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HACUILLA?^ ft CO. tj*<im> 
U3NQOV - nnuiuv ■ (AtiruTT* 









TiMK coJieciion ol illwusiive iuaE<*iial« b deti^nvd to acum*- 
puiy my Am^riitMit C^fmm/nt aj»4 /hli/u^, iww in prcpanlkHi, 
■ltd il>e diokt! and Jinngemnit oi th« tclectiom hxvv iMvn 
domlnu«d by ihc plan vt thai ^xttome. However. I bupc that 
ibc pac«9 vhich foUbv lOiiy be u^tcd «Ttb pr<jlii in coaneciion 
wiifa othtT in>nii)h. BBd read wiih some uitcrc^i b/ ihc *nid«M 
ol goventncM vbo «fabc« lo go beyond Uic suKucnu d un 
vnten for his Inlonnjition- 

Whili? che oiAtrriiJA come from a larcc v>rju^ of lourcei, 
I have chofcn nhtcfcver pctubk ftoin ihe «Kim^ of men who 
hftvc had « practical experience in ihe conduct of gov^nuncni. 
J hav« flbno M«£h4 to illiEiitratc rhc larger and rnore pcnnu;ei»t 
fcatioei of orur polttvmJ system, rathcf than lo fumi^ a ** handy 
jCuiilr (o ihc taw and practice." To iaciliute the work of ihc 
student and teacher, I have etxletivorrd to make cji:h cttracl 
clear* cocnpacli and ■cU'CxpUnjiorr, Hod m wvcral in^Uncca 
1 have condviied conMlcrabljr by <jini((ift^ ob4i.^taic aJlnBiuotf 
and pa»agc0 do( bearii^g directly on the priticiptc« vbich I hanj 
wished to brine out. To avoid marring tbo page« «itb un^iEhtlf ^ 
" poims," I have nierclr placed an asterlik aE the head ol cacl» 
adecifon vtkh kaa bven subjected to thn process of condcftsa- 
tioo. The Side m««« are Inieoikd prinuril)' to bdp Ihe teacher 
hi conducting clftSB dbcusleos. 

I afD iBdeblcd to 0»c cdjton nl several mapxlncv for the 
prU-ilq^ of Mleing cxlracia Iront tahiablc artlck». Mr. Alca- 
a&clcf Hottxoff faaa made aiany Voig and pakialakrng ftearche* 
lor me into the fqgititv litrratun? <A parly poJjEic>.» and I ant 
mtda ftfkccial oWigatioau fo him. Mr, frcdcnc W. £rb, of 



Colonial Origins of Ami&ican Instttutions 


I. The Tojtl prcTiDcc s 

fionton, N- (editor), FrtmiuialPapm,' Ntw ffamptkirt (1749- 
63), VI, 90S j^. 

X T^c corparftlc colony ---,-,.., 6 
pDore, CanstihitieHJ a/ tkt Umtrd StaUt, II, 1S9 iff^ 

3. The propriFUrr ralony . 9 

/*i'-^, 11, 1538. 

4. A BotoD town oiteiLiig .. ..,<.., 11 

Bfttam Ttmm Heafrdty 1758-69, 1-9,/uniir. 

5. LockI goTcrDment io Virginui > • > 13 

HcBiDf, StatHits at Large, V, 4S9 if^,, and 175. - 
& FoUlick] theory before the Revolotion . . * , 14 

EUiot, Aq Am fUntien S^rmoH CT765), ll-l%paaim, 



7. The BcotoD comiDittec of cotreipDiiderice . ■ • . . 16 

Baton Tffan ^ecor^, '^IT^TJ* 9' '?- 
8l MBMBrhuHtb calk the fini ContiDcntiU CoDgrcB . . , , 18 

force, Amtrititn ArcAivei (4Ch tenet), I, 4^0. 
9. AppoiDttocnt of (he South CtTolini delegntei , , . > . 19 

Jnrmali 9/ At Continmtal CBngrexs, [774-89, 1, i^iq. 

10. The DecUntion orlndependeiKe >-..-.. 90 

11. The ArtkLei of CoDfedenlion . - , ... 15 
IX, ContlnenUl CongTCH rccommeDdi the eatHbliihment of ttnte gov- 

erninenli -.-..,.-.., 35 
/aurnaiM o/tkt CanSitvniat Ctmgrm (1906), V, 341, 357 tq. 

Contents and List of Citations ix 

37. Jadlciil enpmuon of the ConmlilutiDii . » , » , 63 

McCnUoch tf. Muylud, 4 Whutoii* 316 i^, 

38. CongTHUDul apAntion of tbc Cdbititutioa 66 

CffMfrfuiffiuJ Rteord, XXXV, Put 7, 675a i^. 
3q, Tbt CoDMitution ind cxtculive pnclke - - - ■ 1 ■ ^ 

Carlis. Tki JfefitOiifam Forty, 1, 406. 
yx Tkc tfaird Imn doCLiiDC . . . . ..... 70 

}Vorks tfjtgirton (1855), IV, 565 ; Cmngrtaiomal Rttord, IV, 
l^it I, 3a& 


The Devvlofhekt or Statb CoNsrnvnoNS 

31. Eutr Mjilr condituHou . - T^ 

FooTC» Cfiutiltatioi^ 0/ ikt t'nittd StaliSt 1, 4021^./ S2I aqq^ 

33. AjDcrican rotten boruugbi ..... ... 75 

NA«, fKAl^^«-'WrfiS3l)p V1I1 <pf>ht!h), 99 jf. 
3J. An Appetl for the right to vote ....... 78 

J^octtdimgs amd Dibatts of tkt l^rginut Siaie CimvenHen 9/ 

34. Ad ueumcnt i^iut populur luffrftgc ...... 79 

Hid^ 369 ifq. 

35. Tbv doctrine of rotation in ofBcft , . .... St 

fh-tcuiAitgj and Dthala u/ M^ Comvtnt^n of PdmruyiDaitia 
<iflj7), 1I,4I3J«. 

36. RcftrictioDi on ipccial kgUliLioa 84 

Df^aUi oftkt CtMveHtfaH of Ftnnsyivartia ([873)^ 11, J90 ig. 

37. RccvqI tendencies in camlitiiiioiiAt developmenl . . . , S7 

Tfae Comtilulion of OkUhonUt /auim. 


The EvoLimoN of Foutical Issues in thi United Statki 

38. FedeibliiU And JeffEnontus ........ 9a 

7%t iVrilirtgi of TMomm ftgerioH (1S55), HI, 290 iqq. 

39. The Whig P«iy 94 

Stuwood, A I/iilory of At Prttidrnty 09O3)> '^ 
tfi. The DemocnuLc porty n the cfavnipioD of ilkrery , . , - 95 
IHd^ 349 tq. 

41. The plitfom cf the RepablkEB party Id i860 .... 96 

Contents and List of Citations xi 



The Genuul FuNCin,E$ of the Fu>kilal Systih of GovumiiKT 


CC. Origiiul timJUtioiu on (be power of the frdpnl goT^nimcnl , , 134 
The redcnl ComliLutioD. 

56. LimitELions impoKd on (he Tcdenl governiDeiit by the AmcDdDKDti 135 

IbitL, Amendintiiili I-XL 

57. The Iheory of the irparBlioii of powen in the fedeni ConBilntion , 13S 

Kilbouin v. Thompton, T03 Uoiltd Stutei Report!, 168* 

5& The lupremECf of federEl Lew I40 

AbleiTUD p. bcMith, 21 Howard, 506. 
5^ The BulFnige voder the federid CoiutilDlioii . . . . ^ 143 

Jteviiid Jtttffri/ of the CtmsHtHfianai Canvention of Nrvr Ytrk 
(1894), 1, 618 Iff. 
60. Rrciprool £uaniilee(>fpiiTi]e£eiHiid immniiLlin Emong lh« Kreral 

%\MXr% ........... 146 

Siory on At CtmlihUion (1905)1 II> 5S2 J^,> nnte. 
Ct. TnttfntEte TendLtian .......... 14S 

Rtporlofikt AOornry- General ef Imoa (1904). 2:6 igg. 
63. The ntlion^ chumcLfT of dtiieuhip ...... 150 

United Stttcfl V. Wong Kim Ark, 169 United Stiilci ReporU, 
649 j^. 



63. CobEtltntioiu] pTOVuioiu relEting to ihe election of the Preudenl . 154 

Tbe fedenl CjbUiLntiojL 

64. Tbe choice of preflidenllBl elector* ..,.,,, 157 

RkbtrdiDH, Prtiiden^at Mtsta^t, IX, aoS fff. 

65. Counting tbe electoral vote in the ilate* Ij9 

S/alutei of Ike State of O^egvn retatirtg to Eleetiom. 1907. 

66. Tbe co\\ for tbe niliooid cQVrenlioii ...... t6o 

OJteiat Cali, LbOcd by tKe Rcpnblic»n G>niniinee, 1908 ; Q^eial 
keporl of the froceeJingt of Ih* DetHoeratie ^/aJionaf Cornvn- 

'"'«i T9a4t '- 

67. Convention ontofy . ,,....... 164 

JM't^ 161 i^. 
bS. The DemocrElic unit rule 167 

Contents and List of Citations xui 


84. The civil Krrice Act 9oS 

Jfrptrl 0/ lA* UniOd S/atei Civii Sttriet Ctmmiiiion (l9r>S)i 

S5- Picudcnt ClerrUDd and the plic« boDUn ..... Sit 

Rkhardhm, PrtiidtrUiat Mtiia^es, \%, 399 ly. 
S6, ScnrntorlHl coiirt«r ..-.--.... 311 

Baulw?1l» G. S-, J^fmimisctHeei of Sixty Ytars ih PuMir Affairty 
ll> aS>. 
37. Cmgreumen md ffdenl officen ....,,, aij 

Lincoln^ IVttr^, !!» 106 jf. 

TUk Conghkss or thi UNrm StAtn 

85. Pro*i|Joiu of ibe fedcTml CoDttitntloD reUtiTC lo tbe orgAnkation 

ofCoiigrnA ......,.,. 314 

Tlie fcdcnl ConlilulioQ, 

89. The apportionmcnl of KpfetcDtitiTci unong the lUIci . , 3lS 

StaHt/et at Large, XXXI, 73J. 

90. The ut of fcrrymftDdetED^ ,-,--,,- 319 

SptriMts and Addrtssa «/ Wittiam McKir^ty, ?3 '^. 

91. Tfae Ikw KOTcniine the dection of Scnalon 331 

Csmpiitd SiainUi ofthi UniUd Sialtt, I, 7 j^. 
91 The ori^nil purpote of tbe Sentte 333 

Tkt Ftdtraiiit, Ndl LXII And LXIIT. 
9J. PopuUr eleetion of SeaatDrt in Oregon 335 

Same u tbove, Ko. 65. 
94. Hie qunlJon oF popo^r election of Sentton . . , . . 226 

S^naa DofMKtn/, 601I1 Cohfreit, lU SeM., Not. 511 ^nd ^iB. 
9j/ The intuuction of reprcMntfttivet in CangreiB . . , . 333 

CaitgrtJsiom/tl Rttmrd, XVII, Pirt i, lai j Tir iVorki of Hmrj 
day <Fede«l hL). VIII. 135. 

The Riweu of Conckess 

96. Eiprm powen conferreil oo Congreu by (he CoDttitulioa 336 

Tbe federil OmitiEiiiion. 

97, TIw doctrine of firici coutnidioii ...,,,» tjf 

MtcDaruld, yi^^^mm, Stita Documtnlt (1776-1861 ), 77 fff. 

Contents and List of Citations xv 


114. Power af ifac fedenl ctmrts over tUte lUttitc* .... 378 

Martin v- Huntcr't Lfuco, I Cnncb» 304. 

115. Jefterxni't ciiticiuo of the Supreme Court , . . . . a8i 

Writingi ff Tkitmas Jtffrrstn (1855 ed.)i ijjuid 191, 
t[6. Politicftl qunlioni in federal eu»^ ...... 183 

Pollock V. FBnoen' Lom ■nd TnuJ Co, 157 United Sliilei Re- 
portt. SJ3 tifq. 
117. The court! and lociiil policy .....,,. x86 

PmidcTilul Mciuge, DecFoabei 8, 190S. 
[i& The pUee of the Snpreue Coort in our titleni .... sS8 

Cof^'uioMoi Rrtord, XLIl, P>rl I, 589. 


119. The orgKniudon of the Depirtmedt of Sutft - , . . 191 

SiaiaUs at Largt, 1» a^. 
!>■>. Dutinvpd refpouibilitiett of diplomatic repreientalii'ei . . 399 

SmitkKnuin Mintiianevm Cpiirttiom, \\\, Pail 2. J17 j/p. 
121. EipeuetcODOected with the ambBStadorliL rank .... 395 

Qfttgrtaiattal Rreerdy XLll, Put 6, 5575. 
131. The negotiation of ireatici , 397 

Senatt Dotununn, 57th Congres, iM Sect-, XII, 6 jff. ; Com- 
gTMJunal fitatrd, XL^ Ptrt 3, 1418 s^q. 

133. The TecogniliDD of a new goTernmenl ,.---, 303 

J. B- Moore, A Diftii sf InternAtional, I, 97 j Congra- 
siffnal Record. XXXVllI, Part J. 3113 tg. 

134. Ad arbitration treaty . , . 305 

Supplement to the American Jouma] of IbtPTaational Law 
Cr9o8).Il. 39Sj^. 

chapter xvii 
National Depknsi 

135. The national DuLitia ......... 308 

Ui^ifedSiaUi StehUes at Largr, XXVIl, Part t* 775 i^. 
I36l The oTKaniration of the fltanding army . . 1 - . . 309 
Siittuiis t/ Ih* Unittd Stat^i, igoo-oi, 748. 

137. The declaration of waf ..-....., 310 

Richaxdwn, Prriuieittial MciJapa, X, 301. 

138. The call for Tolunleen - . 1 . . • • • . ^tO 

Contents and List of Ciudons 



144. Jndicul IntcrpTCtatiaD of the tCTDQ "comEDcrcc" . . , . 34J 

GibboEU V. O^drn, 9 Wb«ti>ii, i t^. 

145. SUte intcrfcrnkcv wLtli iDtenUK «jinm»cc , , , < i 348 

Cue of the BtKtc FTcighl Tu, 15 Wftllue, 131 ff^.' 

146. Qmdition of truupoTUtlafi in 18S5 ...... 35s 

3^ttdA fi/porl. No. 46 ; 49Eb Congmft, lU Sen. 

147. The inlenliLte cnnEDCTce commiAtion aI work > . • • 3S^ 

InUritatt Commeru R^rtt, XII, 315 4f. 
14S, The uti'tnut ICC of 1S9C1 ....,,.. 358 
i<B/Hfri ff/ ^fTT. XXVI, 309 sf. 


National Resoubob 

149. The ^TeTn9Tm' conferencet 1908 ...,,,, 36! 

TMt OtUing Afagaiint, L1I, 491 j^y. 

150. Why IqimI TtMrvalioM ihonld be mule , , » , , 364 

ffiftise Reportty 59th Con^rcai, isl Sm., No. 4399. 

151. The utionnL foreit reienrei ........ 366 

rir Indfptndent, LXIV, I374 i^ 
159. The mcFvutian of minCTm] Undl .<..,.. 36S 

fitnat* DtKHmtHi, 59tb Con^rae, 2d 5e»., Ko. 310^ 
153. The Tcc^nmiLtioii of irid Inndi ... ■ . 371 

Ctt^fitienal Rraril, XXXV, Put S, 353 tf^. 


The Goveknuent op TflRRTTORin 

154. ContitDlioiuL lintiUtloni on Coagreis in gDverning terrilDriet . 375 
Dorr V- United Stafca, 195 Unilrd !S(a[« RepoiU, 138 if/- 

153. Our relfliiont with Cubii - . 378 

SrafuttJ at Lar-it, XXX, 73S ; StahUrt af tki Uitiitd Siata, 
1900-01, 897 x^. 

156. PHnciplFA of Amcnckn policy in fhe HiillppiDei * , , 

CtmgrtstioHat Rteord, XXXIV, Pnrt i, 8 Jff- 

157. The HiUippine Huenbly 385 

Re^rtpftht Pkih^ine Committiam, I9O7, I, SI3 t^. 

158. The itiGiTiiifclluD of envcmmenl in Porto Rico .... 388 

Statutes of the Vnittd StateSt 1899-90, 79 tqq. 

Contents and List of Citations xix 

17J. The qnHlion i>F ccntnliEiitiov in idminbilnljon . . . , 436 
InoMguriU Addrm of Gtvrrnor Hti^t^ I909' PtiuphlcL 

173. The Riethod of Klcctin|> itatc uRiceit 4jS 

Dthatti in ikt Kentmky Constitmitonai LtfjwnnVWf [S90, I, 
1419 \qq. 
174* The growlh or executive iDBvence '--,.. 44a 

Tki Nation. LXXXVI, ao8 i^q. 

'75* '^^ ^'^'^ powci . . . , ^ 44^ 

Same u Bbove, Ha. 173^ I, 14S1 s^ij.; Papfrt •/ frank S. 
Btaiky Gavenwr oT New Yoik, 1S9S, 1, 64. 

176. The cftll of JiQ rjittftordiiifcTy KBian ....,» 447 

Pu^ie Paptrs of Gmtrnar RvotpftU, 1S99, loa J^. 

177. Ad exerciie uf the pirdapiog power , 44& 

ibid. (1900), aiS, 

178. M^rlial Ihw -...,. 449 

SenaU DofuiittMi, 5flih Cijnijreu, 3d Seti^ III, 207 i^j^. 

179. Le^ advice (o the jEovernA 4^3 

Report of tht A/tornfy- Gemer/i/ (lon)t i90>4r 5^'ff^ 

l&i. GovemiDCbt by comiDiuion 4J3 

£>uDe u atHvf, No. 164, tl, ^^3 jff. 


The State Lectslaturk 

1SI' Special limitaliom on the legiBUture ...,,. 457 

Eilncta from ihc New York coEUlilotioD. 
rSa. LegBlalLve apportjoninent .,....,. 46a 

Same u above, No, 164, 111, loHj, 1162; IV, 34 tf^. 
183, Ltfiilalive procedure , , ^ 466 

/i^V,, I, 479 jf. 
JS4. PrDbLcmi of legialitive reToim ,.>',,. 467 

Rtport of iht ConimiiiioH to Retotummd Ckattgti in MttM^iof 
L/fisIa/iiin, New York, I&yj. 7 J^. 
I&5. The legiilalive committee of innulTy ...... 471 

Report of t)u foint CommiiUt on I/igkwayi, New York, 190$, 

|?6, The legislative reference bureau - . 473 

Rni/ia of Rmievrs, XXXII, 732 jf. 
187^ The evilt of over-legiilalioD 475 

Report of ike Ameritan Bar AnaciaHen, 1906^ Pari i, 3^3 j^. 

Contents and Ust of Citations 


»!. Tbe Icftdin; diScahia in city xowTiirDi.-ikt , , 

T'titimrrtr taktm ^jbrt ike ^maa temmi/Zte 0m Ci/itit 
V, 10 i^. 
3DA, DecFnlivliied municipal iufniinH(n|ioii . , 

Maj^rf AJJrtiuiy 18J9-91 (lloalon), 6 j^. 
ao^ The nuLyor'i pown tq New Ymk CUy - - . , 

Exirtct from the chailer of New Wirlt Cily. 
304. The council and municipiL mdmiDii|Tjii<iii 

BottoD FiQUTicc Comminon, Final liffvrtt (JanuArjr, 

B5- A plea fur (he TefaibiLilulLon of the city couocil 

^Mme u "boTt, No. T64, II, J3J ly^;. 
30& Municipal KurvTDmenl by commiqJi^'B .... 

Smpf^tmtrtt to fif TmV of lov-tt (l^o?), ao8 j^. 
A07. MudicipAl kgiilalivc reFerencc ..... 

Digtu 0/ City CharirTt (HtitoDt A. K.» edilur), CtUcago, 









MuTfiapAL Fu KcnoNi 

908. Municiptl w*terworki .....,.,, 5J5 

Stakitia 0/ Cities kaviitg a Fopuiation of wer 30^100 {1907), 
Bureau of the Cemui, 1 907, 63 tq^. 

909. A mayoT'i li^hl far good eledrJc light vervicc .... 5^ 

Atiantie City Cenftrtntt fsr GooU City Gtvtrnmtnt (1906), 
371 tqq. 

sio. Work of a teneaKnt home departmem ...... 540 

Firit Rtpart of iht Jrnemtttt J/oiuf Dtpartmtnt of ikt City of 
Nem York, 1902-03, 1, 5 iq. 
31 1. Tbe hcallb department of a cily ....... 543 

Rtpert of tkt Fuhiti Ntakh A'/.rr/jvrw/ (Uevclaihl, ( Hiiu, I90&). 
311. Municipal parki .,...,.... 545 

Annital Ktport of ikt Bonrd of Pubhe Strvta: iJ\v\t%on cf 
Parts (Oeveland, Ohiu, \90ft). 
9l> The qucitiun uf rnunicipal Dwnerahip ...... 34S 

MMnitipa! end /'rivate Operatten ef i'uhhs Utihtits (Kepurt lu 
thr Natitrnal Civic Fcdcialinb}, J, 23 i^tf. 

JI4, The case for muaicipaL owiicr«hip , J49 

Pirtona, Tkt City for tkr Peofiii, ill i^f. 

Contents and List of Citations kxiii 


Taxation and Finanol 

3>9. Tlifl problem of UKBiDg property ... . ^ 59a 

KeporteftAr Mim^^ata Tat ComminUn, 190S, ao if, 
tyx Scptniiion oftuic and )oc»l nvcnuei .,-,.. 59a 

ajl. jAJiAtioti ofpertDoaL properl/ -...,,. 597 
y^ii^ JD i^. : ^e/trt of du Sfetial Tax C^mmiauM &/ AW 
York, 1907, 57 jf, 

SJ>. The inhFritADcc tut , C03 

Stporto/tk€ Wwasin Tojs CommiuioM, I903,59jff. 


Social and Economic: LxglsLahoK 

S33. Tfae ipirit ofoppofitiDn to coTpomriodi. - . . , , AoA 

Suae u ftboTe, No. 16^ IV, 1068 j^. 
334- Control of E«Jt<fByi by CDiqpiiuioD ...... 609 

Eilrmct From Ihe conitilution of Qklahomu 
235. Tfar opermtioH of ■ rmilwij cominiivon ..... CiS 

Rtp«rt 9/ the Ntrik C^roiin^ Cerfioration Commimom, 1907^ 

a3& Control of itAte regnlalion by the federal judiciary . . . 614 

ChicB^ fXc, Railwiir Company v. Minnctota, 134 Uoited Statn 
RepoTtk 4»3- 

937. The Supreme Court and labor lepalitlon . . . , , 617 
Locknn v. New YoiL, 19S United Statei Reporto, 75. 

Inuu , . . 6>l 





TtTKUi » h Hngcfing trulitjon in tbc Unittd SttttB that the 
DNQ of ibv d^ivruib iwolury vrtHi bid the foundatkoi of imr ^^ 
WfUtm d fovrmmcnt bMLe vlokiulx From poEtlcAl v^peri^cc ^^|^! 
Mod iMJtht Iheir GuJiLiTji:c in tkic ibetmcl pruuipitt oF ihr nj;]iii ^TmL 
of mim, Aa a maikr of fatl. bouvvtir, the RvixJuEionary Falliiii 

wUch ihcy Uvod; thdr fvii>U wja i^umt the colonial policy 
the Britbh giyrEmmral^ — a protrst ai^nsT 4rtiml<? mcami 
which tStttid th«m 4dv<Tw1y, not jk demand for ihr rcaUttti 
irf ihit ec]uiliuhan nntiim^ crtiinriatH in Ifac DrfWiilkirk {^ Inde-^ 
pMidoiot, whicb served very wcH tu justiiy tbr KcvolulKm. bul 
ttSordcd on prsctkal bft«^ W ihc rtrfintfnittion of xht i^oHiicaI 
ifHtm ifler BfkUi dominiaa vu throwD o0. Ncilbcf In the 
av«tioo ci die Male gorcrmnenia nor in iht fornudon cf the 
UirioD did ihe Filhm dqiaft vvry r»di(At1y from C3ipiri«iic«^ umJ 
crmihctrdqioituna vtctc rcaciioas a^nat cdqctgIc abuncft nibcr 
than AttcmpU ii hItaI ^ma^om. U1lh goreinon, coundli^ 
legiihlumL J<*dldal tym-mA, munidpal and locjd wn^tfimxcati, 
aflid their opcT>lkin« under Amencxn cortd\tkfra, uicy wen Ca-^ 
mlllir; and ta rkmI of tbrn wm nM aad tunscrmuvc 
vrll BchocM in the aftual maiu^nMDl of public buain^A, thi 
had Dcitbcr iiii«twt nor dnlre (■> kad them into aaparimuota 
theordical pohtki. Tbf hoorv:! at Amcrif ui goremmcnt, 
fore, arr iu be vMi^ht not in the realms vS pi>tiiica] phncvoffbj 
bm ifi the dry reconlf which deambe the iootituUMial 
mkh wUch Ike Dcw nation ht^fUt U> carcet of {ndapemlmcc. 
On Ihf eve of the KevoluciDo, rhe AmertcoD roloiua ieO 
Ibrvc general groupa, acconliog tu tbc cuMunary cUttafk^Uoni 

American Government and Politics 

corporate, and proprietary. The ^vemmenL<i of all of 
however, WL-re based <m wrillen doLumcQls issued hv ihe 
tIJjh crown and limiied by them as well as by slalules passH 
Parlinimunl from lime ia lime- The gtocral outlines for Ihe 
MTimcnt uf ihe royaJ pro\'inLe, for example, were laid down 
Ihe governor's comraiiiion, of whioh Ihe following, issued by 
\rge III for New Hampshire, n»ay be laJten a^ lypicaJ: — 

J. The RoytU Province * 

iTge the Third by the Grace of God of Grca.t Brilairtj France, 
Ireland, King, fJeFeuder of the Faith Sl so forth. 

nur Tmsly and well beloved Benning Wentworlh Esquire, 
f reeling : 

[now you. Thai Wee, rtjiusini; especial Trust ftnd Cunfitieni-c 
[he Prudeni;ei Courage and Loyalty of you Benning Went- 
ili, of our i'lspecial gracc^ <:enain Koowicdgc and mecr motion. 


4 ^mt ^tmAmy 

Wft ft 


to «w£ Tig W«»i^- 

>ar iwl Gi^kA to bv mws JE iv «b««k vUl-Ii fvnw> ^ 

■ft ^piiB^rf by ram thai fa tort ttlmM 9l ISu^u^ iw^4^ 

aanrihtf bytfaf nntoiartinnQfotbwgitff a>wi4w«tf ^^ 

, Jt Mcnet our CDoacfl lUI lut* kvmvc VMtf 1^' ii 

Aod vw da bcnfaj |^ ft pul uMn jtnji ti . i^ Au i>-fi 

lij- wiib the vJWcv & ramrftl nl iiiir aaL i fnili^ i^i 

tianr M rnvij aluU rrquirt l(> tunuhjm A ihk 

of the uiii Frtchohlefm & I'UHkfk i*iililk ) 

In m«anrv & (ona A»<inliAir U* ihr iiMUtf uf ifur hnVIMv >4 fVflf 
Wc« 4li> horbr Decltfv |h*i ih* l^nfiM •■( «^> |nl A ij^MiiiUl i 
laU lit UUcd i! Vorami (lie Ucfunl A^i^ 

Ic naoUddii wd dii' - "' '*<" -^a^ A^,,»'^fe 
the ovwcnl ol uur hM ' - A^^nthlf «>. 

of ihcm mftcrufdy tb^ !>■«' 

tW PdUk^ Fmc^, 1l'i«*tr m4 ^^^ > ^4 

AmerJciti Government and Poliricn 

u »lttU n^rt ihcrtio, uid for the Beae^t of at our Hcln & Sue* 

R-|irjgilA&t, bilt Vh Tirkr A» itiiy he Hffrc^bk to Xhv bL«3 Sc SUt- 
alc* of Uii* our Kiiigrlrim of (Sfcat Briruic- 

Duniioo soever be withiu ihn^ monih& or iooner uftcr ihc making 
ihcrcof imntmiiicd uAto ua under our Publick 5cil i>f Nc^' llamp- 
ihirrr for our ttp^robaiJon or Dfedlon-aDCp of the mhit, as alwi 
DuplictlH tbcrtof bjr ihc next cdnveyiniXn ;ind in caw any nr 
«1L of ilir ftjud l^wt SlAtulfA jV i:irdinAncr'' nitx Irfiirr cfuifirmrri 
by u» ihiUI jic «n>' lime br ilUaliiTni-rl & nol approved 3c W9 dg' 
nifi^ by tuour HcLfft or suoti:i«orK imdcr our or thdr ^icn eiulhuilI 
5c bigEitft or hy ordfr of our or Lbvir f^r^vy CouikiI utiiu you the 
ufd Bcnning Wenta-orlb or to the Commumlcrin Ch^cf of our 
mM r>pnvir\(v for l!ir Itmc Mr\f^ ihpn burh & i>onunyof !hr -aid 
L*m SEaluTe^ &' oniinajvcv!i as shaW lie 40 diulloit^ and nal 
•pfirorrd, t-hAli from Ihfntv rcjur, llce^min*- flt be^umr oTw-riy 
rtM, & of none dTrd, %ay Ibuag Iq tbe contrary thereof Dotvith* 

And lo llw End ibflt nolhirig nay Iw panted otf donr by our eald 
Courvrtf or Aflwmbly In ihc PrtjtjdicG of at our Hcir^ & Suctcu-om 
U'f AtU & oni&in Ihil yiMi ihr- viid Bcnning \Vrn(«V4^rih shrM 
btvc & tnjoy a negjliiv Vcue in the muking & raning of nil 
I^uH & Sutulcb & ordin^iircrA ts Afcirr^d, And yuti hhjJI &nd 
Quy likr<rbe from time to timi- u you bliaJi jud^ il ne^cvuiry, 
ftdjoum, PpKv^c h*t De^uItc all GenenJ Aiikcmbliei v; aforet^d. 
Our further Will & i'le^suct b, thai you ihnU and may keep and 
1L<« the I'uUirk S^ ol of our Prrmoce of N«w Hampohirt for routing 
all ibin£t whatviever f hM PEi« Ihc Grcni Seal ol our wid Prt^vinnc 
under yuna (krtemmcnL 

And We do tTrirlty ftuihuriA? And nnpower you to eoiulflutc 
wsd qipolitt Judges and in curt n^uiJte Ojmn;u4iouerH of Oyi^ 
«nd Terminer, Joitlce* of the Pcao; and oiJicr nef^cvary ofBan 
and minblcn in our said Province lor the bcucr adrntntimloin 
of Jo4tire And purling tbe LAyr% in eiorcutioiQ, 4od ta odminbler* 

Coloniil Origins of AmcrioiQ Ins^tutionft j 

or ciiur it* he iidsiinitiicfrd unto them lurh qaiIi or oatha oa om 
buullj ni^c'-t U'l (lir ilur ruTutlijn tad Prdivnuocc of offim 
vid P\Mi.^> and fwc tbc LlrtriEig vi Trvib in JwlidjJ C»«s«». 

And we do hereby give vid Rnutl unto you full Puwcr and 
4Dtl»rii)' when ^wj shall aw causv or ^l1iilJ Judge utjr n(T«ndcr 
or olTcikdcn ia criaiifud nuutien of Jor any Fmis or Forftiiiir» 
dot mio us Ht objects for oitr ttKJvy bd Pntdon tU vtch n^cudtt 
or oUraden, and lo nmii all tu(h Uno uid fEirfftlti(r5. Tn?aton 
Afid WilUidl nurdcT cHily eicrjitrd, is vhich ckjc* you iJibH like- 
HM haw Povrtv upun cunijrdiwiry occaiyonk lo vutl tvptit^vi 
it> the offcndcn until and to dfe Intent our nya} Phuuujt may he 
Li>owa thcntiiL 

And We do hcrrhy ^t and ^nnt imh> you the uid Bcnoing 
Wcnlvntih hy youn*!f <ir by y<'>tir Capl;iinii *r)d (^fimnnftndrr* 
li]r ytm io Iv «iitborup<lH fuB I'uwrr -md autHuriiy tu Lr<y» iirni, 
mmCft, cucnouiid A^vi Rmfilify aH jxrvjii'^ rthauiirtTr reuilln|t 
kilUn uur Mid Pmviate JL PluiLitioui, urd » ucouwii ^didll 
serve to Ermrvb front <ifie place lo uiothv^r or to «tnb>ari: Ibtm foe 
Ifac rtatiuinx ami wfthMuAng of til Entrolti, Pyntes fit rrticb 
both II Land and SeA, and to innxpoin Jiuch tortt* to «oy of 
Ofor rianutiooi u Anwrica if nfwuuty «kn!l fr<iuiR Inr tlic 
DHcntr of the ftune against (be lntaskin» vr atlrrnpC^ of 4ny ui 
Enccavct, and «ucli Enemies, Plrata ukd nbeU, if there iluil 
occtslon to punue and jinxvcuM in at out o/ ibu limits of our 
«ti(J Protince li PUnladoB or otty of them, and if It ib^ co noue 
God, ihrra to vanquMi, iqtprthcnd and ukc, nnd bdnf taken 
according to Law to jnit to E^alh, <r keep or 1*rt?icrvF ahvc at 
yo^r divrrlion, a/id to Kvecutr reULTlu! f^vr in time <il Invaajon 
or Alhrf limi-x, when by I^^w t( mny lie riErcuird, and 10 do and 
exccuie all and etvry other tidn^ and tfanng* vhich to our Com- 
mandef 'in-Chief dijth or oojthc of right it> bfloag- 

ForaAttiu<h as mutinies Ae Disorder Duy b^pen by penxms 
EmjihjftNl at tea durinf tht limc of war* nad to ihc Fnd ihal 
nKk penon^ us thdfl >je ^hipjifyl & F^tployrd ai va durin|E the 
Cifar ol war, may be the beKcr^vemcd and ordennl, We do hnefay 



i ■- 
I — 



.^^IpftDu-^ ^CMdcnMM and IVditics 

^^ ^' uu vu- te Mid li>MiB» WcQtwmli our Gov- 
^ y^^^'-* - *->^'ft^ iitUhfver & mulboritj to nnati- 

, A .^ ,i«kri, i iimniiMifTT^ lb Eiccuie tlic I^v nur- 

^^v^ itAACiiluipb tmikaitirfc, PunKhmmts, Convc- 

j-,,<«^.«MUt H'*'^' '■'V ^'fc^Jtf ^ uflcndcn which shall 

. ,^i,imjM«u UfevBoUl^ *M May way uonilj^ dthn at 

jt,v 'il>^ M^ ^ '*''' kkidr or irwkitce id anj at the 

^^,^»^^-ll^^,iU uur tiMd htmncc or Tenitorics is the 

^ niiniir' ^< fUV'T. KVficdinf to ibe marlul Law and 

- .v-rt**w-'»""% ttruwrrfWiTAsafafEsaii 

J Kj^iiTtV iifciim*hri an lActts and mtmsitn dril fr 

>.,,^|, .^^l^fcf nmiiWlwtirfwirsMd Provipce to be obedi- 

«< ,«-l4vtt*mi> **^*'' y*^ ^ ^^^ Benniiig WcDlrortfa in 

t, iHti; ftur OouBds&ton and of the Povcis and 

.H^^ttf, -AtiMlnpiL azid in rase of your Death or ab- 

.^^ i^w>jjniV 4iMAM3ch penoQ as shall be appOiDted 

^. .,'.LufipiT«M CKwtnior or Comnuudcr in CUef of 

...Mhiv -i]»n«( «v ^ ibetefoR by these Presents pre 

^\. Ui^fi^HMf ^ TVtwei^ and autbohtKs aforesaid to 

.V i-ujw/w; V< W«i diirini: our Plr^^^ufr or luitit you 

.--.\i ifv-Bbw*. and, U upon your Death or absence 

i,...:^*. -'*. \e* Ham^^itr ibcir Jw no Person upon 

.——■-*/»'"«*» '* ip^ji'inied by us lo be our Lieutenant 

■-*»>— b.^w».'. ik tWI «W \>ur said PronntT, our AYIU & 

, .■^. iW ?'>.j(« \\sjiKiHitr whiisc \amr is first plated 

'i..-..^v>-^'>fc' A* *i^n, ami «ho >hall bt at ibc time irf 

. -w .^ V ws'i -^ ttithiM our 'aiil Pn^nncc, ^h^ill Like 

. . ._ , .L— i*',i ,,■; iSf ih^wmmcnt and Execute our 

■- .. I'.'.; -.^j^iix* ji>d ihi" sex-eral Powers and 

' . :-. . , \ 'K ., .'^ ^.'iL-m ».v* a rompany rvf men 

I <k. -■, I . .;^- 4 ■-. :» . ■- i., ■ 1 i r.'^J i hjn^r and iulhvriied 

jColonift] Onglnii of Amcncan Insritutions 7 

to Mt OD a gorcramtrct. udnul new mcmbm. ^t»^ conduct iMr 
Inrtl ftnuln witb a l-u^ df^rir^ ni inborn. I'hr followii^ rx- 
trici from Ji chMlv ot KIu>Ht< IsUiiil Aod Pnxidvnci; PluiulJoiii 
riveft ibp moat imporuut pan i^f the dwumcni dealing wiib ilko 

ChAricK the Second, by the gracv of G«It King of Boitbnd, 
Scodand, Prutcit otmI Irrtanfl, Defamdrr al Uic Tallli, ^.^ k> ail 
to vrlroine ihew pnocabi »ball cmnc, grwting^ . - . 

And iccof^tns^f our wiU and picadirc It, indolourcvpcdal] tcmbi 
.pMC- ceruine kttovrJcdj»«, and nccrc mocitm, voe batv ord€>Tied, J^|^°^ 
ronslitntcil oad iktbnd. and by these girTsenti, (or ti»» nur hcires ^^34^ 
iAd Micrcs^urt, dnr <>nlcynt cnn^iiivlr jutd dcdairc. Thai they, 
iW lAyti Williani Btrci^ni. ^VitliATn I'odinglAi, Nu-hr^JM KiKton, 
Boncdkl AawM. WiUj^m BouUtun, &c- . - ^ and all luch otben 
Mi now arr, ur htmher tb&M Ur *dmiitni und nudr fTnc of tbe 
ffompMy lod codciy of oar cottotuV *.•( l^ruiidviice PlaoUtioDi, 
In Kha Kam^Utton Bay in Now England, duU bc«, fruai t/Mie 
lo lyne, and krevcr hcrfAflcr. a bodic corporaie and poUlfqiu, 
in ITui nnrl nnrrv, hy itv njimc of The Govefnor uid Company 
ei ihe Engtuh Culony of Khude Island and I'l^drncr Hantation!, 
In Ne«r KakIum], m America; ^nd thai by the uime :uine, tbey 
aail iMr •aci,-«*Miun shall add mar ^^* p«tp«mall >uccv4don, 
and MB and may bev penoov able and capaUe, in tho bwe, tu 
•ut and bet sued, to pkadc oad be JmplMdod. lo antift'ea/e and 
be amwoaird mto. to defend and to be defeodfdt tn all and aln- 
fukr «uU(4, caottt, <iturTclt, aunm, acdonK and iJiiErpa, <tf 
wbaleiTT kiad or nalore toeirrr ; and alMC Ia ha«r, Ule, pCtu<M4, 
mcfpurtf AAd purcbaM laodi, lenemrnti, or hmdiUmenii, or any 
ipod* <r cbaltcb, and thv ^itv lo lc.k»c> jraunl, decniv, aliene, 
baripinf; wit and dUpovc uf, ai tbcir uwii* iwill and pWa^^m, a« 
•thcr our tte^r |iCoplr of thia our reabne <rf EnsLand, ur ank cof- 
puratiiM or bodi« polUiqu« within the mtm may lawfully d^. 

Aftd hinbcr, «rce wiH and ordeync, and by thoe presenu;, for T^ 
«S ourr htiK*, and xatrriMow^ doc dcckfe and appoynl ih^ lor *^ 
Ibc beller ordfrinf and managjing «f the alTaircd and biutneia cl 


I aar of 

kc <fe^i[Ji 

F Ar 

shdl Wooe 

«b£ kd AgBtfBim, Bo bee, 

a*J cfaoaen, out of the 

; in such Dumiwr 

cxpfvsacd ; which 

ivttis tviv lor the beat dis- 

aad aff uie« of, 

boidiwf tcr men- 

, Mad the govcm- 

fiir vfHvM grace, ixrtMyDe know]- 

^Ji^ .'^ Ji^tfftmM i JfWt unto Ihe sayd Govcniour 
^■i.^, ^ ^rtWfr '*««■»«"'* *^**^ ^ Govemour, 

'.. X.;:x>j ..,^^:prtiwij«mn, the Deputy Govemour 

.: C■'4Ll4v■■^:>l4^^'^''i* ^*^* >^ AasisUnts, and such 
;.v-^'* i" 'Jj^.^^^ConHfrttyaarfiaM beeaoe aaaforesayd 

. Iv|>;^^;xl4^«£a>«^x%iwtuif them as shall bee present att 
ii^.i!^ ^"f ■-ji;jHWjtt ^ «A«e«7de, ohall bee called the 

' \ki ibtj ur dm i g wUM pane of them present, whereof 

i.Eiumror Di^My Oovitftwur, and aiice of the Assistants, 

„ . ,L to he sex-en, ^ihajl haAr awl have, and hereby pven and 

.^i . .-,:vJ unto ihi-m, Hull ]m^*« authority, ffrom tyme to tyme, 

. 1- ail lymca hciViiilvi, to ap|Hiynt, alter, and change such 

„..>. . ELiiics and pliwca iil mvctiiige and General] Assemblyee, 

. ..K-yv ^h.Lll ihi[ik Iht; Aud U* ihtuue, nominate, and appoynt, 

:, .ii\'\ toe m^nyv olhcr perwHin as they shaM thtnke filt, and 

,'ul :i' hilling hi «it.Lct>t ihc same, to bee ffree of the sayd 

i >,>,.i^^iti\ .*iu\ Ukh [HthikLjm; ikid them into the same to admttt; 

.l.mI '- r\vi I .Liiil ■ 101^1 JLuic >Ukh (i(Vuv4 and officers, and to graunt 

iti.'i i:-L'li'ul M^EiMLti^-'ikUih ii-t lhi*y >hull thinke fTitt and requisite, 

iu-i [\» ^-rilifiii^. iit,iitaj;iiij{, .iiul Uisjiatching □£ the a^otres of 

UiL kvj (lYtuni -ur aiid li^^miMny, and thc^ir surce^^j^ur^ ; and 

l[ t k iLir Ih> uuu, i«* nuki-, (■nK')'nr. constitute or repeal such 

l.iH^ -, ^uiuth>, iiui('r> >utd iiTiliniinLVd, iToriaes and ceremonies of 

Colonial Origins of American Insmutions 9 

govemmrrit and m^stracye, as lo them shall seeme tikcIc for the 
good and welLfarc of the sayd Company, and fTor ihc government 
and ordering of Ihe landes and hereditaments hereinafter menliinied 
to be graunted, and of the people that doe, or att any tyme herc- 
afier shaU^ inhabiit or bee within the same; .we ar such Uwca, 
ordinance^ and con^tutiones, ^oe made, bee not contrary and 
repugnant unto, butt as ncare as may bee, agreeaUc to the lawe* 
of this our realme of En^and, considering ibe future aod coo- 
sdtutiooe of the place and people tbcre^ 

3, The Proprietary Cuiamy 

The govemQient of a propnetaiy ciolony wai baaed. Id the 
Gj5t instance, upon letters patent iwued to wme pcrwm by the 
kin; grantiDf the poaaearion of a certain tract tA land and con- 
femng eneaaiTC power m -^^^'^t; lam and j^^enung the m- 
habilaats. On such ciAditiorB. Pmnsytrania «aa granted to 
WmiaiD Penn by Charles II, but in 1701 Penn conferred tipoo the 
inhabitants of hn prorince, with the aaaent of a gmeral aSMtnbly, 
a charier eatablishini^ certain civil cij^ts and a frame of grjncn^ 
meDL This system remained in f rvcc mitil the RerohitioB. 

William Pcno. Proprietary and Governor 0^ the Province ol 
Pton^£tvania and TerriL-irit^ thereunio hdmgmf^ To aH to «bon 
these Pt&enis ihaU oitne, «ndeth Gfutinf^ Whereas l^^Dg 
Chartes the Second, by Hu Leiten Paa!n£», under the Great 
Seal of EagUnd, bearing Date chc Fourth Day fit >Carch, in dw 
VcAT Oq* ThnuAand -Sii Kundred and Fighty-one, van gractouH^ 
plea:^ fn give, and grant untri me, aivl my Hein uirf A.«tigna for- 
evvr, thLi Pmvin<'f tj P«n4>vanu^ *ifh divftn great Power? and 
JoriadictionA for the well ^Xivemmitnt dvnw^. , , . Ksucm Ye 
Thei«iore, Thaf for the fiirrhi»r Vi*i\ being uvi ^pnA Govenunent 
of the laid Provinc* and T'^mfi.he*, and in Piirquance of tb* 
Righu and Pr>wen h^fiira mi*nfi(in*fl, [ rh* *aid WUiam Penn 
60 declare, ^rant and rr.nArm unrr^ jUI chit FrRnnen^ PUnncn. 
vsd Adventuren, xr,ii <,thiKr fnhahriTjntt rsf rhiit Pr'wini'e and Ter- 
ittnrie^^ chcMc b-ilowmif LihrrTien, f ^tn^hiiie^, and Prlvi^gr^, 


American Government and Politico 

pa Ur §» wtihic mr licth, to ht held, cnJoTct], and kcpi . 

Fini. DecAitfe no Ectopic can be Inily ^ppy* Ihoui^ uncj«r 
the ^dlnl Enjuymeni of Gvtl Libvrtirs if jibriiJ^i-d uf ihtf Fnv- 
dom of Ibeir Contdmcet. xt lo their Rcll^ouh Proifcuion und 
WoriUp: And Alcni|»hEy G^ hcinj^ ttu oiily Ijjt^ tti CoriKlvntu, 
FftUvr oJ lighci and Splritt; and the Author a;i well u Object 
of all diiinr kni^wlrdj^, Fniih, and Worship, who an\y d»^th rn- 
h^hfcn Iht M^nd^, and pi^nuadc and conrmc^ ihc UndmiAndingn 
of IVopTc, I do hereby gmnt and dcclftfe, Thjil no I^crton or }Vr- 
•wift, luhjibiL'iig tlili ProTtni'* or TDrnturirs ^hu bhull cunfcfM 
sod acknowledge Ow almigfaly God, the CVuigr, Upholder and 
Rudvr of the World ; nnd pmfesf h!m or themselves oblfgcd to live 
{[Ukdj under ihc Civil Governmt^nl, tihall be Ui any fise molested 
nr pcejudined, in hi* or their Pcnon or Fjlnlc, ticcna** of his or 
Ihrtf mniinrriljoiii Hrrr^iftvon or PnicIiiT, nuf lie lomjiellocl to 
freijuent or nuinuin *nj rcli)^'oUK Wordiip, Vhn or Uinktlry, 
<^outrir>' lu hU vr t?)pir Mind* or do or auffer iLJiy olhrr Act or 
Thing, coQlniy to tlieir rcligiow Pcnuulon, And tb^i nil Per 
sons who iho profess to beJfove in Jcfxia Christ, the Saviour of xha 
Wodd, iholl be capible (notn^jifa»tanding their ether IVrwjuion« 
Hid Pneticn in Pidnt of Conwirncr and K^^iij^iAn) to wrve lhl« 
government in any Capanly liOith tr^ilaiirply ;ind evev-utitely, 
be or they tohmaty promiUnq, when lawfully rcifuircd, AlIcfpAnoe 
to (he Kin^ u Sovrrvi].;!! and Titielity to the Propriei^y a/^d G<^v- 
craor and taking the Aite^tji o^ nam establijihed by the Law. . . . 

n. For ibe ivdl pyrcming of :hia Province and Tenitoria, 
there ihall he an AvrtnblT >T^y (hi^m, by rhe PriYmen thereof, 
to coQAtU of lour PeT>on>i out of rich CV>uiity, of oiia( N(>te lor 
Virtue « Vf'wtoin, and AlulKty, <or of a grrater number at any Timt, 
as the Go>tenuiir and AMcmhly ^ball ai|roc) npon ibt Fu%l Day 
ol October focevrr. . . . WJiich A^aembly ahaB have Povtvr to 
chuK I Speaker and otber their Officers: and ihoJI be JudgiK td 
the QuattficaiionA ud Elci^ion? t>f ibe£r own Mctnben; ^i «poo 
llieir «vtt Adjoununenb; appoint CommillK«; |Mtpu« Bib 

Colontil Origins of American Itudmtions ii 

Id Ardtr to p«w Iobd l^m; Inpcarh CrivlMb, oad rcdrrds 
GiifTAtiom; end ahttU hare aL] other IVrfrm tnd PrMtcgn of &n 
Auirmbly, orcaitUtig to Ihc Righu of the frcc-bfirn i^ufaierb of 

UL T^I the Freemen tn euh re*pcctin Countf a1 tbr Tii» 'fhi 
ftni PtftM ol MveiiniE for Elocclng thrir RtpntfeDUilrw lo *em «f t«ai 
in Avtmbly, 1D^ » oticn v then itmU be Occwioa, chuse a «<iUh%^ 
double naibbcr of FVrmns lo pfc»nl to lite Governor for Shcriflai 
uhI Cortincn lo wrve for tKm Vrtr^ if 40 long they brhave ihcm' 
<ehvi Wfll; 0^1 of srhkh rnq«tiire Elcctioiu and Pmcnlment*, 
lite Goimtar hhjdJ numliiaic ind coaUDilHkuiMlc one for cub of 
tb laid Offiivs. , , , 

4. A B9sim T^im Jf a-^( 

WhDe the colooiM prtMnitd mutiy poioia of ftimfltricy io the 
«Tgtn£tttloA of thdi centra fjov crnnicnli, Iherc wui jcrvat (tivrr- 
ait7 in the methods oT oonduciinj local aSkiri. Id New Englind, 
%hr coadltiotts of Ihr rnrtv wiilf'mrnr, the (opojcrAphy ol thr 
comiTry, aad the pfevmUInE modr« of ajcrkvlmretnl u> ihc fnrnu- 
iBon Kit Ac ooraiMct Unrs ai the unit oj Local gov»nm«r ; uifl the 
■pMt <if «()uaUtr auoQf lh« frt^lioddvn brou^t sl>oial a pupular 
cootTol oJ kval afiain ihmiiKh the hiilorr. "town mceiinc.'* 
T|i« cxXniLi Cnm the acQuta of a Busloq luwn merting given 1^ 
low Uhiumca the mcthodt &nd «fiint of the »j«ieBt. 

At a Heednf of ihc Ffncholder^ ^ind other Inhobltanis of the 
Town of Bouon legally quhliifd uiH Warned eti the Poblie Tom 
Mtetioig AnenbM at Fanueil-IIjUl on Monday the 13* day ol 
Match, i7jH- 

^nyn was aade by tbv Rn-*. M'. SW. Checklcy ff. 

Tb« Wamml Sot c^jaf the Mc«(ing Read, 

SuDdraj" Lawi. Read. 

}ohD PUIlip« ¥Atf. waa choae Modentor of this UccHnft . . . 

EKkkl CoUlhiraU waa Cbost Toira Ofrt tor tt» Year cft- 
aula^. , . . 

Amcricain Government und Politic 

Sunday Pciiilom. Rcul, 
The Town prixcMltfd to (hr Choice of ««vcn Selertoicn tc Uie 
Vote* bn>ught in & Soricd, it Appc4Tcfl thar, 

Mr- Thomas HiU 

were unanimously clu^si;. [Hert fuUow clecijun:^ of Oi^nviers of 
ibc Poor, Firtwank, To*n Treasurer. Ckrtt of the Marknl, Fence 
VW*«tBi Hogrcc*irs> Scavenger*, and oiher i^iffictri.'] 

, . , Tue«liiy Monung iien o'dtwlc Ihc Town Mett :icc(inling 
la AHjflUfnmtni - . . The Town took inrn ronsidrrAnon (h^ 
Method ol ruUrn^ Mnnii^ i'Jr thr |:r»^nwaf of !>cE>oi>lma&(c!n, lor 
the RclJi^f of ihc Poor, and the dcfreylng otbcr EK!ceiury Ontraei, 
Hid ftftor A tvry long iJeb^tf ibtivon^ Voiwl tb&i ihv Sum of 
Money ihni :ihaJl (w J^Eived upon to be raiwd oi this Meeting (or 
the |Hjrpov^ aforcviid. s,hcd\f ay mnm as tasty be, he apponlnii^ 
by tJi* Awctfor\ and Ihc CoHtcltin of Tas« .*hdl upon tTciriring 

nM AvKWltitnt^ fnun them, furlhti^ilh (.^ijllet-l anil ytAy ihr kaitw 
into the Tovm Trei^ury, Sf thai no more than lix pcDse oo tbe 
Pound be allow'd for ColIetiioB of VoutI thai the Sum 
<4 Six Tbt>U3a&d Pounds La^kJu) Money be rd^'d by n Tm u^jun 
Polk and Estnie^ witbm tbi& Toum for Kdicf of the Poor, and 
defrrylng other neie*«tfy Chu^ ftriiing within the Tttvn the 
Ytis eniuing. 

, , . Voted rhal (he Town proceed to the ChoUf of fuuf Col- 
Irelun <:>( Taxes lb* Vote paaed ihii Meeting for thgoaJng only 

■ iiviUhrmiinlituiftCDafdtnslArtvtcnaJlAivllit Wfilrl|ulO'TWfrtnf RnrtDn 
«c(wlclctlfClc<ltDop«BCinnin«llrij|. TtvfoJkTwt'iAaRiBinfrDin JohnAdvai'i 
Jounul i> JO inCftHtiDfl OluimilDb of Ifae pobtlal prvlkc; "TtiA dty Ic4r»d 
*«l *c Cwcw <lub o^ti a <vruin Itncn !■ Ibc larnrt vf Tan P>«e^ ibv 
N4vUM«ri^»0i«MRVlneM^ fit hu « lifve hoim ud he UiADMattle 
t«nnMo m ihf 4irrH wtiiib Itv iAlEi«4iHm tAd ihetftuWdut'inf^u m one r^cn. 
Tbtft ttrj iBij4c Balona unUl ^noiinat ■« f »a odc (ride] Eh< iriml lalht 
ollrc- llwr tbff druih lip^ I nplB*"^. ■"<! t^j ibpwf * nuKlEfiiiri *bti |iiia 
qi^ulcat Id Ac viiIe rcvulvlr; Moif fdAlnipii, uscnauiv (^liLntuiK rirT^voiils 
■ad TV1>n*riull»n 4rr ir^irif n^i>v» %riatr ihry w chotvn !■ thr nvii." — 

ColonkI Ongina of Amcrion Institutions 13 

two DOlwiilviLaJMltngA 4ccanftingly tbr Vo/^ vrere tcought in, uiil 
QpUQ SortutK Ibrnt il ftppcJirvd tbM, 

J&tMK Scua 

Jotiith;in Pa<rMD It 

SomucL Adjuns, 
«m dKM Collodon t>\ Taw^ for ihf V«ar cflauing. . . . 

fVtitioa of Mindry Inhabiliiibpnjin^ Ihat ihf Tivnt wimld pavr 
the kiuvf cimI of Frinrp Strtct lc;iHi»|C ia ClurictiQwn I'rrry, f<ir 

Voted that uud Petitiun be dbaib«*<l> The fN^tldoo uf tbc Wucti- 
nmn «l tbc Toun prjtjiTv for an Addition to (heir W^ffiu for 
R4Mns thrtviQ mcolioiicd w^ f<ead, Voted Ulul »aul PctititHi 
faefitnMK'd ... 

Id iUt Sritilh^ on Ihp nthrr bind, xUr |>hpii.ijJEra|>hii'«| r<iiidi> 
llom fftvored tK« forrmtion of ecatttrcd viilcmcncs tnd the ce* 
tebfclwnml of Ifat coonty y the principiil unit of focal ^ovfrnrnmi. 
la ibe cuuatXi tht Jwm erf tb* p«acv. iJcor ihv f^ltk>o of ^>i^ 
Uhd, rcMuliiftcd lh« ftdttiniurKtivr ah wrtM m thr judkid bu<tiuM, 
Ado|)t)nK ihc iw>rc hofibly ccoda^ljscd s>^irtn at ihr mulbtr coun- 
II}*, wherr Ihr fuilicra Wrrc Apfxiinird hy iht ^^)■(Tn. th( VirriniA 
Irij^aiurc ixitcd die ajipomimtni In Ihc x^^'m^^^ ^ ^c coloiiir, 
Snaat of the ft4lxira oi Soutfaon Ioc4] gov^mmtitt arc well 
dACtfbvd lA Ibr kuj^Eby aCaUiUv fnMD whkh lUc ^ritniLts pvi-n 
ben «rc ukoi: — 

For tht btitn' ^nd mrwt «xpaliitoku drlcrtninAU'M of conirn^ J 
vtrmUf Bf it riuftcd h)r the IJeuiciuxitCttAvmar, Cfvndt, awl 
B w gPt K* , nf dtU (wrnv-nl lirnrral AvvmJiry, ^ttd ii K hi*rrli^ W ■!■ 
CDoctrd hj tbr autboHty of tlv tAiae> That w every counlir uf tbi^ 
tfoMinkin, A oKintbly vottn hbjtU hv held, bjr tbc Jvuixi^ Uwrttjl. 
01 the BwvfBJ nr7Lp(<cti*? place* almdy AulpMd for that pwpost, 
orumiJi pUcT or pIvT^ oi^ dull br hrfroflf r lairftiBy appninled, 
spoB iIk d«]r% brrcinaficr limticd far c^b county rr^divdf. 



Amcrtctn Govcrnmcrnt zrxd I'olirics 


vid » no Other time or plaoc: Which cnurt.^ nhotl bc^ cillcd rt^uniy 
courte, Mid coiuaal of eight or raotr jiuticr? of the iTratrc, com- 
ffntdoQAlcd by the goremor or comm&nder in chief of thii do- 
miTtinn^ fi-if Thr limr hring: Any foiAr nf thrm, onr hrln^ i^f ihc 
quaruia, aluii br ^ulBcipiit lo hru ind drlrrniinr ail crusts de- 
pending in the "old coui^ty courti. 

And hf It fun!»r enacted, tiy the authority iLfores^u'd, Thai 
from linie la time, for ever hcrcoftcTt Ihc court of every caimiy 
of thi^ dominion, »haJ] auM to he crrciedn &nd kept in ^ihmI 
irpur, or vrhrre tbe ^une shiJI be already built, ihnl] maintain 
^id Lrrp in Kood ivj-ur, within uicb rt^peclivc county, Jiid xt 
tiie thir^ uf »Lich Lounty, une i^ood and noinvnJtiii t^ourlhuuse, 
of ttc^nc, brick, or limber, and one common gJiol, and county 
pcfaon> well wcurcd wiiEi Iron bare^ bolt^, and looks, and alfo, 
one ptllory. whipping- po^L uid lEock^; ind where land -ihall nnl 
be already provided and approjjrialed for thai [lurpof^^, Mich cxiurt 
naay punhaw tn^> acrei, wheriton to creel thr ^d public huild- 
in^, fur the u«e of their cuuuly, and lor no other luc wbai- 

Be II therefore enacicd, by the LJcutenojai Govj*rnor, Coundl. 
az>d Burgffi^c^ of thE:t prcyint Gfticral Afiembly* luid it ti herrby 
enacted, by the authority of llie Mne, That the juAt^nei of every 
county court in IhU colony, be, and an- hereby amhoriaed and 
impoweriHl, lo contract and agrw for [fac building of bridges, 
nuking cacucrays, and other ncc»&ary charset^ [a «iicb manner 
i« 10 tbffffi ehall 4Mm mobi prop«r ; and to Ic^y the eii>enctr thereof, 
at itjch dtr\ts and in mch proportion^. v they i^hall chink most 
for the r-aae and benefit of the people. And all and cilery ci^iiirocMt 
ngrmneoilsv and ordm. by Uiem made, front lime tn time, con^ 
oeminic the tame. iIuH br Kond, binding, And av^Uhle. against 
them3«lTe9t and their luccea&on, and all other perMMu whatjucver. 

Politkal theoridniE ib Anxrka before ihe Ijreadi with G^ral 
Britain stands in matked contrvt to the iAteUectuaTferment whidi 

Colonial Ongini of Amcrion Ihtdtutioti« 15 

'4 tht Frvtifh Rnotutiob, TV rr^MO for ibb b not Etf 

'" ~ xhic AeitriciD R«m>Iu6od ^m not an [nlenul nodd ro 

tltiij^ bill the tbAfilkin at crtcnul coercion- Thttt wa» 

< '',1)' 00 (lu^onioo fA Iti« n)(hu Oif nun, no Inrcbog ptr>p4- 

--'a d£»ooru«t wtth Eho i^vtwril feuvrts of ihc prwtilog 

^'-LTT^ -if i^omrimcnl- Thf MJiviviag ottnct frofn a vrnnoii 

f**^*'?^! Jn 1765 btf<vc Ifac Man^choMttt C^venwr, Couodl. 

-f/f of KqtEt*cntiti«r9, oit lltr emaiiam of th« r-lrfMon <3| 

KiL, doubdcsi riyna cptt ifac ntdUHk towud the got^erS' 

«tt) «Uch existed quite senently ibirotigbout the cafcoiM. 

In Ontt BtiUin Ifam it » h4p|iy fiiixlim of musftrcbf, ti^ 
it^ncf, and dcnocncy, Thu i« perbap* tbe moM peffect torm 
ofcMlsDVEnaifiDt. ItbHtcfkiry^tf Driloilt,aodthceaTToJfar' 
«ipc^. Ho* luppy b GftM Britain in « Prince vfaa ftcrauaG) 
ll In glocy 10 reign (fvct a fm pc<ip^, and who, we mm, will 
»iwMf% make ibe lawn ol ibr land ibc rule cJ hi« ftrlminiMTiXlool 
tLfl* idtl Dkin happ^r, in * nonilitutiaft duu nrcfr adnritt ct tjnv 
uar. <nl*» t>M P«^ tbtniftdvo Ucvmr <wnipt ut4 vtsil : Mid 
«Inb Unt 11 Uk cue, nodnfig b«t Omnipoieiice can uve ibtfU' 

It h Ihe i^ctj r4 tbr Brici»fa nation thai the raonvchr l« bcffDdU 
11*7, «a that rigkl b DOir wuieniood^ It b « Favor of heftvea 
chiA our lawful SovBttga U pomcMcd of nmict «Ucb cnwrc him 
thr kivr aail obrdkncr of hit Mbjccts. ''Because tbf Lord hatb 
kjofd hb pcop^v hr b4th nudr tbce a kioji ovrr ibem." Maj 
iha kM PravidcEkce ■ bii b ht^ w ofltii ■t-inun^ fur uur nation, 
idU valth ■n'cr It for good ; diioppotflt cvtry anempt tu Mibfvrt 
thtir m«fib»« And pfvtrrvf theot from ihg«T £airmd wicet ud 
u«vup4luiia *hkh ^tty bavt more reamQ to fear than aay focrigii 
rtttmy or Dpeo vkritnce ! 

Tbt itwm of gOfTRimciit in thb Ptovincc. a & Bodel of tbe 
Mriibfa nwMlil^BL Ow commawicr in chkl, who Rpments 
ll» king b (v4 rWird \tj uunWirv Wr lio not cncnplabi of thb 
«■ u isfrin^oviit of our Jilwxtki; il ratbcc ina la Croa ooftf 
tftuo^vfibar^ vbicb vnjuU allend frec^uvat popolar dniionK. 
Cip^kS/ vaf «v aivto it a priv9>g*, »hlb «« h»n ■ Gentb- 
ma al etf head, who >o weH uodertfanib ov dW! cooslitQCian, 






Amencan Government and Politics 

ici who, we persuade ourselves, sincerely aims al the happincs* 

the peciple he h ar>poinled. lo govern. May hii Eitellency's 

ices for (he publa always find acceptance with an obligi^ 

grateful people; and may he have the approbation of his 

^at Lord when he give^ an account of the lalentE committed to 


|The other branches of our legislature are chose by ourselves. 

refreshes our hearts tc see ibe return of this anniversarj' and 

hope filli them with thantfulne^ to God, The pitsente of 

General A;.5emb]y and the business of Lhi^ day, put us in mJnd 

the liberties ^'r^ enjovj while more than nine-tenths of mankind 

in the most abject slavery, and multitudes Df ihero, lo the 

iscst and worst of the human race. We conclude it is from the 

irience their constitutnLs have had of their wisdom and inleg- 

|y, that sjj many are returned to serve in the present assembly 

lo ha^'e formerly bad a seal there- We caaoot think the people 

yet 50 cumipt as generally to be influenced in tbeir elections 

QHiOM, nminKDiHcs, AVD stLr-oovnvuEifr 

It a oaij b> « %iudy vA ilic pfixm thrMijtli mhkh ihr lhirt»n H-x" ^ 
colondn btwnp ihirtceo tcdepoidmt confcritfnoed tt«ia that "'^ 
OBt rftn hijpr tu uud<'r»tand thr i^nrru^l frjium ol oui fvdrrjl nwm 
^j^cnt, Th« lint fut lt> bote U thnt ih« Amrricjin Kirvoluijctn a/ iht 
WKs |>rintafi}y the work of ari active unJ drtctnuQ^ gl*n;;i ^^l Q»n »( 

in »di ct>n!krauDity vh'ho<<i|:aiuicd thenurlvcs tint latc> com 
of rnm9|>i:Adrfii:t for ftirnng up and (us^uininfl Ibc fcnor of 
rpvolt. and th«D, as ihc quvrd grrw apicc, »d^ the iiutituii<>iis 
of goTrniDvitl whicb Uicr luund aI hofid^cir caiutrucml nc^v ii»- 
vmiracnct <A tbdr oint^ Bojlon led thr way la Ihc csishilbhmciu 
of commill^cs o£ ciaiTTCcpoDdf ni^r tiy 4 rriolutioii wttiog up n a^m- 
■ftiiUv flit ihflt vity. kind iliu L-vampIc wu ipvetlily lolkmrd by 
oib<T towTUL. The colonial .twotMioA ihrn bn;>n. Is a fomfr- 
«liAl irrtgulftr fuliion, lu appuiat 4oniiQUt4T« lo irpreKOl the 

coloaios u poUiicAJ uoitSi aiid Uius ihc urgaaUrtl huJA of the 
new DAtion w» UuL 

Kv^oVCim M% ihe fiplfttnn iA the Jriluhjtutth uf ihtt Tivtn IhU 
Ihejr hftw erct had, aud <iu};;fal (o haie a ngbi Id Pctilno dw 
KiDf or hb Repn^soitaliivK fur the Rcdrca u( lucb GrievAUCct 
■i dwj fed or for preventing of ^ixh as iher hive reuoti 10 t^ 
pftbend, iod ii> cowiinuaicatf their .Scntlroem to other Toniu. 

!l ■as ihcn mrvred by Mr. SaiDuel AtUm^, Th*l 1 C^^mmltioe of Th»"5 
CortT^IxNKlen^ he appotntrd to ooodiC of Iwenty-one Penocu — ' 
to rtBle Uv Rli^l* ol the Coloidtb umJ of ihU Pn>*iace \m pt/- uai 
iktttxr, a» M«ii, 1* OirirtluiK 4ad aa Sab}rt.ts; \t\ iximiiMinfeaM 
«h1 publUh ihc ane to the wcnl Tovm« in ihit PruTicKe and 
19 the W<ir1d u the teiuv of this Town, vllb the lAfrinfonvDa 
c i7 

(i I-- %:Tr.:v.f:ni 

1 ' 

,' ''"'^ i ."■ 

. i'tr 

•.-.\-.- -.f 'Alt 

-. .. '.iri , f - , .".'_.: 

I • I Ttjln An.:- I f 

' ' ^v- I'l'l 'ii'ivrmi-i' 

■ " i: .1 '.^hir iu-i 
■ "J \\i -u i'\ union 

.L'l I ihi-v an; 

Utiign, IndcpcndciKC, and Sdf-Govcrnmcnc 19 

^Bowa oT Bw^HNS <v HepRvnUtivt^ or by Conrrniino, or lij 
CbmaiiUeci of Connpomlciioe ^>i>diUDd by tht reip«ctirf 
Boas«s (4 Anembljr, co mMt Ln the Cliy of FhlUdr^tJhiiit or uiy 
place ibM shiiB be adjudgt^ nv>M KuiuUv by tbe Committm 
'on tba £rsi iky of Se|>icnb«r orxt ; And that ihc Speaker of the 
Bow be dirc^n), in > ktt^ lo ibr SpeAl;^rs oi the Hou^«» of 
B iyjtJ or Rqirrv»uiive> in the levtim] Colonies to iniorm 
tltfan ol Ibr aubUjukcv of ibne rowlvM. 

^ Appointmemt e/ $JU Sffuth Csr^iua I>iUfati^ to tk« Fini 
The other colonics ff«t liie call of Blamctuscttt by appelating Th« 

^Vlclcs'ln Iw Ihr p^nrrAl mafcirnrr, ftnti Ihii* iiri^inilrHl thr •* 

iQ out of which the fiTcscnt Anurican nntii-pn hu gn>wn. No 
jiiQiform method vat (olJoircd br the dbconTmcrd Itjdtn in V' 
■kciiag their ddwaieA.bui Uitf ipirit of tbr nicnvmeni f<ir imion ia 
mnctled In the ^ummi recording the ^riSon <4 South Ctrohna 
in fhooAinfl her repteieiitJitiva^ II will be noted thjU )I wfts 
merely > niifiiCAtiotx of the »t«9i ukea by an im-guUr gencnd 
nDdinit of ilw iahib t l ^ tt held x few iracl« culier. 

htAHia h 

la tW coounuu, bom* i^f A^v^cnbTv, Tue^Uy, thr »d djiy aC TV 
Angvrt IT74< Coloqiel Pou^r AL<|Uj£nted the huusc, thai duiuig 
the trees of ihU houn, tJc: on ibe 4th, 7th ft Sth dayf 0/ July Mtnatt] 
jASt 0it « grBenl cneetlag ol the inbabfiiats of this colony, they <'^*"' 
bmng itmkr coindenlioa Ibe ocu d parliameni lately pourd 
with reft^rd to the port of Iknlon uid Colooy of MAAMchtitetts 
Bi&y u wU AS other Americ&n ^riei^nc^. hzid nomitiiled and %^ 
'^Med the hon*", Henry UiddleloJi, John Ruilcdgr, Tboiaa* 
Lynch, Chritfloftber Gwl*d«n, Si Edu^rd Rutled^, F^t*. depu- 
iKx OQ the pan a/id befculf (jf tbl» CuIddv, to meet the depuds 
of ibtf ochor Colortlcf 0/ N'orth Atncncn, in ^nersl CoafEitsii <btt 
first Monday ia Sepicmbcr aen u Philadd|>hu« or at any other 
lime cf piife that may hf p&enJIy &grped on, there to coodder 
llie ftTla UMy ijanrrl, kiuj btlU drjirAiIing in partiamtci wiih 
re|;«rd to the pofi of Buatoo and Cokmy uif HuMclnuelu-Bay, 


American Government and PottiJct 

whFch act<i ft hilU in iht precfdmt and fOEi«rqiirncB alTpci ihc 
ttrhol^ tVrtilincnl of AmThcA — al«i Iho ifrirviTuex u»iJi;r whuh 
Amchr-JL lribiiijr>k Uy k^mjwh vi t!jc HTvnjit u^b o( i);Lrli:kitiri]C ihil 
iiafinie Uues or dvixs tor raiftng a rcTmuc, ajii) Lay unQcc<.u:kry 
niindQU an*! I^uhIcha iki Tr.kdv; ind nf ilio ^UlulL*^> pairtia- 
iDenCMr7 uct^i ind ruy^l InrHinutioni, i^bidi mak« an iuvidious 
diAticction Ijcltvccn hb majcffy'iv niibjcctf in Gmai Britain and 
Amnlca., with full |>cmtr *nr1 authority ti* tvimYrf, igiw to, tnd 
ciTrctuAlly prowfule <uch legal meiwurr.i, *i in the opitiion i»f Uje 
mijl (JjTpuiin, Jind »f th^ lic-^tmivt to lu Iw «v>ciiiUlrii, Kliall bo 
moat likely lu ubLiIn i fvpeal of [hv Mid Atti. ;ind a mjrcu of 
thoiv gHcvanucs: and ihcnupcni moved that Ehiii house do rv^alVc 
to rtcot:iit£(, ratify, and confine taSd appolniment of ibe dt^putles 
for the iJurpL:<iC9i ofomwd* 

RfuhT'd, N, C- n, Thnt ihU hnuv di> rrcEi|iniia^, rAiiiy, snd 
confirm ilir appoinlnirnt vl xhe >aid <tcpiJlics for Ih? purpcttcs 
mcniinnctl th llic wid inotkiT). 


TBotfAs Fam, 

Jiu-. Clert. 

lo. Tiff De^aratifin aj fiidfpnuUnce 

The fint Cnntinrntil <.'oT}j^TfflH fajM lo Achi«v«^ anrthing by 
KWf[OCUlloo* Willi GrcAl Bnt^n. A ifKx^nd wu caUt'd la 1775, 
UM after «ti«t purp^ined Xo be allr mpu jt rnumdHanon ivilh the 
mudiOT iiiuuin, it dmliivd Ihc: tliirtrcii I'mlnl C(j|omn tu bi; 
tonmt i:^pcndc!^t- He famous docummi an&Aunrin|r the 
mamcntLKH dnrUion of ihr Congnw hju the highrvl hislfjrirxl 
and political v^luc^ Ib addition to wstling lorih Ihr o^biuitK' 
inVM^ cd Lhor K^i^^^'^E^i^^^^ ■* tnunciJited iigoificaat democratic 
doctflnce cnicruin«<l by je^tncm and a few d the <i|Iict radical 
t»ilcn- Tl«>ui;h t+irw" d<x iritir* *tre not wxq^*frd l»y ihr miire 
oomcrvAtivr (lAtciinrriH Ukc Wvhington, Hamilton, and Gimver- 
near Mocra, Ary wvre dntinrd to j^ivr a new dirrciii>a to political 
biooriditf tn Amerka. 

Union, I Independence, and Sclf-Govcmincni ai 

/■ Ominu, J^dj 4, 1779. 
Tat tXAKraovs DvcxUATtow or tiik TmsTEci mtriKD »tatbs 


Wien in ihe Course of binnan events, it bccDoica mcomi? for 
one propic In <li«9n|vc itic |K)]ilic«l bind} whkh h^ve connecicd 
Ibrm Wflh ftnolher ^nd tn a»umfr am'>n^ lh« I^iovn oi thr rulh, 
tbc tbcpBTttc uid cqiul tUiiLiJU lo wtiich ihe Law* of N^tctifc iiml 
«l Mtiurv's Gt>d cfitilJe Ibrnv < ducFiU nsp«cl to lli« opidoiw erf 
muikind riequins Aat ihcy ihovld dtclm Ibe ciuics vtilch impel 

We hi>!d ibrat miihe to be sclf-cvidoit. that all men are crnitrd 
equal, IhAt thf7 art rtt^owr^ by iSrit Cmitnr with cYnjiin u&< 
Alicaihlf KlgtiiA, Ihnt imoiix Ibrwr arc life, IJbrtfy jind thr pur- 
nil ol HappineM. Thar to leckinc IbrAe lixhtt, Govrrrmitf-nth ue 
imlrtnlrd JtBifiHK Mm, dcrifinK ibnt jutt powcnt frocD the uuiuent 
of ibc gu*i;nked, Hiai whrncrer any Fom erf Gweromeai become* 
destructive <rf tbcH ends, It Is the Rfchi of the People to aJior or 
to oboliah U. and lo institute ttev Gavemmenl, layfo^ itv foundAlicm 
OB 5iich pfindplci tud orgiAijdng itt pnwcn in tiirh form, ju itt 
ibnn «h«ll bcenB tnf^l tikHji r<i rffri I thdr SafHj' ui<t HappLnes). 
Piudenec, twJced, will dictate that Gutcmmciits long cttabluhod 
Ahovld Dot bcchuiRedf<]r HkIii and traosiaii causa; aadaccoid- 
locly All expedeace hath Aovn, ihal nuinkicd are mure duposod 
Id wScr, nblle evils ftre sutTrejJilc, than la tichi tbcmMlTes bj 
•bollihiaf ibe (orwis to siiich they arr accuMAcned. Bui nbtn « 
long train of ai/iscs awl usnrpaiiocB, punning invariably thr umr 
Ohjtct mnrr4 a design t£> redun tbrm iifidn ahAtluir E>r«|l■^i^R\ 
it u ilieir ri^t, it a thrir duijr, to ihnm oiT wch Gottfnnvml. 
and lo pniTido ncv Guard* for tlieJr lulnrv nccuHty- — Sotfa has 
(^ec« tite p4i&e£it luiTvnjDne cf ifccM Cbluoico : and imih b muw tbo 
nccesaty vhidi cnnslnins them lo alter their former SyAcnvi of 
Omvmmenl^ The hitcory >rf Ihr pm«ni King of Grvai firrutn 
U a in^oty <rf r^pcatKl inpirKs and uwrpalkon*, all tuiing in 


Arocriuui Governnicnt and Politics 

ifirrct object (bv atablislimriit uf u abwlulr Tyrsui/ ow-r thcM 
SUIB. To pcvve this^ kt Vacu b« submitted tu a OLaiiid botIU, 

Il» ku rcfuMd hk MStnc lo Laws, the nu^i wholaonu and 
BCCttttjy for th« public gt>odL 

Be Has forbidden hu Ooverootit 10 jia;^ I.awi of ItDmcdiatc and 
prneang Impocuncc, unkas ^uKpcnded in thdr operation rill hU 
■veni «hoidd bcobt«ned; ud«lMnu>tuspeDded,lichuutC< 
nt]Clt<l04l lo iXtfatl to tlii-m- 

Uc bu refuwd to pun other Isws F<>r ibv ftCtxniuvodadoD 
lufe di>lilct£ of people, uaIcm thnw p^ph would nHnqui^ the 
ifj^t <d nprrstaiAdoD itt the Icgi^arurc — a right laccclmablc to 
them, and fonnidAblc to t>Tants onZy- 

Hr hj» cjJIed together k^Klo-rnv bodJm it pljuv* unuiUjU, un- 
comfuTtaMr^ jind diafjitit from the drpmilory oJ Ihfir public 
Rcgnb, for the sole purpose of fjiltgULng (hem into compliance 
wlih hit mcuun*. 

He hciji dissolved rvpref^ntativc houscn rrpc^ilcdly. for appCK' 
fang, with nunJy timuieiaai hU bivaaioni i>n ibf ri^ca of the people- 
He b^ refund, for n long dose after such dtsaoluliotu, to caow 
odirn tn b« elff trd, whrfeb^ Ihe leguilAlivc pawm, inrApoblc of 
amuhJUiiou. bave rtlunwd to tlir pv^ile «l Ijtrge for Utrir «xrr- 
die; tbe Sloir lem^iung, m Ibt mnn lime, eifioMd to aH the 
fbnitcn of LnvuioEu fn>3i wiUioui, nad <onvLil*ionn within. 

Uebaacttdenvorrd toprwnil ihepopubuoaof the^St«l««; for 
that p«rpo«e obairucting die ]a«i for the naturoJuaiion of for- 
tigpfn; refunng 10 pan otbm to encourage Iheir mjgredoa 
IdlfitT. and railing the costditiona of new approprialioina of tanda. 

Ik hj4 otiitnicCcd tbr adnsiuttjftliciii vS 'j%atk^, by rdualnit hb 
■0TOt h> \mvs for nliblishcag judiciary powera. 

Be bfti nude judges dependent on bit will alooe for the lenwc 
^ ihrif oflkcs, and the anwunt atad pa^mrnt of tbrir Mluica. 

Ht hfli crtcCcd a nuildlude of nev odkes, and tcci hilber 
twartra M oAeen 10 horau our |>eople and cat out iheir aubi!«n(v. 

Ur haa krpi among us in limu of peacf^ sUnding arrmn, itiLb* 
oul th« consent of our Le^alatu/ci. 

nioiit Independence, ind Self-Government 23 

He bu t5«c1c<l Iq reodrr the imliury ind^pfudFui of, aitd 
•ufivtor 10, ibt dWl power. 

He bu C9»biaed miHi oibvn 10 subject uh 10 ■ {uriAdiLiraa for- 
H^ 10 ovr cnwtkiAbMt, utd unacknowledged I>y our lawi; fhr- 
ing Ml event to tliHr mtu of prtu-Ddcd IcifUkilon; 

Fnr <juAJlerin£ lai^ bodi'cd of ArmtA Wxtp^ among m; 

For firolrcilaj ihrtn, by « nmrL trials fni>m puiwihmrnl for naj 
Diurder* whkh th^ should rommil on ihc inhtl^UnU of thoe 

For nttins off our Irade vjtli all part* of the world; 

For imposDf Uues on lut viihoui our consent; 

Fcf dtfirivfns U9L, in mnny rue*, nf the bcne6u of trial by juiy ; 

Foe InnspciniDg us bc^nd sris, to be tried (or pretended 

Foe aboluJuii^ Ibr frtv s>'3leai uf £ii|clijth Jaws in a nr^hbur* 
Ittg proffiiKic, calablUbbjc Ihcma an ul>iuair jeovcnunuili «Ad 
cnlaiftas ^ bovadariai, bo aa 00 render It oi ooce on eaunpk mhI 
Al Innunient lor iDirodud&g ibc aaine abftohuc nile Isio these 

For taking awaj our charten, abolshing our meal valv« 
«blv lawt, aad aJltriniE, fundjincnlally, the (onm o( our 

For fltupcadinc our own l^qEbUtuia, and dedariftjc IbnnM-tva 
[Avoicd «iili poircT 10 kfblatc for m in all cases vhatAoevo'. 

lie has abdieated prtemmcnt here, bj dedarisg us out of hia 
pro<r«lioa, and wagjag war afiinsl us. 

lie bas pktadcred uur seas, ravaged our coasb, bunted our 
towni:. and desfrofod ihc \tvr% of out people. 

Hr is at ll^ tunv innspurlin^ luge armies <4 foretgn nKCCO* 
narin 10 roisplctc the vnjrki of death, dcMtlatlnii and tjnaoft 
tdtvtdy htpiA iflth cireuBdUDcca of cruelty and ptrMr y a tc e ly 
pxr^le^cd in the nsoat barbarous a^cs, utd (oiaUjr unworthy the 
head U a dTQ^Atd nation. 

He boa comtrouwid our feVow-dlUnu, laken cap(ii« tm the 
tig^ icaa, «o bear arm* ocamsl tbctr tooixtty, 10 becocae th« tJK- 


American OovernmcTir and Polirics 


rutkKim ot Ihd/ fricikcU and brrtlircn, or lo fall thecodva by 
(hdr hjiiidf- 

llc hu txdled domodc tnturrvclioii amuni; iu. itkI has en- 
dn^imd CO tiriikjt on th« InhabitAnu i>l our fn>nti?rt ilie mcrtilcs* 
Int^An latigo, wlioar knovrn ruk* of w-^ditrp is 4Ui uiidkiiiK 
Rubhcd dr«lninion oi oil iLgcai, *rt«», Aa<l cundltiuiu- 

In cvL'ry sta^ of tlicsc opprcstons we hftvc pcillloccd for rc- 
dfou m ihc raoB-i huirhlc trrnw: our rrpcalol petitions bavc bcvn 
Jtmwrrrd iinU by trf*«i«l iajurj'- A prince irho-ic rhnJMtcr u 
thus maikfd hy pxfry art whi<h m»y <Irttnr a lynmr, U iiniil lo he 
ihc ruk-r of * free iieoplc- 

N'or haiT viv biirn wacilnfl in om niccDtJoiu lo our BrtlisJi 
bnthrca^ \Xc hikvt wamM thrnu from lime lo timr, of tttrnpts 
hy thrir Icip^Uhirc in mr-tid nn unw.trmniablc junAdidion over 
Ud. W« bAvr r<-miDd«i liicm "f thr (ircunutancr^ i.-l our cmi* 
grntinn juid irlllcmtcl here. W« h-inr a^ppeolcd l'^ UiHr lutire 
jitfUce and m-A^tan\in\\y : and wf l>;tinT cnnjurrd ihim, liy ihr fieft 
4if out cororT>i>n kimlrcd, lo duavcw tha/c wvT^t^ttnna, ahith 
iHidd iDt^viialfly fntcrrupl our conocciJoiu utd iL:>rTc«|h>ni]eace. 
TTity, too. faavp bcc© deaf to the voice of jualice and <jf con^on- 
guitih)'^ y\'t muKt, thcrcToi^ ocquic^c in ihc ncrcuilf which 
denouocs our spparalion, and hold ihcm, u vrt hold Ihc ml of 
inuiktAd, rncn^iH in w«r, in pe^mt frimdA. 

UV. ihctcf^irr, Ihr RqtrcM-iiUtA** "f thr UMlctl Sutc* (jI 
Amoia, in Gcacnil Congra* oiscmbled, appt-iliu]^ to ihc Su- 
prcmr Judfc cif i1i« world for the rectitude of our inicniioni^ do, 
b Uif Name, ind by Authority of the jj^ood Pfople of thcM Colo- 
nlrs, Milrmnly jMibfiih A/td declare, Thil thev Unitrd Colonic* 
BTp, mnd of Ri|[ht ou^t to br Km- and Indqkmdcnl SfATrs; thai 
Ihcj kTc Abfliolvrd from jJI Ailcj^nre to ihr British CroBm, and 
ihat «lt pE> ivnQr>-tk>n Ui«crn ttirn^ .wd ihr SiAEr *ii (.^rc^l 
BriltiQ, is AJid ouxhl u> tv lolalty dUwUTd; and that ii Frcv u^d 
Indcpcodcni Sutn, tfacj havt full Powm io leiy War, condudr 
Pc«D«, cofiinrt Alliaaco, •atablbh Co^nmr-Jvc. and cu do til 
plhcr Aai and Tbioga vhicfa Iisdq>endcDi Sutca iiu]f of right do> 



Unkin^ lndc|)cndcncc, ajuI Sclf-Govcmnient 

And ifit ibc suppori of thii DccUraboai with a drm rdiioco on 
the PtqImiIoo of iTJvine Proddeacc, w^ muiutUy pkdft to etch 
other OUT Livts, our Foflunes &nd our Mcnd Honor 

JoiEH Hancock.^ 

It. The AHkki tf C^/fd^tuim 

Id Jiity, i77Sr nlmorf « i*f4r brforr the Tln'larcvtiaTi of Indr- Jtff» 
|wntl«fvcv. FriAklb prvpjml a xki-tili c?F i ;>Un for union^ and ^" ***i 
durlD^ th^ wiairr of i77f-i77* J*>Hn Ailrtmt dnnaadcd wlih ^^J^lj^i 
lcm.E ind«lrixc Ihtt aJIcnUon filtoutd be given lo iorminit a <od- 
fcderatioD imong tht colonics in ivrolU A few vrerkt bdoa- the 
fiDat axiituuiuTiiM'iiC i>f tii(kp(i»lcmT| a utiminittrr wai apiHiutinJ 
bjr the Contlncnia] ConiErc^i lo prr^arc the af1lcl«9 of union, anij 
fcflpi ftrivral dffratn and icdioui dcU>s llic fiml form wo* agntd 
upati in NoTcmbrr. 1777. One aSift ihv oiht-r, the &taie IcgSala- 
turn ftpurovrd (h« plan, aiifl in Manrh, r^Si. Ihr^ worr puf in^o 
HfetL Thf« documcni dcscrrcs cAivful study and o^mpiriAon 

wiTh Ihf ConKlituiLi^n vhich mppUTiIrd it in 17^9, for it WM io 
ihv li^fal ai the ;ictuu] ci]>rrifntft cn<:(><i[)tiTt-d tt&dcr ihe AriklvS 
of r-Trtifcd^TMifin th.U Ihr fii^im^ ff.imrworl uf uiir fndrr*! Bovrm- 
ncnt and iti varioiu fuiitUoiu wen dcicrmuicd. 

Aanrixfl or r<T?iiTi:nraAnoN Kur* J^i-htt-ival Union BETirtrx 
THE St4TF8 OF New flAUPsnar., MA^ArflL'SEtTf) lt«v, 


MAavtAXi^. Vtaoipot, X<jaiH Caiouna, Soutu CaauLOA, 


AftTinj: I, — Tbr rtylr cJ ihta confrderiKy thill hr, "IV 
Uoilvd Stjities of America'* 

A»r. 11--- Ei-:li SUlc rrulas tts tiMvrvipuy, (mtilocD, aad 
indcfkokdeiicr, ^/id fr^^frr puwvr. juriMliction, and H^t vtddh ii 
nol hy Ihin mnfnh^nlkin n^ktcttty delegated to the Ufilted Stales 
in Vonpm aurniblBd- 


; cf te vitm dfivn tn o«Jttri 

American Governmcnr and PoUncs 

A^r, in, — Tl^e ui<] Suie hereby sevcnlly enter Intn n firm 
kajcuc of fhfndship vrlih tach other, for ihdr C(>mEnon dcfi^iur, 
the arfuriiy uf thdr Ubcrties, and thdr mururU luid Sonera] wel- 
fare, btndint thcrnjiclv«« ID Auiat each olhrr AfuoH ;ilJ forc^ 
oHfTTil to» L>r afta^kfl made upon thrn>, or hnj of themt on 
ftccouni of rcli^oci, tovtrdfcniy, trulc, gr uy other preic^nftr 

Aiir. IV, — The beCtcf to tecurt and pcrpetuAK mumal friend' 
Mp and InicrcourM ftmoog the people ol th« dUTerent States in 
thi9 Union, the frve inhoUtiutit of eodi of thoe States, poupccs, 
vn^bondji, jmd fiigitlvea trtvm jmtite cifcpred, «hAl] be entitled to 
all privilep* *ad immtuiiliri i»f frrr rijiRrns in thr Brvcral StileA; 
ojid the people of cich Stale iliaU have free inf^rcii and rcgros to 
and from sny ollitr State, uid «hall enjoy therein all Uic privElcigM 
c€ trade and commrc^, icubjcci to the saou duties^ Imposlllons, 
and nstricikinsL, as the inhabitants thcraoj respectively; provided 
that such rt»triciions shall not extend ao f ar u tn prevent the 
rnnovnt <^f prrqK-ny imporred into Any Stftte^ to nay c^lhcr Stnte 
of which iTif >^wi»rr u An rnhabitanl : provldtd, abo, rhAE ni» im- 
pOHEion, duties, or rtaltktioo, shall he lotd by any St«te on the 
pfopniy of the United Siaic» or either of them. 

If any perwn gqiliy of, or chargFd with, litasoQ. felony, or othor 
bifih rnhBdemeonor to nny Stale, shall Rot from justice, and be 
fouad Ln any of the United Sl^Jeri, he i^alL, upon demnnd of the 
gorernoT or executive power of the State from which he ne<l, be 
driivmxl op, and removed to the Stale havin^c juriididkm af hn 

Ful] fallb oJsd credit shall be giTcn, m each of these StolM, to 
tb« rvcotfdk *:**« and Juditial prunvdinga of tbt couxta and mafCi- 
tnxi of erciy othe* State. 

Aar. V. — For Ibe more eoovmjntl moAo^nitnl of the i^n- 
erol inirreala of the Untied Stoteo, delegate* sh^ be anrtuoily 
appUnted Ln HKb numncr aa the bgiiliiurr oi e«ch State »hall 
dlreti, to nrevt In Cunfcnvi on the l^i HoniUy \a Korcoiber, En 
rvcvy year, niih a poitcr rofcnvd i^ eadi Stale to recoil U« M»- 

Union^ Independence, ind Seir-Govemmrnt if 

gftica, or utf of ihtm, >i OJ^y tirnc within the ycsu, ud fi> Mint 
««b<n ia their stead Tof tbr rmuuiKlcr cl ibr yraf. 

No SUIe ihtHk be r^jratnlttA in CongrrSB t^ lete thu two, 
bf OKtfc thui KWA EiKinlicn; juid oo pnwia Utftll be cApahlp 
bong 1 dHvg^c fur rnvn* ihiui ibrrr yrafs. la ^ny trrro of sia 
jtuf ; ikor ■hall uif penoe. bdng n ddc^lr, be capable of bol 
tog uiy oflke under iho U^jud SmtcK^ iot wblch be, or ii 
for h» benefil, itcdvtt any »alfir> . fc^. or nnultiRMtii <3tf «ny ktndi 

Kteh ^Uir Aall raointaift id own dckgatai la anj mrding of 
Ibc Scato, and wbi)« ih<7 act aa cncmbfn of ibc fotnmitin of the 

la dMcrafolof q j wi l o ni b tbe tTnltcd Sutn, b Coni 
Membled, «ach S4atf ihall havv oae toIf. 

Freedom <rf ii>«<ch and debate in Co«tfn» ihall am be fm- 
pearbfd c* quraiaoncd in any coun or ptacc out of Con^ma; and 
Ihc nvmlien ol tlon]pir?« ihall br pmtecird fai tbdr pffwoi frota 
armb and inifiriioaiBFvIa daring thv time <d Ibctr going lo and 
ffiQ4ii, and attendance on Coogreat, eaocpt for ptaaon, Idofty, or 
breaicb of the peact. 

An. \1. — K^ State, iridHMl the coBKDtctf the OHLedStata, 
b Cxtn|7r^ iMonblcd, tbatt lend any CBbaaay lo, or ncdTt any 
ecobai^ from, or mler into aaj ^onfrrcofr, agreoment, alltanre, 
or creat^j «ilb any king, prince, or uibe; nor thai! anj pcrva 
hntdlDg asy oIKoe of proltt or trust under ihr L'luled SfaEn^ c* 
way of them, ucrpc at aoy procnt, emolumeaT. oJIke, or title of 
my )d»d whjucTcr, from any klnf. prince, or fondgn ttatcL nor 
tfiftD the L'niled S«aie% ia Coogrcas anembicd, or 4n/ of tbeov 
pant ai^ dtie of •obOHiy. 

No 1W0 or man States ihall mier into any treaty^ nonf rdrration, 
or aDUncf wbabrrer bct«ccR them, wilbout the mnaent nt the 
Cniled Stales, in Coniptss aMrmbM, >f>Kify1&g nrcuraicly the 
p M Spoea for mhkh the $vm b In be entered lali^ and hw kng 
it aball continue. 

N6 Slate JmU lay any tnpeAa or dut£9 vhEeh naay interfere 
«Uh any Bdp«Ucio«i in tmaice enknd into by the Unbcd States, 


American Government and Poltnc* 


In COD^rna UAcnablMl, with any king, prince, or sl^W, in pumi- 
um irf utji ipfQtia «lTFH>dy pTOpoird t^ Congiitt* h> the rourU of 
FrjiKT *nd Sixain. 

Nu liYssr'a i^i 4^11 »htfll be Lept up in tunc uf peace by aay SlAte, 
except Kucb DUBibcr only a8 ehfiit] l>o dtfcmed Aocuury tiy th* 
United Stac«A. In Co&grcM uteabled. for ihc defence oF ituch Stale 
or ib trode; nor shklt osy body of forcen }ic kepi up by Any Stole, 
In Eimr of prace. cxcq^t wch nunber only m. in ih« judgmeni of 
the LTnitedSljjM, mCqngro»a»emblixl, fihallhcdermedTeqLibilp 
to jcnmiAn ihc fon^ necvttuy for Ibe ilcfmcc tl !«ucb !iUie; but 
mvry Slate ihiill id«a)i ktx\t u)> a «tll-feij;ul:il«d «nd <U*tJplined 
rallilio, suffidcntly armcU aa<I acctHitred, tttd thaW pros-idc tnd 
<oiuuuitly have ready for u^c, m pul^Lc stores a due Dumt;er of 
field pitca and lcnti> and a proper <|uaDtily of arrm, amnmnilioa 
and camp rqiiipnj^e- 

No Sute iliiiil engage m anjr wu u'ilhoiit thv mntenl «i thv 
Uoileil !jt«Iev i& Cnnicrew «Mt«inbTfiJ. unleu luih Stale \t^ nKiuiiHy 
im^td by caitroiev, ur sbulT b^v? rrci^vrd certain adiue cif a 
rvsoluiioQ bdng fonncd bi' Bcin^ njtlon c4 Indians tt> tnvadt AU<^h 
Sloir. and the danger b M> inunmcnt &> not tc> admit of a d^by. 
till the United Statci Ia Congrctti aatcmbled oin be oatuulud; 
ttor «hdl any Suie ^anC eomviiutons to adv Hhip» or veA^eU nf 
war, njjf kiter* of eaan^uc! or reprual, cicepl it be after a dedara- 
llon <4 «ai b> ibe Unilcd Sl4tc«. in CongrrM aucmbled, ind (hen 
<m)y agaimi the kinifdc-m or alatc, and ibc suLjccB iherrof againftt 
whkh war ha^ been to declarerl, and under Mch nfulatiom ta 
ihall be rsiabliihcd by Oie United Staio, in <.:oii^tt» aAwmbled, 
imleM nacfa SUUe be infeiiled by pirate*, in whith r»w ^vneb of 
war may he fined ont fne (hut nfoaiion, «nd krpt sm lonj; ai the 
duf^ iball tuQtinwr, cf until the Vmtcxl Statet, in Congma 
aBcmbloJ, tbjiU dftermloe otbrrwlvc- 

A*r, ni. — When bad (wkw an; tnisH by any ^lile f^ir the 
comanoQ defence, all oAcm of or u&dcr llie rank of i.i>kiiei. shall 
be a|i|><3inted liyihek^Iaturr of each Slate rr9|iceti\'efy by wbnn 
KKh fonrcA iball be miwd, or m uack nonner aa iuch Slate ihatj 

Union, I ndc{>cndeneCp tnd Sctr-Govcrnmtnt 19 

d\rtcu tukd all vuBndca «hdB be filled n|> by ihc ^Xatc wkich firsl 
made (be 4pfi(iiQinKnt> 

A>r \1lt^ — All chjui^ cd Wftr, j»vl fill alhrt tijifmn iIiaI 
nhall I* incurrtd Uv thr mmtnA/i «1rfrr&r i.r grticTil wylfa/r, and 
Atlowod bv ibr tfnilod SUte> in CangreM uttetnbltd, thaU be dc- 
fn.ftd vui of K common tmtury, which itbaJt be vuppUtd by ibc 
atvtrp] Suon. in pruponio^ to tbe v4l1u« of ^11 lud wfilaiii each 
Sui«> fnoicd 10, or Mirvcynl for, any pcfMo, ri >uch inod «nd 
Ibc bu^lilin^ Mid ImpfowmrntA thrrton <ihal] be tsb'malcd iifcord' 
10^ 10 iuch modf ai the Uniird St^m, in Coogms avAcn^'lrHl, 
sb^, froAi t|fnrli>tiiiic, <lirniuiiij ^>|juiiii, Tht uxt* Un pxyla^ 
tbai ptofKjniixi tfaull be bSil ind irvicd by tb« lutboriiy and dinx' 
liun of tbe legbhtum of the vievcrnl StaUs, within ibc time asfroj 
Upon by iho t'niied Si^a, ia Congnw AasftiiUcd. 

AiT. JX. — The VrdicA StAiCA, in Conpicv «3ucmblcd, >htll 
(be ^)Jc and cvduvvr ri^l &nd |iower of dricmimtiig on 
peon and u-ir. mtc pt in ihe cjuci mcnlicintd in the uxtk Article ; 
of vndinK Mtd tx<tivti\jt Aiabs-^adun ; vxiIcHbk ii^(<> Umiics utd 
>]liancn. prorEded tint nu treaty of commri^ iluU] be atMk 
wbenby ihc Ic^iluive power of ihv fcffwcctw Slftio »luU be 
mmlned from impoeitkg stub impu&u &nd dutltt» on fonlpun, 
u llieKr own people tic subjected \o, or fmm prohibiting the ex- 
poruikvi uc UnpohAllcn of inj &|Krirh of gnodt or cnmmoditim 
nrlai^flrver; of otabli^mg nlJ^^ lor drvTding, tn all (^V4, wbai 
captures cm Land or water ibollbvlcxult and 10 whoc manner pritc^ 
taken by hnd <ir naraJ f«rce» ja the wrvkt of (he Unlced States, 
»haU br divided <v appropriolcd; of gTvidng krtctft of marquv 
and R|irb4] In dran «f peace; appdndni^ ocnmt ior the imJ of 
piradej nnd IrknEcs comadtted on Ibe high seas; atid ettablldi- 
ing courti for recdvirtg and deicnninitt|[ finally app^ab in aU 
ea*etnf cap[unr«; pivivJded ih«l no mrmbrr uf f.'oBfc'^'H Uull be 
■ppotncfd 1 jodge ct uiy uT the uid o>urU. 

The United Suict, in Congmi aoBinblod, hfudl ilw be the 
but rroort on aj^ieal, Ia all diapoiei axwl di£enmvs now %'jU^l- 
bg. or that hereafter may arise between Ivo or Dgm Staiea urn- 

*iih I 





Amerimi Govcrnnicnr and Politici 

cetniQ^ bouDd&ry, jun^iclion, or anj oiher cdtiie wtutcvcr; 
which uMbority ^hll alvnp be cicrtUnl n iJv mftnnrr fotlow- 
l«g: Whtorvrr thr Irgi^latjvir or cxrruiiv^ tuthurirj'. or taofu! 
tflcat dl any ^uic in conlroi^cny ivitfi 4ni>lbcr» ih;d\ prciicnt a 
p<rlilion lu Coiv^r^i ktJ>li"K '^■*' ra^lU-r in qa^iwa, arid pnyEiig 
for ft bc^arin^, ooiict thereof sbail he pien liy order of Corrgrru^ 
10 ihc lcei4iliiv or cncuiii^ auihoniy of the ailxr Sc:icc in cnn- 
lKrt-cr»y, zLnJ & dAy ufilga«d for tho ftppcoraAcc i>f tli<? pLirtira by 
Uicir Uwrhil 4jE^nu, who «hdJ then he dirrcird to ipfioini, by 

^iirtl coEiwal, fomroiwioMn (V ju^R^ (^ iVrnttitnlr a tnuri |»r 
bcAnn^ aricl dfttXEiunJiig Iht* rriAEdT in qutfiLion; but li they can- 
not Emrre, CongrctK iball qjihv ihtcv per!fion& out of each of ihts 
Uiuird Suits, uid from the Itt-t of vatA {rtnom eiurh pwy lihail 
dUcnuitcly strike t>ut une, ihc pcliliuitcri bcgimting, imill Ehc 
Aumbcr sball \k rrduccd 10 thirteen; ind froni thai number not 
leu llutn 4Fvrn dot morr thin nine lumts, v Congress sihilL 
dirWfn *Im!I, in t)w pfrvnir of ronjEPMt, hf dracvn out by ItJ; 
aod Ehr prrvMu ulic>w rumc« sJi^ hr so dr>u-n. or viy Gtv of 
da'iD, «hil] be i:ainiiu)Ait>iKn or jw^gf^ to bear and finally LitE(*r- 
Bdne tbv cooinrrtr^, to always u a raa{^ psjn trf ibe Judges who 
ifaall beu the uuflc riiilt igm in ibe dctermhmiaii ; nid If either 
pojiy yhaXl Qcgkct to ailcnd at Iho dny appointed, nilbout itioiv- 
ing rraMcii viiich Crocigrtv^ ^hall jud^ mffirioit, or being pntv nt, 
flhafl tcfuif to htHkr^ thf Congren ihaJI proceed lo numiutir ihrr* 
per>ocv> out <4 each SiMe, and Ihr H^cn-iary of Cun^^reea shuH 
ilrike Id behalf of luth party abwnt c;r refusing; and the jud(- 
nvnt and tcnlcnce of tbe court, 10 be appointed In the minncr 
befote pceicrlbed, &hftU b« Anal oad concluaht; and if any af tbe 
panics »hal] RfiMC to lubmit to the authority of nich ooun, or 10 
appear or ddcnd their cJalm or caux, the cotin «haU nrrertbetMi 
proceed lo pronoonce sentence or judgment, ahich ihaJI in like 
manAtr be fii»al and decAJb'c; the juiignent or Atnlence and *>lhtt 
prorecdiwp bring ia either caji; |ranmiite<l to Congrew, and 
bdfvd UBonf tbe acta ol CoogRA tor iht vecuniy of ihe panj« 
caao»Btd; proridod, that cirry ci>inntadoQcr, btfon bt siu la 

Union, Independeace, and Sc I f- Government ji 

juitgnKnl, >h^\ t4kc va oaib. to be adminiaieivd by mi« of tlic 
Jqdfcft uf the lupenor rourt of thf Siair « hrn? the mii^ Uul 
tried, "wril and Enity M hrar uid dcicraiinc ite maikr in quel 
linn, according ta the b»t of hii judgment, wiihom favour, 
Ikin, ur h<%tt (4 rrumi" IVnhli;>iJ, Jkk^ \\M iiu Suie khall bo 
dcprivtiJ of Ufriiury for tbe beoefii of \he Coitod Su£««. 

All controTcrdc^ concrmlog die privaie right of t^li cLoli 
u&ikr dUTcftfit gnutis <if tiro or more StoMa, lAoM JurixIkiioiTSp 
a« tbejr may re^^^ect Much landi, aod (he States whkk [kuwd uieb 
^lUS A^ v1)ti<ard, the «aU granc* tf niherof Ih^m hdn^ >il 
d»e Mmr titnr daimrd lo hare ori^nftlH antccvdcat lo uicb wt- 
tbflieiK of juiudkdoa, fthallt on U>e pcdcion of cither party ut 
llw Congns of the Valttd 5ta«t«, be finally decerminoc], a& near 
aa maj be, in the ume manner na is before prescribed for dedding 
dlqxMCA rcqiortinf ttrriiorlil Juffedlcdon bctvcmi diScrcal SlaUM. 

The Uniled Siote?^ in Congnn avicmblrdt dioU olw hnvc ihn 
sole aad emtuuvr nght aiwI jvivvr ol reguUling (hv alloy and 
value of coin iiruck by tbrir uwn «uibority, or by ifaat of tbe le* 
specdi* Siaica; &dnf tlv icutdiLrii <4 wdgfatt and mearare* 
ite)Q^io«t the Vnilcd Sum ; reguUdnc t^ m<le and nuaagiag 
all alfaln vriifti ihc Indiuu not mcmbent of Mtiy of ihc Stale* i [irtt- 
vidtd that the le^ftlatUv right of lUty State, vitfain ItA oiv& I1»A0| 
be not inJnn^ or violalcd; uUbluhing and rr^hring 
oAoe* from one Slaic touiLithrr ihrvnuj^hout dl thr Tniicil S<J 
and eiwtlsg wxh piaCage 'nt (hr papen jfUMug Ihruogb dv ume 
Si may be rvqurod to defray the cjk|icow( of the laid office; 
pofaidnf ai odfeea of the laad forcca in the acrvkt of ibe Uftll 
Stales excepting le^menial officer^: appointifig all the oficeti 
tke naT^ lom^, and oanunMonitig ^1 oftf«r» whaftoerer 1*'^ 
llw atrvke of thr United Siain^ making rult« for tht govern- 
nwnl anri Erguladoft of the «aid land and naval force*, and 
recclnj[ iIk^ op«raiio«a. 

Thv United Slatca, tn CongreA ^enbM. ^hall have 
lliovity to appofni a co«nlueet in dc tn Eha rcceaa of Coogmsa, 
b« deBominaind *'A Commiuee of die Suten," and to oonite 

In- 1 


Amtncan GDVcmment am] Politics 

QWf (klegxbe Crum euch Staic; and to appoint «uch othcf com- 
adr\c<^ omJ rtvil offlrtr* i"* may tv ncnwrtftry fnr maniigmg the 
{{TEiml sITaio of Ihr I'mtrH Slitn imdtr ihcir (liivcUnn ; Eo 
appoint ont iil Ibrir nqmhfr Ui prcj*idr, pfiivid^ii ihai tnj i^k-tvoh 
bv «l)uunii lo Hrrrr in ihr office o( prrddi^nt mnn; than one year 
m «iiy term of three years; lo ucertun the necc^k^ry aumi. uf 
money to b« niiH?(l for lh« Mrrice of tlw Unheil St-itr^, iii<L to 
appropriale «nd «ppl/ Ihe &vne fur defraj'ing tlie public: expenses; 
to borrow money or emit bilU on the ncdit of the ['niii^il >^iaics 
traiUiinitdng every hjdS year to rhr rr»p«Mvi? Slaif i an iitcouni of 
the wina od nancy u boirrotwed or cmilled ; to build and «qiu|i a 
naiy; to f^f** ufum thr iiutnlvr tit land f»rvrt», iind Eij maktr 
ifiquiiiiiiuni from «a(h l^ute for iu i]uut«, in proponion to the 
numbef of white tfthabiioni;; in i<uch Sute. which Tfqd^don shall 
be blndfD^: and thereupon xht; LegisluUrc uf «uh Stale shall 
■ppoiiit the regimcnUl oflii^en* miv the men, and clothe, otro^ 
and c<)UBp ibi^m in ai MiMitT'likf niAAiKrr it the cipfrnw of the 
Uniliefi Slam; and the oi&rcr^ and ro^Ti hO doihed, armed, and 
<xiujppnl ?»lirtil nuixh to the pUcv appointed, and wilhin thv 
cine agrt«d on by the t^ujted States, in Cungrt» lunembled; but 
1/ the United Slaics, in CoEi^fit«« a^iMmblrd. ^ha)I. on conAidetntion 
of cireumsiaiKts jud^ proper that any State ihouLd not ruse 
men, f*f should rai>e a imiillrr numlif r than us quolft, and that nny 
otiwr Statr Ji-iuTd raiw a j^rr-Urr nHml^rr of inm ihaJi the quota 
thereof, ludi extra nunbcr shaJI be raised, officctvd, clothed, 
amrdt uid ei|ul|'j«il In tlic i&nit manner 2s thr quoi^ x4 hich 
Slate, unku Ihe Legisbiure of %uch SUIl' shuU judge that ±u<:h 
eidra number can not be safely spued nut of the lome, \n which 
Oise tbcy ifaali rab«, oAcer, doUie, arm. aad equip a& many of 
audi extra munber b» they jud^ can be ufrLy ipared, and Ihe 
oA&crr^ and men . . . ^ tfanJj march Id thr plafr ftpf>ointr<i. And vdtli- 
K Ib tke tiEiK agreed on by the L'nited Stale), in Coo^n A»enibteit^ 
^Hpi Hie Called Slate*, in CoaftRru jjdwmblcd, •hall ncwr engage 
P*" * In a wij-, E»r front l«tten of m:in^ue and EVprkal Fo (imo 'it pe^Cd 
^^K nor otef into any tfea1x» or flBiancw, nor coin money, oor rtgii- 

Union, Independence^ and Self- Govern mens 33 

lale ilw vahie ibenof, ncr oacertvii the sunw awl expeiuea oeeCH- 
Muy lor ibt df r^ft^ «nd welftrc oj iW t?altt4 Suics* or ujr of 
tbewi, Doremit bills, nor borruw monej on ihr ciedit o( ib« L'iiAimI 
Siair^, nnr «|>firo|innlr monrr, nar ojc^h upun ihe rtumher of 
ves9ctt of u-ar In be hoih ur purrhavd, nr the niiml-rr nl bad or 
(ci forcvt Ui be nJwd, ngr appoint a cocaituiider-in<hirf of Iht 
■nnf or ut'v. unlets nlnt Suia aucnt in the hante» not «^haJ! a 
qumSon aa iaj oihtt pmt\u cnept lor ddfjuming frum day to 
diLj, he dctcrmfArd, un)f\< by the votts of a mtjoriiT of ihe United 
Sia|c<> in C'ongrr^ a<acinblrd. 

The Con](re» U Ihc United Suiet iliall h4i% power to adjotim 
lo any iJRir wilhiii tl>e jvar, ajid U> any place within l^ic VnitriJ 
Stately *o thai no period of adjoumment be for a lungtr dtiratiua 
than the fpacc- ol sb; m^^thf, and ^hiU public the jouraal cf 
their pFOceedingK monthly, earepi «uch pArta thereof rrUling tn 
trralkis BlHanees, iir militar? opefntionA ok In Ihcir JudgmtDi re- 
qtibr ^tfcrecjr ; and thr yexi and nAy?! nf (he delt^tcs of eadi State, 
o*» any quatinn^ «i»>!l l* eniered on ihc joiunal when h i* df%irrd 
by anjr deW^e; i^tid ifir (i?lc)tain *.>i a Sl^le, i^r uiy uf tlirm, at 
bit or tbeir requeic. 4iaU be furnbbed «zih a (ncscripl of the ^d 
Joitfnal, eJK^c vxh pftrt£ aa uc above ucoptod, 10 lay bcfor* 
the kgUJatUTM of the BcwnJ ScatesL. 

AftT- X- — The contmiltre oS ibr Stalely or any nine of tbem. 
ahait be auihntited lo exeruie, in the rrcpu of CoogTEV, siich tJ 
tlie po«enof Congrw a* the Cniied State*, in Congie>» nwmbted, 
by tbe consni of nine Stalta, tball* from time 10 time, ihlnk tx- ^^^^ 
pvdiem lo «^i iheui fiih: pn)vided thiil no j>ow«r Ik ddegaied 
10 the MJd coQlBJttrc, for the enrrcji^ of whtrh, by the Aniclcf of 
Cdnfcdenikkn, tbc voice of nine States, in the Coogreta of ibm 
Unitefl States a&vmblrd. i\ rr<|utqte- 

AbT. XI. '— rajij*.Ia«i«liniil.ilhrt toiiffderatwm.andfitiiiiig 
in lb« mcaiisn oi Ifae I'nilf^ Stales, shall be adinJLted into, oad 
cotilkd til aJl the aclirinujic* of tbi« Union; buL Uit other colony 
abaJI W adntlted inU) the iam« niaic« ^ticli adoif^ua bf agreed 
lo by nine Slatts, 


Ul Ml 


AmtricEn GDvernincnt and Potitjcx 

An. XII. ^ All bills ot i.Tp(]il rim'ttrtU tn-^ncy^ bortowcdt and 
dcbb coatnicted by or under llie authority oi Congitu, b«(or« 
iTm aMamljUii^ oF itie Uoited Sutn, in pimuaace of the present 
CooftdcmJon. sJaaJI be decn»d and coniddcrcel ju ft cbftrge a^a&i 
ibe Vadtcd Sia[c-5, for payin«Dt and «aFi."Jnc(ion whcnof tbe ^d 
Ucdted Sutcaand Uic public faith arc hcrrbymlcmnly picdgrd, 

AftT. XIII. — Kvery Stni* *h,itl ^Mdr by ihc drirrmiriittiiam of 
the t'liitvrd Statu, m Coiign^n iiMrmbl«l, un lU qURtlium nbich 
1^ IhU Confc^rjtlion iirc tubmllvcd to dicm- And ibc Ariklei 
of thiJi Qi(if«dvrAl£un ^hoU Iw iiivioUbly obwrwd by tvcrf Sute, 
and the Union «hidl be perpciual; nor nhoU viy ulEcrjiiioii al uiy 
limft hcrc^fvir be madr in nny of them, unbu »urh ilicmrion he 
Agvrrd to in & Con^r?«a of the United SUbs, and be .ificmud> 
conftrmcii by ibr IqiinUlurrft of ewry Sl«c. 

j4n4/icArrcdJ [l batbplo»Lud tJitr grv^i Guivrnor of the otiHd to 
jndii3;e the bvarts ol the k^atum tn; iti^icctivcTy nprcKDt la 
COD^ra«b to appnvv oJ, uid lu AuihotiM m to ratify the :^d Arti> 
clef of ConFedemtion and jw rpciuol UDlim, Know ye, that wc, 
tbo undrfal^ed dclc^tc^, by virtue of ibe power und authority to 
\a civrn for thai puipove, dn, by these presents, m the nunc and 
in Ikch.ilf nf'our vefflectivc consliluimthr fuIJy ami rittlrety ratify 
■iiJ rortfirm each oimI every uf tbr uid Ardcl?* uf Coitfcderatian 
■fid perpetual Union, uid ilt and singular the nuittcre and things 
therein cotttolm^i A&d wo do funherMloninly plight osd engage 
the faith of our respective con^^titucnU, Ehut Ehcy iholl abide by 
ihe deu^rmiiiitiotw of the llniCfd Suie*, Ux Oongmu &rarmbled« 
on oU qutelioiiK wliicfi by the sJiid Confe^kradoa are nibmittiHi 
to them : mod thit tbc Attidem ibcrcoj ihall be Inviolably obsfivcd 
bf lh« SlalM V4 n>tH<clinfIy np^^senU and that ibe UnioQ shall 
be perpetual. In ttiiocA wbcreof we have beieunio oM our honda 
In C^tifpna. Ikmt u FhHodclphia, En tbo State of Pnmsylvaciat 
the ninth day of July, in the year ef mr Lord 1778, and in Ibe 
third ycAr ot the iDdcpendrncv ftt AmHca.* 

■ Kima cf (be ligua <nllt4d. 

Unwn, lAdcpcnUcncCt suid Self-Government 35 

Atsid the dlaortltn of Ibe tsme^ cooflict, the poGiJcal power 
of the KfsoluUoDiib ikndiljr JAcrrasfd uai^l it Ifngth ihv ^nv- 
cnuixsf o( fjKb uoboy (dl pnlirelj into Ihcir huidt. Tlic>' con 
ttnuedi howrrrr, thf old knikhtutLi:int irilb tuch ih^ht miidirii^n- 
lioni u lb« ncv circunwlance* demanded- lb Ma^. 1776, the 
Contiaral^ ConmM, Ihen awarv Ih-tt iadnMndencr wa^ Ihc 
fcuU ol ibc >trug0c» p«4val die follttwing rtsofuEion rccommcDd- 
ing the ciiablhhguat of slaicp)Tenuiiciib: — 


In Cmtgrfsv, May /j, '77^- 

Wberosy Hi* Bnuuinic Mijesly, in conjunctiaa *rtlh (he brd* All 
uid co«nDKin* at GtcAt Brilain, hbt by a lUe u1 tkf j^ArlUmenc ^ 
ootliHlMl ibe inlttblUQb of lhe« Umled Cdmnei from tbe pro* uv'liT 
MdoQ «l bti oown: And, whe(«ft», no uuwer wfaattwr to tb« 
Immbfte petflions of tbe colonics for rtdtea of grievAncts vtd 
fPCOndHflitoft vritb Greoi Briloiti Kl> been or h likely lo \< K^ven; 
but the whole force of the kingdom, aJded hy forrign mrn:r:iArie% 
b Co be exertetl for the ildimciicin of the good peopfc «d these 
<fl|<iitkii. And nti?f«ab^ il ftppcnn n^wjIiMDlf Irni^jiiciTabli: bo 
iTAKMi And good *xin*denrt, for ihi- people of Uioc mluiiJva now 
(0 lake die oidu juid oiErmjUinnii ncccuory foe ibe vup^ton of 
ftay gorvrnracnt andee the crowa of Orutt Britain ; ind it h iM>ct«- 
H17 th&t ibr evrrrw of tvery kind of Authority, under tb^ hM 
crown i^lKtuM be tolally «iipj>Tt<4^, juid aJt thr prawrTt of goveiti- 
meiM cvrted vndfr the atitbority uf the |™ple of ibc tcJomei Cur 
Ibt pftwmfloQ of Intemal ptxci?, virtue, uhI mood order, aa weft 
■M for ibe defense of ibcir Livn. libcrliei, and pro;>erlle« a^fiiut 
tha bofiilc uiTasko* and cruel deprcdatiott of ibclr enemkx. 

Rtsdit)^, That It br t^rconvnrndcd 10 the re^fiective assemblici' 
vid coavmljom of the United LV^UmW, wbrre no govenunenl 
suficint CO tbe tid^mda of ibetr aflain ha* beco biiheriD e«tah> 
Ibbcd, to adopt tucfa goreraroenl a* ihaB, in the opioton of th« 

Tir|>TrviiUtivrh *>/ the (iri.»|ili', lie*! ituiiiu^r I" the ^l*p^»i^^*^» itniX 
nitly of Ibvir coijilitupnto in partkuLir. and America in gcncraL 

By ordct oi Congfcw, 

John Haxcoci:, PreiidenL 

Thfl ftivl ttatm con0tltutlon« were dnwa up by ci^ie Srrr^laf 
ftMtmtilic» oC RevaludoniMii, uid were nrrt ^ubmillnl to Ihr pM]>Tr 
for rilifiraiJdiL T\it fcillvwln^ cjiti for iht' M^LTjland ctinvealiun. 
tRwnd hy A rrvt»Jutlonjity iiMcmbly for fftii pnjvimc «n Jttly 3, 
1176^ tin be tikcn to illudratc in a s^t'fil way only itic ptocttf 

or providing un udlidul bod>' f«ir cooamiciing the tint iXAit govc^m- 

tUioivf^I. A nrw coiivrntiim hv •■IrcteJ far the ctpir*» 
purpose ol formiuft 1 iicw govcmnwiil, by iho luthoiriiy of iha 
ptt/pk unly, And cnnctinu anJ ordering j^El ihlnic* for llw prvwr^ 
voiion. Mietyi and generul vvcoJ of ihlit colony. 

Jfeiajt«if, Th«t ihrrr bo four ivi>rtH^Diativii» choficn for eocb of 
the Ahtncti of Frcdenok county, *i desribed in iht prDcwdmg!* 

of tlic >r*iioci of July ltt*l, It* iT rcprr^rn 14«Vm for Ibr rilyof AnnAji- 
oti»,md two rrpr^^nialivA for th« tnwn of BAllimoreof Ualtjniore 
coaniy. ukd Four rri^irrtcnialivpt for pjilIi touni^ Jn ihi* province 
tXLTpi Frederick cmniy jifLi(ts:iEd ; but ihsii (hr InlubiijLriu of 
Aiiiupoli» vtd BiiAtioi'yre towns bt noi iUo^ihI lo vote for rcprc- 
STdlufTTv for the rr:^pcctiTic coundn nor thoil IhD m»olnilon he 
undmtood lo rn^^ or <iKure 4U<h rt-j>tr4frntaiion lo AnnapoHs 
Of Ballinutfc town, but tcmporanlyf the ume bpiti^, in the ophi- 
>on of thr> v«HTtriiliiJii, \tTij\n:t\y Ur br nvHiihrd, or (iikcn A^vstj, uu 
A in«t«ri^ tlbmiioQ of th« tin.-uauUnc?« of ihw; pUi'd, from 
rithcr a ik^wpuljidon or a ccinMdcfable dccrvuc of tht Inhabit^ 
Ajib tbereof . 

That oU frrcmcn ahotr tvvniy-oni; ycoDh td a^^ being free- 
hnhfere of nnt I^m than lifly .vrrv r>f ]:in<i, nr h^tiTij; viable pra|> 
rny n rhls colony to Ihr filiir of £^<m ilFrling ut Ihr tcAftl ftnd m 

ulhcr^, be utmHtcil lo tvm l»r rei>mcnLativH Eo serve in the aftld 

Union, InEJcpcndcncc, and Self- Government 37 

CAQvtniiMi Unr the .'uiid couauca jtnd dl-ctnft^ [utd tbe lawn ol 
Baltimore aii>rr«afd ; and ihikt all (frcmcn Ahorc lw(Qty-<inr |t«n 
i:J jigFi oATiin^ A u-lirilf loi of land tn ibr A^d dijr of Annapulis. or 
hAvin^a iikibkf-(UV':of ;()ioilrrlJn^«t thr Icvi, wichiii Ihi^ pror- 
ince, or h^vin^c vrvrd fi*T jrar* l<s any iMdr «tiliin ihr Mfit city 
dsd being a boiuc-krepa, 4nd uo ot1lc^^H (h? AflnuttFd to vote (or 
rcpRtcnlAlivct to bcr\« in the uid i.<i[ttc(iticm for the tM city, 
pftivitM auch p«nun fJisII (iati* rv^idvd in the county, district, 
dly or town where he »hall oflcr to ixile, one wlrole year next 
pfrccdirig the ckvtif>n> 

Th^i aU elrctiDa^ of th^ uid rrprcvntativct he Fum, and that 
the ume be muJe Hiir f^tf In the mannrf hrntofiire ii«rd in ihH 
cuiuny, «{(N(HiI any rr^snl Iv any ;kI i>f ptfTUmvi^i or oiber 
quaHficaiimt ihftn Wfnrr meniioncd- And 10 prtnent any iJ(>- 
U^fc 01 forx« bring uic4ftlUi«Budcleciloiti, no person diatlcorac 
anned to amy of ihem- . . . 

TImi any |icrvtn cjualiArd at nfofr^aid to votr, may Itr elected 
« Mrmlvr of the inti^ntW convention, proridnl he he above 
t»eMy-one yean of, and rhall have irvided Jii the colony one 
whufc yrar pnccrdinx i^h- rliri (ii.»T»r 

Tlat 00 pcrwA ^ho fau Uvn publi&hiril by any conupItt«v oT 
ob«cna<fon, or the coundl U ufcty of thl» colooy, a^ on «neaiy 
to the Uherdes of Amcrkai &nd ho^ not born fe^to^td hi the favour 
of hb cnontrx, shall be pcraitfcd to Tk>ic at the elcctioa of men- 
her« tor the tjud oonvrntion. 




TitP. Artickii of ConfciVcmtion hod not betn in force very long 
Mure It wu abunJdiiLly iJuiTiuiutralcd ilni lliv twv/ govrntJiirat 
^1^^ ma imAdcctunlc la mjilnicibi \hc pahWc crrdli of Ihc rtntlon^ od- 
fctfen- »^JiCc iU ctonunuc uitt ci^mmrrdd intcrnU. and ^u^aaIcc dt 

RMsUc concord wlihin and amon£ it»c atut^. It wm ificr 
prjicticiL] trid of ihc ^yMciei iI^kI Ihr (sulilk^ lcjidrrr« of America 
CAme lo MC the occt^Ij (or ircunsiniciinf? tbfr (cdcnd union jm< 
wrr* kd to molilatr *rrinu»|y ujxm trtUin Jr&nilc tvmrdic?*^ iui 

the ftbu«cft which hod »i>runjt up. The cadsunce of n Lojec num- 
bfr of cUtiHs in Ihr pmrni Oomtjtulion, aach ta the oni^ for-! 
bidding imy kUIc to piLu 4 law impumni; tlit ubligAllon ^^\ ton- 
trart. r4n be explained solely tgr re^Tcncc to the rondun of ntair*, 
duriik^ the yean 17S1-17S7, The reui^n^ tot the failure of 
Anicka of Cotifedcr&tion arc Mj Hummed up in the fojt 
«Sacufnni[ by Mudtiofi: — 

14. Madiam's CriticUm 0/ /V ^rfKir^ 0^ C<ni/«Jfrai^ * 

li Fiilun of the Scald to Comply Mith ihe ConiliUttio] 
^ ^^ ReqiiiiJdof& TTiia rvfl hiLt bw*n so lully eipcriencod both dur- 
iilg the WAT &nd nntrr the |}CAor, re^ulb » naturally from Ihe 
Dtimbo' ind independent authariry of the Sutc«, and hu been 
■o unlfonnly cxrjn^jfied m wvry wmijar Confedrraj:y, th^E tt 
may be conudeml u not le» radieaSx and penmnpTitly im 
betcnt in, thaa il h fiul 10 the obfvct <jJ, the pnscAl t.y*.\cnx. 

3. £ncraacttiB«oA& by tbv S[&te« on 6e FedenJ Authodty.j 
Ennplvs of Etn$ ve numcrousr and lepedtionB may be k 
b alnut tvery ei-< nrherc &ny favorite olijcct ol n Suic ahi 
piwnt a lerapWkai, Aaian^ lh«4e cKunpicA uv the w%n uu 

Hfttftbliahment of the Fedcnl Constitution 

li««tio of Georgia Willi ibe lodioAt, iht ua)k«naed covpActs 
bct«tieti VvfinlA uid MAryUnd, lutd bctvccn Ptiiii;^vuu« utd 
N«« J«r^^, th« troop4 niMtl aiul to be ^t up by MASvhvieRj^ 

3. Vkc4aiian>i td the 1a« of NaD'oiui and of Treitifdt. FWim 
thr number of l^gttlnlunA, the i^bcrr ef \Ut fjmm whirh nuMt of 
their iDcnittfn are l^en, and the circuiuUivei undn wt^cb liwir 
legl^Atiiv budiwH U cirritiil qiu inrgalMrillcs of thja kind mui^t 
frequently happen. Atcordingty, doe i jrear ha* paswtl wUhoul 
ubuuicu of tbtfoi in soow one or other of ihe Sutt«- The Treaty 
of Peace, the trcMy iwilh TrsJire, the treaty vKth Kolbnil, have 
e»cli betfi nolated> The cai&es cJ thev irwgularitiei mii*t 
oeecvarily ikroduce frctiueinl noEatioQ^ of the bv of natlont in 
Oll«r (Bpvcu. 

At yvt, foreign powtn have mot been njpnjus; in antmadvcrdng 
0& IIS. Ttiis i&odcraikin, bowcvor, cannot be mioxakcn Iit a pcr- 
mififnc panialitx to our faoltJi, or a licmmrienr wcurity agaiiut 
those dUputc^ wiib oihcr nation*, wtiirh, being among iht ;rr«le4t 
oif poUic ralanuiie^ h ought to be le^t in the power of any part 
of the comnniiuiy In brinji on tlic nrhole. 

4 TreH>a>MVofthvS«atc»oulheKSj:hl)ufEacbOthcr. Tline 
are aUncini; tyinpliNntt and may he diil/ apprehended, as wc 
aiT adnanUhcd by daily cvpRicocc. Sn the lavr or Vir)r{nlA ne- 
ftriciia£ fontgn tcmc1» 10 certain pom; of M«t^and In favor 
of n^ueh beloipng In her Mm tiiitemt; of New Vork in favnr of 
ibe uav. 

Paper money, HutaJaiefiU of debla, occlwon of court*, nnklout 
pfopcrty a Icpl lendtr, may llkcwix be deemed ancnvdons on 
the righla uf other Suics. Aa Ibe dtijens of vrvry Sute, ag^rv- 
gatoty uicn, ctartd more or k» in tbc rebuion of cfcdihsn or 
dihian 10 ifae dtbena ol every other Siaie, ads of ihc dcbcor 
SUUe ia favor ci dehMm affecl ibe credilor State in the same 
aaamKt ai ihey do iu own eitiaent, wha jltit, relatively, crrStan 
Buward» o4ber citiieiu. This remark m^j \k exlmder! to fore*^ 
nalMUL. If the eieluuw regulalkin of the nhae and aUoy «C 
G<Jli waa prujj«riy deWgaied to ilw federal auiiiodly, tlio poficy «l 




American Government and Politics 


U ei^iuUy requires a coniml on Ihc $lAtc« bi l\w Ki^i aho 
ncDiioiwd. It muM tiavo Lwvn mHini: (0) To pnaerre un 
fomlty 111 the cirLutatiiig medittm thrQU^bnui ihi luiion. (bi T 
|irci«fit [ho>c frtujdi^ 1:01 the dtlich.*^ of othi^r Stairs, jLnd rhr 4U 
Jrcte of foreign powers which might dii>turl) the imnquillity a 
hamt, at involTic Ihc tinion in forcjun ciwitf il*. 

Thr |inirlirr <if mAiiy St^d^ in rr>,in4'Iiiig Ihtf i;on>iiicrcial iDlcr- 
coui3« with other SUIn, and putting thrlr prcxIucllonK and nunu- 
ficiurcs on tbc uicnc ftHittnjj wuh iln^tc of firri^;]! tidlion-^i though 
twt i-onirwy to the fedi-ml arliL'ltfs, is trnuinly adiTr:* Xo the *pirit 
of the Uhkin, ind tcnifc t^i br^t rculiatirig rrj^ulAikins, noi Ic^ 
cxpCEisivL' arid vr-vauou^ lr> tbcm^flvn ilian they ar^ de^dructi 
of the gtiwr^I harmony. 

J, Wwtl "f Cootcri in MitMrrK Whcfc Ciitum^jii Inlvrejat R 
quim IL Thu dd«i i> iirougly illusiral^d la the suilc of ouP 
cummcrdd :itT;dr^ How fnut;h hay ihc Q^iitinial dijpilty* Jaicrv»1, 
3At) rrvi^Due ^uflrrvxl fium this cause? IiutAncfs of infer! 
moment ire the ivoitt of uniformity in Ihc Uwa ronccntinx i"*^ 
nUifttion And lileraiy j>m|icrtyj of pnivi«iooi for QAtiona] snni 
nario; fr'ri^nntsof ino:irpomfionfori]itioii3lpuTpoic«, fntcutaU. 
and other tnDrks of pnwrttl utility; which may Jtl (jnwrji In^ tie- 
leAtcd hy the ^mTrkrun* (jf puticulu* StaLvH w-huw cucL^rTciiice 
i» nvcvMttT^. 

6. Wul of Guaranty to the Su\u of their ConAtilutioiu and 
Lav* icainat Eatcmftl Vjoleoce. The C>nf«deniicin u ulcn 
CQ ihii point, utd iheref&re by ih« >cci>nd Articlr the handjt i:if thn 
federal authority ur tied. rVerortting to KepublicAc Thwry, 
HigUi utd powFT, being both vrited in Ihe uajoxiiy, &rc held ttf 
be synDoymoufc. According to fad ind eifjcrifnc*, a minoril 
nuy, in ta appe*] ki font, ht in ut-ernnuich for the inajority: 
<«) If Hie minority hap|icn to Include a}\ luch u ponces the aklU 
■fid bnbllB of mlUtvy life, &nd 4ud] as pc«K» the grr«t pecunivy 
tcSDUfCcs, one'Cbird orJy mar conquer the renvtioing two~ihird«. 
{b) Onf-lbird ni ihate who iiorLiripiir in the f^hoke ft mUn tv 
be rmdrred a aujonly by the uccuion vi thutv wbome pQtf« 


r^tablbhment of the Fedoul Confliitution 41 

ncliwla ihcm from a ri^lol s>tttrtgc, uud 9^0. for obvjooa 
MMMiM, trilk be Knurr likdy to ftnn the lUndArd erf Hdition ihna 
that of ibe oiabKtbtfl GovtTomnil. (c) Where ^larrry vxMi» 
Uic Kcpuhficuk Theory br^omri fttill ODorr f^tllju^i. 

T. Wiiit *4 SvKilua (o ihr Law* utd of Cc>crf ion ni tlio Uov- 
cnunoit ut ittp Coo/nltTjcy. A »AtiLitaa u cncnil^ U' ihc idcA 
of bT, M cocrdoa u to ihAi of GovcfnnwM- The fctkril sj^itm 
llbdng dtMitnte ot both, irjabi iht grr^i viul ptinciplnof a Politi- 
roj I oiHiihAiaii. Undtr the form of Mcfa a Coiutitulum. ft tt 
ia fact Dfithiaj; raofr ih.%11 a Kr^y of fttnty, nt omuwrtr, and of 
AJIitnicr, behrvcn indcpcndrtit itui Sorcrdgn StiMiw From what 
could 10 fiUl an on)i«ion b>vo bapfvenvd In the ArlJc]««of 
^onfcdenilion? rmm m misuilua coiiGdccice that Ihc justice, 
good Uth, ihr boDoT, ihe wund policy of Ihc scvrfal Ic^liia^ 
fvemaiiblie vould »bdcr 9upfT6tt7u« tny ajiiied to the ordinoir 
Ires hf wUrh the lain Mxum the obedicjir*- of tndtd<hiJih; 
A OMiIidmcr which dnA huftoT li> the mthuviutic virtue ttt iha 
len, ■■ much u Ihc incxpcrieticr of the ciui» apologUe* for 
cnrtfi. The daw which h» sIikv vlspard hu had the tloablc 
tfeffvct ul intTtaidnK Ibr Ei^l ^nd tempering thti u^finth with wfaidi 
the ofdunut work tnxj be reri&cd. 

It ti no looker di luhtcd (hat 4 uft&ninio«a and punctua] obedience 
13^ ij indrprwdent bodies to the acti of the fotrtai (kivrmmenf 
ouflhl not la be taJEulMt.'d art. Etm duriojc tfic vm. vihtrn n- 
lennJ danger btipplinl in tumv dc^gtee the ikftvt uf legal and 
ire Mncliona, ho« Imprrlocttr did ibe SuiDe* futAl ihcfr 
■obfi^ftCioaa 10 the Cidoa? In time of peace wt we aln)ad]r wh&c 
b lo b« cvpcctcd. How, [adced, could k be oibcm»c? In the 
lAni plarc, rtery K^wral ait nf th^ Unkm mutt ncccnarily b«ar 
tuw^uallj hard oq «offie pariJcuUr member or nembcn of it; 
KUiwd)/, llv patliaUlir ot the tnemlMn to thdr omn InCcTeaU attd 
,righia, a ptflajily nhich will br fukteirvl Ity tbeoaurlianuf po|iu- 
vfll noturalljr nacgcnte the inn}uafi^ when ft exbU, 
[and cvTQ lufpcct il whcf« ta bai iK> nbicnce: iMnllp, t dbcruA 
the voluntitf7 conq>tiaacc of each oifacf my prcTcnl the con. 


nf ibr 


American Govcrnmcni and PoUtio 


I^anot cf uvf, Although it «ht>iild be tht lUrrtl dispoAtlioD of >I1, 
HvnrftrrcHuhnitiiiJifrclrjiU whkli mUI ntrurrtiul to render fodcrd 
mraaufirs abofiivr. If ihv lawi of (hf Siuta wrre mcic[>' rtxvm- 
R]cnd4UQry li> xhdi diinnt, or if they were lo be rEjudfCcd by 
couoly auUioTitjt^ what HMirily, whai pruWbilitj woM csdAt 
thai they would be rjuricd into execution? Ik ihc security or 
prabftbfUty uraicr tc favor of the a^b of Congn^, which, drpcnd- 
ing tar their eiocutiaii oifi the will of the Slate h^tlattiro, are, 
thi>' pomliully AUlbtrjlKEtvc, Jn f.ii:! riv«>mnirmla(ory mtly? 

8, W«iit uf Kutifitilioi] by ibe Pmplc of ih* Artidcs o( Coo- 
fedcTJiloa. In *omc of the Siitcs the Confeddaiioti i» recognized 
bj and fofma a pari oi ihe Con&ticuCiodi. In oUien. however, it 
hM receh-cd no other Konction than thai <if the leg^ihlive auihori^. 
h'rcttn Ihit defrcl two «vlU rwull : {a) Whcntvrr ft l*w of a Slate 
hoppeofl lo be repugnant tu an act uf Coagrea, purticuIarCy when 
tiic l^trr [« cif f>o»icT{or dale Ie> the former, [1 w[Zl be M le^L itt^c^- 
tjonubte wheUker the Utter must not prevail; and aa the quenion 
must be doddcd by the TrfbuoalA of the Suie. they wll] be laosl 
libciy to lean on the ildc of the State. (B) Aa f or dA the union 
€d the Sutca lit to be regarded oi a league of sovereign powen, nnd 
not aa a political Contfitution, by virtue of whiib thry are b^foime 
one tovcreigii power, toftsU seenu lo follow, from Ihe docirine 
of fompacit, ihal a brwh of any of the Ajticica of Confcderition 
by any u( the panin to it, abfjulv» the other parti» from thdr 
rcspccdvc obll^tlonn, and ki^^cs ihem a rigttt, if they choose to 
earrt il. of diifiolving Ihe Union ^together. 

9- Moldplidly of Lawi in the Several Stale*, Amanft the 
nilH of our liluation, niay well be raaked ttie inullijjli(.tty uf lawa, 
from whkb no Stale b eietppt. Ai fat ta law* are necttaory to 
flMifc with pnddoD {hf diitiei of iboM who art lo obey ibarn, and 
lo take from thoM who arc lo adnainfelef tbem a discretioii which 
ntCffht U aha*od, their number b the ptfioc of liberty. A* far M 
lawn exceed lbi> limit ihry are a nuiiance ; a nuiaance cd the rnodt 
jiRdilmi kind. Try the Code^ of the levefal Siate» by Uria tf*l, 
and Hfaai a luxuriaacy ol k^Ualioa d> Ibey prvtrnt. TV »bun 

Estibliihmcnt of the Federal Cotittiiution 43 

pmod of iikdcpcvkncy h» 5ikd u tannj ptg^ mx the Cpoatury 
nhich prccfiM it Evvry yrir, ftlmoil every f*wk i[i jiid> m new 
vohuDC, A review of ihe wmJ Coda will iheir thtf cnry 
puuwtiy iQid uirful put of ili« lo»l volumlEKiua of Uwm odiEhl 
be compttwH UiU> one-troth of ihe ^otnpMMt ood at Uie uok 
dmc be rmdercd ten fold u pcmpicuoui. 

ro. Mutability <if the Law4 of (he .SUlM, lliai evil is intj* 
nuEldjr cocne^tcd with ihe fovmcr, yrc de^nrt » diilin^l ivHlce, 
«A it pnaphatic«ll^ deooUl a vidauA leKbUlion. Wr daOy mv 
Uws rtptated or tupcrvcded bdorv uiy Ui^l cam have been nuwle 
of ibefr aicnift, uid Ata bdore a Lnorlolee of ihcm c%ti hflTv 
rcocbtd the remoiff dbfricts wUhtn which tbo' were to opcntt^ 
In Ibc rcguUCJom of trade, Uus nuiatilit/ bccotac« a »aK not 
oiil}r |D our (AlUeiu, but to ford^ner* alno^ 

15. Tki C^M ^ CctutifutiMOi Ctnntnthtt, 17S7 

Tbe reeognnljoa of the ftbuKs ani ing frc>m a veok form od coq- ^^^ 
fedeinEe govtnUDCiit niluiil:)' kd t-xrnca{ [ncn to plan (or lU 
tecon*in9Ctloo. U i;So, nxn before the ArtLClM of Coofodera- 
tkm went into force. HamiHott had drafted a fdin of Ji oc>n< 
BUMHoa; And ia 1785; tke JesSibture of Mueachuietu. on tbe 
VDComnwndatkm ol Ooremcv J}i>wikiln, pjuur^ 11 rrvtl-aioii in 
IftToc cA cilliAg ft ronsiitutioaAl conventiovi. The following ytxt^ 
on the ifiiliAliiT <4 Vincinii. ■ ountcntiori oiri at AniiA])i:itt« tET 
tooohkr the quc&ikn of ualfons conMDciti&l rcjfulittions. &iroajE 
other probleiw of iacemi to Ibe MUle*^ Onljr 6n ntnTr^ nre 
ifpitMDied, vo that oo iinportant businesi u-ii« lrui=act<d rrloi- 
Ing lo Ifae Mibje^ Ivforr the AnemblrK hni ji rri>^irt, ilrA^ji up by 
Hamlllott, tvoamcfidlaiE % fcoeraJ ^onimuon (o rciur the 
federal vp»m wm Adopted. llamillon'A rejiori vru ticoi to thfl 
ConMerite (.ijviKnM u itril u to the maka, and on February 
», 1787, ihAi bodypuMd tbiaradutloot — 

&ciohvd,Tb^« htheq»&Jo&of CMifma, it b cxpetf tfli that, 
0« Ifce MTOfkd Monday Ift BlAy aeiil, a coaventioa of drkjalo. 
vHo (ball hAvr beeo apf»lnled liy the wcral Stileft. be bcM al 
PhSaddpbia, for ibf *ol« Add eii|>ttu purp«« uf revUog Ifa* 


Amcrictn Government and Folitics 

Ankles of ConffderatioDf and rqiorlifiK ki Coi^gKM lod 
«cTrr«l Ir^ilnliim nui h AltrrslloM Add protiiBOiu tfaereiit u 
nhaJI, *vhrr> jj^rrc*! lo in Coogim and co&ftrmcd by the SCjUca, 
rmilpf ibr fftltr^ mnsiilDlion .idcfjiialc lo the cxtgpodn oJ gov- 
cnunfrvL and Iht |?i<^ic-rvatiujj <.t\ ihi; Uuloin- 

16. Sew Yark lUsUvcs iff Afpffinl Ddrgaifj lo ih« Ctmiftiiiem 

A\] of iho MAIM rtcept Rh'vk IiianJ r-ripofKl^d to iht rMolLi- 
tiorL od Ciz^agrr^s by a^[MnntInR ddcj^ati;* (0 iliir LonvvnUoD. The 
rttolution of Iht Sjrw Vurk IrgUUturc given bflow U in ]{rncral 
h^rnuiny w^iili thv furiu ami li-nur of thv rtHtjJuUuiis oi thu uthcr 

February, 1 787, 
lUioIvitd, (if thfr Itonourablr thr A«anbly concur herein), Thai 
llwt* Dcle-i£»tc« tit" api*tiiricd on thr pnr^ of lh» SUTp to nwcl ?uch 
£Mvga1e» 8A mav be ip|H^mtrd uti the |jaiE i>r lh« i>lhn Stain 
mpeclivclj, on Uic Second Monday of May next, at PhJljidGlphii, 
Cor xhr mU- nnd ciiira» pur^x'W (if revisjnj: ihv Anidi'K uf 
ConfednaliuD, :iud rejKfrttng lo Con^cu ood 10 the several 
l-fXJAlalurtf such altcraijon^ And pmiitioQA thrrdn, as nhoB, 
when af^ced to fn Con^m &nd efjn5rni('d hy Ihc f^^rral Siatrt, 
FPlldrr the rcdrrLil Corolinitioa adequate 10 the rngaicies of 
Guveriijncnt »nd the prnerratJon of ihe Union; and that, !□ 
cue <]f njch timcurEeoie. tlie twu Huutm ijf the Lti^blxtie wilt 
□Q Tutwhi)^ neit prvcrcd ta ni^nunatr and dp(> Ifac- saJd di^lcv 
tatcK in tike maimer asi b directed by the Conskiiiutinn oi tbU 
mu for nomUiatin^ lud tppobting dcIcEalct to Consrcaa^ 

»y. 7*ir Difi<uiiki CoHjhMiMg the C^nv^ntion • 

Owning to Ibf ili^'fTHiiy vi inirrr*U ivmf»n>; tKr »utr*, ihr dilR- 
niUiea of briivniE aboui an odjiuiinccii acccptatjic to oU were 
nunenrnt afid wrtghiy, and ther appeared at one Hme »ft insupfT' 
abk that FraAktin r«con>inviid>ed lo th« convention iKat upccial 
p4r;iiTr hr Mlirred for Uitiikc AJMitancc A dear suiemrnt of ihe 
fundnoicfiial ob»titlia ui ifar «tar of a aalnfaciucr cvotftitutioijal 

EstiUbhmcnc o( rht Federal Comtitution 45 

aeUlttsm b civco is TU fVdIefWuf, tnm whkb Ihii extract b 

AmoD^ i£i« dlffmlcics encountered by ifac conTcnifon. a very 
tnpofUnA <iiic muit h&VE lun. m o^mbtning the requL^ite luhfltiy 
itid cttrfKT ^ fovrmrnmij with tht io\iolahlc Altrntinn Hur to 
tibertjr, acrl in the rvpublUxn form. Wtltviut ^ulntaalially ac- 
coonplubing ibii psat of ihdr tmdcftakicg, <hcy vatuld J^i^vc very 
impcrfeclJy fijl6Uod tbc obJc<t of ihdr HppuinimcnL ur ll^t rx- 
pQCtstioa uf llie publk: yet that li could nut raa^ be accom 
plbhed, wlU be denied by do o«kc who a unvilUng 10 bciraiy hb 
fpiomce of the Mibjeel- torriff in ^vmtmcnT I* esamiial to 
thai kemrttjr «gnnni exttmftl and iDCernal tUngen, oad to thu 
prompt And foJiJUry emulian «d the Lvn, whidi enter ktto tht 
vcij iW^iilioEi nf ^.lod tjyrtrriineul . 54aL>i]ify in ^uvemment 
b cacntu) to naiionAl clur«rier. and to ihe advuiiajcw aoneud 
•0 it, n wdl a« u> Ibil npooe tnd LT*nii<kactf is the mlnd^ of the 
people^ vctkich ore unong the chief btruin^ nf dvl] wftly^ A0 
intfuJv tad muuble legi^Ulion [4 nnt imrt in evil in itself, 
thftn it i% odiDXU Id Ibe people ^ nnd ii may he pniiMtinc«l viih 
AMUfMtLC llul ihr pcopk o4 thii «uu»iry , rfiliKlitmcd »• Ihey an*, 
inlh tvgwd Id the oilurr, vid uil«rvilefl, «■ the grail body uf 
tboB v«;ifl lhccir«cisofK<Jodffincnuiunt, win never be uilElbdi 
dll tfoipe reiwdy be ippUed lo the vicbsltudn and tiDccnaintica 
vttich chtfticienBe the »Ute odrndninlriiionL 

On cnmi[>«rinfE, howevtf, thme vAli^^ble injtrrdiesh with Ihe 
yit^l priacipicH of libtrly, ve m-utt pcmirf tf uni.f ih« diflkully 
of inbjiKnji Ihera toiethrr m Ihcir due panaport]an&, Th? gviiiui 
of npvbjican tilMTiy amrn lo deuumi on i>oe vidCi ntJt <inl)' IhiU 
«fl power thould be ilerived from the pnjplr; but thai thocc en- 
Ui0ied vfth It should he kepi In depcndenrc nn thr [>r>^ftlc, t^y a 
short diiralioQ nf ihdr ap^Miifliincnui owl thai even Aumg tfaU 
»hoct prfind, ihr 1r\ii( tboiild be f>Unrd not ina few, but in AatimliTT 
of bands. SljJiifit)', "n tlir rantrafy, TrEjuirr*, that the hjntb. 
ia vfakh povct u lodged sboiald coiriiDue Jur a teoslb «jf time tlie 



American Government and Polidcj 


nniG> A Trrqucat cliAngr <if taea trill mult from « (rvqiwnt re^ 
ntrn of doriinci; Add Ji frequent chaogr^ af mujtura, fmoi « fiv- 
qucnl tk&nAjc i>f nrra : «1tJI><l rnrt|cy vf KOvvr&mvQl rrqiiiroa nu< f>alj 
a cntuo cjujiiria ol pown« bu( tbc VJiccutiwi d" it by a i[aclc tbusd. 
NoC lc« irdaoui jnatA have bna the tuk uf markJi^ tb« 
proper liQp uf partltioD, btttuvcn ih? authi:TriTy uf Ibe sencnU and 
ih&l d ibt lUlc ^Tcmmcnb- F.ivry man will be x-ll^iblc of 
Ibb dUficiill^, til proportion u he b&i been Accwiomn! lo con* 
lempilile ami dkcnnunal^ oTjjtcti, cxinnii-e ind c^mplicftlcd 
in tiavir nuuiio. ICx^KTicEicr hu iiLtinjcuiJ int, alhO, Ibat no «kiU 
in Ibr *drJU.« *4 j^ovftuitiulL haa y«l btwn ibltf lo duciimin^ie :iJ)d 
ddioc, iHih luflicicni FcrtunQ\ Ju thf«c srcai province lb? IqC' 
bUllTt, ntoitivc. and judiciary; or c^tq ihc prlvSIc^ or powcn 
of thr diflcrcnt Ic^Ulit^ bronchet. Quc^tioQ.t UjuIj ocair in Ibe 
cnunc of pnif rirr, whicb prove thr ohnrurity whif h rclfcnji in (|ie»f 
fobjccti. anid which puult Ibr xmtnl tdqiti [n poLilJcat tcit-ncc. 

To Ibr diiTHiillie* almdy nu'nlitujnl, may he ddilrd ihr iHlcr- 
fcrlng prclroaJDni of the \u^a ind smiUicr sUkv^ Wr tumot 
err. In Kippotinjf ihai thcformcrwouldfonlcnd for a pnrdcipauon 
in ihe govrmmcnr, fully pn^onii>nf^ Eo thcli superior wrollh 
And iRi|>or[aii(c; and that the Utter would not bc^ Icm tcnocioiu 
of IticniLj^ity ft! pTic»rnt ra joyrd by Ibcm. Wrmay wdl xuppOM, 
Ibal ndlbcr tide wuuMentiFriyyifldlo Ibe ol'it-T, and (ijiiur(|Ufnfty 
Aat tbr Mn^Kslc could be Icrtniikatcd only by comprumUc. It a 
cxUvnwIjr protiHbIc abo, tliat after the rado of rtprtaenlation bad 
b«cn adjusted, this very oompiomiae nnua bave produced a frcsli 
auugglt bdwora the same iMkAlc*^ lo give luch a turn lo the or- 
ganuatinQ cd pmmmrnl, and to the difltribxitloD of \ta ii/^wcn, 
aa wm\A Uxreaie iHr impoftaorp c>f the branches, m forming 
whkfathcyhadraptttivrlyoliuinnt thr^rratf4C»harrof inAurvirr. 
Then are fe^lota Jo ll<r cpmtitutujci vrbidi wjnnt each cif these 
MppoiLtiow; aadasfaf mdlbcT of i^cm ihova 
Ihai iht (»nvenliofk most Im^t bfco coinp«U«d lo aacr^fice thco- 
rrticaJ profirfeiy, to tbc forte of cauancou* coonderatians. 

Nor rauld it han Ispm tlio Uifc and idiall iiaica oely, which 

F^tAblishment of the Federal Con«titutSon 47 

wduld vtanhd ihctmdves in ofipoerflicm !f> each other 00 wjmii 
jiiHJito. Oilirr i<ipibi&Alion», mulling from 1 ilifTerrrifr cif Utt^ 
pudlkiQ uid poticjf rauit have crealt^ ailditiucaJ dltlk-ultiA. 
Ai «vfry ualf rnvf be dividol bto diflcnnl duiricu and Ju ddiciu 
Emd (fifttnnt dan«. whkh |iv« birth to co&uikdiu^ failvwi* a&d 
kK^ Jmbtula; so Ibt tfiffcrat puts of tke Udsed Slntn are 
dldfft|ruUhc«t fmsi r«ch other, t^ a rodcty or dreunuianctt, 
^vh produce a tik« riffrt on a lar^rT scale. An^l although this 
vvHPiy of inr^rrUt, for rrajtfmii lufficienily ctpUin^ in a fnrmcr 
paE>rr, auy hair 1 B»1utary iollurQCr on lb« adninisl ration of the 
fUHftuwrut, Hbcxt toctned; yet rrcry oar mutt be bcuvLIc of 
tl» ciMitf«ry iailiMnn irbldi aoU h^vc been «sp«rirnc:«i in tht 

WmUiI k bcwoiidaf>il.lfuoderlbeprt»arcof all thnrdUIi. ]^^ 
euUks, the cdOTcntiua ibooM hftve been forted into Home dcvia^ f™<ht<i 
lloni bom thai artilicial ivtrxture ind regular symnciry, which "^^^ll^ . 
aa aUtrM.1 view of ilic sul>;«cl ai^l k-Kl an ingenious ^iMmt 
to botow v& a comstitutkoi pJaniwd in bis ctoKl, ^ir lo hii JAiag- 
inatioo? Tti9 ml womlrr b Ibsl » many lUfHcuiiica ahouU 
barebvenmrmouatcd; uKlsurmiixiiiled with an unanimity alnoit 
lA uDprc^tfknied, u It OMUt ha^v brvn uncJtpcclcd. It Is (u- 
powiblf for aMf nun of caodour 10 reflect on this ctrcunutancc, 
viihaur ptrt«king of ihe ajtonUhmcni- It ai impouifab, for the 
niaa nf pinua rrtlnrtfoA, not to pfnrivr fa It a finger M Ittat AL- 
ni^hty flaad, vbkb h» bctm ta frequcnlly utd dgrudlT extended 
to Mr rrBrf b the ctilkal «la|p» <jS lh« iwo4uth>u. 

In Itamltcnn'* \-idr, the conduct of iho lej^laturv* of Ihc srr- 
traJ lUiea iSurin^ Ehc period of o)cd<dcratbri hid dcrnocttlrated ibe 
i&atalil} uf llnr ^mfitr to nht Ihenrnftr^ witbtnil ponreiful ch<cl;i, 
and, la afi arfurnrnt for a life icm for UniEcd Stiiice sc^atun* be 
fttunckcd up bU ijoJiikol phkkmpbjr. 

AJI (trmaiuBltla divide thenatt^'a icio tbe fevr and Ihc many- 
Thv tot axT the rkh arrd wdl'bom, the other the man of the 

EsuUUhincnt of the Fcd^nl Constitution 47 

fnTuU nunh^ thvotclvtt in ofi^'^rinn 1i> «mIi Mher no various 
|)oinu. OdiKT combiAJidoas, multlng frun a iJifTmncc of local ^ISSm 
poriikia Mkd poUcx, tnuat hive crvstrd xJcUtinnxl dliSiculclM. *^ ifca_ 
As every cute nujr be divided mio diS«rcni duu-icu uul iu cWuni 
laio diffwcfli clottci, vhicb f:lvG blnh to < cpjiundlnj; laterals uid 
loul joitouAci; BO the differcDt puts uf \hr Uiiiiod Sloia on 
dIflliAfukhed from nch other hjr 4 vjmtlj' of drcuraManrca, 
which pvodwf a lik« pUccI an a UrK'^r Anir AaeI aJllioii|tti IkU 
variety of becToti, for rcasou tuflkicatly cxpbin«d la a former 
pqi«r> may hat* Si aaluiary taHnmc* oa the adndjuitntion of Cbo 
fovcniaunt. wbcn formed: r^t *-'\Try one mtui be Kndl>l» of 
Ibe coBtniy iftflocEice which must hate been cjiperiaiced to the 
i«afe of lormiag iL 

Vi^nild it ht wonderful, if under the ptmure of all these difli- 
caltlet, the contcotioo ibould haw bccfl forced ifito aovnc dcvU- i^ 
tiona frooi that artifkJal structure a^id reK^iUi lynuncUy, whldi 
am abauict vltv of the subject nJKhl lead an InftBloua UworiM 
to bcstoir on a conililulkui plaanal fin his cla«f 1, or b his imag- 
htadon? The real vooikr is thai ao many dlfficultiea sbovU 
hmbofftTCRaountrd^ and suraouniefJ with an unardnajty almoat 
M unp tgcedepttJ, ai it Dnist have bero uQeqiected. It is !»' 
pONflble for aoy maa oJ candoor Co ntkci on thU cimiailaaco^ 
wiifaout partaking of ibc ulQniihmeal. It a in^^omMK^ for the 
man of jAom redetikin, no: la [>cTcciTc tn 11 a finger of thai Al- 
Ddf hty Hand, which has b«c9 bo froqoraiiy and tiffMy cvtcaded 
BO our relief in Iho cnticaJ stages of the revolution. 

10. Bamfftom'i P!m far o Strmg amd SlaUr C^twunnf 

tn Hamilioa^* view, the rradoct of the lefiaiattrca at the w* 
ml iCaCa duhiix thr F^riod of CDDf«dcntioD hiw] danonMraird the 
lanbUQ^ of the pcopk 10 rule thenselva without fiowrrfnl cheeky 
and, in an ai g uiuen t for a Kfe term for Uoalod Stala Knmuea, b« 
Sttoncd np hU pcfilkal tihfbMO|ihy. 

AH ramgntfiitfea divide ihen a rfv CT intn the fr* and the masy. 
Tha fint arr the rich and wcU-boni, the otha the nav of the 


Amerjcui GovcmnxAr uid PoliM 


pcu|>k:. TW tiik« of tht peofJe hn hcca hU Bo be Ifac *ok« 
frf b<d; Add, hop i r ti p^^enllj llib nuia ha> htm quoted «ad 
bcfinwd, k ii wit ne is f«ct. The people »n tnrbBkoi A&d 

10 llie ftnl d«ft 4 dbtivJ, pcnttmcnl libjirE in dbc pnrrsmeDt. 
Ttivy «fl! I IiccIe 1I« »nMc»dfcnwi of Ifac mcumI, ud, u they cu- 
but rccifhr »nj AfKutige 6y « chM^, ther Uitnfan viU ever 
ouiatjiD |>owl loVfTnmrtiL Cen ■ dctaocnik AucmbJj, who 
viiwalt/ re>oKc in tht hum of the people, be e u ppoacd t^oMf 
lopunur Ibc pubftc ffiod^ Noibng bat a pcmuwut bcdf cut 
cbKl tite iRijio^fikQice of dttnotrKy. Thrir turtnikal ukd ua- 
conimlbUa dbpce>ixm t«<piira dwclE«. 

The Snutc <4 Ntw Yvrh, tltbough dwMO lor lour ytty w^ 
h«Tc fowid to be iiullKkoi. WID, oa tfce V1r:g1ila& pUn, a coo- 
<M liau4ftrealii?vco7rjn(k>U? [tiiadinit1edll»il]«u<asiui1luvv 
ft food KuTulit-c ujioM A dcnocrftlir pUn. See lb« exocU«fi<7 <^ 
Ibe Bfkkh Enectitite- He a E>l»ccd &tH>¥« |pmpt«tk)n^ H« am 
heve Bu dlulixt lolerrvU from ibc public uvJmc. Notliinu iJnift 
ul Mdi HI vnnrllve cui tic cJbdcnL Tbe uvak litle uE a nrpubQ* 
can ffoTcmineiii b ibc duiga of furdgn LnHuencc. llut k ua- 
ftvoAtUble, unl«M li b to <offlunicird u u> bring fof wutl iu ftrst 
cbenclcn is Lb lopfXirL I ora, iheteffitc* for » general ifovers- 
mmr, j«r wirtjU vbh In ^ the full Wnj^lh of rrjiuMir^n prim ifilcK, 
Lei ut* Imly (4 thr I^itJjlun* Iw coiulilul^ J>jriEi^ K'^*^ ^ 
bitlor QT ift Let one FjomliTC be Appd&tcd who dam eic* 
rule hb |h)wm. It nujr be aaked: U thb a rtpublicfto aj'Biem? 

11 b xriclJy m, m losg e* ihey rrmAlci elective. And le< me ob- 
irnie, ibal aa Fjorurivr b b«« djui|[emufl lo the RhctriM of the 
pfo;ile ntun tn oflke during Ufe, thoa to seven yt^n. It miLy 
he «uifl, ihU (^nfttilule« an cirriivr monaieby, l^Jiy, what U a 
iiMifeMrcliy? May ntl the ipmrrnnn of the mprdirc Slsifn 
Im rciaBtitn<d tn lliJt lijiht ^ But, by imkiiw the Ejiocutivf' lub- 

t \Q irn|H-«ihmrol, thr irrna monanhy cvxnol apply- Th««e 

,f«nuiuiieb«h4it produredluinulisui Rome, ind ate e<)u ally 

dinpenwi lo pcvr jn ToUnd ; but ihb eaAiioi apply ui tbc nK>dc 

«r Ik Fcdml C 


0* Iw deuk «r fvflkr««L 1^ rrnUmt tit ilM^ >«MiT to oAfcUi^ 

<«lcAocff*lftbeftpftf^lvitlfriicG«inillx< ^tti» 

ikr Stair McMrvniMfta vMomsuy to H. All »■«* lii«« *4ikh 

bi iffiaiBlid ia taA SciBr, Id ha«v a wfltllTv m tU Malf Uw« 
AD ibv aUHa. tad Ihr aff^ilntmnM ^W nllm*x l« b« uftiirr iW 
BStiowU fuwiuiie&C. I coAfoa tiM thift pJu iiktl tl^'^ 
VlniiyA Kte my itmotr fron Ihe Mm oI Ihr |<*i7|4*. L 
ifav JcEtty plaii h tmml Ihcir rscpn-Ution- Rut t1ii> pn^il* «N 
KnuhuBy ripnuny ka l]i«ir nfdnlnQP ^V c»ireronii*M, ilwT tviln 
to be iM of M cir«n ol tUntorrvr; «nit «4ia( rrm h lit" \\t- 
piua iiJvu but "pod oUI. with a litik cIuimc* M liim/' 

WHd wU tlir oirtmr Ur«i iJ lUnUlliiii, it arjii ili« iitihv»co« 

of ofrifldon llui a lo^kkn mtAn 1 l I F. 

populv ruir umI ihitf murv iJi ' ' 

piMtd- Hvfnunrrtt^l tlirCiMililn 

mqr OttlhffiMlMr," uhI the lufck fif innr lyiUm It ihn* wlttilfililr 


.1 . <ua LiiuciMk Miioil^ lie fnndl ti. p^dc mhI pmalc 

i-,.L-v . A }>uUk and pcnval ibo^, dHi ov fMAMBcm 
Li r i> . . uble; ihai Lhg puhfc gwd i> JMMjjMfkd in tbc con- 

r .: , -in^ lu the nJeauf jqrtkc, WMJ the lig^i of tig Mnor 

t .t :\. ■/: i\v ihc iuytatx lioace ctf an ?iifcw*ajJ sad <nafaeHmg 

uj.rrr -I Huwe^tf uuioostf vc any visk ikaft tfaeK cob- 

ln:iik- ^ »-i ua fuuDd&tiaa, the rriftffir of kaon iicti will aot 

II nil-; x:- :u dcDj tlul ibcf aic ift wMe de^M tnc It will be 

L!^ Inrd, u& A candid leikv of uir ■^*****^'**, tbu »ae of 

(ii^i:; — .^-^ imder whkh vcjahor, Tiitt Twm romwnnjj rhiigml 

At: '.-.ration of uur guvcnuoents: but it sill be f oond, ai the 

: L.i^ iiiii. ibjt oibtr causes will dm ajooe ynwinf fir dhbj cf 

.'.: Mi/'.^i niiafoituac?; ufed, p4nicujAri;, fur tbu ptmSog 

L M :^M-iNg dbiru^t uf public eoga^iDCDiSt and liwi for 

iir >!- vjhL*, whicb ^n echuetl frooi ooe end of the ^''■^T^"**** 

I . I 1- ^u'r^ Tbe^ muai be <:bie%t If iwt vboU^, eflecu of tbc 

■[4-1 .i:.:-* dnd injiutice, ^Th whiih i firrifMii ^ifrit hti tiinrd 

\>\ . .1, ;ii>ii^luoJer>uad*auinbtruiririww»,wigdMraiaMmi- 
:- k '. .- r^'.jjuHiy ur a muuntj of tiif vbuc^ vlw uc nniicd umI 
Hiiii.,' i '-y -j\Dt c^tnuoja ijijj;-lac ,i Zfiaiija, ix of mtoc^ 
v^-.-^v ;.« ihc rigbLs -f '.-ther ^i:^=^ ^< :u :be pcnBUKU and 
i:i";ri'.:,i'i' I'lrcftit* ^A t^ •■. ^o^^- r'-i'-y 

At - .^ A.-< ibc rvj^-:i -i ^ '- .,^±1..^ ^*^'^"'^ Ukd bf i^ u 
J * ■» ■ - I'MTii.v ii, niiifcrt^i .;:ii,cj •ij '>f ixrsifti A* axtg 

I'.iLi ', ' I -. »'.-. I-'. . ■■-."-'; i. :'i--_:i*? 

HuablbKment of the Fedcftl ConsQtutton ji 

mmkttt of (Uffcfeni degitc^ and kinds of proptrEy intcneiliAlcly 
fcnlu; aikd inm the influ«noe of Ihne on the scmiioeitu mul 
iStwi ol ibc fc^tcctivt prciprktont ensues ft illvlfiton of ihc sodtiy 
into cUfTcrcnl inlcptttA ftnd putieiL, . . . 

Tbe moM rommnn ui^i diinibtr viiiitfr ai ficliAni hm bem 
ihi wjou^ And uni?4)UAl di^tirilKitioo ■.J pro^julf Thivr wlm 
bold, and iIxoac vho o/c wkbgut ptapctift ban ever formed du- 
tlacl Intan^lb In acfddty. Thoeo who arc cmttiora. uid tbuw 
vba vie deblon, mi under i Ukc di&cnnmutjon. A kaded 
InMraii A RUAUfacniHnc bt*n»i, a Ruroandlc Isurnfti. a monoyod 
Inttftfl, ifilh toMnj Icutr inienits, grow vp of occesoily la civilla-d 
nitUHH, kud diiidc thrra inio dificrrrnt rbAxn. acltMtcd by dif- 
itrtnM wnlinarnl^ and ri<Tt>. Th* rrjjEiilAlton .J (hr*r vnr^rj»« And 
nrierfering iotcmd Forms, ihc firincipd u»k of mudcto ^^^Zju 
tkin, axtd IiirolMv ihr >|uHl of party »riJ fA^ljun to tlw ncccMury 
and ordiittty vfiendons of govrrnmeaL 

So mis h allianrtd lo be a jud^ In hj& own c^uk; bnaiuse M« 
blemi wiU rcitoinly biM his judgment, ftnd, not improlMbly, 
ccmpl hU incc|crlty- WUh r^un], nay, wiih jcn-arei* n^voii, 
A bodj of tarn an unlil lo h« iMlh jud^jv oiul p&rluA at Ihtr saioc 
iMtf; jielirhu arc many of rhe mosi tmportiuit acucf tegitUtkiOf 
bnt to nuny jwlld:i] iletemiinHlions, tutt indeed corKsmm^ ihr 
ri^tfe gf biogle pcrsuns, but conorning ifat: ngbei of brge budivth 
of ddaem? and what on ihc dl^«rcni daAos of Icg^ioo, but 
advocates and poriica to tbe cauaca wMcfa they detcrmdoc? b 
a law pfopc«cd txinoemmf priratt debta? Ii n a qooiicin to 
wUd) tbr fVMlIton ut parties »n onr ^ido, and the debtors nn ihc 
other Jmike ought to hold the hUancr brtvrMQ thtea. Vet 
Ibe pajtkfk ur, afid niti^ bt, Ihenuc^tT* the judjcr*: and the moM 
nnmcroui party, oe, in otiu*i ^ordji, tht nuM puucrful factiuni 
nMOt be cxpccled lo pnvaiL ShiiU domesdc caanufactur» be 
fBoomeMJ, and in whin degree, bf frntrlciionA on foreign mftBii- 
lactam? are quesikuis which woukl be diffeicntJy decided by 
lhelandod8iKliheinanvfactiiri;i|^d&iM3: andpnibably by ndihcr 
with a Mok regard ta jurtice Bod the public gocxi. Tbe ap|ior- 


at i»p< 



1 or- -A .>,u ATT 'vef7«rliM*4nhitrtli4iMPft«lpn3fMtfT^u<tt 

U'ii, .J j.^iiilk md t<gfc«fc>ifc»t g^ afcr dppfirtunilj And 

i.^. .u \-M'r, ihui il» jiul ha^goillhpMrt^ ID Jimmpk on fte 

..'ii^jK l<j iIh- rtilMifiijllriil^'M^ompockeiB. 

j-.*K, '.m W iIh? ■upcjS»i:imii%hlrMr!jtMMMMi will ba ibJt to 
V- V Mi.wcw afWiWij, •wlHwfcf tfacitt lU whMWIll 

|.l kill ij,..l 1... ff*^tti. h.tot^'dlPti^i lUlf mrn wiQ not almp be 

1,1 rj jH .family li^M'UxyuMWkatti^UkdjttttmeiU be mi^ 

r.iMiML u.JiH'K <tn4'<CiiMld viHt mdnM iad lenote connkis- 
ihitiMi'-' » iimli^figto IW^wwUlMwr ^ i D un cd ia te inlCTeal which 
.III il r.iti..jii>ritUr<t(«vqcMltn« Uv light* of viothnr, or the 

Miim II- -■, Fi»lil' mh- T 

..,ir li' nl' .1 nr| ^fi'^ltt>r^l ^Vf- tM hrMi|shl i^ th«l tbc <«uef of 
.1.1 1 PI '■ iJ<ri.^ ^;ci^iu;;>lvJ|: uh| tbAt Klkf ifl oolj to be BOUgllt 
|r.,. ,1 >. u,. vmHr(^i^i«K i^ 'Jfr*- ^ * faction consist} of 

1 ■ .- TlHjt '"^^i^i^ut^iiMbyUierepuUkaitpfliKii^, 

im „. ,i.Pi. 4. -i.^ ,»t|fO<ttii'> iiO UcfMt in stnLMi \icw5, by r^uUr 

.mi i> ■ 'Lili^ifOri '^l« ^'^M'^=>^^^^> ^^ nuy iTuavuise the society; 

1h, . ..r!.. ./ittttuWMMt-vir »&k1 >u^ iu violence uixltf the 

iM. I . >..f ■rrii^'AikjtLiua' Wbvn ft nujority it indmM in « 

I, .Hj^ 1 irvittuUr jcv\vmroe:\i« i« ibe od»er haod, 

,.i, „ , > i.:.r^i: ii> jfr) ruUii^ fuv<k^ «^tf intftieAtfe both the 
.. . ' . .i<»> .Ik '%^^ t. L vihci ^.tiura^ To :<ci4ic the pubfic 
\, . r «. It. ] i^io) *^:ifit '.be .JAUffli «^ Mhb A iiclioa, lad 

tL i-t \-K^t<i! ibr -^Mxw .LLihi ibc fom of ;x9tiUr 

^.,. ... iiii ^^.^, .iLAt ^t « ;,x ^:k-. ,FfMoe;«4uai, by vbk^ 

*. . ..I I *^ ^. -vi V -* -^ ^ li -^ M^^*^ _Tv,m Jic ,^.piv-iitiiiai 

I ; .1 , ,. » r , * , . .. *' i'^'hiK-iiLn h** >«ic 

■ \ ..%... ' '^ , i' -. . 's 'i-->it .i_w.i^ ,ir ^^iX^^rriC 

- : ■ I It .- < Il M ' ■, / ■ ^ ■ « '. .,,v. ni; ;:^ ^dUtr:!^. 


Establishment of the Federal Ccnvrituticiri 

bivin^ MKh c<N*n«t«nr puoioD or jolciv^l, muil be cvniinvd, b^ 
tbvir nuznbrr mil Imd >i<UA£io<i, unalik lo concvrt smI cany ^^ 
into cfftci K^hrnvt nf opprpujon- If tlw impijlvf uid the ofi- rrr«t 
pomwlty be kiiflrrtd lo toinddc, irv vdl know, thjii neither rnm^ !.^!!^^ 
not rcli^<iu» molhts caa tc reUcd on u an aidM|uali.- rontmL 
They avt «ot (otuul to br mch on ibc ittjuittre >nd i-j^klrnc^r <>f 
indi^'idiiAkt and tov their t&\auj in ]uii:j[NirtiitEi to ibv* numltfr 
cwhinrd Ui^tlirr; tlut ujnpruportiun u theif cfficucy bccoom 

The conreaiion *J drkKiia it> revue the Artklea <3i Co<if<d* 
tradott waa orpnlaed en May jj. 17S7, aad, caating asMle Iba^ 
insnucticxM i^vm ro ibc mcist>rn br Ihrir rv^irctUr tuir lejci«la- 
luna, drAfled 3^ vrboUy nev tiocumtni- Tbc vmrk «» cora- 
plcrlrcl by thr n^ag of Ihc inatnimecit on Scpt«nibtr ly^ ^^^ '^ 
EMw Covtiiution WA4 ihcn Innaniittd to Lhe Coogreaa villi itw 
folktving recocnmendatioiij: — 

Reiohvd, Ttkil tke prtrcdnig ccuiMituiion hr Uid bcfoR tbv 
Unitni Sutn £n cmicnu u&rintJnl, and tb^l il U llw opinkia 
of iliu coovvQtiim, ibat il iJiDutd ofwrnardi be lubnltiarf tn 
a eMVMlioQ «l ddcpias clMMm In eatb «iace by the pcofilr 
dMftnf, UMkr Ihe wctmuntn^jakm of iti lesblainve, Cor ibetr 
aiMnt Md raiificatton ; andikaicarhrcaiTmtioBKttvntlogifvrrio, 
and nttffyiftg th* unr, thoukl pw no<k« tbrtvof lo itw Unitcid 
Slabea in con^vA itmbliJ- 

Rcadved, Tkat It b lltt apMoa «f tUi ranvmika* ibai « aoan 
tt tb« lucivmbow uf nlve Sutev ifaall have radlM th£» ton- 
tlitulkin. ihe Uafud Stam I* coogns aawnbltd ibouU Ax a diy 
an vUfh ckcion sbonU be appofaiird by tike tfatei wUrb khafi 
have niified the ii^jne, and a day m whkb the t^Jxm ahonid 
a wt f n b lt %t> rnte ii« Ibr iifnidrnl, and ihr time and (lUcv fur 
cocuaencMg pronrdiap under tlmt njnuifucion Tlwt aiter 
ndi pobKcaiicw tbr decion «boiild be appobilvd, uid the lEnaion 
and w pr ma tatfwtt tlrciad; ibai ibe ctoctcn ihoold laevt <m 


% ' s.iv'*tfrr,mcni and Politics 

. o . ..', A ihr presJdfnt, and should tnnsnut 
-4^-i^t. ^aJrd. and diircted, as the con- 
. T ■<-. n-tjry uf the United Stales in congre&a 
*.ijiT'r* 4iid n.-jirvNentali^'es should convene 
I ^^-ij;wA: that th^ 'M^aator^ should appoint 
h.iii'. Iitf \hv vijr |iur|niic uf receiving, openingf 
h-^ i>>r i>n-\iili-iiL: and that after he ah-itl be 
. T..^-[JiiT \tiili (lu- president, should without 
. .\i-i i|[i- ilii« I iin^tituijon, 
■Ai'if '-(-iiT -^t iIh' « iHiU'ntiiin. 

lifdHi^r Washington, Pre^dent. 

*-* V/ft- i.\'n^tiiutifm by Ike SlaUs 

-h«>^ifiiiH'iii|jiions Iff the cnnventioD and 

. '*" -^Mlr^ h^r appriwj] or disappTOval 

' ■'. UM-v* x\i riiifi.atii'n i^ fully iU 

^ ' ■. . II. ri-K-ni iMmcJ by the Georpi 

- ■- ■ . ■r.c'f'*- :..-.-Hi rr.T.ii'd !>-. 

>:■::' i- ■■rvLM.r '\r:C :;>c 

EsUblishmcnt of the Fedcnl Constitution 5j 

ttibobltnl 10 1 convcnii^m of ddcgstn chosen in cftch StMbr by 
tbe people £h«rtof» in oonfonndty lo ihc rtulrc* of the Coavco- 
tun cmdr tnd pravidtd in ihtt ctjit." 

And wttcKOA the legbkUturr of the 5t«te of OdrgU dd, on thr 
tbth diy ol OctobCT, 17B7. in punuance of the above redted rc«> 
luTkvi of Conjfnru, ftttjiv€, thai a convvaifon be decled on t!» 
(Uy cjf tbe orii la'n^fiil clecikio, aud tn tlie mbk muner thai 
r«pK«cnutiv«!> arc c1cci«d; and Hal the uiid Conwndon constet 
Kt not more thin three membcn from each county: and that 
tbe mid convcntiaa should meet it AuguMA, or tbe 41^ Tucadiy 
tn December thfn n«(, antlj »s "oon thrfwJter a* cnnvenif nt, pro- 
ceed to ronadfT the ^aid rqxui and molotions* and lo aidopt or 
re]r<l any |ku1 nr the i^bok ibcrcof. 

No« kootr ye, lb»l *e, tlic delegates of tbe peuple cl llie Slate 
<if Gcor]^, in convention md, ptinuBAt to the rcsoluiioiu^ «i the 
legfbUiun afoPEMtld, btvliig takeu lato our seriocu <.-onftidrnLdon 
the aid Constitution, have a^nented to, ntaficd, and adopted, 
■nd by ibne prrMntn do, in virtur of the powrm and aiithnrilj 
lo (U givrn by the people of the unM Stntp. for tbit purponc, for 
and In britilf of our><iiT% Anil fiat i\tittxh\KiiiK fvilly &nd entirely 
auent lo, mlify. and Adopt, ibe uid Comliluttion^ 

Done in Convenuon, at Au^uf^a, in the uid State, un the n\ 
d^yof January, lathe jt4r of our Lord i7^S,aadof thtf fndepeud 
cnoe of the Uri^itcd Sfaic? the izth. 

In witncu tibcreul, wc have hereunio nrbftcrthed our namCA. 

JoiD* WoEAT, Pn-^denl, 
Md delegate fof Ihe (ounry of Richmond. 



Iht C«n 

American Government and Politics 

the ihy &icd for the cTeclk>n of ihr prvAidcnt. and AoM mnsmlt 
ibdr votc& c«fli£ed, :i);n«d. icalctl* arid dirtcicd, aa tlu con- 
Hlinuian itqmi^, Iq the ifcTPUry n£ ibr United Slnit* in <ton^[rcitt 
frvrmlilfifl, Ihi! Ihr- »cnA(nrs Mil rrprfvnuijwf* AhiHiiil ronv^ne 
At ihr time itid place UTiif^nl; ihat the *cnatof\ sliouiti 3p|>ca(il 
s prcfidtni of t>jr hciutc, for ihc i^ ilr (mrpij^ uf rHrkvin^c, 0|Kriing, 
aad i:ouiilai{( Xhjt voln fur prviidriit : :ind ihuL afLcr he %hutl be 
daoctn* xhe congnu, tofdhcr with the prcf.idcni, should without 
dcl&x prt>^''>d la cxcGUlc ihls coiutilutinn. 
By the unaiiicnou-% nrder of t\ye convenlion, 

SI. Ralifieathn aftkt NfVf C^n^ituthn Ay fhff SinUs 

Co a gpp M 4i:t«il 0& Iht ranrnm^ndblion^L nf thf cnavfji^fyn &nd 
mntuiiued the docutncnl lo tht f>UU« for Ap[irovjil ui ili«»;>iirovaJ 
by «p«UJ coni^ntiottft. The procen nf ratiii^tinQ li fully i!- 
liiflntcO by Ihr rormiU iiuKJusiviuml imuviI by tlie Gcoi^Ui 
coQirallob on Jaauaiy t, 1 7B6." 

In Ctm^niioOp W«dDc»day, Januiry a, 17(8. 
Td an to whom thcw pveecni» »hdJ comet, Gmdnic: 

Ulicrc tbc form of t Con«iJttition fur the govf^mmcni of the 
Untied Sute« nf Amcriea, wu, 00 the 17th d^y of Srpr^mbcr, 
1787. Agtrrd H|"iii and repmied to Conprns hy ihf iJeiiuTir-i of 
thcMiid I'oitcd "^uics convened in rhibdclpbia, wbicb uid Coiu- 
ifixiijon is wriltvn m the uijrdfi following, Co vdt; 

And wbccvu lbs UiJl»d Stfttcs b ConcjtBsft assembled did, 
on the *SA dmy of Scfitcmber, 17S7, mohtf, unanlmotuly, "Tbit 
Ibe nid rrport, vrith the rr«]lutkin And leKer acrompa&ytng (he 
»snae» br irAAnnilied !■) ifae «venU ]^«laturr% in ctfdtf b> be 

* Tbt dMn ctf cahfiabeo 4rT ftUovi - PtUwf, Dmnibcr ;. t;ff7; ?'»»■ 

1. 171^; C'HBHlkt^ Jutdrj q; >!■»■■ hirTrllri, ?vb/^kutr> 7; MAr^loml. April 
■a- 50^ CmliHp M«f Jj. Nrw tlMtpihbt <lh'' irfnilt titiip). J>Mr 11. i;H: 
Vtnitnbw }nt* t}] Krv V«rk^ Jolr "^ ijW; Xanh Ctfdbu, Nowwi U c «t, 
»y«*j KWh Mad, U«|r t^^ in^ 

Esublishmcnt of the Fcdcrni Qonmtu^oa 

sqbfniltrd |o ft ccfnvtntiooi ot dri^gilra chootn in f4ch Suie by 
Ihc people ^tcncit im CDnfarrmty to ibe rvnolvr* <d the Coawn- 
(ion tnidr iti>d proftidBd in tbaJ cue." 

Aftd wbcrcu the kg^MtUK of ihe Sutc of Gcor^gU did, oa the > 
aMd^r^^'^'^'^- >7^7t bpunu«ac«i>f UK«bovv rfcftcd ttao- 
htlioa of Conpoo, rcrohv. thni « coavcndon be elected on die 
dif M the next ftncnl dkcdoa, uid In the Mint enjiiukft that 
Kpmenuiivn m elericd; ind th^ the <aid Convealion coufdii 
of nof more than ihitr memhtn from c«dt county; aod 
the loid contf-nijon ^buuld merl M Auj|U8la, on tbv 4(h T 
in DvixtDb^r thi-o next, and, a» uoo IhertAfter Ji» cuatcnknt, prxi- 
ored io conjddcr the uid n^tx tnd KK<1udoiu» &nd U> adopt or 
(eject »ny pirt or the ^haic thereof- 

Now know jnp, th4t iw, Ihc dtJpgilM of thr pmplr nl Ihe Suic 
dI Georgia, in (onvmEion larl, pimuani 1o the mcJulion* of the 
trjcidalufc aforekud, hA^ing uXtn iiilo our ^riuu» loniiidi^riti 
the &aid CooiCituCioa, hiiiv SAenled io> nitfied, and ^upicd, 
aad by tbe«c pmenu do^ in virtue of the powers and authoriiy 
10 «fi ||\«o by the people of the said State, fcr thai purpo4«p for 
■sd in behalf cf oundrea and niir constituent*, fuQy and cntirdy 
ajMMil la, ratify, and adi^l, the uid Comritulioa, 

Ifooe in Convmlico, at Augusta, in Uic laid Stale, on the >d mr Titi 
day of January, in ihe yt-u of our Lord i ;S8, ajid of the indcpcnd- 
CDce of IW Uoiied States tbv 1 2th. 

In viUMS wberccif, we bare bereuoto tub«cfibcd our names. 

Joitv VVr»rAT. I*rcudfm, 
Md dcJr^lr fur ihc counly of Richmond' 


SivcF Ihr fnlcral Cc^nsliUilion wmtntablUb«l, the thJr1«ti orig- 
fuu« have liirr(4s«d in fortj-sJ;i, the c(xin<>mic a>'atL^tn prc- 

iling M ibc rtow of ihc cightpcm^i ctntiify li^u bcm overthrown 
by Ibp IiiJuBlri:il Rcvululion, and un<lrr^utiL of wdol quoiiont 
hnvr bfitn r*jird, HWorr rhi* mjirvHuus drvcliipmmt r>( Ihr 
nation, the s^sEum cf guvtrnniciK devised m 1787 would have 
hrT>kfn 'Inun. if aFTrmpt^ hdd \jtcn mndp U> limit tti opcTAlion* 
to Ehr 4trM t Witvr tti ihr law. It h Cnii; ihM Ariitlc V (jf the U- 
slrumcni mnctf pr<n-j»ions for amcndmtnu, but the fific«i BiliclM 
Ibil huii' lrL'i-[j jtdd?d \ry thv fornul pn*oru an u>> indi'x to the 
Ftft] cofmijiutioni) evoEuiidn erf the irouatry. I'his must bo muj^t 
fn con|[rc«*to]ui Ktaiuta, judki^l drciAton*, encirulivc aclkoiUj and 
par^ pncliccs. 

w. Tkf Farmtit Amfn4ing Pr^ttn 

The Congitis whenever t<v<»-thirdf» of both U<ni4efl AhoU deem 
it cctcwAry, shnJl pn:>po!« uneAdmenu to thU ConsiirutJort. or, 
on Ihr 4ji]iliritn»rj nj r^ir ! rj;JhlAiuiTA fif iwivlh^rTlii nf Ihf j*Tfnd 
S>ldtn. thill mil j^o^fi mention for proposing amendment!!, which, 
[a either cjMe. thtM be valid to oil Intcnu iDd pun>o»e« u pArt of 
tkitt Omatiuitlon. wlufu ntiifiixi by tb« L«gialaturtft uf ihne' 
fourth} of the icviinl Suies, or by convvntiont in ihRcfDunh^ 
tben-of* u^ the one or the other mode of railAc4dcin may bo pro- 
posed by Congrm: provided that no unendmeitl whicb may 
lir m.ulc \yTiur tn ihr }vtr ij\-v Ihniiunfl ci|tht humlred jmd i-tf^ht 
vhaU in any numnrr iffecl Ibe f^nX and fuurtb clAU3n iii Xhc tiinlh 
secD^n nf the ^i ArUdc; u^d thai tio Sl3ile, withiiul il> cod- 
KoU thsSi bt drpri-rvd of its e>(|u&1 bulTrage ia the StQ&tc. 

Tli« Development of the Federal Constitution 

*3. Inilwliati *j am Am^nJm/mt 

Allhouf^ the uhcrrt ftrikte nrbrided four Tnad« hy whkh Ibc 
CoDititudon may bt anwodt^. il dun col dacribf ;ii 4II Ibe 
drUdb fil ihr [>rrL-r<turr. Thr pnirlur, himTtrr, miy tw tllu«- 

iratfd bi' ihr fc-Ikiwioc ^bxumeau, mcing ih? Mrp« in ihc iEutU- 
Ikm, fdti£calLoA,afiflprocknulion.cif Ihf ihJrtcrmh amcedoiMt: 

Rcwivtd by iht ScoMt vid Houw of Rq>fv«ciil4tiv<(^ uf ih<- 
United Stttw of Amnka u CiwgrttA wwniblvd. {iwo-thirUi u( 
both hoQscs concurring). llmL the foUoving onide be pfopowd 
to the ItgbUturcA of the several Siatfs a& An imendmcnt to the 
auititntioQ of tbe United Sutf?(> mfairh. vtbea rattllcd by thitc 
fourths of the ui<! I^^Jiiufr^ tluJl be VMlid, tn rU ifilrntA mii 
purpov^, ai a j>an uf ihc Mid LVinitiluCiun, onmety: Aitick 
XIII, ScciMi I- Nriihcr *Lircry n"*r inv<'liirjtJirr srrvituik, 
eicrvt '^ a puauiiineQt tar crime wheivof ibc furty ilult b^te bnn 
dtily convicted, thuH cxiu vriihia tiK Unlud SiaEc«, <j« Any place 
wbjca to thrir JuiitdJctloa, Section f. CcmpesA bhAU htre 
po«er to enforce Hus article by appropmie legiiUtion. 

Speaker of Ibc House of Rcrpn^couiiivs. 

B. Hamlin, 
Vkt Pn^^idcot of the Ooated Sutes 

and rrccid^i of Uie Sotiatt. 

Apfirwed. Febniar^ i* 1865. Asxaiiau Li»o>[jf. 

[Indonemeni, ] 

t certify that tbit RevoluticA did cit>|p"«le lo ibe Senate. 


t AmcricAft Govrrtimcnl and Politics 

M* Rat\ficoiion o/im Ama$imtiii bj a SlaU 

SUI« of Rhode talutd, Arc. 

Wbntu, Boih HouAH of the Gongreif oF Ibr Udlvd Stiin 
faaw propowd ui Ami?aclmriit to thp CoDslitutioia of tbc Umtod 
SUtci la the words Acd 6gurrs foH^twiiigT ^ Vfll: 

Anici« xnt 

Soctlon I- Ndfter dsvoy nor involvnUix scrvltud^ rxc^t 
JL3 a pimiahmmt to erifM, vhcrcof ihe pony thall hvrt beta ihtly 
(onvklcd, flhoU mst within the United Suus, or anjr pl*Dc ftub* 
jfTl to Ihrir joriidtciioti. 

ScclioD ^. Congrou shall liivr p<^irrr 1o enforce Oat axUde 
ty ^pprvpriaic IcjcUlidoo. 

It 1% Tii£KiLJOR£ RuoLvi:(>. That thu I>i;i»T!itun uf (be SUte 
of Rhode lalond do hereby txlUy and conciim the nid Artidc 
Xin of AtDendioeat to the uid CoDstitiuion of ihe United Sutc» 
Mud dii hfreby uaent thereto. 

A TRVT- "*PV, 

In Kvtimi^ny whereof I havr htmio n*t my hand and ifHAcd 
Toy fcal of the Stnic «J RhcHic IjtUnd, ibb (a:i>nd day of 
Febniuy ajx iS^Sj, tho day of tbv adoption uf ih^ said 


SccnrtAiT of Stale 

Winiun U> Scvafd, 

Secretftry of Stale uf tbr U&il<d SUIO, 
To all to «bc>m lh»« prrscDts may come, Creeling; 

Know Ye. thai, wherun the Con^rev of the United Sutei. 
<ai Ibr ml of February last, pnurd a Re^olotion whifh h in the 
vrordi loUaaing, nucxly: 

The Development of the Federal Constiiutton 59 

'^A R<9olutiaD nibcnittiiig to the LfgUstur» d tbe «vsr»l 
SlAtcA 4 ProiKMitko 10 tracod the Covtiiaiioo of the United 

'■ Krft^hYi! by lh« ScBftte uid Bcnue cf Repmfntidvrs of the 
United SlitT^ rif AmrricB i& Ci>&gffM ■Mtfnhlrd. (Ev^' ihmii of 
both Hovta cpAcumtig), 'HiaI the foUovriog Ailkle be propoaed 
10 th« tcgblatum ot tht tevcril staici u vi uncndmcni to the 
comiimiioa of the Uniled Sut«s, which, whva ratiltod by three 
fonrths of %M kyhbiiurct, shall be valid, to all mieota ood pur- 
povcftk a>a pATi ol the uid ooautltulioa, oamel;:^ 

"Article xin 

^'Scdlcdi t. Kcflber tUivty doc involuntaiy terrftude except 
m a puoiihmciit for crime vtMre*>f the part)- shall have been dulf 
coavfrled vhall (^«l vithiA the United Sinirs, or any place mbjcct 
10 their juri^clioa- 

*'Solion 3, ConfcRM ahall bave aothnKljr tn fnrorce Ibia 
ajikir hjr appn^hatr IrgvtUlion," 

AdJ, whereas ii 4ppe3irs> (lom oC&aAl dwtuxicnbi on 6le m Th»; 
tfm DrpoftoMrat, thit the amendment to ifae Corutitution d lh« JJJJ 
United Stairs |jiro|Mjfedt at afofCMJd, hoji brcn nitlGcd by ilie ritfrwai 
k|;mlilurM of ibr 5ui«a «l Illbu^. Rliodc tiUud, Mithl^^u, rncin^j 
Maiylaod, New Votl:. Wot Vlreima. Maine, Kansas, MaMacbu- 
■etts, PuittBv ri, NVvxdn. Indiana, 

Loittriaju, M: .... .,<.-'.'. ImnrA^fC, Arieaima, 

Conocctirut, New llampdkire, South Carolina, Alabama, North 
CatolDa, >(id Omri^a; ia all tvtMf'4trr-tt Sfklm: 

And, wheieu the whoie niunber of Sum in the Uoited Slates 
ia iblny-fili; and vhmu the before spcdallr named Stale*, 
wbo«v legblatune have niifled tbc uid propoatd aimmdmeni.^ 
conatilDle tbree-roiiftlB of the whole Buinbee of Statea la Ibe 
UidUd Staue: 

Nov, therefore, be it knows thai I, Waiiftm H. Smd, Sec- 
rHoiy of Slate of the United SUtca, hf vfalae and in iiiuiuaare 
of the aacond tecdoo «f ibv Act of COogreaa, afipecniviJ ihc iwvn- 


American Gftvcrnmc^ni and E^oliticft 

rif(h nf ApriL dghDccn hundrcH and cightftn, rntkled— "An 
Act to proridf for Ihf publicAtJoTi of the lawi of ihp Unitnl Sfalei 
And for other purposes^' do. hcrclii^j cmify ihai |]ir &iiifndaii;iii 
&fctfmiJ )i«a l>nijinc valid, to all inttntB aod purv*'**^ ^ •^ P^i^ 
of the Conititmlon of iht United SUlfs. 

la IwlJmony whcnvifi [ have bcr7unii> «ei my haad and <aii»d 
thf Bfd of (he Dcporlmeni or State to be affi;ird. 

Done at ihr rJiy of WnshmBlcin, thia fi>htrrnrTi -iny of Dorrm- 
bw. in l!ic yc\T of ngr I-tftd <^nr Ihuiw/ind right hurnJTtd and mkIjt- 
fiv*. and of tht Indcptudeoce of Ihc Umi*d Sutd of America 
the aiactictb. 
tS«al| WUUAM H. SicwAJw, 

SccrvU^ oJ State. 

Andrew Johnson 
Deer. iS. !«$$. 

>6, IntiiaiNm oj An Amrmtmfnt by a Slati 

Oe4}f one i>f the fL.^ur pouibic mndet of amending the federal 
Cori»tJ LutJon hu l>ccii uicd in actual praclEcc; oumcly, thai of 
Initiaiian bjr Congrca and radfication by jitate Ir^slaTuroi. How- 
ever alatr kKlftl-^I^'n hnvK. *m many iKK^Mttn», |>n.Tpose<l calUiig a 
convrntfoD in the form prcTierlbed bf the. Conipiiiuibn. and (he 
EollowiiLx joint resoMkin by ibe Uklahoitu kaisUlure U a lulhcr 
u&lque de^kc for ureinif an umcndtncu pTx>viding for \bt popiilux 
deciion of xna-ton : — 

State or Oki-u»ma 

SxNAn: Jmnt Rrjior.imoM ?*o. ^ — Kelatinj; !o the calling of 
a convoUioD ut Ihr Stilo tn pn>po»- amcndnicnb to ihc Cun- 
Milutiotfi cd ike UnJti^ Sutec provittlng f*^ ■'■<' vJvciinn of 
UnlEtd Suica Sctiaton by diftct Tot« of the pei^le, and for other 
puTposea, and providing for llie appoinimtni of a scualodal 
dceiioft conunEMloaof thcStaicof Oklahoauu 



The DcvcTopmctit of ihe Fcdcr^ Consdnition tii 

WbcRM A Itfice mimbcf or ihc Sine IcfUhiurc* bavc al vinous 
dnm ulopted mrmofUb amt rcmluiiou la f^xir of ih« dccdon 
of Unsicd v^Eatot Sciuoon b]r direct i«1c of Ihe people of the re- 

yfihen^A ihe Nitianal Himjh of Rq>rBcnUtLVT4 hu on mvctaI 
diffcn-nt iK^uhHU Id rncnl yiftn tukfpkd nrwItillocA la hvor 
of ilii* pn>(n>ed diKcgc in the method of elecUng Uiukd SlAiCi 
ScBiton, widch were not tdoplod by the Senaie; ThcRfoiT 

Br ii rtftffMtf hy tJu »fnau 4itJ tJv k^we c/ rtfftuniaihtt 9/ Ihe 
5idk «/OMJnma: 

Secdoa r. Tbil tbr IrgUlAhirr nf tbr SIaI^ of OklAhomA, Ln T^ 

RTCondinc^ with Ibr pmvUki<ihA of Ankle V ctf the ronxlituli-w 

of Ihr l/ni;ixl Suin, dnim lo join with thi; 04li<r Sidfn of the 

UoMJO to ropectfully frttiMsl (hat A cOAVcntwo ot the KVcfftl 

States be c4Ued for the purpow of prapoaio^ ameDitmenu ii> tb« 

Connliutkn ol ihr I'niEcd Suten, ofld hereby apply to ofid requoi 

II10 Congns* ol the bailed Suto 10 caU such anvcntion and so 

tpnmde for mbmitting h> Ihe MvenJ Slalo the nmcndmeatt » 

p|)ropQV<1 for r^liht^iiLKO by tbr IrgtiUlurn therruif, or l>y ronven- 

iltOOB IlKreui. M ooe ur the other aodt of ntibcition miy hf 

fpnpotod by Ct>aptM. 

See. 2. Tbut ai iaid (Mnv^DtloD the SlAte of Oklaihuma will 
pnpooe, among oiher unendmcnts, ihat vxtion j of Aniiile I uf 
the Constitution of Ihe United 5talc« should be njnrndcd lo read 

•'The Senjite of the Cnitrd Siiia kKaII he compcwd nf iwo 
Senalut^ from t'ath Stite, hIktwu by the eltiDon theteiif, m the 
jp»ivtT>or a rboNti, fot la yean; and eicb Senator fthjill hare 
one vote- Hiey shall b« dIvMid as equally aa nvty br into thrvt 
chAn, v> that one-third may be chosen every year; and tf va- 
Okficka h^>ficn by rcflgnaikin or oiherwiw the jp>vcnior Rkar 
nuke tCMfionuy apposntmrab until the nrrl nr^Ur dnrlion in 
flucb State- No penoQ sholl be m Senator who iholl not have 
■tiained iW o^e uf 30 yeara* and \ittn nine >tva a cUiurii uf the 
United Sia1a« and who ihall oo4 when elected be an elector of the 

Amcncan GovcrniTM^nt and Polinci 

SUkte for ttbich hr nh&ll be (hovn. The ViocJ'rcJifdrni of iKe 
CnMnl SiJklr« thtX\ ^n- rmidmt of the Sfnarr. Iiui «liaJI ha>v no 
TOle udIcu IBh' ^^ cqujiHy divided. The Scuk »bjdl chooose 
Ibetf own uBccrt. AJtd aIao a E^VE^iLent |inj (cmpcqv in the ibMaot 
of lire Vic^Praidtfnt or when ht ihaXi cxercUe the ofGoe orf the. 
Pmadciu of ihc United Suiet." 

Sec. J. A lc^aiir« commiaAic-n U hci^bj' cnr&icd, lo be <^En'| 
posMi of ibc gpvtntoT 4nd dghl mf mhcrt^ to he ApfioJntcd Wf him, 

Acil moTir lh*n lour of whom ^IiaL1 hrliiiig ti ihr taniD jMililirAl! 
paiij, Ki S* kovwn u the teimlori^ ifirect-elcctron commifiMoa 
of ihe State of Okl:Lhoina- It iktaW be the duty of ft«Jd IcRulidve 
commbttioa tu uri^ ;tction by tlie leij^inlALum of ihr vevi^ Stutoi 
uid b>' the Congrcu of the United State* tu the etid that n rciQven- 
doQ amy be cjUrd «« provided ix; ae^ijon t hereof. The izkcntbet>, 
of uJd commiaaiun flhalT meive no eompcmatioD, 

Sec. 4, Thit the (pivcroiir of the Stcite tj Okkhonm it hereby 
(Krected forthuiih t^ Irajit^nut certiGed CKt\t\m of thin joui[ roolo- 
ifOQ Uid ApplkidoQ lo l>o«h llouws of the United Suies Cooifcti* 
to the L'{)v(-rni>r of sm^ Sul« la ihc Unioa, »Ad lo c^^h vi our 
Ec^rcMviudvcs nad Scnolon in Congreu. 

Ci»^i(OK W. Bkuahy, 
S^taktr (i/Me £f«ftte v/RcprtjfMiatam. 

Appfond Jftnuirj 9, 


1;. JW£«U RxfiMtifin t^ika CnutitMtiom • 

There b perhAp* no heeler eun^ile eif the wav in whEcl) Ihe 
btre letter of tbe feder^J CoeBliiuiioii taixy be rxivinded bv ju- 
dkijj rriAnnixic itiAn tht^ famous Cfiiokjn ul l^hieJ Ju^tLcr Mir- 
fbill ia the cMe of MdTuIhxh t*. MaiTlaiid. In tSi6 Congmft 

The Devdopnwnt of tKc FcdcnJ Cotiwitution 63 

suthofineJ \ht aOMkhn^m nf the StrcmA Uniud Subrs Bank 
uid two yean Uter Muy^uid impo«d a Lu 00 tbv drcuUting 
oote9 ot itt bnAchca in tlu4 3Uic. Ucn wa* a kaotij^ judidtl 
f jroUtni ; CoafRai mw not ntpmttly aulhdri jord lo nlaJ)l>ih a r«l- 
cm! Bjink, o&d BJuylind wu not trpr^ssly Fovbiddra ta tmp'^sc 
thr tin in ifumlJon 'JTw Soprmir C'uHrt, howrtw, dpridrd Ihtl 

tbc Bank wh consdtuclon^ vid ibc AloO'l^Ad lu wn« invalid.' 

TUi gDveroincDC b ftckiu^lciJ^td bj aII tu be one at enumer- 
■led j>nwcn. The |irimij)lc, Ihul it CJkti cxttdx cai\j ihc powers 
l^inlcd XQ It, would seem too apparrnt in have n^iuircd to he 
talorccd b)' dl tbow nrKum«ab which il« mlightrrifd friends, 
i>4tilr ii «4* (JrpcndJnft \Mun the- iseoplc. ftiund It nctetuiy to urxr. 
llul pnndptr U n'>w uuvimill)' jtduiiltnJ. But th« qiuwtiun 
reipectbi^t Ibe extent of the puwets EKluoily graitled. ft pcrpclUAllj 
«rilifi& aad wUI probtbly c^ntlauc to arise, as bug &a our sy^m 

Aatting ibr mumrratrd powm, wr do iw>t find thai oi til^h* 
lulling a bank or cteati&g i corpotAtion, Bui there k do phnoc 
tn the InstniTiiriii whith, ULe Ikr Ariicic* of Cuiifedmiiou, ex- 
clude* ukuWdUI or implied povren;' and which rrquirci that 
cTtfythlnf gnnted ihtU be exproftty and minLiiely dc*cribod. 
EvcD iht >otb AmeodmcDt, which was fruncd for the puqiose of 
qVBding the CBCOUve jcalouuen rbich hod bceti e:x<ilcd, omibi 
1^ word *'(3|ire3Ml|'," *nd divluTA only ihAt ihr [>owm "not 
ddfigiled Oo Ibr Uailed SUtcs, nor pixihibitrd lo the St4t«i, are 
rESvrml to the Staleace DO tbe people;" thuileariiig the i|ucstkill, 
wiiMbcr tbc pankulv powtr whidi may bccociM tht aub{e^ of 
cmlot, hMS been ddc^led lo tbe ofte govcnuncnt, or prohibited 

•In ■film id dir RjudUlkiiialiTr ol t^ Ant JUttk Mil, Uvdluu uEir 
"ll npfuvBd «B Am vMc llut Iht p4vrr mrctw d a^r ibf bJU vvt ojiuJiRiiLfd 
Ir** iiucv 4/ iW CoaKilWixi WMcvedfliAvd tyttwfultol lbtBrpr*iAE;*n 
■ibtai «ui fltf (kf C4ttitfM*A . . . iiiliMprf br Iht uyalttsai <tf ftr rrknOt 
ol ^ riaii^Hri vWlii dfpHU^c W«v <ha pMtivi nt «vadvani4 kf ik» 
tym'tM taln ifa m l tta puik* vhkh niia«d che r«nnfliirtna ««■ ««i< 
dMacd Iff Ihe opIiVMBCT vwudiantt prcfewl ttr ihc C««r« ibsmidtB 

*Sb« •b»*vh ^ If. 



^ com- 
piuiDn tg 
iTfc ibe 

State UtT 
UnElcd SU 
voU' un 
Ihtir o\Tn 
of ihc \T 

Sec. ^. , 
posed oi ill 
uol more I 
parljv 1*1 be 
of the S: lie 
and liy Lh« 
i!on may be called as 


iM} aad the 

iLOkl 11) rsQc uid 
t^ie Tiunc all the 

It muy. viih gKtkt 
LfjlAivtctl vilh such 
Ji iiM hopfunrss and 

^ tviLul ^bu be inlrualed 
llHjiuWnr bring given, 

.to 4«dUute its ejucutkifi. It can 
of s:ii<l icimmiMfani abtlL'«(-*MVV>^ ^ preuined tt> have been 
Stt . 4. That the ^.wwfcoiih^Tyw h* executicw b^r wiihbolding 
diruck-d forthwith totMBHa.' 

linn iind apphcatido l»bJ»<bfc i fwm tho St Oofa to the Gulf 

ti. ihe fjovenidrnf i ftilfffii 1 t l^T P-ofic, r«w«iie b to be col- 

KLjjrfsentaliMa aBiL^MWlM. W to be iiki^i;«h^ and supported. 

4 . ii^ kkAik>ii niiy Tcquir«,,tbat thv ln«suTe raiaed 

. '.. 'K irdZUpoTted to the Souths thmt raised m 

.< \tw Wat, or tbut this ordee should be re^ 

.'4mtk»D t>f the CiHuUCutAD pcrftrred which 

,s t4l^u» diibiuU, hax^rdouiH ajid expensive? 

i' 1 .'iL-kirui tUm (unlcb^ the wonb imperiously 

Approved JofiUf^jM i»i;iuic ti« ihc frumcu q£ chat bstmment, 

,, juiui-ra for (hi- public k^xkI, the intcotion of 

■ y ..\\i y*y ft»ihh*'Miin; a choice ^ means? If, 

^ iv maluLlv iif ihc L\iUAlitutioii» wv have only to 

17, Jwctuu»'U( iktsi iLi'l L-r^'ivu i\i i;Quuie»ce the means 

.. .^..f, il ,H.MiflTs nKi> !>t ili:i.m*;d. EK^ d^V« tt prv> 

There >f Pff,;. rif 4 M-riMtiaiinii. U lU' t iiMuotv of iuvh 1 beEna 
ban? l»-iT*i*w m ^ * . I . , . 1 ' . 

dUial t'.wH^MH ^*f''^^ *"' '=*^'" '■■'■ ' '^ '^*^*' l'^*«ri. U la, then, 
iJ^i'i : iJki<iiiiAi iui|Uif>, hiiw i^i ^kivh itu^UA luri^ be employed. 

The Development of the Federal C<mstttutif>n 6j 

Wt think ihc ^mund conpnnjciion of iht C<tiuiiiij(Iciii muAt aOow 
•d ihf DAlJonaJ Irgi^lulurr thai <liAcriciiun. with roprct tu Ihc im^juix 
by which the powcn it coofcn nrc t^^ he ^ jrHnd inio cJtccution, 
Khkh Kill aiMe ihai body to perform i.\\'- tn^! comics onfgDcd 
•(> it. in Ihr manner m»l bcticlui*^ t^ the poo(>k-. L«l ihc end 
br kgitimatir, iri it br within thr sfopr of the ConxlLlulion, und 
aU nv^iM vhlch Afc appivprUle, whkh nrr itlunly ^lU^^nJ \a 
itnl «nJ, uhifh itre noi ftnjhtbilcd, bat cuiuiiC with Ihv kllcr 
Bikd fpcrit of ihc CoD^Iilulion, arc conAiilutioiiiT. 

Thai » o>rpuratioQ muit be coiui<l<r«d a» n omu doi Ins 
■nnJ, not cf higher ifignily, not more requiring a pArtkuUr 
^icettCAlfoa ihan other ihcam. hoA hofn ^LitliMrnily pr\m:<l 
If ire look lo Ibt oripn of corpora lions lo the mannrr in whicb 
Ifcry h*vt been Ifftmnl in xhM govrmmeni from which wc have 
<lrrivrd nviM of our leK^il prim ipln And i<1rM, nr tlir onn lo which 
Ikcf havr bcca ^ppEinl. w-r IiekJ no rwou lo suppose thai i eoq. 
ttitvlkD, omfLtlo^, aad wbcly omitlin^ lo CDumrrAii' all ihc 
iMMU for GuiTing into ercculion the groM powcm vaitd in 
fov tra mcnl, ouitbl to have ipcri^rd thb- Had ft hern Enimdod 
lo he uercivd in on)- ax whatever, it would hrtve found a plorc 
am no y ihr rftuctwrtJrd powm i^tf the* icnvrrnm^nt Hur '>rinf( 
coanderrd merrK- M)a meiuu. to Ixr Finployrdonly for Ihc purp^sr 
of cartyinc imv cfttcutioa ihe given powen, there could be no 
fnotivt For putkubrly mentioruug It. 

If B carporadon may be employed indxHTiininalcly wUh other 
OtMJA in cany loio «^i«cudOD the powers td the irovcniincaL no 
p^rlicukr nuon can be assigned for excluding tlic u^e of a hatik, 
If raiuirvd lor Itt 6:val opcTBtiona, To time iine» mii«t br within 
the diMTirtJon of ('uo|^ras, tf it be an ajipfo|)rialr nvtdt vt rtecot- 
\m$ tht powers ot ^Wfenuncnt. That \l U a ronienieaif a useful, 
Blvcl ^MmliaJ inXtvaieDl tn (Iir prvwiulioa uf ica fiwal cfimliunai 
la nut now a wbJKt of cuatrotvny. All tbove who have \kcu 
coaomMd In the admlttbtraifon of our flnuiccs, have coiKuirtd 
ID npnvmling in impononce and ncccnit/; and so atnsa^y 

W ufcfd for 



414 nvl 



A b«iiLiilfl 
mjgr b« 

1U44 •> 

^ttf olhtr 

66 American Government and Politio 

luve they bcfrn fdl, Ihnl xr-ilrtmrn nf fhr &r«l f fwt. whi)«r pmioui 
opinloai a^ftloM it ha^l Ikcd rnnfirmtd by rvrry drcuottta&cc 
whkk caa fix the bumaj) judsoicnt, have yiddciJ Ehose opIaJOD* 
(oth««xijcnKicsof ihenAiioD. IfodvtheconfetleralioD, CDOgnv 
|uj;1ifybs the measure by its neccnl^, Iruuctndol, |>crhap«, Itt 
powen in obtain the advaaofc of a bonk ; a&d our avm Icglalft- 
ttoa oltaU Ibc tiDivmol tonviction of the utility dt ihb me sure. 
Wrrr itJi nwrwity Irw *p|nrpnt, none cna dmy iu brinn ma 
ippnfpnitr mcuur?: nad it h in, (hfr drij^rfv of lis nansity, u 
I^jA IjtuQ very ju«dy obKivcd, is lo be ducu»sc<J m another pluc. 
Wlitfte lb? Iaw h not prohlUiod, uid ia rrally o^cuUted to ttttct 
uiy of th« object uttnuted to Eh« ^vcmmcnl, (o ucdcrlAkc berc 
tx> inqaire Sntf^ the degree of [» nrax^iy^ wouTd he lo piM the 
line whkb cincuriu^brs Che judidi^ drp^trlmcni, uid (o tread oo 
Itffi^^ivc xnmtkd. ITtiA court djVbims ^T prctenftloiu in such 
a power. 

tSi T'&c Cmfruiwn^ Expatuiam cf ike Cfm$titatiion to Mifi 
CoDgrcs h&i nfvcr jklLowcd rotudtudorw! qufbblce lo st&nd lo 

Ihc wiiy i:ii initioriini trj^iUttDik in bekiM cA Datioiul intf'rc»tK. 
The way in vh^rh il hiii brush«l a^ide ninow interpri'lalionB b 
elotiucntly dr*«crif»cd l»y Mr. Jone* in ihr follnwinn *|M^i'h m.idr in 
Ac HouM of Rq>[ietciiULtivcs In 1903, la farur oi apprupriitions 
forirricalion: — 

Wv nrr met U tbc throihold of the dhmisJon of ihU hitl mth 
the sAinc ob^tion rhAE lias nxt rvfry oihrr fft-Ai qiio^tlon In thft 
past ; witb the umf ototacle lb jI h*s bem in Ibf wiiy of every up- 
ttautl a/td onward ponth of our natfoD hincc lU fuundjilion ; with 
ibc liUne remm ibil huuld dwarf, l1m>[l)e arid de»tn>y oar 
naitonil life and pr\:ipc» — It U uuconf^tllutional. How often 
have yn beaH Ib^t cry ! What ^at mo&sxire bu ever been prc- 
vnfrd for nur OMniry*:^ wclJare tluLt hni not been net with ihin 
objc<.tior> r" I'he iiailmft)r of mtr n,itiofiAl pmgrru 10 ^loO' ^^^ 
ipvaLnrv il >trt»n mxh tbp fragmfola of cv(i?»titutiunaJ objertions. 


The Dcvelopoicni of the Federal Consrituiion 

A protoolrc lariff, untkr whkb our bcimc iodddnct havv btca 
Fosteivd w) fSevtloped uAtfl w uc tble ti> supply our own noricc t« 
And ilto reach oui for the morkcLi ot ihe world; uiKkr which the 
farmer h&A 4c>rurc<l ft mtrkcc for hi^ produoe &! ttlr and nmu- 
ncraiivc prices; under whkh ihr maouljiciiiprT bos hetn Mc to 
kU hu producb lAd dvvtiop >Ad borovUn bn indu^lhtv. und 
undo* whicb ihe labonr of tbe omd^tj hn had hk wasK miin- 
laJQcd at a scale nowhere ctfoafled, ru wicoiutliuilooal. The 
^K&adooaJ banting sptent of iMb cnuntry wn^ |ironounced uncna^ 
VttlditiaML The io&ugunLtian of ihc «y%tem of inirrr^ im- 
provrmcnit tbJtt b»d^ne*ofnuchforth?huLl(tingiipof commerce 
snd Ibc cuunttT wu unconititutioiuJ. 

The IfmluiiL'n placed ml the «xleii£lon of slavtry wu uocoo' 
siHuiioiiiil. nt! salvation and prcserYalioa ot ibe Uclon inetf 
tt«« dodarrd to have b^eo done through tUHomUmtionil xneaas. 
The ianiooce and ademption of the greienbaclc?i v-m tincrni^- 
lulionaL Th& IbroFtlin^ af pnlyjcjtmy al Ibr- vrry IhrrthfM of the 
nalMMiil capital wi^ unoonitUulivnAl. Tbr gRfurth of (hf naliovi 
in tbe acqukitioR of lUv-^i, Pono Rico, Aod Ihc PhLEppiao^ was 
unCDMlimSoaal. But, not^iih^c^dtj^ all thie, cbv- nadun hiIU 
Vicsi tbe Coc^tituttoQ siif] liivs, and the aenJib oi oar nation't 
flory has not yei bc«n t^vhcA. 

Tht (.'fHMlilutkin, inM^ad of bring an irutmmmt to alran^i^ 
and destroy a^iitfiAl gmth ind dcvtlopmrnl, u> tbe incry vnul 
and life of thr natkw in expanding uid driWrniag aa the nvcw- 
(idcA of li^'iliMiion and dc^'cI<jpmcnE demand. The eatenc <i 
OUT gm-tnesK bas aoi yet been mej^sured, Mlih relciulctt povi^ 
thcM oottattotfjooaj^ ^ibbtw have becft and will be bruabed adde, 
ihoi our ikaikM may ktow and develop Into ihc f^xl Rri^ul^ttc, 
the admlraikin and hope of mankind, thp cictnpbLr iind tb« ideal 
ol an Bberty-lnvittg peo|>le- Thai tbi« objection in tbe hiQ under 
fondittrailnn wiQ meri ibe same faie we do nui doubt, and thuuld 
Ihe q— jd oo ever come up for conoderation t>efore the Supreme 
Court, there can be no quciition but thai Ici dedsloo wlU add We 
and not death io ibe CudjIiIvUoil , < . 




American GDvenimcnt and I'olidcs 

Tb* main purpose *A \\n^ boll u li> ntbim wijinhle» properly 
of ihe Govenuncni nnd lOLikc It vmluahlc. The Govcmracnt lias 
coikicnict«d itvtt^ along i\\t ML«idAij:i|>i Rircr. Wby^ Chttco- 
tihly to Aid carnm^ m^ ; primanlf to pmin:! farmt in<l ]AFid5 frani 
dcitnjctk^ by cncr^ov. Not pviblic lancb, dihci, but phvMc 
land*. If the Govcrrtmcni can di> this ^Hy <a& U not tum water 
onto its dry ind vrortbtcjH tandi to irLAi:^ ih^m vnJuoble and pro* 
duclivc^ Tbf GovcmmcnE hat ^juiird ^h^unp Und^ to ih« 
SUte« iipun the uonditJuii Ibiil tliey hQI n»Jaiiii Uwm. U H c»n 
do iKii. can it noi provide for the im'gadon und watering of ici^ 
ovn lands la its own way and by the cscrcjac of its own poncr } 

The Giwcmment hoii gnotM tnUlion^ of its pubHc di>mum 
dircrtly io rdlroad irnmpunic:^ in ardf r that roads might be built 
vroM th^ i-cintinrnt- Siunr t\yttt Ijt wha condemn thih potiry 
vhI }vt fiu onr »a cruM thu continent and not rraJiir (he im- 
Domurable bcacfii Uu< ho* bceti brought lo the nation by 
conAnicdoD of ihcM roMla, and no one can t4« th« almost 
mouAublc difficultirji encnuntcred nnd ovcttomc nnd t^oi appi 
date lisoi ^d kjI ihli kind w^ nccrioary io i^ccurt- ihe eiirly con-' 
«iruction of tbcv mnib, Whnl wto tbc objeri of ihcw granb? 
Not for Ihc hrncl^i »f ilir <f>ryiorMljon or llir tndu'idujil but fnr 
benefit oJ the lucton, fur the j^wth and dcvplupmrni of lb? pmplei 
Ajid for tlw HTidorocni ind de\r!lu|>nicnt of Ihc public clonuin o(1 
the country, U tbr (rtivemmvnt c&n do (blv, If *l *;iiX\ tiiTvi ihlti 
property over to priv^TC individuals in order that iu public do-. 
noin may be ictiled* «an 11 mn i-Ue the pnv^ccd^ of itie ^nlc of \\i 
puUic domain «nd uv them in retlainiJng thetf pii(>lic landt 

Then? ftrr tttoee who ^nxnie Ihc KT^ntiEijc nf a uihtitly for the] 
buSding op uf the menbjint nuHoe, Some of tliiiw yiho adii 
uie luch t mcMurc &re o|/po«d to thiA bill. 1 am in fnxir of Jii 
tubtidy If that will pUce tbe American da^ upon Ibe be^ but if 
wt con use mone7 of the Go^tniEneiit for uich n purpooc — and 
bvlleTe vrc con - Kurrly iht Cavernmi^nt can u« iu money for 
rrcioiming its oun landv Lf \\ can improve properly of othfn, 
\% oertoinly con Improve l\% own. If it con pay other* for im* 

The i>«vdopfiicnt of the FcdenI Constitution 69 
provitti iu ovm timpcny, it crrUliilr cut ijm|itfgi<v Uilt prQ|>cHy 

What it the GonFcmnvnt? b li not xbt inbiru»mt uf lli« 
people? The p*cif)lc Bit not lor ihc Govenunciu, u lome xtm 
lo Ihink. but thr GovtmrMOl U fi>r the prapte, wd I facficvc ihtl 
tinder our Conilihition &nj me^urc rh4l tvmiIih in gn^l ^ood to 
A l^ai Tiumtxf urf our people «nd (ctidt lo tnakc tlw iicofile b>|v 
pleTk murr pnjBp99uii> «ul e^urv Locilenlcd will fimi wimnl 
uiiikr the Cofudtuiion. If we cm expend roillioiu in dd of coo- 
iDcrce, uc c«rulnly cui tJip«wi a Ccir oafllloni to cntDc coaracror. 

fg. The CtmstiiMian anJ I^joocttSitt Pta^tum 

TW "Jul CQAtiuvnl" <if prMjilcRlUI nar power wu oot n- 
fand ufiiil tbc Civil War, whea UncolJi, without express wimni 
im ihc CcnutilutioQ^ blockoidrd wreral Sotjihcm pott», author* 
'bed tbe ewpcmiuo of th« writ u( bik-as corpus at itUTertnt placea, 
aad flmJIj dfAiniyrd ^nvrry in tn/my ulim, Rlthotijfb that inMi- 
tutioQ wilhia rommoQWiuU^it in timci of p^Doe wu cDtirel)r 
bcjro&d thr rrvh nf |»Th Congrt?^ and ihr I'rrTddcnt, In the fol- 
btier uritii;a la iSbj, LiDcolii describe* ih<r procco of 
loing bjr which he tnivcd «l the oonclurioc that he had 
uAUtitutiuad wjtrnwi for thn AuumjiCioQ ui power; — 

I did undcr^toad, bowercr. that my oath do preserve the Coin- 
Klnjtio» en ihr ltc^\ of my MUlJry, iivpoeod on mi- \hc duty of 
preserring by ^vtry tudupeniMc meaa>k tbat gowmm^nt — thnt 
ftaikin oj whkb that CoOAlitulioo wa% iheArxuilc Utw. Waa n 
|¥rtAiUr (o l<ne ibe nation ami >n prr^n^r ihr Cun^tiludon ? 
By S^DcnJ Uw, life and limb muil be prc>letled; jel oflen ik 
limb nvic b« vnputAtcd «» Mt« a life, but a Ufv U DeiYf »i»dy 
bvtn to mve a linb< I Mt ihai «K«mic5. otherwise luicoibti- 
iHoaal, mlglit hetaeat lawful by bcconlng CnditjienMblc to the 
pPTT^n-aikn of ibr (on-Oituliun ihrotigh the presenration of the 
DAEion. Rtghr or wrtog, I uwmed ihH xround and now *\vw 
it I <iitihin>i| fed ihai, Iu die bc»l of myahilrly, [ tod even Iricd 

to pmartv llie Coooitutigo, if. tv pnacm aJavcry. or a^y nuiwr 


«r ihc 

iiiil|i|<crt- I 



American Government and Folkici 

CfmKttturion ^(n^cthcr. 

Uhf", ^arij' in Ihf WW, Ofwral KrrTWjnt aillrmi>i4>il rnilllJii 
cmandpaiion< I forijadc U, because 1 did uol thpn ihink it an in» 

tbpu S«t3ie(ttiy t>f WiiT, flUKgulieU uiuini; Uie black*. I ol>jc<:teU 
bccjuw I did not iben think it an indbpcnAbIc ncceaaiy. When, 
silll Uicr>On(T^I Hunter Jtu-mt>iodra[]Itirycmandpacicn,Ia^n 
torhadc it, bcOkUK I did not yvt thmt thf indlipeoiAblc ncceastty 
hod oniric. Whrn, in March and Mny And Ju^y, tJ4&3,'I mide 
canmt and ftuccmivc appcab to the LwMrr Sl^Iri lo fator cxiiqi 
pciuatcd cmajkdpntion, I believed ihc indiipco&ablc iwccnJty ft 
miliary raiaucipatiun and ailing li:-; Macks wuuld cotne, unlafi^J 
averted by that measure. The/ declined the propoaitiun : a&d 
va», In my best jad^mcnl, driven lo the alternative of cither eut^I 
tmderin^ the l/nion and with it the Constitution, of of laying 
stKAg hand upon the foforrd errmf^nt 1 chnv^ ihi: Intlcr. 

30. Tki ThM Ttrm DcctfiiK 
The principle thai no PraidenI «hnu1d accrpi a third t«rfit tt 

aa wcH ettubtUhcd in practUc u if it were cmbodtcd in Ihc 
Conjttitutioa Haclf- JcSenon thui comments on the uri^ of tbe 
pnnci|;d«^ — 

My opioioQ orlifnAUf wus thai the Preiddcfnt nhould have bee 
elected for Kvett yean, and htcvct [nctigfble aftcvwards^ I have 
since becAmf jcnj^ble that «^-cn )tara ii loo lufig tn be irmwre- 
able, and rliU Ihrrr shoalti tie a praceaUe way at withdraivin|; 
a man in midiiay trhci b doing wron^ The wrvice for dghl 
year>^ uith a ]xiirer tn rema^v it the end of thi^ &rit four, CMOe% 
Doariy (0 ny prindpli; a^ rumxted by experience, and it t» la 
adhercncv la that, thai I dctcraiuie to withdraw at the «id 
nj ucond tenn, The danger b that the tndulKctiec and at 
lacfanent* d the people will keep a man in the chatr aJter hi 
haoottM a dotard, thai pedeclioiithjotigh life rfiallbecotneh 


The Development of the Fet!er»l Conttitution 71 

tuvH election for life follow UuL GvucnJ VV^hiiiglon vl tW 
«uiBj)lc of volmiury mlrtmonc afirr tigbl von. I tthn-W follow 
it Anil a r«w more pnxedeots nil] oppcoe the oUudc of b«Ut 
b> gm; <nc ift^ «wMlo wfa:> dull «ndcAvor to cxund hi* term. 
Perl»p» k may be^i a dk^iodixioii to faubiltb ft bjr on umd- 
neni of the Coc»tttut»m^ . . . 

la 1^75 mhtn the frieodi cif President CrAnt were dcnundinj; 
a thirrl trrm for hJm, the Uou«« of Rqimratalives on Un*mber 
i5[>vt»(d thbiMOliUioiiconuandlivthcpncodffatict by Wuh- 
ingtciii «iid JfiEFenofi uid loJlowed by ibdr luccetton: — 

R4$«htd, That, In the opirijon rA thl» House, Ihr pncr«lmt 1^ ItwH 
r<ab]bhri by WiddnglD& atid other Prcddenu of the Udted ho^JkhI 
Subn, In mfrlagi from cbo prHldcoiii! office ^i«r tbtfr ncond cDnnBooda! 
Icnv, has becD«ne, by oiuivnal coiKurrcocc, a, part of our rqnib- ^|^^. 
llcan lyuvm of ^verocwnt, v^ ilnt iny dcpiBJiyre from this time- 
boAorcd ciutoin wouU be unwvet unpiilriodep iitd fought with 
peril to our free ioadluliaQ*. 

1'Ik Development *>f State Conatitutions 

hv puMWifccd m Iiib own t\^t oi Iwu lHtiiiltT<l uiil fiffjr acn:* of 
laad, or tomt |iropeny lo the imounc of vao hmtdrtd jukI 6/ty 

Seelion 7' No pcnoa «hall be a nviiiber of the Iiuuie oC repn 
^cnuilvni mfan vhaU noi hJivc utulned Id itic Aff of fwcnty-oQC 
jrran, uid bavr limn -nnrn yvin ^ dlimi of thr L'nflrd ^Uir«, 
and lwf> TFiUH an inlubiluil of Ihii Sfntr; niid th^ be «li ln* 
bAbiUnt of Ihai coufily for whkb bt dull \je dtvlnl, and btvc 
traded ihmUi tbvM moMbtt ioiKedivltly pcfvcdin^ Uw fJtctiuai 
and tii«U be parewid in hU own righi oC hro hundred icrs of 
lud, or oibcr propettr lo the aanount of one hundred oad Afty 


S«G. 3. The houst of npiTWQUtlTM ahall, on the scoond dAy 
ol (heir nuking a hocse, in the 5nt, ind in cvvry second yctu* 
ihtnUiCT, voU- by liallut for three |KrvinA; and ihall mAkr ^ [it; 
conUining llv nvnei of the penons roled for, aad of ihr numbfrr 
of TOtn for mch p«no»; whkh JUt the tpeaU-r iholl tJ^n in the 
pROTDCB <if die houiTi And deli* IT ii in p^rwrj tu Ihr wnitr ; tiud 
the KUtc «haU, on ihc ume diy, ivrucved, by bdlou t^ dc<n one 
rd the tbm iwtfAu having the hlj^i nuflihcr of vol««; and the 
pecMR bavinjE i majorily of the votes ot the xnoton pre^ni shall 
be the goTcnur. 

Sec- J. No pftMn Uiall hr el^hte Ia Ihr ulbcc of ^vmor 
who thin ftoi have been adtuoenof d3< United Sut^ tw«K« yean, 
und an inhoLUuii kJ thii Stale tii y*w^. and who hatb not at< 
laiaifd lo the a^ of thkly yeu^. and ^bo dun> not pomna fitv 
hiuadfcd Bcres of Und, In his ovn right* vKihin (hit State, and 
oahff spcded of propmy to ihe amouai of ono thoviaAd pounda 

n^ fliar the llouv of T>rlegal» thM he chosfn tn the foflow* 
ktg iiiJUK>etf : All fncmcu, tbovc w-xMy-oae yeju« of a|p, having 


The dc- 

of lUtc 






The ril 

men 'li ' 
thcin tn im 

|cg:il rultts 
shorl, ihey 
for the uiitu'^i 1*— *"' 


The \t\\- 
by Oiii^ 

Section 3- Sifc.p»w*»tl*d \n ali ---Hi**- 
ih>U not hMM Mttita*«wi *ua l-c-Jriffi-e*. «» w ^ead Tuca^ 

Ud three y»i»a <>««ft**'^ ''^^^ '^ "^^ ***^ *" ^ *^°* 
djWhK ?X^*!i' *i:vv> ' »i*** .-^-^ *:« ptrcisiiinj tbc 

The Develop incfit of State Constitutions 7J 

«lKlioil, Mftd hftving tbtRtn a fnchi^J of litiidi iiiiJ b.-iivrrLeriU, 
2ha¥t the valoc ol oot tbouttMl pouods cumiu money, to be ihc 
Council to tbc GovcniDr, whose procwdin^ &b&Il xtwi^ys b« en- 
ttird on rcocirrl, (■> inj pan vhenof any member naiy en?rr bii 
dtnicQt; ukI Ibeir advice, if ta rrquirrd by (he iporrmor^ 'ir Anjr 
inciabcf of the Couodl, liiaB be gjivvn in frriliag, And li^ned bjr 
the cntmben girmg tlw Mane Rttprctiit-i; > wlmh priKrvi-tJnx^ of 
the Cuuadl «hall be laJd bcfon Ibe Senile, or Hgt&c uf DvlrgotcSi 
vrbvD calM lor by ibem or fhbcr gJ thvm. 

It n one of the cardinal priodplei of mcHkni dtnaocracics that Tin 
npuvwiiiaiivc* ihould be olutibutnl flirty amonc vUfrlfida «ul> *^ '^^ 
MUniUly equal in populadon. This priftdpEc hut nov been ','^^^ 
iriddv i€l»pted| ftkhounb there tir still irurkcd eTrept>>in?K nol- upuUft 
jibly (n DinntciktJl, Ruoiie KUnd, arid New Haminhirt,* but in 
Ibr liripnEtinj* of our polilkit] hinorj it vtA not nncojfriiReH ju a 
rvtitralling ibeory ia the npportioncnent of rrprewntaiii-eji amooff 
Ibe variomt tiAte dUuicli, In tut. there •*i^Tr in a numlvr rS 
ftialcsoMMllkin* vtrj^oiitAr Uj i^h>-4- prev»itiri>! in ErL>»b;id bdoro 
ibe Rdonn Bill of iBjt. jjid they u^rc ihc Auhierl of <^on?kUi^ 
critkiwn on Ibe put of dtciocrHtic wdbcn like Nitev, frum whose 
WmMf iUib$tr {i$ai} tbfe extract b laicn : -* 

VlfhM hfpoaim ait we, to censun* und rait at Engl^aJ. for bcr Old Su 
mancr of dcdnig aieiiibcn of the hcuie <:J oammoni, vhlJc ktt- ^J^^ 
ml of our mUU% hare their legUUliv« pover <-i-in.«bhiC<^ on Ihe tn ito 
lamr prindple, aikd iriiich. in lime, may beo>me ihe larnf in 
pfutire, by cbinfin in Ihc (tile of pcipitlMion. without chjutgc* 
bi Ibrir polilkol ivnatUutiou. Old Sarum, which now bu not 
ooa naidaiil dntpor, tbougb it toKk two membcn to poribmcni, 
eocv vaa a place «f sonv oonsaq^oKir — It has gone to decay — 
a dofle hc«ae rtmaliu to poiol tbe icpot whereon the borough 
«and«. Thin ftbo, «tultt etnintics th&i I (ould same, in cYnal& 
paiU of tlic Criftfd S4«BtB, are paasins in decay — lar^e tracts cif 




American Gcvcrnmcnt and l^oliticf 


rounify ihaJ wtrr ailriviTrtl a rrnlury afp^, aiy now rr}v«ml with 
nrw ffTOufhA of stunted timber, \hf faaunl nf the dwr and olbcr 
dmid iUiifli*!* of ihc fofni. The pcojjlc^ have moilly tkp4tfecl 
for mw latd Ikiict Uiidj» — yet ihv power (if rvprvHi^m^oa n- 
maua; uid U may eaxily happen, if thift counic of (hingt is cod- 
Unucd, that one freeholder fn«ypoas«^ ihcstAiat KvctaA coaitfcA^ 
luid, like 0^ KnglLib h>nl, drt^t 4* ^1 S, or 10 of his crcoturo b> tk 
nuxc IcgiiUturc, 10 m.nk<- bm for tnt-mcn, 

'Itivt^ or Untr of thr old «Utn are ^iivtrriuyl on Ihii oulnigcoiu 
pUa — M-u>laiid and Viii^U, and opecioliy Ihc laiier, vtatid 
i.oniipkut»u« for wth vK*!uloa» of «vcryih£iie ihil i& hoTK-tftt, ei-ery- 
tiling Lbdt b juiit- !□ Mar>~1^d, the olcr bolunce ut polilkat 
pirlicA (accurding to the prc^vnt mnQncr in whkh povt'cr i» dt~ 
riivd). and the dirty stnj^in between ibr int and oeiu, «retn c<k 
*n«»Jlow up ihc rcMon of ihe mAilcr, and pip^enl <t rcformitiiMi 
whltfi rvrry auin d^dmiU uLJjchl iti Ltki? pl^^r: llic «cn4t of bantir 
and » It« c of juHltoe ia Mcriutv d lu n iflMSeamn of parly |Am^r — 
to put bio or put (»ul ol office & Uw EnnItcBll^cani IndlrEduaU^ — 
for ihia (uy irhal one can) b the real arnuunt of the prtseai 
poUdcd famcttn in 3hEaiyl&iid: neither pfirry 11 dinpo*eii luiiiy 
lo bring ■bmil a reprcsciMacicn nf ihf pn>pTc. of ctra ■ rcprc^nu- 
don of propprty — a rcpro^nlAtion of inyihing elsr ihAn certain 
dbcrida vf luuniry, nrt niAllcr tvhdlirr inhaMunJ by nHit Of opi>4- 
noB. Some, DU duubt, wilt be ui^ with Ihtav rude cxprm- 
^cn», but "the mijxhicf U** thai Uicv arc true, that both porticN 
have had the power and ycL suffered xht ouira^ to cxifii uato- 

In \ trj^U. thOLrf^ the prtnHplr U ihr umr, ihta rcsuTr h much 
more oh;rct>onablr than in Mar>L;ind on account of Iht greater 
ctanj[ci that have tokfti (ilace in ihe relative population ood 
uta-llli qI lounlir*; nwl **> il mnu is 1^1 unc tnau In ccrtuiil 
ul the counties, htia aj( much wdght in represenlailon as twctvlf 
or Thirty, b onoihcr: and «> ahv> la rcfjard 10 wcatils and cximt. 
Thr thing wju Marled wron^^ and it ttrcma ai if the people <4 
Vir^ia Ihotifhi \herf wnt a oirril ia eontinuiag in Ihe mong. 

Devclapmcnt of Srate Consrirutions 77 

Vet they luve takto a Ind in nur poiitirA] of ain; atc \hc mofl 

AovrnrignFy of the p«oplr. TliCTr lA nolhrng ttiM can Im* urgnt jn 
f^vor of prrvrvrrznre in 1 firartifc » iniullin|( to (lie djj^nlty at 
lujnun nalurr — a practiiT u tnlolcnLril u any u( tbr >(1s (WCKid 
bf the piulbmcm erf Gmt Bnuin, whidi unittd AiBaican«bi«d 
— ''iu^tii>a wiibout rq>rciCDiAdoD," wUdi should bt redalod by 
trcrf hoDftn}ilc obui. 

Rut MvyUnil 'iRii Vir^i^nin, Ihoii^h Ihry igcrr« in pririiriplr a» 
to thf Eornulicm of thnr It-gisJAlii-r uid t^xfrcutivc AUlh^titirii, m 
on ihe oppc«itc utrcmcs u lo ihr wnv ia wtiidi ihitt prlncipJc *" 
■hall \x bruught into uctk^ti. I& thtr furoH^r, tfvvry man icay vole 
«4io h» (or np th%i he ha>) resided Iti the itatc (^r county uich 
a Ita^h of lioM. if a ritlera; aaj, » (n BoHimoft, «tc«c ihc 
pkcei fcr volinf uv Adjacent, br maj mite half a doKn Ihiica or 
nwfT (if hr fa flriermi&rd 1i> rairy hit jiAini), at many have done: 
for ve ha^ naibij^ that panakcs ol cvvtt the diaracttr of a ivg* 
litralloii of ivtcrh — ik^i aziyihbf 10 serve a^ a dieck upoa Uic 
tiB|]riDcipM; anil he inho can pda ifae munt ul »uch to hia e£do 
has ike beat thoncc of bcinff ckctcd, vFhcn a hrUk oppusidaa 
ciiflUiBiKl lhri]^waioaAan«acitiNt^ On <hc otbfr hand, near- l^ut 
freeboWkn voce in Viri^nia, and oooe but frefholden ou^l to 
finM or |MV iJMc*. But, Ijc Ittr rtquMilJon ii) fioueu Ihe nghl of 
vaSrajte «bat it mty. H ihould be >o gu^rUed thai il cann»l bv 
aljiued ^ and the voitt, \a one oounry or diMricl, ought to hare 
tbr umtt [ftltiMore ai a voter in another. And wen U a reicArd to 
fiopalaiioo b waircd, and mpfcl it had to wealth uivty. — the 
muntkiA flbouki br refiTMmiod according to the nnreral nmouobi 
whkli Ibey p»y into the stite irpoiury, ctiher \yy dire<l or indiretl 
*l«aatioa- "Rifualiiy H t-«|ajty, oouIuMniiy i* juuifr." — and 
then cannot becilhvTequbQrorjaMice, when lu-iihn iK'tJuUlion or 
mallb, tcvorallf or Joindf. aft ranarded In » delegation *)! the 
po«tr lo make Iaws. Ai lam 90 mode arc rtpug&ani 10 all tfac 
phodplea that Bjipertain to tbr ti^ht* ol man. 





sliilt ■•■'- 

tthitlk ■-' 
and ii i"' 
M |iui \ 

poll III 

li^n ■ 




if 'h 



ft.^ithAc. hftTv. spaa ihe 
.,i^-«K'fl fth'M*'* x-icrtL-J iAil nuiniuocd in 

.,, .»^lm tii>rkK, ^u- »tiA:J upua the sovereign 

lU, ,iH..i^;. ;, !rtc>- reapttUuUy ronlcnd, 

1 . ,., *i^ «'1U ■!. ^T-. aIu ^».™*■ii^^^fc- Many arc 
K»\ i»Hii ii<K Nvin; Vi^ *bow a bctlcr, U 

The Development of State Constitutions 'jq 

tttH apctt no lubllc tn abHruv rTJuoninx; hul apon utoundi 
dmple ia ibvir cbATNClct, iaidli|;i>T|o lo the pljtiomt v>[ki( il^, ami jnDu^ 
tttdi «■ >ppcttl <o th> licait, 19 wdl as the wukniuidlng. uf ^ Bv ih> 
who oosipftbcBcl and tlulv appremic the priaclpltf M int Guv- 
enunenL Amcmg the docitincs Enoilcftted In the gntx choilcr 
hoMkd don to m, ^s a ikdonkdon <d iht nghu pcrt^ialn^ to the 
pttd prople ol Vlii^nla and their po«trrity, *'u ike buii «ad 
foundalkiii of GiwemnuDt," we vc tnught, 

"ThM all men *w by nture cqiully frc* wd indcpenHm^ iin«f huT^ EiOKt 

ctrldn inhnrftt rights <4 vhjch. «hrn iTicy tnirr inlo ■ lUft of vdclf, ''^'^ 'ht. 

ihiT^nJioc*, iT'ajDT crimwi, drpmr or rhvvM (brit psiffit^: imttdf, J!!,'?'!?' 

Ihr cnjujuinil M lite viil libcny, wilJi lli» mmia vT icijijirinK *nd lOf JfV? 

flat aU poWcr k tiroitd In. wtd conseqtRauv dvnv«d ritim, ihepeopk* 

TbM B maiont^ of tb« comnumity h«tli wa indvbftiblcb unalRaufei 
•ad Mcfetiible n^i lo Rforn, alkr or iK^Kah the Gortnunent 

Ttet no oMiii. aox Ki ct nun, m oitiiM lo cKtlamrt cff aepftrate 
vnulumrnti or privllciEci^ but in CDitticlcntlian ol pultlic srrnccs 

11^ 411 mt*, havtng «uAdc«t crtdenn Af perm&nrrtt mminon ii^ 
MvAl with, Md Aituhmcnt lo Ihc mflAUnltr, bivc « n^M ai lulTnLfe, 
and cuunC br Isuf I. nr drprivpd of l?icir pfoptrtf, wilbouc due oamcQl, 
«r tlnl uf Ifartr rrpmntUliv*, nur bourvil b^ any kw, b> vbldl dicy 
hnv aot, Id like nunnrr, uacntrd, fur ibv publk SpvL" 

Ho9i do Ibr pdnciplm lltut [mjclaiined, accord willi the exbc* 
iag fqpilitkin uf MilTn^? A rrj^Ialion, whkh, iosk;id of ibc 
ataiitf lulurc ordahis, creates an odk>uK dbiinciion ^wrcn 
nieaibcn of th« mim toinmuniiy; robi of &JI fthan, In the dUCt- 
iDfDi cj the bv\ a lAi;ge portion of the ddscni, bound by Ihem, 
iod atiuse hbod and Irewwrc 9ft ptedjird ta maintain Ihrm, and 
tnti In ft faviired ctan, not in connideratioa of their public ktt- 
Ires, but of ihelr prifale pnaweaiona, ihc biHfadtf of all i:irivntgcft; 
oftc whkH, u If nmr In fiaipafil priwr« if il dc>ci nt>l <muli|ut«, st 
kttt b held pnu-Uctttty lo umfer, >b«olule voveieignQ^. 


^ ^8 ^fpfR^ a^Uti Popd^r Stifffag^ i'St^i * 

Wbm rlr proMttinD to muMi^ iHitte mlr sutfrup eaase 
hafon the Vsflnlu conreailon, Mr. Trcitiiit oppoMd the lono- 

-American Government and Politics 

'^i\\\ fhr fnllimHn^ arfruments, and in his positioD he »as 
ni \-\ ii Ijo^ number of his colieapies. The ndicaJ 
t •■ :i'> ThrFr-fnrr- <Hfated, but a concession was made to the 
'■*■ .'Irmrni hy a slight eateosion trf the suffrage. 

^ ^hf" qurstToR Udder coOMdention ^ The object of the 
^o- :« f,-> AU^Ush ihe preaent QK>dificadon of the Right of 

^■. J.I Nulistituir in its placc^ one entirely new lo os- 

.M.-.^- .iftt-fortakc to maJte a change in their pciliticai insti- 

-V '.j^ ;>Tr foundation of Government, it behoves them 

*^ ■''.>! :h* utmost caution and circumspection. We 

■-.■ ..:\-; i>At wt are about to introduce an eiperimcnt 

-.^^Jtir LL|x>n the affections^ prejudices, and Eong- 

■>«:-.,^ oi (he i-'ommunity, and the cooaequencea can- 

■^.,« .,4ir^<rn or foretold^ A numerous population, 

-X x^'ii y-i A million^ cannot at once throw off their 

'-'. ^ ,;«ixtms. jnd accommodate themselves to an 

vAi •i ihUkf^s. radically different from that undo* 

..-- i\s\[ Mi (ivacirand tranquillity, without bcunin^ 

. ■;.L«s4ii htu existed for more than fifty years, and 

.^•.•W hjvi- t'njoved happiness and contentment- 

-. ^^s. .■vi,iMoijal tlami^R arising from local causes 

■ .. ..ul ii,-i i[\tm any rrjl defects in the form of Gov- 

! ik>,-k itiiA amendment nrill not be adopted to allay 

hi ihat (MTt K'i the State in which I reside I 

'; ijf> -wTii-us o>mpJdint touching the Right of 

■.I'l'li^ ihii*-, \n ihis respect, al least, are sati5- 

■ ■'.,'. \hin lu'St i|UdIi[icarioni>f the Right of Suffrage, 

. .--.'■ .1- M .-•■\-\ I. til t. ^ k I ^ \rA *^M Kaj ' TTi'AP<k:t£ .^f 

The Development of StKte Con«tiruticni 

the prindpte uno^inlii in cBtct, to «hat 1 cpjl Uah^ml Suffrage, 
t was tcAd h; one R^nllrnun, <to the cnrrfcrnmoC vbotc^^atbtin 
T 6a nM, hamtwr, ltt4 myvlF bound to Albacfibt), thai Ihc nthp- 
tJoo flf thb neaMjfe would ftdd to the mimbercl voienin ihrSUIe 
mun llun 60,000, ihe prt«rQl number 1;^^ snisrnrhai more thin 
40^000, Ih^n.. Ihc piiHCf uf the Goveromcat U to br inniftrTrd 
fatkOi tbc lund» of ihc 4OtO0Oi who havr the dcepnt inivrrst at 
stalu, 10 ibe tio,ooo. who have comparati^<cLy bui Utile ImerejL 

il bno idlf L-himcm ff ihe h*jin, Ikit iht- pcpttmion nf Iind 
(ariifohc* Ihr <itniDi^rM rvt<:lra<e at prrmj^iirnl, mnraDn inirml 
with, ftniJ iilacbmcni lc>. the rooimuaily. Jhlucb hjo bcea Alreftdy 
uld hry JtcstUemcn vn boih }^Mc«. d^n^'n^iriLiiEijc Ihr funerful In- 
flucBcv ef locbl alttMihiiieiit upon the condui:: of imici, AJtd J canovt 
he tnadt to eo«npn4ieitd how that poj^don cuuld be more cffcctUAllj 
brought fsto aclion, thin by a consdouana* cif the f:ii:i, ihut hf Is 
Ibrdwnerof theifiot uhicb hecanemphatican^ coil hUhixnc^ It 
ia vpott Ihb foundaiioQ I wiih la pUce the Kfghr of S«i1rafle^ 
Thb b the btvt genml itindHrd which can be rftortetl to Fi>t the 
put])ixc of dctctndninii whether ihe penont to be injected u^lh 
ibc Rijht of SuHra^tr ±n iu*-h persi>iii aa itnitd be, cotLaiftCOtlj 
«ilh the uJety nod veil bcdng of the (xmnuuiiljr, nitnflted villi 
ihc excfciac of that rigl»< 



ill ihv 

35. n^ Dodnne tf Raidiwt im Ogk* 

Ameoj the &nl principin of Jackvmian demorraej »u the 
doctrine that dl publk officers ^homhl be cImuxI (or ahori 
lervtt and their re«li^t«!ity coiefulU- mtricicd, »o that "aq 
oBkv-Md5n|{ sritt«Krvf " roitld n<4 ir crrAirrl In llir IVnA- 
•ylwila tofatliijtiixiil convcndoo of iSj7, Mr. EojIc kuquki] up 
tJhe afgnnifOl^ in tavor uf 1 &hun irnun of '^ATky 

\^1iat I* ilw rrisrin thai we place any JUniiatloii »t a0 upon the 
lenn of office? I wouH wA. for reasoBC why we tbonhl ever tun 
a food man out fd oJ6ce ^ ta it bccauee the oAcer has arcvimuijied 
wcohh, ukI hu airited at a period d life, wbcM teiimneot aad 

,■ v-i ^«iv-mmrr:: an,. Paiincs 

.::vi- . :iwr, i. - ^'ic iiiscj>»nff OT IB 

.-■i-" 'ifTi^.iiLit'- ^nifcV irniE-T leaiU lo 
-.-. ;. <'.-"j::»r!: T",> ..- —if reason wnv ihe 

,,.■ ,■ ^*: - f--->i*:rr: ii^z :,■ m :c; wiiii- 

It-, .'^jr . r n::^u;- jr. ~r^-- aOinc m- 

, •:...• . .o^ . . jL . uz: -^ Hi peculiar di- 

.;, . ^-i:^. ,.j:: .i^,ij_v.: TOicz -'JUld 

. ■ - ■..::.".-/. 2iC7, ;r. :ae jaim- 

■ ■■« "" H ?:?." i' :. ii" ~^^' 3IL- 

ti:j_: th-. 

- ■:::.£ i—E 

1. i.ui. m- 

The Development of Stttc Conitirutionv 93 
mpftfd hy it The AtBcr-hoZdm orr ItM^cuf^i Ariiw, Aiul or- 
4iid of dl ibc michtiwr^ of their p^itiy. But by nulctjijc the lulu 

In the rcr/obUc of Oencvo, the ^mc men were eo oficn re^leciird 
10 oftce. AAt the ^o^vranaenl dcgtrtfr^lcd uto ttn aristocmcy "^ 
life oAre. The people fnund ii more convettufll to continue \hctn 
for liCc and Mrr the trouble of rc-ekccion. Tho ntit «tn> wa4 
thai thtie life officers, voted llut they had pourr. for the public 
btocfil, l<> rW«.t ihckr ova «icc«fAuf«- Of iourw i-i^b \t4itai 
thovght bi» own cbildnn tvtt qu«fifi«J for the sacccsiioii, »tid 
cboce iWm otccordLngly; utd thus the goi^mntcnt becimc an 
lRff»dli«7 ufalocracy. 

Wadiiogtom* JeSenon^ Fnmklin and Jacknn — men of greai 
sdadi and mosl devoted pacriocinn — a^ aII witJ ignt^ vhatrrrr 
najr bt the «iSerencv of opioion contemiog their poEicy, haiv 
ghtftlheiroptoicHifr moBldlhCinctTyinUTorof thuil (cmv»<>rc]i1u;c^ 
Id dw CoiMilQliun of 1776, which wtu dnwn up by Fn-nklirr and 
approved by the paiiioU; of ihc revolution^ Ebiii jjiindplc wu 
estAbtiihcd uid carried out. The eli^bility ul ihc membeK of ibp 
Supfvnie Hnecufivc Couodl tvofi then limited; and Ehc CooMifu- 
Ifcs gl«n ihfe rraaon for it: "8y ihi« mode of cin-ticm and con- 
tinual roUticA, by iu powm, nkorc men »Jtl be trained ui public 
buMDcM; there wi3\ in every uiliieijutnt year be found in the 
CowKil a nvmbn of [lenoasaoquaJntrd wiih ifie pm^eding^f of 
the forcgDlag J^Mt^ vhcfehy ibc tnuincn vill be mwv coruii^tendy 
coodurtAd, and the dangtr ol cstaUithinj; an Inconvenient aria- 
tooacy vill bcclTeciuaUypnveriied/' Muiyocber officers bcddes 
the comdllon wem oin limited luid f^ ihi") rti^on. GencnJ 
WaAliit|gtion« having htrcn iwjcc dc^trd to the highest office tn the 
jtfl of a fftc and grateful people, vt the example rd rrltring at ihc 
md ol the wcond tprn, tliough ihf-rr vjs no limiiaiion Itited hy 
Ifar CoaMitulMn. lo the elln^ility of the Preddent. 

Mr. JdferwD in hit uk«w«r to a comrdiUc of hl& f«Uo« dliuna 


iriU <nd 




84 Amvrinn Government and Pofibcv 

cLxtEiqt him lo coittcni to wrvc in the oJlict cJ President for a Ihlrit 
Berta. < h^n Oii* ijulk^ 1^"*^ mctibatiy of Aon Utmt- nf ofllor, 

in a : i 1 -n Government; confirms Uw cvid<;noe of hutoij 
«L» lo ihr icndi^ry of ifct i^avcmtatnts io dc^rncmte iaio orU- 
tocnu^f thfoujh the influence of life ttntucs; and dedun tfaatp 
in Uytiijj; 4<mM hi^ chutf/^, Ev U mrlurmvd hy r fvpu^JiiKC: to 
dodng myihi&K ^'l*i':'> would teiTil lo impAir Ibr vji^l principle of 
tbori Urmti ind fr^qucni dccdimt, Ocnvr^it Jcukhun rvcom* 
mciTclcd an {lilcraliijn of ihr Oju^litutiwi, with x v\>rw [o \ina\t tilt 
cfiEiballry ot :hc PiMdcnt tij on? tenn. He uid that thf^ public 
inttitM, grnerally, .*nffcrrfl monr Injnry. fr.»m ifie lonj; ronunu- 
Mirr of (>owrT in the ^nv huidn, Ihun it wju Imr^li1rd by Ihe 
cJty^rfitr 111 thr imJMtHiJjl, An iifTmrr, oj^ r,iC}icrJrn» jjrmvis 
gruus Aorsi- inaieud uf 1>rti4!r. by Ion;; cuntiruuicv in tin^or, Tbe 
principles which 1 have referred to, a» havhas bota ctublUbcd 
And jufipoficd by il>e j^ai f^undcr^ l*/ our free losdnitlons. are 
the prinvipici of republic aniim. and 1 x-kk if they are not 5ttll the 
dm^innriof Pcnn-^ytrainia ? 

Thr enrly itate lr|[(fJa|ure4 %Tn |tfai.tifally urtrrdmied in their 
lawmaking povicr «xrrpt by the gcfttral ttnm oi thr ^ of 
Rigbtt, «td lli«y win l^iptn cn aliu«^ Ibeir anthr^rir/ by piuufng 
fp^Sdal Iiitt« tcruidng faim to ri^rporadun^, diacrimiaatlnit among 
CiliiM uid locjfitirs. and eirmphng priiiile [vr^oni from the 
miullica vf ut^r^^^ Matutt-s, Tliv ?du <.if itri? -fix-tt^ leiflKlatlon 
hcf^flte one *ii Ih/' nn^tj Jruilfitl *oiirr« of b-ii* rule ind p>lilical 
cofTUplkm, and ti> remedy iIk iniulcnible lUian the dirnit wsj» 
aikptcd oi ptackig in thf ^ii^c ron'Jiluiiori a wrics of diinsr* for- 
bidunjit »fic<ilJ lejciUitiian in j^ncrJ lutd jurticular. The whcifc 
i|ue«tton wa» thoroughly dbcuued En the I^nmylvanb :tiate coa^ 

tdtuiiuoxt (onventurii lti iK;^ nnd duririj; (Eie d^Kxie^ iht follow- 

lag sporcb rat made ai£;aln^si ^pedal Icjfi^ation: — 

Nov. fir, n<}ihln£ will binlie th» people of this St»u with u 
much f«Tcc Oft ihia que?dun of barmg »pedal kjpdalioni the 

The Development of Sutc Consritution« 95 

I wi^iild ihcr^ j;"pw 

peo|ile fed mem rnirrt*! in tbif nnf vibjrct tJbiii any tt\hrt whlfh 
tM» ConTtntion will tv t.iltft,-! ufH>n (/> tW<tdr 

iore uy lliai frf{iiAl priviEt^go for all, ^ncltiiivp pcivilc^i far i^nc, 41 (^lUt 
ibvuJd bt Ihc vniimcal of cvcvy cicisco oi lliin ComraunwcdJlli, 
If v.-e dopvi frum Lbi» prirttivilu i^r w ai ««ai withoul » did/L or 
codRfMM. A (NicrjU lav, sr»n:Jii5 pnvllo^ 10 fncnipor^tt com- 
pBnl«eL,iftEUideforihel>oncAli;if Lhc cjcoplcof thi^SuV; Ihepnrf- 
bgei fftnttd thereby may be enjoyvd b^r nU ihe people* nf «vTy 
IrxnJiiy in ihf Suie. Thrtr c-an be no *firtUJ mndiiiptJy cfr&lod 
by puniBDg tbb coune^ No conipuy cui be orsjiBijoed unbr 
general l«ir* vfhicb cm occupy Any putkukr locality or eurf 
OB uy [Hkilit-uljir kiiut of boaineto 10 \tw tiduHoa of ftU other 
ennpaaltt for ifac tahw purpost I am is favor at odopciag a 
,prindplc into our Cooultutlon which will permit all people to cont' 
Hm- with ihi* um^ pn'vilcj^. I would nni f^vc to ihc Ij-g^thL- 

%Wt, Ibrou^ [li]> 0>nilklvtifliv power Ut KT^nl privilcgri U> 
■hkh all pcrwoi arc not equally cnlitkd under K^acral Uv. 1 
voold place a rr-irkljnii on the IqciUaiure iji thJ'^ O^mnxKiweallh* 
and nj to It, Ibu^ hr and no ftfihcr, «o that if one rnan poin» hia 
fln^rf atyou, uiduyis "I hare a rijtbtand pnMlrKCUiwIrrKurhA 
taw," yoa can answer him, "t<t have I-" Tb^rr «<ntl'j wcm li> fn* 
a kind of jceneral faimca ia lucb a pnndplc ai thi<- Bui i>ti«i 
jvu permit tbtiiUfEh a Cootlilutiun, jl JcKi?ilfttiv\- tiody bi ovirmblr, 
tad alow tbem — «Tlb hardly a mmjai — lu pvu any a^t Uicy 
may eboow. u> incorporate Rny cooipiny, to c^iablUh any f^podo] 
ditncf , you at oacv loleraie anofant kfbl&ticQ. 1 wouki, ^ken- 
fore, revtrici <pem] fefblatioa by pUd;ig orDund It a proper 
uff^ard, like thai which ihb iretloa va^gats, and provide alw 
that all laws ot a f^ntn.\ nature Hhail have a unilonn operation 
thfoufibMit Ibt Suic. 

We bave ibe Conttliuijoo of a State befone ui wb'ch wemi ki 
chcdiBttte vujoy of ibc ibiMe« growing out td local Wgl<ladon. I 
rcCee bo the Conaiiiuikm t4 Ibe State of IBinoij. Uer roviicd Con- 
iti t mi oM d 1S70, we find under article four and scctjoo twenty two 
entitled ipeHal kgi4atkin, pmhibJitfl Mtnat twenty or naon sfe- 


..-. m^^Jt -I 

...Itl.i I 

, *^v ;*tWiJ K^SflV: CMC 
. i1k in^^^HC t 

I, ,,v. 't'j:^ *« ^K M 

■;.. p^lT *vd6_ 
1 . .^ >r Xim X» 

J ±*i rMtttfA ^oc oa: ifiedil lavs vac i>D96>- 

^v.^ p^ACid i*VTt %: ifiecul laws V0C 1,302. 

■ . V- J .a«& [fd^wd VCR 7^: ifiecid UwB vcK 1,150. 

- ri! 'Awa ;rap6«l »ert "7 ■ i*J«ia] laws woe 1.1^ 

-- -.1.7*1 ia«> paaocid were ^; ^JodaJ lavt woe 1*27^ 

' .riJ ia^apiiMeri *cn ^li ipecial lawi were i^SS- 

j-.'jr^l taw^ paired wen 54; kfjccUl lavi vcfc 1^31- 

-la: fn ^cvtn jcan tboc ir«re puud 475 ^taeTai 

, , iii'iLejiLte. The atmber erf acv winch ibepcesmi 

. ^ .J -.^7 s ^^ pi^id ue znanj. aod I tiu toU wiS 

:t 1 1 -L-rri/^f fjf the atti trf any 'ate fcnntr rear. Tins >£ 

"s 1 'Hf-»^^^ and i* b^i aa-^Ser (>rwf erf the Decc^iT fee 

'' :i J i'Iuprinj( iai> ^iiU'rfi wiib all it; panfm-h& 

! r^:ri lyA* To 1^71 (ht leiji'ilair.frs paired for raHrrja^ 

, ^ „ K[?i ■ -q-^riW ^-n-ilt^ft^ -^jme f'jur bcadrtii and 

-. A. V.I-. r^-irin^ "pti railrt>id^ /d'/ne. Tb?iw were, per- 

1* 'St t.i'- t'iji '.stTt pA--^ in which raiin>ad£ wef^ 

i !'^^'. *Iv i',!trv-Ivl. 
h.,r:fMii. Ah. If i ii'jrfi;] '.<immen(ary U iSh on ;he 
. ^^li^fcS It-^k Lii-jii ' Bv J ri^-^Eniiivc :<t:liuii in cnU Coq- 

TKc Development of Sute Conttitubons S7 

Miixilkin, Ihf hrM «nrt Iatj^ lotcrein ol a five *ncl mifuhtr^u» 
pcDfilc tikv ours in (hU Sutc, w<juld be p ro tec ted, Wjthuui il 
«r h«vr thH ii>^ch f«iih ift ihr ultimtic mulls fi^ a« «r an ear- 
ned forward by tht puUiicdl niacUtmni, we ghaM Tzod dut i>ur ^|^ 
poliikftl richtt wfD be su^lovcd op bf gnndn^ j^pcdaJ priW- 
ltge« 10 *m1Iqu ooqMr&ikau. Nov, »if . vbai sort of juaiiccs, 1 
vk, CMi iherv ht th*! will ftlltvir thr Uw-mokiQK poi*«r in Ttm 
St*4« to chftn|?c, at cft^h uml t\tTy w^inQ 'if the I«gf4>lurr. Kin» 
act, brciuw & Frw Uvorcd ddiciu drurc il; this ought nol to be 
(olcntnl ftir one moment. Nocewuy f^^allon U sifstlj ce- 
unWd, the cxpeniin to the CoflUBOawe^ih vt grvolly mLui^, 
the ttSMUBplfon of Auch h|jlii» defNidn the ilE^^ity ol any le^v. 
hlire bodfr Mid iHiball Impain ib« cAldcncf of le^&Uiion for' 
good li> llie irhdlr pc<ipfe- U you reithd any by Umr, mtrict aU 
wder Oe dftiiiiia4«acc». 

AsKinx the nowl fraiutrs ctf ibc new »i«ie en04lltut|nR» mk 
■KidihcAlktas b the iriditional raudr* of Anff|o-Sax<ni prooedun-, 
wch «6 bdkimeni by ^n<l Jury u^il triul oy fury: Atik-i Utnl^ 
lationft on The rij^htt and finnU-j^n i-f «ir|h»-.trL(inv: xnd prnvi" 
uom in favor of the iroriiog tlas. tn ihii rcspeci the recent 
COnstilMion of OkUh«tm* rfcv-rvr. f.irrful \\udy \iefXU'^ it* 
CnaMtK have embodied bi ii pru tiadly all ibc ncvtcr invriuiocu 
of Afwriran potitir:!, anwrtg wfairh tb« follt>wing air the mcai 
MrOtivg: — 

1^ [oivjlegp of ihe ml <if bahran n>rpU4 ihsU oevtr be hm- 
penlcd by ihc nulborilici of ih»t Suic, 

Nu peiVMi bJiall br (iruM^uird cHminally Im <mtm of rti^^rd 
for fclooy or nuddaeaoor otbecwbe Iban by pntentmcM or in* 
dinmeiu or by Infcrmadott, Ko ponnn shalJ be pnwcuied for % 
fdony by infonnatSon wlthottt having had a preliminarj cximiiU' 
lioo belon an namininx nufiurBic, or bai-tng^ raivtd tuch pre- 
liminafy riacninal&oa. Pnnrctiiioiw may he inuituced In eourH 
not oT mxnd t^von a 4luly verifad compJainl, 


American Government and Politics 

A gnuid jury ibotl he campo^ of vn\vc man^ any dane of 
Hhi'fii iTinourring miy find an ind'icttnrni r>r (njc hill- A g^ftDcl 
jury -\lull Ik tontTdcil upon ihc oni^r uf a judgr rif a <:ourt having 
I)l1^ |ii»rTT to ny iknd dcitnahie teiaraet, iipaa hi* awn tnotioo; oir 
^urh gmntl j^rr ^hjiH ]v i^nLrml hv ^luh jiiriK'' ifj>'iii Ihr fiTinjlc of 
a pclUion ihcrcfor ligiutl hy one hundred midcni Caspaycrt d 
ih^ i:[^unty; when w .ts^mliind 4uch grarL<l jury thii\ hate pt^vwr 
lo mvcsligaLc and r?tani inditlmeiils for all cbuoOrr And ^-Mcb-i 
4)f crinK- and tucb other poivcn a^ ibc Lc£iiUikiijrc m\y prescribe. 
IVovJdrdt l^hat the Ix^^^Uture inAy make the calling of a gtAnd 
jury compuUory. 

TW rijeliL of uia] hy Juiy thiil be aad Itmaln bvlolalc, and b 
jury fur Lf]<? trial «f tivil and cnnunal cai^i in courts tit xvcuni, 
oihcr than couniy courts, i^ball cnnKtvt of iuvItc tncn^ but, in 
coifnty courts an<l couri;! not of rocord, a jury ^haU «inf^3t of six 
nwn. This la^crion shoJl not bf no ron.ttrucd a<i to prevrnt UniilA- 
tioni iTing fiifd by Ia« ujion Lhc right ii1 a|>j>e&l front judgmcniA 
of cuuriK not oJ reeord in dvil rAisca (ronneming caiiw* of action 
ist'ulviiij^ k'Vr ihaii tMrrjfy iIoII^h, \n ttvil i^kJtcH, Ami in i.rimi- 
nal caw* Iw* llian frlumc*. ihrpc'foimhs of ibt wbo3« numbtr of 
juroreci>ncurnTig«h^hax-C|ih)Wcricrendrrai\?rdicl, In a!) r>tbcr 
cam* the miirc nmnber of {urors riu!.i concur to rrndcr a vLrrdkt. 

The Ix^^Eaturr -■4iaU pu.-M Un^ dc^nin^ coDlrmpu und regulol* 
tug ttic prfMfrdinf^ nnd piiniAhmriit lik rriAlTrr* of ront^mpl: 
Provided, Thai any jurrvm ariuwil E>f rtolating or diwbryi njc 
when nol in ihc prv>cniY i~rr hcJirinn of ihc (ouii, or judjic i^titinn 
as such, any otiJcr ut injunciion, or re^raint« made or enEtn<l by 
any rourt or judge of the Sl^lc i^hall, before penalty or punl-^birtent 
tt iRipoKd, br ftttltM to a iri^ by jury OA to tlu guitr or Innocence 
of the acourd. In rto case «ltaJ] a penalty or punaiiihmi^nC bt un- 
posed f'tr t imlrn^pt, until An upjirirluntry to br bcj^d U ^vnt. 

Any pet^D having katrtiledg? or pijuouon of facts ibaC lend 
10 eftablUh ibc Kutit of any otber person or corpomloQ chftriii^d 
with an ofttttse againM the hv> of the Sttile, ^hall not be ejicubcd 
|r\>nt ghing leiiliinony or producing evidence, when legally called 

The Development of State ConitituHon» 89 

upon v> lo dok OD tht grarniid thnt it mny tfml u> inoriminHtc hfm 
titukr the bwi. of ihr SlJL£r; but no jvnin thoU be pmccutH 
or subjevini to aay pciiaJlj' or fuficilui? for or or ftccmuil otf a&jr 
liuiMClioEu mftitcr, or thing ci:ac«fi>ifig whkb be may w tc«tif]r 
or produLT widmot^ 

Tlie reconlit, bookf. and filet uf all corporatioiis »hall he, qi all 
tfoev, liable and uubirci to thr (uW vUlcrial und tn<^isllo(id 
powers of the Stacr. noimiib^iinHing [\v immunflicA And privj' 
Ie|p4 fai tbb Bill of Rigbu wcuied to Ihe penoni, inh<il«taiits, 
and citimn iberrof. 

The right of thc'Siate to en^a^ in any occupatioa or budncw 
'or public purposes ahaU 001 b« dcnfc^ n^ p'^^hib^icd, cxropi that 
the Stale «lkAll-noC cnj^i^i? in agriculiurr for any other than cdu- 
rAltnnat and vicniilu: purpun^ and fnr Ihc support uf it* penal, 
charitable. %nd cduicationaT instiruiioniL 

Prqieltiilie* and munopnlJet are c«ntnLr>' iii I)k Kcniu^ of a frr« 
l^trvfTTiBurnl, and iltall neirr be allonrcd, nor ^hail the Law uf primo- 
|[cainire or cniaJUncntr nee be in forvc in ihi^ Siau. 

No private coirponiion shall be created nor fortl^ corporaiion 
HrefkMd Ia comhd bu-dncw in the Stale, except by Kf^eral Uw. 

No corpomtlnc Uull Utue *ii^ k cinrpi frtf monry, \\\n>r <fone, 
or peopeity actuiUy cecehed to the amouiil o* the par I'atue thereof J 
and all ficdiSoii* iEkcftjfec of iiotk or iDdebLcdneu thuM be vcJd. 
an<1 the Lcgblature aluU prcK^be iIm ttoevMry ragulationtt to 
pfcvrnt the hnie of fiOkuKU stock or indcbtedae». The itock 
and bonded indrbicdnewi c^ ov]ToratJo>t» thaM nol br lncnra«cd 
euept m pttnuancc oi fgentn} bv, nor nriiboul Ihe eonseni of 
ihe itfTSon* hdltUnK Ibr larjtcr imounl in vnhir of the Mocli finl 
obCaiDcd tt A merCiug lo be held after thirty dayi' nutke ^ven in 
puiauaxKQ of law. 

No c^rpotfttlcm cvsanixed or doin^ buaineu In this SiaJe tUI 
be pefnittcd to inJIucncc ckctiocu or olfedal doty by coniribuiicaia 
t4 moeary or anything of t-alue. 

No corpofilion choilered or bceftvd ta do budneH In tbU State 
ahtll ovrn, hoU, or goaIioI, £n any niaikncr wbilever, the block of 





Annrrican Govcrnmcnl and Politics 

uif competitive! corponitiun or t<iq>or«liO[t» ca^aitefl in the tiaJBi 
kloil of bui^iorss, in or out of ihe SlW, «uocept ftuch «tock u nuj 
be p1ed{^ In pod fuih to secure bon& &d« iadcbtMlncfiF ac- 
quired upon forcclmun:, cxccudon ulc, or oihcrwiic for ihr 
Aitii^Ktiou of debt. In *U <ums whcrt any corporatioa acqutrcn 
Ktnch id Aay other cnq^ranf^n. a*, hr-m'n iiirAvidH, II ^aII he 
nr<)uirttl In di«pA«r oi ihr x^nir wilhtn (wclvr muulli» from tlti; 
i!4lE of acquudliQn; «mi ditHng ibc period of iu owocrthip ol 
tucli Mock U fhall havo no Hflhi to puLrdcEpatc; b the (>)atrol oS 
iUch coqjon^on* tKvpl when ^*rraUied by onli;r of the Corpora- 
don CommiiAifm. No truflt cnnipany, or bank or banking com- 
pany i>al\ own, hold, or control, in an/ roAnner whnCeiTr, the 
iiacV of iny oiher Iruii company, or baak or banting conapdLnj, 
rx<rpi ^u<h rtortc M may I* f»!4Tia''d in iXfMil fujlh lo wcur buo« 
&de iiidtfbtcdnrsi. acquired upon forvclcBun:. vjicculJon ule, or 
□thcrviar for (he ^itidftctJon of dcbi; and lucfa stock shall he 
dfepotcd of in the lime vid n];LQncr hcrt^nbcfore provided^ 

No cnqxurftiion^ forei^ or domriii<:, <hid\ be pcrmUtcd to do 
biuintM in thL^ Stair vithouC fint AUng in Ihr office of the Cor> 
piviiii^ Cnnvni^^on a Hit of it* itorkhddcr^ offin-r*, and dl- 
n<iunsWflbthvfi:f±ilcriiT8iid ijcj^iofliic ail^iirMuft^ndiln- aniount 
u(itockhchlbye«ch. And every furdgncorparatiuD^hat], before 
beitt|tlicemcd(odobu«Inc»in(hc5uEr, rfi^fEn^kic an ;iEtTit rcfid- 
laU in iW Stale: urtd strrEcr of summun? or Ic^al nolio.- may be 
JMjd on mch dtafftutd af£rnt And luch other agpot^ ok now am or 
may hrnrafier be prcrWdrd for by Uw, Suit may hf malDlftinrd 
agaufetl a fiirdgQ corponlioo in tiie tounly whrn; an agent of iiKh 
cofporatlon may W fourtd, or In the couoly of the resident* of 
phintiff, or b the county nhtn the cautte <4 aciion may vh^. 

ITaii] otberwitc proridod by lav, no pcrBon, tirm, nuodatloa, 
or corpontion en^igcd in tbe produdion, nM;]iifa<:ture, di&tribu* 
lian. or tale of any ronunodity of getiend use, nhnll, for the pur- 
jiow of (Traiing a nionopoly or dr^royfn^ compttltir^n fn Irade, 
dtHiuninale between difTcresrt pcrwna, asodab'^n*, or rorpofa- 
lkln^ or different «««cioi», commEioitiet, or cities of Utc Stale, fay 


Tbc Dev«k>p<ncnt of Sate Con^tituiioni 91 

cilj than in juioibrr, tJvtt nuking dtw Afluwance for ihr dittcT' 
vKi», if xuy, Itk \hc grtde, quuitiiy, ur qutllty, &nd in Ibc «tu^ 
ciMt of truaportatioa ffom Ibe paint of prodiiKtioci or mannf Klure^ 

El|^< brm »2ul] <oaultuifr i 4»f* wohc in til cue* ijf rmpby- 
nvni bj ind on behalf of the ScAlv or anj rau&l^ or inunkipftUlj* 

The coninuiins of coimcl faihor U hrrrbv pmlubilrd^ 

Tbt tujiloTTncni t4 children, unilrr thr a^^ nf Aftrca jran, in 
anf w^upatioo, tnjvncms (o heailfa or morak or opcdally bawd- 
Qu» tQ life or Umb, it Ivrtbr [*ri)hi!jiEr<i. 

Bgj^ lander the t^ of -Ixicrn xean, and vromtn <nit gjrU, iball 
not be tm|ilo7cdt nndcfground, in the operation of mittesh; Anil, 
(ncept in tvKA of tmtrp:tu:y» et^t hinin fthftll conttlttttc! a iIajf^ 
woirk imderpQund io all tainen oi the Stated 

TIk IjT^'iAititit «hall pa» U«n to prnttrt lh« ht^alLb ami olel^ 

eipplp)«ci in factorio, in oainc*, and on nUrDadi. 
he Mnm of contribaloiry negUgonc* or of aaumpiJon of riik 
tbAli in all otcs irfaiiAoevvrt be a quc&uon of fact, and dull, at 
all dno, be kft 10 the jury. 

The right of action 10 mrovvr damagu for injurin rcftilting 
in dnth ahalt neve* be ihrofpiled, and tbc antoiuit vecovctiblc 
«tull not be tuUJKt to 4ny sUiutory lientlacion, 

Anf iKomiuQ of a contract, eiqirw or JiDplKd, maJe by tuy 
ptnam, by which any of the bowtitt of tUs Conttitutioa, is »ou|^ 
to bo wAfvcd, iball be n«tll asd void- 



«f ji 



The in U mate 
of gDvein- 


of ruling 
ctnL'it'ir^ in 

A covERNMEPJT 15 not an abstract thiap — a scl of rules and 
rei^ulalions. It is at bollom a dclcrminatc number of pt^rsons 
set off from thf tommumiy ai Urge and aulhoriied to dihthargc 
certain public duties. Under the modcni system of party rule^ 
the general charatttr and poUry of Ihc govfrnmnit at uny givrn 
time depend upon the interesis and ideals of ihe political party 
which placed tht dominant and directing nfiicials in power, 
"For practical purposes,*' says Jud^e Cooley, "the ConsU(ution 
is that which ihe govcmmfmt in ils several deparimi^nts and (he 
people in the perforinance of their duties as cill^tcns recognize 
and respect as such; and nothing else." Thus it happens that 
a descrif>tion nf American government which leaves out of account 
party issues, methods, and organiaation , fails to reveal both the 
realities of giyvcrnmental practice arid the opportimidcs of the 
citizen to lake pari in ihe direttioo ajid cunttxil of his government. 

38- Federalists and Jeffenoniani 

Washington, in rommon With many of his contemporaries, 
deplored the inrrodjciif^m ^^'f jiarty fipirii into .\mt'rican p^lido^, 
but the new Constiludon had hardly gone into effect before the 
voters and leaders began to differ about practical measures and 
theoretical doctrines; and over these issues they divided into two 
group-s. Federalists and Jeffersonians- The general views of the 
two parties are thus characterized by Jefferson : — 

The fact is, that at the formation of our government, many 
had formed their political opinions on European writings and prac- 
tices, believing the experience of old countries, and especially 
of England, abusive as it was, to be a safer guide than mere 
lheor>'. The doctrines of Europe were, that men In numerous 


Evolubon of PotiooLl Issue* in United Stita 93 

wodatkuu cuuiot be nttnincd xviUun llit tijrnu of ordrr suiil 
lusdn, but by {orccs physkul sad noril, uHcldcid Qitr them by 
Mthoritict indepcndeat of Ihm win. Hnic« Ihcir orgunsBlion 
of \i\nfc%, hcToditJiry i^hlc«, niut prinu, .StlU funlicr la ronurun 
Ihr bfutr ^HT of the pcrff|)ir. llicy dfrrm It iKCt3»ary to fcricf> ihcm 
dovm by lurd Ixbor, povcny And ijtnor&nce, Add 1i> ijiltc from Ibcm, 
» from bM«, w mocb of th«lr csininpi u xhxi uareituliiuiE kbor 
iball be neoMMiy to obconi a vuficknl «iq4u> bardy co austjua 
a •tottiy u)d mAMrfthle Ufc. And these canJ&ES liiry ^pply 10 
mibtab ilicir [>ri\-ilt^ o«den in spUndur ind idleness, to faa- 
dnaM ihr n'H Lif iliep«ople,Ukd udrf^in flirm xn bumble Adcmi' 
lion and ^ulimiMion, «a lo an ordrr of Mifirrior lving«. 

A)lbuughfc!WiJtnaog«iibjulgccicAUlbcscleiiglh»oropLiiioTi,yi;l y ' ^j% 
nuay h«d >drjnc*d> fomr more, eome Ices, on ihr way^ Ami bi ■lUu. 
(bf ronvcndun vUch fonned our government, they vndeim^irvd to 
dmw Ike corda of pow«r OS i%ht u iht-y could obtain thcQi, to ItMon 
Ibf depatdence of ibc gvncnl ftinctiofmncv on iheir covutJtuaiCar 

Id sibjrci 1o rhrm thfnr of Ibr Slitct, and lo irukcn Ihdf OttMXk* 
<A RUinlaiwog Ihr Mmdy «i^uilibriu m irhich Ibr mAJoriiy of lh( 
CDEmrolkio bad de«tncd uluUuj for both bianchet, fleocml and 
local. To ncow, thrrcfcirr, in praciicv tbv po««ia wUcb (ho 
tuliofi bad Rlmrd, aod 10 warp 10 Uidrorn Irishes those actually 
^T^, ««3 Ibc Mcad} ckt^cct €d the Kcdcnl pany» 

Chiri, on ibr con l raiy, was to nuialain the will of the majority ^'^T', 
of ihc conTCntHia, and of the jieople ihenttclvci, Wc lichcvrd, ^ ^ 
mlb iWm, lliat num wu a mk>nal animal, rndowitl by niluic (^^^ *Bd 
wtlb righs», aad with oa innate tctvt «f fiuticc; and ib&t be could p^ 
b« nnnlM*! froei trroo^ and protscled fa ri|^i, by modcrat* 
powen, coafided to persocis cC h» own choiot and held to tbdr 
dutia by drpntdcnce on hb own wJIL We Seli<vcd thai the com- 
plicated otgurixation <tt kinss, nobtc4, and prinia was not ihff 
wfavil nnr best lo dittt the happlftos of anociated man; that 
wbdwn and viftMc were not hereditary ; (bat tht irapfilQgt ol flnch 
a Aunliiiuiy eoanimcd by ibcur npeniv those fSLmifigs of industrj 
iWy were nKaiii to piotea, aod by the Incqvalltici ibey pioducod 

■ ■■. '.fc 

■ \V\ - ■ ' 



. V'*" 



American Government and Politics 

u^jvnl Kbcny l** Huffi.'rjncF. Wr bdiw«l tiiDl men, fttjojiaf 
In wc &iLd security ibc full fruiu of tbeir own indiitlry, cnliitMl 
by ill their btciv*L« ori ihe ti^lv iif [aw ujid onttt. hd-iluited to 
think for thcmaflvcs, uid tu follow their reason a5 their Eulde, would 
ba raore CMiJy iind ^cly lEovcmcd. than 'niib minds souiiflhfd U 
error, atuI vitiated vtd ilebuod, u la Europe, by ignonnce, ib- 

The cfaenihiDTDi oi the people then wjts out principle, the fi»r 
Uld di«tn)M of them, thai of the other puly. Com^ioMrd^ u w« 
were, of tbt Undetl ^ Ubufifti; fnteiteU of Uiv couuiry, we cvuU 
not he lev nnidous lo(T JL govemmcni of Ian tind order (hon were th« 
inhabitiinlt <il the dlie», thr fitrtmfihctldf of fcdrrftlisnL Aikd 
KheLlicr our dforts lo uv'c the principln and form of our caa- 
alilutiimhHte not been uU uUty , Icl the i^trescot re|iublicjui freedom, 
order and ^ui^pi-rity »f our tnuulty doKritiinp. 


«r op 

After the second elrctickn i>f JirlTcrwn in iSot, Uir rr^Jmllst 
pam ai u li^htiiiK orc^Lntxiition went to ptoct.%, allhuu^h \i von- 
li»uc1 for iwiitic time to put cncdldatcs in the UM. With th« 
advent of Andrew Jui-kson, ih* vittimou* party which bad then 
aasunud llir nntnr " l>ftri^iMtie," r.iixrd tip a nrw cmoidlifm in 
ibc iortn nf the Whi^ \->siny which njocoedcd in dcciing two war 
benwK* lUrmon and Taylnr, and 1h<:n went dcmn before the 
Republicans becauu \i w^ utuible to mevt the ImrjendinK ivu« 
etf »laTcry. Homer Crneley ibus eaumcfates the dementi of the 
Whig pmj: — 

(i> Mow of thoje who, undtr the name of National Rtpublicant, 
had (invifiiiU) Ife'ec known r% mjpportm of Adam* und Clayi 
and ndvocftles of Ihp American «y«tcm: (a) Mo«t of thi-«e whoy 
attlnjE in ddeji«t of whil ihr>' demiH the tvaile*] or thrr^ened 
rigbta i4 the Slatn, (lad U\xtt ^\l}tmiil'iTxd a» Kultifieri, or the lev 
drxiknt Siaie-Rlghtt mtn. who were thrown into a poiaiion vi 
armrd ne\jtratit> towards the adminisiratfon by the doarincs oj 
the pmrlamalion of tSjv iguintt South CttuUna; (3) A majoriqr 


Evolution of Political I»uc3 in Uiutcd State* 9J 

cf lSKMcl>rfovf ktMun AH Anii'MAMAft; (4) Manjr utni had uplo 
thai tine tno komiQ 41 Ja<k»n men, Itit whn utijcd in coo- 
drmalEif the bigb-hindrd cnnduct oi Ibr KM<uih«, Ihr is' 
EDultiifwcl Duoar^uid UicMtbstfvieiHToFTufi^^ (5) Xumbrn 
vbo lud dqC bcfon lAkcn u>y pan Id [ruliikti, liui wW vkvrt now 
A«airacil fru«n tltir x^tUf by ibv polpaMc tuvrpacloiks v4 the 
£m:u<it«, and Ibe fmntuKnt peril of our wbote iibric of uph- 
■liiutkmft] lifcctty and ftaUo&al pmapittt/. 

4& TAtf DtrnKTotk Pariy as ikt Chompiem p/5/invry 

1a ch# carij' days c4 the Rrpublic, muii earncii rT>m linikcd upi^a TV 
ittfy u «& *iil thai would in time iJitaf*pffcr; Uux vnth Ih*- in* 'Jl|!l" *)"" 
iCioa ui Ihc cutlco gin, tb« dvvelupDMDl of the tubcuxo uikI ix*! l< in [J^JJJJf 
Ewtfy^aAd Ibcu^twiud cxpaAfJon i:if the South, the insuti^iir^n 

skoai to dtff erldcism or uuuli. tt voh then dltcovtreil by 
SfMithna pc4ilin1 phiVmiphcn Ihat ibtrry mnkt *'a oiliiniL iniil^ 
;lu[iion''4ndthc'*on)y reUiloiD urtikh eoukl bo nuinui&cd hctveca 
~ lte< ubd bliKli.'^ Jind (}ic Scjuth brffsn lo torrc the IVmwratii: 
lo asmoM a poAitvc and uncompnianaifiG fMenw of tbn« 
idofla. A« the JlkhirKind Ktoatitm put il. 'Hie Srjth 
And iiAAuio PnsbiciiH. She dktaic« her temu to the 
roctWrn Drmocracy umI Atey r^rty her She !ieTKU from MiDong 
fallltful of thv Ni>fth a maa rro wlii;4n tJic lati rr'iy, and the 
.him IVcudcnt- . . , Inuidout of CoitTrrv, jfi thetdenn 
pijfifts. she huldf ihe Xorlh lo ber nirpnhr/' * In ihr plat* 
of 1S51, ihr Liemo^raix- i^anj loci: tbe foli^JwlDt aiaitfl on 
Ifce ihtety unc and iore«bidowcd dininkin j — 

' Ktt^irtii, II11I Coogma haa no jioiivtr, undrr Ihc Con*lilDlkin. ^^ 
laicrlerE with or conlid Ibc doiiKMit- tnstltulkini of the inerjl 
asd that wafk Siataa ara ibe aole and prvptr judfa of wmy- 
appcnaiouic *o Ibdr own aAain wn ps'dutaied faj the Coo- 
iKtl all dlorta «f the AbolItioBtaB or ochoa. made lo 
Hkdnce C^mgnm to mCftfert trfOi i^uestiana «f ilawry.or to take 
tndpical ftep* la relation ibefeto, are cakulatcd to lud to the anal 

* Tarn vm ■Um jiiCwo» kkv^addiA ia m peptb^En 04 i)^M>,aoQ. 

pS Atncncan GovcmmcnC and Politica 

madr by Deitic^riilif membtis, vitboui rebuke And with appUusr 
frnm ihfir political nMudatA; and ttc dununcc liu»e threats of 
Hl<iumtm. in <ji* i-F a fiupulu' ovLT(lin>w of thdr ascmdvocy, »s 
drn)'intF ihp viiaJ iTinriptcs of a free govunment. ukI as an avowal 
of r'>nrrmpUtc<| UraxiJflt «htch it b the ifnperative dutj' of an in- 
(Mwrijint p.oo|»lc utrmly fo rebuke and fortvpr silence- 
Tip riaM J. '['Tint ihr miiiaimaace inviolate of the right* of thr- Stales, 
' J^i^l ' nml f?ij>riialK llie right nf racl> Slate to otdef and cootrol its owu 
liTffjr, ilninr^tir inHlilulicinH jirrfinting lo Jts onv judgrnFnt uLlusivcly. 
1^ rv'^rntial !<■ iful lialu-nre of power on whkh the perfccEioD and 
rndiinitice of iiur |Hi|Jiii-al Tabiic depends; and we deoouiice tbe 
IflwkMitivasldnby atmrd force of ibc soil of any StAte or Territory, 
MO mnitrr under vilxM pretext^ ^ amon^ the gravest of crimes^ 
IV frr-hi 11 YUnl thi- |>n-»i-iil I>im(xTadc admmistration has far txccedrd 
*V iJulr *^'"^ ""T^l a|i| in'hcnsiirtiv in iti mcasurdtas suhscrviczny lo Ibc 
nik-h^i r^iii iih-114 of a nclioD^ intertsl, w espocUlly evinced in its d^ 
|Hr;ii*' <'\rr(i<Ti* lu f^iTve Lhe Infam'His Lccomploa coostiluikin 
ii|-<u iho |irv>lr^1in)E r^^dr of Kansas; in rcinUrvijnEE the peraottaj 
rvluioii Ivtwreft rnuter and aerrant to Lflvojve an imqualified pnp- 
rrU ill |>*-rmh. m It* ai1cm}'(«'<1 rnfoccemeBC evetywhere. on Und 
AUil «M. (hriHinh \hc m[tr> ^iJ Congress aad <>f the Federal 
vx>nTi«. i<l the r\tmnrprfteii3toiiaolapiiR^ local utcnsi; andm 
fl^ ^vitrr^t aikI UQvanring abuse of tbe power iDtrostcd to it tr a 

t^ I'Mt the |>w^4e justh tWw with alinD Ae nckks extraT*- 
1fi-x"*\- nh^h ^vrr3tv1e« rwrr depaitmmt <d tbe Federal ^tncnk- 
ii*ii'tit ihjt J rrcum t^« n^ eivot^cny aad accountabtfitr b biA»- 
(v<i^a''U' tv' urtT^t the mtcaxA^ phinder of ^ puUtc tzeamr hf 
\s',\-i\\\ i^ttx$^ojs: wfftk tb< mrenl :»lanSbs dcirbpomt at 

<>*«.«'.► ^-.''-'-Tt ■.■vif.Ni- ftvrrs^. i: vicus^Y with tbn exrlkii pn>- 

EvoluHcKi of Political Ivitiu In United Statet 97 

tetai,tocDQfiM ibrirtffom lo c^dudiA; " the |>ccvlur uutiittliaD'' 

cpuM be checked only by a nm- part}- founded dcAnilely on n>me 
prinnple of onpcnitioD; uuj Ihe R^vibUraap^rty spnne tnbo 
«3u«(ciKr wiiMa an iiKTe<liNy than Omr, This p^ny tidd lu 
lirKt AAlional convention m iM^, And in the fitrful rtMt nf i^do 
flelccled Ltneoln » ici prtwdenUtl Itactn upon ite Mlowin^ 
dcieUftlkm of pri&eiplei:— » 


Fidoi tf 

KtiO^td, Hiau we, Ihc dclqcKlnl rrprevenUlfve* of Ihe Ke- 
publkiui electun ijf ihe fniled Sutcv, in ocmTenliua UMoiblieil, 
In dbch»nfc c<f the duly wc owe 10 our coudtueats and our couftixy, 
uritr la the foUuwing declarations l — 

1- Hal the hiilcoy nf the nation, durioc tbc luit four yean, 
hu fnllj rflnhlUheil Ihe pmpiSeiy iftd nreruity nf the orKAnuarion 
Mill perpetuation of the RepiublicAn pArty» and Ihar the caiun 
wtiieh callrd 11 mto euiteore ore iHrtmaAenl in Ihnv nAlurc, and 
DOW, oiorr ttiaa nvt before^ deiuaud Its pruefuJ And ii-iaktitutitniAl 

a. Hut the nulntcBtncc of \ht principln promulffAud b the 
Dedotftlicik of Independence and cmbodinj in the Federal Coo- 
ttituiMm, — "th»! all men »re rrralrd crinA); thai ihey are oi- 
d<med hy thrir L'reAlcif itilh certain inalirrr«l>lr nKhln; that ami^nx 
theve an life, iberiy, and ihe punuU of hapiuneu: thai lo wcure 
rCgbIa, govtmmenu in Instiiuted Antonii bca, dvrivInK 
JDtl pQWcn frum theeoiueatof the guvrrned" — bcBatntial 
to the pre»cfvatkin of our repuhlican insiitiitions; asd that the 
Coiitfimtic«, the rights of the Siatca, and ihc unioa of Ibo 
matt oad thill be praerred. 
3, Thai In the unket ol the Stain thE* oaiiotk own da un- TW vdMl 
preEedeoted tncreate in popuktioa, tU surprung dnelopment of 
maicfia] nairurccA, ttR ftipld auipnenLalJon of weallli, its bappdneif 
bone, and iu bunoor ^R>ad : and we hold in abbomnre all 
''tchcmci for ifitunioft, coene fnxn wbaeercr wurce thry may i and 
mt cengratulaie die eovnrry that no Krfiublican member of Com- 
grtm has utferaf or muntenaiKed the threala ct dlniBion to often 


loo American Govcrnmcnr and Potiticn 

13. TIkfLi wc |irot<<At ftjtiinAt any »ak or alieiutioo tr> oth«i» 

or Hii^pliutiu fur publiL botmij' ; iiniJ wc dt'inand the puatdhjfc by 
Congietf of ihc complete and snitiitfiLctory homcskad lotuiue 
vhhh has tinaily pa^vJ ibc Houbc, 
iBifiTi- 14. Hint the RepttfalicAit puiy b: opposed to any ithan^c in our 

nalunliutlon lavn, nr nr\y «ui« Ir^tailoa lr>' which ihe righb nf 
dtuok^p hillirrlo octoTidod to icanignmb Ircm foreign Ijuiiib 
ittAll be abriiljicd or Impaired; and la fa\'or (^f j^^'^dk * fuJI uid 
enjcicnt pmlttliim l« Oie tik^Ib s»f all thjt^v* u( cilLtiaia, whether 
Daiivc or nolurallzfd. bc^lh il bc^me .ind abruBd. 

15. Thai AppropiiftrioDA by CoDgrcu for tiv^r and harbor im- 
povkvnnenti of a ruitionnl charortcrt required fnr the ACComiTK>- 
dation AOfJ 4^uri1]r <if our evUlLnjt <nmmfrerp jire tuthorixcd hf 
the Coicutituiiua, juid justified by the ohli^tigjui of gavanmeni 
Id proCKt the live* u\i\ property of Ifs riiixc-n^. 

t6. TbAt 1 roilrobd lo the Poufic Oce-iA is imperathvly demanded 
by tbc bUTCtts of the whole cnuninr; liiat the federal c^vtrnmcnl 
ou^t to nrndcr immedinfc Vid cUkicnl Aid 10 iia conairmrtion : 
And (KaI, Jkfl prehminnr^ therein, a dnily ovrrlund nviil ihtioLdd b* 
pmnplly cslahfithed, 

17- Finally, havinx ihw %vi foith our dittlncdvc prlndplcH and 
Hevt. we tnt^te ih* <-oOpcralion uf all (^ili^eriit, hourvtv differing 
on oiktT i|uealJoiUT who subaUuiclally agree with ua is thdr affirm- 
ance imI «uppan. 

II Id 

4a. Tke Rcpnhikam Party anJ Wo* Pa^ilits 

Dorioff thr Civil Vt'or the Rc^htlcAD party, which had 
carried inlo powtr by 1 minority vote,' bct*mc ccmnolidiled Inl 
a ptai political ori^ixalion vujsirvUbs the frdcnt office ani 
enjoyiD|[ aII ihe premgntlTeii and cmi^iimrnt* ronntTlM «iih 
th«m, Foir a hmg lisie after the war the party made tu pnndi 
appeal lo thi^ lnAam<;d |>a&4ioM «hkh ihe Atm^k hod left behl 

Evolutioti of Political Imuo tn Umtnl Sntu foi 

asd MCftdi!/ refused 10 nvogoixc uuJ rffnriit'tfx '™v< "^^^ ^ 
tlw mcMl prcubig pulilkd imim^ En iSj6, wliru ii ^i^d brca wily 
ifiiCfcdiinJ in ma^y wayt by ihc cortuiiiiori which had uodouLudly 
prrraQHl uniin ihf Irranl aidmini*lnili<>n.% and vu on Ihf Mlgr 
of ilcfcal, M the elAtl<3o vabecifucoUy revrakd, tJi« RqxibUcui 
pari/ put forward the fbllowinis <Uitn upon ihc votm for 
•uiipori: — 

Wbea, IB Ibc ccoootny of Prmidcncc, iMs [and wu to be 
pQffTd of hvottui »U*ci7, «ad vticn ibc »(m^h iitf pivrrnmtnt of 
Ibe people, b)- ihe pcwplfr, and for the pfopit, wa« lo ht demon- 
straUd, IW KqAtUlcAii \y*it} came inin jiowcr. lu dcrdst hat'c 
jinimnt into liitliiryt aiid «« took Ijanik (v ihcm wUh prwlr- luiitvd 
hx i%tAr mcmoria to bigh aim* fur the good of our country Aad 
laiAUDd. and looldnf* (■> the luixm «ith ualAlUting courage, 
hofiT, oad purpose, vt, ihc rTprt«eniadvci of ihi? pnny in nalioeil 
cuttvcntioa ajacmUtd, n^c the foUowLn^ doclaratiott of pfin- 

I- Ttir Unitrd Sutn of AiB«rkM ia a nAlioa> not a fc-jfcut^ By 
Ibv comldnvd urorkinga of the DAlkmal ami atale gmYTTkOMttli, 
imdcr their rc^fxcilTc oonttituikm^ ihc rijfhta of every diizen ore 
sccimd, at iMiac ukd ikbroad, tud ite coounon vvllare prorootfd. 

a. Tlie fUfiublkaa puty haa preaervcd that gvverenxnu to 
Ifat btimlrHth annivoiuy of ihr nAiliv^'« lilnh, nn^ IhK^ a^v now 
vrabodimcota of tiie great Ir^ithi spuikra al ill fvadle, "Thai all 
AMI ire crriatcd equal ; that tbey are endowed by Ibeir Crcatof 
«ilk certain tn^iBanaMe righia, anoog *bkh an life, liberty, and 
Ite funuil of happiMv: that for the actainnwnt of 1bc»e eotb 
govtreoMau h^vc been tnidtutod amoog incii, deriving ibdr 
jivt powera fron tbe cooaeM of the goremtd-" Uvtll iheae truiha 
are fhnrfully €)btytA, or, If nried br, vignmutly cnfortcd, the work 
oj ihc Rcp«bficui p*rty ti un&nubtd^ 

\. Tbe p*finaa*Dt paciflcstkHi ot the Southern section of ibc 
U«Soo, $jad the coapletc proteckxi of ail lu (iiLtrni in the inv 
m)oynM»t of all their rlghb, ta a duty 10 wbich the Republican 
yATij lUndi uctcdiy ptcdpd. The power to pntvlde for the 



AcusuA^ Ch 

,4. TV ,11 >^iA <-9^ff?ui^ i^' til vm, 
..liM -inn* tern *«ilti t^^tntd 

.r^ ..<je ««'h ifvrn vtiir.tuitfc tor -Imt 

.;^: ^y<St A ffivit > wrmutn^A "voir -j^^Bmi itili 
.'•...-^r^ J i^" tifiu.Tt E i^^ir 3U9- "vftt ^sw^Kdn^ 

■ ''■••/. -^ -r.i:: J /L'«irc 'r,y .a i*rzaan am- 

. ...'. .-.--r- .' '.'.I, ri n '"^^ij.Ttiir.n , virii pmfftng iodf . 

. ^ ■: -i -: 4.-^ ••t,t' ri,i ■' .n *hr 'J 'Vft^H/jusc 'it Coa^rtss, 

'■ 4''-i..i.,-,f''T 'ftr /'^"rmmeni. irni wc wira 


Evotudon of Polirical Inun m Unifed States 103 

Tbe Drmocndc pvlji htvias sained itragi^ by th« nvtort- 
doo of whik supmnai7 In Ib« Souib, vv ^juid: lo lake ipdiuta^ 
of the vttkocsMi la ihc Rtpvblkjm wlmlnSftniion Mid, mu' 
itbilinf it* mm Tote togeihfrr wiih ihnt of the dbnnentUii Rqwb* 
Ikus. *«« abk lo carrr Oie titxtivn in i384 priDclpaJLy upon s 
pUllom q4 pfolcil, rooulolAf ihc foll'mia; biSdwcfil of the 

Tlkfl Rqnililinn par1)r> so fv ns primiplf U focrcmed, u a ^^ 
ivraMiCCA^, Tn prvtkv tl n «ior](Aniulianforrnnchiaglhi^i«r wvtt^^ 
wha cootfol il* niGKhiiicfy- 'Hw fnud» vtd jobbo? «likh 
hiiv bectt bn>mht lo ll|^l in crcry dqiattmcnl uf the j^vcmmpnt 
nm Mftdeni !■> h»TV caltd for rtftmn v-iLht& ibo RcpubUiaa 
puty; yec thoKra&nthorily, mftdcrecklcstb^ ihf bn|;p<>«e»ioQ 
d pomt. bATv succumbed 10 its corrupdog iDflncocc, and huve 
fXyitd ia iwriiulto jl lickpi aguiut «4iich die indepnndenl portioa 
of the p«ny •« In opfO WVftll- Thrrriofc a r han|>r U defiiAndnl- 
Sudi AC^c^wu atilce nrcnsiry in il<76. but the vrlMnf thr ]>n^le 
uit ihendcieaini b^ 1 fraud wluch cui nnvr bcfor^itrn nor con- 
doned. Apia, in iS^ the chwig* drmunilctl by tbc j>cvf>li> wu 
delo&t«d bf the bvkh inc ctf mooer tuntrUiuted by unMrupuloas 
(oifrtrftctnTs«adflMinclcMJQbhxrK, ubohac1biir(dncdfnrQnhvfu1 
profiti (IT high office^ Tbf Kq>u1]lkan paxiy, during iti legal, iis 
iUiltn, ftfid iu bDU|[bt trtturc* of pif^tt^ hju AcAdily drcftyrd io 
muni chortclcT an^ puliii'tAl ^apMily, 

]u platf^irm prombci we now a lipct of >t> put Fjilum^ It &'i«l 
duuDdilbv tTstar«k4tef oiiratvy; li hss »qu;in(!avd htindndf {|^^^^ r 
of ■illfcaitocrauea&At7ihAtdue» noi exiti- licolb upon Coo- 
gnatt %a reoMve ihc butdott under vUdi American shipfuaf hpt 
bern dqwnud; \\ inpcMd aod ha« continued (hex buident^ 
ll prcle9«e» the poScy of reserviof the public lands for small hold- 
bfts by kdual ti^ttlrr-, il hu K^ten awa/ Ihr pniplt't hi'riiAfec, 
dll DOW a few TuEn'xU and aon^nsiilvnl aliena, indirktual and 
rarpo<mte, poncM a Uri^Tr am than thai of all our farms bcivccn 
the two «cas. U jiMfcsMti a iirdcraee lor free Iwdnidoos; It 


Anurricin (tovt-rnmcnt and I*oliric« 

CTgainUcd und irivtl Td kgolijec ft oontml of ulAtr drclioiiA liy fnJ 
troopd. It prodovtc:! x AcfAn lo rJn aIc Uiior; il niLj«:i«d A 
can wnritingmrn Fr; ih« voiofiFliEtoi] of convkl uid bnporlcd 
tract Ifibor. ... It *^u:ccptj^ ;incw ihi.- duty of Imling in 
work of |m>KrnA uuJ raform." its rau^tit crimiDaU ore pcrmlurd 
to (scapv Ihiuugh contrived ddAys or actual connivance id the 
|>fica.«rution. iIoncy<on)bc(l wild corrupUon, outbrraJdng fv- 
ponirtA no longer ihotk ib tnnral acme. lis htuit^ mrml^m, 
ib indcpctidctit joLjm^i^ no longrr mftintAin a sticrmfu] coqIojI 
for nitllmrity in iti cAn^r-jMn ur ■ vfIo ufion l>a(l nomiD»tionft. 
I'h^t cEiongC! U neccstory U i^rovcd Iiy im t»Jii!im tur^jlut of more 
thujt^ooo, wlilch Iiua yearly been cotltfclrd frum a suffcdfif 
propte. UnDvcetftiry IojiaUoii la unjust iimdai]^ We denouocc 
the RrfiuLlkaji \naty for h.tvin)^ failed to rdfcvc the |H^p1c fti>m 
cru^tiing war Xixa, v\\ic{\ h:LVt purnlyxTd buaJncv, tri]^|«d 
dttiliy, dnd dq>rirH labor of rmployvncni and of jutt rcwoid. 

The Democracy ]>1e<lg«s itself to purify Ibe ailniiniMrilion fio 
coTTttpliofi, bo restore cconumy, U> revive reipect fov bw, awl 
reducft luatlon to the lawm Umic coultfteiti with due retcord 
(he prtfttrration cf (be fiith of the nation to its crediLors aud ptn- 
doncriL Knowing full well, however, thai Icfpalalion a£c<tiiif; 
Ihc otcttpalkins of Ihe proftlc should be cjiutlous and cfrnf^rrvntive 
IQ meihod, Dol ta odvancr of public optnion, but mponnt^ to Us 
dr^n^iAila, itw EkmtPiwtic p:»rty is pledj^rd to revise the tariil In a 
bpirit of fsrueiui lo all mtcirsi^^ Bu^ iii mMLiTijc rnluiijun in 
lojtes, it is not propoud to injoce any domcitLic mdu*trie% but 
Tftlhcr 10 [iToniotc theif healthy £^wth. From the fuundalion oJ 
Ihii giMirnmcQl, taxed coUcctcd at the custom- houAc have been Ihe 
chief wairtc of feder^ rcve:niie- Such they nnust continue to he. 
Moreover, nuay Endustriet have ciome lo rely u|x-in leflUatlofi for 
vucceuful coniinuAnce, » thai any change of law must be at rvety 
»iep reconlfui of Ihe Ubor ami vapuxl ihw involved- The pri> 
e«w of refom muet he subject m the eMvulvn to this pliio dictate 
of Junice: oil loxotloD (hall be lUnited to the requiiefTtcau ol 
cnmoinlCAl p/vtaaaaiL llic nocca&aij reduction In 

Evolupon of Political hsues tn Untied States 105 

caa and muM be dTtctcd withofjl ikprlvinf Aowrictm Ubcr of tW 
abUlty Ui cottpcK mHxcssful}y with foctlgn Ubor, ftud without 
tmpcssiDg lowrr n-ta of duty thun wilt be umplc to corcr ojdv id- 
tffraMd cMi iif |irQii»f tinn vhii h nuy rtiAi in miuwqurtm of ibc 
higher rajF of w&ga prrv&ilin|{ io tbit i.t>urLiry, Soflicirtfel rrtraur 
to paj bH ihc vt^fcaxt of ihc fcdcnU go^ienimaM, ccoPofniraUjr 
admialtteml, La<:lud£ng ptosions lncavn< hnd pmicfpal of th« 
public debt, can b« got under our prnpefii a>:iicin uf tmatiun ffom 
cuitom^tiouc 1am on fewer imported tutidc*, beori^ heaviest 
W artSdes of iumtry, ukI bluing ligfaiot on anlrkacrf ncccniijr. 
UV thdTtfotv dmouo^« ihc abusn of ih« rrLilinj; tanH; and, 
aubjctt 10 lltp jfnvvdbiK liritiwi(>n*, «c demand itRl federal 
tualion ibiU br rKltuiTTly fur public pujpu»v», aiid diill not ««<■ 
c«cd ihc iiccdsof diegDrernmcnt nxioomicaily adfiumitcfvd, . . . 


A lurninft fioLnt i-nrat in AmrrkAn iioUlicii m 1S96, whm Nfr. 
BiyBO, la bb faouun fpcvch bvforv the Dvmucfatit (.oovcuiiaa 
In CUcj^, iwqrt ttvdt ihr om[ur?'k>rif* »rctio;ul Jwm« and 
made an «ppc^ to Ihc l>roiKl mmn of ihc people 1u mute &gauut 
ttie great fiiuAdal and corporate iaicrciU. 

, , , We vtand here itpmeialiiig pccifile who aie the e<iU4b 
MoR Ibe taw <tf the tirifest cities in d>7 State of Uauachiuelti. 
hVbaa ^'ou co«c bdon u« afid tcU u^ iIiaI we chall db(uri> jour 
^butoas uiIi:reMs, we reply that yog ha^« diUurbvd <nir buaiiuat ^^* 

lU hy your vtion, Wt My lo you Ihai y<m bare made too 
■Intlffl in ix\ 4;i|)lifaTJj^ ihr dtitnUian of a fa»f£nf«i men. Tha 
jman who b «mpk>yed for waga b as much a buunrsi mut u hia 
«1oycr. Tlte aiiorocy in a country b^vn 11 jlk miiih a buidneu 
Ibe Loqsoraleon couairf la a gnat nH'iii^polifi. Tbv ma' 
rhnnt it the cTOM-roodi tton b ai oaudi a buu'ncM nua v the 
mcrduai oi New York . Tbc farmer who gom f onb in ihe momiAg 
and UMb aU d«y. hegiaa in the spring and toib all tunajncr, and bj 
jWapplicalkiaof (hfiin and rniudc ba the Ei*tBr«l mKnirrcnof thU 
arnica i«cahhj Uaiinufh ■ butinnn man a* Ibr taut tiHo 

J I '" wjli^muoi, wlu have nttk Ac 
I L'^f 'k-iuIh «'hcTC tfi^ can niiigleilMir 

U<. I'^^^JJ-— out itlHV wbCK thcf bttVC 

(aiiunnf the jr dnUzett lad chndHs 

-N> 1 i..<kiir. un't the ccfncterio wbcR riecp ihc «riia b' fcc 

- k ;u laiCTving of the coDAdcntkjiKji ikii ptfn-HSi^ 

I ; p I int3c that we speak- Wc iJo oit 

't 'j t X w of conquoE. Wc An 'Tflj*''*! k dK 
•u itiics, our funiJicB and poutrnEj- Wv kmr f "m iii_t_ 
A^ ^i r^'jut>tu have b«ea KooMd- He a^Tc mnaiaf 

, 1.1 .Nc been divcganird- %> iuic (M^pd abJ 
»:•.. .1 f.ica uur caJunitv caine- We beg 3i;^ jaipv; i 

/... ■ .'.ik. t sail] in tJi73 iha *jj ii£r,jpe 5 <i»itjj i iheidie 
'< , s ■ i !lu capital and thtf itn^lisj •^-^***^ "xik^ ;<<DdQre the 
Ilk. . il :>:■>' ihi' tuc* ^ Tbv o.'lsit^ . 4:^1 bt trifotk, it is 
i--' -I 'ii:< ^duD thj.t «e liL^: :c:^.-<-< -[-'^d ii^jj^ £klr *>^*T1 i1k 
IK'. .11 i.inyii;;h». Lj.-..:: ',h^ v'li^i . i" jiie cue l^iatM >* idle 
, ,>\ i iii.;-i: tht -j^k i' Vl.- '■:-,^'J^ lU-aS^' TtdJ it ti*c 
'.t ■ ' ..iL 'hxr L' ""-.tI l::^--.." "■»_ vv^ 'J*ca .; nuaa t* 
V ^ '.-i-.!i ivl. ■,:,[.! -.-'.„'■..' '":c ^^. -i:^ iii^L^i .c tie 

■ ■ - .III I'll"!. ■,> vv -.-... 'v ,4 '.ri:, i,Tc c v^c *^ 
.1 .: ,: t'i:;. * V .1-*^-. . i.^-, 3k :>^Jiii:i*.-Q _* ^»e 

■ ' > " J Lis Lp*!-'*- 

Kvoludon of PoUticol Iwucs in United Sntcs 107 

Then vt two ideas of gommwnU. Thnv m those who be- 
Mevt iliBt if you Just kgliblc 10 moikc ihc vdl-lo-do prosjM-rous 
IhftI Ihrir pKitfpciitx witt hrtk Ihroogh tm Aose bc|i>w. Tb« 
DesiofTalk idcM hoK hr«n lh*l H yon ii!ptlji>R to nuke the avumca 
inoaptTtjuft, ihdr prueprriiy Mill linil )l» «a^ up and liirougb cveiy 
liut llut rcUi upQTi it. 

Vou comr ii> u* afid iclt us ihut ihc emi dtin nv tn favor of 
the ga\d suntlird. I icD you ihai ihr gnai ddn mt u|>on thtat 
and fmik pndric«. Bam ^i^wn youf rilir» and Ic^vc our 
fomOy and your dlWi vnll »pnng up o^io 04 if by magtr. But 
doHfOf our fonnt kod Ihc grjiu Kill grow in Iho itrccu of civty 
dty in tliw rouotfy, . . . 

IT they dare to come out and in ihe opvo ddrnd the gold iLuul- 
as A IP>oil thine, ^'c fhidX iSj^i th«n) 10 <hr uticnootl, having 

?)und uft tke prndudnf buuki d iIm Nalion and the wotld. 

LVio£ l>^lrtd ua ihe o>inn»crrUl tnVetott »nd the Uboilag ia- 
tfreaU and all the toOiag iraaao, ifc fthali oMurcr ihnr denuadi 
A Rolfi lEftndiuxl liy ujing to them, jmi fhall not prcv dovo 
'itfpaD Ihrbniw oif taUir lhiatn>wu«4 ih^imi^ Youhhall notcmufy 
maalund upon a crocs of gold. 


45. CtnSrmfarary J*aliik4t ittuit 

Tlkr Collowiog extnctt bom the Rqiublicoft platform of 1908 
trrcal tbr irndriKy of the olikr inues crovring out of the Civif 
War and RocoMiniclkm to diuppear bdorc (he nsc of ihc newer 
tntrtticM coonectcd wilh llie grovlb of induitiry and cunun^rce, 
t» vebiliofu of capilol and lawf. ihr grivrmmrvt fd cicjr defiend- 
midm, tnd ch^ cofucrvadoii of 011/ noiufml mouKcc. Tbc 
pgnofri f^tvtk bere rikoufd be cotnpAred with Mr. Toft's aicrept- 
ance ip««k aad «illi die pUlfurms of ihe other partin. 

We favor ibe ntablulimeot of a poOal lavifigs ba»k 9fl/ltm tar 
tbc coarealcace of the people aad llu encmmgrineoi of iLrif L 

The RepuUioai Pony pawioJ tht Sbrrnuui ,\nu.Trua law over 
DcmcKMic oppoailSon* and citforctd It after Drmocraik dertlktioci, 

bn been a wbolcaniBe bumnurnt for ^nod in the band«uf a wue 

m^in' iirir*a *hmfV lff« prtid^^ ^ aWprfttmt factv^oi i.j*i'>Hy 

"T, .'-tTBr iitwv awf **<tlA|f dir «iMMB«oi^»t erf ^xn. Eiaa 

lii'^ ' n KrmfM in rrimTffotinnal form it tbe piuuit KsioB of 
' '.n/f f ih<- PrnplrtypTu' Liahtfity law. tbg pawi^ and grfbtP- 

i,r'.i" Ff^-r. "frFirH f'-T m((JnrCT?i anH firemtn, the mhirtiDn in tbe 

I r f h'i. .rinf Tminm^n .iM rnnrr»aH t^rgraphers, the smxcssful 

' '"■ I ' F rl' iKi.^TT': '(f mMirtfion and arbitratioTi between inttr- 

p ii' r .i'f . .h| \hi\ ibrrr /*mj»l''>y''«, 3iw1 fhc law makEng a begin- 

I' j'l ^^■' |i'f" V '>f I "m|trn«rt'i'>Ti f'»r injured employees of the 

' ■ ■ " " imrtnir tS^ FTVi^r rommrfidahJe atrompUsbments 

' '' I , * ' M< 'irtrrrirpi'^tfnii"ri Rn( thrrp IR further work in this 

y"< ' r III Fi'' flf>rir-, jiml ih^ k^puKlkan Parly pledges ha 

■ I il< i-Hj^Mn (n t-vrxy rmur rhiil makes for safety and the 

Evolution of Fotiticil Isceucts in United States loji 

beuetmemt «l coodillou anoDg tbost wbo«t \akor coctcribquv 90 
mM€h 10 the prosRH lad wettut of tbe camOTf, 

Tht sune wIm policy whkh hu laduccd the KqiubUcaa Piny 
to auuilAin prolfflioo to Aivericui Ubor, to CEStftbUsli (u ri^fat- fRKf«iir. 
bnur ibj in thr raatfrucdan <il til fMiMie irrdu, 10 htcrt^ke Ibr liil 
of rmplijyns nhu thtll hi^r prHrrrrcl c:bim» ^r ^aga under X\tr 
baiJEmpicj Uk%, u> jilopl ■ «fcilU Uboi vutulr for Ibc District of 
Columbui, 10 direct tn lavwilfaiion Inio th« <ofl(Uik)Q of woiking 
kVomeo utd chitdrtn* and kicr, of fmploy«» of trlephoae and 
'triegnph oomfiAntc^ ciW<' >» ii^tcnUK biiiincfl, m ft|>pmpriaie At the rMcnt scttioa of CnngrcM ia ordrr lo wcurc a 
fftonwigh utquiiy lalo the CMOna of caltiirophctt and lou of lik ia 
i« mKocs tad to unmd »ad strrnitthr-n Ihr bw ^inihtL-iiiiiK ihr 
ol coDtrad Ubur, Bill bv puit^ued Ui wcvy legitimate 
Iraction wltliU Fcilcnl authority lo Uf^ten the burdras mil fa- 
Ibe opportunity for hapi^oov wt advviuemmi of all %tho 
•oR. Tht RrpubUcna P^rty reoocDiitA the ipcf til ncob of wi^ 
«rtrkrrt gcnctnlly, foe ihcir wrH l-rSng mtata the vrcU bong of «IL 
But morv important th^in all oihrr ranradrr^lioru it that of f^pod 
dtisrvihipi uid wvcfpKiAllyKUTidfoTthtncvcfAoi'rvrry AmrriciD, 
vhatc^r Ut oixvpfttkio, id bit cipiicity u 1 iclf'tnipcctiog ciU^a^ 

The ReptdiGcm Poily during the b>t twcive jneon hu acconi' Th* 
'pushed ntrwinUnv}- work b brinslcjE the rcsoiacra of the Nfttioofll "" 
[Covenunent to ibe aid of tbc fanner, iiot anJy in odvuicing ogri- 
dcure ItAtlf, but ia incrrMng ibe ccnTmienccsi of njrtl tife» 
Fne nml moil drlivcry ba^ bcco catAbUohed; il now revbes 
,nllh»» of our dtuem, and we favor iti ettnuioii antU ncry 
ity in the IomI roceivra the full benefits of the pwlol 
We recc>gniM the totul and n-ononiicil advanu^i^ of 
country roods* ouJaloIncd more and more Uritly at put^ 
and Less and Itoi at the ejq>ense of the abutting owner. 
In ibK woHi we (anunoid ihr growing practice of SCaef aid. xnd 
we approve the eficirta of the NatinnoJ AgrirvlturaJ I>qai1niFnt 
by eipcriiamix and olbcrwve io make dear to \bt public tbr licot 
BPCdKKla of toad coMirucdoa. 



no Amcri^n Government and Polttica 

Wc IndAFM the movement fnaugnnitcd by the ndminidrntickn tot 
Ott ctKistmxwn rif nuluml naourcrs; wc appmvr uIJ mta^urvs to 
prrvcnt the wnMc of timber; we oommrnii the irork now Kotnn oo 
iot Chc rrcUiiiauoii td arid Uadt, and rr^ftirin ihc RcpubVcui pt^lk}^ 
of Ihc frrv dislribuiion of ihc avuUblv arnu of the public domaltt 
10 the loodlfw ijciiUt. Nti ^>bllK«lic>i] of the fuiurv ]a mttn InsuieDl 
and QOne will rwuli in grturr Lk-afiingfl l;j poHlcriiy. In line with 
ihfA tplrndid undaiokinf U ihc further dory, e<|uiii];r impcr&tii'r, U> 
enler upon & flTitcmatic inrprnvimcnl upon & Lar^ attd eonqm^ 
fcemive fJan, juat to all [-ortioQi of the tountiy, of the waterwai^t 
hailion, Hod |trc»l l^ka, hIkmc nni^ir^d adafiUUlEty (o lliv to* 
cRuag tm^c ul the bud ttt <>iie <]( ih« gmttvl ^l> i;f a benign 

The lODsp^cuouA concributionA of AmtHean auEcJimaiuhip to 
tfac grent cauH of interrvaliona] pcmv, «□ nij^ally ndvini-fd in 
ITir Hjj(iir ronfrrrncos, arc an oi'r*.^jfn Iot jimi pndr Jinil ^alJ- 
ficalion^ Al the biit iTHion of ihc ScttaTc of the United Slate*, 
elcvru }C;kKiJr i^iivtiiliom v/rrv rAtifitil, rvLjibiuhhiA the iJj^liU of 
neutraU. lawi i^d nix on laixd. rriUktiun of mbmarinc ndciei^ 
HsddnK itic usr of fonx; for the collection of co(itrocti»l dH>t>, 
governing [he opcnlnf; of h^^iililicA, cElcndiog the application of 
Geneva pHnclplciT '^^j i" ninny waya Icucrring the evtU nf vrar 
and promoitng the pnarrful aclTkmrTii M infcrnntional contrnver* 
taa. At the same scnion tweUc aiHtfjtion cuni^nllodu with 
fTvat nalEom vrcra oonfLrmed, and iMiradJiion, boundar7 ^ttd 
naturalixatloQ tmtcies of Mpreme importance wen ratified. 
We iadonc mch aohlevementi aa the hJf;hrst duty a pmple cnn 
pcffonn and procUirn the obHgnrtnn of furthfe slreni^aiitig Ibe 
bcmdH at ftimdnbi^i and ^nod will nith :i!l nuTiim* of the wnrbL 

We idlirrr ti^ th'' KrpuMiran dorlrinr of m^nLimg^menl Co 
AmenVmi da^ppiDg and ur^v «uch le|{tilatioD ai will revjvr- Um 
ncvebant marinv pre»clge of the counliVi v» evaeQlial n> natlonnl 
dcfcme, the cnlarceinent of fortign tnde and Ihc induslri^ piot- 
pcriiy of our ovm prcf 1c^ 

Wv annninid the rSons deduced to vnire gteoler eflidefiqr in 

Evolution of Political I»uc« in Unitetl Stttc» 1 1 1 

NadoiuJ pubtk hrthh a^ncici, ajul fftvor web k^iJAlioa at wiU 
cflcci IhEa parposr. 

In the intcn*! of Ike gmt iriia«nil bdtjiUie* of oar couotiy, 
MTCcMlir Tai^^ <bc cattUlAncM cJ a Bureau of MIdcs ind 

1lie Am»VATk OnTtrmmrat, in Rq>ublLcam hatifbi. Itjui frcrrf 
CubA, fpivn pnicf- imJ protorlAon to [^9lnl> Kico and the J"hiSp- 
pincs (mdcr out fljig, and b«gus (be cvtutnictioa of the Pjnauia 
CuuL The prne&l rooifltlans b Culi« lindlr^lc ibv wImIooi 
of munUiniog bvturen IhM Rqiublk uid Uilft InpcrUhable bonds 
of mutual inlcnsi, and the hope U now eiprcaud ihal the Cuban 
people will »M>a i|;aln be xtady to asaumc complete MiYrei^iy 
over ihdr Uttd. 

In Pevio Rko Ihe GortmrarDl ctf tbc United 5la(c« it im.Tlin^ 
loyvl and patriotic nq>pOTt; order and proqicri^ ptci'all, and the 
well bebif d the people b t& evoy itspccc promoted and coH' 

We bdlere Ibtl the Bitiiw bibaHiants <tf Porto Rico &htniU be 
at Mice collectiTdjr madr dlizcn* of the L'niled Stites, and that aJI 
othetv pfopniy qualifini unttcr eiiUta|;t lawi reudinj^ Id uid uland 
rf»i^ haTe the pririlo^or b«t:oming luluralued* 

In the Phnippioei insMrrection bu been mppceiced^ bw c«inb- 
lishtd ajid tifc ud property made Mcure. Educadoo and prac- 
Ikal etperieoce Arc Ibcre adrandng the captdty cC Itic pec^ilc for 
(COTrtTimcttl, and the pollria of MeKialry and Roowvelt a/e Wild- 
ing tbe JnhabcIafilA step bj step Ij> an rkerincreaain^ mt^aAire ol 
boiDc rule. 

Time baa juBtiGed the >eleclu>o of ibe nxjle fur tlie gveil 
IsthnUn Canal, ood ilic evenU h4tv tf»wn the vrui^m of teaniai 
aiiikirlty ovtr lb« aoM thtnu^ vhicb It is to be built. The work 
b CMW pnif(T«anng irilh a rapidllj far heyimd erpeetatinn, and 
abeady tbe reailcalkia i4 the hopes of ceatuxKs ha$ cumc within 
te vWoa of tbe »car future. 

I,' \\\ 

, .. , . .,.; L-rii.,- :.- - ' i^-TJ-. 

:,. '1..- vr ' .- :ri:. -^ 
lis* - 



'<'"t!' "J' 

■■ ■ 'I- Lr 

Tlw Development of Fviy MjKhinery i ij 


oMftlEcs^ Afcould, to ■ Atrniit to ndml&ftlii a ipjfvrnor, hivr th« 
MBe figbb ud ocfcuc ihc same powen oi itpublicaa nKmbcn 
tif (lie kftifllaiurt, ll itv. 1 Ix-ticvv. ivrU uiKtimocid, ili^ tn th« 
grrjint ^njpurtHjn cj ibc couaiin nrpreBestivtl by fcdt!ralUu, i 
vcr> lorirc irujodiy <if ihc nfiublicaiw avrv In favor of ibc noml- 
nation of Mr CliAlOA, BcbiiIcb. the ClEnloniaiu, hy mtam. of 
the cdtinfil U dppi^tmcDl, coairDllcd ihc pLaircinngc of Ibc Aifttc, 
•fid ^t WM nrtl diffif uVt for a nuin who unilrrHbiA<l Ihr u«r i4 idol 
■DUKluBe u wcU Ns Jiidsc SpcatCTr to ooDm>l by its iafli^cticr, the 
vtioa of mvi ol ihc cuuuty coQvrntiocu. U«iice. i1 w niuvl 
cvidcdl that the Klo}>lwn oi the scbctnc could sorcrlf fjil lo for- 
.TOd, a&i) )>«Th«(M. I may »d<l, ejiAiar* th« trfuroph vi Mt. CSotOQ. 
In MCordoDce vith these i^evs, 4 rqiublktkQ coci\-rtitioa wus tint 
■Md b ihe <Vttnty of AJhdJiy. at which John J. Mi>ak wu (half- ^^^^|^ 
nun, aad Jacob l.anfug ttcfetMPf, on Ihc fourlh ckf l-'efaruuy, rtptHcuin 
ithcB ll WM molvrd th^t IW cnuMir* rrprrsrnirtj \rr tnkni\vi» taiT*^** 
in the IcsUUturr. oughl Id be rqinciriKed ia the state coovenlkiD 
lo ooniaoi* a ^v«rT>or by rrpvbfkait ddripLtt:* chosen bytucb 
^counths; and Albany bong rvptTttcQinl by fnltraJiiti, John 
Woodworth, HUsha Jcnkiu, John McCirihy and Thomas Hai- 
tnan wnv •pputnlcf! dclr^aiM from thr cimiity of Alb&ny^ OLhcr 
couniiat fetpecuble for Ihrir veilth, pumber and in9utDcc« fol* 

The ikl«gate» Iq llw »talie cttntTnliaa thiu cbusFQ wien lee omily Ckii 
fatonUo 10 Ihc novdlUlloo of Mr. OJnron; and like the dele- 
fatCA trom ihe oMinty of Albany ««rr compoMd of rq>ub1icanB 
of hffli Handing and character. From \ht county of Oacida, 
Noihui WUIiaAtt. ind Htnrj Hoodngton ncrc ebotcn, and fion 
Gou&tf of QnUrio, Gideon Granger, thf IjIc eniinfot ;uxl dn- 
tfinguiihvil poaimailrr gencraJ, «aa a dclqtalc^ 

Oxw diftculty «fhkb Mr- Van Bunm and hi* fricnda bad la 
tacountcf, wja to fix upon an opfMxIng cani^date lo Mr. CJinloo 
Id caucus. Who to ibe man ibat woold vcnn ibc po<i oad 
eoflnfainc Ihe grealeil ulrrngtb, was a <|vntion no^ wy li> be jwU' 
^tkuily d«eided. They finally iittd on }^ff Vaiu. He had 




AnivHcan Government and PoliQca 

Aijbcrtd Uf, tu3d dtftniM Mr. CUoton Iq:^ a/ter b« had been 
dcDouiKcd \ty Judge .^pcncif- Od his drcuU ihc preceding mjum- 
ttKT, h<; hitii in vurioua pliicci urgfd hU rricn<li lo 3Up|H>ft the nomi- 
lurLiw t>f Clinukn. It wnji sufipcnnl Ihjit the known fticc^Uhip <if 
Jnci^ Vala bo Mr. C would indkHr? ftomr of ihf^ latter to support 
the formrr; but a diCTrrent remit irtt pitxiuctd- Mca fdt in* 
(UgnoiLi wbirn lli«y wvre irjvikd to ujppvrl a m^ii in vppuaitiitML, 
who hid binadf tiLkcn pttiju sknd bt«n iritirumeatol b cocLvindnc 
ihcm that Clibioo ou^ht to be cho&co governor, A tUy or tvrD 
Mart the meeting of the stale cuoveotioQ, Judge Yalei poeiitividjr 
drt tjne<1 liring ft riLnrlld-Lic Thii pKiiincMl »omr ronfuik>Q in 
the rmLi of the oppcuitiuo, but Ibey linaliy fixed upoa G«fL Peter 
B> Porter >« their e^LiiilIdaie. 

The ilftle cunri^olioD nau held at th« capitol on ihv i;(h March. 
U[Ksn balblinjj for a candiibtc, Mr. Clinton received rl^hty-llTc 
Tolrs And GcHp Porter forly'One. Il via UAdiTn^tOAd ihoi aucijr 
mrnib^rii and rwrftty-fiw riplfjpitr* vaxcd for Mr ("linliM, juhI 
Ihirlj^-threc meirihers jud tstven <lelF^l« for iiii op|>Ljneni. 


47. 7Ae C<mgraii^fud Camus far IVominating Frttidfnlict Cam' 

In iRqo. il.e FrilrutUlh in C^innfiA* lirld a ftrcrd i^inft-rfiice fo 
agree on candidates and (hui pretcnt a TMiUd front to the Je6er- 
lOQMDK. Thn Hb«m«, dimjAini-'rv! at the tinw by thr cippoiitc 
pony, VMs however, speedily adopted u i Tv^hi Instituiloa for 

DOCoifUtinG pre-dtUtttbl candidJtu. jnd it hslcd until the rlecl^ 
of 1B14. snoD It gave wiy hvi\tn th« popular upiihmK in favor 
of Andrrw Jadi«in- 'I'hr fuTLowlnx olncUl rtfoid of Ihc raums 
of iS34afat>wihow tbeiyilcra workod:^ , 

Cluunber of the Hotue of Reprtccnladve* of the Ur^lted States. 

Fcbtvary 14, t$34* 
At M meeting of the republicaa mecnben of Congnsvs, avKviiYbled 
ihU ereniag, pnnu*ni oo public noitce, For tfie purpose of rnom 
needing lo ibr pecpdc of the United StAio niitAbk pcnoaa 10 be 

The Dcvdopmenc of Ptrtjr MachiAory iif 

wppomd SI the ippfoidilo( «kcllan, tot ibe oActn d prcwleol 
umI vtcc^proidoit of tbe Uniud 5uio; 

Oq nx>Eian of hit^ Jnmr^ BAftntir, of VlrfitUt — 

Mr. B<QJafnin Ruggl^, a »nuioT ttom ihe Uitt ol Ohio, wta 
called bo ibc cbJLir, ajid Mr. EIa CoUin», a rqircMftUtivc fnjcn 
the tiatc ol New Yotk, waj appoinicd McrtUry. 

Rtjolrrd. Hat lldi mecciag 60 bov procved (0 dndgnl*, by 
UBot, « (.ladldtM for pniWetu <if lb* Unltad Suut. 

DcMTtiufKd ia the aiRrm^re, 

Oq anotkia of Mr \ui Bureo ci N«r Yorii, il wax 

Rrwivtil. niikl Iht Chatfttin <^»JI \tp ibr vrptiblku) mrmtvri 
oT coQgFm bjr itaifVt lO ofdrr bo itccttv their resprcltvc Mhits. 

WhvraipoD ihpf Chiimun i>toc«vd*4 to a call, uid It appeand 
die foUoiriac menbora wtrr pmcnl. , . . 

Mr. htmtL of Vlr^a, ud Mr. Cunhnknc of Mew Vorfc, 
«f» tppcoiiiod idtcn, aimI, <m counxia^ Uic bdlout U a|iponnd 

WBUiMi H. Cravfotd had lif l7<kK>' *otfS» 

Jolin QuiBcy Adaoii two vulcs, 

Andrew JackaoD oo* itii*. and 

Ka Aukl Ukoh one vote. 

Mr. E>lcfcl&*0Q of New Jtnty ibcti ftibndiird the Mlowiof 
tcaola^b, which wu agrrrd to: 

lUulmtd, tlkat thb moetJAg do aow prooevd ta dtmgMte, by 
b^lot, t candidal* lor Ibc oAiv cif vice prcaadvnt ci llie United 

Ur. VaD Burca, of Knv York, dien lUud that be waa auLhorixcd 
DO my dial Ibe vice praadcnt haviQ^. 9000 dme itocir, dctfrminKt 
bo rdtre from public life, did not wiah lo be irprded by lu» fhcnda 
aa a cVHfidaie for reUrtlkin to Ihat oAcf . 

On couniinx the btibta, ll appetnd that Albert GalUitn, of 
PUn^lvaaia, bad fifir-awoi nxbn; John Q. AdaiM <d MaMA- 
dinMlb, one vote: WTtH^m Eiislii d MamdniMtK ooe vole; 
StmocI SbMi of Mor^iand. one tivic: WtlHam Kio( of Maine 
oorvote; Kkhard RualiDf reot^-lvuia. oAcTuic: EraMiu Kooc 


,:. .«. .M#^v# - \* jw*>* v: titt I-isted vv^. *■ 
, .T — ;»'«■ ' -• ■*v''*A*nj JOT tat 


/ J. / „,- 

Iv^'.-^rft'ir ^i'^'w',k^2&. ' Taii-fKTT 

^ff f. 

''''''fn-j.- A|.'.'»«fef M ^tatUi 

The Dcvdopmcni of Party Mtchincry 117 
h^id hfcn rxfluded from the prcddoficy by the Mc^on of hii pcT' 

tbe foUowing prot«M ik^Umi tbc caucus tysicn wu Lfitnxlucodt 
bar Mr, Uruiwly, * Jickfton 

The |[ciKra1 >x>cmbly of the stntc of Tc!iui<«*ee hu ukcn into 
considfTfttipo ibe pradfuk which, on lormrr occastoos, hu prevailed 
<tihe<iiyof W«jhingtoii,<if InembcrKl^f thecongreuof the Umitd 
Slafn mrcCln^ in tmicii^ ±tt<i nnminnlin^ jirrunii tn be voted for 
41 prrvideat lod vice^prAident of the LiQiltd Stitc*: and, upon 
llkc beat view oi the subject vhidi this gvueval oiscnibly hu bc«ti 
cnablnl to lake, il is tieljeinl thftl die pnctict of coogivealoiiftl 
Dommaiioiu b u violitioa of ilic spirit of tlic cooctitutiaii of the 
Vniit6 HilM. 

1>Lal instnimait proridcv thai thrrt shall Kr three fepanic aod 
dUltnfl depanacnts of the fp>vcmmcnt, And sreal c4Te Ukd cku- 
tioii Mem* to have bc^a mrvUed by tu frimen lo pret^ol uiy one 
depaflmeni Iram cxtiudiiK Ibc nnalleit dq^rec of Influence over 
another; and buch colkittnk wu frit on ibia fcubjed, th^Ll. in the 
second section of the secood anidr^ it ls c;q>re«l>- dedArcd, '' Thftt 
no imaiar tfr rtfra€miaiivr^ or person hotdinj: nn cdfice of tnivt or 
ptiifit uoder the Cniird Sttiea, ^^1 ^ appointed aq elector." 
Frucn thu proniion, it U app«rcnE that the mnvenlioo btvaded 
that the ownbm of conjcrw fJii»jhl not Lie the principal and 
primuy •ffFotv or acton m electing the preridcnl and vicc-prevldcni 
of the Coiivd Sutci* — 80 f*r from It, tbey an cxprcnty (HMiMali^ 
fied fion b«i&( placed to a aitttaiion to vi>te for ihotte hifh oHkrn. 
1% there sol ooore danger of undue? inttuenrr to he apprrhended 
when ihr mrmhcrs of rongrcM mrtt in caucus and nautuaJly and 
•oleoMity pirdge Uwanselvra to fupport the indinduab who may 
havcthrhighcatDiunbef of voioinsudi merlin^ diaa there wouU 
be in pcnniuipig them to be di^Ue to (be appointment of dcf tors? 
la Ibc bticr cau. a few charactent, rendered l&tlE^ble by the 
ooonUuiian. mi^t MfCMd^ bvt. ia the former, a powreful font- 
binaiioB ol infiueniial mta U tonwd, ^iiho aiv fij u^^n the Attxt* 
kan pM>|^ tMr U^hcil ottcen agAjmf ibr cooxnl d a cle^r 


iniiviCAn iflvuimnui^ sm^c J^aiEBEs 

o wv^u Liir < 'nsfltq npB^ ■ aw wwtf . >•' 

, Mi^i.f. 'mill ^.n ivumnttxr-^' tr^ 
, .. , lAit. run - <ur «r car w 

.,■ iTTiniwci ■> *i. «hafv<i- ir. l*^«ftti«f.. 

i.> . • 'i-k(t%ni .>v -rie'i4rtiwii' t4l*«^i sari Itasi 

tc^n. tiD 1 ihi^xni' \^—_ TnT'hnriBntitniliiifcilj_i 

i-.iiacjvM -k ui:<iiwri IJtf OKii Umi fmaiBUa], ciaovi'fe 

.....jkuu-'u, «^ ipolri 4n^ itnimnmcsb. abuin ka 

. ^ . . ijiMrru I oMtMLlmti Of i^iminNn! of tin- iadrriduiis 

. ir.'tij^ffCitni miiu.l it hti irmrcLuiiKJi;. aiu] an flK< 

. ,v '<: ur. viU'tti itUKiif^n. titt MlJimnif-TouiiB- niitcii 
. P . iMrj^iiK^iiUiii auL <ni^iffirnt7ii. mm bun 0^ hcoi 

„«^ nil. pFk:-.iLtutliiiUiLiu^ ii lut ^iiufrrnufitu' biiimiMi- 

. .,_ ,|. i K I'.ili iii'j;iiii'ijiLni mil muiiuui:. .iii 

.^T'-'^i i«i ■ '.«:.-rtu: !»! inui !Ma::ciR^ miL insraTip: 

..,1;" Mil i:r. :»' iU^-liGiii; riHjnwjxva iit^7Iiiimu 

' ,.^i:J:;i-i^'>. -:;t- -^i.tuii-s tjtt etimut? 

■ ' ,-■ Ti- ^m.i;i:i:;i.ii i. :ni vtinuj «aic»i 

. i.t ,, ' .; li.i ■ n "iTiK. -.v ;iM Qn-JT'j*Jii:= :r 

-■ • • •' ■■ ■-•'-'•-.'j wi: ;«i;.»:ii- i^rni^r- 


The Ocvck>pmcnt of P«rty Michinerjr 119 

49. Jtuks^i first Natiomal CtmvtmtM 

Tbe first aAtkmal p&rty ccnwniioji wi» hitU it BihiinoR Id 
ityt b^ tbc Anti'Mn^^k ^^^y* which *(Oo| up suddcnlir m 
oppodUoo 10 Pkc Muomy .ind ai i^wvdtlf lUappcaird. 71i« 
Mtond oaaTmiieii wia hcM in the Kime yntr by ibc Anli-J^- 
waiJiBa, who Dooiimlvd CUy acd maubki] Oic ruinv i>[ NjitkiuLl 
nqxtblicuuL. Ii WM,Ci|oounc,>cttlcdthiit Jitckmn^ou^d tit hi» 
own iwi.-«»r: bul he *•» *xtmiwly aniiout to havr hU friend 
Vu Bun-n noouoaicd for ih« vice jimldeDcy. Acconfin^lv. Ii« 
ccatrlTTtl, Ihmu]^ hi« bgcni, Amos Kmdill, so hftTc 1 nAlkmiu ca»- 
Tcntioa oiQkI ''spooiojirouily" by Ul wvporten in the Ncv 
HATnfi4hiiTlr|p4A(uir. <>fttliUc>H m *» «flb1yoJ Jrli:|:ntf^ "Irrali 
froip (be people** met tt Bildroorc uid noixdiutcd VwBumi, 
AS had bnn conlrmpUlcd, Ther puTpcuc of the aBsembl/ wu 
Mtfofib by Uf^Saomcr b the opening iddren, whicb followi: — 

GeXTULiax — Tbt pfopo9h£oifi for oillitt^ a j^«rat oonrention 
of dritipita, 10 i<t (in the nnminaCion of a rftniikdjilc for )irr«i(inir, 
aod to seJfcl a suitable caodiilaie for the oincr of vK^pTnid^t uf 
ibe Uniled Suia, oTigLnakd m the *tate o( New UamtKhire, 
bf lb< lHiad» ol dtiBocncy in tliJi siale; Aod it &pp«an (but ttie 
pfoposkiNt, aJibou^h opposed by the cDenica of Ihc dcmocmtJc 
pvty, hat Bnund f Avor in neorty and pcrfiofa fill Ihe aUtd in Ibc 
Upion; v> thai we find o>l]^ted at this time and plare a graaler 
And morp general deltRAtinii fmm (hr poopie than wjo ever bdove 
ittemblod opL« aa ixTauun <if the i»tl. 

The object of the repRMQtaliva «l the people of New Hamp- 
AIr who calM thfa cottvc&lioii wu. not tu lakpoee oo ibc poople^ 
u candiibto for either of ibc two finl of&cca in thii foreromcnl, 
■^ loctJ f avorilc ; but lo enncentratr the opfaiocM of all ihe sUlcti. 
TVj believed thai the grraC body of llw people, biriog bat <hm 
comiwio {Qlee«(, can and will unite, in the wpport of io^nrtnU 
pdndplts; tliaC the opceatioo of the nucUnefy uf goventmeiU 
CDofiittd vtilhlo Itt legldMiatc iphai ii ilie ume id tbe oofth, •oulli, 
iMMiDdwfsi; th4i4]chou^d«l9ite^ nun, ever dACcib«adfifi- 
twn of Ibe cDoatiniliait, have bctct oeoieil in ihcif acrtkiii* bo 
ndtr H<t(oaal fnlinf and fterlUAal inlerrAt, and to a^ay one 



WW ciUii 


of Hhccv 

Ice* vnl 


AmmCAn Government and PoItHcs 

prjrt[i>n oi tlic Cfluntiy fLgfticct wkothcr, 1h« gntU and ^^mtoIuI 
ifiUral* of jdl «rr (lii: Tmiii', Hn-j WUi-> i^d l\iM Ihc lonunit ^' 
gclhcT cJ rvprorQUaiiH of llic |HvpIt fruro Uie »Lmuilj- oj ibe 
imion, vouM hnvc a l^ndc-ncy lo toothc, if noi lo unite, ihc >uTJtitt 
iattrab* which »znrElinn f^oice in ti:tnl1ici, lt\jm the dlffenat 
MTlIfifia of ihc country. 

lliq: coDsid^ml Ihc indivi'lualft. who might he sricctcd sfl nuv- 
dFdftiH for offii:c, ta be of much U^ tnnHqufnct thnn th« prin- 
ciple t*ii whkli lljvy u/c dcAitEUHl^l ; llirv cIii'ukIiI ii Jm|iOTUnt to 
offccmin the faci, whether the people Uienvselvct. ur tlioae wlicj 
wijuld (rufttraie the voice nf ihc people, thould «uccc«l In our 
elcctinnt^ They bclim^d that iTic ciiiniplc of ihia convuniion 
wnuld oprralc fftvnmhly to fciurc df^irtinns; thai the people irouH 
hr disifl»*ffi, afJrr w^inK thr jpnn1 ciTo^T* iif thin <imv«»tic>n in 
couciluUfig ilip diffcrrnt uid iliitfljil «HtiiLkii» of the t^ouDtiy, to 
coMloue ihU EhiJik uf nominatloQ. 


The convenrioR ^yMem which appearrd to he such a pn^pul^r 
In^lllullon, coRipflrcd with the congr^'uioniU catjcu«t nevctlhclcM 
encmimercd Ifaenmc obje*:liora; canuljr. ibul it waa a mode hy 

Mvhkti Ji unifiH jE'i'^H* *'f i"'IJli'^^"H iiniUl (iin[n4 jirefuii'Dlini Ilooi* 
fauiiion». Scj^Alor Bcntc<n ndvunccd ihiji view shortly after the 
cunrenlion h^ br^n aduptciJ la a permuiml m?»liluliriiL 

'11114 prrsidi^niinE elwlivm nF iSf4 i« rrmarkablr uuiier another 
aspci:t — ' oi hnviiig put aa end to the |)rcictice of caucut rnxmns- 
tiooa for th« Prtddency by tovmbcn of OiD^nGss. This mud^ of 
mncentrallng public opinion faegaxt to he pmctbcd ta the rmbcat 
RiTD frf ihc kevolution, to whom puhlir opjnloiii ftmnled a prefer^ 
ence> were panng away* and whrti nev men* of mon equal pre- 

hnnBivu^ ivrrr mming UfHiti thr Mn^, II wft> iKrd ■rs'eraJ tinwt 
lUccevi ^d grocml aprprntHEKtu. pul>Lk. wntimrnl hatiog 
bcett followed, and not led, by the caucus- It wia aiumptcd In 
■S*4« amI f&llod, the ffieii«]« of Mr, Craufnrd only afi«Dd|tig — 
otbcsi not ineiufiiig. not fiom any repugnance to the pncike. 



The Development of Party Machinery 

la thrir prrviooj ronrfucl hod Aftwo, bui bfr&uic il wu k&own 
tt-il Mr. Cfatrford hud the lu^ral aumbrr (if (rimck fa Coonffreu 
«nd would Mfundly rrcd¥r Ihc aamiattk4k. All ihc resi, thert- 
fore, rrfuscd in gri int'> il; all ji^nrd in oppA«bg thp "raunift 
cuLctidfltr," AS Mr- Crmford i*u caltc4; »U united in painUDg 
ibc iDlriifuc vid cofTuplioQ of UicM cutcui DonuAatJoiu, And the 
Anumaly ol mepidien of CoiiKrwa {ulainje \a ihcm. By ilirfr joint 
dJoEiK thqr nicccfdcd, and justly in Ihc fact tboush nr>i in ihc 
molhY, in rrndtrinx thc« Cmptu Cftucua aotBtaailonA oiBmu 
Id the pttiplc, and hrdkt them <lwra- 

They vk'^n drofij>rd, tad > di^cfenl mode of cnnccntntdliK TVfva- 
publtc uptujun wajf id^ptixJ ^- ^ul uJ patfty nvnunatiuiu by oun- iicniKntiA 
vccdoiui of dcfcgous fri>m the Sidus. Tin* wvrked wvli at fini, '■>■" ■■< °^ 
the vUl of ibc pciipk bdiig urictly obQvd 1^ ibc ddt^tcs, and X^^ 
thr mijoriij making ilw noBunalioii. But it qdckly degenerated, 
and Ijcfomc obnoxious lo ill ihe oKjcedoM to Con^rvm cbuciu 
boiminationa, ud nony ollicn hcidcs. Mcmbera of Congrna 
Mill altetidcd ihrm, cilfaer ai ddeg^tea or ta lobby inanitj(enL 
Pnwiu attrncinl » ddq^Otn whA hvi no tamtiXMvaKy. Dtli^ 
golvi attended upon eijuiTn:id appoincmenU- Double veti of 
delcKiiEes HiracdmcH come Uvm the State, and cither wrn- od- 
micieii or repulsed, as tulted |b« views od the nuijority. Pr^tin 
verr invcolied. Many delegates attended vrith the flole lieir of 
f3ttablkriii&|> a claim fnr nffkr, and vorrd veordlaK^y^ 'I'hr twn^ 
Ihirda rule wm invnitpd, t'>eT]sbt(^ Ibr [nin<.iTity lo nontn^I the ma- 
jority; and die wbole procecdiiv became anomalous and Irre- 
tpaoMa, and sdbv«Tslvc of the win of the people, leavtnj; tliem 
too nvxe control o*vr the ooimnatioii Aan the subjects of king?^ 
bave otvr the bdnb o' the rhiU whkh \s bara to rule nver ihcnL 
Kio^ Coucua b «a potmi at any other king in this respect; for 
vhotrer gt4s the nonunation — no mattef how rfftcled — be- 
eionM4 the randiiUle oif the party, from Ike nix«njly of unkin 
against ibe oppoiite parly, ud from the iodispasidaa of Ihc great 
Slate* to go into the llouw of RcpnwBtadvM to be balanced by 

AmcHcAn Govcrnmfrir and Polirit* 

Th£3 Is the mo(l« nf msking Prr^donis prftcdMid by bntli partiei 
now. ll u tb« nrtuiil dcrtion I ad'I Ibus the rla:t>oa of the PreAJ- 
dtnl And V^icc-PrnudcnE at ihc Unilcd .SUl<?t hii pAtivd — out 
qbXj fium tJjp lultcKv i:^ dtcU>3 ta which (Iiv tDiLtUtuiiutt confided 
it, ajid from the people Ut wbcm ihc pmclice under the coastitu-^ 
lk>G ^vc it, and itxtm ^iiv Hv\ist vi Kf-i.-reMDlaXiva which ihp con^ ^ 
sdtution provided 0.1 ultimate orbiirr — but hu ^one to an iLDom- 
aloua IrtCiflinjwiibIc lK>dy, unknown to law Eircnnstituiion, ankiMvra 
to the eofljr agu cif our gc^vtmrnrnt^ And of which ft lArgc propor^ 
tloQ of Ihc meinlien cnmpoftmx it, ftnd 1 much larg^ proportiim, 
cf bUrii^wra aLUtHlinK il^ tiste iiu otbrr vErw nthrr in illmdiag 
DT b proiDOliiig the aomiiMtbii of aay puijculai lua-o, than to gM 
one elected who win cnahlc ihem Hj ctl out of lh« pubUc crib 
— who will give thwn a key to ihc public crib. 

The ffviJ it dwitnictivc lo the rtghti and wTcrdgntjrof the pcnpl«^ 
■nrl Ui ihr piirifir of ein'tlrinft. The- ivinrdy iv in Ihr A|ipliratiu«k 
oi Ihc denvioatic principle — (he |>a)ple to vote dJimt for Presi- 
dent and Vjcv-Pmodcnl ; afid s fccLuiid clixtion lo itv held imntC' 
<Eslcly between the two higliest, if no one Hon i majoilt)' of the 
whole iiQinbcr on the ^1^1 trUL 8uldii«vouldniquiroa&amcQd< 
meat of the conutitution* n»i to he effected but hj s coocurrcnre 
of two-lhirdt of etich hootc of CongrrM, imd tht ijuiftinn nf ihrev* 
fourths uf the St«tcs — a ooiuummfttion tti whi<:h the slrto^ of 
tbe peo|^ his not yet been equal, but of which there is no rcuoo 
10 de»palr. The sresi padjamenl^biy reform la Great Britain 
WAS only carried afler fc^rty /eixn of continued, unnuol, pemeverin^ 
cxcnioa. Our eofutitui^onal rrfnrm, in this jwLii of the prcaC< 
dcatlftl clectinnH may rri^bc but a few yrara; in (he munwhile 
1 vn for the people to M^ktt, u well ai njcrf, their cuxdidjxlei, and 
far A iT^crancr tn the Houic tn f-htM^r "rie out of three presented 
bj the people; imtvod of a caucui □oiiun:ktioa of whom it pleucd- 
Tbe Bou9Cof Repre»cnuiivi« k na ha^r ihc kimII anil 'htt^vT^fm 
decbon) colWge thai It once w«. tuBiead of thirteen States we 
nowliAve thirl^-oae; insiettdnf nrtyfire reprtMntatlvcs, wehavo 
nov about two hundred, Rcj^ponbihibty in the Hi^ute i» now 


The Derclopmtnt of Party Machinery 113 

wdl-^attblUfafd ind polUlcaJ ruiiw and pcfMOtI bumifialkiEi, 
attttd Ifae vblalfon of the vQI of ih« Sutr. No mui f^d be 
ekcBrd ninr, or fodeavor to b« elciruil (afttr the erperif nrc erf 
1800 and iRm) *^^ U nc^l «t fhr lim<t t>t thr li»^ and a chcncr of 
Ac nuioiity of thr Umon. Tbr Icvod of tbotc limcA vuuld dcta 
[miudoo «nd the democratic prtodplc would icftln crub all Gbai 
wen tnscnuncnul in tbwuttog iJcie public «ill- There is no lon^ 
Ac former ilaagCT bom ibc Hou*e of RcprcscniAii^vs nor ajiytbing 
la ll tD Jtiicily B pr^out iraoTt tf> mifh ajnnnbliigfs u oiir cational 
conventiou have got to be^ The llou*e b Ick*) and rcspoiuihle, 
tttiich tbv cuMwntkia b nut, wiA a Iktier chaact for inia^rity, 
uhaviogbeeiiactuallydcctedby tbcpn>ti]e; aodtnoirercvlniiied 
by po^tftoB, by public opinion, and a cbusc In ihc coiudfudoD, 
from Ibc occeplaiKe of office From the num ihqr dect . . , 

51. Z,nv«/n*« Ptftntt pJ Mc TAKVifiM di 5ft]ir /Vry /iuIb- 

The Mate convcntioo, whicfa brgui to ftupcnede the kgiolAtivr 
cattcuaduriiwiha ja«kai>aconieMa,c«p«daily la ihc Eaai, wa» foe 

La Abe RfMdcd vl A dbfike by many politkal kadcn ia the South 
and Wcat, liul at tut ibry mnr brvuiibl ti? cmpkiy it for maons 
ihat arc bowhcrt more rci^niiy >ct forth ihan In a pAper dnftod 

'by Liocola in 1843 mdeffriKof Ac adoptioa of Ac syAtcm by Ae 

^.Wtipof niitkoia. 

Thr >ulh mcilutinn recom m ttidf Ar adoplioh of Ibr ronvmtirm 
»>itcn for ihc nomin*tioa of ouididatr*;. Thi* wr beli^rre to br 
of ibe very fint importaiwe. Whether ibr ayitcm u right in icsdf 
e do not fh>p id inquire; cnntenUiig oundvca vriA tryi«x lo 
.ahow Aal while ou/ oppooenn u» il, ft I> aoadccv in U5 m>l lo 
defend ouiwtrfs ivf A ti. Eiptfience haa rfiown thai wo caimot 
■occcaifqlly Mtnd outulvrii without it- For euoqik, bok at 
the dcctioQ* o£ \ai ywT- 1 >ur < ^mrtidite (or ({nvfinor, wiA the 
approbalkniof a U^ite portkia of Ac party, look Ac field vilhuiil 
)t nonlttaiho, and Ln opeo oppoaltiou lo Ao tytteni- Wberrvcr 
'la Ibe ooualke Ac Vr'hfp bad bdd «Dn^QiionB and iwaibiatcd 



Amcriran Oov«nmcnt iind Politic* 

cacdidiilei Ifa the IcgbUturc, Ihc vpinrlft whri wive nod nocni- 
ftjtlnlwcrrinrluml ta rthc\\^idn*ith<twniinit^\ii.Attd lo become 
cacdkLiln, a« h h«id. "on their own hi-wk.'* And, gf> wh«rc yuu 
would idU> 4 UrK^ Wliifi oounly, you wcfc Aurv lo find ihi- Whigs 
xi»t tuDl«r]diujc ftliifuLdcr lo fliouliivr ^itnsl li^iv <.>jiiiniuii eneon^p 
but divided inlu CACtions, and fighting furiouidy with one dinoiHcr. 
Tho docilott ounc. an^i whai wu ih«- rf«ultf The govcmar 
bnten — ihe Wag vote l>cing drcnut.'d mjiti/ thixunnct* aince 
ift4<\ ft] Though ihf^ nprnnrnilic wiXc had miT inrrcfttnl anj^, 
Kolrn iln»>M rvrrywhrfr Im mrJiiWr^ of llir Irpslaturf, ^TaM- 
wrlJ iriih hct fouT hundred Whig majotit}-. sendmg a ddcfltlion 
hsif Dcmocr^tLc; S'cnniltlon wiih hvr ^ve huiiilrcd, duing ibe 
Mine; CoIm, with h«z four hundrnl, Accding two out of three; 
and Morgan, vtilh her two hundred and fifty, ncndinf^ three out 
of four, — aj:d thiA to uy Tti>th{iig >>( Ihr numcrr>u3 im glaiittn 
ciainp1f«; the whole binding up mth the ajureg»te Dumber of 
Iwenty'Wven DfmrtcrATir reprewntAtivM i/^tiX iff*m Wbi^ rauaiic*. 
As to the tataXott, luu , ihe rt^ull vu of the «a.Tne chATsctcf, Ad<J 
It [« mo&t worthy to be rccnembcrtfij ibat of ftU the Wlilgft In thif 
Suie ^o ran jgdnrt Ibe rcgulur numim«i, a ilnsif one ooJy wm 
di?<Tod. Alrhiiagh they succeeded in dtfeating the nomlnrea 
&]it;o0I by »cnrc». thry 1»o were drft^^lrd, and the fipoilft L^hucldQgty 
lionrit ofi by iht rrttirmon enemy. 

Wr ii> oiil mfttlitrn tlic fftcE of muuy of (lie WhiK^ oppiiHtng the 
coDvtQlJun 3t:9tvru berctiufore lor the punHoe of cemiuring Ihcm. 
Far frofn it^ We expnssly proiai against such a condndon. 
We kti-y-n they were irenrrdly, perbaps untvfrailly. as food and 
(me Whigt u nc oup*l\^fs tlaim to be. We mention it merely 
tr> drxw tltcnti^jn to Ihc diJ^stroi^n mult it prcduc^cd , M an Oiftinplc 
forerer brreafler lo hr a^v^ided. Thai "union ii «TrmgTh" n ■ 
tmth thai hoi brrn ^ihown, ilJuiiriled, and dorlaml in Ta/ioua 
«3>ft aiHl fornit 'm $1\ the ajcck of the wi>itd. Thai Mfvai fabuUitt 
and phikiMopber, /Gwp. illusuated it by hU fable of the bundle of 
nkka; and be whoce ndom nirpatsr* tbai of all phlTosophen 
bas dectaitd that 'a bouac di^ed agalut iucU caQSot fttaod.** 




Thr Development of P&ny Mtchlntry 1^5 

T< b iQ bdun <fux friends 10 aci upoa tMs Imporfftnl and i:T^vtf' 
»ll>' AdtDovrlcds^ imtli ibii w« ur^c the adopfEoti oi ilic coa- 
vrnlion iiyilm. Etc^don wiTt {iivtve thai ibcrc JA nn oihcr vny 
of [irArtLCAlljr ipp1>4iig iL In in aftplk^lno wr kn^-w fhrrr iri[| 
be inridcnts tcmponuily pjunful; but, 4JtfT«1l, thwc i^icidei^U will 
br (cwcf aad Icvt tnKn^r i!uil t^hout Ihr lyiuni- If Iwii Oiriidt 
«ipirt CO Ifae nine office ;l U ccrUm ihai botli cftiuocii suirvrd. 
Would It not, ihtA, b& much Icai painful to ha\r the quatfrm d^- 
ddod by nujiUBl fricndd aocw time bcfoir, ihAH lo Afiari aad qu&rrel 
until ibc day of dcciian, oj^d thi::D both he bcntctt by the oimnvm 
enemy ^ 

Before leat^o^ thU subject, we Ifaiiik pTi^ppr to remark ihni ne 
do Qijf uDdcrYt4Lnd the resolution u Ententled tu rvfummmd ihe 
a-pplic^ktioa of ihp convention tyictem to the numinitlon of Cindi* 
diuc for ihe tmiU olActt K vny connorted w(ih poHdcs: ihoufh 
vrr muit My vft 60 fiiCA p«fedve ih»l Audi AH appUtttion of it 
niHild be vroD^. 

T^c ouii^icnuice of pony orpniuiion and the conduct <A Hv*fjM 

v^xorout <M(i]pA^j(ii* urtf^Ule 1riiicTiliEj>, and Itaden^lp litiplit^ |**f 

coficcniraiton of |:<ratf and dudpliae m the rutks^ In c^^ry 

Ct municipality^ wh«re three are nurm-n>u<4 oftii-i^ |i> liIJ ukI 
>nAat franchuw9 nnd privikga lo be gnnlcd, the (inigjcle 
for Ae poi— cnrion uxi rHmtioa 0I poUtical pouYr it inii^nic, jTid 
out of Itie ettUliii hu rvohtd the city boM« tne plt^nJtudc uf whose 

EiT«er U Ihuk rlrvrtbed by Mr BnuAc Cockran in a hf rt-ci h de- 
tend in New Vuvl City in 1S9S in dcfva*e of in independent 
(tnJkiwy: — 

Now invcb hu been uid alwul boa»a and boMJuo, But it 
muM be fennenbcRd ibit wv nrc not ■atcmblod here »a cunie*! 
(be cadilMc* of n boas^Up, bni raiher 10 prrtimt ih« cxteuiion 
of its powen over the Judiduy. AH the ponvn of ibi« munid- 
poliy^ esecuiiiv *xA bfri^biive, are centred In the baada of the 
indiYidunl wlici nile* the dntinies of the hxnl Denoovfy, in the 
huvh of Ibe Uiu, md Ibere it vili renula vbalevi^ may lie 



- T"f«fint»|lii lU--. 

Uttv, uiitl ilicit ' 
thr liti/fn ii ■ 
■KFutt'tQ under wbhclvA 

fmru ihr '^r ' 


Ten fli 
EiHtir, »ti< 


li. : ■ ■ 

Ik pIc^V 
Lirual waiter, 

vliidi in w 

:titf pro 

- ■ .LTid X. 

The Development of Pirty MauhirtCfy 137 
ttOnct tbc fivor oi tht bo«* bj oftnojinj^ the object of hU rtacM- 

Iritootf f&iruul ]«mjik JLutkc thftt, I ^Hiukluv, n^niSrlrnn^ "n^ 
biH oppnctUB>tH4. tiir«Klrrij;ig hit ^wmrr, thil nur bo« rnajr well j^ 
decbte with LorU Oivf^ ''CoiuidcriDg my opputluiutics, I ant 
ftiiiAud ai mj uwn inijdvra1b>fi>" Concdf* fof a tm>mcnt 1ue» 
puiitioii, Had ikoQ ttU mv if he be iKjt niber enitikd to pmbe far 
focbewice iImh blunc for acen;- I do noi bcHcvc Iq boM p>v* 
cfDmcai, but 1 bdlei'cllialunilcrcztitic^condilioAiitUUtrnUble. 
I do nut bdif ve Ihar tibr bou hM crriUed the bQt»4ha|> wbkb he 
bdminutkri. He U nit ihe wurce of il; he b Ibe product vi it 
Why, tbe Gnl »pwih 1 ever dirUvntd m Tinummiy Uall. I de- 
Kvcnd agaloKi ibc nuuLAirc which I dtcu foreiaw would ntuli la 
the cmdan of dcipodc potrctt In thb communiiy, to whkb I now 
attribute the cKbuAce of the bo«Mhlp ■» ll flourlAn and doml- 
m\t* tts, ukd Kibi>dy apfilsaded tne mon hcATtUy Ibnn ibe indi* 
viduoJ who now is the bou of Tjumioiny HaJL I da not wuit any 
{MflknlaT cbugc la bnw, Alt bo«ei bxjk alikv to m>. (Pm* 
luB^ul lMigbl«r and nppluue.) 

E>cfcoii»ofmhasiViC>>pri r flef ct ,immunirfq!, which we oure. 7^*>>*Pf 
Meure from ibe intofervacc of any bo«» evem thi^ufih he cnntrul 
tt»e earemiive And kghUtivc dqiortmrAbi of ibe city And «tjtlc, » 
lung «A llie judgn arc Tirtuoui, frve, and intWpnidcnI. But Id 
ibe powcf of the boat be cxtmM ow the judkiocj, Irt Ihe judg«« 
be uos^t ih4t Uiefr pQctfptcli of re-Boialnaliott, and of proRioiion 
drptad not npon byolty to tbc pc'^plci ^t ^'P'^'^ obvdUnca to th« 
bos ^ our riglia aad our priticfcs arc no longer oun in bo 
enjoyol while w« obey the bws of our cououyi but ihoy beo>n» 
Che Iavot Ihit we may enjoy ircm the forheoninte uv fAVor of a 

SJ. nU /"drii ^ a Shit PMkai Afof A jnf 

Bdon Ibe iiit half of tbc mnetMCtli cealvry IimI «Up«ed, diAt 
lUrtMAiy foe pony anky w^wn ibe cnvinwn enemy, whkh lia- 
oiln bod pointfd out lo U* coUeaguo ia mUvou, kd to on orgoiii- 



American Governm^fit uu) Politics 

cal Ribdiviitua in ihv UuiL>n in v/\\\ch ot^cvn wen U> b« lelvcied.' 
It bu often h;ippcncd tlmt LhiH nuigtiiliccnt OT^guiixftlicin h»jt fAllcit 
iotu thr liaiKJK of imIjii: M«k«r«, prijfnaiunal |xiB(i;.tiii&, and |>ri-S 
vate prr^n:^ iicckinj; Koin al j^iublir cviirnHc^ The follontm^l 
tUkmcnr iiom the pen of jui ciirirrirnerii poljiifal worker, Wr. 
WuiiiTTi^ikcr. Judkai?B ih« manni^r in whlcJi o powerfiU poitjr 
m«chvnc mny be con^mciecl by nn Miutc lc*dff; — 

r^rf 'I. A Rcpublkan Sutc Cnmmillcc, vthlch in ever/ pari 
b subjugated to icrrt tht pcntfuH inir-rcAlB of Sniaior Quay hrtt 
and the party ntxl, witboul ra|>ff:i lo the wiU of Iht pocrpfc. 

Fart il, — Crv*l pr&ii|tr uihI ^«titinaKi^. cunin.lltd by <^9ky 
MS ft UfiUcd SLil<9 Svimior, wUli tm> vot». liU uwn amd tbtf other. 

^a/J C^Thlr^ Coaireiimm. with tlidr dctreuHcs, dxty 
^nuDA. «bo» aaiuics a^ircgaic $iSo,ooo aanualEy, and nlio on 
rcipnniiitilr tj^ the m^hLnc for Ihcir ricipixiive dlttricti, fl 

/'OfJ I). — The 4 19 fillicfn and ftn;>]oy«s of Iht Stale ^vcro* ™ 
mnil^ nho rec«irc la juljiricK $1,034,500 annufttJy, and -whtt ^ro 
kdntrd ouTy l>f<uuBe lliov an: «u|j|>uBctl to be aUtc Iv driiivr the 
vouv of tbdr dutricU lo any onv the Quay machine dictates. 
n^Bt mca ftft all tuMswd by the bosses. 

foff £, — The Slair Senate, with <vcr>' nfficer, from pmideni 
pro ttBi down to pji^^hoyi^. «rlcctcd \i> da the machine'* bidding, 
Tbeeipmwsof the Senate bat year were 8169,6044 

Pari F. — 'The State Hou«c of Repreientativo, with rocmbtr^j 
oflUtn a&ij cfflplcryec*, 95; La numba, uho dn-w $46^.393 lost 
jCBT. AU oonoiittecs arc nicctod by the machine, and an chfldr- 
mcncdhy men vho know no will but thai oJ Senator Quay- Thua 
hu machiae absolutely eonlrols tU revenue and tai legi»1alioci. 

Pati (7, -<-4i9> pntt-nArai, with folariH amnunlii^ lo 
$3,705,446. Muit pnstmutc'r^ are mule tiie ptmoaal igriia ol 
tbe mocbtue Ln their rapective tjjwns, 

Aarf H. — 4t40 coufity uffitta. a majuriiy cjf whum ara 
tnOcd bx Senator Quay'* machine, whose tolarics atnuuii 

The Development of Ihny Michtnoy 129 

Pari /, — The PhitjddpKiA Mini, wtlh 4^! enaplojpeot, who 
ncdve in ycojty uJono Ij36,j65, 

l^dff /> -^ Tlie fifficd of Cclkctor of Port, vntli 400 cmpbTMs; 
who r<rvh« Iti mUtIm 1454,000. 

i'tfrf JC. — The internal revenue &fHco, ulth ^1 eni|ilo3ree% 
vbo ncclve in Hlanm IjjMoo- 

/'drf S^ — Tht t'niird SlAta Ctrctiil AMd District Cr>un«, vilb 
foriy-unc tfRip1ij;«a, who rcfcirc in oUritt |95,oool 

^ri J/. — Lo^v Ulutd Navy Yftnl sj^d Scnatr ftnendi, wiih 
$$5 enfilofBC*, «T)o receive ia »Uri» S7?f;.ooo. nukia^ a toUl 
o< i4iT05 oflkcTf tAd oiBployeci, who mrivc from ihe SiMC And 
umI y^tinnal GuTcniincnla S7»6o9^ii uinual^y, 

/'j^l ;v. — The ihouionds of tniiricts, Pih«r offidaU and tn*- 
ployn* irf hntpalatit Su»# and pritilr; Suit priwint, rrtorin- 
4lL>ric4, State Einiums, charitable honi», Sutc i:ollf^^, nomrul 
Kbwk, Wildicn' uq>Hins' tiihtHjlbi ^imlifK^ ju^tiiuto »ud mu- 
■ernnu wio arc cxpeclvd tu luppovl th< motbine, ^r ifac up|in>- 
pfiaiktiw of thdr Intfltudonft will b« cndnf^svrcfL 

F^n O. — The comUncd capital of the Lrcwtn of the Stale, 
Ilieir thotittndi of ampkrymi and dependent patroni whom they 
crirtM, n i^ 'i(]r>cnf (■■ \xvr Ivrn llir rmmry nf ihr Nrrvm that 
paid the large sums during Suprrin fended of Mial Boyer'a ad- 
mUitraiion «» Slale Treasurer necessary to make j|ogd ahofligia 
vhki MT«d lh« ffnftdhln« vbcn hEs c^iivr, Mr. Livofr, became 
ft fu^tirc CroiB jiBlkc. 

rorf I'. — Besides the nxnouncft paid (or salaries of State offiecn 
vrhiftt ha^-e alrevly been accovmled for, the Approprialinn Com- 
miti^, »h<j are \A Qimy^i pctwiul arlerlion. di^liurte tro/x>o,ooo 
■Bnually to echooU, hospHah, pmAi instilutium, ei<u The bald 
BUtfupialfllkHi of thcic futnili fof ibe benefit of the machiae has 
tifacMd people lo RS>t^ Moneys ncdved for these purposes ai 
pcnonal conuihoiiona trT>iii 5^atof Quay, in rcnim for vhi^h 
thfy null mkder help to hia machine. 

Pati Q. — Tile Slale Liquor League vhfrte memben are in 
cvoy dty, Iowa, hamlet, and o wpion d a thftnigk^uE ihe Stale, 

ijo AiDCfican Government aiul Poluica 

■fu»ftm lEiii iq^n^ciiutivci il Uotriaburg during the mmEoqa 
ihv Lrgi^:tiurc, arc always ht SctiAtor Quay's machine, tad fonn 
811 In^portant psii <4 the machiae^ operation. 

Pvt R. — A large Dumber of the Cotmnoa Pleas Judge* 
ibMURhm:! the State, who u*c Ihm Uccnw^grantin^ poircr for 
Ihc (rtnrlil oJ Ihc michinc by rewtrtliits Ihtae Liiihful Co Ibe c-ui 
4rf Quay^ and punlbbinjt iImmc oppuved to (\it muMm. 

Pari S.—^T]w mWUnint of ^ithhcTd sliuol und pfnoanal l^t 
nv>ntyt thatt are Ufcd to furihrr ihc inier{?«u of tfic nutchtoe. At 
ihrcv per cent Eiucmi, the rale thai Smcdliy Dnriincton t(»tified 
Jttit wnk, under oti^, his trust comfiany pnid, Ac mjkfhiitc tiaa 
lakcn$j,5^ocx>of fmirmonrjuincrSmMoT OtiiylirgnijKisrtrigit. 

JWf T'.^Thr Sundredt of sub«er\iviit ocwipipeTS wh-j ar« 
fed|4aiti of machuK favon, wilh tbdr umy of ncvi^lliCTierB 
&ad corrapoadents, who trr forctiJ lu iihlorufom putdic ae mj* 
tnvatt and hide the inlquilicft of ibc mELchloc* 

The principal allies wkI pajtAm of ih« machme arc the 
nlionfl- Thr 15,000 RAiionat and SE;ile nf^cc-ho1r1rr%j and lh« 
lhotU>&d« \'A other ofTii^iaU «.nnrrreii with. Stale in?titiitK»n% furm 
B tmall part of Hie vhuft numfcn uf obrdiPQl machiat men who 
trtCOlBUnlly al Oie command of Senator Quay* Ihe admllted boss 
of the mudiifle. I1ie curporalkm cmployt^n of ihi* Slate vlio arei 
conin>Ucd for Quay'* u« increase tbc number to the proportional 
of a vast array. 

The itfxm r-ulroadgi of the State employ 85^1:7 rntn, and piay 
ifavm annually in n^JC^ I^O^'^i^*^' Of thi« nuoifirr, tlte Peoo- 
■ylvanii and Reading Railn>adi( furnish 37,gii and i6,oSj ineci* 
mpvciivtlT'- The VandcrbUt vpJtcni fLirafiihc* isaJ' nwn; tb« 
BiWnxire and Ohio, 3615; ilie New Jawj CcQir:il, 1864; the 
Lehl]^ VaTlcyi 13,063; and the Dtlatnxre, Lackawanna, and 
W«lfm, it$o, TIh- treat utrccl milvap of the Stflff, whkh 
bavc rtcdvrd rjluabk IrgiilatJrr concmions for nothing, ^ve 
fin laftcliinc loyat lupi^in with 1 3,079 eid|iloyec4 *^^ *'^ P*^ 
tdanea 16,9^0^49* ervty year* 

The Dcvdopmtnt of Partj Machinery ijt 

TIiaI xmocfKitj of morjoiwlirv, ihc SlaExlord Oil Company, pays 
ftanuAUy $t,;do,ooe to iu jooo cmployrcs, who Art uugbi Gdri- 
\\y 10 Senaiur Quay*» tnathine. The Bcihtchem Itdd WcTk%, 
wha»« armor pIftiA arc told to the GovrmmniC f<ir nrarly dr^ublc 
1^ coQtrart prict offrrrd to lonij^ countrirs, influrncc their 
««np1of««i to su<h ao nient that m the dty cif BrtMehem It haa 
betn louod dilScull to gH mcii Da alaod ai anti-Quay (blt^aUv. 

The tbmuGamli ol workng-mva of i]>c Carnegie Iron Worka, It 
b tftld, ttt marchrd io the pnlU undrr the «upcrvlf^[oii of superb- 
lendttta and lorcEnn, aad voted for Quay caadldatcs tindrr 
penalty «l ionmf- thdr jobiv 

I1if great eiprm mmpaniiH nMhn funiiih inytks to machine 
foBowtn, otte of wboiu h board by Souitce PUU, with Ihrir 
thouaaada of oanki can b« counted on for great iervlct t» th« 

The telegraph eomp^tik% vtiose State offidala taji. It b aaSd, 
1>e tound Ml the Inocr Quay covndK ^th the thouundt of cm* 
plojen distrfbuied at ewry Important point Ihntujchoiil the Slate 
mnd before whom a large s^ue of the important nriks must pus, 
are on* uf the mast dAugcrouii ports tj( the Quay machine. 

54. TJu PMk^ Ptfrfy IncluM in IJm J>^ Fnnv^ViyA tf 

Political p»tio grrw up aA purely volumtary groups ankiuff 
Io wture poucatioa of Ibe Met* ol ffcncramenl; U)d in «pitc of 
the cnany thuaea whkh early crept in, it was steodily Knointained 
that the government bid Do buviim ii>inirHrrr wiih ihror^Auita* 
lioQ and managenwnt of nch purely private .v^xitilor^. It was 
fnunJ by exjjerieace, however, tbat, if ihc people were to retain 
toatrol of the goremmait, ifaey must oiaJtili&a a rt^lar Ifgal 
tonlrol of parik?. ~I1m* the p^rty haa praclirall/ rrucd to be an 
''eatfa- legal* ' Jnstltuikci, In the preamble to (be rrreni Ongpn 
law rqpitUing pncnano, ihc opmtions of partita ure dnltftd 
lobaTCftdftiulicafiicealflioat euua] 10 that of tli«alaio government 



American Govcmmeit and Pclmca 

Uodvr our form ^ grnptmrnenX, palidcal parties arc useful and 
nct&4uy at the prr^ni time ll b nrccAsary for ihc pobtic ird- 
f4re tnd safety Ihot every prarliral guArinty «hi1| he provided hf 
Uw Id AAiurr the pniplp f^eneziil\j, Xf wcfl At the iBesiberc of IliV 
Utwn} \*)itUc\ ihal prrliticAl purlin »haJt b« C&irty, fredy, and 
boootly conducted, in appvjLraiuc u well ju in Tact. The mctbiMi 
of EUunijiK c^^<lidktn U>t cUtUVi- public aC&m by (x^lltlcil pwlks 
imd TolunUjry poliijcal urganicati jn» b ihc beet plan fet iound for 
placing before the penplc the namc« c^f iiualiAflj and worthy cidwoi 
ffim whom Ihf ckxli^r* may dvnv«' the '>Jliccra<tf our^ivemmenl. 
The^jvcmmenrof our suit by JU ^lectori and Ihe govern mcnl of 
a I]i)I{Li\uJ \\ntiy by EiK nurmher* arc riKhlfLilly b^Acd im liic Bame 
g«]<Tal principles- Evvry poliiitul parlv and ewry voluntwr po- 
litlrnl nrsanUaikm hv the »aiiic right iti be prt.^te<icd fn>rn ih« 
icUrHcrvnTfl of persons whi> arc not identified with i[ as iu known 
snd publif ty Avnwrd memberKH ihat the grrvemmcnt of the SUtc 
has to pmtcrl tttrif from the mtcrfrrrace of pmoii» who arc noc 
knnwa Mid rcgiitrrefi a> id dcciotv 

ll i» ait I^Tvax » wpiuK b> il;(f pc-MpIv, 1^ Mrell an In tlic mumbCTV 
of a poUtiea! party, for one who ht not kttjwn lo be one uf its 
mcnbera 1o voic or lake any pan at any clcLilon or oihcr pro- 
CMiKnp of such p&litico) party, a^ it U (or one «ho Ee lv:>t a 
ijiiaHiird and TCfpfttcrfid clei:tor lo irite nt tiny Sl.ife election or 
tiLke any pari in the bu«iar<f4 of Che ^XMr^ Kvrry fKrlitirM party 
and voluntary political organLeation b rightfully ruiiOird Id ibe 
tnd eulv^itc uw of every word of Its olGda! nnme. Th« 
lie of ihe State scd iho nufinbifo of erery poGlJcal pairtj 
*nd rohiAtory pollticnJ or^pinkadon arc rlitbifully encitled to konw 
Ibal wtfy pcr»un who offers to lake nny part in the aflnire or bu^i- 
ikttfltof any poJilical parly or voluniat>-po]iii<:jJ orgnniAatJon in the 
Stale t* in ipjod fatib a mcmbrr of mrli p^rty. I'hr reasna £or 
law whidi reiguirr* a vecrvt ballot when all llie elecfon choow 
oArvre, vjually rc^utttt a ucret IklIIoi when ihc membcra of 
rty choose thdr candidales for puhtic oDkC' It is aa occcs- 
(of tlie prcacrvniSun nf ibc public wclfu« And ukiy ilui 



The l>cvdopmcnr of Pixty MELchinery 13J 

Hurt ahall be i free uid iui v^itc tad aia bonett comtt* » wtll oa 
ft srtrrt bflllM ti primotj ctcttroiw, u ii U l\il ^i,-t« i^hjl) be 
a free vtd fair vofe utd an hobrM <ount in additiofi to Ihe 
•ecret bxllol ol oil clcctiaiv erf public o&cn. AB iiURliAod cZoLt- 
on »lh> vriih to wrvr llur prvplr Jn nn dotEivv publk uflkp arc 
li^tfuUy cniitlctl to equal 0fipt>rtumijv« under the l&w. The 
purpose of thb !4w is better h> wcurc and 10 prcHfve the rfghu of 
political parties vtd rcAnnUry pufiikal orgaiuzalioci*, and Ibdr 
roranhm and r^ndidjln. atid r^pcdalljr of Ihr ri^tt abort xUlcd. 





It u a OEirdinAl dnclnnr af dut politiral lynlrni <hat Ihr pi>ircn 

Id the (-onMitiiiioQ ittcif, although U rfrntfl be adminrd ih^ U 
pnctkc u r^iihcT gcucTDUi mtcrpffetftdon bu been |>la<:?vt Ai llmca 
on fcvvnl of [h« cUuiCA^ The framcr? of ihc Ccmiiiaiioa, how- 
cvrr, not content wHh ih« KcncTnl undcnlAndtni^ at (n ihc Htnk«i(J 
BAltire of the fnl^rol p'^wcn, inserted in Ibc body i>f the oii^al 

documrnt a ritjnil>rr laf |>rm'LVOm dfrfmilrly 1nr1ii(Mif]j< ihr ffnprH] 
Ifovcrnmcnl to du ccfljla ibinp lUid rT£ulAting Ju c^trdsc uf the 
powm gfinErd. 

The nidRTOtion or Imporladon of tuch pcnon:t m ar^ of the 
States now rnsling shaU ihink proper to admit ihill nni be pm* 
hibilcd by ihc rongroi prior to the >*» one Ihntwan'! eight 
busdmJ ftiut eiifht; but » laji or duly may be itn^utd on nicb 
imporlAdoii, not rxcwdms ten doUan for each pcnoo/ 

Tilt privflqE^ ol tbo writ of hahtat iorpmi ihall not bcaiupvodcd 
luleMvbea, b ztM of rtbvUJou or Idvuaiuvi, iho public sabrty niAjr 

Ko bill of ititaindrr. or tx p^^faett* lav, ahoU be fuaMd, 

No CRfiiralion or other dircil Ion ih^U bebid^ tinlevntn pro- 


The Federal Sfttcfn*of Government 135 

podkai ta dtc cfttttu or «ftunicTilkin bemiiMorc dirvtltd I0 
be Ukrn. 

No Ux or duly thall be lud oa aslidci cTporiod from ui^ SCftte. 

Ko prcfemc* aUI b« glv«n by lajr r«|>ilAUoa of conmivroa oc 
rrveciic 10 tbe ports of oM Stile crer diuse c4 onotlivr; our ifaall 
vmtli bound m or from one Sinic be obliged 10 cater, dear, or 
pay dutia la Another, 

No maotj ihiU he drkwn Trom the tivjuufy bat in coB0cqiie»re 
uf ftpprupHalktt* madt by kv; and a rq^ulu lutemmi And bic- 
uftiDf of the rveripbi and vxpencfilurTV uf iU public owDvy ih;JI 
be pab^Uhed from time 10 ^mt. 

Ko liUe of not^B^ Shall be panted by tbc ITnlicd Static; uad 
■o penon balding my olBce of profit or tniil under ^cm ibaJJ, 
without tlie coiuviU fif Ihr Con|(rciH, accrpi oJ Any pmral, cmalu- 
■wikt, office, or title of ooy kind vhatever, from loy king, priiicc, 
or fon%a «Ute, 

Treugn ■gaunt the Um(nl Stotcv shaQ consut omly In kvj^g 
waraplim tbrm, or In adticdng lo thdr eQccil«*» gfvUg tbem aid 
■lid eonfOrt No por^n ahull (w ronvici«d of titaaco unUu ^n 
ibe iBliiBony of iwo witncun to the «imc oven acl, or cm c<)q- 
leirfoft bi open covn. 

Hie Congma »haU )uve pover to dccUre tlie punisbflkml cf 
lrva«oQ; but no alCamdcr of irenoQ >btU voA (omption of 
blood, or EorftUurv, exorpt during the life of ibv penon attaialed. 

Notwithslacdiftg tbe exprr» nature of ibr powers granted ti> 
Ibe ffdml pjvnnncnt and tbe pndte tinauiioot laid dovB in 
the original inMruiafnl, ft wAt ftaml hy Ifep miier demorralic 
leadcTV Uk« Jeflcnon thai is ibr exvTdjtc of Its rrcugoijDn] po^Tr» 
Ibr fvninl aBiborities might trmth upon Ihc fundasintal phii- 
ciplci <d Individual Hb«rty, dixiiK-d nficntUJ lo the atisUtxt ui all 
fnc govrmoMMs, Afrorduigty, ten amcndmenti ttpedatly pro- 
tccliag pi4nd« rights againsi Meral iniermtiuo ^vtv adopted [& 
1791 , aad to tbcac as elcvcBlh anodmcst waa added b 1798. 

..MHMMMfM. «< Polidcs 


^V' *» ncubiisJiETvnt of n- 

. ihftmf ; or »bridginf The 

^- ihr rif:hi of thr pcoplr 

ihi j^n-anmciil for a redress 

— *■-* 


«Ar« u^ the sccurilT of A free 

jkaJ Imr Arms shall Dot be 

-v UI 

iir kluaitend m AAV bousc^ 
- ■.-£ iti umc of vHi^ but in a nutn- 


^ KK.\rr IB their pm:>ns, b^»jsei, 
'. -. v'fci..* s;ii,. iSi^'jt L<"ji u>-'n i-r-O't-'tf 

^ :, .1.. ,)->. .r tfL -r::^ .-- ^ -i; 
, .'.■, . .^ - -,' .1 .: V 11 P- i.r.i,. :r -iJ; 

The Fcdcrtl System of Govcrnmcnc 

Articu VI 

In sH nunkkil pmcculioiu the «ccustd MlmD tnjoj ib« rifhi to 
A qwrdy lAd pubKc trial, by an iniftArtiAl jury <t\ ihe StJite 4nrl 
distfkl trfcrrcbi the crime shall h&vr bem oomrolltcd, atikh dU- 
Irkt tlull havr liCTO |>nvlo«*l7 a^rtuiiMd by hw, uid lu t^ Ui- 
forrncduldicnattirvuidcuitturiliektcaiitiun; t»bec«>TifrDnt«I 
whfa ihc itfiikcsM« agikiti bim; lo h&vc ronaixiltoiy pvoc«» for 
obuloing wItnttStt la bis Uvoc; and Id b&ve Ae Mstottao of 
coufiid for hii ddetat. 

Amtvox mm 

In cuili 4t common hw, trbcrr ibc ralut ui cantrofcriy ihiU 
uccnl ii«i?niy ikitl4ift> tl3c riicSl iif trial by juo' kf^iH btr pmm<tii 
mnd ao f^i uifd by « jury ihall be oihrnitue re^eumftnod in any 
cowt of ib« Uuud Sum ihaa accwding to lb* tula oJ Ui« coi»' 
nun Uw. 

Abticul MU 

EsccniTv bul ibaU iiol be rrquimj, oot «xccsiivc &iia impotcd, 
oor crud ud unusual pualaknacoi iaflktctl. 

AitncLB EX 

Tltc raumcfftiloik ta the C«iMlfnillon of ccnaiit rishb sinll not 
be coostniod k> deny or d^fianfc othen nuuaod by the people. 

Aracu X 

Tht poven Dot gnmled ba the Umud Slo-fa by the CoculllO- 
eintt. nc« pfvUbitfll by il In thv SUtn, are mortd lo Ibc Stotn 
rcvprctivdy or U> the peopk. 

Arhcu XI 

Tlu iuAdtl pom of the Cniird SiaiM sloU not be conttnMd 
to oUfkd to tnf mil in hv oi* equity, conumnccd or piwcvl 
igMWt ofte of the L'nilodSUta(>ycf1bcnsoraA0lbef SUlc, or 
cilimu Of aubjadi of ttiy fondgn State. 


Americaa Government uid Polttict 


TJu Tktcry of tka Stf^atwH pJ Pmitrs im $Me federal Cmi^ 


Thc dnclrinc ihnt the three dcp-inmcnte of piTurnmroi — 

lalitv, drvutiv«, jnd jupt^ ^ihould he krrp4 ihcn4r.tlf U 11 
men ibcory nf Anii-fk^ii [j(i^]tii.i; il Li a ruk of Jaw «rhich 
Cburu will apply hj drLtnrin^ rriid Ihn 4Ciion« of one dtpartm^nt 
whkh iftncti on the tZcskrly 4ck'rinui«l sphere of otioibcr. In 
iSpO ihc Hquso of Rq>rtscniAtlv(-s fkiii'mpiot 10 punish a Mt. 

Kilb*Mim for refuimf[ to «ii«wcr <truln ii^urtliciniL jjut ljy & Hmiair 
ComrrJUcc (ODduclln^ an invMlij;mion Into the husiocas of ■ 
|iriT^i^ rivircrn in whirh rhr I'niirfl STittr^ hod nii ininrsl, and 
Ibe Supreme Court rvte:i>;al Kilbouni un the gaiunii ih4kt ihe 
fai(]utty WA3 judirial and nit kgislfltive in characfrr. The foJloV' 
log statement of the theory U LLlcen from Ihc decision of the Ctivfl 
b this CUV :— 

Ifcc menu 



It Ifi brlfcved to be one of ihc chlrf mrriiB of ihc Amerit^on 
lyaidn of vrritt«a o>nBtilulional Uw. that all tht pouvn inlnu4ed 
Id ipLii'CTnmcni, vKcthcr Elate or natlanAL, at^ divi^TM \tiU-i the 
ihm gnnd department;, the esmruUvc, thr It^jiialire and ibc 
judimi; thai the funclirttit apjiropdate to cAch of theu brcuKhw 
of it^ivrfiiinrtil inhall bp veiled tn a tn'|i*iale U'dy t*f puMit »rrt-- 
wili; and that ihv pt-ffntion of ihe ayilem requirra tbni the 
Unex ^'hkh Kcparale and dii'ldc these ^i-patltnentK ahall be broidly 
«ad dculy definod. li fa iUk» enoatiftl to ibc ftuccoslut wci^*- 
Jdg of Ibis syileci that the pervmi intnMed with piwcr in any 
one of ibne branrhm thAl) mt be prrmttfd to rncroarh upon 
tbe powrr confided lo thr olhrn. but that each shall by t'it' law 
of lb crcidon be limited to the caccdse cJ the powtn a|>pt\>- 
priat« to Itt oifn d4p&rtm«Di and no Qihor. 

To these gvnerd pvopositioni there iltc in the Coiwiitution 
the Untied SloKS ftomc Important eicepilona. One of fhcav 
that tbe Fmidenl b vo far mode a port <d the leginloli^^ power, 
that hu aucttl is rcT]'jincd to the niAtimeni of alt subates amI 
rmolmiorns of Co«i|[mA, llitt, hKwrvrr. i* «i nrlr lo a limited 

ektenl, Ear a bill niay becuctic a bi* notwiiluUodlog the r^^fujul 


Ty ^'^^nU SyMcni of GovcmnKtu ijsp 

d Uw P«*AcsA "^ ftppnjvf *l, by ft vi>«r U iwiMhiidi ol racb 
Hon» d Codg^t*, So, tko, lb* ScoMe u n»k a partiJwr Id 
the lunctxiiu of tppojmiof ottccf* iod ntkinf tn*iki» «4ddi 
•n supinaed to be pvopcrly eseculiTt, bj^ nqulriae its coomm 
lo >^ appobtmcot of Mcfc officcn uid ibe rotiictcion oi tRttdtt. 
Tbe Scuic iha «>ctvi«9 ihc jixfidjJ power <i Ctyfog fanpodi- 
iPMti, ind llie House c4 prrfetnns vtkla of impcafhmrnL 

la tfaf miin, bovevcf, Ihut inUnimntl, the fDodct OA ttfaich w 
Moftrattcd Hie funcbumoul Uw> uf liw StiM^ km hkxktd mt 
wlcb mgular pncvJoa, usd hi bold Bnes, u ib tkm piiiaur 
■nklcs, cho ftHncmnM oi ponrtf to th« ru>cvitiv<v thv locikbllve 
uuJ the juifidal depAnmenta of the ^i^vfnmeBt. It also n- 
nains tnic, » A |cxkcfd rafe^ thni the |uwcn conUed fay the 
Comllutfeft 10 coe d Ihcae dqitftmeoti cjdbdi be excrrbnl b^ 

In kHifcini; to Ihr perjijnble uid mmtudbn u^Hef wfakh Ihe 
commiflw acted, Mt>rv vhirh Kitlnnni rrfated la Irclify, w 
arc of ofitDKiti ihit Lbe floiiM of Rqinvctitaijiei not ooly ex- 
ceeded the limit <<f (lt< QVB authority, but aounivd a pown wlildi 
could only properly be cxerdNd by aiiDthcr bnoch cf the govtnt- 
ttCBt, bcciusc It «a« la \ts luture ckaily judkial. 

llw CooMiEatioa ileclarea that the judicia] power <if the tTtiital 
Stain ahal be vetted m oae Supnine Court, and luch ininvtr 
ooaitt m the Coaff M* ahai (mm timr tri time ordain and (Mab- 
Eriu If Bbal «« luire >aid of ^e divistoii <J tbe puvnm of the 
fuwrikuieut ajnosf lbe three dq>artnwnl£ be aou&d. thb U c«julvft- 
Inl 1u a ilnlaratkia tbal an jodkial p^iwer u varted in tbe Con* 
frtss or csiha bcancfa of Et, aie tn the oso ifKdficaUy tttuttxr- 
and to which «e hate nfcntd. If th« ImeGilctlioD «hU 1h« 
coBUnadee ww dnected lo moke wis jiadidal w fb diatacter^ 
aiul could only br profKely and ntccnufully made h^ a coutt of 
|aittce, and if it rrbtrd lu a maltrr whcnqn rriirf or rrdteM 
eiMald be had only by a jiadidiU pmcerdij^ we dn luA, afltf 
wlial ha* Ikw Mhl. dccnt It iKtrivafy hJ dlvuaa (he pfVi|n«Moa 
Ibal Iha power alienipled to bt aBotbed wjs one coii6ded l^ 





of t^ 

«M|: ^ 1^^ of i ia Mdktkft a 


;^-« in^-am^* -f t^tim^ £jnr* 

Mf II- 

. .rutfiwitMt ^>rt4iiL* tjvcktn in tbe fdknriiig 

'j^i.">ii.rin, uifC liK 'oa: u: tfo- t'nilrd State wfaidi 
xtM- n ;i^-»Hir#-v* l(«:tv\». . ouC iill trmlicE nude. OT 
. ^ oucx uiiiftf Tui. diiluvtiit lU ihr United Suites, 
.r .>kL.*^m«t ftf« *-^ 'u< Mill. 411^ IIk- judgv- tu evor 
. jr ^.mirt ^utf'M',^ dU«-Uui^ II; lU CuDitiDltiOD or 

i-iifj inrS ^ytfvu'^k'.i hu '.^i-.'iir lucntivnnL and tbe 

:.rt M->t?u v.>i> '^ £ia4k.ti'.\'B diTt ul csecutiri am: 

.,./-r?, ^-""A %4 v^ "MMH.-i v;4ivvp atrr it lilt K-v-nL 

'» -J ^.■//' ',"V 

-.' I' , ■ ' 

.'.■ ' '- . ■: 

■' -, "r-.f"*^; .V 'fir ^i^r^^c 

The Fdicn] S^rstcm of Govemiticni 

TiMf in ft long ofjlafon ddlTCftd te cooncnloQ vrlih n fuj^irivc 
tU*e cue, ffooi wliKb oolj « few pu«:igr!S can be givca hiMe. 

Ttie COBidlttlk'D wai not formed tDcrelf co guud ihr Slaua "^^^ 
■gnml ihiigv from foidgn qaIiod*, btit mftioly la stone taaon ^ 
AtiA hiimtitif a( homr^; for if this tthjr<t coukl br obtained, vUicr. 
there vould be liui litUr Hu)^;rr fn>ni fttiniad; snd la «ixMn> 
|)^h ihn po/pcvr, it ttoi felt by the atkimcti vlio fmood the 
Coitfiltutfon, .Mill by the ;v^jp1c- ffho adirptctl It, IhaE It wsi necefr' 
sory Lhot many ol ilu^ rij;hu ij| scverejg&iy nbkh the StEU» llwa 
po«»c»ed ithouid he reded b> the C<ficnl C«veraiBcnt; U)d 
that, En the sphtfe i^f afdnn ftui^Dcd t'l i(. it should bo saprtme 
uid *in>;ig enouBh to ciociite Lb own 1»wh by iti own tribundb, 
wtdintfl iotemtpijon frum & Slile or from Slntc sulhorltia. 
And it wns evideal that uiything ihort *A chi« wouhl be ittadt- 
qutf* to iSiB malo objects f<ir vtdcb ib« Govcrmwnl wu estab- 
liibedi and that local ioteitstSk locd poMow or prtju<!ice9, in- 
died Md foATeml by UHfividuak for fiouier piirpc4cA, would 
Icftd 10 •cia of oggn^ofi and iajuiitire by onf Stair opUD the 
riflhift cJ aAOlher, which would ulnn^tEly tenninAtir in Ttokcfc 
and font, uidcn theft w» « cuooivtoa .-itMifV l>r(wmi ihvm, 
tnaed witii power oiousb 1^ prutoct and ii^iaid ttie ri^u uf oQ, 
by 4|ipceipriMe kwt« to be cairicd intt> cfecutkm poicdully by 
Ici JoiSckl iribwidb. 

Tht nifniniacy coofcrrcd An Ibu Gomvtneni could nnt T^ Vjud idi 
pmrWiiiy be militlalne<l, uninn tl wv rrothrd wkb ^uibcitl ^^^^Sl 
power, equally pannKiunl in aulhndly to carry it iotu exeni* 
lion, for if \rit to tbc cowt* uf Jwllcr In lh« amoral Slalei, con- 
ttcdnit dcdiiona would onnvoldably lafcc place, and the bcal 
tiibttnnk tmAd bvdly be expected Id be alvnyv free from the 
Incft] InHovocc* of wiiich ^rt hare fpolot, Aivd the Confixltu- 
tioD and Uws aui irDftlkn of th>e Untied St^is, and the p^-ncn 
frnnlcd to (be Federal Govenrnteni, would aooa nvdve ditferent 
Imerpnealk>nt in differrnl Stale*, and ihe fHwrmmcni <4 thr 
Uaaied Siato would «ooa become one thing in ooe Slate and 


f^jyj^i «i !*!> LjOWnfllKDC ifttl f^sliCQK 

■■I * 

1*1 -> 

4*1 ■ 


ponntf, !R* <3ii7 aM wmtB i^-amn ]tmmi amM. thu< ^ 
lfau«ld be iinhflAnI in ivtnfa'AE iaM» 
tpBCDa^tB|kMiadl0i«4ndintfl>BHj ,to^ 

« i u 6ittPi ii xhtf tfaoB nooU far qp «Mi«mta9»tf jv^bA Mkunw. 
itti tel tfac ^|p*-"^T 'i>4Ul ii !■» iBtfikP flSK ;w .ia»- 

oakai it VI* iwuLiW ii «tlb ilito pMM— ^ ^ d ift i ' 

dcv. pmsK, «a^ owifnitovrtvv ««■» H ?« riKiUfid^ bu itfr 

to «0 CMS to bwMd fli|Dlry 

tan uf ifM CUvd iM4 «d dM LV «rfb «Mk. V «d 

ail^ iltaft cBBnoMKrft efcto onMV ^M" ywv f^gdMK 

irin ^ 'jtw««L ta L'arf— if 'Ht r1il» r.uur ia^ jd. ^bb 'H^ «&!■ 
b vtech ' " ' '-'''- '''■' --Ti^toMto 

itt the inferior OKnrtt aI Ebc TTnttftrf ffrttfk*^ Bnc ctKkvft n dl 
cad«3 vh«TR mcii a qimtintt artes, «h«fhsr ic ttv m s ^K&3i£ 
iriSunJ i a iHate ^ nf rt»e Citimft "InnK ,4b£ ^ v ■"— jK"^- 
thai rhi^ uitimAtf appdktfe p^wtf ia » liUuumC cTK^eif Bv [te 

nf ai_Tif,n ufli^^nM v> If, v. mafa^ rtie CrLEBdaii&:iB mi ham <i 
ihc L'rdtrrt -lAtn intff.rm. vui ?]u> lame Jn ewty Staft; jnd to 


'r .44. 

The FeUcnd System of Guvoniiwot 14J 

The inpuruocc vfakh the fivncn <4 tbc Ccrmtituiiou aiiKtwiJ 
ID ruch a IribUAal. for ibe pufpove <f prawmog intomil tnui- 
qitUttcy, b BlriUftgly ai&&lfot«d bj the cUuu wf^ch pvt* ihii 
caun jisrisiSctHw over tb« nrcrrisii Suites vtndi ciotppoM lUs 
Uabn, when a coMtoncn^ tr1fc« hctwefi thcoL littuod ci rt- 
MTnog Ibe ri^l lo acdt mlraB tor iDJuaticc frtiirv Hnother State 
bjr thdr tt>vfrd|pi pmrai, they h*ire bound ihcmvlvcs lo sub- 
mh ta Iht dixbiuA ul Ihb oumt, wd b> iSidr t>y >ia judgrnrnt. 
AjhI it ii not 4ml oT place to aaj, bise, thai oprrinice haa clrinDD- 
»tratod ibiii Ihb p<mvr «»: nut unwUdj ftumodcrcd by ihc 
Stat(»; lor In the licic ibii h^ al/rad)- dapavd abic« this Gov- 
onneiu came utto cxbtmoe, several untatEiig and angiy con- 
B o w tf i ki bai« taktn place between Adjoinlni* 5iiicA, In rri:ttli>n 
to Ihdr fopecli ve tntindano, uid which ha^T-vimelcmothndlf-nnj 
to «iiH kn futftr and Tii>Iencr, but Uj the pnwer vmed in Ihia rourt 
to hnr Ibnn uhJ drciHr Vlwem them. 

Aa Ibc final ^>pelUlc power in aH lueh qocxluuu b gtvra to 
Ab cwui, o»innTnIra u In th« ruapcctira puwen uf ihv Uciicd 
States and the Suia, iiuicad of being deiE^nniiifd by milHory 
and phy4ral forrc, are Ikeard, invcaH^ial, .ind tiiutly leixtcd. 
With the calmness and dFlibcniion of judido-E uiquiry. And no 
oar cm f^l to see, thai if luch xn arbiur bid not been pnivided, 
is enr cocnpHciled iplr-in of pncrnmehl, inlenul iTanquimiy 
could ml bave been pmcrved; and if audi co>itioven>ca were 
Icfi to tbe affaimfneBt of pbyvkal fofcc^ oar GoveewnetkUv State 
and Natioii3]« wuuld aocn ceacse ii> be CoveninMata U law^ aad 
rnvtutioa* by foecc ci anna vt^rald ukc tbe place cd cmula of 
Juulcif lod JwUcU] decitloiuk 

Tbe fetleml ( on-xiniticin doei not sute who thaSi have the righl 
to m4v in th*' I'niinl Siatea. The pn-hlem wu dittwucd Ln the 
coevcftikin. but thecricinalinatiumenilcftthenttrtertoihesiaiea, 
RepnsfDliiiim in Congma wfre Ui lir (h'Am l>y the ^vnofM 
eniuled uadcr Aaic bw to vole fof memben of tbc moat BumT' 





■Md tlHfr «» >t I-Wf iMiHM ft*p|«iiV4Cl|»flR0Rtll 9E 
ur rr>ri| Pr. me fltftt t*^ m)< ftf iMV pftt^Jtfrfy i^ dK ^**^'"" if 

Mjir<, iK i« iiifoj^tH iri thf i^p^rT nf tlw ^uAap GunmitlBB; 
rh^r f.u n-'t mC'Mf^ Hy eK«4«< rt-vthirtniu it all; bat dmc nv 
mitfl-p i^k f ''fiarrt* f'» mV' tr»m* ^ftnn, whh » »wr to TtnphmP- 
iTibT iijr f.FJn''pl<' ''4 '^ttl/t^n ^iftt^^ m rfie OHHtiaKiDa a£ ifae 
' r.-rr-i AM'* Thif in^frjrtwm 'I/p™ n^t dnw regulaic dns 
fjUF N'^ii ii .* >U V' fhr \f.iri>3 rK^nwlvflt. ud, I bcfierc, the 
till.- 1^.1.: r Nfri'- If 'iifr hmt'.r/ vh'it fhr f oiudttickA of cfie Cnirvid 
M.ifi % ■-Mil*'' *'• -Mi-r* (K^ fiilp' 'pf «<*ffrMpt, nr at least that it 
nfiF.iilfl ^1 tfi lU r-ftfi.t 'A HrniPintf rh^ hf^l r^ suffragE to people 

' ^^ ''Vp*, P Ml- 


The PcdctiJ Sprcm of Government 14^ 

who ftftr dliieiiJL. It vtrta^ la tne that «e ou^t mA. U> hMtc one 
ffAKUrd t« «ttittfiihf|r ADd afjilbct MaMlaitl tea tnEn^; but 
ilut io «ll ifar Suia, and Cjiptt-ially in Ihic cvcnl of a iLuioaa] 
eLcxtiiiR, ihm tfauuld br iMir ^tfndanl for «JI votm ltiriiU|{buii( 
iho eiitirv Unkw. Tbo» n>lcn Id Ibuc Stito vutc lor npre- 
■cncadvn 1b CongrcM, for pnsklaitlAl chcii^f^ and ihcy, a]a\ 
tfxc Tor amb«n of ibe Lv^^Miurc who rled Scn&ior> oT Ac 
United Sloia, tlkrr«fc7 making tbc qualificaiinns of voitn un- 
equal fa Ihc dtflrrr^l SIaetm; h^A, ihrrHrirr, tl mjty intvi (<> Ihc 
dharlvoBtai^ iif Slam ho^diDx tu c^lucn vttlfiAgF, 

To iUuMntf : low of tliar Stoics pamlt tvtbg ailt? a m«- <T« A* 
dnice ol oalr dx raoolltt; »> ibii If a fLri^iinrr km* t^ ciir li ^^^ 
tbow Sum ib« flttt <if May, unl dtcUTrt his infrntton tif bp «uk«.^ 
ci>mlQS a cfiben, be nuy at the fullomig Kovcrabcr elccikm vt>Cc 
lor V17 cflfecf. Scftte <ir tuiiuiuU. Thus, after & residnce of 
onljr ^ montitt ia lUa tminTr^, lie brfodwst entitled lo mCe, 
w^lh thf wnt iMcp and rflrrt, unci hit mu> rounii for juM u 
mmth as ^ vote ol a dtii«n Hdo has ttiidcd b«rr £1^ ynn, or 
vtflO his tjtcn rancd In this aruntty and hu Ixvn comfxUcd lo 
Ut« litrv twrnij-ooe yt*n- Again, suppr^se that two broihen 
cone ben by the «&me siTamcr: njit of them ^c% ta nae c# 
lltcK Stair*, and Ihc otbrr rrmAins in thH SlAlf. Tbr r>nc who 
fOftt to Ihor StntM may vtiI« nfltr living then* lix itiontht, but 
Ibe one wtio rvciaioji in New Vork Suie mtut live hen £w jt^n 
bdi>rv hv » cstilJcd h? voir. 

I1 is thii mcqualiiy ibat is ofanod at by ihrac rrftodutiiinA, and 
Ibrre sccBB 10 bo DO way of rctncdyEBg ibii btaic of affaiis except ^^^^^ 
by uscwfiBf Ifaf ComiiiadoD of tbe Uniicd Suia. Tbe Coo- iht i«w4 
flllullaa bactf, ax the time It Wtt fruacd. was ihr cmiurr of 
nMi{)lMniMA. Tbe rpotbfi of vaflragr wu left bi^y h> tbe 
Staid thtffvoetrra. Tbe clecton wbn are eoutleil to vole lor Ibe 
vmU nunMniui bcMcb of tbe Stale kf^lature nay rote for 
fvpnanitallva in Concns. TbaL, I think, u the only pfovi- 
i^n In the COnitilutioii on (ho nibfeci- It fcent to nc thai il la 
pecuftiHy proper l£> take aome actkn upon Ibii nulHr not m 


.\jncrt^m ^ 

HI V¥ 

I im- 

Ao, fte^ipmjd 

the npiiit .if rTtfasB, tnf b^ n^ 4 

pmiesL We jtc am n^wr^-nim g tcsr per ■-*"* 'li 

tina if Etti-. ^uu* [Jaift^ Wt i;^ hrft :i 
>v^l if Thf^ *Eiifh tti ibc camv Ucnnu imi 
rkiiT usier 'iioiJ^ QBiv- Ejl^Bft 111 ihac 

^titudoD Jiadf IMJ 

right ' I' ^t-tfrtflg- We iMw K oq^t « <v l^tfL ft m. <«v tfa^ 

ro ip^Ak, tad «« KDQ^ tft nxni* I£« ibdi^BD Jfe ^ 

Otic ^>C the ftiHbfi^Bti& purrvmv J ika Jfafaal 
«a^ [ii makf 4 aMMt IB vbich :iUJQR oi^ awv fmiv 

without h_-^drAaLO fmm Fhc rmKcCin* tftfE% Tii wihtp tli» 
end. its fr^jacn ^mbodwd in it j i-ijnBr id ita« Att cJixt 'Tbs 
d^zenh i>i ^itJi :^catE ^aU lit- <:atixkil U> bIL adttt^B ODii imnui- 

Inurprcced by tbeouzti in Chu Uatui^a- — 

Vvh^L in tbe ^iRk^a and »**—■<-■**■*■ ,;f ^^ ' Htwi* ,if •fie 
wcrJ ^Utcn,^ We h^ zm EidtOMlnil in viiiitinm^ i^t^ ^^suica^ 
sii-ru tij tbii«e pnvikva :ud inunumda tviiirit tm in ibcir oBOtn: 
/uftdamriUai; whkh betnng to the dcivna of aQ &Te gursn-- 
m*inu - ^md whuJi hove, 3t all tmus^ hem eajajai hf tfac * iii^w 
'A the ^--erai SCUA wtikh compose this TToiiUl, tpam. the time of 
ihtir beijrmmg free, independent, and aaveiagn. What tboac 
fjnJLimL'nul priocipLea are, ic wriuld poiiapa be more bRfious 
ih^n 'EirTii ult to enumerice. Thej may, howcro', be ill cont- 
prthvn'ji-'j under the fnltowiot^ i^cneraJ heads' proCectiaa br the 
l^j/.p rnrn* Ti[, the enjoTmenf of life and libefty, widi die Ogtit to 
a-r['4Lri; n.nd ["'^ifm^u pr^prrry of every kind, and to pursue and 
r.Kr^jn hjppinL-^ ind ^ety, -luhjeft nevCTtheien to sui± tc- 

The Federal SysCcin of GovcrnnKnt 147 

ilniDb If the gmvnWMOt BMJ Jtt*Cly pnutfbr for the itmrr^l 
^lod €4 ihe wliotc. IW i|^l «f B dtfica of one 5ia|« !■> pua 
ibfDVgh Of mjclv in tay <jlltcr SUIr, ffjtf lfa« iiufpuKa i;i trwlc, 
agriculture, pmlcKkioal puivuit*, or othcrwiMr; ia ctdm lh« 
btftd^l oi the infl of ikiJiwtff nv^; to uudlulc o&d moiittaiii 
actioAi vd vvtry kind in the couiu d iht Suit; to \aXt, hM 
and diaifMiic of pc>3pcTty, dihtf it^ or penuntLl; uid as cveaq>- 
tiin fn>m hl|th<T Iaxm <it imprjruikiiu thAn arc paid hy <ixut^% 
of th« uLbn Stale, —* may b«- mmlioricij u v.^nt* uf Ike paitiai> 
br ptfivikca uid inusuxutia of ddxeos vl^cfa Atv ctndy imi- 
braced by iht goun] dc«cdptio« ot privil^« donned to b« 
fimdainaiUl; to whkk may be added tb« elective fnttcUse id 
rcfuUttd ami catabUahcd by the U«s ir>r coiutitutlnft nf the 
Stale b whicb £1 i» ID Iwr exerdW^ 11iof, aad mafiy i)lb<m 
whiVh wdgjta he mefttinttcd are, itricily fip^diing, prrnle^e* and 
inmuaities. uid the ffifujinnit vf tbem by the citisma of ea<b 
State bi every olher Slate vnn maiuf«»lly cjJcnIated (to ucc ihe 
ucpnaduDa of ih« ponmbk of \ht oorraqwodizif prvvUae In 
the otd Anktet ctf CDsfedentfoD) *'the bettor to secure and per- 
petuate miilual fricndihlp and intercounc vnoAg the people of 
the diffrttnt S4atts of the Union." 

Il w» uodoubvcdly the objecl of the dauv in queiHian to 
pticc the <Uiama iJ w:h Slale up<io th<- Mimr fixjthijE vilh cJlJ- 
venoi of uber Suin> >u f ar a» the adt-intngc* rtMlliog fnun i f rfnn 
diittAth^ b tbo«c Staiei atv coAcvrned It rvAffvc* ihcm fn>iD ^^^^ 
the dbabiSiki «f alienage ia other Siaia; It inhibits diicrimi' 
Qiliaf kprialkin agdiM them by clher Scales; it ipTnt ihcni 
the rtght of bn Lngnn into otbrr Slam ar>d rsrevi from them; 
il inicra to Uwn in odia Stala the ume freedom pou««pd by 
the diucna of Ihooe Suici in ibe ai.^jubiCiuQ uid cnjoyiiiviU uf 
property, and la Ibe purvoil of happJM»E: and it verartai to tbem 
in other Stasaa ibr cqul pnatectioa td ihdr law. It baa b«c« 
Junly aald llwi ^ pciMtioa In ibe Ccostiitiiton bv tended so 
aaDAnly to oonalituie the dtoen* of the Untted SiaiH onr (icople 
aa Ibia. (I^mnton r. People, *o N, Y. A07J Ittdtvd, wiibouC 




American Government and Politics 

•omc pmvinon of the kmd, rvmonng from the dliMnft of 

Sllfr ftir ijjiuhilflir^ t-i jiEicn^pijr tn iitlirr SLitr^. nnd fpvin^ IJ 
ft^Lialiiy *ji iitinhg'e itiEh t]» t.itijtfui I'l tiif.iit* ^liilft, the refnil 
vrould ha\'e conAiiiuIdl liille morf Ihaa u Iv^i^c ot Slaia; II 
would not have iciiuiiluted ihe I'liioa wii[-:h tmw exlftts. 
diliin Bui the pnvilcgc* juid ttmnunitiis «curi-d to citixeus of each 

iK^ e»Ci- ^^'*' ^^ ^^^ scv^nkJ Staiv» by The pi^vlsl'>n In quc*iloa, »rc those 
priiilcgra and immunities which trz tommon to ibc cilu^nM in 
the laltrr Sl.krrA, uniirr (heir nirucitittjnn and lawK, by virtue of 
Ibcir brinj^ ciiuciu. Special ftritilq^n rrtjiiyrL;! I:>^ otixms in 
their own Stila ore not secured la vthvt Stutei by ihxt pnoruioci. 
It vaik D>j| tutvjid^ by tbf pawish;xi lu give to ihc Uin» uf uav 
Sutc any opentU'oQ in uihtr Sbilo- Th«y Gxa hAvt ik> »icb 
opctiiinift, ciKvpi b;r (he pcrmiadon, dpctns or Implied, ^ thusc 
Slntrs. Th« ip^ol iirLvilr^ which they <K^itT mujil. thcrdurr, 
be erijoyed .-ii hcime unlns the lUteiLt t4 other State* tci Ibdr 
tnjciymeni Ibf^nri be t^inii. 

la <vder that cripu'nalfi from one KtiUe may not be hj 
in ad>oitii!f MAte, the Qinsiitution proviili-:i thai "A prmon d 
in ^fi^ %Uie wEth trtajion, triany, or ofhri i rime, who nhull dee 

ju&tiee ocd be found in another Aiaiv, shalJ on dt-mnuxd of ihe ex- 

rrqiivr auJIhiHIv {>{ Ihr ^fMir lri>m vthu h hr llnj lie drUvrtrd up 
to be removed t:- the i>;-iie havins juriulKtion of the crime.*' Tb* 
Supreme fourt. hnwrrcr, haa dividdl Ihal there U no way n( <.^ni< 
p«ninR 4 Kt:Lir (E^jVE-rnor to Kurrender ^ crimlnak, thoutd h^ refuM 
ID do won demftnd.iLndJnnctuol practice, govrTnorAhai-e k vide. 
cUactcIjcxj in llie mutter, I'he f^>1l()wu]i>; rcpi^rt fruju ui ittit^me)^ 
gtaaaal ai Iowa illusiratc« how the rrquisinonji of oiher fltnm 
»re looJcftl into and on aufFideit gnmudi may bcditdknted: — 

Sii — I beg 10 tcknowledgc the receipt of ymir communicalioi 
i4 tike irth intl., oaalnnJn^ ^ request ihjtl 1 cumine the- reqi 
•itiue nude by the i^vtntt <'f KrniuLky tvi tlie exlriuJiliuQ 
J-. P. Wvrtabaugh, luginher viih the eildcoce alluched tu 1 
tw|DUdoct, and adTise you oa Kovcmor of the stale whether 

The Fedcrtl System of Govcfnment 

my fifiatktn wch rcqviiiiti^n ?«hi^ii1d be howand ood Wuriibaogb 
rrlunifil lo the *U(f M K*ftH»ffcy Uit iriil fr.r ibe nflrnw « binwd 
Id hjkvp b«^ comnuliftl in rhat tiatt. la raptinic to auch re« 

The Ucts in lliv c»r, u di&iluwd by thr undiipulvd rvidviKT, 
4ft thdc: [Hen Mlowi utttmtvi <4 foiii]. ^ . . li U rcpug- 
lUiM 10 cvtfT snse of Ju3lk« lo uy ihax where a pvnoa tcai^et a 
vUlc in the urdiauy noune of his &IT>ir» vilhout atqr aRcmpt 
nf fr^nrr-ilmciil, And for ci^tmi yean livra »fj upright IJff, he 
may ihcn hr armtnl »d<1 prmtni^J !<■ thr m.itr vrhcTC ihe crimt la 
cUnwd to l]*rc 1)c«a oomnuttn] dghton yron beforr. b> be jiut on 
iriftl r>.'r thai offcnM, uhIc^je he !& cho/Kcd wtch mufdef or irvxfiiu 

This ttcK'. 3A it afipeun |j> mv, Is baud upcio the aoundtBi 
pnAdpIc* c\S public policy: thai U, if the authorilies of a ntJter 
Matt desire the arrcil uid mum of a fu^llve fmrn juslice, the 
«f)pfic«lloft iherriorc muM bf made irillrin a rejjb^ruiblc tirnc 
under all the rireiuiuteaen of llir cue ilitw Ibt romminktn of 
the offduc. The requevt now aawle by thv gu'venicr of Ken* 
lucky kir ttie anal asd rcram of J- D, Wunibaujcb for vi offcmc 
comraltcd man than d^ieeD jttn ago m that state does mrl 
fnQ irtlhin ihbi rule. If the uiihrpridr^ <d Keniucky dr^^red to 
try Mr. W'umbaugh for Ibr <>(Tmw of fiignrtiy. an applicatfoD 
for hw return lo ihal lUle ihooM h*ve been ra^e wilh rrasdn' 
able pmeziptiw afur Ihc uffr-mr wa« ainmiiricd- Lnder oil rhe 
cinninuUncQi of tha» cue, I am of tbtr opiciim that WurUbaugfa 
can ooi onw be held to be a ftigidvc from jiutkc under iht pro* 
fisloM of the federal ciMuclRitl')^. . . - 

The reqnol <4 ibe govcmur of Kentucky shovU not, iherdoie 
b a^ afj^aioo, be o>cnplIcd vith< ud \V'uti*bs;uf>h ihovid ttX 
be ancslnd and ftffurard to lb«t Biate lo aaowrr Ibe charge pre- 
ferred oipumt him. Respectfully niboairted, 

Odofber »b, iqoj. 
To Ibe Hooanl4e A. B. Cumaoins, 

from Ki*' 


AiDchod Gdrenniicnt lutd Policia 


6s. rte^AlfMtMfCtoMr^ 

.Mlbo«j|li omawnaa oBip wvipvak of B-poaoa^ bant B drim 
«l »|tartkulif ilAle, tfirrvv in tfiittllaano Mick diiogutfRie 
dttaouUp w ih« onct icnM m «Ucb tbr itm a und b tev- 
natkioAl Ian. l^'kitfEmtop :t aMknal tn ctandB. aad Mam 
casttoc \aiaUn vith ifae mritada bf wtddi ii b vquind or bfft. 
Tic trkiiuJ Conlibnkm, innvw; «■« nN oepidi m tu ccras 
w tv dtnaniJbin. iwr U thr FbffiavnA Ai iJ il wM — rrjfr^na to It 
cxbAUKivi: \a lis pfpyjrfniw. Tlw Hahfon. o o rt— i ■■ it K bo* 

Tba CoBicUiitisa fi i^ tJnilBd Staoa, » <jn^i«ir ■ ■tff p t aJ. 
«a Utt Mdb -ddM 'if Ar ColMd SUMl," s 
hon ddna (tf Aa Onilffl SfMA." BfchvnvlWnl 
evfvy a|iw>KWhy to Cmpcm b ivqirinil ta lm«* 

b«« "lUAff jofv A <it>«m ^ tfw [TRJifd SlUei"; «Bil "no peP- 
MB ittcpl A nRmt-him oMint. >)r a iMsm il itw UoitQil 
Stal« al lb* timr i4 Ihr aiin^ltMi df tlii» OuidBnite* rinfl be 
tUliUa Ki the n4lr« r-f t>:nMrM/' TW Pijummt Arfkk W 
At ft J iMWt , bwMw rfwlaring dm aO psm boa vHtiK 
r^iiof to Ebe Uriinl Suva, «a4 «ahJKr ki ib^JkMUMDn te«of, 
an diuMw «4 Ike Mwd tesn «kd ol ib* SMb wtaria tkcj 
ntfdc-,*' itoi dactBva Atf -'«b 9c8tt A^ Mb or oioRe Mif 
Uw vbkh rfull Ahrfrl|Er >h« pciviWir* «r [rwmwnWH <4 ditom 
<i the Vmttd SrAta: arr rfull u^ Suiv ifttpriw B17 pa»a ol 
Uff. libmjr. nr pmpem, wlilbavt 4toe p t p ni aI Uw; aor ^wj 
Id ■*/ jRiw-n #HhiB iv* jntMkltofi Iba nfuat p m li at» vi ibie 
bwL" Aad lb* FVt«cnfli Arfick cf Aaifdaeat doetom Abc 
*'lU tfchi of dilirm of lh« Tiilini Stotn b> TMe lUI Mt be 
denied <tr ibrlffcNl by chi? reiifd SiBia, «r bf bsjt $uiB,-aci 
BCciwil rtf rare, mint, at pn^Uam ODodWbn cf fcnindiL'' The 
C ttBt lkm t n ) nrrwh^rr MfiA ibr nVBainff ol IbcBV wonb, dlh«r 
hy «*j nf torludrrTi of tirtotlnn, nrr|>t rn v far u ibb b dnoe 
bj Ibe tflWriurNp imnf'tlloa tUM ,"aU |imr«n* bont m* BAtU- 
nttnid En ikc tUinl Stflin, lad >iib{«ct lo Ibe furijdlr^>ii ibcf«of, 

The Fetlcn] System of Government 

&rc dlimu of the United S4«tcft-'* la lU^ u u oibcr reqMcii^ 
It mmt be iaicrpfftcd Is ibe 11^ of Uiv oMnto&n bw, dit pri&d- 
p1c9 tnd UslDi; of whkh mvn fannliariy koofni lo the trAmcei 
oi the CottfUlwiioiu 
By the Coosiiiuiloti of ifa« Uiut^ Staivt, Con^eas iru mv 
ivnend "tt> arililUh ad umJoraa ni^ of lutunHutk-n." In 
'lk« viecxdH tU lUib |>-.iwvr, Congtm, b^ n]o:cnitf a^ts^ hu ■i;ifle 
pmviiiua ^r the »tlauuioai to dtixti&hip of Ihrre principil 
of pcfvofv: Finf. Aficne, hadn^ rcddrd for a (trula 
It ^viiMa th« htrais aad uadu the jujisdiriiuQ of the L'&itcd 
■ad DAturolucd indhithjaUy by pm^crdingt In a tovn 

ti fttaad. SnonJ. (. hildrrA i:J prnratM *» (MturtJtJtcd, "dwell- 
ing wiilna ibc TtKlnl St^lo, ind bdng imder the age of hren^- 
one ycAn at tbc lime of sncti ftitandiiacJoo.^^ Tkitd^ Fdrdiga- 
lura children of Ajncrian ddnso, coniBiig «iihiti the ddiiutioiB 
|irc»cribed by CbAfnai. 

The TfAl I'bjfct of the Foimecnth AmeDdmcBt uf Ihe Couit^ 

jlMlwffl, ift quolilyuig the vrordi; "All penons bnm lo ihr Tmicd 

»ulc«," hf Ibe addtHna, "and mibjcirl to the Juri*iji(ti«n thc-m^f." 

Vnuld appeu 1o haie bren |o oclude. by Ibr fpviot ajid £jUi1 

«Drd», (besides chOdien of the oemben of ihc Todtan Ijibci, 

atandSng hi > iHxuliar rriaik^i lo tliv Nioioiial GovrmmeDi, ua- 

lo Ibc commcn Uv^ tiro cLuaca of cases — cbildnm bom 

aBctt cwmlc* irx hiitfilc ocrupadon, and eblldrai cd dlplo- 

ia& fepwntaiiva of a forogn ^ate ^ both tif vtUch, ai has 

ly beca tbovn, by ibc lav td KngUnd and by our own law, 

fpvm the time of thv lint tcttlrmcnl nf Ibv Kiigliib (uluiue* En 

Aawrica, had bectt rccoflaued cic«plion* to the fundamcnial rule 

cMmiUp by Unb wJiMn Ibc OMOtry. 

The F^nnienlh AoiaHknent aif&im the andmi oad funda- 

mmtal nile td niuwfiship by birth wllhifl tbc letrilofy. in tbc 

llflgpance «ad uwkr ibc proierttoA cl the country; iocludifig 

diiUrca berr bora cd raidrfLl afittn, with the exccfidna* or 

EAeaikm (a* oU m tbc rule iuelO of cMhbcn of ftxdjui 

'•cnenigps oc ibnr nunbtef*, or Ujtn on foraga pubUc tthipv. ot 


dw Jul 




American Governm<Mir tnd Politic* 

nf cnrmici viihin and durtng a hcKtiflc otv-ufiniion ^>f pnn <4 our 
trfTiloty, AAil wiih ihr hinglr Hdrliri^mnl tvrrptinn i^f cliildrfn of 
nxtnbcn of the IndUo triba owing dirrct jJIcgijmcr to ibeir 
mml U^K*^ The- AiTirndmrnl. In dR«T vwiirnJA an^I in mNiiilv«t 
hiBeQl, iitdudci thr thildms bum, within the tefritory of ifac 
XTnltcd Sl&icm nf jJI ulhcr jicrvin&t of whalcva xiux or coWi 
doinkiled within tin; Uoitfft Sluu. Ei^ory dlisen or aubjcd of 
■noLher country, while <)ofni<:i]cd bcrt, it withb ^c olIecfaArc 
ud Ibc proiocilon. Jknd c^'wcriurnti/ subject to th<r Juriedk'lifui, 
d Ifae I'Dfted StJitieaL. T<i hold that the Fourteoitli Amendment 
of ihe QjiuiiliiliL«n etc^ludtt fmm cilJum^hiii llie dtildrcn, buvn 
ill llie Unitnl i>l«(o, of dliiviu or suljjtxUi tA irthrr i.tiuntfic¥, 
miuld be tio deny dtlunship Id ihctuaads ol |>cri'iiu uI Engllfihk 
Scoicit, Irish, Gcrrojui or <4her European porcntoj'c, who have 
«lw*yslHffna>rutdfn.\lLtnd trt^ud ob dlinms of the United Sute^ 
'Ihe FourfpfOlh Amendment of the Conatitulioit, in the decl«- 
mtion Ihni "utl prr%ris hym or mliiriUizird in the Unilnl SUtlex 
«nd hiibji'i^t ii.> the juriiidictioii ihemf, are dlixenik a\ the Un£l*r<| 
Stato iuid ikf the State wlioein ttirj' rt^idt/* ojntrmpliileft two 
•ouros of dtucciuhip axid twn only: binb aod naivraUutioo^ 
Ot&MO^p by TJolut^Uiatfon can only btr acquired hy naturall- 
■ftliAn under the aulhorit/ aik! in ihe forma of law. But tltizen- 
Aip b^r birth U etnhlUhed h^ the nucre iacl of birth under the 
dirunsUntra ddrtird in the Constitution, hWtty prrmn born 
vllhui llic Uiutcd StiCm uid subject to the jurin^tion ihrrtof 
txconiM &i one* a dlimn ol the Cnlled Suin and Dc«<if^ mi 
nDtarallntioa- A pvnon bom out of ih« jurisdiuion of the 
Unlctd SlotQi ran ofLly become a dtiswn by hdt^ naturalued. 
dibrf by Imcy. as in the case ni the annexatirtn of fore^ Icni' 
tftfy; or fay authority of congrtu, eaneiavd cither by declaring 
cnlBui clasBt< <tf prrvnna to hr c^jfinrat, itt in the eti^etinttiXn 
QDnkning dtitcn«lrip upon furni^n'bofii E^iildren rjf (itinn^, or 
by «Oftb|ii( fonijpitfm IndividunUy ta becoane dtuteiu by pro- 
ccccfings in th« Judicial trfbuaals as Sn tba ordLnary provl^oiii «| 
ib« MtunUiation acls. 




TSK muxDuiiOM JWD xLscno» or lac hlesedekt 
63. CffHitttaional Ptavhhn^ AJuikj A» fA« IJatiM of $Ji* 


THEniodrof wlr(tliifll1ic<IM 111^x^11:110 of Iht Umtvd SlAl«», 
HJtmllE'^n 7>r«tixl in Thf Faleralist, wu aIibohi the only pan oF Ui« 
Dcw «.hr[iH? of KovrrnrnfUl which ocapcd without trv^rc cdkiUTe 

Of rocclrcU \hf fUsi^tc^t n\z.Tk i^i approliiiiioQ from it» opponcnta. 

renrtthelMS . it hM b«n the only |iart ol Iht natiimiil nuchSnrry 

rhich hu bvt-n amrntJt^cI. lUid, in ibi uctuftl optrrAlJoi], U hoj de- 

ifd lompJMrlv frcim Ihe idn» of ila dcaignt-n. T!^r foLlming 

(ovmliuiionkl provktii^Eu, bovrcvcr, fonn th« staning fioi&l for tliu 

study of ihe subjccl : — 

ki. The «-xt\~u<iv« power 8liJl 1w v«8U<l in a I^nsUefil of Ihe 
^mted &t4k« of Amcrictt^ lU shall buUl hid oKtot during Ihe term 
f four yciiM, and, to^ihcr with the VJce-PrcsIdcDi, cboam for 
w ftunc trrrn, l>e «{«<1(xl u fotlom: 

J, Kmcq Sute thill oppoini, hi %ucb mAancr m Ihe I^tJalarr 

IhmMf En«y <liml, a auiiiUrr uf elKLur^ if()tiiil Ut Ihv itlnAr aum- 

j^bvT oi sniitcn Bod rqiicscnuiiva Id wbidi th« Suic m«y be cn- 

Hlklcd in iht Co||;r£«; bui boHOaioror reprc^ni^vtivc, or |)^noii 

boldinf an «0oe otf mut or pm6t undfr the Uniud Suia, ^oU 

be tppooDtcd »n rkctPf, 

[i. The «icrlun ^haJ] m^t iDtfaHrrcippctireSCittOf and TDfbj 
boUod fur Ptrwlcnt nnd VJcr-l^rHidrnlp tme of nhom. tt lejAt, 
thill ao4 bv ui inb^bitiut <if Uiu %Mne SlaU wilh thenaelrcs; Ibtf 
iludi Dune in Iheir bdlou the pcnoo voted for ts Vrvsldcnt, and in 
disdnct billoci Ac pcnoin voud for js Vlcc^Pt^dcni, uid th«y 
ike ibEinci lata of «ll penoos voted for u Presidccl, end 



Nocniiation and Elecdon of the Pmidcni 155 

«l tU pwooe To««d lor aa Mn^PraUniit aad ol ihc ounl>cT t4 
TOtB for each, which lins cher shill n^ ud ctvitfy. ud mfitmH 
foikd tp tbc wat of jEovrtnmenl <34 ihc United Sla>c«, iSr«cic4 
to the PnridfDt of thr S^n^it; the rmideai of ihc Saiate shftU, 
in the ^ircunKc c«f the Scnutf and llouv of Hq>r«rtkUliivi, npa 
■H th« cvtiificatA, uyJ Ihr tijtfs thull ihm U- rnvunlrd ; ihp pmn« 
falling Ihie grefttot nvmbcT of tt>la for Prrvkipnt shall be the Prcci* 
4tOtt If mdi iiuinli«r bv a majurity i^if the vrtMlc numW of elcctovs 
oppoliited; in<l if oo pcnoo h!i<re such mujurily. then fn^m th? 
p0V)iM hATinc the hijthevl niTRibcn, not cxeec^ttg three, on ihc 
lilt of x\yMe vuted f^ u fraJdent, ihc Hi^ua^ <i( Rcf«v«fittftlfvcs 
shilL chnoie inMnediaidy by ballnc thr Pmiflcnt. But in cliCMMdpg 
IJM PrrtJdent the volc» *hjm be Ijiea by ^uic9, the rrfirr«<iil8liun 
&t>ai each 5t«Ee having one vote; n rjuurum fur Uiivpurfii'M thil] 
omlst of a QMinbvr or mtmbvrt (root two-thjrdi t4 tliu Seui<k iaJ 
n nwjorlty of iB tbe Suits ahoU be nccouiy Id a chdce. And 
if theHoiMcof R*pifoicniftlh'e**ha!lftoitchooMnP««i'1ent, wrisCTi- 
ew the t%hl tit cboirr »h«ll dcv'ilv^ upm thrcn, Ivforr the fnuiih 
diy <i BJtfch neit following, then the \'icc-I'T«idi'nI nhnU ait j* 
Pnaklcnl, ft» ia [ho cat* *jJ dMth tM other tDnttiUiljvuj] ditaljitity 
of the Pnajdeal. 

>- The pcfson hiving the grcalcst number of toics as VUx- 
PttsutenI ahall be the Vke-Prandenl, if such number be a nu)ar- 
(Ij cif the whole aumbrr of eWtLvrM ifipointed. And if ni> prrRon have 
a majority, tlien fmm the Imi liighral numbers i'D rhe litt Ihe Snula 
ihall cbtio«e the Vicc-PraJdcnt; « quarani ht Ihe pnrpuv AmR 
covIai of PfD-thirda of tlie whok ninnbtr td Mnatort, »cl a na- 
)odt7 of the whole piniBbcr »hal be neecKair to > dtoicie. 

j» But t)o perwt) cosnJraikoAally bcHglbTo to the (Jfjce of 
Pnaidcnt shall be eJigibk to ddst of Viee-PmideDl of ifae Vnitcd 

' TW«r Aft* pMB^vfte fiMiMitailf Ar Tvdflh AnriHlmni. wakh wifUMfd 
ihtMb«4ncaMwallWdr%iul<^VM(ntfanli»ila4 '* Tbi HivtmakilL i 
in ibdr i M| *c ti T* StMiik aod mt ^ ballw iac tm ;wv4«. fJ ■fcaqi aw a* 
dta *« !■ ■« UMtJiMI Vi A> BH SUto vflb ihHudnL Aftd *cf 
VaU ■ IM irf «a At fww 4*Md Itf^ lad «l Ibt auttba af votn for acb; 

4* The Ctin^rcM may il^trrTnint tht tim? of chootiag Uiv rlcfl» 
an, and the djiy on which Ihtv inhxil f^^v IhHr vot», whkb lUy 
«htlt Iw the- «amf th/i.'UKht'ul iLir I'liiinl SlJtkv. 

5, No pcrwn vxKtpi a ti;iiural-b:rni dtiM&, or 1 dtucn of the 
Unlud ^uAa ji (he um« oj the iuio\iiktti <if i1i£0 Constitution, aball 
be eligible tu Ib« oflive otf Prvideai; cdther stisU uxy pmon be 
eli^iUe tA ihat oificc ivbo shtll noi have atnuncd tr> th? Affc of 
tbinir-fi'<^ yr^rE and been foiirtccn ytm a mldeni wlihtn the 
UpitaE Stita. 
H 6. In fucof itie TfinnvRl nf Ibc PriT«klrni fn>m nlTi««,or <>f hb 
il^lb. resi^oitiuOt (T uiabllJly Uj iMxhirj^ Ihi- powm jud dutte* 
of ihp «ud oScc, th« s«me iIiaII derolvc i>n ihe Vk»- President; 
utd ihc G>ngr«ffi may by law provide lor the cue of removal, 
death, rtnisDatiun, *>r KnabaliCy, bolh of Ihc PterfdcTil *nd Vice- 
Pfdu^oal, dcrlnring what nffirer nhtll then art a* Prrsidcnt; nnd 
*uch offici-r RhuH aft ju-or>idmg|y, unlil ih^ cli^aUlity l>r rciuovpd 

tor a Prudent i;h*n tr dcrlcd- 
7. Tht PniaiiJrjil blialL al ^Ulcd limra. ncnve fur hi» ter f K C K 
a compduiliDn, whuh ihafl neither be increaMd n^T dimlnJAbrd 
durtni: the period tor which he sha^ll have been cIcciM, and he 
^ail not rwd\* vriihm that peinod any other emolumenE Imm 
ihc llniled SlaIcA, or Any of (hem. 


ly «toT iKaII (Ifh vti cftiHy. AAd lr4nunlT. ^dlrij. f»r tl>r v^l oT Itir irwtTiiinrftl 
of Uv UnlLni Sui's dtmlrd tn itu- Pvrudmt nf rh' Srttif Th# rrrciiltnt i^ 
Ihe Sfoiif- thu-}}. in Ap pf*i*i«* at dip Svimlr "(id Hhub of ftp|im*™», 
«^fl all itir TrriiO' tm. iii<l tKr win iholl thcf^ ba oHiniHt 71k pfmn tinvia^ 
iW grHiKi iLiniltfir <ii wtn ^KkU lie |be Prw'^Dl, If luch nunilvr bt i ntijorfry 
«f lbt«hoJ^nui&l«rAl«|*cwriftptttto»(ti 4n4ll ibtm be ttorr thm onrvilH^AijT 
Hr& tbticilr. ud km 4n equil mirnWr «f i«|m« thfa the llouvof K^jDiflti*!*- 
Hm ihiU Buni^LvblT eba»v if Wllof ore ol ih'm Cor I'lanimi^ «nd d no prr- 
■oc hm « ouicfit/, ibtt. Intra ibe 6fi bitbtd sm lltic !iil, tfhc ud [t^uic iliHtll 
Ik GLf mtfHi cknK du FroiddL Dal Ift <li»liftE Uic Pnwifnt. tbt wain 
ih*D l« lik«« 1^ SuirK tV rrfimntlBtlnTi fnun t*r]i 54ii1i- lunirir viir t^Mc; 
4 qaonib lot lb* ftMfoir timll riTifki^'i i>l 4 nw^aihrf of rnHnhrrt fmm iw*-ihin|t 
«f ^!(uiB«« ■■d ■ fViilnTlrf 04 all cttr Huri« irvll (w a*rw4?y t-< ■ r^c. In 
*tay mo, Afur dt* choacr of iTic ^rAi<l<iit. dir ptmn Fuvlnn ahr |[H»mi tun- 
bir il KM* el dtt fiKim lUJL be Ihr \'ii«-PraEilAt- Bui if Lhfiv ihotA} i*«iUR 
l«« «r noft «te hate v^imI inutk the licHte iklU ch Bi H Irva flJfm Irr HUM 

NominitiQn and Election of tiw President Ij7 

$. Before he mitt qd tb« cxtvulioA of hb officvi be nhuU uktr 
the foUovtng viftib or afRfniAlion : 

**l do •olcnmix swttta (uT ftfCnn) ihal I will faiihfuUy eicciMc 
the o&ct at Prfsvdfot ol ibc United Staid, uul wilt, lo the bcil cf 
way tliiSly, pmmt, |iri>trct, u)il dufr&d (he Cnoalilulkin uf the 
United Sum." 

Tbe ITcndetil^ Vlcr-rmident, and all diil o9kvr%«f Oe Ui^lcd 
StfttesthaU he rvnu>irrd tttmi L^lUe un impi^akli^irat fitfaiid cuO' 
Tictiun of ErtMun, hrihny, vt utfacr high crima und muddmeuiurL 


64. Th€ Ckokf ff the Presidential FUttitn 

Und«f the tcrna rrf the OHuUlulioii, Ihe elecion of Mcfa CUU 
fljc I0 he <txacn ts Ihe legulAlurr ihmof may dclemine. There 
wv, h«vcvtT, wry nrty a unUi^nn tendency in the lUrecdon of 
populv eboofie on * groien! AUite lit-ket, and, wbcc Xlirhtsui 

liepArtraltefafHlCVily (ri^mllrit mcfhml in jSiji. I^mideul H«Jti«Ot> 
in A BMttOfe to Congress nude Itib laiaicmcnt of the cue agaioul 
tiytfki dfctiuv: — 

Tht method of ap|K>iDlinent b^ the Slain nf clecteirt of PrrM- Thi 
ilrtM tfid Vke-Pm*denl hia raeiiily atiraded rmtwtU uilensil 
bf' rejLMOof adcpATTurebftheSlAEeoif MkfaigBafxomihcmelhad *p 
vhkh hid hcOMoe unlforv in oil the Suiea. Pilor to iSja va- 
rious PMthoib had hccn ued hy ihe differrnt Suio, Axid ^eo by 
Ihe ttme Suie: In Vfcnr the ftmioe vfti mvlr hy the h-jpiiklun;; 
ill ochen einton were rhoaro by duiricii. Imt m^rr generally 
by ihr Wktcti of the wfiole SlJtc Q|f>n a xenenJ rkic4- T^ 
M^vnnnil bnatd ihe x)uplw>n of tliv lACl-namrd method hid ah 
e>riy beginnicg ftnd tvvol tteulily forwnnl uootig the State* andl 
!■ iSji ihrre remalntd but t slnj^le Stuc (S^uth CnioUiu) ihM 
kid DDi Mlopied it.^ That State untiL ^c Civil War roniioued 
ID choMe iu drfbkri l)^ a vole of th^ legitjAiiire, bul Jif ler Ibe war 
cb«nfnd it* lacthod aad ixmfonivd lo the practice uf nihcr Staloi. 

>lkCttMbrccMf*liktcl««MlM*ciKitaH«qflMlte i4A 

1^6 AracncMi fTiiwiiMin aid ttUa 

I 4 iiih sixty yeara aU tbr 

« \^. l;^ ^v :l pvpulAi vote UDOB A 

>?»ii- v< .iri this method wa» unmnaL 

A r ri Mi leBl of vibtt 
-J ;iii i. ;>i in jny State ud wUnur aqr piinwe <rf P^^V 
<'-<: -, .«.-; 1^0 must believe, biUsold^i^Kn the 
iiLV(r»,ry >\,LA desinble aad cbrt a 
':iviMr,,^ nH,i( subject tu change 
'■ iiv-i/K-: of uur inftdtuEkias, hot pnatned the 

>' ■ :::'i\ fteifecdjr iconnd the choice at 
uxui:.. IriLluvoce of the "g en j nu adcr," the 
vi Id I va^ ^^r^'Ujfht inED hanDOi^. Tbtl 
.v>u 'V ivkcD is, 1 think, an imfortiinaBe and 
'iviii i'\ tyjK that nuT wdl suggctt wfadba- the Sti^B l^al fl3 

t'w ■!< :T .ij.pruv^ tu the old and prevaiHnc mdikid c«|^ net 
^ik I i\ J, ^^Qdtituiiuikal anieodiDcnt a pnotice v^v^ hw hMl 

■J, [ . i■.'^,J iJ iU. . . . 

3|VEUi' . -\ iiAnJcrs for Congresaonal purpoees ace ia ttctt cms 

I Ln. ' ^, j liy a ^errymaDder of the le^idlacive t&ok^ dnii mak* 
<■- , ::'.;« -AiUr fur a majoriEr lA the legal ttjOb ^ t^ Scale » 
< li.', I rriL ^L|.'pi.»rtioniiienE and equalize the Cou^LBioBiA Amxtt. 
■\ : .11 riiy rule U csubUshfd that odIv a poGlkal fcttr^dMctt caa 
t. i.H... >^. 1 haw ivcrntly been a,dvucii uui ^ ooe ccn^^ ci 

■ ''-' ' Pi >[jIl' three dUtiicts for ibe elei:tion -J a^zJbces li ibe 
^ '. L ,irc Lvusiitutcd as fi>E]c<vs: C^ had 65.^cc ^ccL^:il. 

-Ui .-...-^. m-X one to.£x3D, vhile ^ o^juct o.u3^ ^ct^r^vd. 

ru . . ». ■ -...'Lirt swiii.>n5 have been -.loltcd ic otike a jec^&ziTT 

' ^ii.-^i' mcihi^ hivc ilreiiiy :;";jiiii ^aettive gcinra^c 

'f Stiuvi-ra and Rtprtscsii::*^ in C-o^^rBak ir>i 

„< .1 * * i.i'-mptxsncJ, At i'-.jil ■-ii.-E ^ii't 'iie :^rttf cm 

■ "^ 1 ■: i w (in vtTt]ini.r.r >. :'-^t i^-ij>' t -i* ^rrn^iaiirr." 

Nonunirion And Election of ihe Ptc«dviii i 

An cWciwti implic:* a body of dcccon Imvinft procribed ^uM- 
ftcstiuiu, uach im« d whun bfts a^ fifual v»,\iit anil inAuntcr in t-r'v'iitjj 
ilrimninmg the rcsu)L So vti«D tbe Cunsixtuiiun |irovklv» ihat <*| «■ 
"cwt Suie fthall «ppoiat" (deci), '*in wcH mnnncr u the Imii- ^' 
1aiur« tlierc^ may cUw^ a numbcf i.-^ ctock-H," Hc., ua uruv- 
urirkd pnnvf woi i>al gimi to the lo^Utuna is ttit »dec(iaii' 
«f the mcthodi to ht iJiwI. "A rr|»ibltfaii fotftn of pvtmmcnt'* 
it guv*atefd (>/ th« Comtitucioa to C4cli State, Mid tbc pcwer 
jpTVD bj U)c sjjoQ imtnimeat bo the legulniLrcs of ihe Stsles lo 
pnicribv tnetbdi fi.^r the chmce by the Slate <rf fi«ClofB IDuU b« 
esentted luukf that limitAtkni. The ascndal f«atiirei ol Mich' 
% piTcmnrat are tho n^t of ihc pmplc ti> choc^e thdr own oAb- 
ren &nd Ihe ne«fa1 practicable ei|Dali1jr of rakie m the aiiflra^ai 
given in detemiinl&g that chotce- 

ll will not he cUimcd chat the ptmtf giveo to Uiv leftulaiurr Ihi prtj 
wouU support 8 bw pruvidlnjt ihai ih« |Jvr^OQi receiving lli^* ^ 
anuUfVt vole should be the electors or a law that al the elector^ cu" b 
abould be rboMS by ibc voten of a idngTe Coagrcfitlomd dUirict. 
The Stale b to dioow, and vndn the prri^a^r nt reftuladnie 
mrtboda ibe legulature can neither vox ihc tighi of thoicr cite- 
when wir adopt ncthud* not cooformafaJe to reptiMIc<n b»iiiu- 
tiuiu. It b net ray paqx^e faeie lu tfiacua the queatiuc whether a 
dwke by the le^datUR or b)- the voun; cf equal nngle ifiitncti- 
ia a cbok< bjr the State, btil oofy iu rrcommnd Mrh reKulatbn' 
nf tbn matter hj conaiitntional uDeodnicnt a3 will lorurc ujQifoinM< 
iiy aed prevent that diagrafeftil panftun JugKlrty to which nch a 
tibertj ol dkokv, if it exi«t^ oflfra a Icmptation- 

Subfecl to the pravido« (bat CoofiTVK may fix ih« day r<itr chwM- 
(nn; elecioA and Ihr day oe which they mmt caM their votrt, the 
Cmtdtutioo lejA^s tbe feoenJ rcgolatiua of ibr methodi of mating 
the viMe and ihc cocnpnsalkin ol thr elr<ior» lo the mpedlvc 
Statca. Thoe parafETapfia fioai the Orcgoa bwa illoitiate the 
gcneml cuaiom: — 

ncxi aixvf th« in 
ycftn tbcrcdirr. ' 

^hii StArXe aa n. 

■ ixlttht Bifty b^ fUiiU^ 

ED CuUglW- 

of prcddccrt %mA pkc p' 
mm viD Uw &nt Wr . 

the bow of iwdre ta n.. 
All be lo/ficuio in tn 
b, rdwal to ta, nry 
Iriull fansirdU' 
In, lurfa vant>- 
kJI a}ip«v, or the vv 

L uf ihtvn bj tliv cui. 


iG clecton ah$B t^ 
ihr MNkf Arc pvt^. 

np of Hip «fan-.- 

^ Such fifUAt 

dccior whu ttbaU «ii 
pv« hb vote fu 
Ive from 1hi« 
$3 for cva> ■ 
thi; pb(c ^< ' 

Ctftf fr» 

— bvTri] 

"I ,. 


^ (hill 







Nommitiofi ind Election of the Pre«)dcnt i6l 

from the puddn* and iorfmlx of thr iprtwntl num of the popuU* 
tko. Tilt cooDpobiiioa of a oaiional naniLDa^Dg convmtioQ U 
fully dc*<tibcd by the f^ilhyRrinf rail liicnr^ by the {'.hMimtin tttid 
Scctctoiyor tbc RepuUkaii actional cummillir, liu-tmcting R«- 
pubUcftOft io(h>x<aoadtgtfCBfOT Ihc pirt/aAacmbly;^ 

1^ the KqHiblkia EI«ciora uf ihr I'^iilvd StAlm; 

In Atxordancc with oUbEUhcd cuvb^m vul ia obvdirccc 1o 
ifiMrurtSoDA (if lh« Rq>ub1icati NaUonal Cocwnlion of iV>4. Ibcr 
RefMiblirm National Commitlcc nov dircctt thiJ a Kadonjl 
G^nvntion <d dckfAia rcpi f entarirt of th« Krpuhlicui party 
br held in th« city of Chicago, in thr State ^ Itliooisv 4t » o'clock 
Dixin, on Tuvfdiy. die ibih ri«y of June, 1908. for Iht purpoiM uf 
Doimniting tuttKdalcv k^r Pmidenl aaJ Vlctf rr««i(Uot, li> be 
vowd for 11 the PresIdeQital elcoloTi, Tucnday, Kcvfmber j, 19^, 
acHi for the tran.'^i^doa o! auch otita buainoaa at may pnrpcrly 
raiM bdort ll. 

The Republican tlrcton of the srreni Sutra uiit Ttmhmei, 
iiicludin|[ llawiti^ the District mf CoTumbij, AlftikA, Piino Klco 
iar\ Ihe Philippine lihiwllj and aJl other eleLlun, vrilhoul reganj 
to pul poSlkol affiBalion, v^ htUwv m ih« principles nf the 
Kq>ubUcaB party and Indom; fu poUdca, art cordially inviui] to 
unite under this ctB in the selection of delegate b^ taid convention. 

Sftjd National CoAvmtinn ahall «t>miiir fA Unit delc|iilA^jLl-brjee 
fvom nth Slate, two delegaM fur each Repreimtalivp at large 
in the CongTfSi, tvo dctcSAlei f(vm c:acli ConftTcuioiul dittrict 
ajid ttom ««di cl the Trmiurica of Arirona, New ^l«dco and 
Hawaii, iwu dcie^cs from ifac dittiici of Col-umhia, and two 
dekxaif^ ea^b fmm Alaska, Porto Rico and the Pfallippfiu bla&da. 
For each delegate elected 10 thb DonvcntioD an alternate ddegate 
ahall br efaoncA 10 aore in caAr of the atHmiv of hi% printfipal. 

The delejcalrs-al'lafge and ibcir altrmain tbaU be Hrctpd by 
popular Slate and Territorial conTrnliom, of which al Icwt ihiilj 
daya' tf^kt sfaall have 1>«n publtsfard in B^'me newspapvr or 
new^papm of general <imlath>n in the reapedive SUI^ or 



Am^ncan Government And Policies 


The CnngTT Sfl wiiuJ dUtricl deletes dudl be dectcd bf a 
vmli(Mi ^ftJlcd !iy the Rrjxtlilii'jui rongnMii»Ml cfrfnoiitke of eufa 
dblrict, nf ^hicli at IfMl ihtrly dajF^' notice ^tiall liavc bern pub- 
1ube4 w tomr ncwtp^jxr or nrnipiipeTs tJ general cirvuUfiiTn 
ID tbo diuni:!; prvv4d«il) iliil in vty CttniHT^tbloiialduiT'Ki wbL^nr 
ihcn is nt' Rcpublicvi CLiiiKmki<:>n^I comnuttctf, the R^puUicon 
5urcC4>mniiUrc iihall be rubniluinl for ud rr^rcftrat Ihc Ci>cg$rca' 
sionAl Commitlrc lb bsufni uEd c«[] ami making aaid publidUran; 
ind iimvi*ifrf, th-ir ddtgilo bdih from the Sinte »i Iflrge nnd thdf 
■ItcfriMn nuy l-c rJrclftl Ln ronformily with ihr- hwn U Ihr Slate 
In whidi Uic election oocun; piDvicM, lh« SUtc Commltlcr or 
a^y 4uch CodncrrsiInRaJ cximmittc« to dIrVct; bul, provklej 
funbcr, tlul in nu SUIc sh:tU an electH>cL b« so btld ta ba prevail 
ihe dclcgntev ffom ftn; CnQjcrcAdfind dJiirlct juid ihpir ftlicmnim 
bdflg SfloctM by thf Rfpuhlician dorlors nf thai iliitrkt. 

The dfclion of dckgotf* frorn the Uixind of ('ulumliia fth»U 
br htJd uodn ibr <ltrvcltim mil <up<Tvisiua of aa riectirm Inard 
cpmp-^n] <1 Sulnty Bfcbcf, Pctcy CrwifurU jn^J Gh-tijc F. Ctjlllm 
ul the Duirici ot 0>lu[Bbia- Thb ktafJ -^liall huvt aulhL<riLy lo 
fijc the d&le of Mid dcciSon, subject to priur provbioiu hfrdn« 
uid to amn|>c all dct&il* Inddcfilol thcrcio, uid shall prvildc for 
> rc^ftnlina of Ihc \«4ra nat, auch rrgbir&lion lo iadculr thi^ 
nunc Jtnd mndciuY ri t9ch votEr. 

Thr dc-lricatn frt>m ihv Tmitorica fif Arixoiu. Xrtv Mento, 
HawBU ami ftt»m AIvJia shoU be iclcctvd in ibc maniicr of leloct* 
lug ddcis&ics al larg* from the States a^ pmridcii hcmn- 

Ttie ildefiatea frooa Purto Rico imd ihc Philippine [^«i<b Aall 
be T^rrtrd in n^nfarmity «ilb cctlain t\i\c* ftnd reguUlIiiaii Adnptcri 
bj Ihii ooanmirtcr, nipifft fif whii^h arr tt> hr fumlihnl to rbc gov- 
erning (i>mmitte<s <d the RepublkiU pxny in I\jt1d Rko and Ihc 
Plilfip^^inc blanija, 

AH dcffgBin tbUI be elected not cxHio' than thirty dayit after 
lh» d4ie cJ thia cnU and noi laur ih» ihlny lUyn tidorc ihc dntc 
td tHr iiiM<l4g of the next Rrpublicui Nalbaa) CoTii«clio«i. 

TtaE credrtidah «f c^b drkfote and altcnkiic muat be for^ 

Nominatioti mkI Election of the PrrsKleni i6j 

wwdcd IQ lh« vecnui)- of tht Rcpubic^a NMia«al Coramiiuc 
ft! WB«Uiigioik, D.C., bt leui tntnty days bdorc ihe d«t« fixed 
for fhr omLinE U Ihc coctvcation, tct int ia nttkiog up ia lenk- 

Tn any cue whrrr mun- thaa ihr aulhorbDcd ailBber of ddcRiliM 
[n>ni ai^' Suic, Tvttilocj or ddcgitc dklrkt ue rapofivd ii> iho 
mi f Ury of ibff Natkioa] CommltlM a cummM shall be ttvemed Ii> 
exist, Bad the tKTtUay riull notif j the Mtfcnl dclcj:iktAt m re- 
portrd, and tUI Mbmli all wch crtdcniiala umI dakm lo the 
■Ikolf cDVDaUM lor dmnoo JU lo whkh dHrs>lr4 rrportcd dul 
be |ilKcd oo tW teaaponff roll ctf die tom«niloe. 

All Bolka> of coolal sfaall be mbtni(l«d ia wridng, eccovqiaadcd 
bf ft pdued oakiBcM fti:tdKi|r forth tbc grouncb 19J comcM, nhkfc 
mot bt filed with the uxn-iary uf the ctfranitlce twenty d>jn 
prior Id the mcdios of the NAiin&il ConTrDiiJ^o. 

Hashv S Nliv, Ouimus. 

While the rompnaition rd xht Dtmocnik conrmlioo i* pnc* 
tfolly dw umc u that of ihe Rcfiublkui coBvcnUon, ihc mode 
cf dWMdng dcdwalA dlffen in muiy »U1es; for, oa Ibf folbyffUtf 
call l»dlcit w> a lATjcrr frrvrifirA b f^ivm lo Ihr UvmucTalk ornaiii- 
■MloD ol each stale b ihc choice of its quota of ddcfatea. 

WAnnsiGTuei, D^C, Jaaiuiry 18, 1904. 

Tbe Dtmooilk; Nalkifial Ommbttv, ha«fag n«t In tlio Ctty 
of Waddoftoo oa the itth day of jamuiy. 1904, has appoiai«] 
Wedacada^, July 6, i(>ac, u the time* And cho^tn St Louti, Ml*- 
BMirif ae Ar ptur for holdi&s ^'^ OctnocnAk NntioDA] Convcniioa. 

Each Stale u cotJtkd la npctsMitAlUQ themn equal tn di^uble 
Ihe Dunber of its Smabxn and RqintmialitTs in tbr Conj^rnH 
ef ibc Coifed Statds ^ad each Territory, Aladu, tudian Tkrriury 
aad lb« Dbcrki of Cokinbla shill have «£x driegafica. Al Donw- 
rraik citiacAS of iW Untied Staio v^ can uule «nlb » in the 
tSan for a ^n and ceoooniiad oMMfttuikmal ^fotrmment are 
cenUaly mWled fen jcdn u* in veninA dekgUci lo ibe CoateiuloQ. 

Javis K. JOMit«, Chainnaa. 



Am«ricftn Government and Polidcd 

67. CtnK.tmtieit Ofsifiry 

Th* RomEnatloQ of ifac cudUiue for ibit tmBidcncy vuL vicf 
prttukiKj 15^ of (XKine, the chief bvnnfla or a nstionAt cnnvm- 
twa and the buinl aiouDd nhkh lfa« pony vvf^uc is uapi^. 
The plidng of Lhe various caadidaits Xtdort xht convcniion is a 
hiKh *ri, jmd alchough il sridom hu muth dTcri im Uii- i^ittionir 
c4 Ihe baitvtios, ihe prvsentaciun ^mt b regarded oa on occa- 
^n for oralory of a pmitlAri)' Amerirjui lypr;^ I'hr f<in<rwinft 
exma from a Bprrth by Mi- Martin W. Uulcloa. nondoAtiiif 
Mr. Alton h. Carka" ^ti 1904. may ht rt^udcd aa musiniing 

The ctjunny, vudoui it* w;n in ihii gnat crisb, called upon New 
Vork v tJic baUlcj[tound, Ncn* York answ«f^ with a CMididate 
who carried the Suic by aittf ihounnd majonix^ (Applfluw^ 
The coujitiy cdlcd upon New V01I for the hcsi of lU brain and 
htood. and New Yroi Uttwen with a rnaa vtm cut tku way thiou^h 
poTCVlj ud loil unlH he fouod ihe hiKhcii \1t3k ol powtr and honor 
In ihe Suie, (Ap^'lsuse,) Thecouuu> citled upon New York fur 
a I>cmc<Tat, an'i New Vodt answers idth a man who lefLmeil the 
ritnpic !ew>nA nf IJeTncx^^[c faiih la che farmwed fieJd, who look 
them viEb inrrroAng itmigltk Eo the bar and finalJ^r hnnorrd Ifimi 
hy liU eJiaJted itadon on the bmch ■ — a man who, <lm-ijj(hrjul hi« 
camr frmn purrrty to powrr, onrr in fair wvalhrr or ftiul foncicidi 
Ibe rtandanb of liu party Faith or dettned Ihe cnk>m of hi* coni< 
mtftd. (ApplftUfC^) M my hritllaiti and amiable and distin- 
falAtd frkod, Senator Dinlcl, of Vlff^nla, aav«, a Democm 
«bo arter acmi^'bed the ticket in aJl hia life, <At*;Jau*c) The 
cnmby called upon New York for a iJcmocmi free fmm farlianal 
dbpuie, and Xrw Vork amwcn tHth a mnn frientjly lo all fartlofii, 
bill ft favorite, or afraid <4 nnr>e; a man irho will take ootiruel and 
courage of both, Ixjt who will ukr ihc biitcrnrH of neither— a 
man who will nol atir the baiml "i \)tv |i^l rvi^r Khjtrv the itriinony 
of tlw pnMnt, but whi> will lead u» up tuwani ibr future into a 
doQctteCK atmo«fihcn of party pence. (AfipUuw,) The fuuniry 
cdM upon New York Jor a man who nQkaurrd up to the ttaiure 

Nomination and t^kcuon of iht- Prc^dcnt i6j 


nl tlu» htif pJ4cv> and N<ru' Yuct unswvn vhfc a c-jadJdxte whij 
fnv freoi 3iT>uih to msj\ in Ihc humble ^alkfof life; vaha lived EUid 
learned what all uuc conuiMa folk rouai li^-c &nd IcAra ; a man who 
riptiked with Advanciog ^ctmt in Lbc n^h oiuinmcab cd tht^ lav 
uatfl he ircnt, by cht'icc uf thow vho kacw him hfsu ta tioM Ihc 
hravy scale of juttke ai Ihi^ highrsl poicl of our gvcal jutlidAl 
ijxilcni, vhcrcv wiih Ihc otuleni «lifi moulded Slate uid NadoQ, 
sad the nwD nho driTP (uaiumttf v'n ihv wlicri <jd fiinc, he aur- 
nycd Iv the t^crr ffroand tnry \n*:h of this grt«t Rqjublic and 
nw with expanding vidoa ih« iuucrial gr»wUi aod gioty of his 
Smc> <ApphittM) 

The country r*I[«l «^«>n >f*w York far n man lo fil Ihia, Ihc 
tritfrkl h"V)r .in<l pi*.T in our nnliunoJ lifr, and PCctr Vodi iiMwm Jj," 
vkh a man ndia (juia a^c^jui ihc rtrcQuoii* iword plif of o iwag' *<h»rtfc< 
l[«-rinjE Mlmlnbtnijtjn, a tlmpk faith In all ihc |u-rfrc| power of 
the CoiutttuCiiMi (apjilaiue) : a man who puu ag-.Lla^t aa cncutiTi; 
ftpublic ihe ^fn^jc erf & conaiEtutioiu] republic; a man vfio putt 
apioM eioculive luurpatloa a knowledge of and a deep love for 
ibc poisf and haknce ol iu Ihrrc jcrcat pcwm; a man who puia 
acai&tf ttbrai»lthyhurpr'wjih ihr big Mick" a faithful otno^anor 
erf cotHliluUoaaJ mlrainca. The couAtr^ ciUrd upon New York 
ioa i man of galnlttB chancUr In prii^aic and pgbUc life, and New 
Yock a&Awen wtUi a man whosr path ]«ad» fnua th« sv^ri*! jud 
DDtple fireddc <if hui couQicy home when he tnjoyt ihc gmiJe 
•odciy ol hLa family, Ia his placr of lahor and honor a| ihc hc^ nf 
one of the grtAtrst courts of Chnstendom. Anil now^^mr throijgh 
hu active and uufuJ Lfc hoa aunhl hat boncal [ir»iuc found utta- 
ancvoii ihir 1tp« of ihuM who kuoK bun bmL (AppUuftC-) If you 
aik mc «b)- be baa ben Mlcnt, I tell you U U became be dwi not 
elalm to \k the mastar of iba Democmlc pany, but li conirni to 
be hs aetvant (App1au*e-) If you luk me why he haa uot out- 
lined a policy tor tfila Convc«lfoii» I Icll you that he doca not ht- 
linrc that polkiA rtkould be dlcfaird. bul that the »ovrrHgnly of 
the party b in ihe uniivnmdcd judgmeni and wisdom of lU mMn* 
htn (applaoM)! if you mk inr what hU |io1Ii-y win be, If dei:lA|, 


American Government xnd Puliticv 

I ItU ^u U will bv tbat policy vliich (indi viprmkiu in l\w plat- 
form ol hh jmr^-. 

With th»c, 01 somo of the dalras upon your conicieQcc and 
judsroem, New York camcs to you, llujibcd nith hope uid pride 
Wc appcAl lo ihc South, wtiosf uTu-lcmd«l vision and iron rouraffC 
uw and ioughl thr wny lor half a crntury; whf>jip J^^crton awoko 
Ibr dumb dffiaiKc of ilcvdopmcfil iafo a vtnct that crird out lo 
Itrp vruvfd a <un« u^khi thr tviv uf kiu^pt uid h blcwiix ^\^^ a 
ncvbom rqiublic; vboie Moduon Inuitlalcd the lopt of rvrau 
and the >ft« ot pn^gma into the C«iutltutloa d ihe counciy; 
vfaose J[ickson nxl^imcd l)i« lait plocrv of ihe far Soulh and 
drfn«T,itu«l The poliiir* flf ihp n.itlnn ; nnd wtow «Idicni diowcd 
thr Krtjnilrnng »»iirlr| ihr finr?i( ftiJiU ol hnin and ntrvt A«d hrjrl 
that ripcQ in bcr icmpcrate «un, ami who, tkrounh tUl the toiu «hc 
toet, and alt thr *ont the uved Aod ull the to&ra i^ho &hcd unid th« 
wmvful rvim of wnr — and through oil the palient bydty and 
Itbotf of Afier yc&n so wrougbt for hamait bipplncai thai all the 
vrorhl eaKltuma, "Hcf ^rejtneit in p^ore ti grrjtrr Ihan fcer vdor 
In "HAt." We ofipi^t lA ynti of ihe <~)td Sfuiih And Ihf^ Nrw In jiiin 
vrith UA in thji oonliai lor Itir luprrmdry tif nvir party. Wr ap|i«il 
lo the Wett. whose frontier Kttnggltv catried our dviUxalkia (u the 
Pacifk ilapca. whow covra^v conquered the plals »nd ihe (orrac, 
■ImJ vrho« fulfaful labor hoa built bt-uulifuT cili« clear throush 
to ihe Rodcy Mountains- VTc appeal lo you, b» he did folltnr 
your lradrr*hip thfoujrh eight Long ytan of controvtray, yovi rum 
and foDotr bim oovr nhen victoiy awaab us in Kovemher. \V« 
a|j|ir4J lo Xav KntiLtnd, foilMul «mtinel amonjc htr liikturU. h^tla, 
is Ihp [tame of al3 h«r unfaltering and brillian: DrcmxTJli, living 
and dead, to yo'm oi in <fur labor for iikohk. (Apptjutc.) 

Wh n^ipral lo c^ny Dvoaocr^i frona e^vfywhcw to f<irgQE tlie 
bitttf warfare of the poM; forpi ihc strife and tnger of the DldcT, 
oihfT lUy*; atiandon all the gmdgc aiul mncor ol pony d(4Con- 
Irnt, and, recalhng wilb rrrt incrrajiing pride, Ihe tri^mpha of our 
iViy yeatn at a co«iEiiitlk>nal governmffit cd Ubtrry sJid Pr«ce — 
hav Mkd Dvw naolrc lo mak« the future rrcond that rcaplrodent 

Nominanon and Election of the Frcnidcnt 167 

R2cb of time in which Liberty and Peace vent up oad 6own the 
ooxloiia of the rank, building Iher ktn0ilom in ihc nf nmt 
and ^tlicrin; ihr hiirvni of grnim and toil; in vihich rcuon 
smjck from ihc cf force ihc ■word qJ hate and plucked fit«n 
ibc hff«n ot vtai ilir grrm tifprt^i in ythich rtyfocicticv Hiuitv the 
Ibougfais gX wn>:i^ and tUnt ihir mind uSth mrrcy^t m«cl mtraJnl; 
in which power jc^ew la the bumLn brain, but rcfuwd ihc abdttf 
of a^Sltaing ttovm: in whidt the pw^iie uf aD land* and toogUA, 
■wakoied to hope b/ die tnopintiDti of our raampJg^ Ivnud ihdr 
fare* tcrtwrd the li^l of our advvncln^ dviUudon and Inllowcd 
wrihibcRurcfa of jreanthe lumibMu pachvajr I^wtins lo a dfsiiDy 
beygtid the rcMh of vvnoa asd within the protidenrt of God, 
Itt Ib^ >p£ril Ne« York *mmtB*h^ f^yr Pntideai U tiiv UuiiciJ 

1lie delej^lei of & stale at a Kepublirui cnnTeotiOQ any vote 
either ococdioc [o their indmduol prc^ercnca or ihc lostruciio^ 
rrf^iTcd from 1h« IcmoI and Mitti convtntions trnding them, ^nd 
ihvt ;i Btaic dri«KatJOB naar be, and often la, divitled ajc^Wni iutrU. 
In the Democrerk porry, however^ a majoHEy nf the dciccitr4 of 
aay one alaAe may uetide how the wU: "[ ibe cotixe delc^atJun ii 
DO be caxt. The pmrtlcc \a i]UMTAUiA by the *|}plkaUon ol th«j 
prindpEe 10 an aii>pe^ of the Ohio dclrttatiun at the Democnt 
najioDa] ooaTouloB b igo4- 

51r, nonua StlcNaanara, of Ohio (when ihe- iroie of Ohfe ww' 
announced) : I dnnaad (hat the Ohiu deleKitimi hv poUdd. 

The Presiding Officer; !>» the genOeman qucslioa liie cor- 
rKificaa of tbc fifpa^i 

Mr. HcNaman: I do. 

The Prtdding OBcrt: Hmt the- jcntlrnun frn«i TAki b co- 
tillM li> 4 |)oU ^4 Ibr drlej^ftlTO. 

I1ie ddesili>n ww pulled nad ibc mult vra* aonoanted Paiktf 
sS, Hcani ti. McOOan <). C^krrll a, Obey 1. 

Uf. £. U, UuiR, ol Olik>; 1 ii»e Id a pidnt of oodcr. 



AfPfT **^" Go M^Lfl fllBlC UCL 




ufttt*. Tir. 

vfacite IT Mt *e toie ^ Olfa 

vkt d^fftia M c^Kft to Oftii^ M.01 

r [yi^iiiiil ruBMiilhiM b^ pott- na Ite 'm 

lbcnipc« had tB ffghl •> bMKt tteM^flik^fla 

1| due* nu i^n^ apbn ibv ili^^M* (l» 

fey lUpia iHMUftlir cinvaL «a4 ■« :a i^ Tmid.'Jtea^i 
tUfe Ifiim rfi> 

Vf e^tmsrnlv of tiM DflVBoracIv rmiviii^Hi rte^iela^HE i^aib 
ba SmiDrt lai AipnaMMMWr dnMpAd lor <m: mat 'fenitt 
nut 'leitnmjic the pnmt of ^^Rfcr, tbr cjpwM mlt jI 

tk>D th'jwiD^ that Park«r Kas rgrg i xyd mvnty^-oi^ ni rbv €HtTk«ik 

V\,Ua it. vhir-h rhftt ^ti\€ im -ntilkri in rfaas drnvtrnkm. The icMfc 





Nomirudon And Election of the President 169 

69. Th4 Chairmen 4/ Ike Na^fftuit CommHk^ 

The dJRCIion of the pratdcfitinl campalipi UlU pri^-lraU:r 
DD the dtuffiuii uf Ibe fiAdoo4J amuniltiec, ^ha b sdr^trd in 
Uw prMideatiAl cAfldldal« uf Lbo ptfty In oofifututian ivlib hi* 
IcMftnff iftvivn. The pown- af thu cxiTA-lfg^ oCBrer in nuLt^J^[< 
iai: pvlidiAl :iEuin U Ibun dcvtriM t/y Mr, RoUo Ogdra in the 

ScDAlur Honiui baa ovUrippcd all lui prtilc<raurs im mnktns 
die ch^maAMhiff ri die nAdniMJ conunillrc a centrr: oS political 
power. lUppj acchWdU havp coaspired wiA gml ikill add 
dcwrnaiimtiuD oa hu pott tu brinfc olwiu soch a CMuunuulkit. 
lb hu ttov [ivoa] bfitd ili» i^fljcr cvniiQumiilj (ur Ikro ycu> — 
indeed pncticnU^ tot srrcn joan- It w» in 1893 vr 1894 ihtl 
Mr. Hxofta, ihcB Uttk known nuiridc uf Ohso, ftcf ftl^Jttl In hb 
hkfif-hcadfll and fAr|il:miuii{{ wnjr, ih<f rlmkm of AJr. IhkKinlGy 
to Ihc pmidnKj. He pcn-dvnd the IhkfctalEf vfgu uf a |Kilici- 
t^l rcActiun vkI m dicm be uw the great r'ppurtuaiEy for liIs 
Irieod Mt. McKioky, iftd aIso for hiniMlf^ Tlie hiftU^y of (hat 
cuDpilgD httan ibc cuRpalipt of ittg6 haft never bevn wriitva; 
bat mott^ of it is Itoonm to sbcnv the Bgnat oUlity and rr»aludoai 
Willi vUdi ft wu plunod tad fought. Long befkirc thr Kcinib- 
ficvn owvmlkin nwC, <>ld mastm lik« 5eiuli>n Chandler, Quajr 
tfid Pljilt rerngmxcd \ht mc of a jjolilkai nunipulafcfr f^mtttt 
Ibui llieiDBMlvM, Tlib b rri cT Tt d li> al pwiciil only tv mka* Uw 
ppicl iliat hir. Jlaniu wu (ut^ chairouta in fort tno yean before 
h« bccuRc &> In ntAOi 

Intbecouneof l3HiKpnfimBnnfyaaanflcuvTabehndrwq>l erery* 
lhi*f before Um m that hia acr«4^n to tbr chairm^nAhip wM 
[oregoat. On the h^^b of dint eame his elr<tiDn to Ihe SeoAtc. 
Tliis bciik hc]|hlcood U» pRttiflr Mt<A |)U1 blni in a podllan bo 
iMtft nnd omd hb power as Vaikoud Cliainnan. Ii^ the 1ati« 
cspvdty (nm/^mg hb twv yvan «r more of aalsoedcni rampdgn- 
Ing hf the »o«aliunkin of Mr. McKlnlry In iSq5) he had made a 
butt oC pn-ckcttan pledgee Bh poet in tlte Senale enabled him 





^ .._ ..,r4rt*- *!- N*v«r, It ift saf e to sa7, did m 

,^j ii.i^ *.« mucb tu do with the appor- 

^1 ~ ; ,« '•MK>^ TV (WEindrat gave him aubMan- 

jhio votr , ,.^r .. . . j.^, Snwl^ ITten there came along the 

Zan OiB 

Lrc (Uvtikd? 



1 OF^ 

1 . "' 

]■ ^f 

The Chjir 
liyi dowM 
the lule- 

i: 1 

^.1 1^,-'^ irwr «-Juimuw Eiuther meat on which 

■ ' -.. . ._--.;*>: 'If w* jppointdieiitt had to be made. 

.^_ : . < ' „ . <-.v 'ivlrff«(««Ma uf Chairman Hanna was 
, ■ ' ' •-ik^ ..,^,t^art^ ^ iwwer. Afler four years of 
..^ ^ -i'lt'- 'iryv^rt «ui^i:daful campaign for the 

,, . . ^.^» h*i i«^' 4Ktfi ih« Omenta of the polidca] 

,. , .v-nWMtlvVi vrstcd largely in its chair- 

r..'. .L, ^b.-iiK- *^ ^ tthritricably interdependent 

_ ^, E. xik,:jJjJ4 .^4 vi^st sums of money: tbb 
L..„T II If i- ^*^ ^ htut the money to spend only 

iLfL^ ,^ iviktical power. So of hia rights 

. L.. ., i'.^t.^ ^vuvtniions, big and little; of 

..k.Mjsu^ring and public legislation: 

.'...' -^k- ' ■■' ^'^^ -uik'iher and appear now aa a 

] <>i ^111 ..~«-^. He haSf for example, millions 

.Li^^ u.. ' iiu-t: ^a ^snt authority for the assertion 

,[i..'i. i.ii;:. ;iii '\*ifcl ^-f 1S96 was upwards of seven 

^ U11C :iV" ''^^uui jtK^i^l "^ 19^^ ^^* ^1 ought to 

UK "ix^n-iiJ^'^ t*rtause the country was twice 

.■^: I iAt' i:^, :in «i4 not cramped for funds in 

-m: V i v ■•■'< V '* "i^r^h huge sums necessarily means 

V ^;: .' , ■ ;■. .*•- r. lin nidH who controls it. Such will 

I, -k-oL it]L<e11ish and incomiptible of 

-.. . ni :..*Iuus as everywhere else. A 

i: . th 'i.-vt n^iuh is to be allotted to this 

'.tix^i thi?i Illy 3nd the other county, 

y.,-ii.i .1 iiMRv j*oUtical legions. There 

.. v's!, h't-inJin]; between the giver 

^"x *.rri;}'' bargain- Ct^mmon 

.....4 -i *.■.:'.,'. A' '.^\-.Ti i\- ii^'ine are eni.'U^h 


- r. 

: \m 


liij V * 

■*- 11 V 


Nomiiucion and Election of the Prudent 



In blad fo&i tb« noaln« lor co&^nv, thr cudidoie for a mhabct- 
ship, or thf mcmb^ of the lutinck^ commiKc^ fi^ir uiy giTcn «uie, 
A p«n of wb<iftc cunpAifn cxpcMO hu been kintlty \>M M* Um 
fpocn liculquafim. It ii toJl^ hard to ihink 01 uf dir nuo who 
hu Mill jmi A Lltiec check- To oppaaf: jour hiimblc npink>n 1o 
bb ii«v>uri]y brvv 4ii(J niiiKliLunLxJ view uf |AttV pcilii:y and 
puUit ftd«aDl3g« b cbcrr prBompiioD. To vote for bioi or widi 
hjpi or it he bids you b ifaetedicr 4>bvtoualy (he line '4 le^ n>- 
rfWtiicc> Hu* it 19 that Ihe brrad which the uiluvial churnua 
cftUx upon the wotfti reiumi to him dta not *a nuny lUyiL 

Thr fvcunbry ttprcl fd Ihr rhakmjfi'f po»CT bA> scoibfr 
frolurv^ He ci>Urc1» ■* «cU Jis p«yi out; md vnlh ramij cd the j^,y 
coMoctloo* jpMa ui npms or Udl (Mrty oUtjEiilion which he »lonc ^^^» 
vi fully cogniuor oJ. tkod which it is his portic^or duty to bcv 
cutM out- Rich men do nr^i jJuaj-h oont/ibute lo pony in obcdi' 
caee to the Scnpcurtl jnjuibcliDQ to grvr, a^tkinj; not «c>!n. Thvy 
tnake onrMfitkiiui dth«r opniLy. or by hint, nr gcilurc. . , . Our 
dm wvttllhy amtiibulon to the ptrty ttrMUty ba«v bem su*- 
(Kcled <ji tvupCiifl ihdr Rifu wtth an imdmUAdJng about the 
taHiT. about th« tval fiahtrks, about ihip subddlet asd whftt ML 
It b not aeooKuy lo go into Ihia. 

jc Tht Xainmai C^mpaign^ 

The wa^niE of a jcrvat coale«l Onli^ped la tufliirnc^ mtUtonn 
volen b a renuitaUc usdcrtikiDg, the ch^uaici^ of nhi<h may 
be partildlT oitinuli!-! by liib ai-taunE of the mcthoib sdt^lnl by 
th« Rfpubllcin pany orcanUation In ihc memorable "aaapaigfL 
ot fxhxatiDQ/* in 1*96: — 


Since the h«g<nnbg of iW can^Iicn the Rcpuhlknn Natlond '^ 1 
OMnoBitKer k«t tuaied tbr aHowHfing total ol«Vf* two humlml {^ 
■niBoikft ol eo%nt* of docvmenia. flicf^ iwn abo iuued, under ' 
ibc dbrtlion td ihr ttant toinfnilte*^ aboul Tifty millktfi cvpaea of 
documcnlt btim the heitdi{uartrr% r4 ihc Republican Conxm- 
doaal CuapiifB Conailtice ai W^^'h :<];i< r^. All tbb woric bw 


mw ^1 


ifj American Government :tnd Politics 

bc«o dat^ ttovrugfa thr Bureau ol l\tti|iralion and Pnntmff, 

bailie* »<Mm uf pmlnb. hbf ct* '^f <v1oun»» iiiercrJptHjnii 4nd vlher 
matter tuucfalng on ^ariou& pbisn of ifae cAmpugn iamci- The 
di^rlbuii"ri of ibc4c d^cunivnti wu ^nrrulJy maik thrc-u^b thv 
slAtc ctntrft] ooininUt««^ Abuut ao^ooocKprnepcickagraof ducu- 
mcnri^ wrrc f^hippcd, ncai-ly 5000 frcijch^ P^^'kt^ra, and probably 
half a nullioTi package by TnalJ> Thc^p dntumfnta wcrt printrd 
in Gtrm^n, French, Spanish, Italian, Swdiipfi, Norwr-gianr Fui- 
tihU. Dukli aixJ Hcbcrw, a^t wc-U v in EnK^^i^b, 

Th« du[ic9 ol lilt ixlitufial diTJarimpni uf iIjc RepublJcait liter- 
ary Burcan at Chtcajp (lid not tnd vi^th ihc preparation of the 
iQuny (locunoits bo which allu^on has Wn made, but dome tiuiioQ 
«4 tihc rrtcot irf thoat dufici may b* had when the fact a irntcd 
thai a prrlrn^ bil <]f counliy nrw«|iAptn. w\{h an HfOErrj^uio 
vfdily tm-ulariuTi uf 1,650,000, rerd*pd threr amla half columra 
«l jpctijJIy iirrpind maltrr rvcry wrck ; niujth^ li»l of tuuntry 
m.'^Attpnpcrf, «ilb an aggn|(ute wtrkly ciniiUlian of about 
i.o0O|O0O| received plate matter; ihrre tpoclAl rlaxHa of countiy 
vcddy and daily p^per^ vrett uppli«d vrtth etat^naua aggtv- 
gftliDg ibMit 3,000^000 copjca every vcdt, and htitly, a apcdal 
da» d oounlTy itnrtpapttv rvrtivcd "rtndy pHnia*' — ihc ntlire 
wecUy drculadon being about Hi,Doo,ooo <opi&. Hundred* cf 
oCbcT ttcwpopiT^ depended b a Urjte mcniure for their poUlksl 
niatlcr d«ri>9 tbe caispai^ upon ihtr Publication and PtSniSn^ 
BaifflQ and «erc circulated under the dirccciuii of itas bureau. 
It fa a aafe Mttmatr that tvtry vttk <,<xx!,ooe famUlrx rtreivi^d 
MWtpaften of ruioufl kiadi containing poVilical matter funmhcd 
by thii bureau. — peobahly thrre limcA Ihe afxrrff«le in vt>lumr- 
and lafluencc of any ocwvpapcf voti ever before (xinducled by a 
ttMbul politkal coniffllllM; 

Tbe Repoblican Conmillee abo mode large \ae of poUckal 
peslcn, probably 590 bdng drculalc^) uodcf die <fimnioa of the 
I\ibfica6on and Pri&ling Burvau, Thr moAC popuhr peatrr sent 
oul from Chkago «a« Ihe b^v-colored, lingk^eet lUbccr^ib, 

Nomiiution aiid EJcccioD of the Prcsidcni 17J 

to widdx <imd«t«d al ikt St. Lauh coaventiim, bearing • portnot 
d Mr McKinJcy wiih thr ifiMriptimi umkrontb, "Th« AdvanL-i: 
Agent of Pfwpcrilj-/' Tor number vt *:u\at9 <ff tbU poiiex dr- 
cuiiictl tt fM to h»n been almoii bc>t>iid rompuUiioa or coro- 
prvtin&iot]. Afioilicf pas£«T which haiil ui imincosc run wtts in 
pltifi blad: ud ban the dlk, "TKe Rtol Isuc*' li represcnud 
McKinlcy iddrcninf a tnuJlilude of bbonn tn front of rutorifa, 
d«darics dial ii «u bcttn io opA tfir mJIU of the Vrnttd SuJo 
ihon the micu, vhjie Ur. Biyjtn, oj) Ihr other lide tn front of the 
L<n^t?tl Suin mijit, wu wrfcomiait lEir ptiipk td all xvcts uilli 
their $ilm bullion for fnfe ciriiugt. The great vduinci of faccoiy 
ffnoke Mud (he thronfr of CAgvr workmen on McRInl^fl ride v^ere 
in auon^ coairiifii with the gioap of fcfdg^ien dwDpLog ihoir 
«!vvT in fmnl of the Bryan niinb- . . . 

Tlkc wnrk nf the congrriMionil cARipAl|[A (^ommltlee* has heOI Tli 
far more ixnporlacl this yzji than c^tt before. Thv RcpubliciB 
eommiilee, under thr chainnauhip of tliv Hun. J^ W. BaUxn^k 
of ^^uvanfis, bu bern hanJ at work imce eail)- in June and, 
^c the Nilional Comtntttce aX Chicago, li ha« broken lu own 
nvord. The commiitM haa piintH t^ di^en^nt dommmbt. 
Of a ^ngli^ i^ionh m Congress *^^^ driii-ered by RepmcAlAtlrc 
Mr1?'lrary of MHnc*oU in the Hoii^e Ia4I l-'rbniAr^. in Ttr\t\j to 
hb oullta^e, RepRaenUlm Townc, lh« ^notimltte hai iuucd 
2^00,000 M»jHe(- AeoAcf popular monuy dociuncttt Ut/ntd by 
the comnaliiec waa Repc«aenuiii-e Babcod;V speeds on ibe his- 
Boy of money and fiuiKial IcgiilalioQ in Lhc IJodted Slates^ In 
the Jifii of punphleti acat «ut by the fommitloc werv spcvcha by 
Senator Shemuo. Mr. Blaitw, Repretentalive IMngtey, Speak«T 
RttA aftd oibm. The roaninitlre did not mirirt jtvTf (0 the db- 
Iribulkn ol Coo yiaa ional ^icrches, but cfaotr )urh other ainnii>- 
nidoa ai xtmtd ada|Xcd for the purpose in Yiew. A p&mpUet of 
fotfiy pa^ci wu pnpaiod, dnUog vlikt the aXtnt quaMioa En a 
covTcnatiooal iray, and lUa, Allbough one cf like lonsoi, proved 
10 he one of the mart popular dcmoftda ami ouL The ftlvcr qiaea- 
ikni vu noc trraird trbotly lo tl»r acluiion t4 ibe tahfl in Ihcw 



Amctk^ii Government and Politics 

dcxuiarativ tjul in the lalier vvrkt of the cjunpniRa it wm lound 
ihal lift (luiund for luilT tilctaturr K^juluilty tJiLrvuHid dLCiil 4 
Iftntc proportion of ihc docuownU Oi&tribaled from Wu^UtUKtija 
d«alt nllh that subjcd. 

Tbc liblribulloii of Kq>ublicao fittmture fioin Nnr York 
Ciij wu placed fn (he h^nda nf tht Am«rfrAn ProCoctivc Tariff 
League. Sdmc rvcnty mtilionA of documraU were sent out from 
the hcaid<]uuicn in Won Twtnlytbirrl Street, Ntw Vork Oly,, 
to poiatif cut and north uf thi.- i.^l^n Ki^rr, Kj^h Congrvuiona] 
diorici in the t«mtocy covered wu jksdgneil « pn> n>u quoti ol 
documroiK, tnd tddltlorLil liltlpmcnij vcrc mjtde from time lo time 
u required- The Li^gue's o^*n work of editing and [rhniErtg 
moirrul (or ejimp«if:n purposes vns done to tk mcdC sjrsttfinattc 

Cooudrring tb« rrtDarkAiite evpcndiluno fur the dbvrmtr&lion 
«]t ar^mcni by mcuu cJ the ^iiinied pofle, the postcTi t^td the car- 
toon. It lAiigfM h^vi- hixn buppcaod th^t In tills cunpal^n oratory 
would have hod but a mioor pari, Thctv, loo, the ecctnomic 
i&d suiMcal problems of a o&ika'fl oimncy hare not ususlly 
fcn! ihentMives with grace to ihe fiery uttcrwicM of the politiiml 
oTxior. ItiJt in ihU rmpfx't xho Ihc prevail year's eAmj>ugniftg 
huA liren r^crpHoral . Hie oratotidal poven d the opp««Jng <ar>-. 
i^Dirs bid tKA M litlle to do uilh \ht wiamog of etch nominatioaj 
*-'iD tbr otu- cue dircctty, In Iho other just u Uuly If less 
spkw)usl)\ Mth Bryas sti his ovn p«cc in his Clicikgo convention 
ipreeh- XEr^ SdeKinky tru knoim at the ntort as one of Ihc 
greairat <^n)paj^ or^iior! of his lime. Neither of th<«e men 
codd be forced lo obey the Iradilkn whkh required silenee ctf 
pmidsDtlal eaDdidstes. 

Ur. Biyin** tpncknuking record hax been thr rac»t vondcrful 
ow in ihe hlseory of Amerkast presIdeolUl cunpaJfins^ Poor. 
Horace Greeky^ fanuws tour in 1S7S lod Mr. Blaine's eitendedi 
Jounicyinjcs le iS&i sfe nude 10 seem inMi^tocont is rompoiiwn. 
On the night bHf>re Hertiofi, id prracDt plvna are carried out, 
Mr, Bryan niU have mjidc iboul four htmdral nfxvted iprecht 

I— d 

Nomination and Election of the President 175 

in twenty-Tune states. No previous candidate for tbc presidency 
ever attempted such a feat as this. Day after day this speech- 
making has gone on — much of it from the rear platforms lA Tail- 
way trains, while tht telegraph and the daily newspaper have 
earned the speaker's utterances everywhere. Here again must be 
considered the matchless service of the press, without which the 
orator^s words could reach but a limited number. 

But for Mr. McKinley too^ this has been a speechmaking cam- Mr. 
paign. He has jremained at his home in Canton, but auditors ^^ 
have come to him from far and near. There is a prcci^on, a fixed hom 
adherence to schedule, in the arrangements for receiving and ad- 
dressing delegates at Canton which is wholly lacking in the 
Bryan "steeple chasing" programme. Mr. McKinley's speeches 
have been prepared with care and fully reported by the press. 


tvE rovtas or tas raesnWKT 

7i> CtfivliiMlcifiiii' PfPflncms 

Ttix folbtring brief claux9 of the federal Conjidtution lam 
Qp tb(* puwrtB* and<lulin »( Ibr rhtH mapiitmir : ^ 

t. The Proidciil flinU be oamznfLnder-In'^hirJ of the army and 
BAvy of ihf rniird Slatn, and oF the (rilitia of the vrcraL Sliltt 
when calleil mio Ibe ictu^l MTvicc nf the I'nited States; he may 
require ihe opinion in wr1tin|E of the prinLi|t»J officer in tvch tA the 
CJCeculivr iSepailincott apoo uy nibjecl rdftting to the duties of 
their ncpKiii«offioa; indboefaaJl hivo power Eo tJ^ax npdwtt 
and pardons for oGfoeKt ag;uiut the United StAla, txt:cpt in cju» 
of impeachment. 

3. He BhaJ] hive pnwer, hy and tnlh the advice ai\r\ content of 
Ihe Srftate, Id make trcatU*, providnl two-lhirdi of tiie icoiiton 
pnaent concur; ud he hh»]] ni>niioAlc, jlxkI \>j ojuI with the a%i^ 
vice and conseat of the SrmU-, fthtH nppouit amba«MKlar». other 
pubSc mfniMOQ and coruuls. judges of the !^upremc Court, and 
an either o6i<era of the Cuited Sutea, v^Iioac ifii^oiniraeQU are not 
herdn nthervuc provided for And whifh shall be rslabhihed bjr 
bv; hui th<- COD^rvaa may bjr Iaw vnl the nppedntmrnl d mirh 
ioTnioc offinri at they ihiiA proprr in the IVoideni aJonc, in the 
cciufl» of Iaw, or In the hrjub uf dc|urtm»U, 

3. The Prraidtnl vliaU have pow^r to fill up all vacondes IIllI 
iDAf happcfi during the recess of Ibc Scflau, t^ ifruii^ eonunla- 
no<0. which ahaJI expire at Lbt ecd o( iheif nrtt neaeaon- 

He fthaB, fmm time (olfme, icive ta the Congm» infnrmjtiinn of 

The Powers of the President 

ihcMnieof th«Utdon^■lldr1«Ol■m«fldlochdr<1UMidentkmtuoh ^^Jf? 

o« eitRionltD3jy octuioni, fotivrtii.- hutb bourn, or cithcf of <h^n: 
and in c:iif cf disiKtDroirni between ibctn, willi fnpcci lo itir dmc 

pnipcr; hv ihaJI rvccirv imbjui^on anil vi\kt public indnisli-r»: 
he fthoJI take carr thai the laws bo faithfully ciecutcd, M() ttitH 
conumJttdoD »ll ihc ulficen <ii ibc halted SiaJca.' 

7». Tkr Pmidtnt o* Hwt ^ Vu S4ttemoi Aiminittnti^m^ 

on une lund, uod to Cboicrcw un the ut>L«r, li^ never Iw^n nicely 
ddin«d, ind mdced il mtnut be, from Ihe very nature of ihf I'ose. 
Cbagnn. hatinK power lo crr^le thr Ji-^hutmecUt ojid ijrvHrib* 
Adr dxmcn, may obviously nanowly m^mct Ihr brad niBcrr. 
Tto wenB cnlirriy cecoaary and pi^pe'f tui ii ii ^Uo uln:ous 
that, idiile the mm uuilina of Ae muvcmentt of the execu1iit« 
rnjiy br marird oliIh ''Ibrrr ur nunjlirrton thinfpi whtfh laAnol 
b« antidpaied astd defined, and are oAen^ to useful aMi healthy 
ftdioD Of pyrrramcnt.*' ' The ^hit\c pro1>leni u dbnjMixl in an 
opinion by AiCunkty General CudUDii U 1055, from wbiLti a feir 
fntracU arc given bm: — 

Now, by the ex|>licil and «nqihalic languaf^ of the Comtihil>an, Oiutf| 
Ifae eieoitive pover b vrord in ibe Praideni of ihe Unkcd States, tukiai 
Ia Ihc ponpdov, hownvr, of (he fact ibai the actual admlDb- widftl 
B^oa (4 all vncvlive powvr cannot be pcrfonned pcrsoiuilly 
by ooc naan, . - cbai ihls would be phyiicilty lnifK«ilblc, and Ibai 

ttf it wtft aitempied by ihe Pvraidml, the ulcnotl ability ct llul one 
mun would be contumcd tn ofiHul dfUiU in««cid of bdnj Idt 
ffcr to the duty «J (trtserJ dErorrion anl mtpentiiaun^ — in the 
pcrcqicio^ I %rf. nf thii F>ct, the CoiatitutiDii provida for die 
■ubdiraMD <d (be cjcecndvc power*, rcMicd ui the PfnUenl, aii>OA| 
admlnlslratlTv dvpoflmrata, uria^ thai lerm oow la lu nurowtt 
■ Far Ml VMv pr^tw. •* t*l««, ^ §tj. 

^. \...i..:i -ilia Polidcs 

■-.^ :\t:^uiivK dcp3ixmenXs'* shaU 

^:^ V l-^^n^lut:oD does not say. 

'<. ■ i. . -.riAin -ippoinTrTKnts may be 

.... -vnd Th^L the President may 

\* "jJi held" or '^principal 

: >i j-.trinicnis," far which reason 

.;,(ML u/(si, aiid not improperty. 

.•■: :w I'TiwUtfrn, Meanwhile, the 

-. th. :'i.ii ihc "execudve power*' 

^ ki!iA. in the respect of appcnnt- 
i iiinAiml of the Senate. 

- .■ 1 .biii^>LnEs.'* ihrough the inslru- 

1* iVfsiJent was to adminisler 

■■ ..iiiiist objects of the first con- 

1 :*: .vk. Ti> its acts for knowledge 

1 :?> great outhnes, the states- 

* . '.!^l't\i as il PKists at this day. 

■ - -.•:: .i: a PepartmcnT of ForciLii 

■ ^.^ :.' :hc Dcpartmcm of Siati-J. 

■- . .. '.-ni of War was created, with 

- . . \ T\ir the Dupartmeni of War" 

-. 'I'. Hi. with "a Spcrctan" of tht 

■- -. 'i the- r>epi:irtmL'm." Follow- 

, -.^ Post Offiru." with "a Post- 

rV ilimtiiin of ihf President of 

■It 'M- i]vtii-y. of hi^ nfti^c. and in 

.,*»-l.inon i)f ni;iil." Fin:illv. camt 

*'i >l, ;iWh Uf u])j>rijnir(l ;i mce! pcT- 

*- \tt"rnry Cifneral for the Tniird 

i^'-i" n\ ,-iilnnMi*lr;iliou. with whikh 

• i[ i\\i IniU'iI Siiiti-!* oimmcni ttl 

Ki. t iiiitn"''*vv 'IT liv tirHiT oi iru- 

'' 111. jilililinri <tf m-v. !l]:i li^in^ {•• 

} tr\,r- ill \\\i ih.-*irihuii«>J: ihi im i: 

The Powers of the President 


mpccdvc duties. Mid at feogtb, bjr Ibr crcAlicn of ctev clq>aHrtiiieDls. 
But. intid aM tbnc sucrcnivc chaac<9 in detail, the otigfnal theory 
of d«(>ATtmmtal iidariQiitnlkni conliniuNl ur>chiuigcd, nnsni^, 
cBMrutlvc (k-pj^Ttmcnti, vUh hCAdu ihrffof dutckvpng ihrir Ad* 
niobtniirc duties in f\.id\ msnnrr a^ ihr Pnwdtni nhnM ftrrrrr, 
nad bong in fad the cKcoittJn of Uir will of the PmideaL AH 
the iCaiuU* of d<'t>^uifn«nul orgmUatJoit, cxcvpt t^nc, ciprcaly 
tecopue dw directioa of lfa« Presldcni, uid la tkii one, thv In- 
Itfkiff, il tt impBcd, beCEiiuc the dudci OAUgaol to it arc not new 
otu% but surh m hid prtvfoualy been WKi wd by odia* dqMal- 
nKtkbL It couM oat, u a gCDcnl rule, be othenntf, becaufl^ 
In Ibc Pn^ident \h ihc' rtwuiive power veiled by Ifac CoEWtmiion, 
aoA also because the CocsliEulian tommaiida thikl Ht sh:i]t lake 
can ihdC ibc Uv^ be falthfuBy executed; ihiu making him not 
oijy the dcpodiory of the cHcutire power, but the rcqwoslblc 
eucutlm mlnblcr oi the Unilcd Sxatn.. 

Bui, if the directiatt <4 the IVaidcDt to the excvutivc depan> 
EnmU be auunvd xmeTally, or al Teast, Jn the itmeral autatea of {?J 
onfaaiation, Biay llwrv tvt «1ill be w^ta of diaeinctiJjQ ia wliirt. Pn4 
by the GnutituticHi or by jKjliuic, spcdfic ihingK muai be done 
by lb* PrnkkiH hlnuelf or by H«md8 of Deportnicna? Sudi 
casta do oitdoublodly tJosX, and Any riirw of tlic sub{«et which 
omiia to cowidcr ihem. muit be partial, dcfcrtive. imperfect. We 
bf|fLn with eiampli.4 14 acta perfonMUe bjr thr I'rrAidfni, «;« pr^ 
vcribol by Ibe CooMiiutios, Thus it tniiy b« Mwinwd ih«t be, 
I the mam dlsdMrgiiig ibe prcbdentlaL o<B(e, and br atooe, sniMa 
ntj iiff g a&d paijona foe oftcocti igtinat ihe Unked State*, not 
tannhir mna, the AttoriMy GenenJ or a&yt>ody dn, by ddegndon 
el th« PtCiklttnt, So he, and he alone, b the fupremc conunandct- 
iiKUcf of the Army and Navy of ibc tTnitrd Stales, aixd of tbe 
mOilia el th« ir%Tnt Stale*, vlien calbnl Into Ihe xcxnui vrive of 
ibc United SLaln. lliat a a powrf coculiluliondiiy inlifrrrt la 
the pcncm ci ih« Prt^cnL No act vt Congrm, no act even 
ol the Preddrot biauctf> cna, by cua»tiiuiIoaal poariUUiy, auiboriw 
or create uiy aiiltuy efficcr not aabordiiule lo Ifae PtuidcaL 


'*• Am 

HGovn-TLmenc irnxX liUuics^ 


^PT^ttQU iStL iLuiu i ^ inffi^mn ^jiu. .^her uiibES rA 

ft«lttu«il ^iiiM rn iTiii I iM ii»*iiia ila ifwMhiiMM nam mil 
I'JF uw '-umhnittMi So IM- tp | <3Bwra * 'iMi^^irrwf- -i 'flfls 

^ But (t)c<tue>iniu)i>hBAar9|^iiBdta^iiU>lv-tti»9s^Ki&KtbBnL 

ly? to -ifVcn^ ^ Ittrt ]« ;ill iR iMt^TM. iiptfn ilte rue >« itt-ta^ 

oi ifH itny h^ lt* ij J milfi , JOrtor da mi.- im^mAtt tt»^ag>^ 
tofn, tit 'ieir^Btts fDd |ifiiif«r* Ui':«tDi4feNr|HiWM- Sin. jtCfr-alL 
It mi4l '^n^ ' ooHBaPlr-aMrf tif ihr Pmnthnr ed rtaa ^iiBomtr o^tL 
do»aur fiBrMMTlir rirmUvi Iw.itTliFEual imii :haeufndn^r 
qC T^mtuiijom. <if||rf*|l^ [ftiirfp ,i4iH iftvjjAmol 'jv die Prtairitfrt. 

oc^un III ibe nnmimiiUrAttow of f|in«w <ttnettjf tu atn Wat^ ^ 
DefUkriBiait, -4e»p|i m- tH# rt^>0r3^ iri rhs cs^umniian: (£ ^Khi 
iniannr rifKP^ h may il« iMmMtvt 11^ :htm bf Otf iK Compan 
We i4i4J i4vr rravui riv AMvlkHfr, m rlia aspnlL ltn« woe ib» 

ttt iKM f/B iUt'*ic4iiniiiJi(Wti<nfi60ipM«ft0i^^ilie9iufiun'tf AeCiiitBil 
^ijon SUto, It -lU Ivp {Vvtiuf rhuT^ in III9 lini^pM^n «f AB:ittr:e ILIK 

■^"(i-e ro lie perlnntiH, rtWW is iW Ultifemiify of bngOB^^ OBI 

^xri'irtT} ir, A^i^P^tf fVt^i- l^n^;, m fraEG^ 1117 oocntmillaMl 
or l*^K''J 'i'<''nfff-Tt y-ffv*^T\ fh* Anthorily <rf &« rapccdvc 
ai^ <*f rhcrn i.^in? r-f Chine* wllvK, ftft the one baad, 
m-iy, rf hr \.irA^^ ']*^z*t' f" * Hc»rf f/ Dcpanmoit, sod wUrfa, 
Oh ilji- fihrr t>jrp/1. 'jiriiv^ }^ 'lone t/f a Head ti DepAroncnl 

The Powers oT ihc Fre«idenc 


notl cirdiiuj>' Aylir, is vbkfa ui cacecutiirc ict it, by U«r, requirad ^ 
Vo be pcrfonnod by & givfizi H««d of Dcpvtiwitl. I iklni here ^ 
the gciwml rjk lo b« 01 already »Uicd, Ihat Ihc Hcwl oj Drptn- ««« 
rucni kf lubjerl lo Ihf difocrioa of Ibc I'rr^ideai, I hold Ihftt do 
Hnd of Dcparlnirnt can lawfully pcrfonn an ul^iaJ afl agalosl 
Ihf will nd ihc Pt«ideiii; jind thnt will ik by Ihc CAmcihition lo 
KO>'^D the iivdunnanii: at ull mkH ai,l4. If i[ ncn- not Ihii*, 
Con|Erv-ct nugbt bj sUtute vo divide a^ traniftv die e^vcuiive 
powc* u uneriy io fubvcn ibc Govcramcni* and to cban^e It 
Into • parUttnCDUrydrspolkm, like thai af Vaucc or Grot ftrii- 
■in, vilb m doiiuiul] exrcuIiTie rhicf uxtttif powcdf^ — vrhr4h«r 

UivhT Ibf namr nf h'^K^ or Kift)^-^ I*rmidm1, whn would thra br 
of litttr account, >o f ^ u rrgKnli thr qitntion of Chv msuntienaiice 
of the ConsdUidoii-^ 

nidboui «rJari^ upott chb bnncb «( Ibc inquliy, it will suffice 
li>a^lika[,inmy oplnioQ,allchecA9C«iQ which a [l«nd nf Depart 
Bicnt peffomift nct^ indt^ndent of the Ptesideot, are redudlile 
li>t«ocla«vM, njunH>: hnJ, arupurtly; and, stcnmlly, 
atta (a mhiih the [hing fUme dim not birhTi>|; lik the officr, luF the 
title of Ihc odic:c u cmpbycii u a lavn dw£K4lio ptfum^ 

To clucidAtc my thougtil in ibis reqiKl, let us look liilo Ihe daily 
ctMjne and fcmdne of arimi&UtrnUanL, 

The Secretary of State 1* oomiantly rct-dvinjc cominunlcsi!on» OH 
from the ]Hiblie mjnb(er» and consub of the rnilc<l S4atra abrojd, 
front foreign minuMn accredikd to the Unibed Stalc^^ and from 
private tiliimi kanng contrriiA in hici dr^arUiiml, and he U 
dUpatchinx IdCcra, inalructioo*, orders in return, to &U paru of 
the world. The Secretaiy of the Trc:ifury U In communlctdoo 
wtih coJIfctora, sttiBianldMnirvrs. d&butsing agenb, ud many 
other offioeriv ta oIm with private individufti* fa kll ihr: rtiM- 
farious hinincM of hi* dqwrtmenr The Secretary of War a 
tiie Secretary of ihc Navy arc rrceiviDg apfdlcationft from, 
iddPMAnt >n*tTuci^0Qft and ordcn lo^ all die ofCccra of die A 
aad S%vy, and (oniractors and othen pertun» wiibln Ibe ju 


■; Ml :r:i;Tr^ d- 
: L. i-::r-:;j'" i:'"iii 

J.I, \\ i:xe. :ii: 

> i'.. 

Tbc Powcra of the Pnaidenc 


In t woni, «hiV cbcfv H» a ^riictd wUdirity d rapoodUUty 'IV 



for pijbUc mckiuns^ ms Wiwt«q th« FrEndenl and the Hcibdt of af^oS 
Dqtvtmcnt, and vrh^l« a ernml iMpomiUHv of dbecdoa fa 
MtrfbttUUe h> Qw Pmideai utd of necution lo tbc HcMb of 
Dcpaitmenc, yet the wdtL^t ^ bUlorir^ rcspotudUlify, and po^ 
hapa <if kgaJ, nay ht ihtftcd pATUally front oo( to aneiiwr, adcont- 
ing as the (feben»nalum ia govrned or crtdcncifd by ilie wriOen 
dirccikm et die Prcridcnl or by Iha viitteA advk« of cha Haad of 

73, TAe Pr*Hdmt tu T^tftunof S^htsman in FerftgH Afnin 

Eariy in the histury of our republic, Tbumaa Jpficnun a« Secre* 
ury nf 5;i.iic Liid down bi the follr^mng tcucf to ST. Gcnel, (he 
diplomckiu: rrpmriitativ«<4 Fruxce, the propondon thai itie Presi- 
dent w&s u> be r^ardcd as iho aolc pcnon amhoriaod lo speak 
with aulbority for Ibc L'nilcd Stntn cm the conduct of foreign 

Sia, — La my Idler of October 3, t <ouL ihr liberty of notldit^ 
v> you that ibr conunlnlOD of oonsul to M- D&nncry ouehf 10 hare 
been addreoaed id Uie Pre^iAi of the L'mccd Huia; he bang ihc 
only fhannd of cooifnimir^ttion betwe en ihti riouniry and forei]^ 
Raikm, II ia inttt him atone th^ti foreign raiton* or Ihefr agenb 
an (0 Icam vbal » or hai httn the wiU of the naciun, and whatewr 
be OQaununicates as fuch, they hi\e a rijfht, And ar« bouad to 
onsldf* a> tba exprnoon uf ibe oaiion. uod no furer^^ agent eaa 
be allowed to quesboQ h, 10 hitcrpoae between hiai and any othtf 
brancfa el Ihc govtnmeni, u&der the preicxi of eidicr'a Iraav 
ITBsing their fuftctiona, nor to makr hinatH the tinpife and 6iul 

1 am, Ihcniorc!, ur, not autboriaed to enter into any cEHunkMu 
triA you o> Ibc meaning of our conailinlicai Ib any fiort of ii, or 
lo prOTt to you that it has aacfQ>cd to him alone the admuaioa or 
iblmfic!ion of foreffn iLjcettbL I bdam yon of the faci by author- 
ity from the PrcaidnL I bid obactrod to you that we were pe^ 
suaded that in the ea^ of the consul DaoLoeiy, the errour in Ac 

Amcricftn (rovcrnment And Policies 

B<3drcti hod proncdcd from no iaiencliut jn ihc cwcutiv^ roun- 
cil <if Fra&cc lo qu^ition Ihc fiinotiotrt or Xhe Pmidcnt, and 
dicrrJort act fliBkuIiy ir«i m;d« im nsuinR ihrr roniniiv^i^nn. But 
In j'our kitr-r of thr i4tliia»l4&l,voup0rj#nd/ry(|uaibLi thcaudror- 
iiy oi the Pmivicni aJkd in cotuoquencc of fhsit ba\« nol addnucd 
thv commiuiluiu of M<«ar». Pi-nr^vrrl tad ChtrvU making i jwitii 
of IhU formalAly on jour |Ktn; U becomes necenaiy to moke a 
poine of ii on ciun dM>; nnd I am thcrrfcir? chaticcd in ntwm to 
jou Ihmc cominiMioDA, and <<> mform jou thai, l>oiind lo rnfonrt 
it*p«i Tf> the order o( tlungi oublishcd by otjf caiuCitution, ihe 
pRiJdcnl will Imut no rxoquiiur to tny coniuJ ur vicv-contui, 
not (IJrvctnl to hini iii iSit; uiua! form, after the pony fnim vhom 
il romcft hu been appriwd thai nuch diouM be the AdjJTc«p 
I hxvt the honour lo be, S:c. 

Til jEfTVBson. 

74, nt War Pffwttt c/ the Prrji^-tni 

There i« 4a old Myiag to the dTed thnt ui tirnrv of wju- the taw» 
Aft iflent. and from th« nuiure of the ea&r this mu4t be to a ^st 
*ilfnt tm^, "en in the mnit dcmofTJiitc Kovcrmnenbi- The 
triiicai pnsbleae uf conducCiD^ a capapjUgn mufit bv met intlt dc' 

mean* are adDpled to the end Kougbt — the ftchic^ement of vlc- 
tmy, tT<tirty the pntera <4 thr Prfsidcnt a.i cbirf rugi&Eratp and 
cominuidv«-in<hief dLnnoi tie nArri^wly hid down in dafiiiite 
nik^ AccMidiagly. ihert will Alwiyn be di£ermcc« of opanirm «« 
fp the vatidityrif uUuf thr i^nault^t under h\% nuUUnr Mtliority, 
but tbc follnvinjE «tnu-Ricnt b^ Ptf«ldml Polk, in Hrienv of bU 
politj fif levymjt coolributtoru io Mctico. *cemi to be a fair ialer- 
pftUiktfi of the pcivtr of iIk PrtwdenC in ibe conduct of war. 

By ihc CoMtituticn the rijhl to ^^doH^rc war" is ^rrMoA in 
Connrrw, %tA by tbf wtne in«tnimenT il in priwidM ihti "tlw 
JVnidcnt WtjJI be crofnisanJer in (.liirf of ilw Army ukd Narf 
of the Utttted Suie**' uid thai "he ahalt take care ibat tbc lann 
ht fikhftJIy omivd." 

The Powers of the President 

^lifn ConertfTi have vxvntd ibcir power bfr dcclaiinjr wir 
agniiEii 4 fordcQ naLioo, it 14 ilie duty of ibc Prcsldcni 10 prowoji^ ^j 
it- The Coiudkulion hik% prcscfihrd no putinil«r mode in vhkh 
hr shall prriom this duty. Thr manacr of coA^ucdng ilrr war 
is TKii dc^nrd by th« CoiutituEkon- The term wo^ uvd in Ih&l 
iASlrudVDt hu ^ vHI'U adcr^lixid nrmutinK xmoo^ lucliuiii. Thxt 
DHuniiQ b derived from the Iawe ui wMvytyt. a <iode which ti rtcUK^ 
cdttd by an dvilLicd poircn at beuig oblicaEory in a state of «Br. 
Tbt power U derived Trotn the Consdiuikiiti, tnd the muiner of 
citrdiving ii ii rrgulatcd hy \he \hyn nf nalioiu. 

When n^n^jTr** tmw dwUrrd vir, rhey in rflect miJir Si thf 
duty of Ihr Pmident id proofculiug tl, by Und u)d vea, I0 raort 
to H\ ^c modn and to cxcfcuc all the powen and riphtewhidi <l^. 
oAhvr nadockft »t w^ poucei- He Is bvcoled vddk lfi« tanw povcr 1 
in Ibis mpect as if he were penonally proeot commoiuling our 
Ani^ t^- (j^ or our armies by land. He may conduci the war by 
i;uuing orden for lighting biltlcs. bcoeging and capturing ciliea, 
rnofjurrinfE and hofding thf |wovinf n of the memy, nr by cnplur- 
Ing hiB vcwit and othv pmpcrly on The high ku. But lhf>e am 
D0I the only moda of protscuung war wbich are leoognizcd t^ 
iba U&« of nalkiu and lo which he b aMhoriad to rcaoil. Tie 
levy olcooUibulwvuon theenemy Biri^tof «aTvell»tal>lished 
and UTtivtnally arknowledgml ^mong riAtlons, and nnc which every 
belKgerenI pMHMin; the aHlity may proptrriy exeni«r. Th^ 
matt approved vrilen <vt pubhc bw udmtt and lindicntc Ibifl right 
a» (onwcuAl «ii)i mtoa, iutficv and hunMAliy, 

rpuQ ihe dtdam^a v£ war agounvl Mcnco by CorurrtA the 
UoJlcd States were cndllcd in all ibe rlghl« which any othrr Dotlco ^J^ 
at war would ha«e p o a a n a e d. The»e righu could only be de- ^4 
Mfloded and enforced by the PrrA'dent, who«e duty it waa, a* 
"'Ounnunder b Chkid^t j\rmy and Navy of the Uniifd SiMcs " 
lo exrculc the law <d Congrett whifh declared the war- In Ibe 
hd dechhag mr Congrtm prmided Tor raiilniE n>m and nion«y 
to ouble Ihe Pnudenl " lo pnjHecntc \i lo a >pt«dy and auecevful 
knmaMicn/* Coogrctt pracribcd tt> mode d rmdortlnc K 



t-ra I'lkl 

I S6 American Govcmmcnc wad P6R6a 

liLit U'ft Ihc Prcflident to pioHCute )t Acoonfing to Ae Inn «f. 
n.itiiiii-s hb guide. iDdeed^ it would ban b«B ia^asctiaUe 
It ir i 'cm^jUss to have provUUd tor aU tfag cktaik of » fmpg^ . . . 
'['hi' ri^hi lo blockade the ports and coofts ctf the oica^ fa wwt 
U ux> ri>nri< provided f or ot prcKiibcd bjr the Cututilutui dttstfatt 
iVit' iif{1ii Ui li-vy und collect coDtributioDt fnm him in die fona of 
'^'"" iluiii-s or iitlii-rwtac, ajid yet it hu not been qneitioaal flut tte 
I'ri'sidi iiL ruLil ihc power .ifter war had been declared b^ CoDgrm 
1(1 ordiT iiur Navy to blockade the ports end coaatt tf Mcxko, 
T\w ri^ht ill lioth caac* oxisb under the lawi at natiaDL If the 
I'ri'siili^i lanjiol order RuHtaiy CMitribuliou to be ccdlBcted 
without ail ;u| of CoogreM, for the taine Rawo he cvumI order k 
bUk;itU-; iior ran ho direct the enemy's Toeela to be capCared 
nil rbr iu>;li si-oh; nor can he order our military and uaral officen 
lo iiuMilr ihr i-nt-iny's countryr conquer, bc^ and subject to our 
iiiiUi.irv i;oMTimivitt hUddnand provioces; nor can he ^ve to our 
milium .lluI emv^iJ i:onimAnder9 orders to perform many other acts 
I vm-eiu.lT U' Mmvis in war. 
Ki * 11 M \shiii till- i'ity of ^tfxico was captured the commander <i 

^'^^^^ iHir iHUis h,hi fiHirnl in the Mexican treasury public money which 
i].t.». ilu- iiu'iii\ h.ul ]iTuvidcvl to support his army, can it l>e doubted 
ili.Li ht- ^H^'^si-ssi'd ihtf right to seize and appn^riftte \\ for the use 
iiL ..Ui own Army.-* \i the money captured from the enemy could 
U.i\^- luiii ilivi.s lawfully seized and appropriated, it would have 
htvn l\ ^mw uf the laws of war, recognized by aE dviHzed 
iL.iiEorw .ttui l\v ihf same authority (he sources of revenue and of 
>tif'L'U 'i t'.w ciu'niy may be cut o& from him, whereby be may be 
\^i.lL^ iiT.l .tnA ^ripplnJ in hb mpans cA continuing or waging the 
vAt [' ;iiL^ < omiiijiridf rs of our forces, while acting under the 
i4i<l<i^ i<i t w iVi^doni, [n the heart of ibc enemy's countrv and 
>ufu*,;-. ii ^ '-v .L hvviile tHtpulation. pot^^rss none of these essential 
,t:ul LI- '.*■-.>• ■■'.LMr jK^wers uf war, but must hilt the Army at every 
^u:. hI Lis <:ii4;iiA4 jnd w.iil for an act of Congress to be passed 
\ \H'.}t ■' . I '.'twm lo ilo thjt ^^hikh rvtn' other nation has the right 
\.- 1,1 ' ^ ^!"i. Ik- ."Mhc la»^w njuons, then, indeed, is the Govern- 

The Povbera of the President 


tttM of the UnliM ^tita ui & coodltiaii o< tinb«dUi7ittd wtaktiem, 
ttfcich mim in ti\ fuiurc lime rtmler it impoMible to proaccuie • 
ioitifp WMS in OF) fnrmy'* rmiatry nrcfMtfull; or to vindiale llie 
tkilioA&t rigbb and the lUtionAl hocwfr Wf war 

Acoardiiig to ibe theoc^ of (he Conslitulion «b erpoutxM b^ 
tUmilinn. ii nas thf intmtinn of thr \-'fxnvr% thkX the vrin 
litoukl be uwd 90 pruccci ihc rxKutiv^ (n>m cncroaibnirfit uo hii 
pottm b]rlb« If^LArare, And i1h> to prrrrnt ha^tjr And irnpropcr 
kgblAlkia. In actual pntcticc, buwc^^, ttie v«io hu often been 
Mted iv purdf pntiticitl porpMr* lo further the policia of the 
ritecvtivr Tite melbwhi fmpk>rrd bj Pmidnil Jv-kwa aie d^ 
*rnbcd ttnd <T^iu-JvfI bv Mr^ WH^ctt in the folkiwinff speech, in 
wfaidi he c«lls Atlctuuxi nurt oiilr to the refpiUr v«4f^.1iut also Id 
Mother kiiul ot ntgtlfve b htm of > i1^ rcfuAal in cxkmic laws 
duly pMSMd.* 

Kr. Pmidrtit. Anions ihc nordtio introduced Into die govcnx* 
Kint bj^ ibe pnaeot wJialiilsinitioafe ibeftequmi uic oi the Vtc*- 
iiWfii'ft Dccftdre oci nctt <d Ctaptaa, Undrf brmcT PreudeoU. 
Ihb power bu bnn ikerced aa ntrtoRfintfr ose, to be dctoud 
ooljr m pcfuHu' Afid maH^cnn. Ilvuvotifd taihc Pmident, 
dovbtlevK, u ft K^«ril aftjbvt buty of bcoiwdemte kgbUlion, 
aad Mf*>in>t any ad, mad^crlai'J^ paacd, vUcb ntgchl teem !■> 
encmndi on ihc jiut authority of other bnndio of (he i^otvfB- 
nunc 1 do no< rvcoUed that, bjr afi Central Jivckaon^ prfdrcot- 
Mn, thb power m e«crceB(d more than focr or ^re lime^ Not 
havi^ rerurrnd lo the ^oiirruili. t ranikni, d courv, he mtn Ihat 
I am niLmrriralTy accurate in thb pailirular: but nicb h my be- 
lief. 1 lecoTkd no ktiLUKc in ibe tunc of Mr. John Adani*v Mr. 
JcSction, or Ur, John Quiacy Adama. The oaly cavs «hkb 
ocozr to me are two in Gcnaal WaihingtonV adnuiklntioD. I1 
In Mr. Madiwii'a. and one tn Mr. Monroe^. Tbcre may bo loi 
oihen: taut we all know that it >• t power which haa been very 


AmcncJin Gov^rnmcnc and Polmce 


ifHiringly Aod Klaciuitljr used from ihr bcf[i&rtinx of the icuvcrn- 
mvnt- Thtt duut. 3ifi Co wlikh I luiv no« refenvd, vtctt ^iir< 
i& which ihr Pmiilcfil reiumcd the bill with objection*, 

Th« altmi vcio U, I bcUcvc, ihc cxduAti^ adoi^cIoQ of (be pn«eac 
odmitiutralnD^ I think, Endcvd, Ih^it eomf yvu:^ a^. n bill, by 
In.iiltvnnKc or ncndcAt, fouled lo rccHvir the Pn^idrnt's si^nA- 
turr, ADil so did not bfromc a law, Bui I am nol jlu-jtv of Any 
Ln&tJiioe, befon? the pre«rnt adminBir^iDn, in nhitrh tlie Pr«ldcni 
h:L4. hy dmlifii, niiiitEni ta v^fn ft hill, utiii yt-[ h»» not rrtvinicJ ll fi 
Congma. Bui ui^ti- that adminulratiun cttmc into power, th« 
veto, In boih kiruh;, hju bnn rtficatuEl}' Applied. In the case ut 
th<r MapYtllr Roid. ilic Motit^mcry Roa<l, and ibe boJik, ire hatic 
h*d ihc niA, vtlh rcoiciib- t(] ao tnt^nuil impToremcnt bill of 
a fofnKt Mirion, in a nmiUr bill at the \Me vMion. »nd in the 
Suit mtorat bill, w have bad the dlent vrics or refunl without 

Now, Sir. h is lo liv ccouidcredp that the Prriiiicnt hu the pcm^ 
of m-oTTtmcndlnjf measura to Corifrew, ThnsuRh bis frlcmb, 
be may i^ntl (fo« oppaae,al9o, an y Ic^iiliitivc mortmcni which he 
dofat not afiprorc- If, in kdditfon to ihii, he may e^crdA^ a nilcnt 
%rlO, 31 hii jilrMiJfr.on aH the l)L1U prrvntrH bo him i^tirinx the 
hjil Uo clayst of the ftcuion; tf he may refuse uvenl to LEnrni jII, 
without ticinit rxtkd upon to Aviffn any rcawnii fibalvvrr, -^ ft 
will cvnalnly l« a k>'*^1 pnucticil lugmcotation of bli power. 
Any one, ttbo loo^ it tTiilume of the tU(uies,w{L} net that a grot 
poftkm of ihr laws are «rtuftl]y pft^^nt wtihlc the \miI ten dityii 
of ffidi »Matoa. If iLf lYrsident u at liberty to negative any or 
an of lbc«e 1a«9, at pleftturr, or rather, to refine to render the faillt 
\twt% by approting tbeoi, and itill majr a«|tl<^^' ^^^ return them to 
CoojEfca for renewed action, he wlU hold ■ veiy ictporlani control 
ovtt the lepilation of xhb country. The diy of adjoununvnt b 
tisu^y fixed fome week* In odvuice. This bang find, a Utile 
wtrvity arkd perwvmnrc may etfSly, In most t9tci. ud pcrbafii 
In all, where no alaitn haa been exejied. poafpone important pcnd- 
in% ntaMrci lo a period wiihan it« dA>« of the <hte oif ihi* 


Powers of the Prcviiiertt 

•nsiun;' anil ilu>i »tjrr^6ou [iut>jn:u at! ^)jih inrjwrv^ lu tlie 
disccvlioa of On Proidcau vho may ngo Lbr bUU ^ nut* «i(bout 
Uinic obU^ to sioU hi* rvatone puUidy. 

Tills pnkCtkd iODovntioii oa ibe mode otf lulmiEobtcfVDg ihc 
fOi«mmcnl. x> much al nrinncc with lu {cftcrol prificJpla, ud 
io n.pahL« oi ddraiing the mofM tiiriul artft. dc»rTvr« public «on> 
sfkntion. Itt Irndeofy ii id iliscarb the lianivtn/ which oughl 
ftlwftf* to cibl Ixtwtrn rjonKTiM and tht executive, jail Id Qia 
libat which Ihv Conj(litut«j& iuUnded oa\y at *n talr^LoiUiairjr 
Rtncdy for cnnordloAry cua Enio i cofamon mnmn of miLking 
mxuitre t^Kifttoii pftnmount lo the discntiun of Cougna^t to 
dn? dHCtnicnc of lawrt. 

Mr Pn<idmi,thrr3(nu1nrhAinii| nnlju^rd Iht^r i^tiacx uMtmrnl 
taaoA to prvrenil Ibr pnua^ge ul liu<s, but it lius aIm> nrfuscd to 
difctfiJt ibc mcution of lavt iiCtuolK paucd. Atn cmtncai ioslaixv 
of IbuE U CouinI In iJie coutMr adopttd rvUlhv to Ihr Itdlun intrr- 
course bw of iSoft- Upan being applied lo. En bchaJf of the Mu- 
aio&arica, to ciccvU that law, tor thdr rdief and pPDi«cUon. tN' 
PVvudMil replied, Ihal, the SlaCe of Gcnrgix having extended her 
lavacnvr the liNlian tmitoiy, Ihr law* ci Vanffnn ha<l Thrrcl^r 
bem wpcnvdvd, T\at ii the fub^Unoc uf hb Euuwer, u com* 
mmkatcd throucb the SccTviai> of Wax, He hold», lh«n, th^ 
die li« of the Sute ^ paramount lo the bw of Conignot^ Tbe 
Supreme Couit hki adjiidfcd thU iLCt of (Icori^ia lo be void, &t 
brifig repc^ioAl to a coiwtitufSon&l law at the U&iied Siatrs. Biit 
the lYoddcnc paj^ no more nrgard ta Ihis derisioci than do tbc act 
of CdnipvM iUetf, The mtuiorurie^ rnnaki in prtton, Md tli 
by a coodemnatiun undc? a Ian of « StMe which the vupnm' 
judicial tribunaJ had jjmaouoccdtobeivjllandvQNl. TbeSupreokC 
Court have tUudtd that th« act of Coatpvm b ouiutiiutlo&ali ihtt. 
It fa A bfadinf statute; that it ha» thit &u» force u other law*, 
and b h iDndi eutiiJed to be obeyed amd executed u other law^ 
Tbc P f tli Jc n t, 00 the eontrarf. dtrlanea that the law of CoOffum^ 

a b» W Caf^vHi f^faamt wlitilA la ^i «l lu 




Amcricui Government wid Politic* 


has ban Mqwnnkd bf the law ol the Stntcv and Ibcrfforc 
bM orry its provlfltou tnto dFrx't, N'ow wr know. Sir. tUnt ihc 
Coatfitucifm of the United SUlc« declares, Ihil [HbF C'on«(iiutionj] 
uid iJI JLi:t]» of Conjcrtsi pjtned in putvjkncc of it, jJioB be the 
pRtne Uu of the tamj, asyifaiug m uiy S<»U iiw Co the vomliJ 
nctwitimuiidint. This would uxm to be u pliin cue, ihcn, in 
which thu law should \>e fwcuted. It Ku bc<n Folomnly dcfidcdj 
ti> be in nctuol foice. b^ Ibr hj^cftt jodido-L aulhotil^; Iti noculioi 
it dcnumdivl frtf :he rrlJd of free ciiiwfta, now iuffcring the p,iirui 
<tf unJLUt uxl untairful im^ihioaniCDl; jret tlic I'rrijdfnl refutes, 
to exDcule iL 

Ifi chn cau of ibe Chicago Road, sonw Miiloiu aso, thr PmSdani 
apfiravKl the W.\, but accoirpomed hb appvovaJ by a menogCi] 
u^AC hivv tax he dnmcd it a jiropcr lav, and how far, thcrcfoi 
Et ought to he cimcl into rxrcvttion. 

In thi; ca*e ai ihf hubor bill cd the Ute ncwion, being jf>plJed, 
to by a mtmljer of Congnss for dindlotu for tftirying puU of t| 
b* into effect, he deduied pnttg ihent, and made a dliliiiclloet 
brt«tcik auob paiu of th« taw aa hv ibonld cauw to be tscckttvd. 
Olid such m he should not; and hb riGht to make iMi dbibtclion 
hoa been openly matntolntd by lbo«e who hahltuaLly defr&d his 
mcAturu. tntlef<l. Sir. ihew, and olher inatonm of libertin 
takrti with plain statute Ubv, Bow naturally from the priAcifilra 
cxpnt^y avoved by the Pnaidccl. Modit bU own Uaai, In that 
ivponant document, Sir, upon which it vcvmt tu be bU fate to 
iund or fall before the Amerirui people, ihc vdo mcau^ ho 
boAda the follo^^g buguagt: *'£4ch publk officer who UJcci 
i& oalh to mp|x^ the C'onaliluikai, tweon itul he wiH supfintl it 
01 he ukdenianda it, and not aa il la vndecaiood by othnv' 

Mr. rrE9kleni, the general ndc^itWn of tbe wnfhnenti evpreBcd^ 
Ln tliia pcntaev would dlawlvr our jpowenUDeat. It would ralw 
avci y tnaa^ prlvnte optniona islo a •Urnbid (or bii own Eundu' 
iftd dic*9 cotoliUy is, ibert can be, no eovtnu»cnl, wbere evei 
tnan is Lo Judge for hinidf of bia own rigltta and hb own obllgo-^ 
tloca, \^'hrTe ercay one ia hb own arbiter, forxx, and nol Iav» b 

The Powers of the President 191 

Thr sovcndag pattve. He vho miy j^idgr for himfdf, snd decide 
fofl binnrlf, miut cikuEc hit mn ^Ifcuoru; And thtB ifl the hw 
<i force. loMifeH^Sir,UK(fftc9iiwBiilb ulorjithinpni, th«t«o«nld, 

the Ufiiecd SUla- 1 ihoutd ihink ihnt ii mint h^vc ocaprd from 
its Avtlior ihrou£h wuit of rtil<clloD» or fmm the haUi d liiile 
rrAecdoo <m such mibject** if 1 could rappoM it poesSUci Umt on & 
ryoexica eidliD^ 90 mixh pobhc itttfiiioii, tnA <tf id much nodciiuJ 
iaifiortaiiccr, afiy iuch mnord&nAr)- doethnv could €nd tu way, 
through inidvaleccc, inio ft (omMl and sotenn pubfic act Sund- 
lOK 4* It Om*^ it affiraw A ptopodtfon «Ucb irould cflcctuftlly rtpnl 
all cuaslitulional and aH \tg^ ubUi^atiiouB- Thr CuuAtituiion dt- 
da/t«, that CTcry pubUc o^cf. In the Suie Eovenmcfiu on wrll a« 
Ui ih« j;;on»^ govonncMt, iiluiU take m oaiii to support the Con- 
tttiuiiaa nf the United Statci. Thk b nil. Would it not Iiavc 
fsM an aif of ifdiiMlc on the wliolt pforision, if 1^ Conalilulion had 
f^ne on Ia ^Jd the Kord*, ^^ he undervUadft it"^ Wtal vould 
ccinr orORT (» a >»1f mu fai>:r, t]:ian to lui^ a man by oalli, and 
ibll leave faun !□ hv ha cmn luttupttta vS hh ova obUgjLtiou? 

Sir, tbosc who are 10 ercnilc ihe law* have no mart 4 Ikcme to "^w 
cooMTue then for ikcin»dv«s. ikui thM« whow only duMjr i» la J^^ 
fibej IImm, P^I^ «fficffa are bound 10 Hipporl Ihc Contf Itu- the C^ 
tlon; pfival* dtittm are bmnvl to ohry h; and llwre bt no ^!^^ 
moTV iDdu^eace granted to the pubUc officer to jjj|{iQ£t the irn^ 
CondUidon Daly « h tutdmtimt^ it, tban lo a pHvaie dctun lo >' 
jfl^it only as h tmdfrtisnds iii asti vhal ta mie of the Constitu- 
tion, In ihla rcitpott, b ei|aally tt\ic of any law. Law* are 10 l>c 
eaccuird, aftd M be ohrjcd, not aa indivfd^iala may uilcrprrt Ih^m 
but orcnrdinc m puh&auibaritJilinintefiiftfaCionaBdadpificatioii, 
The amcinani ol the mnaai^c wnuld iihtQ^ato Ifar obUgsdon «l 
ibe wfralc crinsnal code. U every nun b to judfe of die Couliltt- 
don ami iha Uwa for himnlf, If h« k to obcf and eoppcfft them 
only aa far nay ny be undetstuufa tbera, a rmfudon, 1 think, 
vnmid take place b Ihc Mtmblaailioe d juffikt; and dbcusioni 
ahovi Uie law of trraoan, murdrr, and ax^on abould \k j^droscd. 


UoWMNbCBt And Politics 

__K^ b«K tB ftoM wbo mi^t BUod chtfged 

^^1^^ ^r-t-__ t^ ^rbffct of dbnuaion «bould be, if we run 
t^ A» ««imt cjami, to taUghten the culprit him- 

Li I >I1 

7«k rit friiMiBliof Mtssoge 

^^jiullM iM^'t^K* «K tl^ Pmident the duty of giviof 

tvnttt t>>» *^ tiacittformtioD on the state of the UmoOt 

' ' '^ ,„iiiiLiwini1iBf «a iU mnsideratioii auch measures 

^ "•' ' .^fik atettna mmI e^iKdlent. It does not prescribe 

^ '^''' ,^,^U be dciMnpCiwavtf' by written commiiEUCfttiozu. 

. -¥.n-- ' ''^'^^^^>titt Bad the oc%m uf the pnsent custom arc tbm 

i^^^Lar . ,^i9( t«o of ouc IHiEttUrnts, Washington, and the fint 

hn ti Eu '-" ' ^1^ vXHiivr U ihn WxiA PaHiament was followed in 

~'™^" '' '"' '"j^ .Afr«- ^ »»*<> PfwHent. as the coune of Ibe 

jick»oi •■'■ '"■ ' 4jjjf.«,^ in J«li\vnnf it. The Soverdgn dcHvoed 

Uioatii ■ ■•--■** ^ ■^iTv'wi K« the tiho ftiXHrabled Houses, and each an- 

"PP"* ■"'" . -mv «>: I'lttkhao* Jki the same, and the Houses 

Ihe Con- ■ ^-^ . , , 

lutloD. "V '•i^vil ^4 VU! Aftiww was always to ei^tfess a 

, >K-;i vViKUfr«iK« ^ih the gcnaal policy of die 

,^ ->wd .lUibk-uikiU^ vAfwavd: and tbt privilege of 

' ,^ ^wsvuWklofKtt^t^^^of ihrgonnmiBittoibe 

'■ ' T --'*''^- ^^" '^^^ ^ **^ fTJKiSci was to lay open ^Mt 

''"'~^' ' ,.i,i^\, -uUihy^bilK tv'fei-y, ioifaefulkat4fa.-TWB(*: 

*'■ ■ ,.^-*'*i'f ^^ ^ jj4i*v* V Afviie die quesaioo cf »cnt«3 

'"*•' ri ^ui>t^>ii vi .>t^v£TK'>a — hrtwecp Ihe iqj gcsaca- 

^' '4,^ ^^^^^^ '*^ -LJkUv«i ,'k'hi<Trr^ ^ pawn. «itfa xs £b- 

^f^ . ^i- ' '*■ *'-* ^'' .^*^'=-'*^'. *»■"" c^iBsaXTtC * raam: luc 

., ;1i.,t \v»-. .i ■-*: >,- Anm rrtpu'w^. it 'it r-iiis* i 
,, *^!i\\ »' L. ..»* -in>»*/ \n."t ?im dJtre ^riTiJi^'^ n 



Powcn of (he PrcAidcnr 


war %a hf itwkcti. i\Tt<\ InrpiliTly, in ibc rouwc of husinn«, 
if the ipirii of oppostion aiioulil not \w 4l|o«rd futl tn<lu^;mct 
in ft ^rvtrroJ and regular ffiAttuuon^ The Atudu would come, 
And nuny nf Mr. Jr^rrvtiT*i% rrirndi lI»>U|;lit ^ Vtirr thry »^r«jM 
come oc oner, ^nd occupy (lie firiL v-cck or (wo 4jf the acuioQ^ than 
lo be scalicTKl lhA>usti ihc whole noMoa &nd mixed up wldi iJ] ib 
bioiMW- But the cfaaogv was imulc, juhJ ha suxxj, and dow any 
bOI or noliciEi b hud h^ of, lo hong a speech upoiQ, ogikut the 
narAjiiurc» or polcy of An KdmlniMratioiL 

I& the following ]c^ivr. Prexideai Jr^i-run laid before Con2FM» 
the ntkV>m «fait!] Ird bim tu abutdon ibt custom <iJ ddivrriiig ihe 
mcsMjcB la pcnon ; ** 

Decembers, 180 j. 
Tlir HodHntilr Iht PmideQl of the Senate: 

Sn; The drcumsi^iuca under nhich we 6nd ceutkIvb at 
Ihfe plKc rendding [n^nvenicnt the inodc hetciojore prAcdted 
of mBkiac by penonol addrea the fint communkatiarui betoken 
the legfaUdve and exr^uTivc branches, 1 hare adopted thai by 
mcBuge^ aft vwd on ifJ wb^cqursl occisionA llirougfa Iht irsiion. 
In ddpg Ihia I have had principal reiurd to the Mnveturttce of 
Ibe I'CcUatlMv lo Ibr nvtioniy of lUnz time, to ihek rrlic-f irtnn 
Ibc eniliarra»Qient ot iinaiediate uuatteoq Hjbjna not vc-t fuU^ 
before them, and Co ibe boielin thcfice rcvuldnt to the public 
«flain. TrosdoK Aai a procedure founded 00 these moih-n wlU 
meet Ihcir ^>pndMttion. I beg leave ihroogh jrou. sir, m rommuni* 
cale the birlowvl nwvbiKe, wfth Ihe dftrunarnls AixompanylMf i1, 
10 the hooorablr Ibe Settle, and pny jpuu to aixq>i for youivelf 
and them the hooiBftc of my hl^h rc^icct and cotwldcrallon. 


Thna^ b&A portr to aend ncnap* lod veto bws, the 
dm! baa Ibe tonitliutMial ri^hl Id indoemrc thr kourv of kglda-' 
tioa in CongtfSo. Bui he may brine praavurr to bear in many oibcr 
mtn. Hr may 9tc Ibe tnnsAff as aa inRinainnii to roti» public 

» is 


Am^ican Govcmmcnr tnd Polincft 

opinion; he nny hold cnnfcmirca wilh thr dlrvclln^ psny ]c^(t« 
inCor^grn; be miy Lilc privAtr mcinbtn into toimiluiion. To 
aomc (hlb citra-(x>n8(lmiioaal tolluencc of ihc Pn.-flidcat mchu «x- 
lirtlf tfAFTiLntKl by nound pciliiicAl ytsuLiuce, for fi bhi^K* iIichmt whu 
have iti eiiocul« the bw» m touch with tbutc who mibc ihcm, 

anri,furthcrtnnrrt, it CTiabl« tht Prttidcnt ** rcprrMntatiiT of th* 
vlinlv iiulii'ci 10 virrcUt hb proucr tnllurncd in ll^c muna^mrnt 
of the nAlirin'i l^i.iinftw. To oiQcru, however, thin appritn lo iic 
a H-boll) ubj«:tiuuaTjle practice- Bulh vidts uf tii« ciuM am thu> 
»Ut<3d io A mtnt ddjaicinCVingrf^u: — 

MR' Douivut. ^I am not one of ihosc who have been Irrl-^ 
iJted by the iDk-mt which ihe PmJdcnt of tbv Uxiiird Suies fab4 
takrntnihUcoptrovcn<y.' IHitinicn^l hu: been upon ihcbrooiloC 
&nd hi^r»l lution&l ground. He hju stated his vlcwi nn^l con-i 
nctions to Ihc AmcnVnn pmiilr in mrj section of the country, 
»nJ not one line tin Ijc tLtrilruieii tu him hixvli^K In U l^ie trau;* 
of 4 ptfiiun ouikxik upoQ thi» grvAl aaliunal ()\JtBlion^ There- 
Ion whMoTtr Inlcnvc be hv t^cD in it cui ctvuloly oot b« ftt-j 
IribuAed to ■ pvlinji dolffD of any kind or dtftracler. 

1 hwt htnt fAB\I1kr for % food many ytan with the udtudftl 
of the cBceutivc depojInMnt of the CU»vrmmen1 towArd Ihe ttoric 
of Coofft^a. Thrrr ui a nvmber of the Senate now who. id h» 
wenr duf>oBcd to '^vt hb Tipcdmcv, >nmlci be able tu vnify wh>l 
I My. thai U has bccD for nuuty )n«n the no uncommoo pncdc« 
for Ik Cobras oT Uk UoUcd Statis to take couaad with the 
oeailht cfepattmentA in perfc<liAg grtal *ru of natiorul leg- 
Ul^lod. There are ai Wnftt liipe acu ctf leg>aUlifin, al! of then 
rdemng to ltri« and similar r)uralioa», that vtre put Ihrough bolli 
|]ou«a of Congrcw in the bM five yean practicaiy vritbout 
diinK«, at they came ffoni the cAce of th* Ailonuf-Gcntnl of 
the Crdtcd Stabs. 

Iq t!ic prtacnt coatrovcTfy the Aiiomey-GenmT has ctftaialy 
had the inrilation of the legbUtivc braocfc of the Covernineai 
to Ukr an EntrcT«t in lW matler. Ami-injE the vny tiral ihbiga 
the CootnuUre on InleivUBe CommfTce £d via to invite hiv 

1 Owr a« «ll^0laa 4f fdtvur rUo. 

The Powers of ch« President 


^vt fab opuinn Ld wrillA| to Ibr Cbmndttw MpTjining lo tu oar 
p om u% Aftd mjking wlul suggosiMiv be Iboogbt deunbic in tv- 
UlSon lo (hit IqEUhiloo. Ii w > difficult, > complcji, almoa Im- 
peodrable rabjnrt Vk-iih vhicb w« hat<^ br«o ciUwl upon to dealt 
iod 1 do noi pdXifxMc U> be di^tporagcd nor to iltow uj4ttdf «Uit 
10 b« diapanged by ■ »H\^ri«f* (UiOfetElon thai wt hare cotttuMcd 
the Attarncy-nencral <ir tvva ihc Prcsidf&i of Ai- Unitod Stairs 
I couai 11 juii M RApeclabIt juid jttft a% pcHrflly in hor with my 
pablicdtitjr toUkr foun»fl ui(h thr Prrudrni d TJ»r liniSrd SCaIn 
on ihwe quntlofis u for my cclleagues «iid for othrn Id bold 
•wrt oquakI uilb the pcvddcaiK at nulroad corporjlioiu. , . , 



Mtt. Bailkt. — Mr. Prasidcftt, I bdomf to that rcry $mM <^' 
flua of Stiuion ud Re|if«vnUliv«a vtw do iM h«lkTr thii it ia i,i.a^^ 
proper for Ibcn lo bp mflu«Dc«d in ih* prrformuice d their h^- t»t **p" | 
bUtivc Ao6a by tSe views erf ibc riccjtivc dcpaiimtat tod it y ,Jj jj/ 
au aeva been my pncb'tv vtoce I had ihc honor to ocoipy a *cit 
In Clih^iiii to coofef viith iny Preiideiil, rSihcr of my ovo or of 
ibe oppodlioQ p^rty. In mifH<t I0 any IfgHbtioo. 

The only cxcrptioD I cvtt nude — and \hx\ man appofctit Aa rnpj 
than rcA] — vm Iq ibc cue of the lamented and maflytrd 
HcKioky, vboir inritation I aonepted 0> confer vith him in Ibe 
bopv Ibal ivc imjchl £nd a way to arert tlie ntt wUh Spain, U|Jua 
a qtMBtioQ fikff ibal, vrhkh ra lurt kgnUiivt, I fell that aay 
Ucnbcr of Congrai nlgbt propcriy cooler with ibc F.x«cudv» 
<d die Rcfitiblk. Bui, iU, 1 have »o oftes arm — and ibis appUo* 
not only lo ihe prr^ent Pmidoit of Ibc Uaaied Slate^i, but to hu 
predecevon ia tbal peat ofBcc — I hare an oftrn «yn the Jndg^ 
rami of Cotignn o^ivrmlrd or eontrolkd by the execuiive influ- 
csct that rarfy io my ftirrvicr in the olbcr Elouu I n^«cd llial ll 
•bonU nc^'tr t>rcvail with bic. 

I remembtr wbrn a ocrc ffhod Iwy renifing of a rrr^it VIr- Tbt 
gMi Democrat beinc Invlicd to the While Bouae by a Pnesukai, ^J^^^twi! 
of his owa pany aad cbosta fmn has own Suie, in coafei opoa 
aa bnpoflial ifuolioa pending in Ibr Cemgr*^ and t temraiber 


American Govcmmcni and I'otidcs 

bow my youthful blood wjk made m run fjutcr niicn f read how 
iiux gmi VirginiA DfDi£>r-rat said: "Mr. Pmidmtp ihc Con»ii- 
IuiIda of ihc I'nitcd Staus bn* ntpvAtfcl Ihc citeculirc lAd Ipgiv 
blivr lirfiHrtmrnu rrf lhi< l^vrrnmrni, jinri, Sy ihr liHp of (lod, 
1 intond to keep ihtm separjle.*" I ti<lopt<^ ihnl aa my cntd md 
1 bare litrd up to U from thit dny to thU. 

Tfi. fftfv Exectdke DrfirtvaMit hSfxy Draft Bitli 

Wiac Ihc fniEintlon of Icffbiladcin i« ihcorctlr&lTy Idt to Con- 
grm, Ihe Pmtdcnt may rrcomTntdd luclt rnraium oa he sec* fiL 
Thew BraAuna need not be iimJccd to mrre i:enrml jUiitrniL^nb; 

Ihcy oflcn t.tkc the form of comfsltlcd hj!K «LJ it-tdy foi piixhAiKr, 
which »r« somdimo adopted Ly O.-ngrwi wilhout alteration. This 
nuTUA^r of I^rvtidntt (IrvrlAnd illuKlMtrA (ht prA<Crrr. 

To Ac SpHflti! Hid Hwup of RepreiccuiivD; 

X tnuksm-^t herewith a ocnnmunlLaLEon <tf ifae 15th in&taaC from 
the StvrcUii^ of the Interior, vubmiltLiag, with ftocorapanyinf; 
|M^)cn on ihc subjccti j dnuehi c4 a blll 10 &nifrnd sKtion 5^88 
of the RcvLtd SuMies tA the L'nEtcd SlUca relaiing to timbtr 
tkprrdalickni upon lnnd& rctcncd nr piirrhjwid for miHtaty, 
IndUn, or nihrr purp>tfs, &!r. 

lliit is m inporTAut tubjfci, ftod U vonuncndcd to lfa« carljr 
■IteBlioo <if CfHi4[re«. 

EwcHtinc MftnMDA, Dcccntbtr ti, iSf. 



79. TJU /Vrndrnfi Powr of Remvv^* 

WitiLK ipvibfc tbr Prcsidcnf |M>irrr |i> ^pjiobil ndirtnt tiy utd 
VftU Ihc advice ind cocuntl of ibe Senate, ihc ConsiilistioD make* 
ftO eaprtw as In Imw und^rml^Tr "iTnen shin^Id be' 
rvnom. Bj prxtiral cxpcHcn^r, howcvsr. il hw l*wn found lh»t^ 
aa ^secutife (in oHnme rr«por»ibiliEy tor an A<IniuiijitrAiii~-n un! 
be can tcvp tliv auliuMiimv ufUcuU up (□ a lu|:h xbuidirO 
cArknoy ihmi^j^h ihc difdplin^ pctwrr ot ttancntl I'hot thitj 
power i« |>ouaAciJ bf the Preiidcnt under the 0>ii»:itulkm U tl 
tlMnc of tbe lofiowiDg decbson by ibe Supmoc Court. 

Tbc ttctt oa tbcjr appear b i%t findings of the Court of Claims TV toj 
m that ttif ^p«IUnl was Domiaatedon Juljr 17, iSgo^ 10 be one ^ ' 
of lbe|(cAcralft|i|irAb«nof norrcfatndUcundrr (htactuf Juoa ic, 
i890» cb«|>tei 407, 36 Sui. iji. okI that noauaatioD wkk o>d* 
MAicd 10 on the folbwjn^ day bj th« Senate, ttd the ■pp«lknt va« 
tlKMupot oonunlnioBcd 10 b« §nA gcocrol ojiprabcr of merchaxt^ 
disc He Mcqiied that ofGce and took the italh tc<|uim1 <in Julf^ 
14, iK^o, .tEifl rrRT^iilArd in «urh oAkf anil was paid ihc mUi 
altarhing lbtrHr> up lo Miy 15, 1899. On May % of thai year he 
rrcdved tb« loUowing cccnmunicalioA from Ibc PnsidcDt: 

WAfmNiiT[>«, D,C, May j, 1809^ 

&>■ Vo« ntw hfftbf irmowd foom ihv oITke of Koenl mv^trt 

mn^mltte, to ul»- effect nptm tkt appvinievni oad qtra&&e«ion 

W(U4Mi UcKiKixr. 



Amcncan Government ami PulidcK 


The appelUal never reiignod hii offire nr>r ocquicscei) in any ■& 
ttmpk*! rrmoTft] thmfrom, Ar\(\ hr w^i never nnliliccl or mfomnH 
c4 tioy chiirg«« madr apinat him, rithrr nt inrnicirnrjr, h«^1«cl nt 
duty Off raAlfe-jLtAiit-c in uflke, and hi; kuoirt uf no r^iue (or hb 
Tvnioval (rum ihe cfffiie b;iTing bcicn uucctUincd at ^tUJKiic^ l^y^ 
the PrviiiJcni. 

Mr^ Jiutl« Pcckham, after icaklaK Ihc (oraxomjE aiAkcnciit 
delivered ihc Dpiniuo of the court. 

Thr aiBet of crutral appmiur of mcrvb/EndUr wu crcntcd by 
Ihr IweUth tcrrii^ ot the *Ct tif f ron^rr** uppfovtd June lo, iHg^ 
'llie matcnjd portion of Ibat MMtioQ rrvU u foUowi: 

Svr^ 19. ThftUhneihcllbtappolDlfdbxlhePnJdrntliyBJid vtl^l 
Ibc advice mihI tonsrul of ihr SeuiiC, nifip i(rnrriiJ ■{.'puLlton nf Tn?r' 
chintliH. . . . Thtfy kWI nut brcnKisvd m vny irtW Etiuidm. «vex*-| 
tion 1^ anpWn)cnl,uid inay be rvcncnvct ^ni ufliccAi tnj time- bylbi 
fraiidcDi for uieffldciicy, ncfjoci oT ducy, or mairttianae m offlcc. 



Tbcn k of course no doubt ol the power of CongKn to crence 
svcb ta <ilftfn jk« is prt>ddcd for b Ihe obflrc sccdon. Vndcr ibc 
proTuioTi thai Ifaf officer might be rrmored from office at Any luna| 
for intHii ltiit"y, ncitlp^t of duty, or mnl1e«uncc in officr, wc are 
opinion thit If Efje mnut jI a »<)ui(hl lu be mide for ifiotr ciumKi 
or dthcr of Ihcm, the ofEcer b caiidcd lo noike and a hearing,' 
RM^n t'. Uallcd State*. iS> U. $,439. 4>S> It n^ust be pmumcd 
thottbePreaideBt did noi make (be remMal [or any cause uaigned 
bi the Kaiutc:, brcnuw thrrr wwi J^vrn lo Ihe olficrr no notice 
oppomituly lo defcDd. I^h? f|Df4li->n rhrn anon, can Xhr Pra»i-' 
dcQt cic^oc the poweroJremorj^l for any oEbaraiBcs thin Ihoie 
iDvotiuerd is the *l.itule; in otlitr wi>tili, UbercvtnitTtl Ui h rr- 
monl kir diuae cauN« okmc. or con he exercise bi» general power ^J 
of nmoTOI vfttboM such rcsuictlon? ^M 

Tbe appcUont contends thU because the sUluie jperified cer 
tom eouttft for vhvb the nflirff nucht be irmovrd, il thereby ^y 
impfieitly exdudrd and denied Ihe right lorcmovr for any nthef^H 
caioe, and Ibat tbe Prendenl mt therefore by tbc vtatuie pr^ ^ 

The Nariorul Adminotntion 


hibilad fion aaj nsKHrtl txcrpt for the cjiusei, or wnc d lliem, 
thMvin ^rft^ The nuiiia, nr/Wf iw umims tst txdmiia Mikrita, 
a tnvd u «ii Blttftnlkii vt tlio prioctple upub wbkh ih* rontcn- 
tioa ii fouaded, Wt ait of opnioo tlut u Aui used the raudia 
(joes not Juailfy the conundoa ol tbe appdUat. Wt rtfard ll u 
jaApfkOcthk lo tlkf (frcta kereuL Tike rifihc of remoiral votild cjr* 
iM if Ihf nl&iulr h-td !!■>< nanulDtft a votd itpo» Itul Hihjrcf, ll 
ikic* dot ciBl by rirtiic of the fjra&U but it inhrrtn in Ihr riifhl tn 
app<Aai, ubIcm fiiniud by the Cotsiiluiiob or Ktalole- ft rccjuirei 
plab Uogtt«c« Ut toLe k avr>y. Dhj CoDgrtn by ibo ut« uf Uo- 
^iffc prondiag for reokonl Cor ccruia CAtuci thereby provide Ihil 
tbc ri(hl could o«ily W cwrcfiard ia the jqiedfic cittM« ^ U »n, jwe 
tAitl A diffef^!fkce in tfcw tcflure of office n cCocIrd *a to llii« officr, 
frocn Ihftt exi&tutfl g«f)CT*l]y in thn country. The lenufc i^ ibe 
jodknl oflkm uJ ibe Unikd Sui» b pnmiM Ect by ibt ('unM>- 
Ulka boi vith ll»t evcpcios no cini officer b^ crer fadd office 
by a ib teviuc kdcv the fouiidalioa of ibc covemmrst 

To coiume ibc ttatuic u cootmdrd lor by ibc &ppcUAM b^ co 
^vcmn appniHr of ancTdsandiAr the right to hold thai offict- during 
ha liie or uoiil he sluJI he f^usid guihy of fonic ut fficcified in the 
■latutr. If Ihta be 1rue» a cvmplcle irrolution iu thr |(«ncnJ U-nurr 
of office if effected, by impJicaiion, ^rilh regard lo this panicuUr 
ofin. W« tbialt it quite IfiMfmladhle to attribute m Inientloo on 
tbe put of CongKM lo make iBxb &n extraordmary rha£i|Ee iq the 
ivmal rule |tormifi|t the tenure of nflicr And unr whkh U lo lie 
appfied to ihdi paflkulu office only, vkboiii Matic^ ftixh ivlention 
Id |i1^ ud etplkii laAflUicei tnftead of tearing tl lo b« Implud 
frucn doubtful lofcrtncn. Wt txa rev no traaon ft>r tuch actbn 
hj Omgnm with reference to this office or the dudci coonoctcd 


Id vialdpf removabi from office It mtut be iMumed thii the 
rnHtblrM acU with rHrrrtKw to hb ionsiiliMmial dnlj to take 
nrr (hit thrbirftart failhf uDy eveeulcdt and welhiak H uttnjldbc 
■ mUtaken view lo hnU that mtn ipcrifinlfen tn the Hl4tulc ol 
•umr caowt uf rttnoval thervt»y eiccludcd the right of the PnaUant 






Americui GovcTnincnt and Folitict 


to mnovc for nty other iroJKin iHucb he, Acting wilh a due icniv 
dI bis o£ficUl ropiuunitlaiy, shuuld IhJak lujiflcicnt- li a tmc 
thii, undtr thi^ Lxuutniciion, ii is poi^ibW Lli^t oflkcn oiay l>e 
RQMvcd iot cniiKs unconiiccicd with the proper odmiaistratior, 
of ih« office. Thu h the case with moftt of the oiher ofSccrt m 
llic gmrermmciil- The only resiraint in cums ixich ai Uib mtBt 
nutiiM b the rt«|^inLiljUlly of the I'rr^jflrni iindrr h\% oAlh nf 
office, lu Ki mrt «s »haU br for the ^nenJ bemelil and weUar?- 

teu Tk^ Etetadht Dep^rlttuonis iin<f Cim£vvii * 


Whatever may be the tiivoiy alwut iheMfiantion of powen 
and the indc|>cndciioe of the cxkuIivc, it r«maiiu a fart that the 
axteutivedetiartrnenttvidthoif pritKipal i>iTH.vfH"ftrrlhpi'Cvalurf 
of the bvn of (^ofigrcM, czeivuini; only surfa [lowets noH per- 
lonning DuiT «iichdulic«a«tb»e km utcunbc "' HiervUiun 
of (he dfrpartm^nid to Ctt\xatM b ituia dcecribod by S«aator 
Spocpnrr in x ■]>c>«h delivervci In the Senile. 

\ aicnc entirely with wliat the Stoalor fitjin Colorado aayi: 
^f "^ That we are in the habit of pottinK itttoLutioiu directmg the 
kcads of all the dq>Armeni-n cxrq^l - that la my tmn qualitica- 
tlon — ejEcept the state Uqummcni — the Sr<'rr(ary of l^iitc — 
(o aniwer inlcrrogaEoiiei and to amd to the S^EUite information 
Indkatcd io lu^h nvluiioniL" Ofreu 1 hare, where a reuiluiion 
maki the funn ** requested/* uuKge^ted that (he vrurd "r^ui9(e^" 
be Etrkkefi out and Uut the word ^directed" be lubcdlutcd. but 
I hare not knowD aMoatanee Aifice I have been a number of the 
Senate in whkh thrSenalc haa dtrecied the Secretary of Slate Io 
fomi^ to lbrSenatren]nc«Mdt]»lomatK^er)TTrKT»on>.lrniY, ioAlrur- 
iVnu to mioisltfTH or to agenb appointed by the Prr»iiienl to nego- 
liatr tfraticL It liu alwayi brcn, no f at »a my mi-mory fflt^t 
IB Cum X "it<tue4t" to ihr Preitd4.'nt Eo trariBiml, if not, in hia 
JtMJk^ea:, incompatible with tbe pubUc tntemt^ Aitd tfaerv tt a 
m«OD, Mr Prcaldnt. for thla dbtl&Clbn bi the fora of dlrectlnjt 
Ae Deputment of Stale and other Departmecta. No one will 

■5^ klbunrc^ p^ IfA, 


The Nanonal Admmiittndan 


dispute for m nufncni thai the coodixc of our fardgD affoin b, 
undtf Ihc Conaticuti4>n. cntirtlj in ibe bAndi Mid iwdcr rhc<oRtn>lk 
or th« Pn^eni, aAd thcrv nfVrr hsa brm writkD & book on the 
CjinMitulkm — Stnry, RawIt, Ketkl, Vntrtrroy —nay hatik ufMHi 
lli«»ubjKl vrhkb hM nni eai|ituAiMd \ht Ijhi. nfiKh i4 sfipaivai 
to thu4ightful lorti, th«t tbc condwct oi ovr ford^ TcbtJon** in- 
«u\xdou by the Pre^Idnit 10 mliu^tcf* 4nd ottm dtfl^nnjiile 
Hgents, remove acd xnrolre in Uic uteroLi of the country, more 
t>r \t^ of K^ftcy- 

The WhCT DrpartBwaU of the Gwremment perform rtrj m^nf 
dutici im(H>ied pdmirilr by OiinfiT^i, dcAliftg eMkvl)- mih ovt 
dciivinbtk atfnirs 4ncl fSrrvfnri- ihr Lliiiincliitn vrttirh. M I i^adrr 
*Uih1. lus 4|iny« Lcvd obactrcd. ami vhicfa I tblfik ougbl t^ be 
obwrvc^, baivrtvn ibe oiber [>q)artnncBta of Ihe Gnvcmmcnc uid 
the Deputacnl of Stftlc. to ixr it il rebird to iDslnxtion* ghvfi 
ii> junI cOCTeSfMndcnce wiib ili|)loinatk agenu of ihe CEUud Stoics, 
ambtwdor^, mtnUters. ud senaion^ 

The r-AhinrC U noc ihr mrrr rrtiAiie of the Pir^itf^^t ; the Cahi- 
net ULen at a Uid^ U nol mrrriy the olbciat ftrnily u| tbc Ptr^i- 
dcnt Wc impose duties evcfy diy during the «c»iob c>f Congrctf 
by U« upor. ibf Cdtiinvt officer* which it ti l«y<)od the pDwvr of 
Ubc Prrsidcci by Any knsinicliDD oi his to pretermit obedience to. 
The CoiMkQikin rocogabn Cabinet oficer». U <lc^ with ihetn 
orelttncteiiieailMnift»*'lle&d»ori>epRmacDlis" Ii^utboriMe 
wk — uhd wten I uy u» I meen Congrcv — lr> vest b Ihcsn 
the ajifkoifilmenl ol inferioe ol&<fii; aad ia the duvhjircr of that 
ftmction ihry atv ai indcprodcnC of the ord«r or contml ol ihe 
Prc^Ltdcnt, iWofcCiaillT' *! 1eA«t, »« if they vtrr cnlirdy indcpciid' 
tnC of the I*miiir»t b *AhtT ix^pccB. Tlic tuiuiv hookM &|v 
tullofduikvintpvaed octlorUcn m^dr by theCvnjnm to be exe- 
cuted by ihb member ni ihc CibiDct. or ibit meratier, ot tbr othet. 
But I dnw il>« line ooly u to ihe Secretary of Siate^ m ftr m hb 
fuociloa* ftbie 10 di|>lomd(k corRvpoodeDtc and 10 thai doouifi 
of doty ia ivhioh he b(1» uoder the Comilluiloci, end cftii a^ uader 
Ihc CtHMiiiiition only by order ol the rre^enl, and cuniot acl 
bf ovdcr uf the Cougieu. 




ir TT! 

hf"> ,-n,. .\.-n/-j., 


X*^4doQd Adcniimtrition 


<^ou^**'"'^ Xr r"''' ^"^ **™" "' ^^'^ ""^r *^*«" *<* *"* 

f^^^^ ** ^'*"* ^*"* ^ vWalkui of the hv; &iu4 ranBiit ihr tn- 

^ ^mcnl ol fludi pmviifen*, i^wdiiloiM. aad ragolUioiu ciclti- 

ci 1 ^ ^ «fcuti\f <jfficcn without JDi&cid iAlerrcadofi. trt |>iin- 

^*^'^m anntj rttabiUhod by ih< dcflfiion* of thu court." In Fok 

^^Utig Yt> V. Unilfd SlaitB. 185 V^ S., tg6, 304, joj, it wa* held 

^^ thedcci^onof ihccollcriorof cuttomsoDlbc ri^l olirftiuic 

^*^>^ the icnitofj of the L'nked }Suua w« coDctuiivc, and, Mill 

^^t^ to the poiftl. In I*coi Mma Sing v. United Stotci. 158 U, S-, 

53s, whtrt Ibr p«titii)Qrf lor kabtAi f^^* xUrf;rd Uft» whlrh^ if 

T*^C» give him A rij^l lo cnier &iid miuin in lh« counUy, it wa» 

^^M ibftl i dn:Ujan of the collector vu final is to afaetlicf or not 

loTlfWafllic cues which wc have dud it tonnt no longer open 
to iliscusi the question propounded u ft new one. Thcnfonr wt 
4o not aadf jc th« nature of ihc rif^hi af a pfrun pcc^niift^ him- 
self At the ffOOlirT f<ir iHmiieiion- Bui il vi nol improjicr In ^d a 
^« words. The petitionrr, although phjaScallr within our Ifound- 
^nct, kiaht resardcil a* U he had been «1^»ped at the limit ol 04ir 
jwbdkrikia and tirpt lE^ere vrhile Ut rifht lo vnltr was under dt- 
botcw If, for the porposc of uigumeDt* we wunie that the Fiflli 
wntodoMnt ' ifipUci to krim 4nd that 10 4c4y taUiAov to a diUoi 
li Id depriTe bin of Sbectjr, we ncvcrtlMlceA an of the opiafon thai 
wirh regaitl lo hint du« proceM of law does not rcqinrc a juifidal 
trial Thai ii Ihc iMult of ibc raMS whidi wt hatv riled and the 
nlncivt accctfary re«uk of the power of Coogreaa to pt$a escliwra 
lawa- Tliat l>>r dniiaon mty bt MttrUMnl to an exeicuiavr oAccr 
and ibit bit dedikm k due pnxea* ol Uw w«i aAimcd an^ ei- 
plained ia HMJpqri ELiu v. United Slato, t^i D. S., O51, ti6o. 

of lur«i 
HC nq«C 


Amcnun GcvcrnmeRt And Polifjo 

8». Tk4 Ffcud Ordftt of ikt Pint-ttfiit Dr^fmrnT* 

AiMMha eumplc of ihc iray in which priraii^ right* ut sub- 

^trd to adminUir^tvr divrrlum wtltiniil rvM by ludlcial 
process hi aCFordcd by :br nshi c-f the Pcai mailer G^ncTU lo cjc- 
cltiik summarily from Iht mhib dfiytbing thiil h« mAf drvm 
fnudtilcntv Thi; fdlowini! hUmU niAcIv in CoufEnn uji thU 
pmcdcv indic-itcf ihc dojigtra ai <ArTying th^ poivcn <kf &rlmi»jv 

The Suprt:<n« CouH hv hdd ih^l the fntud<(»nUir puw«T tn^y 
be i:«>DfeiT?d upon the FoftUaotflerGtnrral bvcjuic ihc righl to the 
mail ii* a privilcfc Afid not ft vcMod ri^liU .uid ihni ihc pnii'Cfdin^ 
U Of^l crimiikHl ID itfi rhar^trr, Whjfc thi« may br th^ cum<l 
mniiiiLiTioniil i!]ff»Ty, yc( The p^rly aKnin« whom n fraud-ordcr 
UivjcJ istmtj^dcil ^4 1 rimtiLxL And i^Iiki^aIuv^I *^ jt |H'rpptmti]ro( 
friiuit. It □ukea Iuid ah uutbw tut fjir a^ uue uf Lbc niwt impui^ 
xiM bnccbtf of lb« GovamnuriM u cuocnnaed, Thtr Uiwatuc of 
tiKh on order coren all h» moil and deprive him of the rig^t lo 
conununic ate with hb fricnd>> hU wifc^rtr Ms mother, or to ff*mvc 
any cnminijnirjttinn fmni ihcm T>y mrAnp* of thf mall». 

All of ihl» a done upon conlideatul reptini, Ihc result of »«rel 
bivcvlqcal i<Hvi ha»i\ tiptin ex p^wit fctHtcniviiU ut pvnKioA whotfc 
Lutivo commt btr known, who may be itspoouibb or who may be 
^«11>Tc, wbrj may not bcrompctcni wltntttM, &T>il u^ho an 
nol twoni and flo not carr^ th« vtapunsIhllttirA of ordinary vrii- 
beaevi- Tbcir nunes jud idcnlilj ore not distrlnicd, and Ihdr 
cvktcnce davA nol oocialn «im sIc^ lafeiguard igaimi Iraud or 
oneanflletevlofcrediLalily. Such evidence would not be received 
1& XYut huKtUnt maK^&lraif'iL rourl of ihr cccniry in a cue Involv- 
ug the iQTcitigatiou of (he m^st inturuioquenlial right of penoa 
or propcfty. 

Ttt utresii^iion and d«cbIon of Envd-onl«r cuacfl under Ihi^ 
pirortire ia ihc Hrpanment h nrfctiurily mode by the Awstonl 
AltimiFy'Ociirml 1>unD>,- the two jieJir* mdinjc Ji^inc ^o Lisl, 
660 fnud urden were ruued and a liumbrr tA costs iavci<)ff«led 

The Nxtionnl Adminivrnnon 

vdiere th« occiwd 4f:re«d to modif}' hat ftrfvcrtisins nuiicr ^ that 
]| would cofifami to Uic Mens <3i ptopn*-ry nl Ihc Assiviini M^nr^ 
nry'G^neral, ihcrtbf ohriiling the tuuin; of ad ofd«r txcluding 
him frocn the m8jU, Or^r onr (»w A dAjr har) to hr rxjimiDrd 
umI dnided. and it w^uld be out uf ifac ^uvitioct for tbc INisUiiaitcr- 
GcBcTdl lo Kive bb pcrtoful &ttcnUoQ to the cximtiutioii Atid 
d^Iiloa ot tb«Bv caaee and attend lo ihv otfacr aMuous &nd multi' 
(arioiB duties of hu office. The Asniunl Attonicy Geneni] 
devotee llie bulk of kEa lime to Ihc fn»id'<Tn!er buslneA*. Hn 
rrfm compUinU to pofll-<ifficc iiupoclor*, examinei rqx^rts, de* 
cidot qucftliiiini of Uw Hod f^t, hr.u« miller in defciu«. i"d prai^ 
licjdly hu the dixinua uf the uhimdte ifuivtioB ih lu nhtlhcr x 
fraud order fthaibc tolled Of hoi^althougb the work »dnn« in the 
Dame of the PoMnMtfvOcnTral. . . . 

I h^vc no 5)nikpatby with or r«pa:t frirr the policy thai affccU J**^ 
llir tmpoTtanl rightjtof pmiin, irptiLilion, or properly hy mrjin^of ^^^ ^ 
contidefiliil rtpom of iccrct emi«ariwi of the Uk. Repott* T iiOm 
coolakn£nit evidcmr rr^i^f^ttnK lEie righti i^f (hir dticcn i^Piould **]{ 
jlwiyi W tnidc publu:. No cDiujdcculioa of delkucy ocembamas- 
mcnt >h<:uld JuKlifj tbc Govcmnicnt in blA(iin£ the rcpuutjon 
a.Dd n^ning the buiiiHas ol 4 riluen wlthoui giving h'ttn un op;>or- 
Uuky bo know encily who thu le«Ei£tfd ii^iutl bim and to what 
be hw lc«tl6td- lite trport* of irupfctArs aniiet iif>y pr^itirc 
ihould be open to the penon wbo nt^y be affected by Ihe frftud* 
Older. Ht >hould bt allowed 10 koow who hiTc ^Mca infomudon 
or imtiSed agiinM Un, aod dtbena «4io ^n inicrvkwed should 
undertund that ihclr Eunuft and staiemenu woutd be open to 
(upectiott hf cbe pmon ag&inM whom thcf testify or give {nform»< 
lion. Thui wmld hive a mo« wholdome iitd nlutair inllLXnce. 
West woctid ivr that the alatrmenU ih^l wrtv written up hy the 
"poatKifice injf>«icton and credited to ihrm wi^re fnjr and jinl arid 
abw34uai)y ttUr- Then nhmdd be no inducemoit or upjHJVl Jiiity 
for mea lo Attempt lo slab tbe burincia or reputation o( rival* In 
the dark. 

' -t 

J .IP..1 

>. 7"'i Pf*?-^ 

v.»^ 'i-^ ,<*'' — ' i J— tf i j i t Ti 
■ ■ -^rr^ .•^^ .■ "-^ U*«> 1*^ Ji. TEi 
-— — '..i-^ "xr -.* <*^». anr 

III ^, _ 'prrMUfi-aii^^ wiHi4Wj 

'— "^' '.-■-■*. '*^'.f,Jrf ^', 111 iMt 

<- ..NlrtJWl t»'.l. 

. >l9lir<3i iff luf llK 


■i^- ■•■# .>h« 


*« J ''>f '■• ' ■ * 

I rifCD- 

The Kitioiial Admin iitraiLon 


pndetcuM' of hb hia Itfl nmkine, or to undo whal oihcn Mtx9 
liiB lure duoe; to pul Ifau nun «p and Ihit ntta dova, u ihv sjs- 
lon of poUikal Tcwmrdi lad punbfamniB idiall 8««m Id Ua Io 
dcfoaad. ImiiMd of the Atudj uf emu qi>cslioiiK of tutnmaiwhip, 
of faroftd lad coiDprvhcoidvc JbdminktnttiTC policy, fiifatr u It 
m»y concern Ibu |>afticuULr couniry nt home, or the rcUtnn* of 
UiA gredt tiotiDQ 1o the olticT Dattoiu of (he unh, brv mutt rlrvnto 
hsmartf lo the prtly basiim« of vcigfaing in lh« buhncr the pvtiU' 
oJ cOiMidcnilMiu that ilull cleteRniiic the claim of this fiitnd or 
Uial polidca] MffpoTUr to the poMtntoo of aoma office of profit 
or honor iioder him. 

TW office of Chief Magi»mtc haft urxIcrgoDe b prariicc a 
radicaJ chan^. The I^ruident of the RfpuMic cmtrd by Ihc 
Caasiitulion in the hegioninx, and the (^hicf Mj^tiAtr of ttvday, 
uv tw tnlMy diflerrnt p^ibLic tunctionaiicB. llirn* Ium grown 
up cuch a pvrveruoa of the duties of thac hiitb oflice, such a pro»- 
tltutios of iL (o entb unwurihy ibe gml idea of Its creation, ini- 
pcalif burdens «o gricrouty and so d«gradi Ag cf all the faculties aikI 
fii&ttiou becoming ita occupant, thai a thaii^ has abeady cocio 
m Ibc chu^Kler of tbc government itself, whkh^ if not formrtcd, 
will be iMftrtiiAmt and c&asinNitf. Thus hanipered and bvact, 
the Chad MAgirtnte of tkit lutkm vtsu% out h!a Icnn and tus life 
ia the petty Mxrvicc* of pony, afid m the botovral of the favon its 
aaccndieMy ootnmarKls. He £jva daily audience to besgan {or 
plare, and »u in jud^cnt i^ma I^ party <ldmi of rixileManbL 

The KjEKVlive Mafoloe bi bcikipd^ ii nut sa^koi, and iUo>ni- 
dan and ckAmbvn art cio«ded each dar «ilh the ctrr-cliaagpnKt 
but EKver-eniltnii fhrnnic. T^wry Chief Majiwlfile, »nce ihe evil 
bai frown lo tli pmctii pttpurtjum, ha« crird u«t fur iMvmnce. 
Phy^al todmnoe* even, U ItJied UyoAd iu pQver. More thaa 
oAe rresiileni b believed to have loei hia life from ihJa cauie. The 
i^Metactr eihltHifd of the Chief Ua^lraie of thi« great naticn, 
feeding, like 1 Lee^irr, ht« dork, llir hunciy, rlamorotu, cti>wdi;i|», 
joMlinc mdtitude n4iich daily g^thcn aiouDd the disttduer of 
pairooa^, la htinuliatiDf to the palHotk dlLccn Inierested alone 





'.'.- ^j -^ nwihg .'Ca i^4iMnaaa«332i9C3v:7 

,;iTi, ,jwl .1 mvtfk. ilrfl n. t»: «■:. i: 

*;..h,^f« <TWt iuivnicr > « nt. Air nmOBc odq^ 
, ,*-?■* .m^hrtT ibi. s'ltr *iur" lae* 1.- "d 

. .^ 1*4. rtft'.'s 1 K^ -^n-itvitM-' tiiccu.. a.- "veI. A- 

■ 1* 

:-'i *»* '*»* ■ j; 

The Nutioiwt Adminiflcnnon 

■>IIicul plnoe under Ihc Utuicii Stibcs, The PrcBikfil ma/ reoKHT 
amy Conimf«ion«r; And \ny vocaaqr In the |>oc4lloa gf 0>nimiA> 
ui^ficr shall be na fiUnI b^ ibe PreiMlcni, by &ad wiih Ibe odvke 
>a<l n>ii>cn! of Ihc Scnnlc. u lo nuifonn fo tM vot\dit\i>n^ for 
Ihr Tim selection ol CoiuniMiiMbrn. Tbc Cmnmiftakmrn thjill 
each rtcdvr i uUiy ol thrrr Ibovun'l Irvc hundird dolUn « jrcar. 
AndM(h»f idd<^)mniixMoiirretbtUI»|Midhl»nacaMry iTai^ 
ing cifwnvn incuntd in ihts ObdinivF oJ I'-b duty » a Coniink< 

Sfic. 3. Thai Ii ikinU Ik ilic duly of »alfl CumminioMfS: 

f iwr To *id the rmidcni, an ht m»y i«^iici*, in [mpjinng '>«'i 
Kutldlilr rtjti't fArcAnying thi« art att^ cIIkI, iml whrn «ah| nilri 
vhnlt hitT lieen procnijlgatnl i( ifauti be ihc duty M jtl ofTicen of 
Ihc Culled Suu« in the dcp<iruncn u ^nd u6kci to nhicb Jiay lut^ 
rule* ODiy rvlite tu aid, In a\\ prupvr wuyd, In cftnpiijr (^tid rolcc. 
And iity aodificidooK thenof* iitlo cll«ct. 

iS'tfCMff. And. iroong oUkt tMnicft, nld niles shiU provide &nd 
dfckrCf aa ncvriy n» the comiiiioju uf gqod ndimniiilnLllon will 
«amni, M follows: 

UrM, fiK open, compvblitv cxnmlvailnnft fnr tming the hlnem 
of Appfir^nt* forth? t»uUk lerviceoou'cUidificdorti? becUwIfied 
iMWmiln, Su( h cumiiutiooi &hdU be pnu-lkjl in tliclr chatBC- 
l«r. umI Io fni u may be sh^t nUu tu tlwK milkn nhkb will 
foifly toi the rcUiivc c^tdly and fitnen of thr pcnons cxtmincd 
Io dl»chaigc the dudca d ihc Mfticc l&lo which ihcy Ktk in bo 

SccDod, ibfti all the nllkei, pUf*«, And employntenU «c Amnfled 
Of ko bv amag^ in cUnst ttidll be fiUcd by tritxlLon* Acvon£ng 
Io 0adt Uom amung ihow grMlcd hifiheil » the teMdU of Huch 
ccnpeiiiive enaiiiutiooe. 

Thiid, tppoiaUnenli to Ibe pflbHc scrvioe aJooeald in Ibe de- 
pAitmcftto Ai IVa^d^do shin be >pp<>niAncd Among the MtYfol 
Stnio Aad TerriliOnes and Ibr IXilrirl o4 ColumbiA upon 1h« bAus 
of pOptdA^oh AA A«ccrtAtnnl a| ihr l.ttE jtrrvcdinfi cmtun. Kvcry 
Ap|jili<Alkin (tjt AA minbnAiiuQ f lul] eoalAui. unvtiqc oThcf ihang]^ 


i " •■ ^ ii 

u ::iac >iMlL bBA-1 

r!ir . ^ jiiiiMiiij ilMniiliih lanwi ii imn 

ir :>^UHB4| Li> do «^ 
:i I [^ifnnn in M^MUMrhM i—^T tirfiti i 

^-. - . 'J/, 

' rf -.fitv^ '<Ka>i '^ £^^ 1' vntlli:! V'U^- apuauuiK^ 

I < .' -^ ;rMTvi imAO^;HAir^ ^b^' i^b*'-' *ve:i csbhhdel.. cflBi 

,.i* riO^a -Kill ^ *< r^l. n wftta^^uat ma iezt 

The NadoniJ Administnrion 

mttttt And cfTccu of t^d rulcv vid rrguUiInaA, ^d antuxrtang 
lh« «ciioA oi Aiif Bumtner or board of cttmloers h«retjuftcr 
provided for, nikd ill own lubonlinjiCca, ukd iho«£ Ut the public 
wnHcr> in n:*p«n to the exccttibn of thb act> 

ff/lib, Siiid Cumnimon ahati lOAke ui uwiul n^iort to 
PmklcnC lor tmmmiwon to Conj[rcii, ihowiog il» ovnt acUaOil 
the rulfli and rrKuUt'iom and th« e»q>lkiiu thcnCo in forte, the 
pTftcticAl C!9«t:is ilicrcof, ind any cuggeuitjns u miy approtc for 
the morv tiSfcctua] jccompluhniciu of the puiposct of ihU vt. 

td m 


KotvlthKundioz the rtokovtl of a Uw Qumber of offkct from 
the oricfAtion?^ of th? ipoib ifsl^m^ cmougb political ippointnitfiti 
mnained to honn the Pmideni, Mr. Clevctand ahonty >fM 
laking oftcc ta 189^ usued the foUcivini; pica lor h«]p. 

ExKCUTtVK Ua:viuui4, May 8^ 1^3- 
ll kaf b«icornc ippartnL aJlcr two moolh*' ex|>eric!nce Ui-^t the IV 
rvfo bcMofoctpioEni^led roguhLing Ini^n-ir^if wiih tliv Frt«i- 
dem have wholly failed in their opcra&to. The time which under 
tbcac ridM wu mi afMrt for Uw reception of ScQatorv and fUpre- 
imtjidvei bu beett almoal mtirely spaU in Ufttening lo ipp1ica< 
tiottt f(j«odK«, which hRvc been bcwildcnnii in volume, pciplcxiiig 
■ad dhaualixig in their iter^lkin, aaj impuanblv of rvnKiBbrai)ce,i 
A dtt* Rfiid (or public duty, whidi muat be oegloctcd if prtsent 
CdHfittuia coDthuiCi aikd an observance of the DaiUadons placed 
upQQ hurroji endurance oblige me to decHnr Erom and idkr thia 
d4le all penonaL iAlcrrirvf wfth lho«e >cekmj> appoiaimcnU 10 
ofice, except aa I o« mf own motion amy cipniaUy inviu ihcm. 
TWtainecooiUfraliockainikeil LmpoMtblc for me lo trcgive Uhhc 
lh« boon espvckllp dcdgnaKd foe thit purpose. ^M 

I earvcstly reqw^ Senaion and Refmcntadvn to aid me tn ^ 
Hcuring for Ihcwi uninterrupted interricw* by declining lo iaXrty 
ducc llNir cixudtucnb aad fhcikds wtica viutiiig the Esccutiiv 

211 Amcriciin Government and Politics 

Mansion during ihe hours designiCed lot iheir tnrepliun. Appli- 
cants for office will unly prejudice their prusptcu by repealed 
imporlitaJIy and by remoIiuDg in W^hmgton to await results, 

GBOVEB ClE\'£LA7dl>. 

S6- Senatorial Caurttsy 

The President is aulhotiw^f urider the Constitution, to nomi- 
nate and, by ancl with [he advice and consent of ihe Senate, lo 
appoint certain fi^lcra^l trfficc^r^, but be ha^ by no means a free hat^d 
in selecting caJidiriiites In pro[>j--c to the Senate, By a practice 
known us "semLmnal courtesy" the senators from each stutc 
who belong to the President's party have the right to sdecl the 
important local federul officers, and their fellow-senaturi as a 
rule will confirm onlj nc»mince^ wj selected. An inslanrc of the 
application of tills rule is Ihus given by Mr. Boutwell in hb 
Reminiscences: — 

One of my last acts as Secretary was to advise the President to 
nominate a Mr. Hitchcock for cfillector of the port of San Di^o, 
CaliFonua- Hitchcnck wa^ a lawyrr by profession, a ^raduateof 
Harvard and a man tif good standing in San Diego, Mr- Hough- 
ton, the member for Ihe San Diego district, hud recommended a 
man whu was a saJtxjn -keeper and a DemocraJ ia politics, bui ht^ 
had supported Houghton in Ihe canvass. Houghton^s request 
was supported by Senator Sargent Upon the facts as then under- 
stood the Pre-sident nominated Hitchcock and one of the first 
questions of interest to me was the action of the Senate upon the 
nomination of Hitchcock which 1 supported. Sargent appealed 
to what was known as the courtesy of the Sen&le, a nde or custom 
which rc<^uircd Senators of the same party to follow the lead of 
Senators in the matter of nominations from the respective States, 
To this ruii- I objected, I refused to recognize it, and 1 &aid 1 
would nt\Tr appeal to the "courtesy" of the Senate in any matter 
cmicminj; the Stale of Massachusetts. Hitchcock was rejected. 
The President nominated Houghton's candidate- 

The National Administration 2iJ 

87. Congressman and Federal Offices 

There are also a iar^ number of minor federa.L officers who 
are appotaled principaHy for poLitic&l consideraiiona^ and the 
distribution of these offices is Entnisted to the Representatives of 
the respective districts in which they are Icxrated- The following 
letter from Mr. Lincoln illustrates the character of a hurdensome 
task which still falls upon Representatives in Congress^ 

Washington, March 10, 1849. 
Hon. Secretary of State, 

Sia : There are several applicants for the otBce of United Stales 
Marshal for the District of Illinois, among the most prominent of 
whom are Benjamin Bond, Esq., of Carlyle, and ^— Thomas, 
Esq., of GaJena- Mr. Bond I know to be personally every way 
worthy of the office ; and he is very numerously and most respect- 
ably recommended. His papers T send to you; and I solicit for 
his claims a full and fair consideration. 

Having said this much^ 1 add that in my individual judgment 
the appointment of Mr- Thomas would be the better. 

Your obedient servant, 

A. Lincoln. 

U IlK -TSK^Si' 

u: zrr^ii^r.- 

-.1: . mir^ >"— : 


► -Ti: '■ftT'j 

1- . 

„_,:. ■,.:. 'Ti: 

.. ; 

.1 :!r: >:..k 

The Congxcs* of the Unircd States aij 

tKi\ tinvljhrfr-liflh^of allMlicrpfTBOiu.' Thf actual en t:mtTatioa 
fthjUl be QiAdc wiibin three ycin iftcr the bni mfclinjt^^ iticO^i- 
ltrv«» uf tlw Utnlcd $lA4aft> asd trilhiA fvrry »ub»«<^Uf»t ivnn of 
tea >-can, in nidi mAOf^cf u they ihoU bj hv c^rT>:t^ The number 
of KprfAcnutWos th^ iwi eicn^d one loc evct)' ihiriy thi^u«aJ3d» 
btti c^fa 5U1« bh«ll have «i !«»( uM tcpnuotsllve; and umil 
such enutncradoQ ahaU be mode, Ihe StAlc of New Hamjahlrc 
shaJtbccniilkiJ lochocerihm, MuMchuaeiui eight. Khodr l«tand 
«Dd ProvideTKc rUni4tioiu one, Connrctkut five, New Veil: si^ 
Neir Jen«y Eot^r, IVaiuflvanuL rigbl. DclAw&nronc, M^ki^UniJ »ii, 
Virj^ina len, Nurlh CtfoUai (i<v> Suutb Ciruliiia five, lud Geurgn 

4. Wbta vaanda happen tn the r tp w acala tloro from any Satcv 
the exrcutive imhoriQr thcroaf xKiII issue vriu of elcf inn to hU 

5. The HiHaeof Rcprea<cUtiTe»shallchciCBelhcn'ftpcjikeruul 
other oSccn, knil thi[\ lure tliv f^flc power ot impeachmeol. 

Surnox m, t. Thp Senile oi ifac? Unilol 5lik» shdl he com- 
poM^ of two tcDotov^ rrom cxch Smic, chotcn bj the LcfiULjiiirc 
thereof Cor tax yton. kod each Senator »hiUl tuw erne TOk. 

«. iMinediifcly nflet they shall he oracmblcd m (onwf)UrTK-« of 
the firtt elrdton, Ihey ifeall he diodtd, tfl rquilJy xti nay hr, into 
ihree dunes. The sefttiof the senntonof the hmdai«»bAU be 
v«cai«d »i the exptniion of ihs Mcond year, of lh« utond cla*i 
It llw eipinuioQ of Uie fourth yew. und of IIk third dut at the 
caplwbn of ibe linh year, to thai one-iMrd may be cboicn every 
BecoBdyev; and if Viicani:ie4 bjippni, by rr«i^oitionorotlicnivuc» 
^^ dwift^ lite receu of ihc LfguUtorr of jitiy Sule, the entcutiTc 
^^P IhciTof may make IrcnporKry a|)poio(cnmtft untU ttw next meeting 
^^ of the Le^iature, whicb vhjiD tlien Gil tuth vatancies- 
I J- No penoA ihaJIbc ■ KiuEor ichv thall out have itlained 10 

I Ibc A|^ of thirty yean, and been ntnt yearm a du'sen of the L'niied 

I Staler ukI vbo shall not. vhcft elettod, be on »habUaai at that 

^t Suie lor »hidi be flhall be choAOk. 


AnKrican Gdvcmmeitt and Politics 

4h Thf Vk^lVrtiflrftl of Ihr \)n\t^ Slatrt fchjill be Pn^idtnt f^ 
Ikr SvoiAlc, but iJinll h^ve tut vole, oqIqi th«y b« rquillf diT]<ic<]^ 

S- Tbo S*aAk shoU cbow Lhcir officcn* uid aba u prci^iicncj 
/n* ttnforf, in tb« abwoce of the Vkc-PraHeni, or wbf u lit; bhiUll 
anrcisc ihe office of Fm^dcnc oi ihc United Svuo- 

6. The Srnaic ^ull ha^<« ihc tolt power to tty all impcachmcniA. 
When Ninitig for Ihal i^urposc, ihey shall Tjc an oath or :iiiinnntion. 
When ihr E'VMirirnt of thr llmTrd $TAlf4 it Irird. thr rhirf jii^ii'i 
ib:U! piTiidci iind no |»eTv>ii %haU be conricttd wilhouC the con< 
cumnce <if tv;i>'thlnjt of the n^cmbcrs pre&ral. 

7 Judgment vd ciae of Iznp«achfiient ehatt nut extriKl fAriliar 
Uwo to rcmovil from olGce, aiid ditc] unification la hold and enjoy 
&nfoAre of honor, iniM, or pnifii unrt«rtKc United Sl^i<4; bunhe 
parl> «invicbcd Khali, nc vrrthclcu, be h«h1e uid lubjeel Co bdici* 
meiit. trial, judgnirni, ^nd puni^timcni ^canJinK 1v Uw. 

Si;cnOK IV- 1^ The iime>k placet, and miniwr of holding 
clttctiooA for Miulon and rcpfT4cn1utiv<s i-^nM W pnscnbvd 
eiich Suie by Ihc LcEisbtute thereof; but the Congms may aX any^ 
linv, by T&w, make or slier auch rryiilalionii, mcepi aa U* Ihc |>Uce 
of chocBtog sen.-ilon. 

1- lite ("tkn^rrvi iJuJI ajMcmble a1 lejut onrr in every year, jind 
auch me^tiux thull be on the fml Moudny in Uecembef. unli 
ihcy ihall by bw apiHnnt a diScrcnc day. 

SKcnoie V- I. Ei<h houw iball he the jud^ of the cleciiuni» 
rctunuv a£fd quolilicaliona of tta ovm mem ben, and a nujoniy of 
earh i^all eont^iiiEiie ■ qunrinn io rio buitinfwi^ hut a unallcTj 
Mumber nuy adjourn frum day to djy. and may tre aiLthorij 
10 covip«l the lUendincc of ab*ent members m guch manner and 
under such penalilM as each hoioe may pfoi'ide. 

>. Ra<fa ho4M may delermi&e the ruk« of its )irocfvdln^j 
poDiib its ixkcoibfiB for disorderly bc^vior, &nd, «kh the concur^ 
renoc of two-ttwrd*, erpd a memhcr 

j, Vjith hounr thill keep a journal of tia piTKentirupv und fmm 
lime to tiiDc publivh the name* enccptioK luch paru aa may in 
ibetr j uiI^mcDl rviguin »ecrecy ; and ibe yems aad luiyi of Ike onvn- 


of the Umcd Sttto 


L be 11111 o«il» 

>A«. ^i-« far -OR ttu tkra dijft, 

to Ack HErfka, t0 be BKCfluncd bf U«» «a4 
pwd oqt d cIm tnnmj «f A* UdMd Sum. Thtf ikaU In aII 
fSMS, tMxpt ttamrmt Cdaaf , htcMJi of Ifae ptare, be ph^^hfcd 
bmatnttfuri^ Aririm«Jim< Mtbocwio^of tlMkiTiT«<^ 
d»t h oi M , aadi&folBC tootoenm^iivni tbt uae; ajkI for 
«y y web nr dctolc in gcbcr boqg, Ihej ikall ttol bci|Htttk«Md 

j. So wnainf or ifpcwcntttire aJaJ, durtof thr tt»>g far *hirb 
bo ma •l«rMl, be a p p Aw J to aij drU uftc* vador ibr wMbortty 
of ifae Uited Sutci, «Wdi riuU bave bcca ciMied, or the rmc^tt- 
mtnti »b « t a J thaS b«vt brc* tocRaied, during wxb limr; tad 
no pcmo boUiog ujr ofice mder the Uiiilcd Stain ab«il be ■ 
iBcnifaer ol tkktt bcMMV during Ui «MitifiuUMviB efficft^ 

SMnto?< Ml. I. All fcnUi for rvusg rvmun sbalt odjtbMil* 
is ibe HiMMc of RcprctcAtiiivcs: bm the S«(ulv ouy pn^Kur or 
concur wfih unet]dmcM&. aa on other bI11& 

3, Eveiy btU nitkh ibaU hAvr passed Ibr Howe of Rrprravou- 
tstfca nad ilw Staatr A}>Atl. >vfart ii bn^mr a Uw, br pmminl to 
Uie Fttwicst of th« I niud SU(r&; if he apfivovc, be iKaII ngn It; 
b<ii If Doi, ht shftH iTiurn it. with hia objccifani, !■> that buuic \m 
irfikb It abil bive odj^lttalcci, «ba abil titfef (h« ohjoctlcMia il 
larseo(tihclrJouru],«adpnKt«d vonoofulderii. l^aficrMrb 
TneouiikTaikin. two^Urda at (hat houAp aball aprto id paia Lha 
hill, il kKaII hr vni, together with the nbJMtiAns, Id Ihr other hitUAe, 
bj abich il tbili Uk««W be rvotniiclcrrfl. ami if «|ffinivcil \iy 
l«o-think of ihal boiuv, il i4iaB bvoomr a Uw. But in all iwb 
caaca ibf voka dI boU) bouaca Bb»U bv dMi miotd bjr ytvt and najr** 
ud the ufDci oJ the penoaa vodng for and acaia>> ibe tiiU dial 
be cnacftdofilbc Jomd of ocb boiue mprLtively, II any bll 


Amcricin Government itnd Poliricc 

tball not br nKinioJ 1>v thr Prdidcrtt mthin trti d/iyi (Sundaya 
C3(ccp(cc]) oficr it ihall h^vc b«fii pnsaited lo hjm, the auac sball 
1)€ A la* In like minncr lu if hr bftd ^igntnl it, un1cs« the CongrrM 
by Itdf adjoummott prcveai iu mum, in which cak h eball not 
be a Uw. 

^ f;«r7 oMcr, molutkm, or voir to which the o^ncurrvncc of 
llw Srnjitc Mid llouv of Rcprc^cnULlivcb may be rtecoAory (ex- 
cept tin a qu«ftijou uf iLtj<>umtn<nt) »hatl br prcveniM tL> ihr Prvii- 

Di of the Tmitd Suitt; inJ bcforv fh«!umdhaU ijJtc dTvcl, 

II be approved by him, or. hcing 4is.ipprovod by him, «ha1l be 

rq>ii3a«d hy two thirds of iJht: Srnatc And KotM of RtpnMDiaiiTeA, 

AfTfirdiri^ iet the rukdi And ItniUtiau procribrd In the cvlc of a 


89. rt* Afpttriwnn^tU of tfrfmmUtittYi amoH^ Abr 5lto*rt 

Krj^re^irDUtlvcA to be allotted to Ihc Hctuse od RcprcMntAlrres 
md «|ipottioa* Ibcm among thr ^t»^et in thfr folliiwir^i; fnrm, || 
vk'iU be noted thai bv SriCtion^tortho&ctC4>nf:rewha«i:oQ« further 
limn the feller of ibc CoDAtiiuiioo Auihomu ind prrs<iibcij the 
gc«n] chaiactcr of eadi coBgnttioniLl ditihct.' 

An Act nttldnf tbc ^ponloDincnt of Rrprr^nuilt^ In CoD- 
gnm aaaoa^ the scvenl Stoto under liic Tvvrlfth Ccnimt, 

B<- il envt«d . - . Thtl ^ffrr the ihM dny of !Aak\ nio»- 
leen htiodred amd three, the llouv <if Rrpmrnratives fthall be 
cooDpotfvd of thrfs bufedtcd ind citthty-4ii racmbci* (o be ftppor- 
tit/^md AxnoBS tb« B^Tvral Siaim m follows: 

Alabaoukf); AtIjubasj; CxlifoniaS; Colorado 3; (ctc.,ctr.], 

SiC 3. That wbcBcrvr a new Si^te U iidinittfd to the Vnlon the 
RcprefltMAliTc or RepretcntaiiveA A^ii^ed to It ahaXi he m addition 
li> tlir numbn ihrrr htindrrd .itirl ri^hly-*ii, 

ScC- ^- Thnt In cKh huic ... the oiimUr to vhkb lucb 
State may t>e entitled in the Fifty-dgbth and each vulifeqncnt 

■ Oa ttii pMU Mt DwiMip rWNtfrfSiiiwii Mrf t:Milifiitfa#Hl £#», )J, 4a ff. 

The Ccmgrcss of the Umred Srttc» 319 

a ihsJ] he dcrted by (4i«tricbi rnRipoDiQd of cnntlgitnuM nuA 
CoiMfMCt icnilofy Goninbhio^ >a ftnfljr u practicable ±n «quftl 
limber of inbjibiUnb- The told c!i*(ricis shall be oju^ to tbe 
OUBibrt o( R<'prrM-iitatl«M 10 i/Ukh UKh Suis sliall <>« entitled 
in CongrcB. nu ub:^ district dtcting more tbui one RepreaeniatiTc. 
Stc^* ThflibcjucoftnbcftowiADwnUEnbfTof Rq»v«&u- 
ti»M which TTinj bt^vcnanjrStAie under thU«pportioQnMfit,«ur1t 
AddiliotulRcprtwm:ktivcithAll t^rdutal by ihrSuitM UrgritBd 
thr otbn Kq>mcnUttvr:4 by ibr rlnih<:L» now pmcribnl by law 
yittil tbft Iqpikture of luch ^tatc b tlic numncr berciii prescribed 
duIlrvdvsirictiuchStflta; . . - afid U ihc nurribvr hvnby provided 
foTbhollmAiiySialt belttsthooii vnubefore ^ . ^ Uica the iWtole 
number . - . <h«U be ekood 01 Uff^c unle^ the k^alaiuna of 
taid fiiatA have pn>nd«<l « shaTI olbowiie pnrridf hefare the 
tioke filed by Uw lar ihe neit declion of Rc|ireienlAlivci Ibcrdn. 

Siibi«<i to th<^ Tu\c ttguding "cnntiguovu tcrdtoty," ihe lcf:li^ 
lature of e^ch lUle ouy conutuct conicretsbiial di*ltkl» aiict iu 
Irtm faduon- A* a miltPr of nnerd practice Ihe pr>}iUca] pa.ny 
t)i>t b^ipcrMlotxiiipcji(»rririthTM»lc« whciiilirilnrnauluppuT- 
lioiuiient come* annind, m ananfc* tb« dutricls xi ta 5ecLire the 
bu]^1 pcasible numbrrof Reprts^lafivf^ ti iTTceniuinxel^tioQA, 
Somcdmet by curful c4kuhuoa t kickUliirc mi,y tnMt t minoc- 
ityof ibcTotcn lo ntum x majarityof Rrprrtaiutnr^for the jvhcit 
tUle. TliiA b th« art of GenymaiuMiis. It it described in an 
inffrr^linK m«nnrr In a »itrttH oiade by Mr McKialey cruicb«n|{ 
the acuoa oi the D«nocntic party in Ohio in uadiMiig a nappor- 
■iahWMwt mftdc by the RcpuUicaiu. 

Thv id ol Ibe LcgUlaturir in rrappor^nibifE ^ rotialita Wo '^U 
rnnflrrwicwl diiliii li. Ml ■nimjtiiliinnfi'^ilji inlbonl [innnUnl ^2^|*d 
bObkidac»^acir](uun4kooflteRcpidilkaa|>iftyatidwilboul -nitfiEwkii 
example wiikr the preacnl CoaatiiulMn, Fur ibUly-thrw yvaE« 1^^*111^ 
dKsnbf^kicftnikhtfboMiafDfWiudii&tricbiafurcatb Federal ^mBk4\ 
tfcu«,aKlatlbc«iKlof crcrylcnycarssucfapolilkalKttbdlTiaaQns V^*^ 


Amcricin Government »tid Polmcs 

to Tcmun unchjingMl tuiFil the ani cnutu. This *<Fcunc« 4 rfp- 
tt«rnuiinn li£sed upoTi ih(? a^tUAl nuinhcrof iDhnhitAm&dib Ki^td 
attach CFZULU* actvnJiiiK t" Uir nliu ot rv|rivw*(ilatii;u lixnl by the 
Congrcu of the UoiUd StiUs. Nb iunuvouon bju been made upon 
tliEA nik sIqv'o 1S45 and ibea bnl a partUI one- PaniM hav« 
changed in numericiU sirengib within that pcnod, pnlidcal fuprem- 
tcy has aJtcmaied from one lo iho other o( ihr jErcAt pArticf, parttun 
bate has b«n intfos^ and biMcr. party nocMMtie* luve b*cn gmt 
and ovmhjdovrin^. The Okajortty for<« k«i EkU^rd mjny (Ititcii 
before, in Ifith ^iDliltc^l partEw, bui nn Ohlr* LriciBblurr from t&i5 
bo tS?^ wa» found to rvcklctf of principle and prrcedeni a* to 
dcuroy ihcM political subdivisions bciwecn ihc dcccnnU periods. 

Tbb oclhm alone, U KtmB lo mc, b duAicirni, when rightljr 
underfttond.lorcul upnniUaolbnrKandiirrurrriwihrmiicnitliinK 
dcf«aE, llcanaol Ix' Ino frri^ucntly brought In the ATlrnlirm nf the 
pcopit, n^r too icvrrth' denounced. It vqHek d vital diifrAnthUc* 
luenlorA iiix^t boJy of Kqwhlicaoa under i^ulurufliw byaidiame* 
ful ibUK ^f pover jjid in vbUu'on of tbe ftpinl o\ tbe Constitution 
of the ^uie and of ihc I'nlted t?ute«v 

Under tht new bw. taking the *o!e of 1876 a9 a baaii, when the 
RqmhixaniL ^ arricd the 5iAtr hy ovrr f^ooo^ the IicmmfjiJi will 
have tureUe Congivmiieo and Ihr Ke|>uMi(an« eight The re* 
disltktifL|[ Bu nut In tiie inicrrtE of falmcv, l>ui 10 jncTvoM 
Dcmocntic ffpm<&i;ilion, in riubiion uf every principle of Catr- 
Desi> It was not tbe wori of the muses of th« Democratic partjr 
b the ftlale; it wa» not the creation of ihr hcricr clai^ of our 
political opponenU: it met with oppMitioD from the order-Umng 
and Uw-abidlBfE litiMiu tltke of botb paRiec It ma orvkfrd jiy 
Jcvgning poUticiuo at Wtahiagtoo, to secure [-nwrr in ihe nnt 
Bouse, riflhl or wtdai; and tbe Ohio Lepibiufe, u4iicb had 
before alvrayii Mood wftba *'faceof Jllot" a|:al»i cvrry «|»ockc of 
rcvolnlkin, yidded, basely pddcd, pnDc[|ilfl and JuMke for purely 
paflyctula. . . . 


*hc Cgngrctt of the United States ill 

Tlic CooatitutioQ tiaJta thai Ihp twaScnatoH from fi.<h coiAin'>ll* 
wealth &haU l>e tkckd hir the IcsiKUmrr Ihcrcaf, and nuiboriju^ 
Copjtrt^A txi mukr fv)£iilu(^iiib rEK^iUiug |h(f Eim« and mjutncT of 
ibtf dcttlon. For nwrc than h«Lr a crnuiry the ttfitrs «rrc t*ft 
In thrir ^^vrnl (I«vitt«» but in 1SA6 Coit|[TTU poueil IbJi »lA|ul« 
prcwH^Jng the pRcisc OKlbocI to In: folLuwod in cacIi cbc: — 

Sec. u- The IcKUblufcof c»rh Slalc which b chown a«xt Ti 
pftrrding thr fipintian of the time lor whirh tay Sriiatur wvi 
decitd ht npmati %ach Suic in Congreu tha\U on Ihc lAMniJ 
Tuesday afltr iJic mnticgf ind onC^iuMtioa tbnvof, [iTVcvni to 
elect a Sen«bur m CuogrcM. 

$rc. 15. $urh decMon shall be conducuJ Ia ihc fdlloK^ ^ 
manELtfr: Each huuec ihaJI openly, by a idvarocc rote of tach 
mcnbcr prrsrnt, name one jhrnoat for Senator m Congrcu from 
such Slitf, anii the ramt. of the pfrson ^ t-otrd for, «ho mdivi n 
majortiy of the thole number of voteA caM ib cju h hjicttc, hhiili be 
eAtvteil on the Ji>umsl <4 thai huu»e by tlie clvik tt imrelary 
Ibneof ; or if dlhrr hoUK filU lo £fivc such oi>jority to any pcnon 
en thai lUy, the Uci tfaiD bo nttcred on the Journal At twelve 
o'clock BMiidiu] of the day followicg that on vfhkh praceejin^ 
■ft Jtq ui fcd to take place ^ aiomaU, ibr mcnitjmi of the tiro 
boiM0ahall conirene in jmni Mseiubly, and Ibc journal t^t rich houae 
fhall then be nad, eukI if the umc \ivr%oti ha* received a majodcy 
of ftll the votai ia tacb houw, be iball tf dtcland duly tJccsad 

Bvt if the same persos has bo: nxclivd a iMjotfity of the voi«» ta 
eftch }wmttt or if dAer boinc hu fulcd lo take pcoceedinp ad 
rei^olml by ihi* wirllon, Ibr jmidI a^irtnMy itball ibnt prrverd tci 
chooae, by a *iva-voce vote oC c*cb Birmber proeni, a penoo for 
Seoalor, sml the pcvaon who teedireii a majority of all the votei of 
the yAM UBcsiUy. a majority of all the nnRbCTi f l«ctfd lo bolh 
howc» bcifig pftfteai ajtd rottng. £baU be declared duly eloctod- If 
tto |>cnoa tTcdvca such majority on the &ni day, the ^bl oidcaibly 



American Government and Polmc* 

lhjUltaciv(»i twelve <>VlcK:k meridian of «ttcbicucc«fdi&HdA}r(luriiiji 
ttic »[><iMi "f the Icgtafaturr. iiiid UiuU ukctt ltu«l one voli*i uulil 
4 Senator is: v^ioi. 

Sec. iG. WlicQcrer on the eiMilAg of dio lc;^«Uturo ot any 
Stiie a vacancy cmts to th< repccwiiUlion of iiucb State in the 
Srnnte. thr Ic^aUlurc fthaH prococti, on the- si^ond TucArliy aiwt 
meeting xaA organixAlion. to elerl a pcmn Ij> lill »u( h vAc^ncy, in 
t]>e ni4Rner |>r»cnl>cd in the preceding tecdon foor the election of a 
Senolor [or a full terra. 

Sjdc. 17. WhcneveTdunngftsewoaofthetegislaturvof^uiySuie 
A Tacancy occun \n ihe rcprvWMacloi) of such State in the Senate, 
jamilar pnnrccdin^ to &I1 pueh TocADcy shall be hod on the second 
I'uc^biij Jifler Ihr lc|tidaiure hcu organised and hu notice of jiut^h 

Skc. 18. It ihall be ibc duty uf Lbe eoecudvc of the Slate friom 
irhkfa any Stroator ba« bcfn cluaen, in certify hta election, undvr 
the Kol of ihc State, I0 tbc Prcsldcni of ihe Senate of the Cniled 

Skc r^. The ccrtilicate mcniioned !□ tlie preceding Mction 
shol be couolctVcnMl hy the sattUir/ of itatc of the State. 

^t. Tkt OrigituI Purpose of ikt Sennit* 

Nov Uiot tlie Seoiie bai bwn aubJvcKd 10 rather Mverc cr{l^ 
eiavi bn iranj quArlen,' anH itlempti to olttf lb charailer bavr 
been mode is many sUks by tlie eBtablUbineot uf popular elec- 
lioo, It Mcnu well lo inquLre into the ort^luJ po«ttion wblfh the 
(raBwr»ia1endcdtOfntetheSv^uCeiaouc|KilkicaitysletD. Tbcae 
pMMgCA ue from T/m Fiderclijt. 

. , . Second. The oemiJily of a Konte b not lew indented by 
die profMOioty of all filnfcle and ttiunsroua ooMintilic*, to yiehl to lh4 
Ivpulse of wddeA and vtoleot posuone* and to be seduced by 
loctiow leaders into iftiemfwrate aiid pcrnidous reu^Iudona. 
Htamplea on thU mibjcd mi^hl br cried «ithotit numbtr; and 
frofn proceotifip within ibf I'niled Stalcii, *i ttcB iis from the 

The Congrns of ihc United Stares 233 

^HKot^ of oihfT ludont, But > poiItioB that iril noi be contn- 
diirlnl^ nerc! n(»t b« pn>T^. All thil n«d be mriiulrdr it, lli^t 
a liotiy wtiKh U CfKArrtui tim tbhnnitj, ought tUcH lu \k trtv frum 
tt, and cooequently oug^t !■> bold tb autlKiritjr bj a tctsorc oE 
comJdemblc duraiion. 

Thbd. Atii>tl]«r (irfnt lo be Enip^ilicd by & icnatc. lie» io a *aM 
of due ocquoiitt&ncc with the objofU and principlnt d lci:ubiii^ii. 
ItlinoipociiMcthaluiaMcmbTyof men, cdJIrd lor iboonotft part, 
from puntQis of & privfttc mture, continued in «:ppotn1mcnl for ft 
shoil time. Mud led by no |icitnAnroi Miutihv lu drvol« tlie taUrv&ll. 
vi public octupAttufi lo J study ijf the bm. ih« affuirK uid the 
compTvhe&stvG inicredt d iht^t mvxilty. should, if \tdi wholly Ut 
thci^vcfl, c^Bpc a varitiy of imporiam tmin In Ibf cxerd*^ ol 
ihcir lc|p«Ulirc trusts Tt tuaf he tk^rmtdt 00 the bnt grounds, 
lii^ no iaihU jd^rr of ibe fim^nt cmhuTMunentv of Aaiefira i« to 
be chUKcd oQ the blundcn oj our fovcnincst^; And thni tlicv 
bave pTocvedvd frvr> th« bead»« n(hcr than tbc beaKi uf mutt 
of the audion of Ibem. Mliit indeed ore all the fej>ediiig. et- 
pUittlBf, gad unending lawi, which ill aod dIfiEnce our yoIubI*, 
tkoiM codes, but »o muiy raonoiEeDls of d«6ciciU vjadom; no 
ttOttCf imptmchmtaix ediibiled bjr cub «unL-erdin|E, Af:«io«l roib 
pntfdiiig, leniMi; to many ftdEnorrilit^rra to Iho |t«>|4r. iiF ihc 
mluc of tboac aid*, which OMjr be cipcctcd ffou a vdl raastituted 


Founbi Tbe nratabOiQr is ifae pubEc coundUt uisng froia 
t rapid *i«cocMMiD of nctr tnembcn, howcrcr ()UftliAed ibcy noj be, 
pcaotB out, in the siiongest meaner, the necesifty ol totar Mablo 
imtituiioo lA the ^wjtiitttnx. Krery new election in the aiaxe*, ia 
tumd loihangeonehAltof ibcreprtirnUtiie*- Kron thUchang* 
oCmeiiniust proceed achangCDfoiMriioTu; and from b cbaoge of 
opIrioM, ft dttc^ ci sKASurv. Bui a conciDud changf er«a «f , 
p»4 mtflMEd b incoBflsUDt mth evtiy rale of prudence, ami' 
ovoy pcospeti ol vaccam. Tbe rtmirt b vnMeil in prfvAie fife, 
■ad becovee more JKttt u nell as move inporunr, in Datiua«J 


k4JU I 

444 AlMttcui GoVWiinrnt and Polido 

V imK ^U^uWm^ut, iU^^iraiio^ iW uti&t]^ of a anule. h the 

V^v^vWli#((i 4l««» "Alt *i1 
^ ''« iMi» '«M> -V- 

T proc-. 

>-,^ Ai..^ 

-, -fc.-. 

The Coogre«« of the United Stjttm 2ij 

Tbc lav oJ OrcicoD rulct tbc foUowiofl pioviwin* for the Doml- 
□alton and election oj I7mled Sliics Scn^ilon b^r popuUr ixitc. 
Il will ttrnoFrvl. ho««^rr.rKaMhef<tr«rjtC'>fUlitL]l](jnpf\u-tii<:siEiJ| 
ihc «U1C Iqtislniufv s-ball Heri ; raJ, lo xcun- ihc IncUlaiivc tp- , 
proral of ihc populnr <:hokc, nngon h«» adopicd ihc i»lan of 
pcrmhtjng ilio cjodidjte^ foi iht Mftte bgUftturc Ut \tM^ xhtm 
$t\y€* in A(<^ (■> vi-tr (or ihe cnnntriAlcr fnr Uwl^id SI^tM 
Senator rccriving the hi^c^ ponukr -pota. At mott of then 
■tfqit lhi> plcd^r ihe 1«p«UlurF u moraHjr bound to confirm the 
pop u] AT choK«- 

At lii gcncnl pnmarf moimnadng elmtiom ncii ptrcrdipft ihc 
elation ctf 4 itnator in Congrcu b/ tbc Ic^Utarr at Oregon there 
(hHllbepkccd upon iheodkUIpfim&rynoiairMiiniEWecUoo ballots, 
by eacb of Ibr couat^ i^A.9 «nd dcrka of ihe county court, ihe 
nuDei of ill <uidi(]iic» for the ottcc of fenalcc la Cooptes, for 
vtiose DonkiCkAllon» petidom have been dul}' made and filed imdi 
the pmvbioiM of thb law^ ihc vou* for whk h c^indJd^fn kIiaII h 
<f>untrd and certififd to hy the cicrlion judgn and clerks m Ihc 
&ame moaner ai the votes £or olbcr eaniUdilea: and rccoirda oE 
the voiekirfAKbcuidlduvf thalbtmadeoutvidvaonico by the 
buardof cvurasBrnoreacbcDuolyofiheSiaicand relumed to the 
Sortvtary of SuiCr ai the «une Bmc and in Ehe maiwcr aJi they ihall 
inumil other iToird» ind Tclum.< ro^utrcd hy this law, 

Al -ill f£Fncril dn tions nril prr^mfingtheekciionof aunalfirin 
CongicMljf the IcfEi^alurcolOrciEOD then ihjJI be placed a|K>nlLc 
oI&chJ balld by eftdi of tbc ccnmty defk* And ckA* of Ibe county 
court Ibe aaiac* of alt candldtivs for lh« o&ct cd aenuior in Con- 
grsa Ihit have been nomiaated 3n any of the metbodi ikow, or 
whkh toiy hcinitcr br, prnrldcd by Uw for the nominAtlon of 
AtJteoArefBof Ibe Stale of Oregon; Ihc voleA for which candkhilr* 
«hall l>e couvLlcd and certihed to by the clatioo judgA in Ihc txmt 
nunmm «a tbe ¥uk« for olbfV caodtJalctt; and nxordi ot the 
vote for tmck candidilv ihall be made o«l and ivnra to fay tbc 
botrd of CMVMIW <d mch ooiiBi>-of iht SlAia aftd rMumed 10 ibo 



TWftnfr of 

wfakll ihaJl be wkdnr^ied la tfw ttMOfeatti lllCitfiMf Id tte h«iK<3£ 

4firfIvErnl bf tiim ki ibc pfvirfntt ctf tl^wmiifcanittiia iilhirtii (bs 
jpcaker 'i Ae booae -n iitm iiimii'i i, iJttx ttic MgjiittjlP a of 
iiirb bnfts, «hkii uAon «inll opEV uid Uiif th^ mnr bafuce ifar 
lepftnir bs«M iriHB iMMMhU Id rl-n % aoMnr m Cuui^ibb n 
BnwnsqmrRthflmWDf Coapi^ 4 LttshMLlvdKdttqpitf odi 
1wHi«r (A <-AiiDt the 'rntn tad uokMi.^ fhc crmdhfaifc for vflslnr 

In :hr rfrrlina <>E a wrulor u imulfni bf the UX ul Gjt^wa ami 
the zrm^tuikm ai iJw^iUlb 



Senator Turpir.ia ibr cthmcfif & ifwHh mulr in Eiw. 

Eow >rni- Tb<rrc is certainly a, voj clear incoogra^ bct i ma legiBlatnv 

fhTiirU ' * 'Intirs ^n<i the office of choonng Sena&na of the Umted States. 
utit M«- 'I hi^ disagreement hu become grcfttci as the coimlrj hui gnnm 
nlHpr. It is not now uncommon dial the Irpilitnrr oi a Stain 
sftcndt^ the whole time of its session in the dtutt to el e ct a United 
Srntfs Senator, and adjomtu whiKiut succcedinB in ibe attempt. 
This ri^ult^ in the total neglect hf the membera of the geitfni 
im^rmhly of their functions as lawyers of tlie State. Tbua the 
Hl.'hT'; :\nd interests local to the people of the State are siibmeigcd, 
f)vrrwh<-!m^, and foi^Cten in the Struggle ov^ the Soiatorial 
t-\f' li'Jti. Rriidn thbi, the condition of poUtical parties becomes 
p^rivrimr*: tri ovenly balanced as that 1 very amall number — two 
r^r ihrrr mrTnl>crs rtf {he legislature belonging to some TpMd lg or 
rlirpl i'>rly In n ^m^ill minority among the people — ifl able to 
r|> ri rminr rhr fhoirc of Senator, or to prevent one being made. 
J 111 in \\'\yity (o e1r< t by ihc legislative body is becoming more and 

The CongrtM of the United States 

or fuMlianal iubilji)- induct bf the ioi> ckttc cquiUbrium of 
dittndiic fotcn which ut unable to unilcupoa a choW- 

It u truc^ u kos ^reMl7 been noted, thai the Federal Con&titu- 
Cioo provides tlut no Sutc nholl l>c deprived ol \t$ c«|Ui1 Juffn^o 
in the SeiiACe, bgl the fori u iKat nniifT ihe preseal node of cb^wabg 
United SlRtcs Secntpon bj the leipdoluresL raany of the StAkn Ji^tre 
bves, f^in lime to Hmv, deprived of ihtii equji] ai^ra|Ee In the 
ScttJilc. Washington, UVomifig. uid Uontina, ia the com* of 
AScn. Bfckwlib, xxtd Monilc, ind DdairiLn luuB a qdtc remt 
dale were «> situated, aikd at Ihii vrry time tSc ScAt^ of Oregon 
.-tml J^«:Rluckv jU# deprived of Iheir c^liaI Tf^ire*rntaiion in Ihe 
Senate by teaaon of Ifae tnabiUlj of Ifae lepdature* lo elect- 
Tile the cue of OregMi. It ia not aiivulat. Tlicre haw been 
masycjafaof 1hek£ad before tUt*-* not blnllai In clKuiiieiatice«» 
but wholly utnOar ia rtsulu. In ibe caie of Oregoo the State ^*"9p^ 
oooaiitution provUea for Ucmi^ acaaloaf of the le^laiure. The 
kgUatine met there oo the aecood Tuesday in Jftnuaiy. They 
Mayed foeiy-ftve dayi — Ihe wh^ilr at Ihr friniiliEicioDal ISmit. 
They did do4 orgaoiat dunng IhU valitv krai^ Inhere was no ad ; 
there wa> do taolutkin ; ibefe waa ao legitlatlvc action by dtber 
hou*e, and no toco^tuilon of ihe twu hoisMe hf any dciunmeni at 
the State foveniEKkefit- Wbm the lorty-fire daya had r:q>ircd, the 
pcnou who lud been ckirted lo the ge^ctal as^emMy dirl noi ad- 
pam betjusc tbry had never met. They folded thrir ttala. like 
Ibe Arttjt. aifd ihtal tia<a, cub lo hli own rcudenct^ and ci^nalil* 
vevcy-' tt i» a case. >lr — and there have been mjtity Ukeil— 
where tbc LDabality of ilic Icipdature to elect dvlroyvd, exfinguiihed, 
Ihe 1«cUixItv fooctSuQ En a wretelpik State. The Senatorial elec- 
lioo WIS a quesliofi m domiaaat and dcslnicEtve that the chdce of 
Senator prevenied even an ^!«tnpl a! eeyinifarion or normal 
legisUtite vtioo. All ihete rvib will dii«f>ptar hf fhu chaufe in 
Ihe mdbod of rlecling Scnatorv The people at larjtc wduM ikot 
be bindreed by aay *ucb dbabiUiy. They wouU vote for 

' T\M WMM^ ol antM, b«!att Ihv fUKtocat <« Iht Uh «:*«■ ^liHr. 

p. 111. 

■* *t. 


dlnct Troic ni thp proplr, Thr pending imrnrlmcnt dfn oH jiro- 
pi^setagrCjUjiihjLngc *i Ihiv hut it fluu iifojniH ifaat tht ('DDgtcu, 

>» tilt »Fiiu[<! Aiid buu^e- r>{ the b^gulAlttfta vf the StfllO MTV now 
<iiruen- TUu£ irc may pcrftxi Lh^sycnmclty of our fnme of |p>v- 
cnunenta ;Lnd tVLXi^nuv tine un En«dlalr ftovm^gnty of Xht jjcuple id 
lu Icfuljitivc dcpartmcni- . . . 

The U^UbLvr {^ticua, which at ihr ^npilAL of a Sliic uiiully 
Hiecis Iht caodidftt? for i nirmberihip n! Ihu body, is an j^uembly 
pnuliarly aiUpTtd li> ilic mitthiiiJitii^iL* c4 *yndlt»lvs miiJ tni4t». 
Tliv whule nunibvr nt vucli » conference i« EmaU. llic uiuDber 
OKcfitory III CLTiitrul iu choice b yei nnAlcr. The Tnem(«r» <4 H 
are pcnona in the e^oivbc of delegated powers^ dbuni from thcii 
coo^luciicic4, xnd tnttsi liMc to lemplAtkin. ta Mich an uMcmbly 
the intrig;ue and o(im]|>ti(>n lA ihe InuU arr plAnu i>( indlfC^nciiM 
growth. AU this evil, Atid wHaC U u( jtbniAt u miu^h moment, llie 
nuipkion of evil, U utihleisled ; JL U ^wrpt ;*w^y by Ihe chiuiJte 
wUch we piojjOBie. When e*th voter of Ibc whole oiaia of vuleca 
£a the Sute ij^ aUowed the prtvikifc at pcttanalXy choQiins llic 
Seoatur, the power of that iiyiidjLatc, whith b alwftyB u mjDociiy 
in number), it hrokcn. KorUiiftnycuuwtfiothciccoiMJdendoas 
lo MMiiriir thai 4 Stjklc eonveiiti*^ wi>tild lie u MkhJtiH Id iheie 
mdli^nant ianvrnces «s a Ugblalive caucib: even Lf tbi* «ere 
true, Ihe kfiiun u! x coavcntloo U nut £nj]- Tl mud yet Abide, 
under our plan, the ^rulby of a popular vote, uttiile ibe atlMn of 
the caucus b dnal. and may often result iii a cbolce dimily ad- 
vene to popular rights aod latere*c». 

The tiCher lidt of the qiiciljaa of popular elrclion b thus up- 
hrkl by Scrutor lylBiurnb:^ 

The fouadert oi ibe republic belle^od Uwt the liUfly and ba|>- ^}^* 
pinett of tike pvopkt of tbe acrerol SlU» — Suica which ihey ,^ g^ 
foresaw wouU^aUlyeffibrateicnniioentb their braigD sway — kmuii 
eouU only bo prctcrvnl t^ iurh divisions and Mibdlrldoas of tbe )^^||^ 
loaries akI iDftbods and rxerdir ul |jcltlicaJ power u Ibcy ddoptod 


American Gov<?mment And Politics 



and prnvklcd for. A ctniury ol cupcncocc hAn doTDOQntralnl ibc 
wiftloin (rf their murellous plan. Bui a nrw fcbxiL t>f [Kthtujjinjt 
hoji nnw appcftrcd who ptfofeu to believe thxt Ihc I>-klhcTi wnr 
uiunkvii ui %l\w theory erf the nurcat ((iuci4lutij>ji nt tiur OAtionj^ 
repubGc, and that ibc syrlcm Ihcy ado|>tcd haj noin iu rrgud to 
MDAlon, wurktil well — dnx tit? moaton ha\« noi btcn ibc 
choice of. and btvt not represent^, the grvxX body of the poople 
of the ^tnitn ihni clocird thc^ni find ihrrHorc that elections of sciu- 
ton should be had hy Xh^ s\i&n^ of ill the vulrr^ in the Stale 

One KM <il tlw truth nt the dm HUlemeQi b tfae face thai ot lb 
ten tliw 900 pcrcoiu whfj have KTvcd u fouaon ni)ce the ffUToni' 
meat wjfl c»rKnnlud b i;<p, more than joo have been membere 
of ihe Howe of Kcpnaenaiivw — lubitantiiJIy one fourth. 
Only tWL> Sfotd — Montniu Jind NtvuJ^ — Imvr nrrt Ihun hccD 
rrprr^iil«I, while more Ibjin one hjlf nf Ihe *ena((>n from Mnwi 
trhif^ts^ Coftncrticol, Induno, sJid Maine^ hiTv been inonbcn 
of Ibc Hv(;» v{ ReprecHTJilali^^t* ; aad in uddiliijii lo thesei l irry 
brge fraction of ibe wnaton^ hare bvcngovemon and judges clcdod 
by the poDpIv in ih^ Suits. Tbc»r Inrts show ihal U hai^ bnn 
•Imofil ttnlTenally true lliat iho^i^ choocn aa Knuion have posaet&ed 
the conlkdciic^, not only ol the Ic^Ubii-re repncftentaiivc»of political 
divison»of the Sratfs, but of the whole body of the people SI -wdL 

The«rfo«kd part of thetAiprlkinof I he penoni who hjiveteena 
toew li;gh(. A« ihey thinks b Ib^l sotnetimra "»enjlois do noE rep» 
mcoi their Slalo." Tto* U tnw ; but h^}|>ily foi lU the Stai«e 
aikd ibrir paople, naw/^, 0>tf« f Aofnt, ht^ffma 9 4tn«lfir a/ the 
VnM S*at€s, and a noc a nen agent of the Slaic thai choic hkn. 
And, aj( to Ibc Sure (iwll Ilut cbMC blm. It ha» htppened, and vril^ 
happtfi igaia, that a gust of pmioo or a miiE^"' opinion has 
taken Iftnparaiy poatMUon of a mi joHty of the peoj Je ol a pirlit ' 
idirSlalf^ vrhii:h1br trtttlOT, in ht» bovndeif duty lo sJl I bv Slain, 
hu disrefEardcd, Tbii woi one ol the very incideiili dWal Ibe 
patriots of 1787 foresaw and prmklod aiEainil by le^Uatlve elec- 
tiou and a lun^ llnae of tecrke* 

The Congrco of the United State* 23 1 

A|aio, Uic new tchooj u( conitituliiKi-fnaken »«y tbot Uicv tbiak ^^ 
Cbc Sctt»Lv Lu bocucnc > bodj of rich mtn whv K&iavd Uiftr pliccs 
by ovnpdDg k^Iatutft ic a pecuniuy wij^. B« Id uy om oc- 
(|ti«iiiUd vilh tbr pcnonaliiy of the Sentte u U hu cjd>i«d for a 
{cncraiion and is now, £ucli a MACcmcni I» k&own 10 be aliMtiAoly 
dcttiiulc of fouodatioii. The prcportioa of nch mm m the Semie 
ift nc4 grtatrr than that vhii h muih in t^rrj Slttr am! (xtntniiinUy 
Lq th« vholccountiy whnv lh« hoiiors uidnrspuu'ti^ifilicsof piiblic 
oflke uc tband aIiIcg by the lich, Ihc comEoniblc, lad the pwir. 
A* > pcrfKt njltdutitjin hv« not yrt bfva rruchcd, II U doubtloa 
true tbat soow (bial veiy few) men bavc Mcurvd elecdon ■» wnalors 
by pcc.ujiUrypcnuuKkEtt,or, lopailtrnughly, havc^houKhc their 
pljri^" «^th mor<y, — flcrimit of the wotsr chanft^r boih io the 
buyer «nd in the icLletk But «tu&, thb ii not « prculionly belong 
ing Bo the ofBcc oJ fttiutor iJoiw. Ii h^A h»p|icnDd c<|ually ur 
BGVr ohcfk in doctioiii to the UcHueof RcpRttolAtivei, u wril u in 
StAi* and mwidpd cltcdow. A bfEsblivt tloctloti of coaatoa, 
thflrch>rT.iaDotthccauttofthbsnfal«Ti]. [ath«utureufth£agBt 
il miul be wonc in popular eloctioiu, for the nuokbcrv ol a kgfis- 
ktvrc aaiMt, In the chol» of the Mnator, vole op^nty, »a IhaC Ae 
roiuiiturDti know whHhci or not ibdrftpnsenUti wkave foltonrrd 
the i^eaml jud^pneni nf the (jdJlkulAT commiuutict ibry rvpnacnt, 
^ i in^lli^r iii viul impuvtuocv in all rvprvxrntative j^vrmcrictit- 
But ilk popukr vWction», where each dtuen U iictin); ia hfa pec- 
fona) chmcur only, il U tqually tmportani ibal be hart ibe righi 
BO TM« ucmly, notwJiliitaiKlic^ ihiE he may be bribed in ipUo 
of eveiy prrcaiition tbnl th« Uw mjiy Adopt Io pnrvciit it. And 
when wr p> back of Ibe leguAar art of a goveramenl derlkrn tnd 
reach the^priRkAries*' and thediilrict, the county and Slate ton- 
venlionii, aU barricfi awl tafej^uanb arr kfl lieblnd, and ihc 
cvmiplioin 111 m:h<» and bIIII ii^-un of tr^diajt inaibinv* and uHitc 
lirok<n|^ hate ihdr earieM and moid aburtdo&i nrkl uf achieve- 
ment b nelrctiot <aJKlidac». To die cjompka 10 the inicQigciit 
mdar vooU be a waste of tunc. 

The real people of this rcpublk of Slate* and dtiacna — those 


AmcTtcmn Government and Politics 



who bcUeve in liberty luid order as ioscfianible, who bcltc^'c m 
value of indivUuai endeavor anil irupt^y, and, a» n con^qucncc, 
ud la th« nghc to ure eamingi And to hav« homn and hniutcs and , 
UthIa ami u hnnit am^ rhiin'hci -— •hould f ontiiirr i — 

Fir%t^ llijl Lhc CunitilulioiDil prriviNUtn 1i>r tht rliomio^ of tiro ' 
nenoton frron cacb Slate by it* Icgi^niurr wu wisely dtiifcned bf ' 
ibt&iatMihMt fourdod cbv0Qrvm(neDl,aGvn9odilu«onivr-«Ui(i«« 
of tbe tfructure iwcenaiy to secure Ihe rights and safety of Iba 

Stfimd^ ih&t > Ifstilative insioid of a popular H^rlion 
ad(i|>lcd ju ncccBury lo the eKi>reukoR of the dvlJIicrnic uiU of ilis 
Sbte in ita i-harai tri as BUcti. rcprMruU^ in all iu |j:irta iu <li« 
in vhicfa it! on-n tronittituiiuti disiribtittd pawcr. 

Thir4. Ui.u iht people of thir scv«ra] political dIH«lonftof the S 
ahoutd have Ihe right lo expreis iheir thoico iqiirjtcly through 
their lego) rtprfM-ni^tive*, o^ thc> do in making Livi^ artd not be 
□vtrwhclaifd by n mtte weight of inimbrn that mighl occupy onljr 
n oorncc of ihv St^lo aitd pu»c« iQirmt» «iid vhrrUIi ainbiliona 
qiulv unlike lh«c of all ihe olbcr scctioni uf the commoa weatlh . 

Fm^rtk, that th? Senate as ll has cxined for a century hot dctt' 
ootfUoied iha wbdom of the rnodc of Itf i>in!.iL[ui]on. 

^^, tbat its mcmben biLVe been ni free from tiny ju^ a 
tinn €d cotTm^\tm, eilhrr in thelf elvclion or In Ihnr coiir^r m 
Iftpf, as ovy equal number of mrn c^L^nnccted uitb public alTajn ^ 
ihr fipcv ol tbc mrih, or ^onnectecl with aII tbe employ men t« 

5£tfJ!r, that oa the etccilon of wnatdn by the $\mc lr|[ldaium 
nwst be by ofien public voting, Ihr danger of bribery, or the iiii^^ 
repTMrMaJJoia t4 rom^ilueftbi for ofber cauM, \% reduced <4^| 
minimum, and ^landt in *tn*njj niniriit with the eleelKin o( *«&■* i 
t'jr% by the difrd Tut* of the whole nuu of voters in the scivral 
Sloiu, and vtpeciolly In Suteb urberv |>olllfc4l psnlei ore nvaiHH 
r(|ua1 in nunnberv ^\ 

Stf^nik, (hat. whatever erilA now and then happen undttthepra^ 
ecr fyOsm, they do nui ari»e fron any fault in tlw lyslrm i 


TKc C&ngKu of rhc United Sutcs ajj 

litiilfciniihcUuhDl ibf bodfofcitUtnithcmidtv*, — oon^aiimd- 
aon i4 i:au«uw4 and pdounM; noo-aibrnikner M ivxivir^kui 
«ik1 tX tlie |wUt; blivbih Gdpliiy lo yioxj urpuiiniiioEta uid l>nn]r 
ttaMOt*; a KOtribuiinfi ti> 4iid t^iKkinti ai ihc cornipi UH^ <'t mcinof 
H ooifiiiuiiD^ cciurrii [i-jii6 atii'J c^tioiu; anil ilic mcvuDiDt- 
meiu <ir lubrwKc of isdjiiduiil sdfsctklsg in rcq>ca tif gcitmg 
pOMCWoQ of <>lfiLTS all of whiii* .ire Irtily puNic iruMr>. 

HigMth, that in nincij^-likr in^ancr^ oul of a hundrrd, if Ihtn be 
tn tvll or iiudr<iu«lc fciulor or oiher officer Id iht puMk tcrtkf. It 
If bvc»»v ibv imwiT I liaL elc^lnl w aprwiolMl Um — lib Suie ur 
OMnsninity — luu been dUier jErievou«ly ncgli^iu or cls« b fairlf 
lvpn»cn(cil- VVc musi bcllcvr thai ihc people*^ giyreraiaeni is a 
f&ilvre *Mi M (kliiMon, lo tbink oibc7«i9c^ 

.ViuM, And 6naJly, ihcir H ocilhrr rrjiv>n*bl^ nor p1±U4jMe 
gnjiBKl ibcn, for taking (he grivr vtrp ol d&turbio^ \h« rxact jinJ 
volid lukncc t>f Ihf [Kiuvri and fuj>rli<nft of oiir nnlionil Con- 
BttiudtKi, whkb h;is m Ifarw reifieeli giTcn lu a oenlury uf «cuiily, 
of Sum npntcDimioo, and of Siatc rif ht^ » iitll w a wonderful 
tutlooal ptogrcK a£ a people. 

fcnutirto u« ttot to bf bdOiicUil by their coll^tr1uc1^ls' bill t^ 
pdiu:iplc II ciiiMlJiilly tiuIiIaI i& pntf tke by tt^fc Lcj^lalUitA in 

pi^aiik| rcsohitioas mnilac in fcmm to thu rcsulutiaa udoptcd by 
Misuiin IB iS8s> 

Jcdni and conciunnt rrsolutloct inMnKtioK our ScnutorA and Tt- 
questing our Rcprocntilivo in Congfr^ lo prt>run Irsb^ 
iMbo aatboffUof n^dTrrt c( rallrad conpoiJc* oppolatrd by 
Fnltra] courts lo be sued in local Slate courts, and |>nwrvo 
the rij^hl of trial by jury In tucb holn. 

Wtxrrrst Ibc (imiil rourt* u/ Ihrr tTniiM Scak^i, In ihr eurrlne 
of ihcir powcfk ai cuurtB t4 tqmty juriMlictiun, bavc, uf Ule, 

> BvliOfc ftJiiiiitf Scincf **J CmiM iiMMd I^v. II, p, go. 

^34 Amencan Government and PoLidcs 

adopied (h« extraordinary practice of takmg ch^rg? of and for 
years operating a^nd managing railroads, ufi<*iiiime^ embracing d 
system of roads hundreij^ of miles m length and cxiending imo 
different and di.'^ilnct Slates. . ^ , 

Be U resolved hy the Aojjj^ of rv^exenLiiivrj (tkr snuite catuur- 
ring therein), That f^ur Senators m Congress be instmcled and our 
Representatives reque^>ted, (o procure ^utb legislation as shM 
be necessary Co secun; lo all persons the right to ^tu- cEceiver^ of 
railroad companies appointed by Federal courts in pLices and 
courts of the States, and to prosecute lo judgmentt under the same 
form of law aa m provided by State laws for suits against the cotOr 
panie^, and for .-^ueh further legisbiion therein a.^^ wQl properij 
regulate and limii the powers of the Federal court? in their equitable 
interference with and control OTcr railroad companies, so u to 
preserve to the prople iheir common law and fonititulional rights. 
Approved March 19, tSS^. 

Henry Gay thus committed hxmsetf to the doctrine that rvpi^ 
sentatives were ordinarily bound by motructioas tiom tfaeir 

What is the basifl, and what the principle of the doctrine of 

Id ober in^irutiion ? Sir, to a certain extent, I have always believed in 

^k^- Ibis doctrine, and have been ever ready to confivm (o it. But I 

hold to the doctrine as it sloodini789; that, in general, on que^ 

tions of expediency, the representative should conform to his 

Instmt. lions, and so gratify the wishes, and obey the will, of his 

constituents, though on questions of consdtuiionality his course 

might 1m? different; and, therefore, when the senator last up (Mr. 

Strange) declared ihat he would rather submit to a certain opera* 

tiim, i)mt\ to give bis vole declaring that there had been a violation 

of the Ciinsliiution^ I felt some alarm, lest the true doctrine of 

hislruL ttrm -should iiM'U be subverted. And it did not appear to 

OIL ur ii> him at the time, thai there was anoc her alternative besides 

nliryini!, — that is to resign. 

And nl1.1t is the doctrine of itistruction, as it b held by all? 

The Congrcsa of the United States ajj 

la It not tfaftt we are to coofonn to the imbes of our constituents ? s«u(on 
Is it not that we an to act, not in our own, but in a delegated ^^^tl^g^ 
character? And will any wbo stand here, pretend, that whenever v^ 
they know the wishes or will of those who scot them here, they are 
not bound to conform to that will entirely? Is it not the doctrine, 
that we aie nothing more than the mirror to reSect the will of those 
who called us to our dignified office ? That is tbc view which I 
take of the doctrine of instruction. 

4|HnTB xm 


Trf rrni^fm* Shalt hnwr pniver; 
r. To JtiyjtnrI t.ilWT uvn, iltiifrt. inpeviai,aiiiiexcts%.ia pia^ 

r^ iH# r'nifM Smn; IxM ^^Fl >luvlvt, (npoatt, unci udsoB Unll bs 
iiTiHorm ihriMigbwrt th^ Cnhtd ^lain:; 

■J . T'* l>rtiww mnfiey in the ^^redli <)! ihc TJwtcd Sutes; 

J, To r^fuTtfv rnmmrrre with fnvti^ na&acm. :iad imiiag il^ 
^jfVfl^l 5;#fll*% flM *ifh rhr Indian [rib«; 

I frr <— fjiliHih i> tmifirm riiLir -J nniuniixjttuin, aod amfonn 
)>ivi im lh« tuhfM'r of Irftnknjpteiei Ihinugboat (he Umted Statu; 

1;, Trr rfi4n rivmef, irjiuUrr fhr vjJik ttmmf ■nd *< fore^^n 
r'fin^ jin'F Ttt fW ^tandaff <i( ^rifthu and mnuum; 

ft T'» pfnvSd*' fftf iSr jinni*hm™i -if i^oumerfddn^ tbe aKn- 

H pif iif^riffr \h^ ptftvx^fi* of srkmce and avful arta, trf «* 
ruriM)! tnr limriM iiTnr< lo puthom and invrnfor* Ihc cxdtiatv 
t^uU) I'l thf\r p"*pf^riv<^ wrillnjp. Hnd diNivivcris ; 

', y.. . f.ii^rTiiiJp frlTjiinH^^ mferior lo the SupramE Court; 
r'^ I •' ']i-(mr Lm<l pirtii^b ff^lrinien comEnitted on the high ^aa, 
■II m! I ifTcFi^^r-j iiunln-^f fbr Inw of nntionsi 

r r In pin hfr wrir, j^rtityt ]r\\cr^ of marque and teprisal, and 
rn tl<' r.rlt .: , nMi crrpTui! < Jtl'tiifp* oTi land and water; 

• ^ f '1 TPTnf nnd cii^^i'OTl armir^i; Imf nn apiirnpnation of mone j 

' ■' ir '■ brill ^^»■ fnr n limiDT trrm ihnn I wo ^ean; 

' i I '* iin-vid*' ntid miiintnin n nuvy; 


TKe Powers of Coi^[rcfis 


14. To moke rules for the go^nmcitl md crguUlion at \ar\d 
and uvaI forces; 

ty To provide f<ir dlling forth the militia to^oeciitf? the Uwt 
of llw Union, itLffijin^u iikiurrrrlMins, md repel invxiiuiu; 

16, To pnmtk for uqpnuin^ drmiogi and tIi«ipUning the! 
militi^ and for Ro^cnung ujxh pan of tbem ■* maj be enqalojicd , 
ia the Bcrricv of th« Uoited SuMb, nmrtkig lo Uw Suiqs inpec* 
ilvcl; the oppdntmcnl of the cffioen, isd the oaLhoriljr of training 
the nulillft aorordlng to the dlsdpllnt prodibed by Cotipt-A ; 

ij. To CMwiae exr1iHtv« Ifgiilalioci, In all ca«» HhnLncTfr, 
tfrtt lucli dibirkt (noi etccnli»K leu iubVa u|uiine) ah iimil|', Xyf 
tucMaun i:^ parikulaf tlum and llic a^triKuiKu i>f C<jnfjr3&, Ifl^uoma 
the *cat of giykcmment of the t'nilcd Statoi, aod to CKcrtiRC Uktr 
■utbority over all places purcha^d, by ihc consent ol the Lcglt- 
lature of Ihe SUIe tn wHcb tbe s«£De «ibaU be, (or ibf ertction of 
fort*, tna^KriliCT, acveaals dock-yuds and otW needful building;; 

tS. To make oil lam vbicli thall lie ne<euvy And proper (ofi 
carrpa^ Itao eaecvliun the f<jret:oiTjfE )hiwtt>, and uU Ptlier powtr* 
TCsled by ihia C<nulituiki(i tn the gat^enmcot uf ibc Vtuied Suitear 
or la any deporunent or office thereof. 

Hie method nf rr»A)nlHc empln^^ by Ihofe who would rrsUkt 
the poiren o| Congm Co Ibc plain ktier of ibc Li« b iUustruted 
lo IW Collowuix p'^P^ l>y JcffeooD. in whkb be »trovt! to fliov ih« 
ODCuaalilutjiinaJityof lliepropoMlioi] lonuaUitfaa naiKHi^JbtnlL.' 

I tnnaidrr the fmindalloo of tbr Comiiiiitirva x\ laid on Ibtt Tht' 
gttMnd : Thai " atl pouvn sot Mqpttcd Co the Tnitrd Stat«m. by |/^|^ 

ibt Contfitmkm, nor proMbiled liy It lu il^ Sutcn, an- re^rvod to 
tbe Sum DC lo Ibe people/' OCITih amendnwal.t I0 t4Lk« a 
iinicle >kp beyuMl ibe bofindarleK ibuA ApetlaRy dn«n ofouod lh« 
powrn oi Oiei^nM, b 10 lake pOMr^sion of a bouadkaa ftcid of; 
power, twt Ifwgv* tuaneptihle of a^ definition. 


American Government and Politics 

The inooTporalioti of a b«nk. and the powers aaaunifd by il^* 
MTI, have not. In my opiobEi^ been delegated lo the T nitod Statra, 
by tbc f-^oulilutioa. 

I. l^hey «fV noi Among the powmt Kpedolly enumerated: for 

ItL \ power 1i> lay lAXa for the purpose of pftj^g tbo <ltliB of 
ihc Vnitfd StaMs; but no dvlit i£ paid by thu tuU. Dor any Ux Uid. 
Were it ji biH to roue oiuncy, ils ori^ation in the Sciutc moM 
condemn i< by the (oPAiitutknk. 

*d, "To borrow money." Bat this hill nrilberboiroin money 
norecLiiurTfL Ihcbcfftowingof it. The proprietor of Ihv l>&nL «ill 
be )weI u fite u any oCfaff monry huldm, bo lend or nut lo lend 
their money lo the public. Th« opcratiocL pmpo^ed iR the bill, 
firHi lo Irnd them two million^ and then to borrow ih^m bock 
ngun, ciinn<^l f^hongt the naturr of the laiter art, which will ■ciQ 
ht 1 pAynml, And not « loftn, caXX it by whui name yt)u pinktr, 

jd^ To " regnlaie Lommerrc itjlli foreign nation^T and jciong Ibij 
itatss, and «Itli the Indian Inbei." To tn^i t iHink, uid to 
regulate conunerct, omifry differrsit« He whoerectsabonk* 
acaU«ftCubJ«ctofcDmaufi:ciAiubiUA; m doe* bo who mokca 4 
b^lthd of wh«at, or d3^ a doUu out of the mines ; yet ndlber oF 
lhew|imnmtrrgulalc?coTnmfTecIbere^. TomAkeAlhiT^wtiieh 
may be l^iighi i^r ^H, U not lo pmcn(« trgulalkin!i Joe bi^in^ 
«ad adliag. Besides, U thii vm ■» e»rc>9c o( the poinf of rega- 
blla^ GonuntTDr, It vouid b* nod, wt citendicf oa much 10 the 
intcfsal connnerre of erery SfaCe, » lo its esttemal. For the power 
gnr^a lo CongrcM by the CooMiititian doe« oot eHend lo Ihe Id- 
Unai regutation of the coanattm of a State, (thai a to may of the 
commcixe between ciliattt and cittjactti) wtucb remain excladTely 
with Jta own kj^iUatuie ; I111I lit iis rilemal commerce oaljr, that b 
lOMLjr.itaconimeTcc with another State^ or with foreign ftatSona, or 
with the Indian tribM. Accvfiiij^ly tlie Ull <!«« not propocff tW 
taMMrcoft a itfuioiioo of trade, butoa "prodQctire oC consider 
Mt odvoniaga lo trxfe/' SiiJI 1cm aft these powcn Mvend by 
MBif Other of the fecial cniimenilioju. 


The Powcn qf ClilimiLW 

rtii Trii filliirit 

SodM, Am h «o i^. ~ tn 1^ teHs toiW pwpnc «f fmtitfiC far 

fttto^ ■illm fhr ^ar^ttw for vfaorb the p&ma k In fcr m-nwil- 

trad oalr l» ^7 l&r Mil «r ^wridtfif fW M(fi»v ^ lir r«M«. 
In Elw Attav, tbc^ stv Dol lo 4» amytkmi tf^v jte^ tn |tfiwkl« 
kr tbc fLiud ■itfiii. bM mAf to lij uxcv W tbai luopcae. Tn 
codrite ikt taut pfeoM, DM » tooiUif A« pvpcae of the Anc, 

bfll M pVM^ A wSDRCl UKl tMxfiCWinrt pomV l9 in WIf set hI^ 

plMc, vliM mifid b« for IW pnt «r ibe Tb^ ««HiU mte •! 

MtkflL ll MQOU tnton the wbolc fatfnuMBt to a ti^j^ pfaWiCi 

te ibfifoodof thvCmtc^SuBo; ud. m ihvr wiuU be dw >ob 
)ndgc» ol Ac food or ctjl, ii vottU be ftbo ft powcf M do itlMvTcr 
evil ilirf plfttj« . . . 

9. TV mtxmd pmnk pbru* b. "to make tK U«« BATKarv Jht 
md pniprr for cuijiig into eiieciiiiiMi the owncnlfil |*:-itm," ,^ 
BuilhvrnftaMbvavrkxIinUioncillloaiiridioiiUhtikk, Abahb iU« 
Iberdon » noC mm rji m y , unJ coai^quecl!f nut aMbncitvcl bj thb 

ll haA bea idr^ed thai t haxik vnll fire gmt fAcDEtr or oafi- 
vmirocr Uk ihe toOcviion of Ui0. SuppoM ibb vtn rn*r: yrl 
ihc Coofllnttion attovrs only Ibe xiimqa wrhich atr "i»An/dr^" 
not tho«e whkb trr totfrl)- " toimsitnc ^' {or r0« ting tbc touivtff* 
al«ilp»wm. IfmcbaUtitadcof c(jft*ln&tl»« t-r alWw^Ci iM* 
pbnw u to five uij DOQ-cnumcnird puuTr, Ll win CD ii> rvcij LiOe, 
Tor ihcr* ii ikoc one whlich Infcitulrf m^y not tortim iMu » ivn- 
\rmHiu^ in lomc insUTtce or Ml/r> lo J«flM «<*f ot to htt^ a fal df 
etittfflefftlcd {towtn^ U wouU imllow up tU ibc drlcgvlcd 
pewn, ud fvduc« the whole io one power, ej Mem nheemd. 
TlMivlare it «»e ilul Ibe CoaMil«lkia rotniaed them to Urn 

1^^ American Govcmmcnt and Polidca 

n«^f;^'iry meaTkS, that is to fiay, to tbott roeuB withoot wlDcfa the 
i^roiit Ml' p-*wer would be augtuorj. 

>^. rA« DoctHm t^ Utarm ComtrmUwm 

i'Vwi Jti^tu-e MaishaJL in thecuenf OTbbnm c. Ofcdoi^ mads 
the :~H.llnu-Jni{ rcllcction^ on the prinripJe of strict coiuD:ijctk>a» and. 
^ULcJ hb rcii^na for retfusiDg to adnpt it. 

' Thus instrument cnntaitw an «numpRition of the powcD ex- 

j (jrc^^ly L^rjimefi liy the people to their j^overmneiit. Ii haa been 

l« sairi rhat ihese powers oui^t to be troojrtnied AlikUv. But why 

"; 1 lujfht they ['* be pn con»rrue<l ? Is rfrtre one fl«iTtcDce in the Coit- 

z^iiiuiMin Lv'hirh gives countenance to this ruJe^ la thclaatof the 

cnumerajcji |>oweff. that whfrh grants expraaahf the metns for 

c:im'in? \\\ nihers into e,^rrutinn- fonirrew is amhoriivd "to 

mnke \\\ I i"'s whirh ^hrpIT V nerrflSJiry mrt nmpcr' for the pur- 

jrfew. riTi iiiis limfnfinn "n thr mean!* which may be used is not 

rttnmT*''"! I't 'h<* fiowr* '.vhirh arr ■"nnferrpd : nor is ihcre one 

srnipn'r' !'■ 'Iif 'MiiBtitiiTinn uhirh has been r<iinted out by ihe 

L(onrh-m**T» -f 'h'' !*nr "^r '.vhirh wp hav^ been able to diAcem, that 

fpr^-j'rif>''- il"f- rule. Wcrionot. thertfnre, think ounelves justitied 

iri \'\-*}\X\vi Lt. 

** Whn' 4"!" L'fn^lfmrn m^-an hy ^irirt oonstnirtion .' If tbcy c<jn- 

linn ''■"'^' "'^'*' : -'■■ii'^t '*"''' '""hr^reH '-nn'stnirtinn which wnxiid cjitcnd 

^'.^•\< '•r-t.vf\ *\Af :i.iTiiril ind "hnmn 'mport. ue miehi: queadun 

!hc iT.'Jir icfj.f tf -Vi^' [*-rrn-. ^^v^ =h'*iilH nnt ronimvrrt the principie. 

If ii.,-,- ,.' »j ','■". r "H rl :i.irT'^''^' ■ i^xiflrri'-iifin whirh. In support of 

-'■"!■ ''- • - ■ 'h ir* ^1 'inH in 'h** '"'►Ti'^tTDirinn, xmulH deny to :he 

■I- ^- ' ,r.-' ir,,' .■'-;, T, in- .itr>*Hr<"nt ',vith the ^^'cnecil 

-'■* • ■' ■■ ' !!i-t^i^'"Ti', - M'F [ namiWionstruc- 

t' ■' ■' '■■■•Th iTi" l'<»'' 'mnipnr iriH rondiT it imequai ro 

'' ■ ■ ' ■ - "^ I irrvl :.-. <y» instiriiti»d. ,inri M whith 

'' - ■ ■- '-'v ^-i^-^r-'nryi. rpTid»»r if lompeteni, — 

' '•'■■'■■- '■}■••■ j.r-T-riViy .f 'hi-* Jtri*"i ^onMTUirtiun, 

The Powers of Congrca 

not tdopi it ■> ilic luk by aluGb tbe Codililuiiuci b lo be vx- 
pouaded^ Ai men «rbmc inteatiofa rrctuiR no roncrabncnt goi- 

iikfU nfaich thc> inicoil ii> convey, llic «fldigblrncicl piliiclA vtbo 
rnra«d our C^kiutilulin:) aad Ibr |>«oplc who Miopud It oiurt be 
unilrrr^lood lo luvc cm]>1o)Yd vords ui ibdr nalur»l ^nfie, and Id 
h-iiT inl«rLd«l wh4l tbey hmvc ik'id. If, fro«n Ibc Unpeflcftiofu of 

CElenl of aujr gi«eo puittT, it is ft ««II-ictlM rule tliul ihc ubjccUt 
Cor vbidh It wi« ^vta, tipKially Then iboMobJccU mtc exproictl 
Ift ibe imtnuncAl iib«lf> should have grcal inlkicnce La the coiutnic- 

^ rA« PHmtipU t/ U$tMl Cfitaintc4im AffiM* 

fn upliolifiBg ihit doctrine tbtl Conint«A had am tmpU«d power 
bo OT^ie p<i|wr BMOcy even in th« absence of oay c3q>r»s pnmErion 
(o thil rfl«cl. the Supreme Court bid down lliit buia fui a Ubcnl 
bnierpfetaiiuD : — 

When inrtrtifcidns the nittire and extent of the po^ten i^wx- 
femd by ibc Caiis>liluiioa upca Congress, it b uiduijcnuble lo 
Lcfp hk view the objects fuf wtikh thou ;p<iwcn itrn ^ntod. 
Thb u A iuuvccmI rule of cnnfltruclion Afiplicd ftlike lo »uiulc% 
vflU, coBlTVtt, ftnd ronultuttfmjL H ihe fcrnerKl puqiotr oj tlie 
■nMninoit b ■urrijined, ibe l:iQguAp i^ iu pntviftkioa lauM be 
euetttrucd with rcfereiKe Ui that purpose, and to u ti> »utjMrve iL 
la po other v^y c^n ibelAte^i of tlie IrAtnenvrihv ixauufnenib* 
diKorercd. And thefe an more ur|^t reuocu fur IooIeia^ bo the 
ulliinatc purpose !a cxsfalBJnf the powevn conlerrcJ l>y a cooilltu- 
tun tkin tbm ait in eoniinaing n lUtute, a wiU, or & contract. 
UpV do Dol cipn:t to find In t cocittltutioa tnisiuc delAtU. It a 
nu manly brief lod txunptiehenuine. 

Il pcvKribaa outliacs, loviaiE ibc filUoK up to be deduced frooi 
ibc ouiSBCi. Id UartU ?> Humer. i XMieaCou 396, ii «as said. 
"TbeCnckttituilafi unsvoUahlydeob in ftncnl lafj;guafe^ It did 
poc suit Ibe pitfpoae of ibr peofile ia fraaiuig IbU j^al tfbsrtte ol 


The Power* of Congrc«s 


ibil tht pcivKT cUimcd hu been midemd. Sucb a imtmcftt i^ 
the CocaHittitiixi b ivcii|puii«d hy tU obd provbiom. 11m b nrU 
ittuMnlMl in ib Iftnguige RSiiccliiig the writ of jMmj Ktrfus., 
Tht |>o««r (0 twpcDd the pririlr^ of tJiAC mi Ea oot v: 
giTcii. Dor an il be d«ductd fnnn any ooe of Ac 
fnftis of pnvm. Vet U b pnmdcd ihu tli« pfHlc^ca* of the 
ahtli Mil be liiapefldMl cxtcpt &ii oemin iMiml coftiin^ncie*. 
Thii u BO vtprrsi K^aol of power. It b a rcntrkljon, Bui 
■bowi SmsiMibl; thai M«n««iivn Kn iht Cunaiiiulkin power 
uttpend the priviUge of the writ wju gnuMed, cilbcr bf womt oae 
or mote of ihr ^iccificAtkiaA of \iawrr, or l>7 ihrci tM cotnUned. 
And, ihftt lEiipovtBAl pomnt yctrt uodmtood by lite people irho 
Mlaptcd the CoimiEmFian to h^vc b«en cncfttcd by it, powr-n tiot 
0&uiDtt»1ed» »nd tuA incUK\ni incldrnt^iny \xt «ny oav ol tliift^ 
CDUiDentcd, ii ihovn by tbc «mnidmciiU- The £iit ten of thuc 
vteie wg^x^l«d ia the cunveotioiu of tht Slita. and ptupowd ^ thu 
fir^l soKign of the fitM Congrott, before may cwnplujil vac node uf 
■ dUpodcioa to uwm* doubtful powcc«. The preanbt* to tho 
moluikm Bijbmliiing ihcm (or ulofitioo recited i*ui the "conven- 
lifuu of a ausibcr of the Slatci hwl, *! the lime of their ndn|ilin|; 
Ibe ConMfattlion, cirprcved a dcrirc, bi order to ptrtenl nii^im- 
itrucdoa or abuse of ix> pcMRTS, that ftulher deeUriUoty aod t^ 
■triLiivt cbuMi AouM b« odded." This vras the origin of Ibe 
amendmenUy and ihey arc agnificuit. They lend plainly to ibovr 
thftt^Lnthe jiidpncAE of thMc who adopted the Cotuiiinition, thi 
weie powers creatrd by il, ndlher cxprvmly «prci£cd nor dedu-* 
dble from unrotte ffiorified power, oruidUtiy to it kkitit, hoi which 
grew out of the aggrrgate of powen mnltrrrH upnn the ^tvttn- 
mcDt, or out of the wcrvigfity irvtiiutcd^ Moa of these uncod- 
iDfOtv «c denUlft of power whkh h>d not been etprruly |*r»nJed, 
■ad «Ucli Guiaot be lud to have been mutMuy uid propet for 
GUiylniE kki caccudon asy other poweni. Such, for eitami^ b 
the prohMtioa of any bvs respecting the rgtal^bhmehl of fe- 
IfigioQ, prohibiting Ihe free eterdte ibefeof, or abrid^ftg 1^ froe- 
dooi of ipcech or of the pms. 

TV , 


American Government and Politics 



And it b of inqtcrtiiace to ob»rvc that Cckoitreu Jiu^ often cnt' 
d»ed, v^UtfHii r)acMl£>n, |)->itvrs iltiai m not expntsty tg^^a nor 
oodlkuj lo iny xinslc enumerated powtTi PVkwcn thus cKtT' 
cUcd »rc whjil fir^TAiicd Tiy fudgit Story, \mhhCommt«iaf its ea tht 
Onutituti^n^ raulttng poivvn, ariabg from \he oggngA-tc puwm 
fii the (tovi-rAmenl' He ioAlanrvik the right ta «ue Aftd mflke roo- 
tntib. Many oliitr^mi^^ht be given. Tht oath rrquirtd by l&w 
ftcim offiocm of Ihc govemmcnt U oac- So b builtting il lapltol or 
u ptviidvniki mantdoEi, and io tiUo is thv penit codcn Thb luA 
u ^i^nh}' of hrief nodce. Congms Is eiprciily nuihorized "lo 
jin>vkde ft^r ihc punishment at cnunterf riling the ftivurilietf and 
curreftt coinul the United Slat», and todefEnFandpuniithpirairiftf 
Uid ftloniei eommitted on the hiKh vjji tkiu\ uUcnccv ij^kiiixil the 
bw3 ol uatujini." ft u &lv> ei»iHikvernl (u dtckin tlitf puitiib- 
mcnt o( trruon, and provudon u m>dc for impeachment ThU 
h \ht CKtcnt of \towtr in putuih crime cxprt^Iy conferred. U 
■night be arguni ihnt the eiprcaion of thcte limited powers im- 
plie» an cxdmioa of all ulLir &;il>jtct^ ul ciimLnal tcsUbtion. 
Vet Congnaa^ bf tbc A<l of April ji:^ 1790, entitled "An Act more 
cAmliiulli' ui pmviijr f^^r ihr punUhawil of ticrtAin lHq^o ag^nuit 
the UaiifU SUto," and i feupplemecljuy net of March 3, tSaj^ 
defined ami ^imvided for iJic punbhrnet^i of a krge clasa of crima 
oihvr thiLii ibu»e mcationvd in tho conbtliuiion, tod Knat of ihe 
punaihmefttt procnbcd arc maniftMly not in aid of ai^ single 5ul^ 
Maeliw power. No one doubta that Ibia «ra4 rixliifiOiy donr, 
aad the potter thu* cEemiied, bu hctn oArmcd by this court in 
United SEaloi'. Marigold, sp How. 540. Tbk c&ia ahovn that a 
po vf r may cjuM aa as aid to tbe cvecuiion o{ an eipren power, or 
01 aggrtgaie of (tKb powcra, t>iou^ there ia B&otber tipVMC power 
gWn ndfttfng b part to Hie Mmc subject but Ivaa oxmilve- An* 
ocher iHiDlralioh nf Ihia may be tamtd in coAnrrllon with the pro- 
vivioni rripf^ling a cvnaua. 'I'hr Coiotit»tli>n ofdrr» aa «>ianefn* 
Ixiii of fr« pcrvon* in the ffidTervot Sutet evcty ten yeai^ The 
dimlBon extendi no further. Vet OMagm* baa repeatedly di< 
ft)ct«daiiciiupicralkmii4>lunly vf rRepcffB«inainthie5tAlM,b«t ul 

The Powers of CongrCM 

fite JMCMU b the TerTltaric^ «ad am otAy xd councntioa of 
peniNki, bui the collcctmn nl^uiiiiici rmpcciniit i^, wi, uid pro- 
dttdioD, Wto 9uc«tioiM \ht \*j«tr to do ibJo? 

Ucder the powc* U> csUblUb pcBl-ol&cci Acd prnt'iuid* Coi 
icrru tijv pnivjdcd for t ArryinK ilir rrkHiLi. ptmUliirx th«h uf Irltcn 
Aod moil AtbberitK, uJid citd fui u&mportiDg the taoih to loraigD 
cQuniricft. Under ibe pcn^vr lo rcguUic commerce, provfalo» hii 
Ijcen nude hj Uv for ihr improvcmcjU ol hur|K>fv tbt eriohlUh* 
mcfit of obvTVftlorira. Iho rndian of GghlhouH^, hrr^wikn, 
Aiid biK7«, the ivgiMrj, mronmcDl, ami nmairictioa ol ihips^ 4ii4 
t mdc tuks been cQApclcd for t^ govcmiDcni of uMnvft. Codi 
the asRte powrr, xttd ofh^-r ^xmrn over \hv revenue uhI th« cur-1 
reiwjr of Ibe covntET, for Ifae eonrcwcncc *)S the iruiut^ ind to' 
ktnal conuncfce* a oDrpoMkm krkown na the t'niied Swo 
vueuljr created, 

100. TA* *'Natssafy fl«rf Fnpfr" CJamst* 

UTfinditibpcr" for carry mg iatu e0e(l tbeexpnt* poven 
ferred upon It. ThU eUusc hu rrcavcd tb« foJIovic^ judinii 
InierptvuiloD : — ' 

By ihe M4tlfd eoiKtruelkin and th^ onlj rratt>nftMr inttrpretd- 
ikm c4 th^ cliuse, \he wnriU "nrrtSMry jud pmprr" arr nnl 
Ufoiled (a iiKh meiMirr!! u arr olrtoiuirly and indi^p^nAabJjr 
DertMtry, vithiiul vhii:h ihe jvnrei^ ffMUinl man fjil nf eWL 
tjns; bal Ibey Include «B appfcqwule ine4ii> vrhkh att n>Ddud' 
or Mbpted to Uie end lo be uccxiCDplidied, »nd vhlch in the {ud|K- 
inent of CongrcM vdll moM «dvaaiagieow1y rffecl it- 

CUcI JuMice BXnnfaill cxpotiDdfd ibc claute glnng Congress 
poviv 1^ male mil acccmr; and pfojier Uwn, m fAUows: "li 
oniMmiDjE ihit diuie, it would be tncorrrri, imt iroald produce «< 
eodlcM difttuhUa, If Ibc opinion tbouU be iMnlBiAnl that no bw 
ttn» AMtborind whkli v;u not indUptfuably occ«ury to jp^e 
efrcl u> ■ sp«dficd power. Where (Aiioui qsiemt nu^hi t>e 




NowncBE havt ptrfjr iracbioenr uad methods Iwisied And 
warped Uic orislnal tbcorits oj the Conailullon mort lh«n in th« 
conduct of busintM in CongrvA. BAckaithcfonnalarg^nioitian 
oj \hc llinitrt jijvi ^eii^e u» llif oT^pLDiMliua ul ibv rvprcw;iil»tivc» 
of ihc two ttral i>Anic« into mucu*C» in «hkh oAccn^ «rc choiMii 
utd poUciet tf? delcrmincd by role. The p^nj [imdkei and 

■i>d &»ilry in a tpiricrd d«lat« owt the hghl of (lit DenuxrttB In 
ihc Svim(« to bind pMtty rticmbos by ft »ucu« ruU: ^ 

The Smote pcuKcedrd lo tomnfrr the rcvtlulion submillf d by 
Mr. Pitlenon on the ftfth ima^nl, v toUow*; 

. ^ . , WbcRU, bvcftUK 11 «v furrAilr reported lib>iC onr or moire 
Donocnlk Stnftion aight Tutc upon ccn&iia mitMn pcadini: btfon 
the Seuit toMiur to <hc licws of a mt^ty o4 the body of Drmoccufc 
Semmciw the Dcraocniir Scmtors were cukd eo oucui upon nich 

Whfrru, it tu fonjDd Al nith auou ibAt 9ud Rporu wen conrd 
tnd f3b»t cenain l>>ntitKn[ic Sm«lnfi migbl or would *uIe conrnry tt> 
the vfpwi «f ut<1 ini|grirv; anil 

Wh«t«i, ibemipoa ihc followiotf iv»hiilo(u were peoEnicd >ad 
■dopiFd t>y moTT ifau lwo4ilidt of uie Seneion pnoNnt el «>ei <a«cui» 

'^AnWM, tlac tht Srime obrM Dot to idviw ted oonient in the 
inary iMwwn tht VtMtd Su/ttt end the Rvpi;l>1ic of Suitu Domingo, 
new pendbif Men ihe Scaest. 

"Jt^MheJ, Ttet if two'EUfdi el ihli niKus thiJ] Ti)te ie bvor «f Cbe 
foftfoinf reeolEilian, il ahaJi fcc the dvty of ewry Dfroooelic Senfttor to 
if^ i^nfll ibt ntihcslioa of Ibr n*d tmfv: " *nij 

Whnna Ihr iMWDt ftmfattdthr vidmilulieAn amI eftion wfti 
Be tMBfopHJy wore or cottn Denuxr^tit Sruton atu m^hl bctiwe 
IhU uw bol failefeeci of Ihe owDirT requin^i the niiiicetnn of leid 
Inaty^and becsner ikennrf. held it tow ilmr du^ to vole for it& ntifica- 
bon, inio dfaRpvding Ihal pen of ibnr cells (n whkh tbcy iledaied 


American Gi^vcrnmcnt tnd Politico 

ihiiT they would f Alihf uJly dlACbArg? ihc dwit* of Itidr ^<r at Srtuuon ; 
ihcpcbre, be it 

Rijfflvfd, I'inri. That Arith adiiui by The uid or any ofhrr caucus ia 
in |jlairinf)l*tiinicJlhr»pinlAiid intrnicif the l^^waiuaktrt tii \he UmtRl 

STturiiL iTiftt f<.'f Iwiii'ihinii oi tny othtr immtitf of Ihe Stnitom of 
■ny |<rTjr to mcrl And d«liTr Thai "U sbiilT b? Ehc ^uu" oTmny SrviAtor 
Id *ot« upatL any L|urilinik oitn-r i^an >a hii own i»nvM lLnii» imprl Iiin), 
IB » |>1jUn lirjlaiiiifi of t}ir EOJtEiiftrt; miint uisd t\tirSt vi tlw ConatituiEun 
•ill hftw sworn to uplidd and defend. 

Third- Thui ehi "ont tow" the ConMUutlon dccbm neb Senator 
AhtH hATT ii tiia<ntn vtric. and nut Iht: ¥ot^ pf afiy oi^or olany cum- 
brT<if SrnAliin and Tor n SftinTuT ro l^saI (Fut (m^ t^^rti? «^in»l his con- 
viflirtn* *^^ njhl and duly in the pTrminc* la to itufmnfhlu hi* StnTe in 
tbc Srute uid li> deprive it of tht FrfttncnidJion in Ihnt body Itic Con- 
■IjtulioD pmr-jdn tI iball havv 

Ftiuria, Tliat vhcn inv number uf Stnatont by cumUnilkjn or 
nlhrrvi^ undertake thniuufi any Hpcdc* of cotrdcm, ii> Induce other 
StnnMrtioroice3ticepiutW[rfudgtnn^t»AndcnfudcnceKie1] a 
an innoviiron of the rights of a Stjuie 1oet|ua.T npngrntSLtion vkh olher 
&tiLi<-i in thL- Sennit, and is mxbvmive of thor riirafj lo t|^<^il nrirtBrma- 

pmvii^J for 

K»fth Thnl the SetiJitiir H'hrtjirrmltnafty lif^ir "^ olhrr Stnatoni to 
ikeiucamldrfini.- t'H him vh^l hi^diily u in (lie miTter of hii vole hi the 
Senate^ and vbo tjuta hu vote in m|ion9e V* such ini* rfrrrnce, volet not 
V a Senator frem hh own Slxt«, faiiC n a Sfn^iKu frum ilir othcn Smtn, 

^ the O^rutliuijon and wvokcni and tfeKTnds (he powvr of hts own Stale 
in the Senaie in violation of the qinrii of th« Coiuiituiion, 

Si<ih. ThAt for any Scnacor to wiv «»crpt u bis lud|cnimt and bmm 
of ihily unriff hia r«L|] oF atttct rtqulm h to defradp Ihi^ 1i]f h nfTrec of 
Sctiaiiv And 10 a^uil live di^iy nfid sl^nding of Ihe Senalc of Lbe 
Tnlfrd Slflrf!« — qiiilitiea roiitfinrii in itrch Mj^ drgrec by no olher 
ief-ubtiie body in the wurld, 

I ihanli 1 nuLj rHer wilh perfect pn^rieCy to llie mcqitiocifl to 
the oWI^tEoM oj a oiiarta oni<r of the Seoalonal Democratic 
eao(u«- U 1 may not refrr to the eicei^fkini, I ttc^ thai v^me 
Senator wfll M^girtl ElS brp^ripriHy, I underuaml the rvrrptJon* 
are puilk. ind Itiit crrefyindy knovn Ibcia, «iid it a t<efy intsdi 
|o ihe cmliE *A the <.aulup- ihut thv riicqidoiu haVL- be«n made. 
FInt, ihc cataciA order do«« dci bind wbcii io do tn wr^titd. in the 
Dpiaion of ihv Senator, cauK ym to mbtc Ibe CumliluiIoOi 

Confess fti Work 349 

Stcond, 11 Ii nci| obliKHtfiry when ht hut in xlniicc cflnnuilcd 
htmitcif bcfun.' tht putjlk. ThinU tX b Ditl obliirilocy upup htm 
when to vole V the cauciu nvjuesu would ctute him to vkAut 
the [nstnidlou of hb Sutir. 

Bui, Mr. Pnsidtni, the st^cond — when mmcniiud before 
ctucu* •rdoU'- b of itwU t, candtmaaluHi of trtryihing (t»r- tol!^ 
Wtiy «h4)tiU it FXMnpt ■ Smator simply tircaiut he hu commttlcil i^c ui» 
UirtMJftn the face oi the public Lolkcmruurt iHuiiloljcit^uhnT 
Ibivuith a cftiKUi? 1 »uppuw i( i* bo:«iJic il wimU btiiixili^ilt hiin 
Id Ibe tjtt of the public- It b sut the d&kn of Ibc nucui I0 
bumffiaie a Scfutor. ThcroCorv, bcc4uw he wouLiI ^ti^m ij> b« 
IncoDabBcBlt becAUM U vrould appcv thai he wcli driven by raucui 
ftccion tA TACe aguiu4 hU cntitictiafar the cAUrm fPsoludnriK ihail 
nnt ipply 

Ab, Mr. Prrudent, il doei not prmidc, honcver, tor the ron- 
KffDce of u SvnaCur- It doa ocrt provide aga-Iiul burniliatiiig !|]^!m 
faLniielf a bbown ntimjitioQ, BccauK it tmuld hv > bumilijtioa u iv b 
lo ft Senaior iftcr decbring to the public ihu he vMiuld roiv one y^_^ 
viy, thctt, at a muLi ci caucus tcHon, to vote mother; bccaoie 
it would put him or ]jt lUblc lo pul hint in 4 fobc tight bdoK the 
piublir, he b eirmptnl, Bui he binwlf ihnuld he a mnnflor of 
whfich he sbouki ttaarl in »«« , lie should hii^ ngairl tor his own 
ConWctiw^ He should fed that it vu of more impoiLuicc to 
him to know thjii he wu trur to hlnaftf thut 10 foti Bfiapl)' thai 
be wu true lo a word whkh might have been spoken bwllty. but 
hai^Bf ifxilieft whifh, be nuM not retrad. Therefore ibc very 
CMeplions prove Ihr rtltciae iDJuslicc and the indcfeiulhle rhju> 
arlcr d Iha ft»-adkd caucus ictioa. 

\ ty^^tw^ M f iKfi^vr \m the r^gfbl ol free ^peixh, in the right nf 
independent actun. In the ccobrevce of the members of political "J^ 
partial; I believe tbai diey camioc aaaemUe loo olten for thv pur- "^ *^ 
poMV of evuhing frvo what may be belore the Senate, the right. 

id. thruugbotil appcab to the rcatiM and Ibe logical fcnsc of 
Senatora, laadlng th«m Vn the proper line oi aifiion. Tn ninny'tiitte 
caua ont of o«w hundred, thai iroidd aceot to be the necesury 

' >^d*B^ fi 

:* it oj 
'■■■.■a> vt 
'..^ 'vh«^ Efa* 

.^- ^ 'icnAvi !■ t^Ksiuiiuiflut: a: ' liuiiinii; thu" 

. .^,r -44^1 :ii^ idkjcT u im >:i 

L ^cfuL^'jr vtltinf m utiour lu ■■BUfcjgnuijM*^ 

.^j,- k X aunufl «nuVt vraiic:! Tun ^ Ufa ihos^uttL 

ct 4 J ntun rn 'be ^^nufc cvm; \i» lul iiiEiL:..Tika iwufc 

''Ti.(r> have ^SBftfi ■wit*:<.-rjr; -i^ v«. .» shin- ikfcir a i* 

vii: :/.. .■.■%.<-.-, Li 

■ .--v.s;...;^ 

■ Wt .3ki <L :la- ^^MtiLil, 

■■"t 'in* ii,r .'. , 

li . ■«.- 

> iC -Jh. ..Gv . , T-la C^iM^ 

■^crj:. r 'r-.-i, 


.' i> ,'au:l* ,4A>iJ ^ -.Jjt 'T- 

iU ;.. . .^^ 

' . ,s _ 

«-tiii^ ;j^^. _T-^^.^i-» .m^ 

'u 'irjif^'F *. 'iitlt 

,- '- 

..L . .£ .^ . .:u :4£idi£ 

Congress at Work 


tccordinft lo hu i>wn judgrocnl uid toiuciciicc; &od h« docs b^ 
irair ctlbcr aa ioibnity or in namWingjt^A to urtdcnund thv 
diSenact bctwcn bis rehlJiA to the Senate 4iid his reUtioai to ha 
puxy. The DtmocTstk c&um£ bu simpLjr slid orHf dsluicd bis 
duly OS a DemocnL aad k a for him id determine how far his 
duty MASrtulortnquiiTflhim todUrvfcnrd hb duly jus DoiuxtilI- 

Mr, rmideal, thfrv i« ii» S«nAEi>r tn (hb body sod 1 doubt 
vbclhcr tberr b any dtixrn q( ibit ci;uauy wfiu is move tonsdous 
of his opirviun Ihaii I »m\ uij yc(, wiiliuut siiy iscrifics of my 
teU-Rspect ttad vritboul say ucrifice uf my bdcpcndccoe, over 
snd sjEsb I hstv u^mlntd to s dcofion of a majorify of ny 
party ss to wfuitcviifidale 1 should support lod whal pUtCotm he 
should scsod upoB. I ftxpcfl 10 do that ta the etid, or iiniil my 
psily nomiruin such s iraii or pfotnulgalBi such a pUlfrfrm thnl 
my duty as s dtisen wii not permit me to submil, snd then 1 shall 
witbdr»v frvRi th« party, but in ulthdramoi; J tball not Uy (u u>w 
the iMdf of ifi>cirfa»tstion that by denying Aeir sulhority sod 
JurfMUcdon 10 Domliistt s csadldstc and adopt s plstform* 

[ belicvcn J0 the Seiuuv from Cclofado sppesn not lo believe, 
in ihc rijjhi of the people to laflruce a Sensloe. Wc stt aoi hc« 
to rtpmrnl ourvtiYa Wf are hm to it p rc a enl our Slates, and 
■beAevet I cannot honcttly and consrictitwuly tolcc Ihc leolft- 
fiient* of the iwoplc n^Mtc c«mmiuitjct I liukl. 1 will rrslgn my 
teat ia tha body, 1 vill not defy them; 1 vQI nut keep ihelr 
office sikI lautU tbcif coimetion, but vpicneva I cannoi ob^ ihcir 
vQI sfid pn«rvs my s«lf-nepect. 1 wSO take ibe&r comalttfioa bsck 
sod by U down wmlUed sttbctrfcfsl said snowtbe»locboo«ea 
Scnatar aIki caa rtpmvAi them without mi>rrpre:«rnTin|* hitntrlf- 

1 am a partisan tnyself, but I aiusil be permitted to bdieve that 
my pankuukfthip bad its orijiiD ni my palriolbm, I ara a paitUan 
bccatisr 1 befirve the glcoy aod m^are uf my counUy sit bound 
up in titc MKicev of the prindplm of ibc Dcmocmdc party ; aad 
I Indy declatv my belief ibat Lbe Senators on tho other ride w 
•tumedbylbcssmccoimciifA, Ihaveheanlmcfissy they wen 
D sB SOCt mti became Ibcy msn bom b ihit politick Uith, and thai 


nlr En 





fHnotf princi^t^ It 

inn I" ''v niriit, ifMv mi«r 
infiwiiimt tlifloHm a> 
Ml jmrmriMU 

TTiM KififiB flM radfi* (liHi^ poi^v; tt xtijma m cnsr 
Wind <'f .11 ^tVOfliHiiHb 'Hw ru;^ ii< ite sntocitT n^ nilo is dm 
» 4la<|ir>iUfn< Jatkmtr cbriAMd il r* h« (be viai pmuM*- -<t a 
Bayulilic TmOT ««ibli Ifaivv k » ^4«vaL fnrt ib rare TTk roi* 
nf flir iTu|irfirr ii v« 'ml* 'lis <4irf pffi»ipb -f TTl|ji#ttj' but it » 

yi.Mr 'i<r[>'.r.ui- [n^tn^tnn rr^anuen- lor ^vrnL. ^ ion^ 3B rtBT 

[*tir:iir liir -KifTT n( th*ir i'h;irtrr the ma^oTTTi' mufi mlt When 
fhr ni,»j(-rjiy -Iq-inrT fn>fn rhr f^hftrrer purpnfle, the menibBr i* a* 
[p-if N- 'Ji*- irrflnnity of .»ifhrtr*WTni( berause he has inrcfimam 
il.rrr Mr .iimJv rpwirt* fn ih^ TinrtB jnd thcr dissiude tbe nm- 
i^fiiy fffpTii ilt-mrinninff rhr pnrpows if die incorpiRtidcni, Take 
iJh*- /rr.r i-rWo'ii.'K Hrnr>rnin''iM"nj4 rtf rhn rniinity. Dn^ a. tdoq 
lj,rlrir 11 ni^fiT i-t vnrihij> I'in^ tn l>rH*rve in ChriaT and read the 
rri|hrifr^ im-ii-lv ^*■* .m«', l>^tnni(inn Co [he Mediorfiat Cbinth, 

I" ''■ ^ ""■ -^ lU ti-nny* -imi is riip^lledr* The Church eipela 

I'l *'i" [r-r- ri'Hf nrr-*f iTiilwr <in impottancnuficraof diwoinc 

4.iir 'ir 4Jk lUll u-rvr ,mrL '.Tifi^hip Cjod ia Ilia own way- I believe 

Congress ai Work 

aU ChurrhM vxpcl xbt u&orthodoji vMctpt the hinl »h«ll BapcUt 
tilVfch, And it iQmjtlj- withdnivr?i Horn ibc cmng 1>n]ititr. Tticn 
i% no kind 111 .in trrK^uiimatton iinflcr ihU ll^i^ Iu-it4y vrhcrr ihr rijfhl 
cif th^ ini|(jnty !■> mk b not rMo^isieil and t^nf'JTtrd^ I ^ub- 
mKIc tr> il , I mulimil tail chcefiully . -toil I otHy rocrvr l)ic n/lkt, 
ifhvurvifr 1 belnrvc it dv^pxrtJi v> «nvntialty fcvca it* fuiidunitiiUl 
priadplo* UiAt I cin no longer co-opcmte vHtb ll, *A dodng a« the 
Svnaior fmcn Cobmdo has done laorc thui once — I uuni thtt 
privilcgr of defying lU d«iiion> 

Mr, Btyi^, in common with o(htc Europrjia otMcrvert ai th« 
Hmific of RriKHcnuiivei, ii ?iinjck with Ihr din of tht Hoiuc nod 
ill air of confittioo 4ud rtftllmjuvi u cucnp«rtt] bilIi ihr dcvoruai 
tad di^itx u4 ibc Senate or the P^riUment Af t^jijila^d, Tli« 
HoUK a* 1 whnir ltj» pmvrrl a nihcr unwiddr ^tJikinn iiulitu- 
doB, ftnd Mr. Bourkc Cockron thui bocounu for ihia tonitiiioa *j( 

Mr. Sptaltr, It U M lh» i»ojh>u1 to cncoid lfa» tann ^ re|>n- 
sciuaiiviv in Congnas llidl I denrv to addxes njKlf. I syinp«- 
thUc mosc kocttly with crety ant who wlnhei ta mtkc v^gntmut 
the coaUol of Ihc propk mxr th«ir rqifmfrnlAtivts ftnd ovcrcr^ry 
brmnch of iW GovcmmnkL It ii iimivljr tor tlud rcMon lh4t 
I Ulirrc is fMenliDK l^'t knn. Tha ui Ibr piJ|fixUr liunch ot 
tmt pfjlilicd spicRi- Popubr cvotrol of the GorcrBOicot ru lie 
siniir ciTfcdve only by nuUhf thta Hi>uH «fficicni. Thk House 
b the ocf branch of our ri<iTmunaU that occordiog to all icati' 
mooy, U itf^Iy doriinhiir in powrr, and itx drvEnc u obviomly 
a derrejuo in thf dirrct lafluciki^r of th<r people uvrr tf^laiioii, 
Tovlul miut ihiidecliMof the lluuv he ««tribuicd ? To tura 
caiMM — a drfnt. ■ f»lal Bvakncta in it> Mructutv Mb cMablUlird 
hf tbe CocisdtutiuA, and abnovt incooceiTAUc folly b Ihc iDMbod 
of orfuiliuilcw «siab1bbcd bj liiclf' 

Sir, Jl b DO mefcnuLov to ttiy thai Ibc Uoi^e n onpuiuced foe 
dbonkrandiocAfiadty, Loot: «i it. IliiftTuibAnihkcchjunbcff 


itw iqj 


qf iH 


Ammpsfl Govcmmenr ami PoGrica 

I wiih 


of itself i^ i-nnn^b I'l mnkp Jmpnunkflble jnyfbiai? like uindHfpbLe 
tfebnt«. rhf- di!tratK:r4 hrtwrni mirmhen \a ^tiffercu [Hits a^ 
th\n HeiM -irr surh Eh»t ■ ' invrTiiitiniv H vldofn rr^nted iis ah 
mtnrtiptinn. In th« rvflifhinff citnfufnu, ^f is imponU^ ta tiiUuw 
or even iirHl*TiFiin'l Ihr prr.rff«t1ni5t t ait in i pact ni the House 
now wh^r? for ikU ihdi I ran hrar iif ihe itphatca I cntKhE us vdl 
be out of rhp Oiamhef, Tr» leam *bac ihe Hotur is dmng I mute 
leave my leat, anrf ihU ij* forbiddna I'y roiot To participaie in 
ihe prric-r'lin^ of (|ir House 1 muEt Khvtcbtn violalE rta niUs, 
I can bf ,i!TcTj»Tve lo my rtulir^ **«ly by liecominir ^ILaordcriv in my 
behavior 1'niier The njiet [ ^imouCof oftitf oo^. Tot [ tim apeak-- 
\n^ from jn-^fher Men^hn^.t 4«bI- If t tiuempt«l Ca ^pcsi from 
my own, J voulH ^le \na\tdlU\f in i lar;^ putt of rbr HilL 

Surffy. Srr, if t< rioF r^rav^i^nl to «ay thaJ the Uiiuse acccos to 
have embmrH dilTjaienily evcty nriporturaty to redime lOeU to 
irtriip^riFy \,y J<oc)>iog 1l:e:1( In JiM^ifdcr. Vjj->irnj l}u jijumfitim 
of il<t nwo orj^anization a complete remedy, of courae, ia ^wmyt 
in tt4 own hands. But the gravest cause of iti incapad^ is in 
rhe (rrm of it* Members, and Ehis can be irmrdipd only by a. Ctm- 
Midrlionnl jimrndment, 

Thp f'nn^rrr<(fl does not convene tDl the month of Decembo 
prfrnlinK (hv chMce of its successor. From the very momdt be 
tR\e^ h}^ onth of office before this de«k, each Member a plungnl 
infn the Ihropq of s 9truf|{gle for re^lectioD. How can he perform 
hT4 iliitirq impnrtinHy sod fearleAily while three-fourths of hia 
Hirontinn mu^t hw dintracttd by Ihe exigencies of his own poaitioii? 
Voif mnv "sny ihni the honest and efficient Member vnXi n^lect ha 
peririnnl inTrrt^t^ and drrotc himself eJKluvvely to his reprcsen- 
tnlive rlMiir«. Wril. Mr. Speaker, what duty con be higher than 
^ppfnE ih^T hr^ rliiinVl \9 well rrpresenled? (Laughter) And 
hi> mii>^i ihink 1iimt<etf the very best representative his district 
( oiil'* f>Twt <ir rl"r hp nniH not justify himself in coming here. 

I iir Mi"TJ'' i« mluk V.I h> ihi<i jHJsition: in the firat — Ihe longer 

^Tirl mi^n* iiTi(Hirtanl ips^mn^ e^Tty Member is striding for 

■MjMi''n and rri1rili»*n fnmi the veiy hour he is sworn in 

Congress att Work 


uadl the adjoummcni, and Is tl>ef«coiut seukmbchjucllhcr beets 
bcAten, b whkh c^^t hh Intend In tbt aesiiiaa ia vftiihlj rHtir#i1, 
if iiqC whAUy rKtinicuUhfil, or r\w Uc hxr> \itfn rrfltvlnd, in whkb 
cur hb aeiuc o[ tecurily is apt lo be too great (or etBciencj. (Ap- 
plause and butter.) HU hikolc Moke, rnvfit u;idcr vwrj 
ottqtcioud conditiuib, is tuufiiitil li> two Mmuoa, In the 
vrer^ ibisg lends to moke him tacApaUe. In the second* he iriaf 
he IndiffcftaL (L*uKhitr-) Wo dfcluv ai cvciy f^toge thai Ihc 
House is decliiung in in^uence- Vet we bae no ehonoe tn piuh 
It futher «lnn^ on Ihr rlovmw^ird dojkr. To mr tlir imnder Ig. 
nM th4i ibe HourK bat linboed in cocoequence, but ihM uvf *ji^ 
ib eoas«i|ucnce xorrivc*. 

We ufSftflUv oucmIvos with rulrti wftkh ait conceit appar- 
ently is t&trust of our ova bcncsly. E\af ciprncncv of thh 
HouK proves th«i when It U left to the coairol of f ts own mijorily, 
ir evnlTcs b^nlioo of llic veiy higbeat cvrcOecce; yd wc suN^ 
fcmhrounMlvmo three gentlemen (wiser pcrtiap?s than any oti 
llirN; but not w wise u IW whole 400 who <oaipatc our mem- 
b«nl^p),uadiotfaU narrow cnbkoriiy wecniniM lli«ceiEirocont[^>l 
and dinction of oar pcoceedto^ holding to oundves at mubt, 
metdy a right to approve or to veto their propoKak. And t3 
upon itir ground openly staled that if left 10 oureHrrs me woQfd 
perpetrate eoorraalki or follir^. All this urould be impossible in 
a HooN w!iu6e 5Jeaibvt» hjd »uth b term at oflitr that they could 
becovne icqunintcd vnih eodi othci, and by tuiowledge of their 
dttfercni capndljei and quiid«« ktfa 10 co<:)pcnte effoctifiely 
ia€ wholeaonie k^iatinn. 

Why ha» ihc Senate gfown at tbc expense of tlib Bouse, althoufih 
Ifaf EracDcfa of the Cboatituiioa iDiended thai we ahmihl be the 
dficniBanl fcstsrc of our poGiic^ lyitefn? B^rauv the Seaate is 
a coMfiniaoua body t Evcvy Membv hoUs fcv lix j«ars. Tbey 
find thffocclrcB bound togeLber by a hundred tndueima grouing 
out of cxtcikded auocUtkm and however they ntty difer 00 
nattcfs tber Maud always motcdly for tlw dignky and povcr 
their Chamber, 


AmcricHn Oovtrnmcnt and Politks 



103. Thi Duties €/ the Speaker of ike Uviae 

Tbf i|u(iu of Ihr Spcj^pr of Ehp Hiujm* <if Hqinrvcntalivn art 

[hm tiU down In the Slantul ol iho Rukt- 

I. The Sjx-Akcr Ahftii uke the chair on every Ic^iaUiivc doy 
pitciKly ai Ih« hour Eo irhirh the Hou»fr ahaLl h-ivc aiJji>i]rncd al 
ihc Unl litliDft. imnkcdulcly cdJI the nvmbcn U> order, ojul od Ihc 
«pj)t!annL« ol ■ i|uurLtm, <iuh ibc Juuniil of the pnx«cdiniE» of 
the h$t day's siltiog lo be rcud> having prcviuicJy «iiumntf<l uul 
appravod the ^mt. 

I, HcshallprcicTvetnxleraDddiXOTuni, and.lniraicuf Uiaturb- 
ftnrr nr Hi^orrfrrly ronduci in the gnllnirs, or in Uic tobhyi nuif 

3. lib ihall have gvncrskl ronin^, excqit u providal by rule or 
lAVf, of Lhv Hall u( the Houw* lod of tb« corridon und pdMagn 
%ad of the ucAppropiioted rooou in thai part of the CApitcl a»- 
alpicd to ihc u«e d ihc Huu»c uciU Eunhcr order. 

4. He fthall ugn atl ocb, addrdUfH, jomt nsolulionx, vn% 
vimnts, anj tabpocnas ul, or Inued by iiriirr of, the Vbi»«-, and 
ilnidc^Uquvilvm of order, tubjcttluin appeal by acy mcnifaer, 
oa whkb Ap|>cil no member itkiU >pctik ciore thoA oiKe, unlcv 
by pcnoi^ion o£ tbr Huuw- 

5. lie liiall rjc to pat a question, but nuiy nt.iic ii ntling ; 
biKl >Kall put i^uraiion» in ihiii iittm, itf aii: "Aa many as arc in 
[&vor (ni the f^uot ion imy be) , uy Aye ;" and after the 4flimiaTiTC 
inkv h rxp(c»*tl, *-As many a* art oppi^ird« way Nw;" if h* 
<loubt». or a diviiiua U colled for, Ibc Uoiuc ibull divide; Uiose 
ifi the affirmative of the i^ucaiion shoJJ nr»t ri«e from ihelr watt, 
«&d then iboM m tbe nng&tive; if be BtiU doubla. or a cuuci b 
rcqaired by at Icasione'&fthofaqiBorum, he shall name one from 
cacb tide of the question io teU ibe mctnb(f» in the ailinnaiivc 
and rkegative; which being leported^ he shall riv and tzatt ihr 

6* He iball not be required to vote to ordinuy legifbllt** pm- 
mdkigv, except vhtrr hfa vote w^uM be dcci*jvi-, o* where the 

kngre«i at Work 


Hou4cisnigag«t in vfsriD^brholbt; Md b all cjsnnf t lie vole 

;, He ^b*U Khvc \ht ri^(hl to nnnic inj nvtnbTr to perfonn Oie 
dolic* of tile Clioir, but Buch sulMtituliun tlialL not eiUod beyond 
&n Mli<»urnn»n(: rrai-Ufd, hcvvt'tv, lliat in cuo o4 bb lUstflit 
he may make wch ipputMmrat for & period not vncafini ten 
(Ujn. with the ipprovol or the Houmt at the lime ihe sune it midc; 
and b Us abarncc and ocniMioii lo makr lurh 4p[KiInifneni, tht 
lIouK shall proceed (o tkci a Speakfc //* u-mport, %a act during 


104- Tkt PeJUk^ Siptifiiamct t/ IM4 SM^'^P* 

The ^itakcrthi|v in th« Hoiuc ol RtprocfiUlhv) U lhi» «m- 
irsMed with lh« ceirmpoELdlng pcuJtioQ in the Bnliih Uouav of 

Uli. T&WNC Tbf SpfaJ;cr m, bi mjr judgnmr, aJmosI u much 
tinecd ^«injU m linning. The fact thjil under boLh RrfiulJicazt 
and Oepaoualjc r^mr^ very Urietly thctainvcomplAint ha* htrta 
mttdt in nspoct Id Ihe cicrdw of t)un«-au((iCTalk porcr by the 
Ch&lf> U [Ui^irJirecocnhioiitoacofnidcrablcdeeTce thai the neccs- 
ik^roTfseiicbinglliAtlJjad 43if |HWer Inhctfd b ihc duties of the 
oAi^r itsdf fti il ha5 cvolrcd in our cysirm. 

1lir S|iFakcr^ipHtbUHniMe. Sir,iQLl»origin wa»aoi ap»ljli' 
CAJ o&oe^ Il to iolerodng lo contrul il vilb the spenkcnbip of 
ibv Ea^lkh Houw of Coounom, w^ionti- «« bono* vtry brRtty 
ifa«nH>dd 1^)00 which ihkHouKbcevutrtactcd. InibcHouKof 
Covmons ibt ^Makcr U a mere moderator, vbo pccctda «Tcr a 
parijamcnlafj body for the purpose of enfordfi^ oidEnaty paHia- 
oimUry nife* The office )u« no jioHliciU Bf^nifirAiirr^ That 
IatI 11 illustraled li) ihe m«f]( n^leciion *-i\ Mr. t/jvther. ihe Cod- 
MnAlWv speaker, by ihe new eoormom ULenJ mujaiity in ibe 
UoVBc qI Commooa. 

If n <pcalLtr a a cooipMcfit paifiamcftlajun, a fair mas, mad a 
iNAn of ahtlity, no nvjcdiy tn Ibc Englbh paritamcM caret to 


American Government and 

«rhlrli pATtj he Ui-tongfi. Bui ori^nally Ibe Kn^Iiflh speaker 
a political officer. His nuaf signifies it. I!« spoke (or the Com* 
mom nilh Ihe King, Acd Ia a lonnderablt dq[ror was tbb to 
direct ihi- Urlibenciona uf llie Uouw tLod tu Eadeit tbe mbjects 
upon vhkh it should deliberate- In proccs* ol Itmi; Ihei^ devel- 
oped the EnfrliH^i nilnlfiiiy, the rapoR^ibU elcfneiii in th« control 
of the Ic^Abiurc in the British iysitm. The mliuMry determine* 
&II the initlttivc in If^Ution, ttisaks out the pmgnm for Ihe Coan- 
fnoni, deteiminn what propMition* of IrgiilatioD shall to-me before 
llial \totiy i And the oppouiion -^ I mxy intcrpotAtr aI ihi* ^^dftt — 
ba» Ji1w«)r3 ihe right Ut piop<»« uud dibciuu uncndiiiei:I». ThMt 
function Uevtr the great factor in that general system of aovcraineiQt 
to wbkh the EtkgliAh Commomi and thi^ body belong, fl bystera th«i 
the greol cnmmeatatnr Bo^oi hfL« called a govemment by di^ 
ctmloTi; and if At ftnj lin^e ihiA Hniifir 4h;it1 riTr hnve ifM nnrirnt 
dignity and ptnver restuml aod ^all af^ain iippcal tu the imagiua- 
lioD and n&pcct of the pv>^W f^i AmviM:*, it will \x vhea it tiuM 
have vindicnted for itvlf the right to duc^&a oil ptiblic lacavtutv 
prr-p(.Hd hrrc-- (Lend appliusc) 

Bui in America wc have never evolved anything that answert 
(nthe HrilUh Caliinrl or nvinixlerial syKlcm- Thrrrmuit, howvfr, 
in trKrj majurity lemporarily contrtrlliag the deLibentifm of thti 
HoiisCt be wtncwherc an imtladve» the power of determining the 
polky aetoeding lo which the majority fthult chooM lo pToceed, 
and hove U thai! exerciM that power It is intensting to note bow 
Ihia hiDction has become an a.^vi of our Sptmkmhip, an eiYdution 
ID that office baring occurred direrlly opposite ftoni thai wlucli 
marked ihc EnfttUh tpeakcnJiip- Speaker Mnhtmbcrg, the fint 
Speaker of the Houie uf Reprosrntalitn, nrarljt imc hnndrrd and 
tweotjr ytan agPt wu a men pmiding o&cer, bui ui ihe courie of 
lime, ifae oficer who cocnmvaced ea & rnera modfrator has devd- 
opod into the most poweif ul pdilkaJ f undkvury iu ourgovetroiieAL 

There arc vxne ihin^ thai Acae «lio pf^wae to celonB the 
ruk« of the House i:an ealeriaia Iktlc diSrfrorc about- One el 
them vru (uggoted very ably by the gentleoaaD fio«n Tennes«ec 

Congress ftt Work 

In aoKwvr to a qwxdon. W« c«A fhan^ the Riica of the Houftt. 
W« can if wr mil, \V( yn\] nnl if wr aubrail ounelvrs fo th« (fie- 
lAtioa of B lew men oa ^undi oi .itlcged pirty interest and rdiaw 
to KUnd ia Uvnr of the inhvTirAl Ir^UUlivr ri^t* od tbf Itou»«. 
A mjijonty puty cui^if it aiil, mAc a fc* vmpte dionsci in 
rul«c ihftt (vill na a gRAl w«y (o itiuirc the ftocifnt capftcldrt ud 
pmiJ^ of the Uou»e. 

Ftir iiuUAoe. nnw, if a man an ihr floor of ihu HouM de^fc* 1i> 
(hftllenp thf ftlitntliin <4 the Cbair. he muM ariAe in faia place: and 
tddresa the Spcjikeri nod, is I think <hc Ungu^Hc of ihe rule ii -^ 
alihnuxh [ hAvt not trcn ii Utdf — "u^Hin lictiix mv^iumlt he 
bhalt pnxrtfl In order/' U he iv out rteugniijcil hv caiuiut proceed 
uid wc witnnf thu anomiilou* osd Injiuhli^ ihinff ^ aUbough tho 
SpcftkcT is luit in A penunal Kiat to bUiiie for il, tfl mc My, H in 
inhetcnE in the rulci — that a irun representing a Jtrmt AmerirAn 
coiuliliieocy wilhxMnetbirtjtDsprok jiboutand to Ihink abcuE And 
li> pmp04e lih ihii Krenl body on bu indindual Jiod (loli^aJ mpoDr 
Ninlity ima b his pbce here uid the Speaker t^yii to bun, *' Fcn^ 
v^oi purpoMdoM the erndeman an^ ? " And if the pufpote doca 
not suit the ^icnker. the memlwr h^ sol to any cfiectual purpose, 
ulien Ml aH, but hat to tnkc hl« scat. 

Nm, Sir, vhrrt Ivo or morr men are conlrmpnranouiJy 
chailcn^tiA the allenlioD <if U>e Ch^, it is a ncie fiecc«dtjr thjit 
bt ibiU chooM which oDt to nragnb*. No rule can ever obviatn 
that; but it has hjip7>entd tine and ^t^tn — il happened in my 
owQ ciAc in the Fifty fourth CoAgrut thni but one memlKr ta 
asking terogmtion from llir Chur and Ibat he cannot get the Soor, 
Noir, 1 unfoffake tr> uy that any Rqirrvntativt of i E;Te^iI roa^ 
MtturtKy of the Amtrit'in j>r^>plr upnn *hi* H<mr h« the T-.fftX, oe 
ought to have the rij[hl, touk the attention uf the Cbaii and of tbe 
Hotrae lo aayUinui hr vAtdtr* to hzinj; in iliv anentlon of ihw Aa- 

lUy vbca nobody d^ ia claiming the tluur at the tame lime- 



r:ifrc2n rovcsmiEBt: :umi_.^IMiuLs 

'..-r.- ".>* I ihi I I'l r'Birni—. iMi rill I 

nrmu -ne - oibba-^ it.-ucit hady-H Itn^nnri- 
>-: I \i ' iiiii<"iiiiiiHiTiniiii[n<iihni>iiii ^wli — 

'■' :.^ 1 ^ 1^ ^i-jtrtt.. snutrv:fn!Otrf bill Drasniudon of 

■-m'^t iTmifun«L-ii:ie^3]iiitt£inifttbcn^rTedio 

-■■* .10 onn :: * in i.e.: nuntvi-.t miKt borefioned 

'.< ■'r ^ ic UL i^oQ 1:1 m£ u-lcwajoo Maamrcia fv^- 

' :i:«i ^i^nnft :.-ie- .iiL-..;iiw:-iBiinRi it UTnrably. 

.>-■-': 1* ir -i»^«i3g UL iu>-:miih:* Dtti' rkaori- in 

-' - -^ ni^ . TTiif^s; I . ■ r Hv .'omaitittf^H The 
- r m .sec leiE ,jMii*.a . w-^ i ift^ tac^ thn: 
.» .vpt:.j-«'vi is .:l h|ii*iii. aiK^i' t.< 4Nn«r^ 
:«'" ■■ .'.r p :;ii V, Jut tc am ^f^ i rtv 

■ ■ ' * '" --i Vj "_-. . '» '^ k'tlPbliUlL.' tBPh' 

'■■■'■-■"' " - '■-- '-a^e aai^i^r-?^™: 

-^ ■ -'.r.^ 7 _ ;,_- . *- 'ci ; T^,^6rtnajt 

.:::-. .: -^ i- .*. :it -cui » _ 
ir -*. ^t\.» 

71 .'^i_i;i-.:i 

Congress at Work 

oJ Ihc SpvtLcr. The use of tbc rifhi of no^cnltioii vaHc« rhict^y 
trills hit pcTMiiAl wfll. As 1 nalr. thr Speaker t>JloWj the wished 
of hU puif lo Ihc If imtc ; yeU at the kaiuc tiiec, i/ be cbaic be tniglii 
ruily dcfcsE the vrill of the majoriiy ihrtK^^h hU coniral of reeog- 
nitioc A&d a« * nulfer df Eact Ihu hai uftfn l>Mn done* e«ipeH;Lilj 
hj Mr, Reed in ilie I41I Cjinjcm*. 

BeaiJn lliecuiiLfvl mer iheunltTof bu:»iam, whkli theSprakcr 
C3tcrtt through the comnnCtMS and through ncogiddoo, h? now, 
tbroufh the convieokoi aad dle<tj^r ConunliiM on RuTca, cxrr- 
dan JL general conirol over oO the tmpurtnni busbcv of the whole 

The Speaker decider lit questvoiu of pirliaTnentury jimcrdurt^ 
In general be exercixs but litlTc in^ucncv ovei legivUtitm throujjb 
IbU [.ruHTr, yet thtro ut- limr* vvhuu this tame powrc aJTtxU 1g|^ 
Ulion [□ the highest degne. For iiu»UDC«, m the Fiity Lnt Con- 
gnsi, Mr. Reed by hU parliammury r^tUngs dctermbcd 1 very 
loffc i^kUl of the fe^^dotJoD of ihat Congres. Mr^ Bklce, while 
Slwaler, hy ntlingn direrlty opposite In the Uter tiht* at Mr, tCrrd, 
prerenlrd his puly from pinhiog the great * Force Bill'' through 
the Housc- 

Tbf Speaker tJwrcUcs a i^at deal ol bfiutnc« m « Ri^. 01 
ooune, ibe mount of tegUbtwn thus dMemnrted dcpeiKb entirely 
upon Ihc Spcoker'ft pergonal ablUty. TfaU difect inducuce u 
cierled chiefTy id controlling the report* of romntittecs, and ia 
deciding with other leaders w4iat measure* nhatl be paucd during 
llie Utfigrtitt . . . 

The Speaker ii Ibe «Uve of the majority — and Ifo uloulute 
autur* Thb b noi a p^n^i^K, bul dnaply 1 auienvni of tb« 
catfemes ol the Spca)»r'» rclaliou with hU puty. There art linei 
whea the Speaker eooiplctdy Ihvraru the inW of 4 majority of the 
Uovie- Hedoo Ibia usually by having hit eommotleo oever rT|)ofi 
bilb favored by the Hou«e, or by refu«iiig to reeogniac meniberi to 
call up iatu«urra Uj a^'k h be U optxirMd, Thb wad llie taae \n tbe 
bat Congreifi vith ibc many rwolullcaii loc Cutsn bri%ervrtey 
and independence, whkb Mr R«k1 ivould not nilow iq be roo- 




r^ km :f4 

.,>.,.>, ..,n ' h^ -'.^uu^ r iiIa.^zTvcKca'snMi-Tmivr 

,' < ■-■ -.1, V 4 f> u^ .jui L Ttuufivcf aaocDcr 

f;. . .. ■ ' r: .--..■,' '/CM :c>n,b/lijuac- 3k9air 

■ ■'-'.'■ 

.1- 1 ' 
\^ - 

' .»"irsoi ^ul It 


hi\h when TcpoTled jfo upon ccrtftia cal^odtn of Ihe Bouic 
atxordiAg to theif character. Revenue uid approprialioa billa: 
thott art few in number, not lo cxirrcd pcrhaji- iwrniy. TVy 
coDK tron the CommlllM on Way>> und Meaib, trhoae office it » 
to prmdc rc^«nw fnr ihi^ G<rrv(rnmcnt, ind fmoa tbc- ro«nirtiic% 
n(3 AppropriitJi^n\ Mid fntm ihr ^wcrnJ cominii ii^* hnring lo do 
with tbc uimviuncie of ihc Uovpnunrtit in it> tvjoua ama^ lucb 
u ibc Kivol Commiilcc, ihc MUkary Commitiw Mid others 
Thc5« bUk wb«n reported gu lo a cidrndu* knuA'a m Ihe UttiuQ 
CAlcnd&r, but ib«j ore highly priv^lff^ed. at- ihcy ought in be, for 
wiihotit xMt puMi^ lh« GoveniPKnc wh(cL» ikOuM Mop. They 
cmbecdJedforconiidenlionalaaytimF- They Ukr prpcedencc 
of ill other bdU, u»l iht Speaker has no jdirmaiirc hul io itcoKniu 
the member cafiing them up, Thnr biilt are cuasid«!n<d, nut in 
thcHouv.but in Cominiiiccof ibc Whdc; ibc Speaker IcivcKibe 
ibair und another member Liku his |jUce- 

Anothcr cLlv of bills ace tMzh as reUlc to umc public purpcftc. 
but ctury du ftpproprfaCios, »ueb, foe in^iancc, lu hnAff bill^ ui^ 
Ihe She- Ta » tvge extent biUs from the imporUat commitifu 
ofi Urn Juijittuy ud on lalerttale sad FvTfjjtn Ci>aimerc.c Arr ol 
Om daito^ Tbc-« biiU gu on the Koi&e laJrndiir axid are eijlitled 
to coittidmiloii in ihe naamlng hour. There bciftg no pridlei^ 
bCUft for coBEdderatEoD, the morning hour la i^ reguUr order The 
Spe&kcr inuit caD ibe comntticn in their alphAhcika] order, tad 
then the rhAirnun of Ibe eominLiirr vrhkk hu thr €a1\ i^ eniitfed 
lo recognHnn by the SpcAkcr »i of right. The lloa*e [hen pro- 
ccvdi lo ibc coviUcTAllon ol (ucli blU reportcil by ihc roaunlitce 
in queicioQ nd tben on the Hovie calendAr ts the ch^mtn c^ 
v\\ vid cottllnoM la tctiMtmioti vntB a vote is had, nibiect 
only ti> a po^Eble inMTTUptlon ai ihe end of >txiy nfflUtM, to 
vrhkli I will refer bcreaJter^ Bm tixtt if iMeiiupled lb ocuuider' 
Atiitt k coMkkUcil ihrre-jitfT, whrn hutiaeiw of ihat ciuraclef 
fa in order, unlH il fa fiuAlly diipoaed or 

Ifl tdditloR to pubUc biOi fiacb 15 I hAVe emUDcraled, mmt 
carrying ta approfirUikm And olbcr^ oot, lb«e b viotber cb^ of 


American Govcrnmcni and Folirics 


Ulh, Ihr mcv^i nunKrow of aU — priTaic bi1l» prcn-idlng for ih 
TelitC of pnvalc individuals ur cnrporatJon*. Th^if hawr a raJeo- 
dar of Ehcir own cAUrd ihi; phiAlc c^tlcnd-v, and Jirr in ordrt im 

ftom ihc Commiim cm doinu, (rom ibc ConuniLinr on War 
Cluma ftnil fnjrn ibir Conimiiivi- on Prd^iuii^. A8 Ui th«W biHti 
ihc S|jcalpr lioj no tnilcpcnOctii right of recognition- When 
oddrcMcd by ihc chdmuui of the ApprnpriiLtc «>mmincr^ on * 
Friilay hr toufi nco^be him. And unlrw Ih^r House ileclinci lo 
cotuidrr tlicv billt Ihc Spoikpr mti*l ]eavc the chair and EMiini- 
•al« a mcmljcr lu pRMdc Jn hjft |;t«icc- In the lut C'oiigmb ilkrtv 
wtve n;portrd (^34 pnvale Ulb ; 6.614 ^f^CR pined, kating a 
undisposed of. 

There ia another clai^ of bitU that, like pHr^k bi]l>,. have 4 dfljr 
of I heir awn under Ihc rulu, vix.^ Itistrict of Colu mbin bllU. Aii H 
*tN knottii. ihnr rt ou n^ht erf NutTr«ge i" ilw l>x*iriii <■! Colurn< 
bU, &nd the Smatr and llixiv acI ju ilt SeWi and (^mmcn Co 
tik. Dibtrfi^t of CotuTnUi bUJ* «rv in orlcr on twv Muiidnyv 
etery moaih. Ac lo tbrac Ulb, affun ibc Speaker hay no aUrmi' 
|[v« but to ncotnbe the Chdrnun of the Dhtrki Cocnmi»c« 
when, on his alloiied diy. he cMla up hi^ btuinc^ 

A fnurih cIam^ of biflt provide for viriouin matier* of pnblic 
concern aod &n vitch m bvnlie a chxri^ upon the Tm^ury 
Thcie 0o to the Uniua Cilmtfu* und ^bcti cooMdered muil be 
«Huddcr«d In Conunhtee of the Whole. Aitheradofthcmomin 
hour (liny minuies) t notioti ouy be nnade to ^ inio O^mniUiec 
of ibe Wbole for the couideritlon of bitb on ihc Union Cjicndor 
or lor ihc cooiidenlion of ^mc pnnlculv hill ihrr?on. Tha« 
motion Ibe Speaker b bound to entierlaln^ 

I'hen « Urge pui ol the bminei«i of Iht Houw h dnne wholly 
cnilade of <be rufn, by ifniniiODvik (Cn?nil. Some ^nllemin, 
for IflttAncr, arise* b the House (uod, being ircijgnJicd by 
Speaker, ukfi ''uoanlnKiUt conoki fotf (tie i>rewni cvnsldenitio 
of Ihc folJo<ting hill/' Ui^ee objeLlkm it made ihc ULl n con 
ddotd niKl *rG4ed oe. It b im connccilon m\h thk pnurlkc ui 

I'-n I 

im- J 




Congrcn at Work 


lothc Spcuifi-. Bui Ibe ruin h;ivr QoChiog &t ftU todu «rkb ibu. 
The JipplkaQi for rceoKT.lLioQ a^i, ihAt «ll mle» lie mi a«klo. To 
UiUaJayincEnbtfrof ihtfUtniavRuyobjvci- Whyiihouldcoinplunt 
be madt U ihc Spcikcr Gicrd«c4 his ri^chi of nb)in:tJon by rcfu^ng 
10 tTicogAisc \n appbrani lor iv^ugniiion in any (junifuiar i'&3C ? 
Bccaai« bt U Sprier he 11 no Iru a member ol the lloiuc; ni> 
Leu J Rrpn^wiiiHtivr of liii^ ConjCti-^HUJiMl hihtrur If he nrrr un 
the duur }k i-uuld tiiUTpoi!!? aa objtN^trun to any rr<|ui^^t fur uiiiifu- 
■kOitt niii«Dl. Slioi^ be be lc««Ablc to Inicrpoic ibii gb)eci)an 
bvcwn be Ifi bi the ahkit ? Certainly Rot. 

In a rrfilr 1ft An ^lljirk mA'fr by Semtar Tlllmjui oo Prmufent 
Ruuaevcll for bii Lnsiiicn^c m funbj; nic«iun« up^n Cangirot 
Soutcir K<'iYndgc mado (hii ddeoac: — 

Bktr. Pitddeni, why «raji it ihni Ainbew JohoMQ hid no inilu^ 
tnrr v^th CVinfrr^ Arnl ihal Tlmidtjrr RiH>M7vrli bus infinile 
intlucmcc ^tilfa CuopiFni' Et it bfCiiu** rmr of Ibeni hul nnl tl^; 
conEdenoc of (he people, juid ibc other one bat the eniirccontidefKie I 

(if lhi7pru|>le. Itiifont oClhefnoulvNUiifitl, a« wril aiiuncudhe ^^ 
iDosi beiK6c«nt, workings of our popular form of uovrmment ^M 
ihAi Any Lnuidi of ft tbit at any piniciala/ period best rrpttSffiU ^^ 
Ibe pcopk fa& Ihe eoAfiderroe of Ibe j)r<opk^ 

Wbj «>A it ihAt in the iMt Democratic Adminiiinition iCt Vx^* WV ' 
deni V^i the eoolrol of ConptHf almiM ta n>mpfeiely a>i flld ^^ 
AndtTW JohTiion, and lh*t the Smator'ft own puly, tofpciber with ^j 
hfs cdle-JCiw« oa ibu iddi; bjKl the confidctta ot the people? It ^M 
trks becfose they nore arcwaitly re(>ee>mted ihr peoplv'a ibouKbEv* ^t 
necdk ilennndst md asplniionv Then! ii ou ^ubocnriciicy upon 
IhU }4dc of lW chamber 1o uiy powct on L«nh ejuvpt 10 the \mbl\c 
dpfaiicci of Ihc AawrirjA |>roplF, Whjit ibc ^lulor lliitik^ h 
•ulMervicncy to Uie demjwU el the rmidrni is only our Repub* 

-• ■ -'tI^CT <4AL »■ 

T-ir -TflcoB '*Tn :i^ 

"Twu :tt ■ME- 

Tft rhlfl «xtracc from a d«4i.itc in ibc Senate b diictiAied Ibc pi 
tern oJ bow f«T»rtudvcdtpjrtTncDLi ought logoin pn»ngtqpt- 



Mk. CAtrn. Vada dale of Detcmhtr 4. 10^5, ibf Aiionify 
Gcwml ciwunaDlcKlc^ A* foliom — thuis4ddrrufdiothcSr<cM.kcr 
of ibr Houae of Rtvrnmt«ljvn Add hba IkjtJ Lefuro ibr Huukt Ib '^">^ 
nguhr unliff of Uuiww u ft commwUcAliuiu It wu lEkewbe 
Kni to (be Scnuc. I •m Infonnod ihat the pn<tfce li Cor ti 
comnaunic&tions 10 be prtnied » t6<bt!t^ to the lireH Houv m 
whifh fhtjr happen td be presented, vtd euch commankadoa U 
|irr<iilfcl in tHjid llouw^, ThU IcLirr re^«: 

HtrrwHb mckvrd m tbr ilnH nl « prapned bUI lo i«pnl MCtnn 1 1, 

ti goe« Into ft knflbjr ilaferaenl of the icbmhu wfij ihe UD 
■bould brfome ft U«. 

Ml- Alpucu- U» Ibe Setuitor ukf precedent prior lo the 
prrftnt Adialnblriikm of ftny <ommunIcftlion of tbat cbATftcier 
frovn ft&jr Depanavni vncepi the Dt]j»mncnt <if iHc Enitnur? 

Mr. Cabtti. I ftttBmic thai the Dtpditment of ihc lnEr«lor 
ba« ivil fTcrnlly indulgrd in ftn ionorftilon by fonnmunLcatjn^ 
h:tj>huftrd tn Congrru in a auinftn' entirely diuimJIaj' from iht utAa 
nwlbvdi h«retor<«v «inj^I(iyrd. I do know thai ihr ncpMrtrncri of 
Conuncm fthd Labur, tbe Depuimcni of Jusli^. the Tir^ury 
DtpiftTimcnt, the Interior Drpa^ment, the Wat Dep^imcni, and 
(Hher Depftriments bire been in the faubjt of coounmkfttliig bciv 
prerltdy ft* the fn-cmarj of the Interior communltftled fnterdfty^ 
and sutfa coflimtinkftliont bftve ftJvfty« httn Ardcrrcf prioicil ftnd 
referred ]oM fti ihr cnoAownkftliciiii iveeivcd ynletday from tbe 
SrcnUry of the hiL«rivr «■» pviMed vad rrferr^. 

Ms. LotHiK. Mr Presideni, I ibtok I wft* corn?ci in sftyftig that 
tbt tiftbit ha& lnNn^>ly srown vp and ihM It dfo h iprndipft 
tm the put of beMb of DepBTtneciu to make vobniU>yronimum< 

TV ' 


Amcricnn Govcrnmenr and Polirict 

CKl3oiu or If) Tofuoleer communJcatioiu diivctty to the S«nat« or 
to iht Binjv, J do nM tbink It cut br fvnlmncTYfd thai ^Oicily 
those C9miDLrnk4tiont can only cotnt tlvough the imniitauion 
by ibc Pn«idrm ind 1 iklnk ii U iLlira>» vpHI ui be a UiiW MhM 

in ibr glnrrv:inct- iff (be ];tu and uol ttJ «IU>« Etutli jrreguJv cvh- 
tam. trott If Appjirrnily hattnl^^u. to jcrow up- But crtiilnlyp 
Hr Prcildenir ihc prucikcuf ^ohrnUiiiiic ]iilbrr«>m (be I>c)ju.rtnicnts 
withiivl request to ihc iwd hou«?( h wmi^ihing quite rHcat, unJt» 
my frvmory U aM Avimy, j.nil ihai it a vtry m»c h imiT^ im|u>riAnt 
matter- • . . 1 tWnt, Mr IVcudenl, II is wHI lo put i »top to 
tbU MibniUHoa of draft* of bitk to Congrvi* by tul>ordlnate 
«jW.iltJTp udtcvn^ ur by hcAdi ol Deininiiwni^ unle-A ilwy an; 
tbento Rqucsttd by one of tbe in-o Koiuc*. I do not tliink thai 
vi>tuolecri«g Wh frotn ihc- Fvcciicivi: Dopanmcnt h the project 

Of ccuru under tbe Kni^liitb sybkitk ilic l>tIU »f^ prrparvd bytl 
eircolit^ ^tvmmeitt, whkH it a commitice in fati of the two' 
Hijuu8, anJ ihry prtpar* tlirlr own mrai^um and iiuroducc ihvia. 
Bui hen the Etecuiive DcfiLincnrni b diuiuLi and uiile« wc ulc 
lof drAflJt of bllU for our own ronivfilrncc^ ind for the pritmfii:on 
of food Ir^ilalion, irwrma lo me Hmi il i^ irrcgabir and un^rivly 
trrrguliU lo fill into the prat licr of havirx^ o^ct% of the lLVCUtiv« 
T>('[>;i;1mm1 |i(orat biUft tu Coii>£rr9a hi tliU ntj. 

Half ji do^n cuntf io the other duy. Tbcy ncre rcfetred lo 
copunditocs without tflklDg any frad£ng& They were referred lo 
cofluniltcci for eonudt^niiion. Tho« biUi bod no Cakoda^ 
minbcr. Tbcydnnol ta.Vr thrordifurycourwof any olbrr billt.^ 
I ihinL ft J4 irrrsu]^ Ijotb urtlrr Ibe rulr^ ami und«r tbr Matuir. 

1 do niH want to cut off tbc advantage tbjt wr luiv in fErttioji 
oSkerw <if ihe UviK«nnieiitt to drao protwt bilU Uir Uh. Ttiat i^ a 
duty vhich I hv\jc they nill alirujti pcTfurm oa itu: ns|ueBi oJ ihe 
Hoiuctf. But I do poi thiTik that ihrj ouf h< to »ubtnii tiU» un- 
«ik<d for, wbkh tkall go in lbi» trrr^br way b» committice^ for 
coniidrralion li tbc brad i.>f x iJeparimrnt hnt legbbtioo in 
wlikb ht u ijUvmtlcd ui^ firctrni* it t4> Ike i batrnun <if Ibe com- 

Congrctt It Work 


coone U pedcctlj pfoper. The btll ukct ibr it^iul Miur>c But 

do Kri carr hiMr [img ilir tu^uxtt hm l4ai«l, it b ui irrrgukritr 
wfakh boA ffroKn up^ If w Mre Co haiY inforrotlion rotuniccirii 
fron ibr l>fiirtni«ciUi ki li cotnc ihn>-ii|EW ilie Ptrajdcni uf tbc 
Untied Scales ottd Any oiber informAlkio we u'uit from ibe De- 
fwnnrnt* vrv coa u4 for. 

Thit pvs-if?e frvQi a spocch bj Mr. Ll]Uj m t)ir ttouu 
RepnncnUIii«i illu3tnUC« ibc tray Iq vhkh mcmhcn attrmpt M^ 
Mcum the cJtpcadkttrt ol i^vcinmcnt muficr in ilirir rcH|>«ctive 

On DerMnbrr >, Mr Ti^rW intnwltKrri » hilt culling f a* t A j 
irnnl 4Ution nt or nrar Fnrt Mnrj^an, Mk- ,^gg! 

On Ihe iiexl Jftjr Ur. C<Ki|>cr uf Ttx»« (ftllnl (cir (Iw obUblish* 
menl ul 4 dry dock oa or n^ar S^tbiat Puft-' 

0« ihe 9th <if Dcrcmbct, Mf . Lim jt of Florida cane nficr ' not 
mon ihuk iwo nrillkin dolb/a for a dry dock tt PviMacol&," 

Ob the umf dAf, Mr- Kullnvnj^ of Stm lUmfMliin* iv^vt nflrr • 
nMlloB tad a l»]f kir ^mnuiulh, jiUhtiugb a batlleA}iti> canniit 
Ipl lo rhi» port Ul nielj. 

Ob the i>th of D«cfnb«r, Mr Smlih of CalUorttia cute hio 
Ibe Md wtib ft pcOfKMltiaii fur a dry dock on ihc bay of San Diew 
CiifonUi for whicb he ulfed for t million. 

Onthr iqlh, Mr Gran^ol Rhode IfAtinA |>ut In bi«proposi6on 
lor 1 dry dock ind rtpdriog stftlioD " 4i 1 »mUblf itTKlcgic point on 
the AlUnik," 

On Jsntuuy 6th, Mr. OfTgic procntcd the (lFrrr«adk oi T«u* for 
ft dry dock ai or DMr G^vtEiion, Tn. 

And Iben on January to. came the pcopoutiOD (o Ifiiy il;c de- 
fiHKl JfttnftfowQ Ktpoticion. tiihcfcd by Mr. 3hUy»ird of Vir- 
gnda. winch if Mtopiod wouid add $^,500/100 10 Ibr grand loulctf 
WHftc on n«Ty jafdv 

tbc lloof dunag the lui thirttca houn of the senion, ofteotibljr 
cfiikbbf Iht n\tai\jn, but, b rcaUl]r> LLlldng afaintl tfjnc. vdib 
Iht knowledge Ihat when ibe btnds of Ihe ctock reoch«d the hour 
of nww, ConifTTM would expire bj lifutiiiion, ind th« blU ntmU 
dic^ In Us own yajt the Scfuile aocompluhrs more vmrk — IttJit 
b tl CButi tDorc bilb — due the Kqiac of RcprvftcntBdvcs- No 
Scnttor obfvcU for ibe mm uk« of obirctiog; bni&uM be k 
awue that if be is cAptious, he wiH bim*elf eucounlcr tnaumcrablfl 
»iunibUQfr blocks when he sc^kt ih< |)V»<c of mcamm* In whkh 
In ii iiii0C0ted, He S> ual/ ooe of akttij Scnaion, soy one of 
vfaom bu evciy privilege vltidi be enjoji. 

tt b the fart thtl carh Senator b a pow^ ualo faintelf that 
fhv the Senalc ib pcc^diar plate m our syitem of f^vemmenL 
WWb a ¥ote upon & treaty or att important mcMure i» Ui be caa- 
vuaed.hfanecviao'tul^uvr the uuUudual view of each Senatoi; 
% tuk frcqutfitly »unt)uod<d with Mine difliculif . There is more 
ndefiendence of ibought a&d aciioii b the Setuie than in Ibe 
Howe. imiafire« where Iwo Seiulora nf tht^ Mme poltlif al purtj 
irttm the danv :^rjiie wite upi^n opposite sidr« of the nme quniiuii 
an by no owam care, and, ot bile ytna^ have bcvumc quite coa3< 
BWD- Party leadcfs, therefore, take oixulon, duriniE the days 
ocrupkd in a prolonged debate, to mirestigate the cciodition of 
iheir own ra&kn, nod ^iren^hen, hj mch preattufC oa mny be Riost 
etlrclive, any weakness they may diarover. 

llic righi of any ixTiaior b3 Apeak al any time, upon inj «ibject, 
asd at aB> length, devTlo|i« otal^in and debaters No man vrho 
ponoMi ft lakoi la Ibb ifirrctum need lack of cipportunity ii> 
ptoTQ Us cifMcity- If be b rcaUy a groM oator, U be aciuAlly 
ilc i i M ii te iw bia lo^kd aad thovghtful mhid, he tor^ Id the 
froatt and eauM be reckoned wilb by those who aasumr kndcr^hjp- 
tf, on ibc olber band, he la dull and al'^w-wiried, tacking both 
atrencth of tibnufbt and forcefulnev ol eqiceaaton, he wiU sink by 
hia own weigh e. 

em t4 


American Government and Politics 


j|[- Comjnuniiaiitin^ hetuven Ike Houses 
csr c^^lrici.s from rhc CimgTfwbnal Btcord iUustra-lc ihe 

LV in M.liJi.h a;^rucmenLs and disiij^reemcnU I>elwtcn Ihe two 
[dies arc R^giilcrcd, and arran^a-menis made Jor conferencea. 

IA message from Ihc Senate, by Mr. Parkinson. i(s reading clert, 
mounLtd Ihat Ihe Scnalt li^d agreed io Ihe amendments of the 

tu^e ')f Rt:|irefien(alivcs lu ihe bill (S. 640) to extend ihe pn>- 
U>ns. limlialiuns. a^nd bent'fil*;of an act entitled "An ait granting 
Insions (o iht survivors of (he Indian wais of 1831 to 1S43, in- 
lisive. known as [he Black Ha;vk Wat, Creek war, Cherokee dis- 

IjaniTs, iind ihe Seminole war," approved July 27, 1892. 
This message also annount'ed thai the Senate had dbagrced to 
amendmenis of Ihe IJou^e oi Represent a lives to the bill (S. 
|6ij) to pr(>\ide n aimmisiion (0 secure plans and desEgns for a 

mumtnt nr memorial lo the memory of Abraham Lincoln, late 

"^[deni of [he L'nired Slates, had asked for a conference with 

?s of ihe iVkTJ Houses thereon, ai 



ii». C«flutfiraribd««/ Pnnmimu 

AancLi IJl 

SfxmON J. The judttMl putrtr of thr Unllcd SitBeS ^11 b« 
Tt4tcd ift one Supreme Courl, arid in such infmor tomttt ta Can- 
gfT4A mij' from lj(nr la Itnic ofdAin and nt.ihlUh. Thr juilxc*, 
both of cbc supreme «au) infcrkvr ciwrlH, shill bold tlidr uHkc* 
dorittg Kood IwhiTiur; «nd *liitll, si Uttvd linic», rnrirc fur l^cir 
ttmcvi ft conpcnsitaunw wliich ibtB ovl bv dimiiiithtd duiiag 
ihtk continuance ia n^fice^ 

Section 7. Tht; judkial power >bAU ribtthd to a!) rues in lav 
And canity ATuing under ibU CouUitutiMt, Ihc Uv» ol Ihe Coiled 
Suir«, And irrafir* m»At or which Hhall Lr madr. unJrr Ihdr 
AUthofilf ; lu ^1 KVtt affocting unbandducv u<hcr |>ubfic mio- 
bUn, ftod con»uU; to all cv«« ol adnurekr aad marilimv juri»- 
dklioD; 10 cooUmYtuM 1u which ih« I'otud Suu« sliall lie a 
pifty; to controvvntei b«lwmi two or more Statcf*; bdwrcn a 
State ftfld citiJtnaol Aimthcr suit; boiwnn citlfrnt ntf dilTmat 
5tat«ft; bdwtfn ctliaeiu ol the vme SUIc claUning Unds under 
grenCi ol dtiTerrnt StAtr*; nr*l bHwrrn « Stale, off the filLtt-na 
llMi«of, Uld Corrign stAlcv dluciu. « lub^ls. 

In all cuvs a£ecunK >Tntnwdnm. crt1>cf pabtic nunklco, 
tod ccfttda. oad tboae in wMdi n Suic ftb&U be a pany, the Su< 
P«VBeCaiiRsh«niavcoKRUknljtiri>dicitim. Inall the other rva 
before nwDlkmed, the Supmne Conti shsl\ have appotlAlc jurit- 
dlciion, both AS to law aikI fact, wilb »urh eireptSona and under 
au.h rc^uUlfcw w tlia ConpiH ahall «i4Le- 
T ajj 

174 Anitficut Govcrruncnr ind Poitn» 

TV thai ^ 4il ffnw, caeqic ia caa of ni^HftiMir, ^ b- 
hf ptry, and iiKbfml tfa^ bcheidiB itw Slalv wtev the add 
CCUB** AhiH have bMn ini^nitlfed- but ohctt mC mBMmttE^ 
vMiin urf HtaO!^ (he rrt^ tlnll Lv ir larfi pUrr iT 
nuy bf Isw haw dhrrwd. 

Thr CounntiDtt iMmfaoB c^anK ^'^nfm upon the Sapnsne 
Oran Elir uiiMtr of dvcbdic ammu invkkid mi cfac ^i*nnHL nf 
aa twtitii tMadiQ^. Thb poMn- eu5 bcco dcnvoi «iiti bebjttijile 
Infir 6v7m Ibe natun frf the tisiTimietu itacif^ and wu lor das liisc 
t0ii« ***fTt grf bf Qikf JuMke Mu9ta*Q to rbc <c*cfantei oac of 
MartHiff V. 3<Bi&oQ hoia whkh cbt« ehisli. b taken. 

T^ .^aeitifflt ir&EC2i«r tui .Let rep^^o^AC to £^ CvuslUulkiii 

^^j^ ran P>Frrime the law of the Und, is a qaoQDn dcqilf i iilB e atiiig to 

-rinlii rhf Uniteri Stata; but, happitf, mt of an iotDCKf pnportiDDrd 

^'^ to irj^ jntfr^i. It semis oolf oecxasar^ to '**''^g*'** '^***"* p^«-L. 

pTfi, iupp<H«d to hUrWK been long and ndl cstabfiBfacd, to dedde it. 

'^ rfihi Thai the p«nple hare an original rigbt to estabfialiT ^ tboc 

d CTtt^^ f'ltiir* govemnient, such principles as, in tbar opinion, shall ntoat 

Dwmmrnu r-mdure In ihdr own happincss> is the basis on whkh the who4e 

JJJ^^'^ Amrriran fabric has been erected. The exETcisc ol this original 

rit;hr 11 a very ^reat exertion ; nor canit nor ought it to be Ficquentl^ 

Tf\t<'ittM- The principles, therefore, so established, are deemed 

fiinrlamr-nl^[. And as the autbority from idiich dicj proceed is 

jii/prrme, and can seldom act, they are designed to be pcrmanenL 

Thii r-riEinal and supreme will organiEeft the government, and as* 

BiKriM ((- difTpfcnl departments their rvspectlTe powers- It may 

filhrr '<i"]- hcTt, or establish certain limits not to be tniiscended 

l-y ih'Nc d''|iar1meni3. 

fthf Htr K'vrTnmpnl nf ihe United States is of the latter description. 

r'^J.irt"-"-. '^^"' ]'"*''r'= "f 'h^ IcKislature are defined and limited; and that 

ir-'Tf'l' ilii i^r limii'n Tpny nut l>c misUltcn, or forgotten, the Constitulioa is 

Viil '*'/ whji |mrpi>ac are pt wera limiled, and to what pur- 

The Fcileratl Judiciaiy 

poae ■ tibat Umilaliooi coamnttetl to wriiiag, li thete Umiti mxy, %t 
Any dsie^ b« poMcd bjr ^ote \xtita^e4 to br rocmnod? The 
dlMlDcifeo bfcwcea a cowniiQODl with limltf<d «ftd unlimited 
pQvcn Is Abolbhcd, if ihuu nmia do ooc ton&itc tlic |icaoD,i on 
vhon difj &i^ impDAcil, ukI If ftcU proUUud ud ut» aUownl 
Ate oif eqiHil obligatiori. It b a proposilkin too jitaln lo ht cioo- 
tcded, llut tiie CoEUlilutlonconirDls any IcKuUtnY Act ricpu|[nvtt 
U> li; or, tbai the IcRi^tun Eiiay alter tbe Cooktitulion by as 
oodlnarr Ace 

Bctwctn lb»e alKnaiirts ifaere b no middle ground. Tbe 
Coiutitnticck is dther a w^icriar furjLirtouni Uw, uiuhxngcahte fc^ 
oidinai^ mcanx, or ft b on a IrvH wirh tiAlinniy IrjptUtivr httt, 
■nd, 1^ other Acts, a alcrrat^ vfacn Ibt k^lature ifaall please 
to iJUf IL If the fofmcr paft of Lh« aJlcfiutivc be tme, then % 
kfUallT? ActcuniTvytolheConatiiulionlBEiot law; Hlhebtlcr 
|>an t>e trwv ibn wnitcn con«IJii:tio« an abaurd aitinnpts, on ifac 
pan oJ the people, to limit a paynt in lt& own native jUimitabte. 

Certainly afl Ibosc who have (ramol vrtiilm <-<mMiniticini cna- 
ttmpbtr tSrflt aa fnt^in^ ihr fundnmrntAl uod piir«mi^ucil law of 
fbc oation, aod, conMC|Ueiidr, the theory of every such gprem- 
nwnl mwt Uv ihai Vi Act of tfao LaigUUture, nffofcn&nl to ih« 
OniMilviion, is void. ThU ilieory U eAvniiillj attached lo 4 
writteft coft>littitioa, and b conwqHtotly to br mnsidcred, by iMi 
court, aa one of the lundamrniaJ princiiilca of ow icdety. It la 
not, therefore, to be ksi tight of ic the further cooaidnatMn cf 
thii tuWjnt. 

U an Act of the Legislature, repusnanl to ikt Con*liluiioa> la 
'Did, do«a il, notwIihfttiAiUrtff lu UvaUd^ty* btod ibc couru, and 
oUigf thvo] to gfvt it rSecl? Or, tn other wocdi. tboiafli U be sot 
law, docs k cowiiiulc a nik aa operaiii-e aa if h w» a bw? Thii 
PouU be to oTtrthrow in (art what waa cMablUhtd In Ibosay; 
ud WMild aeera, at tint iVv, an abaurdily too groM •» be anaiUed 
00. It tliall^ boKwcr, mcivc a more altenliiie conaidentioa. 

It a rmpltalicaDy lh« proi^sce and duly of thr jMiklal drpiail- 
mcntVfanywhaitbclawii, TIkm who apply llie nilt Iv paiticid' 


^7^ Amcrkan G<^cnnacat and Pofirics 

lar ^ancK, must of oecctflity c -ipound ud inlnpnt that n^. If 
two laws cimrtict ^tli each oUmkv I'm aXBtt m^ dedds^on tiw 
nperaii'in of each. So [f a U«F be m oppeflstkM to th* Coiatk» 
t!on; if l>ofh the Law and the CoastitutioB apfd^ to a paitkmbc 
rase, stt fhat the court mitst either decide IhM caie coafotnablj' to 
rhr Law, disregarding the ConstjtutUm, or coaformafaif to tLic 
Consiiiutkin. diaregaiding the law, the court moMdeMrnnDcwbich 
of these conflicting rjles ga^cnm the cajc. Thk u of the very 
r^^aence oi judicial duty, U, then^ the court! aie to re^xd the 
(Vmiitiluiion, and the CofMJtulioii ia supenorto ai^ ocdmory Act 
of the Ix-^ii^laliirc, the Coimrtutiofi, and not such ordmaij Ad, 
must Kcvem the case to whkh they both apply- 
rwfw Thr>se, then, who contTT>vert the prtodpletbai the Co ailiiutio n 

f^'' is to l-e frtnsidered, in court, a* a paramount law, an ndnxd to 
wUti. the nerf«<iity nf maintaining that courts must cloae their eyes on the 
( oTi'^iiiiition, .md see only the law. This doctrine would subvert 
(he very foundation of all written conadtutiooa. It would declaie 
thai an Art. which, according to the pnnciptea and theory of our 
govrrnmont, h entirely void, Ls yet, in practice, completeiy obliga- 
1017. h "otiTd declare that if the Legislature shall do what is 
pi|>rc-4q|y fr>yhidden, such Act, notwithstai^^ug the express pro- 
hilnTi<fri, i^ in re:\lity effectual. It woold bf giving lo the Legisla- 
ture .1 ]jrn iicnl .ind real nmntpotence, with the same breath which 
[irofc^cs ('p rt^trict their powers within narrow Limits. It is pre- 
^rriliintr Irrnrts, ;ind declaring that those limits may be passed at 

mfTii* 'J'h:il 1[ (fiii'^ rrducc to nothing what we have deemed the great- 

T "f iiir '"^L iTn|irnvimrnt on political institutions, a written constitution, 
rrtihtiriFi WHiiiM if iM If Im- suflirient, in America, where written ounsliiu- 
\\••[^- htvi- l"'rn dewed with s<i much reverence, for rejecting the 
r<'n-rriii riitn Rut ihe peculiar pxpressions of the Constitution 
(if ihe 1 niiril sr^iie-* fiirni'^h additional arguments in favor of its 
i"| i'Ti'if the iu'hMril powrr of the United Slates h extended 
f.i df . 1 I ^ ,iri-inc under The Con^liriilion, CouLd it l^ the inlen- 
[j.Hi 1 J ifi.hi- uhi» pave fhi'- jiowcr, lo say that in using it the Con- 

The Ftdctal Judiciiry 


icitutlon shauU tust he looked ln(dP ThAI t ovr nr^lr.g undet 
Ihff Constitution «houid br decided wilhcul mcnining Ibe in<tru- 
tSMnl unifer which it orim? ThU u too «xtrmT3KJtnl 11:1 tr miiiv- 
Ulofd. [n loiM cftMn, lheA> Ihe Constituiiixi muM lie Imkei) mio 
by the pilgn^ And if they can open il »x aU, wrbot pAfi of it afc 
lliojr [orbttMcn lo rvjul or t(> obcv^ 

Thtrt MT maoy oihcr piina of iht Coruiiiuiion nhkh icnre lo 
niiuinte lU» bubjccL I1 U dccl&itd tlui "no ux or fhity fhtll 
be laid en aniot^s cipctrt^ fmrn any Stale." Sufipow a duly 
on ihe expert of cotton, of toboi^ca, or of 6d<it; and a %mt iii»'l>- 
tuled to rtcoTcr it- OuqM juil|[inen1 ia tie nctidered in »uel3 a 
caM? Ottj(hl ih? judKV!' 10 <\vf tbeir ryv!> oii Ibe ConMJtulion, 
and nnly k« ibe law? The Contiitmion doclortt "thai no bill 
ci attninder rir fx post f^io li« fhal! lie paa^cd/^ If, huwo^, 
mirh a bill &hi>uld lie poued, and a pefWMi should be pmieeuled 
under it. niu*l tbe fViurt rftndemn «i death tJw« vi\tim* vbrnn 
Ifae Conitiiuiion cndraron 10 prc«rvr? "No jirrKin," ny* ihc 
CdOiritiCutiun/'ithaU brcom'klcdonnrftxin iui1ef»vn the Ir^niony 
of l»D »iti)rMC» la ihc M(Tie oi*rl jct. ur on conlmion in open 
court." Here tbe longiu^ of Ihc CoQAUutlon Is addfefMd c»pC' 
clally 10 the courts. Il prcAcrlbtt, diitreily for tbem, a rutc of 
etidencft not In be departed irctra.. I f the fegblanire should chaiifQc 
that tub, and drdarr tyr\t witnnA, ur a eonfevfon nut oi cnuri, 
MuAcionl lor eonvku'on, nuat Ibe ton^itutional prind|ilr yidd 

10 the kiptlatlve An? 

Kroni lhe«, iikI many other seleciiocu «1iicb Rugfit be made, 

11 b appaitat (hat ibc framcrt of ihe Con»iiiuiion mnictnplAicd 
thai inaminmt u a rule for th« fovemment of ibc «kUfU» v iwcll 
■A of the legiidatucv. Why otiRnvbc dnet it direei the judgesi lo 
lako an oalh In «i*ppon 1< ^ I'hi^ oaih reriainly ApjiUe» fn an r«- 
pcdot oiinncr to Ibdr condwi in their oflicial cfimracler^ How 
fnCDonl to ttnpoM ft on tbttn, if ibey wre in br u«c<l ai^ tbr InMnt- 
Bcnci, and the ktKiwtnj intmitncnli, for violating what Ihey sweor 
In auppon T, The rmth of oAWe, inn, inpovd by ihr ttj^^atufe, 
li conplrlety demnmlnJitr of Ihc k^dilitie opin^n on ihi^ sul 

*■ » 


" ' I I'MVTrii the rwie in ^wWCTh* ^•■t^a*, i^M. m ikxluug 
I L-.H-. ti.^, who cAfffrrt^ *,4|iriiw; m ClMitatM tttdf 

i,.,.t .in*-n^I TfT'^trt='^.-'**^»=*'^»»dS>ttKBBiierilly, 

'iM „.-r's iiv'if t^nTTi<'T"V' •*.''-*•"■ ^ ;.u7suMwr of rt« CoMd- 
i '.riiiniMxm.-^ml-'rn 'th**^^- -.«ni/u« utaMeology of the 
Ml. T..M i..,„,-?',,Vin ^^--IT ■^->— ' ■^"^^"^'^^ ^«»^ •«™pl«» '^ 

^-.,„ ,1 jH^.itfiTTv ,-:■* »--^*-*'tx '' ''"It' ii»d ihit courts, •* 


.> ."fti- . >w£. i«wr Slw$e ■teMkr 

. ■■. r:-rt. ^ 
I HIT II ml MU tntiu: w.\*jl» n <rR.iik hoVoTr it hy pn^cr 

.. M .:;) <h..v 

U' ihi- n^<e<«ij*^ She im*- 

-'.: ^fl*.'*. 

'K HWt^JW'iWH A- it^ MJttt 

'*' V|t''*- ' 

'>ikli<i- » »-». ilK' Tii4f«vn; *tf 

1 ^Pv . 

Hti. -hit*- sUu ■v»^^»ff'Ul'^^t 

> 1 \ • :. . 

i-if. iu> rw>i*H in; >^'tf.** 

mi ■■ ' -; 1- 

, 111-. --..;-. :iiin.,r^r^ n "ii, 

1 n '.'- ""'l^'l 

Mil, 1. *h< ''»Li *ni ..iirn'"!- 

t <l,'kj(tl4«^ ll|k,l.H 

■kMf< llHv rihftli^i^ 'd^'v^ 

The Fcdcnl Judiciary 


manty a good lendfT, or & »uic liw, impcirittg ihe obligation of 
Auch contmci, trhith Uw^ ii Unilin^* wouU defeot ih» Mut^ The 
corulilTitLon of the Unilcd $c«iv« hui dc^UittJ lh«t no Mite bhafl 
aidk« 4n]Etl]ing butfpid or svIvrrctiiD « frndeT tn pafiDCiil of debU, 
or jiau a Uv- impairing ibc obligiliooi of coaincu. U Congrm 
tihall noi havif paMvd a liw ptuvlding t^Jt the ntaovai of »uch a 
rail (0 ibe courts of ihr UnitM Stales^ rausi not ihc ttiiie ooun pro- 
cwd (o btiV and drifrminc ti? Can A mere plea in Aeitme ht at 
ilself a bar lo fuithw procfcdinp, 40 Jj to pirolubii an inquiry 
into iu inilh or pitipriciy, uhrn no olbrr tribunal riitu lu 
nhoin judicial iogniaaate uf tutli lascs b coDfided? Suppcite an 
uidictncDl for ft cnmr in a alalc courr, and the dcfendofii ahould 
alWiPS In his defcnw ibai ibc crime wa&ereatcd b^ an cjr ^t/^fic 
mt of the ^lait. tnuil ncti ihe ttut ffntn, i% the exerciie of a jurit- 
dirlicm vhirh han alrtAdy h^btfultf atiarlirrlt havr a rigfal b» 
pmnuunte on ibe itafidilj and juflicicnci^ of ihe dcfetae? It 
noixU lie rttrrmdj' diffuMJi, u;»on any ic|Cil princi;)le», lo ^vr a 
nejc^tire aH*«re lo (lir^ iN^inificv lanurarrablv iTt^Eatiim of 
ibe ume von migfal be staled in iUti&trati'on of the po^li'jn -, and 
unleu the natr couriii could nurtain juriHlJction in lucb raw»i 
ihb daiitt of tb« abxh anicte ^ would be without mcacio; or etf«ct, 
ukd poUtc maadiieb, of a moti eaomKnia nagnilude, vouU in- 
evitaMy twar. 

It onul, therefore* he civnreded thai the <on«ti1«ticia no4 anly 
coniemplated, but meant lo provide for cato within th« aoopo of 
Ihe Juilkiai pciw<er of ibe Un^ivd Scatca, ^bkh tnigbf yet ikpctxl 
betoae stAic tribunal*. It was foiwoen that in ibc eaerdw of their 
oRtinaiy JuhadJctlon, flalc courts ^^outd incidcaiftlly take cog- 
nionrc of case:* anting under the rons<>t«linn, ibe lam ami tre ai jn 
(if thr ITnitrd SiAlev Vtt r-^alt f hr«<- ra^trt the jui4irb1 {•iimrt, by 
Ihe Trry lcrai» of ihe tijnUiliilkin, kt to etlrnd. I| tanDol rxicod 
by ori^nal juriKlktiuvt if that aa* olnady rightfully and exciu' 
thely aittacbed b ihe stale conns vfaich (as ha> been abrady 
•bdVB) may occur. It miati, therefore, exlend by appdlaic jur 




American Govcrnmcni and Politics 

f»lktic<i, or Aoi Bt aIL Ii wmiU fccm to folio* ihii ihc appvlUie 
poirer of the L'niicd Sioiti xniut, En sucb chm, ^xtchd to atuc 
Inhmnili; And if la such cft-cs (kcre t* no rrOAon mby it %h<iuLd 
iMl rqcully aiiarh upoo iJI olhrn within tlv purvifw ol ihc ooo- 

[| htA been fl^Htu^i thaX nith An ^ppirLUlf juriulkiion over slAlr 
cuurU b< inMiii^»tvril wjih ihif ic>i;>ihj\ uF iiur jjEcitTrnirirnCi iie<1 ths 
«pir{i ci the con^ihoiion^ Thai ihc latur vaj: never deigned lo 
act upon unit sovcrrijpitics bui only ufxiu ihc people, and thttc If 
the povrer exisbi, il will xnileriallj tmfKtjr (he -lOXYreigniy of ihe 
itair\ And Ihr independence of tbcir court.iv Wc CMinni yield lo 
the foffix of Ihia reAvthnig ; il «A«iiinr4 ]-irindjile« wtrich «ie cAnnot 
AdmJi> wl dtiwi concliuion^ lo whkti ibT do iu4 yield our mcnL 

ft UtTTiittakc tliAi Ehocimxiiiudun waAnotd(»ItDa«d tovfwraM 
upon 9t>le?, in tht^lr coiponti* <;jipuiii«. Il is irowded mhh pro* 
vlFlonk wbir.h rc^trnn rjT an nul ihe wkverdgniy of ihr j4M(3« in (<imc 
of the hj^he^l l>rutchr^ nf tUrr pfr■^^J^TUT:•. 'I'hr ttnih ?«fi:lion 
of ihc finit uiiclf coniaini x loitg litT. of diuhilttlr^ Ami firrihlbl- 
tjoni iiT>(>09«tt upon llxr MAtr^, Snrvly, nhra ^urh phfmtijd 
poTtloD^ of «tAle M^^cteJgnty jue tAkcn ji«Ay, or pfohitntrd in be 
txerc&«d, It c-44inut b« comctlr vtoittd (hAi ihc con»lll«l]on don 
Mil act upOD the itut^^ The UnguA|*r! of the conHitullon iii also 
bnpcrarivc upon ihi^ siaIca or to ihe pcrf^rmAnirc nf many dixlie«, 
tt b imperaliTv upon the HaIt kgi«i&lum tr> mike Iah^ pK^crib* 
log ihc tinir, pbf», And manner of holding eirciioru for iienAlon 
and rcprc^cMtAEitvf, itnil f"r rlcttui* <if fhWdnil ^ud Vi<u-Pre»i> 
dctiL And tn ibctc, u* well «3 wmi* other c4>ei> Cungrm ba^'e a 
vlfht lo nMui, Amend, at mpcncde the Iawk whJdi nuy he 
pkved by stale kgbtelvrei. When, tbtrcfore, the suie» tnc 
fthpped fif ^nv ol the ht^he^r attrilyjie« of >ovEni|3Aiy, and the 
fianip aft gi^vn lo the Ttiiied Stales; when the k^tlatum of the 
Matei ate, tn «ocne retperU, nndtr the control of Coacre«i, and 
En vtTvy caw wv> tinder the Con«lltuiIaci, bouitd hy the paramounl 
ouihorily of the Vnlted Slatn ; El b icriaioly didfimlt to tupport 
the afpinmt Lhai the appollaae power ov«r the deddcnt of itau 

The Federal Judtanry 

fourti i» contrary in iht gitniui of our inilitutionA. The «ourt< 
of ihf ITniird SiarF> oa/i, vtihout i)ur«iinii. Tvri*^ the pcocwdinpi 
of ihc cuccunvc and IrgiituiiiT aaihontn cf the »ui«s «in1 if 
iJK-y UT fou(iJtobc(Xi»Lr^Motb«-cuivx|t|utioii, rrijiy ikilart ihcst 
u> tic of no kg«l t^idil/< Surdy Ihe vi^rrcbe uf Uie mww righl 
oref judicial tribunab b ooi & hi^irT or mon dugt^us Bcl of 
Boirneign power. . • < 

A maltve of another IlIvkI, {yrrfrflly rdmpailbJe vrilh ^ raoif 
KLnc^rc re<ipri:| birMalc ixiUmjits E^iglit ■n(l"<T Ihr gnoi M«p|'l- 
IaIc powt ovcc thdr dcciijoa*- That mutivr a Ihc importflntp, 
uid even n^ottltf of latlfomtliy of Urcthjonh ihroujihouc the w^hoic 
raited Stntei* upon ^U Mibjeccs witbin ibie purview <if the tonali' 
tuiion. Judgi^ of c^iiol leAmJn^ and HtBegriiy. m filS^rtni state*. 
ml^hldtfTirrcnily tnrrrprrC A4laiuie,or&irvftiyof thr Unit^tt Suiic4, 
oreven Ihe fonitiEubon lUdf^ If ihcrr «rrv iko reniiog ftulfaoriCy 
Ut eonml tbew {vn'nft And dr^f ^.^Unt judgntt^nb, 4nd hannonite 
ihcm iolo uiu£onnliy, tfac l«wt, the txvatic«, and ibc cooflitutioa 
of Uic Cnfted Si^ci wouJd b« differvni tn dlfTcffni SULo, and 
mig^l, perhiipT, nercr hart prpc3,*ely tht «ime coiMrucEion, ob- 
li|;&ii»i, i»T t^fhiofj, in any two sinio,^- 'llif yuUlic mivtitHfi that 
Wo^iht ftlimil Auch a ttatie of Ibirr^ wiuld he truly drplorablr; 
and bl <annoiI be hclietird that Ihry could bivr r^Aprd the m* 
UghieiMl iifcii^Dtiun vtliKh formed tbv ti^Dtlitutit^. WM, 
indeed, mjg St then bair been only prupbocj, ha* nQwbrciune fact; 
>nd the appeltiie jurMicdon Biutf conilnu to be ibc only &4»- 
qutif reioeily for such criU. . . . 


tlS. Jtgmon's CriikUm of the Suprtm Ctfirf* 

JellnvoQ cUbted that the S«p<tve Cuort** eaerobe of powir 
fo pus on the makOiiuiIontHiy of JUIuto Ri«4e It the »upfttne 
drpulBrat in the federal gcnvmiDtolH and he atUdted tbc pi»i< 
tioo of ib(i Judk^ry In the fbiloivfo^ martncr: — 


In denying the tight tlicy umrp, rA excln^Jrely etpfiining the I^ , 
con«<Jf ulkih , I pt f uftber thaa you do^ ifl uixlcmand righCly your iaWfta 


aSs American Govcrnmenr and Politics • 

quoUtioTii^m TheFfdertdist^oi an opinion tfaat ^'ihe judidary b 
the laai revnt in nlntion la Iht alhtr departments c,i the ^ovcmmeni, 
blf{ not in rel^iticTti to the rights of Iht panics lo the compact under 
which the ju<)!ciar^ is derived-" Tf thk apinian be wund, ihcn 
indeed is our roi]>tiliJtio[T a compleie/irio cff ae. For intendiag (o 
establish tbrtre department, co-ordinate and indepeadeni, thai 
they might cheLk acid balance one anoiber, it has ^ven, according 
to this □[>Laion, to one of tbem alone* the Hgbi to prescribe rules 
for ihe government of the oihcM, and to that one too, which is 
unelected by, and independent of the nation. For experience has 
already shown that the imficachment it his provided is not even 
a scare-crow; that such opinions as the one you combat, sent 
cautiously out, a^ you obMrve also, by dclachmenl, not belonging 
to the case of k-n, but sought for out of it, as if lo rally (be public 
ojiinion beforphawd lo their Tiews, and to indicate the line they 
are to walk in, have been so quietly passed over as never to have 
excited anirnadver^on, even in a speech of my one of the body 
entrusted with impeacbniem. 
F itw The constitution, on this bypotbesis, is a mere thing of wax in 

™ iirprfnie '^ hands of the judiciary which they may twist and shape into 
he Cnnaii' any form they please. It sbotild be rememberedj as an axiom of 
JpTiy woi eternal truth in politics, that whatever power in any government 
1 ihrlr is independent, is absolute also; in theory only at tot, while the 

*^^' splTit of the people is up, but in practice, as fast as that itlaxes. 

Inilc|icndence can be trusted nowhere but with the people in mass. 
Tliey are inherently independent of all but moral law. My con- 
struciion "i the constitution is very different from tbaC you quote. 
It is ihal each depannvnt is truly independent of the others, and 
bn^ nn cquul right to decide for itself what is the meaning of the 
conKtitiitinn in the cases submitted to it3 action; and especially, 
uhrrc ji fs lo art ultimately and without appeal. I wiEl explain 
m)-^*Of liy i'?(!imple5*, whEch, having occurred while I was in office, 
an Ix^lkT known to ine» and the principles which governed 
ibcm, . . ■ 
The jiididary of the United States is the subtle corps of sappers 

The Federal Judtcivy 



ftnfl minen CADst&ntIf workJag uivJer ^rou^ct in undenrn'rv the 1^9. 
f(Mj[i44rii>n« n( our ctmittttrxtt^i UUrk- 'Vhty vt CMWimirig J*^ 
our conililution fmm a conjifdiEiitim of i ^Qfral and ipttul 
goi^ninirut (u » Kmcrsl uid huprrnic one tlonv. ThU Hill Ujr 
all things ii thdr fed. and tbt>' ur tou tv^U vcrtcd in Engtiih lair 
Eolorgct the tr\jkjim/' ham jnJuit tsl ttmpii4r4 junsdi<tiorKM.'\ , , 
Hftving fuund. from «xp<rricnct, th^ impMctimchi b aa 
licabk thiag, a ratn ?icaR-crav> ihry carmder tbcm^UY* iKcun 
for IHr; ihrjr tkalk from r«»jion«bitity fo public opiiuon, ihr atttj 
miuining hoJd ua tbrm, und^r a pnctio; fint intr^dacnl int 
Engbod bj Lord Muuficld, An optnioii h huddled up m con-' 
<Urt, ptrfaapb by a ma^ritj of oar, deUvntd ta tf umniioous, 
and with ihc ^J«ni ao^uieacMae of luy or limid asociaic^ by 
crafty cbid JLid£r> wha wphifllaic^ tbc law tn hb nlod, by i 
lum of hu own rvaaoning. • • , A judki&ry tndtp«ndf ni ctf ft 
Uof orexecuiitral^iK', Ua gni-id ibin^ : but m<lop«n>irn<r o4 I 
wM oC the Dalion ii a wtrcani, ii biai in a repufaUcao govcroinc 

lid, Th4 PalitUal QntsHms im ^tdtMi Caw^ 

*'TSe ttudy of Coaitflu;ionaI Liv." say» ProfciHor Thu^r, "b 
alli^ nol cwTrty with hUtoiy^ bui vtth natecnfl and ynxh th< 
polkualprobleinsofoujgrvataiidcoiviDlvtDiiiiiLinulfiCe-'' Indeed, 
noA of ibc mat caeea whkb come before ilic Svpreme Court 
Inrolve qmiftpai of tconomu oir aodal i^ilicy ralbrx than law 14 
Ae itrict aoBe of ihe word. Thia fad u well defDocntraicd by tbe 
foflowlaif extrarl fmm Mr. (liiiai^'a ar|pinK*it againist Xht income 
lui delivered before tbe Supreme Court b 1894: — 

1 ktok upon ihi> aue wiib ver^ difiereat tyt% fron those of 
fHhrr ibt Attorney Cenf^ral or h£a tnodatc who ha« jii» rlo^ied. |^ 
1 beicve there are priralr right* of property btre to lie protected; 
that we have a r1|chi lo rome to itut ciiurt and a»k tat \heU prolec- 
tion, and tbal tbii court lia* a rigbl, uilJioui aakuL^ ^ve of the 
Atiomcy Oeneralor of any^coutiMl, t^ hear out plea. Tbeaciof 
Cottgrrw which »« at* Inapoptbg before tdu H oommvnlcitc in 
il> pwposei and tendencies, and b defended bere upcn priot^les 






American Corcmmcnt and Folltica 

ft* cnmraunniiVr ■odali-'Hk — what shall I call ttiem — populii 
a» vvrr Ua^v btrn Jtddrrwicd Id any poUlkaJ amcmbly tn thf «orl 

Did your Honun vb^-rvr what llii^ Irujiiril cuim^l ^laiinc 
ninvlf. ilut {30,000 ncuKht hive been ixmdc ihc nunimum of cxcm 
tion of tBAatiuQ oi ihii hv:, and ibtr* would have Wn no liclp 
inr 11? li you approve llm law, with tbl» cmnplioii of (4*000, 
and tht4 rommuni^tk rtmrh foe» cm oAtt li«ic years hrnct? a :i<iaru(c 
oome»in jou wilh an fxcnption of $10,000 and a lav of ioperr«iil 
\i\n»\ a1] h*vinR imomr* in curcii of thai amount, how c»ii jyni 
rrwvl it in vji-u uf ihr dt'iiHtm whU h my uj'jKJiitnU x^k yiu nov 10, 
render? There Ik protection now or never. If it gnet out ft» i 
tdid of this Judicial irftjunnl ihnE a comblnailon of Siatxi^, h<ym 
numerous howrvcr unAniRiou\ ran untie a^JnM ibe aalcgud 
prar^d^d by ihe Conititution in imprHing a tar vhich ih 10 b« p 
by thr i^ropif in fmir Suie» or ij^ thrc*- StaJp^ or in (wo Stalei, 
of whith ibc combuiition i» to pay almoii co p*rt, while in 
vpendin^ ul ic ihvy Air lo bavc ihr wIiuIl' cuutrol, il u^ll be impos- 
alUe lo take a.ny backward dcp. You cannol hereafter rxcrci 
ani' cb«cb if you now tay ihat Congtesa Is vncranineltcd 

I hate ihotight thai onr of ihr fiindamenial ob}rcti <if all c 
iLbrd gofcvmcnectl wm Ihr pre^o^ion of tht* rigfU-'t of privalo 
properly^ f h^vr tbc^ui^bi thil il wak (he wry Ltytttme of ibe 
arch upon whkhaUcix'ilijed govirminctiE rF«u, and ihat ihiionte 
abandoned, oierrcbtng w^ ai «uke and in danger That b whai 
Mr We^Kter lald In ift^o. nt PLyntouih, and I ntippo^d ihM al) 
cdu<at<il.C]VJIUrdRvn1.<li(^vo'1fnthal. Acronlinglothc dociriiiei 
thai have bem pn^uoded here thi» nominit, cren thai j(real 
fundAFnrrtial prin^jple ha* been vratlcred lo the u-indi. 

It is not any pirt at oar miuoa hrrv to question iht 
Consrcw 10 raite tDcmcy by uxtiJon^ Wt Iwlievv that 
bas ptteary pofter in the b^t exigencies of ibe go^roinent 
mdi every man. eief)' dollar, etvfy inch of ground, 10 wcvre ihe 
connoa ddencr and the f^Ftirral welfare; that ii was the purpj^^e 
of rhe nm^hiion ihai created the Cdci«C)tutJon 10 ^vt Congro* 



hal jtreal , 

nineM loT 

Kcdcral Judktary 


thai |K»ir, Atxl that tt b one of the jlImoIuic Macniiils of i gtrAi 
wrcrrigbt)- whirEi v;^^ to covrr a conliiu-iM utd Co Iftij for uaiM 
aflTV Tljtre i* aa duubi obtiui ihul- W» »Pf jJrjJtilly ana.-v. 
Coo, of tbe difliculiic^ ihaJt Ik la our wAf ; llt*t it u ncciOMfy loc 
ui to »hoiv, is the firhL I'lit-T, citlii-f ihic thic |»wtr lu i>m4 ibla act. 
was DolconCenvd upon Coii);rru or ih^lin poashiKit Congtt»hu 
cnccdcxl llic ponder cntruMcd lo ft bjr ike Con«|littlinEu One 
lUng h ocrTjiin, alt^hitcty rertain, thai altfaf^u^ ibc pouvr 
^\vn Curtgrc» to ux, no powef wj:i gi^va il to confivtlCp and? 
thai, iho AUornoy Griicrst and bit aHudam all admit, II ihb 
It & cx>alWcaiiou under ll>v toma i4 bar. then U no pa^vr given to 
Coagrvn la ihe CouMliuilon ihui could by ^f prndbiJiij en.U>le 
b lo T^idly moi-t !tuch A law, , , . 

Tbc Altorcf T Of ocra) ^yt In bu farirf , at pa|^ ^^, Ibrn thr rnlr 
ol uiiifuimiir hif tirrsi [irtclujJly vjiJalcd in llir nt of ;8<Hi I»UC 
ikai [be Uv mjM he n^^dni nut at &landin]| alufu^ bul n« Ji part 
uf our ijETncral Bjiirm of lAiatiuo, and Ibat w rr^Jnled iIa el^Kt 
it lo bring about ab approximaDuo of equality ol inxauon. Tbit 
In, la I uniltt&iaikd li, an unci|uii^ocaI admlaslori thai the lav In 
italf U no! equai or uniform m k* opcnxicm, but thai we max 
i^iKiilalr that f>^hap4 It woritKoiiC nniftvinJiy nf iax bnrdcn upiui 
some lhe«ry or nulion vf compenAAlion ur rquivalpnU^ Hu Hub 
ft dwirinv ever before been odvancnl in ihi\ ooun? ll imouni 
lolbtdaJmon ibepatlof ibe^vn-nment ibai ^n aci oT CongEVtti 
violoiiog ibe Comittutioa and uticrljr biiking in uodlomlty ma; 
bcupfetfldbrcaustHiineotherfLrt orihegefieral tu^fTlanniofkttaUr! 
ufteqiolly- b it Crue that under the Conititulkm joa can mm* 
(lenisaie ton I^lrnii-^al inrqualiily c4 burden in onr ^j-i iti ruf i«n, 
dnijn, DT inrpffitti hy icnpcmtii^ uiba\ which an inhcrrntlf latkitif^ 
ifr cTcry ei^aitlal clemefii of uni^omiiy? Ik tbtt ooun prepafed :o 
fo ibit lenglli and to rnuiu.-i«ie a^y vwh coooructloft of tb«: 
CodMllMkin } Hil* b a docuhie worthy of n Jacobin dub that^! 
propoKd to (oveni France ; ll la wocihy of a Cur of Ru«d& pro*^ 
podr.^ to nipt with undiipMed and alffuJute (wwer; but \i can- 
mat be dor>e uodcr lllfe CMtolilution 




i^t Qtmi 


Aroericaii Government and Polidcs 

Btfl I have mutc^ than tmpvsed upon <he kind lodulgcore ol 
ihc court. I have felt ihc rcj^>otvtibitiiy of ifab <Asc u 1 Juve never 
Iclt otic bcf<irr ami never cifW(.-t lo Again, I fl» nut belicvr ihat 
aoy Qvmberof |hi!i court i^vmaioirtrFrwU] «it to hcu And drcidc 
n <a>e iSe eonv<|uenfRi ed irhich nrttl he «a Ur-frdKhicag ft\ tbU -^ 
col cvTn llur vtncriblc mrmiiFr u-lio »ur\iirr» from ihc earljr djif* 
of the civil wjf.imJ hcuiat uponcvcry queslion ofroionsimciioci, 
of naiJoiMl df^tlnyi of siato dniinj- that hta cunio up during ibft 
hat thtnj year%. Xo memlicr of ibb court will live long enough 
ta besr A c«ae which nfll involve a f^neMion of moir importonee 
th^n IhiH, the pfCAcrvAtiun of the fundam^nlal rigbti of private 
prupcrly and equ^Jilj before Ihc lav, aiid Ibe Abi31[/ uf tl>e ptfuple 
of llietf L'fiUcd ^Uie^i lo fvly upon ihr guu^iiitics of the Cumlim- 
doii. If it be true* m my friend ttid in elo!iins. ihal the i^tuaioiifl 
of ihc pc{'ptcnrTan>u«tdonibl&3Ub^i,int beiruethAi a mighty 
tamy of &ixly D&Itlun cituens ii likely to he incenatd by thb 
dL'cifion, i1 i4 ihr more vital lo the future %'rlfur of ihct coti&tr/ 
that this rourt again re»luitty and oouTigpou*ly declare, aa 
Mjuvh^il iKd, ibftt it hcu thr \iotrt tOMri s^Je ah wi cif Coi^xreMi 
nioJatitY uJ ttic CujMtilutJoti, and ilial h wit! nu( fac^hate in eitc- 
cuilag ihu powrf , fto matter what the threatened conwqurnecf d 
po|)ular or popudiulc wraih may be. With th^ deepest earnest- 
ne» Ukd coiUidence we submit thM all patriotic Americans muvt 
prAy lliai our vicw« ihall prcv^iL \Vt toutd not maffkUy the vope 
ofyoordefiiiori.iihajteiiTf il maybe. No morij] could ibc Above 
"the bdght of thj» great orgumcDL" 

tif. Th4 Courts ami SoM t^ky 

Tlie (^n^fTtiAn brtwten cowlilulkuial Ia« and v>rik1 po^tf 
b dlKuoed In the folbwictg mantxr b;' Presidtnt RL;4«cveh in a 

mou^ to COAJRA. 

The rapM chan^rft In oar MCfal uid induNCrfa) ltf« whkfa havv 
nit«nded thE« r^>ld urawth hane mode El neccMtfy tbai. in apply 
Eng in roneiMc rane^. ihr iprcat ruin o( rijthi lakl down In iiur 
Coik^ttilutjon, Ihert ahould be n full undemanding and ^>preda- 

The Pcdcnl Judiciary 


tiim of ihc ntvr etJhdhioM to whitii iht rulc^ uttttbt ^i^lM. 
Whit would hart hrtn *n ixtlnngtmenl upoQ Uberiy U( a i^n- 
tary «^ nuj be ihc rttcv^^uu}- i.ifc^;m] *)i Wbeny to-i^»y- WhiU 
VgilM have IjV<t|i 4n hijury Ui t>nj}ri'ilv llicn nuy be Ei«i.>^<0^u}r Ui 
lb« en)i>yjiiviit *^ property now. Et-cry judicial deoMOQ tnvoh 
two lenrtf-^onc, an inictprctoifon cjf the bv; thfl oibcr, ihtt' 
undcncandlng of iht; fuctb to which H » Kr be applied. Tht grvat 
moMof our judidftlodliecrtnrc, IhcH^ve, Alitvtn(hru>rhdJi|eri 
toiuSlion« whkb w ncuilrhitlly aJfcri the finlimnanfr ol Ihcir^ 
jw&ul dutici. Our jodidol iytttm i% wucd ^nd elective to. 
con, and It TcnufaUf KmJ inu>ii e^cr U- maiauincd, » ch« ul< 
fiuH oT those p«4iiciplQft of Wnvny and jufi(k« wklch lUnd oX ibe' 
foundation of Amcrirui JrudrudoM; lor* oa Burke finely uid, 
when Ubeny and ju^ticc aft separoirdj neither is viJe, 

"Vhen ore, bowe^vr, some memlien of the jutiicial Jmdy who ^n!^'*' 
have logptd brhinit m iheJr unden«(aadi ng of Ihne fiml and irital ^^ 
cfcanipK in the body poliik, wbo*e nunda haw iicvet been opened 
to tht caw appllcodoftti of ih« old princfplei made nem^vy by 
ibe new corkdxiMnt. Jodget of ilu^ lUmp ilo Loidng honn by 
Iheif dcd«ton4, becoiur they eoni'incf poor men in need of pm- 
leclioD lliat ihe rourti of thf Ia.nd one profoundly i^orant of and' 
out oi lynp^uhy with ilirir deeds <t"d profoundly Jndiflerent or 
bovlile Id any prupuked ivuiedy- To «ui;b anen it vevmb ■ cruvL 
mocfaefy to hai% ojiy court decide ogojiut them on the ^i 
that H dctJrea to pre^nv "liberty*' fai a purely technical forfn> 
by withholding libeny in any ml and conuructive scnic- It b 
deurable lh*i the lt|p«lAiin- body fihould ponwA^ and whem^er 
nec:c»uy«):erci5e, Ihc po«er to delermiEK whHfaer in a givea a^ 
employers and ^mpEiiyee^ uv not on an e<|i^il foolinit, so Lhol iha 
npcvoifiit* of Lhe laiter compel iliem lo ^ubtait to ouch vxoctii 
Mtobounandcondiiioniofbboroi unduly to tuxlbdr»treng^; 
•Ad only Rdftchicf cart rr^ulE whfti such dGtrrmlnoilcvt U i«p«l 
on the ground ih^ there miat be nn "inierfcrcnec with the liberty 
to coniricr " — nflen a merely OfAdemoc "liberty,*' the eterme of 
whkfa h ihr argation of red liberty^ 

American Governin<ni and Politics 

Hic chief laftnakcn In cur country nuy b^, ind oilca an, 

dme ihey ini^rprvt Cimtricl, \>nj[XTiy. wittvil righls, clur proc^utgr 
law, Hbcny, ihcy nt^ci^AiriLy cniict inlLi bir parrs of 4 sy^tcin of 
McUJphnMuphy; ui(lA»&uoh iDicrpKtmioaUfumUnwntal, ihc^ 
giwdin^ftion tn ^I Um-mjikin^ The dcdiJuMnf thf cuurbGD 
ci'4Jii»nui; Aivl F-jvi^U <^iir«hL>Mh dcprnd uguin Ihr-ir rctin^mir nod 
•od«l pbUowpby ; xnd fur the |]«uccful pr^j^iw of utirpropk during 
(he tv^ntklb ctntuiy wc tiiiU owe rmi«l |o tho«« jud||c& who bold 
tu X tuvniL«th ueniur}' tuonumic urid Mjciiii phllo&ofihy uid Dol to 
a long ouigrovrn phikiwipby, which ni^ itvlf the produc: of prinu- 
bvn^corHimicrunditiuni^ OFcour>r AJud^^Aview»onprogrts»iuri 
of 1 hi)Eh ami fmc i h:ti.t^|<r; vvfiiLli mcjutt Iho pCMCI^cn af Kucb 
dciwiilJiry liciun a^ liutit?-4yi county, uud fainnliidedDeu^ Tbe 
Judge who owc(^ hiK cJccDon lo pUKknrtfl lo dcmcLstiglc wniimcnts 
ordjosbjilreUfi tnd prejudices, and ihc judge who uwcs cither hb 
ckvtioo nr hU ap|H>inifnrnt ui ihc money or ihc faror of n ^ai 
corporilioo, tirr altkc unworthy lo ui on Ihc bmch, uv n\ik^ 
irailon to the peofilc^ Jind no profundity of \tga\ Icaminj^or 
ConvctDevn vi ahiUKi Lvnvkiior] tm <{uc^1]ihi9 uf public ("^licy, 
CMD wem a* aa offart to Mich hhurtcvmiii^ Bu< h u ibo 
iniv thai ]udKC», SLo rxKUtltcs and Itj^aioTA. should hold 
sound i-ifni on the qucMiQlH of public p<diiy nhich att of nuJ 
birfeiiil lo ihc pcopfe. 


itS. rAr iVo^ (/ UU Syfnm Crart hi Our Sytkm 

Tb« American theory ai to the fuiiclion of the judiciary \% thus 
■dvinblv sununcd Ufi by &lr> SbcHcy En a speech made m the 
Hoitt* of Reprf<«ntativ« : — 

Wc Uw under a peculiar govemmmt, due to (bi dual characier 
aati iinHcd power. Wc ha^v to determine lo tU« couaity not only 
vrfaal vc oagfal to do, but irbat we can d«K becaiiM wc h*,\t a 
govvmiBFOl, hnuted both t^ lo wUch MTptetgnly ^lull raerdw 

The Federal JudicUry 


ihc power nnd limiiitd iLw m lo ftrhaz nuttim tjm 1w deaLl uitb al 
tO, Thv rxK- imfiortint onxinjd idrJt nminnnl m Ihr rAn«lilt)- 
liort of ibc VnitRl Sidin is Ihr 411 pnTOUfy g^vm lo ttfr ji;(Jicidfy. 
Thr ihkift th^ nuk^ Aur cunMiluticJd unique fmm cv^n' onr in 
iht woricl is l^i« fiii l!rU llic }>uf>n;tuc Cciuft of Ihc Cm1c<] Slatrw 
bgivm poMvrtu vky tv1i«ttv«r(bc ci(herbnuKfav*of ihr Kuv^mnirnt 
hArcc«<edc4 ihcir pouvr; hu^ thr right lo dcdaicnuU ind voii 
•n act or the Ir^sl&iur^ of ib^^ imlonal Government; hu the righfC 
lo hive diircgMtli^d ih^ boian of tbe executiTr when it i> bcyniid 
his ptiwrr ; und ha^ ihe titrthrr right to uj whrn f hr tljqrr^ havi»i 
cKCndTd tbcir vovcrcign po«m. Thai ii the fg^MU^t poiwrr f»^ 
^wn 10 > iribuniLl ind k i^ m t kan loid the one Rtnl cbific- 
tetfalk oT Ihe Anvflcan i:o(i:sEilttljun, uid lo ii iir owe taott of l1 
•tftbtllif and gnndeur at this, councrjr than 10 &ay oiher pn»i£'< 
hi Ihit instrunwaL . . . 

TVpp h»VT hfcn lime* whf^ thf Atr\wm% of tW* fo*irt in thr 
pcrfofm*ntc of ili i^nl function* hfliT arouvd );nrai tni»riin."nt 
•lkdiliimc<Bn:at indignation; bm urith ibc cucpUon «l tbc DmI 
Scuic caA« M^y e\trjr decision of thai ootm un<lrruki«i^ 10 laj 
down the limits o( nalfonil and «iMc power han mci w-iih the ftnil 
■|i))«ovAl fi# Ihr American people; and lo-djiy ii may not be In- 
■ppropriAle vhrn il hait l>rcninr the fxshtfin of xMnr of ihovc in 
higb pijkfcftlocritki^elhi? judiciAJ7tli><'3Uallcnlicin lo rhn« fActii. 
Crrtatnljr. 00 man trvm my ^fCi^tion uf tlir ruunlrj^ ahouJd evpr tuc 
to utter a Eundpmnitiut^ cf the judiciaiy, for when pJu»ofi 
rioii when nxn h^ losi (he[r Judgment, vhen the results of lot 
yttn of hillcr war produced kgi^iion aimed not at justice, hul 
firqncAlly 41 puniiitmeoi. h wila Ihe Supfcnir O^n thai ?ttood 
hetwre* thr dlivn and hi<^ lilvrlLen anci the pi^wnn of the hour 
[oppt*tuse\ uhI I truiJ the daj nil] neve/ cone when the Anirricaft 
profile Mill not far wllkjiK to luhnnit xv?^>e<tfiilly vci s;!^!* to Ibe 
decieev of thai aoguil tribonaL Tcnpcrarily ihcy may secia Ki 
ihran the wDI of the people bat in (Mr Ibitl &nalyu» they will 
nuke M thtf h&vrr rnhde Cbr caderif goremnwni, for govern- 
ment of hwi and nol of mett, and we may he uirr lh«t ihe 

COli't is 


roaEKuc ATTAm 

119. The OrgamiMtim p/ ikt Dtf^meta «f State 

ahroM Afid to nagoiktc maiics ui conjunirtiiio wltJi ibe Svfuie. 
nod aI«o ihf tight to recdvc ihe amlK^udorx and oihct pubfif 

ihe olficUl !|ickc«mAik of the nation In doling «4th oAhrvcountrinJ 
To Aid the Preudcnt 10 the ilUchai^e of :hc Im]iurtiuil duda 
conrkCc(«fl with lW» pnsiiion, Congnrsi crrnird in )uW. 17&9, a 
DcpAftmcQt of KoreiRti Aflaii?) w!iith, in September of ibc Mine 
y«dLr> wu changed to itM Dcp&rtmcni of $U,lt with a SrrretAry of 
Sulf 4I iU hc*d- The dulio df the SctrcLiry. howrxTT, with 
TcfArd 10 fordgn mAtecD^ueiliU tfaoie Uid down ia thcorignuil 
rtAHiie: — 

TbtTC »hill Iw II ihe arat trf Gcmfimeni an Exrcutl>x Depart' T V 
mcni, 10 be knoim ki the Dqranmeat of 5lttt» «id a SecROiy ^j^^j 
of Si4tt *ho Ah4ll be the held thofcof, . , . t^ - - 

Tlte Srfretiry of Stabr -ihall perform such dutin as fluFl frDn 
liinv Id time tv mjolned on or iatnuttd 10 h>» by Ihe rmiffeot, 
ivltlive to convftpondfTion, ivnmiwiotui or la»tn)(.iioiu luor mith 
pobBc adnlaen or coamIil, frocn the Unted StAle», «r to iwgol»- 
11oa» with publk min&jurs from foctlgn stMn or prices, or Ht 
incskoriAb or oOter ftpplkuIoiB from foirign pvbUc minium or 
oiSrr fonlgiwn, or to f^K-h othet mait^rs hr*pr<tJnjr f<irHj:n iflflif% 
Ai Uk PraJdeAt of the L'niKd StAi» >hai1 L-uign ro ibe i^d Df- 
pAriaMini ; lod furtkrrniDn he tbjil conduct Ihc bu^incn of the 
Deporunent la mh niAiiDcf w the Pmiikot of Ibe Uflltod 
SuiM iImII dlncL 



Amcric*ii Government *nd Politic* 

Tbfl reprr^ntuii'^n of ihc nation abmad U coj^tmJItrd in 
chus* of iwu ^auph of o^Lcni : diplomiilic And cootuUr^ Ii 
ofwn bctn contended ihai with the devcltppmcni of rapid Acant ol 
[ommunicalion, iTit nuuiE'-riJinrr t^i rliplnm^lic rrprc^^niuLiMi^ h^i 
beconif ui UTincci^riJLry luxury i.ut»«rving no prnctkot putpn^cs' 
but in Ihc fnllowing paper, fhr linn, .^ndrcu' I>. WhJIf maJco a1 
BtTMi^ jrgum^nt m favur of tntiTfuuInic (br vD?|iim hjv ihDi^ing th«( 
imTifirunt duiW whi(b aIiU lal^ upon a fli|)lci(C4tk oflktr. 

Sunw yeant kinc^i d vvi> rimfjrnt ArntHiiiii purn«1U|, iv 
cue«ins our diplomatic »cr%'icc. pTa}H>w<l whjU he u-o^ plewnl 
fkc tikll '*A feform,*' HU piM wos cHcccdtiigly drosilt^. For It wu 
nothing lc» Ihnn ilut the *rT.ire iyslcni he cxtJrpAlcd, root «od 
hrAnrh, — in \xti, "frfornwri <itT Ihr f.irf of Ihr fATth," and IbAt 
in p|ju« of it. ^mpver our goimnnprrt itbould hive anj bu«[n 
with xhf iiihrr, it i^hould Ki;k out a ^dfn^lc R^m, make a falf 
bargain lAiih him Fof hi> seivicri, wnd him tu iitciid (o ih? nuticr 
and Iben fvcall him lui fioon w he had £nfebed It. AlthouRh ihi 
advice has oficn been cited in a pic« of poJiciral imdom, hm \xr\ 
(Cefcd roi^iMljr in the publk mind, and hiu, irdred, \icti\ nNYfitly 
taiuiionH hy a trry f mhrnt Anvncari ritijornH it serrn* not diS- 
cull to »bt>w that kuck a departure frocn Ihc practice of tbc whole 
tdviUad world would be a mUfoinunt, — fiot only to our umntrx 
In grocndp bui apcdaUy to our pulilicuJi (.-ommcrual, and finon- 

dal 1lUCK:9lS. 

Kor in Tiew of all the iotrtv^ts of our rounliy, ewr cUending. 
cvrr hcoamang marc complec» ercr dcmandmft mon- and tnatv 
((ukk ^gbi and pvompl aii;tiua, wbal i» it Lliai wc tfredi^ \> it 
mm to be MiUftbt and lelecled and pu^cd upon and haf(^d 
villi and ttni acro«tb«ooiaatijK-eif,ptfhap«tlh«yc8aniiigate 
■erioitt and even lUsattnMai tDtemationd tniubk after it ha* got 
under full headway? U It ni^ miher ua hare ihofiyjjEMy tnlnod 
torn on the »f»t, who shall fomei^ troutile, prevent i|« aiieouMe M* 


Foreign AfT^im 


it, be in toinch with iht ngh> mrn, know thr right mrmt, 
t^ttak the r^x'il vitiitl, si tlir tii^hi ckinicnr* in ihr tight quanrtj^ 
Same jvttn vocr, ai CoosUnUn'-^lc, I ukc<l Ibt c^uae ut ihc 
widn-imad cuttds^duoit wMcfa had bO ofkn dcvnitiird ilul 
kpJuL Thr ocsu^er wo^ Umi the otty had i ^vry iidLiliv fin* 
imrtii thjil when a line broke oul \^ «ny Ik>uk, the prttfJtf 
aoci ii<tijil uay wu for iia ottnrr lo sc^k Miii>n>n« ivho uifcTird i 
hand fire cnf:i[V, lo Jind, by pmpcr ciftiniittliQii i«brthcr he nan 
irirtlhufihf, wliclhnr hfe helpcis wcrt rubuM, Khcthrf hb fire 
sfjpanilUK vi-4b» «ff^titie; uiJ iWn lo irukv a targiio nilli Um 
Aotl hli Mpcn and condui-i :hcm I'^ihc Are, Then ^a« vtiukllf, 
:» 1 W&9 hiforoMiij fiot ttiutli truubit: in liading the tit, for, hy Uio 
limt ihc mofbLiic htd bivn approved and thr finmtn wlcded 4nd 
t>arjt>Lnrd ikilh vtd ^il lo thr -^ih^e^ tlic cohtlAgniTlon «&( amply 

A apefiil rroxiii fur the rajuiitri^aiKe of kii urK^nuril dip1i>nuuic 
kite U found iqlbroecdotnuilJimorinodifyiagUaiuev Hcrc ^j 
k b ihAt a nlftiftC^r iH-rmanriuiy realdla| U ft Conl|Ei^ c^^^ ^u * ''v 

ridcd RdvuU^. He eioI«i ihc progrew of «Sait«t wiUhfa for 
"^Ofipoftunsiir^ poakc* iht if ijuiunlAnrt of i4Uc»mcn Miil othcf men 
uf ieltorwr in thp ct>ui>lry Iq nhkh ht U Mrrinlltedi mid \\nt% ifl 
able %o lUffiei^ M)d lo «K«rc irrjilirft vid inodJriraiion> uf tnratie* 
mtKfa rvtier uimI bkov tjuily iIua touU i^wtiUf^be ilune (n»m (ho 
cmtn ot A lUtUni |^vrminent> (vv^n U sprvl^ roMisiiuiocvn 
fldU to nuke a ireoiy, t rf^dcnl rcprcvtuoliiv U »ufe h> be of 
UtBHM vtlue, 

Affoiher dutj o4 oor foreign npfMentAtitvi ii the roJIrctJon of j^t 
tn/uriiMClaa btAtUkg oa Urgr ()uc«4Ufii« imtkjrtjini Ui our coaMrj, ^ 
Of tha Infonnitiue, ihit *U(li rebie* lo the uiioos ol foreign 
ptnvn 10 iiidci[mlcd cftM> b frvqurntiy iif the uioknt iitipuruiKV. 
ihM <rar dlpiunaift ban ooC ibv impbrtk ipft. »till ai rwy 
dm ibe fttfnulkfi of ihb pnmmeM, amd ouma man Ibu 
r, U h&k Lnrn uf f-yr^X liDf>oruiire K> thli nmury, poflticaJlj^ 
irnBiiirTTitiJrjohivvai*>fiot»'^etkirriof inhirnKUfcintfacNigli* 
Ibe vuriit, ihkikiag n^ii »itb Mcrm to ibt l«M HHiftc» of 


American Governm^t sind Polttici 

the probiUc aclloa of fonign ]j<y*-tn. At Ihia moaicnt, when 
Europe Li nnc great ffnnip at forti^cd r^mpi^ md grc£i t^hanfci art 
Ukitig plaic m A^ia ;iud Afrim, and trouble vcirnc quc;4ionB itc 
h*ing in Scjuih Anwriti, ii rinnoi ImI be <if immcnic Viluc to oup 
nuniif*f1»i-ing, nimm^nrJAl, «ii<l indrftt nJl o[hvr inrrmM to hft' 
tbe bc»t and mmt rrocn! infarmilion regarding ihc outcome 
wtHlkc op«fatIo[U., the drifi of pciblLc ^[jioiun, Jind tvltlemciitA 
ISttl}^ U> U" oiailcL and budi iiifornuiion !:» obtained b^our rvptv- 
licniMivi^ Bl the Icvvr c&pitak ol morn a« frequently u at tbe peoter. 

Then, loft. there »rr orhcr Mibjcri>j of impan«occ. Eitry year 
mir State DepiL-krtcnent iuirc?! -^vrndry volumri frnijilrd "Dipkw 
maik RrUlJoiih." Thric 2ir crude up of tcWciuot from Ihc dh* 
patella uf OUT rvpm«nlAtitw abmad. Among time luv found 
not only dkp&ubes on current inurriAllotULl businci*, bui valtubic 
rtpom on Ic&ding ^bjvcis of public inicrtsi; and «f thoe I inty 
mcniion m ncrcni [imcv reponi^ on iij«ec)ii8 at Anancc In forrlgQ 
countrir^a oo tbrir «upfily and maaHgemcnt of IhrSr drrulaitn^ 
medium; od the adnunUtration of ciliet; on govemoirnl rallriy 
•yOHiu; on public mutcunit, on eOucatiund irvUllutiuuft and Ihe 
liLe^ It muy be vild that iIk iwu'spqpm and nugwoa give in 
tb(9e; but Ihc difficulty |i> that iaformaiJon thiM supplied U too 
fnquentiy »k«tciiy acd aoappy. I do doi undnnxt* ih« oewipaptf 
ccReapandcni; he bone oF the wonden of the world; but, efur 
aH, Um dtplonalk- repcv«nUlivr ba^ reria^ dfti^tA advaaiaga: 
lie bat ttkff acccia lo men contruUjng e^^fy fort of insU'lulion, 
can atk f<v imrrvivw*, ^nfocmat^oa, docunieriia and ihe like inth 
creiy probability of obtaining them, asd ihia h doi tba caw vUh\ 
ihe f^M majority of unoAdal pe r«oviw 

Aooiher duly ol i ftntifpi rtr^ruetitfttfve ol our country Ii 
proictrt Ameticitn vtlhio the country to vthieh he b aifcnrdilpd, 
NodoQbt Ibrff arr many £*i our ovlei laod nbncare tiitte for Ihia: 
h b very ea»y loaay in an off-hawl way, Ihal if i>roplr Ko ahfOftH a* 
cnlHtonaHwor for buinrrA, Iwelcb or pJeawre, they laoft lake thrir 
chances: but uciviUaadon lu4 drv«loj>Kl there hai beenerotvvd 


Foreign Afl^irt 


ft WtF«i fv«liiig ft-hicb I Inul ouy beronw deep ftnd prti 
throuKhoutlbcrauatry, uhIiIuI i« th«t<iurdiuen« kcv U> be 
pf*Jt«ci«d tn ill puuof tlie ^ortd ai iny cvsl, Tht ffttBOia 
"!an>RonMDdii»n," vhkh vjjiihepiuaponaad armor oT:! 
Ri^man In any port of ibc wortd ftvu (he klca of what ought to 
Ibe chum of ibc AmctiLan dtiAen^ Otir own hutor^ in tUt 
hu at time* brrn crrflilabic in u%bui hrrr looourmolhcffouniry 
*rt» itxr vrorid an riAmp[fr> I^i any Bnti^li ^ub^pd Iti any pul 
Ibe vorU be nuUtcaled and immediately il h a matler of bici 
lo lb* bom* gowmmcnL Tb« iwldent mJnMor fntit himtdf 
faL^e to hit duty, or, if be ^ots noi fori so, kiwuLu ibat he will luztly 
be denounced by the prti» and In Pofttaakcnl, if he be fcmi^ [« 
Mfuring rrdfCM for anj vroog tbiai onnmiflprd, 

Still atuKber of the funciiom of an American ifipjcim.itic re-prc- 
untaliiv id to c<in|K.-ra(c wflh tbc comuU of hi* goveriiiuenl, pro- 
■kotinf bj all honoraUe meanft the inlecvtiA of American aflricul' 
tur«, ma&ufaciurDi, and commerce. Tlie value of xhh kind of 
serrke waa amply ihown bjr ibe late Townwnd Harris in Japan- 
. . , To him, rndfc ihnn to tny nther man, U due ihe ajieftinK of 
Japan tn ihe comiTKrce of Amrrica and of the world. His high 
character And tlcilL inipircd a confidence it bub cnahLfd him lo make 
that |[rral Uraly «hkh marla a new (tolat of departure in mockni 
imliiatiua. . . . 

191. Ejtpemia Conmaitd «iU Ambattadafiai Rank 

UmEl fS^i, lite Umted States was concent to be rep««seaced 
obroEhd by the more modal official faeariaf the title of minister, 
bmluthai vnr thcifiK^iiy of MnbuHdoe waa«iufalUhfd wiihtxit 
any provUtmi tor loi^r uiirica- The iftcmued expend coit- 
pocted «^b the maintenance of Ihi^ hicber ifignjij haa been the 
•iil»J<i.l of icreai ditcufAlon In and out of Congest. The ntma^if 
ol making adeqviie prvTuion for ocif amhaaaadoti U thua ufx«d 1^ 
Ur. Lodg< b a ap«ccb made In the SeoAte in 1908. 

If klmpeaJMe pracfic^ly lor an amba«&adoe to Iitt in m «ma|| 
ajiartnenl £n P4ru or Bcduiod limnaact the bttdiKsaof tbi: gOTcin 

wi iW 



Amciicjifi Govcrnmcut ind lVlitic« 


mvul ol tlv UnilciJ Suict iib il uuyht (i> Ijv ciuuxttrd. The tJr- 
nuuid* (Iv uut <:i>i:ic simpty from (be i^uil ur tht uxiHy in wtikb 
be findfr btn^lf, but the drmundfi mode by hh i>wn peopk arc 
v«ry gnu Indued. They ci^pcci certain public renptloD^ lo ba 
held on WiLilungton'i bdrthday and on ihc Fourth of July; Uwy 
fixprri h(i?|iirLthty itrtm (ho amba-v^uti^r. Thr niimhirr of Ararii< 
CEm?i vfho Qa lo ihpv ^Al capitals in Kiiro^it! it vrry \i^rgc ; it U 
■■Id Ihnt then ajv lUxiy thoutAnd Acncricjins carnuitiy in London 
afcnv ; mid ui «iuki5AJvd^>r t^;POt nn. »|jc lliv cii|>codftun- ut 4 l^irffQ 
unount of nu^ncy. 

Now, Mr. Pr«ddcnt, it %y rItc to our 4iiibusMlci» their rent 
in additiun lothi^ saliiry ihty ainady havi:, il wuuld ccrlAinJy make 
living nuif h ruirr f^ir (hrm ; ii]>o ii nouM ^vr in ihc UnLifd Sutrv 
» deftniir plaiir iii (hr rity; il wdhIH ^^irp ihc cmtiMfty a drrmili* ^| 
home ; lad it ftixild c«taL!i»b what 1 consider a propct icifc be- ^^ 
cMU!^' It is iwi nva-ly thAt «n ambuMdor Is fon^, if he It & jKJur 
nuui, to live bdow the wvlc that he would Uicc lu adupt, but ibcrv 
ut cues I have in mind whcrv men of grrat wcahh h^vc takca 
hou9M And eatablisihed a jcalc of living ivhich puu tht mjccchqt 
in a prrqIioA of ^Jit crnhnrrxum^nt, Ai \tsM wr th£»ii1d i^^urc 
thAi ihf 4U('«r»ivr Airwricin amL>teddors Ut any uiw cunntry 
aliox^d 1i\c in the iAtnt bi^aitc and sJrould miintua »ub«tJuituJly 
the tunc kiIc, 1 du not think II Kft doctnl for a ci^uAtry at rich 
a& the United Suiei tu fend ici ambauador^ «lin>od v they «re 
5eM now, evMi if ibcy bavr abundant mortcy. ii> pOM tin montbi, a 
7t«r or c%htecn (&onth« tn luokiog for a suit^blr pUcc to tome 

Vou haw aU hrard ibc Mory of Biir. Choalr and what Ik i« 
Ptpoftri to hitre &&id in d i|KKh at a dii^nrr tir viid be wiibnl 
to coni|ilinicnt the police of Londun; tlui on \ht ni^ht of htj. ar- 
rival In L^ndi^i it wajs vory nJny, Hr waa wandering about tbp 
Mmb ood a policcmao Mi^iped knn and »id> "What tav you 
doing here?" Hci^ud,"! an Jusitv-aAikfingaboui ihc »irect«.** 
Thr policrman taM^ " You mu^ not do thai ; yon must ff> homr.'* 

Wby/'aildMr. Cboaie,"! have nobone; I anibe AiDerican 

Foreign Al&iri 
Amhjuudor." [Jjitighiff^] That U«n eng^enued wnj of stating 

The mlly Kn<m» Ihing to my miwL i> ihat Ihc intvitable "^JJ 
Icndrncy of Uin lofcttly lnjidr<iu>lc- silnry U |o <xini|ic1 llir i^vinn i,^ j 
of Ibwf oflHcn eailMsin-lj" lo b>wi U Riwit wratlh- Tiw a««T»9V •*iw 
man, ct^m « nun who bu got * lok incotnc o4 hot own. knowing 
what rKfxndituR these pieces rrquire, duv» not went lo |so liwn, 
end live in e "two peir bedt." U he b going to rrpfcacm hie 
tcfOMrf fti mil, he raiti io do ii fitoftttfy And jcrarroutiy cukd ju it 
ahouM lir n^prr^rnirti. »nd mrn iIkIihc thosr pljuea twceuar (hvj 
cenaot face ibr grul cxpcnte. 

13J, TAf yegHkthn 0/ Trrdks 

Thr p^vvT of nuktng Trvadn " hj ind with thp adx'ire and rem- 
sent of the Svnaiv" Ucucifcrred on ihc Pcttidmt byiiiv CvntdtU' 
tioft. bm il b ftowhctv definitely sutcd ihei the nncMlfy oi hiving 
Ibc edvke end consent of the Senitc fvqmrct the IVcsidcnt to 
COttwIt iheit body duriojc Ibc nr^tulion of any poilI'.aliLr imiy. 
|nilbrM]A«ui|!|JiA|>cr, Mr Ixhl^ ihowiL ba v Ibc Svnji[« Kk tli-md 
intbcsiekintof trcetJahomtbcbc!gianingoEourgovcnuDcni: — I 

The SeoMe, bring pnnunly a Ir^ativc body, ranaol ia Ihr TU 1 
natuie of thtnipi intUAle e DrfeDl»t>m nitb eniolhcr njlf<-n, iot ^^ 
ibry hMve noautbonty tu <p)Kiaitutnrt«iiT «iul*eiiedur»oe niiub' ^'^ 
Icn- But in evtty olbcf R»pc<t, under ibe langua^ uf (be Coo- 
eiJiurion end In the Intent of ibf fnunerv, tbcy Hand on a perfect 
equally with the Pioidcnt in ihr making of icvelkd. Tbcy bevc 
an nndanbted right la rrfocnmrrxl fithrr ibu a ncgoliaiMn be 
entered open <t thai il he not bjidcrtukim, and I iball ^faow pm- 
ent3y (bet 1bi« ri^ht hu been cicnivd and mosniacd in both 
difcctinn*- A» a natter of <oune, the Pvvsklcnt wouU noi im 
boiukd by a foohition dedaring ag«inj4 ofimmg a negotiation, 
but such a ictthicfon peoeed bf a two-ihifdt vote would pnJuaUy 
be tStcdn and woM ^ervr to siofi any peopcaed ne^otiatiun, aa 
vc fthaH we wa* the cajc under rnsident Lmroln. In the »me 
wajibe&cnaic ha&tbcrifhr loailviMibf Pn<ideiil lamtrr u]»n 




American Govcrnniciit aixJ I'oUtics 

1 iit|{oti«tK)nt and hit* tfxrri'j'icvl iklt ti^Ul wvtv ihui uncr. HctTi 
igvn, Ihc Prtvderjl it out biiuod lu i;um|]1y with the rrEohlian, 
for hb power u ciuttl ind co^lftatc with thai of the Scaa;ci Uit 
Micfa AQ ALlMn un the pan of llu; ScqaU, do doubt, vk-ould «lwtt><!» 
hAvr due weighl. Thai [his ngfa to oAvtv or dtsopprovc the 
opming of nrgoli&ltoiin has Wcii vtry f&rdy CEcrd^d » uni^ur-ft- 
tiooablj truf in pmrtJoe, ud thcprariicf bbdihuouod uid mat\ 
but iIh- rt^hi rrauio}* nunc tbo kt», ju^l 3b Lht^ CtJtuiiluUou iiavc 
il, not iupwtd in any wny bj Ibe lacl tb;it ti bu been but UiUe 

Tbe ri^hl of thr Senate 1u ihitr in tivuly making ul any ttftgc 
ha* alwiyi btm fuJJy frcogniKrd, bolh hy liw Sco»le *lid ibc 
Kur-nitivr, Qol<in!yAi thr IwjjjinmEigof itir gnvpnimnit.whcn ihe 
Pmidcnt uid mu.ny Srnaton ivrrc dra^n frgm amon^ tbe tmnun 
of ihc CunMituiiun ind wen, tbvrtfure, familiar u^lh ihtir InitA- 
liuEiA, but ai ^) periods diK«. A brief ttvicw uf tionw of ihc me^ 
£!{:£( cJ ibc Pn^dcnb; «nd of o«mia Rscduiionfl of tb« Sonftte uill 
_^ow better ih^n any drioipiion tbc icblioini betwten tbe tux» 
itbri of the m^ty-ifultinji powtf in lh(? Unitrd Staie\ Iht 
itform ln(rn>(Vtatioi> of thr CViTisiJTijtk-tn in Ihia rtspect, siKi Ihe 
prtccdrnti "hicb bnvc been citabii»hcd- 

On Augi»l 11, i7!l9. 1'Tv^fdciikt Wi-bm^on n-jtliicd (lie Sen^ite 
ibit be vouU meel wiih ibem on the follcming day to advise witb 
tbem u to the trrnu* of & n^^ 10 be negi>ilatrd with ihc Southern 
lodUnf^ On Augmt la^ in ipfcordanrr ^ith ihii n^lke, tbr Preii- 
denr came iniD tt« Seci»te Chamber, Aiicnded by t^merjil Knox, 
and )jild befiw tlie Srnau- a UAU-mral of (lie Uctt^ ioprl^trr sith 
cvrtsin <|u«Mi(JO», in nrg&nl lo otu nlaiiona lo the Indi&ns i:J Ove 
Sottlbcm dirtnci, upon vhich be A^kcd the odncc of Ihc Senate. 
On AvpM M. 17^' ^ Appe^nd 4^n in ibv S«nai« Cbatnber 
wilb G«ieral Knox, nod Ibe dUctuiion of otir rebuknii inib the 
Soathrm LniHuts «u tewmcd. The Sraaie 6niJly n>led on the 
<}ar<ion« put to >t bj Ibe Prrfidefil, vid in tb«t way garp bim 
Utclr ftdncc- . . . 

l^tidcntAnbufpOO Jun»9, i83>4,>wkedlh«adm«uf tbeScnata 

Foreign Affniurf 


a» to diftctlatt iwgodalfidnK in prou« with (be Klog <ft Niw^ii 
fortlwexkrLihion of the cnitinK rvciivocvlj treaty with tlic HauoiUa 
bluhdt. On MaA:h j, iSSS, the Seiuie pa»cd & nMiluikm atk- ^J 
\:\g PmJikci Cletviuid to o\xti cei^tlatiuns iriih China for th« ^M 
RguUiion qE iinmigration sith that couniry^ PrtMdcnt C\cvt- ^\ 
liund rrpiicd thaiuicbiM^Mktlon^ had hetn undeno^rr- Prom 
lhe«c venous eximplM it «ill be »ren tliat the SeiiAtr hu b«a 
coniulted «t all «Uft?Th of nc|p>tiationfc bf EVeNdcnln of aU fhtnieft, ^H 
Crom W&ihlrigiu" lu Artliur. . . . ^M 

Tbc povE«r of the Se»Aie lo uiwitd or |o ndfj conditionally "^^ 
b of course Included in [he \irpjr powera esipnttJ/ ptnied hj ihc 
ConslitDtioii to reject or lo confvni- It would have neveroccuired | 
Co mr Ihftt anyone «f1ko bad rcftd ibe CoQiltruiion and Mrho p04- 
srurd even thr mo« viprWidal at «i«*inunrr *:l>i ihr hiAloiy ni 
ihc Uiuicd Sl»ie« could doubt Ibc ngbt of ibe Seaiic lo amend . . , 

KotwtihMaJadlfig ib« ^neral praclico of coap«nti^jn l^civtcn tbe 
Prc«deftt mnd Sctiftte in tbe ne^ntiafinn at rmtfkiK, Mr. Spcuocr 
aUy uanlendi thai, as ■ mutter uf conatiiuijonal right, the Seiuite 
hu DO djJn to laierfcmkrt in treaty nep>datioitt: — 

Tbe words *'adiice uid cuateol of tbc Senate ** are u>ed in tbe 
Ccttolimioa wllb frJcrenoe to the Seaaie's pankipatji:*n in tbc 
nuking <i ■ tieaiy and are vvU translated by the wo^ ''ritlifi^a- 
Ikm" popobu^y used in ihut connccncn- Tbc Preddent nego 
llatn tbe tnaty, to begin with' Hr naay rrapli^y Kuch i^nftet a» 
he thooaea to ntgociale the prajxHcd treaty^ lie may employ the 
ambajBadof, if thefv be one, or a mixilitet or a ckarxi rf'tf^iVa; 
or be may lae a ptnsm u pKnle life wbooa he ibinlu by hts nlull 
Of knowledge of thf tanguage or people of tlw cotmirynith whicb 
he ia about to d«al ia beat filttd lo MgotUte the tnaiy. Be may 
fasne to ibc agent duoen by hin — and Deitber Congrex iwt ifae 
Snaie hai any tooctn r* to «bo4n be rhooaea — aueh inKlruclkiM 
■a aecm ttt him wi«e. He may rary tbein from day to day^ That la 
hh iTimcem Thr Senate bei no rigb: i^i denuod that hr ^all uo- 
luUI l4i ibc »vrbl uf loU, evoi iataeiuUi^ seviiua, bU lD9lw<:|ioDa, 

m ih 


American Government ftnd Politics 



or ihc ptuf'pcci or jirogmiS ot ilic Dc^liiUon. I mmI ''righi." 
1 uae ibHt word Adriscdlf Ij^ order lo Clluflir&te whtt all nx-n wtn> 
hfl« au<iicd the ;.ubjcfi ort willing to ccn«df — (hit under the 
Con5tit»iiiiii ihc ah>-Aluir jxivrrr of Qr^mbtii^n h in ihc Prr<idtnt 
and the mejua at oegotlaiica subject wholly lo \»h will and hit 

Wti4>n li« fttrtli have negptialvsl ami Knl hi« |)mpfi9cH irratf 
ID tbc ScDAic (Iw jud«dkdf>n oJ ibb body aiUKhcv and its power 
be^rtK, It may ailvibo aitd cortiieni, or It ntay nfutt- Aail In 
the cuircitc ol ibu fuDccion it it a& Incjependeni of ihc Eiecutivc 
ajt he b incjcpcndcni of H tn thr malirr of nrKoiSalion. 

I do noi drny lh« [xtwcr oi the Stnatir eillwr in legi<Jaii«v or 
\n ^xtxuuve ^eMiim — Ihat it t question of propriety — ID paB a 
rewlulJUM eip'^ni^v of ii^ opinion a» h* inaic«rh ot forrijfn |x>ti<y. 
Bui if h H potocd by iht Senate or by the Hotuc vr by both H^utni 
h is bn'ot>d any i>0ttlbla qucuioii purely sdvl^ory, and not tn the 
«ll|t^ic5i dcgnt binding Ia law or conndenct upon xht: Pm^dent- 
It htiAy tofonwiiv o/ rircumatanw-J in which to pa>*< in IcgisUlivc 
wirdon a re^oluilon like thai ftnt inlrodiicrd by raj diitinguislKd 
4^i*i ImiHxi frifnd, ihr- Senator from Gcor^ii (Mr. Baron), Jt»kmg 
Ibc rrrsidenl. if i& fai» upimoo not incumpjuUc with iht public 
good, to irnnsimi the conciixindencc in a pending negotiation lo 
the Senate, might be productitY of mEachkr I ihink the Mcvocco 
<nx I*. prrtuL|>^ one which could U prod^rirc of nuHrhief in thia, 
that the Prr^ident'A dtrl^nNlJtm. mUrh wi-Aild he within hifi povrrF, 
iqnn tbegroiind that the pu l>Uc gixid rr'iuinsl ttnt the t'onrMporxl- 
•noc fthouM n«l be »»nt lo the Senate, nughi ipvc ribc to an infer- 
cnor In oth«r fiotinlHo ibM lOMetUns wUb rebrence lo one ur 
mon of Ihc putlM wu bclag conccakd from tben, . . . 

The tvlatioti <4 membcra <il the Ferci^ Rdabona CocanrfttM 
to the ettcuim dfpanrnrnt of the novemmeril In iti nJatioQ to 
foreign rebl)"n« i^ prT<j*ely ihe relation whirti the Senaiof from 
South CaA>tiiu simI hu colleagsei uuioin Co lite evecutive dr|iaft- 
jncniinit^relttkinloruKilRntelationL TheCodnnutieefiiiFaniKPi 
Rclaliun^, tike the ocber coAOvttM^ of thi> body, k Dot an ImW* 

Foreign Aflfaira j 

pendent mtity- Its mnnhcrft ur Scnaton who an ik^n^td 
bf the hadj En iludy >mI fcpOTl Qpon oertun tub jrcts Rn6 iHp coid- 
i&iltn i* (Iwirfvcr Wl thv wrvutt oJ Ibc Staxic, ah ill <4hrr ixii»- 
inriioev ATC- A vttmhtt of ibr Kon^ign KcEjiiotit CommiUee, as 
« SenjIOTr In bi« pplatloa lo the Seiutc xul rucuijiv ilc;;«ninciU 
j> ottiy a Seo^Uor, just u- Ukmc who ar« not on thai commitice w 
Scnuon. Of cMirvc ii will wrnciiine^ happen that memben of 
the forci^ Rdilkinft Coniniitt«v, i^liArKr.d by ihc Scnolr a(|h Midi 
pvticular 5ub)ecl, flrill obUtn inforoution &« wrvanb o/ the Srn^tf , ^j 
In ordrr lo Mi>)e il ^ >^ atlcolion of llie SoiJite, ivbkli other ^M 
Scnatunaiigftrl Dolsctk; b«tl)uliBiU. , . . ^^ 

Tbc Prcfidcat h lo Mipnnic oniicr ibr Conttltutloa in |hc ^^^V^ 
nuiBcr ot Utatlcs ^xcUiding ooljr Lb« Scnatf^j raiilkaiion, ihai he ^^^ , 
nuj negottoic 1 1ri»t]r, be nuj Kikd it lothcSi^nfiEf , it mty rt^f itc dtifia 
b]r wAj of "Advirr amI coiv^nl " tlif uBAnimr>iix jt^dgnvni of ilw 
Smote thii 11 U in the highest degriK for the public intcresl, ind 
yti ill? Pfr^itcol Utofrrc bImii it j>i >piit b^k totbe White Hi^M 
vith KrooiuiJQCiuf riiifiLAikin nuocbed to put U in hiidnk never 
af^D to Foe (he Ufbi of lUy as he wu trrt to determine in the fint 
hstaoce »bttbrf he wou^l cc w^ould oot negotiai^ iL That powtr 
h not rEpTFuly ipvpn lo ibe Prciudmi by tbc Coii!kifiiati<in, but il 
labrfe^ rn ihe c-umitire povvrr mnfertrd upon Mm to Cfindwi nur 
foflieigo rehoiooi, and it b a powt vhith inheres in h£m u ihc «o1e 
organ under ib« Cofudtiitloo ihraufib whom our fondsn rvlatiocit 
and diplo«atic btienotaM aic Donductcd. Out ot publk n«ce»- 
difthaPrciUaDtabouldbepcRnlitedtofioekct a ircaiy, no matter 
it tvtrj membef of the Senaip tho^iEhl \k i>ughc to ruhaogc the 

Wby? El«tau4e tlie IVWdmi, through Ihr ^mba^Mdors, msiiH- TTat i 
ten, comuJf, aod all of <be aj|etidai of the Government, cipUtfe* ^!^ 
vo«nmoftnfdRnalicineitry«hrrr,itl&hJ6liiuktc«iii>kBo«*'heibcr t^^ 
■ojthinK ha« occumd snce the Senate acted upon ihe treaty 
nhkh irouid rrndrr ii for Ibe public inictru th«t tlic raiilicatioiv 
be not exrhaofiFd, Aixihe is etnpovrred ro vifhboldewhinge 
fatiTu^ation^, if ttpoa IaIct knowledge br dcens il for the pubJ 


Amtricin GavemmcnE and Politics 


Iftlcrvst lo do ». The dooftad of our Comgn rrljulftti b > ittmC' 
Ikin tfiiich nqtBTCi qukk iQilijaiiT, &nd tlic Setiaiv U ciflrD tn 
vacaiiuo. Il U a jvwrr llut Ri|vift*9 ^^Irrily. One cuune of 
ftOioQ nuif be (k]n4i»disl t9-iui(!ilT aoolbcc in the EDoniing- Il 
it^ulfMAbowCTtcy; And tb«i<-1«nwnib aot omitted by Uw com- 
mediation oo ibc Cooi-timtion ubavinp been deemed by ibefnm- 
en of the mcKt vital icnporuncc. It b too dbWou^ to wankt dabo* 
lUion p^Hooable. 

We ntiiWd th« artatratioQ tre«lj luunuiioiidr, t liclivvr. The 
PrcsiileDt, in the ciTn:lM of tb? %iovrvt wbich k) one cin lUnputc, 
pocketed It. The Prvsidvnl iu:iy QVfuii«ic and dgii a pTo{>D«cd 
trcAty, and no< vend ii to the Svnair. In twA cu« whai ^vould be 
thought of A neoiutiob mkiag him to iofomi the Senate vfacitcr 
he b*d nrfolJftCed twh a pmpovd trt^tf, and vby he b^d not neni 
It to the Senile r* IlA«ing iittM a trtftljr lu tht Senate^ be may 
withdrav it Ibt iwrt day. 

Mr- Pm«dvnl, Ibo ibrre f^ir^i niSnliniJle braachcs of thb Gor- 
cimucnt KTe made by tUe CoosltlutSoa independent of ench other 
CKtpl where the Cnnsllliicton provides othtrwi^. We hivt no 
t{|hlti>a»umcthe exercise of my executive power lAVclUMlerlke 
CtMMlilolkin. yXf rjvn nal auiimc judirljJ funrtion*, 'llir PrrsA- 
(leoi fnay not a!WLinie judicial (lanctinnv, 'llie Pre^desl miy ni^ 
aiAumelegulaEivefiUKtioitis. WeutheSen^te, apanof thettcaiy- 
nutkinK I>o*^<r, hjive no nwrc riiihi vntler th« CiiutiiuLiun lo invi 
thv pttrog»tive uf ibe Preoadent to deal with our forclfn relniAOi 
n conduct them, to ocfoiUie inscicx, ind ihni is not aH — the 
cnndoct of our foPGt|;n rthtiom la not limited to ihr sfgoiiadan 
d treattci — we have no more right under the Cnnttitulion lo 
bvailc tbal prefogatirt fbui be haa Ca invade Ibr prvtosatlvc at 

133. The fUc^gmUifftt tf a Srv Gwemmttd 

Tbe light ct recxfEtiuioe a or* goreramcol or an indepcitdeal 
ttttc Is an IntpciTiant oat, tor iu cvcTcbc may inrotve an adnJnb^ 
rradon in ■mou* diAcuhki »iib other countritf oe gav* 

which the StfttU« Bftiy brins prttiurc oa the Pnalidcfii b illiuirBUil 
ir:i ihu tcpo^ nijuk to Ihc Scoftlc by the conuniltce on furd||Q reia- 
duca in i$3^, 

Tbe Rcog^doD ol T«ras M aa IndcpftiHltfil poircr miy bff mAdt 
by Ihe United Steles in various vayt: Finl, by Inoty; second, 
by Ibc l^vn^t of I Uw m^l^tiajE CflRuncrrial inicrroune brtvDrn 
Ibrtwopowen; lUrd, bjAradin^td^kloaiMk ag^nl CoTfi33wi(h 
Die iBLul crrdtntlAli; or, lislty, by l3ie Kncutitc recnving Acd 
Kcrcdiliiig A iliplonkAlk rTfin>v'>t*^v«r bona Tv>a« vrliicb woidd 
btf a itcog&idoii ii fax u ih* Eiecuti^ ooly ti coapHenc to make 
U. In Uie flnt tnd ihlr^ mode* tbe conocRoct of the Stfinle La 
It! earcultve charackr «\>iild b« ntccuuTi aad in the ftccood io 
ibi kpiluive charulcr. The S«o^lc xlottc, without Ihc «>nprm- 
lion of socne otficr brsnch of (Sr Govrmsirnl, ift oi^l contpctcnl to 
fttoKaijM the ciitFtncc ot any potrrt. 

Tbr freiuJriit ul tbe United Sl4tQS» by Ibe CoiutiiuixML, haa ifae 
clurgc of ibcir fofcifn inleproune. Rc^uhriy he ought to ukc 
Ibe InLiUiiTe La tb« acLnowkidfcnieat of the EndqiaukDcc of my 
new power, bill i& IbU case he bu not y«c done it, for itiuon« iriiich 
he, withi^ul dnabl, dnmA iniftrMl. If In ^ny InsUnf e tbr Prei^ 
deal >hould be Urdy, be may br quickened in the excrdse oJ Hi 
powcf by the cipreaslofi ol tbc opioion, or by other Acti, of one or 
1>oth b«i^cheA ol CuogrcM, ds wu done in rvUtu>Q to thv repubUci 
fbnned o«t of Spanufa America. But the cconinittec do net think 
IbitontbtBoctMiooany UntincMb Justly imp^ablc to the Ei^ru- 
live. AboQt lbre« misothi <inty hare ctqaed wicc the otablnh* 
meat of an bJtpcwWttt Gorvtunkrnl in Tri^ ^nd U !■ nnl un- 
mnonabk Io wait • tbott 6w€ ti> an whji Ht opentiun icilL be, 
and eifiociallT vbftber It wU lEFonl thf^e iciuruiteM which 
fofdgn powen have a right ta »p«ci brfo^t they laritute nU- 
Uott with it. 

Taking ibb ifew of tbe wbolr vaiIct, the eonunlltee cotKlvds 
by remmmeoding Io the Seoale Ibr adoptioo of the foOowing 





jCH AmencTO Coyemitacnt nnd. P^rfttia^ 

/f-fiifrv/, Thsi the imkp^^^v«in^MWiU » 
MfrA hv thv ''-f-nl t-^ gt^^ia Ml^fctHw) iiifiMi^lii" 

triq igoj onr thtCBOaffllkMl ik 

^rff t^MMtayh;- Tn i1|n niiin Ihi Kmahiki if 
tfllitUVim. wt imgnttHlU itiMy^^tWi* Wc Uui Atifc *ui a di^ 

■if hmr. Lt wik mcubliiheii ofta cUf;. TUfcxiNft W our f.aU«- 
^lam JTi«inii.llnK Mutaurr Wathlmcnr 1 1 ii ■CM^ihaiBijiiililii 

"^s .'iilv U-rause of the diflncntx in tioM^ It w«& acai in tito 
i^i'i-rjni:, [| v.-as. already the next day wbm it goi hereaod waa- 
an^^wrri-d. iVanct hah no constituuuQ, buL it wiflmx a humnttog: 
biifT r .iny tether ihin^ of ^ diminudve ^ihAnt-icrt tnu a great 
mfirhtv pet^pjp, lorry raiUions or ntam, wbo had sei up a rcfn^jtic 
rWiritrp'l iiy frvpdom andio human libcrtyi utti t|ii& grem refrtililic 
-It -nn- n"**efi wfth TecoRmdon* 

^fp ^l i>RtrH. Wp did not even a:^ FTIupx^ aa I rcoMmbop,. 
"h'^thrr jUe itovtmment which had been ovtnhfown cunacoted. 
\rn l-"oR\Kl^R. >Jo. Mow in 1873 they esudiUslied a re- 
j-u>t}i'- in "^linin. There was no dday- Imcncdiiidy our nuniattr 
I'lrr*^. ( irnpril Sijrkle^, wasadvi?ed by uurgovemEEwnt torecogjii^ 
in'i I'' rfM n^nifniz**. ihe Republic <j( i^pam. Later when the- 
f"mr>rrMr f Rr,i7il ^^^*^ itcposed. the n^ublic that fi^tiowed him 
■ I' --rr»fiHv r-TnnniflHl. .ind nihcT i?samples rmgbt b* cited- 
^W I'r -iH<'nr, Llipm was nn reason in thctaae of Fnmce, or Spain, 
,- }\- 1 .11 ]..r [•T^ritt\\n\e or hasty acdon: we had no ^petiai duties 

Wh^i I'i If '■- ,'ir in lb** I ^■ii* of The Republic 01 Panama it was different. 

^■,„^["."^ ^Vi- ' "V 'ho rn'.rT'litinn';, arrciTTiinR to iniemadooai law, thai aje 

0>. I"' 1 r-i |ii' tifv '1^ in instiintly recognizing a new govefnmeiil 

IF' '-\:r 

Fort-ign Aftiirs 


ju u^v <lkl iQ ihp o&sr of France, Spda, tn4 BmU ? The only 
condition nccvuuy, — uid h dcx^ nix nuke Any dUTcrtncc, In 
ihf Utigu^ d ihc S«n«lor ftx>m Xli^cMLrhttrvtt* whflhrr il l>r 
brought »hctm in Sti; mingles at 6n! ibyi, oc fivr nianih* — U (fcuti 
the ocw i^rtiimrni th^l Ir the «f^r Aiiilhiriry Ihn-jjtliiiut ihr 
ngton oirr whkb il undr^l^kci to gut-fi^ii, aoJ ih^t thcrr U no 
cunlcnCion amd no dih^utcd aulboriiy. ll it nol netvtMuy ut |{o 
ili*i r«r Bui when iliuw cuoJiiion* citoi to thjii ciieni, then ac- 
cording td dl c4non^ ol inurnatiuiul lau'. a rccognldon l» in order 
ni the ojtiino cf the mxi^nUln^ piivrnmrnt^ In the cur a( 
KrancTp I uj.1hfT>- Wftsno^pcci^ r>arrviiir(orba«1c bunhnpoin- 
ditiom CkUlnl Js *r untlcr^dxit biid mr rrcofpolMd i1^ It wan ihc 

i>4. An Athilr^ian Tr^y 

TV UtiivH Succ« lia.^ tak«n an Istpenani (ion in ihctwopvicv 
MnkfEttrv* .'U Ihr lloKUf- nnd in punvianrc 1^ thr frctimmcndation* 
of tbe fiM i;<Kift-i7U(X ba» mjiilc atUlrafion ln:alie» «hh nuv-i of 
the imporlwt powc-n i^f ihr ittirld^ Thr- i^nrral emor nf a\\ ihciv 
ltcalie» a iDuJtntcd hv ihii irroiy signed iriili Circat Uni^i;) in 

ThcPrc^idftituf TTwrniirdSuieaof AmpriciandUi^ Majesty 
thr King of ihc Coifrd Kingdcim ol GrcnE BHuin anc) Irrknd ^. 
Ukd of ihc BKlJ^h DiMniniona lieyund the Sr^s Kfn|>mw of IndU. by *n 
dc^ng in piinmrne ol the prijKi|ile« «?l focih in jrlidn M-ig •^^ 
o( the (onvcniiutt for ihc paclflc Mtlkmcrit of inicm4ik>nAt d\i^ 
putM, aignrd at ihr H^gue July jj, t8QQ>li>cn<eraiUinegociaciuus 
for ibe cofKiiukn ol an irbtiratfein conwnifon, hxvt nainrd t$ 
ihfir PienaiNiirfldarleft 10 wit: Thr Pnr-MbTtt iif ihv United Slairq 
of AnencA, Elihu Koc4, Secrtujy of Sta»r ol tfae United Slates, 
and Hi^ UMJrMy Ihe Kin^ nf f*rv«t Britaltt and Irrtuid arid of 
the Briti^ DoaiiBoom beycod ibc S:a%» tmivrur of Indii^ llie 
Rixbt UooorabAr Janvi^ Brytir, O. M., who, aSm hanng con^- 
mankaicii to one anutbrr tbtii litlL po*vr\ f^uod la 9>od ^d due 
lonn, hMv ipeed i^ha iIk IbOowiac onklei: 


Ataaian Govcnunent tad 


DUkivwn wWcfa Bij AtW of ■ kpJ unott or trUtiQii to tW 
iMl0|«<(S«tkio of Dvstiem «nidac betwvra the tw<a Cootncting 
psriJ** wkI pUdi U uy aot Eutv beta poaJhk lo iculc bf di- 
ptovMitr, iball b« nricrred to liiv lVnB*oao i Ctmrx U Ariteitkn 
eiufaitlMd At tiK Hft(w b7 tW omvexukn of Itv 19th of Jvlj* 
18^ proritkil, •rrtrthcks. tfau thef do WK ftfitct tfae ilul b- 
lesotA, Ihr lwlrpfiidrncc« or ihr Immmt of ibfi two cuAtnctiii^ 
SiUm. uuI ^ ttol Goticttn the j&lftoli of lUrd p4ilia. 

Avncu U 

lo each individuAl c*tf tW High Cflnir^rinig Partin, brfotv 
AppcaliofC to the Pennwni Court of AHiitntioo, ilitU cooduda 
k >p«dii apuBWDi dc^oinf cl«u1 y tbr Rutur to dbpou, ibr Kvpm 
at (he poncti of Uv irtjUrtlorT. and ibe periods Ip be intd far 
ihe foRiiAtlos of tbc mrbttnl tribussJ, %n6 the wvctd ms^ oI iht 
pvoctidun. 11 b ttodcfMood that «Acfa apcd&l A^n^BMb tm 
^ pan of the Urtitcd Suem vtll be raidc by the. Vtaident U 
Ibc iJnItol SlAte«, bf asd wbb the advice and nouent of ibr Sm- 
atc ibtnof ; fib MajedT** Govtraoient Rvmng tbe ligbl befoR 
concluding a H>rcUl j c rw< m In utj puiter sSfcdng tfat (n- 
MteMa of a lelf -^vrnin^ doRMnAon oi tbe Bn;L^h E-mpirt lo ob- 
tain ibe cnncurrence iberda of ihc K<JTtmnicnt of ihni doaaiaioiL. 

Sutfh acmenmiA iball br binding on!/ trhrn coofiftnrd by the 
two ^orcnuQcnli bj an exchange of DoteL 

AiTTcxi in 

Tbe pieeent <vtirtntloti shall be rjtiiicd bjr tbe Prnide&l uf 1 
Uadlcd Slate* of America bj and with tbc advice and conscM 
the ScBaie Ibeteof, and hy Hu Bdtannlc Ma)cMy. Hie ratifica- 
tkma lAall be exchas^ at Wa>hingloo, a* tooet a* pottible, and 
ibe citfivmtlnii t»bait lake cAn*! on the date of the rvcbanRi» of iU 
rati St a lion k 


Foreign ABfaira 


AancLE IV 

The present convention is concluded for a period of five jean 
dating from the day of the exchange of its ratificatioiis- 

Done in duplicate at the dtj of Washington, this fourth day of 
April, in the year 190S, 

ElihuRoot (Seal) 
Jaus Bsyce (Seal) 


K^TIOIQAL i>r.n:KSx 

^vrpR thr Contttturbn, (Vtngrvu i* MUlKoKxH 10 rafac 
Bupi^^n jnnws, pioviijtf ^nd iniinLua a mvy, to prorldv for 
or^Aikbing, Arming, uid diAfiplinin^ Ibf nuLilia and calling itie 
itiilrcU [fittr fnlvraTacrricVi Jtii^t (o niakr f ulc« fijr iJir KiivciTjn^CMil 
<if (he Ur>fl and nrwiil toiKa and of ihc milititL whcm in the fvnioc 
of Ehc Vnitcd Sutd. 11ic wk rK)irr» mtrklion on iHi* military 
pourr af Coi^rvn la ibr pnivbion linillinif appropnniuinA 10 a 
Knii "f mil mort ihun Iw" ycir*. 'n»c direclion of ih* fonoi, 
howuvcT, b <oniniilIixl to the PrcaidtDl as commdftdoi'ifKhitf, 
Tbr tiltimntr rr»>iiri'r f<ir ihr (lHrn<r c^f ihr naiion U the entire 
population of al]k'T>odi(^ moles <apible ol Lremng i,ntis. Tlib 
ciliicn nfmy ist orgnni^i^l hy an im|hirlAnt MatJIe (>a&sed bi 1^3 
and uncndrd in 199S, Iruiti whiLh Iwu icctiuuq vr given here. 

Sec 1 . ThM ttie niilitia -.h^It cunst^i uf fvcrr abie-buiScd mile 
diben of the re.^pe<-|h-c Sulccs and Temtorie^, and tbe D]:tUict uf 
CcJumbiA.ftndesrry abU-'b(idicdmAleof fnrtjgn hlrlh whff hik^dc' 
cUred his itiiriklion to brcome ii citi^n, who ii mocr thun ci|^teen 
VkI b^A tbflQ foHy-fit« yr*r» of ftK^^, i^nd khall be dbided into two 
davea — tlw orgaaued ninilia» to be Lnown ■» i^k NiltouM 
Guild ol 1^ Stale, TcfTTtory, or l>Jmi(t of Columbia, or by 
^ch otto deiigiMb'oiki oa ta^y be gfi^ntn them hy the bwi of the 
ic3^iec6w SlAie* or Ttfritohes <umI ibe rcmujidcr lo be knonn 

Sec. 4- Tliai wbeoevrr the CTn&ed Stileii » inradrt!. or Ln 
daAipr of Invkaloia Iroan aajr forviipi ittilon, or of rebelBon apunil 
lIvaivtkmtyoFilwGufvmmentof ibt Ututied Stilc*. ur the Pn^i- 
dent b untbAe, vritb tbc Rfola/ forces u bi« comnuoi). 10 ciee-^k 
tbe bw9 of ibfl U nfon. k ^oll be Uivfol for the Proldent to ciO 
ionh sorh number 0/ ibc fniliiii of the St&tc or <d ibe SuUa «r 
Tcirilcvin or of the ditirwt of CoJumhai m be nuj dMin oeces- 

NiDooiJ Defend 


bim iDCXCCiile *\Kh Hwt, uiil lo i»ue hii unlcrt for ttuxi pur\}Sfc, 
ihroujEh tfa« GovvriMTi^ ibcRiqioci^v Sui( orTcrhioiy, ctf th^^ 
the ccmBJUKUfiX-feiicnl of il]« mlliiii of ihr Diitrici of Cdiunblo, 
fram whicb Suic, Tem'iocy, or Dwukt wch ifODpi tmy be cmli«dt 
10 tuch oiUcm of I he oulitU u he iD«y lUnJi proper. 

ti6, Tkt Or^ami^ctitm ^ the Stottdiug Army 

Th«M MctliNM fnxD u >ci pusfd I& 1901 to bcrtaM the efB- 
deiKj <rf the prnniftcnt mQiur^ r^uhluhrnrni of Ihr f'nilcd 
Sut<« vm ««vc lu lUuMnklc *«r}r well ibe eUlwnic f^jon ttx 
uhlch CoQfittf muU provide iar ihe nLnMcM dclalb of the nili* 
IU7 ofguiiiatios: — 

Be ii tnatte^ ^y ihf Stmk oni Hous* tf ReprtttiUaihn c/th* 
VmiU^ Stalef vf Amtwii^ in Cottgrea ^utmUtd, Thjhl from aad 
■fCcj the ■ppmi-d uJ ibb ocl llw Anny of the UnJicd Suici^ \n- 
dtfdlfijE \^ eur^tinic onpnJuiionti sh«ll con&i«i of Aftera r»gi- 
nenb <ii c^valrj'. a corp& of uiilkfy. tUrtjr rcsimcnii of infftntrx* 
one Licutcnant-Gefienl, «u nutjor-grnrml-s liflcrn bri)pidi?f<- 
gmmb, tti Ai1jn|jLni-Oenrr4r« Ilv]iartmi-nlt ao lnN[>r(lor t>n- 
etjJ't l>cp«nEiicii(. A J udj^- Advocate- Ucnnd'i Dep^nmcat, ■ 
Quaiv-ntta»i«rS Dcpvmionit a SuUbtcncc Dcpuiinciii, a Med- 
JcaJ Depannesi. a Pay Deputmeni, 3l Coipi of EBgineen, an 
OrdAuioe Dcfa/imcnt, & Sijciinl Coqw, the offifien of llw Record 
and IViinoa Oftcc. ibt <^h«|>Ltln«t the offirm AJid cnlHled cncn of 
ibe Army 011 ihe retired Ivti, the profeHorft, coqn of cadct\ the 
VRiy drtAthmr^iit* .uid liLind U the Ualted SlJttn Miiiury Acad* 
enyr Indiia vcioab u sow autWued by law, «id »ucb other 
cAinn asd tcdltfcd man ■» may harelad'Ecr be provided for. . . . 

Sec; a. Thai roch rvefneot ol cavairy ^baH coouM of one 
cohaael, orv lif^utrooAl-colooel, ihrcc nuijon, fifteen CApta[iu, 
6fiera im'Wiii«ri*iit>k; fifteen iecond4ieuten«nl», nro vrttri- 
mriafct, ooe Hri;e4nt-n4iM', one quKrtemuiter-ier^Ant, one 
OoiiWilliiaif Kaftaxtt, ihtvc tyquadroo setfceanu-mafur, l«o color 
■efpanCa wi^ ranL, pay, and aUowaaccA of ^uadnn larBeaai- 


American Govxrnment and Politic 

majoor. one lund. juid IwUc trocp^ orginized into three tqt 
rODBolfi>ur (^r4j|34ta^h. . . . F.^h c^vkiry bund Ui^lbcorKWi^ 
\k6 ax now provided by bw. Each troop of cavalry thaH oonsist 
of oD« opioin, one- €rbt li^utenuii, one tfcond licLJt«QAni, one iirF« 
■crgcsnt, one quanrrmajiur uer^atLl, tax »cr^»L»» six coq^iVaU, 
two cook«t tiro forricn «nd bladumtilu, one MddLcr, one w%gctat€, 
two tnitopetrr^, *nd fortj-lhrrr pnvjiir*, Ihe rommiv^cirwd ofliori 
to be MMi^iied Svjax tmons thov htrrrnibcforc authoriicd: 
vfded that ihc PrvtLdcni la hu (Huirciiun may tncrcBJ^ the number 
of cvrpuraJfl b my trcwp uf cavalry lu right and the nuniber of 
privflJet loivvcnty-iit, but ibc totAl n umber of enll'^ led men auihor- 
ittA for (he whol« Army ^hall not at any linv Ix cxc^ded, 

Ilfirrr lollow Hrt*jlrd |iri>vitIon» orjAni^lrig the rilhcr br»ocSc4 
of the .Kimy of ibc United StatvK.l 

i>?. rAe Defi^ratioH tf Wat 

Tb« poirpr to doclAiv wir in vnlvd by lh« CcmMiliatioii in Con- 
pt7%<, .iikI ibr fotlowinjt VI UBuAnttcd the munncr in «ri^h Ifab 
|H)i«er ii exctc wd ; — 

£« H ttt$ittd by tkt S^naU ^nd Hfimt ^ Rtpttstrt^^tha of iMs 
Vniu4 Shiiti ef Amnko 'n Ct^g^t au4mHrd, Fine. That u'&r 
be, and the uoie h hereby, declared 1o e»»t« and that wikX Ku 
ndttrd sincr ihe si«t day of April, x.n. lAqlt, l&cliKSng uld day, 
betv«tn the Veiled Slal(*s of Amr-rka and ihc Kingdom of Spun. 

Second. Thit (he Prc^dcnl of ibe Urtlied Suiet be, uid In 
bervby fa, dim-ted and enpowfiitd to um tb« entin land aad naval 
forces of tbe tfniied States and bo call intoibeactutLl»crTfceof the 
Unfled 5ute« the mitiiU of ihr weni Siatta loauch enum aa mi^ 
be neceAuy to cany (h-iA att into effect. 

ApprovH April 3$, 189S, 

i>5. Tk€ Cdttfar Vdu^Oesn 

Before Ae lofmat d^rlaratrna of war <in Spain, Prraidenl Mrl 
by, acdMC uoder 1 pirn n^oluiian aad an act of Coa^rvflf, 
ihb pfocUfnalioo caltiag for volUAtccrt: — 

Nttion^] Dcftoie 



joth diy of ApdU tBqS. cttlilkd " Jojoi ntoluUon for the nn-og- |t„|«ri 
n^iion of ibe Independence of the people of Cub«, denkuxfiiiK ih«i 
the GovannKni oT Spain retioquith iu jiijlbofiij- ind j^vtnnml 
in the blind of Cuba ittd withdraw lu lui^ uul oaval fom 
frum Ciiba «iid Cuban irfttcn, Afid dlrcctifij ibc Piraiiknt <J the 
L'niied Siaa«t lo uv ihe land And oftval forfCH ai the United SUIe« 

^oc*^TJ?!hf1c^t*nlufinIl^in^o*floct;'" »nd 

Whcrru by an kcl of Congns colitJcd *'An urt to provide for 
trmponnlf incr^utog the nulltory ctcoblihhnictti of ibe UnUcd 
Sutes io time of war» and Tor oiber purpuacvi*' approwd AprH 
», ttgB, die PRMdcad b auihcirutsl, in nrdcr to nix a volunieer 
tmy. to Imuc hh procUisAtion calb&g for votunioen to tcrrc tn 
ibc AFn3rof the United Sralci: 

Now, ibercfore, 1, ^i'Uhani MiKinlfv, PmJdenC of Ibc- Ualud J^'. 
StaLe»> br limip uf ihc pover veuod b me bf ibc Con»iitQlJon and ^„„i 
ihc lawt^anddecminiiadkUQi o(«^u£on lovilu* Vemv lluJijght At 
io call forth, and do hereby cali furth, volunse^r^ lo thtf agBngaie 
ouraberof ii5<ooo in order io cany intocHeci iht purpose oftbe 
ftild rrvituik»i, ihc Mme 10 be apponioned, a.^ far aa practicable, 
^^ among ihf wcral Suta and Terrilorieft aod the Oiitricl of Co* 
^H himhtt afcordiofl lo popuhtJon .uid 10 wmc fur two ytar» unhna 
^^ imner dffCbar^e<L The dcl*ila fcr iha object will be hngwdlalely 
I communicated to the proper authoriilc* ibrough the Wair Depart- 

K mcoL 

^^B In witncB whereof I have bereuftto wt my band and cauieil 

^^M the val of tbc IVJird Stain to be Jiftked^ 

^H Done at thr diy of Waahmglon, ihb t3d day of April, aj>. 1 898, 

^H and of the Independence of ibe Ui^ted Sutu ibt onv bua- 

^f deed uid iwpM y mooad. 

r (Seal ) WuiiAJi McKlSiurv. 

^^ By the PnrideiM; 

^■^ JOHV SBEilUM, 

— ■■ PoJxTKS 


...ii'TI » ' ■ 

-■-' war 1^ 'y-.r "XSI^^ "" 

— :*U iri,iv fy-rl/r"^^" 7T 
■ ■till. Imr. I *,', .\Ti~. ~1. 

■ «ui-; r.r».L j.imatioE - — 

■ • ill.- L inijTi-^^ and i:*- 
- !,■ 111. i-iPViTTiTTicri: ■■: 
-•M.'iiE 91 iiiur rT'iiii^Lii^r: 

■'■ s'liki A-ir. wiir.i^ri"" 

... l.wJll,,' -. ■. ,- . 
1 ...\ I -.. - 

\ --. .11 - • 

i: ■ .1 

National Defense 


dftte of mch wn/niag. when ■luch imlorvmrrtl wAt tnkdc; aod it 
ihc ikAme vf^oA «h«ll a^d &ltcmpc Co chiEr jutjr blockadrd jurt 
nht «ill bf ^upturod And Knt li> tbr wtfr^ coiviviiicnt port fur 
lUch procccdiTifft ojputut bet iod bet c&rgo «> priu a» nnjr be 
^lecnwd sidirisftbW- 

Neuinl vc!99cU tyfag ia uiy of »id ports al tit litai: of th« 
«ilALIiAl)AOTii of »uch blockjidc «nU be Allortvcd ibJnjr diy> lo bvjc 

tn vilELCu wbcrcof 1 hit-e hrrmwla vt my b*nd and earned the 

HiL ol ibe Unfttd Sutc« to be ftfllvd. 
Done at the dtyoj Withtiigiuu, thii jid diir<>f Apdl, i.d^ 
iS^k ai>d of the lodcpcodeacG of the United Suit* ibe otid 
hundred and twesty-Mcood* 

(SeftLj WlUUUC MCKinXY. 

Bytht iVvdemt 

TV folfnwin;^ eitm'l:* fr^in aa ufkle (a thr IK^'^i H'tirt 
dttcrlbc the n^inderful fnhkm in vihkh wur oaay be diroctrd in all 
piATlaolthe world from &Mn^ rootn At the White iiousc: — 

The Cu1>an Wat dcvtioped in tb» Whnte Hoim tb« novel In- 
ffrituriftti kftown A« the Tekgnf b Aod Cipber Bnmni. rre^di7iu ^ ,^ 
MrKii4t7<socf Ivtd ibc ld» of thU Iclcgmph and tch^plione oiTire Wv I 
fof bid (letwiud OH At tbc ouKbntk of the wAr^ It h CAtlcd the 
"Wat Room'' becAiEc it UinatA Uhr eooimon chAnnel throctgh 
«hhh wj'reivivtdAnddkqkOlr.hedAilheniofaimpAnAntinfonttA* 
lion Aboui ihr opfHn*n|; Arnaks- Tbr BurvAu h An A|>Art»rot the 
die of AS ordinoiy drAvinc-room, cootAiaaag ibe miM inApfored 
atodtn i^Miutva for coouiMakAtiai qnlckly hy Mk|ibonr. teU- 
pBpb or occu caMc with every aceaaibk poflkni oC tbe^lobe. 
The Prr«deni, Ahbouj^ CMnmAnder-tn-Chicf of the Army And of 
tht N'lvy. wju focnvHy tmAble lo koow exAcUy thr pfo^Kas of 
e-cntti it t)ic M4t of H u- Baltics were fought, JAnyAtgo* ptonoed 



A* ih^ inv^Hini; Army aHvamwt inin rnlia iiihmininliiii i hhhu 
rrm* rri I rirrl iiM fh« PmifVfH w^uikepttrt mucb^vvhioBcinnmBiidf- 
fr<i in rh^ rVH. S^ prrfrfft ^vrM^ cto itrmfieniKim thac tut M«a 
Mf E<w>mmiiTilrfltP ffnffl ^^y>■*hfn^aftfllilV[aCTlhMl^: ^J^^w juiim oB 
with ihr nffir^n fjn rh^ fn^^ Simr^fi Santte^jpt TBowiflmrdari 

rinv .'^'hirh f'Tr-iT^H [hf iv<'irp«4inn of *%UMiaff>tbe Pretest :iEood 

pTfif-' (IT tr?*m fpf rv^fv 'Wn^hm*Tit rif thr Aonricaii and Spumb 
V^r'^■- Wh/-n it fl^« '>f rnh-f 3(ip^*rtrt a» any n# the eDenT|^ 
Miffp.i^ti <'!'■ inwt-'ttt fortmMirfW-ii'rhtrf wa» apfvisad nf tfae 
fic r -iTiii". H f/".- mihiFf*** Hfi'l ih^ '^t^nrler meiallk strand be- 

f,v(■^Fl i^i'- rri'-T'Wo nful fj^^ |»nwf|#T'hfP(riTnHl fiffhttTB in tho 

fnttp iif '"'" « '"I^|^llf-n*< Mittfwl af -1 TfiJe((r"ph line, he tmght 

■''' 1 i>''ir'l 'Up (MiimJpr "( ihr jpmn and liilcned to ihe 

■ I ' *'"' ^tufi" tm siiiftl^ra rtii llw* rptl and yellow fii|{9 dropped 

Nttionil Dcfcnne 

Tliu ftcrouBd Af tbe Mcps Itkat by Uocoln utd SUotoo in 
pnfiBntioa br thv fitcfuf Uulv of G«iiHHtff lUuAnm iho 
BiftJUM-r in whirh thcl^ncditlcni jutd SfCfdu^ ol W^ffli/COfipenCc 
ID dirKdng tbc miHuiy I6rce»: — 

ll Wis night in Wji^hin^on. Thr Prr^rdrni wrtfr a gloomy EiiCp 
» br rnicreti ihr W;ir T^^tiArUncot by tbt uraenl re<|ijct1 of Secrc- raunirl 
lafy SUnioB. Kvilbtr sytokt for A whttt, Mf, Lincoln at tsyi <>" '^^ 
ttid: " StAotoo, you ttdiiUo speak tome; you biw sonscthing to bauti!f 
mnmiunkaec; WiHf cafanlycouud vtiheachoihcr: 1 am rtody 
ii>li«*m>*' Tbc Sfovury replied: "Yes, J4o wjint lOMysonfr- 
ihtng to yiM. 1 nci&l to idl yon tfat trouble ibftt opprevn mc ot 
th«» IJmc; I'll EMii miner wvn\^ ior I ivti you want lo know ihr 
wonL" "I -So,** «ud Mr. Uocoln; "speak out Iben. 1% be lb- 
Mmr-** Mr. Stanton In brief luiKuifie told him ifa&t be dnwfod 
ibe Iftwie ol ibe ccniag batik, with Lev's coosdouft &biUty and tbe 
uilmadaf Kplril of hk «/my, oit ihc one »i^, uid Hooker, ibt 
bMMti senenlt commanding men who sUU rvmemberrd their 
tbfttt in VirgitiiAoolbfr other sdft. "In«bort/'^d Mr. SiorittM, 
"T hftve not ron^dencr In Grrnenl ir<>riker, though his pcnooal 
cour«f^ 1 ikk not qurtlion" "1 iJtin'L di«:igree iHth 3x111," Mid 
the PrcfiklcikC, but you recollect tbc oM ^t'Jnjc, 'XSltilc crtj^Alnx 1 
ftream it :s too Ule to iwap bgtNe.' Suaion, b»ve you iny other 
funeral to HUi^Beit^" He tepUed: '^1 bare tboiight of General 
Sc<igwkk, hut yott know be vil not accept, I have ifaou^t of 
otlttTH and unred it thp ump cockduitton^ Tbe beit of tbcm ue 
not vilbouE dcUAclorv. T\vn h one that I would »u|CR»1, Ocn- 
crai Ueade, with whose frcord mad ability I could find do fault; 
aifld as a Pean^lTauan he ha* potHglitm eaough io draw out all 
tbe lattet eacffSca <$ hb natore. . . /' "Stftat^n, iben U no 
lirae lo be losL You muit have ronocJved a plan. If yam can 
MtbfymyJudporBlihai thi»<xprdieni wttt pmvcamaalcrMrokef 
«nd Aead to sucren, I will ro-operate with you, and gm II ray ap- 
proval," Secretary St«nt«ai then dtiatfrd hb pUtit. The onkn 
Mkd papenv aM wrtlleii out> «rre taken up «enatini and dUcuseed, 
aod Ur papcn cncuted. 




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Naiiotal Defense 


^fin;> (u imiinm upun jriH tbe Unpartonce of MTOiDpliibing tbw 
objru miih the kun jMMblfl (kUy. Vou cm c»lltoyoum*i»t- 
ftirne any uf iho iiburi^nt forces !a ihju riddtjr- <um1 nftkc we of 
Ncb of ibcra as you ihtnk advinblc lo kMJsi you, e^^kcddlljr >^ 
SCDUU, guides, etc- You anr (miioQtd agBitut jmitiag loo much 
Cf>nriilfrKe ia tny pcnmu oulAdt of jour Iroopi^ Vou wiO Ubc 
eicry prcouluin nie«iatt unUtti:jMk* or ujn>ri»r4 nr }iMi\iona, |)ut 
may iniv Iwpn nijnrd vc uv omauwM by ibi- 5i>ani^ (ofve*. 
Vou nfll cottpenic nekou carncKtly wJib the uavdI tforcM in every 
w^, tp^tSmg boConhud upon « code ol signab- Ouniminicaic 
your Intruictiow 10 Admtnl Samfuon luid CoouBodniv ScMcy. 
On rompleiion ol tbu cnBrrpiur, unbtM you rvn-ir* otiu^r orden 
ordtvoftitfdviMhlp loremun in the harbor of Saruiof^ik Cub^, 
rvlrabvlc your troops and pirocood ta the liEui>ar of Vun i!c BaJte*, 
Tr}Hirtiaic by tSr mu&l Li'anbie mtfAns for furtbcr uc^n aipl 
future inponani wrvkc Tbii^ with the uadcntanilirtC tkxi yuur 
conunand Iwi sol vu^talned srrious Iosa vid tlkai ib« abo^ harbor 
u sdc for your truuportt oad covi^oyt. mien vill you Mil ? 
By command of MAyar^Ktwral MiW: 

Id i8<M,oD iheoccaitonof toTAlcfimtdenin Chkn|^ In conwc- 

luiii with k i4nkr. I*rciiiiiriil Ctcvi^Uiul c<nj)lir)x>l fc^krai irnop« 

utd israed thtt procloinaiioik to (he cituesu of Ulinuii : ^ 

Wb«l«««, by feuun of unlmwful obMruoIooi, conibinadoa* snd 
aaa em bJagw «f pfrson^ it btt Imxtfue in^iracticable, la ihr judg- 
ment of ihc Pitsi4kflit, to enforce, by the ordinoiy o»ne of ftidkial 
lirooccdtngH, ihc lavn of the United Siatn uriihln thr SiJiie of EIU< 
nojs, and eipedaly In the dtf of Chicago within mmI Suit : nod 

Wheiru, For liic |iuqtui< uf rn(<min£ ibt futlifvl circutkm «f 
Ihe Ub^ of the Unaled Slalw and protecting ilfe prvfitiiy eind ir- 
novfng oburaoiucia lo the VwAptd Suta maik tn ihe Stale wad 



American GovcrnrocDi and Po!iiics 

cjiy aTortsdd, ihe Piv^dent h>s employed u pan of the nftiiary 
EciPX4 ol ihf Urutcd Suc»: — 

Now, ihtrcforr, I, Orovrt CFpTicUnfl, Pre^rfnnt of ihc United 
SlAtn, <lu hrretiy ftdmunihh aJI gocnl filicenFt« Aiid all pcr&o?)i who 
mfty be or may come wrfhin ihc Ciij And Suw afonrv^id, aipiui&l 
aJdinK,oitinicnAi)cfnj|,cnciiurftKi*i>L, orl^i^KHny {inn iii»i*^hun^ 
Isvrf ul ot»tniuiun!i, uimLioaliguB, untl utruibbgn; iiiii I bereby 
warn il) pcrfdooscnsog^d in QT Jn iny way coanccied wkh nicb tm- 
UwhU obAUuctloDs, comblutJon» and &3J«mbla^ to dispene 
&nd redfc penccably to ibdr re^pcctivt abode* on or brfoce twdvc 
oVJock noon at the qlh day of JulylntlArit, 7'hoM whfidUrt^nrd 
thU warrtin); aiiid |»crMHi m lukiiif^ pjtrt vviib ■ riolcu* mob in 
fordbly minting and olniniccing Uic cKtcudon of ibc bwa of (bo 
United Sutc*, or intedcring mih tbc functioTU of the Gowm- 
tOKiX, or dcTitnryJnfl ur BUL-mpLioA to datroy ibt- finj[>criy be- 
Umgtag to the Vmted Staie» or under it» protectiL^n, L:aiuiot be 
rc^iu'dcd othenti^c iban » pubUc enemies* 

Troofii f mplo)^ ag&inM »acii & riotous mob mX\ vT with til tW 
fflodcr*don and torbeuiince cortijitrnt vilh ihr Kitmipli^iiii'Tit 
of tb« dnfird end; hui Ihr iMrn rwnrwilin ihAC confront tbem 
will ool with (crUinty permit discriminatioD between guilty pir- 
lldpurts »nd lho«c who itre mln^tlLitK with ihom front (-urloslty aikI 
witbuul criaiinAl bilenu Tbc only &Afe coxir»c» du^reforc, for cbone 
iioCftctttinyptrtldp«tlng.UtoabJdcaithdrbomn, or AtleMt not 
lo be found in the nelgbborftood of rirstou» &3»inblagrs. WUIe 
Iben vill be no vadllolion in the decisivr treataieftt U the g^lliy, 
lUi wimiag b cvpocuJly btcadcd to prutect and mv« (bv iimo- 

T31. Vu n/ Troops im Dpntrfk DisAHen 

The Re^wrt of the Wir De|xLnmcnt En igo6 thai docribvd the 
way in v^Kh fericYAt s<^ier« were efnpbycd lut theoceuion of tliv 
^nat o»Tlbquake in Son FnkOcUuo: — 

On April 18. ibrdlynf San rnadaco wta tidted byaMfio 
ol earthquake abock^ which demolbhed nuay bMildinp, Thla 





w«i follciiirij byjifirc whu:h,<hjrto(h«mpluKfi{r>f the princijul 
waitr maiiM at tbr tit/, whh ftoon beyonrf ci^oirol^ Tbr iliKuicr 
WkU )□ lix-itdcbjng and fvcnvbelflun^ tlul il vj^ cntifvlr beyond 
the capacity of thir Kxal authurilK^. ind tb;- LfuitcU States Fom's 
tn ibe vidnitf, h*Ah ut Che Army jin<l u( ibv Naty, rcndcnd icn- 
mediate asdsuncc Auiboriij hms eivcn in conccnuixtc ai Saa 
F>aflciflCO>&Eme»wUfcaii Ihr^ P^dfic Dki^thja, aodUUrlhi&ff 
viu >upplefaentcd bj tiVK>pa ^om other divi.iinns, mulibg in ti 
find <rmcmtrali(W of > regimi-ni« df cAvulry, 15 Lumfofiin of 
CQUt utiUcTf, 5 tuttrhn uf tcJd Eirtilkfy, $ rrgimcnt* ot infuitry, 
ud ddubmcnu of ihc cn^ciecr, ia(n*l, iind hu(niA) txirpt, 
I ji Addiiiunal officctK 

Tlic fdlowin^ Aimnury, ttikcn in ]afge pan from a general 
order pubUshod carljr U Jul/ by the commAndin^ gc110r.1l, I'acific' 
DiviHon, U a «ttcdnci ^Ulemrnl of ihe goieraL nlKfttian^ 

7^ work donr bj lhi§ force rvadily &I1& into two phaif^ — 
the tiruo^ to avc tbt dly of San FnnciKo horn akmiilcte dc- 
Mrw:iiun by firr, and lb* BUCcoriniE of more ihAn jooj^oo mUo- 
ing and doillult people. The work of ibc Arm/ and Marinie^ 
Corp» fn the hesn of the csty, supple merited by ibc Ubon oj the 
Natj along Ibc v^rr front, nvH the rnidenlial wotrm Addiliua 
ukd pnctknily aU the v^jkrrei frunting the hny. The cflfvtt of 
Ibe troop* frcm daybmk of April tS to niid^iKl^i of \\ir\i jo 
tuwd to thr litmoBl ibe pbv^MEal btrm^b, ihv oervvuB L'nergy, 
ihff food tenpce of every oflkvr tnd nun. Vet in ihU kmxU 
dbuicr, with iu a<cToaapaAying eonfuu'on aod cxdutneot, no 
wv taken by uiy min nf the Army or Suvy. 

The labor (J relief, rc^o^ifed a» beyond tlir law and uaumed 
by lbediviiiionco<iiBDander frerisa vRWfiJobfigaiory pLihIicduty, 
bvcajBr rvgular by ilie oH^jal call for truopt^ TbU duty ne>c«uj- 

Ltaled the can oi nearly 350^000 people, deoitute in <JOc way or 
iBoUier, [q a dty wftbout local uan^iortatlott, wltbom food, with 
icani irmer, lad vriihoui tanitarj (adiitirs vhite about ooe-l 
]i% pofwdation had k»l bouwa^ elocMng, furniture, and brddii 
U likrVBe inroJvcd repmuua of tbeft and tinlcnue hy the vidi 



jao AmcricAU Government and Pclidcs 

nan -Enuricrrncc with ihc liWnf uul act* of Itir fintin«ry dttwo, 
dbcHmbNtluo in ihv {Jiblhbuiion of food, cnfDroerocDt of Miiubk 
unkofj m<lKKlv UutnicUon la <at(t\t \Uc, ^aili-ni couiider&ikBi 
•od coutloous dcfkCimncni loirard the bonat^k-M atid doMltute. 

The 4i(lapVAlrilJij^ And rc^ourccfulncM s^bown by ofBccrv &iul men 
whMi drAlJAK wiib t»o*Fl And uDptvcrdci^led otrndtiiooa, ihelr con- 
MiJfrAtinTi And ihmL^hifufnrM in nllcmiinK ditlTCu. ihdr UQvary- 

canununky and iu iniefciU axt nuut cooimendab^, Mnd hav« 
civBii^iiljeii Anew kIk Admirable atirlbuleii of ihc ofSccn uid Encri 
of our Aiin>% whkb iiuure tfae ^uoccftiut applk jiion uf iu murvl, 
jaieUntua], and phj^col powcrt to ngvd and clifEcull di^tie^ 

Id tlie follov^ag ipMcli nude In il>« Senaiv Agn^tX the W- 
aiilhriruln^ ibc Ircnaw of the MandlnR urmy to lite aumb«r of 
loo^ooo, Scaftlc>r Teller lhu» voiced what U d^iubtioB the gencnJ 
Cheorx of Ihc Amrncin people u» lo the dedlnibQity ol rtljring 
vpoa able'buditJ ■.ituen^ rMihcr Itian a [j«Jd reftulaf soldJCf^ oa 
the best resource fof ddcndlog ihc natioD. 

] rah li> My tluit my ujiixiiitiuri to thu bill is m»i became I 
tbiiak A hundiT^ ibawuid men cjn de^roy ibe libemc» of ihk 
councry, nor live hundnd thoiuand. but bet^jxuse il c^ftbil»hc» A 
pnndple roAirer^r to ■ republican principle, which U iboi the 

fighlinjc (vmr nf a rtjiiihlir 'i% ihr ^:re»F \Hniy tff thr ]->rii{i1r, and not 
a pai^ wldicn'p caIIlhI "fr^uUn/^ t>itire ihr blub u{ tbe *urld, 10 
b\\ bktory, ibere bu nevrr l>eien a time i^hen ih« \k<3\M were m 
pcetted down and bunlrncd by great urmWi and gr»l vmy «k- 
ptDff^ ■» ibcy irr ii>-day. Tbcrc arc bioer armies now ibaa when 
Nqkolooii fougfat Ibc world. Tbry An* not m active senicv, b«( 
tbcy m a weif»hl upon the ii»dui(rie« and tapcrr: the prodatim 
cftrrgSrs 1^ thr people, Kuuia, a country not rVh, hat 850,009 
■ea in her arany, and 3.500,000 that the can bruqc into tbt army. 
En^and, vitb >h3o,ooo m htr regular umy, haft now In tlic od^- 


N alio nil Defense 


bourhood of 400,000 men in ibe 6cld. Tbc u>u\ nprttMs for il» 
■rrasn ol EuKq« iikmc In linw of ptact b Cttou^h «u |>iy our iO' 
iTftst boArirtfl dtbi ererr year, 

*f r, Prciuieat. 1 object to ihb bli. 1 objtct to il as cfttcuUlcd P*tr».»n 
10 injurr Atvd Ia d«»in>y Ibr fiatrioik imptilw 1^ Ibc young ii^f^ <>' paid 

thconiMry, wln> iirani trt hrftliifalrct lr> l>rlJ«vr thnt whrn tUrtv b 
djin^tcr ihcy ore ihc onc» 10 coufront il — the young men who 
thonld l>« uugbi lo beUcve ihaL 1 nsut » cniitlcd Ut fio into Ihc 
Amryvbrnhii country lEfaasaikd- HcduCAnolgPinlothe Annj 
fnr (15 a nuMith, Inii hcgo«« into it!idmtiljit<d by |>Atriotiim ftod not 
by Ibcr hope of ^\n. Vou %rt going to My to all rli<- youn^ mrrt. 
*Yi>u are not oFed^d; )l is folty to take on intrFoi in military 
aJf^rK for wearr jtiitujito fijcliiourbtltlcain tbr fulurc wh paid 
binlingv*' vk'licjin wv piik up frri^uenlly uut of the very dumw of 
Europe; men who ire ^lirtg nucUnc*, but arc QCfl ,chlokJng 

Mr. pRsldem, wc had a jcrfit iirmT h ihr field, a milljftn men fti "nie « 
one time on our Mt, and somcwtiat le?u nn Ihf o(h«r^ Why wcrv ^^3 
thoAc tvii> fttmic* the heU armies in the wnrld that ever jaR"K^*^ 
V>Krlbcr? Simj^lv Ux jiim* ihvy wrv the bninamd Lhe patri»Li^m 
of ihv country. Theft wen?, of caiu^. some bounty jumpcn and 
some foTO^cn> bu: the rrcfli battlc« were fought by the milvan 
UDA ol Am(<rican fathen ^nd molh<?rv and thai \i vrhcrt you hare 
lo pi, u&lcM yon are li> follow tbc Ivuri^^M'^n syitrm and the 
Europcui poticT wtlh a first fttxnding army. 

We have lought our Uutln, nni with Ibe Reffdar Army, but nitli 
lh« volttntttB- Th«K'^tb^(l<*<>f i^TSv^l**^" ^'^D^f'^^'i' ^ mThf 
hnmbic mtn of Ibe couoliy who were nut rvsulon. The wiir of *olhfliHfi 
itii, il will be dbcoTcred If anybotty will i^c the pains to limk, 
wai won by Yolunlcfra. and th* Xf cncan wii wai fought by rolun- 
(rerv and nol by thr rrjeutan. The raoii gjlonaiiA haflle* in the 
mrld. where Ibe grcjlrit heruistn bai Urn ethibilftlH wh?ir Ibr 
frtatol cootfjcta botvwcn men have Liken pl^c. hare been fouf^hl, 
not by rtgnlar^ but b)' idtunlevrs. It via Ibr boys out of Ibc Aop. 
withlhceftTCiJtioaof tbc Old Guard, thai fou^l iaa Kapaleionon 



Ainencan Govcmmcni and Politia 

natty t Uoodf UdtkficU. It wv aot tbt re^nb^s. He C4Ued tqKBi 
be Frmcfa peopk md thrr nspoodfd. Sodi his been liie ouc is 
^h^IvkI. Soch is the caac ariih crcij liboij-kmi^ people Vou 
auM t^\y upon ihc people, &□< opoo an annf - Ad snny b a nan 
Icl'jt)'™- It [TUf IcMlsf be £br joit; it tnajr b» A^aitut jua ft^ 

Tm fltficral tudna powr o( Congnv i* nbjrcl lo the two grMit 
lioiUuiosi Ihot iMinci uxa »u an bf twitf gp [hrau^boyl tbo 

State* acojfdiaf to pcjpuUuon^ TUc qocotra of cfirect And lo- 
direcl tftv* ukd Ihr aniforrniljr nilr «m tbui diacusnH bv Ibe 
Sufireiiit Couft Ic tilt (uc of KAowkofi r, Moofv rvvitwin^ cb« 
KDMtiiAAn UT bv rftgrtHJ diiriDg Ibe SfMmih-Anwrirui w. 

The act of Cortf^m of Jum 13, 1A90, c< 44^ vUcli is unoU^ ^^^^ 
ipokcttofiallicWuK<nTfiucAc1,(^SUt-443},iinpo«esnriout *^ ^ 
•UMip duxhs Add oUbtr t»m SortioAi 99 tad 30 ol the bIaUiBc, 
wUcb tfc thcmn prd«f«d bj the hcMlIng " Ijpgvics vid Ui*tribu' 
tlvt SIttret of Pcnoful Proptftr," ptmide lor Ibe u*n«n«Rl 
mlrctirin rjTiir [inn'n nlif luia wtiifh imiliTnlinrlinThc 
in qucitiuD \i-t~, tnhmitnn tiJOtt)- To drlcmiae the usue* 
vfckh ATue on Ibk ntoid ii b bccomux to decide ttftette 
Ini0 IsBpoied aiw void becivc rcpngnast lo iW CbotfltuclflB 
ibc L*nf Ud Sutc». *ikd if Ihqf be vafid, to AAcerula and d«6ikt thdr 
inir impact. - . . 

ll h aabctIhI Ikal il «u decided In ibe inconw ti> cues tbatf 
omfcr to ddcrmiac whrther a Ui bcdifvci Hi^lhiD (be mcAmn|[ 
tbe CoutStwlioD, it aumi liv toctfUinad vfavlWr tbc ow upuo wbi 
bj U« ibv bvrim of ptj\a^ U U <ifil cui, cm ibvreaf tcr »hif< it 
tnothrr penofi. Tf h« nanoi, the tai wtMkl (hen be dlivct ia tbi 
CDtt»cituti(MuJ «nAf , tnd. bffuv, however f^bviois iv other tv<pectt 
It iD>^ U ft d«e7 Jiopoftf . or «nbr. It («nMl hr Icvwd h; ihr rulr 
of ■ufonmlr «nd aitst ti« i^-imrtlDord. From tim ami^itwd 
aim k b AVivd tkal duih dutJa ctAoot be lUftod Irhb Ibe 

Aerdorc Ibq' arc direct 

Tbf fallnc^ u in Ihc prrmiiK. It is true that in the income tat 
f^i CJUTA flir thr4>ry iif^^rijiin reonnmUu \iy which ilirwi xnd indirvcl 
ny.Uur ta>a arr oUsviAkI nitb rclrrence 1i> th« lUlily to ^hift Iht sonic 
wiujidrcrtcd lo- BuIlhbdu{iUlablctheoiy w^u not Uit Ijaut c»r ili« 
iht urm t<in4:lu^Em of Ibc court- The consEhialtunol mcxnlng of the word 
dlrrct wjA l±lpm^£t6^dDcId^J^ ron^idfrintf ihalthecoo&iiiucioiud 
rule f)f A[>;HtrtionioeAt bod its ori^n in the purpose Lo prvvc&l la%r^ 
on person* solely bcr-ausc of thcli emcrnl ownrmhip of proprrty 
fmni fading Irvt^ bf any othrr rule Ihin Ibat of api^orlionment, ivrn 
ItitDK* were drride^d hy the toiirl; t'liKt, th*it &n vmjnd dUlini^lion 
exi'-Icd Iwlwrvn ^i lav levint oii a jjrr^m ^tMy ljci;;iu^ uf hu 
gcncf al owncndilit o( mJ propriiy, und Ehc Kimc tai impc(»od *oMy 
becftoM of hi» ecRcral owricrchlp of pcrwnal property. Secondly, 
thai the iMX on the lacomc derived frnm suth property, rt^l or 
perM&^l, was ihc IckilI equivalent of n. direct Ux on ihc properly 
^m wMcb uid incomf via di^vodr and hen^r raast be A|^ 
pnitioDrti- Tti<Mic co(ii;luAtciiit, honvvn, Irnd n*' (up^iort (q tlw 
omtenlion that it wu decided thai duties, iiupwls and cn:is«« 
yAach arc not ihc i^tenLial njuivateot of a tax on property gcncnttly. 
itttlorpenofLAl^Aoldy because of hsowncnhip, must bi^ootivenpd 
mlo direct tjue^ becdti»e it it ccncdred that it vould be demi 
sinied by a cIom analyi^U th^f iHry rmiM not he jUiiftrd (mm il 
pmon upoQ tt Wei Iht^y lint fill. Thir prupcnilinn nov rr lied ui 
W too^dcrvd .uid refuted in Suoi v. Anrif ij^ L',S. 509, jt; 
tttirre the cuurt uid : 

'^Tbe commindi of the Cotuthurion in thU, u in oil 
mpoct*. m«L9t be oboytrd ; dimi utc^muitbciiiponloncd, whi 
indiredtaicimuit be iiniJomi throughout the Unitoj Stale*. B4I 
wbtte yirlritng impLJE'it obedience En IhrAr eontitlulinnal re<|tiire< 
meniiv il b nu part of [be duty vt this court lo le^Hm, impede of 
olAtnict the ciercue ot tttc Uidoji |>uvcr by merely ab>tru»c and 
•tibtW difilbkctkna «« to the |wrtuuLir Ukiure of « »fHxil£ed tai, 
vtoe lucli dirtinction rcatt more upon ihc diffcrifl^ IbcoricA 

Taxation und Finance 325 

poUiIcal tconomists ihaa upon the ptacdc«1 datuiv ol the Use 

" in dofidififf «pftfl the raHdiiir of 4 toi irilb ftfetooc lo ihcw '"'•^f'^^. 
rrqiurfcnirnb, no mjrrriacopkC rxamiMlion iU lo inc [jurcljfccK 
nomk OT ihcorrticAl nAlurcof rhc lax ihouM Ijc indulged lo for the 
fHirjfUKof tJAi.iiiK it in atxlvK'Ty <wbnli wduIlI iiiraliiUl* Ibr Iax, 
A» ft mvn ihoiTJKt. ninililic ur v^uDomical problem, « puticular' 
Ux nufihi pottiUy be rognrdid ax a ctirccl Ue. when ju a pTullca! 
tnatu^ ptrrtiuiiiDS 10 the wtual OfWRition ul ibv lax it mJ^ht quite 
ploinljr ftppmr lo be Indind. Dndcf vacb dnruauit*ac»t and 
«Mlr VMyingiTKl ditjiuLtblr lEimriri mi]cbl hr iniluEKi-fl aa u> the 
ml ualurvof the iix. act'urt nvi»ld not bejt»ti£?d./ij[rtlirpurpu>c 
oiinTTLlitljiiTifl the ux, inplncinf it ia a cJass didercni fnim lltat to 
vbich ks pMLiical r»ult« wduM coosiga it. TixalJun u cmimniiljr 
prBCtkil, 4nd u, la Eod, brouglit to every min'n docjr, and For the 
pwpoae o( deodin^ upoa il5 validity ft tftx should be rc^-afded 'm its 
fteluol, |ifif licftl rc«ul(]^ rilbcT th&n inth refcfet^re to I h<Hc ihcoTHi- 
Cftli^ftbMractiitm^ whiMrmfTv<inc«Urhr4U^jciIo| Jt^purr Jind 
coMiBdiclkia ooKMig ihu>e vbo an cKpccti In tbc xiiencc of politic al 

Coodudin^p iWn, that Ibc tax under cDntid^Talion b not direct iBhwiuu 
«riihift the mcaniai ol the ConaililuiionH bui, on the roAtnuy^ h a ^\^[^ 
dutyoreiriPir.irruTbrou^lturonjidcrthf quniicinof uaifofmity. 

The ronLcAdi>n ii ttkat because the itaiute eieoipti kgndeft and Jjj*"^ 
diUnhuiiiT thxm In penueml p:^>ijrrty Mon ten ihuumid dolbiT^, KtiJnfT 
bt^iti£« it ^ia^ifia tlw nte uf tax iiLOJvdLiig tu Ibc rvlii[un»liip ur IiAc tf^< 
■iMatce of tbe relitionibip of ibe laker to the doceucd, ind pro- Xmc?^ 
Mm for 1 t^u ptu](rt«^^n( by tbv anouat of (he l«0ftqr or itwrtt 
Ihcnlnrc the tn b rtpugiuni to tlut portioft of Ibe fine cluue of 
MciionMorftrticle t o( the CofuCiiulion, which proridca tlut "tbc 
dtnk^ iBposifl ftnd cifbM thall be unifbnn thraUHbout the Uiut«d 

Unihoone iid*ilhepcciH'*^>'^i*^^^lih'^^*<^'')*i>^*^^^>''>'*i Z^ 1 
In^MMft ftnd exdiet KfaAlT Iv imform ihn^unhoui the L'nited Sute» idifivBt 
rdbitt 10 tbt Iftheivnt and imriMk t^lunctcr ud the ux; ihki it '^■^ 



American Government and Politic* 

ClOntcniplBtfft ihv opcralion of the Ux xtpfjn thr property of Um 
iiulivlduikl UjqMycr, and cXBcU ibftt wticii oQ impost, duty or cxctw 
b l«vicd, \i shall crptTftUr pracUr Id ih« sftm* muncr upon all 
EiuliviJujUi; ihs-i b Ut My, the proiHKitioQ U that "oniform 
tfarouiJioai the Uniiod States " cprnmandt that tjreEscK duda a&d 
impoeis vhcn levied, ihall hectjiml and uniform b tbdr operatioo 
upoQ pcrv>n« *nd properly m the fciue of the mouiiDg <id the wwda 
«<|(ttl jmd uniform^ ±t now found in fhr ronAhntJooA of moAl of 
the Stats in the Union. The cnntmrf cmutttiirtioo is lhl»: That 
the wordi " luufonc liiniughout the Unit^ StJta" da not reUu to 
the t&tieivAichuracterof th« tax ua resptfcth iiKfjpeniiuaon indivjd- 
udls, but ftUnply requires that whatever phm or oictfaod CoDfrcM 
adopts for laying ihf ut In question, the Kimt plm and the «ame 
method mutt he m^c opentivo throughout thr Tnitrd Stales^ 
Ili«t is 10 my, thai vrtkcncver a nubjccl it tAied Anywhere, th« sama 
must be taxed evci7«fMn Ihfvugboul the Umlcd St«iiei, ood at the 
aam« rato^ Tht iv*> contcntiofu then may be summarUed by 
aaying Ihftt thr one aaserto that the Constitution prohibits the levy 
od Any duty, impoat or cacisc whidi h not ktrinti^nlly equal and 
uniform Ed Ici opnallozt upon tndlviduah. and the othrr that the 
powef of Coo^rett in leryinff tihe laxea in ^unlion i» by the lermt 
of the Conitiiiilion minunod only by ikc rtqui^nicnti thai aui:b 
lai«> be geographically umfbrm , 

. . . By the roultofnnanalyuiDf the history oJ the idopdonof 
like Constiiu-tion it become* plain that the wnrdA " uniform throu^- 
out thr Uoiicd Suie^'' do not ^gnify an iolfrnuc but timfily a 
fro^nphi^al uniformity. We add (hJil thrur who oppntcd th« 
ntiGcBtionol the Conitilution cloitriy underatuod Ibdt Utruaafonn* 
hy<iiutraKto luotkm lnkp(»rt«d l>iilft Reci^aphl4~Al umrafmity And 
Bade ibij fact ■ distinct gruund of conipUIrit. 'Iliui ia a cvpoct 
made lo the le^datuie of Mofyland by Luther Martin: "Thoufh 
Ihcre is a provision thai all duties, fmpocia, tad excltef ahall tc 
unifdro) -*lliat it, lo be bid bo the same amount Od llie lajcoe aniclea 
bcafhiitaie — yet IhM will nnt pitvcnt ConxrcM f ran having El in 
Iheir power to cauM than to tall vrty unL'<[uaI>y and much bravkr 


Tixition and Fmtnot 


ortiLlM ImE Unit nr po: «I aH lutd in umt othct itAtci juiid of 
atbttulvU utceteity ivr (lie uw a))d L<insu(r|ilH>ii in uikwn,*' 

1^. Tkt ApportitmmfKl tf Dintt Taxn 

Thr obvious inju^lice of rh« rult rr<|uinnK dtrrct Iaifa 1i> b« 
apportiniMd &lT^01l|f the Kiaic* on the huis oJ pxipuhtion raiWr thu 
««Alih hoi prevented a frcqurni u.^^ of the pomvr of Coogrcw to 
Wy Buch lAxta. The niuiner iu vhith if u done U IlLuttnttid bf 
lUi cKtrut from the law of i^t mtun^ wnr itncnuc*: — 

Sec. B^ At^ hetifurUifr mvUJ^ Tb«t Ji direct lax of imvaty 
■1IIBOO0 of dolUn be wid b aanttLll^ bud upon the Uoiied SbU«t 
jmd the ttroc shall he and a hereby Apportioned to the Mates te* 
ipcctivdy (n Ihc xnanner foUowin|[: 

To tlw Slate of Maine, four bundrod and trstniy ibouaiiul dght 
huntlred And twrnly'iiiic dolUn- 

To Ibc Stale of Neir H4mp»hire, two hundred and eigjitfva 
Aottand four bundrad and ail ai>d iwu-thlrda doUw- 

To the Stale of Vcnnoiit, twubu^zulred and eli'^'i^D Ihotuan suxd 
diry-dclkt dollaRv [Here follov all the other Suie« and Tcrricoriea 
ia the Umon with their respective apportioamenu.) 

Stjcij. ^ih^Arif/urfAirrffbW'^, Thotlhnuiddirrctiaxlaidbf 
Xh\% act thdl be uteMrd and Liid on Ihc valut ■■! aU lamli and lots 
of ground, vich their inprovefncaLK and dwelling boiwei, wliidi 
srrtral artklta aubjvci to taJtatioa shall b« cQtimcrattfd and valued 
by the re qx e ti re aienop [appc^nted by the President and Seoate 
for ctdi tax dktrin la the Union) at the rate each of them u w^JTth 
ta nuocy on the tot day of April, ti^hBren hundnd and aiity' 
tin. - . . 

SbC- S3. Atti hf a farther oMfW. That any SUle or Tmitory 
Ud Ihc Dttllicl of Colunibia nuy laTfuIIy JAiurnc^ ftsx^s, coUcct, 
ftnd p«y l»lo (he Tr^ikury uf th< L'niled Sraln iht dirci-l Uk or Its 
(pKiU tbcreofp imposed b^ tlut act upon the State* Territory, or the 
DittHel of Columbia, In Its own way and waancT, by and tfaroufh 
lea ovB ofBccrt, anenorv a&d coImod* . . . 


The IM 





(Li IllWlb 

,38 AnKricnn Govrmmcnt nnd Politics 

TA* tifum^ Tax 

Id i895,|lKStipntncCv3rld»Ureduncoosl]hitioaAllhcfcflcfn] 
tncc^mt ux kv puced by Congrvu the year before and ifiih«coii' 
clunon i>f n (nwthy o[, Chirf JukIcc Fuller Uid down ibc 

Wc arc now pmnilCcd to broaden tbt Geld of inquiiT. and to 
ddcnrJnc ri> which ai the lwi> grcai <Unt» a Uji ui«jii a ptrson'* 
cntiiv iDcomr, wh^lher derirH from tttHi, or prodttctiv or 
vise, of ml oUle, or (mm bonidi, iiockit, on olhcr fatrttt of 
property, beluuj^v; iuiil wc on unnble to o>EKtuJv tbai the o 
fonvd I'jbcnuriwa fiom the yield of all Ihe owner'* real ur ptnon 
ptfQpcrty. In the manfi^r prcKrlbcd, b tP dilTvrcni from a i^i upon 
tbc prop<rt)r iUeH^ Ihut it ix nol « dtreci, but in indirccl tu. In th£ 
meaning oj th« rotifttifution. . . . 

Ehlxjralc dr|*uroen[ u made a lo the dfitacy and merits of 
income l-u in Krnc»t. a:i on the onr h^kml, ci)ua] 4iui }LJhl, limj i>ti 
Ihe otlier, ehuLic aud certaia: acil chii it a not open bo abwv by 
web deductions and cwmplkinji o^ might moke taxiaion under it so 
wanting la imltorahy aad ciiuuUly as in subdldJice to anK»u&1 to 
deprivationof property wilhoui due pmrcMof U«r: not that it 
DAI op«« lo fraud aad tvajtioii ^nd ii inquMtotS^I in it4 antthods 
bill because il \* preeminently a tax upoti thr rich, and enable* the 
bunkc of taite* on coniutnptiDU and of duiica oji wnporti to be 
■amnilr diminished. And it k Mid thji the Untied SiaMdai "tbc 
rcprescntadve of an indivinble nntioaalhy, as a political sovereif n 
oqttiJ In authority to 4ny othn on the fai.'e of Ihe gilttbc, adequate to 
aU ef TW Jp cncicfl, Corvagil or domc«ri£, and having at ili cocunttod 
for oAcore and deCeiue acd for all ^^remmenlal puqpcdvA all Ibc 
n^omcB od the nation.** would be "but a maimed and trippJed 
enfltinn alter all/' unluu ]| [luucuet tbc |ioirat to lay a laj oo ibv 
isrocne of real aod pervrioal properly thruugbuut the United Suta 
Vi^lhoui apportioEUDcnl, 

The |H>iaer ^> lat real and |ierwn&1 property and ihe buroar 
fronboih, there banyan afipank(inR>ent,nconofdrd; ihalukcba 


Tftx^cion snd Kmancc 


lax U ft dlitcL tax ift ihc mraibfl uf thr Couclciiiion hiu ei<>1 bnci, 
And, ici uui judgowol, ciniiDt lit mccndmUy ctMLJ«d; tod yec we 
OR ihuv JEitiu^ lo heMifUc in the cnianttncai nt the aundAie of 
Ihe ConsUlulicn, which |irohibtU Conjitco from lA}'mg a diitct 
lax on the rrvntuc Eriim pmpeftf of ihe citLem withont rt|;*r4 lo 
^Wr Jjcvs ^nd 111 Huih nunncr thM Ihr S^^tr* cdnaol tiHcrrcne 
bf pxynKOl in rvK^Utioa of thdrovn Rwurvet, IcU a p»vmioerit 
ol d«l«ptcd poocrfc ^Kiuld be fvuiid lo be, not Icm pomrtivi, but 
le« ftb»o1uee, ibvi the bna^atioQ of ibc idvociiv lud »ut>|>^'«tl- 
Wc uv not hm ciMKcmcd wiih Ibc qucstkin whdhcf an tnaimt' 
tax br or lie nut ife^abV. normbctbrr «ui:h a tax wv>ubV enable i]v 
gi^nrntntni to diminiiJi uxe^ on CDD«unipt»n vtd duiit* on im- 
txirtf, aiui lo vnicv on «vb«t ouy hr ti«lh'vrJ lo be a rvCorm ol il» 
&«^ and coninemal »j>Mai- Quotioni of tbat cbancter bdonc 
10 iha controvenlM of |ioUtlcal junic}, and t-annoi be wnlcd bf 
judidat deddoa. In ibrsc <a^c« our province b to ikicrnHnA 
whether ih^ Income tax iin thr rcTcQuc Croa) pmpcrty da<-4 or doci 
not ttflang lo the dau of diiwi toxo. [f it does, it », bring un- 
at>|fjrTiLinrd, In violaboo of the Coonlimtion, and wc muM m> 

Our coDdusion^ may, thcfrfon, be uinuncd up aa folow* : 

Fini, Wi* ailhrrr to the opjnkn atrrudy uAOunnd, thoV, 
taxes oo real csuif being indbpiitably direct caxesy laiea on the 
fratA or inrrwie ti real ^lalr are ri|ualty dirrf t lanciL 

^«r0fK/, U> nrr of opinioA thai taic* on pvnonaT \it^iptrtf or 
on the incookc uf pcnoikd propcfty^ uc IDcerae direti tiv*. 

TkM, Th« lax infioiocl by Mciiont tu^mty-Mten io ihirij^* 
•eves, uicl«d<re, of the act of iSo4, m fur ai h falk no ibc inci 
of ml male and of penooal prof^ny, heins a dittct iu wUUa| 
the iBtanini* of the Con^liluiion, and, tbrTCfocc. uncon&titmkmal. 
and void brcimc not apf>oninaed acrnrdin^ to rqwesenUuion^ all 
lb>nr >llHIhm^. rfliitf£iuiing one entire Kheiatf of taxatioa, are 
neceiharity invalid. 


* ;_-■ 

il JWtf 


: if i 

I " 

r, i -Sir/ -rt-1 ^ f-^' i ' l^^Oi- I * VHD- ITiai ST3m£. 

f '.i 

- ,'.' ,. , ,■>- i.j.a rjiT* lulr tTt TCJ. 

.,■ , ,'.^T*-- lk; :'-*^p^ ic 

.1.' :i ' ~':k -i.ij^»:r:. 

Tamcwn and Finance 


ancithrr. And ihki by ibe ucriGof of th« orixInB] ob^^cr U U, In 
« woni, » vic^Alkn b^ ptfvenkin, — Ibr Ri'^l dATij^niwi of &U 
becaav the nunc iiuwdioiQi md difficult to nvtL , . . 

^ thf way^ \ti whkb lh« Unng power nuy W u««d lo 
cmnin cluftcf of (h« coMmtiolly m Aai die Ecncml I«vcl 

of dvilifiLtioiit tn4T be mwrf are sugj^utnj by rre««denl Rcnacvdt 

In hU mviUi^ of I>ec«inbcr, 1407 : — 

WbcA our Cui Iftvn w rcrivH tb^ qufitiJ^ ol tin income Ijut Tm 1^ 
•ttd «n InbcfkVkce Ui should nwiw (li« cifrful altcntiun of our 
legbJMorb. In lay judigntnl bu4h of \}>eie tMxn »buu]d be piirt 
of our Kyvicm of FeteaJ uxaikin. 1 i^pcik di^dcntly About ihc 
income t4x bcoiiaw on« «cbtnc fof on Inoomo ux wu declared 
unconflkviional by the Suprccne Ccnrt; wUlc in vddidnn ll 11 a 
difindt iMX lo vlmitiblcr in il3 practical wcvlcni^ uid greaE can 
iTDQld hafv to be fntrcuni to irr ifaal il wu not evaded by ihr rtrf 
tncn vhum It va& niml det«fablr (■> Hait UxnJj fgr if mi rVHricI U 
WDuJd,4jfmur>e, be BXint tliao noux«t«ll; u (be Icut dcsUnUe 
of ail wm b ihe UJt vUch bcarv heaniy upon the boncsl a« com- 
pued wttb ihe ifelrawM buol N«T«nbeku» a ^r^du^'ed Income 
tax of Ibe pfoper type would be a desirable fraiurr at FMleral 
tatatliin, and il U 10 h» hoped ihat one nay hr deviied tibkh ihe 
Supnme Court wW declare conslitutiiiQal. 

The iabtriiwc« lu, liD«tnr, b both a far btlMr method of 
uoation, aad far more frnportani for the purpow of bavtn^ the 
fonvncfe of the oj'aajaj bear In propordon to thrir bciv«sc In iLie 
a correspendfais incRSiM and bttnlea of lajeaikm- The Gottm- 
n^ni bat Ihe abaoJutc ri^bt lo decide a» to ihe lenm Ufun wtiich 
a nan shall nceirr a lieqiieM or devi<r from anotbcr, and thii 
poim en the devolution of property » cfpcciidly appropriate for 
lhelDa|K»ftionofaLkx, LavftimpotlnsiAichuxcthaverppcaledly 
been pb<ed upon the National elaluie buolu a&d lu rtpeaiedly 
dcdaitd coittliluikmal by the onim^ uui ikat lavt coouined 



Amerioin Ciovernment and Fdtcics 

tbe progrciuTc pKudpIc, ihai h. a/tier u cttiiun amounE h ttached 
the brquMi or gifl, in Gfc nr dfnth, U incrwingly burdened tod 
tile MIC nf l«xJHif>n h ini-rcftfy«| in prupotflirUk l<i fhp rrmi>ttnf*s 
o( blood oi ihc man irtciviajj ihc brqucsl. 

Tlie^ priiKifiU^^ iirr rrciijfnijrd Already in the JcailtiiK ctviliicd 
Qftlluiui of lite «urld. In GrtAl Bri(:uii hU tbe ntalo Aurtb 
$5,000 or I«w Are pmcikolly exempt from death dotiei^, wbik the 
(ncrcAM !a ^uch tbai when an r^utc cxcccdh live milJiuna of cti>Ilan 
in value und pouei to a dutiint kinaman or ^juiger in blood iJbe 
Goremmrnt rrcriv-nt «ll iM All uncunt equivnlr-nr to ncarty ti 
liflh of the wboi(f *^ate. in Trjiire »o mmh ijf mi inlicriiant-e a« 
exteetk $io«ooo,ooo payt over ■ ^th to the Suie if it |>auei to B 
disiant n-Udvv^ Tb» German law h f^pKhSly inionniag lo wi 
beCMUC it mukci thc^ mbcriuncc Ui on im[>vr;il m^^u^iinr* while 
fiBoldfLg t^ the indtiidual Suiicft of the emjiire a portion uf ibc 
procofdft uid |)crmittin^ thrm to impure lAXt9 In addition lo thi><« 
imporvii by ihr Imfk^rial r>ovcmmrnt, SmAl) inhcritukces ue 
exempt, hoi I ht Mi in VI ilijx^ily i>rii)^*Mnf ihM wivn the tnbcn- 
tance is still nut wty Urge* provided it b not on agricullural vr u 
loroiluid, it in t^xed at ihe rjtvot j j |>cr vcnU Itll flur*> lodUl^nt 
ivUdvcfi. ThvTt Ls no rt^iBon vt hy in the l' iiited SULtn tbv Na- 
llonaJ dwcmmcnt dicndd not impose inheritance uxes in addidon 
taihov tmpiKdhychrSiAtA, and when wrlA^i hndanlnhcriunrc 
Ux Bbout one-half of Ihc StaiM lc!ricd uich ux«?i conctimnlty 
with the Nntiojud GovrmtncnT, nukJDK n combined maximum 
niCi la bome vun oa high lut 15 per <>var The Prrmli Uv has 
oae feature which is lo Ix hcordiy oonunended^ The pru);n»dvc 
pi1i>dplo te K» applied that cocb hiehi^r r>ic i»i implied ordy on ihc 
CJCCK 4bovB the aBWint subject to the nexi lovtr rai« : na ihat 
tatk incrcaM of mic «ill apply only to a certain atnouai abow a 
certaia majdimin. The tax should U poM«bk be nuide la bear 
Bkore iKAvily upon thooe rnding b-ithoul the couniry than iHchlfi 

A heavy pmgrv^iw Ua M\ioii s v^ry Uripf Iixiikk' it in t^* ^^y 
vuch a idJi uptM thrift or induuy lu a like tu woiUd be on a >tttuU 

TtMtion and Ftnuice 


tenat. No advtntJigit cocm cFibtr tn Ibf couarry u a ivhofv 
ortodieiRdividiiabinliiTnlmgtbf monry hf fimnaoiQKtbelruiib* 
CnlHkn la iMr ^uiinrty ul iht cnormnu^ fiiriuoo whidi vouM' 
be A(T««iied by Mtch a Ux; and v an Itxidfiiit to >ii riinclkm of 
rvvcnu? njiinit. ^^ch a uui would bclp to pmcnii a nkoi*<tfabl«, 
cqualiiy of uppununiiy lor 1^ prople of the geaeniioiift 
to nHabood. . . . Our aiiB b 1o rrcogniM wfa^i Liiwolfi pouiifd 
Mt: Tb« UtCt thai thrrv art v>nv n^pccu in whkh mm arc ob- 
vtou^Jy not «qual, tjui alw (o imi«l ibat Ibeiv ^ilioutd br an tyjitalitf 
of irlf-recpcct and of iMUCuaJ rrcporl, an «qua)Iiy of riKhU Mete 
x\-iv hWf and at Wa».l an ap|maivai» rqu^lity tn l\» iODditioni 
undri whkb exb man obtaw* the cbuacc Xo >bow the slu0 that, 
iaia him wfacn coioptrcd lo hit fellows. 

139' Prtp^mLm ^ <f iT^viuir iW 

A iiithi Bolion of the difScuJi ta«fc which devolves ufion the 
conomiUR of wap and ntcaiMand iU chainnan in thf (mparatinv 
of ft 9»cra] Larid ATI U Eii'cfi in the fonowinf iaicnstiiig extract 
fro«a ibc otemoan of Mr^ Diikglty: — 

The jmpiintiiQn ol rhc Dinf^lcy urif bfll bc^vi on ihc evening 
of Pee em fc er lo, . . . vhrn ihe lUpufalkik inenbcD (^ the ways 
And meutt CMbmittre ntel in the connillec pdob and voted "lo 
brpn a tarill bill and btrr It ready (or ao extra aearfoa of ccn- 
gie»." . . . 

Tbe nttn of the nxmnltte* oa vays and nannt In the Nariooal 
hottv In DkvoiIwVi iSo6, when the pieinraiion of the Dinglcy 
tariff UU wa« bcfus, wv tbe larscM ood ncvi 0D«iModkMi« ift th«, 
ctpiiol. The library had about four Ifaouaand TOtapice covtrii 
very cocipleidy ibe subjects of lariff and finance. An open five- 
placr and inviting t^sy chaim, nuidc ihtt comeafttee rnnm a lera- 
cnJ ivcvfition room for Lbnao de<irin^ pnirai« cooferrncm inlli 
praaioefit mcvbcn of coupeK. Chatmaan Diogley vai touft^j 
afiar mcfv tlun any other m ewbtt of congn-^^, unlna It wm th« 
flfwaker; and be always ntdvcd all with unifonn cowteqr, la 



^ - - ^^ 

b^ " *' ■ 

. A-i Hf:'i bi::. ID nnms itorT had rr- 
nMMiTitf^tTr^ ufipmt^ che Uuninnr. 

k--- >^iiH(CJ vtHf*^"* itU'T irf Ll4lllC-*> 
.^^ 1. lUuuuMcc wrnxe 1 install umr 
^ ; . t ut" tMwaaaoii <'i lOt- bL! I: 

1^ viui?t(in.A' icii'' VKi^ CW >Ai; 
.. .,ST,'. - ir-t aA-. n^ATcot- Ear 

Tazttion and Fininc« 


U reltkil. wjks vef7 4iini>ia ba h&rc * dmijr on kirdling vrood. 
MoM oi Ihc membefn Avodjited kiadUn^ traod v^^lh Ihdr wrcmi 
nun. ThcyvcrpnoTftW4rcofthrfKttli4iinni4Ajr<ifihcnorlhci 
tisCfft ibvro WA& a rvjciiLu iutluttry «>( nuAuJuCuring kltxIUn^ mi 
and puUing it on the nurkci ia buadlw. Mr Di»sicy pnxrccckd 
lo AtKuc in f«vnr o/ A dut^f on ihU micic and took wridulj iht 
dbjoctioni nu»ed \jf tome of the meivben irhi> objccttd io a «^nrit 
of piiK fim, Bui ihc dmif on kindlinjc wood ir» ihf:tv«l ia. 

Shottljr khrnvanfi, Mr, T^iwriry at Minimnla, lirrjinr i(il«T- 
vsicd in a duly oa cnuaicllcd *hoc OmigL. So «ic mociiing he 
Mked to liKw iW »chodulo whkh be had prvikortili cvnaldend by 
ibf RopviUicui nwanben. Tbc chaJmao, who ««i crreni helmed 
viih reqoBls and oaidout |i> coniplcle the firM dnft of the bS\, 
aaid, pertups «ilb woe fauie: *'Wc hurc no lime im« for vuch 
Irifljrtg nulBm." Ur Tawney viih man i^Jnt than he nov 
■rihn Ik had dbpiayrd, ftpl>r<]: *'Mr Ctuurrnsn^ I Tliiiik ifaoe 
Mrinp are a» imporlant ai Uodluig wowL'* The olhrr membcn 
bdwUn^ the cbairmn jotnad Ui a beany Javgh and proceeded to 
oonrider oHicr fleclkmft of tbe UU. 

(luL-nua Dfnjiley ttl at the bead of ihe table, Mr, Pnynr on 
bii right and Mr. L>alw]l on his Ml. Thf!K thttf ami wrn the 
RepuUi^an triunmrate in ibe peeparaikui of tbc lint draft ol the 
bilL SogrvHl vAft ibe cb«lrnun'»oofi&de(]i:c in tb« Ju^Knirol *4 
that two »cfi, thai be QnconedvuUy coftlemd iHtb tbcfn olcoc^ 
and Ifl a lav Toka on tbe raSc* lo b« agreed upon, and In a quiet 
vay wouAd &ay: " If ibf/e b no ob}octi<>n U will be tbe ^tue of iho 
oonunitBee that the raic of duty on Rich aad wudi an ortide iball 
be M and Ml" 

Sone of thf yaunff^r Krpubficaei rncmhcrft nX Ibe fool of tbe 
laUe, whOc h«viitfc Im^lktl eonUcnce m the chairman and hit 
two leailinK avbgdoU^t compind lo play a ndld joke on the chair- 
DMn. TIhj aftned lo ob)eci and wic do«a the chalnun oa 
loeoe mbor matter the neat tiaie the ehaifman talked in a Iv 
10 Uesn. Payne aod Datecll, and put the qocstioiL. Tht 


■r'. -^-tii * ; 

Mt: . 

■1 -iimiar m ;: - 
,. ic.iii!; ■■]■ 

, . . J '.riTV f»f IV: 
' ■ ^^it'-'L and a-^ 

::■ pti'i? lietVatt-i. 
.-. ,1 V 'ti rrh' .--_■ 

t 11. ■ ^ :■ : . 

1. . .. i "-\ ■ 

I . !- 

Taxation And Finance 


cvtniDit bdore \hc fin in hfa ptivjite BpiaruneiiU at llic HamillDa 
bowcw Mr Dlaglof ^h nmirkabW ipoed, wmu w!ih i pcodi 
oci a pod. the rvnoiu repovt whicfa acciMipaiikd cJtc laKS bUI oa 
ibv foQowlag ^. 1a ibb rcpon, Mr Dtn^kf polaud ou; iluii 
"for nrarly four jrcan ihe rtvfflu« h&a beco Enadrquue to cnecl, 
ihr f:urTeDt ciqKivlitwrH and ftzy the iiWcfiul on the wxr debfi 
Thisclrtjly ju*lifirtlhci'<»o»T?it».»nofroLnjtrri»li>dcvi**'ii jinvni^l , 
anil kdvtruatt rvoivdj- Sratly (wo bm^lrctj And ibitv miUioQ 
doXhn of t1i0 ivL> hunUiti^ aw) ntndr-lkfvc miBott doQan ol 
bonxivml gold hAve heta used to xi[^l7 an iiiftuflidcBcy of 
cnuc/' lie shoved hov the tariff of tSgo wu |if&ctkdiy miUificd 
l>]^ incktp^cd rrdiKtioo of dutk> ia if^o^ and 189^^ Ht added 
thai "ait inrprnEirr diMjr ludiitg 00 Ihv oongrett U !□ so Adjmt 
clutir* En » rrtlsHn inf lh« Uri0 as lo accurt accdcd revenue to 
carry on ih« ^ivcrnnrnl ^tod li> prolcci iJbe mftny induslritii which 
hava «i> uriiMttl)' tulTt-nd in tht pul thra« >«sn iVjtn unvi^i 
Icmign compelilkia, dud CitJin the consequeni loas u( purcti^ 
povrrr of ihr nuMd of chc ptttple «i>oq vtkkh the dcMand for 
pTodutl^ and Ibr |>T\i4p<rilir of every rilben itepftid/' 

Mr. Dinglcy v^m kiuilly appUudnl when on the fnllomng day 
^ rrvotlAl tbv lariff bill Ui ih« htiusr- ll tva^ ^'rnl tu Ugta 
Muitc 3Aart:Ii «i aad to baivtbv luuit vole Maoh ji. 

140. ^n tJttrc^Jtam ihf OiagUj Tcttjf Ait 

Be it Fnaclcd by th« Srnaiv aad H<>w« uf Rfpre«nitA[ive4 of 
ibe Utiited Slain of America ib Cottgrcn uscfubJed. Thai oo 
and iflor the pawaRV uf iha Act, unlc^n ochenvlko ^fxtiaUy pi 
vhM fur in ihi» Ad. there ibftll be k-ricd, oHectcd and 
upoa all ankkv inponed from forrii-T) covuiIh tad moo- 
iSoocd la tbf schedule b«reia oulained, (be raid of duiy 
whidi air, bj the tfhcdulea and paragujib*, mpeciiwiy pre- 
wrihcid, B^mvly: 

Schedule A. — Oieiwcali, C^b. aikd Pait^ls. 

t. AcMb: Acetic or ivymllffMciiu aitd, ik4 cxceediDg the 

3j8 Amerkan Ciovcrnmcnt and Politics 

Jiprtiftr fpiriiy of nne and (ortjf-Kvtn onMhm»*ndlh*, ihnt' 
fourths of ooe <xtA pec poimd ; cxi;v«diiij( Ihe fpeciSc gravity 
of one iml forty-tovcn oiLir-ihi>ujiaiuhhs^ Iwo ccnu per pounj; 
boracic iicid, dw iviiU pa jwund; cbromit aad :iiut Ltik ^id, 
Ihftcccntt per pound: riiric acid, wvcn cents per pound; tk^- 
fjMc acid, icn ctais piT pound ; sulphuric ^id or oil oi vknl not 
sprdatlj prot-idrdforin this acinOiu? fourth of one <t<?nt per pound; 
Unoif vid or to-nnin, iiUj cfnln per fhjund; K^l^i^ Arid, teti cmia 
{irr poijnd; tatlark oKtti, «cvfi) ctxils jnrr pot^iul; *U ^t^htl «(idft 
not ^xriolly provided for ia IkU Act, twenty-fivc per centum 
ftd vftlunim. 

3. All olcholic pcrfumety, mtludiog cologne w&tcr and other 
InlTci witlerfi and loild ['rrparaituni of aU himl^, conliiinbj; iLohol 
or in the prcpimti'on of which afcoh4>] c» uwd, md alcoholic oxn* 
pounds not iqxfjjDxpirovidtd foe in !hJ>A<:l,nxijceivU per pouad 
and forly-Tivt per <rocum ad v^lorrin- < . . 

IBcre follow the rcmaini^jt arhedulci; 6- RiffH*, EftrttwH 
WBTtt, and GUttwan; C Mvt^itA axul Mftuu/urun« of; D. 
Woodtod MaauC&clvralbcnof; £. SusiiT>MottL!at« and Manu- 
facture ihefcdf; F. Tobiicco and Mnnufn^lurci tbcfcof; C 
Agriouitural Products and ProviHionfl; H, Spiriu, WIt»s» afid 
other Ikirenigei; l. Cotloa MinofACtitru; J. Flai, Hemp, 
Jutrand MftDUfftdurMof; K. Wool and M^nuLi^furrbof W(>ul; 
L. SilL and Silk Oootk; M. IMp, ?aptn, and Ikn^kn; N. 

The bcunldtting deiaiU lo be secured in preparing a langic item 
cl apprropriatioii are ahMw b Ihif tttfimomy by Mr. Fuman, 
lihr^an of Conjircu, and by Mr Green , Lklen 10 a hcaiinfl of a 
connrilLec charged with the coosldcnlioo of appropnatJona for 
Xhr J.ibrary. 

&ftt. iJTTAtrGft. Xov. as 10 laauers of deiaJI, In the potral 
adnunaitraiMin cl your owm uffice> jou have Ino itcnoj^nphera 
and tjpCTTitrm, at $ijO0OCiacb. Do ytm find orcruitf for tva? 

laxaticn and Fiiunce 


Ub. POTTrAH. 1 txn aung ilirtu all llituu^b Ihis period of the 

Ub. LnTAi;i:«H ¥^tl work nquirca m miaftt ttrAugraphie 

M>- EMrrvAic. Of or^iinAjy \ttim pu^Tng through the oAc«, 
WT h«tr itviut 3o>ooo i y^Ai from lU ova die couatrj- 

MiE- BkiLJC. What in: ibcy about? 

Ul PiTTNAiL. Mutt ar^il morp UT uc bvcominf a wrt oF buKM 
of EnCarnutioiii for pcopV thivugbout ibc country, etpcdftlfy on 
blbllofrtpbk fiibjtii^ Pcn|)ln wriic to vi for bfbHographk 
infocVMtioQ, ^ to whrttKf Ibcrv i^ in thr Whnrj auinUI on certain 
«ubjecu,gr where iima}r be fi.)Uo(L It UbibUografjbKmfurmAtion 
lb«t IV* ffttlt^lcd U|H>i) Ivpvr. Thrtv Ajv jiIjuuL io,ooo4jf thiiic. 
Thai diipovi of ibouc a ibinl ol our cormpondcncc; aad we 
on in coi»itmnt conuntmktilon with the libraries throu^jbout the 
counoy, of cdunae, upon mutttr% of Elbr&ry ttdnniblrAlioii in wblcb 
w( 4rt all inMT«ied- There b ft corrctpoctdcocer Gon»ianlty 
gain^ on in coanrction vnlh applicBtions, and 40 on- Tb<rn there 
b niacvIIJAruut curret^tndcftrc rrK^ntrnj^ the HiUrtUri<« uf 
matcriil, And » on. Tliii ^unrftiuudtrncri howt-trr, n UiiJcpciuJ- 
cm of llut which goei on in eiviy tfiniJoa ot the Libnry. This 
b fof mjr oAce aluoc. 

Mft. Tawnvy. Theie jo,om ktten putt throogb yom ofioe 

Mk, PiTTHAii. Ye*- 

Hi. 8«IC^ Th^ lurdls the force, and >ko main it nwetuiy 
CO altcsd to that <offTe«|ji>:kdcnc« ? 

Mt. PtTTMAii, Yct^ Minf letters irv vrincn mtrely (or tbc 
trwrniiUl of ntcmorandA tomvib-d in jUK^ther d;vi>«oii of tbv 
Ubrarf. We tiuy be nflcd upon to my whether a certain map 
cormponds «itli ?oine ottdal or hbtoric nup that may b« oun- 
tioKKd. and we fteatl that inquiry to the map iKviiioni &nd thej for 
ward the data friun whxb the aniin-ef ii prrpared. Il b a lar^e 

M>- LivutcsTOic. Now, Wt UB come down to biBineM oq that 



Amcricin Gavernment ind I'olittcs 

liropcsition, Mr. JHiltiam^ Thirtf Ihuu^ind lellcn m yeax k 
^,$0Q A munih, uid g> lr(toi> a day, divided bctweca ihrrc ilcn- 
opa|kbefv. Thai ^uulct bf ihUxy kilsn fur c^fa onv jivt d^j. 
Do 50Q think thai U a fftad day's ivork } 

MR-PtTTifAK. ThaiispancifihcCrworkonly. 1 think Ci would 
be 4 wry good daf'x irork on Idtcri of mnn^ than nnf page each; 
huE iii rimr^r ihry «rc ftttriiflirig t,\tn t» Ihr rrfurd* in m; o&u^ 
anij cu miKclUiicoui Bxvk bewbs Ifaat- One oE Ibrm h>4 t9 
handle ciivTctpondcQcv thai cnnu'ii in rcIailiT ti> renuiuncc* Cur 
our Obfd di-'iriLiuilLja. TEivn ihcy Eiiw i<> index the letter Urakjit 
and kcef) the (iln, imd vo on- Vi'hvn n Svnutijr vrritei Ui ma »bout 
4 tr&nMClion nnd rcift^ m ii a ynx lo-tcr, he wants us to be utile lo 
ieCer to the rorrriiHmdrniT inunrrliftiely, 

M«, LirTAfKB- Where do yrnt gH thr thirti %Epno^i{>hirr fruai? 

XIr. HtT^AU 'Hii' t)K-ciuJ ruN, j(rjicrj.]ly. W< t)Li\c jlu aJ- 
louvLce erf %7,tx>o a year lo he enptiidrd in Bijjcd;^ leniponrjr 

M>. LrvudGi&TOK- Whm h tbe Khki stenographer's saJaiy? 

Ua. PumjUf. Tht law prnvldcj^ rva stmogrophcrt ftnd cypc-^ 
vrilen, Eo receivr eairh> . . . 

Mb. Tawxtv- IIow mut'b fuel do ymi purchase OMkr th]» 
tpi^r^rialioo ^ 

Hr. GiciiN^ About 1^00 lonK vr 3,500 totxt, 1 »hu«ld Ihinl:, 

Ib0U|ht ihlBTTAT. 

Hr.TAWVEv, Wh(!redid>mi ^tft? 

Ml. Gket.*!, Fmna ibc deAlcn in town hrte. Vt't. tidrei 
lor It rvrry jrtw. 

Mr. Tawnvv, Ii then Any cc^ajpetilkm in Hd>? 

Mr. Greilm. Qh, yv^ We advcrti» In the orvrspaLprn. Wo 
gvl alJ iSal (onie, sonteiirrK^ four, xnd wpiMtiatev vix or eight. 

Mr. Tj(wm:v. U^holdoyOTipRyft ion? 

Mr. GxE£?f, I do not recollect rtftcily what it U this ye^r, 
but it is rfonvilung like S5-J0 — usmelhing like ihtL 

Mr. Tahvckt. L» that iltlnvw-d jli thr IJhrwy? 

MB- UtilUtf, Veaj detherrd uvl dumped idIo our^ vriiJU. 

Tivfttion And Finance 

34 » 

M«. l.rviNrvsTcy. Arr ihcfc hkU icnight or do tbcj coouln 

Mb, CtiEV- Tfacy AIT vtnufthl ; ihrrr uc oortfatlciL 

Mv. Tavtkilv^ How nunjr icintdiil jdu 4ft^? 

Mr. Ovu:-h. I ihjnk ihU yva-r it unooiib !■> j.^oo loru. t( 
mftkcs Ibf i>j(^ vxixndhqre tor ihM *i>ixicliikLg Uko 117,000 out 
of 1^3,500 ibal we goL 

COQgTcn often obiafnfl «tlinti«4 for appmpriailons for spcdflc 
ohJ<cl> hj dirrclinn [cdnt reuJutJont la lumr ext<=iilivc otficrr ia 
(he faDavring moaner: — 

Rrujlvcd by the Sciuut (the JUttv^ rtf Repir^ttiatit^a concur- 
ring), Thal'lhr Sfi-rrlAry of War hr <iarT<:tir<| tr> trftn^mil !■> thr 
Senile an eiUnutie of Ibe t:mt of deepeoiog Ibr cHAnnel of Curlls 
Bay, Baltlmoiv Hafbor, la Uaryljud, to tborty CrcC, and wideninit. 
ibt clan&vl lo two hutiilnd aad fifly feel; and abo an Milmalo 
of the co«i of IncrciNinjc the dtpiH of the fiuJn :ibip channel of ihc 
P«Ui>^o River aod BoMtmofC Uafbor lo ihiny-fivc hct ind tho 
vidib tbefTflf lo ooe iltouaukd feet- 

|*!Mwd Ihe Seiuie jAnuftry r^. 1901, 

rinrrl Ibe UooH uf RepreietiUlit^ts January it, 1901, 

Thii brief eitraci Uluvmteft ibe imanner in vtikh Con^rtti 
m^y CO mto vcty ipcciric deUiU 10 nukifix apf im}>riatio<» : ^ 

0f i^r oMfM ky the Stttnit itW //nu^f tf K€firnf.nhUh'ei v/ lfi« 
VnUtdS4*ktfl A^^^riia inCtrngmx ^t.^rmiklfti. Thai the fi>l[o«inK 
Mina be> uid the uiow &r hcrvby, ■|>pTopriatcdt out of iny money 
in ihe Trevury nut oihffwise approprfaeed. An fuU <oinpeeis«i>on 
fur the vcnxv of tbe fivciJ yw endio| June thirtieth, nanecceo fauci- 
dnduidtewn, forihrohje<t«hcieb>fterrxp*c««d namely:,,. 

For conpt DSfttkm of tbe Pre»dcni of tbt Valtcd StttM, fiby 
tlHMMnMl dolUn.' 

For Do■^)enttlktl of the Viec-Prc^dricnt of tbe Uvlttd Sutes 
dtgbl iboujwHl dollan.* 

I rCo* l9|.«a» pie mMfc ' Nov tta,ae» f«t 




American Government utid FoUtks 

F^rcompemvlloii IQ the i-jBtjviia]^ in llw office u( tlie ^vvadCDt 
of the UAiird Siaia t SccrcUfy, live ihouMod doJIan, iwo udMant 
lecfttuies, ai ibreo thouuitd dollars each : eKQCUilvo <llffc> riro 
ibouucd tn hundred; executive clerk and diabuntng officer, 
two thoiMVkd dollars; lewjt <t«f ks u lvi> thou^nd di^tlan^ e^h ; 
on« dcrk of cIaa four; <mf «l«rk, nf duM four who ahill be a 
1C!lrKT«{>her; four clcfkt of cI^m three; one clerk of cUm two, 
Mewjinl, ooe ilioutAod rigbl hundred dollifv; ctJef door kn-per, 
cmc thoufAnd eight bundctd dollui; ei^hi d^xir Ltrp«n at ooe 
ibouaand i^o hundred doUon «ach: four nws-vngen ai one 
ihouHftnd Iwo hundred dolkn each ; five Ene^Nngpn at nine hUfi- 
dml dollars cjich; wAUhirun. nine hundred dallon; one fimiian, 
Ulicirrrj ^vm hundred *ni\ t^rn<^ drJUr^; Uliorrr, lii bu&drrd 
dcdin; ici iH ^xty-tix Ihotiund three hundred uvi forty doJIan: 
Prin'iVn/,'niaiciiipIoyec»of ibc Excumv Dvportmcnu ukd other 
e^Utbtbhcnentiof ibe«0euiiTt branch of ibv Cofenmeot Mmj be 
deuUed from ximc to tliriG to the office of the Prcfpfdcncof the United 
SUIes for %ucfa tetnporarr isLibiAnce is may bv nfce^^uy. 

For fomin^ni eipen>» of ihc F.icctitivc Office, iodudmn; 
itatjonery thcrefiir, *» »rii a^ tt^ onl tiorik^, rdcRTJimi, tricphonr*, 
bookf fof Itbriry, (mniiure and carpeti for oflke^, cak of office 
caniajits, horte^, and bjunc«r ind miKcUaueou* item*, to by 
afxoded k the disovdoa ol the President, iwcttly ibouuad 
doOiinL . . . 


TBE aeouLATKur or couimpcE 

CmOkmtkttot Pnvtsifns 

Tre followiu cbutcs of the fcdcul CoditaitulbQ (spedafijr 
rri4t« to the Rgiiluioo of cunncfce by CoognM: — 

Th« CoofmA f^ll hate powvr . . . lo npilfttc comoKrco 
I'MA foftign atfloo, and imaaf tfae wrenJ Mtx% ami ivilh tli« 

To mwkc all bivs wlakli :ihal] be ivccMwy ind proprt far tvrf* 
ing iAlo cncMtlnh thr fnR|{iiJn|E pn«rrv vtd ait tilhrr poacriL vcited 
t)f lhi» Con»ti1tj|]on in Ihe fgyrrmmenl oF rh« VnFt«| S<Htt^, Of 
in 4Ay dcpjjinwnl, or oBiccr tiie/«J^ (An^ I, vc. &> 

No lAi or duly flijLll 1j« UM od vttcin exported Iron any mim^ 
No pivAeftnce ^haU be giTco by ujr rvguJaiion ol c o mBierc c or 
iTvmue to the porta of oat Male tyrtr ihMf of another; &or iholl 
rnneb iMNind lo, or fn>a, one •tatr be obU^rd to erttcr, ckar, or 
pftjr duttei in uiotbrr <Art- t. lec^ 9 ) 

TW dtJKc* of «ai-h »tj<r itull be rntillcd in ait |tnvik]Cr« aiid 
lauBtudiats of dluena u the wtrral aUlcs. (Aii. IV, jec. 2.) 

No fUle UuU taftke or eaforcc any law vhlcli fJiaU abridge ibe 
privibguand £niiaunilf»&Qf ctUsttttof ifae I'niird Siacrb, nor&luill 
any scale deprive an/ penoa of life, Ibeny, *a property vUlwut 
due proccM of lav, nor deny to any prtwin iritbin hi juriidictkn 
thee4]ua] protKtioci of ibe bin. (An^ndenot XfVpWCf t^) 

144. JwdifUU InUr^nlathw ^ tU Tftm "CoMflwra" 

Thr firsl t^mX juiJki^l ci>niin».ti<ja of the Irtm "ConimTftc" 
iva«maii<in iiiJ4by Chid JiMiccMtfihillinihct-a^of Giblx>nt 
tp< Oipieii- TW opinnn rcadrTrd 00 llut vn^iuun, from labkb 



American Govcrnmcnr and Fotides 

onty a bricfcxirot^c oin he eivcn lifTT, " is the buiBorall Auhtequcnl 
dccUiitQi (oruljuiiis the commerce daiuc, and u tbc rccoitiiunl 
Aowce of aulbarity." 

The wordi sjvi "Con(Tc» 'ihill hjiw ptyvrer it> ngal&lc com* 
mcrc« with forrign narioa^ And ami>ng The vvirraJ stAluand with 
iht Inclun irihcft.*' The uibjcct lo he rcxiilaird U ^micncrcv: 
jiiid <i(]r ^iinAlitiiliiiri ^Trnj^* jfv waw H|r(|j vau\ j,\ ihtr bar, uii«< of 
ejkumrration. and not of ilvtiiiition. to aurrtoJn the eilcni of the 
power ii becomes n(cctM7)'«i»«iLle the meAntnjEofihc word, Tlic 
couiuel for Ihe iippt^n^L* would limit it 1o tnit^t, to buytn;^ and 
aclUng or Ihc inlcn'h.ingc of rnnamndifici, ind do not Jirtniit thai 
il cnrnprr^im-J* &Av-i£Jtfir»^^ Thi» W4utd rrfttnct a general lerm, 
applicable to many "Ujrcl*^ lu one of lis stgnificatbos. Cooi- 
i»('f< c undoubu-dlj jh trftlEc, but il is KimiMhinfl mori? ; il U inter- 
cnunse. It dBac:rib«» lite cammet^ial iniercuitne briwr«n aalions, 
and parts of nitjonx, Id ill itn bnnrhet, and is rej^latod by pfc- 
Bcffliii}^ ruks br carrjring on Ihal intetcoune. The oiinil c^n 
ncnpccty conceive a ny^U'ra for rcgulaling mmmeive bctuven 
tiiti^Jiis, whkh ihaW txt^Uitlf an )a«« <Ani-4mfng nai^j^tion, 
vhkh nJtall W lileni on the adnuuioa of the vessels oE the one 
nati^^n inm ihif pom uf (he utbcr, and be confined ta prwHbin^ 
rulea lor the coodtjci uf indlvidxiaK !& tht actual einplcTmeiit of 
bujihK and ^tliof, or of barter. 

If fXHTiTnerre di»eA tifA bHwte navi^utL<m. the ^vemment of 
the Toion has no direct powef over thii subject, oad (an make 
Kiij Ijji* (>rnhi libinjt vhul thAll tonnlllntr Amcncaii vrutcls, or n* 
quiring thai tbe; «haIL be naTigatcd b} Ameiitan vameii- Vet 
lh0 p-jvpvt hu been excfclAed frooi the cpmmencemenl of the 
fQ«ierEinKi:l, baa bvcn neniied with tbv consent of ail, and bu 
been undemood bjr aU to be a comnicmaE regulation- At! Americm 
Bndef9laAd«.axid ha?^ unllormly underaiood, the word "cAmnetrc'* 
Ut romprrktikd navigaiioa. Il wai v> tindetstood. and mu^l have 
been *o ufiderstood, nhen the comtilution wv> fruncd. The 
powr over cocnmeree. Uk ludiast tiaTiRation, «as one of Ibe prima^ 
ob^tn tot which tbe people of America adof>tcd their ^v^ru- 

iBtnt httd mutt hive Iwvft coAMtipUtod im foftning it. The 
roDvcaikia muM hart ttt«d (h« word In thfti mbm: bociwe oil 
luvc oiulcnioml tl in Ihat »eiue, and the ailempt to rouici il 
coma too Uf& - . ^ 

The imivcrull/ icknovl^fdgfd ;>:iWFr nf ibc gov«nia)fikt li> im- 
pci»c ontli«ripX4, mu»l )ilv> be loiiMdcrcfl m ifioHrtng 1h«l a.kl 
Amrric^i i> uiuleii io thil corutructJUQ which ouiiiprTlieiulB miviga- 
tion in the vcvd toaunerrc^ G^Dik^cn have vaid, in argument, 
iImi thli k 4 brmiuh of the w mAkioc povcr, tud ibtl m taaAMp> 
b ui tDMruiumI of war, nof a ivgvbtion of Iradv^ Tint >i maj 
Iv, uid often b, wvd » on iititruinenl of war cannfri ht dmittl. 
An nnb«rgo ma]r he impovd i*^ tht ptifprvte oi tuiliuitng 
the ec^uipmcnl or mauiing ol « fieet, or f or tl>e purptne of coo- 
ctaJinc the iiroicTvu ol bo expedition pnpAn'njr Io »j9 fcoco A 
psnicubr port. Id ihcae, anl in ^flilUr nacfr. it u a mUtlaiy 
Incminicat, ju>d p«rukei of tbt nature of wnr. But all cmbargoc* 
tfe nof of thb dttOJplion. TIie^Are Aomciimesff^arted to with- 
out * view In war, azMl with a single licv to commme- In lu^h 
acaH.aaemhari^ bvi marrawer Kt«a«ire ihanammhintcnui 
»a thip of wjir, tiecaoMr boib are roeeb whkh oavigjiectbcficean 
wiih mIU and Keamca. When CDiifin« Iminmd Ihai cimbarfD 
which, f^r ft time, cngo^eil ibc attcnlirM of erery mm tn the United 
States, ibe avowed objcrt of the Uw wu the proceciinn of commerve, 
and ihc avnidif^ M vtf> By it« friends tnd ita etietnics il wu 
Ireaind u a comnKfcialr ikot'u a war meaaunf. . . . The word 
iwed in the con«ciial!on, then, comprehendi., .uid has been alwija 
uadentoud io compcrbend, nari^lion within Ixs mea»ng; and 
a power to rcxulale nangalkin i> u caqmuly granied at if that 
Icffv had bcMs added to i1m word "cominerca-" 

To what commerce doo Ihis power extend? ne eoaslitutioQ 
IftfoTTnH ui, to eomnvrre "with forciip) nMiofcii and amonjc Ihe 
sei«ral aisles, and wilh Ibc Indian tribfa.** ft has, «f brljeiv, 
bcc4t uaversaly admitled that the«c word* OMrtpiebciKi evvrr 
apvdta of (onmiemal intcnmirte betwwn the tTmled Stat«s and 
fonlcn BAlMPlw. No wrt of trade can be carried en between thia 

m 1^ 


1(411 mn 

■', >-»tr 'i»c* not eitcad. 1 

- -V w'iri ii used b tbe ct«i 

- .- ii iv :.T.::, jird by ihe term 

'■■^ -fi-fv 1 *-'.-Tir plain iottiligit 
i ',.1- t-r'Upii. L* to comrxK 

I '■ 

■■■■ '^ -^ .iirT;^,-: ,r "r 

- ■ ''■-/-: -wuris -■: ^ *- 

■ ■-■"' '. ' ..Th^.r MJ-Tfv 

''' Mr,rp.'r^4j.*— ^ 

" ''j: ■- -■ fvii;i vfr* ^ 

■' - ' .r,,i-Tn^ rri-.f, ^ ■— . j , 1 
■ T.n.!.r.M. h:i' - = 

' '.I r.n.- Th* r>r.:in-m *" - "^- 

■ '■■».»,■» till -i/,v'r- ■^--';: 

* '-^ '*p ir.rj.r.T.. - =- ' 

'►. It ,. -„ . r ^ 

-' Ii .'l-.T, ,.T,. ' 

' ..- r.r. , .* ' F 

_' - ' 

T ■ 

.r». *.- 

Tkc RcguliHon of Commerce 


«rf Congnm <1i>m not sKi|> at the jUfMktbctil tinct ol Ihc ncverat 
MiBcft^ 11 wouU b« a veff lasfWs po»rr if it rouM not pm tho\e 
ili«i. Tlir ixjiumcn-r of lite Uoiud Sum vridi focvi](n a*lwiw 
m that of (he whole I'niied St4k«. Kreiy cUaimi bu k n^bt to 
ptftk^ale in tL The d«ri> tErams wliich pmctiute our couniry 
in evtfy 4b«Lcioii. p^s> ihrv^ugh ilit Ifllerior of ^iikmi nvry suta 
in the Unioiir &nd fumidi the mcd» of enercisms liii* right. If 
CoapcM hu the power lo irgQUtc It* th^ i>owcr mvM be cxcf- 
dsed wbcrwer Uie subject exuts. If it rii«C3 withni the tfatM, it n 
fDveisn vDjrofe ouy toniniciuie or leraiiiute mX a port wilhln h 
siMv, ihoD Ibe pijwvr <if CoagmA nuy be eMio*cd ailhia i nUlt . 

Tluf principle is, if poadUe, itill mvn clear, when ap^Ged v> 
r^mmefTc "amoQJt the srrenl »uiet." 1Vr diher Join tarh 
oUirr, ID whkb cade they are sepuaird by a nuLthcmatical line, 
fir they afr rcokote fmm C4rh otlitrr, in vhif h ciae ttthtr tutc% lir 
between tbem. What Li cocnmcrte *' imong'* Ihrm ; And bow b !t 
bo be cDoduclcd ? Can a trading ctpoctition ti«twrcn two Adjoin* 
iaiK «lit«* commteKe and lenuiDjitr oiJlaiiWof cacb? And if I he 
tredng mtHCOQDC be bclwten twu Mote* rrntoie from eadi ulhcr, 
■nisi It ftot coouneiKc la one. icnDimie Ln (he other, ud probabtj 
p«M ilvouiih a tliitdf Commerre among the stUtt must, of 
Beceavdiy, fat r^mwrrrr with thr staJrL In thr rrgubilion oi inuSe 
with the Inilino int««k (he acTiMdt uf lb( law^ r^ci^y whrn (he 
coiwiiuikfn wu nude, wj» chieOj wiibin a stale^ The power of 
CongriM llMn, ufaatarer it stay be, ma-i lie eierdK4 within tbe 
•cnltariil jinfadietios U tbr several HAtc^. I'he aenve of ibe 
nation, on lUs mb^i, U unequlix<aly nuunlfencd by ibe pro- 
tUona nude in tbe bm for tnutqnciiaf good^ by land, between 
BahinoR nnd Itwridenrr, briwecn New Yort: and Plnladelplna, 
•ad between Ph^ulrlphU and Bahirnoec, 

We ue DOW Km'tTd ai ihr inquirf, Wliat b thv power? It ii 
the pcmer to irguUie : that ft, tn pncacribe tb« role by whMi com- 
oerce u to be ffotemed, Thb power, like all ochm vvsted in 
Congnes, Is eoanpMe In itieU, may he cnrdved to il> «imr»l 
caieni, nod neknowlrdges no tiim'tafions other Uian nre prescribed 




American Government auid Folitkt 

fniheruatljliitiin]. Thrw An: «.i(irrh«xl in pUici Ictnu^owl iJonot 
afitct tbv quifitJuD* wljk'b ari!« ta thn t:i>Cp oc wiudi bJi^'7 been 
dui^tttvd u tbc bar. U, u ha« alnty^ been uiukntood, the eovic- 
dsDt]r of Congrcii, though llRiiie^ (o »pc<tfiH objected b ptouty 
u ta ltio« objcctit tbe pii^vcr o\icr commerce with fofdgn niLiJottS, 
and among the wrml Stales H vc4i«d m CongreiA as abscliilrlj 
ai it woulrl b« in a nngle i^overnmenr. havirtg in it* contdtution 
thcfi^me fc*4rii:ilon*<in ihcntervJvol ihc pcii»cr a« are Fuiuncl in itic 
coEUlJluu'ou l4 i^jt UnFi«<l Suir?> Tli« wiMlom and i^w dltcKtitm 
of Consrcss. their idciititj vith the people, and tbc btlucnce which 
thrif con^tuaBia pcsam u clccilon^^, are, £n ihls, ai In manj 
0tfaertn?iUnre?i>a5lhat,fDremn{ile,€irdcdaring var, tt^t- :wk nv 
firdnti on which thej havv wHed, to v^tirr Ihcm from tita.tmv. 
They are the frttrainla on whiVh iW [leoplc mtut oiten n\y toittj, 
b all repfneniathr govvmincnta. 

Tht CanMiliilion doc* nol eiprcnljr gw ici Congnt!*s !hf eirlu- 
dw piiwer %n n-fi,ti\-ji'.* inlct^Ute ^urnmertf, dud «vrn tf it did, the 
dtlftcaht v^uld tiilL rcm-unof drilling (he Line bctwrenacinallcTl- 
[□gcumrncrtcwthoIlT within a MnlraadjcEiaEu ting DofnmfriTH-Tlh 
Other itaiM. Tile Supreme Coun ha^ atlt!mptt^d to do ibis br laj- 
li!g[ dmn ibr g<^E-Tal rule thai sciljjt^tx whiih julmitof <ine ufiifnirm 
vfUtm or plan of TtgubtJcm arc Datif>nal in charartcr faJliag 
wicbLn Ihc vofic ol the Mcluiivc poser of Conaresi. whale Kmited 
or local montn acti national b charvclcr may 6e rtcuUicd bj tbc 
■tjite, in rate Cotigrru hoJ not acted with regard lo tbnn, Ni4- 
wicbfllaDdtng this ge:>er;Lt rule, lite CourU must condder m il 
Doita each < ate in ithii h it i( rliimrd thai an action ol ■ 
COOicUuic* an Inierfvrcnce nith irLiersuieconuncrec- ThemMhoj 
of deaing with auch nutters b iLliAinicd br the folkiwing Ojaniodi 
d«(-liinng vuU a rrnm^li^nia bw Uyinjc a lax on all freight canird 
in Ihe Hialc cvc« though declined to pair;u vrilJiaui the commou-, 

The caae pfeteni* the <|Qcstioct whether ihc »latiiie in /lueiuien, 
— u>rara« it impcMcia laxonfrd^t taken up withb the 

I'hc RcguUdoD of ComintTcc 

id Mivrrc^ 1 



Mnd csnfc4 oqi of d. or ukcn up outddc ihc Simc mi] 
withia tu or, ib ilittci<»t wtinb, upcQ all ffdgihi Mhef Ibui that 
Uk«fl up ttfid delivered «^lhiii ibr- Stase ^ U Dot ft^tujciUAl io ibe 
pnnitioa of ibe C^xuiilutioo of thr United SUIf^ trhiLh ordaint 
" ihAl ConpeiB sJijUI have pintcr to rq^lote cocniKiercc «ilh [ordgn 
pfttiovt utd AnkmiK llic Mvvrd Suitfc." or in cmAki iritb the pro- 
viaion tlat "oo Sute ahall. whboui ike cottpcnt of CoagdM*, Uj- 
uiy impQttt or dtiik* on Imports or espocn^ cinvpt vfoja loftyr fac 
abAoluicty wcvsttf^r forcxvcutine lU hi^firctiuQ Uwi." 

The quf^iioti i« ft gnitr one. Il c&lU upon n* to trwx the line, Tu^ 
AlwAjn dtfl^ilh (ri he rrMcd, hrtwnn tb# tiBitlaol SlAir wtrrrrj^}^ 
in impound uuudou, »nd the ptmvr ftnd duly gf ifar Federal 
fuvcmoirnt to'iin)tt<t xtid rnculuv inMvtMc coi&meKe, Wliilr, 
upua tbr one hoikd* il b of Lbc ulinosl lBi|j<;in4ii» that ibc SiUcb 
abould pCMwa the povrvr lo niifo fcnvnuc for ill ilw ;>tirpo^c« of 
a attic ^ovcmineDi, hy any mcam. md in nay nunivr noi tacvMi- 
li^Eent with ihe povert khich ihr firopJc' nf tbc^ Suiri hnrc (on> 
krrvd ii|MD thr (rtnrral UotrniiBeDt, il ki r<)uaUy rmportani that 
the dooRlii of the latier idiuuld be prr«nvd five from mTnsJon, 
and ibit IO Stale k](^duii<;n ttiuuld be bo^t^ned vihldi drfvaii the 
avow^ purpct^es ol the Federal Coiuiflutioa, or whirh asmmtt 
to regulate, or roRtrol sub]ect» coounJttcd b/ ih&i ConMituiion 
eu^usivrly Io the regulation ol Congre%5. 

Before procerdifl|^ hoHvvcr, to a coenidctfftlian of Ihr dirett 
4{untiunwbrth(r|l>ekUlule&iQ direct cunflict with any proviumi 
of ibc Coiudluiiaii of ihe United Suics, it » nere»afy lo have 
dear apprtfacniton of lb« Mbjwt and tfaa Mturt of tl» lu imqiosed 
by iL It Ina repensedly ben hdd Ibai Ibe contfitutionaUly, or 
uaronitktullonality of a Sute lax b lo be deKnitincd, noc by Hie 
frprm or agency Ibrougb whkli tl i« to be collHled, but by the mh- 
^c ujion «blchibr burdenblaid. . - . 

Upon wh4t, iben, h the laa imimed by ibe set of Augwt iS^K ^^' 
iSa«, to be cooridrfcd n« laid? Where dae« ibe mUuntlal u^ 
burdoD ml? Very plainly it w^ noclnicndrd bi be. nor U It in '*^ 
fift, a iBJi u|»on the fraivhiv cd the carrying compaoiet^ or npoa 



Amcncfli) Govctnmont 4nd Politics 

tlirir |jm)icTiy, or u^oti their truwictA measured hj th« rtunfaerr oi 
luiu uf fr^igbi curru^rl^ On ih^ (UoiUaryt it ]> df>rr*il^ lauj iipmi 
ibr frdghtomcd. Tb?ci>tnpaiiic»ikrcre<[mrtdtup»y toih«St:Ue 
UX4&bUitT |i>r tttc U3t of the ConnicioiA^ih, '>n ciLch ivoihouKAod 
poxindt of frcighi »> carried," a tax &t tht i|>ecEj3ed rata. And 
rhi-i lAv i« not proponiofurd to the 1msiiic» donr Ia trnrutpOTialtoD. 
Iristhcsjiirr whcilwrchf f rei|:lu U movrd onf mile or tkm hun- 
dred. If frctghi be put vpon a rmd ftod canird al aU, Uk b Iq b« 
paid upoii ii, ibv ;unMU(it uf llic Ui boiiiM deterraincd bj i\n 
chanaer of ihc freigbt- . . - 

ContldcrinjE It, ihcn, of^ man3fc»<t ihat the lax demanded by ibe 
ACl la ioipcdcd, Doi iLpoii ibc company^ but upcQ itit firigbl ckr<- 
rird, wp pmccfd lo inquire whcthrt, to fat n* it affctci cummndU 
lir^ Invnipittrd through ihr Slitr,or (rom poJnlA without thr Siftic 
topoonu vithin il.or fmm poinU Bilbia ilic Stale tu pcjnu without 
tc, thv jci b ;l rri^ulaikin uf inur^uii; commcn:*. Bc)\itid ail 
quniion the irKfibportudtin of frctght. or uf the (labjcat of con^ 
mercc. for tfae purpo^ of exchon^ or udt, i& » con^tliucni of conv- 
oKm iivtf- Thb hu never been doubted^ ukI prubdbly Uie 
iraiuporiAtion of nrtlrlr* froinnnc.Stnif-lriiinalberwjhthcprAfnU 
ornl irira in Ihr mind» uf tb« fr^mrn of tbr Oin^lihiUon, when 
Co Congrcu wtt* couunltlcd ibc powr Xq trfliUjile mmmcrte imumg 
the <«xtri] S4jll«^, A po*er lo |irevr»i rroiiarrudng nuriciluo* 
by any Sutc wis the ibiog drared. Tb« power was pvtn by the 
soinr n^Ard? a&d (n ibc uac rUiuc by v4ileh wm cimfcrrcd pi>m 
to ngukle conuncne with locri^ diIkhu. ll vouJd be &bAiurd 
to tuppooe ihAt Ibe trvTvurauJon of tbe luHjccti of trade from the 
Suie to the buyrr, ur from tlie pluiv u4 produLtiiM to llie rnatLvt. 
vsxL Tint cotiiempUicdr lor wilboui ih*t thcte could be oo codsum- 
tnA(cd iniU« elihtr iHlb fofeipi nstlocw w unon^ tb« Sut«^ - • . 

Tile suae power ifui may Impoae a uuc of two c«iib per um upon 
coil cirrifd out ol ihi- Stbit, miy i«k|)0«« one oi 6vc doQirv Siwrh 
«n Cmpodtloa, whether Urjic or «nuii^ b 4 re&cnint of the pridle^ 
or Hgbl to lute the ^ubitcit oJ conkioerc* pttt freely from one Simie 
to anotlier ndlhonl bein^ ator ttc ted by tho iolct«iMion ol Sim 

1'Ih: RcguLition of Coiiimcrct 



Miablkhcd cudomhoiuici on bcr bofden, wbercwr a nikoad or 
cAiial comes to ihe Si^o line, uid iWauuKkid ai lbc» howcs « 
duly for allcming mcrchandbc to enter or l»vc ihc $uic upoa 
on«i]f thi>«cniIn>adA^rcanab,friichaB imposit^Mi v^^tuklfK^i hjivc 
be*n a rcgulatioii of Kommeret with ber iMcr SuW*. Y<i ti h 
<lit!kull li> fjct tnf bubhidAlUl dlflcnenn- btivno ilir ftup\nj0^ 
cur *iE^ ihf one tve hive in h^nd. Thv Jfcwk of do olijvn uf 
N'dv Vork.Ncw Jcrtcy, ObiOfHrof dAjoiberSuie, nuf bepbced 
upon ft can&]> nRnwd, or iitftmboAi nfibb tbv Suic for inns- 
portntion any diMAnco, citlvr into or out of the StotCi nilboul 
iMrin^ fcubjffU'd la Ibo burden. Nor ckii it mjikc uij diSrre^n^x 
that Ihr kpfUtivp purpo!« wu to ruir Eoanrjr fcv the support of 
ibc SiAte govcmmenl. *iu! noi umgolBte nn*porudoik. It b 
not Eht puipofto itt tb« Iav, Luc Ii» ffl»cl« «Ucb wi an cow *xn- 
lidcKng. . , . 

Iniersiaif iraiiipcirtaikn of poMrngm ii beyond ifae rttch oJ a^mj 
a Sialc It^gitUlTjfc- And if S*a*c laxAlion of pcrvmi pauiug from J^JS 
«n« StAlr rti Annthfr, or a Suic (fti i]|x^n iotpr%iAlr iraotponaiton 
of paaA«tijEct% a uncocuUlvtioci^* a fortiori, 'd povHilc, b « 5<atv 
ux upuci the caitiaipt of ii]CR:handibc from Siaio lo SlAic, Ip con- 
ftcl viih ibe Fcder&t Coni^ticuiioQ. Mcrchudbe b tbe subject 
of comTntme. Tmaipormiion h cnerrdtl fo connncri^; snd 
rvcry burdm bid u^xm it i» /nv loiri* a iriiridk'n. Whalrvvr, 
tbtrtforr, miy be the trtie doctrine mpcciing the cxclttnymHa 
ol iIm- puu<^r mird in ('oiiierrv* lo rcHuUiv cuaiinerce ainonfl ihv 
StalOi i*r re^ud it u estibJUbed Ibai no Stak can iinptDt a tajt 
a|>o* fiv^Rbt u-Aii>4H>rtcd ^um St«le lo Sute, or ufion the Uvtt- 
porur because of «ucb ir^xisiJoruiDon. 

Bui whdf holding thli^* «c rvcofcniv fully ibe povrtr of evh C«d0 
Siatfi to tix at tM di^rrrltcin iia onvn lolereAl oonunrrre. a id the 
Cranchben, property, or budfioM rV iu own eorporfti^im. «o ihitt 
kitarrfate inlcrouunv, tradv, or a>minrm» ba nol mibanatwd or 
RAtriclcd. That muil nmaJn free, Tbe mnclcj^ion nf ihp fvbob 
b ihat, n our opinion, ibo act ol the k^Jaiute ol Pvnmj 

American Government and Politics 



of ABguM«5th, iS04> M>fjtr»jiliappli» to uiJdch cvrfed llutni^h 
U$e Sutc, or EmTdcK xakat up in the State vid tvried out of ii, 
or article ukrn »}■ without ihc Stole and broughi imo ii, b 
unoomtitutifiiiHJ and toad- 

Tk* Coition <J/ TnnKfttrsalifin m tSSs 

AbbOUgb the frdenl and Mntr i^vrmmrnti lavnhediild ttpon 
fdtwtjr Mrporaiumit tn chv fnrm ot land ftunU, subiLdic^i md 
frutrhifc^ it W3« a long time beEorr Any umavn Mtcm^ti vaii nuulr 
lu |>n)(v^l ihe puUic from difecrimiiitfioiu ;tiiii riLt>rhiUAl ^It^irun 
liy i\immi>n < nm'oni, Ai b^i In 18S5 on importani Senate cocn- 
■njlttx v.'«i ippoinlcd (u uivoligabe conditioiu of mr^i-diiiioii 
ihrciuj^uui the United States and raak« recommvndations for 

fttdrrjd ]cj|i«U(ion- i,Ug;t\y on the l^ja-'iii of the rrjiort oj Ihil cocd- 
millcc the lolenlaCc Comzncme Act wui pa44cd in xBBj. The 

StTJfir nhii«c4 AjEAinitt wh!ih ihr te^rlUiition dirrcDBd ■■« 
u« aitnl hy tttc Senate committee: — 

The commitlee »ai appomtwl by the IVsiileot of the Senate 
Marcb tt, 188^, under aj:ithoniF of a miuEution idoplnl by ibo 
Semite uftkte L'niled Slate* Marcb i;, iSSc;, and reading lufullow*: 

Roolwd, Tlut a leled coounitlcc of live Senalon be apptnntcd 
to Inw^lifiit iwi repon upon the subject of the rccuUiiom of tbe 
cronsptftatioQ by nLttroad and mia routes In connoction or in 
rooipctilinn inih said nilmads of frtiEhl and pa»enf;erB between 
Ihr M-vml Stite^, «iih authority lo sit dttrin^ the reiyw of Too* 
grcaft, and with powc* lo sunmoa wiiueno a i^d to tSo wlulrrer b 
acc«H«y for ft full examination of the »ubjeel, and trport to the 
StauieoD orbrfon; ihc s«ond Momkyof Deo;mber next. Said 
COQitnidllerihnU have power lo apjx4nt a dcrk nnd «t«tMKnpto, 
and the «zp(rnw» «d V0ch ihvmisklSon »hftll be paid bom th« 
approfinitMin lor crpeiucs of bquiric* umI inrr9iig;alian-^ ordered 
1^ tlw Seittle. 

The committee beflan iti work impftwid «filh tbe imporlatxe 
of tbe duly with whkh It Ind hrcn rhanstd, aad itilh each iMfi 
tohcfi in (iru3ccuilng ibc Jaqidry dinttcd hiJ iv^^lue^ man fully 

Icgularion of Comm<?rcc 



bov MTkHu wrrr ihc r^h^iArlrA Ut be Avrrranw in Aiicmpiing lo 
fakUtiUj carry our its insEfurtkmv The field opcn«l up Coir in* 
wUfgMlon vxii uh eiicohivr, the lodiU, cvononuCj k^, uiri orber 
qwitions inn>Ivrd toct>npiica led, Anil the agnculltinl.rioiBnwiriil, 
i ndutiriili and corporate mictob a0cclcd to vajvt kad Toncd u to 
requlrv (or a thorough vid utitfaciory tKunitiation Imo technical 
dciaik more lime and labor than could be git», with tfie facilhies 
ai rniDmaiKl, during tbc f-ummcr ncccv of Ihc Senate* > - > 

Tht conclufion W4» rrarhcd thai the commiltet would beil «n« 
the public inlcrrtl and curry out ttwputpoacofihe irHiluLton uiiffer 
wliicb il w;u ippomtcd tj^ devuifnit it& stlcolJoii milnly lu tbe 
confjdcmian ol tbc question whether any Ic^lation to rc^ulaie 
the maoagcrocni or ihe mn^tonation Udcs of the coimiiy b ad- 
rbftble, and, if m. what the snpe nod chanuier of thai bgblation 
Khouid be. Thit iA Ihe <iuef^tion ihnl Jiwiubi the dcctcion of the 
CongrexA. , . . 

llie cummitlcv rvvugnim tbc ju^tJce uf ihu demand, and be- 
beiT^ that action bf Congrev hnUng tu the ngulation of intcr- 
siai« cnu^naifon h txccssmtj uid cxpcdirni, for the fdlovCng 

I. The public ijttervM denundi rcgulatiort of the btutineta oF Thcwd 
CnnsportaliAn heciuiv, in rhr aWnce *-4 -lO^h reiculation, ihr |^*\tiu|j 
cankr h practically and uctuully the wlc and UaiX ubiter upon all 
dlqiuied igivMlcaif thai mj^^ between fiblppcT and carrier aa to 
wh rth e i ratett aiv tvauooabte oe unjoit d^nff^naikm has been 
pnmoca. . . - 

a. It b the duty of Congma to trnd^nake the rrgulatloft of the 
buriae«Bi of Inniftartalion, ^irctuv of admiUed abuses in IH man- 
agnneM and of arknowlnlifTEl di^;{mlnailoai» brlwrefi pcnona 
and pUc«9 in \U practical opcraCioQ — erpi which it b povibk to 
mdi and renardy only thfooiih the cKrhL&e of the powers graaled 
by Ibe Coouitution 10 Coogms, and agiitist which ibc citben fa 
ftkriilod to ibc proicction and Micf the national authority caa 
abiof alTonf. . . . 

4- National kgkilatioo i» also wee wary, because the biainess of 


American Government and Polirics 

mnfportAiinn U rtMrniUIIj 61 * Mturc vfiich rrquln* tlul 
Idrm trili^ni hnd iwlbod of rrigulAtion vhich the a&lkinaJ stilbori 
OD ibxie prescribe. . . . 

5. Tbe Uilurr oi Cuof^trM lo Acl b ui vnctw for tb« alUr 
i&idc !)f ibc fulmadi ta ivpibtc the commerce *A tbc country j 
Uwdr <nti *^iy iiid tn Ukv o^ti rittrc^i^ by whatcivf <\>n>Uiu- 
dons and mclhtHli they Are Able to put into operaiion, . 

The ran^loJDts agunsi the railroad «y»tem of tbe t'niied StAies 
eqiitftStfd to (be commiiiec ur b^jv^ upon the foUowjng clur^ 

I. That kocil nteft uv unreiuonihly high, coapond wil 
ihroujcb r>Xo>- 

a- T1i*l bolli luetl and tttruugh mi^ «re utjrvsswubly 
nott-<omp«dng pointy cither from the absence ol ompeiidoo or 
in cvase<|ueace of pooling k^TKimnu \h\\ miHci it& Of>emfon. 

J- ThAl nUti are e^iablithcd without ^ppajmt ivgard ta the 
•f lu^t'OAt of the «rjvirr periormcd, nnd vtrc hovd Uri^ty on *'wluiL 
the itaAc will bcir " 

4. I'lkit uiijuiiifMble di^crlfntnUiocM ue oon&ljntlf ns«<Jo 
|ii*tvQ xitdi*i<liaU in the ndes chA;'^'^ lot Hke utrvive wukc dj 
Ur [in:uiiuuiicc*. 

5. Tbit improper diicriiniaAti«u ait made berv«ni articles 
frtifhi uid hnuxhn oj bustjnr^t of a like character, and hetwcciii 
dinenFal quaniitieA t-A the uroc tUm of frhghl. 

6^ Thai univasonable di«cruniiiatioiu are made beLwteti I1 
tta timlUtlj situated. 

7. That the efleci of the pm^Uiig poUcy of nilrotd Tmuii 
BCfii K b|- an claborase fiynexn of tecrec Kpenal nicst itbali 
dnvliarks and cooce««kinft, tu foairr ffionft[>n1y, to emkh f avoril 
thipfvn, And to prcwdt Epteciacnpetitiofiin many lines of traik in' 
which Ibr ium i4 tinvpoelalirm b an iRt[>i)nnni facior 

8. That ftoth famdtiioii Euid leatcy introduot an clemest ol 
lauvruiaiy into Ujiidttutc bittincw th&i greaiJy reUid^ d» 
vdopaieoi of o«t indusiriet vid comtocrvc. 

Q. Thai the secret eaUing of ratea and the wddcn llucluai 
ihat ciA4laiktJj ukt plicc are demoralidn^ to all bminf-a eieepr' 


tbal of a piifvlj speculatiTt cbanctef, and fnqoeatJj occuiaii 
ptJl Injitttkc ind heavy kwc^ 

to. Th&r^ in ibr ftbwncr of AAliootl utd uniform Ir^tlation, ihc AkvMa 
milTaodK are able by vtnotH dfttcci to avoid their mpon^bxliiy ^b^m 

as carrier!^, rfji^iAll)' I'n >>hi(inicnK tivrr morf ifikn im^ ntmfl »r 
fnfli one ^tAtc to another. And tb^l ihipfjrr> &nd girat diAculL} in 
rccortHntt d*iBa|[v» for ibc low of (»roi)orty of injury theivto- 

1 1. Th4t raltroulb ttivot to be bound by thcif own cocincu, 
and orhicrarily cotlcci lirge fmtat in the ^h^pe of orcrchaxfcs in 
Tuldiiion 111 ih( r«ie^ Jfrrecl upon at ihr tinv of ^Tkiptncnt. 

I >. Thil nilroadu offcn refaif lo rrcogoiw or be ft<ipQQidble 
tot tile iJ-Ct of dithofic^t ij(c-nb ariiog unijrr thrir nuihcvfiy. 

13. I'luit ibr Liimcnuu Lw faiU tu afford * rvJiietly for icuch 
grievances, and that in cams of dUpoDc ibe shipper f* compcllc>d 
10 sabtnll 10 ihc dccblon of the railroad oaanagcr or pool com- 
nbftloncTi or run ibe ri.dc of incurring funhcr \0t9ct' by grcatrr 

14^ That ihe differences In tbe claHJ1]carioD& in utt in ratiow 
pafia ol the ciiuniry, rtnd ^omelimo fur Ut^[tinrni% oftt ih« >ajn« 
road* in dUTereiiC dire^tiotu, art a fruitful »uixt of nmuMkr- 
stand3n4p>i and am oficn aiadc a tncanji of e^iiortian. 

15. Thii > privfcged cli» to otated by thg graniiag of pftafto, 
ftnd that Ibe cmc of Ihe paf iiflrr Mrrkc i^ lar^y IncFtated by 
(be extent of Ihif^ abuaa. 

t6. Thit lh^ capljilixJiion and bonded vdebl^thcM of (br 
nwli Uqpty exceed the actual cowt of tbeir cocittnBCtion Of their ^^^ 
pmeni v^lue, and that iiimaM»abl» races art charged \ti the 
eAoct to pay dlndcDtb on walcnd Mock and inlcrcat on bonct» 
Inftoperly lamed. 

17- That nulmad eorporaiMns have improjicHy enga^ in 
l£nr«of btiMnm rotlrrly ditfifKt tmm ihAt of iranftjmrialion, and 
thai uoduc AdvAfitaf^ hiir been afforded to buaneai vMapraca 
in which rulroad o(&Ub wrrc iolercUeJ, 

iS. Tbat ihr naanafceoMQl of tbe nalnxul bwben La extraw- 
^1 ofld vaMeful* and that a ncedlc«£ tax b bnposed upoa the 

/> -rrv-r'cam C io yop i ncnt and: 

,^- riiirc ■'. mmerce -tet u :J487, J; - ja gcorfed ir. 4Mr- 

i,.r^ .-J- ^ <.:^iimuiiina yi ^«vva aMn^cTb. xpixiiaiG. 

. . ^ -.j; v.'^rl -.cnace. iod irmaoMCRa: «i^ osnpiiia: zn 
> ' Ti minr inrf iirwi ntir ~rni»mihJi Tiir tcxhi 
- ' " v'Hrr<s. *n '-nlrr m»minB :o mmal tIapocTi Ak. 
:'r - irv littpt; '-i tniit :rQi« Jfpuv: iJJBCTimintnar. <7r 

[I, Ml ff.pLirrvui ^trtir^uiT' Jill Missouri, tjn'ia- 

■ -, (fxiii »,iy ( ■trnTfAJii' 'UiiiiitfrL lum 4. tnai Iff 

■ ':-i^r r , 'v^i/lKii ,t .kiuuimiL Tip mu :. ihinnr 

, •.'.r*mif.-ri .i -u^i .trnim^iLr' mm lh;uiiiim>, Cii\ ii 
"-4 V^f iiirt L^ ,r-;i V-.rh- "■::.. JTt vr.^?4iin- Titi 

i','^^» «rjr| iiir^ =- (■ .* am ir .imn-niin. lit- 
■I .' ,.[-. * (i.T.i ''-- t ' .;.. virr- tilt nufii; rrun .Ji 

■ ,' ■., Snr:*'*. llr v n\a u\ 'Af. Ll-Jl-JUUaUL T^U 1 lll^ 
-t.F.rf 'inr ji-i,ini '''^ itr^ .\ii niliL^- ii liUllir-i^ill: 
p> f'-pf I* .r' ., \mi .If: the ii i'.i;i .:itet ¥nt u 

, '••ri .1 ■ .r ■,; ni,i: - -r-ii;- u 7 :"at, :; ■5?^^^ n 

I- w -r; .-.., . ' -lii; II '•2->v-i. ' ' ; i-init n 

■ • •- 1 *.-►-<;- lJ :iK T iinp^Luii's-. :»e 



.- .\ 


■ll^ . 

: - 









■ ,r 




4 fl.; 

1 J 

. »'h 

-nUi _u ^:iiL- :i!r :j^ it^iuiii^^ 

The KcguUcion of Commerce 


Th«cc fftlM Aft riUemcl/ high &nd ihc difference beiwteo Fort 
Wunli Uid GunesvUff ruilwr hoall <vtiMtHn^ ih* dfAuiot hj 
trhkh Utty ue wpiualed; but, «a alrvodj naid, HMoidmljaii 
mvft'bc ^vffl to ibe fact ihfti ir h Impottlblt to pan &bnipt]f 
(rucn tli« s^'ciup sysceni- 

li idiottid hr funhjrr «»1»rrvcd Ihnl Ihetr ralet are iarettded 
loapp1jrOfil7li>liH'«li;cinNUTnf.iii«ii ji( Ftin W<^rth Anil<;«ior^Ti|fe, 
Ni> aulliii^»i-U4n).il ur ocbet iraoiii privilcgi; ihould be allowed. 
If Ibr icrain a^ »Iu|i|jciI beyond itietc jwinu, eiihcr u wfa»l or flour, 
h :ihoald le apoQ th« hic^ ralva uu4. 

An onlcf in occordarcc with ihc above viewi^ wtU be iui^. 

Upon ihf tonpAng report — TV 

/I u ^rd4nd. Thai the defendants Alclutort, Top<ia fr Sania ^J|!S'| 
Fe RiQway Company; DiJcaip), Uock Inland ft Puitic Riilwaf dtftn- 
CoODpasy; Si, Luuis Ai San Fraatf^^v Kailrvad Cum;Miiy, and 
Miuouri, Kan&4j ind Teiow R^jJway Cvm^taiy, be, and they ne 
bfieby, miiJrVd jaiI ret^ulftd tii cva^v And dc-^^lff > oo or htttm tbe 
lit day of 5«pt«fnLtfr. iqo7< fmm chu^g. dd mantling coJleciinK 
ur recemn^ tor the traiiiipcieiuion of wheal in carloads fmm Okla^ 
honu City, in iIk Tcrrilory of Oklahoma, lo Gain«BvtlIf in the 
State ot TeWr Iheir prevM rile of 3S^ cents per lOO poucdv 

// ii /mrlJur tfrdtrtd, Thm wid dcri-ndjtjilh he, ind lliey air "Hw 
hereby, notified and re^uii^d lo e»tal>Likb nod put in force on or 
hvton fUd ifrl d^y of Sefitf-mUr, a r^iic of noi morv ihAH ao centa 
per 100 pouad^ and appty thut r^itc lo the lr9niport:iiion of wheat 
In carloadf over their rctpectivc linc;^ of rsdlvay from taid ()kla< 
ho«ia City CO >aid Gainesville, during a [tenod of at leajiC two yeiin 
from and ifier wid ti^l ^iay of Sepicmbcr 

iiii/mwiittronUrf4,T^xi Kaifldrffrndanlsbe and they are brrebji 
nodGed aod required to ccwe and dniu, on or before the ml day 
t4 Siplffnbtr, 11)07. Ititm i^hartpn^, defnandlnjE, coUtcting or 
tecvMig, tor the traiupvruijon of ^bei^i, in cvtocidiB bom mM 



Atncncsn Government and Politics 

OkUliofltt Ckf to F<tft Worth, lo the Suae of Taa^ Ibcir 
])iVtflit nte d j9| <TnU per lOO poondi. 

/Ii«/»tf JA<r 0f^^«< Tlul Hk] dctmiUiiU be aad ibr; u« brivby* 
luttfcd tnd rM|inred KXbUblbhAad put Iniont^oaarheUjic^Mid 
l*C ihjr nf SrpccraliH', a nue of not aujc« tlon jt lvb(b prr log 
povnd* And apply itut rate to xht mroporudon oC wheat, to car- 
JoBik, over llKir mpedive lnr» ol r«i>«iry. tTOA said Ofclalwma 
Oljtouid Fofi Wntth, dvritijxprnodof aiieait tvojeanfmfn 
and >htr the nkt tM lUf of Srpirmlirr. 

AnJ ii itfuHhrr ordtre^, Tlul utd dcfctidaab be md tfaey uv 
hvfeby, auittoriwd ui nulw utld ao-ceai rate u)d wkl 3v-c«ni rat* 
circtivF upuQ ifaree daf»* notice to Itw pubfic and llw Inimlaie 
Cnmimcnx Conunhftlott, gh%a la ihc ntuiMr reqidred bf law. 
The iirtfl coAUining ucb rai» shonld bear the nocaiioa thai tt la 
iKued under ihe autborilj hercb/ gr^nEed- 

14S. TJbe AnH-TntH Att ^ 1890 

Onder iU grticrul power to regulate iDlcnuuc focnnkffce, Cdn< 
cn«* hia pAMxl minjr liwi, «ucli a th« ^i^'tlf Apuliuac« Act, thv 
Afbitratioo Act, thr Pure Foo^l Law, and ibc £mploftrs' E.tabllltjr 
L»H, but Ihc ni'ul fumoiu of tbpm aU b Ibe Anti-Utal Law ulF 
j&po, the imponnj)! claoBca of whkh an gEraa bcre: — 

B0 a fttcitM Vy |A« S4naU and Uomt vf Rt^mmMi^Hi ^ lA« 
Unikd States ^ Ammta in On^cmj ojjfivVaif, 

Sec. I. Every contraci, comhinkilon Id Ihe form of tnut or 
otberwitf, or conapUacy, ta rrunint of uade or tommctre nnMog 
ihe >evml Stale*, or nilh foreign nattoni, \% hcrcbj decUmd lo he 
Blrcal Krerf jiemw wh(i iJmll mAke any tufh i^jntnci or en- 
gage ifi any MKb co«binatic«i or con«pincy, thaJI be fleeraed 
gvDty nf a mAwkoMajnor, a«d. o« convfeika ibereof, ^boll ba 
pun&!ilic(l hy fine mdI txoMilinft lt*v thousand doIUri, or by im- 
pritonmenl not enveifinff one yvoj, or by boih said punbhneata* 
In Ihe aUKftUon of the coaru 

Sec 9. CvTfy penon who tkJ] ovmofkolne, or aitrmpi to 
Bkono^iolue, <« romUfke or tocHpte wilh any prrion or prnonA, Id 

The RcgoUtion o( Commerce 



iiiu»npoi«e »nj part of ihe mde ^raMAnme uMng the Mirrral 
Suit«f <ir <rl(b tordpi natiom, iJuJl be dccnwd ffulhr <■( ■ inU- 
deneUKT, juhI, w ixmikliodi ikcfvol, bliaU be |KiiiitM by Am 
not «3DCMdlAg fivt ibottttEid ikilbr*, or bjr ImpfbomDCM not tt* 
cccdinf tHif* ytar, or bjr boU ^iid puniihsicnu. In ihv itbcniion ol 

Sec. 3, Kivry coniJKi, cocnhtnatjon ia rora» <il iniit or others 
KM, or conKpifKT, in m<nunC4>f trBife<jrco<no3rfCciii nfiyTefri* 
mcy of iW Uoitcd Suic» or tbe Dfftrici U CoIuibMa, or ' 
mUiini cS Inxle o« cvmnwtve beiwnc nay suth Tcrritofy aik 
Uiotllcrp ot hc-twccn Any tmch Tcfriit:iry liT Tr^!i^he« uid 
Suiif orSuieiociht I>L9tric|cl<.'olumbb, ormiihforniEn nitinns, 
or liriwceo the Dkirkt ol Colombia &nd noy Suic or Suie« <ir 
focvipmtiiOfiKbhcnbf dtclwdilWgaL KvrfV[>rr^jn MhuthAll 
inikt ujr such coainct or engiLgc ia knj nich cDmbiiuu<ni Of ci>a* 
»pjr>r}-, ihall be dceioed pdliy of ^ nbdemeuior, uid, oa ctHk- 
vitilon ibcfMf, nhflU be [wnkbed by Gbc aol eicwiinf five ihmi< 
s«nd doltui, or bjr ImfiiiMAfncfit noc ^xcreding one ycv. or bj botl 
■aid punkhmrrnti, in the cUiciieCioo of tht coort. 

Sic. 4. The lieterd nrtuii Coun^ of ihr TTniEtd Slatr4 1 
berebf inreUed *iib juiiHlxtioQ to pirreni and rc*u»b rkiUtH 
of 1U1 act. - . 

Sec- 6. Any property owned undef aoj oonirta or by uiy CI 
faiiuiun, or purftUAAi lo any con^ilfiqr (uid being the tub] 
ihvrMf) men tlonrd in •rriiiin om iif lU« jki, »d htinj; h the covnv 
H cf mni}>ort4liott fnni otte Sui« lo jLnolber. or to a torHfA touBiryi 
^B thill tjc ritffc[ir>d 10 Ifat Valccd Si^io, tml >n«y |jt »rUctl and ton* 
W ileisned by iik« pnKv^din^ » tlnie provIiM by l4« for ihv for- 
I fcfiuier Klnire and condeflie^aHon of property (mponrd fata tht 

I Ulfied Sutea coBtmy to lair. 

I Sec. 7- Any pcnoa wha ihiUI be in)Drrd {n hk hotloeu or pra|)- 

I tfty by any ottier pervin m <'ciq>oratiott hy rroAoci of ftnjlhing 

I bidden or declaftft to be unLi"fuL Ly thn act, may lur Iheivfar 

^H vtf Cirniit Coon of ihr VaUM Stale* ni (be district in 
^V wUcfc Ibc dfftndani tvUdo or I* fouod, vlibout rcafifct lo tba 




Tht Orifrnan' Cmf^nm4t ipoS 

tn priTMt Pfnooft mfllfetu ^A^ M f<x«»l, ninnJ, ami anb1« 


parboaeaf Rci:urinK the wtllrnieftl at ihc ^tttil Wft 
Of UM iktckpincm vi iiKtuitnci and irmuwrtj 

MoMiIm hiTt dnwfi wma oar ftiinm] f«<Aiiirr«« lit* hrmj|dti ufj 
wftUft recent jmn to i ms raittuiioa ol ihc f«i ih«t tlil«L*Ur 

cJVkAt ipan Inddiniltlf- Wide puMiHty iri^ gt^tn 
to ib# pnbleB uf con««ttiiig uur twcninv by iW m lUin uf PrMi- 
deal RiVMcrdl Itt c«lli<tf a raofenttcc oi di« martnan nf alt th#. 
■utci lo tifce Ihc i|iM»vn into verioot conudeniCM 

iHMMk in UiT. 
dtlAmdoa Wwd Mm MbiwiAf dccbntiion ol privclpk*: -> 

1AV, ih* CkiTvnmn ol iW ?ll«l«« and TatrUorieit of ihr !^ntl«d 
Sutcn i4 AmrriKM, in crmlnw* M^mMrd, do Wrebj ik^km ihc 

M ih* Uivd tiMiwn by vmt Jonfaihen fcf th«&r 
h*| J4M fhv buwUilHi of ihii ^nti n^ilon. 

W« IcmJi upoA lhe«* mmMUM w a hfrtlJHp ia \m- rn«'W iiv r^ la 
cmhl b Wf M»d ;«vii«nrtn|| Om fiwninrt, prMpirrti/ And ha(:>piaf9» 
«l thr Amvrk*D p««fdv, Uii mH to lir vMled, dricrW«itfd or 
ontdkalj 4iMfuji«i|, 

HW aip* ihM mir mwiiry** lii««M k InvnlvH In llih: tlrat tlw 
pm noiiml n w a m ttia Mpfily itw «n««pHHJ bwla upon whk h our 
cMfMiirai AIM owilAttt l» d*pond mti wpv wUf li ih« papflOi* 
Hy ol llv Aatiua iMlT «M«. 

Wt JfTfv. Jn ibff llgfil hI ImtN l««u||tit E4t our kaowlnlgc "n^ 






pgfft^TTTT 'itT p^r^ ^rf' rt l i l imy in- 


wi»n. wWrh fiPTiflhr ttw sufl, •«fifiri^p«««ru4<ftwnrafirxi i-e- 

nn*^ '^t "-'mrfirFP: rfie fiirvM^^ wfuch jiHci cbe "'*^"*^ ■■-' vice 
hnm^v, ',fr-fnx TT^fcMT of she sml and comctvc tts navigAMMi 
iinH 'hfHrr j^^ '-f rjiir ^ttrRm*, awi rhe ruianalii, which lonit the 
ftn'^f'^ <rf >';r inrfnc^Trfnt iiPe ^nff supply us wftb huc^ light ood 

W» [!?Tpr rhir The i^Tirl 'ihmiM hrso UA«ct thai etanaa aadBoil 
,^vieh hii-il'^ r:iv, -hat Thm- ^hmiM br rvdAmxioa at azid and 
^mi iH'T r-'Tifhn- by [np!in*i nf irri^afion and of swunp &ad ayrx- 
flrp-M ri^iTiV,!^ !,y rntf;in<! of drntna^; that the w«ea should beso 
» ^jTi'j^rid inrl ]^H iq rn pmmotr navi^Etion. lo ■jn&hle the ;uid 
iT|ri',n: ■., > r'^himH hy [frftpHmn, anrt in cJevtlop poww-in. the 

;ri ■,!,-, r» ,■,- n'iir'trff*^ fitirf pronv^fp tSe f^rtiHty and producoYeiMas 

-.f ihr 



i,f ..■,r 

,.f ,p-; 



-:-} 'I'.'ilH 1)^ ;rtv"^rVT»rf anrt pfT^jttiJAfed; that tbemincrais 
■ i I'.^-'.'l'mrly li**n'nfh tfir ^urfurp. should he so laed :ts Eo 
•-'^ ■'-' I'ili'v, iTnt [hr Ivii'ifv. bralthfulnewi and haintatdlitv 

I 'I itih r /p.F fnr [hr lynrfif 'if ,til [he p«upl« ind thalthe 

I T i^'' tv^ f'»rr*'lvt'iahf rsf rJv PrpMrfenr in wundiiTg 
f ■ kTiiMiif iv; T'» rhr ,v,iHfc ^ind exhaufititvi of the imurai 

National Kcwvurccs 


moorcct of tfar C0WU7 aoA upilif our hifb tppredalloa of hU 
action in calling tU^ CVnltzTQce la cotuider Ibe i^uDC iUkd to «ck 
ncardkt tbetcfor throi«fh o>4ipcmii»ti o\ ibe Naiiun ftod iW 
ScMVi. Wc Aptv itut tbii c«^pcraiioa should find crprcssioa io 
Mittaljk actkia bj the Gxi£R« MTlldft ibc limils of ind rarxlemiwe 
wilb ihe naiJonal junvbctino of thr «iihjc<t «nit. fijnif^lrmrniafT 
IbeivUt. by tlv L«^i|atufHDdlhc»c«^cnJ States uiUiiQ the limiuof 
aftd cocxiciidJw nitb tbefr iaritdiakm. 

We (feclun thv ci^Aviciiun tb&i a ibe «« of ibe natsral fetovron 
oar indcpcTidcai Scucs an (ntcnkptftdcnE wd bouad eogHber by 
dvof OMittl hemU^nep<MnbSMt%tatd^tk^ 

We i0re« in ibc wiatdooi of tatan cemttrenccB briwicni Ibc 
PrviMent, nvmbm of OmptM and ihr Gotcmon of Ibr Siaiin 
00 tbecMttcrradcm of ooriuxuj^ Rsouirrs in'tb ft view lo cMitifiued 
CDH3|«ntka and ftclkn o«> ibc Uiw* uiKieeMcHi. Andtotbnvodw^ 
mhiae thai fjtrn Iipk to liioe, a^ in bU judGSKQl mzj wtta wi<e, 
tbe Pnsldrat caB the Go^Ynon of the Stue^ iBeaib«n of 
Congrcis acd ochen into fonfertnce^ 

We a^rre ihil furlhrr af Iwm U advtuMr I0 avtrtala rhe (itfrvol 
rootfilkin of our nalural re«>urar« and Co proBote the emkAerralMn 
of the iomt. And %a ilul etkd we fecookRieod Ibe ■pfkolMmeia bj 
vacb Suu of a ci^ttiainion uo ibe conacrralkHi of n44BnU rwouivfa 
to co-cpente viih each other lad v>tb any similar cooinmaMa on 
bth«lf of tbe FedmJ GorcmataL 

We urge the coolinnlJoa and cxieatidQ of fon^l poIiciM adapted 
lo Mcure tbe bufbanidiof tnd vcnewol of tnir dMbithlni iii»bcf 
mippljt prevention of 4ciil efovion. the protectkmof beadvaier» and 
ibe nuJnienancie of the puntj an'J navijcabtlJtf of onr itmnfeft. 
We mo^iae that tho private ownenbip of forr^t lancU entaib 
ztspoEulbilidci in the imctvcik of all tbe poopJe, and vc fivor tiie 
euctntM of Utn loofclajt 10 iba pmtctioa and rrpUfcntitt of 

Wc rrcDfcAiae in aur watm a moM valvubk mvc of ibe people 
«f Ibe United SiaKb and ire rrronnncnd ihe mu-lnvnt of Uwt 
kukt&g to Ihe oomemtlott of watec fctoorces for inigatioa, water 





364 Amcriam Government uul Foiittcs 

supjilf, power kndn:«Ti£«D0T:,ioihp cad thiti navi^^bZvindtuurc^ 
aUMAi [□4y Im bi\>U)»bi uKkr comj»lot« control jutd (uUjr odUjcd 
for troj purpose, WcopccuJIrurgeoittbeFeckirftlConfittttllbe 
ImnwHJAlc Adr^piiian nf 1 irj%, arii%-r and thcfTough viicrAay 
poliqr. pruvtdin^ for ihr pmnipl inipri.>vrmtni of our «tit«ntt and 
ccrnvrvAiion of iMt vAlcrthcds required far the uaei of oonuotncc 

WV rtvuinmctid 1\k vtiat:\.tv»!tii of \aw^ iuokjiig fo the prrtrEiliaa 
of vxtic ki tbe minicLg «iid cxiTKli<m oF cool, oil, sax uid o4ber 
nTiK-ral^. with 4 ^ icw to thdr wl^ constrrfliion for the tt» of the 
people and to ihc protetrtioQ of huDUQ ltf« in die nuncL 

[^1 ai4(iiDvrvr ibe founddlicin& of out pn>^krniy- 

150. Way Famt Raervalumt Skcuiii Bt U^Si 
Id tQo6, the Sennle committee \a charge of ibe biU pravidinf for 

Ihc punrhabe cJ rut area» m the Aupafiuhun Lkiid \Miilr moun* 

uIm for forot RwrvmiiHw made this Ar^mcDt b support of Ui« 
policy iftej were Jidrocatiog: — 

Flm. The crtiUoa of iliew fHtfrrti b a wim puUk pcrikj. 
Bnnwn the ce»itt!( of tbe fear* 1S50 Add 1900, (he population ol 
the country mnvxvij ffom >j,ocx\ooo to 7A,ooovE>ao, or 550 |irr 
cm., hui the money value of the lumber prod mi which il coniairted 
iDCfeurdfroca|6o/MO,oooio$s6&,ooo^oooar 940 per tent- Boib 
the per ciplu c ow mp pdon of timber m4 the ptkc uf timber are 
bKitung. It is eftinuted i^At ?4 pee ^tni. of the SoMihere 
AppalnchijA reptm hu bceaddoroud- DHorcf^ntioa mein^ lou 
of power lit produce future foee»Ci. It » in (he public inlereit 
ibalthnclandiibauldbeafqairedandheldhytbeGfkvtmmHil A« 
p«niiJBrtit ^vr<r« cif timber *upply 

Siecottd- The ac4)uiiition of these Jond^ by the Goveruinait wdl 
be food bu>iDe44 policy- Tim t»« of the wc^iem naenT ) h fui 
beffaiofloc but Ihe GoTtrnmcct reedpts Cfdid tbese rcaerrci on 
approjdmaliDg one half the outgOv ftlihki a tbon tenn of yrars 
they will lUHloublMity carry tbemwivtt. At the ume tiae their 

National Knourcrs 

prD|icrix «^ue is ritUifE vtd wQ conlioiit to Kw, boih tr^m ilv 
incRtsins vjJue of the timljcr athI (rw tU ^ftW pcoductiienvsfi 
of the fckfr«tf>u»dcm«iu^nicni, WlibappcMiiii^ueof not la^ 
ihun (750,000,000, thiMc wntcnt rr««rpc« m bcfai^ ^miivi&iered 
fti «n &nnii»l com of one third of one per c«ni of ihii sum whit^ 
itir J Afv kncn-44iig in valnr fulty 10 j<r cfnl a jtat, Thi.-s it in 
addition to ihrir cnoraKntf iftdirttl rriurna Ui the |>ul)lic vrUare 
from Lbcir indi^pcnuUe nJ«lioii to HtcccitfuJ iirigilkm, to min- 
ing >&d other iniluMnct vhkb dcmiibd lunthcr, to Beiderh, juid 
to slock giadnc^ - 

Third. The crcMinn of ihcjt fc»rvc* i^, now or Ulcr, a »«c«- 
44r]r polk}-> Sooner or Uicr the fiertain oon<«ifamm of fomi 
dntructton wfakh is nov taking pU^re wlEJ ior^ the national 
Ki>Tcmmcnlt<iiktcpkn. The (|uc«iioiU» not merely thai of pfcvcni- 
iog the ii^toreridinstnt of the ifBmedUi« focAliticb and titc uon- 
vtfdcn of produciivr Und tnlo « wka«- uf buron rock . TW ltt<(- of 
tbe forest Is foOowed hy the IO0 uf the »oU and by recumng Aoodi, 
The hcadvilcrt of ewfv itnponoAt rii^r wuih of ihc Ohlii and tbc 
Potomac and ei«i rtf ihe Mi»HMippi incTudin^ tht inl)E}Urit<i of 
thcw iireafnj^ ri*e in ibe Muihcra Appal^crhiani, while fhc WKiie 
Uountoiit* fc>rd Important river* of cTery New EiijtUivrJ »lAte 
enep4 RbiMk Iiluid, Tlie ninfaU of 1»th n*^0DB h \tc*ry oad 
^^ diuribiUed ibcouihoui the year. 
^H Afltr denudoiioa, every rain tunu the &hrBiik« itivuib into 

^^ moontoio torrvnls which devaaaie propeny and bear dowft tom 
I quOAtille!! of wit to obttruci narJgiMr rivrr^. 'J>ir vand ban tbuft 

I fumed oroenluate tlv tITect of alicrmting high aiid low tvater 

I peffoiK, and Uijc^ KciremnKOt enpervdiiufrt fi^r dredj^ng owl 

H harbor ioiprovvnienlA ar eniaitnL Tlir < leirin^ of rivrr clunneU 

^H oad bortKin in Nonh Corotina, Souih Carolina, Geon^ uA 
^^ AloboflU b fiow btiag urged. Yet dcforeiiaiiim is only in H& finl 
I stage. Bwoloolly ia tbu rouittry, a* bii been the eow in FniBfv, 

I ilv Gripped mmaitaltti will hreMne <o inlmicil Ui t!w ptilitiC ^uod 

I ibil the C^oTcmmriM vrill have to lake i Harp: ol them and firCorctt 

I ihem. But iha eqionw nf thi*, wbea ontx the fon»ti ait font* 

j^ AAwricJn Crrv^r^mmatr mil PqiiTfci 

will ^^ oftly Ins lUhmo* rlijui ibe d»ma|p irhirn it viil Twill. ^rf 

TM ^bi-iiion rtf flMMUkm ttmm muK^m ^ «ac a Looi or ft 

mf^r 'Air Thecva««hirhthefeMnci«iIlc6Kk£dlinr«i 

Hrpv «$r^^m. (f «« air wka, tm lAd Aavr a Itmm 
tirprr]r'sre. fn f rAAr«, flM Ant diani kkKpav die <EnsiRNA 
«fV^ N 'if f')fi^m< •«» mjwfe bf m f i n a m ikM^ the low ■sao' 
crmr-'-i rrr«1|pA]t anri dJioa, fcnw ou v pWw tJ U bnt bat 
ittnyr»r\lf pit^tlly^. KMy •hrn ihryfvgaatDpvftblfanrvfMfcup 
tfr thr hrwltt^fort tf iM ttFCJTM dkrf ihej find ihrmirfiii i an ibd 
rifCht rrvl. Thf irnrmmefit twm pau hco ihe buildjnc of 
■n'T ■i'' Jmr>rrKv^n>rni r>f rtariifjli^n in ri^rn ukd bttfadn 
fni(lr<'-irs 'ff '^'J)rir^ dnriuffjjf. Ti>c f«»r>-o £<wi«eJj£fte a Art lOon 
pr rmrrmj' jtl ^Kfirnflrturc for the tAtot purpose id addition lo their 
]artf.f r '•ii\r\\ntt\im'i Ur puMlc welfare. 
■ If K n''T riK^I to cxj^ecl the •Ute within which these areas Uc lo 

tSifll !n f^'^rvp \hrm foT the tiencfil of other Mates, II U impossible for 
tntttr *iFhI''^ will' h ftiifTfr from condition* out*iidc their own territory lo 
rctiM'dy Ihrm ^y ihtlrown action- There ha* been set aside in the 
Wr'il. fur p-^vnlittlly the same purposes which these reserves will 
Ftri 14 rr, » vuM nr^jL of rcnervefl created from the national domain and 
fK-ni'Tillfitr jirlmnrEly (he [leojile of ibc West. But the interests 
hivnlvril IimiIi lit tlir Wc^t and In the East are too broad to be 
rranhinl n* rvrn wi licmal merely. The benefits of the proposed 
trorrvr'^ ^^lll It tmilonnl benefits and their expenses should be 

ImhiP I'v 1Ik> iiEiUuil. 

T5t. T'Ar N^ati(*nat FortH R§s€n?ei 

Mf i^lffi^nl riiulmt, whix'c rnnn^nt service* as chief of the 
tA^inr ^^'^M^l^ hAW wim fi*r liim national rccoffnitiont briefly 
ill «t nU 1 \i\ iTu» inirrr^tinc auMr puUli^ihcil in Tme IndfpfndfiU 
r^i t >it 111 AW-X I \\AXM Irt l^i ihr n-tiu^ndl fijre^ domala. 

^fAtlontI Resources 


Tfcft United SiJitrt nav holdi Ia Xatloo^ Fofr^* (iarmrrly 
nSH fawal frien«*J about t6$,facx>jDoo 4rpp» of Und. Thi* U a 
vMantt-^gT»:rr ih^tn jJlof Franrr, AJid more ihan itou hir thjd 
of tb? British liles- It b, howrwr, Uit 7 pvr nnt- of ihe lotil uca 
of ibe VniKd Sulc*^ A* A pcrratncnl source of wood n^ipty li b 
allojErlher infLJcf^utM-, by iuvlf, t^vn f<ir our pment nttd^. 
Though nio4i of ihv forest upua !l is 5lill Tirpn, the dmbvr now 
f>[aA(lin| vould hold out Mg/dnrt a nie of oooMmptlon rqiiat 10 
Ihit of t^)d6 (ihe laM yCAr for whSch the figufcs bivf a^ yft iMrm 
ctMTipdlcd) fornftliDoreihnftfouTOf fi^^ytftWL y«i«ilhr airraj^ 
pricT wtqch llw hjfrM Snvjtc it now ^dng Cat timWr lri>Tn 
lltt Nationil Fomu ibU limbrr vould bdrifl, jiut v il «tuid> 
in ihe woodfc, vw^rly «nt>t3f;h to pay the niUooaJ d«b4. 

Eurc^xoa publicixs have held lliai from one fifUi lo one-third of 
ft country should be En vroodJuid. No Kuch sweeping rule cnn, of 
course, be applied eurtl^; all ihe cronomfc co&diiloiti mti5t be 
lAk«« into Acrount. A counliy of hi|th frrtUil/ aod deiuw popula- 
Iko, like Bet^um or Holland, ■itl do beit to draw matt <rf iu wood 
ftupf)lk8 frooi abnad. Tbe United Staiei, boncTa, ttmtt cxpcd 
ftlv^yv m ^rew raoftt of ic& timber tup^y 41 bom*. Indeed, at (be 
Torid-^hortaft of dnrfwr, wbich & ceiti^iily approaching, bcoomct 
acMe, we nui «Ep«i the compecltloa of fcrelp markti& foe ibe 
products of oar own Ibre^L It it commonly tuppowd th&l ve 
fthall he Mt la fall bii^fc on Canada, but Canada can gire «« 
volhiog Biore tbaa lempr^nrr relief The Caaadian forcstt h^^M 
farlcai nierchantabtelimbc; tluit hib hem nipposed; ipowiiiKin 
tfar Korlli iWyKTow dowly; aad iheJr output will, at tbecouotiy 
drt^lopH be in imivaiing deisand for home uv, 10 my nuthinft of 
tbe nocdf of Ea^and and of tbo Pad&e tride. R[^tiy o»d, th« 
bnd in the United States, better uiJIed lo gromng forests than to 
any ochrr pufpoiv, should fuJlyi-upplyoifrnrrdt; but tl 1^ impor- 
tant to nrmcniber that man than three-qtianm <iif thit land is in 
pdvalc IuumI*, tnd nof in ibc NaiitMuJ Fotrrttt- 

Ewn within iIm Naiiunal Konttt not al) of tlie land belong* to 
tbe Giivcfiunait; and of that whkb doe», not all i« tloiberML 



fitf iMVa nacdjr. tat b ii f«*iUr M Hvch >« 1 5 per ' 

»ii« ptm iMfft- Sm» ■# it Mm «n. Tli» l» Ifcr 

Its alvxr ilsUr ^, m>4 s^b f«<M«dil«bAa«tdftltt 

llv4it«*dilbJMda*rtsh«rlariBrodHrpuipa«:. Ttevbibo 
te ImI Inn vUrftUir £>JM bM bn b«wd A«^, bat bi virid) 
>l «0 bt iMftjnd ip^ hi itfftt <— ft nKb luyr mumji tbtt ibc 
MlW a Wy htrfTB UmI. Fartlirr, In rvrtm p«rt> «f New Unkot 
AtLkmm, «ai1 «fiulbvTii CaJJliiroU, audi hod hm Utd pui into 
nMbmil foniii vhkb b oKidy IrviUuid, Uil as vbkli ibr pcx>- 
Mn^Mi of vwtt lUi lafaiDT fmrtb b i1wJii>ly 

la Ml rffotfi (0 rfinwfv* |H6fic t^flml hud 
vHl, In i niMMrr ul Pcbnury j, igo?. aauU It 

National Rc^ourcrs 


mrni ul lUcZi ItfpiUUon ** would pioviOc for title to juiO dnv^^ ^jhTtT 
mcitl of (he j^uifacr land si nrpuiir anil disiinci fmm ibr riftlil m 
ilir uDtlcrljirig miiwnJ fuets in n-giuni ulicrr thmf may w^-ur, 
and ihc di«f>otfa] of ibctf nincriLl fuels under a koiinic »f»ttm on 
oondldoQft vblch «f o«ld touit to ihe Lcovlit of ike public ts a «boto, 
J a^M cal the atlenikiii of C oa g i tju to ihr imporuiicf of * ciactin^j 
Hj(k Irfp^lntjnrt. I^^rrlilitr for thr^lctaiU; ihrpHmriir«dUthat[ 
ihv ifUem ibould Ijv otablUbvd, thai from brncftfoftb lb i»lum 
ffcouM tcuio ill thie to iu furl rctounc*, and iu ngbt to vipctvisc 
ibvirdevvlupmeiii In ihi* inicifTai of ibv p^bUc as ii wbnl«, 

Such a leaiing spccm as that p«tfpo«ed itpitscftLi lif no medA« Ftnl^ 
an ualTittl p<ilky. In iht AuMraiian cciuniriM d^tring the laM ^j^"^ 
Iilt4:«n TTATt coaJ has hr«ii imnrd ufi^tpr a ^ytiMn of gorennnvQil 
Jetuct, *itd L>n condlliunh m* fjiiimtilr lor di^ VTlii|>Tnciit llul (liclr 
coat Slid colic aivlv-dajbcbgwld on ibcriiuCtcCixulDf luih thi* 
An«4icaii coMfawnc*. la all iho gnrai coal |iroducla|E HuropcaA 
countries. cxccfitCrvai BritauiprmJiilic^liig mined under ^uveni- 
mcnt W»ef^, lo Great BrUain, Wwfc arc jcrantrd almoM cniircly 
hy iht pfiruir Und tyrtnim. (tut therr u in other coitnlrvv llw 
suriacr culture and ibe mining opprotioru xn conducted indqicn- 
dftitljr id voch oilier. Tn Nova SfonU, Brilbh CduitiU*, tixlii, 
and olbcf Bjjti«b ixdooiri a Bovennnctil leaiiog »paem hai Wn 
adopted, and b. worklnf ladifacVQriljr- - - ■ 

Mliwral fueb. like the f«nei» and M>igabk aircarns, shutild U ^'^V^ 
ueaBcd as public utiliikju TttU U ^tnenJIy rccd^nlecd abroad^ ^Ikk; 
Ia aoaar lix*^ cMtniri««, pn<Ttii:jil t'DUinit of a lar^ jiortiofi of ihe 
furl rtKiurce5 wat Alli>iTcd year% ago Ia pau into priviie hvidi; 
bmibcciiMinK]{L»rnimcnt>iart«Ml*aviirtni{;tcirr|Eain ihUciiolJol 
in ordcTtbai the dintinKhlDg fwel MippI J may be aale^udrdt^l Ice the 
cofMiiQO f»Qd, lowad ot bdng deposed of f<ir the benefit of a Mr 
— tVkoUfl) tliB nBflcakt of iKe pcfc«dlAg ^ttf^iMKi In dlfpodag «l 
ihr« fitflft for a nonu'tf' 'num, ca&noi oJirap he rcmotd b^ 
V pnrvtii flnicratr 



Amcricao Government aJiJ Politics 

la ov own WrOcna Sutcs and Ttfriuirici, the Kotdiy td boih 
IW ^&1cr uid fott^ hu rcDdered DdrcaAar)? thcif pitbcrvtfkw &ft 
|iulilk ulili<ie«; lutd tbe prcvrvniina of (he foresiu ftir the pufpodir 
of fAnifnlngboch ihr H-AlrrAndthf timber wipfklr tin* com- tcilie 
retognucd u the witc and prnper poli^jr of ihr FcilnaJ (rorem- 
mcnt- Ttkc qu^mljiy uf hifth Rmlt inincral fuclfc Is ihc Wr*i m 
iriaiiii:!^ murli sjnuUrr than iLdi ul llv lunfati^ uid Uw pi\ipcr 
cowrrvAdon of tbc« ftw^U U a matter of f U'RapdiiQg im^KJrtuicc. 
Tbb {<iVfniBti:ni should not i>ow rrpTAt tlH cil«*kct of tbc )k«ai* 
Let lU HOC do uhut 1h« next geiKrajkin cvnnol uemId. W« have a 
liffxl to a prcficf ive of bolb xht fore&u anil the fbd dvrJvig nur 
liCrlimr Imi wr fthnuld iMht dttiMMcofthc- hirthrighi ctf onrrhjtdrvti. 
If liii» gorcmibrni icUi ib froLuniag fuel Und«, ihcy pw« out of 
Jts futurr Luntrol- 

If i'. Duw le&AA ihvm iflr« rclain conlrol and t future Ccogcns will 
be bt libcrtjr to decide whether U wiU cooiinuc or choage ihia 
polky- Meanwhile ihe ^venunentcan inaugiinle« a)>tem which 
«n1l eftrMinifc th? sfporile vtd independent devrlfij>mcni of ihc 
miriACc Undft for mRrieuhural purpatgrA and ihr etmctlon at ibe 
ntntral fueli in such munnrr &« klII Wil miret the ncedn of ibe 
pcufile and best fuifiute tbc deiYlopuicEU of DUDufunurtog 
Indiuufok . . . 

Alnad; prolMiblj one bftif of the toUJ area of the bigh-fra4f 
CO«U la ifac WcH hoft |itfwd under pHrair o>niro)> IneliKling 
boch llff lignJie and (be <(aI nfTa». Ibtv ]>rirfti(r hdldin^ prolMblj 
ifSgregatt nnc leu thoo ^oooyooo axra of coal &ddi- WUli ibe 
nsulivdrf ei i\w Uiub conlAlaln^ niiiictfti fuels rtKWcd «t bw»t 
ty Ihe g^n tra me ol, ibere will be ampk gfipoTluuitT lo dMeraiae 
In tbc near future vhlch of tbc tuu lyiieott -* privioe vfmTM\t 
ortfe Icuing spiem wiih gciienU ^ov«r»BieAt MipcrvUuo — wdl 
bcrt jvolM tbe iatcit!»u of ihr people and ibitt proiDOlc the 
|ictmtxKnt dcrrlopiBf at of the Wett. 

Tbe nectuity For cm in tbe fulore nunAgcmrot of Ibfw fuel 
■ijppCei U funbce ilhuiraicd by ihc n\M nic Mt whkb ut* of wch 
hsh b laotoaiDKia the United Siaam. Th> umMM of <«4l lavd 



Nttioiul RcuHirccs 

37 » 

la thlft couniry dvrittg ihc L*u Dee yt»r% U pnurdnJIf equal to th^i 
uw<l durifti; the pnotdia^ UUy ytm of it* hblony. Iluritig 
decadi? of ihii poind (be cod «i«cd WAS pncikilljr equal lolbo^i 
uf that WT4i duriniE sll ihc pRvrdlaif dacacki- I'hb tvmttrkaM 
<li*v«^rpniFnt and t'H* censla CDDtintiUr ^ 1^ jnwllgiotu 
oompclt Ufc lo frcoM aU cttinuBcs i» to (he life or our " tncjibftu^tlble 
rcMUffctt." Wc can foomN ihe lime vhf n ibc emtm induilrus 
ir|]] ht raurh more Ur^Iy taxed for supplying forrij^ m;trkf lv 
Thfti (he UV*t wiH ilM* hr Urgrly rn];A|pfH in varying minufMtur- 
u]gciQrfpfm% and thii will Pcquiictbc iuiclLigrnt %tt€attvry 
of avaQobtc f ucl In tbol ngloo, ThcKmeimitoruncfofcDoiicvt^ 
bg tbc fu»l tuppliM in tht Wc^ ^lill fcntuDlng under tlie conl 
of the GownuncQi, wiih a view to the tccomplUhmcni ct iheae 
imporuni puqhHCf , iapcb me afiln to bring ihfe matter to the 
atlr&lion uf Cot^mn. . . . 

rf as ivpoTUnl u Ifae contrrviHon of our nfttu>iia^ rrviurcea 
dw«lopmtM of dte fifv^ irid reflooi wbxti un liMlay 
miMttlurliix^ The mnM i&dnguishcd BdvorAie of x grnrmuji 
poBcy oC gi/wnnrfniLil recUaubon lus Lem Mr. Xrvl^ds, at 
Nevada, ud Is chaznfoonlnjc rhe RrcI.imntioB l^w of 190}, he 
made the faUowuig apccch in the Uoiuc ot Rcpcaciiutivcs on 
M^ 14, of thil JDU. 

The«o-calledaridpcffunei1tnd»fro«aatKHitthronvbandRdlh Tt* 
nteridkn of loo^tude to the Picific coaM- Dnw a line north ^ctUa^ 
ftnd wuih tbrou|:h tbe ciidd^ of the mo Daiotat, Ncbraako, 
Eautf, aad OkUbMOt, uhI ill to the wtrti of ii U either arid or 
«inl-arld, the aridlQr fainiarinf as the Rocky Mounuisi 
tftpfoftrhcd. The eMien perlkm of ihh gnat n^n b 
vid, lihilr the nuro* CHl^ along Ihr I^cific wahoArd » hui 
WItUa the bouMlarie* nanud Ihirtcea Stale* and three TemK 
lie wboOy or is part, aad, exdudinic Ala^a, they cxicatitiKr nearly 
(vne half uf tbe nperfidaJ aiea *J ibe Retiqblk, ll b esiimati 
ibat tbry cottuin tboul 600,000,000 acn» of vmuii public lai 

Aiiicncan Govcrnmcoi iml PuUtics 

of which alHJUl 6oyaao,ooo ucir» JUiy l« IrriKSlvid if Ihe water 
supply h properly (otiiervir^ and di^trttiutciL In other wards, 
\t ii (lotrtble in ihc future lo ociutlLy rc<-laJm for c^tlraiJoD in 
lhi£ ntA regSfuL an ana atiuut ci)u;il 1o ihc atva of ibc two States 
of IHtnab and Iovfb. TIk rci^l [>f ihii va» omiL cmnnoi be cuhi- 
VHtcd- [| wilJ conalti iargttjr of rrxiuntiin rangr.i and arid plains, 
Uu which it will be impMuble lo obtain lul^ient water for irwi- 
ICAtiikn, ihuuflh ihrf w'd\ b» uarful for fptXAn^^ 

Thi» rei^oa waj once called "Ttie Oreat Anvricatn D<nvR." 
It is fiuunly moui^ulnou«- Tbv Rocky Motirtioliu. tbe Sierra 
Ncrada, and the uthcr mounuin ritn^i tHk.e up a vtwy large pn>- 
ponion of ttt otca^ It i:i impoufhln anywhcric io cvldvate bj 
fnrHfiv tJ r^inmj- (>rAw^ odaptol cn thr Arid rr^loii grow on 
these pliiia^ and mounuiiu and susliln the vrandering hrnU from 
whkli mu^t uf ihc hnA cjulc of ihu cuuiitry krv mruiicd. Only 
vollrp and pUtraus In ihclr viciaity an 1r;vH eaough for cultiva- 
tion. The isouniajnous choracicr of the couriry would preMirtit 
cuTliiUtion eTcn w«e water abundanl ; but thcfr h only suQkiem 
wfttcrfivahradi pan of the Irve! portion of thjftueo. Thewuen 
for ouliiTAtion tn^j^f cnmr from the i^trvfcs Mreamst a^^d nvrn 
which hiLvc ibcir unix^cft in the atvvn of tbe tnouotainf. These 
WBien muM be M away frvm the sirvomH by Ulerttl tonok lad 
dilcbea, and id onfer lo accompliah ihU the water nudt be takeoi 
oiii wbrrr damTnin^ tbe rivtr i^ compnrjlincly CMXf. Tbe snow* 
vbich on tbr ^source of iheM rmks flrc^ms, and tivfr» fall in the 
winter and melt in the «j>hng and roriy uimmer. Moit of theie 
tt]OK» loelt befurv May, leaving a Kaiily supply for Juae, July, 
and Aupuil, Ibe period when the bell h intense, and when the 
drj lir sudu ibc moiiiurt om of ovcfythlng, and when ciobMrv 
It iDODi fequired for Kpenlog mpfi. 

'IV fir» land^ lak^ up lo urb a nglon att along the citek« 

oitd riven osd iq the ralleyi where water U needed for mpfily. 

Tlirw land« belnji orerdmd by the *pf\mti fft^Jtcb, would pn>* 

dure wild gnaae^, wbi4:h the ^itocknro would cui for hay, Ibui 

tier lerere wiotcn vbcn ibe fAOW coveted and LvuceoM 

National Resources 

Ife «i|d gnstA of llie plum inil imjitfilkif ibe li«n of the sIocIl, 
*nkr«i, l^niuinA more provklcni, the tijxkmcn uuutd dhvn ihr 
iloul wmteni hy canals ovrr ihp h.nil not liuiuntty uverOo^ved, 
and ibuK increasv ibc baT^rkU. Tfien cunc tbc mine» triih tlicir 
cotnnuinliJes nf mcrcbtuics and raloerg requiring food fUppKra of 
cwry kind. And so tht 4n>aU farmer wa* dereloped. who, hy 
dnvrtinfc cjintli and diu hr^, h>ufchl to ffLVr his }ftnd ihr ac^drd 
water fu« ;:vrfaJ«| rcgiFUbJn and Iruiti. 

From tbne coftdiliou has come (he pre«enl irriiptfon dcvrlop' "^^^ 
PKdi of ihc W«t Tb« rondlttoti of ilio bUvaiiu in Llie period c4 ^ 
lowest walcr wta ihe netuuTt of potuble reclamation. The flood 
waters were of no luc, for ihty *«fc dck avpilahif^ when nocdc^ fnr 
ripening the crop^. an<1 rl \* thrf« AcvmI walen, whuh AnnJIy nikr 
Ihtir way if* The ocean or to grril ULrt in thf «nk tj ihc deifrr, 
like SiEi Lake. Humboldl Lake, Walker Lake, axtd Qib;f>. that it 
h proposed to make available for the arid landu novi remiuniog 
unatttlvd. To accompliah ihU requim the broadtei (^nrrallaa- 
tion. the »iudy of an eodie river, wtih all its tributarin aikd their 
HibtribularJn; the nMinM-naacc of on e^unl ind su^ained dow 
ofthe river during the planting and ^raoihgvawn. and iheuijEia«< 
ikan of evicfy device upon er er y pan of the river nrevvaaiy to ppc* 
btm: ihh e<tttal low. The landi to ht benpritcd m^y be hundrrdsi 
oi males airjy from the locaJkQ of the Kored vntcn, but ]b«e 
Hored waters being above Lbe«k not belo« then, wfll be oo up, 
tespoDStve to the dmaads ot intelligetiC boibandry. . h . 

The idea U thai ibc GovefikaKttt«l>mild do the primary voFiol tla] 
eoiuirucling (he rrMTKAn aod larger canaH, to thai the water ^l^|^[^' 
may he brottgbl wUhin the xvach of tboae who are to te4tle om the 
pvblk landi and ok il la their rtdanaUon and culcivatlDD. Slo«- 
a^ vaabies the utilUatiun of a ^aitr aiwuM of the tcvnalJal 
■aicr* In Irnsailng the arid pUim^, aa ibe Mored wvien «qppl«n»m 
the turrential waters later ctt and ripen the crDp» which wotJd 
odKfwtte be bumt hy tbe hoc tun- Storage inrdvea Ifae Ireatiwol 
<f ao entire waimlicd b a teknli&e way re^anUci* nf Stale line* 
TW probleai ii Id nuintain an equal and Huiaioed flow of ibc 


American Government and Politics 

tre&ms, &o that Ihe torrenlial waters may be kept from Howing to 
vaste and may be conserved and let into lh« stream when ihe 
laturat supply is cjtcccdingly h'miied. Very large rivers have nu- 
tbcroLu tributaries, wirh th^ir sources in thesnowsof ihc mountajns. 
rbe more walcr Ihcre l.'^ stori'd ihe ^^aler the extent of the lor- 
ential waters that can be u 111 [zed in Inigadon, forstoriigc ^aran- 
W5 Ibc service of water when it is tnnst needed, and settlers can 
afdy lake out the touential waters in ihe spring and bring larger 
Tea.s uf land under euldvaiion when they feel assured that the 
toFed waters will come on later in a peHod of droughl, and furikish 
he crops with the needed Eooisturc. 


Tnc oovntnnwr or Tntrrouu 

TVE ledenl ConaEtuu'nn tooialtw no cUum cipm^y tuti 
Wng the ftrqtniiiTon of rcmtory utd is voy iiie«gTT la its prru^ 
viKtiint oonin'llinK itie govtnuntni of Unitorici. SoceIoh 3 ol 
Artir!* IV runs u [aIlo«i: — 

New States ttuy be admiiicd by iht Congrott into thk Unfon; 
bui no nnr Si8tf shaJt be formc4 or croctod udthin th« Juri&dlcikm' 
of ukj oihtr Suic; Dor shall any Suic be formed by the junction 
ci two Of moTP Stiic* f* p*ru of Sui«, without the fonvnt of 
tbr Ifgi-iaturA of the St4tie<i roncemed &.itt«LI ^s<ti the Congre*!. 

The Conjcrr^u ih)M have pcwcr lo dispone oJ und make all 
imdful rules aod tv|ful«tiouB rr*fi«tiiig (be Ictnlcry ur olber 
|iro|9erty belongiiig to Ibc Uiiiicd Suics; and nutKing ia thu 
Con«lMtion ttbiJI be »o con&irucd w 10 ptrjudkc viy cidiou 
the Uruoed Sute^ or of uy paniculv Sute^ 

154. CiwlAltfMiMr Umiitjiums M CtfM^reu JH GffMnvM^ 

In &cvMlfl|c tb« po«en of Coo^nn in O* a»rfmii«iil of 
bcffiitoffiflh Mr Jiutice Dij aiuk Ihc Ccdlawlng outfralkai: — 

li may be regarded as «ettkd tbal the CoQtticutkm of ibe Untied 
State* i> the ooJjr *curce of jH>wer aiul^hctriic anion by asy bf&nch 
ot the federal ^vrrntneni, "The gorrntmenl uf the United Sliln 
wu bom of the Conttiiuiion, and all powcrv vhkh it enjoyi 01 
may cnrdse niut be either deriTrd eipresaly or by (raplfcAtloQ 
from ihat tntfrem^nl." Ii U eifually wvd] aeitlod thai the Uaaleil 
SiftiF* may Mtij/t^tr Crfrilory in ibr r«rrri«- of the trt-ary-mjiilrK 
po»ier by dne^t cewort m% the result of war and in oiaUng eOecti 
ihc icrvu of peace; and for tbat pitfpoR baa tW pOHers of ollicr< 




Mi' '■!■ 

itvri^W riii|n Bin mtm hr—fc 

, r.H-.r . 'h-,Hir hmlfifirtn^. SpcAfcrin^ of (bia power Mt, Jiisbce 
f 'ir^i lii-l ff rlwn rhi^ '-taiHur rinR< rrvnEain a power m IffjiiiTr 
r^ ipTfir,^ rhf 'rTTitnry, xhai are the H raits oi thm power? To thb. 
r in-'T 'Inr in rr.rnmfm ipfth all rhe ntber tqpalatiTe powen o| 
< iift^f II ftrif-U fifnif in rhrpTpfrw pttibibnians on Cod^tck aat 
!'. -U. ' r- HI ihinT*; rhsf in ihe et*frise of lepriatjrc power, 
I f,r,-rr'- ■ [nn'if pBM an rt y*"** far|fl law or biil ol atOamkr and 
'I 111 f/ \^. I lo r;irh of The 'tthfT pmhibitioiis Lanomed ia the 

t 'f.U liT'lli'HH " 

In ■ ' r," • i-r .\h^ir rnn^^iVK* undertakes lo legislate in the 
. rri -' if I'lr- j^.'vrr r onfrtTprf l>y ihe Constrtadon, the fjoestion 

F<i (', iri . 

r'l lin'^' far ih*" ri^rnw U limited bv the ''pn>hibi- 
li ii m^fmnvnr The limiTatinn^ ^hkh uv (o be 
mv iO^'Tf f iTC inv(.lvin(r r^rritoriai government must 
!■ ill'- rrLiii'in of fb^ partirvilar terriiory to the United 
' rrjiTit' Ni'bjrb T-mj^" i<i rwTrising the power con- 
li' t 'H't >iiipTi'>Tk T'h^ii ibp L'nited Stales may have 
.11 ti I Mf>r ifuor]>nMl<''i inTo ihe Uniled States as a. 
.y th'mV. *,m rrr<\)^WrA hy The framemof the Consd- 

''I' II ►' Tiii|? fhr iirfi' \r ,ilr^pif^y ror^idered ffi\"iTiK power over 

M- r rrrr iri^l p. -im (i(mr<J by the opinions al the justices 

hull " .hf 
1 1 1] 'Vl' 'I Hh 

-Im-i.'I n 
M iF' . . '• 

I. FK'l I'.' 

1' " / ■ 

f, I 

V i 

■ li' 

Th€ Government of Territories 


concurring la ihf jurlgtnpDl m Dctwno* v. BMmrcIL Until Congrru 
ihUI 9e« fil to jncorporiite tenitory ceded bj innVf into the 17aitH 
StJitfS K^ rcKinJ tl m viiImI hj IbM d^i^inn lK«l (hr frrrilnry 
i>to bf gcrt«rTK<l UQiWrcbr povr«r«ii«tingiii Ccngmi to make U^l 
fair aji:h tcmtmnc^ ood sub|Kl to nick conaituikmal rctlrfciions 
upon ibe pouvra of ihti budy ■& m applicable lo the Kiruation. 
For ihb cue the practice quetfion b. mtut CongreM In c^tAhlUh- 
IaJ > «r»1cai f<3r triel ol crimn and offcmrft cnmBiitud in ihr- 
PhiKpptne IsJindi nny Id thrir pct^lf bj proper aSrraulive 
legbJilloa 4 %YHttn of ifUl bj jury? 

It w«» uid iu the Muikichi case ibut tfbvii the 10011017 had not 
been incorpom^ mto the UoJicd SiaK& ihcM requiirmcnti^ 
[reUtinfE t« Utdinmrnt by f^n4 Jury and tritJ by Jury] vk^ere not 
tiinitaEion:4 up'jn tht power of Con£ir3i in prcrtiding a goremmeDt 
for IcrrildTy in cibef.utioo of ihc powers conlcrrcd upon CoDgrcflk 
In the same cAae M». Jindce Brown in ;hc courv of hii opinion 
Midr ^*We froitid hiy itut miiht tf ii<ii hH ilir prl\tlf|^h ani] im- 
DUiuUca ojnuioed in the bill of rights ol the CoiuUlutioo iK«ir 
ioiendcd to Apply tmtn the rnomoni ^f anDcxntJoR; hui w ploc^ 
oui decbion of ihli caae upon the ground thai ihc two rights a^ 
leged 10 be vJoUtcd in ihii i»x (right to thjJ I*/ jury ood pre^nl- 
mcnl by gra-nd jury) ue nof fundamerit;d 10 IhHr naturr, but 
CDOccrs mrnly a nethod of prooeduR whkli sixlyremol practice 
hul tbown u> t)c fubicd 10 ih^oonditlonA at the UIukU, and vnell 
cttlciiibMd to cona^n^ the right* of (heir cltlKDA lo il)elr lives their 
property uid their vrll being/' 

Wc conclude thai ihe ^ntfrtr to govern territory, Implied In ihc 
right 10 acquire it, and given to CongreM m the ConMilu^ion in 
Article IV, wctinn j, lo whalevrr Aihrr UnrdUitoRt i! tnay be aub- 
jr<1, the extrnt of «hkb musi be ckodcd is quntkmv ariie. dijeti 
not requite fhat body to ciuct for ceded tnrltory, do< nude a port 
of the L'l^ied States by CoognvikKtal acilun, a <iyueni of laws 
which ahoH ijxhde the rfg^i of trial by ^ury, and that the Con 
adtiflton dDc« EMit without lcgi4aiion and of its own fora> cmity 
udi right 10 territory m utuaied. 


1^9 Amenzaa (lowtmaaa ud PdIickk 

t^ <1l^ JBlWtaHr nM CUk 


Whi^rvsiK (fw lUiuvTvut i-tndttiriTB sbldi twsr r nan a d lor nnav 
_^ 'hnn rhFitff> rpio« m il» latanri <jf { rutoc a* nw oiu nvR tioni^a^ 

Jiav* nhrirkvt ll» monlivMBof l^pjsDoleijf itii "iiiwi "Hiiw i 

bBwp, lit rhr -iMtrnrtInn ^4 » tftriW^ ^tam F^uddnsi. *hli i«o 
fcnWrtiiFd «»4 -riiTf-^t of iv otfbiB and *rew. vbtle ^Hi a meadir 

tinK Ui *'.inrfr^** •••f \nn! '-iffventh. rt>ftipcii 'innElrrti 4Uid ^lrarfv- 
Hi^hF, iiTMin 'uhirh :hr action of Gmf^ren was inrind: TlLuiuic, 

r/iffW >fil^ itf Am^ri^a in Cartgnss lUsemdUdy Etrst- That ItM 
p4^j>k of 1 h#* I>4lafk(i of Ciib& MK, and of rigbt oughi to ha, &vc and 

>''H>n'f Thftt ir iq the durvnf the United StztES to dnnuKl, and 
rl>f r,'»vpmrTKi>r r^f the Unitefl Sui» does hereby ^***"jw^^ thmt 
rlv ^Kivrrnm^nt of Spnin at once retiaqauh its unlknttr and piv- 
^TTrTTvnr in rhi* [qlAUrt of Cuba intf withdiRW iis bmt and oaTaL 
ffrfr*^ frnm ''tihfl anH Ctihan vratera. 

ThrH That \hf Prc^irtfnt of [be United Stats be. and he 
h*r^hy It, i^ir^rtH and ertipoxreffid to use the enliie [and and naval 
foT^P-: f.i rh* TniiH !>iateA, md to t^ail into the actual wrviccfrfthe 
}rn\f'\ -.f iT/-- rh^ militia i>f the ^leveral Stales, ta suchextcait ^mxr 
>y n*'--'-^tir/ fi^ r^TTy Ihrie revJutions inlo effect, 

Fi-f'irih rhi» rh^ r'nifed Sute** hereby disclaims any cfispqei- 
tl'-n '-r pTif^ntlon [f> ^-^^Triw" i*/ivprei(pity, jurisdiction, or ujtUiul 
'-'".f irrl f-liDrl 'Tfpjrf fr^ the pafificatiofi thereof, and isfierts its 
-Irr-'Tmir. iNftTt. *Kfn rhnt i* H^f/implished, to leave the govenunent 
nnfl "-, nf rhe r-iftn^I t/j iu people. 

The Government of Territories 


The fdlowing ptriviuoiu ol Uw p>mii Ibr rvUlioM of Cutw wil b 
Iht UoM Sttu*. Thcv vrtn fncorpontod, ts llw " PUti tnw »!- 
meiit,"li>theumj«ppropnAtiaajwrto(MAnitf t90i,uiit<LCcrptird 
by the Cubtm u on appendU to ibw cva>tilia1m; — 

ThM the gnwmmmt of Cub« ihtll feWOT cfitrr into toij trt^tf 
or other (ompjici ^hh any foreign powrr or powcn tthich will 
impur or lend lo impur the indtpendtttn <■! Cub*, nor in aoy 
noimcr auiborijv or p«rnib uiy ton\^ \>tmtr or powtrs lo obulo 
by (xdocuilioa or for mdiury or oaval purpo*e» ur cillwffwifr, 
Icffl^mciii tn or control <tvcr any pnnlon of uld Uuid. 

ThAl said grivtmmmi hh^W not u«um« or (vmtraci tnj public 
dtbt, 10 piy the ini^rcit upon trhkh, uid lo m^e rt44aiuble 
Sinking fund pr^rvi^in fi>r tfac ultinulc EliAchArgr of nbkh, ihe 
«cdi&«i7 rtvoiue» of Ibe bland, aft^r (Jefra)ing tbv cvrrpnC «i- 
pcniM oT fovemmcnt f^hill he inadec|uiiic. 

Tbit th« gowrnmeac of Cub* con«ni$ ihat the UoitviJ SlAts > 
mj caerdM the nght to intcntno for the prcKTvniha of Cuban 
faufcfMOHltfttc, the nuinicnuicc of « govern meal Ade<|ufltr for the 
protection of life, property, and indivtduiJ liberty^ v)d for (fiv 

cHu|CLFig throUifcilkirt««ri[h rr>|ie<l t<jOth« Ifn{Ka«dby ihr treaty 
vf P^!i un the tJniled Suua, ddw Id be ituunird uid undnlN^itn 
by ihc govtfnntenc of Cuba. 

That «U Acts of itw Uiriied States tn CvbA durinj; ii^ mlbl&ry 
occuptftqr tiKreof. ut r&ii5«l and rilidiled, ftnd Uwinl li^Hs 
Acquiml ihcreuoder «hall hr (nolntatnrd and prr^trttnl 

Th*l iSe goTerwnwQl <4 Cuba uitl execute, and u far ta onn- 
niy ciiend, llic pCu» already dcvucd or otber plana to be mutually 
■gnMl upon for llie ■aj^Stjtlicin c4 itw citin u{ ihr iatood, lo t^ end in 
tbot B recwraioe of epidrmie and iafectiou daww?* nuy be p«^ 
Tnied, ibatby unirlng proiKtloo lo iho people and conniMn* of 
Cuba, OS vreQ as Co the rocunertv of ibe southern poru of the United 
&1a>ct and liv pnofiJe rrtldLnf tbcreio- 

'flial ibe file of Pjoei »haH br omilkd from tbe peopooeJ cott- 
MitiilloMal bDundoiics of Cuba. Ibe lil> Ibmto being kf t to future 
odjuiiDcill by CftOily* 


Amnican Government and Politics 

Thftt to enable the Uniied Suie» to nuintain the Cfldcpeadeaoc 
Ciitw, and to |>roC£cc tht people tiered, » well a« for lu own 
ren«, (he gotvmmcniof CuIki wiSsrlldrleft*^ loihr United SIaIm' 
landi nrcewarj' for roalin^ or naval iUlion?L, al rfriaJn ippciAc^^ 
p<dnts lo ^^e A^rred ii|ion «iilh the t^rrAMrni o1 tbr Hatred Stall 

That bj wiy of fuittier a»unrm ihp got«riimF[iC cif Ctibk w'lB' 
embody tlic forvguing pAivi^ok la a pefmvtenc treaty with tho 
Uflltcd SUIC«' 

156. Prin^ipUt of Amrrir^ Pe/ky m lAif PkHip^infj 

in tqoot Pxvwitni MfKibley api^tntrd thv terand Ptiill 
Commiuinn uid on Apnl 7 of that yeir he tronsaitled to 
tluDUgfa the SvcTttiij <if WuT a Ipitcr ct>Dlunin); Ihrir imtruclvoo* 
Crocn nttkh thcu; riiracte &re lAkcn: — 

]n Ibc tact^ge tramnntled lo L\ingm« on the 5tb of iVrvmbrr. 
fftgg. i tMt H'TaLlnjci^r tlir t*hilip]jiiio IsUndt: "A9 Vhi^K ai tbe 
A* inivrrectkro ajntinun the miliury arm must nrcea«rUy be sv- 
prciar. Bui there |g no fniKOn why Mepi< i^hould aoi be tikcn 
from iCtne ra lime 10 inatigunie ^lemmeob etttntiAlty popular 
in ihcir form 44 Tjlm ft« fcn^ioiy U hrld and conirolled by oor troofvi- 
To Ifaiih rod I am conftideTing the idnufailily of the rrldm of ilir 
toinmT*M-m »* n( «iii h owmliri^ »ti^rrof to can l(r frrurrd) to airl 
the exUtJDg autbofitks and facilitate thli wurk throughout 

To 9ve effcci tr> tbf Inttnlton thus cjcpmsed, I have nppntnied 
Hao. WUUam H, Tafi, oi ON.^: Prof. Dean C Worr^rter, 
UkbipA; HoOh Lukr I, Wnghl. rf Tcnnrare; Hon. Urnvy 
Ide, oj VfTmant, and Pni. Bernard Motr^ of Califoniia, Com- 
■nJMfonrrt l>> ihr Phill|>pinr UUnd^ 10 eonilnue aftd perfrct tht 
worfc of organiiJng and eilabfiihinK ci«i gorrmmcnt alnwdy 
cout&cncrd by the mlitafy aoilKirltlci, vubjpd Ja all fccpccU fo 
any lawa vfakh Congm» may b«««afcrr «eat1. 

The CommUonem named «tll meet aod oti ua a Uurd, and 
the Hon. wniUm H. Tafi i^ dnJptuod a? Piv^idcnt «l th 

Tht Government of Territories 


It j« probablr Ifaai Ihr Inntfcr of authorily Jrvm aiililirjr cotn< 
nuiidcr» to ci^il iWI)»f« wiS be uruJui) awl will occopy ■ cojt- 
dilvfmUe i^crlod, ItA succvWul sufcuiDptiihrneiii smJ ibp main- 
tenance ol pe4ce ai)d onkr in ibo nvftntjmc vli\ myan ibc inoti 
r?c< coOpvratlciil brdnccn iIk- dvil and mllitar)' DVtboHticf of 
the i!^nti| knd bold &baukl be dirtvtnl ^urin^lhc traniiiion pfriod 
by itw Mcoc ctmniic llcpafifnrtil^ The ranuniwion vill iberc- 
fflpp fT-fwrt t[> thf Sntrtfttr «( War, nri<l all ihfir ftctloo «ill I* 
lulijcct iici jruur Apfinnol And contrd- 

Vou wiU Ini^inKt lh<- commE^on lo pR>cec<(l tti llw dty of Ma- 
hiijtn, «rbrrv ibry i^ilE mikt* ihcir principal o£ce uu) to cooianici- 
caic with ihc military j[oixri>ot ol tiic Philippine bluiiU, wbon 
ynu vrill ai lh« Mfnt livat^ dirc<i to rcfxkr to ibcm trtry udjuucc 
.«ilhin fait pc>WM in ihc performaim of thrir HTiliri. \Mthoul 
)i4ni)|vriiig ttiviu by to<3 x^irfffiL iEUininiLins thi.-^ <il>tiu1tj in ff}>' 
er^ be cafuinpcl, Ukt ouLinft tbenuclvt!* famlliju wiili the <i>n< 
'diiions And nevdfc <A xh* counijy, to ikrotv Uidr jiitrnilcm in ih« 
tint tnMaace 1o che cstablUhnKM of mtinicipal goremment^, in 
which ihr naUvr^ nt ihc fRlanik, Iwih in ihc cliict OAd in ihc nirtl 
inttioi, ihflll be ^fTonlecl ihr o|>portuQiiy lo muu^ iheir 
local afldm to the fulle^i exirfil of which they are capable 
anil Mibjr^ to ihv Irast thgm of »u(>rrvi»iijn aitd <onUtfl which a 
rfnl ftuiiyof ibelr capaeitio and obtcrvAiioo cf the u^irkin^ 
fkidtv contrd thov 10 be consiftu-nt vlih (he nulnionancx- of 
Uw, order, and k>yalty. 

The nctl Mtb|rr1 in onVr of imponanre should bc: the or^uii- 

Llkin ol savrntmeiii in ihr 1an;er ailmini-itrarivi? diviAiiins cor- 

tding 10 <aqnine«, deftartncnu, or pforrncM, in whiHi the 

iPBOn lairrvtti of nia&y or tertral inunici|iall|ict falKng wiihin 

ttfne tribal linrt, ur ibr Maw natmal ^(ognfihkal limiib, may 

be iuUcfwJ by a conmion adnUnfaainiioQ. Whcoevtr ih« 

ntomnDBHNi i« ol Ihc opirion ibai iht fockdtllon of alTalrt tn the 

i»l4Dd:t i« «uch that ihe central adminiiiratioa may Miely be ir^n^ 

feirrd fruni cniliiary to clril ccciirul, ihry will rrpi^t rhat fon^ln- 

«oo 10 yuu, vilb their ctcumoKMlatioQi at lo ihi: form o( ivalral 



JB^ Amrricso Gow^mmaa taa Patina 

rbM pan M i)v pmarT'if pjw i mwi t in. Tfie. PMlppaav Uaaita 

flRfHtf bf :hnn in ihr t^U* r •' ■ - -r Lbv n^cm 
lNt4rr«Drh ralfVmnH fvffBlji ^- - 4 >badi ptMcnac, uBtfltfas 
cMBbfehmFiit f#l1iprivQrminl i^v^fnomt f-jrit» dvaik mo- 
tffopl M rfin rh Tiiirf Tr ynlnf i iiii f iiiifc iriinrii r t piw itiiill 
orhtfww pnw44r. Kvrwtirof iMp li|iiiiriii niihiBiiji lil in 

thrfaahiUflf itfW Uut ' tiyu wa, ^:^i^wmdlni■^■ifld i l ll p u l■ , ita 
ippfnpilitfiin' dfV^ etpin^Him oF puMfe fonik of tbm. isluvk; 
ihr p^ir^iMiqhmmf of :in piluraiinnAl sT^temthnjafqifaaxtdKislBiu^ 

ihr ("irshli-hmmt of a ^iTstPin if> **cui» aa efficient civtt soricc; 
[h^ nrpani7niion anrt e<iFah]mhmCTit of oouns; the o^maaxioD 
unt^ ^^fibHahmcnt '^f ntuninpal and deputmentai gcrvtamnenisL* 
^nrf nlJ oThfr maftfT* nf a dvtl natun for which the nnlitarj' gov- 
rrnor i-? !in'(\' - nmptitnt to piTyvide by rate* or orde» o£ a- leg^ 
I a 'TV'" I hinrtrr. 
•" Tfi* I nmrnii^nn will al*> have power dunng the sunc pBtrod 

offirpTf, "^ if^ivtiT^t (o ijfTire <urh rifliren under ibe judiciai, edocatiaaal 
rind ' ivfl -rn'T-^c -y^ifpTTH ^nH in the iminidpal and departmental 
^'TTnm'^riN ;i^ ■shalT he paDvided for. Undl the mnipieCB taiaier 
i.f rr.ifrr.t. [h** miHfary ^*emor ^W remain the chief ^ jtr* "i \ v ^ 
hrnJ .,f rhr jnvprnment i^f the i*Un*1s and wiB exerrise [he eiem- 
[IV I'l'^r.nty now (jowrwed b^ him ^uid not herein expiesslv 
ji^^ptiM ''-!>!■* rnmmiwirtn, 'iuhjert hnwcrer to the mles and ordeis 
r-n-i'^r'\ iiy rh^ rnmmiitiion in the ex«rcifie of the JegUlanve pow«s 
f-'M'TT-'"} 1'Min ihfm. fn lUe meantime the muniripal aad de* 
j,<r'T"/-i>t il i?;>T.f*mm^nt*< ■pi'M mntinue to repin lo the military 
-/i.'-.-r-f^r n^f^ fv» Jtiliir*-! 1"^ his iirtminitirative 'inpervision and 
c'-ntnj^ tnflrr yjiir^i^'fii'in. liiM thai liupemsioo and ouiiroi will 






«i far fc <ir » ii is toy «bt, Md«*« of iW UiiiJti Mr l» 
tf Act <« W fowl cMv«<cM «ari wOK^ «» 

■mi W^ *"*tTi. l*Qr Bib W WOCBTft tfan iflBOB Vl IWHOIlMtt 

Id aaf iHk& 

It «a br wnaifr to il iOM oOcn far ifai pMMt wMi 
AmrriraiH vUd ata a litte HUf writ be ilkd hf Mflfv* tW ihif 
faUacU. ,^<QOBaipgMtk^blca'.]friciftof i j wmhtojtlhr nwrll 
ml htntm <rf aa4>d«irB lor civil oAkv vfaouU be |iut b |i^^ 
As lBd^3CiMUv qadUoiioQ te jdi oflktt uhI pivldoM ol iniHl 
And uifaoriijr bi ib* bl»«k man bt atwilHU jwd unratHUlloMU 
iajikf to (be United Suttv, ud sbKilute tnd unkfttnfirrM «iiihur< 
kf and power to fcmttve umI puadifa aay nl&Tr drTUiins frviin 
tboC AiaiUH nmt ct all tiacA bv rvuincd in iha huidi uf ifae 
ceMnI MithofiiT <d tbe iKUiiib. 

In «U tbv forittt ul ^vcnmrvil vxl ailmlnblntftv |>ftfv44lM«« TW 
wbicfa (bef «n auibocued to pciambe the cuMmMpa ttiiiiiU 
bwr hi tolod due the iBovenuMt whkb tber m talildUblii| li 
ifarigncd iK< fqr Q^r Mli*f»ctiOT <r lgc the cKp ww Iua qf wiif lb>0' 
i^caI ntw%, but for ifac happtnoM, pcMv raiI pfnqvritf ol ifai 
pfofile of tho PhfUppJoe InbndK 'Ad < }■« irv^uMmi uki|ii«<) dHiuM 
be mtiie to omrann to Ihcv cusloim, iheir h^lilu, tnd #wn iMr 
pfvjwlkn, to ibe fulksi *imt cgnftbivnt «i<h the Mi-iMipljifa* 
l|Mnl gf Ibc bdfc^iemble iM|BUla bl jiM uul eflvctiw pvntii* 

j34 Anictkin Government and PoJjtLct 

Al ihe ^tar licnr ibr cornnanion ihquld bw in puoij wad the 
people cf ibc bJanU should be made pktnly lo undcr^iuiij tfaat 
ibttc fltt fTTtxln gjKoi principka or gormtteai tvhicb bivr bem 
m<k ibf bftii» of our ^i^vemnKaUl i^rilcn which ve derm eiMm^ 
Ik) to thr rufe of Liw end the fiuunr^riMia: ol indiridi^ftJ frordom, 
ud of whkh ibcT hire, unfortuna^rl/, been denied thf eipcrinwr 
pooBfu^d bf tu; lh4l iWfe are alw certaki prutkal nilc» vt ijar- 
efanwni wbkb we b»vc fixiniJ to be niHTitial (u the pmervatlon 
ol ibei« greai principles uf Vben/ tnd law, and thai these princlplM 
and ihcv rule* ol fiavcmmeni nu^i bee^iabli^hcd and nutnuiincd 
laihdri<linddfiorihetal;cuf ihcir lil'cnjr uid happinrv, however 
muirh thcj' maj codSicI wkk their cutiomt or lam d pnccdat^ 
with whh^h tbrj' nrr laimfiAr, , . . 

U|Kin evFry di Wtion aod bvancb oi the goveniocfit of the PhUp- 
pSiun ihcrrforc muA be tinptted tbv^; bnfloiablt rulm: 

Tlisi mi penun thaU be deprivHl of life, liberty, er propcn^ 
vk-lihoui due procca of law; thai |>rtvate proi:en7 ihiU ttoi be 
taken for public use nitbout jml compeftiatioo; Ibai in aD rdmi- 
naJ prowcuiioni the acruuxl ilull enjoj Ihr rixhl Co a S^e^ljr aiHl 
public trialj In lie informed of the naiuce and cauve of the accu»a- 
lb>n, lo be conrniaied with the witneavi afUnst him, to have com- 
pvUofy prxets forobijininfl uJcncaaeBlnblfttavor.and to hare the 
MdBlaiKeof counaci for hU ilefcn«c; tbilcxcewive hafl «balt noc 
be nifuired, nor eacetflve liBtft frnpovd, tkit crxl and unuECtuJ 
puni^hnkCM inHkied; thai no petwn ihaTl be put twice ift jtop- 
ardf for the Baaae ofknie or be compelled in any inmbal caje (o 
be a witnei* analnM faiauctfi that [tie rij^bi iv be k^utv against 
voTMMKiable aeanbei ind sruurct «haU noi be vlolaicd; ihat 
ncithcf fdavefy nor Involuntary icrvlmde fthal eai&t eioctpt ai a 
puntthivMforcnnie; that ao bill of attaindec or ev ^ojj/nri* law 
ahflU be passed ; ibai no la» shaB be pMiod abridging the freedom 
of spttf.h or of the prtn or the ti^ta t4 the people lo peaceabtjr 
kAieaible and ivlilkMi the iGOvtrnment for a redrca* of jpievancM; 
thai tM Uw filiNlJ tje made rvapccting aa cblablkhment of leHglt 
orprohibititigtbe frveexecritetbensof; and that the titc 




The Govcrnnicm of Territories 


And rnjnyfnrnt nf rclifflnui jirofr^rm uid Whnhlp wilhnui div 

iSr- The Pkilipfittf Axstti^y 

Tht folbwtng prnclaimtion usued by rrcwdcnt Romb^I on 
Mdnh j3. IQ07, doKribM the »tm uken uodc-r iW ^t or igoj> 
bv which 9 t^nrril eWlion itm cjJlod in Ibc blAiidi for thechnJre 
o) iklegtus la « Fbilipplnc nu^mblj; — 

Whercju liy iht ^txth action of the act of CongK» approved 
July 6nu nlncicco hundivd and tvo, rniJtted "An aci tceiporarily 
10 pioviik fof the ^mLnisUiiion of the tfnin of cn-il gcntrtiCDVDl 
in the Philippine ItJand\ and for At her purponei," :i maei provided 
"'Him whrnrvrr IhrriiMm^irthurrcttJ'm jn the Philippine I^Undit 
ahaU hare <:ca»cd, and 1 cunditJon ot girnenil and com|>lrie peace 
ahali hrivi' tirm ^^uhlUhcd ihrrriii, Hml the fn:! ^hjU lie ttTlificd 
to Ibe PTviidcni of ibr Philippine Comativdon, the PttKdeiU, 
opoci bdng v&lhltcd thereof ^all ordrr a orn^tu of ihe PhUlpplik« 
l^laodb lo be taken by ^aiil Philippine CuminSjaAioni " and 

UThrfra^ by the ?rvcnfh v^'on of Mid act ic wn providri): 
"That twt, yttttt afler ihr coi^phrlioa and publication i^( ihc ccn- 
HH, in caw ttich cantiithm uf )[i-Rerjil :iiid tiimplcUr prxcv wJlh 
nvognkioci of the auihgrity of Uie I'tuicd Si;Lie?, ^hJl have coa- 
derueid in die lerritory of Mud ifJands not inhabiicd Iw Mnttx or 
ubcr Don-ChriMlau iiibns, awl ?uch t^u shall have been eertified 
to the Prrsdcnt by the Pbdippnic G>mtTUuion, ihc Prciideat, 
upon \ttin% ^u*(u^ thrreof, tball dittct uid Commi^ajon to fall, 
and Ihr Commiuioo shj}\ tall, a general drtiion (or ihe choice of 
ikkflateri l» a (mpuJac aaKubly of the pv^iple «jf i^d Irrriiury in 
ihe Phifipptne lilandi, whkh KhuQ be knoon as ihe Philippine 
r^A«enUy. Micr uid AsMmLly i^hnJl have rontvned and orx&n* 
liVfli afl the k|frJAr>w power htfretofore conferred on the Philip- 
pine Cocnmiujon in all that pan of uid tRlandi nol inhafaiicd by 
U'iriK ctf othrr non-Cbrulian Iribn thati be ve«4ed Irt thrr tr^^ 

biurc (orijUiiikg of two bou^ci — the PUIippanc ConwiifeJon and 



American Government and IVIitKS 

the PbHipptoc Awcnbly. Svd AwczaUy ihidi c<w<i^l cl ooC 
ilttfl &fiy nur raorv ibu cnf biiAdrrd aoftfubm, in be ipiJoniofie4 
bj mild Commkaioa unon^ tbe pTO<vincct as oeoify u pru-iicftbfe 
According mpopuluion, rnviiW,Tb»i tiA pn>vincf «h«il tijtvr lew 
llym one mcmher: A»d^ pnvidc4 fufftur, Tb&( prorino^t co- 

lalo such coQvmicnl distndA » the naid CoEnniinxiii nuy <lci;m 
beA;" uid 

Wbfnib on Srpc«mb«t S, ioo3> the PhiJippfne CoeunUi 
ccfiided lo mc thfti tfa? tmurrtciion of ibe Plini]>pfnc Uonds had 
rfA.«cd, ai>i1 ihKi n L.-i>fid^(ion of gmrrftl And compkie poftcc fiad 
bc«n rilAhlnhed Ibfnin; md 

Whetvju m purKiJinirf of ihc provitiim« of iW Iiv «lH>ve qootcd. 
And uiHici till- fdiTKoInK duc(*-rtir»»liLi[T, uiid bt-ici^ Vitif6rd vi iho 
lacb th«rxia iui«d, on ibe i^tb day of Scpicmbcf, 1901, 1 i>rdicred 
ft ttoaus or (he Philippine blands la be uk«ti by the Hulippine 
Connniswiii: and 

Whcrc», thf (cnaiu » ordcrfd «u takrn Knd isiunmcenKtil 
of »U comply tioD and pufcdirtlion nuuJc lo iht people of tht PhUI 
pinf ttUndfttin Munh afl, '905; *"d 

WETcnrai the PbiEIpplno ComnuHion bu oov ccilifiod to 
thr fufbmng rcsoludon: 

"VTbrrtJA the reuus of the Phfltppfnc blinds w oomplrvd 
and puWilifd, on tbe 271b day of Mo^h, T905. which utid rnna' 
plrlion and puUicaHon of ^d rmnu wm, on Ihr j94h day oC 
March, 1905, tjufr publiihed and priKbimccI to the pc^le by tfaa 
gDwmor^gcncnU of the PUUppmr Isbindi^ v!th ibc anRoiuactfoeiit 
that ibt Prviidtat of tht United SiAI«a would dirvcl tbcr PhilippitM 
Cotnoiimni 10 call a general dtctlon far ilw choice of dc!ci£al«i 
to a popular iKeODbly, provided thai a cooditiua of gFncroi lod 
cooiplHc peace, with re^v^ipnilinn of the auihahiy of ihc Uni 
Staio*, Ahtiuld h^ crriifvcl by the Phitippinr Comntiasion to have 
coalkiued in the tcrriiory of the PhUippmc Islands for a pcdod of 
two y*:u% after add compktfwi and pvblicatlvn of uJd ovntua 

lite tigvernmcnt of TcfTitorio 


thcR lure httm no aniotti ctisiurtMUices of ihe public ocder &ave 

Itic^tthoMCftUHd byihe noted outlftvtandbaDdlichkfuliM, laHv 

rdbtffda wi<l MontAlon, uad (bcir rdlowen h ibc pnmni^ ol 

Cftiitc jind Barangai, and thov fKU«cd in the prrmnttA o£ Sftcntr 

I>rytr by ihr nftrt'Chri^tlAn und fiiAitii^Al pi4Uj»M» msdenc 

^in Ihe mouiitnin dktritb ;>f ihr hud pr^vincri, ttcd Ihe bunos 

Condguoiu tbcrelo; jind 

"WbcmA the oivnthelmin^ ou^rity of ihe pffo|4e of sid 
proHacei of Cavik, Bito^^at, Stmor, and Lc^te bkvc not tikcn 
in mU iti«iurti«iKca end bjtvc tiai a^drd nor aWucd the Uw- 
^leu acts <d SAkl iMndil^ and puUjaiu^; and 

"Whcrctt the icnAl nuu and body of Philippine ji^^ple haw, 
4urni0 ttid |>trii>4 rjf two yr^rn. voiitinuad lo b« U* abtding, 
peioeTttl and ii>j^jl lu Ihc Iriihrd Suia, and haT« omtifnitd bo 
and da now ncogniu ihe auckfrity aad Mvmi|pit)r of 
the rniiMl Suiet ia ihe lerTiiory uf taid Philippine IiUmb, Now 
therefore he it 
"RfiolvTxl by Ihf Philippine Conunimon in Cormil tevioo 
tucntblcd, iKaI it, mid PhiUppioe Cnmmiwiun. da ccttify 
don brrtby kvv^j tu llir Pn«iUnil of the t'niiod SuIfi tlul 
for a period of Iwu ywv afier the connplnJoo and publication of 
;lfa« OMUiH « coqdilkin of gmcrt) uid complete peace wiib lecog- 
of lh« authority of the United Sutes, hA» continue to enM, 
and nnw ciiitj in the territory nf Mid Philippine Inlands, nd tn* 
haUtrd by Man^«ivnthrrn<)n-<:hriMi«n 1fihe»; and Iw it further 
Rcwti^ by »aJd Philippine Commiuioa, Tbai the President 
of Ibr Uitibrd Sl^lev be re<|Ue>tcd and ik hcrrhy rct^ucMrd to diitci 
awl PhiLippine Cixnmbvun lo cjill a general election for the 
cb«k* of deLeffjlet lo a popular lucmbly of the people of ftid 
lerrilocy in the Philippine UdLod^, which aMcmbly aholi he known 
wet ikt Philippine Ancmbly;'' 

Now, tittrefort, I, T^wkm KooieTelt, Present of the V^^ 
.Scalea, In poniaance of the provl«iom fd the law ahovn tiled, and 


Amcncan Government and t'olitics 

being fiiii£cd of th«; lud centred Xo me by llic PhlllppErM Com- 
iiiii«kHi do hereby dtrtct j^id ?hUiiJpin« Commjt^un to coll a 
geiwnU eloctioQ for the ^bmco of drtc^^azcfi En n (lopuUr a^Aomfaly 
of Ihc pMjilcof the Ef^Tory of the Philippine [hf jinds not inH^bitcd 
bj the UoHM or ulhcr iwD-ChfMtLn tribes wbirh thdl be knrrwo 
u ihe Philippine AivemUy^ 

Tlic While Hciuac, Man:h iff. 1907. 


i£8< FAf Qrxi)n)i4iwn u/ C^fnimm/ *r /^drliv Rico 

Thrf< cxxr^rti from the orKunir Inw of Pono Ricn giv* Iht piin*' 
dpol wcl«oii9 deoHti^ tnth the lorm of govcmmcn; tor ihM ' 
pendoKy: — 

Si3C. 6. Tlut tlii^ tapit:il of PoHo Ric<i iluQ be m thr dl^ ol 
SOiTk Juan and ihc fcu nf i^vcrnmcm shatl U ludiUflincd there. 

Sbc. 7. Thai aU inb^ibiUnLi continuing to rt^de thenin who 
wwc .SpAnUh nuhJGctA on ihc eleventh day of April, et^ifitfi 
hundr^ And ninety' nine, and ihm resided in iNirlo EUco, ^nd 
ihtfr children bom subtequeni Ihtrrto, aHaII be d^emr^d and held 
lA he (itijiMi* nl Pnrto Rifo, And ok lUch enllllcd tii Ihr ^jrrjtriJtiQii 
oE ibc I'mlrd Sutt^. emept >ui.h av ibdl liavr dented to pmcrve 
tbdr al1c)^iui(t! lo tbe Cmwn of SpAio ^in or U^forc iha elereBih 
day of April, nincKcfi hundttd, In accordance ^ih ibc provisofift 
of Ibr ireaif of pe*cc beHfMn the t'niitd St4(C3 and Sfiain cntrj^ 
imo on Ibe ck:Tcnifi d^y d Aprils eijcblecn hundrird utd ninety* 
Hint: JU^^ 'bey, I'jfEelhrr with w<h itluen^ of the L^nitrd SUCcv 
&* may iv«ide in Ponu Ki(;<^ thflU <:onht:(ule ■ body politic ilAtlcr 
tht nunc of Tbr Ptopir of Porto Rkc\ mrith i^owninientAl t>ow<erK 
u bcninaftcT conferred, and «iih power lo iue uid be ffucd w 

Src^ 17, That the ofEej^ titk of :be ehJef «teeu6vt oSeer 
«hatl be -*The (i^vemor M Pocio R[fo '* Mr duJI far oppohunl 
bftbePrevdcnt, by uid with the adiice and consent of the Senite; 
he »hiJI bokl li^ oScv for a tenn of four yemn xnd uolil Us mc- 
ccsKir b cbooeu aad <iailL6H unkv aoontr rtmored by ibe Pmi< 

The Guvcmnicnt of Territories 


deal ; far *ball nsidtt in Pgno Rico ihiring hi» officUl incvmbencr, 
Ud AaJI nuJniBln Ui offiot M tbc scut od tEQiYniBcAi: kc may 
gnoi pBTdona and nrprin'v?, and rciult ^na uiil fuKrJiurn fur 
olfcam Agiifljil Uic bwi. of Porto llia>, uid respites for o?cn^«;i 
a|(ftiiui tfcK lawr^ of thf Unattd Sut«fl, uniil th« drciiLon of the 
rrt«dcnt ran benMrttlAincd; he ikill comroktion dl officer* ihal 
be may t>r lurhufix^-d tOHprHunc, jimi mjiy >«(<>injr 'qC^4lIonrii- 
■aed> «i ben;injitkr provided ; be shall bv tbv comnuLitdrr in cbirF 
of ihc n^litin, and fhdl m all tiriv$ faithfully «necuie ihc l«w», 
^Bod he ahaU in thai behalf have aU ihe powrm c4 ^vemon of the 
Trrhicriffl tA the Unitrd Stotn ihai are not locally iiMfipUcable; 
,ind hr ^halL annuiLllTp jiehI a* aui h oihrr timet oa hr mAjr 1w fr- 
'qoired. mtkite of&dal rppori of ihc ixvasacttoib of Ihc go<vmaviit 
la Pomi Ricci. throuflh the Sccrrloiy of Slile, lo the Prvudcnl oj 
llw Uuihfd Sutes: J'roviM, Thai ihc Fn^ldenl mar in hlfr dl«* 
cTtTfon. drksalc and att^ga to him t^uch exc<;ullve dudct a&d 
functfoni aa may iit puf^uaikce vfih Uw be »o dcle*gitcd oBd 

Set. i». Thai there *h*ll Jir af^inied by the Preiidrnt, by T&» 
and with (he advice and tonient of the Sciale, lor the period o! ^^^^ „ 
four yean. uiJtsrt Knner removed b> the Pn>idcnt, « wuvUry, 
an AltiKiicv-gifneral, a irraMirrr, aA auditor, a ciMDnMoiicr of 
the interioe, and a comniieiocicr of cducaikin. each of tt-bom %haU 
rciidc Ln Porio Rico dur^c^ his ofl&clat incumbency and havr the 
re» and duliu hertinaftcr provided for theni, rc^pectivrlyi 
afidwfao, toftelher aith Un- ufher [vr^miii^fpHxJ tepuliCt lobe aJu 
appointid l>y [he Pre^idviit for a Uke lexm <iJ fmir ^ar>. by and 
fHk ibc adfkc and contcol U the Scnaae, Jiall eomlitute an 
eaccuclvT coiwdl, at least five <jS wboQ »baU be native lnbaUtanta 
of Pccio Rico, and. in adifiiSun bo the fegbladve dudes betriiiafltr 
[fnpMed upon ibcoi a;^ a 1>ody. «h«ll exefdw mieb povrt* ncd pce- 
lorm such duties a»arrbereiaafler provided for Ihrnvre^ipreiivHy, 
^And who ihall have powre lo cttt^tioj all ncceuaiy deputies and 
^attlktani* i*v the profirf dv^barier vi llieirUutinaaKUih oAdala 
and ai locb t aetvdvr cuwidL 


TSft coMniTxnvoNAL Bjuu gr StAtW COVBUEirarT 

159. FMtni XinKioCinvt tm StaU AtdhontUt 

Iv Addilion to nuutractiiiK a tfticnx ol govtromrtii t^owd 
with certain poven^ the fnnxcn et the MrnI CMudtution rlrtw 
ftboui th* aUE» a otirdoQ c4 raMrictloOK in f&vor of rulloiuj in- 
tcrcMi atiii privAic righo, ud At the ckae of lh« Cml War thcM 
limiliLiuiu were tupptmenbnl by vntmdriittitt^ of lliv taiMl 
fun^imcnUl f h^nifMf. WiUiIn the icpherr of power thm nuriLcd 
out in tbe CuQstituinn lU >tatr jiui1icniic« oaujil opcnle uodet 
the aupcrriaJon of chc federal fudidiiy. 

I. Ko SUtc «Ji«U efiter inC<i ■or lieoly, aiUaJic*. off ^onfetkn- Artkl* 
lioa; graai teften <jS mu%^ tad Rpiinl; einn auiis«y; rmil ^ 
blUl fif OBdit; Entice t&r tblaiE boi fM and dhvr coin 1 cccxUr 
in pAjineiit <if tfcbu; pdA »ity Ull of Aituluder, rx poUfc£t9 law, 
or Itw tmp^riAf ike oUigatioft o# contnKti \ off franl aiqr titir ^ 

>. No Stale aholl, wilhnui the cowcel ol Ibe Congrev^ lay anj 
ImpoOft or iJuiIa on imj^uru nr rxpottat ru-efit wliit imir be ab- 
BidutHy ncnwary for ewc-niing In impcctkin lawi: and the not 
prnducc of an dutjat and Impom laid by any Sloie on Impom or 
rapom shall be for the om of tfac iimAiry of the ITnilcd Suie*, 
and al iwfa bw« shall be subject to the rrviwin and control of 
the Coojre**- 

j. No Stale tball, vilbout the coobeM of Coogtvai, lay aftj 


■ kjnapf pav0, or mf^r ^ '^ valat iftinBj mtwM, or fat 

■Kft iw^M du«v M via M ^^ <tf Ai>r. 

t. rdlUAMdc»4k«hUIUpvc&'n«^5ltfetodb«pid>6c 
mU^ rtruHi, uid jvdkul pnx«e£a^ of ^vtrj other SCite. Awl 

•ivli acu, nomli. aad pncccdsap ilul facpfofcd,ud 

1. Tfat cbisat <J< «Kk Suu ■Ul bv rabdsd la aU 
Bod inanBuliei «l ckiiw \m ih« N«enl SUCo. 

A pcrvMi rhiJitvl [>i ^Dj Suse niili ucmdd, Uoor, or other 
citttw, who ihafl itt frott JoAlce ud be fooad la aao<farr Suir, 

■tilf li \\r tlnl, tir Mivnvd u^, lo tir rmotvl k> Ihc SUtr having 
furiinlkiiDa erf Ibr rriinc. 

No ptfBOD bcU to KniLv or blior fai ■»« Suir utSs ihe 
lawi ihttfwtf, MCftpnm ineo laolbcr, ihiJL in covueqnence of wi^ 
bw or r^iiidott thenalii, be dhch^n:'^ ftnm twb t«rvlc« or Ifibor, 
Irilt rfiiQ be iMvcrtcl ttp on diim uf ch« p4n]p li> vbom audi «crr- 
Itt or Uhat maf Ijc due 

4, The Uj^kd Stktea diiQ guaiutM tn cvoj State io Uib' 
Valati A rr^iuhlicaii form of xommnotir, uid AaD pmiA^i neb 
of Ihfm tialnal invBiiioa; aad, oa ipplicaliciD irf th« L«pi|aiur«, 
or of the vicmlive (ivlien the Lc^bUture cionot be coatvmeii). 



1- Nrilbor tUvery nor faivolunur? i«P(iiudc, except m , 
1^^^ Ithfiitf nt far crime whenof ibe potty ihjJl luiv been dulf coBvict«J 
«h^ cxltt wUUn ihc United Suu*, or u? plic^^ lubjoci ou 

V, CojifTTM *hill Lnvc power 10 cnfocce ihl> onlflo by Appco- 
|iri«Tr Ir^tlmlcja. 

The ConsdtuDoiul Baiis of State Government 39J 


I. AH penotis bora or nihirilUcd ia ibe Uniiol Sl^o, oAd 
Mlbjei;! lo the jurinlk-lioii tiiftvof, ^rr dtuf ni of ihr LTrttEH Sutc« 
'iBcl of tbv Stal* wltrnin ihry rraick. Nti ^>uu- tliLlI nuic ur 
cafuirce anj law which thtU abndgr Ui« pdvil«gt» or iianuiiuiiM 
of dtltvu of li» Uund Suits; dot iholl uiy Succ dc|>riv« anf 
IKOonof life Ubvrty, Of property, without dut proc«Mot Uw^ nor 
denj to uiy person within its jurbdklioa the equd pnMfclion of 
ihr Uw^ 

3. RcprwQlAtivA >baU be ftpponiocinl amon^ the Mrkvnil 
SlatM ■occidlif (0 dilir mpcictive ntiitibcTi, louodnfi the whole 
.nuxnbcv of p«nm b cadb Sl«lc. cKclwling ladioiu nut tsjcod. 
Bui when Ihe rifht to voie ai any rkciiun h>r the choice of ekxlon 
for pRVkleDt and Vlfe-PreiiikM of the Ui^ietl Sulci* rtpreictkl&' 
tiTM ifi C^onjcrr^u, llic rtrcutivr ukd judicul oAcco ol a SUie, or 
Ifae nccnbcrt U (hr Lcgislilurp thrntif, b dfninl lo any of llir 
iqjIc inlmbilKfiti of >ixh Stale, bdng iwcsiyniciefeuvaf Oftc, and 
ckUem of th« I'uitftl Suitvi, or in ^ny way abfiJgsd, fJKiri'K far 
puUdpalioa in nhcUion or other crime, the basis of rtprescoia- 
lion thrrdn ihitl be rrdurcl in the pn:hportinn whkh die aumber 
.of tuch mMk nikxcnft »km br«r lo ifae whole AUAber ol male 
ciliien* tw«nty-Anc yvta cd a^e in nch Stale, 

3- Ho jicnon ^sll Ih; a fcojtor nr repre*cnUlire in CiMigrvWr 
or elfclov v( Pm>deD< and Vlce^PrcudcnU or holtl any a&a, 
dWI oe ndliiaix, umlef the Unhcd Sutoa, oc under any State, who. 
bating pmriouil^ taken an oothn as a member oJ ConficM, or aa 
■A ofieer of Lbe Dnsted Scakai, or a» a mcMbrf of any Stale Lcg^ 
Utitre. or aa an rtocuiiw or juJifial officer of any State, to 4uqipart 
lh« CoQAlitutloo of ll»e tlndlcd SlaAca, abal have engaffml in kiutf- 
rertkin iw rebcBon agakot Ihe ttokcv <V ptvn aid and ntnlurf lo 
lh< vnenura Ibcreof. BM Confresi nay, b^ a vote of tWT>'thtni)i 
of each Ho«Ae, ronott Mcli dkabfflty. 

4- TW valliLiy of lbe publk debt of the United 5lat», aw- 
iborfacd by law, iitcluding deUi iocomd fnr |uymcni of penaion* 

J94- AiiicHcaii GuvurntDcnt iind Folitioi 

anj txjuiiiioi fur wtrictK in vuppnwiog iosurrcctioa or reljdiit 
thtl\ nut be qucsiiotvcd- But ncfEhcr the United Siat«s nor juiy 
Siaic ihall OKunst ur p^y Any Mti w obLi^iIoii Uhcurred In aid 
of imuTrctdoQ or itbeHbn ag;iiivU the UniEcd SUte^ or adjt cUini 
for the loss or cfrt^ncii^atiuii of uiy tluve; but All rach debts, ob< 
ligations, and claims iIiliII be held ilkgol aiid void, 

5- The CoDiCPtm ihJI hive po««r to. cu^orcc by a|>prQpriau. 
Jenialatiou the pruviuont ;>f tluo uikle. 

Aftticut XV 

1. Tkf rigbi fit the dtiwni af the Unicod St^rA tA voc« dnD 
Ckol be dcdied or «lirid|^ hy llie Uu'led SlAle^ or any Staite on 
mouni <i( T»tT. fKAat, Qt ftnviotjt, ctindiliiia of Mnfitodv. 

«. Tbe Cun^rvH ifadl Juw power to enforce by Approjuntc 
kgUlotloia Utt pr>^octt of ihU ardck-. ~ 

The polkc |>r>nt:r of the RiAtc U rl^lly called "the diuk 
tinciu" of Am«rii:4ii comiilulional Uw. beuiusc it b the vana 
and uDck^nAb^ luthorfty for tpctla^ I& the luunv of the puSttc 
welfare, vhub iKt itile rrialns ia vfnte of the reMrution* rni|n>wi] 
by ihv fnlcral ConuiLuciun. The Suprecne Court rrhit^ lo 
<al4bUth ibr UmiU od Ihb »ulhonTy in ihr aUrrut. Kuc iv in cva- 
■Usllf dooding vhriber ^pcdfic icu of the ulattt Ate vatnui 
uwltr Ibc polkfl pover, or an ouindc that iphervL The m 
U ib«> dfe g gcd by the Court : — 

The Fourtavnlh AnwtkdimnU is devluifig dial no St^ "tliill 
depriiTEiiiy penoncdKfe, Ebcrty, orpropetiv, wichovldvt pttfccru 
of Uw, hot <]«iiy lo any ptiMn vflNs hs fufbdiciAon i 
pnfleciioa of Ibe Iswa" undoubledly tsleodrd not tmfy l 
thonlil be no aiblcrary dqirtvalioD od life or Kberty, or 
ffiufiabon ol psofkcriy. bi^ thai rquoj pcotcrtioft and 
aliould 1« jptvQ 1o ill undtt llkt citcumttaiicai in tbe 
ofiWir]ier>onaltQd(hilrt^b(; thai ell pnvoir <^ho]W1 
endllnl lo ptoiue tbrir btppincM Ukd Miiiirr ind err v prr^rry; 

The ConatiiutiDnal Buiit of Stutc GovemmctU 

thsE Ihcf 4hok;|ij liMve lil« mcm» U> ilie comrti of iW cowiby fuc 
Uk |>/uicctiuo uf ibcir pvnoos wd pMpeny, ihc pmvkiSoQ Bad 
mlrcff of nTOfi|>&, and thv cnlotvcciefil of coAtrxU; l£i«t no Ini- 
pHbmi^f^ >hoii^ be micrpoocd lu ihc puniuts of Anyone cacepi 
DA applied to the kinc pufvuBi^ by others under like ctfnHn^caacn ; 
Ih&l DO gTTAtrr bunl«iis ibould ht Iftid upon ooe lh4n lUe bid 
upon othm in the i;tmi- rjilluif[ ^nd cDodkioin ; mnd tlitt in tlur 
udminiiilntiijA of i^riniiiial juittkv no diflnrul ^t hiKbcr puuisb- 
meni ^ould be impoMd i^ra one than mcb m ht pnvribod id aQ 
for IEk<T offences. 

Bui anther ih«t AmendnMol, brond and covprehtB^irc u it b, f^T 
nor iny other Araeekdabrnt, w«i desitCTKd to inicrferr with the pcnrcr ^^rn mSk 
oi ihv Suir, MRKtinn btimcd iu p fice pown, iu pmctibe nigu- 
latioQB to pfomotc tbe bctllh, rootaU, education, ottd sood ofder 
of thv prop)e. ojid lo l«|gi>Ute » u tu tntjtaAie iht iniXminc* »f 
the SlAte, devckip iu re«uufttt, Ukd «dd to its wuith uid prw- 
perit^, From the nry oectB^ties of Bodctjr, lefi&UlIon of a 
^>cc{il chMncter. hwng these olfjecci in xrntr, mutt ofien ht bod 
in fenoin djftlriirtv *"f h u fo^ draJnln/ m^nhn »nd in^lin^ 
:ind plaiiu Spedal bunlens ve often Dnresiury fur g«oentl brr«- 
fitt, — for KU^^iniE ualcr, prevMinc finei, %htiD| diilrirU, 
dmiiaf tinrti, upnung pvki. nad taxtty oUitf ob^ti* Rcfu- 
blieitt for these puqioMS may prc» vtib roonc nr ten woghl vpon 
cmt ilkftn Bpoa Another, b«t th<y an: dcrifucd, not m b»po«t «a- 
eqmd or unseccamy lertrietioctf upon vtyoot, but to ptfunote, 
with w little bdividuftl Inconvewmc* » pwnblct the settcnl 
good. Tbo«^, in nnny RVpectA, occ ej a jri ly ^porb] tn Ihrir 
dionctcr, tbcjr da not futnuh juu irround of compline if they 
opente »Uke tipM all pcnon» and property under ibc nine dr- 
cunatanixj mAd condition*. . , . . 

Tbe cxtcfil and liitnts of v^&l b known u the *" police power'* 

ban bee» • fnitJol i.ub)oct of diiruwan in ihr jtpfirlUte courtn 

(tf evctr Sta>v in tbr UmiL It u uoirtnAlly cdocviM to Inclode 

ffTvyihini •MMDtlal 111 the piMic taiay, healA, and moriK uxl 

'n> Justify the dcsmidion or nhatemnH by mmaiuy procoHfiop 


American Government aini Politics 


<if whjitFVtf mjty hr rt/urled m a puMic nuUftnce. Ujxicr ibb 
pOiffV It hM Uvn hdd thil tbr Stale nay urder lUe de*tiuctlctt 
of ■ bwttc faOing li> decay, or oLlivrukM cudonumniE lb« lives ai 
|Mu«rG-by; ih# demottlii^a «f sucU at arv ic lh« paili of a eooifli- 
graiton; (he tlmighlcr oi diK«a»ed i:iuUc: ibe dratruHioii of de- 
cayed or uowholcKMne food; iho probttdikin of wooden binbl-^i 
Id09 in dties ; Ih? rcguEaEioo oi nilwayi ind oib^^ ciiMn* of | uibl^^^f 
comvjraiii^ athI nf mtcrmcnti in hurial jtroTindi; Ihe rratriciioa^^ 
of objoftionklile trttie* to rntiiii localltit^s; Ihr tompulKuy vu- 
ctDAtian irf children^ thvr confiiieEDrnt iiif Uit* inxinc <jr ibosa af. 
flictcd ^tfa cont^ouK dtBduo; the rctiraJni <tf Vft^tBAb, bc^mgan^ 
4lzk1 h&UliUkI drunkardii; the tupprctsEira of »b«Bat p<ibBctkXicuu 
«jid bouses of ill fame: and Ihc prohntitbri oi gambluic bout^ 
4Ad places where iotoxiuilnjf liquors arc soM. Bcjoal this, 
huwrrer, thp State may tnuHnr wherrver (he publir ioicr««la 
donuukd k, aod in rhn pjiticular a larj{c dbrreiiQii b ncceaarilx 
veOed la Ibe t^UUlurr tu lietrrminv, nol i^nl^ wbal tbe UiteittfU 
of ibc pufcJk requirr, but what mcavura me necrstarj for ibe 
pmttcijon of fiiAb icLi«fc«l«. Ti; Jutjfy tbe Stale In ibm iDter- 
posintp tU auihoriiy on befa^ of the piiblic, il must appear, ftnc, 
Ibli the iMcrvsDt cd tlie public ^CQcralEy, a^ dtitlnfui«^td from 
thcor of a partki^lar dadft, reqt^re such tntfrfrrfncc; and vfcowj, 
Ibat Ibc meva oj^ rciuonabty i^revhiTj for ih« accranplKhnwnl 
d the puiyxMVt and not unduly upprvifivo ti]Hm ludividuab;. 
Tbc It^olatare maj poi uiukr tlie g^nse of protecting pubCc in- 
tercttSs ariJtrarily interfcn wifb priratc bwincss. or Impoae im^ 
«sml or ua&ci:(6&iry nfttricdons qxin lawful occupations^ In 
other wunli, hi dcivrminalion as to whtt b a proper Exctcisc of 
itit |iolifT jtoivm n not ^al nr codcIuuvc, bu! U aubjcirl lo the 
MpervithMk of the rourlL - - ^ 

Il k tud cany lo draw Ibe liM bcfwnn east* vrhct« inofmny 
Qlegally laed nay b« dcstroytd Hminnirily |un<Jt* tbr p-^lue ixywerl 
■ad wbae jvdidal proceedings are ncmsurf for ks cowkmna* 
tins. If the propctiy wete of cirai value, aa for Inftanee, if U 
wne a vend tmpluyod for aiaugg^og ut other Utgal |Mtrpoaa. 


The Conttitudoral Bnsn of Sute Gorernmcnr 397 

il would be ptittifiita dAifrfmn pmtvr m the lufidA of > ci»loio 
officer to prrrnjl him to idt tx dotnqr it m • public ni^nai^rH -inil 
the ov-Dcr vg^ild hatt ^CKid reaKm to <oaip!uii of tucb kn ut u 
depri*bg ttiiT) of Ub property wllboui du« pcot m <tf bw^ Bat 
where the pcopcftjr it of trilKng rtJtw, ftod hs dalniclkin li hoc- 
cMuy 10 dTcci ihc objotl oJ ctnnui *utut«^ nt ihbik It U wUhfn 
Ihf powtr c4 ibp k^sUiurv 10 Qnkr iti suannaiy ft]>4eriDeiit- 
for iuMlBKe, if the IqiUlature «houkl proUbat the kiUng of lob- 
by vxplixave )Jwlli, aikI should ofdrr (ht ctftrkl|Eea ■» and to bi 
dcsUuycd, it would seem like thr bclitUing uf tbc jiK&ivy tr> n^ 
t\MlTc «uch dcAninlofk to be pftccdcd bf • •olcina condcmnsdoa 
la a court uf }iuticc. 

161. /ftfoc d r^rrtM^ fj Atdkoriud ta Fom a Ctnufthdwrn 

Although the ftnhiUtaau of a cccrltory vpAy, on tbelf <fwtt au- 
Ihnnty, mil a fflttvtfilkifi. InttM: a cMMnutM, ood jutk Co^fpcM 
bx MHnUoj] into the Vmoa, die mon regulu method ti tu lecvre 
{icrmisilon fmni On|;RM to t4l;e rhc |>rHlmlnify viCfM in Ihc 
cailabKidimcDt of iielf-g«>ivmme[>t. ThU extract from the enofalliiA 
«ci for Uie Krritocj of Uloh illissimcd the pruccM. »kd al»o Bk>*fl 
hmr Cu«ifrc» Rtty [ntpoac rcttrktian* on z>c« stales bcCorr lh»r 

Br it m^ud ky tkt Sen^ ami ff^if 9] tifprttrttimiva vf ike 
U»UtdSmt$t/AmtTitsimCmtrm*istintM Tliat the InhiUt- 
smi of ftll Hiat put «f the am of ikt United Si«i« dov cooeti- 
tndof the TcfHi^fy of Utth, ■» at pfMcmt dcdbcribcd, nwjr bcoome 
the Sutt of triah, a» bfninaflcr pirrvided. 

Ser^ s, llinr alt male ciliacfit over the a^ of twenty-oiif rrafs, TVrli 
who harr rrMdcd Bi 4ald Tcrrilr<7 fcir one fear oeit pri<« Eflaiid) |^^' 
dntiori. are hetrtfr authorucd tu votr (or and chinw dckgalo lo 
fcem a Covventwn in »iid Territory, Such delq^ata >hiU p n ucw 
the quafificAtkni of buih ebdon; and th« af^makl Coeveaiioo 
shall ftMust of 00c hundrtd and «vfo delegates, apponioaed 
tmaa% tha levtnl conntlc* vrithb the litnita of tlie pecifAtod 
State. . . . 

• n 

AmcricAa GovennncBr ana pQudtEs: 

'^'.xr rtw ickoiv to th* r ■[■■iiiaa 

,■' <«aE fit i^tfrmmm m umi frt i jimv faEuEimc 

I . '- ;ai>I Convmnnit ^h^iJ hi?, w f« iiereor: iirnnii in lu 

'^' .: ■ir-,..n ,ji - ivil or ?.nliriril ri^F^ '^■» . v.Monr ai rice- ur *.-u»ir. 

-1.1 ,.- ■'-» JnHian* nnt »^^pt^. vui -*■* v- i^ ,nj>Kuiiuc lo -ae 

' ■.i...r., ^ fT^vr,nKU "-ttVftrif fSp -"f-^^frr-nf :ne LnimK itaiM ■■■^1 

,r,-jl .-rl '' -• -r - '■'".-t .t -'_Et ^.-:.ill IZV-T -"K 'li^-- 

' .-#.-. --. ■ t ■* ■■-,-» 

'' ■ ' ■ ..-,.- 4 --J ^ I- :, r^rian -: aiPit. 

■' ' ■'■ ' ' ..-....:- j<., ■ .» .^ .-•.i^ii\t '- =tr:i ' r -jii 

-I'- -' ■-' ' - -- -'=---'; f ?>.n v:i; iii£ -r l^ipffr*! 

'■ ■ ■■ ' - . - -I - -, . .r,H-ni( r irv^scs - r ■■ :.-.t: 

■'''■' ' " *'-■-..- r.r-ifT ' ,^.-T '^" -imn i^ 

'- ' ■ - v-. - ■-. ^-iirv 

,i..i' '■ ' " '--'■i. •' r ■ Ji "ate i! "vctn- 

"" "*' Jti TL in T :ic 

■ -,--.-.... ni;; '',^ T.,:,- i.„i ^ ^g- 

' ■ ■ ' ' -■■■' .-.\ i<i- 'lie *\>imi- 

l*he Constitutionil Buii of State Gcrvernment 399 

MlMii oC Mud Siabe duJI ti« ntliQcd by iht pccfric* b^ nu< other- 
wise, tht Lfi^butfv dbcfwf may wacsnUt, oqE^iom vmI doci («x3 
5<;iuiar« of ib« United Suua in tbo nkuiur now procrlbcd bf Ac 
kwf of Ihc Uailcd Suicj; ukd the G-uvrroor and Sccmarj i)f 

'SCAl« of itrr |>rc^K>4r(l St4k »Ka]I c«nif]r thr dectiuft nf Ihc Sen^- 
tan and RqurcsrflUtit^ in tb« maanrr requiral by hv. Jtad vbni 

iiucb Sui« i» ailmllEfil Inlo Uw Ubioii» ai pmvhkd m thia jKt, lb« 
Senalvcv and fttprT»ii!Jtire vhaO be tcilitlcJ t^r be idotiiled to 
teab ia Congi^sa, imii lo all ri^u and pn^ilcta of ScnaioK aad 
RtpnmoiadvM d oibcf Staus b ifec CoognM of the I'niied 
Stata; and the Slate gove mn icBI fonsed in puxvu&nce ol lud 
ronilitutinii ai pruvidnl by ihc CAMliiniiona] Convention, Oiali 
pnxr«d to exvfciac ill lli« fanclnos of Slate ofHrfn; and all U«i 
ID force okade bf uid Tctriloiy at the time of its admiiwon into 
lh« VrAon iJiaII b» b lofce in atkl State, tcnpt at modM«<J or 
changed by thb ad or by the QuutUulioa of die Sute: and the 
laiv* of the Unii«d Sui«# Ebalt have dw aanw iortt and effect 
frithin the »akl Stale as etowberc within the United Slatei. . . . 

i6a- Siiffwoxr QmatijK^iwmt £h Iht 5lafr cf Xew York 

Iht coMlilu^n oF Iter tf atr <d >fcv Vorl: proarribtf the follov- 
|;lBfl quali&caiioa* for vocm and byi dovu ok fandani<nEd] ron- 
[dUou under «^h tlw nsht> of tbe auflnge nusi tkc cacrcbed, 

AtTtdc n 

Sectkm 1. Evmy vale dtiaea of the a^e of twcntf-OM y*an, 
who tfaall hi*n bm a citbcA (or witciy clay^ and an ItthaUtant ^^j^ 
of ifani State oae vnt next preceding an dcctiow* and for tbe last 
Jour iBoaIha i rJlkni of ibc munty, and for it»c hM lUny dap 
a nnUcil ef itw rfentoo dUtrifl in whkh he nay offer Ux vote, 
«hall be rnlided to voce at fttch dcittna in the dei<tioa iQ%irft) 
mhkh he thai xl llw imt \ir * rvudcni, and k4 ebrwhcre. for 
'kll ofkVTB chat now »e ov bemfEcr miv t>f rWthv frv <bc f*fmA 
and upon all qvtflton* «iildi 11147 t 


Amcricain Go>rtriiment and Politics 

pvQfrk* piuTJclett that in (tmc ol war do «lr<1or in lf?c acluat 
iiiry >orvicc ol div Stale, or of thr Ignited Stato^ in tbc ami> at 
navy llwruof. (JiJill Iw dnTivcd ifi hta vi^tc I7 rc^uon of hb 9ibttvnre 
rn>iii such E^tection i&irirtT ;uid ilJe Lc^itblurt Aball have power 
to provide th? mAnncr in ti'Mcb aind Uie lime and pboe 4t whicli 
met tbwni «lccton ra&y vu(«, umI Tot tlie mum aad cuitmk of 
thdr void in the drc^n diitinfbt ^n whkh Ihvy itapPciJvrljr 

I 3- No penoo wh& f<h«i] rrctivr, accept, or oSer to rcvItv, 
or p*y, offer or promiJAe to imy, i;i>nirbur«, offer or pcomifle to 
rontrifjute to nnoiber. to be paid ur uicd- any mooejr of other rmlii- 
a^lc Ihiri;^ 01^ aciHT^penutbn cir FewaM for thcfivin^orvntUiotding 
a T&tc at an d«rlj<'*n, or uho sh-ill mjiiir any pmmW (o Intluenre 
the ^ring <a withhoSdin;; any tu^h vi:4f . or irho shill makf or b^ 
con* dlieclJy oif indtmtly iniemicd in ittcy bet nr wj^x** deixrnd- 
ing u|)i>ri llir rmtill f^f any trlnii'xi. ulull vuti' at wih riectioci; 
aim) upon chaOmRe Cor such caute^ ihe |>er»uri so cboUenfEcd, be- 
fore tJic officftH auLhorized fur that f^urpotu; slidl rv^ivc h« votCk 
cbaH twvflr or AHirro tjcfnre }T.u:h qI&:cts ihat he ha.<t not received 
or oflcnid, docs not cjq>rcf tu recdre, h&n noi paid, offered or 
prombedlopay.eunlribukd, af!«Ted nrprombed locaninbuBc to 
laDtbc*, lo Fv ]^jv\ i>r umiI, any m^^nry nr i^ihr; tjlmliU-thiniE h^ « 
tvmpcoulion ot lewanl fuc Ihe givinfi ur withtrtjtdiug a vu(« at aiieli 
fikcisotv ojyl has not made uiy pmrnJEc to Influffncc the fii^i&K or 
whhfcolifiiif of any Mcii vole, oor mode or become dUvcttr or io- 
dirvctly inlerolcd ift any bet or wiger dependiiig upon ihe miilt of 
9Kb ckclkm. The l^qi^biliirr sdiall enact Lvn enrlinfing from 
the right of niffrvge afl pciBon» oHwided of bribery or any 10- 
bmout <rinir- 

f 3. For Ihe pt2rpo«e of loting, no perv^n ^rall be deemed Id 
bavT Killed or toKl ft rc«fdf«(e. by reawa of Uh pmvim or sb- 
taxv, whiW employed b the Btw&n of iW Cniccd Suus; aor 
vtiile enfiagrd in the uvifpLiinn of tbe iraicTK of ihU Stile, or of 
lW ITftlUvl ^Ulr«, or M thr hijch 4ra»i OrV vbilr ft Modenl of any 
Mniuury of luminit: oor ubile kept at OAy ftUntboufe, or olher 

'he Coiunnitionil BasU of Sutc Government 401 

luf lum. or iasliHilioii vlialtjr ur partly supported at puhlk cxpr&se 

f 4, L4«^ ^lU 1>« nude fur iKirliiiiing, by pvopn proob, tbr 1^ 
ttdMRs who lAiftll be vniilkd to Ihr ti^l of KUTnL^c henhy CBUb< |^ 
Ibfaed, 4ikd lor th* rqpcmiioD of rotcn; vUeA rt^trtltoa Atll 
Ew complcKd Li least len days bcfon uch decdon. Such repa- 
mibn ih^n noi be required for town and v^bjec clttdoM nocp< 
by Fipn:i« pmruion oF Uw. In drin ui'l vilbgn h^iing fire 
ihooi^ml inhahiunis or more, ucnrduifl lo the Lut pmnling 
Mitr onuiTwnlun oJ iolMbjUfili, n4*n ifaill be iVKihirifil upun 
prtMDAl opjiIEcfttion onl; ; but voUn Dd rautUnjE in turh iitic^ 
UT vilkG» ifaall not be requirnl to «ppfy n pVTMiii for rc^'vlraiioQ 
&t tho Am mcetlac ^ ^hc ottctn bftnim charge of the rcfiUtry of 

i $. All electiocia fc^ the dibrns, nc«pt for such lown ofBcfri 
u m*j by Uw be dinrcted U> be olhwwisc chaacn, ihalf br by baV 
lol, or by tuch other mdhod » may be pmcribcd by bir, providol 
tlut Hcnqr tn mtinj; be pnfscmed. 

I 6. AU U*s cmtinf, Kgubiiog or Meeting boutU of officcn FU 
chftfftd wiA ifa« d«y of re^uning Totov, or of dl«t(lJucicic ^- 
lou at the polb to Toieia, or of rKdvEug, ivcordiiij or oouaUog 
void a$ e\nrUw.\ thall tttun- tqua] rrpmr.tilx\iati of \ht two 
pofillcal p*tJ'rtri hbich, Ski Ihir ^nrral rjvxfim ncjil prfcfdifig 1h»1 
fo« *hkh fxh boud« or cffker^ are to stm, caM Uv Iiiithet ood 
th« nm Ugh«u nonbcr of mm- All mcfa bounh ud officvfi 
AtSi be ippoiatcd or elected in Mcb atjuiner. md a|>OQ the Domi- 
natloA of sixh rtptTf^binilTc* of ntd [nuik$ rrtpcctlioly, b« tbe 
Lf^biim may direcl. Edatiag laws g«i dils subjc<i rbsll coo- 
linLk- u&til the Lf^AFure »hall othcnruf pmi-idc^ Thh secljoa 
thall aol apptf to Iowq mcrlinp, or to vilUfc eUvfiofU. 


t6j- r^ fjtdttsian ^ Nefr^j Jf^m iJttf Snfrag^ 

Tbii MTtioa frocn Ibc Vitipniji coonliuiiott td tgoj BlmtraCa 
ponbe of the 01U17 vijv vbadi bavt born dcriscd ifi Soutbtrn 
>i3ia Id cxdiide BKiit of the negrov from [he iuffrjjie ^liibout 

402 American Govemmcni and Polidc* 

Al rhe s&mc iimc dicfranch'uini: iny cMtfidembk dumber of white 

Tbm vhuU be general rrgiitreiioEU in tht couotice, citir* 
lAvrttt of Ibc Suk durinj; iJi« >^n of &laelivn bu&drcd »nd 
and ninctfcD hundrrd and ihrw at such tima uid in »uc;h mani 
«jmii> bcprcuribcd hy nj3orriinanccof thisCoDTcncfon. Al 
rrpilJ-Alion» every m«k fhix^n of the L'nitnl Stairs having Lbe 
<]UAlKV.itiiirii of Agr and rp«idmcF fcquitrd in wtion Ei^imi 

Mnl, A t>*fKVi. wbi> prior lo Uie ^uption of thu CoAttfru- 
tion. served in l^mcof miindicanriyornaTyof the Vniicd 5'tAli 
<rf the Confftj^ralt; Stftlttv Of oi any dilute of ibv UnilLxl Siatr? 
cf ihc Conffdenitc Smtci; or, 

Sctond- A *i%n nf any huf h ptrutn ; or. 

Third- A peistm, who uwjii prcpcTiy, upon whxli, for Use 
7«ar rtcJrt precniing thjl in nbith he olTrrn to rciinicr, fUte Usc^ 
■g^^ngdllnff 4l Wait otir year h:ii« U«n [>ajd; or, 

Founli- A ^fCTMEi able tc^ iv;id any s^iUtn of lUs CcmBcltusiaA 
■ubmUicd to hUn b)- the offiftn uf rv^mikm and to ^vt 
Mt ex|iknarioD of ihc iftinc; or, if tinnhlc (o rc«d »uch wiii>i 
able 1i> uiMkrtfAnd and civr A rtMnn^Mt ctphimlion thci 
when r^od hi hiio hf the offtcen. 

A roll ronuinlnn Lhc nune« of all pcfBon* ihw ref^lercd, ii 
to ikI (erti&fd hy lb« d&fn vf rrgbiraikici, slull be fikd, for< 
nxonJ and pmcTvatiom. m die c1cHt*9 office cf ihe nnniU couti 
of the countf. or the cktk't oiRtc od ihc coqioratioe rotirt of th« 
dix* ^ ^^ ^■^ i"^ ^- I^rinna thus mrolbd thai nol br re- 
qdnd lo rqsuttr ipin, mlcM they diill have irv^>«d to be rcsj- 
dvilto «JtfatSbte, or become d^oalSficd by u:<it>vi Tventy-lhrve. 

At Ihciterof th»LouiManaton«lilut»onal<c*i'«T]tioaol 18^, 
BoD^ Th'^mos J, Scminc^ chainnaa of the ji^dklarj commitlee, 
Ittule iV frJlunrini; drfenie of Ike policy o( rvMrkllag pofttkiai 
powrr 10 ihc M^ pcfptdaiku of the nafik 

Mr. Pmiikni oad Gcoiknaik of th« ConvtBiioB! 
Now ive hire ^ilen throq^ u^ib our irack. Ii It alNHM to 

The Constitutional Basis of Soitc Government 40^ 

lofth tbn>ti8houi ibf kngCh aim) brv«dih u4 thi« St*it to l)« m1>- 
•niiud UJ llic criliciMu d^ the |)c<i|>lr. Ttib b Uw work ota. Dono- 
cfaiic Coat«niwA, This n tli« woHt uf the bcnutniK: puftj of 
ibt Sute, npnctMcd f y iu sekatd «c«aii ifipodMEd in do ilui 
■ocl:. If ve hax'T d^^^;': aay iblof wrong, 4Ciy tfalfif which will 
tnvolnc ihc di&olutkio or dbsntcgnlBaQ or tkfnt of lb« Demo- 
cnttic puiy, th«a wv oii|Ehi to lit condctnoed, II lux hrcA «ll4cd 
in tocne cfuarlcn thai ivt hare Imn a<ctiMt«d li> a cccljun rucnl 
1^ rmrtf vpirit. Gnabcd, Ih'Kii of «i ? ^1iaE U Uw Sutc ? Il 
U ihr [>cm<^r3d^ pany, (Appbutr.) WV^il 4R ftir t)r(i{>l^ nf 
ibe Suuc ? Hicy a» ihc Dtmucretj d the Sl«lt> tod ubca ]n> j 
ilmtnatr Iht I><rnBc<ntic puij' or Iho Demomcjr oi ihe StUe 
from thr Siaf^ nthAi b ihtTc \pU but thil vbldi we came htrt lo 
ii^)pfCM? J cjon'L aJtodr K» the fnpD»i» of whai h ulJed dre 
RcfiubUcui pu^^ Wc Old bcre to vctablUb tbc lupnniAcy of 
ibr «hlcc nctt isd dw whitt ran (tnudiuccs ih« DamxcidG 
puty of ih» Stile. There '», iherelore, b mjr jwlgmeiit, no 
KpMAAkm whMrVTT between the ifilereilA of the Suit «nd ibote 
of the Df RMcntie ftttty, aimI fi «e uc to be nbjettcd 10 rriik iint 
bcca«t our oidiBums mjty hu« been colored, rhh die vicv. in 
vome t fl it> n t T i^ of proiBolin|{ die ielect«iA cJ thv Uemocmck 
puty, u tho«e bteraii are ooC teponied from the SUIe, I feet 
no bnitnncy in Myitig that wc have dotw ao injury so ibe Sinie. 

It ift ukl duj we stq^t to tMaUbh our party let powtr^ Wher- 
crer there were politico] ifucMioiu involved, at coune, we looked 
lo Ibe Intrmu al tlie ptrly. hecuur they iire the iokrrtt* of Ihe 
Stale- Wbonerbeudof apoljiirftlpuiy Itdngintheufeodoocy, 
and ib power uid underiJiking 10 do uiy mX lo rtAiovc ih^ M- 
cndMtcy oeto iinpiJr Ihdr power ^ Looi ibmugbt'ui th» natiow 
at Eompe. In in qI tbelr polhickl mtlert; in all tA dim %Uii^ 
nuivhip; ibo« who «fT in povrcr trek 10 nuinuin K and, with 
ibai power to pPMMte ibc inicf«iU o£ ihe Suie which they Eorcnu 
If il b «> a* bo naAata^ ii u «o u in p«rtiei- IkK^ Ibe Rcpuliliean 
party thfOugbMit ibr I'nj^rd Stntei ever Ju any act vtilboiil loofc* 
iof Id Ibe ipteftii* d the party, aa we4 a* la the iaieitalt of Ibe 


American Government ftnd Politics 



uiaoQ? And hk\t ibcy ooc nouiaol is dw 

in iMs SUIc, Buh tbe DenkDcnlk parly Lo iki iaj act bf 
ill ajcmdmi.y iJi*il be ifDituriod f It u nbAolulcIf ahaunl- 

Saw then, i^«l faart »« 6aoc7 b tbe i|U0tioa. <Xw 
wa&, to ibc tiTbi i^c u> crtah&b the aqtremacy o< ifae 
noe m Um Sute lo the cxseM lo which it vmM be l^allr 
cuttdtutiooally doiww and «bit bos ov onfinoBcc <im saff 
iSkc ciocucliuiiott&l mc4Eu b]r wtiich «c hope to rujoiaLu 
cendADcy, dcme ^ W« hiVE rsuhJUked tiuoQ^iciat Ifac SCitc 
iinlrwil »cifft^j[c. A xrcal 07 vtal oul lfa«l Uim UkOuJd 
poQtau; ifairt tbgr *hwJdbftin wliaralinBal t«t;^UilM> 
ficum for a nMcr. be tbouU be » pcopcnT owncf . W« b«irv 
die offdfaaaM «ibUihwl iboM qualS6aakn$ iMA nn neceuuv 
tohcpfEBmeJimoriertoqitidcihgcdibenitoyote. ... 

Bui X hof anI cry hu brrn ruvd br penpir «rbo irv cttdniyi 
qpiurud id the £jk1 itbkb we b«n ^own, afnoM wHoi a laUciI! 
tnikxi 5 of ibc unliavKT dd Miflni^. Nov, whai b lectiu^i 5 j' 
Very few people kaow ui]nliiEig •boot it. Vcfy irw pcopk inidas 
«Bad l» dr«ct& Tbey bflfv taL« iMr id*** Cron oviMe criti-! 
dn tod supfioM ttut we bare coouniltod Mne veiy gmi wtdii|^i 
I rcpui. vbtl in srriion 5 > It b a decUnutoa en Ibt pMl of Ifaia' 
Cbcivrntion, Ibjl ikj wbite nun in this Suie — lh»t^ Ibe ^«ctl 
btf aot ibe bagmfe-* dut do wtoie outt 1» ibu Scue wbo bss.| 
hi W ofe ft vnrcl«ad ib« ri|^ <4 wSn(e ibftll be ^^Kntd of 
It, wbelbcrornot beaaRAdorwriw^orwbetherbtpoBnBcttbe.: 
pffopcny >|QAUir>lioaH T^M b ibe tnaniti^ of it; »Nbi^ Rkonij 
«nl QctUffg IcA. U dedw tful «Ki]r wbkc foda between >M>» 
■nd tbe itf day dl SupUAibct d«zI, dlbn^ hm tnty do< U sbk 
10 tnd And write, dibomcb h« doa not pouoM the pnpeity qodn 
AtAtkio. En«r» KJiwiihaCwMfing, if be fniiue tinwielf pomBitl 
ha tlw onfiiWKc of llw CooflltudMi. b« dwiuficr 

VQ«& . . » 

Kov, why wu Ibis cvtpdn nailed B<c«tii«. 
nhifnfd to ny ii. LoaUaott U inK nl Ibe moat ittlenfte 

The Con^dtuciomil Basti of State Covcmmcni 4OJ 

in the Voron. It U marv ilSlcnir than \ny tHhtr i^iate mrpi 
North Camlma- Wr, Ibcrdcirc, bavr in i)m Suir ji IjUfp; unite 
pvpuUtioR vrbotc ri|thl Co «u4c «ovliJ haw twvQ Mrkk«n duwn 
bul for i>ic o|icratioii of veclkm 5 h And «J] <4 Ifccsc men had aided 
ihc vkhlic people of the SCAtc 10 vrat fmm ibe baodi o( ihc Re- 
publicui partj, JoanpopH ^nuoi culti^vflx of iic|[roca« the ptynrr 
whirh, b«rJiod bf Fedrrftl bayorrt^, Ihcr hiul mrrivd Inr many 
^af«. Nour can wr ^ hi Ihrm, tlirw (iirn who ^lood «iii« tgr 
sifle witfk 10 111 Ihc duk daji nf rQCcvntmcdon and Mf to ibtm 
ibjtl A coovcnijao of LouMtniuif hu dtprivocj ihein <ii ibe rlj^t 
to TDIc? Could we face llboe racv «^ bavt oJvrap been Demo- 
crlu; who haw alwap udol 10 in Achieving the sjcvodMcy of 
the Daaocnxk puty la thSa Slatp wrth »iirh 1 ttcoH tf ihai? 

Tlir qurvivkn of «oai«o*i tuirii|[v wm Mitud AC Itofllfc In 
the Ncv Vofi ronslilalicuul coowflbon of i8^» and in Ihe conne 
of Ibfl dbcuiion, Mr- HLncb1?cri{ nudv ikt folkwing argument 
AlCiinM gnoting die roic to momm. 

Now, Mr^ PreiidesU I b>ve Ibleaed tn the tpeochcs which hare Cm 
been dcUrvred here bjr ihe tufipoden of ibii nkovemcni. umI on j^jv^^ 
the roeriu of the qixsviao niaain unoonviaced^ Tbe bunkn of «■• "ad 
Ibe cue n^iU willi ihoM who WMild dbltirb thr ex^lng order of 
Ibinp, and lo mj mtnd, BOtbing haa bvea ur^ed bf liken whtcb 
should catTf cofttSctioa. Tbcft haa b»ctt cxxuidcfftbit ioOanma- 
lojy dccUsiatioB, a gnai dtal of en»i£oBa] featlmem, tome rtieiod- 
caJ dcnuodadoo, a lililc fmid'aattircd poetical ard trenchant 
buffoooerj, but of pure aod powerful argwnent citciiljicd 10 aatUff 
the sober judgRVBt thai ihc Stale a npc for ft nki^ ff w en nncnt 
and rontml. fhrrr hju bMn nothing- Ko advuratr at (be mcaAirv 
«le*iKin»fralod tlul ai-live partidpLilkMi ua the aflatn of llie 
can be jfaimwd at IbU time Ijt our lemaJe citums vilbDUt 
bfufT lo U^h I' my thai is done — untU ft fa *h(»wn 
may bnxmie a potitkian wldicHii losh^ft^>™^l^tp^i- J 
charm <if her pcnonail^, asd that ibeStj' 



4c6 Arucnc*n Government and Politics 

in Ar] cajKuiiy viithoiit iaqMrWiW it* MaMIty and mnqmUitT. 
It is surety Ihtf coDfterv4tive coune of wadovi io rvCiia ibcr exuif Efij 
fioaduiou under whkh we hwn achwrtd our etcii h^pincM' 
tno pflwpcfny. 

Tb« pRoe&l poesiidn of uroinAn in thts ^oxc is moM CfiTi&bf«. 
She hu cdi«L^at^»ii in iu fullect ind highest dcvri^tpoieni. Sbc 
has. Ibr afasolule jiad unfFttnvd ownmhip of her pcuprrtjr. Erctyi 
iirntic of fr.ilit for vbatb ihe i« fiiln] [ib)^k4lly bt freely opcutMlj 
tt> tiiT iiiiU ill [tie enjoy vmil of bir nxl»t-i ^'ii' is pxtitnicd by equa I 
Iawv, which an jealoutty ind r^ca sjFBtp4ihetiaIly eofoirDd lor 
licr bcncfli. Kcvet hm ihtrt bcca t dmc In ibc hMlory of ihc 
world when htr hupptnee hjs bern u> otfured. her odTmarrinmc 
•n sHimilntfd and eofoungrd^ or ha ij^cptnAroct^ witKin tbe 
limici of her pbyvcal (>Qvibilki«i And tIv nrrr^ity ol a cvntinu- 
uiceof hcrdomc«tkdoiDiinoo,»oainp]?aiiii wpcDCo^Lcd. fa ibe 
domiiiw uf kIciwc, of uu of timatun, vkI of chuilalilo ud rc> 
]i^o«u labcir, her podlioa b ibtt of i ipKiaJly-tDtiied utd a f AVorvd 
«otta. And w^b ii aUL »ho Is «i9l pcrmlncd to ftuin her e»- 
■DMklly swat ukd IcnUdiw quilitlc^ whkfa dnv to her llic 
fcApcci. ibr drf^rcnre jukI ihe bonufe of ma%. eommtMVnt^ 
in lb nalurr, rMmt, tntemily 4nd chivilry with tht roonblii^ 
advuxemeM of our dvifiralioci- She ruV^ it the fireside, in the 
Klxwl'iuoai, hy tht bed of psin ud in ibe ino|ik» of charily; 
aod brr pawftful tofluence pervade* every dcfijirtrBCttl M huntw 
mduvor, indiii^ry bimI r&lijthlcnmcDt. ormiicd nth buer nuncr. 
She u rtk-ogbiurd aa the ptaX lid lender a^clior&ling f^tor in 
fvrry rcUlian of our complex life, 

I wuuU nc4 dr>i$ her do«i» troea Ibii blgh asd Uvonid poiickui 
At Ihc inaticfttian of ibougblkaoi igtUton Co tike her dMDon in 
ibc mrTni>(l ul oar pclilkml IEJ« withotil iht deareat rridvnc» thai 
it « ncvtsoMry fior ike nuinieaoAcc ot her imkpeodeocc ud ihe 
pracrv^tian ol her happbtds. I would one apply the iUaie of 
putiatD aiiife lo the fud of doRwstit ditcortL 1 would ooi «o- 
daactt Uk(? *\viti of fHir bona by an additioiuJ elcnMtil of dt«- 
ruplkin. of itiolentiijw. of liiturmai and aAJnMtlty. under iinum- 

ConstituttcHul Bisis of State Government 


b vTucb if tbm b «aioA, the t^tne rokv «raulc! hiEII b» 
uttered at dtc poUs, but ia vfiicb. if tbcn sbouU be independent 
uid dEffcHflf* thooifht uid ^eiiMk, the booK would bccoae In^ 
eviiobty And fcirevef diridcd againtl itself- <AppUu»0 

Shnuld Ihc ([me rvcr \titat wbtft vonun hcrwtf, by > fiif pre- C*A4idaa 
pontlrrance in niji»ber« demandi Ihr baUc4a and public upinkiD f^rjiTn 
suppcns tbc derriaiid vuth ut iinmttlitriMr voice Mod eni|ihui>, "^fte b« 
ami (hijuld ihe linw also co«f vbra pwijF pclldn shall br m <^**^ 
pvrr lli4l the prfATDCf uf nvmin a1 the polU would ool b? iocon- 
gru[>u», juid poiiy fcdiof »i lut'ducd ihal opi^ndon from ibosc 
we- lore o^uld Im Irtely lo4era1ed by our belief nilurra. iht ex- 
periment of femak mffrage mighl potoiblj be laftly triciJ; but 
until then trt wotnan be content wb her pn^ent culleit ^nd ad- 
vaacing iphfrv; developing lo Ibe liillvt detEree, villiin the llnw 
and limjts of h«r wJiuality, a!D bar capabtlltiet fur ibt good «C 
huiaaiiitj; rmderiog her »^are bo the sum of crric bappiacsa m 
the practioe of docnestii: vinuei; frcrd Ifom tbc btifdcnt of 
Stala wblch iKhc iii titvAiied tn eodurr, either in its drfttiv in war 
or in it! polLcr in prjirt; not dirrctiv shaping iti policy or frvninj^ 
and etifcintn^ iLi K^^mmeot, bui eteniAiiiK an inducuic h^h 
powerful and benign in Lbr eULKilion, Ihv nurture and training vf 
ia youth; depeodi£i| for ber advu>cenem on the Kirenglh nf her 
l&naie womanly power, and lor bcr proi«ciioii on a maahood 
whi^h has ta yet never (aikd btr, 

T^iu arvomenit in Favor oF granti&g vo4ei to women u taken 
Erom the lun^ «nd fbottriM addrwa detivend by Mr. Gtoiig?^ 
WiniaoB CurtM ticiune the New Votk roniiiluiiooLal iimifntion 
□f 1S67- 

! wirii 10 know, dr, tad I a«it in the name d the political Jiutke ^ ^^ 
ud«>futearyofthkSiaDe,wbyltiiEhathaifof thoMlbltpopula- JIITrtd 
tion, as vitally inteierted in goad gpre o wncnt a* the oCher half, who am 
own property, ntinAfee nuiM, And p«y tam, nbo ilivhftixr alt 
ife dnlwaof 0ood citivm »d aiv pnfntly intrIli|pMit acd capa- 
ble, are absolutely depritfd of political power, and ebsed with 
lunalfci aftd ftlooi- IVr boy will bacomo a niafi and a vQi^tr; the 



American Gorcfnm^nr ind Polidca 

pfculk undn ih« if nda f^ind of tnoikra 3ci«nii:r, may be rrwtuUltd 
iDio A full <T(um; the crimmi] wba«r Kind Llill dn|is witii tfar 
blouO of hs* viHflitrir aft') uf EU-ti^ eoMj Km p«nlu«tJ jizkI nttorvd. 
But fto ■(«, oa rndpui, do peculiar litocw. no p^tic service, do 
ttfovi, IK> dnlr* <Vi fVisQvc freoi wocncat ihu raonnoitt and tx- 
tnoidinuy diMbiitr. Vpcat i^at ftuocubte K^utttids doa it 
ttM? Vptm Doat vfulcTcT^ li is toaxmy Bo luuim] jtoikc, to 
Itkr arlocnkil^ awl tntdatkiTuJ pnnfiplfA f>\ (he Arntrkais gnv^ 
fnuneni, and to die mosi onfighlencd polickd pWlo90pb>v , . , 

(>r flijUi 1 be told lluiirainiea,>r ool iMmmcBllfatikftrnt ai the 
jwlb, Oo yel eUTt an t«n«tta»c liiilurxKv upon pcJilka, aihI do noc 
RttUy seed ^bt battel? If llu ujuincol were senavaAy unpyj, I 
sAinidd ftutfor my eye* to fovc tbrau^ ihi« chiinbcff ftod ^ey vouU 
rfiQw the 010^7 hooorahk ^cstkmeD of triKfled pntttknl blluca<^ 
Mat lliry, thrrtfoft, be pstifierljr und jwUf db^nnchiftrd? I mak 
the hfin^ralok *hnitmAa t4 tht cfitanaHrt o^hrthft he thinkn iIjaI « 
cilUm hlxtvld have rvt vt>ic hccautehe hiA tafluence? Wbjt jpvra 
tntfueniv? Abililf, iatelliix'c^'i hoiKttjr, An llKve lu b« ex- 
dodcd {nam tbe polk ^ tt il oafy tH^Mjhy, ignonncc* cukI ruc^l' 
hf vrhkh (vjfht ii> po«M«s polIlic»l powers - . . 

But ] ihoi] I>e tuld. in ih« Itngiuge of the rtpon at ihe mm- 
milite. dint Ihe pmporvtion b opcolr aI tju irilh the diirriSuiiriQ 
of lumrli'ins aoal ilutin briwerA tV wvn. 'IVan^laled jolo 
Engfidi. Mr^ Chumtoo. Ihi* ncuti Uiu II U ua«T>nuitlx Co irotir. 
Wdl. til, I knew ihtt M Ibc Ttfj vbcslktii of th« polttji'il rifftru of 
mnva ibtre arises b mnj nuixb a dreadfid visioo of a mighty 
doditf Af fhc «holr iemak ivorid, b blcAmen oad «|>cct*(lefv imm 
ihvaimei^aadkilrheniothepollt. It tccniA to be thuu^t iHaI if 
viaavfi |inrlic.Uly IroV |>in in polilv*, 1l>e bomc mxdd indtiamrf 
be left m htmtinK uihlcnviM %tt ru^len and a rhB»« of ladamcd 
rtockitigi and biiUooik» ihiit*. Bui bow h il «illi mro? Oo 
thfy draen ihilr woritibopa, iMr pfc)«* and olfin*, to pon ibcir 
thnr It die pofl*? I* il B cndif lo s mu li> be ciMed a pcofcasiottft] 
politlcUn? The ptinM^U of men la ibe wodd. to whicb ilii^ are 



The Comdnitmnil Bwa of State Government 

dircirlAl by &.f naiural iplihic!« of tex arrd b> vlucii they must 
(kt'ok tbrir ijir>i ^rr j* (arrign fmm jirilitit^ funcClona vt lbo«e of 
women. To t*Le kh ecUcme ta>e^ There oothLOg more in^ 
oDOipAintlc wiih poHlicAl duIMB in utokinji md uking catc of 
cbUdmi than ihtftv U ia diggkuE ditcbes or making 4ho«« or in «ay 
other ncctwuy employment, while ic every lupenof inierest of 
soeidy ^wifi|: oitc M The family the ftukc oJ women ii noi \tm 
Ihtn m^n. ind thdr know-rnfgF \% greater. . , , 

When the comfniitrr decbfv thai votinx U al wv with the dt^ 
iribution of faiiciioiik between ihe BeiOi what do they mean 7 An 
not trDcncn m mwb intcmtfd in good sovemoMfii at nten ? Hu 
the roocbce Tc» at ttafce In c^u aJ la«f tbone^ily idmlnlaiortd than the 
father? There ia fmud ia Iht legiaUiure: there a carrvpdan m 
tht i:aUTl3i; 1h#re arr ho^itab anrl idkfnirnt-bousici and pruDTUi; 
there are gamhlini- hoiues and billiud-roomA and bnrtheb; there 
err |crrig-ahop« at t^nty nwncr, and I kni>iir mtf what enormoiu 
pnjpurtign of tnmv in llie Stale pttxevda trotn them; there lie 
foiiy thooMod ttruoLanls In the State and their hundred! of 
ihoiAxru^ of cbildna. All these ihin^i are luhjectt of Icfjtlarino, 
vtd under the e^clufiie IcgislatioB of mn ; the crime uwdftted 
with all thev ihinp beoonice vut &ad ocunpliraicd : hair the wives 
aodmc^thrriAndictlenof ?te« Yetfife^ftinfftlinteTrtftnihem, Inci 
pnctkal knowledge of theni and llietr proper treatmenf , than the 
hwbondi and fathers ? No «ian U » ittsanc as to pretend iL la 
there then any ruiiml iixapacity in «nMnentouckdent4ncJpolitk«? 
ft h not as&erted. Are ihey bcking in the neccsuy intelLigence? 
Ehii the mommc that t«ti erect a lundftrd of incdligcnce 
whkh ts suEjdenl lo exclude women ts a 9ei, that moment mosi of 
thrrr amiahlr felow-dliicikii in trtHnen would he diftfmnchUed, 
U It that they au^} nai to ^ In publii' pftFiikal meefinj^ P Bui 
weeamc«l}y invite ihcm- Or that they ihouM noCRo lo ihrpoEh? 
Some pnfl«« I aTuw, In the larger dike, ue ifirty and danj;en>ue 
places, and those it b the doty of the pofire to reform- But no 
dccest AA)i wirficA id vMe in a K^ov^hop, <>r lo hare hb hrad 
broken while he b tkdng it ; whOr thr nwre art of ilropplag 4 hallni 


Amtrican Government and Politics 

a hnx IS ahnul ihc simplest, shortest, and deanesi that can t* 

Lusl wintei SL'niilur I'Virlmifliuvstn, repeating, I am sure LhoughC- 
'^Ivh ihc tommiiti rhoUiric i^f iJic question, spukt of Ihe high and 
pU mu^sion r>r wnmcn. But if people wilh a high and hulv mis- 
>n mu.y innnLcmly sit larc-ntitked in hoi [hcatres to be studied 

[rough poikci telcsLopcs until midnight by juiyone who chooses, 
i\v liin Ihdr high and h^y miwion be harmed by their quiclly 

Kjftpin^ .1 l"j:i!!nl [n a Ifn\? Bu! if t^'omen vole, fhey must sit on 
riei. Why duI? Nuthin^ i:^ plainer than that thousands of 

[jmeii who arif tricJ every y^Ai as criminals are nut tried by their 
■ors. And if a wikman is bad enuugh to commit a heinous crime, 

|u3l vrc absurdly assume that women are (oo good to know that 

|frf i,ssii,-h a iTimc-' If they may not sil on juries, certainly they 
iphl not to be witnesses. 

nujr be pnipooed in the Seoaieuul Assembly: uidtf ihesamefthaU ^^i 
be ifrecd to t^ ■ lujodty of the nktmhcn c1rct«il !■> c»^ of ihr mnn, 
(it"o bouMft. Aich pmptfnl uncndmml or tmeodmcaU ihtM bt 
ffitet«d on thdr purn*K 4tid tl« yrai jLod bjiyi l^rn thervotfir ^ 
nrfvmd h> ihc Ij^ti*Ut«rr to br ihoi-^u ii rhr utTt xr-nrr-ildi^liou 
oTBcnaton, md^huU be published for tbrrvmonihijinvioua in the 
iffnc of ntkbf: *<>ch cbojcv; moA If in tb« Lc^iteUrm w noa 
diowD, u AfortttU* such propoaH anueodmcDi or uneodmeiiiij 
ahaBbeaipccd tofcj A najoritjof kII Ihrmrfnbm rlcricdtn 
bAnw, ItiRt It 4b4ll be the duly cd the l,ritUI*nirc lu wboiit auch 
propowed uneodMkcnt or unendment* lo the people Cor «p|iffoval in 
%nch nunncr tud it «ui-h dmcs x ib« L«idiluijn sh^ pTMcHbc: 
ukI il ihe peupW ihall ipfir^ve ami nttfjr sudi ■mmdmenl ur 
unokdnieatt by a nijociQ^ of ibe tifcciore wiinf chcitodi, sudii 
unnxlnMi oraBBcndmencsritABbecomca partof thcConfiCkiitfea^ 
tram and jJter the ^m 6aj of Juiiuiry next ifier sath jq^pmval. 

f J. At ibp fcrnrrml einciioa to br hrii in the yeftr noe thoantnij 
Bine buadrr>d and tiitecn, aad cvrvy tvvnlieth ymr iWreafkr, «nd| 

'SeclbrnluilfcaiCkliF V'^«'<*"^ i W Ovht In Tlr 4aKrtw« 
1 411 


Amcricftn Government and Politico 

ahn ax axifh tim» oi the Lcgisljittirc maj hj taw prondc, the qoe^ 
tioe. "Sh-UI ihfrr be Lk cnnirni^on rn nv{pt the CoiUliturlr^n aod 
ftmffid the aarae?'' ihiJI br dMJdrti by Ihc cki^ton of tht SlaCe; 
jtml in tiUBta mAJonty of Ihecloclimdviiij^ihcreiiii Uiilldcddi* in 
fftvor of a coQ^nfitin fnr Kiirh pirrprw, ill? cEmlon of every >eitml« 
■fiftiHclof (be StfttTi M then orguiijcd, ihoJldccl Ittroe dcksftlc^ at 
ibe next eobulnf; (^sEieral dectiun at wliich membera or the As- 
EcmbI; shall be chueo, and Ifae clecton of ibe State \xitM^ at the 
nste doetion dinll deti ijftrcn dclqpilet^i-brfe- The <1clegAt«s 
v^eleclrd-ihAlt eonvmeat ilir<A|neolontfaefin!TueadA/of April 
neJl enurinji After (heir eteclion, knd «hall tcniinue Ihedr «eia£oa 
uDtil lUv WtiriTM of i\xh tcnvcniion (ball IjAvif bcco twn^fleieiJ. 
EveT7 dcIcEate ihjJl rec^civi; for bU lenicQ the viunc coEnpcmatioii 
and thcKamenii1cnKCflAEh^!tlinibcannujilljrptLf:LbIeiT>thcmcm- 
hen of the AArrnbly, A mAjurity uf Ibe connniion ^lall roiv- 
ttitaU- A qufirum for the tnm.tjtrltoa ot huslnrft, and no tnarnfl- 
menl li> lli<^ Coiulitntii^m aImJI be subanilted lor aj^nrval to ihc 
dctlor* uk bneinafler firrividrd, udItm by the auent aS a nrnjirrily 
ol «U Ibe dckiiatrA rfected to the cmsv-enlJoii, the ]rw ind iiayn 
beifif eMcnd on the joumat to be kept. The eoimntioa »ha|] 
hava the power to appoint wch officers empl^^ytft uid auiaoAtA 
as N nuy deem neceasiU7 ami ftx Ihcir <onipeivVLdQii, utd la pro* 
eide^ for the priatinjj of tU rlorumenti, jotifiu] and pMCcedinLfpu 
The convf-nliun ibalF determine the nilMof its own pitxtodlag:!^ 
chcwe its own ofEeen, and bcthc judge of the rkction, ret urni and 
<l«iaUftcaiJoofi i^f \[a memben- 1)) <■««« of a raeancy, hy dcith. 
reni^olJon or other cause, of ooy district delegate elected to Uw coa" 
vrfriion.tuchvnrATiry r,hnll bc^DedhynTcrlcaf thcmnaind&Sdelr- 
galea ttpredcatiE*^ ihi: dJNtHci in wtiuh fturh v^raniy occun- If 
■uch vaemoey occur* m the officeof a dcle£>u> jtl'UiJEC, poch racancy 
«hall be filled by a vote of the nrmalnin^ ikkgaUft-«t-1ar^^ 

Any pmpcaed eooatitutioci ue tonitilutiocoJ lunendaieiil ^hkh 
ahall haiT \itttt adopted by »uch conTtntioa, Aill be subnutlcd 
ii> a vote of the decion of the Stale ai ibe tinve and En the manner 
provided bf audi convealkin, at an elccdoo wbkh shall be held not 


Popular Comrol in Staw Govcmmcnta 413 

len ihaQ 4x 7«ks afttr lf>c ndjouniincDi of tuch oomrvntloot 
I'lMui th« ipjiinii'iJ of ituch cotuEiEuiiodi or conititutiotul Am^id- 
mcati, in the manner prondcd in Uic Imt preceding wdionr >url» 
rrimiiiotior nr conaEiluiiotiAJ aAicndmcnt, ahAll go talo cdSect on 
llir ftrsi daj' of Januarj nc^il Lifter Mich approrul. 

i J, Any dmcndstcnt prup^MiJ J*y * (OAililulioiMi cucivrntiiXi Cflindde^ 
ndbilJniE to live mtnv bubjoct u mi ftllleulJlI1(^al pcupotcd by ibc 
Le^tiurc. cinnddciiUy «ubmi1itd 10 iht pcoptc U^t ipprovjtl m 
iho fcoeral olKllon held la ilio ycv ooc ihuuAand cl^lic hundred 
and Qinelyfour, or at a^y tvhscqixnt ekclkm shall* if approvrd, 
he dciettrd lo supcfsnJc Ihc vnmdmcni Mt proponed bjr Ihc I'^ti^ 

166. TJW imiiia:itt am! Rf/rrrmdum m OMakama 

TluM Mdbu from tht recenl camtiiutioo of Oklahoma give 
Ihc Ixrxid iKillrnn of the sfsl«m of UubAiJvc and rvX«rifadufn «»> 
ubL«hc4J Id thui Milc:^ 

Snrrion 1, Thr. Ifxbilaltv? atiihortij of (he Stale «haD br vn^fd 
in A IrgLiLture, coodiiting of a tmai« ant! 1 hwue of rcprcseola- 
lit'o* but the peo|>fc reserve Ui Uicnuelra the povvr %a ptopoM 
Itwf ftod amvndmvntA 10 tlit conttiiuikin aad io «naici or tvject 
the uiii« oc the potU indqicndeat of ike Ir^laiwc, and also re- 
KtTc pouvr ai their own optinn lo appitivc or reject at ibc poUi 
a&y act of the lc|^kturT. 

Sec. 2. 7%e tot paver rcvrved bf the pccple b the initiative, TNl 
and dichl per eenturn of Xhn le^ vutcn shall ka«v Ibc rl|^3l lo prv^ 
pui« any kgUlali** meuure; and fiheca pci emtmn of ibe kffd 
To<tr» ihall h»ve the rifhi to pnipow aakeodravitf to the Coml- 
iQlion by pcUtioi^ and wtff luch petltioa shall iiKUxfe Om full 
•en ol the iMoaunr m propOMd. The Mcnod poircf b the refers 
endum. and it may be ofdend (rvqic aa Ba lam MocMtty lor ihe 
bnmediaie ponervaiinA of ihe pubtk peace, hcallh, or ukty), 
etilterby pvittionf^ncilliy 6ve|)crcrniwnollhv lr;^lTD«cnctf by 
iht Lc^ilalure ai other biSlf an wtcird- The r;ido and per om* 
ion of kgol Toten hcrcinMon suivd ilnll be bajed upon llw 


Amcncdii Government and I'olitica 

lotil numlNi of vote* tut si tlie lui gcAcrol dcctioa for the SUM 
onicc iTccfWniE 1^ higfaai numbu' of votet ai aui:h fivcilon. 
■ Sec. J. Rdcmiduni ptijiloji* hHoU be filtd wiih tbf SdrefAry 
<■[ $UCc Qnl ru^tre ttu^n ninety dnji aitt^ thr ^n.'kl adjowrniumi of 
Itie ifffiion of the Lognhxvre whi^h punrd (h« bill on ithkb the 
fvfcrtivlufn is demanded. The veto |UBvr of Ihc Governor sJull 
not eitrrnJ to mruuna vot«d on by the j7ri?ple« All rlettkioat un 
mcMitm nivmd lo the pciiplv uf the Stale thall be hod ai the 
noxl clccdon he-Id ihn>u£tkout the Sutc, ciccipi vbcn iho l-fvinla- 
lurr or the GcAvmcrr shaJl urdcr a spttriol clet-'tii>a for »he exprem 
jiurjiotc n( mftking itoch rcfftencr. Any nji'»Mirr triemd to Ihc 
Ifcople (j^ the ifiitiftttTc fth,ill like rllvKl ataS hv io intre vhen il 
ilidlt have been ^iipriTrd by > mRJority ol the tvCcv cast in vucb 
tbcfloQi Any mumurt ivrfrred to th« people b^ tbe rrfeivntlum 
Bfanll lAk« tSect and Ijt in forve whec it ibiU liav« bwn upprovnl 
by A niajoriiy oif the roia eiM thereon juid not othprrrar. 

The ^yleof all biTti^haU be: "Be It Exacted by the 
of the StAte (if OUji>o(iu," 

fVtJTiAQt At\i\ riTdm for the iciTiitire and for the Teffrrndum 
•hati he AInl with the SccreUty of State nAd addt eH cd to tbe Gov- 
flnhir iii [he Suie> wh'> hhulL Kubinll lb« une to th« p«opIe. Tb« 
Le^iitatLjiv bfaatl mjkkc MuUhZe pn^iiioni lor cajT>ing into effect 
jiroTUMiu of ifait inV^. 

Set. 4. The rrfrrenduin may be demAoded bj tbe people 
Bgainil one or more itemi, tectiotit, o; jiattt of Any net of 
LqgiUaiun in ihe m^oo iikuincr in vdiicb luch powvt tnay be eivT'; 
davd aguidrt a oomplete acC. Tbe fding of a rdermduni petition 
afinifi oM or «iar« kttin, fvctlom, or paro of an aict shaQ not 
(kLy the ramainder ol atch act fmn becon^n^ operative. 

Sec 5. The povcn ol ihe IfiiiintJvc &nd rcffrentiuiti rcstfved lo 
rhtf poopfe by thU ConACllu^JoA for ihr Stnie al lar^, an htt^'- 
fiittlKt rcserwd lo the legal vocets of every eouoty and c&tl 
ihettiii, a* to All local lofei^ailoet, or actioii, In Ihr *dniinc>trai*on ol 
ooiiBivaaiJ diurici gu^tmeni in a«d forlbdirttfpvctiwoot 

Popular Control in Stftte Governments 415^ 

Tht ujuuicT of twfnuiig uid powtfs iihnll be prt!»rrilicd hy 
^enenl Uws mtpt ihat BiMnb of Onintjr Ci>nniMi&Jonm tuAf 
pnnidf for the time of emnbing Xhe inilLiiiK and refcmiduiB^ 
powcii ju til tixjit tcffinlAiinn in IhcJr reapalivc coiuitio ^nS di^ 

Tbe rrqiiuite iuimb«T ai perliioDcn for tite ihvocaUod of the in- 
itiative uid rdemdum b countiet lod dbukti ibftll bear nleo, 
ur double, the r&Iio lo the vfiolc mHDbcr of kgKl robna m lucb 
county or dlstriri, ki hrtrrn pravidcd Uicrrfnr In the StAle al Ixffe. 

Sec. 6. Any mckture rpjc<clcd ly Ebe pcopJiia thnxigh thr jirmTT^ 
of the iniliilivr Aod tcfervodum, cumot be agUA pmpoacd by ibe 
Inhhlfvt within thnv y«an ihffaiAfr by kti Avi Lweuty-liTo per 
CCTlUfD of the leg«l M^ten.^ 

Sec. 7. The rtserwdon of the powon of the inili«llTe »nd 
TCfcrendurn m Ihii uljclc kIuJI not (kpnvc the Lc^iiUlive of the 
riji(h< til rr|ir.iJ uny U v, prnpoMc or pan nny rM-.uiurr, vhirh mniy I'je 
i-vfAUimt vKh Ihr CoEOtitUlioD of the Stile and ibc Connlilulion 
of (he Uditcd Stalci. 

Sec. S. LAtt« shall Iw prav1d«d 10 prtrvM comipt1i>n In rnAlc- 
bg, procuring ud wboiiitiiig iniiiiiivc and reficRnduQ pctitiva«. 

Ttaeie enrartt from the bw of Ongpa show bov that slate 
Mckfl tcj c(ili)chlcri Ihr wiien on rneasorca nibmitNd bci thctn under 
lh« tyuem of inituiive nrid rdentiduin. 

Section 5. When uty meuwe skill be filed with the Secretary Prt| 
of Suie WJ hf rcffTTcd lo Ibc people of the Slate, or of taj cotoitj or J^ ^ 
district conpoAM] of one or motv oauatiea, dther by ibe Icgbbtin 
■ftvtnbly or (>y Uw rtferirnduin pefitioo, ^nd when »tiy eaeasure 
ihjJi be |jTOp(i«ed by iniliitifv pniliim, llie SoirrUry Mf State *hall 
forlbwith tnaonit vd the Altomey^GciKiil cf the Slate a copy 
ibtraof, and «4iltin im d^ iberctflor ih* Attorney' General iholl 
pforide and retum to the Secnury of Sutc a b&iloc liilc for add 
neoMW, The ballot title nuy he distinct 6oEn tbe legiilalivfi 


American Goverrment And Policies 

tillr of the measure, und •ahaXl ciprcttk iQ not viceodin; one bun- 
drt<l wonb, ihe puqvuv of thr. mc^ure. Th<; Imlloc lilk ihull lie 

mddng >ucb htsMoi ihlc die A!lonuy-G«fierjl \hil\, tL- eHf best ol 
hi* atnlity, ^m' ■ inic und imji^liuLl f UlfiricnC uf tlic pL^iiajAcuf lli« 
pacudirc, and m Eucb knguttgv thai xhv 1»Ua[ liilc jdi^U aoi bv in- 
icntloiully ui arvumcoit, or finely l» crcaic prjihHdc, d^vr i^r or 
o^nat Qic mcuurv- * - . 

Scclinn H. Not latff than lltr tint Mnndny of th« third Rkotilh 
ntxl lic'<irr RB)- rrj^tjl,\r girnrrit] dvcHnn, nor hl«r iHaTi ihirty <lnyi 
ticlore Jtiiy tpccial clccliun, at which lU^j pm^ioftcd Uh> pari of an 
ACl, or »inciulm«nt to the CoiuiUtMlk>n ti tu be ^ubmiUcd to Ihv 
pt-opZtf. ihi* Scovtur? of Si^r ^hftU c^uw lo be prbicd In pam- 
phlet form A true copy ci ib« ikle ind ic«i ol cvh ncmirv to be 
»ubmiticd, wUh the number and form in uliith [he l-jiHot tilJe 
Ihrreof loll be pdmcd on the olBciid ballot. TIm i^erwR, com- 
mifttc, or duly AUfboriEcd oflicffs of any oixanif^lion filifig iny 
pctilk»a for the ijoiliftdvc, but &o clhcr pri»n w urs3tM£atioo, kbul] 
bar* iJic rifht to filv with Lh« Socrdaxy ol $ia4* fvr pfintinc aiKl 
dUtrHjuliuTi any ;ir;umc9it wtrocadng lucb mr^L-.urp; s*id ar^- 
mrni ih>iQ be rUcii not Intct than tbc ilnl ^rL^^l^;ly of the founh 
nkonih bdopc the rq^ubr clretiiin il vrhkh the mraaurt b Id br 
vcii«cl upon. Any p«^mn. commiiiccj or organualion may file 
with \ht Snirury of Sttttr, Utr prtntjtix snJ di«li>butIpon, any 
UKumenta ihcy may deun?, uppuiing any cne«Burv. aol l^lcr ihaa 
the founh Monday of the fc'urth enooth immedialcly preceding 
luch (taiion, 

Aifusnatts advocaling or nppo«irt|t any mcajiura rHrrrcd to the 
paople by the kgi^alive anemtily, oc by ref«renifum j>eUliicin, at a 
n^utai' gmcral einrlioD, ihUI be goremed by Ibe i4jcne rules as to 
6aK, but may be !iWil u-ith the Soereltfy ol Sl4l* by aa>' i>erboo.. 
conmiif («, ur ursanatativQ ; m tfae coe d Bca»iirca aubniLiud at 
a special ekection, mil ugumcM ta *ilppcvi of lucb measure at 
Ictfi tUty day* before voch rirutioiL But In wvtty caM Ibe penoa 
nr pcoco} offering mrb arfianenti tor printing sad diMributioa 

PopuUr Contml in State Governments 417 

shall paj lo the Se^maxy of Suue sufficient money lo pay all tlie 
ejfic^«ni for |Mpn md jttindnjc 1o HupfJy one <npy vilh cvr^y <^PT 
of Ihfr mouure lu hn pnnroj t^ tltr Srair ; and he ttiall lorthwiCh 
tiottfji Ihc [triviDji offtring ihe uunc of the imcuol of rnottty xtcca^ 

Tbc Scctdaiy «f Slate ihall cAuse one copy of eacb of uid ar- 
puncnts 10 tw bouDit In the punplilift copy of ihc meaAuns to be 
fubmftiH is herein provided, and all rocb nicanirrs and aigummti 
to W mhtaitud al one ctcclioa idiall he boufid to|{ethcT in a mt^\o 
pai&phlct. All the printing alnil \x done hy 1W Sldlr, iuid thf 
paga of ^Md painphkc ^afl be ntanbefed conMCUlhYty frum one 
00 ih« end. . . . TW l£tli pafc* «f «ra7 v>naure bound ia •aid 
pamphlet vhall aliow iIb ballot title aod boHut siunben^ The ti:le 
pofeof each nripimcni shall show ihciactMiiT or mcaaurc* it fa^v^s 
or opposes and F.y whatperwcaororgaAiaailonitUiaauRt, Whm 
aiifh arjuinenCi arc priMed, he «hal1 pay the Stair Pri ntrr l^mfor 
Frotn Ibe monry dr^nnlrd with hiin And rriund the «urplu9^ if any, 
(o the panics ^ho |>ald it to faim^ The co«t of ptiolSng, bindinjc, 
and dittributlnji the roeasurei propoeed, a»J of bindini and dis- 
tributing ilic argument*, dull be pdd by ihc Siat« && a pan of ihe 
Mate printing, li farinf InCfAdcd that ncily the roM ol pojirr nad 
pnnling the ai^mcnb ahaU be paid by Ihr poitieA peeicnCiag Eh« 
aamc, asd Ibf^- kHaII not he charged any higher nUe for sucb «viffc 
lliaa ts paid liy Ihe Stik fnr i^ttnilaf work and papcr^ 

Not btef ih4o the fifty fif it day brfun? Uie repil jt ^merJ elerlioii 
tlvhkhsufh mcvortfr arv to be voted upoo, tbcSoacuiyofStaklfl 
Aal trunmli by moL with poMttfie fully prtpaid. I0 crcry wAttf 
b Ike Kuic whive address he may hiaTe. oae n>py of sticb pamphlet ; 
fnirided. Ihat if the Swrrtary shad, at or about the saiBe lime, b« 
mailisf aoy oiber pamphlefl (0 every roicr, he may, if pnctic-ible, 
iHod thr matte* bcrtia provided lur In tb« finl part ti uid iiamphlct* 
numbering the pag» ot Ae entnv pampbM coDsvrvlii'ely frun 
one to the t«d, or br a»y cbcIom the paaphlett ■ndcr one cover. 
In the caae of a fpedil f leclioa he ahall tnall uvl pamjtblrl tn rrri^ 
«Mrr not Im than twenty dayt Mnre aaid eketiniL 


Amcricjui Government and 

A incuuR which hm \ou% bn:n advocated by mtny udcDl 
fonnn« in MoAuciauaeHB: — 

ScctvxH I. Oa« rc>jut«t T^iKnrd br<iii«tho^iuiid votrm. attking 

Midns ihc futKcinr« tbcn^f. (be wovcaiy of ihc GimEnonweakh 
ck&Uinui:milbuchrtqij(%t loEheStat«bBDotkwi^riiiol?uion. vbo 
akkH detiimunc if such c^uctfion b one aI piifc^ p^lir.j, aiul if lhv]r 
tn d^rminr, Ahdl) draff it m nwYx «imylr, iinriquivociJ. jirxl 4dc< 
qujile form » ihey may -fwm l>€^ iiuird to wcLifc a fair cE|>rcukkii 
of opinion. Thctcujicin ihc tccrcury »IiaU j>rqujv And furnish 
Miloble furau, v^h %iy kk'UuXsi spiccd fov iua murv iJiun one hun- 
dred 5l{EiUbluR5. and If iu^rh fonm shal] I>c signed by ftvc ihouaad 
vnlrriv he AiU u|vin ihr futithnmt of Ihr rctjuirrmcnu of ihbi act 
pljTt Midt qottlion on the nffidnl TiaQoI ba be uvd a1 the nmt 
S>calr ficrlLdtn. t'i>rn» tS^l brftr the date oid which Ib^ m bsticd, 
■nd ;hi jjiplidtioru itudc on fonns i»u«d joon lluii tintlve iito&lh» 
bcJoce ibc dnnion concerned tball be »njv«d. 

S&c. A. Slgoen of n<|iiett fur ibf ii&wiiice of farm and si^iifn 
of applicAlxiiis AaII append li> ;hcir d^atutcc ih^'tr nr^idcocv, 
«ilb arorf And niun1ifr« if i^ny, and thill Ik ccriifiod as tr^lcrtd 
Tntrra h^ the proper regblru* of volimv One od the ligMf* lo luuJi 
ps|jvr ft)i«ll rt^c ixiih of ihc itmmiicnrK oF iJie tiipttlum Uiorvto^ 
end a DMuy public, justk« of ibr |jcK<e, or other ctM^btraU; vdicn 
loUng luch OAib. khtU (jd>(y hiccup ibat the pcma lo whom tbo 
c«lh b AdmbiHcred U the pevHA rigcing sucb paper, iind ahoU m 
Mate in his Attestation of ftinJi OAlb. All pfovwou of Uw rdaltnf 
lo noRunation pdpen shdl apply to Mich nqticala uid appUcadona 
aa Car natnay br ronibtcM. 

SiC. i- Api'lkatiuna tb«ll be 6kd with thv ivaTtary uxiy ilay» 
Mbr* ibe vlixtioa at vhocb Ibe quoiiiocv ve to be >Qboutl«d. 
Nvt mure ihan lour quddoiu vndcr thU aci ahal! be plMvl upon 
th< ballM ai one clocfuwt and they sball be aubnucicd in Ifae ncdDT 

Poputv Conlrol in SntCc Govccnmcota 419 

itt which tht jfkpKrtliciu i/r filed. No f|W3Etion aqiillved, vtA 
no q«Mi<iuai tubniaatUlly ihv umo, tM\ ba 4obauil«d »i:jui] is tew 
tbaa IhcTc ycm- 

THcM p««u4Er« fmrn 4 CAln-htim pfrfiurd h^ wvrnl diido- 
fuuhed oihxicaic* of ihc tniiiaiitv oim rtf«miduna mm op tbe 
badiAJ ari^umrats in favor uf Ihr ^'aiem: — 

Q. What b iMttt hy ihc RcfcnAdum? 

A- The RHcTBtMhim meuiA (h« rdrrrtn; of a law or oRlin^Acc Odi 
or uj «pcd6c qucstkm t» the poopk for dtfison ai ihc pofli. A ^^^ 
t<ot< ort i U« Off ordbinncc nuy hr tikrn, not lof ihr |iUTpn«e of 
dKitJuii, bitl irnrly 10 tmirr aa accurals anal dr&ille eifmww 
of public opUtKUL Thii b a (|Ua,ii'Rcfctrfx|um of publk<ipmioti 
TotBi Kuch fts is in U9(* in ll£nou : alto in tome dliei, ludi b 
Ctutago And Dcirqit. Thr kcfffrtuJun] a]» mcatu ihe riflht otf ihc 
people to dcDUknd ihe suh(niwlt>« of jkti eDiactincol or looAirv tio 
Ih^meofordedaioii; ud it b Um uvd to dcsijikaie ■ stuJulc or 
fcinscituelonaJ amcBdnwAi Mmrini ihi» right. 

(^. ljiih« K«f«tTndimm-A»air4A^ 

A. The Rcfcrmdum boot «D-Arneriun union th» printiple of 
Bu}oritT'nil« or rule by the people » un^AnwrkAa. It U nujoriiy- 
rdt Ihil b unpoTlaJDi, vid vrfiBirrcr mcAiu pnvf ovcoBuy to 
tccurc it KiBEi be Bdopted, So far from being unAmericaii, die 
R<rf«rpndutn ii mmc tnphaltcoQy j\rnrritaii both b prfndpic a&d 
procbce. Krom th« cftrlicAl dap of nair folcmia] gmYnuneat in 
Nnr En^Und Ihr pcopk nn( finly iMod ifir^ily on *pcd&: incaU- 
urc* but pmctially all the iiwt were made bjr direct vole uf the 
cilUcna. lliia ^inctke hai loaiiniAi^] ta uabviAcn uKCcuion v> 
E&r a« load or Kmti pn^nkmeoi b anocmod, hw city and tt^e 
l^cfiubeftt haK lott its origiail charactef. Aa the growth ci Dim- 
hen made ii orccAaiy to nfy man aad mnn on rqiftaefiUdvoi, 
ihc difvcl tMc »( Ihe iJCOple ms Ual, bct4U4r mt oor Ihought of 
any way Is whidi il cotiU be retained- Bui now that mc hM<c n 

•», ,-- 

^ f ^ hfffw It In fMr ij*"*i«r nfHV^aMMirtJ n wn*a uUuuutj r . w 

|.*'.|,^ I'lff ■f^> it if ,1 rnfljmrily vi v^fM. Thbi TCT i Q vc s frmn ihe 
jij^--"! L(-,r' Hpf Prn^jriiflftfi tn *ftfT>ipfJin. TTi* Cwowmcn of South 
1 1 it 1' I, 1 ,'rif iff twi .ift*^ ihr rrtn*titntifinftl Diract-Le^pslation 

'TrpK p.rl. f v^F^rrf inlij rffwi, qflH ■ "Sinrp [hu Referendum, law 

--,-. iif i.iii, r ff,- ( ^v^ ti:tv^ hrirf nn'hnrfrf-mnnffer'nr railway specula- 

' il'1 I if "f Tipmr^ RTiSm»rTp<r r<i r«ir IrjjMbUure- Formerly 

li^i" iv lo ihf 1 ipf>(w1 l»v ■pTiilnfivr iirhfmw of one kind or att- 

ntlM t f.L.f .:]iiF fH jTip Hrfr-rrnHTiiri hn* ^*m murte a pan of the con- 

-fitiiH Ill ^i< |Fnt|.lr« rlri nryf jifyw (hHr vhrm*n, and heoce thoe 

< ■ :l'v ''*r >ij?vlr»c rrrnipr^r Ift ihf RrfntuHUTn.'* 

< » M .('f ii iihi ffinTi rhp|»pn^.|f\ rqtrrvnurivr* any just rights 
'1'^* '■ ' " I'lMiM, ppf in inv »f;iy limiJ ilmr IfKitimweexemaeof 

^1, ■' 

^ I 

r, *. n uiluiit iiku fis*m lUf pf<nf>lr'4 rvprrwniadvei no 

,-, 0, i>rf <M«tv t'. Ttipi> Tho U*KlH|fttnrt .ire the ^^c^qes 
' 't p"ii |M^>i>1v, TM*\ ihrif mmtrr*. Na true rrp roen ta- 

I ..^ ,, t ^ r^^fwvT- h- 1^. mTthiAjc hi* pfirH'tpftJ d«jns 

Popular Cofrtrol in Stsiic Government! 

nacvov Jmlctfan, *^U ilM-pnifile da TVil itAiii, oi nrntc^Hn^L l« 

tli« jjcoiik't vlD becuvc il doc* out 1um>w vh^l lh« |ko(Vi 
win b, Of becatttv thf prawurror pm^to or prmoDil lnB«f«l,cw* 
truy 10 the puUk inlensti, uvirivtiiiies ihe legblAUm' «lbflAW« 
to 1^ proplc'i will In cither cajt the Rdcmuiun b dia 
ramedjr vhI Itie oolf conpfeto ramttlx; ^ <»nlr fflMits «lMnti/ 
roal iprrefMneiu hj Ibe ttoplt imy tie uumIc cooliBuaw uid 

Q. IXicsttd«stiojr"^Lb«nlcffuwisof ilcluleinddiviiwIoBt 
ul dcllbtr^tc ft(ti->D, oramciadvkcni or compmniJic'^ 

A. So. The admiUftfluEllic! |)Nsrnt t<-jp«la£ivt ipleni* — &tl 
piiTtiiru, <'iprncTKr, pnwrrtd vnrt, tic , Ate rrlAlnnd wUh Ifcu 

cfcrrmliMn, Inil ihc rvili of tlic prrttal f jnttriTi, — iu huMf, 4.on»- 
ph-nif, mm^tioa jind viofjiJcpnt of the vriU of the p^^ilc, ofo 
efinuDifttvd. Pndrr thv KcfciriuJom the cily ur aUlc hu let lioijy 
of kga) MpnUp trained wli-iwn, and etjicnoired It^tLlun. ni 
cowsr, ukd thc7 roMiBue Id do moM (i( th>» kw-ciuUng, Imh ihdr 
jHMvcr |i> do vrronff ^ top progrcA, llMir power 10 di> w they 
ptcjue in spile q( tb« people U nmorcd- TW «Ult thit Mhipu diif 
KrfrrtnduBi h^ ibc icr^f ol it* bcUhlon, frittiual Mng M)bJ»:t 
toUieir m^kry, ft tbr iirpra««n4«tiv«« act ^ Ibv peoplr «4tb« iMr 
aclioa in wM duturiied, II ibej kI t^ilvt th« ijru| Jc'i vkht dt« 
pMpIt htvt ft pronpt ftiid tflenhv T119 bf vfakJ> llicjr caa Moii a 
deponunc from ihcir wiB befon aoy duu^ li dofte. Thb li « 
Dorii aoded uf«f«ifd of popuLif Jajdtatkmft. Th« tUhtwtidam 
niic>ittelifkUlor»tDMrtiUpavtkiDflf cnokdUiii or tttviaen 
loihr pcofiksodpbcvilMn Afaon «p|icigo,b«3Mt UwytM 
Ml Mfl oflL II Abo ^ns t%tm aa iiiili|nndiw dvr <>* no< '■^ 

A. Tbi K«ftf<ndiai b {apcndMr ^— Jii faecvM Hmm 

ia iMT midm is ic I jicmi a p nm ut td fkmtawff tJtm- 

<rf *• pctf palAc-Mite ai^MtamlM om tWdi^M AMI 


American Government and Pcili6c« 

thocs of Ifadcff^p i>olilicAl boawfl llmi an fUKcpilhWi 10 the in- 
fliKDccol corrupt ivc«Uh. Thfvc men direct the pnlilkd (u«t.<liiavi 
wtiowmanipubl<ir*iirTliheTAlfy»Hpptir<J ntlS ihr Ul-j^tt-n v^ilihi 
iuniUlicil by prinltgcd iuLcrrats fur fuuirc Uvon arn) Uw pmtec-l 
lioii Ji|[3J[JKt U'xi^^t'<Ji^ itiKl injri;hl \k rtutfod in the inUrc^Uol the 
pMplc. Thj^u^h thi» unhiilj^ it)iuiL« uF curpur>lc wrallh vritb 
politicjJ boiiict nod m'^nfry-cantn^Ilcd r[iju:hifia. incorr^falc \t^- 
ialaton And ciETiciib are driven fnco rtdnmeni tnd iMr placed 
£ll«cf tttlbcruiunn bt^nkkn lornq^oraic Mvilth and niaODpoly 
jntrmu. Aj^^mtt thrv rsiU Ihf Rptrnriidum \% ft poimfu] 
WCftpoa^ It bring) the ^^vtirimetil iMtk (ri Xhr poiplf!, dc- 
■IroTini uanupdoa ntd the mulcnhip of the ma^ay by Iha 

Q, What is the popdar Iinikdvc? 

A. The pcipuW Iniiifttivt Ia ifac rigbt of a cettaln pcrrenia^ of 
1,^ tlicrolef^tUuUly fiTvec>lrtipFrnnt.,1(>prQ|>cio«atavre9idinancie, 

or rOfi»li1lll>on«t amrftdmcnl frir ;irHi^n hy thr 1n{i.fliiliirvT or dt* 
oiKHi at Ihe polls «r b/Ah L'THkr what h ci^n^iJrml Ity na.ny ui 
ihf proper iarftt, the mwore vlucfe b pctitiockod by the roquliiui 
ntnbcr oJ voltn gon U» th* proper tcRiAUiivc I>ody vbidi may 
adopt oc reject ili amend il. paa* a mbetituic, or refnun horn a&y 
action in rrfrrrtncc to it. If ikc k^lotivc body data frU ciucc Ui« 
Afaaate u prtkioacd for, or if it iak<« adveiM action in iiay form, 
the laid measur* tc^lho- vith the amcndm^iiit tubaiiitutc 4jc 
oClitV v.ti»c oJ thr IrfUlattvc liitAf ^[ot* bo tht clvtlijtalr tor liiul 
dcdiiua al thv polU. 

Q. Would the Ittilairve n^ult b the dcnund for a nunbtf of 
unnfcmar^ or foalUh ban? 

A. Eiqxrienoe b S«i1aaland and ia our Wstctn Stales proves 
thar IcsuJadon under the InilUlhe ia oa ibr whoiV- itf«c And con* 
$rn-Jtire- Aoj on« utio will bLkp ihe trouble ye>j nittr year In 
rcid dir xUluIcA poMcd hy our kflULaiurrt trill And It difficult lo 
imifLiic how any tytltta liktty to l>e adofjted Im a fm countl7 
covld pivaibly prodttce moee fooUsli or vidotu latrt ihui th« <jv- 
tvtn of btrtnaUni t? Jlaa) TOie of a few dms, bi^dy under 

Poputjir Control in Scitc Governmcnn 

influenrf af pimlf and ^pcriil InlcrvftU. now in opcrntiofe In thia 
couniry- In thr king nin Uic judgment of >i Urr )fO0f>lcui lUdy to 
be vupcrior Co ihf jxtdj^cnt of aay ftnuU W|?Alilfrv bodjr. ^Vlirn 
men UAk/w ihcsr cnon or itririte incervus they dlvcr^- A tew 
men majr p> logvlbn in Allejd&n^'^ <■> ki"m f'nvr ur prir^ttv ioifffost, 
lm( when Uie people as & whole umle U roiM be bjp d cuureUuiioi) 
nr ihcir trmn aiu) priv&te lAicrciu. In \ktgc cnmnitnliia u i 
ruir ii b oct/ on 1h« litii* of Iruik imd rifht that the people can g«c 
logcther in conlrolUAg nunben.. Mofeorcr, the \aertta of man- 
kind «aU the ftfort uul <imI ntceiMy In iccun- ihe reqiMilte pcr^ 
ceniige of siifiiutuc^ lo ihe pcticiua recxier the IniLi^uive CMOlUly 
con»ervftlhY^ People bill not oak foe the pdooge of a bv anlcM 
IhcT sue convinced fhi\ l\ la luvded. Thb lua been pmvtd 1o bt 
the cKic whcreviT the Initintivr hju been empJoycd, But the pu*- 
unkin at ihi» ri^i. toi:^h^ with ihc Rdrrc^um, hoA pracCic&Ily 

-led to the disEipprmrLCr of oomipt kibhia 4nd other aimtler in* 
fldcnr«« IhftI luLve ting offctnt grc*l tetni^tAtionA (o fhr iiai^le'ft 
npnBonUtlvn aod la tnanf jmUnct* b^v rander^ impowtfle 
the ouclracnl uf oeeded legUUu'oii irbile Corring to i raccasJol 
Ittde law* that wen not desfrcd by the people and were inlstlcal to 
tbdr ibleiTSiL 

Q, Wliai cUvct famr ibr Initiative? 

A, thtm who dttin real poptilar ^ovrtti^ty; Ibme who Tinj 
dedre tbil the kgUblon elected by tfae pe«^ vball be rcpn- 
MAtatfrw. omI vot ■dmpffwttiulivtn: ihn«c vbo dnlir u> ter- 
minate ibe private mooopoljr of hw-KukmE; tboec wbo dedre 
10 bll the cofporadoa lobbj and nboluk boaa nie and mocblne 
govtranuBt; tbea« who dnin to bring bctitr mra Into poUik«^ 
lo tfmplify eleclkckv ^ ^^"^(^ >be power of partncTihip. to stop cbiaa 
IrghlAD'^ ^ elevate tbe prew nad cducAic the prople, In open 
Ibr itoar of pfOffw lo all wv nKftuim of nrform. to r^atdi-bh a 
iTucnible ^ety valve tor dbconicnt and td take the ceit ftrctt 
»iep in tbe f (Bpnmami of repmantadve covtrnmcoi In humony 
vilh the whole treixl of roodeni poilkal hiitcry thnngghouc Ibe 
dffllaed ttiocid and witb t6e fundancnial ifemandt at dnoncracy. 



Amcncan Govcmin^nt iml Potitics 

ijtk Atftrmmti ogaina iMt tmtiotht ami Re/frtrndum 

The CMC ai^^iut tbt initimtive urtd rcfcrcnduni b lliu» iorclbfy 
sioird by Scniior Lod^ iQ a Sj3e«ch dirocuil agoitut the PublK 
OplokiA Bilt j>riii<c<l dboiT: — 

A% K mtlirr nf Ian, no mon Fundnmi-nfil Aad far-nran^hing' 
mnMiir ha* been prrnmted to the legislitlarr <jC MawuihuMrits 
witluR ny r«oIlccd<3iL It w not el mere cbcuajp in kf^ol ;irac-: 
eIo* nor aa altrraiion of long-^siaUiahrd hwi, ikur tvi n a cuosij 
tuciunaJ clungc whkh wu^i prupoaed. The lull Jovot^^ all thew 
aftd much mort. frcr if ctrhcd mtx logically to it* iuU »irnt. It 
itoulil nvan noT}ung h^ (hdn a compt^tr itTolutioa in lli« fabric 
of our Go^rmmcn; .tnd tn tlir fundjintctYial (Krinrifrlth Ufion n hiili 
ihai 0<ivvr»)iirul rMi^ Thi^ dij^ mwid an ifJUi^iiH* tUlementr 
but I think il it »uvce|jtlb]c of ab^iluie dcmonsmikin, bccauM 
ihh b[tTp If It shoi^lfj bi^oiac Jiw, would Ltndj-rmine and uliimatdx 
break doitfi the rcprucntiLiive priodplc in uui pi^ikol and fov- 
emmrnCai ^y^tem. 

T*> make nif meininfc perf«ilf clear it mil he aw&iary lu 
COHMdn Lriclly und liL-hiorkuUy the prirKJijJL-i u^ii wlikb all 
gimTuinrac itsU a^d Uie uutrumenu by which h b carried oa. 
Our dlTldan <rf tbs dcpftrtmcnu ol sovcninMi [qio flxKuUve, 
bgEablit^, uid JodicliiJ. with ntich vr« an evtinly bcoiUr, and 
whM Ibe GiEUiEituikiii ckf the Uailrd .Staten made eoArdinntr and 
indepcndttit, ti n'jl a naodern tla^Mik-alicin, but rrper a enfa ixi 
whiie or in port tbe ncogniAd and «vroliaJ ioundaiknu of lU 
guvcTnnvaU . . ^ 

Wbetrrer jim look into the biitory of the las four bundrtd 
ytaii you wfD Afid tb4l tbe Km and the pown of'lhc rrptrwnta- 
l£«Y body axe cuinddfoi vriEh frrcdooa, and that the tite ol dea* 
patiam U niinddrM viih the b^akdown td fihaictrr rqirr^rnca* 
tivr bodies tbci« may have bnai- The hulovy of ibc toprviviiialUv 
ptindpie In modf ra lima* ib tb* history at (loUtkal ffix^on. and 
thia trprewniali w prisctple fa Ibe srcu cocktriboikin of tlte Engtt»b- 
fpeftking people nnd ct the period ciooc ihc ReoaiuaBfC lo ibe 


Popular Control ia State Governmcnti 

ideocv <d goremiDCRl. WiibiMcl thiu priadpir the tltfioamicy 
of Gjvecc liilod to buUd up a tibiioa co»ICfisli« vlib ibe ifntcul 
of ihe Gntk betikmcciih iumI conqueito irhile ihn ctf Rome unk 
under a fomplcic dcJfKiliinL I'hr EoKpirr nf rhr Gtm NHpatoa 
and nf (hr ihird .NflfjolMa M «vU wnv bulh n-irril un ilie mivi 
of tbc k^ativv bodkfl of Fnnor^ Eiomplvs migbt be inulil* 
p]M, bui noihEns U clMn-r ilttti ihai overy fcuittig adwict ^hdcb 
bas betn madf? (civajd poIidcAl Ircnlum hftt been miik b^ uiid 
throu^ th<r rtpft^niAtire priadplc. Emi itMla^ iHc drufq^ 
in RuB9i& w«lu, AA iiB unty aaaunnoe. the «-i|«bUslimcnl t:rf « 
rcpre«eti(4Xivic body. Indcrd Ihr mot^mcni lor ft lujorr pdlllic^ 
froffdom aiid Tcir (bo ri^ht of llir prople lo like put in ifkcfr onn 
gorentnKiM which hu ^Ikd Europe for the b>i ccniury b |«ne* 
nufn^ now lo omntrin ouc&lde ibe pak ci Western d^i]ii«lon, 
And the eii&icnce ol ihit oaniTroc^r in Penta, \n Tuffcry* and la 
China in nuinUc^cd by iV ciT^jru in all ihc«c councrin towvd 
wcuring Tvpresentntive itiKtituiicnw- 

In n vnrd. It nuy br sidd ihM the «dv«£Ke hawvd pollilcal ibcny ^V 
anil the e^ubliihniriit uf ibe riKh4 at tbe people 10 gmnm ban 
Lcea cwnddeni uid fooc hood m haad with iho procnM of ibe 
fepnsccwhv principle. Ii b ibo 10 be oo(cd th4i the indcpm- 
dcncc of Ibe judiciary^ the other great bulwark of Ubeeiy and of 
thr ri|cht« of the lndir(di»Jp baa foflovrd eyrryvrh^pr ujjon the 
gmwih and Utcccw <if the itfirv^ntalive printiple in ^vemmeoL 
Tbc damicUoQ of ibH ptindpk, tbcnion, would'ineui fraolMi 
and the retum 10 tl« syvieta uf an all powtrful «wcuiive. Then 
could be no gRAter-n^onune so bt< pop>ular sovcntnwot thaa 
to weaken or liapolr the priadple of rt|ic«9entaiion, aad ilie 
qwcrkeit way to farrak th4l prin^^e dawn U lo depHvr tbe repre* 
wntHiTip bodtM oJ *JI tr^iveiMtality 4nd tUft* them into nwrr 
niAirhnm uf reccrd. Vcm cinool take fruno ycut rrpnwtiCjili>^ 
budack all po«^ of adinn aad all mpoa^Ibiliiy tad expect ibtm 
10 wnrjv^. If yoti bind a mift'i ann lo hu ndc oad prevent Its 
utt and mocioB ibr mmrle* waJwtt, the arm wiihfTH and In lime 
b e coQi CB airofthifd ind oaeleA. U yoa ^vce the IcgjiAatnre to dral 

4^ AiffRlnn fiovgfnwe i ir amd Pislttics 

Ifirm io vMr iitvm [hrtp rivwiafn i> onl^ one v^ jHfrteliB Qi^K 
yrtuT rrT^iwnUtfvrt all momuihriitT aiwl ofl. pnwi ^ n ifan ,m|^ 
iV rrpn»*i^i»iiirr j^nHpIr ui ynnr Jtiivrnmiii «ili unfiliT aa<t 
vffVr 4wt5 iinrfl it hfTMim m rh* tvui3r p**'''^* ^^^ ^^mm nt 
llw mrlfrrtrntanr uri^anm jn fh* nAturai hcM^, quite malr nj ^gfi 
offf-n a mf re ^\jm of danfentn diMMr Tim PuUk OpUiM 
Bill rlnr<i ihi^ very tbmg, for it ninw ittnrntT ii thr iliMni lim ^4 
rrpre^Titatfvc rvsponsibflftr, and 1 tUnkr alftoigit it nrrritui 
thr support of TTiAny excellent pciififo who did dok ptnae to axt- 
.s](f«r i( < artfully, ihat it found Jtt oriito Hnw tbog si^dl gmagnj 
\Thf>^ ^vr-iwed purposr i» to iltiUuj gwrtggWBt imtitotKna a>»*^ 
foHTiti of i^vernTfirnt and — ^*^ >k*-r »iA oj^*^.^ ^^ aw^>T,f ,— . 
Tiwtnic- K\Try 1 on^tituency, T repe«, bv d» ngja nam, as thray^^ m 
i^^ pa^^ in'^tnirtfrMu [o its iLpieje.umiwL- if it c^ ^ff*c: qpiw Hm»^ 
nmndaTF. jiT'T ^^ ii ^^^ i^i^ E^^' '^^ petition: but ttut [s3 very^di^aBit thmg 
fmm [h-* linal <ietermi nation by ballot of every possible abmact 
qvie^rion by a popular vote, Ic h worth while to emphaaze rhi^ 
ditTpr^nrp. for if ihmw^ light upon ih< whole queatioa. The 
r->r'^linipnry. in ihe hni pJare, instrurta only its own represmt;^ 
ni-<^c ir Hr«s not unriertake to instmct the representatives of other 
r'*[i^ri[i>pnriei. kii rkniy itsown, [hereby recognujng the repre^nta- 
ti^'e f hnr-irfer r.f ihe member or Senator or Congieaaman whom it 
has rbrnvn The ini^tructions, moreover, are passed by a nai linii 
whTc [hry ran be rJit^xisped, ametided. and modified, and where 
rhp arpim^nt^ of both majority and minority can be beard. The 
CTi^ti^'ifj^fy in pa^^ini; insirtM:iions is not coodned 10 a b/ind, 
r.tffgnrir.W yps" nr "no" upon a question whi*re ndthw an^nd- 
mfnr. di-'ik^cion, nor modification Ia possible. Tlwy act tfaem- 
-rlvr^ r,nly pith The ^me ^fepjarh which have been thrown 
.i'h'htit fh'' [>n"i(rp r»f [aw*i in (be legislatute. They are ooc the 
h'If-ff- Fn^Trjmfnfa i.i a pIrbTsriie. but freemen getting forth 
Tf,' ir r,;-irrjjjri^ in thr m^nnrf which the history of free gDvemment 
^ I '.'I ''r.iU'] Jr-rrii'fifrti*i from a constituency are the Tery 
.ini.rN- i- r,f fh'' ''luie " which it is proposed to extort or 

Popular Control in State Governments 417 

cajole Trom ibo pcopk by audi a scbvnic ui thii Public 

Inkllipnl laws can nol bepiuKd wEthouicomiiltTaikin.df^ICj 
delibention* inil the opportnnJiy for uncndmcni^ To uihwrr 
*'yts" ur ''no" on jin olhir^t qi^rbtion t4 |o lcj(itl4lc by liJlni 
vithout O-UY ^ ^^ EEifeffuuxU wtuVh rvprvvenCuiitv guvEniiiu-^iL 
ihfoini jTound (be nuking of ld«ft- Pkbibdrc* of thjV vn have 
dcicrmiji«l ind iWd the pokier of jiiiiLX-r&iic ctnpcrurs, but ttwy 
havr Dttcr node lh« laws of a frrc pcoplr. Thu PubHc Opinioo 
BiJJ i^ noi rvm a rcfrrvwlnin, for Ihr rrfcrriidiim Milmit* to |)Opu- 
LkT iLppvoiril A peiirctvd mtasiuiCr and in th? ia*e of purrty local 
quc«lioni; il [» often lucd bj our IcRblMsiT- Wtil U called the 
bitiatirt iH nuw torerpd, tor nil n«JUQAblo purp^^^ by tht rf);bl 
of priilioQ, but thh Public OfiiriioTi Bill pou boik i&ilulive 
rcfrrcndkim imo one ftcl «ad pcftvidc^ for the snhmiuion 10 tbe 
|ilrr MH of pcfftctcd ]&« but of any jih«tr«ct qucition which any 
Ifaousaad pcopk fhivw (u Mig^nt sn'l vttirh Any (irr tbouiAiMl 
voicn cao be lound lu upt, and upon which the pcopk haw no 
«|»pdrMnHj to do more than voce cikKoctcally ''yt* " or "tto.'* 
Von can irai ticcdtue, you An nut modify, you can not uMod^ 
|DU can not pcMiponCv Thepiktolitat yourbead; throwi^i 
bands and ankwfr "yva '* or "no " at your peril Tbcre arc f-Tur 
qimiions on the tuDat Only one pntohly kxi bfci. dbcuvcd* 
anil itui intufficicntlyi fot prrfaapa thirty dark. No nulier, roil 
muil amwtT "j"e»*' <v"no" oa aO four, and the Ir^islatune mual 
hi reality, ufaatever thcomkal liberty ti U rappoicd ta retain, obey 
the mandate. There b 10 be no chance Cor rvconshbradon, no 
time for reflection or for second thought . . . 

U U cwtly bccauM J mer the people nnd dedfc thai Uiey "^^ 
■thoaki hivr eirry advantage ibU I oppme nich reroilTitiociary ^^. 
le^datkM u tUi. To oonipcl the peoptr to IrgKlale in a nunnct 
praclfcaly loiponrfMrforanf v»rylar^budyq| kx)iiun ti to ilo an 
injustice to the people ibeoMehva. It «tiuJd be fikc conpcllng 
iht people to ikdde by balloi on what ihey bappenrd 10 read In 
Ihe nevspapert or hear froca tbdr neighbun whether a aaan wu 

AmericAfi Government and I^olitica 

fEuillj <d muridcr nr nol, and Ihen llndtiix fjttilt *>ith them bvcaiuM! 
iJivy rcx'irfl ini vrTuncuiD drciiJuu Tht; pco\Af ^uuld not be 
Id bUmc for ihe wrong dcdtloa* bui ihwc who £omd upon 
ibfm B nttboti of iiylng a crtolnaJ com; which in ic& «ery oAiurv 
vr^ x^iieily Im^uf^hk In practice Under ihts bill the p<s>f)lc arc 
to bf triLixl to Icjp^lalc liy uyfn^ **yics " or " no '* ta Any lurdtion, 
iM> mAtli*r how abarnn or how rompljcBted, vhkh anjoite €Mu 
nuiuge to haiv piftfvd an thr bjJIol. ToflnI«itb»iKhq'JC!Mloiu 
bj A mir;^ric4l tmwtr ii> ubbunl. It is ibv euesl thing id th« 
"porld to ir^ute a quotioa to which % categorical "ya " or "no '* 
UlmpoafSbW^ Tike the fcunllJaronc/'HftWyou ait^ipcd beating 
i/c?" AnivnTh'"jM"or"no"aiidsrcwhfTeitlcaw!i]mij, 

btimci qur«(iaiu can jud on c^^l^ be framrd lo whkb a eaie* 
goricol '■|fp*"iar"no" would tr iiflrHy mi^juliri^. |)erilou*, mnd 
uovepRsefiUtiw- Nu pnfile, nu maikr hunt intrlligciit, could 
lej^kslaEc m nicb a wuy bt ihtit otherwiw Umn dMwIrouily. Tbtrv 
wuuid be Qv opportuolty for modtiiaition or AmeDdncat, for 
ropcftleci vote« on dlfferenc Aa^, or for debate-, Tbcre wovkl 
be but titik chance for ^^ouoion, aad f*i.Lod li-pdaiion without 
the opportt;nlty for debjdc, aoacodment, tnd dcliberftie constdera- 
lion »■ &n imfioWtjJhtj. I^u ihAn one per omi of the nten of 
Ihe CuoimDii wealth wfiuJd havp under thn bfU the poiwvr lo forre 
u|K>n mneiy-oloe {act cent of the voterv uiy kind of qucuioa d>ey 
eliu* lo d«Ti« 4nd t:<>ni(-tl (hem lo lay ''yea" <tf "ao** lo it. 
Thoccands of roEen cither through indiHereoce or stiU toon 
Ihrougb l«ck c4 oppononity lo underktAnd itic rtuctfl^^a would 
fefrain from rotiag, and an imperalTv^ mandate to thf legislature 
tnij(bi bt lorried by a tfoiJI minority of the Toicn, 

Let me aak your altenEioo lu vooic figum i:i ixdcr tu pvryaa a 
virid *du «d vfaat I mean and lo ihow bow inpecfeclly "yea *' and 
*'tto*' votn, laitB ba Ibi* it^y, coa be nUod u^xm u r^fkctJoat uf 
the real vill and true ofdnion of the peopte> These ixtco, afaiLh 
follow, were (ivca upon coMlhvilanal nmtodmtnts^ Ibe meat 
serfom <]ur«tMafr wbkfe can be wbtoiitied, beouac tbcy intt)h% 
cbon^ in our orsonk law owl wvn submittH with all the car* 

PopuUr Control in StsUc Govemmvm« 429 

vtd ddibenuiuQ «fajtb thv tntatr* ai our cocniihidoo could 

rorciAt VoTO urcw Amcua op AuE^ctioart to ntt Ccovtinv 
noK or MutAOtftcm 


>i^ «.<*»! 


IMH. tod ■BBblfBfitf *■ 

lif ••(■•I ■o*cnar ,.,,,.,. 

•tfiHit ■hriWwd ., 

■bfHM«U«Mi — T■>«vrf^ 


|«JI|— ■ IIB-. 


VnRBb JlMnraiHt 






Uh«M im^h 





f iu.i«i 


lioni lubmittMl id thu wjy aft (IhtM by a majority of 4 miwiriiy, 

&nd if thlit If mic c4 comiiniiioiul ajncndiarau, fully ind |il*Inly 
suud, jm can ioigSM «1>xi it urouU be «« ^UHimn qomfuw, 
imkiKyvii, Uindf wiconiMtcbrnded, ukd Incoopcchendble^ Thttt 
6pB» sbow txyood a ptradvrntun itui no cnie pabliV opi&ioa 
can be obUinMl in thu way, bui tbai <m Ibe c*xunrf thk ball u ■ 
vhrtnr b> trrurr Icfphl^lKin vbirli Mutd Ocit obula Ibr amhiI <if 
IW rolrn prvperty eiprmrfl lhrmi;;h i^hcnni and rfspoojcble 
lvptnfft>U<lve». h b a ileTkc to oiubic yuaU uid utivc mi- 
EkorUkv to obuitt Wgi«laib)o which (hoy cotihl not ccmrt by le- 
pdauic dkiIkmU. RcfirrscDUilvGi nprmiit tb« wtwle people. 
TUa bO wouM force iqioo lu a goTcmnicni by a fnciion ot the 


Anicricio Government mn<l Politio 

pc«f>lQ nod uvnitd dttiM tht: wID of tbe real miprity of the peopfi 

V«t tbr Icflltlatun: «rauld lu^ wj diua'cc^ They ftoukt bo 
bound in <[>n»cfencc tod Cii pr^iciln?, If not by the wot^i ol the 
^*^ iUinic. bound ia « nuTivr uti^ furcvd b>' a prraim Civni which 
ittcrv itould be rxi ovapc, xo obey ihc mandate no nruitcr bow 
obUiiMsI. and nu isin i^uU [ell to what (om <ii U^' ibc nun^ 
4ah^ Kiiufd h(? ^rtftHj cmbodicfl The chfuiCQ art ihu thr Iah' 
Onder tlw ]iir*4i»r of |h»' m.ind,air i*nuM hf ihr work oj ^ji* 
mmittt and toniriiy to i\w wUhci crcn of thoae irbo To«cd ' ' ye* ** 
git thr^ ^l>Jtnu.l pn;jx»vition^ Thvrc could br no gnatcr iravr^^ 
on populAT govtmmeni than n ^yalcn wtrich would prnnii a nu- 
jorfrx of a. nalncriiy oi the ^oEcn Cn lortv upon Ibc :Uilc any law 
Ibey chcee^ It wouJtl gh« &n Mormout opponunit/ h> th( po««r 
of nirx)cj liiifully and corruptly uwd ft would imptlr lltv 
riglrl9 of ihc jicoijle and fr^*^ ihtK of Ibr indit^dval (ukod and 
drfcMdew, The Rtull vouTd not be an txyrwion of the popu- 
Ur will, but a mc-c)i«nfca] paro<ly of ibat njll m groM ihic rven 
ii» auibon wuuld giua; upcct it with untfcnwnl ind dltgu^t- - . . 
Kxpcrictice bu shnwa ut xht jufttir« of ihcir oplnifmK. Thb 
' bin inTiIra ui to ctst ubdc all that ibry did. b»ak down mry 

iln naetbod of Uwnaking which \btj ^tabttihol, ind reJKi that 
"*^- |3tinopir whkfa Uiej iq«1 nlucd, th« prrinclplcr of nprcMniJtioa 
I My. rt}tvt the prirK-ipfe uf rrpfttvntatSon, becnuse when yoa 
itnpdr il xnd ljk« Iii>m yuui npmeMativta nit pown and all 
raponiiblQiy. the principle of rcprcaetitation fiJU. No Qsco 
bvcKied wiih the powtr in make h*^ boi relneTed of nil rcepoo* 
itbility for the Uw» the>- nukr. ore to be mated. We may (hanfc 
many ihlf^, nc abolish lawi ukI fiui new onca in ihelr |>U(e, 
but we ran not ulitt die fu&damcnul priunplfs of our gawmmcnt 
attd expect the fahrir to stand- If wc undermine and overtJinw 
thr bulftuk* if ordvnd Bhetty aad indmdual frenloni, the ntidcl 
ilielf «^ nn4 toag surrire- Any meafuic whM breaks il^wn 
five itprvfentadTE irovrtnnrm, ad^vicea ui prnpordonoidy on 
the rodd CO exicMhe gcrTetnmcni, Id iW rvk ai wit man- Thli 

Popular Control in State GovcrnmcnCa 431 

Public Opinion BUI will reduce the representative on one question 
after another to the level of a machine. As the reprcseolative 
principle ainks, the executive power lises^ I believe in maintaining 
both ,and maiming neither. I am opposed to crippling and ex- 
tinguishing representative government. 1 love freedom and hate 
tyranny, and anything which depreases the one and opens the 
road to the other will meet with resistance from me- It is for 
this reason that I oppose this bill. 


■ TTV- 

.^^ .- ^'.'^flfl- 

^imr'-'" ** '* -K*^ voir rii^ 

^ \r^ r'-vi^'*« -tvtf intn thr ai^le ijlWB— ■ D<Mft ftiB 

I , ,, -. J ,*', f f,tw .fwt irif)*wn«n^ i lurrfnor; ir wiit? In 
I. . '.*'- -, -, '-- ii^^fprrn ri-i->}fi*mr^ miit hi^had en the CiinttiiiitkaL. 
[1,11 ' '. ; ik^' 'li^ ',n1y r^»k laf whirh rh« rmnvcan. bs i^bUiMiL 
I I, > I r ii ir'^r '.f rh^ rvivi-nvir'4 ^iirborirr. All itie pnwcra 
,}, ],.,.•. A ■., iiini l<v '►' I" i*"rftM!*>VA i*ilh that ruaii uiuent; he is 
. ,,f\t\, A •-. i 'rr- 1"", fd'l riA '«fhr^ Th« rVirtMUUnon m a bndtor- 

p; ;^i1i I 

,r,r p.T '.'if 

-I. |HF' ir ih< V^^f'Vit fKi* r«»friirtwp r>ftr rhe judidary, [hcnrfort, 
. M, -I f ; '- iriv i'Tthnri*v nf ^K^wfT, fvept such u is'clcariy 

111' i';*\.t if th' f^'tvrrnnf ro irmnvf th* liecrrtary must be 
r Mn-^ritufi-.Tj. <.f if rTft« rK>f nist, it therefore de- 
M- -h', ifjvfrf'rtjp ihr rUim i»f The uecutiTe power 

r. ■^ t '^'''" h if !■ f'.nmli^; to point ovit ihc cUuae 

I r lilt I iiiflfpriHpfPfi Tfim whirh X l4 Henv«d. Haw 

.1.: I ..I .•<• ' Mia -iTty r<|»rf^« iTToil \*vr\ j>mjurHi? No; 

. ., I J.I i.t, I, i) iImi <inv ''f|>rf-*4 irrJint i" m hr found in the 

IIihi ii ;* H-iilri>ili«l rhiil (hr pnwrr in qucstian is 

I I p ■ 4i.^ I In iM-'T ^y Imii-Ui irton Thai frrvn the gnnt of 



\ r. 

ir ^iTk-j'fn rif fhf* In^AlftrtvP d«TvuTmcnt of the i^oretEi- 
) I- f^. fp^ r*U:Hi^M n* :» ifTlflf '*' powea ro the oiber 

The Scatc KxccutivG Dcpinmcnc 433 

oth«r powcH* thtft uEw Ejif nn^Kivint; ikt Srcrctu^ from oAicc is 
ncccAtriiy impfitd, a» thr mtvii ol nmUring (lio<e gnAU ftVdul- 
ahlc; And ihc (oHowinf cU«bcb of tfao Coostltutloa an rdlcd on 
ia support of Uu9 podivHU . . . 

The nnt gniat of fMwrr rttiod ATI U, ihil "Thr enctudrc pdrcr 
cif llirStAtfrshalJ he vcMed id > Uovonwr" ThU cbuic u Ira^lrd g^^ 
by the court bctuw ai coofcnies munvroos kod tmpk popcrt upon tu^vi'*^ 
llw OowntOT- All thjU uf uAually <ictiutnIiuUU t-xectidvo powcn, 
by tbeortlkol writers, an suppwcd lo be included Ut ttxb gr«nl tu 
the Covcmor, cucpt such tf uc cxpreuJy c^ofcrrcd upon othcr-- 
depuimmiA Thb, J ihiftk. I fthiU be aljie Ki *hoir U « ni{»< 
uk«n view of the ftubjoft- "DiU cliiiiV!, like the prrfrding mmy 
U ft dccluftiH^a mT 1 lertierxl rale; utd the ionic rcmuiik* kit ^ 
pikable lo this, b 1 itniul uf pomfTi that hive bern iiuulr 10 rvfcf- 
encc Id tbcnu II confer* no (ped^ powrr. Whal would ha^e 
been tia opentioo, U ibe Cuosiilulkin had oxtlainid n» tptdlW 
c&umcrftiiott of cxccuiire povMt, b q Ttiy dtffcfcni qiKMkm 
from that now pcetoucd, tad tai^bl have ftdmbtcd <ir a JfHt m it 
Mwwer. But it bai boo aetlkd by Ihe Sttpremic Court of Ibc 
UEUtril SlR(r& tlul in muinrtiliijn of the powcn opetntc* a* a 
Uoiilatiua jikI tnuktion ut i geoerol j^n^l. 

The authority of lb« GovcrtMir to rcqcarv infamutkin from ibc 
ofievn in the txec«ih« dcputnani, rebdn to tha bialMss of 
tliar rofpeetive oAcfS, and the obligation of the Scfrc Ui y to keep 
■ rqpMcr of hn oAirial ut^ avr rrhrd upan, in eottncctioft with 
rhe injunctKM Ihal the Gorfrtwr »hal aee lliai Ihe Uv^ ate f^ll^ 
f dij txK uted. at usptjring jb ntuthcxity tn him to dUmiu the Seo^ 
Uty. If the ri^l lo rvquore inJomalkin fn>m ia oiTmr impliecl 
ibe rigfol to reotovc him. tbe Lcsklature woM have the poww aot 
onlf 10 Ttmoye the Govcnur, but a power, coDCumoi with bigi» 
10 reoMve all ihe officco in tbe csnoilivc dvpartokeal; for th« 
LefUuizrc ba*, under ifci gtntnl pcwnv, auiboriiy to rail on aH 
of them liiT oflUal iafocmotioo, 

But it a ar^goed itom tbe Scetetiry't oibU^hm to rcgisler 
oftdil ftctt vi th« Gvvcnwr, am^ vrhen trqund, tu give hfin 




ht^f imydkrj4d 

III— J, it k ahnr* prirw sad v^dMlM, aftd iiM 

40 thtaf clrti» (flte ift tmfu «> mcmcj) c» be ruAwJ Id 
ItJwtnoy <if tnniirtinfM, ^ nuilci* of a rrwiaLiitfil 
Byi MddMEr b inwiiiaiihrinw <4 Itv, m » fvt. U itm i^^ 
H*rlil ciiiiiTgwtiJ imuuwMM Iw f w 1^ Gownur ud ihe 

evil upfjo thtm hf fadbnudoa nhlht lo eviteo cooMcied wiib 
iMr odbcd. H< mij, for cnvplc; cwtvoR td ibt TMAincr^ cf 
iIm AudlUir, v^at unnutil nf vimivti ut ouErividiB^ v»d o4 !lw 
ffn rvlMy, wfiAl j»r the kind jmd pucifarf of oownm«ino* tn wbich 
liv tiM jMii (ho Sui* «cJ; <ir vtlirlbct ib* U«* uv all <13ftUibaiod. 
Hi . TlicM ju* all poUk nMttai, io fd C er en ct to whSdi then cwi 

iJui rtir GoMfoar Oft tct\van MitmMidicaL Be hi» no ri^ *^^| 

tj aimttun*ttt »oy kiml; istd Mill Ittt diilit* of tbrSccmaiy «nr 
|m«flbnl by ta», and » Jl » ooly En nkUtin to them ihal he c&n 
Iv rwitdrvl iu five liifornMtiov, ihcrc cuioM, thtrefon, la th« oa- 
mn nif ihlncM, Im Anjr taiptkaibti of confid^nco from comiaiunkai- 
ibrttft irUiivr Io % f-ulifir Uw or lo moitenof foci rocordcd far put^ 
Hi^ UibrRulkia. 

Tilt roloonUiit lb Urar of itMt Omrtmof^ lUthoiItT to rrmort the 
!(««ni|iii7, UiAiue oi tin laibti't duif lo resUCfv he olficlil mcU, 
rii* havQ »» ApftlkAiion m tb* SccmUfy of Stai^^ an oficcr whom 
i>nh« U iTwiM, nJKl ohoa* dmx oo kcrj* a rqp*:ar uf tfaf acta of 
Ihir Oifwmiif U |irT*tnU<tl hf iJu CoftnitiitKiiL In the pcrfDmi' 
tinr \4 iMtt M I J utUn iluilM. be ikwa Ddl irl U the C tf t cm atS: 

The State Executive Dtpvtment 


oflirfT, Mb^ to his conlrol ami diitction, but aa Uic offker uf 
ibe ConsCiluiioa, Imum) tn the pvrfomwict i>f iiKh tluiio only am 
bAV« Im<b Utag^ hy Lhil iiuiniinMt aid Uie Uw. 

tW imjuncikiiu ttuu the Covcnxr dbtU vee ihoi ibr lam Arc 
faiUifuUr (3Kuicd> It b abo Ufgnt civoa Mm tht ramtul, and 
cMMf^ucnOr the |»wr nf itvioval ol Ihc oflkcrt oJ the rtccutire 
dcpdflMcfiL Thit UKtrfcffVorc- U not Jwlilini hy tlic |trtniiia>. 
Il hiift &oth«r th« unction of tiitlionly oar ihr pncdcc oE other 
State cicKUtiivt, both of wblch jlTv opfHMcd |o il- Tbe pnictke of 
ihtt Pn«ld«ci. SI I viU tbov, U fouftdcd opua oibcf frouadi, dfi4 
be power dwa aot extend to the fffnoval ol aajr ulfiren whon 
olfictai afe anted liy the ConMiluibn. and vtKtte dullea aft Kfil- 
lattd by \aw. The manifefl lAtifBilkin of the Coiulltmion, and lb» 
mmhoritf cited, tn (he abAcote of aU pftvcdml jnd [ituuiple oaiti* 
tAliog igtinit il* ft^vki aeem to be cihkIuutc agaiiiU the earevtive 
cbdm of pawTfT, uodar dua profUon. to ifiroct the Set n-Tdfy hn« hv 
■hall exMrute tbe daika auigMd Um bjr Uw; viLi if bu Ina no 
power to direct hint bov be thall caecute bit dvliea, be muinly 
baa no pomtt lo dlamlai bkm tot not coafanal4g |o fall dinrc- 
tka». . . . 

Hie Coonliluiina of lh« Cmted SuIm and of thit Suie conuiA 
tlif umc dnluntiuaii that the executive pouvrt of the f jorcrncneiit 
aJijU be veOcd in ibe mpcclivG eaemlh^ ; and io iJie CoaudtU' 
lion of cbr Ani, lUa doclaniloQ la cniriad ooi hy Ita other 
iftons. Il create* no alhtf oIKcen in whom a jiottfon of thla 
U vnird or rc<)uin<(l lc> br nsttnJ by Uw- IVur olBcm whom Uie 
Prosklfnl may remone ue rrvoled by Uw, as aid* ami hrtfia lo 
hkn in the prffomuncc of bAt dmic*. tlvil tlie ikclomiirtA fan 
olif ConOiiaaion, tkat tbe e ncuihr imwcr of the ipJtvTTtnieni thaJI 
be Twied in tbe Gotentor, b lo lit oAdcvKtood bi a nmch m'-rr 
SnlMd araae; famaatoch aa* by lu oibcf ptm^oas, li U ureiiiy 
dfeiunacribed and aarrowod dows. t'niikc ih< Conctitvibn nt 
Ihr UiuImI StaDca^ wv« ba* crvAled oiber enriUive oAccn, bn 
vtiMRi 1 imrtioo of lM« ijowrr b rr^ubwl to be watrd fay Uw, 
oot to be aMgn«d by the G^nefnor. . ^ ^ 



Amcnciri CiovcrnmcDt and Polilic» 

Tht C<n'vniur b, odtbt^r in fici iwr la tltoury, pvrK^naJly 
poUtlcsUji' mponi^bic for the oSidnl conduct oi ibc Sccrocfljy, 
<iT any oibtf officer. He camiot u^ei^ turn the pcrfomumcc of 
a Md^ <hiiy or cnnmil him in Ibc pcrfoniUTicc of Ihow nwdgnnl 
burlaw, Ht<t>rtnwfmf»vr(i»lhofKC<:utivcd^:lc,Jwb*j been said, 
buE lA llui ffiAikcd ouE by the Coruiitmioa xdA by Ibc tiw, w|>a- 
nir, dbtintt fmm, antj Inilcpendrnt of, thAl of the GAvrrouir* 
He luukx 1i> ihc bv Jur h» axiltiuniici ariJ tlulka, ind IM lu tb« 
Covcmtir: Ei/id lo U^^i, ind 10 ihjti aIouc. he is rwpoiuibUr (or 
iheir ptrfomiancc. 


In hb uuiuj{ural sdilnrH of 1909, Ciovrrnor Htighi^, of Sew 
York, ctpbmtd how the B^jvcmor, cbowd "*ith ibe filibful 
ex<vut!i>n of ihc hvf^, «a« hond^cAuprd iiy ihc divi^ifflt uf rc^ 
KEriinidbLUty in the admlnioration Luuf by the dcceninUjMlioQ of 


WiiW Ok Gm-eroor reprcsettU ihe bighot enecttlive power in 
iht S4Atc tlxTc U (rT<riJV(Ul3r obearrtd n |xipu1ar mIup|.>rc^cnAioii 
i0 10 il» tuojie. Then is a wide (lomain of ckcvIi^x ut wUninU- 
miivc adktn orcr which he ha^i no «»iml, <tr nllghl coQiroL 
Ihm uc fcvcral elttted Slate oAccn. ciol atro Lint able- to lli« 
Govcnir. who fKeroM within thrir prMaih*d *phcr« mo«t 
imporiuit rkn:ulitr \xrmvn- To Ihr <'i^m|>(r"11cr And Stale 
Trcuurtf an cunGidoi admuiittrativr puwen witli mpnl to 
fiMAciil noum. Tht AitonKyCcncnd U chat^od vitb dutfM 
ifkprofiritfc In the Mifcccemeiit of pubUc tightA ibrou^ legal 
fiMfhiiirfy- Tfac SlAlc En^ocr and ^ur\«3nir has imporluu 
powm vvlb rriprrt to the canal {mpicn«mml and Ibe onty Tncmber 
of 1b« Canal Board accotinuble to Ihr Govmiar ia the Supcnn- 
IcAdcQt of PuMu Wi>rii bhri hat a limjitd authoiil)'^ The Coat' 
Bi iaafa oq* of the Land Office are Imlepcndent cJ thr Guvcntor 

Tbc nuli^Bcaiicin ctf exccuti're duiin Inddcnl ii> the r»M aJid 
BGctwaiy lacrraH (n Stai£ aKtivities hu nculscd tn Ac cnoxion of 
A large mimbcr ot dq»rtiiieiit» crerrida^ aJmanhtialiie pov«n 

The Sure Exocucivc Department 4J7 

of fint cniuc^utncc In ihc p«apifr. The Cpnwmfir hja Uie pmrcr 
of {tppr^uiiTiiciu, but iti mtM con the coDcun>rDcv at the Scaale 
b nrccsury. Ttie lermi of tboc oSccn atfc gfomiiy \otign 
tlun dw Govvraor*! t*nn. And io ihcir cft4lioa the Lfgbkture 
with few exreplioau baa rescnvd fioil admiautndvt enairol lo 
the Snt«k in making iht hmb of dqtuiiMDO, to whoee ^p^nc- 
nffil thf SciuteS rorucnl U aeft^&irjF, rmuvrablc onU by \t. 

i )ur tyiUari U thcraforc wiilHy (UtTtrval from th^l uf ( ho Fixicnl 
Kutrrfiinent Tlie Prraidrul, llirvu^h hii C^iwl, hu dinct 
coatTQl of the gnu executive dpcputments; and jdpnlnkiriilTe 
officers though a|>poAiiicd iKih the eoDcuirmce of the Senile ore 
pcsponsible to the rrvaident And are remonLlr by hioa. Vet il 
f ftn hnnlly he uid Ihjit thcrr U more rr:ijun fn feur rmiriliKfttioii 
in Ihe Stile than 10 the Nation. The pra^lke of w^tlidnMrinK 
«ppnnl]Tc adfTuiii^Critiitr oIlKxn ifont ^^tn{ nMpoittCbtfiti' lo ibc 
encutivt bead uf the StaEr, who b tUmtty arcouateblc to thie 
|>eop1e,fsol doubtful «-i»ktm- A dhidon of oerouiUablUiy wtidi 
pnciifalZy ndutu to 00 real tceouQUbiJlty lo uy one leveni the 

Kt^fyrtfi-iinXiij io the people b Ibe eMenCial «afvigiJaid of tree 
ioTtiluticuu. Tfab docs not dkmi Ihc election of all or nxn of a 
gmu pumber of 4ulmlct»craiive officen, for undue burder« tifH»a 
ifae flUctorJ maehincry wuld defeat Eti purpcae. Bui it vt>jld 
!ieem lo impfy that dutribyibn of adminittntiTe powcra lUiniil 
have as rt9 ^orrrJa&ve the projier centrelUatinn of respoaislbtlil]^' 
It may fairiy ht m'd lo r^c|uirr thai the eaeetilive authority, ejGcr- 
cWiig Ibe a|>pc£ntjiig pom under vhaxrver <hfvk, JihnaM hr 
r e a po ^ ble for aifaniniMratHia and sbovld hare Ehc control upon 
vhUh luch rrtpDnnbilitT moit roL 

The Govermof b to "take care that Ibe b*s are faithfully exe- 
cuted.** But vtlh roped 10 thb duty there arc further liniiia' 
lions than Ibosr IneolTcd in hit relation to «|ipQ4iiiiYe ofBeen. I1 
IS pari eif our sjntnn ^ pivrntnttit ihat Ihe law^ tn hr^ nieanirv 
•recflforted ifarougb oflietfi locniy dkoae«- To the GoinvtKir lo 
ocfftaia caats b gEtn ihe rinM bo rvnoiv locaJ oArac^ l^ 

Cf '-q at 

4jS American (iovemmcni and I'olidcs 

b ocly t]|>oo d»nrH<^ ptrtjwrly made uid »u»LiJnod &flcr boating. 
\V1ii> the Coremor^ txercbe oj thh jurUdKdoa a 004 eub)cct 
to review, he in bb province, Gkc the hjghcsl couit of Ibo StAlc 
in filfl province, mual not ftci ctpricfcomdy or arMtMrity, but in 
Aemrdancc with the rulo and prwciplcs gm«nung his aiHbontjr. 
Tht (.K^'vc-rnrir U hi murh Jjdund 10 t-appart our CfimiiiutjoctaJ 
<jriteiB cf local goveniinent n f w aA ii provides Eor the local 
(hokc ol offion, ai be u to reinoiv oSoen eleariy pcoixd to be 
gvHiy of acriou* isriclei-t or mi»:urKluci- The Gotctdut bod no 
right lo DSC h» power <i( nmot'il to nstert hU prefffvnces or t(> 
ftlietnpl «vcn wtnpcirflrily lo Invposc hi* will upon the communiijr 
tvhiich bu cboten ib officxr. Th( ai^prai to him b the ndfcsuary 
4hD;k to icvurr m^xirEsblc goixmmrni ^ad imiit b« jiKlJ6<tl hy 
pnxif u/ *iKb dvrclk ti<~in >Lb m«y tic tullittcnt U> m*^e mnoval of 
the elected olbcor cucuiatrut vitb oui fitaduincnLil prindple* of 
locti MU-goTcramcm. 

17}, The .\fdkoti ej saaiimg StaH Ofi<»s ■ 

Although recent trodcncio in slate coiutitudonal devdopmcni 
would snm to indicate that the Amcncnn pivipb had Mttl^d upon 
popular choitc stt the bcfl toctbod of tc1<^l]iiK the more Itrt- 
portujt ^uEe officUIf. the question cannot be vdd la hire been 
decided ^trtf^ctortlT, PupuLuf dectit^n as J ^^|joLittiW£il hy 
ibc ijovenor verr dMciMcd ai length is the Kentucky oonsdiu- 
lioikal conveotioQ of 1890^ 

MR' McHEJfAv. I do not be&ene, aftfr thf cxpmencr we 
have bad la Kt^hK^y in fegard to our bie Treasu/er, thai ibc 
pvopla can lo tiKt a TnaiwVf aff^In^ I think th« noncv U 
sofa- [n the hanifa of an oppoinlee uf the Gotctwh'. The pc<-plc 
<tf KeBEufLy tleaanun; ihoy tivrvr mb him. TAto (a dc^uhitif 
IreaAUver] lired in Frankfort here, ud they never saw him 'm my 
roanty «Wrr wt hat^ int thomind vocen. We mini for hlrfi 
nioe (ooterutjrr timn. Tlir people look him upon inut. tjceauM 
he vai DODuiuled bf the poh'tkml fiAfly lo vbicb a «ui|oiitf of the 
people bdongtd. They beie*^ hi«i tu bt boBeti and dccied 

The Snrc Kxccurivc DcpartmCTit 439 

bim beoiuse be wu ibenooiionof (hnrpjinj; aAd}iv1 ibc nsult 
vas. thai br wu % dcfiuhcf AojlIIj, ind w«« 4 rvc«l, I pra»un)t, 
from th? (imcr he wu 6m ckclcd. I incmn to ujr wr ur itaUy 
ikol i|ujili£cil m vlrct A nxn for TnamrtT of Ibc Stite The 
md jonij of t Fir |:Ki>ptp ikt nt -I know aad cannot koov of thv qmli- 
fKAlioiu of the Enim wboia rumuog for office. In lOf cotuily tbcn 
ivvR not fifty men wlio knew T>l«- H« i«i«r pui hU fix)i In t!» 
counXy. and thtrre wrrv nol fifty men ui the fuunty who hvt ever 
seen him. The remedy 1 |>rt>jxuc ti llui wc make the GovcnMr 
of the Suit nMraUjr ftspcduible lor ifae noney^ I tk> col mcaa to 
imkc him IqfAlly rtfpaiuible, but only morolly. We have ncTer 
made a miitakc ia dcctiOK a Go^^mm of Kmiuck/. We have 
always dectvd sicd of hii^h ciiinH-ler aad iDlegniy, and \i tudi a 
man is tu be held mcvally nspotfuiblc for the fuunccs^ br wUl sec 
U> ll <hal the tn^vtf h bo&^ly nuoAccd. By (hfe wi gfri tbt 
GovcCTUvsuch power ihiU be caa lum ibis Titflsurcr out whcftcrer 
be Mc* proper lo do so. My anvcdnMiil grwi to that cvtent Ibnt 
he fthaJI hold hU <Aoe >ittiply duriskg the pleaaure of the GovernoTp 
and if the Ooreraor £niii outt not ataoUiicly or crrtainly, or to 
Buch an BZtcat aa would auihorue an impeacbmeni, bui ii ihr Uov- 
cEnor ODdeMands thai the Trcaiiirer of ibe Stale is dedfing in 
maiflBfi, or buying nocks or bondi, or invndiif la booms, ih«n 
1 take it for gnnlcd llut the Crovernor. vbo^e fnlegiiiy and high 
cftwracief MTt involved, would rbaftjEr fbr Stale Trrpuum. 

] do not mean lo say diat the peopk Heel diafaonesi men, btjl 
wc are mocv af»t lo put a mxal ui Uil- Trcaswy Depaitment. 
where he foo ibrough a poAiikal oonrcniiod logrolling votci Irom ^*» "Jg" 
oac cod of Hie Sla>e when he ^tt b tnxher. Then, when bf hk '^'" 
ahitwdaeBt and asiaiencn he (vria tf» ranventioo. he b dcci«d 
bj the people Be wiD be dnctcd, however dkhowsl he h, for 
the |>«viplt lin o«il Lnow il. Wc havr thU i^ riprnrtire in Km- 
tixky and In other itaLo, and 1 do uy tlul LF the grntlcmen 'lad 
dsbn t id ihls befoffv Ibt^r ronttiiwnls uhrn thry were eandkjaica 
6or the podlioa Ibey now boM. J Uilnk tbey would have found that 
B su^7 of the people «f Kentucky are in favor of the ponlioa 

American Govcmmcnr and Pulitics 

1 UBUOie, or so methifk^ licniUr lo it. Hie people vrant Ibctr tttotwy 
•Dd if An>tiiHl7 1^141 HUiERi^t Any hvtiKT ^Aj ihtn I bavc done. 
FjT perfectly vitiing lo hutr thai pui in ptac« i>( my amend- 
ment. Thit puts behind the Trvsiurcr the hagh chanrE«T of the 
G<tytmaT. SVc alwajra rlect go«J CuTomorK Th« polilkal 
p«n]c« da not loAk m ihc (hftrACter of the minor ofktfn .11 thvy do 
At Ihr rlrjEFJif trt at ihr Uovrrnar- Thry <li» livik at Ihp ialc^rity 
and hi^h cliniractrT i;>r ifio Got^crnor* Jind no mu wtko hmj Dot n 
rrpulalicin from imc er-d nf ihe Sttle lo unolhcT can cucr b* ttand- 
naivd by any po^lkal [vxtif for Governor of die Slate- Wbea w« 
pal our monex urxlcr the aunn^ilUncc of lT)c (itn-efiKir. he cui »A]r, 
**] have HUSpIHon th^ ihti mnn u dcilln^ in mATfiw, nr btiyioK 
Mockfl or hoiikiU, und tht SI^If ii idling ih« ri^k of whether be wiiu 
ttr IpH^ \n hit K^nilillriK. «nd I will lum J^iin out- I do lyx wjuu 
ciiy chancier lo f^i down with hi*-" . . . 

ytv. U\\KS. J believe the voiert of this fommooweaUh 4iv 
conipeiciii la elcci ihtdr TrtasurcT' I know full wril that they 4fv 
ahfe 10 eloct a Govtmnr, ukd, by the irdy, w:la ^id yeMerdfty, 
Ht hav^ imlt'ft^ty eltfUd H pjod onf «d1hout cat nrejitkm. 
U the propko! Kentuckyarecdpableof declingagotidCDVcnnnr, 
I ihink they are ciqiobk ol eWtuiji a |p»d lYeaaurer, Ai 1 h^vc 
f»a)i^ I waa uri<ere in bvlievinx llial the Delripile fitHn Ohio wo 
jeAtiOj* iibout Tl I cimniil itnagiur h\% objt^t, if he wv loneert. 
] do tt>i bcllevY thai the pr«>ple of Ketiturky will fo bnek ii> the 
^jpoiatiTt iyttttn. They iriU not do it- They cftitniei do il. 
Tlwy ouRbl not to do il TTiry ought to keep die pomr tt> ekvi 
allthroffuvnodthefommoowcallh inthelrottikliand*, aad jcratp 
it li^L Keep Ifir rigbl and povrcr to ciccr und conlml by lcg>»* 
Iftim e<i»tinK>kU the at tloM of all ihe o^eri of die Conuiairiresltb* 
Wp tkoiM adhere to that unlfa icn-al Ira^cily, hecautr (KmvT v^D 
finw. Tbe •Imicdi of inett m power locteaMs. Hold them tut h 
nn la die hollow of ytim ha^l, «o thu ihcy ctA bo cr>4)tTollfid 
by ttir people of the Conumonwealtb, (o whom tbe GorennneBl 

Mjl Cox. Wbra the n^t of the gml mauca of the people 


The Sate Executive Oepurimtnt 44 

h tndangrftd. \vi iw vnk a nmtdf, tad thjil nm«il^ 

the cieftlw ol ihc dn:tlvr fniKliW In Lfinlnfnikjr wiili ,.-i.n. j 

or offiok kv. I my here* toiitig tli« hiitiwr nf Keiilw if m Mi* ^^ 

CvidcAC* upnn wlkirb we afcould hMe Avr jui^mt, illllim li ft 

jwy Id dKMk ihU greai nae uaUvr ihr erVltmc* itTtn In iht hl^ 

lotr of out SUk, ne muat unquctlioiidilf mf ihU th* Aii-ihlif^ 

po«vr luB priTPtd n fallvr?, Mid thai wv mat main ' < t^\\H 

wblch they art l\»\fy ondUcd. Now. I find a ilivina f«rllnj( In ihli 
CcjnvcDiian lo giTff ii> thf Govemor ul thk UmmnniPrAhh *«*i 
ttui aknoAt uaKiRltnl fiomr, to make hlcn ■ tatt td §tM\tn rtn \%^n 
lor tnvT rcjrt. Some ikkjEaln are W]tiikM thai Iw fiiufti n|>|M4<ll 
Judgea of tbe Courti, ihd W •ItouU ap^folrit aTl il# Malt 
ollkntat tU>CapiuL If ibal k right, ^hy m\ uVr ^inUitf 
Mcfi dowD ? Lm him ^ipcut unr Cmni)' Cmitt J uilfff^^ Ih film 
appolot o« Oxincj Court and Clituh 0>urt 4Vrl«. Irl Mm 
apT>oim Mir QAi^straia: yt%. iH hin Iriwune iha mLj{l>i]r niliv 
1b thlM itreal romcnnnweallli, cbilhMl villi llijl fmvr «l*lrli 
afewe bdMi^ lo llw pwplv. a»l wU<li rtny bmrr <4 hti*i1r In 
Amrrka ifcouU cheiM, Yd, five him on* power, avi mtMi Im 
wil ilfp fbrvaid and adt lor as locmM- trf thai power. I Irna 
oir Ibffs of Govcramciit 1 lirrv b far il* fluey, lb Ivmiy a^t 4la 
ffuidaur. i \art It fm *W ll haa aaeenfiKiliidi bm »Mlr I 
bn« ll. 1 KnatlK \a xht dcqwM nr«i of nf fcawl avf allurl «tii»- 
cwTlhalwiflp>indK«finrlir:«ii)ltafefaif litmifhepnipWo4 Kan* 
lorJif dir ri^t Co chooac thor oflkan. I lintd IW Uh^t *d m» Ii 
a q^ &aailfcflM b aa iBMnibn of Ibv rifhl wftM vmr i«M U 
11^ bmd bad ibaBid ckiM. Lat a, ffatliwia «« thii C«i»^ 
toitei, mJiHia oar ilflMi. Let « ilaad up OolOx a*d fan iv^ 

ttA»fUiliyvaMlher^»cldMpKipk«»fvntmllbef«alNr km 
Wlcikiod>«fAEl. ki»ailAplaaaav«l 


American Government and Politics 

htU wtj lo ^uud our money waa io mjtko lb« otasurtr incfii 
to AHCCV^ Idm^l^ AixctfdiJBS to Uic in/omuijon I gcc from ihi 
Kirapoptn, the Trcanircn of the Sulci .if Mifidaupfii, Mnryljim 
sad locac other fl4ttA> ftit erdl .u Ihc Ircs^UTCr od tiM Siatc «■! 
Kenlw^y* fajul ftdoplcd ihr hftbh of u^ng the Suie pyiiMry for Ihe 
p[iq>u^ of «fturin|{ Ihrir iUi^<rfv!i&jE rlniiAn^ N<m. all m\ax 
ftilmit that thii i^ aa evil. . . . >fa)trt Comnusioncri hive mode 
use of niuneyt lo secure ihc election of tlic ju J^ who wotJd Appoani 
them. aJiJ ihtt ifta^urpr ini|;bt u« Ihc tf^tne meihod lo 8<!cure iht 
declioD of a Gotctddt, Therefore, Ihe ttfcM uid b&i iHiFtlzicM 
plait woi to make bim inclif^bb far n !>ccond elcriiofi, or lo suc-^ 
ceed himMlf ; and h/ maiib^ £iim iEie%il>^ Cu «ijrf:««d haniadl 
wilbdrav from bim eveiy tnducenicm Id roAke utc of ibc Stsi 
atoacf to n-eleci himtclf- 

i*.^(r. GaniaJltl Bnti.lfoiiJ, u emiiiPDl uublldM uid car^iJ 
''otervrt of Amerk an liuiitutions, ihiu dc«cnbc» vfasi bt rtmrdi *« 
one of Ihe maited lendencicA of Americao poUtkjd cvDlution In 
nccatjiftAti: — 

Kven caaUmponrie^ are able to sole Ihc bcgiaitiajjEs ul aOeDt 
iiino«^«liDia< Of «ll k>\ its bearing, Ihvj nm/ be but dimly awmm, 
^ ifacT tan K« Uul « nal cbiflge b slowly tnking plicc One 
flutb Uc3 upon th« uirf JKO of English polldcs ti>-day« tnd \\ clearijr 
dbrefcdhtf lit our oirn. Wc meui Ihc grul))' hdjhtened powctn 
ol thf eieruiivr jpo^i Bm cnt, in whiit rIaBti^ lo tq^Ulion- la 
En^Luid, Ibe imtiAtivc of pdvAle memljcrt of P&riiaBrnt bu 
ikntNt cnlinJy dkipiKund. Alt tbr iipp>rtuit IkLU ju« qow 
fOvionoKni n>r^ jre«» uacI ibt ^wmnunl \\ cUnung ^nd Rtillo^ 
iDon and akorr <if ihe 6nu of the Uoi&e of Comnnni. Thk b 
4 profouid choajT. mod wprrwaitt on entire ditloca^n of th* 
fitetxiy theory of Ibe Brilinb Coooiilvlioii, ^ huadtcd ^nd i^ratj^ 

Bui 1 MiniUr ^(cntion of inhcrilod pracike U npnlly invAiltAj^ 
ibii (OUEitry aU>. Tbc Etecoiivc u LcjpiUcur U ttow « [ina|£<Lr 

The State E^cccutiv^ Department 44J 

figure anumg IB- Prcaidtiit Rooaevr It b oioi Ibr onty cve-mpliLr. 
Governor after Governor hvt bm laakioi of hIaM-Lf Ihc clikf 
fount^un of t«gi.4atrnn in lih SlAfr. Then i* do mon s^gsatire 
ugn ai (he umci- East [uvrcll u West, Ibe phenoitttaon praeou 
iuclf. Oovtraor L4 FoIleltD in V^lK^tihiA hu bnfi imlutvil br 
Govcnior JohAjan of Minonola and Gm^efBor Uodi oi ^"— * 
Ta the iniciaiivc of Govcntor RD|hc« of New VoA coatM an 
imniMUaie raipooae from Oavtnior Woodititf ol Conttectk«l 

,aad Governor Fort of New Jovy. AD o< tben prcsi critical 
ttiallcn upon UiH/ L^jcUJ^urrt. All of ihrm Ixdiikf 4»ttin« thai 
the Got'cnuir must mlrrreni; vith ppjtnptiQg onj pubUc atlrocacy 
of Jmporunt Iqpslation, of cUc it will tall. Nor & thn attliude 
ntM:b rtAcaml by U^bture ur t'onj^rtfa. Aa for ihe p«a[>kv 
\hrj acfrfit it cmhmiajukally- 

Yd how drqi a brtai^h with ihr old iclraa and hbiMx pradkc 
aU thU repmvDU, c w ty one snM see who kIo^h li> think. The 
j^oitt iwblion uf the [IcKottVf, in all fhm n-lutL'* loUn-maVir^ 
(except weot lo ac^r ilatuZa) ia one of the moat .itol Ir^iiiuiu 

[of Anglo-SaRoc comiiiuiionjl bw. Cuotrait ifaU with llw cijcplaiit 
■ppeal, nomdjxyii to the mhci orf Pnudcci or Goitnutf ; vkh 
tho direct activity of EJiectiiivta kh only b ncoranwDdlcic ItgMa- 
don but in semfing for memben of Coognvi c« of At LegUUlwe 
to uTjir tlirm to vnic for partiruUr mr-a^iurtA; and «c hcxtn lu 
VnderUAnd how bong is Ibr road ae Iuiy travelled- 
Uov does ail ifaU fi( iota ibc democratk tbrocy? WKal <lo<» 

^il iitalfy ia r^arrl to npreaMiaiivtt imtitulieai? Ii vould U 
Id Btlanpt a M and salk^iiig aanrer tc tlMse ifucwiaro, 
Wo arc BCNi near IW poUtlcaJ do^'dopmralt loo mucb a pn/I of it, 
to ddaiJi t> ure dro a«l pass judgmeoC ^ma ii concimlirdX' 
Paftiat anawm, howc wr , we may &nd in llir i«f]r fartt under 
ruMkio. ft ii fUar, U* licfjin vilh. thai CA&grouapQ and 
iben of the LqpUature are iioconiing toon vUictlf loi^ rep- 
itjvca. TSaj cannot wt b«yoad liw dktrvt*. F«w tji 
ATK naUoialljr ododcd or Slate-Ruodcd. In lar^t aJaltv, 

'albciiti^ dll the people they Ikave lofi ibctf ialdattve, bccaise 




j{44 Amertcan Govctnmcnr and Pclirics 

Ihdr dnc ftcd ARRf^h ati^ inkca up with the pwy Inlerata of 
Ihdv i.TTinifi£atf ^omtftucnb. For th^m. ihcjr rua orruids, tnk 
oflkot wnrk for Iol^ htppropri^itiani- 

Sumvbody vise faii» to uLc the tircad mw, Co look aftor ife 
nadon or the Slitc, while ihey an dbrarbnJ vrith BuiKrombc 
CouiUy ur l*odunk- And Ihl* MHncbody b (fctlina to be ntorc ^nd^ 
men the illrKtIy elect uC all the pvopk. To a Prvdideotr or 
CTTvir. thus choncr, jiTI ihc people ore ixuning to look increiuiiif;lr, 
not n^rrrly for hffminiMnitJoa, ltu( if>r Impulse and driving pa 
iti Irj^latinQ, They may he no wi*er than ihe Dominal 
laijjn, btJi tlicy hkvr a miiJer tmTlih^k, .trul Ihc/ fnl mij^hljcr 
puUo fumi llir wtu^r ciELu-iiLhi;i |ritthinic ihcni oq- Htncc. 
U DO txiniT>1« for dt'inocraty tn adjubl il»U to the ow prkctic^. 
OiOQsing the executive difecityn ii ch<KHCft him no<v to be the chad, 
mediLini of projfKHlve and refr^rmamry Istw-mahJnif. If it 
ris wit] dcinf. ii carcA Ultlc about ihi- LnMnimcnt. If AmeiSranj 
CU^grtsM^ axid I,c^l4tvrti an Icasia^ gS Agblinfl the Fxecu- 
tifv; it a becawe the Exec uaivie hafi oomc be^ lo iLjjtcautt tbc 
«ho1c people. 

IJ5, 7"A* I'rtlit f«i«f 

t)uriniE the (tcboie In tbc Kentixky consiitutioaft] eonvctidoii 
oi 1890, orrr ihe q^ucsiian *» to «hethcT a Mo-lhuda vole »ImmiIJ 
be raqicEcd Sn the b^Ulure 10 poM a biD oitr th« govvnKir'a 
TTlo^ Ihe <iuefltinft of ihe veto pmrer in all of ihi heftrioft wm 

E^VBiKx Uk. CaRIOLL. Whjr ^iM wf not iawrt a pnmiiott ihil it 
■n*^ ihall require iin»-ihird« of th« Qeoend AiieiiiMy la pua a bitl 
crrer tW Ovvrriior'ft teto? Can any good tvuna bo infptij 
ngaimt il? Tbe Goivraor'a vtto it oM ab«olute. The powvr 
v«t*d In ihe RxecuiiiY W flmpfy a qua^td ont. and ihr main 
object of it 11 to dired the atteniJOQ at tbe Lepslature to atiy mat' 
Ccr ifm nay hnvf 0ni>cid their arteallon, b orArr thai they rnaj 
htveiaoppartu&ity toawTcdit: and if tvo'ihod^ of the nembfn 
of any Gcftcni AueiiUily tannot be found «fho ate mIIuia upon 

The St«tc Rxcciitivc Dqttrtnicnc 44S 

a rccoiwdcntiaii 10 pos^ a bill mtr thf CiorcnMV'* rtta, I lesiic 
Ih^t lh4l bill rowf bo in it»rif of lucMiOinibAr impridjr, bocJU9« 
any UuiUblc momrc, any measure bcn^^jJ tf* ihe ^x«l inlfmts 
of Ihr prci|Jr nf Ihr Sinlri cimhl trrtxttily o£itun Ihr v(i|,r od tvrv 
Ihiidi of ibv mrmbcn ctcctcd U> e«h brutch of the GcocfoJ 

On tilt oiha hand, the LpgUlalurt, 4Lcting as ihcy oficD ili>, ^ 
hutily and imwbcty; prmag InlU at Ihcy uftcn da, wlUioui any ^^^^ 
rrin^idfraiinn wh«t(VTr. can, undrr the ;>r^wni bv and uiukr ||« 
rr|Kirt of Ihc Commiltn ii aiia|kLrd, n^UH chcni ovct like Gov- 
tnwjr't i^o wiOiout iny tKflb'ulij vhainer. tj ihry ttr (>roprt Iw 
do m. h iff a wel-l-^iiuiru fuel thai unc uf ttic iirime cai&cti fur 
db« oiling <A thLx Convention wi^t chc ibiuex pncdcr^ by ihc 
Lv^&lathe Dq>aninenE oi thU State: and I venrurr the AWff&an 
iWl except iuT Lbc tidoitf Ic^slalioft and the braJ and jpcrjal Um* 
of all b.ind« and chanrter |>aMcd by llit LegirUluro Iful luve 
nwl in KcAlucty for the pi^i twenty ycnrs that no firoiutilun 
to <all a Odii«lilut]i>tut CVinveiitii^n vua\d vvzt Iihvc ir^rivuJ a 
majcnly of the vtno uf the peupk vl Keolocky- Tlw pn^b of 
Kcnioi:ky on more in dancer (men abtuo by ihe Leipilaiivt D^ 
paitmrni Aon they an from abuMS of any other Dq»nnwni of 
the S<at^ GflvemmenL 

Ma, MniTKOT Covemmmi U a M^lrir: of cKokA and Imbnct^, Tb 
jiod ihit guvertuncni ii icrnu to me 11 the btii la uhith (he |io*ef» 
of KovonuxutOI in so amatc^d u th^ otitlKT may infringe U|>on !««■ 
th? olher, and tint ocie or nil roiabisMd may &0I affn:! tl>r i>^i)tv. 
^^c know th^i the itfipCMntaliva, or the membcn of the G«n«nl 
Attembly, nprvsfad mofic perfottly tbe frill of the whole; iliai 
«Qfnf4im(« tfaey cfoac fnvn ihc people m limea of grt^t |M>1iiical 
CKcifemeol, mhm ttw cotin Stale may tie RWfcd by (loLiliral 
qiw^iu thai are of buniiBg iaq»rtance^ It b upon tbtfe occa- 
daot that a nufotlty of the Lf0&Ulure miKhl interfere with and 
msiple mpoa the rigfcb of the minudty, and it U tlicn that the 
OovrmoT, wfamo tmii of oAicc I* toftfE" >I>ab 1^ be&Ddi of Ibe 
L<^l4tun whktt reflect* mou pcrfntly the wll ol the pooplp, wot^ 





Amcfictn Covcmmimr and ['olidct 

fat taaai ikdy 10 fund Unputbl. TW pomtwion ot power mikr» 
ooe caD>rmdTC The iMUacd arc aunMfou» In whkb mctt 
ct»Di|iAmivdy d o? cbmctCT have bora placed in im|MifUmi 
peai^itf, mtu «rhu mvtt r*clk«l in ihdr opttnoms, «ail ift^ moiai« 
th«7 I1AVC ficrq>tcd o poaikin ol itfpcmibifiiy tod pd^vrr, 
bivc bcroRK oon<^rv>tivt in ihdr ACt^K. TIm (>uv«rMjr 
KcntQckf u the nfiitaenUtitf nf ihc tndn SUtc^ fl« 
cvtry |>8ity at the Slulr. He frpttsroC* nol ao^y the D<ik»- 
untie p^Jiy <J« ibf Rrpublicjin |iany, or viy oUier party ; but he 
vundA there utbercprcMtiuihv of lO; and if in a limc ol ptiUk 
heat and party paa^loB peraooa corapaein^ tbe Ccncnil AurmUy 
■hould be teiifiCed to do aomclhias viliich 1bf7 vould ant io taUnct 
mi^enrnbi, ii iirtmA ta mr that the l^onrrmcc, nvirr than naf o&v 
efxr, Kuuld br likely lo r^rao Lbe iodJcalioti to do wroof by the 
pruj^vr ewtr\ite of lui veto power. 

Ml. Becucu. If th« gefidrokaa'fl atntfltkneDt iicwoilji, ihr 
CovcRior puy 9^ thai no biQ shall b« pEtsecd uaiil iwoviiiinix 
ih« memlMO erf bMh Uouaoa dected shall baiT voted for ii, irhii 
wouU be a AtairyxtitM ot the nujnfiiy nile, mm\ ivoold be the 
BMat itrfoui iimnviifkin vpoo our vystein of Govftnraent thai 
could be Rude^ T>>e «?to pomvi a f^veo aimply fov lbe putpooe 
o^ calUaf the aiientlJia of the LvfHlAti«e l*> inadvmvQccs; 10 
niiulus or to cttoib it nuy comnUt ihmugb want of proper ro«i> 
iMc Mli o ai , and not 10 pvt tbc OorcmDr more powrr tlian the 
G«Hfal AaMtnbly baa, or, in other wordi. the people. ihrouKb 
thdr repRAcQlativc^ have. It U conferred in order lk«l $outvjtK 
tthobMacxilhead, Mrliarewbtvefiilly wh4tl)i*y do, ntaycnlmJy 
comukr and call Ibcir aMentina lo an enor \u the Ult Ibey nuy 
haTt paned; ocd lbe rcp<«*cnuihTft of ibr people hux almost 
ahrayi nspooded by rcfimng lo poaa a bill nliere a miMake bad 
been made. If the Qovemor, hcnr\Yf. Khf^iih] te tnliitiLkeft in 
hia tiew, there are one hundred and Ihirty-eigM rqirrAcntative> 
of the people wbo nt in thb hftU, «nd in tbe ball acrou lbe I'wy, 
wIk} will coemt Ibb mbtake. and pan the liUI, aa Ibey ouitbl m 
hare ihe righl io do; ud I ranniM inagiDe any gRntcr m 




The Stare Executive Dtpaxuntnt 447 

ihar ivQ coutU oiukv ihan to ujr tliut the pvO|>I« »fa«U ddI nt)e 
Uimugh A majcffiljr of Ibdr rqifticniiitvcft. 

Tint fusuKe from a vcio mcsttgc of Governor Bkf k <if Nev 

in (he gcncnU (q>|>topriaLiMii bill: — 

£l«v«Dlb ~ " For tilt hcttUy of Iho mfffical dcfwtnactf of Ott 
univeniiy uf fiuflalo, fur the eqidpmcat uid mainCcOAiice of « 
liifaofailoiy to be devoted (o jui innociKnlfon inio the nuttfl, na- 
liffr, RH>rti]{t/> nir tnd irtatmcQf tii (Anccr; and thr aiUrir^ of 
|<iAkul« of the ijktriT, ten thoxLvtad doUan; rame tn be foid upon 
vouchers offiLUlly lix^xiJ by the Jirrt'luf <if luid Libnrabory, of, 
Jd hifc ibtvEtce. b)r iLr tecEvtUT aiid Irvaur^r of (lie faculty." 

I CADnot approre a prupo«cd poUc^ which rcqalns ibc Suie !■> 
tnms^ In the invustigalloii c^ the cauH« <4 varioia dLKauB wfUi 
ttticb ihc human faintly b attcicd. I think that tbc iJUcicat ol 
the pcApk ihemM'^vt* ind xhc fkWl. [Dicl%tQCC and c&ierpriw of 
the ptiysiciaiu may l>r depended upon lo make such laveMi^tion. 

The foUuwidx diAunietil »ho*« bow Ibc (to'Trntof of New Vc>Ht 
miy ^al] an cstm Kubn of the IcyUbture aiid uffc ujkui It ihc 
eomdderalnin of 9ame special quatwaa: — 

Stala of yttw Voci. Eaacutive Obanbtf . 
AlbaKY, May aa, iSpg* 
'nj mm l.fctaiATVRE; 

I ba«« cvllod you tofieCbcT in EifnonSaaiy Scokhi for the 
purpoat of coni^derins tiie tubjeci of the lajudoo of finuidiina. 
My mcaMge Ut the Lv^Utun of March 37, 1899, ran in pa.n aa Um 

"At proMit ibr farnaen, ibe maritec f*anteneR and the nwchanlca 

^And InuleMneo having anal boMing^ are fayrns an improper and 

CBcasiiteporlxinof lhr|;vnrtaliaac«. ^hilral Ibc ume tiaie miiay 

of Ae tS<jrii to mnrdjr Ihtt tiate uf aJTain, noUhljr in the dirvdiiia 

lof Ujinff toc«ntic9, afv Dot only unwitc, b«l incAdc&L, and oftaQ 

'*er*v ncrtly to p^Jl a |ir«i^i«n a|Kn dlibonoty. , . . 



American Government and Politics 

^ll yet Ttm^ta tiuc thai M coipantioc which ilnivca iu poi 
froiD tbc StMtc, (J^tiid \i9j lo the Suit & jusi pci<cvtita|;« of 
c«miiigi «£ ;l ri^Lum fur th^ priTikga U enjuy^ Ttib iihouM Ik 
epcdtUjr mic fcjt Uic franchLM» bolowcd upon gts coin|janies 
otrtQl raHmadfl and ihc llA^C' The questioiL of ibe tagniHpal 
oviur^E]> of (hoe (runchiKi cannot be nuscd widi pfoprieiy until 
Ibt grvyrmmrniA of ^1 mtinit^ipnlin^ Khow i^jier wiwImd oiuJ. 
virtue dian h«i been rt<crntly tiJiuwn, tot iniUnre, in N'ew Voffc, 
Cllf i mimI the <)uciui>ii of laying and uR&dikg ihe Iu for f faiwIiucb 
of ertry \dnd Itimu^hout ihv .Scalr shouhl Ia my i^ilttiHi be dc- 
lonined by ihc Stale Utclf- I noeU not puini ouc to yuu thut iti 
focdga comniunitLcA > very 1.u^ ponTnl^^ of the Ukc* co«nr4 
frooi coqMcitiMu whidi ote Ibe public domam Utr pip»r tnuLi 
mm! Ibe like," . . . 

Arctjrtlinip:ly t tvtointneod ihf viidclment uf a law vUcb cliall 
tiu all thcae fraixbiict as realty^ which »hall provide for ibe noimg 
meet of ilitf inx by iht Boanl ol Stale Tax CuountuloMTV and 
vrhJch AjJi further pirovidc thiit from the tax Ehu« Imod for Ibc 
beM^tl of carb lix'xIiEy there fhnW he d^minl llic ux now paid 
by the cofpoRttlon in <|ue4tion to thf IxaMtj. Furltmrnore, aa 
the time for aci«fiQni{ Ihc UrReAl and wrjllhirtl coj|H>ratiiiM, Uiioe 
cj ?fnr Yori and Buffalti, h^ f)u*od fur thla fear« asd aa it «ill 
be pnJcnljAe ool Eo bare the snxU CD<iulry corporatism taxed 
before the bffvrcofponilon^ of Ihc HiicG art ui«d, Iflutgesi ihal 
ibc opcntloa ol ibc hv be deferred imtU Odabtv ^nt, iA tbia 
year. TKKDr>a>ic Rooxkvult. 

ty;. ^v /^xirrr^ttf ^Abr P^rdening Poorer 

The way In wliucb a irivnrracf may u*e hb pcirduaing power 19 
nutlgBic the rigon oi the law b DQu«CraCf^ by the followUK fiapcr 
bwiod by Mi^ Rooarrelt as govrrmr «J New Yoik la 1900. 

Joly 17. iQM. Edward Wiie. Sentenced Uaicb 31, 1699^ 
lu be rxeculed : cooniy, Xew Vark \ rrime, tnuMer, &M dcfrer; 
ptiaooi, Staf Sin^. i\in?m:iicd (■> tmfin«>niT>ctit for ItJe- VM>e 
ma CDSYidtd of mvdcr in Ibe JirM dr^pn tor rainii;^ ibr draib of 

The Slate Kxecutive Depftrtmene 449 

Chuls ¥. Beuky ivhik ailcmpting 00 rob Urn on one of Ihe public 
Hfocu of the fiij fd Stm YoA, The evideocr pven upoo the 
trill tDgvthrr with addition a! evidence addutcd upon xhf Applies- 
t>oii for tlcmeotj vhcnra U^t Ibc crime wa« commktrd b; m« 
LjD fuiiipjiiiy witli a coulcdvraltf nuncd SwtCDvy. TUtn wu no 
tboughc uf icilting Bcuk7 ur uC iSouig htm bodilf hArm, but. «3ulc 
ihey wtn cnirasvd in it^c aiicmpt «o rob bint, Sweeney ftrvck blm 1 
Lbw whicb tcUvd him to thf groimd, aad bii bead Doming irv^catly 
thcpavrmrnt hi-iikull wufrariurn9,rr«i1tiDginbaidcftdi. 

W»c «iA no dptibC »s (uUf retpojuililc for Swecncy'i ad 10 strik* 
iR|£ Bculcy oikI for tht o:imef|Mc«cc( of U k» tf he h^d hJmKilf 
deltrcttd th« blcvr, &1ibougli in fact be ui no vuy o^^ncenird lu il, 
ULd hod not coQicnifilatfvl bayihuig of ibc kind- And otihough llic 
[kilUng of Brulcy vu ttUogetber imiiilKitiQiul lAd ocmrrini as k 
id <|mtc in the n^turf «! Ait Aoddent, Mill thov by whive irl it 
Wtf bfW^ht af^cnit wvrr, iindrr the UAtuf r, ^\^ty *^ mimler in Iht 
fintHrj^rr^. hrinj* Jil the linte mfct^ni in th^ <DmmI«^iiA of n fdnny. 
Bill ID view of all the cirtumttAncM, dcAth, Ihc only {^enjlly pi^ 
[•nibed by Un for the offence, wcm* too rtem dud severe, «nd wmc 
itl^aLiott b du« by way of ructilivr vl<tncncy- Imfirifonmsot 
hit ir{0 be fuOy comntasurale vith Wtse*^ guib uuJ suftctttJt 
for aH the dcmaodfl ol juidce. 

179. iTortU Iflv 

WhcnrvFT thr eovrmor of a ita1». in the extvdve ol the povrf 
^bwuxvvd upon blon by thf cunMitulkm, v«ub1l3hc4 nunS^ Uw, 
'le uividly lame* & piwtonmiog in the following tenor: — 

Ovctoibvr 4i >903- 
Wbefeai, 4Hid deUruction of ficopctiy vilh attcnduil lot* *4 
fe hj Bob Tiofeoce, m above tct forth, b bni « rcpelilian of ooi' )||^|!^'] 
covcflnff a lofig period ol diBf |im put in old coiMty, dov- 
which time diiuenfl hnvr \ttm ihdr livo vidaoul the oflcndcrf 
'bdnf ^ipvthended or punched therrfnr; ud 


Amrncnn Government aixj Politics 

Whercu tht dvil auihontta harr Hhavm ttensetTtt diber tii 
In (irsii with \hf*t rriininaU and F^nnj; thrm Il> pumthmfriu or el 
tn unwilling tr> pfrfcirm Ihdr itwty, by ttAArtn of IbreaU anil In- 
^toidjtuttvis, ur ihmujjh Eear or ^ulrtpmcnry to vuch body uf law 
hlft ud irnifi] inr^rv »■ ihuE u tiUU: vi bwlev4iw«» rjtnU in fttU 
county of Te]]cr, the Uwa ixr m?! at defiunoe, M^id tht ciHxcns an 
unable to cojc'v the riKt^iJiEU[trdni^ih«aiby iheciaauiiiuttonAnil 
bivn of thia Stntc, ind by rva»Q of ibcsns condilklia il appcjin 
ihM tiff And ptopcrtf aie uiuaJc in niJ^l ff^uMy; cind 

Whcctad^ I h-LiT ir.uvm lo brtirrc IhM ainiiUr ciuir^icei miy oori 
at any tunc, ind Ixrliv-ving ibc dni auEbunlic« of laid county 
TcUtt afe ucterly anablc^ unwilling jind mre mAking dc> procUc* 
altcmpt Co pnarrv* onltr and 1o pivl#cl Ef* and ptoprriy: 

Now, tbenforv, I, James H, Ftabody, guvcrnor of the Siai« of 
Colorado, by vitiuc of the Autbnriiy En mr voted, do hrrrby 
prodaiin Mud declare ihe uM <owtty of l>]kr. in the Si 
Colondo, lo br in a ttjUe- of tnMrroflion and nhc-llion. 


The in^lintionft of marfictl hw arv 1tu» indiraird by Ibe £n- 
Eimcdoitt fumS»hcd to ih« uc^pc by Genera) Sherman hnU nctiag 
nader the above proclajnadon: — 

The couDty of Tdltr, b conuquencc of the occupation by tbr 
iniBlia, h fubjoci to the «Uf>rane mittoty nuibr-nty and contnl 
«bm tifccsiify miqcirrft and ocruiOQ dmondi^ and it becoota 
nrccsmy &k suspend, in pari or in ill entirety, by tbr occiqiyim^ 
miBlaxy atilburity, tb« Lnmlml and c.tvil Uw and the duraotic 
odntBnbtntino aad suvrmivcol m ibc oixu|ntd pbct or terntory, 
and to Buhalitule military rule and force for tbc ume, aa 
«el] a- in llie dktaiion of general lawa. a> far as niEiaiy Mccnnty 
reijuin:! that suspension, fubstilMioo or dlctatioa- Tbe ndUtia 
may prorlaf m thai the adminbtniiofi of all di^l and pemd bw ahalt 
coMlnue dlbrr wholly of * n fiart aa i& iJinea of pcicr, uiJeaa other- 
we onler*d by the military julbcirftiei. 

As inaftlal law U tmx ul<id by tnlStaiy force it is (ncumheni iq)on 
Ibnse who adminlaler it to be vlfklly giudod by the pviodpla of 


The Seite Eicccutivc Dq«rtment 451 

jwticc, bcnnr, and humaairf — virliif^t idonairns 4 iiiMicr tvttt 
TTiihrr- ihAB other mttt. Ta prcMiTVf Uw and nrdcr b puvmount 
to &tl othrr ci>n4Mlvni?inn«' All rivll And pcn^J Uw ihAll tontiaue 
to uke id uiu^t couRie, tintcn inCtmiplnl or «aikrty sio|ip«d by 
order of i\n occupfinft nuHiJity power- Mortul bir etfeadt to 
both pru|)«Tt7 and p«noaA- Whic&rrcr pofflhle mutial Uw b 
ciuTi«d out in CELso of indiTidual oflendent by imlitary court, wider 
mlliury Jtaisitictlon, vrttlch {« IwnMd. 

MilJUiy titfeoMs muM be tmd uftder ind puniahH in acnudAiicc 
with (he rulv« uid artidcsi:p| wju^ ^VFfftini; tilt nrriilei of Ike Cnilcd 
Suits, juid incidealBllr ibc NAtkiiial GuaiU vi the Uiulnd S(Alc» 
and Tcmtoritf and the Dtflrkt of Golurobu, under llbt IMck bllL 
Mllltuy Jitccadxy adnUu of All dinct dcitructioQ tif Uft? and limb 
of anntfd cnemia, a&d other pcnuas vbose datrucliob b i&ci- 
Genially uniroldabk. Military ncCfWdtyiSaefttKitadniit of cnietiy* 
It docA not admic of the uar of poaaan in uiy W4y. [| idmit* of 
dec«plk>n, but dUdainu iicts of pcf^dy. li ii oot carried on hf 
anm oloiw, . . . 

Every ahIe-bodi«d male dtuea of Colonulo, lod ^mmc who hmvt 
derlired thctr lateAiIofl lo beconw dtiKM of ibv VtittA Stu«> 
nsiding Iherdn, befwecn the ages of iS and 45 yeai\ orqit per- 
Mtti cxrmpi hj Uw, ur iiibjort la mllitxry cfiJly And are liknrfste 
fubjed to military enrotlmcnl aad to paf miEiliry {ktR Ui, Tlie 
adjutant -xenenl U ein)wwcral vilb tbe enforcement and (otlertioa 
of ihb laz ol |j from nacb pcnoo, aad iho f^tura gr rafual lo p^ 
ume b punishable by bocb fine and otbcnrise. 

Evety Uw abldinjf ciiUcn In the county of Teller uid SCace of 
Cotondoy if he, ahe, or ibey arc engn^ed in aagr kpfimate 
btunneas, no nutter wful their Tocation b life, Kfaidlen nf their 
untfin or nanunlon aftlutinn and <'rmt, tlull ^rti r>l«y ibr law* 
of the land. fhrMr of Colorwki and the United S^le? of AmecicA 
included; and do otv ilull be iolcrfericd with nor in vtr winr ma- 
ha^od at any dint durinif the day or Doght. under penalty of mifi* 
tary Uw, rule, diadpliiie and pmiection, . . . 

SttEBMAK Mh Beu. 

Unm ol 



mvii I* 


American Government uid Policies 


179, ttgttX Advitt h ik* C w t ftnvr 

!l i> Ihe t^iiXy \A » ii\'*mx»r 1" vrt*i k mcvwrr whicfa he 13 
U) h< pilmhiir uncam^lLiutioTiAl, leid he may secure expert ad\ 
on ^y lull h/f MiSmillin^ il fr> th« iHomfj^'grncnil. TIjih mK<r; 
frum lb« Jtlt^/ravy-KCiicru of Iowa Ui ihe tpvcmor itlustrjUcft 
pncn'ee; — 

» ut the coiutitudonaHi/ of House ftle Xo. 7^ retaiing ift the 
urberv Action <-jq be comtnciKCid upon prnniiAwry ni>i(!s tnad* 

At tbe nubet of UiU quc«tioti t«T> fufidaBMiitiJ pffCpoiSn'oia 

Fta — That coqionitioDi arc p^noni lAiihio the provi»loai of 
^r^^^. die fouttRHth iLmondmcni nf the Constitution of tbc United St^lttp 
acd thjrt ibc righu and mcuHUcs gUpuanUcd |i} pcnoAJi Uy ttui. 
ifiitntmcftt (tanAV 1>c dlwcgardnl !n respect En iKc^ atifiri 
entities. uijrRMivthAn Ihcyean he rn mpcet lothe iivhtidiuU m\ 
Atv tbe cquil^lJe om>»i of the |ira[icny bclanj^fl to hucIi 
ratiocn. A ttilr ha* no tiirxv pow«r to iJiFQy cvrpontio&s equAl 
protcctkm of the Ikw tbin it bu to dcoy Mich pmiedioii to 
dMduAl ddiooft. . . . 

Stimd— At] cUa^ficatTon for legislative purpooei imiit hi 
MOic fnukVuMe Lms krpnn «^idi ea «t*nii. It nuit A^vrsy* 
upon iv>nie tiiUkTTUL'e whkh bean m trfttumible and jtnl 
totheBCtlnmpcTttoifk-fakh tfaecU»lt]caticHtbpn)pQ«cd,aiuJ 
Mw be mvic vlfliraHTy iml wlttwm tudk bula. - ^ . No 
TC&icM cut be given whj^ 1 pnnusBoiy note, ejvctiled tnil defivend 
In coflAUrA^oii of a conmct of insun&n, •hould Dot saud upo« 
Ihv MBK footing, «Q far OS tbf righl of ibe boliUr I0 tnasfar tbo 
■unc b foixvnrd, ai ft ooilc ^vcn for aajr cocnnviHiXT ot fot aqj 
other talk! cotvadenlVin 11ie acl of the IrgnUtiin* jitlvtnpb 
cmie a dbdoclSon ind i_Uni6catioQ bettrecn one don of coi 
tiucA 3»d olIitT ptn^iu within the sLite «bkh il'>e4 not «i 
BEluraU^ or ftiniiflii a n»ooalile bMu for B«p«ral« lawf vid 



latfoaft. The cluaific^lkiD b aDOMunl ud ubUrary, u that 
cxitt* no mbttABiliiJ ^Lsilindion between pcomisory olJigiUiiM 
and etUtr property htid by xa uuimfice ciMa|i«iif . 4111I ub%AikiDS 
mid properly bckl bjr ulhcr corporMiotu willii& Ihe itttc. 

Fiir Lhv rtwun iluM ihr ui ihu^ ftrbilMhIy 4ttnnpu « cbflaficft- 3?^ 
tiun of curponiioiu u 10 pit>i>crt}' u^avd ojkI b«td b^ them whkh 
dotf oot naiurally c&ti, find U not fmcMd to w to cncnd lo and 
cDabrace cqu^y all penow who ai« ur maj be in tbo like tf lua- 
tMD, And abridgta the right of Mcb oorpontiaea to ie!l ukd truute 
pnqirn/ le^Uj held bj Ihftn under the bw of the iiKlr, the arl li^ 
in my opiniixi, invalid iiiKler the fm^nnnth jmcadmeot of Ibe 
Con&titutkia of ibe L'nitcd Slolo jukI ■c<:lion 1 of aAkIc 1 of tbe 
cansiitutloD of the »lite of Inwi. 

Kt^jv^tfully aubmillecl. 

€lUK- W, Kfrujut, 

To the Hooarabk A. B. Cviaasi^, 

iSck Ctjffg w i wtf 5y C«iMaij'£M 

One of the Kitting (ratines of menf derelopmenb tn itale 
tdtuotamkA b tho inctVMe in tb« Dumber of coRmlnionfl 
duugcd wHk TMMua fwnc^ons rrUHng to ihe execution of ibc 
Isw, Tb(t Icndent^' wu drpfvnted bf Mr Dein in the New 
Vork ronsitittflicnji] ronnntino of i&94: — 

Mju Dkak^ The qucMlm hac been ukcd fa il vivuabic to 
•bofiih tho cwnmbriom ; aie they not ncceuaty lo tbe KheiM of 
govoiunail? Then art, I bcUcvev fiiieca cocnnianon tn ihEi 
8tatt-, Lnrludinf the St«ie Ekiaxd of Pbamuqr* aad of this Munbtx 
eleven hrnre l>cen ciealed nnce 1H80. Prior to Itul tinie, with tbe 
escvptian of ibwe crtatcti tryvn unong; Ibe State dllkcTi, a cD«n- 
miKkitm wan aliriavt uidtno«« tn ibb Slaie. Aod a pemucnl %xm* 
nimm, nrahnug ejcpevditure* b> the state, wat almost wilhoiit 
pttcedcni. That ib^ ue ooncrafy 10 Ibc Bpint «tf ma insiitutioDs, 


454- Amcricati Govcrnn^cnt and Paliticft 

t bcficTVt *^l> ^n n^cctlon, be iroEiccded. They arc Aot rrp 
tativt in thtir mtMsbi.r&bjp, Ucau^ they an? tav^c by App(-lnim«nl 
lb<y arc nol judicial in ihcir funriintm, Ivtjiiv Ihty hhvv no ptm 
it} rnibrvY iMf iUvfw* nr ruUciK*, 3h^ thty ire (iu< i^xoculJiy 
duractffj became Ibey harp l»-o iclecrcd tt\Km the Uw^ry I 
ihcy wtrr m bxnc mMnnn M i^jirr^nL sximvthiof ; atnj have 
driiivd (Ji« pu'i^r lo tnfua-tf aoytJjing. 'HiKy ut Id eOTect a 
fused and u»clcs» jurablc cif rcprciciuniLvc, judadjl and cxccuiiir 
functi-»LS, VLtbout ibc merii£, ind wlih all xha dcfncriu irxiilcni 
tL> ro-nnfinotc bnnrhn e^l gnvcnunntr- They an poi rc*(viiiai!>V 
10 rMiAlititrnrits a.% Tf^in^i-nt^uvr hfx^it*-', h^vt no (hankcle* id 
(hdr ijtiftU'judHrid funclzum, and. Oi cJCfciUivr officrrs th«iT h 
too much of a ifiirukin of rctponslbility La be c0cctiT«, «vea wen 
ihry givfii aulhotiCy ui^dtr ihe Uws ctvadn^ lliCDi- 

Tbcjofc.aAamaitcrof fact, Ihccrcftlunaofle^lotiTcmwardU^ 
■nd Inranpctcnry- FAvrj lime » popular clinKir ariaea namt 
member of \ht l^%iatiin, l.iJ'kmjr the riMiroRC at Die mpftdCy 
1i> ifrJl vrith the ti^lijrct. p^opfVt^ Xhv fnrmAtion ^f a roonaueuoQ 
to Ukc cbirsc <4 the maltcr, axid the ociioa havut^ a Iuqs lln« of 
prvcodcnts 4nd following the line of IratC rwistaiKt, a conntMoB 
is ntiaecL To this body b delegated just evtougfa ponn 3Ad diniM 
It) kcvp it in cxIbU^jy ^Ihout accompli bhin^ «nf AoEm&on ol the 
qacAtoiV aA(l dtAiring thdr pay from ihr railroad c<vponilinn«^^ 
or bdag paraded before the norld xn many fucs ai •ennng with<>ut^^ 
uljiric«, a litjiti tiipm ibc xwovrcva i>f tlic Slate U elTn Ic^l *titcb 
lew [Tpj^h- kuuw anytbiog about^ Here i% what tJie itv^rt uf ih« 
Coni}iirdUrr sbcv^ in Docuaicnl Ko. », now before tbe Dm- 
Twdoii: "Siato Rftilfoad C^camiMkiaj. SaUiy oad expcMvA of 
Cbeoffice — tJS^dj.y&in iSSj, SM.aasj? in 1884, $os.«*?-So ** 
1HK5, t6«,sog,JS b t886. |6^m1.J5 in iSS?, h***$^-SS ^ ^^SS. 
$5^.087*07 in 1SS9, S5i^J4.;}> in tS^, $67,660 46 in 18^1. 856,- 

6og loin iK(>3. (56^055^ In iSq^.MakioA a toUJof $&i«>55J09 
In Itic v4cTvn ycart. . . ," 

TbcQ then b tbe Caaniirfffion of FUberio*. 'HiU oxniitiidoii 
wrvcft wlthoJi «aUfioa, and might be ttqipcccd to be a vefy 

I'he State Executive Ocparcmcot 

c«nt tnfttitutloQt but the f*p«f1 of the CdmptmllGr* m Doc^nneol 
K«, JO, infonns us that it h«i cviM ihr Sutr tbr loU^^wtng sui&a: 
Gnnke 4Tkd Fid) frotrctna — $^,70 in <fi8o^ $^,536^1 in iSlli, 
|6,io3 join rKA^.m^oK^.?! ia iKH,|, 9g,9jK .{} ia 1HM4, iM.JOjjAf 
ill 1^5. (i2,oJ5^ ijt 18S6, Sio,f>5S>iJ in tS3;, $ii,8S}.76 la 
i8S3, $16,190.35 in i»9, |i7,isf ;o ia 1890, $16,40*^04 in 1S91, 
Si8,4^a,50 la 189a, t3j^5$-6s b tS9<)i making a tuuJ of $165,1^0 
in the thiflMQ ytaa. < > . 

By Ihc aamf rryiort frnm which Acatc Abides att glnnc<l, It U 
Atatfillhal Ihc nrw olbcri cn^lcd «»<« 1890, Ibemml of which arr 
cofl^miniom, cful tn cS^j a lot&Lof Si^oij^A^-ji, nukiaj{ a ffnnd 
It^ral Tor llx Ihiftpeaynnof |6bd47vSv'';'' Hivw H-rrn ka^Imjc 
cumtnimoEia ahmc, the Game and Fob ProlKturi, Uic Civil 
Service CommbiiotD, the KUe^ts EU«c(vtdDiL C^fiunUdoii, die 
ComnuAnon b LunacXt the BoAid of Artatnlkji, th« F<iRvt]7 
Commiaidon and the KAilruul Comnitsloft acffrfAle ta aneual 
chai^ of S>tS,364» and I tubmit ibal lulljr obc-haU cJ thia ex- 
pcBditore haa no pnuiical utiHif beyond aflordiiig x piac* for 
Honav one al the expfluc ot Ilie taipaym of Ihv Sl.tttr, ur, «ful 
annuDb lu the nine thing In the locg nja, out tA tbe ttcBuxf of 
the pHrji^ corponuiowL 

1 think it irill U coBcrded that toy sy$titm of offifM which per 
miu of the rapid and coDlifiual ifirrciM in upcn^lucn tbr>wD by 
thr U^\irr* whjrh I h^vie quottd, Eft Dot cakulafcd In buiU 1^ the 
public s«TTi<:c. or to produce no ecooomcal «diBiabini>oa of 
puMk alTun. The ]>ro|io«sl under coouicmkm doea aot <on- 
teniplaie irippUng ihe puMk Mrricc Ln ^tty dcigrcv; It don not 
pmpoM 10 iiLkc r/T>tn ibc Lc^Bture ihe ke^tifnatc power to create 
often whfch may from cbnc to ilaw become omwaiy. Il ilmply 
nbnfishcA lb« <ir>mini»ona wUch are at prcKot in bon^ except 
Ifcoae ctraifd of dntivr State oflk«n, and k-4na lo th' l,r|pda|ufe 
ihr (ptret and the dtiy to create re^KMtufalt puliUc ofBdab ta lh« 
plMc of invspomible conmiuioai, al Ike fioBic litne iflrixigg thai 
the Slate thjJI nrH gdcct Iflto panaenhlf) «iib asy bdSvUual, 
uaodatiua vt cocpurolioa im the payavnt of lb pdhGc oAciab 



i8i. S^tei^i Umiialiams mi iJte Ugid^m^ 

The prwalenc dbtmsi d aiate k^I^uns bia led to atmipU 
tt> TtMrut Ihdf <i4>]jr>rlLini1]r ft^r tv\i Uy pUriax In llir rojT«4iTu- 
tioi» fuBdoowntu and detailed finuUtioai oq dieir puwm. The 
^mfnl characirr of Ihnt UfiiilB<ioo> maj be garhnrfl by jl Mod/ 
m ihc fellowltt^ [iroTinopa Jrom tbc conscitutioa ci New VuHb: ^* 

Aftno-K III 

{ tT- Kifh hoitfc «hidl keep a jouroil of it% pRvfrdiiip, and 

Fcy, The 

publish ch« 

tKqjt itKh parb 

Lay rvqiurv 4ccfTh.j, > m<;: ^^ 
doofv of cftdi ho^iic »hall be kept open, cxcqK vhm the public cidi 
^nUuv >h»lE rt^tuirv Mcncy. Nclihtr houu ihall, witboui lb* 
comcnl of th« other, adjourn fur mare ihaa two diys- 

} If. Foruiy«pccchordch«lciaelihcrbnutrorihcF,<;eUUlur^ 
tbc tnonbrt^ shaB not b« quotioned in any other pln^. 

{ I j^ Alky bill n^ <iri|p&Ate in diher home od Ihc Fxf:t»litiirc^ 
■mI all UIU (MUnrd by ooe ho^ar ;Eiay bv sniemlcd by thv other. 

I 14' The enocliiig clawc «l all bilb ihjjl bv " The People oS 
the State of New York, npraMikted in Senate and Anombly. do 
«iuict aa foOow^," and oo lav ilull be oucted excq)t by btlL 

I 15. NobJIIahatthcpancdorbecocDealAwimlcMitthallbtw 
httn prxntfKl xmi upon the detki of the mfmbm, in lis 6daI tcmn, 
^at least thrrr (^lendnr IcffuliiiTe day« prktf Co iu (laal pasa;(e, 
fonleai Ibv Comracv, ur ihe actiag G<fiYr9ur, Hh«Q hare colxficd 
' the sectMly of il» ■mzwdiatepoaaf^ uDdcT hU bond and ihc Mai 
the Slaw; nor ihall Ktiy fcfil be pastod or bcicome a law, ntctpi 
tha iMeM ot a nujofily of the mctnbfn elected lo each brendi 


American Government and {"olmcs 


qf th« Lqtblniun; oDd apoo Ibcliat fcftdingof A tdB, n 
Ihoraf thall 1>fi alLvwcd, ftnd ihr quceiilon upoft Un fiikol prrt^yf 
thai be OkrA iiuninlKitrljr Ebfnaflrr^ uid the yc«a ud *njf 
«Al«nid on thr JoomaL 

I t6- Ho prinit or Lx^aI lall, nhkfa nuj bf putcd by lli« Lc^>' 
Ulurv, thaJl crobrMc bkia ibas oiur lubjott, oad thai aIuUJ be et- 
pmttc^ b iho dik. 

1 17. No ta sboU be potfcd which »lult pnwidc iKai any c-dsi- 
fag iiw, or uff pui Ihmitf, slisB be taaAc or deemed a poft of 
mid mc\, <ir whkb 4b*II en4i:i thai anj rniing bw> or pvi ihec^a^ 
thdl be ai^ilicaUe. eiccfX bf uivninfi U a »uch uL 

f iB. TlU U^slihirr ifa«U oul j>ni 41 {irink or b^cal UD m 
BOj of ibc Mlowing Gksa: 

Chugtng (he ni^mo o4 pcnooA, 

Lfpng oui^ c^ciuAg* olleriog, worinng or diaoontinukqg po*<Ii, 
hig^WAyi or idlcfitt or for dmlning iwiunpH or Mher kiw Iad^ 

Locatiag or chAii^:i|E county seiti. • 

Pfcrklitqc lor (litngci of venue ib lItU or crloiiiEttl i_ olh, 

InuoqMMStiJQg vjlUge*. 

for dectioii of oMnbeft of boirdfl of fiajwrrisoiri. 
Iroiii; dnw^ nuamordiift. or inpia&efiiig grud oir |vtk 

RefuUlb^ rtkr rale oJ Inlrr^ on montj. 

lilt opeouu lUd conduclititf c4 ekdiiiai or ilciignfctinn fJ^frt of 

Cmiiag, itKnaaia^ oe ilccra^iif fce»k pvnnibfM or . 
flif piAlic officen, during the bun for vUcli aud offieen tfr di 
or tjipotnied. 

Gnnling to adjt Anporatioo, ««iOculion or ukdmdujJ tbc tight 
to bj dnwA raOrtoxl tr^ck* 

Giuilicig to cmy privale corponino, ■■wtinlioti or individiul 
uj odudvc pii^^legr, bnmidcy or frftoehbt whaievcr. 

Orafldng lo any penxm, ueod&iios, finn or corporatiom, a 
emnplfioQ from lamtioo oa tval or peniwAl ptc^tttif, 

VnrMa^ for bidkUiv brUfn, amd chanerii^ eoanpoBia for 


Th« Sutc Lo^shture 


«ucll puqi^iftc*, tKt\4 on Oir Nudum KEirr Iwlow W^lvrfinl, 
■Dij Dii ihc Ewt RivtTf o€ over IhK uAicTi furimiift a ptn of Ihe 
bouiuUnc* of iht tuu. 

Th« Iri^latun fliiH psv feocfal bv» provMiog fior tbe coics 
utumcrnicfl in ihia $«tiaa, uid Ibr fttt etlHr cans vtikh b ii« l!^ij[L**^| 
jud^mrnt may be provMcil lur tiy p^ncntl bvn. fiui no Uw aIuJI 
niiihorue tbe conalrucrioii or opersBun ul a tfrccl nilra;kcl cxtpl 
upon ihe corufillon thji ihr comvni uf ibc vwrxn of oor Jialf In 
«alu« of Lh« properly buomled oo, vid the cooevnt abo od iIk lucil 
»uthoriiic« having ibc comicil of, Abc ponloot of t smct or hifbinv 
upon uliich it id proposnl to cooimict or operate wicb nllrmut be 
tint obuincd. or in oue the coascnl of mcb prapcvQr amttn 
CJMinAt brnhc.tinH, tht Apj^flUtr iMvukmof eh«S««pmn« fourt, 
in fhe dc^uitnicnl in flrfaidi if it prufXHcd lo I* ctmBtniclpd* ma/, 
upon «pf)lkstiun,sppijint Ihm commi»inncr> who iJihU itrtfrrTtinr, 
Bftcr ft hming of ftU portia inMnstcd, vtidbcr sudi rulrond 
ou^ht i» be rononjcicd at opcnied, itAd tfadr dcicnciafttioQ, 
coafirmed by tbe court, nu/ be Ukcn in tie«i of the cooacM uf ibe 
priJiwrty nvmcn. 

i tg, 'Rie IngUlaturv fhftll nnthvr audit nor allov any printe 
claim oc KcouBt o^unU tbe Sl«tc, but may appropriate »on«y Eo 
pay «ucb claim u Aall bave been auifii«d aod allDvrcd acc«nS«| 
Id law, 

I po- The menc of ivnvthtrdt (^ the nactnbcfx doctod M eitb **< 
bmiirb of the le^itlahue ihall be irqubifr to evny btU ajipropriol- ^ ^j 
m^ the public money* or ppopcriy foe locaJ or private purpcoo^ 

j at. No rnnofy »hiill ever be paki Out td tbr trr^my of thai 
Sute^ or iny *iS tbe fuodi under ili tnaai«scflDeat> rxcepc In ponn- 
ance of an appvopdatioo by bv; nor onlew fiutb pxymcai be 
mode vkfain twQ yeas ant after the paaaife ol mcb opprofirUEioo 
mi: and evoyMcb law oifthinf anew appropriaiMU^oir owdnu- 
ing or levfiriflt; an approptuiton, shall di^dactly ifieHfy Ifac auia 
appropriated, and Uw obivct to vbirh it a tn be applifd ; :iiKt it 
«hall not be auflcfat for tucb law lo xvfer to uiy other law la A% 
■uch sum. 


4^0 Amcncan Govcmm^Rt and Politics 

J ». No])toTi&loiiur«n&ctinfAii(hilll>«eBabRiccd£aihe 
ippiropriatios or uipply biU, uaJ«is tt rdato spcclfic^U^ to tocnT 
pojticDlar appropriAiinn in the ImTI; u»d any such |>rorui*oo *:r 
intctmecii Ui&tJ b« liinitH f n its DperatkiD to such AppjxiprMliott. - . - 

{ n \\Vfry Uw fchh^h imfHia*-*, i^scslintici nr ptmit* a lax ahiJ 
dUtiotlly tUlc the Ux jihI I^c «l>j«l I" which it Li lo be l^)flliod, 
&nJ U shall nut b« su^ctcnE to tcfet lo any oUio law lo Jix such C&c 

( t$. On Uic linnl pouogc, in dthcr bouse ci Ui« Lc|{ift]siuiT, 
of Any art whicli ifDfiOftci, roniinuca <>r revive* & Ux, or crvuto a 
debl <a ihttT^c, or moltfi, nt^ntinurs nr Rvirr^ xny &jjf jrxTpruilaQ 
of |>ubtic vr (ruil niuiiry ur pruprity, i>r nlvuvi, discb4Ui^tt fv 
conmutes any cbum ur d«miLiu1 of the Sljit*. the quertioz) shall he 
bkcQ bf ycu «nd njiyK which shall be duly entend upon the 
joarn^, ufid ihnC'Afths of &I1 tbc menibcn elccud n oifacr house 
■hnJl, ifi ill sucb ruesL, be neccaaaiy to cooslilutc ■ quorum Ibcran* 

A»nctK VII 

cndii Skc- t. Tb« credit of die State shall not in uiyBiAaii«rb« ^Ttft^ 
or 1a40«d u> ur tn ud v\ any individual, oASociotloo or mpoTaiton. 

f t. The Slate nay, lo n^erl eoRkol deficits nr fuluret in nw- 
PMA, nt lor ecpcAwi not pmviikd for, eocklracE deUt; hui %\uA 
debit, dinci or coitliii^iit, unffiy or in the aggngotc. shall not 
■imy tliwococdoftcnlUMcioft&ollars; and die mowys trioiitf 
frum Ibe Was cnadog such M>U tlsoll bv applied lo ibc pm^xMe 
for viricb tbc7 vcre obtained, or to repay tbe debt m cootnctedj 
and lo no olher purpcttr whileiYr. 

f j. In oddilioa lo xhe sbi^ve Hibilcd power to controcl dobu, 
Ifae Slate tatj rmErofl (kbl« in repel invaikii. wpprtH insuN 
R<;1iaci, or ikkod the Stale In w«r; but Ifae UMoey ondt^ Irons 
ihi conmcUng of sucb dcUt hhall be apiJhd to iW purpctta for 
«hkb k w*s nfaed, or to rqioy sycb debts, and lo no other pur- 
poAc wholevcr. 

f 4 £vcTpt ibe dctili f^odfied \m sections Ivro and Ibne ol 

The State LcgixUtuK 

ihlt arttrit, do dtbfct thull be hfrcafirr c<muacle<l by or fii lichtif 
oi UiIh 5l«te, unlcm nuch debit «>u!] be Aulhixivd \ty > Uw, for ), 
mmc lingk »ort or obj?i.l lo bf dutinctlf ipedfiDd ibefcui ; ind 
»uc)i iaiv (hojj impiMc and profidc fur {he ooJl«cdoD of & dirtct 
Unual uz to pay, tnJ suiDdttit lo par, ibv inloM <m such debt 
OS ic fdb due, ind ^mi to pay uid dbchvgc the priariplc ci Kucb 
debt within iiiiy jv^n frwn the liiM <d (hr foolruttiis thrnol 
No tuch law fth&]| uIec «fifft until it sbjiU, «l a gpncrd ckctjoo, 
have bt«n *ubmiticd lo thr i«-ii]'lr, mid huxv m.-«iied ■ oiMJocity 
ci£ «II tb« volci i-Afrt fof iJid agun&i U M Hjch cUclJ<«i- On the 
6n*l puwge of luch bni In clihrr hoBM of iht legblAturf, tbe 
^UCBtfioo thAU br taken by Ayes aad noci, 1c be duly entered on the 
jounuLi tbfirrc/, txtd hhAlI Ijc: "Shal Ihiik bill pMs ^^^ oujcht 
Ihcr tfair lo rrcriTr Ibr aMirliun uf thr peop^P" Tbr kif^alure 
cn<y at any lime, aitet the ifipirrral nf »uch law bj- ibc pniy^lf, if 
no dtbt sljaU havr breo tunliactcd bi pur&uaai:^ tben-uf, rrptil 
thi; unr ; and may it any tine* by law, fort^jd the CDOmcilns of 
oAy lunhcT debt cr liability under such la«v ; boi the tai impoaeA 
by Aucb acL in proponioo lo tbe drbi and liability wbicb may 
havrtirrn rocttntrled in purvjiLncenf fiurhUw,iihjJt nrmatntn force 
and br inrpcalablc, iod be annually collected, until ibc pruccedA 
tbetvof fthaH have CDMle the provUloEi heiviitbcforv i^iocifiod to 
pay and dktcharsr the intcrrBl und j^rincipal of weh Ml aikd 
Kabflity. The money arislitg ftx^m any loan or dock creating 
vurh dcN or liability »hal1 be appKed to the work or ohjr<i ^prc^ 
fiod in the act wUhorLnng utcb drbt or liability, or for tbr pay- 
VBcnt of aucb deb< or Babtllly, and If* no Athrr purpov whatever, 
Ko RKb Uw fhail be lubmalled lo be voled on, witbrn Ibrw 
mocitht after Ita pMnffc or ai any ntneral election when any olbcr 
law, cr any Un Aall be njbra>ited to be voted h>r <ir agalmL 
The leKbiaiure may provide tor ibe U^ie of bondt of ibe Sisle to 
run fnr a period not exceeding 6fty jvnra fat Beu of bonds hotfo- 
furc autboriaed btit not ibdMI «ad fliall InpMe aod provide for 
the lollcciion of a direct annual lai for Ibe payment of the sxmc 
Mi bmelnbcfon t^wtrd. Wben any aiaiiftg twd created under 


Amcncin Ctovcrnmenc and Politics 


thf» i^cikftt iluU cqud in ftimuni tho debt fcr whkb it tras rn-' 
aUiI, nu fvrtliiT direct ux ftfaaJl bv krted cm accouni of %aiA 
aukifks fund >nH thi> IcRi^alLirr ^hall rrduoe ibc tax U> &n uaouat 
equal Co the anrui^Lj iDirrryi im -.^it h <lchi. 

The problem nf IcgitUllTe ifiiwiIooRMni — one of thv t] 

□K New York conatUutiozial coovcoIioD of 1S94: — 

M«- S»«HJ[. Thit proponlioA wparted by jriwr ComtTiictec om 
Apponioamciil IcK^raief the Sciutc fTrim tkirty-lvo to fift^ mem- 

puhlicin snd «j[hicvii Dcmoouiic, actordiag to ibe gipprvnvd 
«sdfiiAlc& of ibc npfrU of your Rcpublfcaji majoriijp a^ publMhrd 
fin the Xew Vcvk Pre^ 1 Rcpuhlicbir orsvi^ TIk axvmh^ b 
iacfriArd fmm i>A Ifi 150. EJf tbi« 150, ninctV'OQe ttr to b« 
K«fiubZkaiiA inri fifiy'^inr UrmMnb^ Evh ttouw will bt 

« naiurv tJMi sbuuld iIm DvmucnU Kury tlic Sum by » iPftJorttj 
of 120.000 (hi^ mould not be able to cdiutoI both Hqiucs of tbe 

Thrti TIM odtipi tbc English id<», rbe plan on whicb mcmlwrt 
of rArlftunrnt wcir Hei^icil in Fnf:l*n*1'* moKl cnrrapc d*j^, of 
^vjng rcproealatio« t« i-ou.riTH irmiprttitT 
WliBi U Uwre Mirtd about counly Uiw« ih&i you 
upcn ibem in your pvopuftitkn ind nport. Tbe tounty 
fiftjD hu a poptilailoa of IJ1J35, a third of ibe ntmibcr to cntitk 
it I0 a Mf^brr of iht ,\vcnibly, tiiH you ^rc Putnam avantj an 
AurmblyEUn. ti tUt hccntftf Fulnam county i> RqMibtican? 
Schtty^r iifWily hm i^^jjA popuUtictfi, Irv ibAn bilf the raiSo 
you hiW &nd of j8,6o6. It b to \»w an AfBCCDUytnao bec&uie 
Scbuykr county b lUpublican? 

Yott mk 10 apfieal to prv|odke to uray the ruial ctiumS»» oi 
the Scale a^lnn \itt dtln. Yoa aim ai afmuitifi ihc agrkbttunJ 
bitetett* ik^aiiM ihr conunmiat anil inlniirial, VHiJit a« >I1>"^ ' 

cf r»wmlMin^i| 

toutttrof Put^ 

The Stjite LcgUliture 


WhiLi a ^pMladf you are nukng not <nif Id ihe rciidtou of ibt 
fitKs w^ni ym thaia buid ukd foot, but t<i tbv runl vvuntws 
wiram jtya aik Id \«ii| ui the cilin (be pnjudkc vbkh juu Ncck 
iio ftTOUM. Lci Qt uulyu thJK vD?i ti( odrwt |jiuiUAB»hE|i u-falch 
yvu tuiT dtviMd Vou uke ihr Suic SenAtooi <d tSgj, with the 
dtiJKti populatton of the Sune, 5,790y^5, tml wiih Ally SmMe 
dfeina^ nulw fcvr mki n5,KiT, On ihr hk^^ d hsi fAtt't 
vDtt, il '"ill r«luire ^,9^ Democnli lo rkci 1 Ikriaocr^iic Suiie 
SciuXor and oiily 17,061 Kq>u1jljc>n» to dec! 1 KqnifaiicAn Sutc 
SrHMlijr. Thrw RvpuUiizafi^ «tll luvc u icucit n-pn»coui>ini u 
Hit DcoruxnU- Such ui AppanSonmcui it a iro^k of ku 

Taktntc ynur oim fiiguna ta priMed ia jour irpon, DocurkhI 
No, 65, ki tu «ee when are the tUdritti «ihkh havie mure ihon Ji|^" 
the rftlio ukd where xtr. itie dj^mrt* whirh hftvr Icm. In Ktnp t^ 
CDontjr iFou have 5S,7b4 i^iii»n» Iffi or«r, ciuouxh to be ratjlled 10 
*iiuih«r StBA^iT, « ruUirry of tiTir DmHxniji. Sn^alor ut mUiiIoii 
to jDur gnrymiLndcr of tbr Bruuklyii Uutfki- la ciny N>w V^ffk 
Qty lUsofct jou hftTc cnwijcd the ratio ud dIfifrvwblHd 34.1A0 
dttena. In Wctichc^tcc coimny you have extredtd the mrio 
>3i4^' 'n thf:v lhrt« counties nlaee, aU erf thcoi Dcmc^nuif; 
your ewrw h irtTT 100,000- . . , 

Ma. UAvnct:. Tbc b«iic kdc» of ike whole icbcse, Lbe fuund^ ^1 
ikn vpon vt^hich the whole Khrane iMtt. b the grc«x defect In Ihli ^„ ||)!u 
nsuvR- Il incnve* the numfaer of Blenben of Ancnbly uwnli^ 
ffom lift to 150; it lncttA*e!ilhe MBibef ofScAAMTi from ihiny- 
lwv> to fifty, AQ iDcmBv of forty nieait>res <rf the Lep'btutr, wlih- 
oui any njiuMi wtuuetce. Will any grialemeA Id nf whai good 
rrucd rjuiiB for tliis brge i«tc?rwv in ihr ni«nahrr«hi|i <i the l-r|t- 
bUiun? Hu ibecc been viywbcrc e ckmend For it? Haw 
the people, by petMeos, thnwfb the oolumoi of the a e w ipefw ft 
nywbercnadeadtfniadbeihisincitMe^ IKIuu ^ood purpow 
does h RiilMrvf ^ The |Mir|>ov of {| i^ |iolJlka] and poliiicil only. 
Then U no nrjoon why an A.<iBCfBl>ly erf 150 mrmbtft tHIl do ihc 
buirfne** of the SiMo aoy hclto', any moee laiiifactfelly Ihan an 
AjBCMUy of taS meiaben. Tbcrc b 00 n-joon ^by a Schide of 


American Govcrtimtnt ind Politic* 



Gifty TDfrmben iriTI do tbc tnifinm of tht Sl&ie vrith Aiiy 
ntitfkctioM lo ihe pt<j^ uf 4 Suic tbui a Setuiic- c>f ihinjr-tvm 

libs rtcu^vivilprindplv 111 l>ufiik«lliiMon',iilricl] httabc<an* 
ukiniaiic, i^M (be lar^rr tbe cDTuliiurncy witbfn & nuoaiUe 
tiraili tlir Lciivr rrpmrauxlvc ti^ill jou j^L lliU Ui not dcnitd 
by uiy iiudenis of poUlkal tdstofj. Tins loeaaanc tnicodi u> 
fLAmiw ilir (vmtilnicncbt, ao\ to broAdcn ihcn; fntcrub Um ma^ 
Itu^m trTdMrr^ And no( litgrr; lint for a i>oIiticftl punxne, and a 
pc^hUliul |>uq>ijne <inly, coAmtmcs Itie uvlT-knowa Uvorj <tf 
V^filn^l ^iii(ory a^d pcUlk^ ctmiomy cIiai ■ larioe tun^iiuoicy 
U n«:irc ipt in rtfuni * good iwinbrr lloii > ^m:ill one, ^fonr^ the 
Congrws of the UnEud Suirs coiifibia oJ ftbovi 350 nmnljrtv. 
Tbov mcmbera trpiMeni between sisty ind wvtniy mtltim* <if 
pcopJr, and jvt grAilcmrfi upon the ruh^r ndf cJ thi? Hou^ fmf 
Uiii i?^ Mf^^n of fL^wnUy bit not enoui;h ta numlwr to 
fitly 4IkI ndcquiitHy rr^meril aboui vix milEcini ul proplc. 

Mil CuoatEh Mr. Cliaimijc, it is nut fur (Ji«t du^i^t popuJA- 
Ikm, populir cottm, oun far nun. hju etrr bvra in thb Stale, ihe 
boAis of repn^couikfii in ihr Lf^Uttirc- We nnc Dut a pur^ 
Denkxnfy; we ue not vx impinic KqtubHc- Wc an; a rrfirp- 
•raiJlitr ijoVfrnswat h<i fiv xi il^ trirtdnlivr body and ihc de^dioii 
out of W^daiirc puu«n arv concrmcd. tW Itir gtrtl officcit of 
St»ie, the rknen:«T uid olhef gttai of&cT*. we note man by nun 
md lb* majcirity ntka. In ibc bigWt JudicEiL cvun uf lb« 
vc vote fat tbc »nie vay, pepulir «ovenIgn1y, popubr inajovfly, 
or, M vty ntXt pofHilAr jilonlllj< 1l bis ntvcr httn fw. It nrvrr 
will be n, if aever att be so, in n^frta to tbc SemJe tai Ai»cmbjy, 
We itirai bo rrpte^tniled Ly dlMrku; »« muix be iTpR«etUed by 
conntin: vtc imsl be repf^umccd by ncnr form of lenhuriAl 
dMiMicv WbcD roy intnd^ on thU ^le ol tbr cfaunbcr uttccdo,^ 
OS tbty mviA ^tiorede, tA ihey b&vr conoeiM, thii. ibey tivt nvty 
the wbole of the ar]ti:mciit mhkh Mr 0»b<im prr?qedied> bdjicd 
tipno oq«ft] popuUr repnaenution- Why, ibm- it the Ifltlc rounty 
of INtfikm of bu, with 13,000 pocqile aod the adjoiiiiag comty 

The Sutc LcgLsbturc 

Wr^trhfMcr wiih i>;,eoo, thai, ftctWbig to hb th^rj oufhi 10 
IwT irii IrmrA u iBurh, XubodjT hiu cvrr iJrtaint<1 uodcr this 
or Any aihet «pporii<mmrfil, of ^vtng 11 more ihnn thrre limrft 

Wh«i ck» ihc people of ihk Slite oome 10 Ike LegUUtun foe? 

To Bokt Uvn for llit whole Suic; to re|)>rc»cnl the «hule Statp. ^^^uS 

and each pim of Oic SuUe is intcre^ictl in iV mbole^ My Mend 

'dcwn h(TC u|ion thl» ildc Uicicd w If iil Ihr wc^llh ui-uAilUttd 

in Ihe dly of N«w Vori^ ou^hF lo &r il ibc boaai and (ondatifin of 

•F^konionment- Who osite Ihe maflnificeni hubor which U the 

l-louflilatiun of >ti her |jnj^irTiiy uxl ihoc jcitaI ntcr^ whkh nral 

tnldutjuh oificral herdoor? Wbjr, ibe lUlkoKtnty of Nui^m 

JxH^x Ju&c a« v^ll <UJni to own ftv Icwif the C»iAfaci of Niiffdn, 

that oUwr iAxinder a! the world at tbr oihtr end of ibc Siaic. No^ 

ttr, they tome ben rrfktrvntLng ihcvi dETvuon^ ud the AfM rute 

ilwap h:ii hren, and al«ajri uiLl be, I b^linr, that earh one of 

Ithm divthioit«, thcitf rau&liea whkh have bem fdnnni m |>olilical 

>45]ri>iuD:i fur tbe very yrwptfat oi being tlw t*D|n> of hijme ruk. 

you pleoM. of local gaivenment, — ctcry one of iben bAc liic 

Tf^U ofld ibe cq^ttl ri|;ht: <nd if Uiere were but alxty cou&iirs, 

if thfte were but dtty Rpidenlaiives, they muu be di^tnhvted 

Ihrv liity touniioi, npcA evfty doeirinr ibat h» ever 

ia thb SUte; and the litiir county of Pubiaai b that 

fcuc would be cfidlled lo the Mine numbef in that aaaeniUy a» 

grvai county of New York. 

Ur. C1ulnnan> if you wuit to go, for exanpk, U> paod Demo- 

oitk aatboriiy. 1 want to give you miw oq thb docufae in »u^>iH<n 

of thb propoiMlion that is iqivnenled in ihci vherae: that it 10 

t6ft <hat the fSn*Mx the lerriloriAJ eilcol of a lillle and [xmr 

cotinty Ihe gmier ahall be its reprsentalkin in Ibe pofiulaf beancb 

of the Leffiiatufv, Honda — h not that a good Deaiocf&lie 

"Suce^ Did anybody etrr hew of a VUpuUicAn cnieriB^ it* 

bonkn eicept for the purpose of «iMncr ncmiioa or lor the in- 

Ikn of fnud? Horida ny%t "TIk repffivntBiInn in Ifae 

Houw of RrpsesenUlivfs tball be ^potlkmrd among the sfTeral 


The Stan LcgiaUntte 


In ihe hurry and prribftble confudon d fha momrni, no one but the 
mom- (11 the AmrnHmcnt iiuj' know cxicil; u tini JC fa ctf |«« it 
affr^ti Ihr lulurc ami ^uhjrf i-mditcr 11/ llw UM ll nuijr ndkai!/ 
rhAEiKT (Jir bill, and jrvl ft paiao, nrliuHV bdng pJacitd on tb« 
Matcmcnb cf ihc mov^ of ibc Aiuvndmcni, wbo may himKlf 
haw mi>juijg»d lu eiTei-i in chanpn^ ihe bOI. 

Thit irlil prrreni that. This nukci £1 ImpcrttKie- ih«i rvfry 
bit] n\iM have IxYtt prinied And iif>nt tbr (ImIgs of the mrmbcri 
at tf ui onf calf ndu" te^tlatinF lUjr Mon it oin be vomi mjhm or 
hcfAfv It ctn be |KUj«ct, amj iM ilv lliini rraduiif no ftawodoimt 
fan be mMir lo iu Qur can any dcbiic be had. 

ll ii an ex««dlr]icly commiDQ ifaln^, and hnppRit m rvtry ttnuon 
of oar LcfblatUR thai ui apptOTotly inMcni£cd»l anirndMrM U 
offeted <in ibi; third Ecading of a hilL 'I'hr bilJ [>aiwe» wtth &i. 
The amrndnMmt miy br imiDcnit of itiflf. It thfii gcir« into (be 
rnfCmwTig nxim« and what wa^ Wfl undent t<i chaii]Qi; the naim 
uf the bill on ic» third rr>iiiing k iluue in the fngroBUg ruoni, awl 
it 0DC1 lo the Go^^rTTHir, uid tto one know^ how the ■meniiinvni 1 
^t bi, o&d It cam be mftd u do one in putkular. All rrt know 
b ihal ihc memben have T04ed upon 4 feriaio boll, and «hcn ii 
rcacbtd the Gflwitvir in wia an eMfarly dtffcrmi Sill- 

The dlflicu^ka in the wty <if «oand kfpdatioa and «U|C|inlii)a* 
for ImpnnmiNSt in k^sladvc metbodi are thia suatnKd up by 
a comminno appcinCH in New Y<^k in iSgf to faiv«iti|[ntr Ibe 
vbok pnbhoi of loidlifcM kv mokuMt: ^ 

By far th« nujor pan of th« UIU mhlch an pnacatcd to ibtr Bs* 
f^cfutalHic an dnwn at the iTutts^tioB of private or tocal Inicr- 
«<9t«. 4nrl frrqurMly wkhout rqtud dihcr iA ihar effect tipo« tihc 
gcDcraJ body of Ir^btioo oi the Suit, or upncis «dvrtv mirmb, 
or upoo any uiC<f«M> olbrr thac thvc which prompl ihr dnw* 
ini; of ih« bUk. Thq* m povsoted divine ihv gfuUr patt of 
the Iq^datifc snoMm pfiicdt^y vftbout fimltatloQ as bo tim 
^ IntTodvecioii, and wiihtiui aolh:c of thdr purpoMs 10 hMcRaia 


Aroericati Government nnd Politics 


to be ^cct*il. Thtfy coise Snxa ihe LegUblare In cudi 
md Bumbea IhM ibcir ptcficj coiuddcmtMia b ImpoMihle, 
on Ihc put oS the comnilttca vhir^ hare ihcm in cfaftqw, wiMne 
dill/ DocQuuH/ it b to dignt^ cionuoc, vtudj and h«w; heul^ 
iipoo rvTf}* inrjifiirr whJrh U lufimiitrd lu their carr- 

No rrflcctioa i^ iii£<^Al tu he made iqwQ tb« coramiUccfl cw 
itmt meobcn for ibe noo^pcrfonnjiKv oe poflial pcfformaiKe 
of a duty whicli to become too ockioid tor bunua poMihniQ^ll 
When pnscfttcd u tbe Soube or Aattmbfy, ftikd pbced npMi tfal^ 
filce of mcimb«n En prinifd form, thrj ar« pmeoled «{ih » fini^ 
method a» to pmrediirr, vhett thry *rv to be oonudctr*] ou ectocvi^^ 
leadivic ot in luotAhleM vi ihv Hbule, thai i\ a pr^ticuWy ini9| 
pooible for ei-CB iht Ust iofonned uxl cnoHt ukdoralous legi>- 
Uior to tindtmand vfaai ^ngtt ut bcin^ nude In die eiuiing 
Uw, oe to keep h&niAtU 4d infonned oA to the major pert <il ibe 
kl^Utino, dnnng ib p>u«Jl£c in th« Srtixte nr Aurmljly, m 
cmdN a dclibrrale jud^mnl bdmv he vi>te^. It b na et<1 
agfcntiort to uy lliat il u pliy^liallf im^puuiblr fur him to vnn 
md ibe oontenb uf hU lAes dunuK the ■caicia, m addition to ibe 
perfotmofice of ho* oLbcx ducio. The conntf^ucnre U ihot wooJIy 
eech memtwr tako ui active pcoomd iatcrcu in tht bUU wbarh 
cone frocn hii own mnoitucncy, and ftomclimes Ubc« aci inlrrat 
la the grorr^l htlh vrtiirh come brforr Ibe fegjftlarjvf 1ji>(Ih-i, a&<l, 
■A U> tbe rcnundcr, ctvoitiivtias Ibe va«t majority of ibc bUto, 
k coBtpelled, in ibc UniEuoicr of Stnalor Ednoiidft to tnoct, by 
hb vote, the mroiiurc* Into laws "in the bope (bat fortune ralbrr 
than lime, study oad itdccdon vlll ukt care that ibe pobK^ luflrr 
tv> detnmeet" 

TliBi Commiuban iovitod Ibe ojiiidoQi of pemnt of targe Iqiia.- 
U6vr experience, and at MTveraJ •mwoa have hem fotxirrd by 
ibcif allcndancc and Ibdt vi«wi- TbcM bai been a federal 
i^rtenkcal with the riewi of ibr CooiraMoa on the pirt of ibove 
«bo have beeo ibiu invited and attended, tbai to sociara bcUer 
kfjiilndoa la Ibe fetun It ii nccoury to ixkcthodiac and imjintre 
lepUotion \m the foDoving pnitkvlan; 

1^ Scare LcgiiUruK 


Fisi. — Thii atl primtc and locftl bJIlt, bduttiac btlla which 
niale to mWkifipAlidta. oholl b« filed tilbtr before the he^manj 
of the If^sUlityi vuiotfi or vithm thirty d^ Mi>Te thdr pre- 
ftcntalion to ihr I^»Ultir«. unJ&s ihe Gflvenvor ol the SitOt 
tskc* u^jcin hiniiclf the re«tioiiiitiilHy of niikin|[ a Kpraul mxim- 
RicndativTi uf ur^RtLy; iiiiJ ihjl ruch Intl Bhall bv socwniKUiied 
with proof that a nodcc was duljr publUied or pcrMtuBy JCiived, 
or both, M lh« dminuuiK«8 of ib< cast imj ^^q1^^c, on emj 
tnlcRst wludi BUf be oflMied by swh IcgislalkiD- 

SrcADdp — Th«t thr itctitlnn Ear mch IffpiLUlkin itHtM iri fOflh 
ito general wpc, obj«tl ind utiKty. Thb petition nay h« in* 
nmtd in wntins by uiy &dvenc bitcreil. Such pdHioo, ami 
OM or mon anfiw^n whfth paii;iJte of the D>iurr of plud' 
bigt m A dvil 9U1I, shall be filed wtth the bill, Aod these 
pttitiont AAd coufi1e^|)cliljolul, duly »j[ncd, shall AC(om|>Any 
Mch b'U oJ this dunicter duno^ the whole of ha Ic^Utive 

Third. — Hint Co«imitlns o( Rrnnao* both Sm«tc iLiid 
Avtmbly, riiouU hvrt Iheir powvn tniuicd for the coiuiden- 
lion of dl mcwc*. both pubUc and primte or beal. 2nd thftt 
c*rh of siitfh i'omnutiDcai tlull be udsied in En l«bon by a lawyer 
of at teul Cm you«' BUadtfi|fj vrith tn a4riliuce Mlary !o infutr 
prQ|iet laieat, who sball ^ve such utbtanti at miy l>e rtfcenuy. 
Tbr«w cvmmilCn* 1u m:1 u *t|iiiary comnijtirc^ for rednfiiiig 
tnib, imd for ncofnoieiidiiioiu ;u to ibtnr «0ect, with tugj^odiocii 
V CO thdr optrtdon upon die gcoend body of the bir, aad K» 
potM DUE coiutiti^oaal or other ddecta. Such cotmsel Bo be 
appoifttcd by the Gorentor, lientcEunt CoTemor and ffpeokcr 
ol the Houst, for ft l^ttd term. 

Fourth. — Tliat a day calftidar ulial! be prioled one day id 
wivaiice ami ifiitribyl«4 Bibooit 1M ncfnbtn. 

nfib- — That fSfMcal pubfic meum dK>uU be referred be- 
fore puwge to the ComnMoncn 10 Rerin: the Salute*, ft> rq»n 
upon the effecr of anxh Tnes»<«T4 and thdf pluce in 1^ body of 
the ttahite bv. 



470 American Government and Politics 

SSxttt. — Thai (ontmlnecft of Ibc Legukturc ijioulcl be 
|iovnml V> Uke iTfltimony. 

Scrvnlh. — Tb«t crvry oooMnittee lliouM b^ (rcjuired Co 
Ibt privit« ftad bod bIB* whUh bave bc«n submJiicd to it, wi 
the rvosont for xtt uclioii, Wpiltjn j tcrtwa number of djtjrs ^flrr 
the bill htf hoen ccimmlucd to m cjtfo. 

EA|bth. — Thnt «omo of the ^ttite Comminco ahauld be 
Urnctf, ikinkuUrly surh tcimmittrvi oa hurt imposed upua tfarm 
Ihr nuii^F iincniut f1ifUr« of lh« IrxttUhvc VAiftn, *uxh at tbv 
CociinJItrc oD CiLio, Uii? CommiU^ on Ti^jincv, Ikt CoRimlUve 
o« Judiniiy. 

Ninth, -- Thai a proportionate &hitv of ih« pciiuing ei|vciuM 
inHdcni m a Ic^ladTe setdon, whiih uTaanntcd, during the Ust 
M«&k>i>. to iHv Mim of $100,000, >^ouId he hnnic b)* lh« poriwi 
inlcTaicil in the btib, and in wha»i: intc-rot and al whoac rc^ 
bfcb^UlIon U loiuidcied, iMJiiculArly momed cofporaiiom, ■ 
cotpontioini ur pri\'«te indr^uiti^ 

Tcnlli, — Thv jstfocnl Uiv« thtialt] be comptcud u rapjdfj u 
poaaOilc, :k[K| utL public »atu(w ifaould bv ifiLorpor^od Uto Uirm 
or islo one of the Cmltt. 

Efavmih, - Thai lU billA airurfidAtory of tho leocnl Uwi, 
or or tbc Code, should rttf^ bncft^ ia didr tilk 1o the guicrml 
aiilkjeci in alutb tl^fjr idaic, 

Twrlith. --11iit *tl jiEirudtntfiib (o Cilj Cluitcn or (o the 
fCDcml [oanidpal icoiqxin&a bwv tbouki briefly Msle in ibo 
lllk the >ut»J«l of Ibc MtdoH of ibe Si&ioio vriilch vt piopoAed 
to be *inf nded. 

Thirlwufh, — Th»t irilb rrStrtttct fo rvtrj UU liTcrlJniE any 
ckpaKiBcai of the aUt( gonmrncnr. <ir Ihr gcarral MlmimittalioQ 
cif the tiw v-j1>Jri:t In (he «u|>crvb>kin uf i^m^ dqMtfiiDcdtT noCltv 
ikc/tof tbil) lie gtvca to ibr Iwul of ibf defxtrtmrat havFAit th9 
admAtn^n of Mxh snt^jcct uadcr bi« lUfimidocL* and as 
opponunlcy illordcd hln lo be heard bcfom ibc btU b reponat 

iKT I 



Tht Sate Lc^tUtxire 


iS5> TJit LegisISkv C»mmilit)t ^ Inanity 

Owing In the cMnirfeiity erf the profcteu mhkh the ttodem 
lesiiULuri? u cumiicllcd to meet, il hu beco«ao a common pruftkc 
to appoini xprvul nommittcc* t9 vveMi(4le ipedfic prc^blcnu ud 
nfton eil^rr i^u>ueai£loia (nc ItgliljlluD or ciiD(ilrt» Uw» i.ov<7tn|t 
cenoiri topics, ThU pnuriicc b iHuflntiyl by ibne ttmcts from 
■ report t\t a jodnC irncnnijtttr appoaninl in N<rw York to icqtvre 
IfitD thciubjcci of hishvny Iinpfovtmcot:-' 

To tJte S^natt •ni .^«^mW>^' 

The Joat CMrunittcc of Lhc Scnatt ud Anfimbly, iip|»OEiklcd Ci 
puTMUuii 10 a oonmrrcnt rcMhiEioa ddjr aifepvod M^y ^9, [^;, "" 
•utnniCi Ibe fi^loving reporl: 

The itMludon dbeclcd the COnmilitt — 

to ioquiiT iQlo tb« nbjfCt c/ tbv oKthott* c4 cocnlnKlion of laifiRiTRl 
hi^hBiL)« ind lb* msiatvoafKc uid rvpura e4 all hiAhwjPv ic thr Stalv, 
tOKvifavrwf^h ibe CEAfrd ¥Lib{cici ufft praprrdrwIupnMM orthtvlh>le 

rm of hfffawtr ImptovcnicM la lie Su:t. a»] vton dmy It duC 
tie lorenae tml wnfad ibc U^wits Lws, >n<l torepoit loihe 

next Lr^il&lura on or bvforr Fcbruuy 15. IQOA, ihf RflJl of feud in- 
miiigAfiDi], «iiij tctwd H^WAY Law, Cfvrthct wilh ii^ oltirr UUa 
MceaMry to CiuTy itaa dToct the fcoaamiCTihrioni o( the ^oKtml 

Tlu Cmntttioe onviiicd July 34^ 1907, by dcctlnf Jothtm 
P. AU* u chiiinnaB, ChtfWa R. Hijtding u Miigcaxii-at-annit 
Mn. J, L. Uufny a ttraograpltcr, oad auihotucit lhc cmpli^- 
mnH (if Fnak D. Lyoo »rtd FriAk B. GUbm to wfet b tbc 
rvrisofli jumI «alificatioD of the Highway I^vr uid aba voinl Bo 
diipenv itiih ^nunvl olhtt tluA Ibe tmfkbymcfil of ibe awiifinci 
upon Ibt nrvikion ami ctnttliicatkin- 

IWCoaunitleclMguiUpv^lkbeaniiKi^ ihecouftcfl diaiiibtr 
Jq th» dry oi Buffalo upon October 14. 1907, ud chwd bit b««r- 
inp b Ibe dty of Ncv York on December joch. having Md 
hotriAp M Buffalo. Rorhc^ler. SytvriBc, Uliu. VfMmowtt, 
Albany. KevbuiigK and Stm Vock. aivl havit^ givui in thr rlrrk 
and <faainnaa ol the boud of s^>enriiac» of each cotioiy in Uio 


American Cjovcrnmcnt adcJ Politics 

SMIi due m>ikv i>f the unw o( ikt usvtii^ hcirincs ^nd bai 
cdarad sn opponuiiitjr lu be hMnl 10 ibe pQbfic orffidab of c^h 
couMf In the Suic, otiicr Ihu those vrbooe vhofe tcfriviry ira^ 
within ibc Unlu <if & dty. The coiBmiUoc wM Alt«ndcd upcKi b^ 
th« cocAlf rqireMDlAtivcs, includiiiir thr duinnvi of the ha«nl, 
ojhI county cn^nMr, whtrv the lumr cxiittivlj ani^ th<- ihAUnun 
cd the cciincniltn* oo good lojds- In nuny u»Unn« tht full boAnJ 
oJ lupcrvision of the reipocliiv coundes were proacat md .Jl o( the 
counties oflccln! by tht subj«ci wrre bvord En pcnon evccpt Iha 
in ft fnr iiutoocis th«x comrauniiMicd with the Cmnmittce in 
KiMniE »Rd la Iwn iiut»nr<n only vcn Ihf OHintirs not rcpcr- 
MsImI owing to Ihf faft [hit Ihi^ ^drcn of th« cW^ of the boud 
ot fUiMtvUoa waft dckijtlvc md the mriicc of the be^ric^ in tbil 
IricaBly waA latrr irtvumxl Lm the chiiniLin uf Ifav Oxnaaillw by 
li^e poti oAJoc dqMnmcQl oi uivlelivcnd. 

Bclvre oonincncing lis public liMrlo^, th« Conunlltcc consuJtod 
with the State EtigLnccr aad Surveyor u to his vicm of ibc pret- 
end coalition od Ibt Highway La a- la this Stale io far a^ ihc sam« 
nUtcd to the gpncral rrp^n ct all the highway of the State 
and abo at lo the working ul the pmbcsl ttaiulci iar the intjifove- 
ment of main highvAyi *nd iJbc nuintaming ol tbc Bame and be 
pot only rxpmccd to ut hu view ai to Ibe general pLu ai»d acopo 
ol heufag*, but M atrtn} heuiogs wv wen oxumM by a rcprc* 
aeniiljvr od Ut oficr and Ibcnby recched cnuiy vahiaUe tyg- 

ne jolat pEKJiitioB tvqarei your Omvutlee lirsU <« in*Ti(igalc 
aadnrpoft apoQlhtnxibodiofapropvrdcTdopDicnlof ib^vboli 
ijMn of Ughiny unpnrwneol; Mcmad, fci provide Cw co«amD- 
ciaft aial mihM»M«fie, uid iUni to oaatpJettly revne aad <3odU|r 
the pnacflt Highway Law. We ihcffftfrr hJi it laeumbeflf i^ioo 
ua la aecvn the fidlcaa expRMioA of the iv«<i nC ibe IxH officm 
ul every todJuo of rib* SUt«; t» vaamior ihr tUtarrt tA a* to d*>* 
linwuit the owlh i a W adoptal bq Eucofwaa ooualiia «ad n ta 
gfalrr Staloi «f lU» caiAtty mod, finally, w ilelcnniaed to «btaui 
Ibc vkwt ef tfai 5uia Gnagt and aoLure tbc tiWi mn a y of Ikt 

The Sattc LcgnUnm 


ckxlmta ot the Mchwty cqimoMom of Mmmc1hm<u, Cbfmertl- 
oit uuj New feacy as totbe pactic^ workinp of ibt nflpcoiTft^ 
■catuMs in thoar Sutes bccAtue » Uife tnouat d vmrk bu 
done in neb of ifaoc commoniFtaitbA ami tbfv rhn« hnvc facb 
difftrent fpEcm^ That of MaJMicbuxCti bong the ccnitslu 
tjrXeai, Cuflnvtticut llu town ffKlvm, And Nvw jrffvy tt«y bo 
cliancteriMd ntDcvitai nun pwp triy a» tbe cu-^fienlive «y>laiL 

It b twi ch4 lUtfiiJon, wliMa iba Unt» of ebb rqion, id <U>- a 
ciBB the fTBLl V4ricl7 of views vtich h«Tc been pn^nicid to yom ^7^ 
Comnuttce- Twi> volameK of ■c3ilinii:ii:ty hurt becci takttt and a H'i' f^\ 
carvful digeit of otbn 7>tAle «Bd fnrraiEn Uwn Iim \itti madt sjmI 
cardi^jr ejamiaed bf the CDcnmitlcc- A <&g^ h4> been maiiie 
of ihe todtnoay Olwi to enable the Comicltlec to fom an intdK* 
gent i n quBt ^ on of iriut may fairly be idd to be the comonuto of 
opinion with rdenncc to the bricer nuttcf^ of polky wtilcb had 
to be defetnlned by the ComnuUec before tt could make a rv^ 
cckdKcalioQ of ihc IliKhway l^w. Vo<ir Commitlcf: tjclLctY* llut 
the |>Un and detaib <4 the mtied code bcrrwilh mibmkird fairiy 
nrpneent the aTeragv jodgmait oJ ll>r local olficcncontbinnl with 
the dpaicnce of adjdoifig Siatee. 

186. rjW t^git^ivr Rrfrrtfue Biot^u 

Tkoe potagii|ih« iwom an intcevdtiiu aiticle b tbe fM^vf 
Rrttim by Prolewor J. R. Commou dcacribr the auabfiihfliei 
of an imporUAl instiiiMioo in \A1scon^ to aaru9l Ic^jdolori In 
ing infounialiun un |i(vb1ffn» oTmia^ before them {or iolvliun. 

On Us apptantifteiit in 1901 Df- McOuthy, the legUUlire ^ 
Ehnntn, dM a rery vesslble (binf. He stalled a cii>ptnfl-lturriiu- 
Bfl eoUoBltd ail of tbe (xamphleli, bulhdne, tiporti of oaoiminioco, 
nuganne anklr^^ and Ifae like that he roM gri ine. He ac* 
cunukifd i» nuny dufiUcatM as ponMe for irtt dleCritiKi-n, 
Ht clittdM tbwn and airanxid Iboai under pmptr btodinp, 
psyioB ipedal attention to the eiriifeca that he knew wo«ld noma 
yp ai llw B«n k^adTc *c»loft. He »u<cfccd Ibr Ubruwa ol 

4 -V 


B^ -"_£ VIS jr^vnsmxT^ .'A 

- .-:■- dcmta -^rrf xpixciffii ra ^ceaa. tht 'cti 
.'.— tr^, ■ TTmiiSsiraL i"- 1 na- _cii .iiLiujru icztna 

"~:c "^'^^"-'^ r re ." mnncre 
:--r:^ - =■ — ill-. _r:r:m:^:3 : .'iait'. 


/; :iT^ 




z* .,-t 




"'-'' - ^ 

Lhi "'fz 


_ ' L-W' ■• 

. inr.-. 

■v-h — - 

In iQ im|>r>n>io1 Midrm farihrc the American Bur Anndition, 
Tuder Mu^a B Pirhf r dixuucd ih« prabbm of hmty aDd prolix 

TVw qiia4io» haw bccfi more duniMod durifqE f^^r**^ rnn '''^^ 
tPiia the incnmAing IrndrtKjr of kgMiIivr biidin (r> propcar luxt 
to cnKi arm !■«>. Scmn:dy uiy tgiui»i] ol « public nt a niDral 
quotioo U K> uatmpotU&t that it du«i n^U prtidtk*, la neu'l/ 
ball A buDdnd &i4Le copjtolai a ftoke <if b01i »uppoanl to repre- 
sent it in an lis wied and shifting phaxvL It h&t bcoomc for 
noTtf comifMHi to look for a oev law fof the puni^Kmcnt of att <;J 
ofFeose or for ddmin^ anew the relatione of individunk (o 
cilhfT ihan ir is lo invoke tbosc poven at nme^t% by wlikh, owf' 
nmnj cciiluji«», wliiie Utv h>A b«vn graJftanj lakiug fiaed furm, 
m«a bava brcn able to puxiitb cniocs asaiaxl sooeCy or b> *ctll« 
thdr own diffcmiccB. 

And fcf evtuf Bkan who boa hod oocasoo 1o ftudy the qiieaticn, 
even in its narrrvnrr bcajing*v bafl been fortrd to ronrJudr that but 
A snaail porefiU^ of propowcL new ena£tm«n<s EDvolvea a nei 
pdfU'ipl*:, or crvs a new polky. It rarelj bopficna liiat aa qJSi 
m commilced fur which so prvper puaifthnivnl baa bttu piuviiM, 
and it bi a long lime once any rea) queMioii bat aiuen bctw«ai 
ma. U> demaikd 1«^ wnkoMAt laapoMlb]* ondcr cctininc law, . . , 

I^^e^ntion of tbci o«<dcr b prumoled in many wa^ja. One of 
1h« rw!M rtf5ftrtil a|;rwM9 b popular clunor. Thb nuy 
produced liy ihe deenagofpw, whoat InlrrvAl tl U to makp the |>aj 
tppcar to he the wh>kir^ It may be lUrlcd by tbc robbety of 
A uviogB bank. ■< tjy adultcrilkoi oq thr part ul aom* nkaai 
faclurer, oc dtsbooeity by the had oi a b<2in«a$ corponlkm. 
in any one citf a huttdrtd dIfcROl waya. Such an afitailov «il 
naturally be cnroimgcd fay nsnalSonal newi[iapen« aod by the 
olbtttimrA fcarrely k» armalional pvlpH. Aa it focs on tl gaihen 
fwe uBlil tl paHfS iolo oiur or fhc otbrr of th« nuny foren of 
Uiat byttaia vtkkti deaaoda ooUiiiig ao mudi ai a victim- la 

American Government and Polidct 

Hicb a peftod the Jtc^irring tMUon of a Ir^bture come* In U» 
due coune, or in nmbotious or lyntpatliecic gorcnwr caita an 
eviia fceftioo, Ttius doaeu of ua^lns bu^ arc pbc«d upon il» 
stalute books, tytrf one of iHticb chcA:» ihc cbanneb of Juatire. 
IfflrA Anotlm fnJiful source of tcc^sUilon U the ntfjlcci or failur« to 
cniortc ^jcUtbg laws. A lu public senilmeDt, phn an iiic<»n* 
frrtrnl rimjiivcj rrndcTt of no (4[«i a wbolcumc Uw untQ tbe 
brtocbrt of rt Iwcnrnr M iitmirroui und oBtstiTc ib^l ah aroutcd 
and indinDCLUt public nmimcat demands cclicL The result h 
oft<b a clt^msfxd for fvinhcr U^ladoiK because ft Es vrrDneousI/ 
amimed ibar ibr vnfn^ buffntd by the public could not have 
btppffird hsid the Utts Ixxn ulci|uatc for Ils |> Abd « 
crop of □«* and inutecoury Maiuira lb Ihc outconir — unoccea- 
MI7 bcfau«e alt :haJ b &e«d*d b rifpd enftifccmenf nl eiUlinjc law. 
En rtttny casvi the ini^JimUii or iffnorsal led of a:i ejci.Hrtaive 
ofBcvT IB nspumable fur (ninr new and ii»d<=v U«w. Such an 
a6>nal — f^oerally with lh« elvnvenU In liim uf (Iil* aj^'tlator, and 
oAcB of the demagogue — hoit been carried intQ odicc, after an 
byicrfim] raDTittti, imdcf the pvomUc lo pTn»n:vle ccnain Icinds 
of arcuBcd peraoni^ Unce cUcled. he lakrs up htf work in the 
ume iptrit thjd bad charaicfftued hM eirctoni uicpAifla, H« 
iiuIkU with j^il fadlilj- He lilla a|£aiasl claavo or iadinduaJlt, 
otiij li> fiad that junn dg not roavici, or thai, if ibtf do, coum 
vfll not ftiEia£n> Then cotnca a neir barrtsi of hwi Ift order id 
jwliff or aupfJcment Che real of men who ma/ he bonmt, but 
who Are wnailAg either tn juHj^mmt nr kstivin%e. In iddidoo 
IbfiT b odlfaio^ which can mure tuMy pradvce contempt of tbe 
Uw thmn the s^umodk activity lo which wmc pn»oculor» &ra 


Anodkcr favorite form of kgUhiioa ia thai for the benefit or 
ai Che behoof of % partr- The contiooal tamperia; with dcctkw 
bvT jud rFgiiladoQs; ibr ertation of oielco offirea. polirical or 
jwtinnl^ rniiAdr* jjeiiuI oc favoia ntntrtrrd upnn eorpocft- 
ikiTK or laitrrMt; the re-orsuu'Al'on of city gorensnent* ; d^e 
IrgblslMa of oae dim of oScuU ooi of office, ia older lo pun 

The State LegiHiinirc 


icr ia: tlw lislilalioa of a Oate amauhvhrj for the pur- 
pn«c of ciMitfolliAl the poAc* U jtrcftl cUoi lor puxy or |xmttAl 
pi«po4a: die iiki«g o^wott oppoonrta, a proroo ^oaimoii ta 
mnaj Incbloiiire bodies — 4U thoc 4rr pmdik-tln of stvh InAnlto 
lAcI fjj<fira.cbiag hMTta a» |i> vo^ihjaur tbe dodraw lU no 
iMniHui Icsutatbo, dther pmpowd bdan tbc bodQw tha»mlriJi 
or pmfcrf in eUx conviutuv*. or caictad Imo Uv. aa bv Wr, 
Juu or eaditfin^ 

The fbmu of k;^»UKlve woffc facte cawneretfd, ftnd tbc caum ^ 
which pTdAiotc them, irrrt to ftbow «fajr it b ih*t vk dmnt ora* * 
pine change hai cofnc over ilie chaiBclcf of our IqcvUttw Uidltt. 
Thdr iJTTicncc kitci Ibe iptakcr tloMMl tflK(rU7 pi*^, Ri«k«fl 
ctmnulkts into a aew form uf lynatK, dcrvvbf* miajceneni and 
intrifuc into diic oru, produco bosMs ba a Oftiiml nHiIl. 41kL 
frhile keep!:)£ ifac br^tr oacfi oui ol kffaliCive kalli, puu ttnftH 
o&cft imo thdr plAccs. Lognimnf beconiB« a necfadir, a^ mli- 
chicvouA or uarlou hOh pua cn»ly and olmott t^ auffomic^. 
The cxiitciicc ol th«s« ekmcnta al» proointcfl coivflkt hctwoeo 
urhao and TuraJ lolereata in tW hr>r«- thai imr <>t (hr (ithrr may 
OKa|>e a hdr titm of Ifaat uxaiiua wbkb always fruwt aa a rMult 
of such A daTLfcroa rivaby. 

li la not ib&c in ibc domalft of Isw-fukiaf and llie le^slatfir ^^ 
that these obuscA ^re poteoL They add lo Ifae kbor dl Ibe |udi' j. 
dary. Upon it la lltrown for adJwlkatHin, ytar tS^er fur, a bidjr 
cd vcrii abiolutetf uniwoaauy, aikd ftl great eiponac to the ptabfic 
aod aAcn to p«1v«le itMfiriduaU. The coittlkmfeculkjr of much 
of ihb anr W|E»l4lioo k amtintully qumSonffd- So ITM ia U 
ihal « KuUuiiiu) pcmenuffe of ^>e queadoni bioiighi bdon 
Appellate Cvuru are ftlilvd lo doufau of ibe yalUltjr of Hit Uwa 
ooder trhicfa acticfia are bfoctght Indeed, in Ibe Stale of New 
Voii, In A period QvrartaiE ^^"^^ twenty yew, the conatl tm io ei aUty 
of over 6w hundred •Cadila wmt cbAllengnl ia Ibe Cbori of 
Apfiekk^ Tbe dontajliof of new Ic^dadon imo rdftiag Uw, 
■Ml iIk cm of ojnitnjing the poarfbh tneaaing of a kgiatature, 
abo cnlef' btfo a ooaaklcnUe pan of the annyal ooCptu of twenty 


AfiicTidn Govcrnmcnc aitd FoliticA 


iboitfxod ikcidooA nadend hy Appdble Coum, Man: 
Ifooc musbroom coBcinkcsis arc pcmiiioH U> slunbo' Uy com- 
RHM cntacxiU Bi» ihU U dtnpcmc», bcratvic, In »irh muw, 
oflcnsive lavn irmdin opoo Ibe vlalule book*, uad mny lal«r b« 
«poked fotf nuKbin'ous fmrpoMS, . . . 

Wtib move thui twrntf *five Ihuun^ncl p«g«4 of mw Uw« added 
!□ Lhi? vutjutc books each year, ii tt app^Amii If ihc euggieBifoas 
•fo fir nuide be wcU Tounded, that relief » aUolotd^ tirmmjr, 
Dinng the yean bctvc«n 1^99 nod 1905. Kngbnd's PtriUmoiir 
kgitlMins for the mtt/A% of fofiy-tuo miEliodu of home popuUtian 
and ndOiflitf of dqicrMlefrtt, paved an average oF onlj rony-«ii 
Jtenerfct and Iwo hundred and forly-«l vpc^bf bu^'— Ihr num- 
ber of the hlicT betoy melled by ihe ncceatiy [or gnoling fnuw 
chbc* lor r^Dvii^ and cbortef amendment for ddia. One ol 
th« poecfit dcmoQCfl la iho wof^bf <mt af thb 10 m moot mCoobI^ 
Ing Rsuli ha» been ^tt pre^nce of a toioned drofCsnun — a 
la«7er of M^h rtpiitc, wrfl pftid for hl» vrvifea — hfantr dutjr U 
tt, not orJj to i;ti;dy Ihe phrufoli^fcj at prupoted bv^ but abp 
Iv makm a Iborvugb «»uiijniciiju of riiMin;; h-^tblioo, fur tlie 
benefit ol PoiliaaieiU and »1> coouiuttea- The pubfickf vi oil 
cotnauitcv Eieoriofi and the rcpon of thcdr pmcecdln^ in tike 
prca have abo cucrtribuied much 10 promote thU fe^dl. WhOc 
our oomplicaEed fijutcni of local ipwrmmmt mil icvouBl for a 
coiUftdenblr poit oJ our toM volume of kgftUii>>ii. ibc greater 

.put of it b due to 

fuch as I hwte suggcited. 

The fdlbiriof letter ftoen Mr, J . T, Brooka. of ibc Penvylvanl 
Railroad Company, din>wi ui icilcresling light on tbe rdation of 
pflUEc od&cuh to nllwoy coq>orailuna: — 

Office of ibe Secocd Vk^Prvaddent, 

Prmmctn^ Jnly ao^ iS^ 
Bon. JoMpfa U. Chootit, PitMkUoiG Confldiioljooal Coomiuioo, 
Mfatny, N.Y.: 

The Scftte LcgisUrare 


. . ] tuw tocn (h« rrili of the pftM tftttm fnw fnm verf '^^i 
sbiaII btgtnmn^ to «hil 1 rtgand u vtry fml t&il drplocuble "-rrirJi 
propoftiom- I luTe tried to peniiudv cdlkvds of oilier nllwaj 
CompA&ira i<i folhw my cxKmpICt -inH I hiivc mdc«i<orrd to prf^i 
ffniulc [b« l^r^^laturc of Uhif:i, tn whicri Mate I IiATt a}«3p livrd. 
OQ diflcfcni □ccaflDOs, lo pa» probibtlacy Um% on l3iU ftubjoci, 
liut in V9ih imianiJc adJ Mlwuys w^iIkmM «v4n- Th«ir wtf « 
time when pQblk of&cUIs vi^re contcol to nam occAiiuailljr 
t trip pufi ior ihcmK]v<«. They htvc Ir-inud lo vk for puscc 
fOr ibemcIvGO, to nmabtn of tbdf fiaiUice, and for poUilcil 
iidberaib mad crthcii. Tbejr qiM only ksh fnr p«w» good onr 
lliir« tikiih tfr cnniToDcd b}^ Ilie rilKcft* Bo whom <hry AppI/, 
but tbry uk fbr pusct uver cDDDccticq{ Una to dutuit ml ncnota 
pant ol tbc cuuinry, k<'<^] <*< ^1 m^l^iha i>f the vcar, Tbcf not 
only ndi Tor trip pu«a for tbenud^-cs and thm fricadi. but Ibcj 
uk for uiDud puMs fof ibtmatJvti uid ibttr friradt; niv) no 
niii[t«r hov nuny f^mtt tn^r be suMcd la a «ii^e bdit'klaAl» 
if A linj^f rrrfucAt be rrluvil, the rnmtty of that i^Arial U umited, 
and htK vra^^eante extniwl if h* h&i An op^irirlumty an lo do* 

1 bare k&ovn n member «J ibc SupceiSK Court of Ibe Unlod 
Siat«a to apply fur Irtv iniii|x)n^o« ibe niooey i^uc of vVirht 
is A dngk JrMancc, w«a bctvecn two uul ifane bundrvd dollars. 
G<tvcmon of i^xattf^ Tniiod State* Scskaton, Mcfnbcr* of ih« Home 
of KrprrdefitaliTrA, BniibefB of cvoy iWputcicnl nf Stat^ trovrm- 
ment, from the Goreraor to the jaajlior a^ and eipcci to rcceh 
thttc faixn. 

Id comcttuence of ihe pcoitSnii I hatv taken, and penuted in 
OD this subject fur ^cvmi years. I hare mn coonty audllon ic.,gi*| 
and Stale boards of equaliiatioB vbo bold ibe power of taulkiu ruU«iU 
nvfr ua. e«]>d« It Ijmwilcally and unjiMly to the dcirinviM 
of ifac cDcnpiUMa I re p rea cn t. 1 haw known of Ebe chirks of 
the deodive dpputnwnia \m the Stale ffci^tminenl cnmlilmng 
tn Ibe C^tol dyring wJum of the Lci^latun >od at other 
limes ^ vieak Ibeir vcngeanoe upoo our rompany becauic they 
vare soi fcrrsd vhh aanul ptawa bp our company. a> bj oUm 


American Government and Politics 

coapaalw, 1 htvt konun of ihr p;u*>ce <^ nvoUiMOs in suit 
tqpsJttnm, mode affunst the companies I nfiRSCfif, aaroin^ 
panicd by sup(irtf»?il honte of drli^ht, fiir 1h^ rts«i>ti ihat the 
mrmbcn had not bf«n sfrrod wtth puac* airrordiitg to ihcir MiHt>n 
and Trqur^U. 1 hATc rccciTed aHen from mrn in |iah1ic ^tiUiiMi 
to KTvc ovr coiDpiLnj id tbor o&cuL cipadly, tt I would j^vt 
Iheia posftd nsd 1 hate mxmd Ihrcjti from Ihe 4:h*er« vf ejE- 
ixv^n AtpxTtmait of Si^uc Imauhc T dtcUud l» ^vt ili«fii 
uiiu»] poawft OS other raJIroxb bave done. I have wco DibcT 
rulrofld ci»n[Aftitf iaue these pvnts without idnl ti> ill p^mu 
in t]lffiAr:A and ^ta^r^of public lite, uid rrfeive a direct pectmUry 
bencfil tbtrrfrDn, ind hare *etxi thou 5jrixiiis vrltbhdd fitMn 
our (ocnp^y t>n.>uj« I did iiul d» ^ ntbtv nivn did in the j^ram* 
uqg ot p»»a. 

An oflker otf a rtvAl nllroid <ofnpiuiy rectnily told me tbol 
he had lakai Ibc entire Boiird oj Tiu Conuniniancn of a certain 
Slate, with th<tr UmilirA and cotab fricml*, {tt>m a brge iatiiid 
tity to Fortncsa Monroe and SVuh^n^an and bat'k home, funthhtng 
the eonforia of a PaUman ear, free InniporiAtioo, and all ex- 
prnic4 (if the Jounicy, aj*J rxifmici^, j» Iv iaUl, oa a direct rrwjird 
thrrpif, a reJuctiuo ;a llie appraiBeoictit <4 ihv properly be np< 
itKntcd, ct^uivalent to many thouuDds of dollin a year. ... 

A paas over a ntbroftd h the equh'sknt of okooey and few men 
in driUied «o6dy am above the tempUtion <if rtceinng ii- In 
rrry nuiny laiilanre:! nulrnad nwiptnies rerrin- a Atmt and 
pecuniary ci]uitaknl of tbr pA«» hfiidi Aty give. In oltier 
cuo tile pulflk offEuii who rccdve poua qtDctly en}oy Ui« 
isTing uf tnooey, wWh the paiacB aftofd them, and diacharge 
their dude* ianparluUy u hdwecs the raUroad company and \ht 
pubUc pftdtely as U the paaso hid not bocto givm. I re^rd 
the tendency of the $y»ttm penddoua in the eitrecnc The dil< 
itmrtct tirtwren pviaf[ the thing of nioory value and the money 
ttieU, to a pubtic DSdol, a alighl. If nilrad o^tctaU and puh&c 
officials bacone jitiittConMd to the sivlnic and mrinnft oi ihingt 
of Taint, dM official chatKlcr ot iha tvd|H«iu b«&( tbe only 

The Sttte L<!gis1flturc 


comidcmion thcfcof, the corudcnce of both niQroid ud oAttr 
oflWUb b««n(A danonliscd and Mm^>«rd, ud mm on both 
ndcs nam learn Ihit narttf mi^t » wdl be gfvcn m pMioi for 
Chft pwpoar of o^nrroUokiE rhc iclian rd pUtJif ftrrvinti. 

Ibav«aJwAys tbougbtibji th«prictLceoliiilrD«do3ropknu«In -^, 
givfaig th<w p«SM« to SBTvaniU of the pubUc wu, and U, ifoe im- 
porUiil foLlor tif the disiTiifC &nd draundaiiod in which the com- 
n)on people lAdulgc ogainsc nilwny corporniioiu. IE ctruMf 
n«cd« no upiinrQt lo prove (hit free ir^iDCporutioa b n ihins of 
oyiney vilat and thtl thoe passes, grrea tc m^^n in puhlir Kfc, 
whi>, in the cierKMenf thrir puUir fm^liont^ Arc frquirvd lo piM 
upon the ugtut or niboad ranpoiucA, au brivrcen nilrood com- 
piuiJcs avd th* puUic. hit Rirrn f or a ccnodcrjtion, and, nonstlcf 
what the fomu oc ternu {>f touitcs)- i^o u^ilch those piwea m 
Iflretl, ikv »l£sh md intproptr motire b aJdra^ qipircfiL The 
pnacni b & food ibie for bw-nukcn md oSicIaI* el nifaettd 
coiMfkMia to lAke bfcd of ihe dgu of the limo, ftfld Tr^late 
Hicir conduct accordinf to ihe jmrieni prindpJm of jukeIcv and 

1 JMfic the Constitutional ConTvotioo iKIl rntrt a thorough piit^ 
virion 00 thu Hibjcci- It a iinperatiire that th« Coninfotiun tiiftU 
fftMt sottic wa]rt If poaribk, by which Constita1k)in«l piondoo maj 
cnhicric! itaeV, for I Ii&tc do bopc thai any Lcsfelanira may be found 
10 be uflisdfisii aad patriotic evou^ to deoy ibemsdincs the pcm> 
Irgn of tm tn£0pofljalon for thcmsrhM and frimeU, . . . 

Within the U>l few yriui btecfcraailiag kgblatora have bem tn* 
li»dudiift UIU for the tataliom of slce[vns<ar compainci, ctpros 
mnpukt tttd lekgrvph cocnpanln- IV nvulx U that panoi 
■» bdflf bitied by thc«e variov ucganisAtions, in gtoter or las 
iufliber. aad cekgraph puMs caa now be fmnd in ibe pocUu of 
Mtrfy ID merabcia of tbc LcpsUtwe in alt the isipomni Slatd, 

T hope the ConMitudenal ConreailDe of the ptat State of New 
Yeeli win lel a nob^ ezanpic on ihcs auli{ett. . . . 

Yonn rcapfflf idly, 

J. T. Bftoon. 





American Governinent aitd Politics 

In the ile^Ic Dtt the probibitkm of rulway piart Id ih« Vcir 
Votffc coimiiuiionai convrrAtioti. Mr Powell iroDnc^Jly 9Ugf{«iilcd 

Mr.Povtll. Mr.Pf^dcnc,iiootumdtoRicithc&wcocct)p«od 
the greater p^n <tt k cUx ^ dificutsin^ this prvpoMd umcndaitnf 
that Ihtt mttv^Mian wix hringing itt di^rtiry dnwa to Ahntit t)»e 
KowMt pnlol |h«t WM concrivaMr, WliCA vf KTl ftO Itw that w 
pdjpoN Ui ininxiucc the cooudtraiion ti£ nilroad patKt inio ibe 
CoofiilutiiHi <}f the Si&te, I ihink it U aboul linw lor us lo adjowo 
and so Id out rtApetiivt homrm ami d«« if v« cumot fiiiul aomcthJa^ 
move im|bortQm id tt\sa-S^ oar mcnia] jirttvtiics. Gcntktn«a, >«« 
w3l Trdntfabcr cm Ihtl iflcreAon vhai a magQific«n1 ouiburit c/ 
cmc nrloe ve )ud^ I confer, Sir, lh«l vdth i r*i]n>icl [tm in mf 
(ktcIli-U fikc thv (luljtica* who vrcnl ii[i loto iho u-i^ipW of old, I 
tlocfl «tar ofl !u tJit- pntaice of llu« Phuuvc proicAtaiioiit and 
bo«-(«t my hrod and onol^ nQr bitut «Idcd I ndlMd what a mbcr- 
■hb sinner I wae» and ni order lo ttst the nnceniy nf this con- 
dition, I dKw 4 nMluiIoa Hut ollem^n for the pijipotc of prc- 
ACDlias ii at the rvciung mmioq. U occurreil to mt Ebal if nBRXiJ 
|i»u0 wrrc luh dKD^miM (Kifi^ fiar judjia uicj Iq^i^Ukiii and 
Walt i4)(iib U> liiiT lliuC they iQu&t bf vr^u^lt^ dtugerjoi to tbv 
membvn of Ihi* o^vcaliaii uid> hibaruig undcf ilic «uKpidoa llut 
tberr riEehi fmufblj be b Ihls ofivntiioa other iEnaera lll:e mj- 
flelf, 1 uQcrrd M the eveato^Msioii a roolttlioo providing thsii an/ 
Bumlvr of ihist mnveniioA vbck should Ihrrmflcr ndc upon a nil* 
Vky paM Mboukl fcriett has per diem dniiag ibc rat of the venoii 
of Uib bodjr- Bui, >ir, lo mj aniftaciocntf thk coQveatioo wliUh 
oaly ■ few boun bcfure had eiprcHcd tta dvi«acalion omI fear of 
nulvar pa)«e«, iwaesd ol honntly lallnjE (is owq mcdldiK aad 
ptnsMBg ttxlf of ihb diogvri^ji arjt-iv, vuted vDammovdj tu hj 
my rnoltilkin on the lable oDd il boa Uiii ibcrr t^tt tince. 


1I9. TV OrfQu^wa «/a £#66y 

Mr. Rirhoid A. MeCunlyi b hU milmiwy dvHn^ iht Ib- 
suniKe lovutigjiliuB w New York in 1905 » gave IhiA devriptLcA 

The StMtt I^»Urtjre 

t4 one nf tht mrlhrrili Mnplojrad by iamiiMBa compuik* lo ibQu* 
CDce IcgiaJativc octiun in a Western *Ule^ — 

Naiv tht suggCAtian od ihc nunc oE Mr. Li-ma rocalb to my mind 
mnAt nvklly ui inddcnt Ih*! he laid me oi jilcriLut a ■riftlrf'ii 
fte«nn betng occupied soroc fenn ago M of tivtkt the etf^ot of a 
remote itilc, I hdve forgolun whidi it wjtf, pcwibly it wu lfkhft< 
gan or WlKonxin, or town, I Utink t>Dr of Uioao ihm StAto- Ht 
■aid that be had been occupied oc&riy oU «intcT m attempting to 
tduratc, not lo rorrufit, hut to cducnte ihc IcxtfiUiiTc nund In r<>- 
^ird to a bill bcforr il, Ht totd me he vrem Tint to tite capitij ol 
tl)t Stilc, and ^ot ihc red book, oi btut book, oc «luEerrr it voky 
hdve hnti. He found oui iKc hxalillc* fmni which each Ri«mb«r 
of llic ie^slature uid Cbe icnaic cimc- He f^fund out all tbe men, 
ihcii putaii^^ polidcd p)d-p&miB^, if 1 nuj ta cxM ihcm; didr 
rcliUiona and In^uenciaJ men, all the men nho weft iaduefitial 
with ihrm ia thrir nri^hhorhood- 

Ho made joumcjr After joumrv up and damt fmm ihc capital to 
thiA tDwn ind that town and the uihcr town, nuking Ibe ac^auiw 
lancv of thvtv oncn, and ^rftinjc them to go there durinx the icuioa 
uf the legUbiuTF' Faid v^riy nf Hiem, nui jJI laviT^n. They 
vitn men who vould not leave llnr biaincss, the prendenda, or 
caahlenhlpi of banliA, and nulce a trip i^ lo the o^Cal d the 
Stale unl» not only thdr ci^ieiwtt vtn paid but somfdiifig 

He wmt oQ hirther, and he aajd be ^"rai lo Waihingtirin during 
diat Mstlun of the Lcf^laCure- It look faim >on<e wodu lo nuke ^j!^ 
the acquaintance ol dw Sanalora and nWDbct* of Coqcrm in ihe ™* 
House of Reprr^niativra from that itate> w thai ht <vu able lo get 
upon a friendly fi>otIne with them, ofid that ibcy woi^ lltien to 
him and hoar his Aiatemcnt of the damage that vould be wn>u^t 
to the n«ipany and to all life nunrTknce prrivided lUi meoiurv 
vtltich vat then viit wat pavrd, and hr gikt from them Irltm of 
iMroductioo back again, and tlul was th? nub^ance oi iC, thai all 
that vtinter be prutirally had been en^agod on thai bwmu and 
i^tlhoul one dollar being eapeikdod cacepting for the few piiid to 


Ammcan Government and Politic* 

bnjen, tibf rxpcnwi paid to bjincn, thf compensaiioD in muiy 
<aiti pM ia lijmcn. 

Q. for trliAt? A- Fpc tliv scrricw lliat thtr tud rcnHcrtd 
dtlidfl dQwn and lutcniiijt to Mr Lewb cxpkia ibc rcjUi>ns wliy 
lie iriaif<I their liclp md aMi£tanc« ind in laklia^ trips ta the 
C&piiKil, trnveUiikg cipcnsa and cotnpeosation lor that cIass cif 
tttvfcc AndbctaldakctbcdreuQtttuu««r1thoui tbt iniifnatiaii 
<ir the bfJief on mj part he haid paid one dollar tot AxtyttAng evcepl- 
ing 1p|citiinjilc i>urpoar&. wl he f hAi^td, — I aid HilllnjE to traiUf 
IhftI in my jud|;TT>ml it uiu a rny iiudet-^uute iii^'D. 

Q. Forhtttcnica? A, Furhu9VD»erTioM,becfaarKcd(5ooo 
bfljokd hh expenses which were a r>od mASj thouund doUars 
mow, how mvch man t dua't luujir. I ^vc ihut mcrriy » an il- 
livmtjoa and &> itf>d the kvumption that noc-cAarily mooej paid 
tbvUj^ bwjrtn whov narnr^t nrr ni'4 f^vrn tauaI \^ tot improper 
purpoao. It uTfiild tioi be p>ii]!>1p or it uraixild tuA. be proper to 
publUi 1b« udiiit^ <jf Ihi' pc«>plr thai i>c had cmplojrcd to Mp liim 
uid «hu did help turn ixi such a cave u that. 

19c. LtgUlaSkm ag^imt Co^pof^^^n* 

Duriag the Iiunnmcv invniii^alkiii oMotiuEwd above, Bi&. W. 
F> TbumandclM^Aed ]q;t*Ution ifal&A onrpisnthHa a»foBowa; — 

I wouU nj gnunlly lUt, that there are Mcreralcbncaof legit- 
btiufli tbat we meet ooutanitlx, ia almool erccy k^Uature. Tb« 
lirvl aad bmnI nvmcniua one by a ffreat deal beiBK what U vaiae- 
liaia called Jtrikie bilk $9 far as I have obwrted. tbuat Ulfe are 
prepared fay outdden. Very leUoan, I would uy, by a meiabcr of 
Iho Le^Urtin, and ihey aft prcMDicd usually ti> lotnr new oitia* 
ber of the Lepdature aod vilh a ^ 1 an drawiog 00 ny own idea 
fat ihia part of it ^^ with pmhably the ftuggratkm thai 'A wnqld 
redouad bo hi* teputatMn, and it \% Lftlmd vod. llien, of ciMfve, 
die natural re»ull w«ild be that the pccfile wba wcfe reapomilib 
lor its tfitititlvdioti would Mt^ eciphiyuunC and try to kill U. 
There are a good man; of thai da» ol UUa at ooe time and 


The Sutc L^giibttirc 



Thrt* Ihtif i» jLHoihrr *Lu>*. which U vwy mucfa rwiw <Uii|pt^ 
<iu« tu Uie companies, ttiat R^uiiv a gnti deal more cfTorl 1<^ pt^ 
vcnl xhr'iT brromlng Um, juid Itkt b the chM of ImIIi lh«l sn io* 
^tiLTtiJ Ijy vXhtr cotpgfalioro fur lh< purpMair of igUeving ihe H arfrm 
in some manner bom fome ohnojaow proviiion ci ihe Uw. thu- 
Ally El wouLd lake l!fab form, thai ibm w» nome reguUdon n^ 
quirtcl by a corponLiion Ihii hiuA i amali itnvnuf (o Si, and for the 
ftfikc of iLlMKlrilii^n wr vill uy Umt the rftlirr mTniir (1:1 Ijr rfrT^trrl 
fri>En Ihftt |>anJcuUr part tmghi be Ss/xn in the Suk| umI the 
cPTpotniioni that wDtjU bo afiected by Ibjit vrould laUoduce, or 
hi\x intRxlucvd, a bill i^hAnjpns thr rcvtctu* act Aiul It iftiuU bt 
vay tikdy 1u (nek upon lUc insiinuict pramitima u Ihe vcticlr to 
Conwy nvcirc Uixtt Jnio the creaAiryof the Suit. And KrmrwtMfc 
in that bill \UtTt WYHiM be a pruvhinA that nouU npeftl Ihr juir- 
ticuF^r piDvinon^ Aloftg in ihii £ne I know of at leuC tiro ii»* 
ttanrca ivhefr the fife IxauraAce ciompknic* hanv tongbl lo be i^ 
licvcd (if whol to ibcm tien vd^ onerotti ptonuoM tbromili Ibc 
medium 0/ a lEvntntl latunacf bID thai wovlld hxim a repaaSnf 
dame in Ibat U vodd rrpeil tbuM pcDvUoDa lo whkb ihef 

Aaoibrr cUn of HUa thai uv voj vcxjisous ve billa thai ue 
prviroiled bj >noni^ who hart htm lUviKxoiful m kl't^tiem. 
Thvn «ce not very mifiy t;^ thcsei but then an mmm^ aad llvf 
have been waucnsiful bccauic of oertam pnmMOOi b poUdoi. 
r bxvc known thU 10 happen la both fin ImMUurc tM Wt, asd 
they would Utf^vc on art vWCb wwM vrnke ibai puclnUr 
prcmnon id a pobcy nuD ind void in Ibc fntOK, 

Umi ihm uibcclan<rf bClb dial E oB bettol bllbr end Ih4l 
ia euK^vi(l«d into two. TW finC clan nigh4 be a veff mincbicT* 
MM >«0 b4 ihc (funef of it «- and he i 


Anvcri^n Govcrnmcnr and Politics 

wc ore alwAyft very gUil to wc dttctcit Imo % b«. Anythitig, 
ihfttit for Ibt gnod of the huaancu wr an ahrtipTiny gbd lo irr- 

191- Kttfmg Tra^k cf l4gitiai9n 

Ovrfnf fo the aU^i inunit liken In tJio buiiae» a( aUtc Irgo- 
Uftim and the hncf irrounu thai Ajip^nr in Ihr Tr^mpaprn, i| 
k dilSculi fur Iht tutcr lo furm any judgmoit ug the qtulificft- 
tUma of hi» rqinrfcitiative^. To lyretcome ihu dJAfulty in Stm 
YtA CiiT, tboCttuciu' rnkm, a municipal onE^ntuli'^^. pahU&hcB 
■MiMlty a acniU p&mpblet conta^iuns Ihe miofida of New York 
Rpn»CDUliv« ai Albau]'. Tbtae tfiUvtU tiviiivie (he ilimu;tcr 
of Ihe pub!icilJo«ti — 

BURNS, WILLIAM H. (Dm., 4lh K*!., N>Y.) — Introdttced 
i» bOh, proriding ior: 

iVntionln^ irienitn wtrr> have brrti in wrvke of the Stale fur 
T5 jpan and whi^ baiv rtai:lu^ aiy tjf 65 ; |i«.jinr»l uf i^abn of 
Banbvlumvw M'^Tiah^o, bienof^pber. Sufimne Cvuit; fequinag 
that tngivdicntv he priftied ao boxn and pTlnpi of cnnlecikii' 
cry; paynvni of not ku than li^oo per yea (0 p(v»onft«ng7mKl 
itk prrwrring public reavd*: prohibiiing aduJtamikn or mbi- 
bran<!ia|Enf fondi cir dnigx; nnrndrnj^ rtujlrr pn?viritog thai tne* 
rhanlc) tmpktfcd hj tbr city *hall bt pud lor holidays imI halt 
butidap: dKUring^onUncla to control raiea of comroodhbc to bt 
•IGainai |>ubfic polky >nd Dfegal aad voU ; amnMlfng chartrr emit- 
be pOQ>lio« of pilot* and Biuien of fin-boBB and fixhif cDBpeoM- 
iko at tt^ta per fe«r (Oiap. S4T) : pcncJaning vtirtmni wito haxt 
been b ihr acrvfcr of ihr State for 15 yvan: authorixins admiMaoa 
to bar cuciiiuikat prrvirK who havf vrvrd thnv ytM% iji MajtM- 
trUrit Ciironer^or Juttkc) uf the Pncr; aawvliog <:linrteriitquir^ 
big anjiiani f<igiotcni afi>pciaDed by Oty DeponmcM 10 be of at 
Intf l^vc )«ai«' aiaading: bovoiiog silary of Dtf^uty Sl»lo £b< 
l^oeet (Claifi. 586). 

RKCORD: IkfrmTiMT nf Rulf^ CormniiMe, ft poiJdon of nnxb 
influrwv, yrt <o&tinue« a lypkaJ faeHfamoJi. 



■ftE^: — - 

The State L^siature 487 

COLLINS, DANIEL J, (Indep. League, 15th Dkt-, Kings) — 
Tnlroduccd 5 bills: 

Making it a felony to sell morphme, opium or cocaine without 
prescriptions; two-cent ferriaps on Gteenpoint ferry; three-cent 
fares on elevated, subway and street cars betft'een 5 a.m. and 8 
A.M, and 5 p.u. and 8 p.u. in New Yoric City; amending primary 
election law generatly; aboJisbing offal docks in certain wards in 

RECORD : Inconspicuous and a cipher in legation, 

COLNE, WILLL\M W. (Rep., nth Dist., Kinp) — Intro^ 
duced 3 bills: 

Extending jurisdiction of Bnx^yn Church Society of Metho- 
dist Hpisc(^a1 Church ; prohibiting trust companies ^m establish- 
ing branchesi except trust companies in New York City may es- 
tablish branches in any part of the State, with the consent of (he 
Superintendent of Banks; erecting monument of John C. Fremont 
in Rockland Cemetery. 

RECORD: Fairly useful and attentive; has not improved over 
record of last year. 

DONNELLY, JOHN K (Dem,, 13th Dist, Kings) — Intro- 
duced I bilh 

Providing for fixed salary and uikiforms for Ci^ Marshals. 

RECORD: Inactive; useless. 





MUdal Id' 


"he mod« 

192. Tiie Indcfmd<^vi 0/ the Judiciary • 

1^1^ problem of what coD^lilufes judicial indcpendeace and 
legislative jocmachmenti up<»n it is th\vi treated by Mr. Henry 
B. Brown, in an address delivered before the American Bar 
Association in iSSp: — 

Tbere is a clear distinction betu^een the uidepeDd^nce of the 
judiciary 3s a guvtrci menial puucr, and ibe [ndcpeiideTice of the 
several judges composing it. There is here all the difference be- 
tween a ibeoretit-fll and practical independence - — in other wonls, 
between independence in law and indq>cndence in fact. Thus 
the election or appointmrnt of judges fnr short terms does not 
trench in any way upon the judicial functiorsi bui it subjccti the 
judges, as men endoued ttiflh the orrlinary weaknesses of hvimanily, 
to temptations wholly inconsistent with thftt consdousness of inde- 
pendence, which lends such powerful encouragement to a feailcsa 
discharge of duty. Judges ought not only to be removed fnMm 
temptation, but as far as possible &om suspicion. If their re- 
appointment or re-election is made at frequent periods, dependent 
upon the popularity of their decisions, to that extent their indepen- 
dence is subjected to the whinis of the cwcutive or the prejudices of 
the people. 

I certainly do not intend to enter upon any wholesale denuncia- 
tion of the system of electing judges. It has been in vogue in most 
of the Slates for about forty years, and, exc^t in a few of the largest 
cities, has not been attended by disastrous results. If it has not 
fully met the expectations of its friends, it has certainly not justified 
the e^'il pn^hecies of its enemies. I have known excellent judgea 


The Judicial System 


Qvcd llieir se«to to a politick c»Kia md ■ popu&u cb-Uiooi 
I h»vc tnou-n men of inbrkir calibn wbo ou«d tbcir «|ipoinmieatt| 
to exccutiiY fuvur. If 0» firopk vocutooftlly d««a(t mvn to tbtt 
bench nho hate little to rrcoauncnd ItaD beyond tbe abOiQr lo 
puU nittft >i 3 CMiou, ihe cbdce <if the ewcutivc fa aamciimcA 
dtirrminod bjr'otbtrcDnsKWrvtioiuthaQ Ihf publk HrtrmL Up<m, 
the u hiilc, Ticrpl jc larxp diks the tytlem cf ckcitOA may be iftii' 
t9 bavt nork^iJ reawuably i^U, dtbmgb I Ijilieve the juJidaiy^ 
■i; a rule iiood higher under dw old ineibod of appoiciinent. Tbs. 
kbftl mode of choofiing judpn hiA pertiApfr |vl to be dbcortitd.! 
In 01/ view more dqwodi vpoo ifae pemuieocj uf the judii 
lenurr ilutD upon the ptfikutMr ineihod fd vliYtir^i, 

Hie mntl ud»t «iKoc*le of the ri^hi of ihr [•r(i()te lo claon«e Tlaimi 
thcjr owD ntt^imie* wouH bcviuie lo ftub<nit n 6fiy ibaiuaad k,^ 
doUtt bvwic lo D judfEf «bo beU his hm bj uiaiul ckcilun, if i 
atzong perBonol or pditiaiJ Insnd of the ju^pc itiv rculnod 
ifalntf hinL It the JucJjsc were circled boi enn la foor or iJz 
yean, of coune hU beslitiiCBt would be eofreiipoDifingtf dimitt- 
lAhcfl, hut Ihc piindpte rrmaint the jume^ The tenure «bMiU 
lie dnnng gooil behavior or for v> keig a term u to begel in the 
nbnd «l the ju^pe a b&bJt of mdefieBdenre tina$ eiMUgh lo oicr- 
coos an coMldmiioo* of fear ur frirmUiip. If (o ihb long tcfV 
be nddcd bdigiUlily of re decticA we have the ur oagea j posdbta 
guofeaty of fmkpendence. In xhh c«nnenkm ihrre fJiouM ftl-' 
vrtji he mrvrd a pToviiioci lor the rrcnaval of incomprCc nt jnd^i 
(froa «taiFvrt cawc >mth incom|it4ence may arbe) upoa the 
addrm* U iH<MUKt« of mA boisf vi ibt ki^ftlacuie- 

It U not akoi^lbcr euy to dc6ne the letm jiididal indepcDdcnce, 
ortodcitraifaw whatUuid what i« iity.aa jnvMJunorureiKniKk- ^^™^ 
tnceit tipctt. it Upcn the one hand, we th^H all agree that the 
I'glilatiife cannot frmove a }udp? without caom (thcaigh k ivemi 
El mty do ihU indirectly by abolishing the oouri). ikor fvdncie 
■alary, nolttfy bi» jwlgmeflb or tet at naught bb dednvmv Upon^ 
tbe othcf h«iHl, ll win fie cowetM ihai II povMMtt UAliivdied 
pQwve 10 ditt>nwim Ibe ifuitikAxt of cowt*, vfacn and in u-hat 

4^ Aaicric^n Government and Politics 


numiwr v^t MB be bcfun, and li> ngdftle the praciioG, 
in^ and tornB aiud BnxlRi of proctedb^ prior lo the trisl luii 
SDoe empiions MibeequeBt to the renlin. U nay cd 
fxunt osQiroi Ihe Irul tevlf I7 liiias '^ faaset for wUcb 
imy bt ctempiH or ciaJIm^ftj pn^mbing rules dt rvidei 
Ujio]^ down prifiripfe^ fd bv mhirh ihc court U bnwnd lo 
■ad mfune. ManifoMlr, bo^rirr, t^n powrr ii ^ih^cv^ lo 
litiiluikia« fugptud by tbe prDiiiioo coniuned in «ll our cmniti 
tiofts that Um rifiht or tri^J by )ary MH leoulo inricAiie. 

The ifMstko, faowtrer, frfakfa conorro ici maet dirvcijy in 
cncHiKtlfln is whcihcf die judft U t ccmMiCuciii pirt of a jury iHj 
41 rrmiKm tiwr. I hive ncvfT w«fi nor besnl of a Juiy (rial 
vfaich ibene vxi r>ot a judflf vrho prioJiM vtd took a mort or 
aciivr |M7l, Xhi ^1 in ilir unKnuy drfinilkNU of {ury trijU x^^tii 'jg 
liic kncognphen ind eltrinentury writtn, be b i^n^'r^' ^ ~ 
pkcely V if tK «ete a mere i^>crn«ncnry, Evm ihe Jud] 
ihrmsrK-n arcm lo afsarae (hai it U oaly the fwj and tht 
10 the Rvit vho ore entiikd to ihe coftstJmiioiuJ proaccdoa^ Tl 
r]iJC4t)oa u ooc of 00 littk infkartanor. If the fudgr be the 
«|w&cunjui of tht Uv, hr U bomd 10 1 Mind ofardieofr lo the m 
of itjT IcpdaiLar lit all that cixKem^ t(ir tiiaJ ; oa ihc uthrt hvu\ 
if be tje aa iodiificiiMbie lad patfitueQC factor tp thai prni 
knovB In ibr law a« trial by jucy, it k difBoilt tn «fe n4y fav b 
u much eftiliM to proi^cikm afjInM k^atlTt batrtlnvcce In lU 
di*chafgcof hUoNninoiibvdulBeft, asu1he|Ufy uidicexrfdjtt^ 
\\f> ftni|ifr f:mrikinK. ' 

Tbrw rrmsrls irr Mig^sled by a icnc« of vlaiui» uhkh havv 
brcome faibioiulile \a the ioutkcm and wcMem frtalv*. (for ikm 
Me bfthfoAi in leglUailDO, and vvtn m jndkbl opktiuoa, » wtA aj 
in diedN) the object of wbkh tt apparmdy lo hcviv ibe wibiiml 
■wl uoadTt^cil iif4ni«a ^ ike jwy upon the bets AAd aa easy uid 
acoiniAe witlemrot of hillt ot tvtp6aa\ hui the dUa of vUcb >fl 
lo«be«rtbrjudnmr hit proper fnaXJorrial fonctinna And to rrdiK^ 
hiB to ihc level ul a prgJJing u&Ecr, or ibe mrfe moulbpioce 
coubd^ Tbem rtaiute* an of the EoHowkf dauo*: 

The JiuMcixl Sy<teni 


(t.) 1^«¥ pfohUridng jiM%e« ffon cluf|^ or cooncitdnf 
upon QUllrn vf Iacl 

(>^) Lftttm rrquiriikg «]l diuati M l« tn wiliiig. 

(3,) l^v^rrquitingtfcc Jud|pio|;iwfucbiiiiitructiiiaB, aodvadi' 
cnly, M lk«ti been nib<mtiied lo bim by coiuwt, «tih(r viih (V wlib* 
out nKNlifeajioa- 

(4 ) Lava reqivriQC the cMrt, 41 dw fvi^utvi of axnud, bo ■tib< 
rail ^xxiil iTuc»ikB« 10 the jury, ki be u«n«rad in addiilm to ibdr 

Tht mportutvt at Uic judidaiy ■« tbc guanfUa of f undtnMfitA] 
private ri^u a^akist tarroAchMmb on hthaii f^f SfiaioJ iMFmu 
«u fully ducoBcd in die M&t^^uid fOttnilulkinal coQVTclkjn 
tn tfi5i> and during the debate one of tbe rtftrfilrt nude thU 
ugumeai: — 

Ko«, ur, paradnrioi a* it m«jr i«vpd it> looifr, I |tfnpo«c lo iihow 
1^ thvrr kx j( Irxxl ■* tnucb IMKA for i&akfai|c I'x jurlnr tnclepen- 
denlof the |ir(i|ilcin thixvutklij.M tbei« ii in EngUzid for making 
him iodcpcndeni o4 ifae aow«. Bmaie^'orpo'nf ^ ai^mctwldi 
tbe BMioM. thai tbe p«aple haire all pouu, and ougbt tbcRfon to 
bave ooftlrol avvr tbe Jodidafy. S«r, if the people hare power 
In do «nv^ it it Ihr tvry purpose of govcmmeni 10 rtsirain \u 
ejEfvcutf ; foe the only object "tuth mtn caa pmpoae Id tbcmwlvca, 
by «aicrint into cocb an aawciadon aa fivH Sodety, b u> lorwr to 
tbenfchrt the cnfoywmt of iMt richts, and protect ihrmaelvs 
ofuim vrooc- Am the «ttRial and bwauiaUr la«i of Jufifat 
Ins Impendve, upon mm wbe* aawnbled. i» lat|e bodta, thaa 
tbcy an «htn ocling akdhidnally? U&m*i are but individual 
ki fombukathm; And lk>r Iwn whkb trti'iai* the iib-cn-uxe of jin- 
tice, ukI profaabii Wokore, or the praciki- of fisudn srv a» oMAb*- 
tory in iIk cor ewe ■« in tW utbcr. Like the Bcinf< ^''oni wbotn 
iboy ciDBikaie. thr Rules uf Imtb ud equity are ibr suae to-day, 
fEstenlay, and lortrer. la ibem " b otr varUbtoaa, neither 
ibadovr *tl tunkn^" . . . 

U Is obvious, Uvo, in Any jwt nrw of the Mttltr, ilui it u oar 
duty to idc^ fucb nxttsuni as tbc faitblul necuiion q< the Uws 
nqubc^; and ioch u wlU ttctire to the pcapk Ibcfr risbn of pcr- 
Mii. U prcficrtj an<l oF rrpttUtioA. Thcu tiv Iht rifhu wh>cb 
uKircy uid goivmmtnr nrr iruaituiH to prodect, wid it U iuid<bi 

gf cfisturb Ifem, 

EjKh poctlon of llw vbol* ha its rH|)«ctiTo uid oftcB dlwm 
lcnu» — In oihcr voids, ib «»ia. Tbe mercaalOe btenat may 
be f^cticf Of kv ihon (he iisriculturtl, or tknc wbo u« laboren 
my be kvcr in ftumbcr ihan thi>?« who an not : yn ti&th hfts ao 
umloubtcd cljJm bo the eve vkd proiraion whith hU intercUi 
rvquirt^ Aod h> k b wfth aO portions; but ii h tm\ihukiXif the 
OBte with the teeble and the deAtilQbe, vfau have snollrr means tti 
rvtry Rffxct to f>fotcct ihemselTcsi uid cvt k>ofc bo«-hffv but to 
the bv and i& adoniusitsion for ptolKtiua. Nuv, ibeo, ii aD 
thU be u I h4Tc staled, it b okinifcA ihu your Uw» mu^ be firv 
of dfma to oil, equal to ill, and cenaiD for all. To han ihem ^< 
mifiB-irml «ith a halitoit, boilatlnji (lep ^ti» let ihcm benij oov 
way fm ihu niaa, anulber for that, can Lut eDcuuragCt and niw4 
aooMtlinn niKiioti, the doing!; cJ ibc wicked or ihe pondocuite or 
pfejudkwl, while i\ will Dcoc^vtiy oUrm and diKOurtse end 
often luia the vktiaL 

t^ Tk* MtthU ^ Sdtelimi Jmdiu^ 




Perhapt no iif^l method of s^^eciinit ;wlica haa yet been 
vbed. l)Mi Ibc dilBculiks of nodun^ a wi^ concliBson ore En- 
dJi^alrri by the Collowiaf t>«Majsv4 from 4 debM* in thv New 
Vofl eunvtitutiooal eontEnciQa <rf 1&46:— 

AU. Snv«,-. ft hoft been loid tbai the peopir haw alrrady 
tlnrtJy drrlilrd tfist ju>l0M ibodbj be cintni diiectly hj Ibnr 
I do oot DonaiiSif tiat thii ii id; [ do crat befieiv the people 
n>d any lueh (hbi|[, aod moreovtr, I tUidE thtu the peeple woufd 
be very dow te cocm in ihb decakn; and Ibat ibey would pMuc 
a great »fa«le and defihcrate keig and ouilkwly btfofc ib^ 


The Judidtl Sjrstem 


tSh jmc ch&nfQt kt % funcUmfftuI prioripli of Ihe gnventnvni. 
I do not Wip** any nme mijoriijr ot ihe pcofsle *ilher by a 
vole ur ihruuj^h ibcjr rc^jrc^otatUc* U»mld crulc the ludku 
d i*w SliJjCi Ihe miaorily (lor wb«« It^iefrl Ihis bnoch a vt- 
ubliflhcd pcrboftt moic tlua fiur &ny oclicr) kbould hftw & d«diM 
volorlnibctnoticf; ibtj fifaouM be hcftnL And I hope tbe pMfile 
will bew in miiid Uk wuk a.nd deddMl dL'tinrticMi bttwccn the 
cxKiiliTT- and kH^idvc povcrv and ihc yndirlttrf. A nMJcirtt/ 
rlcci tlj«lrf^«Utu(?«nd«xnHlivc; and tStreuuib for IfaU vt very 
t^ivkMBL But ftvcfjrdiflcraicinodcof wkcliti|i ibr J ed|pa should 
b* adoptt*!- Th«]r aire ■& the tfaicld uf the zniaoHty. lo prcrted 
from the oppreuios (if tried) of tbe majaaty. 

Mb, PATTEWojf. I an not, far ont, prq«rcd to »*/ thai the 
peOfilc of Ihh Slate ftxe laooimpeteTti lo rkcl ibe Judgn of tMr ^^^S! 
courts. I be&nr that thej aie u capable of douig Ibis, ai of 
abdktg a Pivkkni or Vln-Pnaldmi oi lW VJS^ <v a Oovcrscr 
or livmoaaiit GovenMr <rf the Stale g4 New York, or anj ocher 
State. I ani oppa«c4 to baving the Judiciary a mere political 
machibr ; I wuit to strip ihe power ei appointing; the judpa at 
oner tend entErely, From the cvccutive; and 1 will nuC comeni 
Ibat tliB power, wh&cb baa bien Itfi in ibe Goi^rmor'» hoAd kt 
i$ ytu%^ tfaall be kfl tbeie any looger- 

How arc these judges appointed at pn»nt? The Comiituibo 
Imly conlen that power on tbe Gonremor and Seoaie; bu< do 
(bry everrife il| In ivality? Certainly daL Ihe judfjat nf comty 
courts ajT iwl IbiJi appointed. Pratt kalty, iJwy arr spprnnted 
by a caucuai and this i^ hcid bt ihe munly wtien the jud^ ate 
10 officiate; the people there ijet lD^iI>ef- I'o a caocvs; make noenl- 
nadofia tor the oAte of jodfes, and then vend thcsr naa>e« in to 
ibe Governor. Well, who ever knew a CoiiYm^ir in rafter lo send 
in ttje« ray nnmti to the Senale, to hi^ cnnfirm^? And when 
have we had a 5^aalr Ihai rrfowd lo nnn&nn thcv raucm rMi 
aatkniv vent Bo iheni thm thmugb tlie Gov^imor? WTwn 
poliilcaJ pattj hn the executive, then their friends fdlow this 


American Government ttid Poliric^ 


plan, and their men tuf ap[iolMG>d; and ki tt b vhn tbe f 
party k in povm; ihcy makt^ the caucus ikanuQAiiaiu, jmd ih4 
U, ill rcAlit^Ti an ftpponntnutiL 

I rvneinU-r ilw ctut *ottw jriri ago — in 1834 — f] hgi«<e tol^ 
lk« hlotj lo uiinhrr and smaller body thin thk, and In ihit dt^} h 
Minw p«r$oiu e^< tu|;ethcr, in Franklin county ind naolvwl them 
idve» inio a Dcmdcnitlc RcpubUcoa Cotinty ConTTJotfoa. Ufl 
A. &, wft* ma/lc ^hAiranan, xnd Mr C- n,^ SwitiftJT: and nflH 
a viiilr it uiH dnUrrd unonimikUily Ihnt Mesara. E- F and G. )[, 
hod a majnHiy U sll llie vott« thrti prvimt at this ^ot oountj 
c««vo|kv, auid iJwy ft«rc thvn unaxJoiuutly noonuotmiM ihcn^ 
fon 10 GovenKV Muxy for noann^lion lo the Senate- Tbr pro] 
ctcdin^ came dawn lo him headed* ''ProcHdIiv of <be Dtttnoj 
cntic Kq)u1>liciui County Coawntion of rmakllQ/' Are., anil 
Ai> on; .iftd GoTtmor ifnrn-, weing the wanti ''DftnoentW 
Kr|iuhlkAn." nMiifftMy huj^eArd murrly ihcy ^rrn il\ rfj^ht; ihaj 
■nj» ilranff enough recaaimtnilAtian, in nil coDvkncTr fnr tnmj 
«td HJ lie Fcni in tfit-'« [*o name* to tliv Smkt*, «nd they vcn 
ooeifinncd. And it tiini«d out afierwud, upon inquiiy, ihftt ibe)] 
hod thtti ipftdnicd a couple of Wld|!«, inoead of a couple o| 
Deaiomu. (Mnch Uoghxcr.) And thia ii a prictical lllusua- 
lion of the mxfdt of appointing Ifaese judges thai tiu been in 

Ms, Bxiacvii. The prtvrot mode of qipdninwin b^ tbe 
emtx uid Senile hjia rccvtwd ten ^McnJ pofMtUr condimaAMil 
«kI hu in my Judgment letn aiieoded %Uh such mufct » nor 
in Jufiify tU ecQiinujince. Tbe judgment omI fcelbf doc onlji 
m ihr Uon^Tnil<]n tiui Ihroughnut ihe Suie i» agdM ft, Tbo| 
IdcA U Iau being nhukdctted (hot any poetioo of ihc pobttc acnnnln 
ftlxMiSd <n^ iadependtiKT *jS thr fT^j^V uhoy- iiilerr4i» ibry have 
in cbarge. vho« b«nne» thf y ifuiutt. vbov Hghti ihey pnyect 
or dbngjird- The Idea vS the OKCsilty of Judldo] bkdep«iiilcnc« 
in England b enilitly difTerro; from that romrtTird by ibe toe ol^ 
tiK term here. In EiiglajMl, the icra oMa» am iBden 

The JutUcial Sytccm 


adopted, wfiik lvT« ibr M|nx«iv> ol judkial bdipittdiDCc ui; 
the <^]poooaifr ot fwdMU infMQiiJbiSij (d ibv pwiplv. Bwi «v 
legnlfc bo wch tode p t a d omt hem hil tmibgr tim mojg of igfat t ka 
ibM «ha&»aiie ilif booett dfaehvpe of ottckl duijr, by the mort 
dind itfpoAiCUOij. 

H'c h«Tc Ittd ifipdinted lud^o wider Itir pn-vmi comatiuUoM. 
Howr hu iliv KyvieDi voctcd? Row In ynur tiiujttu, Ihu U bmi 
vucroshil in vecuriag 0>t fanl ui«c^ly and Mlkij7 Hw ll rvm 
wotieil «tll Sn ttftfd 10 tbr )u4iB^ <4 jtnif U^icr tritmuli^ 
Wbea wu your Stuc man dofplf bttubled and dlap^nd, llitfi 
vben the jnd^cft ct one of your MgheAt ccnrtu HulTcfed on itv 
be^irh ioc plaiT<i of profit vilhln ttirfr otav in^nrrr tJ Aii|nntnv 
whrn the junior brcunv the cfakf, when the fcliltrr uf im^l c 
hid i^naAcT channa in ih? cfra ci( the teiinrv thtti |1v |:>MHiy fi 
ji)dki«I cnnuw, ukI Uirr «viit down tu clerki' *iuob lo poi 1»iv. 
y^is' |>*i>cn Inia fA^/Km bok« and Lwp the dwt off ilwra tor tin 
oeM> 9pk^? Tbfw iA«n ^rmir ifvpotettd jodps. 

But 1 hive ut hbJDCtioa Vi k«t|| lema. I befeerr ts ftrmJy «* 
uiy ooe, that in |p&n«ral, lhi« modt of irWrimi wtiukl tjr «ii^ 
ccsaful, but il wtjuki not «lw»jp« be m. The jiulillc car pnlj^hl ht 
■o wedmc i abiAcd. i»d Inciia^»«itni <ir iiB|Wifwr n««i h* jilacnl 
upon tht besch, ■nd I would sIEorI > fvaf>ociihly ffr<iucnd ufiiniT' 
tuMij of conTftiac wch mUukei m UiouU he okMlr, Kiflhi 
itD ynn lenn l» prupotcd bjr tooie, but I canttoi «« ifir p 
pntcjr of maldng the fmticijd iivm fouf or fiw ii«he> u Icsn m 
ihr fuhrm&lorbl or vbJiii«tit Irrm. ll wouU ni4 iclvt tho 
pcelmiitj ihd ought to tv iHorded (or cocivctini (l» mh 
thu nAibt bv nkdv* 

1195. TkfJtujSyjtdm 
Thh doqncnt ifclemc of the jury b faf Ur C3iaUe: — 
The mnfa b, ho««n;r, ih«i ihe fury »]ntnn I* tA fiwd ■» an 
BMintJal pan of o«r poUilr&J fautitutli** ; It htt pru^ liwlf lo 




Amcricfltt Gov<?Tnm«it ind Politica 

and prcftffl; Cor «> nuny frmturte*; il U aa P»^T ■Pl^vn'itlfd 
^i. tSf bal Jiiid fivrh«|>« ibr cxil^ Lniiwn mruM iJ MlmittiDg tb« 
people to a ibare, and vuioUinicig ibeir wbulcKime btcnst, itx 
the adiainlsmtloa of juKiJcc: h it^ rach an fmlJEprEuoble f^nor 
Id fducAting ihem in Xhvlr ^•vr^oml tinij dvil righu; iG aJTords 
such a lichiXil and training in ihc law lo the prDfc:W)n luclf ; and 
(a M embtdikd in our fi>nMituti<ict» which, u I have Mad, dpcbue 
iIku it fthall nmun Cbrnner ioviofaEF, rrquiring a canvicnlkci or an 
aamdmcnltoaJlerlt — IkjLt (hcrr<tui be ni> i^ubdanlial jpiDuitd tvr 
fear ihat uijr of ua will lit« Ui b<« lh« peopk mr>ml lu giti; it iip. 

Foe the irial of penotit cliars^ with crimK, I do nd bcHe^ 
thai any material attention of lia chancier will evct bt ihoughi 
c/. It U 9Q eaucfa bellcr thui ten guilt}' iwa i&bauld escape iban 
ihu (iT>r EAncvenI m^ii «hoitM uiffrr. In fmlb, tn ihew daya of 
□nittplint 4ahiliiry rrtmrs tsiA mivlrmranor^^ a Ia/^ majoritf 
of gaUtj men do escape by not bdnj^ found out, bj not brmic ao- 
oiwd, by not being brought to uiii tUer Indie tmeot, ud lai^lir, 
loo. by witics feH'de the verdict hy Courts of Appeals, a> thai our 
«iabli>b*d pttbUc policy Huttni to lean afiinfA amy hanh or rig>d 
arUmiy application of the ftimmal lan?^ By accepting* aa we 
mu*l, the rule Ihai ihr fklr.n(!aiit'& guih mumi he raahliOied be* 
yond an reaionable douM ^.iffurr hr <aii be ronvitled, it b bard 
Do K« bov, ■( long a» ibrec, or two. <« ooe boaot man cin the jury 
baa a nasooaUa doubt, the prisoner can fndy be dtprfvrd ot the 
benefit of ii inihmit devtrojiog oar cardinal rule, But the In- 
luprfablc an/^wcr ift any ehaofe m far as criininiJ triab are cen* 
cemed, tf the qonlkai vbai Hutnliluir «ill yon provide — awl 
none has c^ier been *v^ffited that would oommand Ihc apprmal 
of Uvjcn or fA Uynvn^ . . . 

Tbcce ife teir vcnoua in£rretly in Irial by jury in criniaal cajes 
In limcA of great enitenieni, cvpedally wfien the ntcire bolaccroua 
portico of the poTtt undmakts at k ganflrally dov. fo pftjudioe 
the cnx aod 1o condemn ibe iiccuied nnbeaid. Tbe jnry. imdef 
such cbruErvtanotK find It Ittfd Ut italic ihe Impmaion <if imbttc 
Mniiment so kaHBy prodained. Tbe «Mn^ and rronesa ■ hkh 


The JudiciiJ SyMcm 


Blood as in rtfTcciuil hflmcr a^nst the wndi anA ijnAtif <i 
kiop, and vtrhkh won for ibc petit jury m'wKXh U lb prt%ljj7 
ftnd glory in Engtiih hbtory, mtc cefftklnly Itkrly ftt 1iJAc^ Ui foil 
«hcn confronting (bt ontnitrid fcnvimrttt of that mocc potent 
dftAgtrow il«if>ot — 4n mrasMl fWjnuovcy. Fonoaucly, 
icmprMt of populsf lurjr air irry r-irrlT^dimfcd «gdmt Ion 
and ulhrr tribanalA du iiot viibiUAd their fufj vhik the 
1ua», any bctier ilhin ibr jaty, jodc^ of ibe im Insurer, ««d 
even the iHral iHbunaTs of i|>p<al, havt been Coxind rqually poivcT' 
Icvt fo «Ufn tht EJde^ Stvdy ihr ivpom of our ovn (K«w Vofk] 
Conrt of Appf aJ4 in rrrtnt yran, uid you will fnd morr tbui one 
invtuKv «l pvbtjc wFAtt b oor gmi mrtnpoUji, Turned into a 
devouring fune by «omc hwkss ncw^popcni and a luiaewbal 
lawleH lnMr?>tf|£itlftK tvnuniuoc, wlirrr tho t/fal Coun, unco&- 
>dou«ly influenonl u>d loudly uituined by public opinion, cc 
mitiod fatal trmn •gaiiut ibc priMnor, wUrh wtn couArned 
the local uibund of &ppcftl« «nd it w only irhtn Ihc 4iii:rm hml 
pk^Aerl *nd iltr MRM>«phrrr rocilrd^ thai the Vnun ai \ut Tt*ati 
ttlting in Ihe nmote capiLiI comrcied the emir, and each tfnitf 
with tbc unfonuoale riauh thai aa ifipaiectly irillty pritoBcr, 
who hu\ l*en coQvicivd upon Blesal evitfence or nilinf^t, oopvd 

One other ehar^e t^ntt trid hy Ji«y in criml«il eavrs i* ihr ^^^ 
pavibility cif coimiplMn and bnbery of indiridual jutotl But Mbrtr- 
In tatf tadgfntnx, the commos otbnate of the cjOnit of ikit dinner 
b pvatly exagprraltd. TWre an: but a few well aMfatolkitrd 
asr» of tucb crinH in the jury boL I htvc bad ItiUe W do wkb 
th« ukl of crisdnal caits, bui fai an t%\rcfktin of morv ihan (urty 
yeon in the IriaJ cf cfviT caaea belon juriefy T canaot ncnl one 
case whcfv I hod n«>nn lo be1kii« lluit cccrupclon nr brifaffy IumI 
FMched 4 aianSe |aroe> And if you can «bow me a lev a«i|fa»ik 
CMA of mh infamy tn Ibc jurf box, I viH undcftakc lo 
them vMi an tqiual ttutntitr of litnAarerimn comnlticd hj 
who have been property ctpoved and punished. , . » 

Lci«icttyvbu1mdmBdbya|ur7tri4L Vell,lfttifat 


_itf; 'F ^'4iMr%tnnrirwwtit«f«-aai|ji'*KBaBdKiri 
., «:jfT4A(ifr« t til- >iiii>' Kma^ a uiiiAii_ nm-, 4p- 

-t^f^i 'iffl*'*" t*^ -.rf^ w-lTT tmr" UH. i- OCKi .1 

,-',.- ■ p.4> , .Ti- » iir'i rt^niiu .; ■mrjii" ill tiKsr iwt^s^ 

; „,H..'.i":^-, r.'j „ ^^ L.*-^ U-TTAcr IcJl ant ^itimin^-^ ^ 

...15 :-^ ■*■■■- *M-'v ^f" '-^ v*-T Ji»'^ ',r T* :aiK Ji ^^tj 
- :.:. .. r ,- .rP n .\.j /." -r .-■<.%*/ '/.r-,T:. f'X fi^Ctft. 13i Ufa 

The JudictJi) SyMcm 


luri Bfvr be vrvri ]| U the ucrrd povacMloN of ibr pcoptv 
In vboiC auMc jmd by «ho»c tuilfaohty k b d«i«. IKi jtm uj 
aictln that lUi b an klral t^iun- ? Who erf jov bw nut mod It ^ 
\\1iii of you doe( not know ih»t it b not onlx pcwiblf , but nn be 
&nii wi^t to bv ikc aauAi tiid rrtr^y Ksnt b cmr Count? 

An oUnck wiu mule on ibc jury in tlic Sew Votk cnewtilvjlkinAl 
fonvvnlioD in t^, and ii wu met by « firn dcdiraljan ffuiut 
zay iatMr^AMi by Mr. Koirt: — 

T (So not DOW btiBtrc, notinthstAnding the very able aiuj fbrc^ 
fitl aiJdrcMWM vrhkb have Iiotq mads (o-di^l — thai Iho people 
of the itate of Sryt Vcrrk an tliaiatUbd «4Ui tli«ir limcbonuttil 
ifutlcutioD ci ind by jury. I am nol disatudicd with tl, ni. 
I believe thai It b one of the moat bnpnriant* moet vital, rnovl 
aacTcd ol the imiliutiona vhirh maittl^ o« IfM a>id pepultf 
gOTemnienc, I beUcvr llui it urves la bfiof Ibc pcoplc-^aot 
lawyen a&d judges, the pUin people — who vote, and who unde^ 
lie the whole lUVdiirE of ouv go^tfiinKM, into imioJIate paAlo 
ipaiion in ibe admioitcradon ol law. I baSfva thai tl milifUoi 
the tevne bgk of the bv, oad tsuke its adininbiralioo tolnafala. 
I beUcve that it tvadira o^rrcci rcAub) in Uct and In fcamOf 
though not dwiys by logic; ind I believe, ftr. Ihil Iho vmy 
wcntial feature of IhU ijvtem n the nqummtfit of unaruinily, 
I think that the Amendnifnl which aim* elC pcmiilllnjt bu Ihaa 
Ibc endrv body of the juiy to leoifcr a trnH^t i* lumed a1 iha 
vtfy bean oi the jury vyttttn, and b nottiftf iboct nf rBvoJiicloa- , . , 

1 aay that thb b a owl vUal maiser, bocaiHr thl*. b whciie the 
people are rnnmod In the admlnbtniion of the law. It ia ihe 
ninumait of Ibdr tide to rofiiral of that aitmbiiMntion. Il b 
tike BBcaftt hf vblch they prolecl Ibemsdvc* jcalnat pomtr, aiptifut 
wraith, and aicainal ibe Judft on the bench. I am not »uri«ijw<l 
thai w tbciuU have eipwfani fnrni jndgA which Emd Ea der- 
oiftxkm of the tystem of trill hy jury, for ibe t^item of likl by 
jury waft dvaigBMl mod baa vrved alvmjm ai a |ifoaectloa acalut 
jndgeft. and the cine ooaia often and o^un when the people need 

On hi; 


American Govemmcnt and Politics 


that iirotrrrion, irlifn iniiividu^ Khrrty nordt llul pmlrctioi 
umI J will nerti cmural. If I vi^l« al'.inr, a^iui owtw) 
Bi>}oridci| U> Ukc awiy unc jol or uule iif th« slRSglb, 
ukJ tliv perpoiulty of ibai safcKuudi (Appl&UM,) 

Mr. !'TcAid«ni. I hive uid lU thai I hxvf !■> ny. vUh 
cq>iIon: Wc hnvt had rcjtd tn u«i9-ikl£hta number of 
oJ opimon fniin tert-wntcn^ fn»m juriau, from leuiifd {ui 
in Kf)j[lfind, in [llinaiat, in Miritij^, in I^mtr and ic New V< 
bur in Ki^liirirt, in Itlim^ift, In Mt^hi^in, in Ittvf^t in Nrw Vi>rh 
IlitTT stilt rcrnoim the aytttm of triiU by jury, wiifti lb cBtoCii 
<t]ink.lori(itk of J anafldmouc verdicL Theoiy u aipuiuL li 
Mr> Pnftideni, but the pliun pnictical commoQ-aenw ol lli« An^la 
Sum ncE has wrought out xad holds to^ and I beU«vfi ncuu tj 
hold M thb, their peculiar (rciliod of concUiailng dispute* md 
«f eodlog fifigAlion. The plain acme of the people^ Ihrovig) 
hundtul* of ycMty in pnulk^tl rxiwrineol^ «ct.4 lUcIf aUI RjcaifUl 
Uw thtoiin of Jumts. Thr pl£tui wfifl; of Ihe people will faavi 
to PAS upon thb Tttiatd ^nl amended ConMlcuiioa. Not iho 
Offktt> MM Jislitt, not tcat'VTtler*. To thev we Butt ai>ppal 
and let is qiply thdr good cdfirnioc ttsac to ilic work which w^ 
do. I hope, Mr Proideni, IliAl this Conieoiloo wtO sot altad 
Ifio iptoM f<i CriftJ by jury. 

Bai Asiocuiktn appoiniol * «p«di 

I ihe pmitulrtj of radiiciBg the oun)b«4 

n JtkiicttI pmctwicn, and Ihfa ctintmilt^ 

ay rrfiorl fro« witidi only a few 

In 1^ 
coianii'i .' 
d rtrUn H' 
aad« A lot*a ..>« >^4^ 
can Iff ghta facre; — 

llif ihcofy of i Uw»uit «, io hear vhai the pirtic* liAve 
and Uk deode licfwrcn Ihcm. Ip ikan^ ihli, tfir iim]>kd4 aiMJ 
n>o«l dijvcl OTHliod n tW b«U. TV pbiatifl nnitt makt bil 
<tatem«iu; t!ut la ibe fint ttcp: th< defcadaat vuct miLc hti 
anftucr or be held lo admli th* Inith of ibo cotspUni; thai h ihj 
second; if ibcy difler, Uk uvth of Ibc fact muM be 

Tbe JudidaU System 


dial is l^f third; «ikd ibco (be bv ntM be tppBcd, «rhkh ia dbe 
founh »icp oxkI Ibe lose if iberc be no oppuL These acren] 
atcpd fHA/ be skoTtcr'or l&ofer. A tbort ooe is ike beat if It be 
A .lurc <HV, Some side atqtf iihj bare b> be token, ofconliog 
to the rlrtu«utAnf(« of pAtliculor rAw«. Bui in ah, not * ningle 
imncceiMrr rtrp ibouU bp nqiuret) ca allowrd^ In other vordi, 
no fotfm or procccdtog ibould be pcmullcd which i« cot norcuuy 
li> wcertiin or preHnw ifac rijfhtt vf tlw piuilvft Du form <ir pro- 
cenfing Ihftt caimot be udostood by alfccr party, soiic tbal caoscs 
ftcedlms ddty or nmfla» expcMt. Thetv nuM, however, be 
4 oompiauit, iimI if thrre be an answer ihen muit be a trial of 
Ibe lacl, a juctjcment o( the bw, -imf an ececuiioa of the judjcmeM, 
wbb oceuvLiiia] iutidnilal pcixeetljujp^. iwh n onlcft inaiie in 
die pvusnu of the cause f u insure Ibe efOdcnqr of the judgmeiil. 
In other worda, their may be in dvll acdonfi thiae fevfnl pfactaaee 
^ die coflnplai&i, die onswvrp posnUy a itfily, the prariifonal 
rcmtdia of arrcsl, replevta, iiijiincilonj alta^braenl, rreeivcr 
or depouF, a liial of Ibe facta in issue, the judgment of Ibe law, 
die execution of the jutl]tQM4il and on« at nure appealii, iwdvc 
or fouilem distinct pcocvnc*, mwl "f whith ^n or cnay bocvnie 
lOOMiij in ft tererely comerted law-sinL The proUcB b hov 
BO «ipedil« dwR] til, pnatfviiig u tbe same tbie evcfy ili^c ot 
Ibe putio, and lo cvt off, with aa unsparing hand, whatercr is 
b<^l neccMary to lliift doHgn. . . . 

Lei us take our tntft aa ifwclaiort of a wverefy r^nCcsied jory 
trial ia a court of ((cncral jixriHUct»ti of one of our dtio, say in 
th« CEiy of New York, and *i« bow o<m- of Ihcta at lra«l h con- 
dudcd. The hour uJ the itlling is (iaed for efeveo o'cbxk. At 
fbu bour a crowd of Uw7Qts» ^oon, wiuie»Q, aad «p<ciacon 
b in atlendaiKe ready tor the Judl|e- He cosms, pcrhapa puBicin- 
aily, and periM^s no< punrlualljf but after a few attmues, or a 
qiurier of aa hnur, or h.ilf an hour, nnbody ran foretrfL wttirh. 
Al Isai he appear*, and begins by vkiag whii Miits are rrady. or 
ndift by calKng over Ibc calendar, an unJnleoded but rral in- 
Titaivon to Ibc pnitiA, one or bocb of Uram, not to be mdy. ThiA 

.:irl ."r.inrX 
•i. . nrilti" '.'i 


than that Ibty iboutd t* h-j4«1 upon th« bcocb M bans and b«- 
viilikr mffrriog cuuttvcJ and mwt mStnc^ KuiiurL 

Wbaicvcr may be utd I& olber RfpccU of Ihc IntUtutlon of 
the ;ui7 for civU ca£cA> U raJUiot br d»niH thai It ifl ihr c^iuc of j,^" 
great dday*.. ThJa u thr dTcri pnndpally of tvo raEui«ft« nnc of 
whrt^h II Ihe rrriiiirrmfrni of uuntinJry. When thr jury it di^ 
ch^nied, by i^aaoo of dujgttcmtct, th« c^sr hu lo br ntrioL 
Anolber uul much mure coosIiicrcLtilc uiue of ddiv in the fifud 
nAuli, U the ordcfing of a oew iiul fut miMHrvciiuD of ihu (.vurt 
or an trmneou^ odauBioB or rcjcciiao of evidence. Thb najr be 
oh^Saled 10 a icrcai txtcnt by nqulriaf the vcrdkt to be fiporlAl, 
upon queitiuru ULbmiried bj the jodgf. llie rcduit would be 
thai jui error of tbc judge i^)on the tml wouU no: require a tirir 
trial, onkaa the ertor reUled lo a fibdiiig OMsodal to the judgment ; 
that is, one wilLout viiich the judgmeiU cnuld oot hiiv bcco 

Coats, tooy bare aomctliiag lo do with the ddajr^. Two iheoriet 
arc propourkded mprctiBg them; one ihai they t£iouM he tnadc 
aufficieot to cover all Ibe eipoita of the luccmful Htigutl; the 
tAtt Ihat tbey dtoidd cove* only liic fee* of the comt ot!km, tUflij 
■a cJerk3 tfui Bbetilb. Un one ftde it tt argued ifcuL i puiy 
hu put hia adivrury to needkn c^^cnic attd vuflered dcfeal id 
Ibe aidt, ought juuly lo iMknudfy ll^ advtnary; oo th« olbcT; 
aide ii ia aigwd tbftt fto ^jvtem of CMta vfll pRvat aa mtji 
claim or an unjust deTcBAe, and Ibal in mnoi intfartaei thty are 
iutruakenla of op|>icnioD, rather Iban of jmlke. and if ibry are 
made to dcfMVkd at all ufion thp diicrrtioo of the judge Ifac dUcre- 
1km h danfftnius, TIk cUtmv bemtvn tlw mm depend* qui 
upon ciptvieoci thiia on Uwoey. And «e iblaL rjqKricnce hj 
ihowQ ibat Id aJbw do cosO, except ibc Coa of dte oficea, 
bolter than to aiicisr* aa bdaoiolicaxiott Joe G^>enKs of the pn^ 
railiaf pany. 

It appear* to m Ihat a grrat dni of ibne i% vudrd and no Ultle 
iincniajnty iolrodoced talo the iiw by the haUl of dctt tri ng loi 


Ai»eric2n GovcmitKnt anU Policial 

Ofiiiil^iu at the lime of praODimcing {udffmrnt- Anyone 
will ktok Into ihe d«cUfoiis of Lord MimfigM wtU pcrcoivo 
dtflcitficc between tlic old babil and Ihe new, much to tbc 
penk^cmcnt oi the biicr. Our volumes of rcfiAnn hiivc too 
disertslions b tbo iIlj^ of opinionk The mconvctumce 
amiAl 1* nMAiiold : tbctimfiof the jud|E« U wA^lfll; ihr rc{M 
And the coat of the re|ii>nB are grirnMnly twoUen^ And woni 
ill there U the cbjum^ with reverence be it spoken, tbit smm 
tfae dienrutjonfi. If tlttlr «^ipuiilan goM on> may l>o detiirerwl 
clouds of vahouty, coveivig u v^th a fog the points to sight i 

We think.* moreover, Ifaat ^ling t]j Bt&CiMe ft prrfercoce 
(MtAio <a»A OQ ihe (Alendir h -i nuMjJte. The (oufts nuiy i{ 
be trutitd fvi t)je ithuUimii of their otfn cslvod^n; vfhen tl 
fiftd ft cue to be of vndi public imporunce » to reqtire ft hcfti; 
before ill oihen Ibcy wIH be quite sure io he^r It. WhcMver I 
siftle CDLCtft that one cose shall be beard before another, wt^ 
standi ahead of it Id onler, !i cotf]f<««e» Ita own Dc^fcoce or j 
ftbahty lo pnwide a prompt br^ring for ail. - - . i 

Tlic qurjihon of appral it hlfl>tjrt >t tenoui one. How tM 
lacccm ve appeala tbouM be allowed, and within wbat ikne iluii 
they betaken? The attwcrloth«£ratikpcBd> upon the orfanj 
doQ of ihc couns. la the Sute of Ncv Votic, kr 1iittux«, wb 
there are itpwanls of seventy cixtnfiaatc trial cowls of ibehtgl^ 
on^pnal jiaildiction, it wouM he out of the r^t^rfllna ta j^rc 
aplieal frocn each of then to the Court of Appcak; there rai 
of ticcculiy, be a prenow «ftio|[ of the ax by a ptoccedin^ 
tbt laitvt of aA ftppeal in the origina] <ourt itNlf; ikat ki 
■ppeol from one Judfc to two or three cowtinaCe jodget. | 
Mb<r itaia the umc reaMCLlns nay not apply, and out ipp 
may suflre^ The tim« allowed for on *ppral should be aht 
It b nnw in many inMaacra long, gntvoiatf kmj iubcd; ft^ 
two yraf», tcaittoneB ait oar Brren. 

fa Ibe Mbving tatUnoor b^ f^aUcc O^iuin H» L. Scbi 
b^rgrr bcfoR (he L«vcr« invctt^dng OMiaalttte in Nrw 
In iSm* i^ fne(hocU whkit i (omipi poiko Ibcce ouj cmpl 
tei make private gunt Jirt fuJJjr d<9crib«d; — 

Q. WhiFe }n>ii wrrc in cwnniand of thai pfvcifKl, ax w&nC lf> 'T,^*"^! 
undeninnd the condidon oJ aSiin in thxl prednct, who wu «Titni4i 
jrour wufxlman? A^ Whtdt I c^mc lh«rv CiJnpMI uid Mutiti >^HtBd| 
were the dctecttvcs- 

Q, Did yoii then IwiTG A man ^p/poiated with vbam pti b«1d 
tfidcntial reUtionai* ^. Yr«^ Atf. 

Q, Now, did }Tiu j^jpomi GHnnon froTH that kiujuI or from 
thjit pndncE, or ilut yuu havv him uLcn from ttooUiGr prcunct? 
A, I hod hin Imuicntd »jid brou^^l iben. 

^. And b« wa» ncopusod u the captain*! oonfcltinlil iMafj 

Q. And vhote priodpal doty w>a Ii to mtkt what on knowm 
H Ibc rollocrdon!! in ibc ftcvtrol ptrtlncE* to Iho upubj A. 

Q, Vihcn jon had Guinon tnLnafrrrnl, did fou hmw i ton* 
v«imii<m with hiiii rrUiiiijc (u ^tiit cot1n:lion» mi^t b« Qudi 
ibftlpnctnct? A^ Va, ur. 

(>. And what lines wctv ktd out, wtut Adda wen ImfiniML 
whfn coHfctioM couM be naide? ^l. Thtit wtf MtUch^ there 
nnJy policy idiopa. 

(j. About tbeiic poficy idiopA, did you vi^erlatn thr number? 
^, Va, sir. 

^. lEoa BiAitj W4TC in thftt pfvcind at that linw, do ywi f«> 
znemb^rP .4. Abnut t«, 1 ifuaa. 

Q. And bow much did you deicfBiIac that liiey tbouid p«y? 
A^ TwfMy dollan a niooth cadi. 

Q. Was Ibat the ««aMbhcd curtom? A. Yci, nr. 

Q. Gm in your &nt knowkc^gv of Ifut ctneom, how [f 
kflown to ywi the polky shopi wtfe lt> p«j $90 a 


Amcrian Government and 

;4, Hie policy shopft til there tn the pndoct uid in the q 
pail of Ihv ^ity nn undcs ■ nuji bf the tuiw of Putcr, adc! 
renumber H^'lii, Pirker mxM to ihe aiAtion-faoiK* tod i^ivi 
And told mcbowmuiyihajtshc hiuib Ibcpndnci; that wu 
jud be w« isDodocod u> GaiinGi&, And Gftiuioo did tho rtM{ 

^. WcTt then? an/ other scurcea qI coUcctiDg except the pi; 
ftbnjM b ttiAt prrcinctr* j1. Then wtJt the liquor dcalen* 
goAu^uQ ibciv, Bobeniian LiqU'ir llcalm* i>rg«nijulioti ; i 
contributed «bout $3o « muntli, t ihlnlu i 

Q. NoTT, uf tbo rnE>oey th-^t vm pdld by tho poUcy ifaops I 
of the roone}' Ihal vw paid by ihe Bobenwin Li<|ui;>r Deo) 
AMociatloQ, how much dkd you rcccivic? A. Well, 4U bii| 

Q. ThiAl WL£ the rtengnittd thing in all the 

Q. $0 for u you know? A. Yo, ^Jr. 

^. About what vu the »uni thai yov coikded 
mnaib, nftn paying Guuico hia lo per cent; there urcre lOfHjj 
shops, that would be %10O? A. Ye*. 

Q. Then there was (So from the Bohemian Liquor 
aswKi^iui? jf. Take so pre ccnl off lltat. 

Q. Novr. while jui^ were t-aLptaln cJ Ihal pniriKt and tn 
of ihat mntKy et^eiy month, did ;vtj jpre any port uf that mq 
or of any irroncy lo any othcf police official? A, I <fi(L | 

Q. Von did? A. Vcs, sir* i 

Q. To whora did you f^tt il? ^1- tiv^pcctor WiDUnM. i 

Q. To Dupeetor yTillianu; wav Uillianu ibe inapocioj 
thai inipectkici district? A. Ves, m. 

Q, Tl^jLt pcvcfad was w-ittJn ht» juriadkoon ai 
-f> Ye., dr, 

Q. WU you jihut tell ui how li wwi firm arranged 
WHIiaiu odA yoUTTclf that you &boufcJ piv hloi i poctioo oil 
nymeymUfftcdby jnuinibalprTdnct^ r1- t nsctredrd Capj 
Ciflmer. vho had been rvtimJ , llie Lnt day I wmi to iht tUt| 
homt Captain Gwioer i^ame in to get tamr Uu 


n 1m 


The Judidsil System 


hiDucLf in ihc office; Capt&in Guadgt and I kid * coofiikflim 
ulk u u> how much he hod irivra to ih< iospecior. 

Q. JusI tdt u» the Ulk, if you plcue, cuptftin. A, 1 
Cftpt&in Gunner how much did you give ID llw iMfwctor; becai 
I ffon'l vrani to giw any k#9 Ihan you haTc gtrrn, tad Cl[ 
Gunner hild nic uttftt he hid git^eo- 

pr Whit iKd be uiy; how muLb^ A. He said he tent (^ 
■ometinici (7^. ju^t as he felc: belWMfi (50 And Sts > monthj 
ti> the inApixtor. He lold me that be liad pot thb mcoej ]m 
envelope and grroa it to OLmpbcDL th4t CwspMl hod ghtB 
til Serj^c^tni Price in Inspo:tflr mUiam** nffice, 

Q. ScfRriinl Prier iftio rt WHT <«pi4in? A^ Vc*. far; I know 
htm; WilliuTu didn*! ihink llui I ocvdcd nxty intcnncdiaLe pcr- 
«oo; I w«nt dbvcdy lo him and tunded him ths money, 

Q, Bow much did you ha&d Uni.cipt«jai? A. n/Ty dofiu». 

Q^ Did you tty laythias Oo him when you hukded It to hln? 
A, No. Btr. 

Q. llid he My anytynn la ymi? ^rf. No, »r. 

Q- Pbced U ia an envekipe^ «!< Yai^ t£r. 

Q. And haAdcd it to biia witboul 1 word? A. Yet, ht. 

Q. la hb «flk« U bttdquuMn? A. In )ui oflk« «l 

<>. Nfrw, ^pioin. we want lo have you place i^n ibe ftcord 
hfrr wdy ^u ^re part of Ihr mioncy collected by yoa to Wiltiactu 
AS tht impeclAT- --1, Weil, it wax in WUKami' powrf to lend 
men up therp lit raid liwic pU^ »liop« o«vr my bcvl ; to (wevvnt 
hnn frooi duiog thtti; of oaune, upea oonndenlion of retdi 
that lum of moflcy evviy month be wouldn't do tl. 

Q. So Chai b orte to enable you 10 derire the profit of td- 
vinUge flora ihoe policy shops doing buuncaa in thai precinct 
you dSrIcM the pn>e«e<U with your fupcrior odka, ihc iaa p cctof? 
A, Ye>, m. 

Q. Now we bave It, thai Ibia moncr wae piikl lo hun in con- 
lidenlkm ihil be wi^uld allow you to pcnnit Ibcae poTiqr 
to contioiM in Ibor bunneu in riolaikfi of law? A, Vc», dr. 




Amcncain Government *nd P<^lincs 

(}. This J10U knov, Ihat yr^u gavr in W\\lam% ctrry moalh « 
pott of Ap idcnfiiral moacy thai iris cttntributtd hy (hoc jkiIm 

Q. Vou didti*l di«ng« ihe m^aicy? A. Vca, B*r. 

p. Wx> tl an unfirrtLiTHHl ihlna in the dcf>«nin«Ql (hai Ibe 
money should gu in bUli wherever money vis to be paid in 
nuAiicr that yoQ hai« prescribed? j1. Oh, yts. 

Q. lEbilh? ^. Yrt. 

^, So ts lo toire t» Imre? ^. Vo, sir. 

Q. Spcadiing of the BobcRiIui liqwir detlcn, it it a fMit (hat 
die moDCf they p^ml w» pud Id comadenUiun or their being 
ftlbwod 10 Mil DO Svnda^^ A. Yc«, i^r. 

^. When yw vtoi lo E^^ty-eic^th SttvM, what roUectiDai 
W0t nudrr in tlul pnciivt? ^- There wu some ptMcj sbopi 
thcrr utid v^nr panl'nMnin; iK:ii tr-ui itlh 

Q, Unr mwb did Ihey pt.y? A^ Well. db^geCher ftbout 
$000 I EDoolb ; aboui $800 a mbnch. 

^, CouU yuu give m ibe dumber of potiiy ihi^, because w«^ 
VB&1 tobca«cx*cta« vcwi; can you five w ihc number dpolli 
9lMps uid ihc numbct of pool-roomt ib^i wn in that pndocti 
A. ] think thrrc were tba^i 10 poU^'y ^hapd ukd three 

^- CtnroUlcU mhovinfKh theiepool'imaopay? ^4, 
hundred Mian a raondi. 

^. Hcnr about the liquor dea)rn? 4. DidD*l touch Uiem< 

^. ft'jA it not an uadcrtlood thing Ifeten llial iho liquor dealci 
had madn their [>raco wHb ihe police Ihrou^ Tammany Rail] 
A. Yta, >lr- 

Q. And ihJit btteul at l-^ying dimclly ta the poticc 
AouU pay TomnLany lUIL; wu not th^l th« in>drr<ilood ibCngr 
wl, Wr9, that «u Ibc iwdef3lQod--t^aHinow«lw(hcr Iba 
««ft tt^Wv M or not, ibai U vlut I bcvd, 

Q, T^ai it yovr reason Eor youf uott-btcifeKDa? A, Vet, 



tgS. Homt R^ /tit Ciim 

aJlvn hat bern ucompaniKl by nuny [NilpuMr i-t-ils u;id hu Ud 
to a driHAnd Ob Ihc p^n of some rdomcn T^r " munldpcl home 
rule" — a coodilioti more <^\y sidswuiaH id ihc abslnct thui 
dcriaiNl b the concrti«. In the laat coDstltmloQft] conteDtioD of 
New Vori Mr, Kmt made an if|cumml a^^iniC allonjiit ciliei 
loo great an indcpcndcnctf fmm cciuni control: — 

I cntrtvl the I'Kimbrr vtiile lh«l jectttkmA& wu rcfcrtinx 1o 
Ch« frt« CILIA uf 111? mHklW l^Vt ukI I lialennl *ilh gmt mlcitet 
and utUfmctioo to llic noadu wUcli he bjkIc upon thai subjcd 
cmd ihoH whii:h followed. < , - Bui, sCr, 1«( mc ulc the |Ecntll^ 
mui if. filled with aalural and proper pridr in the pv4l city whkb 
he reprr*cnUi« he tun not taken i umcwbai one «dcd licw of the 
rvlatlaiM of onwiidp^tlM of the SUC« tn the ^<i*Atf llir frre 
dtio Cif the imddle ft^cs Mood by Ibviruelvet, guvenied by thtnv- 
sclvcs, but they undcflooL lo txcKue no power cpI jpnvnuncntAl 
ri|Eht> ovtr oifam, and ackAawlcdged ao duijca to otfaon- TV 
great ratici of the Stale of New Yoik eon buld no walk aiwMkd 
thdr bocdoa. Tbcj toctudc ihtmidvo In ibc nudu ol no bar- 
iteia betancn themadrtf and 9kik fdWir^ilneiu of the Stale. 
Tbc7 tmikfftake tf> hiraish lo «», and acbiMMrledge Ihdr nbitjatviM 
vndrr the law to all oF ut fmm Monlauk F't the Slalr ll«e ia Lake 
ECrie, the great anarket, the great ctnin of edocatioB, of reerea- 
don, cd bwtKn, Ibe centre encnmcfrially, finandafiy, politkilly, 
around which lerolvc, and from nlkfa thnb and pnAw the Kft 
cunentsofa Soue wUch b a polidcal, aocia^ coramenia) and 
tnancial umL 


anlr/- I 

- 'T 
,f 'I. 

'i'r an*: Poiidcs 

"li'i ir,.i.i ni- !!ir orciiiii?ntijl 
. i:- -"1*.-. v'i:i:;t iiiaji deier- 

^ ^'■1 -/, - -v:1p ;S> V-iliti ft ill 

''*■[■ ir,; i,t.ii'T Tijr o: ihc 

M' I ,i.r.i in-: U'A' for ihi' 

' iiFT ',: (/: :r<jr^ ihi- rc^i t>i 
1 -' \: i:. inr [»"t^iiinn of a frre 

jpi! iir-r. truvcruing hcTSiilf 

..Ji tn.i7i iht Siaic and be- 
nil I ih.i; (ir any imcndmcnt 
11. hiin i., nri»teM \m. sir. 

. il I |.iirniri».' Tli.i' ihcv ^ll<.ulJ 

... w,!-. Km;' iinvjH]- ^mjir?-. 

■ ". -' * ■-•.i-\^ : i: ;\r: :. 

V. T, 

!^ J. <.''', 

I! r-^:. 

■""l"". "->! 


Tbc Organization of MunicipjU Government 51 

(>na ^tch hkve ovtr a ccrkiii pfi|i«iuni-W 
own *y»l«m of gorenxment : — 

S«c. t. Asty dijr conialniTiif a papdadon ar ibotf ihin ifaiv 
Ihouiuid fire hundfcd inkibit»nu nuy fnnv a chartef fcit UhOn-n j,' 
fEO%'miRimt, cWixHtcril wilh uid mbjvtt to tbr C'ontfilofion |ot 
rc-fntnc :i cluirtrv|. by cauiing & board at fiilcoi fnxbalikn, wfoo 
UkjJI bate Wn for at lc*ji fivt yMtt quiKM «k<tont tlicivof, to 
be el^trd by ibf qunlififd ^vtrpi oJ »bc auA city, »l afiy gcncnJ 
fpcdal clcciion, whofcdutyli -JiaUbCfWiO^En ninety dayiftfictMsrll 
etrction, lo prrpan and pni|>o« a charter for tin:!) dty, itbkh 
thAll br »jgn«i in dupKcate by tibr mcmbrn of *uch Umrd, or a 
mftjoriiy ol Ibcm, And miimcd, mic u>fiy ii> (he M^yur lliuvof, vt 
other chief enetittive utiicer of such dly* and tlw oIlKr to the 
Records ol iba cuuniy. 

Such propo^ chancT ihaU then be pubUihed in two dalty ntwv^- 
pDpcri of Ktmcml drcuUdon m tucfa diy, fnr at Ura^i l*wnxy day> 
and thr Arsi publicAlJon shall be madr within Iwenry d^v after I 
Dcanptciictfi of the chortcf ; fntvidtd, thai in dti« coniainteg 
population of nut muir lhu.n ten iImwb*ikJ inhjUtAob Mich pn>- 
pMcd charier aball be puUUbcd in one vxh dilly Dcmpaprrj 
tad within not lesa than lldny dayt afttr tuch pulJkation h MH 
be ftubmilcH 10 ibc qtulifitd «kctan of said city ai a ^nera] nr 
ifitcial ekciion and if a majuHty 0/ «.ijch quali6(<4 f^lort voting 
(hcrron shall nfify jhr ^me, it «hjdl ibcri^aficr W xuhmiiinl tr> th* 
Ltffithtiac Uft iuapiknrraJ ar rejection a»a«boir, vHihmil imuer 
ot alicration or unmdraeni- Swb ajjfiro%-;i1 nuy be made by con- 
cnnent reMilutn«, and if ftppnrwl by > nu junty vole ol the niei»* 
b?rv dpcied to Cftdb hamt U ftbal] Ucom the cba/icr of vucb dcy, 
Of if wich cfiy be conoUdaied with a county, then of uicb dry and 
roomy, and khaO bcdome the orpnk ixw thereof, aikd 
anyexMling ihartrr, . < . aU xmtndmer.U thereof, aikd al lawa \i^ 
cian«JiteQl with vucb charter. A copy uf «uch cfiarter^ ceftfiM hy 
the Majror ur chief eaocutlw oKcef, and aalhrnixaicd by the wet! 
of >uch diy, Ktting torih dw wbailitinn of atich cfaarict Bd iW 



American Govcrnmcnc and Politic 

•boon. >nd iu raillkstioD by (luTDk, ilull, afirr the a] 
nxfa chuter by the Legulilurt, be vawde n duplicate, 
penJted, cac in ibc office of tbe Scotuiy ol Sate, and i 
aflTf Win; [Tcnrdcd in tuid KcocinlcT'b cdKrrr fbail be dcpcj^ji 
bb the uchiTB of Ihe city, and ihrrvaitrT *ll ccHin^ aball 
JudlcU) nocirr of ^id rburvr, 

Tlic charier, k> ntlfictt, ouy br umcndcd. at iiMcrvab o£ dm 
than t\w ytiT*, by prc^cAiU tlitrvfor, tubntUtcd Itf tbc lc|fUij 
ftuthonty of the diy lo the qUJJilied etecbon ibneol, at & pnenl or 
fpedol election, bdd at Icnil forty diytt o/ur ihc publiaaloa ol 
9Utb propoiAls f(>r t^tcf;ty (Ia^i in i dail)' nL'Vk^|>i|vr iJ i^nenl 
drcukiicQ in »uch dly, ud nai£fd by * majontx «f ibe «*k<i<«ii 
TOtlnjc Ihcition, and kppniiviJ by ibr ljrffi<>lAU]rr in bmrin pravidaO 
foe ibc approval uf ibr chaner- Wbeucver fiflKci per cent, of the 
qiuUficd ^'olcrv of tbc diy »haJI p<iftEor; xhe Icfblntkc authoHiy 
thcm4 LO jubmit any propov<l uncndmenc or amendmmts lo 
9Bud choTlrr to the qualified mien thcrrof tor tpfimTJil, the legiiJa- 
tivv Attbonty thenof muil submit Iht vtmt. fn fubmitti&j; so* 
»ucb charter, or araendmenU ihcieb*, any alberoaliw article oe 
pat]fK>kit}ua ETuy be pmented for llw dit^icr uf tlie tvten, mad maj 
be voted on icpuaicly wIihovL piejudicc lo othcn. 


Ma TAtf A^rv Yitrk Cktfk m tht ItgiiUtun 

New Vorii hu wugbl lo find ihc muddle gmuDd betweft 
«UtOVxny nod state ceiilniltutioQ by ibe luOooiiig coottituliojmJ 
plOvUioft! — 

AU cities are clauUatd KcOfdSit| to the laim ttaStOkuinentioBt 
«ji frois time 10 tlane nade, u bJlows: Tlw fint clua bctodn ai 
dth« hsvtag • popidukci of one bundnd taid irrvniydTv ibousuid 
tf mut; the ft«cond daio, all dlied bitving & population of fifQr 
IbouHibd and Icn iban cm hunditd and lEettniyfiTe thouaBd; 
IW ihird cla»A, all otbrr f\tk^. 

Lam reUling to tbc pioiierlj, allain of pjTemincnt of difaa, 
awl tbc wvm] drp^nmcaa tliertU, u« dlWdtd i&to i^mn^ owl 

The O^nnrarion of Municipit Government 5IJ 

i^wicliit ciry ^wn\ fjtntni tily Un atp thn« wMrh rrUte In ail ihe 
cities of onr <ir iDDre clinwi^ !ifin:ial diy lawi uv iIkbp whrcb 

ciiy taws ihikll rw( b< p^nvd rit(*pt [11 ouiifwmily wkli llit |>a»- 
visJgni^of ibl]t«ocdon. AFurtny biUTor