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Bibliographic Series 



No. 5 



MOLASSES 



ARTHUR D. LITTLE, Inc, 

CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 




CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
1920 



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CoUpgp of Idtbfral Arts 

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READING LIST 

ON 

MOLASSES 



Compiled by 
CLARENCE JAY WEST \ S %h> 

Information Department 
Arthur D. Little, Inc. 

Cambridge, Mass. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
1920 



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copyright, 1920 
Arthur D. Little, Inc. 



THE MURRAY PRINTING COMPANY 
KENDALL SQUARE, CAMBRIDGE 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 5 

Composition 5 

Uses 6 

Sugar 6 

Alcohol 6 

Food 7 

Fuel 8 

Fertilizer 8 

Other Uses 8 

Statistics 8 

Bibliography 11 

General 11 

Composition 15 

Analysis 20 

Recovery of Sugar 28 

Fermentation 31 

Uses 34 

Fertilizer 34 

Foods and feeding-stuffs 36 

Miscellaneous 47 

Abbreviations Used 48 



MOLASSES 



Introduction 

Molasses is probably the most important by-product of the 
sugar industry. It is also of interest from a chemical point of view 
and because of the variety of ways in which it has been utilized. 

Molasses is the final mother sirup obtained in the crystal- 
lization of sugar. The manufacturing processes of the sugar 
industry may roughly be divided into two. The first is the puri- 
fication of the juice obtained from the cane or beet, in which 
lime, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide are the principal reagents 
used, and the concentration to a sirup. The second is the frac- 
tional crystallization of the sifup or *' thick juice " to obtain the 
sugar. In this vacuum pans and crystalHzers are employed to 
produce crystals which are separated by means of centrifugals. 
The impurities, organic and inorganic, present in the juice (usu- 
ally termed "non-sugars") prevent the crystallization of a cer- 
tain part of the sugar; it is this final mother liquor which is 
molasses. It contains all the soluble impurities of the original 
juice, not removed in the process of purification, together with 
the sugar associated with them. The importance of molasses is 
seen when it is realized that from 15 to 25% of the sugar present 
in the original juice is found in the final molasses. 

Distinction is sometimes made between a " true " molasses, 
which is a mother sirup from which no more sugar can be crystal- 
lized out under the most favorable conditions and a "commercial'* 
molasses, which is obtained in manufacturing processes. Under 
efficient operating conditions, the two are practically the same. 
Low-grade cane molasses is often spoken of as blackstrap molasses. 

Composition 

The following analyses are average values for cane and beet 
molasses : 

Cane Beet 

% % 

Water 20 20 

Sucrose 30 50 

Raffinose Present 

Invert Sugar 32 Trace 

Ash 6 10 

Organic (non-sugar) 12 20 

Sugar: non-sugar 3:5 5:3 

Sugar: ash 5:1 5:1 



g MOLASSES 

The ash is interesting because of its high potash content 
and the very low soda content. Even in the presence of a large 
excess of soda salts in the soil, the sugar cane assimilates potash 
if available; and if not, it withers and dies. The potash content, 
which depends upon the nature of the soil, varies from 2 to 6%. 
During the war, because of the high cost of potash, serious attempt 
was made to recover this potash, and a plant was erected in 
California. The molasses was first fermented, the alcohol dis- 
tilled, the yeast separated and the waste or slop evaporated to 
about 30° Be, and then burned in a reverberatory furnace. About 
4 to 6% ash containing 36 to 38% potash was obtained, which 
was sold as such to the fertilizer industry. With the return to a 
normal price the process will probably not be a profitable one. 

The non-sugar portion includes gum, organic acids (amino- 
acids) nitrogeneous bodies, caramel and other products of decom- 
position of the sugars. Betaine is isolated in considerable quantity 
and is used for medicinal purposes. 

Uses 

Sugar. Various processes have been developed through 
which the sugar present in the molasses may be recovered. 
These processes consist either in removing some of the impuri- 
ties so as to increase the ratio of sugar to non-sugar present, or 
in precipitating the sugar as an insoluble compound, by the use 
of barium, strontiiun, or calcium oxide. These salts are then 
decomposed with carbon dioxide, when sugar and the correspond- 
ing carbonate are obtained. The barium process is in operation 
at Wallaceburg, Ontario, while the lime process (Steffen process) 
is used by the Great Western Sugar Co. The strontium process 
is used in Germany. Of the three processes the barium yields a 
product of the highest purity (93%) as compared with 88% for 
the strontium and 81% for the calcium process. On the other 
hand, the recovery of bariimi oxide from the carbonate involves 
an expensive electric furnace installation. In spite of the lower 
purity of the product from the calcium process, it would seem 
that this is the most satisfactory method for the ordinary factory. 

Alcohol. One of the important uses of molasses is for the 
production of industrial alcohol. Formerly, it was also used for 
the manufacture of rum. Since the sugar is present in a fer- 
mentable form, it requires no preliminary treatment, such as is 
necessary in the case of grain and potatoes. The molasses is 
simply diluted to a suitable concentration (17 to 22%), acidified 
with sulfuric acid, inoculated with yeast, and allowed to stand at 
an initial temperature of 18°C. (65°F.) for 48 to 96 hours, when 
the fermentation is complete. The yield is about 3.75 gallons of 
95% alcohol per 100 pounds of molasses, or about 75 gallons per ton. 

The following tables give the amount of molasses consumed 



INTRODUCTION 



Molasses used 
Gallons 


Rum produced 
Gallons 


2,900,376 


2,253,624 


3,833,578 


2,844,313 


3,943,301 


2,908,898 


3,653,755 


2,881,414 


1,860,361 


1,526,743 


1,000,425 


816,103 


-OLOGNE Spirits 




Molasses used 


Spirits produced 


Gallons 


Gallons 


39,392,697 


20,587,200 


*119,467,918 


39,736,548 


77,034,173 


58,052,924 


*108,843,878 


82,460,340 


*116,167,599 


83,293,277 


*122,498,268 


75,407,357 



during the past five years in the production of rum and cologne 
spirits : 

Rum 



1910 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 



1910 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 

♦Includes dilute saccharine liquid. 

At the present time the abnormal price of industrial (de- 
natured) alcohol makes this a very attractive proposition. 

Food. The impurities of the sugar cane have a pleasant 
aromatic flavor and raw cane sugar and cane sirups are common 
articles of himian diet. Beet sugar molasses, while not suitable 
for human consimiption, is used as a cattle food. 

According to Deerr, the use of molasses as a cattle food 
originated with an observation by Hughes that the interior pith 
of the sugar cane was capable of absorbing large quantities of 
molasses, affording a product which could be shipped in bags; 
this was called " molascuit." Various other absorbents have been 
used, among which may be mentioned peat, sphagnum moss, 
bran and various kinds of meal, beet pulp and alfalfa. Molassine 
meal is composed of beet and cane molasses absorbed on sphagnum 
moss, while Xtravim feed contains cane molasses only. There 
are some fifty or more mixed feeds on the market, all of which 
contain more or less molasses. The amount of such feed pro- 
duced each year is roughly estimated by "Sugar" at 2,000,000 
tons; the molasses content varies from 10 to 50%. 

Molasses as such is not a complete food, since it contains 
only about 0.15% nitrogen. Its food value lies in its sugar con- 
tent. It is generally recognized that the salts of molasses have a 
distinct value in stimulating the appetite and the digestion, so 
that larger amounts of forage are eaten. 



8 MOLASSES 

Typical analyses of molasses feeds follow:* 

Protein Fat Fiber 

Sucrose 16.50 3.50 12.50 

H.& S.Alfalfa 19.50 4.20 12.35 

International Dairy 18.94 5.98 11.72 

Purina 17.83 3.09 17.18 

Cloverleaf Horse 9.58 1.89 12.05 

Algrave Horse 11.64 4.56 9.78 

Xtravim 5.24 0.50 4.95 

Green Cross 9.50 2.25 7.19 

Molassine Meal 8.82 0.63 6.25 

♦Selected at random from Control Series, Bulletin 3, Mass. Agr, Expt. Station, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Use as Fuel. Molasses is occasionally used as fuel to sup- 
plement that afforded by bagasse. The simplest way is to let 
the molasses fall onto the bagasse on its way to the furnaces. 
It may also be atomized and burned in a special furnace. Actual 
determinations by Atwater have given a value of 6956 B.T.U. 
per pound of dry matter; or of 4500 B.T.U. when the 25% water 
content is not removed. Air dried wood gives from 4500 to 5000 
B.T.U., bagasse with 45% water 4500 B.T.U., petroleum 16000- 
17000 B.T.U. and anthracite coal 15000-16000 B.T.U. per pound. 

If the ashes are returned to the soil, most of the potash is 
made available as plant food. 

Fertilizer. Many experiments have been carried out to 
determine the fertilizing value of molasses. The results thus far 
are conflicting. One set indicates that molasses aids the nitrogen- 
fixing organisms in their work, resulting in an increase in the 
nitrogen content of the soil and in increased crops. Another 
study has shown that the continued addition of glucose to soil 
bacteria in vitro retards the activity of the nitrifying and ammo- 
nifying organisms and accelerates that of the denitrifying races. 
The truth is still to be determined. 

Other Uses. Blackstrap molasses is also used in the leather 
industry and in the preparation of shoe blacking and leather 
dressing. 

Statistics 

Statistics on the world production of molasses are very diffi- 
cult to obtain. The following figures are taken from the July, 
1920 issue of Sugar. 

** The total amount of cane molasses produced in the United 
States during the season of 1918-1919 was 28,049,000 gallons, 
according to the United States Department of Agriculture, of 
which 16,101,650 gallons was blackstrap. The amount of beet 
molasses obtained from the manufacture of beet sugar is prac- 
tically negligible, since' the introduction of the Steffens process in 
beet sugar factories, and no figures are available for this product. 



INTRODUCTION 



9 



Practically all of that which is obtained, however, is used for 
feeding purposes. 

" The only available figures for production in foreign coun- 
tries are for Porto Rico during the season of 1918-1919 when 
18,000,000 gallons were produced, practically all of which was 
blackstrap. It is estimated that about 22,000,000 gallons will be 
obtained from the present crop. The production of molasses in 
Cuba during 1918-1919 was estimated at 198,588,800 gallons, 
all of which may be regarded as blackstrap. 

** Imports of molasses into the United States for 1918-1919 
are as follows: 

Gallons 

Cuba 124,254,663 

Porto Rico 15,118,678 

Hawaii 11,065,996 

Other countries — 

(Central America, Mexico, Peru and other 
South American countries, Dominican Republic 
and PhiHppine Islands) 5,820,054" 

Molasses Production^ 
United States 

(Source: Stat. Abs. 1919, p. 231. All figures of molasses 
production prior to 1915-1916 are those of A. Bouchereau, New 
Orleans, except that for census years and 1898-1899, which are 
those of the Census Bureau. Subsequent figures are those of the 
Department of Agriculture.) 





Louisiana 
Gallons 


Other Southern States 
Gallons 


Total 
Gallons 


1852-18602 


20,032,717 


1,065,213 


21,097,930 


1861-18702 


8,048,261 


951,954 


9,000,215 


1871-18802 


11,096,738 


1,213,302 


12,310,040 


1881-18902 


14,737,034 


3,800,728 


18,537,762 


1891-18952 


21,277,179 


6,124,752 


27,401,930 


1896-1900' 


20,661,216 


6,431,452 


27,092,662 


1901-19052 


26,953,377 


7,718,527 


34,671,902 


1906-19102 


24,982,244 


6,264,496 


31,246,748 


1911-19152 


25,540,900 


10,804,632 


36,345,535 


1915-1916 


15,230,000 






1916-1917 


30,387,000 






1917-1918 


36,379,000 


25,622,811 


62^001^811 


1918-1919 


38,842,000 


35,584,000 


74,426,000 


1919-1920 









^All figures for molasses, except those for 1898-99, 
for "Other Southern States " relate to sirup only. 
2 Average for the period. 



include sirup; those for 1918-19 



10 MOLASSES 

Molasses Production in Louisiana 
(Source, Year Book of the Department of Agriculture, 1919.) 







Gallons 
per ton of 




Gallons 


Sugar 


1911 


35,062,525 


99 


1912 


14,302,169 


93 


1913 


24,046,320 


82 


1914 


17,177,143 


71 


1915 


12,743,000 


93 


1916 


26,154,000 


86 


1917 


30,728,000 


126 


1918 


28,049,000 


100 


1919 






1911-1914- 


- Louisiana Sugar Planters' Association figures. 


1914-date - 


- Bureau of Crop Estimates, U. 
Exports (United States) 


S. Dept. Agr. 




Gallons 


Value 


1910 


1,505,355 


$216,336 


1915 


1,148,741 


145,274 


1916 


4,387,369 


524,861 


1917 


2,889,991 


442,967 


1918 


3,811,341 


847,692 


1919 


6,123,765 


1,277,980 




Imports (United States) 






Gallons 


Value 


1910 


31,292,165 


$1,367,362 


1915 


70,839,623 


1,963,505 


1916 


85,716,673 


3,775,894 


1917 


110,237,888 


10,946,571 


1918 


130,730,861 


9,177,833 


1919 


130,074,717 


7,471,060 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General 

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Chamber of Commerce, New York. Trade in Agricultural Prod- 
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11, 55-60 (1831). 



12 MOLASSES 

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GENERAL 13 

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14 MOLASSES 

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GENERAL 15 

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molasses. Intern. Sugar J. 16, 179-181 (1914); C. A. 8, 
2633. 

Spencer, G. L. Handbook for cane sugar manufacturers and other 
chemists. 6th ed. 561 pp. 

Statistics of the consumption of sugar, melada and molasses in 
the U. S. from 1860 to 1873 inclusive. Royal Statistical 
Soc. of London, 38, 526-532 (1875). 

Strohmer, F. Investigation of raw sugar, molasses, sugar beets, 
and char. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 41, 672-689; C. A. 6, 
3337 

Suzuki, N. Purifying molasses. Jap. Pat. 31,527. Sept. 20, 
1917. C. A. 12, 539. 

Tremann, F. Sugar from molasses. Ger. Pat. 288,411. Aug. 
30, 1913. C. A. 10, 2316. 

Urban, K. Vessels to remove foam from molasses and syrup. Z. 
Zuckerind. Bohmen. 35, 239-243; C. A. 5, 2753. 

Vermehren, A. Brief observations on molasses. Deut. Zuck- 
erind. 36, 679; C. A. 6, 1073. 

Walker, H. S. The sugar industry in the Island of Negros. 
Bureau of Science, Manila. 145 pp. 

Wasselenks. Purity of the final molasses. Zapiski, 3, 86 (1907) ; 
Centr. Zuckerind. 15, 950; C. A. 1, 2036. 

Weisberg. J. Exact comparison between the apparent purities 
of all sugar house products during manufacture from diffu- 
sion juice to molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 27, 
1145-1158 (1909); C. A. 4, 2391; Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 
dist. 28, 132-136 (1910); C. A. 4, 3020; Centr. Zuckerind. 
18, 1400-1401, 1454-1455; C. A. 4, 3307. 

Real and apparent purity. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 

dist. 25, 944-946 (1907); C. A. 2, 2739. 

Wiley, H. W. Adulteration of molasses. Division of Chemistry. 

Bull. 13, part VI, pp. 242. 
Yield of molasses in Louisiana this season. La. Planter 48, 380 

C. A. 6, 2860. 

Composition 

Andrlik, K. Guanine pentoside from molasses waste liquor. 
Proc. 7th Intern. Cong. Appl. Chem. 1909; C. A. 5, 2006; 
Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 35, 437-443 (1911); E. S. R. 26, 116. 

Furfural in beets and molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 

23, 551-559 (1899); J. S. C. I. 18, 696. 



16 MOLASSES 

Andrlik, K. Preparation of adenine from molasses residues. Z. 
Zuckerind. Bohmen. 34, 567-569 (1910); C. A. 4, 2585. 

Preparation of betaine from molasses waste lyes. Z. 

Zuckerind. Bohmen. 28, 404-406 (1904); J. S. C. I. 23, 672. 

Preparation of glutamic acid from residual lyes of 

molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 27, 665-667 (1903); J. S. 
C. I. 22, 1057. 

Recovery of glutamic acid and betaine from extracts of 

the residue remaining from the recovery of sugar from mo- 
lasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 39, 387-391 (1915); C. A. 
10, 983. 

Sucrose and raffinose in the waste liquor from Steffen's 



molasses process. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 31, 1-6 (1907) 

C. A. 1, 646;J. S. C. 1.25, 1109. 
Baird, R. O. Chemical analyses of molasses. North Dakota 

Agr. Expt. Sta.,Spec. Bull. 3, no. 17, 291-294 (1915); C. A. 

9, 2407. 
Bergam, O. Betaine from vinasses. U. S. Pat. 1,219,226. 

March 13, 1917. C. A. 11, 1764. 
Berger, C. Nature and value of the nitrogenous constituents of 

molasses. Chem.-Ztg. 25, 8-10 (1910); E. S. R. 13, 76. 
Beythien, K., Parous, E. and Tollen, B. Lactic acid from 

molasses. Ann. 255, 228-229; J. S. C. I. 9, 311. 
Browne, C. A. Composition and calorific value of sirup and 

molasses derived from sugar cane. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41, 

1432-1440 (1919); C. A. 13, 2465. 

Composition of molasses from Louisiana sugar houses. 

La. Planter 34, 237-238 (1905); J. S. C. I. 24, 628. 

Burkhard, G. Preparation of raffinose. Neue Z. Zuckerind. 

20, 16; J. S. C. L7, 334. 
Claassen, H. What is a normal molasses? Centr. Zuckerind. 

18, 1428-1510; C. A. 4, 3311; 5, 390. 
Definitions and standards for sirups and molasses. La. Planter 

62, 235-236 (1919); C. A. 13, 1264. 
Ehrlich, F. Preparation of betaine hydrochloride from molasses 

refuse. Ber. 45, 2409-2413 (1912); E. S. R. 28, 413. 

Technical utiHzation of the non-sugar substance of the 

sugar beet. Chem.-Ztg. 35, 661-663; E. S. R. 26, 612. 

Extraction of saltpetre from the salts from sugar beet molasses in 

France. Biedennanns Zentr. 16, 485-486; J. S. C. I. 6, 669. 
Freidrich, H. Nitrogenous pigments of molasses. Z. Zuckerind. 

Bohmen. 41, 614-617 (1917); C. A. 12, 976. 
Hazewinkel, J. S. Proof of the presence of organic substances 

in the undetermined matter of normal defecated molasses. 

Arch, voor de Java Suikerind., 1908, 389-408; C. A. 3, 1601. 
Henatsch, N. What is a normal molasses? Centr. Zuckerind. 

18, 1484; C. A. 4, 3312. 



COMPOSITION 17 

Herzfeld, A. Acids soluble in ether derived from molasses resi- 
dues. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 51, 720-745 (1901); J. S. C. I. 20, 
1127, 1225. 

Characteristics and the determination of raffinose. Z. 

Ver. Zuckerind., 1910, no. 659, II, 1204-1211; E. S. R. 26, 
116 

Influence of electrol^^sis of spent molasses on the composition of 

the ash. Z. Elektrochem., 1896, 573-577; J. S. C. I. 15, 463. 
Ko3^dl, Th. Preparation of raffinose from molasses. Deut. 

' Zuckerind. 16, 222-223; C. A. 5, 2197. 
Raffinose in the molasses of 1912 and its recovery. 

Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 42, 918-933; C. A. 8, 1682. 
Lacombe. Anal3^sis of molasses potash. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 

dist. 17, 82-86 (1899); J. S. C. I. 18, 947. 
Ladd, E. F. and Johnson, Alma K. Food and drug topics. North 

Dakota Sta., Spec. Bull. 3, no. 17, 289-304 (1915). 
Lemoine, A. Table sirups other than maple. Lab. Inland Rev. 

Dept. Canada, Bull. 320 (1915). 
LePlav, H. Amount of salts in molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 

dist. 6, 405; J. S. C. I. 7,334. 
Lindet, L. Extraction of raffinose from molasses. Compt. rend. 

110, 795-798; J. S. C. I. 9, 637, 815; Bull. soc. chim. 1890, 

682-685. 
von Lippmann, Edmund O. An occurrence of indole and scatole. 

Ber. 49, 106-107 (1916); C. A. 10, 901. 

On the occurrence of leucine and tyrosine in beet root 

molasses. Ber. 17, 2835 (1884); J. S. C. I. 4, 411. 

McGill, A. Molasses. Lab. Inland Rev. Dept. Ottawa, Canada, 
Bull. 312. 1915. 21 pp. Bull. 407. 1918. 23 pp. 

Mauzoft, C. D. and Nicoloff, M. Short notes from practise. 
Results of analysis of molasses from Bulgarian sugar fac- 
tories. Z. Nahr. Genussm. 30, 101 (1915); C. A. 9, 3375. 

Meyer, G. A. Composition of American beet molasses from 
factories working with Steffens' process. Z. Ver. Zucker- 
ind. 59, II, 1019-1020 (1909); C. A. 4, 257; E. S. R. 22, 
964. 

Minz, J. B. Composition of Russian molasses in the past cam- 
paign. Westnik. Sacch. Prom. 15, 11 (1914); C. A. 9, 976. 

Moreschi, A. Some acid components of the molasses from beet 
roots. Rend. soc. chim. ital. (3) 6, 161-164 (1914); C. A. 
9, 616. 

Muller, Ch. The non-fermentable sugars in sugar cane molasses. 
Arch. Suikerind. 25, 352-355 (1917); C. A. 13, 1541; Arch. 
Suikerind. 26, 346-358 (1918); Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 
35, 95-105 (1917); C. A. 13, 1948. 

Norris, R. S. Potash in smokes from molasses. Hawaiian Plant- 
ers' Mo. 28, 375; C. A. 4, 129. 



18 MOLASSES 

Osborne, S. J. Beet molasses, its composition and utilization. 

Met. Chem. Eng. 16, 436-443 (1917); C. A. 11, 2053; E. S. R. 

37, 416. 
Pellet, H. Composition of cane molasses and various products 

of cane sugar factories. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 16, 

1145-1188 (1899); J. S. C. I. 18, 775. 

Composition of the insoluble matter of third jet sugar 

and molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 18, 193-194 
(1900); J. S. C. I. 20, 53. 

Nature and quantity of the unfermented sugar in cane 

molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 35, 178-182 (1917); 
C. A. 12, 1007; E. S. R. 39, 207. 

Pentoses in beet molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 

dist. 35, 117-121 (1917); C. A. 11, 3124; E. S. R. 38, 113. 

Precipitation of levulose by basic lead acetate in cane 

and beet root molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 25, 102- 
105 (1907); J. S. C. I. 26, 1102. 

Raffinose in cane molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 

dist. 14, 1086-1089 (1897); J. S. C. I. 16, 688. 

Reducing sugar in cane molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. 

sucr. dist. 24, 669-672 (1906); J. S. C. I. 26, 28. 

and Meunier, G. Quantity of unfermentable sugar in 



cane molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 21, 797-800 
(1904); J. S. C. I. 23, 333. 
Prinsen-Geerligs, H. C. The composition of Java cane sugar 
molasses. Meded. Proefstat. Suikerriet West-Java 1905, 
no. 85, 42 pp.; E. S. R. 17, 790. 

Constitution of Java cane sugar molasses. Intern. 

Sugar J. 8, 26-35, 86-95, 156-164 (1906); E. S. R. 18, 756. 
Also Reprint, 1906, 32 pp. 

Decomposition product of glucose in cane sugar molasses. 

Intern. Sugar J. 12, 293-305; 332-338 (1910); C. A. 4, 2390; 
E. S. R. 24, 214. 

Molasses. Its definition and formation. Intern. Sugar 

J. 10, 227-235, 284-292 (1908); C. A. 2, 2463. 

Water content of true final cane molasses. Intern. 



Sugar J. 20, 214-218 (1918); C. A. 12, 1709; E. S. R. 39, 415. 

Water content of true final cane molasses. Intern. Sugar 

J. 22, 34-40 (1920). 

and Steuerwald, L. G. L. Unknown organic non-sugars 

of cane molasses. Meded. Proefstat. Java Suikerind. 1910, 
319-337; C. A. 5, 1532. 

Rischbiet, P. and Tollens, B. On the raffinose obtained from 
molasses, cottonseed and manna. Ber. 18, 2611-2616 (1885); 
Ann. 232, 169-205; J. S. C. I. 5, 243, 386. 

Saillard, E. Balance of some of the principal constituents of the 
sugar beet during the manufacture of sugar. Compt. rend. 



COMPOSITION 19 

166, 697-699 (1918); Vie agri. et rural 8, 67-68 (1918); E. S. 

R. 39, 417. 
Sail lard, E. Nitrogen content of sugar beets and of molasses 

during the past years. Ann. sci. agron, (4) 30, 2d yr., 27-35; 

C. A. 7, 3852; E. S. R. 30, 529. 
Scheibler, C. Separation of raflfinose from the molasses of the 

sugar beet. Ber. 18, 1409 (1885) ; J. S. C. I. 4, 607. 
Schone, A. and Tollens, B. Presence of lactic acid in beet molas- 
ses. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 1900, 980-981; J. S. C. I. 20, 54. 
Schukou, I. Optically active substances in molasses rCvSidues 

from Deseau. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 50, 814-817 (1900); J. S. 

C. I. 19, 1126. 
Stanek, VI. Composition of some Bohemian molasses of recent 

years. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 40, 51-57 (1916). 

Isolation of glutamic acid from molasses and an addition 

to the knowledge of the acids in molasses. Z. Zuckerind. 
Bohmen. 38, 1-7 (1914) ; C. A. 8, 2963. 

Nitrogenous pigments of molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Boh- 
men. 41, 298-306, 618 (1917); C. A. 12, 776. 

Origin of the nitrogenous pigments in sugar refinery 



products. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 41, 607-614 (1917); C. A. 

12, 776. 
Steuerwald, L. G. Langgath. Standard muscovado and standard 

molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 24, 846-851 (1916); C. A. 11, 

2621. 
Stoltzenberg. H. The coloring substances of molasses and 

desugarizing process residuum (Schlempe). I. Ber. 49, 2021- 

2023 (1916); C. A. 11, 1761. II. Ber. 49, 2675-2677 (1916); 

C. A. 11, 2678. 

Glutaminic acid and betaine hydrochloride from molasses 

slop. Ber. 46, 557-566 (1913); C. A. 7, 1508. 

Investigation of a precipitate obtained from molasses 

by mercuric acetate (isolation of adenine). Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 
62, 318-322; C. A. 6, 1548; E. S. R. 29, 614. 

New process for obtaining betaine hydrochloride from 

molasses slop. Ber. 45, 2248-2252 (1912); C. A. 6, 3032. 

Preparation of betaine hydrochloride from molaa. ■ 



residues. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 22, nos. 4-5; C. A. 8, 1682. 

Szilage, J. Composition of the ash of Hungarian molasses. 

Chem.-Ztg. 16, 1922. (1892). 
Tollens, B. On raffinose, a kind of sugar of high rotating power 

derived from molasSes. Ber. 18, 26-28 (1885); J. S. C. I. 4, 

290. 
Vasseux. Treatment of vinasse and molasses for recovery of 

nitrogenous matter after removal of potash. Bull, assoc. ckim. 

sucr. dist. 23, 1381-1382 (1906); E. S. R. 18, 536; J. S. C. I. 

25, 823. 



20 MOLASSES 

Vermehren, A. Raffinose or torrefaction products. Deut. 

Ziickerind. 36, 590-591 (1911); E. S. R. 26, 110. 
Watts, F. and Tempany, H. A. Composition of Antigua and St. 

Kitt's molasses. West Indian Bull. 10, 29-34 (1909); E. 

S. R. 22, 264; C. A. 3, 2247. 
Weisberg, J. Presence of lactic acid in beet molasses. Bull. 

assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 18, 645 (1901); J. S. C. I. 20, 375. 
Wichardt. Coloring matters from molasses, etc. Z. Ver. 

Zuckerind., 1906, 595-596; J. S. C. I. 25, 687. 
Zitowski, H. E. Composition of various American and European 

molasses. Sugar 18, 181-182 (1916); C. A. 10, 2414. 

Isolation of raffinose from beet sugar products. Am. 

Sugar Ind. 13, 8-10; C. A. 5, 1203. 

Analysis 

Abonyi, A. Nitrogen of molasses. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 43, 

708-714 (1914); C. A. 9, 868. 
Agee, H. P. and Hillner, R. S. Report on sugar and molasses. 

Bur. Chem., Bull. 137, 160; C. A. 5, 3306. 
Andrlik. Polarization of acidified solutions of beet molasses. 

Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 42, 374 (1918); C. A. 12, 2257. 
Bohle, I. Chemical control in the sugar factory. Rev. ind. agr. 

Tucuman 1, no. 8, 4-24; C. A. 5, 2193. 
Boot, J. C. Determination of the specific gravity of molasses. 

J. S. C. I. 16, 415 (May 31, 1897). 
Browne, C. A. and Halligan, J. E. Report on sugar and molasses 

methods. Bur. Chem., Bull. 116, 68-76; C. A. 3, 599. 
Bryan, A. Hugh. Estimation of any substance by refractometer 

in hquid saccharine food products. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 30, 

1443-1451 (1908); C. A. 2, 3114. 
Canada. Inland Revenue Department. Molasses. Bull. 312 

(1915); 407 (1918). 
Clacher, William. New method of determining water in massecuite 

and molasses. Intern. Sugar J. 16, 126-127 (1914); C. A. 

8, 2633. 
Cross, W. E. Report on sugar and molasses. J. Assoc. Official 

Agr. Chemists 1, 314-417 (1915); C. A. 10, 700. 

Some possibilities of molasses evaluation. La. Planter 

49, 8; C. A. 6, 2556. 

Some recent work on molasses anal^'sis. La. Planter 48, 

382-383. 

and Taggart, W. G. Modification of the Clerget method 

of determining sucrose in molasses. La. Planter 50, 142-144; 
C. A. 7, 1629. 

Deerr, Noel. Determination of sucrose in cane molasses. Intern. 
Sugar J. 12, 577-582 (1910); C. A. 5, 392. 



ANALYSIS 21 

Detection of molasses in honey. Z. anal. Chem. 35 (3), 263-284 

(1896). 
Diamant, J. Polarization of molasses and osmosis liquids. Chem - 

Ztg. 21, 981-982 (1897); J. S. C. I. 17, 57. 
Discussion of the density detenninations with reference to sirups, 

molasses, etc. La. Planter 58, 218-220; C. A. 11, 2054. 
Draczkowski, S. Analysis of molasses from beets and sugar cane. 

Second Intern. Cong. Appl. Chem. 1, 31-39 (1896). 
Estimation of sugar in molasses. Oesterr.-ung. Brennereizeit. 12, 

328; J. S. C. I. 8, 560. 
Fallada, O. Hertes' method for estimating sugar in molasses 

feeds. Oesterr.-ung Z. Zuckerind. II (1909), Series IV, no. 4; 

C. A. 3, 1826. 
Foerster, O. Determination of sugar in feeding-stuffs made from 

molasses. Chem.-Ztg. 23, 196 (1899); J. S. C. I. 18, 407. 
Fribourg, Charles. Analysis of a cane molasses by fermentation. 

Intern. Sugar J. 15, 33-35; C. A. 7, 1629. 

Study of the different methods of determining sucrose in 

cane molasses. Complete analysis of cane molasses. Intern. 
Sugar J. 14, 702-712 (1912); C. A. 7, 1628; E. S. R. 28, 
713. 

Gillet, M. A. Comparative study of different methods of inver- 
sion. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 31, 992-1004 (1914); E. 
S. R. 34, 13. 

Gillet, C. R. Preparation of a neutral solution of molasses for 
inversion by invertase. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 33, 112- 
116 (1915); C. A. 10, 2992. 

Gongora, J. S. Chemical control of a cane molasses distillery. 
Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 23, 884-891 (1906); J. S. C. I. 25, 
330. 

Gonnermann, M. Estimation of sugar in molasses feeds. Deut. 
Zuckerind. 33, 261; C. A. 2, 1631. 

Estimation of sugar in molasses feeds. Centr. Zuckerind. 

17, 1246; C. A. 3, 2393. 

Grabovski, Cz. Decolorizing solutions of molasses for invert 
polarization. Westnik. Sacch. Prom. 7, 293 (1906); C. A. 2, 
2172. 

Hall, R. R. Estimation of water in molasses. West Indian Bull. 
10, 167-169; C. A. 4, 395. 

Hazewinkel, J. J. Determination of Brix in molasses and low- 
grade sugar-cane products. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 26, 
456-467 (1909); C. A. 3,845. 

Estimation of gum in molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 18, 

746-753; C. A. 5, 1850. 

Determination of organic non-sugar in cane molasses. 

Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 26, 230-247 (Oct., 1908); C. A. 3, 
126. 



22 MOLASSES 

Hazewinkel, J. J. and Louren, C. Polarization before inversion 
in the examination of molasses bv Clerget's method. Meded. 
Proefstat. Java Suikerind. 21/635-637 (1912); Arch. Suik- 
erind. 20, 1073-1075 (1912); E. S. R. 30, 113. 

Herles, Franz. Determination of sugar in molasses feeds by polari- 
zation. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 32, 626-628 (1908) ; C. A. 3, 1602. 

Heyer, C. Anal3^sis of the calcined vinasse from beet molasses. 
Chem.-Ztg. 15, 915 95^-960 (1891); J. S. C. I. 10, 861. 

Home, W. D. Determination of moisture in sirups and molasses. 
Bur. Chem., Bull. 116, 22-23; C. A. 3, 598. 

Johnson, H. Analvsis of waste molasses. Hawaiian Planter's 
Mo. 27, 22-27 (1908); C. A. 2, 1631; E. S. R. 20, 220. 

Johnson, L. E. Determination of starch glucose in molasses by 
polarization at 87°. Inland Rev. Dept. Ottawa, Bull. 407 
(1918); Intern. Sugar J. 21, 40 (1919); C. A. 13, 1774. 

Jolles, A. Examination of molasses. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 
39, 698-703; C. A. 5, 1001. 

Koydl, Th. Estimation of dry substance. Centr. Zuckerind. 
17, 974-975; C. A. 3, 1825. 

Kuehl, Hugo. Destruction of sugar in molasses bv bacteria. 
Centr. Zuckerind. 17, 1004-1005; C. A. 3, 1825. 

Laurence, H. C. Clarification of low-grade molasses for polari- 
zation. Beet Sugar Gaz. 3, 109-110 (1901); E. S. R. 13, 617. 

Leach, A. E. Determination of commercial liquid glucose in 
molasses, sirups, and honey. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 982- 
987 (1903); J. S. C. I. 22, 1153. 

Leistra, F. The crystal balance and the figure "probable loss 
in molasses." Meded. Proefstat. Java Suikerind., Chem. 
Series, 1917, no. 4, 1-8; C. A. 13, 797. 

Letter from Secretary of the Treasury, communicating a report on 
chemical analyses of sugars, molasses, etc., and of research on 
hydrometers, 1845. 28th Congress, 2d session: Sen. Doc. 
165; 28th Congress, 2d Session: House Doc. 146; 30th Con- 
gress, 1st session; Sen. Ex. Doc. 50, 1-117. 

Liesse, C. Analvsis of molasses. 2d Intern. Cong. Appl. 
Chem. II, 466-473 (1896). 

van der Linden, T. Some methods for the determination of the 
true sucrose content of molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 25, 1249- 
1272 (1917); Meded. Proefstat. Java Suikerind., Chem. 
Series, no. 6, 1-24; C. A. 12, 2256; C. A. 13, 797. 

, Kauffman, M. and Leistra, F. Determination of water 

in molasses and other sugar factory products bv the distilla- 
tion method. Arch. Suikerind. 25, 951-962 (1917); Analyst 
43, 221; C. A. 13, 384. 

Ling, A. R. and Baker, J. L. Modification of Clerget's method, 
speciallv applicable to after-products and molasses. J. Soc. 
Chem. ind. 17, 111-114 (Feb. 28, 1898). 



ANALYSIS 23 

Ling, A. R. and McLaren, G. Analysis of cane molasses. 7th 

Intern. Cong. Appl. Chem. 5, 343 (1909). 
von Lippmann, E. O. Estimation of dry substance. Deut. 

Zuckerind. 34, 401-402, 439; C. A. 3, 1824-1825. 
Loiseau, P. Analysis of molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 

14, 349-365 (1896); J. S. C. I. 16, 68. 
Mintz, J. Estimation of water in massecuite, sirups and molasses. 

Westnik. Sacch. Prom., 1916, 1-2; Centr. Zuckerind. 16, 

1102-1103; C. A. 2, 2632. 
Molhant. Commercial analyses of molasses. Bull, assoc. beige 

des chim. 11 (3) 86-88; J. S. C. I. 16, 830. 
Muller, Ch. Determination of true total solids in molasses. 

Arch. Suikerind. 26, 1436-1439 (1918); C. A. 13, 2772. 
Simple calculation for the rapid determination of the 

Brix of molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 35, 195-198 

(1917); C. A. 12, 1008. 

Determination of the sugar and the molasses content of 



molasses feeds. Landw. Vers.-Sta. 47, 249-251 (1896). 
Neubauer, H. Determination of the molasses content of molasses 

feeds. Landw. Vers.-Sta. 51, 421-439 (1899). 
Norris, R. S. and Brodie, R. A. Gravimetric determination of 

glucose reducing sugars in molasses. Intern. Sugar J. 20, 

238-239 (1918); C. A. 12, 2457. 
Ogilvie, J. P. and Lindfield, J. H. Determination of the ash of 

cane and beet sugar products. Intern. Sugar J. 20, 114-117 

(1918); C. A. 12, 1424. 
Determination of sucrose in beet sugar factory products 

by Clerget's process using invertase as hvdrolyst. J. Soc. 

Chem. Ind. 30, 62-64 (Jan. 31, 1911); C. A. 5, 1686. 

Determination of sucrose in cane molasses by the double 



polarization method, using invertase and acid as hydrolysts. 

Intern. Sugar J. 14, 89-93 (1912); C. A. 6, 1073. 
Opinions regarding the Stanek method for the determination of 

sugar in molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 30, 8-20 (1914) ; C. 

A. 9, 1403. 
Owen, W. L. Standards for differentiating between sirup and 

molasses. La. Planter 62, 235-236 (1919). 
Peck, S. S. Total soHds in mill products by the refractometer. 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Sta. Bull. 27, 5-25; E. S. R. 20, 613. 
Pellet, H. Analysis of beet root and cane molasses. Bull. 

assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 15 (7), 735 (1898); J. S. C. I. 17, 498 

Analvsis of cane molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 

19 (7), 830-834 (1902) ; J. S. C. I. 21, 428. 

Analysis of cane molasses, etc., by double polarization. 

Intern. Sugar J. 15, 424-426, 478-480 (1913); C. A. 8, 835. 

Analysis of molasses from cane sugar. Bull, assoc. 

chim. sucr. dist. 15 (6) 605-626 (1897); J. S. C. I. 17, 187. 



2i MOLASSES 

Pellet, H. Analysis of refinery molasses containing reducing sugars. 
Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 22, 373-374 (1904); J. S. C. I. 
24, 47. 

Determination of ash and saline coefficient in molasses. 

Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 24, 467- 472 (1906); C. A. 1, 250. 

Determination of crystallizable and reducing sugar in 

molasses and cane sugar factory products. Bull, assoc. chim. 
sucr. dist. 22, 145-160 (1904) ; J. S. C. I. 23, 1047. 

Determination of glutose in cane molasses. Bull, assoc. 

chim. sucr. dist. 34, 312-327 (1917); E. S. R. 39, 206. 

Determination of reducing sugars in cane molasses and 

vinasses for the calculation of the amount of sugar fermented. 
Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 34, 24-28 (1916); C. A. 11, 2968. 

Determination of sucrose in cane molasses. Use of 

hydrochloric acid and urea for the direct polarization. 
Intern. Sugar J. 13, 206-207; C. A. 5, 2752. 

Determination of sucrose in cane molasses. Use of 

hydrochloric acid and urea, of sulfurous acid and of acetic 
acid. Intern. Sugar J. 14, 332-334 (1912); C. A. 6, 2554. 

Glutose. Ann. chim. anal. 22, 43-47; C. A. 11, 1762. 

Errors arising from the use of the Clerget method, etc. 

Ann. chim. anal. 14, 248-254; C. A. 3, 2879. 

Influence of the alkalinity of molasses upon the determi- 



nation of the organic matter. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 
24, 465-467 (1906); C. A. 1, 249. 

— Influence of non-sugar of beet root molasses on the Brix 
reading according to the dilution. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 
dist. 25, 107-112 (1907); J. S. C. I. 26, 1102. 

— Influence of raffinose on the determination of sucrose in 
beet molasses by different methods. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 
dist. 35, 106-115 (1916); C. A. 13, 1949. 

— Influence of raffinose of beet sugar on the exact polariza- 
tion before and after inversion by acid or invertase. Bull, 
assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 35, 112-117 (1916); E. S.. R. 38, 113. 

— Influence of raffinose on the determination of sucrose in 
beet molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 36, 16-30 (1917); 
C. A. 12, 2701. 

— Neutral and acid polarization of omasses from beet root 
molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 35, 40-43 (1917) ; C. A. 
12. 2701. 

— Pentose content of beet molasses. Bull, assoc. chimx. 
sucr. dist. 35, 117-121 (1916). 

— Suggestions as to adopting an international method for 
analyzing beet and cane molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. 
dist. 27, 473-477 (1910); C. A. 4, 394. 

The true composition of cane molasses. Bull, assoc. 



chim. sucr. dist. 35, 118-129 (1917); C. A. 13, 1949. 



ANALYSIS 25 

Pellet, H. and Fribourg, C. Decolorization of cane molasses for 
analysis. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 23, 1128-1139 (1908); 
J. S. C. I. 25, 600. 

and Lemeland, P. Direct determination of sucrose in 

all products containing more or less reducing sugar. Intern. 
Sugar J. 13, 616; C. A. 6, 433. 

and Muller, Ch. Determination of the non-fermentable 

glutose in cane molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 35, 
116-117 (1917); C. A. 13, 1948. 

and Muller, Ch. Presence and determination of nitrates 



in cane and beet molasses. Intern. Sugar J. 13, 493 (1911) 

C. A. 5, 3739. 
Powell, C. W. R. Determination of the viscosity of refined sirups 

and molasses. J. S. C. I. 33, 238-240 (Mar. 16, 1914) ; C. A. 

8, 2963. 
Prinsen-Geerligs, H. C. Estimation of water content of cane 

molasses. La. Panter 62, 201-202 (1919); C. A. 13, 1264. 

Influence of clarification on the valuation of raw sugars 

and molasses containing invert sugar. Intern. Sugar J. 
11, 276-281 (1909); C. A. 3, 2068; Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 59, 
769-775. 

The latest prescribed rules for chemical control in the 

cane sugar factories in Java. IV. La. Planter 55, 364-365 
(1915); C. A. 10, 539. 

Use of the Abbe refractometer for the determination of 

dry substance in cane juice and all sugar house products of 
the Java sugar industry. Intern. Sugar J. 10, 68-81 (1908) ; 
C. A. 2, 718, 1357. 

and Van West, W. Determination of total soHds in 



juices, sirups and molasses, with the refractometer. Meded. 

Proefstat. Suikerriet. West-Java, no. 99; C. A. 2, 718. 
Reich, A. Simplified method of determining the specific gravity 

of sirups, molasses, etc. Deut. Zuckerind. 34, 38 ; C. A. 3, 846. 
Riviere, L. "Depotashing" by means of insoluble reagents. 

Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 27, 591-592 (1910) ; C. A. 4, 685. 
Roberts, Charles C. Determination of water in molasses. Orig. 

Com. 8th Intern. Cong. Appl. Chem. 8, 53-57 (1912); C. A. 

6, 3335. 
Roush, G. A. Method of analysis for massecuites and molasses. 

J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 1, 370-371 (1909); C. A. 3, 2069. 
Saillard, Emile. Analysis of sugar beet molasses or massecuites. 

Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 27, 477-478 (1910); C. A. 4, 394. 
The Clerget sugar of normal beet molasses by neutral 

double polarization. Orig. Com. 8th Intern. Cong. Appl. 

Chem. 25, 541-562 (1912); C. A. 6, 3537. 

Clerget sugar of beet molasses by double acid or neutral 



polarization. Am. Sugar Ind. 15, 49-50; C. A. 7, 1630. 



26 MOLASSES 

Saillard, E. Determination of sucrose in beet molasses. Method of 
inversion and double polarization in neutral solution. Compt. 
rend. 160, 31-34 (1915); C. A. 9, 1404. 

Determination of sucrose in beet molasses by the double 

polarization method, using invertase as hydrolyst. Circ. 
hebd. Fabr. Sucre France 27, no. 1371, 4 (1915); C. A. 10, 
701. 

Determination of sugar in beet and cane molasses by 

diastatic inversion. J. fabr. sucr. 57, no. 2 (1916); C. A. 
10, 2313. 

Estimation of the salt content in 100 kg. of molasses or 

waste water from its salt coefficient. Circ. hebd. Fabr. 
Sucre France, June 1911, 25; C. A. 6, 306. 

Refractometry of molasses. Circ. hebd. Fabr. Sucre 

France, 1909, no. 1065; E. S. R. 22, 413. 

Wehring, A. and Ruby, M. Determination of sucrose in 



beet molasses by double polarization. Circ. hebd. Fabr. 

Sucre France, 1913, nos. 1260 and 1262, (May); C. A. 8, 1217. 
Savage, H. E. Report of the committee on the determination of 

the per cent soHds in final molasses. Intern. Sugar J. 15, 

20-25 (1913); C. A. 7, 1629. 
Sawyer, H. E. Commercial analysis of cane molasses. I. 

Optical methods. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 27, 691-713 (1905); E. 

S. R. 17, 9. 
Schlicht, A. Examination of molasses feed mixtures and use of 

the immersion refractometer. Chem.-Ztg. 33, 925-926, 935- 

936; C. A. 4, 842. 
Schnell, J. True and apparent purity of molasses. Centr. 

Zuckerind. 17, 1291-1292; C. A. 3, 2635. 
Schrefeld, O. Determination of invert sugar in molasses. Z. 

Ver. Zuckerind. 61, 982-989; C. A. 6, 1862. 
Schweitzer, A. Source of error in the determination of ash in 

molasses. Arch, voor de Java Suikerindustrie 24, 214-216 

(1916); Intern. Sugar J. 20, 138 (1918); C A. 12, 1424. 
Stanek, V. L. Influence of amino-acids and Z-glutimic acid in 

the estimation of raffinose and sucrose in molasses by the 

inversion method. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 41, 154-160 (1917) ; 

C. A. 12, 777. 

Modification of the Clerget method of determining 

sucrose in molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 38, 429-440^ C. 
A. 8, 3382. 

Quantitative determination of /-glutimic acid in sugar 

house products. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 39, 191-197 (1915); 
C. A. 9, 3373. 

and Skola, V. Determination of carbonic acid in sugar 

factorv products. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 43, 191-198 (1919) ; 
C. A. 14, 652. 



ANALYSIS 27 

Steuerwald, L. G. L. Dry substance and sucrose determination 

in cane molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 25, 1417-1425 (1917); 

C. A. 12, 2257. 
- New double polarization method for the determination 

of the true sucrose content of cane molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 

21, 831-833; C. A. 8, 2501. 

and van der Linden, T. Determination of gum in mo- 



lasses. Arch. Suikerind. 22, 1033-1071; C. A. 8, 3511. 

Stolzenberg, H. Determination of nitrogen in betaine. A 

contribution to the determination of nitrogen in molasses and 

molasses distillery slop. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 62, 440-445; 

C. A. 6, 2018. 
Strigel, A. and Wilcke, C. Detection of molasses in dry beet pulp. 

Landw. Vers.-Sta. 89, 33-38; C. A. 11, 2841. 
Strohmer, F. and Fallada, O. Determination of raffinose in raw 

beet sugar. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 40, 867-888; C. A. 

6, 2555. 
Strohmer and Stift. Estimation of crystallized sugar (by Karcz's 

method) in raw products and molasses. Oesterr.-ung. Z. 

Zuckerind. 24, 41 (1895); J. S. C. I. 14, 604. 
Stubbs, W. C. Analysis of final molasses. Reports of the sugar 

house and laboratory of the sugar experiment station for 1890, 

pp. 248-278. 
Suthoff, W. and Grossfield, J. Detection of molasses in fruit 

pulp and beet pulp. Z. Nahr. Genussm. 27, 183; C. A. 8, 

2202. 
Testoni, G. Determination of water in molasses. Staz. sper. 

agrar. ital. 37, 366-369 (1904); J. S. C. L 23, 883; E. S. R. 

17, 8. 
Vermehren, A. Determination of lime in products of beet sugar 

factories. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 42, 610 (1917); C. A. 12, 2257. 
Verret, J. A. Determination of reducing sugars in cane molasses. 

Intern. Sugar J. 17, 85-86 (1915); C. A. 9, 1129. 
Vuaflart, L. Determination of sugar in molasses feeds and dena- 
tured sugars. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 26, 339-341 

(1908); C. A. 3, 498. 
Walker, Herbert S. Notes on the analysis of molasses. J. 

Ind. Eng. Chem. 10, 198-202 (1917); C. A. 12, 777; E. S. R. 

38, 804. 
Weisberg, J. Rapid method of estimating dry matter sucrose and 

purity in molasses and massecuites. J. fabr. sucr., Aug. 14, 

1895;E. S. R. 7, 741. 
Remarks on the paper of Schnell on the true and appa- 
rent purity of molasses. Centr. Zuckerind. 17, 1340; C. A. 

3, 2635. 
Wiley, H. W. Analysis of molasses. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 

13, 673-676, 681-682, 710-719; J. S. C. I. 11, 761. 



28 MOLASSES 

Woy, R. Examination of sugar beet chips for the addition of mo- 
lasses. Z. offent. Chem. 19, 168-169 (1913); E. S. R. 31, 315. 

Tables for the determination of specific gravity of mo- 
lasses. Z. offent. Chem. 20, 167-169; C. A. 8, 3697. 

Zamaron, J. Method of analysis of cane and beet root molasses. 
Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 16, 337-342 (1898); J. S. C. I. 
18, 78. 

Zamaron, V. Method for the exact determination of ash in the 
molasses of sugar factories and refineries. Bull, assoc. 
chim. sucr. dist. 16, 967-968 (1899); J. S. C. I. 18, 867. 

Zerban, F. W. Progress of chemical research department of the 
Louisiana Sugar Expt. Sta. for 1918. La. Planter 62, 219- 
223 (1919); C. A. 13, 1260. 

Zerban, F. and Naquin, W. P. Determination of sulfurous acid 
in molasses. Bur. Chem., Bull. 116, 77; C. A. 3, 597. 

Recovery of Sugar from Molasses 

Andrlik, K. Amine ammonia liquor from distillation of the waste 

Ives of desugarized molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 27, 

1-15 (1902); J. S. C. I. 21, 1339. 
Recovery of sugar from molasses; utilization of the 

"Schleudersalz" (Sr(0H)2) for the washing of the saccharate. 

Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 30, 402-405 (1906); J. S. C. I. 25, 600. 
Tranformation of nitrogen into ammonia in the waste 



liquors from the desaccharification of molasses. Z. Zuckerind. 
Bohmen. 27, 109-114 (1902); Chem.-Ztg. 26, Reprint 274 
(1902); J. S. C. I. 21, 1339; 22, 38. 
Claassen, H. Solubility and crystallizability of sugar in factory 
final products and crvstallization down to actual molasses. 
Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 64, 807-841 (1914) ; C. A. 9, 975._ 

Treatment of saccharine juices and molasses with calcium 

aluminium silicates and the qualitv and properties of the 
sirup obtained. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 57, 931-946 (1907); C. A. 
2, 332; J. S. C. I. 26, 1101. 

Cuisinier, L. Use of barvta and strontia for the extraction of 
sugar. J. fabr. sucre,"'Sept. 20, 1882; J. S. C. I. 1, 461. 

Daude. Desaccharification of beet molasses with lime by the 
elution or extraction of the sugar juices. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 
66, 370-397 (1916); C. A. 11, 1330. 

Desugaring molasses by precipitating calcium sucrate. 

Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 65, 617-640 (1915); C. A. 10, 1605. 

Extraction of sugar from molasses by lead oxide and 

baryta. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 65, 346-368 (1915); C. A. 10, 
703. 

Sugar Eecovery from beet molasses by the use of strontia. 

Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 65, 139-164 (1915); C. A. 9, 2158. 



RECOVERY OF SUGAR 29 

Deltour. Purity of certain sugar products recovered from mo- 
lasses. Bull, assoc. beige des chim. 8, 182 (1895); J. S. C. L 

14, 497. 
Dutilloy, R. Hydrosulfites and the working of sugar and molasses 

in two strikes with remelting of the low-grade sugar obtained. 

Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 26, 1051-1055 (1909); C. A. 3, 

1940. 
Extraction of sugar from molasses. Dingier 's polytech. J. 

253, 421; J. S. C. 1.4,355. 
Extraction of sugar from molasses by means of lime. Z. Ver. 

Rubenzuckerind. 1883, 351, 649; Dingler's polytech. J. 251, 

313, 373, 415; J. S. C. I. 3, 323-325. 
Gundermann, W. Improvements in the process of obtaining sugar 

from altoholic solutions of molasses or syrup. Ger. Pat. 

17,919. Mar., 1881. J. S. C. I. 1, 241. 

Purification of beet and cane molasses. Ger. Pat. 

19,091. Aug., 1881. J. S. C. I. 1, 513. 

Hase, Albert. Increase in the total yield of sugar by improvement 

in the working up of the molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 

33, 98-100 (1908); C. A. 3, 260. 
Horn, J. L. M. van der. Precipitation of sucrose from exhausted 

molasses. Chem. Weekblad. 16, 141-143 (1919) ; C. A .13, 1028. 
Junemann. Extracting sugar from molasses. Biedermanns 

Zentr. 14, 216;J. S.C. 1.4,461. 
Kassner, C. Recovery of sugar from products such as molasses. 

Dingler's polytech. J. 298, 65 (1895); J. S. C. I. 15, 125. 
Kastengren, K. F. Process for the purification of molasses. 

Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 14, 811 (1897); J. S. C. I. 16,452. 
Knecht, H. Influence of microorganisms on the desaccharifica- 

tion of molasses. Apoth.-Ztg. 23, 7-3 ; C. A. 3, 1825. 
Langen, H. R. Extraction of sugar from molasses or other sugar 

solutions. Mon. sci. 47, 775-776 (1896). 

Extraction of sugar from m.olasses by barytes. Bull. 

assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 14, 811-812 (1897) ; J. S. C. I. 16, 452. 

Lefranc. Removal of sugar from molasses by means of lime. 

Chem. Zentr. 1887, 420-421; J. S. C. I. 7, 334. 
Leonis, C. J. Separation of the sugar from molasses by the 

precipitation process. Sugar 19, 340-341 (1917); C. A. 11, 

2842; Sugar 20, 15-17, 56-57 (1918); C. A. 12, 775. 
Leroy, L. Use of compressed air in the mixing and crystallization 

of sirups and molasses in the cane sugar factory. Bull, assoc. 

chim. sucr. dist. 25, 526-531 (1908); C. A. 2, 1055. 
Meyer, H. C. Strontium in the beet sugar industry. J. Ind. 

Eng. Chem. 6, 1036-1037 (1914); Sugar 17, no. 1, 62-63 

(1915); C. A. 9, 869. 
Nazan, V. Criticism of WohFs method for extracting sugar from 

molasses. Arch, farmacol. sper. 7, 460-465 ; C. A. 3, 2070, 2392. 



30 MOLASSES 

New process for the recovery of sucrose from final molasses. Sci. 
Am. 116, 110 (Jan. 27, 1917). 

On molasses sugar making according to LeFranc. Bull, assoc. 
chim. sucr. dist. 4, 33 (1887); J. S. C. I. 6, 554. 

Pellet, L. The "Druelle Say" process for the treatment pf mo- 
lasses. Intern. Sugar J. 9, 119-121 (1907); C. A. 1, 1188. 

Pospisil, R. E. Obtaining white suga^ from waste molasses. 
U. S. Pat. 1,028,272. June 4, 1912. 

Prinsen-Geerligs, H. C. Extraction of sugar from final molasses. 
Intern. Sugar J. 19, 159-161 (1917); C. A. 11, 3458; Intern. 
Sugar J. 19, 404-405 (1917); C. A. 12, 99. 

Precipitation of sucrose from exhausted molasses by 

means of glacial acetic acid. Intern. Sugar J. 20, 168-170 
(1918); C. A. 12, 1424. 

Recovery of sugar from molasses by means of strontia. Dingier 's 

polytech. J. 245, 430; J. S. C. I. 1, 414. 
Recovery of sugar from molasses. Sucr. ind. colon. 27, 5 (1886) ; 

J. S. C. I. 5, 243. 
Reinhardt. Strontia residue obtained in the process for the 

desaccharification of molasses bv strontia. Chem.-Ztg. 16, 

1472, 1520-1521 (1892) ; J. S. C. L 12, 366. 
Riimpler, A. Purification by silicates of beet root juices. Z. 

Ver. Zuckerind. 53, 798-809 (1903); J. S. C. I. 22, 1057. 
Rousset, Henri. Sugar and molasses. Industrial processes for 

the crystallization of sugar in impure mother liquors. Rev. 

gen. chim. 11, 419-428; C. A. 3, 848. 
Schreibler, C. Treatment of molasses and sirups with strontia. 

Chem. Zentr. 13, 265; J. S. C. I. 1, 195. 
Silz, E. Baker Bethany process for the extraction of sugar from 

molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 20, 641-649 (1902); 

J. S. C. I. 22, 309. 
Smolensky, K. Magnesium lactate in refining molasses. Centr. 

Zuckerind. 18, 1427; C. A. 4, 3311. 
Tiemann, F. Recovering sugar from molasses. U. S. Pat. 

1,256,952. Feb. 19, 1918. C. A. 12, 1009. 
Urban, K. Formation of strontium formate through the decom- 
position of the strontium salt in the desaccharification of 

molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 38, 358-363 (1913); C. A. 

8, 3381. 
Viewegh, Ed. Bariimi saccharate process in the working up of 

molasses. Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 34, 38-44 (1909); C. A. 4, 

128. 

Barium saccharate method of extracting sugar from 

molasses. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 41, 499; C. A. 6, 2862. 

WilHams, J. N. S. Extraction of sugar from low-grade cane 
molasses by the Williams process. Intern. Sugar J. 19, 
90-92 (1917); C. A. 11, 2738. 



FERMENTATION 31 

Williams, J. N. S. and Deerr, Noel. Extraction of sugar from final 
molasses. Intern. Sugar J. 19, 297-299 (1917); C. A. 11, 3458. 

Zerban, Jutz. Use of sulfur and its combination in the sugar 
house. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 103; C. A. 2, 1899. 



Fermentation 

Allan, Charles. Manufacture of Jamaica rum. West Indian Bull . 
7, 141-152; C. A. 1, 620. 

Alliot, H., and Gimel, G. Use of oxidizing agents in the fermen- 
tation of sulfated molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 
22, 88-92 (1904); J. S. C. I. 23, 946. 

Andrlik, K. Behavior of raffinose in the fermentation of molasses. 
Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen. 23, 1-25 (1898); J. S. C. I. 17, 1064; 
Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 16, 989-991 (1899); J. S. C. I. 18, 
848. 

and Stanek, V. Sulfur in a molasses distillery. Z. Ver. 

Zuckerind. 53, 831-835 (1903); J. S. C. I. 22, 1061. 

Aulard, A. Use of molasses in distilleries. Chem.-Ztg. 18, 1482- 

1483 (1894); J. S. C. I. 14, 52. 
Barbet, E. Fermentation of molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. 

sucr. dist. 19, 81-86 (1901); J. S. C. I. 20, 1130. 
Bau, A. Resistance of molasses to fermentation. Z. Spiritusind. 

17, 366; J. S. C. I. 14, 290. 
Bauer, E. Manufacture of alcohol from molasses. Z. Spiritusind. 

25, 368 (1902); J. S. C. I. 21, 1290. 

Method of facilitating alcohoHc fermentation of molasses. 

Rev. prod. chim. 1, 130; J. S. C. I. 17, 1064. 

Bird, M. Manufacture of by-products in the sugar factories of 

Demerara. La. Planter 55, 109-110 (1915); C. A. 9, 2994. 
von Bohle. Use of whey and skim milk for diluting molasses in the 

manufacture of alcohol. Centr. Zuckerind. 15, 68-70; C. A. 

1, 218; J. S. C. L 26, 217. 
Boswell, M. C. and Gooderham, J. L. Composition of fusel oil 

from beet molasses. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 4, 667-670 (1913) ; 

C. A. 7, 1783. 
Brill, Harvey C. and Thurlow, Leavitt W. Alcohol from discard 

molasses in the Philippine Islands. Philippine J. Sci. 12, 

267-292 (1917) ; C. A. 12, 970; E. S. R. 38, 508. 
Browne, C. A. Manufacture of rum in British Guinea. J. Ind. 

Eng. Chem. 11,877(1919). 
Claassen, H. Froth fermentation and formation of carbon dioxide. 

Arch. Suikerind. 26, 1648-1649 ; Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen., March, 

1918; C. A. 13, 2775. 
Deerr, Noel. Hawaiian molasses as a source of alcohol. Hawaiian 

Planters' Assoc, Bull. 28; Hawaiian Planters' Mo., 28, 295- 

297; C. A. 3, 2851. 



32 MOLASSES 

Demuth, R. Distillation of cane sugar molasses in Cuba. La. 

Planter 42, 341-342 (1909). 
Effront, J. Note on the fermentation of molasses. Mon. sci. 8, 

161-165 (1894); J. S. C. I. 13, 533, 824. 
Utilization of the nitrogen of distillery waste. Mon. 

sci. (4) 22, 429-434; C. A. 2, 2597. 
Eggebrecht, Hans. The molasses distillery. Centr. Zuckerind. 

189, 99-101; C. A. 5, 348. 
Elwart, M. Production of ethyl sulfite in the distillation of cane 

m.olasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 20, 562-564 (1902); 

J. S. C. I. 22, 40. 
Fallada, 0. Wine residue molasses. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 

39, 407-410 (1910); E. S. R. 24, 471. 
Fermentation of molasses. La. Planter 58, 62 (1917); C. A. 11, 

684. 
Foster, J. P. Industrial alcohol from molasses. Intern. Sugar 

J. 21, 75 (1919); C. A. 13, 1028. 
Foth, G. Working of molasses in rural distilleries. Z. Spiritusind. 

39, 424, 435-436 (1916); C. A. 11, 1246. 
Galle, E. Manufacture of spirit from molasses. Z. angew. 

Chem. 31, I, 3-4; C. A. 13, 159. 
Garbarini, G. Obsen^ations on the preparation of molasses for 

fermentation. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 24, 521-523 

(1906); J. S. C. I. 25, 1166; C. A. 1, 761. 
Greger, F. Augmentation of the fermentable capacity of molasses. 

Sucr. ind. colon. 42, 651-652 (1893); J. S. C. I. 13, 268. 
Haag, F. Manufacture of molasses spirit. Z. Spiritusind. 25, 

311-312 (1902); J. S. C. I. 21, 1089. 
Harker, G. Fermentation of cane molasses and its bearing on the 

estimation of the sugar present. J. Soc. Chem. Ind 25, 

831-836 (1906): E. S. R. 18, 420 
Heinzelmann, G Fermentation of molasses mash Z. Spiritusind. 

33, 612: C A 5. 1849 
• Some fermentation experiments with molasses solutions 

free from potassiimi. Z. Spiritusind. 32, 437-438; C. A. 5, 

756. 
Heriot, T. H. P. Molasses as a source of alcohol for the production 

of power. J. S. C. I. 34, 336-340 (1915) ; C. A. 9, 1825. 
Kayser. Fermentation of cane molasses. Composition of rum. 

Ann. fals. 9, 121-127 (1916); C. A. 10, 2271; E. S. R. 35, 718. 
Levy, L. New methods for the fermentation of molasses and beet 

juices and their application in rural distilleries. Bull, assoc. 

chim. sucr. dist. 25, 221-226; C. A. 2, 298. 
Ling, A. R. Production of glycerol from molasses. J. S. C. I. 

38, 175R (1919). 
Manzer, J. C. Production of alcohol in Cuba. Canada, Dept. 

Trade and Commerce, Weekly Bull. Feb. 10, 1919. 



FERMENTATION 33 

Martinand. New method of fermentation of beet root juices and 
molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 31, 28-31 (1913); 
C. A. 8, 1217. 

Meunier, G. Industrial fermentation of sulfated sugar cane mo- 
lasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 22, 484-486 (1904); J. S. 
C. I. 24, 145. 

Molasses distillation in the German Empire for the year 1908-1909. 
Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 60, I, 437-439; C. A. 5, 343. 

Muller, C. Investigation on non-fermentable substances in cane 
juices. The presence of small quantities of sugars with five 
carbon atoms in over ripe cane. Arch. Suikerind. 25, 352-355 
(1917); C. A. 13, 1541. 

Neustadt, L., and Ehrenfreund, B. Fermentation of molasses 
mashes. Chem.-Ztg. 33, 1056; C. A. 4, 78. 

Northrup, John H., Ashe, L. H. and Morgan, R. R. Fermentation 
process for the production of acetone and ethyl alcohol. J. 
Ind. Eng. Chem. 11, 723-727 (1919). 

On the fermentation of molasses. Rodger, London. 

Owen, W. L. Co-operative distillation of molasses by Louisiana 
planters. Am. Sugar Ind. 15, 32-34; C. A. 7, 2320. 

Distillation of final molasses. Sugar 16, no. 9, 38-40; 

no. 10, 36-37 (1914); C. A. 9, 840. 

Influence of phosphates upon alcoholic fermentation. 

Intern. Sugar J. 18, 113-115 (1916); C. A. 10, 2416. 

Sluggish fermentation of molasses. Their causes and 

means for their prevention. Sugar 17, no. 1, 31-33 (1915); 
C. A. 9, 840. 

Yield of alcohol from molasses from different sources. 



Sugar 16, 31-32 (1914); C. A. 9, 1365. 
Peck, S. S. and Deerr, Noel. Fermentation of Hawanan molasses. 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assoc, Expt. Sta. Bull. 28; C. A. 

4, 1344. 
Pellet, H. and L., and Pairault. Elimination of the invert sugar m 

cane and other molasses by fermentation. Bull, assoc. 

chim. sucr. dist. 23, 639-647 (1905); J. S. C. I. 25, 190. 
Pozzi-Escot, M. E. Destruction of sulfurous acid m sulfited 

molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 22, 92-101 (1904); 

J. S. C. I. 23, 946. 
Riviere, L. Manufacture of alcohol from molasses freed from 

potash. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 24, 1394-1395 (1906); 

C. A. 1,2156. 
Rothenback, F. Harmful effects of molasses in vinegar manu- 
facture. Deut. Essigind. 22, 135-136; C. A. 13, 3256. 
Saillard, E. Distillation of cane molasses at the distillery of 

Oisemont (Somme). Compt. rend. acad. agr. France 2, 676-681 

(1916); C. A. 11, 2711; E. S. R. 36, 508. 



84 MOLASSES 

Sailo, K. Rum from molasses fermentation in the Bonin Islands. 

Centr. Bakt. Parasitenk. II, 21, 675-677; C. A. 3, 1668. 
Sorel, A. Abnormal fermentation in the molasses distillery. 

Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 19, 937-940 (1902); J. S. C. I. 21, 

632. 

Continuous fermentation in molasses distilleries. Bull. 

assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 18, 302-303 (1900); J. S. C. I. 20, 143. 

Steiner, J. Methods for measuring the consumption of distilleries 

utilizing molasses. Z. Spiritusind. 22, 277-278 (1899); J. S. 

C. I. 18, 1044. 
Temprany, H. A. The froth fermentation of molasses. West 

Indian Bull. 10, 130-137; E. S. R. 22, 614; C. A. 4, 395; 

Intern. Sugar J. 11, 588-594 (1909); C. A. 4, 688. 

Souring of molasses. West Indian Bull. 10, 137-142; 

C. A. 4, 395. 

Utilization of bagasse and molasses. Intern. Sugar J. 16, 378-382 
(1914); C. A. 8, 3729. 

Vasseux, A. Molasses distillery. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 
20, 438-445 (1902) ; J. S. C. I. 22, 39. 

Verbiese, M. Application of yeast acclimated to HF, in the prep- 
aration of spirit from molasses. Bull, assoc. chim. sucr. dist. 
18, 583-588 (1901); J. S. C. I. 20, 378. 

Wenck, A. Manufacture of spirit from molasses. Z. Spiritusind. 
25, 430-431 (1902); J. S. C. I. 21, 1289. 

Zerban, F. Foaming fermentation of molasses. Rev. ind. agr. 
Tucuman 1, no. 1, 24-25; C. A. 5, 2198. 

Use as Fertilizer 

Bancroft, C. K., and Ward, R. Crops on the experimental sugar 

cane fields, 1913. J. Bd. Agr. Brit. Guinea 8, 45-57 (1914)- 

E. S. R. 32, 336. 
Bartos. Refuse molasses solutions as a fertilizer. Oesterr.-ung 

Z. Zuckerind, 30, 754 (1901). 
Boname, P. Molasses as a fertilizer. Rept. Ann. St a. Agron. 

Mauritius 1897, 10-11; E. S. R. 10, 533. 

Use of molasses as a fertilizer. Sta. Agron. Mauritius, 

Bull. 20; C. A. 4, 1215. 

Brauer, J. E. Conversion of molasses residues into an easily 
spread fertilizer. Centr. Kunstdungerind. 20, 242-244 (1915) • 
C. A. 10, 2120. 

Cross, W. E. Value of molasses as a fertilizer. Intern. Sugar 
J. 13, 191-196 (1911); E. S. R. 25, 632. 

and Harris, W. G. Utilization of the fertilizer ingredi- 
ents of molasses. Rev. ind. agr. Tucuman 6, no. 4; 7, no 
3, 95-103; Sugar 19, 271-272 (1917); Intern. Sugar J. 19, 
281-283 (1917); C. A. 11, 3457; E. S. R. 38, 515. 



FERTILIZER 35 

Dietrich, T. and Mach, F. Examination of beet molasses of 
different sorts. Landw. Vers.-Sta. 60, 347-357 (1904); E. 

5. R. 16, 1004. 

Ebbets, W. P. Trials with molasses as a sugar cane manure. 

Intern. Sugar J. 15, 427 (1913); E. S. R. 30, 822; C. A. 8, 

774. 
and Fauque, L. Molasses as a fertilizer. J. fabr. 

sucr. 50, 1;E. S. R. 21, 1^4. 
Harrison, J. B. and Ward, R. Trials with molasses as a sugar 

cane fertilizer and with chlorinated lime as a soil ameliorant. 

Intern. Sugar J. 15, 373-375 (1913); J. Bd. Agr. Brit. Guinea 

6, 123-126; C. A. 8, 774; E. S. R. 30, 140, 822. 

Herzka, E. FertiHzer from molasses. U. S. Pat. 1,168,255. 

Jan. 11, 1916. C. A. 10, 796. 
Influence of molasses on soil fertility. Agr. News 9, 339 (1910) ; 

10, 179 (1911); E. S. R. 25, 728; C. A. 6, 907. 
de Jong, A. W. K. and von Rossem, C. Fertilizer experiment with 

rice. Dept. Landb. Nijv. en Handel, no. 16, 46 (1917); E. 

S. R. 39, 537. 
Lilienthal. Manurial value of molasses residues as compared with 

ammonium sulfate and 40% potassium salts. Illust. landw. 

Ztg. 25, 319-320 (1905) ; E. S. R. 17, 1054. 
Lindet, M. Employment of cane molasses as a fertilizer. Compt. 

rend. acad. agr. France 5, 737-738 (1919); C. A. 13, 2949. 
Maercker, M. Manurial value of the vinasse from molasses. 

Z. Spiritusind. 16, no. 19 (1893); J. S. C. I. 12, 852. 
Martin, G. N. Molasses as a fertilizer. Intern. Sugar J. 13, 

153-155 (1911); E. S. R. 25, 218; C. A. 5, 1850; 6, 134. 
Molascinder, a new fertilizer. Intern. Sugar J. 11, 3 (1909); 

C. A. 3, 817. 
Peck, S. S. Biochemical investigation of Hawaiian soils, with 

special reference to fertilizing with molasses. Hawaiian 

Sugar Planters' Assoc, Agr. and Chem. Bull. 34, 39 pp; E. 

S. R. 24, 224. 
Influence of molasses on nitrification in cane soils. 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assoc, Bull. 39; C. A. 6, 3144; 

E. S. R. 27, 419. 
Pfeiffer, T. and Simmermacher, W. The action of the nitrogen 

of a new molasses sludge fertilizer. Landw. Ztg. 64, 177-187 

(1915); C. A. 10, 2268; E. S. R. 33, 818. 
Reitmain, O. Molasses potash fertilizer. Wiener landw. Ztg. 

1905, no. 94, 8 pp; E. S. R. 17, 954. 
Schmidt, H. Molasses refuse fertilizer. Deut. landw. Presse 

27, 115 (1900); E. S. R. 11, 1025. 
Soderbaum, H. G. Culture trials with a fertilizer manufactured 

from beet molasses refuse. K. Landtbrucks Akad. Handh 

Tid. 42, 85-94 (1903); E. S. R. 15, 568. 



36 MOLASSES 

Strohmer, F. Experiments with molasses refuse on sugar beets. 
Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 32, no. 2, 1-31 (1903); E. S. R. 
15, 24. 

Tempany, H. C. Sugar cane experiments in the Leeward Islands, 
1915-1916. Imp. Dept. Agr. West Indies, Sugar Cane Exper- 
iments Leeward Islands, 1915-1916, 76 pp; E. S. R. 38, 437 

Van Deventer, W. and Houtman, P. W. Fertilizer experiments. 
Meded. Proefstat. Java Suikerind. 1911, 143-242; E. S. R. 

25, 629. 

Vila, A. Fermented molasses as a source of nitrogen and potash 
fertilizers in Italy. Italia agricola 52, 54-57 (Feb., 1915); 
C. A. 9, 2121, 3319. 

de Waal, L. Utilization of molasses as a fertilizer. Intern. 
Sugar J. 18, 267-272 (1916); C. A. 10, 2382; E. S. R. 35, 817. 

Foods and Feeding Stuffs 
Albert, F. Deep stalls and ordinary stalls for steers and feeding 
experiments with molasses peat and molasses bran. Landw. 
Jahrb. 27, 174, 188 (1898); E. S. R. 10, 573. 

Investigation of molasses in different forms for fattening 

lamJDS. Landw. Jahrb. 27, 208-214 (1898); E. S. R. 10, 379. 

Alquier, J. Toxicity and hygienic and therapeutic role of the 
mineral matter of molasses for horses. Second Cong. Intern. 
Aliment. Ration Betail, 1905, Raps. pp. 69-85; E. S. R. 17, 
1105. 

and Drouineau, A. Glycogen formation and the rational 

feeding of sugar. Ann. sci. agron. (2d S.) 1903,1, 246-320, 
321-328; 1903, II, 45-160, 161-198, 226-287, 334-468; 1904, 
I, 124-160, 161-271, 358-375; 1904, II, 98-160, 161-209; E. 
S. R. 16, 689-690. 

Analyses of feeding stuffs. Ber. Agr. Chem. Kontroll. u. Vers. 

Stat. Pflanzenkrank Prov. Sachsen., 1910, 22-38, 45-58; E. 

S. R. 25, 871. 
Archibald, E. S. Animal and dairy husbandry work. Canada 

Expt. Fanns Dept., 1914, 297, 329, 369, 380, 400, 410, 411, 

416, 457; E. S. R. 33, 759, 765. 
Beef cattle. Canada Expt. Farms Reports, 1916, 387- 

422; 1915, 361-392; E. S. R. 38, 667; 36, 65. 
Archaud-Berthelot, J. Concerning molasses produced at Sao 

Paulo. Bol. Inst. Agron., Sao Paulo, 1909, no. 11, 347-351; 

no. 12, 405-417; E. S. R. 23, 768. 
Atwater, W. O. and Woods, C. D. Food investigations. Conn. 

Storrs Sta. Rept., 1891, pp. 41-171; E. S. R. 4, 59. 
Bems, G. H. Molasses as a food for horses. Amer. Vet. Rev. 

26, 615-623 (1902); E. S. R. 14, 1110. 

Billings, G. A. Report of the dairy husbandman. N. J. Sta. 
Rept. 1904, pp. 341-412; E. S. R. 17, 394. 



FEEDING STUFFS 37 

Blouin, R. E., Archinard, P. E. and Hall, J. A. Effect on the 
human system of Louisiana manufactured sirups and mo- 
lasses. La. Planter 39, 7-14; La. Sta. Bull. 94, 46 pp.; E. S. 
R. 19, 261; C. A. 1,2309. 

Boekhout, F. W. J. Annual report of the association for the 
development of the dairy industry of Hoorn, 1907, 59 pp.; 
E. S. R. 21, 77. 

Boname, P. Sugar and molasses in the feeding of farm animals. 
Sta. Agron. Mauritius, Bull. 10, 38 pp.; E. S. R. 16, 585. 

Utilization of molasses. Rep. Ann. Sta. Agron., lie 

Maurice, 1895, 52-74. 

Brante, L. Poisoning of swine by too heavy molasses feeding. 

Tidskr. Landtman 19, 758-760 (1898); E. S. R. 10, 794. 
Brien, H. Direct and indirect advantage of molasses feeding. 

Centr Zuckerind. 18, 392; C. A. 4. 688. 

Feeding value of "Torfmelassen" and molasses. Centr. 

Zuckerind. 19 324-325: C. A. 5, 1003. 

Browne, C. A. Molasses cattle feeds. La. Planter 34, 236-237; 

J. S. C. I. 24, 632. 
Bruhat, J. Sugar as a feeding stuff for animals in the region of 

Paris. J. Hyg. 23, 253-256 (1898). 
Bums, J. C. Hog feeding experiments. Texas Sta. Bull. 131, 

7-33 (1909); E. S. R. 24, 373. 

Steer feeding experiments. Texas Sta. Bull. 110, 

3-23;E. S. R. 20, 666. 

Cathcart, C. S. and others. Concentrated feeding stuffs. N. J. 

Sta. Bull. 212, 3-57; E. S. R. 20, 69; N. J. Sta. Bull. 237, 3-56. 
Concentrated commercial feeding stuffs. Dept. Agr. Tenn., 

Bull. 1, 88 pp. (1910); 2, 93 pp. (1911). 
Conrad, H. Molasses as a feed for dairy animals with special 

reference to the strontium content. Inaug. Diss. Univ. Bern., 

1909, 36 pp; C. A. 5, 2278; E. S. R. 24, 672. 
Craig, J. A. and Marshall, F. R. Cattle feeding experiments. 

Texas Sta. Bull. 86, 23 pp.; E. S. R. 18, 865. 

and Experiments in steer feeding. Texas Sta. 

Bull. 76, 23 pp; E. S. R. 17, 894-895. 

Crochetelle, J. Sugar in the nutrition of man and animals. 
Sucr. ind. colon. 81, 74-78, 100-103, 125-129; E. S. R. 29, 
65. 

and Milon. Molasses fodder. Rev. chim. ind. 22, 279- 

285 (1911); C. A. 5, 3861; E. S. R. 26, 164. 

Cury, B. E. and Smith, T. O. Analysis of feeding stuffs. New 

Hamp. Sta. Bulls. 184, 16 pp. (1917); 175, 23 pp. (1915); 

169, 26 pp. (1914). 
Czadek, O. von. Calcium carbonate for the preservation of 

molasses feeds. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 39, 591-596 

(1910); E. S. R. 24,471. 



38 MOLASSES 

Czadek, O. von. Molasses feeding stuffs. Z. landw. Versuchsw. 
11,775-777; C. A. 3, 675. 

Molasses feedstuffs of low value. Z. landw. Versuchsw. 

15, 889-890; C. A. 6, 3297. 

Dalrvmple, W. H. Blackstrap (feeding) molasses. La. Planter 
52, 349-350; C. A. 8, 2636. 

' Cattle feeding on the plantation and farm. La. Sta. 

Bull. 151, 3-13 (1915); E. S. R. 32, 668. 

Daily rations approximately balanced for different ani- 
mals. Ann. Rpt. Agr. and Ind. Statis., Bd. Agr. and Immigr. 
. (La.), 1908, 5-8; E. S. R. 20, 1171. 

• Feeding of molasses to work stock. La. Planter 34, 

302-304, 319-321, 323 (1905); E. S. R. 17, 492. 

Molasses as a food for work animals. Breeders' Gaz. 

48, 231, 276-277, 325-326, 697 (1905); E. S. R. 17, 687. 

Our available stock foods. La. Sta. Bull. 86, 74 pp.; 

E. S. R. 18, 363. 

Dechambre, P. Molasses in the feeding of stock animals. Bull. 

agr. Algerie et Tunisie 9, 438-445 (1903); E. S. R. 15, 601. 
Delbruck, M. Drying of potato pulp with molasses for cattle 

food in North German factories. Z. Spiritusind. 17, 141 

(1894); J. S. C. I. 13, 965. 
DeVries, J. J. O. Feeding of molasses to dairy cattle. Ver- 

slag Ver. Exploit. Proefzuiveloeberij Hoorn, 1913, 15-33; 

E. S. R. 34, 671. 
DeWildt, J. C. De R. Sugar content of soy bean molasses cake. 

Cultura, Ned. Ind. Landbouwkundigen 24, 409 (1912) ; C. A. 

8, 2006. 
Dickson, D. and Malpeauz, L. Use of molasses in feeding animals. 

Ann. agron. 24, 353-381 (1898); E. S. R. 10, 772. 
Dumont, R. Feeding stuffs poisonous or injurious for animals. 

Prog. agr. vit. (Ed. I'Est) 28, 658-661, 722-726, 756-760, 

778-781 (1907); E. S. R. 20, 189. 
Ekstrand, A. G. Utilization of beet molasses. K. Landtbruks- 

Akad. Handl. Tid. 35, 222-239 (1896); E. S. R. 9, 377. 
Emmerling, A. Molasses feeding stuffs. Landw. Wochbl. 

Schles.-Holst. 47, 129-131, 145-148 (1897). 
Fallada, O. Preparation of molasses feed from beet seed stalks 

by the Rosain method. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 37, 336- 

339; C. A. 3, 1601; Mitt, chem-tech. Vers. Stat. Centr. 

Rubenz.-Indus. Oesterr.-Ungar. 203, 10-13 (1908); E. S. R. 

21,368. 
■ Molasses feed from skins of pressed grapes and molasses. 

Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 39, 407-410; C. A. 4, 3272; E. 

S. R. 26, 164. 

Use of dried yeast for the preparation of molasses food. 



Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 40, 709-714; 0. A. 6, 901, 



FEEDING STUFFS 39 

Faye, G. and Frederiksen, E. Molasses feed for pigs. Ugeskr' 
Landm. 42, 15-17 (1897); E. S. R. 9, 273. 

and Molasses as a feed for swine. Ugeskr. 

Landm. 43, 134-139 (1898). 

Feeding experiments with molasses for milch cows. Tidskr. 

Landtman. 16, 497-502 (1895); E. S. R. 7, 520. 
Feeding for milk. Queensland Agr. J. 7, 25-26 (1900); E. S. R. 

12, 288. 
Feeding stuffs. Landw. Jahrb. Bavern. 4, 425-436, 512-517, 

534-549, 783-791 (1914) ; E. S. R. 33, 870. 
Fingerling, G. Influence of stimulating substances on milk 

secretion. Landw. Vers.-Sta. 74, 163-182 (1911); E. S. R. 

25, 479. 
Fraps, G. S. Digestion experiments. Texas Sta. Bull. 104, 

33 pp.; E. S. R. 20, 268. 
Frear, W. Commercial table sirups and molasses. Penn. Dept. 

Agr. Bull. 224, 97 pp. (1912). 
Frederiksen, E. Molasses as food for swine. Ugeskr. Landm., 

1896, no. 28; Milch Ztg. 25, 556-558; E. S. R. 8, 519. 
Friis, F. Danish feeding experiments with swine. 1895-1898. 

42d Rept. kgl. Vet. Landbohojskola Lab. Landokon Forsog. 
. (Copenhagen), 1899. 162 pp. 

Eighth and ninth years' feeding experiments with milch 

cows. Ber. K. Vet. og Landbohojskoles. Lab. Landokonom. 
Forsog (Copenhagen), 1897. 97 pp.; E. S. R. 9, 983. 

Feeding experiments with molasses feeds. Landmans- 



blade 29, 647-648 (1896). 
Gamble, W. P. Experiments in animal nutrition. Ann. Rept. 

Ontario Agr. Col. and Expt. Farms 32, 74-87 (1906); E. S. R. 

19, 67. 
Garola, C. V. Report on molasses feeds. Compt. rend. Congr. 

Soc. Aliment. Rat. Bet. 6, 1-15 (1902); E. S. R. 14, 684. 
Gerlach, M. Beet molasses feeding stuffs. Bl. Zuckerrlibenbau 

7, 92-94 (1900). 

Molasses and m^aize germ molasses in feeding experiments 

with pigs. Jahresber. landw. Vers. Stat. Jersitz bei Posen, 
1898-1899; E. S. R. 13, 274. 

Gerland, K. Comparative tests of the effect of beet molasses and 
molasses preparations in animal feeding. Ber. Physiol. Lab. 
u Vers. Anst. Landw. Inst. Halle 3, 1-55 (1901); E. S. R. 13, 
678. 

Sugar and molasses feeds. Bl. Zuckerrlibenbau 22, 

137-140 (1915); E. S. R. 34, 566. 

Gonnermann, M. Estimation of sugar in molasses feeds. Deut. 

Zuckerind. 33, 26; C. A. 2, 1631. 
Investigation of molasses feeds. Z. offent. Chem. 

15, 101-107 (1909); C. A. 4, 63. 



40 MOLASSES 

Goodwin, W. Molasses and sugar feeds for live stocks. J. Bd. 

Agr. (London) 18, 97-108 (1911); E. S. R. 25, 477. 
Goy, S. Digestibility of sphagnum moss, moss molasses and the 

washings from the sulfite cellulose industry. Landw. Vers.- 

Sta. 82, 1-92; C. A. 7, 4023. 
Graham, W. R. Poultry. Ann. Rpt. Ontario Agr. Col. and Expt. 

Farms 32, 201-210 (1906); E. S. R. 19, 71. 
Grandeau, L. Feeding molasses at domaine d'Arcy-en-Brie. 

Ration for horse and cattle. J. agr. prat. 4, n. s., 599-600 

(1902) ; E. S. R. 14, 692. 

Molasses feeding in relation to horse feeding. Experi- 
ments with molasses straw. J. agr. prat. 4, n. s., 793-795 
(1902); E. S. R. 14, 692. 

Molasses feeds and horse feeding. Experiments with 

peat molasses. J. agr. prat. 4, n.s., 760-764 (1902); E. S. R. 
14, 692. 

Molasses feeds and the feeding of horses. J. agr. prat. 4, 

n.s., 697-698 (1902); E. S. R. 14, 692. 

Molasses for feeding experiments; its use in feeding draft 

animals. J. agr. prat. 4, n.s., 567-569 (1902); E. S. R. 14, 
692. 

Nutritive value of pail-mel, a molasses feed. J. agr. 

prat. 5, n.s., 177-179 (1903); E. S. R. 14, 1110. 

Use of molasses in feeding horses. J. agr. prat. 61, 

489-491 (1897). 

Variation in the composition of molasses feeds. J. 



agr. prat. 5, n.s., 37-38 (1903); E. S. R. 14, 1003. 
Gregoire, A. Preparation of molasses feeds on the farm. L'Ingen. 

agr. Gembloux. 12, 538-543 (1902); E. S. R. 14, 691. 
Grisdale, J. H. Animal and Dairy husbandry. Can. Expt. 

Farms Rpts., 1913, 34, 50, 75, 83, 98, 478, 523, 532, 539, 543, 

578, 598, 613; E. S. R. 32, 461, 470. 
Griffin, G. E. Molasses as a food for army horses. 20th Cent. 

Farmer, 1902, no. 69; E. S. R. 14, 285. 
Halligan, J. E. American molasses feeds, their manufacture and 

composition. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 1, 441-445; Am. Hay Flour 

and Feed J. 15, 27-29 (1909); E. S. R. 22, 70; C. A. 3, 2328. 

Analysis of commercial feeding stuffs. La. Agr. Expt. 

Bull. 98, 1-141. 

Commercial feeding stuffs. La. Agr. Expt. Bull. 114, 

3-225; E. S. R. 20, 864. 

• Molasses and molasses feeds. Bd. Agr. and Immigr., 

La., 1914, 2-12; E. S. R. 32, 567. 

Molasses and molasses feeds. Am. Hay Flour and Feed 

J. 20, no. 5, 17-20 (1912); E. S. R. 26, 873. 

Molasses feeds. Am. Hay Flour and Feed J. 10, 72-74; 

C. A. 3, 2248. 



FEEDING STUFFS 41 

Harrison, N. On the feeding value of dried by-products of the 
sugar beet. Meddel. Centralanst. Forsoksv. Jordbruksom- 
radet, no. 12; Landw. Ztg. 58, no. 21, 753-775 (1909); 
E. S. R. 22, 268. 

Molasses and molasses feeds for horses and dairy cows. 

Biedermanns Zentr. 40, 54; Deut. Zuckerind. 36, 208; C. A. 5, 
2130. 

Hartwell, B. L. Abstracts of feeding experiments — analysis of 

feeding stuffs. R. I. Sta. Bull. 140, 105-133; E. S. R. 23, 

771. 
Haywood, J. K. and Warner, H. J. Commercial feedmg stuffs of 

the United States. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Chem. Bull. 108, 

1-71, 87-94; E. S. R. 10, 1064. 
Herzfeld, A. Manufacture of peat molasses fodder at the Frank- 

enthal sugar factory. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 63, 417-444; C. A. 

7, 2868. 
, Schufeld and Stiepel. Keeping qualities of certain peat 

meal molasses feeds. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 52, 207-217 (1902); 

E. S. R. 14, 1104, 278. 
Hills, J. L. Feeding stuffs inspection; concerning commercial 

feeding stuffs. Vermont Sta. Bull. 144, 3-48; E. S. R. 22, 

670. 

Feeding trials with cows. Vermont Sta. Rpt., 1904, 

462-511, 547-584; E. S. R. 17, 284-285. 

, Jones, C. H. and Benedict, P. A. Commercial feeding 

stuffs. Principles and practice of stock feeding. Vermont 

Sta. Bull. 152, 515-614; E. S. R. 24, 470. 
Hitier, H. The feeding of farm animals with molasses at Noyelles- 

sur-Escant. J. agr. prat. 8, n.s., 302-304 (1904); E. S. R. 

16, 803. 
HoUrung, M. Use of molasses for feeding. Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 

44, 580 (1894); E. S. R. 6, 331. 

Utilization of sugar beet molasses. Landw. Ztg. 44, 

285-292, 315-318, 341-345 (1895). 

Honcamp, F. Some new foodstuffs. Wiener landw. Ztg. 63, 

315; C. A. 7, 2811. 
Hoppe, P. Value of molasses as a fodder material. Z. Ver. 

Zuckerind. 50, 713-760 (1900); E. S. R. 12, 592; J. S. C. I. 

19, 841. 
Humus as an aid to stock food. J. Am. Peat. Soc. 8, 97 (1915). ^ - 
Insulandar, I. Beet sugar molasses for milch cows, horses and pigs. 

K. Landtbruks-Akad. Handl. Tid. 34, 246-251 (1895) ; E. S. 

R. 7, 701. 

Dried beet chips and molasses as stock food. Nord. 

Mejeri Tidn. 10, 327-328 (1895). 

Jones, W. J. Commercial feeding stuffs. Indiana Sta. Bull. 
177, 47-340 (1914); 181, 523-835 (1915). 



42 MOLASSES 

Kellner, 0. Digestibility of a number of materials used as 
absorbents in molasses feeds. Deut. landvr. Presse 29, 832; 
E. S. R. 14, 1104. 

New feeding stuffs and fertilizers. Illust. landw. Ztg. 

27, 852; C. A. 2, 677. 

Use of saccharine feeding stuffs. Arb. deut. Landw. - 

Gesell., 1909, 152, 72 pp.; C. A. 4, 229; E. S. R. 21, 368. 

and Kohler, A. Investigation on the metabolism of 

matter and energy of full grown steers on a maintenance and 
en a production ration. Landw. Vers.-Sta. 53, 474 pp.; E. 
S. R. 12, 1071. 

Zahn, O. and von Gillern, H. Feeding experiments with 



molasses and ground peat. Landw. Vers.-Sta. 55, 379-3^ 

(1901); E. S. R. 13, 776. 
Kellog, J. W. Commercial feeding stuffs in Pennsylvania in 1913. 

Penn. Dept. Agr. Bull. 249, 189 pp. (1913). 
Klix, S. Molasses as a food stuff. Deut. landw. Presse 14, 

573; J. S. C. I. 7, 130. 
Kuntze, L. Molasses feeding. Bl. Zuckerriibenbau 14, 300-304 

(1907); E. S. R. 19, 772. 
Lanjardiere, B. de. Use of molasses in feeding farm animals. 

Bull. agr. Algerie et Tunisie 9, no. 7, 153-155 (1903); E. S. 

R. 15, 66. 
Ledoux, L. Analysis of molasses treated fodders. Bull. soc. 

chim. de beige 26, 76-77; C. A. 6, 3297. 
Lemmermann. Some adulterants of concentrated feeding stuff. 

Illust. landw. Ztg. 28, 733-734 (1908); C. A. 3, 87. 
Lindsay, J. B. Digestibility of cattle foods. Mass. Sta. Rpt., 

1906, 96-156; E. S. R. 19, 264. 

Digestion experiments with sheep. Mass. Sta. Rpt., 

1904, 45-77; E. S. R. 17, 279-280. 

Dried molasses beet pulp. Mass. Sta. Bull. 99, 1-10; 

E. S. R. 16, 495-496. 

■ Examination of cattle and poultry feed. Mass. Sta. 

Bull. 112, 58 pp.; E. S. R. 18, 967. 
• Food values of plain and molasses beet pulp. Mass. 

Sta. Rpt. 1912, I, 129-140; II, 64-66; E. S. R. 31, 176. 

Inspection of concentrates. Mass. Sta. Bull. 108, 

51pp.;E. S. R. 17, 1178. 

Molasses for farm stock. Mass. Agr. Ext. Course 9, 

1-4, (1916). 

-, Holland, E. B. and Smith, P. H. Molasses and molasses 



feeds for farm stock. Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 118, 1-32; 
C. A. 2, 1019; E. S. R. 19, 868. 

— and Smith, P. H. Composition, digestibility and feeding 
value of molassine meal, etc. Mass. Sta. Bull. 158 (1914) ; 
E. S. R. 32, 666; C. A. 9, 1355. 



FEEDING STUFFS 43 

Lindsay, J. B. and Smith, P. H. Effect of Porto Rico molasses on 

the digestibility of hay and hay concentrates. Mass. Agr. 

Expt. Sta. Rpt., 1909, I, 82-131 ; C. A. 5, 430; E. S. R. 24, 268. 
Linfield, F. B. Experiments in fattening lambs. Utah Sta. 

Bull. 78, 55 pp. ; E. S. R. 15, 709. 
Loges, G. Concerning milk molasses. Landw. Vers. -Sta. 58, 

400-402 (1903) ; E. S. R. 15, 801. 
McNider, G. M. Stock feeds. Bull. N. C. Dept. Agr. 31, 

no. 11, 64 pp. (1910); E. S. R. 24, 672. 
Malet, G. Preparation and use of molasses bread for cattle 

feeding. Bl. Zuckerriibenbau 9, 295-299 (1902); E. S. R. 

14, 1104. 
Marshall, F. R. and Burns, J. C. Kafir com and milo maize for 

fattening cattle. Texas Sta. Bull. 97, 20 pp. ; E. S. R. 19, 674. 
Minkler, F. C. Feeding experiments with swine. N. J. Sta. Rpt. 

1916, 113-132; E. S. R. 39, 777. 
Molassecuit. La. Planter 29, 3 (1902) ; E. S. R. 14, 1002. 
Molasses and the corn crops. La. Planter 48, 262; C. A. 6, 1150. 
Molasses and molasses feeds. Bd. Agr. and Immigr., Baton 

Rouge, La. 1914, 2-12; E. S. R. 32, 567. 
Molasses and peat fodder in Germany. J. Roy, Soc. Arts, 1897, 

1149; J. S. C. I. 16, 1028. 
Molasses a-s food. Amer. Vet. Rev. 26, 283-285 (1902); E. S. R. 

14, 691. 
Molasses as stock feed. Demeter 2, no. 8, 26-27 (1904); E. S. R. 

16, 188. 
Molasses feed. Landmansblade 29, 1-4 (1896) ; E. S. R. 8, 264. 
Molasses for farm animals. Nord. Mejeiri Tidn. 10, 316-317 

(1895). 
Morgen. Feeding of sugar-containing foodstuffs. Wiirttemb. 

Wochbl. Landw. 24, 382-383 (1915) ; E. S. R. 34, 565. 
Nathors, H. On feeding of molasses. Tidskr. Landtman 16, 

245-248, 285-290 (1895). 
Neubauer, H. Should the standard of 20% water be adopted by 

the German agricultural association for molasses feeds be 

revised? Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 60, I, 284-308; C. A. 4, 2890. 
Standards for mixed molasses feeds. Deut. Zuckerind. 

35, 557-559 (1900); E. S. R. 24, 214. 
Nicolas, L. Report on the use of molasses in the feeding of ani- 
mals. Compt. rend, congr. soc. chim. rat. Beit. 6, 16-25 

(1902); E. S. R. 14, 695. 
Nilson, L. F. Molasses pulp, a new feeding stuff. K. Landtbruks- 

Akad. Handl. Tid. 35, 218-222 (1896); E. S. R. 9, 267. 
Nogueria, J. V. de Paula. New feeding stuffs. Gas. Aldeias, 

657; C. A. 2, 3245. 
Ogilvy, L. Sustaining horses in long distance travel. Breeders' 

Gaz. 56, 1292-1294 (1909); E. S. R. 22, 475. 



44 MOLASSES 

Olschbaur, A. Feeding experiments with molasses and sugar beet 

residue. Deut. landw. Presse 25, 966-967, 972-973 (1898) ; 

E. S. R. 10, 790. 
Osborn, S. J. Beet molasses, its composition and utilization. 

Met. Chem. Eng. 16, 436-443 (April 15, 1917). 
Patterson, J. J. and Outwater, R. Digestibility of molasses feeds. 

Maryland Sta. Bull. 117, 259-290; E. S. R. 19, 363. 
Pickel, J. M. Commercial feeds. Bull. N. C. Dept. Agr. 35, no. 

10, 73 pp. (1914); 36, no. 10, 53 pp. (1915). 
Prinsen-Geerligs, H. C. Molascinder. Ind. Merc. 32, 250 (1909) ; 

E. S. R. 21, 124. 
Ramin, E. Effect of various preparations of molasses on milk 

secretion. Landw. Jahrb. 26, 733-765 (1897). 

Sheep feeding experiments with molasses. Deut. landw. 

Presse 23, 651-652 (1896); E. S. R. 8, 621. 

and Mintrop, W. Experiments on the effect on milk 

production of some new feeding stuffs with special reference 
to the fat content. Milch Ztg. 27, 513-519; E. S. R. 10, 
588-589. 

and Menisen, C. Feeding value for milch cows of the 



solids-not-sugar in molasses. Milch Ztg. 29, 433-436 (1900). 
Report of analysis of commercial feeding stuffs. La. Dept. 

Agr. and Immigr. Feed stuffs report, 1913-1914. 152 pp. 
Robinson, F. W. Concentrated commercial feeding stuffs. 

Mich. State Dairy and Food Dept. Bull. 161; C. A. 4, 1329. 
Rose, R. E. Analysis of feed stuffs. Ann. Rpt. State Chemist 

Fla., 1914, 107-135. 

and Greene, E. P. Feeding stuffs analyses. Fla. Quart. 

Bull. Dept. Agr. 26, no. 1, 94-131. 

Ross, B. B. Commercial feeding stuffs. Ala. Dept. Agr. Bull. 

61, 5-61 (1914). 
Sandles, A. P. Feeding stuffs. Off. Rpt., Ohio Bd. Agr. on 

Feed Stuffs, 1912, 128 pp. 
Schlicht, A. Examination of molasses feeds with the immersion 

refractometer. Chem.-Ztg. 33, 925-926, 935-936 (1909); 

E. S. R. 22, 214. 

Feeding stuffs from brewers' grains and molasses. Illust. 

landw. Ztg. 27, 217-218 (1907); C. A. 1, 1592. 

Molasses feeds. Illust. landw. Ztg. 27, 218-220 (1907); 



E. S. R. 19, 169. 
Schulze, B. Preservation and value of mixed molasses feeds. 

Arb. deut. Landw. -Gesell., 1901, no. 59, 26 pp.; E. S. R. 13, 

581. 
Shaw, R. S. Dried beet pulp and dried molasses beet pulp for 

fattening sheep. Mich. Sta. Bull. 220, 43-50; E. S. R. 16, 691. 
Shutt, F. T. Analyses of feeding stuffs. Can. Expt. Farms Rpts., 

1913, 223-241; 1914, 109-119. 



FEEDING STUFFS 46 

Shutt, F. T. Fodders and feeding stuffs. Can. Expt. Farms Rpts., 

1915, 127-149; E. S. R. 36, 65. 
' Forage plants, fodders and feeding stuffs. Can. Expt. 

Farms Rpts., 1898, 142-151; E. S. R. 11, 873. 

Relative value of feeding stuffs. Rpt. Select Standing 



Committee, Agr. and Colon. (Canada), 1909, 22-42; E. S. R. 

22, 172. 
Smith, P. H. Inspection of commercial feeding stuffs. Mass. 

Sta. Bull. 136, 3-56 (1910); Mass. Sta. Control Ser. Bull. 

1, 4-61 (1914); 3, 4-70 (1915). 
Stallings, R. E. Commercial feeding stuffs. Bull. Ga. Dept. 

Agr. 60, 119 pp. (1913); Mo. Bull. Ga. Dept. Agr. 2, no. 7, 

96 pp. (1915); E. S. R. 34, 566. 
Stenkhoff, G. Composition and feeding value of dried pulp, 

sugar pulp and molasses pulp. Landw. Z. Rheinprovinz, 

1909, no. 5; C. A. 3, 1192. 
Stift, A. Preparing molasses pulp. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 

25,224 (1896); J. S. C. I. 15,912. 
Stockdale, F. A. Foodstuffs for animals arid their valuation. 

Dept. Agr. Mauritius, 1915, 5 pp. 
Street, J. P. Commercial feeding stuffs. Conn. State Sta. Rpt., 

1904, part 4, 199-226. 
Strowd, W. H. Some facts about concentrated feeds. Wisconsin 

Sta. Bull. 253, 60 pp. (1915). 
Strube. Practical use of molasses feeds. Bl. Zuckeriibenbau, 

1897, 172; Biedermanns Zentr. 26, 805-806; E. S. R. 9, 872. 
Stubbs, W. C. Economics of feeding of plantation stock under 

the present condition of high priced grains. La. Planter 28, 

178-181 (1902). 
Taylor, F. W. Feeding stuffs. N. H. Sta. Rpts., 1907-1908, 

322-324; E. S. R. 21, 776. 
Teller, G. L. and Moore, J. F. Sirups and molasses. Ark. Sta. 

Bull. 37, 181-186; Rpt., 1895, 181-186. 
Terry, R., Arnold, S. and Fisher, H. Molasses as feed. School 

of Mines Quart. 26, 283-302 (1905); J. S. C. I. 24, 683. 
Turner, J. D. and Spears, H. D. Concentrated commercial feed- 
ing stuffs. Ky. Sta. Bull. 185, 367-471 (1914). 
Use of molasses as a feed stuff. Landw. Ztg. 43, no. 19, 605-608 

(1894). 
Use of sugar cane molasses. Kimball's Dairy Mag. 16, 612 (Oct. 

15, 1918). 
Vallier, R. Molasses feeds. Rev. gen. chim. 13, 367-370 (1910); 

14, 9-14 (1911); C. A. 5, 1133, 1638. 
Value and economy of molasses in the brood sow ration. N. J. 

Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt. 1917, 111-114 (1918). 
Value of molasses as a food for farm animals. Landtm. Manadsbl., 

1899, no. 7, 97-101. 



46 MOLASSES 

Van de Venne, H. Molasses in mixed feeds. Ingen. agr. Gem- 

bloux 12, 437-448 (1902); E. S. R. 14, 479. 
Sugar molasses and molasses products in the feeding of 

farm animals. Brussels. E. S. R. 16, 391. 
Van Pelt, H. G. How to feed the dairy cow. Kimball's Dairy 

F. 14, 712, 740 (Nov. 1, 15, 1916). 
Vibrans, Feeding experiments with molasses. Landw. Wochbl. 

Schles.-Holst. 45, 473-474 (1895). 

Food mixtures containing molasses. Deut. landw. Presse 

22, 392 (1895). 

Voelcker, J. A. Feeding stuffs (bastol). J. Roy. Agr. Soc. 72, 

365-370 (1911); E. S. R. 27, 371. 
Voltz, W. Feeding value of the amides in molasses. Z. Ver. 

Zuckerind., 1907, 681-691; Arch. ges. Physiol. 117, 541-563 

(1907); C. A. 1, 1884; E. S. R. 19, 1167. 
de Vries, J. J. O. The feeding of molasses feed to dairy cattle. 

Verslag Ver. Exploit. Proefzuivelboerderij Hoorn, 1913, 

15-33; E. S. R. 34, 671. 
Wagner, A. Feeding stuff from peat and molasses. Chem.-Ztg. 

19, 713 (1895). 
Wahlquist, R. Value of beet molasses and molasses peat as cattle 

feed. Rpt. Ultuna Agr. Int., 1895, 53-65; E. S. R. 9, 275. 

Value of molasses feed for milk cows. Nord. Mejerie 

Tidn. 11, 317-319 (1896); E. S. R. 9, 281. 

Walker, G. B. Some experiments and practical demonstrations 

in hog feeding at the Delta Branch Expt. Sta. Miss. Sta. 

Bull. 177, 18 pp. (1916); E. S. R. 36, 471. 
Walton, T. H. Economic feeding of working horses. Agr. Gaz. 

New South Wales 9, 169-172 (1898); E. S. R. 11, 74. 
Ware, L. S. Cattle feeding with sugar beets, sugar molasses and 

sugar beet residues. Philadelphia, 1912, 389 pp.; E. S. R. 

14, 685. 
Weibull, M. Analysis of feeding stuffs. Tidskr. Landtman 17, 

294-299 (1896); E. S. R. 9, 266. 

On the quality of the so-called molasses feed now found on 

the market. Tidskr. Landtman 19, 423-426 (1898). 

Weigmann, H. Experiments in feeding molasses feed to cows. 

Milch Ztg. 24, 302 (1895). 
Weister, S. Molasses as fodder. Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind. 42, 

462-522; C. A. 7, 3683; E. S. R. 29, 570. 

and Zaitschlek, A. Feeding experiments with molas- 
ses. Landw. Jahrb. 37, 130-149; E. S. R. 20, 270; C. A. 3, 
218. 

Wery, E. Molasses as a food for animals. L'Engrais 14, 400-102 

(1899). 
Wiley, H. W. Record of experiments with sorghum. Division 

of Chemistry, Bull. 34, 132 pp.; E. S. R. 4, 81. 



MISCELLANEOUS 47 

Wilk, L. Studies in the acidity of various feeding stuffs. Z. 

landw. Versuchsw. 18, 485-558 (1915); E. S. R. 35, 770. 
Windisch, K. Utilization of waste materials from breweries as 

food stufifs. Pure Products 11, 521-523; E. S. R. 34, 262. 
Woodward, T. E. and Lee, J. G., Jr. Feeding blackstrap molasses 

to young calves. La. Sta. Bull. 104, 3-38; E. S. R. 20, 72. 
Woll, F. W. and Humphrey, G. C. Dried beet pulp or molasses 

beet pulp for dairy cows. Wis. Sta. Rpt., 1905, 108-117; 

E. S. R. 18, 271. 
Woy. Analysis of molasses fodder. Z. offent. Chem. 14, 409- 

417; C. A. 3, 675. 
Wustenhagen, L. Manufacture of fodder from molasses and 

dessicated beet pulp. Bull, assoc. chim, sucr. dist. 14, 542- 

543 (1896) ; J. S. C. I. 16, 154. 
Youngblood, R. Commercial feeding stuffs, 1914-1915. Texas 

Sta. Bull. 177 (1915). 
Zuntz. Feeding of sugar-containing feed materials. Z. Ver. 

Zuckerind. no. 701, II, 485-498 (1914); 703, II, 643-668 

(1914); E. S. R. 32, 767-768. 

Miscellaneous Uses 

Beumer, A. H. F. Hard molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 27, 962- 

966 (1919); C. A. 14, 471. 
Friedrich, H. Chiarcoal prepared from molasses as a substitute for 

blood charcoal. Chem.-Ztg. 18, 137-138 (1915); C. A. 10, 

539. 
Hartzell, F. Z. Influence of molasses on the adhesiveness of 

arsenate of lead. J. Econ. Entomol. 11, 62-66 (1918); C. A. 

12, 927; E. S. R. 38, 858. 
Hazewinkel, J. J. Preparation of hard molasses, with reference 

to the accompanying loss in brix resulting from decomposition. 

Arch. Suikerind. 20, 181-189; C. A. 6, 1549. 
Some observations on the manufacture of hard molasses. 

Arch. Suikerind. 18, 757-759; C. A. 5, 1848. 
Looze, D. de. Hard molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 27, 1118 (1919); 

C. A. 14, 472. 
Molasses binder. Rock Products 8, 26 (Sept., 1908) ; C. A. 2, 3414. 
Normann, F. E. M. Hardened molasses. Arch. Suikerind. 22, 

551-553; C. A. 8, 2823. 
Peck, S. S. Utilizing molasses. Sugar 17, no. 1, 39-41 (1915); 

C. A. 9, 869. 
Prinsen-Geerligs, H. C. Solidified molasses. La. Planter 53, 

173-174;C. A. 8, 3727. 
Schweizer, A. and van der Want, D. Hard molasses. Arch. 

Suikerind. 24, 597-614 (1916); C. A. 11, 2621. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Agr. News 

Am. Sugar Ind. 

Amer. Vet. Rev. 

Ann. 

Ann. agron. 

Ann. chim. anal. 

Ann. fals. 

Ann. sci. agron. 

Apoth.-Zeit. 

Arb. deut. Landw-Gesell. 

Arch. far. sper. 

Arch. ges. Physiol. 

Arch. Suikerind. 

Arch, voor de Java 
Suikerindustrie 
Beet Sugar Gaz. 
Ber. 

Ber. Agr. Chem. Kontroll 
u. Vers. Stat. Pflanzen- 
krank. Prov. Sachsen 



Ber. K. Vet. og Land- 

bohojskoles Lab. Lando- 

konom. Forsog 

Ber. physiol. Lab. u. 

Vers. Anst. Landw. Inst. 

Halle 

Biedermanns Zentr. 



Bl. Zuckerriibenbau 

Bol. Inst. Agron. Sao 

Paulo 

Bull, assoc, chim. sucr. 

dist. 



Agricultural News. 

American Sugar Industry. 

American Veterinary Review, The. 

Annalen der Chemie. 

Annales Agronomiques. 

Annales de chimie analytique et revue 

de chimie analytique. 

Annales des falsifications. 

Annales de la science agronomique. 

Apotheker-Zeitung . 

Arbeiten der deutschen Landwirt- 

schafts-Gesellschaft. 

Archivio di farmacologia sperimentale 

e scienze affini. 

Archiv fiir die gesamte Physiologic 

des Menschen und der Tiere. 

Ar chief voor de Suikerindustrie in 

N ederlandsch -Indie . 

Archief voor de Java Suikerindustrie. 

Beet Sugar Gazette, The. 
Berichte der deutschen chemischen 
Gesellschaft. 
, Berichte iiber die Tatigkeit der Agri- 
kulturchemischen Kontrollstation und 
der Versuchsstation fiir Pflanzenkrank- 
heiten der Landwirtschaftkammer fiir 
die Provinz Sachsen, 
Beretning fra den Kongelig Veterinaer- 
og Landbohojskoles Laboratorium for 
Landokonomiske Forsog. 
Berichte aus dem physiologischen Lab- 
oratorium und der Ver such sans talt 
des Landwirthschaftlichen Instituts der 
Universitat Halle. 

Biedermanns Zentralblatt fiir Agrikul- 
ture Chemie und rationellen Landwirt- 
schaftsbetrieb. 
Blatter fiir Zuckerriibenbau. 
Boletim do Instituto Agronomico do 
Estado de Sao Paulo em Campinas. 
Bulletin de 1' association des chimistes 
de sucrerie et de distillerie. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



49 



Bull, de la soc. des chim. 

de Maurice 

Bull. agr. Algerie et 

Tunisie 

Bull, assoc. beige des 

chim. 

Bull. Bur. Chem. 

Bull. soc. chim. 

Bull. soc. chim. de belg. 

C. A. 

Centr. Bakt. Parasitenk. 

Centr. Kunstdungerind. 

Centr. Zuckerind. 

Chem. Zentr. 

Chem. Weekblad 

Chem.-Ztg. 

Cir. hebd. Fabr. Sucre 

France 

Compt. rend. 

Compt. rend. acad. agr. 
France 

Dept. Landb. Nijv. en 

Handel 

Deut. Essigind. 

Deut. landw. Presse 

Deut. Zuckerind. 

Dingier 's poly tech. J. 

E. S. R. 

Illust. landw. Ztg. 

Imp. Dept. Agr. West 

Indies 

Inaug. Diss., Univ. Berne 

Ind. Merc. 
Industrie chimique 



Ingen. agr. Gembloux 
Intern. Sugar J. 
J. agr. prat. 



Bulletin de la soci^t^ des chimistes de 

Maurice. 

Bulletin agricole de 1' Algerie et de la 

Tunisie. 

Bulletin de 1' association beige des 

chimistes. 

Bulletin of the Bureau of Chemistry. 

Bulletin de la society chimique de 

France. 

Bulletin de la society chimique de 

belgique. 

Chemical Abstracts. 

Centralblatt fiir Bakteriologie, Parasi- 

tenkunde und Infectionskrankheiten. 

Centralblatt Kunstdungerindustrie. 

Centralblatt fiir die Zuckerindustrie. 

Chemisches Zentralblatt. 

Chemisch Weekblad. 

Chemiker-Zeitung. 

Circulaire hebdomadaire du Syndicat 

des Fabricants de Sucre de France. 

Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des 

seances de I'academie des sciences. 

Comptes rendus des seances d 'academic 

d 'agriculture de France. 

Department van Landbouw, Nijver- 
heid en Handel. 
Deutsche Essigindustrie. 
Deutsche landwirtschaftlicbe Presse. 
Deutsche Zuckerindustrie. 
Dingler's polytechnisches Journal. 
Experiment Station Record. 
Illustrierte landwirtschaftliche Zeitung. 
Imperial Department of Agriculture 
for the West Indies. 
Inaugural Dissertation. University of 
Berne. 

De Indische Mercuur. 
Industrie chimique, L'Revue universell 
des produits chimiques des industries 
annexes. 

L'In8:enieur amcole de Gembloux. 
International Sugar Journal, The, 
Journal d 'agriculture pratique et jour- 
nal de 1 'agriculture. 



50 



MOLASSES 



J. Am. Chem. Soc. 

J. Assoc. Official Agr. 

Chemists 

J. Bd. Agr. 

J. Econ. Entomol. 

J. fabr. Sucre 

J. Franklin Inst. 

J. Hyg. 

J. Ind. Eng. Chem. • 

J. Roy. Agr. Soc. 

J. Roy. Soc. Arts 
J. S. C. I. 

Jahresber. landw. Vers. 
Stat. Jersitz bei Posen 
K. Landtbruks-Akad. 
Handl. Tid. 
Lab. Inland Rev. Dept. 

Landtm. Manadsbl. 
Landw. Jahrb. 



Landw. Vers.- Sta. 

Landw. Wochbl. Schles.- 

Holst. 

Landw. Ztg. 

Landw. Z. Rheinprovinz 

La. Planter 

Meded. Proefstat. Java 

Suikerind. 

Meded. Proefstat. Suiker- 

riet West-Java 

Meddel. Centralanst. 

Forsoksv. Jordbruksom- 

radet 

Met. Chem. Eng. 



Milch Ztg. 



Journal of the American Chemical 
Society. 

Journal of the Association of Official 
Agricultural Chemists. 
Journal of the Board of Agriculture. 
Journal of Economic Entomology. 
Journal des fabricants de sucre. 
Journal of the Franklin Institute. 
Journal of Hygiene. 
Journal of Industrial and Engineering 
Chemistry. 

Journal of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England. 
Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 
Journal of the Society of Chemical 
Industry. 

Jahresbericht landwirtschaftliche Ver- 
suchsstation, Jersitz bei Posen. 
Kungl. Landtbruks-Akademiens Hand- 
lingar och Tidskrift. 
Laboratory of the Inland Revenue 
Department, Canada. 
Landtmannens Manadsblad. 
LandwirtschaftHche Jahrbiicher (Zeit- 
schrift fiir wissenschaftliche Landwirt- 
schaft.) 

Landwirtschaftlichen Versuche-Sta- 
tionen, Die. 

LandwirthschaftUches Wochenblatt 
fiir Schleswig-Holstein. 
LandwirtschaftHche Zeitung (Fiih- 
lings). 

Landwirthschaftliche Zeitschrift fiir 
die Rheinprovinz. 

Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manu- 
facturer, The. 

Mededeelingen van het Proefstation 
voor de Java-Suikerindustrie. 
Mededeelingen van het Proefstation 
voor Suikerriet in West- Java. 
Meddelande fran Centralanstalten for 
Forsoksvasendet pa Jordbruksomradet. 

(Metallurgical and Chemical Engineer- 
ing.) 
Milch Zeitung. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



51 



Mitt, chem.-tech. Vers. 
Stat. Centr. 
Rubenz. -Indus. Oesterr.- 
Ungar 
Mon. sci. 

Neue Z. Zuckerind. 
Nord. Mejeri Tidn. 
N. Dak. Sta. Spec. Bull. 
Oesterr.-ung. Z. Zuckerind 



Oesterr.-ung. Brenner- 

eizeit. 

Orig. Com. 8th Intern. 

Cong. Appl. Chem. 

Philippine J. Sci. 
Proc. A. O. A. C. 

Prog. agr. vit. 
Rend. soc. chim. ital. 

Rev. chim. ind. 
Rev. gen. chim. 

Rev. ind. agr. Tucuman 

Rev. prod. chim. 

Rpt. Ann. Sta. Agron., 

Mauritius 

School of Mines Quart. 

Sci. Am. 

Sta. Agron. Mauritius, 

Bull. 

Staz. sper. agrar. ital. 

Sucr. ind. colon. 
Tidskr. Landtman 
Ugeskr. Landm. 
Verslag Ver. Exploit. 
Proefzuivelboerdij 
Hoom. 

Vie agri. et rurale 
Westnik Sacch. Prom. 
Wiener landw. Ztg. 
Wiirttemb. Wochbl. 



Mitteilungen der chemfeche-technis- 
chen Versuchsstation des Centralvere- 
ins fiir Riibenzucker-Industrie in der 
Oesterr.-Ungar Monarchic. 
Moniteur scientifique du Docteur 
Quesneville. 

Neue Zeitschrift fiir Zuckerindustrie. 
Nordisk-Mejeri-Tidning. 
North Dakota Station Special Bulletin. 
Oesterreichisch-ungarische Zeitschrift 
fiir Zuckerindustrie und Landwirt- 
schaft. 

Oesterreichisch-ungarische Brenne- 
reizeitschrift. 

Original Communication, 8th Inter- 
national Congress of AppHed Chemis- 
try. 

Philippine Journal of Science, The. 
Proceedings of the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists. 
Progress agricole et viticole. 
Rendiconti della societa chimica itali- 
ana. 

Revue de chimie industrielle. 
Revue generale de chimie pure et 
appliquee. 

Revista industrial y agricola de Tucu- 
man. 

Revue des produits chimiques, La. 
Report Station Agronomique, Colony 
of Mauritius. 

School of Mines Quarterly. 
Scientific American. 
Station de la Agronomique, Mauritius, 
Bulletin. 

Stazioni sperimentali agrarie itahane, 
Le. 

Sucrerie indigene et coloniale. 
Tidskrift for Landtman. 
Ugeskrift for Landmaend. 
Vereeniging tot Exploitatie eener Pro- 
efzuivelboerderij to Hoom, Verslag. 

Vie agricole et rurale. La. 
Westnik Sakhamoi Promyshlennosti. 
Wiener landwirtschaftliche Zeitung. 
Wiirttembergisches Wochenblatt fiir 






52 



MOLASSES 



Landw. 

Z. anal. Chem. 

Z. angew. Chem. 

Z. Elektrochem. 

Z. landw. Versuchsw. 

Z. Nahr. Genussm. 



Z. offent. Chem. 

Z. Spiritusind. 

Z. Ver. Riibenzuckerind. 

Z. Ver. Zuckerind. 

Z. Zuckerind. Bohmen 

Zentr. Agr. Chem. 



Landwirthschaf t . 

Zeitschrift fiir analytische Chemie. 
Zeitschrift fiir angewandte Chemie. 
Zeitschrift fiir Elektrochemie. 
Zeitschrift fiir das landwirtschaftliche 
Versuchswesen in Oesterreich. 
Zeitschrift fiir Untersuchung der Nah- 
rungs- und Genussmittel, sowie Ge- 
brauchsgegenstande. 
Zeitschrift offentliche Chemie. 
Zeitschrift fiir Spiritusindustrie. 
Zeitschrift des Vereins fiir Riibenzuck- 
er-Industrie. 

Zeitschrift des Vereins der deutschen 
Zuckerindustrie . 

Zeitschrift fiir Zuckerindustrie in Boh- 
men. 
Zentralblatt Agrikulturchemie. 



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