph'io- 
l-or them that are with [by] newts, or snakes, or adders 

He seeketh out an herb that's callfed adder's tongue. 
Drayton : Polyolbion, xiii. {1613). 

Addison [Joseph), poet and satirist 
(1672-1719), editor of the Spectator, and 
author of '^Cato, a tragedy, which preserves 
the French Unities. His style has been 
greatly lauded, but it is too artificial and 
too Latinized to be a model of English 

Whoever wishes to attain an English style, familiar 
but not coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, must 
give his days and nights to the study of Addison. 
Dr. jfohnsoH. 

'.' Dr. Johnson himself was far too 
artificial and Latinized to be an authority 
on such a matter. 

Never, not even by Dryden, not even by Temple, 
had the English language been written with such 
sweetness, grace, and facility. Macatclay. 

',' This certainly is not modern opinion. 

Addison of the North, Henry Mackenzie, 
author of The Man of Feeling {174^-1831). 

The Spanish Addison, Benedict Jerome 
Feyjoo {1701-1764). 

Adelaide, daughter of the count of 
Narbonne, in love with Theodore. She 
is killed by her father in mistake for 
another. Robert Jephson: Count of Nar- 
bonne (1782). 

Adeline [Lady), the wife of lord 
Henry Amun'deville (4 syL), a highly 
educated aristocratic lady, with all the 
virtues and weaknesses of the upper ten. 
After the parliamentary sessions this 
noble pair filled their house with guests, 
amongst which were the duchess of Fitz- 

Fulke, the duke of D , Aurora Raby, 

and don Juan "the Russian envoy." 
The tale not being finished, no sequel to 
these names is given. (For the lady's 
character, see xiv, 54-56.) Bryon: Don 
Juan, xii. to the end. 

Ad'emar or Adema'ro, archbishop 
of Poggio, an ecclesiastical warrior in 

Tusso's Jerusalem Delivered. (See Dic- 
tionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 14.) 

Adic'ia, wife of the soldan, who in- 
cites him to distress the kingdom of 
Mercilla. When Mercilla sends her 
ambassador, Samient, to negotiate peace, 
Adicia, in violation of international law, 
thrusts her [Samient] out of doors hke a 
dog, and sets two knights upon her. Sir 
Ar'tegal comes to her rescue, attacks the 
two knights, and knocks one of them 
from his saddle with such force that he 
breaks his neck. After the discomfiture 
of the soldan, Adicia rushes forth with a 
knife to stab Samient, but, being inter- 
cepted by sir Artcgal, is changed into a 
tigress. Spenier : Faerie Queene, v. 8 

(The "soldan" is king Philip IL of 
Spain; "Mercilla" is queen Elizabeth; 
"Adicia" is Injustice personified, or the 
bigotry of popery; and "Samient" the 
ambassadors of Holland, who went to 
Philip for redress of grievances, and 
were most iniquitously detained by him 
as prisoners. ) 

Ad'icus, Unrighteousness personified 
in canto vii. of The Purple Island (1633), 
by Phineas Fletcher. He has eight sons 
and daughters, viz. Ec'thros [hatred), 
Eris {variance) a daughter, Zelos [emula- 
tion), Thumos [wrath), Erith'ius [strife), 
Dichos'tasis [sedition). Envy, and Phon'os 

imurdej-) ; all fully described by the poet. 
Greek, adikos, " an unjust man.") 

Adie of Aikenshaw, a neighbour 
of the Glendinnings. 52> W. Scott: The 
Monastery (time, Elizabeth). 

Adme'tus, a king of Thessaly, 
husband of Alcestis. Apollo, being con- 
demned by Jupiter to serve a mortal for 
twelve months for slaying a Cyclops, 
entered the service of Admetus. James 
R. Lowell, of Boston, U.S., has a poem 
on the subject, called The Shepherd of 
King Admetus (1819-1892), 

Ad'miraljle [The)-, (i) Aben-Esra, 
a Spanish rabbin, born at Tole'do (11 19- 
1174). {2) James Crichton [Kry-to7i), 
the Scotchman {1551-1573). (3) Roger 
Bacon, called "The Admirable Doctor" 

Admiral Hosier's Crhost. (See 

Adolf, bishop of Cologne, was de- 
voured by mice or rats in 11 12. (See 
Hatto. ) 

Adolplia, daughter of general Klei- 
ner, governor of Pi-ague, and wife of 



Idenstein. Ilcr only fault was "excess 
of too sweet nature, which ever made 
another's grief her own." Knowles: Maid 
of Maricndorjit {1830). 

Ad'ona, a seraph, the tutelar spirit 
of James, the "first martyr of the 
twelve." Klopstock: The Messiah, iii. 

Adon-Ai, the spirit of love and beauty; 
in lord Lytton's Zaiioni {q.v.). 

Adonais, an elegy by Percy Bysshe 
Shelley on John Keats (1821). As he 
was born in 1796, he was about 25 at his 
death. The Quarterly Revicxu attacked 
his Endymion, and Byron, who had no 
love for Reviewers, says this hastened his 

John Keats, who was killed by one critique. 
Just as he really promised something great, 

Ifnot intelligible without Greek, 
Contrived to talk about the gods of late, . . . 
Poor fellow, his was an untoward fate ; 

*Tis strange the mind, that very fiery particle. 

Should let itself be snuffed out by an article. 

Bryon : Don jfuan. 

*. Keats left behind 3 vols, of poems, 
much admired. 

A'donbec el Kakim, the physician, 
a disguise assumed by Saladin, who visits 
sir Kenneth's sick squire, and cures him 
of a fever. Sir IV. Scott: The Talisman 
(time, Richard I. ). 

Ado'nis, a beautiful youth, beloved 
by Venus and Proser'pina, who quarrelled 
about the possession of him. Jupiter, to 
settle the dispute, decided that the boy 
should spend six months with Venus in 
the upper world, and six with Proserpina 
in the lower. Adonis was gored to death 
by a wild boar in a hunt. 

Shakespeare has a poem called Verius 
and Adonis. Shelley calls his elegy on the 
poet Keats Adona'is, under the idea that 
the untimely death of Keats resembled 
that of Adonis. George IV. was called 
by Hunt " The fat Adonis of 50." 

{Adonis is an allegory of the sun, which 
is six months north of the horizon, and 
six months south. Thammiiz is the same 
as Adonis, and so is Osiris.) 

Ado'nis Plower, the pheasant's eye 
or red maithes, called in French goute de 
sang, and said to have sprung from the 
blood of Adonis, who was killed by a 
wild boar. 

O fleur, si chfere k Cyth^rde, 
Ta corolle fut, en naissant, 
Du sang d'Adonis colorde. 


Adonis's Garden. It is said that 
Adonis delighted in gardens, and had a 

ningnificcnt one. Pliny says (xix. 4), 
" Antiquitas nihil prius mirata est quani 
IIe.;peridum hortos, ac rcgum Adonidis 
et Alcinoi." 

An Adonis' garden, a very short-lived 
pleasure ; a temporary garden of cut 
flowers ; an horticultural or floricultural 
show. The allusion is to the fennel and 
lettuce jars of the ancient Greeks, called 
"Adonis' gardens," because these plants 
were reared for the annual festival of 
Adonis, and were thrown away when the 
festival was over. 

How shall I honour thee for this success? 
Thy promises are like Adonis' gardens. 
That one day bloom'd, and fruitful were the next. 
Shaiesj>eare , i Henry VI. act L sc. 6 (1589). 

Ad'oram, a seraph, who had charge of 
James the son of Alphe'us. Klopstock: 
The Messiah, iii. (1748). 

Adosinda, daughter of the Gothic 
governor of Auria, in Spain. The Moors 
having slaughtered her parents, husband, 
and child, preserved her alive for the 
captain of Alcahman's regiment. She 
went to his tent without the least resis- 
tance, but implored the captain to give 
her one night to mourn the death of those 
so near and dear to her. To this he 
complied, but during sleep she murdered 
him with his own scimitar. Roderick, 
disguised as a monk, helped her to bury 
the dead bodies of her house, and then 
she vowed to live for only one object, 
vengeance. In the great battle, when the 
Moors were overthrown, she it was who 
gave the word of attack, "Victory and 
Vengeance 1 " Southey : Roderick ^ etc., 
iii. {1814). 

Adraan'elecli [ch=k), one of the fallen 
angels. Milton makes him overthrown 
by U'riel and Raphael [Paradise Lost, vi, 
365). According to Scripture, he was one 
of the idols of Sepharvaim, and Shal- 
raane'ser introduced his worship into 
Samaria. [The word means ' ' the mighty 
magnificent king."] 

The Sepharvites burnt their children in the fire to 
Adramelech. 2 Kings xviL 31. 

Klopstock introduces him into The 
Messiah, and represents him as surpassing 
Satan in malice and guile, ambition and 
mischief. He is made to hate every one, 
even Satan, of whose rank he is jealous ; 
and whom he hoped to overthrow, that by 
putting an end to his servitude he might 
become the supreme god of all the created 
worlds. At the crucifixion he and Satan 
are both driven back to hell by Obad'don, 
the angel of death. 



Adraste' (s-y/.), a French gentleman, 
who enveigles a Greek slave named Isi- 
dore from don Pedre. His plan is this : He 
gets introduced as a portrait-painter, and 
thus imparts to Isidore his love and 
obtains her consent to elope with him. 
He then sends his slave Zaide (2 syL) to 
don P^dre, to crave protection for ill 
treatment, and P^dre promises to befriend 
her. At this moment Adraste appears, 
and demands that Zaide be given up to 
him to punish as he thinks proper. 
Pedre intercedes ; Adraste seems to relent ; 
and P6dre calls for Zaide. Out comes 
Isidore instead, with Zaide's veil. 
" There," says Pedre, " take her and use 
her well." "I will do so," says the 
Frenchman, and leads off the Greek 
slave. Molitre: Le Sicilien ou L Amour 
Peintre (1667). 

Adrastus, an Indian prince from 
the banks of the Ganges, who aided the 
king of Egypt against the Crusaders, He 
wore a serpent's skin, and rode on an 
elephant. Adrastus was slain by Rinaldo, 
Tasso: Jemsalem Delivered, bk. xx. 

(Adrastus of Helvetia was in Godfrey's 
army. ) 

Adrastus, king of Argos, the leader 
of the confederate army which besieged 
Thebes in order to place Polynlces on the 
throne usurped by his brother Et66cl6s. 
Statins: The Thebaid. 

The siege of Thebes occurred before the siege of 
Troy; but StAtius lived about a century after Virgil. 
Virgil died B.C. 19 ; Statius died A.D. 96. 

A'dxria, the Adriatic. 

Fled over Adria to the Hesperian fields {Italy\ 
Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 520 (1665). 

Adrian'a, a wealthy Ephesian lady, 
who marries Antiph'olus, twin-brother of 
Antipholus of Syracuse. The abbess 
Emilia is her mother-in-law, but she 
knows it not ; and one day when she 
accuses her husband of infidelity, she 
says to the abbess, if he is unfaithful it 
is not from want of remonstrance, " for 
it is the one subject of our conversation. 
In bed I will not let him sleep for speak- 
ing of it ; at table I will not let him eat 
for speaking of it ; when alone with him 
I talk of nothing else, and in company I 
give him frequent hints of it. In a word, 
all my talk is how vile and bad it is in 
him to love another better than he loves 
his wife" {act v, sc, \). Shakespeare : 
Comedy of Errors (1593). 

Adria'no de Arma'do {Don), a 
pompous, fantastical Spaniard, a military 
braggart in a state of peace, as Parolles 

(3 -y'^-) was in war. Boastful but poor, 
a coiner of words but very ignorant, 
solemnly grave but ridiculously awkward, 
majestical in gait but of very low pro- 
pensities. Shakespeare : Love's Labour's 
Lost (1594). 

(Said to be designed for John Florio, 
surnamed " The Resolute," a philologist. 
Holofernes, the pedantic schoolmaster, in 
the same play, is also meant in ridicule of 
the same lexicographer.) 

Adriat'ic wedded to the Doge. The 
ceremony of wedding the Adriatic to the 
doge of Venice was instituted in 1174 by 
pope Alexander III., who gave the doge a 
gold ring from his own finger in token 
of the victory achieved by the Venetian 
fleet at Istria over Frederick Barbarossa, 
The pope, in giving the ring, desired the 
doge to throw a similar one into the sea 
every year on Ascension Day in comme- 
moration of this event. The doge's 
brigantine was called Bucentaur. 

You may remember, scarce five years are past 
Since in your brigantine you sailed to see 
The Adriatic wedded to our duke. 

Otway : Venice Preserved, I. i (1682). 

Ad'riel, in Dryden's Absalom and 
Achifophel, the earl of Mulgrave, a 

Sharp-judging Adriel, the Muses' friend; 
Himself a muse. In sanhedrim's debate 
True to his prince, but not a slave to state ; 
Whom David's love with honours did adorn. 
That from his disobedient son were torn. 

Part i. 838, etc 

(John Sheffield, earl of Mulgrave (1649- 
172 1), wrote an Essay on Poetry.) 

Adventures of Philip, " on his 

way through the world, showing who 
robbed him, who helped him, and who 
passed him by," A novel by Thackeray 
(i860). Probably suggested by Lesage's 
Gil Bias. 

.S'acas, king of CEno'pia, a man of 
such integrity and piety, that he was 
made at death one of the three judges of 
hell. The other two were Minos and 
Rhadaman'thus. \ 

JEg'e'on, a huge monster with 100 
anns and 50 heads, who with his brothers, 
Cottus and Gyges, conquered the Titans 
by hurling at them 300 rocks at once. 
Homer says men call him " .^ge'on," but 
by the gods he is called Bri'areus (3 syl. ). 

(Milton accents the word on the first 
syllable, and so does Fairfax in his 
translation of Tasso. See Paradise Lost, 
i. 746,) 

Where on the >Cgean shore a city stands. 

Milton : Paradise Regained, iv. 23^ 



(And again in Paradise Lost, bk. i. 

O er iCgcon sens througli many a Greekish hold. 
I'air/ax: Tasso, canto i, stanza 60. 

N.B. Undoubtedly theword is^geon. 
Some insist on calling Virgil's epic the 

JEge'on, a merchant of Syracuse, in 
Shakespeare's Comedy 0/ Errors (1593). 

JBg^i'na, a rocky island in the Saronic 
gulf. It was near this island that the 
Athenians won the famous naval battle of 
Sal'amis over the fleet of Xerxes, B.C. 
480. The Athenian prows were decorated 
with a figure-head of Athe'nfi or Minerva. 

And of old 
Rejoiced the virgin from the brazen prow 
Of Athens o'er /Hgina's gloomy surge 
. . . o'erwhelraiiig all the Persian promised glory. 
Akenside : Hymn to ihi Naiads. 

ZEgyptian Thief ( The), who " at 
the point of death killed what he loved." 
This was Thyimis of Memphis, captain 
of a band of robbers. He fell in love 
with Chariclea, a captive ; but, being 
surprised by a stronger band, and de- 
spairing of life, he slew her, that she might 
be his companion in the world of shadows. 
Heliodorus : Ethiopics. 

( Referred to by Shakespeare in Twelfth 
Night, act V, sc. i.) 

2:'lia Lee'lia [Crispis], an inex- 
plicable riddle, so called from an in- 
scription in Latin, preserved in Bologna, 
which may be rendered thus into English : 

Neither nian, nor woman, nor androgyne ; 

Neither girl, nor boy, nor eld ; 
Neither harlot nor virgin ; 
But all [of these]. 

Carried off neither by hunger, nor sword, nor poison ; 

But by all [of them]. 
Neither in heaven, nor in the water, nor in the earlh ; 

But biding everywhere. 


Neither the husband, nor lover, nor friend ; 
Neither grieving, nor rejoicing, nor weeping ; 
But [doing] all [these] 

This neither a pile, nor a pyramid, nor a sepulchre 
That is built, he knows and knows not [which it is]. 

It is a sepulchre containing no corpse within it ; 

It is a corpse with iio sepulchre containing it ; 

But the corpse and the sepulchre are one and the 

It 7vould scarcely ^uide a man to the solution of the 
*'Ailia Lalia Crispis." J. VK Draper. 

iEmelia, a lady of high degree, in love 
with Am'ias, a squire of inferior rank. 
Going to meet her lover at a trysting- 
place, she was caught up by a hideous 
monster, and ihrust into his den for future 
food. Belphoebe (3 syl.) slew " thecaiiiff" 
and released the maid (canto vii.). 

Prince Arthur, having slain Corflambo, 
released Amias from the durance of 
Pjca'na, Corflambo's daughter, and 
brought the lovers together "in peace 
and settled rest" (canto ix.). Spenser: 
Faerie Queene, iv. (1596). 

JESmil'ia, wife of .^ge'on the Syra- 
cusian merchant, and mother of the twins 
called Antiph'olus. When the boys were 
shipwrecked, slie was parted from them 
and taken to Ephesus. Here she entered 
a convent, and rose to be the abbess. 
Without her knowing it, one of her twins 
also settled in Ephesus, and rose to be 
one of its greatest and richest citizens. 
The other son and her husband ^geon 
both set foot in Ephesus the same day 
without the knowledge of eacli other, and 
all met together in the duke's court, when 
the story of their lives was told, and they 
became again united to each other, 
Shakespeare : Comedy of Errors (1593). 

2Snxon'ian Arts, magic, so called 
from ^mou'ia ( Thessaly), noted for magic. 

iEmoniau ( The). Jason was so called 
because his father was king of .^monia. 

2Elne'as, a Trojan prince, the hero of 
Virgil's epic called Aineid. He was the 
son of Anchi'ses and Venus. His first 
wife was Creu'sa (3 syl. ), by whom he had 
a son named Asca'nius ; his second wife 
was Lavinia, daughter of Latinus king of 
Italy, by v/hom he had a posthumous son 
called .^ne'as Sylvius. He succeeded his 
father-in-law in the kingdom, and the 
Romans called him their founder. 

(According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
" Brutus," the first king of Britain (from 
whom the island was called Britain), was 
a descendant of ^neas. Of course this 
is mere fable.) 

^neas, loandering prince of Troy, a 
ballad in Percy's Reliques (bk. ii. 22). 
The tale differs from that of 'Virgil in 
some points. .(Eneas remained in Car- 
thage one day, and then departed. Dido 
slev/ herself " with bloody knife." .^neas 
reached "an ile of Greece, where he 
stayed a long time," when Dido's ghost 
appeared to liim, and reproved him for 
perfidy ; whereupon a ' ' multitude of 
uglye fiends " carried him off, "and no 
man knew his dying day." 

', Virgil says that Dido destroyed 
herself on a funeral pile. 

iEne'id, the epic poem of Virgil, in 
twelve books. When Troy was taken by 
the Greeks and set on fire, ..Ene'as with his 
father, son, and wife, took flight, with the 



Intention of going to Italy, the original 
birthplace of the family. 'The wife was 
lost, and the old father died on the way ; 
but after numerous perils by sea and land, 
--Eneas and his son Asca'nius reached 
Italy. Here Latinus, the reigning king, 
received the exiles hospitably, and pro- 
mised his daughter Lavin'ia in marriage 
to ^neas ; but she had been already 
betrothed by her mother to prince Turnus, 
son of Daunus, king of the Ru'tuli, and 
Turnus would not forego his claim. 
I^tinus, in this dilemma, said the rivals 
must settle the dispute by an appealto 
arms. Turnus being slain, ^neas married 
Lavinia, and ere long succeeded his 
father-in-law on the throne. 

Book I. The escape from Troy ; ^neas 
and his son, driven by a tempest on the 
shores of Carthage, are hospitably enter- 
tained by queen Dido. 

II. .^neas tells Dido the tale of the 
wooden horse, the burning of Troy, and 
his flight with his father, wife, and son. 
The wife was lost and died. 

III. The narrative continued ; he re- 
counts the perils he met with on his way, 
and the death of his father. 

IV. Dido falls in love with ^neas ; 
but he steals away from Carthage, and 
Dido, on a funeral pyre, puts an end to 
her life. 

V. ^neas reaches Sicily, and witnesses 
there the annual games. This book cor- 
responds to the Iliad, xxiii. 

VI. ^Encas visits the infernal regions. 
This book corresponds to Odyssey, xi. 

VII. Latinus king of Italy entertains 
/Eneas, and promises to him Lavin'ia (his 
daughter) in marriage ; but prince Turnus 
had been already betrothed to her by the 
mother, and raises an army to resist 

VIII. Preparations on both sides for a 
general war. 

IX. Turnus, during the absence of 
.(Eneas, fires the ships and assaults the 
camp. The episode of Nisus and Eury'- 
alus. (See Nisus. ) 

X. The war between Turnus and 
/Eneas. Episode of Mezentius and Lau- 
sus. (See Lausus.) 

XI. The battle continued. 

XII. Turnus challenges ^Eneas to 
single combat, and is killed. 

N.B. I. The story of Simon and talcing of Troy Is 
borrowed from Pisandcr, as Macrobius informs us. 

2. The loves of Dido and > are copied from 
hose of Medea and Jason, in ApoUonius. 

3. The story of tlic wooden liorse and the burning 
of Troy are from Arcti'nus of Miletus. 

2i'olus, god of the winds, which he 

kept imprisoned in a cave in the ./Eolian 
Islands, and let free as he wished or as 
the over-gods commanded. 

Was I for this nigh wrecked upon the sea, 
And twice by awkward wind from linjjland's bank 
Drove back again unto my native clime ? . . . 
Yet ^olus would not be a murderer. 
But left that hateful office unto thee. 

Shakespeare : 2 Henry Vl. act v. sc. 2 (1591). 

.2Escula'pius, in Greek Askle'pios, 

the god of healing. 

What says my yEsculapius? my Galen? . . , Ilal is he 

Shakespeare ; Merty IVives of pyiitdsar, act ii. sc. 3 


JE'son, the father of Jason. He was 
restored to youth by Medea, who infused 
into his veins the juice of certain herbs. 

In such a night, 
Medea gather'd the enchanted herbs 
That did renew old /Eson. 
Shakespeare : Merchant oy Venice, act v. sc. i (before 


iEsop, fabulist. His fables in Greek 
prose are said to have been written about 
B.C. 570. .^sop was a slave, and, as he 
was hump-backed, a hump-backed man 
is called "an .<Esop ; " hence the young 
son of Henry VI. calls his uncle Richard 
of Gloucester ".^sop." 3 Henry VI. 
act V. sc. 5. 

. ^sop's fables were first translated into English 
by Caxtou in 1484; they were paraphrased by Jol\n 
Ogilby in 1665, and since then by many others. (See 
L<rwndes : Biographer's Manual.) 

y^sop of Arabia (The), Lokman ; and 
Nassen (fifth century). 

^sa/> of England [The), John Gay 

^sop of France [The), Jean de la 
Fontaine (1621-1695). 

ALsop of Germany ( The), Gotthold 
Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781). 

^sop of India ( The), Bidpay or Pilpay 
(third century B.C.). 

Afer, the south-west wind. Notus is 
the full-south wind. 

Notus and Afer black %vith thund'rous clouds. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, x. 702 (i66sl. 

African Ma.g'ician [The) pretended 
to Aladdin to be his uncle, and sent the 
lad to fetch the " wonderful lamp" from 
an underground cavern. As Aladdin 
refused to hand the lamp to the magician, 
he shut the lad in the cavern, and left 
him there. Aladdin contrived to get out 
of the cavern by virtue of a magic ring, 
and, learning the secret of the lamp, 
became immensely rich, built a superb 
palace, and married the sultan's.daughter. 
Several years after, the African resolved 
to make himself master of the lamp, and 
accordingly walked up and down before 
the palace, crying incessantly, "Who 




will change old lamps for new ? " Aladdin 
being on a hunting excursion, his wife 
sent a eunuch to exchange the " wonder- 
ful lamp " for a new one ; and forthwith 
the magician commanded " the slaves of 
the lamp " to transport the palace and all 
it contained into Africa. Aladdin caused 
him to be poisoned in a draught of 
w'mQ.Arabiajt Nights ("Aladdin, or 
The Wonderful Lamp "). 

Afrit or Afreet, a kind of Medusa 
or Lamia, the most terrible and cruel of 
all the orders of the deevs. Herbclot, 

l-rora the hundred chimneys of the villafre, 

I,ike the Afreet in tlie Arabian story [aiCrodiict. Tale\ 

ijmoky columns tower aloft into the air of amber. 

Lons/eUow ; The CoUUn Mikstou. 

Agagf, in Dryden's satire of Absalom 
and Achit'ophel, is sir Edmondbury 
Godfrey, the magistrate, who was found 
murdered in a ditch near Primrose Ilill. 
Titus Gates, in the same satu-e, is called 

Corah might for Agag's murder call. 

In terms as coarse as Saiuucl used to Saul. 

Part i. 677-78. 

Agamemnon, king of the Argives 
and commander-in-chief of the allied 
Greeks in the siege of Troy. Introduced 
by Shakespeare in his Troilus and Cres'- 

James Thomson, in r738, produced a tragedy so 
called ; but it met witii uu success. 

Vixere ante Agamem' nona fortes, 
* ' There were brave men before Agamem- 
non ; " we are not to suppose that there 
were no great and good men in former 
times. A similar proverb is : " There 
are hills beyond Pentland, and fields 
beyond Forth." 

Agandecca, daughter of Starno king 
of Lochlin [Scandinavia], promised in 
marriage to Fingal king of Morven \north- 
-iucst of Scotland]. The maid told Fingal 
to beware of her father, who had set an 
ambush to kill him. Fingal, being thus 
forewarned, slew the men in ambush ; and 
Starno, in rage, murdered his daughter, 
who was buried by Fingal in Ardven 

The daughter of the snow overheard, and left the hall 
of her secret sigh. She came in all her beauty, like the 
moon from the cloud of the east. Lovelinoss was 
around her as light. Her step was like the music of 
songs. She saw the youth and loved hun. He was 
tlie stolen sigh of her soul. Her blue eyes rolled in 
secret on him, and she blessed the chief of Morven. 
Oisian : Fi7is;al, iiu 

Aganip'pe {4 syl.), Fountain of the 
Muses, at the foot of mount Hel'icon, in 

I'rom Helicon's harmonious springs 

A thousand rills their mazy progress take. 

Gray: Prci^reu <(/ Poetry. 

Ag'ape (3 syl.) the fay. She had three 
sons at a birth, Priamond, Diamond, and 
Triamond. Being anxious to know the 
future lot of her sons, she went to the 
abyss of Demogorgon, to consult the 
"Three Fatal Sisters." Clotho showed 
her the threads, which "were thin as 
those spun by a spider." She begged the 
] ates to lengthen the life-threads, but they 
said this could not be ; they consented, 
however, to this arrangement 

When ye shred with fatal knife 
His line which is the shortest of the three, 
liflsoon his life may pass into the next ; 
And when the next shall likewise ended be. 
That botlt their lives may Ukewise be annext 
Unto the third, that his may be so trebly wext. 
Speiiser ; Falrie Quecne, iv. a (1590J. 

Agapi'da [Fray Antonio), the ima- 
ginary chronicler of 'J he Conquest of 
(Jrana'da, written by Washington Irving 

Ag'aric, a genus of fungi, some of 
which are very nauseous and disgusting. 

That smells as foul-fleshed agaric in the holt [/orest}. 
Tennyson : Careih and Lynetit. 

Agfast'ya (3 syl.), a dwarf who drank 
the sea dry. As he was walking one day 
with Vishnoo, the insolent ocean asked 
the god who the pigmy was that strutted 
by his side. Vishnoo replied it was the 
patriarch Agastya, who was going to 
restore earth to its true balance. Ocean, 
in contempt, spat its spray in the pigmy's 
face, and the sage, in revenge of this 
affront, drank the waters of the ocean, 
leaving the bed quite dry. Maurice. 

Ag'ath.a, daughter of Cuno, and the 
betrothed of Max, in Weber's opera of 
Dcr Freisch iitz. (See Diciicn ary of Phrase 
and Fable, p. 21.) 

Agfath'ocles (4 syl.), tyrant of Sicily, 
lie was the son of a potter, and raised 
himself from the ranks to become general 
of the army. He reduced all Sicily under 
his power. When he attacked the Car- 
thaginians, he burnt his ships, that his 
soldiers might feel assured they must 
either conquer or die. Agathocles died 
of poison administered by his grandson 
(B.C. 361-289). 

(Voltaire has a tragedy called Agathocle, 
and Carohne Pichler has an excellent 
German novel entitled Agathocles.) 

H Julian, the Roman emperor (361-363), 
when he crossed the Tigris, in his war 
against the Persians, burnt his ships; 
but, after many victories, was mortally 
wounded and died. 



A^athon, the hero and title of a 
philosophic romance by C. M. Wieland 
(1733-18 13). This is considered the best 
of his novels, though some prefer his Don 
Sylvio de Rosalva. 

Agatlios, a volume of allegorical 
stories by Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of 
Winchester, published in 1840. 

Agdistes (3 syl), the mystagog of 
the Acrasian bower, or the evil genius 
loci. Spenser sa3's the ancients call 
"Self" the Agdistes of man; and the 
Socratic " daemon " was his Agdistes. 

They in that place him " Genius " did call ; 
Not that celestial power . . . sagfe Antiquity 
Did wisely make, aads-ood Agdistes call ; 
But this . . . was . . . the foe of life. 

S/enser: Faerie Qneene, ii. 12 (1590). 

Agfdis'tis, a genius of human form, 
uniting the two sexes, and born of the 
stone Agdus [q.v.). This tradition has 
been preserved by Pausanias. 

Agdus, a stone of enormous size, 
parts of which were taken by Deucalion 
and Pyrrha to throw over their heads, in 
order to repeople the world desolated by 
the Flood. Arnohius. 

Aged [Thi), so Wemmick's father is 
called. He lived in " the castle at Wal- 
worth." Wemmick at "the castle" and 
Wemmick in business are two " different 

Wemmick's house was a little wooden cottagfe, in the 
midst of plots of garden, and the top of it was cut out 
and painted like a battery mounted with guns. ... It 
was the smallest of houses, with queer Gothic windows 
(by far the greater part of them sham), and a Gothic 
door, almost too small to get in at. . . . On Sundays he 
ran up a real flag. . . . The bridge was a plank, and it 
crossed a chasm about four feet wide and two deep. 
... At nine o'clock every night " the gun fired, the 
gun being mounted in a separate fortress made of 
lattice-work. It was protected from the weather by a 
tarpaulin . . . mcCox^Wa. Dickens : Gi eat Expectations, 
XXV. (1860). 

Ag'elastes {Michael), the cynic philo- 
sopher. Sir W. Scott: Count Robert of 
Paris (time, Rufus). 

Ages. The Age of the Bishops, accord- 
ing to Hallam, was the ninth century. 

The Age of the Popes, according to 
Hallam, was the twelfth century. 

Varo recognizes Three Ages : ist. From 
the beginning of man to the great Flood 
(the period wholly unknown). 2nd. From 
the Flood to the first Olympiad (the mythi- 
cal period). 3rd. From the first Olympiad 
to the present time (the historical period). 
Varo: Fragments, 219 (edit. Scaliger). 

Agesila'us (5 syl). Plutarch tells 
us that Agesilaus king of Sparta was 
one day discovered riding cock-horse on 
a long stick, to please and amuse his 

f A very similar tale is told of George 
HI. When the footman announced the 
name of the caller, George III. inquired 
if the stranger was a father, and being 
answered in the affirmative, replied, 
" Then let him be admitted." 

A'gib [King), " Tlie Third Calender " 
[Ai-abian Nights' Entertainments). He 
was wrecked on the loadstone mountain, 
which drew all the nails and iron bolts 
from his ship ; but he overthrew the 
bronze statue on the mountain-top, which 
was the cause of the mischief. Agib 
visited the ten young men, each of whom 
had lost his right eye, and was carried 
by a roc to the palace of the forty prin- 
cesses, with whom he tarried a year. The 
princesses were then obliged to leave for 
forty days, but entrusted him with the 
keys of the palace, with free permission 
to enter every room but one. On the 
fortieth day curiosity induced him to open 
this room, where he saw a horse, which 
he mounted, and was carried through the 
air to Bagdad. The horse then deposited 
him, and knocked out his right eye with 
a whisk of its tail, as it had done the ten 
" young men " above referred to. 

Agixiconrt {The Battle of), a poem 
by Michael Drayton (1627). The metre 
is like that of Byron's Don Juan. 

Si.'Si\,r^\,ox [The Irish), Daniel O'Con- 

nell ( 1 775-1 847). 

Agned Catliregonioxi, the scene of 
one of the twelve battles of king Arthur. 
The old name of Edinburgh was Agned. 

Ebraucus, a man of great stature and wonderful 
strength, took upon hira the government of Britain, 
wliicbi he held forty years. . . . He built the city of 
Ali.-lud [? Dumbarton'] and the town of Mount Agned, 
called at this time the " Castle of Maidens," or the 
"Mountain of Sorrow." G^^^-o-; British History, 
ix. 7. 

Agnei'a (3 syl.), wifely chastity, sister 
of Parthen'ia or maiden chastity. Agneia 
is the spouse of Encra'tes or temperance. 
Fully described in canto x. of The Purple 
Island, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). 
(Greek, agneia, "chastity.") 

AG'NES, daughter of Mr. Wickfield 
the solicitor, and David Copperfield's 
second wife (after the death of Dora, " his 
child-wife"). Agnes is a very pure, self- 
sacrificing girl, accomplished yet domes- 
tic. Dickens : David Copperfeld (1849), 

Ii.g;TX&^,mMoV].GVQ sL' Ecole des Femmes, 
the girl on whom Arnolphe tries his pet 
experiment of education, so as to turn 
out for himself a " model wife." She was 
brought up in a country convent, where 


she was kept in entire ignorance of the 
difterenco of sex, conventional proprieties, 
the difference between the love of men 
and women, and that of girls for girls, 
the mysteries of marriage, and so on. 
When grown to womanhood she quits 
the convent, and standing one evening 
on a balcony, a young man passes and 
takes off his hat to her, she returns the 
salute ; he bows a second and third time, 
she does the same ; he passes and re- 
passes several times, bowing each time, 
and she does as she has been taught to 
do by acknowledging the salute. Of 
course, the young man [Horace) becomes 
her lover, whom she marries, and M. 
Arnolphe loses his "model wife." (See 


Elle fait r Agnh. She pretends to be 
wholly unsophisticated and verdantly 
ingenuous. French Proverb (from the 
' Agnes " of Moli6re, L'Ecole des Femmes, 

Agpties [Black), the palfry of Mary 
queen of Scots, the gift of her brother 
^loray, and so called from the noted 
countess of March, who was countess of 
Moray (Murray^ in her own right. 

Black Agnes (countess of March). (See 
Black Agnes.) 

Agues (5A), ayoung virgin of Palermo, 
who at the age of 13 was martyred 
at Rome during the Diocletian persecu- 
tion of A.D. 304. Prudence (Aurelius 
Prudentius Clemens), a Latin Christian 
poet of the fourth century, has a poem on 
the subject. Tintoret and Domenichi'no 
have both made her the subject of a 
painting. The Martyrdom of St. Agnes. 

St. Agnes and the Devil. St. Agnes, 
having escaped from the prison at Rome, 
took shipping and landed at St. Piran 
Arwothall. The devil dogged her, but 
she rebuked him, and the large moor- 
stones between St. Piran and St. Agnes, 
in Cornwall, mark the places where the 
devils were turned into stone by the looks 
of the indignant saint.- Folw/iele : His- 
tory of Cornwall. 

Ag'nes' Eve [St.\ a poem by Keats 
(1796-1821). The story is as follows : On 
St. Agnes' Eve, maidens, under certain 
conditions, dream of their sweethearts. 
Magdeline, a baron's daughter, was in 
love with Porphyro, but a deadly feud 
existed between Porphyro and the baron . 
On St. Agnes' Eve the young knight went 
to the castle, and persuaded the door- 
keeper (an old crone) to conceal him in 
Agnes' chamber. Presently the young 


lady went to bed and fell asleep; when 
Porphyro, after gazing on her, played 
softly a ditty, at which she woke. He 
tlien induced her to leave the castle and 
elope with him, and long ago "those 
lovers fled away into the storm." 

Agframan'te (4 syl. ) or Ag'ramant, 
king of the Moors, in Orlando Innamo- 
rato, by Bojardo, and Orlando Furioso, 
by Ariosto. He was son of Troyano ; and 
crossed over to ravage Gallia, and revenge 
his father's derah on Charlemagne. He 
was slain by Orlando. 

Agrawain [Sir) or Sir Agravain, 

surnamed "The Desirous" and also 
"The Haughty." He was son of Lot 
(king of Orkney) and Margawse half- 
sister of king Arthur. His brothers were 
sir Gaw'ain, sir Ga'heris, and sir Gareth. 
Mordred was his half-brother, being the 
son of king Arthur and Margawse. Sir 
Agravain and sir Mordred hated sir 
Launcelot, and told the king he was too 
familiar with the queen ; so they asked 
the king to spend the day in hunting, and 
kept watch. The queen sent for sir 
Launcelot to her private chamber, and sir 
Agravain, sir Mordred, and twelve others 
assailed the door, but sir Launcelot slew 
them all except sir Mordred, who escaped. 
Sir T. Malory : History of Prinu 
Arthur, iii. 142-145 (1470). 

Agricaltes, king of Amonia. 
Ariosto : Orlando Fxirioso. 

Agfrica'ne (4 syl. ), king of Tartary, in 
the Orlando Innamorato, of Bojardo, was 
the father of Mandricardo. He besieges 
Angelica in the castle of Albracca, and is 
slain in single combat by Orlando. He 
brought into the field 2,200,000 men. 

Such forces met not, nor so wide a camp, 
When Agrican, with all his northera powers. 
Besieged Albracca. 

Milton : Paradise Regained, iii. (1671). 

Ag'rios, Lumpishness personified; a 
"sullen swain, all mirth that in himself 
and others hated ; dull, dead, and leaden." 
Described in canto viii. of The Purple 
Island, by Phineas Fletcher (1635). 
(Greek, agrlos, "a savage.") 

Agfrippi'na was granddaughter, wife, 
sister, and mother of an emperor. She 
was granddaughter of Augustus, wife of 
Claudius, sister of Caligula, and mother 
of Nero. 

IF Lam'pedo of Lacedaemon was daugh- 
ter, wife, sister, and mother of a king. 

Agfripy'na or Ag'ripjrne (3 syl.), 
a princess beloved by the " king of 




Cyprus' son, and madly lovi d by Orleans." 
Dekker: Old Fortunatiis (1600). 

A'gue (2 syl.). It was an old super- 
stition that if the fourth book of the Iliad 
was laid open under the head of a person 
suffering from quartan ague, it would 
cure him at once. Serenus Sammon'icus 
(preceptor of Gordian), a noted physician, 
has amongst his medical precepts the 
following : 

Moeonix lUados quartuin suppone timenH. 

Prcccepta, 50. 

Agfne-clieek {Sir Andrew), a silly 
old fop with " 3000 ducats a year," very 
fond of the table, but with a shrewd 
understanding that "beef had done harm 
to his wit." Sir Andrew thinks himself 
"old in nothing but in understanding," 
and boasts that he can " cut a caper, 
dance the coranto, walk a jig, and take 
-delight in masques," like a young man. 
Shakespeare ; Twelfth Night (1614). 

Woodward (1737-1777) always sustained " sir Andrew 
Ague-cheek" with infinite clroUery. assisted by that 
, expression of " rueful dismay " which gave so peculiar 
Si zest to his Marplot. Boadett : Life o/Siddons. 

Charles Lamb says tliat "Jem White saw James Dodd 
one evening- in Ague-cheek, and recognizing him next 
day in Fleet Street, took off his hat, and saluted k'ln 
^with "Save you, sir Andrew 1 " Dodd simply waved 
his hand and exclaimed, " Away, fool ! " 

A'haTjack and Des'ra, two en- 
chanters, who aided Ahu'bal in his rebel- 
lion against his brother Misnar, sultan of 
Delhi. Ahubal had a magnificent lent 
built, and Horam the vizier had one built 
for the sultan still more magnificent. 
When the rebels made their attack, the 
sultan and the best of the troops were 
drawn off, and the sultan's tent was 
taken. The enchanters, delighted with 
their prize, slept therein, but at night the 
yizier led the sultan to a cave, and asked 
him to cut a rope. Next morning he 
heard that a huge stone had fallen on the 
enchanters and crushed them to mummies. 
In fact, this stone formed the head of the 
bed, where it was suspended by the rope 
which the sultan had severed in the 
night. James Ridley : l^ales of the Genii 
("The Enchanters' Tale," vi.), 

Ahasue'ras, the cobbler who pushed 
away Jesus when, on the way to exe- 
cution, He rested a moment or two at his 
door. " Get off! Away with you ! " cried 
the cobbler. ' ' Truly, I go away, " returned 
Jesus, " and that quickly ; but tarry thou 
till I come." And from that time Aha- 
suerus became the "wandering Jew," 
who still roams the earth, and will con- 
tinue so to do until the " second coming 
of the Lord." This is the legend given 
by Paul von Eitzcn, bishop of Schleswig 

{\i^7).-'Grcve : Memoir of Paul von 
Eitzen (1744). (See Wandering Jew.) 
. Ahasuerus is introduced in Shelley's 
Queen Mab (section vii.), and a note is 
added (vol. i. p. 234, Rossetti's edition), 
showing the wretchedness of "never 
dying." He also appears in Shelley's 
Revolt of Islam, in Hellas, and in the prose 
tale of The Assassin. 

Aher'man and Ar'gen, the former 
a fortress, and the latter a suite of im- 
mense halls, in the realm of Eblis, where 
are lodged all creatures of human intelli- 
gence before the creation of Adam, and 
all the animols that inhabited the earth 
before the present races existed. Beck- 
ford : Vat hek [17^6). 

Ah'med {Prince), noted for the tent 
given him by the faiiy Pari-banou, which 
would cover a whole army, and yet would 
fold up so small that it might be carried 
in one's pocket. The same good fairy 
also gave him the apple of Samarcand', 
a panacea for all diseases. Arabian 
Nights' Entertaiiiments ( " Prince Ahmed, 

IT Solomon's carpet of green silk was 
large enough for all his army to stand 
upon, and when arranged the carpet was 
wafted with its freight to any place the 
king desired. This carpet would also 
fold into a very small compass. 

IT The ship Skidbladnir had a similar 
elastic virtue, for though it would hold all 
the inhabitants of Valhalla, it might be 
folded up like a sheet of paper, 

IT Bayard, the horse of the four sons of 
Aymon, grew larger or smaller as one or 
more of the four sons mounted it. (See 
Aymon. ) 

Aholiba'mah, granddaughter of 
Cain, and sister of Anah. She was loved 
by the seraph Samias'a, and, like her sister, 
was carried off to another planet when 
the Flood came. Byron : Heaven and 

Proud, imperious, and aspiring, she denies that she 
worships the seraph, and declares that his immortality 
can bestow no love more pure and warm than her own, 
and she expresses a conviction that there is a ray 
within her " which, though forbidden yet to shine," is 
nevertlieless lighted at the same ethereal fire as his 
ovm.Fiftden : Byjon BeaiUies. 

Ah'riman or Alirinia'nes (4 syh), 
the angel of darkness and of evil in the 
Magian system. He was slain by Mithra. 

Ai'denn. So Poe calls Eden. 

Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, 
If within the distant Aidcnn, 
It shall clasp a sainted maiden, 
Whom the angels name Lenore. 

Edgar Pot; The Ravtn, 




Aikwood [Rin^s^an), the forester of 
sir Arthur Wardoiir, of Knockwinnock 
Castle. Sir IV. Scot I : The Antiquary 
(time, George III.). 

Aiiu'well {Thomas, visconnf), a 
gentleman of broken fortune, who pays 
his addresses to Dorin'da, daughter of 
lady Bountiful. He is very handsome 
and fascinating, but quite " a man of the 
world." He and Archer are the two beaux 
of The Beaux' Stratagem, a comedy by 
George Farquhar (1705). 

I thought it rather odd that Holland should be the 
only "mister" of the pnrty, and I said to myself, as 
Gibbet said when he heard tliat "Aimwell" had gone 
to church, " That looks suspicious " (act ii. sc. 2). 
jfames Smith : Memoirs, Letters, etc. (1840). 

Aimwell, in Farquhar's comedy of The 
Beaux' Stratagem, seeks to repair his for- 
tune by marrying an heiress. In this he 
succeeds. (See Beaux' Stratagem.) 

Ainsworth and his Dictionary. 

(See Newton and his dog.) 

Aircastle, in The Cozeners, by S. 
Foote. The original of this rambling 
talker was Gahagan, whose method of 
conversation is thus burlesqued 

Aircastle: " Did I not tell you what parson Pninello 
said? I remember, Mrs. Lightfoot was by. She had 
been brought to bed that day was a month of a very 
fine boy a bad birth ; for Dr. Seeton, who served liis 

time with Luke Lancet of Guise's There was also 

a talk about liim and Nancy the daughter. She after- 
wards married Will Whitlow, another apprentice, who 
had great expectations from an old uncle in the 
Grenadiers; but he left all to a distant relation. Kit 
Cable, a midshipman aboard the Torbay. She was lost 
coming home in the Channel. The captain was taken 

np by a coaster from Rye, loaded with cheese " 

[Now, pray, what did parson Prunello say t This is 
a pattern of Mrs. Nickleby's rambling gossip.] 

Air'lie [The earl of), a royalist in the 
service of king Charles I. Sir IV Scott : 
Legend of Montrose. 

Airy [Sir George), a man of fortune, 
gay, generous, and gallant. He is in love 
with Miran'da, the ward of sir PYancis 
Gripe, whom he marries. Mrs. Cent- 
iivre: The Busybody (1709). (See The 
Busybody. ) 

A'jax OileuSjSon of OHeus \^O.V.luce\ 
generally called " the less." In conse- 
quence of his insolence to Cassan'dra, the 
prophetic daughter of Priam, his ship 
was driven on a rock, and he perished at 
sea. Homer: Odyssey , iv. 507; Virgil: 
ALneid, i. 41. 

A'jaz Tel'amon. SophoclSs has a 
tragedy called Ajax, in which " the mad- 
man" scourges a ram he mistakes for 
Ulysses. His encounter with a flock of 
sheep, which he fancied in his madness 
to be the sons of Atrcus, has been men- 

tioned at greater or less length by several 
Greek and Roman poets. Don Quixote 
had a similar adventure. This Ajax is 
introduced by Shakespeare in his drama 
called Troilus and Cressida. (See Ali- 

FANFARON, p. 26.) 

The Tuscan poet [Ariosto\ doth advance 
The frantic pahdin of France {Orlando rurieso]; 
And those more ancient \SopkocUs and Seneca] do 

Alcidds in his fuiy [HercuUs Furens]', 
And others, Ajax Telamon ; 
But to this time there hath been nona 
So bedlam as our Oberon ; 

Of which I dare assure you. 

Drayton : Nymphidia (1363-1631). 

Ajut and Anningait, in The Ram- 

Part, like Ajut, never to return. 
Campbell: Pleasures 0/ Hope, li. (r/g^). 

Ala'ciel, the genius who went on a 
voyage to the two islands, Taciturnia and 
Merryland {London and Paris]. De la 
Dixmerie: Lisle Taciturne et I' isle En- 
jouie, ou Voyage du Ginie Alaciel dans 
les deux lies (1759). 

Aladdin, son of Mustafa a poor 
tailor, of China, "obstinate, disobedient, 
and mischievous," wholly abandoned "to 
indolence and licentiousness." One day 
an African magician accosted him, pre- 
tending to be his uncle, and sent him to 
bring up the "wonderful lamp," at the 
same time giving him a "ring of safety." 
Aladdin secured the lamp, but would not 
hand it to the magician till he was out of 
the cave; whereupon the magician shut 
him up in the cave, and departed for 
Africa. Aladdin, wringing his hands in 
despair, happened to rub the magic ring, 
when the genius of the ring appeared 
before him, and asked him his com- 
mands. Aladdin requested to be delivered 
from the cave, and he returned home. 
By means of this lamp, he obtained 
untold wealth, built a superb palace, and 
married Badroul'boudour, the sultan's 
daughter. After a time, the African 
magician got possession of the lamp, and 
caused the palace, with all its contents, to 
be transported into Africa. Aladdin, who 
was absent at the time, was arrested and 
ordered to execution, but was rescued by 
the populace, and started to discover what 
had become of his palace. Happening 
to slip, he rubbed his ring, and, when the 
genius of the ring appeared and asked his 
orders, was instantly posted to his palace 
in Africa. Ultimately he poisoned the 
magician, regained the lamp, and had his 
palace restored to its original place in 

Yes, ready money is Aladdin's lamp. 

Byron : Don Juan, xil. w. 


Aladdin's Lamp, a lamp brought from 
an underground cavern in "the middle 
of China." Being in want of food, the 
mother of Aladdin began to scrub it, 
intending to sell it, when the genius of 
the lamp appeared, and asked her what 
were her commands, Aladdin answered, 
"I am hungry; bring me food;" and 
immediately a banquet was set before 
him. Having thus become acquainted 
with the merits of the lamp, he became 
enormously rich, and married the sultan's 
daughter. By artifice the African magician 
got possession of the lamp, and trans- 
ported the palace with its contents to 
Africa. Aladdin poisoned the magician, 
recovered the lamp, and retranslated the 
palace to its original site, 

Aladdin's Palace Windows. At the 
top of the palace was a saloon, containing 
twenty-four windows (six on each side), 
and all but one enriched with diamonds, 
rubies, and emeralds. One was left for 
the sultan to complete ; but all the jewel- 
lers in the empire were unable to make 
one to match the others, so Aladdin com- 
manded "the slaves of the lamp" to 
complete their work. 

Aladdin's Ring, given him by the 
African magician, "a preservative against 
every evil." Arabian Nights ("Aladdin, 
or the Wonderful Lamp "). 

Al'adine, the sagacious but cruel king 
of Jerusalem, slain by Raymond. Tasso: 
Jerusalein Delivered (1575). 

Al'adine (3 -ty/.), son of Aldus " a lusty 
knight." Spenser: Faerie Queene, vi. 3 

Alaff, Anlaf, or Olaf, son of 

Sihtric, Danish king of Northumberland 
(died 927). When ^tlielstan [Athels(aTp\, 
took possession of Northumberland, Alaff 
fled to Ireland, and his brother Guthfrith 
or Godfrey to Scotland. 

Our English Athelstan, 

In tlie Northumbrian fields, with most victorious might, 

Put Alaff and his powers to more inglorious flight. 

Drayton : Polyolbioti, xii. (1612). 

Al Araf, the great limbo between 
paradise and hell, for the half-good. Al 
Kordn, vii. 

Alar'con, king of Barca, who Joined 
the armament of Egypt against the cru- 
saders, but his men were only half armed. 
Tasso: Jerusalem Delivered (1575). 

Alaric Cottin. Frederick the Great 
of Prussia was so called by Voltaire. 
" Alaric " because, like Alaric, he was a 

18 ALBAN. 

great warrior, and "Cottin" because, like 
Cottin, satirized by Boileau, he was a very 
indifferent poet. 

Alasc'o, alias Dr. Demetrius Do- 
BOOBIE, an old astrologer, consulted by 
the earl of Leicester. Sir W. Scott: 
Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth). 

Alas'nam {Prince Zeyii) possessed 
eight statues, each a single diamond on a 
gold pedestal, but had to go in search of 
a ninth, more valuable than them all. 
This ninth was a lady, the most beautiful 
and virtuous of women, " more precious 
than rubies," who became his wife. 

One pure and perfect [woman^ is . . . like Alasnam's 
lady, worth them all. 52>- W. Scott. 

Alasnam's Miri'or. When Alasnam 
was in search of his ninth statue, the king 
of the genii gave him a test-mirror, in 
which he was to look when he saw a 
beautiful girl. "If the glass remained pure 
and unsullied, the damsel would be the 
same, but if not, the damsel would not 
be wholly pure in body and in mind." 
This mirror was called "the touchstone 
of virtue." Arabian Nights ("Prince 
Zeyn Alasnam "). 

Alas'tor, a house demon, the "skele- 
ton in the cupboard," which haunts and 
torments a family. Shelley has a poem 
entitled Alastor, or the Spirit of Solitude. 
(See the next article.) 

Cicero says he meditated killing himself that h 
might become the Alastor of Augustus, whom he 
hated. Plutarch : Cicero, etc. (" Parallel Lives "). 

God Almighty mustered up an army of mice against 
the archbishop \Hatto\ and sent them to persecute 
him as his furious Alastors. Coryat: Crudities, 571. 

Alastor, or "The Spirit of Solitude." 
A poem in blank verse by Percy Bysshe 
Shelley (1815). Alastor, in Greek = Deus 
Vindex, but as the name of the Spirit of 
Sohtude, it means "The Tormentor." 
The poet wanders over the world admiring 
the wonderful works which he cannot help 
seeing, but finds no solution to satisfy his 
inquisitive mind, and nothing in sympathy 
with himself. In fact, the world was to 
him a crowded solitude, a mere Alastor, 
always disappointing and always torment- 
ing him. 

Al'ban [St.) of Ver'ulam hid his con- 
fessor, St. Am 'phibal, and, changing clothes 
with him, suffered death in his stead. 
This was during the frightful persecution 
of Maximia'nus Hercu'lius, general of 
Diocle'tian's army in Britain, when loco 
Christians fell at Lichfield. 

Alban our proto-martyr called. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622^. 


Alba'uia, the Scotch Highlands, so 
called from Albanact, son of Brute, the 
mythical Trojan king of Britain. At the 
death of Brute "Britain" was divided 
between his three sons : Locrin had Eng- 
land ; Albanact had Albania {Scotland); 
and Kamber had Cambria ( Wales). 

He [Artknr} by force of arms Albania ovemin, 
I'ursuin^ of thu Picts beyond mount Ca>don. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, iv. (1612). 

Alba'nia ( Turkey in Asia). It means 
" the mountain region," and properly com- 
prehends Schinvan, Daghesfan, and Geor- 
gia. In poetry it is used very loosely. 

Alba'no's Knight, Rinaldo, whose 
brothers were Guichardo (the oldest), 
Ricardo, Richardetto, Vivian, and Alardo. 
His sister was Bradiraant. Arioslo : 
Orlando Furioso. 

Allierick of Mortemar, the same 
as Theodorick the hermit of Engaddi, an 
exiled nobleman. He told king Richard 
the history of his life, and tried to dissuade 
him from sending a letter of defiance to 
the archduke of Austria. Sir IV. Scott : 
The Talisman (time, Richard I.). 

All)erick, the squire of prince Richard 
(one of the sons of Henry II. of England), 
Sir IV. Scott: The Betrothed (time, 
Henry II.). 

Albert, commander of the Britannia. 
Brave, liberal, and just ; softened and 
refined by domestic ties and superior in- 
formation. His ship was dashed against 
the projecting verge of Cape Colonna, the 
most southern point of Attica. And he 
perished in the sea, because Rodmond 
(second in command) grasped on his legs 
and could not be shaken off. 

Though trained in boisterous elements, his mind 
Was yet by sof^ humanity refined ; 
Each joy of wedded love at home he knew, 
Abroad, confessed the father of his crew. . . , 
His gfcnr-is, ever for th' event prepared, 
Rose with the storm, and all its dangers shared. 
FaUcner: The Shi^'-wrick, i. 2 (1756}. 

Albert, father of Gertrude, patriarch 
and judge of Wyo'ming (called by Camp- 
bell "Wy'oming"). Both Albert and his 
daughter were shot by a mixed force of 
British and Indian troops, led by one 
Brandt ; who made an attack on the settle- 
ment, put all tlie inhabitants to the sword, 
set fire to the fort, and destroyed all the 
houses. Campbell: Gertrude of W}vm- 
if/g {i8og). 

Albert, in Goethe's romance called 
The Sorrows of Werther, is meant for his 
friend Kestner. He is a young German 
farmer, who marries Charlotte Buflf (called 
"Lotte" in the novel), with whom Goethe 


was in love. Goethe represents himself 
as Werther. 

Albert of Gei'erstein [Count), 
brother of Arnold Biederman, and presi- 
dent of the ' ' Secret Tribunal. " He some- 
times app.'ars as a " black priest of St, 
Paul's," and sometimes as the "monk of 
St. WiciowG." Sir IV. Scott: Anne of 
Geierstein (time, Edward IV.). 

Albertaz'zo married Alda, daughter 
of Otho duke of Saxony. His sons were 
Ugo and Fulco. From this stem springs 
the Royal Family of England, Ariosto : 
Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Albia'zar, an Arab chief, who joined 
the Egyptian armament against the cru- 

A chief in rapine, not in knighthood bred. 

Tasso : jferusaUtn Delivered, xvii. (1575). 

Albin, the primitive name of the 
northern part of Scotland, called by the 
Romans ' ' Caledo'nia. " This was the part 
inhabited by the Picts. The Scots mi- 
grated from Scotia [north of Ireland), 
and obtained mastery under Kenneth 
Macalpin, in 834. 

Green Albin, what though he no more survey 
Thy ships at anchor on the quiet shore, 
Thy pellochs [porfioises] rollmg from the mountain bay. 
Thy lone sepulchral cairn upon the moor, 
Ancl distant isles that hear the loud Corbrechtan roar. 
Campbell: Gertmde of lyyoming, i. 5 (1809). 

Al'Mou. In legendary history this 
word is variously accounted for. One 
derivation is from Albion, a giant, son of 
Neptune, its first discoverer, who ruled 
over the island for forty-four years. 

(2) Another derivation is Al'bia, eldest 
of the fifty daughters of Diocle'tian king 
of Syria. These fifty ladies all married 
on the same day, and all murdered their 
husbands on the wedding night. By way 
of punishment, they were cast adrift in a 
ship, unmanned ; but tlie wind drove the 
vessel to our coast, where these Syrian 
damsels disembarked. Here they lived 
the rest of their lives, and married with 
the aborigines, "a lawless crew of devils." 
Milton mentions this legend, and naively 
adds, " It is too absurd and unconscionably 
gross to be believed." Its resemblance to 
the fifty daughters of Dan'aos is palpable. 

(3) Drayton, in his Polyolbion, says that 
Albion came from Rome, was ' ' the first 
m.irtyr of the land," and dying for the 
faith's sake, left his name to the countiy, 
where Offa subsequently reared to him 
"a rich and sumptuous shrine, with a 
monasteiy attached." Song xvi. 

Albion, king of Briton, when O'beron 
held his court in what is now called 



"Kensington Gardens." T. Tickell has 
a poem upon this subject. 

Albion wars wilh Jove's Son. Albion, 
son of Neptune, warred wilh Her'cules, 
son of Jove. Neptune, dissatisfied with 
the share of his father's kingdom awarded 
to him by Jupiter, aspired to dethrone his 
brother, but Hercules took Jove's part, 
and Albion was discomfited. 

Since Albion wielded arms agfainst the son of Jove. 
Draytoji : Polyoibion, iv, (1612). 

Albo'rak, the animal brought by 
Gabriel to convey Maliomet to the seventh 
heaven. It had the face of a man, the 
cheeks of a horse, the wings of an eagle, 
and spoke with a human voice. 

Albrac'ca, a castle of Cathay' ( China), 
to which Angel'ica retires in grief when 
she finds her love for Rinaldo is not re- 
ciprocated. Here she is besieged by 
Ag'ricane king of Tartary, who is re- 
solved to win her. Bojardo: Orlando 
Innamorato (1^95). 

Al'bracca's Damsel, Angel'ica. (See 
above. ) Ariosto : Orlando Furioso (1516), 

Albuma'zar, an Arabian astronomer 

Chaunteclere, our cocke, must tell what is o'clocke, 
By the astrologye that he hath naturally 
Conceyued and caught ; for he was never taught 

r, the astronomer, 
amy, prince of astronomy, 
y. Skelion : Philip Sparrow (time, Henry VIII.). 

(Tomkins wrote a play so called, which 
was performed before James I. in Trinity 
College Hall, March 7th, 1614. After 
the Restoration, this comedy was revived, 
and Dryden wrote a prologue to it.) 

Alcai'ro, the modern name of Mem- 
phis (Egypt). 

Not Babylon 
Nor great Alcairo such magnificence 
Equalled, in all their glories. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 717 (1665). 

Alceste (3 syl), Alcestis, or Al- 
Cestes, daughter of Pe'lias and wife of 
Admetus. On his wedding day AdmStus 
neglected to offer sacrifice to Diana, but 
Apollo induced the Fates to spare his life, 
if he could find a voluntary substitute. 
His bride offered to die for him, but Her- 
cules brought her back from the world 
of shadows. 

(Euripides has a Greek trngedy on the 
subject {Alcestis) ; Gliick has an opera 
{Alceste), libretto by Calzabigi (1765); 
Philippi Quinault produced a French 
tragedy entitled Alceste, in 1674 ; and 
Lagrange-Chancel in 1694 produced a 
French tragedy on the same subject.) 

(Iltr story is told by W. Morris, in The Earthly 
Paradise,]\xvi<z, 1868.) 

Iphigeni'a at Aulis by Euripides, and Abraham's 
sacrifice of Isaac, somewhat resemble the same 

t Longfellow, in The Golden Legend, has a some- 
what similar story : Henry of Hoheneck was like to die, 
and was told he would recover if he could find a maiden 
willing to lay down her life for him. Elsie, the daughter 
tf Gottlieb (a tenant farmer of the prince), vowed to do 
so, and followed the prince to Salerno, to surrender 
herself to Lucifer ; but the prince rescued her, and 
made her his wife. The excitement and exercise cured 
t!ie indolent young prince. This tale is from Hartmanii 
von dcr Aur, the Minne-singer. 

Alceste' (2 syl.), the hero of Moli^re's 
comedy Le Misanthrope (1666), not un- 
like Timon of Athens., by Shakespeare. 
Alceste is, in fact, a pure and noble mind 
soured by perfidy and disgusted with 
society. Courtesy seems to him the vice 
of fops, and the usages of civilized life no 
better than hypocrisy. Alceste pays his 
addresses to Celimene, a coquette. 

Alceste is an upright, manly character, but rude and 
impatient, even of the ordinary civilities of life. Sir 
ir. Scolt. 

Al 'chemist ( The) , the last of the three 
great comedies of Ben Jonson (1610). The 
other two are Vol' pone (2 syl.), (1605), 
and The Silent Woman (1609). The 
object of The Alchemist is to ridicule the 
belief in the philosopher's stone and 
the elixir of life. The alchemist is 
"Subtle," a mere quack; and "sir 
Epicure Mammon" is the chief dupe, 
who supphes money, etc., for the 
" transmutation of metal." " Abel Drug- 
ger" a tobacconist, and "Dapper" a 
lawyer's clerk, are two other dupes. 
"Captain Face," alias "Jeremy," the 
house-servant of " Lovewit," and " Dol 
Common" are his allies. The whole 
thing is blown up by the unexpected 
return of " Lovewit." 

Alcibi'ades (5 syl.), the Athenian 
general. Being banished by the senate, 
he marches against the city, and the 
senate, being unable to offer resistance, 
open the gates to him (b.c. 450-404). 
This incident is introduced by Shakespeare 
in Timon of Athens. 

Alfred (lord) Tennyson assumed this as a pseudonym 
in Punch (February, 1846), a reply to Lord Lytton's 
Aeiu TiJiion. 

Alcibiades of Germany, Albert mar- 
grave of Baireuth (1522-1555). 

Alcibi'ades' Tables represented a 
god or goddess outwardly, and a Sile'nus, 
or deformed piper, within. Erasmus has 
a curious dissertation on these tables 
{Adage, 667, edited R. Stephens) ; hence 
emblematic of falsehood and dissimula- 



Whoso wants virtue is compared to these 
I'"alse tables wrought by Alcibiadcs ; 
Which noted well of all were found t've bin 
Most fair without, but most deformed within. 
ly. Browne: Britannia's Pastorals, i. (1613). 

Alci'des, Hercules, son of Alca;-us ; 
any strong and valiant hero. The drama 
called Hercules Fiirens is by Eurip'ides. 
Seneca has a tragedy of the same title. 

The Tuscan poet [Ariosto'\ doth advance 
The frantic paladin of France [Or/ando Furioso\\ 
And those more ancient do enhance 
Alcidfis in his fury. 

Drayton : Nytnphidia (1563-1631). 
"WTiere is the gfrcat Alcldes of the field, 
Valiant lord Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury? 
Shakespeart : i llcnry VI. act iv. sc. 7 (1589). 

Alci'na, Carnal Pleasure personified. 
In Bojardo's Orlando Innamorato she 
is a fairy, who carries off Astolfo. In 
Ariosto's Orlando Furioso she is a kind 
of Circ6, whose garden is a scene of 
enchantment. Alcina enjoys her lovers 
for a season, and then converts them into 
trees, stones, wild beasts, and so on, as 
her fancy dictates. 

Al'cipliron, or The Minute Philo- 
sopher, the title of a work by bishop 
Berkeley. So called from the name of the 
chief speaker, a freethinker. The object 
of this work is to expose the weakness of 

Al'ciphron," the epicurean," the hero 
of T. Moore's romance called The 

Like Alciphron, we swing in air and darkness, and 
know not whither the wind blows \is.Putna?n's 

Alczne'na (in Molifere, Alcmhne), the 
wife of Amphitryon, general of the The- 
ban army. While her husband is absent 
warring against the Telebo'ans, Jupiter 
assumes the form of Amphitryon ; but 
Amphitryon himself returns home the 
next day, and great confusion arises be- 
tween the false and true Amphitryon, 
which is augmented by Mercury, who 
personates Sos'ia, the slave of Amphi- 
tryon. By this amour of Jupiter, Alc- 
mena becomes the mother of Her'cules. 
Piautus, Moliere, and Dryden have all 
taken this plot for a comedy entitled 

Alcofri'bas, the pseudonym as- 
sumed by Rabelais in his Gargantua aiid 
Pantag'ruel'. Alcofribas Nasier is an 
anagram of " Franpois Rabelais." 

The inestimable life of the great Gar^nnfua, father 
of Pantagruel, heretofore composed by M. Alcofribas, 
abstractor of the quintessence, a book full of pauta- 
^tucWsm. Rabelais : Introduction (1533). 

Arcolomb, "subduer of hearts," 
daughter of AbouAibou of Damascus, and 
sister of Ganem. The caliph Haroun-al- 

Raschid, in a fit of jealousy, commanded 
Ganem to be put to death, and his mother 
and sister to do penance for three days ir> 
Damascus, and then to be banished from 
Syria. The two ladies came to Bagdad, 
and were taken in by the charitable syn- 
dec of the jewellers. When the jealous 
fit of the caliph was over, he sent for the 
two exiles. Alcolomb he made his wife, 
and her mother he married to his vizier. 
Arabian Nights (" Ganem, the Slave of 
Love "). 

Alcnith, mentioned by Bcde, is 

Alcjr'on, " the wofullest man alive," 
but once " the jolly shepherd swain that 
wont full merrily to pipe and dance," near 
where the Severn flows. One day he saw 
a lion's cub, and brought it up till it fol- 
lowed him about like a dog ; but a cruel 
satyr shot it in mere wantonness. By the 
lion's cub he means Daphne, who died in 
her prime, and the cruel satyr is death. 
He said he hated everything the heaven, 
the earth, fire, air, and sea, the day, the 
night ; he hated to speak, to hear, to taste 
food, to see objects, to smell, to feel ; he 
hated man and woman too, for his 
Daphne lived no longer. What became 
of this doleful shepherd the poet could 
never ween. Alcyon is Sir Arthur Gorges, 
Spenser: Daphnaida (in seven fits, 1590). 

And there is that Alcyon bent to mourn. 
Though fit to frame an everlasting ditty, 

Whose gentle sprite for Daphne's death doth turn 

Sweet lays of love to endless plaints of pity. 
Spenser: Colin Clout's Come Home Again (1591}. 

Alcy'oixe or Halcyone (4 syl.), 
daughter of ^61 us, who, on hearing of 
her husband's death by shipwreck, threw 
herself into the sea, and was changed to a 
kingfisher. (See HALCYON Days.) 

^ Hero, the lady-love of Leandor, threw herself into 
the sea, when she discovered that her lover, Leander, 
was drowned in the Hellespont, which he swam across 
every night in order to visit her. This story is the 
subject of a poem (Dc Amorc Herois, etc.) by 

Aldabel'Ia, wife of Orlando, sister of 
Oliver, and daughter of Monodan'tfis. 
Ariosto : Orlando Furioso, etc. (1516). 

Aldabella, a marchioness of Florence, 
very beautiful and fascinating, but arro- 
gant and heartless. She used to give 
entertainments to the magnates of Flo- 
rence, and Fazio was one who spent 
most of his lime in her society. Bian'ca 
his wife, being jealous of the marchioness, 
accused him to the duke of being privy 
to the death of Bartoldo, and for this 
offence Fazio was executed. Bianca died 
broken-hearted, and Aldabella was cou- 

ALDJ5N. 2: 

demned to spend the rest of her life in 
a nunnery. Dean Milman : Fazio (a 
tragedy, 1815). 

Aldexi [John) , one of the sons of the 
Pilgrim Fathers, ia love with Priscilla, the 
beautiful puritan. (See Standish.) 
Longfellow r Courtship of Miles Standish, 

Alderlievest, best beloved. 

And to mine alderlievest lorde I must endite 
A wofull case. 

Gascoigne : Voyage into Holland (1572). 

Aldiborontiplioscopliornio [A^- 
dibbo-ron'te-/os'co-for'?iio], a courtier in 
Chrononhotonthologos, by H. Carey (1734)- 

(Sir Walter Scott used to call James Bal- 
lantyne, the printer, this nickname, from 
his pomposity and formahty of speech.) 

Aldigfer, son of Buo'vo, of the house 
of Clarmont, brother of Malagi'gi and 
Vivian. Ariosto: Orlando Fu?-ioso{i $16). 

Al'dixie (2 syl.), leader of the second 
squadron of Arabs which joined the 
Egyptian armament against the crusaders. 
Tasso says of the Arabs, " Their accents 
were female and their stature diminu- 
tive" (xvii.). Tasso: Jerusalem De- 
livered (1575)' 

Al'dingar [Sir), steward of queen 
Eleanor, wife of Henry 11. He impeached 
the queen's fideHty, and agreed to prove 
his charge by single combat ; but an 
angel (in the shape of a little child) 
established the queen's innocence. This 
is probably a blundering version of the 
story of Gunhilda and the emperor Henry. 
Percy : Reliques, ii. 9. 

Aldo, a Caledonian, was not invited by 
Fingal to his banquet on his return to 
Morven, after the overthrow of Swaran. 
To resent this affront, he went over to 
Fingal's avowed enemy, Erragon king of 
Sora (in Scandinavia), and here Lorna, the 
king's wife, fell in love with him. The 
guilty pair fled to Morven, which EiTagon 
immediately invaded. Aldo fell in single 
combat with Erragon, Lorna died of 
grief, and Erragon was slain in battle by 
Gaul, son of Morni. Ossian : The Battle 

Aldovrand [Father), chaplain of sir 
Raymond Berenger, the old Norman 
warrior. Sir W. Scott: The Betrothed 
(time, Henry H.). 

Aldrick the Jesuit, confessor of 
Charlotte countess of Derby. Sir W. 
Scott: Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles 


Aldus, father of Al'adine (3 syl), the 
"lusty knight." Spenser: Faerie Queene, 
vi. 3 (1596). 

Alea, a warrior who invented dice at 
the siege of Troy ; at least so Isidore of 
Seville says. Suidas ascribes the inven- 
tion to Palamedes. 

Alea est ludus tabuire inventa a Graecis, in otio Trojani 
belli, a quodam milite, nomine ALE.4, a quo et ars 
nomen accepit. Jsidorus ; Ori^inmn, etc., xviii. 57. 

Alector'ia, a stone extracted from a 
capon. It is said to render the wearer 
invisible, to allay thirst, to antidote en- 
chantment, and ensure love. Mirror of 

Alec'tryon, a youth set by Mars to 
guard against surprises ; but he fell asleep, 
and Apollo surprised Mars and Venus in 
each other's embrace. Mars in anger 
changed Alectryon into a cock. 

And from out the neighbouring- farmyard 
Loud the cock Alectryon crowed. 

Longfellow : I'egasus in Pound. 

Ale'ria, one of the Amazons, and the 
best beloved of the ten wives of Guido the 
Savage. A riosio : OrlandoP''urioso[is^(>). 

Alessio, the young man with whom 
Lisa was living in concubinage, when 
Elvi'no promised to marry her. Elvino 
made the promise out of pique, because 
he thought Ami'na was not faithful to 
him ; but when he discovered his error he 
returned to liis first love, and left Lisa to 
marry Alessio, with whom she liad been 
previously cohabiting. Bellini's opera, 
La Sonnambula (1831). 

Ale'thes (3 syl.), an ambassador from 
Egypt to king Al'adine (3 syl.) ; subtle, 
false, deceitful, and full of wiles. Tasso : 
Jerusalem Delivered (1575). 

Alexander the Corrector, Alex- 
ander Cruden (1701-1770), author of the 
Concordance. (See Dictionary of Phra:e 
and Liable, p. 30.) 

Alexander the Great, king of 
Macedonia (b.c. 356, 336-323). 

(His life has been written by Quintus 
Curtius, in ten books (Latin), about A.D. 
80 ; by Julius Valerius (Latin) ; by Les- 
farguus, in 1639 ; Gaudenzio, in 1645 ; by 
Lehmann, in 1667 ; by Fessler, in 1797 ; 
by Mueller, in 1830 ; by archdeacon Wil- 
liams, in 1830 ; by Droysen, in 1833 ; by 
Pfizer, in 1845.) 

Alexander's chief Battles. Arbela, in 331 ; Issus, 
333 ; Granicus in 334, all against Darius the Persian. 

Alexander's Beard. A smooth chin, or very small 
beard. Alexander had no perceptible beard, and 
hence is said to have had "an A.cazonian chin." 


Disfruiscd with Alexander's beard. 

Cascoyne: The Steele Clas (dii:d 1577). 
City founded by Alexander. Alexandria in Egypt, 
ahout B.C. 322. 

De/orftiity of Alexander, One shoulder was higher 
than the other. 

Amnion's preat Fon one shoulder had too high. 
Pope : Prologue to his Satires, 117. 
rather of Alexander. His mother's husband was 
Philip king of Macedon ; but Alexander hunself dainic J 
the god Ainmon for his father. 
Alexander's favourite Horse. Buceph'alos (q.v.). 
Mother of Alexander. Olymplas, daughter of Nco- 

of f-ord kosebery's horse in the famous race of 1894. 

Successor of Alexander, rtolemy Sotcr, supposed 
to be his half-brother (on the father s side), succeeded 
him in the government of Kgypt. 

Only t7vo Alexanders. Alexander said, " There are 
but two Alexanders the invincible son of Philip, and 
the inimitable Apelles, who painted him." 

Alexander and Clitus. Clitus was 
Alexander's great friend, and saved his 
life in the battle of Granicus (b.c. 334). 
In 328 he was slain by Alexander at a 
banquet, when both were heated with 

IT The above reminds us of Peter L of 
Russia and Lefort. Lefort, a Swiss, was 
the great friend of Peter L, and ac- 
companied him in his travels, when he 
visited various European capitals to learn 
the art of government. At Konigsberg, 
while both were heated with wine, Peter 
threw himself on his friend, Lefort, and 
pierced him with his sword. No sooner 
had he done so than he repented, and 
exclaimed, " I, who want to reform my 
nation, cannot reform myself." 

Clitus (to Alexander). Nay, frown not so ; you can- 
not look me dead. /;. .1' Tragedy. 

Alexander and the Daugfliters 
of Darius. After the battle of Issus, 
in 333, the family of Darius fell into 
his hands, and he treated the ladies as 
queens. A eunuch, having escaped, told 
Darius of this noble conduct, and Darius 
could not but admire such magnanimity 
in a rival. Arrian : Anabasis of Alex- 
ander, iv. 20. 

Alexander and Diogenes. One 
day the king of Macedon presented 
himself before Diogenes the cynic, and 
said, "I am Alexander." "Well," 
replied the master of the tub, "and I 
am Diogenes." When the king asked 
if he could render him any service, 
Diogenes surlily replied, "Yes; get out 
of the sun." 

Alexander and Homer. When 
Alexander invaded Asia Minor, he offered 
up sacrifice to Priam, and then went to 
visit the tomb of Achillas. Here he ex- 
claim.ed, " O most enviable of men, who 
had Homer to sing thy deeds I " 

Which made the Eastern conqueror to cry, 
" () fortunate young man 1 whose virtue lound 
So brave a trump thy noble deeds to sound." 

S/>enser: The Ruins of Tinu (1591). 

Alexander and the Olympic 
Games. Alexander, being asked if he 
would run a course at the Olympic 
games, replied, " Yes, if my competitor* 
are all kings." 

Alexander and Farmenio. When 
Darius king of Persia offered Alexander 
his daughter Stati'ra in marriage, with a 
dowry of 10,000 talents of gold, Parmenio 
said, " I would accept the offer, if I were 
Alexander." To this Alexander rejoined, 
" So would I, if I were Parmenio." 

On another occasion the general thought 
the king somewhat too lavish in his gifts, 
whereupon Alexander made answer, " I 
consider not what Parmenio ought to 
receive, but what Alexander ought to 

Alexander and Ferdiccas. When 

Alexander started for Asia he divided his 
possessions among his friends. Perdiccas 
asked what he had left for himself. 
" Hope," said Alexander. " If hope is 
enough for Alexander," replied the friend, 
"it is enough for Perdiccas also;" and 
declined to accept anything. 

Alexander and Raphael. Alex- 
ander encountered Raphael in a cave in 
the montain of Kaf, and being asked 
what he was in search of, replied, " The 
water of immortality." Whereupon 
Raphael gave him a stone, and told him 
when he found another of the same 
weight he would gain his wish. " And 
how long," said Alexander, "have I to 
hve?" The angel replied, "Till the 
heaven above thee and the earth beneath 
thee are of iron." Alexander now went 
forth and found a stone almost of the 
weight required, and in order to complete 
the balance, added a little earth ; falling 
from his horse at Ghur he was laid in his 
armour on the ground, and his shield was 
set up over him to ward off the sun. 
Then understood he that he would gain 
immortality when, like the stone, he was 
buried in the earth, and that his hour was 
come, for the earth beneath him was iron, 
and his iron buckler was his vault of 
heaven above. So he died. 

Alexander and the Robber. 

When Dion'idgs, a pirate, was brought 
before Alexander, he exclaimed, "Vile 
brigand 1 how dare you infest the seas 
with your misdeeds?" "And you," 
replied the pirate, "by what right do 


you ravage the world? Because I have 
only one ship, I am called a brigand, but 
you who have a whole fleet are termed 
a conqueror, " Alexander commanded the 
man to be set at liberty. 

Alexander dramatized. In 1678 
Nathaniel Lee introduced his tragedy of 
Alexander the Great. Racine produced 
his tragedy (in French) in 1665. 

(Lambert-li-Cors published his novel of 
the Roman <f Alexandre in the twelfth 
century. ) 

Lee's "Alexander" was a favourite part with T. 
Betterton (1635-1710), Wm. Mountford (1660-1692), H. 
Norris (1665-1734); C. Hulet (1701-1736), and Spranger 
Barry (1710-1777) ; but J. W. Croker says that J. P. 
Kenible, in "Hamlet," " Coriolamis," "Alexander," 
and "Cato," excelled all his predecessors. yohnson. 

Alexander's Feast (or " 7 he Power 
of Music "). A Pindaric ode by Dryden 
(1694), in honour of St. Cecilia's Day 
(November 22). St. Cecilia was a Roman 
lady who, it is said, suffered martyrdom 
in 230, and was regarded as the patroness 
of music. Dryden's poem ends with 
these words : 

Let old Timotheus yield the prize. 

Or both divide the crown ; 
He rasied a mortal to the skies. 

She drew an angel down. 

He (Timotheus) " raised a mortal to 
the skies " is a bold way of saying, by 
,the concord of sweet sounds, Timotheus 
.raised his hearers from earth to heaven. 

" She drew an angel down " refers to 
^he legend that an angel left the choirs 
above to listen to the more ravishing 
music of St. Ceciha. Pope wrote a Pin- 
doric ode on the same subject. 

ALEXANDER. The Albanian 
Alexajtder, George Castriot {Scanderbc^ 
or Iscander beg, 1404-1467). 

The English Alexander, Henry V. 
(1388, 1413-1422). He resembled Alex- 
ander in the brevity and glory of his 
reign, in his great military talents, and 
his wonderful hold on the hearts of his 
people. Like Alexander's, his generosity 
was unbounded ; like Alexander's, his 
"life was gay and hcentious; hke Alex- 
ander, he was most impatient of control. 
And his victories over the French were 
like those of Alexander over the Persians. 

(Captain Fluellen put the resemblance 
thus : Alexander was born at Macedon, 
and Henry V. was bom at Monmouth, 
both which places begin with M.) 

Alexander of the Noi-th, Charles XH. 
of Sweden (1682-1718). 

The Persian Alexander, Sandjar (1117- 

Alexan'dra, daughter of Oronthea, 
queen of the Am'azons, and one of the 
ten wives of Elba'nio. It is from this 
person that the land of the Amazons was 
called Alexandra. Ariosto: Orlando Fu- 
rioso (15 1 6). 

Alexan'drite (4 syl.), a species of 
beryl found in Siijeria. It shows the 
Russian colours (green and red), and is 
named from the emperor Alexander of 

Alexas, a eunuch in Cleopatra's 
household. Timid and cowardly, faith- 
less and untruthful. Dryden : All for 
Love, etc. 

Alexis, the wanton shepherd in The 
Faithftil Shepherdess, a pastoral drama 
by John Fletcher (1610). 

Alfa'der, the father of all the ^^^sir 
or celestial deities of Scandinavia, creator 
and governor of the universe, patron of 
arts and magic, etc. 

Alfonso, father of Leono'ra d'Este, 
and duke of Ferrara. Tasso the poet 
fell in love with her, and the duke con- 
fined him as a lunatic for seven years in 
the asylum of Santa Anna ; at the ex- 
piration of which period he was released 
through the intercession of Vincenzo 
Gonzago duke of Mantua. Byron refers 
to this in his Childe Harold, iv. 36. 

Alfon'so, in Walpole's tale called The 
Castle of Otranto, appears as an appari- 
tion in the moonlight, dilated to a gigantic 
form (1769). 

Alfonso XI. of Castile, whose " fa- 
vourite" was Leonora de Guzman. Doni- 
zetti: La Favor it a (an opera, 1842). 

Alfon'so (Don), of Seville, a man of 50 
and husband of donna Julia (twenty-seven 
years his junior), of whom he was jealous 
without cause. Byron : Don Juan, i. 

Alfred as a Gleeman. Alfred, 
wishing to know the strength of the 
Danish camp, assumed the disguise of a 
minstrel, and stayed in the Danish camp 
for several days, amusing the soldiers 
with his harping and singing. After he 
had made himself master of all he re- 
quired, he returned back to his own 
place. William of Malmesbury (twelfth 

IT William of Malmesbury tells a simi- 
lar story of Anlaf, a Danish king, who, 
he says, just before the battle of Brunan- 
burh, in Northumberland, entered the 
camp of king Athelstan as a gleeman, 




Iiarp in hand ; and so pleased was the 
Enghsh king that he gave him gold. 
Anlaf would not keep the gold, but buried 
it in the earth. 

Alfred, a masque, by James Thom- 
son and David Mallet (1740). Afterwards 
dramatized by Mallet, and brought out at 
Drury Lane in 1851. Especially noted 
for the famous song of Rule Britannia. 

(Sir Richard Blackmore wrote an 
historic poem in twelve books, called 
Alfred, 1715. H. J. Pye published, in 
1801, an epic in six books, called by the 
same name. ) 

Algfarsife (3 syl.) and Cam'ballo, 
sons of Cambuscan' king of Tartary, 
and Elfgta his wife. Algarsife marritd 

I speak of Algarsife, 
How that he won Theodora to his wife. 

Chaucer: T/u Squire's TaU. 

Algebar' (" the giant "). So the Ara- 
bians call the constellation Orion. 

Begirt with many a blazing star, 
Stood the great giant Algebar 
Orion, hunter of the beast. 
Long/eUo-w : T/ie Occultaiion 0/ Orion. 

Alham'bra {The\ a volume of 
legends and narratives by Washington 
Irving (1812). 

Everything in the [Alhambra] relating to myself and 
to the actual inhabitants of the Alhanibra, is uu- 
exaggerated fact. /K Irving. 

A'li, cousin and son-in-law of Ma- 
homet. The beauty of his eyes is pro- 
verbial in Persia, Ayn AH ("eyes of 
AU") being the highest compliment a 
Persian can pay to beauty. 

All Baba, a poor Persian wood- 
carrier, who accidentally learned the 
magic words, " Open, SesamS !" " Shut, 
Sesamg I " by which he gained entrance 
into a vast cavern, the repository of stolen 
wealth and the lair of forty thieves. He 
made himself rich by plundering from 
these stores ; and by the shrewd cunning 
of Morgia'na, his female slave, the 
captain and his whole band of thieves 
were extirpated. In reward of these 
services, AH Baba gave Morgiana her 
freedom, and married her to his own 
son. Arabian Nights (" Ali Baba, or the 
Forty Thieves "). (See Tycho.) 

Alias. "You have as many aliases 
as Robin of Bagshot." (See Robin of 

AL'ICE (2 syl), sister of Valentine, 
in Mons. Thomas, a comedy by John 
Fletcher (1619). Beaumont died 1616. 

Al'ice (2 syl. ), foster-sister of Robert le 
Diable, and bride of Rambaldo the Nor- 
man troubadour in Meyerbeer's opera ol 
Roberto il Diavolo. She came to Palermo 
to place in the duke's hand his mother's 
" will," which he was enjoined not to read 
till he became a virtuous man. She is 
Robert's good genius, and when Bertram, 
the fiend, claimed his soul as the price of 
his ill deeds, Alice, by reading the will, 
reclaimed him. 

Al'ice (2 syl. ), the servant-girl of dame 
Whitecraft, wife of the innkeeper at Al- 
iringham. Sir IV, Scott: Pevcril of the 
Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Al'ice, the miller's daughter, a story of 
happy first love told in later years by 
an old man who had married the rustic 
beauty. He was a dreamy lad when he 
first loved Alice, and the passion roused 
him into manhood, (See Rose. ) Tenny' 
son : The Miller s Daughter. 

Al'ice [The lady), widow of Walter 
knight of Avenel(2 jj'/.). 5i> W. Scott: 
The Monastery (time, Elizabeth). 

Al'ice [Gray], called "Old Alice Gray/' 
a quondam tenant of the lord of Ravens- 
wood. Lucy Ashton visits her after the 
funeral of the old lord. -S/r W. Scott: 
Bride of Lammermoor (time, William 

Alice in "Wonderland, a fairy 
tale by "Lewis Carroll" (the assumed 
name of C. L. Dodgson), published in 
1869. A continuation, called Through 
the Looking-glass, was published in 

Alicbi'no, a devil in Dante's Inferno. 

Alick [Polworth], one of the ser- 
vants of Waverley. Sir W. Scott: 
Waverley (time, George II.). 

ALICIA gave her heart to Mosby, 
but married Arden for his position. As 
a wife, she played falsely with her hus- 
band, and even joined Mosby in a plot to 
murder him. Vacillating between love 
for Mosby and respect for Arden, she 
repents, and goes on sinning ; wishes to 
get disentangled, but is overmastered by 
Mosby's stronger will. Alicia's passions 
impel her to evil, but her judgment ac- 
cuses her and prompts her to the right 
course. She halts, and parleys with sin, 
like Balaam, and of course is lost. Anon. : 
Arden of Feversham (1592). 

Ali'cia, "a laughing, toying, wheed- 
hng, whimpering she," who once held 




lord Hastings under her distaff; but her 
annoying jealousy, "vexatious days, and 
jarring, joyless nights," drove him away 
from her. Being jealous of Jane Shore, 
she accused her to the duke of Gloster of 
alluring lord Hastings from his allegiance, 
and the lord protector soon trumped up a 
charge against both ; the lord chamberlain 
he ordered to execution for treason, and 
Jane Shore he persecuted for witchcraft. 
Alicia goes raving mad. Howe: Jane 
Shore {171s). 

The king of Denmark went to see Mrs. Bellamy play 
" Alicia," and fell into a sound sleep. The angry lady 
had to say, ",0 thou false lord ! " and she drew near to 
the slumbering monarch, and shouted the words into 
the royal box. The king started, rubbed his eyes, and 
remarked that ho would not have such a woman for 
liis wife, tliough she had no end of kingdoms for a 
dowry. Co nihil i Magazine (1863). 

Alic'ia {The lady), daughter of lord 
Waldemar Fitzarse. Sir VV. Scott: 
Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Alifan'faron, emperor of the island 
Trap'oban, a Mahometan, the suitor of 
Pentap'olin's daughter, a Christian. Pen- 
tapolin refused to sanction this alliance, 
and the emperor raised a vast army to 
enforce his suit. This is don Quixote's 
solution of two flocks of sheep coming in 
opposite directions, which he told Sancho 
were the armies of Alifanfaron and Pen- 
tapolin. Cervantes: Don Quixote, I. iii. 4 

IT Ajax the Greater had a similar en- 
counter. (See AjAX Telamon, p. 17.) 

Alin'da, daughter of Alphonso an 
irascible old lord of Sego'via. John 
Fletcher : The Pilgrim (1621). 

[Alinda is the name assumed by young 
Archas when he dresses in woman's attire. 
This young man is the son of general 
Archas, " the loyal subject " of the great 
duke of Moscovia, in a drama by John 
Fletcher, called The Loyal Subject, 

Aliprando, a Christian knight, who 
discovered the armour of Rinaldo, and 
informed Godfrey of it. Both inferred that 
Rinaldo had been slain, but they were 
mistaken. Tasso : Jerusalem Delivered 

Al'iris, sultan of Lower Buchar'ia, 
who, under the assumed name of Fer'- 
amorz, accompanied Lalla Rookh from 
Delhi, on her way to be married to the 
sultan. He won her love, and amused 
the tedium of the journey by telling her 
tales. "When introduced to the sultan, 
her joy was unbounded on discovering 
that Feramorz the poet was the sultan to 

whom she was betrothed. Moore : Lalla 
Rookh (1817). 

Alisauuder {fCyng), an Arthurian 
romance, included in Weber's Collection. 
Probably of French origin. 

Alisaunder {Sir), surnamed LoR- 
FELiN, son of the good prince Boudwine 
and his wife An 'glides (3 syL). Sir Mark 
king of Cornwall murdered his brother, 
sir Boudwine, while Alisaunder was a 
mere child. When Alisaunder wac 
knighted, his mother gave him his father's 
doublet, "bedabbled with blood," and 
charged him to revenge his father's death. 
Alisaunder married Alis la Beale Pilgrim, 
and had one son, called Bellen 'gerus le 
Beuse. Instead of fulfilling his mother's 
charge, he was himself "falsely and 
feloniously slain " by king Mark. Sir T. 
Malory: History of King Arthur, u, 119- 

Al'ison, the young wife of John, a 
rich old miserly carpenter. Absolon, a 
priggish parish clerk, paid her attention, 
but she herself loved a poor scholar named 
Nicholas, lodging in her husband's house. 
Fair she was, and her body lithe as a 
weasel. She had a roguish eye, small 
eyebrows, was " long as a mast and up- 
right as a bolt," more " pleasant to look 
on than a flowering pear tree," and her 
skin "was softer than the wool of a 
wether." Chaucer: Canterbury Tales 
(" The Miller's Tale," 1383). 

Al'ison, in sir W. Scoii' sKenilworth, is 
an old domestic in the service of the earl 
of Leicester at Cumnor Place. 

Al Kadr {The Night of). The 97th 
chapter of the Koran is so entitled. It 
was the night on which Mahomet received 
from Gabriel his first revelation, and was 
probably the 24th of Ramadan. 

Verily we sent down the Kordn in the night of Al 
Kadr. Al Kofdn, xcvii. 

Al'ken, an old shepherd who in- 
structed Robin Hood's men how to find a 
witch, and how she is to be hunted. Ben 
Jonson : The Sad Shepherd (1637). 

Alkoremmi, the palace built by the 
Motassem on the hill of " Pied Horses." 
His son Vathek added five wings to it, 
one for the gratification of each of the 
five senses. 

I. The Eternal Banquet, in which 
were tables covered both night and day 
with the most tempting foods. 

II. The Nectar of the Soul, filled 
with the best of poets and musicians. 




Til. The Delight OF THE Eyes, filled 
with the most enchanting objects the eye 
could look on. 

IV. The Palace of Perfumes, which 
was always pervaded with the sweetest 

V. The Retreat of Joy, filled with 
tlie loveliest and most seductive houris. 
II'. Bedford: Vathek (1784). 

All Pools, a comedy by George 
Chapman (1605), based on Terence's 

All for Love (or "A Sinner Well 
Saved "), a poem in nine parts, in the form 
of a ballad, bySouthey {1829). The legend 
is this : Elecmon, afreedman, was in love 
with Cyra, his master's daughter, and 
signed with his blood a bond to give body 
and soul to Satan, if Satan would give 
him Cyra for his wife. He married Cyra, 
and after the lapse of twelve years Satan 
came to Eleemon to redeem his bond. 
Cyra applied to St. Basil, who appointed 
certain penance, and when Satan came 
and showed Basil the bond, the bishop 
replied that thebond was worthless for two 
reasons: (i) it was made when Eleemon 
was single, but marriage made the wife 
one with the man, and Cyra's consent 
was indispensable ; (2) nothing that man 
can do can possibly render null the work 
of redemption, so the blood of Eleemon 
was washed away by the blood of Christ. 
If sin hath abounded, grace hath super- 

All for Love (or " The World Well 
Lost"), a tragedy by Dryden (1678). 
VentidJus induces Antony to free himself 
from the wiles of Cleopatra, but the fair 
frail one wins him back again. Where- 
upon Ventidius brings forward Octavia, 
who succeeds for a lime in regaining her 
husband's love. Again Cleopatra lures 
him away, and when Alexandria fell into 
the hands of Octavius Coesar, Alexis tells 
Antony that Cleopatra is dead, where- 
upon Antony slays himself. Cleopatra 
(erroneously reported dead) arrives just 
in time to bid Antony farewell, and then 
kills herself with an asp. 

All in the Wrong", a comedy by 
Murphy, adapted from the French 
(1761). ' Also the title of a novel by 
Theodore Hook (1839). 

All the Year Sound, a weekly 
periodical, conducted by Charles Dickens, 
and since his death in 1870 continued by 
his son. It was called " Household 

Words " from 1850 to 1857 ; then "Once a 
Wctk " (1857-1859). 

All the Talents Administration, 
formed by lord Grenville, in 1806, on the 
death of William Pitt. The members 
were lord Grenville, the earl F'itzwilliam, 
viscount Sidmouth, Charles James Fox, 
carl Spencer, William Windham, lord 
Erskine, sir Charles Grey, lord Ivlinto, 
lord Auckland, lord Moira, Sheridan, 
Richard Fitzpatrick, and lord Ellen- 
borough. It was dissolved in 1807. 

On "all the talents " vent your venal spleen. 
Byron : English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. 

All this for a Song ! (See Song.) 

All's Well that Ends Well, a 

comedy by Shakespeare (1598). The 
hero and heroine are Bertram count of 
Rousillon, and Hel'ena a physician's 
daughter, who are married by the com- 
mand of the king of France ; they part 
because Bertram thought the lady not 
sufficiently well-born for him. Ulti- 
mately, however, all ends well. (See 

(The story of this play is from the 
Decameron, Novel ix. Day 3.) 

Allan, lord of Ravenswood, a decayed 
Scotch nobleman. Sir W. Scott: The 
Bride of Lamtnermoor (time, William 

Allan {M7-S.), colonel Mannering's 
housekeeper at Woodburne. Sir W, 
Scott: Guy Afannerini^ {ixxne, George II.). 

Allan [Breck Cameron], the ser- 
geant sent to arrest Hamish Bean 
McTavish, by whom he is shot. Sir W. 
Scott: The Highland Widow (time, 
George II.). 

AUan-a-Dale, one of Robin Hood's 
men, introduced by sir W. Scott in 
Ivanhoe. (See Allin-A-D ale. ) 

Allegory for Allig'ator, a mal- 


She's as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the 

Sheridan : The Rivah, iii. 2 (1775). 

AUe'gre (3 syl.), the faithful servant 
of Philip Chabot. When Chabot was 
accused of treason, AUegre was put to the 
rack to make him confess something to 
his master's damage ; but the brave fellow 
was true as steel, and it was afterwards 
shown that the accusation had no foun- 
dation but jealousv. G. Chapman and 
J. Shirley : The ' Tragedy of Philip 
Chabot (1639). 




Allegro {L'), one of two exquisite 
poems in seven-syllable verse, by Milton. 
The other is called // Penseroso. L' Allegro 
or Mirth dwells on the innocent delights 
of the country, such as the lark, the 
barn-door cock, the hunting-horn, the 
ploughman, the mower, the milkmaid, 
ajid so on. 

These deligfhts if thou canst give, 
Mirth, with thee 1 uieau to live. 


AUelu'jall, wood-sorrel, so called by 
a corruption of its name, Juliola, where- 
by it is knov/n in the south of Italy. 
Its official name is Luzula. 

Allemayne (2 syl.), Germany, from 
the French Allemagne. Also written 

Thy faithful bosom swooned with pain, 
O loveliest m.iiden of Allemayne. 

Caifipbell: The Brave Roland. 

Allen {Mr. Benjamin), a young 
surgeon in Dickens's Pickwick Papers. 

Allen [Ralph), the friend of Pope, and 
benefactor of Fielding. 

Let humble Alien, with an awkward shame, 
Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame. 
Pope : Epilosue to tlu Satires, Dialogrue i. 136. 

Allen {Major), an officer in the duke of 
Monmouth's army. Sir W. Scott: Old 
Mortality (time, Charles II.). 

Alley {The), i.e. the Stock Ex- 
change Alley (London). 

John Rive, after many active years In the Alley, 
retired to the Continent ; and died at the age of ii8. 
Olii and New London. 

All-Fair, a princess, who was saved 
from the two lions (which guarded the 
Desert Fairy) by the Yellow Dwarf, on 
condition that she would become his 
wife. On her return home she hoped to 
evade this promise by marrying the brave 
king of the Gold Mines, but on the wed- 
ding day Yellow Dwarf carried her off 
on a Spanish cat, and confined her in 
Steel Castle. Here Gold Mine came to 
her rescue with a magic sword, but in his 
joy at finding her, he dropped his sword, 
and was stabbed to the heart with it 
by Yellow Dwarf. All-Fair, falling on 
the body of her lover, died of a broken 
heart. The syren changed the dead 
lovers into two palm trees. Cointesse 
D'Aulnoy, Fairy Tales ("The Yellow 
Dwarf," 1682). 

Allin-a-Dale or AUen-a-Dale, of 

Nottinghamshire, was to be married to 
a lady who returned his love, but her 
parents compelled lier to forego young 
AUin for an old knight of wealth. AUin 

told his tale to Robin Hood, and the bold 
forester, in the disguise of a harper, went 
to the church where the wedding cere- 
mony was to take place. When the 
wedding party stepped in, Robin Hood 
exclaimed, " This is no fit match ; the 
bride shall be married only to the man of 
her choice." Then sounding his horn, 
Al!in-a-Dale with four and twenty bow- 
men entered the church. The bishop 
refused to marry the woman to AUin till 
the banns had been asked three times, 
whereupon Robin pulled off the bishop's 
gown, and invested Little John in it, who 
asked the banns seven times, and per- 
formed the ceremony. Robin Hood a?id 
Allin-a-Dale (a ballad). 

AUnut {Noll), landlord of the Swan, 
Lambythe Ferry (1625). 

Grace AUnut, his wife. 

Oliver Allnut, the landlord's son. 
Sterling: John Felton (1852). 

AUwortli {Lady), stepmother to Tom 
AUworth. Sir Giles Overreach thought 
she would marry his nephew Weliborn, 
but she married lord Lovel. 

Tom AUworth, stepson of lady All- 
worth, in love with Margaret OveiTeach, 
whom he marries. Massinger : A New 
IVay to pay Old Debts (1625). 

The first appearance of Thomas King was "Allworth, ' 
on the 19th October, 1748. Boaden. 

Airworthy, in Fielding's Tom Jones, 
a man of sturdy rectitude, large charity, 
infinite modesty, independent spirit, and 
untiring philanthropy, with an utter dis- 
regard of money or fame. Fielding's 
friend, Ralph Allen, was the academy 
figure of this character. (See Allen. ) 

Alma [the human soul], queen of 
" Body Castle," which for seven years 
was beset by a rabble rout. Spenser 
says, "The divine part of man is 
circular, and the mortal part triangular." 
Arthur and sir Guyon were conducted by 
Alma over "Body Castle." Spenser: 
Faerie Qiieene, ii. 9 (1590). 

. Prior wrote a poem called Alma, in 
three cantos. 

Almain, Germany; in French Alle- 
magne. (See Allemayne. ) 

Almansor {"the invincible"), a 
title assumed by several Mussulman 
princes, as by the second caliph of the 
Abbasside dynasty, named Abou Giafar 
Abdallah {the invincible, or al mansor). 
Also by the famous captam of the Moors 
in Spain, named Mohammv^d. In Africa, 



Vacoub-al-Modjahed was enlilled " al 
Mansor," a royal name of dignity given 
lo the kings of Fez, Morocco, and 

The kingdoms of Almansor, Fez, and Sus, 
Marocco and Algiers. 

MiUcn : Paradise Lost, xL 403 (1665). 

AIiMANZOB, the caliph, wishing to 
found a city in a certain spot, was told 
by a hermit named Bagdad that a man 
called Moclas was destined to be its 
founder, " I am that man," said the 
caliph, and he then told the hermit how in 
his boyhood he once stole a bracelet and 
])awned it, whereupon his nurse ever after 
called him " Moclas" {thief). Almanzor 
founded the city, and called it Bagdad, 
the name of the hermit. Marigny. 

Alman'zor, in Dryden's tragedy of 
77/1? Conquest 0/ Grana'da (1672). 

Almanzor, lackey of Madclon and her 
cousin Cathos, the affected fine ladies in 
Moli6re*s comedy of Les Pricieusts 
Ridicules (1659). 

Almanzor and Alm'anzaida, a 

novel said to be by Sir Philip Sidney, and 
published in 1678, which, however, being 
ninety-two years after his deatli, renders 
the attributed authorship extremely sus- 

Almavi'va{C>;?/and countess), in the 
Barber 0/ Seville and in the Mariage de 
Figaro. Holcroft has a wretched adapta- 
tion called The Follies of a Day. Tlie 
count is a libertine, and the countess is 
his wife. Hollies (1745-1809). 

Alme'ria, daughter of Manuel king 
of Grana'da. Prince Alphonso fell in 
love with her, and married her ; but on 
the very day of espousal the ship in which 
they were sailing was wrecked, and each 
thought the other had perished. Both, 
however, were saved, and met unex- 
pectedly on the coast of Granada, to 
which Alphonso was brouglit as a captive. 
Here (under the assumed name of Osmyn) 
he was imprisoned, but made his escape, 
and invaded Granada. He found king 
Manuel dead ; succeeded to the crown ; 
and " the mourning bride " became con- 
verted into the joyful wife. W. Congreve : 
The Mourning Bride (1697). 

AlmesTsury (3 syl.). It was in a 
sanctuary of Almesbury that queen 
Guenever took refuge, after her adul- 
terous passion for sir Lancelot was made 
knovra to the king. Here she died, but 
her body was buried at Glastonbury, in 

(Almesbury, i.e. Almondsbury, in 

Alm.ey'da, the Portuguese governor 
of India. In his engagement with the 
united fleets of Cambaya and Egypt, he 
had his legs and thighs shattered by chain- 
shot, but, instead of retreating to the rear, 
he had himself bound to the ship-mast, 
where he "waved his sword to cheer on 
the combatants," till he died from loss of 

MHiirled by the cannons' rag:e, In sliivers torn, 
His tliig^hs far scattered o'er the waves are borne ; 
Uound to the mast the g^odlikc liero stands. 
Waves his proud sword and cheers his woeful bauds ; 
Tho' winds and seas their wonted aid deny. 
To yield he luiows not ; but he knows to die. 

Cainoens : Ljtstad, x. (1369). 

^ Similar stories are told of admiral 
Benbow, Cynasgeros brother of the poet 
/Eschylos, Jaafer who carried the sacred 
banner of "the prophet" in the battle of 
Muta, and of some others. 

Almirods ( The), a rebellious people, 
who refused to submit to prince Pan- 
tng'ruel after his subjugation of Anar- 
chus king of the Dipsodes (2 syl.). It 
was while Pantagruel was marching 
against these rebels that a tremendous 
shower of rain fell, and the prince, putting 
out his tongue "half-way,"- sheltered his 
whole army. Rabelais: Pantagruel, ii. 
32 (1533)- 

Arnaschar, the dreamer, the "bar- 
ber's fifth brother." He invested all his 
money in a basket of glassware, on which 
he was to gain so much, and then to in- 
vest again and again, till he grew so rich 
that he would marry the vizier's daughter 
and live in grandeur; but, being angry 
with his supposed wife, he gave a kick 
with his foot and smashed all the ware 
which had given birth to his dream of 
wealth. The Arabian Nights' Entertain- 

If Echep'ron's fable of The Shoemaker 
and a Ha' forth of Milk, in Rabelais; 
7'he Milkmaid and her Pail of Milk, 
Dodsley ; and Perrette et le Pot au Lait, 
by La Fontaine, are similar fables. 

The leading ideas of Malvolio, in his humour of state, 
bear a strong resemblance to those of Alnaschar, and 
some of the expressions are very similar, too. Tyr- 
whit. _ 

To indulge in Alnaschar-like dreams of compound 
Interest ad infinitum. Tht Times. 

The Alnaschar of Modern Literature, 
S. Taylor Coleridge, who dreamt his 
Kubla Khan {q.v.), and wrote it out next 
morning from memory (1772-1834). 

'.* Most likely he had been reading 
Purchas's Pilgrimage, which recurred to 




him in his dreams. None can doubt the 
resemblance of the two poems. 

Alnec'ma or Alnecmacht, ancient 
name of Connaught. 

In Alnecma was the warrior honoured, the first of the 
race of Bolga lihe Belgoi 0/ South Irekind\. Ossian : 
Temcra, ii. 

Aloa'din (4 syl.), a sorcerer, who made 
for liimself a palace and garden in Arabia 
called " The Earthly Paradise." Thalaba 
slew him with a club, and the scene 
of enchantment disappeared. Southey : 
Thalaba the Destroyer, vii. (1797). 

A. L. O. E. (that is, A L[adyl 0[f] 
E[ngland]), Miss Charlotte Tucker (1821- 

Alon'so, king of Naples, father of 
Ferdinand and brother of Sebastian, in 
The Tempest, by Shakespeare (1609). 

AIiQNZO the brave, the name of a 
ballad by M. G. Lewis. The fair Imogen' 
was betrothed to Alonzo, but, during his 
absence in the wars, became the bride of 
another. At the wedding feast Alonzo's 
ghost sat beside the bride, and, after 
rebuking her for her infidelity, carried 
her off to the grave. 

Alonzo the brave was the name of the knight ; 
The maid was the fair Iinoijen. 

M. G. Lewis (177S-1818). 

Alon'zo, a Portuguese gentleman, the 
sworn enemy of the vainglorious Duarte 
(3 syl. ), in the drama called The Ctisto^n 
of the Country, by Beaumont and Flet- 
cher (pubhshed in 1647). 

Alonzo, the husband of Cora. He is a 
brave Peruvian knight, the friend of Rolla, 
and beloved by king Atali'ba. Alonzo, 
being taken prisoner of war, is set at 
liberty by Rolla, who changes clothes 
with him. At the end he fights with 
Pizarro and kills him . Sheridan : Pizarro 
(altered from Kotzebue) (1799). 

Alonzo {Don), "the conqueror of 
Afric," friend of don Carlos, and husband 
of Leonora. (For the plot, see Zanga.) 
Young : The Revenge ( 1 72 1 ). 

Alonzo Fernandez de Avella- 
neda, author of a spurious Don Qtiixote, 
who makes a third sally. This was pub- 
lished during the lifetime of Cervantes, 
and caused him great annoyance. 

Alp, a Venetian renegade, who was 
commander of the Turkish army in the 
siege of Corinth. He loved Francesca, 
daughter of old Minotti, governor of 
Corinth, but she refused to marry a rene- 
gade and apostate. Alp was shot in the 

siege, and Francesca died of a broken 
heart. Byron: Siege of Corinth (i8i6). 

Alph, a river in Xanadu, mentioned 
by Coleridge in his Kubla Khan. 

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan 

A stately pleasure-dome decree. 
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran. 
Thro' caverns measureless to man, 
Down to a sunless sea. 

Kubla Khan. 

Alpha 'us (3 syl.), a magician and 
prophet in the army of Charlemagne, 
slain in sleep by Clorida'no. Ariosto : 
Orlando Furioso (1516), 

Alphe'us (3 syl.), of classic story, being 
passionately in love with Arethu'sa, pur- 
sued her ; but she fled from him in a 
fright, and was changed by Diana into 
a fountain, which bears her name. 

Alphon'so, an irascible old lord in 
The Pilgrim, a comedy by John Fletcher 

Alplion'so, king of Naples, deposed by 
his brother Frederick. Sora'no tried to 
poison him, but did not succeed. Ulti- 
mately, he recovered his crown, and 
Frederick and Sorano were sent to a 
monastery for the rest of their lives. 
John Fletcher: A Wife for a Month 
(1624). Beaumont died i6i6. 

Alphonso, son of count Pedro of Can- 
ta.bria, afterwards king of Spain. He was 
plighted to Hermesind, daughter of lord 

The young Alphonso was in truth an heir 

Of nature's largest patrimony ; rich 

In form and feature, growing strength of limb, 

A gentle heart, a soul affectioiiate, 

A joyous spirit, filled with generous thoughts. 

And genius heightening and ennobling all. 

Southey : Roderick, etc., viii. (1814), 

Alpleiclx or Elfenreigfen, the weird 
spirit-song, or that music which some 
hear before death. Faber .refers to it in 
his " Pilgrims of the Night " 

Hark, hark, my soul I Angelic songs are swelling. 

And Pope, in The Dying Christian to his 
Soul, when he says 

Hark I they whisper, angels say, 
Sister spirit, come away 1 

Alps-Vinegfar. It is Livy who says 
that Hannibal poured hot vinegar on the 
Alps to facilitate his passage over the 
mountains. Where did he get the vinegar 
from? And as for the fire, Polybius says 
there was no means of heating tlie vinegar, 
not a tree for fire-wood. 

Alq^ui'fe (351'/.), a famous enchanter 
in Amddis of Gaul, by Vasco de Lobeira, 
of Oporto, who died 1403. 




La Noue denounces such beneficent enchanters as 
Alijuife and Urganda, because they serve "as a vindi- 
cation of tliose who traffic with the powers of darkness." 
J-'rancis dt la Noue: Discourses, 87 (1587). 

Al Rakim {rah-keem''\. The meaning 
of this word is very doubtful. Some say 
it is the mountain or valley of the cave 
of the seven sleepers. Others think it is 
tiie name of tlie dog shut up in the cave 
with them ; but probably it is a stone or 
metal tablet set up near the cave, con- 
taining the names of the seven sleepers 
and their dog Katmir'. Sale : Al Koran, 
xviii. note. 

Alrinacli, the demon who causes 
shipwrecks, and presides over storms and 
earthquakes. When visible it is always 
in the form and dress of a woman, 
Eastern Mythology. 

Alsa'tia, the Whitefriars' sanctuary 
for debtors and law-breakers. The name 
is taken from Alsatia {Alsace, in France), 
a seat of war and lawlessness when king 
James's son-in-law was the prince Pala- 
tine. Sir Walter Scott, in The Fortunes 
of Nigel, has graphically described the 
life and state of this rookery, but he is 
greatly indebted to Shadwell's comedy, 
The Squire of Alsatia (1640-1692). 

Alscrip [Miss), "the heiress," a vulgar 
parvenuc, affected, conceited, ill-natured, 
and ignorant. Having had a fortune left 
her, she assumes the airs of a woman of 
fashion, and exhibits the follies without 
possessing the merits of the upper ten. 

Mr. Alscrip, the vulgar father of " th^ 
heiress," who finds the grandeur of sud- 
den wealth a great bore, and in his new 
mansion, Berkeley Square, sighs for the 
snug comforts he once enjoyed as scrive- 
ner in Furnival's Inn. Burgoyne: The 
Heiress (17S1). 

Al Sirat', an imaginary bridge be- 
tween earth and the Mahometan paradise, 
not so wide as a spider's thread. Those 
laden with sin fall over into the abyss 

Al'tainont,ayoungGenoeseIord, who 
marries Calista, daughter of lord Sciol'to 
(3 syl. ), On his wedding day he discovers 
that his bride has been seduced by Lotha'- 
rio, and a duel ensues, in which Lothario 
is killed, whereupon Calista stabs herself. 
Rmve : 7 he Fa ir Pen iten / ( 1 703 ). 

. Rowe makes Sciolto three syllables 

[John Quick] commenced his career at Fulham, where 
be performed the character of "Altamont," which he 
.icted so much to the satisfaction of the manager th;a 
ho desired his wife to set dowi young Quick a whole 

share, which, at the close of the performance, amounted 
to three iXxy^xn^^ Memoir of John Quick (1832). 

Altamoms, king of Samarcand', who 
joined the Egyptian army against the 
crusaders. He surrendered himself to 
Godfrey (bk, xx.). Tasso: Jerusalem De- 
livered {isis)- 

Althe'a ( The divine), of Richard Love- 
lace, was Lucy Sachevcrell, called by the 
poet, Lncretia. 

When love with unconfinid wings 

Hovers within my gates, 
And my divine Althea brings 

To whisper at my grates. . . . 

(The "grates" here referred to were 
those of a prison in which Lovelace was 
confined by the Long Parliament, for his 
petition from Kent in favour of the king.) 

Althaea's Brand. The Fates told 
Althtea that her son Melea'ger would live 
just as long as a log of wood then on the 
fire remained unconsumed. Althaea con- 
trived to keep the log unconsumed for 
many years ; but when her son killed her 
two brothers, she threw it angrily into the 
fire, where it was quickly consumed, and 
Meleager expired at the same time. 
Ovid: Metamorphoses, viii. 4. 

The fatal brand AlthKa burned. 
Shakesj>eare : 2 Henry VJ. act i. sc. i (1S91J. 

(Shakespeare says {2 Henry IV. act ii. 
sc. 2). Althaea dreamt "she was delivered 
of a fire-brand." This is a mistake. It 
was Hecuba who so dreamt. The story 
of Althaea and the fire-brand is given 
above. ) 

Altisido'ra, one of the duchess's 
servants, who pretends to be in love with 
don Quixote, and serenades him. The 
don sings his response that he has no 
other love than what he gives to his 
Dulcin'ea, and while he is still singing 
he is assailed by a string of cats, let into 
the room by a rope. As the knight was 
leaving the mansion, Altisidora accused 
him of having stolen her garters, but 
v/hen the knight denied the charge, the 
damsel protested that she said so in her 
distraction, for her garters were not stolen. 
" I am like the man," she said, " looking 
for his mule at the time he was astride its 
liack." Cervantes: Don Quixote, II. iii. 
9, etc. ; iv. 5 {1615). 

Al'tou [Miss), alias Miss CLIFFORD, a 
sweet, modest young lady, the companion 
of Miss Alscrip, " tlie heiress," a vulgar, 
conceited parvemce. Lord Gayville is 
expected to marry "the heiress," but 
detests her, and loves Miss Alton, her 
humble companion. It turns out that 


/2000 a year of "the heiress's" fortune 
Mong; to Mr. Cliflford (Miss Alton's 
brother), and is by him settled on his 
sister. Sir Clement Flint destroys this 
bond, whereby the money returns to Clif- 
ford, who marries lady Emily Gayville, 
and sir Clement settles the same on his 
nephew, lord Gayville, who marries Miss 
P^\ox\,.Burgoyne : The Heiress (1781). 

Al'ton Locke, tailor and poet, a 
novel by the Rev. Charles Kingsley 
(1850). This novel won for the author 
the title of "The Chartist Clergyman." 

Alzir'do, king of Trem'izen, in Africa, 
overthrown by Orlando in his march to 
join the allied army of Ag'ramant. 
Ariosto: Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Am'adis of Gaul, a love-child of 
king Per 'ion and the princess Elize'na. 
He is the hero of a famous prose romance 
of chivalry, the first four books of which 
(in old French) are attributed to Vasco 
de Lobeira of Portugal, who died 1403, 
Three other books were added in the 
same century, and were translated 
into Spanish in 1460 by Montal'vo, who 
added a fifth book. The five were 
rendered into French by Herberay, who 
increased the series to twenty-four books. 
Lastly, Gilbert Saunier added seven more 
volumes, and called the entire series Le 
Roman des Romans. 

'.' Whether Amadis was French or 
British is disputed. Some maintain that 
' ' Gaul " means Wales, not France ; 
that Elizena was princess of Briiiany 
(Bretagne), and that Perion was king 
of Gaul ( Wales), not Gaul (France). 

Amailis de Gaul was a tall man, of a fair complexion, 
his aspect something between mild and austere, and 
had a handsome black beard. He was a person of very 
few words, was not easily provoked, and w^as soon 
appeased. CervanUs : Don Quixote, II. i. i (1615). 

(WiUiam Stewart Rose has a poem in 
three books, called Amadis of Gaul, 

As Arthur is the central figure of 
British romance, Charlemagne of French, 
and Diderick of German, so Amadis is 
the central figure of Spanish and Portu- 
guese romance ; but there is this difference 
the tale of Amadis is a connected whole, 
concluding with the marriage of the hero 
with Oria'na. The intervening parts are 
only the obstacles he encountered and 
overcame in obtaining this consummation. 
In the Arthurian romances, and those of the 
Charlemagne series, we have a number of 
adventures of different heroes, but there 
is no unity of purpose, each set of adven- 
tures is complete in itself. 


(Southey the poet has an admirable 
abridgment of .^wa^/j o/"G<7w/, and also 
of Pabnerin of England. Bernardo 
Tasso wrote Amadigi di Gaula in 1560.) 

Am'adis of Greece, a supplemental 
part of Amadis of Gaul, by Felicia'no de- 
Silva. There are also several other Ama- 
dises as Amadis of Colchis, Amadis of 
Trebisond, Amadis of Cathay ; but all 
these are very inferior to the original 
A madis of Gaul. 

The ancient fables, whose relickes doe yet remain, 
n^me\y, Lancelot 0/ the Lai:e, Pierceforest, Tristram, 
Giron the Courteous, etc., doe beare witnesse of this 
odde vjynitie. Herewith were men fed for the space 
of 500 yeeres, untill our language growing more 
polisiied, and our minds more ticklish, they were 
driven to invent some novelties wherewith to delight 
us. Thus came y" bookes of Amadis into light among 
us in this last age. Francis dt la None: Discourses, 
87 (1587). 

Amai'mon (3 syl.), one of the prin- 
cipal devils. Asmode'us is one of his 
lieutenants. Shakespeare twice refers to 
him, in i Hetiry IV. act ii. sc. 4, and in 
Tlie Merry Wives of Windsor, act ii. 
sc. 2. 

Amal'alita, son of Erill'yab the 
deposed queen of the Hoamen (2 jy/.), an 
Indian tribe settled on the south of the 
Missouri. He is described as a brutal 
savage, wily, deceitful, and cruel. Amal- 
ahta wished to marry the princess Goer'- 
vyl, Madoc's sister, and even seized her 
by force, but was killed in his flight. 
Southey : Madoc, ii. 16 (1805). 

Amalthse'a, the sibyl who offered to 
sell to Tarquin nine books of prophetic 
oracles. When the king refused to give 
her the price demanded, she went away, 
burnt three of them, and returning to the 
king, demanded the same price for the 
remaining six. Again the king declined 
the purchase. The sibyl, after burning 
three more of the volumes, demanded 
the original sum for the remaining three. 
Tarquin paid the money, and Amalthcea 
was never more seen. Aulus Gellius 
says that Amalthasa burnt the books in 
the king's presence. Pliny affirms that 
the original number of volumes was only 
three, two of which tlie sibyl burnt, and 
the third was purchased by king Tarquin. 

Anialthe'a, mistress of Ammon and 
mother of Bacchus. Ammon hid his 
mistress in the island Nysa (in Africa), 
in order to elude the vigilance and 
jealousy of his wife Rhea. This account 
(given by Diodorus Sic'ulus, bk. iii., 
and by sir Walter Raleigh in his History 
of the World, I. vi. 5) differs from the 
ordinary story, which makes Sem'elS the 




I mother of Bacchus, and Rhea his nurse. 
\ (Amnion is Ham or Cham, the son of 
I Noah, founder of the African race.) 

... that Nyseian ile, 
Girt with the river Triton, where old Cham 
(Whom Gentiles Ammon call, and Libyan Jove) 
Hid Amalthea and her florid son, 
Youn Bacchus, from his stepdame Rhea's eye. 
A/iUoH : Parodist Lost, iv. 375 (1665). 

Amanda, wife of Loveless. Lord 
Foppington pays her amorous attentions, 
but she utterly despises the conceited 
coxcomb, and treats him with contumely. 
Colonel Townly, in order to pique his 
lady-love, also pays attention to Love- 
less's wife, but she repels his advances 
with indignation ; and Loveless, who 
overhears her, conscious of his own short- 
comings, resolves to reform his ways, and, 
" forsaking all other," to remain true to 
Amanda, "so long as they both should 
live." Sheridan: A Trip to Scarborough 

Aman'da, in Thomson's Seasons, is 
meant for Miss Young, who married 
admiral Campbell. 

And thou, Amanda, come, pride of my songl 
Formed by the Graces, loveliness itself. 

"Spring," 480, 481 (1728). 

Awakened by the genial year. 
In vain the birds around me sing; 

In vain the freshening fields appear ; 
Without my love there is no spring. 

Amanda, the victim of Peregrine 
Pickle's seduction, in Smollett's novel 
of Peregrine Pickle (1751). 

Am'ara (Afount), a place where the 
Abyssinian kmgs kept their younger sons, 
to prevent sedition. It was a perfect 
paradise enclosed with alabaster rocks, 
and containing thirty-four magnificent 
palaces. Heylin: Microcosnius (1627). 

Where the Abassin kings their issue guard, 
Mount Amara, ... by some supposed 
True paradise under the Ethiop Ime, 
By Nilus line, enclosed with shming rock 
A whole day's journey high. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, iv. 280, etc. (1665). 

("The Ethiop line" means the equi- 
noctial line.) 

Am'arant. There are numerous 
species of this flower, those best known 
are called princes feather and love lies 
a-bleeding, both crimson flowers. The 
bloody amaranth and the clustered ama- 
ranth also bear red flowers ; but there is 
a species called the melancholy amaranth, 
which has a purple velvety flower. All 
retain their colours pretty well to the last, 
and the flowers endure for a long time. 
Pliny says (xxi. ii) that the flowers of the 
amaranth recover their colour by being 
sprinkled with water. 

Immortal amaranth, a flower which one* 

In paradise, fast by the Tree of Life, 

Began to bloom. . . . With these ... the spirits elet 

Bind their resplendent locks. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, iii. 353, etc. (i665h 

Amaran'ta, wife of Bar'tolus, the 
covetous lawyer. She was wantonly 
loved by Leandro, a Spanish gentle- 
man. John Fletcher: The Spanish 
Curate (1622). Beaumont died in i6i6. 

Ajxi'a.vanth. (Greek, amarantos, "ever- 
lasting"), so called because its flowers 
retain their "flaming red" colour to the 
last. Longfellow, by a strange error, 
crowns the angel of death with amaranth, 
with which (as Milton says) "the spirits 
elect bind their resplendent locks," and 
his angel of life he crowns with asphode?, 
the flower of Pluto or the g^ave. 

He who wore the crown of asphodels . . , 
[said] " My errand is not death, but life ... 
[but] The angel with the amaranthine wreath 

Whispered a word, that had a sound like death. 
Longfellow: The Two Angels. 

Am'aranth [Lady], in Wild Oats, by 
John O'Keefe, a famous part of Mrs. 
Pope (1740-1797). 

Amaril'lis, a shepherdess in love 
with Per'igot (/ sounded), but Perigot 
loved Am'oret. In order to break off this 
affection, Amarillis induced "the sullen 
shepherd" to dip her in "the magic 
well," whereby she became transformed 
into the perfect resemblance of her rival ; 
and soon effectually disgusted Perigot 
with her bold and wanton conduct. 
When afterwards he met the true 
Amoret, he repulsed her, and even 
wounded her with intent to kill. Ulti- 
mately, the trick was discovered by 
Cor'in, "the faithful shepherdess," and 
Perigot was married to his true love. 
John Fletcher: The Faithful Shepherd 

Amaryllis, in Spenser's pastoral, 
Colin Clout's Come Hojne Again, is the 
countess-dowager of Derby. Her name 
was Alice, and she was the youngest of 
the six daughters of sir John Spenser, of 
Althorpe, ancestor of the noble houses 
of Spenser and Marlborough. After the 
death of the earl, the widow married sir 
Thomas Egerton, keeper of the Great 
Seal (afterwards baron of Ellesmere and 
viscount Brackley). It was for this very 
lady, during her widowhood, that Mil ton 
wrote his Ai-' cades (3 syl.). 

No less praiseworthy are the sisters three 
The honour of the noble family 
Of which I meanest boast myself to t>e . . . 
Phyllis, Charj'llis, and sweet Amaryllis; 
Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three. 
The next to her is bountiful Charj'llis, 
But Amarj-Uis highest in degree. 
Sjienser; Colin Cloiifs Come Home Asain (xta^ 



Amaryllis, the name of a rustic 
beauty in the Idylls of Theocrltos, and 
in the Eclogues of Virgil. 

To sport with Amaryllis in the shade. 


Amasis, the ring of Aniasis is the 
same as Polycrates' ring {q.v.). 

Am'asis, Amdsis, or Aah'mes (3 syl.), 
founder of the eighteenth Egyptian 
dynasty (B.C. 1610). Lord Brooke at- 
tributes to him one of the pyramids. The 
three chief pyramids are usually ascribed 
to Suphis (or Cheops), Sen-Suphis (or 
Cephrenes), and MencherSs, all of the 
fourth dynasty. 

Amasis and Cheops how can time forgive, 
Who ill their useless pyramids would live 7 

Lord Brooke : Peace. 

Amatetir {An). Pierce Egan the 
younger published under this pseudonym 
his Real Life in London, or The Rajnbles 
and Adventures of Rob Tally-ho, Esq., 
and his Cousin, the Hon. To7n Dashall, 
through the Metropolis (1S21-2). 

Aznaurite, a bridge in Utopia. Sir 
Thomas More says he could not recollect 
whether Raphael Hythloday told him it 
was 500 paces or only 300 paces long, and 
fae requested his friend, Peter Giles, living 
at Antwerp, to question the adventurer 
about it. 

Amanrot, the chief city of " Utopia " 
iq.v.). (Greek, amauros, " shadowy, un- 

Amaurots {The), a people whose 
kingdom was invaded by the Dipsodes 
{2 syl.), but Pantag'ruel, coming to their 
defence, utterly routed the invaders. 
Rabelais: Pantagruel, ii. (1533). 

Axna'via, the personification of In- 
temperance in grief. Hearing that her 
husband, sir Mordant, had been enticed 
to the Bower of Bliss by the enchantress 
Acra'sia, she went in quest of him, and 
found him so changed in mind and body 
she could scarcely recognize him ; how- 
ever, she managed by tact to bring him 
away ; but he died^- on the road, and 
Amavia stabbed herself from excessive 
grief. Spenser : Faerie Queene, ii. i 

Amazia. Samuel Pordage wrote a 
poem entitled Azaria and Hushai, in 
reply to T>xydit.v^s Absalom and Achitophel 
{q.v.). Amazia stands for Charles II. In 
this reply we meet with these preposterous 


All his subjects, who his fate did moan, 
Widi joyful hearts restored him to his throne; 
Who then his father's murderers destroyed. 
And a long-, happy, peaceful reign enjoyed. 
Beloved of all, for merciful was he 
Like God, in the superlative degree 1 (II!) 

Amazo'na, a fairy, who freed a 
certain country from the Ogri and the 
Blue Centaur. When she sounded her 
trumpet, the sick were recovered and be- 
came both young and strong. She gave 
the princess Carpil'Iona a bunch of giUi- 
flowcrs, which enabled her to pass un- 
recognized before those who knew her 
well. Comtesse D'Aulnoy : Fairy Tales 
{" The Princess Carpillona," 1682). 

Aiuazo'nian Chin, a beardless chin, 
like that of the Amazonian women. 
Especially applied to a beardless young 
soldier. (See Alexander, p. 22.) 

When with his Amazonian chin he drove 
The bristled lips before him. 
Shakespeare ; Coriolanus, act ii. sc. 2 (1609). 

Amber, said to be a concretion of 
birds' tears, but the birds were the sisters 
of Melea'ger, called Meleag'rides, who 
never ceased weeping for their dead 
brother. Pliny: Natural History^ xxxvii. 
2, II. 

Around thee shall glisten the loveliest amber 
That ever the sorrowing sea-birds have wept. 

Moore: Fire- Worshippers. 

AM'B]R>OS (2 syl. ), a sharper, who 
assumed in the presence of Gil Bias the 
character of a devout. He was in league 
with a fellow who assumed the name of 
don Raphael, and a young woman who 
called herself Camilla, cousin of donna 
Mencia. These three sharpers allure Gil 
Bias to a house which Camilla says is hers, 
fleece him of his ring, his portmanteau, 
and his money, decamp, and leave him to 
find out that the house is only a hired 
lodging. Lesage : Gil Bias, i. 15, 16 


(This mcident is borrowed from Es- 
pinel's romance entitled Vidade Escudero, 
marcos de Obregon, 1618. ) 

Am.lsrose (2 syl.), a female domestic 
servant waiting on iVIiss Seraphine and 
Miss Angelica Arthuret. Sir W. Scott: 
Redgauntlet (time, George II.). 

Ambrose {Brother), a monk who at- 
tended the prior Aymer, of Jorvaulx 
Abbey. Sir W. Scott: Ivanhoe (time, 
Richard I.). 

Am-brose {Father), abbot of Kenna- 
quhair, is Edward Glendinning, brother of 
sir Halbert Glendinning (the knight of 
Avenel). He appears at Kinross, dis- 
guised as a nobleman's retainer. Sir W, 
Scott : The Abbot (time, Elizabeth). 




*. Father Ambrose (Edward Glcn- 
dinning), abbot of Kcnnaquhair, and 
subsequently a servant at Kinross. The 
novel is called the "Abbot," but Roland 
Graeme is the real hero and chief character. 

Ambrosian Chant [The), or hymn 
called Ar?!l>rosidnum, mentioned by Isi- 
dore, in his De Eccl. Offic, bk. i. chap. 6. 
It was a chant or hymn introduced into 
the Cinirch of Milan in the fourth century, 
and now known as the TeDeum lauddmus. 
It is said to have been the joint work of 
St. Ambrose and St. Augustine. The 
historic fact is disputed. 

Ambrosio, the hero of Lewis's 
romance The Monk. He is abbot of the 
Capuchins of Madrid, and is called "The 
man of holiness ; " but Matilda overcame 
his virtue, and he goes on from bad to 
worse, till he is condemned to death by 
the Inquisition. He now bargains with 
Lucifer for release. He gains his bargain, 
it is true, but only to be dashed to pieces 
on a rock. 

Amelia, a model of conjugal affec- 
tion, in Fielding's novel so called (1751). 
It is said that the character was modeilcd 
from his own wife. Dr. Johnson read 
this novel from beginning to end without 
once stopping. 

Amelia is perhaps the only book of which, beingf 
printed off betimes one morning, a new edition was 
called for before nig-ht. The character of Amelia is 
the most pleasing heroine of all the romances. Dr. 

(Lady Mary Wortley Montague tells us 
that Mr. and Mrs. Booth are faithful pre- 
sentments of Mr. and Mrs. Fielding.) 

Amelia, in Thomson's Seasons, a beau- 
tiful, innocent young woman, overtaken 
by a storm while walking with her troth- 
plight lover, Cel'adon, " with equal virtue 
formed, and equal grace. Hers the 
mild lustre of the blooming morn, and 
his the radiance of the risen day." 
Amelia grew frightened, but Celadon 
said, ' ' "lis safety to be near thee, sure ; " 
when a flash of lightning struck her 
dead in his arms. " Summer " (1727). 

Amelia, in Schiller's tragedy of The 

Or they will leam how generous worth sublimes 
The robber Moor, and pleads for all his crimes ; 
How poor Amelia kissed with many a tear 
His hand, blood-stained, but ever, ever dear. 

Campbell: Pleasures of Hope, ii. (1799). 

Amelia Sedley, " a dear little 
creature," in love with George Osborne, 
in Tliackeray's novel of Vanity Fair. 

Amelot (2 syl.\ the page of sir Da- 

mian de Lacy. 5?> W. Scott: The Be- 
t rot Jud {i\mc, Henry II.). 

America. Names of the United 

States, whence derived 

Alabama, an Indian word, meaning " Here we rest.' 

So named in 1817, from the chief river. 

Annap'olis (Marj'Iand), so named from queen Anne, 
In whose reiga it was constituted the seat of locai 

Asto'ria (Oregon), so called from Mr. Astor, mer- 
chant, of New York, who founded here a fur-trading 
station in 1811. The adventure of this merchant forms 
the subject of Washin^oa Irving's Astoria. 

BaVtimore {3 syl.), in Maryland, is so called from 
lord Baltimore, who led a colony to that state in 

Boston (Massachusetts), so called from Boston in 
Lincolnshire, whence many of the original founders 

Carolina (North and South), named originally from 
Charles IX. of France ; but Charles II. granted the 
whole country to eight needy courtiers. 

Carson City (Oregon) commemorates the name oS 
Kit Carson, the Rocky Mountain trapper and guide, 
who died in 1871. 

Charlestown (Carolina), founded in 1670, and named 
after Cliarles II. 

Connecticut (Indian), so called from the chief river. 

Delaware (3 syl.), in Pennsylvania, so named fron> 
lord De la Ware, who died in the bay (1703). 

Flor'ida, discovered by the Spaniards on Palm 
Sunday, and thence called [,Pasqua\ Florida. 

Geor'gia, named in honour of George II., in whose- 
reign the first settlement there was made. 

Harrisburg (Pennsylvania), named from Mr. Harris, 
by whom it was iirst settled in 1733, under a grant frora 
the Penn family. 

Indiana, so named from the number of Indians 
which dwelt there (1801). 

Louisiana, so named "by M. de la Sale (1682), in 
honour of Louis XIV. of France. 

Maine, so called (1638) from the French province of 
the same name. 

Maryland, so named by lord Baltimore (1632), in 
compliment to Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I. 
of England. 

Massachusetts (Indian) means " Blue Hills." 

Nevada, so called from the Sierra Nevada mountain- 

New Hampshire, previously called Laconia. W 
received its present name from J. Mason, govemo* 
of Hampshire, to whom it was conceded in 1629. 

New Jersey, so called in honour of sir G. Carteret, 
who had defended Jersey against the parliamentary 
forces in 1664. 

New York, previously called Neiu Amsterdam-. It 
received its present name (1664) in compliment to 
James duke of York (afterwards James II.). 

Pennsylvania ("the Penn Forest"), so called froni 
W'illiam Penn, who, in x68i, gave to the state its con- 

Rhode Island, so called, in 1644, In reference to the 
ishnd of Rhodes. It is the smallest of the 13 original 
States of North America, and was colonized by the 
Pilgrim Fathers. 

Texas [i.e. "the place of nro-tection "), so called in 
1817, because general Lalleniant gave there "pro- 
tection " to a colony of French refugees. 

Vermont (i.e. "Verts Monts"), so called from th 
Green Mountains, which traverse the state. 

P'iririnia, so called (1584) by sir Waller Raleigh, in 
compliment to Elizabeth, "the virgin queen." 

. Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan 
(" a lake "), Minnesota (" laughing waters "), Missis- 
sippi (" sea of waters "), Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, 
Oregon, and Wisconsin, are names of rivers. 

America. Nicknames of the United 
States' inhabitants : Alabama, lizards ; 
Arkan^sas, tooth-picks; Calif ornHa, gold- 
hunters ; Colora'do, rovers ; Connecticut, 
wooden nutmegs ; DeVaware, musk-rats ; 
Flor'ida, fly-up- the-creeks ; Geor^gia, 


buEzards ; Illinois, suckers'; Indiana, 
hoosiers ; Iowa, hawk-eyes ; Kansas, 
jay-hawkers ; Kentucky, corn-crackers ; 
Louisiana, Creoles ; Maine, foxes ; 
Maryland, craw-thumpers ; Michigan, 
wolverines ; Minnesot'a, gophers ; Mis- 
sissippi, tadpoles ; Missou'ri, pukes ; 
Nebraska, bug-eaters ; Neva'da, sage 
hens ; New Hampshire, granite boys ; 
New Jersey, blues or clam-catchers ; 
New York, knickerbockers ; North Caro- 
lina, tar-boilers and tuckoes ; Ohio, 
buck-eyes ; Or'egon, web-feet and hard- 
cases ; Pennsylva'nia, Pennanites and 
leather-heads ; Rhode Island, gun-flints ; 
South Carolina, weasels ; Tennessee', 
whelps ; Texas, beef-heads ; Vermont, 
Green Mountain boys ; Virgin' ia, beadies ; 
Wisconsin, badgers. 

American Notes, by Charles 
Dickens (1842). The book was well 
received in England, but gave great 
offence in America. A reply, called 
Change for American Notes, was 
published by an American lady, cutting 
up the book hip and thigh. 

American States. The eight states, 
Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Wis- 
consin, derive their names from their re- 
spective chief rivers. 

Amethyst is said to dispel drunken- 
ness. (Greek, a, privative ; meihusis, 

Amen'ti, the heaven of Egyptian 

Open the gate of heaven . . . open the gate of the 
starry region ; open the gate of Araeuti ! Inscription 
n the mummy opened by Pettigrew, in 1836. 

Am'g'iad, son of Camaralzaman and 
Badoura, and half-brother of Assad (son 
of Camaralzaman and Haiatal'nefous). 
Each of the two mothers conceived a base 
passion for the other's son, and when the 
young princes revolted at their advances, 
accused them to their father of designs 
upon their honour. Camaralzaman or- 
dered his emir Giondar to put them both 
to death, but as the young men had saved 
him from a lion, he laid no hand on them, 
but told them not to return to their father's 
dominions. They wandered on for a time, 
and then parted, but both reached the 
same place, which was a city of the Magi. 
Here by a strange adventure Amgiad was 
made vizier, while Assad was thrown into 
a dungeon, where he was designed as a 
sacrifice to the fire-god. Bosta'na, a 
daughter of the old man who imprisoned 
Assad, released him, and Amgiad out of 

36 AMIEL. 

gratitude made her his wife. After which 
the king, who was greatly advanced in 
years, appointed him his successor, and 
Amgiad used his best efforts to abolish 
the worship of fire and establish "the 
true faith." Arabian Nights ("Amgiad 
and Assad "). 

Amliara, the kingdom in which was 
the "happy valley," where the Abys- 
sinian princes were doomed to live. The 
valley was encompassed by mountains, 
and had but one entrance, which was 
under a cavern, concealed by woods and 
closed by iron gates. Dr. Johnson: 
Rasselas (1759). 

Am'ias, a squire of low degree, beloved 
by .Emilia. They agreed to meet at a 
given spot, but on their way thither both 
were taken captives Amias by Corflambo, 
and Emilia by a man-monster. Emilia 
was released by BelphoebS (3 syl.), who 
slew " the caitiff; " and Amias by prince 
Arthur, who slew Corflambo. The two 
lovers were then brought together by the 
prince "in peace and settled rest." 
Spenser: Faerie Queene, iv. 7, 9(1596). 

Am'idas, the younger brother of 
Brac'idas, sons of Mile'sio ; the former 
in love with the dowerless Lucy, and the 
latter with the wealthy Philtra. The two 
brothers had each an island of equal size 
and value left them by their father, but 
the sea daily added to the island of the 
younger brother, and encroached on that 
belonging to Bracidas. When Philtra 
saw that the property of Amidas was 
daily increasing, she forsook the elder 
brother and married the wealthier ; while 
Lucy, seeing herself jilted, threw herself 
into the sea. A floating chest attracted 
her attention ; she clung to it, and was 
drifted to the wasted island. The chest 
was found to contain great riches, and 
Lucy gave its contents and herself to 
Bracidas. Amidas claimed the chest as 
his own by right, and the question in 
dispute was submitted to sir Ar'tegal. 
The wise arbiter decided, that whereas 
Amidas claimed as his own all the addi- 
tions given to his island by the sea, Lucy 
might claim as her own the chest, because 
the sea had given it to her. Spenser: 
Faerie Queene, v. 4 (1596). 

Am'iel, in Dryden's Absalom and 
Achitophel, is meant for sir Edward Sey- 
mour, Speaker of the House of Commons. 
An anagram for ElKam, "the friend of 
God " (2 Sam. xxiii. 34). 

AMIN. 37 

Wlio can Amiel's praise refuse t 
Of ancient race ly birth, but nobler yet 
In his own worth, and without title great. 
The sanliedrim long time as chief he ruled, 
Their reason iniided, and their passion cooled. 
Part L 899-903. 

A'min {Prince), son of the caliph 
Haroun-al-Raschid ; he married Am'in6, 
sister of Zobeide (3 syl.), the caliph's wife. 
A rabian iWights Entertainments ( ' ' The 
History of Amine "). 

Am'iixa, an orphan, who walked in 
her sleep. (For the tale, see Sonnam- 
BULA.) Bellini: La Sonnambula (an 
opera, 1831). 

Am'ine (3 syl.), half-sister of Zobei'dd 
(3 syl.), and \vife of Amin, the caliph's 
son. One day she went to purchase a 
robe, and the seller told her he would 
charge nothing if she would suffer him to 
kiss her cheek. Instead of kissing he 
bit it, and Amine, being asked by her 
husband how she came by the wound, 
so shuffled in her answers that he com- 
manded her to be put to death a sentence 
he afterwards commuted to scourging. 
One day she and her sister told the stories 
of their lives to the caliph Haroun-al- 
Raschid, when Amin became reconciled 
to his wife, and the caliph married her 
half-sister. Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
ments (" History of Zobeide and History 
of Amine"). 

Am'ine (3 syl.) or Amines (3 syl.), 
the beautiful wife of Sidi Nouman. In- 
stead of eating her rice with a spoon, she 
used a bodkin for the purpose, and carried 
it to her mouth in infinitesimal portions. 
This went on for some time, till Sidi 
Nouman determined to ascertain on what 
his wife really fed, and to his horror 
discovered that she was a ghoul, who 
went stealthily by night to the cemetery, 
and feasted on the fresh-buried dead. 
Arabian Nights' Entertainments {" HiS' 
tory of Sidi Nouman "), 

N,B. Amine was so hard-hearted that 
she led about her three sisters like a leash 
of greyhounds. 

One of the Amine's sort, who pick up their grains of 
food with a bodkin. O. fV. Holnui : Autocrat of Uu 

Aanin'tor, a young nobleman, the 
troth-plight husband of Aspatia, but by 
the king's command he marries Evad'ne 
(3 syl.). This is the great event of the 
tragedy of which Amintor is the hero. 
The sad story of Evadne, the heroine, 
gives name to the play. Beaumont and 
Fletcher: The Maids Tragedy {1610). 

(Till the reign of Charles II., the kings 


of England claimed the feudal right of 
disposing in marriage any one who owei 
them feudal allegiance. In All's Well 
that Ends Well, Shakespeare malies the 
king of France e.xercise a similar right, 
when he commands Bertram, count of 
Rousillon, to marry against his will Hel'- 
ena, the physician's daughter.) 

Amis the Priest, the hero of a 
comic German story, in verse (thirteenth 
century). He was an Englishman, whose 
popularity excited the envy of the higher 
clergy ; so they tried to depose him on 
the score of ignorance. Being brought 
before them, they demand answers to 
such questions as these: "How many 
days is it since Adam was placed in 
paradise ? " but Amis fools them with his 
wit. The poem reminds one of the Abbot 
of Canterlmry, and the Abbi de St. Gall. 
Strieker of Austria (fourteenth century), 

Am'let {Richard), the gamester in 
Vanbrugh's Confederacy (1695), He is 
usually called " Dick." 

I saw Miss Pope for the second time, in the vear 
1790, in the character of " Flippanta," John Palmer 
being " Dick Amlet," and Mrs. Jordan " Corinna." 
Jatnts Smith. 

Mrs. Amlet, a rich, vulgar, trades- 
woman, mother of Dick, of whom she is 
very proud, although she calls him a 
"sad scapegrace," and swears "he will 
be hanged." At last she settles on him 
_^io,ooo, and he marries Corinna, daugh- 
ter of Gripe the rich scrivener. 

Ammo'nian Horn {The), the cornu- 
copia, Ammon king of Lib'ya gave to 
his mistress Amalthe'a (mother of Bac- 
chus) a tract of land resembling a ram's 
horn in shape, and hence called the 
" Ammonian horn" (from the giver), the 
" Amalthe^an horn" (from the receiver), 
and the " Hisperian horn" (from its 
locality). Almathea also personifies fer- 
tility. (Ammon is Ham, son of Noah, 
founder of the African race.) (See 

[Here] Amalthea pours, 
Well pleased, the wealth of that Ammonian horn. 
Her dower. 

Akenside : Hymn to the Naiads. 

Ammon's Son. Alexander the Great 
called himself the son of the god Ammon, 
but others call him the son of Philip of 

Of food I think with Philip's son, or rather 
Ammon's (ill pleased with one world and one father). 
Byron : Don yuan, v. 31. 

(Alluding to the tale that when Alex- 
ander had conquered the whole world, he 
wept that there was no other world to 
conquer. ) 


A'mon's Son is Rinaldo, eldest son 
of Amon or Aymon marquis d'Este, and 
nephew of Charlemagne. ^rwj/<J.- Or- 
lando Furioso (1516). 

Am'oret, a modest, faithful shep- 
herdess, who plighted her troth to Per'igot 
(/sounded) at the " Virtuous Well." The 
wanton shepherdess Amarillis assumed 
her appearance and dress, but the decep- 
tion being revealed by Cor 'in, " the faith- 
ful shepherdess," the lovers were happily 
m?Lrr\eyohti Fletcher: The Faithful 
Shepherdess {1610). (See Amarillis, 
p. 33) 

Amoret'ta or Am'oret, twin-bom 
with BelphoebS (3 syl.), their motlier 
being Chrysog'ong (4 syl.). While the 
mother and her two babes were asleep, 
Diana took one (Belphoebe) to bring up, 
and Venus the other. Venus committed 
Amoretta to the charge of Psyche (2 syl.), 
and PsychS tended her as lovingly as 
she tended her own daughter Pleasure, 
"to whom she became the companion." 
When grown to marriageable estate, 
Amoretta was brought to Fairyland, and 
wounded many a heart, but gave her own 
only to sir Scudamore (bk. iii. 6). Being 
seized by Ba'sirane, an enchanter, she was 
kept in durance by him because she would 
not " her true love deny ; " but Britomart 
delivered her and bound the enchanter 
(bk. iii. II, 12), after which she became 
the tender, loving wife of sir Scudamore. 
Amoret is the type of female loveliness 
and wifely affection, soft, warm, chaste, 
gentle, and ardent; not sensual nor yet 
platonic, but that living, breathing, warm- 
hearted love which fits woman for the 
fond mother and faithful ^Mq. Spenser : 
Faerie Queenc, iii. (1590)- 

Amour'y [Sir Giles), the Grand- 
Master of the Knights Templars, who 
conspired with the marquis of Montserrat 
against Richard I. Saladin cut off the 
Templar's head while in the act of drink- 
mg.Sir W. Scott: The Talisman (time, 
Richard I.). 

Am'perzaud, a corruption oiAnd-as- 
and, i.e. " &-as-and." The symbol is the 
old Italian monogram et {" and "), made 
thus 6^, in which the first part is the letter 
e and the flourish at the end the letter /. 

State epistles, so dull and so erand, 
Mustn't contain the shortened *' and." 

O my nice litUe amperzand ! 

Nothing that Cadmus ever planned 

Equals my elegant amperzand. 

Quoted in J^oies and Queries (May g, 1877). 

(Cadmus invented the original Greek 


Am'pliibal {St.), confessor of St. 
Alban of Verulam. When Maximia'nus 
Hercu'lius, general of Diocle'tian's army 
in Britain, pulled down the Christian 
churches, burnt the Holy Scriptures, and 
put to death the Christians with unflagging 
zeal, Alban hid his confessor, and offered 
to die for him. 

A thousand other saints whom Amphibal had taught . . . 
Were slain where Lichfield is, whose name doth rightly 

(There of those Christians slain), "Dead-field" o 


Drayton : Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622)^ 

Aiuplii'on is said to have built 
Thebes by the music of his lute. Tenny- 
son has a poem called Am-phion, a skit 
and rhyming jcVm d esprit. 

Amphion there the loud creating Ivre 
Strikes, and behold a sudden Thebes aspire. 
Pope : Tc)nJ>le o/Famt.'bsana, a reptile which could 
go head foremost either way, because it 
had a head at each extremity. Milton 
uses the word in Paradise Lost, x. 524. 
(Greek, amphis-baina, a serpent which 
could go either backwards or forwards. ) 

The amphis-baena doubly armed appears, 
At either end a threatening head she rears. 
Rovie : Pharsalia, ix. 696, etc. (by Lucan>. 

Amphitryon, a Theban general, 
husband of Alcme'nd. While Amphi- 
tryon was absent at war with Pter'elas 
king of the Tel'eboans, Jupiter assumed 
his form, and visited Alcmeng, who in 
due time became the mother of Her'cules. 
Next day Amphitryon returned, having 
slain Pterelas, and Alcmeng was surprised 
to see him so soon again. Here a great 
entanglement arose, AlcmenS telling her 
husband he visited her last night, and 
showing him the ring he gave her ; but 
Amphitryon declared he was with the 
army. This confusion was still further 
increased by his slave Sos'ia, who went 
to tell AlcmenS the news of her husband's 
victory, but was stopped by Mercury, who 
had assumed for the nonce Sosia's form ; 
and the slave could not make out whether 
he was himself or not. This plot has been 
made a comedy by Plautus, Moliere, and 
Dry den. 

The scenes which Plautus drew, to-night we show. 
Touched by Moliire. by Dryden taught to glow. 

Prolog^ue to Haivks-worth' s version. 
As an Amphitryon chex qui Von dine, no one knows 

better than Ouidi the uses of a rechercM dinner. 

Yates: Celebrities, xix. 

"Amphitryon:" Le viritaUe Amphi- 
tryon est VAmphytrion oil Con dine ( ' ' The 
master of the feast is the master of the 
house"). While the confusion was at 


its height between the false and true 
Amphitryon, Socie [Sosia] the slave is 
requested to decide which was which, and 

Je ne me trompotr, pas, messieurs ; ce mot terinino 
Toute lirrdsolution ; 

Le veritable Amphitiyon 
nphitryon oii fo; 
MolUrt : Amphitryon, iii. s (i 

Est I'Araphitryon oii fon dine. 

Demosthenes and Cicero 
Are doubtless stately names to hear, 

Cut that of good Amphitryon 
Sounds far more pleasant to my ear. 

M. A. Desansiers (1772-1827). 

Amree't, the drink wliich imparts 
immortality, or the Water of Immortahty. 
It is obtained by churning the sea, either 
with the mountain Meroo or with the 
mountain Mandar. Mahahharat. 

" Bring forth the Amrecta-cup ! " Kehama cried 

To Vamen, rising sternly in his pride ; 

" It is within the marble sepulchre." . . . 

" Take ! drink I " with accents dread the spectre said. 

" For thee and Kailgal hath it been assig^ied. 

Ye only of the children of mankind." 

Southcy : Cursi of Kehama, xxiv. 13 (1809). 

Am'ri, in Absalom and Achitophd, 
by Dryden and Tate, is Heneage Finch, 
earl of Nottingham and lord chancellor. 
He is called "The Father of Equity" 

To whom the double blessing did belong, 
With Moses' inspiration, Aaron's tongue. 

Part iu 1023-4 (1682). 

Amun'deville [Lord Henry), one of 
the "British privy council." After the 
sessions of parliament he retired to his 
country seat, where he entertained a 
select and numerous party, amongst which 
were the duchess of Fitz-Fulke, Aurora 
Raby, and don Juan "the Russian 
envoy." His wife was lady AdeHne. 
(His character is given in xiv. 70, 71.) 
Byron : Don Juan, xiii. to end. 

Am'urath III., sixth emperor of th; 
Turks. He succeeded his father, Selim 
n., and reigned 1574-1595. His first 
act was to invite all his brothers to a 
banquet, and strangle them. Henry IV. 
alludes to this when he says 

This is the Hnglish, not the Turkish court ; 
Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds, ' 
But Harry, Harry. 
Shakespeare : 2 Henry IV. act v. sc. 2 (1598). 

Amusements of Kings. The 

great amusement of Aritas of Arabia Pe- 
traea, was currying horses ; oi Artaba'niis 
of Persia, was mole-catching ; cii Domitian 
ofRome, was catching flies ; ol Ferdinand 
VII. of Spain, was embroidering petti- 
coats ; of Hejiri III. , bilboquet ; of 
Lotiis XVI., clock and lock making ; of 
George IV., the game of patience. 

Am3rn'tas, in Colin Clout's Cotne 
Home Again, by Spenser, is Ferdinando 
earl of Derby, who died 1594. 


Ainyntas, (lower of shepherd's pride forlorn. 
He, whilst ho livM, was the noblest swain 
1 hat ever piptd on an oaten quill. 
Spenser: Colin Clouts Come Home Asain (is?i;. 

Amyn'tor. (See Amintor.) 
Amy Robsart. (See Robsart.) 

A'mys and Amyrion, the Damon 
and Pyihias of mediaeval romance. (See 
I':ilis's Specimens 0/ Early English Metri- 
cal Romances. ) 

Anab'asis, the expedition of the 
younger Cyrus against his brother Arta- 
xer.xes, and the retreat of his ' ' ten thou- 
sand" Greeks, described by Xen'ophon 
the Greek historian. 

Your chronicler. In writing this, 
Had in his mind th' Anabasis. 
Lonsfello-w : Tlu U^ayside Inn (an interlude). 

Anacharsis. Le voyage du Jeune 
Anacharsis. An historical romance by 
I'abbd Barthdlemy (1788). It is a descrip- 
tion of Greece in the time of Pericles and 
Philip, and was a labour of 30 years. 
The introduction is especially admired. 
At one time it was extremely popular, but 
it has not maintained its original high 

. Anacharsis the Scythian, of princely 
rank, left his native country to travel in 
pursuit of knowledge. He reached 
Athens about B.C. 594, and became 
acquainted with Solon, etc. By his 
talents and acute observations he has 
been reckoned by some one of the 
"Seven Wise Men." Barthdiemy's ro- 
mance is not a translation of the Scy- 
thian's book, but an original work called 
Anacharsis the Younger. 

Anacharsis [Clootz]. Baron Jean 
Baptiste Clootz assumed the prenome of 
Anacharsis, from the Scythian so called, 
who travelled about Greece and other 
countries to gather knowledge and im- 
prove his own countrymen. The baron 
wished by the name to intimate that his 
own object in life was like that of Ana- 
charsis (1755-1794)- 

He assumed the name of " Anacharsis " in his travels, 
before Barthdlemy had published his book. 

Anachronisms. (See Errors.) 
_ Chaucer, in his tale of Troylus, at the 
siege of Troy, makes Panddrus refer to 
Robin Hood. 

And to himsclfe ful soberly he saled, 
From hasellwood there jolly Robin p 

Book T. 

.He also makes Chryseyde talk of 
reading the " lives of the saints," and 
rejoicing that she is not a man. 

In the House of Fajne, Orion the giant 
is mistaken for Alton the musician. 




Cicero (Holden's edition, De Officiis, 
p. 15 note). Demosthenes is said to have 
given up oratory at the instigation of 
SocritSs. Socrates lived B.C. 460-391 ; 
Demosthenes, 383-322. 

Giles Fletciieu, in Christ s Victory, 
pt. ii., makes the Tempter seem to be "a 
good old hermit or palmer, travelling to 
see some saint, and telling his beads I ! " 

Lodge, in The True Tragedies of 
Marias and Sylla (1594), mentions "the 
razor of Palermo" and "St. Paul's 
steeple," and introduces Frenchmen v/ho 
"for forty crowns" undertake to poison 
the Roman consul. 

MoRGLAY makes Dido tell /Eneas that 
she should have been contented with a 
son, even "if he had been a cockney 
dandiprat" {i$S2). 

Schiller, in his Piccolomini, speaks 
of lightning conductors. This was at 
least 150 years before they were invented. 

Shakespeare, in his Coriolanus (act 
ii. so. i), makes Menenius refer to Galen 
above 600 years before he was born. 

Cominius alludes to Roman plays, but 
no such things were known for 250 years 
after the death of Cominius. Coriolanus, 
act ii. sc. 2. 

Brutus refers to the " Marcian waters 
brought to Rome by Censorinus." This 
was not done till 300 years afterwards. 

In Hamlet, the prince Hamlet was 
educated at Wittemberg School, which 
was not founded till 1502 ; whereas Saxo- 
Germanicus, from whom Shakespeare 
borrowed the tale, died in 1204. Hamlet 
was 30 years old when his mother talks of 
his going back to school (act i. sc. 2) . 

In I Henry IV. the carrier complains 
that " the turkeys in his pannier are quite 
starved" (act ii. sc. 5), whereas turkeys 
came from America, and the New World 
was not even discovered for a century 
later. Again in Henry V. Gower is 
made to say to Fluellen, "Here comes 
Pistol, swelling like a turkey-cock" (act 
V. sc. 1). 

In Julius CcEsar, Brutus says to 
Cassius, "Peace, count the clock." To 
which Cassius replies, "The clock has 
stricken three." Clocks were not known 
to the Romans, and striking-clocks were 
not invented till some 1400 years after the 
death of Caesar. 

Virgil places .^neas in the port 
Vellnus, which was made by Curius 
Den tat us. 

This list with very little trouble might 
be greatly multiplied. The hotbed of 
anachronisms is mediaeval romance: 

there nations, times, and places are most 
recklessly disregarded. This may be 
instanced by a few examples from 
Ariosto's great poem Orlando Furioso. 

N.B. Here we have Charlemagne and 
his paladins joined by Edward king of 
England, Richard earl of Warwick, Henry 
duke of Clarence, and the dukes of York 
and Gloucester (bk. vi. ). We have cannons 
employed by Cymosco king of Friza 
(bk. iv.), and also in the siege of Paris 
(bk. vi.). We have the Moors established 
in Spain, whereas they were not invited 
over by the Saracens for nearly 300 years 
after Charlemagne's death. In bk. xvii. 
we have Prester John, who died in 1202 ; 
and in the last three books we have Con- 
stantine the Great, who died in 337. 

Anaclironisms of Artists. This 
would furnish a curious subject. Fra 
AngeUco, in his Crucifixion (in the Chapter 
House of San Muro) has, in the fore- 
ground, a man holding up the crucifix, a 
Dominican monk, a bishop with his 
crosier, and a mitred abbot blessing the 
people with one finger extended. 

Anac'reon, the prince of erotic and 
bacchanalian poets, insomuch that songs 
on tliese subjects are still called anac- 
reon'tic (B.C. 563-478). 

Anacreon of Painters, Francesco Albano 
or Alba'ni (1578-1660). 

Anacreon of the Guillotine, Bertrand 
Bar^re de Vieuzac (1755-1841). 

Anacreon of the Temple, Guillaume 
Amfrye, abb6 de Chaulieu (1639-1720). 

Anacreon of the Twelfth Century, 
Walter Mapes, "The Jovial Toper."' 
His famous drinking song, " Meum est 
propositum ..." has been translated by 
Leigh Hunt (1150-1196). 

The French Anacreon. i. Pontus de 
Thiard, one of the " Pleiad poets " (1521- 
1605). 2. P. Laujon, perpetual president 
of the Caveau Moderne, a Paris club 
noted for its good dinners, but every mem- 
ber was of necessity a poet (1727-1811). 

The Scotch Anacreon, Alexander Scot, 
who flourished in 1550. 

The Persian Anacreon, Mahommed 
Hafiz. The collection of his poems is 
called The Divan (1310-1389). 

The Sicilian Anacreon, Giovanni Mell 

Anacreon Moore, Thomas Moore of 
Dublin ( 1779-1852), poet. Called ' ' Anac- 
reon," from his translation of that Greek 
poet, and his own original anacreontic 

Described by Mahomet and Anacreon Moore. 

Byron : Don yuan, i. lo^ 




Anadems, crowns of flowers. (Greek, 

aa ode ma, ' ' a head-dress. ' ' ) 

With fingers neat and fine 
Brave anadems they make. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xt. (1613). 

Auagfnus, Inchastity personified in 
The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher 
(canto vii.). He had four sons by Caro, 
named NIaschus {adultery), Pornei'us 
{fornication), Acath'arus, and Asel'ges 
{lasciviousness), all of whom are fully 
described by the poet. In the battle of 
Mansoul (canto xi.) Anagnus is slain by 
Agnei'a {wifely chastity), the spouse of 
lincra'tes {temperance) and sister of Par- 
Lhen'ia {maidenly chastity). (Greek, an- 
agnos, "impure.") (1633.) 

Anagrams. Invented by Lycophron, 
a Greek poet, a.d. 280. 

Charles James Stuart (James I.). 
Claims Arthur's Seat, 

Dame Eleanor Davies (prophetess 
in the reign of Charles I.). Never so mad 
a ladie. 

Horatio Nelson. Honor est a 
Nilo. By Dr. Burncy. 

Marie Touchet (mistress of Charles 
IX.). Je charme tout. Made by Henri 

Pilate's question, Quid est Veritas? 
Est Vir qui adest. 

Queen Victoria's Jubile[e] Year. 
Love in a subject I reqjiire. 

Radical Reform. Rare mad frolic. 

Revolution Fran9aise. Un Corse 
la finera, Bonaparte was the Corsican 
who put an end to the Revolution. 

Sir Roger Charles Doughty Tich- 
borne. Baronet. You horrid butcher, 
Orton, biggest rascal here. 

A'nali, granddaughter of Cain and 
sister of Aholiba'mah. Japhet loved her, 
but she had set her heart on the seraph 
Azaz'iel, who carried her off to another 
planet when the Flood came. Byron: 
Heaven and Earth. 

Anati and Aholibamah are very different characters : 
Allah is soft, gentle, and submissive; her sister is 
proud, imperious, and aspiring ; the one loving in fear, 
the other in ambition. She tears that her love makes 
her " heart grow impious," and that she worships the 
seraph rather than the Creator. Z.<>-<a( Lytton, 

Anak, a giant of Palestine, whose 
descendants were terrible for their gigantic 
stature. The Hebrew spies said that 
they themselves were mere grasshoppers 
compared with the Anakim. 

I felt the thews of Anakim, 
The pulses of a Titan's heart. 

Tmnyson : In Memoriam, iH. 

(The Titans were giants, who, ac- 

cording to classic fable, made war with 
Jupiter or Zeus, i syl.) 

Anak of Publishers. So John 
Murray was called by lord Byron (1778- 

.Anamnes'tes (4 syl), the boy who 
waited on Eumnestfis (Memory). Eu- 
mnestfis was a very old man, decrepit and 
half blind, a " man of infinite remem- 
brance, who things foregone through many 
ages held." When unable to " fet " what 
he wanted, he was helped by a little boy 
yclept Anamnestfis, who sought out for him 
what "was lost or laid amiss." (Greek, 
eumnestis, "good memory;" anamnhtis, 
" research or calling up to mind.") 

And oft when things were lost or laid amiss, 
That boy them soiight and unto him did lend ; 
Therefore he Anamnestes cleped is, 
And that old man Eumnestes. 

Spenser: FaSrie Queene, ii. 9 (1590). 

Anani'as, in The Alchemist, a comedy 
by Ben Jonson (1610). 

Benjamin Johnson (1651-1742) . . . seemed to be 
proud to wear the poet's double name, and was particu- 
larly great in all that author's plays that were usually 
performed, viz. "Wasp," "Corbaccio," "Morose," 
and "Ananias." Chetwood, 

( " Wasp " in Bartholomew Fair, " Cor- 
baccio " in The Fox, "Morose" in The 
Silent Woman, all by B. Jonson.) 

Anarchns, king of the Dipsodes 
(2 syl.), defeated by Pantag'ruel, who 
dressed him in a ragged doublet, a cap 
with a cock's feather, and married him to 
"an old lantern-carrying hag." The 
prince gave the wedding breakfast, which 
consisted of garlic and sour cider. His 
wife, being a regular termagant, " did 
])eat him like plaster, and the ex-tyrant 
did not dare to call his soul his own." 
Rabelais: Pantagrucl, ii. 31 (1533). 

Anarchy {The Masque of), by Percy 
Bysshe Shelley (1819). A satirical poem 
on what was called the " Manchester Mas- 
sacres," an exaggerate expression for the 
injuries received by the crowd which had 
met at St. Peter's Field, Manchester, in 
defiance of the magistrates' orders, to 
hear "Orator Hunt" on parliamentary 
reform. About 80,000 persons assembled, 
and the military, being sent for, dispersed 
the mob with the backs of their swords, but 
100 persons were injured either by acci- 
dent or being knocked down by the 
crowd. Shelley took the side of the 
mob, (See Peterloo. ) 

Anasta'sins, the hero of a novel 
called A/emoirs of Anastasius, by Thomas 
Hope (1819), his master-work. It is the 
autobiography of a Greek, who, to escape 



the consequences of his crimes and vil- 
lainies, becomes a regenade, and passes 
through a long series of adventures. 

Fiction has but few pictures which will bear com- 
parison with that of Anastasius, sittings on the steps of 
the lazaretto of Trieste, with his dying boy in his arms. 
Eiicyclopadia Britannica (article " Romance "). 

Anastasius Grriln, the pseudonym 
of Anton Alexander von Auersperg, a 
German poet (1806-1876). 

Anasteraz, brother of Niquee \?ie.- 
kay\ with whom he lived in illicit inter- 
course. The fairy Zorphee, in order to 
withdraw her goddaughter from this 
alliance, enchantedher. Ainadis dc Gaul. 

Anazar'te {4 syL), the Am'adis of 
Greece, a supplemental part of the Por- 
tuguese romance called Amadis of Gaul 
[Wales]. Amadis of Greece was written 
by Feliciano de Silva. =.. 

All'cho, a Spanish brownie, who haunts 
the shepherds' huts, warms himself at 
their fires, tastes their clotted milk and 
cheese, converses with the family, and is 
treated with familiarity mixed with terror. 
The Ancho hates church-bells. 

Anchors. A frigate has six: (i) 
the cock-bill anchor, forward ; {2) tne 
kedger, aft ; ['x) the food anchor, towards 
the open; (4) the ebb anchor; (5) the 
boiver anclior, to starboard ; (6) the sheet 
anchor, to larboard or port. 

Ancient Mariner [The), a poem 
by Coleridge (about 1796), The man, 
having shot an albatross (a bird of good 
omen to seamen), was doomed to wander 
with his crew from land to land. On one 
of his landings he told his tale to a hermit, 
and whenever he rested on tei-ra frma, 
he was to repeat it as a warning to others. 

Swinburne says : " For absolute melody and splen- 
dour, it were hardly rash to call it the first poem in the 

An'cor, a river of Leicestershire, run- 
ning through Harshul, where Michael 
Drayton was born. Hence Wm. Browne 
calls him the shepherd 

Who on the banks of Ancor tuned his pipe. 

Biitamiia's Pastorals, i. 5 (1613). 

An'derson [Eppie), a servant at the 
Inn of St. Ronan's Well, held by Meg 
Dods. 5iV IV. Scott : St. Ronan's Well 
(time, George HL). 

Andre (2 syl.), Petit-Andr^ and Trois 
Echelles are the executioners of Louis XI. 
of France. They are introduced by Sir 
W. Scott, both in Quentin Dunoard and 
\n Anne of Geierstein. 

Andre, the hero and title of a novel 

by George Sand (Mde. Dudevant). This 
novel and that called Consnelo (4 syl.) are 
considered her best (1804-1876). 

An'drea Perra'ra, a sword, so 
called from a famous Italian sword-maker 
of the name. Strictly speaking, only a 
broad-sword or claymore should be so 

There's nae sic thing as standing a Highlander's 
Andrew Ferrara ; they will slaughie aff a fellow's head 
at a dash slap. C Macklin : Love-d-la-mode (1779). 

Andre 'OS, Fortitude personified in 
The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher 
(canto X.). " None fiercer to a stubborn 
enemy, but to the yielding none more 
sweetly kind." (Greek, awd^rfa or andreia, 

An'drew, gardener at Ellangowan, 
to Godfrey Bertram the laird. Sir W, 
Scott : Guy Ma?inering (time, George II. ). 

Andre'VT'S, a private in the royal army 
of the duke of Monmouth. ^'z'r W. 
Scott : Old Mortality (time, Charles II. ). 

Andre-ws {Joseph), the hero and title 
of a novel by Fielding (1742). He is a 
footman who marries a maidservant. 
Joseph Andrews is a brother of [Richard- 
son's] ''Pamela," a handsome, model 
young man. Parson Adams is a delight- 
ful character {q.v.). 

The accounts of Joseph's bravery and good qualities, 
his voice too musical to halloa to the dogs, his bravery 
in riding races for the gentlemen of the county, and 
liis constancy in refusing bribes and temptation, have 
something refreshing in their naiveU and freshness, 
and prepossess one in favour of that handsome young 
hero. Thackeray. 

Androclus and the Lion. An- 

droclus was a runaway Roman slave, who 
took refuge in a cavern. A lion entered, 
and instead of tearing him to pieces, 
lifted up its fore paw that Androclus might 
extract from it a thorn. The fugitive, 
being subsequently captured, was doomed 
to fight with a lion in the Roman arena, 
and it so happened that the very same 
lion was let out against him ; it instantly 
recognized its benefactor, and began to 
fawn upon him with every token of 
gratitude and joy. The story being told 
of this strange behaviour, Androclus was 
forthwith set free. 

IT A somewhat similar anecdote is told 
of sir George Davis, English consul at 
Florence at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. One day he went to see 
the lions of the great-duke of Tuscany. 
There was one which the keepers could 
not tame, but no sooner did sir George 
appear, than the beast manifested every 
symptom of joy. Sir George entered the 




cage, when the creature leaped on his 
shoulder, licked his face, wagged its tail, 
and fawned like a dog. Sir George told 
the great-duke that he had brought up 
this lion, but as it grew older it became 
dangerous, and he sold it to a Barbary 
captain. The duke said he bought it of 
the same man, and the mystery was 
cleared up. 

Andromaclie [Androm'akj'], the 
widow of Hector. At the downfall of 
Troy both she and her son Asty'ana.x 
were allotted to Pyrrhus king of Epirus, 
and Pyrrhus fell in love with her, but she 
repelled his advances. At length a 
Grecian embassy, led by Orestes, son of 
Agamemnon, arrived, and demanded 
that Astyanax should be given up and 
put to death, lest in manhood he should 
attempt to avenge his father's death, 
Pyrrhus told Andromache that he would 
protect her son in defiance of all Greece 
if she would become his wife, and she 
reluctantly consented thereto. While the 
marriage ceremonies were going on, the 
ambassadors rushed on Pyrrhus and slew 
him, but as he fell he placed the crown 
on the head of AndromachS, who thus 
became the queen of Epirus, and the 
ambasscidors hastened to their ships in 
fL\g\\\. -Ambrose Phillip: Tlie Dis- 
tressed Motlier ( 1712). 

(This is an English adaptation of 
R3iCmQ's Andromaqzie, 1667.) 

. " Andromache " was a favourite part 
with Charlotte Clarke, daughter of Colley 
Cibber (1710-1760), and with Mrs. Yates 

Androm'eda, a poem in English 
hexameters, by the Rev. C. Kingsley 
(1858). It is the old classical story of 
Andromeda and Perseus {2 syl. ). 

' . George Chapman in 1614 published 
a poem on the Nuptials 0/ Perseus and 

Androui'ca, one of Logistilla's hand- 
maids, noted for her beauty. Ariosto : 
Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Androni'cus (r?Vj), a noble Roman 
general against the Goths, father of La- 
vin'ia. In the play so called, published 
amongst those of Shakespeare, the word 
all through is called Andron'icus (1593). 

Marcus Andronicus, brother of Titus, 
and tribune of the people. 

AndropH'iltlS, Philanthropy per- 
sonified in The Purple Island, by Phineas 
Fletcher (1633). Fully described in 

canto X. (Greek, andro-philos, " a lover 
of mankind.") 

An'eal (2 syl.), daughter of Maa'ni, 
who loved Djabal, and believed him to be 
' ' hakeem' " (the incarnate god and 
founder of the Druses) returned to life for 
the restoration of the people and their 
return to Syria from exile in the Spo'- 
radfis. When, however, she discovered 
his imposture, she died in the bitterness 
of her disappointment. Robert Bro^on- 
ing : The Return of the Druses (1848). 

Angfel. When the Rev. Mr. Patten, 
vicar of Whitstable, was dying, the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury sent him ^^lo ; and 
the wit said, "Tell his grace that now I 
own him to be a man of God, for I have 
seen his angels." 

An angel was a gold coin, worth about 5J. 

To write like an Angel, that is like 
Angel [Vergecios], a Greek of the 
fifteenth century, noted for his caligraphy. 
Macklin (1690-1797) said of Goldsmith 

[He] wrote like an angel, and talked like poor poll. 

L'angedeDieu, Isabeau la belle, the " in- 
spired prophet-child " of the Camisards. 

Angfels [Orders of). According to 
Dionysius the Areop'agite, the angels are 
divided into nine orders : Seraphim and 
Cherubim, in the first circle ; Thrones 
and Dominions, in the second circle; 
Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Arch- 
angels, and Angels, in the third circle. 

Novem angelorum ordines diciraus, quia videlicet 
esse, testante sacro eloquio, sciinus Angelos, Arch- 
angelos, Virtutes, Potestates, Principatus, Domina- 
tiones. Thrones, Cherubim, atque Seraphim. St, 
Gregory (the Great) : Homily 34. 

(See Hymns Ancient and Modern, No. 
421, vers. 2, 3 ; see 306, ver. 2.) 

Angels' Visits. Norris of Bemerton 
(1657-1711) wrote those joys which 

Soonest take their fliglit 
Are the most exquisite and strong-. 
Like angels' visits, short and briglit. 

Robert Blair, in 1743, wrote in his 
poem called The Grave, " in visits," 

Like those of angels, short and far between. 

Campbell, in 1799, appropriated the 
simile, but without improving it. He 

Like angels' visits, few and far between. 

Of these the only sensible line is that by Blair. 

"Short and brief" is the same thing. "Few and far 

between" is not equal to "short and far between," 

though more frequently quoted. 

ANGEL'ICA, in Bojardo's Orlando 
Jnnamorato (1495), is daughter of Gal'a- 
phron king of Cathay. She goes to Paris, 
and Orlando falls in love with her, forgetful 



of wife, sovereign, country, and glory. 
Angelica, on the other hand, disregards 
Orlando, but passionately loves Rinaldo, 
who positively dislikes her. Angelica 
and Rinaldo drink of certain fountains, 
when the opposite effects are produced in 
their hearts, for then Rinaldo loves Ange- 
lica, while Angelica loses all love for 

Angelica, in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso 
(1516}, is the same lady. She was sent to 
sow discord among the Christians. Char- 
lemagne sent her to the duke of Bavaria, 
but she fled from the castle, and, being 
seized, was bound naked to a rock, exposed 
to sea-monsters. Rogero delivered her, 
but again she escaped by the aid of a 
magic ring. Ultimately she married 
Medoro, a young Moor, and returned to 
Cathay, where Medoro succeeded to the 
crown. As for Orlando, he is driven mad 
by jealousy and pride. 

The fairest of her sex, Angeh'ca, 

. . . sought by many prowest knights, 

Both painim and the peers of Charlemagne. 

AHlton : Paradise Regained, lii. (1671). 

JkxiQelicSi. {The princess), called "The 
Lady of the Golden Tower." The loves 
of Parisme'nos and Angelica form an 
important feature of the second part of 
Parismus Prince of Bohemia, by Emanuel 
Foorde (1598). 

Angelica, an heiress, with whom Va- 
lentine Legend is in love. For a time 
he is unwilling to declare himself because 
of his debts ; but Angelica gets possession 
of a bond for ;^40oo, and tears it. The 
money difficulty being adjusted, the 
marriage is arranged amicably. Con- 
greve : Love for Love (1695). 

[Mrs. Anne Bracegirdle] equally delighted in melting 
tenderness and playful coquetr\', in "Statira"or " Milla- 
mant ; " and even at an advanced age, when she played 
"Angelica." C Dibdin. 

Angelica, the troth-plight wife of Va- 
lere, "the gamester." She gives him a 
picture, and enjoins him not to part with 
it on pain of forfeiting her hand. How- 
ever, he loses it in play, and Angelica in 
disguise is the winner of it. After much 
tribulation, Valere is cured of his vice, 
and the two are happily united by 
marriage. i/;'j. Centlivre : The Game- 
ster {1705). 

Angelic Doctor {The), Thomas 
Aquinas, called the " Angel of the Schools" 

It is said that Thomas Aquinas was called the Angel 
of the Schools from his controversy " Utrum Angelas 
posset mover! in extreme ad extrenium non transeundo 
per medium." Aquinas took the negative. 

Angeli'na, daughter of lord Lewis, 

in the comedy called The Elder Brother 
by John Fletcher (1637). 

Angelina, daughter of don Charino. 
Her father wanted her to marry Clodio, 
a coxcomb, but she preferred his elder 
brother Carlos, a bookworm, with whom 
she eloped. They were taken captives 
and carried to Lisbon. Here in due time 
they met the fathers, who, going in search 
of them, came to the same spot ; and as 
Clodio had engaged himself to Elvira of 
Lisbon, the testy old gentlemen agreed to 
the marriage of Angelina with Carlos. 
Cibber : Love makes a Man (1700). 

AngeliciTie (3 jy/.), daughter of Argan 
the malade imaginaire. (For the tale, 
see Argan.) 

Angelique, the aristocratic wife of 
George Dandin, a French commoner. She 
has a liaison with a M. Clitandre, but 
always contrives to turn the tables on her 
husband. George Dandin first hears of a 
rendezvous from one Lubin, a foolish 
servant of Clitandre, and lays the affair 
before M. and Mde. Sotenville, his wife's 
parents. The baron with George Dandin 
call on the lover, who denies the accu- 
sation, and George Dandin has to beg 
pardon. Subsequently he catches his 
wife and Clitandre together, and sends at 
once for M. and Mde. Sotenville ; but 
Angelique, aware of their presence, pre- 
tends to denounce her lover, and even 
takes up a stick to beat him for the " in- 
sult offered to a virtuous wife ; " so again 
the parents declare their daughter to be 
the very paragon of women. Lastly, 
George Dandin detects his wife and Cli- 
tandre together at night-time, and succeeds 
in shutting his wife out of her room ; but 
Angelique now pretends to kill herself, 
and when George goes for a light to look 
for the body, she rushes into her room 
and shuts him out. At this crisis the 
parents arrive, when Angelique accuses 
her husband of being out all night in a 
debauch ; and he is made to beg her pardon 
on his knees. Moliere: George Dandin 

An'gelo, in Shakespeare's comedy of 
Measure for Measure, lord-deputy of 
Vienna in the absence of Vincentio the 
duke. His betrothed lady is Maria'na. 
Lord Angelo conceived a base passion for 
Isabella, sister of Claudio ; but his designs 
were foiled by the duke, who compelled 
him to marry Mariana (1603). 

Angelo is the name of a goldsmith la 
Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors, 




An'gfelo, a gentleman, friend to Julio 
In The Captain, a drama by Beaumont 
and Fletcher (1613). 

Ang'er . . . the Alphabet. It was 

Athenodo'rus the Stoic who advised 
Augustus to repeat the alphabet when he 
felt inclined to give way to anger. 

tin certain Grec disait 4 I'empereur August*, 
Comme une instruction utile autant que juste. 
Que, lorsqu' une aventure en colfere nous met. 
Nous devons, avant tout, dire notre alpliabet, 
Afin que dans ce temps la bile se tempore, 
Et qu on ne fasse rif;n que Ton ne doive faire. 

Aloliirt : L'EcoU ties Fetnmes, ii. 4 (1662), 

Angioli'ua {4 syl.), daughter of 
Loreda'no, and the young wife of Mari'no 
Faliero, the doge of Venice. A patrician 
named Michel Steno, having behaved in- 
decently to some of the women assembled 
at the great civic banquet given by tlie 
doge, was kicked out of the house by 
order of the doge, and in revenge wrote 
some scurrilous lines against the doga- 
ressa. This insult was referred to "The 
Forty," and Steno was sentenced to two 
months' imprisonment, which the doge 
considered a very inadequate punishment 
for the offence. Byron : Marino Faliero. 

The'character of the calm, pure-spirited Angiolina is 
developed most admirably. The great difference be- 
tween her temper and that of her fiery husband is 
\ividly portrayed ; but not less vividly touched is that 
strong Dond of union which exists in the common 
nobleness of their deep natures. There is no spark of 
jealousy in the old man's thoughts. He does not 
expect the fervour of youthful passion in his young 
wife ; but he finds what is far better the fearless 
confidence of one so innocent that she can scarcely 
believe in the existence of guilt. . . . She thinks 
Steno's greatest punishment will be the " blushes of 
his privacy." Lockhait. 

Anglan'te's Lord, Orlando, who 
was lord of Anglante and knight of 
Brava. Ariosto : Orla?tdo Furioso (1516). 

An'gflesey, i.e. Angles e^-land (the 
island of the English). Edwin king of 
Northumberland, "warred with them that 
dwelt in the Isle of Mona, and they 
became his servants, and the island was 
no longer called Mona, but Anglesey, the 
isle of the English." 

Au'^lides (3 syl.), wife of good prince 
Boud'wine (2 syl.), brother to sir Mark 
king of Cornwall ("the falsest traitor 
that ever was born"). When king Mark 
slew her husband, Anglides and her son 
Alisaunder made their escape to Magounce 
[i.e. Arundel), where she lived in peace, 
and brought up her son till he received 
the honour of knighthood. Sir T. Ma- 
lory : Hist, of Pr. Arthur, ii. 117, 118 

An'g'lo-ma'nia, generally applied to 
a French or German imitation of the 

manners, customs, etc., of the English. 
It prevailed in France some time befora 
the first Revolution, and was often ex- 
tremely ridiculous. 

Ans^lo-pho'bia (Greek, phoboa, 
"fear '), hatred or dread of everything 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ( The). 
Said to have been begun at the instigation 
of king Alfred. It begins with Ca:sar's 
invasion, compiled in a great measure 
from the Venerable Bede, who died in 
901. It ends with the accession of Henry 
II., in 1154. It was compiled by monks, 
who acted as historiographers. 

An'g^isant, king of Erin [Ireland), 
subdued by king Arthur, fighting in behalf 
of Leod'ogran king of Cam'eliard (3 syl.). 
Tennyson ; Com ing of King A rih ur. 

Angnle [St.), bishop of London, put 
to death by Maximia'nus Hercu'lius, 
Roman general in Britain in the reign of 

St. Angule put to death, one of our holiest men, 
At London, of that see the godly bishop then. 

Drayton : Polyoibio7i, xxiv. (1622). 

AngTirva'del, Frithiof's sword, itr- 
scribed with Runic characters, which 
blazed in time of war, but gleamed dimly 
in time of peace. 

Ani'der for Anyder ("without 
water"), the chief river of sir Thomas 
More's Utopia ("no place"). (Greek, 
ana udor.) 

Animals admitted to Heaven. 
According to the Moslem's creed, ten 
animals are admitted into paradise besides 
man. i. The dog Kratim, of the seven 
sleepers of Ephesus. 2. Balaam's ass, 
which reproved the self-willed prophet. 
3. Solomon's ant, which reproves the 
sluggard. 4. Jonah's whale. 5. The 
ram of Ishmael, caught by the horns, and 
offered in sacrifice instead of Isaac 
6. Noah's dove. 7. The camel of Saleh. 
8. The cuckoo of Belkis. 9, The ox of 
Moses. 10. The animal called Al Borak, 
which conveyed Mahomet to heaven. 

The following are sometimes added or 
substituted : The ass on which our 
Saviour rode into Jerusalem ; the ass on 
wliich the queen of Sheba rode when she 
visited Solomon. 

Anjou ( The Fair Maid of), \ady Edith 
Plantagenet, who married David earl of 
Pluniingdon (a royal prince of Scotland). 
Edith was a kinswoman of Richard Cceur 
de Lion, and an attendant on queen 




(Sir Walter Scott has introduced her 
in The Talisman, 1825.) 

Anil [TJie princess), lady of Beaujeu. 
Sir W. Scott: Quentin Durward 
{time, Edward IV.). (See Anne.) 

Anna [Donna], the lady beloved by 
don Otta'vio, but seduced by don Gio- 
vanni. Mozart's opera, Don Giovantii 

Annabel, in Dry den's Absalom and 
Achitophel, is meant for (Anne Scott) the 
duchess of Monmouth, the richest heiress 
of Europe. 

[He] made the charming Amiabel his bride. 

Part i. 34. 
Monmouth ill deserved his charming bride, and 
bestowed wliat little love he had on lady Margaret 
Wentworth. After the execution of Monmoutli, his 
widow married again. 

Annals of tlie Poor, containing 
The Dairyman s Daughter, The Negro 
Servant, and other simple stories, by the 
Rev. Legh Richmond, published in 1814, 
were written in the Isle of Wight. 

An'naple [Bailzou], Effie Deans's 
"monthly" nurse. Sir W. Scott: Heart 
of Midlothian (time, George II.). 

An'naple, nurse of Hobbie Elliot of 
the Heugh-foot, a young farmer. Sir W. 
Scott: The Black Dwarf {iime, Anne). 

Anne [Sister], the sister of Fat'ima 
the seventh and last wife of Blue Beard, 
Fatima, having disobeyed her lord by 
looking into the locked chamber, was 
allowed a short respite before execution. 
Sister Anne ascended the high tower of 
the castle, under the hope of seeing her 
brothers, who were expected to arrive 
every moment. Fatima, in her agony, 
kept asking ' ' sister Anne " if she could 
see them, and Blue Beard kept crying out 
for Fatima to use greater despatch. As 
the patience of both was well-nigh ex- 
hausted, the brothers came, and Fatima 
was rescued from death. CAar/^j Per- 
rault : La Bai-be Bleue. 

Anne, own sister of king Arthur. Her 
father was Uther the pendragon, and her 
mother Ygerna, widow of Gorlois. She 
was given by her brother in marriage to 
Lot, consul of Londonesia, and afterwards 
king of Norway. Geoffrey: British His- 
tory, viii. 20, 21. 

'. In Arthurian romance this Anne 
is called Margawse [History of Prince 
Arthur, i, 2); Tennyson calls her Belli- 
cent [Gareth and Lynette]. In Arthurian 
romance Lot is always called king of 

Anne. Queen Anne's Fan. Your 
thumb to your nose, and fingers spread, 

Anne of Geierstein, a novel of the 
fourteenth century, by sir Walter Scott, 
based on the conquest of Charles the 
Bad, duke of Burgundy, by the Swiss, at 
Nancy, and his subsequent death ; after 
wliich the Swiss were free. The Secret 
Tribunal of Westphalia was, at the time, 
in full power, and the provincial of the 
tribunal, called " The Black Monk," was 
the father of Anne of Geierstein (baroness 
of Arnheim). These were the two op- 
posite poles which the art of the novelist 
had to bring together. To this end, two 
Englishmen, the earl of Oxford and his 
son sir Arthur de Vere, travelling as 
merchants under the name of Philipson, 
are discovered bearing a letter addressed 
to the duke of Burgundy. They are im- 
prisoned, and brought before the Secret 
Tribunal. Now, it so happened that sir 
Arthur and Anne had met before, and 
fallen in love with each other ; so when 
sir i^j-thur was tried by the Secret Tribunal, 
Anne's father (the Black Monk) acquitted 
him ; and when the duke of Burgundy dead, the two " Philipsons " settled 
in Switzerland ; and here, in due time, 
the "Black Monk" freely consented to 
the marriage of his daughter with sir 
Arthur, the son of the earl of Oxford. 
This novel was pubhshed in 1829. 

Annesley, in Mackenzie's novel, called 
T/ie Man of the World [1773), noted for 
his adventures among the Indians. 

Annesley" [fames], the name of the 
"Wandering Heir" in Charles Reade's 
novel ( 1875). 

Annette, daughter of Mathis and 
Catherine, the bride of Christian, captain 
of the patrol. y. E. Ware: The Polish 
Jew (1874). 

Annette and Liibin, by Marmontel, 
imitated from the Daphnis and Chloe of 
Longos [q.v.]. 

An'nie Lau'rie, eldest of the three 
daughters of sir Robert Laurie, of Max- 
welton. In 1709 she married James Fer- 
gusson, of Craigdarroch, and was the 
mother of Alexander Fergusson, the hero 
of Burns's song The Whistle. The song 
of Annie Laurie was written by William 
Douglas, of Fingland, in the stewardry of 
Kirkcud'bright, hero of the song Willie 
zvas a Wanton Wag ; the music was by 
lady John Scott. (See Whistle. ) 

An'nie Win'nie, one of the old 

ANNIR. 47 

sibyls at Alice Gray's death ; the ether 
was Ailsie Gourlay. 5xr W. Scott : The 
Bndeof Lammermoor{\.\mQ, William III.). 

Annir, king of Inis-thona (an island 
of Scandinavia). He had two sons (Argon 
and Ruro) and one daughter. One day 
Cor'malo, a neighbouring chief, came and 
begged the honour of a tournament. 
Argon granted the request, and overthrew 
him, which so vexed Cormalo that during 
a hunt he shot both the brothers secretly 
with his bow. Their dog Runa ran to 
the palace, and howled so as to attract 
attention ; whereupon Annir followed the 
hound, and found both his sons dead, 
and on his return he further found that 
Cormalo had carried off his daughter. 
Oscar, son of Ossian, led an army against 
the villain, and slew him ; then liberating 
tlie young lady, he took her back to Inis- 
thona, and delivered her to her father. 
Ossian: The War of Inis-thona, 

An'nopliel, daughter of Cas'silane 
(3 sy^- ) general of Candy. Beaumont and 
Fletcher : The Laivs of Candy { 1647). 

Annual Register {.The), a sum- 
mary of the chief historic events of the 
past year, first published by John Dodsley, 
in 1758. 

Annus Mirabilis (the wonderful 
year of 1666), a poem of 304 four-line 
stanzas in alternate rhyme, by Dryden. 
The year referred to was noted for our 
victories over the Dutch and for the Great 
Fire of London, which followed the plague 
of 1665. 

In June the English ruinad the Dutch 
fleet and drove it out of the seas. In the 
first four days of this month the Dutch 
lost 15 ships, and on the 20th (at the 
mouth of the Thames) 24 ships, 4 ad- 
-nirals, and 4000 other officers and sea- 
men. Prince Rupert greatly distinguished 

In September the same year occurred 
the Great Fire of London, which in four 
days laid waste 400 streets, burnt down 
13,200 houses, 89 churches, the Royal 
Exchange, the Custom House, Guildhall, 
and many other public buildings. 

Anselm, prior of St. Dominic, the con- 
fessor of khig Henry \M.Sir W. Scott: 
Fair Maid 0/ Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Anselme (2 syl.), father of Val^re 
(2 syl.) and Mariane (3 syL). In reality 
he is don Thomas d'Alburci, of Naples. 
The family were exiled from Naples for 
political reasons, and, being shipwrecked, 


were all parted. Val6re was picked up 
by a Spanish captain, who adopted him ; 
Mariane fell into the hands of a corsair, 
who kept her a captive for ten years, when 
she effected her escape ; and Anselme 
wandered from place to place for ten 
years, when he settled in Paris, and 
intended to marry. At the expiration of 
sixteen years they all met in Paris at the 
house of Har'pagon, the miser. Val^re 
was in love with Elise (2 syl.), the 
miser's daughter, promised by Harpagon 
in marriage to Anselme; and Mariane, 
affianced to the miser's son C16ante (2 syl. ), 
was sought in marriage by Harpagon, the 
old father. As soon as Anselme dis- 
covered that Val6re and Mariane were 
his own children, matters were amicably 
arranged, the young people married, and 
the old ones retired from the unequal 
coniQSX.Molitre : L'Avare (1667). 

Anselmo, a noble cavalier of Florence, 
the friend of Lothario. Anselmo married 
Camilla, and induced his friend to try to 
corrupt her, that he might rejoice in her 
incorruptible fidelity. Lothario unwill- 
ingly undertook the task, and succeeded 
but too well. For a time Anselmo was 
deceived, but at length Camilla eloped, 
and the end of the silly affair was that 
Anselmo died of grief, Lothario was slain 
in battle, and Camilla died in a convent. 
^Cervajites: Don Quixote, I. iv. 5, 6; 
Fatal Curiosity (1605). 

An'ster {Hob), a constable at Kinross 
village. 5?> W.Scott: The A i dot {time. 

Anster Fair, a mock-heroic by 
W. Tennant (1812). The subject is the 
marriage of Maggie Lauder. Frere's 
Monks and Giants, suggested by Anster 
Fair, suggested in turn Byron's Beppo. 

Ant ( The). Ants' eggs are an antidote 
to love. 

Ants never sleep. Emerson says this is 
a "recently observed fact." Nature, iv. 

Ants have mind, etc. "In formica non 
modo sensus, sed etiam mens, ratio, 
memoria." Phny. 

Ajit [Solomon's), one of the ten animals 
admitted into paradise, according to the 
Koran, ch. xxvii. (See Animals, p. 45.) 

Ants lay up a store for the winter. 
This is an error in natural history, as 
ants are torpid during the winter. 

Antse'os, a gigantic wrestler of Libya 
(or Irassa). His strength was inex- 
haustible so long as he touched the earth, 
and was renewed every time he did touch 



it. Her'culSs killed him by lifting liim 
up from the earth and squeezing him to 
death, (See Maleger.) 

As when earth's son Antaeus ... in Irassa strove 
With Jove's Alcid^s, and oft foiled, still rose, 
Receiving from his mother earth, new strength, 
l-resh from his fall, and fiercer grapple joined, 
*5"hrottled at length i' the air, expired and fell. 

Milton : Paradise Regained, iv. (1671). 

^ Similarly, when Bernardo del Carpio 
assailed Orlando or Rowland at Ronces- 
vall6s, as he found his body was not to 
be pierced by any instrument of war, he 
took him up in his arms and squeezed 
him to death. 

N.B. The only vulnerable part of Or- 
lando was the sole of his foot. 

Aute'lLor, a traitorous Trojan prince, 
related to Priam. He advised Ulysses to 
carry away the palladium from Troy ; and 
wlien the wooden horse was built, it was 
Antenor who urged the Trojans to make 
a breach in the wall and drag the horse 
into the city. Shakespeare has introduced 
him in Troilus and Cressida {1602). 

Antlii'a, the lady beloved by Abroc'- 
omas in the Greek romance called 
De Amoribus AnthicB et Abrocomce, by 
Xenophon of Ephesus, who lived in the 
fourth Christian century. 

This is not Xenophon, the historian, who lived B.C. 

An'thony, an English archer in the 
cottage of farmer Dickson, of Douglas- 
dale. Sir W. Scott: Castle Dangerous 
(time, Henry I. ). 

An'thony, the old postillion at Meg 
Dods's, the landlady of the inn at St. 
Ronan's Well. 5?> W. Scott: St. 
Ronan's Well (time, George HI.). (See 

Antid'ius, bishop of Jaen, martyred 
by the Vandals in 411. One day, seeing 
the devil writing in his pocket-book some 
sin committed by the pope, he jumped 
upon his back and commanded his Satanic 
majesty to carry him to Rome. The devil 
tried to make the bishop pronounce the 
name of Jesus, which would break the 
spell, and then the devil would have tossed 
his unwelcome burden into the sea ; but 
the bishop only cried, " Gee up, devil ! " 
and when he reached Rome he was 
covered with Alpine snow. The chronicler 
naively adds, " the hat is still shown at 
Rome in confirmation of this miracle." 
General Chronicle of King Alphonso the 

Antig'oue (4 -y/-). daughter of 
(E'dipos and Jocas'tS, a noble maiden, 

with a truly heroic attachment to her 
father and brothers. When CEdipos had 
blinded himself, and was obliged to quit 
Thebes, Antigonfi accompanied him, and 
remained with him till his death, when 
she returned to Thebes. Creon, the king, 
had forbidden any one to bury Polyni'cSs, 
her brother, who had been slain by his 
elder brother in battle ; but AntigonS, in 
defiance of this prohibition, buried the 
dead body, and Creon shut her up in a 
vault under ground, where she killed 
herself. Hseman, her lover, killed him- 
self also by her side. Sophocles has a 
Greek tragedy on the subject, and it has 
been dramatized for the English stage. 

Then suddenly oh ! . . . what a revelation of beauty! 
forth stepped, walking in brightness, the most faultless 
of Grecian marbles. Miss Helen Faucet as " Antigone." 
Wliat perfection of Athenian sculpture ! the noble 
figure, the lovely arms, the fluent drnpery I What an 
unveiling of the statuesque! . . . Perfect in form; 
perfect in attitude. Z>< Quincey (1845). 

The Modern AntigonS, Mari6 Th^rfese 
Charlotte duchesse d'Angouleme, daugh- 
ter of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette 

Antig'onns, a Sicilian lord, com- 
manded by king Leontes to take his 
infant daughter to a desert shore and 
leave her to perish. Antigonus was 
driven by a storm to the coast of Bohemia, 
where he left the babe ; but on his way 
back to the ship, he was torn to pieces 
by a bear. Shakespeare: The Winter's 
Tale (1604). 

N.B. "The coast of Bohemia.'' Bohemia is quite 
Inland, and has no "coast." It is in the middle of 
what was once called Germany, but is now a part of 
the Austrian empire. 

Antigf 'ontis {King), an old man with 
a young man's amorous passions. He is 
one of the four kings who succeeded to 
the divided empire of Alexander the 
Great. Beaumont and Fletcher: The 
Humorous Lieutenant (printed 1647). 

Antin'ous (4 syl.), a page of Ha- 
drian the Roman emperor, noted for his 

Antin'ous (4 syl.), son of Cas'silane 
(3 svl.) general of Candy, and brother of 
Annophel, in The Laws of Candy, Beau- 
mont and Fletcher (printed 1647). 

Anti'ochus, emperor of Greece, who 
sought the life of Per'iclSs prince of Tyre, 
but died without effecting his design. 
Shakespeare: Pericles Prince of Tyre 

Anti'ope (4 ^yl-), daughter of 
Idom'eneus (4 jy/.),forwhomTelem'achus 
had a iendre. Mentor approved his 




choice, an 1 assured Telemachus that the 
lady was designed for him by the gods. 
Her charms were ' the glowing modesty 
of her countenance, her silent diffidence, 
and her sweet reserve; her constant at- 
tention to tapestry or to some other useful 
and elegant employment ; her diligence 
ia household affairs, her contempt of 
finery in dress, and her ignorance of her 
own beauty." Telemachus says, "She 
encourages to industry by her example, 
sweetens labour by the melody of her 
voice, and excels the best of painters in 
the elegance of her embroidery." 
Finelon: Tilimaque, xxii. (1700). 

Ho [Pau!] fancied he had found in Virjrinia the 
wisdom of Antiope with tlie misfortunes and tlie 
tenderness of Buchans.Bertiariiin dc St. Pierre: 
Paul and Virginia (1788). 

Antipli'olus. The name of two 
brothers, twins, the sons of iEge'on a 
merchant of Syracuse. The two brothers 
were shipwrecked in infancy ; and, being 
picked up by different cruisers, one was 
taken to Syracu^^e, and the other to 
Ephesus. The Ephesian entered the 
service of the duke ; and, being fortunate 
enough to save the duke's life, became a 
great man and married well. The Syra- 
cusian Antipholus, going in search of 
his brother, came to Ephesus, where a 
series of blunders occur from the won- 
derful likeness of the two brothers and 
their two servants called Dromio. The 
confusion becomes so great that the 
Ephesian is taken up as a mad man. It 
so happened that both brothers appeared 
before the duke at the same time ; and 
the extraordinary likeness being seen by 
all, the cause of the blunders was evident, 
and everything was satisfactorily ex- 
plained. Shakespeare: Comedy of Errors 

Antiquary ( The), Jonathan Oldbuck, 
laird of Monkbarns. He exchanged some 
excellent arable land for a worthless plot 
of barren soil, because he fancied it was 
the remains of a Roman camp in the 
time of Julius Caesar. In confirmation of 
this supposition, he discovered an old 
stonewith the letters A. D. L. L. scratched 
on it. This he read " Agricola Dicavit 
Iiibens Lubens." An old beadsman, 
named Edie Ochiltree, here interrupted 
him, and said twenty years ago, at Aiken 
Drum's wedding, one of the masons, for a 
joke, cut on a stone the letters, which stood 
for "Aiken Drum's Lang Ladle." Sir 
W. Scott: The Antiquary, chap. iv. 

The Antiquary: a novel by sir VV. 
Scott {1816). The third of the Waverley 

Novels, the subject is the marriage be- 
tween William Lovel and Miss Wardour. 
Mr. Lovel accidentally meets the Anti- 
quary (laird of Monkbarns) at a coach 
office in Edinburgh High Street, pays 
him a visit, and is introduced to sir 
Arthur Wardour and his daughter. Sir 
Arthur, his daughter, and Lovel meet on 
the sands at Halkethead, but being over- 
taken by a spring-tide are hauled up the 
cliffs by ropes. Further intimacy is ob- 
structed by a letter, which compels Lovel 
to leave Monkbarns for Fairport, where 
the Antiquary returns his visit, taking 
with him his kinsman, captain M'Intyrc. 
Lovel and the captain quarrel ; and in 
the duel which ensues the captain receives 
a wound supposed to be deadly, so that 
Lovel flees and hides in a cave. Here he 
accidentally overhears Dousterswivel and 
sir Arthur Wardour in the ruins, searching 
for treasure. Sir Arthur receives a lawyer's 
letter, demanding instant payment of the 
money thus swindled out of him, and 
sheriffs officers take possession of the 
castle. The Antiquary comes to his 
rescue, and the castle is cleared. An 
alarm of an invasion of Fairport causes 
the retainers to muster in its defence. 
Lovel arrives, is recognized as the son of 
the earl of Glenallan, and marries Miss 
Wardour (time of George III.). 

Anton {Sir). Tennyson says thnt 
Merlin gave Arthur, when an infant, to sir 
Anton and his lady to bring up, and they 
brought him up as their own son. This 
does not correspond with the History of 
Prince Arthur, which states that he was 
committed to the care of sir Ector and 
his lady, whose son, sir Key, is over 
and over again called the prince's foster- 
brother. "The History furthermore states 
that Arthur made sir Key his seneschal 
because he was his foster-brother. 

So the child was delivered unto Merlin, and he bare 
him forth unto sir Ector, and made a holy man christen 
him, and named him "Arthur." And so sir Ector's 
wife nourished him with her own breast. Part i. 3. 

So sir Ector rode to the justs, and with him rode sir 
Key, his son, and young Arthur that was his nourished 
\,roX.\\ax. Ditto. 

" Sir," said sir Ector, " I will ask no more of you but 
that you will make my son, sir Key, your foster- 
brother, seneschal of all your lands." " That shall be 
done," said Artlmr (ch. ,).Sir T. Malory, History 
0/ Prince Arthur (1470). 

Anton, one of Henry Smith's men in 
The Fair Maid of Perth, by sir W. 
Scott (time, Henry IV.). 

Anto'niad, the name of Cleopat'ra's 
ship at the battle of Actium, so named 
in compliment to Mark Antony. Plu- 


ANTONIO, a sea-captain who saved 
Sebastian (the brother of Viola) when 
wrecked off the Illyrian coast. Shak^' 
speare: Twelfth Night {x6\i^). 

Antonio, " the merchant of Venice," 
in Shakespeare's drama so called (1598). 
Antonio borrows of Shylock, a Jew, 
3000 ducats for three months, to lend to 
his friend Bassanio. The conditions of 
the loan were these : if the money was 
paid within the time, only the principal 
should be returned ; but if not, the Jew 
sliould be allowed to cut from any part he 
chose of Antonio's body "a pound of 
flesh," As the ships were delayed by 
contrary winds, Antonio was unable to 
pay within the three months, and Shylock 
demanded the forfeiture according to the 
bond. Portia, in the dress of a law- 
doctor, conducted the case, and when the 
Jew was about to cut the flesh, stopped 
him, saying (i) the bond gave him no 
drop of blood ; and {2) he must take 
neither more nor less than an exact 
pound. If he shed one drop of blood, or 
if he cut more or less than an exact 
pound, his life would be forfeited. As it 
was quite impossible to comply with 
these restrictions, the Jew was nonsuited, 
and had to pay a heavy fine for seeking 
the life of a citizen. (See Shylock, for 
similar tales. ) 

Antonio, the usurping duke of Milan, 
brother of Prospero the righttul heir, and 
father of Miranda. Shakespeare: The 
Tempest (1623). 

Antonio, father of Proteus (2 syl.) 
and suitor of Julia. Shakespeare : The 
Tivo Gentlemen of Verona (1598). 

Antonio, a Swiss lad in Scott's novel 
called Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward 

Antonio, a stout old gentleman, 
kinsman of Petruccio governor of Bo- 
logna. Fletcher : The Chances (1620). 

(Tiiis comedy was altered first by 
Buckingham, and then by Garrick. ) 

Antonio {Don), father of Carlos a 
bookworm, and of Clodis a coxcomb. A 
headstrong testy old man, who wants 
Carlos to sign away his birthright in 
favour of his younger brother, whom he 
designed Angelina to marry. Carlos 
refuses to do so, and elopes with Angelina. 
Clodis (the younger brother) gives his 
troth to Elvira of Lisbon. Cibber : Love 
makes a Man (1700). 


Antonio [Don), in love with Louisa, 
daughter of don Jerome of Seville. He 
is a nobleman of ancient family, but 
without GsiaXe. Sheridan : The Duenna 

Antonomas'ia ( The princess), 
daughter of Archipiela king of Candaya, 
and his wife Magimcia. She married 
don Clavijo, but the giant Malambru'no, 
by enchantment, changed the bride into 
a brass monkey, and her spouse into a 
crocodile of some unknown metal. Don 
Quixote mounted the wooden horse 
Clavileno the Winged, to disenchant the 
lady and her husband, and this he 
effected " simply by making the 
attempt." Cervantes: Don Quixote, II. 
iii. 4, 5 (1615). 

Antony {Mark), the Roman trium- 
vir, in love with Cleopat'ra. By this fatal 
passion he lost his empire, his character 
as a hero, and his Wie.Dryden : All for 
Love. (See Antony and Cleopatra.) 

Antony {Saint) lived in a cavern on 
the summit of Cavadonga, in Spain, and 
was perpetually annoyed by devils. 

Old St. Antonius from the hell 
Of his bewildered phantasy saw fiends 
In actual vision, a foul throng grotesque 
Of all horrific shapes and forms obscene, 
Crowd in broad day before his open eyes. 

Southey: Roderick, etc., xvL (1814), 

An 'tony and Caesar. Macbeth 
says that " under Banquo his own 
genius was rebuked [or snubbed], as it 
is said Mark Antony's was by Caesar" 
(act iii. sc. i), and in Antony and Cleo- 
patra this passage is elucidated thus 

Thy daemon, that's thy spirit which keeps thee. Is 
Noble, courageous, high, unmatchable 
Wlicre Caesar's is not ; but near him thy'angel 
Becomes a fear, as being o'erpowcred. 

Act ii. sc. 3. 

Antony and Cleopat'ra, a tragedy 
by Shakespeare (1608): the illicit love 
of Antony (the Roman triumvir) and 
Cleopatra (queen of Egypt). Antony, 
being in Egypt, falls in love with Cleopatra, 
and wholly neglects his duties as one of 
the rulers of the vast Roman empire. 
During the time, his wife Fulvia dies, the 
Roman people become turbulent, and 
Sextus Pompey makes himself master of 
the seas. Octavius Caesar sends to Egypt 
to beg Antony to return to Rome without 
delay. The first interview between the 
triumvirs was very stormy, but Agrippa 
suggests that Antony should marry Octavia 
(Caesar's sister), lately left a widow, and 
urges that the alliance would knit together 
the two triumvirs in mutual interests. 


Antony assents to the proposal, and 
marries Octavia. About the same time 
Sextus Pompey was bought over by the 
promise of Sicily and Sardinia, and soon 
after this Lepldus (the third triumvir) was 
deposed by Ccesar. Antony, returning to 
Egypt, falls again into the entanglement 
of the queen, and Ca;sar proclaims war 
against him. Antony, enforced by sixty 
Egyptian ships, prepares to defend him- 
self, but in the midst of the fight the 
sixty Eg}'ptian ships with Cleopatra flee, 
and Antony follows, so that the battle of 
Actium was a complete fiasco. Other 
losses follow, and Antony kills himself by 
falling on his own sword. Caesar hopes 
to make Cleopatra a captive, and deprives 
her of every weapon of offence, but the 
self-willed queen sends a slave to procure 
some asps in a basket of figs. She applies 
two of them, and dies. Caesar arrives in 
time to see her in royal robes, and orders 
that Antony and Cleopatra be buried in 
the same tomb. 

For the accent 

I will o'ertake thee, Clcopat'ra, and 
Weep for thy pardon. 
Shakespeare: Antony and Cleopatra, act iv. sc. 14. 
Proud Cleopat'ra, when she met her Roman. 

Shakespeare : CytHbetine, act ii. sc. 4. 

,* Dryden has a tragedy entitled 
All for Love, on the same subject. 

An'vil ( The Literary'). Dr. Mayo was 
so called, because he bore the hardest 
blows of Dr. Johnson without flinching. 

Aodh, last of the Culdees, or primitive 
clergy of lo'na, an island south of 
Staffa. His wife was Reullu'ra. Ulv- 
fa'gre the Dane, having landed on the 
island and put many to the sword, bound 
Aodh in chains of iron ; then, dragging 
him to the church, demanded where the 
" treasures were concealed." A mys- 
terious figure now appeared, which not 
only released the priest, but took the 
Dane by the arm to the statue of St. 
Columb, which fell on him and crushed 
him to death. After this the " saint " 
gathered the remnant of the islanders 
together, and went to Ireland. Campbell: 

Aon'ian Mount {The), in Bo^o'tia, 
the haunt of the Muses. Milton says his 
Muse is to soar above ' ' the Aonian 
mount," i.e. above the flight of fable and 
classic themes, because his subject was 
"Jehovah, lord of all." Paradise Lost, i. 
15 (1665). 

Ape (i syl.), the pseudonym of M. 
Pellegrini,, the caricaturist of Vanity 
Fair, Dr. Johnson says "/<? ape is to 


imitate ludicrously ; " whence the adoption 
of the name. 

Apes. To lead Apes in Hell, to die an 
old maid. Thus Fadladin'ida says to 
Tatlanthe {3 syl.) 

Pity that you who've served so lone and well 
Should die a virgin, and lend apes m Ii-jU; 
Choose for yourself, dear girl, our empire round, 
Your portion is twelve hundred thousand pound. 
//. Carey : Chrononliotonthologos, 
Women, dying maids, lead apes in hell. 

The London Prodigal, L a. 

Apelles (3 syl.), a character in Lyly's Alexander and Campaspe {^ syl. ), 
noted for the song beginning thus 

Cupid and my Campaspe played 
At cards for kisses. 

Aperies. When his famous painting 
of Venus rising out of the sea (hung by 
Augustus in the temple of Julius Caesar) 
was greatly injured by time, Nero re- 
placed it by a copy done by Dorothcus 
(4. syl.). This Venus by Apelles is called 
" Venus Anadyom'enfi," his model (accord- 
ing to tradition) being Campaspe (after- 
wards his wife). 

Apel'les and the Cobbler. A cobbler 
found fault with the shoe-latchet of one of 
Apelles' paintings, and the artist rectified 
the fault. The cobbler, thinking himself 
very wise, next ventured to criticize the 
legs ; but Apelles said, Ne sutor supi-a 
crepidum ( ' ' Let not the cobbler go beyond 
his last "). - 

Within that range of criticism where all are equally 
judges, and where Crispin is entided to dictate to 
Apollcs. Encyclopedia Britanniea (article " Ro- 
inauce "). 

Apelles of liis Age ( The). Samuel 
Cooper is so called in his epitaph, in old 
St. Pancras' Church (1609-1672). 

Apeman'tus, a churlish Athenian 
philosopher, who snarled at men 
systematically, but showed his cynicism 
to be mere affectation, when Timon 
attacked him with his own weapons. 
Shakespeare : Timo?i of Athens (i5oo). 

Their affected melancholy showed like the cynicism 
of Apemantus, contrasted with the real misanthropy of 
Timon. Sir IV. Scott. 

Apic'ius, an epicure in the time of 
Tiberius. He wrote a book on the ways 
of provoking an appetite. Having spent 
^^800,000 in supplying the delicacies 
of the table, and having only ^^80,000 
left, he hanged himself, not thinking it 
possible to exist on such a wretched 
pittance. Apicia, however, became a 
stock name for certain cakes and sauces, 
and his name is still proverbial in all 
matters of gastronomy. (See Ralph.) 

(There was another of the name in the 


reign of Trajan, who wrote a cooking- 
book and manual of sauces. ) 

No Brahmin could abominate your meal more than I 
clo. Hirtius and Apicius would have blushed for it. 
Mark Antony, who roasted eight whole boars for 
supper, never massacred more at a meal than you 
have done. Cumberland : The Fashionable Lover, 
L 1 (1780). 

Apoc'rypha {The) properly means 
the hidden books. Writings may be so 

(i) Because the name of the author is hidden or not 
certainly known. 

(2) Because the book or books have not been openly 
admitted into the canon of Scripture. 

(3) Because they are not accepted as divinely in- 
spired, and no doctrine can be proved by them. 

(4) Because they have been issued by heretics to 
justify their errors. 

The fourteen books of the Apocrypha 
(sometimes bound up with our Scriptures) 
are included in the Septuagint version, 
and were accepted at the Council of Trent 
in 1546. In the Church of England much 
was excluded in 1871. 

AFOIiLO, in Homeric mythology, is 
the embodiment of practical wisdom and 
foresight, of swift and far-reaching in- 
telligence, and hence of poetry, music, 

The Apollo Belvidere, that is, the Apollo 
preserved in the Belvidere gallery of the 
Vatican, discovered in 1503 amidst the 
ruins of An'tium, and purchased by pope 
Julius II. It is supposed to be the work 
of Cal'amis, a Greek sculptor of the fifth 
century B.C. 

The Apollo of Actium was a gigantic 
statue, which served for a beacon. 

The Apollo of Rhodes, usually called the 
colossus, was a gigantic bronze statue, 150 
feet high, made by Charts, a pupil of 
Lysippus, and set up B.C. 300. 

Animals consecrated to Apollo, the cock, 
the crow, the grasshopper, the hawk, the 
raven, the swan, and the wolf. 

Apollo, the sun. 

Apollo's angry, and the heavens themselves 
Do strike at my injustice. 

Shakespeare: IVinter's Tale, act iii. sc. a. 

ApoUonius of Tyre, a British 
romance, printed under the care of Ben 
Thorpe. It is a story similar to that of 
" Pericles, prince of Tyre," by Shake- 

Apollo'nius EhocUus, author of 
a Greek epic poem in four books, greatly 
admired by the Romans, and translated 
into Latin by Varro. There are several 
English translations. One by Fawkes 
and Meen, in 1780. In verse by Greene, 
in 1750 ; and by Preston, in 1803. (See 
Argon AUTic Expedition, p. 58.) 


N.B. ApoUonius was born in Alex- 
andria, but he migrated to Rhodes, where 
he was so much admired that they called 
him the Rhodian. He returned to Alex- 
andria, and was made librarian. He 
flourished B.C. 222-181. 

ApoU'yon, king of the bottomless 
pit ; introduced by Bunyan in his 
Pilgrims Progress. Apollyon encounters 
Christian, by whom, after a severe con- 
test, he is foiled (1678). (Greek, apollumi, 
" to ruin.") 

Apostle or Patron Saint of 

ABYSSINIANS, St. Frumcntius (died 360). His d^ 

is October 27. 
Alps, Felix Neff (1798-1829). 
ANTIOCH, St. Margaret (died 27S). Her day is July 20. 

Ardennes, St. Hubert (656-730). 
Armenians, Gregory of Armen' 
CAGLIARI (Sardinia), St. Efisio, 

rmenia (256-331). 

Corfu, St. Spiridion (fourth century). His day is 

December 14. 
English, St Augustin (died 607) ; St. George (died 

ETHIOPIA, St. Frumentius (died 360). His day U 

FRANCONIA, St. Kilian (died 689). His day is July a 
Free Trade, Richard Cobden (1804-1865). 
French, St. Denis (died 272). His day is October 9. 
FRISIANS, St. Wilbrod (657-738). 
Gauls, St. Irenre'us (130-200) ; St. Martin (316-397). 
GENTILES, St. Paul (died 66J. His days are June 39, 

January 25. 
Georgia, St. Nino. 

GERMANY, St. Boniface (680-755). His day is June 5. 
Highlanders, St. Colomb (521-597). His day is 

June 9. 
Hungarians, St Anastasius (died 628). His day is 

January 22. 
INDIANS, Bartolomd de Las Casas (1474-1566); Rev. 

John Eliot (160^-1690). 
Indies, St Francis Xavier (1506-1552). His day is 

December 3. 
Infidelity, Voltaire (1694-1778). 
Irish, St Patrick (372-493). His day is March 17. 
Liberty, Thomas Jefferson, third president of the 

U.S. (1743-1826). 
London, St. Paul ; St Michael Days, January 23 ; 

September 29. 
Netherlands, St Armand (589-679). 
North, St Ansgar (801-864) ; Bernard Gilpin (1517- 

Padua, St Anthony (1195-1231). His day is June 13. 
Paris, St Genevifeve (419-512). Her day is January 3. 
Peak, W. Bagshaw, so called from his missionary 

labours in Derbyshire (1628-1702). 
PICTS, St Ninian. 

Scottish Reformers, John Knox (1505-1572). 
Sicily (the tutelary deity is) Ceres. 
Slaves, St. Cyril (died 868). His day is February 14. 
Spain, St. James, the Greater (died 44). His day is 

July 24. 
Temperance, Father Mathew (1790-18^6). 
Venice, St Mark; St. Pantaleon; St Andrew 

Tustiniani. St Mark's day is April 25 ; St PanU- 

leon's, July 27. 
Yorkshire, St PauU'nus, bishop of York (597-644). 
Wales, St David (480-544). His day is March i. 

Apostle of Free Trade, Richard 
Cobden (1804-1865). John Bright was 
also so called (1811-1889). 

Apostolic Fathers ( The Five) : 
Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Hernias, 
Igna'tius, and Polycarp. All contem- 
porary with the apostles. These names 
are not to be depended en. 



Ap'petiser. A Scotchman being told 
that the birds called kiltiewiaks were ad- 
mirable appetisers, ate six of them, and 
then complained "he was no hungrier 
than he was before." 

Ap'pius, in Pope's Essay on Criticism, 
is intended for John Dennis, the critic 

Appiiis reddens at each word you speaV, 
And stares tremendous, with a threatening eye^ 
Like some fierce tyrant in old tapestry. 
I'cars most to tax an honourable fool, 
Whose rij;ht it is, uncensured to be dull. 

Pope : Jissay en Criticism, 583-589. 

Appius and Virgfinia, one of 

Macaulay's lays. Also a " Morality " by 
R. B. (1574) ; a tragedy by Webster 
{1654) ; a tragedy by Dennis {1705). 

Apple [Prince AAmecTs), a cure for 
every disorder. Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainments ("Ahmed and Pari-banou "), 

Tlie Singing Apple, the perfect em- 
beUisher of wit. It would persuade by 
its smell alone, and would enable the 
possessor to write poetry or prose, to 
make people laugh or cry, and discoursed 
such excellent music as to ravish every 
one. Comtcsse D'Aulnoy: Fairy Tales 
{" Chery and Fairstar," 1682). 

Apples of Sodom (called by Wit- 
man, oranges) are the yellow fruit of 
the osher or ashey tree. Tacitus {His- 
tory, V. 7) and Josephus both refer to 
these apples, Thevenot says, "The 
fruit is lovely [externally], but within is 
full of ashes." 

The fruit of the osher or ashey tree, called " Apples 
or Oranges of Sodom," resembles a smooth apple or 
oraiifre, hangs in clusters of three or four on a branch, 
and is of a yellow colour when ripe. Upon being struck 
or pressed, it explodes with a puff, and is reduced to 
the rind and a few fibres, being chiefly filled with air. 
Gallery of Geography, 8ii. 

Like to the apples on the Dead Sea shore. 

All ashes to the taste. 

Byron : Childe Harold, iii. 34. 

Apprentice's Wise Choice {An). 
A loving couple of Cantire had one son ; 
but being very poor, the husband came to 
England, and took service with a farmer. 
Years rolled on, and the man resolved to 
return home. His master asked him 
which he would take his wagefi or three 
bits of advice? and he chose the latter. 
The three bits of advice were these: (i) 
Keep in the high-road ; (2) never lodge 
in a house where there is an old man 
with a young wife ; and (3) do nothing 
rashly. On his way home he met a pedlar 
going the same way, who told him he 
would show him a short cut, but the 
Highlander said he would keep the high- 
road. The pedlar, who took the short 



cut, fell among thieves, and was robbed 
of everything. They met again, and the 
pedlar advised him to put up for the 
night at a roadside house ; but when he 
found that the old man had lately mar- 
ried a young wife, he passed on. In the 
night the old landlord was murdered, 
and the pedlar was accused of the crime. 
At length the Highlander reached Cantire, 
and saw his wife caressing a young man. 
In his rage he would have killed the 
young man, but, determined to "do 
nothing rashly," he asked who the young 
man was, and discovered it was his own 
son. To crown all, when the Highlander 
opened the cake given him by his late 
master as a present to his wife, he found 
in it his wages in full. Ctithbert Dede : 
The White Wife, and other Stories {1^64,). 

IF The following is a somewhat similar 
tale : A poor man, not long married, 
started for Maremma to earn a livelihood, 
and, after the lapse of some years, 
returned home. On his way he asked 
a publican for alms, and the publican 
replied, "Which shall I give you three 
scudi or three bits of advice? " The man 
chose the latter, and the publican said to 
him, " (i) Never interfere with what does 
not concern you ; (2) never leave the 
high-road for a short cut ; and (3) keep 
your wounded pride under control till the 
following day." On his way home he 
lodged at an inn where a murder was 
committed, but kept a wise tongue ia 
his head, and was suffered to depart 
in peace. As he journeyed on he was 
advised by a traveller to take a short 
cut, but declined doing so ; and the 
traveller, who left him, was murdered 
by highwaymen. On reaching home he 
beheld his wife caressing a young priest, 
but he kept his wounded pride under 
control till the day following, and thea 
discovered that the young priest was his 
own son. When he opened a cake given 
him by the publican, he found in k 
three scndi.Nerucci: Sessanta Novelle 

IF Every one will remember Solomon's 
choice. He chose wisdom, and found 
riches were given in to boot. 

Appul'durcomTje (4 syl.), the Isle 
of Wight. The word is a compound of 
apuldre-combe ("valley of apple trees"),, 
and not y pul dur y cum {" the lake in 
the valley"). 

. April Pool. One of the most 
favourite London jokes was to send 
greenhorns to the Tower, "to see the 


lions washed. ' ' (See Dictionary of Phrase 
and Fable, p. 58.) 

IT When asked the origin of this 
custom, send the inquirer to look out 
Matt, xxviii. 22. 

Apnle'ius, an African by birth, noted 
for his allegorical romance, in eleven 
books, of The Golden Ass {q.v.). Books 
iv., v., vi. contain the exquisite episode 
of Cupid and Psyche {q.v.). Apuleius 
lived about A.D. 114-190. 

Aquarius, Sagittarius. Mrs. 
Browning says that "Aquarius" is a 
symbol of man suffering, and "Sagit- 
tarius" of man combattiiig the passive 
and active forms of human labour. 

Eve. Two phantasms of two men. 

Adam. One that sustains, 

And one that strives, so the ends 
Of manhood's curse of labour. 

Mrs. Browning : A Dratna 0/ Exile (1851). 

A'quilaut, son of Olive'ro and 
Sigismunda; a knight in Charlemagne's 
army. He was called "-black," and his 
brother Gryphon "zvhite," from the colour 
of their armour. Ariosto: Orlando 
Furioso (1516). 

A'quiline (3 syl.), Raymond's steed, 
whose sire was the wind. Tasso : Jeru- 
salem Delivered, vii. (1575). 

(Solinus, Columella, and VaiTO relate 
how the Lusitanian mares "with open 
mouth against the breezes held, receive the 
gale, with warmth prolific filled, and thus 
inspired, their swelling wombs produce 
the wondrous offspring." See also 
Virgil: Georgics, iii. 266-283.) 

Aq.uin'ian Sage {The). Juvenal is 
so called, because he was born at Aqui'- 
num, in Latiura. (He flourished A.D. 

Arabella, an heiress left under the 
charge of justice Day, whose son, Abel, 
aspired to her hand and fortune ; but 
Arabella conferred both on captain Manly 
instead. T. Knight: TIieHo?iest Thieves. 

Arabia Felix [Araby the Blest]. 
The name is a blunder made by British 
merchants, who supposed that the precious 
commodities of India, bought of Arabian 
merchants, were the produce of Arabia. 

Arabian Bird [The), the phoenix. 
Metaphorically, a marvellous person ; one 
quite S7ii generis. 

O Anthony ! thou Arabian bird 1 
Shakapca^-e : Anthojiy and Cleopatra, iii. 2. 

Arabian Nig-hts' Entertain- 
ments ( The). (See Thousand-and-ONE 


Arachne \A-rah'-7iy\ a spider. Me- 
taphorically, a weaver, "Arachne's 
labours," spinning and weaving. Arachne 
was a Lydian maiden, who challenged 
Minerva to compete with her in needle 
tapestry, and Minerva metamorphosed 
her into a spider. 

No orifice for a point 
As subtle as Arachne's broken woof 
To enter. 
Shakespeare : Troilus and Cressida, v. 2 (1602). 

A'raf (^/), a sort of hmbo between 
paradise and jehennam, for those who 
die without sufficient merit to deserve the 
former, and v/ithout sufficient demerit to 
be confined in the latter. Here idiots, 
lunatics, and infants go at death, accord- 
ing to the Koran. 

Ar 'afat {Motmt), a granite hill 15 miles 
south-east of Mecca, where Adam (con- 
ducted by Gabriel) met Eve, after a puni- 
tive separation of 200 years. Every 
pilgrim to this mount enjoys the privilege 
of a Hadji. 

*. A Hadji is one who has performed his Hadj, 
or pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Aragnol, the son of ArachnS {<!'") 
He entertained a secret and deadly hatred 
against prince Clarion, son of Muscarol, 
the fly-king. And, weaving a curious net, 
he soon caught the gay young flutterer, 
and gave him his death-wound by pierc- 
ing him under the left wing. Spenser: 
Muiopotmos, or The Butterfly's Fate 

Aram {Eugene, 2 syl.), a romance by 
Lytton Bulwer (lord Lytton), founded 
on the story of a Knaresborough school- 
master, who (under very peculiar circum- 
stances) committed a murder. He is 
described as a learned man, of kindly 
disposition, and blameless life. The 
murder so haunted him that he committed 

*. Thomas Hood has told the story in 
verse, and W. G. Wills has dramatized it. 

Aramin'ta, the wife of Moneytrap, 
and friend of Clarissa (wife of Gripe the 
scrivener). Sir John Va7ibrugh : The 
Cotifederacy (1695). 

Aranza {The duhe of). He married 
Juliana, elder daughter of Balthazar. She 
was so haughty, arrogant, and overbear- 
ing, that, after the marriage, Aranza took 
her to a mean hut, which he called his 
home, and pretended that he was only a 
peasant, who had to work for his living, 
and expected his bride to perform the 
household duties. Juhana chafed for a 
time, but firmness, manliness, and affec- 


tion won the day ; and when the duke 
saw that she really loved him for himself, 
he led her to his castle and revealed to 
her his proper station. y. Tobin: The 
Honeymoon {1804). 

. Of course, this is only a richauffi oi 
Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew. 

Ar'aphil or Ar'aphill, the poetic 
pseudonym of William Habington. His 
lady-love, Miss Lucy Herbert, he calls 

Aras'pes (3 syl), king of Alexandria, 
who joined the Egyptian armament 
against the crusaders. He was ' ' more 
famed for devices than for courage." 
Tasso: Jerusalem Delivered (1575). 

Arba'ces (3 syl.), king of Iberia, in 
the drama called A King or no King, by 
John Fletcher (1619). 

Arbate fa syl.), in Racine's drama of 
Mithridate\^ syl., 1673). 

Arbate (2 syl.), governor of the prince 
of Ithica, in Moli^re's comedy La Prin- 
cesse d Elide (1664). In his speech to 
Euryle (2 syl.) prince of Ithaca, persuad- 
ing him to love, he is supposed to refer to 
Louis XV. , then 26 years of age. 

Te dirai que I'amour sied bien i vos pareil . . . 
Et qu'il est malaisi que, sans etre amoreux, 
Un jeune prince soit et grand et g:6n6reux ! 

Act i. sc. z. 

ArTiiter EregantisB. C. Petronius 
was appointed dictator-in-chief of the 
imperial pleasures at the court of Nero ; 
and nothing was considered comme ilfaut 
till it had received the sanction of this 
Roman "beau Brummel." 

Behold the new Petronius of the day, 
The arbiter of pleasure and of play. 
Byron : Hnglish Bards and Scotch Reviewtrs. 

Arbre Sec, a tree said to have dried 
up and withered when our Lord was 
crucified. A MedicBval Christian Tradi- 

Arbre Sol foretold, with audible 
voice, the place and manner of Alex- 
ander s death. This tree figures in all 
he fabulous legends of Alexander. 

Arbuthnot [Epistle to Dr.), by Alex- 
ander Pope. The prologue of the Satires. 
It contains the famous description of 
Addison, under the name of "Atticus," 
and is most prolific in hnes familiar as 
household words. 

Arc [Joan of), or Jeanne la Pucelle, 
the Maid of Orleans, daughter of a rustic 
of Domr^my, near Vaucouleurs, in 
France. She was servant at an inn when 
she conceived the idea of liberating France 


from the English. Having gained Ad* 
mission to Charles VII., she was sent by 
him to raise the siege of Orleans, and 
actually succeeded in so doing. Schiller 
(1801) wrote a tragedy on the subject; 
Balfe{i839), an opera ; Casimir Delavigne 
an elegy ; T. Taylor {1870) a tragedy ; 
Southey, an epic poem on her life and 
death ; and Voltaire, a burlesque. 

N.B. In regard to her death, M. 
Octave Delepiere, in his Doute Historique, 
denies the tradition of her having been 
burnt to death at Rouen ; and Vignier 
discovered in a family muniment chest 
the "contract of marriage between" 
Robert des Armoise, knight, and Jeanne 
d'Arc, surnamed " The Maid of Orleans." 

Ar'cades Aiubo, both fools alike ; 
both ' ' sweet innocents ; " both alike 
eccentric. There is nothing in the cha- 
racter of Corvdon and Thyrsis (Virgil's 
Eclogue, vii. 4) to justify this disparaging 
application of the phrase. All Virgil 
says is that they were both " in the flower 
of their youth, and both Arcadians, both 
equal in setting a theme for song or cap- 
ping it epigrammatically ; " but as Ar- 
cadia was the least intellectual part of 
Greece, an "Arcadian" came to signify 
dunce, and hence "Arcades ambo " re- 
ceived its present acceptation. 

Arca'dia, a pastoral romance in prose 
by sir Philip Sidney, in imitation of the 
Dian'a of Montemayor (1590). 

Arcala'us {4J[y/.). an enchanter who 
bound Am'adis de Gaul to a pillar in his 
courtyard, and administered to him 200 
stripes with his horse's bridle. Amadis 
de Gaul (fifteenth century). 

Arca'ues (3 syl.), a noble soldier, 
friend of Cas'silane (3 syl.) general of 
Candy. Beaumont and Fletcher: The 
Laws of Candy (printed 1647). 

Arcban'gel. Burroughs, the puritan 
preacher, called Cromwell ' ' the arch- 
angel that did battle with the devil." 

Arcbas, "the loyal subject" of the 
great-duke of Moscovia, and general of 
the Moscovites. His son is colonel Theo- 

Young Archas, son of the genera?. 
Disguised as a woman, he assumes the 
name of Alinda. Fletcher: The I^yal 
Subject (1618). Beaumont died 1616. 

Archbish'op of Grana'da told his 
secretary, Gil Bias, when he hired him, 
"Whenever thou shalt perceive my pen 
smack of old age and my genius flag, 




don't fail to advertise me of it, for I don t 
trust to my own judgment, which may be 
seduced by self-love." After a fit of 
apoplexy, Gil Bias ventured in the most 
delicate manner to hint to his grace that 
"his last discourse had not altogether 
the energy of his former ones." To this 
the archbishop replied, " You are yet too 
raw to make proper distinctions. Know, 
child, that I never composed a better 
homily than that which you disapprove. 
Go, tell my treasurer to give you loo 
ducats. Adieu, Mr. Gil Bias; I wish 
you all manner of prosperity, with a little 
more ta.ste."Lesage : Gil Bias, vii. 3 

Ar'clier (Francis), friend of Aimwell, 
who joins him in fortune-hunting. These 
are the two " beaux." Thomas viscount 
Aimwell marries Dorinda, the daughter 
of lady Bountiful. Archer hands the 
deeds and property taken from the high- 
waymen to sir Charles Freeman, who 
takes his sister, Mrs. Sullen, under his 
charge again. George Farquhar : The 
Beaux Stratagem {1707). 

Arcli'ibald [jfohn), attendant on the 
duke of Argyle. 5i> W. Scott: Heart of 
Midlothian (time, George II. ). 

ArcHima'^o, the reverse of holiness, 
and therefore Satan the father of lies 
and all deception. Assuming the guise 
of the Red Cross Knight, he deceived 
Una ; and under the guise of a hermit, he 
deceived the knight himself. Archimago 
(Greek, archi magos, "chief magician") is 
introduced in bks. i. and ii. of Spenser's 
Faerie Queene. The poet says 

... he could take 
As many forms and shapes in seeming wise 
As ever Proteus to himself could make : 
Sometimes a fowl, sometimes a fish in lake. 
Now Uke a fox, now like a dragon fell. 

Sfenser: Falrit Queene, I. ii. lo (1590). 

Arcliy M'Sarcasm. (See M 'Sar- 
casm. ) 

Archy'tas of Tarentum made a 
wooden pigeon that could fly; and 
Regiomontanus, a German, made a 
wooden eagle that flew from Koenigsberg 
to meet the emperor ; and, having saluted 
him, returned whence it set out {1436- 

Ar'cite (2 syl. ) and Fal'amon, two 

Theban knights, captives of duke Theseus 
(2 syl. ). {For the tale, see Palamon . . . ) 
Chaucer: Canterbury Tales (1388). 

Ar'den [Enoch), the hero of a poetic 
tale by Tennyson (1864). He is a sea- 
man who had been wrecked on a desert 

island, and, after an absence of several 
years, returning home, he found his wife 
married to another. Seeing her both 
happy and prosperous, he resolves not 
to make himself known, so he leaves the 
place, and dies of a broken heart. 
Tennyson : Enoch Arden. 

Arden [Forest of), in Shakespeare's 
comedy of As You Like It, is a purely 
imaginary place. 

. There is a forest of Arden in 
Staffordshire, but Shakespeare's forest 
cannot possibly be the same. 

Ar'den of Pev'ersliain, a noble cha- 
racter, honourable, forgiving, affectionate, 
and modest. His wife Alicia, in her sleep, 
reveals to him her guilty love for Mosby, 
but he pardons her on condition that 
she will never see the seducer again. 
Scarcely has she made the promise 
when she plots with Mosby her hus- 
band's murder. In a . planned street- 
scuffle, Mosby pretends to take Arden's 
part, and thus throws him off his guard. 
Arden thinks he has wronged him, and 
invites him to his house, but Mosby 
conspires with two hired ruffians to fall 
on his host during a game of draughts, 
the right moment being signified by 
Mosby's saying, "Now I take you." 
Arden is murdered ; but the whole gang 
is apprehended and brought to justice. 

This drama is based on a murder which took place 
In 1551. Ludwig Tieck has translated the play into 
German, as a genuine production of Shakespeare. 
Some ascribe the play to George Lillo, but Charles 
I^amb gives 1592 as the date of its production, and says 
the author is unknown. 

Ardenne ( Water of). This water had 
the power of converting love to hate. The 
fountain was made by Merlin to cure sir 
Tristram of his love for Isolt, but sir 
Tristram never drank of it. It is mentioned 
by Bojardo, in his Orlando Jnnamorato. 

'.' Nepenthe (3 syl.) had the direct 
opposite effect, namely, that of turning 
hatred to love. (See Nepenthe. ) 

. . that same water of Ardenne, 
The whicli Rinaldo drank in happy hour. 
Described by that famous Tuscan pen . . . 
... It had the power to change the hearts of men 
From love to hate. 

SJ>enser: Falrie Queene, iv. 3 (1596). 

Ardennes [The Black d"), one ot 
Charlemagne's paladins. 

Ardven, west coast of Scotland 
(Argyleshire and its vicinity). 

"Gol" . . . said Starno; "go to Ardven's sea- 
surrounded rocks. Tell the king of Selma [Fin^raf, 
the capital of whose kingdom was Selma] ... I give 
him my daughter, the loveliest maid that ever heaved 
a breast of snow. Her arms are white as the foam of 
my waves; her soul is generous and mild." O^ifaw, 
Finical, iii. 




Axeopagit'ica, a prose work by 
Milton in favour of "liberty of the press," 
published in 1644. It is powerfully written, 
but very temperate. The title was taken 
from the AreopSgos, or Mars' Hill, of 
Athens, a famous court of justice and 

Areons'ki, the Indian war-god ; also 
war, tumult. 

A cry of " Areouski I " broke our sleep. 
CamfbtU: Gertrude 0/ Wyoming, L i6 (1809). 

Arethu'sa, daugliter of king Messina, 
in the drama of Philaster or Love lies 
a-bleeding, by John Fletcher (printed 
1633), One of tlie very best. 

Aretlm'sa, a nymph pursued by 
Alpheos, the river-god, and changed into 
a fountain in the island of Ortygia ; but 
the river-god pursued her still, and 
mingled his . stream with the fountain. 
Ever since, "like friends once parted, 
grown single-hearted," they leap and 
flow and slumber together, "like spirits 
that love, but live no more." 

. This fable has been exquisitely turned Intopoetry 
by Percy B. Shelley (1820). 

Arethn'se (4 syL), a Syracusian 
fountain, especiaJly noted because the 
poet Theok'ritos was born on its banks. 
Milton alludes to it in his Lyc'idas, v, 85. 

Argfali'a, brother of Angel'ica, slain 
by Ferrau. Ariosto: Orlando Furioso 

Ar'gfan, the malade imaginaire and 
father of Angelique. He is introduced tax- 
ing his apothecary's bills, under the con- 
viction that he cannot afford to be sick 
at the prices charged, but then he notices 
that he has already reduced his bills 
during the current month, and is not so 
well. He first hits upon the plan of 
marrying Angelique to a young doctor, 
but to this the lady objects. His brother 
suggests that Argan himself should be 
his own doctor, and when the invalid 
replies he has not studied either diseases, 
drugs, or Latin, the objection is over- 
ruled by investing the "malade" in a 
doctor's cap and robe. The piece con- 
cludes with the ceremonial in macaronic 

When Argan asks his doctor how many grains of 
salt he ought to eat with an c^^, the doctor answers, 
"Six, huit, dix, etc., par les nombres pairs, comme 
dans les medicaments par les nombres impairs," 
MolUre : Le Malade Imaginaire, ii. 9 (1673). 

Argfa'no, leader of the Libicanians, 
and an ally of Agramont. Ariosto: 
Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Argfan'te (3 syl.), a giantess, called 
" the very monster and miracle of lust." 
She and her twin-brother OUyphant or 
Oliphant were the children of Typhoe'us 
and Earth. Argantfi used to carry off 
young men as her captives, and seized 
"the Squire of Dames" as one of her 
victims. The squire, who' was in fact 
Britomart (the heroine of chastity), was 
delivered by sir Sat'yrane (3 jy/.). 
Spenser : Faerie Queene, iii. 7 (1590), 

Argante' (2 syl.), father of Octave (a 
syl.) and Zerbinette (3 syl.). He pro- 
mises to give his daughter Zerbinette to 
Leandre (2 syl.), the son of his friend 
G^ronte (2 syl. ) ; but during his absenctj 
abroad the young people fall in love, 
unknown to their respective fathers. 
Both fathers storm, and threaten to break 
off the engagement, but are delighted 
beyond measure when they discover that 
the choice of the young people has ur?- 
knowingly coincided with their own. 
Moliire : Les Fourberies de Scapin (1671). 

(Thomas Otway has adapted this play 
to the English stage, and called it The 
Cheats of Scapin. "Argante" he calls 
Thrifty; "Gironte" is Gripe; " Zerbt- 
nette" he calls Za / and "Leandre" 
he Anglicizes into Leander.) 

Arg'an'tes (3 syl.), a Circassian of 
high rank and undoubted courage, but 
fierce and a great detester of the Naza- 
renes. Argant^s and Solyman were un- 
doubtedly the bravest heroes of the infidel 
host. Argantes was slain by Rinaldo, 
and Solyman by Tancred. Tasso : Jeru' 
salem Delivered (1575). 

Bonaparte stood before the deputies like the 
Ar2:antSs of Italy's heroic poet. 5V W. Scott. 

Ar'^enis, a political romance in 
Latin, by John Barclay (1621). It has 
been frequently translated into English. 

Ar'genk {The halls of ). Here are 
portrayed all the various creatures that 
inhabited this earth before the creation 
of Adam. Beckford : Vathek ( 1784). 

Ar'^entile (3 syl.), daughter of kinr 
Adelbright, and ward of Edel. Curan, a 
Danish prince, in order to woo her, 
became a drudge in her house, but, being 
obliged to quit her service, became a 
shepherd. Edel, the guardian, forcing 
his suit on Argentile, compelled her to 
flight, and she became a neatherd's maid. 
In this capacity Curan wooed and won 
her. Edel was forced to restore the 
possessions of his ward, and Curaa 
became king of Northumberland. As for 


Edel, he was put to death. Warner: 
A /Eton's E?tgland (i5'36). 

Ar'gfentiu {Le sieur d"), one of the 
officers of the duke of Burgundy. Sir 
W. Scott: Anne of Geier stein (time, 
Edward IV.). 

Argfe'o, baron of Servia and husband 
of Gabrina, Ariosto : Orlando Furioso 

Argfes'tes {3 syL ), the west wind. 

Wingid Argestes, faire Aurora's sonne, 
Licensed that day to leave his dungeon, 
Meekly attended. 
W, Brown : Britannia's Pastorals, ii. S (1613). 

Arges'tes (3 syl. ), the north-east wind ; 
Coe'cias, the north-west ; Bo'reas, the full 

Boreas and Csecias and Argrestes loud 
. , . rend the woods, and seas upturn. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, x. 699, etc. (i66s). 

N.B. The exact direction of the winds 
in Greek and Latin it is not possible to 
determine. The west wind is generally 
called "Zephyrus," and the Romans 
called the north-east wind " Vulturnus." 
Perhaps we may reckon Boreas as full 
north ; Ausier as south ; Eur us as east ; 
and Zephyrus as west. 

Ar'g'illan, a haughty, turbulent 
knight, born on the banks of the Trent. 
He induced the Latians to revolt, was 
arrested, made his escape, but was ulti- 
mately slain in battle by Solyman. 
Tasso: Jerusalem Delivered, viii., ix. 

Argon and Hi tiro, the two sons of 
Annir king of Inis-thona, an island of 
Scandinavia, Cor'malo, a neighbouring 
chief, came to the island, and asked for 
the honour of a tournament. Argon 
granted the request and overthrew him, 
which so vexed Cormalo, that during a 
hunt he shot both the brothers with his 
bow. Their dog Runo, running to the 
hall, howled so as to attract attention, 
and Annir, following the hound, found 
his two sons both dead- On his return 
he discovered that Cormalo had run off 
with his daughter ; but Oscar, son of 
Ossian, slew Cormalo in fight, and re- 
stored the young lady to her father. 
Ossian : The War of Inis-thona. 

Argonautic Expedition {The) or 
Argonan'tica, about a generation 
before the Trojan War. A narration in 
Greek hexameters and in four books of 
the expedition of Jason and some fifty 
Greek heroes from lolcus in Thessaly to 
Colchis, in the Argo, a ship of fifty oars, 


to fetch thence the Golden Fleece, which 
was hung on an oak and guarded by a 
sleepless dragon. After many strange 
adventures the crew reached Colchis, and 
the king promised to give Jason the fleece 
if he would yoke to a plough the two fire- 
breathing bulls, and sow the dragons' teeth 
left by Cadmus in Thebes. Jason, by the 
help of Medea, a sorceress, fulfilled these 
conditions, became master of the fleece, 
and, with Medea who had fallen in love 
with him, secretly quitted Colchis. The 
return voyage was as full of adventures as 
the outward one, but ultimately the ship 
arrived at lolcus, and was dedicated to 
Neptune in Corinth. 

Arg-'uri (in Russian Armenia). Here, 
according to tradition, Noah first planted 
the vine. {Argh urri, "he planted the 

Ar'gns, the turf- writer, was Irwin 
Willes, who died in 1871. 

Arg-yle' {Mac Galium More, duke of), 
in the reign of George I. Sir W. Scott: 
Rob Roy (1818). 

Mac Callunt More, marquis of Ar^yU, In the reign 
of Charles I., was commander of the parliamentary 
forces, and is called "Gillespie Gruraach;"he disguise's 
himself, and assumes the name of Murdoch CanipbeU. 
Sir W. Scott: Legend 0/ Montrose (1819). 

(Duke and duchess of Argyle are intro- 
duced also in The Heart of Midlothian, 
by sir W. Scott, iBiB.) 

Ariad'ne (4 syl. ), daughter of Minos 
king of Crete. She gave Theseus a clew 
of thread to guide him out of the Cretan 
labyrinth, Theseus married his deliverer, 
but when he arrived at Naxos {Dia) for- 
sook her, and she hanged herself. 

Surely it is an Ariadne. . . . There is dawning 
womanhood in every line ; but she knows nothing of 
lia.j.os.Ouida : Ariadfie, i. i. 

Aria'na, an ancient name of Khoras- 
san, in Persia. 

Ar'ibert, king of the Lombards (653- 
661), left "no male pledge behind," but 
only a daughter named Rhodahnd, whom 
he wished duke Gondibert to marry, but 
the duke fell in love with Bertha, daugh- 
ter of As'tragon, the sage. The tale 
being unfinished, the sequel is not known. 
Daveuant: Gondibert (died 166S). 

Arico'nium, Kenchester, in Here- 
ford, on the Ine. Here Offa had a palace. 
In poetry, Ariconium means Hereford- 
shire, noted for its wool. 

I [Her^t/s] conduct 
The English merchant, with the buxom fleece 
Of fertile Ariconium, while I clothe 
Sanuatian kings [Poland and Russia\ 

Akcnside : Hymn to the Naiads. 




AridexiS [A-ree'-dr-t/s), a herald in 
the Christian army. Tasso: Jerusalem 
Delivered {i^jZ), 

A'riel, in The Tempest, an airy spmt, 
,able to assume any shape, or even to be- 
come invisible. He was enslaved to the 
witch Syc'orax, mother of Cal'iban, who 
overtasked the little thing, and in punish- 
ment for not doing what was beyond his 
strength, imprisoned him for twelve years 
in the rift of a pine tree, where Caliban 
delighted to torture him with impish 
cruelty. Prospero, duke of Milan and 
father of Miranda, liberated Ariel from 
the pine-rift, and the grateful spirit 
served the duke for sixteen years, when 
he was set free. 

And like Ariel in the cloven pine tree. 
For its freedom groans and sighs. 

Lonsfellcw : The Golden Milestone. 

A'riel, the sylph in Pope's Rape of the 
Lock. The impersonation of "fine life" 
in the abstract, the nice adjuster of hearts 
and necklaces. When disobedient lie is 
punished by being kept hovering over the 
fumes of chocolate, or is transfixed with 
pins, clogged with pomatums, or wedged 
in the eyes of bodkins. 

A'riel, one of the rebel angels. The 
word means " the Lion of God." Abdiel 
encountered him, and overthrew him. 
Milton : Paradise Lost, vi. 371 (1665). 

Ariman'es (4 syl.), the prince of the 
powers of evil, introduced by Byron in his 
drama called Manfred. The Persians 
recognized a power of good and a power 
of evil : the former Yezad, and the latter 
Ahriman (in Greek, Oroma'zes and Ari- 
man'nes). These two spirits are ever at 
war with each other. Oromazes created 
twenty-four good spirits, and enclosed 
them in an ^g'g to be out of the power of 
Arimangs ; but Arimanfis pierced the 
shell, and thus mixed evil with every 
good. However, a time will come when 
Arimanfis shall be subdued, and the earth 
become a perfect paradise. 

Arimas'pians, a one-eyed people of 
Scythia, who adorned their hair with 
gold. As gold-mines were guarded by 
Gryphons, there were perpetual conten- 
tions between the Arimaspians and the 
Gryphons. (See Gryphon. ) 

Arimaspi, quos diximus uno oculo in fronte media in- 
signcs : quibus assidue bellum esse circa metalla cum 
grypliis, ferarum vulucri genere, quale viil<jo traditur, 
eruente ex cuniciilis aurum, raire cupiditate et feris 
custodientibus, et Arimaspis rapientibus, multi, sod 
maxime illustres Herodotus et Aristeas Proconnesius 
scribunt. /'/>, Nat. Hist, vii. 2. 

Ar'iocli {" afie?-ce lion "], one of the 

fallen angels overthrown by Ab<:Trel. 
Milton : Paradise Lost, vi. 371 (1665). 

Ariodan'tes (s syl,), the beloved of 
Geneu'ra, a Scotch princess. Geneura 
being accused of incontinence, Ariodantfis 
stood forth her champion, vindicated her 
innocence, and married her. Ariosto : 
Orlando Furioso (1516). 
(Ariodantes was made duke of Albania. ) 
Ai'i'on. William Falconer, author of 
The Shipwreck, speaks of himself under 
this pseudonym (canto iii.). He was 
sent to sea when a lad, and says he was 
eager to investigate the " antiquities of 
foreign states." He was junior officer in 
the Britannia, which was wrecked against 
the projecting verge of cape Colonna, the 
most southern point of Attica, and was 
the only officer who survived. 

Thy woes, Arion, and thy simple tale 

O'er all the hearts shall triumph and prevail. 

Campbell: Pleasures 0/ Hope, \\. (1799). 

Ari'on, a Greek musician,who, to avoid 
being murdered for his wealth, threw 
himself into the sea, and was carried to 
Tce'naros on the back of a dolphin. 

Ari'on, the wonderful horse which Her- 
cules gave to Adrastos. It had the gift 
of human speech, and the feet on the right 
side were the feet of a man. 

IF The two horses of Achilles possessed 
the power of human speech. Balaam's 
ass had the same gift. (See Speech 
ascribed to dumb animals. ) 

(One of the masquers in sir W. Scott's 
Kenilworih is called "Arion.") 

Ario'sto of the Nortli, sir Walter 
Scott (1771-1832). 

And, like the Ariosto of the North, 
Sang ladye-love and war, romance and knightly worth. 
Byron : Childe Harold, iv. 40. 

AristsB'us, protector of vines and 
olives, huntsmen and herdsmen. He in- 
structed man also in the management of 
bees, taught him by his mother CyrenS. 

In such a palace Aristaeus found 
Cyrend. when ho bore the plaintive tale 
Of his lost bees to her maternal ear. 
Coivper: The Ice Palace of Anne 0/ Russia. 

Aristar'clius, any critic. Aristar- 
chus of Samothrace was the greatest critic 
of antiquity. His labours were chiefly 
directed to the //?a^ and Odyssey oi Homer. 
He divided them into twenty-four books 
each, marked every doubtful line with an 
obelos, and every one he considered 
especially beautiful with an asterisk. 
(Fl. B.C. 156; died aged 72.) 

The whole region of belles lettres fell under my in- 
spection . . . There, sirs, like another Aristarcn, I 
dealt out fame and damnation at pleasure. S. Foote: 




" HoTT, friend I " replied the archbishop, " has It [/he 
kotnily] met with any Aristarchus [severe critu:]X" 
Lesage : Gil Bias, viL 4 (1715). 

Ariste (2 syl.), brother of Chrysale 
(2 syl.), not a savant, but a practical 
tradesman. He sympathizes with Hen- 
rietta, his womanly niece, against his 
sister-in-law Philaminte (3 syl.) and her 
daughter Armande (2 syl.), who are 
femmes savantes. MolUre : Lcs Femmes 
Savanies {1672). 

Ariste'as, a poet who continued to 
appear and disappear alternately for above 
400 years, and who visited all the mythi- 
cal nations of the earth. When not in 
the human form, he took the form of a 
stag. Greek Legend. 

Aristi'des {The British), Andrew 
Marvell, an influential member of the 
House of Commons in the reign of Charles 
n. He refused every offer of promotion, 
and a direct bribe tendered to him by the 
lord treasurer- Dying in great poverty, 
he was buried, like Aristldfes, at the public 
expense (1620-1678). 

Aristip'pos, a Greek philosopher of 
Cyre'nS, who studied under Soc'rat^s, and 
set up a philosophic school of his own, 
called '^he'donism " (Jjio^^, ' pleasure"). 

' .' O. M- Wieland has an historic novel 
in German, called Aristippus, in which 
he sets forth the philosophical dogmas of 
this Cyrenian (1733-1813). 

An axiom of Aristippos was, Omnis 
Aristippum decuit color, et status, et res 
(Horace, Epist., i. 17. 23); and his great 
precept was, Mihi res, non me rebus sub- 
jungere {l^or2ice., Epist., L i. 18). 

I am a sort of Aristippus, and can equally accommo- 
date myself to company and solitude, to afflueuce and 
frugality. if ja^ / GU Bias, v. X2 (1715). 

AristoT9Ti'lus, called by Drayton 
Aristob'ulus {Rom, xvi. lo), and said to 
be the first that brought to England the 
"glad tidings of salvation." He was 
murdered by the Britons. 

The first that ever told Christ crudfied to ui. 
By Paul and Peter sent, just Aristob'ulus . . . 
By the Britons murdered was. 

Drayton : Polyolbton, rxiv. (1622). 

Aristom'enes (s syl.), a young Mes- 
senian of the royal line, the "Cid" of 
ancient Messe'nia. On one occasion he 
entered Sparta by night to suspend a 
shield in the temple of Pallas. On the 
shield were inscribed these words : " Aris- 
tomenSs from the Spartan spoils dedi- 
cates this to the goddess." 

IT A similar tale is told of Fernando 
Perez del Pulgar, when serving under 
Ferdinand of Castile at the siege of 

Grana'da. With fifteen companions he 
entered Granada, then in the power of the 
Moors, and nailed to the door of the 
principal mosque with his dagger a tablet 
inscribed, " Ave, Maria 1 " then galloped 
back before the guards recovered from 
their amazement. Washington Irving: 
Conquest 0/ Granada, 91. 

Aristoph'anes (5 syl.), a Greek 
who wrote fifty-four comedies, eleven of 
which have survived to the present day 
(b. c. 444-380). He is called ' ' The Prince 
of Ancient Comedy," and Menander 
"The Prince of New Comedy" (b.c. 

The English or Modern Aristophanes, 
Samuel Foote (1722-1777), 

The French Aristophanes, J. Baptiste 
Poquelin de Molifere {1622-1673). 

Aristotle. The mistress of this 
philosopher was Hepyllis ; of Plato, 
Archionassa; and of Epicurus, Leontiura. 

Aristotle of China, Tehuhe, who died 
A.D. 1200, called "The Prince of Science." 

A ristotle of Christian ity, Th os. Aqui'nas , 
who tried to reduce the doctrines of faith 
to syllogistic formulae (1224-1274). 

Aristotle of the Nineteenth Century, 
George Cuvier, the naturalist (1769-1832). 

Aristotle in Love. Godfrey Gobi- 
lyve told Sir Graunde Amoure that Aris- 
totle the philosopher was once in love, and 
the lady promised to hsten to his prayer 
if he would grant her request. The terms 
being readily accepted, she commanded 
him to go on all-fours ; and then, putting 
a bridle into his mouth, mounted on his 
back, and drove him about the room till 
he was so angry, weary, and disgfusted, 
that he was quite cured of his fooUsh 
attachment. Hawes : Tlu Pastime of 
Plesure, xxix. (1555). 

Armado {Don Adriajto de), a pom- 
pous military bully and braggart, in Shake- 
speare's Love's Labour's Lost. This man 
was chosen by Ferdinand, the king of 
Navarre, when he resolved to spend three 
years in study with three companions, to 
relate in the interim of his studies " in 
high-born words the worth of many a 
knight from tawny Spain lost in the 
world's debate. " 

His humour Is lofty, his discourse peremptory, his 
tongue filed, his eye ambitious, his gait majestical, and 
his general behaviour vain, ridiculous, and thrasonical. 
. . . lie draweth out the thread of his verbosity finer 
than the staple of his argument. Shakespeare : Love's 
Labour's Lost, act v. sc. i (1594). 

Armande {2 syl. ), daughter of Chry- 
sale (2 syl.) and sister of Henriette. 




AiTTiande is a femme savante, and Hen- 
riette a "thorough woman," Both love 
Chtandre; but Armande loves him pla- 
tonicly, while Henriette loves him with 
womanly affection. Clitandre prefers the 
younger sister, and, after surmounting the 
usual obstacles, marries her. Molibre : 
Les Femtnes Savantes (1672). 

Armi'da, in Tasso's Jerusalem De- 
livered. A sorceress, who seduced Rinaldo 
and other crusaders from the siege of 
Jerusalem. Rinaldo was conducted by 
her to her splendid palace, where he for- 
got his vows, and abandoned himself to 
sensual joys. Carlo and Ubaldo were 
sent to bring him back, and he escaped 
from Armida ; but she followed him, and, 
not being able to allure him back again, 
set fire to her palace, went to Egypt, and 
offered to marry any one who would kill 
Rinaldo. She herself discharged an 
arrow at him, and attempted to kill herself, 
but was prevented by Rinaldo, to whom 
she became reconciled. 

. Her father was Arbilan of humble 
race, her mother was Chariclea queen of 
Damascus ; both died while Armida was 
a mere child. Her uncle was Hidrastes 
(3 sj'l.) king of Damascus. 

rjuUa's] small hand 
Withdrew itself from his, but left behind 
A Httlc pressure . . . but ne'er magician's wand 
Wrought change with all Armida's fairy art. 
Like what this light touch left on Juan s heart. 

Byron : Don ^uan, i. 71. 

N.B. When the young queen of 
Frederick William of Prussia rode about 
in military costume to incite the Prussians 
to arms against Napoleon, the latter wittily 
said, "She is Armida in her distraction 
setting fire to her own palace." 

(Both Gliick and Rossini have taken 
the story of Armida as the subject of an 

Armida's Girdle. Armida had an en- 
chanted girdle, which, "in price and 
beauty," surpassed all her other orna- 
ments ; even the cestus of Venus was less 
costly. It told her everything; "and 
when she would be loved, she wore the 
same." Tasso : Jerusalem Delivered 

AHMSTRONQ [Archie], court 
jester to James I., inti-oduced in The 
Fortunes of Nigel, by sir Walter Scott 

Armstrong' [Grace], the bride-elect 
of Hobbie Elliot of the Heugh-foot, a 
young farmer. Sir W. Scott : The Black 
Dwarf {iime, Anne). 

Ana'strongf [John], called " The 

Laird's Jock." He is the laird of Man- 
gerton. This old warrior witnesses a 
national combat in the valley of Liddes- 
dale, between his son (the Scotch chief- 
tain) and Foster (the English champion), 
in which young Armstrong is overthrown. 
Sir IV. Scott: The Lairds Jock {iimQ, 

Armstrong^ [Johnny], a ballad, the 
tale of which is as follows : James V. 
of Scotland, in an expedition against the 
borderers, in 1529, came in contact with 
Johnny Armstrong, the freebooter, and 
his horsemen. Armstrong craved pardon 
and permission to enter the royal service ; 
but the king replied 

Thou Shalt have no pardon, [but! 
To-morrow morning by ten o' the clock 
Ye all shall hang on tlie gallows-tree. 

A fight, of course, ensued, " and every 
man was slain." Their graves are still 
pointed out in Carlenrig churchyard, 

Ar'na'at, an Albanian mountaineer. 
The word means " a brave man." 

Stained with the best of Amaut blood. 

Byron ; 7'he Giaour, 526. 

Arnheim (2 syl.]. The baron Her- 
man von ArnJieim, Anne of Geierstein's 

Sibilla of Arnheim, Anne's mother. 

The baroness of Arnheim, Anne of 
Geierstein. Sir W, Scott: Anne of 
Geierstein (time, Edward IV.). 

Ar'zio, the river of Florence, the birth- 
place of both DantS and Boccaccio. 

At last the Muses rose . . . and scattered ... as 

they flew. 
Their blooming wreaths from fair Valclusa's bowers 

To Amo's myrtle border. 

AAenstde : Pleasures o/ Imagination, 11. 

AR'NOLD, the deformed son of 
Bertha, who hates him for his ugHness. 
Weary of life, he is about to make away 
with himself, when a stranger accosts him, 
and promises to transform him into any 
shape he likes best. He chooses that of 
Achilles, and then goes to Rome, where 
he joins the besieging army of Bourbon. 
During the siege, Arnold enters St. Peter's 
of Romejust in time to rescue Olimpia ; but 
the proud beauty, to prevent being taken 
captive by him, flings herself from 
the high altar on to the pavement, and is 
taken up apparently hfeless. As the 
drama was never completed, the sequel 
is not known. Byron: Tlu Deformed 

Ar'nold, the torch-bearer at Rother- 
wood. Sir W. Scott: Ivanhoe (time, 
Richard I.). 




Ar'nold of Benthnj^sen, disguised as a 
beggar, and called " Ginks." F/efcker : 
The Beggar's Bush (1622). 

Arnold {Matthew). His creed for the 
regeneration of nnan is contained in the 
three words, " Light, Sweetness, and 
Culture." Dante speaks of "Light, 
Grace, and Mercy ; " but neither ap- 
proaches St. Paul's triplet, "Faith, Hone 
and Charity." 

Amoldo, son of Melchtal, patriot of 
the forest cantons of Switzerland. He 
was in love with Mathilde (3 syl.), sister 
of Gessler, the Austrian governor of the 
district. When the tyranny of Gessler 
drove the Swiss into rebellion, Arnoldo 
joined the insurgents ; but after the death 
of Gessler he married Mathilde, whose 
life he had saved when it was imperilled 
by an avalanche. Rossini: Guglielnio 
Tell (1829). 

AmoI'do, a' gentleman contracted to 
Zeno'cia, a chaste lady, dishonourably 
pursued by the governor, count Clodio. 
Beaumont and Fletcher: The Custom of 
the Country (printed 1647). 

Ar'nolphe (2 syl.), a man of wealth, 
who has a crotchet about the proper train- 
ing of girls to make good wives, and tries 
his scheme on Agnes, whom he adopts 
from a peasant's hut, and whom he in- 
tends in time to make his wife. She was 
brought up, from the age of four years, 
in a country convent, where difference of 
sex and the conventions of society were 
wholly ignored. But when removed 
from the convent, she treated men like 
school-girls, nodded to them familiarly, 
kissed them, and played with them. 
Being told by her guardian that married 
women have more freedom than maidens, 
she asked him to marry her ; however, a 
young man named Horace fell in love 
with her, and made her his wife, so 
Arnolphe, after all, profited nothing by his 

fiains. Molihre : L'Ecole des Femmes 

Dans un petit couvent loin de toute pratique 
Je le fis flever selon ma politique 
C'est-i-dire, ordonnant quels soins on emploerolt 
Poure le rendre idiote autant qu'il se pourroit. 

Act 1. J. 

Amolplio, a German duke slain by 
Rodomont. Ariosto : Orlando Furioso. 

Ar'not {Andrew), one of the yeomen 
of the Balafr6 [Ludovic Lesly]. 5?> W. 
Scott: Quentin Dunvard {time, Edward 

Arod, in the second part of Absalom 
and Achitophel, by Tate and Dryden, is 

meant for sir William Waller, who de- 
tected the " Meal-tub Plot." 

In the sacred annals of our plot, 
Industrious Arod never be forgot. 
The labours of this midnight magistrate 
May vie with Corali's [ Titus Oates] to preserve the state. 
Part u. 533, etc. (1682). 

Aron'tetis (4 syl.), an Asiatic king, 
who joined the Egyptian armament 
against the crusaders. Tasso : Jerusalem 
Delivered {1575). 

Aroun'dig-lit, the sword of sir Lan- 
celot of the Lake. 

Arpa'sia, the betrothed of Mone's^s, 
a Greek, but made by constraint the bride 
of Baj'azet sultan of Turkey. Bajazet 
commanded MonesSs to be bow-strung in 
the presence of Arpasia, to frighten her 
into subjection, but she died at the sight. 
Rowe : Tamerlane {1702). 

. Ar'rant Knave {An), a corruption 
of the Anglo-Saxon nearo-cndpa ( ' ' great 
knave"). Similarly, nearo-bregd ("great 
fear ") ; neai-o-grdp (" great grip ") ; nearo- 
wrence{'' great deceit "), etc. 

Ar'rot {Dame), the weasel in the 
beast-epic of Reynard the Fox (1498). 

Arrow in the Pable ( The). " The 
arrow, like that in the fable, has to be 
aimed at a mark which the archer's eye is 
allowed to see only as reflected on some 
other substance." The allusion is to the 
Parthians, who shot behind them when 
in flight. It is said that each Par- 
thian horseman carried on his back a 
" reflecting plate of metal," in which the 
man behind saw reflected those in pur- 
suit. He shot, therefore, over his left 
shoulder, guided by the reflection of the 
foe in the back of the man before him. 

Arrow Festival ( T/ie), instituted by 
Zoroaster to commemorate the flight of 
the arrow shot from the top of the Peak 
of Demavend, in Persia, with such miracu- 
lous prowess as to reach the banks of 
the Oxus, causing the whole intervening 
country to be ceded to Persia. 

Arrow sliot a Mile. Robin Hood 
and Little John " frequently shot an 
arrow a measured mile " (1760 yards). 

Tradition informs us that in one of Robin Hood's 
peregrinations, attended by Little Jolin, he went to 
dine at Whitby Abbey with the abbot Richard . . . 
they went to the top of the abbey, and each of them 
sliot an arrow, which fell not far from Whitby-laths, 
and a pillar was set up by the abbot where each arrow 
was found . . . both fell more than a measured milo 
from the abb^y.CharUon : History o/ Whitby, York, 

Ar'saces (3 syl.\ the patronymic 
name of the Persian kings, from Arsaces, 


their great monarch. It was generally 
added to some distinctive name or appel- 
lation, as the Roman emperors added the 
name of Caesar to their own. 

Cujus memoriae hunc honorem Parthi tribucrunt ut 
onines exiude regts suos Arsacis nomine nuiicupent. 
Justin : Historiara Vhilippica, xli. 

Arse'tes (3 syl.), the aged eunuch 
who brought up Clorinda, and attended on 
her. Zajj<7.- Jerusalem Delivered i^isj^). 

Ar'taban, the French type of nobi- 
liary pride. 

Ar'tamenes (3 syl.) or Le Grand 
Cyrus, "a long-winded romance," by 
Mdlle. Scuddri (1607-1701). 

Artaxam'inous (5 syl.), king of 
Utopia, married to Griskinissa, whom he 
wishes to divorce for Distaffi'na. But 
Distaffina is betrothed to general Bom- 
bastSs, and when the general finds that 
his "fond one" prefers "half a crown" 
to himself, he hates all the world, and 
challenges the whole race of man by 
hanging his boots on a tree, and daring 
any one to displace them. The king, 
coming to the spot, reads the challenge, 
and cuts the boots down, whereupon 
BombastSs falls on his majesty, and 
" kills him," in a theatrical sense, for the 
dead monarch, at the close of the burletta, 
joins in the dance, and promises, if the 
audience likes, " to die again to-morrow." 
Rhodes : Bombastes Furioso. 

Ar'tcliila Mur'tcliila, the magic 
words which "Fourteen" was required to 
pronounce when he wished to get any 
specific object "into hissack." A Basque 
Legend. (See Fourteen.) 

Ar'tegal, a mythic king of Britain 
in the Chronicle of Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth. Milton introduces him in his 
mythical History of Britain in six books 

Ar'tegal or Arthegal {Sir), son 
of Gorlois prince of Cornwall, stolen in 
infancy by the fairies, and brought up in 
Fairyland. Brit'omart saw him in VenuS's 
looking-glass, and fell in love with him. 
She married him, and became the mother 
of Aurelius Conan, from whom (through 
Cadwallader) the Tudor dynasty derives 
descent. The wanderings of Britomart, 
as a lady knight-errant and the imper- 
sonation of chastity, is the subject of 
book iii. of the Faerie Quecne ; and the 
achievements of sir Artegal, as the im- 
personation of justice, is the subject of 
bk. V. 

. Sir Artegal's first exploit was to 


decide to which claimant a living woman 
belonged. This he decided according to 
Solomon's famous judgment respecting 
"the hving and dead child" (canto i). 
His next was to destroy the corrupt 
practice of bribery and toll (canto 2). 
His third was the exposing of Bragga- 
doccio and his follower Trompart (canto 
3). He had then to decide to which 
brother a chest of money found at sea be- 
longed whether to Bractdas or Am'idas ; 
he gave judgment in favour of the former 
(canto 4). He then fell into the hands of 
Rad'igund queen of the Amazons, and 
was released by Britomart (cantos 5 and 
6), who killed Radigund (canto 7). His 
last and greatest achievement was the 
deliverance of Ire'na {Ireland) from 
Grantorto {rebellion), whom he slew 
(canto 12). 

(This rebellion was that called the earl 
of Desmond's, in 1580. Before bk. iv. 6, 
Artegal is spelt Arthegal, but never 
afterwards. ) 

N.B. "Sir Artegal" is meant for lord 
Gray of Wilton, Spenser's friend. He 
was sent in 1580 into Ireland as lord- 
lieutenant, and the poet was his secretary. 
The marriage of Artegal with Britomart 
means that the justice of lord Gray was 
united to purity of mind or perfect in- 
tegrity of conduct. Spenser: Faerie 
Queene, v. (1596). 

Artemisia, daughter of Lygdamis 
and queen of Carla. With five ships she 
accompanied Xerxes in his invasion of 
Greece, and greatly distinguished herself 
in the battle of Sahtmis by her prudence 
and courage. (This is not the Artemisia 
.who built the Mausoleum.) 

Our statues . . . she 

The foundress of the Babylonian wall ISemiramis], 

The Carian Artemisia, strong in war. 

Tennyson : 7'he Princess, ii. 

Artemisia, daughter of Hecatomnus 
and sister-wife of Mauso'lus. Arte- 
misia was queen of Caria, and at the 
death of her fraternal husband raised a 
monument to his memory (called a mau- 
sole'um), which was one of the "Seven 
Wonders of the World." It was built by 
four different architects: Scopas, Tirao- 
theus, Leocharfis, and Bruxis. 

This made the four rare masters which began 
Fair Artemysia's husband's dainty tomb 

(When death took her before the work was done. 
And so bereft them of aU hopes to come), 

That they would yet their own work perfect make 

E'en for their worltec. and theii self-glories sake. 
Lord Brooke : j4n Inquiry upon Fanu, etc. (1554- 1628). 

Artful Dodger, the sobriquet of 
John Dawkins, a young thief, up to every 



sort of dodge, and a most marvellous 
adept in villainy. Dickens: Oliver Twist 

Artlxg-allo, a mythical British king, 
brother of Gorbonian, his predecessor on 
the throne, and son of Mor'vidus, the 
tyrant who was swallowed by a sea- 
monster, Arthgallo was deposed, and 
his brother El'idure was advanced to the 
throne instead. Geoffrey: British History, 
iii. 17 (1142). 

ARTHUR {King) , parentage of. His 
father was Uther the pendragon, and his 
mother YgernS (3 syt.), widow of Gorlois 
duke of Cornwall. YgernS had been 
a widow only three hours, knew not 
that the duke was dead (pt. i. 2), and 
her marriage with the pendragon was 
not consummated till thirteen days after- 
wards. When the boy was born Merlin 
took him, and he was brought up as the 
foster-son of sir Ector (Tennyson says 
" sir Anton"), till MerUn thought proper 
to announce him as the lawful successor 
of Uther, and had him crowned. Uther 
lived two years after his marriage with 
Ygerng. Sir T. Malory: History of 
Prince Arthur, \. 2, 6 (1470). 

Wherefore Merlin took the child 
And gave him to sir Anton, an old knight 
And ancient friend of Uther ; and his wife 
Nursed the young prince, and reared him with her own. 
Tennyson: Coming of ArtJtur. 

Coming of Arthur. Leod'ogran, king 
of Cam'eliard {3 syl. ), appealed to Arthur 
to assist him in clearing his kingdom of 
robbers and wild beasts. This being 
done, Arthur sent three of his knights 
to Leodogran, to beg the hand of his 
daughter Guenever in marriage. To this 
Leodogran, after some little hesitation, 
agreed, and sir Lancelot was sent to 
escort the lady to Arthur's court. 

Arthur not dead. According to tra- 
dition Arthur is not dead, but rests in 
Glastonbury, ' ' till he shall come again, 
full twice as fair, to rule over his people." 
(See Barbarossa, ) 

According to tradition, Arthur never died, but was 
converted into a raven by encliantment, and will, in the 
fuhicss of time, appear again in his original shape, to 
recover his throne'and sceptre. For this reason there 
is never a raven killed in England. C z/a/M ; Don 
Quixote, I, ii, 5 (1605), 

Arthur's Twelve Battles (or victories 
over the Saxons), i. The battle of the 
river Glem {i.e. the glen of Northumber- 
land), 2 to 5. The four battles of the 
Duglas (which falls into the estuary of 
the Ribble). 6, The battle of Bassa, said 
to be Bashall Brook, which joins the 
Ribble near Clithere. 7. The battle of 

Celidon, said to be Tweeddale. 8, The 
battle of Castle Gwenion {i.e. Caer Wen, 
in Wedale, Stow). 9, The battle of 
Caerleon, i.e. CarUsle; which Tennyson 
makes to be Caerleon-upon-Usk. 10, The 
battle of Trath Treroit, in Anglesey, some 
say the Solway Frith. 11. The ij^ttle of 
Agned Cathregonion {i.e. Edinburgh). 
12, The battle of Badon Hill {i.e. the 
Hill of Bath, now Bannerdown). 

Then bravely chanted they 
The several twelve pitched fields he lArthur\ with tba 
Saxons fought. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, iv, (1612). 

Arthur, one of the Nine Worthies. 
Three were Gentiles : Hector, Alexander, 
and Julius Caesar ; three were Jews ; 
Joshua, David, and Judas Maccabaeus ; 
three were Christians : Arthur, Charle- 
magne, and Godfrey of Bouillon. 

Arthur's Body found. In 1189 the 
body of king Arthur was fovmd in 
Glastonbury Abbey, 16 feet under the 
surface. It was found under a stone, 
bearing the inscription. Hie jacit sepultus 
inclitus rex Arthurus in Insula Avallonia. 
The body had crumbled into dust, but 
a lock of golden-red hair was found, 
supposed to be that of his wife. Sharon 
Turner: History of the Anglo-Saxons, 
p. 107. 

Arthur's Butler, sir Lucas ox, Lucan, 
son of duke Corneus ; but sir Griflet, son 
of Cardol, assisted sir Key and sir Lucas 
"in the rule of the service." History of 
Prince Arthur, i. 8 (1470). 

Arthur's Dagger, Carnwenhan. 

Arthur's Dog, Caval. 

Arthur's Drinking-Hom. No one 
who was unchaste or unfaithful could 
drink from this horn. Lai du Corn and 
Morte d ArthtfT. (See Chastity.) 

Arthur's Foster-Father and Motlier, sir 
Ector and his lady. Their son, sir Key 
(his foster-brother), was his senesclial or 
steward, Sir T, Malory: History of 
Prince Arthur, i. 3, 8 (1470). 

N,B, ^Tennyson makes sir Anton the 
foster-father of Arthur. 

Arthur s Lance, Rhomgomyant. 

Arthur's Mare, Llamrei, which means 
"bounding, curvetting, spumador." 

Arthur's Round Table. It contained 
seats for 150 knights. Three were re- 
served, two for honour, and one (called 
the "siege perilous") for sir Galahad, 
destined to achieve the quest of the 
sangreal. If any one else attempted to 
sit in it, his death was the certain penalty. 

*.' There is a table so called at Win- 
chester, and Henry VIII. showvd it to 



Franfois I. as the very table made by 
Merlin for Uther the pendiason. 

And for great Arthur's seat, her Winchester prefers. 
Whose old round t.ibli yet she vaunteth to be hers. 
Dia'ytQti : Polyolbion, ii. (i6iz). 

Arthur's Shield, Pridwin. Geoffrey 
calls it Priwen, and says it was adorned 
with the picture of the Virgin Mary. 
British History, ix. 4 (1142). 

'. In the Mabinogion it is called 
Wenebgw rihucher. 

Arthurs Sisters [half-sisters], Mor- 
gause or Margawse (wife of king Lot) ; 
Elain (wife of king Nentres of Carlot) ; 
and Morgan le Fay, the "great dark of 
Nigromancy," who wedded king Vrience, 
of the land of Cor6, father of Ewayns le 
Blanchemayne. Only the last had the 
same mother (Ygraine or Ygerne) as the 
king. Sir T. Malory: History of Prince 
Arthur, i. 2. 

Arthurs Sons Urien, Llew, and 
Arawn. Borre was his son by Lyonors, 
daughter of the earl Sanam. History of 
Prince Arthur, i. 15. Mordred was his 
son by Elain, wife of king Nentres of 
Carlot. In some of the romances collated 
by sir T. Malory he is called the son of 
Margause and Arthur; Margause being 
called the wife of king Lot, and sister of 
Arthur. This incest is said to have been 
the cause of Mordred's hatred of Arthur. 
Ft. i. 17, 36, etc. 

(In the Welsh "Triads," Llew is 
called Llacheu. He is said to have been 
*' most valiant and learned.") 

Arthur's Spear, Rone. Geoffrey calls it 
Ron. It was made of ebony. British 
History, ix. 4 (1142). (See Lance.) 

His spere he nom an honde tha Ron wes ihaten. 
Layamon : Brut, (twelfth centuryj. 

Arthur's Sword, Escal'ibur or Excal'- 
iber. Geoffrey calls it Caliburn, and says 
it was made in the isle of Avallon. 
British History, ix. 4 (1142). 

The temper of his sword, the tried Escalabour, 
The bigness and the Ieng:th of Rone, his noble spear, 
With Pridwin, his great shield. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, iv. (1612). 

Arthur [King], in the burlesque opera 
of Tom Thumb, has Dollallolla for his 
queen, and Huncamuncafor his daughter. 
This dramatic piece, by Henry Fielding, 
the novelist, was produced in 1730, but 
was altered by Kane O'Hara, author of 
Midas, about half a century later. 

Arthur's Harp, a Lyrae, which 
forms a triangle with the Pole-star and 

Dost thou know the star 

We call the " Harp ot Arthur " up In heaven! 

Tennyson ; The Last Tcumanttnt. 

Arthur's Seat, the hill which over- 
liaiigs Edinburgh. 

Nor hunt the bloodhounds back to Arthur's seat T 
Byron : English Bards atui Scotch Reviewers. 

Arthurian Romances. 

King Arthur and the Round Table, a 
romance in verse (1096). 

The Holy Graal (in verse, iioo). 
Titurel or The Guardian of the Holy 
Graal, by Wolfram von Eschenbach. 
Titurel founded the temple of Graalburg 
as a shrine for the holy graal. 

T/ie Romance of Parzival, prince of the 
race of the kings of Graalburg. By 
Wolfram of Eschenbach (in verse). This 
romance was translated into French by 
Chretien de Troyes in 1170. It contains 
4018 eight-syllable lines. 

Launcelot oft/ie Lake, by Ulrich of Zaz\- 
koven, contemporary with William Rufus. 
Wigalois or The Knight of the W/ieel, 
by Wirnd of Graffenberg. This adven- 
turer leaves his mother in Syria, and 
goes in search of his father, a knight of 
the Round Table. 

Twain or T/ie Knight of the Lion, and 
Ereck, by Hartmann von der Aue (thir- 
teenth century). 

Tristan a?id Yseult (in verse, by Master 
Gottfried of Strasburg (thirteenth cen^ 
tury). This is also the subject of Luc du 
Cast's prose romance, which was revised 
by Elie de Borron, and turned into verse 
by Thomas the Rhymer, of Erceldoune, 
under the title of the Romance of Tris' 
Merlyn Ambroise, by Robert de Borron. 
Roman desdiversesQuetes de St. Graal, 
by Walter Mapes (prose). 

A Life of Joseph of Arimathea, by 
Robert de Borron. 

La Mort dArtur [d" Arthur], by Walter 

7716 Idylls of the King, "by Tennyson, in 
blank verse, containing " The Coming of 
Arthur," "Garethand Lynette,"" Geraint 
and Enid," *' Merlin and Vivien," " Lan- 
celot and Elaine," "The Holy Graal," 
' ' Peleas and Estarre " (2 syl. ), " The Last 
Tournament," "Guinevere" (3 syl.), and 
"The Passing of Arthur," which is the 
" Morte d'Arthur" with an introduction 
added to it. 

(The old Arthurian Romances have 
been collated and rendered into English, 
by sir Thomas Malory, in three parts. 
Part i. contains the early history of Arthur 
and the beautiful allegory of Gareth and 
Linet ; part ii. contains the adventures 
of sir Tristram ; and part iii. the adven 
tures of sir Launcelot, with the death oi 




Arthur and bis knights. Sir Frederick 
Madden and J. T. K. have also con- 
tributed to the same series of legends. ) 

. Sources of the A rthurian Romances. 
The prose series of romances called 
Arthurian owe their origin to : i. The 
legendary chronicles composed in Wales 
or Brittany, such asZ>^ Excidio Britannice 
of Gildas. 2, The chronicles of Nennius 
(ninth century). 3, The Armoric collec- 
tions of Walter [Cale'nius] or Gauhter, 
archdeacon of Oxford. 4. The ChronUon 
sive Historia Britomim of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth. 5. Floating traditions and 
metrical ballads and romances. (See 
Charlemagne and Mabinogion.) 

The story of king Arthur, of course, has been repre- 
sented in sundry forms. There is an opera by Drydcn, 
music by Purcell (1691) ; a play by Hathaway (1598) ; an 
heroic poem entitled Prince Arthur (1695), by sir 
Richard Blackmore, followed in 1697 by King A rthtir ; 
a poem in twelve books by Edward, lord Lytton ; 
Idylls of the King, by Tennyson; Death 0/ King- 
Art?tur, a ballad. 

Ar'tllTiret {Miss Seraphina the papist, 
and Miss Angelica), two sisters in sir W. 
Scott's novel called Redgauntlet (time, 
George III.). 

Arts ( The fine) and Genius. Sir 

Walter Scott was wholly ignorant of 
pictures, and quite indifferent to music. 
Rogers felt no pleasure in paintings, and 
music gave him positive discomfort. Sir 
Robert Peel detested music. Byron and 
Tasso cared nothing for architecture, and 
Byron had no ear for mvisic, Mde. de 
Stael could not appreciate scenery. Pope 
and Dr. Johnson, hke Scott and Byron, 
had no ear for music, and could scarcely 
discern one tune from another ; Pope 
preferred a street-organ to Handel's 

Ar'turo (lord Arthur Talbot), a 
cavalier affianced to Elvi'ra " the puritan," 
daughter of lord Walton. On the day 
appointed for the wedding, Arturo has 
to aid Enrichetta {Henrietta^ widow of 
Charles I.) in her escape, and Elvira, 
supposing he is eloping with a rival, 
temporarily loses her reason. On his 
return, Ai-turo explains the circumstances, 
and they vow never more to part. At 
this juncture Arturo is arrested for 
treason, and led away to execution ; but 
a herald announces the defeat of the 
Stuarts, and free pardon of all political 
offenders ; whereupon Arturo is released, 
and marries "the fair puritan." Bellini's 
opera, I Puritani (1834). 

Ar'turo [Bucklaw]. So Frank 
llayston is called in Donizetti's opera 

of Lttcia di Lammermoor (1835), (See 

Ar'undel, the steed of sir Bevis of 
Southampton, given him by his wife 
Josian, daughter of the king of Armenia. 
Probably the word is meant for Hiron- 
delle, a swallow. Drayton: Polyolbion, 
ii. (1612). 

Arundel Castle, called Magounce 

She [AH'^lides] came to a castle that was called Ma- 
gounce, arid now is called Arundell, in Southsea. Sir 
T. Malory : History of Prince Arthur, ii. ii8 {1470). 

Ar'valan, the wicked son of Keha'ma, 
slain by Ladur'lad for attempting to 
dishonovir his daughter Kail'yal (2 syl.). 
After this, his spirit became the relent- 
less persecutor of the holy maiden, but 
holiness and chastity triumphed over sin 
and lust. Thus when Kailyal was taken 
to the bower of bliss in paradise, Arvalan 
borrowed the dragon-car of the witch 
Lor'rimite (3 syl.) to carry her off; but 
when the dragons came in sight of the 
holy place they were unable to mount, 
and went perpetually downwards, till 
Arvalan was dropped into an ice-rift of 
perpetual snow. When he presented 
himself before her in the temple of Jaga- 
naut, she set fire to the pagoda. And 
when he caught the maiden waiting for 
her father, who was gone to release the 
glendoveer from the submerged city of 
Baly, Baly himself came to her rescue. 

'* Help, help, Kehama ! help 1 " he cried. 
But Baly tarried not to abide 
That mightier power. With irresistible feet 
He stanipt ana cleft the earth. It opened wide. 
And gave him way to his own judgment-seat. 
Down like a plummet to the world below 
He sank ... to punishment deserved and endless woe. 
Sonthey : Curse of Kehama, xvii. 12 (1809). 

Arvi'da {Prince), a noble friend of 
Gustavus Vasa. Both Arvida and Gus- 
tavus are in love with Christi'na, daughter 
of Christian II. king of Scandinavia. 
Christian employs the prince to entrap 
Gustavus ; but when he approaches him 
the better instincts of old friendship and 
the nobleness of Gustavus prevail, ^so 
that Arvida not only refuses to betray 
his friend, but even abandons to him all 
further rivalry in the love of Christina. 
H. Brooke: Gustavus Vasa (1730). 

Arvir'agfus, the husband of Do'rigen. 

Aurelius tried to win her love, but Dorigen 
made answer that she would never listen 
to his suit till the rocks that beset the 
coast were removed, "and there n'is no 
stone y-seen." By the aid of magic, 
Aurelius caused all the rocks of the coast 



to disappear, and Dorigen's husband 
insisted that she should keep her word. 
When AureUus saw how sad she was, and 
was told that she had come in obedience 
to her husband's wishes, he said he would 
rather die than injure so true a wife and 
noble a gentleman. Chaucer : Canterbury 
Tales <" The Franklin's Tale," 1388). 

(This is substantially the same as 
Boccaccio's tale of Dianora and Gilberto, 
dayx. 5. See Dianora.) 

Arvir'agfus, younger son of Cym'be- 
line (3 syl.) king of Britain, and brother 
of Guide'rius. The two in early childhood 
were kidnapped by Bela'rius, out of re- 
venge for being unjustly banished, and 
were brought up by him in a cave. When 
they were grown to manhood, Belarius, 
having rescued the king from the Romans, 
was restored to favour. He then intro- 
duced the two young men to Cymbeline, 
and told their story, upon which the king 
was rejoiced to find that his two sons 
whom he thought dead were both living. 
Shakespeare : Cymbel'uie (1605). 

Aryan Languages {The) 

X. Sanskrit, whence Hindustanee. 

2. Zend, ,, Persian. 

3. Greek, ,, Romaic. 

4. Latin, Italian, French,Span- 

ish, Portuguese, Wal- 
lachian {Rotnance). 

5. Keltic, ,, Welsh, Irish, Gaelic. 

6. Gothic, ,, Teutonic, Enghsh, 


7. Slavonic, European Russian, 

and Austi-ian. 

As You Like It, a comedy by Shake- 
speare, published in 1600. One of the 
French dukes, being driven from his duke- 
dom by his brother, went with certain 
followers to the forest of Arden (a purely 
hypothetical place), where they lived a 
free-and-easy life, chiefly occupied in the 
chase. The deposed duke had one 
daughter, named Rosalind, whom the 
usurper kept at court as the companion 
of his own daughter Celia, and the two 
cousins were very fond of each other. At 
a wrestling match Rosalind fell in love 
with Orlando, who threw his antagonist, 
a giant and professional athlete. The 
usurping duke (Frederick) banished Rosa- 
lind from the court, but her cousin Celia 
resolved to go to Arden with her ; so 
Rosalind in boy's clothes (under the name 
of Ganimed), and Celia as a rustic maiden 
(under the name of Alie'na), started to 
find the deposed duke. Orlando being 
driven from home by his elder brother, 

also went to the forest of Arden, and was 
taken under the duke's protection. Here 
he met the ladies, and a double marriage 
was the result Orlando married Rosalind, 
and his elder brother Oliver married Celia. 
The usurper retired to a religious house, 
and the deposed duke was restored to his 
dominions. (1598. ) 

Asaph.. So Tate calls Dryden, ia 
Absalom and Achitophel. 

While Judah's tlirone and Zion's rock stand fast. 
The song of Asuph aiid his fame shall last. 

Part ii. 1064 (1682). 

Asaph {St.), a British \i.e. IVeM] 
monk of the sixth century, abbot of Llan- 
Elvy, which changed its name to St. 
Asaph, in honour of him. 

So bishops can she brings, of which her saints shall be 
As Asaph, who first gave that name unto that see. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622). 

Ascal'aphos, son of Acheron, turned 
into an owl for tale-telling and trying to 
make mischief. Greek Fable. 

Asca'nio, son of don Henrique (2 syl. ), 
in the comedy called The Spanish Curate, 
by John Fletcher (1622). 

As'capart or As'cupart, an enormous 
giant, thirty feet high, who carried off sir 
Bevis, his wife Jos'ian, his sword Morglay, 
and his steed Ar'undel, under his arm. 
Sir Bevis afterwards made Ascapart his 
slave, to run beside his horse. The eflfigy 
of sir Bevis is on the city gates of South- 
ampton. Drayton: Poly oldion, 11. (1612). 

He was a man whose huge stature, thews, sinews, 
and bulk . . . would have enabled him to enact 
"Colbrand," "Ascapart," or any other giant of 
romance, without raising himself nearer to heavea 
even by the altitude of a chopin. 5t> IV. Scott. 
Those Ascaparts, men big enough to throw 
Charing Cross for a bar. 

Dr. Donne (1573-1631). 

Thus imitated by Pope (1688-1744) 

Each man an Ascapart of strengtli to toss 

For quoits both Temple Bar and Charing Cross. 

Ascrse'au Sage, or AscrcBan Poet, 
Hesiod, who was born at Ascra, in Boeo'tia. 
Virgil calls him " The Old Ascraean." 

Hos tibi dant calamos, en accipe, Musae 
Ascra30 quos ante scni. 

Biicolic, vii. 7a 

As'ehie (3 sylJ), Irreligion personified 
in The Purple Island {ib-^-^), by Phineas 
Fletcher (canto vii.). He had four sons : 
Idol'atros {idolatry), Phar'makeus (3 syl.) 
{witchcraft), Hasret'icus, and Hypocrisy ; 
all fully described by the poet. (Greek, 
asebeia, "impiety.") 

Asel'ges (3 syl. ), Lasciviousness per- 
sonified. One of the four sons of Anag' 
nus {inchastity), his three brothers being 
Moechus {adultery), Pornei'us {fornica- 
tion), and Acath'arus, Seeing his brother 




Porneius fall by the spear of Parthen'ia 
{maidenly chastity), Aselgfis rushes for- 
ward to avenge his death ; but the martial 
maid caught him with her spear, and 
tossed him so high i' the air "that he 
hardly knew whither his course was bent." 
(Greek, asilges, "intemperate, wanton.") 
Phineas Fletcher : The Purple Isla?id, 
xJ. (1633). 

As'en, strictly speaking, are only the 
three gods next in rank to the twelve 
male Asir ; but the word is not unfre- 
quently used for the Scandinavian deities 

As'g'ard, the fortress of the .^sir, 
or Scandinavian deities. It is situate in 
the heavenly hills, between the Earth and 
the Rainbow-bridge [Bifrost). The river 
is Nornor, overshadowed by the famous 
ash tree Ygdrasil'. Above the Rainbow 
dwelt the "Mysterious Three." 

As'gil's Translation. John Asgill 
wrote a book on the possibility of man 
being translated into eternal life without 
dying. The book, in 1707, was condemned 
to be burnt by the common hangman. 

Here's no depending upon old women in my country, 
jifs ' 
> great-grandmother not \ 
Centlivre : The Busybody, it. 2 (1709). 

. . and a man may as safely trust to Asgifs transla- 
tion as to his great-grandmother not marrying. Mrs. 

Ash. 'field {Farmer), a truly John Bull 
farmer, tender-hearted, noble-minded but 
homely, generous but hot-tempered. He 
loves his daughter Susan with the love of 
a woman. His favourite expression is 
'* Behave pratty," and he himself always 
tries to do so. His daughter Susan marries 
Robert Handy, the son of sir Abel Handy. 

Dame Ashjield, the farmer's wife, whose 
bete noire is a neighbouring farmer named 
Grundy. What Mrs. Grundy will say, 
or what Mrs. Grundv will think or do, is 
dame Ashfield's decalogue and gospel. 

Susan Ashjield, daughter of farmer and 
dame Ashfield. Morion : Speed the 
Plough {1798). 

Asli'ford {Isaac), " a wise, good man, 
contented to be poor." Crabbe : Parish 
Register {xZo-]). 

Ash'tarath, a general name for all 
Syrian goddesses. (See Astoreth.) 

Yrhey'\ had general names 
Of Baalim and Ashtaroth : those male, 
These feminine. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 422 (1665). 

Ash 'ton {Sir William), the lord 
keeper of Scotland, and father of Lucy 

Lady Eleanor Ashton, wi.^'e of sir Wil- 

Colonel Slwlto Douglas Ashton, eldest 
son of sir William. 

Lucy Ashton, daughter of sir William, 
betrothed to Edgar (the master of Ravens- 
wood) ; but being compelled to marry 
Frank Hayston (laird of Bucklaw), she 
tries to murder him in the bridal chamber, 
and becomes insane. Lucy dies, but the 
laird recovers. Sir W. Scott : The Bride 
of Lammermoor (time, William UL). 

(This has been made the subject of an 
opera by Donizetti, called Lucia di Lam- 
mermoor, 1835.) 

Asia, the wife of that Pharaoh who 
brought up Moses. She was the daughter 
of Mozahem. Sale: Al Koran, xii. 

Asia, wife of that Pharaoh who knew 
not Joseph. Her husband tortured her 
for believing in Moses ; but she was taken 
alive into paradise. Sale: Al Koran, 
Ixvi. note. 

.* Mahomet says, "Among women 
four have been perfect : Asia, wife of 
Pharaoh ; Mary, daughter of Imrin ; 
Khadijah, the prophet's first wife ; and 
Fatima, his own daughter." 

Asir' or rather 2Bsir, the celestial 
deities of Scandinavian mythology, viz. 
Odin,Thor, Baldr, Tyr, Bragi, Heimdall, 
Vidar, Vali, Ullur, and Forsetti. 

Sometimes the goddesses P'rigga (wife 
of Odin), Sif (wife of Thor), and Idu'na 
are ranked among the .^sir ; but Ni'ord, 
with his wife Shado, their son Frey and 
daughter Frega, do not belong to the 
celestials but to the Vanir. 

As'madai (3 syl.), the same as Asmo- 
de'us (4 syL), the lustful and destroying 
angel, who robbed Sara of her seven hus- 
barids {Tobit iii. 8). Milton makes him 
one of the rebellious angels overthrown 
by Uriel and Ra'phael. Hume says the 
word means "the destroyer." Paradise 
Lost, vi. 365 (1665). 

Asmode'us (4 syl.), the demon of 
vanity and dress, called in the Talmud 
"king of the devils." As "dress" is 
one of the bitterest evils of modern life, 
it is termed " the Asmodeus of domestic 
peace," a phrase employed to express any 
"skeleton" in the house of a private 

(In the book of T*!?^// Asmodeus falls in 
love with Sara, daughter of Rag'uel, and 
causes the successive deaths of seven 
husbands each on his bridal night ; but 
when Sara married Tobit, Asmodeus was 
driven into Egypt by a charm made of 


the heart and liver of a fish burnt on per- 
fumed ashes.) 

N.B. Milton makes it a word of 4 syl. 
with the accent on the penult ; but Tenny- 
son makes the word either Asmo'deus 
{3 ^}'^-)> or Asmo'deus (4 syl.), with the 
accent on the second syl. 

Better pleased 
Than Asmodeus with the fishy fume. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, iv. i68. 
Abaddon and Asmodeus caught at me. 

Tennyson: St. Sittuon StyCitis. 

Asiuode'ns, a "diable bon-homme," 
with more gaiety than malice ; not the 
least like Mephistophelfis. He is the 
companion of Cle'ofas, whom he carries 
through the air, and shows him the inside 
of houses, where they see what is being 
done in private or secrecy without being 
seen. Although Asmodeus is not malig- 
nant, yet with all his wit, acuteness, and 
playful malice, we never forget the fiend 
even when he is most engaging. 

(Such was the popularity of the Diable 
Boileux, by Lesage, that two young men 
fought a duel in a bookseller's shop over 
the only remaining copy an incident 
worthy to be recorded by Asmodeus him- 

Miss Austen gives us just such a picture of domestic 
life as Asmodeus would present could he remove the 
roof of many aa English home. Encyc. Brit. (art. 

(Asmodeus must not be confounded 
with AsmoncBus, surnamed ' ' Maccabaeus. " 
See Hammer. ) 

Aso'tus, Prodigality personified in 
Tlie Purple Island (1633), by Phineas 
Fletcher, fully described in canto viii. 
(Greek, asotos, "a profligate.") 

Aspa'sia, a maiden, the very ideal of 
ill-fortune and wretchedness. She is the 
troth-plight wife of Amintor, but Amin- 
tor, at the king's request, marries Evad'ne 
(3 syl.). Women point with scorn at the 
forsaken Aspasia, but she bears it all 
with patience. The pathos of her speeches 
is most touching, and her death forms 
the tragical event which gives name to 
the drama. Beaumont and Fletcher: The 
MaiSs Tragedy (i6io). 

Asphal'tic Pool [The), the Dead 
Sea. So called from the asphalt or bitu'- 
men abounding in it. The river Jordan 
empties itself into this "pool." Milton : 
Paradise Lost, i. 411 (1665). 

As'phodel, in the language of flowers, 
means ' ' regret." It is said that the spirits 
of the dead sustain themselves with the 
roots of this flosver. It was planted by 


the ancients on graves, and both Theo- 
philus and Pliny state that the ghosts 
beyond AchCron roam through the mea- 
dows of Asphodel, in order if possible to- 
reach the waters of Lethfi or Oblivion'. 
The asphodel was dedicated to Pluto. 
Longfellow strangely enough crowns his. 
angel ol death with amaranth, with which 
the "spirits elect bind their resplendent 
locks," and his angel of life with aspho- 
del, the flower of "regret" and emblera 
of the grave. 

Hi who wore the crown of asphodels . . . 
[said] " My errand is not death, but life" . . . 
tbutj The angel with the amaranthine wreath 

Whispered a word that had a sound like deaths 
Loit^ellow : The Two Aiisels. 

As'pramont, a place mentioned by 
Ariosto in his Orlando Furioso, in the 
department of the Meuse (1516). 

Jousted in Aspramont and Mont'alban \_MontaubaH\. 
Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 583 (1665). 

As'pramonte (3 syl.), in sir W. 
Scott's Count Robert of Paris (time^ 


The old knight, father of Brenhilda. 

The lady of Asp-amonte, the knight's- 

Brenhilda of Aspramonte, their daugh- 
ter, wife of count Robert. 

As'rael or Az'rael, an angel of 
death. He is immeasurable in height, 
insomuch that the space between his eyes- 
equals a 70,000 days' journey. Moham- 
medan Mythology. 

Ass [An), emblem of the tribe of 
Issachar. In the old church at Totnes is. 
a stone pulpit, divided into compartments, 
containing shields decorated with the 
several emblems of the Jewish tribes, of 
which this is one. 

Issachar is a strong ass, couching down between tws*- 
burdens. Gen. xlix. 14. 

Ass. Three of these animals are by 
different legends admitted into heaven :. 

1. The ass on which Christ rode on His 
journey to Jerusalem on the day of palms. 

2. The ass on which Balaam rode, and 
which reproved the prophet, "speaking- 
with the voice of a man." 3. The ass of 
Aaz'is queen of Sheba or Saba, who came 
to visit Solomon. (See Animals, p. 45.) 

Ass's Ears. Midas was chosen to 
decide a trial of musical skill between 
Apollo and Pan. The Phrygian king- 
gave his verdict in favour of Pan, where- 
upon Apollo changed his ears to those of 
an ass. The servant who used to cut the- 
king's hair, discovering the deformity, 
was afraid to whisper the secret to any 
one, but, not being able to contain himselfc 




dug a hole in the earth, and, putting his 
mouth into it, cried out, "King Midas 
has ass's ears." He then filled up the hole, 
and felt relieved. I'ennyson malces the 
barber a woman. 

No livelier than the dame 
That whispered, " Asses' ears " [sic], among the sedge, 
* My sister," 

The Princess, ii, 

As'sad, son of Camaral'zaman and 
Haiatal'nefous (5 syl), and half-brother 
of Amgiad (son of Camaralzaman and 
Badoura). Each of the two mothers 
conceived a base passion for the other's 
son, and, when the young men repulsed 
their advances, accused them to their 
father of gross designs upon their honour, 
Camaralzaman commanded his vizier to 
put them both to death; but instead of 
doing so, he conducted them out of the 
city, and told them not to return to their 
father's kingdom (the island of Ebony). 
They wandered on for ten days, when 
Assad went to a city in sight to obtain 
provisions. Here he was entrapped by an 
old fire-worshipper, who offered him hos- 
pitality, but cast him into a dungeon, in- 
tending to offer him up a human victim 
on the " mountain of fire." The ship in 
which he was sent being driven on the 
coast of queen Margiana, Assad was sold 
to her at; a slave, but being recaptured was 
carried back to his old dungeon. Here 
Bosta'na, one of the old man's daughters, 
took pity on him, and released him ; and 
ere long Assad married queen Margiana, 
while Amgiad, out of gratitude, married 
Bostana. A rabian Nights ( ' ' Amgiad and 
Assad "). 

As'sidos, a plant in the country of 
Prester John. It not only protects the 
wearer from evil spirits, but forces every 
spirit to tell its business. 

Astagf'oras, a female fiend, who has 
the power of raising storms. /"flwc- 
Jerusaletn Delivered (1575). 

Astar'te {3 syl.), the Phoenician 
moon-goddess, the Astoreth of the 

y^'ith these 
Came Astoreth, whom the Phoenicians called 
Astarte, queen of heaven, with crescent horns. 
Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 438 (1663). 

As'tarte (2 syl), an attendant on the 
princess Anna Conine'na. Sir W. Scott: 
Count Robert of Paris (time, Rufus). 

Astarte (2 or 3 syl.), beloved by Man- 
fred, Byron : Manfred, 

We think of Astarte as young, beautiful, innocent, 
giiilty, lost, murdered, judged, pardoned ; but still, in 
tier pcrniiited visit to earth, speaking in a voice of 

sorrow, and with a countenance yet pale with mortal 
trouble. We had but a glimpse of her in her beauty 
and innocence, but at last she rises before us in all 
the mortal silence of a ghost, with fixed, glazed, and 
passionless eyes, revealing death, judgment, and 
e.t&xxiwj. Professor Wilson. 

{2 syl.) The lady Astarte hist Hush ! who comes here t 
(3 -yf-) The same Astarte? No. (iii. 4.) [(iii. 4-) 

As'tery, a nymph in the train of 
Venus ; the lightest of foot and most 
active of all. One day the goddess, 
walking abroad with her nymphs, bade 
them go gather flowers. Astery gathered 
most of all ; but Venus, in a fit of 
jealousy, turned her into a butterfly, and 
threw the flowers into the wings. Since 
then all butterflies have borne wings of 
many gay colours. Spenser: Muiopotmos 
or the Butterfly's Fate (1590). 

Ast'olat, Guildford, in Surrey. 
The Lily Maid of Astolat, Elaine, in 
Tennyson's Idylls of tlie King. 

Astol'plio, the English cousin of 
Orlando ; his father was Otho. He was 
a great boaster, but was generous, cour- 
teous, gay, and singularly handsome. 
Astolpho was carried to Alci'na's isle on the 
back of a whale ; and when Alcina tired 
of him, she changed him into a myrtle 
tree, but Melissa disenchanted him. 
Astolpho descended into the infernal 
regions ; he also went to the moon, to 
cure Orlando of his madness by bringing 
back his lost wits in a phial. Ariosto : 
Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Astolpho s Book. The fairy Log'istilla 
gave him a book, which would direct him 
aright in all his journeyings, and give 
him any other information he required. 
Ariosto: Orlando Furioso, viii. 

Astolpho' s Horn. The gift of Logistilla. 
Whatever man or beast heard it, was 
seized with instant panic, and became an 
easy captive. Ariosto : Orlando Furioso, 

As 'ton {Sir Jacob), a cavalier during 
the Commonwealth ; one of the partisans 
of the late king. Sir W. Scott: Wood- 
stock (period, Commonwealth). 

As 'ton {Enrico). So Henry Ashtori 
is called in Donizetti's opera of Lucia di 
Lammermoor (1835). (See Ashton.) 

As'torax, king of Paphos and 
brother of the princess Calis. John 
Fletcher: The Mad Lover (1617). 

As'toretL., the moon-goddess of 
Syrian mythology ; called by Jeremiah, 
"the Queen of Heaven," and by the 
Phoenicians, "Astar'tS." (See ASHTA- 
ROTII, p. 68,) 



With these [tfu host 0/ heaven] in troop 
Came Astoreth, whom the I'hoenicians calloj 
Astartd, queen of heaven, with crescent horns. 
MUtoH : J'araiiise Lost, i. 438 (1665). 

(Milton does not always preserve the 
difference between Ashtaroth and Asto- 
reth ; for he speaks of the " moonM 
Ashtaroth, heaven's queen and mother.") 
AstrSB'a, Mrs. Aphra Eelin, an 
authoress. Slie published the story of 
Prince Oroonoka (died 1689). 

The stage how loosely does Astraea tread ! 


Hymns of Astrcea, a series of twenty- 
six acrostics in honour of queen EUza- 
beth, by sir John Davies (1570-1626). 

As'tragfon, the philosopher and great 
physician, by whom Gondibert and his 
friends were cured of the wounds re- 
ceived in the faction fight stirred up by 
prince Oswald. Astragon had a splendid 
library and museum. One room was 
called " Great Nature's Office," another 
" Nature's Nursery," and the library was 
called "The Monument of Vanished 
Mind." Astragon (the poet says) dis- 
covered the loadstone and its use in 
navigation. He had one child, Bertha, 
who loved duke Gondibert, and to whom 
she was promised in marriage. The tale 
being unfinished, the sequel is not known. 
Davenant: Gondibert (died 1668). 

Astree (2 syl.), a pastoral romance 
by Honore D'Urf(5 (1616), very cele- 
brated for giving birth to the pastoral 
school, which had for a time an over- 
whelming power on literature, dress, and 
amusements. Pastoral romance had re- 
appeared in Portugal fully sixty years 
previously in the pastoral romance of 
Monteraayer called Diana (1552); and 
Longos, in the fifteenth century, had pro- 
duced a beautiful prose pastoral called 
The Loves of Dap/mis and Chloe, but 
both these pastorals stand alone, while 
that of D'Urf6 is the beginning of a 
long series. 

(The Romance of Astree is very cele- 

Astrin^er, a falconer. Shakespeare 
introduces an astringer in Alfs Well that 
Ends Well, act v. sc. i. (From the French 
austour, Latin austercus, "a goshawk.") 
A "gentle astringer" is a gentleman- 

We usually call a falconer who keeps that kind of 
hawk [the goshawk] an austringer. Cowf// ; Law 

As'tro-fiamman'te (5 syl.), queen 
of the night. The word means " flaming 
Star." Mozart: Die Zaiiberfote (1791). 

Astronomer (^The), in Rasselas, an 
old enthusiast, who believed himself to 
have the control and direction of th.i 
weather. He leaves Imlac his successor, 
but implores him not to interfere with 
the constituted order. 

" I have possessed," said ho to Imlac, " for five years 
the regulation of the weather, and the distribution of 
the seasons: the sun has listened to my dictates, and 
passed from tropic to tropic by my direction ; the 
clouds, at my call, have poured their waters, and the 
Nile has overflowed at my command ; I have restrained 
the rage of the Dog-star, and mitigated the fervour oi 
the Crab. The winds alone . . . have hitherto refused 
my authority. ... I am the first of human beings to 
whom this trust lias been imparted." Dr. Johnson : 
Rasselas, xli.-xliii. (I759^ 

As'trophel, sir Philip Sidi:;ey. 
" Phil. Sid." maybe a contraction oiphilos 
sidtis, and the Latin sidus being changed 
to the Greek dstron, we get astron philos 
("star-lover"). The "star" he loved 
was Penelope Devereux, whom he calls 
Stella ("star"), and to whom he was 
betrothed. Spenser wrote a pastoral elegy 
called Astrophel, to the memory of sir 
Philip Sidney. 

Rut while as Astrophel did live and reign, 

Amongst all swains was none his paragon. 

Spenser: Colin Clouts Come Home Ag^ain (1591). 

Astsm'ome (4 syl.) or Chryseis, 

daughter of Chryses priest of Apollo. 
When Lyrnessus was taken, AstynomS 
fell to the share of Agamemnon, but tlie 
father begged to be allowed to ransom 
her. Agamemnon refused to comply. 
Whereupon the priest invoked the anger 
of his patron god, and Apollo sent a 
plague into the Grecian camp. This was 
the cause of contention between Aga- 
memnon*,and Achilles, and forms the 
subject of Homer's epic The Iliad. 

As'wad, son of Shedad king of Ad. 
When the angel of death destroyed 
Shedad and all his subjects, Aswad was 
saved aUve because he had shown mercy 
to a camel which had been bound to a 
tomb to starve to death, that it might 
serve its master on the day of resurrec- 
tion. Southey : Thalaba the Destroyer 

Asylum Chris'ti. So England was 
called by the Camisards during the 
scandalous religious persecutions of the 
"Grand Monarque" (Louis XIV.). 

Atabalipa, the last emperor of Peru, 
subdued by Pizarro, the Spanish general. 
Milton refers to him in Paradise Lost, xi. 
409 (1665). 

At'ala, the name of a novel by 
Fran9ois Ren6 Chateaubriand. It was 
published in i8oi, and created universal 



admiration. Like his novel called Reni, 
it was designed as an episode to his 
GSniedu Christianisme. His wanderings 
through the priniceval woods of North 
America are described ia Acala and Rend 

(This has nothing to do with Atiila, 
king of the Huns (by Corneille) ; nor with 
Athalie, queen of Judah, the subject of 
Racine's great tragedy.) 

Atalauta, of Arcadia, wished to 
remain single, and therefore gave out 
that she would marry no one who could 
not outstrip her in running ; but if any 
challenged her and lost the race, he was 
to lose his hfe. Hippom'en^s won the 
race by throwing down golden apples, 
which Atalanta kept stopping to pick up. 
William Morris has chosen this for one of 
his tales in \.\vt Earthly Paradise (March). 

In short, she thus appeared like another Atalant.i. 
Comlesse D'Aulnoy : Fairy 7a/M (" Fortunio," 1682). 

Atalanta in Calydon. A dramatic 
poem by Algernon C. Swinburne (1864). 

Atalantis. "Secret Memoirs of 
Persons of Quality " in the court of 1688, 
by Mrs. de la Riviere Manley (1736). It 
is full of party scandal ; not unfrequently 
new minting old lies. 

As long as Atalantis shall be read. 

Popt : Rape of the Lock. 

Atalilia, the inca of Peru, most 
dearly beloved by his subjects, on whom 
Pizarro made war. An old man says of 
the inca 

The virtues of our monarch alike secure to him the 
affection of his people and the benign regard of Heaven. 
Sheridan : Pizarro, ii. 4 (from Kotzebue), (1799). 

Atba'ra or Black River, called the 
"dark mother of Egypt." (See Black 

Ate (2 syl. ), goddess of revenge. 

With him along is come the mother-queen. 
An Ate, stirring him to blood and strife. 
Sliakespeare : Kiytg John, act ii. sc. i (1596). 

Ate (2 syL), "mother of debate and 
all dissension," the friend of Duessa. 
She squinted, lied with a false tongue, 
and maligned even the best of beings. 
Her abode, "far underground hard by 
the gates of hell," is described at length 
in bk. iv. i. When sir Blandamour was 
challenged by Braggadoccio (canto 4), 
the terms of the contest were that the 
conqueror should have "Florimel," and 
tlie other "the old hag AtS," who was 
always to ride beside him till he could 
pass her off to another. 5/J^r.' Faerie 
Queene, iv. (1596). 

Atell'an Fables {The), in Latin 
Atella'nce Fabulce, a species of farce per- 
formed by the ancient Romans, and so 
called from Atella, in Campania. They 
differed from comedy because no magis- 
trates or persons of rank were introduced ; 
they differed from the tabernarice or genre 
drama, because domestic life was not 
represented in them; and they differed 
from the mimes, because there was neither 
buffoonery nor ribaldry. They were not 
performed by professional actors, but by 
Roman citizens of rank ; were written in 
the Oscan language ; and were distin- 
guished for their refined humour. 

They were supposed to be directly derived from the 
ancient mimi of the Atellan Fables. 5co// , Tk* 

A'tha, a country in Connaught, which 
for a time had its own chief, and some- 
times usurped the throne of Ireland. 
Thus Cairbar (lord of Atha) usurped the 
throne, but was disseated by Fingal, who 
restored Conar king of Ulster. The war 
of Fingal with Cairbar is the subject of 
the Ossianic poem Tem'ora, so called 
from the palace of that name where 
Cairbar murdered king Cormac, The 
kings of the Fir-bolg were called "lords 
of Atha." Ossian. 

Ath'alie (3 syl.), daughter of Ahah 
and Jezebel, and wife of Joram king of 
Judah. She massacred all the remnant 
of the house of David ; but Joash escaped, 
and six years afterwards was proclaimed 
king. Athalie, attracted by the shouts, 
went to the temple, and was killed by the 
mob. This forms the subject and title of 
Racine's chef-d' auvre (1691), and was 
Mdlle. Rachel's great part. 

(Racine's tragedy of Athalie, queen of 
Judah, must not be confounded with 
Corneille's tragedy oi Attila, king of the 
Huns ; nor with Atala, q.v.) 

Atheist's Tragedy {The)-, by Cyril 
Tourneur. The "atheist" is D'Amville, 
who murdered his brother Montferrers for 
his estates (i6ii). 

Ath'elstane (3 syl.), sumamed " The 
Unready," thane of Coningsburgh. Sir 
W. Scott: Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

. " Unready" does not mean unpre- 
pared, but injudicious (from Anglo-Saxon., 
reed, "wisdom, counsel"). 

Atlie'na {Juno'] once meant " the air," 
but in Homer this goddess is the repre- 
sentative of civic prudence and military 
skill. Athena, in Greek mythology, is 
the armed protectress of states and cities. 


Athenaeum ( T/^^), "a Magazine of 
l/iterary and Miscellaneous Informa- 
tion," edited by John Aikin (1807-1809). 

Re-started by James Silk Buckingham 
in 1829. 

Athe'nian Bee. Plato was so called 
from the honeyed sweetness of his com- 
position. It is said that a bee settled on 
his lips while he was an infant asleep in 
his cradle, and indicated that " honeyed 
words" would fall from his hps, and flow 
from his pen. Sophocles is called " The 
Attic Bee." 

Atheuodo'rus, the Stoic, told Augus- 
tus the best way to restrain unruly anger 
is to repeat the alphabet before giving 
way to it. 

The sacred line he did but once repeat. 
And laid the storm, and cooled the raging heat. 
Tickell: The Horn-book. 


German Athens, Saxe-Weimar. 

Athens of Ireland, Belfast. 

Modern Athens, Y.(!!M{!o\iX^, So called 
from its resemblance to the Acropolis, 
when viewed from the sea opposite. 

Moha?nmedan Athens, Bagdad in the 
time of Haroun-al-Raschid. 

Athens of the New World, Boston, 
noted for its literature and literary institu- 

Athens of the North, Copenhagen, un- 
rivalled (for its size) in the richness of its 
literary and antique stores, the number of 
its societies for the encouragement of arts, 
sciences, and general learning, together 
with the many illustrious names on the 
roll of its citizenship. 

Athens of Switzerland, Zurich. So called 
from the number of protestant refugees 
who resorted thither, and inundated 
Europe with their works on controversial 
divinity. Coverdale's Bible was printed 
at Zurich in 1535 ; here Zuinglius 
preached, and here Lavater lived. 

Athens of the West. Cor' dova, in Spain, 
was so called in the Middle Ages. 

Ath'liot, the most wretched of all 

Her comfort Is fif for her any be), 
That none could show more cause of grief than she. 
/K Browiu : Britannia's Pastorals, ii. 5 (1613). 

Ath'os. Dinoc'ratSs, a sculptor, pro- 
posed to Alexander to hew mount Athos 
into a statue representing the great con- 
queror, with a city in his left hand, and a 
basin in his right to receive all the waters 
which flowed from the mountain. Alex- 
ander greatly approved of the suggestion, 
but objected to the locality. 

73 ATOM. 

And hew out a huge monument of pathos- 
As Philip's son proposed to do witli Athos. 

Bryon : Don yuan, xii. 86. 

Athos is one of the musketeers in 
Three Musketeers, by Dumas. 

Athtiu'ree, in Connaught, where was 
fought the great battle between Felim 
O'Connor on the side of the Irish, and 
William de Bourgo on the side of the 
English. The Irish lost 10,000 men, and 
the whole tribe of the O'Connors fell ex- 
cept Fe'lim's brother, who escaped alive. 

Athtin'ree {Lord), a libertine with 
broken coffers ; a man of pleasure, who 
owned "no curb of honour, and who 
possessed no single grace but valour." 
Knowles: Woman's Wit {1838). 

Atimtis, Baseness of mind personified 
in IVie Purple Island (1633), by Phineas 
Fletcher. "A careless, idle swain . . . 
his work to eat, drink, sleep, and purge 
his reins." Fully described in canto viii. 
(Greek, atlmos, " one dishonoured.") 

A'tin [Strife), the squire of Pyr'- 
ochles. Spenser: Faerie Queene, ii. 4, 
5. 6 (1590). 

Atlante'an Shoulders, shoulders 
broad and strong, like those of Atlas, 
which support the world. 

Sage he [Beelzebubl stood. 
With Atlantean shoulders, fit to bear 
The weight of mightiest monarchies. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, ii. 303 (1665). 

Atlantes (3 syl.), the magician and 
sage who educated Rogero in all manly 
virtues. Ariosto: Orlando Furioso{i^i6), 

Atlan'tis. Lord Bacon wrote an 
allegorical fiction called Atlantis, or The 
New Atlantis. It is an island in the 
Atlantic, on which the author feigns that 
he was wrecked. There found he every 
model arrangement for the promotion of 
science and the perfection of man as a 
social being. 

A moral country? But I hold my hand 
For I disdain to write an Atalaiitis \sic\ 

Byron : Don Juan, xi. 87. 


Atlas king of Mauritania is said to sup- 
port the world on his shoulders. 

Change thy shape and shake off age . . . Get thee 
Medea's kettle (qv.) and be boiled anew, come forth 
with . . . callous hands, a chine of steel, and Atlas' 
shoulders. Con^reve: Love Jor Love, iv. (1695). 

Atom {The History and Adventures of 
an), by Smollett (1769). A satire on the 
political parties of England from 1754 to 
the dissolution of lord Chatham's ad- 
ministration. Chatham himself is severely 


Atossa. It is doubtful to whom Pope 
alludes in his Moral Essays, ii. 

But what are these to great Atossa's mind! 

Atossa, daughter of Cyrus, was the 
wife of Darius Hystaspis, and their son 
was Xerxes. As Xerxes was the son of 
Ahasuerus and Vashti {Old Testaine7ii), 
and Vashti was the daughter of Cyrus, 
it would seem that Ahasuerus was the 
same as Darius, and Vashti as A fossa. 

'. It is supposed that Pope referred 
either to the duchess of Marlborough or 
to the duchess of Buckingham. He calls 
the former Sappho, but Sappho's great 
friend was Atthis, not Atossa. 

At'roDOS, one of the Fates, w^hose 
office it was to cut the thread of life with 
a pair of scissors. 

. . . nor shines the knife, 
Nor shears of Atropos before their vision. 

Byron : Don Jiiart, ii. 64. 

Attala's Wife, Cerca. 

Attic Bee {The\ SophoclSs (b.c. 
495-405). Plato is called ' ' The Athe'nian 

Attic Boy {The), referred to by 
Milton in his // Penseroso, is Ceph'alus 
or Kephalos, beloved by Aurora (Morn), 
but married to Pro'cris. He was passion- 
ately fond of hunting. 

Till civil-suited Morn apoear, 

Not tricked and flounced, as she was wont 

With the Attic boy to hunt. 

But kerchiefed in a comely cloud. 

// Penseroso (1638). 

Attic Muse {The), Xenophon, the 
historian (B.C. 444-359). 

At'ticus ( The English), Joseph Addi- 
son (1672-1719). 

Who but must laug-h if such a man there be. 
Who would not weep if Atticus were he? 

Pope: Prologue to Oie Satires. 

The Christian Atticus, Reginald Heber, 
bishop of Calcutta (1783-1826). 

The Irish Atticus. George Faulkner 
(1700-1775) is satirized under this name 
in a series of letters by the earl of 

At'tila, one of the tragedies of Pierre 
Corneille (1667). This king of the Huns, 
usually called the "Scourge of God," 
must not be confounded with "Athalie," 
daughter of Jezebel and wife of Joram, 
the subject and title of Racine's chef- 
d'ceuvre, and Mdlle. Rachel's chief 

Attreba'tes (4 jt/.), Drayton makes 
it 3 syl. The Attrebates inhabited part 


of Hampshire and Berkshire. The primary 
city was Calleba {Silchester). Richard 
of Cirencester, vi. 10. 

The Attrebates in Bark unto the bank of Thames. 
Drayton : Polyolbion, xvi. (1612). 

.* " In Bark " means in Berkshire. 

AtyS, a Phrygian shepherd, trans- 
formed into a fir tree. Catullus wrote a 
poem in Latin on the subject, and his 
poem has been translated into English 
by Leigh Hunt (1784-1859). 

. William Whitehead (1715-1785) 
wrote an heroic poem entitled Atys and 
Adrastus ; but this Atys was quite 
another person. The Phrygian shepherd 
was son of Nana, but Whitehead's Atys 
was son of Croesus. The former was 
metamorphosed by Cybele (3 syl.) into 
a fir tree ; the latter was slain by Adrastos 
(not the king of Argos, but son of 
Gordius), who accidentally killed him 
while hunting, and was so distressed at 
the accident that he put an end to his 
own life. 

AubeiH; {Thirhe), the chief charac- 
ter of a romance by C. Nodier (1819). 
The story contains the adventures of a 
young royalist in the French Revolution, 
who disguised himself in female attire to 
escape discovery. 

Aubrey, a widower for 18 years. 
At the death of his wife he committed 
his infant daughter to the charge of Mr. 
Bridgemore a merchant, and lived abroad. 
He returned to London after an absence 
of 18 years, and found that Bridgemore 
had abused his trust ; and his daughter 
had been obliged to quit the house and 
seek protection with a Mr. Mortimer. 

Augusta Aubrey, daughter of Mr. 
Aubrey, in love with Francis Tyrrel, the 
nephew of Mr. Mortimer. She is snubbed 
and persecuted by the vulgar Lucinda 
Bridgemore, and most wantonly per- 
secuted by lord Abberville ; but after 
passing through many a most painful 
visitation, she is happily married to the 
man of her choice. Cumberland : The 
Fashionable Lover (1780). 

Au'bri's Dog showed a most un- 
accountable hatred to Richard de Macaire, 
snarling and flying at him whenever he 
appeared in sight. Now, Aubri had 
been murdered by some one in the forest 
of Bondy, and this animosity of the dog 
directed suspicion towards Richnrd de 
Macaire. Richard was taken up, and 
condemned to single combat with the 
dog, by whom he was killed. In his 




dying moments he confessed himself to 
be the murderer of Aubri. (See Dog.) 

Le combat entre Macaire et lo chien eut lieu k Paris, 
flans rile Louviers. On place ce fait mencilleux en 
1 37 1, mais ... il est bien ant^rieur, car il est men- 
tionni dis le sitcle priicddent par Albino des Trois- 
1 ontaincs. ^ojV/f/ . Diet. Universal, etc. 

Auburn, the name of Goldmith's 
Deserted Village. Supposed to be Lissoy, 
in Kilkenny West, Ireland, where Gold- 
smith's father was the pastor. 

Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain. 

Goldsmith : The Deserted Villaj^e (1770). 

Auch'termtich'ty [John), the Kin- 
ross Ciirrier. 5z> W. Scott: The Abbot 
(time, Elizabeth). 

AudliTun"bla, the cow created by 
Surt to nourish Ymir. She supplied him 
with four rivers of milk, and was herself 
nourished by licking dew from the rocks. 
Scandinavian Mythology. 

Andley. Is John Audley here f In 
Richardson's travelling theatrical booth 
this question was asked aloud, to signify 
that the performance was to be brought 
to a close as soon as possible, as the 
platform was crowded with new-comers, 
waiting to be admitted (1766-1836). 

^ The same question was asked by 
Shuter (in 1759), whose travelling com- 
pany preceded Richardson's. 

Au'drey, a country wench, who jilted 
William for Touchstone. She is an ex- 
excellent specimen of a wondering she- 
gawky. She thanks the gods that "she 
is foul," and if to be poetical is not to be 
honest, she thanks the gods also that 
"she is not poetical." Shakespeare : As 
You Like It \iS9^). 
The character of "Audrey," that of a female fool, 

should not have been assumed [i.e. bv Miss Pope, in 

her last appearance in public]; the la; "" 

farewell address was, "And now poor Audrey bids you 

last line of the 

all farewell " (May 26, iZcSl.j/'anies Smith : Memoirs, 
etc. (1840). 

Au'gean Stables. Auggas king of 
the Epeans, in Ehs, kept 3000 oxen for 
thirty years in stalls which were never 
cleansed. It was one of the twelve 
labours of Her'culSs to cleanse these 
stables in one day. This he accomplished 
by letting two rivers into them. 

If the Augrcan stable \of drajnatic iinpurityl was 
not sufficiently cleansed, the stream of public opinion 
was fairly directed against its conglomerated impuri- 
ties. 5jy W. Scott: The Drama. 

AUGUSTA. London [Trinoban- 
tina\ was so called by the Romans. 

AVhere full in view Augusta's spires are seen, 
With flowery lawns and waving woods between, 
A humble habitation rose, beside 
Where Thames meandering rolls his ample tide. 
Falconer : The Ship-wreck, i. 3 (1736). 

Augfus'ta, mother of Gustavus Vasa. 
She is a prisoner of Christian II. king of 
Denmark ; but the king promises to set 
her free if she will induce her son (Gusta- 
vus) to submission. Augusta refuses. In 
the war which followed, Gustavus defeated 
Christian, and became king of Sweden. 
//. Brooke; Gustavus Vasa (1730). 

Augtista, a title conferred by the 
Roman emperors on their wives, sisters, 
daughters, mothers, and even concubines. 
It had to be conferred ; for even the wife 
of an Augustus was not an Augusta until 
after her coronation. 

1. Empresses. Livia and Julia were 
both Augusta; so were Julia (wife of 
Tiberius), Messalina, Agrippina, Octavia, 
Poppsea, Statilia, Sabina, Domitilla, 
Domitia, and Faustina. In imperials the 
wife of an emperor is spoken of as 
Augusta: Serenissiina Augusta conjux 
7wstra ; Divina Augusta, etc. But the 
title had to be conferred ; hence we read, 
" Domitian uxorem suam Augustam 
jussit nuncupari ; " and " Flavia Titiana, 
eadem die, uxor ejus [i.e. Pertinax] 
Augusta est appellata." 

2. Mothers or Grandmothers. An- 
tonia, grandmother of Caligula, was 
created Augusta. Claudius made his 
mother Antonia Augusta after her death. 
Heliogab'alus had coins inscribed with 
" Juha Massa Augusta," in honour of his 
grandmother ; Mammsea, mother of Alex- 
ander Severus, is styled Augusta on 
coins; and so is Hel6na, mother of 

3. Sisters. Honorius speaks of his 
sister as " venerabilis Augusta germana 
nostra." Trajan has coins inscribed with 
" Diva Marciana Azigusta." 

4. Daughters. Mallia Scantilla the 
wife, and Didia the daughter of Didius 
Julianus, were both Augusta. Titus in- 
scribed on coins his daughter as ' ' Julia 
Sabina Augusta ; " there are coins of the 
emperor Decius inscribed with ' ' Hercnnia 
EtrusciWa. Augusta," and " Sallustia ^- 
gusta," sisters of the emperor Decius. 

5. Others. Matidia, niece of Trajan, 
is called Augusta on coins ; Constantine 
Monomachus called his concubine Au- 

Augusta, the lady to 'whom lord 
Byron, in 1816, addressed several stanzas 
and epistles. She was a relative, and 
married colonel Leigh. 

Augns'tan Age, the golden age of 
a people's hterature, so called because. 



while Augustus was emperor, Rome was 
noted for its literary giants. 

The Augustan Age of England, the 
Elizabethan period. That of Anne is 
called the " Silver Age." 

TJu Augustan Age of France, that of 
Louis XIV. (1610-1740). 

The Augustan Age of Germany, nine- 
teenth century. 

The Augustan Age of Portugal, from 
John the Great to John III. (1385-1557). 
In this period Brazil was occupied ; the 
African coast explored ; the sea-route to 
India was traversed ; and Camoens 

Au^sti'na, the Maid of Saragoza. 
She was only 22 when, her lover being 
shot, she mounted the battery in his 
place ; and the French, after a siege of 
two months, were obliged to retreat, 
August 15, 1808. 

Such were the exploits of the Maid of Sarajjoza, who 
fey her valour elevated herself to the highest rank of 
heroines. When the author was at Seville, she walked 
daily on the Prado, decorated with medals and orders, 
by order of the Junta. Byron. 

Augustine. The Ladder of St. Au- 
gustine, a poem by Longfellow. 

Augustus Dunshtmner, W. E. 

Aytoun (1813-1865). 

Auld Iiang Syne. Robert Burns, in 
a letter to Mr. Thomson, dated September, 
1793, says, " One song more, and I have 
done. 'Auld Lang Syne.' The air is 
but mediocre, but . . . the old song . , . 
which has never been in print, nor even 
in MS. until I took it down from an old 
i-nan'.s singing, is enough to recommend 
any air." 

Auld Robin Gray was written 
(1771) by lady Anne Barnard, to raise a 
little money for an old nurse. Lady 
Anne's maiden name wns Lindsay, and 
her father was earl of Balcarras. 

Aullay, a monster horse with an 
elephant's trunk. The creature is as 
much bigger than an elephant as an 
elephant is larger than a sheep. King 
Baly of India rode on an aullay. 

The aullay, hug^cst of four-footed kind. 

The aullay-horse, that in his force, 
With elephantine trunk, could bind 
And lift the elephant, and on the wind 
Whirl him away, with sway and swiiij,'. 
E'en like a pebble from a practised slingf. 
SoiUlicy : Curse 0/ Kehama, xvi. 2 (1809). 

Aumerle \0-murV\ a French corrup- 
tion of Albemarle (in Normandy). 

Aurelia Darnel, in Smollett's novel 
f Sir Launcelot Greaves. His best 

female character. She is both lady-like 
and womanly. 

Aurelius. (See Arviragus, p. 65. ) 

Aurelius, elder brother of Uther the 
pendragon, and uncle of Arthur ; but he 
died before the hero was bom. 

Even sicke of a flixe \ill of the flnx\ as he was, he 
caused himself to be carried forth on a litter; with 
whose presence the people were so encouraged, that 
encountering with the Saxons they wan the victorie. 
liolinshed: History ofScoiland, 99. 
. . . once I read 
That stout Pendragon on his litter sick 
Came to the field, and vanquished his foes. 
Shakespeare : i Henry VI. act ilL sc. 2 (1589). 

Aurora Leigh, a novel in blank 
verse by Elizabeth B. Browning (1856). 
Aurora Leigh is an orphan child sent from 
Italy to the care of an aunt in England. 
She falls in love with Romney Leigh, a 
' ' social reformer," who proposes marriage, 
but is rejected. Romney then gives him- 
self up to socialistic work, and has a 
child by Marian Erie (a working girl). 
He would have married her, but was pre- 
vented by lady Waldemar. Aurora, in 
the mean time, being left penniless by the 
death of her aunt, supports herself by her 
writings, goes to Italy, and takes charge 
of Marian's child. Romney sets up a 
socialistic establishment, but the house 
is burnt down by the settlers ; Romney 
loses his eyesight, retires to Italy, comes 
upon Marian, and offers her marriage to 
compensate for the evil he has done her. 
His proposal is rejected, and he finally 
marries Aurora Leigh. 

Aurora Raby, a wealthy English 
orphan, a "rose with all its sweetest 
leaves yet unfolded." Byron : Don yuan, 
canto XV. 

Auro'ra's Tears, the morning dew. 
These tears are shed for the death of her 
son Memnon, slain by Achillas at the 
siege of Troy. 

Auso'nia, Italy, so called from Au- 
son, son of Ulysses. 

. . . romantic Spain, 
Gay lilied fields of France, or more refined. 
The soft Ausonia's monumental reign. 
Campbell: Gerirude of IVyoming, ii. 13 (1809). 

Austin, the assumed name of the 
lord of Clarinsal, when he renounced the 
world and became a monk of St. Nicholas. 
Theodore, the grandson of Alfonso, was 
his son, and rightful heir to the posses- 
sions and title of the count of Narbonne. 
Jephson : Count ofNarbotine (1782). 

Aus'tria and the Lion's Hide. 

There is an old tale that the archduke of 




Austria killed Richard I., and wore as a 
spoil the lion's hide which belonged to 
our English monarch. Hence Faulcon- 
bridge (the natural son of Richard) says 
jeeringly to the archduke 

Thou wear a lion's hide I doff it for shame, 
And hany a calf-skin on those recreant limbs. 
SJiakesJCeart : King yohn, act iii. sc. x (1596). 

(The point is better understood when it 
is borne in mind that fools and jesters 
were dressed in calf-skins. ) 

Austrian Army awfully ar- 
l*ayed {An). (See P, for this and^several 
other alliterative poems.) 

Aus'triau Lip {The), a protruding 
under jaw, with a heavy lip disincUned 
to shut close. It came from kaiser Maxi- 
milian I., son of kaiser Frederick III., and 
was inherited from his grandmother Cim- 
burgis, a Polish princess, duke of Masovia's 
daughter, and hence called the *' Cim- 
burgis Under Lip." 

\ A similar peculiarity occurs in the 
family of sir Gideon Murray of Elibank. 
He had taken prisoner a young gentleman 
named Scoto, whom he was about to 
hang ; but his wife persuaded him to com- 
mute the sentence into a marriage with 
their daughter "Meg of the muckle 
mouth." Meg made him a most excellent 
wife, but the ' ' muckle mouth " descended 
to their posterity for many generations. 

Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table 

( The), a series of essays contributed by 
Oliver Wendell Holmes to the first twelve 
numbers of the Atlantic Monthly, and 
republished in 1858. The essays are dis- 
cursive, poetical, philosophical, imagina- 
tive, and amusing. 

It was followed by Tht Professor at (he Breakfast- 
Table {1870), and The Poet at tJu Breakfast-Table 

Autol'ycos, the craftiest of thieves. 
He stole the flocks of his neighbours, and 
changed their marks. Sis'yphos outwitted 
him by marking his sheep under their feet. 

Autol'ycus, a pedlar and witty rogue, 
in The Winter's Tale, by Shakespeare 

Av'alon or Avallon, Glastonbury, 
generally called the "isle of Avalon." 
The abode of king Arthur, ObSron, 
Morgaine la F^e, and the Fees generally ; 
sometimes called the "island of the 
blest." It is very fully described in the 
French romance of Ogier le Danois. 
Tennyson calls it Avil'ion {q.v.). Draj'- 
ton, in his Polyolbion, styles it "the 
ancient isle of Avcllon," and the Romans 
"insula Avalonia." 

O three-times famous Ule 1 where is that place tht 

ne with thyself compared for jjlory and delight. 
Whilst Glastonbury stood ? 

Drayton : Polyolbion, iii. (1613). 

Avan'turine or Aven'turine (4 

syL), a variety of rock-crj'stal having a 
spangled appearance, caused by scales of 
mica or crystals of copper. The name 
is borrowed from that of the artificial 
gold-spangled glass obtained in the first 
instance /ar aventure ("by accident "). 

. . . and the hair 
All over glanced with dew-drop or with g;em. 
Like sparkles in the stone avanturine. 

Tennyson : Gareth and Lynetle, 

Avare {L). The plot of this comedy 
is as follows : Harpagon the miser and 
his son Cl(5ante (2 syl.) both want to 
marry Mariane (3 syl. ), daughter of An- 
selme, alias don Thomas d'Alburci, of 
Naples. Cl^ante gets possession of a 
casket of gold belonging to the miser, 
and hidden in the garden. When Har- 
pagon discovers his loss, he raves like 
a madman, and Cl^ante gives him the 
choice of Mariane or the casket. The 
miser chooses the casket, and leaves the 
young lady to his son. The second plot 
is connected with Elise {2 syl.), the miser's 
daughter, promised in marriage by the 
father to his friend Anselme (2 syl.) ; but 
Elise is herself in love with Val^re, who, 
however, turns out to be the son of An- 
selme. As soon as Anselme discovers 
that Val6re is his son, who he thought 
had been lost at sea, he resigns to him 
Elise ; and so in both instances the young 
folks marry together, and the old ones 
give up their unnatural rivalry. Moli'ere : 
L Avare (1667). 

Avatar', the descent of Brahma to 
this earth. It is said in Hindd mytho- 
logy that Brahma has already descended 
nine times in various forms. He is yet to 
appear once more, when he will assume 
the figure of a warrior upon a white horse, 
and will cut off all incorrigible offenders. 

Nine times have Brahma's wheels of lightning hurled 

His awful presence o'er the alarmi^d world ; 

Nine times hath Guilt, through all his giant frame, 

Convulsive trembled, as the Mighty came ; 

Nine times hath suffering Mercy spared in vain, 

But Heaven shall burst her starry gates ag^in. 

He comes ! dread Brahma shakes the sunless sky . . 

Heaven's fiery horse, beneath his warrior-form, 

Paws the light clouds, and gallops on the storm. 

Campbell: Pleasures of Hope, i. (1799). 

AVENEL (2 syl.), Julian Avcnet, 
the usurper of Avenel Castle. 

Lady Alice Avenel ^ widow of sir 

Mary Avenel, daughter of lady Alice. 
She marries Halbert Glendinning. Sir 
W. Scott: The Monastery {didiXQ i559) 


Avenel {Sir Halbert Glendhumig, 
knight of), same as the bridegroom in 
The Mo7iastery. 

The lady Mary of Avenel, same as the 
bride in The Monastery. Sir W. Scott : 
The Abbot (time, Elizabeth). 

Avenel ( The White Lady of), a spirit 
mysteriously connected with the Avenel 
family, as the Irish banshee is with true 
Mile'sian families. She announces good 
or ill fortune, and manifests a general 
interest in the family to which she is 
attached, but to others she acts with con- 
siderable caprice ; thus she shows un- 
mitigated malignity to the sacristan and 
the robber. Any truly virtuous mortal 
has commanding power over her. 

Noon gleams on the lake. 

Noon glows on the fell ; 
Awake thee, awake, 

White maid of Avenel 1 
Sir IV. Scott: The Monastery (time, Elizabeth). 

Avenel [Dick), in lord Lytton's My 
Novel (1853). A big, blustering, sharp 
Yankee, honest, generous, and warm- 

Aven'g-er of Blood, the man who 
had the birthright, according to the 

iewish polity, of taking vengeance on 
,im who had killed one of his relatives. 

TcHJiyson : Maud, II. i. i. 

Av'icen or Abou-ilm-Sina, an Arabian 
physician and philosopher, born at Shiraz, 
in Persia (980-1037). He composed a 
treatise on logic, and another on meta- 
physics. Avicen is called both the Hippo'- 
crat6s and the Aristotle of the Arabs. 

Of physicke speake for me, king Avicen . . . 
Yet was his glory never set on shelfe, 
Nor never shall, whyles any worlde may stande 
Where men have minde to take good bookes in hande. 
Gascoisne : The Fruits 0/ IVarre, Ivii. (died 1557). 

Avil'ion \^'the apple island"'], near 
the terrestrial paradise. (See Avalon. ) 

Where falls not hail, or rain, or any snow. 
Nor ever wind blows loudly ; but it lies 
Deep-meadowed, happy, feir with orchard-lawns 
And bowery hollows crowned with summer sea. 
Where I [^ ;'//;<;-] will heal me of my grievous woimd. 
Tennyson: Moried' Arthur. 

Ayl'mer {Mrs.), a neighbour of sir 
Henry Lee. Sir IV. Scott : Woodstock 
(time. Commonwealth). 

Ay'mer {Prior), a jovial Benedictine 
monk, prior of Jorvaulx Abbey. Sir W. 
Scott ; Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Ay'mon, duke of Dordona {Dor- 
dogne). He had four sons, Rinaldo, 
Guicciardo, Alardo, and Ricciardetto 
{i.e. Renaud, Guiscard, Alard, and 
Richard), whose adventures are the 
subject of a French romance entitled Les 


Quatreflz Aymon, byHuon deVilleneuve 
( 1 165-1223). 

The old legend was modernized in 1504, and Balfe 
wrote an opera on the subject (1843). 

Ayrshire Bard {The), Robert Burns, 
the Scotch poet (i 759-1 796). 

Az'amat-Bat'uk, pseudonym of M. 
Thiebland, war correspondent of the 
Pall Mall Gazette in 1870. 

Azari'a and Hush'ai, a reply inverse 
to Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel, by 
Samuel Pordage. The characters common 
to the two satires are 

By Pordage. By Dryden. 

Charles II Amazia . . David 

Cromwell Zabad .. Saul 

Dryden Shimei ,. ^ja'/A (in part H.) 

Monmouth (duke of) ..v4^-a?7a .. Absalom 

Shaftesbury (earl of) ../f/^/iaj .. Achitophel 

Titus Gates Libni .. Corah 

. Hence "Azaria and Hushai" are 
Monmouth and Shaftesbury in Pordage's 
reply, but "Absalom and Achitophel" 
represent them in Dryden's satire. 

Aza'zel, one of the ginn or jinn, all of 
whom were made <5f "smokeless fire," 
that is, the fire of the Simoom. These 
jinn inhabited the earth before man was 
created, but on account of their persistent 
disobedience were driven from it by an 
army of angels. When Adam was 
created, and God commanded all to wor- 
ship him, Aza.zel insolently made answer, 
' ' Me hast Thou created of fire, and him 
of earth : why should I worship him ? " 
Whereupon God changed the jinnee into 
a devil, and called him Iblis or Despair. 
In hell he was made the standard-bearer 
of Satan's host. 

His mighty standard ; that proud honour claimed 
Azizel as his right. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 534 (1663). 

Azla, a suttee, the young widow of 
Ar'valan, son of Keha'ma. Southcy : 
Curse of Kehama, i. lo (1809). 

Az'o, husband of Parisi'na. He was 
marquis d'Este, of Ferrara, and had 
already a natural son, Hugo, by Bianca, 
who died of a broken heart because she 
was not made his bride. Hugo was 
betrothed to Parisina before she married 
the marquis, and after she became his 
mother-in-law they loved on still. One 
night Azo heard Parisina in sleep express 
her love for Hugo, and the angry marquis 
condemned his son to death. Although 
he spared his bride, no one ever knew 
what became of her. Byron : PaHsina. 

Az'rael (3 syl.), the angel of death 
(called Raphael in the Gospel of Barna' 
bas). A I Koran, 


Az'tecas, nn Indian tribe, which con- 
quered the Hoamen (2 j>'/.), seized their 
territory, and estabhshed themselves on 
a southern branch of the Missouri, having 
Az'tlan as their imperial city. When 
Madoc conquered the Aztccas in the 
twelfth century, he restored the Hoa- 
men, and the Aztccas migrated to Mexico. 
Sou they: Mudoc {iSos). 

' . Cortez conquered Mexico, and ex- 
tirpated the Aztecs in 1520. 

Az'tlan, the imperial city of the 
Az'tecas, on a southern branch of the 
Missouri. It belonged to the Hoamen {2 
syl.), but this tribe being conquered by 
the Aztecas, the city followed the fate of 
war. When Madoc led his colony to 
North America, he took the part of the 
Hoamen, and, conquering the Aztccas, 
restored the city and all the territory 
pertaining thereto to the queen Erill'yab, 
and the Aztecas migrated to Mexico. The 
city Aztlan is described as " full of 
palaces, gardens, groves, and houses " (in 
the twelfth century). Southey : Madoc 

Azuce'na, a gipsy. Manri'co is sup- 
posed to be her son, but is in reality the 
son of Garzia (brother of the conte di 
\j\xn2i). Verdi : II Trovato'ri [i%S3)- 

Azyoru'ca (4 syl. ), queen of the snakes 
and dragons. She resides in Patala, or the 
infernal regions. HindQ. Mythology. 

There Azyoruca veiled her awful form 
In those eternal shadows. There she sat, 
And as the trembling souls who crowd around 
The judgment-seat received the doom of fate, 
Her giant arms, extending from the cloud. 
Drew tliem within the darkness. 

Southey: Curse of Kehama, xxiii. is (1809), 


Baal, plu. Baalim, a general name 
for all the Syrian gods, as Ash'taroth was 
for the goddesses. The general version 
of the legend of Baal is the same as that 
of Adonis, Thammuz, Osiris, and the 
Arabian myth of El Khouder. All alle- 
gorize the sun, six months above and six 
months below the equator. As a title of 
honour, the word Baal, Bal, Bel, etc., 
enters into a large number of Phoenician 
and Carthaginian proper names, as Hanni- 
bal, Hasdru-bal, I3el-shazzar, etc. 

. . . [the] general 
Of Baalim and Ashtaroth : those male ; 
These female. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 422 (1665). 


Baalbec of Ireland, Kilmallock \% 
Limerick, noted for its ruins. 

Bab [Lady], a waiting-maid on a lady 
so called, who assumes the airs with the 
name and address of her mistress. Her 
fellow-servants and other servants address 
her as " lady Bab," or " Your ladyship." 
She is a fine wench, " but by no means 
particular in keeping her teeth clean." 
She says she never reads but one " book, 
which is Shikspur." And .she calls 
Lovcl and Freeman, two gentlemen of 
fortune, "downright hottenpots." Rev. 
y. Townley : High Life Below Stairs 

Bal^a, chief of the eunuchs in the 
court of the sultana Gulbey'az. Byron : 
Don Juan, v. 28, etc. (i8io). 

Baba [AH), who relates the story of 
the "Forty Thieves" in the Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments. He discovered 
the thieves' cave while hiding in a tree, 
and heard the magpie word, "Ses'ame," at 
which the door of the cave opened and 

Cassim Baba, brother of Ali Baba, who 
entered the cave of the forty thieves, but 
forgot the pass-word, and stood crying, 
" Open, Wheat ! " " Open, Barley 1 " to the 
door, which obeyed no sound but " Open, 
Sesame ! " 

Baba Mus'tapba, a cobbler who 
sev/ed together the four pieces into which 
Cassim's body had been cleft by the forty 
thieves. When the thieves discovered 
that the body had been taken away, they 
sent one of the band into the city, to 
ascertain who had died of late. The man 
happened to enter the cobbler's stall, and 
falling into a gossip, heard about the body 
which the cobbler had sewed together. 
Mustapha pointed out to him the house 
of Cassim Baba's widow, and the thief 
marked it with a piece of white chalk. 
Next day the cobbler pointed out the 
house to another, who marked it with 
red chalk. And the day following he 
pointed it out to the captain of the band, 
who, instead of marking the door, studied 
the house till he felt sure of recognizing 
it. Arabian Nights ("Ali Baba, or The 
Forty Thieves"). 

Bababalouk, chief of the black 
eunuchs, \\hose duty it was to wait on the 
sultan, to guard the sultanas, and to 
superintend the harem. Hahesci: State 
of the Ottojnan Empire, 155, 156. 

Ba'bel [' ' confusion "]. There is a town 
in Abyssinia called Hahzh, the Arabic 



word for "confusion." This town is so 
called from the great diversity of races 
by which it is inliabited : Cliristians, 
Jews, and Mohammedans, Ethiopians, 
Arabians, Falashas [exiles), Gallas, and 
Negroes, all consort together there. 

Babes in the Wood, insurrec- 
tionary hordes which infested the moun- 
tains of Wicklow and the woods of 
Enniscarthy towards the close of the 
eighteenth century, (See Children in 
THE Wood.) 

Babie, old Alice Gray's servant-girl. 
Sir W. Scott : Bride of Lammer)}toor 
(time, William III.). 

Babie'ca (3 syl. ), the Cid's horse. 

I learnt to prize Babieca from his head unto his hoof. 
The Cid (1128). 

Baboon [Philip), Philippe Bourbon, 
due d'Anjou, 

Lewis Baboon, Louis XIV., "a false 
loon of a grandfather to Philip duke of 
Anjou, and one that might justly be called 
a Jack-of-all-trades." 

Sometimes you would see this Lewis Baboon behind 
his counter, selling broad-cloth, sometimes measuring- 
linen ; next day he would be dealing in mercery-ware ; 
high heads, ribbons, gloves, fans, and lace, he under- 
stood to a nicety . . , nay, he would descend to the 
selling of tapes, garters, and shoe-buckles. AVhen shop 
was shut up, he would go about the neighbourhood, 
and earn half-a-crown, by teaching the young men and 
maidens to dance. By these means he had acquired 
immense riches, which he used to squander away at 
back-sword \in 7var], quarter-staff, and cudgel-play, 
isi which he took great pleasure. Dr. Arbulhnot : 
History 0/ yohn Bull, ii. (1712). 

Bab'ylon. Cairo in Egypt was so 
called by tlie crusaders. Rome was so 
called by the puritans ; and London was, 
and still is, so called by some, on account 
of its wealth, luxury, and dissipation. 
The reference is to Rzv. xvii. and xviii. 

Babylonian Wall. The foundress 
of this wall (two hundred cubits high, 
and fifty thick) was SemirSmis, mythic 
foundress of the Assyrian empire. She 
was the daughter of the fish-goddess 
Der'ceto of AscAlon, and a Syrian youth. 

Our statues . . , she 

The foundress of the Babylonian wall. 

Temiyson : The Pritucss, ii. 

Bacbuc or Babouc, the oracle of 
the "Holy Bottle of Lanternland. " 
Rabelais: Pantagruel. 

Bacchan'tes (3 syl.), priestesses of 

Round about him [Bacchus] fair Bacchantes, 
Bearing cymbals, flutes, and thyrses. 

Wild from Naxian groves, or Zante's 
Vineyards, sing delirious verses. 

Longfellcrw : Drinking Song. 

Bacchos, in the Lusiad, an epic 

poem by Camoens (1569), is the personi- 
fication of the evil principle which acts in 
opposition to Jupiter, the lord of Destiny. 
Mars is made by the poet the guardian 
power of Christianity, and Bacchus of 

Bacharach {Back-a-rack\ a red 
wine, so called from a town of the same 
name in the Lower Palatinate. Pope Pius 
II. used to import a tun of it to Rome 
yearly, and Nuremberg obtained its free- 
dom at the price of four casks of it a-year. 
The word Bacharach means " the altar of 
Bacchus " [Bacchiara), the altar referred to 
being a rock in the bed of the river, which 
indicated to the vine-growers what sort of 
year they might expect. If the head of 
the rock appeared above water, the season 
would be a dry one, and a fine vintage 
might be looked for ; if not, it would be a 
wet season, and bad for the grapes. 

. . . that ancient town of Bacharach, 
The beautiful town that gives us wine, 
With the fragrant odour of Muscadine. 

Longfellow The Golden Legend. 

Backbite [Sir Benjamin), nephew of 
Crabtree, very conceited and very cen- 
sorious. His friends called him a great 
poet and wit, but he never published any- 
thing, because "'twas very vulgar to 
print ; " besides, as he said, his little pro- 
ductions circulated more "by giving 
copies in confidence to friends." Sheri- 
dan : School for Scandal (1777). 

When I first saw Miss Pope she was performing 
"Mrs. Candour," to Miss Farren's "lady Teazle,' 
King as "sir Peter,' Parsons "Crabtree," Dodd 
"Backbite," Baddeley "Moses," Smith "Charles." 
and John Palmer " Joseph " [Surface]. ya:/j Smith 
Memoirs, etc. 

Bacon of Theology, bishop Butler, 
author of The Analogy of Religion, 
Natural and Revealed, etc. (1692-1752). 

Bacrack. (See Bacharach.) 

Bactrian Sage [The), Zoroas'ter or 
Zerdusht, a native of Bactria, now Balkh 
(B.C. 589-513)- 

Bade'bec (2 syl), wife of Gargantua 
and mother of Pan'tagruel'. She died in 
giving him birth, or rather in giving birth 
at the same time to 900 dromedaries laden 
with ham and smoked tongues, 7 camels 
laden with eels, and 25 waggons full of 
leeks, garlic, onions, and shallots. Ra- 
belais: Pantagruel, ii. 2 (1533). 

Badger ( Will), sir Hugh Robsart's 
favourite domestic. SirW, Scott: Kenil- 
worth (time, Elizabeth). 

Badger [Mr. Bayham), a medical 
practitioner at Chelsea, under whom 
Richard Carstone pursues his studies. 




Mr. Badger was a crisp-looking gentle- 
man, with "surprised eyes ; " very proud 
of being Mrs. Badger's " third," and 
always referring to her former two hus- 
bands, captain Swosscr and professor 
Dingo. C Dickens: Bleak House {1853). 

Badinniet [BacP -en-ga}^, one of the 
many niclcnames of Napoleon III, It 
was the name of the mason in whose 
clothes he escaped from the fortress of 
Ham (1808, 1851-1873), Napoleon's 
party was nicknamed Badingueux ; the 
empress's party was nicknamed Monti- 
joeux and Montijocrisses. 

Ba'don, Bath. The twelfth great 
victory of Arthur over the Saxons was at 
Badon Hill (Bannerdown). 

They sanjr how he himself \_kin2 Arthurl at Badon 

bore that day, 
When at the glorious goal his British sceptre lay. 
Two days together how the battle strongly stood ; 
Pcndragoii's worthy son [/t<'j?''-.4r/Ar] . . . 
Three hundred Saxons slew with his own valiant hand. 
Drayton : Polyolbion, v. (1612). 

Badon'ra, daughter of Gaiour {2 syl. ) 
king of China, the " most beautiful 
woman ever seen upon earth." The em- 
peror Gaiour wished her to marry, but 
she expressed an aversion to wedlock. 
However, one night by fairy influence she 
was shown prince Camaral'zaman asleep, 
fell in love with him, and exchanged 
rings. Next day she inquired for the 
prince, but her inquiry was thought so 
absurd that she was confined as a mad 
woman. At length her foster-brother 
solved the difficulty thus : The emperor 
having proclaimed that whoever cured the 
princess of her [supposed] madness should 
have her for his wife, he sent Camaral- 
zaman to play the magician, and imparted 
the secret to the princess by sending her 
the ring she had left with the sleeping 
prince. The cure was instantly effected, 
and the marriage solemnized with due 
pomp. When the emperor was informed 
that his son-in-law was a prince, whose 
father was sultan of the " Island of the 
Children of Khal'edan, some twenty days' 
sail from the coast of Persia," he was 
delighted with the alliance. Arabian 
Nights (" Camaralzaman and Badoura "). 

Badroiil'boudour, daughter of the 
sultan of China, a beautiful brunette. 
" Her eyes were large and sparkling, her 
expression modest, her mouth small, her 
h'ps vermilion, and her figure perfect." 
She became the wife of Aladdin, but twice 
nearly caused his death ; once by ex- 
changing "the wonderful lamp" for a 
new copper one, and once by giving 

hospitality to the false Fatima. Aladdin 
killed both these magicians. Arabian 
Nights ("Aladdin, or The Wonderful 

Bse'tica or Bsetic Vale, Grana'da 
and Andalusia, or Spain in general. So 
called from the river Baetis or Guadal- 

Wliile o'er the Ba;tic vale 
Or thro' the towers of Memphis \.E,!:ypt\ or the palms 
Hy sacred Ganges watered, I conduct 
The English merchant. 

Akenside: Hymn to the Naiads. 

Bagdad. A hermit told the caliph 
Almanzor that one Moclas was destined 
to found a city on the spot where he was 
standing. "I am that man," said the 
caliph, and he then informed the hermit 
how in his boyhood he once stole a brace- 
let, and his nurse ever after called him 
"Moclas," the name of a well-known 
thief. Marigny. 

Bagsliot, one of a gang of thieves 
who conspire to break into the house of 
Lady Bountiful. Farquhar : The Beaux' 
Stratagem (1705). 

'Ra.^Btock {Major Joe), an apoplectic 
retired military officer, living in Princess's 
Place, opposite to Miss Tox. The major 
had a covert kindness for Miss Tox, and 
was jealous of Mr. Dombey. He speaks 
of himself as " Old Joe Bagstock," "Old 
Joey," "Old J.," " Old Josh," "Rough 
and tough Old Jo," "J. B.," "Old J. B.," 
and so on. lie is also given to over-eat- 
ing, and to abusing his poor native 
servant. C. Dickens: Dombey and Son 

Bah'adar, master of the horse to 
the king of the Magi. Prince Am'giad 
was enticed by a collet to enter the 
minister's house, and when Bahadar 
returned, he was not a little surprised at 
the sight of his uninvited guest. The 
prince, however, explained to him in 
private how the matter stood, and Baha- 
dar, entering into the fun of the thing, 
assumed for the nonce the place of a 
slave. The collet would have murdered 
him, but Amgiad, to save the minister, 
cut off her head. Bahadar, being arrested 
for murder, was condemned to death, but 
Amgiad came forward and told the whole 
truth ; whereupon Bahadar was instantly 
released, and Amgiad created vizier. 
Arabian Nights ("Amgiad and Assad "). 

Baliman [Prince], eldest son of the 
sultan Khrossou-schah of Persia. In 
infancy he was taken from the palace by 
the sultana's sisters, and set adrift on a 




canal ; but being rescued by the superin- 
tendent of the sultan's gardens, he was 
brought up, and afterwards restored to 
the sultan. It was the "talking bird" 
that told the sultan the tale of the young 
prince's abduction. 

Prince Bahman's Knife. When prince 
Bahman started on his exploits, he gave 
to his sister Parizade [^ syl.) a knife, 
saying, "As long as you find this knife 
clean and bright, you may feel assured 
that I am alive and well ; but if a drop 
of blood falls from it, you may know that 
I am no longer alive." Arabian Nights 
(" The Two Sisters," the last tale). 

Bailey, a sharp lad in the service of 
Todger's boarding-house. His ambition 
was to appear quite a full-grown man. 
On leaving Mrs. Todger's, he became the 
servant of Montague Tigg, manager of 
the '"Anglo-Bengalee Company." C. 
Dickens: Martin C/iuzslewit {184^). 

Bailie {Generatj, a parliamentary 
leader. 5?V W. Scott: Legend of Mont- 
rose (time, Charles I. ). 

Bailie {Giles), a gipsy ; father of Ga- 
brael Faa (nephew to Meg Merrilies).^ 
Sir IV. Scott: Guy Mannering (time, 
George II.). 

Bailiff's Daughter of Isliiigtoi? 
(in Norfolk). A squire's son loved the 
bailiff's daughter, but she gave him no 
encouragement, and his friends sent him 
to London, " an apprentice for to binde." 
After the lapse of seven years, the bailiffv 
daughter, "in ragged attire," set out tc- 
walk to London, "her true love to 
inquire." The young man on horseback 
met her, but knew her not. "One penny, 
one penny, kind sir ! " she said. " Where- 
were you born ? " asked the young man. 
"At Islington," she replied. "Then 
prithee, sweetheart, do you know the- 
bailiffs daughter there?" " She's dead, 
sir, long ago." On hearing this the young 
man declared he'd live an exile in some 
foreign land, "Stay, oh stay, thou 
goodly youth," the maiden cried ; "she is 
not really dead, for I am she." " Thei, 
farewell grief and welcome joy, for I have 
found my true love, whom I feared I 
should never see again." Percy: Reliquec 
of English Poetry , ii. 8. 

Baillif [Herry], mine host in the 
Canterbury Tales, by Chaucer (1388). 
When the poet begins the second fit of 
the "Rime of Sir Thopas," mine host 

No mor of this for Goddes dignitie I 
For thou niakest me so wery . , . that 
Mine eeres aken for thy nasty speeche. 

V. 1S327. etc. (1388). 

Bailzon {Ann'aple), the nurse of 
Effie Deans in her confinement. Sir VV. 
Scott : Heai-t of Midlothian (time, George 

Baiser-Lamourette {Lamourette s 
Kissl, a short-lived reconciliation. 

II y avail (20 juin, 1792), scission entre les membres 
de I'Assembl^e. Lamourette les exliorta i se re- 
concilier. Persuades par son discours, ils s'embras- 
rferont les uns les autres. Mais cette rdconciliation ne 
dura pas deux jours; et elle fut bientot ridiculisd sous 
le nom de Baiser-Lantourette. BoiiilUt: Diet. d'Hist., 

Bajar'do, Rinaldo's steed. Ariosto: 
Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Baj'azet, surnamed "The Thunder- 
bolt " \il derim), sultan of Turkey. 
After subjugating Bulgaria, Macedonia, 
Thessaly, and Asia Minor, he laid siege 
to Constantinople, but was taken captive 
by Tamerlane emperor of Tartary. He 
was fierce as a wolf, reckless, and in- 
domitable. Being asked by Tamerlane 
how he would have treated him had their 
lots been reversed, "Like a dog," he 
cried. "I would have made you my 
footstool when I mounted my saddle, 
and, when your services were not needed, 
would have chained you in a cage like 
a wild beast." Tamerlane replied, "Then 
to show you the difference of my spirit, 
I shall treat you as a king." So saying, 
he ordered his chains to be struck off, 
gave him one of the royal tents, and 
promised to restore him to his throne if 
he would lay aside his hostility. Bajazet 
abused this noble generosity ; plotted the 
assassination of Tamerlane ; and bow- 
strung Mone'ses. Finding clemency of 
no use, Tamerlane commanded him to 
be used " as a dog, and to be chained 
in a cage like a v.ild beast." Rowe : 
Tamerlane (a tragedy, 1702). 

. This was one of the favourite parts 
of Spranger Barry (1719-1777) and of 
J. Kemble (1757-1823). 

Bajazet, a black page at St. James's 
Palace. 5z> W. Scott: Peveril of the 
Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Bajura, Mahomet's standard. 

Baker ( The), and the ' ' Baker's Wife." 
Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette were 
so called by the revolutionary party, 
because on the 6th October, 1789, they 
ordered a supply of bread to be given to 
tlie mob which surrounded tlie palace at 
Versailles, clamouring for bread. 




Balaam (2 sjyi.), the earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, one of the rebels in the army of 
the duke of Mommouth. 

And therefore, in the name of dulness, bo 
The wcU-hung lialaam. 
Dryden : Absalom and Achitophel, pt. i. 11. S73, S74- 

Ba'laam, a "citizen of sober fame," 
who hved near the monument of London. 
While poor he was "religious, punctual, 
and frugal ; " but when he became rich 
and got knighted, he seldom went to 
church, became a courtier, " took a bribe 
from France," and was hung for treason. 
Pope : Moral Essays, iii. 

Balaam's Ass. (See Arion, p. 59.) 

Balacla'va, a corruption of bella 
chiare ("beautiful port"), so called by 
the Genoese, who raised the fortress, some 
portions of which still exist. 

Balaclava Chargfe. (See Charge 
OF THE Light Brigade.) 

Balafre [Le), alias Ludovic Lesly, an 
old archer of the Scottish Guard at Plessis 
les Tours, one of the castle palaces of 
Louis XL Le Balafrd is uncle to Quen- 
tin Durward. Sir W. Scott: Quentin 
Dunvard [time, Edward IV.). 

'.* Henri, son of Franpois second 
duke of Guise, was called Le Balafri 
(" the gashed"), from a frightful scar in 
the face from a sword-cut in the battle of 
Dorraans (1575). 

:, in the second part of Dryden 
and Tate's Absalom and Achitophel (line 
395, etc.), was meant for Dr. Burnet, author 
of the History of the Reformation. He 
exceedingly disliked Charles XL ( ' ' David ") ; 
but was made bishop of Salisbury by 
William HL in 1689. He died in 1715, 
in the seventy-second year of his age. 

The Second Part of Absalom and Achitophel (by 
Tate) was published in the autumn of 1682. 

Balam.', the ox on which the faithful 
feed in paradise. The fish is call Nun, 
the lobes of whose hver will suffice for 
70,000 men. 

Balan', brother of Balyn or Balin le 
Savage {q.v.), two of the most valiant 
knights that the world ever produced. 
Sir T. Malory: History of Prince 
Arthur, i. 31 (1470). 

Balan, "the bravest and strongest of 
all the giant race." Am'adis de Gaul 
rescued Gabrioletta from his hands. 
l-'asco de Lobeira: Amadis de Gaul, iv. 
129 (fourteenth century). 

Balance [Justice], the father of Sylvia. 

He had once been in the army, and as he 
had run the gauntlet himself, he could 
make excuses for the \vild pranks of 
young men. G. Farquhar : Tlu Recruit- 
ing Officer (1704). 

Ba'land of Spain, a man of gigantic 
strength, who called himself " Fierabras." 
MedicBval Romance. 

Balchris'tie [Jenny], ihousekeeper to 
the laird of Dumbiedikes. Sir IV. Scott: 
Heart of Midlothian (time, George H.). 

Balcln'tlia, a town belonging to the 
Britons on the river Clyde. It "fell into 
the hands of Comhal (Fingal's father), 
and was burnt to the ground. 

"I have seen the walls of Balclutha," said Fingal, 
"but they were desolate. The fire had resounded in 
the halls: and the voice of the people is heard no 
more . . . The thistle shook there its lonely head : the 
moss whistled in the wind, and the fox looked out 
from the windows." Ossian : Carthon. 

Baldassa're (4 syl.], chief of the 
monastery of St. Jacopo di Compostella. 
Donizetti : La Favorita (1842). 

Bal'dex', the god of light, peace, and 
day, was the young and beautiful son of 
Odin and Frigga. His palace, Briedab- 
lik (" wide-shining"), stood in the Milky 
Way. He was slain by Hoder, the blind 
old god of darkness and night, but was 
restored to life at the general request of 
the gods. Scandinavian Mythology. 

Balder the beautiful 
God of the summer sun. 

Longfellow : Tegnier's Death. 

(Sydney Dobell has a poem entitled ' 
Balder, published in 1854.) 

Bal'derstone [Caleb], the favourite 
old butler of the master of Ravenswood, 
at Wolf's Crag Tower. Being told to 
provide supper for the laird of Bueklaw, 
he pretended that there were fat capon 
and good store in plenty, but all he could 
produce was " the hinder end of a 
mutton ham that had been three times 
on the table already, and the heel of a 
ewe-milk kebbuck \cheese\' (ch. vii.). 
Sir W. Scott: Bride of Lammermoor 
(time, William III.). 

Baldrick, an ancestor of the lady 
Eveline Berenger " the betrothed." He 
was murdered, and lady Eveline assured 
Rose Flammock that she had seen his 
ghost frowning at her. Sir IV. Scott: 
The Betrothed (time, Henry II.). 

Bal'dringham [The lady Ermen- 
garde oj], great-aunt of lady Eveline 
Berenger " the betrothed." Sir IV, 
Scott: The Betrothed [time, Plenry II.). 



BAZiDWIN, the youngest and 
comeliest of Charlemagne's paladins, 
nephew of sir Roland. 

Baldwin, the restless and ambitious 
duke of Bologna, leader of 1200 horse 
m the allied Christian army. He was 
Godfrey's brother, and very like him, but 
not so tall. Tasso: Jerusalem Delivej-ed 

. He is introduced by sir Walter 
Scott in Count Robert of Paris. 

Baldwin. So the Ass is called in the 
beast-epic entitled Reynard tlie Fox (the 
word means " bold friend "). In pt. iii. he 
is called " Dr." Baldwin (1498). 

Bald'win, tutor of Rollo ("the bloody 
brother") and Otto, dukes of Normandy, 
and sons of Sophia. Baldwin was put to 
death by Rollo, because Hamond slew 
Gisbert the chancellor with an axe and 
not with a sword. Rollo said that 
Baldwin deserved death "for teaching 
Hamond no better." Beaumont: The 
Bloody Brother (published 1639). 

Baldwin {Count), a fatal example of 
paternal self-will. He doted on his elder 
son, Biron, but, because he married against 
his inclination, disinherited him, and 
fixed all his love on Carlos his younger son. 
Biron fell at the siege of Candy, and was 
supposed to be dead. His wife Isabella 
mourned for him seven years, and 
being on the point of starvation, applied 
to the count for aid, but he drove her 
from his house like a dog. Villeroy (2 syl. ) 
married her, but Biron returned the 
following day. Carlos, hearing of his 
brother's return, employed ruffians to 
murder him, and then charged Villeroy 
with the crime; but one of the ruffians 
impeached. Carlos was arrested, and 
Isabella, going mad, killed herself. Thus 
was the wilfulness of Baldwin the source of 
infinite misery. It caused the death of his 
two sons, as well as of his daughter-in-law. 
Southern : The Fatal Marriage (1692). 

Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury 
(1184-1190), introduced by sir W. Scott 
in The Betrothed [Xxme, Henry 11, ). 

Baldwin de Oyley, esquire of sir 
Brian de Bois Guilbert ( Preceptor of the 
Knights Templars). Sir VV. Scott : 
Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Balfour [John), of Burley. A leader 
of the Covenanters' army. Disguised for 
a time as Quentin Mackell of Irongray. 
Sir W. Scott: Old Mortality (time, 
Charles II.). 

Balin [Sir), or " Balin le Savage," 
knight of the two swords. He was a 
Northumberland knight, and being taken 
captive, was imprisoned six months by 
king Arthur. It so happened that a 
damsel girded with a sword came to 
Camelot at the time of sir Balin's release, 
and told the king that no man could 
draw it who was tainted with "shame, 
treachery, or guile." King Arthur and 
all his knights failed in the attempt, but 
sir Balin drew it readily. The damsel 
begged him for the sword, but he refused 
to give it to any one. Whereupon the 
damsel said to him, "That sword shall 
be thy plague, for with it shall ye slay 
your best friend, and it shall also prove 
your own death." Then the Lady of the 
Lake came to the king, and demanded the 
sword, but sir Balin cut oft her head with 
it, and was banished from the court. 
After various adventures he came to a 
castle where the custom was for every 
guest to joust. He was accommodated 
with a shield, and rode forth to meet his 
antagonist. So fierce was the encounter 
that both the combatants were slain, but 
Balin lived just long enough to learn that 
his antagonist was his dearly beloved 
brother Balan, and both were buried in 
one \.omh.~Sir T. Malory: History of 
Prince Arthur, i. 27-44 (1470). 

. " The Book of Sir Balin le Savage ' 
is part i. ch, 27 to 44 (both inclusive) of 
sir T. Malory's History of Prince Arthur. 

Balin verno, one of the leaders in 
Agramant's allied army. Ariosto: Or- 
lando Furioso (1516). 

'Z?i!'^Q\{Edward), usurper of Scotland, 
introduced in Redgauntlet, a novel by sir 
W. Scott (time, George II.). 

Ba'liol [Mrs.), friend of Mr. Croft- 
angry, in the introductory chapter of The 
Fair Maid of Perth, a novel by sir W. 
Scott (time, Henry IV.). 

Baliol [Mrs. Arthur Bethune), a lady 
of quality and fortune, who had a house 
called Baliol Lodging, Canongate, Edin- 
burgh. At death she left to her cousin 
Mr. Croftangry two series of tales called 
The Chronicles of Canongate [q.v.), which 
he published. ^'zV W.Scott: The High- 
land Widow (introduction, 1827). 

Baliol College, Oxford, was founded 
(in 1263) by John de Baliol, knight, father 
of Baliol king of Scotland. 

Balisar'da, a sword made in the 
garden of Orgagna by the sorceress 
Faleri'na ; it would cut through even 


enchanted substances, and was given to 
Roge'ro for the express purpose of " deal- 
ing Orlando's death." Ariosto : Orlando 
Furioso, XXV. 15 (1516). 

He knew with Halisarda's lightest blows. 
Nor hehn, nor shield, nor cuirass conld avail. 

Baliverso, the basest knight in tlie 
Saracen army. Ariosto: Orlando Furioso 

Balk or 'Bzi,\'k'h.["loembrace"'\, Omurs, 
surnamed Ghil-Shah ("earth's king"), 
founder of the Paishdadian dynasty. He 
travelled abroad to make himself familiar 
with the laws and customs of other lands. 
On his return he met his brother, and 
built on the spot of meeting a city, which 
he called Balk ; and made it the capital 
of his kingdom. 

Balkis, the Arabian name of the 
queen of Sheba, who went from the South 
to witness the wisdom and splendour of 
Solomon. According to the Koran, she 
was a fire-worshipper. It is said that 
Solomon raised her to his bed and throne. 
She is also called queen of Saba or Aaziz. 
Al Koran, xxvi. (Sale's notes). 

She fancied herself already more potent than Balkis 
and pictured to her imagination the genii falling pros 
trate at the foot of her throne. W. Beck/ord : yathck 

' .' Solomon, being told that her legs 
were covered with hair " like those of an 
ass," had the presence-chamber floored 
with glass laid over running water filled 
with fish. When Balkis approached the 
room, supposing the floor to be water, 
she lifted up her robes and exposed her 
hairy ankles, of which the king had been 
rightly informed. Jallalo 'dinn. 

Balleudi'no {Don Antonio), in Ben 
Jonson's comedy called The Case is 
Altered (1597). Probably intended to 
ridicule Anthony Munday, the dramatist, 
who lived 1554-1633, a voluminous writer. 

Bal'lenkeirocli (Oli), a Highland 
chief and old friend of Fergus M'lvor. 
Sir W. Scott : Waverlejy {time, George 11.). 

Balmun^, the sword of Siegfried, 
forged by Wieland the smith of the 
Scandinavian gods. In a trial of merit, 
Wieland cleft Amilias (a brother smith) 
to the waist ; but so fine was the cut that 
Amilias was not even conscious of it till 
he attempted to move, when he fell 
asunder into two pieces. Nibebmgen 

Balni-Barbi, the land of projectors, 
visited by Gulliver. Swift: Gullivers 
Travels (1726). 


Balrud'dery( The laird of), a relation 
of Godfrey Bertram, laird of Ellangowan. 
Sir IV. Scott: Guy Mannering (time, 
George II.). 

Balsam of Fierabras. "This 
famous balsam," said don Quixote, "only 
costs three rials [about sixpence] for three 
quarts." It was the balsam with whicli 
tlie body of Christ was embalmed, and was 
stolen by sir Fierabras \^Fe-d' .ra-braH\. 
Such was its virtue, that one single drop 
of it taken internally would instantly heal 
the most ghastly wound. 

" It is a balsam of balsams ; it not only heals all 
wounds, but even defies death itself. If thou should'st 
see my body cut in two, friend Sancho, by some 
unlucky backstroke, you must carefully pick up that 
half of me which falls on the ground, and clap it upon 
the other half before the blood congeals, then give me 
a draught of the balsam of Fierabras, and you will 
presently see me as sound as an orange." Cervantes : 
Don Quixote, I. ii. a 1605). 

BALTHA'ZAK>, a merchant, in 
Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors (1593). 

Baltha'zar, a name assumed by 
Portia, in Shakespeare's Merchant of 
Venice (1598). 

Baltha'zar, servant to Romeo, in 
Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (1597). 

Baltlia'zar, servant to don Pedro, in 
Shakespeare's Much Ado about Nothing 

Baltlia'zar, one of the three "kings " 
shown in Cologne Cathedral as one of the 
" Magi " led to Bethlehem by the guiding 
star. The word means "lord of treasures." 
The names of the other two are Melchior 
("king of light"), and Caspar or Caspar 
("the white one"). Klopstock, in The 
Messiah, makes six "Wise Men," and 
none of the names are like these three. 

Baltliazar, father of Juliana, Vo- 
lantS, and Zam'ora. A proud, peppery, 
and wealthy gentleman. His daughter 
Juliana married the duke of Aranza ; his 
second daughter, Volante (3 syl.), married 
the count Montalban ; and Zamora mar- 
ried signor Rinaldo. J. T'obin: The 
Honeymoon (1804). 

Baltic {The Battle of the), ^ lyric by 
Thomas Campbell (1809). This battle 
(April 10, 1801) was in reality the bom- 
bardment of Copenhagen by lord Nelson 
and admiral Parker. In their engage- 
ment with the Danish fleet, 18 out of 23 
ships of the line were taken and destroyed 
by the British. The poem says 

Of Nelson and the North 
Sing the glorious day's renowOb 




When to battle fierce came forth 
All the mi{,'lit of Denmark's crown . . 

It was 10 of April morn . . . 
[When fell the Danes] in Elsinore. 

Salue [Cardinal), in the court of 
Louis XI. of P'rance (1420-1491), intro- 
duced by sir W. Scott in Qucntin Dur- 
ward (time, Edward IV.). 

Balugantes (4 syl), leader of the 
men from Leon, in Spain, and in alliance 
with Agramant. Ariosto : Orlando Fu- 
rioso {1516). 

Balveny [Lord), kinsman of the earl 
of Douglas. 5?> W. Scott: Fair Maid 
of Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Balwhidder \Bat -wither], a Scotch 
presbyterian pastor, filled with all the 
old-fashioned national prejudices, but 
sincere, kind-hearted, and pious. _ Heis 
garrulous and loves his joke, but is quite 
ignorant of the world, being "in it but 
not of it." Gait: Annals of the Parish 

The Rev. Micah Bahvhidder is a fine representation 
of the primitive Scottish pastor; diligent, blameless, 
loyal, and exemplary in his life, but without the fiery 
zeal and "kirk-filling eloquence " of the supporters of 
the Covenant. i2. Chambers: English LiUratiire, ii. 

Baly, one of the ancient and gigantic 
kings of India, who founded the city 
called by his name. He redressed 
wrongs, upheld justice, was generous and 
truthful, compassionate and charitable, 
so that at death he became one of the 
judges of hell. His city in time got 
overwhelmed with the encroaching ocean, 
but its walls were not overthrown, nor 
were the rooms encumbered with the 
weeds and alluvial of the sea. One day 
a dwarf, named Vamen, asked the mighty 
monarch to allow him to measure three 
of his own paces for a hut to dwell in. 
Baly smiled, and bade him measure out 
what he required. The first pace of tlie 
dwarf compassed the whole earth, the 
second the whole heavens, and the third 
the infernal regions. Baly at once per- 
ceived that the dwarf was Vishnft, and 
adored the present deity. Vishnu made 
the king "Governor of Pad'alon " or 
hell, and permitted him once a year to 
revisit the earth, on the first full moon of 

Baly built 
A ity, like the cities of the gods. 
Being like a god himself. For many an age 
Hatli ocean warred against liis palaces. 
Till overwhelmed they lie beneath the waves. 
Not overthrown. 

SoutJuy : Curse of Kchatna, xv. i (1809). 

Bampton Lectvxres ( The), founded 
by John Bampton, canon of Salisbury, 

who died in 1751. These lectures were 
designed to confirm the Catholic faith and 
confute heresies. The first of the series 
was delivered in 1780. 

Ban, king of Benwick \Brittany\ 
father of sir Launcelot, and brother of 
Bors king of Gaul. This " shadowy king 
of a still more shado^vy kingdom " came 
over with his royal brother to the aid of 
Arthur, when, at the beginning of his 
reign, the eleven kings leagued against 
him (pt. i. 8). 

Yonder I see the most valiant knight of the world, 
and the man of most renown ; for such two brethren as 
are king Ban and king Bors are not living. Sir T, 
Malory : History oj" Prince Arthur, L 14 (1470). 

Ban'agfher, a town in Ireland, on the 
Shannon (King's County). It formerly 
sent two members to parliament, and was 
a pocket borough. When a member 
spoke of a rotten borough, he could de- 
vise no stronger expression than That 
beats Banagher, which passed into a 
household phrase. 

Banastar [Humfrey), brought up by 
Henry duke of Buckingham, and ad- 
vanced by him to honour and wealth. 
He professed to love the duke as his 
dearest friend ; but when Richard III. 
offered ;!^icoo reward to any one who 
would deliver up the duke, Banastar 
betrayed him to John Mitton, sheriff of 
Shropshire, and he was conveyed to Salis- 
bury, where he was beheaded. The ghost 
of the duke prayed that Banaster's eldest 
son, "reft of his wits might end his life 
in a pigstye ; " that his second son might 
" be drowned in a dyke " containing less 
than "half a foot of water;" that his 
only daughter might be a leper ; and that 
Banaster himself might "live in death 
and die in life." Sackville: A Mirrour 
for Magistraytes ("The Complaynt," 

Banlsergf [The bishop of), introduced 
in Donnerhugel's narrative. Sir IV. Scott: 
Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.). 

Eaxxbury Cheese. Bardolph calls 
Slender a "Banbury cheese" [Merry 
Wives of Windsor, act i. sc. i) ; and in 
Jack Drum's Entertainment we read, 
' ' You are like a Banbury cheese, nothing 
but paring." The Banbury cheese 
alluded to was a milk cheese, about an 
inch in thickness. 

Bandy - legg-ed, Armand Gouff^ 
(1775-1845), also called Le panard du 
dix-ncuvibme sihcle. He was one of the 
founders of the " Caveau moderne." 


Bane of the Land [Landschadcn], 
tlie name given to a German robber- 
knight on account of his reckless depre- 
dations on his neighbours' property. He 
was placed under the ban of the empire 
for his offences. 

Bangfo'rian Controversy, a theo- 
logical paper-war begun by Dr. Hoadly, 
bisliop of Bangor, the best reply being by 
Law. The subject of this controversy 
was a sermon preached before George L, 
on the text, " My kingdom is not of this 
world " (1717). 

Banks, a farmer, the great terror of 
old mother Sawyer, the witch of Edmon- 
ton. The Witch of Edmonton (by J^ow- 
ley, Dekker, and Ford, 1658). 

Banks o' Yarrow [The), a 
"Scotch" ballad, describing how two 
brothers-in-law designed to fight a duel 
on the banks of Yarrow, but one of them 
laid an ambush and slew the other. The 
anguish of the widow is the chief charm 
of the ballad. 

Ban'natyne Club, a literary club 
which takes its name from George Ban- 
natyne. It was instituted in 1823 by sir 
Walter Scott, and had for its object the 
publication of rare works illustrative of 
Scottish history, poetry, and general 
literature. The club was dissolved in 

Bannockbnrn (in Stirling), famous 
for the great battle between Bruce and 
Edward II., in which the English army 
was totally defeated, and the Scots re- 
gained their freedom (June 24, 1314). 

Departed spirits of the miglity dead ! . . . 
Oh 1 once again to Freedom's cause return 
The patriot Tell, the Bruce of Bannockburn. 

Campbell: Pleasures of HoJ>e, L (1799). 

Banquo, a Scotch general of royal 
extraction, in the time of Edward tha 
Confessor. He was murdered at the in- 
stigation of king Macbeth, but his so^ 
Fleance escaped, and from this Fleanco 
descended a race of kings who filled the 
throne of Scotland, ending with James 7v 
of England, in whom were united tb? 
two crowns. It was the ghost of Banquo 
which haunted Macbeth. The witches 
on the blasted heath hailed Banquo as- 

(i) I-esser than Macbeth, and greater. 

(2) Not so liappy, yet much happier. 

(3) Thou slialt get kings, though thou be none. 

Sliukespeare: Alacbeih, act i. so. 3 (i6o6>, 

(Historically, no such person as Banq&.- 
evcr existed, and therefore Fleance wju 
uot the ancestor of the house of Stuart.i 


Ban'sbee. (See Benshee.) 

Bantam [An^elo Cyrus), grand-mastef 
of the ceremonies at " Ba-ath," and a 
very mighty personage in the opinion of 
the dlite of Bath. C. Dickens: The Pick- 
wick Papers [iZ^''^). 

Bantingf. Doing BantingmG:\.x\s living 
by regimen for the sake of reducing 
SLiperliuous fat. William Banting, an 
undertaker, was at one time a very fat 
man, but he resolved to abstain from 
beer, farinaceous foods, and all vege- 
tables, his chief diet being meat (1796- 

Bap, a contraction of Bap' hornet, i.e. 
Mahomet. An imaginary idol or symbol 
which the Templars were accused of em- 
ploying in their mysterious religious 
rites. It was a small human figure cut 
in stone, with two heads, one male and 
the other female, but all the rest of the 
figure was female. Specimens still exist. 

Bap'tes (2 syl.), priests of the god- 
dess Cotytto, whose midnight orgies 
were so obscene as to disgust even the 
very goddess of obscenity. (Greek, bap/o, 
"to baptize," because these priests bathed 
themselves in the most effeminate man- 
ner.) Juvenal: Satires, ii. 91. 

Baptis'ta, a rich gentleman of 
Padua, father of Kathari'na " the shrew" 
and Bianca. Shakespeare: Taming of the 
Shrew (1594), 

Baptist! Damiotti, a Paduan quack, 
who shows in the enchanted mirror a 
picture representing the clandestine mar- 
riage and infidehty of sir Philip Forester. 
Sir W. Scott: Aunt Alargaret's Mirror 
(time, William III.). 

Bar of Gold. A bar of gold above 
the instep is a mark of sovereign rank in 
the women of the families of the deys, 
and is worn as a " crest " by their female 

Around, as princess of her father's land, 
A hke gold bar, above her instep rolled. 
Announced her rank. 

Byron: Don yuan, iii. 72 (1820). 

Bar'abas, the faithful servant of 
Ralph deLascours, captain of the UranHa. 
His favourite expression is " I am afraid ; " 
but he always acts most bravely when he 
is afraid. (See Barrabas.) ^. Stirling: 
The Orphan of the Frozen Sea (1856). 

Bar'adas [Count), the king's fa- 
vourite, first gentleman of the chamber, 
and one of the conspirators to detl^rone 
Louis XI II., kill Richelieu, and place the 




due d'Orldans on the throne of France. 
Baradas loved Julie, but Julie married the 
chevalier Adrien de Mauprat. When 
Richelieu fell into disgrace, the king 
made count Baradas his chief minister ; 
but scarcely had he done so when a 
despatch was put into his hand, reveal- 
ing the conspiracy, and Richelieu ordered 
the instant arrest of the conspirator. 
LordLytion: Richelieu [i^^g). 

Barak el Hadgi, the fakir', an 
emissary from the court of Hyder Ali. 
Sir W. Scoti: The Surgeon's Daughter 
(time, George II.). 

Barata'ria, the island-city over which 
Sancho Panza was appointed governor. 
The table was presided over by Dr. Pedro 
Rezio de Ague'ro, who caused every dish 
set before the governor to be whisked 
away without being tasted, some be- 
cause they heated the blood, and others 
because they chilled it, some for one evil 
effect, and some for another, so that 
Sancho was allowed to eat nothing. 

Sancho then arrived at a town containingr about a 
thousand inhabitants. They grave him to understand 
that it was called the Island of i5arataria, either because 
Barataria was really the name of the place, or because 
he obtained the government barato, i.e. " at a cheap 
rate." On his arrival near the gates of the town, tlie 
municipal officers came oiit to receive him. Presently 
after, with certain ridiculous ceremonies, they pre- 
sented him with the keys of the town, and constituted 
him perpetual governor of the island of Barataria. 
Cervantes: Don Quixote, II. iii. 7, etc. (1615). 

Barbara Allan, a ballad by Allan 
Ramsay {1724) ; inserted in Percy's 
Reliques. The tale is that sir John 
Orehme was dying out of love to Barbara 
Allan. Barbara went to see him, and, 
drawing aside the curtain, said, " Young 
man, I think ye're dyan'." She then left 
him ; but had not gone above a mile or 
so when she heard the death-bell toll. 

O mithcr, mither, mak' my bed . . . 
Since my love died for me to-day, 
Ise die for him to-morrow. 

Barbarossa [" red beard"\ surname 
of Frederick I. of Germany (1121-1190). 
It is said that he never died, but is still 
sleeping in Kyff hauserberg in Thuringia. 
There he sits at a stone table with his six 
knights, waiting the "fulness of time," 
when he will come from his cave to 
rescue Germany from bondage, and give 
her the foremost place of all the world. 
His beard has ahready grown through the 
table-slab, but must wind itself thrice 
round the table before his second advent. 
^See Mansur, Charlemagne, Arthur, 
Desmond, Sebastian I., to whom 
similar legends are attributed.) 

Like Barbarossa, who sits in a cave. 
Taciturn, sombre, sedate, and grave. 

Lonsfellow: The Golden Legend. 

\ Ogier the Dane, one of Charle- 
magne's paladins, was immured with his 
crown in a vault at Cronenberg Castle, 
till his beard grew through a stone table, 
which was burst in two when he raised 
his head upon the spell being dissolved. 
Torfxns: History of Norway, vol. i. bk. 8. 

Barbarossa, a tragedy by John 
Brown. This is not Frederick Barbarossa, 
the emperor of Germany (1121-1190), but 
Horuc Barbarossa, the corsair (1475- 
1519). He was a regenade Greek, of 
MitylenS, who made himself master of 
Algeria, which was for a time subject to 
Turkey. He killed the Moorish king; 
tried to cut off Selim the son, but without 
success ; and wanted to marry Zaphi'ra, 
the king's widow, who rejected his suit 
with scorn, and was kept in confinement 
for seven years. Selim returned unex- 
pectedly to Algiers, and a general rising 
took place ; Barbarossa was slain by the 
insurgents ; Zaphira was restored to the 
throne ; and Selim lier son married IrenS 
the daughter of Barbarossa {1742). 

BarTiary {St.), the patron saint ot 
arsenals. When her father was about to 
strike oiT her head, she was killed by a 
flash of lightning. 

Bar'bary {Roan), the favoiu-ite horse 
of Richard II. 

Bolingbroke rode on roan Barbary, 
Thnt horse that thou so often hast bestrid 1 
Shakespeare : Richard 11. act v. sc. s (1597). 

Bar'bason, the name of a demon 
mentioned in The Merry Wives of Wind- 
sor, act ii. sc. 2 (1596). 

I am not Barbason; yoix cannot conjure me. Shake- 
tpeare: Henry K act li. sc. i (1599)- 

Barco'chebali, an antichrist. 

Shared the fall of the antichrist Barcochebah. ^^f- 
fessor SeliuiJi: Ecce Homo. 

Bard {The), a Pindaric ode by Gray 
(1757), founded on a tradition that Edward 
I., having conquered Wales, ordered all 
its bards to be put to death. A bard is 
supposed to denounce the king, and pre- 
dict the evil which would befall his race, 
which would be superseded by the Tudors, 
"the genuine kings" of Britain; when 
Wales will give us iilizabeth, " the glory " 
of the world; and a futiure dazzUng to 
"his aching sight," 

Bard of Avon, Shakespeare, born and 
buried at Stratford-upon-Avon( 1564-1616). 
Also called the Bard of all Times. 

N.B. Beaumont also died in 1616. 


Bard of Ayrshire, Robert Burns, a 
native of Ayrshire (1759-1796). 

Bard of Hope, Thomas Campbell, 
author of The Pleasures of Hope (1777- 

Bard of the Imagination, Mark Aken- 
side, author of The Pleasures of tlie Im- 
agination (1721-1770). 

Bard of Memory, S. Rogers, author of 
The Pleasures of Memory (1762-1855). 

Bard of Olney, W. Cowper [Cw'-//-], 
who lived for many years at Olney, in 
Bucks. (1731-1800). 

Bard of Prose, Boccaccio (1313-1375). 

He of the hundred tales of love. 

Byron: CItUdc Harold, iv. $6 (1818). 

Bard of Rydal Mount, William Words- 
worth, who lived at Rydal Mount ; also 
called the Poet of the Exmrsion, from his 
principal poem (1770-1850). 

Bard of Twickenham, Alexander Pope, 
who lived at Twickenham (1683-1744). 

Bards. The ancient Gaels thought 
that the soul of a dead hero could never 
be happy till a bard had sung an elegy 
over the deceased. Hence when Cairbar, 
the usurper of the throne of Ireland, fell, 
though he was a rebel, a murderer, and a 
coward, his brother Cathmor could not 
endure the thought of his soul being 
unsung to rest. So he goes to Ossian, and 
gets him to send a bard " to give the soul 
of the king to the wind, to open to it the 
airy hall, and to give joy to the darkened 
ghost." Ossian: Temora, \\. 

Bardell [Mrs.), landlady of "apart- 
ments for single gentlemen" in Goswell 
Street. Here Mr. Pickwick lodged for 
a time. She persuaded herself that he 
would make her a good second husband, 
and on one occasion was seen in his arms 
by his three friends. Mrs. Bardell put 
herself in the hands of Messrs. Dodson 
and Fogg (two unprincipled lawyers), 
who vamped up a case against Mr. Pick- 
wick of ' ' breach of promise, " and obtained 
a verdict against the defendant. Subse- 
quently Messrs. Dodson and Fogg arrested 
their own client, and lodged her in the 
Fleet. Dichens : The Pickwick Papers 

Barde'sanist (4 syl.\ a follower of 
Barde'san, founder of a Gnostic sect in 
the second century. 

Bar'dolpH, corporal of captain sir 
John FalstafF in i and 2 Henry IV. and 
in The Merry Wives of Windsor. In 
Henry V. he is promoted to lieutenant, 
and Nym is corporal. Both are hanged. 


Birdolph is a bravo, but great humorrst ; 
he is a low-bred, drunken swaggerer, 
wholly without principle, and always 
poor. His red, pimply nose is an ever- 
lasting joke with sir John and others- 
Sir John in allusion thereto calls Bardolpl'i 
"The Knight of the Burning Lamp." 
He says to him, "Thou art our admiraT. 
and bearest the lantern in the poop." 
Elsewhere he tells the corporal he had 
saved him a "thousand marks in links 
and torches, walking with him in the night 
betwixt tavern and tavern." Shakespeare. 

We are much of the mind of FalstafTs tailor. ^V"e 
must have better assurance for sir Jolm than Bardolpli's. 

(The reference is to 2 Henry IV. act 1. 
sc. 2. When Falstaflfasks Page, "What 
said Master Dumbleton about the satin 
for my short cloak and slops?" Page 
replies, " He said, sir, you should pro- 
cure him better assurance than Bardolph. 
He . . . liked not the security.") 

Bardon {Hugh), the scout-master in 
the troop of lieutenant Fitzurse. Sir W. 
Scott: Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Barere (2 syl. ), an advocate of Tour 
louse, called "The Anacreon of the 
Guillotine. " He was president of the Con- 
vention, a member of the Constitutional 
Committee, and chief agent in the con- 
demnation to death of Louis XVI. As 
member of the Committee of Public 
Safety, he decreed that "Terror must be 
the order of the day." In the first em^ 
pire Barere bore no public part, but at tire 
restoration he was banished from France, 
and retired to Brussels (1755-1841). 

The filthiest and most spiteful Yahoo was a nobis 
creature compared with Barriire \sic\ of history. 


Bar'gfuest, a goblin armed with teeth 
and claws. It would sometimes set up 
in the streets a most fearful scream in the 
" dead waste and middle of the night." 
The faculty of seeing this monster was 
limited to a few, but those who possessed 
it could by the touch communicate the 
"gift" to others. Fairy Mythology; 
North of England. 

Bar'gulus, an Illyrian robber or 

BargTjlus, Illyriuslatro, de quoestapud Theoporapum 
magfnas opes Uabuit. Cicero: Dc Officiis, ii. ii. 

Baricondo, one of the leaders of the 
Moorish army. He was slain by the 
duke of Clarence. Ariosto : Orlando 
Furioso (1516). 


Barker {Mr.), friend to Sowerberry. 
M?-s. Barker, his wife. IV. B rough: 
A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock. 

Bar 'Iris, the carrier who courted 
[Clara] Peggot'ty, by telling David Cop- 
perfield when he wrote home to say to 
his nurse, " Barkis is willin'." Clara took 
the hint and became Mrs. Barkis. 

He dies when the tide goes out, confirming the super- 
stition that people can't die till the tide goes out, or be 
born till it is in. The last words he utters are " Barkis 
is wy^m'." Dickens : David CoJ>J>erfield, xxx. (1849). 

(Mrs. Quickly says of sir John Falstaff, 
" 'A parted even just between twelve and 
one, e'en at the turning o' the tide." 
Henry V. act ii. sc. 3, 1599.) 

Barlaham and Josapliat, the 

heroes and title of a minnesong, the 
object of which was to show the triumph 
of Christian doctrines over paganism. 
Barlaham is a hermit who converts Josa- 
phat, an Indian prince. This "lay " was 
immensely popular in the Middle Ages, 
and has been translated into every Euro- 
pean language. Rudolf of Ems (a min- 
nesinger, thirteenth century). 

("Barlaham," frequently spelt " Bar- 
laam." The romance was originally in 
Greek, ninth century, and erroneously 
ascribed to John Damascene. There was 
a Latin version in the thirteenth century, 
to which Rudolf was indebted. For plot, 

see JOSAPHAT. ) 

Barley [Bill), Clara's father. Chiefly 
remarkable for drinking rum, and thump- 
ing on the floor. He lived at Chink's 
Barn, Mill-pond Bank. 

His dinner consisted of two mutton-chops, three 
potatoes, some split peas, a little flour, 2 ozs. of butter, 
a pinch of salt, and a lot of black pepper, all stewed 
together, and eaten hot. 

Clara Barley, daughter of the above. 
A "pretty, gentle, dark-eyed girl," who 
marries Herbert Pocket. Dickens: Great 
Expectations (1861). 

Barleycorn {Sir John), Malt-liquor 
personified. His neighbours vowed that 
sir John should die, so they hired ruffians 
to "plough him with ploughs and bury 
him ; " this they did, and afterwards 
" combed him with harrows and thrust 
clods on his head," but did not kill him. 
Then with hooks and sickles they ' ' cut 
his legs off at the knees," bound him like 
a thief, and left him " to wither with the 
wind," but he died not. They now ' ' rent 
him to the heart," and having "mowed 
him in a mow," sent two bravos to beat 
him with clubs, and they beat him so sore 
that "all his flesh fell from his bones," 


but yet he died not. To a kiln they next 
hauled him, and burnt him like a 
martyr, but he survived the burning. 
They crushed him between two stones, 
but killed him not. Sir John bore no 
malice for this ill usage, but did his best 
to cheer the flagging spirits even of his 
worst persecutors. 

'.' This song, from the English 
Dancing-Master (1651), is generally as- 
cribed to Robert Burns, but all that the 
Scotch poet did was slightly to alter 
parts of it. The same may be said of 
" Auld Lang Syne " (see p. 76), " Ca' the 
Yowes," "My Heart is Sair for Some- 
body," "Green grow the Rashes, O!" 
and several other songs, set down to the 
credit of Burns. 

Barlow, the favourite archer of 
Henry VHL He was jocosely created 
by the merry monarch " duke of Shore- 
ditch," and his two companions "marquis 
of Islington" and "earl of Pancras." 

Barlow {Billy), a jester, who fancied 
himself a "mighty potentate." He was 
well known in the east of London, and 
died in Whitechapel workhouse. Some 
of his sayings were really witty, and some 
of his attitudes truly farcical. 

Bar'mecide Feast, a mere dream- 
feast ; an illusion ; a castle in the air. 
Schacabac " the hare-lipped," a man in 
the greatest distress, one day called on the 
rich Barmecide, who in merry jest asked 
him to dine with him. Barmecide first 
washed in hypothetical water, Schacabac 
followed his example. Barmecide then 
pretended to eat of various dainties, , 
Schacabac did the same, and praised them j 
highly, and so the "feast" went on to the 
close. The story says Barmecide was so 
pleased that Schacabac had the good 
sense and good temper to enter into the 
spirit of the joke without resentment, 
that he ordered in a real banquet, at 
which Schacabac was a welcome guest. 
Arabian Nights ("The Barber's Sixth 

Bar'nabas {St. ), a disciple of Gama- 
liel, cousin of St. Mark, and fellow-la- 
bourer with St. Paul. He was martyred 
at Salamis, A.D, 63. St. Barnabas' Day 
is June 11. Acts iv. 36, oj. 

Bar'naby { H^zV^izy), the title and chief 
character of a novel by Mrs. Trollope 
(1839). The widow is a vulgar, pre- 
tentious husband-hunter, wholly witliout 
principle. Widow Barnaby has a sequel 
called The Barnabys in America, or Tlie 




Widow Alarried, a satire on America and 
the Americans (1840). 

Barnaby, an old dance with a quick 

" Bounce ! " cries the port -hole ; out they fly, 
And make the world dance " Barnaby." 

Cotton : yirgil Ti-avestie. 

Barnaby Budge, a half-witted lad. 
whose companion was a raven. He was 
allured into joining the Gordon rioters, and 
was condemned to death, but reprieved. 
Dickens : Barnaby Eudge (1841). (See 


Barnacle, brother of old Nicholas 
Cockney, and guardian of Priscilla 
Tomboy of the West Indies. Barnacle is 
a tradesman of the old school, who thinks 
the foppery and extravagance of the 
" Cockney "school inconsistent with pros- 
perous shop-keeping. Though brusque 
and even ill-mannered, he has good sense 
and good discernment of character. T/ie 
Romp (altered from Bickerstaff s Love in 
the City). 

Barn-burners, ultra-radicals or de- 
sti-uctives, who burnt the barns in order 
to reform social and political abuses. 
These wiseacres were about as sapient 
as the Dutchman who burnt down his 
barns to get rid of the rats which infested 

Barnardine, introduced in the last 
scene of Measure for Measure, but only 
to be reproved by the duke. 

Sirrah, thou art said to have a stubborn soul, 
That apprehends no further than this world, 
And squar'st thy life according'. 
Shakespeare: Measure for Measure, act v. so. x. 

Bame Bisliop {A\ a boy -bishop. 
Barne = a child. 

Barnes (i syl.), servant to colonel 
Mannering, at Woodburne. Sir IV. 
Scott: Gtiy Mannering {iiTXiQ, George II.). 

"Barnevelt {Esdras) Apoth," the 
pseudonym assumed by Pope, when, in 
1715, he published a Key to his RaJ>e of the 

Barney, a repulsive Jew, who waited 
on the customers at the low public-house 
frequented by Fagin and his associates. 
Barney always spoke through his nose. 
Dickens : Oliver Twist (1837). 

Barn'stable (Lieutenant), in the 
British navy, in love with Kate Plowden, 
niece of colonel Howard of New York. 
The alliance not being approved of, Kate 
is removed from England to America, 

but Barnstable goes to America to dis- 
cover her retreat. In this he succeeds, 
but, being seized as a spy, is commanded 
by colonel Howard to be hung to the 
yardarm of an American frigate called the 
Alacrity. Scarcely is the young man led 
off, when the colonel is informed that 
Barnstable is his own son, and he arrives 
at the scene of execution just in time to 
save him. Of course after this he marries 
the lady of his affection. E. Fitzball : 
Tlie Pilot (a burletta). 

Barnwell [George), the chief character 
and title of a tragedy by George Lillo. 
George Barnwell is a London apprentice, 
who falls in love with Sarah Millwood of 
Shoreditch, who leads him astray. He 
first robs his master of ;^2oo. He next 
robs his uncle, a rich grazier at Ludlow, 
and murders him. Having spent all the 
money of his iniquity, Sarah Millwood 
turns him off and informs against him. 
Both are executed (1732). 

.* For many years this play was acted 
on boxing-night, as a useful lesson to 
London apprentices. 

A g-entleman . . . called one day on David Ross (1728- 
1790; the actor, and told him his father, who lay at the 
point of death, greatly desired to see him. When the 
actor was at the bed-side, the dying man said, "Mr. 
Ross, some forty years ago, like 'George Barnwell,' 
I wronged my master to supply the unbounded 
extravagance of a 'Millwood.' I took her to see 
your performance, which so shocked me that I vowed 
to break the connection and return to the path of 
virtue. I kept ray resolution, replaced the money I 
had stolen, and found a ' Maria ' in my master's daughter. 
I soon succeeded to my master's business, and have 
bequeathed you ^xooo in my will." Pelham: Chro- 
nicles 0/ Crime. 

Baron (The old English), a romance 
by Clara Reeve (1777). 

Barons (7/^5 Last of the), an historical 
novel by lord Lytton (1843). Supposed 
to be during the time of the "Wars of 
the Roses." The hero is Richard Neville 
earl of Warwick, called the " King- 
Maker," whose downfall is the main gist 
of the story. It is an excellent romance. 

Barons ( Wars of the), an insurrection 
of the barons against Henry III. It 
broke out in 1262, and terminated in 
1265, when Simon de Montfort was slain 
n the battle of Evesham. 

. Sometimes the uprising of the barons 
(1215-1216) to compel king John to sign 
Magna Charta, is called "The Barons' 
War," or "The War of the Barons." 

Bar'rabas, the rich "Jew of Malta." 
He is simply a human monster, who kills 
in sport, poisons whole nunneries, and 
invents infernal machines. Shakespeare's 



"Shylock" has a humanity in the very 
whirlwind of his resentment, but Mar- 
lowe's " Barrabas " is a mere ideal of 
that "thing" which Christian prejudice 
once deemed a Jew. (See Barabas, 
p. 87. ) Marlowe : The Jew of Malta 

Bar'rabas, the famous robber and 
murderer set free instead of Christ by 
desire of the Jews. Called in the New 
Testament Barab'bas. Marlowe calls the 
word " Barrabas " in his Jew of Malta ; 
and Shakespeare says 

Would any of the stock of Bar'rabas 
Had been her husband, rather than a Christian ! 
Merchant 0/ yenice, act iv. sc. i (1598). 

Barry Cornwall, the pseudonym 
of Bryan Waller Procter, It is an im- 
perfect anagram of his name (1788- 

Barsad [John), alias Solomon Pross, 
a spy. 

He had an aquiline nose, but not straight, having a 
peculiar inclination towards the left cheek ; expression, 
tlierefore, sinister. Dickens: A Tale of Two Citie 
ii. 16 (1839). 

Barsis'a {Santon), in The Guardian, 
the basis of the story called The Monk, by 
M. G. Lewis (1796). 

Barston, alias captain Fenwicke, a. 
Jesuit and secret correspondent of the 
countess of Derby. Sir W. Scott; 
Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Barthoromew {Brother), guide of 
the two Philipsons on their way to Stras- 
burg. Sir IV. Scott: Anne of Geier stein 
(time, Edward IV.). 

Barthol'oniew {St.). His day is 
August 24, and his symbol a knife, in 
allusion to the knife with which he is 
said to have been flayed alive. 

Barfcholomew Pair, a comedy by 
Ben Jonson (1614). It gives a good 
picture of the manners and amusements 
of the times. 

Bartliolomew Massacre. The 

great slaughter of the French huguenots 
I Protestants'] in the reign of Charles IX., 
begun on St. Bartholomew's Eve, 1572, 
In this persecution we are told some 
30,000 persons were massacred in cool 
blood. Some say more than double that 

Bartholomew Pi^s. Nares says 
these pigs were real animals roasted and 
sold piping hot in the Smithfield fair. 
Dr. Johnson thinks they were the " tidy 

boar-pigs" made of flour with currants 
for their eyes. Falstafi:" calls himself 

A little tidy Bartholomew boar-pig. 
Shakespeare : a Henry /K act ii. sc. 4(1598). 

Bartoldo, a rich old miser, who died 
of fear and want of sustenance. Fazio 
rifled his treasures, and, at the accusation 
of his own wife, was tried and executed. 
Dean Milman : Fazio (1815). 

Bartole (2 syl.), a French lawyer of 
the fourteenth century, whose authority 
amongst French barristers is equal to that 
of Blackstone in our own courts. Hence 
the French proverb. He kiiows his " Bar- 
tole " as well as a cordelier his " Dormi." 
The Dormi is an anonymous compilation 
of sermons, for the use of the cordeliers, or 
preaching monks. 

Bartole, or Bartolus of Sasso-Ferrato, in Umbria 
(1313-1356), practised law in Pisa and Perouse. ilis 
great book was Cormnentaries on the Corpus Juris 
Ciinlis. Bartole was called *' The Coryphoeus of the 
Interpreters of Law." 

Bartole or Bartoldo, a man who 

sees nothing in anything, quite used up. 
This is not the lawyer referred to above, 
but Bartoldo or Bartole, the hero of an 
Italian tale by CrocS, and very popular in 
the early part of the seventeenth century. 
This Bartoldo was a comedian by profes- 
sion, and replies to everything, "I see 
nothing in it." He treats kings and 
princes with no more ceremony than he 
does beggars and sweeps. From this 
character comes the French phrase, Ri' 
solu comme Bartole, "qui veut dire, un 
homme qui rien ne d^concerte." Hilaire 
de Gai. 

Bar'tolus, a covetous lawyer, husband 
of Amaran'ta. Fletcher: The Spanish 
Curate (1622). 

Barton {Sir Andrew), a Scotch sea- 
officer, who had obtained in 151 1 letters 
of marque for himself and his two sons, 
to make reprisals upon the subjects of 
Portugal. The council-board of England, 
at which the earl of Surrey presided, was 
daily pestered by complaints from British 
merchants and sailors against Barton, and 
at last it was decided to put him down. 
Two ships were therefore placed under 
the commands of sir Thomas and sir 
Edward Howard an engagement took 
place, and sir Andrew Barton was slain, 
bravely fighting. A ballad in two parts, 
called " Sir Andrew Barton," is inserted 
in Percy's Reliques, II. ii. 12. 

Barucll. Dites, done, avez-vous lu 
Baruch ? Said ^when a person puts an 
unexpected question, or makes a startling 





proposal. It arose thus : Lafontaine 
went one day with Racine to tenebrcB, and 
was given a Bible. He turned at random 
to the " Prayer of the Jews," in Barucli, 
and was so struck with it that he said 
aloud to Racine, " Dites, done, who was 
this Baruch ? Why, do you know, man, 
he was a fine genius ; " and for some days 
afterwards the first question he asked his 
friends was, Dites, done, Mons. , avez-vous 
lu Baruch i 

Barzillai (3 syl.), the duke of 
Ormond, a friend and firm adherent of 
Charles; II. As Barzillai assisted David 
when he was expelled by Absalom from 
his kingdom, so Ormond assisted Charles 
II. when he was in exile. 

Barzillai, croivned with honours and with years, , . . 
In exile with his gotllike prince he mourned, 
l-or him he suffered, and witli him returned. 

Dryden : Absalom and AchitoJ>/ul, i. 756-763. 

Bas Bleu \_Bah . . .]. A Bas Eleu is 
a book-wise woman. In 1786 Hannah 
More published a poem called " The 
Bas Bleu, or Conversation," in praise of 
the Bas Bleu Club, which met at the 
house of Mrs. Montagu, its foundress. 
The following couplet is memorable 

Basa-Andre, the wild woman, a 
sorceress, married to Basa-Jaun, a sort of 
vampire. Basa-Andre sometimes is a 
sort of land mermaid (a beautiful lady 
who sits in a cave combing her locks with 
a golden comb). (See below. ) 

Basa-Jaun, a wood-sprite, married to 
Basa-Andre, a sorceress. Both hated the 
sound of church-bells. Three brothers 
and their sister agreed to serve him, but 
the wood-sprite used to suck blood from 
the finger of the girl ; and the brothers 
resolved to kill him. This they accom- 
plished. The Basa-Andre induced the 
girl to put a tooth into each of the foot- 
baths of her brothers, and, lo ! they be- 
came oxen. The girl, crossing a bridge, 
saw Basa-Andre, and said if she did not 
restore her brothers she would put her 
into a red-hot oven ; so Basa-Andre told 
the girl to give each brother three blows 
on the back with a hazel wand, and on so 
doing they were restored to their proper 
forms. Rev. IV. Webster: Basijzte Le- 
gends, 49 (1877). 

Bashful Man [The), a comic drama 
by W. T. Moncrieff. Edward Blushing- 
ton, a young man just come into a large 
fortune, was so bashful and shy that life 
was a misery to him. He dined at 

Friendly Hall, and made all sorts of 
ridiculous blunders. His college chum-, 
Frank Friendly, sent word to say that he 
and his sister Dinah, with sir Thomas 
and lady Friendly, would dine with him 
at Blushington House. After a few glasses 
of wine, Edward lost his shyness, made 
a long speech, and became the accepted 
suitor of Dinah Friendly. 

Basil, the blacksmith of Grand Pr^, 
in Acadia (now Nova Scotia), and father 
of Gabriel the betrothed of Evangeline. 
When the colony was driven into exile 
in 1713 by George II., Basil settled in 
Louisiana, and greatly prospered ; but 
his son led a wandering hfe, looking for 
Evangeline, and died in Pennsylvania of 
the plague. Longfellow : Evangeline 

Basil {Count), a drama by Joanna 
Baillie (1802). One of her series on the 


Ba'sile (2 syl), a calumniating, nig- 
gardly bigot in Le Mariage de Figaro, 
and again in Le Barbier dc Seville, both 
by Beaumarchais. "Basi!e"and " Tar- 
tuffe " are the two French incarnations of 
religious hypocrisy. The former is the 
clerical humbug, and the latter the lay 
religious hypocrite. Both deal largely 
in calumny, and trade in slander. 

Basil'ia, an hypothetical island in the 
northern ocean, famous for its amber. 
Mannert says it is the southern extremity 
of Sweden, erroneously called an island. 
It is an historical fact that the ancients 
drew their chief supply of amber from the 
shores of the Baltic. 

Basil'ikon Doron, a collection of 
precepts on the art of government. It 
was composed by James I. of England 
for the benefit of his eldest son, Henry, 
and published in 1599. 

Basilis'co, a bully and a braggart, in 
Soliman and Perseda (1592). Shake- 
speare has made " Pistol" the counter- 
part of " Basilisco." 

Knight, knight, good mother, Dasilisco-like. 
Shakespeare: King yohn, act i. sc. i (1596). 

(That is, "my boasting like Basilisco 
has made me a knight, good mother.") 

Basilisk, supposed to kill with its 
gaze the person who looked on it. Thus 
Henry VI. says to Suffolk, "Come, 
basilisk, and kill the innocent gazer with 
thy sight." 

Nntus in ardente Lydiae basiliscus arena 
Vulnerat aspectu, luminibusque nocet. 





Basilius, a neighbour of Quiteria, 
whom he loved from childhood ; but 
when grown up, the father of the lady 
forbade him the house, and promised 
Quiteria in marriage to Camacho the 
richest man of the vicinity. On their 
way to church they passed Basilius, 
who had fallen on his sword, and all 
thought he was at the point of death. 
He prayed Quiteria to marry him, ' ' for 
his soul's peace," and as it was deemed a 
mere ceremony, they were married in due 
form. Up then started the wounded man, 
and showed that the stabbing was only a 
ruse, and the blood that of a sheep from 
the slaughter-house. Camacho gracefully 
accepted the defeat, and allowed the pre- 
parations for the general feast to proceed. 

Basilius is strong and active, pitches the bar ad- 
mirably, wrestles with amazing dexterity, and is an 
excellent cricketer. He runs like a buck, leaps like a 
wild goat, and plays at skittles like a wizard. Then he 
has a fine voice for singing, he touches the guitar so as 
to malce it speak, and handles a foil as well as any 
fencer in Spain. Cervanies ; Von Quixote, II. ii. 4 

Baskerville {A), an edition of the 
New Testament and Latin classics, 
brought out by John Baskerville, a famous 
printer (1706-1775). 

Basket. Paul escaped from Damascus 
by being "let down over the wall in a 
basket" [Acts ix. 25). Caroloscadt, the 
image-breaker, in 1524, escaped his per- 
secutors at Rotenburg, by ' ' being let 
dov/n over the wall in a basket." Mil- 
man : Ecclesiastical History, iv. p. 266. 

Basrigf or Ba^sec^, a Scandinavian 
king, who with Halden or Halfdene 
(2 syl.) king of Denmark, in 871, made a 
descent on Wessex. In this year Ethel- 
red fought nine pitched battles with the 
Danes. The first was the battle of Engle- 
field, in Berkshire, lost by the Danes ; the 
next was the battle of Reading, won by 
the Danes ; the third was the famous 
battle of .(Escesdun or Ashdune (now 
Ashton), lost by the Danes, and in which 
king Bagsecg was slain. 

And Ethelred with them \the Danes] nine sundry fields 

that fought . . . 
Then Reading ye regained, led by that valiant lord, 
WJiere Basrig ye outbraved, and Halden sword to 
sword. .. , 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xu. (1613). 
Next year (871) the Danes for the first time entered 
Wessex. . . . The first place they came to was Reading. 
. . . Nine great battles, besides smaller skirmishes, were 
fought this year, in some of which the English won, and 
In others the Danes. First, alderman ^thelwulf fought 
the Danes at Englefield, and beat them. Four days after 
that there was another battle at Reading . . . where the 
Danes had the better of it, and yEthelwulf was killed. 
Four days afterwards there was another more famous 
battle ot /Escesdun . . . and king ^^ith-jldred fought 
against the two kings, and slew Bagsecg with his own 
hand. . A. Freeman : Old English History (i86q). 
See Asser : Life 0/ Alfred (ninth century). 

I'nio, the lover of Portia, suc- 
cessful in his choice of the three caskets, 
which awarded her to him as wife. It 
was for Bassanio that his friend Antonio 
borrowed 3000 ducats of the Jew Shy lock, 
on the strange condition that if he re- 
turned the loan within three months no 
interest should be required, but if not, 
the Jew might claim a pound of Antonio's 
flesh for forfeiture. Shakespeare: Mer- 
chant of Venice {1598). 

Bas'set [Count), a swindler and forger, 
who assumed the title of "count" to 
further his dishonest practices. C. Gib- 
ber : The Provoked Husbafid (1728). 

Bassia'nus, brother of Satur'nius 
emperor of Rome, in love with Lavin'ia 
daughter of Titus Andron'icus (properly 
Andronlcus). He is stabbed by Deme'- 
trius and Chiron, sons of Tam'ora queen 
of the Goths. {})ShakesJ>eare : Titus An- 
dronicus (1593). 

Bassi'no [Count), the "perjured hus- 
band" of Aurelia, slain byAlonzo. Mrs. 
Centlivre : The Perjured Husband ( 1700) . 

Bastard. Homer was probably a 
bastard. Virgil was certainly one. 
Neoptol'emos was the bastard son of 
Achillas by Deidamla (5 syl.). Romulus 
and Remus, if they ever existed, were the 
love-sons of a vestal. Brutus the regicide 
was a bastard. Ulysses was probably so, 
Teucer certainly, and Darius gloried in 
the surname of Nothos. 

Bastard [The), in English history is 
William I. , natural son of Robert le Diable. 
His mother was a peasant-girl of Falaise. 

Bastard of Orleans, Jean Dunois, 
a natural son of Louis duo d'Orl^ans 
(brother of Charles VI.), and one of the 
most brilliant soldiers France ever pro- 
duced (1403-1468). B^ranger mentions 
him in his Charles Sept. 

Bastille. The prisoner who had 
been confined in the Bastille for sixty-one 
years was A. M. Dussault, who was in- 
carcerated by cardinal Richelieu. 

Bat. In South Staffordshire that 
slaty coal which will not burn, but which 
lies in the fire till it becomes red hot, is 
called " bat ; " hence the expression, 
Warm as a bat, 

Bata'via, Holland or the Nether- 
lands. So called from the Bata'vians, 3 
Celtic tribe, which dwelt there, 

. . . void of care, 
Batavia rushes forth ; and as they sweep 
On sounding skates, a thousand different wajrs. 
The then gay land is maddened all with joy. 

Thornson : Seascns (" Winter," 1726). 


Bates (r syl.), a soldier in the firniy of 
Henry V., under sir Ihomas Erpingham. 
He is introduced with Court and 
Williams as sentinels before the English 
camp at Agincourt, and the king un- 
known comes to tlicm during the watcli, 
and holds with them a conversation re- 
specting the impending battle. Shake- 
speare: Henry V. act iv. sc. i (1599). 

Bates - {Charley), generally called 
"Master Bates," one of Fagin's "ptipils," 
training to be a pickpocket. He is always 
laughing uproariously, and is almost equal 
in artifice and adroitness to " The Artful 
Dodger" himself. C Dicke?is: Oliver 
Twist (1837). 

Bates [Frank) .the friend of Whittle. 
A man of good plain sense, who tries to 
laugh the old beau out of his folly. 
Gan-ick: The hish Widow {17 sj). 

BATH, called by the Romans Agues 
Solis ("waters of the sun"), and by the 
Anglo-Saxons Achamunnum ("city of the 
sick"). (See Badon, p. 81.) 

Bath {Major), a poor but high-minded 
gentleman, who tries to conceal his poverty 
under a bold beai-ing and independent 
speech. Fielding : Amelia (1751). 

'. G. Colman the Younger has made 
major Bath his model for lieutenant 
Worthington, in his comedy entitled The 
Poor Gentleman (1802). 

Bath {King of), Richard Nash, -gene- 
rally called Beau Nash {q.v., p. 100). 

Bath. ( The Maid of), Miss Linley, a 
beautiful and accomplished singer, who 
married Richard B, Sheridan, the states- 
man and dramatist. 

Bath {The Wife of), one of the 
pilgrims travelling from Southwark to 
Canterbury, in Chaucer's Canterbury 
Tales. She tells her tale in turn, and 
chooses " Midas" for her subject (13S8). 
Modernized by Dryden. 

Bathos, or " The Art of Sinking," by 
Pope, contributed to The Proceedings of 
the Scriblerius Club. 

Bath'sheba, duchess of Portsmouth, 
a favourite court lady of Charles H. As 
Bathsheba, the wife of Uri'ah, was 
criminally loved by David, so Louisa P. 
Keroual (duchess of Portsmouth) was 
criminally loved by Charles H. 

My fathcr[C/%ar/<rj //.], whom with reverence I name . . . 
Is grown in Bathsheba's embraces old. 

Dryden ; Absalom and Achilo/>hel, 11. 708-711. 


Batra-chomyo-machia, or "The 
Battle of the Frogs and Mice," by Pigres. 
A Greek skit on Homer's Iliad. The 
tale is this : A Mouse having escaped 
from a weasel, stopped on the bank of a 
pond to drink, when a Frog invited the 
Mouse to pay him a visit. The Mouse 
consented, and mounted on the Frog's 
back to get to Frog Castle. When in the 
middle of the pond an otter appeared, 
and so terrified Mr. Froggie that he dived 
under water, leaving his friend Mousie 
to struggle in the water till he was 
drowned. A comrade, 'who witnessed the 
scene, went and told the Mouse-king, 
who instantly declared war against the 
Frogs. When arrayed for battle, a band 
of gnats sounded the attack, and after a 
Lloody battle the Frogs were defeated ; 
but an army of land-crabs coming up 
saved the race from extermination, and 
the victorious Mice made the best of their 
way in terrible disorder. The name of 
the Mouse-king was Troxartes (3 syl.), 
probably a pun on T7-os, a Trojan. 
Translated into English verse by T. 
Parnel (1679-1718). (See BATTLE OF THK 
Frogs and Mice, p. 96,) 

The Mice were the Trojans, the Frogrs the Greeks, 
wlio came across the sea to the sie^e. They won the 
"battle," but immediately returned m terrible disorder. 

Battar {Al), i.e. the trenchant, one of 
Mahomet's swords. 

Battle of Barnet, f 4th April, 1471 , 
was certainly one of the most decisive 
ever fought, although it finds no place 
amongst professor Creasy's list of " de- 
cisive battles." It closed for ever the 
Age of Force, the potentiality of the 
barons, and opened the new era of trade, 
literature, and public opinion. Here fell 
Warwick, the " king-malcer," "last of the 
barons ; " and thenceforth the king had 
no peer, but king was king, lords were 
lords, and commons ih^ people. 

Battle of Life {The), a love-story by 
Dickens (1847). (See Jeddler.) 

Battle of Prague, a piece of de- 
scriptive music, very popular in the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century. It 
was composed by Franz Kotzwara of 
Prague, born 1791. 

Battle of Wartburgr [The), the 
annual contest of the minnesingers for 
the prize offered by Hermann, margraf 
of Wartburg, near Gotha, in Germany, 
in the twelftii century. There is a minne- 
song so called, celebrating the famous 
contests _pf Walter von Vogelwcide and 



Wolfram von Eschenbach with Heinrich 
von Ofterdingen. Heinrich lost the former 
and won the latter. 

Battle of tlie Britisli Soldier 

{The), Inkerman, November 5, 1854. 

Battle of tlie Frogs and Mice 

{The), a skit by G. RoUenhagen, a 
master-singer (fourteenth century). No 
doubt suggested by the Batra-chomyo- 
machia {q.v., p. 95), sometimes absurdly 
attributed to Homer. The German tale 
runs thus : King Mouse's son, on a visit 
to king Frog, recounted all the news of 
Mouse-land, and in return king Frog told 
his guest all the news of Frog-moor, and 
then proposed a visit to Frog Park. As 
they were crossing a pool, prince Mouse 
slipped from the Frog's back into the 
water and was drowned. Whereupon 
king Mouse declared a war of extermina- 
tion against king Frog. 

Battle of the G-iants, Marignano, 
September, 1515. Fran9ois I. won this 
battle over the Swiss and the duke of 
Milan. The French numbered 26,000 
men, the Swiss 20,000. The loss of the 
former was 6coo, and of the latter 10,000. 
It is called " the Battle of the Giants " be- 
cause the combatants on both sides were 
"mighty men of war," and strove for 
victory hke giants. 

Battle of th.e Nations, or of the 

Peoples {The"], the terrible conflict at 
Leipsig, i6th, 18th, 19th October, 18 13, 
between Napoleon and the allied armies 
of Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden, 
numbering 240,000 men. The French 
army consisted of 180,000 men. In the 
heat of the battle, the German battalions 
(10,000 men strong) in alliance with the 
French deserted, ' and Napoleon was 
utterly defeated. Each side lost about 
40,000 men. 

The bridge over the Elster, blown up by a mine, was 
the most disastrous part of this sanguinary war. 

Battle of tlxe Three Emperors, 

Austerlitz, 2nd December, 1805. So 
called because the emperor Napoleon, the 
emperor of Russia, and the emperor of 
Austria were all present. Napoleon won 
the fight. 

Battle of the West {Great), the 
battle between king Arthur and Mordred. 
Here the king received his death-wound. 

For battle of the books, of the herrings, 
of the moat, of the standard, of the 
spurs, etc., see Dictionary of Phrase and 

Battles ( The Fifteen Decisive), accora 
ing to professor Creasy, are 

(i) Mar'athon (b.c. 490), in which the 
Greeks under Milli'ades defeated Darius 
the Persian, and turned the tide of Asiatic 

(2) Syracuse (b.c. 413), in which the 
Athenian power was broken and the ex- 
tension of Greek domination prevented. 

(3) ArbeUa (b.C. 331), by which Alex- 
ander overthrew Darius and introduced 
European habits into Asia. 

(4) Metau^rus (B.C. 207), in which the 
Romans defeated Hannibal, and Carthage 
came to ruin. 

(5) Armiti'itis (a.d. 9), in which the 
Gauls overthrew the Romans under Varus, 
and Gaul became independent. 

(6) Chalons (A.D. 451), in which Attila, 
"The Scourge of God," was defeated 
by Actius, ani Europe saved from utter 

(7) Tou7-s (a.d. 732), in which Charles 
Martel overthrew the Saracens, and broke 
from Europe the Mohammedan yoke. 

(8) Hastitigs (a.d. 1066), by v/hich 
William the Norman became possessed of 
the English crown. 

(9) OrUaris {k.V). 1429), by which Joan 
of Arc raised the siege of the city and 
secured the independence of France. 

{10) Armada {The) (A.D. 1588), which 
crushed the hopes of Spain and of the 
papacy in England. 

(11) Blejiheim (A.D. 1704), in which 
Marlborough, by the defeat of Tallard, 
broke off the ambitious schemes of Louis 

(12) Pultowa (a.d. 1709), in which 
Charles XII. of Sweden was defeated by 
Peter the Great of Russia, and the sta- 
bility of the Muscovite empire was estab- 

(13) Sarato'ga (A.D. 1777), in which 
general Gates defeated Burgoyne, and 
decided the fate of the American Revolu- 
tion, by making France their ally. 

(14) Valmy (A.D. 1792), in which the 
allied armies under the duke of Bruns- 
wick were defeated by the French Revo- 
lutionists, and the revolution was suffered 
to go on. 

(15) Waterloo (a.D. 1815), in which 
Wellington defeated Napoleon and saved 
Europe from becoming a French pi'o- 

(See Battle of Barnet, p. 95.) 

Battles. J. B. Martin, of Paris, painter 
of battle-scenes, was called by the French 
M. des Batailles (1659-1735). 




Battle for Battle-axe. 

TIk- word battle . . . seems to be used for battU-nxt 
\n this unuoticeil passage of thcPsiilms: " There br^ke 
lie the arrows of the binr, the shield, the siucrd, and 
the bat tit [axe]." /f(. y. Uhita/ur : Gibbon's His- 
tory Reviewed (1791). 

Battle-Bridg'e, King's Cross, Lon- 
don. Called ' ' Battle " from being the 
site of a battle between Alfred and the 
Danes ; and called " King's Cross " from 
a wretched statue of George IV., taken 
down in 1842. The historic name of 
" Battle Bridge" was changed in 1871, by 
the Metropolitan Board, for that of " York 
Road." Miser abile dictu / 

Battus, a shepherd of Arcadia. Hav- 
ing witnessed Mercury's theft of Apollo's 
oxen, he received a cow from the thief 
to ensure his secrecy ; but, in order to 
test his fidelity. Mercury reappeared soon 
afterwards, and offered him an ox and 
a cow if he would blab. Battus fell into 
the trap, and was instantly changed into 
a touchstone. 

When Tantalus in hell sees store and staves ; 
And senseless Battus for a touchstone serves. 

Lord Brooke: Treatise on Monarchie, iv. 

Bati'cis and Fhile'mon, an aged 
Phrygian woman and her husband, who 
received Jupiter and Mercury hospitably 
when every one else in the place had 
refused to entertain them. For this 
courtesy the gods changed the Phr>'gians' 
cottage into a magnificent temple, and 
appointed the pious couple over it. They 
both died at the same time, according to 
their wish, and were converted into two 
trees before the temple. Greek and Ro- 
man Mytholo^, 

Baul'die {2 syl.), stable - boy of 
Joshua Geddes the quaker. 5/r W.Scott: 
Redgauntlet {iixaQ, George IlL). 

Batll'die (2 syl.), the old shepherd in 
the introduction of The Black Dwarf, by 
sir W. Scott (time, Anne). 

Bav'iad ( The), a satire by W. Gifford 
on the Delia Cruscan school of poetry 
(1794). It was followed in 1800 by The 
M(Eviad. The words " Baviad " and 
" Masviad " were suggested by Virgil, 
Eclogue, iii. 90, 91. 

He may with foxes ploug-h, and milk he-goats. 
Who praises Bavius or on Maevius dotes. 

E. C. B. 

Bavian Pool {The), one of the 
characters in the old morris-dance. He 
wore a red cap faced with yellow, a 
yellow " slabbering-bib," a blue doublet, 
red hose, and black shoes. He represented 
an overgrown baby, but was a tumbler, 
smd mimicked the barking of a dog. The 

word " Bavian " is derived from havon, \ 
"bib for a slabbering child" (see Cot- 
grave's French Dictiojiary). In modern 
French ^at/^ means "drivel," "slabbering," 
and the verb baver " to slabber," but the 
bib is now called bavette. 

Bavie'ca, the Cid's horse. He sur- 
vived his master two years and a half, 
and was buried at Valencia. No one was 
ever allowed to mount him after the 
death of the Cid. 

The duke of Wellin^on's horse, Copenhagen, was 
pensioned oflf after the battle of Waterloo. 

Bavie'ca[;.^. "Booby"]. When Rodri- 
go was taken in his boyhood to choose a 
horse, he passed over the best steeds, and 
selected a scrubby-looking colt. His 
godfather called the boy a booby [bavie- 
ca] for making such a silly choice, and 
the name was given to the horse. 

Ba'vins, any vile poet. (See 

Qui Bavium non odit, amet tua cannina, Mcevi, 
Atque idem jungat vulpes, et mulgeat hircos. 

yirgil: Eclogue, iii. 90, 91. 
May some choice patron bless each grey goose-qutlf: 
May every Bavius have his Bufo still 1 

Pofe : Prologue to the Satires. 

Bawtry. Like the saddler of Bawtry, 
who was hanged for leaving his liquor 
{Yorkshire Proverb). It was customary 
for criminals on their way to execution 
to stop at a certain tavern in York for a 
" parting draught." The saddler of Baw- 
try refused to accept the liquor, and was 
hanged. If, however, he had stopped a 
few minutes at the tavern, his reprieve, 
which was on the road, would have arrived 
in time to save him. 

Ba'yard, Le chevalier sans peur et 
sans reproche (1476-1524). 

The British Bayard, sir Philip Sidney 

The Polish Bayard, prince Joseph Poni- 
atowski (1763-18 14). 

The Bayard of India, sir James Outram 
(1803-1863). So called by sir C. Napier. 

The Bayard of the Netlurlands, Louis 
of Nassau (seventeenth century), brother 
of William of Orange, and founder of the 
Dutch Republic. 

Ba'yard, a horse of incredible speed, 
belonging to the four sons of Aymon. 
If only one mounted, the horse was of 
the ordinary size, but increased in pro- 
portion as two or more mounted. (The 
word means "bright bay colour.") 
Villetieuve : Les Quat7-e-Filz- Aymon. 

Bayard, the steed of Fitz-James. 
SirW, Scott: Lady of the Lake, v. 18 (i8io> 


Bayar'do, the famous steed of 
Rinaldo, which once belonged to AmMis 
of Gaul. It was found in a grotto by 
the wizard Malagigi, along with the 
sword Fusberta, both of which he gave 
to his cousin Rinaldo. 

His colour bay, and hence his name he drew 
Bayardo called. A star of silver hue 
Emblazed bis front. 

Tasso : Rinaldo, ii. 229 (is62). 

Eayes (i syl.), the chief character of 
The Rehearsal, a farce by George Villiers, 
duke of Buckingham {1671). Bayes is 
represented as greedy of applause, im- 
patient of censure, meanly obsequious, 
regardless of plot, and only anxious for 
claptrap. The character is meant for 
John Dryden, and several passages of 
his plays are well parodied. 

. C. Dibdin, in his History of the 
Stage, states that Mrs. Mountford played 
"Bayes" "with more variety than had 
ever been thrown into the part before." 

No species of novel-writing exposes itself to a severer 
trial, since it not only resigns all Bayes' pretensions "to 
elevate the imagination," . . . but places its productions 
within the range of [general] criticism. 0'^. Brit. 
(article "Romance"). 

Dead men may rise again, like Bayes' 
troops, or the savages in the Fantocini. In 
the farce above referred to, a battle is 
fought between foot-soldiers and great 
hobby-horses. At last Drawcansir kills 
all on both sides. Smith then asks Bayes 
"How are they to go off?" "As they 
came on," says Bayes, " upon their legs." 
Wheieupon the dead men all jump up alive 

.This revival of life is imitated by 
Rhodes, in the last scene of his Bombastes 

Bayeux Tapestry, said to be the 
work of English damsels retained in the 
court of Matilda, the Conqueror's wife. 
When Napoleon contemplated the invasion 
of England in 1803, he caused this record 
to be removed to Paris, where it was ex- 
hibited in the National Museum, Having 
served its purpose, it was returned to 
Bayeux. Facsimiles by Stothard were 
published in the Vetusta Monumenta, at 
the expense of the Society of Antiquaries. 
The original is preserved in the Hotel of 
the Prefecture of Bayeux (Normandy), 
and is called Toile de St. Jean. It is coiled 
round a windlass, and consists of hnen 
v/Orked with wools. It is 20 inches 
broad, 214 feet long, and contains 72 

ist compartment, Edwardus Rex : the 
Confessor is giving audience to two per- 
sons, one of whom is Harold. 2nd, 


Harold, with a hawk in his hand (a mark 
of nobility) and his hounds, on his way 
to Bosham. 3rd, Ecclesia : a Saxon 
church, with two figures about to enter. 
4th, Harold embarking. 5th, the voyage 
to Normandy. 6th, disembarking on the 
coast of Normandy. 7th and 8th, seizure 
of Harold by the count of Ponthieu. 9th, 
Harold remonstrating with Guy, the 
count, upon his. unjust seizure. loth to 
20th, scenes connected with the sojourn 
of Harold at the court of William. 26th, 
Harold swearing fidelity to William, with 
each hand on a shrine of relics. 27th, 
Harold's return. 28th, his landing. 29th, 
presents himself to king Edward. 30th 
to 32nd, the sickness of the Confessor, 
his death, and his funeral procession to 
Westminster Abbey. 33rd, the crown 
offered to Harold. 34th, Harold on the 
throne, and Stigant the archbishop. 35th, 
the comet. 36th, William orders a fleet 
to be built. 55th, orders the camp at 
Hastings to be constructed. 71st, death 
of Harold. 72nd, duke William triumph- 
ant. Although 530 figures are repre- 
sented in this tapestry, only three of 
them are women. 

Baynard {Mr.), introduced in an 
episode in the novel called Hu7nphry 
Clinker, by Smollett (1771). 

Bayswater (London), that is, 
Bayard's Watering, a string of pools and 
ponds which now form the Serpentine. 

Bea'con {Tom), groom to Master 
Chiffinch (private emissary of Charles II.). 
Sir W: Scott: Peveril of the Peak (time. 
Charles II.). 

Beadle. The running banquet of two 
beadles, a public whipping. (See Henry 
VHI. act v. sc. 3.) 

Bea'gle {Sir Harry), a horsy country 
gentleman, who can talk of nothing but 
horses and dogs. He is wofuUy rustic 
and commonplace. Sir Harry makes a 
bargain with lord Trinket to give up 
Harriet to him in exchange for his horse. 
(See.GoLDFiNCH.) C<7//a!.- The Jealous 
Wife (1761). 

Beak. Sir John Fielding was called 
" The Blind Beak " (died 1780). 

Bean Lean {Donald), alias Will 
Ruthven, a Highland robber-chief. He 
also appears disguised as a pedlar on the 
road-side leading to Stirling. Waverley 
is rowed to the robber's cave, and remains 
there all night. 

Alice Bean, daughter of Donald, who 


attended on Waverley during a fever. 
Sir W. Scott: Waverley (time, George 

BEAR (The), emblem of ancient 
Persia. The golden lion was the emblem 
of ancient Assyria. 

Where is th' Assyrian lion's golden hide, 
That all the East once grasped in lordly paw J 

Where that great Persian bear, whose swelling pride 
The lion's self tore out with ravenous jawt 

P. Fletcher: The PurJ>U Island, vii. (1633). 

Bear [The), Russia, its cognizance 
being a bear. 

France turns from her abandoned friends afresh, 

And soothes the Bear that prowls for patriot flesh. 

Campbell: Poland. 

Bear { The Brave), Warwick is so called 
from his cognizance, which was a bear 
and ragged staff. 

Bear [The Great), called " Hellicd." 

Night on the earth poured darkness ; on the sea 
The wakeful sailor to Orion's star 
And Hellice turned heedful. 

ApollonUis Rhodius : ArgonauHcs. 

Bearclif [Deacon), at the Gordon 
Arms or Kippletringam inn, where 
colonel Mannering stops on his return to 
England, and hears of Bertram's illness 
and distress. Sir W. Scott: Guy Man- 
nering (time, George XL). 

Bearded [The), (i) Geoffrey the 
crusader. (2) Bouchard of the house of 
Montmorency. (3) Constantine IV. 
(648-685). (4) Master George Killing- 
woithe of the court of Ivan the Terrible 
of Russia, whose beard (says Hakluyt) 
was five feet two inches long, yellow, 
thick, and broad. Sir Hugh Willoughby 
was allowed to take it in his hand. 

The Bearded Master. Soc'ratSs was so 
called by Persius (b.c. 468-399). 

Handsome Beard, Baldwin IV. earl of 
Flanders (1160-1186). 

John the Bearded, John Mayo, the 
German painter, whose beard touched the 
ground when he stood upright. Memorial 
Poriatif [xZzg). 

Bearnais [Le), Henri IV. of France, 
so called from his native province, Le 
B(iarn (1553-1610). 

BBATRICE, wife of Ludov'ico 

Beatrice, daughter of Ferdinando 
king of Naples, sister of Leonora duchess 
of Ferrara, and wife of Mathias Corvi'nus 
of Hungary, 

Beatrice, niece of Leonato governor of 
Messi'na, lively and light-hearted, affec- 
tionate and impulsive. Though wilful, 
she was not wayward; though volatile, 


not unfeeling ; teeming with wit and 
gaiety, she was affectionate and energetic. 
At first she disliked Benedick, and tliought 
him a flippant conceited coxcomb; but 
overhearing a conversation between her 
cousin Hero and her gentlewoman, In 
which Hero bewails that Beatrice should 
trifle with such deep love as that of Bene- 
dick, and should scorn so true and good 
a gentleman, she said, "Sits the wind 
thus ? then farewell contempt. Benedick, 
love on ; I will requite you." This con- 
versation of Hero's was a mere ruse, but 
Benedick had been caught by a similar 
trick played by Claudio. The result was 
they sincerely loved each other, and were 
married. Shakespeare: Much Ado about 
Nothi?tg [1600). 

Miss Helen Faucit's impersonations are nature itself. 
"Tulict," " Rosalind," divine "Imogen," "Beatrice," 
ail crowd upon our (ancy.Vudlin Uiiivcrsity Maga- 
tine (1846). 

Beatrice Cenci, the Beautiful Par- 
ricide [q. v., p. 100). 

Bea-fcrice d'Este, canonized at 

Be'atrice Portina'ri, a child eight 
years old, to whom Dante at the age of 
nine was ardently attached. She was the 
daughter of Folco Portina'ri, a rich citizen 
of Florence. Beatrice married Simoni de 
Bardi, and died before she was 24 years 
old (1266-1290). Dantg married Gem- 
ma Donati, and his marriage was a most 
unhappy one. His love for Beatrice re- 
mained after her decease. She was the 
fountain of his poetic inspiration, and in 
his Divina Coimnedia he makes her his 
gfuide through paradise. 

Dante's Beatrice and Milton's Eve 
Were not drawn from their spouses you conceive, 
Byron : Don yuan, iii. lo (1820J, 

(Milton, whose first wife was Mary 
Powell, of Oxfordshire, was as unfortunate 
in his choice as Dantd. ) 

Bean Bnunmel, George Bryan 
Brummel (1778-1840). 

Beau Clark, a billiard-marker at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. 
He was called "The Beau," assumed the 
name of Beauclerc, and paid his addresses 
to ^frotegie of lord Fife. 

Beau Clincher, in Farquhar's 
comedy called The Constant Couple 

Bean Fieldingf, called " Handsome 
Fielding" by Charles II., by a play on. 
his name, which was Hendrome Fielding. 
He died in Scotland Yard. 

Bean Hewitt was the original of sir 



George Etherege's " sir Fopling Flutter," 
in the comedy called The Man of Mode, 
or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). 

Bean Nasli, Richard Nash, called 
also ' ' King of Bath ; " a Welsh gentleman, 
who |for many years managed the bath- 
rooms of Bath, and conducted the balls 
with unparalleled splendour and decorum. 
In his old age he sank into poverty (1674- 
1761). Appointed master of the cere- 
monies in 1704. 

Beau d'Orsay {Le), father of count 
d'Orsay, whom Byron calls "Jeune Cu- 
pidon. " 

Bean Seant, the Templars' banner, 
half white and half black ; the white 
signified that the Templars were good to 
Christians, the black that they were evil 
to infidels. 

Bean TiTabs, in Goldsmith's Citizen 
of the World, a dandy noted for his 
finery, vanity, and poverty {1760). 

Beanclerk, Henry I. king of Eng- 
land {1068, 1100-1135). 

Beanfort, the lover of Maria Wilding, 
whom he ultimately married. A. Mur- 
phy: Tfie Citizen (a farce, 1761). 

Beaufort {Cardinal), bishop of Win- 
chester, great-uncle to Henry VI. His 
death-raving is quite harrowing; and 
Warwick says 

So bad a desth argues a monstrous life. 

Sliakespcart : a Henry VI. act iii. sc. 9. 

Beaufort [Robert), in lord Lytton's 
Night and Morning, a novel (1841). 

Beaujeu {Mons. le chevalier de), 
keeper of a gambling-house to which 
Dalgarno took Nigel. Sir W. Scott: 
Fortunes of Nigel (time. James I. ). 

Beaujeu [Mons. le comte de), a French 
ofFicer in the army of the Chevalier Charles 
Edward, the Pretender. 5z> W. Scott: 
Waverley (time, George II.). 

Beaumains {"Hg hands"], a nick- 
name which sir Kay (Arthur's steward) 
gave to Gareth when he was kitchen 
drudge in the palace. "He had the 
largest hands that ever man saw. " Gareth 
was the son of king Lot and Margawse 
(king Arthur's sister). His brothers were 
sir Gaw'ain, sir Agravain, and sir Gaheris. 
Mordred was his half-brother. Sir T. 
Malory: History of Prince Arthur, '\. 120 

(1470). , . , , 

(His achievements are given under the 

word " Gareth," q.v.) 

Tennyson, in his Gareih and Lynette, 

makes sir Kay tauntingly address Lance- 
lot thus, referring to Gareth 

Fair and fine, forsooth ! 
Sir Fine-face, sir Fair-hands t But see thou to it 
That thine own dneness, Lancelot, some fine day, 
Undo thee not. 

Be it remembered that Kay himself 
called Gareth " Beaumains" from the ex- 
traordinary size of the lad's hands ; but 
the taunt put into the mouth of Kay by 
the poet indicates that the lad prided him- 
self on his "fine " face and " fair " hands, 
which is not the case. If "fair hands" 
is a translation of this nickname, it 
should be "fine hands," which bears the 
equivocal sense of big and beautiful. 

Beau'mauoir {Sir Lucas), grand- 
master of the Knights Templars. Sir 
W. Scott : /vanhoe {time, Richard 1.). 

Beaupre [Bo-pray'], son of judge 
Vertaigne (2 syl.) and brother of Lami'ra. 
Beaumont and Fletcher: The Little 
French Lauyer (printed 1647). 

Beauseant, in The Lady of Lyons, by 
Bulwer Lytton [lord Lytton] (1838). 

Beaute (2 syl.). La dame de Beauts. 
Agnes Sorel, so called from the chateau 
de Beauty, on the banks of the Marne, 
given to her by Charles VII. (1409-1450). 

Beautiful {The) or La Bella. So 
Florence is called. France is spoken of 
by Frenchmen as La Belle France, 

Beautiful Corisande (3 syl.), Diane 
comtesse de Guiche et de Grammont. 
She was the daughter of Paul d'Andouins, 
and married Philibert de Gramont, who 
died in 1580. The widow outUved her 
husband twenty-six years. Henri IV., 
before he was king of Navarre, was des- 
perately smitten by La belle Corisande ; 
and when he was at war with the League, 
she. sold her diamonds to raise for him a 
levy of 20,000 Gascons (1554-1620). 

(The letters of Henri to Corisande are 
still preserved in the Bibliothique dt 
I' Arsenal, and were published in 1769.) 

Beautiful Parricide {The), Bea 
trice Cenci, daughter of a Roman noble- 
man, who plotted the death of her father 
because he violently defiled her. She was 
executed in 1605. Shelley has a tragedy 
on the subject, entitled The Cenci, Guido 
Reni's " The Execution of the Cenci," is 
one of the most interesting paintings in 

Beauty {Queen of). So the daughter 
of Schems'eddin Mohammed, vizier of 
Egypt, was called. She married her 



cousin, Bed'rcddin Hassan {'/.v.), son of 
Nour'eddin Ali, vizier of Basora. ^;-a- 
dian Nights {" Noureddin Ali," etc.). 

Beauty and the Beast [La Belle 
et la Bete), from Les Contes Marines of 
Mde. Villeneuvre {1740), the most beau- 
tiful of all nursery tales. A young and 
lovely woman saved her father by putting 
herself in the power of a frightful but 
kind-hearted monster, whose respectful 
affection and melancholy overcame her 
aversion to his ugliness, and she consented 
to become his bride. Being thus freed 
from enchantment, the monster assumed 
his proper form and became a young and 
handsome prince. Well known in Italy. 
Modernized by Miss Thackeray, in her 
Two Old Friends, etc. (1868). 

.' The moral is that love gives beauty 
to the eyes of the lover. 

Beauty of Buttermere {3 syl.), 
Mary Robinson, who married Jolm Hat- 
field, a heartless impostor executed for 
forgery at Carlisle, in 1803. 

Beaux' Stratagem ( The), by Geo. 
Farquhar. Thomas viscount Aimwell 
and his friend Archer (the two beaux), 
having run through all their money, set 
out fortune-hunting, and come to Lich- 
field as "master and man." Aimwell 
pretends to be very unwell, and as lady 
Bountiful's hobby is tending the sick and 
playing the leech, she orders him to be 
removed to her mansion. Here he and 
Dorinda (daughter of lady Bountiful) fall 
in love with each other, and finally marry. 
Archer falls in love with Mrs. Sullen, the 
wife of squire Sullen, who had been mar- 
ried fourteen months but agreed to a 
divorce on the score of incompatibility of 
tastes and temper. This marriage forms 
no part of the play ; all we are told is 
that she returns to the roof of her brother, 
sir Charles Freeman (1707). 

Bed of Ware, a large bed, capable of 
holding twelve persons. Tradition assigns 
it to .Warwick, the "king-maker." It 
was 12 feet square ; but in 1895 it was 
shortened 3 feet. It is now (1897) at Rye 
House, where it is exhibited at zd. a 
head. Alluded to by Shakespeare in 
Twelfth Night, act iii. sc. 2. 

IT The bed of Og, king of Bashan, was 
9 cubits by 4. If a cubit was 18 inches, it 
was 13^ feet by 6. It was made of iron. 

It seems incredible that the cubit was S2 inches. 
(See under GIANTS (Goliath).) 

IT In the Great Exhibition of 1831 
(London), a state bed from Vienna was 

e.xiiibited, 11 feet by 9. It was 13 feet 
high, and made of zebra wood. 

1[ There is a huge bed at the White 
Hart inn, Scole, Norfolk. (See Notes 
and Queries, August 8, 1896, p. 113.) 

Bede [Adam), an e.\cellent novel by 
George Eliot (Mrs. T. W. Cross, n6e 
Evans) (1859). 

Bede [Cuthberf), the Rev. Edward 
Bradley, author of l^ie Advcnttires of 
Mr. Verdant Green, an Oxford Freshman 

Bedegrain {Castle of), in Sherwood. 
It was a royal castle, belonging to king 

Bed'er [" the full moon "\ son of Gul- 
na'rfi (3 syl.), the young king of Persia. 
As his mother was an under-sea princess, 
he was enabled to live under water as 
well as on land. Beder was a young man 
of handsome person, quick parts, agree- 
able manners, and amiable disposition, 
who fell in love with Giauha'r6. (For 
the rest of the tale, see Giauhare.) 
Arabian Nights {" Beder and Giau- 
harg "). 

Bed'er or Bedr, a valley noted for 
the victory gained by Mahomet, in which 
" he was assisted by 3000 angels led by 
Gabriel mounted on his horse Haiz'um." 
Sale: Al Koran, 

Bed'ivere [Sir) or Bed'iver, king 
Arthur's butler and a knight of the Round 
Table. He was the last of Arthur's 
knights, and was sent by the dying king 
to throw his sword Excalibur into the 
mere. Being cast in, it was caught by 
an arm "clothed in white samite," and 
drawn into the stream. Tennyson : Morte 
d Arthur. 

Tennyson's Morte cC Arthur is a very 
close and in many parts a verbal render- 
ing of the same tale in Sir Thomas 
Malory's Morte d Arthur, iii. 168 (1470). 

Bedlam Beggars, lunatics or mad 
men belonging to Bethlehem Hospital. 
This institution was designed for six 
lunatics, but in 1641 the number admitted 
was forty-four, and applications were so 
numerous that many were dismissed half 
cured. These ' ' ticket-of-leave " men 
used to wander about as vagrants, singing 
"mad songs" and dressed in the oddest 
manner, to excite compassion. 

He swears he has been in Bedlam, and will talk fran- 
tikely of purpose. You see pinnes stuck in sundry 
places in his naked flesh, especially in his armes, which 
paine he gladly puts himselfe to only to make you 
believe he is out of his wits. He calls himselfe . . 



Toore Tom,' aad coming near anybody calls out 
" Poore Tom is a-cold." . . . Some do nothing but 
sing songs fashioned out of their owne braines ; some 
will dance ; others will doe nothing but either laugh or 
weepe ; others are dogged . . . and spying but a 
small company in a house . . . will compel the servants 
through feare to give them what they demand. 
Decker: Bclhnan of London. 

Bed'ouins[^^^'-K;23:l, nomadic tribes 
of Arabia. In common 'parlance, "the 
homeless street poor." Gutter-children 
are called " Bedouins "or "street Arabs." 

Bed'reddin' Has'sau of Baso'ra, 
son of Nour'eddin Ali grand vizier of 
Basora, and nephew to Schema 'eddin 
Mohammed vizier of Egypt. His beauty 
was transcendent and his talents of the 
first order. When twenty years old his 
father died, and the sultan, angry with 
him for keeping from court, confiscated 
all his goods, and would have seized 
him if he had not made his escape. 
During sleep he was conveyed by fairies 
to Cairo, and substituted for an ugly 
groom (Hunchback) to whom his cousin, 
the Queen of Beauty, was to h ave been mar- 
ried. Next day he was carried off by the 
same means to Damascus, where he lived 
for ten years as a pastry-cook. Search 
was made for him, and the search-party, 
halting outside the city of Damascus, 
sent for some cheese-cakes. When the 
cheese-cakes arrived, the widow of Nour- 
eddin declared that they must have been 
made by her son, for no one else knew 
the secret of making them, and that she 
herself had taught it him. On hearing 
this, the vizier ordered Bedreddin to be 
seized "for making cheese-cakes with- 
out pepper," and the joke was carried on 
till the party arrived at Cairo, when the 
pastry-cook prince was reunited to his 
v/ife, the Queen of Beauty. Arabian 
Nights (" Noureddin Ali," etc.). 

Bedver, king Arthur's butler. Geof- 
frey: British History, ix. 13. (See Bedi- 


Bedwin {Mrs.), housekeeper to Mr. 
Brownlow. A kind, motherly soul, who 
loved Oliver Twisty most dearly. C, 
Dickens: Oliver Tivist (1837). 

Bee. The ancient Egyptians sym- 
bolized their kings under this emblem. 
The honey indicated the reward they gave 
to the meritorious, and the sting the 
punishment awarded to the unworthy. 

As the Egyptians used by bees 
To express their ancient Ptolemies. 

5. Bictkr: Hudibras, IH. s. 

*.* In the empire of France the royal 
mantle and standard were thickly sown 

v.'ith golden bees instead of "Louts 
flowers." In the tomb of Child'eric more 
than 300 golden bees were discovered in 
1653. Hence the emblem of the French 

Bee, an American word introduced in 
the latter half of the nineteenth century, 
to signify a voluntary competitive exami- 
nation : thus 

A Spelling Bee meant a competition in 

A Husking Bee, a competition in strip- 
ping husks from the ears of maize. 

A Musical Bee, a competition in singing 
or playing music "at sight," etc., etc. 

These "Bees," immensely popular at 
first, rapidly subsided. 

Bee-line, the straightest or shortest 
distance between two points. This is an 
American expression, equivalent to "As 
the crow flies ; " but crows do not always 
fly in a direct line, as bees do when they 
seek their home. 

Sinnurs, you are making a bee-line from time to 
eternity, and what you have once passed over you wiB 
never pass over again. Dow : Lay Sermons. 

Bee of Attica, Soph'oclSs the dra- 
matist {B.C. 495-405). 

The Bee of Attica rivalled ^schylus when in posses- 
sion of the stage. Sir IV. ScoU : The Drama. 

The Athenian Bee, Plato the philoso- 
pher (B.C. "428-347). It is said that when 
Plato was in his cradle a swarm of bees 
lighted on his mouth. 

^ A similar tale is told of St. Ambrose ; 
but, not to be outdone by a pagan, the 
Christian biographer says that the bees 
flew in and out of his mouth, and that the 
event prognosticated his great eloquence. 
The same is said of St. Dorainick. 

Bee Painted {A) by Quintin Matsys 
on the outstretched leg of a fallen angel 
painted by Mandyn. It was so life-like 
that when the old artist returned to his 
studio he tried to frighten it away with 
his pocket-handkerchief. (See Fly 
Painted. ) 

^ Hans Holbein, Journeying to England, and finding 
himself at Strasburg without money, dashed off a pic- 
ture, and on a conspicuous part thereof painted a bee. 
He sold his picture to a native dealer, who was both 
surprised and delighted on discovering the conceit. 

Bees {The Fable of the), or "The 
Grumbling Hive." First published in 
octo-syllabic rhyme, running to the length 
of .^oo lines, and afterwards produced in 
prose. The object of the fable is to show 
that opposition and difference of opinion 
tends to elicit good results. A dead calm 
is certainly undesirable. Bernard de 
Mandeville {1714). 





Beef ingfton {Mi/or), in Canning[s 
burlesque called T/ie Rovers. Casimir is 
a Polish emigrant, and Beefington an 
English nobleman exiled by the tyranny 
of king John. Anti- Jacobin. 

"Wil without power," said the sagacious Casimir to 
MUor Beefington, "is like children playing at soldiers." 

Be'elzebnb (4 syl.), called " prince 
of the devils" [Matt. xii. 24), worshipped 
at Ekron, a city of the Philistines (2 
Kings I. 2), and made by Milton second 
to Satan. 

One next himself in power and next in crime 

Paradise Lost, i. 80 (1665). 

Bee'nie (2 syl.), cliambermaid at Old 
St. Ronan's inn, held by Meg Dods. 
Sir W. Scott: St. Ronan's Well (time, 
George III.). 

Befa'ua, the good fairy of Italian 
children. She is supposed to fill their 
shoes and socks with toys when they go 
to bed on Twelfth Night, Some one 
enters the bedroom for the purpose, and 
the wakeful youngsters cry out, " Ecco la 
Be/ana I" According to legend, Befana 
was too busy with house affairs to take 
heed of the Magi when they went to offer 
their gifts, and said she would stop for 
their return; but they returned by 
another way, and Befana every Twelfth 
Night watches to see them. The name is 
a corruption of Epiphania. 

Beg ["/<?/-</"], a title generally given to 
lieutenants of provinces under the grand 
signior, but rarely to supreme princes. 
Occasionally, however, the Persian em- 
perors have added the title to their names, 
as Hagmet beg, Alman beg, Morad beg, 
etc, Selden: Titles of Honour, vi. 70 

^es {Callum), page to Fergus M'lvor, 
in VVaverley, a novel by sir W. Scott 
(time, George II,), 

Beg ( Toskach), MacGillie Chattanach's 
second at the combat, Sir W. Scott: 
Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Beggar of Bethnal Green ( The), 
a drama by S, Knowles (recast and pro- 
duced, 1834). Bess, daughter of Albert, 
"the blind beggar of Bethnal Green," 
was intensely loved by Wilford, who first 
saw her in the streets of London, and 
subsequently, after diligent search, di> 
covered her in the Queen's Arms inn at 
Romford, It turned out that her father 
Albert was brother to lord Woodville, 
and Wilford was his truant son. so that 

Bess was his cousin. Queen Elizabeth 
sanctioned their nuptials, and took them 
under her own conduct. (Sec Blind.) 

This play is founded on the ballad The Besgar's 

Beggars {King of the), Bampfylde 
Moore Carew, who succeeded Claiise 
Patch (1693, 1730-1770). 

Beggar's Bush (The), a comedy 
by John Fletcher (1622). 

Beggar's Dangliter ( The). ' ' Bessee 
the beggar's daughter of Bethnal Green " 
was very beautiful, and was courted by 
four suitors at once a knight, a country 
squire, a rich merchant, and the son of 
an innkeeper at Romford. She told them 
all they must first obtain the consent of 
her 'poor blind father, the beggar of 
Bethnal Green, and all slunk off except 
the knight, who went and asked leave to 
marry "the pretty Bessee," The beggar 
gave her for a "dot" ;^30oo, and ;^'ioo 
for her trousseau, and informed the 
knight that he (the beggar) was Henry, 
son and heir of sir Simon de Montfort, 
and that he had disguised himself as a 
beggar to escape the vigilance of spies, 
who were in quest of all those engaged 
on the barons' side in the battle of 
Evesham, Percy: Reliqiies, II. ii, 10. 

As the value of money was about 
twelve times what it now is, this " dot " 
would equal ;^36,ooo. (See BEGGAR OF 
Bethnal Green.) 

Beggar's Opera {The), by Gay 

{1727). The beggar is captain Macheath, 
For plot, see Macheath, ) 

Beggar's Petition {The), a poem 
by the Rev. Thomas Moss (1769). It 

Pity the sorrows of a poor old man. 

Whose trembling limbs have borne him to your door ; 
Whose days are dwindled to the shortest span ; 

Oh, give relief, and Heaven vill bless your store ! 
Stanza i. 

Beguines \Ba-gweens^ or beg-eens'\ 
the earliest of all lay societies of women 
united for religious purposes. Brabant 
says the order received its name from St. 
Begga, daughter of Pepin, who founded 
it at Namur', in 696 ; but it is more likely 
to be derived from their beguins, or linen 

Beli'rani, captain of the ship which 
was to convey prince Assad to the 
" mountain of fire," where he was to be 
offered up in sacrifice. The ship being 
driven on the shores of queen Margia'na's 
kingdom, Assad became her sUve, but 




was recaptured by Behram's crew, and 
carried back to the ship. The queen 
next day gave the ship chase. Assad 
was thrown overboard, and swam to the 
city whence he started. Behram also 
was drifted to the same place. Here the 
captain fell in with the prince, and re- 
conducted him to the original dungeon. 
Bosta'na, a daughter of the old fire- 
worshipper, taking pity on the prince, 
released him ; and, at the end, Assad 
married queen Margiana, Bostana married 
prince Amgiad (half-brother of Assad), 
and Behram, renouncing his religion, 
became a Mussulman, and entered the 
service of Amgiad, who became king of 
the city. Arabian Nights ("Amgiad 
and Assad "). 

Bela'rius, a nobleman and soldier in 
the army of Cym'beline (3 syl.) king of 
Britain. Two villains having sworn to 
the king that Belarius was " confederate 
with the Romans," he was banished, and 
for twenty years lived in a cave ; but he 
stole away, out of revenge, the king's two 
infant sons, Guide 'rius and Arvir'agus. 
When these two princes were grown to 
manhood, a battle was fought between the 
Romans and Britons, in which Cymbeline 
was made prisoner ; but Belarius coming 
to the rescue, the king was liberated and 
the Roman general in turn was made 
captive. Belarius was now reconciled to 
Cymbeline, and, presenting to him the 
two young men, told their story ; where- 
upon they were publicly acknowledged 
to be the sons of Cymbeline and princes 
of the realm. Shakespeare: Cymbeline 

Belch [Sir Toby), uncle of Olivia 
the rich countess of Illyria, He is a 
reckless roisterer of the old school, and 
a friend of sir Andrew Ague-cheek. 
Shakespeare : Twelfth Night (1614). 

Belcour, a foundling adopted by Mr. 
Belcour, a rich Jamaica merchant, who 
at death left him all his property. He 
was in truth the son of Mr. Stockwell, 
the clerk of Belcour, senior, who clan- 
destinely married his master's daughter, 
and afterwards became a wealthy mer- 
chant. On the death of old Belcour, the 
young man came to England as the guest 
of his unknown father, and falling in love 
with Miss Dudley, married her. He was 
hot-blooded, impulsive, high-spirited, and 
generous, his very faults serving as a 
foil to his noble qualities ; ever erring and 
repenting, offending and atoning for his 

offences. Cumberland: The West Indian 

Be'led, one of the six Wise Men of 
the East, lead by the guiding star to 
Jesus. He was a king, who gave to his 
enemy, who sought to detlirone him, half 
of his kingdom, and thus turned a foe 
into a fast friend. Klopstock : The Mes- 
siah, v. (1747). 

Belen, the mont St. Michael, in 
Normandy. Here nine druidesses used 
to sell arrows to sailors ' ' to charm away 
storms." These arrows had to be dis- 
charged by a young man 25 years old. 

Beleriua, the lady whom DurandartS 
served for seven years as a knight-errant 
and peer of France. Wlien, at length, 
he died at Roncesvalles, he prayed his 
cousin Montesi'nos to carry his heart to 

i was twice as large as the largest of the others; 
her eyebrows were joined, her nose was rather flat, 
her mouth wide, but her lips of a vermilion colour. 
Her teetli were thin-set and irregular, though very 
white ; and she carried in her hand a fine linen cloth, 
containing a heart. Montesinos informed me that this 
lady was Belerma. Cervantes : Don Quixote, II. ii. t 

Bele'ses (3 syl), a Chaldean sooth- 
sayer and Assyrian satrap, who told 
Arba'ces (3 syl.) governor of Me'dia that 
he would one day sit on the throne of 
Nineveh and Assyria. Plis prophecy 
came true, and Beleses was rewarded 
with the government of Babylon. Byron : 
Sardanapdlus (1819). 

Belfab'orac, the palace of the em- 
peror of Lilliput, in the middle of MiU 
dendo, the metropolis of the empire. 
Swift: Gullive7-'s Travels ("Voyage to 
Lilliput," 1726). 

Belfield {Atidreiv), the elder of two 
brothers, who married Violetta(an English 
lady born in Lisbon), and deserted her. 
He then promised marriage to Lucy 
Waters, the daughter of one of his 
tenants, but had no intention of making 
her his wife. At the same time, he en- 
gaged himself to Sophia, the daughter of 
sir Benjamin Dove. The day of the 
wedding arrived, and it was then dis- 
covered that he was married already, 
and that Violetta his wife was actually 

Robert Belfield, the younger of the 
two brothers, in love with Sophia Dove. 
He went to sea in a privateer under 
captain Ironside, his uncle, and changed 
his name to Lewson. The vessel was 




wrecked on the Cornwall coast, and lie 
renewed his acquaintance with Sopliia, 
but heard that she was engaged in mar- 
riage to his brother. As, however, it was 
proved that his brother was already mar- 
ried, the young lady willingly abandoned 
the elder for the younger brother. R, 
Cumberland : The Brotliers (1769). 

Bel ford, a friend of Lovelace (2 syL). 
They made a covenant to pardon every 
sort of hberty which tliey took with each 
other. Richardson : Clarissa Ilarlowe 

Belford, in The Clandestine Mar- 
riage, by George Colnian and Garrick 
(1760). Hazlitt says of this play, "it is 
nearly without a fault," 

Belford [Major), the friend of colonel 
Tamper, and the plighted husband of 
Mdlle. Florival. (3. Colman the Elder: 
The Deuce is in Him (1762). 

Belfry of Bmgfes {The), a poem 
by Longfellow. It begins thus 

In the market-place of Bruges (2 syl.) stands the belfry 

old and brown. 
Thrice consumed and thrice rebuild&d, still it watches 

o'er Uie town. 

Beige (2 syl. ), the mother of seventeen 
sons. She applied to queen Mercilla for 
aid against Geryon'eo, who had deprived 
her of all her offspring except five. 
Spenser: Faerie Queene, v. 10 (1596). 

.* "Beige" is Holland; the "seven- 
teen sons " are the seventeen provinces 
which once belonged to her ; " Geryoneo " 
is Philip IL of Spain ; and " Mercilla" is 
queen Elizabeth. 

Belgfrade' (2 syl.), the camp-suttler. 
So called because she commenced her 
career at the siege of Belgrade, Her 
dog's name was Clumsey. 

Belial, last or lowest in the hierarchy 
of hell. (See RiMMON.) Moloch was the 
fiercest of the infernal spirits, and Belial 
the most timorous and slothful. The 
lewd and profligate, disobedient and re- 
bellious, are called in Scripture " sons of 

Belial came last, than whom a spirit more lewd 
Fell not from heaven, or more gross to love 
Vice for itself (i. 490, etc.) . . . though his tongu* 
Dropt manna, and could make the worse appear 
The better reason . . . but to nobler deeds 
Timorous and slothfuL 

MiUon : Parodist Lost, ii. 112 (1665). 

*.* Belial means "the lawless one," 
that is, one who puts no restraint on his 
evil propensities. 

Belia'nis of Greece {Don), the hero 
of an old romance of chivalry on the 

model of Am'adis de Cart I. It was one 
of the books in don Quixote's library ; but 
was not one of those burnt by the cur6 as 
pernicious and worthless. 

" Don Belianis," said the curi, "with Its two, three, 
and four parts, hath need of a dose of rhubarb to purge 
ofl' that mass of bile with which he is inflamed. His 
Castle of Fame and other impertinences should be 
totally obliterated. This done, we would show him 
lenity in proportion as we found him capable of reform. 
Take don Belianis home with you, and keep him in 
close coaRaemeat.'^CtrvanUs : Don Quixote, I. L 6 

(An English abridgment of this ro- 
mance was published in 1673. ) 

BELINDA, niece and companion of 
lady John Brute, Young, pretty, full of 
fun, and possessed of ^^^ Heart- 
free married her. Vanbrugh: The Pro- 
voked Wife (1697). 

Belin'da, the heroine of Pope's Rape 
of the Lock. Tiiis mock heroic is founded 
on the following incident : Lord Petre 
cut a lock of hair from the head of Miss 
Arabella Fermor, and the young lady 
resented the liberty as an unpardonable 
affront. The poet says Belinda wore on 
her neck two curls, one of which the 
baron cut off with a pair of scissors 
borrowed of Clarissa ; and when Belinda 
demanded that it should be delivered up, 
it had flown to the skies and become a 
meteor there. (See Berenice, p. 112.) 

Belinda, daughter of Mr. Blandford, 
in love with Beverley the brother of 
Clarissa. Her father promised sir Wil- 
liam Bellmont that she should marry 
his son George, but George was already 
engaged to Clarissa. Belinda was very 
handsome, very independent, most irre- 
proachable, and devotedly attached to 
Beverley. When he hinted suspicions of 
infidelity, she was too proud to deny 
it ; but her pure and ardent love instantly 
rebuked her for giving her lover cause- 
less pain. Murphy: All in the Wrong 

Belin'da, the heroine of Miss Edge- 
worth's novel of the same name. The 
object of the tale is to make the reader 
feel what is good, and pursue it (1803). 

Belin'da, a lodging-house servant- 
girl, very poor, very dirty, very kind- 
hearted, and shrewd in observation. 
When married, Mr. Middlewick the 
butter-man set her husband up in busi- 
ness in the butter line. H. J. Byron: 
Our Boys {187s). 

Beline (2 syl.], second wife of Argan 
the tnalade imagtnaire, and stepmother 
of Angelique, whom she hates. Beline 




pretends to love Argan devotedly, 
humours him in all his whims, calls him 
" mon fils," and makes him believe that 
if he- were to die it would be the death of 
her. Toinette induced Argan to put these 
protestations to the test by pretending to 
be dead. He did so, and when Beline 
entered the room, instead of deploring 
her loss, she cried in ecstasy 

" Le del en soit lou6 I Me voilh ddlivr^e d'un grrande 
fardeau 1 . . . de quoi servait-il sur la terre ? Un 
homme incommode k tout le monde, malpropre, d^- 
g-ofltant . , , mouchant, toussant, crachant toujours, 
sans esprit, ennuyeux, de mauvaise humeur, fatiguant 
sans cesse les gens, et grondant jour et nuit servantes 
et valets " (iii. i8). 

She then proceeded to ransack the room 
for bonds, leases, and money ; but Argan, 
starting up, told her she had taught him 
one useful lesson for life, at any rate. 
Moliire : La Malade l7nagi?taire ( 1673). 

Belisa'rius, the greatest of Justi- 
nian's generals. Being accused of treason, 
he was deprived of all his property, and 
his eyes were put out. In this state he 
retired to Constantinople, where he lived 
by begging. The story says he fastened 
a label to his hat, containing these words, 
" Give an oholus to poor old Belisarius." 
Marmontel has written a tale called 
Belisaire, which has helped to perpetuate 
these fables, originally invented by 
TzetzSs or Cassios, a Greek poet, born at 
Constantinople in 1120. 

Belise (2 syl.), sister of Philaminte 
(3 ^y^')< ^"d, like her, a. feitime savante. 
She imagined that every one was in love 
with her. Molitre: Les Femines Savantes 

BELL [Adam), a wild, north-country 
outlaw, noted, like Robin Hood, for his 
skill in archery. His place of residence 
was Englewood Forest, near Carlisle ; 
and his two comrades were Clym of the 
Clough {Clement of the Cliff] and William 
of Cloudesly (3 syl). William was 
married, but the other two were not. 
When William was captured at Carlisle 
and was led to execution, Adam and 
Clym rescued him, and all three went to 
London to crave pardon of the king, 
which, at the queen's intercession, was 
granted them. They then showed the 
king specimens of their skill in archery, 
and the king was so well pleased that he 
made William a "gentleman of fe," and 
the two others yeomen of the bed- 
chamber. Percy: R cliques ("Adam 
Bell," etc.), L ii. i. 

Bell [Bessy). Bessy Bell and Vi^ry 
Gray were the daughters of. tv/o country 

gentlemen near Perth. When the plagua 
broke out in 1666 they built for them- 
selves a bower in a very romantic spot 
called Burn Braes, to which they retired, 
and were supplied with food, etc., by a 
young man who was in love with both of 
them. The young man caught the plague, 
communicated it to the two young ladies, 
and all three died. Allan Ramsay : 
Bessy Bell and Mary Gray (a ballad). 

Bell. Anne, Charlotte, and Emily 
Bronte assumed the names of Acton, 
Currer, and Ellis Bell (first half of the 
nineteenth century). Currer Bell, who 
married the Rev. Arthur Bell NichoUs, 
was the author of Jane Eyre. 

It will be observed that the initial 
letter of both names is in every case pre- 
served throughout Acton (Anne), Currer 
(Charlotte), Ellis (Emily), and Bell 

Bell [Peter), the subject of a "tale in 
verse" by Wordsworth (1798). Shelley 
wrote a burlesque upon it, entitled Peter 
Bell the Third. 

Bell Battle [The). The casus belli 
was this : Have the local magistrates 
power to allow parish bells to be rung at 
their discretion, or is the right vested in 
the parish clergyman? This squabble 
was carried on with great animosity in 
the parish of Paisley in 1832. The. 
clergyman, John Macnaughton, brought 
the question before the local council, ; 
which gave it in favour of the magis- 
trates ; but the court of sessions gave it 
the other way, and when the magistrates 
granted a permit for the bells to be rung, 
the court issued an interdict against them. 

For nearly two years the Paisley bell battle was 
fought with the fiercest zeal. It was the subject of 
every political meeting, the theme of every board, the 
gossip at tea-tables and dinner-parties, and the cliildren 
delighted in chalking on the walls, " Please to ring the 
bell " (May 14, 1832, to September 10, 1834). VVewj. 
paper paragraph. 

Bell-the-Cat, sobriquet of Archibald 
Douglas, great earl of Angus, who died 
in 1514. 

The mice, being much annoyed by the persecutions 
of a cat, resolved that a bell should be hung about her 
neck to give notice of her approach. The measure 
was agreed to in full council, but one of the sager mice 
inquired, "Who would undertake to bell the cat?" 
When Lauder told this fable to a council of Scotch 
nobles, met to declaim against one Cochran, Archibald 
Douglas started up, and exclaimed in thunder, " I will; " 
and hence the sobriquet referred to.Sir IV. Scott: 
Tales of a Grandfather, xxii. 

Bells. Those Evening Bells, a poem 
by T. Moore. The bells referred to 
were those of Ashbourne parish, qtuirc^. 
Derbyshire. National Airs, t.'/^'ZT':-. 



To shake one's hells, to defy, to resist, 
to set up one's back. The allusion is to 
the little bells tied to the feet of hawks. 
Immediately the hawks were tossed, they 
were alarmed at the sound of the bells, 
and took to flight. 

Neither the king:, nor he that loves him best . . . 
Dare stir a wing if Warwick shake liis bells. 

Shakespeare : 3 Henry VI. act i. sc. i {1592). 

Seven ^^//j (half-past 7), breakfast-time; 
eight bells (noon), dinner-time ; three 
bells (half-past 5), supper-time. 

Eight bells (the highest number) are 
rung at noon and every fourth hour after- 
wards. Thus they are sounded at 12, 4, 
and 8 o'clock. For all other parts of the 
day an Even number of bells announce 
the hours, and an Odd number the half- 
liours. Thus 12^ is i bell ; i o'clock is 
2 bells ; li is 3 bells ; 2 o'clock is 4 bells ; 
2^ is 5 befls ; 3 o'clock is 6 bells ; s^s 
7 'oells. Again, 4-^ is i bell ; 5 o'clock is 
2 bells ; si is 3 bells ; 6 o'clock is 4 bells ; 
6i is 5 bells; 7 o'clock is 6 bells; 7^ is 
7 bells. Again, 8^ is i bell ; 9 o'clock is 
2 bells ; 9^ is 3 bells ; 10 o'clock is 4 bells ; 
lo^ is 5 bells ; 11 o'clock is 6 bells ; iiA is 

7 bells. Or, i bell sounds at 12^, 4^, 8^ ; 
2 bells sound at i, 5, 9 ; 3 bells sound at 
at i^, 5^, 9^ ; 4 bells soimd at 2, 6, 10 ; 
5 bells sound at 2^, 6^, xo\ ; 6 bells sound 
at 3, 7, II ; 7 belfs sound at 3,^, 7^, 11^; 

8 bells sound at 4, 8, 12 o'clock. 
Bells tolled Backwards. This 

was the tocsin of the French, first used 
as an alarm of fire, and subsequently for 
any uprising of the people. In the reign 
of Charles IX. it was the signal given by 
the court for the Bartholomew slaughter. 
In the French Revolution it was the call 
to the people for some united attack 
against the royalists. 

Old French, toquer, " to strike," seing 
or sing, " a church-bell." 

Bella Wilfer, a lovely, wilful, lively, 
spoilt darling, who loved every one, and 
whom every one loved. She married 
John Rokesmith {i.e. John Harmon). 
C. Dickens: Our Mutual Friend {1864). 

Bellair, in Etherege's comedy of The 
Man of Mode (1676). Supposed to repre- 
sent the author himself. 

Bellamy, a steady young man, look- 
ing out for a wife " capable of friendship, 
love, and tenderness; with good sense 
enough to be easy, and good nature 
enough to like him." He found his beau- 
ideal in Jacintha, who had besides a 
fortune of ^30,000. Ben Hoadly, M.D, : 
The Suspicious Husband (1761). 

Bella'rio, the assumed name of 
Euphrasia, when she put on boy's ap- 
parel that she might enter the service of 
prince Philaster, whom she greatly loved. 
Fletcher: Philaster, or Love Lies a-blecd- 
ing {1622). An excellent tragedy. 

Bel'laston {Lady), a profligate, from 
whom Tom Jones accepts support. Her 
conduct and conversation may be con- 
sidered a fair photograph of the "beau- 
ties " of the court of Louis XV. Fielding: 
History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1750) . 

Tlie character of Jones, otherwise a model of gene- 
rosity, openness, and manly spirit, mingled with 
thoughtless dissipation, is unnecessarily degraded by 
tlie nature of his intercourse with lady Uellaston. 
EncycloJ-adia Britannica (article "Fielding"). 

Belle Cordiere {La), Louise Lab<5, 
who married Ennemond Perrin, a wealthy 
rope-maker (1526-1566). 

Belle Corisande {La), Diane com- 
tesse de Guiche et de Grammont (1554- 

Belle France {La), a pet way ot 
alluding to France, similar to our Merry 


Belle tlie Giant. It is said that the 
giant Belle mounted on his sorrel horse 
at a place since called mount Sorrel. He 
leaped one mile, and the spot on which 
he lighted was called Wanlip {one-leap) ; 
thence he leaped a second mile, but in so 
doing " burst all " his girths, whence the 
spot was called Burstall ; in the third leap 
he was killed, and the spot received the 
name of Bellegrave. 

Belle's Stratagem {The). The 
"belle" is Letitia Hardy, and her stra- 
tagem was for the sake of winning the 
love of Doricourt, to whom she had been 
betrothed. The very fact of being be- 
trothed to Letitia set Doricourt against 
her, so she went unknown to him to a 
masquerade, where Doricourt fell in love 
with "the beautiful stranger." In order 
to consummate the marriage of his 
daughter, Mr. Hardy pretends to be "sick 
unto death," and beseeches Doricourt to 
wed Letitia before he dies. Letitia meets 
her betrothed in her masquerade dress, 
and unbounded is the joy of the young 
man to find that "the beautiful stranger" 
is the lady to whom he has been be- 
trothed. Mrs. Cowley: The Belle's 
Stratagem. (See Beaux' Stratagem. ) 

Belief ontaine {Benedict), the wealthy 
farmer of Grand Pr6 \Nova Scotia'\ and 
father of Evangeline. When the inhabit- 
ants of his village were driven into exile, 
Benedict died of a broken heart as he 




was about to embark, and was buried on 
the seashore. Longfellow : Evangeline 

Bel'lenden [Lady Margaret), an old 
lady, mistress of the Tower of Tillietud- 
1cm, and devoted to the house of Stuart. 

Old major Miles Bellenden, brother of 
lady Margaret. 

Miss Edith Bellenden, granddaughter 
of lady Margaret, betrothed to lord 
Evendale, of the king's army, but in love 
with Morton (a leader of the Covenanters, 
and the hero of the novel). After the 
death of lord Evendale, who is shot by 
Balfour, Edith marries Morton, and this 
terminates the tale. Sir VV. Scott: Old 
Mortality (time, Charles IL). 

Beller'ophon, son of Glaucos. A 
kind of Joseph, who refused the amorous 
solicitations of Antea, wife of Prcetos (2 
syl.) king of Argos. Antea accused him 
of attempting to dishonour her, and 
Prcetos sent him into Lycia with letters 
desiring his destruction. Accordingly, 
he was set several enterprises full of 
hazard, which, however, he surmounted. 
In later life he tried to mount up to 
heaven on the winged horse Peg3.sus, but 
fell, and wandered about the Alei'an 
plains till he died. Homer: Iliad, vi. 

As once 
Bellerophon . . . dismounted in the Alcian field . . . 
Erroneous there to wander and forlorn. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, vii. 17, etc. (1665). 

Letters of Bellerophon, a treacherous 
letter, pretending to recommend the 
bearer, but in reality denoimcing him ; 
like the letter sent by Proetos to the king 
of Lycia, requesting him lo kill the bearer 

IF Pausa'nias the Spartan, in his 
treasonable correspondence with Xerxes, 
sent several such letters. At last the bearer 
bethought that none of the persons sent 
ever returned ; and, opening the letter, 
found it contained directions for his own 
death. It was shown to the ephors, and 
Pausanias in alarm fied to a temple, 
where he was starved to death. 

IT De Lacy, being sent by king John 
against De Courcy, was informed by two 
of the servants that their master always 
laid aside his armour on Good Friday. 
De Lacy made his attack on that day, 
and sent De Courcy prisoner to London. 
The two servants now asked De Lacy for 
passports from Ireland and England, and 
De Lacy gave them Letters of Bellerophon, 
exhorting "all to whom these presents 
come to spit on the faces of the bearers, 
drive them forth as hounds, and use th.em 

as it behoved the betrayers of their masters 
to be treated." Cameos of English His- 
tory (" Conquest of Ireland "). 

\ The Letter of Uriah (2 Sam. xi, 14) 
was of a similar character. It pretended 
to be one of friendship, but was in reality 
a death-warrant. 

Beller'oplion (4 syl.), the English 
man-of-war under the command of captain 
Mailland. After tlie battle of Waterloo, 
Bonaparte set out for Rocheford, intend- 
ing to seek refuge in America ; but the 
Bellerophon being in sight and escape 
impossible, he made a virtue of necessity 
by surrendering himself, and was forth- 
with conveyed to England. 

Belle'ms, a Cornish giant, whence 
the Land's End is called Bellerium. 
Milton in his Lycidas suggests the pos- 
sibility that Edward King, who was 
drowned at sea, might be sleeping near 
Bellerium or the Land's End, on mount 
St. Michael, where an archangel ordered 
a church to be built. 

Sleepst [thoii] by the fable of Bellerus old, 
Where the great vision of the g^unrded mount 
Looks towards Nainancos \_old CasHle}. 

Milton : Lycidas, i6o, etc. (1638). 

Belleur', companion of Pinac and 
Mirabel ("the wild goose"), of stout 
blunt temper ; in love with Rosalu'ra, 
a daughter of Nantolet. Fletcher: The 
Wild Goose Chase (1619, printed 1652). 

Belliceut, daughter of Gorlois lord of 
Tintag'il and his wife YgernS or Igerna. 
As the widow married Uther the pen- 
dragon, and was then the mother of king 
Arthur, it follows that Bellicent was half- 
sister of Arthur. Tennyson in Gareth 
and Lynette says that Bellicent was the 
wife of Lot king of Orkney, and mother 
of Gaw'ain and Mordred, but this is not 
in accordance either with the chronicle or 
the history ; for Geoffrey in his Chronicle 
says that Lot's wife was Anne, the sister 
(not half-sister) of Arthur (viii. 20, 21). 
and sir T. Malory, in his History of 
Prince Arthur, says 

King Lot of Lothan and Orkney wedded ^f argawse ; 
Ncntres, of the land of Carlot, wedded Elain ; and that 
Morgan le I"ay was [Arthur's} third sister. Pt. i. *, 
35. 36. 

Bel'lin, the ram, in the beast-epic of 
Reynard the Fox. The word means 
"gentleness" (1498). 

Bellingham, a man about town. 
Boucicaztlt: After Dark {\%tZ). 

I was engaged for two years at St. James's Theatre, 
acting "Charles Surface eighty nights, " Bclliiigham" 
a coujileof hundred nights, and had two special engage* 
nients for " .Mcrcutio " at the \j^-c^\x\\\. Walter La ^y. 


Bel'lisant, sister of king Pepin of 
Fnmce, and wife of Alexander enipcror 
of Constantinople. Being accused of 
infidelity, the emperor banished her, and 
she took refuge in a vast forest, where 
she became the mother of Valentine and 
Orson. Valetttine and Orson. 

Belliuont {Sir William), father of 
George Bellmont ; tyrannical, positive, 
and headstrong. He imagined it is the 
duty of a son to submit to his father's will, 
even in the matter of matrimony. 

George Bellmont, son of sir William, in 
love with Clarissa, his friend Beverley's 
sister ; but his father demands of him to 
marry Belinda Blandford, the troth-plight 
wife of Beverley. Ultimately all comes 
right. Murphy: All in the Wrong 

Bello'ua's Handmaids, Blood, 
Fire, and Famine. 

The joddesse of warre, called Bellona, had these thre 
handmaids ever attendynge on her: BLOOD, FiRE, 
and FAMINE, which thre damosels be of that force 
and strength that every one of them alone is able and 
sufficient to torment and afflict a proud prince; and 
they all joyned together are of puissance to destroy 
the most populous country and most richest region of 
the world. //a//.- ClironicU (1530). 

Belliuu [Master), war. 

A difference \is\ 'twixt broyles and bloudie warres, 
Yet have I shot at Maister Bellum's butte, 
And thrown his ball, although I toucht no X.wXX^\be>ieJi(\. 
Gascoignc: The Fruites 0/ IVarre, 94 (died 1577). 

Belmont [Sir Robert), a proud, testy, 
mercenary country gentleman ; friend of 
his neighbour sir Charles Raymond. 

Charles Belmont, son of sir Robert, a 
young rake. He rescued Fidelia, at the 
age of 12, from the hands of Villard, a 
villain who wanted to abuse her ; and, 
taking her to his own home, fell in love 
with her, and in due time married her. 
She turns out to be the daughter of sir 
Charles Raymond. 

Rosetta Belmont, daughter of sir 
Robert, high-spirited, witty, and affec- 
.tionate. She was in love with colonel 
Raymond, whom she delighted in tor- 
menting. Ed. Moore: The Foundling 

Belmonr [Edward), a gay young 
man about town. Congreve: The Old 
Bachelor {1693). 

Belmonr [Mrs.), a widow of " agree- 
able vivacity, entertaining manners, 
quickness of transition from one thing to 
another, a feeling heart, and a generosity 
of sentiment." She it is who shows Mrs. 
Lovemore the way to keep her husband 
at home, and to make him treat her with 
that deference which is her just due. 
Murphy: The Way to Keep Hint [T^fx^). 


Beloved Disciple [The), John, to 
whom the Fourth Gospel is attributed. 
John xiii. 23, etc. 

Beloved Fliysician ( Zi^^), supposed 
to be Luke the evangelist. Col. iv. 14. 

Bel-phegor, a Moabitish deity, whose 
orgies were celebrated on mount Phegor, 
and were noted for their obscenity. 

Belphoelje (3 syl. ). " All the Graces 
rocked her cradle when she was born."^ 
Her mother was Chrysog'onS (4 syl.\ 
daughter of Amphisa of fairy lineage, 
and her twin-sister was Amoretta. While- 
the mother and her babes were asleep, 
Diana took one (Belphosbe) to bring up,, 
and Venus took the other. 

.* Belphoebg is the "Diana" among 
women, cold, passionless, correct, and 
strong-minded. Amoretisthe "Venus," 
but without the licentiousness of that 
goddess, warm, loving, motherly, and 
wifely. Belphoebfi was a lily ; Amoret a 
rose. BclphoebS a moonbeam, light with- 
out heat ; Amoret a sunbeam, bright and 
warm and life-giving. Belphoebfi would 
go to the battle-field, and make a most 
admirable nurse or lady-conductor of an 
ambulance ; but Amoret would prefer to 
look after her husband and family, whose 
comfort would be her first care, and 
whose love she would seek and largely 
reciprocate. See Spenser: Faerie Queene, 
in., iv. (1590). 

. " Belphceb^ " is queen Elizabeth, 
As queen she is Gloriana, but as woman, 
she is Belphceb^ the beautiful and chaste^ 

Either Gloriana let her choose, 
Or in Belphoebe fashionfed to be ; 
In one her rule ; in the other her rare chastitie. 
SJ>eitser; Faerie QueeneJva.\.xod. to bk. iii.). 

Belshazzar, a drama by Milman. 
( 1822) ; a drama by Hannah More [Sacred 
Dramas) (1782); Byron [The Vision of 

Belted Will, lord William Howard, 
warden of the western marches (1563- 

His Bilboa blade, by Marchmcn fcH, 
Hung in a broad and studded belt; 
>fcnce in rude phrase the Borderers still 
Called noble Howard "Belted Will." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Belten^eliros (4 syl). AmSdis of 
Gaul assumes the name when he retires 
to the Poor Rock, after receiving a cruel 
letter from Oria'na his lady-love. Vclsco 
de Lobeira: Amadis de Gaul., iL 6 {before 

One of the most distinguishing testimonies which that 
hero gave of his fortitude, constancy, and love, was his 
retiring to the Poor Rock when iu disgrace wlUi his 




mistress Oriana, to do penance under the name of Bel- 
teneiros, or the Lovely Obscure. Cervantes: Don 
Quixcrte, I. iii. ii (1603). 

Belvawney [Miss), of the Portsmouth 
Theatre. She always took the part of 
page, and wore tights and silk stockings. 
Dickens: Nicholas Nickleby (1838). 

Blvide'ra, daughter of Priu'li a 
senator of Venice. She was saved from 
the sea by Jafifier, eloped with him, and 
married him. Her father then discarded 
her, and her husband joined the con- 
spiracy of Pierre to murder the senators. 
He told Belvidera of the plot, and 
Belvidera, in order to save her father, 
persuaded Jaffier to reveal the plot to 
Priuli, if he would promise a general free 
pardon. Priuh gave the required promise, 
but notwithstanding, all the conspirators, 
except Jaffier, were condemned to death 
by torture. Jaffier stabbed Pierre to save 
him from the dishonour of the wheel, and 
then killed himself. Belvidera goes mad 
and dies. Otvuay ; Venice Preserved 

We have to check our tears, although well aware that 
the " Belvidera " with whose sorrows we sympathize is 
no other than our own inimitable Mrs. Siddons. Jir 
fy, Scott; The Drama, 

\ (The actor Booth used to speak in 
rapture of Mrs. Porter's " Belvidera." It 
obtained for Mrs. Barry the title of 

famous; Miss O'Neill and Miss Helen 
Faucit were both great in the same part.) 
Ben [Legend], sir Sampson Legend's 
younger son, a sailor and a "sea-wit," in 
whose composition there enters no part 
of the conventional generosity and open 
frankness of a British tar. His slang 
phrase is "D'ye see," and his pet oath 
"Mess ! " W. Congreve : Love for Love 
(169s). I cannot agree with the follow- 
ing sketch : 

What is BenVa^ pleasant sailor which Bannister gives 
us but a piece of satire ... a dreamy combination of 
all the accidents of a sailor's character, his contempt of 
money, his credulity to women, with that necessary 
estrangement from home? . . . We never think the 
worse of Ben for it, or feel it as a stain upon his charac- 
ter. C Lamb. 

C. Dibdin says, " If the description of Thorn. Doggett's 
performance of this character be correct, the part has 
certainlj never been performed since to any degree of 

Ben Israel {Nathan) or Nathan 
ben Samuel, the physician and friend 
of Isaac the Jew. Sir W. Scott: Ivanhoc 
{time, Richard I. ). 

Ben Joc'hanan, In the satire of 
Absalom and Achitophel, by Dry den and 
Tate, is meant for the Rev, Samuel John- 
son, who, it is said, suffered a scandalous 
amoui under his own roof, 

Let Hebron, nay, let hell produce a man 
So made for mischief as Ben Jochanan. 
A Jew of humble parentage was he. 
By trade a Levite, though of low degree. 

Dryden and Tate: pL ii. 351-334 (1682). 

Benai'ah (3 syl.), in Absalom and 
Achitophel, is meant for general George 
Edward Sackville. As Benaiah, captain 
of David's guard, adhered to Solomon 
against Adonijah, so general Sackville 
adhered to the duke of York against the 
prince of Orange (1590-1652). 

Nor can Benaiah's worth forgotten lie, 

Of steady soul when public storms were high. 

Dryden and l^ate: pt. ii. 819, 820 (1682). 

Benas'kar or Bennaskar, a 

wealthy merchant and magician of Delhi. 
James Ridley: Tales of the Genii 
{" History of Mahoud," tale vii., 1751). 

Benbow {Admiral). In an engage- 
ment with the French near St. Martha on 
the Spanish coast in 1701, admiral Ben- 
bow had his legs and thighs shivered 
into sphnters by chain-shot; but, sup- 
ported in a wooden frame, he remained 
on the quarter-deck till morning, when 
Du Casse sheered off. 

^ Similar acts of heroism are recorded 
of Almeyda the Portuguese governor of 
India ; of Cynsegeros brother of the poet 
^schylos ; of Jaafer the standard-bearer 
of ' ' the prophet " in the battle of AJuta ; 
of Widdrington {q.v.)\ and of some 
others. (See Jaafer. ) 

Benbow, an idle, generous, free-and- 
easy sot, who spent a good inheritance in 
dissipation, and ended life in the work- 

Benbow, a boon companion, long approved 
By jovial sets, and (as he thought) beloved, 
Was judged as one to joy and friendship prone^ 
And deemed injurious to himself alone. 

Crabbe: Borough, xvi. (1810). 

Ben'demeer', a river that flows near 
the ruins of Chil'minar' or Istachar', in 
the province of Chusistan in Persia. 

Bend-tlie-Bow, an English archer 
at Dickson's cottage. Sir W. Scott: 
Castle Dangerous (time, Henry I.). 

Benedick, a wild, witty, and light- 
hearted young lord of Padua, who vowed 
celibacy, but fell in love with Beatrice 
and married her. It fell out thus : He 
went on a visit to Leonato governor of 
Messina; here he saw Beatrice, the 
governor's niece, as wild and witty as 
himself, but he disliked her, thought her 
pert, forward, and somewhat ill-mannered 
withal. However, he heard Claudio 
speaking to Leonato about Beatrice, 
saying hdXv deeply she loved Benedick, 
and bewailing that so nice a girl should 



break her heart with unrequited love. 
This conversation was a mere ruse, but 
Benedick beheved it to be true, and 
resolved to reward the love of Beatrice 
with love and marriage. It so happened 
that Beatrice had been entrapped by a 
similar conversation which she had over- 
heard from her cousin Hero. The end 
was they sincerely loved each other, and 
became man and wife. Shakespeare: 
Much Ado about Nothing (1600). 
A married man is called a Benedick. 

Benefit-Flay. The first actress in- 
dulged with a benefit-play was Mrs. 
Elizabeth Barry {16S2-1733). 

Ben'engfel'i {Cid Hamet), the hypo- 
thetical Moorish chronicler from whom 
Cervantfis pretends he derived the ac- 
count of the adventures of don Quixote. 

The Spanish commentators . . . have discovered that 
Hd Hamet Batcngeli is after all no more than an Arabic 
version of the name of Cervantes himselt Haviet is 
a Moorish prefix, and i/ejw^w^^/j signifies "son of a stag," 
In Spanish Cervanieno. Lockhart. 

Benengeli {Cid Hamet), Thomas 
Babington lord Macaulay, His signa- 
ture in his Fragment of an Ancient 
Eomance {1826). 

Benev'olus, in Cowper's Task, is 
John Courtney Throckmorton, of Weston 

Benjie [Little], or Benjamin Col- 
thred, a spy employed by Cristal Nixon, 
the agent of Redgauntlet. Sir IV. Scott : 
Redgaitntlet (time, George III.). 

Ben'net [Brother), a monk at St. 
Mary's convent. Sir IV. Scott: The 
Monastery (time, Elizabeth). 

Ben'net [Mrs.), a demure, intriguing 
woman in Amelia, a novel by Fielding 

Ben'oiton {Madami), a woman who 
has been the ruin of the family by neglect. 
In the "famille Benoiton" the constant 
question was, " Oil est Madame ?" and the 
invariable answer, " Elle est sortie." Atthe 
dinoucmmt the question was asked again, 
and the answer was varied thus : ' ' Madam 
has been at home, but is gone out again." 
La Famille Benoiton. 

Ben'shee or Banshee, the domestic 
spirit of certain Irish families. The 
benshee takes an interest in the prosperity 
of the family to which it is attached, and 
intimates to it approaching disaster or 
death by wailings or shrieks. The Scotch, 
Bodach Glay, or "grey spectre," is a 
similar spirit. (See White Lady.) 

How oft has the Bcnshce cried J 
How oft has death untied 
Bright links that glory wore, 
Sweet bonds entwined by love ! 

T. Moore : Irish Melodies, H. 

Bentinck Street (London), named 
after William Bentinck, second duke of 
Portland, who married Margaret, only 
child of Edward second earl of Oxford 
and Mortimer. 

Benvolio, nephew to Montague, and 
Romeo's friend. A testy, htigious fellow, 
who would quarrel about goat's wool or 
pigeon's miJk. Mercutio says to him, 
" Thou hast quarrelled with a man for 
coughing in the street, because he hath 
wakened thy dog that hath lain asleep 
in the sun" (act iii. sc. 1), Shakespeare:- 
Romeo and Juliet (1598). 

Ben'wicke (2 syl.), the kingdom of 
king Ban, father of sir Launcelot. It 
was situated in that extremely shadowy 
locality "beyond seas;" but whether it 
was Brittany or Utopia, '* non nostrum 
tantas compongre lites." . . 

Probably it was Brittany, because it 
was across the channel, and was in 
France. Ban king of Benwicke was, 
brother of Bors king of Gaul. Malory: 
History of Prince Arthur, i. 8 (1470). 

Beownlf, the name of an Anglo- 
Saxon epic poem of the sixth century. It 
received its name from Beowulf, who 
delivered Hrothgar king of Denmark from 
the monster Grendel. This Grendel was 
half monster and half man, and night 
after night stole into the king's palace' 
called Heorot, and slew sometimes as 
many as thirty of the sleepers at a time. 
Beowulf put himself at the head of a 
mixed band of warriors, went against the 
monster and slew it. This epic is very 
Ossianic in style, is full of beauties, and- 
is most interesting. Kemble's Transla- 

(A. D. Wackerbarth published in 1849- 
a metrical translation of this Anglo- 
Saxon poem, of considerable merit ; and'. 
T. Arnold, in 1876, published an edition 
of the fragment, consisting of 6337 lines.) 

Beppo. Byron's Beppo is the husband 
of Laura, a Venetian lady. He was taken 
caiptive in Troy, turned Turk, joined a 
band of pirates, grew rich, and after 
several years returned to his native land. . 
He found his wife at a carnival ball with' 
a cavaliero, made himself known to her,' 
and they lived together again as man ancJ 
wife. (Beppo is a contraction, of Gtdseppe^ 
as Bill is Of William. 1818.} 



BeppO, in Fra Diavolo, an opera by 
Auber (1836). 

Be 'r aide {2 syL), brother of Argan the 
vialade imaginaire. He tells Argan that 
his doctors will confess this much, that 
the cure of a patient is a very minor con- 
sideration with them, " toute I'excellence 
de leur art consiste en un pompeux gali- 
matias, en un specietix babil, gut vous 
donne des mots pour des raisons, et des 
promesses pour des effets." Again he says, 
" presque tous les hommes meurent de leur 
remides et non pas de leurs maladies." He 
then proves that Argan's wife is a mere 
hypocrite, while his daugher is a true- 
hearted, loving girl ; and he makes the 
invalid join in the dancing and singing 
provided for his cure. MolUre : Le 
Malade Imaginaire {1673). 

Bercll 'ta [ " the white lady "], a fairy of 
Southern Germany, answering to Hulda 
<(" the gracious lady") of Northern Ger- 
many. After the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, Berchta lost her first estate and 
lapsed into a bogie. 

Berecyxi'tliian Goddess { The). 
CybSlfi is so called from mount Berecyn'- 
tus, in Phrygia, where she was held in 
especial adoration. She is represented as 
crowned with turrets, and holding keys 
in her hand. 

Her helmfed head 
Rose like the Berecynthian s^oddess crowned 
With towers. 

Southey: Roderick, etc., ii. (1814). 

N.B. Virgil gives the word both 
'Cybfile and Cybele 

nine mater cultrix Cybgle Corybantiaque aera. 
/Uniid, iii. irx. 
Occurrit comitum : Nymphae, quas alma Cybele. 
jEneid, x. 220. 

Berecyn'thian Hero [The), Midas 
'king of Phiygia, so called from mount 
Berecyn'tus (4 syL), in Phrygia. 

Bereu^a'ria, queen - consort of 
Richard Coeur de Lion, introduced in The 
Talisman, a novel by sir W. Scott 
{1825). Berengaria died 1230. 

Berenger [Sir Raymond), an old 
Norman warrior, living at the castle of 
Garde Doloureuse. 

Tht lady Eveline Berenger, sir Ray- 
mond's daughter, betrothed to sir Hugo 
de Lacy. Sir Hugo cancels his own 
betrothal in favour of his nephew (sir 
Damian de Lacy), who marries the lady 
Eveline " the betrothed." ^/r W. Scott: 
The Betrothed (time, Henry H.). 

Bereni'ce (4 lyl.), sister- wife of 

Ptolemy HL She vowed to sacrifice her 
hair to the gods if her husband returned 
home the vanquisher of Asia. On his 
return, she suspended her hair in the 
temple of the war-god, but it was stolen 
the first night, and Conon of Samos told 
the king that the winds had carried it to 
heaven, where it still forms the seven 
stars near the tail of Leo, called Coma 

Pope, in his Rape of the Lock, has 
borrowed this fable to account for the 
lock of hair cut from Belinda's head, the 
restoration of which the young lady 
insisted upon. (See Belinda, p. 105. ) 

Bereni'ce (4 syl. ), a Jewish princess, 
daughter of Agrippa, She married Herod 
king of Chalcis, then Polemon king of 
Cilicia, and then went to live with 
Agrippa H. her brother. Titus fell in 
love with her and would have married 
her, but the Romans compelled him to 
renounce the idea, and a separation took 
place. Otway (1672) made this the 
subject of a tragedy called Titus and 
Berenice : and Jean Racine (1670), in his 
tragedy of Birinice, has made her a sort 
of Henriette d'Orl^ans. 

(Henriette d'Orldans, daughter of 
Charles L of England, married Philippe 
due d'Orldans, brother of Louis XIV. 
She was brilliant in talent and beautiful 
in person, but being neglected by her 
husband, she died suddenly after drinking 
a cup of chocolate, probably poisoned.) 

Beresi'na (4 syl.). Every streamlet 
shall prove a new Beresina (Russian) : 
meaning " every streamlet shall prove 
their destruction and overthrow," The 
allusion is to the disastrous passage of the 
French army in November, 1812, during 
their retreat from Moscow. It is said 
that 12,000 of the fugitives were drowned 
in the stream, and 16,000 were taken 
prisoners by the Russians. 

Beril. (See Beryl.) 

Beriugfhen {The Sieur de), an old 
gourmand, who preferred patties to trea- 
son ; but cardinal Richelieu banished him 
from France, saying 

Sleep not another night in Paris, 

Or else your precious life may be in danger. 

LordLyttott: Richelieu (1839?. 

BeriU'thia, cousin of Amanda ; a 
beautiful young widow attached to colonel 
Townly. In order to win him she plavs 
upon his jealousy by coquetting with 
Loveless. Sheridan : A Trip to Scar- 
borough (1777). 



Berkeley {The Old Woman of), a 
tsoman whose life had been very wicked. 
On her death-bed she sent for her son 
who was a monk, and for her daughter 
who was a nun, and bade them put her 
in a strong stone coffin, and to fasten the 
coffin to the ground with strong bands of 
iron. Fifty priests and fifty choristers 
were to pray and sing over her for three 
days, and the boll was to toll without 
ceasing. The first night passed without 
much disturbance. The second night the 
candles burnt blue, and dreadful yells 
were heard outside the church. But the 
third night the devil broke into the church 
and carried off the old woman on his 
black horse. Southcy : The Old Woman 
of Berkeley (a ballad from Olaus Magnus). 

Dr. Bayers pointed out to us in conversation a story 
related by Olaus Majpus of a witcli whose coffin was 
confined by three chauis, but nevertheless was carried 
oft' by demons. Dr. Sayers had made a ballad on the 
subject ; so had I ; but after seeing TIte Old IVoman 
^AVr/C'/0'. we awarded it the preference. //'. Taylor. 

Berkeley Square (London), so 
called in compliment to John lord 
Berkeley of Stratton, 

Berkely { The lady Augusta), plighted 
to sir John de Walton governor of 
Douglas Castle. She first appears under 
the name of Augustine, disguised as tlie 
son of Bertram the minstrel, and the 
novel concludes with her marriage to De 
Walton, to whom Douglas Castle had 
been surrendered. Sir W. Scoft : Castle 
Dangerous {time, Henry L). 

Berkley {Mr.), an English bachelor 
of fortune, somewhat advanced in age, 
" good humoured, humane, remarkable 
for good common sense, but very eccen- 
tric." Longfellow : Hyperion (1839). 

Berkshire Lady ( The), Miss Frances 
Kendrick, daughter of Sir William Ken- 
drick, second baronet ; his father was 
created baronet by Charles IL The line, 
"Faint heart never won fair lady," was 
the advice of a friend to Mr. Child, the 
son of a brewer, who sought the hand of 
the lady. Quarterly Review, cvi. 205- 

Berme'ja, the Insula de la Torri, 
from which Am*adis of Gaul starts when 
he goes in quest of the enchantress- 
damsel, daughter of Finetor, the necro- 

Bermu'das, a cant name for one of 
the purlieus of the Strand, at one time 
frequented by vagabonds, thieves, and 
all evil-doers who sought to lie perdu. 

Bernard. SoJomon Bernard, engraver 



of Lions (sixteenth century), called Le 
petit Bernard. Claude Bernard of Dijon, 
the philanthropist (1588-1641), is called 
Poor Bernard. Pierre Joseph Bernard, 
the French poet (1710-1775), is called Le 
gi'.util Bernard. 

Bernard, an ass ; in Italian, Bernardo. 
In the beast-epic called Reynard the Fox, 
the sheep is called "Bernard," and the 
ass is " Bernard I'archipretre " (1498). 

Bernar'do, an officer in Denmark, to 
whom the ghost of the murdered king 
appeared during the night-watch at the 
royal castle. Shakespeare: Hamlet 

Bernardo del Carpio, one of the 
most favourite subjects of the old Spanish 
minstrels. The other two were The Cid 
and Lara's Seven Infants. Bernardo del 
Carpio was the person who assailed 
Orlando (or Rowland) at RoncesvallSs, 
and, finding him invulnerable, took him 
up in his arms and squeezed him to death, 
as Herculgs did Antae'os. Cervantes: 
Don Quixote, II. ii. 13 (1615). 

. The only vulnerable part of Orlando 
was the sole of the foot. 

Mrs. Hemans wrote a ballad so called. 

Bemescme Poetry, like lord By. 
ron's Don Juan, is a mixture of satire, 
tragedy, comedy, serious thought, wit, 
and ridicule. L. Pulci was the father of 
this class of rhyme (1432-1487) ; but 
Francesco Berni of Tuscany (1490-1537) 
so greatly excelled in it, that it is called 
Bernesque, from his name. 

Bemit'ia with Dei'ra constituted 
Northumbria. Bernitia included West- 
moreland, Durham, and part of Cumber- 
land. Deira contained the other part 
of Cumberland, with Yorkshire and 

Two kingdoms which had ben with several thrones 

Beniitia hijiht the one, Diera \sic\ th' other called. 

Drayton: Polyolbion, xvi. (1613). 

Ber'rathon, an island of Scandinavia. 

Berser'ker, grandson of the eight- 
handed Starka'der and the beautiful 
Alfliil'd^. He was so called because he 
wore "no shirt of mail," but went to 
battle unharnessed. He married the 
daughter of Swafurlam, and had twelve 
sons. {BcBr-syrce, Anglo-Saxon, ' ' bare 
of shirt ; " Scotch, "bare-sark.") 

You say that I am a Berserker, and . . . bare-sark I 
go to-morrow to the war, and bare-sark I win that war 
or die. Rev. C. KingsUy: Hcrewardtht /Fa/ft^, i. 247. 

BERTHA, the supposed daughter of 
Vandunke (2 syl.) burgomaster of Bruges, 




and mistress of Goswin a rich merchant 
of the same city. In reality, Bertha is 
the duke of Brabant's daughter Gertrude, 
and Goswin is Florez, son of Gerrard 
king of the beggars. Fletcher: The 
Beggars' Bush (1622). 

Ber'tha, daughter of Burkhard duke 
of the Alemanni, and wife of Rudolf II. 
king of Burgundy beyond Jura. She is 
represented on monuments of the time as 
sitting on her throne spinning. 

You are the beautiful Bertha the Spinner, the queen of 

Helvetia ; . . . 
Who as she rode on her palfrey, o'er valley and meadow 

and mountain, 
Ever was spinning her thread from the distaff fixed to 

her saddle. 
She was so thrifty and good, that her name passed into 

a proverb. 
Longfellow: Courtship of Miles Slandisk, viil. 

Bertha, alias Agatha, the betrothed 
of Hereward (3 syl.) one of the emperor's 
Varangian guards. The novel concludes 
with Hereward enlisting under the banner 
of count Robert, and marrying Bertha. 
Sir W. Scott: Count Robert of Paris 
(time, Rufus). 

Ber'tha, the betrothed of John of Ley- 
den. When she went with her mother to 
ask count Oberthal's permission to marry, 
the count resolved to make his pretty 
vassal his mistress, and confined her in 
his castle. She made her escape and 
went to Munster, intending to set fire to 
the palace of "the prophet," who, she 
thought, had caused the death of her 
lover. Being seized and brought before 
the prophet, she recognized in him her 
lover, and exclaiming, "I loved thee 
once, but now my love is turned to hate," 
stabbed herself and died. Meyerbeer : Le 
PropMte (an opera, 1849). 

Bertlia, the blind daughter of Caleb 
Plummer, in Dickens's Christmas story 
The Cricket on the Hearth (1845). 

Bertlie au Grand-Pied, mother of 
Charlemagne, so called from a club-foot. 

Bertold [St.), the first prior-general 
of Carmel (1073-1188). We are told in 
the Briviare des Carmes that the good- 
ness of this saint so spiritualized his face 
that it seemed actually luminous: "son 
ame se refl^tait sur sa figure qui paraissait 
comme environn^e des rayons de soleil." 

Till oft converse with heavenly habitants 
Begin to cast a beam on th' outward shape . . . 
And turn it by degrees to the soul's essence. 

Milton : Comus. 

Bertoldo [Prince), a knight of Malta, 
and brother of Roberto king of the Two 
Sicilies. He is in love Vvith Cami'ola 

"the maid of honour," but could not 
marry without a dispensation from the 
pope. While matters were at this crisis, 
Bertoldo laid siege to Sienna, and was 
taken prisoner. Camiola paid his ransom, 
but before he was released the duchess 
Aurelia requested him to be brought 
before her. Immediately the duchess saw 
him, she fell in love with him, and offered 
him marriage ; and Bertoldo, forgetful of 
Camiola, accepted the offer. The be- 
trothed then presented themselves before 
the king. Here Camiola exposed the 
conduct of the knight ; Roberto was in- 
dignant ; Aurelia rejected her /af/ with 
scorn ; and Camiola took the veil. MaS' 
singer: The Maid 0/ Honour (1637). 

Bertol'do, the chief character of a 
comic romance called Vita di Bertoldo, by 
Julio Cesare Croc6, who flotirished in the 
sixteenth century. It recounts the suc- 
cessful exploits of a clever but ugly 
peasant whom nothing astonishes. Hence 
the phrase. Imperturbable as Bertolde 
(never disconcerted). This jeu d esprit 
was for two centuries as popular in Italy 
as Robinson Crusoe is in England. 

Bertoldo's Son, Rinaldo. rof*?.- 
Jerusale7n Delivered (1575). 

BERTRAM {Baron), one of Charle- 
magne's paladins. 

Ber'tram, count of Rousillon. While 
on a visit to the king of France, Hel'ena, 
a physician's daughter, cured the king of 
a disorder which had baflBed the court 
physicians. For this service the king 
promised her for husband any one she 
chose to select, and her choice fell' on 
Bertram. The haughty count married 
her, it is true, but deserted her at once, 
and left for Florence, where he joined 
the duke's army. It so happened that 
Helena also stopped at Florence while on 
a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Jacques 
le Grand. In Florence she lodged with a 
widow whose daughter Diana was wan- 
tonly loved by Bertram. Helena ol> 
tained permission to receive his visits in 
lieu of Diana, and in one of these visits 
exchanged rings with him. Soon after 
this the count went on a visit to ^ his 
mother, where he saw the king, and the 
king observing on his finger the ring he 
had given to Helena, had him arrested on 
the suspicion of murder. Helena now 
came forward to explain matters, and all 
was well, for all ended yi^.Shak^ 
speare: All's Well that Ends Well 
(1598). ..:-r.:^ 


I cannot reconcile my heart to " Bertram," a man 
noble without generosity, and young without truth ; who 
marries Helena as a coward, and leaves her as a pro- 
fligate. When she is dead by his unkindness he sneaks 
home to a second marriage, is accused by a woman 
whom he has wronged, defends himself by falsehood, 
and is dismissed to happiness. Z)r. yohnson. 

Bertram [Sir Stephen), an austere 
merchant, very just but not generous. 
Fearing lest his son should marry the 
sister of his clerk (Charles Ratcliffe), he 
dismissed Ratcliffe from his service, and 
being then informed that the marriage 
had been already consummated, he dis- 
inherited his son. Sheva the Jew assured 
him that the lady had ;^io,ooo for her 
fortune, so he relented. At the last all 
parties were satisfied. 

Frederick Bertram, only son of sir 
Stephen ; he marries Miss Ratcliffe clan- 
destinely, and incurs thereby his father's 
displeasure, but the noble benevolence of 
Sheva the Jew brings about a reconcilia- 
tion, and opens sir Bertram's eyes to 
"see ten thousand merits," a grace for 
every pound. Cumberland: The Jew 

Bertraiu [Count), an outlaw, who be- 
comes the leader of a band of robbers. 
Being wrecked on the coast of Sicily, he 
\s conveyed to the castle of lady Imogine, 
and in her he recognizes an old sweetheart 
to whom in his prosperous days he was 
greatly attached. Her husband [St. Aldo- 
brand), who was away at first, returning 
unexpectedly, is murdered by Bertram ; 
Imogine goes mad and dies ; and Bertram 
puts an end to his own life. C Maturin : 
Berti-am (a tragedy, 18 16). 

Bertram [Mr. Godfrey), the laird of 

Mrs. Bertram, his wife. 

Harry Bertram, alias captain Van- 
beest Brown, alias Dawson, alias Dudley, 
son of the laird, and heir to EUangowan. 
Harry Bertram is in love with Julia 
Mannering, and the novel concludes with 
his taking possession of the old house at 
EUangowan and marrying Julia. 

Lucy Bertram, sister of Harry Bertram. 
She marries Charles Hazlewood, son of 
sir Robert Hazlewood, of Hazlewood. 

Sir Allen Bertram, of EUangowan, an 
ancestor of Mr. Godfrey Bertram. 

Denis Bertram, Donohoe Bertram, and 
Lewis Bertram, ancestors of Mr. Godfrey 

Captain Andrew Bertram, a relative of 
the family. Sir W. Scott : Guy Man- 
ftering [\.\mQ, George II.). 

Bertram, the English minstrel, and 


guide of lady Augfusta Berkely. When in 
disguise, the lady Augusta calls herself 
Augustine, the minstrel's son. Sir W. 
Scott: Castle Dangerous (time, Henry I.). 
Ber'tram, one of the conspirators 
against the republic of Venice. Having 
"a hesitating softness, fatal to a great 
enterprise," he betrayed the conspiracy 
to the senate. Byron: Marino Faliero 

Bertra'm.0, the fiend-father of Robert 
le Diable. After alluring his son to 
gamble away all his property, he met 
him near St. Ire'nd, and Hel'ena seduced 
him to join in " the Dance of Love." 
When at last Bertramo came to claim 
his victim, he was resisted by Alice (the 
duke's foster-sister), who read to Robert 
his mother's will. Being thus reclaimed, 
angels celebrated the triumph of good 
over evil. Meyerbeer: Roberto il Diavolo 
(an opera, 1831). 

Bertrand, a simpleton and a villain. 
He is'the accomplice of Robert Macaire, 
a libertine of unblushing impudence, who 
sins without compunction. Daumier : 
L'Auberge des Adrets. 

Bertrand du Gueslin, a romance 
of chivalry, reciting the adventures of 
this conn^table de France, in the reign of 
Charles V. 

Bertrand du Gueslin in prison. The 
prince of Wales went to visit his captive 
Bertrand ; and, asking him how he fared, 
the Frenchman replied, "Sir, I have 
heard the mice and the rats this many a 
day, but it is long since I heard the song 
of birds," i.e. I have been long a captive 
and have not breathed the fresh air, 

^ The reply of Bertrand du Gueslin 
brings to mind that of Douglas, called 
"The Good sir James," the companion 
of Robert Bruce, "It is better, 1 ween, 
to hear the lark sing than the mouse 
cheep," i.e. It is better to keep the open 
field than to be shut up in a castle. 

Bertulplie (2 syl. ), provost of Bruges, 
the son of a serf. By his genius and 
energy he became the richest, most 
honoured, and most powerful man in 
Bruges. His arm was strong in fight, his 
wisdom swayed the council, his step was 
proud, and his eye untamed. Bertulphe 
had one child, the bride of sir Bouchard, 
a knight of noble descent. Now, Charles 
" the Good," earl of Flanders, had made 
a law (1127) that whoever married a 
serf should become a serf, and that serfs 
were serfs till manumission. By these 




absurd decrees Bertulphe the provost, his 
daughter Constance, and liis knightly son- 
in-law were all serfs. The result was that 
the provost slew the earl and then himseL'" ; 
his daughter went mad and died ; and 
Bouchard was slain in fight, Knowlcs : 
The Provost of Bruges {1836). 

Ber'wine {2 syl.), the favourite at- 
tendant of lady Er'mengarde (3 syl.) of 
Baldringham, great-aunt of lady Eveline 
"the betrothed." 5z> W. Scott: The 
Betrothed {time, Henry H.). 

Be'ryl, a kind of crystal, much used at 
one time by fortune-tellers, who looked 
into the beryl and then uttered their pre- 

. . . and, like a prophet. 
Looks in a glass that shews what future evils . . . 
Are now to have no successive degree, 
But where they Hve, to end. 
Shakespeare : Measure for Measure, act i. sc. 2 (1603). 

Ber'yl Mol'ozane {3 syl.), the lady- 
love of George Geith. All beauty, love, 
and sunshine. She has a heart for every 
one, is ready to help every one, and is by 
every one beloved ; yet her lot is most 
painfully unhappy, and ends in an early 
death. /^. G. Trafford [Mrs. Riddell] : 
George Geith {1864). 

Besiegfer(77zf), Demetrius Polic'rates 
(4 syl.), king of Macedon (died B.C. 522). 

Since the days of Demetrius Policrat^s, no man had 
besieged so many cities. Motley: The Dutch Re- 
public, pt. iil I. 

Beso'uian {A), a scoundrel. From 
the Italian, bisogtwso, "a needy person, a 

Proud lords do tumble from the towers of their high 
descents; and be trod under feet of every inferior 
bcsonian. Thomas Nash: Pierce Pcnnylesse, his 
Supplication, etc. (1592). 

Bess {Good queen), Elizabeth (1533, 

Bess, the daughter of the "blind 
beggar of Bethnal Green," a lady by 
birth, a sylph for beauty, an angel for 
constancy and sweetness. She was loved 
to distraction by Wilford, who turns out 
to be the son of lord Woodville ; and as 
Bess was the daughter of lord Wood- 
ville's brother, they were cousins. Queen 
Elizabeth sanctioned their nuptials, and 
took them under her own especial conduct. 
S. Knowlcs : The Beggar of Bethnal 
Green (1834). 

Bess o' Bedlam, a female lunatic 
vagrant ; the male lunatic vagrant being 
called a Tom 0' Bedlam. 

Bessus, governor of Bactria, who 

seized Dari'us (after the battle of Arbe'la) 

and put him to death. Arrian says, Alex- 
ander caused the nostrils of the regicide 
to be slit, and the tips of his ears to be 
cut off. The offender, being then sent to 
Ecbat'Sna in chains, was put to death. 

Lo 1 Bessus, he that armde with murderer's knyfe 

And traytrous hart agaynst his royal king, 
With bluddy hands bereft his master's life . . . 

AVhat booted him his false usurped raygne . . . 
"When like a wretche led in an iron chayne. 
He was presented by his chiefest friende 
Unto the toes of him whom he had slaynet 

Sackville: A Mirrotir/or MagistrayUs 
("The Complaynt," 1587). 

Bes'sus, a cowardly bragging captain, 
a sort of Bobadil or Vincent de la Rosa. 
Captain Bessus, having received a chal- 
lenge, wrote word back that he could not 
accept the honour for thirteen weeks, as 
he had already 212 duels on hand, but he 
was much grieved he could not appoint 
an earlier day. Fletclier : King or No 
King (a tragedy, 1619). 

Rochester I despise for want of wit , . . 
So often does he aim, so seldom hit . . . 
Mean in each action, leud in every limb, 
Manners themselves are mischievous in him . . . 
[OhJ what a Bessus has he always lived 1 

Dryden: Essay upon Satire. 

Bessy Bell. (See Bell, p. io6.} 
Bestiaries, a class of books im- 
mensely popular in the eleventh, twelfth, 
and thirteenth centuries, when symbolism 
was much in vogue, and sundry animals 
were made symbols, not only of moral 
qualities, but of religious doctrines. Thus 
the unicorn with its one horn symbolized 
Christ (the one Saviour), the gospel (or 
one way of salvation) ; and the legend 
that it cou^d be caught only by a virgin 
symbolized "God made man " being born 
of the virgin Mary. 

Beth. Gelert. (See Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable, p. 128. ) 

Betique (2 syl.) or Bse'tica (Gra- 

na'da and Andalusia), so called from th^ 
river Bsetis {Guadalquiver). Ado'am de- 
scribes this part of Spain to Telem'achus 
as a veritable Utopia. Fdnelon : Aven- 
tures dcs Tilimaque, viii. (1700). 

Betrothed {The), one of the Tales 
of the Crusaders, by sir W. Scott (1825) ; 
time, Henry II. of England. The lady 
Eveline, daughter of sir Raymond, was 
for three years " betrothed" to sir Hugo 
de Lacy (the crusader), but ultimately 
married his nephew, sir Damian de Lacy. 
The tale is as follows : Gwenwin, a 
Welsh prince, living in PowysCastle, asked 
the hand of lady Eveline in marriage, but 
the aUiance was declined by her father. 
Whereupon Gwenwyn besieged sir Ray- 
mond's castle, and lady Eveline saw her 



f.xtheT fall, slain by the Welsh prince. 
Sir Hugo de Lacy came to the rescue, 
dispersed the Welsh army, proposed 
marriage, and being accepted, lady 
Eveline was placed in a convent under 
charge of her aunt till the marriage 
could be consummated. Sir Hugo was 
now ordered to the Holy Land for three 
years on a crusade, and lady Eveline had 
to wait for his return. On one occasion 
she was treacherously induced to join a 
hawking party ; and, being seized by 
emissaries of the Welsh prince, was con- 
fined in a "cavern." Sir Damian de 
Lacy rescued her, but, being severely 
wounded, was confined to his bed and 
nursed by the lady. When sir Hugo re- 
turned, he soon found out how the land 
lay, and magnanimously cancelled his 
own betrothal in favour of his nephew. 
Sir Damian married the betrothed, and 
so the novel ends. 

Better to Rei^ in Hell than 
Serve in Heaven. Milton : Paradise 
Lost, i. 263 {1665). 

^ Julius Coesar used to say he would 
rather be the first man in a country village 
than the second at Rome. (See C^sar, 
p. 165.) 

Betty Dozy. Captain Macheaih 
says to her, "Do you drink as hard as 
ever? You had better stick to good 
wholesome beer ; for, in troth, Betty, 
strong waters will in time ruin your con- 
stitution. You should leave those to your 
betters." Gay : The Beggar's Opera, ii. i 

Betty Poy, " the idiot mother of 
an idiot boy." Wordsworth {1770-1850). 

Betty [Hint], servant in the family 
of sir Pertinax and lady McSycophant. 
She is a sly, prying tale-bearer, who 
hates Constantia (the beloved of Egerton 
McSycophant), simply because every one 
else loves her. Macklin : The Man of tlu 
World (a comedy, 1764). 

Betn'bium, Dumsby or the Cape of 
St Andrew, in Scotland. 

The north-inflated tempest foams 
O'er Orka's or Betubiuni's highest peak. 
Thomson : The Seasons (" Autumn," 1730). 

Betula Alba, common birch. The 
Roman lictors made fasces of its branches, 
and also employed it for scourging chil- 
dren, etc. {Latin, baiulo, "to beat.") 

The college porter brought in a huge quantity of that 
betulineous tree, a native of Britain, called Betula alha, 
which furnished rods for the school. Lord W. Ji. 
Lennox : Celebrities, etc., i. 43. 

Benlah, that land of rest which a 

Christian enjoys when his faith is so 
strong that he no longer fears or doubts. 
Sunday is sometimes so called. In 
Bimyan's allegory {The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress) the pilgrims tarry in the land of 
IJeulah after their pilgrimage is over, till 
they are summoned to cross the stream 
of Death and enter into the Celestial 

After this, I beheld until they came unto the land of 
Beulah, where the sun shineth night and day. Here, 
because they were weary, they betook themselves 
awhile to rest ; but a little while soon refreshed them 
here, for the bells did so ring, and the trumpets sounded 
so melodiously that they could not sleep. ... In this 
laud they heard nothing, saw nothing, smelt nothing, 
tasted nothing that was offensive. A'/o/yaw ; Tht 
IHlsfims Proaress, i. (1678). 

Beuves (i syl.) or Buo'vo of 
Ay'gfremont, father of Malagigi, and 
uncle of Rinaldo. Treacherously slain by 
Gano. Ariosto: Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Beuves de Hantone, the French 

form for Bcvis of Southampton {q^v. ). 

Bev'an {Mr.), an American physician, 
who befriends Martin Chuzzlewit and 
Mark Tapley in many ways during their 
stay in the New World. Dickens: Martin 
Chuzzlewit (1844). 

Bev'erley, "the gamester," naturally 
a good man, but led astray by Stukely, 
tiU at last he loses everything by gambling, 
and dies a miserable death. 

Mrs. Beverley, the gamester's wife. She 
loves her husband fondly, and clings to 
him in all his troubles. 

Charlotte Beverley, in love with Lewson, 
but Stukely wishes to marry her. She 
loses all her fortune through her brother 
"the gamester," but Lewson notwith- 
standing marries her. Edw. Moore: The 
Gamester (1753). 

Mr. Young was acting "Beverley" with Mrs. Siddons. 
. . . In the 4th act " Beverley " swallows poison; and 
when " Bates " comes in and says to the dying man, 
" Jar\'is found you quarrelling with Lawson in tl)e 
streets last night," "Mrs. Beverley" replies, "No, I 

' Jar\'is found you quarrelling with Lawson in tl)e 
treets last night," "Mrs. Beverley" replies, "No, I 
am sure he did not." To this "Jarvis" adds, "And if 

1 did- 

whcn " Mrs. Beverley " interrupts him with. 

uttering these words, Mrs. Siddons gave such a 
piercing shriek of grief that Young was unable to utter 
a word from a sweUing in his throat. Campbell: Lift 

Beverley, brother of Clarissa, and 
the lover of Belinda Blandford. He is 
extremely jealous, and catches at trifles 
light as air to confirm his fears ; but his 
love is most sincere, and his penitence 
most humble when he finds out how 
causeless his suspicions are. Belinda is 
too proud to deny his insinuations, but 
her love is so deep that she repents of 
giving him a moment's pain. Murphy: 
All in the Wrong (a comedy, 1761). 




Young's countenance was equally well adapted for 
the expression of pathos or of pride; thus in such 
parts as " Hamlet," " Beverley," " The Stranger "... 
he looked the men he represented. A^trw Monthly 

Bev'il, a model gentleman, in Steele's 
Conscious Lovers. 

Whate'er can deck mankind 
Or charm the heart, in generous Bevil shewed. 
Thomson ; The Seasons (" Wiater," 1726). 

Bevil [Francis, Harry, and George), 
three brothers ^one an M. P. , another in 
the law, and the third in the Guards who, 
unknown to each other, wished to obtain 
in marriage the hand of Miss Grubb, the 
daughter of a rich stock-broker. The 
M.P. paid his court to the father, and 
obtained his consent ; the lawyer paid his 
court to the mother, and obtained her 
consent ; the officer paid his court to the 
young lady, and, having obtained her 
consent, the other two brothers retired 
from the field. O'Brien : Cross Purposes. 

Be'vis, the horse of lord Marmion. 
Sir W. Scott: Marmion (1808). 

Be'vis [Sir) of Southampton. Having, 
while still a lad, reproved his mother for 
murdering his father, she employed Saber 
to kill him ; but Saber only left him on a 
desert land as a waif, and he was brougln 
up as a shepherd. Hearing that his 
mother had married Mor'dure (2 syl.), 
the adulterer, he forced his way into the 
marriage hall and struck at Mordure ; but 
Mordure slipped aside, and escaped the 
blow. Bevis was now sent out of the 
country, and being sold to an Armenian, 
was presented to the king. Jos'ian, the 
king's daughter, fell in love with him ; 
they were duly married, and Bevis was 
knighted. Having slain the boar which 
made holes in the earth as big as that 
into which Curtius leapt, he was ap- 
pointed general of the Armenian forces, 
subdued Brandamond of Damascus, and 
made Damascus tributary to Armenia. 
Being sent, on a future occasion, as am- 
bassador to Damascus, he was thrust into 
a prison, where were two huge serpents ; 
these he slew, and then effected his 
escape. His next encoimter was with 
Ascupart, the giant, whom he made his 
slave. Lastly, he slew the great dragon 
of Colein, and then returned to England, 
where he was restored to his lands and 
titles. The French call him Beuves de 
Hantonc. Drayton: Polyolbion, ii. {1612). 

The Sword of Bevis of Southampton 
was Morglay, and his steed Ar'undel. 
Both were given him by his wife Josian, 
daughter of the king of Armenia. 

Beza'liel, in the satire of Absalom 
and Achitophel, is meant for the marquis 
of Worcester, afterwards duke of Beau- 
fort. Bezaliel, the famous artificer, " was 
filled with the Spirit of God to devise 
excellent works in every kind of workman- 
ship ; " and of the marquis of Worcester, 
Tate says 

... so largely Nature heaped her store, 
There scarce remained for arts to give him more. 
Dryden and Tate : Part li. read from 941 to 966 (1682). 

Bezo'niau, a beggar, a rustic. 
{J\.2^\z.r\, bisognoso, "necessitous.") Pistol 
(in 2 Henry IV. act v. sc. 3) so calls Justice 

The ordinary tillers of the earth, such as we call 
httsbandmen ; in France, pesants ; in Spaine, beson-. 
yans ; and generally cloutshoc.Markham : English 
Husbandtnan, 4. 

Bian'ca, the younger daughter of 
Baptista of Pad'ua, as gentle and meek 
as her sister Katherine was violent and 
irritable. As it was not likely any one 
would marry Katherine " the shrew," the 
father resolved that Bianca should not 
marry before her sister. Petruchio mar- 
ried "the shrew," and then Lucentio 
married Bianca. Shakespeare: Taming 
of the Shrew (1594). 

Bian'ca, a courtezan, the "almost" 
wife of Cassio, lago, speaking of the 
lieutenant, says 

And what was he t 
Forsooth, a great arithmetician. 
One Michael Cassio, a Florentine, 
A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife. 

Shakespeare : Othello, act i. sc. x (1611}. 

Bian'ca, wife of Fazio. When her 
husband wantons with the marchioness 
Aldabella, Bianca, out of jealousy, ac- 
cuses him to the duke of Florence of 
being privy to the death of Bartol'do, 
an old miser. Fazio being condemned 
to death, Bianca repents of her rashness, 
and tries to save her husband, but not 
succeeding, goes mad and dies. Dean 
Milman: Fazio (1815). 

Bibbet [Master), secretary to major- 
general Harrison, one of the parliamentary 
commissioners. Sir W. Scott: Wood- 
stock (time. Commonwealth). 

"Bible" Butler, alias Stephen 
Butler, grandfather of Reuben Butler the 
Presbyterian minister (married to Jeanie 
Deans). 5?> W. Scott: Heart of Midlo- 
thian (time, George II.). 

Bible in Spain [The), a prose 
work by George Borrow (1844), giving 
graphic pictures of high, middle, and low 
life in Spain. 




Biblia Sanpemm. (See Diction- 
ary of Phrase and Fable, p. 132.) 

Bib'lis, a woman who fell in love 
with her brother Caunus, and was 
changed into a fountain near Mile'tus. 
Ovid: Metamorphoses, ix. 662. 

Not \\ia.\\/oMntain\ where Biblisdropt, too fondly light, 
Iler tears and self may dare compare with this. 

P. Fletcher: The PurpU Island, v. (1633;. 

Bib'ulns, a colleague of Julius Caesar, 
but a mere cipher in office ; hence his 
name became a household word for a 

Bickerstaff (/j^fl^), a pseudonym as- 
sumed by dean Swift, in the paper-war 
with Partridge the almanac-maker (1709). 

Richard Steele, editor of The Tathr, entitled his 
periodical "The lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff, esq., 
astrologer " (1705-1711). 

Bickerton {Mrs.), landlady of the 
Seven Stars inn of York, where Jeanie 
Deans stops on her way to London, 
whither she is going to plead for her 
sister's pardon. Sir W. Scott: Heart of 
Midlothian (time, George II.). 

Bid'denden Maids [The), two 
sisters named Mar)' and Elizabeth Chulk- 
hurst, born at Biddenden in iioo. They 
were joined together by the shoulders 
and hips, and lived to the age of 34. 
Some say that it was Mary and Elizabeth 
Chulkhurst who left twenty acres of land 
to the poor of Biddenden. This tene- 
ment is called " Bread and Cheese Land," 
because the rent derived from it is dis- 
tributed on Easter Sunday in doles of 
bread and cheese. Halstead says, in his 
History of Kent, that it was the gift of 
two maidens named Preston, and not of 
the Biddenden Maids. 

Biddy, servant to Wopsle's great-aunt, 
who kept an "educational institution." 
A good, honest girl, who falls in love 
with Pip, was loved by Dolge Orlick, but 
married Joe Gargery. Dickens: Great 
Expectations ( 1 860) . 

Biddy [Bellair] [Miss), "Miss in 
her teens," in love with captain Loveit. 
She was promised in marriage by her 
aunt and guardian to an elderly man 
whom she detested; and during the 
absence of captain Loveit in the Flanders 
war, she coquetted with Mr. Fribble and 
captain Flash. On the return of her 
"Strephon," she set Fribble and Flash 
together by the ears ; and while they 
stood menacing each other but afraid to 
tight, captain Loveit entered and sent 
them both to the right-about, Gam^>6.- 
Miss in Her Teens (1753). 

Bide-the-Beut [Mr. Peter), minis- 
ter of Wolfs Hope village. 5r> W. 
Scott: Bride oj Lammermoor (time, 
William in.). 

Bid'more [Lord), patron of the rev. 
Josiah Cargill, minister of St. Ronan's. 

The Hon. Augustus Bidmore, son of 
lord Bidmore, and pupil of the rev. 
Josiah Cargill, 

Afiss Augusta Bidmore, daughter of 
lord Bidmore ; beloved by the rev. 
Josiah Cargill. ^?> W. Scott: St. 
/Ronan's Well (time, George III.). 

Bie'dermau [Arnold), alias count 
Arnold of Gcicrstein [Gi'-er-stine], lan- 
damman of Unterwalden. Anne of Geier- 
stein, his brother's daughter, is under his 

Bertha Biederman, Arnold's late wife. 

Ru'diger Biederman, Arnold Bieder- 
man's son. 

Ernest Biederman, brother of Rudiger. 

Sigismund Biederman, nicknamed 
" The Simple," another brother. 

Ulrick Biederman, youngest of the 
four brothers. Sir W. Scott: Anne of 
Geierstein (time, Edward IV. ). 

Bi-forked Letter of tb.e Greeks, 

T (capital U), which resembles a bird 

[The birds'] flying, write upon the sky 
The bi-forked letter of the Greeks. 

Longfellow: 7'he IVay side />in (prelude). 

Bifrost, the bridge which spans 
heaven and earth. The rainbow is this 
bridge, and its colours are attributed to 
the precious stones which bestud it. 
Scandifiavian Myth, 

Bigf-eu'dians [The), a hypothetical 
religious party of Lilliput, who made it a 
matter of " faith " to break their eggs at 
the "big end." Those who broke them 
at the other end were considered heretics, 
aind called Little-endians. Dean Swift : 
Gulliver's Travels (1726). 

Bigflow Papers [The), a series of 
satirical poems in " Yankee dialect," by 
Hosea Biglow (James Russell Lowell, of 
Boston, U.S.). First series, 1848 ; second 
series, 1864. 

Biff 'ot (Z?e), seneschal of prince John. 
Sir W. Scott: Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

"We will not forget it," said prince John . . . " De 
Bigot," he added to his seneschal, " thou wilt word 
this . . . summons so courteously as to gratify the 
pride of these Saxons . . . although, by the bones 
of liecket, courtesy to them is casting pearls before 
swine." Chap. xiii. 

Bi^'ot, in C. Lamb's Essays, is John 
Fenwick, .editor of the Albion newspaper 


Bigr-Sea-Water, lake Superior, also 
called Gitch6 Gu'mee. 

Forth upon the Gitche Gumee, 
On the shining Big-Sea- Water ... 
All alone went Hiawatha. 

Longfellow: Hiawatha, vSi 

Bi'lander, a boat used in coast navi- 
gation \By-land-er\. 

Why choose we then like bilanders to creep 
Along the coast, and land in view to keep, 
When safely we may launch into the deep f 

Dryden : Hind and the Panther (1687). 

Billlilis, a river in Spain. The high 
temper of the best Spanish blades is due 
to their being dipped into this river, the 
water of which is extremely cold. 

Help me, I pray you, to a Spanish sword. 
The trustiest blade that e'er in BUbilis 
Was dipt. 

Southey : Roderick, tic., xxv. (1814). 

Bilbo, a Spanish blade noted for its 
flexibility, and so called from Bilba'o, where 
at one time the best blades were made. 

Bilboes (2 syl), a bar of iron with 
fetters annexed to it, by which mutinous 
.sailors were at one time linked together. 
Some of the bilboes taken from the 
Spanish Armada are preserved in the 
British Museum. They are so called, not 
because they were first made at Bilba'o, in 
Spain, but from the entanglements of the 
river on which Bilbao stands. These 
' ' entanglements " are called The Bilboes. 
Beaumont and Fletcher compare the mar- 
riage knot to bilboes. 

Bil'dai (2 syl.), a seraph and the 
tutelar guardian of Matthew the apostle, 
the son of wealthy parents and brought 
up in great \\xy.Mxy,Klopstock: The 
Messiah, iii. (1748). 

Billee' {Little), a comic ballad by 
Thackeray, telling how three sailors of 
Bristol city went to sea, and, having eaten 
all their food, resolved to make a meal of 
Little Billee ; but the lad eluded his fate. 

There were three sailors of Bristol city 

Who took a boat and went to sea. 
But first with beef and captain's biscuit 

And pickled pork they loaded she. 
There was gorging Jack and gurzling Jimmy, 

And the younger he was little Billee. 
Now when they had got as far as the Equator 

They'd nothmg left but one split pea. 
Note.1\\\s is supposed to be the correct version of 
.the first two verses. 

Billingrs [Josh.). A. W. Shaw so 
signs His Book of Sayings (1866). 

Bil'ling'sg'ate (3 syl.). Beling was a 
friend of ' ' Brennus " the Gaul, who owned 
a wharf called Beling's-gate. Geoffrey of 
Monmouth derives the word from Belin, 
a mythical king of the ancient Britons, 
who "built a gate there, b,c. 400 " {1142). 

20 BINKS.. 

Billy Barlow, a merry Andrew, so 
called from a semi-idiot, who fancied 
himself "a great potentate." He was 
well known in the east of London, and 
died in Whitechapel workhouse. Some 
of his sayings were really witty, and 
some of his attitudes truly farcical. 

Billy Black, the conundrum-maker. 
The Hundred-pound Note. 

When Keeley was playing " Billy Black " at Chelms- 
ford, he advanced to the lights at the close of the 
piece, and said, " I've one more, and this is a good 'un. 
Why is Chelmsford Theatre like a half-moon? D'ye 
give it upT Because it is never l\x\L" Records of a 
Stage Veteran. 

'Bvsa.Z.^iSt \_" two-mother"\ Bacchus 
was so called because at the death of his 
mother during gestation, Jupiter put the 
foetus into his own thigh for the rest of 
the time, when the infant Bacchus was 
duly brought forth. 

Bimbister {Margery), the old Ran- 
zelman's spouse. Sir W. Scott: The 
Pirate (time, William III.). 

Bimini \Bi-ine-nee\, a fabulous island, 
said to belong to the Baha'ma group, 
and containing a fountain possessed of 
the power of restoring youth. This 
island was an object of long search by 
the Spanish navigator Juan Ponce de 
Leon (1460-1521). 

Bind loose {J^ohn), sheriffs clerk and 
banker at Marchthorn. Sir IV. Scott: 
St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.). 

BingT'en {Bishop of), generally called 
bishop Hatto. The tale is that during 
the famine of 970, he invited the poor to 
his barn on a certain day, under the plea 
of distributing corn to them ; but when 
the barn was crowded he locked the door 
and set fire to the building ; for which 
iniquity he was himself devoured by an 
army of mice or rats. His castle is the 
Mouse-tower on the Rhine. Of course, 
this is a mere fable, suggested by the 
word "Mouse-tower," which means the 
tower where tolls are collected. The 
toll on corn was very unpopular. 

They almost devour me with kisses. 
Their amis about me entwine. 

Till I think of the bishop of Bingen, 
la his Mouse-tower on the Rhine. 

Longfellow : Th: Children's Hour. 

Binks {Sir Bingo'), a fox-hunting 
baronet, and visitor at the Spa. 

LM.dy Binks, wife of sir Bingo, but 
before marriage Miss Rachael Bonny- 
rigg. Visitor at the Spa with her hus- 
band. 5?> W. Scott: St. Ronan's Well 
(time, George III.). 


Bi'on, the rhetorician, noted for his 
acrimonious and sharp sayings. 

Bionis scrmonibus et sale nigro. 

Horace : 2 Ej>istUs, W. 60. 

Biondello, one of the servants of 
Lucentio the future husband of Bianca 
(sister of "the shrew"). His fellow- 
servant \^'Yx2lx\\o.Shakespeare: Taming 
of the Shrew (1594). 

Birch.. " Dr. Birch and his Young 
rr lends." A "Christmas Tale" by 
Thackeray (1849). 

Birch {Harvey), a prominent cha- 
racter in The Spy, a novel by J. F. 
Cooper (1821). 

Birch'over Lane (London), so 
called from Birchover, the builder, who 
owned the houses there. 

Bird ( The Little Green), of the frozen 
regions, which could reveal every secret 
and impart information of events past, 
present, or to come. Prince Chery went 
in search of it, so did his two cousins, 
Brightsun and Felix ; last of all went 
Fairstar, who succeeded in obtaining it, 
and liberated the princes who had failed 
in their attempts. Comtesse U Aulnoy : 
Fairy Tales (" Princess Chery," 1682). 

This tale is a mere reproduction of 
" The Two Sisters," the last tale of the 
Arabian Nights, in which the bird is 
called " Bulbul-hezar, the talking bird." 


monk was 
legend, ii. 

Archbishop Trench has written a version of this 
legend in verse j bishop Ken tells the same story in 
verse ; and cardinal Newman repeats it in his Gratn- 
>>tar 0/ Assent. 

Bird Told Me {A Little). "A bird 
of the air shall carry the voice, and that 
which hath wings shall tell the matter " 
{Eccles. X. 20). In the old Basque legends 
a " little bird " is introduced " which tells 
the truth." The sisters had deceived the 
king by assuring him that his first child 
was a cat, his second a dog, and his third 
a bear ; but the " httle bird" told him 
the truth the first two were daughters 
md the third a son. This httle truth- 
telling bird appears in sundry tales of 
great antiquity ; it is introduced in the 
tale of "Princess Fairstar" (Comtesse 
D'Aulnoy) as a "httle green bird who 
tells everything;" also in the Arabian 
Nights {iYiQ last tale, called "The Two 
iSisters "). 

I think I hear a little bird who sings, 

The people by-and-by will be the stronger." 

jrcn : Den yuan, viiL 50 (iSax). 

Singling to a Monk. The 

as Felix. Longfellow : Golden 


^ When Kenelm or Cenhehn was niur- 
dered by the order of his sister Cwen- 
thryth, "at the very same hour a white 
dove flew to Rome, and, lighting on the 
high altar of St. Peter's, deposited there 
a letter containing a full account of the 
murder." So the pope sent men to ex- 
amine into the matter, and a chapel was 
built over the dead body, called "St. 
Kenelm's Chapel to this day" (Shrop- 

Bire'no, the lover and subsequent 
husband of Olympia queen of Holland. 
He was taken prisoner by Cymosco king 
of Friza, but was released by Orlando. 
Bireno, having forsaken Olympia, was 
put to death by Oberto king of Ireland, 
who married the young widow. Ariosto: 
Orlando Furioso, iv., v. (1516). 

Bire'no {Duke), heir to the crown of 
Lombardy. It was the king's wish he 
should marry Sophia, his only child, but 
the princess loved Pal'adore (3 syl.), a 
Briton. Bireno had a mistress named 
Alin'da, whom he induced to personate 
tlie princess, and in Paladore's presence 
she cast down a rope-ladder for the duke 
to climb up by. Bireno has Alinda 
murdered to prevent the deception being 
known, and accuses the princess of ir- 
chastity a crime in Lombardy punished 
by death. As the princess is led to exe- 
cution, Paladore challenges the duke, 
and kills him. The villainy is fully re- 
vealed, and the princess is married to the 
man of her choice, who had twice saved 
her life. Jephson : The Law of Lombardy 

Birmingham of Belgium, Li^ge, 

Birmingham of Russia, Tula, 
south of Moscow. 

Birmingham Poet {The), John 
Freeth, the wit, poet, and publican, who 
wrote his own songs, set them to music, 
and sang them (1730-1808). 

Bimam Wood. Macbeth said he 
was told 

..." Fear not, till Bimam wood 
Do come to Dunsinane ; " and now a wood 
Comes towards Dunsinane. 

Shakespeare: Macbeth, act v. sc. 5. 

Tills has been often repeated in history, 
as by Alexander, the Spanish mutineers, 
Hassan, and others. 

\ When Alexander marched against 
Darius, he commanded his soldiers " ut 
inciderent ramos arbQrum . , . easque 
inferent equ5rum pedibus . . . quos 
videntes Perses ab excelsis montibus 



stupebant. ' Historia Alexandri Magni 

\ At the siege of Antwerp, 1576, the 
Spanish mutineers wore green branches 
when they came from Alost, and looked 
like a moving wood approaching the 
citSLdeLMoiley : The Dutch Republic, 
iv. S- 

For Hassan's incident, see Notes and Queries 
IMarch 13, 1880). 

BIBiON, a merry mad-cap young 
lord, in attendance on Ferdinand king of 
Navarre. Biron promised to spend three 
years with the king in study, during which 
time no woman was to approach his 
court ; but no sooner has he signed the 
compact than he falls in love with 
Rosaline. Rosaline defers his suit for 
twelve months and a day, saying, "If 
you my favour mean to get, for twelve 
months seek the weary beds of people 

A merrier man, 
Within the limit of becoming mirth, 
I never spent an liour's talk withal. 
His eye begets occasion for his wit : 
For every object that the one doth catch, 
The other turns to a mirth-moving jest ; 
Which his fair tongue (conceit's expositor) 
Delivers in such apt and gracious words. 
That aged ears play truant at his tales, 
And younger hearings are quite ravished. 
Sha^es/eare : Love's Labour's Losi, actii. sc. i (iS94) 

Biron (Charles de Gontaut due de), 
greatly beloved by Henri IV. of France. 
He won immortal laurels at the battles 
of Arques and Ivry, and at the sieges of 
Paris and Rouen. The king loaded him 
with honours : he was admiral of France, 
marshal, governor of Bourgoyne, duke 
and peer of France. This too-much 
honour made him forget himself, and he 
entered into a league with Spain and 
Savoy against his country. The plot 
was discovered by Lafin; and although 
Henri wished to pardon him, he was 
executed (1602, aged 40). George Chap- 
man has made him the subject of two 
tragedies, entitled Biron' s Conspiracy and 
Biron' s Tragedy (1557-1634). 

Biron, eldest son of count Baldwin, 
who disinherited him for marrying Isa- 
bella, a nun. (For the rest of the tale, 
see Isabella.) Southern: Isabella, or 
the Fatal Marriage. 

During the absence of the elder Macready, his son 
took the part of " Biron " in Isabella. The father was 
shocked, because he desired his son for the Church ; 
but Mrs. Siddons remari.-.ed to him, " In the Church 
your son will live and die a curate onj^so a year, but if 
successful, the stage will bring him iu a thousand." 
Donaldson : Recolleclions. 

Biron {Harriet), the object of sir 
Charles Grandison's affections. 

One would prefer Dulcinea del Toboso to Miss Biron 
as soon as Grandison becomes acquainted with the 
amiable, delicate, virtuous, unfortunate Clementina. 
Epilogite 0/ the Editor on the Story of Habib and 

Birth. It was lord Thurlow who 
called high birth " the accident of an 

Birtlia, the motherless daughter and 
only child of As'tragon the Lombard 
philosopher. In spring she gathered 
blossoms for her father's still , in autumn 
berries, and in summer flowers. She fell 
in love with duke Gondibert, whose 
wounds she assisted her father to heal. 
Birtha, " in love unpractised and unread," 
is the beau-ideal of innocence and purity 
of mind. Gondibert had just plighted 
his love to her when he was summoned to 
court, for king Aribert had proclaimed 
him his successor and future son-in-law. 
Gondibert assured Birtha he would remain 
true to her, and gave her an emerald ring 
which he told her would lose its lustre if 
he proved untrue. Here the tale breaks 
off, and as it was never finished the sequel 
is not known. Sir W. Davenant: Gon- 
dibert (an heroic poem, 1651). 

Bise, a wind prevalent in those valleys 
of Savoy which open to the sea. It especi- 
ally affects the nervous system. 

Biser'ta, formerly called U'tica, in 
Africa. The Saracens passed from Biserta 
to Spain, and Charlemagne in 800 under- 
took a war against the Spanish Saracens. 
The Spanish historians assert that he was 
routed at Fontarabia (a strong town in 
Biscay) ; but the French maintain that 
he was victorious, although they allow that 
the rear of his army was cut to pieces. 

Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore. 
When Charlemain with all his peerage fell 
By Fontarabia. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, i. 58s (i66s)' 

Bishop. Burnt milk is called by 
Tusser " milk that the bishop doth ban." 
Tyndale says when milk or porridge is 
burnt " we saye the bishope hath put his 
fote in the potte," and explains it thus, 
" the bishopes burn whom they lust." 

Bishops. The seven who refused 
to read the declaration of indulgence 
pubhshed by James II. and were by 
him imprisoned for recusancy, were arch- 
bishop Sancroft [Canterbury), bishops 
Lloyd [St. Asaph), Turner [Ely), Kew 
[Bath and Wells), White [Peterborough^ 
Lake [Chichester), Trelawney {Bristol). 
Being tried, they were all acquitted (Jime, 


Bishop Middleham, who was al- 
ways declaiming against ardent drinks, 
and advocating water as a beverage, 
killed himself by secret intoxication. 

Bisto'nians, the Thracians ; so called 
from Biston (son of Mars), who built 
Bisto'nia on Like Bis'tonis. 

So the Bistonian race, a maddening train. 
Exult and revel on the Thracian Dlain. 

Pitt's Slatius, U. 

Bit'elas (3 syl.), sister of Fairlimb, 
p.nd daughter of Rukenaw the ape, in 
the beast-epic called Reynard the Fox 

Bi'tingf Remark [A). Near'chos 
ordered Ze'no the philosopher to be 
pounded to death in a mortar. When he 
had been pounded some time, he told 
Nearchos he had an important com- 
munication to make to him, but as the 
tyrant bent over the mortar to hear what 
he had to say, Zeno bit off his ear. 
Hence the proverb, A remark more biting 
than Zeno's. 

Bit'tlebrains {Lord), friend of sir 
William Ashton, lord-keeper of Scotland. 

Lady Bittlebrains, wife of the above 
lord. Sir IV, Scott: Bride of Lammer- 
moor (time, William HI.). 

Bit'zer, light porter in Bounderby's 
bank at Coketown. He was educated at 
M'Choakumchild's " practical school," 
and became a general spy and informer. 
Bitzer finds out the robbery of the bank, 
and discovers the perpetrator to be Tom 
Gradgrind fson of Thomas Gradgrind, 
Esq., M.P.), informs against him, and 
gets promoted to his place. Dickens: 
Hard Times (1854). 

Bizarre [Be-zar'], the friend of Orian'a, 
for ever coquetting and sparring with 
Duretete [Dure-tait], and placing him in 
awkward predicaments. Farquhar : The 
Inconstant (1702). 

Miss Farren's last performances were " Bizarre," 

March 26, 1797, and "lady Teazle' on the 28th. 
Memoirs of Elizabeth Countess 0/ Derby (1829). 

Black Agf'nes, the countess of 
March, noted for her defence of Dunbar 
during the war which Edward IH. main- 
tained in Scotland (1333-1338). 

She kept a stir in tower and trench, 

That brawling, boist'rous Scottish wench, 

Came I early, came I late, 

I found Black Agfnes at the gate. 

Sir Walter Scott says, "The countess was called 

Black Agnes ' from her complexion. She was the 

daughter of Thomas Randolph, earl of Murray." 

Tales o/a Grandfather, i. 14. (See BLACK PRINCE.) 

Black A^'ues, the palfrey. (See 
Agnes, p. 15.) 


Black Bartholome'w, the day 
when 2000 presbyterian pastors were 
ejected. They had no alternative but to 
subscribe to the articles of uniformity or 
renounce their livings. Amongst their 
number were Calamy, Baxter, and Rey- 
nolds, who were offered bishoprics, but 
refused the offer. 

Black Bess, the famous mare of 
Dick Turpin, which, according to tradi- 
tion, carried him from London to York. 

Black Charlie, sir Charles Napier 

Black Clergy (7"/%^), monks, in con- 
tradistinction to The White Clergy, or 
parish priests, in Russia. 

Black Colin Campbell, general 
Campbell, in the army of George HI., 
introduced by sir W, Scott in Redgauntlet. 

Black Death, fully described by 
Hecker, a German physician. It was a 
putrid typhus, and was called Black 
Death because the bodies turned black 
with rapid putrefaction. (See Cornhill, 
yi^vf, 1865,) 

In 1348-9 at least half of the entire 
population of England died. Thus 57,000 
out of 60,000 died in Norwich ; 7000 
out of 10,000 died in Yarmouth ; 17 out 
of 21 of the clergy of York; 2,500,000 
out of 5,000,000 of the entire population. 

Between 1347 and 1350 one-fourth of 
all the population of the world was 
carried off by this pestilence. Not less 
than 25,000,000 perished in Europe 
alone, while in Asia and Africa the 
mortality was even greater. It came from 
China, where fifteen years previously it 
carried off 5,000,000. In Venice the 
aristocratic, died 100,000; in Florence 
the refined, 60,000 ; in Paris the gay, 
50,000 ; in London the wealthy, 100,000 ; 
in Avignon, a number wholly beyond 

N. B. This form of pestilence has never 
occurred a second time. 

Black Dcag-las, William Douglas, 
lord of Nithsdale, who died 1390. 

He was tall, strong, and well made, of a swarthy 
complexion, with dark hair, from which he was called 
" The Black Douglas," Ji'r W. Scott: TaUs of a 
Grandfather, xi. 

Black D-warf [The), a romance by 
sir Walter Scott (1816). The "Black 
Dwarf" is called " Elshander the Re- 
cluse," or " Cannie Elshie, the Wise 
Wight of Mucklestane Moor," but is 
in reality sir Edward Manley, The tale 
runs thus: Isabella Vere, daughter ol 




Richard Vere (laird of Ellieslaw, and 
head of a Jacobite conspiracy) tried to 
compel his daughter to marry sir Frederici 
Langley, one of his chief followers. She 
resisted and was carried off to Westburn- 
flat, but was rescued by Patrick Earnscliff 
(laird of Earnscliff). Being persuaded 
to consult the Black Dwarf, she goes to 
his hut, and he promises to prevent the 
obnoxious marriage. When the wedding 
preparations of sir F. Langley were all 
completed, the Black Dwarf suddenly 
appeared on the scene, declared himself 
to be sir Edward Manley, and forbade 
the marriage. Miss Vere ultimately 
married Patrick Earnscliff, and all went 
merry as a marriage-bell. 

It is said that the " Black Dwarf" is meant for David 
Ritchie, whose cottage was and still is on Manor Water, 
In the county of Peebles. 

Black-eyed Susan, a ballad by 
John Gay. Also a drama by Douglas 
Jerrold (1822). 

The ballad begins 

All in the Downs the fleet was moored, 
The streamers waving in the wind, 
When Black-eyed Susan came on board. 

Black Flag (A) was displayed by 
Tamerlane when a besieged city refused 
to surrender, meaning that "mercy is 
now past, and the cite is devoted to utter 

Black George, the gamekeeper in 
Fielding's novel called TAe History of 
Tom Jones, a Foundling (1750). 

Black CS-eorge, George Petrowitsch 
of Servia, a brigand ; called by the Turks 
Kara George, from the terror he in- 

Black Horse { The), the 7th Dragoon 
Guards ^not the 7th Dragoons). So 
called because their facings (or collar and 
cuffs) are black velvet. Their plumes are 
black and white ; and at one time their 
horses were black, or at any rate dark 

Black Jack, a large flagon. 

But oh, oh, oh 1 his nose doth show 
his lips doth l 
Simon the Cellarer, 

How oft Black Jack to his lips doth go. 

Black Enight of tlie Black 
Lands [The), sir Peread. Called by 
Tennyson " Night " or " Nox." He was 
one of the four brothers who kept the 
passages of Castle Dangerous, and was 
overthrown by sir Gareth. Sir T. Ma- 
lory : History of Prince Arthur, i. 126 
( 1470) ; Tennyson : Idylls { ' ' Gareth and 
Lynette "). 

Black lord Clifford, John ninth 

lord Clifford, son of Thomas lord Clifford. 
Also called "The Butcher " (died 1461). 

Black Prince, Edward prince- of 
Wales, son of Edward HL Froissart 
says he was styled black "by terror of his 
arms" {c. 169). Similarly, lord Clifford 
was called " The Black Lord Clifford " for 
his cruelties (died 1461). George Petro- 
witsch was called by the Turks ' ' Black 
George " from the terror of his name. 
The countess of March was called " Black 
Agnes " from the terror of her deeds, and 
not (as sir W. Scott says) from her dark 
complexion. Similarly, ' ' The Black Sea " 
{q.v.), or Axinus, as the Greeks once called 
it, received its name from the inhospitable 
character of the Scythians. The " Black 
Wind," or Sherki, is an easterly wind, so 
called by the Kurds, from its being such a 
terrible scourge. 

N.B. Fulc was called Black, or Nerra, for his ill 
deeds. He burnt his wife at the stake ; waged the 
bitterest war against his son ; despatched twelve as- 
sassins to murder the minister of the French king; and 
revolted even the rude barbarians of the times in which 
he lived by his treason, rapine, and bloodshed. 

Shirley falls into the general error 

Our great third Edward . . and his brave son . . . 
In his black armour. 

Ed-ward the Black Prince, Iv. i (1640). 

He wore gilt or " gold " armour.) 
Black River or Atba'ra, of Africa, 
so called from the quantity of black earth 
brought down by it during the rains. 
This earth is deposited on the surface of 
the country in the overflow of the Nile, 
and hence the Atbara is regarded as the 
" dark mother of Egypt." 

Black Sea ( The), once called by the 
Greeks Axinus ("inhospitable"), either 
because the Scythians on its coast were 
inhospitable, or because its waters were 
dangerous to navigation. It was after- 
wards called Euxinus ("hospitable") 
when the Greeks themselves became 
masters of it. The Turks called it The 
Black Sea, either a return to its former 
name, or from its black rock. 

Black Thursday, the name given 
in the colony of Victoria, Australia, 
to Thursday, February 6, 1851, when 
the most terrible bush fire known in the 
annals of the colony occurred. It raged 
over an immense area. One vn-iter in the 
newspapers of the time said that he rode at 
headlong speed for fifty miles, with fire 
raging on either side of his route. The 
heat was felt far out at sea, and many 
birds fell dead on the decks of coasting 
vessels. The destruction of animal life 
and farming stock in this conflagration 
was enormous. 



Blacks ( The)^ an Italian faction of the 
fourteenth century. The Guelphs of 
Florence were divided into the Blacks 
who wished to open their gates to Charles 
de V^alois, and the Whites who opposed 
him. Dant6 the poet was a "White," 
and as the "Blacks" were the pre- 
dominant party, he was exiled in 1302, 
and during his exile wrote his immortal 
poem, the Divina Cojnmedia. 

Black'acre {Widow), a masculine, 
litigious, pettifogging, headstrong wo- 
man, Wycherly: The Plain Dealer 

Blackchester {The countess of), 
sister of lord Dalgarno. Sir W. Scott: 
Fortunes of Nigel (time, James I,). 

Blackfriar's Bridge (T.ondon) was 
once called "Pitt's Bridge." This was 
the bridge built by R. Mylne in 1780, but 
the name never found favour with the 
general public. 

Blackguards (Victor Hugo says), 
soldiers condemned for some offence in 
discipline to wear their red coats (which 
were lined with black) inside out. The 
French equivalent, he says, is Blaquers. 
L' Homme qui Rit, II. iii. i. 

It is quite impossible to believe this to 
be the true derivation of the word. 
Other suggestions will be found in the 
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 141. 

Blackless {Tomalin), a soldier in 
the g^ard of Richard Coeur de Lion. 
Sir W. Scott: The Talisman (time, 
Richard I.). 

Blackmantle {Bernard), Charles 
MollovWestmacott, author of The English 
Spy (1826). 

Black'pool {Stephen), a power-loom 
weaver in Boundcrby's mill at Coketown. 
He had a knitted brow and pondering 
expression of face, was a man of the 
strictest integrity, refused to join the 
strike, and was turned out of the mill. 
When Tom Gradgrind robbed the bank 
of/" 150, he threw suspicion on Stephen 
Blackpool, and while Stephen was hasten- 
ing to Cokeburn to vindicate himself, he 
fell into a shaft known as "the Hell 
Shaft," and, although rescued, died on a 
litter. Stephen Blackpool loved Rachel, 
one of the hands, but had already a 
drunken, worthless wife. Dickens: Hard 

Blacksmith {The Flemish), Quintin 
Matsys, the Dutch painter (1460-1529). 

Blacksmith {The LearnedS, Elihu 

Burritt, United States (1811-1879). 

Blacksmith's Daughter ( The), 

lock and key. 

Place it under the care of the blacksmith's daughter. 
Dicf:ens : TaU of Two Cities (1859). 

Blackwood's Magazine. The 

vignette on the wrapper of this magazine 
is meant for George Buchanan, the Scotch 
historian and poet (1506-1582). He is 
the representative of Scottish literature 

The magazine originated in 1817 with 
William Blackwood of Edinburgh, pub- 

Bladamour, the friend of Paridel 
the libertine. Spenser : Faerie Queene. 

Blad'derskate {I^rd) and lord 
Kaimes, the two judges in Peter Peeble's 
lawsuit. Sir W. Scott: Redgauntlet 
(time, George III.). 

Bla'dud, father of king Lear. Geof- 
frey of Monmouth says that Bladud, 
attempting to fly, fell on the temple of 
Apollo, and was dashed in pieces. Hence 
when Lear swears ' ' By Apollo " he is 
reminded that Apollo was no friend of 
the kings (act i. sc. i). Bladud, says the 
story, built Bath (once called Badon), 
and dedicated to Minerva the medicinal 
spring which is called " Bladud's Well." 

Blair {Adam), the hero of a novel by 
J. G. Lockhart, entitled Adam Blair, a 
Story of Scottish Life (1822). It is the 
story of a Scotch minister who " fell from 
grace," but after a season of penitence 
was restored to his pastorate. 

Blair {Father Clement), a Carthusian 
monk, confessor of Catherine Glover 
" the fair maid of Perth." -5z> W. Scott: 
Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Blair {Rev. David), sir Richard 
Philips, author of The Universal Pre- 
ceptor (18 16), Motliers Question Book, etc. 
Philips issued books under a legion of 
false names. 

Blaise, a hermit, who baptized Merlin 
the enchanter. 

Blaise {St.), patron saint of wool- 
combers, because he was torn to pieces 
with iron wool-combs. 

Blaize {Mrs. Mary), an hypothetical 
comic elegy full of puns, by Oliver Gold- 
smith (1765). The character of this yVa 
d esprit may be gleaned from the two lines 

The king himself has followed licr 
When she has gone before. 




BLANCHE (i syl.), niece of king 
John, in Shakespeare's historic tragedy 
of iring John (1623). 

Blanche, one of the domestics of lady 
Eveline " the betrothed." Sir W. Scoit : 
The Betrothed (time, Henry H.). 

Blanche {La reine), the queen of 
France during the first six weeks of her 
widowhood. During this period of 
mourning she spent her time in a closed 
room, lit only by a wax taper, and was 
dressed wholly in white. Mary, the 
widow of Louis XH., was called La reine 
Blanche during her days of mourning, 
and is sometimes (but erroneously) so 
called afterwards. 

Blanche {Lady) makes a vow with 
lady Anne to die an old maid, and of 
course falls over head and ears in love 
with Thomas Blount, a jeweller's son, 
who enters the army and becomes a 
colonel. She is very handsome, ardent, 
brilliant, and fearless. Knowles: Old 
Maids (1841), 

Blanche'fleur (2 syl), the heroine 
of Boccaccio's prose romance called // 
Filocopo. Her lover ' ' Flores " is Boccaccio 
himself, and " Blanchefleur " was the 
daughter of king Robert. The story of 
Blanchefleur and Floras is substantially 
the same as that oi Dor'igen andAurelius, 
by Chaucer, and that of " Diano'ra and 
Ansaldo," in the Decameron. 

Bland'amour {Sir), a man of " mickle 
might," who "bore great sway in arms 
and chivalry," but was both vainglorious 
and insolent. He attacked Brit'omart, 
but was discomfited by her enchanted 
spear ; he next attacked sir Ferraugh, 
and having overcome him, took from him 
the lady who accompanied him, " the 
False Florimel. " Spenser: Fa'erie Queene, 
iv. I (1596). 

Blande'ville {Lady Emily), a neigh- 
bour of the Waverley family, afterwards 
married to colonel Talbot. Sir W. Scott: 
Waverley (time, George H.). 

Bland'ford, the father of Belin'da, 
who he promised sir William Bellmont 
should marry his son George. But Belinda 
was in love with Beverley, and George 
Bellmont with Clarissa (Beverley's sister). 
Ultimately matters arranged themselves, 
so that the lovers married according to 
their inclinations. Murphy: All in the 
WroJtg (1761). 

Blan'diman, the faithful man-servant 

of the fair Bellisant, and her attendant 
after her divorce. Valentine and Orson. 

Blandi'na, wife of the churlish knight 
Turpin, who refused hospitality to sir 
Calepine and his lady Sere'na (canto 3). 
She had "the art of a suasive tongue," 
and most engaging manners ; but " her 
words were only words, and all her tears 
were water" (canto 7). Spenser; Faerie 
Queene, iv. (1596). 

Blandish, a "practised parasite." 
His sister says to him, " May you find 
but half your own vanity in those you 
have to work on ! " (act i. i). 

Miss Letitia Blandish, sister of the 
above, a fawning timeserver, who sponges 
on the wealthy. She especially toadies 
Miss Alscrip "the heiress," flattering 
her vanity, fostering her conceit, and 
encouraging her vulgar affectations. 
Burgoyne: The Heiress {ijQi). 

Blane {Niell), town piper and pub- 

Jenny Blane, his daughter. Sir W. 
Scott: Old Mortality (time, Charles H.). 

Bla'ney, a wealthy heir, ruined by 
dissipation. Cralbe : Borough (1810). 

Blarney {Lady), one of the flash 
women introduced l)y squire Thornhill to 
the Primrose family. Goldsmith: Vicar 
of Wakefield (1765). 

Blas'phemous Balfonr. Sir James 
Balfour, the Scottish judge, was so called 
from his apostasy (died 1583). 

Bla'tant Beast {The), the personi- 
fication of slander or public opinion. The 
beast had 100 tongues and a sting. Sir 
Artegal muzzled the monster, and dragged 
it to Faery-land, but it broke loose and 
regained its hberty. Subsequently sir 
Cal'idore (3 syl.) went in quest of it. 
Spenser : Faerie Queene, v. and vi. (1596). 

. "Mrs. Grundy" is the modern 
name of Spenser's " Blatant Beast." 

Blath'ers and Duff, detectives who 
investigate the burglary in which Bill 
Sikes had a hand. Blathers relates the 
tale of Conkey Chickweed, who robbed 
himself of 327 guineas. Dickens : Oliver 
Twist (1837). 

Blat'tergfrowl {The Rev. Mr.), 
minister of Trotcosey, near Monkbarns. 
Sir W. Scott: T/ie A}itiquary (time, 

Bleak House, a novel by C. Dickens 
(1852). The main story is the intermin- 
able law-suit of Jarndycez/. Jarndyce(^. v. ). 


Bleeding-heart Tard (London). 
So called because it was the place where 
the devil cast the bleeding heart of lady 
Hatton (wife of the dancing chancellor), 
after he had torn it out of her body with 
his claws. >/-, Mackay: Extraordinary 
Popular Delusions. 

Blefus'cu, an island inhabited by 
pigmies. It was situated north-east of 
Lilliput, from which it was parted by a 
channel 800 yards wide. Dean Swift: 
Gulliver's Travels (1726). 

"Blefuscu ' Is France, and the Inhabitants of the 
Lilliputian court, which forced Gulliver to take shelter 
there rather than have his e^rcs put out, is an indirect 
reproach upon that \,sic\ of England, and a vindication 
of the flight of Ormond and Bolingbroke to Paris. 
$ir H'. Scott. 

Bleise (i syl.) of Northumberland, 
the historian of king Arthur's court. 

Merlin told Bleise how king Arthur had sped at the 
great battle, and how the battle ended ; and told him 
the names of every king and knight of worship that 
was there. And Bleise wrote the battle word for word 
as Merlin told him, how it began and by whom, and 
how it ended, and who had the worst. All the battles 
that were done in king Arthur's days. Merlin caused 
Bleise to write them. Also he caused him to write all 
the battles that every worthy knight did of king 
Arthur's court. 5t> T. Malory: History of Princt 
Arthur, i. 15 (i47o). 

Blem'xuyes (3 syl.), a people of 
Africa, fabled to have no head, but having 
eyes and mouth in the breast. (See 
Gaora. ) 

Blemmyis traduntur capita abesse, ore et oculis 
pectori zSvsSs. Pliny. 

\ Ctesias speaks of a people of India 
near the Ganges, sine cervtce, oculos in 
humeris habentes. Mela also refers to a 
people quibus capita et vultui in pectore 

Blenheim {The battle of), a poem 
by John Dennis, to whom the duJie of 
Marlborough gave_^ico (1705). 

Another by Southey (1798), supposed 
to be told by Kasper 

It was a summer's evening. 
Old Rasper's work was done ; 

And he before his cottage door 
Was sitting in the sun. . . . 

The ballad goes on to tell all the horrors 
of the war, and the burden is nevertheless 
" It was a famous victory." 

Blenheim Spaniels. The Oxford 
electors are so called, because for many 
years they obediently supported any can- 
didate which the duke of Marlborough 
commanded them to retiurn. Lockhart 
broke through this custom by telling the 
people the fable of the Dog and the Wolf. 
The dog, it will be remembered, had on 
his neck the marks of his collar, and the 
wolf said he preferred liberty. 

(The race of the little dog called the 
Blenheim spaniel has been preserved ever 
since Blenheim House was built for the 
duke of Marlborough in 1704.) 

Blet'son {Master Joshua), one of the 
three parliamentary commissioners sent 
by Cromwell with a warrant to leave the 
royal lodge to the Lee family. 5?> W. 
Scott : Woodstock (time, Commonwealth). 

Bleys, called Merlin's master, but he 

. . . taught him naught . . . the scholar ran 
Before his master ; and so far that Bleys 
Laid magic by ; and sat him down and wrote 
All things ana whatsoever Merlin did 
In one great annal book. 

I'tnnyson : Idylls of the King (" The 
Couiuig of Arthur "). 

Bli'fil, a noted character in Fielding's 
novel called The History of Tom Jones, 
a Foundling (1750). 

.' Blifil is the original of Sheridan's 
" Joseph Surface," in the School for 
Scandal (1777). 

Bligh ( William), captain of the 
Bounty, so well known for the mutiny, 
headed by Fletcher Christian, the mate 

Blimber {Dr.), head of a school for 
the sons of gentlemen, at Brighton. It 
was a select school for ten pupils only ; 
but there was learning enough for ten 
times ten. "Mental green peas were 
produced at Christmas, and intellectual 
asparagus all the year round." The 
doctor was really a ripe scholar, and truly 
kind-hearted ; but his great fault was 
over-tasking his boys, and not seeing 
when the bow was too much stretched. 
Paul Dombey, a delicate lad, succumbed 
to this strong mental pressure. 

Mrs. Blimber, wife of the doctor, not 
learned, but wishing to be thought so. 
Her pride was to see the boys in the 
largest possible collars and stiffest pos- 
sible cravats, which she deemed highly 

Cornelia Blimber, the doctor's daughter, 
a slim young lady, who kept her hair 
short and wore spectacles. Miss Blimber 
"had no nonsense about her," but had 
grown " dry and sandy with working in 
the graves of dead languages." She 
married Mr. Feeder, B.A., Dr. Blimber 's 
usher. Dickens: Dombey and Son (1846). 

Blind Author {A). Robert Wau- 
chope, appointed archbishop of Armagh 
by Paul III., in 1543, was blind from his 
birth, and died 1551. 

Blind Bard on the Chian Strand 

(The). So Coleridge calls Homer. Byron 




calls him ' ' The blind old man of Scio's 
rocky isle," in his Bride of Abydos. Also 
called "The man of Chios," Melesigen^, 
Maeonld^s, etc. (See these words.) 

Blind Beggfar of Bethnal Green, 

Henry, son and heir of sir Simon de 
Montfort. At the battle of Evesham the 
barons were routed, Montfort slain, and 
his son Henry left on the field for dead. 
A baron's daughter discovered the young 
man, nursed him with care, and married 
him. The fruit of the marriage was 
"pretty Bessee, the beggar's daughter." 
Henry de Montfort assumed the garb 
and semblance of a blind beggar, to 
escape the vigilance of king Henry's spies. 
N.B. Day produced, in 1659, a drama 
called The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green ; 
and S. Knowles, in 1834, produced his 
amended drama on the same subject. 
There is [or was], in the Whitechapel 
Road, a public-house sign called the 
Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green. History 
of Sign-boards. (See Bli x de. ) 

Blind Chapel Court (Mark Lane, 
London) is a corruption of Blanch Apple- 
\ton\. In the reign of Richard II. it was 
part of the manor of a knight named 

Blind Bmperor [The), Ludovig 
III. of Germany (83o, 890-934). 

Blind Harper [The), John Parry, 
who died 1739. 

\ J. Stanley, musician and composer, 
was blind from his birth (1713-1786). 

Blind Harry, a Scotch minstrel 
of the fifteenth century, blind from in- 
fancy. His epic of Sir William Wallace 
runs to 11,861 lines. He was minstrel in 
the court of James IV. 

Blind Mechanician [The). John 
Strong, a great mechanical genius, was 
blind from his birth. He died at Carlisle, 
aged 66 (1732-1798). 

Blind Men's Dinner. [See Diction- 
ary of Phrase and Fable, p. 116. ) The joke 
forms the subject of one of Sacchetti's 
tales. It is also told by Sozzini ; but is 
of Indian origin. 

Blind Naturalist [The), F. Huber 


Blind Poet [The), Luigi Groto, an 
Italian poet, called // Cieco (1541-1585). 
John Milton (1608-1674). 

Homer is called The Blind Old Bard 
(fl. B.C. 960). 

Blind Traveller [The), lieutenant 

James Ilolman. He became blind at the 
age of 25 ; nevertheless he travelled round 
the world, and published an account of 
his travels (1787-1857). 

Blinde Begfg-ar of Alexandria 

[The], a drama by George Chapman 

Blin'kinsop, a smuggler in Red- 
gauntlet, a novel by sir W. Scott (time, 
George III.). 

Blister, the apothecary, who says, 
" Without physicians, no one could know 
whether he was well or ill." He courts 
Lucy by talking shop to her. Fielding: 
The Virgin Unmasked (a farce, 1740). 

Blithe-Heart King [The). David 
is so called by Caedmon. 

Those lovely lyrics written by his hand 
Whom Saxon Caedmon calls "The Blithe-heart King." 
Longfellow : The Poets Tale (ref. is to Ps. cxlviii. 9). 

Block [Martin). One of the com- 
mittee of the Estates of Burgundy, who 
refused supplies to Charles the Bold, duke 
of Burgundy. Sir W. Scott : Anne of 
Geierstein (time, Edward IV. ). 

Blok [Nikkei), the butcher, one of the 
insurgents at Liege. Sir W. Scott: 
Quentin Durward [lime, Edward IV.). 

Blondel de Nesle [JVeePj, the 

favourite minstrel of Richard Coeur de 
Lion. He chanted the Bloody Vest in 
presence of queen Berengaria, the lovely 
Edith Plantagenet. ^'zV W. Scott: The 
Talisman (time, Richard I.). 

Blon'dina, the mother of Fairstar 
and two boys at one birth. She was the 
wife of a king ; but the queen-mother 
hated her, and, taking away tlie three 
babes, substituted three puppies. Ulti- 
mately her children were restored to her, 
and the queen-mother was duly pun- 
ished, with her accomplices. Comtesse 
D'Aulnoy : Fairy Tales (" Princess Fair- 
star," 1682). 

Blood [Colonel Thomas), emissary of 
the duke of Buckingham (1628-1680), 
introduced by sir W. Scott in Peveril of 
the Peak, a novel (time, Charles II.). 

Blood [The Court of). "The twelve 
judges of the Tumult," established in the 
Netherlands by the duke of Alva, in 1557. 
Motley : T/ie Dutch Republic. 

"Blood [General), Zisca, the Hannibal 
of Bohemia, who was totally blind. 

Blood-Bath (1520), a massacre of 
the Swedish nobles and leaders, which 
occurred three days after the coronation 


of Christian II. king . of Denmark, 
Sweden, and Norway. The victims were 
invited to attend the coronation, and 
were put to the sword, under tlie plea of 
being enemies of the true Church. In 
this massacre fell both the father and 
brother-in-law of Gustavus Vasa. The 
former was named Eric Johansson, and 
Ihe latter Brahe (2 syl. ). 

IF This massacre reminds us of the 
"Bloody Wedding" [q.v.], or slaughter of 
huguenots during the marriage cere- 
monies of Henri of Navarre and Mar- 
guerite of France, in 1572. 

Bloods {The Five) : (i) The O'Neils 
of Ulster; (2) the O'Connors of Con- 
naught ; (3) the O'Briens of Thomond ; 
(4) the O'Lachlans of Meath ; and (5) 
the M'Murroughs of Leinster. These are 
the five principal septs or families of 
Ireland, and all not belonging to one of 
these five septs were (even down \o the 
reign of Elizabeth) accounted aliens or 
enemies, and could " neither sue nor be 

IF William Fitz-Roger, being arraigned 
(4th Edward II.) for the murder of 
Roger de Cantilon, pleads that he was 
not guilty of felony, because his victim 
was not of "free blood," i.e. one of the 
" five bloods of Ireland ; " and the plea 
was admitted by the jury to be good. 

Robertus de Waley, tried at Waterford for slaying 
John M'Gillimorry, in the time of Edward II., confessed 
the fact, but pleaded that he could not thereby have 
committed felony, " because the deceased was a mere 
Irishman, and not one of the five bloods." Sir John 

Bloody [The), Otho II. emperor of 
Germany (955, 973-983)- 
Bloody-Bones, a bogie. 

As bad as Bloody-bones or Lunsford \i.e. sir Thomas 
Lunsford, governor of the Tower, the dread of every 
one]. 5. Butler: Hudibras. 

Bloody Brother {The), a tragedy 
by Beaumont (printed 1639). The 
"bloody brother" is RoUo duke of Nor- 
mandy, who killed his brother Otto and 
several other persons. RoUo was himself 
killed ultimately by Hamond captain of 
the guard. (See Appendix, Fletcher. ) 

Bloody Butcher ( The). The duke 
of Cumberland, second son of George II., 
was so called from his barbarities in the 
suppression of the rebellion in favour of 
Charles Edward, the young pretender. 
"Black Clifford" was also called " The 
Butcher" for his cruelties (died 1461). 

Bloody Hand, Cathal, an ancestor 
of the O'Connors of Ireland. 

129 BLOUNT. 

Bloody Mary, queen ^Tary of Eng- 
land, daughter of Henry VIII. and elder 
half-sister of queen Elizabeth. So called 
on account of the sanguinary persecutions 
carried on by her against the protestants. 
It is said that 200 persons were burnt to 
death in her short reign (1553-1558). 

Bloody Weddingf {The), that of 
Henri of Navarre with Marguerite, sister 
of Charles IX. of France. Catharine de 
Medici invited all the chief protestant 
nobles to this wedding, but on the eve of 
the festival of St. Bartholomew (August 
24, 1572), a general onslaught was made 
on all the protestants of Paris, and next 
day the same massacre was extended to 
the provinces. The number which fell 
in this wholesale slaughter has been esti- 
mated at between 30,000 and 70,000 per- 
sons of both sexes. 

Bloomfield {Louisa), a young lady 
engaged to lord Totterly the beau of 60, 
but in love with Charles Danvers the 
embryo barrister. C Selby : The Un- 
finished Gentleman (1841). 

Blougfram's Apologfy [Bishop), a 
poem by Robert Browning on the 
question whether a clergyman " who 
doubts the articles of the Christian faith 
is justified in retaining his hving." The 
answer given is that " disbelief is only 
doubt, and in all charges the criminal is 
allowed the benefit of a doubt." 

I#o Christian doctrine is capable of mathcmaticI, 
scientific, or experimental proof. 

Blount [Nicholas), afterwards knight- 
ed ; master of the horse to the earl of 
Sussex. Sir W. Scott: Kenilworth 
(time, Elizabeth). 

Blount [Sir Frederick), a distant rela- 
tive of sir John Vesey. He had a great 
objection to the letter r, which he con- 
sidered " wough and wasping." He 
dressed to perfection, and, thoi gh not 
"wich," prided himself on havmg the 
" best opewa-box, the best dogs, the best 
horses, and the best house " of any one. 
He liked Georgina Vesey, and as she had 
;,^io,ooo, he thought he should do himself 
no harm by " mawywing the girl." Lord 
Lytton : Money (1840). 

Blount {Master), a wealthy jeweller 
of Ludgate Hill, London. An old- 
fashioned tradesman, not ashamed of his 
calling. He had two sons, John and 
Thomas ; the former was his favourite. 

Mistress Blount, his wife. A .shrewd. 



discerning woman, who loved her son 
Thomas, and saw in him the elements of 
a rising man. 

yo/in Blount, eldest son of the Ludgate 
jeweller. Being left successor to his 
father, he sold the goods and set up for a 
man of fashion and fortune. His vanity 
and snobbism were most gross. He had 
good-nature, but more cunning than dis- 
cretion ; he thought himself far-seeing, 
but was most easily duped. ' ' The phaeton 
was built after my design, my lord," he 
says, " mayhap your lordship has seen it." 
"My taste is driving, my lord, mayhap 
your lordship has seen me handle the 
ribbons. " ' ' My horses are all bloods, my 
lord, mayhap your lordship has noticed 
my team." " I pride myself on my seat 
in the saddle, mayhap your lordship has 
seen me ride." "If 1 am superlative in 
anything, 'tis in my wines." "So please 
your ladyship, 'tis dress I most excel in. 
. . . 'tis walking I pride myself in," 
No matter what is mentioned, 'tis the one 
thing he did or had better than any one 
else."^ This conceited fool was duped into 
believing a parcel of men-servants to be 
lords and dukes, and made love to a 
iady's maid, supposing her to be a 
countess. (See Boroughcliff, p. 138.) 
' Thomas Blount, John's brother, and one 
of nature's gentlemen. He entered the 
army, became a colonel, and married 
lady Blanche. He is described as having 
*' a lofty forehead for princely thought to 
dwell in, eyes for love or war, a nos^ of 
Grecian mould with touch of Rome, a 
mouth like Cupid's bow, ambitious chin 
dimpled and knobbed." Knowles : Old 
Maids (1841). 

Blouzelin'da or Blowzelinda, a 
shepherdess in love with Lobbin Clout, 
in The Shepherd: s Week. 

My Blouzelinda is the blithest lass, 
Tiian primrose sweeter, or the clover-gfrass . . < 
My Blouzelind's than gilliflower more fair, 
Than daisie, tnarygold, or kingcup rare. 

Gay : Pastoral, i. (1714). 
Sweet is my toil when Blowzelind is near. 
Of her bereft 'tis winter all the year . . . 
Come, Blowzelinda, ease thy swain's desire. 
My summer's shadow, and my winter's fire. 


Blower {Mrs. Margaret), the ship- 
owner's widow at the Spa. She married 
Dr. Quackleben, " the man of medicine " 
^one of the managing committee at the 
Spa). 5/r W. Scott: St.Ronans Well 
(time, George HI.). 

Bl' was nicknamed " Marshal 
Forwards " for his dash and readiness in 
he campaign of 1813. 


BLUE {Dark), the O.vford boat crew 
(see Boat Colours) ; Eton, in cricket. 

Blue {Light), the Cambridge boat 
crew (see Boat Colours); Harrow, 
in cricket. 

Bl'ue ( True). When it is said that any- 
thing or person is True blue or True as 
Coventry blue, the reference is to a blue 
cloth and blue thread made in Coventry, 
noted for its fast colour. Lincoln was no 
less famous for its green cloth and dye. 

True blue has also reference to un- 
tainted aristocratic descent. This is de- 
rived from the Spanish notion that the 
really high-bred have bluer blood than 
those of meaner race. Hence the French 
phrases, Sang bleu ("aristocratic blood"). 
Sang noir ( " plebeian blood "), etc. 

As a very general rule, "blue "is, in parliamentary 
elections, the badge colour of the tory party. 

Blue Beard {La Barbe Bleue), from 
the contes] of Charles Perrault (1697). 
The chevalier Raoul is a merciless tyrant, 
with a blue beard. His young wife is 
entrusted with all the keys of the castle, 
with strict injunctions on pain of death 
not to open one special room. During 
the absence of her lord the ' ' forbidden 
fruit " is too tempting to be resisted, the 
door is opened, and the young wife finds 
the floor covered with the dead bodies of 
her husband's former wives. She drops 
the key in her terror, and can by no 
means obliterate from it the stain of 
blood. Blue Beard, on his return, com- 
mands her to prepare for death, but by 
the timely arrival of her brothers her life 
is saved and Blue Beard put to death. 

N.B. Dr. C. Taylor thinks Blue Beard 
is a type of the castle-lords in the days of 
knight-errantry. Some say Henry VIH. 
(the noted wife-killer) was the "academy 
figure." Others think it was Giles de 
Retz, marquis de Laval, marshal of 
France in 1429, who (according to M^ze- 
ray) murdered six of his seven wives, 
and was ultimately strangled in 1440. 

Another solution is that Blue Beard 
was count Conomar', and the young wife 
Triphy'na, daughter of count Guerech. 
Count Conomar was lieutenant of Brit- 
tany in the reign of Childebert, M, 
Hippolyte Violeau assures us that in 1850, 
diiring the repairs of the chapel of St. 
Nicolas de Bieuzy, some ancient frescoes 
were discovered with scenes from the life 
of St. Triphyna: (i) The marriage; (2) 
the husband taking leave of his young 
wife and entrusting to her a key ; (3) a 
room with an open door, through which 


are seen the corpses of seven women 
hanging ; {4) the husband threatening his 
wife, while another female [sis/er ATine] 
is looking out of a window above; (5) 
the husband has placed a halter round 
the neck of his victim, but the friends, 
accompanied by bt. Gildas, abbot of 
Rhuys in Brittany, arrive just in time 
to rescue the future saint. Pilerinages de 

(Ludwig Tieck brought out a drama in 
Berlin, on the story of^Blue Beard. The 
incident about thekeys and the doors is 
similar to that mentioned by "The Third 
Calender" \n \he Arabian Nights. The 
forty princesses were absent for forty 
days, and gave king Agib the keys of the 
palace during their absence. He had 
leave to enter every room but one. H-'s 
curiosity led him to open the forbidden 
chamber and mount a horse which he saw 
(liere. The horse carried him through the 
air far from the palace, and with a whisk 
of its tail knocked out his right eye. 
The same misfortune had befallen ten 
other princes, who warned him of the 
danger before he started. ) 

^ Campbell has a " Blue Beard" story 
in his Tales of the Western Highlands, 
called "The Widow and her Daughters." 
T[ A similar one is No. 3 of Bernoni's, 
and No. 39 of Visentini's collection of 
Italian stories. 

Blue Plag [A) in the Roman empire 
was a warning of danger. Livy speaks 
of it in his Annals. 

Blne-Gowns. King's bedesmen, or 
privileged Scotch mendicants, were so 
called from their dress. On the king's 
birthday each of these bedesmen had 
given to him a cloak of blue cloth, a 
penny for every year of the king's life, 
a loaf of bread, and a bottle of ale. No 
new member has been added since 1833. 

Blue Hen, a nickname for the state 
of Delaware, United States. The term 
arose thus : Captain Caldwell, an officer 
of the ist Delaware Regiment in the 
American War for Independence, was very 
fond of game-cocks, but maintained that 
no cock was truly game unless its mother 
was a "blue hen." As he was exceed- 
ingly popular, his regiment was called 
"The Blue Hens," and the term was 
afterwards transferred to the state and 
its inhabitants. 

Your mother was a blue hen, no doubt ; 
a reproof to a braggart, especially to one 
who boasts of his ancestry. 


Blue Knig'h.t {The), sir Pcrsaunt 
of India, called by Tennyson "Morning 
Star" or " Phosphorus. " He was one 
of the four brothers who kept the pas- 
sages of Castle Perilous, and was over- 
thrown by sir Gareth. Sir T. Malory: 
History of Prince Arthur, i. 131 (1470) ; 
Tennyson: Idylls ("Gareth and Ly- 

(It is evidently a blunder in Tennyson 
to call the Blue Knight " Morning Star," 
and the Green Knight "Evening Star," 
The reverse is correct, and in the old 
romance the combat with the Green 
Knight was at day-break, and with the 
Blue Knight at sunset.) 

Blue Moon. Once in a blue moon, 
very rarely indeed. The expression is a 
modification of "the Greek Kalends," 
which means "never," because there were 
no Greek Kalends. 

Blue Roses, unattainable luxuries 
or indulgences, There are no such 
things as blue roses. 

The blue rose of German romance represented th 
ideal and unattainable. 

Blue-Skin. Joseph Blake, an Eng- 
lish burglar, was so called from his com- 
plexion. He was executed in 1723. 

Blue-Stocking {A). (See Dictionary 
0/ Phrase and Fable, p. 152.) 

Bluff [Captain Noll), a swaggering 
bully and boaster. He says, "I think 
that fighting for fighting's sake is suffi- 
cient cause for fighting. Fighting, to 
me, is religion and the laws." 

"You must know, sir, I was resident in Flanders the 
last campaign . . . there was scarce anything^ of 
moment done, but .1 humble servant of yours . . . had 
the greatest sliare in't. . . . Well, would you tliink it, 
in all this time . . . that rascally Gazette never so much 
as once mentioned me ? Not once, by the wars 1 Took 
no more notice of Noll Bluff than if he had not been in 
the land of the \i\ing."Cofi-}eve : The Old Bachelor 

Bluff Hal or Blufp Harry, Henry 
VIII. (1491, 1509-1547). 

Ere yet in scorn of Peter's pence. 

And numbered bead and shrift, 
Bluff Hall he broke into the spence [a larder]. 

And turned the cowls adrift, 

Tennyson. ' 

Blumine, a young hazel-eyed,, 
beautiful, and high-born maiden, witb 
whom Teufelsdrockh falls in love. . 
Carlyle: Sartor Pesart us (iQ^S). 

Blunder. The bold but disastrous 
charge of the British Light Brigade at 
Balacla'va is attributed to a blunder ; 
even Tennyson says of it, "Some one 


hath blundered ; " but Thomas Woolner, 
with less reserve, says 

A general 
May blunder troops to death, yea, and receive 
His senate's vote of tlianks. 

My Beautiful Lady. 

Blun'derbore {3 syl.\ the giant 
who was drowned because Jack scuttled 
his boat. Jack the Giant-killer. 

Blunt {Colonel), a brusque royalist, 
who vows "he'd woo no woman," but 
falls in love with Arbella an heiress, 
woos and wins her. T. Knight, who 
has converted this comedy into a farce, 
with the title of Honest Thieves, calls 
colonel Blunt "captain Manly." Hon, 
Sir R. Howard: The Cotmitittee {i6-jo). 

Blunt {Major-general), an old cavalry 
officer, rough in speech, but brave, 
honest, and a true patriot. Shadwell : 
The Volunteers {1690). 

BlusMngfton {Edivard), a bashful 
young gentleman of 25, sent as a poor 
scholar to Cambridge, without any 
expectations ; but by the death of his 
father and uncle left all at once as ' ' rich 
as a nabob." At college he was called 
"the sensitive plant of Brasenose," be- 
cause he was always blushing. He dines 
by invitation at Friendly Hall, and com- 
mits ceaseless blunders. Next day his 
college chum, Frank Friendly, writes 
word that he and his sister Dinah, with 
sir Thomas and lady Friendly, will dine 
with him. After a few glasses of wine, 
he loses his bashful modesty, makes a 
long speech, and becomes the accepted 
suitor of the pretty Miss Dinah Friendly. 
^Moncrieff: The Bashful Man. 

Bo or Boh, says Warton, was a fierce 
Gothic chief, whose name was used to 
frighten children. This needs confirma- 

Boadice'a, wife of Prsesu'tagus king 
of the Ice'ni. For the better security of 
his family, Proesutagus made the emperor 
of Rome coheir with his daughters ; 
whereupon the Roman officers took pos- 
session of his palace, gave up the prin- 
cesses to the licentious brutality of the 
Roman soldiers, and scourged the queen 
in public. Boadicea, roused to ven- 
geance, assembled an army, burnt the 
Roman colonies of London, Colchester 
\_Camalodunu7}{], Verulam, etc., and slew 
above 80,000 Romans. Subsequently, 
Sueto'nius Paullnus defeated the Britons, 
and Boadicea poisoned herself, A.D. 61. 

^J. Fletcher wrote a tragedy called 


Boadicea in i6ii ; and Glover one in 

Boaner'ges (4 syl.), a declamatory 
pet parson, who anathematizes all except 
his own "elect." "He preaches real 
rousing-up discourses, but sits down 
pleasantly to his tea, and makes himself 
friendly." Mrs. Oliphant: Salem Chapel. 

A protestant Boanerges, visiting Birmingham, sent 
an invitation to Dr. Newman to dispute publicly with 
him in the Town Hall. i;. Yates : Celebrities, xxiu 

*.* Boanerges or " sons of thunder" is 
the name given by Jesus Christ to James 
and John, because they wanted to call 
down fire from heaven to consume the 
Samaritans. Luke ix. 54. 

Boar {The), Richard III., so called 

from his cognizance. 

The bristled boar, in infant gore, 
Wallows beneath the thorny shade. 

Gray : The Bard (1757). 

In contempt Richard III. is called The 
Hog, hence the popular distich 

The Cat, the Rat, and Lovell the dog. 
Rule all England under the Hog. 

{" The Cat " is Catesby, and " the Rat " 

Ratcliffe. ) 

Boar {The Blue). This public-house 
sign (Westminster) is the badge of the 
Veres earls of Oxford. 

The Blue Boar Lane (St. Nicholas, 
Leicester) is so named from the cog- 
nizance of Richard III., because he slept 
there the night before the battle of Bos- 
worth Field. 

Boar of Ardennes ( The Wild), in 
French Le Sanglier des Ardennes 
{2 syl.), was Guillaume comte de la 
Marck, so called because he was as fierce 
as the wild boar he delighted to hunt. 
The character is introduced by sir W. 
Scott in Quentin Durward, under the 
name of " William count of la Marck." 

Boar's Head {The). This tavern, 
immortalized by Shakespeare, stood in 
Eastcheap (London), on the site of the 
present statue of William IV. It was 
the cognizance of the Gordons, who 
adopted it because one of their progenitors 
slew, in the forest of Huntley, a wild boar, 
the terror of all the Merse (1093). 

Boating- Colours. College Clubs : 
Cambridge : Caius, black and light 
blue ; St. Catherines, claret and yellow ; 
Christ's, blue and white ; Clare, black 
and gold ; Corpus, white and cherry ; 
Downing, magenta and black; Emmanuel, 
cherry and blue ; Fitzwilliam Hall, red 
and green ; Jesus, red and black ; King's, 





purple and white; Lady Margaret [St. 
John's), scarlet and white ; Magdalene, 
French grey and indigo ; Pembroke, dark 
blue and light blue ; Peterhouse, blue and 
white ; Queens , green and white ; Sidney 
Sussex, blue and magenta ; 1st Selwyn, 
red and gold ; xst Trinity, dark blue ; 
yd Trinity, dark blue and white ; 
Trinity Hall, black and white. 

Oxford : Balliol, red and white ; 
Brasenose, black and yellow ; Christ 
Church, dark blue and white ; Corpus 
Christ i, blue and red ; Exeter, magenta 
and black ; Hertford, red and white ; 
Jesus, green and white ; Keble, red, white, 
and blue ; Lincoln, dark and light blue ; 
Magdalen, scarlet ; Merton, blue and 
magenta ; A^ezo College, violet and 
orange; Oriel, white and dark blue; 
Pembroke, cerise, white, and dark blue ; 
Queen's, blue and white, three red eagles 
on breast pocket ; St. John's, blue and 
white ; Trinity, blue and white ; Univer- 
sity, dark blue and yellow ; Wadham, 
light blue; Worcester, black, pink, and 
white ; St. Catherine's (unattached 
students), French grey and magenta. 

Boaz and Jachin, two brazen 
pillars, which were set up by Solomon 
at the entrance of the temple built by 
him. Boaz, which means "strength," 
was on the left hand, and Jachin, which 
means " stability," on the right. i Kings 
vij. 21. 

(The names of these two pillars are 
adopted in the craft called ' ' Free 

Bo'b'adil [Captain), an ignorant, 
clever, shallow bully, thoroughly cow- 
ardly, but thought by his dupes to be an 
amazing hero. He lodged with Cob (the 
water-carrier) and his wife Tib. Master 
Stephen was greatly struck with his 
"dainty oaths," such as " By the foot of 
Pharaoh!" " Body of Coesar 1" "As I 
am a gentleman and a soldier ! " His 
device to save the expense of a standing 
army is inimitable for its conceit and 

" I would select 19 more to myself throughout the 
land ; gentlemen they should be, of a good spirit and 
able constitution. I would choose them by an instinct, 
. . . and I would teach them the special rules . . . till 
thej could play [fence] very near as well as myself. 
This done, siy the enemy were 40,000 strong, we zo 
v.xjuld . . . challenge 20 of the enemy; . . . kill them ; 
challenge 20 more, kill them ; 20 more, kill them too ; 
. . . every man his 10 a day, that's 10 score . . . 200 a 
day ; five days, a thousand ; 40,000, 40 times 5, 200 
days; kill them a.\\."Ben jonson ; Every Man in 
His Humour, iv. 7 (1598). 

Since his [Henry JVoodward, 1717-1777] time the 
part of ' Bobadil" has never been justly performed. 
It may be said to have died with him. >r. Doran. 

'.' The name was probably suggested 
by Bobadilla first governor of Cuba, who 
superseded Columbus sent home in 
chains on a most frivolous charge. 
Similar characters are "Metamore" and 
"Scaramouch" (Molicre); "ParoUfis" 
and "Pistol" (Shakespeare); "Bessus" 
(Beaumont and Fletcher). (See also 
Basilisco, Boroughcliff, Captain 
Brazen, Captain Noll Bluff, Sir 
Petronel Flash, Sacripant, Vincent 
DE la Rose, etc.) 

Bodach Glay or "Grey Spectre.- 
A house-demon of the Scotch, similar to 
the Irish benshee. 

Bodkin. Hamlet says a man may 
"his quietus make with a bare bodkin." 
Chaucer uses "bodkin" for a dagger 
(p. 165); but the nut-brown maid killed 
her rival with a " bodkin from her head- 
gear." (See Lord Thomas.) 

Bodleian Library [The), Oxford, 
founded by sir Thomas Bodley in 1597. 

Boe'mond, the Christian king of 
Antioch, who tried to teach his subjects 
arts, law, and religion. He was of the 
Norman race, Roge'ro's brother, and son 
of Roberto Guiscar'do. Tasso: Jerusa- 
lem Delivered (1575). 

Boeo'tian Ears, ears unable to ap- 
preciate music and rhetoric. Boeotia was 
laughed at by the Athenians for the dul- 
ness and stupidity of its inhabitants. 

" This is having taste and sentiment. Well, friend, 
I assure thee thou hast not got Boeotian &zx%"[because 
he praised certain extracts read to hint by an aut/ior\. 
Lesage: Gil Bias, vii. 3 {1713). 

Boenf [Front de), a gigantic ferocious 
follower of prince John. Sir IV. Scott: 
Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Bof5,n [Nicodemiis), "the golden 
dustman," foreman of old John Harmon, 
dustman and miser. He was "a broad, 
round-shouldered, one-sided old fellovv-, 
whose face was of the rhinoceros build, 
with over-lapping ears." A kind, shrewd 
man was Mr. Boflfin, devoted to his wife, 
whom he greatly admired. Being re- 
siduary legatee of John Harmon, dust- 
man, he came in for ^^ After- 
wards, John Harmon, the son, being dis- 
covered, Mr. Boffin surrendered the pro- 
perty to him, and lived with him. 

Mrs. BoJ/in, wife of Mr. N. BofHn, and 
daughter of a cat's-meat man. She was 
a fat, smiling, good-tempered creature, 
the servant of old John Harmon, dust- 
man and miser, and very kind to the 
miser's son (young John Harmon). After 



Mr. Boffin came into his fortune she 
became "a high flyer at fashion," wore 
black velvet and sable, but retained her 
kindness of heart and love fr her hus- 
band. She was devoted to Bella Wilfer, 
who ultimately became the wife of young 
John Harmon, alias Rokesmith. C. 
Dickens: Our Mutual Friend {1864). 

Bo'gio, one of the allies of Charle- 
magne. He promised his wife to return 
within six months, but was slain by 
Dardi nello. A riosto : Or Ian do Furioso 

Bo^le S'windle {The), a gigantic 
swindling scheme, concocted at Paris by 
fourteen sharpers, who expected to clear 
by it at least a million sterling. This 
swindle was exposed by O'Reilly in the 
Times newspaper, and the corporation of 
London thanked the proprietors of that 
journal for their public services. 

Bo'gtis, sham, forged, fraudulent, as 
bogus currency, bogus transactions; said 
to' be a corruption of Borghese, a swindler, 
who, in 1837, flooded the North American 
States with counterfeit bills, bills on 
fictitious banks, and sham mortgages. 
Boston Daily Courier. 

(Some think the word a corruption of 
bogie ; Lowell suggests the French word 
bagasse. The corresponding French term 
is Passe muscade.) 

Bolie'iuia, any locality frequented by 
jovu-nalists, artists, actors, opera-singers, 
spouters, and other similar characters. 

Bohemian {A), a gipsy, from the 
French notion that the first gipsies came 
from Bohemia. 

A Literary BoJiemian, an author of 
desultory works and irregular life. 

Never was there an editor with less about him of the 
literary V,o\i&xi\3Xi.. Fortnightly Review ("Fasten 

Bohemian Literature, desultory read- 

A Bohemian Life, an irregular, wan- 
dering, restless way of living, like that of 
a gipsy. 

Boliemond, prince of Antioch, a 
crusader. Sir W. Scott: Count Robert 
of Paris (time, Rufus). 

Bois'gelin {The young countess de), 
introduced in the ball given by king Rend 
at Aix. Sir W. Scott: Anne of Geier- 
stein (time, Edward IV,). 

Bois-ruilbert {Sir Brian dc), a 
preceptor of the Knights Templars. 

He offers insult to Rebecca, and she 
threatens to cast herself from the battle- 
ments if he touches her. When the castle 
is set on fire by the sibyl, sir Brian carries 
off Rebecca from the flames. The Grand- 
Master of the Knights Templars charges 
Rebecca with sorcery, and she demands a 
trial by combat. Sir Brian de Bois-Guil- 
bert is appointed to sustain the charge 
against her, and Ivanhoe is her champion. 
Sir Brian being found dead in the lists, 
Rebecca is declared innocent. Sir W. 
Scott: Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Boisterer, one of the seven attendants 
of Fortu'nio. His gift was that he could 
overturn a windmill with his breath, and 
even wreck a man-of-war. 

Fortunio asked him what he was doing. " I am blow- 
ings a little, sir," answered he, " to set those mills a4 
worlc." "But," said the knight, "you seem too fai 
off." "On the contrary," replied the blower, " I am 
too near, for if I did not restrain my breath I should 
blow the mills over, and perhaps the hill too on which 
tliey stand." Comtcssc D'Aulnoy : Fairy Tales 
(" Fortunio," 1682). 

Bold Beaucliamp [BeecA'-um], a 
proverbial phrase, similar to " an Achilles," 
" a Hector," etc. The reference is to 
Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, 
who, with one squire and six archers, 
overthrew a hundred armed men at 
Hogges, in Normandy, in 1346. 

So had we still of ours. In France that fajaous were, 
Warwick, of England then high-constabk that was, 
... So hardy, great and strong. 
That after of that name it to an adage grew. 
If any man himself adventurous happed to shew, 
" Bold Beauchamp " men him termed, if none so boJc) 
as he. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xviiL (1613J. 

IT A similar story is told of the captal 
de Buch, who, with forty followers, cleared 
Meaux of La Jacquerie, 7000 of whom were 
either slain or trampled to death (1358). 

Bold Stroke for a Husband, n 

comedy by Mrs. Cowley. There are two 
plots : one a bold stroke to get the man 
of one's choice for a husband, and the 
other a bold stroke to keep a husband. 
Olivia de Zuniga fixed her heart on Julio 
de Melesina, and refused or disgusted all 
suitors till he came forward. Donna 
Victoria, in order to keep a husband, 
disguised herself in man's apparel, as- 
sumed the name of Florio, and made love 
as a man to her husband's mistress. She 
contrived by an artifice to get back an 
estate which don Carlos had made over 
to his mistress, and thus saved her hus- 
band from ruin (1782). 

Bold Stroke for a Wife. Old 

Lovely, at death, left his daughter Anne 
/", but with this proviso, that she 



\ IS to forfeit the money if she munied 
without the consent of her guardians. 
Now, her guardians were four in number, 
and their characters so widely different 
that "they never agreed on any one 
thing." They were sir Philip Modelove, 
an old beau; Mr. Periwinkle, a silly 
virtuoso ; Mr. Tradelove, a broker on 
'Change; and Mr. Obadiah Prim, a hypo- 
critical quaker. Colonel Feignwell con- 
trived to flatter all the guardians to the 
lop of their bent, and won tlie heiress. 
Mrs. Centlivre (1717)- 

Bol'gfa, the southern parts of IroJand, 
so called from the Fir-bolg or Belgae of 
Britain, who settled there. Bolg means a 
** quiver, " and Fir-bolg means ' ' bowmen. " 

The chiefs of Bolga crowd round the shield of 
generous C^Wvaxox.Ossian : Tetncra, ii. 

Bolster, a famous Wrath, who com- 
pelled St. Agnes to gather up the boulders 
which infested his territory. She carried 
three apronfuls to the top of a hill, hence 
called St. Agnes' Beacon. (See Wrath's 
Hole. ) 

Bol'ton [Stawarth), an English officer 
in The Monastery, a novel by sir W. 
Scott (time, Ehzabeth). 

Bolton Ass. This creature is said 
to have chewed tobacco and taken snuff. 
Dr. Dor an. 

Bomba [King), a nickname given to 
Ferdinand II. of Naples, in consequence 
of his cruel bombardment of Messi'na in 
1848. His son, who bombarded Palermo 
in i860, is called BombalVno ("Little 

A young Sicilian, too, was there . , . 
\}Vho'\ being rebellious to his liege. 
After Palermo's fatal siege. 
Across the western seas he fled 
In good king Bomba's happy reign. 
Lon/eU<rw : The IVayside Inn (prelude). 

Bombardinlan, the general of the 
forces of king Chrononhotonthologos. 
He invites the king to his tent, and gives 
him hashed pork. The king strikes him, 
and calls him traitor. "Traitor, in thy 
teeth ! " replies the general. They fight, 
and the king is killed. H. Carey : Chro- 
nonhotonihologos (a burlesque, 1734). 

Bombastes Furioso, general of 
Artaxam'inous (king of Utopia). He 
is plighted to Distaffi'na, but Arta.x- 
aminous promises her " half-a-crown " if 
she will forsake the general for himself. 
"This bright reward of ever-daring 
minds " is irresistible. When Bombastes 
sees himself flouted, he goes mad, and 


hangs his boots on a tree, with this label 
duly displayed 

Who dares this pair of boots disptacs. 
Must meet Bombastes face to face. 

The king, coming up, cuts down the boots, 
and Bombastes "kills him." Fusbos, 
seeing the king fallen, "kills" the gene- 
ral ; but at the close of the farce the 
dead men rise one by one, and join the 
dance, promising, if the audience hkes, 
"to die again to-morrow." Rhodes: 
Bombastes Furioso (1790). 

.' This farce is a travesty of Orlando 
Furioso, and " Distaffina" is Angelica, be- 
loved by Orlando, whom she flouted for 
Medoro a young Moor. On this Orlando 
went mad, and hung up his armour on a 
tree, with this distich attached thereto 

Orlando's arms let none displace, 
But such who'll meet him face to face. 

IT In The Rehearsal, by the duke of 
Buckingham, Bayes' troops are killed, 
every man of them, by Drawcansir, but 
revive, and " go off on their legs." 

Sec the translation of Don Quixote, by C. H. Wilmot 
esq., u. 363 (1764). 

Bombastes Furioso {The French), 
capitaine Fracasse. Thiophile Gautier. 

Bombas't'as, the family name of Pa- 
racelsus. He is said to have kept a small 
devil prisoner in the pommel of his sword. 

Bombastus kept a devil's bird 
Shut in the pommel of his sword, 
That taught him all the cunning pranks 
Of past and future mountebanks. 

5. ButUr: Hitdibras, H. 3. 

' Bon Gaultier Ballads, parodies 
of modern poets, by W. E. Aytoun and 
[sir] Theodore Martin (1854). 

Bo'naparte's Cancer. Napoleon 
I. and HI. suffered from an internal 

I . . . would much rather have a sound digestion 
Than Buonaparte's cancer. 

Byron : Don yuan, ix. 14 (1821). 

Bonas'sus, an imaginary wild beast, 
which the Ettrick shepherd encoimtered. 
(The Ettrick shepherd was James Hogg, 
the Scotch poet.) Nodes Afubrosiance 
(No. xlviii,, April, 1830). 

Bondman [The), a tragedy by 
Massinger (1624). The hero is Pisander, 
and the heroine Cleora. 

Bone-setter [The), Sarah Mapp 
(died 1736). 

Bo'ney, a familiar contradiction of 
Bo'naparte (3 syl.), used by the English 
in the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury by way of depreciation. Thus 
Thorn. Moore speaks of " the infidel 



Bonhomme [Jacques), a peasant who 
interferes with politics ; hence the peasants' 
rebeUion of 1358 was called La Jacquerie. 
The words may be rendered "Jimmy" or 
"Johnny Good fellow." 

BONIFACE [St.], an Anglo-Saxon 
whose name was Winifrid or Winfrith, 
born in Devonshire. He was made arch- 
bishop of Mayence by pope Gregory III., 
and is called "TheApostl^of the Germans." 
St. Boniface was murdered in Friesland 
by some peasants, and his day is June 5 

... in Friesland first St. Boniface our best, 
Who of tlie see of Mentz, while there he sat possessed, 
At Dockum had his death, by faithless Frisians slain. 
Drayton : Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622). 

Bon'iface [Father], ex-abbot of 
Kennaquhair. lie first under 
the name of Blinkhoodie in the character 
of gardener at Kinross, and afterwards 
as the old gardener at Dundrennan. 
[Ke7inaqiihair, that is, "I know not 
where.") 5?> W. Scott: The Abbot 
(time, Elizabeth). 

Bon'iface [The abbot), successor of 
the abbot Ingelram, as Superior of St. 
Mary's Convent. 5z> W. Scott, The 
Monastery (time, Elizabeth). 

Bon'iface, landlord of the inn at Lich- 
field, in league with the highwaymen. 
This sleek, jolly publican is fond of the 
cant phrase, "as the saying is." Thus : 
' ' Does your master stay in town, as the 
saying is?" " So well, as the saying is, 
I could wish we had more of them." 
' ' I'm old Will Boniface ; pretty well 
known upon this road, as the saying is." 
He had lived at Lichfield " man and boy 
above eight and fifty years, and not con- 
sumed eight and fifty ounces of meat." 
He says 

" I have fed purely upon ale. I have eat my ale, 
drank my ale, and I always sleep upon my ale." 
Farquhar : The Beaux' Stratagem, i. i (1707). 

. Hence Boniface has become a 
common term for a publican. 

Bonne Beine, Claude de France, 
daughter of Louis XII. and wife of 
Fran9ois I. (1499-1524). 

Bonnet [Je parte i mon), " I am 
talking to myself." 

Harpas^on. Aquituparle? 

La Piece. Je parle & men bonnet. 

MolUre: L'Avare, I 3 (1667). 

Bonnet Rouge, a red republican, 
so called from the red cap of liberty 
which he wore. 

Bonnivard [Francois de), the 
prisoner of Chillon, in Byron's poem. He 


was one of six brothers, five of whona 
died violent deaths. The father and two 
sons died on the battle-field ; one was 
burnt at the stake ; three were imprisoned 
in the dungeon of Chillon, near the lake 
of Geneva. Two of the three died, and 
Franpois was set at liberty by Henri the 
Bearnais. They were incarcerated by 
the duke-bishop of Savoy for republican 
principles (1496-1570). 

Bonstet'tin [Nicholas), the old 
deputy of Schwitz, and one of the depu- 
ties of the Swiss confederacy to Charles 
duke of Burgundy. Sir IV. Scott : Anne 
of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.). 

Bon'temps [Roger), the personi- 
fication of that buoyant spirit which is 
always " incHned to hope rather than 
fear," and in the very midnight of dis- 
tress is ready to exclaim, "There's a good 
time coming : wait a httle longer." Th.e 
character is the creation of B^ranger. 

Vous, pauvres pleins d'envie, 

Vous, riches ddsireux ; 
Vous, dont le char ddvie 

Apres un cours heureux ; 
Vous, qui perdrez peut-etre 

Des titres iclatans, 
Eh gai ! prenez pour maitro 

Le gros Roger Bontemps. 

iieranzer (i8i4>. 

Bon'tliron [Anthony), one of Ra- 
morny's followers ; employed to murder 
Smith, the lover of Catherine Glover 
("the fair maid of Perth "), but he mur- 
dered Oliver instead, by mistake. When 
charged with the crime, he demanded a 
trial by combat, and being defeated by 
Smith, confessed his guilt and was hanged. 
He was restored to life, but being again 
apprehended, was executed. Sir W. 
Scott: Fair Maid of 'Perth (time, Henry 

Bon Ton, a farce by Garrick. Its 
design is to show the evil effects of the 
introduction of foreign morals and foreign 
manners. Lord Minikin neglects his wife, 
and flirts with Miss Tittup. Lady Mini- 
kin hates her husband, and flirts with 
colonel Tivy. Miss Tittup is engaged to 
the colonel. Sir John Trotley, who does 
not understand ban ton, thinks this sort 
of flirtation very objectionable. "You'll 
excuse me, for such old-fashioned notions, 
1 am sure" (1760). 

BooTay [Lady), a vulgar upstart, who 
tries to seduce her footman, Joseph 
Andrews. Parson Adams reproves her 
for laughing in church. Lady Booby is 
a caricature of Richardson's " Pamgla." 
Fielding: Joseph Andrews (1742). 


Book of Martyrs (The), by John 
Fox (1562). Also called the Acts and 

Books ( The Battle of the). (See Dic- 
tionary 0/ Phrase and Fable, p. 103.) 

Books [Enormous prices given for 
rare). The highest price ever given was 
^^3990 for a copy in vellum of the 
Mazarine Bible. Another copy was 
bought by Lord Ashburnham, at Parker's 
sale, in 1873, for ^^3400. Mr. Quaritch, 
the bookseller, gave ;^2ooo for one on 
paper in 1887 ; and one, slightly damaged, 
fetched ^2000 in 1889. 

At the auction of the duke of Roxburgh, 
Caxton's first book, called Recuyell of the 
Hisforyes of Troye, fetched ;^iooo ; and 
a first edition of Boccaccio's Decameron 
fetched '2100. 

Boone (i syl.), colonel [afterwards 
" general "] Daniel Boone, in the United 
States service, was one of the earliest 
settlers in Kentucky, where he signalized 
himself by many daring exploits against 
the Red Indians (1735-1820). 

f )f all men, s.iving Sylla the man-slayer . . . 

The general Boone, the back-woodsman of Kentucky, 

Was happiest amongst mortals anywhere, etc. 

Byron : Don yuan, viii. 61-65 (1821). 

Booshallocll (IVeil), cowherd to 
Ian Eachin MTan, chief of the clan 
Quhele.Sir W. Scott: Fair Maid of 
Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Boo'tes (3 syl), Areas son of Jupiter 
and Calisto. One day his mother, in the 
semblance of a bear, met him, and Areas 
was on the point of killing it, when 
Jiipiter, to prevent the murder, converted 
him into a constellation, either Booth or 
Ursa Major. Pausanias : Itinerary of 
Greece, viii. 4. 

Doth not Orion worth'dy deserve 
A higher place . . . 

Than frail Booths, who was placed above 
Only because the gods did else foresee 
He should the murderer of his mother be? 
Lord Brooke : Of Nobility. 

Booth, husband of Amelia. Said to 
be a drawing of the author's own character 
and experiences. He has all the vices of 
Tom Jones, with an additional share of 
meanness. Fielding: Amelia (1751). 

Boots of tlie Holly-tree Znu. 

(See Cobb.) 

Boraclx'io, a follower of don John 
of Aragon. He is a great villain, en- 
gaged to Margaret, the waiting-woman of 
Hero. Shakespeare: Much Ado about 
Nothing [\6oo). 

137 BORE. 

Boi'ach'io, a drunkard. (Spanish, 
bor radio, "drunk;" borrachuilo, "a 

' Why, you stink of wine I Dye think my niece will 
ever endure such a borachioT Von are an absolute 
\iOx;^c\\\o."CoHgrcve: The H^'ay oj the irorlJ (ijoo). 

Borachio {Joseph), landlord of tlie 
Eagle hotel, in Salamanca. Jephson : 
Tzvo Strings to your Bow (1792). 

Bor'ak [A I), the animal brought by 
Gabriel to convey Mahomet to the seventh 
heaven. The word means "lightning." 
Al Borak had the face of a man, but the 
cheeks of a horse ; its eyes were like 
jacinths, but brilliant as the stars ; it had 
eagle's wings, glistened all over with 
radiant light, and spoke with a human 
voice. This was one of the ten animals 
(not of the race of man) received into 
paradise. (See Animals, p. 45.) 

Borak was a fine-limbed, high-standing horse, strong 
in frame, and with a coat as glossy as marble. His 
colour was saffron, with one hair of gold for every 
three of tawny ; his ears were restless and pointed lilte 
a reed ; his eyes large and full of fire ; his nostrils wide 
and steaming ; he had a white star on his forehead, a 
neck gracefully arched, a mane soft and silky, and a 
thick tail that swept the grouad.Crofiiemitaine, ii. 9. 

Borax, Nosa, or Crapon'dinus, 

a stone extracted from a toad. It is the 
antidote of poison. Mirror of Stones. 

. . . the toad, ug!^ and venomous, 
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head. 
Shakespeare : As you Like It, act ii. sc. i (1600). 

Border Minstrel ( The), sir Walter 
Scott (1771-1832). 

My steps the Border Minstrel led. 

lyordsTuorlh : Yarrow Revisited. 

Border States (of North America) : 
Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, and Missouri. So called because 
they bordered upon the line of Free States 
and Slave-holding States. The term is 
now an anachronism. 

Border-thief School {The), a 

term applied by Thomas Carlyle, in his 
Sartor Resartus, to sirW. Scott and others, 
who celebrated the achievements of free- 
booters, etc., like Rob Roy. Defoe and 
Ainsworth made Jack Sheppard such a 
hero. Dick Turpin and Cartouche belong 
to the same school, as also Robin Hood and 
other outlaws. (Sec Pic aresco School.) 

Bore (i syl.), a tidal wave. The 
largest are those of the Ganges (espe- 
cially the Hooghly branch), Brahmaputra, 
and Indus. In Great Britain, the Severn, 
Trent, Wye, Solway, the Dee in Cheshire, 
Clyde, Dornoch Frith, and Lune. That 
of the Trent is called the " Eager : " evi- 
dently derived from the Norse word 
Aegir (the God of Storms). 




Bo'reas, the north wind. lie lived in 
a cave on mount Haemus, in Tlarace. 

Cease, rude Boreas, blustering railer. 

G. A. Stephens: The Shipwreck. 

Bor'i^ia {Lucrezia di), duchess of Fer- 
ra'ra, vv^ife of don Alfonso. Her natural 
son Genna'ro was brought up by a fisher- 
man in Naples ; but when he grew to 
manhood a stranger gave him a paper 
from his mother, announcing to him that 
he was of noble blood, but concealing his 
name and family. He saved the life of 
Orsi'ni in the battle of Rim'ini, and they 
became sworn friends. In Venice he was 
introduced to a party of nobles, all of whom 
had some tale to tell against Lucrezia : 
Orsini told him she had murdered her 
own brother ; ViteUi, that she had caused 
his uncle to be slain ; Liverotto, that she 
had poisoned his uncle Appia'no ; Gazella, 
that she had caused one of his relatives 
to be drowned in the Tiber. Indignant at 
these acts of wickedness, Gennaro struck 
off the " B " from the escutcheon of the 
duke's palace at Ferrara, changing the 
name Borgia into Orgia. Lucrezia prayed 
the duke to put to death the man who had 
thus insulted their noble house, and Gen- 
naro was condemned to death by poison. 
Lucrezia, to save him, gave him an anti- 
dote, and let him out of prison by a secret 
door. Soon after his liberation the princess 
Negroni, a friend of the Borgias, gave a 
grand supper, to which Gennaro and his 
companions were invited. At the close of 
the banquet they were all arrested by 
Lucrezia, after having drunk poisoned 
wine. Gennaro was told he was the son 
of Lucrezia, and died. Lucrezia no sooner 
saw him die than she died also. Doni- 
zetti: Lucrezia di Borgia (an opera, 1835). 

Born at Sea. All persons born at 
sea are registered in the parish of Stepney, 
a borough of the Tower Hamlets. 

Borougfh [The), in ten-syllable verse 
with rhymes, in twenty-four letters, by 
George Crabbe (1810). 

Bor'ougllcliiF {Captain), a vulgar 
Yankee, boastful, conceited, and slangy. 
"I guess," "I reckon," "I calculate," 
are used indifferently by him, and he 
perpetually appeals to sergeant Drill to 
confirm his boastful assertions : as, " I'm 
a pretty considerable favourite with the 
ladies; aren't I, sergeant Drill?" "My 
character for valour is pretty well known ; 
isn't it, sergeant Drill?" "If you once 
saw me in battle, you'd never forget it ; 
would he, sergeant Drill? " "I'm a sort of 
a kind of a nonentity ; aren't I, sergeant 

Drill?" etc. He is made the butt of 
Long Tom Coffin. Colonel Howard 
wishes him to marry his niece Katharine, 
but the young lady has given her heart to 
lieutenant Barnstaple, who turns out to 
be the colonel's son. ^. Fitzball : The 
Pilot. (See John Blount, p. 130.) 

Borre (i syl.), natural son of king 
Arthur, and one of the knights of the 
Round Table. His mother was Lyo- 
nors, an earl's daughter, who came to 
do homage to the young king. Sir T. 
Malory : History of Prince Arthur, i. 15 

. Sir Bors de Ganis is quite another 
person, and so is king Bors of Gaul. 

Borrioboola Glia, in Africa. (See 
Jellybv, Mrs.) 

Borro'meo [Charles), cardinal and 
archbishop of Milan. Immortalized by 
his self-devotion in ministering at Mil'an 
to the plague-stricken (1538-1584). 

IF St. Roche, who died 1327, devoted 
himself in a similar manner to those 
stricken with the plague at Piacenza ; and 
Mompesson to the people of Eyam. In 
1720-22 H. Francis Xavier de Belsunce 
was indefatigable in ministering to the 
plague-stricken of Marseilles. 

Borrowingf. Who goeth a-borrowing, 
goeth a-sorrowing. Tusser: Five Hun- 
dred Points of Good Husbandry, xv.' 8 
and again xlii. 6 (1557). 

Bors {King) of Gaul , brother of kin.s; 
Ban of Benwicke [ ? Brittany]. They 
went to the aid of prince Arthur when 
he was first estabhshed on the British 
throne, and Arthur promised in return to 
aid them against king Claudas, "a mighty 
man of men," who warred against them. 
Sir T. Malory: History of Prince 
Arthur (1470). 

There are two bretliren beyond the sea, and tliey 
kings both . . . the one hight king Ban of Benwicke, 
and the other hight king Bors of Gaul, that is, France. 
-Pt. i. 8. 

(Sir Bors was of Ganis, that is, Wales, 
and was a knight of the Round Table. 
So also was Borre (natural son of prince 
Arthur), sometimes called sir Bors.) 

Bors {Sir), called sir Bors de Ganis, 
brother of sir Lionell and nephew of sir 
Launcelot. " For all women was he a 
virgin, save for one, the daughter of 
king . Brandeg'oris, on whom he had a 
child, hight Elaine ; save for her, sir 
Bors was a clean maid " (ch. iv.). When 
he went to Corbin, and saw Galahad the 
son of sir Launcelot and Elaine (daughter 
of king Pelles), he prayed that the child 




might prove as good a knight as his 
father, and instantly a vision of the holy 
greal was vouchsafed him ; for 

There came a white dove, bearing a little censer of 

fold in her bill . . . and a maiden that bear the 
ancgrcall, and she said, " Wit ye well, sir Bors, that 
this child . . . shall achieve the Sancgreall "... thMi 
they kneeled down . . . and there was such a savour 
as all the spicery in the world had been there. And 
when the dove took her flight, the maiden vanished 
away with the Sancgreall. Pt. iii. 4. 

*. Sir Bors was with sir Galahad and 
sir Percival when the consecrated wafer 
assumed the visible and bodily appearance 
of the Saviour. And this is what is 
meant by " achieving the holy greal ; " for 
when th6y partook of the wafer their 
eyes saw the Saviour enter it. Sir T. 
Malory: History of Prince Arthur, iii. 
loi, 102 (1470). 

N.B. This sir Bors must not be con- 
founded with sir Borre, a natural son of 
king Arthur and Lyonors (daughter of 
the earl Sanam, pt. i. 15), nor yet with 
king Bors of Gaul, i.e. France (pt. i. 8). 

Bortell, the bull, in the beast-epic 
called Reynard the Fox (1498). 

Bos'can-[Almoga'va], a Spanish 
poet of Barcelona (1500-1543). His 
poems are generally bound up with those 
of Garcilasso. They introduced the Italian 
style into Castilian poetry. 

Sometimes lie turned to gaze upon his book, 
Boscan, or Garcilasso. 

Bryon : Don yuan, i. 93 (1819). 

Boscobel, or the preservation and 
escape of Charles II. after the battle of 
Worcester. J. Blount (?) professes his 
account to be a truthful narrative. Ains- 
worth wrote a novel called Boscobel, or 
The Royal Oak {\Zt2). 

Sir W. Scott's Woodstock contains an 
account of the escape of Charles II. after 
the battle of Worcester, and carries on 
the romance to the death of Cromwell, 
the return of the king, and his death. 

Boscobel Tracts {The\ relative to 
the hairbreadth escapes of Charles II. in 
the forty days between the battle of Wor- 
cester and his escape to France. Dr. 
Copleston, bishop of Llandaff, wrote the 
Introduction (1827). 

Bosmi'na, daughter of Fingal king 
of Morven (north-west coast of Scotland). 

Boss, of Arthurian legend, is Boscastle, 
in Cornwall, on the Bristol Channel. 
Bude is also in Cornwall, on the Bristol 

When the long wave broke 
All down the thundering shores of Bude and Boss. 
Tittu^son ; Idylls o/the Kin^, 

Bossu {R^n^ le), French scholar and 
critic (1631-1680). 

And for the epic poem your lordship bade me look 
at, upon taking the length, breadth, height, and depth 
of it, and trying them at home upon an exact scale of 
Bossu 's, 'tis out, my lord, in every one of its dimensions. 
Siente (1768). 

(I think Sterne means the Abb^ Bossut, 
the mathematician. His critic tried the 
book on its "length, breadth, height, and 
depth ; " or perhaps he wishes to confound 
the two authors.) 

Bossut {Abbi Charles), a celebrated 
mathematician (1730-1814). 

(Sir Richard Phillips assumed a host 
of popular names, amongst others that of 
M. I'Abbi Bossut in several educational 
works in French. ) 

Bosta'xia, one of the two daughters 
of the old man who entrapped prince 
Assad in order to offer him in sacrifice 
on "the fiery mountain." His other 
daughter was named Cava'ma. The old 
man enjoined these two daughters to 
scourge the prince daily with the bas- 
tinado, and feed him with bread and 
water till the day of sacrifice arrived. 
After a time, the heart of Bostana soft- 
ened towards her captive, and she re- 
leased him. Whereupon his brother 
Amgiad, out of gratitude, made her his 
wife, and became in time king of the city 
in which he was already vizier. Arabian 
Nights ("Amgiad and Assad "). 

Bostock, a coxcomb, cracked on the 
point of aristocracy and family birth. 
His one and only inquiry is, " How many 
quarterings has a person got ? " Descent 
from the nobihty with him covers a 
multitude of sins, and a man is no one, 
whatever his personal merit, who "is 
not a sprig of the nobihty." J. Shirley : 
The Ball (1642). 

Bosworth Field, an historical poem 
in heroic couplets, by sir J. Beaumont 

Botanic Garden {The), a poem in 
two parts, by Dr. Erasmus Darwin, with 
scientific and other notes (1791). 

Bot'any [[Father of English), W. 
Turner, M.D. (1520-1568). 

J. P. de Tournefort is called The Father 
of Botany (1656-1708). 

(Anthony de Jussieu hved 1686-1758, 
and his brother Bernard 1699-1777.) 

Botany-Bay Eclogues, by Southey 


Bothwell {Sergeant), alias Francis 




Stewart, in the royal army. Sir IV. 
Scoti: Old Mortality (time, Charles II.). 

Botliwell [Lady), sister of lady 

Sir Geoffrey Both-well, the husband of 
lady Bothwell. 

Mrs. Margaret Bothwell, in the intro- 
duction of the story. Aunt Margaret pro- 
posed to use Mrs. Margaret's tombstone 
for her own. Sir W. Scott: Aunt Mar- 
garet's Mirror [^\vciQ, William III.). 

Bothwell, a novel by James Grant 
(1851) ; an historic tale in verse by Ay- 
toun (1856); a tragedy by Swinburne 
(1874). Of course, all these are of the 
days of Mary queen of Scots. 

Bottled Beer, Alexander Nowell, 
author of a celebrated Latin catechism 
which first appeared in 1570, under the 
title of ChristiancB pietatis prima Insti- 
tutio, ad usum Scholarum Latine Scripta, 
In 1560 he was promoted to the deanery 
of St. Paul's {xso7-i6o2). Fuller : 
Worthies of England (" Lancashire "). 

Bottom [Nick), an Athenian weaver, 
a compound of profound ignorance and 
imbounded conceit, not v.'ithout good 
nature and a fair dash of mother-wit. 
When the play of Piramus and Thisbe 
is cast, Bottom covets every part ; the 
lion, ThisbS, Pyrimus, all have charms 
for him. In order to punish Titan 'ia, the 
fairy-king made her dote on Master 
Bottom, on whom Puck had placed an 
ass's head. Shakespeare: Midsummer 
Night's Dream (1592). 

When Goldsmith, jealous of the attention which a 
dancing monkey attracted in a coffee-house, said, " I 
can do that as well," and was about to attempt it, he 
was but playing -' Bottom." /J. G. IVhite. 

Bottomless Pit [The), a ludicrous 
sobriquet of William Pitt, who was re- 
markably thin {1759-1806). 

Boubekir' Muez'in, of Bagdad, " a 
vain, proud, and envious iman, who hated 
the rich because he himself was poor." 
When prince Zeyn Alasnam came to the 
city, he told the people to beware of him, 
for probably he was " some thief who had 
made himself rich by plunder." The 
prince's attendant called on him, put into 
his hand a purse of gold, and requested 
the honour of his acquaintance. Next 
day, after morning prayers, the iman said 
to the people, "I find, my brethren, that 
the stranger who is come to Bagdad is 
a young prince possessed of a thousand 
virtues, and worthy the love of all men. 
Let us protect him, and rejoice that he 

has come among us." Arabian Nights 
(" Prince Zeyn Alasnam "). 

Boucliard [Sir). (See Bertulpiie.) 

Bou'illon [Godfrey duke of), a 
crusader (1058-1100), introduced in Count 
Robert of Paris, a novel by sir W. Scott 
(time, Rufus). 

Bounce [Mr. T.), a nickname given 
in 1837 to T. Barnes, editor of the Times 
(or the Turnabout, as it was called). 

Pope's dog was called " Bounce." (See DOG.) 

Bouxtd'erby [Josiah), of Coketown, 
banker and mill-owner, the " Bully of 
Humility," a big, loud man, with an iron 
stare and metallic laugh. Mr. Bounderby 
is the son of Mrs. Pegler, an old woman 
to whom he pays ^30 a year to keep out 
of sight, and in a boasting way he pre- 
tends that " he was dragged up from the 
gutter to become a millionaire." Mr. 
Bounderby marries Louisa, daughter of 
his neighbour and friend, Thomas Grad- 
grind, Esq., M.P. Dickens: Hard 
Times (1854). 

Bountiful [Lady), widow of sir 
Charles Bountiful. Her delight was 
curing the parish sick and relieving the 

My lady Bountiful is one of the best of women. Her 
late husband, sir Charles Bountiful, left her with ;^iooo 
a year ; and I believe she lays out one-half on't in 
charitable uses for the good of her neighbours. Irk 
short, she has cured more people in and about IJchfield 
within ten years than the doctors have killed in 
twenty; and that's a bold word. Farquhar : The 
Beaicx' Stratagem, i. i (1705). 

Bounty [Muti?iy of the), in 1790, 
headed by Fletcher Christian. "The 
mutineers finally settled in Pitcairn 
Island (Polynesian Archipelago). In 
1808 all the mutineers were dead except 
one (Alexander Smith), who had changed 
his name to John Adams, and became a 
model patriarch of the colony, which was 
taken under the protection of the British 
Government in 1839. [Adams died 1829, 
aged 65.] Lord Byron, in The Island, 
has made the "mutiny of the Bounty " 
the basis of his tale, but the facts are 
greatly distorted. 

In Notes and Queries, January lo, 1880, is given a 
list, etc., of all the crew. Corrected, etc., January 31. 

Bous'trapa, a nickname given to 
Napoleon III. It is compounded of the 
first syllables of Boulogne], .S'/ra[sbourg], 
/'rt[ris] ; and alludes to his escapades in 
1840, 1836, 1851 [coup ddtat). 

(No man ever lived who was dis- 
tinguished by more nicknames than Louts 
Napoleon. Beside the one above men- 
tioned, be was called Badinguet, Man oj 



Decemler, Man of Sedan, Raiipol, Man 
of Silence, Verhucl, etc.; and after his 
escape from the fortress of Ham he called 
himself le count Arenenberg. ) 

Bow Churcli (London). Stow gives 
two derivations: (i) He says it was so 
called because it was the first church in 
London built on arches. This is the 
derivation most usually accepted. (2) He 
says also it took its name from certain 
stone arches supporting a lantern on the 
top of the lower. 

Bower of Bliss, a garden belonging 
to the enchantress Arnii'da. It abounded 
in everything that could contribute to 
earthly pleasure. Here Rinal'do spent 
some time in love-passages with Armi'da, 
but he ultimately broke from the enchan- 
tress and rejoined ihaviax.Tasso : Je- 
rusalem Delivered (1575). 

Bower of Bliss, the residence of the 
witch Acras'ia, a beautiful and most fasci- 
nating woman. This lovely garden was 
situated on a floating island filled with 
everything which could conduce to enchant 
the senses, and "wrap the spirit in for- 
getfulness." 5/^j^r.- Faerie Qucene, ii. 

Bowkit, in The Son-in-Law. 

In the scene where Cranky declines to accept Bowkit 
as son-in-law on account of his Uijliness, John Edwin, 
who was playing " Bowkit " at the Haymarket, uttered 
in a tone of surprise, " UglyV and then advancing to 
the lamps, said with infinite impertinence, "I submit 
to the decision of the British public which is the ugliest 
of us three : I, old Cranky, or that gentleman there 
In the front row of the balcony \>oxV'CornhiU 
Magazine (1867). 

Bowley {Sir Joseph), M.P., who face- 
tiously called himself "the poor man's 
friend. " His secretary is Y\s\\. Dickens : 
The Chimes {1844). 

Bowlingf {Lieufena?it Tain'), an ad- 
mirable naval character in Smollett's 
Roderick Random. Dibdin wrote a naval 
song in memoricm of Tom Bowling, be- 
ginning thus 

Here a sheer hulk lies poor Tom Bowling, 
The darling of the crew . . . 

Bowyer [Master], usher of the black 
rod in the court of queen Elizabeth. Sir 
W. Scott: Ketiilworih {\.\mQ, Elizabeth). 

Bowzybe'us {4 J>'^-). the drunhard, 
r.oted for his songs in Gay's pastorals, 
called The Shepherds Week, He sang of 
"Nature's Laws," of " Fairs and Shows," 
"The Children in the Wood," "Chevy 
Chase," "Taffey Welsh," "Rosamond's 
Bower," " Lilly-buUero," etc. The 6th 
pastoral is in imitation of Virgil's 6lh 


Bucolic, and Bowzybtius is a vulgarized 


That Bowzybcus, who with Jocund tongue. 
Ballads, and roundelays, and catches sun?. 

Gay: Pastoral, vi. (1714^. 

Box and Cox, a farce by J. M. 
Morton, the principal characters of which 
are Box and Cox. 

Boy and the Mantle ( The), a ballad 
in Percy's Reliques. It tells us how a boy 
entered the court of king Arthur while 
he was keeping his Christmas feast at 
" Carleile," and, producing a mantle, said 
no lady who was not leal and chaste 
could put it on. Queen Guenever tried, 
but utterly failed, and only Cradock's 
wife succeeded. He then drew his wand 
across a head of brawn, and said no 
cuckold knight could cut it. Sir Cradock 
only succeeded. Lastly, he drew forth 
a gold cup, and said no cuckold could 
drink therefrom. Here again sir Cradock 
alone of all the company contrived to 
drink from that cup. So sir Cradock 
became possessed of the mantle, the 
brawn's head, and the^ golden drink 

Boy Archbishop ( The). A child of 
only five years old was made archbishop of 
Rheims. The see of Narbonne was pur- 
chased for a boy of ten. Pope Benedict 
IX. is said to have been only twelve when 
he was raised to St. Peter's chair. 
Hallam, vol. ii. p. 248. 

Boy Bachelor ( The), William Wot- 
ton, D.D., admitted at St. Catherine's 
Hall, Cambridge, before he was ten, and 
to his degree of B. A. when he was twelve 
and a half (1665-1726). 

This was by no means a unique instance- 
Henry Philpotts, C.C.C, matriculated at the age of m 

James lord Abinger, at the age of 135^. 
John Kelle, C.C.C, at the age of 14, in 1808. 
Richard Bethell, Wadham, Oxford, aged 14, 1814. 
I.ord Westbury, Oxford, at the age of 14, 1818. 
Edward Copleston, C.C.C, at the age of 13, 1791. 

Boy Bishop [The), St. Nicholas, the 
patron saint of boys (fourth century). 

(There was also an ancient custom of 
choosing a boy from the cathedral choir 
on St. Nicholas' Day (December 6) as a 
mock bishop. This boy possessed certain 
privileges, and if he died during the year 
was buried in pontificalibus. The custom 
was abolished by Henry VIII. In Salis- 
bury Cathedral visitors are shown a small 
sarcophagus, which the verger says was 
made for a boy bishop. ) 

Boy Crucified. It is said that som 
time during the dark ages, a boy narned 




Werner was impiously crucified at Bacha- 
rach on the Rhine, by the Jews. A little 
chapel erected to the memory of this boy 
stands on the walls of the town, close to 
the river. Hugh of Lincoln and William 
of Norwich are instances of a similar 

See how its currents g-leam and shine . . . 
As if the grapes Were stained with the blood 
Of the innocent boy who, some years back, 
Was taken and crucified by the Jews 
In that ancient town of Bacharach. 

Longfellow: The Golden Legend. 

Boyet\ one of the lords attending on 
the princess of France. Shakespeare: 
Loves Labour s Lost ( 1594). 

Boyle's Lectures, founded by the 
hon. Robert Boyle, for any " minister " 
who shall preach eight sermons in a year 
in defence of the Christian religion, as 
opposed to atheism, deism, paganism, or 
Mohammedanism, or the Jewish faith. 
The first course was preached in 1692, by 
Richard Bentley. All the lectures up to 
S739 have been printed in 3 vols, folio. In 
1846 the course of lectures by the Rev. 
F. D. Maurice were published under the 
title of The Religions of the World. 
Many courses since then have been de- 

Boytliom(Z.fl!?(tr^^^), a robust gentle- 
man with the voice of a Stentor, a friend 
of Mr. Jarndyce. He would utter the 
most ferocious sentiments, while at the 
same time he fondled a pet canary on his 
finger. Once on a time he had been in 
iove with Miss Barbary, lady Dedlock's 
sister ; but ' ' the good old times all times 
when old are good were gone." 
Dickens : Bleak House {1853). 

(" Laurence Boy thorn " is a photograph 
of W. S. Landor; as "Harold Skim- 
pole," in the same story, is drawn from 
Leigh Hunt.) 

Boss, Charles Dickens. It was the 
nickname of a pet child dubbed Moses, 
in honour of " Moses Primrose" in the 
Vicar of Wakefield. Children called the 
name Bozes, which got shortened into Boz 

Who the dickens' Boz" could be 

Puzzled many a learned elf; 
But time revealed the mystery, 

And "Boz" appeared as Dickens* self. 

Epigram on the Carthusian. 

{Sketches by Boz, by Charles Dickens, 
(1836), two series. The first sketch is 
called Mr. Mifitts and his Cousin. ) 

Bozzy, James Boswell, the gossipy 
biographer of Dr. Johnson (1740-1795). 

Brabau'tio, a senator of Venice, 

father of Desdemo'na ; most proud, arro- 
gant, and overbearing. He thought the 
"insolence" of Othello in marrying his 
daughter unpardonable, and that Desde- 
mona must have been drugged with love- 
potions so to demean herself. Shake- 
speare: Othello {1611). 

Brac'cio, commissary of the republic 
of Florence, employed in picking up every 
item of scandal he could find against 
Lu'ria the noble Moor, who commanded 
the army of Florence against the Pisans. 
The Florentines hoped to find sufficient 
cause of blame to lessen or wholly cancel 
their obligations to the Moor, but even 
Braccio was obliged to confess "This 
Moor hath borne his faculties so meek, 
hath been so clear in his great office, that 
his virtues would plead like angels, 
trumpet-tongued," against the council 
which should censure him. R. Brown- 
ing: Luria (a poetical drama, 1879). 

Brac'idas and Am'idas, the two 

sons of Mile'sio, the former in love with 
the wealthy Philtra, and the latter with 
the dowerless Lucy. Their father at 
death left each of his sons an island of 
equal size and value, but the sea daily 
encroached on that of the elder brother 
and added to the island of Amidas. The 
rich Philtra now forsook Bracidas for the 
richer brother, and Lucy, seeing herself 
forsaken, jumped into the sea. A floating 
chest attracted her attention, she clung to 
it, and was drifted to the wasted island, 
where Bracidas received her kindly. The 
chest was found to contain property of 
great value, and Lucy gave it to Bracidas, 
together with herself, ' ' the better of them 
both." Amidas and Philtra claimed the 
chest as their right, and the dispute was 
submitted to sir Ar'tegal. Sir Artegal 
decided that whereas Amidas claimed as 
his own all the additions which the sea 
had given to his island, so Lucy might 
claim as her own the chest which the 
sea had given into her hands. Spenser: 
Faerie Queene, v. 4 (1596). 

Bracy {Sir Maurice de), a follower 
of prince John. He sues the lady Rowen'a 
to become his bride, and threatens to kill 
both Cedric and Ivanhoe if she refuses. 
The interview is intercepted, and at the 
close of the novel Rowena marries 
Ivanhoe. Sir W. Scott: /vanhoe {lime, 
Richard I.). 

Brad'amaut, daughter of Anion and 
Beatrice, sister of Rinaldo, and niece of 
Charlemagne. She was called the Virgin 



Knight. Her armour was white, .ind her 
plume white. She loved Roge'ro tlie 
Moor, but refused to marry him till he 
was baptized. Her marriage with great 
pomp and Rogero's victory over Rodo- 
mont, form the subject of the last book of 
Orlando Furioso. Bradamant possessed 
an irresistible spear, which unhorsed any 
knight with a touch. Britomart had a 
similar spear. Bojardo : Orlando Inna- 
w/ora/<? (1495) ; Ariosto: Orlando Furioso 

Bradljonme [Mistress Lilias), wait- 
ing-woman of lady Avenel (2 syl.), at 
Avenel CasiXc Sir VV. Scoii: The Abbot 
(time, Elizabeth). 

Bradwardine {Co mo Cosmyne), baron 
of Bradwardine and of TuUy Veolan, 
He is very pedantic, but brave and 

Rose Drad'ioardine, his daughter, the 
heroine of the novel, which concludes 
with her marriage with Waverley, and 
the restoration of the manor-house of 
TuUy Veolan. 

Malcolm Bradwardine of Inchgrabbit, 
a relation of the old baron. Sir W, 
Scott: Waverley (time, George H.). 

Brady [Martha), a young " Irish 
widow," 23 years of age, and in love with 
William Whittle. She was the daughter 
of sir Patrick O'Neale. Old Thomas 
' Whittle, the uncle, a man of 63, wanted 
to oust his nephew in her affections, for 
he thought her "so modest, so mild, so 
tender-hearted, so reserved, so domestic. 
Her voice was so sweet, with just a 
souP(on of the brogue to make it enchant- 
ing." In order to break off this detestable 
passion of the old man, the widow assumed 
the airs and manners of a boisterous, 
loud, flaunting, extravagant, low Irish- 
woman, deeply in debt, and abandoned 
to pleasure. Old Whittle, thoroughly 
frightened, induced his nephew to take 
the widow off his hands, and gave him 
^^5000 as a douceur for so doing. -~ 
Garrick: The Irish Widow [17 $?). 

Braes of Yarrow [The), an old 
Scotch ballad. W. Hamilton wrote an 
imitation of it in 1760. Scott and Hogg 
have celebrated this stream and its le- 
gends ; and Wordsworth wrote a poem 
called Yarrow Revisited, in 1833. 

Bragf [Jack), a vulgar boaster, who 
gets into good society, where his vulgarity 
stands out in strong relief; Theodore 
Hook : Jack Brag (a novel). 


Bra^ [Sir Jack), general John Bur- 
goyne (died 1792). A ballad. 

Bragfansa ( The), the largest diamond 
in existence, its weight being 1680 carats. 
It is uncut, and its value is ;^58, 350,000. 
It is now among the crown jewels of 

.It is thought that this diamond, 
which is the size of a hen's ^g%, is in 
reality a white topaz. 

Brasfanza [Juan duke of). In 1580 
Philip 11. of Spain claimed the crown of 
Portugal, and governed it by a regent. 
In 1640 Margaret was regent, and Velas- 
quez her chief minister, a man exceed- 
ingly obnoxious to the Portuguese. Don 
Juan and his wife Louisa of Braganza 
being very popular, a conspiracy was 
formed to shake off the Spanish yoke. 
Velasquez was torn to death by the 
populace, and don Juan of Braganza was 
proclaimed king. 

Louisa duchess of Braganza. Her cha- 
racter is thus described 

Bright I^ouisn, 

To all the softness of her tender se, 

TJnites the noblest qualities of man : 

A genius to embrace the amplest schemes . . . 

Judgment most sound, persuasive eloquence . . . 

Pure piety without religious dross. 

And fortitude that shrinks at no disaster. 

Jephson : Braganza, i. (1775). 

Mrs. Bellamy took her leave of the stage May 24, 
1785. On this occasion Mrs. Yates sustained the part 
of the "duchess of Braganza," and Miss Farrcn spoke 
the address./'". Reynolds 

Bragela, daughter of Sorglan, and 
wife of CuthuUin (general of the Irish 
army, and regent during the minority of 
king Cormac). Ossian : Fingal. 

Bragfgfado'clxio, personification of 
the intemperance of the tongue. For a 
time his boasting serves him with some 
profit, but being found out he is stripped 
of his borrowed plumes. His shield is 
claimed by Mar'Inel ; his horse by Guyon ; 
Talus shaves off his beard ; and his lady 
is shown to be a sham Florlmel. 
Spenser: Faerie Queene, iii. 8 and lo, 
with v. 3. 

(It is thought that Philip of Spain was 
the academy figure of " Braggadochio."j 

Braggadochio s Sword, San'glamore (3 

Bragfli [braw]. Go Iragh I (Irish) " for 
ever ! " 

One dying wish my bosom can draw ; 
Erin ! an exile bequeaths thee his bicssingf: 
Lcind of ray forefathers, Erin go bragh 1 

CantpbeU: Exile o/Eritt, 

Bra^mar'do [Jano^tus de), the so- 
phister sent by the Parisians to Gargantua, 
to remonstrate with him for carrying off 




the bells of Notre-Dame to suspend round 
the neck of his mare for jingles. 
Rubelais: Gargantua and Panta^ruel\ 
". (1533)- 

Brain'-worm, the servant of Kno'- 
well, a man of infinite shifts, and a regular 
Proteus (2 syl.) in his metamorphoses. 
He appears first as Brainworm ; after- 
wards as Fitz-Sword ; then as a reformed 
soldier whom Knowell takes into his 
service ; then as justice Clement's man ; 
and lastly as valet to the courts of law, 
by which devices he plays upon the same 
clique of some half-dozen men of average 
intelligence. Ben J on son: Every Man in 
His Humour (1598). 

Brakel {Adrian), the gipsy mounte- 
bank, formerly master of Fenella, the 
deaf-and-dumb girl. Sir W. Scott : 
Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Bramble (Matthew), an "odd kind 
of humourist," "always on the fret," 
dyspeptic, and afflicted with the gout, but 
benevolent, generous, and kind-hearted. 

Miss Tabitha Bramble, an old maiden 
sister of Matthew Bramble, of some 45 
years of age, noted for her bad spelling. 
She is starch, vain, prim, and ridiculous ; 
souiea in temper, proud, imperious, pry- 
ing, mean, malicious, and uncharitable. 
She contrives at last to marry captain 
Lismaha'go, who is content to take " the 
maiden " for the sake of her _^4ooo. 

"She is tall, raw-boned, awkward, flat-chested, and 
stooping ; her complexion is sallow and freckled ; her 
eyes are not grey, but greenish, like those of a cat, and 
generally inflamed ; her hair is of a sandy or rather of a 
dusty hue ; her forehead low ; her nose long, sharp, 
and towards the extremity always red in cold weather ; 
her lips skinny; her mouth extensive; her teeth 
straggling and loose, of various colours and conforma- 
tions; and her long neck shrivelled into a thousand 
wrinkles." Smollett: The Expedition 0/ Humphry 
Clinker (1771). 

. " Matthew Bramble "is " Roderick 
Random" grown old, somewhat cynical 
by experience of the world, but vastly 
improved in taste. 

Smollett took some of the Incidents of the family 
tour from "Anstey's New Bath Q\x\diQ." Chambers : 
llnglish Literature, ii. 

Bramble [Sir Robert), a baronet living 
at Blackberry Hall, Kent. Blunt and 
testy, but kind-hearted ; ' ' charitable as 
a Christian, and rich as a Jew ; " fond 
of argument and contradiction, but de- 
testing flattery ; very proud, but most 
considerate to his poorer neighbours. In 
his first interview with lieutenant Wor- 
thington " the poor gentleman," the 
lieutenant mistook him for a bailiff come 
to arrest him, but sir Robert nobly paid 
the bill for ^500 when it was presented 

to him for signature as sherilT of the 

"Sir Robert Bramble" is the same 
type of character as Sheridan's "sir An- 
thony Absolute." 

Frederick Bramble, nephew of sir 
Robert, and son of Joseph Bramble a 
Russian merchant. His father having 
failed in business, Frederick was adopted 
by his rich uncle. He is full of life and 
noble instincts, but thoughtless and im- 
pulsive. Frederick falls in love with Emily 
Worthington, whom he marries. Col- 
man : The Poor Gentleman (1802). 

Bra'mine {2 syl.) and Bra'min 
( The),y[.x?.. Elizabeth Draper and Laurence 
Sterne. Sterne being a clergyman, and 
Mrs. Draper being born in India, sug- 
gested the names. Ten of Sterne's letters 
to Mrs. Draper are published, and called 
Letters to Eliza. 

Bran, the dog of Lamderg the lover 
of Gelchossa (daughter of Tuathal), 
Ossian: Fingal, v. 

. Fingal king of Morven had a dog 
of the same name, and another named 
Luath. (See Dog.) 

Call White-breasted Bran and the surly strength of 
Luath. Ossian : Fingal, vL 

It is not Bran, but Bran's brother. It 
is not Simon Pure, but only somewhat 
hke him. 

Brand [Alice), wife of lord Richard. 
(See Urgan.) 

Brand [SirDenys), a county magnate, 
who apes humility. He rides a sorry 
brown nag "not worth ,^5," but mounts 
his groom on a race-horse " twice victor 
for a ^\a.iQ."Crabbe: Borough (1810). 

Bran'damond of Damascus, whom 
sir Bevis of Southampton defeated. 

That dreadful battle wherewith Brandamond he fought, 
And with his sword and steed such earthly wonders 

As e'en among his foes him admiration won. 

Drayton: Polyclbion, ii. (1612). 

Bran'dan {Island of St. ) or Island 
OF San Boran'dan, a flying island, so 
late as 1755 set down in geographical 
charts west of the Canary group. In 
1721 an expedition was sent by Spain in 
quest thereof. Tiie Spaniards say their 
king Rodri'go has retreated there, and 
the Portuguese affirm that it is the retreat 
of their don Sebastian. It was called St. 
Brandan from a navigator of the sixth 
century, who went in search of the 
" Islands of Paradise." 

Its reality was for a long time a matter of firm belief 
. . , the garden of Armi'da, where Rinaldo was 




detained, and which Tasso places in one of the Canary 
Isles, has been identified with Saa Botandan. 
tf'askinetoH Irving. 

(If there is any truth at all in the legend, 
the island must be ascribed to the FaU 
Morgana. ) 

Brandan [St\ a poem by Matthew 
Arnold. It relates that Judas did an act 
of charity to a leper at Joppa, and there- 
fore was let out of hell for a day. 

Bran'detiin, plu. Brandea, a piece 
of cloth enclosed in a box with relics, 
which thus acquired the same miraculous 
powers as the relics themselves. 

Pope Leo proved this fact beyond a doubt, for when 
Boine Greeks ventured to question it, he cut a brandeuin 
through with a pair of scissors, and it was instantly 
covered with blood. ^rarfy ; Clavis CaUndaria, 182. 

Bran'dimart, brother-in-law of Or- 
lando, son of Monodantes, and husband 
of For'delis. This " king of the Distant 
Islands " was one of the bravest knights 
in Charlemagne's army, and was slain by 
Gradasso. Dojardo: Orlando Innamorato 
(1495) ; Ariosto: Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Brandley [Mrs. ) of Richmond, Surrey. 
The lady who undertakes to introduce 
Estella (i'. V. ) into society. Dickens: Great 
Expectations (1861). 

Brandons, lighted torches. St. Valen- 
tine's day was called Dominica de bran- 
donlbus, because boys, at one time, used 
to carry about lighted torches on that 
day, i.e. " Cupid's lighted torches." 

Brandt, the leader of the Indians 
who destroyed the village of Wyoming, 
Pennsylvania, in 1788. Campbell repre- 
sents him as a monster ef cruelty. Ger- 
trude of Wyoming (1809). 

Brandy Nan, queen Anne, who was 
very fond of brandy (1664, 1702-1714). 

Brandy Nan, brandy Nan, left [<i//] in the lurch. 

Her face to the gnn-shop, her back to the church. 

Written on the statue of qtteen Anne in St. Pant's 


Brangtons (TJie), vulgar, jealous, 
malicious gossips in Evelina, a novel by 
Miss Burney (1778). 

Branno, an Irishman, father of 
Evirallin. Evirallin was the wife of 
Ossian and mother of Oscar. Ossian. 

Brass, the roguish confederate of 
Dick Amlet, and acting as his servant. 

" I am your valet, 'tis true ; your footman sometimes 
. . . but you have always had the ascendant, I confess. 
When we were schoolfellows, you made me carry your 
books, make your exercise, own your rogueries, and 
sometimes take a whipping for you. When we were 
fellow-'prentices, though I was your senior, you made 
me open the shop, clean my master's boots, cut last at 
dinner, and eat all the crusts. la your sins, too, I 

must own you still kept me under ; you saired up to 
the mistress, while I was content with the maid." Sir 
y. Vanbrush : The Confederacy, iii. i (1695). 

Brass {Sampson), a knavish, servile 
attorney, affecting great sympathy with 
his clients, but in reality fleecing them 
without mercy. 

Sally Brass, Sampson's sister, and an 
exaggerated edition of her brother. 
Dickens: Old Curiosity Shop {1840). 

Bravassa [Miss], of the Portsmouth 
Theatre. Suf)posed to be a great beauty. 
Dickens : Nicholas Nickleby {1838). 

Brave ( The), Alfonzo IV. of Portugal 

The Brave Fleming, John Andrew van 
der Mersch (1734-1792). 

The Bravest of the Brave, Marshal Ney, 
Le Brave des Braves (1769-1815). 

Brawn. One day a little boy came 
into king Arthur's court, and, drawing his 
wand over a boar's head, exclaimed, 
" There's never a cuckold's knife can cut 
this head of brawn ! " and, lo I no knight 
except sir Cradock was able to carve it. 
Percy: Reliques, III. iii. 8. (See BOY 
AND THE Mantle, p. 141.) 

Bray(il/r.), a selfish, miserly old man, 
who dies suddenly of heart-disease, just 
in time to save his daughter being sacri- 
ficed to Arthur Gride, a rich old miser. 

Madeline Bray, daughter of Mr. Bray, 
a loving, domestic, beautiful girl, who 
marries Nicholas Nickleby. Dickens: 
Nicholas Nickleby (1838), 

Bray ( Vicar of), supposed by some to 
be Simon Aleyn, who lived (says Fuller) 
" in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward 
VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. In the first 
two reigns he was a protestant, in Mary's 
reign a catholic, and in Elizabeth's a 
protestant again." No matter who was 
king, Simon Aleyn resolved to live and 
die " the vicar of Bray " (1540-1588). 

Others think the vicar was Simon 
Symonds, who (according to Ray) was 
an independent in the protectorate, a high 
churchman xa. the reign of Charles II., a 
papist under James II., and a moderate 
churchman in the reign of William III. 

Others again give the cap to one Pen- 

. The well-known song was written 
by an officer in colonel Fuller's regiment, 
in the reign of George I., and seems to 
refer to some clergyman of no very distant 

Bray'more {Lady Caroline), daughter 




of lord Fitz-Balaam, She was to have 
married Frank Rochdale, but hearing that 
her "intended " loved Mary Thornberry, 
she married the hon. Tom Shuffleton. 
Colman: John Bull {\%os)' 

Bra3rwick, the town of asses. An 
alderman of Bray wick, having lost his 
donkey, went fourteen days in search of 
it ; then meeting a brother alderman, they 
agreed to retire to the two opposite sides 
of a mountain and bray, in hopes that the 
donkey would answer, and thus reveal 
its place of concealment. This led to 
a public scandal, insomuch that the 
people of Braywick had to take up arms 
in order to avenge themselves on those 
who jeered at them. Cervantes: Don 
Quixote, II. ii. 7 {1615). 

Brazen {Captain), a kind of Bobadil. 
A boastful, tongue-doughty warrior, who 
pretends to know everybody ; to have a 
liaison with very wealthy, pretty, or dis- 
tinguished woman ; and to have achieved 
in war the most amazing prodigies. 

He knows everybody at first sight ; his impudence 
weie a prodigy, were not his ignorance proportionable. 
He has the most universal acquaintance of any man 
living, for he won't be alone, and nobody will keep him 
company twice. Then he's a Caesar among the women ; 
Veni, vidi, vici, that's all. If he has but talked with 
the maid, he swears he has [corrjified] the mistress ; 
but the most surprising part of his character is his 
memory, which is the most prodigious and the most 
trifling in the v,'ox\di.Fai-giihar: The Recruiting 
Officer, iii. i (1705). 

Brazen Agfe, the age of war and 

violence. The age of innocence was the 
golden age ; then followed the silver age ; 
then the brazen age ; and the present is 
the iron age, or the age of hardware and 

Brazen Head. The first on record 
is one which Silvester II. [Gerbert) pos- 
sessed. It told him he would be pope, 
and not die till he had sung mass at Jeru- 
salem. When pope he was stricken with 
his death-sickness while performing mass 
in a church called Jerusalem (999-1003). 

The next we hear of was made by Rob. 
Grosseteste (1175-1253). 

The third was the famous brazen head 
of Albertus Magnus, which cost him 
thirty years' labour, and was broken to 
pieces by his disciple Thomas Aqui'nas 

The fourth was that of friar Bacon. 
It spoke thrice. If Bacon heard it speak, 
he would succeed, if not, he would fail. 
While Bacon slept, Milis was set to 
watch, and the head spoke twice : " Time 
was," it said, and half an hour later, 
" Time is." Still Bacon slept, and another 

half-hour transpired, vi'hen the head ex- 
claimed, " Time's past," fell to the ground 
and was broken to pieces. Byron refers 
to it, not quite correctly, in the lines 

Like friar Bacon's brazen head, I've spoken, 
" Time is, time was, time's past [?] " 

Don yuan, i. 217 (i8ij). 

Another was made by the marquis of 
Vilena of Spain (1384-1434). And a sixth 
by a Polander, a disciple of Escotillo an 

Brazen Head ( The), a gigantic head 
kept in the castle of the giant Fer'ragus 
of Portugal. It was omniscient, and 
told those who consulted it whatever they 
desired to know, past, present, or future. 
Valentine and Orson. 

Bread Street (London) was the 
bread-market in the time of Edward I. 
Here Milton was born. 

Breakingf a Stick is part of the 
marriage ceremony of the American 
Indians, as breaking a glass is still part 
of the marriage ceremony of the jews. 
Lady Augusta Hamilton: Marriage 
Rites, etc., 292, 298. 

In one of Raphael's pictures we see an 
unsuccessful suitor of the Virgin Mary 
breaking his stick, and this alludes to the 
legend that the several suitors of the 
' ' virgin " were each to bring an almond 
stick which was to be laid up in the sanc- 
tuaiy over night, and the owner of the 
stick which budded was to be accounted 
the suitor God ordained, and thus Joseph 
became her husband. B. H. Coivper : 
Apocryphal Gospel ("Pseudo-Matthew's 
Gospel," 40, 41). 

In Florence is a picture in which the 
rejected suitors break their sticks on the 
back of Joseph. 

Brec'an, a mythical king of Wales. 
He had twenty-four daughters by one 
wife. These daughters, for their beauty 
and purity, were changed into rivers, all 
of which flow into the Severn. Breck- 
nockshire, according to fable, is called 
after this king. (See next art. ) 

Brecan was a prince once fortunate and great 
(Who dying lent his name to that his noble seat), 
With twice twelve daughters blest, by one and only 

They, for their beauties rare and sanctity of life. 
To rivers were transfc*3ned ; whose pureness dotU 

How excellent they were by being what they are . , . 
. . . \they\ to Severn shape their courge. 

Drayton : Polyolbioii, v. (i6i2>. 

Brec'han {Prince), father of St. 
Cadock and St. Canock, the former a 
martyr and the latter a confessor. 




Then Cadock, next to wliom comes Canock, both 
which were 

Prince Brechan's sons, who gave the name to Breck- 
nockshire ; 

Tlie first a martyr made, a confessor the other. 

Drayton : PolyolbioM, xxiv. (l6aa). 

Breck(/^/z-ro), an old fishwife, friend 
of the Mucklebackits, 5/r W. Scott: 
The Antiquary (time, George III.). 

Breck [Angus), a follower of Rob Roy 
M'Gregor the outlaw. Sir W. Scott: 
Rob Roy (time, George I. ). 

Breeches Bible [The), 1557. It was 
printed by Whittingham, Gilby, and 
Sampson. So called, because Gen. iii. 7 
runs thus : "The eyes of them bothe were 
opened, . . . and they sewed figge-tree 
leaves together and made themselves 

Breeches Review [The). The 
Westminster Review was so called, 
because Francis Place, an important 
shareholder, was a breeches-maker. 

Breu'da [Troil], daughter of Magnus 
Troll and sister of Minna. Sir W. Scott: 
The Pirate (time, William III.). 

Breng'-wain, the confidante of Is'olde 
{2 syl.) wife of sir Mark king of Corn- 
wall. Isolde was criminally attached to 
her nepliew sir Tristram, and Brengwain 
assisted the queen in her intrigues. 

Breng'wain, wife of Gwenwyn prince 
of Powys-Iand. 5z> W. Scott: The Be- 
trothed (time, Henry II.). 

Brenta'no [A), one of inconceivable 
folly. The Brentanos (Clemens and 
Bettina) are wild erratic Germans, in 
whom no absurdity is inconsistent. 
Bettina's book, Goethe's Correspondence 
zvith a Child (1835), is a pure fabrication. 

At the point where the folly of others ceases, that of 
the Brentanos begins. German Proverb. 

Brentford {T/i two kings of). In 
the duke of Buckingham's farce called 
The Rehearsal (1671), the two kings of 
Brentford enter hand-in-hand, dance to- 
gether, sing together, walk arm-in-arm, 
and to heighten the absurdity, the actors 
represent them as smelling at the same 
nosegay (act ii, 2). 

Some say this was a skit on Charles II. and James 
/afterwards James II.). Others think tlie persons 
meant were Hoabdelin and Abdalla, the two contend- 
ing kings of Granada. 

Bres'an, a small island upon the very 
point of Cornwall. 

Upon the utmost end of Cornwall's furrowing beak. 
Where Besan from the land the tilting waves doth 

Drayton : Polyolbion, I. (1612). 

Breton. Entiti eomme le Breton. 
Frcncli proverbial expression. 

Breton [Captain), "a spirited and 
enterprising soldier of fortune," the lover 
of Clara. Mrs. Cent livre : The Wonder 
(a comedy, 1713). 

Bretwalda, the over-king of the 
Saxon rulers, established in England 
during the heptarchy. In Germany the 
over-king was called emperor. The 
bretwalda had no power in the civil 
affairs of the under-kings, but in times of 
war or danger formed an important centre. 
(" Walda " is Anglo-Saxon for " ruler.") 

Brewer of Ghent [The), James 
van Artevelde, a great patriot. His son 
Philip fell in the battle of Rosbecq 
(fourteenth century). 

Brian de Bois Qnilbert [Sir), pre- 
ceptor of the Knights Templars. He 
offers insult to Rebecca, the Jew's daugh- 
ter, but she repels him with scorn, and, 
rushing to the battlement, threatens to 
cast herself over if he touches her, Sir 
W. Scott ; Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.). 

Bria'na, the lady of a castle who 
demanded for toll "the locks of every 
lady and the beard of every knight that 
passed." This toll was established be- 
cause sir Crudor, with whom she was in 
love, refused to marry her till she had 
provided him with human hair sufficient 
to " purfle a mantle " with. Sir Crudor, 
having been overthrown in knightly com- 
bat by sir Calidore, who refused to give 
"the passage pay," is made to release 
Briana from the condition imposed on 
her, and Briana swears to discontinue 
the discourteous toll. Spenser; Faerie 
Queene, vi. i (1596). 

Bri'anor [Sir), a knight overthrown 
by sir Artegal, the " Salvage Knight." 
Spenser: Faerie Queene, iv. 5 (1596), 

Briar'eos (4 syl.), usually called 
Briareus {Bri' -a-ruce\ the giant with a 
hundred hands. Hence Dryden says, 
' ' And Briareus, with all his hundred 
hands" [Virgil, vi.) ; but Milton writes 
the name Briareos [Paradise Lost, i. 199). 

Then, called by thee, the monster Titan came, 
Whom gods Briareos men ^geon name. 

Pope : Iliad, \. 

Bri'areus [Bold), Handel (1685-1757). 

Bri'areus of Langtiagces, cardinal 
Mezzofanti, who was familiar with fifty- 
eight different languages. Byron calls 
him " a walking polyglot" (1774-1849). 

Bribo'ci, inhabitants of Berkshire 
and the adjacent counties. Casar : Com- 



Brick [Jefferson), a very weak, pale 
young man, the war correspondent of 
the JSIew York Rowdy Journal, of which 
colonel Diver was editor. Dickens: Mar- 
tin Chuzzlewit (1844). 

Bride-catcliing'. It is a common 
Asiatic custom for the bridegroom to 
give chase to the bride, either on foot, 
on horseback, or in a canoe. If the bride- 
groom catches the fugitive, he claims her 
as his bride, otherwise the match is broken 
off. The classical tales of Hippom'enes 
and Atalanta will instantly recur to the 
reader's memory. 

\ In mythical times the savage was 
wont to waylay and hunt his bride ; and 
liaving, as the poet says, seized her by 
the hair, " to nuptials rude he bore her.." 

A girl is first mounted, and rides off at full speed. 
Her lover pursues, and if he overtakes her she becomes 
his wife. No Kalmuck girl is ever caught unless she 
chooses to be so. Dr. Clarke. 

In Turcomania the maiden carries a lamb and kid, 
which must be taken from her in the chase. In Singa- 
pore the chase is made in canoes. Came7-o}t. 

Bride of Aby'dos [The), Zulei'ka 
(3 syl.), daughter of Giaffer (2 syl.) 
pacha of Abydos. She is the troth- 
plight bride of Selim ; but Giaffer shoots 
ihe lover, and Zuleika dies of a broken 
heart. Byron: Bride of Abydos {18 13). 

Bride of Lammermoor ( The) , Lucy 
Ashton, in love with Edgar master of 
Ravenswood, but compelled to marry 
Frank Hayston laird of Bucklaw. She 
tries to murder him on the bridal night, 
and dies insane the day following. Sir 
W. Scott: The Bride of Lammermoor 
(time, William III.). 

( The Bride of Lammermoor is one of 
the most finished of Scott's novels, pre- 
senting a unity of plot and action from 
beginning to end. The old butler, Caleb 
Balderston, is exaggerated and far too 
prominent, but he serves as a foil to the 
tragic scenes.) 

In The Bride of Lammermoor we see embodied the 
dark spirit of fatalism that spirit which breathes on 
the writings of the Greek tragedians when they traced 
the persecuting vengeance of destiny agamst the 
houses of Laius and Atreus. From the time that we 
hear the prophetic rhymes the spell begins, and the 
clouds blacken round us, till they close the tale in a 
night of \\QXXQr. MacaiUay. 

Bride of tlie Sea. Venice is so called 
from the ancient ceremony of the doge 
marrying the city to the Adriatic by 
throwing a ring into it, pronouncing these 
words, " We wed thee, O sea, in token of 
perpetual dominion." 

Bridewell was a king's palace before 
the Conquest. Henry I. gave the stone 
for rebuilding it. Its name is from St. 


Bride (or Bridget), and her holy well. 
The well is now represented by an iron 
pump in Bride Lane. 

Bridg'e. The imaginary bridge be- 
tween earth and the Mohammedan para- 
dise is called " All Sirat'." 

% The rainbow bridge which spans 
heaven and earth in Scandinavian mytho- 
logy is called " Bif'rost." 

Bridg'e of Gold. According to 
German tradition, Charlemagne's spirit 
crosses the Rhine on a golden bridge, at 
Bingen, in seasons of plenty, and blesses 
both corn-fields and vineyards. 

Thou standest, like imperial Charlemagne, 
Upon thy bridge of gold. 

Longfellow: Autumn. 

Bridge of Sighs, the covered pas- 
sage-way which connects the palace of 
the doge in Venice with the State prisons. 
Called " the Bridge of Sighs " because the 
condemned passed over it from the judg- 
ment-hall to the place of execution. 
Hood has a poem called The Bridge of 

The bridge in St. John's College, Cambridge, has 
been facetiously called " The Bridge of Grunts," the 
Johnians being nicknamed " pigs "or " hogs " at least 
they were so m my time. 

Bridges of Cane, in many parts 
of Spanish America, are thrown over 
narrow streams. 

Wild-cane arch high flung o'er gulf profound. 
Campbell: Gej'trude of IFyoming, ii. i6 (i8o9>. 

Bridgemore [Mr.), of Fish Street 
Hill, London. A dishonest merchant, 
wealthy, vulgar, and purse-proud. He is 
invited to a soiree given by lord Abber- 
ville, ' ' and counts the servants, gapes 
at the lustres, and never enters the 
drawing-room at all, but stays below, 
chatting with the travelling tutor." 

Mrs. Bridgemore, wife of Mr. Bridge>- 
more, equally vulgar, but with more pre- 
tension to gentility. 

Miss Lucinda Bridgemore, the spiteful, 
purse-proud, malicious daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Bridgemore, of Fish Street 
Hill. She was engaged to lord Abber- 
ville, but her money would not out- 
balance her vulgarity and ill-temper, so 
the young "fashionable lover" made 
his bow and r&\.\ved. Cumberland : The 
Fashionable Lover (1780). 

Bridgenorth. [Major Ralph), a 
roundhead and conspirator ; neighbour of 
sir Geoffrey Peveril of the Peak, a staunch 

Mrs. Bridgenorth, the major's wife. 

Alice Bridgenorth, the major's daugliter 
and heroine of the novel, who marries 




Julian Peveril, a cavalier. Sir IV. Scott : 
Fe-jerilofthe Peak (time, Charles II.). 

BRIDGET {Miss), the mother of 
Tom Jones, in Fielding's novel called 
Tlu Hiitory of Tom Jones, a Foundling 

It has been wondered why Fielding should hare 
chosen to leave the stain of illceitimacy on the liirth of 
his hero . . . but had Miss Bridget been privately 
married . . . there could have been no adec;uate 
motive assig^ned for keeping the birth of the cliild a 
secret from a man so reasonable and compassionate as 
Allworthy. iMCVC. Britannica (article "Fielding"). 

Bridg^et [Mrs.), in Sterne's novel 
called The Life and Opinions of Tristram 
Shandy, Gent. (1759). 

Bridgfet [Mother), aunt of Catherine 
Seyton, and abbess of St. Catherine. 
Sir W. Scott: The Abbot (time, Eliza- 

Bridgfet {May), the milkwoman at 
Falkland Castle. 6^z> W. Scott: Fair 
Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Bridge'ward {Peter), the bridge- 
keeper of Kennaquhair ("I know not 
wliere"). 5j> W. Scott: The Abbot {i\mQ, 

Bridgfeward {Peter), warder of the 
bridge near St. Mary's Convent. He 
refuses a passage to father Philip, who is 
carrying off the Bible of lady Alice. Sir 
W. Scott : The Monastery (time, Eliza- 

Bridgewater Treatises {The), 
founded by the right hon. and Rev. F. H. 
Egerton, eighth earl of Bridgevvater. The 
subject of these treatises is to show the 
" power, wisdom, and goodness of God 
in creation." There have been eight 
treatises published (1833-1836). A ninth 
(by Babbage) was published in 1837, 

Paley's Evidences was for many years a standard 
book in the University of Cambridge ; but it will not 
bear the test of modern criticism. 

Bridle. John Gower says that Rosi- 
phele princess of Armenia, insensible to 
love, saw in a vision a troop of ladies 
splendidly mounted, but one of them rode 
a wretched steed, wretchedly accoutred 
except as to the bridle. On asking the 
reason, the princess was informed that 
the lady on the wretched horse was dis- 
graced for cruelty to her lovers, but that 
the bridle had been recently given her 
because she had for the last month shown 
symptoms of true love. Moral : Hence 
let ladies warning take 

Of love that they be not Idle, 
And bid them think of my bridle. 
Cen/essio Atnantis (" Episode of Rosiphele," 


Bridlegoose {Judge), a judge who 
decided the causes brought before hina, 
not by weighing the merits of the case, 
but by the more simple process of throw- 
ing dice. Rabelais: Pantag^rueP, iii. 39 


. Beaumarchais, in his Marriage of 
Figaro (1784), has introduced this judge 
under the name of " Brid'oison." The 
person satirized by Rabelais is the chan- 
cellor Poyet. 

Bri'dlesly {Joe), a horse-dealer at 
Liverpool, of whom Julian Peveril bought 
a horse. Sir W. Scott: Peveril of the 
Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Brid'oison {Bree-dwoy-zdn^\ a stupid 
jud^e in the Mariage de Figaro, a comedy 
in French, by Beaumarchais (1784). 

Bridoon {Corporal), in lieutenant 
Nosebag's regiment. Sir W. Scott: 
Waverley (time, George II.). 

Brien'uius {Nicephorus), the Caesar 
of the Grecian empire, and husband of 
Anna Comne'na (daughter of Alexius 
Comnenus, emperor of Greece). Sir W. 
Scott: Count Robert of Paris (time, 

Brigfado're (4 syl), sir Guyon's 
horse. The word means " Golden-bridle." 
Spenser : Faerie Queene, v. 3 (1596). 

Brig-an'tes (3 syl.), called by Drayton 
Brig'ants, the people of Yorkshire, Lan- 
cashire, Westmoreland, Cumberland, and 

Where in the Britons' rule of yore the Brigants swayed^ 
The powerful Fnglish established . . . NorthumberUiDd 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xvi. (1613)1. 

Briggs, one of the ten young gentle- 
men in the school of Dr. Blimber when 
Paul Dombey was a pupil there. Briggs 
was nicknamed the *' Stoney," because his 
brains were petrified by the constant drop- 
ping of wisdom upon them. Dickens: 
Dombey and Son (1846). 

Brigliadoro \Bril'-ye-dor''-ro\ Or- 
lando's steed. The word means ' ' Golden- 
bridle." Ariosto: Orlando Furioso{i$x6). 

Sir Guyon's horse, in Spenser's Faerie 
Queene, is called by the same name (1596). 
(See Brigadore.) 

Brigs of Ayr ( The), a poetical chat 
between the Old and New Bridge across 
the river Doon, at Ayr, by Burns. 

Brilliant {Sir Philip), a great fop, 
but brave soldier, like the famous Murat. 
He would dress with all the finery of a 
vain girl, but would share watching, toil. 



and peril with the meanest soldier. "A 
butterfly in the drawing-room, but a lion 
on the battle-field." Sir Philip was a 
" blade of proof ; you might laugh at the 
scabbard, but you wouldn't at the blade." 
He falls in love with lady Anne, reforms 
his vanities, and marries. Knowles : Old 
Maids (1841). 

Brilliant Madman (.The), Charles 
XII. of Sweden (1682, 1697-1718). 

Brillianta {The lady), a great wit in 
the ancient romance entitled Tirante le 
Blanc, author unknown. 

Here [in Tirante le Blanc\ we shall find the famous 
knight don Kyrie Elyson of Montalban, his brother 
Thomas, the kniglit Fonseca, ... the stratagems of 
the widow Tranquil . . . and the witticisms of lady 
Brillianta. This is one of the most amusing books ever 
written. C<ra/M . Don Quixote, I. i. 6 (1605). 

Bris {II contedi San), governor of the 
Louvre. He is father of Valenti'na and 
leader of the St. Bartholomew massacre. 
Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (1836). 

Brisac' {Justice), brother of Mira- 

Charles Brisac, a scholar, son of justice 

Eustace Brisac, a courtier, brother of 
Charles. Fletcher : The Elder Brother (a 
comedy, printed in 1637). 

Brise'is (3 syL ), whose real name was 
Hippodaml'a, was the daughter of Brises, 
brother of the priest Chrysgs. She was 
the concubine of Achilles ; but when 
Achilles bullied Agamemnon for not 
giving Chryse'is to her father, who offered 
a ransom for her, Agamemnon turned 
upon him and said he would let Chryseis 
go, but should take Briseis instead. 
Homer: Iliad, i. 

Ovid in Yiis Herotdes, ^ sy!.) has a letter in hexameter 
and pentameter verses, supposed to be addressed by 
Briseis to Achilles, and imploring him to take her 
back, as Agamemnon has consented to give her up, if 
he (Achilles) will return to the war. 

Brisk, a good-natured conceited cox- 
comb, with a most voluble tongue. Fond 
of saying "good things," and pointing 
them out with such expressions as "There 
I had you, eh ? " " That was pretty well, 
egad, eh ? " " I hit you in the teeth there, 
egad 1 " His ordinary oath was " Let me 
perish 1 " He makes love to lady Froth. 
Congreve : The Double Dealer (1694). 

Bris'kie (2 syL), disguised under the 
name of Putskie. A captain in the Mos- 
covite army, and brother of general 
Archas " the loyal subject " of the great- 
duke of Moscovia. Flctclier : Tfie Loyal 
Stibject {1618). 

B3i'sotin, one of the followers of 

Jean Pierre Brissot, an advanced revolu- 
tionist. The Brissotins were subsequently 
merged in the Girondists, and the word 
dropped out of use. 

Bristol Boy { The), Thomas Chatter- 
ton the poet, born at Bristol. Also called 
"The Marvellous Boy." Wordsworth 
calls him "the wondrous boy who 
perished in his pride " (1752-1770). 

Bristol Man's Gift, a present of 
something which the giver pronounces to 
be of no use or no value to himself. 

Britain, according to the British 
triads, was called first ' ' The green v/ater- 
fort" {Clas Merddyn) ; this was before it 
was populated. Its next name was "The 
honey isle" (F Vel Ynys), But after it 
was brought under one head by Prydain 
son of Aedd, it was called " Prydain's 
isle " { Ynys Prydain). 

It has also been called " Hyperbo'rea," 
" Atlan'tica," " Cassit'eris," "Roma'na," 
and "Thuld." Also "Yr Ynys Wen" 
(" the white island "), and some will have 
that the word Albion is derived from the 
Latin, albus, " white," and that the island 
was so called from " its white chffs "an 
etymology only suited to fable. 

Bochai-t says Baratanic ("country of 
tin"), a Phoenician word, contracted into 
B'ratan', is the true derivation. 

N.B. Britain, in Arthurian romance, 
always means Brittany. England is called 
Logris or Logria. 

Britain {Benjamin), in Dickens's 
Battle of Life (1846). 

Britan'nia. The Romans represented 
the island of Great Britain by the figure 
of a woman seated on a rock, from a 
fanciful resemblance thereto in the general 
outline of the island. The idea is less 
poetically expressed by "An old witch on 
a broomstick." 

(The effigy of Britannia on our copper 
coin dates from the reign of Charles II. 
(1672), and was engraved by Roetier from 
a drawing by Evelyn ) 

It is not known for certainty which of the court 
favourites of Charles II. is meant to be represented by 
the effigy. Some say Frances Theresa Stuart, duchess 
of Richmond; others think it is intended for Barbara 
Villiers, duchess of Cleveland ; but as the effigy was 
first struck on the coin in 1672, and Louise de QuerouaiUe 
was created duchess of Portsmouth in 1673, probably 
the French favourite was honoured by bemg selected 
for the academy figure. 

Britannia, the name of the ship 
under the command of captain Albert, in 
Falconer's poem called The Shipwreck. 
It was dashed to pieces on the projecting 




verge of cape Colonna, the most southern 
point of Attica (1756). 

Britannia Redivi'vus, a poem on 
the binh of James [II.] by Dryden. 

Britannia's Pastorals, by W. 

Browne. Book i. published in 1613 ; book 
ii., in 1616 ; and book iii., in 1652. 

British Apollo {T/i), containing 
answers to 2000 questions on arts and 
sciences, some serious and some hu- 
morous (1740), by a " Society of Gentle- 

British History of GeoflFrey of 
Monmouth, is a translation of a Welsh 
Chronicle. *It is in nine books, and con- 
tains a "history" of the Britons and 
Welsh from Brutus, great-grandson of the 
Trojan ^neas to the death of Cadwallo 
or Cadwallader in 688. This Geoffrey was 
first archdeacon of Monmouth, and then 
bishop of St. Asaph. The general outline 
of the work is the same as that given 
by Nennius three centuries previously. 
Geoffrey's Chronicle, published about 1143, 
formed a basis for many subsequent 
"historical" works. A compendium by 
Diceto is published in Gale's Chronicles. 

N.B. It has its value as an ancient chronicle, but is 
wholly worthless as a history of facts. 

'British Lion {The), the spirit or 
pugnacity of the British nation, as op- 
posed to John Bull, which symbolizes the 
substantiality, obstinacy, and solidity of 
the British nation, with all its prejudices 
and national peculiarities. To rouse 
John Bull is to tread on his corns, to 
rouse the British Lion is to blow the war- 
trumpet in his ears. The British Lion 
also means the most popular celebrity of 
the British nation for the time being. 

Our elorious constitution is owing to tije habit which 
the British Lion observes of sitting over his wine after 
dinner.//', yerdan. 

British Pausanias {The), W. 
Camden, the antiquary (1551-1623). 

British Soldiers' Battle (TA^), the 
battle of Inkerman, November 5, 1854. 

l'"or stubborn valour, for true old English resolution 
to fight it out to the last, amid every disadvantage and 
against almost overwhelming odds, men will for ages 
I>oint to Inkerman, '* The British Soldiers' Battle." 
5i> E. Creasy : The Fifteen Decisive Bailies (preface). 

Brit'omart, the representative of 
chastity. She was the daughter and 
heiress of king Ryence of Wales, and her 
legend forms the third book of the Faerie 
Qitcene. One day, looking into Venus's 
looking-glass, given by Merlin to her 
father, she saw therein sir Artegal, and 
fell in love with him. Her nurse GlaucS 

(2 syl.) tried by charms "to undo her 
love," but "love that is in gentle heart 
begun no idle charm can remove.* 
Glaucfi, finding her "charms" ineffectual, 
took her to Merlin's cave in Carmarthen, 
and the magician told her she would be 
the mother of a line of kings {tlu Tudors), 
and after twice 400 years one of her off- 
spring, " a royal virgin," would shake the 
power of Spain. GlaucS now suggested 
that they should start in quest of sir 
Artegal, and Britomart donned the armour 
of An'gela (queen of the Angles), which 
she found in her father's armoury, and 
taking a magic spear which "nothing 
could resist," she sallied forth. Her 
adventures allegorize the triumph of 
chastity over impurity : Thus in Castle 
Joyous, Malacasta {lust), not knowing her 
sex, tried to seduce her, " but she flees 
youthful lust, which wars against the 
soul." She next overthrew Marinel, son 
of Cym'oent. Then made her appearance 
as the Squire of Dames. Her last achieve- 
ment was the deliverance of Am'oret 
{wifely love) from the enchanter Busirane. 
Her marriage is deferred to bk. v. 6, 
when she tilted with sir Artegal, who 
"shares away the ventail of her helmet 
with his sword," and was about to strike 
again when he became so amazed at her 
beauty that he thought she must be a 
goddess. She bade the knight remove 
his helmet, at once recognized him, con- 
sented "to be his love, and to take him 
for her lord." Spenser : Faerie Queene^ 
iii. (1590). 

She charmed at once and tamed the heart. 
Incomparable Britomart. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Briton {Colonet), a Scotch officer, who- 
sees donna Isabella jump from a window 
in order to escape from a marriage she 
dislikes. The colonel catches her, and 
takes her to the house of donna Violante, 
her friend. Here he calls upon her, but 
don Felix, the lover of Violante, sup- 
posing Violante to be the object of his 
visits, becomes jealous, till at the end 
the mystery is cleared up, and a double 
marriage is the result. Mrs. Centlivre z 
The Wonder {1714). 

Broad Grins, a series of farcical tales 
in verse by G. Colman the younger (1797). 

Broadside {A). To constitute a 
broadside, the matter should be printed 
on the entire sheet, on one side of the 
paper only, not in columns, but in one 
measure. It matters not which way of 
the paper the printing is displayed, or 


what the size of type, provided the whole 
is presented to the eye in one view. 
Although the entire matter of a broadside 
must be contained on one side of a sheet 
of paper, an endorsement may be allowed. 

Brob'ding^ag, a coimtry of enor- 
mous giants, to whom Gulliver was a 
tiny dwarf. They were as tall " as an 
ordinary church steeple," and all their 
surroundings were in proportion. 

Yon high church steeple, yon jjawky stag. 
Your husband must come from Brobdingnag. 

Kane O'Hara : Midas (1764). 

Brock {Adam), in Charles XII., an 
historical drama by Planch^ (1828). 

Broken Feather. A broken feather 
in his wing, a scandal connected with 
one's name, a blot on one's 'scutcheon. 

If an angel were to walk about, Mrs. Sam Hurst 
would never rest till she had found out where he came 

And perhaps whether he had a broken feather in his 
^ng. Mrs, Oliphant: Phoebe, jun., ii. 6. 

"BTcdken-Ctvct'h.'Tlovr {Laird of), one 
of the Jacobite conspirators in The Black 
Dwarf, a novel by sir W. Scott (time, 

Broken Heart {The), a tragedy by 
John Ford {1633). (See Calantha.) 

Broker of the Empire {The). 
Dari'us, son of Hystaspes, was so called 
by the Persians from his great care of the 
financial condition of his empire. 

Bro'mia, wife of Sosia (slave of 
Amphitryon), in the service of Alcme'na. 
A nagging termagant, who keeps her 
husband in petticoat subjection. She is 
not one of the characters in Moliere's 
comedy of Amphitryon. Dry den : Am- 
phitryon (1690). 

Bromton's Chronicle (time, Ed- 
ward III.), that is, "The Chronicle of 
John Bromton," printed among the Decern 
Scriptores, under the titles of " Chronicon 
Johannis Bromton," and " Johanensis 
Historia a Johanne Bromton," abbot of 
Jerevaux, in Yorkshire. It commences 
with the conversion of the Saxons by St. 
Augustin, and closes with the death of 
Richard I. in 1199. Selden has proved 
that the chronicle was not written by 
Bromton, but was merely brought to the 
abbey while he was abbot. 

Bronte (2 syl.). (See Bell.) 

Bron'tes {2 syl.), one of the Cyclops, 
hence a blacksmith generally. Called 
Hronteus (2 syl.) by Spenser, Faerie 
Qjteene, iy. $1^1 596). 


Not with such weight, to frame the forky brand. 
The ponderous hammer falls from Brontis' hand. 
Jerusalan Delivered, xx. (Hool's translation). 

Bronze ( i syl. ). The Age of Bronze. A 
poem in heroic verse on Napoleon, his 
victories, his fall, and the effects produced 
by liberating the spirit of Liberty. Clause 
iii, contains some e.Kcellent lines 

But where is he, the modem, mightier far. 

Who, born no king, made nionarchs draw his cart . . . 

Bronzely (2 syl.), a mere rake, whose 
vanity was to be thought " a general 
seducer. " Mrs. Inchbald : Wives as they 
Were, ajid Maids as they Are (1797). 

Bron'zomarte (3 syl.), the sorrel 
steed of sir Launcelot Greaves. The 
word means a "mettlesome sorrel." 
Smollett : Sir Launcelot Greaves (1756). 

Brook {Master), the name assumed 
by Ford when sir John Falstaff makes 
love to his wife. Sir John, not knowing 
him, confides to him every item of his 
amour, and tells him how cleverly he has 
duped Ford by being carried out in a 
buck -basket before his very face. 
Shakespeare : Merry Wives of Windsor 

Brook Street (Grosvenor Square, 
London) is so called from a brook or 
stream which at one time ran down that 

Broo'ker, the man who stole the son 
of Ralph Nickleby out of revenge, called 
him "Smike," and put him to school at 
Dotheboys Hall, Yorkshire. His tale is 
told pp. 594-5 (original edit.). Dickens: 
Nicholas Nickleby (1838). 

Brother Jon'athan. When Wash- 
ington was in want of ammunition, he 
called a council of officers ; but no prac- 
tical suggestion being offered, he said, 
"We must consult brother Jonathan," 
meaning his excellency Jonathan Trum- 
bull, the elder governor of the state of 
Connecticut. This was done, and the 
difficulty surmounted. ' ' To consult brother 
Jonathan " then became a set phrase, and 
" Brother Jonathan " became the "John 
Bull" of the United States. .ffa;-//^//.- 
Dictionary of A mericanisms. 

Brother Sam, the brother of lord 
Dundreary, the hero of a comedy based 
on a German drama, by John Oxenford, 
with additions and alterations by E. A. 
Sothern and T. B. Buckstone. Supplied 
by T. B. Buckstone, esq. 

Brothers ( The), a comedy by Richard 
Cumberland (1769). (For the plot, see 
Belfielf, Brothers.) 


.' Wordsworth has a poem with the 
same title, written in 1800. 

Brongham's Flaid Trousers. 

The story goes that lord Brougham 
[Broom] once paid a visit to a great cloth 
factory in the north, and was so pleased 
with one of the patterns that he requested 
to be supplied with "a dozen pieces for his 
own use," meaning, of course, enough for 
a dozen pairs of trousers. The clothier 
sent him "a dozen pieces," containing 
several hundred yards, so that his lord- 
ship was not only set up for life in plaid 
for trousers, but had enough to supply a 
whole clan. 

Browdie [Jo^n), a brawny, big-made 
Yorkshire corn-factor, bluff, brusque, 
honest, and kind-hearted. He befriends 
poor Smike, and is much attached to 
Nicholas Nickleby. John Browdie marries 
Matilda Price, a miller's daughter. 
Dickens : Nicholas Nickleby {1838). 

BROWN [Vanleest), lieutenant of 
Dirk Hatteraick. 5i> W. Scott: Guy 
Ma7inering (time, George II.). 

Brown, {Jonathan), landlord of the 
Black Bear at Darlington. Here Frank 
Osbaldistone meets Rob Roy at dinner. 
Sir IV. Scott : Rob Roy (time, George I.). 

Brown {Mrs.), the widow of the 
brother-in-law of the hon. Mrs. Skewton. 
She had one daughter, Alice Marwood, 
who was first cousin to Edith (Mr. Dom- 
bey's second wife). Mrs. Brown lived in 
great poverty, her only known vocation 
being ' ' to strip children of their clothes, 
which she sold or pawned." Dickens: 
Dombey and Son (1846). 

Brown {Mrs.), a "Mrs. John Bull," 
with all the practical sense, kind-hearted- 
ness, absence of conventionality, and the 
prejudices of a well-to-do but half-educated 
Englishwoman of the middle shop class. 
She passes her opinions on all current 
events, and travels about, taking with her 
all her prejudices, and despising every- 
thing which is not English. Arthur 
Sketchley [Rev. George Rose]. 

Brown ( Yellowish). (See Isabella. ) 

Brown tlie Younger ( Thomas), the 
nom de flume of Thomas Moore, in The 
Two-penny Post-bag, a series of witty and 
very popular satires on the prince regent 
(afterwards George IV.), his ministers, 
and his boon comi.jinions. Also in The 
Fudge Family in Paris, and in The 
Fudges in England (1835). 

Brown, Jones, and B.obinson, 

three Englishmen who travel together. 
Their adventures, by Richard Doyle, were 
published in Punch. In them is held up 
to ridicule the gaucherie, the contracted 
notions, the vulgarity, the conceit, and 
the general snobbism of the middle-class 
English abroad. 

Browne {General) paid a visit to lord 
Woodville. His bedroom for the nighl 
was the "tapestried chamber," where he 
saw the apparition of "the lady in the 
sacque ; " and next morning he relates his 
adventure. Sir IV. Scott: The Tapes- 
tried Chamber (time, George III.). 

Browne {Hablot Knight) illustrated 
some of Dickens's novels, and took the 
pseudonym of " Phiz " (1812-1882). 

Brown's School Days {Tom), a 
story by T. Hughes (1856). 

Browns. To astonish the Bi'owns, to 
do or say something regardless of the 
annoyance it may cause or the shock it 
may give to Mrs. Grundy. Anne Bole>^^ 
had a whole clan of Browns, or " countiy 
cousins," who were welcomed at court in 
the reign of Elizabeth. The queen, how- 
ever, was quick to see what was gauche, 
and did not scruple to reprove them for 
uncourtly manners. Her plainness of 
speech used quite to ' ' astonish the 

Brownists. {^^ Dictionary of Phran 
and Fable, p. 181.) 

Brownlow, a most benevolent oM 
gentleman, who rescued Oliver Twist from . 
his vile associates. He refused to believie 
in Oliver's guilt of theft, although appear- 
ances were certainly against him, and he 
even took the boy into his service. 
Dickens: Oliver Twist {x^-yf)' 

Brox'moutli {John), a neighbour of 
Happer the miller. 5i> W. Scott: The 
Monastery (time, Ehzabelh). 

Bruce ( The), an epic poem by John 
Barbour (1376). There was published an 
edition in 1869. It is in octo-syllabic 
verse, and runs to about 14,000 lines. 
The subject is the adventures of Robert I. 
of Scotland. 

Bruce and the Spider. The 

popular tradition is that in the spring of 
1305, Robert Bruce was crowned at Scone 
king of Scotland ; but, being attacked by 
the English, he retreated first to the wilds 
of Athole, and then to the little island of 
Rathhn, off the north coast of Ireland, 




and all supposed him to be dead. While 
lying perdu in Rathlin, he one day 
noticed a spider near his bed try six 
times to fix its web on a beam in the 
ceiling. "Now shall this spider (said 
Bruce) teach me what I am to do, for I 
also have failed six times." The spider 
made a seventh effort, and succeeded ; 
whereupon Bruce left the island (in the 
spring of 1307), and collecting together 300 
followers, landed at Carrick, and at mid- 
night surprised the English garrison in 
Turnberry Castle ; he next overthrew the 
earl of Gloucester, and in two years 
made himself master of well-nigh all 
Scotland, which Edward III. declared 
in 1328 to be an independent kingdom. 
Sir Walter Scott tells us, in his Tales of a 
Grandfather (p. 26, col. 2), that in re- 
membrance of this incident, it has always 
been deemed a foul crime in Scotland for 
any of the name of Bruce to injure a 

"I will grant you, my father, that this valiant 
burgess of Perth is one of the best-hearted men that 
draws breath ... He would be as loth, in wantonness, 
to kill a spider, as if he were a kinsman to king 
Robert of happy memory." 5i> IV. Scott: Fair Maid 
qf Perth, ch. ii. (1828). 

f Frederick the Great and the Spider. 
While Frederick II. was at Sans Souci, 
he one day went into his ante-room, as 
usual, to drink a cup of chocolate, but 
set his cup down to fetch his handker- 
chief from his bedroom. On his return 
he found a great spider had fallen from 
the ceiling into his cup. He called for 
fresh chocolate, and next moment heard 
the report of a pistol. The cook had 
been suborned to poison the chocolate, 
and, supposing his treachery had been 
found out, shot himself. On the ceiling 
of the room in Sans Souci a spider has 
been painted (according to tradition) in 
remembrance of this story. 

^ Mahomet and the Spider. When 
Mahomet fled from Mecca, he hid in a 
certain cave, and the Koreishites were 
close upon him. Suddenly an acacia in 
full leaf sprang up at the mouth of the 
cave, a wood-pigeon had its nest in the 
branches, and a spider had woven its net 
between the tree and the cave. When 
the Koreishites saw this, they felt per- 
suaded that no one could have recently 
passed that way, and went on. 

IT A kindred story is told of David, 
who was saved from the hand of Saul in 
pursuit of him, by the web of a spider 
over the mouth of a cave in the desert of 

Bru'eli the name of the goose, in the 

tale of Reynard the Fox. Tlie word 
means the " Little roarer " (1498). 

Bm'in, the name of the bear, in the 
best-epic called Reynard the Fox. Hence 
a bear in general. The word means the 
" Brown one " (1498). 

Bru'in, one of the leaders arrayed 
against Hudibras. He is meant for one 
Talgol, a Newgate butcher, who obtained 
a captain's commission for valour at 
Naseby. He marched next to Orsin 
[Joshua Gosling, landlord of the bear- 
gardens at South wark]. S. Butler: 
Hudibras, i. 3 (1663). 

Bruin [Mrs. and Mr.), daughter and 
son-in-law to sir Jacob JoUup. Mr. 
Bruin is a huge bear of a fellow, and rules 
his wife with scant courtesy. Foote : The 
Mayor of Garratt (1763). 

Bmlgrud'dery {Dennis), landlord of 
the Red Cow, on Muckslush Heath. He 
calls himself " an Irish gintleman bred 
and born." He was " brought up to the 
church," i.e. to be a church beadle, but lost 
his place for snoring at sermon-time. He 
is a sot, with a very kind heart, and is 
honest in great matters, although in 
business he will palm off an old cock for 
a young capon. 

Mrs. Brulgruddery, wife of Dennis, and 
widow of Mr. Skinnygauge, former land- 
lord of the Red Cow. Unprincipled, self- 
willed, ill-tempered, and over-reaching. 
Money is the only thing that moves her, 
and when she has taken a bribe she will 
whittle down the service to the finest 
point. Colnian: John Bull {iZos). 

Bramo, a place of worship in Craca 
(one of the Shetland Isles). 

Far from his friends they placed him In the horrid 
circle of Brumo, where the ghosts of the dead howl 
round the stone of their kd.t.OssiaH : Finsal, vi. 

Biran'clieval "the Bold," a paynim 
knight, who tilted with sir Satyrane ; 
both were thrown to the ground together 
at the first encounter. Spenser: Faerie 
Queene, iv. 4 (1596). 

Bmnell'o, a deformed dwarf, who at 
the siege of Albracca stole Sacripan'te's 
charger from between his legs without his 
knowing it. He also stole Angelica's 
magic ring, by means of which he re- 
leased Roge'ro from the castle in which 
he was imprisoned. Ariosto says that 
Agramant gave the dwarf a ring which 
had the power of resisting magic. 
Bojardo: Orlando Innamorato (1495); 
and Ariosto: Orlando Furioso (15 16). 


" I" says Snncho, " slept so soundly upon Dapple, 
that the thief had time enoutjh to clap four stakes 
under the four corners of my pannel, and to lead away 
the beast from under my legs without waking me." 
CtrvanUs: Don QuixoU, if. i. 4 (1615). 

Bninenbnr^ [Daitle of), referred to 
in Tennyson's King Harold, is the victory 
obtained in 938 by king Athelstan over 
the Danes. 

Bmnetta, mother of Chary (who 
married his cousin Fairstar). Comtesse 
nAulnoy : Fairy 7fl/(" Princess Fair- 
star," 1682), 

Bmnetta, the rival beauty of Phyllis. 
On one occasion Phyllis procured a most 
mar\'ellbi{s fabric of gold brocade in 
order to eclipse her rival ; but Brunetta 
arrayed her train-bearer in a dress of the 
same material, and cut in the same 
fashion. Phyllis was so annoyed that 
she went home and died. The Spectator. 

BrnxLhild, queen of Issland, who 
made a vow that none should win her 
who could not surpass her in three trials 
of skill and strength : (i) hurling a spear ; 
(2) throwing a stone; and {3) jumping. 
Giinther king of Burgundy undertook 
the three contests, and by the aid of 
Siegfried succeeded in winning the 
martial queen. First, hurling a spear 
that three men could scarcely lift : the 
queen hurled it towards Giinther, but 
Siegfried, in his invisible cloak, reversed 
its direction, causing it to strike the queen 
and knock her down. Next, throwing a 
stone so huge that twelve brawny men 
were employed to carry it : Brunhild 
lifted it on high, flung it twelve fathoms, 
and jumped beyond it. Again Siegfried 
helped his friend to throw it further, and 
in leaping beyond the stone. The queen, 
being fairly beaten, exclaimed to her liege- 
men, "I am no longer your queen and 
mistress ; henceforth are ye the liegemen 
of Gunther" (lied vii.). After marriage 
Brunhild was so obstreperous that the 
king again applied to Siegfried, who suc- 
ceeded in depriving her of her ring and 
girdle, after which she became a very 
submissive wife. The Nibelungen Lied. 

Bru'no [Bishop), bishop of Herbi- 
polita'num. Sailing one day on the 
Danube with Henry III. emperor of 
Germany, they came to Ben Strudel 
("the devouring gulf"), near Grinon 
Castle, in Austria. Here the voice of a 
spirit clamoured aloud, "Ho! ho! Bishop 
Bruno, whither art thou travelling? But 
go thy ways, bishop Bruno, for thou shalt 
travel with me to-night." At night, while 


feasting with the emperor, a rafter fell on 
his head and killed him. Southey has a 
ballad called Bishop Bruno, but it deviates 
from the original legend given by Hey- 
wood in several particulars : It makes 
bishop Bruno hear the voice first on his 
way to the emperor, who had invited him 
to dinner ; next, at the beginning of 
dinner ; and thirdly, when the guests had 
well feasted. At the last warning an ice- 
cold hand touched him, and Bruno fell 
dead in the banquet-halL 

Brash, the impertinent English valet 
of lord Ogleby. If his lordship calls, he 
never hears unless he chooses ; if his belJ 
rings, he never answers it till it suits his 
pleasure. He helps himself freely to all 
his master's things, and makes love to all 
the pretty chambermaids he comes into 
contact with. Colman and Garrick .- 
The Clandestine Marriage (1766). 

Bmss [Robert the), an historical poen> 
by Barbour, father of the Scotch verna- 
cular poets. This Robert was Robert I. of 
Scotland (1276, 1306-1329). John Bar- 
bour lived 1316-1395. The full title of 
his poem is The Gestes of king Robert 
Bruce ; it consists of 14,000 lines, and 
may be divided into twenty books. The 
verses are octosyllabic like Scott's Alar- 
tnion, etc. 

Brat [Le), a metrical chronicle of 
Maitre Wace, canon of Caen, in Nor- 
mandy. It contains the earliest history 
of England, and other historical legends 
(twelfth century). 

Brute (i syl.), the first king of Britain 
(in mythical history). He was the son of 
yEneas Silvius (grandson of Ascanius 
and great-grandson of yEneas of Troy). 
Brute called London (the capital of his 
adopted country) Troynovant(A^f Troy).. 
The legend is this : An oracle declared 
that Brute should be the death of both 
his parents; his mother died in child- 
birth, and at the age of 15 Brute shot his 
father accidentally in a deer-hunt. Being 
driven from Alba Longa, he collected a 
band of old Trojans and landed at Tot- 
ness, in Devonshire. His wife was 
Innogen, daughter of Pandra'sus king of 
Greece. His tale is told at length in the 
Chronicles of Geoffrey of Monmouth, in 
the first song of Drayton's Polyolbion, 
and in Spenser's Faerie Queene, ii. 

Brute [Sir John), a coarse, surly, ill- 
mannered brute, whose delight was to 
"provoke " his young wife, who he tells 




us " is a young lady, a fine lady, a witty 
lady, and a virtuous lady, but yet I hate 
her." In a drunken frolic he intercepts a 
tailor taking home a new dress to lady 
Brute ; he insists on arraying himself 
therein, is arrested for a street row, and 
taken before the justice of the peace. 
Being asked his name, he gives it as 
" lady John Brute," and is dismissed. 

Lady Brufe, wife of sir John. She is 
sabjected to divers indignities, and in- 
sulted morn, noon, and night, by her 
surly, drunken husband. Lady Brute 
intrigues with Constant, a former lover ; 
but her intrigues are more mischievous 
than vicious. Vanbrugh: The Provoked 
Wife {1697). 

The coarse pot-house valour of "sJr John Brute" 
(Carrick's famous part) is well contrasted with the fine- 
lady airs and affectation of his wife. [Surely this must 
be an error. It applies to " lady Fanciful, but not to 
"lady Brutt."\R. Chambers: English Literature, 

Brute Green-Shield, the successor 
of Ebranc king of Britain. The mythical 
line is : (i) Brute, great-great-grandson 
of .^neas ; (2) Locrin, his son ; h^ 
Guendolen, the widow of Locrin ; (4) 
Ebranc ; {5) Brute Green-Shield. Then 
follow in order Leil, Hudibras, Bladud, 
Leir [Shakespeare's ' ' Lear "], etc, 

. . . of her courageous kings. 
Brute Green-Shield, to whose name wo providcnca 

Divinely to revive the land's first conqueror. Brute. 
Drayton: Polyolbion, viii. (1612). 

Brute's City, London, called Troy- 
novant or Trinovant {^New Troy). 

The goodly Thames near which Brute's city stands, 
Drayton : Polyolbion, xvi. (1613J. 

(Of course Trinovant is so called from 
tlie Trinovantfis or TrinobantSs, a Celtic 
tribe settled in Essex and Middlesex 
when Caesar invaded the island. ) 

Bm'ton Street (London), so called 
from Bruton, in Somersetshire, the seat 
cf John lord Berkeley of Stratton. 

BrtlttlS {Lucius Junius), first consul 
of Rome, who condemned his own two 
sons to death for joining a conspiracy to 
restore Tarquin to the throne from which 
he had been banished. This subject was 
dramatized by N. Lee (1679) and John H. 
Payne, under the title of Brutus, or The 
Fall of Tarquin (1820). Alfieri, in 1783, 
wrote an Italian tragedy on the same sub- 
ject In French we have the tragedies of 
Arnault (1702) and Ponsard (1843). (See 


The elder Kean on one occasion consented to appear 
t the Glasgow Theatre for his son's benefit. The play 
chosen was Payne's Brutus, in which the father tooJe 
tha part of "Brutus" and Charles Kean that of 

"Tttus." The audience sat suffused In tears during 
the pathetic interview, till " Brutus" falls on the neck 
of " Titus," exclaiming, in a burst of agony, " Embrace 
thy wretched father 1" when the whole house broke 
forth into peals of approbation. Edmund Kean then 
whispered m his son's ear, "Charlie, we are doing the 
trick." ^. C. Russell: Representative Actors, 476. 

IT Junius Brutus. So James Lynch Fitz- 
Stephen has been called, because (like 
the first consul of Rome) he condemned 
his own son to death for murder ; and, 
to prevent a rescue, caused him to be 
executed from the window of his own 
house in Gal way (1493). 

The Spanish Brutus, Alfonso Perez de 
Guzman, governor of Tarifa in 1293. 
Here he was besieged by the infant don 
Juan, who had revolted against his 
brother, king Sancho IV. ; and, having 
Guzman's son in his power, threatened to 
kill him unless Tarifa was given up to 
him. Guzman replied, " Sooner than be 
guilty of such treason, I will lend Juan a 
dagger to slay my son ; " and so saying 
tossed his dagger over the wall. Sad to 
say, Juan took the dagger, and assas- 
sinated the young man there and then 

Bmtns {Marcus), said to be the son 
of Julius Cassar by Servilia. 

Brutus' bastard hand 
Stabb'd Julius Caesar. 
Shakespeare : Henry VI. act iv. sc. i (iS9i). 

This Brutus is introduced by Shake- 
speare in his tragedy of Julius Ccesar, 
and the poet endows him with every 
quality of a true patriot. He loved 
Ccesar much, but he loved Rome more. 

John P. Kemble seems to me always to play best 
those characters in which there is a predominating 
tinge ofsomeover-raastering passion. . . . The patrician 
pride of " Coriolanus," the stoicism of "Brutus," the 
vehemence of " Hotspur," mark the class of characters 
I mean.-ir.y W. Scott. 

In the life of C. M. Young, we are told that Edmund 
Kean in " Hamlet," " Coriolanus," " Brutus "... never 
approached within any measurable distance of th 
learned and majestic Kemble. 

Brutus. Et tu, Brute/ Shakespeare, 
on the authority of Suetonius, puts these 
words into the mouth of Caesar when 
Brutus stabbed him. Shakespeare's 
drama was written in 1607, and probably 
he had seen The True Tragedy of 
Richard duke of York (1600), where these 
words occur ; but even before that date 
H. Stephens had said 

Jule Cesar, quand il vit que Brutus aussl estoit de 
ceux qui luy tirient des coups d'espee, luy dit, Kai sy 
tecnon 1 c'est ^ dire. . . . Et toy nion fils, en es tu 
aussi. Detix Dial, du Noveau Latt^. Franc (1583). 

Brutus and Cicero. Cicero says, 
"Caesare interfecto, statint, cruentum 
alte extoUens M, Brutus pugionem Cice- 
ronem nominatim exclamavit, atque d 




recuperatam libertatem estgratulatus." 
Philippics, ii. 12. 

WTien Brutus rose, 
Refulgent from the stroke of Caesar's fate, 
. . . \_kt\ called aloud 

On Tully's name, and shook his crimson steel. 
And bade the " father of his country " hail. 

Akenside : Pleasures of Imagination, L 

Bryce's Day {St.), November 13. 
On St. Bryce's Day, 1002, Ethelred caused 
all the Danes in the kingdom to be 
secretly murdered in one night. 

In one night the throats of all the Danish cut. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xii. (1613). 

Bry'done [Ehpeth) or Glendinning, 
widow of Simon Glendinning, of the 
Tower of Glendearg. 5z> W. Scott: 
The Monastery (time, Elizabeth). 

Bulaas'tis, the Dian'a of Egyptian 
mythology. She was the daughter of 
Isis and sister of Horus. 

BuTjenturg {Sir Adrian de), aveteran 
knight of Berne. Sir W. Scott: Anne of 
Geiersiein (time, Edward IV.). 

Bncca, goblin of the wind in Celtic 
mythology, and supposed by the ancient 
inhabitants of Cornwall to foretell ship- 

Bucen'tanr, the Venetian State 
galley used by the doge when he went 
"to wed the Adriatic." In classic 
mythology the bucentaur was half man 
and half ox. . 

Buceph'alos ["dull-headed"], the 
name of Alexander's horse, which cost 
;^35oo. It knelt down when Alexander 
mounted, and was 30 years old at its 
death. Alexander built a city called 
Bucephala in its memory. 

T/te Persian Bucephalos, Shibdiz, the 
famous charger of Chosroes Parviz. 

Buck'et {Mr.), a shrewd detective 
officer, who cleverly discovers that Hor- 
tense, the French maidservant of lady 
Dedlock, was the murderer of Mr. Tul- 
kinghorn, and not lady Dedlock who was 
charged with the deed by Hortense. 
Dickens : Bleak House (1853). 

BUCKINGHAM {George Villiers, 
first duke of), the profligate favourite of 
James I., who called him " Steenie" from 
his beauty, a pet corruption of Stephen, 
whose face at martyrdom was "as the 
face of an angel." This was the duke 
who was assassinated by Fenton (1592- 
1628). He is introduced by sir W. Scott 
in The Fortunes of Nigel. (See Dumas, 
The Three Musketeers.) 

Buckingham {George Villiers, second 
duke of), son of the preceding, and 
favourite of Charles II. He made the 
"whole body of vice his study." His 
name furnishes the third letter of the 
famous anagram " CAI3AL." This was 
the duke who wrote The Rehearsal. 
He is introduced by sir W. Scott in 
Peveril of the Peak, and by Drydcn in his 
Absalom and Achitopliel, who called him 
Zimri {q.v.). He died in very reduced 
circumstances in the house of one of his 
tenants in Yorkshire (1627-1688). Pope 
says the house was a sordid inn. 

In the worst inn's worst room, with mat half-hung. 
The floor of plaister, and the walls of dungr, 
On once a flock-bed, but repaired with straw, 
With tape-tied curtains, never meant to draw . . . 
Great Villiers lies alas I how changed from him, 
That life of pleasure, and that soul of whim I 

Pope: Moral Essays, iii. 

Buckingham {Henry duke of) was 
Henry Stafford, son and heir of Humphrey 
Stafford duke of Buckingham. He was 
made hereditary lord high constable in 
1483. Shakespeare says (in Richard HI. ) 
that Buckingham, alarmed at the execution 
of Hastings, fled to Brecknock, in Wales, 
where he had a castle. Here he collected 
together a levy, which was easily dispersed ; 
and Buckingham, being taken prisoner, 
was brought to Salisbury, and beheaded 
in 1521 {Richard HI. act v. sc. i). 

Sackville, in A Mirrour for Magistraytes (1587), 
gives a slightly different account- 
Then first came Henry, duke of Buckingham, 
His cloke of blacke al piUle and quite forwoni. 

Mirrour for Magistraytes. 

The ghost of Buckingliam tells Thomas Sackville 
that he and king Richard III. had so plotted together, 
and were so privy to each other's guilt, that each 
sought to kill the other. Richard having discovered 
the treasonable designs of Buckingham, he [the duke] 
fled to John Banastar, a man who had received great 
favours of the duke, and professed himself his fast 
friend ; but, for the sake of ;^iooo blood-money, 
Banastar betrayed the duke to John Mitton, sheriflf of 
Shropshire, and Mitton delivered up the duke to the 

Buckingham {Mary duchess of), 
introduced by sir W. Scott in Peveril of 
the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Bucklaw ( The laird of), afterwards 
laird of Girnington. His name was 
Frank Hayston. Lucy Ashton plights 
her troth to Edgar master of Ravens- 
wood, and they exchange love-tokens at 
the Mermaid's Fountain ; but her father, 
sirWilliam Ashton, for mercenary motives, 
promises her in marriage to the laird of 
Bucklaw, and as she signs the articles 
Edgar suddenly appears at the castle. 
They return to each other their love- 
tokens, and Lucy is married to the laird ; 
but on the wedding night the bridegroom 
is found dangerously wounded in the 




bridal chamber, and the bride hidden in 
the chimney-corner, insane. Lucy dies 
In convulsions, but Bucklaw recovers and 
goes abroad. Sir W. Scott: The Bride 
of Lammermoor [ixme, William IIL). 

Buckle [Put into), put into pawn at 
the rate of 40 per cent, interest. 

To talk buckle, to talk about marriage. 

I took a girl to dinner who tallced buckle to me, and 
the girl on the other side talked balls. ri^'ra, 154. 

Bucklers-bury (London), so called 
from one Buckle, a grocer ( Old and New 
London). In the reign of Elizabeth and 
long afterwards Bucklersbury was chiefly 
inhabited by druggists, who sold green 
and dried herbs. Hence Falstaff says to 
Mrs. Ford, he could not assume the ways 
of those "lisping hawthorn buds [i.e. 
young fops], who smell like Bucklers-bury 
in simple-time." Shakespeare: Merry 
Wives of Windsor, act iii. sc. 3 (1601). 

Bude Lig'ht, a light devised by Mr. 
Gurney of Bude, in Cornwall. Intense 
light is obtained by supplying the burner 
with an abundant stream of oxygen. 
The principle of the Argand lamp is also 
a free supply of oxygen. Gurney's in- 
vention is too expensive to be of general 
service, but an intense light is obtained 
by reflectors and refractors called Bude 
lights, although they wholly differ in 
principle from Gurney's invention. 

Bufbon ( The Pulpit). Hugh Peters 
is so called by Dugdale (1599-1660). 

Bu^ Bible [The), 1551. Matthew's 
Bible IS so called, because Psa. xci. 5 
reads, "Thou shalt not be afraid of the 
bugges [bogies] by night." 

Bugf Jarg'al, a negro, passionat>ely in 
love with a white woman, but tempering 
the wildest passion with the deepest re- 
spect. Hugo: Bug Jargal (a novel). 

Bulbul, a nightingale, any singer of 
ditties. When, in The Princess (by 
Tennyson), the prince, disguised as a 
woman, enters with his two friends 
(similarly disguised) into the college to 
which no man was admitted, he sings ; 
and the princess, suspecting the fraud, 
says to him, " Not for thee, O bulbul, any 
rose of Gulistan shall burst her veil," i.e. 
" O singer, do not suppose that any woman 
will be taken in by such a flimsy deceit," 
The bulbul loved the rose, and Gulistan 
means the "garden of roses." The prince 
was the bulbul, the college was Gulistan, 
and the princess the rose sought. Tenny- 
lon : The Princess, iv. 

Bulbul-He'zar, the talking bird, 
which was joined in singing by all the 
song-birds in the neighbourhood. (See 
Talking Bird. )A rahian Nights ( ' ' The 
Two Sisters," the last story). 

Bulls, mother of Egyp'ius of Thessaly. 
Egypius entertained a criminal love for 
Timandra, the mother of Neoph'ron, and 
Neophron was guilty of a similar passion 
for Bulls. Jupiter changed Egypius and 
Neophron into vultures. Bulls into a duck, 
and Timandra into a sparrow-hawk. 
Classic Mythology. 

Bull [A), a species of inadvertent wit, 
arising either from a blunder of facts or 
analogies, or from an irreconcilable con- 
nection of the close of a sentence with its " 
commencement. The well-known quota- 
tion of sir Boyle Roche, M.P,, will serve 
for an example : " Mr. Speaker, how 
could I have been in two places at the 
same time, unless I were a bird ? " (See 
Roche. ) 

(Maria Edgeworth, in 1802, wrote an 
essay on Irish Bulls. ) 

Bull [John), the English nation per- 
sonified, and hence any typical English- 

Bull in the niain was an honest, plain-dealing fellow, 
choleric, bold, and of a very inconstant temper. IIi 
dreaded not old Lewis {Louis JCIV.\ either at back- 
sword, single falchion, or cudgel-play ; but then he was 
very apt to quarrel with his best friends, especially if 
they pretended to govern him. If you flattered him, 
you might lead him as a child. John's temper depended 
very much upon the air ; his spirits rose and fell with 
the weather-glass. He was quick, and understood 
business well ; but no man alive was more careless in 
looking into his accompts, nor more cheated by part- 
ners, apprentices, and servants. ... No man kept a 
better house, nor spent his money more generously. 
Chap. s. 

(The subject of Dr. Arbuthnot's History 
of John Bull IS the "Spanish Succession" 
in the reigns of Louis XIV. and queen 
Anne. ) 

Mrs. Bull, queen Anne, "very apt to be 
choleric. " On hearing that Philip Baboon 
[Philippe due d! Anjou) was to succeed to 
lord Strutt's estates [i.e. the Spanish 
throne), she said to John Bull 

"You sot, you loiter about ale-houses and taverns, 
spend your time at billiards, ninepins, or puppet-shows, 
never minding me nor my numerous family. Don't you 
hear how lord ^\.r\xXX\the kin,!^ of Spain\\\3,% bespoke 
his liveries at Lewis Baboon's shop {France\1 . . . Fie 
upon it ! l^, man I ... I'll sell my shift before 111 be 
so used." Chap. 4. 

John BuUs Mother, the Church of 


John had a mother, whom he loved and honoured 
extremely ; a discreet, grave, sober, good-conditioned, 
cleanly old gentlewoman as ever lived. She was none 
of your cross-grained, termagant, scolding jades . . . 
always censuring your conduct ... on the contrary, 
she was of a meek spirit . . . and put the best cou- 


'tfuctton upon the words and actions of her ne'.jflibours, 
... She neither wore a ruff, forehead cloth, nor high- 
crowned hat. . . . She scorned to patch and paint, yet 
she loved cleanliness. . . . She was no less genteel in 
her behaviour ... in the due mean between one of 
your affected curtsying pieces of formality, and your 
ill-mannered creatures which have no regard to tho 
common rules of civility. /'ar/ ii. i. 

John BulTs Sister Peg, the Scotch, in 
love with Jack {Cahin). 

John had a sister, a poor girl that had been reared 
... on oatmeal and water . . . and lodged In a garret 
exposed to the north wind. . . . However, this usage 
. . . gave her a hardy constitution. . . . Peg had, m- 
deed, some odd humours and comical antipathies, . . . 
she would faint at the sound of an organ, and yet dance 
and frisk at the noise of a bagpipe. i?r. ArbutHnot: 
History o/John Bull, ii. a (17x3). 

. George Colman the younger pro- 
duced a comedy called John Bull, in 

Bnll-dog', rough iron. 

A man was putting some bull-dog into the rolls, when 
bis spade caught between the rolls. Times, 

Bull-dog's, the two menservants of a 
university proctor, who follow him in his 
rounds to assist him in apprehending 
students who are violating the university 
statutes, such as appearing in the streets 
after dinner without cap and gown, etc. 

Bullaxny, porter of the "Anglo- 
Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life 
Insurance Company." An imposing 
personage, whose dignity resided chiefly 
in the great expanse of his red waistcoat. 
Respectability and well-to-doedness were 
expressed in that garment. Dickens : 
Martin Chuzzlewit (1844). 

Bnllcalf (Peter), of the Green, who 
was pricked for a recruit in the army of 
sir John Falstaff. He promised Bardolph 
" four Harry ten-shillings in French 
crowns" if he would stand his friend, 
and when sir John was informed thereof, 
he said to BuUcalf, " I will none of you." 
Justice Shallow remonstrated, but Falstaff 
e-xclaimed, "Will you tell me, Master 
Shallow, how to choose a man ? Care I 
for the limb, the thews, the stature? . . . 
Give me the spirit, Master Shallow." 
Shakespeare: 2 Henry IV. act iii. so. 2 

Bullen {Anne\ maid of honour to 
queen Katharine, and afterwards queen- 
consort. ^/iaZ'^j/^<?r^.- Henry VIII. 

Bnllet-liead {The Great), George 
Cadoudal, leader of the Chouans (1769- 

Buirsegf {Mr,), laird of Killan- 
cureit, a friend of the baron of Bradwar- 
dine. Sir W. Scott: Waverley (time, 
George n.). 



Bnlmer {Valentine), titular earl of 
Etherington, married to Clara Mowbray. 

Mrs. Ann Buhner, mother of Valen- 
tine, married to the earl of Etherington 
during the lifetime of his countess ; 
hence his wife in bigamy. Sir W. Scott: 
St, Ronan's H^V// (time, George III.). 

Buxn'Tlle, beadle of the workhouse 
where Oliver Twist was born and brought 
up. A stout, consequential, hard-hearted, 
fussy official, with mighty ideas of his 
own importance. This character has 
given to the language the word bumble- 
dom, the officious arrogance and bump- 
tious conceit of a parish authority or 
petty dignitary. After marriage with 
Mrs. Corney, the high and mighty beadle 
M-as sadly hen-pecked and reduced to a 
Jerry Sneak. Dickens: Oliver Twist 

Bumbledom, parish-dom, the pride 
of parish dignity, the arrogance of parish 
authority, the mightiness of parish 
officers. From Bumble, the beadle, in 
Dickens's Oliver Twist (1837). 

Bmn'kinet, a shepherd. He pro- 
poses to Grub'binol that they should 
repair to a certain hut and sing "Gillian 
of Croydon," " Patient Grissel," "Cast 
away Care," "Over the Hills," and so on ; 
but being told that Blouzelinda was dead, 
he sings a dirge, and Grubbinol joins 

Thus wailed the louts in melancholy strain. 
Till bonny Susan sped across the plain ; 
They seized the lass in apron clean arrayed. 
And to the ale-house forced the willing maid ; 
In ale and kisses they forgot their cares, 
And Susan Blouzelinda's loss repairs. 

Gay ; Pastoral, v. (1714). 

(An imitation of Virgil's Bucolic, v., 
" Daphnis.") 

Btim.per {Sir Harry), a convivial 
friend of Charles Surface. He sings the 
popular song beginning 

Here's to the maiden of bashful fifteen. 
Here's to the widow of fifty, etc. 

Sheridan : School /or Scandal (ijyj}, 

Btince {Jack), alias Frederick Alta- 
mont, a ci-devant actor, one of the crew 
of the pirate vessel. Sir W. Scott: The 
Pirate (time, William III.). 

Buucli {Mother), an alewife, men- 
tioned by Dekker in his drama called 
Satiromastix (1602). In 1604 was pub- 
lished PasquiFs Jests, mixed with Mother 
Bunch's Merriments, 

There are a series of "Fairy Tales'* 
called Mother Bunch's Fairy Tales. 

Bunch. {Mother), the supposed pos- 




sessor of a " cabinet broken open " and 
revealing " rare secrets of Art and 
Nature," such as love-spells {1760), 

BnH'cle, messenger to the earl of 
Douglas. Sir W. Scott: Fair Maid of 
Perth (time, Henry IV,). 

Bun'cle {John), " a prodigious hand 
at matrimony, divinity, a song, and a 
peck." He married seven wives, and 
lost all in the flower of their age. For 
two or three days after the death of a 
wife he was inconsolable, but soon became 
resigned to his loss, which he repaired by 
marrying again. T. Amory : The Life, 
etc., of John Buncle, Esq. 

Bundalinda, the beau-ideal of ob- 

Transformed from a princess to a peasant, from 
beauty to ugliness, from polish to rusticity, from light 
to darkness, from an angel of light to an imp of hell, 
from fragrance to ill-savour, from elegance to rudeness, 
from Aurora in full brilliancy to Bundalinda in deep 
ohs,z\m\.y.Cervatites: Don Quixote, II. ii. 13 (1615). 

Bundle, the gardener, father of 
Wilelmi'na, and friend of Tom Tug the 
waterman. He is a plain, honest man, 
but greatly in awe of his wife, who nags 
at him from morning till night. 

Mrs. Bundle, a vulgar Mrs. Malaprop, 
and a termagant. ' ' Everything must be 
her way, or there's no getting any peace." 
She greatly frequented the minor the- 
atres, and acquired notions of sentimental 
romance. She told Wilelmina, if she 
refused to marry Robin 

' I'll disinherit you from any share in the blood of 

my family, the Grograns, and you may creep through 
life with the dirty, pitiful, mean, paltiy, low, ill-bred 
notions which you have gathered from [your /alher's\ 

nMi the dirty, pitiful, mean, paltiy, low, ill-bred 
ns which you liave gathered from [your /ai/ier's] 
family, the Bundles." Dibdin : The Waterman (1774). 

Buugfay, in Thackeray's Pendennis, 
bookseller and publisher of the Pall Mall 
Gazette, edited by captain Shannon (1849). 
The real Pall Mall Gazette was started in 

' Why Pall Mall Gazette ? " asks Wagg. ' ' Because 
the editor was bom in Dublin, the sub-editor in Cork, 
. . . the proprietor lives in Paternoster Row, and the 
paper is published in Catherine Street, Strand." 

Buu'g'ay or Bongfay [Frier), one of 
the friars in a comedy by Robert Green, 
entitled Frier Bacon and Frier Bongay. 
Both the friars are conjurers, and the piece 
concludes with one of their pupils being 
carried off to the infernal regions on the 
back of one of friar Bacon's demons 

BnUj^en \Bung-n\ the street in 
Ham'elin down which the pied piper 
Bunting led the rats into the river Weser 
and the children into a cave in the moun- 

tain Koppenberg. No music of any kind 
is permitted to be played in this street. 

Bungfey {Friar), personification of 
the charlatan of science in the fifteenth 

. In The Last of the Barons, by lord 
Lytton, friar Bungey is an historical 
character, and is said to have "raised 
mists and vapours," which befriended 
Edward IV. at the battle of Barnet. 

Buns'by {Captain John or Jack), 
owner of the Cautious Clara. Captain 
Cuttle considered him "a philosopher, 
and quite an oracle." Captain Bunsby 
had one "stationary and one revolving 
eye," a very red face, and was extremely 
taciturn. The captain was entrapped by 
Mrs. McStinger (the termagant landlady 
of his friend captain Cuttle) into marry- 
ing her. Dickens : Dombey and Son 

Btuitingf, the pied piper of Ham'elin. 
He was so called from his dress. 

To blow the pipe his lips he wrinkled, 
And green and blue his sharp eyes twinkled . . , 
And ere three notes his pipe had uttered . . . 
Out of the houses rats came tumbling- 
Great rats, small rats, lean rats, brawny rats, 
Brown rats, black rats, grey rats, tawny rats, . . . 
And step by step they followed him dancing. 
Till they came to the river Weser. 

R. BroTuntng. 

Buonaventn'ra {Father), a disguise 
assumed for the nonce by the chevalier 
Charles Edward, the pretender. Sir W. 
Scott: Redgauntlet {\.\me, George III.). 

Bur {John), the servant of Job Thorn- 
berry, the brazier of Penzance. Brusque 
in his manners, but most devotedly 
attached to his master, by whom he was 
taken from the workhouse. John Bur 
kept his master's "books" for twenty- 
two years with the utmost fidelity. Col- 
man : John Bull (1805). 

EurTjoa {i.e. Henri IV. of Finance). 
He is betrothed to Fordelis {France), 
who has been enticed from him by Gran- 
torto {rebellion). Being assailed on all 
sides by a rabble rout, Fordelis is carried 
off by "hellrake hounds." The rabble 
batter Burbon's shield {protestantism), 
and compel him to throw it away. Sir 
Ar'tegal {right or justice) rescues the 
"recreant knight" from the mob, but 
blames him for his unknightly folly in 
throwing away his shield (of faith). 
Talus {the executive) beats off the hell- 
hounds, gets possession of the lady, and 
though she flouts Burbon, he catches her 
up upon his steed and rides off with her. 
^Spenser: Faerie Queene, v. 2 (1596). 




Burchell (Mr.), alias sir William 
Thornhill, about 30 years of age. When 
Dr. Primrose, the vicar of Wakefield, 
loses j^i4oo, Mr. Burchell presents him- 
self as a broken-down gentleman, and the 
doctor offers him his purse. He turned 
his back on the two flash ladies who 
talked of their high-life doings, and cried 
" Fudge 1" after all their boastings and 
remarks. Mr. Burchell twice rescued 
Sophia Primrose, and ultimately married 
her. Goldsmith: Vicar of Wakefield 

B-argfundy (Charles the Bold, duke 
of), introduced by sir W. Scott in Quentin 
Durward and in Anne of Geierstein. The 
latter novel contains the duke's defeat at 
Nancy', and his death (time, Edward IV,). 

Bn'ridan's Ass. A man of inde- 
cision is so called from the hypothetical 
ass of Buridan, the Greek sophist. Bu- 
ridan maintained that "if an ass could 
be placed between two hay-stacks in such 
a way that its choice was evenly balanced, 
it would starve to death, for there would 
be no motive why he should choose the 
one in preference to the other." 

Burleigh { William Cecil, lord), lord 
treasurer to queen Elizabeth (1520-1598), 
introduced by sir W. Scott in his his- 
torical novel called Kenilworth (time, 

(Lord Burleigh is one of the principal 
characters in The Earl of Essex, a tragedy 
by Henry Jones, 1745.) 

Burleigh (Lord), a parliamentary 
leader, in The Legend of Montrose, a 
novel by sir W. Scott (time, Charles I. ). 

A lord Burleigh shake of the head, a 
great deal meant by a look or movement, 
though little or nothing is said. Puff, in 
his tragedy of The Spatiish Armada, 
introduces lord Burleigh, "who has the 
affairs of the whole nation in his head, 
and has no time to talk ; " but his lord- 
ship comes on the stage and shakes his 
head, by which he means far more than 
words could utter. Puff says 

Why, by that shake of the head he grave you to 
understand that even though tliey had more justice in 
their cause and wisdom in their measures, yet, if there 
was not a greater spirit shown on the part of tlie 
people, the country would at last fall a sacrifice to the 
hostile ambition of the Spanish monarchy. 

Sneer. Did he mean all that by shaking his head t 

Puff. Every word of \X.. Sheridan : The Critic, ii. i 

The original " lord Burleigh " was Irish Moody [1728- 
1813]. CorAj7/ Magazine (1867). 

Burlesque Poetry (Father of), Hip- 
po'nax of Ephesus (sixth century B.C.). 

Burley (John), " poor, honest, ne'er- 
do-well, never sober, never solvent, but 
always genial and witty. On his death, 
like Falstaff, babbling of green fields." 
Lord Lytion : My Novel (1853). 

Burlong, a giant, whose legs sir 
Try'amour cut oS.. Romance of Sir Try- 

Bum Daylight (We), we waste 
time (in talk instead of action). 5A<z>tf- 
spcare : Merry Wives of Windsor, act ii. 
sc. I (i6oi). 

Bumbill, Henry de Londres, arch- 
bishop of Dublin and lord justice of 
Ireland, in the reign of Henry III. It 
is said that he fraudulently burnt all the 
' ' bills " or instruments by which his 
tenants of the archbishopric held their 

Burnett Prize (The), once in forty 
years, for the best two essays on "the 
evidence of an all-powerful and all-wise 
God." The first was awarded in 1815. 

Burning Crown. Regicides were 
at one time punished by having a crown 
of red-hot iron placed on their head. 
(See Damiens.) 

He was adjudged 
To have his head seared with a burning crown. 
Author unknown, Tragedy of Hoffman (1631). 

Bums (Helen), in Charlotte Bronte's 
novel of Jane Eyre (1847). 

Bums of France (The), Jasmin, a 
barber of Gascony. Louis Philippe pre- 
sented to him a gold watch and chain, 
and the duke of Orleans an emerald ring. 

Bur'ris, an honest lord, favourite 
of the great-duke of Moscovia. John 
Fletcher: The Loyal Subject (1618). 

Busby (A ), a tall fur cap, with a bag 
hanging from the top over the right side. 
Worn by British hussars, artillerymen, 
and engineers. Probably "Busby" is a, 
proper name. 

Bushy Wig (A), a punning syno- 
nym of a "buzzwig," the joke being a, 
reference to Dr. Busby of Westminster 
School, who never wore a wig, but only 
a skull-cap. 

Business To-morrow is what 

Archias, one of the Spartan polemarchs 
in Athens, said, when a letter was handed 
to him respecting the insurrection of 
Pelopldas. He was at a banqtiet at the 
time, and thrust the letter under his 
cushion ; but Pelopidas, with his 400 
insurgents, rushed into the room during 




the feast, and slew both Archias and the 
rest of the Spartan officers. 

Bn'sirane (3 syl.), an enchanter who 
bound Am'oret by the waist to a brazen 
pillar, and, piercing her with a dart, 
wrote magic characters with the dropping 
blood, "all for to make her love him." 
When Brit'omart approached, the en- 
chanter started up, and, running to 
Amoret, was about to plunge a knife 
into her heart ; but Britomart intercepted 
the blow, overpowered the enchanter, 
compelled him to "reverse his charms," 
and then bound him fast with his own 
chain. Spenser: Faerie Queene, iii. 11, 
12 (1590). 

Busi'ris, king of Egypt, was told by 
a foreigner that the long drought of nine 
years would cease when the gods of the 
country were moUified by human sacri- 
fice. "So be it," said the king, and 
ordered the man himself to be offered as 
the victim. Herod., ii. 59-61. 

"Tis said that Egypt for nine years was dry ; 

Nor Nile did floods nor heaven did rain supply. 

A foreigner at length informed the king 

That slaughtered guests would kindly moisture brinsr. 

The king replied, " On thee the lot shall fall ; 

Be thou, my guest, the sacrifice for alL" 

OviJ: Art 0/ Love, I. 

(Young wrote a tragedy on this king, 
called Busiris King of Egypt, 1719.) 

Busi'ris, supposed by Milton to be 
the Pharaoh drowned in the Red Sea. 

Ilath vexed the Red Sea coast, whose waves o'erthrew 
liasiris and his Memphian chivalrj'. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, 1. 306 (1665). 

Bns'ne (2 syl.). So the gipsies call 
all who do not belong to their race. 

The gold of the Busnd ; give me her gold. 

Longfclloiii : The Spanish Student, 

BTisg.aeue {Lord), plaintiff in the 
great Pantagruelian lawsuit known as 
"lord Busqueue v. lord Suckfist," in 
which the parties concerned pleaded for 
themselves. Lord Busqueue stated his 
grievance and spoke so learnedly and at 
such length that no one understood one 
word about the matter; then lord Suckfist 
replied, and the bench declared, "We 
have not understood one iota of the 
defence." Pantag'ruel, however, gave 
judgment, and as both plaintiff and 
defendant considered he had got the 
verdict, both were fully satisfied "a 
thing without parallel in all the annals 
of the court." Rabelais: Pantagruel, ii. 

Busy Body [The), a comedy by Mrs. 
Centlivre (1709). Sir Francis Gripe 
(guardian of Miranda an heiress, and 

father of Charles), a man 65 years old, 
wishes to marry his ward for the sake 
of her money, but Miranda loves and is 
beloved by sir George Airy, a man of 
24. She pretends to love " Gardy," and 
dupes him into yielding up her money 
and giving his consent to her marriage 
with "the man of her choice," believ- 
ing himself to be the person. Charles 
is in love with Isabinda, daughter of sir 
Jealous Traffick, who has made up his 
mind that she shall marry a Spaniard 
named don Diego Babinetto, expected to 
arrive forthwith. Charles dresses in a 
Spanish costume, passes himself off as 
the expected don, and is married to the 
lady of his choice ; so both the old men 
are duped, and all the young people wed 
according to their wishes. 

But are Ye sure the News is 
True ? This exquisite lyric is generally 
attributed to William Mickle, but Sarah 
Tyler, in Good Woods, March, 1869, 
ascribes it to Jean Adam of Crawfurd's 
Dyke. She says, "Colin and Jean" are 
Colin and Jean Campbell of Crawfurd's 
Dyke the Jean being the poetess and 
writer of the poem. 

Butcher [The), Achmet pasha, who 
struck off the heads of seven of his wives 
at once. He defended Acre against 
Napoleon I. 

John ninth lord Chfford, called "The 
Black Clifford " (died 1461). 

Ohver de Clisson, constable of France 

Butcher ( The Bloody). (See Bloody 
Butcher, p. 129.) 

Butcher of England, John Tiptoft, 
earl of Worcester, a man of great learning 
and a patron of learning (died 1470). 

On one occasion in the reign of Edward IV. he 
ordered Clapham (a sauire to lord Warwick; and nine- 
teen others, all gentlemen, to be impaled. Stow : 
IVarkmorth Chronicle (" Cont. Croyl."). 

Yet so barbarous was the age, that this same learned 
man impaled forty Lancastrian prisoners at South- 
ampton, put to death the infant children of the Irish 
chief Desmond, and acquired the name of " The 
Butcher of England." Old a>id New London, ii. 21. 

Butler [The Rev. Mr.), military 
chaplain at Madras. Sir W. Scott: The 
Surgeons Daughter (time, George II.). 

Butler [Reuben), a presbyterian min- 
ister, married to Jeanie Deans. 

Benjamin Butler, father of Reuben. 

Stephen Butler, generally called " Bible 
Butler," grandfather of Reuben and 
father of Benjamin. 

Widow Judith Butler, Reuben's grand 
mother and Stephen's wife. 




Euphemia or Femie Butler, Reuben's 

David and Reuben Butler, Reuben's 
sons. 5i> W. Scott: Heart of Mid- 
lothian (time, George II.). 

Bnttercnp {John), a milkman. H^. 
B rough : A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock. 

Buzo'ma, a shepherdess with whom 
Cuddy was in love. 

My brown Buxoma is the featest maid 
That e'er at wake delightsome gambol played . . . 
And neither lamb, nor kid, nor c.ilf, nor Tray, 
Dance like Buxoma on the first of May. 

Gay : Pastoral. 1. (1714)- 

Bnz'fnz {Serjeant), the pleader re- 
tained by Dodson and Fogg for the 
plaintiff in the celebrated case of " Bar- 
dell V. Pickwick." Serjeant Buzfuz is a 
driving, chaffing, masculine bar orator, 
who proved that Mr. Pickwick's note 
about "chops and tomato sauce" was a 
declaration of love ; and that his reminder 
"not to forget the warming-pan" was 
only a flimsy cover to express the ardour 
of his affection. Of course, the defendant 
was found guilty by the enlightened jury. 
(His junior was Skimpin.) Dickens : 
The Pickwick Papers (1836). 

Bnz'zard {The), in The Hind and the 
Panther, by Dryden (pt. iii.), is meant 
for Dr. Gilbert Burnet, whose figure was 
lusty (1643-1715). 

Bycom, a fat cow, so fat that its sides 
were nigh to bursting, but this is no 
wonder, for its food was " good and 
enduring husbands," of which there is 
good store. (See Chichi-Vache.) 

BYRON {Lord). His life has been 
often written ; for example, by T. Moore 
(the poet) in 1830 ; also by Dallas, Gait, 
Lake, Brydges, Armstrong, etc. 

Byron ( The French), Alfred de Mus- 
set (1810-1857). 

Paul de Musset has gone to rejoin his brother the 
French Byron. Edw. About: To the Athettaum 
(July 3, 1880). 

l^he Polish Byron, Adam Mickiewicz 

The Russian Byron, Alexander Ser- 
geivitch Puschkin (1799-1837). 

Byron {Miss Harriet), a beautiful and 
accomplished woman of high rank, de- 
votedly attached to sir Charles Grandison, 
whom ultimately she marries. Richard- 
ton: Sir Charles Grandison (1753). 

Byron and Mary. The " Mary " of 
Bryon's song is Miss Chaworth. Both 
Miss Chaworth and lord Byron were 

wards of Mr. White. Miss Chaworth 
married John Musters, and lord Byron 
married Miss Milbanke of Durham ; both 
equally unhappy. 

I have a passion for the name of " Mary," 
For once it was a magic name to me. 

Byron: Don yuan, v. 4 (1820). 

Byron and Teresa Guiccioli. 

This lady was the wife of count Guiccioli, 
an old man, but very rich. Moore says 
that Bryon " never loved but once, till he 
loved Teresa." 

Byron and the Edinburgh Re- 
view. It was Jeffrey and not Brougham 
who wrote the article which provoked the 
poet's reply. 

C. {See P for alliterative poems in this 
letter, and in some others.) 

C (in Notes and Queries), the right 
hon. John Wilson Croker. 

Caal}a {Al), the shrine of Mecca, 
said by the Arabs to be built by Abra- 
ham on the exact spot of the tabernacle 
let down from heaven at the prayer of 
repentant Adam. Adam had been a 
wanderer for 200 years, and here received 

The black stone, according to one tra- 
dition, was once white, but was turned 
black by the kisses of sinners. It is "a 
petrified angel." 

According to another tradition, this 
stone was given to Ishmael by the angel 
Gabriel ; and Abraham assisted his son 
to insert it in the wall of the shrine. 

Cabal, an anagram of a ministry 
formed by Charles II. in 1670, and con- 
sisting of Clifford], A[shley], B[ucking- 
ham], A[rlington], L[auderdale]. 

Cacafo'go, a rich, drunken usurer, 
stumpy and fat, choleric, a coward, and 
a bully. He fancies money will buy 
everything and every one. Fletcher: 
Rule a Wife and Have a Wife (1624). 

Cacnr'gns, the fool or domestic jester 
of Misog'onus. Cacurgus is a rustic 
simpleton and cunning mischief-maker. 
T. Rychardes : Misogonus (the third 
English comedy, 1560}. 




Ca'cns, a giant who lived in a cave on 
mount Av'entine (3 syl.). When Her- 
cules came to Italy with the oxen which 
he had taken from Ger'yon of Spain, 
Cacus stole part of the herd, but dragged 
the animals by their tails into his cave, 
that it might be supposed they had come 
ouf of it. 

If he falls into slips, It is equally clear they were 
introduced by him on purpose to confuse, like Cacus, 
the traces of his retreat. ^wcyc. Srit. (article " Ro- 
mance "). 

Cad, a low-born, vulgar fellow. A 
cadie in Scotland was a carrier of a 
sedan-chair. A caddie is one who carries 
your clubs, etc., in golf. 

All Edinburgh men and boys know that when sedan- 
chairs were discontinued, the old cadies sank into 
ruinous poverty, and became synonymous with roughs. 
The word was brought to London by James Hannay, 
who frequently used it. M. PringU. 

(M. Pringle assures us that the word 
came from Turkey. ) 

Cade'nus (3 syl.), dean Swift. The 
word is simply de-cd-nus ("a dean") 
with the first two syllables transposed 
(ca-de-nus). "Vanessa" is Miss Esther 
Vanhomrigh, a young lady who fell in 
love with Swift, and proposed marriage. 
The dean's reply is given in the poem 
entitled Cadmus and Vanessa [i.e. Van- 

Cadu'ceus, the wand of Mercury. 
The " post of Mercury " means the office 
of a pimp, and to "bear the caduceus " 
means to exercise the functions of a 

I did not think the post of Mercury-in-chief quite so 
honourable as it was called . . . and I resolved to 
abandon the Caduceus for ever. Lesage: Gil Bias, 
xii. 3. 4 (1715)- 

Cadur'ci, the people of Aquita'nia. 

Cad'wal. Arvir'agus, son of Cym'- 
beline, was so called while he lived in 
the woods with Bela'rius, who called 
himself Morgan, and whom Cadwal sup- 
posed to be his father. Shakespeare: 
Cymbeline (1605). 

Cad-wallader, called by Bede (i syl.) 
Elidwalda, son of Cad walla king of Wales. 
Being compelled by pestilence and famine 
to leave Britain, he went to Armorica. 
After the plague ceased he went to Rome, 
where, in 689, he was baptized, and 
received the name of Peter, but died very 
soon afterwards. 

Cadwallader that drave \sailed\ to the Armoric shore. 
Drayton : Polyolbion, ix. (1612). 

Cadwallader, the misanthrope in 
Smollett's Peregrine Pickle (1751). 

Cadwallader [Mrs.), the rector's 
vife in the novel called Middlemarch, by 
George Eliot (Mrs. J. W. Cross), {1872). 

CadwaU'on, son of the blinded 
Cyne'tlia. Both father and son accom- 
panied prince Madoc to North America 
in the twelfth century. S out hey : Mada 

Cadwallon, the favourite bard oJ 
prince Gwenwyn. He entered the ser- 
vice of sir Hugo de Lacy, disguised, 
under the assumed name of Renault 
Vidal. 5i> W. Scott: The Betrothed 
(time, Henry H.). 

CsB'cias, the north-west wind. Ar- 
gestes is the north-east, and Bo'reas the 
full north. 

Boreas and Csecias and Argestes loud 
. . . rend the woods, and seas upturn. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, x. 699, etc. (1665). 

Caslesti'ua, the bride of sir Walte? 
Terill. The king commanded sir Walter 
to bring his bride to court on the night of 
her marriage. Her father, to save he? 
honour, gave her a mixture supposed to 
be poison, but in reality it was only a 
sleeping-draught. In due time the bride 
recovered, to the amusement of the king 
and the delig-ht of her husband. Dekker : 
Satiro-mastix (1602). 

Cse'neus \Se.nuce\ was born of the 
female sex, and was originally called 
Casnis. Vain of her beauty, she rejected 
all lovers ; but was one day surprised by 
Neptune, who offered her violence, 
changed her sex, converted her name to 
Ceneus, and gave her (or rather him) the 
gift of being invulnerable. In the wars 
of the Lap'ithas, Ceneus offended Jupiter, 
and was overwhelmed under a pile of 
wood, but came forth converted into a 
yellow bird. ^Eneas found Ceneus in the 
infernal regions restored to the feminine 
sex. The order is inverted by sir John 

And how was Caeneus made at first a man, 
And then a woman, then a man again. 

Orchestra, etc. (1615). 

CJESAR, said to be a Punic word 
meaning "an elephant," " Qu6d avus 
ejus in Africa manu propria occldit ele- 
phantem" (Phn. Hist. viii. 7). There 
are old coins stamped on the one side 
with DIVUS JULIUS, the reverse hav- 
ing S.P.Q.R. with an elephant, in allu- 
sion to the African original. (See below.) 

In Targ^m Tonathanis Cesira extat, notione affine, 
pro scuto vel clypeo ; et fortasse inde est quod, Punica 
lingua, elephas "Casar" dicebatur, quasi tutamen 
et prxfidium Xt^oxMxa.Cassauben : Animadv, im 
2'ranquiii, i. 

CiESAR. 165 

Csesar [Cuius Julius). 

Somewhere I've read, but where I forgfet, he could 

Seven letters at once, at the same time writing his 
memoirs . . . 

better be first, he said, in a little Iberian village 

Than be second in Rome, and I thiulc be was rii,'ht 
when he said it. 

Twice was he married before he was ao, and many 
times after ; 

Battles SCO he fou^ht, and a thousand cities he con- 
quered ; 

But was finally stabbed by his friend the orator Brutus. 
Lonsfellmu: Courtship 0/ Miles Standisk, ii. 

(Longfellow refers to Pliny, vii. 25, 
where he says that Caesar ' could employ, 
at one and the same time, his ears to 
listen, his eyes to read, his hands to 
write, and his tongue to dictate." He is 
said to have conquered 300 nations, to 
have taken 8co cities, to have slain in 
battle a million men, and to have defeated 
three millions. See below, Caesar s 

CcBsar and his Fortune. Plutarch says 
that Coesar told the captain of the vessel 
in which he sailed that no harm could 
come to his ship, for that he had " Caesar 
and his fortune with him." 

Now am I like that proud insulting ship. 
Which Cxs;ir and his fortune bare at once. 
Shakespeare: i Henry VJ. act L sc. 2 (1589). 

Ccesar saves his Commentaries. Once, 
when Julius Csesar was in danger of 
being upset into the sea by the overload- 
ing of a boat, he swam to the nearest 
ship, with his book of Commentaries in 
his hand. Suetonius. 

Ctesar's Death. Both Chaucer and 
Shakespeare say that Julius Caesar was 
killed in the capitol. Thus Polonius says 
to Hamlet, " I did enact JuUus Caesar ; I 
was killed i' the capitol " (Hamlet, act iii, 
sc. 2). And Chaucer says 

This JuLus to the capitole wente . . . 
And m the capitole anon him hente 
This false Brutus, and his other soon, 
And sticked him with bodekins anon. 
CanUrbury Tales ("The Monk's Tale," 1388). 

Plutarch expressly tells us he was 
killed in Pompey's Porch or Piazza ; and 
in Julius CcBsar Shakespeare says he fell 
"e'en at the base of Pompey's statue" 
(act iii. sc. 2). 

CcBsar's Famous Despatch, " Veni, vidi, 
vici," written to the senate to announce 
his overthrow of Pharnic^s king of Pon- 
tus. This " hop, skip, and a jump " was, 
however, the work of three days. 

CcBsar's Likeness. That by Aure'lius 
is the most celebrated. 

CcBsar's Wars. The carnage occa- 
sioned by the wars of Caesar is usually 
estimated at a million fighting men. He 
won 320 triumphs, and fought 500 battles. 
(See above, C^SAR {Caius Julius),) 


Csesar, the Mephistoph'elts of Byron s 
unfinished drama called The Deformed 
Transformed. This Caesar changes Ar- 
nold (the hunchback) into the form of 
Achilles, and assumes himself the de- 
formity and ugliness which Arnold casts 
off. The drama being incomplete, alt 
that can be said is that "Caesar," in 
cynicism, effrontery, and snarling bitter- 
ness of spirit, is the exact counterpart of 
his prototype, Mephistophelfis (1823). 

CsBsar [Don), an old man of 63, the 
father of Olivia. In order to induce his 
daughter to marry, he makes love to- 
Marcella, a girl of 16. Mrs. Caivlcy : A 
Bold Stroke for a Husband (1782). 

Cse'sarism, the absolute rule of man 
over man, with the recogniiion of no law 
divine or human beyond that of the ruler's- 
will. Csesar must be summus pontifex- 
as well as imperdtor. Dr. Manning r 
On CcBsarism (1873). (See Chauvinism.)- 

Gael, a Highlander of the western 
coast of Scotland. The Cael hadi 
colonized, in very remote times, the 
northern parts of Ireland, as the Fir-hols' 
or Belgae of Britain had colonized the- 
southern parts. The two colonies had 
each a separate king. When Crothar was- 
king of the Fir-bolg (or " lord of Atha ")^ 
he carried off Conla'ma, daughter of the 
king of Ulster [i.e. "chief of the Cael ")>. 
and a general war ensued between the 
two races. The Cael, being reduced to the 
last extremity, sent to Trathal (Fingal's 
grandfather) for help, and Trathal sent 
over Con'ar, who was chosen "king of 
the Cael" immediately he landed in 
Ulster ; and having reduced the Fir-bolg to 
submission, he assumed the title of " king 
of Ireland." The Fir-bolg, though con- 
quered, often rose in rebellion, and mada 
many efforts to expel the race of Conar, 
but never succeeded in so doing. 

Caer Ery'ri, Snowdon. [Eryri means 
"an eyrie" or "eagle's nest."), 

. . . once the wondering forester at dawn . , 
On Caer Eryri's highest found the king. 

Tennyson : Gareih and Lynettt.. 

Caer Gwent, Venta, that is, Gwentv 
ceaster, Wintan-ceaster (or Winchester): 
The word Gwent is Celtic, and means ";> 
fair open region." 

Caerleon or Caerle'on., on the Usk;, 
in Wales, the chief royal residence of: 
king Arthur. It was here that he kept af 
Pentecost "his Round Table," in great 




splendour. Occasionally these " courts" 
were held at Camelot 

Where as at Caer'leon oft, he kept the Table Round, 
Most famous for the sports at Pentecost. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, iii. (1612). 
For Arthur on the Whitsuntide before 
Held court at old Caerle'on-upon-Usk. 

Tennyson: Enid. 

Caerleon { Tht Battle of), one of the 
twelve great victories of prince Arthur 
over the Saxons. The battle was not 
fought, as Tennyson says, at Caerleon- 
upon-Usk, in the South of Wales, but at 
Caerleon, now called Carlisle. 

Cag-es for Men. Alexander the 
Great had the philosopher Callisthenes 
chained for seven months in an iron cage, 
for refusing to pay him divine honours. 

Catherine II. of Russia kept her perru- 
quier for more than three years in an iron 
cage in her bed-chamber, to prevent his 
teUing people that she wore a wig. Mons. 
De Masson : Mimoires Secrets sur la 

Edward I. confined the countess of 
Buchan in an iron cage, for placing 
the crown of Scotland on the head of 
Bruce. This cage was erected on one 
of the towers of Berwick Castle, where 
the countess was exposed to the rigour of 
the elements and the gaze of passers-by. 
One of the sisters of Bruce was similarly 
dealt with. 

Louis XI. confined cardinal Balue 
(grand-almoner of France) for ten years 
in an iron cage in the castle of Loches 

Tamerlane enclosed the sultan Bajazet 
in an iron cage, and made him a public 
show. So says D'Herbelot. {See Calis- 

THENES, p. 170.) 

An iron cage was made by Timour's command, com- 
posed on every side of iron gratings, through which the 
captive sultan [Bajazet] could be seen in any direction. 
He travelled in this den slung between two horses. 

Caglios'tro {Count de), Giuseppe 
Balsamo, the prince of literary thieves 
and impostors (i743-i79S)- (See under 
Forgers and Forgeries.) 

<?a ira, one of the most popular 
revolutionary songs, composed for the 
Fete de la Fideration, in 1789, to the 
tune of Le Carillon National. Marie 
Antoinette was for ever strumming this 
air on her harpsicord. ' ' Ca ira ! " was the 
rallying cry borrowed by the Federalists 
from Dr. Franklin, who used to say, in 
reference to the American Revolution, Ah! 
ah I fa ira I (a ira I ( ' It will speed ! "). 

'Twas all the same to him .^^af save tht King I 
Or Ca ira t 

B^ron : Din Juan, iii. 84 (i8o). 

Cain, " a Mystery," by lord Byron 
(1821). Cain's wife he calls Adah, and 
Abel's wife he calls Zillah. The poet 
assumes (with Cuvier) that the world had 
been destroyed several times before man 
was created. Certainly there were several 
races of animals extinct before the sup- 
posed creation of Adam, the most noted 
being the Saurian period. Cain, in many 
respects, is a rephca of Man/red, pub- 
hshed in 1817. 

Coleridge wrote a prose poem called The Wandtr- 
in-s of Cain (1798). 

Cain and Abel are called in the 
Kor&n "KabilandHabil." The tradition 
is that Cain was commanded to marry 
Abel's sister, and Abel to marry Cain's ; 
but Cain demurred because his own sister 
was the more beautiful, and so the matter 
was referred to God, who answered ' ' No " 
by rejecting Cain's sacrifice. 

N. B. The Mohammedans say that 
Cain carried about with him the dead 
body of Abel, till he saw a raven scratch 
a bole in the ground to bury a dead bird. 
The hint was taken, and Abel was buried 
under ground. Sale: A I Koran, v. , notes. 

Cain-coloured Beard. Cain and 
Judas, in old tapestries and paintings, are 
always represented with yellow beards. 

He hath a little wee face, with a little yellow beard ; 
a Cain-coloured beard. Shakespeare : Merry IVives 
0/ Windsor, act i. sc. 4 (1601). 

Cain's Hill. Maundrel tells us that 
" some four miles from Damascus is a 
high hill, reported to be that on which 
Cain slew his brother Abel." Travels, 

In that place where Damascus was founded, Kayn 
sloughe Abel his brother. Maiindeville : Travels, 148. 

Caina \^Ka-V-naK\, the place to which 
murderers are doomed. 

Caina waits 
The soul who spills man's life. 

Dante : Inferno, r. (1300). 

Cair1}ar, son of Borbar-Duthul, ' ' lord 
of Atha" (Connaught), the most potent 
of the race of the Fir-bolg. He rose in 
rebellion against Cormac, "king of Ire- 
land," murdered him {Temora, i.), and 
usurped the throne ; but Fingal (who was 
distantly related to Cormac) went to Ire- 
land with an army, to restore the ancient 
dynasty. Cairbar invited Oscar (Fingal's 
grandson) to a feast, and Oscar accepted 
the invitation ; but Cairbar having pro- 
voked a quarrel with his guest, the two 
fought, and both were slain. 

" Thy heart is a rock. Thy thoughts are dark and 
bloody. Thou art the brother of Cathnior . . . but my 
soul is not like thine, thou feeble hand in fight. The 
light of my bosom is stained by thy deeds." (?xja/.' 
Tcmeru, i. 




Cairlire (2 jv/.), sometimes called 
"Cair'bar," third king of Ireland, of the 
Caledonian line. (There was also a Cair- 
bar, "lord of Atha," a Fir-bolg, quite a 
different person.) 

The Caledonian line ran thus : (i) 
Conar, first "king of Ireland ; " (2) Cor- 
mac I., his son ; (3) Cairbre, his son ; (4) 
Artho, his sen ; (5) Cormac II., his son ; 
(6) Ferad-Artho, his cousin. Ossian. 

Cai'tlS {2 syl.), the assumed name of 
the earl of Kent when he attended on 
king Lear, after Goneril and Re'gan re- 
,fused to entertain their aged father with 
his suite. Shakespeare : Kitig I^ar 

Cai'as [Dr.], a French physician, 
whose servants are Rugby and Mrs. 
Quickly. Shakespeare: Merry Wives of 
Windsor (1601). 

The clipped English of Dr. CA\x%.Macaulay. 

Cai'iis College (Cambridge), origin- 
ally Gonville Hall. In 1557 it was 
erected into a college by Dr. John Key, of 
Norwich, and called after him Caius or 
Key's College. 

Cakes [Land of), Scotland, famous 
for its oatmeal-cakes. 

Calais. When Calais was lost, queen 
Mary said they would find at her death 
the word Calais svritten on her heart. 

IT Montpensier said, if his body were 
opened, the name of Felipe [II. of 
Spain] would be found imprinted on his 
heart (i 552-1 596). Motley: Dutch Re- 
public, part ii. 5. 

Calandri'no, a character in the De- 
catneron, whose " misfortunes have made 
all Europe merry for four centuries." 
Boccaccio: Decameron, viii. 9 (1350). 

Calan'tlia, princess of Sparta, loved 
by Ith'ocl6s. Ithocles induces his sister 
Penthe'a to break the matter to the prin- 
cess. This she does ; the princess is won 
to requite his love, and the king consents 
to the union. During a great court cere- 
mony Calantha is informed of the sudden 
death of her father, another announces to 
her that Penthea had starved herself to 
death from hatred to Bass'anes, and a 
third follows to tell her that IthoclSs, her 
betrothed husband, has been murdered. 
Calantha bates no jot of the ceremony, 
but continues the dance even to the 
bitter end. The coronation ensues, but 
scarcely is the ceremony over than she 
can support the strain no longer, and, 

broken-hearted, she falls dead. 7<7An 
Ford: The Broken Heart {1622). 

Calantha and Ordclla {f.v.) are the most perfect 
of women in all the ranjfe of fiction. 

Calan'the (3 syl.), the betrothed wife 
of Pyth'ias the Syracu'-.ian. Z?<3//j/ . 
Damon and Pythias (1825). 

Cala'ya, the third paradise of the 

CaVCTllator [The). Alfragan the 
Arabian astronomer was so called (died 
A.D. 820). Jedcdiah Buxton, of Elmeton, 
in Derbyshire, was also called " The Cal- 
culator" (1705-1775). George Bidder 
(1806- 1 878), Zerah Colburn, and a girl 
named Heywood (whose father was a 
Mile End weaver), all exhibited their 
calculating powers in public. (See 
Percy: Anecdotes.) 

N. B. Pascal, in 1642, made a calcu- 
lating machine, which was improved by 
Leibnitz. C. Babbage also invented a 
calculating machine (1790-1871). 

Calctlt'ta is Kali-cuttah {" temple of 
the goddess Kah "). 

Cal'deron {Don Pedro), a Spanish 
poet born at Madrid (1600-168 1). At 
the age of 52 he became an ecclasiastic, 
and composed religious poetry only. Al- 
together he wrote about 1000 dramatic 

Her memory was a mine. She knew by heart 
All Cal'deron and fjrcater part of Lope. 

Byron: Don Jiian, . ii (1819). 

("Lope," that is, Lope de Vega, the 
Spanish poet, 1562-1635.) 

Calel}, the enchantress who carried 
off St. George in infancy. 

Calel), in Dry den's satire of Absalom 
and Achitop/iel, is meant for lord Grey of 
Wark, in Northumberland, an adherent 
of the duke of Monmouth. 

And, therefore in the name of dulness be 
The wcU-liung Balaam and cold Caleb free. - - . 
Parti. 573, 574; -^ 

.* " Balaam " is the earl of Hunting- 

Caleb Williams. (See Williams.) 

Ca'led, commander-in-chief of the 
Arabs in the siege of Damascus. He is 
brave, fierce, and revengeful. War is his 
delight. When Pho'cyas, the Syrian, 
deserts Eu'men^s, Caled asks him to 
point out the governor's tent ; he refuses 
they fight, and Caled falls. J. Hughes: 
Siege of Damascus [1720], 




Caledo'nia, Scotland. Also called 

O Caledonia, stem and wild, 
Meet nurse for a poetic child 1 

Sir W. Scott. 
Not thus in ancient days of Caledon 
"Was thy voice mute amid the festal crowd. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Caledo'nians, Gauls from France 
who colonized South Britain, whence they 
journeyed to Inverness and Ross. The 
word is compounded of two Celtic words, 
Cad ("Gaul" or "Celt"), and don or 
dun ("a hill"), so that Cael-don means 
"Celts of the highlands." 

The Highlanders to this day call themselves " Cael," 
and their language " Gaelic ' or " Gaelic," and their 
country " Caeldock," which the Romans softened into 
" CA&diOxixa.." Dissertation on the Poems ofOssian. 

Calendar {The French) was devised 
by Fabre d'Eglantine and Romme (1792). 

Calenders, a class of Mohammedans ' 
who abandoned father and mother, wife 
and children, relations and possessions, 
to wander through the world as religious 
devotees, living on the bounty of those 
whom they made their dupes. D'Herbe- 
lot: Suppleme7it , 204. 

He diverted himself with the multitude of calenders, 
santons, and dervises, who had travelled from the 
heart of India, and halted on their way with the emir. 
^IV. Beckford : yat/teJi {1786}. 

The Th?-ee Calenders, three royal 
princes, disguised as begging dervishes, 
each of whom had lost his right eye. 
Their adventures form three tales in the 
Arabian Nights' Entertainments. 

Tale of the First Calender. No names 
are given. This calender was the son of 
a king, and nephew of another king. 
While on a visit to his uncle, his father 
died, and the vizier usurped the throne. 
When the prince returned, he was seized, 
and the usurper pulled out his right eye. 
The uncle died,' and the usurping vizier 
made himself master of this kingdom also. 
So the hapless young prince assumed the 
garb of a calender, wandered to Bagdad, 
and being received into the house of ' ' the 
three sisters," told his tale in the hearing 
of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid. The 
Arabian Nights. 

Tale of the Second Calender. No names 
given. This calender, like the first, was 
the son of a king. On his way to India 
he was attacked by robbers, and though 
he contrived to escape, he lost all his 
effects. In his flight he came to a large 
city, where he encountered a tailor, 
who gave him food and lodging. In 
order to earn a living, he turned wood- 
man for the nonce, and accidentally dis- 
covered an under-ground palace, in which 

lived a beautiful lady, confined there by 
an evil genius. With a view of liberating 
her, he kicked down the talisman ; the 
genius killed the lady and turned the 
prince into an ape. As an ape he was 
taken on board ship, and transported to 
a large commercial city, where his pen- 
manship recommended him to the sultan, 
who made him his vizier. The sultan's 
daughter undertook to disenchant him 
and restore him to his proper form ; but 
to accomplish this she had to fight with 
the malignant genius. She succeeded in 
killing the genius, and restoring the en- 
chanted prince ; but received such severe 
injuries in the struggle that she died, and 
a spark of fire which flew into the right 
eye of the prince, perished it. The sultan 
was so heart-broken at the death of his 
only child, that he insisted on the prince 
quitting the kingdom without delay. So 
he assumed the garb of a calender, and 
being received into the hospitable house 
of "the three sisters," told his tale in the 
hearing of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, 
The Arabian Nights. 

Tale of the Third Calender. This tale 
is given under the word Agib, p. 14. 

" I am called Agib," he says, " and am the son of a 
king whose name was Zzs&\\>." Arabian Nights. 

Calepine [Sir), the knight attached 
to Sere'na (canto 3). Seeing a bear 
carrying off a child, he attacked it, and 
squeezed it to death, then committed the 
babe to the care of Matilde, wife of sir 
Bruin. As Matilde had no child of her 
own, she adopted it (canto 4). Spenser: 
Faerie Queene, vi. (1596). 

(Upton says, "the child" in this in- 
cident is meant for M'Mahon, of Ireland, 
and that "Mac Mahon" means the "son 
of a bear." He furthermore says that 
the M'Mahons were descended from the 
Fitz-Ursulas, a noble English family, ) 

Ca'les (2 syl.). So gipsies call thena- 

Beltran Crurado, count of the Cales. 

Longfellow : The Spanish Student. 

Calf -skin. Fools and jesters used to 
wear a calf-skin coat buttoned down the 
back, and hence Faulconbridge says inso- 
lently to the archduke of Austria, who 
had acted very basely towards Richard 

Thou wear a lion's hide I doff it for shame. 
And hang a calf-skin on those recreant limb* 
Shakespeare : King John, act iiL sc. i (1596), 

Cal'ianaz, a humorous old lord, 
father of Aspatia the troth-plight wife of 
Amin'tor. It is the death of Aspatia 




which gives name to the drama. Beau- 
mont and Fletcher : The Maid's Tragedy 

Cal'lban, a savage, deformed slave 
of Prospero (the rightful duke of Milan 
and father of Miranda). Caliban is the 
" freckled whelp " of the witch Syc'orax. 
Mrs. Shelley's monster, in Frankenstein, 
is a sort of Q^LVCodja., Shakespeare : The 
Tempest (1609). 

" Caliban "... is all earth ... he has the dawn- 
Ings of understanding without reason or the moral 
sense . . . this advance to the intellectual faculties 
without the moral sense is marked by the appearance 
of vice. CoUridst. 

Caribum, same as Excalibar, the 
fcunous sword of king Arthur. 

Ooward Arthur paced, with hand 

On Calibum's resistless brand. 

Sir ly. Scott: Bridal 0/ TrUrmain (1813). 
Arthur . . . drew out his Calibum, and . . . rushed 
forward with great fury into tlie thickest of the enemy's 
ranks . . . nor did he give over the fury of his assault 
till he had, with his Calibum, killed 470 men Geoffrey : 
British History, ix. 4 (1142). 

Cal'idore {Sir), the type of courtesy, 
and the hero of the sixth book of Spenser's 
Faerie Queene. The model of this cha- 
racter was sir Philip Sydney. Sir Calidore 
(3 jy/.) starts in quest of the Blatant Beast, 
which had escaped from sir Artegal (bk. 
V. 12). He first compels the lady Bria'na 
to discontinue her discourteous toll of 
*Mhe locks of ladies and the beards of 
knights" (canto i). Sir Calidore falls in 
love with Pastorella, a shepherdess, dresses 
like a shepherd, and assists his lady-love 
in keeping sheep. Pastorella being taken 
captive by brigands, sir Calidore rescues 
her, and leaves her at Belgard Castle to 
be taken care of, while he goes in quest of 
the Blatant Beast. He finds the monster 
after a time, by the havoc it had made 
with religious houses, and after an obsti- 
nate fight succeeds in muzzling it, and 
dragging it in chains after him ; but it got 
loose again, as it did before (canto 12). 
Spenser : Faerie Queene, vi. (1596). 

Sir GaWain was the " Calidore " of the Round Table. 

'.' " Pastorella " is Frances Walsing- 
ham (daughter of sir Francis), whom sir 
Philip Sydney married. After the death 
of sir Philip she married the earl of Essex. 
The "Blatant Beast" is what we now 
call "Mrs. Grundy." 

'. " Calidore " is the name of a poeti- 
cal fragment by Keats (i796-i82i)'. 

CaligT'orant, an Egyptian giant and 
cannibal, who used to entrap travellers 
with an invisible net. It was the very 
same net that Vulcan made to catch Mars 
and Venus with. Mercury stole it for the 

purpose of entrapping Chloris, and left it 
in the temple of Anu'bis, whence it was 
stolen by Caligorant. One day Astolpho, 
by a blast of his magic horn, so frightened 
the giant that he got entangled in his own 
net, and being made captive was despoiled 
of it. Ariosto: Orlando Furioso (1516). 

Cali'no, a famous French utterer of 

Calipli means "vicar" or representa- 
tive of Mahomet. Scaliger says, ' ' Calipha 
est vicarius " {Isagoge of Chronology, 3). 
The dignity of sultan is superior to that 
of caliph, although many sultans called 
themselves caliphs. That passage which 
in our version of the New Testament is 
rendered ' ' Archelaus reigned in his stead " 
{i.e. in the place of Herod), is translated 
in the Syriac version Chealaph Herodes, 
that is, "Archelaus was Herod's caliph" 
or vicar. Similarly, the pope calls him- 
self "St. Peter's y\c2.x."Seldn: Titles 
of Honour, v. 68, 69 (1672). 

Calip'olis, in The Battle of Alcazar, 
a drama by George Peele (1582). Pistol 
says to Mistress Quickly 

Then feed and be fat, my fair CalipoUs. Shake- 
sj>eart : a Henry IV. act ii. sc. 4 (1598). 

Cal'is {The princess), sister of As'- 
torax king of Paphos, in love with Poly- 
dore, brother of general Memnon, but 
loved greatly by Siphax. John Fletcher : 
The Mad Lover (1617). 

Calis'ta, the fierce and haughty 
daughter of Sciol'to (3 syl.), a proud 
Genoese nobleman. She yielded to the 
seduction of Lotha'rio, but engaged to 
marry Al'tamont, a young lord who loved 
her dearly. On the wedding day a letter 
was picked up which proved her guilt, 
and she was subsequently seen by Alta- 
mont conversing with Lothario. A duel 
ensued, in which Lothario fell. In a street- 
row Sciolto received his death-wound, 
and Calista stabbed herself. The charac- 
ter of " Calista" was one of the parts of 
Mrs. Siddons, and also of Miss Brunton. 
Rowe : The Fair Penitent (1703). 

Richardson has given a purity and a sanctity to the 
sorrows of his " Clarissa " which leave " Calista " im- 
measurably behind.^. Chatnbers: English Litera- 
ture, i. 590. 

Twelve years after Norris's death, Mrs. Barry was 
acting the character of "Calista." In the last act, 
where " Calista " lays her hand upon a skull, she \_Mrs. 
ISarry'] was suddenly seized with a shuddering, and 
fainted. Next day she asked whence the skull had 
been obtained, and was told it was "the skull of Mr. 
Norris, an actor." This Norris was her former hus- 
band, and so great was the shock that she died within 
six nccVs.Oxberry. 

Calis'to and Ar'cas. Calisto, an 
Arcadian nymph, was changed into a 



she-bear. Her son Areas, supposing the 
bear to be an ordinary beast, was about 
to shoot it, when Jupiter metamorphosed 
him into a he-bear. Both were taken to 
heaven by Jupiter, and became the con- 
stellations Ursa Minor and Ursa Major. 

Call'ag-lian O'Brall'ag'lian {Sir), 
"a wild Irish soldier in the Prussian 
army. His military humour makes one 
fancy he was not only born in a siege, 
but that Bellona had been his nurse, 
Mars his schoolmaster, and the Furies 
his playfellows" (act i. sc. i). He is the 
successful suitor of Charlotte Goodchild. 
Macklin : Love a- la-mode (1779). 

In the records of the stage, no actor ever approached 
Jack Jolinstone in Irish characters : " sir Lucas O'Trigf- 
g^er," "Callaghan O'Brallaijhan," " major O'Flaherty," 
" Teague," " TuUy " (the Irish gardener), and " Dennis 
Brulgruddery " were portrayed by hini in most ex- 
quisite colours. New Motthly Magazine (1829). 

("Lucius O'Trigger," in The Rivals 
(Sheridan) ; " major O'Flaherty," in The 
West Indian (Cumberland); "Teague," 
in The Committee (Howard); "Dennis 
Brulgruddery," in John Bull (Colman).) 

Callet, a fille publique. Brantdme 
says a calle or calotte is " a cap ; " hence 
the phrase, Plattes comme des calles. 
Ben Jonson, in his Magnetick Lady, 
speaks of " wearing the callet, the politic 

Des filles du peuple et de la campagne s'appellant 
calks, & cause de la " cale " qui leur servait de coiifure. 
Francisgue Michel. 

En sa tete avoit un gros bonnet blanc, qui Von appelle 
une calle, et nous autres appelons calotte, ou bonnette 
blanche de lagne, nou6e ou bridge par dessoubz le 
menton. Brantdtne : Fies des Datnes Illustres. 
A beggar in his drink 
Could not have laid such terms upon his callet. 
Shakespeare : Othello, act iv. sc. 2 (1611). 

Callim'achus {The Italian), Filippo 
Buonaccorsi (1437-1496). 

Callir'rlioe (4 syl.), the lady-love of 
Chas'reas, in a Greek romance entitled 
The Loves of Chtzreas and Callirrhoe, by 
Char'iton (eighth century). { 

Callis'tb,enes {i^syl.), a philosopher 
who accompanied Alexander the Great 
on his Oriental expedition. He refused 
to pay Alexander divine honours, for 
which he was accused of treason ; and, 
being mutilated, he was chained in a 
cage for seven months like a wild beast. 
Lysimachus put an end to his tortures by 
poison. (See Cages for Men, p. 166. ) 

Oh, let me roll in Macedonian rays, 
Or, like Callisthenes, be caged for life. 
Rather than shine in fashions of the East. 

Lee: Alexander the Great, iv. i (1678). 

Cal'mar, son of Matha, lord of Lara 
(in Connaught). He is represented as 

presumptuous, rash, and overbearing, 
but gallant and generous. The very 
opposite of the temperate Connal, who 
advises caution and forethought. Calmar 
hurries CuthuUin into action, which ends 
in defeat. Connal comforts the general 
in his distress. Ossian : Fingal^ i, 

Cal'pe (2 syl.), Gibraltar. The two^ 
pillars of Hercules are CalpS and Ab'yla. 

She her thundering na\'y leads 
To Calpe. 

Akenside : Hymn to the Naiads. 

Cal'tlion, brother of Col'mar, sons of 
Rathmor chief of Clutha {the Clyde). 
The father was murdered in his halls by 
Dunthalmo lord of Teutha {the Tweed), 
and the two boys were brought up by the 
murderer in his own house, and accom- 
panied him in his wars. As they grew in 
years, Dunthalmo fancied he perceived 
in their looks a something which excited 
his suspicions, so he shut them up in two 
separate dark caves on the banks of the 
Tweed. Colmal, daughter of Dunthalmo, 
dressed as a young warrior, hberated 
Calthon, and fled with him to Morven, 
to crave aid in behalf of the captive Col- 
mar. Accordingly, Fingal sent his son 
Ossian with 300 men to effect his libera- 
tion. When Dunthalmo heard of the 
approach of this army, he put Colmar to 
death. Calthon, mournin g for his brother, 
was captured, and bound to an oak ; but 
at daybreak Ossian slew Dunthalmo, cut 
the thongs of Calthon, gave him to Col- 
mal, and they lived happily in the halls of, 
Teutha. Ossian : Calt/wn and Colmal. 

Calumet of Peace. The bowl of 
this pipe is made of a soft red stone 
easily hollowed out, the stem of cane or 
some light wood, painted with divers 
colours, and decorated with the heads, 
tails, and feathers of birds. When 
Indians enter into an alliance or solemn 
engagement, they smoke the calumet 
together. When war is the subject, the 
whole pipe and all its ornaments are 
deep red. Major Rogers: Account of. 
North America. (See Red Pipe.) 

A-calumeting, a-courting. In the day- 
time any act of gallantry would be deemei' 
indecorous by the American Indians \ 
but after sunset, the young lover goi ' 
a-calurneting. He, in fact, lights hi: 
pipe, and, entering the cabin of his well 
beloved, presents it to her. If the lady^ 
extinguishes it, she accepts his addresses 
but if she suffers it to burn on, she reject! 
them, and the gentleman retires. Ashe 




Carydon [Prince of), Melea'ger, 
famed for killing the Calvdonian boar. 
Apollodorus, i. 8. (See Meleager.) 

As did the fatal brand Althsea bum'd, 
Unto the prince's heart of Calydon. 
Sliakespeare ; a Henry VI. act 1. sc. i (1591). 

Cal'ydon, a town of ^to'lia, founded 
by Calydon. In Arthurian romance 
Calydon is a forest in the north of our 
island. Probably it is what Richard of 
Cirencester calls the "Caledonian Wood," 
westward of the Varar or Murray Frith. 

Calydo'ziian Hunt. Artemis, to 
punish CEneus ^^E\7iuce\ king of Cal'ydon, 
in ^to'iia, for neglect, sent a monster 
boar to ravage his vineyards. His son 
Melea'ger collected together a large com- 
pany to hunt it. The boar being killed, 
a dispute arose respecting the head, and 
this led to a war between the Curetes and 

H A similar tale is told of Theseus 
(2 syl.), who vanquished and killed the 
gigantic sow which ravaged the territory 
of Krommyon, near Corinth. (See Krom- 

Calyp'so, in Tilimaque, a prose epic 
by F^nelon, is meant for Mde. de Mon- 
tespan. In mytliology she was queen of 
the island Ogyg'ia, on which Ulysses was 
wrecked, and where he was detained for 
seven years. 

Calypso's Isle, Ogygia, a mythical 
island "in the navel of the sea." Some 
consider it to be Gozo, near Malta. 
Ogygia [not the island) is Boeo'tia, in 

Caiua'clio. (See Basilius. p. 94.) 

Camalodu'niiin, Colchester. 

Girt by half the tribes of Britain, near the colony Camu- 

Tennyson : Boadicea. 

Caman'clies (3 syl.) or Coman'ches, 
an Indian tribe of the Texas (United 

It is a caravan, whitening the desert where dwell the 

Lonsfdlov) : To the Driving Cloud. 

Camaral'zanian. (See Badoura, 
p. 81.) 

Canx'Tiallo, the second son of Cam- 
buscan' king of Tartary, brother of 
Al'garsife (3 syl.) and Can'ac6 (3 syl.). 
He fought with two knights who asked 
the lady Canac6 to wife, the terms being 
that none should have her till he had 
succeeded in worsting Camballo in com- 
bat. Chaucer does not give us the sequel 
oj Ibis tale, but Spenser says that tiiree 

brothers, named Priamond, Diamond, 
and Triamond were suitors, and that 
Triamond won her. The mother of 
these three (all born at one birth) was 
Ag'ap6, who dwelt in Faery -land (bk. 
iv, 2). 

N. B. Spensermakes Cambi'na (daugh- 
ter of Agapg) the lady-love of Camballo. 
Camballo is also called Camballus and 

Camballo' s Ring, given hira by his 
sister Canac6, "had power to stanch all 
wounds that mortally did bleed." 

Well mote ye wonder how that noble knight. 

After he had so often wounded been. 
Could stand on foot now to renew tlie fight ... 
All was thro' virtue of the ring he wore ; 

The which not only did not from him let 
One drop of blood to fall, but did restore 

His weakened powers and his dulled spirits whet. 
S/enser: Faerie Queene, iv. a (1596). 

Camlialn, the royal residence of the 
chara of Cathay (a province of Tartary). 
Milton speaks of " Cambalu, seat of 
Cathayan Can." Paradise Lost, xi. 388 

CamT)aluc, spoken of by Marco Polo, 
is Pekin. 

Cambel. (See Canace, p. 174. ) 

Cambi'xia, daughter of the fairy 
Ag'ape (3 syl.). (See Canace, p. 174.) 

Cam'bria, Wales. According to 
legend, it is so called from Camber, the 
son of Brute. This legendary king divided 
his dominions at death between his three 
sons : Locrin had the southern part, hence 
called Loegria [England) ; Camber the 
west ( Wales) ; and Albanact the north, 
called Albania [Scotland). 

From Cambria's curse, from Cambria's tears. 

Gray : The Bard (1757). 

Cam'brian, Welsh, pertaining to 
Cambria or Wales. 

Cambridge. Cam is a moderti 
corrupt form of Granta, as the river Cana 
was anciently called. The transition is 
Granta, turned by the Normans into 
Caunter, whence Canter, Can or Cam. 

: Out " count " is the French comie. 

Cambridge University Boat 
Crew. Colours : light blue. 

Cambridge on tlie Cliarles, con- 
tains Harvard University, founded 1636 
at Cambridge on the river Charles 
(Massachusetts), and endowed in 1639 
by the Rev. John Harvard. 

A theologian firora the school 
Of Cambridge on the Charles, was there. 
LoHsfelloio : Th* Wayside Inn (preludey. 


Cambridge University, said to 
have been founded by Sebert or Segbert 
icing of Essex, the reputed founder of 
St. Peter's, Westminster (604). 

Wise Segbert, worthy praise, preparing us the seat 
Of famous Cambridge first, then with endowments 

T-iie Muses to maintain, those sisters thither brought. 
Drayton Polyolbion, xi. (1613). 

Cambuscau', king of Sarra, in the 
land of Tartary the model of all royal 
virtues. His wife was El'feta ; his two sons 
Al'garsife (3 syl. ) and Cam'ballo ; and his 
daughter Can'acg (3 syl. ). Chaucer accents 
the last syllable, but Milton erroneously 
throws the accent on the middle syllable. 
Thus Chaucer says 

And so befell that when this Cambuscan' . . , 

And again 

This Cambuscan', of which I have you told . . . 
Squire's Tale. 

But Milton, in // Penseroso, says 

Him who left half-told 

The story of Cambus'can bold. 

The accent might be preserved by a 
slight change, thus 

Him who left of old 

The tale of Cambuscan' half-told. 

Cambuscan had three presents sent him 
by the king of Araby and Ind : (i) a 
horse of brass, which would within a 
single day transport its rider to the most 
distant region of the world ; (2) a tren- 
chant sword, which would cut through the 
stoutest armour, and heal a sword-wound 
by simply striking it with the flat of the 
blade ; (3) a minor, which would reveal 
conspiracies, tell who were faithful and 
loyal, and in whom trust might be con- 
fided. He also sent CanacS (daughter of 
Cambuscan) a ring that she might know 
the virtues of all plants, and by aid of 
which she would be able to understand 
tiie language of birds, and even to con- 
verse with them. Chaucer: Canterbury 
Tales ("The Squire's Tale," 1388). 

Caiuby'ses (3 syl.), a pompous, 
ranting character in Preston's tragedy of 
that name (1569). 

I must speak in passion, and I will do it in king 
Cambyses' \m.Shakespeare : i Henry ly. act ii. sc. 

4 (1597). 

Camby'ses and Smerdis. Cam- 
bysds king of Persia killed his brother 
Smerdis from the wild suspicion of a 
Hiad man, and it is only charity to think 
that he was really non compos mentis. 

Behold CambTses and his fatal daye . . . 
While he his brother Mergus cast to slaye, 
A dreadful thing, his wittes were him bereft. 

SackviUe : A Mirrour/or Magistraytet 
(" The Complaynt," 1587). 


Camden Society [The), established, 
in 1838, for the republication of British 
historical documents. So named in 
honour of William Camden, the historian 

Camel. The pelican is called the 
" river camel ; " in French chameau deau ; 
and in Arabic jimmel el bahar. 

We saw abundance of camels [i.e. pelicans], but they 
did not come near enough for us to shoot them. 
Norden : Voyag'e. 

Cameliard (3 syl.), the realm of 
Leod'ogran or Leod'ogrance, father of 
Guinevere {Guin-e^-ver) wife of Arthur. 

I.eodogran, the king of Cameliard 

Had one fair daughter and none other child . . . 

Guinevere, and in her his one delight. 

Tennyson: Corning of Arthur, 

Cam'elot (3 syl.). There are two 
places so called. The place referred to in 
King Lear is in Cornwall, but that of 
Arthurian renown was in Winchester. In 
regard to the first Kent says to Cornwall, 
" Goose, if I had you upon Sarum Plain, 
I'd drive ye cackling home to Camelot," 
i.e. to Tintag'il or Camelford, the "home" 
of the duke of Cornwall. But the Came- 
lot of Arthur was in Winchester, where 
visitors are still shown certaia large en- 
trenchments once pertaining to "king 
Arthur's palace." 

Sir Balin's sword was put into marble stone, standing 
it upright as a great millstone, and it swam down the 
stream to the city of Camelot, that is, in English, 
Winchester. Sir T. Malory : History of Prince 
Arthur, L 44 (1470). 

. In some places, even in Arthurian 
romance, Camelot seems the city on the 
Camel, in Cornwall. Thus, when sir 
Tristram left Tintagil to go to Ireland, a 
tempest "drove him back to Camelot" 
(pt. ii. 19). 

Camilla, the virgin queen of the 
Volscians, famous for her fleetness of 
foot. She aided Turnus against .^neas. 

Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain, 
Flies o'er th' unbending corn, or skims along the main. 


Camilla, wife of Anselmo of Florence. 
Anselmo, in order to rejoice in her incor- 
ruptible fidelity, induced his friend Lo- 
thario to try to corrupt her. This he did, 
and Camilla was not trial-proof, but fell. 
Anselmo for a time was kept in the dark, 
but at the end Camilla eloped with Lo- 
thario. Anselmo died of grief, Lothario 
was slain in battle, and Camilla died in a 
convent. Cervantes : Don Quixote, I. iv. 
5, 6 (" Fatal Ciu-iosity," 1605). 

Camilla, a novel by Mde. D'Arblay, 
authoress of Evelina, etc., published 



Cajuille' (2 syl. ), in Corneille's tragedy 
of Les Horaces (1639). When her brotlicr 
meets her, and bids her congratulate him 
for his victory over the three Curiaiii, she 
gives utterance to her grief for the death 
of her lover. Horace says, " What 1 can 
you prefer a man to the interests of 
Rome?/' Whereupon Camille denounces 
Rome, and concludes with these words : 
"Oh that it were my lot I " When Mdlle. 
Rachel first appeared in the character of 
"Camille," she took Paiis by storm (1838). 

Voir le dernier Romain i son dernier soupir, 
Moi seule en etre cause, et niourir de plaisir. 

(Whitehead has dramatized the subject, 
and called it The Roman Father, 1741.) 

Camillo, a lord in the Sicilian court, 
and a very good man. Being commanded 
by king LeontSs to poison Polixengs, 
instead of doing so he gave him warning, 
and fled with him to Bohemia. When 
Polixenfis ordered his son Florlzel to 
abandon Perdlta, Camillo persuaded the 
young lovers to seek refuge in Sicily, 
and induced Leontfis, the king thereof, 
to protect them. As soon as Polixenes 
discovered that Perdita was Leont^s' 
daughter, he readily consented to the 
union which before he had forbidden. 
Shakespeare: The Winter' s Tale [xtoi,). 

Cami'ola, " the maid of honour," a 
lady of great wealth, noble spirit, and 
great beauty. She loved Bertoldo 
(brother of Roberto king of the two 
Sicilies), and, when Bertoldo was taken 
prisoner at Sienna, paid his ransom. 
Bertoldo before his release was taken 
before Aurelia, the duchess of Sienna. 
Aurelia fell in love with him, and 
proposed marriage, an offer which 
Bertoldo accepted. The betrothed then 
went to Palermo to be introduced to the 
king, when Cami51a exposed the conduct 
of the base young prince. Roberto was 
disgusted at his brother, Aurelia rejected 
him with scorn, and Camiola retired to 
a nunnery. Massinger : The Maid of 
Honour {1637). 

Camlan (in Cornwall), now the river 
Alan or Camel, a contraction of Cam-alan 
(" the crooked river"), so called from its 
continuous windings. Here Arthur re- 
ceived his death-wound from the hand of 
his nephew Mordred or Modred, A.D. 542. 

Camel . . . 

Frantic ever since her British Arthur's blood. 

By Mordred's murtherous hand, wsa mingled with her 

For as that river best might boast that conqueror's 

brcith \birth\ 
So sadly she bemoans his too untimely death. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, I. (iSia). 


Cam'lotte (2 syl), shoddy, fustian, 
rubbish, as Cest de la camlotte ce qui vous 

Camoens, one of the five great 
European epic poets : Homer, Virgil, 
Dante, Camoens, and Milton. (See 


There are numerous poetical romances of an epic 
character, which do not rise to the dignity of the true 


Cam'omile (3 syl), says Falstaff, 
"the more it is trodden on the faster it 
grows." Shakespeare : i Henry IV. act 
ii. sc. 4 (1597). 

Though the catnomiU, the more it is trodden and 
pressed downe, the more it spreadeth ; yet tlie violet, 
the oftener it is handled and touched, the sooner it 
withereth and decayeth. Z.Vy; Eufhues. 

Campaign {The), a poem by Addi- 
son, to celebrate the victories of the duke 
of Marlborough. Published in 1704. It 
contains the two noted lines 

Pleased the Almighty's orders to perform. 
Rides on the whirlwind and directs the storm. 

Casupaigfner {The old), Mrs. Mac- 
kenzie, mother of Rosa, in Thackeray's 
novel called The Newcomes (1855). 

Campa'nia, the plain country about 
Cap'ua, the terra di Lavo'ro of Italy. 

Cazupas'pe (3 syl.), mistress of Alex- 
ander. He gave her up to Apelles, who 
had fallen in love with her while painting 
her likeness. Pliny : Hist. xxxv. 10. 

John Lyly produced, in 1583, a drama 
entitled Cupid and Catnpaspe, in which is 
the well-known lyric 

Cupid and my Campaspd played 
At cards for kisses ; Cupid paid. 

CAMPBELL {Captain), called 
" Green Colin Campbell," or Bar'caldine 
{^ syl.). Sir W. Scott: The Highland 
Widow (time, George II.). 

Campbell {General), called "Black 
Colin Campbell," in the king's service. 
He suffers the papist conspirators to 
depart unpunished. Sir W. Scott: Red- 
gauntlet (time, George III.). 

Camp'bell {Sir Duncan), knight of 
Ardenvohr, in the marquis of Argyll's 
army. He was sent as ambassador to 
the earl of Montrose. 

Lady Alary Campbell, sir Duncan's 

Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchenbrcck, 
an officer in the army of the marquis of 

Murdoch Campbell, a name assumed by 
the marquis of Argyll, Disguised as a 
servant, he visited Dalgetty and M'Eagh 




io the dungeon ; but the prisoners over- 
mastered him, bound him last, locked 
him in the dungeon, and escaped. Sir 
W. Scott: Legend of Montrose {time, 
Charles I.). 

Campbell ( The lady Mary), daughter 
of the duke of Argyll. 

The lady Caroline Campbell, sister of 
lady Uaxy.Sir W. Scott: Heart of 
Midlothian (time, George II.). 

Campo-Basso [The count of), an 
officer in the duke of Burgundy's army, 
introduced by sir W. Scott In two novels, 
Quentin Durwa7-d axid. Anne ofGeierstein, 
both laid in the time of Edward IV. 

Campeador \JKam-pay^-dor\ the Cid, 
who was called Mio Cid el Campeador 
(" my lord the champion "). " Cid " is a 
corruption of sa'id (" lord "). 

Can 'a, a kind of grass plentiful in the 
heathy morasses of the north. 

It on the heath she moved, her breast was whiter 
than the down of cana ; if on the sea-beat shore, than 
the foam of the roIUng ocean. O^^zaw . Cath-Loda, ii. 

Can 'ace (3 syl.), daughter of Cam- 
buscan', and the paragon of women, 
Chaucer left the tale half-told, but 
Spenser makes a crowd of suitors woo 
her. Her brother Cambel or Cam'ballo 
resolved that none should win his sister 
who did not first overthrow him in fight. 
At length Tri'amond sought her hand, and 
was so nearly matched in fight with Cam- 
ballo, that both would have been killed, 
if Cambi'na, daughter of the fairy Ag'apg 
(3 syl.), had not interfered. Cambina 
gave the wounded combatants nepenthe, 
which had the power of converting enmity 
to love ; so the combatants ceased from 
fight, Camballo took the fair Cambina to 
wife, and Triamond married Canacg. 
Chaucer: Squire's Tale; Spenser: Faerie 
Queene, iv. 3 (1596). 

Canact's Mirror, a mirror which told 
the inspectors if the persons on whom 
they set their affections woixld prove true 
or false. 

Canaces Ring. (See CambusCAN, 
p. 172.) 

Candau'les {3 syl.), king of Lydia, 
who exposed the charms of his wife to 
Gy'ggs. The queen v/as so indignant 
that she employed GygSs to murder her 
husband. She then married the assassin, 
who became king of Lydia, and reigned 
twenty-eight years (b.c. 716-688). 

Great men aro as Jealous of their thoughts as the 
wife of king Candaules was of her charms. i'lV ly. 
Scott: The Abbot, xviii. 

Canday'a { The kingdom of), situated 

between the great Trapoba'na and the 
South Sea, a couple of leagues beyond 
cape Com'orin. Cervantes: Don Quixote, 
II. iii. 4 (1615). , 

Candide' (2 syl.), the hero of Vol- 
taire's novel of the same name. All 
conceivable misfortunes are piled on his 
head, but he bears them with cynical 

Voltaire says " No." He tells you that Candide 
Found life most tolerable after meals. 

Byron : Don Jitan, v. 31 (1820). 

Candour {Mrs.), the beau-ideal cA 
female backbiters. Sheridan: The School 
for Scandal {1777). 

The name of " Mrs. Candour " has become one ol 
those formidable by-words which have more power in 
putting folly and ill-nature out of countenance than 
whole volumes of the wisest remonstrance and reasB- 
ing. 7". Moore. 

Since the days of Miss Pope, It may t>e questioned 
whether "Mrs. Candour" has ever found a more 
admirable representative than Mrs. Stirling. X>-a- 
inalic Memoirs. 

Can'idia, a Neapolitan, beloved by 
the poet Horace. When she deserted 
him, he held her up to contempt as an old 
sorceress who could by a rhomb unspheje 
the moon. Horace: Epodes v. and xvii. 

Such a charm were right 
Mrs. Browning: Hector in the Garden, Iw. 

Canmore or Great-Head, Mal- 
colm III. of Scotland (*, 1057-1093). 
Sir W. Scott: Tales of a Gratidfather, 
i. 4. 

Canning {George), statesman {1770- 
1827). Charles Lamb calls him 

St. Stephen's iocA, the zany of debate. 

Sonnet in " Tfte Champion.' 

Cano'pos, Menelaos's pilot, killed 
in the return voyage from Troy by the 
bite of a serpent. The town Canopos 
(Latin, Canopus) was built on the site 
where the pilot was buried. 

Canossa. When, in November, 1887, 
the czar went to Berlin to visit the em- 
peror of Germany, the Standard asked 
in a leader, " Has the czar gone to 
Canossa ? " i.e. has he gone to eat humble* 
pie ? Canossa, in the duchy of Mod6na, 
is where (in the winter of 1076-7), the 
kaiser Henry IV, went to humble himself 
before pope Gregory VII. [Hildebrand]. 

Can 'tab, a member of the University 
of Cambridge. The word is a contraction 
of the Latin CantabrigHa. 

Canta'brian Surge {The), Bay of 

She her thundering navy leads 
To CalpiS [Gibra/tar] , , , or the rough 
CsuUabrian surge. 

Akenside : Hyntn to the A'aiadt. 




Caxiiab'ric Ocean, the sea whicli 
washes the south of Ireland. Richard of 
Cirencester : Ancient State of Britain, i. 8. 

Can'taci^zene' {4 syl.), a noble 
Greek family, which has furnished Con- 
stantinople with two emperors, and Mol- 
davia and Wallachia with several princes. 
The family still Survives. 

We mean to show that the Cantacuzen^s are not the 
only princely family in the world. Disraeli: Lo- 

There are other members of the Cantacuen4 family 
besides myself. -Z'iV/'o. 

Can'tacusene' {Michael), the grand 
sewer (butler) of Alexius Comne'nus, 
emperor of Greece. Sir W. Scott: 
Count Robert of Paris {time, Rufus). 

Canterbury, according to mythical 
story, was built by Rudhudibras. 

By Rudhudibras Kent's famous town . . . arose. 
Drayton : Polyolbion, viii. (1612). 

Canterbury Tales. Twenty-three 
tales told by a company of pilgrims going to 
visit the shrine of ' ' St. Thomas 4 Becket " 
at Canterbury. The party first assembled 
at the Tabard , an inn in Southwark, and 
there agreed to tell one tale each both 
going and returning, and the person who 
told the best tale was to be treated by the 
rest to a supper at the Tabard on the 
homewai d journey. The party consisted 
of twenty-nine pilgrims, so that tlie 
whole budget of tales should have been 
fifty-eight, but only twenty-three of the 
number were told, not one being on the 
homeward route. (1388.) 

The tales are as follows : 

Clerk's tale, Patient Grisildes. 

Cook's tale, Gamelyon (" As You Like It "). 

Doctor of Physic's tale, Virsinius. 

Franklin's tale, Dorigen and Arviragus. 

Friar's tale, a Compact with the Devil. 

Host's tale, Melihius (or the forgiveness of In- 

Knight's tale, Palimon and Arcite (or king The- 

Man of Law's tale, kinz Alia and Constance. 

Manciple's tale, the Tell-tale Crow turned Black. 

Merchant's tale, 'January and May. 

Miller's tale, Nicholas and Alison. 

Monk's tale. Mutability 0/ Fortune (examples). 

Nun's tale (second). Valerian and Tiburce. 

Nun's Priest's tale, Chanticleer and the Fox, 

Pardoner's tale, the Devil and the Proctor. 

Prioress's tale, similar to " Hugh of Lincoln " 

Reeve's tale, Symon and the Miller. 

Shipraan's tale, the Merchant and the Monk, 

Squire's tale, Cainbuscan. 

Sumpnor's tale, the Bagging Friar. 

Thopus' (Sir) tale (cut short by mine host), a 
Fight with a Three-headed Giant. 

Wife of Bath's tale, IVhat a Woman likes Best (to 
have her own sweet will). 

Canton, the Swiss valet of lord 
Ogleby. He has to skim the morning 
papers and serve out the cream of them 
to bis lordship at breakfast, " with good 

emphasis and good discretion." He 
laughs at all his master's jokes, flatters 
him to the top of his bent, and speaks of 
him as a mere chicken compared to 
himself, though his lordship is 70 and 
Canton about 50. Lord Ogleby calls 
him his " cephaUc snuff, and no bad 
medicine against megrims, vertigoes, and 
profound thinkings." Colman and Gar- 
rick : The Clandestine Marriage (1766). 

Can 'trips (iV/rj. ), a quondam friend 
of Nanty Ewart the smuggler-captain. 

Jessie Cantrips, her daughter. Sir IV. 
Scott: Redgauntlct (time, George III.). 

Cant'well {Dr.), the hypocrite, the 
English representative of Moli^re's Tar- 
tuffe." He makes religious cant the 
instrument of gain, luxurious living, and 
sensual indulgence. His overreaching 
and dishonourable conduct towards lady 
Lambert and her daughter gets thoroughly 
exposed, and at last he is arrested as a 
^ys'm^QX.Bickerstaff: The Hypocrite 

( This is Gibber's Nonjuror (1717! 

Dr. Cantwell . 

the meek and saintly hypocrite. 

Canute' or Cnut and Edmund 

Ironside. William of Malmesbuiy 
says : When Cnut and Edmund were 
ready for their sixth battle in Gloucester- 
shire, it was arranged between them to 
decide their respective claims by single 
combat. Cnut was a small man, and 
Edmund both tall and strong ; so Cnut 
said to his adversary, "We both lay- 
claim to the kingdom in right of our 
fathers ; let us, therefore, divide it ands 
make peace ; " and they did so. 

Canutus of the two that furthest was from hope . . . 
Cries, " Noble Edmund, hold 1 Let us the land divide." 
. . . and all aloud do cry, 

" Courageous kings, divide I 'Twere pity such should' 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xii. (1613). 

Canute's Bird, the knot, a corruption oK' 
"Knut," the Cinclus bellonii, of which 
king Canute was extremely fond. 

The knot, that called was Canutus' bird of old, 

Of that great king of Danes, his name that still dot* 

His appetite to please . . . from Denmark hithei 


Drayton : Polyoanon,'rx\. (1622). 

N.B. There are thirty " songs " in the 
Polyolbion, from 19 to 30 being of the 
date 1622. 

Cau'ynge [Sir William) is repre- 
sented in the Rowley Romance as a 
rich. God-fearing merchant, devoting 
much money to the Church, and much 




to literature. He was, in fact, a 
Maece'nas, of princely hospitality, living 
in the Red House. The priest Rowley 
was his " Horace." Chatterton (1752- 

Ca'ora, inhabited by men "whose 
heads do grow beneath their shoulders." 
(See Blemmyes, p. 127. ) 

On that branch which is called Caora are \_sic\ a 
nation of people whose heades appeare not above their 
stioulders. They are reported to have their eyes in 
their shoulders, and their niouthes in the middle of 
their breasts. //acA/wy^.- Voyage (i.WS). 

*. Raleigh, in his Description of Guiana 
(1596), also gives an account of men 
whose "heads do grow beneath their 

Capability Brown, Launcelot 
Brown, the English landscape gardener 

Cap'aneus (3 syL), a man of gigantic 
stature, enormous strength, and headlong 
valour. He was impious to the gods, but 
faithful to his friends. Capaneus was 
one of the seven heroes who marched 
against Thebes (i syL), and was struck 
dead by a thunderbolt for declaring that 
not Jupiter himself should prevent his 
scaling the city walls. 

If The "Mezentius" of Virgil and 
Tasso's '* Argant^ " are similar characters ; 
but the Greek Capaneus exceeds Mezen- 
tius in physical daring and Argant^ in 

Cape of Storms, now called the 
Cape of Good Hope. It was Bartholomew 
Diaz who called it Cabo Tormentoso {i^%6), 
and king Juan II. who changed the 
name. (See Black Sea, p. 124.) 

Capitan, a boastful, swaggering 
coward, in several French farces and 
comedies prior to the time of Mohere. 

Caponsac'chi {Giuseppe), the young 
priest under whose protection Pompilia 
fled from her husband to Rome. Tlie 
husband and his friends said the 
elopement was criminal ; but Pompilia, 
Caponsacchi, and their friends main- 
tained that the young canon simply acted 
the part of a chivalrous protector of a 
young woman who was married at 15, and 
who fled from a brutal husband who ill- 
treated her. R. Browning: The Ring 
Gftd the Book {1868). 

Capstem {Captain), captain of an 
East Indiaman, at Madras. Sir IV. Scott : 
The Surgeon s Daughter (time, George II.). 

Captain, Manuel Comne'nus of 
Ti-eb'izond (1120, 1143-1180). 

Captain of Kent. So Jack Cade called 
himself (died 1450). 

Tfie Black Captain, heutenant-colonel 
Dennis Davidoff, of the Russian army. 
In the French invasion he was called by 
the French Le Capitaine Noir. 

The Great Captain {el Gran Capitano), 
Gonzalvo di Cor'dovo (1453-1515). 

Tfie People's Captain {el Capitano del 
Popolo), Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882). 

A Copper Captain, a poor captain, 
whose swans are all geese, his jewellery 
paste, his guineas counters, his achieve- 
ments tongue-doughtiness, and his whole 
man Brummagem. 

To this copper captain was confided the coounand 
o{ the troops./^. Irving 

Let all the world view here the captain's treasure . . 
Here's a goodly jewel . . . 
See how it sparkles, like an old lady's eyes . . . 
And here's a chain of whitmgs' eyes for pearls . . , 
Your clothes are parallels to these, all counterfeits. 
Put these and them on, you're a man of copper ; 
A kind of candlestick; a copper, copper captain. 
Fletcher : Rule a IVi/e and Have a IVi/e (1640). 

A Led Captai?i, a poor obsequious 
captain, who is led about as a cavalier 
servante by those who find him hospitality 
and pay nunky for him. He is not the 
leader of others, as a captain ought to be, 
but is by others led. 

When you quarrel with the family of Blandish, you 
only leave refmed cookery to be fed upon scraps by a 
poor cousin or a led captain. Bursoyne : Tht Heiress, 
V. 3 (1781), 

Captain Loys [Lo-is]. Louise Lab^ 
was so called, because in early life she 
embraced the profession of arms, and 
gave repeated proofs of great valour. 
She was also called La Belle Cordiire. 
Louise Lab^ was a poetess, and has left 
several sonnets full of passion, and some 
good elegies ( 1526-1566). 

Captain Right, a fictitious com- 
mander, the ideal of the rights due to 
Ireland. In the last century the peasants 
of Ireland were sworn to captain Right, 
as chartists were sworn to their articles 
of demand called their charter. 

Captain Xdock, a fictitious name 
assumed by the leader of certain Irish 
insurgents in 1822, etc. All notices, 
summonses, and so on, were signed by 
this name. 

Captain S-vs^ing, a fictitious cha- 
racter, in whose name threats were issued 
and attacks made by the barn-burners and 
machinery-destroyers early in the nine- 
teenth century. 

Captain is a Bold Man {The), a 
popular phrase at one time. Peachum 
applies the expression to captain Mac- 
heath. Gay . The Beggar's Opera (1727). 


Capu'cinade (4 syl.). "A capu- 
cinade" is twaddling composition, or 
wishy-washy literature. The term is 
derived from the sermons of the Capu- 
chins, which were notoriously incorrect 
in doctrine and debased in style. 

It was a vague discourse, the rhetoric of an old pro- 
of, a mere capucinade. i<^? ; GU Bias, vii. 4 


Cap'ulet, head of a noble house of 
rona, in feudal enmity with the house 
! Mon'tague (3 syl.). Lord Capulet is 
: jovial, testy old man, self-willed, pre- 
judiced, and tyrannical. 

Lady Capulet, wife of lord Capulet, 
and mother of ]\i\\e\.. Shakespeare : 
Romeo and Juliet (1598). 

Then lady Capulet comes sweeping by with her train 
of velvet, her black hood, her fan, and her rosary, the 
very beau-ideal of a proud Italian matron of the 
fifteenth century, whose offer to poison Romeo in 
revenge for the death of Tybalt stamps her with one 
very characteristic trait of the age and country. Yet 
she loves her daughter, and there is a touch of re- 
morseful tenderness in her lamentation over her. 
Mrs. yatmson. 

(Lord Capulet was about 60. He had 
" left off masking " for above thirty years 
(act i. sc. 5). 

The tomb of all the Capulets. Burke, 
in a letter to Matthew Smith, says, " I 
would rather sleep in the corner of a 
little country churchyard than in the 
tomb of all the Capulets." It does not 
occur in Shakespeare. 

Capys, a blind old seer, who pro- 
phesied to Romulus the military triumphs 
of Rome from its foundation to the de- 
struction of Carthage. 

In the hall-gate sat Capys, 
Capys the sightless seer ; 
From head to foot he trembled 

As Romulus drew near. 
And up stood stiff his thin white hair. 
And his blind eyes flashed fire. 
Uaaiulay; Lays of Ancient Rotne ("The Pro- 
phecy of Capys," xi.). 

Car'abas [Le marquis de), en hypo- 
thetical title to express a fossilized old 
aristocrat, who supposed the whole world 
made for his behoof. The "king owes 
his throne to him;" he can "trace his 
pedigree to Pepin ; " his youngest son is 
" sure of a mitre ; " he is too noble " to 
pay taxes ; " the very priests share their 
tithes with him ; the country was made 
for his "hunting-ground;" and, there- 
fore, as B^ranger says 

Chapeau bas I chapeau bas I 
Gloire au marquis de Carabas i 

{The name occurs in Perrault's tale of 
Puss in Boots, and in Disraeli's novel of 

Vivian Grey f 1820) ; but it is Stranger's 
song (1816) which has given the word its 
present meaning.) 

Carac'ci of France, Jean Jouvenet, 
who was paralyzed on the right side, and 
painted with his left hand (1647-1707). 

Carac'tacus or Caradoc/ king of 
the Sil'urSs {Monmouthshire, etc.). For 
nine years he withstood the Roman arms, 
but being defeated by Osto'rius Scap'ula, 
the Roman general, he escaped to Bri- 
gantia ( Yorkshire, etc. ) to crave the aid 
of Carthisman'dua (or Cartimandua), a 
Roman matron married to Venu'tius, chief 
of those parts. Carthismandua betrayed 
him to the Romans, A.D. 47. Richard 
of Cirencester : Ancient State of Britain, 
i. 6, 23. 

Caradoc was led captive to Rome, A.D. 
51, and, struck with the grandeur of that 
city, exclaimed, "Is it possible that a 
people so wealthy and luxurious can envy 
me a humble cottage in Britain ? " Clau- 
dius the emperor was so charmed with 
his manly spirit and bearing that he re- 
leased him and craved his friendship, 

Drayton says that Caradoc went to 
Rome with body naked, hair to the waist, 
girt with a chain of steel, and his " manly 
breast enchased with sundry shapes of 
beasts. Both his wife and children were 
captives, and walked with him." Poly- 
olbion, viii. (1612). 

Caracul [i.e. Caracalla), son and suc- 
cessor of Severus the Roman emperor. 
In A.D. 210 he made an expedition against 
the Caledo'nians, but was defeated by 
Fingal. Aurelius Antoninus was called 
" Caracalla " because he adopted the 
Gaulish caracalla in preference to the 
Roman toga. Ossian: Comala. 

The Caracul of Fingal is no other than Caracalla, who 
(as the son of Severus) the emperor of Rome . . . was 
not without reason called " The Son of the King of the 
World." This was A.D. 210. Dissertation on the Era 
0/ Ossian. 

Caracul, called Caraculla in Ossian, 
is Antoninus. 

CaraculiaxulK), the hypothetical 
giant of the island of Mahndra'ma, 
whom don Quixote imagines he may one 
day conquer and make to kneel at the 
foot of his imaginary lady-love. Cer- 
vantes: Don Quixote, I. i. i (1605). 

Car'adoc or Cradock, a knight of 
the Round Table. He was husband of 
the only lady in the queen's train who 
could wear " the mantle of matrimonial 
fidelity." This mantle fitted only chaste 



and virtuous wives ; thus, when queen 
Guenever tried it on 

One while it was too long, another while too short, 
And wrinkled on her shoulders in most unseemly sort. 
Percy : Reiiques (" Boy and the Mantle," III, lii. 18). 

Sir Caradoc and the Boar's Head. The 
boy who brought the test mantle of 
fidelity to king Arthur's court, drew a 
wand three times across a boar's head, 
and said, ' ' There's never a cuckold who 
can carve that head of brawn," Knight 
after knight made the attempt, but only 
sir Cradock could carve the brawn. 

Sir Caradoc and the Drinking-horn. 
The boy furthermore brought forth a 
drinking-horn, and said, "No cuckold 
can driuk from that horn without spilling 
the liquor." Only Cradock succeeded, 
and " he wan the golden can," Percy: 
Reiiques (" Boy and the Mantle," III. 
iii. 18). 

Caradoc of Men'-wygfent, the 
younger bard of Gwenwyn prince of 
Powys-land. The elder bard of the 
prince was Cadwallon. Sir W, Scott: 
The Betrothed (time, Henry II.). 

Car'ataclL or Carac'tacus, a British 
king brought captive before the emperor 
Claudius in A.D. 52. He had been be- 
trayed by Cartimandua. Claudius set 
him at liberty. 

And Beaumont's pilfered Caratach affords 
A tragedy complete except in words. 
Byron : English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809). 

(Byron alludes to the "spectacle" of 
Caractacus produced by Thomas Sheri- 
dan at Drury Lane Theatre. It was 
Beaumont's tragedy of Bonduca, minus 
the dialogue.) 

Digges [1720-1786! was the very absoluta " Cara- 
tach." The solid bulk of his frame, his action, his 
voice, all marked him with identity. Boaden : Life c/ 

Car'athis, mother of the caliph 
Vathek. She was a Greek, and induced 
her son to study necromancy, held in 
abhorrence by all good Mussulmans. 
When her son threatened to put to death 
every one who attempted without success 
to read the inscriptions of certain sabres, 
Carathis wisely said, "Content yourself, 
my son, with commanding their beards 
to be burnt. Beards are less essential to 
a state than men." She was ultimately 
carried by an afrit to the abyss of Eblis, 
in punishment of her many crimes. 
Beckford: Vathek (1784). 

Carau'sitis, the first British emperor 
(237-294). His full name was Marcus 
Aurelius Valerius Carausius, and as em- 
peror of Britain he was accepted by 

Diocletian and Maxim'ian ; but after a 
vigorous reign of seven years, he was 
assassinated by AUectus, who succeeded 
him as " emperor of Britain." (See 
Gibbon : Decline and Fall, etc. , ii. 13, ) 

Cards. It is said that there never 
was a good hand of cards containing four 
clubs. Such a hand is called ' ' The Devil's 

Cards of Compliment. When it 
was customary to fold down part of an 
address card, the strict rule was this : 
Right hand bottom corner turned down 
meant a Personal call. Right hand to/> 
corner turned down meant Condolence; 
Left hand bottom corner turned down 
meant Congratulation. 

Car'dau [Jeromo) of Pa'via (1501- 
1^576), a great mathematician and astro* 
loger. He professed to have a demon or 
familiar spirit, who revealed to him the 
secrets of nature. 

What did your Cardan and your Ptolemy tell yout 

Vour Messahalah and your Long-omontanus[rtt/oaj/r*i 
lOi;crs'\, your harmony of chiromancy with astrology ? 
Congreve : Love for Love, iv. (1695). 

Carde'nio of Andalusi'a, of opulent 
parents, fell in love with Lucinda, a lady 
of equal family and fortune, to whom he 
v/as formally engaged. Don Fernando, 
his friend, however, prevailed on Lucin- 
da's father, by artifice, to break off the 
engagement and promise Lucinda to him 
self, " contrary to her wish, and in viola- 
tion of every principle of honoiu:." This 
drove Cardenio mad, and he haunted the 
Sierra Morena or Brown Mountain for 
about six months, as a maniac with lucid 
intervals. On the wedding day Lucinda 
swooned, and a letter informed the bride- 
groom that she was married to Cardenio. 
Next day she privately left her father's 
house, and took refuge in a convent ; but 
being abducted by don Fernando, she 
was carried to an inn, where Fernando 
found Dorothea his wife, and Cardenio, 
the husband of Lucinda. All parties 
were now reconciled, and the two gentle- 
men paired respectively with their proper 
wives. Cervantes: Don Quixote, I. iv. 

Car'duel or Kar'tel, Cariisle, the 
place where Merhn prepared the Round 
Table. \ 

Care, described as a blacksmith, who 
" worked all night and day." His bellows, 
says Spenser, are Pensiveness and Sighs. 
Faerie Queene, iv. 5 (1596), 



CARE'LESS, one of the boon com- 
panions of Charles Surface. Sheridan : 
School for Scandal {1777). 

Careless [Colonel), an officer of high 
spirits and mirthful temper, who seeks 
to win Ruth (the daughter of sir Basil 
Thoroughgood) for his wife. T. Ktiight : 
The Honest Thieves. 

(This farce is a mere rSchauffi of The 
Committee, by the hon. sir R. Howard. 
The names "colonel Careless" and 
" Ruth " are the same, but " Ruth " says 
her proper Christian name is "Anne." 
The Committee recast by Knight is called 
The Honest Thieves.) 

Careless, in The Committee, was the 
part for which Joseph Ashbury (1638- 
1720) was celebrated. Chetwood: History 
of the Stage. 

Careless [Ned) makes love to lady 
Pliant. Congreve: The Double Dealer 

Careless Husband ( The), a comedy 
by Colley Cibber (1704). The "careless 
husband "is sir Charles Easy, who has 
amours with different persons, but is so 
careless that he leaves his love-letters 
about, and even forgets to lock the door 
when he has made a liaison, so that his 
wife knows all ; yet so sweet is her temper, 
and under such entire control, that she 
never reproaches him, nor shows the 
slightest indication of jealousy. Her con- 
fidence so wins upon her husband that he 
confesses to her his faults, and reforms 
entirely the evil of his ways. 

Careme [Jean de), chefde cuisine of 
Leo X. This was a name given him by 
the pope for an admirable soupe maigre 
which he invented for Lent. A descend- 
ant of Jean was chef\.o the prince regent, 
at a salary of ;,^iooo per annum, but he 
left this situation because the prince had 
only a minage bourgeois, and entered the 
service of baron Rothschild at Paris 

Carey [Patrick), the poet, brother of 
lord Falkland, introduced by sir W. 
Scott in Woodstock (time, Common- 

Car' gill ( The Rev. Josiah), minister 
of St. Ronan's Well, tutor of the hon. 
Augustus Bidmore (2 syl. ), and the suitor 
of Miss Augusta Bidmore, his pupil's 
sister. 5/r W.Scott: St. Ronan's Well 
(time, George HL). 

Car'ibee Islands (London), now 


Chandos Street. It was called the Cari- 
bce Islands from its countless straits and 
intricate thieves" passages. 

Cari'no, father of Zeno'cia the chaste 
troth-plight wife of ArnoIdo(the lady dis- 
honourably pursued by the governor count 
Clodio). Beaumont and Fletcher: 71u 
Custom of the Country (printed 1647). 

Car'ker [James), manager in the 
house of Mr. Dombey, merchant. Carker 
was a man of 40, of a florid complexion, 
with very glistening white teeth, which 
showed conspicuously when he spoke. 
His smile was like " the snarl of a cat." 
He was the Alas'tor of the house of 
Dombey, for he not only brought the 
firm to bankruptcy, but he seduced Alice 
Marwood (cousin of Edith, Dombey's 
second wife) and also induced Edith to 
elope with him. Edith left the wretch at 
Dijon, and Carker, returning to England, 
was run over by a railway train and 

John Carker, the elder brother, a junior 
clerk in the same firm. He twice robbed 
it and was forgiven. 

Harriet Carker, a gentle, beautiful 
young woman, who married Mr. Morfin, 
one of the employis in the house of Mr. 
Dombey, merchant. When her elder 
brother John fell into disgrace by robbing 
his employer, Harriet left the house of 
her brother Tames (the manager) to live 
with and cheer her disgraced brother 
John. C Dickens: Dombey and Son 

Carle'gfion (4 syl.) ox Cair-Li'gioni, 

Chester, or the "fortress upon Dee." 

Fair Chester, called of old 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xi. (1613J. 

Carle 'ton (Ca//a?), an officer in the 
Guards. 5/r W. Scott: Peveril of the 
Peak (time, Charles H.). 

Carlisle [Frederick Howard, earl of)y 
uncle and guardian of lord Byron (1748- 
1826). His tragedies are The Father's 
Revenge and Bellamere. 

The paralytic puling of Carlisle . . . 
Lord, itiymesleT.feiii-ffiadre, pamphleteer. 
Byron : Eiti^lish Bards and Scotch Reviewers (iZcx)). 

CARIiOS, elder son of don Antonio, 
and the favourite of his paternal uncle 
Lewis. Carlos is a great bookworm, 
but when he falls in love with Angelina, 
he throws off his diffidence and becomes 
bold, resolute, and manly. His younger 
brother is Clodio, a mere coxcomb. 
Cibber: Love Makes a Man (1694). 




Carlos (under the assumed name of the 
marquis D'Antas) married Ogari'ta, but 
as the marriage was effected under a 
false name, it was not binding, and 
Ogarita left Carlos to marry Horace de 
Brienne. Carlos was a great villain : He 
murdered a man to steal from him the 
plans of some Californian mines. Then 
embarking in the Urania, he induced the 
crew to rebel in order to obtain mastery 
of the ship. " Gold was the object of his 
desire, and gold he obtained." Ultimately, 
his villainies being discovered, he was 
given up to the hands of justice. Stir- 
ling : The Orphan of the Frozen Sea 

Carlos {Don), son of Philip I. He and 
Alexis son of Peter the Great were alike 
in many respects. Don Carlos was the 
son of Mary of Portugal, Philip's first 
wife ; and Alexis the son of Eudoxia, the 
first wife of czar Peter. Don Carlos is 
represented as weak, vindictive, and 
spiritless ; and Alexis was the same. 
Philip hated his son Carlos, mistrusted 
5iim, and finally murdered him ; and czar 
Peter did the same with Alexis. 

Carlos {Don), son of Philip H. of 
Spain ; deformed in person, violent and 
vindictive in disposition. Don Carlos 
was to have married Elizabeth of France, 
but his father supplanted him. Sub- 
sequently he expected to marry the arch- 
duchess Anne, daughter of the emperor 
Maximilian, but her father opposed the 
match. In 1564 Philip H. settled the 
succession on Rodolph and Ernest, his 
jiephews, declaring Carlos incapable. 
This drove Carlos into treason, and he 
joined the Netherlanders in a war against 
his father. He was apprehended and 
condemned to death, but was killed in 

{This has furnished the subject of 
several tragedies : i.e. Otway's Don 
Carlos (1672) in English ; those of J. G. 
de Campistron (1683) ; J. C. F. Schiller 
^1787) in German ; M. J. de Ch^nier (1789) 
in French ; and Alfieri in Italian, about 
the same time.) 

Carlos {Don), the friend of don Alonzo, 
and the betrothed husband of Leono'ra, 
whom he resigns to Alonzo out of friend- 
s"hip. After marriage, Zanga induces 
Alonzo to believe that Leonora and don 
Carlos entertain a criminal love for each 
other, whereupon Alonzo out of jealousy 
has Carlos put to death, and Leonora 
kills herseli Young: The Revenge 

Carlos {Don), husband of donna 
Victoria. He gave the deeds of his wife's 
estate to donna Laura, a courtezan ; and 
Victoria, in order to recover them, assumed 
the disguise of a man, took the name of 
Florio, and made love to Laura. Having 
secured a footing, Florio introduced 
Caspar as the wealthy uncle of Victoria, 
and Caspar told Laura the deeds in her 
hand were utterly worthless. Laura, in a 
fit of temper, tore them to atoms, and 
thus Carlos recovered the estate, and was 
rescued from impending ruin. Mrs. 
Cowley : A Bold Stroke for a Husband 

Carmen Seculare (4 syl.), for the 
year 1700 ; in which Prior celebrates 
William III. 

Carmen Triumphale (4 syl.), by 
Southey (1815). The year referred to 
was 1 8 14. 

Car'milhan, the "phantom ship." 
The captain of this ship swore he would 
double the Cape, whether God willed it 
or not. For this impious vow he was 
doomed to abide for ever and ever captain 
in the same vessel, which always appears 
near the Cape, but never doubles it. The 
kobold of the phantom ship (named 
Klabot'erman) helps sailors at their work, 
but beats those who are idle. When a 
vessel is doomed, the kobold appears 
smoking a short pipe, dressed in yellow, 
and wearing a night-cap. 

Caro, the Flesh or "natural man" 
personified. Phineas Fletcher says " this 
dam of sin " is a hag of loathsome shape, 
arrayed in steel, polished externally, but 
rusty within. On her shield is the device 
of a mermaid, with the motto, "Hear,' 
Gaze, and Die." 7:^^ Purple Island, vii. 

Carocinm, the banner of the Mi- 
lanese, having for device " St. Ambrose," 
the patron saint of Milan. It was 
mounted on an iron tree with iron leaves, 
and the summit of the tree was sur- 
mounted by a large cross. The whole 
was raised on a red car, drawn by four 
red bulls with red harness. Mass was 
always said before the car started, and 
GuinefoUe tells us, " tout la c^rdmonie 
6tait une imitation de I'arche d'alliance 
des Israelites." 

Le carocium des Milanais ^tait au milieu, en tourr^da 
300 jeunes gens, qui s'dAieait unis i la vie i la mort pour 
le d<5fenclre. II y avail encore pour sa garde un batnillon 
de la mort, compos<5 de 900 cavaliers. Z.a Batnil.'e <U 
Li^nano, aj Mai, 1176. 




Caroline, queen-consort ofGeorge 1 1., 
introduced by sir W. Scott in The Heart 
of Midlothian. Jeanie Deans has an 
interview with her in the gardens at Rich- 
mond, and her majesty promises to inter- 
cede with the king for Effie Deans's 

Caroline of Brunswick, wife ofGeorge 
IV., was divorced for "infidelity." It 
was Bergami, her chamberlain, with whom 
her name was slanderously connected. 

Caroline G-ann, the heroine of 
Thackeray's Shabby Genteel Story (1857), 
continued in i860 in The Adventures of 
Philip. Caroline Gann was meant to be 
a model "Job," deserted by a wicked 
husband, oppressed by wrongs, yet 
patient withal and virtuous. 

Caros or Carausius, a Roman 

captain, native of Belgic Gaul. The 
emperor Maximian employed Caros to 
defend the coast of Gaul against the 
Franks and Saxons. He acquired great 
wealth and power, but fearing to excite 
the jealousy of Maximian, he sailed for 
Britain, where (in A.D. 287) 'he caused 
himself to be proclaimed emperor. Caros 
resisted all attempts of the Romans to 
dislodge him, so that they ultimately 
acknowledged his independence. He 
repaired Agricola's wall to obstruct the 
incursions of the Caledonians, and while 
he was employed oA this work was 
attacked by a party commanded by Oscar, 
son of Ossian and grandson of Fingal. 
"The warriors of Caros fled, and Oscar 
remained like a rock left by the ebbing 
sea." Ossian: The War of Caros. 

The Caros mentioned ... is the . . . noted usurper 
Carausius, who assumed the purple in the year 287, and 
seizing on Britain, defeated the emperor Maximinian 
Herculius in several naval engagements, which give 
propriety to his being called " The King of Ships." 
Dissertation on the Era 0/ Ossian. 

Car'ove (3 JJ>'/-)> " a story without an 
end." Mrs. Austin : Translation. 

I must get on, or my readers will anticipate that my 
story, like Carovd's more celebrated one, will prove a 
"story without an end." TTiowj; Notes and Queries, 
March 24, 1877. 

Carpathian Wizard [The), Pro- 
teus (2 syL), who lived in the island of 
Car'pithos, in the Archipelago. He was 
a wizard, who could change his form at 
will. Being the sea-god's shepherd, he 
carried a crook. 

\By\ the Carpathian wizard's hook \cro(iK\. 

Milton : Cojniis, 872 (1634). 

Carpet [Prince Housain's), a magic 
carpet, to all appearances quite worthless, 

but it would transport any one who sat on 
it to any part of the world in a moment. 
This carpet is sometimes called "the 
magic carpet of Tangu," because it came 
from Tangu, in Persia. Arabian Nights 
(" Prince Ahmed "). 

Solomon's Carpet. Solomon had a 
green silk carpet, on which his throne was 
set. This carpet was large enough for all 
his court to stand on ; human beings 
stood on the right side of the throne, and 
spirits on the left. When Solomon 
wished to travel he told the wind where 
to set him down, and the carpet with all 
its contents rose into the air and alighted 
at the proper place. In hot weather the 
birds of the air, with outspread wings, 
formed a canopy over the whole party. 
Sale: Al Koj-an, xxvW. noies. 

Carpet Knight [A), a civil, not a 

military knight. 

Carpet knights are men who are, by the prince's 
^race and favour, made knights at home, ana in the 
time of peace, by the imposition or laying on of the 
king's sword, having, by some special service done to 
the commonwealth, deserved this title and dignity. 
They are called "Carpet Knights" because they receive 
their honour in the court, and upon carpets [and not in 
the battle-field].- .4/ar>feA(TWj ; Booke of Honour (1625). 

Carpil'lona [Princess), the daughter 
of Subli'mus king of the Peaceable 
Islands. Sublimus, being dethroned by 
a usurper, was with his wife, child, and a 
foundling boy, thrown into a dungeon, 
and kept there for three years. The four 
captives then contrived to escape ; but 
the rope that held the basket in which 
Carpillona was let down, snapped 
asunder, and she fell into the lake. 
Sublimus and the other two lived in 
retirement as a shepherd family, and 
Carpillona, being rescued by a fisherman, 
was brought up by him as his daughter. 
When the " Humpbacked " Prince de- 
throned the usurper of the Peaceable 
Islands, Carpillona was one of the cap- 
tives, and the " Humpbacked" Prince 
wanted to make her his wife ; but she fled 
in disguise, and came to the cottage 
home of Sublimus, where she fell in love 
with his foster-son, who proved to be half- 
brother of the "Humpbacked" Prince. 
Ultimately, Carpillona married the found- 
ling, and each succeeded to a kingdom. 
Comtesse D' Aulnoy : Fairy Tales (" Prin- 
cess Carpillona," 1682). 

Car'pio [Bernardo del), natural son of 
don Sancho, and dona Ximena, sumamed 
"The Chaste." It was Bernardo del 
Carpio who slew Roland at Roncesvalles 
(4 syl. ). In Spanish romance he is a very 
conspicuous figure. 




Carras'co [Samson), son of Bartholo- 
mew Carrasco. He is a .licentiate, of 
much natural humour, who flatters don 
Quixote, and persuades him to undertake 
a second tour. 

He was about 24 years of age, of a pale complexion, 
and had good talents. His nose was remarkably fiat, 
and his mouth remarkably Yi'ide. CetvanUs : Don 
QuixoU, II. i. 3 (1615). 

He may perhaps boast ... as the bachelor Samson 
Carrasco, of fixmg the weather-cock La Giralda of 
Seville, for weeks, months, or years, that is, for as long 
as the wind shall uniformly blow from one quarter. 
Sir W. Scott. 

(The allusion is to Don Quixote, II. i. 

Carric-TliTira, in the Orkney Islands, 
the palace of king Cathulla. It is the 
title of one of the Ossian poems, the 
subject being as follows : Fingal, going 
on a visit to Cathulla king of the Ork- 
neys, observes a signal of distress on the 
palace, for Frothal (king of Sora) had 
invested it. Whereupon Fingal puts to 
flight the besieging army, and overthrew 
Frothal in single combat ; but just as his 
sword was raised to slay the fallen king, 
Utha, disguised in armour, interposed. 
Her shield and helmet "flying wide," 
revealed her sex, and Fingal not only 
spared Frothal, but invited him and 
Utha to the palace, where they passed 
the night in banquet and in song. 
Ossian: Carric-Thura, 

Carril, the grey-headed son of Kin- 
fe'na bard of Cutlnillin, general of the 
Irish tribes. Ojj/a . Fingal. 

Carrillo [Fi-ay] was never to be 
found in his own cell, according to a 
famous Spanish epigram. 

Like Fray Carillo, 
The only place in which one cannot find him 
Is his own cell. 

LongfcUoiu: The Spanish Student, L 5. 

Car'rol, deputy usher at Kenilworth 
Castle. 5/r W. Scott: Kenilworth (time, 

Carroll [Lewis), the pseudonym of the 
Rev. C. E, Dodgson (1833- ), attached 
to Alice in Wonderland, Through the 
Looking-glass, Hunting the Snark, etc. 

Car 'stone [Richard), cousin of Ada 
Clare, both being wards in chancery, 
interested in the great suit of ' ' Jarndyce 
V. Jarndyce." Richard Carstone is a 
* ' handsome youth, about 19, of ingenuous 
face, and with a most engaging laugh." 
He marries his cousin Ada, and lives in 
hope that the suit will soon terminate 
and make him rich. In the mean time. 

he tries to make two ends meet, first by 
the profession of medicine, then by that 
of law, then by the army ; but the rolling 
stone gathers no moss, and the poor 
fellow dies with the sickness of hope 
deferred. C. Dickens: Bleak House 

Cartaph'ilus. (See Wandering 

The story of Cartaphilus is taken from the Book of 
the Chronicles o^ the Abbey of St. Albans, which was 
copied and continued by Matthew Paris, and contains 
the earliest account of the Wandering Jew, A.D. 1228. 
In 1242 Philip Mouskes, afterwards bishop of Tournay, 
wrote the "rhymed chronicle." 

Carter [Mrs. Deborah), housekeeper 
to Surplus the lawyer. Morton : A 
Regular Fix. 

Car'tha^e (2 syl.). When Dido 
came to Africa she bought of the natives 
' ' as much land as could be encompassed 
with a bull's hide." The agreement being 
made, Dido cut the hide into thongs, so 
as to enclose a space sufficiently large for 
a citadel, which she called Bursa, "the 
hide." (Greek, boursa, "a bull's hide.") 

IT The following is a similar story in 
Russian history : The Yakutsks granted 
to the Russian explorers as much land as 
they could encompass with a cow's hide ; 
but the Russians, cutting the hide into 
strips, obtained land enough for the town 
and fort which they called Yakutsk. 

IT A similar legend is connected with 
Doncaster, under . the supposition that 
Don =" thong," and that Don-caster = 
"Thong-city." Of course it is the city 
on the river Don. It was the Dona 
Castre of the Anglo-Saxons, and the 
Danum of the Romans. 

Carthage of tlie North. Lubeck 
was so called when it was the head of the 
Hanseatic League. 

Car'thon, son of Cless'ammor and 
Moina, born while Clessammor was in 
flight ; his mother died in childbirth. 
When he was three years old, Comhal 
(Fingal's father) took and burnt Balclutha 
(a town belonging to the Britons, on the 
Clyde), but Carthon was carried away 
safely by his nurse. When grown to 
man's estate, Carthon resolved to revenge 
this attack on Balclutha, and accordingly 
invaded Morven, the kingdom of Fingal. 
After overthrowing two of Fingal's heroes, 
Carthon was slain by his own father, who 
knew him not ; but when Clessammor 
learnt that it was his own son whom he 
had slain, he mourned for him three days, 
and on the fourth he died. Ossian : 


Car'ton (Sydney), a friend of Charles 
Darnay, whom he personally resembled. 
Sydney Carton loved Lucie Manette, but, 
knowing of her attachment to Darnay, 
never attempted to win her. Her friend- 
ship, however, called out his good 
qualities, and he nobly died instead of 
his friend. C. Dickens : A Tale of Two 
Cities (1859). 

Cartouclie, an eighteenth-century 
highwayman. He is the French Dick 

Car'tin, a small river of Scotland, now 
called Carron, in the neighbourhood of 
Agricola's walL The word means ' ' wind- 

Ca'ms [Slow), in Garth's Dispensary^ 
is Dr, Tyson (1649-170S). 

Carvel {Hans), a tale in a verse by 
Prior (1664-1721). 

Caryati'des (5 syl.) or Carya'tes 
(4 syl. ), female figures in Greek costume, 
used in architecture to support entabla- 
tures. Ca'rya, in Arcadia, sided with the 
Persians when they invaded Greece ; so 
after the battle of Thermopylae, the vic- 
torious Greeks destroyed the city, slew 
the men, and made the women slaves. 
Praxit'elfis, to perpetuate the disgrace, 
employed figures of Caryan women wiiii 
Persian men, for architectural columns. 

Casablanca. A boy set by his father 
on watch. The ship caught fire, and his 
father was burnt to death. As the flames 
spread, the boy called to his father, but 
the ship blew up, and the boy was killed. 
Mrs. Hemans: A Poem {1794-1835). 

Casanbon [Mr.), the scholar who 
marries the heroine in George Eliot's 
novel ol Middlemarch {1872). 

Casa Wappy, an elegy by D. M. 
Moir, on the death of his infant son, 
cpJled by the pet name of "Casa 

Casb^, a blunt, violent conspirator, in 
the faction of Brutus. When Caesar was 
skin, Antony said, " See what a rent the 
envious Casca made ! "Shakespeare : 
yulitis CcBsar (1607). 

Casch'cascb, a hideous genius, 
"hunchbacked, lame, and blind of one 
eye ; with six horns on his head, and both 
his hands and feet hooked." The fairy 
Maimou'ng {3 syl.) summoned him to de- 
cide which was the more beautiful, "the 
prince Camaral'zaman or the princess 



Eadou'ra," but he was unable to deter- 
mine the knotty point. A radian Nights 
(" Camaralzaman and Badoura"). 

Case is Altered {The), a comedy 
by Ben Jonson {1597). 

Casella, a musician and friend of jthe 
poet Dant^ introduced in his Purgatory, 
ii. On arriving at purgatory, the poet 
sees a vessel freighted with souls come to 
be purged of their sins and made fit for 
paradise ; among them he recognizes his 
friend Casella, whom he " woos to sing ; " 
whereupon Casella repeats with enchant- 
ing sweetness the words of [DantS's] 
second canzone. 

DantS shall give Fame leave to set thee higher 
Than his Casella, wliom he wooed to sing. 
Met in the milcicr shades of purgatory. 

Milton : Sonnet, xiii. (To H. Lawes). 

Caser Wine, forbidden fruit. The 
reference is to the ancient Jews after their 
conquest by the Romans. 

A Tew niiglit be seen to drink Caser wine, and 

heard to ask a blessing in his cup.HeJi-worlh Dixon; 
The T-wo Queens, chap. iv. 

Cashmere (2 syl.), a Polish erai- 
grant in The Pavers, a parody by Canning 
on Schiller's Robbers. 

Casket Homer, Alexander's edition 
with Aristotle's notes. So called because 
it was kept in a golden casket, studded 
with jewels, part of the spoil which fell 
into the hands of Alexander after the 
baule of Arbe'la. 

Cas'par, master of the horse to the 
baron of Axnheim. Mentioned in Don- 
nerhugel's narrative. Sir W. Scott: 
Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.). 

Cas'par, a man who sold himself to 
Za'miel the Black Huntsman. The night 
before the expiration of his life-lease, he 
bargained for a respite of three years, on 
condition of bringing Max into the power 
of the fiend. On the day appointed for 
the prize-shooting, Max aimed at a dove 
but killed Caspar, and Zamiel carried off 
his victim to " his own place." Weber's 
opera, Der Freischiilz (1822). 

Cassan'dra, daughter of Priam, 
gifted with the power of prophecy ; but 
Apollo, whom she had offended, cursed 
her with the ban "that no one should 
ever believe her predictions." Shake- 
speare: Troilus and Cressida (1602). 

Mrs. Barry in characters of greatness was graceful, 
noble, and dignified ; no violence of passion was beyond 
the reach of her feeling, and in the most melting distress 
and tenderness she was exquisitely affecting. Thusshe 
was equally admirable in "Cassandra," "Cleopatra," 
"Roxana, "Monimia," or "Belvidera," i'ji<ftiT,* 
History of the Stage. 




^"Cassandra" {Troilus and Cressida, 
Shakespeare) ; "Cleopatra" {Antony 
and Cleopatra, Shakespeare, or All for 
Love, Dryden) ; "Roxana" [Alexander 
the Great, Lee) ; " Monimia " {The 
Orphan, Otway) ; "Belvidera" {Venice 
Preserved, by Otway). ) 

Cassel {Count), an empty-headed, 
heartless, conceited puppy, who pays 
court to Amelia Wildcnhaim, but is too 
Insufferable to be endured. He tells her 
he "learnt delicacy in Italy, hauteur in 
Spain, enterprise in France, prudence in 
Russia, sincerity in England, and lo\'e 
m the wilds of America," for civilized 
nations have long since substituted in- 
trigue for love. Mrs. Inchbald: Lover i' 
Vows (1800), altered from Kotzebue. 

Cassi, the inhabitants of Hertford- 
shire or Cassio. Ceesar : Commentaries. 

Cassib'ellaun or Cassib'elan 

^probably " Caswallon "), brother and 
successor of Lud. He was king of 
Britain when Julius Caesar invaded the 
island. Geoffrey of Monmouth says, in 
his British History, that Cassibellaun 
routed Caesar, and drove him back to 
Gaul (bk. iv. 3, 5). In Caesar's second in- 
vasion the British again vanquished him 
(ch. 7), and "sacrificed to their gods as 
a thank-offering, 40,000 cows, loo.coo 
sheep, 30,000 wild beasts, and fowls 
without number " (ch. 8). Androg'eus 
^4 syl.) "duke of Trinovantum," with 
5000 men, having joined the Roman forces, 
Cassibellaun was worsted, and agreed " to 
pay 3000 pounds of silver yearly in 
tribute to Rome." Seven years after this 
Cassibellaun died and was buried at York. 

(In Shakespeare's Cymbeline the name 
i^ called " Cassibelan.") 

N.B. Polyaenus of Macedon tells us 
that Caesar had a huge elephant armed 
with scales of iron, with a tower on its 
back, filled with archers and slingers. 
When this beast entered the sea, Cassi- 
velaunus and the Britons, who had never 
seen an elephant, were terrified, and their 
horses fled in affright, so that the Romans 
were able to land without molestation. 
See Drayton's Polyolbion, viii. 

There the hive of Roman liars worsliip a gluttonous 

Such is Koine . . . hear it, spirit of Cassivelatm. 

Tennyson: BoadUea. 

Cas'silane (3 syl.), general of Candy 
and father of Annophel. Bcajtmont and 
Fletcher: Laws 0/ Candy {printed 1647). 

Cassim, brother of Ali Baba, a 

Persian. He married an heiress and soon 
became one of the richest merchants of 
the place. When he discovered that his 
brother had made himself rich by hoards 
from the robbers' cave, Cassim took ten 
mules charged with panniers to carry away 
partiof the same booty. ' ' Open, Sesame ! " 
he cried, and the door opened. He filled 
his sacks, but forgot the magic word. 
'Open, Barley ! " he cried, but the door 
remained closed. Presently the robber- 
band returned, and cut him down with 
their sabres. They then hacked the 
carcase into four parts, placed them near 
the door, and left the cave. AH Baba 
carried off the body and had it decently 
interred. Arabian Nights ("AU Baba, 
or the Forty Thieves "). 

Cas'sio {Michael), a Florentine, 
lieutenant in the Venetian army under 
the command of Othello. Simple-minded 
but not strong-minded, and therefore 
easily led by others who possessed greater 
power of will. Being overcome with 
wine, he engaged in a street-brawl, for 
which he was suspended by Othello, but 
Desdemona pleaded for his restoration, 
lago made capital of this intercession to 
rouse the jealousy of the Moor. Cassio's 
"almost" wife was Bianca, his mistress. 
Shakespeare: Othello (1611). 

" Cassio " is brave, benevolent, and honest, ruined 
only by his want of stubbornness to resist an insidious 
invitation. Dr. Johnson. 

Cassiodo'rus {Marcus Aurelius), a 
great statesman and learned writer of the 
si.xth century, who died at the age of 
100, in A.D. 562. He filled many high 
offices under Theod'oric, but ended his 
days in a convent. 

Listen awhile to a learned prelection 
On Marcus Aurelius Cassiodorus. 

LonsfilloTv: T>tt Goldtn. Legend. 

Cassiope'ia, wife of Ce'pheus 
{2 syl.) king of Ethiopia, and mother of 
Androm'eda. She boasted that her 
beauty surpassed that of the sea-nymphs ; 
and Neptune, to punish her, sent a huge 
sea-serpent to ravage her husband's king- 
dom. At death she was made a con- 
stellation, consisting of thirteen stars, the 
largest of which form a " chair" or im- 
perfect W. 

. . . that starred Ethiop queen, that strove 

To set her beauty's praise above 

I'he sea-nyiiiphs, and tlieir powers offended. 

Milton : II Fenseroso, 19 (163S). 

Cassius, instigator of the conspiracy 
against Julius Cassar, and friend of 
Brutus. Shakespeare : Julius Ceesar 




Btutus. The last o( a!l the Romans, fare thee welll 
It is impossible that ever Rome 
bhoiiKl breed thy fellow. Friends, T owe more tears 
I o tliis tlead man than you shall sec me pay. 
1 shall fmd time, Casbius, I shall tiud time. 

Act T. sc. 3. 

Charles Mayne Young: trod the boards with freedom. 
His countenance was equally well adapted for tlie ex- 
pression of pathos or of pride: thus m such parts as 
Hamlet," "Beverley," "The Stranjfer, ' "Pierre," 

Zanga," and "Cassius," he looked the men he repre- 
-nted. /C/. y. Youn^: Li/cq/C. M. K^i<i'. 

("Hamlet " (Shakespeare) ; " Bever- 
ley" (The Gamester, Moore); "The 
Stranger" (B. Thompson); "Pierre" 
(Venice Presetted, Otway) , "Zanga" 
Revenge t by Young).) 

Castagfnette (Captain), a hero whose 
stomach was replaced by a leather one 
made by Desgenettes \pa'-ge-7iet'\ but 
his career was soon ended by a bomb- 
shell, which blew him into atoms. 
Manuel : A French Extravaganta. 

Casta'lio, son of lord Acasto, and 
Polydore's twin-brolher. Both the 
brothers loved their father's ward, Mo- 
nim'ia " the orphan." The love of Poly- 
dore was dishonourable love, but Castalio 
loved her truly and married her in 
private. On the bridal night Polydore by 
treachery took his brother's place, and 
next day, when Monimia discovered the 
deceit which had been practised on her, 
and Polydore heard tliat Monimia was 
really married to his brother, the bride 
poisoned herself, the adulterer ran upon 
his brother's sword, and the husband 
stabbed himself. Otivay : The Orphan 

Mr. Wilks's excellence in comedy was never once 
disputed, but the best judijes extol him for different 
ly, as " Hamlet," " Castalio," " Edgar," 
J affier. " Clul-wood. 

(" Hamlet " (Shakespeare) ; ' ' Edgar " 

iKing Lear, Shakespeare) ; " Moneses " 
Tamerlane, Rowe) ; "Jaffier" (Venice 
Preserved, by Otway). ) 

Cas'taly, a fountain of Pamassos, 
sacred to the Muses. Its waters had the 
virtue of inspiring those who drank 
thereof with the gift of poetry. 

Casta'ra, the lady addressed by Wm. 
Habington in his poems. She was Lucy 
Herbert (daughter of Wm. Herbert, firs't 
lord Powis), and became his wife. (Latin, 
casta, " chaste.") 

If then, Castara, I in heaven nor move. 
Nor earth, nor hell, where am I but in love t 

/K Habinston: To Castata (died 1654). 
The poetry of Habington shows that he possessed 
... a real passion for a lady of birth and virtue, the 
"Castara," whom he afterwards married. llallam. 

Castle Dangferous, a novel by sir 

parts in tragedy, 
" Moneses," "Ja/ 

\V. Scott, after the wTeck of his fortune 
and repeated strokes of paralysis (1831). 
Those who read it must remember they 
are the last notes of a dying swan, and 
forbear to scan its merits too strictly. 

Castle DaxifferoQS, or " The 

Perilous Castle ofDouglas." So called 
because it was thrice taken from the 
English between 1306 and 1307. 

1. On Palm Sunday, while the English 
soldiers were at church, Douglas fell on 
them and slew them ; then, entering the 
castle, he put to the sword all he found 
there, and set fire to the castle (March 

2. The castle being restored was placed 
under the guard of Thirwall, but Douglas 
disguised his soldiers as drovers, and 
Thirwall resolved to " pillage the rogues." 
He set upon them to drive off the herds, 
but the " drovers," being too strong for 
the attacking party, overpowered them, 
and again Douglas made himself master 
of the castle. 

3. Sir John de Walton next volunteered 
to hold the castle for a year and a day, 
but Douglas disguised his soldiers as 
market-men carrying corn and grass to 
Lanark. Sir John, in an attempt \.o> 
plunder the men, set upon them, but was 
overmastered and slain. This is the 
subject of sir W. Scott's novel called 
Castle Dafigerous, but instead of the 
market-men " with corn and grass," the 
novel substitutes lady Augusta, the pri- 
soner of Black Douglas, whom he pro- 
mises to release if the castle is surrendered 
to him. De Walton consents, gives up 
the castle, and marries the lady Augusta. 

Castle Perilous, the habitation of 
lady Liones (called by Tennyson 
Lyonors). Here she was held captive by 
sir Ironside the Red Knight of the RecJ 
Lands. Sir Gareth overcame the knight,, 
and married the lady. Sir T. Malory : 
History of Prince Arthur, i. 120-153. 

*. Tennyson has poetised the tale ia 
Gareth and Lynetfe, but has altered it. 
He has even departed from the old story 
by making sir Gareth marry Lynette, 
and leaving the lady Lyonors in the cold. 
In the old story Gareth marries Liongs 
(or Lyonors), and his brother Ga'heris 
marries Linet (or Lynette). 

Tennyson has quite missed the scope of the Arthurian 
allegory, which is a Bunyan's Pilg^rim's Progress. 
Lynette represents the peojjlc of this world or the in- 
habitants of the "City of Destruction." "Liones" 
represents the " bride, ' which says to the Christian, 
" Come ! " and is the bride in heaven of those who fight 
the fight of faith. " Castle Perilous " is the Celestial 
City, set on a hill. Lynette scoffs at GsTCtli after evtry 


conquest, for "the carnal mind is enmity against God;" 
but Gareth " fights the fight," and wins the bride. 
Tennyson makes the Cliristian leave the City of 
Destruction, conquer Apollyon and all the giants, 
stand in sight of the Celestial City, see the bride 
inviting him to heaven, and then marry Lynette or tlie 
personification of the " world, the flesh, and the 
devil." See Notes and Qtieries {January 19, February 
16, March 16, 1878). 

Castle Rackrent, an Irish story 
by Maria Edgewortli, to illustrate the 
evils of absenteeism, etc. (1799). 

Castle Spectre [The), a drama 
full of horrors, by M. G. Lewis (author 
of The Monk, 1797.) 

Castle in the Air or Cliateaxi 
dXspagne, a splendid thing of fancy 
or hope, but wholly without any real 
existence, called a " castle of Spain," 
because Spain has no castles or chateaux. 
So Greek Kalends means " never," be- 
cause there were no such things as 
"Greek Kalends." 

Ne semez point vos ddsirs sur le jardin d'autruy ; 
cultivez seulment bien le vostre ; ne desirez point de 
n'estre pas ce que vous estes, mais desirez d'estre fort 
bien ce que vous estes. . . . De quoy sert-il de bastir 
des cliasteaux en Espagne, quisqu'il nous faut habiter 
en France. St. Fran<;ois de Sales (bishop of Gcnevn), 
IVriting to a Lady on the subject of" Contentjnent," L 
285 (1567). 

Castle of Andalusia, an opera by 
John O'Keefe, Don Cassar, the son of 
don Scipio, being ill-treated by his 
father, turns robber-chief, but ultimately 
marries Lorenza, and becomes reconciled 
to his father. 

(The plot is too complicated to be 
understood in a few lines. Don Caesar, 
Spado, Lorenza, Victoria, Pedrillo, and 
Fernando, all assume characters different 
to their real ones. ) 

Castle of Athlin and Dnnbayne 

(The), by Mrs. Radclifife (1789). 

Castle of In'dolence (3 syl.), in 
the land of Drowsiness, where every 
sense is enervated by sensual pleasures. 
The owner of the castle is an enchanter, 
who deprives those who enter it of their 
physical energy and freedom of will. 
Thomson: Castle of Indolence (1748). 

Castle of Maidens, Edinburgh. 

iEbraucus'] also built the . . . town of mount Agned 
VSdinburgh], called at this time "the Castle of 
Maidens or the Mountain of Sorrow." Geq^rey : 
British History, ii. 7 (1142). 

Castle of Otranto ( The), a tale in 
prose by Walpole (1765). 

Cas'tlewood [Beatrix), the heroine 
of Esmond, a novel by Thackeray, the 
"finest picture of splendid lustrous 
physical beauty ever given to the world." 

Lady Rachel Castlewood, mother of 



Beatrix. She is described as "very sweet 
and pure, without ceasing to be human 
and fallible." Lady Rachel marries Harry 

Cas'tor, of classic fable, is the son of 
Jupiter and Leda, and twin-brother of 
Pollux, The brothers were so attached 
to each other that Jupiter set them among 
the stars, where they form the constella- 
tion Gemini (" the twins "). Castor and 
Pollux are called the Dios'curi or ' ' sons 
of Dios," i.e. Jove. 

Cas'tor [Steph'anos), the wrestler. 
Sir IV. Scott : Count Robert of Paris 
(time, Rufus). 

Cas'triot {George), called by the 
Turks "Scanderbeg" (1404-1467). 
George Castriot was son of an Albanian 
prince, delivered as a hostage to Amu- 
rath IL He won such favour from the 
sultan that he was put in command of 
5000 men, but abandoned the Turks in 
the battle of Mora'va (1443). 

This is the first dark blot 
On thy name, George Castriot. 
Longfello-w : The Wayside Inn (an interlude). 

Castruc'cio Castraca'ni's Sword. 

When Victor Emmanuel IL went to Tus- 
cany, the path from Lucca to Pistoia 
was strewed with roses. At Pistoia the 
orphan heirs of Pucci'ni met him, 
bearing a sword, and said, "This is 
the sword of Castruccio Castracani, the 
great Italian soldier, and head of the 
GhibeUnes in the fourteenth century. 
It was committed to our ward and keep- 
ing till some patriot should arise to 
deliver Italy and make it free." Victor 
Emmanuel, seizing the hilt, exclaimed, 
" Questa i per me I" ("This is for 
me.") Mrs. Browning: The Sword of 
Castruccio Castracani. 

Cas'yapa (3 syl.), father of the 
immortals, who dwells in the mountain 
called Hemacd'ta or Himakoot, under 
the Tree of Life. Southey : Curse of 
Kehama (canto vi. is called "Casyapa," 

Cat [The) has been from time im- 
memorial the familiar of witches; thus 
Galinthia was changed by the Fates into 
a cat (Antoninus Liberahs, Metam. 29). 
Hecate also, when Typhon compelled the 
gods and goddesses to hide themselves in 
animals, assumed the form of a cat 
(Pausanias, Bceotics). Ovid says, " Fele 
soror Phoebi latuit." 

The cat i' the adage: that is, Cat us 
amat pisces, sed non vult tingere plantas 




("The cat loves fish, but does not Uke to 
wet her paws"). 

Letting I dare not wait upon I would. 
Like the poor cat i' the auage. 

Shakespeare : Macbeth, act I. sc. 7 (1606). 

Not room to swinff a cat ; reference is 
to the sport of swinging a cat to the 
branch of a tree as a mark to be shot at. 
Shakespeare refers to another variety of 
the sport ; the cat being enclosed in a 
leather bottle, was suspended to a tree 
and shot at. " Hang me in a bottle, hke a 
caX' {Much Ado about Nothiyig, acti. sc. i); 
and Steevers tells us of a third variety in 
which the "cat was placed in a, 
hung on a line, and the players had to 
beat out the bottom of the bag," He 
who succeeded in thus liberating the cat, 
had the "privilege" of hunting it after- 

Kilkenny Cats. A favourite amuse- 
ment of the "good old times" with a 
certain regiment quartered at Kilkenny, 
was to tie two cats together by the tails, 
swing them over a line, and watch their 
ferocious attacks upon each other in their 
struggles to get free. It was determined 
to put down this cruel ' ' sport ; " and one 
day, just as two unfortunate cats were 
swung, the alarm was given that the 
colonel was riding up post haste. An 
officer present cut through their tails 
with his sword and liberated the cats, 
which scampered off before the colonel 
arrived. From a correspondent, signed, 
R. G. Glenn {4, Rowden Buildings, 

N.B. Hogarth has a picture of the 
Kilkenny cats in his Four Stages of 

The Kilkenny Cats. The story is that 
two cats fought in a saw-pit so ferociously 
that each swallowed the other, leaving 
only the tails behind to tell of the won- 
derful encounter. (See Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable, for several other re- 
ferences to cats, pp. 223, 224.) 

Catai'au {3 syl.), a native of Catai'a 
or Cathay, the ancient name of China ; a 
boaster, a liar. Page, speaking of Fal- 
staff, says 

I will not believe such a Catalan, though the priest of 
the town commended liim for a true man [i.e. truth/itl 
tHan\ Merry IVives 0/ Vyindsor, act ii. sc. i (1601). 

Cateticla'ni, called CatieuchWni by 
Ptolemy, and Cassii by Richard of Ciren- 
cester. They occupied Buckinghamshire, 
Bedfordshire, and Hertfordshire. Dray- 
ton refers to them in his Pclyolbion, xvi. 

Catgut [Dr.), a caricature of Dr. 

Arne in The Commissary, by Sam. Foote 

Catharick {Anne), " the Woman in 
White," in Wilkie CoUins's novel (i860). 

Cath'arine, queen-consort of Charles 
II. ; introduced by sir W. Scott in 
Peveril of the Peak. (See CATHERINE, 
and also under the letter K.) 

Catharine {St. ) of Alexandria (fourth 
century), patron saint of girls and vir- 
gins generally. Her resd name was 
Dorothea; but St. Jerome says she was 
called Catharine from the Syriac word 
Kethar or Kalhar, "a crown," because 
she won the triple crown of martyrdom, 
virginity, and wisdom. She was fastened 
to a wheel, but was beheaded No- 
vember 25, which is her fete day. 

To braid St. Catharine's hair means ' ' to 
live a virgin." 

Thou art too fait to be left to braid St. Catharine's 

Longfellow : Evangeline (1848). 

Cathay', China or rather Tartary, 
a corruption of the Tartar word Khitai', 
" the country of the Khitai'ans or Khi- 
tans.' The capital was Albracca, ac- 
cording to Ariosto (Orlando Furioso). 

. , . the ship 
From CoyTon, Ind, or fair Cathay unloads. 

Byron: Don yuan, xii. 9 (1821). 

Cathl}a, son of Torman, beloved by 
Morna, daughter of Cormac king of 
Ireland. He was killed out of jealousy 
by Duchd'mar, and when Duchomar told 
Morna and asked her to marry him, she 
replied, "Thou art dark to me, Ducho- 
mar ; cruel is thine arm to Morna. 
Give me that sword, my foe ; " and when 
he gave it, she "pierced his manly 
breast," and he died. 

Cathba, young son of Torman, thou art of the love of 
Morna. Thou art a sunbeam in the day of the gloomy 
storm. Ossian : Fingal, i. 

CATHERINE, wife of Mathis, in 
The Polish Jew, by J. R. Ware. 

Catherine [Hayes], by Ikey Solo- 
mon (a pseudonym of Thackeray), 
1839-1840. The object of the novel was 
to discountenance the popular fictions 
of highwaymen, freebooters, pirates, and 

. Catherine Hayes was burnt to death at Tyburn, 
In 1720, for the murder of her husband. 

Catherine {The countess), usually 
called " The Countess," falls in love with 
Huon, a serf, her secretary and tutor. 
Her pride revolts at the match, but her 
love is masterful. When the duke her 
father is told of it, he insists on Huoa't 




marrying Catherine, a freed serf, on pain 
of death. Huon refuses to do so till the 
countess herself entreats him to comply. 
He then rushes to the wars, where he 
greatly distinguishes himself, is created 
prince, and learns that his bride is not 
Catherine the quondam serf, but Cathe- 
rine the duke's daughter. Knowles : 
Love (1840). 

Catli'erine of Newport, the wife 
of Julian Avenel (2 syl.). Sir W. Scott : 
The Monastery (time, Elizabeth). (See 
Catharine, and under K.) 

Cathleen, one of the attendants on 
Flora M'lvor. 5?> W. Scott: Waver ley 
(time, George II.). 

Cathlin of Clxi'tha, daughter of 
Cathmol. Duth-Carmor of Cluba had 
slain Cathmol in battle, and carried off 
Cathlin by force, but she contrived to 
make her escape and craved aid of Fingal. 
Ossian and Oscar were selected to espouse 
her cause, and when they reached Rath- 
col (where Duth-Carmor lived), Ossian 
resigned the command of the battle to his 
son Oscar. Oscar and Duth-Carmor met 
in combat, and the latter fell. The victor 
carried the mail and helmet of Duth- 
Carmor to Catlilin, and Cathlin said, 
" Take the mail and place it high in 
Selma's hall, that you may remember the 
helpless in a distant land." Ossian: 
Cathlin of Clutha. 

Catli-Lo'da. The tale is this : Fingal 
in his youth, making a voyage to the 
Orkneys, was driven by stress of weather 
to Denmark. The king Starno invited 
him to a feast, but Fingal, in distrust, 
declined the invitation. Starno then 
proposed to his son Svvaran to surprise 
Fingal in his sleep ; but Swaran replied, 
"I shall not slay in shades. I move 
forth in light ; " and Starno himself re- 
solved to attack the sleeper. He came 
to the place where Fingal lay, but Fingal, 
hearing the step, started up and succeeded 
in binding Starno to an oak. At day- 
break he discovered it to be the king, and 
loosing him from his bonds he said, ' ' I 
have spared thy hfe for the sake of thy 
daughter, who once warned me of an 
ambuscade. " Ossian : Cath - Loda (in 
three duans). 

Catli'inor, younger brother of Cair'- 
bar ("lord of Atha"), but totally unlike 
him. Cairbar was treacherous and malig- 
nant ; Cathmor high-minded and hospi- 
table. Cairbar murdered Cormac king of 
Ireland, and having inveigled Oscar (son 

of Ossian) to a feast, vamped up a quarrel, 
in which both fell. Cathmor scorned 
such treachery. Cathmor is the second 
hero of the poem called Tem'ora, and 
falls by the hand of Fingal (bk. viii.). 

Cathmor, the friend of strangers, the brother of red- 
haired CaiSar. Their souls were not the same. The 
light of heaven was in the bosom of Cathmor. His 
towers rose on the banks of Atha ; seven paths led to 
his halls ; seven chiefs stood on the paths and called 
strangers to the feast. But Cathmor dwelt in the wood, 
to shun the voice of praise. Ossiuti: Temora, i. 

Catholic [The). 

Alfonso I. of Asturias, called by 
Gregory III. His Catholic Majesty (693, 

Ferdinand II. of Ar'agon, husband of 
Isabella. Also called 7??^i-/, "the wily" 
(1452, 1474-1516). 

Isabella wife of Ferdinand II. of 
Aragon, so called for her zeal in establish- 
ing the Inquisition (1450, 1474-1504). 

Catholic Majesty [CathoHca Ma- 
gcstad\ the special title of the kings of 
Spain. It was first given to king Recared 
(590) in the third Council of Toledo, for 
his zeal in rooting out the " Arian 

Cui a Deo aetemum meritum nisi vero CathoBco Re> 
caredo regi? Cui a Deo aeterna corona nisi vero ortho- 
doxo Kecaredo regi T Gregory the Great : Magna 
Moralia, 127 and 128. 

But it was not then settled as a fixed 
title to the kings of Spain. In 1500 
Alexander VI. gave the title to Ferdinand 
V. king of Aragon and Castile, and from 
that time it became annexed to the 
Spanish crown. 

Ab Alexandre pontifice Ferdinandus "CathoKci" 
cognomentum accei^it in posteros cum regno trans- 
fiisuni stabili possessione. Honorum titulos principibus 
dividcre pontificibus Romauis datur. Mariana : Dt 
Rebus HesJ)., xxvi. 12 ; see also vii. 4. 

Ca'thos, cousin of Madelon, brought 
up by her uncle Gor'gibus, a plain citizen 
in the middle rank of life. These two 
silly girls have had their heads turned by 
novels, and thinking their names common- 
place, Cathos calls herself Aminta, and 
her cousin adopts the name of Polix'ena. 
Two gentlemen wish to marry them, but 
the girls consider their manners too 
unaffected and easy to be "good style," 
so the gentlemen send their valets to 
represent the "marquis of Mascarille'' 
and the "viscount of Jodelet." The 
girls are delighted with these " dis- 
tinguished noblemen ; " but when the 
game has gone far enough, the masters 
enter, and lay bare the trick. The girls 
are taught a useful lesson, without being 
involved in any fatal ill consequences. 
Moliire: Les Pricieuses Ridicules (1659)^ 




Cathulla, king of Inistore (the 

, Orkneys) and brother of Coma'la {g.v.). 

I Fingal, on coming in sight of the palace, 

I observed a beacon-fiame on its top as 

j signal of distress, for Frothal king of 

Sora had besieged it, Fingal attacked 

Frothal, engaged him in single combat, 

defeated him, and made him prisoner. 

Ossian: Carrick-Thura. 

Catiline {3 syl.), a Roman patrician, 
who headed a conspiracy to overthrow the 
Government, and obtain for himself and 
his followers all places of power and 
trust. The conspiracy was discovered by 
Cicero. Catiline escaped and put him- 
self at the head of his army, but fell in 
battle after fighting with desperate daring 
(B.C. 62). Voltaire, in his Rome Saiivie, 
has introduced the conspiracy and death 
of Catiline (1752). 

'.' Cicero has four orations In Catilinutn. 

Catilines and Cethegi {The), a 
synonym for conspirators who hope to 
mend their fortunes by rebellion. 

The intrigT.ies of a few impoverished Catilines and 
Cethegi. il/o/Zo' ." 'flte Dutch Republic. 

Catiline's Conspiracy, a long 
tedious tragedy by Ben Jonson (161 1). 
Full of wearisome speeches. 

. Gosson wrote a tragedy with the same title in the 
tbcteenth century. CroTy, in 1822, wrote a tragedy 
called Catiline. 

Catins, in Pope's Moral Essays 
(Epistle i), is meant for Charles Darti- 
neuf, called by Warburton "a glutton." 
Hence the lines 

He prefers, no doubt, 
A rogue with venison to a rogue without. 

Ca'to, the hero and title of a tragedy 
by J. Addison (1713). Disgusted with 
Caesar, Cato retired to U'tica (in Africa), 
where he had a small republic and 
mimic senate; but Caesar resolved to 
reduce Utica as he had done the rest of 
Africa ; and Cato, finding resistance 
hopeless, fell on his own sword. 

Tho' stern and awful to the foes of Rome, 
lie is all goodness, Lucia, always mild, 
Compassionate, and gentle to his friends ; 
Filled with domestic tenderness. 

Act T. I. 

When Barton Booth [17137 first appeared as " Cato,' 
Bolingbroke called him into his box and gave him fifty 
guineas for defending the cause of liberty so well 
against a perpetual dictator. Z.j/<r 0/ Addison. 

. In his De Senutitte, Cicero introduces Cato as the 
chief speaker. 

He is a Cato, a man of simple habits, 
severe morals, strict justice, and blunt 
speech, but of undoubted integrity and 
patriotism ; like the Roman censor of 
that name, grandfather of the Cato of 

Utica, who resembled him in character 

and manners. 

Cato and Kortens'ins. Cato of 

Utica's second wife was Martia daughter 
of Philip. He allowed her to live with 
his friend Hortensius, and after the death 
of Hortensius took her back again. 

\SHltans\ don't agree at all with the wise Roman^ 

Heroic, stoic Cato, the sententious, 

Who lent his lady to his friend Hortensius. 

Byron : Don yuan, vL 7 (iSzi);. 

Catullns. Lord Byron calls Thomas 
Moore the "British Catullus," referring 
to a volume of amatory poems published 
in 1808, under the pseudonym of 
"Thomas Little." 

'Tis little ! Young- Catullus of his day. 
As sweet, but as unmoral in his lay. 
Byron : linglisk Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809). 

The Oriental Catullus, Saadi or Sadi, 
a Persian poet. He married a rick 
merchant's daughter, but the marriage 
was an unhappy one. His chief works 
are The Gulistan (or " garden of roses "K 
and The Bostan (or "garden of fruits ")i 

Cau'dine Forks, a narrow pass in 
the mountains near Capua, now called 
" the Valley of Arpaia." Here a Roman 
army under the consuls T. Vetu'rius 
Calvi'nus and Sp. Postu'mius fell into the 
hands of the Sam'nites (2 syl. ), and were 
made to "pass under the yoke." 

Cau'dle [Mrs. Margaret), a curtain 
lecturer, who between eleven o'clock at 
night and seven the next morning, deli- 
vered for thirty years a curtain lecture to 
her husband Job Caudle, generally a most 
gentle listener; if he replied, she pro- 
nounced him insufferably rude, and if he 
did not, he was insufferably sulky. 
Douglas Jerrold: Punch ("The Caudle 

Cau'line [Sir), a knight who served 
the wine to the king of Ireland. He fell 
in love with Christabelle (3 syl.), the 
king's daughter, and she became his 
troth-plight wife, without her father's 
knowledge. When the king knew of it,, 
he banished sir Cauline (2 syl.). After 
a time the soldain asked the lady in 
marriage, but sir Cauline challenged hia 
rival and slew him. He himself, however, 
died of the wounds he had received, and' 
the lady Christabelle, out of grief, " burst 
her gentle hearte in twayne." Percy: 
R cliques, I. i. 4. 

Cau'rus, the stormy west-north-west, 
wind ; called in Greek, Arge^tes. 

The ground by piercing Caurus seared. 

Thomson ; Castle 0/ indolence, ii. (1748): 




Caustic, of the Despatch newspaper, 
was the signature of Mr. Serle. 

Christopher Caustic, the pseudonym 
of Thomas 'Green Fessenden, author of 
Terrible Tractoration, a Hudibrastic 
poem (1771-1837). 

Caustic {^Colonel), a fine gentleman of 
the last century, very severe on the 
degeneracy of the present race. Henry 
Mackenzie, in The Lounger. 

Ca'va, or Florida, daughter of St. 
Julian. It was the violation of Cava by 
Roderick that brought about the war 
between the Goths and the Moors, in 
which Roderick was slain (a.d. 711). 

Cavalier [The), Eon de Beaumont, 
called by the French Le Chevalier 
d'Eon (1728-1810). Charles Breydel, the 
Flemish landscape painter (1677-1744). 
Francisco Cairo, the historian, called 
El Chevaliere del Cairo (1598-1674). 
Jean le Clerc, Le Chevalier {1^87-1623). 
J. Bapt. Marini, the Italian poet, called 
// Cavaliere (1569-1625), Andrew Michael 
Ramsay {1686-1743). 

(James Francis Edward Stuart, the 
"Old Pretender," was styled Le Chevalier 
de St. George (1688-1765). Charles 
Edward, the "Young Pretender," was 
styled The Bonnie Chevalier or Tlu 
Young Cavalier, 1720-1788.) 

Cavalier {The History of a), a. tale 
by Defoe (1723). So true to life that 
lord Chatham thought it was "a true 

Cavalier Servente, called in 
Spanish corte^go and in Italian cicisbeo, 
A young gentleman who plays the 
gallant to a married woman, escorts her 
to places of public amusement, calls her 
coach, hands her to supper, buys her bou- 
quets and opera tickets, etc. 

He may resume his amatory care 
As cavalier servente. 

Byron : Don Juan, iiL 94 (1820). 

Cavall', "king Arthur's hound of 
deepest mouth." Tennyson : Idylls of the 

Cave of Adullam, a cave in which 
David took refuge when he fled from 
king Saul ; and thither resorted to him 
^' every one that was in distress, and 
every one that was in debt, and every one 
that was discontented" (i Sam. xxii. i, 2). 
Mr. John Bright called the seceders of 
the reform party Adull'amites (4 syl.), 
and said that Lowe and Horsman, like 
David in the cave of AduUara, gathered 

together all the discontented, and all that 
were politically distressed. 

Cave of Makkedah, in which the 
five kings who fought against Joshua hid 
themselves, but were slain by Joshua. 
Josh X. 

Cave of Mammon, the abode of the 
god of wealth. The money-god first 
appears as a miser, then becomes a worker 
of metals, and ultimately the god of all 
the treasures of the world. All men bow 
down to his daughter Ambition. Spenser: 
Faerie Queene, ii. 7 (1590). 

Cave of Montesi'nos, about sixty 
feet in depth, in the heart of La Mancha. 
So called because Montesinos retired 
thither when he quitted the French court 
on account of some insult offered to him. 
Cervantes visited the cave, and it is now 
often resorted to by shepherds as a 
shelter from the cold or rain. 

Cav'eudish, author of Principles of 
Whist, and numerous guide-books on 
games, as Bdzique, Picquet, I^carld, 
Billiards, etc. Henry Jones, editor of 
" Pastimes " in The Field and The Queen 
newspapers (1831- ). 

Cavendish. Square (London), so 
called from Henrietta Cavendish, wife of 
Edward second earl of Oxford and 
Mortimer (built 1718). 

Cawther [At), the lake of paradise, 
the waters of which are sweet as honey, 
cold as snow, and clear as crystal. He 
who once tastes thereof shall never thirst 
again. Al KorUn, cviii. 

The righteous, having surmounted the difficulties of 
life, and having passed the sharp bridge [al Sirdf], will 
be refreshed by drinking at the pond of their propliet, 
the waters of which are supplied from al Cawther. . . . 
This is the first taste which the blessed will have of 
their future but near-approaching felicity. Sale : Al 
Kordn (" The Preliminary Discourse," iv.). 

Cax'on [Old Jacob), hairdresser of 
Jonathan Oldbuck ("the antiquary") of 

Jenny Caxon, a milliner ; daughter of 
Old Jacob. 5z> W.Scott: The Antiquary 
(time, George III.). 

Cazton [Pisistrutus), the hypothetical 
author oi My Novel [i8$'^) ; The Caxions; 
and the essays called Caxtonia. 

Caxton Society [The), (i845-i8;4), 
for the publication of the chronicles, etc., 
of the Middle Ages. 

Caxtonia, a series of essays supposed 
to be written by Pisistritus Caxton, 
Edward lord Lytton (1863). 


f Caztons {TAe), a domestic novel by 
Edward lord Lytton (1849). Supposed to 
be written by Pisistritus Caxton. 

Ceca to Mecca {From), from pillar 
to post. To saunter or ramble from Ceca 
to Mecca is a Spanish proverb, meaning to 
roam about purposelessly or idly. Ceca 
and Mecca are two places visited by 
Mohammedan pilgrims. 

" Let us return home," said Sancho, " nor longrer 
ramble from Ceca to l.\.ccc&." Cervantes : Don 
Quixote, I. Ui. 4 (1605). 

Cecil, or The Adventures of a Coxcomb, 
the hero of a novel so called by Mrs. 
Gore (1841). 

Cecil {Davenant), the pseudonym 
adopted by Coleridge in his contributions 
to the Quarterly Magazine. 

Cecil's Fast, an Act of Parliament 
by W. Cecil, lord Burleigh, to enjoin the 
eating of fish on certain days. The 
object of this Act was to restore the fish 
trade, which had been almost ruined by 
the Reformation. Papists eat fish on 
fast-days, and at the Reformation, the 
eating of fish being looked on as a badge 
of bad faith, no one was willing to lie 
under the suspicion of being a papist, 
and no one would buy fish. 

Cecilia [St.), the patroness of musi- 
cians and " inventor of the organ." The 
legend says that an angel fell in love 
with Cecilia for her musical skill, and 
nightly brought her roses from paradise. 
Her husband saw the angel-visitant, who 
gave to both a crown of martyrdom. 

Thou seem st to me like the angel 
That brought the immortal roses 
To St. Cecilia's bridal chamber. 

Lons/illoTv : The Golden Legend. 

Ce'dric, a thane of Rotherwood, and 
surnamed "the Saxon." 5i> W. Scott: 
Ivanhoe (time, Richard I. ). 

Ceradon and Amelia. (See 
Amelia, p. 35.) 

(Celadon, like Chloe, Celia, Lesbia, 
DaphnS, etc., may be employed to 
signify a lady-love generally. ) 

Celandine (3 syl-), a shepherd of 
"various natural gifts," in love with 
Marina, a neighbouring shepherdess, of 
enchanting beauty. Finding his " suite 
was quickly got, as moved," he waxed 
cold and indifferent. W, Browne: 
Britannia's Pastorals (1613). 

Cele'no or Celss'no, chief of the 

There on a craggy stone 
Celcno hung, and made his direful moan. 
Gitti Fletcher : Chris fs Triumph \pn Earth\ (i6i). 


Celes'tial City [The). Heaven is 
so called by John Bunyan, in his Pilgrim's 
Prot^ress (1678). Pekin, in China, is so 
called also. 

Celes'tial Empire, China, so called 
because the first emperors were all 
"celestial deities : " as Puon-Ku ("high- 
est eternity"), Tien-Hodng ("emperor 
of heaven"), Ti-Hoftng ("emperor of 
earth"), Gine-Hodng ("emperor of men"), 
etc., embracing a period of 300,000 years 
previous to To-hi, whose reign is placed 
B.C. 2953-2838. 

CE'LIA, daughter of Frederick the 
usurping duke, and cousin of Ros'alind 
daughter of the banished duke. When Ro- 
salind was driven from her uncle's court, 
Celia determined to go with her to the 
forest of Arden to seek out the banished 
duke, and for security sake, Rosalind 
dressed in boy's clothes and called her- 
self " Gan'imed," while Celia dressed as 
a peasant - girl and called herself 
"Aliena." When they reached Arden 
they lodged for a time in a shepherd's 
hut, and Oliver de Boys was sent to tell 
them that his brother Orlando was hurt 
and could not come to the hut as usual. 
Oliver and Celia fell in love with each 
other, and their wedding day was fixed. 
Ganimed resumed the dress of Rosalind, 
and the two brothers married at the same 
time. Shakespeare: As You Like It 

Arden is an hypothetical place. 

Celia, a girl of 16, in Whitehead's 
comedy of The School for Lovers. It 
was WTitten expressly for Mrs. Gibber, 
daughter of Dr. Arne. 

Mrs. Cibber was at the time more than Jo years old, 
but the uncommon symmetry and exact proportion in 
her form, with her singular vivacity, enabled her to re- 
present the character of "Celia" with all the juvenile 
appearance marked by the author. Percy : Anecdotes. 

Ce'lia, a poetical name for any lady- 
love : as " Would you know my Celia's 
charms . . . ? " Not unfrequently 
Streph'on is the wooer when Celia is the 
wooed. Thomas Carew calls his ' ' sweet 
sweeting" Celia; her real name is not 

Celia (Z^aw^), mother of Faith, Hope, 
and Charity. She lived in the hospice 
called Holiness. (Celia is from the Latin, 
caelum, "heaven.") Spenser: Faerie 
Queene, i. 10 (1590). 

Celldon, the scene of one of Arthur's 
twelve battles, also called " Celidon-the- 
Forest," and said to be Tweeddale. 




Celyddon was a common term for a 
British forest. (See Celadon, p, 191.) 

C^limeue (3 syL), a coquette courted 
by Alceste (2 sjyl.) the "misanthrope" (a 
really good man, both upright and manly, 
but blunt in behaviour, rude in speech, 
and unconventional). Alceste wants C6- 
lim^ne to forsake society and live with 
him in seclusion ; this she refuses to do, 
and he replies, as you cannot find, " tout 
en moi, comme moi tout en vous, allez, 
je vous refuse." He then proposes to her 
cousin Eliante (3 syl.), but Eliante tells 
him she is already engaged to his friend 
Philinte (2 syl.), and so the plays ends. 
Moliere : Le Misanthrope (1666). 

(" C^limfene" in MoU^re's Les Priciemes 
Ridicules is a mere dummy. She is 
brought on the stage occasionally towards 
the end of the play, but never utters one 
word, and seems a supernumerary of no 
importance at all. ) 

Celin'da, the victim of count Fathom's 
seduction. Smollett : Count Fathom 

The count placed an Eolian harp In her bedroom, 
and " the strings no sooner felt the impression of the 
wind than they began to pour forth a stream of melody 
more ravishingly delightful than the song of Philomel, 
the warbling brook, and all the concert of the wood." 
StTiollctt: Count Fathom. 

Cellide (2 syl.\ beloved by Valentine 
and his son Francisco. The lady naturally 
prefers the younger man. Fletcher: Mons. 
Thomas (1619}. Beaumont died 1616. 

Celt. Tennyson calls the irritability 
of the Irish and Welsh 

The blind hysterics of the Celt. 

In Memoriam, clx. 

Celtic and Ibe'rian Fields ( The), 

France and Spain. 

Roving the Celtic and Iberian fields. 

Milton : Comus, 60 (1634). 

Celtic Homer { The), Ossian, said to 
be of the third century. 

If Ossian lived at the introduction of Christianity, as 
by all appearances he did, his epoch will be tlie latter 
end of the third and beginning of the fourth century. 

The " Caracul " of Fingal, who is no other than Cara- 
calla) son of Seve'rus, emperor of Rome), and the battle 
fought against Caros or Carausius, ... fix the epoch of 
Fingal to the third century, and Irish historians place 
his death in the year 283. Ossian was Fingal's son. 
ra 0/ Ossian. 

Celtic Langfuages. (See Keltic.) 
Cenci. Francesco Cenci was a most 
profligate Roman noble, who had four 
sons and one daughter, all of whom he 
treated with abominable cruelty. It is 
said that he assassinated his two elder 
sons and debauched his daughter Beatrice. 
Beatrice and her two surviving brothers, 
with I.ucretia {th-ir mother), conspired 

against Francesco and accomplished his 
death ; but all except the youngest brother 
perished on the scaffold, September 11, 
1599. (See Quarterly Review, February, 

It has been doubted whether the famous portrait In 
the Earberini palace of Rome is that of Beatrice Cenci, 
and even whether Guido was the painter thereof. 

Percy B. Shelley wrote a tragedy called 
The Cenci (1819). 

Cenimajf'ni, the inhabitants of 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge. 
Ccesar : Commentaries. 

Cennini, the jeweller in Romola, a 
novel by " George Eliot " (Mrs. Lewis or 
J. W. Crosse), (1863). 

Centaur {The Blue), a human form 
from the waist upwards, and a goat 
covered with blue shag from the waist 
downwards. Like the ogri, he fed on 
human flesh. 

" Shepherds," said he, " I am the Blue Centaur. If yon 
will give me every third year a young child, I promise to 
bring a hundred of my kinsmen and drive the Ogri 
away." . . . W^\the Blue Centaur\ used to appear on 
the top of a rock, with his club in one hand . . . and 
with a terrible voice cry out to the shepherds, " Leave 
me my prey, and be off with ^ou ! " Comtesse 
D'Aulnoy : Fairy Tales (" Princess Carpillona," 1682). 

Centaurs ( The), of classic mythology, 
were half men and half horses. They 
fought with the Lapithas at the marriage 
feast of Pirithous, were expelled from 
their country, and took refuge on Mount 
Pindus. Chiron was the most famous of 
the Centaurs. 

Cen'tury White, John White, the 
nonconformist lawyer. So called from 
his chief work, entitled The First Century 
of Scandalous, Malignant Priests, etc. 

Ce'phal (Greek, Kephalt), the Head 
personified, the " acropolis " of The Purple 
Island, fully described in canto v. of that 
poem, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). 

Ceph'alus (in Greek, Kephdlos). One 
day, overcome with heat, Cephalus threw 
himself on the grass, and cried aloud, 
' ' Come, gentle Aura, and this heat 
allay 1 " The words were told to his 
young wife Procris, who, supposing Aura 
to be some rival, became furiously jealous. 
Resolved to discover her rival, she stole 
next day to a covert, and soon saw her 
husband come and throw himself on the 
bank, crying aloud, " Come, gentle 
Zephyr ; come. Aura, come, this heat 
allay ! " Her mistake was evident, and 
she was about to throw herself into the 
arms of her husband, when the young 
man, aroused by the rustling, shot an 



arrow into the covert, supposing some 
wild beast was about to spring on him. 
Procris was shot, told her tale, and died, 
Ovid: Art of Love, iii. 

Cephalus loves Procris, i.e. " the sun kisses the dew. 
Frocris is kiUed by Cephalus, i.e. "the dew is de- 
stroyed by the rays of the sun." 

Ceras'tes (3 sy/.), the horned snake 
(Greek, keras, "a horn"). Milton uses 
the word in Paradise Lost, x. 525 {1665). 

Cerberos, a dog with three heads, 
which keeps guard in hell. Dantfi places 
it in the third circle. 

Cerberus, cruel monster, fierce and strange, 
Through his wide threefold tl.roat barks as a dog. . . 
His eyes glare crimson, black its unctuous beard, 
His belly Targe, and clawed the hands with which 
He tears the spirits, flays them, and their Umbs 
Piecemeal disparts. 

Vante : HtU, vL (1300, Gary's translation). 

Cer'don, the boldest of the rabble 
leaders in the encounter with Hu'dibras 
at the bear-baiting. The original of this 
character was Hewson, a one-eyed 
cobbler and preacher, who was also a 
colonel in the Rump army. 5. Butler: 
Hudibras, \. 2 (X663). 

Ce'res (2 syi.), the Fruits of Harvest 
personified. In classic mythology CerSs 
means "Mother Earth," the protectress 
of agriculture and fruits. 

Ceres, the planet, is so called because 
it was discovered from the observatory of 
Palermo, and CerSs is the tutelar goddess 
of Sicily. 

Ceret'tick Shore (The), the Car- 
digan coast. 

... the other floods from the Cerettick shore 
To the Virginian sea [if.v.], contributing their store. 
Drayton : Polyolbion, vi. (1612). 

Cer'imon, a physician of Ephesus, 
who restored to animation Thaisa, the 
wife of Per'iclfis prince of Tyre, sup- 
posed to be dead. Shakespeare : Pericles 
Prince of Tyre (1608). 

Certa'men Cathol'ictiin cum 
Calvinistis, of Hamconius, is a poem 
in which every word begins with C. 

N.B. In the Materia more Magistrdlis 
every word begins with M ; and in the 
Pugna Porcorum per P. Porcum poetam 
very word begins with P. 

Chab'ot {Philippe de), admiral of 
France, governor of Bourgoyne and Nor- 
andy vmder Fran9ois I. Montmorency 
d the cardinal de Lorraine, out of 
lealousy, accused him of malversation, 
.s faithful servant AUegre was put to the 
ck to force evidence against the accused, 
d Chabot was sent to prison because he 


was unable to pay the fine levied upon 
him. His innocence, however, was estab- 
lished by the confession of his enemies, 
and he was released; but disgrace had 
made so deep an impression on his mind 
that he sickened and died. This is the 
subject of a tragedy entitled The Tragedy 
of Philip Chabot, etc., by Chapman and 
Shirley (1639). 

Cliad'band \J'he Rev. Mr.), type of 
a canting hypocrite "in the ministry." 
He calls himself " a vessel," is much 
admired by his dupes, and pretends to 
despise the " carnal world," but never- 
theless loves dearly its "good things," 
and is most self-indulgent. C, Dickens : 
Bleak House {1853). 

Chaflangton (Afr. Percy), M.P., a 
stock-broker. Morton: If 1 had a Thou- 
sand a Year, 

Cbalbrook, a giant, the root of the 
race of giants, including Polypheme 
(3 syl), Goliath, the Titans, Fierabras, 
Gargantua, and closing with Pantag'ruel. 
He was born in the year known for its 
"week of three Thursdays." Rabelais: 
Pantagruel, ii. {1533). 

Cliary"bes (3 syl.), a people on the 
south shore of the Black Sea, who occu- 
pied themselves in working iron. 

On the left hand dwell 
The Iron-workers called the Chalyb^, 
Of whom beware. 
Mrs. Browning: Prometheus Bound (1850). 

Cbam, the pseudonym of comte 
Amdd^e de No6, a peer of France, a great 
wit, and the political caricaturist of 
Charivari (the French Punch). The 
count was one of the founders of the 
French Republic in 1875. As Cham or 
Ham was the second son and scapegrace 
of Noah, so Am^d^e was the second son 
and scapegrace of the comte de N06 

Cbam [fTam], the sovereign prmce of 
Tartary, now written Khan. 

The Great Cham of Literature. Dr. 
Johnson (1709- 1784) was so called by 

Cbam of Tartary, a corruption of 
Chan or Khan, i.e. " lord or prince," as 
Hoccota Chan. " Ulu Chan" means 
" gfreat lord," "ulu" being equal to the 
Latin magnus, and "chan"to dominus 
or imperdtor. Sometimes the word is 
joined to the name, as Chan-balu, Cara- 
chan, etc. The Turks have also had 
their "Sultan Murad chan bin Sultan 
Selim chan," i.e. Sultan Murad prince, 



f<m of Sultan Selim prince. Selden : 
Titles of Honour, vi. 66 (1672). 

Cham'berlain [Matthew), a tapster, 
the successor of Old Roger Raine (i syl.). 
Sir W. Scott: Peveril of the Peak 
(lime, Charles II. ). 

Chambers's Journal, a weekly 
serial by William and Robert Chambers, 
begun in 1832. 

ChauLOnt, brother of Monimia "the 
orphan," and the troth-plight husband of 
Seri'na (daughter of lord Acasto). He is 
,a soldier, so proud and susceptible that 
be is for ever taking offence, and setting 
himself up as censor or champion. He 
fancies his sister Monim'ia has lost her 
honour, and calls her to task, but finds he 
is mistaken. He fancies her guardian, 
old Acasto, has not been sufficiently 
watchful over her, and draws upon him in 
his anger, but sees his folly just in time 
to prevent mischief. He fancies CastaHo, 
his sister's husband, has ill-treated her, 
and threatens to kill him, but his 
suspicions are again altogether erroneous. 
In fact, his presence in the house was 
like that of a madman with fire-brands 
in a stack-yard. C>/way . The Orphan 

There are characters in which he [C. M. Young\ is 
unrivalled and almost perfect. His " Pierre " [Venice 
Preserved, Otway] is more soldierly than Kemble s ; 
his " Chamont " is full of brotherly pride, noble im- 
petuosity, and heroic scorn. AVa/ Monthly Masaziru 

GhampaiT'Le [Henry earl of), a 
crusader. -Sir W. Scott: The Talisman 
(time, Richard I.). 

Cliain'pernel', a lame old gentle- 
man, the husband of Lami'ra, and son- 
in-law of judge Vertaigne (2 syL). 
{i) Beaumont and Fletcher: The Little 
French Lawyer (printed 1647). 

Champion and Severall. A 
"champion" is a common, or land in 
allotments without enclosures. A 
"severall" is a private farm, or land 
enclosed for individual use. A "cham- 
pion " also means one who holds an open 
allotment or " champion." 

More profit is quieter found 

(Where pastures in severall be) 
Of one seely acre of ground. 

Than champion maketh of three. 
Again what a joy it is known 
When men may be bold of their own I 

Tusser: Five Hundred Points o/Cood 
Husbandry, liii. 23. 


The champion differs from severall much 
For want of partition, closier, and such. 

Tusser (Introduction), (1557). 

Champion of the Virgfin. St. 


Cyril of Alexandria iS so called from his 
defence of the ' ' Incarnation " or doctrine 
of the "hypostatic union," in the long 
and stormy dispute with Nesto'rius 
bishop of Constantinople. 

Champneys [Sir Geoffry), a fossi- 
lized old country gentleman, who beheves 
in " blue blood" and the "British peer- 
age." Father of Talbot, and neighbour 
of Perkyn Middlewick, a retired butter- 
man. The sons of these two magnates 
are fast friends, but are turned adrift by 
their fathers for marrying in opposition 
to their wishes. When reduced to abject 
poverty, the old men go to visit their 
sons, relent, and all ends happily. 

Talbot Champneys, a. swell with few 
brains and no energy. His name, which 
was his passport into society, would not 
find him in salt in the battle of life. He 
marries Mary Melrose, a girl without a 
penny, but his father wanted him to 
marry Violet the heiress. 

Miss Champneys, sir Geoffry's sister, , 
proud and aristocratic, but quite wiUing 
to sacrifice both on the altar of Mr. 
Perkyn Middlewick, the butterman, if the 
wealthy plebeian would make her his 
wife, and allow her to spend his money. 
H. J. Byron : Our Boys (1875). 

Chandos House (Cavendish Square, 
London), so called from being the resi- 
dence of James Brydges, duke of Chan- 
dos, generally called "The Princely 

Chandos Street. (See Caribee 
Islands, p. 179.) 

Chanounes Yemenes Tale ( The), 
that is, a yeraen's tale about a chanoun. 
(A "yemen" is a bailiff.) This is a tale 
in ridicule of alchemy. A chanoun hum- 
bugged a priest by pretending to conver; 
rubbish into gold. With a film of wax h 
concealed in a stick a small lot of thin gold. 
The priest stirred the boiling water with 
the stick, and the thin pieces of gold, as 
the wax melted, dropped into the pot. 
The priest gave the chanoun ,^^40 for the 
recipe; and the crafty alchemist was 
never seen by him afterwards. 

Chan'ticleer (3 syl.), the cock, in 
the beast-epic of Reynard the Fox (1498), 
and also in " The Nonne Prestes Tale," 
told in The Canterbury Tales, by Chaucer 

Chaon'ian Bird [The), the dove; sc 
called because doves delivered the oracle; 
of Dodona or Chaon'ia. 


But the mild swallow none with ton<; Infest, 
hrA none the sol't Chaonian bird molest. 

Ovid : A rt of Love, B. 

Chaonian Food, acorns ; so called 

the oak trees of Dodona, which gave 

he oracles by means of bells hung 

r^ the branches. Beech mast is so 

.! , 1 also, because beech trees abounded 

n t!ie forest of Doddna. 

^'liapelie Aventnreuse, the place 

Launcelot had his second vision of 

P>eatific Cup." His first was during 

t of madness. 

Slumberinff, he saw the vision high. 
He might not view with waking eye. 

Sir IV. Scott: Afarmion (1808). 

Cliaracters of Vathek's Sabres. 

' 1 ike the characters of Vathek's sabres, 

never remained two days alike." 

(^ sabres would deal blows without 

...^ wielded by man, obedient to his 

A-isii on\y.Beck/ord : Vathek ( 1784). 

Cliaraiois, son of the marshal of 

-^undy. When he was 28 years old, 

ather died in prison at Dijon, for 

s contracted by him for the service of 

'tate in the wars. According to the 

Nshich then prevailed in France, the 

. of the marshal was seized by his 

tors, and refused burial. The son 

iiaralois redeemed his father's body 

: y his own, which was shut up in prison 

m lieu of the marshal. Massinger: The 

Fatal Dowry (1632). 

^ It will be remembered that Milti'adds, 

the Athenian general, died in prison for 

t, and the creditors claimed the body, 

h they would not suflfer to be buried 

his son Cimon gave up himself as a 


Char'eifite {3 syl). The Charegite 
assassin, in the disguise of a Turkish 
Miftrabut or enthusiast, comes and dances 
tjetore the tent of Richard Coeur de Lion, 
and suddenly darting forward, is about to 
tstab the king, when a Nubian seizes his 
krm, and the king kills the assassin on 
the spot. 5/> W. Scott: The Talisman 
(tine, Richard 1.). 

Charge of tlie Light Brigade, 

or ' ' The Death Charge of the 600 at 

Fjiilaclava," Sept. 20, 1854. The brigade 

consisted of the 13th Light Dragoons, 

the 17th Lancers, the nth Hussars 

"-^mmanded by lord Cardigan, the 8th 

^sars, and the 4th Light Dragoons. 

> Russians were advancing in great 

ngth to intercept the Turkish and 

ish forces, when lord Raglan (com- 

nvmder- in-chief) sent an order to lord 


Lucan to advance, and lord Lucan (not 
understanding what was intended ) applied 
to captain Nolan,who brought the message, 
for information. Nolan replied, " There, 
my lord, is your enemy." Lucan then 
gave orders to lord Cardigan to attack, 
and the 6co rode forward into the jaws 
of death. In 20 minutes, 12 officers were 
slain, and 4 others wounded ; 147 men 
were slain, and no wounded. The 
blunder must be shared by lord Lucan, 
general Airey, and captain Nolnn. How- 
ever, never was victory more glorious to 
the devoted men than this useless and 
deadly charge. It "was magnificent, 
but it was not war," and when lord 
Cardigan rallied the scattered remains, 
he said, "My men, someone has blun- 
dered." They replied, " Never mind, 
my lord, we are ready to charge again if 
it is your lordship's command." Tenny- 
son wrote a poem on the fatal charge. 

N. B. Coincidences. The names of the 
four persons concerned all end in -an; 
Raglan told Nolan, Nolan told Lucan, 
and Lucan told Cardigan. The initials 
of these names make R a C-L a N, very 
near the name R a G-L a N, 

in the Greek romance called The Loves of 
Thedgenls and Charicleia, by Heliodo'ros 
bishop of Trikka (fourth century). 

Chari'no, father of Angelina. Charino 
wishes Angelina to marry Clodio, a young 
coxcomb ; but the lady prefers his elder 
brother Carlos, a young bookworm. Love 
changes the character of the diffident 
Carlos, and Charino at last accepts him 
for his son-in-law. Charino is a testy, 
obstinate old man, who wants to rule the 
whole world in his own -wz-y.Cibber: 
Love Makes a Man (1694). 

Chariva'ri. In the Middle Ages a 
"charivari" consisted of an assemblage 
of ragamuffins, who, armed with tin 
pots and pans, fire-shovels, and kettles, 
gathered in the dark outside the house of 
any obnoxious person, making the night 
hideous by striking the pots against the 
pans, and howling " Haro I haro ! " or Ma 
the south) "Hari ! hari I " In 1563 tne 
Council of Trent took the matter up, and 
solemnly interdicted " charivaries" under 
pain of excommunication ; nevertheless, 
the practice long continued in some of 
the French villages, notably in La Rus- 

IF Tn East Lavant, near Chichester, be- 
tween 1869 and 1872, 1 witnessed three 


such visitations made to different houses. 
In two cases the husband had bullied his 
wife ; and in one the wife had injured her 
husband with a broomstick. The visi- 
tation in all cases was made for three 
successive nights ; and the villagers as- 
sured me confidently that the ' ' law had 
no power to suppress these demonstra- 

Charlemag-ne and his Pala- 
dins. This series of romances is of 
French origin ; as the Arthurian is Welsh 
or British. It began with the legendary 
chronicle in verse, called Historia de Vita 
Caroli Magni et Rolandi, erroneously 
attributed to Turpin archbishop of Rheims 
(a contemporary of Charlemagne). Pro- 
bably they were written 200 or 300 years 
later. The chief of the series are Huon 
of Bordeaux, Guerin de Monglave, Gaylen 
Rhetori (in which Charlemagne and his 
paladins proceed in mufti to the Holy 
Land), Miles and Ames, Jairdain de 
Blaves, Doolin de Mayence, Ogier le 
Danois, and Maugis the Enchanter. 

Charlemagne was buried at Aix-la-Chapelle in 814. 

i Charlemagne's Stature. We are told 
that Charlemagne was " eight feet high," 
and so strong that he could "straighten 
with his hands alone three horse-shoes at 
once." His diet and his dress were both 
as simple as possible. 

Charlemagne' s Nine Wives: (i) Hamil- 
trude, a poor Frenchwoman, who bore 
him several children. (2) Desidera'ta, 
who was divorced. {3) Hildegarde. (4) 
Fastrade, daughter of count Rodolph the 
Saxon, (s) Luitgarde the German. (The 
last three died before him.) (6) Malte- 
garde. (7) Gersuinde the Saxon. (8) 
Regina. (9) Adalinda. 

Charlemagne's Sword, La Joyeuse. 

Charlemagne and the Ring. Pasquier 
says that Charles le Grand fell in love 
with a peasant-girl [Agatha], in whose 
society he seemed bewitched, insomuch 
that all matters of State were neglected 
by him ; but the girl died, to the g^eat joy 
of alU What, however, was the astonish- 
ment of the court to find that the king 
seemed no less bewitched with the dead 
body than he had been with the living, 
and spent all day and night with it, even 
when its smell was quite offensive. Arch- 
bishop Turpin felt convinced there was 
sorcery in this strange infatuation ; and on 
examining the body, found a ring under 
the tongue, which he removed. Charle- 
magne now lost all regard for the dead 
body; but followed Turpin, with whom 



he seemed infatuated. The archbishop 
now bethought him of the ring, which he 
threw into a pool at Aix, where Charle- 
magne built a palace and monastery ; and 
no spot in the world had such attractions 
for him as Aix-la-Chapelle, where " the 
ring" was buried. Recherches de la 
France, vi. 33. 

Charlemagne not dead. According to 
legend, Charlemagne waits crowned and 
armed in Odenberg [Hesse) or Unters- 
berg, near Saltzburg, till the time of anti- 
christ, when he will wake up and deliver 
Christendom. (See Barbarossa, p. 88.) 

Charlemagne and Years of Plenty. 
According to German legend, Charle- 
magne appears in seasons of plenty. He 
crosses the Rhine on a golden bridge, and 
blesses the corn-fields and vineyards. 

Thou standest, like imperial Chariemagne, 
Upon thy bridge of gold. 

Longfellow: Autumn. I. (See Appendix II.) 

Charles II. of England, introduced 
by sir W. Scott in two novels, viz. 
Peveril of the Peak and Woodstock. In 
this latter he appears first as a gipsy- 
woman, and afterwards under the nama 
of Louis Kemeguy (Albert Lee's page). 

Charles XII. of Sweden. Deter- 
mined to brave the seasons, as he had 
done his enemies, Charles XII. ventured 
to make long marches during the cold 
of the memorable winter of 1709. In one 
of these marches 2000 of his men died 
from the cold. 

Or learn the fate that bleeding thousands bore, 
Marched by their Charles to Dnieper's swampy shore; 
Faint in his wounds, and shivering in the blast, 
The Swedish soldier sank, and groaned his last. 

Campbell: The Pleasures of Hope, ii. (1799). 

(Planch^ has an historical drama, in 
two acts, called Charles XII. ; and the 
Life of Charles XII., by Voltaire, is con- 
sidered to be one of the best-written his- 
torical works in the French language. ) 

Charles "the Bold," duke of Bur- 
gundy, introduced by sir W. Scott in two 
novels, Quentin Durward and Anne of 
Geierstein. The latter contains an ac- 
count of the battle of Nancy {Nahn-sei\ 
where Charles was slain. 

Charles, prince of Wales (called 
* Babie Charles "), son of James I., in- 
troduced by sir W. Scott in The Fortunes 
of Nigel. 

Charles "the Good," earl of Flanders. 
In 1 127 he passed a law that whoever 
married a serf should become a serf: 
thus if a prince married a serf, the prince 


would become a serf. This absurd law 
caused his death, and the death of the 
best blood in Bruges. S. Knowles: The 
Provost of Bruges { 1 836). 

Charles Edward [Stnart], called 
The Chevalier Prince Charles Edward, 
the Young Pretender," introduced by sir 
W. Scott in Redgauntlet (time, George 
in.), first as '* father Buonaventura," and 
afterwards as " Pretender to the British 
crown." He is again introduced m 
Waver ley (time, George H.). 

Cliarles Emmanuel, son of Victor 
Amade'us (4 syl.) king of Sardinia, In 
1730 his father abdicated, but some- 
what later wanted his son to restore the 
crown again. This the son refused to 
do ; and when Victor plotted against him, 
D'Orme'awas sent to arrest the old man, 
and he died. Charles was brave, patient, 
single-minded, and truthful. R. Brown- 
ing : King Victor and King Charles, etc. 

Charles's Wain, the constellation 
called The Great Bear. A corruption of 
the Old English ceorles xveen (" the churl's 
or farmer's waggon ") ; sometimes still 
further corrupted into " king Charles's 

Heigh ho I An t be not four by the day. 111 be 
banged. Charles' wain is over the new chimney. 
Shakespeare: i Henry IV. act ii. sc. i (1597). 
Could he not beg the loan of Charles's wain t 

Byron : Don yuan, iii. 99. (1820). 

Charley [A\ an imperial, or tuft of 
hair on the chin. 

A tuft of hair on his chin, termed grandiloquently 
an " imperial," but familiarly a " Charley." R. M. 
Jephson : The Girl He left behind Him, i. 5. 

Charley, plu. Charleys, an old 
watchman or " night guardian," before 
the introduction of the police force by 
sir Robert Peel, in 1829. So called from 
Charles I., who extended and improved 
the police system. 

Chariot, a messenger from Lie'ge 
{Lee-aje) to Louis XI. Sir W. Scott: 
Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.). 

CHARLOTTE, the faithful sweet- 
heart of young Wilmot, supposed to have 
perished at sea. Lillo : Fatal Curiosity 

Charlotte, the dumb girl, in love with 
Leander ; but her father, sir Jasper, wants 
her to marry Mr. Dapper. In order to 
avoid this hateful alliance, Charlotte pre- 
tends to be dumb, and only answers, 
" Han, hi, han, hon." The " mock 
doctor " employs Leander as his apothe- 

cary, and the young lady is soon cured by 
"pills matrimonial." The jokes in act ii. 
6 are verbally copied from the French. 
Fielding: The Mock Doctor [ij 23)- 

In Molitre's U \Mrrin Malgri Lui. Charlotte la 
called Lucinde " (a syl.). 

Charlotte, daughter of sir John I^m- 
bert, in The Hypocrite, by Bickerstaff 
(1768); in love with Darnley. She is a 
giddy girl, fond of tormenting Darnley ; 
but being promised in marriage to Dr. 
Cantwell, who is 59, and whom she utterly 
detests, she becomes somewhat sobered 
down, and promises Darnley to become his 
loving wife. Her constant exclamation 
is " Lud ! " In Moliere's comedy of 
Tartuffe, Charlotte is called "Mariane," 
and Darnley is " Val^re." 

Charlotte, in Goethe's novel (See 

I.OTTE, p.627. ) 

Charlotte, the pert maidservant of 
the countess Wintersen. Her father was 
"state coachman." Charlotte is jealous 
of Mrs. Haller, and behaves rudely to 
her (see act ii, 3). B. Thomson : Tht 
Stranger (1797). 

Charlotte, servant to Sowerberry. A 
dishonest, rough servant-girl, who ill 
treats Oliver Twist, and robs her master. 
Dickens: Oliver Twist (iS^?)- 

Charlotte, daughter of George IV. 
Her mother's name was Caroline ; her 
husband was prince Coburg ; she was 
married at Carlton House ; her town 
residence was Camelford House ; her 
country residence was Claremont, after- 
wards the property of lord Clive. Princess 
Charlotte died in childbirth, and the name 
of her accoucheur was Croft. 

Charlotte, daughter of general 
Baynes. She marries Philip Firmin, the 
hero of Thackeray's novel The Adventures 
of Philip (i860). 

Charlotte {Lady"), the servant of a 
lady so called. She assumes the airs with 
the name and address of her mistress. 
The servants of her own and other house- 
holds address her as " Your ladyship," or 
" lady Charlotte ; " but though so mighty 
grand, she is " noted for a plaguy pair of 
thick legs. " Rev. James Townley : High 
Life Below Stairs (1759). 

Charlotte Elizabeth, whose sur- 
name was Phelan, afterwards Tonna, 
author of numerous books for children, 
tales, etc. (1825-1862). 

Charlotte Goodchild, a merchant's 




rpTian daughter of large fortune. She is 
pestered by many lovers, and her guardian 
gives out that she has lost all her money 
by the bankruptcy of his house. On this 
all her suitors but one fall off, and that 
one is sir Callaghan O'Brallaghan. Sir 
Callaghan declares he loves her now as 
an equal, and one whom he can serve ; 
but before he loved her "with fear and 
trembling, like a man that loves to be a 
soldier, yet is afraid of a gun." Macklin : 
Love d-la-Mode (1779). 

Cliar'inian, a kind-hearted, simple- 
minded attendant on Cleopat'ra. After 
the queen's death, she applied one of the 
asps to her own arm ; and when the 
Roman soldiers entered the room, fell 
down dead. Shakespeare: Antony and 
Cleopatra (i6o8); and Dry den : All for 
Love (1678). 

Cliar'teris {Sir Patrick) of Kinfauns, 
provost of VerXh. Sir W. Scott: Fair 
Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Chartist Clergyman [The), Rev. 
Charles Kingsley (1809-1877). 

Chartre [Le billet qu a la), the 
promise of a candidate to those he can- 
vasses. The promise of a minister or 
prince, which he makes from politeness, 
and forgets as soon. Ah, le bon billet qu' 
a la Chartre. Ninon de Lenclos. 

Charyllis, in Spenser's pastoral 
Colin Clout's Come home Again, is lady 
Compton. Her name was Anne, and she 
was the fifth of the six daughters of sir 
John Spenser of Althorpe, ancestor of 
the noble houses of Spenser and Marl- 
borough. Edmund Spenser dedicated to 
her his satirical fable called Mother Hub- 
bards Tiz/*? (1591). Char}'llis was thrice 
married ; her first husband was lord Mont- 
eagle, and her third was Robert lord 
Buckhurst (son of the poet Sackville), 
who succeeded his father in 1608 as earl 
of Dorset. 

No less praiseworthy are the sisters three. 
The honour of the noble family 
Of which I meanest boast myself to be, . 
Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis : 
Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three, 
The next to her is bountiful Charyllis. 

Colin Cloufs Come Home Ag'oin (1594). 

Cliase ( The), a poem in four books, 
by Somerville (1735), in blank verse. 
The subject is thus indicated 

The chase I sin^, hounds and their rarious breed. 
And no less various use. 

Chaste ( The), Alfonso II. of Asturias 
and Leon (738, 791-835 abdicated, died 

Chastelard, a tragedy of Swin- 
burne (1865). A gentleman of Daupliiny, 
who fell in love with Mary queen of 
Scots. He is discovered in the queen's 

Chastity {Tests of) : Alasnam's 
mirror, Arthur's drinking-horn, the boy's 
mantle, cutting the brawn's head, Flori- 
mel's girdle, the horn of fidelity, la coupe 
enchant^e, the mantle of fidelity, the 
grotto of Ephesus, etc.. (See Caradoc, 
p. 177, and each article named. ) 

Chd,tean en Espag'xie. (See 

Castle in the Air, p. 186.) 

Chatookee, an Indian bird that 
never drinks at a stream, but catches the 
rain-drops in falling. Period. Account of 
the Baptist Missionaries, ii. 309. 

Less pure than these Is that strangle Indian bird, 
Who never dips in earthly stream her bill. 

But, when the sound of coming showers is heard. 
Looks up, and from the clouds receives her fill. 
Southey: Curse of Kehama, xxi. 6 {1809). 

Chat'tanach {M' Gillie), chief of the 
clan Chattan. .S?> W. Scott: Fair Maid 
of Perth (time, Henry IV.). 

Chat'terley (-^.fw. 5m<?), "the man 
of religion " at the Spa, one of the man- 
aging committee. Sir IV. Scott: St. 
Ronan's Well {\S.ts\^, George III,). 

Chaubert {Mons. ), Master ChiflSnch's 
cook. 6Vr W. Scott : Peveril of the Peak 
(time, Charles II.). 

Chaucer of France, Q^ment 

Marot (1484-1544). 

Chan'nns. Arrogance personified in 
The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher 
(1633). "Fondly himself with praising 
he dispraised." Fully described in canto 
viii. (Greek, tf;^aoj, "vain.") 

Chan'vinism, a blind idolatry of 
Napoleon I. Now it is applied to a blind 
idolatry of France and Frenchmen. A 
chauvin is the person who idolizes. The 
word is taken from "Chauvin" in 
Scribe's Soldat Laboureur, a veteran 
soldier of the first empire, whose admira- 
tion of Napoleon was unbounded, and 
who honoured even " the shadow of his 

Such is the theme on which French chauvinism Is 
inexhaustible. Times, 1871. 

Cheap as the Sardinians {Latin). 
The reference is to the vast crowds of 
Sardinian prisoners and slaves brought to 
Rome by Tiberius Gracchus. 

Cheap Jack means market Jack or 


Jack the chapman. (Anglo-Saxon, chepe, 
" a market," hence Cheap-side.) 

Clieatly (2 syl.), a lewd, imprudent 
debauchee of Alsatia (Whitefriars). He 
dares not leave the "refuge " by reason 
of debt ; but in the precincts he fleeces 
young heirs of entail, helps them to 
money, and becomes bound for them. 
Shadwell: Squire of Alsatia {1688). 

Che'liar, the tutelar angel of Mary 
sister of Martha and Lazarus of Bethany. 
Klopstock: The Messiah, -xXx. {1771). 

Clied'eraza'de (5 syl.), mother of 
Hem'junah and wife of Zebene'zer sultan 
of Cassimir'. Her daughter having run 
away to prevent a forced marriage with 
the prince of Georgia, whom she had 
never seen, the sultana pined away and 
died. .S> C. Morell [J. Ridley] : Tales 
of the Genii (" Princess of Cassimir," tale 
vii., 1751). 

Cliederles {z^yl-), a Moslem hero, 
who, like St. George, saved a virgin 
exposed to the tender mercies of a huge 
dragon. He also drank of the waters of 
immortality, and still lives to render aid 
in war to any who invoke him. 

When Chederl^ comes 
To aid Uie Moslem on his deathless horse, 
. . . as [ i/1 he had newly quaffed 
The hidden waters of eternal youth. 

Southey: Joan of Arc, vi. 302, etc (1837). 

Clxeerly' ^Mrs.), daughter of colonel 
Woodley. After being married three 
years, she was left a widow, young, hand- 
some, rich, lively, and gay. She came 
to London, and was seen in the opera by 
Frank Heartall, an open-hearted, im- 
pulsive young merchant, who fell in love 
with her, and followed her to her lodging. 
Ferret, the villain of the story, misinter- 
preted all the kind actions of Frank, attri- 
buting his gifts to hush-money ; but his 
character was amply vindicated, and " the 
soldier's daughter " became his blooming 
wife. Cherry : The Soldier s Daughter 

Miss O'Neill, at the ag:e of 19, made her (Ubut at the 
Theatre Royal, Crow Street, la 1811, as "The Widow 
Cheerly." /iK Donaldson. 

Cheeryble Brothers [The), brother 
Ned and brother Charles, the incarnations 
of all that is warm-hearted, generous, 
benevolent, and kind. They were once 
horr^eless boys running about the streets 
barefooted ; and, when they grew to be 
wealthy London merchants, were ever 
ready to stretch forth a helping hand to 
those struggling against the buffets erf 


Frank Cheeryble, nephew of the brothers 
Cheeryble. He married Kate Nickleby. 
Dickens : Nicholas Nickleby (1838). 

Cheese. The "ten topping guests." 
(See CiSJLEy, p. 211.) 

Cheese [Dr.), an English translation 
of the Latin Dr. Caseus, that is. Dr. John 
Chase, a noted quack, who was born in the 
reign of Charles H., and died in that of 
queen Anne. 

Cheese-Cakes. Sir W. Scott, allud- 
ing to the story of " Noiur'eddin' Ali and 
Bed'reddin' Hassan," in the Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments, makes in four or 
five lines as many blunders. The quota- 
tion is from The Heart of Midlothian, 

She, i.e. Effie Deans, amused herself with visiting the 
dairy . . . and was near discovering herself to Mary 
Hetley by betraying her acquaintance with the cele- 
brated receipt for Dunlop cheese, that she compared 
herself to Bedreddin Hassan, whom the vizier his 
/ixther-in-law discovered by his superlative skill ia 
composing cream-tarts with/<r//<r in them. 

(i) It was not "cream-tarts" but 
cheese-cakes. (2) The charge was that he 
made cheese-cakes without putting pepper 
in them, and not " cream-tarts with 
pepper," (3) It was not "the vizier his 
father-in-law," but the widow of Nour- 
eddin Ali and the mother of Bedreddin, 
who made the discovery. She declared 
that she herself had given the receipt to 
her son, and it was known to no one else. 

Chemistry [The Father of), Arnaud 
de Villeneuve (1238 -13 14). 

Che'mos(<:A = k), god of the Moabites ; 
also called Baal-Pe'or; the Pria'pus or 
idol of turpitude and obscenity. Solomon 
built a temple to this obscene idol " in 
the hill that is before Jerusalem " 
(i Ki?igs xi. 7). In the hierarchy of hell 
Milton gives Chemos the fourth rank : (i) 
Satan, (2) Beelzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) 

Next Chemos, the ob'scene dread of Moab's sons . . . 
PeOr his other name. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, 406, <i3 (1665). 

Cheq'uers, a public-house sign ; the 
arms of Fitz- Warren, the head of which 
house, in the days of the Plantagenets, 
was invested with the power of licensing 
vintners and publicans. 

The Chequers of Abingdon Street, West- 
minster, the bearings of the earls of 
Arundel, at one time empowered to grant 
licences to public-houses. 

Cherone'an ( Tfui) or The Cherone'- 
AN Sage [ch = k), Plutarch, who was 



bom at Chaerone'a, in Boeo'tia (a.d. 46- 

This praise, O Cheronean sage, Is thine I 

Beattie: Minstrel (ijj^. 

Clier'ry, the lively daughter of Boni- 
face, landlord of the inn at Lichfield. 
* Farquhar : The Beaux Stratagem (1707). 
(See below, Chery, ) 

Cherry [Andrew), comic actor and 
dramatist (1762-1812), author of The 
Soldier's Daughter, All for Fame, Two 
Strings to your Bow, The Village, Spanish 
Dollars, etc. He was specially noted for 
his excellent wigs. 

Shall sapient managers new scenes produce 
From Cherry, Skeffington, and Mother Goose t 
Byron ; English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809}. 

{Mother Goose is a pantomime by C. 

Cher'sett (Anglo-Saxon, chirch-sett, 
or " church-seed," ecclesice semen), a cer- 
tain quota of wheat annually made to the 
Church on St. Martin's Day. 

All that measure of wheat called chersett. Deed qf 
Giji to Boxgro^e Priory (near Chichester). 

Clier'tLbiiu {Don), the "bachelor of 
Salamanca," who is placed in a vast 
number of different situations of life, and 
made to associate with all classes of 
society, that the authors may sprinkle 
his satire and wit in every direction. 
Lesage : The Bachelor of Salamanca 

Clier'y, the son of Brunetta (who was 
the wife of a king's brother), married 
his cousin. Fairstar, daughter of the king. 
He obtained for his cousin the three 
wonderful things : The dancing water, 
which had the power of imparting 
beauty ; the singing apple, which had the 
power of imparting wit ; and the little green 
bird, which had the power of telling 
secrets. Comtesse D' Aulnoy : Fairy Tales 
("The Princess Fairstar," 1682). 

Cliesse ( The Game and Play of), the 
first book printed by William Caxton, at 
the Westminster Press (1474). The art of 
printing by movable type was known at 
Mayence, Strasburg, and Haarlem some 
20 years before Caxton set up his press in 

Ches'ter (^^V John), a plausible, 
foppish villain, the sworn enemy of 
Geoffrey Haredale, by whom he is killed 
in a duel. Sir John is the father of Hugh, 
the gigantic servant at the Maypole inn. 

Edward Chester, son of sir John, and 
the lover of Emma Haredale. Dickens: 
Bamaby Rudge (1841). 

Chester Mysteries, certain miracle- 
plays performed at Chester in the fifteenth 
century, and printed in 1843 for the 
Shakespeare Society, under the care 
of Thomas Wright. (See Townley 

N.B. There were 24 dramas, one for 
each city company. Nine were performed 
on Whit-Monday, nine on Whit-Tuesday, 
and the other six on Wednesday. The 
" Fraternity of the Passion " was licensed 
in France, in 1402. 

.' Several manuscript copies of the Chester Myracle- 
Plays exisL That of the duke of Devonshire is dated 
1581 ; those in the British Museum are dated 1600 and 

Chesterfield {Charles), a young man 
of genius, the hero and title of a novel by 
Mrs. Trollope (1841). The object of this 
novel is to satirize the state of Uterature 
in England, and to hold up to censure 
authors, editors, and publishers, as pro- 
fligate, selfish, and corrupt. 

Chesterfield House (London), 
built by Isaac Ware for Philip fourth 
earl of Chesterfield, author of Chester- 
field! s Letters to his Son (1694-1773). 

Chesterton {Paul), nephew to Mr. 
Percy Chaffington, stock-broker and M. P. 
Morton : If I had a Thousand a Year 

Chevalier Malfet {Le). So sir 
Launcelot calls himself after he was cured 
of his madness. The meaning of the 
phrase is " The knight who has done ill," 
or "The knight who has trespassed." 
Sir T. Malory : History of Prince Arthur, 
iii. 20 (1470). 

Cheveril {Hans), the ward of Mor- 
dent, just come of age. Impulsive, 
generous, hot-blooded. He resolves to 
be a rake, but scorns to be a villain. 
However, he accidentally meets with 
Joanna "the deserted daughter," and 
falls in love with her. He rescues her 
from the clutches of Mrs. Enfield the 
crimp, and marries her. Holcroft: The 
Deserted Daughter (altered into The 
Steward), (1785). 

The part that placed me [JValter Lacy] in the posi- 
tion of a light comedian was " Clieveril," in The 
Steward, altered from Hoicroit's Deserted /Daughter. 
VK Lacy: Letter to C. W. Russell. 

Chevy Chase is not the battle of 
Otterburn, although the two are mixed 
up together in the ballad so called. Chevy 
Chase is the chase of the earl of Douglas 
among " the Chyviat Hyls " after Percy 
of Northumberland, who had vowed " he 



would hunt there three days without 
asking the warden's consent." 

The Pers^ owt of Northombarlande, 

And a vowe to God mayd he 
That he wolde hunte in the mountayns 

OffChyviat within dayes thre. 
In mauger of dougrhtd Dogles 

And ail that with him be. 

Percy: Rtliqtus, I. L i. 

Cliibialios, the Harmony of Nature 
personified ; a musician, the friend of 
Hiawatha, and ruler in the land of spirits. 
When he played on his pipe, the " brooks 
ceased to murmur, the wood-birds to sing, 
the squirrel to chatter, and the rabbit sat 
upright to look and listen." He was 
drowned in lake Superior by the breaking 
of the ice. 

Most beloved by Hiawatha 
Was the gentle Chibiabos ; 
He the best of all musicians, 
He the sweetest of all sing-ers. 

Lon^/elloTu: Hiawatha, vi. and rr. 

ClxicaneaTi [She'-ka-no'\ a litigious 
tradesman, in Les Plaideurs, by Racine 

CMchl-Vaclie (3 syl.), a monster 
that fed only on good women. The word 
means the " sorry cow." It was all skin 
and bone, because its food was so ex- 
tremely scarce. (See Bycorn, p. 163.) 

O noble wyvAs, full of heigh prudence. 
Let noon humilitie your tongas navle . . . 
Lest Chichi- Vache you swolive in her entraile. 
Chaucer: Canterbury Tales (" Merchant's Tale," 1388). 

Cliick (Mr.), brother-in-law of Mr. 
Dombey; a stout gentleman, with a 
tendency to whistle and hum airs at in- 
opportune moments. Mr. Chick is some- 
what hen-pecked ; but in the matrimonial 
squalls, though apparently beaten, he not 
unfrequently rises up the superior, and 
gets his own way. 

Louisa Chick, Mr. Dombey's married 
sister. She is of a snappish temper, but 
dresses in the most juvenile style ; and is 
persuaded that anything can be accom- 
plished if persons will only "make an 
effort." Dickens : Dombey and Son (1846). 

Chicken {The), Michad Angelo 
Taylor, barrister. So called because in 
his maiden speech, 1785, he said, " I 
deliver this opinion with great deference, 
being but a chicken in the profession of 
the law." 

Chicken ( The Game), a low fellow, to 
be heard of at the bar of the Black Badger. 
Mr. Toots selects this man as his instruc- 
tor in fencing, betting, and self-defence. 
The Chicken has short hair, a low fore- 
head, a broken nose, and " a considerable 
tract of bare and sterile country behind 

each ear." Dickens: Dombey and Son 

Chickens and the An^rs. 

When the augurs told Publius Claudius 
Pulcher, the Roman consul, who was 
about to engage the Carthaginian fleet, 
that the sacred chickens would not eat, he 
replied, " Then toss them into the sea, 
that they may drink." 

Chick'enstalker {Mrs.), a stout, 
bonny, kind-hearted woman, who keeps a 
general shop. Toby Veck, in his dream, 
imagines her married to Tugby, the 
porter of sir Joseph Bowley. Dickens: 
The Chimes (1844). 

Chick'weed {Conkey, i.e. Nosey), 
the man who robbed himself. He was a 
licensed victualler on the point of failing, 
and gave out that he had been robbed of 
327 guineas " by a tall man with a black 
patch over his eye." He was much 
pitied, and numerous subscriptions were 
made on his behalf. A detective was 
sent to examine into the "robbery," and 
Chickweed would cry out, "There he is ! " 
and run after the ' ' hypothetical thief " 
for a considerable distance, and then lose 
sight of him. This occurred over and 
over again, and at last the detective said 
to him, " I've found out who done this 
here robbery." "Have you?" said 
Chickweed. "Yes," says Spyers, "you 
done it yourself." And so he had. 
Dickens: Oliver Twist, xxxi. {1837). 

Chif 'finch {Master Thomas), alias 
Will Smith, a friend of Richard Gau- 
lesse (2 syl.). The private emissary of 
Charles II. He was employed by the 
duke of Buckingham to carry off Alice 
Bridgenorth to Whitehall, but the captive 
escaped and married Julian Peveril, 

Kate Chiffinch, mistress of Thomas Chif- 
finch. 5t> W.Scott: Peveril of the Peak 
(time, Charles II.). 

Chignon \Shin-ydng\^ the French 
valet of Miss Alscrip "the heiress." A 
silly, affected, typical French valet-de- 
chambre. Burgoyne : The Heiress (1718). 

Chilaz, a merry old soldier, lieu- 
tenant to general Memnon, in Paphos. 
yohn Fletcher: The Mad Lover (1617). 

Beaumont died 1616. 

CHILD or Childe, a title given 
to a knight. It is given by Spenser to 
prince Arthur. We have Childe Polande, 
Byron's Childe Harold, Childe Waters, 
Childe Tristram, Childe Childers, etc 
The Spanish in/ante means a " prince." 


Child. The notes of this bank bear 
a marigold, because this flower was the 
trade-mark of " Blanchard and Child." 
The original "marigold" is still to be 
seen in the front office, with the motto, 
Ainsi mm am^.^et First London Direc- 
tory [1677). 

Child {The), Bettina, daughter of 
Maximiliane Brentano. So called from 
the title of her book, Goethe's Corre- 
spondence with a Child. 

Child of Elle (i iyl), a ballad of 
considerable antiquity. The Child of 
Elle loved the fair Emmeline, but the 
two families being severed by a feud, the 
lady's father promised her to another. 
The Child of Elle told Emmeline's page 
that he would set her free that very night, 
but when he came up, the lady's damselle 
betrayed her to her father, who went in 
pursuit with his " merrie men all." The 
Child of Elle slew the first who came 
up, and Emmeline, kneeling at her father's 
feet, obtained her forgiveness and leave 
to marry her true love. He said to the 

And as thou love her, and hold her deafe. 

Heaven prosper thee and thine ; 
And now my blessing wend wi' thee, 

My lovely Emmeline. 

Child of Nature [The), a play by 
Mrs. Inchbald. Amantis is the "child of 
Nature," She was the daughter of Al- 
berto, banished "by an unjust sentence," 
and during his exile he left his daughter 
under the charge of the marquis Almanza. 
Amantis was brought up in total ignorance 
of the world and the passion-principles 
which sway it, but felt grateful to her 
guardian, and soon discovered that what 
she called "gratitude" the world calls 
" love." Her father returned home rich, 
his sentence cancelled and his innocence 
allowed, just in time to give his daughter 
in marriage to his friend Almanza. 

Child of the Cord. So the defend- 
ant was called by the judges of the 
Vehm-gericht, in Westphalia; because 
every one condemned by the tribunal was 
hanged to the branch of a tree, 

Child-Ein^. Shakespeare says, 
" Woe to that land that's governed by a 
child ! " {Richard III. act ii. sc. 3). 

Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a chfld I 
Secies. X..16. 

Childe Harold, a man sated with 
the world, who roams from place to place, 
to kill time and escape from himself. 
The 'childe" is, in fact, lord Byron 


himself, who was only 21 when he began 
the poem, which was completed in seven 
years. In canto i. the "childe" visits 
Portugal and Spain (1809) ; in canto ii., 
Turkey in Europe (1810); in canto iii., 
Belgium and Switzerland (18 16) ; and in 
canto iv., Venice, Rome, and Florence 

Childe Waters. The fair Ellen was 
enceinte of Childe Waters, and, when he 
went on his travels, besought that she 
might be his foot-page. She followed 
him in this capacity barefoot through 
"mosse and myre." They came to a 
river, and the knight pushed her in, but 
" our Ladye bare upp her chinne," and 
she came safe ashore. Having treated 
her with other gross indignities, she was 
taken with the throes of childbirth while 
on the knight's steed. The child was 
bom, and then Childe Waters relented, 
and married the much-wronged mother. 
Percy : Reliques (Third Series, No. 9). 

Chil'ders {E. W. B.), one of the 
riders in Sleary's circus, noted for his 
vaulting and reckless riding in the cha- 
racter of the "Wild Huntsman of the 
Prairies." This compound of groom 
and actor marries Josephine, Sleary's 

Kidderminster Childers, son of the 
above, known in the profession as 
"Cupid." He is a diminutive boy, with 
an old face and facetious manner wholly 
beyond his years. Dickens : Hard Times 

Children ( The Henneierg). It is said 
that the countess of Henneberg railed at a 
beggar for having twins ; and the beggar, 
turning on the countess, who was 42 years 
old, said, "May you have as many 
children as there are days in a year ! " 
Sure enough on Good Friday, 1276, the 
countess brought forth 365 at one birth ; 
all the males were christened John, and 
all the females Elizabeth. They were 
buried at a village near La Hague, and 
the jug is still shown in which they were 

\ A similar story is told of lady Scars- 
dale, who reproved a gipsy-woman who 
applied for alms at Kedleston Hall, be- 
cause she was about to become a mother. 
The beggar, turning on her moralizer, said, 
" When next you are in my condition, 
may you have as many children at a birth 
as there are days in the week ! " It is 
said that ere long the lady actually was 
dilivered of seven children at a birth. 



and that " the fact" is set forth in Latin 
in Kedleston Church. 

Children in the Wood, the little 
son (three years old) and younger 
daughter (Jane), left by a Norfolk gentle- 
man on his death-bed to the care of his 
deceased wife's brother. The boy was to 
have ;^30o a year on coming of age, and 
the girl /soo as a wedding portion ; but 
if the children died in their minority the 
money was to go to the uncle. The 
uncle, in order to secure the property, 
hired two ruffians to murder the children, 
but one of them relented and killed his 
companion ; then, instead of murdering 
the babes, left them in Wayland (Wailing) 
Wood, where they gathered blackberries, 
but died at night with cold and terror. 
All things went ill with the uncle, who 
perished in gaol, and the ruffian, after a 
lapse of seven years, confessed the whole 
villainy. Percy: Reliques, III. ii. 18. 

Children of the Mist, one of the 

branches of the MacGregors, a wild race 
of Scotch Highlanders, who had a skir- 
mish with the soldiers in pursuit of Dal- 
getty and M'Eagh among the rocks 
(ch. 14). Sir W. Scott: Legend of Mont- 
rose (time, Charles I.). 

Chiilip [Dr.), a physician who at- 
tended Mrs. Copperfield at the birth of 

He was the meekest of his set, the mildest of little 
m&n. Dickens: David Copperfield, i. (1849). 

Chillon' [Prisoner of), Fran9ois de 
Bonnivard, of Lunes, the Genevise patriot 
(1496-1570) who opposed the enterprises 
of Charles III. (the duke-bishop of 
Savoy) against the independence of 
Geneva, and was cast by him into the 
prison of Chillon, where he was confined 
for six years. Lord Byron makes him 
one of six brothers, all of whom were 
victims of the duke-bishop ; one was 
burnt at the stake, and three were im- 
prisoned at Chillon. Two of the prisoners 
died, but Franpois was set at liberty by 
the people of Berne. Byron : Prisoner 
of Chillon (1816). 

Chil'minar', the city of "forty pil- 
lars," built by the genii for a lurking- 
place to hide themselves in. Balbec was 
also built by the genii. 

Chim^ne [La Belle) or Xime'na, 
daughter of count Lozano de Gormaz, 
wife of the Cid. After the Cid's death 
she defended Valentia from the Moors 
with great bravery, b'it without success. 

Comeille and Guilhem de Cantro have 
introduced her in their tragedies, but the 
role they represent her to have taken is 
wholly imaginary. 

Chimes ( The), a Christmas story by 
Dickens (1844). It is about some bells 
which rang the old year out and the new 
year in. Trotty Veck is a little old 
London ticket-porter and messenger. 
He hears the Christmas chimes, and 
receives from them both comfort and 

China, a corruption of Tsina, the ter- 
ritory of Tsin. The dynasty of Tsin 
(B.C. 256-202) takes the same position in 
Chinese history as that of the Normans 
(founded by William the Conqueror) does 
in English history. The founder of the 
Tsin dynasty built the Great Wall, Hiivided 
the empire into thirty-six provinces, and 
made roads or canals in every direction, 
so that virtually the empire begins with 
this dynasty. 

Chinaman [John), a man of China. 

ChindasTiin'tho (4 syl.), king of 
Spain, father of Theod'ofred, and grand- 
father of Roderick last of the Gothic 
kings. Southey : Roderick, etc. (1814), 

Chinese Philosopher [A). Oliver 
Goldsmith, in the Citizen of the World, 
calls his book ' ' Letters from a Chinese 
Philosopher residing in London to his 
friends in the East " (1759). 

Chinese Tales, translated into French 
prose by Gueulette, in 1723. The 
French tales have been translated into 


Chingachcook, the Indian chief, 
called in French Le Gros Serpent. Feni- 
more Cooper has introduced this chief in 
four of his novels. The Last of the Mo- 
hicans, The Pathfinder, The Deerslayer, 
and The Pioneer. 

Chintz [Mary), Miss Bloomfield's 
maid, the bespoke of Jem Miller. C. 
Selby: The Unfinished Gentleman. 

Chi'os [The Man of). Homer, who 
lived at Chios \JCV-os\ At least Chios 
was one of the seven cities which laid 
claim to the bard, according to the Latin 
hexameter verse 

Smyrna, Rhodes, ColSphon, SaUmls, Chios, Argos, 

Our national feelings are In unison with the bard of 
Chios, and his heroes who live in his verse. 5y W, 
Scott: Th< Atenasttry (introduction). 


Clxim'side {Luckie), poulterer at 
Wolfs Hope village. 5z> W. Scott: 
Bride of Lammer moor {\!\vs\&, William III.). 

Chi'ron, a centaur, renowned for his 
skill in hunting, medicine, music, gymnas- 
tics, and prophecy. He numbered among 
his pupils, Achilles, Peleus, Diomede, 
and indeed all the most noted heroes of 
Grecian story. Jupiter took him to 
heaven, and made him the constellation 

... as Chiron erst had done 
To that proud bane of Troy, her eod-resemblinz son 

Drayton : Polyolbion, v. (1612). 

Chitlingf ( Tom), one of the associates 
of Fagin the Tew. Tom Chitling was 
always most deferential to the "Artful 
Dodger." Dickens: Oliver Twist {1837). 

Chivalry {TAe Flozver of), William 
Douglas, lord of Liddesdale (fourteenth 

Clilo'e {ICy-i], the shepherdess be- 
loved by Daphnis, in the pastoral romance 
called Daphnis and Chloi, by Longus. 
St, Pierre's tale of Paul and Virginia is 
based on this pastoral. 

Cliloe, in Pope's Moral Essay (epistle 
11), is meant for lady Suffolk, mistress of 
George H. " Placid, good-natured, and 
kind-hearted, but very deaf and of mean 
intelligence. " 

Virtue she finds too painful an endeavour, 
Content to dwell on decencies for ever. 

Chlo'e or rather Cloe. So Prior calls 
Mrs. Centlivre (1661-1723). 

Chloe or Cloe is a stock name in pastoral poetry. 
The male name is generally Stephen. 

Chlo'ris, the ancient Greek name of 

Around your haunts 
The laughing: Chloris with profusest hand 
Throws Avide her blooms and odours. 

Akenside : Hymn to the Naiads. 

Choas'pes {3 syL), a river of Susia'na, 
noted for the excellency of its water. 
The Persian kings used to carry a suffi- 
cient quantity of it with them when 
journeying, so that recourse to other 
water might not be required. 

There Susa, by Choaspes' amber stream. 
The drink of none but kings. 
Milton : Paradise Regained, HI. a88 (1661). 

Choe'reas [ch=^k), the lover of Cal- 
lirrho^, in the Greek romance called The 
Loves of Chcereas and Callirrhoi, - by 
Char'iton (eighth century). 

Choice [The), a poem in ten-syllabic 
rhymes, by John Pomfret (1699). His 
beau-ideal is a rural literary life. 


Choke [General), a lank North 
American gentleman, "one of the most 
remarkable men in the century." He 
was editor of The Watertoast Gazette, 
and a member of "The Eden Land 
Corporation." It was general Choke 
who induced Mai'tin Chuzzlewit to stake 
his all in the egregious Eden swindle. 
Dickens: Martin Chuszleu'it (18^). 

Cholmondeley [Cham'-ly], of Vale 
Royal, a friend of sir Geoffrey Peveril. 
Sir W. Scott: Peveril of the Peak (time, 
Charles IL). 

Cholmondeley, in Ainsworth's 
Tower of London (1843), is the squire of 
lord Guildford Dudley. 

Cholnla [Pyramid of), the great 
Mexican pyramid, west of Puebla, 
erected in the reign of Montezuma 
emperor of Mexico (1466-1520). Its 
base is 1423 feet each side, or double 
that of the largest Egyptian pyramid, but 
its height does not exceed 164 feet. 

Choppard [Pierre), one of the gang 
of thieves, called "The Ugly Mug." 
When asked a disagreeable question, he 
always answered, " I'll ask my wife, my 
memory's so shppery." Stirling: The 
Courier of Lyon* (1852). 

Choruses. The foUovinng are druid- 
ical, and of course Keltic in origin : 
" Down, down, derry down I " (for dun / 
dun! daragon, dun!), that is, "To the 
hill ! to the hill ! to the oak, to the hill ! " 
"Fal, lal, la!" (for/a//4 Id), that is, "The 
circle of day ! " The day or sun has com- 
pleted its circle. " Fal, lero, loo I " (for 
falld, lear lu [aidh]), that is, " The circle 
of the sun praise!' "Hey, nonnie, non- 
nie!" that is, "Hail to the noon 1 " 
"High trolollie, lollie lol " (for ai [or 
aibhe], trah lA, ' ' Hail, early day ! " trahla, 
"early day," Id lee [or Id lo], "bright 
day!"). " Lilli burlero" (for Li, It 
beur, Lear-a I buille na Id), that is, 
" Light, light on the sea, beyond the 
promontory I 'Tis the stroke of day 1 " 
All the Year Round, 316-320, August, 

Chrestien de Troyes. The chevalier 
au Lion, chevalier de I'Ep^e, was the 
Lancelot du Lac of mediaeval French 
romance (twelfth century). 

Chriemhil'da. (See under K.) 

Chrisom Child [A), a child that dies 
within a month of its birth. So called 



^^feause it is buried in the white clolh 
anointed with fAmw (oil and balm), worn 
at its baptism. 

He's in Arthur's [Abraham's] hosom, if ever man 
went to Arthur's bosom. "A made a finer end, and 
went away, an it had been any christom [fhrisotn] 
child. 'A parted just ... at turning o' the tide. 
(Quickly's description of the death of Falstaff.) 
Siiakesfeare : Henry V. act ii. sc 3 (1599)- 

Why, Mike's a chUd to him ... a chrism child. 
Ingelow: Brothers and a Sermon. 

CHirist and His Apostles. Dupuis 
maintained that Christ and His apostles, 
like Hercules and his labours, should be 
considered a mere allegory of the sun and 
the twelve signs of the zodiac. 

Christ's Victory and Triumphs. 

a poem in four parts, by Giles Fletcher 
(1610) : Part i. " Christ's Victory in 
Heaven," when He reconciled Justice with 
Mercy, by taking on Himself a body of 
human flesh; part ii. "Christ's Triumph 
on Earth," when He was led up into the 
wilderness, and was tempted by Pre- 
sumption, Avarice, and Ambition ; part 
iii. " Christ's Triumph over Death," when 
He died on the cross ; part iv. ' ' Christ's 
Triumph after Death," in His resurrection 
and ascension. (See Paradise Re- 

Chris'tabel [ch = i), the heroine of 
a fragmentary poem of the same title by 
Coleridge (18 16). 

Christabel, the heroine of an ancient 
romance entitled Sir Eglamour of Artois. 

Christabelle \Kri^ -ta-ber\, daughter 
of "abonnie king of Ireland," beloved 
by sir Cauhne (2 syl.). When the king 
knew of their loves, he banished sir 
Cauline from the kingdom. Then, as 
Christabelle drooped, the king held a 
tournament for her amusement, every 
prize of which was carried off by an 
unknown knight in black. On the last 
day came a giant with two "gogghng 
eyes, and mouthe from ear to ear," 
called the Soldain, and defied all comers. 
No one would accept his challenge save 
the knight in black, who succeeded in 
killing his adversary, but died himself of 
the wounds he had received. When it 
was discovered that the knight was sir 
Cauline, the lady " fette a sighe, that 
burst her gentle hearte in twayne." 
Percy: Reliques {" Sir Cauline," I. i. 4). 

CHRISTIAN, a follower of Christ. 
So called first at Antioch. Acts xi. 26. 

Christian, the hero of Bunyan's 
allegory called The Pilgrim's Progress. 
He flees from the City of Destruction 


and journeys to the Celestial City. At 
starting he has a heavy pack upon bis 
shoulders, which falls off immediately he 
reaches the foot of the cross. (The pack, 
of course, is the bundle of sin, which is 
removed by the blood of the cross. 1678.) 

Christian, captain of the patrol in a 
small German town in which Mathis is 
burgomaster. He marries Annette, the 
burgomaster's daughter. J. R. Ware: 
The Polish Jew. 

Christian, synonym of " Peasant" in 
Russia. This has arisen from the abund- 
ant legislation under czar Alexis and czar 
Peter the Great to prevent Christian serfs 
from entering the service of Mohammedan 
masters. No Christian is allowed to 
belong to a Mohammedan master, and 
no Mohammedan master is allowed to- 
employ a Christian on his estate. 

Christian II. (or Chrisliern), king of 
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. When 
the Dalecarlians rose in rebellion against 
him and chose Gustavus Vasa for their 
leader, a great battle was fought, in which 
the Swedes were victorious ; but Gustavus 
allowed the Danes to return to their 
country. Christian then abdicated, and 
Sweden became an independent kingdona. 
H. Brooke: Gustavus Vasa (1730). 

Christian {Edward), a conspirator. 
He has two aliases, " Richard Gan'lesse" 
(2 syl.) and '* Simon Can'ter." 

Colonel William Christian, Edward's 
brother. Shot for insurrection. 

Fenella, alias Zarah Christian, daughter 
of Edward Christian. Sir W. Scott: 
Pcveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.). 

Christian {Fletcher), mate of the 
Bounty, under the command of captain 
Bligh, and leader of the mutineers. After 
setting the captain and some others adrift, 
Christian took command of the ship, and, 
according to lord Byron, the mutineers 
took refuge in the island of Toobouai (one 
of the Society Islands). Here Torquil, 
one of the mutineers, married Neuha, a 
native. After a time, a ship was sent 
to capture the mutineers. Torquil and 
Neuha escaped, and lay concealed in a 
cave ; but Christian, Ben Bunting, and 
Skyscrape were shot. This is not accord- 
ing to fact, for Christian merely touched 
at Toobouai, and then, with eighteen of 
the natives and nine of the mutineers, 
sailed for Tahiti, where all soon died 
except Alexander Smith, who changed 
his name to John Adams, and became a 
model patriarch. Byron: The Island. 




Cb.ristiaii Doctor {Mosi), Joha 
Charlier de Gerson {1363-1429). 

Christian Eloquence ( TAe Founder 
of), Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704). 

Christian Kingf [Most). So the 
kings of France were styled. Pepin le 
Bref was so styled by pope Stephen III. 
(714-768). Charles II. le Chauve was 
so styled by the Council of Savonni^res 
(823, 840-877). Louis XI. was so styled 
by Paul II. {1423, 1461-1483) ! 1 

Christian Sen'eca [The), J. Hall, 
bishop of Norwich, poet and satirist 

Christian Year [The), "Thoughts 
in verse for every Sunday and Holiday 
throughout the Year," by John Keble 

Christian'a [ch = k), the wife of 
Christian, who started with her children 
and Mercy from the City of Destruction 
long after her husband's flight. She was 
under the guidance of Mr. Greatheart, 
and went, therefore, with silver slippers 
along the thorny road. This forms the 
second part of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress (1684). 

Chris'tie (2 syl.) of the Clint Hill, 
one of the retainers of Julian Avenel (2 
syl.), Sir W. Scott: The Monastery 
(time, Ehzabeth). 

Christie {John), ship-chandler at 
Paul's Wharf. 

Dame Nelly Christie, his pretty wife, 
carried off by lord Dalgarno. Sir W. 
Scott : Fortunes of Nigel (time, James I.). 

Christi'na, daughter of Christian II. 
king of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. 
She is sought in marriage by prince 
Arvi'da and by Gustavus Vasa ; but the 
prince abandons his claim in favour of 
his friend. After the great battle, in 
which Christian is defeated by Gustavus, 
Chrisiina chngs to her father, and pleads 
with Gustavus on his behalf. He is 
sent back to Denmark, with all his men, 
without ransom, but abdicates, and 
Sweden is erected into a separate king- 
dom. H.Brooke: Gustavus Vasa (1730). 

Chris 'tine (2 syl.), a pretty, saucy 
young woman, in the service of the 
countess Marie, to whom she is devotedly 
attached. After the recapture of Ernest 
("the prisoner of State"), she goes 
boldly to king Frederick II., from whom 
she obtains his pardon. Being set at 

liberty, Ernest marries the countess. 
Stirling : The Prisoner of State (1847). 

Christmas Carol [A), o. Christmas 
story in prose by Dickens (1843). The 
subject is the conversion of Scrooge, ' ' a 
grasping old sinner," to generous good 
temper, by a series of dreams. Scrooge's 
clerk is Bob Cratchit. The moral in- 
fluence of this story was excellent. It is 
an admirable Christmas tale. 

Christmas Day, called "the day 
of new clothes," from an old French 
custom of giving those who belonged to 
the court new cloaks on that day. 

On Christmas Eve, 1245, the king[/:owir IX. '\ bade all 
his court be present at early morning mass. At the 
chapel door each man received his new cloak, put it on, 
and went in ... As the day rose, each man saw on his 
neighbour's shoulder betokened " the crusading vow." 
Kitchin : History 0/ France, \. 328. 

Chris'topher (5^.), a saint of the 
Roman and Greek Churches, said to have 
lived in the third century. His pagan 
name was Oflfgrus, his body was twelve 
ells in height, and he lived in the land of 
Canaan. Offerus made a vow to serve 
only the mightiest; so, thinking the 
emperor was " the mightiest," he entered 
his service. But one day the emperor 
crossed himself for fear of the devil, and 
the giant perceived that there was one 
mightier than his present master, so he 
quitted his service for that of the devil. 
After a while, Offerus discovered that the 
devil was afraid of the cross, whereupon 
he enlisted under Christ, employing him- 
self in carrying pilgrims across a deep 
stream. One day, a very small child was 
carried across by him, but proved so 
heavy that Offerus, though a huge giant, 
was well-nigh borne down by the weight. 
This child was Jesus, who changed the 
giant's name to Christoferus, " bearer of 
Christ." He died three days afterwaids, 
and was canonized. 

Like the great giant Christopher, it stands 
Upon the brink of the tempestuous wave. 

Lons/elloTv : The Lig-hthouse, 

Christopher, the head-waiter in 
Somebody's Luggage, a tale by Dickens 

Chronicle ( The), a relation, in eight- 
syllable verse, of the poet's various sweet- 
hearts. Cowley (1618-1667). 

Chronicle [The Saxon), an historical 
prose work in Anglo-Saxon, down to the 
reign of Henry II., a.d. 1154. 

Chroniclers [Anglo-Norman), a 
series of writers on British history, in 
verse, of very early date. Geffroy Gaimar 




wrote his Anglo-Norman chronicle before 
1 146. It is a history, in verse, of the 
Angb-Sj>xon kings, Kobert Wace wrote 
the Brut d Angleterre [i.e. Chronicle of 
England . in eight-syllable verse, and pre- 
sented his work to Henry II. It was 
begun in 1160, and finished in 1170. 

Latin Chroniclers, historical writers of 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

Rhyming Chroniclers, a series of 
writers on English history from the 
thirteenth century. The most noted are : 
Layamon (called " the English Ennius ") 
bishop of Ernleye-upon-Severn (1216). 
Robert of Gloucester, who wrote a narra- 
tive of British history, from the landing 
of Brute to the close of the reign of 
Henry III. ( to 1272). No date is 
assigned to the coming of Brute, but he 
was the son of Silvias ^ne'as (the third 
generation from /Eneas who escaped from 
Troy, B.C. 1 1 83), so that the date may be 
assumed to be B.C. 1028, thus giving a 
scope of 2300 years to the chronicle. 
(The verse of this chronicle is eight and 
six syllables displayed together, so as to 
form lines of fourteen syllables each.) 
Robert de Brunne, whose chronicle is in 
two parts. The first ends with the death 
of Cadwallader, and the second with the 
death of Edward I. The earlier parts are 
similar to the Anglo-Norman chronicle of 
Wace. (The verse is octo-syllabic. ) John 
Harding wrote a chronicle, in rhyme, 
down to the reign of Edward IV. (1470) ; 
it was edited by sir Henry Ellis, in 1812. 

Clironicles. Two books of the Old 
Testament bear this title. 'Y\\^ first book 
contains the history of David from the 
death of Saul, and corresponds to the 
Second Book of Samuel. The second 
book devotes the first nine chapters to a 
biography of Solomon, and the rest to an 
epitome of kings of Judah to the time of 
the Captivity. 

The first nine chapters correspond to x Kings iU.-xl. 

Chronicles of Canongfate, cer- 
tain stories supposed to have been written 
by Mrs. Martha Bethune BaUol, a lady 
of quality and fortune, who lived, when 
in Edinburgh, at Baliol Lodging, in the 
Canongate. These tales were written at 
the request of her cousin, Mr. Croft- 
angry, by whom, at her death, they were 
published. The first series contains The 
Highland Widow, The Two Drovers, 
and {The Surgeon's Daughter, afterwards 
removed from this series} The second 
series contains The Fair Maid of Perth. 
Sir W. Scott: "Chronicles of Canon- 

gate " (introduction of The Highland 


Chronology [The Father of), J. J. 
Scaliger (1540-1609). 


He strikes Bom bard in'ean, general of his 
forces, for giving him hashed p)ork, and 
snying, "Kings as great as Chronon- 
hotonthologos have made a hearty meal 
on worse." The king calls his general a 
traitor. " Traitor in thy teeth ! " retorts 
the general. They fight, and the king 
dies. Carey: Chrononhotonthologos (a 
burlesque, 1734). 

Clxrysale (2 syl.), a simple-minded, 
hen-pecked French tradesman, whose wife 
Philaminte (3 syl. ) neglects her house for 
the learned languages, women's rights, 
and the aristocracy of mind. He is him- 
self a plain practical man, who has no 
sympathy with the pas blue movement. 
Chrysale has two daughters, Armande 
(2 syl.) and Henriette, both of whom love 
Clitandre ; but Armande, who is a "blue- 
stocking," loves him platonically ; while 
Henriette, who is a "thorough woman," 
loves him with woman's love. Chrysale 
sides with his daughter Henriette, and 
when he falls info money difficulties 
through the "learned proclivities" of his 
wife, Clitandre comes forward like a 
man, and obtains the consent of both 
parents to his marriage with Henriette. 
Moliire : Les Femmes Savantes (1672). 

Chrysa'or \ch = k), the sword of 
sir Ar'tegal, which " exceeded all other 
swords." It once belonged to Jove, and 
was used by him against the Titans, but 
it had been laid aside till Astraea gave it 
to the Knight of Justice. 

Of most perfect metal it was made, 

Tempered with adamant ... no substance was so . . . 

But it would pierce or cleave whereso it came. 

S/enser: faerie Queent, v. (1596^ 

N.B. The f)oet tells us it was broken 
to pieces by Radigund queen of the Ama- 
zons (bk. V. 7), yet it reappears whole 
and sound (canto 12), when it is used with 
good service against Grantorto [the spirit 
of rebellion). Spenser says it was called 
Chrysaor because " the blade was gar- 
nished all with gold." 

Chrysa'or, son of Neptune and 
Medu'sa. He married Callir'rhofi (4 syl.), 
one of the sea-nymphs. 

Chrysaor rising out of the sea, 

Showed thus glorious and thus emulous, 
Leaving the arms of Challirroe. 

Lon^fencrw : The Evening- Star, 



Cliryseis [A^ri-seZ-iss], daughter of 
Chrysfis priest of Apollo. She was famed 
for her beauty and her embroidery. 
During the Trojan war Chtyseis was 
taken captive and allotted to Agamemnon 
king of Argos, but her father came to 
ransom her. The king would not accept 
the offered ransom, and ChrysSs prayed 
that a plague might fall on the Grecian 
camp. His prayer was answered ; and 
in order to avert the plague Agamemnon 
sent the lady back to her father, not only 
without ransom, but laden with costly 
gifts. Homer: Iliad, i. 

Clirysos, a rich Athenian, who called 
himself " a patron of art," but measured 
art as a draper measures tape. Gilbert: 
Pygmalion and Galatea {1871). (See 
Critic, p.244.) 

Clirysostom, a famous scholar, who 
died for love of Marcella, "rich William's 

Unrivalled In learning and wit, he was sincere in 
disposition, generous and magnificent without ostenta- 
tion, prudent and sedate witliout affectation, modest 
and complaisant without meanness. In a word, one of 
the foremost in goodness of heart, and second to none 
in misfortunes. Coz/aw/lM . Don Quixote, I. ii. s (1605). 

N.B. The saint (317-407) was called 
Chrysostom, Golden-mouth, for his great 
eloquence. His name was John. (Greek, 
chrusos, "gold ;" stoma, " mouth.") 

CliTicks, the boatswain under captain 
Savage. Marry at: Peter Simple (1833). 

CliTiffey, Anthony Chuzzlewit's old 
clerk, almost in his dotage, but master 
and man love each other with sincerest 

Chuflfey fell back into a dark comer on one side of 
the fire-place, where he always spent his evenings, and 
was neither seen nor heard . . . save once, when a cup 
of tea was given him, in wliich he was seen to soak his 
bread mechanically. . . . He remained, as it were, 
frozen up, if any term expressive of such a vigorous 
process can be applied to \am. Dickens ; Martin 
Ckuxzleiuit, xL (1843). 

Chtin^e {A la), very huge and bulky. 
Chun^e was the largest elephant ever 
brought to England. Henry Harris, 
manager of Covent Garden, bought it 
for ;^9oo to appear in the pantomime of 
Harlequin Padmenaba, in iBia It was 
subsequently sold to Cross, the proprietor 
of Exeter 'Change. Chun6e at length 
became mad, and was shot by a detach- 
ment of the Guards, receiving 152 wounds. 
The skeleton is preserved in the museum 
of the College of Surgeons. It is la feet 
4 inches high. 

Churcli. I go to church U> hear God 
praised, not the king. This was the wise 

but severe rebuke of George III. to Dr. 
Wilson, of St. Margaret's Church, London, 

Chnrcli "built by Voltaire. Vol- 
taire the atheist built at Ferney a Christian 
church, and had this inscription affixed 
to it, " Deo erexit Voltaire." Campbell, 
in the life of Cowper (vol. vii. 358), says 
' ' he knows not to whom Cowper alludes 
in these lines " 
Nor his who for the bane of thousands bom. 
Built God a church, and laughed His Word to scorn. 
Cowper: Retirement (1783). 

Chnrcli - of - Euglaudism. This 
word was the coinage of Jeremy Ben- 
tham (1748-1832). 

Churchill (Ethel), a novel by L. E. 
L. (Letitia E. Landon), 1837. Walpole 
and other contemporaries of George I. 
are introduced, 

Chuz'zlewit [Anthony), cousin of 
Martin Chuzzlewit the grandfather. 
Anthony is an avaricious old hunks, 
proud of having brought up his son 
Jonas to be as mean and grasping as 
himself. His two redeeming points are 
his affection for his old servant Chuffey, 
and his forgiveness of Jonas after his 
attempt to poison him. 

The old-established firm of Anthony Chuzzlewit and 
Son, Manchester warehousemen . . . had its place of 
business in a very narrow street somewhere behind the 
Post-Office. ... A dim, dirty, smoky, -tumble-down, 
rotten old house it was . . . but here the firm . . . 
transacted their business ... and neither the young 
man nor the old one had any other residence. Chap, xl 

Jonas Chuzzlewit, son of Anthony, of 
the "firm of Anthony Chuzzlewit and 
Son, Manchester warehousemen." A 
consummate villain of mean brutafity 
and small tyranny. He attempts to 
poison his old father, and murders Mon- 
tague Tigg, who knows his secret. Jonas 
marries Mercy Pecksniff, his cousin, and 
leads her a life of utter misery. His 
education had been conducted on money- 
grubbing principles; the first word he 
was taught to spell was gain, and the 
second money. He poisons himself to 
save his neck from the gallows. 

This fine young man had aD the inclination of a 
profligate of the first water, and oifly lacked the one 
good trait In the common catalogue of debauched 
vices open-handedness to be a notable vagabond 
But there his griping and penurious babiu stepped 
in. Chap, xL 

Martin Chuzzlewit, sen., grandfather 
to the hero of the same name. A stern 
old man, whose kind heart has been 
turned to gall by the dire selfishness of 
his relations. Being resolved to expose 
Pecksniff, he goes to live in his house, 
and pretends to be weak in intellect, but 


expose the canting scoundrel in all his 

Martin Chuzzlewit, jun., the hero of 
the tale called Martin Chuzzlewit, grand- 
son to old Martin, His nature has been 
warped by bad training, and at first he 
is both selfish and exacting ; but the 
troubles and hardships he undergoes in 
"Exien" completely transform him, and 
he becomes worthy of Mary Graham, 
whom he marries. Dickens : Martin 
Chuzzlewit [i^^). 

Chyndo'nax, a chief druid, whose 
tomb (with a Greek inscription) was 
discovered near Dijon, in 1598. 

Ciacco' (2 syl.), a glutton, spoken to 
by Dante, in the third circle of hell, the 
place to which gluttons are consigned to 
endless woe. The word means " a pig," 
and is not a proper name, but only a 
symbolical one. Dante: Hell, vi. (1300). 

Ciacco, thy dire affliction grieves me much. 

Hell, vi. 

Cicero. When the great Roman 
orator was given up by Augjustus to the 
revenge of Antony, it was a cobbler who 
conducted the sicarii to Formiae, whither 
Cicero had fled in a litter, intending to 
put to sea. His bearers would have 
fought, but Cicero forbade them, and 
one Herennius has the unenviable noto- 
riety of being his murderer. 

It was a cobbler that set the murderers on Cicero. 
Oitidi : AriadrU, i. 6, 

(Some say that Publius Lsenas gave 
the fatal blow.) 

Cicero of the British Senate, George 
Canning (1770-1827), 

Cicero of France, Jean Baptiste Mas- 
sillon (1663-1742), 

Cicero of Germany, John elector of 
Brandenberg ( 1455, 1486-1499). 

Cicero's Mouth, Pliilippe Pot, prime 
minister of Louis XI, (1428-1494), 

The British Cicero, William Pitt, earl 
of Chatham (1708-1778), 

The Christian Cicero, Lucius Ccelius 
Lactantius (died 330). 

The German Cicero, Johann Sturm, 
printer and scholar (1507-1589), 

Cicle'nius. So Chaucer calls Mer- 
cury, He was named Cylle'nius from 
mount Cylle'nS, in Peloponnesus, where 
he was born, 

Ciclenius riding in his chirachee. 
Chaucer: Compl. 0/ Man and VenuJ(\^\). 

Cid [The) = Seid or Signior, also 
called Campeador [Cam-pa' -dor] or 
"Camp hero," Rodrigue Diaz de eivar 



was surnamed "the Cid." The great 
hero of Castille was born at Burgos 1030 
and died 1099. He signalized him- 
self by his exploits in the reigns of 
Ferdinand, Sancho H., and Alphonso VI. 
of Leon and Castille. In the wars be- 
tween Sancho II, and his brother (Al- 
phonso VI,), he sided with the former; 
and on the assassination of Sancho, was 
disgraced, and quitted the court. The Cid 
then assembled his vassals, and marched 
against the Moors, whom he conquered 
in several battles, so that Alphonso was 
necessitated to recall him. 

The Spanish chronicle of the Cid belongs to the 
thirteenth century, and was first printed in 1544 ; 

another version was by Medina del Camno, m 1552. 

The Spanish poetn of the Cid dates from izo? ; and 
102 ballads of the Cid in Spanish were publLsiied in 

Southey published an excellent English Chronicle 0/ 
the Cid m 1808; Lockhart translated into English 
verse 8 of the ballads ; George Dennis rendered into 
prose and verse a connected Ule of the great Spanish 
he ' " 

tragedies on the subject ; Ross Neil has an English 
drama called The Cid; Sanchez, in 1775, wrote a long 
poem of 1 128 verses called Poema del Cid Campeador. 

(And it was the tragedy of The Cid which gamed for 
Comeille (in 1636) the title ai Le grand Comeille.) 

N.B. The Cid, in Spanish romance^ 
occupies the same position as Arthur 
does in English story, Charlemagne in 
French, and Theodorick in German 

The Cids Father, don Diego Lainez. 

The Cid^s Mother, dona Teresa Nunez, 

The CiiTs Wife, Xime'na, daughter of 
count Lozano de Gormaz. The French 
call her La Belle Chimine, but the rdle 
ascribed to her by Comeille is wholly 

Never more to thine own castle 
Wilt thou turn Babieca's rein [3 syLy, 

Never will thy loved Ximena 
Sec thee at her side again. 

The Cid. 

The Cid's Children. His two daughters 
were Elvi'ra and Sol ; his son Diego 
Rodriquez died young. 

The Cid's Horse was Babieca [either 
Bab-i-i-keh or Ba-bee^-keh\ It survived 
its master two years and a half, but no 
one was allowed to mount it. Babieca 
was buried before the monastery gates of 
Valencia, and two elms were planted to 
mark the spot. 

Troth it goodly was and pleasant 
To behold him at their head. 

All in mail on Babieca [4 syl.\ 
And to list the words he said. 

The Cid. 

The CicTs Swords, Cola 'da and Tizo'na 
("terror of the world "). The latter was 
taken by him from king Buscar. 

The Portuguese Cid, Nunez Alva'rez 
Perei'ra (1360-1431). 



Cid Hamet Benengeli, the hy- 
pothetical aathor of Don Quixote. (See 


Spanish commentators have discovered 
this pseudonym to be only an Arabian 
version of Signior Cervantes. Cid, i.e. 
' ' signior ; " Hamet, a Moorish prefix ; 
and Ben-en-geli, meaning "son of a stag." 
So cervato ("a young stag") is the basis 
of the name Cervantes. 

Cider, a poem by John Philips 
{1708), in imitation of the Georgics of 

Cidli, the daughter of Jairus, re- 
stored to life by Jesus. She was beloved 
by Sem'ida, the young man of Nain, also 
raised by Jesus from the dead. Klop- 
stock : The Messiah, iv. (1771). 

Cil'laros, the horse of Castor or 
Pollux, so named from Cylla, in Troas. 

Cimmerian Darkness. Homer 
places the Cimmerians beyond OceSnus, 
in a land of never-ending gloom ; and 
immediately after Cimmeria he places 
the empire' of HadSs. Pliny [Historia 
Naturalis, vi. 14) places Cimmeria near 
the lake Avernus, in Italy, where "the 
sun never penetrates." Cimmeria is now 
called Kertch, but the Cossacks call it 
Prekla [Hell). 

There under ebon shades and low-browed necks . . . 
In dark Cimmerian deserts ever dwell. 

Milton : L'Allesro (1638). 
Ye spectre-doubts that roll 
Cimmerian darkness on the parting soui 

Campbell: Pleasures 0/ Hope, ti. (1799). 

Cincinna'tus of the Americans, 

George Washington (1732-1799). 

Cinderella, the heroine of a fairy 
tale. She was the drudge of the house, 
' ' put upon " by her two elder sisters. 
While the elder sisters were at a ball, a 
fairy came, and having arrayed the 
' ' little cinder-girl " in ball costume, sent 
her in a magnificent coach to the palace 
where the ball was given. The prince 
fell in love with her, but knew not who 
she was. This, however, he discovered 
by means of a "glass slipper" which 
she dropped, and which fitted no foot 
but her own. 

^ This tale is substantially the same as 
that of Rhodopis and Psammifichus in 
.^lian {Var. Hist., xiii. 32V A similar 
one is also told in Strabo [Georg. xvii. ). 
It is known all over Italy. 

(The glass slipper should be the/ar 
slipper, pantoufle en vair, not en verre ; 
our version being taken from the Contes 
de Feesoi C. Perrault, 1697.) 

Thou wilt find 
My fortunes all as fair as hers who lay 
Among the ashes, and wedded a king's son. 

Tennyson ; Gareth and Lynette, p. 76. 

"IF The variant of this tale as told of Rho- 
dope (3 syl. ), about B. c. 670, is this : Rho- 
dop&was bathing, when an eagle pounced 
on one of her slippers and carried it off, 
but dropped it at Memphis, where king 
Psammetlcus was, at the time, holding a 
court of justice. Struck with the beauty 
and diminutive size of the shoe, he sent 
forth a proclamation for the owner. In 
due time Rhodop^ was discovered, and, 
being brought before the king, he married 
her. Strabo and ^lian. 

Cinna, a tragedy by Pierre Corneille 
(1637). Mdlle. Rachel, in 1838, took the 
chief female character, and produced a 
great sensation in Paris. 

Cinq-Mars (//. Coiffler de Ruze, 
marquis de), favourite of Louis XIII. and 
protigi of Richelieu (1620-1642). Irri- 
tated by the cardinal's opposition to his 
marriage with Marie de Gonzague, Cinq- 
Mars tried to overthrow or to assassinate 
him. Gaston, the king's brother, sided 
with the conspirator, but Richelieu dis- 
covered the plot ; and Cinq-Mars, being 
arrested, was condemned to death. 
Alfred de Vigny published, in 1826, a 
novel (in imitation of Scott's historical 
novels) on the subject, under the title of 

CincLuecento (4 syl.), \h& five-hun- 
dred epoch of Italian notables. They 
were Ariosto (1474-1533), Tasso (1544- 
1595), and Giovanni Rucellai (1475- 
1^26) , poets ; Raphael (1483 -1520), Titian 
(1480-1576), and Michael Angelo (1474- 
1564), painters. These, with Machiavelli, 
Luigi Alamanni, Bernardo Baldi, etc., 
make up what is termed the " Cinque- 
centesti," The word means the worthies 
of the '500 epoch, and it will be observed 
that they all flourished between 1500 
and the close of that century. (See 

Ouidk writes in winter mornings at a Venetian 
writing-table of cinquecento work that would en- 
rapture the souls of the virtuosi who haunt Christie's. 
E. Yates : Celebrities, xix. 

Cipan'go or Zipango, a marvel- 
lous island described in the Voyages 
of Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller. 
He described it as lying some 1500 miles 
from land. This island was an object of 
diligent search with Columbus and other 
early navigators ; but it belongs to that 
wonderful chart which contains the El 
Dorado of sir Walter Raleigh, the Utopia 




of sir Thomas More, the Atlantis of lord 
Bacon, the Laputa of dean Swift, and 
other places better known in story than 
in geography. 

Cipher. The Rev. R. Egerton War- 
birton, being asked for his cipher by 
a lady, in 1845, wrote back 

A u I thee. 

Oh 1 no but me ; 

Yet thy my one go. 

Till u d the u so. 
A cipher you sigh-for, I sigh-for thee. 
Oh 1 sigh-for no cipher, but sigh-for me ; 
Yet thy sigli-for my cipher one ci-for go [on-ce I for-gol 
Till you de-cipher the cipher you sigh-for so. 

(Erroneously ascribed to Dr. Whewell. ) 
Dr. Whewell's cipher is as follows : 

A headless man had a letter fO] to write ; 
He who read it \nau^k(\ had lost his sight ; 
The dumb repeated it \nau^h(\ word for word ; 
And deaf was the man who listened and heard 

'.' Not equal to the above is the Epi- 
taph on a Fifer 

Hie jacet x S 4 (one small Fifer) 
4 I a 8 (hate) 

4X30 (sigh for) 

o 3 8 o 8 
o a 4 s 4 

Circe (2 syl.), a sorceress who meta- 
morphosed the companions of Ulysses 
into swine. Ulysses resisted the en- 
chantment by means of the herb mo/y, 
given him by Mercury. 

Who knows not Circe, 
The daughter of the sun, whose charmed cup 
Whoever tasted lost his upright shape. 
And downward fell into a grovelling swine t 

Milton : Comus (1634). 

Circtut {Serjeant), in Foote's farce 
called The Lame Lover (1770). 

Circnmlocntion Office, a term 
applied by Dickens, in Little Dorrit 
(1855), to our public offices, where the 
duty is so divided and subdivided that 
the simplest process has to pass through 
a whole series of officials. The following, 
from baron Stockmar, will illustrate the 
absurdity : 

In the. English palace the lord steward yfwrfj the fuel 
and lays the fire, but the lord chamberlain lights it. 
The baron says he was once sent by the queen 
\yictoria\ to sir Frederick Watson (master of the 
household), to complain that the drawing-room was 
always cold. Sir Frederick replied, " You see, it is 
not nty fault, for the lord steward only lays the fire, it 
is the lord chamberlain who lights it. 

Again he says 

The lord chamberlain provides the lamps, but the lord 
steward has to see that they are trimmed and lighted. 

Here, therefore, the duty is reversed. 

If a pane of glass or the door of a cupboard in the 
kitchen needs mending, the process is as follows : (i) A 
requisition must be prepared and signed by the chief 
cook. (2) This must be countersigned by the clerk of 
the kitchen. (3) It is then taken to the master of the 
household. (4) It must next be authorized at the lord 
chamberlain's office. (0 Being thus authorized, it is 
laid before the clerk of the works under the ofiSce of 

Woods and Forests. So that It would toke months 
before the pane of glass or cupboard could be mended. 
Mevioirs, ii. 121, 12a. 

(Some of this foolery has been recently 
abolished. ) 

Cirrlia, one of the summits of Par- 
nassus, sacred to Apollo. That of Nysa, 
another eminence in the same mountain, 
was dedicated to Bacchus. 

My vows I send, my homage, to the seats 
Of rocky Cirrha. 

Attnside : Hymn to tkt Naiads (1767). 

Cis'ley or Ciss, any dairy-maid. 
Tusser frequently speaks of the ' ' dairy- 
maid Cisley," and in April Husbandry 
tells Ciss she must carefully keep these 
ten guests from her cheeses : Geha'zi, 
Lot's wife, Argus, Tom Piper, Crispin, 
Lazarus, Esau, Mary Maudlin, Gentiles, 
and bishops, (i) Gehazi, because a 
cheese should never be a dead white, 
like Gehazi the leper. (2) Lot's wife, 
because a cheese should not be too salt, 
like Lot's wife. (3) Argus, because a 
cheese should not be full of eyes, like 
Argus. (4) Tom Piper, because a cheese 
should not be " hoven and puffed," like 
the cheeks of a piper. (5) Crispin, 
because a cheese should not be leathery, 
as if for a cobbler's use. (6) Lazarus, 
because a cheese should not be poor, like 
the beggar Lazarus. (7) Esau, because 
a cheese should not be hairy, hke Esau. 
(8) Mary Maudlin, because a cheese 
should not be full of whey, as Mary 
Maudlin was full of tears. (9) Gentiles, 
because a cheese should not be full of 
maggots or gentils. (10) Bishops, be- 
cause a cheese should not be made of 
burnt milk, or milk "banned by a 
bishop." Tusser: Five Hundred Points 
of Good Husbandry (" April," 1557). 

Citizen {The), a farce by Arthur 
Murphy. George Philpot is destined to 
be the husband of Maria Wilding. But as 
Maria Wilding is in love with Beaufort, 
she behaves so sillily to her betrothed 
that he refuses to marry her ; whereupon 
she gives her hand to Beaufort (1757). 

Citizen Eingf {The), Louis Philippe, 
the first elective king of France (1773, 
1830-1849, abdicated and died 1850). 

CITY, plu. Cities. 

City of Churches {The), Brooklyn, New 
York, which has an unusual number of 

City of David {The), Jerusalem. 2 
Sam. V. 7, 9. 

City of Destruction { The), this world, or 
rather the worldly state of the uncon- 
verted, Bunyan makes " Christian" flee 



from the City of Destruction and journey 
to tiie Celeitial City. By which he alle- 
gorizes the ' ' walk of a Christian " from 
conversion to death (1678). 

City of Enchantments, a magical city 
described in the story of " Beder Prince 
of Persia." Arabian Nights' Entertain- 

City of God [The), the Church, or whole 
body of believers. The phrase is used 
by St. Augustine. 

City of Lanterns ( T?ie), an imaginary 
cloud-city somewhere beyond the zodiac. 
Lucian : Veres Histories. 

City of Legions, Caerleon-on-Usk. 
Newport is the port of this ancient city 
(Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire). 
It was in the City of Legions that Arthur 
held his court. It contained two cathe- 
drals, viz. St. Julius and St. Aaron, built 
in honour of two martyrs who suffered 
death here in the reign of Diocletian. 

City of Masts {The), London. 

City of Monuments ( The\ Baltimore, in 
Maryland. One of its streets is called 
Monument Street. 

City of Palaces ( The). Three cities are 
so called : (i) Rome from the reign of 
Augustus. Agrippa converted " a city of 
brick huts into a city of marble palaces." 
{2) Calcutta. (3) St. Petersburg is so 
called, from its numerous Imperial and 
Government edifices. 

City of Refuge {The), Medi'na, in 
Arabia, where Mahomet took refuge 
when driven by conspirators from Mecca. 
He entered the city, not as a fugitive, 
but in triumph (a.d. 622). 

Cities of Refuge, Bezer, Ramoth, and 
Golan {east of Jordan); Hebron, She- 
chem, and Kedesh {west of that river). 
Deut. iv. 43 ; Josh. xx. 1-8. 

City of the Great King {The), Jeru- 
salem. Psabn xlviii. 2 ; Matt. v. 33. 

Cities of the Plain {The), Sodom and 
Gomorrah. Gen. xiii. 12. 

City of the Prophet, Medi'na, in Arabia, 
where Mahomet was protected when he 
fled from Mecca (July 16, A. D. 622), 

City of the Sun {The), Balbec, called in 
Greek, Heliop'olis ("sun-city"). 

(In Campanella's romance the " City of 
the Sun " is an ideal republic, constructed 
on the model of Plato's republic. It is an 
hypothetical perfect society or theocratic 
communism. Sir T. More in his Utopia, 
and lord Bacon in his Atlantis, devised 
similar cities. ) 

City of the Tribes, Galway, in Ireland, 
" the residence of thirteen tribes," wh^ih 
settled there in 1235. 

City of the West, Glasgow, in Scotland, 
situate on the Clyde, the principal river 
on the west coast. 

The Cleanest City in the World { The), 
Broek, in Holland, which is "painfully 
neat and clean." 

The Seven Cities, Thebes (in Egypt), 
Jerusalem, Babylon, Athens, Rome, Con- 
stantinople, and London (for commerce) 
or Paris (for beauty). 

(In the Seven Wonders of the World, 
the last of the wonders is doubtful, some 
giving the Pharos of Egypt, and others 
the Palace of Cyrus ; so again in the Seven 
Sages of Greece, the seventh is either 
Periander, Myson, or Epimen'idSs.) 

City Madam {The), a comedy by 
Philip Massinger (1633). The City 
madam was the daughter of farmer 
Goodman Humble, and married sir John 
Frugal, a merchant, who became im- 
mensely wealthy, and retired from busi- 
ness. By a deed of gift he transferred 
his wealth to his brother Luke, whereby 
madam and her daughter were both made 
dependent on him. During her days of 
wealth the extravagance of lady Frugal 
was unbounded, and her dress costly 
beyond conception ; but Luke reduced 
her state to that of a farmer's daughter. 
Luke says to her 

You were served in plate ; 
Stirred not a foot without a coach, and going 
To church, not for devotion, but to show 
Your pomp. 
The City Madam\% an extraordinarily spirited picture 
of actual life, idealized into a semi-comic strain of poetry. 
Professor Spalding. 

City Mouse and Country Mouse 

{The), a fable by Prior (1689), in ridicule 
of Dryden's Hind and Panther. A city 
mouse invited a country mouse to supper, 
and set before his guest all sorts of 
delicacies ; but, in the midst of the feast, 
a cat rushed in and broke up the banquet. 
Whereupon the country mouse exclaimed 
that she preferred a more frugal fare with 
Civil Wars of England. 

There Dutton Dutton kills ; a Done doth kill a Done ; 

A Booth a Booth, and Leigh by Leigh is overthrown ; 

A Venables against a Venables doth stand ; 

A Troutbcck fighteth with a Troutbeck hand to hjuid ; 

There Molineux doth make a Molineux to die. 

And Egerton the strength of Egerton doth try. 

Drayton : Polyolbion, xxii. (1622). 

(S. Daniel, in 1609, published a rhyming 
chronicle of these wars, in eight books. ) 

Civi'lis, the great Batavian hero, 
swore to leave his beard and hair uncut 
till he had driven out the Romans (b.c. 69), 

\ Lumeq (count de la Marck), a de- 
scendant of ' ' The Wild Boar of Ardennes," 


swore to do the same till he had liberated 
his country from the Spaniards. Motley : 
Dutch Republic, partiii. 4. (See Isabella. ) 

Clack-Dish, a dish or platter with a 
lid, used at one time by beggars, who 
clacked the lid when persons drew near, 
to arrest attention and thus solicit alms. 

Your begrgar of fifty ; and his use was to put a ducat 
in her clack-dish. Shakespeart : Measure for Mea- 
sure, act iii. sc a (1603). 

Cladpole (Tim), Richard Lower, of 
Chiddingly, author of 7'om Cladpole's 
Journey to Lunnun (1831) ; Jan Clad- 
fole's Trip to 'Merricur (1844), etc. 

Claimant {The). William Knollys, 
in The Great Banbury Case, claimed the 
baronetcy, but was non-suited. This 
suit lasted 150 years (i66o-i8ii). 

IT Douglas V. Hamilton, in The Great 
Douglas Case, was settled in favour of the 
claimant, who was at once raised to the 
peerage under the name and title of 
baron Douglas of Douglas Castle ; but 
was not restored to the title of duke 

H Tom Provis, a schoolmaster of ill 
repute, who had married a servant of sir 
Hugh Smithes of Ashton Hall, near 
Bristol, claimed the baronetcy and estates. 
He was non-suited and condemned to im- 
prisonment for twenty-one years (1853). 

IF Arthur Orton, who claimed to be sir 
Roger Tichborne (drowned at sea). He 
was non-suited and sentenced to fourteen 
years' imprisonment for perjury (1871- 

Clamades (3 syl. ), son of king Cram- 
part, who mounted his father's wooden 
horse, and was conveyed through the 
air at the rate of 100 miles an hour. 
Alkman : Reynard tlie Fox (1498). 

Clandestine Marriage ( The). 
Fanny Sterling, the younger daughter of 
Mr. Sterling, a rich city merchant, is 
clandestinely married to Mr. Lovewell, 
an apprentice in the house, of good 
family ; and sir John Melvil is engaged 
to Miss Sterling, the elder sister. Lord 
Ogleby is a guest in the merchant's house. 
Sir John prefers Fanny to her elder sister, 
and not knowing of her marriage, proposes 
to her, but is rejected. Fanny appeals to 
lord Ogleby, who, being a vain old fop, 
fancies she is in love with him, and tells 
Sterling he means to make her a countess. 
Matters being thus involved, Lovewell 
goes to consult with Fanny about de- 
claring their marriage, and the sister, 
convinced that sir John is shut up in her 
sister's room, rouses the house with a cry 

213 CLARA. 

of ' Thieves ! " Fanny and Lovewell rK)w 
make their appearance. All parties are 
scandalized. But Fanny declares they 
have been married four months, and lord 
Ogleby takes their part. So all ends 
well. Colman and Garrick (1766). 

(This comedy is a richauffi of The 
False Concord, by Rev. James Townley, 
many of the characters and much of the 
dialogue being preserved.) 

Clan^ of Shields. To strike the 
shield with the blunt end of a spear was 
in Ossianic times an indication of war to 
the death. A bard, when the shield was 
thus struck, raised the mort-song. 

Cairbar rises in his anns. Darkness gathers on hb 
brow. The hundred harps cea