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Full text of "The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events"

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REBELLION EECOKD: 



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DOCUMENTS, NAERATEYES, ILLUSTRATIVE INCIDENTS, 

POETRY ETC. 



EDITED BT 



FEANK MOOEE, 

▲ UTHOB or **DIABT 07 THl AMXBIOAH BITOLUTIOH.** 



SECOND VOLUML 



VtlH TWILTB POBHUm ON BTEKL, ABD TAXIOtTB MAPS ASD DtAOBAlO. 



NEW TOEK: G. P. PUTNAM. 

0. T. EVANS, OsrcBAL Aonr. 
1862. 



/ 






Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by 

G. P. PUTNAM, 

In the CIerk*s Office of the District Court of the United SUtes for the Soathem District of 

New York. 



JOBH r. TBOW, 
■noiBOTVPu^ Aivo KZaBoraomflii 

li^ 48, A 60 OrwM Btiwt, 
H«w York. 



J 



NOTE. 

In dosing the second volume of the Rebellion Record, which covers 
a period most eventful in the history of the United States, the Editor 
embraces the opportunity to return his grateful acknowledgments for 
the many acts of assistance and encouragement he has received from 
various portions of the country. In particular, he refers to the officers 
of the National army, who have so readily aflforded him the use of their 
valuable official documents ; to the Hon. Joseph Holt, for the interest 
he has manifested in the progress of the work, and for the aid he has 
rendered in consenting to revise some of the most important docu- 
ments ; to the Hon. Reverdy Johnson, Hon. Daniel S. Dickinson, and 
others, for similar favors ; to the members of the Press, who have, with 
their usual courtesy, extended every facility for the advantageous 
prosecution of the work ; and last, though not least, to the subscribers 
to the " Record," who have, from time to time, forwarded to the Editor 
much of the local material, facts, and incidents, that will be found in 
the present volume. 

It is intended to give a supplementary volume of such documents 
and narratives as may have been lost sight of in the large mass of 
matter that has passed under review, and the remark is here renewed 
that " the Editor will be glad to receive from subscribers any material 
having a reference to the present Rebellion," for this purpose. 

Ksw York, January^ 1862. 



EEBELLION EECOED. 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND YOLUME. 



L— DIARY OF EVENTS, 



DiABT 

.Page 1 



DOC* PAOB 

1. q/kial BeporU tif the BaUU<if Bull Buny Va.\ 

Qen. McDowell's Orders, 1 

«• " Report, 2 

" Tyler's Report 7 

•* Schenck'a Report, 9 

•. 11 

13 

18 

.,... 15 

17 

18 

20 

, 28 

24 

24 



Col. Ricbardson's 


«< 


Cbatfield*8 


«i 


Sherman's 


M 


Kcyes' 


U 


Hunter's 


U 


Bamside's 


« 


Porter's 


C&pt 


Oriffio's 


Lt-Col. Fiske's 


Major Sykes' 



it 
It 
«l 
<l 
(f 
( 
II 
II 
11 
II 



u 



u 



II 
II 



n.— DOCUMENTS Dooxjmknt Page 

6. Sevinty-fint Beffimeni, K. T. S. Y., at Bull Bun, 89 

7. Secession Letters and Narrotives on the Battle 
of Bull Run, 98 

8. Mrthem Ptess on the Battle of Bull Run, 108 

^, Southern Press " " " 110 

\0. English Press " " *' .111 

11. Senator Dovglaaf Iiast Letter, 126 

12. A Disunionist Answered — ^Letters of J. L. Orr 
and Amos Kendall, 127 

18. Beverdff Johnson*s Speech at Baltimore, Jan. 

10,1861, : 182 

15. John Bosds Proclamation, 145 

16. jR»»iMyZeai»ta— 26th Regiment, 146 

17. ifatfM— ith Regiment 146 

18. New ror£-^8th Regiment 146 

19. Letters of John Adams to Lt.-Goyemor Lin- 
coln, 1789, 146 

^0. New Jbrit—2l8t Regiment, 147 

21. Andrew Johnson^ s Speech at Cincinnati, 148 

22. Hudson Bwer Baptist Association Report and 
Resolutions, June 19, 151 

28. Bhode Island— id Regiment, 153 

24. <7om€/fttt«ra?k/tfr6f^« Letter to W.O.BarUett, 152 

25. Gov. Pierpont^s Inaugural to Virginia Con- 
vention in Wheeling, 158 

26. New Hampshire — 2d Regiment, 154 

27. New Jbrl^-29th Regiment, S. V., 154 

" 17th " " 154 

28. East Tennessee Union Convention, 155 

29. Gov, PierponJCs Message, and accompanying 
Documents 158 

80. General Buchnet's Letters to Gov. Magoffin, . .168 
8OV9. Col, Townsend^s Report of the Battle at Be- 
thel, Ya., and the Rebel Official Report,. . . .164 

81. Gov, MeGUVs Proclamation, May 10 166 

82. Gov. Pierpow^s Proclamation, June 22, 166 

88. New rori— 87th Regiment, S. Y., 16^ 

84. Gen, McCleUan^s Proclamation to Western 

Virginia 166 



CoL Heintzelman's " 25 

27 

28 

29 

31 

83 

84 

86 

, 39 

41 

42 



II 
It 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



Gorman's 
Ward's 
Lt.-Col. Famswoi'th's 
Col. Miles' 
'< Blenker's 
" Davies' 
Major Barnard's 
" Barry's 
Surgeon King's 
Capt Clark's 
S Secession qficialBeportsof the Battle 0/ Bull 
Bun: 

Gen. Arnold Elzey's Report, • . . . • 42 

Capt John D. Imboden's ** 48 

Major Walton's «' 45 

Southern Accounts, ».. 47 

8. William B, BussdVs Letters on the Battle of 

Bull Run, 61 

4. jr. 7, Trihune Narrative of the Battle of Boll 

Bun, 76 

6« N, T. World Narrative of the Battie of Bull 
Bu, 81 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. 



DOC. PAGB 

84. Qif^ McCUUarCi Proclamation to the Soldiers 
of tho Army of the West, Jane 28, 167 

86. 0&9. Zetchir's Proclamations to the People of 

Northwestern Virginia, June 14, 167 

86. J^iU at Carter's Creek, Va., 169 

87. Oov. HarrUs Proclamation, June 24, 169 

88. Nkw rorib-8lBt Regiment, S. v., 170 

89. NapoUotCa Proclamation of Neutrality, 170 

40. Col, P. St, George Cooke's Response, 171 

41. New ror^-28th Regiment, S. V., 172 

42. r«nnon^— 2d Regiment,...,. 172 

48. TTwixm^JA— 2d Regiment, 172 

44. Address of the Sanitary Commission, 172 

45. CoL If a2/ac«'« Official Report of the Skirmish 

at Patterson^s Creek, 174 

46. i/inneiote— 1st Infantry, 174 

New Jbrl^— 16th Regiment, S. V 174 

47. iWf. King's Address to the Graduating Glass 

of Columbia College, N. T., June 26, 1861,. . . 175 

48. General BanM Proclamation, June 27, 176 

49. ifat'nd— 5th Regiment, 176 

50. New ToTib— 80th Regiment, S. v., 176 

" 82d Regiment, S. V., 177 

<< The California Regiment, 177 

51. " Compromise Petition, and Guion's 
Remonstrance, 177 

52. Gen, Bani£ Instructions, June £7, 178 

58. Virginia Delegates to the Southern Congress, 178 

64. jREaAQ/'^A^^M^ at Great Bethel 179 

65. Cffieial Report of the Action at Matthias Point, 180 

56. ^f^^n^^—Lctter of Got. Hicks in reply to 

Mayor Brown on tho Bridge Burning, 181 

57. Bebel Official Account of the Battle at New 

Creek, Va., 184 

58. Btverdy Johnson on the Power of the Presi- 

dent to suspend the Habeas Corpus writ,. . .185 

59. Lieut. Mayors Response to the Proclamation 

of Gov. Letcher, 193 

60. DtffouKire— Meeting at Dorer, June 27, 194 

60Va. Gen, Schenck's Defence, 195* 

61. Gov, J^ui Proclamation, June 23, 195 

62. Gen. Banhf Proclamation, July 1, 196 

62Va. Views of a Southerner, 196 

63. Charles D. Drahfs Speech at Louisiana, Mo.,. 197 

64. Joseph Segal's Speech in the Virginia House of 

Delegates, March 80, 214 

65. Galusha A. Growls Speech, July 4, 222 

66. Abraham Lincoln* s Message, July 4, 223 

67. Report of the Secretary of War, July 1, 229 

68. " " " "the Navy, July 4,... 235 
68V3. The Fight at Romney, Va., 242 

69. BaUU at Falling Waters, Va., July 2, 242 

70. " Carthage, ILo., July 6 246 

70Vs. Skirmish at Newport News, Va., July 5, 2ul 

71. . Fight at MiddU Fork Bridge, Va., 251 

72. Fourth of July — ^Recurring to First Principles, 252 
78. A Flag of Truce from the Rebels 254 

74. J%e Capture of the " French Lady," 255 

75. Debate on the Loan Bill in tho House of Repre- 

Bentatires, July 10, 256 



DOC. PAOt 

76. Daniels, Dickinson. Address at Amherst Col- 

lege 259 

76Vs. Dottle at Monroe Station, Mo., 270 

77. Col, Siegers Report of tho Battle of Carthage, 271 

78. Benry A. Wise's Proclamation, July 6, 278 

79. Fight near New Orleans, La., 278 

80. Betoerdy Johnson, Remarks in the Supremo 

Court of the United States, 274 

81. Major Sturgii Proclamation, July 4, 275 

82. General Swunt^s Proclamation, July 4, 275 

83. A, H, Stephen^ Speech at Augusta, Ga., July 

11, 276 

84. Daitle of Rich Mountain, Va, : 

McClellan*s Report, 288 

Statement of David L. Hart, 284 

85. Gen. MeCleUan's Second Report, 284 

86. Itght at BarboursvxUe, Va., 285 

87. Col. Psgram's Surrender, July 12, 286 

88. DatOetf Carriers Ford, Y^, 286 

89. " Confederate" Army Generals, 296 

90. Joseph Bolt's Address at Louisville, Ey., July 

18 297 

91. Report of Colonel Davies, July 14, 808 

92. Gen. Jhtterson's Movement on Bunker Hill,Va. SOS 

93. Gen. HurlburVs Proclamation, July 15 804 

94. John C. Breckinridge's Speech in the United 

SUtes Senate, July 16 805 

95. Leoni^as P[>Ws General Order, July 18 810 

96. Peace Meeting at Nyack, N. Y., July 15, 311 

97. The Advance into Virginia 812 

Gen. McDoweirs Army 312 

Boston " Transcript" Narrative, 812 

N.Y. "Herald" " 814 

N.Y. "Times" " 819 

977,. Th4 Constitution of the ** ConftderaU" 
States of America, 821 

98. Occupation of Fairfax Court Mouse, Va. 827 

H. J. Raymond's Account, 827 

A " Civilian's " Account, 829 

99. BaUleofScarytown,ya., 880 

Cincinnati " Gazette " Narrative, 331 

100. Gen, McDowelVs Order in reference to Depre- 

dations, 832 

101. Broome County {N T.) Resolutions, July 18,832 

102. Affairs in Richmond, Va., July, 838 

103. Gen, McDowelVs Despatch, July 18, 336 

104. Fight at Blackburn's Ford, Va., 836 

Gen. Tyler's Report, 336 

Col. Richardson's Report, 8S7 

Beauregard's Report, 333 

Woshington " Star " Norrative, 343 

New York "Times" " 344 

" "Tribune" " 346 

Secession Narratives, 330 

105. War Department Order in reference to Enlist- 

ing Foreigners, 353 

106. General Order, No 46, Wor Department, 353 

107. Brig.'Gen. Pipe's Proclamation, July 19, 353 

108. General McClellan's Address to bis Soldiers, 

July 19, 854 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. 



vii 



DOC. PAOB 

109. 3W* CbufsderaU" Oovemmeni, 354 

Message of Jeff. Daris, 855 

110. Z. W. SpraU, Protest from South Carolina, 857 
UL MaUleo/SuUBun,ytk,, 866 

Gen. Tyler's Sapplementarj Report,.. . .866 

CoL Pratt's Report, 867 

Beanregard's Report, 368 

N.y. "Times" Narrative, 869 

Atlanta (Ga.) " Confederacy" Account, 371 

Charleston " Mercury " Narrative, 878 

Louisville " Courier" Account, 875 

The <* Retreat from CentreviUe," 876 

Northern Press on the Battle, 881 

Southern Press ^' " 885 

lllVi- Th« Dark Day. By Edward Everett, 388 

112. Oo9. Edward Clark* 9 Proclamation, June 8,.. 891 

113. ** ConfederaU" EaoliUiotis on the Battle of 

Bull Run, 892 

114. The Cherokf€9 and ihe War, 892 

115. Beawrtgard^a ** Forage " Order, 894 

116. l4,'Gi>v. ArnolSs Proclamation, 895 

117. (r«A. BxtUnotCa Movement, 895 

1 17 V» Jiiuianppi Secession Ordinance, 897 

lis. CharUd0n {S. (7.) PraAyttry Resolutions, ... .897 
118V> Tk4 DeKaJOt R6gimwi,Yk,X,^,y ,^ 898 

119. &M. iSbMcroru' Order, No. 1, 401 

lia^/t. Oeeupation of CharUtton, Ya., 402 

120. DebaU on Andrew Johnaon^a Resolution in the 

United Sutes Senate, July 25 408 

121. Gin, McClellan^a Command 406 

122. JHgat of AdnUral JfUm^a Beport on the 

Blockade, 400 

123. Gov, Morgan* a Proclamation, July 25, 407 

lS4w Gen. BitUr»on*a Proclamation, July 25, 407 

124'/«. Florida Ordinance of Secession, 407 

125. Southern Bank Convention, 407 

125Vi. Gov. iVtftf/ Message 411 

126. Miatiaaippi Resolutions on the Battle of Bull 

Run, •. 412 

127. Biakop Ote^a Pastoral Letter, July 2G, 413 

128. Capt. Tayloi'a Report to Jeff. Davis, July 10, 414 
139. Andrew Johnaon*a Speech in the Senate of the 

United States, July 27, 415 

130. Cox*a J^ce Propoaition 435 

131. Remarka of Ifeaara. Trumbull and Carlile, on 

the Bill to Suppress Insurrection, July 30,. 436 

132. Gen. Butlet'a Letter on the Contraband, 437 

133. Attack on Foraythe, Mo., July 22, 438 

1S4. Baptiti Convention of South Carolina 439 

135. Virginia (7rc2»nafiM prohibiting Citizens of the 

State from holding office under the United 
States, 440 

136. Gen. MeClellan^a Order, July 80, 440 

187. J^eraon Dawf Letter io John R. Chambless,.440 

138. CoLKiM Defence, 441 

139. Gen. Fillow'a Pkvclamation at New Madrid, 

Mo., 442 

140. Gen. JIurUmrCa Proclamation, July 29 442 

140Vi* Jamee M. Sanderaon*a Report on the Culi- 
nary Wants of the National Army, 448 



DOC. PAQB 

141. ** Confederate" Ibat-Qfiee Beeiaion, in refer- 

ence to Postage on Newspapers, Ac 444 

142. TheDeHgnaoftheNaiionala, 444 

142Vs« BUI to Puniah Conspiracy in the United 

States, approved July 81, 445 

143. Fotter*a Report on the Loyalty of Government 

Employees, 446 

144. Gen. Scott^a Ordera in reference to Spies and 

the Desecration of Mt Vernon, 446 

145. Addreaa to the People of Missouri, 446 

146. Joaeph JIoU*a Speech at Camp "Jo. Holt," 

July 31, 450 

147. Col. Davi&f Report on the Occupation of Fair- 

fax Court House, 454 

148. Lt.'Gov. Reynolda' Proclamatioo, July 31, . . .455 

149. JeJ'. Thompaon^a Proclamation, Aug. 1, 457 

150. A **JMival Engagement" on the Mississippi,. .457 

151. Gov. Gamhlia Inaugural Address, 458 

152. Bebate in the United States Senate on tlie Bill 

to Suppress Insurrection, August 1, 460 

Gen. Baker*s Speech, 461 

J. C. Breckenridge's Speech, 465 

153. Gen, FremonJCa Expedition 467 

154. Fight at Bug Springa, Mo., 468 

155. Gen, Butler* a Temperance Order, 471 

156. Gov, Gamble* a Proclamation, August 3, 472 

156 Vs* Gen, Bip^a Letter to J. H. Sturgeon 474 

157. Gov, Magoffin* a Proclamation, Aug. 3, 474 

153. Gov. Uarrii Letter on the Military Power of 

Tennessee, 475 

159. Confiacation Ad of the United States 475 

160. A lian of Settlement, 476 

161. Expedition to the Pocomoke, To., 477 

162. Temperance in the Army, 479 

163. Claiborne F. Jackaon*a Declaration of the In- 

dependence of Missouri, 479 

164. Skirmish near Point of Rocks, Md., 481 

165. The Escape of the Svmter, 482 

166. BaUle at Athena, Mo 483: 

1C7. Bombardment of Galveaton, Texas, 4S4 

168, The Burning of Hampton, Va., ...485. 

New York " Tribune " Narrative, 486- 

A " Confederate " Account ^.488 

1C9. Gov. Uarria* Proclamatioo, August 7,. . . . ^. . .4S9. 

170. The Capture of the Alvarado, 489 

171. Zollicoff6r*a Ppoclamation, Aug. 8,. 490 

172. The Mob in Concord, N. H 490 

172 Va- " Confederate** Act, entitled an Act respect- 
ing Alien Enemies, 493 

173. Cameron* a Letter to Gen. Butler, 498 

178V3* Executive Government of the United States, 

1857-'61, 493 

174. General B. M. FroaCa Letter to Claiborne F. 

Jackson, 494 

175. Battle of Wil8on*a Creeh,llo,, 494 

Report of Major Sturgis, 495 

" ** Gen. Siegcl 499 

" " Lt-Col. Merritt, 600 

" " Capt. Totten 501 

" « Lieut. Dubois, 602 



vm 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. 



it 



(I 



it 



u 



II 



•I 



II 



f« 



DOa PAQB 

£aUU of WiUon'a Cr^k, (Gontinued.} 

Report of Capt Steele, 508 

Carr, 604 

Wright, 505 

Seeestion Official BeporU : 

Report of Gen. Price 506 

" J.B.Clark, 608 

" Ben McCalloch, 509 

Missouri " Democrat " Narrative, 511 

New York *• Tribune " NarraUre^ 614 

Seeetsion Karrativet 519 

Oen. FremonCa Order, 520 

A JieUl Shout of Exultation^ 521 

I75V9. Itham O. Harrii Order for a Search for 

Arms in Tennessee, 521 

17G. Buolutioni of the Conrention of Western Yi^ 

ginia, 522 

177. Gtn. HurJhur€% Proclamation, August 11,. . . .622 

178. Abraham ZincoMt Proclamation, August 

12, 622 

179. EeUawo/the Surgeona captured at Bull Run, 628 

Statement by Mrs. Curtis, 628 

180. Ben McCullocKi Proclamation, August 12,. . .524 

181. Otn, Pbpt*t Order regulating the Narigation 

of the Missouri River 625 

182. J<^, Dapia' Proclamation of Banishment, . . . .526 

183. Ifqfor JfcKiMtr^i Proclamation, August 14, 626 

184. Th4 BevoU of the 79th Regt. N. Y. S. V.,. . . . . 627 
165. BUhop WhiitinghanCi Pastoral Letter, Aug. 

14, 285 



DOC. PAGB 

186. Exchangta qf Hiionen considered hj the 

Rebels, 629 

187. Gov, Buckingham*i Call, August 15, 581 

188. The Attack on the Betolute, 681 

189. yinvepapere Presented by the Grand Jury of 

Newr York, 581 

190. Abraham Zineoln's Proclamation forbidding 

Intercourse with the South 532 

191. Louinille (Ey.) Peace Resolutions, 582 

192. Oov. Yate^ Proclamation, August 17, 588 

198. Ifitraee in the National Army, .584 

194. Zollicqfer'e Order, 1X0, Z, 586 

195. Battle of Charleeton, Mo., 535 

196. Biahop Odenheimet^e Pastoral Letter, Aug. 19, 587 

197. Gen, HurUmrCe Order, August 19, 587 

197V9* Treason qfthe Newepapere, 587 

198. " Confedtrote** Act, increasing the Artillery 

Corps, 588 

199. 8kirffnehatHawVeK<8t,y^, 589 

£00. Gov. Andrew* e Proclamation, August 20, 689 

201. Gen. MeCUllan'eQiaff, 689 

202. Gov. Curtin^e Proclamation, August 20, 540 

208. General Boeecranf Address to the People of 

Western Virginia, August 20, 540 

204. Brig,'Gen. JVice*e Proclamation to the People 

ofMissouri, Aug. 20, 541 

205. " Confederate " Thanks to Ben McCuUoch, . . .541 

206. United States Executive Government, 1861-'65, 541 

207. Battle of Carrick't Ford, ...541 

208. Gen, Benham'e Report, Carrick's Ford, 548 



IIL— POETRY, Page 



PAGB 

1. Bull Run, Sunday, July 21st, Alice B. Eaven, 1 

2. Not Yet, William CuUen Bryant, 1 

8. After the Fight at Manassas, Sarah Helen 

Whitman, 2 

4 The Rest— Where are They? Laura Elmer,, 2 

6. The Regiment Returned, I\trk Benjamin,. ... 8 

6. The Black Horse Guard,— a Tale of the Battle 

of Bull Run, Edward Sprague Band, Jr., . . 8 

7. The Civilians at Bull Run, //. B. Tracy, 4 

8. The Latest War News, St. Louie Bepublican,. 4 

9. Hymn for the Host in War. Author of " The 

New Priest:* 4 

10. A Tribute to the Brave, IT. Clay Preute 5 

11. *' Cast Down, but Not Destroyed," " A. E.,". 5 

12. the Battle at Bull Run, " Euth," 7 

13. ResurgamuB, R. IT. Stoddard 10 

14. **It Grows Very Dark, Mother— Very Dark," 

"Z B:\.. 10 

15. Our Reverses in Virginia, 11 

16. A Battle Hymn, James Maekey, 11 

17. Battle Hymn, Rev. Woodbury M. Fernald,,,., 12 

18. On the late Sacrilege in Virginia, R. IT. Stod- 

dard, 12 

19. Addenda to the celebrated ** Nine Miles to the 

Junction," Lieut. Millard, Ui 8. gd-, 16 

SO. A Poetical and Patriotic Gem, 29 

21. The Shattered Locket, /(?Afi ^<6ftffM0«» 80 



22. War Sonnet, C. K, Tuckerman, 88 

28. War Song, dedicated to the Kentucky State 
Guard, 83 

24. " Citoyens, LaPatrie est en Danger," ''A. L." 88 

25. Now, Answer to "Not Yet," T. Hulhert Un- 

derwood, 84 

26. "Only Nino Miles to the Junction," ff. Mil- 

lard, 84 

27. Step to the Front, Sons of the Heather, Buf- 

falo Daily Courier, 85 

28. Steam-Frigate Pawnee passing Mount Vernon, 

Isaac M*Lellan, 85 

29. The Meeting on the Border, Louisville Jour- 

nal, 36 

30. The Maid of Ulster, i/:jr*JV: WaUh, 36 

SI. CK)ing to the Wars, Edward S. Ellis, 87 

32. Freedom, Martin Farqvhar Tapper, 87 

33. Alarum, Vanity Fair, 87 

34. Let Us Alone, 88 

85. So.vGS OF THB Reobls : The Southron's War- 

Song, J. A, Wagener, 88 

86. " " Hurrah I By a 3Iissis- 

sippian, 88 

87. " " The Natchcx Militaiy, 

WaUer Stanley, 88 

88. " •• "Southrons," 89 

89. The Welsh Rally, 40 

40. Important Telegram, • 48 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND YOLUHE. 



POBTBTy TAQM 

41. To Jefferson BaTis, 44 

4i. Let Us Alone, W. K JBwrUigh, 47 

43. War Song, dedicated to the Masssefausetts 

Begiments, FT. W.&wty, 47 

44. The Soldier's Last Word, Birh Bet^amin, 48 

45. The Order for the Day, O, Forretter Barttow,, 48 

46. ThePatriotTs Hjmn, ./l /! JViiMf, 48 

47. The Star-Spangled Banner, London Punch,, . 49 

48. Imprompta Reply to a Lady who proposed to 

wear the Patriotic Rosette, J>avid Paul 
Srown, 49 

49. Oar Flag, Wfn,J,Bolf€^ 49 

60. Hear ns. Father! Save onr Land, E, T, P. 

Seaek, 60 

51. CaralrySong, CMom. Q. Ldand, 50 

62. National Song, by '* 7^," 50 

63. To the United States, ifoyiM J2^, 51 

64. The Treason of Davis, T%omaa FUnafn, 51 

55. Songs of the Stars and Stripes, F, H, Seart,. . 51 
64. The Men who Fell in Baltimore, J. W. FmrMy, 52 

57. Onr Country Forever, 52 

58. The Dream and the Awakening, 58 

59. Ood Save the Flag of oar Native Land, " M. 

KUr 53 

60. A Song for the Illinois Yolnnteersy " Agna^, 54 

61. RasseirsFlight,by"A" 55 

62. Flag Song of the Michigan Volonteers, D. 

JBdhune Ihffield, 60 

63. Cotton is King, <*1/:^.", 60 

64. KtaUetf, Fonyth4 WUUon, 61 

65. A New Yankee Doodle, J, R Oilmore^ 61 

66. The Invisible Armies,.. •• 62 

67. Ther Call Me a Traitor Now, 62 

68. The War Slogan, dedicated to Captain McMul- 

lin*s Rangers 03 

69. The Two Unions, dedicated to Irish Patriots, 

70t The Recaptured Flag, by W.S. T., 63 

71. Red, White, and Bloe, Theodore TiUon, 68 

72. The Volanteer's Wife, O. A. Towmend, 64 

78. Upon the Hill before Centreville, Oeo. K 

Boher^ 65 

74. War's Changes, ^. P. ^ti^oder,* 67 

75. SoxGs or THx Rxbels: ** Our Southern Land," 63 

76. " " Message of President 

Lincoln, 68 

77. JeS: Davis is Coming, ! 01, 70 

78. The Flag Divided, 71 

79. Song sung in Richmond, 78 

60. " Lettoce Alone," 74 

IxaDENTs, Kttmobs, Eia 



POKTBT,TAQI 

81. A Yision in the Forom, 2*. Buchanan Bead,. . 76 

82. A Song for the Time, 76 

88. A Gathering Song, 77 

84. Laura, Laura, Don't Secede, 77 

86. Camp Song, Charlct Winter, 77 

86. A Psalm of Freedom, Bev, B. IT, Sears, 78 

87. We'll Let Them Alone, f!^. Copp, 78 

88. The American Marseillaise, M, B Bradbury,, 78 

89. The Reason Why, ** E. FJ* 79 

90. Don't Give up the Ship, J, GrifUh,V, S. N.,. 79 

91. Hoi Sons of the Puritan, 80 

92. Compromise, Edna Bean Prodor, 81 

98. War Sonnet, C, K, Tuckerman, 88 

94. Freedom's Banner, LouieviUe Journal, 88 

95. An Ode for the Union, "JJLD. a," 88 

96. Our Country and Her Flag, Francie Lieber, 

ZZ,D., 88 

97. The Union, ^. Z. iTaii^, 89 

98 Ad Poetas, ^«). i?: J5!0l^«r, 89 

99. The Sons of Old Luzerne, J/I Z. T. Eartman,, 89 

100. Yankee Doodle on the Crisis, 98 

101. Southward, Ho 1 94 

102. The Present Crisis, Janue ButteU Lowell,,. , . 94 
108. The Cavalier's Song, Vanity Fair, 95 

104. Watching and Waiting, by " Alf," 95 

105. What of the Night? 96 

106. The Good Fight, C X Jbn^, 96 

107. Weep o'er the Heroes as they Fall, Chae» Wm, 

Butler, 97 

108. Impromptu on Reading to President's Mes- 

sage, ^. aKEall, 97 

109. <Catbolic Cathedral, T, Hulbert Underwood,,,, 97 

110. The London "Times" on American Affa'un,. .104 

111. Manassas, Florence WiUesford Borron, 105 

112. John Brown's Song, 105 

118. The Battle Summer, E, T. Tuckerman, 106 

114. Fremont's Battle Hymn,' Jot. G, Clark, 106 

115. "My Maryland," words altered, /. F, Wio- 

tJuanpd, Jr,, 4 107 

116. Eighty-five Years Ago. A Ballad for the 

Fourth of July, A. J. E, Duganne, 107 

117. Nineteen Hundred, 108 

118. To General Butler, by " Bay State,'* 109 

119. A Monarch Dethroned, Mre, E, Vale Smith,,. 109 

120. God Preserve the Union, John Savage, 110 

121. To Arms I To Arms I Br, Beynolde, 110 

122. Thoughts suggested by the occasion on the 

nightof July 4, 1861, by V. CB.,** Ill 

123. Oh, Say not it is borne to Earth, Ed, G, Jonee,l\l 

124. The Two Furrows, C. E, Wetib, 112 



M 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PoKnuiT or liuoft-On. JOHN E. WOOL, • . • . 

** GBmAL P. a T. BEAUREGARD, . • • to/act Diart, p. 1 

rt. rbt. leokidas polk, ...."«< U 

ILuoR-On. N. P. BANKS, •••.*''« «l 

BsiQ.-Onr. J. K. F. HANSFIELDi , • • . ^ " SS 

BBiG.-OBr. IRWIN HcDOWELL, . • • • " *< 87 

BBio.-Gsir. F. W. LANDER, «« ^ 47 

Gn. G. A. McCALL^ « « 60 

Bua-Gnc W. a ROSECRANS, •.,«<'» 65 

BsiG.-Gni. LOUIS BLENKER, .•••"*< 60 

CoMMASDBB S. H. STRINQHAH, U. & H.^ . • • « << 69 

Qnr. A. E. BURNSIDB, * ** n 



MAPS AND PLAKS- 
SBcnoir OF western viRGnnA, showing the operations of general 

McCLELLAN, , • • Dusr, p. ^ 

PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF Wn^ON'S CREEK, MISSOURI, • . • . *• ** t% 

HAP TO ILLUSTRATE THE BATTLE OF BULL RUN, YA., .... Doa ** t 

POSITION OF THE CONFEDERATE FORCES AT BULL RUN, YA., • • • ** « M 



:» 



'A 



•> 



DIARY OF EVENTS. 



m 





r.KN PTu iiKArui-.c.Aun, 



t . 



^>- 



s . \: ■ .A 






DIARY. 



•«♦•- 



jni!rE 10, 1881. 

The probabilities are, that the next few days 
irill witness the most momentous developments 
in the history of the continent. The aspect of 
affairs in Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and Missouri betokens the proximity of 
a crisis — of collisions upon tlie result of which 
depends much of the future. The preparations 
on the border, on both sides, indicate move- 
ments which may determine^ and will be certain 
largely to influence, the result of the contro- 
versy between the hostile sections. The points 
towards which public interest will be generally 
directed are: Fort Pickens, before which the 
Confederates have the best appointed and ap- 
plied army ever organized in this country, and 
commanded by an officer whose high renown 
attaches to his name the prestige of success. 
The signs of the times are, that public expec- 
tations in this quarter will soon be relieved. 
On the northeastern line, we infer, from the 
prodaraation of General Beauregard, issued 
from Manassas Junction, that an early offensive 
movement is contemplated, which the South 
desires, and will support. Fortress Monroe 
will be invested, and the marauding bands that 
have been plundering the immediate vicinity 
confined to their lines, or defeated in detail, as 
fit Bethel. The Harper's Ferry force are now 
engaged in a movement, the result of which 
will, we have no doubt, astonish the country. 
Missouri, too, hns become the theatre upon 
which startling events will soon be enacted, 
if the people of that State sustain the action 
of their patriotic Governor in his determination 
to drive the abolition marauders from her bor- 
der. If the people respond, important moves 
upon the chess-board of war west of theMissis- 
nppl are certain to occur. Governor Jackson 
and his brave Missonrians, supported, as they 
ondoabtedly will be, by McGuUoch and hia 

You n. — ^DlAKT 1 



forces, will soon drive back the miscreants who 
have been deputized to crush popular sentiment 
as it has been done in Maryland. And hero 
on the eastern banks of the Mississippi there 
are thousands of brave men congregated eager 
for the fray, whose impetuosity will not bear 
restraint much longer. As a contemporary 
remarks^ *^ the result of these various military 
movements may not all be satisfactory to the 
South." Our forces may even suffer defeats 
and disasters. Military operations are frequently 
controlled by accident. But whatever may be 
the conclusion of any or all of the movements 
mentioned above, of one result we feel assured, 
and that is, of the final success of our great and 
glorious cause, and of the eventual defeat and 
humiliation of our vaunting enemies. Our 
people are not discouraged — our troops are 
brave, anxious, and hopeful, and the God of 
battles will defend the right and carry our 
standard to victory. We may prepare our- 
selves for the development of the future at an 
early day. — Memphis (Term,) Appeal, June 19. 

— John Rosa, principal Ohief of tlie Ohero* 
kee Indians, in a proclamation to his peoplOi 
reminds them of the obligations arising un- 
der their treaties with the United States, and 
urging them to their faithful observance ; ear- 
nestly impressing upon all the propriety of at- 
tending to their ordinary avocations, and ab- 
staining from unprofitable discussion of events 
transpiring in the States; cultivating harmony 
among themselves, and the observance of good 
faith and strict neutrality between them and 
the States threatening civil war, by which 
means alone can the Cherokee people hope to 
maintain their rights and be spared the effect 
of devastating war, hoping there may yet be 
a compromise or peaceful separation. He ad- 
monishes the Cherokees to be prudent and 
avoid any act of policy calculated to destroy or 



2 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-6L 



[JVHI 19 



endanger their righto. By honestlj adhering 
to this course no just cause for aggression will 
bo given, and in the final adjustment between 
the States the nation will be in a situation to 
claim and retain their rights. He earnestly im- 
presses upon the Oherokee people the impor- 
tance of non-interference, and trusts that Grod 
will keep from their borders the desolation of 
war and st4iy the ravages among the brother- 
hood of States.— (Z>0e. 15.) 

— ^A BATTLE took place at sunrise, yesterday 
morning, between 800 Union Home Guards, 
under Captain Cook, near the town of Cole 
Oamp, Mo., and a large party of secessionists 
from Warsaw and the surrounding country, in 
which 15 Guards were killed, 20 wounded, 
many of them severely, and 80 prisoners were 
taken. Most of the Guards were in a large 
barn when the firing began, but they immedi- 
ately sprang to arms, and killed forty of the 
attacking party before being overpowered by 
anperior numbers, but nearly all of them finally 
escaped and are ready to join the forces to dis- 
pute the passage of the State troops. — Balti- 
more American^ June 22. 

— To-day six pickets from Grafton, Va., who 
had been sent out into the country back of 
Fhilippi, ran into a camp of secessionists most 
unexpectedly, and were immediately surrounded. 
They fought their way out without a man being 
hurt, although two of them had their horses shot 
under them. They returned to Fhilippi and 
reported to the camp, and shortly after a largo 
force was sent out. They camo across the camp 
and dispersed the rebels, who fled in every 
direction. They were pursued, and several 
stragglers picked up. Among them was no less 
a personage than ex-Governor Joseph Johnson, 
who was captured in full regimentals. He was 
brought into Grafton this evening. — Wheeling 
{Va?^ Tntelligeneer, June 20. 

— The Second "Wisconsin Regiment passed 
through Cleveland, 0., for Washington. They 
were welcomed by a largo and enthusiastic 
crowd of citizens. Before leaving they partook 
of refreshments, which had been abundantly 
provided in the park. 

— ^Testebdat the Convention of North Car- 
olina elected the following delegates to the Con- 
federate Congress : — ^For the State at large, W. 
W. Avery and George Davis; First District, 
W. N. H. Smith; Second, Thomas Baffin; 



Third, T. D. McDowell ; Fourth, A. W. Ven- 
able ; Fifth, John M. Morehead ; Sixth, R. 0. 
Puryear; Seventh, Burton Craige; Fighth, 
A. D. Davidson. It also authorized the 
First 'Regiment of North Carolina Volunteers, 
who took so active a part in the affair at 
Bethel, to inscribe on their colors the word 
" BeiheV'-'Philadelphia Freae, June 24. 

— ^Thb Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania Regiment, 
Col. Small, numbering about one thousand 
hardy-looking and well-drilled men, arrived al 
Washington. They are fully equipped and 
armed witli the regulation musket. They are 
quartered in the new Colonization Society 
building, corner of Four-and-a-half street and 
Pennsylvania avenue. — {Doc, 16.) 

— A DETAonMEXT of regulars from Kansas 
City captured thirty-five secessionists and a 
small quantity of amis and ammunition at lib- 
erty, Mo., to-day. — K F. World, June 25. 

— ^Tbe Fourth Regiment of Maine Volunteers 
passed through New York on its way to the 
seat of war in Virginia. The regihient landed 
at pier No. 8, on the North River, and took up 
the line of march through Battery Place into 
Broadway, and thence to the City Hall. All 
along the route the gi*eatest enthnsiasm prevail- 
ed, and the appearance of the volunteers waa 
the subject of universal praise. Their solid 
ranks, their excellent marching, and above all 
their fuU preparation in every respect for the 
work of the campaign — all went to show that 
what they clium — namely, that they are equal 
if not superior to any corps which has entered 
into the service — ^has some foundation in fact^ 
In front of the City llall they were drawn up 
in close lines, and were presented with two flags 
—one on behalf of the sons, and the other on 
behalf of the daughters of Maine, resident in 
New York. Rev. I. S. Kalloch, formerly of 
Boston, offered a prayer. Rev. Dr. Hitchcock 
presented the flag in behalf of the sons. He 
said to the regiment in substance that their 
brothers bid them welcome to the commercial 
metropolis of the Union, to this temporary 
camping ground of the loyal troops of the 
Union. (Three cheers for the volunteers of 
Maine.) They went to join thousands of troops 
now engaged in the defence of the Union. The 
serpent's egg, (secession,) he said, was hatched 
thirty years ago. The old hero, Jackson, put 
his foot on it, but only on ite tail. They (the 
regiment) would put their feet on its head and 



Jtmi 19.] 



DIART OF EVENTa 



kin it ! (Cheers.) The year 1861 would stand 
nde bj side with 1776. We began to exist 
in 1776, to-day we were in our manhood. 
The disasters of which we hear are only 
the gentle discipline of our Father, for our 
good, to teach us how to snatch victory on 
greater fields. (Cheers.) The Confederates 
have put themselves where our leading Gen- 
end wbhed to put them — ^flanked by the moun- 
tains and the sea. The sons of Maine are will- 
ing to see the flag he presented to the regiment 
returned soiled with blood, bnt not soiled with 
the soil of Virginia. — Col. Berry took the flag 
and waved it It was saluted with thousands 
of cheers. He then tendered h is sincere thanks. 
He could not wait to make a speech, bat he 
▼oold say (mounting the stand)— Men of the 
Fourth Regiment, shall this flag ever trail in 
the dust ! (" No, no !") Will you defend it as 
long as you have a right arm ? (" We will," and 
enthusiastic cheers.) — ^A splendid regimental 
^f on behalf of the daughters of Maine, was 
presented by Mr. J. W. Brookman, and receiv- 
ed with appropriate remarks by Colonel Berry. 
-{Doe. 17.) 

— ^Thk Thirty-eighth Regiment New York 
Volunteers^ Second Scott Life Guard, command- 
ed by Colonel J, Hobart Ward, left New York 
dty for the seat of war. — (Doe, 18.) 

—The Secession forces from Romney, Va., 
burnt the railroad bridge over New Creek, twen- 
ty-three miles west of Cumberland, Md., early 
thiB morning, and marched to Piedmont, five 
miles further west, which place they now hold. 
The telegraph wires east of Piedmont were cut 
by them. Notice was given of their approach to 
the town, and the citizens prepared to leave. 
M\ the engines belonging to the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company were fired up and sent 
vest to Grafton. The greatest excitement pre- 
vailed. A company of citizen soldiers who 
were guarding the bridges are reported to have 
been fired upon and killed. On the approach 
of the secessionists the Piedmont operator 
closed the telegraph office and fled. Commu- 
nication by railroad between Grafton and Cum- 
berland is now cut off. — KatUmal Intelligencer^ 
June 21. 

— T. B. BusEE, a rabid secessionist, was hung 
bj the citizens of Lane, (Ogle Co., Illinois,) 
frwn a two-story window of the Court-house 
bQilding. He was charged with causing the 
destructive fires there on the 7th of this month, 



and in December last. His guilt was fhlly es- 
tablished, and it was also proved that he had 
planned the burning of the business part of tho 
town.— i\r. F. JSs^eiB^ June 20. 

—Two letters from John Adams, second 
President of the United States, to Gen. Benja- 
min Lincoln, of Massachusetts, on the subject 
of "State Sovereignty," and the heresy of a 
"confederated republic," were first published 
at Boston. — (Doc. 19.) 

— The Twenty-first New York Regiment, 
Colonel Rogers, from Bufialo, arrived this after- 
noon at Washington. They are a hardy-look- 
ing set of men, and number about eight hun- 
dred. The uniform is of gray cloth, and they 
are well armed and equipped. Many of the 
regiment served in Mexico, and Col. Rogers 
was a captain in that war, and distinguished aa 
an efficient officer. — (Doc. 20.) 

— ^Andbew JoBireoN, of Tennessee, arrived 
at Cincinnati, en route to Washington. He 
was escorted across the Ohio, by the New- 
port and Covington Military, and a large con- 
course of citizens. At 8 o^clock he was formally 
waitad upon by the Chamber of Commerce, 
and made a speech from the balcony of the 
Burnett House to a large gathering of citizens. 
-^Doe. 21.) 

— Ths 8th and 10th Indiana Regiments, Col- 
onels Benton and Mansen, passed through Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, for Virginia. — Albany, (N, F.) 
Journal, June 21. 

— The War Department accepted for three 
years, or the war, a Chicago battalion, raised 
by Capt. J. W. Wilson, consisting of 212 men, 
rank and file, called '^The Illinois Bridge, 
Breastwork, and Fortification Fusileers." It is 
composed of 120 carpenters, 70 railroad- track 
men, 7 railroad and bridge blacksmiths, 6 boat- 
builders, 2 engineers, and 9 locomotive buildera. 
Boston Tramcript, June 20. 

— ^The Eleventh Anniversary of the* Hudson 
River Baptbt Association South, was held with 
the Mount Olivet Baptist Church, Yonkers. 
The anniversary sermon was preached by Rev, 
W. 8. Mikels, of New York. Rev. John Dow- 
ling, D. D., was elected Moderator, Rev. C. C. 
Norton was reelected Clerk, James L. Has- 
tier Assistant-Clerk, and J. M. Bruce, Jr., 
Treasurer. A Committee was appointed to 
prepare a series of resolutions on the state of 
the country, which, with the report were ofifered 



BEBELUON BEOOBD, 1860-61. 



[Jtmi 20. 



throngb the ehairman, Bev. Wm. Hague, D. D., 
of New York, and nnanimoiisl/ adopted. — 
{Doc. 22.) 

June 20. — To-day Telegraph Engineer Henry 
I. Rogers, of New York, put in operation, on 
the western side of the Potomac, his newly 
invented telegraphic cordage or insnlated line, 
for field operations, and it proved eminently 
successful, giving entire satisfaction in the man- 
ner in which it operated. It is run off reels 
upon the ground with great rapidity, (as re- 
quired for instant use,) across streams, through 
woods, or over any localities. Lines were in 
extraordinarily short time laid hetween the 
head-quarters of General McDowell and two or 
three of his most advanced camps, and were 
worked in immediate connection with the tele- 
graph station iu the War Depatment. It is 
worthy of note that the heaviest artillery may 
run over the Rogers' cordage without damaging 
its effectiveness in the least. It differs in many 
respects from the field telegraph used hy Louis 
Napoleon in the Italian war, and embraces 
many advantages of convenient and certain 
operation under any possible circumstances 
over that (Louis Napoleon^s) which contributed 
80 signally to the success of the French arms. 
'^Baltimare American, June 22. 

— Tub Second Rhode Island Regiment, Col. 
Slocuro, accompanied by the Providence Ma- 
rine Artillery Corps, with a full battery (six 
pieces) of James's rifled cannon, arrived at New 
York, on their way to Washington. Governor 
Bprague and a portion of his staff, including 
Colonels Goddard and Gardner, and two others, 
accompanied them. — (Doc, 28.) 

— ^Tms evening while the United States 
steamer Colorado was at sea, a break occurred 
in the after standard supporting the reversing 
shaft to the propeller. It had broken midway, 
and at a point where a triangular shaped piece 
had been sawed out of the rib, and a nicely fit- 
ted piece of soft wrought iron inserted and 
fastened by a small tap bolt. The surfaces had 
then been filed smoothly and painted over as 
before. But for the breakage it would have 
escaped the most critical examination. A strict 
inspection was made of the other parts, result- 
ing in the discovery of a similar work upon the 
forward standard of the reversing shaft. Sev- 
eral other fiaws were discovered, and the con- 
clusion was irresistible that some villain had 
wrought all this mischief for the purpose of 



disabling the ship. A delay was caused before 
the repairs could be made, and the vessel again, 
proceed on its course.— iT. F. Herald, June 27. 

—At Willet's Point, N. Y., interesting cere- 
monies took place on the occasion of blessiog 
the standards of Col. McLeod Murphy's regi- 
ment, and the presentation of colors by Cbl. 
Bradford, of Gov. Morgan's staff. A large 
number of visitors attended, and interesting 
speeches were made by D. Thompson, Judge 
Charles P. Daly, Orestes A. Brownson, and 
others. — If, Y, Timee, June 21* 

— THinTEEK rebels were captured at Clarks- 
burg, Ya., this morning by the 3d Virginia 
Regiment A secession tn^ and arms were al- 
so captured. — Louiaville Journal, June 22. 

— Gov. IlABins, in a message to the legislature 
of Tennessee, recommends the passage of a 
law requiring payment to bo made of all sums 
due from the State to all persons or the Gov- 
ernment on terms of peace, and advises such a 
policy toward the citizens of the belligerent 
States as the rules of war justify. Ho recom- 
mends the issue of Treasury notes to pay tho 
expenses of the Providonal Government, to be 
receivable as currency. 

Mi\jor-General McClellon to-day assumed 
command in person of the Western Virginia 
forces. He expects to have 15,000 men in tho 
field before Saturday night. — If, Y, Commercial^ 
June 21. 

— CoBNELiira Vandebbilt offered all tbo 
steamships of the Atlantic and Pacific Steam- 
ship Company to the Government, including 
the Vanderbilt, Ocean Queen, Ariel, Champion, 
and Daniel Webster, to be paid for at such rate 
OS any two commodores of the United States 
Navy and ex-Commodore Stockton might de- 
cide upon as a proper valuation. — {Doc. 24.) 

— In the Wheeling (Va.) Convention, Frank 
H. Pierpont, of Marion county, was unanimously 
elected Governor; Daniel Paisley, of Mason 
county, Lieutenant Governor, and Messrs. Lamb, 
Paxhaw, Van Winkle, Harrison, and Lo^ir to 
form the Governor's Council. The election of 
an attorney-general was postponed till Satur- 
day. The Governor was formally inaugurated in 
the afternoon, taking in addition to the usual 
oath, one of stringent opposition to the usurp- 
ers at Richmond. He then delivered an address 
to the members of the convention, urging a 
vigorous prosecution of the work of redeeming 



Juvi 21.] 



DIABT OF EVENTS. 



the State from the hands of the rebels. After 
the inauguration, the bells were rung, cannon 
were fired, and the whole town was wild with 
delight.— <Z>ac 26.) 

— ^Ths Second New Hampshire Regiment 
left Portsmouth, for the seat of war. Previous 
to their departure, the Goodwin Riflemen, at- 
tached to tlie regiment, were presented with a 
banner. It had on one side the coat of arms 
of the State, with an inscription showing that 
the flag was given by the ladies of Concord, and 
on the other side was a representation of the 
Goddess of Liberty, with the inscription in gold 
letters, " Goodwin Rifles." At Boston, Mass., 
on the arrival of the troops, they were enter- 
tained by the sons of Kew Hampshire resident 
in that city.— (Z^oc. 26.) 

— Gov. Robinson of Kansas issued a procla- 
mation calling on all good citizens to organize 
military companies for the purpose of repelling 
attacks from the rebels in Missouri. 

J\in» 21. — A correspondent at Washington 
says: Surprise has been expressed in some 
quarters at the failure of Gen. Scott to prevent 
the erection of batteries at various points on 
the right bank of the Potomac. The impend- 
ing advance of the Uuion army toward Rich- 
mond, however, will either compel the Rebels 
to remove their batteries or render them an 
easy prey to the Union forces. Gen. Scott is 
simply indisposed to take at a great sacrifice 
of life what will be hod in due time without 
bloodshed. — OJiio Statetimany June 22. 

— ^Thb Twenty-ninth Regiment N. Y. S. V., 
under the command of Colonel Yon Steinwehr, 
and the Seventeenth Regiment, Colonel H. C. 
Lansing, left New York for Washington. The 
Twenty-sixth Regiment N. Y. S. V., Colonel 
Christian, left Elmira, N. Y., for Washington.- 
{Doc. 27.) 

— ^Two free negroes, belonging to Frederick, 
Md«, who concealed themselves in the cars 
which conveyed the Rhode Island Regiment 
to Washington from that city, were returned 
this morning by command of Colonel Burnside, 
who tupposed them to be ilates. The negroes 
were accompanied by a sergeant of the regiment, 
who lodged them in gaol. — Baltimore American, 
June 22. 

— Tns Third and Fourth Regiments of Ohio 
troops, under the conunands of Colonels Mor- 



row and Anderson, left camp Dennison for Yir-' 
gLQiDr^Philadelphia Ledger, June 24. 

— The Eastern Tennessee Union Convention, 
assembled at Greenville, adopted a declaration 
of grievances and resolutions, expressing their 
preference for the Union and Constitution, and 
ignoring in a most emphatic manner the idea 
that they had been oppressed by the General 
Government. — It is the fixed determination of 
the Federal Grovemment to sustain and protect 
in their constitutional and legal rights all those 
citizens of Tennessee who, in their devotion to 
the Union, are struggling to wrest their State 
Government from the hands of its unconsti- 
tutional rulers, and it will defend all loyal 
States against parts thereof claiming to have 
seceded, and thus will afford them every pro- 
tection '^agtunst domestic violence, insurrec- 
tion, invasion, and rebellion." — {Doc, 28.) 

— June 22. — ^The Louisville, Ky., papers this 
morning contain letters from Gov. MagoflSn and 
General Buckner, stating that an agreement 
has been made between General McClellan and 
the Kentucky authorities, that the territory of 
Kentucky will be respected by the Federal 
authorities, even though it should be occupied 
by the Confederates. But if Kentucky does 
not remove them the Federal troops will inter- 
fere. The Governor of Tennessee agrees to re- 
spect the neutrality of Kentucky until occupied 
by Federal troops. — {Doc. 80.) 

— Tnis evening as Col. Sturges^s battery was 
practising at a target on a low piece of ground, 
about a mile from Grafton, Ya., five or six 
shots were fired upon the men by rebels, 
from a concealed position, without effect. A 
scouting party was sent out, and some five 
or six rebels, with arms in their hands, were 
captured and brought into camp. Among the 
rest were three of the Poe family, father and 
two sons, most notorious desperadoes. — Na^ 
tUmal Intelligencer, June 26. 

— The proclamation of Henry M. McGlll, 
acting governor of Washington Territory, in 
response to the call of President Lincoln for 
troops, is published. — {Doe. 31.) 

— CnABLES Henhy Fosteb, in an address to 
the *' freemen" of the First Congressional Dis* 
trict of North Carolina, announced himself as a 
Union candidate for the United States Congress 
as follows : 

" Fsixow-CmzENs: I hereby annoimoe my- 



6 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Juke 24. 



self as an unconditional Union candidate for the 
Congress of the United States from this District. 
The usurpations of your Governorf and the 
revolutionary acts of your Convention, cannot 
command the acquiescence of loyal citizens. 
They are utterly without authority ; they have 
no validity in law or public exigency, and im- 
pose no binding obligation upon the people. 
Your allegiance to the Federal Union remains 
first and highest, and there is no fealty that can 
conflict with or override it. 

"A law of North Carolina fixes the first 
Thursday of August as the day of election for 
your Representatives in Congress. The de- 
fault or malfeasance of no seditious Governor 
or other public functionary can defeat or im- 
pair your right of representation in the councils 
of the nation. It is your privilege to go to the 
polls, on the day designated by the statute of 
the State, and cast your ballots without fear or 
intimidation. You will be protected in the 
exercise of the sacred right of franchise to the 
ftill extent of the power of the Government." 

— Fbaxois H. Piebpoxt, Governor of Virgi- 
nia, isstied his first proclamation calling to- 
gether the members of that State to meet in 
Wheeling on the first day of July. — (Doc, 82.) 

, June 23. — To-day Professor Lowe went into 
the rebels' country as far as Fall's Church with 
Ills balloon, from which place he made several 
ascensions. Ho was so far towards Fairfax 
Court House that his appearance in the air 
created a report here that the rebels had an 
opposition balloon. He was escorted into the 
interior by one company of the Eighth New 
York regiment. M^or Colbum, of the Con- 
necticut regiment, accompanied Professor Lowe 
in his voyage, and made a sketch of the enemy's 
country that was so correct, that Virginians 
who were familiar with the vicinity of Fairfax 
Court House, at once recognized it, and named 
the roads, lanes, streams, and dwellings. A 
small encampment of rebels was discovered 
near Fairfax Court House. Maps of the whole 
country occupied by the enemy will be taken 
by these balloon ascensions, under the super- 
intendence of Professor Lowe. — y. Y, Eerald, 
June 26. 

— Thb Thirty-seventh regiment N. Y. S. V., 
commanded by Col. John H. HcCunn, left 
New York for Washington.— (Doc. 33.) 

— Major-Genbbal McClsllak issued from 
bis head-quarters at Grafton, Va., a proclama- 



tion " to the inhabitants of Western Virginia'* 
and another *^ to the soldiers of the army of the 
West." He has now taken command of the 
Western Virginia forces in person, and intends 
to prosecute the war vigorously. — (Doe. 84.) 

June 24. — The Pawnee, commanded by Com- 
mander Rowan, accompanied by the tender 
James Guy, left Acquis, Creek, Va., this morning 
for Matthias Point, carrying Capt. Woodbury, 
U. S. Engineers, and Capt. Palmer, U. S. Topo- 
graphical Engineers, to make a reconnoissance, 
to learn whether batteries were or were not be- 
ing erected there. At 5 a. m. Capt. Rowan sent 
an expedition of 40 men, sailors and marines, 
ashore in two boats, in charge of Lieut. Chap- 
lin and Master Blue, all under Capt. Wood- 
bury's command. As the steamer approached 
the rebels showed themselves in considerable 
numbers, but they scampered over the hills 
when the ship directed a few shells against 
them, and they were kept in check by an occa- 
sional shell while the expedition was ashore, 
enabling it to accomplish its work unmolested. 
Its sailors captured two horses, saddled and 
bridled, compelling the riders to seek safety 
in flight. One of the men received a slight 
wound in the wrist from a revolver shot. The 
horses were brought ofi^, hoisted into the James 
Guy, and sent to the Washington Navy Yard 
as prizes. During the reconnoissance the Paw- 
nee threw 80 shells, which kept the enemy in 
check, though their reported force there is 600 
men, 100 or more being mounted. The party 
that landed saw the enemy's camp from Grimes's 
house on the hill, ond having, on their return 
to the Pawnee, found out its direction. Com. 
Rowan put his ship in a proper position within 
the shoal, and shelled it, completely dispers- 
ing the camp, and setting fire to something 
behind the hill. A negro man came off to the 
ship, and gave infonpation that 200 of the en- 
emy are kept constantly on the beach, and the 
remainder in the camp. The Pawnee was re- 
lieved for the trip by the Freeborn, which took 
her place at the creek. — Rowan'i Official Re- 
port. 

— This day the steamer Monticello had a 
fight with the rebels on the Rappahannock 
River, in Va. The steamer was on a reconnoi- 
tring expedition, and after she had proceeded 
a few miles, the pilot, Mr. Phillips, went ashoro 
in a launch, with twelve of the crew, for the 
purpose of obtaining information as to whether 



Jvn 25.] 



DIAR7 OF EVENTS. 



there were any masked batteries in the vicin- 
itf. They lauded on the form of Mr. Gersham, 
when Mr. Phillips proceeded, nnaccompanied, 
to the house, and was advised by the owner to 
return to his boat as quickly as possible, as 
there was dxinger abroad. The pilot took the 
adrice, but had not proceeded far when a party 
of about fifty rebels made their appearance and 
commenced firing at those in the launch, who 
were lying on their oars waiting the return of 
Mr. Phillips ; the boat immediately put oiF in 
the direction of the Monticello, leaving Mr. 
Phillips ashore. The commander of the 
steamer ordered the boat to return for him, 
and immediately opened fire upon the party 
on shore, causing them to disperse in double- 
quick time. During the firing upon the launch 
one of the crew was killed, Augustas Peterson, 
and Surgeon Hcber Smith mortally wounded, 
and six others hurt by splinters and bullets. 
Their boat and oars were completely riddled 
by the flying missiles. — (Doc. 36.) 

The steamer Quaker City also had a short 
engagement this morning with a large number 
of rebel dragoons. While cruising in Lynn 
Haven Bay, near Cape Henry, Commander 
Carr picked up a man named Lynch, a refugee 
from Norfolk, who represented that the mas- 
ter plumber of the Norfolk Navy Yard was 
ashore and wished to be taken off. An armed 
boat which was sent for the purpose was fired 
npon when near the shore, mortally wounding 
James Lloyd, a seaman, of Charlestown, Mass. 
A few thirty-two-pound shells dispersed the 
rebels. — X. T. Evening Post^ June 26. 

— ^The blockade at the Louisville end of the 
Nashville Railroad commenced to-day. Noth- 
ing is allowed to pass except by permission of 
the surveyor of the port. — JV. Y, Herald^ 
June 26. 

— IsBAX 6. Harbis, governor of Tennessee, 
issued a proclamation declaring that State inde- 
pendent of the Federal Government, and giving 
the ofllcial vote on secession. — {Doc, 87.) 

— ^At Washington a detachment of the New 
York Fourteenth Regiment arrested a spy this 
morning, who had full details of the number 
of troops, position, and strength of batteries 
around tliat city. There was also found upon 
him a sketch of plan of attack upon the city. 
He had the positions of all the mounted cannon 
hi that vicinity. 



The scouts of the New Hampshire Second 
Regiment wounded a man this morning, who 
was approaching the lines and observing care- 
fully the position of the camps and batteries. 
He pretended to be unable to speak English 
at first, but recovered his knowledge of the 
language as soon as he was shot. — N. Y, Com" 
mercial Advertiser^ June 25. 

—The Thirty-first Regiment N. Y. S. V., 
commanded by Col. Calvin C. Pratt, struck 
their tents at Riker^s Island and departed lor 
the seat of war. — (Doe, 88.) 

— Five companies of cavalry, six cocnpaniea 
of infantry and dragoons, ten companies of 
volunteers — in all about 1,590 men with one 
battery, under command of Migor S. D. St^r- 
gis, left Kansas City to-day at 1 P. M., des- 
tined for south-western Missouri. — Sandusky 
EegisteTy June 25. 

— A PBOOLAMATioir of neutrality by Napo- 
leon in. was received in America. — {Doe, 89.) 

The Tenth Regiment of Ohio troops leffc 
Camp Dennisoii for Western Virginia. — Nof' 
tional Intelligeneery June 26. 

June 25. — The Twenty-eighth Regiment N. 

Y. S. v., (Colonel Donnelly,) passed through 

New York on their way to the seat of war. 

This regiment was enlisted in the western part 

' of the state, and made up of men of nearly all 

I 

occupations, prominent among whom are school 
teachers. One company (that from Medina) 
contains 19 of the latter class, and company E, 
of Lockport, has nearly as many. All the 
companies contain a fair proportion of teachers. 
The regiment is a well-drilled, well-equipped 
rifle corps, armed with the United States riflo 
of 1851, with the sabre bayonet. — {Doe. 41.) 

— The Second Regiment of Vermont arrived 
at New York en route for Washington. The 
troops are commanded by Colonel Henry Whit- 
ing, and number nine hundred and thirty, rank 
and file. They are a fine body of men, their 
short encampment at Burlington, Vt., having 
perfected the men in drill and discipline. They 
are armed with Springfield muskets of recent 
manufacture, with the exception of the right 
fiank, or skirmishers, who carry the Enfield 
rifles with sabre bayonets. 

At two o*clock in the afternoon, the regiment 
was formed in front of the City Hall, and E. 
D. Culver, of Brooklyn, presented the regi- 
ment, on behalf of the residents of Vermont in 



8 



BEBEIXION BECORD, 1860-61. 



[JiTNSST. 



Kew York, with a magnificent regimental 
standard. Senator Solomon Foote, of Ver- 
mont, replied to the presentation in an eloquent 
and patriotic manner on hehalf of Colonel 
Whiting.— (jDoc. 42.) 

— ^Thb Second "Wisconsin Regiment, com- 
manded by Col. Coon, arrived in Washington 
this morning. They number 1,046 men, with 
a gray uniform. They are stalwart men who 
appear to be able to stand all the vicissitudes 
of lujtive service. They met with cordial greet- 
ings at Cleveland and other places on the way. 
— (/><w. 43.) 

June 26. — Gen. McOlellan, in a despatch to 
an officer of the Navy in Cincinnati, states that 
the interview which Gen. Buckner has reported 
was strictly private and personal ; that it was 
repeatedly solicited, and that he gave no pledge 
whatever on the part of the authorities at 
Washington tliat United States troops should 
not enter Kentucky. The only result of the 
interview as he understood it, was, that Con- 
federate troops should be confined to Confed- 
erate soil, so far as Kentucky was concerned. 
— If, F. Etening Fast^ June 27. 

— ^The address of the Sanitary Commission 
to the citizens of the United States was pub- 
lished.— (2)«;. 44.) 

— A Flao was raised upon the flagstaff on 
North Hill, Needham, Mass. It was run up 
by Kewell Smith, Esq., one of the oldest in- 
habitants of the town, and saluted by the firing 
of cannon on a neighboring hill, the ^^ Star- 
Spanglcd Banner" by Flagg^s Band, and the 
cheers of the spectators. A public meeting 
was organized, and addresses were made by 
Rev. Messrs. Green, Atwood, and Emerson, all 
of Needham, and by Mi^or Wright and Solo- 
mon Flagg, Esq. An original poem was deliv- 
ered by Benjamin G. Kimball, Esq., and an 
ode, written for the occasion, by Hon. E. W. 
B. Canning, of Stockbridge, was sung by the 
people to the air of "America." — Boston Tran- 
BoHpty June 28. 

— The First Minnesota Regiment of Infan- 
try, commanded by Colonel Willis A. Gorman, 
passed through Baltimore on its way to Wash- 
ington. The full regiment makes an aggregate 
of 1,046 men all told, but only nine companies 
were on the march. This is accounted for by 
the fact that Company A was left at Fort Snell- 
ing, and this decreases the command to 910 



men. The regiment is accompanied by Oapt. 
IngaU^s cornet band, of seventeen performers. 
They left Fort Snelling on Saturday week, and 
were ordered to report at Harrisburg on the 
26th, but as they reached there on the 25tbf 
after a hurried travel of over 1,800 miles, they 
concluded to report at Washington. They are 
a hardy-looking set of men, some of them of 
enormous size, all of them well disciplined and 
equipped, and only one sick man on the list. 
The uniform consists of plain gray cassimere, 
trimmed with black, and a black felt hat, ac- 
cording to the army regulation. 

— CoBPORAL Hates and twelve men bdong- 
ing to Col. W.allace's regiment of Zouaves, 
while scouting on Patterson's Creek, twelve 
miles east of Cumberland, Md., encountered a 
party of rebels numbering about forty. A 
sharp engagement ensued. Seventeen of the 
enemy were killed, and a number wounded. 
One of Hayes's party was killed, and himself 
badly wounded. — (Doe, 46.) 

—The Sixteenth Regiment N. Y. S. V. pass- 
ed through New York en route to the seat of 
war. Before leaving the city the regiment was 
presented with a regimental flag by the wife 
of G. Howland. The dress of the soldiers is 
of the United States army pattern, and all the 
officers wear the regulation uniform, with felt 
hats and plumes. The commander of the regi- 
ment, Col. Thomas A. Davies, is a graduate of 
West Point, and served in the war with Mexi- 
CO. The men are volunteers from the region 
of country about Albany, and northward as far 
as Plattsburgh. — {Doe. 46.) 

June 27. — John C. Fremont arrived at Bos- 
ton, Mass., this morning, in the steamer Europa^ 
from Liverpool, bringing with him a large as- 
sortment of valuable arms for the Government. 
— Boston Transeripty June 28. 

— At three o'clock this morning George P. 
Kane, marshal of police of Baltimore, Md., was 
arrested at his house by order of Gen. Banks, 
and conveyed to Fort Mcllenry, where he ia 
held a prisoner. 

Gen. Banks issued a proclamation, naming 
John R. Kenly, of the Maryland regiment, as 
provost marshal, and superseding the powers 
of the police commissioners. Kenly is to exer- 
cise supreme control over the police depart- 
ment until some known loyal citizen is ap- 
pointed to act as marshal 



Juw ST.] 



DIART OP EVENTa 







Th« proclamation gives as the reason for the 
ftrrest of Kane, that he is known to be aiding 
And abetting those in armed rebdiion to the 
Goremment, and is at the head of an aimed 
force, which he has used to conceal rather than 
detect acts of treason to the Government. — 
(Z)<ML 48.) 

— TiLR Board of Police of Baltimore, Md., 
published a protest against the arrest of Mar- 
shal ICone, declaring the act of General Banks 
** an arbitrary exercise of military power, not 
warranted bj any provision of the Constitution 
or laws of the United States,^^ and Mayor 
Brown approved the protest Moreover, the 
Board declared that, while the Board, yielding 
to the force of circumstances, would do noth- 
ing to increase the present excitement, or ob- 
struct the execution of such measures as Megor- 
General Banks might deem proper to take on 
Lis own responsibility for the preservation of 
the peace of the city and public order, they 
could not, consistently with their views of offi- 
cial duty and of the obligationji to their oaths 
of office, recognize the right of any of the offi- 
cers and men of the police force, as such, to 
recttve orders and directions from any other 
authority than from the Board; and that, in 
the opinion of the Board, the forcible saspen- 
flion of their functions suspends at the same 
tins the active operations of the Police law, 
and puts the officers and men off of duty for the 
present, leaving them subject, however, to the 
rales and regulations of the service as to their 
personal conduct and deportment, and to the 
orders which the Board might see fit hereafter 
to issue, when the illegal suspension of their 
functions should be removed.^^ — BaltinuMre 
American^ June 28. 

— Jm following proclamation was received 
to-day at Washington: 

HBADHtVAVTRI AkMV OP POT0VA«Q, \ 

Miina—oi Junetictt^ June 2fi, 18CL f 

On and after Sunday, the 80th instant, no 
person whatsoever, with or without passports, 
(except from the War Department,) will be 
permitted to enter the lines occupied by the 
Army of the Potomac with intention to pass 
thence or thereafter into the United States or 
the lines of the enemy. 

Brig. Gen. Bkaubboabd. 

Tnos. JoHDAir, A. A. A^j^t Gen. 

— ^At Dover, Delaware, a meeting was held 
•I which resolutions were adopted advocating 



the recognition of the Southern Confederacy, 
if a reconciliation by peaceable means should 
become impossible. The assembly was ad- 
dressed by Thomas F. Bayard, William G. 
Whitely, and ez-Grovemor Temple, and others. 
-^Doe. 60.) 

— Thb "Camp Record," a folio newspaper, 
was issued yesterday from the camp at Hagertf- 
town, Md., by a party of printers belong- 
ing to the Wisconsin Regiment. The object 
announced is to meet a want by supplying 
a convenient medium of communicating to 
friends at home all matters pertaining to the 
little world of the 6th Brigade ; but another 
reason may fairly be supposed, and that is the 
^' irrepressible" impulse in the breasts of four 
editors and forty compositors, of the Wisconsin 
Regiment, to keep their hands and pens in 
practice. When they finish up the war on 
hand, these American soldiers will return to 
the desk and the case. The next number will 
be issued "The day after the editors get to 
Richmond I"— i^. Y, Tribune, June SO. 

— The Fifth Regiment of Maine Volunteers, 
commanded by Colonel Mark H. Dunnell, of 
Portland, passed through New York on its 
way to the seat of war. It was received by 
a committee of several hundred of the Sons 
of Maine resident in New Yojk, and was es- 
corted by them through Battery Place and 
Broadway to the front of the City Hall, where 
the presentation of a banner took place. The 
banner is a regimental ensign, regulation size, 
of blue silk, bordered with heavy, yellow fringe, 
and supported by a lancewood staff, surmounted 
by a gilt spear. The arms of the State of 
Maine and of the United States, combined in a 
shield, appear on both sides. The motto of 
the SUte of Maine, " Dirigo," and the numeri- 
cal title of the regiment, appear above the 
shield, and the following inscription appears 
below: "Freedom and Union, now and for- 
ever, one and inseparable." The ceremonies 
commenced with a prayer. The presentation 
speech was read by J. T. Williams. The 
regiment contains 1,046 men, who are fally 
armed and equipped. Their uniform is gray 
throughout, with drab felt hats, regulation pat- 
tern. The officers are also uniformed in gray, 
with regulation hats. The arms consist of the 
Springfield musket and common bayonet.-^ 
{Doe. i9.) 



10 



BEBELUON BEOOBD, 1860-«1. 



[ Jums 28. 



June2B. — ^The steamer Pawnee arrived at 
the Navy Yard at Washington this morning, 
bringing the dead body of Gapt. Jambs U. 
Ward, of the steamer Freeborn, who was killed 
in an engagement yesterday, while attempting 
to cover a landing at Matthias Pointy on the 
Potomac River. 

The Freeborn was off the Point reconnoi- 
tring, when Capt. Ward discovered indications 
of a movement for the erection of a battery at 
that Point by the rebel soldiers encamped near 
there. On Wednesday night he sent up to the 
Pawnee at Acquia creek for Capt. Owens to 
send him a reinforcement of two boats^ crews 
to assist in effecting a landing. Two small cut- 
ters* crews were sent down to the Freeborn, 
under Dent. Chaplain, and with them a boat's 
crew from the Freeborn, numbering from thirty 
to forty men in aU. Lieut Chaplain the nest 
morning effected a landing, and succeeded in 
driving in the rebel pickets. Finding prepa- 
rations for the erection of a rebel battery there, 
it was determined to throw up breastworks and 
mount guns thereon to give the enemy a warm 
reception should they attack the crews. Ac- 
cordingly the men were set to work, under 
cover of the Freeborn's guns, at throwing up a 
sandbag breastwork, and succeeded in working 
four hours and a half^ and got their works com- 
pleted about five in the evening. They then 
went to the boats to go on board for guns to 
mount on the work, when, just as they were 
embarking, they were surprised by the rebels, 
estimated at from one thousand to fifteen hun- 
dred strong, who poured in a heavy and con- 
tinuous fire of musketry upon them from the 
bushes near by. Under covec pf the guns of 
the Freeborn the crews precipitately made for 
the steamer, leaving a few of the men on shore, 
the guns of the Freeborn meanwhile opening 
with activity and precision apparently upon 
the enemy, who were concealed by the under- 
brush. Some ten shell were thrown among 
them, with what effect could not be seen, 
owing to their position. 

Captain Ward behaved with great coolness, 
standing by the guns and directing the fire. 
When his gunner received a woxmd in the 
thigh, which disabled him, he immediately 
took his place, and was sighting the gun 
when he received a Minie musket ball, which 
killed him almost instantly. 

left on the shore by the boats in 



their retreat swam out to the Freeborn — one 
of the men carrying on his back a wounded 
comrade named Bess, who had four musket 
balls shot into him. John Williams, coxswain 
of the third cutter, received a flesh wound in the 
leg while waving the Stars and Stripes, which 
he carried in his hand the whole time, behaving 
most gallantly under the hottest fire. The 
American ensign, which he never ceased 
to wave, was pierced with nineteen musket 
balls. Only three men of the boats were 
wounded, and the only life lost was that of the 
gallant Ward, who, the moment the enemy was 
discovered, blew the signal for the crews to 
come aboard, and instantly opened on the foe 
with his heavy guns. 

While the crews were engaged on the breast- 
works, a slave, belonging to Dr. Hooe, ap- 
proached the shore with a white flag on a polo, 
and getting aboard the Freeborn, informed 
Capt. Ward that the enemy were in the under- 
brush near by, one thousand strong. Still the 
work was continued, and made ready, as the 
event turned, for the rebels to occupy with 
guns. — {Doe. 55.) 

— A Geobgia Regiment arrived in Richmond, 
Ya., without arms, the Governor of Georgia 
refu^g to allow more arms to be taken from 
the State. — Bichmond Examiner^ June 29. 

— ^EiGHT companies of rebel infantry and 
cavalry went from Knoxville, Tenn., to Cum- 
berland and Wheeler's Gap, to guard those 
places and prevent the federal troops from 
passing through Kentucky to the aid of the 
Union men in East Tennessee. They were en- 
countered by the Union men in the mountains. 
— Loniscille Journal^ July 2. 

— Th« Thirtieth Regiment N. Y. S. V. ftom 
Albany, under the command of Colonel Edward 
Frisbie ; the Thirty-second N. Y. S. V., under 
the command of Colonel Matheson, and Colonel 
E. D. Baker's California Regiment, left New 
York for the seat of war. — ^The latter for For- 
tress Monroe. — (Doe. 50.) 

— ^Thk Charleston (S. C.) Courier, of to-day, 
prints the following from a private letter re- 
ceived from Manassas Junction : 

*^ Our force is less than has been supposed. 
Two daj^ ago it consisted of only about 7,000, 
and so also are all our forces at other points 
smaller than is supposed. Johnson, when he 
evacuated Harper's Ferry, had not more than 




Jvxs 29.] 



DUBY OF EVENTa 



11 



T,000 effective men. Two thonsand joined him 
about that time, and in one w&y and another, 
he has now a fbrce of about 10,000 men. It 
was a military necessity, and he is the man to 
make the most of it. These facts account for 
the retreating and apparent indisposition to 
meet the foe. Their invasion of Virginia, and 
oar inabQitj to repel them, have been the result 
of the strange notion that we are engaged in a 
ftve years* war, and of the consequent policy 
of rejecting, six weeks ago, at Montgomery, 
over 100,000 troops offered for twelve months. 
The scheme of requiring them for three years 
or the war, has produced great delay in the 
organization of the Southern army, and we are 
still very deficient, although now there is a 
willingness to accept on terms previously re- 
jected. Our reliance, at present, is solely in 
the saperior moraU and desperate valor of our 
soldiers, and in the ability and judgment of our 
generals. Our cause has been greatly impeded 
and imperilled by this idea of a five years* war, 
which nothing but the effect of this backward- 
ness can produce.*' 

— Petitions for compromise, addressed to 
the President of the United States, which had 
been secretly circulated throughout the city of 
New York, were seized at the oflSce of Fred- 
erick A. Guion. Mr. Guion issued an earnest 
remonstrance against the seizure. — {Doc, 51.) 

— Ck>LONELs Maobttdeb and Habdbe were ap- 
pointed Brigadier-Generals in the Confederate 
army. — The Nashville (Tenn.) City Council ap- 
propriated $750,000 for a residence for the 
President of the Southern Confederacy, as an 
indaeement to remove the capital there. — The 
State Treasurer of Georgia gave notice that on 
account of the war with the Anti-Slavery 
States, the interest on the coupons and bonds 
of that State payable in New York, must be re- 
deemed at Savannah. — ^An advertisement an- 
nounces the reopening of Ihe Confederate loan 
at several places in Georgia. It says that only 
$11,000,000 of the $15,000,000 have been sub- 
■eribed for. — Niaahvills Union, June 28. 

— GxxEBAL Banks at Fort McIIenry issued 
a proclamation nullifying the protest and acts 
of the late police board of Baltimore. — (Doe, 52.) 

— ^The Twenty-second Regiment N. Y. S. V., 
left Albany, N. Y., for the seat of war. The 
regiment is commanded by Colonel Walter 
Phelps, and is composed of men from the coun- 



ties of Warren, Essex, Washington, and Sara- 
toga. They belong to the class of hardy and 
industrious woodsmen, and intelligently under- 
stand the questions which underlie the present 
contest — y, Y, TribuTie, June 80, 

— The First Regiment of New Jersey Vol- 
unteers left Trenton this morning for Wash- 
ington in twenty-one cars, at 8 o'clock. — ^The 
Second and Third Regiments left this afternoon 
by way of the Camden and Amboy Railroad. 
The tents and other equipage which Quarter- 
master-General Ferine had, under the direction 
of Governor Olden, and at the request of the 
War Department, supplied them, went with 
each regiment. — IT, Y, World, June 29. 

June 29. — Colonel Allen of the First Regi- 
ment N. Y. S. v., was arrested at Fortress 
Monroe for court martial, by order of General 
Butler. — ^The Eleventh Regiment of Massachu- 
setts Volunteers, under the command of Colonel 
George Clark, Jr., left Boston for the seat of 
war. The regiment, previous to their starting, 
were encamped at Camp Cameron. They 
were enlisted in April last, and sworn into 
the United States service about three weeks 
ago. They number 950 men, and are all 
armed with new smooth-bore Springfield mus- 
kets. In point of equipage, no regiment, per- 
haps, has exceeded the Eleventh. Their camp- 
ing arrangements are complete, and they will 
enter upon their duties with no less than twen- 
ty-five baggage wagons, and eighty horses. So 
complete, indeed, are their arrangements that 
they will be dependent on the Government for 
nothing except food and ammunition. — If. Y, 
News, June 30. 

— ^The steamer St. Nicholas was captured in 
the Potomac River, by a party of secessionists. 
The steamer left Baltimore, having on board 
about fifty passengers. Among those who 
went aboard previous to her departure, was a 
very respectable "French lady," who was 
heavily veiled, and, pleading indisposition, she 
was immediately shown to her state-room, 
where she was kindly cared for b5^ the females 
on board. There were also a party of about 
twenty-five men dressed in the garb of me- 
chanics, carrying with them corpenters, tinners, 
blacksmiths', and other tools. When near Point 
Lookout, the " Frencli lady " appeared on deck, 
not in crinoline, but in the person of a stalwart 
man, who was immediately surrounded by the 



12 



REBELUON RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Jura 80. 



party of mechanics above alluded to. Captain 
Kirwon of the steamer, demanded an explana- 
tion, Tvhen the ^^ lady-man ^* informed him that 
he designed confiscating the steamer and going 
on a privateering expedition. Finding himself 
overpowered, Capt. Kirwan was compelled to 
submit, and the boat was handed over to the 
man and his crew, who took possession, and 
proceeded to run the steamer to a point known 
as "The Gone,^^ on the Virginia shore. Upon 
landing at that place, the steamer was boarded 
by a body of about 1,000 Virginia troops, when 
the passengers were all landed, and allowed to 
go on their way. About one hundred and fifty 
of the troops were then placed on board the 
steamer, Captain Kirwan and fourteen of the 
crew being retained as prisoners. Leaving the 
shore the steamer was run down as far as the 
mouth of the Rappahannock River, where the 
f * new Captain " hailed three large brigs which 
were lying off a few miles from Fredericks- 
burg. These vessels were immediately board- 
ed, and not having a sufficient force on board 
to offer any resistance they were all then 
quietly delivered over to the party as prizes. 
The prizes, one of which was laden with coffee, 
a second with ice, and the third with coal, 
were run into Fredericksburg, Virginia, and 
delivered into the possession of the Virginians, 
the steamer being kept at that port, together 
with her captam and crew. — Baltimore Amer- 
ican^ July 2. 

— An elaborate article respecting the consti- 
tutional power of the President of the United 
States to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, 
was published. It was prepared by Reverdy 
Johnson, of Maryland, in response to the opinion 
of Chief Justice Taney, of the Supreme Court 
of the United States.— (2><?c. 68.) 

— ^Thb Fifteenth Regiment N. Y, S. V,, un- 
der the command of Colonel John McLeo<l 
Murphy, left Willet*s Point, N. Y., for Wash- 
ington. 

Two regiments, one of Alabamians and 
the other of Mississippians, reached Harper's 
Ferry, Va., this morning, and destroyed the 
balance of the trestle work of the railroad 
bridge. They then went over to the Maryland 
shore, seizing all the boats they could lay their 
hands on, cither breaking them up or taking 
them over the river. All the Union men of 
Harper^s Ferry were driven out by them, — N. 
F. Herald^ June 80. 



— A SKiBMisn took place at Bowners, twelve 
miles from Cheat River bridge, between por- 
tions of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Ohio, the 
First Virginia regiments, and a company of 
rebel cavalry. The former were sent to protect 
the polls, and the latter, mistaking their num* 
ber, attacked them, and were routed with the 
the loss of several men, among them the lieu- 
tenant of the company. Several horses were 
captured. The only loss on the Federal side is 
N. 0. Smith, of the Fifteenth Regiment. — Lou- 
iaville Journal, July 1. 

— TnB Twenty-fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, 
stationed at Washington, left that place for Ed- 
ward's Ferry. Lieutenant Hamilton H. Dntton, 
of Mississippi, having tendered hb resignation, 
was dismissed from the navy of the United 
States. 

An imposing ceremony took place this af- 
ternoon at Washington, in the President's 
grounds on the front of the White House tow- 
ard Virginia. The New York 12th Regiment 
of Militia, with Company G United States In- 
fantry, formed a hollow square, enclosing the 
fountain and a pavilion, under which were the 
President and Mrs. Lincoln, surrounded by the 
members of the Cabinet and other distinguished 
gentlemen. The Rev. Dr. Pyne offered a fer- 
vent prayer for the Union, law and good Gov- 
ernment, the well-being of the nation and of 
its appointed rulers, and the peace which comes 
with the restoration of order. 

While the Marino Bond was playing, the 
President hauled up the fiag, which was slightly 
torn in the process. Simultaneously, cannon 
roared and shouts went up from the throng of 
civilians and lines of soldiers. 

The soldiers having gone through with a leaf 
of the manual, cheers for the flag and the Pres- 
ident were given heartily. Gen. Scott, with 
his staff and other officers, were on a portico 
adjoining. — X, Y, Tribune^ June 80, 

— DuBiKo last night there was a skirmish 
between the New Jersey Zouaves and the 
rebels outside of Fall's Church, Va. Two of 
the rebels were killed, and one of the Zouaves 
was wounded. The dead bodies were brought 
to Washington this morning. — 2^. Y, Commer' 
cial AdtertUer, June 29. 

June 80.— The Ninth Regiment of Massaoha- 
eetts, numbering one thousand men, under the 
command of Colonel Cass, arrived at Washing 
ton,^Ndtional Intelligeneer, July 1. 



Jm SQL] 



DUST OF EYENTa 



IS 



— TmB morning at daybreak fourteen rebel 
wonts attacked three pickets of the Fourth 
PennsjWania Regiment, belonging to Company 
E, stationed on Shnter's Hill, Ya., four miles 
fiiom Alexandria, wounding Lewellan Roemer, 
of Blue Bell, and killing Thomas Murray, of 
Korristown. The pickets returned the fire, 
killing two rebels and wounding a third. One 
of the slain was a sergeant of the Letcher 
Guard. The rebels bei^ a hasty retreat. The 
firing baring been heard by the Union troops, 
a Oetachment of Zouaves and another of the 
Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment reinforced the 
jMckcta, and followed in the trail of the rebels 
for Bouie distance, finding four rifies and three 
roTolTers, which the latter threw away in their 
hutj flight. One of the revolvers, very valu- 
able, waj marked with the name of John John- 
son, a laemer living in that vicinity, who is a 
noted icbel. The Pennsylvonians behaved 
with great spirit and with the coolness of vet- 
erans, boldly holding their position, though 
wounded, in the hope of being reinforced. — 
If. r. ITsrald, July 1. 

— JoHir WiLUAiis, who behaved so bravely 
in the skiirmish at Matthias Point, carrying 
the Amertoan flag out of the fight in safety, 
though it was completely riddled with bullets 
as he went, was promoted to the post 
of Master's Mate for his gallant conduct. — If. Y, 
Timet^ July 1. 

— Testsbdat the armed steamer Sumter, 
**of the Confederate States Navy," ran the 
blockade of New Orleans, and got safely to sea. 
The New Orleans Picayune^ in noting the fact, 
said: — ''The first yessel of our little navy, the 
0. 8w steamer-of-war Sumter, sailed on Sat- 
urday last, on a cruise, having ran the paper 
blockade of the Lincoln Abolition war steam- 
ers, off the moath of the Mississippi. She has 
a picked crew, and her commander is known to 
be a most brave and chivalrous sailor, and he 
has nnder him a most gallant set of officers : 
Commander, Raphael Semmes; Lieutenants, 
John M. Kells, R. F. Chapman, W. £. Evans, 
J. M. Stribling; Paymaster, Henry Myers; 
Passed Assistant-Surgeon, Francis L. Gait; 
Ueutsnant of Marines, Becket E. Howell ; Mid- 
shipmen, Richard F. Armstrong, W. A. Hicks, 
A. G. Hudgins, J. D. Wilson ; Gunner, Thomas 
G. Cuddy; Sail-maker, M. P. Beaufort; Engi* 
aeer^ First Assistant, acting as chief. Miles J. 
Freeman; Second Assistant, W. P. Brooks; 



Third Assistants, Matthew O'Brien and Simeon 
W. Cummings. She has a crew of sixty-five 
men and twenty marines." 

— Tna Charleston Mercury published the 
following on the Confederate Commissioners 
in Europe: It is now sevei^al months since 
our commissioners were sent to Europe. Thus 
far it seems they have got no further than Eng- 
land. Mr. Rost, one of them, has gone over to 
France ; but as he can have no authority to act 
clone, we presume that he goes rather to ascer- 
tain the views of the Emperor of the French 
than to moke a treaty. We infer from Mr. 
Rost's departure from London to Paris that 
nothing has been accomplished in England. 

Indeed, from the order in Council forbidding 
Confederate privateers bringing their prizes 
into British ports, we are only surprised that 
any of the Commissioners should have re- 
mained in London a day after this new order 
was issued. This is an act of quasi hostility, 
which, it appears to us, ought to have arrested 
a conference with tlie British authorities. It 
was weU known that, whilst Great Britain has 
the greatest interest in the independence of the 
Confederate States, there is an clement of anti- 
slavery fanaticism which would, in all likeli- 
hood, paralyze her counsels in our favor. 

Why our commissioners have lingered so 
long in England, and have not gone directly to 
the greatest source of success, the goveiiunent 
of France, we are at a loss to determine. By 
pretermitting the Emperor of the French, the 
British ministry have had the opportunity of 
obtaining, perhaps, his co-operation in the line 
of policy they design to pursue. By a direct 
communication with him, he would most prob- 
ably have controlled instead of supporting the 
policy of England. 

We, of course, do not know tlie means used 
by our government to conciliate the prompt ac- 
knowledgment of our independence by France 
and England, but it is clear, if we expected 
them to depart from that policy which the 
laws of nations strictly required, we must offer 
them inducements of industry. Our separation 
from the North, and our lower tariff, certainly 
gave them the prospect of great commercial 
advantages, from our independence; but the 
tariff might bo changed — it might be made low 
from motives of present policy, and wo might, 
after that policy is accomplished, in our inde- 
pendence have renewed higher duties. To 



14 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Juki 8(1 



present to these great States allnring assur- 
ances of present commercial advantages, it ap- 
pears to us our commissioners ought to have 
proposed a low maximum of duties, to extend 
over many years yet to come. 

It is absurd to suppose that either France or 
Great Britain will run the risk of disagreeable, 
if not hostile complications with the United 
States, without tho security of dear advantages 
to be obtained. When we have fairly fought 
out our independence, of course all foreign na- 
tions will acknowledge ns ; but to take us by 
the hand when we are weak and want their 
aid, and when our position is surrounded with 
donbts — ^in their opinion, at least — as to our 
future success, we must offer such inducements, 
strongly ap2>ealing to their interests, as will 
indemnify them for all risk in taking us in their 
embraces by friendly commercial treaties. 

Have our commissioners been empowered to 
offer to France and England a treaty guarantee- 
ing for a number of years low duties on their 
manufactured commodities imported into the 
Confederate States ? We fear not ; for if they 
had been empowered to make such treaties, we 
are satisfied that they might have returned 
home with their mission completely successful, 
and the war on our frontier, on the part of the 
United States, reduced to a weak absurdity. 

— Leonidas Polk, better known as Bishop 
Polk, of Louisiana, having received tho appoint- 
ment of Miyor-General in tho rebel service, as- 
sumed the command of his division. His head- 
quarters wore at Memphis, Tenn., in the neigh- 
borhood of which the troops comprising his com- 
mand hod their rendezvous. " This is the first in- 
8tance,'^say8 tho Memphis Appeal, *^ in the coun- 
try's history of the appouitment of a high-church 
dignitary to a position of so much responsibility 
in the military service, and wiU, therefore, as a 
matter of course, evoke criticism among the old 
fogies of the red-tape school. But apart from 
the fact that tho acceptance of this appointment 
was urged upon Gen. Polk with great earnest- 
ness by the President, the general-in-chief of 
the army, and other military officers of distinc- 
tion who are well acquunted with his qualifi- 
cations, there is much in the character and his- 
tory of the appointee which inclines to the 
opinion that the selection is highly judicious, 
and one which will give great satisfaction. 
General Polk received a thorough military 
education at the West Point Academy, which 



he entered, ft*om North Carolina, in 1828. He 
graduated with honor and entered the United 
States service, his first commission as second 
lieutenant of artillery bearing date July 1, 182T. 
'* He did not remain long in the army, how- 
ever, but resigned in December of the same 
year, and embarked in another and different 
field of usefulness. General Polk will bring to 
the discharge of the duties of his position, a 
mature judgment, ripe scholarship, unusual 
activity of mind and body, great firmness and 
decision of character, a chivalric bearing, and 
the presence and mien of a thorough soldier. 
Though not a stickler for mere etiquette of the 
camp, he is a rigid disciplinarian, and, withal, 
tho very man to win tho confidence, and com- 
mand the respect of his soldiers." 

— A COB RESPONDENT of the Charleston ( S, 0.) 
Courier^ writing from Richmond, Va., says : — 
" There are few points of a war character which, 
just at this time, can appropriately form the 
subject of a letter. All eyes, however, are di- 
rected towards Manassas, and it is not improb- 
able that by tho time these lines reach your 
readers, the telegraph will have preceded me 
with the details of a great battle. The north- 
em despatches all indicate the gradual approach 
of the two armies, the strengthening of out- 
posts and various other movements which fore- 
run hostilities. Tho southern press, on the 
contrary, are discreetly silent, and all we know 
is what we see ourselves, or hear from those 
who have seen for us; but the two sources of 
intelligence concur in the fact that unless the 
good Lord creates a modem Babel at Manas- 
sas and Alexandria, or drops down between 
the armies a veil of Cimmerian darkness, nature, 
personal gravitation, and animal magnetism will 
as certainly conspire to produce a collision as 
the multiplication table tells the truth. 

*^ There are some yet, however, who affect to 
believe that we shall have a peace before we 
have a fight. The reaction so long predicted at 
the North having begun, the circulating peti- 
tions of merchants, bankers, clergymen, and 
other citizens of New York, which are press- 
ing their peaceflil influences upon Abraham Lin- 
coln, are also operating here. The question is 
already being discussed in its various bearings, 
and the auspicious event has even been assigned 
a place this side of Christmas. 

" We have no idea, however, of giving up the 
contest without, at least, one grand exhibition 



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FffLT 1.] 



DIART OF EVENTa 



15 



of the power, the prowess, and the resources 
of the people who have been stigmatized as the 
^nifBan rebels of the South.* We went into 
the war on principle. Let ns come out on prin- 
ciple, but not until we have left a mark upon 
our enemies that will secure for us for all time 
to come the respect of the world. 

"The hundred thousand men we have in the 
field will not be content to lay down their arms 
in peace until they have struck a blow that 
shall quiver through the North; and unless 
this be done, the millions they have left behind 
tiiem will have their ^welcome home^ ahoyed 
by the thought that their husbands, sons, and 
brothers have returned without teaching that 
lesson of humiliation to an insolent foe, which, 
next to the Lord's Prayer, has been the upper- 
most desire in every southern heart. 

" Li a civil point of view, as rapidly as circum- 
stances will permit, the wheels of government 
are being geared and the machinery set in mo- 
tion. The old adage that * large bodies move 
slowly,* meets its falsification every hour. The 
operations of the various departments are in 
fnU blast, and from the President down to the 
errand boy, every man moves as if he was a 
confederation of steel springs. Nor is this ac- 
tivity confined alone to the government. Arti- 
sans and merchants have all the work they can 
do in supplying the demands upon their several 
vocations incident to the presence of an army 
of needful soldiers. 

^ Blacksmiths are fabricating bowie knives ; 
machinists are making arms and altering flint 
to percussion locks; millers are turning out 
fiour ; bakers are kneading bread by the ton, 
while butchers, grocers, and caterers generally 
are beleaguered day and night to supply the 
wants of the augmented population. Clothing, 
shoes, accoutrements, and camp equipage— till 
find ready sale. The frequent arrivals here of 
poorly uniformed companies keep the ladies like- 
wise up to their elbows in business." 

July 1. — General Banks issued a proclamation 
announcing the arrest of Charles Howard, Wil- 
liam Getchell, John Hincks, and John W. 
Davis, late members of the police board of 
Baltimore, and giving his reasons therefor. — 
{Doc 63.) 

—This afternoon Lieutenant Yelverton and 
eighteen men of the Seventh New York Vol- 
unteers, made a reconnoissance fVom Newport 
News, Va., up the James River road to within 



a mile and a half of Great Bethel. At that 
point they came upon five of the rebel pickets^ 
who precipitately fled, leaving behind, with other 
trophies, their hats and coats, which showed 
that the owners were officers. In the pockets 
of the latter were several letters just finished, 
giving a complete account of the lato advance 
of 2,800 men from Yorktown to attack Newport 
News. One of an amusing charrtcter from the 
pocket of James Steele, bookseller, Richmond, 
describes the federal troops as a set of baboons, 
to be speedily driven from the sacred soil of 
Virginia. — N. Y, Etening Post, July 8. 

— ^Edwabd Clark, the Governor of Texas, 
issued a proclamation, in which ho said: ^^It 
will also bo treasonable for any citizen of 
Texas to pay any debts now owing by him 
to a citizen of either of the States or Terri- 
tories now at war with the Confederate States 
of America." — National Intelligencer^ July 3. 

— ^FiFTY Home Guards under Captain Cook, 
from De Soto and Hopewell, Mo., proceeded 
last night by rail to Irondale, where they arriv- 
ed this morning at 9 o^dock, and marched tow- 
ards Farmington in search of contraband arms, 
&c., reported to be in the neighborhood of that 
place. They passed through Farmington about 
three miles eastward towards the river, but 
finding nothing, were returoing home, when 
about six miles west of Farmington, they were 
attacked by a body of some 250 to 800 well 
armed and mounted secessionists, who were in 
ambush. Their fire was returned by the Home 
Guards, mortally wounding Wm. Hunter, one 
of the secession leaders. The Homo Guards re- 
turned to Do Soto without the loss of a man or 
a gun. 

The rebels in that section are in possession 
of artillery, and gathered their clan by the 
discharge of their cannon, and were rallying all 
their forces in anticipation of the return of the 
Home Guards. The bravo 800 were concealed 
in the brush, and fired upon the Home Guards 
in on open field. — Missouri Democrat, July 8. 

— ^Thb marine artillery of the First Rhode 
Island Regiment left Washington, at night, by 
rail ; destination unknown. — ^The Third Massa- 
chusetts Regiment moved from the encamp- 
ment within Fortress Monroe, to occupy a posi- 
tion between Hampton and Newmarket Bridge. 
Col. McChesney's Regiment (N. Y.) took -the 
place of the Third Massachusetts. — K, Y, WbrH 
July 8. 



16 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[JlTLT 2i 



— ^Ths Governor of Tennessee stationed an 
agent at Mitchellsville, on the Louisville and 
KashviUo Railroad, near the northern Tennes- 
see line, to prevent goods declared contraband 
in the southern confederacy from coming 
north. — LauUville J&umdl^ July 2. 

— James M. Sandebson assumed the control 
of the calinary department of the army at 
Washington, under the direction of the Sanitary 
Commission. — N. F. Worldy July 1. 

«— Ben. MoCuLLOon, Brigadier-General of 
the rebel forces, issued a proclamation to the 
citizens of Arkansas, as follows : — ^^ To defend 
your frontier, troops of Missouri are falling 
back upon you. If they are not sustained, your 
State will be invaded and your homes desolated. 
All that can arm themselves will rendezvous at 
Fayetteville, where they will await further 
orders. All those who have arms of the State, 
will march to the scene of action, or give their 
arms to those who will not desert their country 
in the hour of danger. All organized compa- 
nies, whether cavalry or infantry, will report 
at Fayetteville, and will at once be formed into 
regiments and battalions. The necessary sub- 
sistence stores will be forwarded from this post. 
Bally promptly, then, citizens of Arkansas, and 
let us drive this Northern horde back from 
whence they came." — MemphU Argus^ July 1 . 

— The Fifteenth and Seventeenth Regiments 
of Indiana volunteers, loft Indianapolis this 
afternoon for Virginia. Each regiment lias a 
corps of fifty sharpshooters, and two pieces of 
ai-tillery. — N, Y. Tribune^ July 2. 

— ^The Fourth Regiment of Michigan volun- 
teers, numbering 1,046 men, under the command 
of Colonel Dwight A. Woodbury, passed through 
Baltimore on the route to Washington. — Balti- 
more American^ July 2. 

July 2. — ^Between 8 and 7 o'clock this morn- 
ing the troops which have been concentrating 
at Hageretown and Williamsport, Md., for sev- 
eral days past, crossed the ford at the latter 
place. Gen. Patterson reviewed them as they 
filed past him. 

The morning was bright and beautifnl, and 
the soldiers were in excellent spirits; the ad- 
vance took place before daylight, the post of 
honor being assigned to Capt-ain McMullen's 
Independent Rangers, and the First Wisconsin, 
and the Eleventh Pennsylvania regiments. The 
advancing column consisted of the bfigades of 



Abercrombie, Thomas, and Negley. The Inde- 
pendent Rangers behaved remarkably well, 
getting dose up to the rebels, within a distance 
of only 75 yards. Abercrombie's brigade led 
the advance, and the casualties of the conflict 
were almost exclusively on the First Wisconsin 
and Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiments. CoL 
Jarrett and Lieut.-Col. Coulter led the skirmish- 
ers, opening upon them at 400 yards. The 
whole of the rebel forces at Martinsburg, con- 
sisting of four regiments of Infantry and one 
regiment of horse, were engaged in the action. 

They had with them four pieces of artillery, 
part rifled cannon, and were commanded by 
Gen. Jackson. The flrst city troops of Phila- 
delphia were assigned a position near the Unit- 
ed States cavalry, under Captain Perkins, and 
behaved remarkably well. The casualties on 
the Federal side are two killed and several 
wounded. Several of the dead and wounded 
of the secession troops were left on the field in 
their hasty retreat. In anticipation of a re- 
treat by the Federal forces, the rebels had 
levelled the fences on both sides of the turnpike 
even with the ground, so as to cut them off in 
the event of their retiring to the Potomac. 

The first stand was madeatPorterfield Farm, 
on the turnpike, near Haynesville, where it was 
necessary to destroy a barn and carriage-house, 
to make a charge upon the enemy. Ilere 
the conflict was fierce, the rebels standing well 
np to their work, and finally slowly retreating. 
Knapsacks and canteens were hastily thrown 
aside as incumbrances to a backward march. 
The rebels left behind them a number of 
blankets, and other articles of value, indicating 
a heavy loss. . 

—The Thirty-fourth Regiment, K Y. S. V., 
left Albany for the seat of war. It is com- 
manded by Colonel William Ledcu. — The 
Twenty-fifth Regiment N. Y. S. V., under Uie 
command of Colonel James E. Kerrigan, left 
their quarters on Staten Island, New York, for 
Washington. — N, Y. Tribune^ July 4. 

— The steamer Cataline was burned at For- 
tress Monroe, this evening. — PhiladclpJiia 
Pre$8, July 5. 

— ^The legislature of Western Virginia organ- 
ized at Wheeling. Lieut.-Governor Pary'lcy took 
the chair in the Senate, and Daniel Frost of 
Jackson was elected Speaker of the House. 

Governor Pierpont's message was sent to 
both Houses, together with a document from 



JtoLT 4.] 



DIART OF EYENTa 



17 



TFashingtoQ, effectusilly recognizing the new 
GaTemment. The messogo is a very able docu- 
ment And gives universal Batisfaction. It is a 
suocinct review of secession in Virginia, and 
of the causes leading to the formation of the 
present Government, and recommends an ener- 
getic codperation with the Federal Government. 
^Doe. 29.) 

— TwKNTY-8BVB3T thousand dollars belonging 
to the State wore seized and carried to Wheel- 
ing by order of the Governor, from the Ex- 
change Bank of Weston, Virginia, where it 
had been placed to the credit of the Western 
Lunatic Aftjlam bj the State anthorities. 
Gapt List was commissioned by Gov. Piorpont 
to go and take charge of the money, tlie work 
on the Asylum having been stopped, and there 
being reasonable apprehensions that the gold 
might fall into the hands of Letcher's govern- 
ment. The Captain proceeded to Grafton, and 
upon making known his object to Gen. McClel- 
lan, in less than twenty-four hours a regiment 
of men, under Col. Tyler, were on the march. 
The expedition left Clarksburg on Sunday 
evening, and marching all night, reached Wes- 
ton the next morning, about five o'clock. The 
people were all asleep, but the fine band which 
accompanied the expedition aroused the drowsy, 
population by playing the S tar-Spangled Banner. 
CoL Tyler took possession of the place, and 
Captain List went down and demanded tlio 
money in the name of the State of Virginia. 
No resistaoco was made, and the money was 
soon given up. The troops captured some 
twenty prisoners, all of whom were released 
upon examinatiun, except the following, who 
were carried to Grafton and placed under 
guard : James T. Jackson, George J. Butcher, 
W. E. Lively, John Kearns, Jr., and J. Shumat. 
— Whseli/t^ InUUigencer^ July 3. 

July 8. — Gen. Lyon, with upwards of two 
thousand National troops, left Booneville, Mis- 
souri, for the Southwest. — N, Y, TimeSf July 7. 

— The Military Board of Arkansas issued a 
proclamation, calling for 10,000 men to repel 
invasion by the National troops through Mls- 
Bouri. Each company is to arm itself witlj the 
usual wei^>ons of the country, furnish its own 
tents end camp equipage, which will be paid 
for by the State. Kegiments are ordered to 
organize for immediate service. — Memphis Ap- 
fuo^ Jvly 4. 

Vol. U.— Diaet 2 



— ^A coBBKSP02(DENT in Morgan county, Va.» 
in a letter to the Baltimore American, gives 
the following account of affairs in that district: 
— We are now experiencing and witnessing the 
evils of secession in this county, where we have 
always enjoyed the blessings of liberty and the 
freedom of speech. We dare not open our 
mouths now. The Confederate troops, which 
came into our county on last Sunday (three 
hundred and fifty), have caused a great stam- 
pede among our Union men. One-third of 
the male population has gone to Maryland for 
fear of being impressed in the Confederate ser- 
vice. A perfect reign of terror prevails here; 
business is suspended, and our citizens are com- 
pelled to stand on guard without board or pay. 
Neither friend nor foe is allowed to cross the 
river at this place or Hancock, but fortunately 
the river is very low, and we can occasionally 
steal away and wade across at other places, to 
get our mails. Two gentlemen from Maryland 
were arrested hero yesterday and taken tohead* 
quarters at Berkeley Springs, upon what charge 
1 have not been able to learn. I presume they 
will bo released to-day. It is impossible for ns 
to learn the object of these troops, though it 
is reported to-day that they intend to march 
over to Ilancock and take possession of a large 
quantity of flour and grain for the use of the 
army at Winchester. — BaUimore American^ 
July 6. 

— The Twenty-Fourth Regiment New York 
S. V. from Oswego, arrived at Washington. — 
K T, Tribune, July 4. 

July 4. — ^Licntenant-Coloncl J. W. Ripley, 
head of the Ordnance Department, received 
the brevet of Brigadier-General in the United 
States Army. A well-merited honor. He is 
one of the oldest and most valuable ofiicers of 
the army. He was abroad on leave at the com- 
mencement of the rebellion, but hastened home 
to offer his services. On being asked by a 
friend if ho had returned to engage in the war, 
he replied : " Yes, and to give my last drop of 
blood to defend my Government.-' Ho has 
disowned his nephew, Major Ripley, who took 
part in the attack on Fort Sumter. 

Captain (now Major) Doubleday of the First 
Artillery, recently promoted to be a Major in 
the Seventeenth foot, received his new com* 
mission. — BaUimore American, July 5. 

Thk Mozart Regiment^ N. Y. Volunteers, 
embarked this morning, at Yonkers, and left 



18 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[JVLT 4, 



for Elizabetliport, N. J., to take the cars for 
Washington. The regiment numbered 1,046, 
and were armed with Enfield muskets. Thej 
had two hundred common tents, forty oflScers* 
tents, ten baggage wagons, each drawn bj six 
horses, four hospital ambulances, twenty camp 
stoves, and two brass 12-poand howitzers. — 
If. r. World, July 6. 

— A UinoN meeting was held at the citj of 
Louisiana, Missouri, at which Mr. Charles D. 
Drake delivered an elaborate speech in defence 
of the Union and the Constitution.— (Z>^. 63.) 

— ^Pursuant to the call of the President of 
the United States, Congress assembled at Wash- 
ington this day in special session. Galusha A. 
Grow, of Penn., was elected speaker of the 
House, and took the oath of office, which was 
administered by Mr. Washbume of Illinois. The 
President's message was received and read to- 
gether with reports of the heads of the various 
departments. The message is brief, and the facts 
it states are well known ; the important points 
of the document are those which embody the 
recommendations of the President in relation 
to the measures to be adopted for the prosecu- 
tion of the war. Compromise by Congress ho 
regards as out of the question. The people 
only can compromise on a question which affects 
the existence of the nation. He therefore asks 
that Congress give to the Executive the 'Megal 
means to make the contest a short and decisive 
one, by placing at the control of Government 
for the work at least four liundrcd thousand 
men and four hundred millions of dollars.*' 
That number of men, he says, are ready and 
willing to take arms for the support of the 
Government, whilst the amount asked for war 
purposes is quite within the ability of the coun- 
try to supply.— {Z>oc. 66-68.) 

— A SMALL flag of the Southern Confederacy 
"was raised over a house on an alley in the upper 
|)art of the city of Louisville, Ky., to-day. The 
perpetration of such a deed on such a day is 
iilmost sacrilegious. The miserable flag's time 
wfli short Some patriotic Germans took it 
down, and bore it away, and burned it. Its 
ashes are a part of the mud of the streets. — 
LoumilU Journal, July 6. 

— ^Tn£ passenger trains on the Louisville and 
Nashville railroad were seized this morning at 
Camp Ironsdale, near Mitchellsville, by order 
of Major-Greneral Anderson, and carried to 
Nashville, Tenn. The managers had taken all 



the engines and running stock to Louisville, Ey., 
against which policy Tennessee had remon- 
strated, and this seizure was a necessity as a 
measure of protection. Migor-General Ander- 
son informed the agent of the road that no fur- 
ther seizures would be made, and that trains 
should pass uninterrupted. — LoumiUe JourmUf 
July 6. 

A BKIBHI8H took place at Harper's Ferry, 
Va., this evening between companies of the 
New York Ninth Regiment and a detachment 
of Confederates, who had returned to Harper's 
Ferry. A number of men belonging to ono 
of the companies of the New York Ninth 
crossed over to the Ferry, for the purpose of 
seeing the work of destruction which had been 
perpetrated by the rebels, when they were fired 
upon by a party of men from Bolivar heights. 
They immediately crossed the river, returned 
to their encampment, and being reinforced, 
proceeded at once to the Potomac, opposite 
Ilarper^s Ferry, and opened fire upon thenu 
The rebels, concealing themselves in the 
houses and behind the abutments of the burned 
bridge, had a decided advantage, and from their 
position poured a galling fire upon the Federal 
companies on this side, which were perfectly 
exposed: yet they stood their ground with 
almost reckless bravery, until the firing ceased 
from the opposite side, when they retired with 
a loss of two killed and three wounded. Sev- 
eral of the rebels were killed, one was killed 
by a citizen of Harper's Ferry, who engaged 
in the fight^ he being driven from the place by 
the rebels. — Baltimore American, July 8. 

— The rebels erected a battery, ond mount- 
ed two rifled cannon at Matthias Point, Yo, 
— ^V. F. Timee, July 6. 

— Tuai New Hampshire Legislature adjourned 
to-day, after a session of thirty days. Resolu- 
tions were reported, declaring the war now in 
progress a war solely for the maintenance of the 
Government and the suppression of rebellion ; de- 
claring against the right of secession ; asserting 
that neither the President nor Congress can 
constitutionally entertain any proposition which 
has for its object the dismemberment of tlio 
Government or the dissolution of the Union ; 
and finally declaring that the State of New 
Hampshire pledges her resources for the integ- 
rity of the Union, the support of the Consti- 
tution, and the enforcement of the laws of the 
Greneral Government. When these resolationf 



July 6.] 



DIARY OP EVENT& 



19 



wero pat to the vote the members all rose and 
gsTe a aaanimoos aye. Not a member voted in 
the negative. A militia bill was passed author- 
izing the Governor to raise three regiments, to 
ead[i of which he may add a company of artil- 
lery, cavalry, and riflemen. — National Intelli- 
fienur^ July 9. 

— The Sixth Regiment of Massachnsetts Mili- 
tia, commanded by Colonel E. F. Jones, were 
presented with an elegant silk flag, by the loyal 
citizens of Baltimore, at the Relay Honse, where 
had assembled several thonsand ladies and gen- 
tlemen for the purpose of witnessing the cere- 
monies. The regiment having been formed in 
a semicircle, S. J. K. Handy, Esq., advanced, 
and addressed the command in an eloqnent and 
patriotic strain, presenting the flag in the name 
of the loyal citizens of Baltimore. Colonel 
Jones received the flag, and responded briefly 
to the address. He remarked, among other 
things, that ladies and gentlemen, repre- 
sentatives of the loyal citizens of Baltimore, 
had come to place the regiment under an addi- 
tional obligation, in bestowing such a beantifol 
flag npon them. An acquaintance which open- 
ed in blood had been continued and cultivated 
with services of great kindness. The command 
appreciated the many acts which had been be- 
stowed npon their wounded, as well as the kind 
expressions of the Union-loving citizens of Bal- 
timore. Tlie flag was accepted not only as a 
token of loyalty, but as an evidence of friend- 
ship, which he hoped would continue to grow 
and strengthen ; and when it was unfurled at 
home, many eyes would be filled with tears in 
memory of those who had fallen. The pre- 
sentation laid the old State of Massachusetts un- 
der an obligation to the city of Baltimore, and 
would ever be remembered by her best citizens. 
In concluding, he assured tjJl present that the 
object of his regiment was not to oppress, or 
even to harass the South, but to protect the 
Capital and preserve the Government. Ho re- 
gretted that his language could but faintly ex- 
press his feelings, but if his friends could look 
into his heart they would much better under- 
6tand him. At the conclusion of his speech 
three cheers were given for Massachusetts, in 
response to which nine cheers were given by 
the regiment for the loyal citizens of Baltimore. 
— Baltimore American, 

— A conBESPOXDENT of the Charleston Cou- 
rier says : — ** There are some who affect to bo- 



lieve that we shall have a peace beforo we faav# 
a fight. The reaction so long predicted at the 
North having begun, the circulating petitiona 
of merchants, bankers, clergymen, and other 
citizens of New York, which are pressing their 
peaceful infinences upon Abraham Lincoln, are 
also operating here. The question is already 
being discussed in its various bearings, and the 
auspicious event has even been assigned a place 
this side of Christmas. 

We have no idea, however, of giving up the 
contest without, at least, one grand exhibitioii 
of the power, the prowess, and the resources 
of the people who have been stigmatized ae 
*Hhe ruffian rebels of the South." We went 
into the war on principle ; let us come out on 
principle, bat not until we have left a mark np- 
on our enemies that shall secure for us for all 
time to come the respect of the world. The 
hundred thousand men we have in the field 
will not be content to lay down their arms in 
peace, until they have struok a blow that shall 
quiver through the North ; and unless this be 
done, the millions they have left behind them 
will have their *^ welcome homo" alloyed by 
the thought that their husbands, sons, and 
brothers have returned without teaching thai 
lesson of humiliation to on insolent foe, which, 
next to the Lord^s Prayer, has been the upper* 
most desire in every Southern heart" 

July 6. — ^This morning the rebel troops sta- 
tioned at Fairfax Court-Houso, Va., were ad- 
vancing upon the Federal lines, when a regiment 
of their infantry fired by mistake upon a com- 
pany of their cavalry, killing seven or eight 
men, and wounding several others. — IT. K 
Etening Post^ July 6. 

— This morning the Missouri rebel troops, 
under Gov. Jackson, broke camp near Rupes 
Point, in Jasper Co., Missouri, and marched 
south in the direction of Carthage, the County 
seat of Jasper County. At Brier Forks, seven 
miles north of Carthago, they were mot by CoL 
Siegel, with 1,500 Union men, who immediatel'* 
gavo them battle. 

The State troops wcro posted on a ridge in a 
prairio with fivo pieces of artillery, one twelve- 
pounder in tho centre, two six-pounders on the 
right and left, cavalry on each flank, and infan- 
try in tho rear. 

Tho artillery of Colonel Siegel approached 
within eight hundred yards, with four cannon 
in tho centre, a body of infantry and a six- 



20 



REBELLION BECX)IID, 1860-61. 



[ JVLT 6# 



pounder under Lientenant-Oolonel Hassendare 
on the left, Colonel Solomon^s command with a 
siz-poonder on the right, and a hody of infantry 
behind the oentre artillery. 

Colonel Siegel's left opened fire with ahrap- 
nella, and soon the engagement became general. 
The rebels had no grape, and their artillerists 
being poor, their balls flew over the heads of 
the National forces. After two hoars' firing, 
the enemy's artillery was entirely silenced^ and 
their ranks broken. 

The State troops were now driven back some 
distance, and the officers ordered a retreat 
The centre gave way, but the order not being 
heard on the flanks, the advancing United 
States troops were in danger of being sur- 
rounded themselves, and fell back. They re- 
treated slowly, keeping up the fight, the artil- 
lery making fearful havoo among the enemy's 
ranks. 

About 1,500 rebel cavalry then attempted to 
outflank Siogel, and cut off his baggage train, 
which was three miles back, when a retrograde 
movement was ordered. The train was reached 
in good order, surrounded by infantry and artil- 
lery, and the retreat of the National troops 
continued until a point was reached where the 
road passed through a high bluff on each side, 
where tlio enemy's cavalry were posted in large 
numbers. By a feint, as if intending to pass 
around the bluff, Siegel drew the cavalry in a 
solid body into Uie road at a distance of 150 
yards from his position, when by a rapid move- 
ment of his artillery, he poured a heavy cross- 
fire of canister into their ranks; at the same 
time the infantry charged at a " double quick," 
and in ten minutes the State troops scattered in 
every direction. Eighty-five riderless horses 
were captured and sixty -five shot-guns, and a 
number of revolvers and bowie-knives were 
picked up from the ground. 

At the crossing of Dry Fork, the Federal 
lines were very near being broken, when by 
the timely arrival of 200 Union men ft-om 
Shoals Creek, they crossed with but a loss of 
five killed, and two mortally wounded. The 
battle continued, the United States troops alter- 
nately fighting and retreating until dark, when 
they reached Carthage, having crossed Buck 
Branch and Spring River. On the way, the 
fighting was all done with the artillery, Col. 
Siegel retreating as soon as they got them in 
position, and playing on their ranks as they ad- 
vanced. 



The rebel loss was great; a resident of Car- 
thage states that he passed over a part of the 
battle-field after the confiict, and saw wagons 
and backs passing in every direction, gathering 
up the dead for interment. 

The loss on the part of the State troops can- 
not be less than from 800 to 600. The ground 
in many places was strewn with dead horses. 

The retreat of the National forces was con- 
ducted in a style worthy of veteran troops, and 
with as much coolness as if they were on a 
parade-ground, instead of the field of battle. — 
{Doc. 70.) 

— ^About five o'clock this morning twenty- 
five of Hawkins' Zouaves encountered a rebel 
force, supposed to number about one hundred 
and fifty, including twenty -five cavalry, and one 
field-piece, seven miles from Newport News, 
Va. ; three of the rebels were shot, and also six 
of Hawkins' Zouaves. The latter sent for re- 
inforcements, and Qve companies were sent to 
sustain them. — If. Y. Ecening Foat^ July 6. 

July 6. — At Washington orders were issued 
as follows : — ^*The State of Illinois and the States 
and territories West of the Mlssbsippi and on 
this side of the Rocky Mountains, including 
New Mexico, will, in future, constitute a sepa- 
rate military command, to be known as the 
Western Department, under the command of 
Migor-Generat Fremont, of the United States 
army, head- quarters at St. Louis.'' 

It having been ascertained to the satisfaction 
of the War Department, that First Lieutenant 
John Thomas Qoode, of the Fourth Artillery, 
entertained, and had expressed treasonable de- 
signs against the Government of the United 
States, his name was stricken from the rolls of 
the army. 

Captain John McNab of the Tenth Infantry, 
having, while in command of Fort Laramie, 
given satisfactory evidence of his disloyalty to 
the Government, the President directed that 
his name be stricken from the roll of the army. 

The President also ordered the name of As- 
sistant-Surgeon, Lafayette Gould, of the medical 
staff, to be stricken from the roll for refusing to 
renew his oath of allegiance. — If. Y. Commer* 
eial^ July 6. 

— The work of erasing names from the Guion 
compromise petition lists is in progress. On 
the fourth of July fifty-six names had been 
erased, and a large number yesterday and to- 
day. It is amusing to note the effectual man- 



JffLT 7.] 



DIABT OF EYEKTa 



21 



ner in which the names are erased. In most 
cases it is impossible to decipher the name — it 
is not a crossing off, bat a complete blotting 
ODt Almost every person who has erased his 
name says that his signature was obtained un- 
der false pretences. One or two say that they 
were informed that it was a petition to the 
Common Council for an appropriation for the 
Central Park, and that it would afford an op- 
portunity for the employment of laborers now 
oat of work I 

The story that '^some one" (meaning Mr. 
Gaioo) had commenced a salt for the arrest of 
Superintendent Kennedy and Mr. J. B. Taylor, 
for £ilse imprisonment may be stated in brief: 
An application was made to Judge Leonard 
for an order to arrest these gentlemen, and the 
Judge promptly refused. — 2T, Y, Evening Posly 
July 6. 

— ^FoBTT-Fivs men of the Third Ohio regi- 
ment fell in with an ambuscade of several hun- 
dred rebels at Middle Fork Bridge, twelve 
miles east of Buckhannon, Ya. Being sur- 
rounded they fought desperately for some time, 
then cat theur way through the enemy and re- 
tiredy losing only one man and having some 
woonded. — {Doe. 71.) 

July 7. — An infernal machine, designe<l by 
the Bebels to blow up the Pawnee and the ves- 
sels of the Potomac flotilla, which was set 
adrift near Acquia Creek, was picked up float- 
log toward the Pawnee. The following de- 
scription of the article has been sent to the 
Kavy Department: Two large eighty-gallon 
oil casks, perfectly water-tight, acting as bnoys, 
connected by twenty-five fathoms of 8i-inch 
rope, buoyed with large squares of cork, every 
two feet, secured to casks by iron handles. 
A heavy bomb of boiler iron, fitted with a 
brass tap, and filled with powder, is suspended 
to the casks six feet under water. On top of 
the cask is a wooden box, with fuze in a gutta- 
percha tube. In the centre of the cork is a 
phuform with a great length of fuze coiled 
away occupying the middle of the cask. It 
was intended by the contrivers of this weapon 
of ciTllized warfare, that the shock of a colll- 
non sliould light the fuze. The machine was 
first discovered by the Pawnee while lying 
off Acquia Greek, In company with the Freeborn 
^ two or three other vessels. The com- 
mander of tho former, on seeing the object 
floating toward the fleet, sent out a small 



boat's crew to make an investigatioD.— iiT. K 
Tribune^ July 18. 

— This morning, at an early hour, a consid- 
erable body of Secessionists made their appear- 
ance at the Great Falls, above Washington, op- 
posite Major Gkrhardt's command. Eighth Ger- 
man Battalion, of about two hundred men, and 
commenced firing. M^jor Gerhardt's battalion 
returned the fire, and after the exchange of a 
few volleys, " nobody hurt," the rebels retired, 
but returned again this afternoon about five 
o'clock with reinforcements comprising a body 
of cavalry. The firing was kept up with spirit 
on both sides for several hours, and two men 
of Mi^or Gerhardt's command were mortally 
wounded and have since died— privates George 
Riggs and Martin Ohl. No other men were 
wounded on the Union side, but Mijor Ger* 
hardt*s sharp-shooters emptied several saddles 
on the other side, and suppose they must have 
killed at least a dozen before the enemy re- 
tired. Gerhardt*s men are anxious to cross 
the river and meet their enemies hand to 
hand if they can be found. The firing from 
the other side was all along the shore from 
near Dickey's tavern to above the Falls. Both 
Biggs and Ohl belonged to Company B, Turner 
Rifles. Both were married men, and the last 
words of Ohl was a message to his wife ^'not 
to grieve for him ; that he died for liberty and 
his country." — National Intelliffencer^ July 9. 

— ^It having been ascertained to the satis- 
faction of the War Department that Captain 
Maury, Assistant Adjutant Greneral; Captain 
Carter L. Stevenson, of the Fifth Infantry ; and 
Second Lieutenant Dillon, of the Sixth Infantry, 
entertain and have expressed treasonable de- 
signs against the Government of the United 
States, theur names, according to General Or- 
der No. 87, were stricken from the rolls of the 
army; and also Mi^or Albert J. Smith, Pay- 
master, for having deserted his post at Key 
West, Florida.— -4rmy Order No. 88. 

—The (Twenty-third Regiment N. Y. S. V., 
arrived at Washington. It is commanded by 
Colonel H. C. Hoffman. — NatioTial InteUi- 
geneer^ July 9. 

— ^Mr. Yallandioham, of Ohio, risited, this 
afternoon, the Ohio encampments in Virginia, 
and was greeted with the sight of a hanging 
effigy, bearing the inscription : " Vallandigham, 
the traitor." When he approached the Second 



REBELUON RECORD, 1860-61. 



[July & 



Ohio Regiment, he was saluted hj a discharge 
of stones, and, on the interposition of the offi- 
cers, they were also pelted, until it amounted 
almost to a riot He was finally released from 
his unpleasant position. — 2f. Y, TVibuney July 8. 

— Ybrt impressive and interesting services 
took place in the Church of the Messiah in New 
York this evening. The exercises were chosen 
with special reference to their fitness for the 
first Sunday after National Independence. The 
services began with Collins' Requiem of Heroes : 

** How sleep the \nm who Bink to rest, 
By all their coontiy^s wishes blest ! " 

Then followed the xlviith Psalm, slightly 
modified, the minister reading a verse and the 
congregation responding with the alternate one. 
Dr. Osgood made tlio prayer, and afterward tlie 
choir sang tlie •* March of Liberty.'* The be- 
ginning of this sacred song is : 

** No battlo-brand shnll hsrm the froo, 
Led on b/ Christ our Liberty I " 

Tliis was succeeded by Psdm cslvii., road by 
the minister and people ; lesson from the Old 
Testnment — ^the Promised Land — ^Deut. viii.; 
chanted Psalm — Cantate Domino ; lesson from 
the New Testament — Christ weeping over Jeru- 
aalem — Matt, zxiii. ; and Gloria in Ezcelsis. 

The subject of Dr. Osgood's brief extempore 
discourse was ^*God with Nations," in wliioh 
he showed that the august feature of modern 
civilization was the consecration of nationality. 

— ^Thk New Orleans Picayune published an 
elaborate article upon the celebration of the 
Fourth of July, in which it stated that the 
present rebellion is *^ based upon the same 
eternal principles which justified and glorified 
the patriots of 1776."— (Doc. 72.) 

July 8. — General Bonks, at Baltimore, acting 
under the direction of authorities at Washington, 
this morning seized the steamers Mary Wash- 
ington and George W. Weems, both owned and 
commanded by the Weems Brothers. These 
steamers have been running for a number of 
years between Baltimore and the ports of the 
Patuxent River, and it is said carried down a 
number of passengers who joined the Confed- 
erate army. The seizure was to prevent their 
being taken in a similar manner to the St. 
Nicholas and run into Fredericksburg as prizes, 
^^Baltimore American^ July 9. 

— ^To-DAT orders were received at the head- 
quarters of the army, in New York, to send on 



to the seat of war at once the company of the 
First Artillery, part of the Fort Sumter garri- 
son, which remained at Fort Hamilton. In- 
structions were immediately sent down to the 
bravo fellows, who were under arms for the 
road in a few moments. The old ensign of 
Sumter went along with them, as they believe 
" there would be no Inck in the company with- 
out it."— iV. F. World, July 11. 

—This day whilst Col. Porter, of the IT. 8. 
Army, with a small party of men, was recon- 
noitring near the lines of the secession army 
in Virginia, he was approached by a detach- 
ment of the Confederate forces, in command of 
Capt. Taylor, of Kentucky, bearing a flag of 
truce. Col. Porter, on bringing the detach- 
ment to a halt, was informed that Capt Taylor 
was the bearer of a sealed letter from Gen« 
Davis to President Lincoln, which statement 
was verified by an endorsement to that effect 
on the back of the letter, written and signed b j 
Gen. Beauregard at Manassas Junction, and 
requesting that safe conduct might be given to 
Capt. Taylor. 

Col. Porter accordingly sent Capt Taylor, 
accompanied by an ofiicer and an orderly, to 
the head-quarters of Gen. McDowell, at Arling- 
ton, where they arrived at seven o'clock in the 
evening, and were detained there until the visit 
of Capt. Taylor was made known to Lieut-Gen- 
eral Scott, upon whose order he was conducted 
to the General's head-quarters in Washington, 
where Gen. Scott received the letter of Gen. 
Davis, and sent it to the President, the bearer 
of the letter being in the mean time detained 
at head-quarters. 

The President, having read the letter, in- 
formed Gen. Scott that he might send the 
messenger back, and Capt. Taylor immediately' 
took his departure for Arlington, and thence 
proceeded on his way back to Richmond. 

No answer to the letter was given by the 
President, and it is conjectured that the mission 
was merely a ruBe to get a view of the main 
works of defence, and ascertain the means at 
tlie command of the Government for a forward 
movement Certain it is the messenger was 
not enabled to carry back with him any very 
encouraging tidings. One object may have 
been to occupy the attention of our authorities 
and delay matters fur a few days, so as to allow 
time for aid from Manassas to Johnston at 
Winchester. — {Doc. 73.) 



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/VLT 10.] 



BIART OF EVBNTa 



2S 



— Tm following offioial order appeared to- 
day: 

^' Henceforward the telegraph will convey no 
despatches conoerning the operutions of the 
Army not permitted by the Oommanding Gen- 
eraL Winfield Soott." 

I>iPABT]nBrr or Wab, July 8, 1861. 

The above order is confirmed. 

SiMox Oamebon, Secretary of War. 

— Tex Second Regiment of Massachusetts 
Volunteers, Col. George H. Gordon, left Boston 
for the seat of war at Martinsburg. The regi- 
ment consists of one tlionsand and fifty men. 
They wear the regulation black felt hat, tamed 
up at the side. Their coats are made of service- 
able bine cloth and their pants of bine flanneL 
Since the men first went into camp at West 
Bozbary, they have been put through the most 
rigid discipline, and are therefore now prepared 
to meet the enemy under any circumstances. 
The camp equipage of the regiment, consisting 
of twenty-five wagons and one hundred horses, 
left in advance of the troops during the after- 
noon. Each company is supplied with three 
thousand ball cartridges and seven days^ rations. 
The ofiicers seem to have been well chosen. 
Apiong those in command of companies are 
sons of the late Bufus Choate, Thomas G. Gary, 
and the Hon. Josiah Quincy, Jr. The staff are 
all well mounted. 

— Capt. TnoMAs, or the " French lady " who 
a short time previously captured the steamer 
St. Nicholas on the Patuzent River, was himself 
captured by the Baltimore police.--(-Ow. 74.) 

— Thb DeKalb Regiment N. Y. S. V., under 
the command of Colonel Leopold von Gilsa, left 
New York for the seat of war. — Nl Y, Evening 
Po9t^ July 8. 

July 0, — ^To-day the ship Mary Goodall was 
boarded by the crew of the pirate brig Jeff. 
Davis, off Nantucket South shuals ; but, being 
British property, was released. Captains Fi- 
field, of the brig John Walsh, of Philadelphia; 
Smith, of the schooner S. J. Waring, and Dever- 
aux, of the Schooner Enchantress, of Newbury- 
port, were put on board the Mary Goodall, by 
tixe Jeff. Davis, which had captured their ves- 
sels during the week. The Jeff. Davis sails 
nnder the French flag. She is commanded by 
Captain Postell, formerly of the United States 
oavy. — y, Y. Commercial Advertiser^ July 13. 

— Turn First Regiment of Maryland Volun- 



teerSj raised by Capt. McConnell, and muster* 
ing exactly one thousand men, left Frederick 
at day-break this morning by the turnpike for 
Hagerstown, under the command of Lieut. Col. 
D ushane. The enl istment of men for the Second 
Regiment is progressing rapidly at the head-* 
quarters, on Green street, near Baltimore. Com* 
panics A, B, C, and D, each consisting of 100 
men, have been mustered into service. It is 
the intention of several military men, residents 
of Baltimore, to raise the Third Regiment call- 
ed for by. the President of the United States, as 
soon as the second shall take the field. — Baltir 
more American^ July 11. 

July 10. — ^The Executive Government of the 
United States and correspondents arrived at 
a fuU understanding to-day, regarding the trans- 
mission of telegraphic despatches giving infor- 
mation as to movements of the army. So, 
hereafter, it will be necessary for the distant 
public to await the arrival of the mails before 
knowing what advances of troops have been 
made, as also what reinforcements have arrived. 
The Government alleges that it has been greatly 
embarrassed in its movements by the Washing- 
ton correspondents of the New York press, and 
patriotically called upon them to co-operate in 
not publishing any movements prematurely. 
Should a battle occur, the Government will 
probably permit the official accounts to be 
transmitted. — Ni Y. Worlds July 11. 

— ^Thb Loan bill passed the House of Repre- 
sentatives to-day. It authorizes the Secretary 
of the Treasury to borrow on the credit of the 
United States, within twelve months from the 
passage of the act, a sum not exceeding two 
hundred and fifty millions of dollars, for which 
ho is authorized to issue certificates of coupon, or 
registered stock, or treasury notes, the stock 
to bear interest not exceeding seven per centum 
per annum, payable semi-annually, irredeemable 
for twenty years, and after that period redeem- 
able at pleasure. The United States treasury 
notes are to be fixed by the Secretary at not 
less than fifty dollars, payable three years after 
date, with interest at the rate of seven and three- 
tenths per centum per annum, payable annually 
on the notes of fifty dollars, and semi-annually 
on notes of larger denominations. The faith of 
tlie United States is solemnly pledged for the 
payment of the interest and the redemption of 
the principal of the loan ; and for the full and 
punctual payment of the interest, the United 



24 



REBELLION REOOBD, 1860-61. 



[JuLT la 



States specially pledge the duties of import on 
tea, coffee, sngar, spices, wines and liqnors, and 
also sach excise and other internal duties or taxes 
as may be received into the treasury. In the de- 
bate on the bill, Hr. Yallandigham, of Ohio, took 
occasion to charge the Executive with a usurpa- 
tion of power, and declared himself for a speedy, 
immediate, and honorable peace. — {Doe, 75.) 

— Thb entire postal service, embracing post- 
offices, post-routes, and route agencies in Middle 
and West Tennessee, were discontinued by order 
of the Postmaster-GreneraL — National IntsUi- 
gencer^ July 12. 

— A BssoLUTiON passed the Lower House of 
the Virginia Legislature, at Wheeling, to-day, 
instructing Senators and requesting Representa- 
tives in Congress to vote for the necessary ap- 
propriations of men and money for a vigorous 
prosecution of the war, and to oppose all com- 
promises until the rebellion is crushed out. 
The following resolution wns offered by Mr. 
Vance, of Harrison; 

Whereas^ One Owen Lovejoy, a member 
from Illinois, has offered a resolution in the 
House of Representatives, having for its object 
the repeal of the fugitive slave law ; therefore 
be it 

JRetolvedy That our Senators in Congress be 
instructed, and our Representatives requested 
to vote against said resolution, or any other of 
like object.— y. Y. World, July 11. 

— In the Senate of the United States the bill 
authorizing the employment of 600,000 volun- 
teers, and making an appropriation of 500,000,- 
OQO dollars, for the purpose of suppressing the 
existing rebellion, was passed. Mr. Saulsbury 
of Delaware desired to amend, by inserting, in 
the place of 500,000 men, 200,000 ; he desired 
peace, he said, and had faith in compromise 
measures. To him it was pertinently replied 
that 200,000 men were too many for peace and 
too few for war ; and the amendment was re- 
jected — 38 voting against it, and 5 (Messrs. 
Johnson of Missouri, Kennedy, Polk, Powell, 
and Saulsbury) in favor of it. 

— Gbn. Banks issued a proclamation, ap- 
pointing Geo. R. Dodge, Esq., of Baltimore, 
Marshal of Police, vice Col. Kenly, Provost 
Marshal, relieved. 

He also directed the military occupation of 
Baltimore to cease, and ordered the regiments 
to resume their old positions in the suburbs of 



the city. The regiments affected by this order 
are the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentyt* 
second Pennsylvania ; the Thirteenth and 
Twentieth New York, and Eighth Massachu- 
setts, and the Massachusetts battery of light 
artillery. The soldiers will not be permitted 
to visit the city without permission, and then 
must leave their arma in camp. — BalHmon 
American, July 10. 

— ^Thib afternoon, a gold medal, ordered hj 
the citizens of New York, was presented hj 
Mbljot Wood to Brigadier-General Anderson, 
through his friend, John C. Murray, who was 
deputed to receive it on his behalf. — N, T, 
Evening Poet, July 10. 

— ^Thb Thirty-third Regiment, New York 
Volunteers, commanded by Col. R, F. Taylor, 
numbering 859 men, passed through Baltiraora 
to^ay. — if. F. CommereialAdtertieeryJulyll^ 

— Daniel 8. Dickixbon delivered an address 
at Amherst College, on the present state of 
affairs in the United States. It is replete with 
the customary vigor of its distinguished author, 
with that strong instinct of generous and gen- 
uine Democracy which belongs to his charac- 
ter, and is inspired by the largest patriotism 
and the wisest statesmanship. Mr. Dickinson 
declared himself for the maintenance of the 
Constitution and for the preservation of tho 
integrity of tho Republic at whatever cost. 
At the same time he exposed the folly of tho 
secession theory and tho wickedness of the se- 
cession practice ; and, in all, he speaks like a 
man of the people and an American. Regard- 
ing tho present crisis not without sorrow in- 
deed, but without fear, he is for a zealous and 
speedy prosecution of the war, and for peace 
only on the basis of the entire submission of 
the rebels. — {Doe, 76.) 

— ^Thb Twenty-seventh Regiment N. Y. S. 
v., commanded by Col. H. W. Slocnm, 1,000 
strong, left Elmira this afternoon for Wasliing- 
ton.—-^. F. Evening Poet, July 10. 

— ^Thb House of Representatives passed the 
bill laid before Congress by Secretary Chase, 
empowering the President to close the ports of 
the seceding States. The vote on the passage 
of the bill was 135 yeas to 10 nays.— iV. F. 
Evening Poet, July 10. 

— ^Abottt two o'clock this morning the camp 
of tho Federal troops, under Colonel Smith, of 
the Illinois Sixteenth, near Monroe station. 



Jolt 10.] 



DIABY OF EVENTa 



25 



tliir^ miles west of Hanmbal, Mo., embraciDg 
800 of the Iowa Third, 200 of the Illinois Six- 
teenth, and about 100 of the Hannibal Home 
Gaarfls« was attacked by 1,600 secessionists, 
under Brigadier-General Harris. 

Although the Federals were surprised, they 
repelled the attack, drore the rebels back, kill- 
ed four, and wonnded several, besides capturing 
five prisoners and seven horses. Harris re- 
treated to Monroe, where another skirmish oc- 
curred, in which tlie rebels were i^ain repulsed. 
Smith then took up a position and sent messen- 
gers for reenforcements from Quincy. — Balti- 
more American^ July 12. — {Doc. 76}.) 

— ^Ths Seventh Massachusetts Regiment, un- 
der comnund of Colonel D. N. Couch, left Taun- 
ton, Mass., this afternoon for the seat of war. 
— JV. F. JScening Fast, July 10. 

— ^Tna New Orleans Drue Delta of to-day 
has two characteristic articles, containing bold 
dennneiations of the rebel leaders. One refers 
to the contemplated assembling of the Congress 
of the Confederate States in Richmond on the 
20tli insL, of the future of which no very san- 
guine anticipations are entertained. If the 
State of Louisiana, it says, is to be taken as a 
sample of the way things have been conducted, 
the resnlt shows a treasury collapsed, a great 
city comparatively defenceless, a people full of 
chivalrous feeling discouraged, and an ardent 
and zealous local militia disappointed and dis- 
gusted. It suggests that the provisional gov- 
ernment should immediately organize the local 
military strength, under the direction of capa- 
ble and intelligent military officers, to which 
should he temporarily attached such scattering 
material as may be found unemployed in adja- 
cent States, so as to familiarize it for any duty 
the future may require of it. The other arti- 
cle shows the absurdity of the donation reli- 
ance ; states that the men who have managed 
to get tlie country into the war have proved 
themselves utterly incapable of carrying the 
rebel States safely and honorably through it, 
and asks why should not the people awake at 
once to the opportunity that will soon present, 
to find other men more fit to carry them with 
bono:*, glory, and success, to a triumphal ter- 
mination of all their troubles? It is quite 
likely that the indignation of the people of the 
rebellious States will recoil upon the rebel lead- 
trs who have madly led them into this unfortu- 
aate war. 



— ^Hbnbt a. Wisb of the rebel army issued 
a proclamation, calling upon the citizens of 
Western Virginia to rally to his standard, and 
holding out to them the promise of pardon for 
past offences.— (Z^c. 78.) 

— A 8EIBMI8H took plftcc at Laurel Hill, Va., 
between the Federal troops under Gen. McClel^ 
Ian, and the rebels under Gen. Pegram. About 
2 oVIock in the afternoon two large bodies 
were seen from a high hill in the neighborhood 
to leave the rebels^ camp. Instant prepara- 
tions were made to resist. About 4 p. m., there 
was skirmishing in front by the Fourteenth 
Ohio and Ninth Indiana Regiments, which 
soon became very warm. The rebels advanced 
under cover of the woods when the Federals 
rushed forward, pouring in a sharp volley, kill- 
ing several of the enemy. The rebel cavalry 
then advanced to take our skirmishers in flank. 
The Federal troops rapidly retreated, and the 
aitillery dropped a couple of shells, one of 
which exploded among the cavalry when they 
instantly fell back. Again the Union troops 
rushed forward and pouring in another volley 
the rebels scattered in the woods, and the offi- 
cers were seen attempting to rally them, but 
they could not be brought up again in a body. 
In tlio meantime the skirmishers picked off 
their officers, and several additional shells were 
thrown in. The Federal troops made a final 
rush, driving the rebels from their own rifle 
pits, and bringing back several of their blank- 
ets, canteens and guns. The rebel force en- 
gaged was a Georgia Regiment, 1,200 strong, 
and generally considered the crack regiment of 
this division of the rebel army. 

The most astonishing bravery was displayed 
by the Federal skirmishers, and the only trouble 
was to keep the men from rushing into the 
midst of the enemy. The whole skirmish was 
a most spirited affair, and the Ohio and Indiana 
boys gave the Georgians some new idea of Yan- 
kee courage. A prisoner taken says that the 
Georgians refused to come into the woods 
again opposite to the Federal position, and 
they were all astonished and terrified. The 
rebel supply of provisions has been cut off, and 
they must soon come to extremities. The Union 
loss is one killed and three wounded. Indica- 
tions have been seen of an attempt to open a 
new road by the rebels through which to es- 
cape or bring in provisions. Every outlet is 
watched, and they are trapped. 



£6 



BEBELUOX RECOBD, 1860-61. 



[JIJX.T 11. 



— ^Thx New OrleaDB Picayune of this day 
oontaioB a partioular accouut of a figbt that 
ocoarred lately at the mouth of the MissisBippi. 
—(Doc. 79.) 

July 11. — ^Alexander H. Stephens delivered 
an elaborate speech at Augusta, Georgia, do- 
fending the cause of secession and pointing out 
the way to the success of the southern rebel- 
lion.— (2>«3. 88.) 

— This morning a young man presented him- 
self at the quarters of one of the Pennsylvania 
Regiments, near Shutcr^s Ilill, opposite Wash- 
ington, dressed in a suit of blue navy flannel, 
surmounted with a lieutenant's epaulettes, and 
introduced himself as " Lieut. Smith of Com- 
pany A, 6th Massachusetts Regiment." Not 
being suspected at the time, he was allowed to 
inspect the works at Fort Ellsworth, and to 
witness the departure of the Zouaves toward 
Fairfax. Not until he had safely returned to 
Washington and been carried by the cars some 
miles on the road to Baltimore, was it discov- 
ered that a secessionist had been in camp. — 2^, 
T. Tribune, July 13. 

— ^The companies sent to the relief of Col. 
Smith, at Monroe, Missouri, returned to Hanni- 
bal this evening, and report the road unob- 
structed between Ilannibal and Monroe. On 
arriving at the latter place, they formed a junc- 
tion with Col. Smith's force, which was in- 
trenched in the Academy buildings. The reb- 
els, 1,200 strong, were grouped over the 
prairie, out of reach of Col. Smith's rifles. They 
had two pieces of artillery, which were brought 
to bear, but the distance was so great that the 
balls were almost spent before reaching the 
lines. Col. Smith's artillery was of longer 
range, and did considerable execution. The 
flght lasted until dusk, and the lost shot from 
the Federal side dismounted one of the rebels' 
guns. Just at that moment Governor Wood, 
of Illinois, fell on their rear with the cavalry 
sent from Quincy and completely routed them, 
taking seventy-five prisoners, one gun, and a 
large number of horses. About twenty or 
thirty rebels were killed. Not one of the 
Unionists was killed, although several were se- 
Terely wounded. General Tom ITarris, the rebel 
leader, escaped. — Chicago Tribune, July 12, 

— ^TnE New-Orleans Delta^ of this day, says 
that further persistence of the Confederate 
States in the endeavor to obtain the recogni- 
tion of our nationality is useless. It also says 



that the British Ministry have not the courage 
nor the inclination to apply to the Confederate 
States the rules which they have uniformly ap- 
plied to other nations It adds: ^^Too much 
importance has been assigned to the idea that 
France and England would break the blockade 
to get Southern products." The editor, there- 
fore, proposes a recall of the Southern Com- 
missioners, and to refuse the recognition of res- 
ident Consuls of all the Powers which will not 
recognize similar ofl&cers of the Confederate 
States abroad. 

. — ^TnE rebels at New Orleans, La., have taken 
a powerful tog-boat, covered her with railroad 
iron, and put her machinery below the water- 
lino. They have also built a new boat com- 
pletely of iron, very sharp, with a sharp point 
below the water-line, intended to run down 
the Federal vessels of war. The latter will be 
commanded by Capt. Seward Porter, formerly 
of Portland, Maine. — National Intelligencer^ 
July 16. 

— The Charleston Mercury of this day pub- 
lishes the following : — The Sixteenth Regiment 
S. C. M., comprising eight beat companies^ 
were on the Green yesterday for inspection (?). 
A more ridicnlous farce could not possibly havo 
been enacted than that gone through with yes- 
terday — that is, if regarded in a military point 
of view. If six hundred citizens, drawn up in 
two ranks, without arms or equipments, ununi- 
formed, and ignorant of the fnt principles of 
a soldier^s duty, can be called a regiment, thiM 
was a regiment. 

We forego further comment, only remark- 
ing, that what is a farce now, to be enjoyed by 
idle juveniles, may be at no distant day a troff* 
edy over which the State will mourn. 

— At St. Louis, Mo., about 400 men belong- 
ing to Col. McNeil's regiment, a reserve corps, 
visited the State Journal office early this morn- 
ing, removing the type, paper, etc. They then 
read an order from Gen. Lyon prohibiting tho 
further publication of that sheet. 

Col. McNeil published a proclamation to tho 
people of Missouri, stating that the suppression 
of tho State Journal was in consequence of its 
giving aid and comfort to those in active rebel- 
lion against the authority of the United States 
Government, encouraging the people to take 
up arms against that authority, to commit acts 
of violence and oppression against loyal citi- 
zens, and by the fabrication of false reports re- 



J9I.T 12.] 



BIART OF EVENTS. 



27 



q)eciing the United States troops, inoiting dis- 
tfect«d oittzens to the commission of overt 
acts of treason, with a view of entirely sub- 
verting the Federal anthority in the State. — If, 
r. Wifrld, Jvly 16. 

— A BATTLE was fought this afternoon at 
Rich Moantain,* aboat two miles east of Roar- 
ing Rnn, Ya., where the rebels, numbering 
abont two thousand, under command of Col. 
Pegram, were strongly intrenched. 

About 3 o'clock this morning Gen. McClellan 
ordered four regiments-— the Eighth, Tenth, 
Thirteenth Indiana, and NineteenUi Ohio Regi- 
ments, under the command of Gen. Rosecrans 
— to prdoeed along the line of the hills south- 
east of the enemy^s mtrenched camp on the 
Beverly road, where it crosses Rich Mountain, 
two miles east of the enemy's position, with 
orders to advance along the Beverly road and 
attack the east side of the work— ^en. Mc- 
Clellan being prepared to assault the west side 
as soon as the firing should announce the com- 
mencement of the attack. The capture of a 
courier, who mistook the road through the ene- 
my's camp for the route of the Federal troops, 
placed the enemy in possession of intelligence 
of the movement. 

The rebels, about 2,600 strong, with heavy 
earthwork batteries, were intrenched on the 
western slopes of the Rich Mountain, about 
twenty- five miles east from Buckhannon, and 
two miles west from Beverly, which is on the 
east side of the mountain. They had selected 
the forks of the Roaring Creek, which empties 
after a northerly course into the Tygort's Val- 
ley River, a branch of the Monongahela. The 
creek crosses the road in two places, about a 
mile apart. 

The morning was cool and bracing, and the 
Federal troops were in capital spirits. Gen. 
Rosecrans ordered the brigade to cut a path 
through a thick growth of mountain pine trees 
and heavy undergrowth of brush for nearly 
nine miles, which occupied about ten hours, 
resting at noon. 

Late in the afternoon Gen. Rosecrans came 



* Rieh Ifotmtaln U a gap in the Laurel 11111 Rann^ 
vbere the Btaanton and Weston turnpike crosses it be- 
tween Backbannon and Bcvorly, and a1x>ut four or five 
nllce oat of the latter place. It !■ about as far from 
lAVrel Hill proper, (that l«, where the Beverly and Fair- 
Bunmt pike eroieee It, and where the enemy Is intrenched,) 
■e Beverly !■ : eomo 15 or 16 miles. It is also about 25 
bUm from Bxwkhuaxoa.'-'Whselirtg InttUigencer. 



on the rear of the rebels, and, after a desperate 
fight of an hour and a half, completely routed 
them, driving them in the utmost disorder into 
the woods, and capturing all their guns, wag- 
ons, and camp equipage, or, as Gen. McQellan 
says, *^ all they had." They also took several 
prisoners, many officers among them. Sisty 
of the rebels were killed and a large number 
wounded. Of the Union troops twenty were 
killed and forty wounded. Gen. McClellan had 
his guns mounted to command the rebels^ po- 
sition, but ho found that the gallantry of Rose- 
crans spared him the trouble of going into ac- 
tion. He is now moving on Beverly, and the 
advance command of Gen. Rosecrans are with- 
in three miles of that place. — {Doe, 84.) 

July 12. — Last night, after the battle at Rich 
Mountain, Colonel Pegram, who was in com- 
mand, withdrew from the fort near Beverly, 
leaving behind six guns, a largo number ol 
horses, wagons, and camp equipage. — {Doc. 85.) 

— J. P. Benjamin, Attorney-General of the 
Confederate States of America, issued a circular 
of instruction to Marshals in relation to pris- 
oners of war, and persons captured at sea, as 
fullows : — 

1. All persons captured at sea and placed in 
custody of the Marshals, are at once to be con- 
fined in such manner as to prevent their ob- 
taining any information which could be made 
useful to the enemy. 

2. All persons captured on board of vessels 
(whether armed or unarmed) employed in the 
public service of the United States, are to bo 
considered as prisoners of war. AU persons 
employed in tho service of the enemy, are to bo 
considered as prisoners of war even when cap- 
tured on unarmed vessels not employed in tho 
public service of the enemy. 

Persons captured on private nnarmed vessels, 
and not employed in the public service of tho 
enemy, are not prisoners of war. 

3. As soon as tho Marshal shall have re- 
ceived into custody persons captured at sea, ho 
shall make out a list of their names, rank, and 
position, and submit one copy thereof to the 
judge of the court, and another to the captors 
or their proctor, for the purpose of designating 
such as are to be detained as witnesses. 

4. After separating those wlio arc to be de- 
tained in confinement as witnesses, the Mar- 
shal will at once deliver to the commander of 
the nearest military post all tho prisoners of 



28 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-6L 



[JULT 18. 



war; and will transport to the frontier and 
place beyond the limits of the Confedoracj all 
Bttch alien enemies as are not prisoners of war. 
— Baltimore American, July 22. 

— This evening a detachment of three com- 
panies of Colonel Woodruflf s Second Kentncky 
Regiment attacked six hundred rebels between 
Mad River and Barbonrsville, on the Kanawha 
River, "Western Virginia, completely routing 
them. Ten or twelve rebels were killed and a 
number wounded. The Kentnckians had one 
killed.— (2?c>c. 86.) 

— ^To-DAT the ladies of Martinsburg, Vir- 
ginia, presented to the Second Wisconsin Regi- 
ment a beautiful National ensign. Coming as 
it does from the people of a State which has 
been declared out of the Union by her consti- 
tuted authorities, the regiment received the 
donation with peculiar sensations of pleasure. 
Tlie flag was presented with the followiug re- 
marks : 

Soldiers of the Wheonsin Hegiment: — ^Wo 
have met this bright and beautiful morning 
to present to you this emblem of our na- 
tional glory OS a token of our high regard for 
yon and our cause ; wo welcome you into our 
midst bearing the flag of our glorious country, 
trusting in Qod; this flag has protected the 
oppressed of all lands, who have sought its 
shelter, and so long as this flag shall wave the 
oppressed shall be free. Believing from what 
yon have already accomplished, it will never 
be disgraced in your hands you will accept this 
token from the ladies of Martinsburg, Berkeley 
County, Virginia. — Baltimore American, July 
23. 

— ^The Senate of the United States passed 
the bill, which had previously passed tlie 
House, to provide for the collection of duties 
in such ports as are situated within States, or 
parts of a State refusing obedience to the ordi- 
nary revenue laws of the nation. 

In such cases it is ordered by this new act 
that the Surveyors at the several ports shall be 
subject to all the obligations and provided with 
all the subordinate officers of Collectors, and that 
all the general provisions of law regulating trade 
and commerce shall apply to such ports in the 
same manner as they do to ports of entry es- 
tablished by the laws now in force. 

The President is also authorized to direct 
that the custom-house for any district in which 



the collection of the customs in the ordinary 
way is obstructed, may be established In any 
secure place within such district, or on ship- 
board near the coast. Provision is also made 
for enforcing the regulations of Congress under 
this head. In cases where these extraordinary- 
means may be found unavailing for the purpose 
of protecting the public revenue, the President is 
authorized, by proclamation, to close such ports 
of entry ; and any ship undertaking to disre- 
gard such proclamation is rendered liable to 
forfeiture. 

Another section of the bill directs that all 
commercial intercourse between other portions 
of the Union and States, or parts of States, 
declared to be in insurrection, according to the 
terms of the act of 1795, shall cease and be un- 
lawful so long as such condition of hostility 
exists. — National Intelligencer, July 13. 

— -The Thirty-sixth Regiment N. Y. 8. V., 
commanded by Colonel Charles S. Innes, de- 
parted from Riker^s Island, direct for Wash- 
ington. — K Y, Times, July 13. 

— In the House of Representatives at Wash- 
ington, Mr. Vallandigham, of Ohio, offered a 
preamble and resolution, declaring vacant the 
seats of such members as have accepted com- 
mands in the militia of their several States, 
which occasioned a lively passage of words 
between various representatives, when the 
matter was tabled by nUiety-two votes ta 
fifty -one. 

— Colonel Peoram, the commander of the 
rebel forces, near Beverly, Virginia, surren- 
dered to General McClellan. This morning he 
sent a messenger to the Federal camp at Hut- 
tonsville, Va., stating that he, with six hun- 
dred men, would surrender as prisoners of war. 
They were nearly starved, and as Gen. Garnett 
was flying from Laurel Hill, to which point be 
was flying, he had no chance to escape. Gen. 
McClellan required an unconditional surrender. 
To this Col. Pegram was obliged to submit, 
and, with his whole force, was disarmed and 
marched into Beverly. Lieut.-Col. Cantwell, 
with n part of the Ohio Fourth Regiment, re- 
ceived their arms and took them in charge. 
His army was composed of the flower of East- 
ern Virginia, and contained among its curios- 
ities a Professor in Hampden Sidney College, 
with a company of his students. Col. Pegram 
is a West Point graduate, a brave man, and 



3mt IS.] 



SIABT OF EVENTa 



29 







#W 



8CALE OF MILES 
p 1^ IP 15 gp ^ 



cwooimomTi eacnw nx 



SECTION OF WESTEEN VIBQINIA. 



has onlj left the United States arraj within a 
few months. Gen. Gamett, who is now flying 
with his whole force of six thousand men, is 
■bo B gradnate of West Point, and was the 
commandant there a few years ago. — {Doc, 87.) 

— TnE Galreston (Texas) Civilian^ of to-day, 
contains the following: — "The San Antonio 
Ledger has late advices from New Mexico. Brig- 
adier-General F. B. Stanton has arrived and 
organized two regiments for lincoln^s service. 
The first regiment is commanded by Ceran St. 
Vrain, Colonel. The Second Regiment is com- 
manded by Mignel Pino, Colonel, and Maanel 
Chara, Lieutenant-Colonel. The Fifth and 
Seventh Regalar Infantry have orders to march 
to the States. So we may look for trouble in 
Kew Mexico.** 

July 13. — John B. Clark, member of the 
House of Representatives from Missouri, was 
expelled from that body, having been found in 



arms against the United States Government, 
and in active part with the rebels under Gov- 
ernor Jackson, in the late battle of Booneville, 
Missouri. 

— JosEpn Holt addressed the citizens of 
Louisville, Ky., this day. His speech was a 
triumph for the Government of the Union. 
He called forth in expressive outbursts the 
popular consciousness that the Government of 
the United States, which has so long protected 
and blessed all its citizens, is now itself in need 
of protection and blessing from them ; and in 
this hour of its peril calls for, and has the right 
to call for, the earnest and absolute support of 
all who still profess allegiance to it. An emi- 
nently distinguished Eentuckian, an old and 
highly honored resident of Louisville, an illus- 
trious patriot, faithful to his country and to his 
oath amidst untold embarrassments, Joseph 
Holt was listened to by the vast gathering of 



30 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[July 1& 



his Kentucky friends with tlie profonndest re- 
spect and the most raptoroos approval; and 
the more emphatic and unqualified the orator^s 
declarations of devotion to the Union and the 
Government, and the stronger his appeals for 
Kcntncky to do her whole duty and contribute 
her whole strength to the Administration in its 
heroic struggle to save the Government and 
restore the Union, the louder and longer was 
the universal applause. — National Intelligencer^ 
July 20.--(Z>ac. 90.) 

— GE27ERAL PoLE Issucd a general order from 
his head-quarters, at Memphis, Tenn., to-day on 
the occasion of assuming the command of the 
Mississippi division of the rebel army. He says 
that "justice will triumph, and an earnest of 
this triumph is already beheld in the mighty up- 
rising of the whole Southern heart."-* (2>^. 05.) 

July 14. — ^Advices were received at New 
York, tbat the privateer Sumter arrived at 
Oienfuegos, Cuba, on the 6th of July, carrying 
in as prizes the brigs Cuba, Machias, Naiad, 
Albert Adams, Ben Dunning, and tlie barks 
West Wind, and Louisa Eilham. She also fell 
in with the ship Golden Rocket off the Isle of 
Pines, which was set fire to and burned, after 
taking off the officers and crew. 

Captain Semmes, of the Sumter, sent an 
officer ashore witli a letter to the Governor of 
the town, who telegraphed to the Captain- 
General at Havana for instnictions. The 
steamer left the next day, having received a 
supply of coal and water. All the prizes were 
taken a short distance from tlio shore. — Phila- 
phia Freuy July 16. 

— TnB rebel forces under General Robert 
8. Garnett, formerly a Major in the United 
States Army, while retreating from Laurel Hill, 
Va., to St. George, were overtaken to-day by 
Gen. Morris, with the Fourteenth Ohio and the 
Seventh and Ninth Indiana Regiments. When 
within eight miles of St. George, at a place 
called Carrick^s Ford, the rebels made a stand, 
A brisk fight ensued, and they were completely 
routed and scattered by the troops of General 
Morris. While General Garnett was attempt- 
ing to rally his men he was struck through the 
spine by a rifle ball, and fell dead on the 
road. The rebels fled up the Horseshoe Val- 
ley, Gen. Hill following in hot ijursuit. Forty 
loads of provisions, all their horses, wagons, 
and guns fell into the hands of the victors. — 
(2)06.88.) 



— The Third Wisconsin Begiment, command- 
ed by Colonel Hamilton, arrived at Buffalo this 
afternoon, and, after taking refreshments pro- 
ceeded to Elmira, where they received arms. — 
K r. World, July 16. 

— A BSPOST of the results of three reoon- 
noissancea made on the Fairfax road, on the 
Richmond road, and on the Mount Yemon 
road, all starting from Alexandria, Va., was to- 
day made to Col. Miles, commanding the 6tih 
Division of Troops, Department of Northeast- 
ern Virginia, by Col. Thomas A. Davies, com- 
manding the 2d Brigade, of the 5th Division. 
The reconnoissanoes were all successfuL — 
(Doe. 91.) 

July 15.-- General Patterson^s division, in its 
advance upon Winchester, Va., had a very bril- 
liant skirmish to-day with the rebels near 
Bunker Hill, about nine miles from Martina- 
burg. The Rhode Island battery and the 
Twenty-first and Twenty-third Pennsylvania 
Regiments headed the advancing column, sup- 
ported by the Second United Cavalry, nnder 
Colonel Thomas. When near Bunker Hill the 
rebel cavalry, 600 strong, nnder Colonel Stu- 
art, charged the United States infantry, not 
perceiving the battery behind them. The in- 
fantry at once opened their lines, and the 
Rhode Island artillery poured in a discharge of 
grape and shell that sent the rebel cavalry 
reeling back. The United States cavalry then 
charged and pursued them for two miles, until 
they were entirely rented.— (2>oc. 92.) 

— Brio.-Gen. Hublbut issued a proclama- 
tion to the citizens of Northeastern Missouri, 
denouncing the false and designing men who 
are seeking to overthrow the Government. 
He warns them that the time for tolerating 
treason has passed, and that the man or body 
of men who venture to stand in defiance of the 
supreme authority of the Union, peril their 
lives in the attempt He says the character 
of the resistance which has been made, is in 
strict conformity with the source from which it 
originated. Cowardly assassins watch for op- 
portunities to murder, and become heroes 
among their associated band by slaughtering, 
by stealth, those whom openly they dare not 
meet. This system, hitherto unknown to civil- 
ized warfare, is the natural fruit which treason 
bears. The process of the criminal courts as 
administered in disaffected districts will not 
cure this system of assassination, but the stem 



JVLT 16.] 



DIABT OP BVENTa 



81 



and imperative demand of a military necessity, 
and the duty of self-protection, will furnish a 
■harp and decisiye remedy in the jostice of a 
coart-martial.-^2)oe. 93.) 

— A pBAOB Meeting was held at Nyack, 
Rockland Co., N. Y. Addresses were deliv- 
ered, and resolutions were adopted, deprecating 
the present war. — {Doc, 96.) 

July 16. — The Union troops in Missouri had 
a fight with the rehels to-day, at a point called 
MilUville, on the North Missouri Railroad. 
The Union troops, consisting of eight himdred 
men, were fired into at that point, as they 
came up in a train of cars, and an engagement at 
once ensued. The numher of the rebels is not 
known, but seven of their number were killed 
and several taken prisoners. — N. F. Herald^ 
July 18. 

— ^Thk Third Massacliusetts Regiment sails 
from Fortress Monroe for Boston this evening 
in the steamer Cambridge. They were review- 
ed by General Butler to-day. — The Sixth Mas- 
sachusetts Regiment follows to-morrow. — Col. 
Max Weber^s and Col. Baker's Regiments 
were to occupy Hampton, but the plan has 
been somewhat changed. — Brigadier-General 
Pierce returns with the Massachusetts Regi- 
ments. — Col. Duryea will be acting Brigadier- 
General in Hampton. — Several companies went 
out from Newport News last night to surprise, ] 
if pos^siblo, a body of light horse, which have 
for some time hovered in the viomity. — No- 
tioTial Intelligencer, July 18. 

— Is the House of Representatives at Wash- 
ington; the Committee on Commerce, in re- 
sponse to a resolution directing inquiry as to 
what measures are necessary to suppress priva- 
teering, and render the blockade of the rebel 
ports more effectual, reported a bill authorizing 
the Secretary of the Navy to hire, purchase, or 
contract for such vessels as may be necessary 
for a temporary increase of the navy, the ves- 
sels to be famished with such ordnance, stores, 
and munitions of war as will enable them to 
render the most efficient service. According 
to the orders issued to their respective com- 
mands, the temporary appointments made of 
acting lieutenants, acting paymasters, acting 
surgeons, masters and masters' mates, and the 
rates of pay for these officers heretofore desig- 
nated, are, by tliis bill, legalized and approved. 



For the purpose of carrying this act into effect 
to suppress piracy and render the blockade 
more effectual, three millions of dollars are ap- 
propriated. The bill was referred to the Corn- 
mittee on Naval Affairs. — A bill, authorizing the 
President to call out the militia to suppress re* 
hellion, was passed unanimously. — The bill, au- 
thorizing the President to accept the services 
of five hundred thousand volunteers, was also 
passed* — The Senate\s amendments to the Loan 
bill were all concurred in. — ^A joint resolution, 
conveying the thanks of Congress to Major- 
General George B. McClellan and the officers 
and soldiers under his command, for the recent 
brilliant victories over the rebels in Western 
Virginia, was unanimously adopted. 

— LiBUT. W. H. Fbee, of the Seventh Ohio 
Regiment, from a company enlisted in Perry 
County, Ohio, arrived at Columbus in that 
State with four Secessionists. Free, with 
twenty-five men, was conducting a transporta- 
tion trwn from Ravenswood, Virginia, to Par- 
kersburg. On Sunday last, he stopped at a 
farm-house to bait the horses. He imme- 
diately found that the women of the house 
sympathized with Secession. The farmer was 
absent. Thinking he might learn some facta 
of importance, he assured the women that 
he was an officer from Wiso^s brigade. At 
first they distrusted him, but at length gave 
him their confidence, and treated him very 
kindly. He learned that the former would be 
at home at night. About ten o'clock he came. 
Free soon gained his confidence, and was told 
that a meeting had been arranged at a neigh- 
boring house for the purpose of planning an 
attack upon Union men. Free pretending to 
need a guide to show him the way to Wise^s 
camp, the farmer, named Fred. Eizer, sent for 
some of his neighbors. Three of them came, 
one of whom was recommended as a guide. 
Free became satisfied from tlieir conversation 
that they intended harm to Coleman and 
Smith, Union men, who had been influential, 
and at a concerted signal called his men around 
him, and declared himself an officer of the 
United States army. Instantly Kizer and his 
rebel friends were seized. The Lieutenant im- 
mediately ordered a march, and the next morn- 
ing delivered his prisoners to Captain Stinch- 
comb, at Parkersburg, who sent him with 
three guards to Columbus. The names of the 
prisoners are Frederick Xizer, David H. Toung, 



82 



REBELLION RECORD, 18eO-6L 



[July 11. 



John W. Wiga], and John II. Lockwood. — Cin- 
oinnati Gasette, July 17. 

— In the Senate of the United States, John 
0. Breckenridge, of Keutacky, in an elaborate 
speech, opposed the resolution approving tlie 
acts of the President in suppressing the Sonth- 
em rebeilion. Ho rehearsed the old arguments 
against the right of the Government to put 
down rebellion, and in the course of his re- 
marks, took occasion to deny positivolj that 
he had ever telegraphed to Jeff. Davis that 
President Lincoln^s Congress would not bo al- 
lowed to meet in Washington on the 4th of 
July, or that Kentucky would furnish 7,000 
armed men for the rebel QTmy.-r-(Doe, 04.) 

— It is doubtful, says the National Intelli- 
gencer of this date, whether, since the days of 
Peter the Ilcrrait, the world has seen such an 
uprising, at the bidding of a sentiment, as this 
country has exhibited in the last ninety days. 
Perhaps the magnitude of the effort is best 
appreciated by observing what has been done 
by single States of the Confederacy. And to 
illustrate this, we need not even adduce the 
exertions of sovereignties dating back to Revo- 
lutionary days, as Nevr York, Pennsylvania 
and Massachusetts. Younger members of the 
Confederacy, States that half a century since 
had no existence, contribute singly no incon- 
siderable army to the assembling forces of the 
Union. Let us instance one of these, wiiich re- 
cent eventsin Western Virginia have brought fa- 
vorably and prominently forward — Indiana, for- 
ty-five years ago a frontier Territory, where the 
rod man still contended with the white pioneer. 
Indiana has equipped, and is equipping for the 
Qeneral Government, a forco such as has de- 
cided ere now the foto of a nation — twenty- 
three regiments, a volunteer anny df more 
than twenty thousand infantry and twelve 
hundred cavalry ; and these sho has not only 
uniformed and accontrcd, but partially armed 
■with the improved rifle of the day, meanw^hile 
at her own expense. 

Tliis is no isolated example. Others have 
dono as well. If the power of a sentiment is 
to be estimated by the deeds it prompts, how 
strong mu.st be the love of the Union in the 
hearts of its citizens I 

— ^TriE Federal army in Virginia to-day took 
up the line of march for Fairfax and Manassas. 
The force standing to-day is fully 60,000 strong, 
the number reaching by actual count about 53,- 



000. Those are about 8,000 regular infantry, 
cavalry, and artillery, and 60,000 volunteers. 
The two Rhode Island, the 71st New York, and 
tlie 2d New Hampshire, comprising Colonel 
Burnside*s brigade, left Washington at 4 o'clock 
this afternoon, and struck the road for Fairfax 
Court House. The 27th New York went 
over at 6 o'clock, and also took the Fairfax 
route. As soon as these regiments came to- 
gether and passed the encampment, the soldiers 
clieered lustily and shouted congratulations to 
each other that they were fairly on the road 
to the rebel capital. The Dekalb Begiment 
passed over the bridge and went into Camp 
Runyon.— (i)(?c. 97.) 

July 17. — ^The advance column of the Na- 
tional army occupied Fairfax Court. House, Va., 
at eleven o'clock to-day, meeting with no oppo- 
sition from the Confederates either on the 
march or in taking possession of the place. 
Trees had been felled across the road and prep- 
arations made at one point for a battery, bat 
there wore no guns or troops on the route. 
The Confederates were drawn up beyond the 
town and a battle was expected, but as the Na- 
tional forces pressed on they retreated. The 
cavalry followed them some miles toward Cen- 
treville, but the heat of the weather and the 
previous long march prevented the infantry 
following. The abandonment of the village by 
the Confederates was so sudden that they left 
behind them some portions of their provisions, 
intrenching tools, and camp furniture. Tlie 
army advances in three columns, one on the 
Fairfax road, and the others to the north and 
south of the road. TLa advance "will be con- 
tinued to Centreville, eight miles beyond Fair- 
fax, where the Confederates will probably make 
a stand if they design attempting to hold Man- 
assas Junction. The only casualties reported 
by Gen McDowell are an ofllcer and three men 
slightly wounded. — {Doe. 98.) 

— Tns Sixth Regiment of Maine volunteers, 
commanded by Colonel Abner Knowles, left 
Portland for the seat of war. The regiment, 
which has been recruited mainly from the 
counties of Washington and Penobscot, con- 
sists mostly of stout, hardy lumbermen, already 
inured to hard work and apparently ready for 
more. Many of tlie privates measure six feet 
four. They are uniformed in a similar manner 
to the other Maine regiments. Each man has 
an extra &tigue uniform, consisting of gray 




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J0I.T 18.] 



DIABY OP EVENTa 



83 



pants and sbiri, presented to them bj yarions 
sewing societies. Snrgeon-Greneral Garoelon, 
of Maine, accompanies the regiment to Wash- 
ington.— jBMf(m Fosty July 18. 

— Tnx following order relative to contraband 
negroes was issued from the army head-quar- 
ters in Washington: 

HsAO-QUAmTBBa DiPABTMBirr OP Wabbivoyov, I 
Wasbisotos, D. C, Jaly 17, 186L S 

OBNBRAL ORDBBS, KO. 83. 

Fugitive slaves will, under no pretext what- 
ever, be permitted to reside, or in any way be 
harbored in the quarters and camps of the 
troops serving in this department. Neither 
will such slaves be allowed to accompany 
troops on the march. Commanders of troops 
will be held responsible for a strict observance 
of the order. 

By command of Brigadier-General Mansfield. 

Theodore Talbot, 

AuiBtant A^fataat-Oeneral. 

^-Gbxebal Pattbbson^s entire command 
moved from Bunker HiU, Ya., at an early hour 
this morning, but instead of moving directly tow- 
ards Winchester it took the road for Charles- 
town, distant from Bunker Hill about eight 
miles, and laying at right angles with the Win- 
chester road. The reason of this unexpected 
move is as follows : Winchester is defended on 
the north side by a strong breastwork, in the 
form of the letter V, having the town behind 
the angle. It cannot be attacked from that 
side without exposing the soldiers to a heavy 
and most destructive cross-fire. The side west 
of the town is defended by a palisade ; but the 
east side is only covered by a veil. On the 
east side there is also an eminence which com- 
mands the town. This eminence has been left 
unoccupied. — Baltimare American^ July 18. 

— ^TiTE Twelfth Ohio Regiment, two compa- 
nies of the Twenty-first Ohio and a battery of 
light artillery, attacked the rebels at a place 
called Scarytown, on the Kanawha River, Va., 
snd were repulsed with a loss of thirty killed 
and wounded.— (2X)c. 00.) 

July 18. — ^This morning a general order was 
issued at Fairfax Court House, Va., by General 
McDowell, deprecating the disorderly conduct 
of the troops under his command in destroying 
the property of the inhabitants of the town, 
snd appointing a police force from iach regi- 
ment to secure the preservation of such prop- 

YOL. II.— DiABT 8 



erty. It was read to every regiment in the 
army of the Potomac— (/)oc. 100.) 

— A LABOB and enthusiastic Union meeting 
composed of the citizens of Broome and Che- 
nango counties, New York, was held to-day. 
Addresses were made by Daniel S. Dickinson 
and George Baillet, and resolutions approving 
the acts of the Federal Government in the 
present crisis, were unanimously adopted. — 
{Doe. 101.) 

— ^TnB Tammany Regiment or Jackson Guard, 
N. T. S. v., under the command of Colonel 
Wm. D. Kennedy, left its encampment at Great 
Neck, Long Island, for the scene of the war. — 
If. Y.'Warld,Julyl9. 

— ^In the House of Representatives, Washing- 
ton, the Committee to whom was referred the 
resolution t^ inquire whether or not the Hon. 
Henry May, of Maryland, was in criminal in- 
tercourse with those in armed rebellion against 
the Government, submitted a report that there 
was no evidence of Mr. May's guilt in that par- 
ticular, the resolntion having been based on 
mere newspaper statements. The report also 
exculpated the President and General Scott 
from all suspicion of a correspondence with 
the rebels through Mr. May's agency. Upon 
the adoption of this report, Mr. May addressed 
the House upon the subject of the inquiry, 
warmly denouncing it as an unparalleled outrage 
upon his constituents, whose rights as freemen, 
he said, had been previously stricken down and 
trampled in the dust by the Administration, 
through its military power. His remarks were 
interrupted by Mr. Stevens, of Pennsylvania, 
who interposed a point of order, which, being 
sustained by the House, Mr. May declined to 
avail himself of the permission to proceed in 
order, announcing his purpose to vindicate 
himself on a future occasion. He presented^ 
the memorial of the Police Commissioners of 
Baltimore. Ex-Governor Thomas, of Mary* 
land, replied to Mr. May in a vigorous speech, 
in which he maintained that the recent election 
demonstrated conclusively the fkct that a vast 
majority of the people of Maryland entirely 
approved the military measures of the Admin- 
istration, and of the present attitude of the 
State. 

In the United States Senate the bill for the- 
better organization of the military establish- 
ment being nnder consideration, Mr. PoweUr 



I 






84 



BEBELUON RECX)RD, 1860-«1. 



[JCLT 18. 



moved an amendment declaring that no part of 
the Army or Navy should be used for the sub- 
jugation of any sovereign State, or in any way 
to interfere with African slavery. A sharp de- 
bate followed on the purposes of the war. Mr. 
Sherman, Republican, said the war was not one 
of subjugation, but merely intended to main- 
tain the integrity of the Union, and moved as 
a substitute for Mr. Powell's amendment a res- 
olution declaring that "the military be em- 
ployed to preserve the Union and protect the 
public property." 

— The Philadelphia Prew of to-day contains 
an interesting account of affairs in Richmond, 
Va. It will be seen that the steel-clad steamer 
TorJitovm is about to attempt to force Tier way 
through our JUet^ and that infernal machines 
are heing prepared to injure our vessels and 
forts. A very decided reaction in public sen- 
timent among the working classes has recently 
occurred, and, like many of the troops, they are 
heartily sick of the Secession movement, and 
anxious for the re-establishment of the Na- 
tional authority over the whole country. The 
slaves are well apprised of the movements of 
our army, and many of them earncsUy desire 
its success. Several regiments have recently 
been sent from West Tennessee into the east- 
ern part of that State to overawe the Union 
men there. The effects of the blockade are se- 
riously felt, but some important articles are 
still obtained from the North.-^Doc, 102.) 

— ^Tnifl afternoon Major Van nom's com- 
mand of United States Reserve Uome Guards 
of Kansas City, Mo., numbering about 170 men, 
was attacked by 500 rebels under Gapt. Dun- 
can, thirteen miles north of Harrisonville. The 
fight lasted four hours, during which time a 
continued firing was kept up on both sides. At 
twenty minutes past six o'clock the rebels with- 
drew, leaving the United States troops victo- 
rious. The loss of the rebels was fourteen kill- 
ed, including two officers, and several wound- 
'ed ; while that of the United States forces was 
only one killed. At 12 o'clock the United 
States troops continued their march, crossing 
Grand River, but they were compelled to leave 
three of their baggage wagons on the bank of 
the river in consequence of high water. Migor 
Yan Horn left Kansas City on the 17th for the 
purpose of reinforcing M^j. Dean, now holding 
West Point, Missouri, with a small force, he 
having routed 1,000 rebels at that place. M^or 



Van Horn's command was attacked while at 
dinner. They planted their flag-staff at 2 
o'clock, never giving way an inch nor removing 
the flag till after the rebels withdrew. The 
rebels endeavored to flank them on the left 
with a company of cavalry, but were completely 
routed by a detailed force under Captain But- 
ler.—-^. F. Wwrld^ July 28. 

— ^The Federal army left Fairfax Court 
House, Va., this morning and took up its line 
of march in the direction of Centreville. Gen- 
eral McDowell, in a despatch to head-quar- 
ters at Washington, gives the position of the 
several divisions of his army to-day. — {Doe, 
103.) 

— An engagement took place at Blackburn's 
Ford, four miles south of Centreville, Ya., this 
afternoon. General Tyler^s division encamped 
last night a few miles east of Centreville, and 
this morning proceeded toward that poinL 
Centreville was passed in safety, and the troops 
turned from Little River turnpike road to the 
Manassas road. On the road information was 
received that a masked battery was on the left 
of the road ahead, and Colonel Richardson, in 
command of the Fourth Brigade, was ordered 
to reconnoitre, while the remainder of the di- 
vision remained in the vicinity of Centreville. 

Col. Richardson proceeded with three com- 
panies of the Massachusetts First Regiment, 
being the Chelsea company, the Fusileers, and 
the National Guards. They passed across an 
open ravine and again entered the road, which 
was densely surrounded by woods, when they 
were received by a raking fire from the left, 
killing a number of the advance. 

They gallantly sustained their position and 
covered the retreat of a brass cannon of Sher- 
man's battery, the horses having been com- 
pletely disabled by the fire, until relieved by 
the Michigan Second, and the Kew York 
Twelfth Regiments, when they fell back. 

The Federal forces then took a position on 
the top of a hill. Two rifle cannons were plant- 
ed in front, supported by Captain Brackett^s 
Company B, Second Cavalry, with a line of 
infantry composed of the Second Regiment of 
Michigan, and the Twelfth Regiment of New 
York in the rear. A steady fire was kept up 
on both sides in this position. 

The rebels had two batteries of eight pieces 
in a position commanding the road. They 
used their guns weU, except that they fired 



/CLT 19.] 



DIAB7 OF EVENTS. 



86 



iometimes too high, — bat tbej were gallantly 
forced by the national troops. ^* Tbey did not 
reply to our regnlar fire for balf an boar/^ says 
a correspondent, *' during wbicb time tbey were 
receiving large reinforcements. In tbe mean 
time Col. Bicbardson^s brigade reeonnoitered 
the woods. Wbile we were ag^n thus ad- 
vancing we were met witb a raking fire. Oar 
gnns were again pnt in position, and we ponr- 
ed grape and canister among tlie enemy till 
the supply was exbaasted." 

At balf-past foar o^clock, General Tyler or- 
dered bis troops to retire, it being necessary 
to relieve Captain Brackett^s cavalry, wbicb 
had done tbe most effective service. Tbe day 
was exceedingly hot, and tbe borses thirsted 
for water, wbicb conld only be obtained at 
Centreville.— (^<»- 104.) 

July 19. — ^Last nigbt a party consisting of 
Capt Holliday, Capt. Edward W. Jenkins, 
Lieut. Jobason and private Small, of tbe Naval 
Brigade, K^j. T. Edward Bawlings, of tbe Ken- 
tucky Light Cavalry, and R. W. Sburtliff, left 
Hampton, Ya., without permission, on a scout. 
— ^They were poorly armed, and but one of 
them mounted. At 4} o^clock this morning 
tbe party were surprised in the woods, a short 
distance beyond New Market bridge, by twenty 
dismounted horsemen, wbo fired upon them. 
Rawlings was instantly killed by a bullet 
through bis bead. Lieutenant Johnson and 
Mr. Sburtliff were also seen to fall, and bave 
been carried off prisoners. The rest of the 
party escaped. — Baltimore Avfierican^ July 20. 

— ^Bt an order from tbe "War Department at 
Waabington, it was forbidden to muster any 
soldier into the service who is unable to speak 
the English language. By the same order, 
Brevet Second-Lieutenants Clarence Derrick, 
James P. Parker, and Frank A. Reynolds, 
(having tendered their resignations in face of 
tbe enemy) were dismissed from the service 
of tbe United States.— (i>oc. 105.) 

— ^To-DJLT tbe Virginia LegisUitare, in session 
at Wheeling, adopted the following resolutions: 

^flioUed^ That the Governor be and is here- 
by requested to apply to the President of the 
Tnited States for authority to contract with 
some individual or individuals, on behalf of the 
General G^ovemment, for necessary clothing for 
soch of the volanteers of Northwestern Vir- 
ginia as bave been, or may be, mustered Into 
tbe service of the United States for three years. 



Bcwltedj That a copy of the foregoing reso- 
lution be forwarded to our Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress, with a request that they 
unite with the Governor in his efforts to obtain 
tbe authority indicated in tbe foregoing. 

— ^Thb Third Regiment of Massachusetts 
Militia arrived at Boston this morning from 
Fortress Monroe, and encamped at Long Island. 
^K Y. Evening Post, July 19. 

— Tms general order of the "War Department 
at Washington, transfering General N. P. Banks 
to the command of the National forces on the 
upper Potomac, was issued to-day. — (Doe. 106.) 

-^E2^BAL Cadwaixadeb of the Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, was honorably discharged from 
the service of tbe United States. — General 
Order, War Department, No. 46. 

— BnioADiSR-GBinEBAL John Popb, command- 
ing the National troops in Northern Missouri, 
issued a proclamation to the people of that dis- 
trict, warning all persons taken in arms against 
tbe Federal authority, wbo attempt to commit 
depredations, or wbo molest peaceful citizens, 
that they will be dealt with, " without awiut- 
ing civil process." — {Doe, 107.) 

— Is general orders of this date, Maj.-Gen. 
McClellan expresses bis satisfaction with and 
confidence in the soldiers of bis command, *' tbe 
Army of tbe West ; " and recapitulates their 
recent exploits. — {Doe. 108.) 

— ^All of the vessels previously reported as 
prizes to the privateer Sumter, and by her sent 
into a Cuban port^ were liberated by the Cap- 
tain-General of Cabo.— i\r. F. ExpresB, July 29. 

July 20. — ^This day the rebel Congress met 
at Richmond, Va., and received the message of 
Jefferson Davis, in which he congratulated the 
Congress upon the accession to tbe Southern 
Confederacy since his last message of the 
States of North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, 
and Arkansas. — {Doe. 109.) 

— ^A CORRESPONDENT with the army under 
General Patterson, at Charlestown, Va., writes 
under this date as follows : In consequence of 
complaints from numerous commanders that 
their men were without shoes, clothing, and 
other necessaries, and could not be now sup- 
plied, as the time for which they bad been sworn 
in was nearly expired, General Patterson visits 
ed the different brigades, and plead earnestly 
with the men to stand by him, for the love of 
their country and tbe honor of our flag, for a 



84 



REBELLION RECX)RD, 1860-61. 



[July Ifi. 



moved an amendment declaring that no part of 
the Army or Navy should be used for the sub- 
jugation of any sovereign State, or in any way 
to interfere with African slavery. A sharp de- 
bate followed on the purposes of the war. Mr. 
Sherman, Bepublican, said the war was not one 
of subjugation, but merely intended to main- 
tain the integrity of the Union, and moved as 
a substitute for Mr. Powell's ameudment a res- 
olution declaring that "the military bo em- 
ployed to preserve the Union and protect the 
public property." 

— The Philadelphia Press of to-day contains 
an interesting account of affairs in Kichmond, 
Ya. It will be seen that the steel-elad steamer 
Torktovm is about to attempt to force Ker way 
through our fleet^ and that infernal machines 
a/re being prepared to injure our vessels and 
forts, A very decided reaction in public sen- 
timent among the working classes has recently 
occurred, and, like many of the troops, they are 
heartily sick of the Secession movement, and 
anxious for the re-establishment of the Na- 
tional authority over the whole country. The 
slaves are well apprised of the movements of 
our army, and many of them earnestly desire 
its success. Several regiments have recently 
been sent from West Tennessee into the east- 
ern part of that State to overawe the Union 
men there. The effects of the blockade are se- 
riously felt, but soTne important articles are 
still obtained from the North.— {Doe. 102.) 

— ^Tnifl afternoon Major Van Horn's com- 
mand of United States Reserve Ilome Guards 
of Kansas City, Mo., numbering about 170 men, 
was attacked by 500 rebels under Capt. Dun- 
can, thirteen miles north of Harrisonville. The 
fight lasted four hours, during which time a 
continued firing was kept up on both sides. At 
twenty minutes past six o'clock the rebels with- 
drew, leaving the United States troops victo* 
rious. The loss of the rebels was fourteen kill- 
ed, including two officers, and several wound- 
'Cd ; while that of the United States forces was 
only one killed. At 12 o'clock the United 
States troops continued their march, crossing 
Grand Biver, but they were compelled to leave 
three of their baggage wagons on the bank of 
the river in consequence of high water. Major 
Yan Horn left Kansas City on the 17th for the 
purpose of reinforcing M^j. Dean, now holding 
West Pomt, Missouri, with a small force, he 
having routed 1,000 rebels at that place. Migor 



Yan Horn's command was attacked while at 
dinner. They planted their flag-staff at 2 
o'clock, never giving way an inch nor removing 
the flag till after the rebels withdrew. The 
rebels endeavored to flank them on the left 
with a company of cavalry, but were completely 
routed by a deUuled force under Captain But- 
ler.—-^. Y. World, July 28. 

— ^The Federal army left Fairfax Court 
House, Ya., this morning and took up its line 
of march in the direction of Centrevilie. Gen- 
eral McDowell, in a despatch to head-quar- 
ters at Washington, gives the position of the 
several divisions of his army to-day. — {Doe, 
108.) 

— An engagement took place at Blackburn's 
Ford, four miles south of Centrevilie, Ya., this 
afternoon. General Tyler's division encamped 
last night a few miles east of Centrevilie, and 
this morning proceeded toward that poinL 
Centrevilie was passed in safety, and the troops 
turned from Little Biver turnpike road to the 
Manassas road. On the road information was 
received that a masked battery was on the left 
of the road ahead, and Colonel Biehardson, in 
command of the Fourth Brigade, was ordered 
to reconnoitre, while the remiunder of the di- 
vision remained in the vicinity of Centrevilie. 

Col. Biehardson proceeded with three com- 
panies of the Massachusetts First Begiment, 
being the Chelsea company, the Fusileers, and 
the National Guards. They passed across an 
open ravine and again entered the road, which 
was densely surrounded by woods, when they 
were received by a raking fire from the left, 
killing a number of the advance. 

They gallantly sustained their position and 
covered the retreat of a brass cannon of Sher- 
man's battery, the horses having been com- 
pletely disabled by the fire, until relieved by 
the Michigan Second, and the New York 
Twelfth Begiments, when they fell back. 

The Federal forces then took a position on 
the top of a hill. Two rifle cannons were plant- 
ed in front, supported by Captain Brackett^s 
Company B, Second Cavalry, with a line of 
infantry composed of the Second Begiment of 
Michigan, and the Twelfth Begiment of New 
York in the rear. A steady fire was kept up 
on both sides in this position. 

The rebels had two batteries of eight pieces 
in a position commanding the road. They 
used their guns well, except that they fired 



JCLT 19.] 



DIAB7 OF EVENTS. 



86 



Bometimes too higb, — ^bat tbey were gallantly- 
forced by the national troops. '* Tbejr did not 
reply to onr regnlar fire for half an hoar/* says 
a correspondent, ^* daring which time they were 
receiving large reinforoements. In the mean 
tiine Col. Richardson's brigade reconnoitered 
the woods. While we were again thus ad- 
Tancing we were met with a raking fire. Oar 
gons were again pnt in position, and we poar- 
ed grape and eanister among tlie enemy till 
the snpply was exhaosted.'* 

At half-past foar o^clock, General Tyler or- 
dered his troops to retire, it being necessary 
to relieve Captain Brackett's cavalry, which 
had done the most effective service. The day 
was exceedingly hot, and the horses thirsted 
for water, which coald only be obtained at 
Centpeville.— (Z)ac. 104.) 

July 19. — ^Last night a party consisting of 
CapL HoUiday, Capt. Edward W. Jenkins, 
. Lient. Johnson and private Small, of the Naval 
Brigade, Ma). T. Edward Rawlings, of the Ken- 
tacky Light Cavalry, and R. W. Bhartliff, left 
Hampton, Va., without permission, on a scoat. 
— ^They were poorly armed, and bat one of 
them moanted. At 4i o^clock this morning 
the party were surprised in the woods, a short 
distance beyond New Market bridge, by twenty 
dismoanted horsemen, who fired npon them. 
Rawlings was instantly killed by a ballet 
throagh his head. Lieatenant Johnson and 
Mr. Shartliff were also seen to fall, and have 
been carried off prisoners. The rest of the 
party escaped. — Baltimore American^ July 20. 

— By an order from the "War Department at 
TTashington, it was forbidden to master any 
soldier into the service who is anable to speak 
the English langaage. By the same order. 
Brevet Seoond-Lieateaants Clarence Derrick, 
James P. Parker, and Frank A. Reynolds, 
(having tendered their resignations in face of 
the enemy) were dismissed from the service 
of the United States.— (Z^oc. 105.) 

— ^To-day the Virginia Legislatnre, in session 
at Wheeling, adopted the following resolutions : 

I^ltedy That the Governor be and is here- 
by requested to apply to the President of the 
United States for authority to contract with 
some individual or individuals, on behalf of the 
General (government, for necessary clothing for 
such of the volunteers of Northwestern Yir- 
gima as have been, or may be, mustered into 
the cervioe of the United States for three years. 



RewUed^ That a copy of the foregoing reso- 
lution be forwarded to our Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress, with a request that they 
unite with the Governor in his efforts to obtain 
the authority indicated in the foregoing. 

— Thb Third Regiment of Massachusetts 
Militia arrived at Boston this morning from 
Fortress Monroe, and encamped at Long Island. 
— N, T. Evening Poet^ July 19. 

— The general order of the "War Department 
at Washiogton, transfering General N. P. Bonks 
to the command of the National forces on the 
upper Potomac, was issued to-day. — {Doc. 106.) 

-General Cadwaixadeb of the Pennsylva- 
nia Volunteers, was honorably discharged from 
the service of the United States. — General 
Order^ War Department^ No. 46. 

— Bbioaddbr-Genebal John Pope, command- 
ing the National troops in Northern Missouri, 
issued a proclamation to the people of that dis- 
trict, warning all persons taken in arms against 
the Federal authority, who attempt to commit 
depredations, or who molest peaceful citizens, 
that they will be dealt with, " without awiut* 
ing civil process." — (Doe, 107.) 

— Jjsf general orders of this date, Maj.-Gen. 
McClellan expresses his satisfaction with and 
confidence in the soldiers of his command, ^* the 
Army of the West ; ^ and recapitulates their 
recent exploits. — (Doe, 108.) 

— All of the vessels previously reported as 
prizes to the privateer Sumter, and by her sent 
into a Cohan port^ were liberated by the Cap- 
tain-General of Caba.— i\r. F. Express^ July 29. 

July 20. — ^This day the rebel Congress met 
at Richmond, Va., and received the message of 
Jefferson Davis, in which he congratulated the 
Congress upon the accession to the Southern 
Confederacy since his last message of the 
States of North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, 
and Arkansas. — {Doc. 109.) 

— A coBBESPONDENT With the army under 
General Patterson, at Charlestown, Va., writes 
under this date as follows: In consequence of 
complaints from numerous commanders that 
their men were without shoes, clothing, and 
other necessaries, and could not be now sup- 
plied, as the time for which they had been sworn 
in was nearly expired. General Patterson visits 
ed the different brigades, and plead earnestly 
with the men to stand by him, for the love of 
their country and the honor of our flag, for a 



86 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860^1. 



[JVLT 21. 



few days longer, but failed to gain support. 
— ^The good behavior of the soldiers is having an 
excellent effect upon the townspeople. Many 
of the families were prepared to leave on the 
arrival of the army, but are now going to re- 
main, feeling that their property and persons 
are secure. — Three members of the New York 
Ninth Regiment yesterday arrested Lieut. Har- 
lett^ of the rebel cavalry force, while secreted 
in a honse here. This officer is said to have 
commanded the troops that fired from Harper^s 
Ferry upon Colonel Stone^s brigade when pass- 
ing opposite that point. — ^The jail where John 
Brown was imprisoned, and the scene of his 
execution, are constantly visited by our volun- 
teers. Captain McMulIen's Rangers have found 
numerous secreted arms. — ^A mail bag belong- 
ing to our army, and filled with matter, has 
been found here. Indications show it to have 
been stolen, while on the way to tf artinsburg, 
a week since. — Major Ledlie, of the^New York 
Nineteenth Regiment, this morning at 1 o^clock, 
was fired on, when making the guard rounds, 
by a rebel named Welch. The latteb was ar- 
rested, and his arms taken from him. Welch 
says, in excuse, that he did not see Ledlie, but 
bearing a noise thought foxes were robbing his 
roosts. — ^The Indiana Eleventh Regiment, Col. 
Wallace, marched to head-quarters to-day, and 
informed General Patterson of their willing- 
ness to serve ten days extra. — Baltimore Amer- 
icany July 23. 

July 21.~This day the battle of Bull Run, 
Ya., was fought between the national forces 
under General McDowell and the rebels under 
Beauregard. Shortly ^fter 5 a. h., three hours 
later than ordered, the national army moved 
from Centreville in three divisions, commanded 
respectively by Gens. Richardson, Tyler and 
Hunter, Richardson^s (one brigade) moved on 
the road from Oentreville to Manassas, to where 
that road crosses Bull Run, at Blackburn^s 
Ford, and there opened fire upon the enemy 
with artillery. This movement, the extreme 
left of all the operations of the day, was intend- 
ed as a feint, and to hold the enemy in check 
in case of disaster to the national forces on the 
right, as the enemy's movement forward here 
would imperil the retreat. Tyler's Division 
(three brigades and two U. 8. batteries) moved 
on the Worrenton Turnpike to the Stone Bridge 
that crosses Bull Run, Beyond this bridge the 
enemy was in position with artillery, and had 



impeded the road by a heavy abatis. Hunter's 
Division (5 brigades, 4 batteries and cavalry), 
which was the main body, moved along the 
same road with Tyler's Division until they 
had crossed a small stream caUed Cub Run, and 
then between Cub Bun and Bull Run turn- 
ed off to the right and made its way through 
the woods to a position on Bull Run, three 
miles above the Stone Bridge. At this point, 
Sudley's Springs, there was an undefended ford, 
and here the men began to cross the stream. 
They got over very slowly, as many stopped to 
drink. Clouds of dust in the air indicated that 
the enemy was moving in force from Manassas 
toward the right, and it became possible that 
he would reach the point of passage and attack 
before the Union force was all across the stream ; 
therefore the regiments were ordered to break 
from the line of march and cross separately, 
and a division under Col. Heintzelman moved 
forward, cutting a road through the woods as 
it went toward a point on Bull Run, half way 
between the undefended ford at Sudley's Springs 
and the Stone Bridge. Gen. Tyler also was or- 
dered to press his feint at Stone Bridge, in hope 
to divert some portion of the heavy force that 
the enemy was sending across the front toward 
the right. When the first brigade of Hunter's 
command (Burnside's) reached and formed in 
the open space beyond Bull Run, the rebels at 
once opened fire with artillery, and soon after 
with infantry. The national forces received the 
enemy's fire very steadily, and supported by a 
battalion of regular infantry, and the first regi- 
ment that had crossed from Heintzelman's com- 
mand, drove the enemy before it, and forced his 
position at the Stone Bridge. 

Thus two brigades (Sherman's and Keyes') of 
Gen. Tyler's Division stationed on the Warren- 
ton road, were enabled to cross, and to drive the 
right of the enemy, commanded by Gen. Beaure- 
gard in person, from the front of the field. The 
contest then became severe for a position in front 
and to the right of Stone Bridge but to the left 
of the ford at Sudley's Springs. Here was a 
hill with a farm house on it ; from behind this 
hill the enemy's batteries annoyed the Union 
forces. Upon it, therefore, the attack was 
pressed very warmly by the brigades of Wilcox, 
Howard, Franklin and Sherman, a part of Por- 
ter's brigade, and the cavalry under Palmer, 
and by the Rhode Island, Rickett's and Grif- 
fin's batteries, Rickett's battery became an ob« 



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DIABT OF EYENTSL 



87 



Ject of the enemy's special attentioD, and he 
iDAde strenaous attempts to carry it Three 
timea he was repulsed, and the third time was 
even driven from his own position, and entirely 
from the hilL From the Stone Bridge west- 
vard, the Warrenton Road was now entirely 
in the possession of the national troops, and 
the engineers were completing the removal of 
the abatis^ that the remainder of Tyler's Divis- 
ion (Schenck's brigade and the batteries) might 
pass the bridge. The enemy was broken and 
disheartened. Bnt it was now nearly 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon, and the Union men had been in 
battle since ten o'clock in the morning, had pre- 
vionsly marched nine miles, and had made no 
regular meal. Some of the regiments also had 
become shaken in the severe work that had been 
done, and were unsteady ; and at this time the 
enemy received reinforcements from Winche»- 
ter, being that portion of General Johnston's 
command which had previously come up. These 
forces immediately attacked "on the right, 
and towards the rear of the right," and opened 
a fire of musketry which tlirew the Union men 
into disorder. From this disorder tbey never 
recovered. Though every effort was made to 
rally them, it was in vain with the bulk of the 
force : the battalion of regulars alone formed, 
and moved to the attack. TLey held the rebels 
in chdck for a short time, when^ as it was evi- 
dent that no more could be done, the order 
to retreat was given. The retreat became 
a rout, and the rout a panic. Col. Porter's 
force of regulars still maintained their order, 
however, and covered the passage of the stream, 
beyond which it was covered by Richardson's 
Division, and a brigade (Blenker's) of Miles' 
Division. 

The whole Union force, men of all arms, in 
the main action, and exclusive of Richardson's 
and Miles* Divisions, the actual force with which 
we crossed Bull Run, was 18,000 men. Those 
two divisions if included would swell the force 
to 35,000 men. One division of the army 
(Runyon's) was left at Vienna, its foremost regi- 
ment being seven miles back of Oentreville. 

Southern accounts of the battle make it ap- 
pear that the rebels had 40,000 men upon the 
field, and 25,000 in reserve at Manassas, and 
on the road beyond. The National loss in killed 
sad wonnded was 1,690; killed alone, 479. 
Ibny of the wounds were very slight. The 



enemy reports his own loss at 1,593 ; killed 
alone, 893.— (Doef. 1-10 and 111.) 

— Colonel Einstein of the Twenty-Seventh 
Pennsylvania Regiment, returned late this even- 
ing to the field of battle at Bull Run, and brought 
off six pieces of artillery, which he delivered to 
the commanding ofScer on the Potomac.*- 
Philadelphia Press, July 24. 

— ^P. G. T. Beaubeoabd was promoted to 
the rank of General in the rebel army. The 
New Orleans Delta in noting the fact says : 
*^ We have been furnished with a.copy of the 
letter of President Davis, writton on the field 
of battle after the glorious victory at Manassas, 
acquainting Brig.-Gen. Beauregard of his pro- 
motion to the rank of General, the highest . 
grade in the army of the Confederate Stetes. 
This most richly deserved promotion and honor 
could not be conveyed in more Just, tastefal, 
and appropriate terms. — ^The Gknerals of the 
Army of the Confederate States are Samuel 
Cooper, Robert E. Lee, Joseph £. Johnston, 
and P. G. T. Beauregard." 

LETTEB OF PRESIDENT DAVIS. 

ManmwM, Va.» July 21, 18GL 

Sib : Appreciating your services in the battle 
of Manassas, and on several other occasions 
during the existing war, as affording the high- 
est evidence of your skill as a commander, your 
gallantry as a soldier, and your zeal as a patriot, 
yoa are promoted to be General in the Army 
of the Confederate States of America, and with 
the consent of the Congress will be duly com- 
missioned accordingly. Yours, &c., 

Jeff. Davis. 

God. p. O. T. Beauregard, fto., fcc., Ac. 

— ^Tna schooner S. J. Waring, captured by 
the privateer Jeff. Davis, on the night of the 
16th instant, arrived at New York. When 
fifty miles south of Charleston, S. C, the color- 
ed steward, William Tillman, killed three of 
the prize crew with a hatehet. The other two 
were captured, but set at liberty on promising 
to work the vessel. Their names were James 
Mil nor and James Dawsett, of New Jersey. 
Tillman, with the aid of the rest of the crew, 
except one man named Donald McLeod, who 
refused to assist on the recapture of the vessel, 
brought her to New York.— JV. Y. Worlcl^ 
July 22. 

July 22. — ^The Confederate States Congress 
appointed a day of thanksgiving for the victory 
at Manassas^ and '* deeply deplored th^ neces- 



88 



REBELLIOK RECORD, 1860-61. 



[ JVLT 2S. 



Biiy "which has washed the soil of our country 
with the blood of so many of her sons."— (i>06. 
113.) 

— GsNEBAL SwEENET'S command dispersed a 
band of one hundred and fifty rebels stationed 
at Forsythe, Mo., and took possession of the 
town. Five of the rebels were killed and sev- 
eral wounded. Three of the Federal troops 
were slightly wounded, but none killed. The 
first and second stories of the court-house were 
filled with blankets, provisions, camp equipage, 
etc., which,, together with two tons of lead 
found in a well, and other articles secreted in 
different parts of the town, in all valued be- 
tween eighteen and twenty thousand dollars, 
fell into the hands of Grenerai Sweeney. — i\r. F. 
Time9^ July 80.— (i7<?e. 138.) 

— Qn abtebuabteb-Sebgeant Whitney of the 
Vermont Regiment, was shot this morning by 
the rebels at Newport News, only a short dis- 
tance from the camp, while searching for a 
strayed bullock. The body was pierced with 
half a dozen bullets. — ^An infernal machine, in- 
tended to blow up some of the ships of war in 
Hampton Roads, washed ashore this mom- 
iug within a few rods of Floyd's house in Vir- 
ginia. It is of an ingenious construction, and 
IB the second attempt of the kind. — ^The Roa- 
noke arrived at Fortress Monroe this morn- 
ing. She has been as far south as St. Augus- 
tine, Fla. During her cruise she burnt a rebel 
privateer whose crew escaped to the shore. — 
Boiton Transcript^ July 23. 

^ — ^TnE correspondence between the Chief of 
the Cherokee Nation and various rebel authori- 
ties and citizens of Arkansas, was published to- 
day. It exhibits the attitude that tribe intends 
to assume in reference to the present war. — 
{Doc. 114.) 

— Colonel "William D. Kennedy, com- 
mander of the Jackson Guard, Tammany 
Regiment N. Y. S. V., died at Washington of 
congestion of the brain. — Boston Post^ July 28. 

— At Loxtibtillb, Ky., John W. Tompkins, 
formerly Clerk of the Board of Aldermen, re- 
cently a violent secessionist and recruiting offi- 
cer of the Southern Confederacy, was shot dead 
this afternoon by Henry Green, city watchman. 
Tompkins was hallooing for Jeff. Davis, and was 
reqnested to desist by Green, when he drew a 
knife on Green, but was retreating when Green 
shot him. Tompkins had been endeavoring to 



send contraband articles southward by the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad during the 
past week, and has been the main cause of the 
midnight disturbances at the d6p6t of that road. 
— LoumilU Courier^ July 28. 

— ^Ma job-General McClellan has been eum- 
moned by the Government from Western Vir- 
ginia to repair to Washington and take com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac. General 
Rosecrans takes his pkce in command of the 
Army of Western Virginia. The Corptd^Armu 
at Washington is to be instantly re-organized 
and increased by the addition of 100,000 men. 
The necessary orders have already been given. 
— Offers of regiments already raised are being 
made and accepted with such rapidity as to 
ensure that this will be accomplished within 
a few days. Large reinforcements from various 
directions are already on their way to Washing- 
ton, orders having been telegraphed for them 
yesterday while the battle was in progress. 
The Government entertains no apprehensions 
whatever for the safety of the Capital. Prep- 
arations not only for defensive but also for the 
speedy renewal of offensive operations are going 
on vigorously. General McDowell has returned 
to his head-quarters at Arlington Heights. The 
regiments composing his army are resuming 
their positions. Most of them have already 
done BO. — Baltimore American^ July 23. 

July 23. — All classes of citizens of Virginia 
are called upon to contribute their quota of 
forage for Beauregard^s army, and with those 
who are forgetful of their obligations, the gene- 
ral says that '* constraint must be employed.^' — 
{Doc. 116.) 

— The Missouri State Convention, in session 
at Jefferson City, passed a resolution this morn- 
ing, by a vote of 66 to 21, declaring the offioe 
of President, held by Gen. Sterling Price at the 
last session of the Convention, as vacant. Gen. 
Robert Wilson, the former Vice-President, was 
unanimously elected President. He is a Union 
man. — ^A motion was made to declare the office 
of doorkeeper vacant, as the present incumbent 
was elected as a Union man, but has since been 
editing a secession paper. — Uriel Wright made 
a violent disunion speech, denouncing the Ad- 
ministration as revolutionary, desperate, and 
usnrping unwarrantable powers, and denounc- 
ing the Union leaders at St. Louis and the State. 
The matter was referred to a committee of three. 
—A committee of seven — one firom each Goo- 



Jolt 2S.] 



DIABT OF EVENTa 



89 



gresaonol district — ^was elected^ whose daty it 
IB to report to the Convention what action they 
deem it advisable to take in the present dis- 
tnrbed eondiiion of the State. The following 
gentlemen were elected, all being Union men, 
from the seven Oongressional districts : Messrs. 
Broadhead, Henderson, W. P. Hall, W. Dong- 
las, Hendricks, and Bogj.'-FhiiadelphiaPren, 
July 2^ 

— ^LisiTTE3rAjrr-GoTSR370B Abhold of Rhode 
Island issued a proclamation, paying a tribute 
to the dead soldiers of that State and calling 
for the enlistment of more men. — A large and 
^irited meeting was held this morning in 
Market Square, Providence, to express the de- 
tennination of Bhode Island, to redouble its 
•xertioas in support of the Government. Mayor 
Elnight presided, and eloquent speeches were 
made by Hon. L. A. Jenckes, Rev. Dr. Sears, 
Hon. C. A. Updyke, Bishop Clark, Rev. Dr. 
Caswell, Biahop McFarland, A. Payne, Gov- 
ernor Hoppin, Hon. Thos. Davis, P. A. Sennott, 
Dr. Wayland, ex-Mayor Rodman, Rev. Dr. 
Han, Rev. Mr. Eeyers, and Governor Arnold. 
—(Doc. 116.) 

— Tos Third and Fourth Regiments of Mas- 
aachoaetts Volunteers, who have been on duty 
at Fortress Monroe, Va., returned to Boston. 
—Jf. T. Timet, July 24. 

— ^Ma JOB Gejtxral McClbllan, under instruc- 
tions from the War Department at Washington, 
this morning left Beverly, Ya., to assume the 
command of the Federal forces on the Poto- 
mao in Virginia. His departure was announc- 
ed in the following order : — 

HlAD-QVABTtBS DSPABTHKITT 07 THS OmO 
AXB WSBTKBX ViBQIVIA, 

BxrtBLT, July 22, 1861. 

In compliance with instructions which have 
been received from the War Department, the 
imdersigned hereby relinquishes the command 
of the army of occupation of Western Virginia 
and the Department of Ohio. The same de- 
Tolves upon Brigadier-General Rosecrans, Uni- 
ted States Army. 

Geo. B. MoClxllait, Major-General. 

S«TX Williams, Major and Act Ant AdJatant-OenonL 

— Cincinnati OiueUe^ Jtdy 25. 

— ^Oalsb Lto:t of Lyonsdale, presented to 
Mrs. Lincoln at Washington, a finely-wrought 
fSSk flag captured by the Zouaves from a Louis- 
iana Regiment The flag was 6 or T feet long. 
la the union was an embroidered cotton bale, 



with the nameof the regiment — ^^ Tensas Rifles.'' 
— LoumilU Journal^ July 26. 

— Gbxsral Baihcs requested the Massachu- 
setts Sixth Regiment, at the Relay House, 
whose time had expired, to remain in the 
service ten days longer, and the regiment^ as 
one man, cheerfully acceded to his request. 
Among the first to go to the defence of their 
country's honor, the gallant Sixth will be the 
last to leave the post of danger or of duty while 
their country needs their aid. All honor to 
them I — National Intelligencer^ July 26. 

— Thb First Regiment of the Excelsior Bri- 
gade, N. Y. S> v., under the command of Col. 
Daniel £. Sickles, left Staten Island, K Y., for 
the seat of war. — N, T, Times, July 28. 

— ^Thb Twelfth Regiment Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers under the command of Colonel Fletcher 
Webster, left Boston to-night for the seat of 
war. The streets along their line of march 
were densely thronged. It was the occasion 
of the greatest demonstration since the reception 
of Daniel Webster, in 1862. — Boston TVanseripty 
July 24. 

— ^TiiB Twenty-Third Regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania State Militia returned to Philadelphia 
from the scat of war, their term of enlistment 
having expired on the 21st. The regiment is 
composed entirely of citizens of Philadelphia.— 
Philadelphia Press, July 24 

— ^DooTOB Belt of Prince Georges Countyp 
Maryland, was arrested at Washington, D. C, on 
a charge of uttering treasonable language against 
the Government. He would have been hung 
by the mob, but for the active interference of 
army cavalry officers, a squad of whom assisted 
in taking him to jail. Henry Banon^ and J. D. 
Catlin of (Georgetown, were also arrested and 
jailed on a charge of conspiring against the 
Government. — National Intelligencer, July 24. 

— ^Mucn severity is displayed against General 
Patterson, for not continuing the pursuit of the 
rebel General Johnston, and preventing his 
junction with General Beauregard at Manassas. 
General Patterson, in a letter from Harper^s 
Ferry, says : — " General Johnston retreated to 
Winchester, where he had thrown up extensive 
intrench ments and had a large number of heavy 
guns. I could have tamed his position and 
attacked him in the rear, but he had received 
largo reinforcements from Mississippi, Alabama, 
'and Georgia, a total force of over thirty-five 



40 



BEBELLION REOORD, 1860-61. 



[July M. 



thonaand Oonfederate troops, and five thonsand 
Virginia Militia. My force is less than twenty- 
thousand, nineteen regiments, whose term of 
service was up or will be within a week. All 
refnsed to stay one hour over their time, hat 
fonr, viz. : two Indiana Regiments, Frank Jar- 
rett's, (the Eleventh Pennsylvania,) and Owen's, 
(the Twenty-Fourth Pennsylvania.) Five regi- 
ments have gone home. Two more go to-day, 
and three more to-morrow. To avoid being 
cut off with the remainder, I fell back and oc- 
cupied this pkce." — (JDoe. 117.) 

Juhj 24.— The Biekmond (Va.) Whig of to- 
day contains the following: — "Ths Devoted 
Band.'' — The shortest path to peace is that 
which carries havoc and desolation to our in- 
vaders. It is believed that there are five or 
ten thonsand men in the South ready and will- 
ing to share the fate of Gurtius and devote 
themselves to the salvation of their country. 
It is proposed that all who are willing to make 
this sacrifice, shall arm themselves with a sword, 
two five shooters, and a carbine each, and meet 
on horseback at some place to be designated, 
convenient for the great work in hand. Fire 
and sword must be carried to the houses of 
those who are visiting those blessings upon 
their neighbors. Philadelphia, and even New 
York, is not beyond the reach of a long and 
brave arm. The moral people of these cities 
cannot be better taught the virtues of invasion 
than by the blazing light of their own dwellings. 

None need apply for admission to '* the De- 
voted Band '' but those who are prepared to 
take their life in their hand, and who would 
indulge not the least expectation of ever return- 
ing. They dedicate their lives to the destruc- 
tion of their enemies I 

A. 8. B. D. B., Richmond, 

An southern papers are requested to give 
this notice a few insertions. 

— ^Thb Seventh Kegiment of Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, commanded by Colonel E, B. Har- 
vey, arrived at Washington, D. 0. The Regi- 
ment numbers 1,046 young and intelligent 
members. — Philadelphia Pr&.$^ July 25. 

— Ah expedition of 800 men under Lieut. 
Crosby, U. S. A., left Fortress Monroe to re- 
connoitre in Back River, Ya., where it burned 
nine sloops and schooners, and made prize one 
schooner laden with bacon and corn. — If, Y. 
Timea^ July 27. 



— >Tni8 day the loyal citizens of Baltimore^ 
Md., presented an American flag to the Massa- 
chusetts Eighth Regiment. The flag, whidh Ib 
of the richest banner silk, was presented in an 
eloquent and apropriate speech by Perley Love- 
Joy, Esq., which was responded to by Colonel 
Hinks, who alluded to the many kind friends 
the regiment had made in the city of Balti- 
more. — Baltimore Ameriearif July 25. 

— ^Heavt offers of men were made to the 
Government by telegraph from all parts of the 
North. From Illinois, 17, and fr<Hn Indiana, 10 
regiments were offered. By noon of this daj 
80,000 men had been accepted. — ^An order was 
issued by General Mansfield directing all strag^ 
gling soldiers to join their respective regiments 
without delay, and warning that all stragglers 
found in the streets six hours alter the promul* 
gation of the order, would be deemed guilty of 
disobedience of orders^ and would be arrested. 
— iV: F. Merald, July 26. 

— ^The Third Begiment of Vermont Volun- 
teers, commanded by Colonel W. N. Smith, left 
St. Johnsbury, Vt., for the seat of war.—ilT. T, 
Commercial, July 25. 

— John Bbadlet, a young man studying for 
the ministry, son of a wealthy citizen, and Co* 
lumbuB Bradley were arrested this evening, at 
Alexandria, Va., by the Provost Marshal, as 
spies taking information to Manassas. — Z^uia- 
v^ille Journal, July 26. 

— ^FiBST Lieutenant Luigi Vizia, an Italian 
officer of the engineer department who has 
been many years in the military service, and 
who served with credit in the glorious cam- 
paign of Italian liberation of Italy, arrived at 
New York, to offer his services to the Amer- 
ican Government. On his way to America he 
fell in with an agent of the rebel Government 
who attempted to persuade him to take service 
under that Government, and offered to pay his 
passage.— iV. Y, Etening Post, July 26. 

— ^Thb ladies of Harper's Ferry, Va., pre- 
sented a Union flag to the Second Regiment of 
Massachusetts Volunteers to-day, with appro- 
priate ceremonies. — Boston Advertiser, July 81. 

July 25. — In the Missouri State Convention, 
in session at Jefferson City, this morning, Mr. 
Broadhead, from the Committee of seven, pre- 
sented the report of the Committee. The re- 
port alludes at length to the present unparallel- 
ed condition of things, the reckless course of 



Jin.T i6.] 



DIAB7 OF EYENia 



41 



the recent Gorernment, and flight of the Gov- 
ernor Aod other State ofllcers from the Capital. 
It declares the offices of Qovemor, lieutenant- 
Govemor, and Secretary of State vacant, and 
provides that their yacanoies shall he filled hy 
the Oonvention, the officers so appointed to 
hoikl their positions till Angast, 1862, at which 
time it provides for a special election hy the 
people. It repeals the ninth section of the 
nxth article of the Constitution, and provides 
that the Sopreme Coart of the State shall con- 
sist of seven memhers; and that four members, 
in addition to the three now comprising the 
Coart, shall he appointed by the Governor cho- 
sen hy this Convention to hold office till 1862, 
when the people will decide whether the 
change shall be permanent. It abolishes the 
State L^islature, and ordains that in case be* 
fore the 1st of Angast, 1862, the Governor 
chosen by this Convention shall consider that 
the pablic exigencies demand, he shall order a 
special election for members of the State Leg- 
ialatore. It recommends the passage of an or- 
dinance repealing the following hills, passed hy 
the Legislatare, in secret session, in May last : 
The military fond bill, the bill to saspend the 
distribation of the school fund, and the bill for 
caltivating friendly relations with the Indian 
tribes. It repeals the bill authorizing the ap- 
pointment of one Major of the Missouri Militia, 
and revives the militia law of 1859. 

A resolation was also passed that a Commit- 
tee of seven be appointed by the President to 
prepare an address to the people of the State of 
Miaoari. — Miwmri Bepublicajiy July 26. 

— ^A xsKTiNO of the Charleston Presbytery 
was held at Colombia, S. C, at which a pre- 
amble and resolutions were unanimously adopt- 
ed, dissolving the ecclesiastical relations existing 
between that Presbytery and the Presbyterian 
Church of the United States, and declaring the 
necessity of an independent organization of 
churches in the South. — {Doe. 118.) 

— Is general orders of this date, General 
Bosecrans assumed command of the "Array 
0[ Occupation of Western Virginia," lately com- 
manded by General McOlellan.— (i)a6. 119.) 



Cox occupied Charleston on the 
Kanawha, the rebels retreating and burning the 
bridges. A rebel steamer was abandoned and 
burned. It is supposed the rebels will be met 
by Colonel Bosecrans' column, sent out some 



days ago to intercept their retreat.— i\r. 71 
Times, July 27.— {2?oc. 119i.) 

—In the Senate of the United States, An< 
drew Johnson, of Tennessee, moved a resolu- 
tion, stating that the present civil war was 
forced on the country by disunionists in the 
Southern States, who are now in rebellion 
against the Constitutional Government ; that in 
this emergency Congress, banishing all passion 
and resentment, will only recollect its duty to 
the whole country, and that the war was not 
waged with any spirit of oppression or subju- 
gation, or any purpose of overthrowing the in- 
stitutions of the States, but to maintain and de- 
fend the supremacy of the Constitution and 
laws, and as soon as this is accomplished, the 
war ought to cease* 

Mr. Polk, of Missouri, moved to amend the 
resolution so as to read " that the present civil 
war has been forced on the country by the 
disunionists in the Northern and Southern 
States,'* and to strike out what is sud about 
being in arms against the Government. The. 
amendment was disagreed to by yeas four, 
nays thirty-three. 

Mr. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, and others 
spoke on the resolution, which was finally car- 
ried by yeas thirty, nays five.— (Doc. 120.) 

—A osNBBAL order was issued from the 
War Department at Washington, defining the 
extent of the new command of General McClel- 
lan.— (2?oc. 121.) 

^A LETTEB from Pensncola, Florida, gives 
what purports to be a digest of Admiral Milne's 
Report to the British Government upon the 
United States blockade of rebel ports. — (Doe. 
122.) 

— Genebal MoClellan passed through Phil- 
adelphia, on his way to Washington, to take 
command of the Army of the Potomac. In 
answer to the calls of the people, he made the 
following short but pertinent speech : " My 
friends and old townsmen, I thank you for your 
reception, and might reply, if this were not a 
time for action, and not for speech. Your ap- 
plause, as I take it, is intended for my brave 
soldiers in Western Virginia. I am going to 
fulfil new duties, and I trust that your kindness 
will give me courage and strength. Good-bye," 
— Philadelphia PresBj July 26. 

— ^The Seventeenth Regiment of Pennsylva- 
nia Militia, Colonel Francis E. Patterson, com- 



BEBELUOIT BBCOBD. I8e0-«1. 



pDLT SB. 



'manding, retarned to Philndelphia, from tbe 
Beat of war at Ilarper'a Ferry, Va. — Pkiladd- 
pkia Inguirtr, July 26, 

— Sevebal of the Potomao fleet airived at 
WashinglOD to-day. Among them is the Keao- 
lotc, which has been absent several da;s on an 
expeditiuQ across Chesapeake bay, and nntil 
her oppeoraDce to-day, it was thought she haJ 
been capWred by the rebels. Irziportant dis- 
cOTeries were made b; Lientenant Budd dorlng 
Iier cmise. It was ascertained that the rebels 
are organizing large forces on the eastern 
shores of Virginia, and tliat a largo amoant of 
provisions and army stores are carried there 
ocrosa the bay into the Bappahonnock and 
Tork rivers, and tbence transported by way of 
Fredericksborg, aod by the Richmond & Tork 
lUvcr Railroad to the rebel army on tbe Poto- 
mao, These aoppllea ore Introduced into Acco- 
mao Co.by tworoDtes. They are brought from 
New Tork, nroDDd Piney Island, into Chingo- 
toagae inlet on the Atlantic side, and from Bol- 
. timore into the Fokomoko river on the Chesa- 
peake side, and tbe whole of tbe lower part of 
Bomerset Co., Moryland, The rebels are said 
to be aotunlly swarming there. A stage line is 
mnningfrom Pr in cess Anne throngh Newtown, 
across the lino to Ilorntnwn, Virginia, hy which 
the recruits for the rebel forces pass into Vir- 
ginia. They and the supplies from New Tork 
and Baltimore nrc transported at night by small 
ycs^el^, across tlic bay, into tbe Kappahanoock 
and Tork rivers, the blockade of which for 
some nnacconntable reason has been abandoned. 
The vessels carrying these supplies leave ports 
aa coasters fur Maryland, and manage to land 
their cargi>C3 just below the Maryland line. 

The rebels have erected batteries on cither 
side of Onnncock, between that and Pontegan 
on one side, and between Onancock and Ohes- 
oonnessy on the olhcr. A rebel picket gnard 
is maintained nt the mouth of tbe Onancock 
creek. Opposite to the month of thia creek on 
the Cliesapeake bny is Tangier Island, upon 
which there are about 300 Union men, compris- 
ing tho n'hole adult male population, witli one 
exception. At Watt's Island, where there is a 
light house, the peojile are also Union. These 
people are in continual fear and in danger from 
tho rabcia on the eastern shore of Virginia. 

The P.esolntc brought up three prizes — the 
Eclinoners Artist and McCabe, and the sloop 
Obe^ajM^Bke, which had been engaged in tho 



transportation of men and auppUes to Uie east- 
ern shore of Virginia. The Artist is a neat 
firet-clasH sailing craft, and it is believed that 
she was about to be converted into a rebel pn- 
vateer— ^. Y. Timet, July 26. 

—Tab Siith Indiana Regiment of State Mili- 
tia, under the command of Colonel Crittenden, 
returned to Indianapolis from the seat of war. 
Tho troops were welcomed home in short and 
patriotic speeches by Governor Morion and 
Mayor Oobnm.—- Zouimilb Journal, July 2a. 

— GovEiison MonoAM of New York issoed a 
proclamation, in accordance with tho request 
of President Lincoln, calling for twenty-fivo 
thousand men to serve for three years or dur- 
ing the war.— (flue. 123.) 

— Fetvatb G. W. Fox, n member of the 
Twenty-fourth Regiment of New Tork, was 
shot by the rebels, while performing picket 
duty near Ball's Cross Roads, Va. Ho died 
Boou after. — K. Y. Evening Pott, July 2fl, 

— Gbkebal McCleU-UI arrived at Washing- 
ton, from Western Virginia. — Philip Kearney 
of Newark, N, J., was appointed Brigadier-Gen- 
eral in the Federal army.— General Fremont 
arrived nt St. Louis, Mo., this mornmg, and mads 
his head-quarters at tbe residence of the lata 
Colonel Brant. — Tho Fourteenth Regiment of 
Ohio State Militia returned to Toledo from 
Westera Virginia, their term of enlistment 
having expired. — Tlie Tenth Regiment of Ma»- 
sachnsetts Volunteers, nnder the command of 
Colonel Henry I. Brigga, embarked from Bos- 
ton for Washington.—^. Y. rvntt, July 36. 

— Gbkhsai. Bakss arrived at Harper's Ferry 
and assumed command of tho army lately under 
Gen. Piktterson, who left tho Eome day. — (Ak^ 
124.) 

— KzxTooEiAKB who have escaped from Pen- 
aacola and arrived at Louisville, Ey., say there 
are only about 6,000 Confederate troops at Fort 
Pickens, and that they ore miserably fed and 
clothed, and have received no pay since March. 
Large numbers had died of typhoid fever. There 
have been many deserters, and almost the en- 
tire force are disgnsted, and would retnrn home 
if they could get away. — LouiniiU Journal, 
July 26. 

— The rebels ore patting the city of Mem- 
phis, Tenn., in a slate of complete defence. Tho 
Appeal published in that city says: — The city 
proper is about to be put in trim for welcoming 



I 



*Jni.T 2e.] 



DIARY OF EVENTS. 



48 



uninvited visitors to staj "till Gftbriel blows 
his horn.'* The bluff is to ba protected hj 
breastworks of cotton. Yesterday tbe blnff 
between Ooart and Adams streets was lined 
with bales. Each of the streets of the oitj, 
with the exception of Madison and Jefferson, is 
to be thns barricaded. The superintendence 
of the construction of these defences has been 
intrusted by Gen. Pillow to Messrs. E. M. Ap- 
person and John Martin, esqs. With breast- 
works on the blnff and breastworks in the 
streets, Memphis will be in war trim. — iV. Y. 
World, July 27. 

— Captain Eobebt Gahland and Firet Lieu- 
tenant Edward J. Brooks, Seventh Infantry, 
having given evidence of disloyalty, were drop- 
ped from the rolls of the Federal army. First 
Lieutenant James Lesbler, Tenth Infantry, hav- 
ing overstayed his leave of absence, and failed 
to report to the Commanding Officer of the De- 
partment of the West^ was dropped from the 
rolls of the army.— ^r7»y General Orders 
No, 47. 

— ^RoBEST Toombs of Georgia tendered to 
the President his resignation of the Secretary- 
ship of State of the Southern Confederacy, and 
it was accepted. The President nominated to 
Congress R. M. T. Hunter, of Virginia, for 
this office, and that body confirmed the nom- 
ination. Thus that distinguished post has lost 
the services of one of the ablest men in the 
Confederacy, only to be filled by another occu- 
pant ecinally as able in intellect and statesman- 
ship. Mr. Toombs was of a temper to prefer 
the active daties of a soldier, in such a crisis as 
the present, to the monotony of an office, which, 
for the present, is little more than nominal; 
and we are glad to learn that the President has 
acknowledged his distinguished claims upon 
the confidence of the country by nominating 
him AS a Brigadier-General in the Confederate 
army. Virginia's position in the Confederacy 
has been acknowledged by assigning to one of 
her statesmen the highest post in the Confede- 
rate Cabinet. Mr. Hunter is so well known to 
the country that it would be supererogatory to 
dwell upon the qualities of mind and character 
whicli fit him so eminently fur the post to which 
be lia^ been called. It would be difficult to de- 
fine an instance in which the trite phrase of 
speech so justly applies—" The right man in 
the right place:'''— Richmond Dispatch, July 20. 



— ^A coirvBMTiON of the principal banking 
corporations in the seceded States was held 
at Bichmond. During the session C. G* 
Memminger briefly addressed the Convention, 
expressing his gratification, and that of the 
Confederate Government, at the liberal man* 
ner in which the Banks responded to the call 
of the Government, and offered several valuable 
suggestions for the consideration of the Con* 
vention, A report' was adopted recommending 
that one hundred millions of dollars in Confed- 
erate notes should be put in circulation by the 
Grovernment ; that the people and banks should 
take them as if specie, and that the interest on 
larger bills should be at the rate of 7 8-10 per 
cent, per annum. Notes of the denomination 
of $6, $10, $20, in the opinion of the Committee, 
ought not to bear any interest ; these would more 
appropriately perform the functions of a curren- 
cy ; and they are of opinion that the larger notes, 
such as $50 and $100, would be largely taken up 
by a patriotic class of citizens, who are not in 
the practice of making such investments. These 
notes would pass into their hands in the course 
of business, and they would very soon discover 
the advantage as well as the merit of thus con- 
tributing their aid in support of the Govern- 
ment of their choice and of their affections. — 
{Doe. 126.) 

— ^The Charleston Mercury of to-day states 
that Washington has slipped through the fin- 
gers of tbe rebels merely for want of an ade« 
quate number of troops. It says : 

*^So weak have we been on the Potomao 
that until recently it was deemed almost crim- 
inal to tell the truth to the people of the South, 
because the knowledge of the truth transmitted 
to the North might have exposed our forces to 
annihilation from the overwhelming force about 
Washington." 

It anticipates another battle immediately, of 
greater magnitude, and calls upon the rebel 
States to gird up their loms for the renewal of 
the confiict. 

— The Legislature of Mississippi assembled 
at Jacksonville, and received the message of 
Governor Pettns, who congratulated their body 
on the " prosperous and successful revolution, 
inaugurated last Fall," and assured them suc- 
cess in the future. — {Doe, 1251.) 

July 26. — ^The Eighth and Seventy-first Reg- 
iments N. Y. S. M., returned to New York this 



44 



REBELLION BEGORD, 186(>-«1. 



[July S7.* 



afternoon, and met with an enthosiastic recep- 
tion. Broadway was thronged, and vociferons 
cheers greeted them at every crossing. — K Y. 
TimcB, July 27. 

—Ik the Mississippi Legislatare Mr. Ilarri- 
8on presented a series of resolutions^ expressing 
the gratitude of the Senate of that State in the 
late brilliant achievement by the Confederate 
arms on the battle-field at Ball Run, which 
being amended by Mr. Drane, were adopted. — 
{Doc 126.) 

— A fight occurred at Lane^s Prairie, fifteen 
miles from Rolla, Mo., between a party of 
mxty-fivo rebels, and fifteen Home Guards from 
Bolla. The Guards were surrounded, but they 
made a determined stand, and after a few vol- 
leys dispersed the rebels, killing their first 
lieutenant and mortcdly wounding three others. 
One liputennnt and two privates on the National 
aide were slightly wounded.—^. Y. Times, July 
SO. 

— ^TnE Fourth Regiment of Now Jersey Mili- 
tia, and the First Regiment of Rhode Island, 
left Washington on their return from service. — 
Phila. Press, July 27. 

— Si:70S the disaster to the national arms on 
Sunday last at Bull Run, the State of Pennsyl- 
vania has thrown forward, to meet the require- 
ments of the National Government, ten full 
regiments of infantry. On Sunday night, July 
21st', the Grovemor was urgently requested to 
push on his forces, and his response within the 
ensuing four days was a magnificent army of 
nearly 11,000 picked men, thoroughly uniformed 
and famished, and having most of them been 
regularly drilled in camps of instruction for two 
months. 

Great pains have been bestowed by the State 
authorities upon this fine army. It has been 
organized under the supervision of George A. 
McOall, long an officer in the regular army, 
tlirongh all the grades of which he has passed 
with distinction to the rank he now holds in it 
of Brigadier-general. The State has also an 
artillery regiment and a regiment of twelve 
hundred cavalry nearly ready for service, both 
of which have been accepted by the Secretary 
of War. .To the foresight and wise energy of 
Governor Curtin is chiefly owing the ability 
of the State to contribute so promptly and efiS- 
ciently to the national safety in the present 
emergency. — Philadelphia Press, July 27. 



— ^To-DAT, in Yirginia, Ool. McLeod Murphy 
captured three rebels in uniform, while out 
scouting on his own acoonnt He saw three 
of them getting water, while their arms were 
leaning against a tree but a few feet off. CoL 
Murphy rode up, and, without firing his re- 
volver, collared the crowd and brought them 
into camp.— i\r. Y. World, July 27. 

— ^Tns Second Regiment of Georgia volun- 
teers from Savannah, passed through Charles- 
ton, S. C, on their way to Virginia. — Charlet' 
ton Mercury, July 27. 

— Bbbvet Second Lixirr. ClabencbDkbbick, 
of the Engineer Corps, Brevet Second Lieut. 
Jas. P. Parker, Fourth Infantry, and Brevet 
Second Lieut. Frank A. Reynolds, having re- 
signed just after graduating from West Point a 
few weeks since, were dismissed from the ser- 
vice of the United States. — Philadelphia In» 
quirer, July 27. 

James H. Otet, Bishop of Tennessee, issued 
a pastoral letter to the clergy of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in his diocese, promulgating 
a prayer and service to be used on the Sunday 
preceding the day of thanksgiving fixed by the 
" Confederate Congress,^' and suggesting to the 
clergy that in the prayer for the President of 
the United States, and in the prayer for Con- 
gress also, the words "United States ^^ be 
omitted, and the words "Confederate States^ 
be substituted in both places. — (Doe, 127.) 

— A coRBESPoxDENT at Fortrcss Monroe, Va., 
in a letter of this date, says : It became appar- 
ent, early last evening, that the rebels medita- 
ted an attack on Ilampton. Gen. Butler deter- 
mined to abandon the town in case of a formid- 
able advance, and at seven o^dock the order 
was given for families and goods to be remov- 
ed. Within one hour, orders were also issued 
to bum the town rather than have it fall into 
the hands of the enemy. The General well un- 
derstands that the possession of Hampton by the 
rebels will be of no particular importance. 

A stampede of the colored population took 
place all night, and to-day the road has beea 
lined with refugees to the fortress, and army 
wagons, and carts bringing in goods from Hamp- 
ton. The road has presented a most remark- 
able appearance ; nearly 1,000 contraband men, 
women, and children must have come In dur- 
ing the last twenty-four hours.— i\r. F, limes^ 
Aug. 1. 



JVLT 28,] 



DIARY OP EVENTa 



45 



July 27. — ^Major-General Robert Patterson, 
of the Pennsylvania YolDnteers, was honorably 
discharged from the service of the United 
States.— (2>a6. 106.) 

—The Odd Fellows' Hall, jail, and four other 
buildings in Hampton, Ya., were burned by the 
national troops in apprehension of an immedi- 
ate attack by thp secessionists. — N". F. TimeB^ 
July 80. 

—Ik Confederate Oongress, at Richmond, Ya., 
docnments were read which show the cause of 
the late flag of truce from the Confederate lines 
to Washington. One of these was a letter from 
Davis to President Lincoln, with the threat of 
retaliation if the privateersmen taken from the 
Savannah ahoold be hanged. — {Doc, 128.) 

— Ths SixtyHiinth Regiment N. T. S. M., 
arrived in New York from the seat of war. — 
IT. F. Bgprtm, July 27. 

— Skstatob Johnson, of Tennessee, spoke in 
the Senate in favor of the joint resolution to 
approve the acts of the President — {Doc, 129.) 

Jtdy 28. — At Savannah, Ga., the funeral ob- 
sequies of Oen. Francis S. Bartow, who was 
killed at the battle of Bull Run, were celebrated 
to-day in most imposing style. There was an 
immense military and civic procession, com- 
prising all the companies in the city, with de- 
tachments from the several garrisons of the 
neighboring forts and batteries. The cortege 
started from Christ Church, where an eloquent 
foneral sermon was preached by Bishop Elliott. 
The entire population of the city was present, 
and manifested the deepest sorrow. The bells 
were tolled and minute guns were fired during 
the march of the column. A salute of three 
roonds was fired by the in&ntry and artillery 
over the grave. — CharUeton Mercury^ July 29. 

— IoJlbt night the steamer W. I. Maclay, Capt. 
Conway, bound from Cincinnati for St. Louis, 
l£o., was fired into at Cape Girardeau. The 
ICacIay had landed at Cape Girardeau to dis- 
charge freight and passengers, and had no trou- 
ble whatever with any person or persons at 
that place. It was late at night, and very few 
people were seen. The officers discovered a 
number of tents, presenting the appearance of 
a camp, above the town. Soon after the boat 
had left the wharf to continue her trip to St. 
Louis, between two and three hundred shots 
were fired at her from shore. The shots took 
effect in the texas, pilot-house, and hurricane 



roof, some of them entering a lot of empty bar- 
rels on the roof. Two or three shots passed 
through the bulkheading of the texas, and one 
of them took effect in the head of the cook, 
who was asleep in his berth. It struck him on 
the left temple and passed around the skull, 
making a severe fiesh wound. Another passed 
through the leg of a cabin boy, in the same 
apartment. No other damage was done to 
either the crew or passengers. Among the 
latter were about fifty soldiers, belonging to 
one of the Illinois regiments at Cairo, on their 
way home. — St. Louie Mepubliean^ July 80, 

— ^The privateer Gordon, of Cluirleston, S. C, 
captured and carried into Hatteras Inlet the brig 
McGillery, of Bangor, He., and the schooner 
Protector, from Cuba for Philadelphia. The 
privateer Mariner also captured a schooner, and 
the York captured the brig D. S. Martin, of 
Boston, Mass., with a cargo of machinery. — K, 
0, Delta, Aug, 1. 

— ^A DETACHMENT of two Companies of Col. 
Mulligan^s regiment and three companies of the 
Home Guards sent to Hickory Hill, near Mount 
Pleasant, in Cole County, Mo., were fired on 
from an ambush near that place, but no one 
was hit. Col. Mulligan^s men captured twenty* 
eight rebels, among them two captains of Jack- 
son^s forces ; also, forty horses and two teams. 
— National Intelligeneer, July 81. 

— ^A FLAo of truce came into Newport News, 
Yo., this morning, with a proposition giving the 
national troops twenty -four hours to leave, and 
announcing that in case the place was not va- 
cated they would force them out The gun- 
boat Dale, of twenty guns, at once went up 
from Old Point. The Albatross and Penguin 
were also stationed there, while the Minnesota 
and seven gunboats at Old Point are ready to 
assist should Newport News really be attacked. 
— Baltimore American^ July 29. 

— ^TnANKsorvnio day was celebrated in the 
"Confederate" States, "for the success of our 
arms and the deliverance of our homes from the 
menacing hordes that have hung upon our bor- 
ders like wolves upon the outskirts of the forest. 
We are pleased to be able to state that the day 
was generally observed in Memphis in accord- 
ance with the spirit of the resolution, and we be- 
lieve that every pulpit echoed the thankfulness 
that fills the public heart."— J/iwnpAii (Tenn.) 
Appeal^ July 80. 



46 



BEBELLION BECORD, 186a-«l. 



[July 29. 



Julif 29. — ^An engagement took place at 
Aqnia Creek, Va,, to-day. Four vesaels of the 
Potomao flotilla opened the attack bj firing shot 
and shell at a nevr battery which had been 
erected by the rebels. Several of the shells fell 
and exploded into a camp of rebels near the 
battery. The rebels retarned the fire with con- 
siderable vigor from rifled cannon, bat caused 
little damage, as their range was too high. The 
engagement lasted three hours, daring which 
time the flotilla was struck but by one shot, 
which, however, inflicted no personal injury. — 
J\r. Y, ComfMrcidl Advertiser, July 31. 

—Captain Wm. P. Allen, of the Eleventh 
Massachusetts Regiment, E. P. Doherty, of 
the New York Seventy-flrst, and Orlando Wal- 
dorf, Second Wisconsin, arrived in Washing- 
ton city, having escaped from Sndley Church, 
Ya., where they were detained as prisoners. The 
Bentioel fell asleep, and they leaped from a win- 
dow and escaped to the woods. They reached 
the Potomac, which they forded, fourteen miles 
above Washington. — If, T, Worlds July 80. 

— Tub Memphis Appeal^ in urging planters 
to keep their cotton at home, says: ** Should 
the usual quantity be brought to Memphis — say 
400,000 bales — and be stored in our warehouses 
this fall, the temptation for the enemy to essay 
its capture would be extremely great, particu- 
' larly as cotton will be very scarce at the North 
next winter. It would be tantamount, indeed, 
to offering $20,000,000 for invasion of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, and for a successful invasion 
against Memphis.*' — JSf, Y, Warld^ July 31. 

— ^Thb Ilouse of Representatives, at Wash- 
ington, refused to entertain a motion of Mr. 
Cox (Ohio) to i4>point a Committee of Confer- 
ence to report on amendments to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, with a view to the 
reconstruction of the Union. — {Doe. ISO.) 

— Tnx first regiment of the Polish Brigade, 
under Col. Sulakowski; left New Orleans to day 
for Virginia. The second regiment of the bri- 
gade is rapidly filling up, and will be in Vir- 
ginia long before Lincoln, Soott & Co. make 
their seoond attempt to dine in Richmond, 
where Gen. Toobman now is drawing up his 
share of the bill of &re which the Polish Bri- 
gade intend serving up. — Ni 0. Cracent^ July 
29. 

— ^A LABQB meeting was held at the Mer- 
ehants Exchange, in New Orleana, to make ar- 



rangements for the relief of the soldiers wound- 
ed at Manassas. Gen. W. A. Elmore presided, 
and Bev. Dr. Palmer spoke. Among other 
things he siud that he did not believe this would 
be a protracted war. Protracted wars did not 
prevail among the great civilized nations of the 
earth, but only among barbarians. Such a war 
would bankrupt any nation in one year. Even 
England, in the war of the Crimea, found her- 
self pressed and worried to the extreme in fur- 
nishing her army with supplies. For what du- 
ration of time could the North hope to sustain 
400,000 men? As to the issue, the enemy 
might as well throw their millions into the riv- ' 
crs as to expect to subjugate us. Our cotton 
gave us immense power. The millions of Eu- 
rope depended on it for their bread. As for 
the blockade, wo laaghed it to scorn. This 
war must soon terminate, or the civilized na- 
tions of Europe must become engaged in it ; 
and he predicted our independence would be 
acknowledged before the first day of next year* 
But we would carry on this war until that end 
was accomplished. He alluded to a meeting at 
the New York Tabemaele^ at which it was dedar- 
ed that the tear ihauld not end until Slatery was 
driven from our aoil ! But he felt it must con- 
tinue until every nation on earth should recog- 
nize our independence and our institutions. He 
spoke of the imbecility, usurpation, and tyran- 
ny of Lincoln— usparalleled since the days of 
Charles I. He ioould have said that the Korth 
was almost unanimously against us, \f he had 
not heard Vallandigham^s voice. {Tremendous 
cheering.) But he felt there were many brave 
men at the North, who strongly sympathized 
with our cause. He felt the certain success of 
our cause, because right and truth were on our 
side. Not till the crush of worlds would our 
country be subjugated. 

A series of resolutiona were adopted, of 
which the following is the first: 

1. That we recognize in these victories on 
the side of liberty, against tyranny and oppress- 
ion, the hand of the same just and righteous 
God who guided the armies of the country 
when lead by Washington in defence of its lib- 
erty ; that our hearts are filled with gratitude 
to the most high and mighty Ruler of the Uni- 
verse for that signal interpodtion on our behalf, 
manifested in the strength and eoura^ge given to 
our soldien and the terror which seised upon 
our tfBMiMt. — X. F. ItmeSf August 0. 



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41 



B210ADIES Gbnebal Goz io a message to Gov- 
ernor Pierpont dated this daj at Gauley, Ya., 
sajs : '* The Kanawha Vallej is now free from 
the rebel troops. Most of the forces raised by 
Wise in this yalley left him between Charles* 
ton and this place. I had sent them assurances 
that if they laid down their arms they might 
go quietly to their homes, and many have done 
60, asserting that they were cheated into the 
rebel service. I regret to have to say that 
Wise in his retreat has burned a number of 
valaable bridges, and carried off most of the 
wagons and teams belonging to the people 
of the valley. All parties denounce him for 
his vandalism. I congratulate yon on the suc- 
cess of this expedition.^' — Baltimore American^ 
Aug.%. 

July 80.--Senator Trumbull of Ohio spoke 
in the Senate of the United States on the Bill 
to suppress insurrection, and favored the ap- 
proval of what had been done by the President 
before Congress assembled as done by the legal 
representative of the nation in the nation^s de- 
fence. Senator CarlOe spoke against the 8th 
section of the bill which empowers military 
commanders to discharge from custody prison- 
ers who take the oath of allegiance. — (Doc. 181.) 

—The Thirteenth Regiment of Massachusetts 
Volunteers, under the command of Colonel 
Samuel H. Leonard, passed through New York, 
on their route for Harper's Ferry, Va. The 
regiment numbers one thousand and eleven 
men, and is armed with the Enfield rifle. While 
on their march through the city, the troops 
sung several martial airs, the stanza of one of 
them commencing : 

We'll hang Jeff. Davie on a Palmetto treo, 
Olory baUeli^ah I Olory hallelujah I 

And the Union then will be great and fi-eo, 
Glorr ballelqjah 1 Olory hallelujah I 

— Aei9 York World, July 81. 

— Gbnsril B. F. Butleb wrote another 
mteresting letter to the Secretary of War on 
the subject of the " contraband."--{2)ewj. 183.) 

—The Fifth Regiment of Connecticut Vol- 
unteers passed though New York en route for 
Washington, by the way of Harrisburg, Pa. 
It is commanded by Colonel 0. 8. Terry, of 
Xorwalk, and is splendidly equipped. 

— Thb Thirteenth Regiment of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. S. M., returned from Annapolis, Md., its 
term of service having expired on the 23d in- 
•tant^^. F. World, July Zl. 



— Fbedebick W. Lander was this morning 
appointed a brigadier-general by the President 
of the United States. He has command of the 
Rhode Island and part of the Massachusetts 
regiments. This appointment was made at the 
earnest recommendations of Gen. McClellan, 
Gov. Sprague of Rhode Island, and Senator 
Carlile of Virginia. 

— Six Government clerks in the departments 
at Washington, resigned to-day, owing to the 
passage of the Virginia ordinance, providing 
that any citizen of that Commonwealth hold- 
ing any office under the Government of the 
United States after to-morrow shall be forever 
banished from, that State, and is declared an 
alien and enemy ; and further, any citizen who 
may hereafter undertake to represent the State 
in the Congress of the United States, in addi- 
tion to the penalties above presented, shall bo 
deemed guilty of treason and his property con- 
fiscated to the use of the State.— (2)(^«. 136.) 

— ^The Fifth Regiment of Massachusetts Mil- 
itia returned to Boston from the seat of war, 
its time of service having expired. Delega- 
tions of military, firemen, and civic authorities 
from adjoining towns, which had furnished 
companies to the gallant 6th, were waiting dur- 
ing the forenoon for their arrival, and Boston 
poured out its thousands to greet and welcome 
them home. After partaking of a bountiful 
collation on the Common, prepared by tho 
City Government, tho regiment was mustered 
out of service, and the companies soon after 
started, uuder an escort of their towns-people, 
for their homes. Three contrabands came with 
the regiment; two men and a woman. 

At Bull Run tho regiment lost 25 killed, 26 
wounded, and 5 missing. Tlie national flag 
borne by this regiment bears marks of hai'd 
usage. The eagle is missing from the stafiT, and 
there are three holes in the flag, two made by 
bullets, and one by a fragment of a shell. This 
flag, at the beginning of the fight, was borne 
by the color-bearer, Lawrence, who was shot 
dead, receiving two musket balls in his breast. 
The bearer of the Massachusetts flag, G. W. 
Wallace, of the Haverhill company, was at his 
side, and seizing the national flag as it fell from 
Lawrence^s hand, he for a time bore both, but 
at length the last-named was taken by the Ser- 
geant-Migor of the regiment, and was retained 
by him. The story that it was left on the field 
at any time is false. — K. Y, Trihune^ July 81. 



48 



BEBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[July 81. 



— ^To-DAT an order was issued bj Gen, Mc- 
Olellan prohibiting officers or soldiers from 
leaving tlieir camps or quarters except upon 
important public or private business, and then 
not without written permission from the com- 
mander of the brigade of which they may be 
a part. — (Doc, 186.) 

— ^In the United States Senate the resolution 
legalizing certain acts of the President being 
under consideration, l£r. Pearce, of Maryland, 
spoko in opposition thereto. — ^The bill to sup- 
press insurrection and sedition was taken up, 
and after some discussion was postponed. — 
Baltimore American^ July 81. 

— ^FiVE companies of the First Regiment of 
Nebraska Volunteers, Col. Shager command- 
ing, left Omaha, on the steamer West Wind this 
morning, for St. Joseph, Ho. They took two 
pieces of cannon with them. — N, T. Tribune^ 
Auguit 1. 

— ^Thb following order was made by the Post- 
Office Department for the execution of the law 
respecting soldiers' letters : 

'* Postmasters at or near any camp or point 
occupied by tlie United States forces will mail 
without prepayment of postage any letter 
written by a soldier in the service of the United 
States and certified to be such by the M^or or 
Acting Major of the regiment to which the 
writer is attached. The envelope should have 
plainly stamped or written on its face the cer- 
tificate * Soldier^s letter,' signed in writing by 
the Major or Acting Msjor of the regiment, de- 
scribing his regiment by its number and its 
State. Tlie postage due on such letters will be 
collected at the office of delivery. Commis- 
sioned officers will prepay their postage as 
heretofore. John A. Kasson, 

*' First Auiitant Poctmatter-Q^cenL" 

July 31. — ^A letter from Jefferson Davis to 
John R. Obambless was published. It was an 
answer to the inquiry of the latter " whether, 
prior to the 24th day of April, any of the Confed- 
erate States had transferred to the Confederate 
government the public property captured by 
them from the late United States, and upon what 
terms ; also whether any such transfers have 
been made since the said date, and upon what 
terms."— (/>«>. 187.) 

—The Twentieth and Twenty-first Regi- 
ments of Indiana Volunteers, under the com- 
mands of Colonels Brown and McMillen, left 



Indianapolis for the seat of war. Two compa- 
nies in each are armed with the Enfield and 
Mini6 muskets, and the skirmishers of both 
regiments have the most approved arms known 
to the service. Tlie other portions of the reg- 
iments are armed with the smooth-bore mus- 
kets, which will be exchanged for the rifled 
guns as soon as the Government can obtain 
them. — LauinUle Journal^ Augutt 1. 

— ^The schooner Tropic Wind arrived at New 
York from Fortress Monroe in charge of a prize 
crew, consisting of Thomas F. Spencer, prize- 
master, Surgeon Linahan, and Alexander Lowe 
of the Union Coast Guard. The Tropic Wind 
was seized on the 29th of June, by the order 
of Major-Greneral Butler, for violation of the 
blockade and communicating with the enemy, 
after having been warned by the Pawnee. She 
had been seized once before by the Monticello 
and taken to Washington, but was released by 
order of the Secretary of State, and it was un- 
der the voyage down the Potomac that she vi- 
olated the blockade. The information which 
led to her seizure was communicated to M^or- 
Gencral Butler by two of her crew, who were 
free negroes, who were induced to do it from 
I having overheard a conversation between the 
captain and mate of the schooner in relation to 
the sale of themselves. The schooner has on 
board the former mate Mr. James L. Wilson of 
Virginia, who was a sergeant in an artillery 
corps attached to the secession army. — If. T. 
Tribune^ Auguit 1. 

— ^To-DAT an ordinance passed the Cincinnati 
(Ohio) City Council, to appropriate the sum of 
$23,000 to loan the Hamilton County commis- 
sioners for the purpose of relieving the wives 
and families of the volunteers. — LouiniUe 
Journal, Auguit 2. 

— Tws ilfth Regiment of Wisconsin Volun- 
teers, under the command of Colonel Amasa 
Cobb, passed through Baltimore, Md., on the 
route to Washington. They left Madison, Wis- 
consin, where they had been in camp four 
weeks, on Wednesday last, coming by way of 
Janesville, Chicago, Toledo, Cleveland, and 
Pittsburg. Their trip was a triumphal march. 
All along the journey they were met at every 
station by crowds of people, who not only 
cheered them by their presence, but also fur-, 
nished them bountifully with refreshments of 
all kinds. Not a single accident happened on 
the whole route. The wives and daughters of 



Jolt 31.] 



DIARY OF BVENTa 



49 



teveral of the officers accompanied the reg^- 
meot OQ its joarney. It numbers 1,061 men, 
in addition to the drum corps and band. — Bal- 
timore American, August 1. 

— Colonel L. S. Miles, upon whose condact 
daring the battle at Bull Run severe animad- 
Tcrsions had been made, published a card. He 
declares that he has been made the victim of 
personal spite, that he directed the movements 
of hb troops on the field, and that he never 
gave some of the orders attributed to him. He 
further says that he has called for a court of 
inquiry to investigate the whole transaction. — 
(Dmt. 138.) 

— Gbnesal Pillow in command of rebel 
trotips at New Madrid, Mo., issued a proclama- 
tion to the citizens of Missouri, announcing his 
intention to expel the Federal troops from the 
State and reinstate Olaiborne F. Jackson, at 
Jefferson City. Gen. Pillow's army is made np 
of a portion of the Union City, the Randolph, 
and the Memphis troops, and is from twelve to 
twenty thousand strong. They are well sup- 
plied with cannon, field-pieces, and siege guns. 
Je£ Thompson, now in command of Watkins* 
old force, has moved the encampment from 
Bloomfield to within eight miles of Charleston. 
Part of Pillow's command, numbering some 
3,000, are upon the Cnpe Girardeau road, be- 
tween Madrid and Charleston. The rebels have 
taken military possession of the road through 
Vest Prairie from New Madrid to Cape Girar- 
deau, and are preparing for an attack upon Bird's 
Point or Cape Girardeau. However, every 
thing is in a masterly state of preparation both 
at Camp Defiance and at Bird's Point, for the 
fight.-H[Z)ac. 139.) 

— ^Testebdat M. Parks, the agent of the 
State of North Carolina in Portsmouth, Vir- 
ginia, transferred to the Confederacy a licet of 
five steamers already manned and armed. — 
Richmond Bxaminer, July 80, 31. 

— ^BBiOAniSB-GENEBAL PopB issucd a special 
order, assigning Brigadier-General- Hurlburt to 
the command of the United States forces along 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. Colonel 
Grant to command at Mexico, on the North 
Mbaonri rood ; Colonel Ross to occnpy Moun- 
ton, and Colonel Palmer to post his regiment 
at Benick and Sturgeon, making his head-quar- 
ters at Renick. These several districis to he 
divided into snb-dbtricts not exceeding seven 
Vol. n. — DuuKTi 



miles in extent, and commanding officers are 
instructed to report to the district head-quar- 
ters at Mexico the names of persons suitable to 
be appointed superintendents and assistant su- 
perintendents, whose duty it shall be to protect 
the railroad property in their respective divi- 
sions. Men of property and respectability, 
without regard to political opinion, are to be 
selected for positions. 

All illegal assemblages to be promptly bro- 
ken up, and ail persons taken in arms against 
the United States to be sent to Mexico, to be 
disposed of by the commanding general. No 
arrests to be made for opinion's sake, unless 
tlio parties are engaged in open acts of hostil- 
ity, or stimulating others to such acts by inflam- 
matory words or publications. The restoration 
of peace and safety to the region distracted by 
civil commotion, and the punishment of the in- 
famous assassins and incendiaries infesting the 
country, is announced to be the mission of the 
force in North Missouri. 

The troops are cautioned against excesses of 
any kind, especially depredations on the posses- 
sions and property of any citizen of Missouri, 
and infractions of military discipline and good 
order will be visited with the greatest severity 
possible under the articles of war. — WaeMng-' 
ton Bepuhlican, August 2. — {Doc. 140.) 

— John II. Beaoan, Postmaster- General of 
the *' Confederate" States, issucd a decision, in 
reference to the transmission and delivery of 
newspapers and periodicals through the mails in 
the Southern States. — {Doc. 141.) 

— The Memphis Apj/eal of this date inge- 
niously culls various expressions of several 
northern men to prove that the present war is 
solely a war of abolition, and that this object 
long hidden begins now gradually to appear. 
Among the persons it quotes are, Abraham 
Lincoln, W. 11. Seward, II. J. Baymond, Lloyd 
Garrison, and Wendell Phillips. — {Doe, 142.) 

— In the House of Bepresentatives at Wash- 
ington, Mr. Potter from the Select Committee 
on the loyalty of Government employees made 
a special report. — {Doe. 143.) 

— ^To-day at Washington, two general orders 
were issued by General Scott. The first directs 
that all searches for arms, traitors, or spies, 
and arrests of oflfenders, in any military de- 
partment, shall only bo made by authority of 
the Commander of the department, except in 



60 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Ado. 1. 



cases of urgent necessity. The second order 
announces the desecration of Mount Yernon by 
the bands of armed rebels, and expresses tlie 
hope of the Commander-in-Chief that, should 
the operations of the war take the national 
troops in that direction, every possible respect 
■will be paid to the sacred precincts.— (i?oc. 
144.) 

— The Missouri State Convention to-day 
elected for the Provisional Govcniment, Ham- 
ilton R. Gamble, for Governor; Willard P. 
Hale, Lieutenant-Governor; and Mordecai Oli- 
ver, Secretary of State. Tlio opposition were ex- 
cused from voting, protesting against the power 
of the Convention. In the afternoon the Gov- 
ernor and Lieutenant-Governor were sworn in 
and inaugurated. Each made a strong Union 
and patriotic speech, amid loud applause. After 
the presentation of an address to the people of 
the State by the Convention, it adjourned till 
the third Monday in December, unless sooner 
called together by the new Government, or 
demanded by the public safety. — {Doc. 145.) 

— Joseph Holt addressed the soldiers at 
Camp Joe Holt, Ind., this day. A vast throng of 
civilians swelled the audience, including several 
parties of ladies and gentlemen from Louisville. 
Mr. Holt was introduced by Gen. Rousseau 
with soldier-like directness, and spoke for half 
an hour or upward in a strain of the most en- 
kindling and enchanting eloquence. The effort 
was one of tl)e most effective and felicitous of 
his life.— (Z)(?c. 146.) 

— ^Tnos. C. Reynolds, ex-Lieut. -Gov. of Mis- 
fiouri, in a long proclamation, announces to the 
people of Missouri that " the sun which shono 
in its full mid-day splendor at Manassas is 
•about to rise upon Missouri," and calls upon 
them " to rally as one man to the defence of the 
Slate."— (i?oc. 148.) 

August 1. — ^This morning the First Maine 
Regiment, Col. N. J. Jackson, passed through 
Philadelphia on their way home. Their appear- 
ance indicated the hard service which the regi- 
ment have had since lenving. Tiiey num- 
ber 780 rank and file, but intend, on reaching 
home, to immediately reorganize the regiment, 
increase the nnmber to one thousand men, and 
re enter the service for three years. The sol- 
diers took breakfast at Washington avenue, pre- 
pared by the refreshment committee. This reg- 
iment passed through Philadelphia about three 



months a^ ; they have principally done gnard 
duty on Meridian Hill, and at the Long Bridge, 
Washington. — Phila. Press, August 2. 

— ^Thb War Department at Washington re- 
ceived the following direct from Gen. Rose- 
crans by telegraph, dated to-day : — " Gen. Cox 
reached Gauley Bridge on the 29th ult. Gen. 
Wise fled without fighting, destroying the 
bridge to prevent pursuit. We have captured 
a thousand muskets and several kegs of cannon 
powder. Many inhabitants of that section, who 
have heretofore been strong Secessionists, de- 
nounce Gen. Wise for his wanton destruction 
of property, and are abandoning him and his 
cause. His Western troops are rapidly dis- 
bandiug. The valley of the Kanawha is no\' 
free from the rebel forces." — Phila, Inquirer^ 
August 2. 

— Jeff. Thompson by proclamation informs 
the rebels of Missouri, that the North is whip- 
ped in Virginia; that ^^ tardy action, like the 
gentle south wind, will only meet with North- 
ern frosts," and so invites them to ^*- strike while 
the iron is hot." — {Doe, 149.) 

—The Twelfth Regiment N. Y. 8. M., under 
the command of Colonel Butt«rfield, and the 
Twentieth Regiment, Colonel George W. Pratt^ 
returned to New York from the seat of war. 
The Eighth Regiment, Mass., reached Bos- 
ton from the seat of war. — IT. Y, Herald, Au- 
gust 2. 

— The prize brig Herald, with a cargo of 
naval stores and tobacco from Beaufort, S. C, 
bound to Liverpool, and which was captured 
by the frigate St. Lawrence on the 16th of July, 
arrived at Philadelphia, Pa, She tleared from 
Boston, May 27, ostensibly for Turk's Island, 
but was then chartered by parties in New York 
for Beaufort, S. C, with the intent to try tlie 
experiment of running the blockade. — N, Y. 
Eftening Post, August 2. 

— Scouts returned to Cairo, 111., from the 
South, and reported that the rebels at New 
Madrid were well-armed and drilled. They have 
five batteries of ten-pound field-pieces, officered 
by foreigners, and two regiments of cavalry 
well equipped. General Pillow is in command. 
He has promised Ex-Governor Jackson to place 
20,000 men in Missouri at once. He has also 
issued a proclamation, full of bombast, to the 
people of Missouri, declaring his intention " to 
drive the invaders from the State, and enable 



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DIABY OF EVENT& 



51 



her people to regain their rights so rathlessly 
taken away bj the forces who march nnder 
banners inscribed with Beauty and Booty, as 
the reward of victory/^ He says he will show 
no quarter to those taken in arms. — Phila, But- 
leiin^ AugvMt 2. 

— New Oblbaxb papers state that a " naval 
engagement '' took place this day at the mouth 
of the Mississippi River between the U, 8. 
frigate Niagara and '^the little Confederate 
privateer J. O. Nixon ; " and that, after an ac- 
tion of twenty minutes, the Niagara crowded 
on ^* every inch of canvas she oould use, and 
made regular Manassavtime seaward/* — (JDoc, 
150.) 

— Tbm Onondaga County Cavalry, Capt. 
MoscheU, departed from Syracuse, N. Y., for 
Washington at 10.20 to-night, to join GoL Van 
Alen's Cavalry Regiment. The company is 80 
strong, and is composed of the very best mate- 
rial. A young bride, Mrs. Cook, accompanies 
them as a daughter of the regiment. — Baltimore 
American^ August 3. 

— ^The Secretary of War at Washington di- 
rected the commandant of the forces at Alex- 
andria, Ya., that from this day all slaves now 
in prison at that post be liberated, and that 
they may be employed on the fortifications and 
military works, and be paid for as day-laborers 
in the service of the Government. All other 
slaves escaping hereafter shall be treated in a 
ttmilar manner. — Louisville Journal^ August 8. 

— GovsKsroB Gamble of Missouri delivered 
his inaagnral to the Convention of that State. 
After referring to the personal sacrifices made 
by him in accepting the office, he calls upon 
the Convention and the people to give the ex- 
periment just made a fair trial. He then gives a 
vivid sketch of the evils arising from the anarchy 
with which that State has lately been threat- 
ened, assuring them that it will be his sole aim 
that the people of Missouri can worship God 
together, each feeling that his fellow-worship- 
per b not an enemy; that each can meet his 
neighbor without any conversations on blood 
and slaughter. The inaugural closes with a 
strong appeal for the cultivation of confidence 
and good feeling. — {Doc, 151.) 

— ^Thb steamer B. P. Cheney was seized by 
the rebels at Columbus, Kentucky, and carried 
to the head-quarters of Gen. Pillow. — Louis- 
HOe Courier^ August 10. 



— ^In the Senate of the United States, the bill 
to suppress insurrection and sedition was taken 
up, and an exciting debate occurred, in which 
Mr. Breckinridge and Mr. Baker, of Oregon, 
took part. — (Doc, 152.) 

The 8U Louis Democrat of this day gives an 
account of the preparation and departure of 
Gen. Fremont's expedition from St. Louis to 
Bird's Point, Cairo, and other positions on the 
Mississippi River. — {JDoc, 168.) 

August 2. — ^Up to this date Indiana has 
equipped and sent into the field thirteen regi- 
ments of infantry and two companies of cav- 
alry. Two additional regiments of infantry 
are now ready to march, and an entire regi- 
ment of cavalry will be ready in a short 
time. Seventeen additional regiments of in- 
fantry are now forming, and will be put into 
the service as speedily as possible. This 
will make thirty-three regiments raised and to 
be raised in Indiana — a force of about 86,000 
men, including three artillery companies now 
about ready for active service. This is over 
3,000 men for each Congressional District, or 
about every fortieth person in the State. — Ir^ 
dianapolis Journal^ August 8. 

— The United States steamer Albatross, Cap- 
tain Prentiss, arrived at Philadelphia, Pa., from 
Uampton Roads, having in charge the schooner 
Enchantress, which was captured July 6th, 260 
miles southeast of Sandy Hook, by the priva- 
teer Jeff. Davi?, and on attempting to take her 
into the port of Charleston, S. C, on the 22d of 
July, was re-captured with five men of the 
privateer's crew on board, west of Cape Hat- 
teras. The Enchantress cleared from Boston 
on the 29th of June, for ports in Cuba. All 
the crew except Garrick (negro cook) were 
removed to the Jeff. Davis, and a crew from 
the privateer, consisting of W. W. Smith, of 
Savannah, Ga. ; Ebin Lane, of West Cambridge, 
Mass. ; Thomas Quigley, of New York ; Daniel 
Mullings, of Charleston, S. C. ; and E. Roch- 
ford, of Liverpool — ^put on board to take her to 
Charleston, the negro Garrick being retained 
as cook. After the schooner had left the Jeff. 
Davis, Garrick meditated getting possession of 
the Enchantress, but delayed the execution of 
his plan, so as to sound the views of a portion 
of the crew. Before coming to any definite 
conclusion the steamer Albatross hove in sight, 
and as soon as the crew on board the Enchant- 
ress discovered the character of the steamer 



52 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Aug. 2. 



they " fought shy." When tho Albatross ap- 
proached and the Enchantress was hailed, a 
reply came that " the schooner was from New- 
buryport, and boand to Santa Craz." Just at 
that moment the negro Garrick appeared on 
the gunwale of the schooner and jumped over- 
board, at the same time crying out, *^ For God^s 
sake, save me, Captain ; she^s a Secesher, bound 
to OharlestoD." A boat was immediately low- 
ered from the Albatross, and, after picking up 
the negro, boarded the schooner. On examin- 
ing her papers they were' found to bo the same 
that had been issued in Boston, and the crew 
had agreed to represent themselves as the orig- 
inal crew of the Enchantress, but the officers 
of the Albatross having seen the account of her 
capture in the papers, and also having the story 
of the negro to confute their statements, they 
were placed on board the Albatross and ironed, 
in which condition they were brought into 
port and turned over to the United States au- 
thorities. The Enchantress has a cargo of first- 
class assorted goods, suitable for tho army. — 
Philadelphia Ledger. 

— Genebal Fremont and staff and a fleet 
of eight steamers, four regiments of infantry, 
several detached companies of infantry, and 
two companies of light artillery, arrived at 
Cairo, 111., this afternoon. They were enthusi- 
astically received. The troops were landed at 
Bird^s Point. — Boston Transcript^ August 3. 

— In the House of Representatives at Wash- 
ington, a joint resolution was adopted thanking 
the soldiers of the republic for their loyalty 
and devotion, and declaring that while the Na- 
tional Legislature expresses the sympathy of the 
nation for the bereaved families and friends of 
the fallen, they commend to a generous people 
and to the army, which is now eager to renew 
the contest with unyielding courage, the im- 
perishable honor of their example. 

— General Lton, with all tho infantry, cav- 
alry, and artillery of his command, came up 
with part of the rebel force under McCulIough 
at Dug Spring, nineteen miles south-west of 
Springfield, Missouri ; at 4 p. m., Lyon opened 
upon the enemy with artillery, and elicited but 
feeble response. A detachment of his cavalry, 
twenty-seven in number, came suddenly upon 
a regiment of rebel infantry, charged and broke 
it, and returned safely to their position. The 
artillery fire continued till night, when the ene- 
mj withdrew. The national infantry was not 



engaged. Forty rebels were found dead upon 
the field and forty-four wounded. Lyon^s loss 
was nine killed and thirty wounded. — {Doe. 
154.) 

— ^The Congress of the United States passed 
the Tariff and Direct Tax Bill, providing for a 
direct tax of twenty millions of dollars. — iV. F. 
Herald^ August 8. 

— ^FouR companies of the Second Ohio Vol- 
unteers arrived at Cincinnati tliis morning from 
Washington. Tiie reception was the grandest 
demonstration ever witnessed in Cincinnati 
The Home Guards of Covington and Newport, 
Ky., and the reserve militia and independent reg- 
iments of Cincinnati, were out in large force, 
and escorted the volunteers through some of 
the principal streets to the Eighth-street Park, 
where they were welcomed home by Judge 
Storer in an eloquent address. They after- 
ward partook of a banquet in the Park, pro- 
vided by the citizens. All along the line of 
march the streets were densely crowded, and 
the enthusiasm unbounded. The volunteers 
were completely covered with the bouquets 
and wreaths showered upon them. The city 
was gaily dec9rated with flags, and business 
was entirely suspended. — N, Y, Tribune^ Aug. 3. 

— General B. F. Bctler, at Fortress Mon- 
roe, Ya., issued a general order forbidding tho 
sale of intoxicating liquors to the soldiers in hia 
department. — {fioe, 155.) 

—The Fifth Regiment of New York Militia, 
under the command of Colonel Schwarzwaelder, 
returned home this morning, and were escorted 
to their head-quarters by the Eleventh Regi- 
ment, the Fourth Artillery, and several German 
societies. — ^The service on which the Fifth has 
been employed was guard, picket, and scout duty, 
at the Relay Uoiise, Md. Their vigilance fre- 
quently prevented serious results to the body 
of troops stationed at that post. The railroad 
was also an object of the special vigilance of 
the Fifth, and the prevention of attempts to 
place obstacles on the track, was one way in 
which their services were valuable. — N. Y. 
Commercial^ August 2. 

— ^The Mobile Register of to-dny, referring to 
a despatch to the effect that forty votes were 
given in Congress to Mr. C(»x's peace propo- 
sition, says: — *^ We know that there is a peace 
party already numbering among its repre« 
sentatives, nearly one-third of the United States 



Am. S.] 



DIART OF EVENTa 



68 



Home of RepreMOtatives. This is a direct 
result ai the triamph of Manassas. We have 
coQTerted near one-third of the United States 
Hunae of Representatives from the error of 
their warlike ways hj the powerful display of 
our ahility to eonqaer a peace. We first asked 
peace. It was refused. Now we will conquer 
it. We have conquered one-third of it already. 
Another great victory like, or even less than 
that of Manassas, and we shall conquer anotiier 
third — the two- thirds including all the common- 
ieose men of the North, who will be brought 
to conversion : and the outside third, the radical 
abolition fanatics, will alone remain, the de- 
spised minority of tlieir countrymen, who will 
rule them out of voice in the Government. Let 
us wait, and hope, and — fight, as if we had still 
three-thirds to conquer." 

— The following, in large letters on a hand- 
bill, was eonspicuously posted at several places 
in New York city this morning. Crowds of 
people were attracted to read it: 

'*The people awake! Enemies at home 
wearing the mask of peace (masks of the golden 
eross) as well as open foes, must be struck 
down. Be not deceived I The freedom of the 
press is subordinate to the interests of a nation. 
Let the three Southern organs issued in this 
city beware, or editors will be assigned to them 
to preserve the public welfare. From this date 
the authority of the people organizes a new 
system of legislation suited to the times. Poli- 
ticians will not be permitted to injure the gen- 
eral cause in pursuit of ambitious ends. The 
rights of our soldiers will be protected. Dis- 
i^>pointed demagogues will be forbidden to 
aggrandize themselves at their expense. The 
District- Attorney is expected to exercise his 
power. Traitors, male and female, are marked. 
Their names enrolled. Not one shall escape. 
Southern sympathizers are directed to leave the 
State. One will I One way! One country! 
We have begun to act. From the league of 
loyalty, The People. 

God says the REPCBua 

— ^Thb House of Representatives, at Wash- 
ingti>n, to-day recommitted the Confiscation 
bilL Mr. Crittenden made a speech upon it, 
protesting on constitutional grounds, and for 
reasons of policy, against the confiscation and 
consequent emancipation of slaves. He, how- 
ever, pronounced boldly for the war, for the 
Union, sustaining the President, and, in the 



name of the great interests at stake, demanding 
that the utmost aid be given him. — If. F. 7W- 
bunSj AuguMt 8. 

— ^Thb Twentieth Regiment^ Ulster Guard, 
N. Y. 8. M., Colonel G. W. Pratt, returned to 
Rondout this morhing, their term of service 
having expired. They were received at the 
landing by the military, firemen, and a very 
large number of citizens of Rondout and King- 
ston. The regiment was mustered out of the 
service soon after the arrival. — K. T, Eoening 
Post, August 8. 

August 8. — At Baltimore, Md., this morning, 
Sergeants Wallis and Cook, with Officer James 
Pry or, of the Middle District Police, went on 
board the steamer George Weems, at her wharf 
foot of Frederick street, and on her leaving for 
the usual trip to various landing places on the 
Patuxcnt River, proceeded in her as far as Fort 
McHenry wharf, where they directed Captain 
Weems to stop. A search of the steamer was 
here made, resulting in the discovery of con- 
cealed arms and ammunition in various out-of- 
the-way places in the hold. Immediately imder 
the upper deck, between the lower deck and 
the skylight, were found 200 new Coitus patent 
revolvers, done up singly in paper. In the aft 
part of the hold the officers found a barrel in 
which rubbish had been placed for several 
months. Concealed in the rubbish was a valise 
filled with boxes, each containing 250 rifle per- 
cussion caps. There was also found in the 
hold, separate from the other freight, a half- 
barrel of sulphurated quinine, contained in 
bottles and packages. On the discovery of 
these articles General Dix directed that the 
steamer should be detained for a more minute 
examination of the freight He also directed 
that the steamer Planter should be got ready to 
convey the passengers to their place of destina- 
tion. — Captain Weems disavowed any knowl- 
edge of the contraband articles. — Baltimore 
American^ August 8. 

— GovEBKOR Gamble, of Missouri, issued a 
proclamation to the citizens of that State, in 
which he calls upon all those who are enrolled 
in the State militia now in arms against th« 
Federal Government, who were called out by 
his predecessor, Jackson, to return to their 
homes, promising them protection if they do so. 
He appeals to the sheriffs of counties and other 
magistrates, to exercise all the authority vested 
in them by law, in arresting and punishing 



64 



REBELUOK RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Aug. 3. 



every one who may break the peace, molest his 
fellow-citizens, or retain arms, the property of 
the Federal Government He also notifies all 
those citizens of other States, who may be in 
arms within the boundaries of Missouri, (in the 
rebel ranks,) to withdraw to their own States, 
as Missouri does not need nor desire their 
presence. After the issue of this proclamation, 
Governor Gamble received a despatch from the 
War Departmeht, stating his promise of pro- 
tection to all those who may lay down their 
arms would be sustained by the Government. 
In several counties of Northern Missouri com- 
mittees of safety have been appointed to sup- 
press rebellion, with tlie assurance that if they 
cannot effect that purpose, the military power 
will be used to its utmost extent. — {Doe, 166.) 

— ^The Charleston Mercury of to-day, says : 
''We have been provoked beyond endurance 
by reading the most complacent and gratulatory 
comments of certain Virginia papers on the 
charming charity and benevolence of certain 
citizens and officials of that State toward the 
invaders of their soil, plunderers of their es- 
tates, destroyers of their homes and firesides, 
and polluters of their women. We demand 
that every prisoner in Richmond be incarcerated 
and put in irons. Justice, humanity, and civil- 
ization alike cry aloud for *• stern retribution.* " 

— Senatob Kennedy, of Maryland, in the 
Senate, at Washington, presented a memorial 
from the Legislature of that State, denouncing 
the National Government in unmeasured terms, 
and protesting against its action in imprisoning 
Ross Winans and others suspected of conspiracy. 
Its reception was objected to by several mem- 
bers on account of its disrespectful tone, but it 
was finally admitted and ordered to be printed, 
on the ground that it would not do to deny the 
right of petition. — If. Y, TimeSj Avgust 6. 

— BsBiAn Magoffin, Governor of Kentucky, 
issued a proclamation commanding all persons 
having arms belonging to the State, that have 
been unlawfully seized, to immediately deliver 
them up, that they may be returned to the 
State Arsenal, at Frankfort. — {Doc, 157.) 

— Tde Senate of the United States confirmed 
numerous army appointments. Among thcni 
are Major-Generals McClellan, Fremont, Dix, 
and Banks; and Brigadier-Generals Hooker, 
Curtis, McCnll, Sherman, Lander, Eelly, Kear- 
ney, Pope, Heintzelman, Porter, Stone, Rey- 



nolds, Hunter, Franklin, Rosecrans, Buell, Mans- 
field, McDowell, and Meigs. — Philadelphia In^ 
qutreTy Augrut 6. 

— The Twenty-ninth Regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, under the command of Col- 
onel John K. Murphy, left Hestonville, West 
Philadelphia, for the seat of war. — Philadelphia 
PresSy August 8. 

— ^Mrs. Lincoln having kindly consented to 
receive and distribute the havelocks made by 
the ladies of Katonah and Bedford, Westchester, 
N. Y., a cose was despatched to-day from the 
Jay homestead to the executive mansion by 
PuUen^s and Adamses express, containing 1,800 
havelocks, of which 1,105 were made by the 
ladies of Katonah and its vicinity, and 135 by 
those of Bedford.— iV: F. World, August 5. 

— A LETTER from Isham G. Harris, Governor 
of Tennessee, to the editors of the Memphis 
Avalanche, on the military power of that State, 
was published. — (Doc. 158.) 

— The First Regiment of New Hampshire 
State Militia, under the command of Colonel 
Mason W. Tappan, passed through Philode?phia 
on their return from the seat of wnr. This 
regiment composed part of the command of 
Col. Stone, and marclied to Harper's Ferry, 
Va. They have been principally on guard 
duty, and had a skirmish with the rebels at 
Harper's Ferry. The men have performed 
marches on foot to the extent of one hundred 
and sixty miles since they left Washington. 
The regiment has twenty ladies with them. 
They return numerically as strong as when they 
left, except six of the men, who were taken 
prisoners. — Philadelphia Bulletin, August 5. 

— The House of Representatives, at Wash- 
ington, passed, with a slight amendment, the 
Confiscation Bill. The amendment is, that 
slaves in the military or naval service, or 
working in the intrenchments of the rebels, 
will be confiscated. — {Doc. 159.) 

—The Sixth Regiment of Wisconsin Volun- 
teers, commanded by Colonel L. Cutler, and the 
Twenty-first Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, 
under the command of Colonel J. W. McMillan, 
arrived at Baltimore, Md. — Baltimore American^ 
August 6. 

— ^The K Y. Journal of Commerce suggests 
as " a way by which our troubles can be settled 
without more bloodshed" — 1, an armistice; 2, 
delegates from every State, North and South, 




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Aug. 6.] 



DIARY OF EVENTS. 



55 



to meet at Louisville ; 8, the delegates to agree 
upon a modified Gonstitution ; or 4, a peaceable 
separation. 

One of its plans for reconstraction is to have 
a Northern and Southern section in each House 
of Congress, and no bill to become a law until 
^reed to bjr a majority on both sides! — (Doc, 
160.) 

— Ax engagement took place at Messila, N. 
M^ between a body of Federal troops and 
seven hundred Ck)nfederates, under command 
of Capt Baylor. Capt. MoKeely and Lieutenant 
Brooks, of the Federal army, were wounded in 
the engagemest, and twelve of the Confederates 
killed. Night coming on pat an end to the 
engagement, — Baltimore American^ August 21. 

— ^The secret expedition from Fortress Mon- 
roe to the eastern shore of the Chesapeake 
Bay, under the command of Captain Crosby, U. 
8. A., returned to Old Point Comfort. The 
object of the expedition was to search for ves- 
sels engaged in illegal trade, and to reconnoitre 
the coast for defences erected by the rebels. — 
(Doe. 161.) 

August 4, — About five o'clock, this morning, 
the Second Begiment of Connecticut Volun- 
teers, passed through Philadelphia, Pa., on their 
way home. The regiment is under Colonel A. 
H. Terry, and participated in the engagement 
at Ball Bun. In the fight they lost sixteen 
men killed and wounded. The officers of this 
regiment deny that it was through hunger that 
the men were exhausted. The Connecticut 
men were supplied with full haversacks; and 
the only drawback in their opinion to final 
success, was the impetuous feeling to go ahead 
and fight. In order to get within the enemy's 
lines, a long march was necessary to this end. 
From two o'clock a. if. until ten they marched; 
and even then the men were unable to rest. 
To tbb fact alone, tlie officers of this regiment 
attribnte, in a great measure, the reverse. The 
regiment acted as part of the reserve, and did 
not get into battle till late in the day. — Phila- 
delphia Bulletin^ August 5. 

— ^A MEBTCfo was held thi<» evening in Rev. 
Dr. Adams' Church, on Madison- square, New 
York city, to aid in measures taken for the pre- 
vention and suppression of intemperance in the 
National Army. A. R. Wetmore, Esq., pre- 
■ide<l, and Dr. De Witt offered a prayer. Reso- 
lutions were read by Dr. Marsh, which were 



responded to in an able speech by Rev. Mr. 
Willets, of Brooklyn, and Paymaster Bingham, 
of the Twenty-sixth Regiment. — (Doc. 162.) 

— ^Admiral Sib Alexander Milne, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the British forces, at Hali- 
fax, in a private letter to the British Consul 
at Boston, says : ^^ I see a long article in the 
papers and extracts from a letter from Fort 
Pickens, alluding to orders I have given ; all I 
can say is that it is not my version of blockade 
nor my orders on the subject." — Buffalo Been- 
ing Courier, August 6. 

— Delaware has contributed two regiments 
for the war. One is already in the field. The 
other has not yet been complete, and is com- 
manded by Colonel Charles Wharton, brother of 
George M. Wharton, of Philadelphia. One com- 
pany of the regiment is entirely made up of 
Philadelphians. It is the Ilancock Guards, 
Capt. John F. Ileishley. The men are remark- 
ably well fed, clothed, and sheltered. In this 
particular Delaware has equalled, if not sur- 
passed, the other States. They are encamped 
at Camp Brandy wine, Wilmington. — Phila' 
delphia Bulletin^ August 5. 

August B. — At Washington, the representa- 
tives of the newspaper press held a consultation 
with Gen McCIellan by his special invitationi 
when it was unanimously decided that the fol- 
lowing suggestions from him be transmitted to 
the editors of all the newspapers in all the loyal 
States and in the District of Columbia : 

1st. That all such editors be required to re- 
frain from publishing, either as editorial or cor- 
respondence, any description, from any point 
of view, of any matter that might furnish aid 
and comfort to the enemy. 

2d. That they be also requested and earnestly 
solicited to signify to their correspondents here 
and elsewhere their approval of the foregoing 
Bugge<%tion, and to comply with it in spirit and 
letter. 

It was resolved that the Government be re- 
spectfully requested to afford the representa- 
tives of the press facilities for obtaining and 
immediately transmitting all information suit- 
able for publication, particularly touching en- 
gagements witli the enemy. 

— The following queries were put to the 
Confederate District-Attorney nt Charleston : 

First — ^Is it lawful for a citizen of the Con- 
federate States to purchase of our enemy State 



66 



REBELLION RECORD, 186(M(1. 



[Aug. 6. 



stock or bonds of any of the Confederate States, 
and demand the interest ^hen due ? 

Second — Is it lawfnl for the same parties to 
purchase notes given by merchants of the South- 
ern Confederacy to Northern houses, and de- 
mand payment for the same ? 

Third — ^If lawful and proper to pursue the 
above course, would it not be equally legal for 
the small trader to buy merchandise of the ene- 
my ; or, in other words, does the law intend 
to operate in favor of the fortunate holders of 
capital against the humble dealers in wares and 
merchandise ? 

The response is as follows:— The acts spe- 
cified by you certainly constitute "trading 
with the enemy" peculiarly objectionable, 
because they afford a direct assistance to the 
enemy, by the transmission of money to foster 
his resources. And, in addition, such con- 
duct is highly unpatriotic, because directly in- 
jurious to the interests of the States and citi- 
zens of our Confederacy, whose obligations are 
thus withdrawn from the enemy's country, 
where it is for the interests of the States that 
they should remain, since they could not there 
be called upon for payment during the war. 
Such operations are certainly worse than the 
simple purchase of merchandise in the enemy's 
country, because they, at the same time, aid 
our enemies and injure our friends. — N'. Y. 
Times^ Augxist 5. 

— Claibobnb F. Jackson, the deposed Gov- 
ernor of Missouri, publishes in the Memphis 
Appeal a document entitled "Declaration of 
Independence of the State of Missouri," and 
addressed to the people of that State. The 
ex-Governor says ho takes this step by virtue 
of authority conferred upon him by the State 
Legislature to do such things as to him might 
seem proper to " suppress the rebellion and 
repel invasion." He thereupon assumes that 
the waging of war by the Federal Government 
upon the sovereign State of Missouri, ipsofacto^ 
sunders the connection of the latter from the 
former, and accordingly so declares — subject, 
however, to the ratification of the people at 
such future time as their impartial and unbiased 
verdict can bo obtained through the ballot-box. 
-^Doc, 163.) 

—Gen. Lyon with his forces fell back on 
Springfield, Mo. The rebels were advancing 
on the latter place by four different roads, and 



their advance was from ten to fifteen miles 
distant. Three of the routes on which the ene- 
my were moving, were the Neosho, Carthage, 
and the Overland roads. Gen. Lyon called ia 
two thousand five hundred Home Guards from 
the neighborhood. Farther than this addition 
to his force, no other reinforcements seemed to 
be near. It was expected that the enemy were 
resolved on an immediate attack, from the fact 
that their commissariat was in a miserable con- 
dition, the rebels depending on forced contribu- 
tions for temporary supplies. 

It was generally remarked in Springfield that 
Gen. Lyon was perfectly confidtnt of success, 
in the event of an attack. The latest estimate 
places the rebel force at twenty thousand. 
Their arms are thought to be very inferior, 
judged by the specimens taken during the 
skirmish at Dug Spring, where Gen. Lyon had 
no intrench ments, depending upon his splea> 
did artillery in tlie open field. — St. Louis Dem- 
ocrat^ August 9. 

— ^In the Maryland Legislature to-day, S. 
Teakle Wallis, from the committee to whom 
was referred the memorial of the police com- 
missioners, submitted a long report, followed 
by preamble and resolutions, setting forth as 
arbitrary and unconstitutional the course of 
the Government in superseding the police board, 
and imprisoning Marshal Kane and the com- 
missioners. The committee appealed in tiie 
most earnest manner to the whole people 
of the country, of all parties, sections, and 
opinions, to take warning by the usurpations 
mentioned, and oome to the rescue of the free 
institutions of the country, so that whatever 
may be the issue of the melancholy conflict 
which is now covering the land with sacrifice 
and threatens to overwhelm it with debt and 
ruin, there may at least survive to us when it 
is over the republican form of government 
which our fathers bequeathed to us, and the 
inestimable rights which they framed it to per- 
petuate. — N. Y. Worlds August 6. 

— The bark Alvarado, having a prize crew 
from the privateer Jeff. Davis on board, was 
chased ashore near Fernandina, Florida, and 
subsequently burned by the sailors of the Unit- 
ed States ship Vincennes. — {Doc. 170.) 

— A SHARP skirmish took place this morning 
in Virginia, opposite the Point of Rocks, be^ 
tween a detachment of sixty men of the Twenty- 



Aira. 6.] 



DIARY OF EVENTS. 



57 



eighth Regiment of New York Yolanteers, un- 
der the command of Lient.-CoI. Brown, and a 
party of cavalrj of Capt Mead's company of 
the Confederate army. The Colonel ordered 
the Confederates to halt, which was not obeyed. 
The Unionists then fired on them and killed 
three, wonnded two, and took twenty horses, 
with their equipments, and seven prisoners, 
who were taken before Gen. Banks. None of 
the Federal troops were hnrt The engage- 
ment occarred at daybreak. The advancing 
party forded the river, and canght the cavalry 
pickets of the enemy at breakfast. 

The prisoners were brought into camp at 
Sandy Hook. Nearly dvery man captured had 
sword-arms and revolvers. On the sword-belt 
of one was marked in ink, " John H. Rollins, 
Leesborg, Va.** One captain of the rebels was 
killed. Previous reports from Colonel John C. 
Starkweather, of the First Wisconsin Regiment, 
stationed at Edward^s Ferry, stimulated the 
action which resulted so successfally. Colonel 
Starkweather had already made reconnoissances 
on the Virginia side, destroyed the rendezvous 
of the rebel pickets, and had bat one man 
wonnded, Mr. W. n. Langworthy, of Company 
£. All the captured are from Loudon County, 
Va.— (2>ac. 164.) 

— ^I2r the House of Representatives at Wash- 
ington, Mr. Calvert^ of Maryland, introduced a 
resolotion providing for the appointment of a 
Committee to consider and report such amend- 
ments to the Constitution a3 may restore con- 
fidence and insure the preservation of the Union. 
Laid on the table. — ^Mr. May, of Maryland, was 
refused permission to introduce resolutions pro- 
viding for the appointment of •Commissioners 
to procure an armistice, and so compromise as 
to preserve the Union if possible ; if not, to pro- 
vide for ** the peaceful separation of those States 
that have seceded or may hereafter secede.'^ — 
Mr. Diven offered a resolution declaring that, 
as rebels are now in arms against the Govern- 
ment, all resolutions looking to a compromise are 
either cowardly or treasonable. The House re- 
fused to suspend the rules to receive Mr. May's 
resolotion. The Senate bill, increasing the 
p.iy uf the volunteers and legalizing the acts 
of the President^ was passed. 

— A LETTEB written on board the steam-sloop 
Brooklyn, oil* the mouth of the Mississippi River, 
giving an account of the manner by which the 
rebel privateer Sumter was sufiTered to run 



the blockade, was published in the Baltimore 
American, — {Doc, 165.) 

— A BAND of rebels, numbering from one 
thousand to twelve hundred, made an attack 
upon a camp of Union men at Athens,* Mis- 
souri, this morning 'at five o'clock. There was 
a considerable Amount of arms and ammuni- 
tion for United States troops stored at that 
place, under a guard of the troops composing 
the camp. The United States Volunteers nam- 
bered about three hundred and fifty men, under 
the command of Captain Moore. The fighting 
lasted about one hour, when the rebels retreat- 
ed. In the mean time Captain Moore, having 
been reinforced by about one hundred and fifty 
men from Centralia, Iowa, on the opposite side 
of the river, gave chase to the rebels for about 
a mile and a half, killing one, taking eighteen 
prisoners, and capturing thirty-one horses and 
two secession fiags. Several of the rebels were 
also wounded in the chase. After the battle^ 
six or eight rebels were found dead on the field. 
In the afternoon the bearer of a rebel flag of 
truce to the Union camp was admitted. They 
carried off fourteen killed, and as many more 
wounded and missing. The rebels were led by 
Martin Green, a brother of ex-Senator Green. 
Of the Union men there were three killed and 
eight wounded. — {Doc, 166.) 

— Several shots were exchanged between the 
U. S. blockading steamer off Galveston, Texas, 
and some sand batteries on shore. — {Doe, 167.) 

August 6. — All the bills which passed both 
Houses of the Congress of the United States, 
were approved by President Lincoln, who yield- 
ed a reluctant approval of that for the confisca- 
tion of property used for rebeUious purposes. — 
{Doc, 159.) 

— ^TnE brigs Naiad, Machias, and Ben Dun- 
ning, seized by the privateer steamer Sumter, 
near Cienfuegos, arrived at New York. They 
were released by order of the Spanish Gov- 
ernment, and sailed with others as far as Cape 
Antonio, under convoy of the U. S. steamer 
Crusader. — Official advices from the Gulf squad- 
ron state that, on the 4th of July off Galves- 
ton, the United States steamer South Carolina 
captured six schooners ; on the 5th, two, and ran 
one ashore; on the 6th, one, and on the 7th, 
one — making in all eleven sail destroyed or cap- 

* Athens is a Finall town In tbo extreme northeast of 
Missouri, on the Desmoiucs River, twenty>fivo or thirty 
miles from Keokuk. 



68 



BEBELLION BECOBD, ISfMMl. 



[Aua« 7. 



tared. The names of the captnred vessels are 
the Shark, Yen as, Ann Ryan, McGaalfield, 
Louisa, Dart, Oovalia, Falcon, George Baker, 
and Sam. Houston. A portion of them had 
cargoes, chiefly of lumber. Among other things 
captured were 13 mail bags, and 81 bags con- 
taining express matter. — If. F. Times, August 7. 

— Queen Victoria, in her speech to the Brit- 
ish Parliament this day, said: — '^The dissen- 
sions which arose some months ago in the 
United States of North America, have anfortn- 
natcly assumed the character of open war. Her 
Majesty, deeply lamenting this calamitous re- 
sult, has determined, in common with the other 
powers of Europe, to preserve a strict neutral- 
ity between tlie contending parties. — l/mdan 
IfewSj August 7. 

— ^TiiERE was great excitement in the House 
of Representatives at Washington this morning. 
The near approach of the hour of adjourning, 
and the busy and exciting scenes which always 
attend the adjournment, attracted quite a crowd 
of ladies and gentlemen to the galleries. The 
Senate went into executive session at an early 
hour, and thus sent their spectators into the 
galleries of the House of Representatives. 
Witiiin a few minutes of the hour of adjourn- 
ment, a most exciting scene took place in the 
House. A lull had occurred in the business, 
when Mr. Wickliffe, of Kentucky, arose and 
stated to the House that the elections in his 
State had gone largely for the Constitution, 
and that the people of Kentucky had declared 
that their State, among the first in the Union, 
should be among the last in the Union. The an- 
nouncement created a scene of indescribable 
enthusiasm. Cheer after cheer arose from the 
floor and galleries, and the Speaker, unable 
to control the assembly, yielded to the general 
enthusiasm of the moment. — Phila, Press, Au- 
gust*!, 

August 7. — John C. Breckinridge was sere- 
naded at a hotel in Baltimore, and in response 
essayed to address those assembled in the street, 
but was compelled to desist by the uproar of the 
crowd, who shouted for the "Union," "Crit- 
tenden," "Scott," etc. — Baltimore American, 
August 9. 

— Gen. Maobudeb, C. S. A., with a force of 
7,000 men, including 200 cavalry and eight 
pieces of artillery, viz., three Parrott guns, 
foar howitzers, and one rifled cannon, took 



up a position on Back River, three miles 
from Hampton, Virginia. The intention was 
to draw out the national forces, attack Camp 
Hamilton or Newport News if practicable, and 
at least to destroy Hampton, bo as to prevent 
its use by the U. S. troops for winter-quarters^ 
Gen. Butler at once repaired to Hampton 
Bridge, where he remained until 11 o'clock p. 
M. Col. Weber erected a barricade near the 
Hampton end of the bridge, and placed a strong 
guard at various points near. 

A few minutes past midnight, Gen. Magru- 
der, with about 500 Confederates — some of them 
belonging in Hampton — entered the town, and 
immediately fired the buildings with torches. 
A greater part of the five hundred houses were 
built of wood, and no rain having fallen lately, 
the strong south wind soon produced a terrible 
conflagration. There were perhaps twenty 
white people and double that number of negroes 
remaining in the town from inability to move, 
some of whose houses were fired without wak- 
ing the inmates. They gave Cary Jones and 
his wife, both of them aged and infirm, but fif- 
teen minutes to remove a few articles of fur- 
niture to the garden. Several of the whites 
and also of the negroes were hurried away to 
be pressed into the Confederate service. Mr. 
Scofield, a merchant, took refuge in a swamp 
above the town. Two negroes were drowned 
while attempting to cross the creek. A com- 
pany of rebels attempted to force the passage 
of the bridge, but were repulsed with a loss of 
three killed and six wounded. They then with- 
drew. The fire raged all night and entirely 
destroyed the town. — (Doe, 168.) 

— The Ohio Democratic State Convention 
met at Columbus to-day 4uid nominated H. J. 
Jewett for Governor and John Scott Harrison 
for Lieutenant-Governor. A series of resola- 
tions were adopted. The third recommends 
the Icgislatnres of the States to call a National 
Convention for settling the present diffionldes 
and restoring and preserving the Union. The 
sixth resolution condemns the President's late 
attempt to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. 
'^National Intelligeneer, August 10. 

— The United States gun boat Flag arrived 
at Fort Mifflin, on the Delaware River, this 
morning with thirty-six rebel prisoners, taken 
from the rebel war vessel. Petrel, formerly the 
revenue cutter Aiken, seized at Charleston last 
winter. The Aiken fired at the St Lawrence, off 



Aco. 8.] 



DIABT OF EVENTa 



69 



Charleston, mistaking her for a merchant ves- 
mI, when the St. Lawrence returned a broad- 
ftide^ sinking the rebel. Five of the crew were 
loafc) and Uie rest rescued and placed on board 
the Fbg. — Philadelphia Press^ Attgtut 8. 

— IsHAM G. Hasbis, Governor of Tennessee, 
appeals to the people of that State " to raise, 
organize, and thoronghly prepare a reserve 
force of thirty thousand volunteers." — (Doe. 
169.) 

Auguit 8. — ^This evening, at Baltimore, Md., 
Charles King, from North Carolina, was arrest- 
ed bj officer Stevens, of the Southern District, 
by order of Major-General Dix, on the charge 
of being concerned in the raising of a number 
of men, whose purpose it was to organize them- 
selves into a crewy and take passage on some 
boat, iutending to capture it in the same man- 
ner as the St. Nicholas, and then turn her into 
a pirate. — Baltimore Patriot^ August 9. 

— Th£ Nineteenth Regiment of Indiana Vol- 
nnteers passed through Philadelphia for the 
seat of war. — If. Y, Eeraldy August 9. 

~F. K. ZoixiooFFEB was appointed a brig- 
adier-general in the rebel army, and assigned to 
the command of the Department of East Ten- 
nessee. On assuming hb command, he issued 
a prodamatioa assuring all who desire peace, 
that they can have it by quietly and harmlessly 
pursaing their lawful avocations. — (JDoc. 171.) 

—The Massachusetts Fifteenth Regiment, 
under the command of Oolonel Charles Devens, 
left Camp Scott, Worcester, Mass., for the seat 
of war. This regiment is armed with the Spring- 
field mosket, and numbers 1,046 men. They 
are all tali, muscular men, possessing the light- 
ness of limb and full development of natural 
powers which denote the true specimen of a 
soldier. Their dresa consists of the regular 
army anifurm — gray pantaloons, blue coats, and 
hat, which is as neat and useful a thing as our 
fighting men could have. — N. Y. JBerpld, Au* 
gvtt 10. 

— OyE nuKDBBD men of the Nineteenth Reg- 
iment N. Y. v., commanded by Oapt. Kennedy, 
crossed the Potomac at Rock Ferry, at 1 a. m., 
sad marched to Lorrettsville, Loudon co., Va., 
where it was reported that a company of rebel 
caralry were engaged in the impressment of 
citizens. When they reached the town the 
T^lshad left^and they retraced their steps; 
bot late in the afternoon, while upon their re- ' 



turn march, they were overtaken with word 
that another detachment of about 130 cavalry 
had entered the town. Tired and worn out, 
almost shoeless, and hungry, the brave fcUowa 
with a shout at once voted unanimously to re- 
turn and attack the rebels. Starting at a 
double-quick time they reached the town, and 
under the cover of a corn-field gained sight of 
the cavalry about thirty rods distant. Resting 
for a few minutes, they heard the rebel captain 
give orders to mount, and believing tlicy had 
been discovered and were about to be charged 
upon. Captain Kennedy charged upon the town 
at a double-quick, firing two volleys as they 
ran. The enemy, after firing a few harmless 
shots, made their way, concealed by houses, out 
of the opposite side of the town, but not until 
they had one lieutenant killed and Eve men 
wounded. — i^T. F. 77m€», Auguat 13. 

— ^Tbe ofi^ce of the Democratic Standard at 
Concord, N. H., was completely relieved of its 
contents this afternoon by a mob composed of 
the soldiers of the returned First Regiment 
and citizens. The Standard published an articlp 
reflecting on the soldiers. They demanded re- 
traction, and the Palmers — the editors and pro- 
prietors — shook pistols and axes out of the win- 
dows and dared the mob, while the city author- 
ities endeavored to quell tlie disturbance. The 
Palmers fired four shots, wounding two soldiers. 
The ofi^ce was immediately stripped, and the 
materials burnt in the street. The Palmers 
took refuge in the attic, but were finally found 
and carried to the police station, protected by 
the police, though with great difficulty. — (Doc 
172.) 

— DissATiSFAonoN at the supposed intention 
of the Government not to receive men in its 
army who could not speak the English lan- 
guage, and a misconception of a War Depart- 
ment order upon the subject, led to the with- 
drawal as thus stated : 

DlPABTMERT OP StATI, / 
WABBIXOTOIT, AVLgUMt 8, 1861. \ 

To F. A. Alberger^ Etq,, Mayor of the city of 
Buffalo, IT. Y, : 
Deab Sib : I have to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of 5 th inst., and to state in re- 
ply, that the order to which it refers was offi- 
cially explained a day or two since by the Sec- 
retary of War, but having still been a subject 
of great misapprehension it has now been en- 
tirely rescinded and vacated. Consequently 
there is no obstacle whatever to the acceptance 



60 



REBELLION RECORD, 18C0-61. 



[AUGh 'A 



of the serTices of volanteers, on the ground of 
their nationality or langaage. The contest for 
the Union is regarded, as it oaght to be, a bat- 
tle of the freemen of the world for the institu- 
tions of self-government. 

I am very truly yours, 

William H. Sbwasd. 

— In a communication of this date, in re- 
spect to the disposition to ho made of contra- 
bands, the Secretary of War informed General 
Butler that he was to be governed by the act 
of Congress, 1861, which " declares that if per- 
sons held to service shall be employed in hos- 
^lity to the United States, the right to their 
services shall be forfeited." — {Doc, 178.) 

— ^Thb Massachusetts Fourteenth Regiment, 
under the command of Colonel Wm. R. Greene, 
left Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, for the seat 
of war. The regiment numbers 1,046 mem- 
bers. Their uniform is light brown pants, deep 
blue jacket, light blue overcoat, and regulation 
hat. They are armed with the Springfield 
musket of the pattern of 1842. They have 
with them twenty-four baggage wagons, four 
ambulances, two hospital wagons, and 220 
horses. 

All the field and staff officers of this regi- 
ment but two are nati ves of Massachusetts. Of 
the whole corps 350 are married men, and 5 
widowers with families. It has one " gentle- 
man,'^ a host of shoemakers and laborers, and 
samples of every kind of craftsmen and opera- 
tives known among us. There are several 
teachers on the roll, and one *' missionary." 
There are a great many blacksmiths — morc 
than any other regiment probably will average. 
The Amesbnry section (Co. E) has thirteen 
disciples of Vulcan on its roll. The farmers 
are about equal in number to the blacksmiths. 
There are three artists, one photographer, one 
physician, only one printer, two students, and 
a number of hatters and machinists. One-half 
of the whole regiment is composed of men con- 
nected with the boot and shoe business. — 2^, 
T. World, August 9. 

— The " Confederate". Congress in session at 
Richmond, Ya., adopted the following resolu- 
tion this day : — 

Whereas it has been found that the uncer- 
tainty of maritime law in time of war has 
given rise to differences of opinion between 
neutrals and belligerents, which may occasion 
serious misunderstandings, and even conflicts; 



and whereas the Plenipotentiaries of Great 
Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, and 
Russia, at the Congress of Paris of 1856, estab- 
lished a uniform doctrine on this subject, to 
which they invited the adherence of the na- 
tions of the world, which is as follows: 

1. That privateering is and remains abolished. 

2. That the neutral flag covers the enemy *8 
goods, with the exception of contraband of war. 

8. That neutral goods, with the exception of 
contraband of war, are not liable to capture 
under the enemy's flag, and 

4. That blockades, in order to be binding, 
must be effective; that is to say, maintained by 
a force sufficient really to prevent access to the 
coast of the enemy. 

And whereas it is desirable that the Confed- 
erate States of America shall assume a definite 
position on so important a point ; now, there- 
fore, be it 

Besohed, That the Congress of the Confed- 
erate States of America accept the second, 
third, and foui-th clauses of the above-cited 
declaration, and decline to assent to the first 
clause thereof. 

— Thebe was published a letter dated April 
15, from Gen. Frost, Missouri Militia, to Gov. 
Jockeon of Missouri, apropos to the President's 
proclamation calling out 75,000 volunteers. He 
advises the Governor to convene the Legisla- 
ture, proclaim to the people of the State that 
the President's proclamation is illegal, and es- 
pecially to take St. Louis, held by United States 
troops. — {Doc 174.) 

August 9. — ^President Lincoln to-day made 
the following appointments of brigadier-gene- 
rals for the volunteer force : Colonels Blcnker 
and Slocum, of the volunteers, and Major Wads- 
worth, aide to Gen. McDowell ; Colonel John A. 
Peck, Ex-Major of the regular army, who dis- 
tinguished himself in the Mexican war; John 
II. Martindale, a graduate at West Point ; Onns- 
hy M. Mitchell, Professor of Astronomy, of 
Cincinnati, a graduate of West Point and an 
ex-army officer. 

— Obhoxd F. Nims' battery of light artillery 
left Boston for the seat of war. The company 
departed from their camp at Quincy at 7i 
o'clock last evening, and, marching through 
South Boston, reached the Providence depot at 
11^ o'clock. An hour and a half was occupied 
in getting their guns, horses, and carriages on 
the cars. The battery consists of six rifled 6- 



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I-;N I'.I,K.N Kl'lK U.S.A. 



Aoo. 10.] 



DIARY OF STENm 



61 



poanders, and besides the regular caissons it 
lias baggage wagons, forges, magazines, etc. 
Six hundred Schenckl*s shell and Jameses pro- 
jectile were sent from the State Arsenal for 
the use of the battery. 

— Tbs United States Marshal, at Boston, 
Mass., arrested a person who registered himself 
at the Parker House as " G. Jordan, Pittsburg, 
Pa.,*' but who subsequently has confessed him- 
self as John Williams, of Norfolk, Ya., and was 
rapposed to hold a commission in the rebel 
armj. He was arrested as a spy, and by 
orders received from the Secretary of War, 
was sent to Fort Lafayette, New York harbor. 
— ^Y. Y. TribuM, August 11. 

— ^Tni Third Regiment of Connecticut Vol- 
unteers, who were in the battle at Bull Rnn, 
returned to Hartford, and were received amid 
the firing of guns, the cheers of the firemen and 
military, and an immense throng of citizens, 
who had assembled to welcome them home. — 
K. Y, Tribune^ August 11. 

— ^LiEUT.-CoL. Robert Nugent, of the Sixty- 
ninth Regiment N. Y. S. M., was appointed to 
a captaincy in the regular army of the United 
States. Captain Nugent was born in the North 
of Ireland, his brother John M. being at pres- 
ent the Mayor of Dundalk. He came to Amer- 
ica immediately after the abortive insurrection 
of '48 ; and having strong military tastes, soon 
enrolled his name in the Fourth Company of 
the N. Y. National Guards, and served two years 
under Captain Riblet. On the organization 
of the Sixty-ninth in '52, Captain Nugent be- 
came one of its earliest ofScers, and has served 
faithfully in its ranks as Lieutenant, Captain, 
Major, and Lieutenant-Colonel down to the 
present day.^aV. F. Tribune^ August 11. 

— ^6e:tbba.l Lyoit learned that the rebels, 

22,000 in number, under Ben. McCulloch, were 

on "Wilson's Creek, nine miles from Springfield, 

Mo., and moved against them with his whole 

force, only 5,200. The force was disposed in 

two columns. One under Col. Siegel with his 

own regiment, and that of Col. Salomon's, and 

«x guns, moved 15 miles in a southerly direction 

to turn the enemy's right flank, and the other 

«ttdcr Gen. Lyon moved forward to attack in 

front Lyon's column consisted of the Missouri 

First, Iowa First, Kansas First and Second, 

P«rt ^the Missouri Second, a detachment from 

VA>1. Wyman's lUinois Regiment, all volunteers • 



eight hundred regulars, and two batteries of 4 
and 6 guns respectively. There were also four 
mounted companies of Home Guards. Both 
columns left Springfield at about 8 p. m. — St. 
Louis Democrat^ August 12. 

August 10. — Gen Lyon's column marched 
until 2 ▲. M., when it was halted for two hours. 
Capt. Gilbert's regulars were thrown out as 
skirmishers at 4 A. m., and the column moved 
forward. At 5 oVlock the enemy's pickets 
wore driven in, and soon after the army came 
in sight of the rebels' position. McCulloeh^s 
camp extended in a valley along Wilson's Creek 
for three miles, and followed the bends of the 
streams to the north at its western extremity, 
and to the south at the eastern. Siegcl's at- 
tack was to bo made at the latter point, and 
Lyon moved, tlierefore, upon the western and 
northern extremity, down the head of the val- 
ley. Blair^s First Missouri Regiment at about 
6 o'clock drove a full regiment of infantry from 
a ridge at the end of the encampment, and at 
the same time Totten's battery threw some 
shells among the enemy's tents. Blair's regi- 
ment moved forward up a second ridge, upon 
which they encountered a Louisiana regiment. 
Here they were reinforced, and finally gained 
the summit, driving the rebels before them. 
Two companies of regulars were at this time 
sent across the creek eastwardly to engage a 
rebel force in that direction, but were com- 
pelled to retire; when Lieut. Dubois opened 
his battery from the second ridge won, and 
threw a number of shells which exploded with 
great effect, and completely ronted this body. 
Blair's regiment was now withdrawn, and the 
Iowa First ordered to take its place, and the 
Kansas regiments to support the Iowa First. 
An attempt to charge with his cavalry was next 
made by McCulloch, but the charge was entirely 
broken by the fire of Totten's battery. Both 
batteries were soon in position, and the battle 
resolved itself into the enemy's attempt to dis- 
lodge them, and regain the ridges from which 
he had been driven. In this attempt he was 
repeatedly foiled. At about nine o'clock, as 
the enemy came on again. Gen. Lyon, who had 
received three wounds, put himself at the head 
of the Iowa Urst to lead a charge with tho 
bayonet, when he received a rifle ball in tho 
breast and fell dead. His fall, however, w^as 
not generally known. Mtgor Sturgis assumed 
the command, and the battle went on.— Mean- 



62 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Aug. 10. 




PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF WILSON^S CREEK, MO, 

This diagram was drawn by Frederick William Recder, of Company C, First United States OaTaliy, 
who participated in the battle. 



EXPLANATION 

-4— Capt Tottcn's Battery. 
i?--Section of Capt Totten's Battery, 
(7— CapL Dubois's Battery. 
D — Corn-field — ^hotly contested. 
^— Log house — ^hotly contested. 
jP— Ambulances for sick. 
O — Second Missouri Volunteers. 
// — Second Kansas Volunteers. 
/—♦Spot where Gen. Lyon fell. 
AT— Masked rebel batteries. 
L — First Kansas, Pirst Missouri, First lowa-^Capt 
Steele's Battalion, 
i/— Capt Fluramer's Battalion. 
iV^Home Guards— mounted. 



OF DiAORAlf. 

O — Kansas Rangers — ^mounted. 
P — Col. SiegePs position. 
Q — Train of rebels — pari. 
R — Concealed battery — rebeL 
5— Town of Little York. 
7^— Springfield, 

t/"— Fayetteville road — ^the road by whidi CoL 
Sicgel advanced upon the rebel camp. 
K— Rebel cavalry— 1,200 strong. 
ir— SiegeVs Bri^de— Third and fifth MissouiL 
X — Road throu^ rebel camp, 
y— McCullough's head-qua 
Z — ^Rains's head-quarters. 

—K, y. irorW,Aug.«l 



Aits. 10.] 



DIARY OP EVENTS. 



68 



time, Geo. Siegel made his attack apon MoGal- 
locli*s right, drove the rebels for half a mile from 
their position aad took possession of that ex- 
tremity of their camp ; bat his advance was 
broicen by the fire of a fuU regiment that ho 
bad permitted to approacli in the belief that it 
was a reinforcement from Gen. Lyon. Unable 
to rally Salomon^s regiment, he was driven 
back with tlie loss of five guns. About noon, 
the enemy^s tents and his whole baggage train 
were destroyed by fire, supposed to have been 
his own act. The fight still continued in front, 
and the last advance of the enemy, made at one 
p. M., was driven back by the wliolo national 
force in the field. Immediately after, Major 
Stui^is ordered a movement toward Spring- 
field, and the whole force fell back in good 
order. McCuUoch made no pursuit. The 
national loss was 800 in killed and wounded. 
Though the rebel loss is not known, it is thought 
to have been very large, as the national artil- 
lery fire was remarkably accurate.— {Z>oc. 175.) 

— Thb Spanish Minister announced to the 
Secretary of State at Washington, that the 
seven American vessels captured by the pirate 
Sumter and carried into Cienfuegos, had been 
discharged by order of the Spanish Govern- 
ment. — Woihington Republican^ August 11. 

— ^To-dat Lieutenant Budd, commanding the 
steamer Resolute, cleared out one of the rebel 
depots on the Potomac. It has been known 
for some time that the Herring Creek on the 
Maryland side, and Machodock Greek opposite 
on the Virginia side, were the depot for Mary- 
land recruits to tlie rebel army in Virginia. 
The Resolute having approached within 300 
yards of the shore of the creek, was fired on 
with musketry. A boat was immediately low- 
ered, and Lient Budd with twelve men landed. 
The rebels fled at their approach and were pur- 
sued for A mile, but made their escape. Two 
muskets and a knapsack which they threw 
away in flight were picked up. Upon return- 
ing to the honso abundant evidence that it had 
been a rebel rendezvous, and papers containing 
important information, were found. The bnild- 
ings were destroyed, and ton contrabands found 
on the promises were brought away. 

After leaving the creek, Lieut- Budd learned 
from the n^roes that there were 800 of the 
rebels concentrated at the Hague, about five 
milei back from the river, and that their ferry- 
boat was about three-quarters of a mile up the I 



creek. Meeting the schooner Dana, he took 
her gun and crew upon the Resolute, and plac- 
ing tlie negroes in charge of two men of the 
Dana, he went up the creek and captured a 
large boat capable of carrying 25 or 80 men, 
but saw nothing of the rebels. 

— ^The prize schooner Geo. V. Baker, of Gal- 
veston, and her confederate crew of four men 
in irons, were carried under the guns of Fortress 
Monroe. The schooner was captured by one of 
the United States blockadingfieet off Galveston, 
Texas, and sent to New York with the United 
States crew on board. She was captured yes- 
terday off Cape Hatteras by the rebel privateer 
York, who put four of her own men on board. 
Meanwhile the York was seen by the United 
States gunboat Union, who gave chase and 
burnt the privateer, but not until the crow had 
beached her and escaped. The Union then 
recaptured the Baker, and her crew. 

— ^IsnAu G. Habris issued an order to the 
clerks of the county courts of Tennessee, re- 
questing them to search the residences of the 
people for arms of every description, and to for- 
ward such arms to the military autljoritics at 
Nashville, Memphis, or Knoxville.— (Z><h?. iToJ.) 

— Between the hours of six and seven this 
evening eighty mounted men, led by Capt. 
White and a refugee named Talbot, attacked a 
smaller number of Home Guards at Potosi, 
Missouri, and were repulsed with a loss of 
two killed and three wounded. One man of 
the Home Guards was killed. — St Lcmis Dem" 
oeraty August 12. 

— ^PuoF. La Mountain made two successful 
balloon ascensions at Fortress Monroe, having 
attained an altitnde of three thousand feet. He 
found the encampment of the Confederate forces 
to be about three miles beyond Newmarket 
Bridge, Va. Tliere were no traces of the rebels 
near Hampton. A considerable force is also 
encamped on the east side of James River, 
some eight miles above Newport Nt^ws. The 
two cannon mounted at Sewall's Point toward 
Old Point, ho thinks, are only large field- 
pieces. There are, perhaps, one thousand Oon- 
federates at SewalPs Point.— jV. Y, Timcs^ Au- 
gust 18. 

— ^TnE Western Virginia State Convention, in 
a series of resolutions, declared itself " unalter- 
ably opposed to any compromise with the reb- 
els."— (-^^- 176.) 



64 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-«L 



[Aoa. 11. 



— ^The Helena (Arkansas) Shield^ of this day, 
contains the following: — From the lion. G. W. 
Adams of this county, who arrived at home a 
few days since from the northern part of this 
State, we barn that on last Monday week thir- 
teen hundred Indian warriors — Southern allies 
—crossed the Arkansas River near Fort Smith, 
en route for McCuIIoclfs camp. These Indians 
are nnned with rifle, butcher knife, and toma- 
hawk, and had their faces painted, one half red, 
and the other black. Wo also learn that a reg- 
iment of mounted Tcx.ins likewise crossed the 
Arkansas at or near Fort Smith, for the same 
destination. 

August 11. — ^The Ilagcrstown Herald of to- 
day says : The Union men of the border coun- 
ties in Virginia continue to seek refuge in Ma- 
ryland from the frightful tyranny which the 
rebels are practising in that State. Within 
the last week upward of fifty have crossed the 
river from Berkeley and Morgan counties, leav- 
ing behind them their families and homos, to 
avoid being pressed into iho service. One of 
the number brought with him the following 
notice, which he took from a blacksmitirs shop 
in Morgan County : 

All the militia belonging to the Eighty-ninth 
Regiment V. M., are ordered to meet at Oak- 
land, on Monday next, as early as they can, in 
order to march to head-quarter**, Winchester, 
forthwith — ^and I would make a friendly re- 
quest of those men that failed to go before, for 
them to turn out now like true-hearted Virgin- 
ians, and what they have done will be looked 
over, but if they do not regard this call they 
will work their own ruin. — They can never be 
citizens of Virginia, and their property will be 
confiscated. The General will send a troop of 
horse to Morgan as soon as we leave, and all 
tl)oso men that fail to do their duty will be 
hunted up, and what the consequence will be 
I am unable to say. Samuel Jodnstox, 

Jaly 24, 1861. Col. SQth Beglmcni V. H. 

Tills is the condition of affairs to which the 
citizens of Maryland are invited by their legis- 
lators and the sympathizers with secession. 

— ^Earlt this morning, Gen. Siege), in com- 
mand of the force lately under Gen. Lyon at 
Wilson's Creek, fell back to Springfield in good 
order, and subsequently to Rolla, Mo. — N, Y. 
TinuSj August ICu 

— General nuRLBinrr, in command of the 
national forces at Palmyra, Mo., issued an order 



to the county authorities of Marion County, Mo., 
requiring the delivery by them of a stated 
amount of rations to his troops every day, and 
threatening, if the order was not promptly 
obeyed, to billet the regiment npon the city of 
Palmyra. — (Doc, 177.) 

August 12. — Charles J. Faulkner, late U. 8. 
Minister to France, was arrested in Washington 
by the Provost Marshal. The order for his ar- 
rest was issued from the War Department. A 
heavy detachment of infantry accompanied the 
Marshal to guard against any* disturbance that 
the arrest might prompt. Mr. Faulkner ac- 
knowledged the authority, and signified his 
readiness to accompany the officer. lie was 
taken to the jail, where the other prisoners of 
war are confined. Mr. Faulkner occupies a 
lower fi(ior of the jail, and has a ward adjoining 
that of Dr. Fleming, of Virginia, who is also a 
prisoner and a man of wealth and influence. 
When first arrested, be was somewhat excited, 
but he shortly recovered himself, and during 
the afternoon conversed freely with one of tlie 
officers on the condition of France. When 
asked how the rebellion was regarded there, he 
answered, " France, sir, deeply regrets it." He 
also stated that he had his passes all ready, and 
intended to leave for his home in Virginia to- 
day. In his conversation he carefully avoids 
ejcpressing any opinion as to the political con- 
dition of the country. The charges upon which 
the arrest is based, are his successful efforts to 
procure arms in Europe for the use of the reb- 
els, and the fact that he was going home to as- 
sume command of a regiment of rebels who had 
elected him colonel. — K F. I^me», August 18. 

— Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States, in accordance with a resolution of Con- 
gress, issued a proclamation, appointing a day 
of public fasting and prayer, to be observed by 
the pectple of the United States with religious 
solemnities and the offering of fervent supplica- 
tions to Almighty God for the safety and wel- 
fare of the country, His blessings on the national 
arms, and a speedy restoration of peace.— {.Dew. 
178.) 

— At one o'clock this afternoon, the office of 
the Democrat^ a secession sheet published at 
Bangor, Me., was visited by a large number of 
people. During an alarm of fire, a crowd en- 
tered the office, cleared it of every thing it con- 
tained, and burned the contents in the street, 
Mr. Emery, the editor of the paper, escaped un- 



Aca. 13.] 



DIABT OF EVENTS. 



65 



Larmed. A man who made some demonstra- 
tions in opposition to the acts of the mob, was 
badly Qsed, bnt was finally rescued and put in 

jaiL 

^UDOE 0ATB02r, of the United States Su- 
preme Court, was expelled from Nashville, 
Tenn., hj a Vigilance Oommittee, for his refusal 
to resign his office under the United States Gov- 
ernment.— .flSsl^iiMrtf American^ Aug%ut 14. 

_ ■ 

— Osir. Wool was ordered to the command 
<^ tb^ Southeastern District of Virginia, head- 
quarters at Fortress Monroe.— The Eleventh 
Regiment of Kew York Volunteers (First Fire 
Zoaaves)left Washington for New York. — 7}roy 
Jmius, Auguit 18. 

— TifENTY-Two released prisoners of war ar- 
rived at Fortress Monroe from Norfolk, Va,, un- 
der a flag of truce. They comprise the following 
persons: — Surgeons, Edward T. Taylor, First 
New Jersey ; Jacob A. Stewart, First Minnesota ; 
Eugene Peugnet, Seventy-first New York ; Fos- 
ter Swift, Eighth New York ; S. 0. Thunkins, 
Fonrth M^ne ; B. F. Buckstone, Fifth Maine ; 
Wm. n. Allen, Second Maine ; Jas. M. Lewis, 
Second Wisconsin; Gustavus Winston, New 

York Eighth ; Chas. DeGraw, do. ; Nor- 

val, Seventy-ninth New York. These surgeons 
rem:uned at Sudley Church and the stone build- 
ing after the battle, attending the wounded, 
and were taken prisoners. They remained, 
some at Bull Run and others at Manassas Junc- 
tion, attending upon the wounded for two 
weeks after the battle, and then were sent to 
Richmond. Finally they were released on pa- 
role and sent within the national lines, via Nor- 
folk. They have been courteously and kindly 
treated by the military authorities of the *' Con- 
federate^ States, and ^ve the most unqualified 
denial to all stories of the killing or ill-treatment 
of the wounded. Mrs. Curtis, of New York, 
who went out a day or two after the battle 
and was taken prisoner, is also released. — (Doe, 
170.) 

—Bex. MoGullooh, in a. general order, con- 
gratulated "the army under his command^' 
npoa the victory at Wilson^s Creek, and hoped 
that " the laurels they had guned " would *' not 
be tamidied by a single outrage." He also is- 
f«d a proclamation to the people of Missouri, 
calling upon them to act either for the North 
or the South.— <2)«j. 180.) 

Art^ua 13.— -The New Orleans Delta of to- 

VOU II.— DlAET 6 



day rejoices over the contemplated expulsion of 
all citizens of the United States *' from the Con- 
federated States." The law, it states, is, and 
the fact is confirmed from other sources, that 
all owning citizenship to the Federal Govern- 
ment are to be banished from the Confeder- 
ated States. The Delta says : 

** We cannot afford to tolerate enemies in our 
midst, because, forsooth, they may have the dis- 
cretion to keep silent and to bear no arms in 
their hands. Tbe man of Massachusetts, or the 
man of Kentucky, living, and perhaps thriving 
in our midst, has no business at this time to be 
among us, if he allows a reasonable suspicion 
to exist that he is not also cordially with us." 

— A SEVBBB skirmish took place a few miles 
from Grafton, Va., on the Fairmount and Web- 
ster road. Information having been received 
that a regularly organized body of rebels, living 
in the county, were lodged within a few mUes 
of Webster, General Kelly sent Captain Day- 
ton, of Company A, Fourth Virginia Regiment, 
with fifty men, from Webster to disarm them. 
After scouting nearly twenty-four hours he came 
suddenly on them, and after an hour's severe 
fighting, succeeded in killing twenty-one and 
putting the others to fiight, without loss to 
his command. The rebels numbered 200, and 
were composed of the worst characters of the 
county, led on by Zack Cochrane, sheriff under 
Gov. Letcher. — Ohio Statetman^ August 16. 

— ^Thb banks of New York, Philadelphia, and 
Boston agreed to toikQ fifty milliona of the Gov- 
ernment loan, they to be the sole recipients of 
the Treasury notes. 

William Gray, Franklin Haven, and J. Amory 
Davis were chosen a committee by the Boston 
bank directors to confer with the committees 
of the New York and Philadelphia banks in 
regard to the Government loan. The meeting 
adopted the following instructions to the Com- 
mittee : 

" That the Committee be authorized to say to 
the gentlemen of the Committees from the New 
York and Philadelphia banks, that, in the judg- 
ment of the gentlemen here assembled, the 
banks and bankers of Boston and of the State 
of Massachusetts and its people are prepared, 
ready, willing, and determined to do all in 
their power, in view of their duty to them- 
selves, their trusts and their country, to aid it 
in suppressing the present rebellion by furnish- 
ing men and money to the utmost extent of 



w 



REBELUOK RECOHD» 180O-6L 



[Avo. 14, 



tiieir ability, now, henceforth and forever.*^ — 
If. Y, Ecenin^ Po%t^ Augtut 14, 

— General Pope, at St. Loaia, Mo., issued a 
general order, establishing regulations for the 
navigation of the Missouri River. — (Doe, 181.) 

August 14.— >Jefferson Davis, at Richmond, 
Va., issued a proclamation, notifying all resi- 
dents of the ^ Confederate " States, who do not 
acknowledge the authority of the same, to leave 
the ** Confederacy '' in forty days from the date 
of the proclamation. — (Doe. 182.) 

— ^RoBBBT MuiR, of Charleston, S. C, and 
oonsin of the British consul at Now Orleans, 
was arrested on board the steamer Africa at 
New York, just as she was leaving, as bearer 
of despatches from Jeff. Davis to the British 
Grovemment. Several papers, showing he was 
such a person, wore found on him. — Kational 
Intelligenc4ry August 16. 

— Col. Fabnhah, of the K Y. Blre Zouaves, 
died this evening at Washington of wounds re- 
ceived in the battle of Bull Run. — Idem. 

— ^Pboolahation of martial law, as follows, 
was made in St. Louis, Missouri : 

HIAS-QITASTBB8 WsBTSVIT DbPAKTHBIT, ) 

8t. Louiti Augost U. S 

I hereby declare and establish martial law in 
the city and county of St. Louis. Mc\jor J. Mc- 
Kinstry, United States Army, is appointed pro- 
vost-marshal. All orders and regulations issued 
by him will be respected and obeyed accord- 
ingly. (Signed) J. C. Fremont, 

H^r-Oeneral CommondiDg. 

Provost-n\arshal McEinstry thereupon issued 
a proclamation calling upon all good citizens to 
obey the rules it has been deemed necessary to 
establish, in order to insure and preserve the 
public peace, accompanied with the assurance 
that the civil law will remain in force, and the 
military authority only be used when civil law 
proves inadequate to maintain the public safety ; 
and that auy violation of the order will be fol- 
lowed by prompt punishment, regardless of 
persons or positions.— -(i>ac. 188.) 

— This afternoon at St. Louis, Provost-mar- 
shal McEinstry suppressed the publication of 
the War BuUetin and the Missauriany two 
newspapers which had been *^ shamelessly de- 
voted to the publication of transparently false 
statements respecting military movements in 
Missouri." — St, Louis Demoeratj August 15. 

-^BXEBAL Fbeicont Ordered a re-oiganlEa- 



tion of the United States Reserve Corps in St. 
Louis, to comprise five regiments of infantry, 
with a reserve of two companies to each two 
squadrons of cavalry, and two batteries of light 
artillery, the troops to be required to enlist for 
the war, subject to the same regulations and re- 
ceive the same pay as volunteer regiments. — If. 
Y. World, August 15. 

--The First Fire Zouaves (Eleventh N. Y. 
Y.) arrived in New York' City, and were dis* 
charged on furlough. Previous to the discharge 
they were addressed in front of the City HaU 
by Gen. Prosper M. Wetmore* — N. Y. Ewening 
Posty August 15. 

— ^A MTTronr broke out in the camp of the 
New York Seventy-ninth Regiment near Wash- 
ington. Among their alleged grievances are^ 
that it is proposed to attach them to the Sickles 
Brigade to which they object, and that they 
were promised a furlough in order to see to the 
comfort of their families, to reoi^nize, and to 
elect officers to fill existing vacancies ; and as it 
appeared likely that this furlough would not be 
given, they refused to obey orders. A detach- 
ment of regular soldiers was sent to their camp, 
to act OS circumstances might require. The re- 
sult was the arrest of forty or fifty who took a 
more active part in the insubordination. These 
were taken into Washington City about eight 
o^clock p. M., and confined as prisoners, whilst 
the remainder of the regiment were marched to 
the Navy Yard under a strong guard of cavalry. 
— <Z)(w. 184.) 

— ^The First Regiment of Minnesota Yolon* 
teers, numbering nearly eight hundred muskets, 
passed through Baltimore, Md., this morning, on 
their return home after three months* service in 
the cause of the General Government. They 
have been operating in the region of oonntry 
near Harper^s Ferry, Ya. — BaUiinore Ameri^ 
can, August 14. 

— ^Bishop Wbrtikgham of Maryland issued 
a pastoral letter to the clergy and laity of his 
diocese, with reference to the approaching fast- 
day.— (i)eHj- 185.) 

— ^Thb question of retaliation and the ex« 
change of prisoners is agitated in the Southern 
States. New Orleans papers of to-day contain 
an elaborate article on the sabject. — {Doe. 186.) 

August 15. — ^At Arlmgton, Ya., sixty non- 
oonunissioned officers and privates of the Sec- 
ond Maine Regiment of Yolnnteen, having 



▲vo. 11] 



DIART OF EVSNTSL 



67 



formaUj snd positivelj, Id the presence of the 
regiment, refused to do aoj further dutj what* 
erer, alleging that they were not legally in the 
lerTice of the United States, were, with the 
approval of the General-in-Chief, transferred, 
in arrest, from the regiment, as no longer 
worthj to serve with it, to ho sent to the Dry 
Tortngas, in the Gulf of Mexico, there to per- 
form SQch fatigae service as the officers com- 
manding might assign them, nntil they should 
hf their future conduct show themselves wor- 
thy to bear arms. — Army Orden, 

— T&B Twenty-third Regiment of Indiana 
Volanteers, under the command of Col. Sander- 
son, left the camp near New Albany, for In- 
dianapolis, and thence for the seat of war in 
MiasourL — LouimnUe Journal^ Auguit 16. 

— GoviB^OB BccKiNGnAii, of Connecticut, 
calls upon ** the loyal and patriotic citizens of 
that State to organize kx companies for four 
regiments of infantry." — (Doc, 187.) 

— Uposr the refusal of Colonel Burke, the 
officer in command at Fort Lafayette in New 
York harbor, to produce his prisoners in court 
in response to a writ of habeas corpus. Judge 
Garrison of Kings Co., N. Y., who issued the 
writ, made formal application to General Duryea 
of the miliUa in Brooklyn to ascertain what 
force could be obtained by the county to execute 
the wriL General Duryea informed the sheriff 
that about fourteen hundred men could be 
raised, but that the county was in paseuian of 
no orHUery sufficiently powerful to male an 
impretelon on the worhe^ and that it would re- 
quire between five and ten thousand men to 
take them. — i\r. F. Eoening Post^ Auguet 15. 

— This afternoon the steamer Resolute was or- 
dered from Aquia Creek to Matthias Point, Ya., 
for the purpose of reconnoitring. Seeing a ba- 
tean filled with barrels on shore Just below the 
point, a boat was sent from the Resolute with 
six men, to bring off the bateau. No sooner 
had the boat touched the beach than a volley 
of musket balla was opened upon them from a 
secession force concealed in the woods, kill- 
ing three of the men instantly, namely— John 
James Fuller, of Brooklyn, master^s mate, who, 
it was subsequently ascerttuned, was pierced by 
ten baBa ; George Seymour, captain of the gun, 
of New York, by seven, and Thomas TuUy, of 
Boston, by two balls. Earnest Walter, a native 
ofEof^bnid, was wounded in the head. Another 



volley was fired by the enemy as they moved 
their position, or as soon as they had time to 
reload. The Resolute was about seven hun- 
dred yards from the shore, and fired in the 
midst of the rebels one shot of canister and 
nine of shrapnell. The scene on board tlie 
small boat is described as heart-sickening — the 
dead lying outstretched in it, covered with their 
own blood. The boat was towed a short dis- 
tance from the shore by one of the crew named 
Sanderson, who quietly slipped into the water 
for that purpose, and thus concealed himself 
from the enemy. The other uninjured man 
lay in the boat^ horrified by the scene through 
which ho had jast passed, while the wound* 
ed man helped Sanderson to row the boat 
toward the Reliance, from which assistance 
was immediately rendered. — (Doc. 188.) 

August IC. — Colonel Ilecker, with his reg- 
iment, surprised a body of rebels, four hun- 
dred strong, near Fredericktown, Ho., early 
this morning. Ho captured all their camp 
eqnip&go, and his men ate the breakfast which 
had just been prepared by the rebels. Twelve 
prisoners were also taken. — General Prentiss 
took command of all the forces at IrontoUi 
Mo.— ^. r. Worlds August 20. 

— ^A NEW battery, erected by the rebels at a 
point a mile or two belo wAquia Creek, Ya., open- 
ed fire on the steamer Pocahontas, but inflicted 
no damage. This is the fourth battery which has 
been erected at that point. Officers report that^ 
unless the Government takes immediate action 
to expel the rebels from these positions on the 
bank of the river, navigation will be completely 
closed. The enemy^s batteries already com* 
mand a large part of the Potomac. — LouimUU 
Journal^ August 19. 

— ^In the United States Circuit Court, sitting 
in the city of New York, the Grand Jury 
brought in a presentment against the Journal 
of Commerce^ Daily News^ Day Booh^ Fro^^ 
manU Journal^ and Brooklyn Eagle^ as aiders 
and abettors of treason, and recommended that 
the Court, in its Judicial capacity, take cogni- 
zance of them. The Judge said he would turn 
over the presentment to Judge Wilson* at the 
October term.^l)^. 189.) 

— ^A SEBious affray occurred at Saybrook, 
Conn., this afternoon. A number of promi- 
nent secessionists of the State had called a 
^* peace meettng,** to oommenoe at three o'dook^ 



68 



RESELUON RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Avo. 17. 



when a peace, or secession flag was to be ndsed, 
and several speeches were to be made. Among 
the speakers who wore annoanced, and on 
hand, was W. W. Eaton, of Hartford. The 
fact becoming known in New Haven, about 
ninety residents of that city came up on the 
train this morning. On reaching Sajbrook the 
New Haven boys marched in procession to the 
flag-staff, upon which it was romored that a 
secession flag was to be raised, surrounded it, 
and immediately proceeded to hoist the Stars 
and Stripes, when Judge Golyer of Hartford, 
and a noted secessionist of Say brook, with 
others, undertook to prevent the Stars and 
Stripes from being raised, and cut the halyards, 
and it is said also made an attempt to use the 
knife upon some of the New Haven boys, when 
a desperate aSVay commenced between tlie 
secessionists and Unionists, which resulted in 
Judge Colyer having one of his cheeks dread- 
fully cut, and the great peace advocate of Say- 
brook fariug little better. Mr. Eaton was de- 
terred from making his prepared speech ; and 
quiet being restored, Capt. Joseph R. Hawley, 
of the returned First Regiment, whose bravery 
at Bull Run has been frequently alluded to, 
made a capital Union speech, which was enthu- 
siastically received by the assemblage. About 
forty of the New Haven boys returned home 
this evening, while fifty remained to watch 
movements for the night, and probably take 
care of the flag-staff so that no secession flag 
should be raised upon it. The Aug which the 
secessionists intended to hoist was a white one 
with the word " Peace " inscribed thereon. — 
IT. Y. Worlds August 17. 

— ^Thb President declared by proclamation 
that, as their rebellious populations had failed 
to disperse and return to their duty as bidden 
in his proclamation of Feb. 28, the States 
of South Carolina, North Carolina, Greorgia, 
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, 
Virginia, Tennessee, and Arkansas were in a 
state of insurrection, and that all commercial 
intercourse with them "is unlawful, and will 
remain unlawful until such insurrection shall 
cease, or has been suppressed.'^—- (Z>0e. 190.) 

— ^FiFTT-EioBT THOUSAND D0LLAB8 Were Seiz- 
ed by U. S. troops at Genevieve, Missouri, and 
taken to St. Louis. — If. F. Eerald, August 18. 

— ^All safe-conducts, passes, etc., hitherto 
granted to enter or go beyond the U. S. army 



lines in Virginia, were revoked by general 
order.— -4rmy Order, No, 4. 

August 17.— At Clarksburg, Virginia, this 
day, Gen. Bosecrans issued the following order 
in reference to the arrest and discharge of 
prisoners : 

HSAD-QUABTBftS AltMT Of OOCVT AT10S, } 

CLABKSBimo, Wcftt«ra Va., Batarday, Aug. 17, ISSl. \ 

Great looseness and irregularity prevail in 
the arrest and discharge of prisoners. Much 
care and discretion must be exercised in the 
arrest of persons merely suspected, and proofs 
obtained if possible; but when proofs exist, and 
particularly when taken with arms in band, or 
with any evidence of intention or preparation 
to pursue other than a perfectly peaceable 
course, no prisoner tokatever wiU he reUasedf 
but as soon as practicable he will be for- 
warded, with a fall statement of his case, to 
these head-quarters. By order of 

Bbio.-Gen. Robscbaks. 

Geo. L. Hartsuf^ Assistant Adjutant- General. 

— At Louisville, Ky., a peace meeting, called 
by prominent secessionists for this evening, 
was held at the Court House in that city. As 
the crowd entered the hall, many were singing 
the SCar-Spacgled Banner. James Speed, a 
Unionist, was called to the chair, and James 
Trabue, secessionist, was also nominated by 
the persons calling the meeting. A divi^on 
of the house took place, when Speed was de- 
clared elected. The secessionists^ about one 
hundred in number, then withdrew shouting 
for the Southern Confederacy. Speeches were 
made by Messrs. Speed, Wolf, Harlan, and 
others, and resolutions were adopted with but 
one dissenting voice. 

The seceders from the meeting reorganized 
at Concert Hall. James Trabne was called 
to the chair, and John Bell appointed Sec- - 
retary. On motion, Wm. Garvin, Wm. At- 
wood, Samuel Casseday, Wm. Inman, and A. 
L. Shotwell were appointed a Conmiittee on 
Resolutions, who, after retirement, reported a 
series of resolutions, which were adopted 
unanimonsly.^Z>oe. 191.) 

— ^Ybbtsbdat, and to-day the Eighteenth, 
Twenty-second, Twenty-fourth, and Thirty- 
third Indiana Regiments left for St. Louis, Mo. 
Eight companies of a cavalry regiment left for 
the same destination on Monday last. — Western 
New Yorker^ August 22. 

— ^Thx statement, several days ago, that the 




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Acq. IB.] 



DIART OF EVENTS. 



69 



rebels were slowlj moving their forces to the 
line of the Potomac, with a view of entering 
SCarjland and encoaraging and supporting the 
reYolntionary spirit in that State with an ulti- 
Qiate design on Washington, is now repeated 
with increased assnrance of its trath, and with 
sach evidences as cannot bo disregarded. 

With a view of meeting all possible contin- 
gencies which may arise in connection with this 
subject, the Administration issued an order ur- 
gently requesting the governors of the several 
loyal States to forward immediately to Wash- 
ington all volunteer regiments or parts of regi- 
ments, that ore now enrolled within their re- 
ffpective States. 

— To-2noHT, between the hours of nine and ten 
oVlock, a remarkable phenomenon was visible 
in the western sky. The moon was surrounded 
by a halo of red, white and blue, extending a 
distance of seven or eight degrees. The colors 
were distinctly marked, presenting a beautiful 
appearance, and attracted the attention of a 
large number of citizens of Jersey City. The 
colors were visible about ten minutes. 

— ^Despatches were received at St. Louis, 
Mo., to-day, stating that a train conveying 
troops on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Rail- 
road, was fired into by secessionists, near 
Palmyra, and one soldier killed and several 
wounded. Gen. Pope immediately sent orders 
to General Hurlburt to take such force as he 
deemed necessary to Marion County, and quar- 
ter them on the people, and levy a contribution 
of horses, mules, provisions, and such other 
things as may be useful to the soldiers, to the 
amount of ten thousand dollars, on the inhabi- 
tants of the county, and five thousand dollars 
on the citizens of Palmyra, as a penalty for 
this outrage. — Baltimore American^ Auguit 19. 

— TsE Sixteenth Regiment of Massachusetts 
Volunteers, under the command of Oolonel 
PoweU T. Wyroan, left their encampment at 
Xorth Cambridge for the seat of war. Colonel 
Powell and a majority of the staff and line offi- 
cers are graduates of West Point. Quarter- 
master Livermore is a son of Hon. Isaac Liver- 
more, of Cambridge, and Gov. Banks (now 
Gen. Banks) has a brother in the regiment in 
the person of Capt. Gardner Banks, of Com- 
pany H.— i\r. F. Time%^ August 19. 

— GoTEBXOB Yates issued a proclamation to 
the people of Illinois, stating ^t he has ob- 



tained instructions from the Secretary of War 
to accept all companies that offer themselves 
for three years' service ; and announcing that 
all companies which shall report fully organ- 
ized within twenty days from the 17th inst 
will be received ; tiiat orders for the transpor- 
tation, sustenance, and equipment of troops have 
already been given ; that equipments of the best 
quality will be furnished in the shortest prac- 
ticable period, and that arms will be procured 
as soon as possible.^i)oc. 192.) 

— ^NuBSES in the army were ordered to re* 
ceive forty cents per day and one ration. — (Doe, 
198.) 

August 18. — ^The privateer Jeff. Davis was 
wrecked thb evening on the St. Augustine 
(Fla.) bar. The Charleston Mercury gives the 
following particulars of the loss: On Friday 
evening, the 16th inst., Captain Ooxetter was 
off St. Augustine, but the wind having in- 
creased to half a gale, he could not venture in. 
He remained outside the bar the whole of Sat- 
urday without observing any of Linooln^s fleet 
On Sunday morning at half-past six, while try- 
ing to cross the bar, the Jeff. Davis struck, and 
though every possible exertion was made to 
relieve her by throwing the heavy guns over- 
board, yet the noble vessel, after her perilous 
voyage, and the running of innumerable block- 
ades, became a total wreck. All the small-arms 
and clothing of the crew, with many valuable 
sundries, were, however, saved. On the arrival 
of the brave but unfortunate crew in St. Augus- 
tine, they were received with a kindness that 
they never can forget. The town bells rang 
out a joyous peal of welcome, and the people 
vied with each other in their courtesies to the 
shipwrecked ones. Thanks to the noble hos- 
pitality of the Floridians, the men soon recov- 
ered from their fatigue. They aro expected 
to arrive in Charleston on Wednesday next 
The name of the privateer Jeff. Davis had be- 
come a terror to the Yankees. The number 
of her prizes and the amount of merchandise 
which she captured has no parallel since the 
days of the Saucy Jack. 

— To-day a company of Federal troops took 
possession of the Korthwest Democrat^ pub- 
lished at Savannah, Mo. The Democrat boldly 
carried at the head of its columns the name of 
Jeff. Davis for President, and of Claib. Jackson 
for Vice-President.— J\r. F. Commercial Ad- 
vertiser, August 26. 



70 



BEBELUON RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Aug. 19. 



— ^Majob-Gknxbal John £. Wool ftrrived at 
Fortress Monroe yesterday morning. He was 
met at the wharf by Gen. Butler and staff and 
Ool. Dimmick, who escorted him to the head- 
quarters of Gen. Butler. An order was issued 
for all officers to report at four o'clock in the 
afternoon for review and to turn over the com- 
mand to Gen. Wool. In consequence of a heavy 
rain, however, the review was postponed until 
this morning, when Gen. Wool assumed com- 
mand of the post. — National InUlligencer^ Au- 
gust ^0. 

— ^F. E. ZoLLiooTFSB, the rebel general at 
Knozville, Tennessee, issued an order, express- 
ing his gratification at the "increasing evi- 
dences of confidence " in East Tennessee, and 
declaring that " no act or word will be toler- 
ated calculated to alarm or irritate those who, 
though heretofore advocating the National 
Union, now acqu'esce in the decision of the 
8tate and submit to the authorities of the Gov- 
ernment of the Confederate States.^' — {Doe. 
194.) 

— Thb Twenty-second Regiment of Indiana 
Volunteers, under the command of Col. Jeffer- 
son 0. Davis, Indiana representative in Fort 
Bumter during its bombardment, passed through 
Terre Haute, on its way to St. Louis, Mo. — 
N. F. Ecening Post, August 21. 

— ^Tnis afternoon, between three and four 
o'clock, a body of three hundred rebel cavalry 
came down to the landing of the Ferry oppo- 
site Sandy Hook, Md., when two companies of 
Gordon's Second Massachusetts Kegiment fired 
and the rebels retreated. It is known that two 
were killed and five wounded. The Oonfeder- 
ates are still hovering on the outskirts of Har- 
per's Ferry, watching the movements of the 
Federal troops. — National Intelligencer^ Au- 
gust 21, 

— ^The First Wisconsin Regiment returned to 
Milwaukee, from the seat of war, and was 
welcomed with the greatest enthusiasm. A 
collation was served and patriotic speeches 
were made by M. H. Carpenter, and Judge A. 
D. Smith. — Daily Wisconsin^ August 19. 

^A 800UTIKO party, composed of the Lincoln 
Cavalry, under Lieut. Gibson, while to-day in 
the neighborhood of Pohiok Church, some 
twelve miles from Alezandrio, Va., eneounter- 
ed a oompany of secesnon cavalry. A slight 
«iiraed| during which private Irwin, 




belonging to Philadelphia, was killed. One of 
the Confederates was seen to fall from Lis 
horse, but his friends succeeded in carrying off 
his body. — National Intelligencer^ August 19. 

Augttsl 19. — ^The bill admitting Missouri into 
the Southern Confederacy, on certain condi- 
tions, was passed by the ^* Confederate ^' Con- 
gress. The conditions are, that Missouri shall 
duly ratify the Constitution of the Southern 
Confederacy, through her legally constituted 
authority, which authority is declared to be 
the government of Gov. Jackson, who was 
lately deposed. President Davis is also au- 
thorized to muster into the Confederate ser- 
vice, in Missouri, such troops as may volunteer 
to serve in the Southern army. The bill like- 
wise empowers the President of tlie Confed- 
erate States, at his discretion, at any time prior 
to the admission of said State as a member of 
the Confederacy, to perfect and proclaim an 
alliance, offensive and defensive, with the said 
government, limited to the period of the ex- 
isting war between the Confederacy and the 
United States; the said treaty or alliance to be 
in force from the date thereof, and until the 
same shall be disaffirmed or rejected by this 
Congress. — National Intelligencer, Sq[>tember 5. 

— Thb BepuUiean, published at Savannah, 
Ga., has the following, in reference to the de- 
fences of that city : *' In response to numerous 
inquiries propounded through the press of the 
interior, we would simply say that witliia a 
week from to-day no Federal fleet will be able 
to enter a harbor or inlet, or effect a landing 
of troops on the coast of Georgia. Month after 
month elapsed and the State, with all the 
boasting of its chief executive officer, and with 
over a million in his hands for the purpose, did 
absolutely nothing for our protection. Tho 
Confederate authorities, to whom the matter 
has been turned over, have recently been in- 
dustriously at work, and the fortifications along 
the coast are nearly completed." 

— E. W. HnniAN, of New York, respectfnllj 
submitted the following proposition to Presi- 
dent Lincoln : — '^ Whereas the commercial and 
mercantile interests of our country are being 
destroyed, it is proposed by numerous mastera 
and owners of vessels, which may be deemed 
acceptable on tho part of the Government of 
the United States, to aid and assist in capturing 
any steamer or other craft which may be found 



▲uo. 19.] 



BIABT OF E7BNT8. 



71 



on the oceoD, sdling under tbe Confederate or 
rebellion flag of the seceded States, or which 
maj be foand acting andcr a privateer com- 
mission issaed by the Government under Jef- 
ferson Davis as its President. Therefore the 
undersigned, in behalf of Captain George Walen 
and others^ would respectfully make application 
to your Excellency, as President of the United 
States, to issue an order to the undersigned to 
capture and take such vessels for a bounty to 
be paid by the Government, under such stipu- 
lations and conditions as may bo deemed ad- 
visable, with a view to protect our commerce 
and mercantile interests of such of our citizens 
as may be considered loyal and patriotic, in bo- 
half of tbe Government of the United States, 
who are desirous of the maintenance of the 
Constitution, the Union, and tlie laws of our 
country." 

— ^To-DAT two hundred and forty fugitives 
from East Tennessee, men driven from their 
homes, were fed in tlie Seminary yard in Dan- 
ville, Ey. Some of them were elderly men 
and some yonng, and all had been compelled to 
abandon tlietr families, and were ill-clad, almost 
barefoot, weary, ond hungry. The whole of tbe 
two hundred and forty fugitives enlisted in the 
United States service at Camp Dick Bobinson, 
in Kentucky. — ZouitvilU JoumaL 

— Tub office of the Sentinel at Easton, Pa., 
was destroyed by a crowd of Unionists. — Fhila. 
Freu^ August 20. 

— ^The town of Commerce, Mo., forty miles 
from Caini, HI., which was taken by a battery 
planted by the secessionists, was retaken by 
five hundred troops sent down from Cape 
Girardeau by order of Gen. Fremont Tiie 
rebels made no stand with their battery on the 
approach of the National troops. Their num- 
ber was about one hundred and fifty infantry 
and one hundred and fifty cavalry. — Botton 
Transeript, Auguit 21. 

— ^Tma day the Department of State, at 
Washington, gave notice that " no person will 
be allowed to go abroad from a port of the 
United States without a passport either from 
this Department or countersigned by the Sec- 
retary of State; nor will any person be 
idlowed to land in the United States without a 
passport from a Minister or Consul of the 
United States, or, if a foreigner, from his own 
Govttnment, eountersigned by such Minister or | 



ConsuL This regulation, however, is not to 
take effect in regard to x>er8ons coming from 
abroad until a reasonable time shall have 
elapsed for it to become known in the country 
from Avhich they may proceed. 

— At Philadelphia, Pa., Pierce Butler was 
arrested this afternoon by the United States 
marshal at tlie order of the Secretary of War 
and taken to New York. The arrest was 
caused by intercepted letters from him giving 
inforination to the Confederates. — National 
Intelligencer^ August 21. 

— ^In Havorldll, Mass., this evening, Ambrose 
L. Kimball, editor of tbe Ewex County Dem- 
ocrat^ was forcibly taken from his house by an 
excited mob, and, refusing information, was 
covered with a coat of tar and feathers, and 
ridden on a rail through the town. Subse- 
quently, under threats of violence, Mr. K. 
promised to keep his pen dry in aid of re- 
bellion, and was liberated. The town au- 
thorities and many good citizens unsuccess- 
fully attempted to quell the mob. Mr. Kim- 
ball, after suffering the abuse and indignity of 
the mob for a long time, made the following 
affirmation on his knees : ** I am sorry that I 
have published what I have, and I promise that 
I will never again write or publish articles 
against the North and in favor of secession, so 
help mo GodJ^ After this he was conducted to 
his home. — N", T, Herald^ Auguit 21. 

— ^A BATTLB took placc to-night at Charles* 
ton, Mo., between the National forces, about 
two hundred and fifty strong, consisting of the 
Twenty-second Illinois Regiment, under com- 
mand of Col. Dougherty, accompanied by Lieut.- 
Col. Ransom, of the Eleventh Illinois Regiment. 
The rebel force was estimated at six to seven 
hundred men, and commanded by Col. Hunter, 
of Jeff. Thompson's army. The National force 
was victorious, completely routing the rebels, 
killing forty and taking seventeen prisoners. 
The National loss was one killed, viz. : Wm. P. 
Sharp, of Company A. Among the wounded 
were Col. Dougherty, slightly; Lieut.-Col. 
Ransom, shot in the shoulder, not serious; 
Capt. Johnson, Company A, shot in the leg; 
George A. Perry, slightly wounded in the arm. 
Capt. Noleman, with fifty mounted men, left 
Bird's Point at about six oVlock this evening 
for Charleston, to join the forces under Col. 
Dougherty, but failed to form a Junction with 
them. They met a party of rebels about one 



72 



REBELLION BECORD, 1860-61. 



[Aug. 20. 



hundred strong and gave them battle, killing 
two and taking thirty-three prisoners, also cap- 
turing thirty-five ]ioi*ses, without the loss of 
a man. — {Doc. 195.) 

— The JeffersQfiian newspaper office in West 
Chester, Pa., was quietly visited by a crowd 
and cleaned out. — There was no disturbance; 
most of tbe residents of the place were ignorant 
of what was going on until the work was effect- 
ed. — Ohio Staieamarif August 21. 

— "William Hexky OoENnEiMsn, Bisliop of 
New Jersey, issued a pastoral letter to the 
clergy and laity of his diocese, appointing the 
service to bo used on tbo fast day recommended 
by the President of the United States. — {Doc. 
196.) 

— Bkigadier-General Huelbukt issued an 
order directing the authorities of Palmyra, Mo., 
to deliver up the marauders who fired upon the 
train of the St. Joseph and Ilannibal Railroad 
on tbe evening of the IGth inst. In case of a 
refusal to comply, he signified his intention of 
levying contributions upon the .county to the 
amount of ten thousand dollars, and upon the 
city of five thousand dollars. — {Doc, 197.) 

August 20. — General Rosecrans issued the 
following card to the press, dated Clarksburg, 
Va. : — ^The General Commanding the Army of 
occupation in Western Virginia, and the Depart- 
ment of the Ohio, invites the aid of the press to 
prevent the enemy from learning, through it, 
the position, strength, and movements of the 
troops under his command. Such information 
is of the greatest service to the enemy, and de- 
prives tbe commander of our own forces of all 
the advantages which arise from tbe secrecy of 
concentration and surprise. These advantages 
are constantly enjoyed by tbe rebels, whoso press 
never betrays them. 

— ^The bill entitled an Act to increase the 
Corps of Artillery, and for other purposes, 
passed by tbe "Confederate" Congress at 
Richmond, Va., was approved by Jeff. Davis 
and became a law. — {Doc, 198.) 

— A SKiKMisn took place to-day at Hawks' 
Nest, in Kanawha Valley, Va., eight miles be- 
yond the river. The rebels, some four thou- 
sand strong, advanced to where tbe Eleventh 
Ohio Regiment bad erected barricades, and 
were driven back with a loss of fifty killed and 
a number wounded and taken prisoners. The 
Federal loss was only two slightly wounded 



and one missing. They captured quite a num- 
ber of horses and equipments.— (2>oe. 199.) 

— The New Orleans Delta declares : We wont 
no corn, no flour, no swill-fed pork, no red-eye, 
no butter or cheese from that Great Western 
Reserve, no "sass," no adulterated drugs, no 
patent physics, no poisoned pickles. We want 
none of these, we say, to exchange our money 
for them. And we will not pay tbe "Blue 
Grass" country of Kenttlcky for its loyalty to 
Lincoln by opening our markets to its hemp 
fabrics. Let it lay in the bed it has chosen un- 
til it awakes to a sense of its duty as well as 
its interest. We must discriminate in favor of 
our gallant ally, Mbsouri, and give her the 
benefits of our marts in preference to either 
open foes or insidious neutrals. It is the clear 
duty of our Ootemment now to declare Kentuehy 
under hhehade. If in the existing state of af- 
fairs a sea separated us from that State, it would, 
with the naval power to execute our behests, 
behoove us to close the ports of a people who 
seek for themselves profit by impoverishing us 
and enriching our foes. The fact of their ter- 
ritorial contiguity does not weaken the argu- 
ment. Kentucky and the West must be mado 
to feel this war, and feel it until they cry pec- 
cavi. 

— TnB Fifth Regiment of the Excelsior Bri- 
gade, K. Y. S. v., under the command of Col. 
C. K. Graham, left New York for the seat of 
war. — N, F. Herald^ August 21. 

— ^A TRAIN arrived at Jefibrson City, Mo., 
this morning from Syracuse, having on board 
twenty-five passengers and two hundred and 
fifty United States soldiers. When the train 
was near Lookout station, about thirty shots 
were fired into it from behind a wood-pile and 
bush skirting the road, killing one of -the sol- 
diers and wounding six others, one of them 
fatally. One secessionist was killed. The 
train was stopped half a mile beyond the point 
where tbe attack was made, and two hundred 
soldiers put off and sent in pursuit of the mis- 
creants. Guerilla parties are scouring the coun- 
ties west of Jefferson City, seizing property 
and arresting prominent citizens. — N, F. Worlds 
August 21. 

— ^TnE Second and Fourth battalions of Bos- 
ton, Mass., voted unanimously to offer their 
services to the Government for three months. 

Gov. Andrew, in a brief proclamation, oaUa 




Aw. 20.J 



DUBT OF EVBNT& 



78 



upon the citizens of Massachusetts to come for- 
ward and fill up the regiments already accepted 
for the war.^Boc 200.) 

— AuousT Douglas, a merchant of Balti- 
more, was arrested in Philadelphia, charged 
with an attempt to induce Lieutenant Huin to 
join the rebels, promising him higher rank and 
pay.— ^. F. Evening Post, August 21. 

— ^Tns Albany Journal of to-day has the fol- 
lowing: '^Men and presses who are to-day 
preaching ' Compromise* and * Peace,* are doing 
more to cripple the Grovemment and help trea- 
Bon than the rebel armies themselves. We 
would hang a spy who should be caught prowl- 
ing about our camp to obtain information to be 
used against us ; but we must tolerate if not re- 
spect these loyal traitors who labor in the ros- 
trum and through the press to aid the enemy ! ** 

—This morning Albert Sanford, United 
States marshal of Rhode Island arrived at New 
York from Newport, haviug in onstody a gen- 
tleman named Louis de Bebian, who claims 
to be a French citizen, but a resident of Wil- 
mington, North Oarolina. This gentleman is 
charged with some kind of political offence, or 
else appears to be suspected of going to Europe 
in the service of the Confederate States, or for 
purposes inimical to the United States. His 
story, which does not differ much from tliat of 
the marshal who has brought him here as a 
prisoner, is as follows : — He has been a resi- 
dent and carrying on business as a merchant in 
Wilmington for several years, and being desir- 
ous to go to Europe on business and to see his 
family, he took passage on board a British ves- 
sel called the Adelso, bound to Halifax, N. S., 
in order to meet one of the Cunard steamers. 
Thb vessel sailed from Wilmington without hin- 
drance. During the storm of the 12th instant 
the Teasel became disabled, and the captain, 
rather than let her go down with all hands on 
board, bore up for a friendly port, as he sup- 
posed, in distress. Having got safely into New- 
port, Rhode Island, under the British flag, the 
Adelso was boarded by the revenue yacht 
Henrietta, Lieut. Bennett, who, ascertaining 
that tlie Adelso was last from Wilmington, 
North Carolina, took possession of her and put 
a prize crew of one officer and five men on 
board, sealed up the trunks and papers of the 
master and passengers, and made them all pris- 
oners, and processes for libel and condemnation 



were issued in the courts of that district by the 
captors. M. Bebian wished to go ashore and 
see the French consul, or to be permitted to go 
to some part of the British dominions, but was 
refused. After being kept in custody and sub- 
jected, as he complains, to a number of per- 
sonal indignities, he was sent to New York in 
custody, and will be transferred to one of the 
military prisons in the harbor until further 
orders as to his ultimate destination. Among 
the papers taken from the prisoner were let- 
ters of credit to the amount of $40,000, with 
which he was to purchase clothing, arms and 
iron, for shipment to Wilmington, N. C, and 
other places south. — If. T, Ecening Foaty At^ 
gust 20. 

— Genebal MoClellan assamed the com- 
mand of the army of the Potomac, and an- 
nounced the ofiicers attached to his staff. — (Doe. 
201.) 

— ^Tqe Convention of Western Virginia passed 
the ordinance creating a State, reported by the 
select committee on a division of the State, this 
morning, by a vote of fifty to twenty-eight. 
The boundary as fixed includes the counties of 
Logan, Wyoming, Raleigh, Fayette, Nicholas, 
Webster, Randolph, Tucker, Preston, Monon- 
gahela, Marion, Taylor, Barbour, Upshur, Har- 
rison, Lewis, Braxton, Clay, Kanawha, Boone, 
Wayne, Cabell, Putnam, Mason, Jackson, Roane, 
Calhoun, Wirt, Gilmer, Ritchie, Wood, Pleas- 
ants, Tyler, Doddridge, Wetzel, Marshall, Ohio, 
Brooke, and Hancock. A provision was incor- 
porated permitting certain adjoining counties 
to come in if they should desire, by expression 
of a majority of their people to do so. The 
ordinance also provides for the election of dele- 
gates to a Convention to form a constitution ; at 
I the same time the question **for a new State' 
I or " against a new State *' shall be submitted to 
I the people within the proposed boundary. The 
election is to be held on the 24th of October. 
The name of the new State is to be Kanawha.— 
National Intelligenesr, August 22. 

— Gov. CuBTiK issued a proclamation to the 
freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylva- 
nia, ** in which he urges them again to sustain 
the oountVy in its danger," and calls upon every 
man to "so act that he will not be ashamed to 
look at his mother, his wife, or sisters." — {Doe. 
202.) 

— Gsir. BuTLEB assumed command of the 



74 



BEBELUOK BBCORD» 1860-61. 



[Auo. SI. 



volunteer forces near Fortress Monroe in par- 
Bnance of the following order : 

HBAD-QDinTBBB DlPABTlClXT Of VlIieillTA, JBO., ) 
FOBTKBdB MOXBOB, Augiut 20, 1861. \ 

Special Order No, 9. — ^Major-General B. F. 
Butler is hereby placed in command of the vol- 
nnteer forces in this department, exclusive of 
those at Fort Monroe. His present command, 
at Camps Butler and Hamilton, will include the 
ilrst, Second, Seventh, Ninth, and Twentieth 
Begiments, the battalion of Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers, and the Union Coast Guard and Mount- 
ed Rifles. Bj command of 

Major- General Wool. 

0. 0. CnuBCHiLL, Adjutant-General. 

— Sterlino Pbicb issued a proclamation at 
Springfield, Mo., to the effect, that a great vic- 
tory had been won ; that northern oppressors 
of Missouri had been driven back ; that every 
one belonging to the Home Guard organiza- 
tion would be regarded and treated as an ene- 
my to the Southern Confederacy ; but that his 
protection would extend to such who quietly 
return to their homes, and allow the Southern 
sway to prevail, and that whoever recognized 
the provisional government of Missouri would 
be considered as an enemy to the State, and 
dealt with accordingly. — (I)oc, 204.) 

Auguet 21. — By special order of the War 
Department the body of men at Fortress Mon- 
roe known as the Naval Brigade or Union 
Coast Guard, were formed into a volunteer 
regiment. — ^Eight thousand troops were re- 
viewed at Washington by the President and 
General McClellan.— JiT. T. Herald^ August 22. 

^The Executive Committee of the New 
York Union Defence Committee reported : that, 
to this date, it had spent in the equipment of 
various regiments, five hundred and eighty-one 
thousand six hundred and eighty-nine dollars ; 
for arms and ammunition, two hundred and 
twenty-six thousand five hundred and eighty- 
nine dollars ; and for relief to soldiers* families, 
two hundred and thirty thousand dollars. — See 
Journal of the Board of Aldermen^ K, Y. 

— ^At Alexandria, Va., through the exertions 
of Major Lemon, commanding the guard there, 
Miss Windle, formerly of Delaware, but more 
recently of Philadelphia, and of late a corre- 
spondent of the Southern press, was arrested in 
the act of leaving for Washington by the steam- 
boat. She is a highly-educated lady, and the 
authoress of several works published while she 



resided in Philadelphia, among which was a 
" Legend of the Waldenses,'* also ^* A Visit to 
Melrose." Miss Windle has resided in Alex- 
andria for the past month, where her move- 
ments have been closely watched. She boldly 
avowed her secession proclivities, and made no 
secret of her correspondence with the leaders 
of the rebel army. After a hearing slie was 
sent to Washington. 

Augustus Schaeffer, of Gloucester, New Jer- 
sey, belon^g to Captain Slnn^s Philadelphia 
Company of Cavalry, was severely wounded 
in the head yesterday, by a pistol ball, while 
out with a scouting party toward Fairfax Court 
House, Va. — Baltimore American^ Augtut 23. 

— Jeffebson Davis approved an act empow- 
ering the President of the " Confederate " States 
to appoint two more Commissioner's to Europe. 
The act empowers the President to determine 
to what nations the Commissioners now in Eu- 
rope shall be accredited, and to prescribe their 
duties. The two additional Commissioners will 
receive the same as those now in Europe. Jeff. 
Davis also approved an act for the aid of the 
State of Missouri in repelling the invasion and 
to authorize her admission into the Confederacy. 
The preamble sets forth that the people of Mis- 
souri have been prevented by the unconstitu- 
tional interference of the Federal Government 
from expressing their will in regard to union 
with the Confederates, and that Missouri is now 
engaged in repelling the lawless invasion of her 
territory by armed forces. The Confederate 
Government consider it their right and duty 
to aid the Government and people of Missouri 
in resisting this invasion, and securing the means 
and opportunity of expressing their will upon 
all questions affecting their rights and liberties. 

The President of the " Confederate " States 
is authorized to co5perate, through the military 
power of his Government, with authorities of 
Missouri in defending that State against the 
invasion of their soil by the United States, in 
maintaining the liberty and independence of 
Missouri, with power to accept the services of 
troops sufiScient to suit the purpose. The act 
provides for the admission of Missouri to the 
Confederacy, on an equal footing with the other 
States, when the Provisional Constitution shall 
be ratified by the legally constituted authorities 
of Missouri, and an authenticated copy siiall be 
communicated to the President of the Southern 
Confederacy. 



Av& 810 



DIABT OF EYBNT& 



76 



The Prendent will then, in aeoordanoe with 
the proTisioDa of the act, issue his prodamation 
ansannoiiig the admiaaion of Ifissoari into the 
Ooolederacj. She reoognijeea the Gbyemment 
ia MisBoari, of which Olaiborne F. Jackson is 
Chief Magistrate.— X9«ifot720 Churier^ Augu»t 
81. 

— Tbs First Regiment of Long Island Yolnn- 
teers, (Brooklyn, N. T., Phalanx,) commanded 
\j Oolonel Jnlias W. Adams, took their depar- 
tare for the seat of war. The men were uni- 
formed in a substantial blue dress, and their 
general appearance indicated that thej were 
i^dj to do good service. They were armed 
with the common 8mooth*bore musket. — The 
Anderson Zouaves^ N. Y. 8. Y., under the com- 
mand of Colonel John Lafayette Biker, left 
eamp Astor, Biker's Island, for Washington. 
The uniform of the Zouaves is dark blue loose 
jseketa, and light blue baggy trowsers. For 
head covering, a part of the men have the red 
fez, with blue tassel, and the others dark blue 
caps. Their arms are the old, smooth-bore mus- 
kets^ with shank bayonets^ and percussion locks 
altered from flint locks. — N. Y, T^ribunej Au- 

— Ths Memphis AwUanehe of this day says 
that the ^'conviction is becoming general 
throughout the South that the war can only be 
ended by carrying it into the North. The 
Korthem abolitionists will have to be scourged 
into good behavior. The sooner this shall be 
done the better. All the mighty energies and 
resources of the South should be put forth to 
cnah out the Northern conspiracy agiunst her. 
The bombardment of a few Northern cities 
would bring our enemies to their senses. Phila- 
delphia and Cincinnati present convenient points 
of attack. Maryland and Kentucky, we have 
good reason to believe, wiU soon be with us, 
when these abolition cities shall receive the 
especial attention of the gallant avengers of 
Southern wrongs." 

— lar "Confederate" Congress in session at 
Richmond, Ya., a resolution of thanks to Ben 
McCoUoch and his forces, was introduced by 
Mr. Ochiltree of Texas, and passed unanimously. 
-(Doc, 205.) 

—This day a very large and beautiful flag 
was presented to the battalion of Pennsylvania 
troops stationed at Annapolis Junction, Md., by 
the Union ladies of Prince George's and Mont- 



gomery counties. The ceremonies were very 
interesting. James Oreigh, Esq., made the pre- 
sentation speech, and Capt, McPheraon the re- 
ception speech. A large number of persons 
were present. — Washington Star^ Augu$t 28. 

«— WiLUAM F. Babbt, chief of artillery in Gen. 
McClellan's staff, yesterday was appointed briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. — Philadd^hiaFret$^ 
Auguit 22. 

— ^Thk Twenty-third Regiment of Pennsylva^ 
nia Yolunteers, under the command of Col. 
David B. Bimey, numbering about flve hun- 
dred and flfty men, passed through Baltimore, 
Md., en route for Washington city. A large pro- 
portion of the men were under Colonel Dare, in 
the same regiment, which had already served 
three months under General Patterson. They 
are all uniformed simUar to regulars. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Wilhelm held the same rank in the 
Eighteenth Regiment of three months' volun- 
teers, under Colonel Lewis, and is an expe- 
rienced officer, having seen service in the Prus- 
sian army. Several of the companies attached 
to the command are well drilled in the Zouave 
exercise, and also uniformed. — Baltimore Am&r* 
ican, August 22. 

— ^Postmastbb-Gbnxbal Blaib, in response 
to an inquiry on the subject, says he has neither 
the power to interdict nor to suspend inter- 
course between the loyal and rebellious States, 
by private expresses or otherwise. The power 
rests with the War and Treasury Departments 
alone, and so long as these departments forbear 
to exercise it, correspondence between the in- 
surgents of the South and their friends and 
abettors in the North, may be lawfully contin- 
ued. His power over the matter extends only 
to the protection of the revenues of the De- 
partment from fraud by the conveyance of this 
circuitous correspondence over the Post routes 
of the United States, partly in the mails, and 
partly by private expresses, unlawfully. This 
the Postmaster-Greneral believes has been effect- 
ually done in the manner set forth in his letter 
on the subject to General McClellan, published 
a few weeks ago. He concludes by saying : 

" You have doubtless observed that the 
President, in pursuance of an act of Congress, 
passed at its recent session, has by his procla- 
mation of the 10th instant, declared that all 
commercial intercourse between the insurgent 
States or the people thereof and the loyal 



76 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



[Aug. 21. 



States is xtnlawfnl. It is presumed tliat instruc- 
tions will be issued hy the Treasury Depart- 
ment for the enforcement of this declaration, 
and that the abuse of which you complain will 
be effectually suppressed." 

— ^Ths First Begiment of Western Virginia 
Volunteers returned to Wheeling from the seat 
of war. Their reception was enthusiastic, the 
people turning out in a body to welcome them. 
— Wheeling InUUigeneer, Augu$t 22. 

^Tbe scouting party put off the railroad 
train which was fired into yesterday morning 
at Syracuse, Mo., arrived at Jefferson City. 
They report having killed two and wounded 
several of the secessionists, and bring in five 
prisoners. 

Governor Gamble has appointed division in- 
spectors in five of the seven military districts 
in Missouri, for the purpose of mustering men 
into service under the militia law of 1859, 
revived by the State Convention. The Gov- 



ernor calls upon the citizens to come forward 
promptly to sustain the peace by the suppres- 
sion and dispersion of the armed bands of men 
who are now committing violence in the differ- 
ent parts of the State. As soon as troops are 
enrolled they will hold themselves in readiness to 
march at the call of the Executive to enforce 
order. Any regular organization will be per- 
mitted to volunteer in the service of the United 
States, if the members so desire. — The follow* 
ing is the form of oath to be administered to 
the militia : 

*' You each and every one of you do solemnly 
swear that you will honestly and faithfully serve 
the State of Missouri against all her enemies, 
and that you will do your utmost to sustain the 
Constitution and laws of the United States and 
of this State ; and you do further swear that 
you will truly execute and obey the legal or- 
ders of all officers properly placed over yoa 
whilst on duty, so hdp yon God." 



DOCUMENTS AND NARRATIYES. 



DOCUMENTS AND NARRATIVES. 



-•♦«- 



BATTLE OF BULL RUN- 



Doo. 1. 
OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

OEK. MCDOWELL'S OSKEBAL OBDSBB 
BDOKK Tin BATTLK OF 8T0MK BBIDOB.* 

BMAJhmAMTKM. DiPARTKBVT AbXT EaSTIRX VA., } 

CsaTBsrxLLB, July 20, 186L S 

The enem/ has planted a battery on the 
VarreDton turnpike to defend the passage of 
BqU Ran; has seized the stone bridge and 
made a heavy abatis on the right bank, to op- 
pose our advance in that direction. The ford 
above the bridge is also guarded, whether with 
artiflery or not is not positively known, but 
every indication favors the belief that he pro- 
poses to defend the passage of the stream. 

It is intended to turn the position, force 
the enemy from the roady that it may be re- 
opened, and, if possible, destroy the railroad 
Uadingfrom Manassas to the valley of Virginia, 
where the enemy has a large force. As this 
may be resisted by all the force of the enemy, 
the troops will be dbposed as follows : 

The first division (General Tyler's) with 
the exception of Richardson's brigade, will, at 
half-past two o'clock in the morning precbely, 
be on the Warrenton turnpike to threaten the 
passage of the bridge, but will not open fire 
until full daybreak. 

The second division (Hunter's) will move 
from its camp at two o'clock in the mornin|[ 
precisely, and, led by Captain "Woodbury, of 
the Engineers, will, a^r passing Oub Run, turn 
to the right and pass the Bull Run stream above 
the ford at Sudley's Spring, and then turning 
down to the left, descend the stream and dear 
away the enemy who may be guarding the 
lower ford and bridge. It will then bear off to 
the right and make room fur the succeeding 
division. 

The third division (Heintzelman's) will 
march at half-past two o'clock in the morning, 
and follow the road taken by the second divi- 
rion, but will cross at the lower ford after it 
has beea tamed as above, and then, going to 

* Tbli battl* !■ Tarlonily known u the iMtU* of Ball 
Soa, Mwmwi. and Stoao Bridge. 

Vok II.— Doa 1 



the left, take place between the stream and 
second division. 

The fifth division (Miles's^ will take posi- 
tion on the Centreville Heights, (Richardson's 
brigade will, for the time, form part of the fifth 
division, and will continue in its present posi- 
tion.) One brigade will be in the village, and 
one near the nresent station of Richardson's 
brigade. This ai vision will threaten the Black- 
bum Ford, and remain in reserve at Centre- 
viUe. The commander will open fire with ar- 
tillery only, and will bear in mind that it is a 
demonstration only he is to make. He wiU 
cause such defensive works, abatis, earth- 
works, &c., to be thrown up as will strengthen 
his position. Lieutenant Prime, of the Engi- 
neers, will be charged with this duty. 

These movements may lead to the gravest 
results, and commanders of divisions and bri- 
gades should bear in mind the immense conse- 
quences involved. There must be no failure, 
and every effort must be made to prevent 
straggling. 

No one must be allowed to leave the ranks 
without special authority. After completing 
the movements ordered, the troops must be 
held in order of battle, as they may be attacked 
at any moment. By command of 

Brigadier-General McDowell. 

Jaues B. Fbt, Adjutant-General. 

The following was General McDowell's order 
for the issue of rations : 

Hbad>quabtibs, Dbpabtxbbt Kobtbbastbbx Va., ) 

Cbbtbetillb, July 20, 1861. f 

The commanders of divisions will give the 
necessary orders that an eoual distribution of 
the subsistence stores on hand may be made 
immediately to the different companies in their 
respective commands, so that they shall be 
provided for the same number of days, and that 
the same be cooked and put in the haversacks 
of the men. The subsistence stores now in the 
possession of each division, with the fresh beef 
that can be drawn from the chief commissary, 
must last to include the 23d instant. 
By command of 

Brigadier-General McDowell. 

James B. Fry, Assistant A^utant-General. 

To the (Commanders of Divbiona and Bri- 
gades. 



DOCUMENTS AKD NARKATIVES. 



-•««- 



BATTLE OF BULL RUN. 



Doo. 1. 
OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

0£K. MCDOWELL'S GSXEBAL ORDSBB 
BCrORS THB BATTLE OF STONK BBIDGB.* 

HsA9-qvASTsa8, DiPARTKBVT Abxt Eabtirx Va., { 

GEaTBsriLLB, July 20, 186L S 

Tlie eziem/ has planted a battery on the 
Wairenton turnpike to defend the passage of 
Ball Ran; has seized the stone bridge and 
made a heavy abatis on the right bank, to op- 
pose oar advance in that direction. The ford 
above the bridge is also guarded, whether with 
artillery or not is not positively known, bat 
every indication favors the belief that he pro- 
XK)ses to defend the passage of the stream. 

It is intended to turn the position^ force 
the enemy from the road^ that it may be re- 
opened, and, if possible, destroy the railroad 
leading from Manassas to the valley of Virginia, 
where the enemy has a large force. As this 
may be resisted by all the force of the enemy, 
the troops will be disposed as follows : 

The first division (General Tyler's) with 
the exception of Richardson's brigade, will, at 
half-past two o'clock in the morning precisely, 
be on the Warrenton turnpike to threaten the 
passage of the bridge, but will not open fire 
until fuU daybreak. 

The second division (Hunter's) will move 
from its camp at two o'clock in the morninff 
precisely, and, led by Captain Woodbury, of 
the Engineers, will, after passing Onb Run, turn 
to the right and pass the Bull Run stream above 
the ford at Sudley's Spring, and then taming 
down to the left, descend the stream and clear 
away the enemy who may be guarding the 
lower ford and bridge. It will then bear off to 
the right and make room for the succeeding 
division. 

The third division (Heintzelman's) will 
march at half-past two o'clock in the morning, 
aod follow the road taken by the second divi- 
non, bat will cross at the lower ford after it 
has been tamed as above, and then, going to 

ThtB battl* li vailondj known u the iMtU* of Ball 



nw oaiuo u vanonaiy Know! 
MOTBtwiij and 8ton« Bridge. 
You II.— Doa 1 



the left, take place between the stream and 
second division. 

The fifth division (Miles's) will take posi- 
tion on the Centreville Heights, (Richardson's 
brigade will, for the time, form part of the fifth 
division, and will continue in its present posi- 
tion.) One brigade will be in the village, and 
one near the present station of Richardson's 
brigade. This division will threaten the Black- 
burn Ford, and remain in reserve at Centre- 
ville. The commander will open fire with ar- 
tillery only, and will bear in mind that it is a 
demonstration only he is to make. He will 
cause such defensive works, abatis, earth- 
works, &c., to be thrown up as will strengthen 
his position. Lieutenant Prime, of the Engi- 
neers, will be charged with this duty. 

These movements may lead to the gravest 
results, and commanders of divisions and bri- 
gades should bear in mind the immense conse- 
quences involved. There must be no failure, 
and every effort most be made to prevent 
straggling. 

No one mast be allowed to leave the ranks 
without special authority. After completing 
the movements ordered, the troops must be 
held in order of battle, as they may be attacked 
at any moment. By command of 

Brigadier-General MoDowbll. 

Jaues B. Fbt, Adjatant-Gkneral. 

The following was General McDowell's order 
for the issue of rations : 

HlAD>QUABTIBS, DbPABTMBBT NoBTBBASTBBB Va., ) 

Cbxtbbtillb, July 20, 1861. f 

The commanders of divisions will give the 
necessary orders that an eoual distribution of 
the subsistence stores on hand may be made 
immediately to the different companies in their 
respective commands, so that they shall be 
provided for the same number of days, and that 
the same be cooked and put in the haversacks 
of the men. The subsistence stores now in the 
possession of each division, with the fresh beef 
that can be drawn from the chief commissary, 
must last to include the 23d instant. 
By command of 

Brigadier-General MoDowell. 

James B. Fry, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

To the (Commanders of Divisions and Bri- 
gades. 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



I 



GENERAL Mcdowell's report. 

HiAS-QUABTERB, DXPjLKTMERT NORTHKASTERN ViROIVIA, 

Arlikgtoh, Vo,, August 4, 1861. 

Lieutenant- Colonel E, D. Town$end^ Assistant 
Adjutant' General^ Mead-quarters of the Ar- 
my^ Washington^ D. C, 

Colonel : — ^I have tho honor to snbmit the 
following report of the battle of the 21st of 
Jnly, near Manassas, Virginia. It has been 
delayed till this time from the inability of the 
subordinate commanders to get earlier a true 
account of the state of their commands. 

Jn my communication to you of the 20th ult., 
1 stated it as my intention to move that after- 
noon, and drive the enemy from the east side 
of Bull Bun, so as to enable the engineers to 
make a sufficiently accurate reconnoissance to 

Iustify our future movements. Later in the 
ay they had obtained enough information of 
the passage across the stream to dispense with 
this reconnoissance, and it was decided to move 
without delay. It had been my intention to 
move the several columns out on tho road a 
few miles on the evening of the 20th, so that 
they would have a shorter march in the morn- 
ing; but I deferred to those who had tho 
greatest distance to go, and who preferred 
starting early in the morning, and making but 
one move. 

On the evening of the 20th ultimo my com- 
mand was mostly at or near Centreville. The 
enemy was at or near Manassas, distant from 
Centreville about seven miles to the southwest. 
Centreville is a village of a few houses, mostly 
on the west side of a ridge running nearly north 
and south. The road from Centreville to Ma- 
nassas junction was along this ridge, and crosses 
Bull Run about three miles from the former 
place. Tlie Warrenton turnpike, which runs 
nearly east and west, goes over this ridge, 
through the village, ana crosses Bull Run about 
four miles from it, Bull Run having a course 
between the crossing from northwest to south- 
east. The first division (Tyler's) was stationed 
on the north side of the Warrenton turnpike, 
and on the eastern slope of tho Centreville 
ridge, two brigades on the same road, and a 
mile and a half in advance, to the w^est of the 
ridge, and one brigade on the road from Cen- 
treville to Manassas, where it crosses Bull Run 
at Blackburn's Ford, where General Tyler had 
the engagement of the 18th ultimo. The sec- 
ond division (Hunter's) was on the Warrenton 
turnpike, one mile east of Centreville. The 
third division (Heintzelraan's) was on a road 
known as the Old Braddock road, which comes 
into Centreville from the southeast, about a 
mile and a half from the village. The fifth di- 
vision (Miles's) was on the same road with the 
third division, and between it and Centreville. 
A map which is herewith, marked A, will show 
these positions better than I can describe them. 
^ On Friday night a train of subsistence ar- 
rived, and on Saturday its contents were or- 
dered to be issued to the command, and the 
men required to have three days' rations in 



their haversacks. On Saturday orders were 
issued for the available force to march. As 
reported to you in my letter of the 19th ultimo, 
my personal reconnoissance of the roads to tho 
south had shown that it was not practicable to 
carry out tho original plan of turning the ene- 
my's position on their right. The affair of the 
18th at Blackburn's Ford showed he was too 
strong at that point for us to force a passage 
there without ^*cat loss, and if we did, that it 
wx)uld bring us in front of his strong position at 
Manassas, which was not desired. Our infor- 
mation was that the stone bridge over which 
the Warrenton road crossed Bull Run, to the 
west of Centreville, was defended by a battery 
in position, and the road on his side of the 
stream impeded by a heavy abatis. Tlie alter- 
native was, therefore, to turn the extreme left 
of his position. Reliable information was ob- 
tained of an undefended ford about three miles 
above tho bridge, there being another ford be- 
tween it and the bridge, which was defended. 
It was therefore determined to take the road to 
the upper ford, and after crossing, to get behind 
the forces guarding the lower ford and the 
bridge, and after occupying the Warrenton road 
east of the bridge, to send out a force to destroy 
the railroad at or near GaincsviUe, and thus 
break up the communication between tho ene- 
my's forces at Manassas and those in the valley 
of Virginia, before Winchester, which had been 
held in check by Major-General Patterson, 

Brigadier-General Tyler was directed to move 
with three of his brigades on the Warrenton 
road, and commence cannonading the enemy's 
batteries, while Hunter's division, moving after 
him, should, after passing a little stream called 
Cub Ran, turn to the right and north, and move 
around to the upper ford, and there turn south 
and get behind the enemy. Colonel Heintzel- 
man's division was to follow Hunter's as far as 
the turning off place to the lower ford, where 
he was to cross after tho enemy should have 
been driven out by Hunter's division ; the fifth 
division (Miles's) to be in reserve on the Centre- 
ville ridge. 

I had felt anxious about the road from Ma- 
nassas by Blackburn's Ford to Centreville, 
along the ridge, fearing that whilst we Fhould 
be in force to the fi-ont, and endeavoring to 
turn the enemy's position, we oureelves should 
be turned by him by this road ; for if he should 
once obtain possession of this ridge, which 
overlooks all the country to tho west to the 
foot of the spurs of the Blue Ridge, we should 
have been irretrievably cut off and destroyed. 
I had, therefore, directed this point to be held 
in force, and sent an engineer to extemporize 
some field-works to strengthen the position. 

The fourth division (Runyon's) had not been 
brought to the front further than to guard our 
communications by way of Vienna and the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad. His ad- 
vanced regiment was about seven miles in the 
rear of Centreville. 

The divisions were ordered to march at half- 



BOOUMENTa 



8 



pift two o^dock A. M., so as to arrive on the 
groaod early in the dajr, and thus avoid the 
heat which is to be expected at this season. 
There was delay in the fii^t division getting out 
of its camp on the road, and the other divisions 
were in consequence between two and three 
boon behind uie time appointed — a great mis- 
fortaoe, as events turned out. The wood road 
leadiog from tlie Warrenton turnpike to the 
apper ford was mncb longer than we counted 
upon, the general direction of the stream being 
oblique to the road, and we having the obtuse 
logle on our side. 

General Tjler commenced with his artillery 
st half-past six a. m., but the enemy did not 
reply, and after some time it became a question 
whether he was in any force in our front, and 
if he did not intend himself to make an attack, 
and make it by Blaokborn^s Ford. After firing 
leveral times, and obtaining no response, I held 
one of Heintzelman^s brigades in reserve, in 
case we should have to send any troops back 
to reinforce Miles^s division. The other bri- 
gades moved forward as directed in the general 
orders. On reaching the ford, at Sudley's 
Spring, I found part of the leading brigade of 
Hauter^s division (Burnside^s) had crossed, but 
the men were slow in getting over, stopping to 
drink. As at this time the clouds of dust from 
the direction of Manassas indicated the imme- 
diate i^)proach of a large force, and fearing it 
might come down on the head of the column 
before the division could all get over and sus- 
tain it, orders were sent back to the heads of 
regiments to break from the column and come 
forward separately as fast as possible. Orders 
were sent by an officer to the reserve brigade 
of HcintzelmanV division to come by a nearer 
road acaoss the fields, and an aide-de-camp was 
Rnt to Brigadier-General Tyler to direct him 
to press forward his attack, as large bodies of 
the enemy were passing in front of him to at- 
tack the division which had crossed over. The 
ground between the stream and the road lead- 
ing from Sudley^s Spring south and over which 
Bumside^s brigade marched, was for about a 
mile from the ford thickly wooded, whilst on 
the right of the road for about the same dis- 
tance the country was divided between fields 
and woods. About a mile from the road the 
country on both sides of the road is open, and 
for nearly a mile further largo rolling fields ex- 
tend down to the Warrenton turnpike, which 
crosses what became the field of battle through 
the valley of a small water course, a tributary 
of Boll Ran. 

Shortly after the leading regiment of the first 
brigade reached the open space, and whilst 
others and the second brigade were crossing to 
the front and right, the enemy opened his fire, 
beginning with ardllery and following up with 
in&Dtry. The leading brigado (Burnside's) 
1^ to snstiun this shock for a short time with- 
out rapport, and did it well. The battalion of 
regular infantry was sent to sustain it, and 
•hortly afterwards the other corps of Porter^s 
Vol. IL— Doo. 6 



brigade, and a regiment detached from Heint- 
zelnian^B division to the left, forced t!ie enemy 
back far enough to allow Sherman^s and Reyes's 
brigades of Tyler's division to cross from their 
position on the Warrenton road. These drove 
the right of the enemy, understood to have 
been commanded by Beauregard, from the 
front of the field, and out of the detached 
woods, and down to the road, and across it up 
the slopes on the other side. Whilst this was 

§oing on, Heintzelmafi's division was moving 
own the field to the stream, and np the road 
beyond.. Beyond the Warrenton road, and to 
the left of the road, down which our troops had 
marched from Sudley's Spring, is a hill with a 
farmhouse on it. Bebina this hiU the enemy 
had, early in the day, some of his most annoy- 
ing batteries planted. Across the road from 
this hill was another hill, or rather elevated 
ridge, or table of land. The hottest part of the 
contest wos for the possession of this hill with 
a house on it. The force engaged here was 
Heintzelman's division, Wilcox's and Howard's 
brigades on the right, supnorted by part of For- 
tevB brigade and the cavalry under ralmer, and 
Franklin's brigade of Heintzelman's division, 
Sherman's brigade of Tyler^s division in the 
centre and up the road, whilst Eeyes's brigade 
of Tyler's division was on the left, attacking 
the batteries near the stone bridge. The Rhode 
Island battery of Burnside's brigade also parti- 
cipated in this attack by its fire from the north 
of the turnpike. The enemy was understood to 
have been commanded by J. £. Johnston. 
Rickett's battery, which did such effective ser- 
vice and played so brilliant a part in this con- 
test, was, together with Griffin's battery, on 
the side of the hill, and became the object of 
the special attention of the enemy, who suo- 
ceeded — onr officers mistaking one of his regi- 
ments for one of onr own, and allowing it to 
approach without firing upon it — in disabling 
the battery, and then attempted to take it. 
Three times was he repulsed by different corps 
in succession, and driven back, and the guns 
taken by hand, tho horses being killed, and 
pulled away. The third time it was supposed 
by us all that tho repulse was final, for he was 
driven entirely from the hill, and so far beyond 
it as not to be in sight, and all were certain the 
day was ours. He had before this been driven 
nearly a mile and a half, and was beyond the 
Warrenton road, which was entirely in our 
possession from tho stone bridge westward, and 
our engineers were just completing the removal 
of the abatis across the road, to allow our re- 
inforcements (Schenck's brigado and Ayers's 
battery) to join us. 

The enemy was evidently disheartened and 
broken. But we had been fighting since half^ 
past ten o'clock in the morning, and it was 
after three o'clock in the afternoon. The men* 
had been up since two o'clock in the mominc, 
and had made what to those unnsed to sndi 
things seemed a long march before coming into 
action, though the longest distance gone ovev 



REBELUOK REOORD, 1860-61. 



vaa not more than nine and a half miles ; and 
though they had three days* provisions served 
ont to them the day before, many no doubt 
either did not eat them, or threw them away 
on the march or during the battle, and were 
therefore without food. They had done much 
severe fighting. Some of the regiments which 
had been driven from the hill in the first two 
attempts of the enemy to keep possession of it 
had become shaken, were unsteady, and had 
many men out of the ranjcs. 

It was at this ^me that the enemy's rein- 
forcements came to his aid from the railroad 
train, understood to have just arrived from the 
▼alley with the residue of Johnston's army. 
They threw themselves in the woods on our 
right and towards the rear of our right, and 
opened a fire of musketry on our men, which 
caused them to break and retire down the hill- 
side. This soon degenerated into disorder, for 
which there was no remedy. Every effort was 
made to rally them, even beyond the reach of 
the enemy's fire, but in vain. The battalion of 
regular infantry alone moved up the hill oppo- 
site to the one with the house on it, and there 
maintained itself until our men could get down 
to and across the Warrenton turnpike, on the 
way back to the position we occupied in the 
morning. The plain was covered with the re- 
treating troops, and they seemed to infect those 
with whom they came in contact. The retreat 
soon became a rout, and this soon degenerated 
still further into a panic. 

Finding this state of afiTairs was beyond the 
efforts of all those who had assisted so faith- 
fully during the long and hard day^s work in 
gaining almost the object of our wishes, and 
Uiat nothing remained on the field but to re- 
cognize what we could no longer prevent, I 
Save the necessary orders to protect their with- 
rawal, begging the men to form in line, and 
offer the appearance, at least, of organization. 
They returned by the fords to the Warrenton 
road, protected, by my order, by Colonel Por- 
ter's force of regulars. Once on the road, and 
the different corps coming together in small 
parties^ many witnout officers, they became in- 
termingled, and all organization was lost. 

Orders had been sent back to Miles's division 
for a brigade to move forward and protect this 
retreat, and Colonel Blenker's brigade was de- 
tached for this purpose, and was ordered to go 
as far forward as the point where the road to 
the right left the main road. 

By referring to the general order it will be 
ieen that, while the operations were to f^ on 
in front, an attack was to be made at Black- 
burn's Ford, by the brigade (Richardson's) sta- 
tioned there. A reference to his report, and 
to that of Major Hunt, commanding the artil- 
lery, will show that this part of the plan was 
well and effectively carried out. It succeeded 
in deceiving the enemy for a considerable time, 
and in keeping in check a part of his force. 
The fire of the artillery at this point is repre- 
•OBted as particularly destructive. 



At the time of our retreat, seeing great ac- 
tivity in this directiou, much firing, and colurana 
of dust, I became anxious for this place, fearing 
if it were turned or forced, the whole stream 
of our retreating mass would be captured or 
destroyed. After providing for the protection 
of the retreat by Porter's and Blenker's bri- 
gades, I repaired to Richardson's, and found the 
whole force ordered to be stationed for the 
holding of the road from Manassas by Black- 
bum's Ford to Centreville, on the march, under 
the orders from the Division-Commander for 
Centreville. I immediately halted it and or- 
dered it to take up the best line of defence 
across the ridge that their position admitted of, 
and subsequently taking in person the com- 
mand of this part of the army, I caused such 
disposition of the forces which had been added 
to by the First and Second New Jersey and the 
De Kalb regiments, ordered up from Runyon^s 
reserve before going forward, as would best 
serve to check the enemy. The ridge being 
held in this way, the retreating current passed 
slowly through Centreville to the rear. The 
enemy followed us from the ford as far as Cub 
Run, and, owing to the road becoming blocked 
up at the crossing, caused us much damage 
there, for the artillery could not pass, and sev- 
eral pieces and caissons had to be abandoned. 
In the panic the horses hauling the caissons 
and ammunition were cut from their places by 
persons to escape with, and in this way much 
confusion was caused, the panic aggravated, 
and the road encumbered. Not only were 
pieces of artillery lost, but also many of the 
ambulances carrying the wounded. 

By sundown most of our men had gotten be- 
hind Centreville ridge, and it became a ques- 
tion whether we should or not endeavor to 
make a stand there. The condition of our ar- 
tillery and its ammunition, and the want of 
food for the men, who had generally abandoned 
or thrown away all that had been issued the 
day before, and the utter disorganization and 
consequent demoralization of the mass of the 
army, seemed to all who were near enough to 
be consulted— division and brigade command- 
ers and staff— to admit of no alternative bnt 
to fall back; the more so as the position at 
Blackburn's Ford was then in the possession 
of the enemy, and he was already turning 
our left. On sending the officers of the stafiT 
to the different camps, they found, as they 
reported to me, that our decision had been 
anticipated by the troq)s, most of those who 
had come in from the front being already on 
the road to the rear, the panic with which 
they came in still continuing and hurrying 
them along. 

At — o'clock the rear guard (Blenker's bri- 
gade) moved, covering the retreat, which was 
effected during the night and next morning. 
The troops at Fairfax station leaving by the 
cars took with them the bulk of the supplies 
which had been sent there. My aide-de-camp, 
Miyor Wadsworth, stayed at Fairfax oour^ 



DOGUHENTS. 



^ 



house till late itt the morning, to see that the 
stragglers^ and weaxy and worn-out soldiers, 
were not left behind. 

I transmit herewith the reports of the several 
division and brigade commanders, to which I 
refer for the condnct of particular regiments 
and oorpa, and a consolidated return of the 
killed, wounded, and missing. From the latter 
it will be seen that our killed amounted to 
nineteen officers and four hundred and sixty- 
two non-commissioned officers and privates, 
and our wounded to sixty-four officers and nine 
hundred and forty-seven non-commissioned offi- 
cers and privates. Many of the wounded will 
soon be able to join the ranks, and will leave 
our total of killed and disabled from further 
service under one thousand. The return of the 
missing is very inaccurate, the men supposed 
to be missing having fallen into other regi- 
ments and gone to Washington-^many of the 
Zouaves to New York. In one brigade the 
number originally reported at six hundred and 
dxteea was yesterday reduced to one hundred 
and seventy-four. These reductions are being 
made daily. In a few days a more correct re- 
turn can be made. 

Of course, nothing accurate is known of the 
loss of the enemy. An officer of their forces, 
coming from them with a flag of truce, ad- 
mitted eighteen hundred killed and wounded, 
and other information shows this to be much 
under the true number. 

The officer commanding the Eleventh New 
York Zouaves, and Oolonel Heintzelman, say 
that the returns of that regiment cannot be re- 
lied on, as many of those reported among the 
<»snaltie9 have absented themselves since their 
return and have gone to New York. Among 
the missing reported are many of our surgeons, 
who remained in attendance on our wound- 
ed, and were, against the rules of modem war- 
fare, made prisoners. 

The issue of this hard-fought battle, in which 
eertainly our troops lost no credit in their con- 
flict on the field with an enemy ably command- 
e^l, superior in numbers, who had but a short 
dirtance to march, and who acted on his own 
ground, on the defensive, and always under 
cover, whilst our men were of necessity out 
on the open fields, should not prevent full 
credit being given to those officers and corps 
whose services merited success if they did not 
attain it. 

To avoid repetition, I will only mention here 
the names of those not embraced in reports of 
dtTision and brigade commanders. I beg to 
refer to their reports for the names of those 
serving under their immediate orders, desiring 
that on this subject they be considered as part 
of my own. I claim credit for the officers of 
my staff, and for those acting as such during 
the day. They did every thing in their power, 
exposing themselves freely when required, and 
doing all that men could do; communicating 
orders, guiding the columns, exhorting the 
troops, rallying them when broken, and pro- 



viduig fbr them the best the circumstances per- 
mitted. They are as follows : 

First Lieutenant H. W. Kingsbury, Fifth Ar- 
tillery, mde-de-carop. Major Clarence S. Brown, 
New York Militia Volunteers, aide-de-camp. 
Mi^or James 8. Wadsworth, New York Militia 
Volunteers, aide-de-camp ; the latter, who does 
me the honor to be on my personal stafl^, had a . 
horse shot under him in the hottest of the fight. 
Captain James B. Fry, Assistant Adjutant-Gen- 
end. Oaptfun O. *H. TiUlnshas^ Asd^nt 
Quartermaster, who discharged alone the*im- 
portant and burdensome duties of his depart- 
ment with the army, and who was mortally 
wounded while acting with the artillery, to 
which he formerly belonged, and in which he was 
deeply interested. Captain H. F. Clark, Chief 
of Subsistence Department. Minor Meyer, Sig- 
nal Officer, and Major Malcolm McDonnell, who 
acted as aides. Surgeon W. S. King, and As- 
sistant Surgeon Magmder, Medical Department. 
Mcyor J. G. Barnard, Engineer, and senior of 
his department with the army, gave most im- 
portant aid. First Lieutenant Fred. S. Prime, 
Engineers. Captain A. W. Whipple. First 
Lieutenant E. L. Abbott, and Second Lieu- 
tenant H. S. Putnam, Topographical Engineers. 
Major W. F. Barry, Mfth Artillery, Chief of 
Artillery. Lieutenant George C. Strong, Ord- 
nance Officer. Miyor W. H. Wood, First In- 
fan try. Acting Inspector-General. Second Lieu- 
tenant Guy Henry, who joined me on the field, 
was of service as an aide^e-camp. 

The following officers commanded divisions 
and brigades, and in the several places their 
duty called them, did most effective service and 
behaved in the most gallant manner : 

Brigadier-General Tyler, Connecticut Volun- 
teers. Oolonel David Hunter, Third Cavalry, 
severely wounded at the head of his division. 
Colonel S. P. Heintzelman, Seventeenth Infant- 
ry, wounded in the arm while leading his di- 
vision into action on the hill. Brigadier-Gene- 
ral Schenck, Ohio Volunteers, commanding 
Second Brigade, First Division. Colonel E. D. 
Keyes, Eleventii Infantry, commanding First 
Brigade, First Division. Colonel W. P. Frank- 
lin, Twelfth Infantry, First Brigade, Third 
Division. Colonel W. T. Sherman, Thirteenth 
Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, First 
Division. Colonel Andrew Porter, Sixteenth 
Infantry, commanding First Brigade, Second 
Division. Colonel A. £. Burnside, Rhode Island 
Volunteers, commanding Second Brigade, Sec- 
ond Division. Colonel O. B. Wilcox, Michigan 
Volunteers, commanding Second Brigade, Tliird 
Division, who was wounded and taken prison- 
er while on the hill, in the hottest of the fight. 
Colonel O. O. Howard, Maine Volunteers, com- 
manding Third Brigade, Third Divifdon. Col- 
onel J. B. Bichardson, Michigan Volunteers, 
commanding Fourth Brigade, First Division. 
Colonel Blenker, New York Volunteers, com- 
manding First Brigade, Fifth Division. Colo- 
nel Davies, New York Volunteers, command* 
ing Second Brigade, Fifth Division. 



6 



REBELUON RECORD, 1860-61. 



As my position may warrant, even if it does 
not call for some explanation of the causes, as 
far as they can be seen, wliich led to the results 
herein stated, I trust it may not bo out of place 
if I refer in a few words to the immediate 
antecedents of the battle. When I submitted 
to the General-in-Chief, in compliance with his 
verbal instructions, the plan of operations and 
estimate of force required, the time I was to 
proceed to caiTy it into effect was fixed for the 
8th of July, Monday. Every facility possible 
was*given me by the General-in-Chief, and the 
beads of the administrative departments, in 
making the necessary preparations. But the 
regiments, owing, I was told, to a want of 
transportation, came over slowly. Many of 
them did not come across till eight or nino 
days after the time fixed upon, and went for- 
ward without my even seeing them, and with- 
out having been together before in a brigade. 
The sending reinforcements to General Patter- 
son, by drawing off the wagons, was a further 
and unavoidable cause of delay. Notwithstand- 
ing the Herculean efforts of the Quartermaster- 
General, and his favoring me in every way, the 
wagons for ammunition, subsistence, &c., and 
the horses for the trains and the artillery, did 
not arrive for more than a week after the time 
appointed to move. I was not even prepared 
as late as the 15th ultimo, and the desire I 
should move became great, and it was wished 
I should not, if possible, delay longer than 
Tuesday, the 16th ultimo. When I did set out, 
on the 16th, I was still deficient in wagons for 
subsistence* But I went forward, trusting to 
their being procured in time to follow me. 
The trains thus hurriedly gathered together, 
with horses, wagons, drivers, and wagon man- 
agers, all new and unused to each other, moved 
with difficulty and disorder, and was the cause 
of a day^s delay in getting the provisions for- 
ward, making it necessary to make on Sunday 
the attack we should have made on Saturday. 
I could not, with every exertion, eet forward 
with the troops earlier than we did. I wished 
to go to Centreville the second day, which 
would have taken us there on the 17th, and 
enabled us, so far as they were concerned, to 

fo into action on the 19th, instead of the 21st ; 
ut when I went forward from Fairfax Court 
House, beyond Gerhiantown, to urge them for- 
ward, I was told it was impossible for the men 
to march further. They nad only come from 
Vienna, about six miles, and it was not more 
than six and a half miles farther to Centre- 
ville — in all a march of twelve and a half 
miles ; but the men were foot weary ; not so 
much, I was told, by the distance marched, as 
by the time they had been on foot, caused by 
the obstructions in the road, and the slow pace 
we had to move to avoid ambuscades. The 
men were, moreover, unaccustomed to march- 
ing, their bodies not in condition for that kind 
of work, and not used to carying even the load 
of light marching order. 
We crossed Bdl Run with about 18,000 men 



of all arms, the fifth division (Miles^s and Rich- 
ardson's brigade) on the left, at Blackbum^s 
Ford to Centreville, and Schenck's brigade of 
Tyler's division on the left of the road, near 
the stone bridge, not participating in the main 
action. The numbers opposed to us have been 
variously estimated. I may safely say, and 
avoid oven the appearance of exaggeration, 
that the enemy brought up all he could, which 
were not kept engaged elsewhere. He had 
notice of our coming on the 17th, and had from 
that time until the 21st to bring up whatever 
ho had. It is known that in estimating the 
force to go agdnst Manassas, I engaged not to 
have to do with the enemy's forces under John- 
ston, then kept in check in the valley by M^jor- 
General Patterson, or those kept engaged by 
Mcyor-General Butler, and I know every effort 
was made by the General-in-Chief that this 
should bo done, and that even if Johnston joined 
Beauregard, it would not be because he could 
bo followed by General Patterson, but from 
causes not necessary for me to refer to, yon 
knew them all. This was not done, and the 
enemy was freo to assemble from every direc- 
tion in numbers only limited by the amount of 
his railroad rolling-stock and his supply of pro- 
visions. To the forces, therefore, we drove in 
from Fairfax Court House, Fairfax Station, Gei^ 
mantown, and Centreville, and those under 
Beauregard at Manassas, must bo added those 
under Johnston from Winchester, and those 
brought up by Davis from Richmond, to other 
places at the South, to which is to be added the 
levy en masM ordered by tho Richmond au- 
thorities, which was ordered to assemblo at 
Manassas. What all this amounted to, I cannot 
say — certainly much more than we attacked 
them with. 

I could not, as I have said, more early push 
on faster, nor could I delay. A large and the 
best part of my forces were three months' vol- 
unteoi*a, whoso term of service was about to 
expire, but who were sent forward as having 
long enongh to serve for tho purpose of the ex- 
pedition. On tlie eve of the battle the Fourth 
Pennsylvania regiment of volunteers, and tho 
battery of volunteer artillery of the New Yoric 
Eightli militia, whose term of semce expired, 
insisted on their discharge. I wrote to the re^ji- 
ment, expressing a request for them to remain 
a short time, and tho Hon. Secretary of War, 
who was at the time on the ground, tried to 
induce the battery to remain at least five days. 
But in vain. They insisted on their discharge 
that night. It was granted, and the next 
morning, when tho army moved forward into 
battle, these troops moved to the rear to the 
sound of the enemy's cannon. 

In tho next few days, day by day, I should 
have lost ten thousand of the best armed, 
drilled, officered, and disciplined troops in the 
nrmy. In other woi*ds, cvury day which added 
to the strength of the enemy made us weaker. 

In conclusion, I desire to say, in reference to 
the events of the 2l6t ultimo, that the genera] 



'V 



6 



REBELUON BECORD, 1860-61. 



As my position may warrant, even if it does 
not call for some explanation of the causes, as 
far as they can be seen, which led to the results 
herein stated, I trust it may not be out of place 
if I refer in a few words to the immediate 
antecedents of the battle. When I submitted 
to the General-in-Chief, in compliance with his 
▼erbal instructions, the plan of operations and 
estimate of force required, the time I was to 
proceed to carry it into effect was fixed for the 
8th jjf July, Monday. Every facility possible 
was'given me by the General-in-Chief, and the 
beads of the administrative depailments, in 
making the necessary preparations. But the 
regimen^ owing, I was told, to a want of 
transportation, came over slowly. Many of 
them did not come across till eight or nine 
days after the time fixed upon, and went for- 
ward without my even seeing them, and with- 
out having been together before in a brigade. 
The sending reinforcements to General Patter- 
son, by drawing off the wagons, was a further 
and unavoidable cause of delay. Notwithstand- 
ing the Herculean efforts of the Quartermaster- 
General, and his favoring me in every way, the 
wagons for ammunition, subsistence, &c., and 
tlie horses for the trains and tlje artillery, did 
not arrive for more than a week after the time 
appointed to move. I was not even prepared 
as late as the 16th ultimo, and the desire I 
should move became great, and it was wished 
I should not, if possible, delay longer than 
Tuesday, the 16th ultimo. When I did set out, 
on tlie 16th, I was still deficient in wagons fur 
subsistence^ But I went forward, trusting to 
their being procured in time to follow me. 
The trains thus hurriedly gathered together, 
with horses, wagons, drivers, and wagon man- 
agers, all new and unused to each other, moved 
with difiioulty and disorder, and was tlie cause 
of a day^s delay in getting the provisions for- 
ward, making it necessary to make on Sunday 
the attack we should have made on Saturday. 
I oould not, with every exertion, cet forward 
with the troops earlier than we did. I wished 
to go to Centre ville the second day, which 
would have taken us there on the 17th, and 
enabled us, so far as they were concerned, to 

fo into action on the 19th, instead of the 21st; 
ut when I went forward from Fairfax Court 
House, beyond Gerhiantown, to urge them for- 
ward, I was told it was impossible for the men 
to^ march further. They had only come from 
Vienna, about six miles, and it was not more 
than six and a half miles farther to Centre- 
Tille — in all a march of twelve and a half 
miles ; but the men were foot weary ; not so 
much, I was told, by the distance marched, as 
by the time they had been on foot, caused by 
the obstructions in the road, and the slow pace , 
we had to move to avoid ambuscades. The 
men were, moreover, unaccustomed to march- 
ing, their bodies not in condition for that kind 
of work, and not used to carying even the load 
of %ht marching order. 

We crossed Bull Run with about 18,000 men 



of all arms, the fifth division (Miles^s and Rich- 
ardson^B brigade) on the left, at Blackbum^s 
Ford to Centreville, and SchencVs brigade of 
Tyler^s division on the left of the road, near 
the stone bridge, not participating in the main 
action. The numbers opposed to us have been 
variously estimated. I may safely say, and 
avoid oven the appearance of exaggeration, 
that the enemy brought up all ho comd, which 
were not kept engaged elsewhere. He had 
notice of our coming on the 17th, and had from 
that time until the 21st to bring up whatever 
ho hod. It is known that in estimating the 
force to go against Manassas, I engaged not to 
have to do with the enemy ^s forces under John- 
ston, then kept in check in the valley by Msgor- 
General Patterson, or those kept engaged by 
Major-General Butler, and I know every effort 
was made by the General-in-Chief tliat this 
should bo done, and that oven if Johnston joined 
Beauregard, it would not be because he could 
be followed by General Patterson, but from 
causes not necessary for me to refer to, you 
knew them all. This was not done, and the 
enemy was free to assemble from every direc- 
tion in numbers only limited by the amount of 
his railroad rolling-stock and his supply of pro- 
visions. To the forces, therefore, we drove in 
from Fairfax Court House, Fairfax Station, Geiv 
mantown, and Centreville, and those under 
Beauregard at Manassas, must be added those 
under Johnston from Winchester, and those 
brought no by Davis from Richmond, to other 
places at the South, to which is to be added the 
levy en masse ordered by tho Richmond au- 
thorities, which was ordered to assemble at 
Manassas. What all this amounted to, I cannot 
say — certainly much more than we attacked 
them with. 

I could not, as I have said, more early push 
on faster, nor could I delay. A large and the 
best part of my forces were three months* vol- 
unteers, wliose teim of service was about to 
expire, but who were sent forward as having 
long enough to serve for the purpose of the ex- 
j)cdition. On the eve of the battle the Fourth 
Pennsylvania regiment of volunteers, and the 
battery of volunteer artillery of the New York 
Eighth militia, whose term of service expired, 
insisted on their discharge. I wrote to the regi- 
ment, expressing a request for them to remain 
a short time, and the Hon. Secretary of War, 
who was at the time on tho ground, tried to 
induce tho battery to remain at least five days. 
But in vain. They insisted on their discharge 
tliat night. It was granted, and the next 
morning, when tho army moved forward into 
battle, these troops moved to the rear to the 
sound of the cnemy^s cannon. 

In the next few days, day by day, I should 
have lost ten thousand of the best anned, 
drilled, officered, and disciplined troops in the 
nrmy. In other words, every day which added 
to the strength of the enemy made us weaker. 

In conclusion, I desire to sny, in reference to 
the events of the 2l6t ultimo, that the genera] 



I k 



s 




EXPLANATIONS AND REPEI f of ArtiUenr. 

1.— MILES' DIVISION Paviee' and Blenkei 

2.— RICHARDSON'S BRIGADE in obseira 

8.— TYLER'S DIVISION (Schenck's, Keyes' 

4.— The dotted line leading to 4, and crossing ;eriea, and the candry.) 

5, 6.— Position (first) of the U. S. Field Batt< 

The enemy's first position was, as sketched in ey Springs, and threateiied 
their left flanlL tiiey moved large bodies of troops on brcea thronghoat the day, 
and purticolarly abont 4 o'clock P. M., by arrivals of fr( 

Aooonnts from Richmond and other Southern i Manasses and on (he road 
to Blohmond. 



DOGUMEMta 



order for tho battle to which I referred was. 
with slight modtficjitlons, literally conformed 
to; that the corps were brought over Bull Bun 
in the manner proposed, and put iuto action as 
before arranged, and that up to late in the 
afternoon every movement ordered was carry- 
ing U3 soeoessfally to the object we had pro- 
posed before starting — ^that of getting to the 
railroad leading from Manassas to tlie valley of 
Virginia, and going on it far enough to break 
np and destroy the communication and inter- 
views between the forces under Beauregard 
and those nnder Johnston. And could we have 
fought a day or a few hoars sooner, there is 
every thing to show how we could have con- 
tinned successful oven against the odds with 
which we contended. 
I have the honor to be, venr respectfully, 
Yoor most obedient servant, 
Ibwist MoDowbll, 

Brigadler-Q^nerml Oommandtng; 
FIRST DIVISIOl?. 
OXNESAL TTLER^S BBPOBT. 
HsilH^VAmTIBS FkBST DlTtSlOV, DkPAITH HIT N. E. Va., I 

Wasbiiotov, July 27, 18dL | 

Geitsbal: In obedience to order No. 23, 
dated Gentreville, July 20, Sherman's, Schenck's, 
and Keyes^s brigades, of this division — Richard- 
son's brigade having been left in front of Black - 
barn's Ford — moved at half-past two a. m., on 
the 21st inst., to threaten the passage of the 
Warrenton turnpike bridge, on Bull Bun. { 
arrived in front of the bridge with Schenck's 
and Sherman's brigades, and Ayres^s and Car- 
lisle's batteries, about six a. h., Keyes's brigade 
having been halted by your order to watch the 
road coming up from Manassas, and about two 
miles from the run. After examining the posi- 
tion, and posting Sherman's and Schonck's bri- 
gades and artillery, I fired the first gun at half- 
past six A. H., OS agreed upon, to show that we 
were in position. As my orders were to threat- 
en the passage of the bridge, I caused Sohenck's 
brigade to be formed into line, its left resting 
in the direction of the bridge, and the battery 
whieh the enemy had established to sweep the 
bridge and its approach, so as to threaten both. 
Sherman^s brigade was posted to the right of 
the Warrenton turnpike, so as to be in position 
to sustain Schenck, or to move across Bull Run 
in the direction of Hunter's column. 

The thirty -pounder gun attached to the Oar- 
lisle battery was posted on the Warrenton 
turnpike, with Ayres's battery considerably in 
its rear, Garii^e's battery was posted on the 
left of Sherman's brii^ade. In this position we 
awaited the appearance of Hunter's and Heint- 
sleman'a columns as ordered, until such time 
as the approach to the brid<ze should be ciirried, 
and the bridge rebuilt by Capt Alexander, of 
the engineers, who hail on the spot the neces- 
sary stmcture for that purpose. 

Soon after getting into position we discovered 
that the enemy had a heavy battery, with in- 
fantry in support, oommondiing both the road 



and bridge approaches, on which both Ayera 
and Carlisle at different times tried the effect 
of their guns without success ; and a careful 
examination of the banks of Bull Run satisfying 
me that they were impracticable for the pur- 
pose of artillery, these batteries had to remain 
comparatively useless until such time as Hunter's 
column might clear the approach by a move- 
ment on the opposite bank. During this period 
of waiting the thirty*pounder was occasionally 
used with considerable effect against bodies of 
infantry and cavalry, which could be seen from 
time to time moving in the direction of Hunter's 
column, and out of the range of ordinary guns. 
Using a high tree ns an observatory, we could 
constantly see the operations of Hunter's and 
Heintzelman's column from the time they 
crossed Bull Rnn, and through one of my staf^ 
Lieut. O'Rourke, of the engineers, I was prompt- 
ly notified as to any change in the progress of 
their columns up to the time when it appeared 
that the heads of both were arrested, and the 
enemy seemed to be moving heavy reinforce- 
ments to support their troops. At this time 
I ordered Colonel Sherman, with his brigade, 
to cross Bull Run, and to support the two col- 
umns already in action. Colonel Sherman, as 
appears by his reports, crossed the rnn without 
opposition, and after encountering a party of 
the enemy flying before Hunter's forces, found 
General McDowell, and received his orders to 
join in the pursuit. The subsequent operations 
of this brigade and its able commander having 
been under your own eye and directions, I shall 
nut follow its movements any further, but refer 
yon to Colonel Sherman's report, which yon 
will find herewith. 

So soon as it was discovered that Hunter's 
division had been arrested, I ordered up Keyes's 
brigade, which arrived Just as the left of Sher- 
man's was crossing the run, and having satisfied 
myself that the enemy had not the force nor 
the purpose to cross Bull Run, I ordered Reyes's 
brigade to follow Sherman, accompanying the 
move in person, as I saw it must necessarily 
place mo on the left of onr line, and in the best 
possible position, when we should have driven 
the enemy off, to Join Schenck's brigade and 
the two batteries left on tho opposite side. I 
ordered Colonel Keyes to incline the head of 
his column a little to the right of tho line of 
march taken by Sherman's brigade, to avoid 
tho fire of a battery which the enemy had 
opened. This movement sheltered the men to 
a considerable degree, and resulted in closing 
on the rear of Sherman's brigade; and, on 
reaching tho high ground, I ordered Colonel 
Keyes to form into line on the left of Sherman's 
brigade, which was done with great steadiness 
and regularity. After waiting a few moments 
the line was ordered to advance, and came into 
confiict on its right with the enemy's cavalry 
and infantry, which, after some severe struggles, 
it drove back, until the further march of the 
brigade was arrested by a severe fire of artillery 
and infantry, sheltered by some buildings 



8 



REBELLIOK BEOOBD, 186041. 



standing on the heights above the road leading 
to BuU Run. The charge was here ordered, 
and the Second Maine and Third Connecticut 
regiments, which were opposed to this part of 
the enemy's line, pressed forward to the top of 
the hill until they reached the buildings which 
were held by the enemy, drove them out, and 
for a moment had them in possession. At this 
point, finding the brigade under the fire of a 
strong force behind breastworks, the order was 
given to march by the left flank across an open 
field until the wliole line was sheltered by the 
right bank of Bull Run, along which the march 
was conducted, with a view to turn the battery 
which the enemy had placed on the hill below 
the point at which the Warrenton turnpike 
crosses Bull Run. The march was conducted 
for a considerable distance below the stone 
bridge, causing the enemy to retire, and giving 
Captain Alexander an opportunity to pass the 
bridge, cut out the abatis which had been 
placed there, and prepared the way for Schenck's 
brigade and the two batteries to pass over. Be- 
fore the contemplated movement could be made 
on the enemy's battery it was removed and 
placed in a position to threaten our line ; but 
before the correct range could be obtained. 
Colonel Keyes carried his brigade, by a flank 
movement, around the base of the hill, and was 
on the point of ascending it in time to get at 
the battery, when I discovered that our troops 
were on the retreat, and that, unless a rapid 
movement to the rear was made, we should be 
out off, and through my aid, Lieutenant Upton, 
Colonel Keyes was ordered to file to the right 
and join the retreating column. The order was 
executed without the least confusion, and the 
brigade joined the retreating column in good 
order. When this junction was made I left 
Keyes's brigade and rode forward to ascertain 
the condition of Schenck's brigade and the 
artillery left this side of Bull Run, and on arriv- 
ing there found Ayers's battery and Lieutenant 
H^nes's dO-ponnder waiting orders. I imme- 
diately ordered Lieutenant Haines to limber up 
and move forward as soon as possible. This 
was promptly done, and the piece moved on 
towards Centreville. I then went into the 
wood where the ammunition wagon of this 
piece had been placed, out of the reach of the 
fire, and found that the driver had deserted and 
taken away part of the horses, which made it 
impossible to move it. I then returned to 
Ay ers's battery, which I found limbered up, and 
ordered it to move forward and cover the re- 
treat, which was promptly done by its gallant 
ofiSoers, and when the cavalry charge was made, 
shortly afterward, they repulsed it promptly 
and effectually. I then collected a guard, main- 
ly from the Second Maine regiment, and put it 
nnder the command of Colonel Jameson, with 
orders to sustain Captain Ayers during the re- 
treat, which was done gallantly and sncoess- 
fblly, until the battery reached Centreville. 
Before ordering Colonel Jameson to cover 
A/ers's battery, I passed to the rear to find 



General Schenck's brigade, intending, as it was 
fresh, to have it cover the retreat. I did not 
find it in the position in which I had left it, and 
supposed it had moved forward and joined the 
retreating column. I did not see General 
Schenck again until near Cub Run, where he 
appeared active in rallying his own or some 
other regiments. General Schenck reports that 
the two Ohio Regiments left Bull Run after the 
cavalry charge, and arrived at Centreville in 
good order. 

In closing this report, it ^ves me great 
pleasure to express my admiration of the man- 
ner in which Colonel Keyes handled his brigade, 
completely covering it by every possible acci- 
dent of the ground, while changing his poations^ 
and leading it bravely and skilfully to the at- 
tack at the right moment, to which the brigade 
responded in every instance in a manner highly 
creditable to itself and satisfactory to its com- 
manding oflScers. At no time during the con- 
fiict was this brigade disorganized, and it was 
the last off the fidd, and in good order. 

Colonel Keyes says: — *'The gallantry with 
which the Second Maine and Tldrd Connecticut 
regiments charged up the hill upon the enemy ^s 
artillery and infantry, was never, in my opinion, 
surpassed, and the conduct of Colonels Jame- 
son and Chatfield in this instance and through- 
out the day merits the highest commendation. 
Colonel Terry rendered great assistance by his 
gallantry and excellent conduct Lieutenant 
Ilascall, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General 
Lieutenants Walter and Ely, rendered gallant 
and effective assistance." It gives me pleasure 
to be able to confirm the above from personal 
observation, and to express my personal satis- 
faction with the conduct of this brigade. For 
further particulars as to gallant conduct of 
individu^s, I beg leave to refer you to the re- 
ports of commanders of brigades, hereunto 
attached. Colonel Sherman speaks highly of 
Colonel McCoon, of Wisconsin, and Lieutenants 
Piper and McQuester — all on bis personal staff. 

From my own personal staff I received, in 
every instance, prompt and gallant assistance, 
and my thanks are due to Captains Baird and 
Merrill, Lieutenants Houston, Abbott^ Upton, 
O'Rourke, and Audenreid, for gallant conduct 
and the prompt and valuable assistance thej 
rendered me. Lieutenants Abbott and Upton 
were both wounded, and each had a horse killed 
under him, as also had Lieutenant O'Rourke. 

I enclose herewith a table of casualties show- 
ing our losses at Bull Run. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, 
your most obedient servant, Daniel Tyler, 

Brlg»di«r-6eDer»l ComniADdinp Dlrlsioa. 

Brig.-Gen. McDowell, Commanding Depart- 
ment North-eastern Virginia. 

CASrALTIES. 

Firgt Brigadf. KiUed. Wounded, JKsfinff. SUghUy Wd. 
Col. E, D. Keyea— .19 60 118 1» 

Sfctmd Brigade. 

Gen. ftrhonck 21 81 1« — 

Third Bi-igad^. 
CoL Sbeniuio 190 



DOGUllXNTa 



First brigade had four officers wonnded, none 
killedl, and five missing. 

Second brigade had three officers killed, none 
▼ounded, and one missing. 

Tliird brigade had. three officers killed, fifteen 
wounded, and three missing, which are indaded 
in above average. 

Grand Total— Killed, 160; wonnded, 279; 
missing, 423. 

Fonrtli brigade was not at Bull Bon, being 
left at Blackbarn^s Ford. 

OoL Tompkins reports 140 others missing, 
without giving names. As this regiment did 
not cross Boll Bun, they mast have been ac- 
earately informed as to their killed and wound- 
ed. This, taken in connection with the fact 
that three of their officers are reported as de- 
serters, known to be in New York City, leads 
to the belief that, their officers having set the 
example, the men were not slow to foUow. 

SEPOST OF GSNEBAL BOHSSOK. 

Bbcovd Brioadb, FiBf t Ditisiov, I 
DiPAXTiiBafT N. B. ViftOixiA, July 23, 1861. \ 

To Brig,'Qen. Ttlbb, Commandii^ FirH Dir 

GaasBAL : I have the honor to submit this 
report of the movements and service of my 
brigade in the battle at Bull Bun off the Gaines- 
ville road on the 21st inst. 

Leaving my camp, one mile south of Centre- 
ville, at 2i o^clock A. m. of that day, I marched 
at the head of your division, as ordered, with 
my command in column, in the following 
onler : the First Begiment of Ohio Volunteers, 
Col. McCook; the Second Ohio, Lieut.-Gol. 
Mason; the Second New York State Militia, 
Col. Tompkins ; and Capt. Carlisle's Battery of 
Light Artillery, six (6) brass guns. To Gapt. 
Cairlisle's command was also attached the laj^ge 
Parrott gun, 30-pounder, under direction of 
Lieot Haines, of the artillery corps. 

Proceeding slowiy and carefully, preceded by 
five companies of skirmishers of the First and 
Seeond Ohio, which I threw out on either side 
of the road, we approached the bridge over 
Bull Bun, beyond which the rebels were under- 
stood to be posted and intrenched, and to 
within a distance of perhaps three-fourths of a 
mile of their batteries, on the other side of the 
stream. 

In obedience to your command, on first dis- 
covery of the presence of the enemy's infantry 
forming into line on the hill-side beyond the 
ran, I deployed my three regiments of infantry 
to the left of the road, and formed them in line 
of batUe iu front of his right. Thns my com- 
mand was constituted the left wing of our di- 
vision, Col. Sherman's brigade coming up and 
takiog position to the right of the road. 

After the fire had been opened by discharge 
of the large Parrott gun from the centre in the 
direction of the enemy's works, I moved ray 
extended line gradually forward nt intervals, 
taking advantage of the ground until I had my 
force sheltered partly in a hollow covered by a 



ridge and wood in front, and partly by the edge 
of the timber lying between us and the run. 
Here we lay, in pursuance of your orders, for 
perhaps two and a half or three hours, with no 
evidence of our nearness to the enemy except 
the occasional firing of musketry by our skir- 
mishers in the wood in front, answered by the 
muskets or rifles of the enemy, to whom our 
presence and position were thus indicated, with 
a view to distract his attention from the ap- 
proach of Ool. Hunter's force from above and 
m his rear. At this time I received your notice 
and order, announcing that Hunter was heard 
from — that he had crossed, and was coming 
down about two miles above us, and directing 
that if I saw any signs of a stampede of the 
enemy in front, I should make a dash with the 
two Ohio regiments, keeping the New York 
regiment in reserve. For this movement I im* 
mediately formed and prepared. 

Soon after, and when, by the firing of artil- 
lery and musketry in front at the rights it ap* 
peared that the rebels were actively engaged m 
their position by our forces on the other side 
of the stream, I received your order to extend 
my line still further to the left, sending for- 
ward Col. McCook's regiment to feel the bat- 
tery of the enemy, which was ascertained to 
be on the hill covering the ford, half a mile be- 
low the bridge, and supporting him with my 
two other regiments. This was immediately 
done. Ool. McCook advanced in that direction 
along the road, which we found to be a narrow 
track through a pine wood, thick and close 
wiUi undergrowth, and flanked on either side 
by ambuscades of brush work, which were 
now, however, abandoned. Beaching the head 
of this narrow road, where it opened upon the 
stream. Col. McCook found the battery to be a 
strong earthwork immediately opposite, mount- 
ed with at least four heavy guns, and corn- 
manding tlie outlet from the wood. An open 
space of low ground lay between, with a corn- 
field to the left, the direct distance across the 
enemy's battery being 350 yards. 

Behind the battery, and supporting it, were 
discovered some four regiments of the rebel 
troops, while rifle pits were seen directly in 
front of it. The First regiment was then de- 
ployed to the left in the edge of the woods, and 
into the cornfield; one company. Captain 
Kells's, being thrown forward towards the 
run, up to within, perhaps, twenty yards of 
the battery. While this was done, I advanced 
the Second Ohio, followed by the Second New 
York, towards the head of the road, in sup- 
porting distance from the First Ohio, Lieut- 
Col. Mason's regiment filing also to the left. 
Beceiving Col. McCook's report of the battery, 
and that it would be impossible to turn it with 
any force we had, I immediately despatched a 
message to the centre to bring up some pieces 
of artillery to engage the enemy from the head 
of tlie road. In the mean time the enemy, dis- 
covering our presence and position in the woods, 
and evidently having the exact range of the 



10 



BEBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



road we were occnpying, opened on us with a 
heavy fire of nhells and round and grape shot. 

To avoid the eflfects of this as mnch as pos- 
tihle, I ordered the men to fall back into the 
woods on each side of the road, and was present- 
ly reinforced by two guns of Ayres's battery, 
under Lientenant Hansom, whicli passed to the 
head of the road. A brisk cannonading was 
then opened, but a very unequal one, on ac- 
count of the superior force and metal of the 
enemy. While tliis continued, I left my horse 
and passed through the wood, and remained 
some time by our gims, to bo satisfied w^hether 
we were making any impression upon the cne- 
my^s work. I soon found that it was not thus 
to be carried, and such also was the opinion of 
tlie officer in charge of the guns. Retiring, I 
found that the most of my two regiments in 
the rear had fallen back out of range of the hot 
and constant fire of the enemy's cannon, against 
which they had nothing to oppose. The suffer- 
ing from this fire was principally with the 
Second New York, as they were in the line 
where most of the shell and shot fell that passed 
over the heads of the Second Ohio. 

Taking with me two companies of the Second 
Ohio which were yet in the woods maintaining 
their position, I returned to cover and bring 
away Ransom's guns. It was just at this place 
and point of time that you visited yourself the 
position we were leaving. I must not omit to 
apeak with commendation of the admirable 
manner in which these guns of ours were 
handled and served by the officers and men 
having them in charge. And I may notice the 
fact, alRo, that as we were withdrawing from 
this point we saw another heavy train of the 
enemy's guns arrive, and move up the stream 
on the otiicr side of their battery with which 
we had been engaged, along what I supposed 
to be the road from Manassas, towards where 
the battle was raging with our troops on the 
right. 

My three regiments being all called in, then 
retired and rested in good order, at the centre 
of the front, near the turnpike. Ilere I was 
informed by Col. McCook that you had crossed 
the run above, with other portions of our di- 
vision, and left with him an order for me to re- 
main with my infantry in that position, sup- 
porting Carlisle's battery, which was posted 
olose to the road on the rigl)t. Tliis was 1 
p. M. Capt. Carlisle, while we thus rested, 
was playing with much apparent effect upon 
the enemy's works across the run, with his 
two rified pieces, as was also Lient. Haines with 
the large Parrott gim. Soon after, having suc- 
cessive and cheering reports, confirm^ by 
what we could observe, of the success of our 
army on the other side of the run, I discovered 
that bodies of the enemy were in motion proba- 
bly retreating, to their right. To scatter these 
and hasten their flight, I ordered into the road 
towards the bridge, the two rifled guns, and had 
several rounds fired with manifest severe effect. 
This, however, drew from the enemy's batteries 



again a warm and quick fire of shell, and with 
rified cannon on our position on the road, which 
continued afterwards and with little intermis- 
sion, with loss of some lives again in my New 
York regiment, until the close of the fight. 

While this was going on, Capt Alexander, 
of the Engineer Corps, brought up the company 
of pioneers, or axe-men, which, with its oflScere 
and sixty men, had been entirely detuled from 
the regiments of my brigade, to open a com- 
munication over the bridge, and through the 
heavy abatis which obstructed the pasFage of 
troops on our front beyond the run. To sup* 
port him while thus engaged I brought up, and 
placed in the road towards the bridge, Mo- 
Cook's and Tompkins's regiments, detailing 
also, and sending forward to the bridge, a com* 
pany of the Second New Yorkers, to cover the 
men while cutting through the enemy's abatia. 
A second company from Lieut.-Col. Mason's 
command was also brought forward with axes, 
afterwards, to aid in clearing the obstructionSi 
and thus, in a short time, Capt. Alexander 6uo> 
ceeded in opening a passage. Capt Carlisle's 
battery was now posted on the hillside, in the 
open field, to the left of the road towards ths 
bridge. 

Very soon after, some reverses of fortune ap- 
pearing to have taken place with our troops on 
the other side, who were falling back up the 
run, it was discovered and reported to me that 
a large body of the enemy had passed over the 
stream below the bridge, and were advancing 
through a wood in the low ground at our left 
with an evident purpose to fiank us. To inter- 
cept this movement, I ordered forward into the 
road, still lower down, two of Carlisle's brass 
howitzers, a few rounds from which, quickly 
served, drove the rebels from the woods and 
back to the other side of the stream. It was 
not long after this that the unpleasant intelli- 
gence came of our army being in retreat from 
the front across the ford above, and the order 
was received to fall back on Centre viUe. Ths 
retreat of my Brigade, being now in the rear 
of our Division, was conducted in the reverse 
order of our march in the morning, the Second 
New York moving first, and being followed by 
the Second and First Ohio, the two latter regi- 
ments preserving their lines in good degree, 
rallying together, and arriving at Centreville 
with closed ranks, and sharing comparatively 
little in the panic which characterized so pain- 
fully that retreat, and which seemed to bs 
occasioned more by the fear of frightened team- 
sters and of hurrying and excited eiviUan$^ (who 
ought never to hate been there,) than even by 
the reckless disorder and want of discipline of 
straggling soldiers. Near the house which was 
occupied as a hospital for the wounded, about 
a mile from the battle ground, a dashing chai^ge 
was made upon the retreating column by a 
body of the rebel cavalry, which was gallantly 
repelled, and principally by two companies of 
the Second Ohio, with loss on both sideai 
Here, also, in this attack, occurred some of the 



DOCUHSNTSL 



11 



esaoalties m the Second Now York regiment. 
From this point to Gentreville, a portion of the 
First Ohio was detailed, under the command of 
Lieat^^Col. Parrott, and acted efficientlj as a 
rear guard cohering the retreat. Arrived at 
Centreville I halted the two Ohio regiments 
on the hill, and proceeded to call on Gen. Mc- 
Dowell, whom I found engaged in raUjing the 
reserre of the army and other troops in line of 
battle to meet an expected attack that night 
of the enemr at that point. I offered him oar 
services, and asked for orders, premising, how- 
ever, that nnfed and weary troops, who had 
been 17 honrs on the march and battle-field, 
might not be very effective, unless it were to 
be posted as a reserve in case of a later emer- 
gency. Gen McDowell directed me to take 
them to the foot of the hill, there to stay and 
encamp. This I did, establishing the two regi- 
ments together in the wood to the left of the 
tompike. 

After resting here about two hours, I was 
notified that your division, with the rest of the 
forces under the Greneral commanding, were 
leaving Centreville, and received your order to 
fall back on Washington. I took the route by 
Fairfax Court House, and thence across to 
Vienna, arriving at the latter place at 8^ 
A. If., on the morning of the 22d, and there 
resting the troops for two hours in an open 
field. During the march we did what was pos- 
sible to cover the rear of the column then scat- 
tered on the road. Two miles or loss this side 
of Vienna, Col. Cook, with the main body of 
bis regiment, turned upon the road leading to 
the Chain Bridge over the Potomac, thinking 
it might be a better way, and at the same time 
afford, by the presence of a large aud organized 
body, protection to any stragglers that might 
have taken that route. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Mason, with the Second Ohio, marched in by the 
way of Fall^s Church and Camp Upton. 

The return of the Ohio regiments to Wash- 
ington was made necessary by the fact that 
their term of service having expired, they are 
at once to be sent home, to be mustered out of 
service. Not having been able to obtain yet 
complete or satbfactory returns of all the casu- 
alties in the battle, in the different corps of my 
brigade, I shall .reserve the list of them for a 
teparate report, which I will furnish as soon as 
practicable. I am very respectfully, 

Tour obedient servant, 

ROUERT SCUBNOK, 
Brlgadler-Qeneral. 

COL. nionABneoN^s bepobt. 

Camp or tbi FocmTR Brigadb or Ttlsr*s Diriiiox 1 

AXO Obw. McDowbll*8 Corps. y 

Nbar Ablisotox, July 26, 1861. ) 

Gcxxbal: I have the honor to submit the 
follow ing report as to the operations of my 
brigade in front of the enemy at Bull Run, on 
Sunday, July 21. On the night of July 20 I 
was summoned to attend a meeting of com- 
manders of brigades at the head- quarters of the 
conunanding officer in the field, Gren. McDow- 



ell ; and, in common with the other command* 
ers of brigade^, I was instructed as to what was 
expected of my particular command on the fol- 
lowing day — that is, I was to defend the posi- 
tion which I then occupied in front of the 
enemy, called the Blackburn Ford, and about 
one mile* in his front, where we had been for 
the last three days. I was also ordered to con- 
sider myself under the command of Col. D. 8. 
Miles, United States Army, who was to com- 
mand his own brigade at Centreville, as well as 
my own and that of Col. Davies, midway be- 
tween the two— these three brigades constitut- 
ing what was then called the reserve. At- 
tached to my brigade was the field battery of 
M%jor Hunt, United States Army, and also the 
rifled battery of ten-pounders, under Lieut. 
Green, United States Army. I was to open 
fire on the enemy, for the purpose of making a 
diversion, not before, but soon after hearing 
the report of Gen. Tyler^s cannonade on my 
right, to carry out which purpose I made the 
following disposition of the brigade : The two 
batteries I placed upon the ridge of the hill, in 
view of the enemy ; the 8d Michigan infantry 
on the left of the road, in line of battle. StiU 
further, six hundred yards to the left, on a 
commanding hill, I had placed the day before 
two companies of the Ist Massachusetts regi- 
ment^ for the purpose of occniiying a log bam 
and a frame barn; which companies pushed 
pickets still furthcT to our left for the security 
of that point, which I considered a good posi- 
tion for artillery. In a ravine, half way be- 
tween the two positions, I placed also a com- 
pany of the Ist Massachusetts regiment, which 
pushed pickets down the ravine to its front ; 
and on the extrame riglit of all I placed the 
balance of the Massachusetts regiment, in line 
of battle, with two companies of that regiment 
pushed 400 yards to the right and front, which 
two companies again threw pickets in advance. 
The New York and 2d Michigan regiments I 

I)laced in the road, 600 yards in rear of the 
ine, as a reserve. Soon after making these ar- 
rangements, which I did on hearing the rei)ort 
of our artillery on the right, Col. Davies^s bri- 
gade made its appearance, with him at his head ; 
and inquiring of me tlie date of my commission, 
found that he ranked me by two days, and he 
assumed the command. That officer wished a 
good position for artillery to open, and I imme- 
diately proposed the position on our left, near 
the log house, from which a good view of a 
large stone house — called by the people of the 
country the enemy's head-quarters — ^might be 
obtained. Col. Davies brought up with him 
the rifled 20-pounder battery of Lieut. Ben- 
jamin, and orpered it to open fire immediately, 
lie direct^ed also Hunt's battery to his assist- 
ance, and I ordered Green's battery to open its 
fire at the same time. The enemy appeared to 
have withdrawn his guns from that position, as 
he returned no fire, or ho might have been re- 
serving his fire for the last attack. An hour's 
cannonading, however, brought in view a col* 



12 



BEBELLION BEOOBD, 1860-61. 



umn of the enemy's infantry, which I observed' 
with my glass, of at least 2,500 men, and soon 
after two other bodies of men, of at least a 
regiment each, who now occupied the Hues on 
the other side of the run, which lines now ap- 
peared full to overflowing. Supposing now 
that they intended to make a push across our 
front in column, or would endeavor to turn our 
left, about 11 a. m. I began to fortify my posi- 
tion by throwing np an earthen parapet for 
three guns, with embr&snres across the road, 
and commenced an abatis of timber, by felling 
trees, pointing outward, between this battery 
and the log bouse to the left. About this time 
the enemy on the opposite side appeared to be 
falling back in confusion from our risht attack, 
which continned for some time, and then the 
tide changed, and they seemed to be returning 
in large masses. At the interval between these 
two extremes, I was ordered by Col. D. S. 
Miles to throw forward my skirmishers and 
feel the enemy, and accordingly two companies 
of the 3d Michigan regiment were sent for- 
ward and down the ravine, to cover our front 
and advance. These were supported by 
Capt. Brutchslimeider's light infantry battalion, 
which also advanced down the ravine, accom- 
panied by Lieut Prime, corps of United States 
Engineers, who went for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the enemy's position — he volunteering 
his services for that particular purpose. Col. 
Da vies also threw forward a company of skir- 
mishers on his right. The enemy's skirmishers 
were in force in the troods in front, and cov- 
ered themselves with trees and rifle-pits which 
had been thrown up before. Our two advance 
companies were driven back, the enemy pur- 
sued, and were in turn driven back by the 
spherical case-shot of Green's battery, and I 
ordered back the light infantry, and also the 
two companies, to the former position. The 
company in front of Col. Davies's command re- 
tired about the same time. By 5 p. m. I had 
the battery and the abatis nearly completed, 
making my defences as secure as the short time 
and few implements used would allow. No 
enemy appeared in force in my front with a 
disposition to assault, but about this time a 
heavy column of infantry appeared to the left 
of Colonel Davies, in a ravine, moving up to 
the attack. This brigade opened a heavy fire 
upon them and gallantly drove them back, as 
he informed me afterward. During this firing, 
which was shortly after 5 o'clock, I receiv^ 
orders from Col. Miles, through one of his staflT, 
to retreat upon Centreville, and endeavor to 
hold that position. I immediately collected 
my brigade and put it in motion on the road 
towanls Centreville, and was at the head of the 
2d Michigan regiment in rear of the brigade, 
when a staff oflUcer proposed to me to throw 
my regiment in line, face toward the enemy, 
between the house occupied the night before 
Hont's battery and the Union and Centre- 
upon which road the enemy was 
Adifaiioing. I had gained a po- 




sition near the desired point, when I was met 
by Col. Davies, who informed me that he had 
beaten the enemy handsomely in front. I told 
him that I had been ordered back to Centreville 
by Col. Miles; that the rest of my brigade had 
gone on, and that I had been directed to go to 
that point with my regiment for the purpose of 
facing the enemy there, which I had done, and 
Col. Davies went, as I supposed, to his brigade. 
Soon after this I was met by a staflT officer of 
Gen. McDowell's, who told me to put my bri- 
gade in position on tlie left of the road from 
Centreville to Blackburn's Ford, and stretching 
toward the Union and Centreville road, facing 
the enemy. Other troops had also fallen back 
to tliis point — distant about a mile from Cen- 
treville — and about 6 o'clock p. m., Capt. Alex- 
ander, of the Corps of Engineers, directed me, 
by order of Gen. McDowell, to t^e the general 
arrangement of the troops at that point in my 
own hands, he suggesting, as a gooa line of de- 
fence, between a piece of woods on the right 
and one on the left, the line facing equally tow- 
ards the enemy, who were supposed to be com- 
ing either on the Union or the Blackburn road. 
I immediately formed that line as best I could 
of the regiments nearest the position, placing 
the men in the ravines, and the artillery, as far 
as possible, on the hills in the rear of the infan- 
try. Before Captain Alexander gave me this 
last direction I learned that Col. Miles had 
altered the position of Fome regiments which I 
had placed before, especially the 8d Michigan 
regiment, which I had ordered to form close 
column by division, to remain as a reserve, and 
await further orders from me. The oflScer in 
command of the regiment at that time, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Stevens, (Colonel McConnel be- 
ing unwell, but on the ground,) immediately 
executed that order, and put his regiment in 
close column. I went to some other part of 
the field, and on returning found this regiment 
deployed in line of battle, and in another posi- 
tion. I immediately inquired of Colonel Ste- 
vens the reason of their position being altered. 
He told me that Colonel Miles had directed this 
movement. I asked him why t Col. Stevens 
replied, " I do not know, but he had no confi- 
dence in Col. Miles." I inquired the reason 
why ? Col. Stevens answered, " Because CoL 
Miles is drunk.^^ That closed the conversation. 
I sent Col. Stevens back with his regiment, to 
form close column by division, as at first. I 
then reported to Capt. Alexander that I had 
been interfered with in my disposition of the 
troops during the day, and I could not carry 
out Gen. McDowell's orders as long as I was 
interfered with by a drunken man. Capt. Alex- 
ander then answered that Gen.McDowell now 
vested the whole disposition of tlie troops with 
me, and that I must use my own jndpnient. I 
went to place another battalion in line, and I 
was met by Col. Miles, who ordered me to 
form that regiment in another direction. I re- 
plied that " I should obey no more orders that 
he might see fit to give me." Colonel Miles 



DOOUXSNTa. 



18 



then sftid, '^ Oolon^l Richardson I shall put yon 
in arrest.'' I told him " 1 never should obey 
his arrest, and that he never could put me in 
that position.*' Col. .Miles answered that he 
did not understand this. I said nothing, and 
went on with further disposition of the troops, 
which was dooe according to the diagram. 
As soon as the line of battle was well formed, 
the enemy^s cavalry made its appearance on the 
Centreville and Manassas road, and I ordered 
Lieut Benjamin to open Ills rifled cannon upon 
them, which he did, and the cavalry disau- 
peared after a few sliots. It was now neai'Iy 
dark, and the troops encamped in their present 
position. About ten oVlock p. m. General 
McDowell informed me that retreat was re- 
M^ved upon ; that the troops must be started 
on the road to Fairfax as soon as possible, and 
ordered me to move last and cover the retreat 
of the army with my brigade. I told the Gen- 
eral I would do so, and would stand by him as 
long as any man would. I left with my bri- 
gade at 2 o'clock A M., after all the other regi- 
ments and batteries had retired. On reaching 
Fairfax, found it abandoned by our troops, and 
I covered the rear, bringing up my brigade in 
good order, the New York regiment in front, 
then the Massachusetts regiment, and the two 
Michigan regiments in rear of the whole. Ar- 
rived at Arlington at 2 o'clock p. m., on Mon* 
day after the action. I have the honor to be, 
very respectfully, Your obedient servant, 

J. B. RionABDSoN, 

Colonel Commanding Foarth Brigade. 

Ge^. Ttlsb, Commanding First Division. 

00U>l!rSL CnATFISLD's BBPOBT. 

BSAD>QUA«TBRS 3d RlOtllS!«T CoVTt. VOL. > 

AftLiVQTOi, Viu, July 24, 1861. \ 

To CoL E, D, Keyes^ Commanding First Bri^ 
gade^ First Division : 
I marched with my command from Centre- 
vilie, Va., on Sunday, at 2 o'clock a. m., and 
proceeded along the Warrington turnpike to 
Bull Ran; after being on the road several 
hours, formed on the east side of the run, and 
marched against a body of the enemy and 
routed them ; then changed i)osition to the left, 
formed, and charged upon the enemy's hattery, 
which was supported by a large body of infan- 
try. The regiment made a fine charge, but 
was obliged to fall back, (the enemy being in 
very mnch larger force of infantry, beside their 
battery,) which we did in good . order. After 
eng:rging the enemy some three hours at diflfer- 
ent points, we were ordered off the field, which 
we did in good order, and, on our route, cov- 
ered the retreating forces, and bronght in two 
pieces of artillery, one caisson, and several bag- 
gage wagons, and tlie wagon of the sappers 
and miners, together with all their tools and 
twenty horses. During the whole engagement 
both officers and men behaved well and stood 
up to the work. I would here mention more 
particularly. Major Warner and Adjutant Red- 
field Dniyee, for their coolness during the 



whole action, in assisting to keep the men in 
line, and urging them on to action. 

Bespectfuliy. your obedient servant, 

John L. Chatfield, 

Colonel CuinmanUiDg. 

OOLONSL SOBRMAN's BEPORT. 

HiAi>-QUABTKB8 Tbird Brioadi, Firbt DinoToir, ) 
Fort Corcoran, July 2&, 1861. \ 

To Capt A, Baird^ Assist Adj.- Gen, First Div, : 
Sib : — ^I have the honor to submit this my re- 
port of the operations of my brigade during 
the action of the 21st uistant. The brigade 
was composed of the Thirteenth New York 
Volunteers, Col. Quimby ; Sixty-ninth New 
York, Col. Corcoran; Seventy-ninth New York, 
Col. Cameron; Second Wisconsin, Lieut.-CoL 
Peck ; and Company £, Third Artillery, under 
command of Capt. R. B. Ay res, Fifth Artillei*y. 
We left our camp near Centreville, pursiuant 
to orders, at 2^ a. m., taking place in your col* 
umn next to the brigade of Gen. Schenck, and 
proceeded as far as the halt before the eneniy't 
position, near the stone bridge at Bull Kun. 
Here the brigade was deployed in lino along 
the skirt of timber, and remained quietly in 
position till after 10 a. m. The enemy remain- 
ed very quiet, but about that time wo saw a 
regiment leave its cover in our front, and pro- 
ceed in doable quick time on the road toward 
Sudley Springs, by which we knew the column 
of Colonels Ilunter and Ileintzelman was ap- 
proaching. About the same time we observed 
in motion a large force of the enemy below 
the stone bridge. I directed Capt. Ayrcs to 
take position with his battery near our right, 
and opened fire on this moss, but you had pre- 
vionsly directed the two guns belonging to this 
battery ; and, finding the smooth bore guns did 
not reach the enemy's position, wo ceased firing, 
and I sent a request that you should send to 
me the 80-pounder rifled gun attached to Capt* 
Carlisle's battery. At the same time I shifted 
Uie New York Sixty-ninth to the extreme 
right of the brigade. There we remained till 
we heard the musketry fire across Bull Run, 
showing that the head of Col. Hunter's column 
was engaged. This firing was brisk, and showed 
that Hunter was driving before him the enemy, 
till about noon, when it became certain that 
the enemy had come to a stand, and that our 
force on the other side of Bull Run was all en- 
gaged, artillery and infantry. 

Here you sent mo the order to cross over 
with the whole brigade to the assistance of 
Col. Hunter. Early in the day, when recon- 
noitring the ground, I had seen a horseman 
descend from a bluff to a point, cross the stream, 
and show himself in the open field. And, in* 
firring we should cross over at the same pointy 
I sent forward a company as skirmi^^hers, and 
followed with the whole brigade, the New York 
Sixty-ninth leading. We found no diffirulty in 
! crossing over, and met no opposition in ascend- 
ing the steep bluff opposite with our infantry, 
but it was impassable to the artillery; and I 
sent word back to Capt. Ayrcs to follow if po»- 



14 



BEBELLION B£CORD, 1860-61. 



Bible, otherwise to nso his discretion. Capt. 
Ay res did not cross Ball Run, but remained 
with the remainder of jour Division. His re- 
port herewith describes his operations during 
the remainder of the day. Advancing slowly 
and continuously with tlie head of the column, 
to give time for the regiments in succession to 
close up their ranks, we first encountered a 
part/ of the enemj retreating along a cluster 
of ])ines. Lieut.-Oo]. Haggerty of the Sixty- 
ninth regiment, without orders, rode over and 
endeavored to intercept their retreat. One of 
the enemy, in full view and short range, shot 
Haggerty, and he fell dead from his horse. The 
6ixty- ninth opened fire on this party, which 
was returned; but, determined to effect our 
iunction with Hunter^s Division, I ordered this 
nre to cease, and we proceeded with caution 
toward tlie field, when we then plainly saw 
our forces engaged. Displaying our colors 
conspicuously at the head of our column, wo 
succeeded in attracting the attention of our 
friends, and soon formed the brigade in rear 
of Ool. Porter's. Here I learned that Col. 
Hunter was disabled bj a severe wound, and 
that Gen. McDowell was on the field. I sought 
him out and received his orders to join in the 
pursuit of the enemy, who were filling back 
to the left of the road by which the army had 
approached from Sudley Springs. Placing Col. 
Quiniby^s Regiment of Ritlcs in front, in col- 
umn by division, I directed the other regiments 
to follow in line of batile, in the order of the 
Wisconsin Second, New York Seventy-ninth, 
and New York Sixty-ninth. 

Qnimby^s regiment advanced steadily down 
the hill and up the ridge, from which he open- 
ed fire upon the enemy, who had made another 
stand on ground very favorable to him, and the 
regiment continued advancing as the enemy 
gave way till the head of the column reached 
the point near which Rickett^s battery was so 
severely cut up. The other regiments de- 
scended the hill in line of battle, under a severe 
cannonading, and the ground affording compar- 
ative shelter against the enemy ^s artillery, they 
changed directions by the right flank and fol- 
lowed tlio road before mentioned. At the point 
where this road crossed the bridge to our left 
the ground was swept by a most severe fire 
by artillery, rifle, and musketry, and we saw 
in succession several regiments driven from 
it, among them the Zouaves and battalion 
of marines. Before reaching the crest of the 
hill the roadway was worn deep enough to af- 
ford shelter, and I kept the several repriments 
in it as long as possible ; but when the Wiscon- 
sin Second was abreast of the enemy, by order 
of Maj. Wadsworth, of Gen. McDoweirs staff, 
I ordered it to leave the roadway by the left 
flank and to attack the enemy. This regiment 
ascended to the brow of the hill steadily, re- 
ceived the severe fire of the enemy, returned 
it with spirit, and advanced delivering its fire. 
This regiment is uniformed in gray doth, al- 



most identical with that of ihe great bulk of 
the secession army, and when the regiment fled 
in confusion and retreated toward the road 
there was a universal cry that they were being 
flred upon by our own men. The regiment 
rallied again, passed the brow of the hill a sec- 
ond time, and was again repulsed in disorder. 
By this time the New York Seventy-ninth had 
closed up, and in like manner it was ordered 
to cross the brow of the hill and drive the 
enemy from cover. It was impossible to get 
a good view of the ground. In it there was 
one battery of artillery, wliich poured an inces- 
sant flre upon our advancing column, and the 
ground was irregular, with small clusters of 
pines, affording shelter, of which the enemy 
took good advantage. The fire of rifles and 
musketry was very severe. The Seventy-ninth, 
headed by its colonel, (Cameron,) charged across 
the hill, and for a short time the contest was 
severe. They rallied several times under fire, 
but finally broke and gained the cover of the 
hiU. This left the field open to the New York 
Sixty-ninth, Col. Corcoran, who, in his turn, 
led his regiment over the crest, and had in full 
open view the ground so severely contested. 
The firing was very severe, and the roar of 
cannon, musketry, and rifles, incessant. It was 
manifest the enemy was here in great force, far 
superior to us at that point. The Sixty-ninth 
held the ground for some time, but finally fell 
back in disorder. 

At this time Quimby's regiment occupied an- 
other ridge to our left, overlooking the snme 
field of action, and similarly engnged. Here 
(about 84 p. M.) began the scene of disorder 
and coniusion that characterized the remainder 
of the day. Up to that time all had kept their 
])laces, and seemed perfectly cool and used 
to the shell and shot that tell comparatively 
harmless. Crossing Bull Run, I sought it at 
its last position before the Brigadier crossed, 
but it was not there ; then passing through the 
wood where in the morning we had first form- 
ed line, we approached the blacksmith's shop, 
but there found a detachment of rebel cavalry ; 
then made a circuit, avoiding Cub Run bridge 
into Centreville, where I found Gen. McDowell. 
From him I understood that it was his purpose 
to rally the forces and make a stand at Centre- 
ville. 

But about 9 o'clock at night I received from 
Gen. Tyler in person, the order to continue the 
retreat to the Potomac. This retreat was by 
night, and disorderly in the extreme. The 
men of different regiments mingled together, 
and some reached the river at Arlington, some 
at Long Bridge, and the greater part retnrned 
to their former camps at or near Fort Corcoran. 
I reached this point at noon next day, and 
found a miscellaneous crowd crossing over the 
aqueduct and ferries. Conceiving this to be 
demoralizing, I at once commanded the guard 
to be increased, and all persons attempting to 
pa83 over to be stopped. Thia soon produced 



DOOUMSKTSw 



15 



its effect. Men sought their proper compaDies 
and regiments, comparative order was restored, 
and all noir posted to the best advantage. 

I herewith enclose the official report of Oapt. 
Eellj, the commanding officer of the New 
York Sixtj-ninth ; also full lists of the killed 
and wonnded and missing. Our loss was heavy, 
all around ns; but the short exposure to 
an intense fire of smidl-arms, at dose range, 
had killed many, wonnded more, and had 
produced disorder in all the battalions that 
had attempted to destroy it. Men fell away 
talking and in great confusion. Gol. Oameron 
had been mortally wonnded, carried to an am- 
bulance, and reported dying. Many other offi- 
cers were reported dead or missing, and many 
of the wonnded were making their way, with 
more or less assistance, to the buildings or hos- 
pitals. On the ridge to the west we succeeded 
m partially re-forming the regiments, but it was 
manifest they would not stand, and I directed 
Ool. Corcoran to move along the ridse to tlie 
rear, near the position where we had first 
formed the brigade. Gen. McDowell was there 
in person, and used all possible efforts to reas- 
sure the men. By the active exertions of Ool. 
Corcoran we formed an irregular square against 
the cavalry, which was then seen to issue from 
the position from which we had been driven, 
and we began our retreat towards that ford of 
Bull Run by which we had approached the 
field of battle. There was no possible order 
to retreat, altiiongh for an hour it had been 
going on by the operations of the men them- 
selves. The ranks were thin and irregular, 
and we found a stream of people stirring from 
the hospital across Bull Bun, and &r toward 
CentreviUe. 

After putting in motion the irregular square, 
I pushed forward to find Oapt. Ayres^s battery, 
occupied chiefly at the point where Rickett*s 
battery was destroyed. Lieut.-Ool. Haggerty 
was killed about noon, before we effected a 
junction with Col. Uunter^s Division. Colonel 
Oameron was moi'tally wounded leading the 
regiment in the charge, and Colonel Corcoran 
has been missing since the cavalry charge near 
the bnilding used as a hospital 

Killed. Woandod. Missing. Total. 

Ayrea** Battery, 3 — 

New Tork Thirteenth,. U 27 20 68 

Kew York Sixtj.Qinth,.38 59 05 102 

K. Y- 8.'vejly.:iinth,...33 51 116 196 

Wtaeoo^ln Second, 24 06 63 152 



Total, HI 



205 



203 



600 



For names of rank, &c., of the above I refer 
to the liits herewith. Lients. Piper and 
McQuesten of my personal staff were under fire 
all day, and carried orders to and fro with as 
much coolness as on parade. Lieut. Bagley of 
the New York 69th, a yolunteer aid, asked 
leave to serve with his company during the ac- 
tion, and is among those reported missing. I 
have intelligence that he is a prisoner, and 
■lightly wounded. Colonel McCoon, of Wis- 
consin, a volunteer aid, also rendered good ser- 



yice during the day. I have the honor to be 
your obedient servant. 

W. T. Shebman, 

Colonel Comxaanding Brigade. 

COL. KETES^S BEPOBT. 
HSAD'QUARTSftS, FiRST BrIOADB, FirST DXTISIOIT, > 

Camp OQ Meridian Hill, Washington, July 25, 1861. \ 

Copt. A. Baird, Asa't Adft-Gen,^ Head-qitar- 
ters, First Brigade^ First Division : 

Sib: — ^In compliance with the orders of 
Brig.-Gen. Tyler, I have the honor to report 
the operations of the First Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, in the action of the 21st inst., at Bull 
Run, and during the two succeeding days. 

Leaving my camp near Ceutreville at 3 
o^clock A. M., I took my place in the First Divi- 
sion as a reserve. At 9^ o'clock a. m., at the 
distance of half a mile from Bull Run, I was 
ordered by Gen. Tyler to incline the head of my 
column to the right, and direct it through an 
open field to a ford about 800 yards above the 
stone bridge. Before the whole brigade had 
entered upon the new direction, the enemy 
opened fire from a battery across the run, and 
threw upon the First and Second regiments, 
Connecticut Volunteers, some 25 or 80 rounds 
of shot and shell, which caused a temporary 
confusion and wounded several men. Order 
was shortly restored, and the brigade closed up 
on Sherman's column before passing the fords. 

After crossing I marched at once to tlie high 
ground, and, by order of Gren. Tyler, came into 
line on Sherman's left. The order to advance 
in line of battle was given at about 10 o'clock 
A. M., and from that hour until 4 p. m., my 
brigade was in constant activity on the field of 
battle. The First regiment Connecticut Vol- 
unteers was met by a body of cavalry and in- 
fantry, which it repelled, and at several other 
encounters of different parts of the lino the 
enemy constantly retired before us. 

At about 2 o'clock p. m. Gen. Tyler ordered 
me to take a battery on a height in front. The 
battery was strongly posted, and supported by 
infantry and riflemen, sheltered by a building, a 
fence, and a hedge. My order to charge was 
obeyed with the utmost promptness. Col. 
Jameson of the Second Maine, and Col. Chat- 
field of the Third Connecticut Volunteers, 
pressed forward their regiments up the base 
slope about 100 yards, when I ordered them to 
lie down at a point offering a small protection, 
and load. I then ordered them to advance 
again, which they did in the face of a movable 
battery of eight pieces and a large body of in- 
fantry, toward the top of the liill. As wo 
moved forward we came under the fire of other 
large bodies of the enemy posted behind breast- 
works, and on reaching the summit of the hill 
the firing became so hot that an exposure to it 
of five minutes would have annihilated my 
whole line. 

As the enemy had withdrawn to a heiglit be- 
yond, and to the support of additional troops, I 
ordered the Maine regiment to face by the left 



16 



REBEUJON RECORD, 1860-«1. 



flank and move to a woodslope, across an open 
field, to which point I followed them. The 
balance of the brigade Boon rejoined me, and 
after a few moments' rest I again put it in mo- 
tion, and moved forward to find another oppor- 
tunity to charge. 

Tho enemy had a light battery, which he 
manoeuvred with extraordinary skill, and his 
shot fell often among and near us. I advanced 
generally just under the brow of the hill, by a 
flank movemeut, until I found myself about half 
a mile below the stone bridge. Our advance 
caused the rebels to retire from the abatis, and 
enabled Capt. Alexander of the Engineers to 
clear it away. In a short time the enemy moved 
the battery to a point which enabled him to enfi- 
lade my whole line ; but as he pointed his guns 
too far to the right, and only improved his aim 
gradually, I had time to withdraw my brigade, 
by a flank movement, around the base of a hill 
in time to avoid a raking fire. At this time a 
lull in the discharge of our artillery, and an 
apparent change in the position of the enemy's 
le^ flank, made me apprehensive that all was 
not right. I continuea my march, and sent my 
aid, Lieut. Walter, to the rear to inquire of 
Gen. McDowell how the day was going. The 
discontinuance of the flring in our lines be- 
coming more and more apparent, I inclined to 
the right, and after marching 600 or VOO yards 
further, I was met by Lieut. Unton, aid to Gen. 
Tyler, and ordered to file to the right, as our 
troops were retreating. I moved on at an 
ordinary pace, and fell into the retreating cur- 
rent about 150 yards in the rear of Gen. 
McDowell and staff. Before crossing Bull Run, 
and until my brigade mingled with the retreat- 
ing mass, it maintained perfect freedom from 
panic, and at the moment I received the order 
to retreat, and for some time afterward, it was 
in as good order as in the morning on the road. 
Half an hour earlier I supposed the victory to 
be ours. 

The gallantry with which the Second regi- 
ment of Maine, and the Third regiment of 
Connecticut Volunteers, charged up the hill 
upon the enemy's artiUery and infantry, was 
never, in my opinion, surpassed. I was with 
the advancing line, and closely observed the 
conduct of Ools. Jameson, and Ohatfield, which 
merits in this instance and throughout the day 
the highest commendation. 

I also observed throughout the day the gal- 
lantry and excellent conduct of Col. Terry's 
Second regiment, Connecticut Volunteers, from 
whom I received most zealous assistance. At 
one time a portion of his regiment did great 
execution with their rifles from a point of our 
line which was thin, and where a few of our 
men were a little tardy in moving forward. 
Col. Terry, in his reportj calls attention to the 
coolness, activity, and discretion of Lieut.-Col. 
Young, and Major Colborn. The latter with 
the Adjutant of the regiment, Lieut. Charles L. 
Russell, showed conspicuous gallantry in de- 
fending their regimental colors during the re- 



treat this side of Bull Run against a charge of 
cavalry. Col. Terry also commends the devo- 
tion of Doctors Douglas and Bacon to the 
wounded while under the hottest fire of artil- 
lery. Private Arnold Leach is also highly 
praised for having spiked three abandoned guns 
with a ramrod, and then bringing away two 
abandoned muskets. Col. Jameson, of the Sec- 
ond Maine regiment, givesgreat credit in hia 
report to Lieut.-Col. C. W. Roberts, Major 
Vamey, and Adjutant Reynolds for their cool- 
ness on the field. Sergeant G. W. Brown, of 
Company F, A. J. Enowles and Leonard Car- 
ver, of Company D, A. P. Jones and Henry 
Wheeler, of Company A, and Peter Welch, of 
Company I, he mentions for their noble conduct 
in accompanying him to remove the dead and 
wounded from the field, under a very heavy fire 
of artillery and musketry. He mentions also 
Capt. Foss, Sergeant Samuel Hinckly, of Com- 
pany A, and Corporal Smart, of Company H, 
for important extra services during the day. 
He also speaks in high praise of Sergeant W. J. 
Dean, who was mortally wounded while in the 
advance of the line, bearing the beautiful stand 
of colors which were presented the day be- 
fore on the part of ladies from Maine residing 
in California. Capt. £. W. Jones, of the same 
regiment, fell mortally wounded while exhibit- 
ing great courage in rallying his men to th« 
charge. Lieut.-Col. Speida), of the First regi- 
ment Connecticut Volunteers, was set upon by 
three of the enemy, who undertook to make 
him a prisoner. The Lieut-Col. killed one and 
drove off the other two of his assailants, and 
escaped. I observed the activity of Capts. 
Hawley and Chapman, Adjutant Bacon, and 
Lieut. Drake, on the field. Col. Chatfield, of 
the Third regiment Connecticut Volunteers, 
gives special credit to Major Warner and Ad- 
jutant Duryee, for their coolness and enei^ in 
assisting to keep the men in line, and in nrging 
them forward into action. The men of tlie 
Third regiment brought off in the retreat two 
of our abandoned guns, one caisson and several 
baggage wagons, and behaved with great cool- 
ness in the retreat, and the bulk of the regiment 
was present to repel the charge of cavalry tikis 
side of Bull Run. 

I received during the day and on the retreat 
the most gallant and efficient assistance from 
Lieut. Hascal, Fifth United States Artillery, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. Lieut Walter, 
First Connecticut Volunteers, and Lieut Gor- 
don, Second United States Cavalry, aids, obeyed 
my orders on the field with accuracy, and 
Lieut. Ely, First Connecticut Volunteers, Bri- 
gade Commissary, assisted me zealously. Lieut. 
Walter, First Connecticut Volunteers, and 
Lieut. Gordon, Second United States Cavalry, 
are both missing. The former I sent to the 
rear at about 4 o'clock p. m. to ascertain from 
Gen. McDowell how the day was going, since 
which time I have not seen him, nor do I know 
his fate. Lieut. Gordon was with me two miles 
this side of Bull Run, on the retreat, where I 



DOCUMENTS. 



17 



6aw Llm the last time. I tnist he will yet be 
found. My two luounted orderlies, Cooper and 
Bdlloa, were both with uie until near the end of 
the conflict, and are now both missing. My bri- 
gade being far in advance, and the ground very 
hilly and interspersed with patches of wood, 
rendered it difficult to avoid being enveloped by 
the enemy. The last individuals probably 
missed their way, and were killed or captured. 
I have delayed this report of the action until 
all the wanderers coald be gathered in, and the 
following may therefore bo taken as a very 
close approximation of the actual casualties in 
my brigade. Those reported missing are sup- 
posed to be killed or taken prisoners : 

Killed. Wounded. MlMing. Total. 

B'^condKegLC<mn,Vo\a^.. 2 6 16 

First Itogt. Conn. Vols — 8 9 17 

Third K^. Com. Vols... 4 13 18 85 
Be.-o:tdBvgt. Maine Vols... 15 40 115 170 
Prisoners killed and wound- 
ed of flecond MAine Bcgl. — ~. .. 4 

ToUI, 242 

In addition to the above reported loss of the 
Second Maine regiment, Lieut. Skinner, Sur- 
geon Allen and his son, while assisting the 
wounded, were taken prisoners. The aggregate 
loss of this gallant regiment was therefore 174 
one of 640, which was the complete strength on 
going into action. It was impossible to obtain 
exact returns of my brigade on the morning of 
the 21st, but I am certain its aggregate strength 
was about 2,600 men. We captured fifteen of 
the enemy and brought six prisoners to Wash- 
ington. In concluding the account of the bat- 
tle, I am happy to be able to add that the con- 
duct of the First Brigade, First Division, was 
generally excellent. The troops composing it 
need only instruction to make them as good as 
any in the world. 

I take the liberty to add, in continuation of 
this report, that the three Connecticut regi- 
ments, and a part of the Second Maine Vol- 
unteers, of my brigade, left their camp near 
Gentreville at about 10 o'clock p. m., by order 
of Gen. Tvler, and arrived at Gamp McDowell, 
six and a half miles from the Potomac, at dawn 
of day the morning after the battle. The camps 
of my four regiments and half of one company 
of cavalry were standing, and during the day I 
learned that the Oliio camp, a mile and a quar- 
ter this way, was vacant of troops, and the 
camp of the New York Second had only a 
guard of fifty or sixty men left in it. Not 
wishing the enemy to get possession of so many 
standing tents and such an abundance of camp 
equipage, I ordered my brigade to retreat no 
farther until all the public property should be 
removed. The rain fell in torrents all the 22d. 
The men were excessively fatigued, and we 
had only eleven wagons. Brigade Quarter- 
master Hodge made two journeys to the city to 
obtain transportation, but, with four or ^ve ex- 
ceptions, the drivers refused to come out. 
Over eleven wagons were kept in motion, and 
at nightfall the troops were drenched to the 
akin, and without shelter. So, leaving guards 



at the regimental camps of my brigade, I moved 
forward with the bulk of the Third Connecticut 
regiment, and by 11 oVlock at night the ma- 
jority were housed in the Ohio and New York 
camps. 

We kept good watch throughout the night, 
and early in the morning of the 28d inst., Qoar- 
termaster-Generul Meigs sent out long trains 
of wagons, and Brigade Quartermaster Hodge 
walked six miles to Alexandria and brought up 
a train of cars, and the work of removal pro- 
ceeded with vigor. As early as at 5 J o'clock p. 
M., tlie last thinff of value had been removed 
and sent forward to the amount of 175 four- 
horse wagon loads. The order to fall in was 
then given, and the bri^mde marched in perfect 
order, every man with liis firelock, and at sun- 
set bivouacked near Fort Corcoran. 

I acknowledge great indebtedness to Brigade 
Quartermaster Hodge. But for his untiring ex- 
ertions in procuring the means of transportation, 
nearly all the public property must have been 
abandoned. The men of me different regiments 
labored with extraordinary zeal, considering 
their great fatigue, and they merit the highest 
praise. I had given permission to about 100 
sick and lame to limp forward in advance, and 
about an e^ual number of cowards and recreants 
had fled without permiesion. The balance of 
my brigade, faithful and laborious, stood by, 
and they may claim the right to teach that it is 
unmanly to destroy the public property, and base 
to abandon it to the enemy, except iu cases of 
the extremest necessity. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 
E. D. Ketes, Colonel 11th Infantry, 
Coxnmaudlog First Brigade, First Dlrision. 

SECOND DIVISION. 

COLONEL HUNTER^S OFFICIAL REPOBT. 

Wi.saiNGTOX| D. C, August 5, 1861. 

Captain J, B, Fry^ Auutant Adjutant- General 
Uhitefl States Army : 

Sir : — Having had the honor to command the 
Second division of the army before Manassas on 
the 21st of July, 1861, and having been wounded 
early in the action, the command, as well as the 
duty of making the division report, devolved 
on Colonel Anc&ew Porter, of the United States 
Army. I deem it, however, a duty I owe to 
the gallant gentlemen of my staff, briefly te 
mention their services. 

The Hon. Isaac N. Arnold, of the United 
States House of Representatives, one of my 
volunteer aids, was with me on the field till I 
received my wound, and then devoted himself 
to having the wounded removed, and to allevi- 
ating their sufferings. 

Captain G. P. Woodbury, Chief Engineer of 
the division, fearlessly exposed himself in front 
of the skirmishers during our whole advance, 
and determined, with great judgment, the route 
of the division. 

Captain W. D. Whipple, Assistant Adjutant- 
General ; Captain Cook, of the Fourth Penn- 



18 



REBELUON RECOpD, 1860-61. 



, BicniTD ) 

L'A COLCHH, V 

24, 1861. ( 



sylvania Volnntccrs, aide-de-camp; Lieutenant 
Cross of Engineers, and Lieutenant D. W. Flag- 
ler, aide-de-camp, all performed their duties to 
my entire satisfaction : they were absent, con- 
veying orders, during the short time I was in 
the field. 

My aid, Lieutenant Samuel W. Stockton, of 
the First Oavalry, was with me on the field, 
and his conduct, under a heavy fire, was per- 
fectly beautiful. 

. Dr. Rouch, of Chicago, 111., a citizen surgeon, 

accompanied the Hon. Mr. Arnold to the field, 

and devoted himself to the care of the wounded 

daring the whole battle. 

I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, your most obt. servt., 

D, Hunter, 

Colonel Third cavalry, Commanding Second Dlvidon. 

COLONEL BURNSIDE^S REPORT. 

Head-qdartirs Bbcomd Bkioadb, Bicniro 
J)ivsio:f Majoo Gbxbbal McDowell^ 
Washixgtom, July 

To Colonel Hunter^ Commanding Second DM' 
sion: 

Sir: — I have the honor to report that the 
brigade under my command, in common with 
the rest of the division, left Washington at 
three p. m. on Tuesday, July 15; encamped 
that night at Annandale; occupied Fairfax 
Court House, and encamped there on Wednes- 
day, On Thursdoy, July 17, proceeded to Cen- 
tre ville, where we remained till Sunday morn- 
ing, July 21, when the whole army took np the 
line of march to Bull Run. 

Kotliing of moment occurred till the arrival 
of the division at the crossing of Bull Run, at 
half-past nine o'clock, when intelligence was 
received that the enemy was in front with con- 
siderable force. The brigade was ordered to 
halt for a supply of water and temporary rest. 
Afterwards an advance movement was made, 
and Col. Slocum, of the Second Rhode Island 
regiment, was ordered to tlirow out skirmish- 
ers upon either flank and in front. These were 
soon confronted by the enemy's forces, and the 
bead of tlie brigade found itself in presence of 
the foe. The Second regiment Rhode Island 
Volunteers was immediately sent forward with 
its battery of artillery, and the balance of the 
brigade was formed in a field to the right of the 
road. At this time, much to my sorrow, I met 
you returning from the field severely wounded, 
and was requested to take charge of the forma- 
tion of the division in the presence of the en- 
emy. Finding that the Second regiment Rhode 
Island Volunteers was closely pressed by the 
enemy, I ordered the Seventy-first regiment 
New York Militin, and the Second regiment 
New Hampshire Volunteers to advance, intend- 
ing to hold the First Rhode Island Volunteers 
in reserve ; but owing to delay in the formation 
of the two fonner regiments, the First Rhode 
Island regiment was at once ordered on the 
field of action. Major Balch, in command, gal- 
lantly led the rejcimcnt into it, where it per- 
formed most effective service in assisting its 



comrades to repel the attack of the enemy^s 
forces. The Second Rhode Island regiment of 
volunteers had steadily borne tlie enemy *8 at- 
tack, and had bravely stood its ground, even 
compelling him to give way. At this time CoL 
Slocum fell, mortaUy wounded, and soon after 
Major Ballon was very severely injured bv a 
cannon ball, that killed his horse and crushed 
one of his legs. The regiment^ under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Wheaton, contin- 
ued gallantly to hold its position. Soon after 
Colonel Ma^tii^ of the Seventy-first regiment 
New York St^te Militia, led his regiment into 
action, and planting tlie two howitzers belong- 
ing to the regiment upon the right of his line, 
worked them most effectively against the en- 
emy's troops. The battery of the Second 
Rhode Island regiment on the knoll upon the 
extreme right, was used in silencing the heavy 
masked battery of the enemy in front, occasion- 
ally throwing in shot and ehell upon the en- 
emy's infantry, six regiments of which were 
attempting to force our position. Captain 
Reynolds^ who was in command of this bat- 
tery, &erve<l it with great coolness, precision, 
and skill. The Second regiment of New Hamp- 
shire Volunteers, under Colonel Marston, was 
now brought into the field, and rendered great 
service in defending the position. Colonel 
Marston was wounded early in the action, and 
Lieutenant- Colonel Fiske ably directed the ad- 
vance of the regiment. Thus my whole bri- 
gade was brought into the engagement at tlie 
eai'liest possible moment, and succeeded in 
compelling the enemy to retire. We were 
wholly without support, bearing the brunt of 
the contest until relieved by Miyor Sykes, of 
the Third Infantry United States Army, who 
formed his battalion most admirably in front 
of the enemy, and pouring in a destructive fire 
upon his lines, assisted in staggering him. At 
that moment, after the fight had continued an 
hour or more. Colonel Heintzelman's division 
was seen marching over the hill opposite our 
left flank, and, attacking the enemy at that 
point>, the opposing force was soon dispersed. 
This point bemg gained, and the enemy retir- 
ing in confusion before the successful chaise of 
Colonel Heintzelman's division, I withdrew ray 
brigade into the woods in the rear of the line, 
for the purpose of supplying the troops with 
ammunition, which had become well-nigh ex- 
hausted. The Second regiment New Hamp- 
shire Volunteers was sent forward to assist one 
of Colonel Heintzelman's brigades at that time 
three-quarters of a mile distant, and driving the 
enemy before them. The battery of the Second 
Rhode Island Volunteers changed its position 
into a field upon the right, and was brought to 
bear upon the force which Colonel Porter was 
engaging. The enemy's infantry having fallen 
back, two sections of Captain Reynolds^s battery 
advanced and succeeded in bretdcing the charge 
of the enemy's cavalry, which had now been 
brought into the engagement. 
It was nearly four o'clock p. u^ and thd 



DOOUHENTS. 



19 



Inttle bt&d continned for almost six hours since 
the time when the Second brigade had been 
engaged, with everj thing in favor of onr troops 
and promisiDg decisive victory, when some of 
the regiments engaging the enemy npon the 
extreme right of our line, broke, and large 
nombers passed disorderly by my brigade, 
then drawn np in the position which they last 
held. The ammnnition had been issned in part, 
when I was ordered to protect the retreat. 
The Seventy-first regiment, New York State 
Militia, was formed between the retreating 
eolomns and the enemy by Colonel Martin, and 
the Second regiment Rhode Island Volunteers, 
byLientenant Colonel Wheaton. The First 
regiment Rhode Island Volunteers moved out 
into the field at the bottom of the gorge, near 
the ford, and remained for fifteen minutes, 
until a general retreat was ordered. The regi- 
ment then passed on to the top of the hill, 
where it was joined by the remainder of the 
brigade, and formed into column. Large bodies 
of stragglers were passing along the road, and 
it was &und impossible to retain the order, 
which otherwise would have been preserved. 
Tet the brigade succeeded in retiring in com- 
paratively good condition, with Arnold's bat- 
tery of artillery and Capt. Armstrong's company 
of dragoons bringing up the rear. The retreat 
continued thus until the column was about 
emerging from the woods and entering upon 
the Warrenton turnpike, when the artillery and 
cavalry went to the front, and the enemy 
opened fire upon the retreating mass of men. 
U|>on the bridge crossing Cub Run a shot took 
efl^ect upon the horses of a team that was cross- 
ing. The wagon was overturned directly in 
the centre of ^e bridge, and the passage was 
completely obstructed. The enemy continued 
to play hu artillery upon the train carriages, 
ambnlances, and artillery wagons that filled 
the road, and these were reduced to ruin. The 
artillery could not possibly pass, and ^ve pieces 
of the Rhode Island battery, which had been 
safely brought off the field, were here lost. Cap- 
tain Reynolds is deserving of praise for the skill 
with which he saved the lives of his men. The 
infantry, as the files reached the bridge, were 
fnrioosly pelted with a shower of grape and 
other shot, and several persons were here killed 
or dangerously wounded. As was to be ex- 
pected, the whole column was thrown iiito 
confusion, and could not be rallied again for a 
distance of two or three miles. 

The brigade reached Centreville at nine 
o'dock p. M., and entered into the several 
eamps that had been occupied the night before, 
where the brigade rested until ten o'clock, 
when, in pursuance of orders from the general- 
commanding, the retreat was continued. The 
column reached Washington about nine o'clock 
▲. M^ Monday morning, when the several regi- 
ments composing the brigade repaired to their 
respecUve encampments. 

In the movements of my brigade, upon this 
trnfortoaate expedition, I was greatly assisted 

ToL. II.— Poa 7 



and advised by his Excellency Governor Sprague, 
who took an active part in the conflict, and who 
was especially efiTective in the direction and 
arrangement of the battery of Light artillery 
attached to the Second regiment Rhode Island 
Volunteers. It would be invidious to mention 
officers of the difierent corps who distinguished 
themselves upon the field for coolness and bra- 
very, where all performed their duty so well. 
I cannot feel justified in specifying particular 
instances of fidelity. The officers and men 
were prompt, steady and brave, and perfoi'med 
the several parts assigned to them in the most 
gallant manner. 

Our loss has been very severe. The Second 
regiment particularly suffered greatly. The 
death of Colonel Slocum is a loss, not only to 
his own State, which mourns the death of a 
most gallant and meritorious officer, who would 
have done credit to the service, while his prom- 
inent abilities as a soldier would have raised 
him high in the public estimation. He had 
served with me as Major of the First regiment 
of Rhode Island.Volunteers, and when he was 
transferred to a more responsible position, I 
was glad that his services had been thus secured 
for the benefit of his country. Ilis associate, 
Major Ballon, of the same regiment, is deserv- 
ing of the highest commendation as a brave 
soldier and a true man. . 

Captain Tower, of the Second regiment, 
Rhode Island Volunteers, received his death 
wound at the very commencement of the battle. 
He was a young, brave, and promising officer, 
who is deeply lamented by his comrades and 
friends. Captain Smith, of the Second Rhode 
Island Volunteers, was known among us fqr 
his many good qualities of head and beam' 
Lieutenant rrescott, of the First Rhode Island 
regiment, was also killed in tlie early part of 
the action, while gallantly encouraging his com- 
pany. He was a noble-hearted Christian man, 
whose memory will be ever fresh in the hearts 
of his friends. Among those who are missing 
I have to mention the names of Lieutenant 
Knight, of the First regiment Rhode Island 
Volunteers, and Dr. James Harris, of the same 
regiment. Both are men whom we can hardly 
afford to lose, and I trust that some measures 
may be taken by which their fate may be known. 
Dr. Harris was especially active upon the field 
of battle in dressing the wounds of disabled 
soldiers ; and, knowing no distinction between 
friend and foe, treated the enemy's wounded 
with the same kindness and consideration as 
those of our own troops. He is probably a 
prisoner. Other officers might be mentioned, had 
I the data at hand to specify ; but I have not yet 
received reports from the Seventy-first New 
York and Second New Hampshire Volunteers. 

I append a list of casualties so far as reports 
have been received. It is a sad duty to record 
a defeat, accompanied with the loss of so many 
valuable lives. But defeat should only makoi 
us more faithful still to the great cause of hu- 
manity and civilization, in order that everjr 



20 



BEBELUON KECOBD, 1860-«1. 



disaster should be more than compensated for 
hy an endaring victory, 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 
your obedient servant, 

A. £. BuBNBiDB, Col. Oommanding. 

COL. BUBNSIDE^B 8UPPLEMENTABY BBFQBT. 

PxOYIBBf CK| Aog. 8, 1861. 

Col, Andrew Porter, commanding Second Dir 

Colonel : You will observe that my report 
of the movements of my brigade at Bull Kun, 
on the 21 St ult., is dated July 24, but three days 
after the battle. It was made out in the rough 
on that day, and the next morning (26th) or- 
ders came to my camp, directing me to get my 
First Rhode Island regiment m readiness to 
leave for Providence on the 7 p. m. train. The 
work incident to moving a regiment, with its 
baggage, so occupied me that I had no time to 
revise my report^ but sent it in as it was, in- 
tending, at my leisure, to make a supplementary 
one. ft will not seem strange that many omis- 
sions and some inaccuracies should have occurr- 
ed, which I now hope to correct. I stated that 
after Col. Hunter was wounded he directed me 
to ^* take charge of the formation of the divieion 
in the presence of the enemy,^^ when I should 
have said that part of the division in presence 
of the enem/y. I of course knew that you com- 
manded the division by virtue of your superior 
rank ; but you were at that time, as yon will 
remember, in command of your brigade in an- 
other part of the field. 

In another part of my report I mention the 
arrival of Col. Hointzleman's division on our 
left. It was Sherman's brigade, with the 
Sixty-ninth New York Militia in advance, that 
arrived at about 12^ o'clock, and by a most 
deadly fire assisted in breaking the enemy's 
lines, and soon after 1 o'clock the woods on 
our front, w^hich had been so obstinately held, 
were cleared of the enemy. My brigade had 
now been engaged since about 10^ o'clock. 

In my first report I mentioned the opportune 
arrival of Major Sykes's battalion, and it is not 
necessary to repeat what I then said of their 
gallant support of my brigade. I beg to again 
mention the bravery and steadiness manifested 
by Colonel Martin and his entire reg^ent, 
(Seventy-first,) both on the field and during 
the retreat. Col. Marston, of the Second New 
Hampshire, was badly wounded in the shoulder, 
but notwithstanding that ho remained in the 
saddle under fire after his wound was dressed, 
his horse being led by his orderly. The regi- 
ment under charge of Lieut.-Col. Fiske con- 
ducted itself most gallantly ; both officers and 
men deserve great praise. 

Of the two Rhode Island regiments I have 
already spoken more fully, but cannot close 
this without again attesting to the admirable 
conduct of Lieut.-Col. Whcaton of the Second 
regiment, and Majors Balch and Goddard of 
the First, with the Staff and company officers 
and men of both regiments. No troops could 



have behaved better under fire. By an omis- 
sion in copying my first report the name of 
Capt. Wm. L. Bowers, Quartermaster First 
Rhode Island regiment, who is reported miss- 
ing, was not mentioned. He was a brave and 
efficient officer, whom I could ill afford to lose. 
I have good reason to hope that he is alive in 
the hands of the enemy and well cared for. 
Since my original report I have learned tiiat 
some others of our missing are in Ridimond, 
among them lient. Knight and Dr. Harris, of 
the First Rhode Island regiment. 

I beg to supply an important omission in my 
first report, by attesting to the courage and 
efficiency of my personal staff, Chapldn Wood- 
bury, of the First Rhode Island regiment, 
aide-de-camp; Adjutant Merriman, first 
Rhode Island regiment, A. A. A. 6.; and 
Lieut. Beaumont, United States Cavalry, aide- 
de-camp, who were all active in their assistance 
on the field. Lieut. Beaumont being in the 
regular service, I beg to recommend him to the 
notice of the Commanding-Genersd as a most 
gallant and deserving young officer. 

Capt. Curson, Seventy-first New York, divi- 
sion-quartermaster, and Capt. Goodhue, Second 
New Hampshire, division-commissary, render- 
ed most emcient service in their departments. 
Capt. Reynolds's battery did such good service 
in so many parts of the field, that it has a place 
in several reports, which renders it unneces* 
sary for me to make further mention of it. 

I have the honor to be, Colonel, 
Very respectfully, your ob't servant, 

A. E. BUBNBIBB, 
Colonel Ccmmanding Second Brigade 

BKPOBT OF COL. FOBTEB. 
HlAD-QUASTBKS FiBBT BrIGADB, BbOOSD DiTIBIOS, ) 

Ablihgtoxt, Va., July 26, 186L f 

Capt. J. B. Fry, A. A. J. : — I have the honor 
to submit the following account of tlie opera> 
tions of the First Brigf^e, Second Division of 
the army, in the battle before Manassas on the 
21st inst The brigade was silently paraded in 
'^ light marching order'* at 2 o'clock in the 
morning of that day, composed as follows, viz. : 
1. Griffin's Battery. 2. Marines, M^or Reynolds. 
8. Twenty-seventh N. Y. V., Col. Slocum. 4. 
Fourteenth K Y. S. M., Col. Wood. 6. Eighth 
N. Y. S. M., Col. Lyons. 6. Battalion of Reg- 
ulars, Major Sykes. 7. First Co. 2d Dragoons; 
four companies Cavalry, Major Palmer. Total 
strength, 8,700. 

The marines were recruits, but through con- 
stant exertions of their officers, had been 
brought to present a fine military appearance, 
without being able to render much active ser- 
vice ; they were therefore attached to the bat- 
tery, as its permanent support through the day. 
Owing to frequent delays in the march of troops 
in front, the brigade did not reach CentreviUe 
until 4'80 A. M., and it was an hour after sunrise 
when the head of it was turned to the right to 
commence the fiank movement. 

The slow and intermittent movements of the 
2d Brigade (Bumside's) were then followed 



BOOUMSKTa 



21 



throDgfa the woods for fonr hours, which 
brought the head of oar division to Bull Run 
and Sudley's Mills, where a halt of half an hour 
took place, to rest and refresh the men and 
horses. From the heights on this side of the 
run a Tast column of the enemy could be 
plainly descried, at the distance of a mile or 
more oa our left, moving rapidly towards our 
line of march in firont. Some disposition of 
skirmishers were then directed to be made at 
the head of the column by the division-com- 
mander, in which Gol. 81ocum, of the 2d Rhode 
Island regiment, was observed to bear an ac- 
tive part. The oolunm moved forward, how- 
ever, before they were completed, and in about 
thirtj minntes emerged from the timber, whore 
the rattle of the musketry and occasional crash 
of ronnd shot, through the leaves and branches 
of the trees in our vicinity, betokened the open- 
ing of battle. 

The head of the brigade was immediately 
tamed slightly to the right, in order to gain 
time and room for deployment on the right of 
the 2d brigade. Griffin^s battery found its 
way through the timber to the fields beyond, 
followed promptly by the marines, while the 
27th took direction more to the left, and the 
14th followed upon the trail of the battery — 
all moving up at a double-quick step. 

The enemy appeared drawn up in a long line, 
extending ^ong the Warrenton turnpike, from 
a house and haystack upon our extreme right 
to a house beyond the left of the division. Be- 
hind that house there was a heavy masked bat- 
tery, which, with three others along his line 
on the heights beyond, covered the ground upon 
which we were advancing with all sorts of 
projectiles. A grove in front of his right wing 
afforded it shelter and protection, while the 
shrubbery along the road in the fences screened 
•omewhat his left wing. 

Griffin advanced to within 1,000 yards, and 
opened a deadly and unerring fire upon his bat- 
teries, which were soon silenced or driven 
away. 

Our right was rapidly developed by the ma- 
rines, 27tb, 14th, and 8th, with the cavalry 
in rear of the right ; the enemy retreating in 
more precipitation than order as our line ad- 
vanced. The 2d brigade (Bumside^s) was at 
this time attackmg the enemy^s right with per- 
haps too hasty vigor. 

The enemy clung to the nrotecting wood 
with great tenacity, and the Rhode Island bat- 
tery became so much endangered as to impel 
the commander of the 2d brigade to call for 
the assistance of the battalion of regulars. At 
this time I received the information through 
Gapt. W. D. Whipple, A. A. G., that Ool. Hunter 
was seriously wounded, and had directed him to 
report to me as commander of the division, and 
in^eply to the urgent request of Gol. Bumside, 
I detached the battalion of regulars to his assist- 



For an account of its operations, I would re- 
spectfully beg a reference to the enclosed report 



of itfl commander, Major Sykes. The rebeb 
soon came flying from the woods towards the 
right, and the 27tli completed their rout by 
charging directly upon their centre in the face 
of a scorching fire, while the 14tk and 8th 
moved down the turnpike to cut off the retiring 
foe and to support the 27th, which had lost its 
gallant colonel, but was standing the brunt of 
the action, with its ranks thinning in the dread- 
ful fire. Now the resistance of the enemy^s left 
was so obstinate that the beaten right retired 
in safety. 

The head of Heintzelman's column at this 
moment appeared upon the field, and the 11th 
and 6th Massachusetts regiments moved for- 
ward to the support of our centre, while staff 
officers could be seen galloping rapidly in every 
direction, endeavoring to rally the broken 8th, 
but this laudable purpose was only partially 
attained, owing to the inefficiency of some of 
its field officers. 

The 14th, though it had broken, was soon 
rallied in rear of Griffin's battery, which soon 
took up a position further to the front and 
right, from which his fire was delivered with 
such precision and rapidity as to compel the 
batteries of the enemy to retire in constema- 
tion far behind the brow of the hiU in front 

At this time my brigade occupied a line con- 
siderably in advance of tiiat first occupied by 
the left wing of the enemy. The battery was 
pouring its withering fire into the batteries and 
columns of the enemy wherever they exposed 
themselves. The cavalry were engaged in feel- 
ing the left flanJc of the enemy's position, in 
doing which some important captures were 
made, one by Sergeant Socks of the 2d dra- 
goons of a General George Stewart of Balti- 
more. Our cavalry also emptied the saddles 
of a number of the mounted rebels. 

Gen. Tyler's division was engaged with the 
enemy's right The 27th was resting on the 
edge of the woods in the centre, covered by a 
hiU upon which lay the 11th and 5th Massachu- 
setts, occasionally delivering a scattering fire. 
The 14th was moving to the right flank, the 
8th had lost its organization ; the marines were 
moving up in fine stylo in rear of the 14th, and 
Oapt Arnold was occupying a height in the 
middle ground with his battery. At this junc- 
ture there was a temporary lull in the firing 
from the rebels, who appeared only occasionally 
on the heights in irregalar formations, but to 
serve as marks for Griffin's guns. The prestige 
of success had thus far attended the efforts of 
our inexperienced but gallant troops. The lines 
of the enemy had been forcibly shifted, nearly 
a mile to their left and rear. The flags of eight 
regiments, though borne somewhat wearily, 
now pointed towards the hill from which disor- 
dered masses of rebels had been seen hastily 
retiring. Griffin's and Rickett's batteries were 
ordered by the commanding-general to the top 
of the hill on the right, supporting with the 
^^Fire Zouaves" and marines, while the 14th 
Altered the skirt of wood on their right to pro- 



22 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



tect that flank, and a column composed of the 
27th New York, 11th and 5th Massachusetts, 
2d Minnesota, and 69th New York, moved up 
toward the left flank of the batteries ; but so 
soon as they were in position and before the 
flanking supports had reached theirs, a mur- 
derous Are of musketry and rifles, opened at 
pistol range, cut down every cannonier and a 
large number of horses. The fire came from 
some infantry of the enemy, which had been 
mistaken for our own forces; an oflSoer in 
the field having stated that it was a regiment 
sent by Col. Heintzelman to support the bat- 
teries. 

The evanescent courage of the " Zouaves'' 
prompted them to fire perhaps a hundred shots, 
when they broke and fled, leaving the batteries 
open to a charge of the enemy's cavalry, which 
took place immediately. The marines also, in 
spite of the exertions of their gallant ofBcers, 
gave way in disorder. The 14th, on the right, 
and the column on the left, hesitatingly re- 
tired, with the exception of the 69th and 88th 
New York, who nobly stood and returned the 
fire of the enemy for fifteen minutes. Soon the 
slopes behind us were swarming with our re- 
treating and disorganized forces, while rider- 
less horses and artillery teams ran furiously 
through the fiying crowd. 

All further eflTorts were futile. The words, 
gestures, and threats of our oflicers were 
thrown away upon men who had lost all pres- 
ence of mind, and only longed for absence of 
body. Some of our noblest and best officers 
lost their lives in trying to rally them. Upon 
our Jint position the 27th was the first to riUly, 
under the command of Major Bartlett, and 
around it the other regiments engaged soon 
collected their scattered fragments. The bat- 
talion of regulars, in the mean time, moved 
steadily across the field from the left to the 
right, and took up a position, where it held the 
entire forces of the rebels in check until our 
forces were somewhat rallied. 

The commanding-general then ordered a re- 
treat upon Oentreville, at the same time direct- 
ing me to cover it with the battalion of regulars, 
the cavalry, and a section of artillery. The 
rear guard thus organized followed our panic- 
stricken troops to Oentreville, resisting the at- 
tacks of the rebel cavalry and artillery, and 
saving them from the inevitable destruction 
which awaited them had not this body been 
interposed. 

Among those who deserve especial mention, 
I beg leave to place the following names, viz. : 
Oaptain Griffin, for his coolness and prompti- 
tude in action, and for the handsome manner 
in which he handled his battery. 

Lieut. Ames of the same battery, who, after 
being wounded, gallantly served with it in ac- 
tion; being unable to ride on horseback, was 
helped on and off a caisson in changes of po- 
sition. 

Oapt Tillinghast, A. G. M., who was ever 
present when his servioet were needed, carry- 



ing orders, rallying troops, and serving with 
his batteries, and mially, I have to state with 
the deepest sorrow, was mortally wounded. 

Miyjor Sykes, and the officers of his com- 
mand, (three of whom, Lieutenants Latimer, 
Dickenson, and Kent, were wounded,) who, by 
their discipline, steadiness, and heroic fortitude, 
gave dclat to our attacks upon the enemy, and 
averted the dangers of a final overthrow. 

M%jor Palmer, and the cavalry officers under 
him, who, by their daring intrepidity, made the 
effectiveness of that corps all tiiat it could be 
upon such a field in supporting batteries, feel- 
ing the enemy's position, and covering our re- 
treat. 

Mijor Reynolds of the marines, whose zeal- 
ous efforts were well sustuned by his subor- 
dinates, two of whom, Brevet-Mijor Zulin and 
Lieutenant Hale, were wounded, and one, Lieu- 
tenant Hitchcock, lost hb life. 

Oolonel H. W. Blocum, who was wounded 
while leading his gallant 27th New York to 
the charge, and Mcgor J. J. Bartlett, who sub- 
sequently commanded it, and by his enthusiasm 
and vidor kept it in action, and out of the 
panic. His conduct was imitated by his sub- 
ordinates, of whom two, Capt. N. O. Rogers 
and Lieutenant N. C. Jackson, were wounded, 
and one ensign, Asa Park, was killed. 

In the last attack, Colonel H. M. Wood, of 
the 14th New York State Militia, was wounded, 
together with Captains R. B. Jordan and C. F. 
Baldwin, and Lieutenants J. A. Jones, J. R. 
SiJter, R. A. Goodenough, and C. Scholes, and 
Ac^utant Laidlaw. The officers of the 14th, 
especially M^jor James Jourdan, were distin- 
guished by their display of spirit and efliciency 
throughout the action. 

Surgeon Charles Keeney of the Medical De- 
partment, who by his professional skill, promp- 
titude, and cheerfulness made the condition of 
the wounded of the 2d division comparatively 
comfortable. He was assisted to a great ex- 
tent by Dr. Ranch of Chicago, a citizen. 

During the action I received extremely ralu- 
able aid and assistance from my aide-do-camp, 
Lieut. C. F. Trowbridge, and Lieut. F. M. 
Boche, both of the 16th regiment. 

Lieut. J. E. Howard, 14th N. Y. 8. M., act- 
ing brigade-quartermaster, by his zealous at- 
tention to duty, brought the wagons of my 
brigade safely to Arlington. 

The staff officers of the 2d division com- 
manding, viz., Capt. N. D. Whipple, Lieuts. 
Cross and Flagan, served with me after the 
fall of Col. Hunter, and I am indebted to them 
for gallant, faithful services during the day. 
Capt. Whipple had his horse killed under him 
by a cannon ball. Acting Assistant A^j^t-Gren., 
Lieut. W. W. Averill, sustained the high repu- 
tation he had before won for himself as a brave 
and skilful officer, and to him I am very greaU j 
indebted for aid and assistance, not only in per- 
forming with the greatest promptitude the du- 
ties of his position, but by exposing himself 
most fearlessly in rallying and leading forward 



DOCUIOSNUa 



2S 



tiie troops, he oontribnted largely to their gen- 
eral effectiTeaesa against the enemy. I desire 
to call the attention of the commanding-gen- 
ersl particnlArly to him. 

In oonclasion I beg leave to submit the en- 
doaed return of killed, wounded, and missing 
in my brigade. 8inoe the enclosed reports 
were haiid^ in, many of the missing have re- 
turned^ perhaps one-third of those reported. 
The report of Col. Bumside, commanding 2d 
brigade, was sent to me alter the above report 
was written. While respectfully calling the 
attention of the general to it, I would also ask 
leave to notice some misconceptions under 
which tiie col. oororaanding 2d brigade seems 
to have labored : viz., 1st, of his agency in the 
management or formation of the 2d division 
on the field ; 2d, of the time that his brigade 
was entirely out of the action with the excep- 
tion of the N. T. regiment ; 8d, of the posi- 
tions of his brigade in the retreat, and particu- 
lariy of the position of the Tlst N. i., as he 
may have mistaken the rear guard, organized 
nnder my direction by your order, for the even- 
ing. Capt Amold^s battery and the cavalry 
were directed, and placed in their positions 
by my eenior staff officer, up to the time when 
€k>l. Heintzdman ordered the cavalry to the 
front of the column.* 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. Porter, 
C6L loth Kegt, U. 8. A., Commnndlng. 

CJLPT. GBIFFIN^S BEPOBT. 
Camt xbab AsLuroTOX, Ta., Jalj 25, 186L 
^2. A Porter^ Commanding See4md Brigade : 
Colonel: In compliance with your instruc- 
tions, I have the honor to report that Battery 
D, Fi^ regiment of Artillery^ arrived on the 
batdefield near Manassas at about Hi a. m. 
on the 21st insL, after a march of near twelve 
miles. The battery immediately opened on 
the enemy *s batteries at about 1,000 yards* dis- 
tance, and continued firing until his battery 
was silenced and forced to retire. The battery 
then advanced about two hundred yards and 
opened upon a regiment of infantry formed 
upon the right of their line, causing it to fall 
back. This battery then changed position to 
the right and front, and opened upon a regi- 
ment formed near the enemy^s right, and a 
little in front of the one first referred to, doing 
^tMiSHj execution, and causing it to retreat in 
much oonfasion. An order was then received 
through Migor Barry, Fifth Artillery, to ad- 
vance to the brow of the hill near the position 
occupied by the enemy^s battery when we first 
arrived on the field. The battery opened upon 
the enemy^s battery amidst a galling fire from 
the artillery, and continued firing for near half 
an hour. It then changed position to the right 

* Tfaroagrh fnadrertence in oopyintr Colonel Porter*! 
Rpport, the names of tho fotlOTring officers were omitted, 
•f vhom honorable incntSon was then made : Major Went- 
iix»nh and QoArtermaatcr Comoli, both of the New York 
&h, also Lientcoaat Avcriirs name was mntnateJ. 

If, Y, TVifrune, Aug. 16. 



and fired two rounds, when it was charged by 
the enemy's infantry from the woods on the 
right of our position. This infantry was mis- 
taken for our own forces, an ofBcer on the 
field having stated that it was a regiment sent 
by Col. Heintzelman to support the battery. 
In this charge of the enemy every cannonier 
was cut down, and a large number of horses 
killed, leaving the battery (which was without 
support except in name) perfectly helpless. 
Owing to the loss of men and horses it was 
impossible to take more than three pieces fix)m 
the field. Two of these were afterwards lost 
in the retreat, by the blocking up of the road 
by our own forces, and the complete exhaustion 
of the few horses dragging them. The same 
thing happened with reference to the battery 
wagon, foin^e, and one caisson. All that is left 
of the battery is one of Parrott^s rifie guns, 
and one 12-pound howitzer. Of the 95 men 
who went into action, 28 are killed, wounded, 
and missing ; and of 101 horses, 65 are missing. 
The following is the list of the killed, wound* 
ed, and missing, viz. : 
Killed- 6 

Mortally wounded S 

Wounded 12 

Missing 8 

Total 28 

In conclusion, I would state that my officers 
and men behaved in a most gallant manner, 
displaying great fearlessness, and doing their 
duty as becomes brave soldiers. 

I am, colonel, very respectftdly, your obe< 
dient servant, Ohaslbs Griffin, 

Captain Fifth Artille:y, commanding Battery D. 

In addition, I deem it my duty to add that 
Lieut. Ames was wounded so as to be unable to 
ride his horse, at almost the first fire ; yet he 
sat by his command directing the fire, being 
helped on and off the caisson daring the differ- 
ent changes of front or position, refusing to 
leave the field until he became too weak to sit 
up. I would also mention Capt. Tillinghast, 
A. Q. M., who gallantly served with the battery, 
pointing a piece and rendering valuable assist* 
ance. 

NAMES OF KILLED, WOUNDED, AND MISSING OF 
CAPT. GBIFFIN^S REPORT. 

Killed — ^Wm. Campbell, Joseph Cooper, Jo- 
seph Howard, James O^firien, and Frederick A« 
Reig, all privates. 

Mortally Wounded — Sergeant Stephen Kane ; 
privates, James Turner and Andrew Wagner, 

Wounded — ^First Lieutenant A. Ames, Fifth 
Artillery ; Sergeants T. Maher and John Mur- 
phy ; privates Bohert Bloom, Alexander Camp- 
hell, B. Chamberlain, R. B. Connell, George 
Clark, Samuel Davis, Hennan Fisher, James 
Moran, James M. Sheffield. 

Missing — ^Privates, John Allen, S. Griswold, 
Edward Hopwood, C. R. Holliday, Owen 
McBride, John H. Mclntire, Andrew Roberts, 
Charles Ridder. 

The wounded missing are italicized. 



BEBELUOH BBOOBD, lS6tMl. 



BSPOBT or UBUTKNANT-COLOKXL F 



K»« Wt«HiS0TOS, Jul7 27, IBai. ( 

BiR : I h&ve the honor to enbmit the follow- 
ing report of the movements of the Second 
regiment New HampBhire Volunteers, daring 
the march and battle on the 2lBt inst. I give 
the time of the different movements as nearly 
as possible. The regiment left ita camp, pear 
Centreville, at two o'clock a. v., and immedi- 
ately took ita place in the column of the Sec- 
ond Brigade, under Ool. Burndde. We con- 
tinned in the ooluran of the brigade notil near 
the field of bottle. On Brriving at the battle 
Seld (at half-past ten o'clock) we were ordered 
ap to HQpport the Bhodo Island battery. Be- 
fore arriving at the pkoe indicated, vo were 
ordered on to the crest of a hill in n field con- 
riderablf to the right, ezpoBed to the flre of 
the enemy's batteries. We here fired upon 
aome battalions, said to be Qeorgia troops, who 
retired to the shelter of the woods opponte. 
After thej retired the regiment was withdrawn 
under shelter of the brow of the hill. We were 
then ordered to the left, to support the Bhode 
Island battery. The men took their positions 
and fired several volleys. Oolonel Marston 
was wonnded here and carried to the rear. 
At 11.80 A. M. we were moved from here to s 

gjsition on the left, and in advance of the 
hode Island battery, where we fired a few 
shots at the retreating enemy. After remain- 
ing here an hoar, more or less, we were or- 
dered to report ourselves to Col. Hetntzelman, 
(one o'clock p. h.) The regiment moved to a 
position near his column, and I sent the ser- 
geant-in^or three several times to report the 
regiment ready to render any snccor or support 
they were able to afford. The sergeant-major 
was nnahle to meet with Col. Heintzelmsn or 
hisatalT. At'iti- roiiiiLii.iii^ in u.ir [>o^'.i,vu ^--n,^ 
time, I rcv*ivcd an ordtr (2.30 r, w.J to advance 
to a position indicated, which was to the left, 
andaqnarler of a mile in advance of tho troops 
•ngaged in that part of tlie field. The enemy 
were acreentd from our sight. A.S the men 
wen oijiused to fire from a battery and from 
mnsketry, I ordered them to lie down and fire 
when any of tho enemy were exposed. 

After a sburt time wo were ordered to with- 
draw. Tho men retired leisurely, and in per- 
fectly i^od order, halting once under tbe inel- 
ter of some woods. On oar way to join oor 
brigade wc were nrdorcd by an officer of flra- 



goons, wli. 


->- TrsmKVt KO. 


in advnncn 


retreat, |.. 




u slionld " 


by the .„ 


i.i*'^ (in'iilry. 


^' 


formed ni; 
formotioEi V 


11 in llio briffa 
•Its complM« O) 


continntd. 


»i[h u aliovt' 




•amp, mar 


OentfcvW' 




menoboAw 
dnring tlip 


jisr 




tion they u 


en ■ 




or retired 


U'' 





among the last, if not th« last, to leave the 
field. Their retreat, on the whole route to the 
camp, was unattended by tomult or any ^sor* 
der further tiian leaving their ranks. Theii 
conduct throughout the day inspires me with 
entire confidence in their courage and steadi- 
ness, and I hope will meet yonr commendation, 

FrAE>~K 6. FlSKB, 

Ll.-Col. M Eigl.. H. H. Volunicera. 

Colonel HniTTBB, commanding Second IH- 
viuoa of army of tho Potomac. 

lUJOR SYKES'S BEPOKT. 
HuD-qvlRZU, BiTTiLioi or Regdixb,) 
Cutr TMCll«IIL^ V*., July U, lUL ( 

Caftahi: In compliance with your circolw 
of the 28d inst., I have the honor to report the 
following casnidties that occurred in my ccm- 
mand daring the recent battle before Uanassia: 
8 commisnoned officers wonnded, 1 asMstsnt 
surgeon missing, 18 rank and file killed, 11 
wounded, 12 of whom are missing, 42 missing. 
Many of the latter are supposed to have taken 
the Alexandria turnpike oy mistake, and will 
no donbt rejoin tlieir colors to-day. 

This battalion, composed of two companies 
of the Sd U. S. In£sntry, five companies of the 
8d U. S. Infantry, and one company of the 8th 
U. 8. Infantry, left its camp near Centreville 
about half-past three a. m., on the 21st inet., 
and afler a circuitous march of ten or twelve 
miles arrived on the enemy's left, and was im- 
mediately ordered to support tlie force under 
Colonel Bumside, which wos suffering from a 
severe fire in its front. Our line was rapidly 
formed, opening fire, and a column under Colo- 
nel Ueintzleman appearing at the same moment 
at our loft, the enemy fell back to the rising 
ground in his rear. Mj battalion was then 
advanced to the front and look a pontion on 
the edge of a wood immediately opposite to a 
iiL^-l.id L;tiL:> lii.d ;i U:}^. luKt Mi' tie seces- 
tiunisls, [lu.^ted urouiiil ii liouic wl [he fences 
and trees around it. The three left companies 
were deployed as skinnislier* undor Captain 
I)odgc, 6th Infantry, and did grvut eiecntion 
among their ranks. At this time the whole 
battalion became actively engaged, nnd a Bhode 
Iclnnd battery coming into action on ray right 
and having no supports, at the requent of its 
commanding officer, and seeing myself tho 
necessity of llio caee, I remnioed ss a protec- 
tion to Ilia gtiQS. Foe more than an honr the 
oOTnmand wns here ejrposfd to n rcncentrated 

fire r- ' - '-:■-:■■'■■ rnrl rr-'irn-nts of the 

,1. 1,1.1,., I V ! . :i ihe guns 



1 my bat- 
rli crowds 



f 



^^V^ ivf tho 



DOCUMENTS. 



25 



bdd m^' ground until all oar troops bad fallen 
back, and mj flank was turned by a large force 
of horse and foot. I then retired a short dis- 
tance in good order, and facing to the CDemy on 
the crest of a hill, held his cavalry in check, 
which still threatened oar flank. 

At this stage of the action, my command 
was the only opposing force to the enemy, and 
the last to leave the field. 

By taking advantage of woods and broken 
ground, I brought it off withoat loss, although 
the gnns of our opponents were playing on our 
line of march from every height. While thus 
retiring, I received an order from our brigade- 
commander to cover the retreat of that portion 
of the army near me, which I did as well as I 
was able, remaining in rear until all of it had 
passed me. After crossing ^^BuU Run,'* my 
oommaaid was threatened by a large force of 
cavalry — ^but its order and the regularity of 
its march forbade any attack. We reached our 
camp beyond Oentreville at 8 p. sc It is but 
proper to mention that our officers and men 
were on their feet from 10 p. ic, on the 20th, 
nntil 10 A. v., on the 22d — ^without rest, many 
without food, footsore, and greatly exhausted — 
they yet bore the retreat cheerfully, and set 
an example of constancy and discipline worthy 
of older and more experienced soldiers. My 
oflScers, nearly all of them just from civil life 
and the Military Academy, were eager and 
zealous, and to their efforts are due the soldierly 
retreat and safety of the battalion — as well as 
of many straggling volunteers who accompa- 
nied my command. 

The acting Major, Capt. K H. Davis, 2d 
infantry, rendered essential service by his 
coolness, zeal, and activity. Oapt. Dodge, 8th 
infantry, commanding the skirmishers on the 
left, was equally efficient, and to those gentle- 
men, and all my officers, I am indebted for 
cordial codperation in all the movements of the 
day. Lieut Kent, although wounded, endeav- 
ored to retain command of his company, but 
a second wound forced him to give it up. He 
and Lieut. Dickinson, acting adjutant, wound- 
ed and Dr. Sternberg, U. S. A., (since escaped,) 
are believed to be in the hands of the enemy. 
I beg to call the attention of the brigade-com- 
mander to the services of Sergeant Mi\jor Devoe 
of the 8d infantry, who was conspicuous for 
his good conduct on the field. 

The arms and equipments of my command 
are in good condition, but the men are destitute 
of blankets, and in want of necessary clothing. 
Gio. Stkss, Mfyor 14th Infantry. 

Oapt. AvESiLL. 

thihd DrvTBioN. 

COLOITBL nEnrrZELHAN^S BBPOKT. 

HsAJKQnsTBss TviBB DiTTSioM, Dep't N. E. Vl. > 

Wabuisiotoh, July 81, 1861. S 

To Capt. Jo*. B. Fry^ Amstant Adjutant- Gen- 
eral : 
Sir: In obedience to instructions received 
on the 20th inst., the division under mj com- 



mand was under arms, in light marching order, 
with two days* cooked rations in their haver- 
sacks, and commenced the march at half-post 
two A. M. on the 21st., the brigade of Colonel 
Franklin leading, followed by those of Colonels 
Wilcox and Howard. At Centreville we found 
the road filled with troops, and were detained 
three hours to allow the divisions of General 
Tyler and Colonel Hunter to pass. I followed 
with my division immediately in the rear of 
the latter. Between two and three miles 
beyond Centreville we left the Warren ton turn- 
pike, turning into a country road on the right. 
Captain Wright accompanied the head of Colo- 
nel Hunter's column, with directions to stop 
at a road which turned in to the left to a ford 
across Bull Run, about half way between the 
point where we turned off from the turnpike 
and Sudley's Springs, at which latter point 
Colonel Hunter's division was to cross. No 
such road was found to exist, and about eleven 
A. M. we found ourselves at Sudley's Springs, 
about ten miles from Centreville, with one 
brigade of Colonel Hunter's division still on our 
side of the Run. Before reaching this point 
the battle had commenced. We could see the 
smoke rising on our left from two points, a 
mile or more apart Two clouds of dust were 
seen, showing the advance of troops from the 
direction of Manassas. At Sudley's Springs, 
whilst waiting the passage of the troops of the 
division in our front, I ordered forward the 
first brigade to fill their canteens. Before 
this was accomplished the leading regiments of 
Colonel Hunter's division became engaged. 
General McDowell, who, accompanied by his 
staff, had passed us a short time before, sent 
back Captain Wright of the engineers and 
Major McDowell, one of his aids, with orders 
to send forward two regiments to prevent the 
enemy from outflanking them. Captain Wright 
led forward the Minnesota regiment to the left 
of the road, which crossed the run at this 
point. Major McDowell led the Eleventh Mas- 
sachusetts up the road. I accompanied this 
regiment, leaving orders for the remainder of 
the division to follow, with the exception of 
Arnold's battery, which, supported by the First 
Michigan, was posted a little below the cross- 
ing of the run as a reserve. At a little more 
than a mile from the ford we came upon the 
battle-field. Rickett's battery was posted on a 
hill to the right of Hunter's division and to the 
right of the road. After firing some twenty 
minutes at a battery of the enemy, placed just 
beyond the crest of a hill, on their entrance 
left, the distance being considered too greal, it 
was moved forward to within about 1,000 feet 
of the enemy's battery. Here the battery was 
exposed to a heavy fire of musketry, which 
soon disabled it. Franklin's brigade was post- 
ed on the right of a wood, near the centre of 
our line, and on ground rising towards the en- 
emy's position. In the meantime, I sent or- 
ders for the Zouaves to move forward to sup- 
port Rickett's battery on its right. As soon as 



26 



BEBELLION REOOBD, 1660-61. 



they came np I led them forward against an 
Alabama regiment, partly concealed in a clnmp 
of small pines in an old field. At the first fire 
thej broke and the greater portion of them fied 
to the rear, keeping up a aesultory firing over 
the heads of their comrades in front ; at the 
same moment they were charged by a company 
of secession cav^ry on their rear, who came 
by a road throuffli two strips of woods on onr 
extreme right. The fire of the Zouaves killed 
four and wounded one, dispersing them. The 
discomfiture of this cavalry was completed by 
a fire from Captain Collom^s company of Unit- 
ed States cavalry, which killed and wounded 
several men. Colonel Famham, with some 
of his officers and men, behaved gallantly, but 
the regiment of Zouaves, as a regiment, did not 
appear again on the field. Many of the men 
joined other regiments and did good service as 
skirmishers. I then led np the Minnesota regi- 
ment, which was also repulsed, but retired in 
tolerably good order. It did good service in 
the woods on our riglit flank, and was among 
the last to retire, moving ofiT the field with the 
Third United States infantry. Next was led 
forward the First Michigan, which was also re- 
pulsed, and retired in considerable confusion. 
They were rallied^ and helped to hold the 
w^oods on our right. The Brooklyn Fourteenth 
then appeared on the ground, coming forward 
in gallant style. I led them forward to the 
left, where the Alabama regiment had been 
posted in the early part of the action, but had 
now disappeared, but soon came in sight of the 
line of the enemy drawn up beyond the clump 
of trees. Soon after the firing commenced the 
regiment broke and ran. I considered it use- 
less to attempt to rally them. The wont of 
discipline in these regiments was so great tha^ 
the most of the men would run from fifty to 
several hundred yards to the rear, and continue 
to fire — fortunately for the braver ones— very 
high in the air, and compelling those in front 
to retreat. During this time KeickelPs battel^ 
had been taken and retaken three times by us, 
but was finally lost, most of the horses having 
been killed — Capt. Reickell being wounded, 
and First Lieut. D. Ramsay killed, Lieut. 
Eirby behaved very gallantly, and succeeded in 
caiTying off one caisson. Before this time 
heavy reinforcements of the enemy were dis- 
tinctly seen approaching by two roads extend- 
ing and outflanking us on the right. Col. 
Stewart's brigade came on the field at this time, 
having been detained by the General as a re- 
serve at the point where we left the turnpike. 
It took post on a hill on our right and rear, and 
for some time gallantly held the enemy in 
check. I had one company of cavalry attached 
to my division, which was joined during the 
engagement by the cavalry of Col. Stanton's 
division Major Palmer, who cannonaded them, 
was anxious to engage the enemy. The ground 
being unfavorable, I ordered them back out of 
range of fire. Finding it impossible to raUy 
any of the regiments, we commenced our re- 1 



treat about half-past four p. ii . There was a 
fine position a short distance in the rear, where 
I hoped to make a stand w^ith a section of Ar- 
nold's battery and the United States cavalry, if 
I could rally a few regiments of infantry. In 
this I utterly failed, and we continued our re- 
treat on the road we had advanced on in the 
morning. I sent forward my staff officers to 
rally some troops beyond the run. but not a 
company would form. I stopped back a few 
moments at the hospital to see what arrange- 
ments could be maae to save the wounded. 
The few ambulances that were there were 
filled and started to the rear. The church, 
which was used as a hospital, with the wound- 
ed and some of the surgeons, soon after fell 
into the hands of the secession cavalry, that 
followed us closely. A company of cavalry 
crossed the rear and seized an ambulance full 
of wounded. Captdn Arnold gave them a 
couple of rounds of " canister '' from his sec- 
tion of artillery, which sent them scampering 
away and kept them at a respectful distance 
during the remainder of our retreat. At this 
point most of the stragglers were in advance of 
us. Having every reason to fear a vigorous 

Sui*suit from the enemy's fresh troops, I was 
esirous of forming a strong rear guard, but 
neither the efforts of the officers of the regular 
army, nor the coolness of the regular troopa 
with me, could induce them to form a single 
company. We relied entirely for our protec- 
tion on one section of artillery and a few com- 
panies of cavalry. Most of the road was favor- 
able for infantry, but unfavorable for cavaLry 
and artillery. About dusk, as we approached 
the Warrenton turnpike, we heard a firing of 
rifled cannon on our right, and learned that the 
enemy had established a battery enfilading the 
road. Captain Arnold, with his section of ar- 
tillery, attempted to run the gauntlet and 
reached the bridge over Cub Run, about two 
miles from Centreville, but found it obstructed 
with broken vehicles, and was compelled to 
abandon his pieces as they were under the fire 
of these rifled cannon. The cavalry turned to 
the left, and after passing through a strip of 
woods and some fields, struck a road which led 
them to some camps occupied by our troops in 
tlie morning, through which we regained the 
turnpike. At about eight p. M. we reached 
the camps we had occupied in the morning. 
Had a brigade from the reserve advanced a 
short distance beyond Centreville near one- 
third of the artilleiy lost might have been 
saved, as it was abandoned at or near thia 
crossing. Such a rout I never witnessed be- 
fore. No efforts could induce a single regiment 
to form after the retreat had commenced. 

Onr artillery was served admirably and did 
much execution. Some of the volunteer regi- 
ments behaved very well, and much excuse can 
be made for those who fled, as few of the enemy 
could at any time be seen. Raw troops cannot 
be expected to stand long against an unseen 
enemy, I have been unable to obtain any re- 



DOCUMKNT& 



27 



port from the Zouaves, as OoL Farnham is still 
at hospita]. Since the retreat more than three- 
foarths of the Zouaves have disappeared. 

I beg leaye to express m j obligations to the 
officers of mjr staff, viz. :— Captain H. S. Wright, 
Lteut £. 8. W. Sojder, lieutenant F. N. Far- 

Siliar, of the Engineers; Oaptain Chaanoey 
eKeever^ Assistant A^jatanMj^eneral ; Lieu- 
tenant J. J. Sweet, of tiie Second Cavalrj, and 
Uentenant J. D. Fairbanks, of the Ftrst Michi- 
gUy for the able and fearless performnnoe of 
tiieir duties, and to recommend them to your 
favorable consideration. 

Very respectfully, 

S. P. Heintzelmas, 

Ooiosiel <A the SerentMntli Infant^', ComnumdiDg the 
nmi DiTtfioo. 

BXPOBT 07 OOLO^TXL OORICAN. 
HSAD-QVAItTBBa PlKST MlSlTBMTA RBOIMirf, > 

Wi^SBiaoTON, D. O., July 24, 1861. \ 

Colonel F^arikUn^ Commanding Firtt Brigade 

Colonel Heintuhnan^e Diviiionj If, E. Vir- 

ginifl : 

Sib: I have the honor to communicate, as 

Oolonel of the First Minnesota regiment of 

Volunteers, the events connected with the 

movements of my command, comprising a part 

of your brigade. 

^ On Tuesday morning, the 16th inst, in obe- 
dience to your order, we took up the line of 
march, and on the eveniog of Thursday ar- 
rived at Oentreville and bivouacked until Sun- 
day morning, the 21st instant, at half-past two 
o'dock, when we again took up our line of 
march, in obedieuce to your onlers, to meet 
the enemy, then known to be in large force 
between Boll Run and Manassas station, Vir- 
ginia. 

Oar march from Oentreville to Bull Bun was 
not marked by any extraordinary event, my 
regiment leading the advance of your brigade. 
On arriving at Bull Run, the battle began to 
rage with great warmth with the advance col- 
umn of in&ntry and artillery of another divi- 
siozi, both being hotly engaged. Here Captain 
Wright, of the military engineers, serving as an 
aid npon the staff of Colonel Heiutzelman, oom- 
manoing oar division, informed me that my 
regiment was needed to flank the enemy upon 
the extreme left ; whereupon I moved forward 
at " quick " and " double-quick " time, until we 
arrived at an open field looking out upon tibe 
enemy'a lines. After holding this position a 
short time, Captain Wright, by your direction, 
ordered me through the woods to take posi- 
tion near the front and centre of the enemy^s 
line, in an open field, where we came under 
the direct fire of the enemy's batteries, formed 
ia ** colnmn by division.'' 

After remaining in this position for some 
ten minutes, I received orders from both your 
aiils and those of Colonel Heiutzelman to pass 
tlie whole front of the enemy's line, in support 
of Rickett's battery, and proceed to the ex- 
treme right of our line and the left of the en- 
emy, a distance of about a mile or more. 



' This movement was effected at "quick" and 
'' double-quick " time, both by the infantry and 
artillery, during which march the men threw 
from their shodders their haversacks, blankets^ 
and most of their canteens, to facilitate their 
eagerness to engage the enemy. On arriving 
at the point indicated, being the extreme leu 
of the enemy and the extreme right of our 
line, and in advance of all other of our troops, 
and where I was informed officially that two 
other regiments had declined to charge, we 
formed a line of battle, our right resting within 
a few feet of the woods, and the left at and 
around Rickett's battery, and npon the crest of 
the hill, within fifty or sixty feet of the enemy's 
line of infantry, with whom we could have read- 
ily conversed in an ordinary tone of voice. Im- 
mediately upon Rickett's battery coming into 
position ana we in "line of battle," Colonel 
Heiutzelman rode up between our lines and 
that of the enemy, within pistol shot of each^ 
which circumstance staggered my judgment 
whether those in front were friends or ene- 
mies, it being equally manifest that the enemy 
were in the same dilemma as to our identity. 
But a few seconds, however, undeceived both — 
they displaying the rebel and we the Union flag. 
Instantly a blaze of fire was poured into the 
faces of the combatants, each producing terrible 
destruction, owing to the close proximity of the 
forces, which was followed by volley after volley, 
in regular and irregular order as to time, until 
Rickett's battery was disabled and cut to pieces, 
and a large portion of its officers and men had 
fallen, and until Companies H, I, K, C, G, and 
those immediately surrounding my regimental 
flag, were so desperately cut to pieces as to make 
it more of a slaughter-house than an equal com- 
bat, the enemy manifestly numbering five guns 
to our one, besides being intrenched in the woods 
and behind ditches and pits plainly perceptible, 
and with batteries upon the enemy's right, enfi- 
lading my left flank, and within three hundred 
and fifty yiurds' direct range. After an effort to 
obtain aid from the Fire Zouaves, then immedi* 
ately upon our left, two or three different or- 
ders came to retire, as it was manifest that the 
contest was too deadly and unequal to be longer 
justifiably maintained. Whereupon, I gave the 
command to retire, seeing that the whole of 
our forces were seemingly in retreat. Every 
inch of ground, however, was strongly con- 
tested by skirmishers, through the woods, by 
the fences and over the undulating ground, un- 
til we had retired some four hundred yards in 
reasonably good order, to a point where the 
men could procure water, and then took up a 
regular ana orderly retreat to such point as 
some general officer might indicate thereafter. 

I feel it due to my regiment to say, that be- 
fore leaving the extreme right of our line the 
enemy attempted to make a charge with a body 
of perhaps five hundred cavalry, who were met 
by my command and a part of the Fire Zouaves, 
and repulsed with considerable loss to the ene* 
my, but without any to us. 



28 



BEBELLION BXOOBD, 1860-61. 



I am more than gratified to say that I kef^t 
the larger portion of my regiment together, 
and marched from the field in order, and on 
the march and near an open space where Col- 
onel Heintzelman^s column left the Centreville 
and Manassas road in the morning, and passed 
to the right, we, in conjunction with others, 
repulsed the enemy's cavalry, who attempted 
to charge. 

Before leaving the field a portion of the right 
wing, owing to the configuration of the ground 
and intervening woods, became detached, un- 
der the command of Lieutenont-Oolonel Miller, 
whose gallantry was conspicuous throughout 
the entire battle, and who contested every 
inch of the ground with his forces thrown out 
as skirmishers in the woods, and succeeded in 
occupying the original ground on the right, 
after the repulse of a body of cavalry. I deem 
it worthy of remark that during a part of the 
engagement my regiment and that of the ene- 
my, at some points, became so intermingled as 
scarcely to be able to distinguish friends from 
fbes, and my forces made several prisoners, 
among whom was Lieutenant-Oolonel Boone, 
of Mississippi, who is now in Washington, and 
fiilly recognizes his captors. 

I regard it as an event of rare occurrence in 
the annals of history that a regiment of volun- 
teers, not over three months in the service, 
inarched up without flinching to the mouth of 
batteries of cannon supported by thousands of 
infantry, and opened and maintained a fire un- 
til one-fifth of the whole regiment were killed, 
wounded, or made prisoners before retiring, 
except for purposes of advantage of position. 

My heart is full of gratitude to ray officers 
and men for their gallant bearing throughout 
the whole of this desperate engagement, and 
to distinguish the merits of one from another 
would be invidious, and injustice might be 
done. 

Mf^jor Dike and my a^jntant bore themselves 
with coolness throughout. My chaplain. Rev. 
£. D. Neill, was on the field the whole time 
and in the midst of danger, giving aid and com- 
fort to the wounded. 

Dr. Stewart, while on the field, was ordered 
to the hospital by a medical officer of the army ; 
Dr. Le Boutillier continued with the regiment, 
and actually engaged in the fight — neither of 
whom have been heard from since. 

That I have not unfairly or umnstly to the 
truth of history stated the facts m regard to 
the gallant conduct of my regiment, is fully 
proven by the appended list of killed and 
wounded, showing forty-nine killed, one hun- 
dred and seven wounded, and thirty-four miss- 
ing ; the names and companies to which they 
belong, in detail, will more fully appear in the 
accompanying lists and abstracts. 

Among the incidents of the engagement my 
command took several prisoners, among whom 
waa lieutenant-Oolonel Boone, of the Missis- 
taken personally by Mr. Irvine, 
k. mm^ Bince said prisoner's con- 




finement in the Capitol at T^ashington city, 
Mr. Irvine, in company with Hon. Morton 8. 
Wilkinson, United States Senator from Min- 
nesota, visited him, when he promptly recog- 
nized Mr. Irvine as his captor, and thanked 
him very cordially for his humane treatment 
and kindness to him as a prisoner. I deem it 
but just that this fact should be officially known, 
as Lieutenant-Colonel Boone was an officer of 
the highest rank taken in the battle. 

The humble part which I have perfonned as 
an officer commanding one of the regiments of 
your brigade, individually and otherwise, is 
now left to you and those commanding the di- 
vision. Respectfully, 
W. A. GoBMAN, Col. First Re^ment, Minnesota. 

SUPPUnUENT TO TUX OFFICIAL SEPOBT OF CGI. 
QOBMAN, OF TUB FIB8T BEGIMEirT, HOI^SOTA. 

Camp Mxvbssota, July 26, 1861. 

The regimental flag borne by my color-hearer 
has through its folds one cannon ball, two 
grape shot, and sixteen bullets, and one in the 
stanl The color guard were all wounded hnt 
the color-bearer, one mortally. The company 
flag of Company I was pierced with five balh 
and one on the spear head. Please attach this 
to my report. Respectfully, 
W. A. Gorman, Col. First Regiment, Minnesota. 

BEPOHT OF COL. J. H. H. WABD. 

Hkad-quartkrs Sbcohd Bkioadb, \ 

Tbibd Ditisiok, Cahp near Sbooter*8 Hill, / 

Monday, J uly 29, 166L ) 

CoL TT. P. IVanhliny Commanding Third JOtti- 
sion. 

Sib: The temporary command of this bri- 
gade having devolved upon me in consequence 
of the mishap to Col. Wilcox, I have the honor 
to transmit herewith the following report, also 
the regimental reports of a portion of the bri- 
gade, viz. : from the First Michigan regiment, 
the Scott Life Guard, Thirty-eighth regiment 
New York State Volunteers, containing de- 
tailed accounts of their action during the en- 
gagement near Bull Run, on Sunday, 21st inst; 
the remaining regiments of the brigade, viz. : 
the Fire Zouaves (Eleventh regiment New 
York Volunteers) and Arnold's battery hav- 
ing already rendered their reports to division 
head-quarters. 

This brigade commenced the action under 
command of Col. Wilcox, of Michigan, who 
was wounded while gallantly leading his com- 
mand, and whose bravery could not have been 
excelled, and who is now a prisoner in the hands 
of the enemy. While I deeply deplore the cir- 
cumstances by which it became my duty to 
forward this report, yet it affords me much 
gratification to speak in terms of the highest 
commendation of the brave and officer-like 
conduct of the gentlemen composing his stsfi*, 
viz. : Lieuts. Woodruff^, Parker, nnd Edio, in 
their efforts to bring order out of chaos, un- 
der a most galling and deadly fire from the 
enemy. 



DOOnVSNTSL 



29 



Having myself been in command of the 
Thirty-eighth regiment (Scott liie Guard, New 
York State Volunteers) during the action, I 
am nnable to speak as particularly as could be 
desired of other regiments of the brigade from 
personal obserration, aud respectfully refer you 
to their respective reports. The reports of 
killed and wounded furnish sufficient evidence 
of their fidelity and courage. 

Bat of the field-officers of the Hre Zouaves 
I can speak in terms of unqualified praise. 
Ool. Famham, Lient.-Ool. Gregier, and Miyor 
Loeser were incessant in their exertions in 
rallying and encouraging their men. 

The officers. and men of the First Michigan 
nobly discharged their duty to their country, 
and well may their State feel proud of her de- 
fenders. 

The officers and men of the Thirty-eighth be- 
ing onder my own supervision, I can only cor- 
roborate the report rendered by Lieut.-Gol. 
Farnsworth. 

Where all acted so well, it would appear in- 
Tidious to make comparisons ; but in the case 
of lient-Gol. Farnsworth, Thirty-eighth regi- 
ment, I cannot find words to express my ad- 
miration of his conduct. He was confined to 
a sick bed for several days previous to the en- 
gagement, and arrived on the scene of action 
in an ambulance ; and the fact of his rising 
from a sick bed and entering the field with his 
regiment, and his courage and coolness during 
the day, entitle him to tiie highest commenda- 
tion. 

In conclusion, I most respectfully submit 
that the duty of making this report, devolving 
upon me at so late a day — ^intelligence of the 
absence of Gol. Wilcox not having reached 
me until the day after the battle — renders it 
impossible to give a more detailed statement. 

My duty as commander of the brigade being 
ended with this report, 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

J. H. HoBART Wabd, 

Colooel Thirty-eighth Beglment, Second Brigade, Third 
DiTWion. 

OmOIAL BEPOBT OF LIEUT.-OOL. FABN8W0BTH. 

HcAD-QVARTtR8 TbIBTT-BIOHTH ReOIXKNT, ) 

(Sboomd Scott LirB Guabd,) N. Y. V., > 
Camp Scott, vsas ALSXAaoBiA, Va., July 20, 1851. ) 

CoL J. H. H. Ward, Commanding Second Bri- 
gade^ Third Division : 

Sm : In compliance with my duty, I respect- 
fully submit the following report of the opera- 
tion of my regiment during the recent battle 
at or near Bull Run on the 2l8t of July, 1861. 

On the morning of the 21st, in obedience to 
brigade orders, the regiment was formed, the 
men equipped in light marching order, and 
prepared to leave its bivouac at or near Oen- 
treville. The march, however, was not com- 
menced until 6 o'clock a. m., when the regi- 
ment, with others constituting the brigade, 
advanced towards the scene of future opera- 
tion?. 

After a fatiguing march, over dusty roods, 



and at times through dense woods — ^the men 
sufiering greatly from the intense heat, and a 
great lack of water, and submitting to the some 
with a true soldierly spirit — ^the regiment, with 
others of the brigade, was halted in a field in 
full view of the enemy, on the right of his line 
of intrenchments, and within range of his artil- 
lery. After a very brief rest the regiment was 
formed in line of battle, and orders by Col. 
Wilcox, the commandant of the brigade, to 
advance to a slight eminence fronting the ene- 
my's batteries, and about half a mile distant, 
to the support of GriflBn's battery, which was 
then preparing to take up a position at tiiiat 
point. 

This order was promptly executed — ^the men, 
led by yourself, and encouraged by the gal- 
lantry of their officers, moving forward in a 
gallant style, in double-quick time, subjected, 
a greater portioi} of the way, to a tenible ana 
deadly fire of grape and canister, and round 
shot, from the enemy's works on our front and 
right fiank. 

Arriving at the brow of the eminence, in 
advance of the battery which it was intended 
to support, the regiment was halted, and com- 
menced, in fact, the attack of CoL Hcintzel- 
man's division on the right flank of the enemy, 
engaging a large force of his infantry, and by 
a well-directed fire, completely routing an en- 
tire regiment that was advancing in good order, 
and dnving it into a dense wood in the dis- 
tance. After remaining in this position for 
some time, finding that the enemy's artillery 
was telling with fearful efiect upon our ranks — 
subjected as we were to a direct and fiank fire 
from his batteries — the regiment was oi*dered 
to retire down a slight declivity, which was 
done in good order, ofibrding it for a time, 
partial protection from the enemy's fire. At 
this tune, Griffin's battery was moving to a 
position on our right, and the regiment was 
ordered by Gol. Heintzelman in person to 
advance to its protection. Advancing by the 
fiank under a galling fire, the regiment woa 
halted within supporting distance of Griffin's 
battery, which had now opened upon the ene- 
my, and properly formed to resist a threatened 
attack from the enemy's cavalry and infantry, 
which had shown themselves in large numbers 
on the borders of a grove to the right and 
front. In this position my r^ment, under a 
spiteful and destructive fire from the enemy's 
batteries, remained until forced to retire, 
its presence not being deemed requisite because 
of the fact that Griffin^ battery had been 
oopipelled to leave tlie field. 

Retiring to a road about one hundred yards 
distant, my regiment was again formed in line 
of battle, and under the eye of the commander- 
in-chief, Gen. McDowell, the men, inspired by 
his presence upon the field, and led by your- 
self, dashed gallantly up the hill towards a 
point where Rickett's battery hod been aban- 
doned, in consequence of its support, the First 
fire Zouaves and one Michigan regiment, hay- 



80 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



ing been previouslj compelled to retreat in the 
face of Buperior numbers and a great loss in 
their ranks. Before arriving at the brow of 
the hill, we met the enemy in large force, one 
of his infantry regiments, apparently fresh upon 
the field, advancing steadily toward us in line 
of battle. A large number of the men of this 
regiment had advanced in front of their line, 
and had taken possession of Rickett's battery, 
and were endeavoring to turn the guns upon 
us. A well-directed and destructive fire was 
immediately opened upon the enemy by my 
regiment, and a portion of another that had 
raSied upon our left (I think the Fourteenth, 
Kew York State ICilitia), and after a sharp 
conflict he was forced to retreat in disorder 
and with great loss, seeking shelter in the 
woods from whence he had previously emerged. 

The enemy not succeeding in taking with 
him Rickett^s battery, which ^seemed to have 
been the chief object of his attack, it fell into 
the hands of my regiment, by whom three of 
its guns were dragged a distance of three hun- 
dred yards, and left in a road, apparently out 
of reach of the enemy. 

Another rally was then again made by my 
regiment, the gallant men readily responding 
to the orders of their officers. Advancing in 
double-quick time to the right and front tow- 
ards a dense wood, in which the enemy had 
been concealed in large force during ^he day, 
and from which evidences of a retreat were 
now visible^ my regiment, with detached por- 
tions of others of our force, became engaged in 
a shai^ and spirited skirmish with the enemy^s 
infantry and cavalry, and we appeared for a 
time to have complete possession of the field. 

This was the last rally made by my regiment : 
suddenly and unexpectedly the enemy, rein- 
forced by fresh troops, literally swarming the 
woods, poured in upon us a perfect shower of 
lead from his musketry ; his batteries reopened 
upon us with terrible effect ; and a panic at 
this moment seeming to have taken possession 
of our troops generally, a retreat was ordered, 
and my regiment, in comparatively good order, 
commenced its march towards Oentreville, 
where a greater portion of it arrived about 9 
oVlock that night. Here, on the same ground 
that we had bivouacked previous to the bat- 
tle, the regiment was halted. After a rest of 
about two hours, it again resumed its march, 
joining in the general movement made by the 
army towards this place. 

After a forced and wearisome march of seven 
hours, the men suffering from the fatigue of 
the previous fifteen hours, without food for 
that length of time, with scarcely water enough 
to moisten thein^n^ed tongues, many of them 
wound ' d|(ttierwi8e disabled, my 

^^mH^HBnUfve com- 

P^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ging 

'amp 
It of 
t, in 




fact, that was under fire the previous day, that 
returned to and occupied their old camp ground 
previous to their advance towards the field of 
battle. It is with great pride, sir, that I men- 
tion this fact, evincing, as it emphatically does, 
a degree of sabordination commendable in anj 
regiment, and reflecting great credit upon the 
gallant officers and men of my own, particular- 
ly under the extraordinary circumstances oon* 
nected with the occasion. 

From the time my re^ment was ordered 
into the battle-field until forced to retire there- 
from, a period of four hours, it was almost con- 
stantly under fire from the enemy^s batteries, 
and engaged with the infantry; and through 
your coolness and courage alone, during that 
time — ^your frequent orders for the men to lie 
down when the enemy^s fire was the hottest, 
and your constant effort to protect them as far 
as possible at dl times — ^was the regiment saved 
from presenting a larger number of casualties 
than its large number now shows. 

Of the courage displayed by the men gen- 
erally on the field during the entire day, of the 
readiness of the gallant fellows to obey at all 
times all orders, I cannot speak in too high 
terms, or express in words my admiration. 
During all my experience in a former campaign, 
and presence on many a battle-field, I have 
never witnessed greater bravery or more sol- 
dierly requisites than were displayed by the 
men of my own regiment during the entire 
battle. 

The conduct of the officers generally, I can* 
not speak too highly of. Always at their posts, 
cheering on their men by their soldierly ex- 
amples, and displaying marked gallantry under 
the trying circumstances, I acknowledge my 
inability to do them justice in words. M^)or 
Potter was disabled during the early part of 
the engagement, while gallantly performing 
his duty, and subsequently fell into the hands 
of the enemy. The brave Captain HcQuaide, 
while cheering on his men, fell, from a severe 
wound in the leg. Lieut. Thomas S. Hamblin, 
a gallant young officer, also received a wound 
in the leg while discharging his duty; and he, 
with the former officer, subsequently fell into 
the hands of the enemy. Captains ICcGrath 
and AUason both received injuries during the 
engagement, the former by being run down by 
the enemy's cavalry, (from the effects of which 
he is now suffering,) and the latter by a slight 
musket shot. Lieut. John Brady, Jr., while 
bravely participating in the fight, was severely 
wounded in the arm. Assistant Surgeon Ste- 
phen Griswold was on the field, and, under a 
heavy fire, at oil times humanely and fearlessly 
discharging his duties to the wounded. He 
and Quartermaster Charles J. Murphy, who 
was assisting the wounded, were also taken 
prisoners. 

In conclusion, I again assert my inability to 
do justice to the gallant conduct of the officers 
generally ; and while it would afford me great 
pleasure to mention the names of many whose 



J 



DOOUMBMra 



81 



oondnct fell under my personal observation, I 
most refrain from doing bo, lest by omitting 
others I should do iigostice to many equally as 
meritorious. 

Annexed is a list of the casualties in my regi- 
ment. Many of those reported missing, I have 
learned, have either been killed or wounded, 
but as yet I have not ascertained, their names. 
Beapectfully submitted, 

Addison Faekbwobth, 
]:«l«nt.<CoI. Comm'g Thirty-eighth Beg»t, N. Y. V., 

(Seoond Hcott Life Quard.) 

LIST OF IILIBD, W0T7in>ED, AND MI8SIKO, THIB- 
TT-XIOHTH BSGIMENT, N. T. 8. T. 

FtELD AND Staff. — Wounded — ^M^jor James 
D. Potter, slightly, and afterwards taken pris- 
oner by the enemy. 

3£is$ing — Assistant-Surgeon Stephen Gris- 
wold and Quartermaster Charles J. Murphy, 
both taken prisoners. 

CoMPAKT A. — Wounded — Charles H. L. Roe- 
diger, slightly in the hand. 

Muting — Jacob Schindler and JohnMoNa- 
mara. 

CoMPANT B. — Killed — Sergeant Samuel Ash- 
worth. Privates William Weir, Louis Leonard, 
Charles Paulson, Louis Williams, James H. 
Hart, and George Robinson. 

Wounded — Oapt Eugene McGrath, slightly. 
Privates Michael McGrane, in the head, (miss- 
u^g Walter S. Kniffin, in the knee ; Marvin 
Lord, in the thigh ; H. B. Hendrickson, in the 



Company 0. — Fbwik^a?— Captain Robert F. 
AUason^ slightly. Privates A. EHaila and J. 
Haier, severely ; A. Scharf and J. Schimelpfen- 
ning, mortally. 

Mming^^, Gabitch, J. Hoefer, J. Hirt, A. 
Keller, S. Shaublcin, A. Ahr, supposed to be 
prisoners. 

Company D.— iTiZfe^ — Privates Philo E. 
Lewis, William Chambers, Martin Donahoe. 

Wounded — ^Lieut. John Brady, Jr., badly in 
the wrist ; Frank Paine, bayonet in leg ; Wil- 
liam Mackey, wounded in foot. 

iris»i7i^--Corporal Charles Studoff. Privates 
James B. Clorety, George Cisco, Matthew Dol- 
lard, Louis Wal^rode, Calvin C. Gould, George 
A. Kermaster, Edward Donnelly and George 
Hart. 

Company E. — FiwTwZwf— Sergeant- Watson 
A- Hallory, in foot. Privates John O'Brien, in 
leg ; Anthony Welder, in thigh ; James Willis, 
in knee — all prisoners. 

ifft»m^— Privates Samuel Hart, John Kel- 
aey, Edward L. Marsh — supposed to be pris- 
oners. 

Company F.—fifZioi^— Privates James Flynn, 
James Nelson, Michael Dowling, Henry Hil- 
liard, Wm. Mackay. 

Wounded — Capt. Hugh McQuaide, severely, 
taken prisoner. Privates John Mclntire, Pat- 
rick McGann, Martin O'Neill, Thomas Murphy, 
Wm. Fielding. 

Mming — Sergeant Donahoe, Corporal Mo- 



loney, Privates Timothy Sullivan, Michael 
Kennedy, Joseph Sheppard, Patrick Coyle, 
Lawrence Mooney, John Holland. 

CoKPANT G. — Wounded — ^First Lieut. Thom- 
as S. Hamblin, in the leg. Privates Edward 
Sweeney, Benjamin Taylor, (all taken prison- 
ers,) Henry Lansing. 

Missing — Henry Hedge, Thomas H. Kerr, 
Patrick McGinn, William H. MiUett, Charles 
J. Rydecker, Greorge Wright, (all supposed to 
have been taken prisoners.) 

Company H. — Killed — ^Private John Orman. 

Wounds — ^Norton Schermerhorn, slightly; 
Luthur L. Mills, both arms shot off, (a prison- 
er ;) Hugh F. Dunnigan, in leg, (a prisoner ;) 
William Barker, in leg ; John Robson, in neck; 
John Hallam, sligh^y in head; Robert F. 
Robertson, badly bruised ; Isaac Richie, slight- 
ly in leg ; George B. Stevens, slightly in the 
back; Robert F. Robertson, badly bruised; 
Menzo W. Hoard, leg bruised ; John Welsh, 
slightly in hand. 

Missing — ^Privates William Ross, John Lam- 
phier, (supposed prisoners^ 

Company L—iTi/iw?— William E. Straight, 
First Sergeant ; Fourth Corporal, JohnMcBride, 
and Charles H. Cooper. 

Wounded — Sylvanus Greer, Theodore Ham- 
ilton, Edwin Close, Arthur F. Pickett, Orlando 
B. Hirley, (all missing,) supposed to be pris- 
oners. 

Missing — ^Privates William Breese, Charles 
Shear, Erving C. Smith, John Jackson, Isaac 
Kinnan, Wm. Phelan, Byron Swazee, Edward 
Chevalier, John Gumbleton, Henry J. Griffin, 
John Ryan, (all supposed to be prisoners.) 

Company K. — TTowufeci— Privates Orlando 
B. Whitney, Henry Van Oman, Patrick Waters, 
all taken prisoners ; Pitt C. Wadhams, in right 
leg, near the thigh ; Loyal E. Wolcojbt, slightly ; 
and Sergeant John H. Glidden, slightly in the 
head. 

Missing — Corporal George Boutwell. Pri- 
vates Jas. A. Cobum, James McCormick, and 
Wesley Sunmier, (supposed to have been taken 
prisoners.) 

Total killed, 19 ; total wounded, 65 ; total 
missing, 64. Total loss, 128. 

FIFTH DIVISION. 

COLONEL MILES^S BEPOBT. 

HSAD QnABTSSS FlfTH BiTiBioir, ) 
Camp ss ab Alixaxdhia, Jaly 24, 1861. f 

Capt James B, Fry^ Assistant Adjutant-Gen^ 
eral^ Mead-quarters Department: 

Sib: My health being impaired and grow- 
ing worse, if I delay I shall not be able to re- 
port the operation of my division on the 21st 
inst. before Bull Bun. Believing, besides, that 
commanders of brigades are directed to report 
to head-quarters, I offer the following for the 
consideration of the general commanding : — 

Pursuant to instructions the brig^es of 
Blenker or Davies, soon after daylight were in 
readiness to march and take position, but were 
prevented from so doing by other divisions 



82 



BEBELLION BEOORD, 1860-61. 



blocking up the road. I discoyered, howerer, 
that Davies^ brigade oonld be passed to the left 
and west, through fields, to Blackburn's Ford, 
lieutenant Brinel, engineer officer, conducted 
the brigade, and as soon as possible it joined 
Colonel Richardson, before the crossing of this 
ford on Bull Bun. Fire was then opened by 
Hunt^s battery, supported by Bichardson^s bri- 
gade on the right. Edwards^s twenty-pounder 
rifled guns were posted on the left, about six 
hundred yards from Bichardson^s position, and 
sustained by a portion of Davies' brigade. 
Blenkor's brigade took position at Gentreville, 
and conunenced throwing up intrenchments — 
one regiment being located at the former 
work of the enemy, one to the west of the 
town on the Warrenton road, and two on the 
height towards Bull Bun. With these last regi- 
ments were first placed Tidball's and Greenes 
batteries — Greenes afterwards being remoTcd 
to Bichardson's position, in consequence of noti- 
fication being sent by that officer that about 
2,000 of the enemy were about to attack him, 
and that he required more artillery. I may 
here remark that some difference existed in the 
order given Lieutenant Brinel and myself in 
regard to the defensive works to be thrown up, 
and also as to the quantity of tools he was to 
receive — ^my orders being, by the Lieutenant's 
advice, to intrench Gentreville ; his from M^jor 
Barnard, to throw up works at Blackburn's 
Ford. No tools came forward but the small 
amount Lieutenant Brinel had of his own. 
These he took to Bichardson's position, com- 
menced a battery and made several hundred 
yards of it Blenker, with his pioneers, im- 
proved and extended the works at Gentreville 
left by the enemy. 

It was soon reported that the Fourth Penn- 
sylvania regiment had left at its encampment 
a battery of field-guns. For this Colonel Blen- 
ker offered to organize a company of expe- 
rienced European artillerists, which I accepted. 
The captain's name, I regret, I have forgotten, 
as I should recommend his having permanent 
command of the guns in question. He is an 
efficient officer. So soon as I completed my 
arrangements with Blenker, I visited Colonel 
Bichardson ; found him in proper position and 
effectively at work, Hunt's and Edwards's bat- 
tery being in good position. There was no 
evidence of the enemy inmiediately about the 
ford until after the first opening of the fire, 
when he fled from bams and houses in the 
vicinity. Then, after ordering proper supports 
for the batteries, and placing a reserve force 
in position, returned to Gentreville, finding all 
quiet, and the troopers at work. Remaining 
here some time I returned to Bichardson, when 
it was surmised that there was no enemy at 
that place, and found the ammunition of the 
batteries rapidly diminishing. I ordered from 
the brigadier a few skirmishers to go forward 
and examine the ford, determined if I could 
cross to do so, and endeavor to cut the line of 
travel pursued by retreating and advancing de- 



tachments of the enemy. The line of skir- 
mishers had barely entered the woods, when a 
large force of the enemy was discovered con- 
cealed by breastworks. He opened fire, which 
was handsomely returned. In this affair three 
of the Sixteenth New York Volunteers were 
wounded. The skirmishers report the force 
of the enemy greatly damaged by Green's 
battery. I made no other attempt on this 
ford, my orders being on no account to get 
into a general engagenient. As I was again 
returning to Blenker's position, I received the 
notice to telegraph to Washington, which I 
found had been done by Lieutenant Wendell^ 
topographical engineer in my staff, and was 
compelled by illness to remain at my head- 
quarters. It was at this time the order was 
received to put two brigades on the Warrenton 
turnpike, at the bridge. I without delay sent 
a staff officer to order forward Davies' brigade, 
but whilst this officer was executing my instruc- 
tions Davies sent word he wanted a reserve 
regiment forward, that the enemy, some 8,000, 
was attempting to turn his fiai^. The staff 
officer, tiierefore, properly suspended the giv- 
ing of my order, and immediately reported 
the fact to me, and this caused me to advance 
but the one brigade (Blenker^s) to the position 
on the Warrenton turnpike. Blenker's ad- 
vance to that point was soon impeded by fugi- 
tives from the battle-field. When these were 
passing my head-quarters I endeavored to rally 
them, but my efforts were vain. 

The attack on Davies' position caused pain- 
ful apprehension for the safety of the left flank 
of the army, and claiming it of the first impor- 
tance that my division should occupy the 
strongest position, I sent instructions to Davies 
and Bichardson to have their bri^des fall back 
on CentrevUle. Then followed Blenker's bri- 
gade to see if it was in position, when I was 
informed the commanding general had passed. 
I then returned to Gentreville, and found Da- 
vies and Bichardson's brigades arriving, and 
commenced placing them in position — Bichard- 
son's brigade, with Green's battery, being 
placed about one-half mile in advance of Gen- 
treville Heights, his line of battle facing Black- 
bum's Ford. In rear of Richardson I posted 
two regiments behind fences, as a support for 
the first line, and still farther in rear and on 
the heights I placed Hunt's and Edwards's bat- 
teries, two of Davies' regiments being in reserve 
to support them. I then followed Blenker, 
found Tidball's battery in admirable position, 
supported by the Garibaldi Guard; Blenker, 
with three regiments and the Fourth Pennsyl- 
vania battery, being in advance. Having great 
confidence in his judgment and troops, I re- 
turned to Gentreville Heights to await events, 
when I found all my defensive arrangements 
changed. Kot knowing who had done this, 
and seeing Col. Bichardson giving different 
positions to my troops, I asked by what au- 
thority he was acting, when he told me ho had 
inatructionfl from my superior officer. I soon 



DOCUMENTa 



88 



tfaereiifter met the commanding general, and 
compLilued of the change. The general^B 
view's were completed, and left me, without 
farther control of the division. At the time 
the attack was made on Davles^ flank, the regi- 
ments of the hrigade engaged performed their 
dntf gaUantlj. The batteries of Hunt^s and 
£d wards^s opening fire did great damage to the 
advancing troops of the enemy, soon repulsing 
them. I am grieved that in this engagement a 
brave and accomplished young officer, Lieut, 
Prvsby O'Oraig, of the Second regiment artil- 
lery, and who was attached to Hunt^s battery, 
was almost instantly killed. Several of the 
New York Volunteers were wounded ; I have 
not the reports relative thereto. 

Blenkers brigade, whilst on the Warrenton 
road, was charged by cavalry ; but by a prompt 
and skilful fire, emptied several saddles, and 
relieved themselves from further annoyance. 
This sumnuury embraces the operations of my 
division up to the evening of the 21st. 

Before closing permit me to name and do 
justice to my st£^, whose assiduity in the per- 
lormance of their duties, and untiring exertions 
tlirooghoat the day, deserve all the commenda- 
tion I am able to bestow, viz. : 

Oapt Th. Vincent, Assistant A^utant-Gen- 
eral ; Lieutenant Prime, Engineers ; Lieutenant 
McHullan, Adjutant Second Infantry, and Act- 
ing Infantry General ; Assistant Surgeon Wood- 
ward, medical direction, and Major Ritchie, 
Xew York Volunteers. My aide-de-camp, Lieu- 
tenant Wendell, Topographical Engineer, was 
quite ill during the day, and thereby prevented 
from being with me. Lieutenant Hawkins' 
Second in&ntry, my aids, were absent on de- 
tached service for supplies, &c., and had per- 
formed their duty, and were within two miles 
of Centreville when they met our army crowd- 
ing the road. My brigade commanders, Blen- 
ker, Davies and Kichardson, admirably per- 
formed their respective duties. My remarks 
apply also to their officers and men. The bat- 
teries of Major Green handsomely executed all 
reonired of them. 

In closing this report, I would make a per- 
sonal allusion to my condition during the day. 
I had^ lost my rest the two nights previous ; 
was sick^ had eaten nothing during the day, 
and hod it not been for the great responsibility 
resting on me, should have been in bed. 
1 am, dear sir, 

Bespectfully, your obedient servant, 

D. J. Miles, 

Colonft] SoooDd Infkotry, Commanding Fifth division. 

COL. BLENKES's REPORT. 

Hbao-qvabtku, FiKST Bbioadb, FiiTTn Ditisioh, ) 
RoAOH*B Mill Caup, AaguBt 4, 1861. \ 

Brigadier- General McDowell : 

Sib : I have the honor to submit to you the 
following report of the operations of the First 
Briijade, Fifth Division, during and after the 
action near Bull Run, on the 21st ult. Pursu- 
ant to the orders of Col. Miles, the brigade ad- 



vanced from the camp and took their assigned 
position on the heights east of Centreville, 
about daybreak. The 8th regiment, N. Y. S 
v., commanded by Lieut.-CoL Stahel, on the 
left of the road leading from Centreville to 
Fairfax Court Uouse; the 29th regiment, N. 
Y. S. v., commanded by Col. Steinwehr, oa 
the right of the same road — both fronting tow- 
ard the east ; the Garibaldi Guard, commanded 
by Col. Utassy, formed a right angle with the 
29th regiment, fronting to the south. The ar- 
tillery attached to the brigade occupied the 
following position : The battery of Capt Tid* 
ball stood in front of the left wing of the Gari- 
baldi Guard; three pieces left in Centreville 
were placed near the right wing of the 29th 
regiment; three others on the left wing of 
the 8th regiment, where intrenohments were 
thrown up by the pioneers attached to the 
brigade. The last-named six pieces were served 
by experienced artillerists, detached from the 
29th and 8th regiments. The 27th regiment 
Pa. v.. Col. Einstein, was detached to Uie vil- 
lage of Centreville, for the protection of head- 
quarters and hospitaL Four companies of the 
29th regiment were detached in front of our 
position toward the road from Union Mills, to 
prevent the enemy from outflanking, unob- 
served, the left wing of the army. During thie 
time I received the order to disarm one com- 
pany of the 12th regiment, which was prompt- 
ly executed by two companies of the 8th regi- 
ment N. Y. S. v. In this position the brigi^e 
remained until about 4 o^clock, p. if., when I 
received orders to advance upon the road from 
Centreville to Warrenton. This order was ex- 
ecuted with great difficulty, as the road was 
nearly choked up by retreating baggage wagons 
of several divisions, and by the vast number of 
flying soldiers belonging to various regiments, 
Nevertheless, owing to the coolness of the com* 
manding officers and the good discipline of th< 
men, the passage through the village was suo« 
cessfully executed, and the furtiier advance 
made with the utmost precision; and I waa 
thus enabled to take a position which would 
prevent the advance of the enemy and protect 
the retreat of the army. The 8th regiment 
took position 1^ miles south of Centreville, on 
both sides of the road leading to Bull Run. 
The 29th regiment stood half a mile behind 
the 8th, enohiquier by companies. The Gari- 
baldi Guard stood in reserve in line behind the 
29th regiment. The retreat of great numbers 
of flying soldiers continued until 9 o'clock in 
the evening, the great majority in wild confu- 
sion, and but few in collected bodies. 6oon 
afterward, several squadrons of the enemy's 
cavalry advanced along the road, and appeared 
before the outposts. They were challenged, 
" Who comes here ? " and, remaining without 
any answer, I, being just present at the out- 
post, called " Union forever I " whereupon the 
officer of the enemy's cavalry commanded, **^» 
avant / en atant I knock him down ! '' Now 
the skirmishers flred, when the enemy turned 



84 



BEBELLION BECX)BD, 1860-61. 



aronnd, leaying several killed and wounded on 
the spot About nine prisoners who were al- 
ready in their hands were liberated by this ac- 
tion. Afterward, we were several times mo- 
lested from various sides by the enemy's cav- 
alry. At about midnight the command to leave 
the position and march to Washington was 
f^iven by (Jen. McDowell. The brigade retired 
in perfect order and ready to repel any attack 
on the road from Oentreville to Fairfax Court 
Hous^, Annandale, to Washington. Besides the 
six guns which were mounted by our men and 
thereby preserved to our army, the 8th regi- 
ment brought in in safety two Union colors left 
behind by soldiers on the field of battle. The 
officers and men did their duty admirably, and 
the undersigned commander deems it his duty 
to express herewith officially his entire satis- 
faction with the conduct of hi^ brigade. The 
three regiments (the 8th, 29th, and Garibaldi 
Guard) arrived in Washington in good order at 
6 o'clock last night, after a fatiguing march of 
nineteen hours. 

The loss of the brigade amounts to fifteen or 
twenty killed and wounded at the outposts. 
Thus far my report of the action taken by my 
brigade in the engagement on the unfortunate 
day at Bull Run, in a military point of view. It 
was my intention to defer a final report for a 
better and more suitable opportunity, on ac- 
count of the very unfortunate result of the 
battle ; but I have read since so many reports 
in newspapers, where many a high commanding 
officer pretends to have been in the rear with 
his brigade, or regiment, at the retreat, that I 
am obliged to report in the most absolute terms, 
that, according to my order, all regiments, ar- 
tillery and stragglers, had passed my arriSre 
guard at Centreville, and the last artillery at 
Faiifax Court House, and that the brigade 
under my command marched last across the 
Long Bridge into Washington. I have to add, 
in conclusion, that the Twenty-seventh regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteers, with the excep- 
tion of Company K, Captain Menninger, which 
was on guard duty in Centreville village, at 
head-quarters, and under order to escort Col. 
Hiles's train, retired from Centreville at about 
11 o'clock, without any orders from me, and 
proceeded to Washington. 

Lons Blethcer, 

Commander Brigade, Fifth Division. 

COL. DA vies' report. 

Hbad-qua^rtrrs or rns Second Briqadk, Fifth ) 
Division Tboops, N. K. Va., July 25, 1861. f 

To Oapt Jamea B. Fry, Assistant Adjutant- 
General, Gen, McDowell Commanding : 
Sir : In accordance with the circular of the 
23d inst., Head-quarters Troops, Department 
K. E. Virginia, I have the honor of reporting 
the proceedings of the Second Brigade, Fifth 
Division, at the battle of Blackburn's Ford, six 
miles from the battle-ground of Bidl Run, on 
the 21st inst. The Fifth Division, under the 
command of Col. Miles, consisting of the First 
and Second Brigades, Richardson's Brigade, 



aad Green's and Hunt's Light Batteries, formed 
the left wing of the troops in action. 

The first brigade, CoL Blenker, occupied 
during the day the heights of Centreville, and 
were not engaged with the enemy. 

The second brigade, under my command, 
was in readiness to march from camp at 2} a. 
M., but the road was so blocked witn moving 
troops, that my brigade was obliged to take a 
parallel route through the fields, Green's bat- 
tery in advance, until it struck the road lead- 
ing to Blackburn's Ford, about one mile south 
of Centreville. At this point Col. Miles gave 
me directions to assume the command of Rich- 
ardson's brigade, and to take position in front 
of the batteries at Blackburn's Ford, on and 
near the battle-ground of 18th inst., and make 
the demonstration of attack in pursuance of 
Gen. McDowell's orders. 

I immediately ordered forward the two 20- 
pound rifle guns of Hunt's battery, commanded 
by Lieut. Edwards, to an open field about 80 
yards east of the road from -Centreville to Bull 
Run, and on a line with the place where our 
batteries were playing on the 18th inst., and 
about 1,500 yards from the enemy's batteriea 
at Blackburn's Ford, and there commenced a 
rapid firing. I ordered the Eighteenth regi- 
ment forward as a protection to this battery, 
in the open field, and formed line of battle, fac- 
ing the enemy, the Thirty-second regiment be- 
ing held in reserve on the road just in rear. 

Having ascertained from our guide that there 
was a road without obstruction leading from 
the Centreville road to the east, and then bear- 
ing off toward the south in the direction of 
the enemy's position, and which could be seen 
about half a mile distant to the east from Ed- 
wards's battery, I ordered the Sixteenth and 
Thirty-first regiments, K Y. V., on to this 
road at its junction with the Centreville road. 
One regiment deployed along the road a con- 
siderable distance, and the other remained in 
column to protect two guns of Hunt's battery, 
which I ordered to be stationed at that point. 
I then gave orders to Col. Richardson to make 
such arrangements with regard to the defence 
of the position in front of the enemy's batter- 
ies at Blackburn's Ford, (the immediate battle- 
ground of the 18th inst.,) as in his judgment 
the emergency of the moment might require. 

At this juncture, being about 10 o'clock 
A. M., and finding the anmiunition for the 20- 
pound rifled guns fast running out, and having 
accomplished, in my judgment, (from the move- 
ment of the troops opposite, which we could 
Plainly see,) a demonstration ordered, I ordered 
lieut. Edwards to cease firing. 

About 11 o'clock A. M., CoL Miles came on 
to the ground, informing me that he had or- 
dered forward the Sixteenth and Thirty-first 
regiments from the position in which I had 
previously placed them, and also two guns 
commanded by Lieut. Piatt, and had also or- 
dered forward the other two guns of Hunt's 
battery into the open field, where Lieut. Ed- 



DOCUMENTS. 



8t 



wards had been firing ; that he had also ordered 
the Eighteenth regiment back out of the open 
field into the woods on the Centreville road as 
a reserve. The Thirty-second regiment, by 
CoL Miles*8 order, remained as a reserve, in 
colomn, on the Centreville road, about three- 

Snaiters of a mile in rear; CoL Miles then or- 
ered me to continue the firing, without regard 
to ammanition, which I did, until I received 
an order to stop, about two hours later. 

As soon as Col. Miles left me again in com- 
mand, I sent back the brigade corps of pioneers 
to the back road whence the two re^ments had 
been moved, with instructions to fell trees and 
to completely block the road, which tliey efiect- 
oally did. 

We had, during the afternoon, unmistakable 
evidences that a large body of cavalry and in- 
fantry had attempted to take us in the rear by 
means of the road, for when they were return- 
ing, having been stopped by the fallen trees, 
S. Hunt, with his howitzers, Lieut. Green 
Lieut. Edwards, with the rified guns, pour- 
ed a heavy fire into their column, the effect of 
which we could not ascertain, but it must have 
been destructive, as the distance was only from 
half to three-qnarters of a mile. 

In the course of the day two companies, and 
later four companies, of the Thirly-first, and 
two of the Sixteentli were, by Colonel Miles' 
order, thrown forward to feel the enemy's 
strength, to the front and left in the direction 
of Bull Ran. Tliey found the enemy posted in 
the woods, and were recalled. They reported 
having killed several of the rebel scouts. 

The afternoon, until about four o'clock, was 
passed inactively, except firing rifled cannon at 
moving columns of the enemy at great distances. 
I bad seen unmbtakablo evidences in the after- 
noon, by clouds of dust, &c., of the concen- 
tration of the ensmy's troops on our left, but 
peremptory order's from Colonel Miles to hold 
the pillion, and romain thero all night, were 
received, lie then left me in command for the 
night, and I immediately began to prepare for 
an attack. I threw out two companies of skir- 
mishers to our rear, and ordered the Thirty- 
second forward to support them. About four 
o*clock we saw the enemy approacliing down a 
gorge, leading into a valley, which lay directly 
to onr left, about DOO yards distant. The field 
in which I was ordered to remain was enclosed 
on two sides by dense woods, and covered by 
light bushes on the side toward the said valley 
on tlio lefV. 

Alter the enemy were discovered filing into 
the valley, no movement was made for some 
tune. When it was supposed, from the appear- 
ance of things, tliat the last of the column was 
entering the valley, I ordered all the artillery 
(six pieces) to charge front to the left, but not 
to fire nntil the rear of the column was seen. 
I ptsced the artillery, with a company of in- 
fantry with each piece, and charged the battle 
froDt of the two raiments (the 16th and 81st} 
rapporting the artillery to the left, and on a 
Tok IL— Doa 8 



line with them, and ordered every man to lie 
down and reserve his fire. 

During the whole time that this order was 
being carried out, the enemy's troops were still 
advancing down the liill, four abreast, and at 
" right shoulder shift." I gave orders to Lieut. 
Edwards, when I saw the rear of the column, 
to give it a solid twenty-pound shot, which he 
did, knocking a horse and his rider into the air, 
and starting into a double-quick the rear of the 
column into the volley. I then ordered the 
whole artillery to pour grape and canister 
into the vaUey, and at every fire there went up 
a tremendous howl from the enemy. During 
all this time the enemy poured volleys of mus- 
ketry over the heads of our prostrate men. 
This firing continued for twenty-five or thirty 
minutes. A portion of the enemy rushed into 
a barn, from which well-directed shots brought 
some out in great haste. 

The whole force of the enemy consisted, as 
near as I could estimate, from the time of their 
passing one point, and from what I can find out, 
of 8,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry. They 
were utterly dispersed. A small number of 
them came up into the edge of the field, to the 
number of about 60, and fired five volleys at 
our prostrate men, but did not succeed in draw- 
ing shot from them in return. 

It has been ascertained that the enemy had 
left the field, from their having ceased firing, 
and from seeing them run through the bushes 
in eveiy direction, and hearing at the same 
time that our troops were falling back on Cen- 
treville, I receiveu orders by an aid from Col. 
Miles, who was in Centreville, to fall back alse 
on that place and encamp. 

I immediately went over to give the same 
order to Richardson's brigade on the Centre- 
ville road, and also to Green's battery, but 
found they had left some time before, by Col. 
Miles's orders through an aid. 

The Thirty-first regiment, under Col. Pratt, 
filed out of tho field in rear of the artillery, and 
the Sixteenth followed, under Lieut. -Col. Marsh, 
each in perfect order, not having fired a gim at 
the enemy. The Eighteenth and Thirty -second 
regiments were ordered by mo to fall buck on 
Centreville, which they did iu good oi'der, and 
my entire brigade, together with Hunt's bat- 
tery, fell back on Centreville Heights, witliout 
the least confusion, and assumed position under 
tho direct command of Gen. McDowell, who 
sent a major (an aid) to me, directing that my 
regiments should fall in, in accordance with 
his expressed orders. The entire left wing was 
then in complete order, and every man in his 

Slace. Having received this order from Gren. 
fcDowell, I left my command and went to 
Centreville Centre, to look after the sick and 
wounded, and my own baggage train. I re- 
turned immediately to my command and found 
that Col. Miles had been superseded, and re- 
ceived an order from General McDowell to 
take command of the left wing, which I did, 
encamping on the ground. Soon after the or- 



86 



REBELLION BECORD, 1860-61. 



der came to fall back on Fairrax Court House. 
I formed my brigade, the Sixteenth regiment 
first, Green's battery next, and the Eighteenth, 
Thirty -first, and Thirty-second following, and 
marched them towards Fairfax Court House. 
I found Blenker^s brigade about two miles on 
the road, on each side of it, and in order, at 
** parade rest." I communicated with Col. 
Bienker, end found that ho had received direct 
orders from Gen. McDowell to bring up tJie 
rear, and prevent any attack from the enemy. 
My brigade thus continued its march, and ar- 
rived in oamp in Alexandria in perfect condi- 
tion. 

On Monday, every regiment, as I understand, 
having an evening parade, and being prepai'ed 
for any duty. Green's battery went on to Ar- 
lington, from which place I recalled it hero 
yesterday, and the brigade now stands complete 
as before the battle, with the exception of cas- 
ualties herewith enclosed, amounting to Lieut. 
Craig, of Hunt's battery, killed, and two pri- 
Tates wounded, (one seriously and ono slightly,) 
and ono private taken prisoner. 

With respect to the conduct of the officers 
under my command, on the 21st, I cannot say 
too much of the practical and industrious per- 
severance of Col. Richardson, who commanded 
his brigade on the Centrevillo road, who made 
important impromptu defences in felling trees, 
and makins temporary fortifications across the 
road, whi(£, although they were not required, 
from the direction of the attack, would have 
proved of immense value under other circum- 
stances. His persevering energy during the 
dav was untiring, and I am indebted to him for 
valuable suggestions as to positions and de- 
fence. To Major Hunt and Lieut. Edwards, 
who commanded the batteries on the left, any 
words that I can use will fall far short of ex- 
pressing the beauty with ivhich they handled 
their pieces, and the rapidity and precision of 
their fire. It was the most surprisingly beau- 
tiful display of skill ever witnessed by those 
present. As to Lieut. Green, who had charge 
of the rified guns on the rights and was more 
immediately under the eyes of Col. Richardson, 
I can state from my own observation that the 
oool and deliberate manner in which he com- 
manded his battery on that and on previous 
occasions, assures me that he is entitled to 
more praise than his modest report, which I 
herewith enclose, would indicate. As to Col. 
Jackson, I can, state that during the morning, 
while he was in the face of the enemy, dis- 
charging picket duty, and in line of battle, ho 
and his command behaved with coolness and 
bravery, and were relied upon in the aflernoon 
with great confidence as a reserve. Col. Pratt, 
commanding the Thirty-first regiment^ and 
Lieut.-Col. Marsh, commanding the Sixteenth 
regiment, ordered into battle by Col. Miles, on 
the field, and in previous picket duty, showed 
superior drill and discipline, and to their strict 
obedience of orders in reserving their fire, un- 
der the most provoking circumstances, while 



they were supporting the artillery, may be at- 
tributed the safety of the latter, and probably 
the safety of the left wing. Col. Mathewson 
performed various evolutions during the d&y, 
under orders — at one time protecting one road, 
at another time another, and then, as a reservt 
column — and the patience of himself and com- 
mand while so acting within sound of fire, en- 
titles him to great credit. 

Adjutant How land, Sixteenth regiment, my 
acting aide-de-camp, rendered me valuable ser- 
vices in changing the troops from time to time, 
and in generally doing all of his own daties 
thoroughly, and much that appertained to oth- 
ers. To Brevet Second Lieut. Bradford, acting 
brigade-commissary, and to Acting Brigade 
Quartermaster Woolsey R. Hopkins, and Act- 
ing Assistant Adjutant-General Cowdrey, much 
praise is due for the gallant mxmner in which 
they delivered orders, sometimes under heavy 
fire. 

Surgeon Crandoll and Surgeon's-mate Moore, 
Sixteenth regiment^ performed their duties with 
great fidelity and skill, dressing the wounds of 
many not under my command. Surgeon Ham- 
ilton, of the Thirty-firFt regiment, dressed the 
wounds of over 200 men at Centreville. 

To the teamsters of ordnance and baggage 
wagons credit is due for having returned all 
the wagons and teams, and public property of 
every description intrusted to them, safely to 
camp. 

Joseph B. Roddcn, Company K, Sixteenth 
regiment, remained on the lield at Centreville 
until the morning after the battle, and brought 
into camp, with the aid of a negro, whom he 
pressed into the service, thirty head of cattle 
belonging to the Government, and arrived at 
Alexandria on Tuesday morning. 

I understand from a deserter, now in my 
camp, that my old class-mote at West Point, 
Robert E. Lee, commanded the enemy's forces 
opposed to me at Blackburn's Ford. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your t)b't serv't, 

Tnos. A. Da VIES, Col. Comd'g 2d Brigade, 

FiAh Division, Army K. R VirglDla. 

T. H. CowDBEY, Acting Assistant Adjutant- 
General. 

HAJOB DAB2fABD^S BSPOBT. 

WA8BIBGT09, Julj 29, 1861. 

Capt, B, 2?. Fry^ Assistant Adjvtant- General: 
Sib : On the 18th of July, at about 9 a. u., 
I joined the commanding general about two 
miles beyond Fairfax Court House, on the road 
to Centreville. Ho was then about going to 
Sangster's, and invited mo to attend him. Sot 
understanding his journey to have the charac- 
ter of a reconnoissance, but as simply to com- 
municate with the division of Col. Heintzelman, 
I preferred accompanying the division of Gen. 
Tyler at Centreville. 

Proceeding to Centreville, I joined Captain 
Alexander (Engineers) a short distance on the 
road leading to Blackburn's Ford. Ho was at 
this time preparing to encamp his pioneer party, 



OOCUHENTa 



87 



and it was my intention, as soon as the troops 
should be fixed in their positions, to propose to 
Gen. Tyler to make a recutmuis:«ance of tlie 
enemy's position at Blackbunrs Ford. 

It ahoald be borne in mind tliat the plan of 
the csimpaign hod been to turn the position of 
llanaasas by the left—that is to say, that from 
Fairfax Court House and Centreville we were 
to make a flank movement towaixls Sangster's 
and Fairfax station, and thence to Wolf Run 
Bhoala, or in that direction. In my interview 
with the commanding general, just referred to, 
he said nothing to indicate any change of plan, 
bnt on the contrary, his remarks carried the 
impression that he was more than ever con- 
firmed in his plan, and spoke of the advance on 
Centreville as a " demonstration." 

In proposing, therefore, to reconnoitre the 
enomy*8 position at Blackburn's Ford, it was 
not witii the slightest idea that this point would 
be attacked. But a reconnoissance would be 
the carrying out of a *^ demonstration." 

While I was awaiting Captain Alexander I 
encountered Matthias C. Mitchell, who was se- 
cured as a guide. Representing himself as a 
Union man and a resident of that vicinity, I 
was engaged qnestioning him when intelligence 
was received that Gen. Tyler had sent back for 
artillery and infantry, and that the enemy was 
in sight before him. Riding to the front I join- 
ed Gen. Tyler and Col. Richardson. Proceed- 
ing with them a short distance further, we 
emerged from the woods, and fonnd ourselves 
at the point at which the road commences its 
descent to Blackburn's Ford. The run makes 
here a carve or bow towards us, which the 
road bisects. The slopes from ns towards it 
were gentle and mostly open. On the other 
side, the banks of the run rise more abruptly, 
and are wooded down to the very edge or the 
ran. Higher up a cleared spot could be seen 
here and there, and still higher — higher than 
oar (»wn point of view, and only visible from its 
gently sloping towards us — the elevated plateau, 
comparatively open, in which Manassas Junc- 
tion is situated. Although, owing to the thick- 
ness of the wood, little could be seen along the 
edge of thd run, it was quite evident, from 
anch glimpses as we conld obtain, that the ene- 
my was in force behind ns. 

I representeil to Gen. Tyler that this point 
was the enemy's strong po^ition, on the airect 
road to Manassas Junction ; that it w^s no part 
of the plan to assail it I did not, however, 
object to a '* demonstration," believing that it 
woald favor what I supposed still to be the 
commanding general's plan of campaign. The 
two 20- pounders of Parrott's had been ordered 
np. They were opened upon the enemy's posi- 
tion, firing in various directions, without our 
beLig able to perceive the degree of effect they 
prodaced. We had fired perhaps a dozen rounds, 
when we were answered by a rapid discharge 
from a battery apparently close down to the 
ran, and at the crossing of the road. The 
20-poanderi continued their fire, directing at 



this battery, and Ayres's battery was brought 
up and stationed on the left. The enemy's 
batteries soon ceased answering. After ours 
had continued playing for about half an hour, 
I thought it a useless expenditure of ammuni- 
tion, and so stated to you, (who arrived on the 
spot shortly before this,) and presume that 
Gen. Tyler concurred in this opinion, as the 
firing soon ceased. I supposed that this would 
be the end of the affair, but perceiving the 
troops filing down towards the run, I thought 
it necessary to impress Gen. Tyler with the 
fact that it was no part of the commanding 
general's plan to bring on a serious engage- 
ment. I directed Capt. Alexander (Engineers) 
to state this fact to him, which he did in writ- 
ing, having stated the same verbally before. 
At the same time, I directed Lieut. Houston to 
accompany the troops and make such observa- 
tions of the enemy's position as he could. I 
remained on the heights, observing as well as I 
could the movements of the enemy's forces. 
The affair becoming more serious than I ex- 
pected, I was about to go down to the front, 
when our troops retired, and I retnrned to Cen- 
treville with yourself, to report to Gen. Mc- 
Dowell. It is proper to observe that, before 
our artillery practice commenced, movements 
of troops were observed on the road leading 
from Manassas to Blackburn's Ford. As the 
road presented itself to the eye, those not very 
familiar with the locality might feel some donbt 
— judging merely by the eye — whether these 
troops were advancing to, or retiring from 
Blackburn's Ford. The impression seemed to 
bo quite common among us that they were re- 
tiring. I was perfectly sure that they were 
columns moving up to meet us from Manassas. 

At my interview with the commanding gen- 
eral that evening, ho informed me that he had 
convinced himself that the nature of the coun- 
try to the left or southward of Manassas was 
unfit for the operations of a largo array ; that 
he had determined to move by the right, tam- 
ing the enemy's left ; that the provision trains 
were just coming in, and that the troops would 
require the next day to cook then: provisiona 
for another march. 

I told him I would endeavor, the next day, 
to obtain such information as would enable him 
to decide on his future movement. 

The next most prominent crossing of Bull 
Run, above Blackburn's Ford, is the stone 
bridge of the Warren ton turnpike. Such a 
point could scarcely be neglected by the ene- 
my. Information from various quarters gave 
good cause for believing that it was guarded 
by several thousand men — that at least four 
cannon were stationed to play upon it and the 
ford not far below, and moreover that the 
bridge was mined, and extensive abatis ob- 
structed the road on the opposite shore. 

Two or three miles above the Warrenton 
Bridge is a ford laid down on our maps as Snd- 
ley's Springs. Reliable information justified the 
belief that the ford was good, that it was mi- 



88 



BEBELUON BBCOBD, 1860-61. 



fortified, that it wns watched by only one or 
two companies ; and, moreover, that the run 
above it was almost everywhere passable for 
wheeled vehicles. 

Midway between tlio stone bridge and Sad- 
ley^s Springs, maps indicated another ford 
which was said to be good. 

Notwithstanding our conviction of the prac- 
ticability of these fords, no known road con- 
nected with them from any of the main roads 
on our side of Bull Run. We iiad information 
that a road branched from the Warrenton turn- 
pike, a short distance beyond Cub Run, by 
which^-opening gates and passing through pri- 
vate grounds — we might reach the fords. It 
was desirable to assure ourselves that this route 
was entirely practicable. In company with 
Capt. Woodbury (Engineers) and Gov. Spragne, 
ana escorted by a company of cavalry, I, on 
the 19th, followed up the valley of Cub Run 
until we reached a point west ten degrees 
north, and about four miles in an air lino from 
Centreville, near which we struck a road which 
we believed to lead to the fords. Following it 
for a short distance we encountered the ene- 
my's patrols. As we were most anxious to 
avoid attracting the enemy's attention to our 
designs in this quarter, we did not care to pur- 
sue the reconnoissance further. Wo had seen 
enough to be convinced of the perfect practi- 
cability of the route. To make more certain 
of tlie fords, however, Capt. Woodbury pro- 
posed to return at night, and with a few Michi- 
gan woodsmen from Col. Sherman's brigade, 
to endeavor to find them. On returning to 
camp it was determined to send Capt. Wright 
and Lieut. Snyder (Engineers) with Capt. 
Woodbury. At the same time the commanding 

feneral directed Capt. Whipple (Topographical 
Ingineers) and Lieut. Prime (Engineers) to 
make a night reconnoissance of the run between 
Warrenton Bridge and Blackburn's Ford. Both 
these night expeditions failed. It was found 
the enemy occupied the woods too strongly on 
our side of the run to permit the reconnoissanue 
to be accomplished. It was not our policy to 
drive in his pickets until we were in motion to 
attack. 

On laying before you the information obtain- 
ed, the commanding general believed himself 
justified in adopting the following plan of at- 
tack, which was decided upon on the 20th : 

First — A false attack to be made by Rich- 
ardson's brigade (temporarily attached to Miles's 
division) on Blackburn's Ford, the rest of that 
division remaining in reserve at Centreville. 

Second — ^Tyler's division to move from its 
camp at 8 a. m. (the 21st) towards the stone 
bridge of the Warrenton turnpike, to feign 
the main attack upon this point. 

7%ird^The divisions of Hunter and Fleintzel- 
man (in the order named) to leave their camps 
at 2^ A. M., (they were encamped about two or 
three miles behind Tyler,) and, following his 
movement, to diverge from the Warrenton 
turnpike at the by-road beyond Cub Run, and 



take the road for Sudley's Springs— or, rather, 
it was provided that (if I mistake not) Hunter's 
division should proceed to Sudley's Springs, and 
Heintzelman to take the lower ford. These 
matters, however, to be regulated by circum- 
stances. 

It was intended that the head of Hunter's 
division should be at the turn off at early day- 
light, or about 4 a. h., and that it should reach 
Sudley by six or seven. 

You are aware of the unexpected delay. The 
two leading brigades of Tyler's had not cleared 
the road for Hunter to this point until half- past 
five, and our guide, alleging that a nearer route 
to the ford would bring our column in sight of 
the enemy's batteries, led them by so circui- 
tous a way that Hunter did not reach Sodlej 
until half-past nine or thereabouts. 

Accompanying the commanding general, we, 
as you are aware, after waiting two or three 
hours at the turn ofiT, rode on to overtake the 
front of Hunter's division, when we emerged 
from the woods, nearly northeast of Sudley, 
into the open country, from whence the course 
of the run and the slopes of the opposite shore 
could be seen ; we could perceive the enemy's 
column in motion to meet us. The loss of time 
here, in a great measure, thwarted our plan« 
We hod hoped to pass the ford and reach the 
rear of the enemy's forces at Warrenton stone 
bridge before he could assemble in sufficient 
force to cope with us. 

It now became necessary to have Tyler's 
division force the passage of the bridge. It 
had always been intended that this division 
should pass at or near the bridge, but it was 
hoped, by taking its defences in rear, it could 
be passed without force. The commanding 
general promptly sent orders to Tyler to press 
his attack with all vigor. 

I had yet much confidence that, though we 
had been anticipated, (owing to the delays men- 
tioned,) the enemy was not yet assembled in 
numbers to oppose us in great force, (a confi- 
dence which I think the facts justified ;) that 
we might successfully attack him in front, while 
the division of Tyler should fall upon his flank 
and rear. 

When we reached the front of Hunter's col- 
umn the battle was just commencing. The 
events of the battle-field will be described in 
the reports you will receive from other Quar- 
ters. I .was near the commanding general un* 
til some time after the arrival of Sherman's 
brigade on our left. Being accidentally sepa- 
rated, I saw yourself on the right, and joining 
you, we obseiTed for some time the action on 
the heights, where the enemy made his final 
and succes^ul stand. As we were observing, 
the Zouave regiment of Heintzelman was 
driven back, leaving Rickett's battery, upon 
which we observed the enemy charge. 

You left me here, and I remained a few min- 
utes longer an anxious spectator, and for the 
first time beginning to anticipate a possible de- 
feat. Two brigades of Tyler's division bad 



D0Cn7]CENT& 



89 



passed over the nm. and I SQpposed (and I be- 
lieved the commanding general supposed) that 
the entire division was over. If so, the stone 
bridge was nnguarded, and if we were de- 
feated oar retreating columns might be cut off 
from Odntreville by the detachments of the 
enemy crossing this bridge. I became so anx- 
ious on this point that I soaght jou again, and 
found yon at some distance in the rear. After 
some consultation, you, on my aasuming the 
respon^bility, sent an order to Col. Miles to 
move ap two of his brigades to the stone bridge, 
and to telegraph the Secretary of War to send 
up all the troops that coald be spared from 
Washington. 

While I was returning towards the front, 
intending to rejoin the commanding general, 
I saw car front give way, and it soon became 
evident that we were defeated. 

I have stated that it was a part of the plan 
of the battle, that Tyler's division should pass 
at or near the stone bridge. Two of h|s bri- 
gades actually did pass, not at the bridge, (they 
finding fords a half mile higher up,) and con- 
nected themselves with our left. In anticipa- 
tion that the stone bridge would be blown up, 
Capt Alexander had been instructed to ob- 
tain a trestle bridge to replace it. This he had 
on the spot, but there appears to have been no 
mine prepared under the bridge. Capt. Alex- 
ander passed over his pioneers one by one, 
and set them to cutting away the abatis — two 
hundred yards in extent — obstructing the road. 
This task was accomplished, and the way was 
opened for Schenck's brigade to fall on the 
enemy's right at the moment when our lines 
finally gave way in front. 

It wQl be seen from the above that the com- 
biuation, though thwarted by adverse circum- 
stances, was actually successful in uniting three 
entire divisions, (excepting the brigade of 
Schenck, which had just opened its way to 
£ill on the enemy's right at the moment when 
our lines finally gave way in front,) upon the 
decisive point. 

A faulty perhaps it was, that it did not pro- 
vide earlier for bringing the two brigades of 
Kiles's (in reserve at Centreville) into action. 
One of his brigades (Richardson's) actually 
did participate, (though not on the battle-field.) 
and ill its affiur at Blackburn's Ford probably 
neatralized at least an equal number of the 
eaemj. 

On retiring to Centreville my opinion was 
asked as to maintainiog our position, and I 
gave it in favor of a prompt retreat ; for I be- 
Ueved tlie enemy was far superior in numbers, 
and that, elated by hb victory, he would pur- 
sue, and I believed that a defeated army, actu- 
ally driven back on Washington before a pur- 
suing enemy, would endanger the safety of the 
Gapitah 

The engineer officers under my command 
and attached to the ditferent dinsions were as 
follows: 

Oapt^ D. P. Woodbury and Second Lieut 



Charles £. Cross, to the Second Division, un- 
der Col. Hunter. 

Capt. H. G. Wright and First Lieut. G. W. 
Snyder, to the Third Division, under CoL 
Heintzelman. 

Capt. B. S. Alexander and First Lieut. D. C. 
Houston, to the First Division, under Gen. Tyler. 

First lieut F. E. Prime, to the First Divi- 
sion, under Col. Miles. 

They have all been most active and zealous in 
the discharge of the duties devolving upon them. 

A report from Capt. D. P. Woodbury is here- 
with annexed. Reports from Capts. Wright 
and Alexander and Lieut. Prime will be fur- 
nished when received. 

I am, very respectfully, your most obedientp 
J. G. Babnabd, Mi\jor Engineers. 

ItfAJOB BABST's SEPOBT. 

Ablixotos, Va., JqIj 23, 1881. 

Capt. J, B, Fn/y AtsUtant Adjutant- General^ 
Eeadrquartera Department N, E. Virginia : 

CAPTAnr : Having been appointed, by special 
order8No.21, Headquarters Department North- 
eastern Virginia, Centreville, July 19, 1861, 
Chief of Artillery of the Corps d*Arm6e, com- 
manded by Brig. Gen. McDowell, and having 
served in that capacity during the battle of the 
21st inst., I have the honor to submit the fol- 
lowing report : 

Tlio Artillery of the Corps d'Armdo consisted 
of the following named batteries: Rlckett'a 
(Light Company 1, 1st Artillery) six 10-pounder 
Parrott riiie guns ; Hunt's (Light Company M, 
2d Artillery) four light 12-pounders ; Carlisle's 
(Company E, 2d Artillery) two James's 18- 
pounder rifle guns, two 6-pounder guns ; Tid^ 
ball's (Light Company A, 2d Artillery) two $^ 
pounder guns, two 12-pounder howitzers; 
Green's ^ompany G, 2d Artillery) four 10- 
pounder Parrott rifle guns; Arnold's (Com- 
pany D, 2d Artillery) two 13-pounder James's 
rifle guns, two 6-pounder guns ; Ay res's (Light 
Company E, 8d Artillery) two 10-pounder Par- 
rott rifle guns, two 12-pounder howitzers, two 
6-pounder guns ; Grifiin's (Battery D, 6th Ar- 
tillery) four 10-pounder Parrott rifle guns, two 
12-pounder howitzers ; Edwards's (Company G, 
5th Artillery) two 20-pounders and one 8(V 
pounder Parrott rifle guns. The 2d Regiment 
Rhode Island Volunteers had with it a battery 
of six 18-pounder James's rifle guns ; the 7l8t 
Regiment New York Militia, two of Dahlgren'g 
boat howitzers, and the 8th Regiment New 
York Militia a battery of six 6-pounder guns. 
The men of this last-named battery having 
claimed their discharge on the day before the 
battle, because their term of service had ex- 
pired, the battery was thrown out of service. 

The whole force of artillery, of all calibres, 
was therefore 49 pieces, of which 28 were rifled 
guns. All of these batteries were fully horsed 
and equipped, with the exception of the two 
howitzers of tlie Tlst regiment New York Mili- 
tia, which were without horses, and weredrawA 
by drag-ropes manned by detachments fron 



40 



BEBELLIOlf RBGORD, 1880-61. 



tbe regiment. Geiu McDoweirs disposition for 
tbo march from CentreviUe on tbe morning of 
tbe 2l8t inst, pbiced Tidball^s and Greenes bat- 
teries (8 pieces) in reserve with tbe division of 
Col. Miles, to remain at Centreville; Hunt*a 
and Edwards's (6 pieces) -witb tbe brigade of 
Col. Ricbardson, at Blackbom's Ford; and 
Carlisle^ Ayres^s, and tbe 80-poander (11 
pieces) with tbe division of Gen. Tyler, at tbo 
stone bridge; Rickett's, GrifSn's^ Amold^s, tbe 
Rhode Island, and the 71st regiment batteries 
(24 pieces) accompanied the main colnmn, 
which crossed Bali Run at Sodlej's Springs. As 
soon as the column came in presence of the 
enemy after crossing Bull Run, I received from 
Gen. McDowell, in person, directions to super- 
intend tbe posting of the batteries as they sever- 
ally debouched from tbe road and arrived from 
the field. The Rhode Island battery came first 
upon the ground, and took up at a gallop the 
position assigned itw It was immediately ex- 
posed to a sharp fire from the encmy^s skir- 
mishers and infantry, posted on tbe declivity 
of tbe bill and in the valley in its immediate 
front, and to a well-sustained fire of shot and 
ahell from tbe enemy^s batteries, posted behind 
*^e crest of the range of hills, about 1,000 yards 
iistant This battery sustained, in a very gal- 
lant manner, the whole force of this fire for 
dearly half an hour, when the howitzers of the 
tlst Kew York Militia came up, and went into 
battery on its left. A few minutes afterward, 
GrifiSn brought up his pieces at a gallop, and 
came into battery about 500 yards to the loft 
of the Rhode Island and New York batteries. 
Rickett's battery came up in less than half an 
hour afterward, and was posted to the left of 
and immediately adjoining Griffin's. The ene- 
my's right, which bad been wavering from tbe 
moment Griffin opened fire upon it, now began 
to give way throughout its whole extent, and 
retire steadily, bis batteries limbering up rapid- 
ly, and at a gallop taking up successively two 
new positions further to his rear. The foot 
troops on our left, following up tbo enemy^s 
retiring right, soon left our batteries so far in 
our rear that their fire was over tbe heads of 
our own men. I therefore directed the Rhode 
Island battery to advance about 500 yards in 
fi'ont of its first position, accompanied it myself 
and saw it open fire with increased efiect upon 
the enemy's still retiring right. Returning to 
the position occupied by Rickett's and Griffin's 
batteries, I received an order from Gen. Mo- 
Powell to advance two batteries to an eminence, 
specially designated by him, about 800 yards 
in front of the line previously occupied by the 
enemy's batteries. I therefore ordered these 
two batteries to move forward at once, and, as 
soon as they were in motion, went for and secur- 
ed as supports the 11th (Fire Zouaves) and the 
14th (Brooklyn) New York regiments. I accom- 
panied tbe former regiment to guide it to its 
proper position, and Col. Heintzelman, 17th Uni- 
ted States Infantry, performed the same service 
for tiie 14th on the right of the 11th. A squad- 1 



ron of United States Cavalry, under Captaia 
Colburn, 1st Cavalry, was subsequently or<Iere<l 
as additional support. We were soon upon the 
ground designated, and the two batteries at 
once opened a very effective fire upon the ene- 
my's left. The new position had tfcarcely been 
occupied, when a troop of the enemy's cavalry, 
debouching from a piece of woods close upon 
our right flank, charged down upon tbe New 
York lltb. The Zouaves catching sight of the 
cavalry a few moments before they were upon 
them, broke ranks to such a degree that the 
cavalry dashed through without doing them 
much harm. Tbe Zouaves gave them a scatter- 
ing fire as they passed, which emptied five sad- 
dles and killed three horses. A few minutes 
afterward a regiment of the enemy's infantry, 
covered by a high fence, presented itself in line 
on the letl and front of the two batteries, at 
not more than 60 or 70 yards' distance, and 
delivered a volley full upon the batteries and 
their supports. Lieut Ramsay, 1st Artillery, was 
killed, and Capt Ricketts, Ist Artillery, was 
wounded, and a number of men and horses 
were killed or disabled by this close and well- 
directed volley. The 11th and 14th regiments 
instantly broke, and ficd in confusion to the 
rear, and, in spite of the repeated and earnest 
efforts of Col. Heintzelman with the latter, and 
myself with the former, refused to rally and 
return to the support of the batteries. The 
enemy, seeing the guns thus abandoned by their 
supports, rushed upon them, and driving off 
tbo cannoneers, who with their ofiicers stood 
bravely at their posts until the last moment, 
captured them, ten in number. These were 
the only guns taken by the enem^ on the field. 
Arnold's battery camo upon tbe field after Ric- 
kett's, and was posted on our left centre, where 
it performed good service throughout the day, 
and by its continual and well-directed fire as- 
sisted materially in breaking and driving back 
the enemy's right and centre. 

The batteries of Hunt, Carlisle, Ayres, Tid- 
bnll, Edwards, and Green (21 pieces) being 
detached from the main body, and not being 
under my immediate notice during the greater 
portion of the day, I respectfully refer you to 
tbe reports of their brigade and division com- 
manders for the record of their services. 

The army having retired upon Centreville, I 
was ordered by Gen. McDowell in person to 
post the artillery in position to cover the re- 
treat. The batteries of Hunt, Ayres, Tidball, 
Edwards, Green, and the New York 8th regi- 
ment, (the latter served by volunteers from 
Wilcox's brigade,) 20 pieces in all, were at 
once placed in position; and thus remained 
until 12 o'clock p. m., when orders having been 
received to retire upon the Potomac, the bat- 
teries were put in march, and, covered by 
Richai'dson's brigade, retired in good order 
and without haste, and early next morning re- 
occupied their former camps on the Potomac 

In conclusion, it gives mo great satisfaction 
to state that the conduct of the ofiBcers and en* 



DOCUMENTS 



41 



Usted mea of the several batteriea was most 
exemplary. Exposed throughout the day to 
a galling fire of artillery and small-arms, sev- 
er^ times charged by cavalry, and more than 
once abandoned by their infantry supports, 
both cheers and enlisted men manfully stood 
hy their guns with a courage and devotion 
worthy of the highest commendation. Where 
all did so well, it would be invidious to make 
distinction, and I therefore simply give the 
names of all the officers engaged viz. : M^Jor 
Hont; Captains Carlisle, Ayres, Griffin, Tid- 
ball, and Arnold; Lieutenants Piatt, Ransom, 
Thompson, Webb, Barriga, Green, Edwards, 
Dresser, Wilson, Throckmorton, Cushing, Har- 
ris, Butler, Fuller, Lyfonl, Will, Benjamin, Bab- 
bitt^ Haines^ Ames, Hasbrouck, Eensel, Harri- 
son, Beed, Barlow, Noyes, Kirby, Elderkin, 
Itamsay, and Craig. The two latter were killed. 
I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient 
servant, 

Wv. F. Babbt, M^or 5th Artillery. 

ICEDIOAL AND SURGICAL BEPORT. 
Amx.isoTOX, Department X. E. Va., July 28, 1861. 

Being chief of the Medical Staff with the 
Army in the Department of N. £. Virginia, I 
have the honor to make the following report 
of so much of the results of the action on the 
21st at Bull Run, as came within my charge. 
As the officers of the Medical Staff were at- 
tached to the different regiments and on duty 
with them, I deemed it proper to remain with 
and accompany the general commanding and 
staff from the beginning to the termination of 
the battle, in order that I might be present if 
any were wonnded ; and, also, that I might be 
enabled to visit in this way every part of the 
field where the killed and wounded might be 
found. 

After the action had fairly commenced, and 
the wounded and tiie dead were lying on the 
field in every direction, I despatched Assistant- 
Surgeon D. L. Magruder to the rear, with 
directions to prepare a church (which I had 
observed as wo passed befure arriving at the 
0cene of action) for the reception of the wound- 
ed, and also to send the ambulances forward 
as rapidly as possible to pick up the wounded 
and dead. In a very f^vr minutes the ambu- 
lances made their appearance, and contrived 
throaghout the day to visit every part of the 
ground which was accessible, so as to be with- 
in reach of those parts of the field where the 
fighting was going on, and wounded were to 
be found. It is due to the ambulance drivers 
to say that they performed their duties effi- 
ciently, and the result of their operations also 
shows how absolutely necessary these means 
of conveyance are to the comfort and relief of 
the wounded in giving them shelter and water 
when reatly to i>erish with heat and thirst. By 
means of the ambulances, also, the men who go 
to the relief of their wounded comrades are 
separated but a short time from their compa- 
nifli^ a% having deposited them in their ambu- 



lances, they can then retorn to their proper 
positions. 

As the general commanding visited almosi 
every part of the ground during the conflict^ 
with a view to encourage or direct the move- 
ments of the troops, my position as a member 
of his staff gave me every opportunity of see- 
ing the results of the action. I therefore em- 
braced the opportunity thus offered to give di- 
rections when needed to the drivers of the am- 
bulances where to find the dead and wounded ; 
and also to those can'ying off the wounded 
where they could find the needed conveyances. 
The stretchers were found very useful and com- 
fortable to the wounded, and were in constant 
requisition, conveying them to the nearest am- 
bulances. 

So far as I am informed, the medical staff 
belonging to the different volunteer regiments 
discharged their duties satisfactorily. I ob- 
served Acting Assistant-Surgeon Miles busily 
engaged in dressing wounded men under the 
shade of a tree, in a part of the field where the 
fire from the enemy was very hot. He address- 
ed me a brief inquiry as I passed relative to 
the safety of his father, and then resumed his 
occupation. 

Surgeon 0. 0. Keeney of Col. Hunter's di- 
vision, and Assistant-Surgeon D. L. Magruder, 
attached to the commanding general's staff, 
did good service in the hospital church I have 
mentioned, and also in two houses near the 
church, where the wounded wore placed after 
the church had been filled. These officers re- 
mained busily engaged in the discharge of their 
duties till the enemy's cavalry made their ap- 
pearance, and but narrowly escaped capture, 
when they left. Drs. Swift and Winston, at- 
tached to the New York 8th regiment, remain- 
ed with their sick sacrificing all selfish consid- 
erations for their own safety, in order that the 
wounded might not be neglected, and are now 
prisoners. I am informed that Assistant-Sur- 
geons Grey and Steinburg of the Regular Army, 
and Drs. Honiston and Swan of the New York 
14th, also preferred to remain rather than 
abandon their charge. The conduct of these 
officers is worthy of all commendation. 

It would be premature in me, in the ab- 
sence of sufficient data — ^the reports of the reg- 
imental surgeons not yet being received — to 
express a positive opinion as to the number 
killed and wounded in the action on the 21st. 
There were, no doubt, many concealed from 
observation under cover of the woods and 
bushes, but, judging from the number that I 
saw in various parts of the field, and allowing 
a wide margin for those unobserved, I shoula 
think that the killed and wounded on our side 
did not exceed from 800 to 1,000. 

The impossibility of making a careful survey 
of the field after the battle had ceased, must 
be my apology for the briefness and want of 
detail in this report. 

W. S. Kino, Sur. and Med. Direc'r, U. S. A. 
Capt. J. B. Fbt, Asst. Adjt.-Gen., U. S. A, 



42 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



8X7BSI8TXKCS DEPABTMBNT BSFOBT. 

Ablisoton, Ya., Aug. 2, 1661. 

Oaptai^ : For the infunnation of the gen- 
eral commanding the Department, I have the 
honor to submit the following report in refer- 
ence to the subsistence of the army under his 
oommand during its recent operations in front. 

On the 16th lUt., the commanders of divisions 
were directed to see that all the troops of their 
respective commands have cooked and in their 
haversacks by 8 p. m. the next day three days* 
rations ; and orders were given that five days* 
additional subsistence should be loaded into 
wagon-trains on the day of march, and follow 
the army on the day succeeding, and that a 
specified number of beef cattle should be driven 
forward with each train. 

Owing to the necessary number of wagons not 
being furnished in season, to uninstructed and 
many worthless teamsters and green teams, and 
to some of tlie roads being bad, only one of the 
trains, that in charge of ^rst Lieut. J. P. Haw- 
kins, 2d Infantry, A. A. C. S., was able to over- 
take the army on the morning of the 18th. It, 
with 90 head of beef cattle, by travelling all the 
previous night, arrived at Fairfax Court House 
on the morning stated, before the army had 
taken up its march. 

During the morning, while the army was 
moving forward to Centreville, it was thought 
the other subsistence trains, in charge of First 
Lieutenants G. Bell, Ist Artillery, James Cur- 
tis, 15th Infantry, intended for Col. Heintzel- 
man*B and Gen. Tyler's divisions, respectively, 
would not reach the army in season, and I was 
directed to distribute the subsistence in the train 

§ resent as equally as possible among the several 
i visions. 

Fourteen wagons, containing about 17,000 
rations, were sent in charge of Lieut. Hawkins 
to the 6th division; the remaining wagons 
were directed to immediately proceed to Cen- 
treville, and I had mudo the best arrangements 
in my power to distribute the provisions they 
contained among the other three divisions. 

Shortly after our arrival at Centreville I was 
officially infoi*med that the train, with 65 head 
of beef cattle, in chargo of Lieut. Curtis, was in 
the vicinity, and the train, with 70 head of 
beef cattle, in charge of Lieut. Bell, was at 
Fairfax Court House. I then directed the first 
of these trains to come forward to Centreville 
and encamp for the night, and the second to 
come forward with as little delay as possible, 
and myself conducted the remaining wogons of 
Lieut. Hawkinses train, and turned them over 
to the officer (Lieut. Merrill) directed by Gen. 
Tyler to receive and distrilnite to the Ist divi- 
sion the subsistence stores they contained. 

I endeavored to distribute the subsistence 
stores equally among the several divisions, ac- 
cording to the strength of each ; but in conse- 
quence of the necessity of breaking up the train 
in charge of Lieut. Hawkins, whicn was in- 
tended for the divisions of Colonels Miles and 
Hunter, and the late arrival of the others, diffi- 



culties arose, and I may not have succeeded in 
my object. 

Making due allowance for all losses on tbe 
march, according to the reports of the officers 
conducting the trains, and my own observation, 
at least (160,000) one hundred and sixty thou- 
sand complete rations were received by the army 
at and in the vicinity of Centreville— sufficient 
for its subsistence for ^ve days. 

In a circular from Department Head-quarters, 
dated at Centreville, July 20, 1861, command- 
ers of divisions were directed to give the neces- 
sary orders that an equal distribution of tbe 
subsistence stores on hand might be made im- 
mediately to the different companies in their 
respective ^commands, so that they shonld be 
provided with the same number of days* snbsisi- 
ence and that the same be cooked and put into 
the haversacks of tiie men, and they were in- 
formed that the subsistence stores there in pot- 
session of each division, with the fresh beef thst 
could be drawn from the chief eomuissary, 
must last to include the 23d inst. 

The three davs* subsistence it was directed 
the troops should have !n their haversacks by 
8 p. M., on the 16th of July, should have lasted 
them to the afternoon of the 19tli. After the 
distribution made in compliance with tbe ctrca- 
lars above referred to, I know of several in- 
stances in which subsistence stores remained in 
possession of division and brigade commissa- 
ries, and of others in which provisions wers 
left on the ground of the encampments on the 
morning of the 21st of July. 

From personal obserration on the march, on 
the morning of the Slst of July, I know that, 
generally, the haversacks of the men were 
filled — whether properly or not, I do not know. 
Regimental officers should be held accountable 
for that. During the battle, and following it, I 
noticed many filled haversacks, canteens, blan- 
kets, and other property, lying on the ground, 
their owners having doubtless thrown them 
away to get rid of the labor of carrying them 
on so hot a day, and under such trying circum- 
stances. 

I beg leave to call your attention to the re- 
ports of Lieutenants Bell, Hawkins, and Curtis. 
The duties they performed were highly im- 
portant, and all who are acouainted with the 
difficulties under which they labored and over- 
came, will know that they acted with judgment 
and energy, and for the best interests of the 
Government. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 
n. F. Clarke, Capt. and Com. Subs. 
Capt. James B. Fat, Ass't Adj.-Gen. 

Doo. 2. 
SECESSION REPORTS. 

BSPORT OF BmOADIER-OEKERAL ABSTOLD BLZIT. 

nzAi>-^rARTBBS 4Tn Bbiqads, Cavp at ) 
Faixfaz Btatiov, July 85, l&Sl. f 

Sir : In compliance with your instructions, I 
have the honor to make the following report 



BOGUUENTa 



43 



of the services of my brigade during the day of 
the 21st uf July, 1861 : 

The brigade left Piedmont* at daylight on 
the Slat insL, and after mnch delay and deten- 
tion on the railroad, arrived at Manassas Junction 
about 12 x^ Trhen it received orders to detach 
a regiment to remain at the Junction to guard 
a weak point, and then to proceed to Lewis 
House, near the battle-field, and hold itself in 
wuting. Gol. A. P. Hiirs regiment, being the 
smallest — four companies not having come up 
fitnn Piedmont — was designated for the service. 
Brigadier-General Smith accompanied the bri- 
gade to the battle-field, and continued to exercise 
the oonunand over it with which he had been 
empowered at Piedmont. The march to tlie 
fidd, part of the way, was performed in double- 
qaiok. The battle raged fiercely, and Gen. 
Smith ordered the brigade to pass Lewis House 
and proceed to the scene of action. 

On entering the field to the left. Gen. Smith 
was shot from his horse, and the entire com- 
mand reverted to myself. The brigade was 
formed in line of battle, with the 10th Virginia 
regiment in reserve. About this time Captains 
Hill and Cunningham, of Gen. Smith's stafi^, 
reported to me. I detached Capt. Cunningham 
with four companies of the lOUi Virginia regi- 
me&t to hold a captured battery, and directed 
Oapt. Hill to conduct Beckham's battery to a 
point on the left. The position was well se- 
lected, and the battery under Lieut. Beckham 
was admirably served and made a decided im- 
pression on the enemy. Having received intel- 
ugence that our left was wetdcened, I doter- 
miaed to make a movement in that direction, 
and accordingly to march by the left tlank 
through a wood to the left and then to the 
front. The brigade in line— dd Tennessee reg- 
imient on the right, Ist Maryland in the centre, 
10th Virginia on the left — ^passed an open field 
and throQgh a wood. On arriving at the edge 
of the woods, the enemy was discovered but a 
short distance in front, Stars and Stripes wav- 
ing. I ordered the line to open fire. A brisk 
and terrific fire was kept up for a few seconds, 
and the enemy disappeared. 

The command was ordered to advance, and 
on rising the crest of an open field, nothine 
oould be seen but the dead bodies of men and 
hordes. The line continued to advance, and on 
coining to a thicket in front, again encountered 
the enemy, and opened fire; the charge was 
orflcred, the thicket cleared, and the enemy 
di-jpersed, I was ordered by Gen. Beauregard 
Uy retire with my command to the hUl in 
rear, from which I subsequently took up a posi- 
tion across the stone bridge. It is with pride 
and pleasure that I refer to the coolness and 
gallaatry of the whole command daring the 
day. Tiie fire upon the enemy was well-di- 
rected and destructive, and they sustained his 
fire with the indifference of veteran troops. 

* Piedmont to ft atation on the ICana^aas 0«n Bailroad 
^k>«r Fnint R^iral. The deUy alluded to is said to hare 
Wea ocoiaioaed hj • eoUtolon of aome cmptj cam 



The Maryland regiment was under Lieut.-CoL 
G. H. Steuart and Mi\jor Bradley T. Johnson ; 
the 8d Tennessee under Col. Vaughan, Lieut.- 
Ool. Reese, and Msyor Morgan, and the 10th 
Virginia regiment under Col. Gibbons, Lieut- 
Col. Warren, and }£sjor Walker. 

I cannot speak too highly of the gallantry 
and good service of my personal staff. Lieuten- 
ants Chentney, McDonald, and Contee. They 
were repeatedly exposed to the enemy ^s fire in 
delivering orders, and rendered excellent service 
in obtaining information of his whereabouts. I 
have the honor to be, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, Arnold Elzey, 

Brlgadier>0«nanl Cominaadlng 4th Brfgada 

To Major Thomas G. Rhett, Ass't A^'t-Gen. 

BBPOBT OF OAPT. JOHK D. IMBODEIT, OF TUB 
^^BTAUNTON ARTILLERY." 

MA2fA98AS JinrcTiO!f, Ta., July 22, 18C1. 
Brigadier- General W, II. Whiting^ Command- 
ing th6 Third Brigade of the Army of the 
Shenandoah : 

I submit the following summary report of 
the part taken in the engagement of yesterday, 
by the battery of the bngade — ^the Staunton 
Artillery — under my command. The battery 
arrived at Camp Walker, below the Junction, 
at half-past eleven o^clock the night before the 
battle, with men and horses greatly fatigued, 
by a forced march uf thirty-two miles, com- 
menced at daybreak over an extremely rough 
and steep, hilly road. Having had but four 
hours' sleep, and that on the ground, without 
shelter, on a rainy night, since the preceding 
Wednesday night, at Winchester, and no food 
on Saturday, except breakfast which was kindly 
furnished us by some ladies at Salem, in Fau- 
quier, my men were so tired on getting into 
camp that they threw themselves upon the 
ground to snatch a few hours' rest. 

A little after sunrise on Sunday morning, the 
lamentable Gen. Bee sent for mo to his quar- 
ters, and informed me of the approach of the 
enemy, and that he was ordered to " the stone 
bridge " with his brigade and a battery not so 
much exhausted as mine, and asked mo if we 
would "stand that?" I replied, "Not if we 
can help it." He then ordered me to put the 
battery in motion immediately, and let my 
wagons remain, and bring onr rations and for- 
age after us to the field. In about twenty 
minutes we were in motion, very much stimu- 
lated by a cannonade which had then opened 
so near Camp Walker that one of the balls 
came whizzing over us just as wo started. After 
a rapid march of about five miles we met the 
infantry of the brigade, who had gone by a 
nearer route. Gen. Bee, in person, then joined 
the battery, and rode with us about a mile and 
selected the ground we were to occupy, and 
remained till after the firing commenced on 
both sides. To his consummate judgment in 
choosing our ground, we are indebted for our 
almost miraculous escape from utter destruction. 
We were placed on the slope of a hill facing to 



44 



B£BELLION RECORD, 1800-61. 



the west, with a sight depression or ravine, 
running almost parallel with the hase of the 
hill. We came *^ into battery '' and unlimhered 
in this depression, being thus sheltered by a 
swell in the ground to our front five or six feet 
high. Our position commanded a beautiful 
open farm whicli rose gently from the valley in 
front of u$, baok to the woods about 1,500 
yards distant. lu the edge of these woods a 
heavy column of the enemy was marching to 
the southward, while we were descending the 
hill to our position. At the moment we 
wheeled into line, I observed one of their bat- 
teries of six guns do the same thing, and they 
unlimhered simultaneously with us. We im- 
mediately loaded with spherical-case shot, with 
the faze cut for 1,500 yards. General Bee or- 
dered me not to fire till they opened on me, as 
he had sent the Fourth Alabama regiment, 
Colonel Jones, across the valley to our right to 
occupy a piece of woods about 600 yards nearer 
the enemy, and he wished this regiment, to- 
gether with one 6-pounder they had along with 
them, to get fairly in position before we fired. 
He had hardly uttered the order, however, 
when the enemy's battery — six long rifle 
10-pounder Parrott guns, afterwards captured 
by our troops — within 150 yards of our first 
position, opened on us witli elongated cylindri- 
cal shells. They passed a few feet over our 
heads, and very near the general and his staff 
in our rear, and exploded near the top of the 
hill. We instantly returned the compliment. 
Gen. Bee then directed me to hold my position 
till further orders, and observe the enemy^s 
movements towards our left, and report to him 
any thing I might discover of importance. 
This was the lost time my gallant, heroic gen- 
eral ever spoke to me. Seeing us fairly engaged, 
he rode off to take charge of his regiments. 
The firing of both batteries now became very 
rapid — they at first overshot us and burst their 
shells in our rear, but at every round improved 
their aim and shortened their fuze. In about 
fifteen minutes we received our first injury. A 
shell passed between two of our guns and ex- 
ploded amongst the caissons, mangling the arm 
of private J. J. Points with a fragment in a 
most shocking manner. I ordered him to be 
oai'ried off the field to the sm'geon at once. He 
was scarcely gone when another shell exploded 
at the same place and killed a horse. About 
this time the enemy began to fire too low, 
striking the knoll in our front, from ten to 
twenty steps, from which the ricochet was 
snificient to carry the projectiles over us ; they 
discovered tliis, and again began to fire over 
US. After we had been engaged for perhaps a 
half hour, the enemy brought another battery 
of four gims into position about 400 yards 
south of the fir^t, and a little nearer to us, and 
commenced a very brisk fire upon us. A shell 
from this last battery soon plunged into our 
midst, instantly killing a h(»rse and nearly cut- 
ting off the leg of private W. A. Siders, just 
below the knee. He was immediately taken to 



the surgeon. A few minntes afterwards an- 
other shell did its work by wounding 2d Lieut 
A. W. Garber so severely in the wrist that I 
ordered him off the field for surgical aid. We 
now had ten guns at work upon us, with no 
artillery to aid us for more than an hour, ex- 
cept, I believe, three rounds fired by the gun 
witli the Alabama regiment. It ceased ita fire, 
I have heard, because the horses ran off with 
the limber and left the gun without ammuni- 
tion. During this time the enemy's infantry 
was assembling behind, between and to the 
right (our left) of their batteries in immense 
numbers, but beyond our reach, as we could 
only see their bayonets over the top of the hill. 
Two or three times they ventured in sight 
when the Alabamians turned them back on 
their left by a well-directed fire, and we gave 
them a few shot and shells on their right with 
the same result, as they invariably dropped 
back over the hill when we fired at them, as 
almost every shot made a gap in their ranks. 

After we had been engaged for, I suppose, 
nearly two hours, a detachment of some other 
battery, (the New Orleans Washington Batta> 
lion, I believe,) of two guns, formed upon our 
right and commenced a well-directed fire, much 
to our aid and relief. My men by this time 
w^ere so overcome with the intense heat and 
excessive labor, that half of them fell upon the 
ground completely exhausted. The guns were 
so hot that it was dangerous to load them — 
one was temporarily spiked by the priming 
wire hanging in it, the vent having become 
foul. My teams were cut to pieces, five of the 
horses were killed out of one single piece, and 
other teams partially destroyed, so that, alone, 
we could not much longer have replied to the 
enemy's batteries as briskly as was necessary. 

We were now serving the guns with dimin- 
ished numbers — ^Lieuts. Harman and Imboden 
working at them as privates, to relieve the pri- 
vates ; the latter haa the handspike in. his hand 
directing his piece, when one of its rings was 
shot oft' the trail by a piece of a sheU. After 
our friends on the right commenced firing, the 
enemy advanced a third battery of four pieces 
down the hill, directly in front of and about six 
hundred yards distant from us, upon which we 
opened fire immediately and crippled one of 
their guns by cutting oft' its trail, compelling 
them to dismount and send the piece away 
without its carriage. While this last battery 
was forming in our front, a vast column of 
thousands of infantry marched down in close 
order, about two hundred yards to its right. I 
did-not then know where the several regimenta 
of our brigade were posted. AVe heard firing 
upon our right and left, bnt too far off to pro- 
tect ns from a sudden charge, as we were in 
the middle of an open field, and not a single 
company of infantry visible to us on the right, 
left, or rear. At the moment the enemy's main 
column came down the hill, we observed the 
head of another column advancing down the 
valley from our left, and therefore concealed hy 



DCKnTHKNTa 



45 



a bill, and not orer 860 or 400 yards distant 
At first I took them for friends, and ordered 
the men not to fire on them. To ascertain cer- 
taioljr who thej were, I sprang npon my lior^e 
and galloped to the top of the hUl to our left, 
vhen I had a nearer and better view. There 
were two regiments of them. They halted 
about threo hundred yards in front of their 
own battery on the hill-side, wheeled into line, 
with their backs towards us, and fired a volley, 
apparently at their battery. This deceived me, 
and I shouted to my men to fire upon the bat- 
tery, that these were friends, who would charge 
and take it in a moment. Fortunately, my or- 
der was not heard or not obeyed by all the 
gunners, for some of them commenced firing 
into thb line, which brought them to the right- 
aboQt, and they commenced advancing towards 
us, when their uniform disclosed fully their 
cLaracter. I instantly ordered the second sec- 
tion of my battery to limber up and come on 
the hUl where I was, intending to open on 
them with canister. Anticipating this move- 
ment, and intending to make the hill to the left 
too hot for us, or seeing me out there alone, 
where I could observe their movements and 
report them, their nearest battery directed and 
iired all its guns at mo at once, but without 
hitting me or my horse. I galloped back to 
my gnns, and found that the two guns on our 
right had left the field, and we were alone 
agun. My order to limber up the second sec- 
tion was understood as applying to the whole 
battery, so that the drivers had equalized the 
teami sufficieatly to move all. the guns and 
cni^soQs, and the pieces were all limbered. On 
riding back a short distance, where I could see 
over the hill again, I discovered the enemy ap- 
proaching rapidly, and so near that I doubted 
oar ab'dity to save the battery ; but, by a very 
rapid movement up the ravine, we avoided the 
shelU of the three batteries that were now di- 
rected at us, sufficient to escape with three 
gnns and all the caissons. The fourth gun, I 
think, was struck under the axle by an explod- 
ing shell, as it broke right in the middle, and 
dropped the gan in tlio field. We saved the 
team. Their advance fired a volley of musketry 
at us without effect, when we got over the hill 
out of their reach, and a few moments after- 
wards heard the infantry engage them from the 
woods, some distance to the south of us. See- 
ing no troops where we first crossed the hill 
amongst wliom we could fall in with and pre- 
pare for battle again, and having had no com- 
munication with or from any human being for, 
I suppose, threo hours, and not knowing where 
to find our brigade or any part of it, I deter- 
mined to retire to the next hill, some 400 yards 
distant, and there form the remnant of my bat- 
tery, and await the opportunity for further ser- 
vice. 

Jast ta we were a<M*endIng this second liill 
we met Gen. T. J. Jackson with the First Vir- 
ginia brigade, hastening on to the field of bat- 
tk^ I reported to him my condition and per- 



plexity. He directed me to fall in between 
two of his regiments and return to the first hill 
again and fight with him. I did so with a 
remnant of my men and guns. The caissons, 
except one, were empty, and many of the men 
were ready to faint from sheer exhaustion. 
We got into position 300 or 400 yards north of 
the gronnd we at first occupied, within full 
view of the enemy^s hea^ column of divisions 
advancing towards us. We opened fire at once, 
but slowly, as we had not over four or five 
men left able to work the guns, respectively, 
and ammunition had to be brought from a cais- 
son left two hundred yards in the rear, because 
we were unable to get it up with the guns. 
Every shot here told with terrible effect, as we 
could see a lane opened through the enemy 
after almost every fire. Our first gun was 
worked^ during this part of the action, by the 
Captiiin, Pirst Lieutenant, and two privates. 
In the course of three-quarters of an hour our 
supply of shot and shells was exhausted — the 
men could no longer work — we had nothing 
but some canister left, which was nseless at so 
great a distance. A fresh battery came upon 
the field, and Gen. Jackson ordered me to retire 
with my men and guns to a place of safety, 
which I did, and had no further part in the fight. 

We were the first battery of the left wing of 
the army engaged. We were in the fight till 
near its close, having been engaged altogether 
upwards of four hom's. We fired about 460 
rounds of ball and case-shot, our whole supply, 
during the action. The only serious damage to 
my men I have mentioned above. Privates 
Points and Siders will doubtless get well, but 
will lose their wounded limbs. Lieut. Garber 
may save his hand. 

Several others were slightly touched with 
fragments of shells, without injury. I had 71 
horses on Sunday morning, before the battle 
commenced ; 10 of those are killed and miss- 
ing, and 21 more variously injured and at 
present wholly unserviceable, leaving me but 
40 horses fit for work. My harness is half de- 
stroyed and lost. One piece is dismounted, but 
will be as good as ever when remounted on a 
new carriage. All my officer behaved through- 
out with heroic coolness and bravery, and the 
conduct of the men was that of veterans, • 

No company in the army was more exposed, 
and none, I believe, so long a time, and yet no 
man quailed. There were instances of indi- 
vidual heroism worthy of special notice ; but 
where all did so well, it would seem almost in- 
vidious to single out individuals. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. D. Imboden, 

Capt. Battery, 3d Brifrtido, C. S. A. 
—Richmond Dispatch, July 28. 

BBPOBT OP MAJOB WALTON, OF THE WASHINGTON 

ARTILLERY. 
niAD-QITAKTIRS, Wl8HIK0T0!f AbTILLBRT, ) 

Near Btoxb Dbidob, Bcll Kcic, July 22, 1861. s 

General : I have the honor to report : — On 
the morning of the 2l8t instant, (Sunday,) the 



46 



REBELLION REGOKD, 1800-«1. 



battalion of Washington artillery, consisting of 
four Gompanies, numbering 284 ofScers and 
men and thirteen gnns — six 6-ponnders, smooth 
bore, foar 12-Donnd howitzers, and three ritled 
6-ponnder9, all bronze — ^nnder my command, 
was assigned to duty as follows : 

Four 12-pound howitzers, under Lieutenant 
J. T. Rosser, commanding ; Lieut. G. O. Lewis, 
Lieut. 0. H. Slocumb, and Lieut. H. A. Battles, 
with Gen. EwelPs second brigade at Union Mill 
Ford. 

Two 6-poundcrs, smooth bore, under com- 
mand of Capt. M. B. Miller, Lieut. Joseph 
Korcom, with General Jones's third brigade, at 
McLain's Ford. 

One rifled 6-ponnder and one smooth 6- 
pounder, under command of Lieutenant J. J. 
Garnett, Lieutenant L. A. Adftms, (reported sick 
after being engaged in the battle of the 18th 
inst.,) with General Longstreet^s fourth bri- 
gade, at Blackburn^s Ford. 

Five guns — ^three smooth 6-pounder8 and 
two rifled O-pounders — under command of 
Lieutenant G. W. Squires, Lieutenant J. B. 
Richardson, Lieutenant J. B. Whittington, with 
Golonel Early^s flfbh brigade, then bivouacking 
near McLean^s farm-house— thirteen guns. 

At about seven o^dock on the morning of 
the 21st an order was communicated to roe to 
follow, witli the battery under Lieutenant 
Squires, the brigade of General Jackson, then 
on the march towards Stone Bridge. Every 
preparation having been previously made, the 
order to mount was immediateiy given, and the 
battery moved forward, arriving at Lewises farm- 
house, just in time to receive the first fire from 
the enemy^s guns, then in position near Stone 
Bridge ; here I was ordered to halt and await 
orders from General Bee. Shortly after half- 
past eight o^clock a. v., I detached two rifle 
gtms, under Lieut. Richardson, and took posi- 
sition about one-half mile to the left of Lewises 
farm-house, where the enemy was found in 
large numbers. Fire was at once opened by 
the section under Lieut. Richardson, and con- 
tinued with good effect, until his situation be- 
came so perilous that he was obliged to with- 
draw, finng whilst retiring, until his guns were 
out of range, when he limbered up and reported 
to mL In this engagement, one of the enemy ^s 
pieces was dismounted by a shot from the rifle 
gun directed by First Sergeant Owen, first 
company, and other serious work was accoin- 

Flished. Now, under directions of Gen. Cocke, 
took position in battery on the hill in front of 
Lewis's farm-house, my guns directed towards 
Stone Bridge, where it was reported the ene- 
my was about to attack. Shortly before ten 
o'clock orders were communicated to me to 
advance with my battery to a point which was 
indicated, near the position lately occupied by 
the section under Lieut. Richardson. Here -we 
at once opened fire, soon obtaining range with 
the rifle guns against artillery, and the six- 
ponnders, with round sliot, spherical-case and 
canister, against Infantry, scattering, by our 



well-directed fire, death, destruction, and con- 
fusion in the ranks of both ; as the enemy's 
artillery would frequently get our range, we 
advanced by hand to the front, until finally the 
battery was upon the crown of the hill, entirely 
exposed to the view of their artillery and in- 
fantry. At this moment their fire fell like bail 
around us, the artillery in front of our position 
evidently sufiering greatly from the concentra- 
tion of fire from my guns and those of the 
battery on my right, and notwithstanding we 
were at this time subjected to a terrific fire of 
infantry on our left, my gnns were as rapidly 
and beautifully served by the cannoneers, and 
with as much composure and silence, as they 
are when upon the ordinary daily drill. 

The batteries of the enemy on our front hav- 
ing become silenced, and the fire of the infan- 
try upon our left increasing, I considered it 
prudent to remove my battery from its then 
exposed condition, being nearly out of ammu- 
nition, (some of the guns having only a few 
rounds left in the boxes ;) the order to limber 
to the rear was consequently given, and my 
battery, followed by the batteries on my 
right, was removed to its first position upon 
the elevated ground near Lewises farm-honse. 
At about one o'clock, as nearly as I can now 
calculate. Lieutenant Squires was detached with 
three six-pounders and took position near the 
road leading to Stone Bridge, from Lewis's 
house, and directing against the enemy's artil- 
lery which had now opened fire iipon our posi- 
tion from the vicinity of Stone Bridge. Hiis 
fire having been silenced by some guns of 
Colonel Pendleton and the section of my guns 
under Lieutenant Squires, we discovered mxa 
the position on the hill the enemy in full retreat 
across the fields, in range of my rified guns, 
when I opened fire upon their retreating col- 
umns, which was continued with admirable 
eft'ect, scattering and causing them to spread 
over the fields in the greatest confusion, until 
I was ordered to desist by General Jackson, 
and save my ammunition for whatever occasion 
might now arise. Subsequently, I was per- 
mitted by General Johnston to open fire again, 
which was now, after having obtained the 
range, like target practice, so exactly did each 
shot do its work. The enemy, by thousands, 
in the greatest disorder, at a double-quick, re- 
ceived our fire and the fire of the Parrott gun 
of the battery alongside, dealing terrible de- 
struction at every discharge. Thus ended the 
battle of the 21st, the lost gun having been fired 
from one of the rifles of my battery 

The guns of this battery, under command of 
Captain Miller, with General Jones's brigades, 
ana Lieutenant Garnett with General Long- 
street's brigade, were not engaged at their 
respective jjoints, although under fire a por- 
tion of the day. The howitzer battery under 
Lieutenant commanding Rosscr, with General 
Ewell's brigade, was on the march frnm two r. 
M., in the direction of Fairfax Court House, and, 
returning by way of Union Mills Ford, arriyed 



BOCtTMENTa 



47 



with the reserve at my position, tmfortnnatelT 
too late to take part in the engagement, not- 
withstanding the battery was moved at a trot 
and the cannoneers at a donble-qnick, the en- 
tire distance from Union Mills Ford. 

In this battle my loss has been one killed, 
Sextant J. D. Reynolds, Fourth company; 
two woanded slightly, Corporal E. 0. Fayne, 
First company, and private Geo. L. Crulcher, 
Fourth company. 

I oannot oonclndo this official report without 
the expression of my gratefld thanks to the 
ofBoers and men nnder my command for their 
gallant behavior during the entire day; they 
fought like veterans, and no man hesitated in 
the performance of any duty or in taking any 
position to which it was indicated they were 
required — ^in a word, I desire to say these men 
are entirely worthy of the noble State that has 
sent them forth to fight for the independence 
of the Confederate States. To Lieut. Squires 
commanding, I desire especially to direct your 
attention: a young officer, the second time 
under fire, (having been in the engagement of 
the 18th,) be acted his part in a manner worthy 
of a true soldier and a brave man. He is an 
example rarely to be met. Lieutenants Rich- 
ardson and Whittington, both with this battery 
in the engagement of the 18th, were in this 
battle, and bravely did their duty. Lieut. W. 
M. Owen, adjutant, and Lieut. James Dearing, 
Virginia forces attaoiied to this battalion, ac- 
companied me. To them I am indebted for in- 
valuable service upon the field ; freauently 
were they ordered to positions of great danger, 
and promptly and bravely did they each acquit 
themselves of any duty they were called upon 
to perform. 

I could mention individual instances of bra- 
very and daring on the part of non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates, but this would be 
invidious where all behaved so well. In con- 
clusion. General, I can only say I am gratified 
to know we have done our duty as we were 
pledged tii do. 

With great respect, I am. General, 

Your obedient servant^ 
J. B. Waltox, M%jor Commanding. 

To Brigadier General G. T. Beauregard, 
Commanding Divbion C. S. A. 

BOOTHERW ACCOUNT OP THE BATTLE, 
Wrm VOTES BT BBIO.-OEX. WH. V, BABBT, U. 8. A. 

Max A88A8 JvifOTioir, July 22d. 

By Divine favor we are again victorious. To 
God be the glory. The armies of the North 
and South yestei^ay faced each other — ^the for- 
mer not leas than 60,000 men,* the latter not 
exceeding 30,00a--and wrestled together for 
MX long hours, with that desperate courage 
which Americans only can show. I proceed 
to give you, as near as I can, a full and de- 
tailed history of that terrible battle, which 

* This is an error— the F«<1eral three nmnanted to onlj 
2109D, incladfng rviiervea. Qen. McDowell's Report states 
U^OQO only were eagagvd. W. F. B. 



will, through all time, make famous Bull Bun 
and the plains of Manassas. On Friday, the 
19th, Gen. Joseph £. Johnston, who had com- 
manded the army of the Shenandoah, posted 
at Winchester, arrived at Manassas Junction 
with four thousand of his division, to rein- 
force Gen. Beauregard. The remainder of his 
army (with the exception of a sufficient force 
to hold Winchester) were intended to arrive 
on Saturday, the 20th ; but, in consequence of 
some railroi^ casualty, they did not reach the 
scene of conflict until Sunday, between the 
hours of 2 and 8 o'clock, when the battle wai 
raging at its height 

The night before the battle, it was generally 
understood at Manassas Junction the enemy 
were gathering in great force, and designed 
turning our lelt flank, which rested a few 
miles above the scene of Thursday's engage- 
ment, at a ford on Bull Run, called Stone 
Bridge. We retired to rest under the full 
conviction that on the morrow the fortunes 
of our young nation were to be staked on a 
mighty contest, and we were not disappoint- 
ed. There were not many spectators of the 
battle, the general commanding having, on 
Thursday, issued a general order requiring 
all civilians, with the exception of residents 
before military operations comnienced, and 
those engaged necessarily in business at Ma- 
nassos Junction, to leave the camp and retire 
beyond a distance of four miles. The writer, 
however, with tlie following named confreres 
of the press, were privileged to remain to wit- 
ness a scene not often enacted, and which 
forms an era in their lives for all time to come; 
a scene of terrific grandeur and sublimity, 
which is imprinted on their memories with a 
recollection never to be effaced. 

At seven o'clock on Sunday morning our 
party, consisting of Messrs. L. W. Spratt, of 
the Charleston Mercury ; F. G. de Fontaine, of 
the Bichmond Enquirer and Charleston Cou- 
rier ; P. W. Alexander, of the Savannah Re- 
publican ; Shepardson, of the Columbus (Ga.) 
Times and Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser, and 
your correspondent, started from Manassas 
Junction. The distant cannon, at short inter- 
vals since daybreak, had apprised us that the 
enemy were in motion, but in what direction 
we could only surmise until we reached a 
point a mile and a half from the breastworks, 
at the north-west angle of the fortifications of 
Manassas Junction. The day was bright and , 
beautiful — on the left was the Blue Ridge, and 
in front were the slopes on the north side of 
Bull Run crowned with woods, in which the 
enemy had early planted his batteries, and all 
around us were eminences on w^hich were 
posted small but anxious knots of spectators^ 
forming the most magnificent panorama I ever 
beheld. 

At about 8 o'clock we reached a hill above 
Mitchell's Ford, almost entirely bare of trees, 
and saffioiently high to afford an unobstructed 
riew of the opposite heights. After taking a 



48 



REBELLION BECX^RD, 1800-«]. 



leisurely snrvey of the beautiful londscape, 
spread out before us in all the loveliness and 
grandeur of nature, and listening with watch- 
ful intent to the booming of the heavy cannon 
on our right, and anxiously examining the lo- 
cations where the guns of the enemy on the 
opposite hills were plainly to be seen with the 
naked eye, and the heavy clouds of dust rising 
above the woods in front and on either side, 
indicating the direction in which the heavy 
columns of the enemy were marching, we each 
sought the shade of a tree, where we drew 
forth our memorandum books and pencils, to 
note down for the information of the thou- 
sands, who looked to us for a description of 
the day's occurrences, the various shittings of 
tlie scene which henceforth forms an era in the 
history of our young Confederacy, and grandly 
inaugurates the march of glory on which she 
has entered. 

An interesting meeting took place between 
our party and the venerable £dmund Ruffin, 
who had against the walls of Fort Sumter 
fired the first defiant gun. He bad come to this 
conflict with his eighty odd years weighing 
upon him, and his flowing white locks, to take 
part in this fight, encouraging our young men 
by his presence and examine. Agile as a youth 
of sixteen, with rifle on his shoulder, his eyes 
glistening with excitement as he burned to en- 
gage the Yankee invader. Shortly afterwards 
Generals Beauregard, Johnston, and Bonham, 
accompanied by their aids, came galloping up 
the hill, and dismounted on the summit The 
generals held an earnest conversation for a 
few minutes, while taking a survey of the 
field, and watching the excessive challenges 
from the cnemy^s batteries, directed against 
our right and among the woods near lilitch- 
elPs Ford, where a hospital was stationed and 
the yellow fiag flying. This was also the point 
where their fire of Thursday was directed, 
and where the mark of a cannon ball is to be 
seen in the kitchen and stable of a house in 
which Gen. Beauregard dined on that day at 
the time the ball struck the building. Whether 
the enemy thought it was again his head-quar- 
ters, or whether the fire was playing toward 
that point to draw out a response from us, is 
not known. It is more likely, however, it was 
a mere feint — ^on impotent attempt to deceive 
our skilful and able commander as to the 
point where the enemy was most in force, for 
80 our wise general considered it, as he was 
Been to direct Gen. Johnston^s attention par- 
ticularly with his hand towards our extreme 
left, as if he knew the struggle was to be made 
there. 

I should here remark that it had been Gen. 
Beauregard^s purpose to make the attack, in- 
stead of waiting to receive it ; but from some 
cause unknown to me, he preferred at last to 
let the enemy take the initiative ; perhaps for 
the reason that Gen. Johnston^s division had 
been detained on the rulroad. As I have said. 
Gen. Beauregard was not deceived, for the 



immense clouds of dust appearing above the 
woods Indicated beyond a doubt the Federal 
colunms were moving in solid masses in an- 
other direction, and one which was unmis- 
takable. Just at this time, by the aid of oor 
glass, we could see their guns brought to bear 
on the hill where we stood, for in a few mo- 
ments the smoke was discovered issuing from 
their batteries of rifled cannon, and before 
scarcely a word could be said, the peculiar 
whiz and hizzing of the balls notified us that 
their aim had been well taken. Several balli 
fell in a field immediately behind us, and not 
a hundred yards fi'om the ipot where the gen- 
erals stood. An oflSoer of Gen. Beauregard^! 
staflf requested us to leave the hill, and as we 
moved away a shell burst not twenty feet off. 
Col. Bonner calculated with his watch the 
time taken by the balls to pass us, and made 
the dbtance 1} miles from the enemy *s bat- 
tery. The enemy no doubt discovered the 
horses of the generals, and thought it a good 
opportunity to display their marksmansliip, and 
credit is due to them for the accuracy of their 
aim. Providence, however, who governs all 
things, covered the heads of our generals as 
with a shield, and preserved them for the haz- 
ardous service in which they were in a short 
hour or two to be engaged. 

It was now about eleven o^dock, and the 
enemy having opened with rifled cannon and 
shell on their right, which they had oontinned 
for more than three hours without response, 
we heard away to the left, about three miles 
distant, the heavy booming of cannon, followed 
immediately by the rattling crack of musketry 
— the discharges being repeated and continuoos 
— which noticed us the engagement had com- 
menced in earnest at that point, where the 
battle was to be fought and won. 

Proceeding towards the scene of action abont 
two miles, we came to a creek in the hollow 
where one of the hospitals for the day bad 
been stationed, and the first wounded,* some 29 
or 80, had been brought. Dr. Gaston, of South 
Carolina, formerly a surscon in CoL Gregg*s 
regiment, but now attached to Gen. Beanre- 
gard^s head-quarters, was assiduously attend- 
ing to the wants of the wounded. At this 
point Generals Beauregard and Johnston, ac- 
companied by a staff of some ten or twelve 
oflScers, passed at full gallop, ridine towards 
their head-quarters for the day, which were on 
a hill immediately overlooking the ground 
where our brave soldiers were manfully and 
persistently struggling for the victory. A large 
force of cavalry were here stationed, and as 
the generals passed, they called for three 
cheers for Beauregiu^, which were immediately 
given with right good will, and which the 
general gracefully acknowledged by lifting his 
hat from his head and bowing his thanks. 

Both of our generals were plainly dressed. 
No large epaulettes, no gilt, nor any fuss and 
feathers ; you could only distinguish them at a 
distance to be officers by their swords, but on 



DOCUMENTa 



49 



a closer inspection the marks of genins and 
militoi-y skill were numistakable. Their iini- 
foriu was what I took to be plain undress. 
Kot the least sign of excitement was to bo seen 
on the coantenances of either as they coolly 
rode forward into the storm of iron hail. 
Beaaregard^s eyes glistened with expectation, 
no doubt, when he afterwards threw himself 
into the very heart of the action, appearing 
then, as was afterwards most expressively said 
of him, to be the very impersonation of the " god 
of war." General Johnston, too, looked every 
inch a commander, and proved himself to bo 
the worthy inheritor of the prowess and vir- 
tues of his ancestors. On reaching the top of 
the hill, where was a white house, owned, I 
believe, by a Mr. Lewis, they wore again dis- 
covered by the enemy, as the rifled shot and 
shell whizzed through the air and lodged in the 
hollow behind. The aim was not so good at 
this tune, the accurate artillerists three miles 
below not having yet come up with the en- 
emy's main body. At about 12 o^clock Beau- 
regard and Johnston assumed the conmiaiid of 
oar main body at the Stone Bridge. The line 
of battle extended some seven miles up and 
down the creek, and during the day there were 
some minor engagements at other fords. 

At Blackburn^s Ford, General Joneses brigade 
nude an attack upon the left flank of the en- 
emy, who had two strong batteries in a com- 
manding position, which it was important to 
capture. The Fifth South Oarolina regiment 
led the attack, but our troops were compelled 
to retire for a while under the heavy fire of the 
batteries and musketry, and the enemy imme- 
diately retreated. Up to the time of this at- 
tack, these batteries had been bombarding all 
the morning Gen. LongstreeOs position in his 
lutrencliments on this side of the run. 

Geoeral Evans, of South Oarolina, was the 
first to lead his brigade into action at Stone 
Bridge. It consisted of the Fourth South Caro- 
lina regiment and Wheat^s Louisiana battalion. 
Sostaiuing them was General Cocke's brigade, 
consisting of the 17th, 19th, and 28th Virginia 
regimen t% commanded respectively by Colonels 
Cocke, Withers, and Robert T. Preston. These 
brijrades were the first to bear the brunt of the 
actioti, as they were exposed to a concentric 
fire, the object of the enemy being to turn our 
left flank while we were endeavoring to turn 
liis right. These regiments of infantry were 
sastaining the famous Washington Artillery, of 
New Orleans, who had two of their guns at 
thi"j point, which made terrible havoc in the 
ranki of the enemy. The Federal troops lead- 
"kj^the action consisted of 10,000 regulars, sus- 
tii:iing the celebrated Sherman's battery, these 
regulars being in their turn sustained by im- 
mense masses of volunteers, the New York 
Zouaves among the number. General Beaure- 
^1 estimated the enemy^s numbers in the ac- 
tion to be not less than 35,000 men. 

Their artillery far outnumbered ours. We 
btvo captured 67 pieces of cannon, while we 



had only 18 guns on that part of the field.* It 
has been stated to me by so many of our 
soldiers I cannot but believe it, that the en* 
emy by some means had obtained our signal 
for the day — ^they also used our rod badge, 
which fortunately was discovered in time, and 
they carried into action the flags of the Pal- 
metto State and the Confederate States. It has 
been asserted, too, by numerous individuals en- 
gaged in the battle, that there was great con- 
fusion and slaughter among our own men, who 
mistook them for the enemy. This was less to 
be wondered at from the similarity of uniform 
and the mean advantages above referred to 
taken by our unscrupulous foes. They pressed 
our left flank for several hours with terrible 
eflfect, but our men flinched not until their 
number had been so diminished by the well- 
aimed and steady volleys that they were com* 
polled to give way for new regiments. Tlie 
7th and 8th Georgia regiments, commanded by 
the gallant and lamented Bartow, are said to 
have suffered heavily during the early part of 
the battle. Kemper^s, Shields^ and Pendleton^s 
batteries were in this part of the field, and did 
feai'ful execution. I regret to be unable to 
name all the regiments engaged, in their order, 
not having succeeded in ascertaining their posi- 
tion. I am inclined to believe there was some 
mistake during the day in the delivery or exe- 
cution of an order of Gen. Beauregard's re- 
specting an attack on the enemy's rear, which 
was not eflfected. 

Between 2 and 8 o'clock large numbers of 
men were leaving the field, somo of them 
wounded, others exhausted by the long strug- 
gle, who gave us gloomy reports; but as the 
fire on both sides continued steadily, we felt 
sure that our brave Southerners had not been 
conquered by the overwhelming hordes of the 
North. It is, however, due to truth to say 
that the result of this hour hung trembling in 
the balance. We had lost numbers of our most 
distingubhed officers. Gens. Bartow and Beo 
had been stricken down ; Lieut-Col. Johnson, 
of the Hampton Legion, had been killed ; Col. 
Hampton had been wounded ; but there was at 
hand the fearless general whose reputation as 
a commander was staked on this battle : Gen. 
Beauregard promptly ofi;ered to lead the Hamp- 
ton Legion into action, which he executed in 
a stylo unsurpassed and unsurpassable. Gen. 
Beauregard rode up and down our lines between 
the enemy and his own men, regardless of the 
heavy fire, cheering and encouraging our troops. 
About this time a shell struck his horse, taking 
its head off, and killing the horses of his aids, 
Messrs. Ferguson and Hayward. Gen. Beau- 
regard's aids deserve honorable mention, par- 
ticularly those just named, and Cols. W. Por- 
cher Miles, James Chesnut, John L. Manning, 
and A. R. Chisolm. Gen. Johnston also threw 
himself into the thickest of the fight, seizing 
the colors of a Georgia regiment, and ralljring 

^ The Federal foreee had bnl 22 pieces on the field. Thm 
remainder of their utiUery was in reterv*.— W. F. B. 



50 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-6L 



- \ 



them to the charge. His staff sizpalized them- 
■elves by their intrepidity, Col. Thomas Leiug 
killed and Mtgor Mason wounded. 

Your correspondent heard Gen. Johnston ex- 
claim to Gen. Cocke just at the critical mo- 
ment, " Oh, for four regiments ! " His wish 
was answered, for in the distance our reinforce- 
ments appeared. The tide of battle was turned 
in our favor by the arrival of General Kirby 
Smith, from Winchester, with 4,000 men of 
Gen. Johnston^s division. Gen. Smith heard 
while on the Manassas railroad cars the roar 
of battle. He stopped the train, and hurried 
his troops across ^o field to the point Just 
where he was most needed. They were at 
first supposed to be the enemy, their arrival at 
that point of the field being entirely unex- 
pected. The enemy fell back, and a panic 
seized them. Cheer after cheer from our men 
went up, and we knew the battle had been 
won. 

Thus was the best-appointed army that had 
ever taken the field on this continent beaten, 
and compelled to retreat in hot haste, leav- 
ing behind them every thing that impeded 
their escape. Guns, knapsacks, hats, caps, 
shoes, canteens, and blankets, covered the 
ground for miles and miles. At about 5 o'clock 
we heard cheer upon cheer, and the word 
" Davis^' ran along the ranks, and wo saw in 
tlie distance the tall, slender form of our gal- 
lant President, who had arrived upon the field 
in time to see the total rout of the army which 
threatened his capture, and the subjugation of 
the South. 

The President left Richmond at C o'clock in 
the mornini.% and reached Manassas Junction at 
4, where, mounting a horse, accompanied by 
Co]. Joseph R. Davis and numerous ittendants, 
he galloped to the battle-field* just in time to 
join in the pursuit by a magnificent body of 
cavalry, consisting of 1,500 men, commanded 
by Lieut.-Col. Stewart.* This sight, of itself, 
was worth the fatigue of tlio day's journey. 
We saw the poor wounded soldiers on the road- 
side and in the fields, wlien they observed the 

♦ Soon after prayer In the Confodcrato CongrcB*, on tho 

morning of tho 22d, tho following despatch was read to 

that body : 

"Manassas Junction, Sunday n'cht. 

*' Niarlit has closrd upon a liard-fousrbt lieM. Our forces 
were victorious. The enemy was routed, and fled precipi- 
tately, abandoiinor a largo amount of arms, ammunUioMit, 
knapstioks, and hat^guge. . Tho ground wan strewed for 
xnllcs with tho-e killed, and the farm-houses and tho ground 
around were (iUed with wounded. 

" Pur'»ult w 18 continued along soTcral routes towards 
Leesbunr mu-I Contreviile, until darkness covered the ftigl- 
tives. Wo hive captnrod several fleld-batterle*, standi of 
arms, and Union and State flui^. Many pHf^oners have 
been take;\ Too Iiii^h praise can: ot be best owed, whether 
for tho sk'll of tho principal officers, or for tho crallantry of 
all our troops. T*'e battle w:«s mainly fought on our left. 
On r force was 15,000 ; that of the enemy estimated at 
I6,00a 

"jBrFBRSON DAVtS." 

Another deapatc-h says the entire Co if* d<»r:it«» force was 
a^*o'it 40,000, and the entire force of the United States near 
80^. 

27o particulars are reeeiT«d of the dead and wounded. 

"lUehmond Enquirer, I 



President's manly form pass by, raise their 
heads, and heard them give shout upon shout 
and cheer upon cheer. It has been stated the 
President commanded the centre and joined in 
the charge ; but this is a mistake. The train 
had been delayed, and arrived at the Junction 
two hours behind its time, which must have 
been a grievous disappointment. The Wash- 
ington Artillery, who nad drawn their guns up 
the hill and in front of the house known as 
Mr. Lewb's — Gen. Cocke's and Gen. Johnston's 
head-quarters, and which was riddled with 
shot — commanded by Mtgor J. B. Walton in 
person, gave the enemy about this time a part- 
ingsalute. 

With tlie aid of our glass, which was more 
powerful than his own, he observed the car- 
riage of a gim some two miles off. He gave 
the order for another fire, and Lieut. Bearing 
pointed the piece. Before the ball had well 
reached the point aimed at, a whole regiment 
of the enemy appeared in sight, going at ** dou- 
ble-quick" down the CentreviUe road. Hojor 
Walton immediately ordered another shot " to 
help them along," as he said, and two were 
sent without delay right at them. There was no 
obstruction, and the whole front of the regiment 
was exposed. One-half were seen to fall, and if 
Gen. Johnston had not at that moment sent an 
order to Miyor Walton to cease firing, nearly the 
whole regiment would have been killed. Of 
the Washington Artillery, only one member of 
tho detachment was killed, viz., Sei^ant Jo>hiia 
Reynolds, of Now Orleans, who was struck in 
tho forehead while giving tho word of com- 
mand. Privates Payne and Crutcher were 
slightly wounded. Tims did 16,000 men, with 
18 pieces of artillery, drive back inglorionsly a 
force exceeding 85,000, supported by nearly 100 
pieces of cannon. I believe tho official report 
will sustain mo in the assertion that Gen. 
Beauregard did not bring more than 15,000 
jnen into the action. The total force under 
Gen. McDowell was over 60,000, bi:t 35,000 
will probably cover tho entire force in action 
at the Stone Bridge. 

Of tho pursuit, already tho particulars aro 
known. Suffice it to say, we followed them on 
the Leesbnrg road and on tlie CentreviUe road 
as far as CentreviUe and Fairfax. Tho poor 
wretches dropped their guns, their knapsacks, 
their blankets, and every thing they had — they 
fell on their knees and prayed for mercy. They 
received it — Southerners have no animosity 
against a defeated enemy. We have captured 
900 prisonei's, and they will be treated with 
kindness. We have also captured G7 i)icccs of 
cannon, among them nutnerous fine pieces, 
Armstrong gtms, and rifled cannon, hundreds 
of wagons, loads of provisions, and ammunition, 
Tho credit is accorded them : they fought well 
and long, but tlieir cause was bad — they wero 
on soil not their own, and they met their 
equals, who were fighting in defence of their 
homes, their liberty, and their honor. 

-^Richmond Dispatehf and Baltimore JSun^ Aoffost 1. 



DOCTJlfENT& 



51 



Doa 8.— WM. H. RUSSELL'S LETTERS 

ON THS BATTLE OF BULL BUN. 

Wabhihotoit, July 19, 1801. 

The arm J of tho North is fairly moving at 
last, and all the contending voices of lawyers 
and disputants will speedily be silenced by the 
noUe of the cannon. Let no one suppose that 
the war will be decided in one or two battles, 
or oonclnde from any present successes of the 
Federalists that they will not meet with stern 
opposition as they advance. The Confederates 
nniformly declared to me after their failure to 
take either Faneuil Hall or the Capitol, they 
woald wait in Virginia and " entice " the Fed- 
eralists into certain mysterious traps, where 
they would be " destroyed to a man." There 
is great reliance placed on *^ masked batteries " 
in this war, and the country is favorable to 
their employment ; but nothing can prove more 
completely tho unsteady character of the troops 
than the reliance which is placed on the effects 
of such works, and, indeed, there is reason to 
think that there have been panics on both sides 
— at Great Bethel as well as at Laurel Hill. 
The telegraph is faster than the post, and all 
the lucubrations of to-day may be falsified by 
the deeds of to-morrow. The Senate and Con- 
gress are sitting in the Capitol within tho very 
hearing of the guns, and the sight of the smoke 
of the conflict which is now raging in Virginia. 

Senators and Congressmen are engaged in 
disputations and speeches, while soldiers are 
working out the problem in their own way, 
and it is within the range of possibility that a 
disastrous battle may place the capital in the 
hands of the Confederates ; and the news which 
ha^ just come in that the latter have passed 
Bull Ran, a small river which flows into the 
Potomac, below Alexandria, crossing the rail- 
road from that place, is a proof that Fairfax 
Goart-Hoose was abandoned for a reason. It 
is stated that tho Confederates have been re- 
pulseti by the 69th (Irish) Regiment and the 
79th (Scotch) New York Volunteers, and as 
soon as this letter has been posted I shall pro- 
ceed to tho field (for the campaign has now 
fairly commenced) and ascertain the facts. If 
the Confederates force the left of McDoweirs 
army, they will obtain possession of the line to 
Alexandria, and may endanger Washington it- 
self. The design of Beauregard may have been 
to efifect this very object while he engaged the 
bulk of the Federalists at Manassas Junction, 
which yon must not confound with Manassas 
Gap. The reports of guns were heard this 
morning in the direction of the Jonction, and 
it is probable that McDowell, advancing from 
0«:ntreviUo, has met the enemy, prepared to 
dispute his passage. 

There are some stories in town to the effect 
that Gen. Tyler has met with a severe check on 
the right, but tho advance of McDowell was 
very cautions, and he wonld not let his troops 
fa!] into the ambuscades against which they 
have been especially forewarned. Let specula- 
YoL. n.— Poa 9 



tion, which to-morrow's news must outstrip, 
cease here, and let us examine the composition 
of the forces actually engaged with the Confed- 
erates. The head of the naval and military 
forces of the United States is the President, in 
theory and in the practice of appointments ; but 
Lieut.-Gen, Winfield Scott is *' Commander-in- 
Chief" of tho United States Army. His staff 
consists of Lient.-Col. E. D. Townscnd, Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General, Chief of the Staff; Col. 
H. Van Renssellaer, A. D. C. (Volunteer;) 
Lieut.- Col. George W. Cullum, United States 
Engineer, A. D. C. ; Lieut.-Col. Edward Wright, 
United States Cavalry, A. D. C; Lieut.-Col. 
Schnyler Hapiilton, Military Secretary. 

The subjoined general order gives the organ- 
ization of tlie standard of the several divisions 
of the army under Brig.-Gen. McDowell, now 
advancing into Virginia from the lines opposite 
Washington.* 

Some changes have been made since this 
order was published, and tl)o corps has been 
strengtliened by the accession of two regular 
field-batteries. The effective strength of the 
infantry, under McDowell, may be taken at 
80,000, and there aro about sixty field-pieces at 
his disposal, and a force of about ten squadrons 

of cavalry .t 

The division under Gen. Patterson is about 
22,000 strong, and has three batteries of artil- 
lery attached to it; and Gen. Mansfield, who 
commands the army of Washington and the 
reserve watching the Capitol, has under him a 
corps of 16,000 men almost exclusively volun- 
teers; Gen. McDowell has also left a strong 
guard in his intrenchments along the right bank 
of the Potomac, guarding the bridges and cov- 
ering the roads to Alexandria, Fairfax, and 
Falls Church. Tho division in military occu- 
pation of Maryland under Gen. Banks, most of 
which is concentrated in and around Baltimore, 
consists of 7,400 men, with some field-guns. 
The corps at Fortress Monroe and Hampton, 
under Gen. Butler, is 11,000 strong, with two 
field batteries, some guns of position, and the 
fortress itself in hand. Gen. Lyon, who is op- 
erating in Missouri with marked success, has 
about 6,500 men. Gen. Prentiss at Cairo com- 
mands a division of 6,000 men and two field- 
batteries. There are beside these forces many 
regiments organized and actually in the field. 
The army under the command of Gen. Beaure- 
gard at Manassas Junction is estimated at 
60,000, but that must include the reserves, and* 
a portion of the force in the intrenchments 
along the road to Richmond, in the immediate 
neighborhocd of which there is a corps of 16,000 
men. At Norfolk there are 18,000 or 20,000,' 
at Acquia Creek 8,000 to 9,000, and Johnston's 
corps is estimated at 10,000, swollen by the 
debris of the defeated column. 

The railways from the South are open to the 
Confederates, and they can collect their troops 

* For this order, see paare 1, ante. 
t Here follows an acoooat of McClell«n*s Dlrlslen. la. 
Western Virginia. 



62 



BEBELUON RECORD, 1860-61. 



rapidly, so that it is not at all beyond the reach 
of probability that they can collect 160,000 or 
160,000 men in Virginia, if that number is not 
now actually in the State. In cavalry they 
have a superiority, but the country is not favor- 
able for their operations till the armies approach 
Richmond. In field-artillery they are not so 
well provided as the Federalists. They have, 
however, a great number of heavy batteries and 
guns of position at their disposal. Food is plen- 
tiful in their camps ; the harvest is coming in. 
In general equipments and ammuoition the 
Federalists have a considerable advantage. In 
discipline there is not much difference, perhaps, 
in the bulk of the volunteers on both sides, but 
the United States forces have the benefit of the 
example and presence of the regular army, the 
privates of which have remained faithful to the 
Government. If we are to judge from what 
may bo seen in Washington, there are mautaU 
iujets in abundance among the United States 
troops. 

The varions foreign ministers have been so 
much persecuted by soldiers coming to their 
houses and asking for help, that sentries were 
ordered to be put at their doors. Lord Lyons, 
however, did not acquiesce in the propriety of 
the step, and in lieu of that means of defence 
against demands for money, a document called 
^* a safeguard " has been furnished to the do- 
mesti.cs at the various legations, in which ap- 
plicants are informed that they are liable to 
the penalty of death for making such solicita- 
tions. Gen. McDowell writes in his despatch 
from Fairfax Court-House : ^^ I am distressed 
to have to report excesses by our troops. The 
excitement of the men found vent in burning 
and pillaging, which, however soon checked, 
distressed us all greatly." What will take 
place at the dose of a hardly contested action 
m the front of populous towns and villages ? 
The vast megority of the soldiers are very well- 
behaved, but it will require severe punishment 
to deter the evil-disposed from indulging in all 
the license of war. 

The energy displayed in furnishing the great 
army in the field with transport and ambu- 
lances is very great, and I have been surprised 
to see the rapidity with which wagons and ex- 
cellent field hospitals and sick carts have been 
constructed and forwarded by the contractors. 
The corps in Virginia under McDowell may 
be considered fit to make a campaign in all re- 
spects so far as those essentials are concerned, 
and the Government is rapidly purchasing 
horses and mules which are not inferior to 
those used in any army in the world. These 
few lines must sufiice till the despatch of the 
mail on Wednesday. 

July 22. — ^I sit down to give an account — 
not of the action yesterday, but of what I saw 
with my own eyes, hitherto not often deceived, 
and of what I heard with my own ears, which 
in tliis country are not so much to be trusted. 
I«t me, however, express an opinion as to the 
afEair of yesterday. In the first place, the re- 



pulse of the Federalists, decided as it was, 
might have had no serious effects whatever 
beyond the mere failure — which politically 
was of greater consequence than it was in a 
military sense — but for the disgraceful conduct 
of the troops. The retreat on their lines at 
Oentreville seems to have ended in a cowardly 
rout — a miserable, causeless panic. Such scan- 
dalous behavior on the part of soldiers I should 
have considered impossible, as with some ex- 
perience of camps and armies I have never 
even in alarms among camp-followers seen the 
like of it How far the disorganization of the 
troops extended, I know not; but it was com- 
plete in the instance of more than one re^- 
ment. Washington this morning is crowded 
with soldiers without ofiScers, who have fled 
from Oentreville, and with '* three months* 
men," who are going home from the face of 
the enemy on the expiration of their term of 
enlistment. The streets, in spite of the rain, 
are crowded by people with anxious faces, and 
groups of wavering politicians are assembled 
at the comers, in the hotel passages, and the 
bars. If, in the present state of the troops, the 
Oonfederates were to make a march across the 
Potomac above Washington, turning the works 
at Arlington, the Oapitol might fall into their 
hands. Delay may place that event out of the 
range of probability. 

The North will, no doubt, recover the shock. 
Hitherto she has only said, *^ Go and fight for 
the Union." The South has exclaimed, '^ Let 
us fight for our rights." The North must put 
its best men into the battle, or she will inevi- 
tably fail before the energy, the personal hatred, 
and the superior fighting powers of her antag- 
onist. In my letters, as in my conversation, I 
have endeavored to show that the task which 
the Unionists have set themselves is one of no 
ordinary difi&culty ; but in the state of arro- 
gance and supercilious confidence, either real 
or affected to conceal a sense of weakness, one 
might as well have preached to the pyramid 
of Cheops. Indeed, one may form some notion 
of the condition of the public mind by observ- 
ing that journals conducted avowedly by men 
of disgraceful personal character — the be- 
whipped, and be-kicked, and unrecognized 
pariahs of sodety in New York — are, never- 
theless, in the very midst of repulse and de- 
feat, permitted to indulge in ridiculous rhodo- 
montade toward the nations of Europe, and to 
move our laughter by imi>otentIy malignant 
attacks on *^ our rotten old monarchy," while 
the stones of their bran-new Bepublio are tnia- 
bling about their ears. It will be amusing to 
observe the change of tone, for we can afford 
to observe and to be amused at the same time. 

On Saturday night I resolved to proceed to 
Gen. MoDowell^s army, as it was obvious to me 
that the repulse at BuU Run and the orders of 
the General directed against the excesses of Lis 
soldiery indicated serious defects in his army — 
not more serious, however, than I had reason 
to believe existed. How to get out was the 



DOCUMENTa 



63 



difficolty. The rnmors of great disaster and 
repulse had spread through the city. The liv- 
ery stable keepers, with one exception, refused 
to send out horses to the scene of action — at 
least the exception told me so. Senators and 
Congressmen were going to make a day of it, 
and all the vehicles and horses that could be 
procured were in requisition for the scene of 
action. This curiosity was aroused by the story 
that McDowell had been actually ordered to 
make an attack on Manassas^ and that Gen. 
Scott had given him till 12 o^clook to be master 
of Beanregard^s lines. If Gen. Bcott ordered 
the attack at all, I venture to sav he was merely 
the mouthpiece of the more violent civilians of 
the Government, who mistake intensity of feel- 
ing for military strength. The consequences 
of the little skirmish at Bull Run, ending in the 
repolse of the Federalists, were much exagger- 
ated, and their losses were put down at any 
figures the fancy of the individual item who 
was speaking suggested. *'I can assure you, 
sir, that the troops had 1,500 killed and wound- 
ed ; I know it." I went off to the head-quar- 
tera, and there Gen. Scott^s Aid informed me 
that Gen. McDoweirs ofSolal report gave 6 
killed and 87 wounded. The livery keepers 
stuck to the 1,500 or 2,000. The greater the 
number kitn ds combat, the higher the tariff 
for the hire of quadrupeds. All I <oould do was 
to get a kind of cabriolet, with a seat in front 
for the driver, to which a pole was affixed for 
two horses, at a Derby-day price, a strong led 
horse, which Indian experiences iiave induced 
me always to rely upon m the neighborhood of 
uncertain fighting. I had to enter into an 
agreement with the owner to pay him for 
horses and buggy if they were '^ captured or 
injured by the enemy," and though I smiled at 
his precautions^ they proved not quite unrea- 
sonable. The master made no provision for 
indenmityin the case of injury to the driver, or 
the colored boy who rode the saddle-horse. 
When I spoke with officers at Gen. 8cott*s 
head- quarters of the expedition, it struck me 
they were not at all sanguine about the result 
of the day, and one of them said as much as in- 
duced me to think he would advise me to re- 
main in the city, if he did not take it for grant- 
ed it was part of my duty to go to the scene of 
action. An Engli^ gentleman who accom- 
panied me was strongly dissuaded from going 
by a colonel of cavalry on the staff, because, he 
said, '* the troops are green, and no one can tell 
what may happen." But my friend got his pass 
from Gen. Scott^ who was taking the whole 
affiur of Bull Run and the pressure of the mor- 
row's work with perfect calm, and we started 
on Sunday morning— not so early as we ought, 
perhaps^ which was none of my fault — for Cen- 
treviDe, distant about 25 miles south-west of 
Washington. I purposed starting in the beau- 
ttfol moonlight, so as to arrive at MoDowell^s 
camp in the early dawn ; but the aides could 
not or would not give us the countersign over 
the Long Bridge, and without it no one could 



get across until after 5 oVlock in the morning* 
When McDowell moved away, he took so many 
of the troops about Arlington that the campt 
and forts are rather denud^ of men. I do not 
give, as may be observed, the names of regi- 
ments, unless in special cases — ^first, because 
they possess little interest, I conceive, for those 
in Europe who read these letters ; and second- 
ly, because there is on exceedingly complex 
system — at least to a foreigner— of nomencla- 
ture in the forces, and one may make a mistake 
between a regiment of volunteers and a regi- 
ment of State militia of the same number, or 
even of regulars in the lower figures. The sol- 
diers lounging about the forts and over the 
Long Bridge across the Potomac were an ex- 
ceedingly unkempt, ^Moafing" set of fellowflu 
who handled their firelocks like pitchforks and 
spades, and I doubt if some of those who read 
or tried to read our papers could understand 
them, as they certainly did not speak English. 
The Americans possess excellent working ma- 
terials, however, and I have had occasion re- 
peatedly to remark the rapidity and skill with 
which they construct earthworks. At the Vir^ 
glnia side of the Long Bridge there is now a 
very strong UU de pont^ supported by the 
regular redoubt on tne hill over the road. 
These works did not appear to be strongly 
held, but it is possible men were in the tents 
near at hand, deserted though they seemed, 
and at all events reinforcements could be 
speedily poured in if necessary. 

The long and weary way was varied by dif- 
ferent pickets along the rood, and by the exam- 
ination of our papers and passes at different 
points. But the country looked vacant, in 
spite of crops of Indian corn, for the houses 
were shut up, and the few indigenous people 
whom we met looked most blackly under their 
brows at the supposed abolitionists. This por- 
tion of Virginia is well wooded, and undulat- 
ing in heavy, regular waves of field and forest; 
but the roads are deeply cut, and filled with 
loose stones, very disagreeable to ride or drive 
over. The houses are of wood, with the 
usual negro huts adjoining them, and the speci- 
mens of the race which I saw were well- 
dressed, and not ill-looking. On turning into 
one of the roads which leads to Fairfax Court- 
House, and to Centreville beyond it, the distant 
sound of cannon reached us. That must have 
been about 9^ a. m. It never ceased all day ; at 
least, whenever the rattle of the gig ceased, the 
booming of cannon rolled through the woods 
on our ears. One man said it began at 2 
oVlook, but the pickets told us it had really 
become continuous about 7^ or 8 o^clock. In 
a few minutes afterward, a body of men ap- 
peared on the road, with their backs toward 
Centreville, and their faces toward Alexandria. 
Their march was so disorderly that I could not 
have believed they were soldiers in an enemy's 
country — for Virginia hereabout is certainly so 
— but for their arms and uniform. It soon ap- 
peared that there was no less than an entire 



u 



SEBELUON HSCORC, 18eO-6I. 



regiment murcbing away, singly or in small 
knots of two ur tliree, eitendioK for some tliree 
or four milea uIodk the road. A Babel of 
tongues rose from them, and they were all in 
good spirits, but with an air about them I could 
not understand. Dismounting at a strcntn 
where a group of thirsty men were drioking 
and haltiug in the shade, I asked an oflicer, 
"Where are yonr men going, sir?" "Well, 
we're going home, sir, I reckon, to Fcnnsy]- 
vania." It was the 4th Pennsylvania Eegiment, 
which was on its march, as I learned from the 
men. " I suppose there is Bevere work going 
on behind you, judging from the firing t" 
" Wei!, I reckon, sir, there is." " We're going 
home," he added after a pause, during which it 
occniTed to him, perhaps, that the movement 
required explanation — " because the men's time 
ia up. We have Jiad three mooths of thi» 
work." I proceeded on my way, ruminating 
on the feehngs of a General wlio sees half a 
brigade walk quietly away on the very morn- 
ing of an action, and on tiio frame of mind of 
the men, who would have shouted till they 
were hoarse about their beloved Union^pos- 
wbly liave hunted down any poor crentura who 
expressed a belief that it was not the very 
qnintes.sence of every thing great and good in 
government, and glorious and omnipotent in 
anna — coolly turning their backs on it wlien in 
its utmost peril, because the letter of their en- 
gagement bound them no further. Perhaps the 
ith Pennsylvania were right, but let ns hear no 
mora of tho excellence oF three months' service 
Tolunteera, And so we left them. The road 
was devious and difficult. There were few 
persons on their way, for most of the Senators 
and Congrcf'smcn were on before us. Seme 
few commi^Anriat wagons were overtaken at 
intervals. Wherever there was a bonse by the 
roadside, tho negroes wore listening to t' 
firing. All at once a terrific object appeared 
the wood above tlie trees — the dome of 
church or public building, apparently suffering 
from the sliocks of an earthquake, and heaving 
to and fro in tho most violent 
much doubt we approaclicd as 
borses' minds would let ns, and discovered that 
tbe etnmgo thing was an inflated balloon air 
tached to a car and wogon, which 
way to enable Gen. McDowell to 
the position he was then engaged in attacking 
—Just a day too late. The operators and 
tendants swore as horribly as tho warriors 
Flanders, but they could not cnnie down (he 
trecis and r-.i the balloon seems likely to fall 
into the haiul- i>l' the Confederates. About 11 
o'clock wo III.;:, Ill lo enter on the disputed ter- 
ritory which liiiil just been abandoned by the 
Secessionists to ibe Federalists in front of Fair- 
lax Conrt-Uouse. It is not too much to fb.v, 
that the work* llirnwn up across the road were 
IS and make-believes, and that the Confed- 
Bver inifinded to occupy the position at 
to lure on tne Federalists to 
) they were prepared to meet 




tbem. Had it been otherwise, the earthworks 
onjd have tieen of a different character, sod 
the troops would have had regular camps uid 
tents, instead of bivouac hnta and branches of 
I. Of course, the troops of tbe enemy did 
not wish to be cut off, and go they had cnt 
down trees to place across the road, and put 
some field-pieces in their earthworks to com- 
mand it. On no side c«uld Richmond be to 
well defended. The Confederates had it mnch 
at heart to indnce their enemy to come to tbe 
strongest place and attack them, and they nc- 
cceded in doing so. But, if the troops behaved 
as ill in other places as they did at Manafsss, 
the Federalists could not have been snccebffDl 
in any attack whatever. In order that the 
preparations at Uanassas may bo nndentood, 
and that Gen. Beauregard, of whose character 
I gave some liint at Charleston, may be known 
at home as regards his fitness for his work, 
above all as an officer of artillery and of ebill 
in working it in field or in position, let us 
insert a de^cnption of the place and of the mm 
from a Southern paper ; — 

" VtHiittt JtmoTioVi Viionni, Jnn* 1, IftL 
" Tills place etill continues the hcad-qnartcr* 
of the army of the Potomac. There are msny 
indieatioDB of an intended forward moTcmcnt, 
the better ia, invite the enemy to an cngsge- 
ment, but the work of fortification still con- 
tinues. By nature, the position is one of the 
Etrongest that could have bceu found in tbe 
whole State. About half-way between the 
eastern spur of the Blue Bidge ond the Poto- 
mac, below Alexandria, it commands the whole 
coimtry between eo perfectly, that there is 
scarcely a potsibility of its being turned. The 
right wing stretches ofi' toward tlie heid-ws- 
tcrs of the Oecoqnan, through a wooded conn- 
trv, which is easily made impassable by the 
felling of trees. The left is aroiling table-lsnd, 
cnsily commanded from the succefsive eleva- 
tions, till yon reach a country so rough and so 
rugged that it is a defence to itself. The ley 
to the whole position, in fact, is precisely llial 
point which Gen. Bt auregard chose for hia cen- 
tre, and wliich he has fortified so strongly, that, 
in the opinion of military men, 6,000 men could 
there hold 20,000 at bay. The position, in fact, 
is fortified in pnrt by nature herself. It is a 
succession of hills, nearly equidistant from each 
other, in front of which is a ravine so deep (ind 
so thickly wooded that it is passable only at 
two points, and those through gorges which 
60 men can defend against a whole army, ll 
was at one of these points that the Washington 
artillery (of New Orleans) were at first en- 
camped, and though only half the battalion 
was then there, and wo had only one compfiny 
of infantry to support ue, we slept as soundly 
under the protection of our guns as if we liad 
been in a fort of the amplest dimensions. Of 
the fortifications superadded here by Gen. Bean- 
regard to those of nature, it is, nf course, not 
proper for mo to apeak. The general reader 



DOCCUSNTS. 



66 



in fdct^ will have a sufficiently precise idea of 
them b J conceiving a line of forts some two 
miles in extent, zigzag in form, with angles, 
salients, bastions, casemates, and every thing 
that properly belongs to works of this kind. 
The strength and advantages of this position at 
Manassas are very much increased by the fact 
that 14 miles farther on is a position of similar 
formation, while the country between is ad- 
mirably adapted to the subsistence and in- 
trenchment of troops in numbers as large as 
tiiey can easily be manoeuvred on the real 
battle-field. Water is good and abundant, for- 
age such as is everywhere found in the rich 
fSuming districts of Virginia, and the commn- 
nicatioQ with all parts of the country easy. 
Here, overlooking an extensive plain, watered 
by mountain streams which ultimately find 
their way to the Potomac ; and divided into 
verdant fields of wheat, and oats, and corn, 
pasture and meadow, are the head-quarters of 
the advanced forces of the army of the Poto- 
mac They are South Carolinians, Louisian- 
iana, Alabamians, Mississippians, and Virgi- 
nians, for the most part ; the first two, singular 
enongh, being in front, and that they will keep 
it, their friends at home may rest assured. 
Never have I seen a finer body of men — men 
who were more obedient to discipline, or 
breathed a more self-sacrificing patriotism. 
As might be expected from the skill with 
which he has chosen his position, and the sys- 
tem with which he encamps and moves his 
men. Gen. Beauregard is very popular here. 
I doubt if Napoleon himself had more the un- 
divided confidence of his army. By nature, as 
alio from a wise policy, he is very reticent. 
Not an individual here knows his plans or a 
ungle move of a regiment before it is made, 
and tlien only the colonel and his men know 
where it goes to. There is not a man here 
who can give any thing like a satisfactory an- 
swer how many men he has, or where his exact 
lines are. For the distance of 14 miles around, 
you see tents everywhere, and from them you 
can make a rough estimate of his men ; but how 
many more are encamped on the by-roads and 
in the forests, none can tell. The new-comer, 
from what he sees at first glance, puts down the 
numbers at about 80,000 men ; those who have 
been here longest estimate his force at 40,000, 
50,000, and some even at 60,000 strong. And 
ihere is the same discrepancy as to the quan- 
tity of his artillery. So clos3 does the general 
keep his affairs to himself, that his left hand 
hardly knows what his right hand doeth, and 
so jealoas is he of this prerogative of a com- 
manding officer, that I verily believe, if he sus- 
pected his coat of any acquaintance with the 
plans revolving within him, ho would cast 
it off." 

It was noon when we arrived at Fairfax 
Court-nouse — a poor village of some 30 or 40 
ctraggling wooden and brick houses, deriving 
its name from tho building in which the Circuit 



Court of the county is held, I believe, and 
looking the reverse of flourishing — ^and one 
may remark, obiter, that the state of this part 
of Virginia cannot be very prosperous, inas- 
much as there was not a village along the road 
up to this point, and no shops or depots, only 
one mill, one blacksmith and wheelwright. 
The village was held by a part of the reserve 
of McDowell's force, possibly 1,000 strong. 
The inhabitants were, if eyes spoke truth, se- 
cessionists to a man, woman and child, and even 
the negroes looked extra black, as if they did 
not care about being foaght for. A short way 
beyond this village, Germantown, the scene of 
the recent exceases of the Federalists, afforded 
evidence in its blackened ruins that Gen. Mc- 
Dowell's censure was more than needed. Let 
me interpolate it, if it be only to show that Gren. 
Beauregard and his rival are at least equd in 
point of literary power as masters of the Eng- 
lish tongue : 

" IISAB-QUARTXRS DePASTMS5T OF VlRGntlA, ) 

Fairvaz Court- Housb, July 18. \ 

" Gensbal OsnEBB, No. 18. — ^It is with the 
deepest mortification the general commanding 
finds it necessary to reiterate his orders for the 
preservation of the property of the inhabitants 
of the district occupied by the troops under 
his command. Hardly had we arrived at this 
place, when, to the horror of every right-mind- 
ed person, several houses were broken open, 
and others were in fiames, by the act of some 
of those who, it has been the boast of the loyal, 
came here to protect the oppressed, and free 
the country from the domination of a hated 
party. The property of this people is at the 
mercy of troops who, wo rightly say, are the 
most intelligent, best educated, and most law- 
abiding of any that ever were under arms. But 
do not, therefore, the acts of yesterday cast tho 
deepest stain upon them ? It was claimed by 
some that their particular corps were not en- 
gaged in these acts. This is of but little mo- 
ment; since tho individuals are not found out, 
we are all alike disgraced. Commanders of 
regiments will select a commissioned officer as 
a provost-marshal, and ten men as a police 
force under him, whose special and sole duty 
it shall be to preserve the property from depre- 
dations, and to arrest all wrong-doers, of what- 
ever regiment or corps they may be. Any one 
found committing tho slightest depredation, 
killing pigs or poultry, or trespassing on the 

Eroperty of the inhabitants, will be reported to 
cad-quarters, and the least that will be done 
to them will be to send them to the Alexandria 
jail. It is again ordered, that no one shall 
arrest, or attempt to arrest, any citizen not in 
arms at the time, or search or attempt to 
search any house, or even to enter the same 
without permission. The troops must behave 
themselves with as much forbearance and pro- 
priety as if they were at their own homes. 
They are here to fight the enemies of the coun- 
try, not to judge and punish tho unarmed and 
defenceless, however guilty they may be. 



66 



REBELLIOK BEOORD, 1860-61. 



When necessary, that will be done bj the prop- 
er person. 

*^ By command of Gen. McDowell : 
" James B. Fbt, Assistant Adjutant-General." 

The chimney stacks, being of brick, are the 
sole remains of the few good houses in the vil- 
lage. Here our driver made a mistake, whidii 
was the rather persisted in, that a colored chat- 
tel infonhed us we could get to Oentreville by 
the route we were pursuing, instead of turning 
back to Germantown, as we should have done. 
Oentreville was still seven miles ahead. The 
guns sounded, however, heavily from the val- 
leys. Rising above the forest tops appeared 
the blue masses of the AUeghanies, and we 
knew Manassas was somewhere on an outlying 
open of the ridges, which reminded me in color 
and form of the hills around the valley of Baidar. 
A Virginian who came out of a cottage, and 
who was assuredly no descendant of Madame 
Esmond, told us that we were ^^ going wrong 
riglit away.'' There was, he admitted, a by- 
road somewhere to the left front, but people 
who had tried its depths had returned to Ger- 
mantown with the conviction that it led to any 
place but Oentreville. Our driver, however, 
wished to try "if tliere were no Seseshers 
about ? " " What did you say ? " quoth the Vir- 
ginian. " I want to know if there are any Se- 
cessionists there." " Secessionists t " 0° a vio- 
lent surprise, as if he had heard of them for 
the first time in his life.) " No, Sir-ee, Seces- 
sionists indeed I " And all this time Beaure- 
gard and Lee were pounding away on our left 
front, some six or seven miles off. The horses 
retraced their steps, the colored youth who 
bestrode my charger complaining that the mys- 
terious arrangement which condemns his race 
to slavery was very much abraded by the action 
of that spirited quadruped, combined, or rather 
at variance with the callosities of the English 
saddle. From Germantown, onward by the 
right road, there was nothing very remarka- 
ble. At one place a group of soldiers were 
buying " Secession money " from some negroes, 
who looked as if they could afford to part with 
it as cheaply as men do who are dealing with 
other people's property. Buggies and wagons 
(Anglic^, carriages) with cargoes of senators, 
were overtaken. The store cars became more 
numerous. At last Oentreville appeared in 
sight — a few houses on our front, beyond which 
rose a bald hill — the slopes covered with biv- 
ouac huts, commissariat carts and horses, and 
the top crested with spectators of the fight. 
The road on each side was full of traces of 
Confederate camps ; the houses were now all 
occupied by Federalists. In the rear of the hill 
was a strong body of infantry — two regiments 
of foreigners, mostly Germans, with a battery 
of light artillery. Our buggy was driven up to 
the top of the hill. The colored boy was de- 
spatched to the village to look for a place to 
shelter the horses while they were taking a 
much required feed, and to procure, if possible, I 



a meal for himself and the driver. On the biH 
there were carriages and vehicles drawn up as 
if they were attending a small country race. 
They were afterwards engaged in a race of 
another kind. In one was a lady with an 
opera-glass ; in and around and on others were 
legislators and politicians. There were also a 
few civilians on horseback, and on the slope of 
the hill a regiment had stacked arms, and was 
engaged in looking at and commenting on the 
battle below. The landscape in front was open 
to the sight as far as the ranges of the AJle- 
ghanies, which swept round from the right in 
blue mounds, the color of which softened into 
violet in the distance. On the left the view 
was circumscribed by a wood, whidi receded 
along the side of the hill on which we stood to 
the plain below. Between the base of the hiD, 
which rose about 150 feet above the general 
level of the country, and the foot of the lowest 
and nearest elevation of the opposite AUegha- 
niea, extended about five miles, as well as I 
could judge, of a densely wooded country, dot- 
ted at intervals with green fields and patches 
of cleared lands. It was marked by easy longi- 
tudinal undulations, indicated by the form of 
the forests which clothed them, and between 
two of the more considerable ran small streams, 
or " runs," as they are denominated, from the 
right to the left. Close at hand a narrow road 
descended the hill, went straight into the for- 
est, where it was visible now and then among 
the trees in cream-colored patches. This road 
was filled with commissariat wagons, the white 
tops of which were visible for two miles in our 
front. 

On our left front a gap in the lowest chain 
of the hills showed the gap of Manassas, and to 
the left and nearer to me lay the " Junction " 
of the same name, where the Alexandria Railway 
unites with the rail from the west of Virginia, 
and continues the route by rails of various de- 
nominations to Richmond. The scene was so 
peaceful, a man might well doubt the evidence 
of one's sense that a great contest was being 
played out below in bloodshed, or imagine, as 
Mr. Seward sometimes does, that it was a delu- 
sion when he wakes in the morning and finds 
there is civil war upon him. But the cannon 
spoke out loudly from the green bushes, and the 
plains below were mottled, so to speak, by puffs 
of smoke and by white rings from bursting sheUs 
and capricious howitzers. It was no review 
that was going on beneath us. The shells gave 
proof enough of that, though the rush of the 
shot could not be heard at the distance. Clouds 
of dust came up in regular lines through the 
tree-tops where infantry were acting, and now 
and then their wavering mists of light-blue 
smoke curled up, and the splutter of musketry 
broke through the booming of the guns. With 
the glass I could detect, now and then, the flash 
of arms through the dust-clouds in the open, 
but no one could tell to which side the troops 
who were moving belonged, and I could only 
judge from the smoke whether the guns were 



DOCUMENTa. 



51 



fired toward or away from the hill. It was 
eyident that the dust in the distance on onr 
right extended beyond that which rose from 
the Federalists. The view toward the left, as 
I have said, was interrupted, but the firing was 
rather more heavy there than on the front or 
right flank, and a glade was pointed out in the 
forest as the beginning of Bull or Poolers Run, 
OS the other side of which the Confederates 
were hid in force, though they had not made 
any specific reply to the shells thrown into 
their cover early in the morning. There seemed 
to be a continuous line, which was held by 
the enemy, from which came steady solid firing 
against what might be supposed to be heads of 
columns stationed at various points, or advanc- 
ing against them. It was necessary to feed the 
horses and give them some rest after a hot 
drive of some 26 or 27 miles, or I would have 
proceeded at once to the front. As I was 
watching the faces of the Senators and Con- 
gressmen, I thought I had heard or read of 
tuch a scene as this — but there was much more 
to come. The soldiers, who followed each shot 
with remarks in English or (rerman, were not 
as eager as men generally are in watching a 
fight. Once, as a cloud of thick smoke ascend- 
ed from tiie trees, a man shouted out, *' Tbat's 
good ; weVe taken another battery : there goes 
the magazine.'* But it looked like, and I be- 
iiere was, the explosion of a caisson. In the 
midst of our little reconnoissance, Mr. Vize- 
telly, who has been living, and indeed march- 
ing, with one of the regiments as artist of The 
lUuatrated London Neuis^ came up and told us 
the action had been commenced in splendid 
style by the Federalists, who had advanced 
steadily, driving the Confederates before tihem 
— a part of the plan, as I firmly believe, to 
bring them under the range of their guns. He 
believed the advantages on the Federal side 
were decided, though won with hard fighting, 
and he had just come up to Centreville to look 
after something to eat and drink, and to pro- 
cure little necessaries, in case of need, for his 
comrades. His walk very probably saved his 
life. Having seen all that could be discerned 
through our glasses, my friend and myself had 
made a feast on our sandwiches in the shade 
of the bu^y ; my horse was eating and rest- 
ing, and I was forced to give him half an hour 
or more before I mounted, and meantime tried 
to make out the plan of battle, but all was ob- 
flcore and dark. Suddenly up rode an officer, 
with a crowd of soldiers after him, from the 
village. " We've whipped tliem on all points! " 
he shouted. ^ WeVe taken their batteries, and 
they're all retreating ! " Such an uproar as 
followed I The spectators and men cheered 
again and again, amid cries of '^ Bravo 1 " 
*• Bully for us ! " »» Didn't I tell you so ? " and 
guttural " hochs ^ from the Deutscliland folk, 
and loud " hurroors" from the Irish. Soon 
afterward my horse was brought up to the hill, 
and my friend and the gentleman I have al- 
ready mentioned set out to walk toward t^e 



front — ^the latter to rejoin his regiment, if pos- 
sible, the former to get a closer view of the 
proceedings. As I turned down into the nar- 
row road or lane already mentioned, there was 
a forward movement among the large four- 
wheeled tilt wagons, which raised a good deal 
of dust. My attention was particularly called 
to this by the occurrence of a few minutes 
afterward. I had met my friends on the road, 
and after a few words, rode forward at a long 
trot as well as I could past the wagons and 
through the dust, when suddenly there arose a 
tumult in front of me at a small bridge across 
the road, and then I perceived the drivers of a 
set of wagons with the horses turned toward 
me, who were endeavoring to force their way 
against the stream of vehicles setting in the 
other direction. By the side of the new set of 
wagons there were a number of commissariat 
men and soldiers, whom at first sight I took to 
be the bageage guard. They looked excited 
and alarmed, and were running by the side of 
the horses — in front the dust quite obscured 
the view. At the bridge the currents met in 
wild disorder. ** Turn back I Retreat I " shout- 
ed the men from the front. " We're whipped 1 
we're whipped 1 " They cursed, and togged at 
the horses' heads, and struggled with frenzy to 
get past. Running by me on foot was a man 
with the shoulder-straps of an officer. ** Pray, 
what is the matter, sir?" "It means we're 
pretty badly whipped, and that's a fact," he 
blurted out in puffs, and continued his career. 
I observed that he carried no sword. Tha 
teamsters of the advancing wagons now caught 
up the cry. •* Turn back— turn your horses ! " 
was the shont up the whole line, and, backing, 
plunging, rearing, and kicking, the horses which 
nad been proceeding down the road, reversed 
front and went off toward Centreville. Those 
behind them went madly rushing on, the driv- 
ers being quito indifferent whether glory or 
disgrace led the way, provided they could find 
it. In the midst of this extraordinary specta- 
cle, an officer, escorted by some dragoons, rode 
throagh the ruck with a light cart in charge. 
Another officer on foot, with his sword under 
his arm, ran up against me. " What is all this 
about ? " " Why, we're pretty badly whipped. 
We're all in retreat. There's General Tjrler 
there, badly wounded." And on he ran. There 
came yet another, who said, " We're beaten on 
all points. The whole army is in retreat" 
Still there was no flight of troops, no retreat 
of an army, no reason for all this precipitation. 
True, there were many men in uniform flying 
toward the rear, but it did not appear as if 
they were beyond the proportions of a lorge 
baggage escort. I got my horse up into the 
field out of the road, and went on rapidly tow- 
ards the front. Soon I met soldiers, who were 
coming through the com, mostly without ai*m8 ; 
and presently I saw firelocks, cooking-tms, 
knapsacks, and greatcoats on the ground, and 
observed that the confusion and speed of the 
ba^oge carts became greater, and that many 



68 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



of them were crowded with men, or were fol- 
lowed by others, who clung to them. The 
ambulances were crowded with soldiers, but it 
did not look as if there were many wounded. 
Kegro servants on led horses dashed frantically 
past; men in uniform, whom it were a dis- 
grace to the profession of arms to call ^* soldiers," 
swarmed by on mules, chargers, and even 
draught horses, wliich had been cut out of 
carts or wagons, and went on with harness 
clinging to their heels, as frightened as their 
riders. Men literally screamed with rage and 
fright when their way was blocked up. On I 
rode, asking all, "What is all this about? " and 
now and then, but rarely, receiving the an- 
swer, "We're whipped ; " or, " We're repulsed." 
Faces black and dusty, tongues out in the heat, 
eyes staring — it was a most wonderful sight. 
Oq they came, like him, 

"Who, havin); onoo tarned roond, goes on, 
And turns no in(»ro his head. 
For ho knuweth that a teuxtnl fiend 
Doth cluM behind him tread.*' 

But where was the fiend ? I looked in vain. 
There was, indeed, some cannonading in firont 
of me and in their rear, but still the firing was 
comparatively distant, and the runaways were 
far out of range. As I advanced, the number 
of carts diminished, but the mounted men in- 
creased, and the column of fugitives became 
denser. A few buggies and light w^agons filled 
with men, whose faces would have made up 
" a great Leporello" in the ghost scene, tried 
to pierce the roar of the mass of carts, which 
were now solidified and moving on like a gla- 
cier. I crossed a small ditch by the roadside, 
got out on the road to escape some snake fences, 
and, looking before me, saw there was still a 
orowd of men in uniforms coming along. The 
road was strewn with articles of clothing — 
firelocks, waist-belts, cartouch-boxes, caps, 
greatcoats, mess-tins, musical instruments, 
cartridges, bayonets and sheaths, swords and 
pistols — even biscuits, water-bottles, and pieces 
of meat. Passing a white house by the road- 
side, I saw, for the first time, a body of infan- 
try with sloped arms marching regularly and 
rapidly towards me. Their faces were not 
blackened by powder, and it was evident they 
had not been engaged. In reply to a question, 
a non-commissioned ofiicer told me in broken 
English, " We fell back to our lines. The at- 
tack did not quite succeed." This was assuring 
to one who had come through such a scene as 
I had been witnessing. I had ridden, I sup- 
pose, about three or three- and-a- half miles 
fh)m the hill, though it is not possible to be 
sure of the distance ; w^hen, having passed the 
white house, I came ont on an onen piece of 
ground, beyond and circling which was forest. 
Two field-pieces were unlimbered and guarding 
the road ; the panting and jaded horses in the 
rear looked as though they had been hard 
worked, and the gunners and drivers looked 
worn and dejected. Dropping shots sounded 
dose in front through the woods ; but the guns 



on the left no longer maintained their fire. I 
was just about to ask one of the men for a light, 
when a sputtering fire on my right attracted 
my attention, and out of the forest or along the 
road rushed a number of men. The gunners 
seized the trail of the nearest piece to wheel it 
round upon them ; others made for the tum- 
brils and horses as if to fiy, when a shout was 
raised, "Don't fire; theyVe our own men;" 
and in a few minutes on came pell-mell a whole 
regiment in disorder. I rode across one, and 
stopped him. "WeVe pursued by cavalry," 
he gasped, " theyVe cut us all to pieces." As 
he spoke, a shell burst over the column ; an- 
other dropped on the road, and out streamed 
another column of men, keeping together with 
their arms, and closing up the stragglers of the 
first regiment. I turned, and to my snrprise 
saw the artillerymen had gone ofi^, leaving one 
gun standing by itself. They had retreated 
with their horses. While we were on the hill, 
I had observed and pointed out to my compan- 
ions a cloud of dust which rose through the 
trees on our right front. In my present posi- 
tion that place must have been on the right 
rear, and it occurred to me that after all there 
really might be a body of cavalry in that direc- 
tion ; but Murat himself would not have charg- 
ed these wagons in that deep, well-fenced lane. 
If the dust came, as I believe it did, from field- 
artillery, that would be a difierent matter. Any 
way it was now well established that the re- 
treat had really commenced, though I saw but 
few wounded men, and the regiments which 
were falling back had not sufiered much loss. 
No one seemed to know any thing for cer- 
tain. Even the cavalry charge was a rumor. 
Several ofilcers said they had carried guns and 
lines, but then they drifted into the nonsense 
which one reads and hears everywhere about 
" masked batteries." One or tw^o talked more 
sensibly about the strong positions of the ene- 
my, the fatigue of their men, the want of a re- 
serve, severe losses, and the bad conduct of 
certain regiments. Kot one spoke as if he 
thought of retiring beyond Centrevillc. The 
clouds of dust rising above the woods marked 
the retreat of the whole army, and the crowda 
of fugitives continued to steaJ away along the 
road. The sun was declining, and some thirty 
miles yet remained to be accomplished ere I 
could hope to gain the shelter of Washington. 
No one knew whither any corps or regiment 
was marching, but there were rumors of all 
kinds — " The 69tli are cut to pieces," " The Fire 
Zouaves are destroyed," and so on. Presently 
a tremor ran through the men by whom I waa 
riding, as the sharp reports of some field-pieces 
rattled through the wood close at hand. A 
sort of subdued roar, like the voice of distant 
breakers, rose in front of us, and the soldiers^ 
who were, I think, Germans, broke into a 
double, looking now and then over their should- 
ers. There was no choice for me but to resign 
any further researches. The mail from Wnsh- 
ington for the Wednesday steamer at Bostou 



DOCUMENTS. 



59 



leaves at 2^ on Monday, and so I put my horse 
into a trot, keeping in the fields alongside the 
roads as much as I could, to avoid the fugitives, 
till I came once more on the rear of the hag- 
gage and store carts, and the pressure of the 
crowd, who, conscious of the aid which the 
Tehides would afford them against a cavalry 
charge, and fearful, nevertheless, of their prox- 
imitj, clamored and shouted like madmen as 
they ran. The road was now literally covered 
with baggage. It seemed to me as if the men 
inside were throwing the things out purposely. 
" Stop," cried I to the driver of one of the carts, 
** every thing is falling out." " you," shout- 
ed a fellow inside, " if you stop him, 111 blow 
yonr brains out" My attempts to save Uncle 
Sam's property were then and there discon- 
tinued. 

On approaching Oentreville, a body of Ger- 
man iu&ntry of the reserve came marching 
down, and stemmed the current in some de- 
gree ; they were followed by a brigade of guns 
and another battalion of fresh troops. I turned 
up on the hill half a mile beyond. The vehi- 
cles had all left but two — my buggy was gone. 
A battery of field- guns was in position where 
we had been standing. The men looked well. 
As yet there was nothing to indicate more than 
a retreat, and some ill-behavior among the 
wagoners and the riff-raff of different regi- 
ments. Centreville was not a bad position 
properly occupied, and I saw no reason why it 
should not be held if it was meant to renew 
the attack, nor any reason why the attack 
should not be renewed, if there had been any 
why it should have been made. I swept the 
field onoe more. The clouds of dust were 
denser and nearer. That was all. There was 
no firing — ^no musketry. I turned my horse's 
head and rode away through the village, and 
after I got out upon the road the same confu- 
sion seemed to prevail. Suddenly the guns on 
the hill opened, and at the same time came tlie 
thuds of artillery from the wood on the right 
rear. The stampede then became general. 
What occurred at the hill I cannot say, but all 
the road from Oentreville for miles presented 
such a sight as can only be witnessed in the 
track of the runaways of an utterly demorsdized 
army. Drivers flogged, lashed, spurred, and 
beat their horses, or leaped down and aban- 
doned their teams, and ran by the side of the 
road ; mounted men, servants, and men in uni- 
form, vehicles of all sorts, conmiissariat wag- 
ons, thronged the narrow ways. At every shot 
a convulsion, as it were, seized upon the mot- 
bid ma%a of bones, sinew, wood, and iron, and 
thrilled through it, giving new energy and action 
to its desperate efforts to get free from itself. 
Again the cry of "Oavalry" arose. "What 
are you afraid of? " said I to a man who was 
running beside me. " Tm not afraid of you I " 
replied the ruffian, levelling his piece at me, 
and pulling the trigger. It was not loaded, or 
the cap was not on, for the gun did not go off. 
I was unarmed, and I did go off as fast I could, 



resolved to keep my own counsel for the second 
time that day. And so the flight went on. At 
one time a whole mass of infantry, with fised 
bayonets, ran down the bank of the road, and 
some falling as they ran, must have killed and 
wounded those among whom they fell. As I 
knew the road would soon become impassable 
or blocked up, I put my horse to a gallop and 
passed on toward the front. But mounted men 
still rode faster, shouting out, " Cavalry are 
coming." Again I ventured to speak to some 
officers whom I overtook, and said, ** If these 
runaways are not stopped, the whole of the 
posts and pickets in Washington will fly 
also I " One of them, without saying a word, 
spurred his horse and dashed on in front. I do 
not know whether he ordered the movement 
or not, but the van of the fugitives was now 
suddenly checked, and, pressing on through tho 
wood at the roadside, I saw a regiment of in- 
fantry blocking up the way, with their front 
towards Oentreville. A musket was leveUed 
at my head as I pushed to the front — " Stop, 
or I'll fire." * At the same tune the officers 

* As a commentary on tho picture here jtresented, wo 
quote port of aa article in the Knickerbocker Magazine 
from an eye-witness of this part of the retreat, who met 
Mr. Rassell at tho terp head qfthe ttampede.— Editor. 

We pushed on toward th« Jield. Vehicles still passed 
moderatelyt but their occupants appeared unconscious of 
disaster or qf haste. The first itidlcatton of disturbed 
nerves met us in the shape of a soldier, rauslcetloas and 
coatiess, clinging to the bare back of a great bony, wogon- 
horac — sans reins, sans every thing. Man and boast camo 
panting along, each looking exhausted, and lust as they 

})as8 U9, the lioree tumbles down helpless in the road, and 
lis rider tumbles off and hobbles away, leaving tho horse 
to his own care and his own reflections. Btill wo pu«hed 
on. 

[Several visitors fh)m tho field, up to this time, had re- 
ported a complete victory of the Union troops.] 

About half-past four, x>09stbly nearer five, Centrevill© 
was still (as it proved) a mile or so ahead of us. Wa 
reached the top of a moderate rise in the road, and aa we 
plodded on down its slope, I turned a glance back along 
the road we had passed ; a thousand bayonets wero gleam* 
inor in the sunlight, and a full fresh regiment were over- 
taking us in double-quick stop, having come up (as I soon 
after learned) from Vienna. They reached the top of the 
hill Just as we began to pick our way across tho brook 
which flooded the road in the little valley below. At thia 
moment, looking up the ascent ahead of us, toward tho 
battle, wo saw army wagons, private vehicles, and some 
six or eight soldiers on horseback, rushing down the hill 
in front of us in exciting confueion, and a thick cloud of 
dust. The equestrian soldiers, it could be seen at a glance, 
were only impromptu horsemen, and their steeds were all 
unused to this molting mode, most of them being bare- 
backed. Their riders appeared to be in haste, for somo 
reason best known to inemselves. Among them, and 
rather loading tho van, was a solitary horseman of differ- 
ent aspect : ^ure somewhat stout, face round and broad, 
gentlemanly In aspect, but somewhat flushed and impa- 
tient, not to say anxious, in expression. Under a broad- 
brimmed hat a silk handkerchief screened his nock like » 
Havelock. He rode a fine horse, still in good condition, 
and his motto seemed to be "onward"— whether in per- 
sonal alarm or not, it would be impertinent to say. Ilia 
identity was apparent at a glance. As his horse reached 
the spot where we " five" stood together, thus suddenly 
headed off by tho stampede, the regiment behind us had 
reached the foot of the hill, and the colonel, a largo and 
resolute-looking man, had dashed his horse ahead of hia 
men, until he was face to face with the starapeders. 

"What are you doing heret" shonted the colonel in ft 
tone that " meant something." " Halt 1 " (to his men.) 
" Form across the road. Stop everyone of them P' Then 
turning to the white-faced soldiers irom tho field, and bran- 
dishing his sword, *' Back 1 book 1 tho whole of ye t Back I 



60 



REBELLION BEOORD, 1860-61. 



were shouting out, " Don't let a soul pass." I 
addressed one of them, and said, '^ Sir, I am a 
British subject. I am not, I assure you, run- 
ning away. I have done my best to stop this 
disgraceful rout, (as I had,) and have been tell- 
ing them there are no cavalry within miles of 
them." "I can't let you pass, sir." I bethought 
me of Gen. 8cott's pass. The ac^utant read it, 
and the word was given along the line, ^^ Let 
that man pass I " and so I rode through, uncer- 
tain if I could now gain the Long Bridge in time 
to pass over without the countersign. It was 
about this time I met a cart by the roadside 
surrounded by a group of soldiers, some of 
whom had '^ 69 " on their caps. The owner, 
as I took him to be, was in great distress, and 
cried out as I passed, " Can you tell me, sir, 
where the 69th are ? These men say they are 
cut to pieces." ** I can't tell you." " I'm in 
diarge of the mails, sir, and I will deliver them 

I say,** and their hones in an instant are mtAilng a reTereo 
movement up the hill, while the anxnr tvagons stand la 
$tatu quo: the thoaaand muskets of the regiment, in 
obedience rather to the fiction than to the vxwd of the 
colonel, being all pointed at the group In front, in the 
midst of which we stand. All this and much more pasaed 
in much leas time than it takes to tell it. 

" But, sir, if you will look at this paprr," thus spake our 
distinguished visitor In the advance to the determined and 
now excited colonel, ** you will see that I am a civilian, a 
■pectator merely, and that this is a special pasv,*' (hero I 
half-imagined a doubt of the character of the regiment 
flashed in for a second,) " a pass from General Scott." 

The manner and the tone indicated that the speaker and 
bis errand were entitled to attention. 

*' Pasa this man up," shouted the colonel somewhat 
bluntly and Impatient of delay ; and on galloped the ropre- 
■cntativo of the Thunderer toward Washington. 

Kow, the art of bragging and the habit of exaggeration 
are vices to which all wc Americans are but too much ad* 

dictecL But if I say that my friend T and myself 

stood In the midst of this mSlie much more impressed with 
its ludicrous plcturaaqueness than with any idea of per- 
aonal danger, my friend at least would agree that this was 
the Bimplo truth. The brief parley of " Our Own Corre- 
■pondent" suggested merely the thought that it was a pity 
auch a stranger should be annoyed by such a crowd ; I'd 
better say : '* Colonel, this is Mr. Ruescll of the London 
Times; pray don't detain him." jlowever, this all 
passed in a twinkling. Our two soldier-friends and the 
surgeon had pushed on between the wagons toward the 
field: the distant firing had ceased; the wagons quietlv 
stoodf still -, so T and I passed up through the regi- 
ment, which they told us was the First or Second New 
Jersey, Col. Montgomery, from the camp at Vienna ; and 
we eat down comfortably near a house at the top of the 
bill and waited to see " what next f " In less than ttcenty 
minutes the road was cleared and regulated ; the army 
uagona halted^ stiU in line^ on one side of the road ; the 
civilians were permitted to drive on as fast aa they pleased 
toward Washington ; the regiment deployed into a field 
on the opposite hill, and formed in lino of battle command- 
ing the road* a detachment was sent on to "clear the 
track" toward Centrevillo ; and presently the regiment 
itself marched up the road in the direction of the field of 
conflict. It was now about half-pasture. 

If wo two were not " cowards oo instinct," we might still 
be indiflerent to danger through mere Ignorance. This ia 
intended to be a simple and tnithful narrative anfy of 
what tM saw and did, not a philosophical analysis or an 
imaginative diMcrtation. The character, cause, extent, 
and duration of that strange panic have already become 
an historical problem. Tlierclore, I specially aim to avoid 
oU infcronces, guesses, and generalities, and to state with 
entire simplicity just what was done and said where we 
were. Of what parsed on tlio battle-field, or anywhere 
else, this witness cannot testify : he can only tell, with 
reasonable accuracy, what passed before his eyes, or re- 
I>eat whnt he heard directly nrom those who had ju*»t come 
•ingly trova the fight or the panic : so much will go for 
what it is worth, and no more. The separate sketcJies 
fivm ttil the difiTereut points of ^iew are needed for a com- 



if I die for it. Yon are a gentleman and I can 
depend on your word. Is it safe for me to go 
on ? " Not knowing the extent of the debdeie, 
I assured him it was, and asked the men of the 
regiment how they happened to be there. 
*^ Shure, the Colonel himself told us to go off 
every man on his own hook, and to fly for aar 
lives I " replied one of them. The mail agent, 
who told me he was an Englishman, started 
the cart again. I sincerely hope no bad resolt 
to himself or his charge followed my advice ; 
I reached Fairfax Court-House; the people, 
black and white, with anxious faces, were at 
the doors, and the infantry were under arma. 
I was besieged with questions, though hundreds 
of fugitives had passed through before me. At 
one house I stopped to ask for water for my 
horse ; the owner sent his servant for it cheer- 
fully, the very house whore we had in vain 
asked for something to eat in the forenoon. 

plcto picture, or for a conolnaive answer to the qvestfon: 
** Did a^l our army run away t " 

For us, two individuals who had not seen the battle or 
the first of the panic, but only this tail-end of it, no d1a> 
cnssion of the matter at the moment was thought of. 'W« 
didn't ask each other, or anybody else, whether it waa 
safe to stay there, or to go near the main armv. But if 
the question had been asked, car reply, merely ccholiif 
our thoughts at the moment, woold have heen thus :— 

" We have lost the day ; our army, or a part of It, after 
a sturdy fight of nine hours against the great cdds of a 
superior force, strongly intrcnch<id behind maski-d bat- 
teries, and after an actual victory, have fallen back at the 
last moment, and a part of one wing, with the wagons and 
outsiders, have started from the field in a sudden and on- 
accountable panic. But so long as we still have forty 
thousand men between us and the enemy, more than half 
of tljom freBh, in reserve, at Centrevillo ; so long as this, 
the only main road Potomac-wise from the field, is now 
quiet ai d clear, and 'order reigi s' at Centrcvllle, where 
our main body will rc^t : what is the use of being la a 
hurry? Let us rest awhile here, and then take our time 
and go on either Soath or North, as the appearaiice of 
things may warrant." Briefly and distinctly, no woxae 
view of the matter was Indicated by any thing we aaw or 
heard while wailing two socaa in that vtry spot in tba 
road where the panic was first stopped^ [and two houri 
after Mr. Ru.'sell had galloped on to write the teoraf ac- 
count of the disorder.] 

The writer of the above slept at Fairfax Court-IIonea 
long after Mr. Russell was safe In Washington. As Ute 
as 11 p. M., the straggling soldiers from the field 
were stopped and turned back hy platoons of tho rcserre 
at Fairfax ; and this was done as late aa 7 a. m. at Alex- 
andria. In corroboration of tho fact that all alarm and dl»> 
order had been cheeked immediately after Mr. RosaelPa 
hasty retreat, we quote the following from Mr. H. H. TUp 
ley, of Bristol, R. I., dated at Washington, July 24 . 

" Oar two companions, Bnrnham and Young, after pvali- 
ing ahead a little way on the track, repented of their temer- 
ity, and retraced their steps, as we did, to the station, and 
then took the rond, alM>, to Fairfax Conrt-Hoose ; but on 
reaching the road leading to Centreville, they turned into 
that, and by thus cutting off tho angle that we made, they 
were enabled to pass through that place, and cvf-n fret 
quite near to the battle-field— ftill aa near, in fact, aa I 
tnink we should have cared to, for Burnham says thai 
after they attacked tho hospital, and the retreat eom- 
menced, tney heard a cannon-ball whistle over their boada, 
which, I Infer, contributed In a slight degree to an accelera- 
tion or their movements. They say they were at tho place 
in the rond when Colonel Montgomery (as I see it was by 
the papers) made that fiunoua * halt I' of the light brigade, 
(Russtll and Company,) soon after it occurred, and they 
stopped there, procuring tea and a lodging at a house nfcer 
by. They btartod on their return tramp at about /trelve, 
[eight hours afterMr. Rnpsclls retreat,! and must have been 
only a little way behind us, all tho way— reaching hero ia 
less than an hour after wo did." 



DOCUMENTS. 



61 



" There^s a fright among them," I observed, in 
replj to his question respecting the commissa- 
riat drivers. " They're afraid of the enemy's 
cavalry.'* " Are you an American ? " said the 
man. '* No, I am not." " Well, then," he said, 
'" there will be cavalry on them soon enough. 
There's 20,000 of the best horsemen in the 
world in Virginia I " Washington was still 18 
miles away. The road was rough and uncer- 
tain, and sgaln my poor steed was under way, 
bat it wdfl of no use trying to outstrip the run- 
aways. Once or twice I imagined I heard guns 
in the rear, but I could not bo sui-e of it in con- 
sequence of the roar of the flight behind me. It 
was most surprising to see how far the foot 
soldiers had contrived to get on in advance. 
After sunset the moon rose, and amid other 
acquaintances, I jogged alongside an officer 
who was in charge of Ool. Hunter, the com- 
mander of a brigade, I believe, who was shot 
through the neck, and was inside a cart, es- 
corted by a few troopers. This officer was, as 
I understood, the migor or second in command 
of CoL Hunter's regiment, yet he had consid- 
ered it right to take charge of his chief, and to 
leave hb battalion. He said they had driven 
back the enemy with ease, but had not been sup- 
ported, and blamed — as bad officers and good 
ones will do — ^the conduct of the General : *^ So 
mean a fight I never saw." I was reminded of a 
Crimean General, who made us all merry by say- 
ing, after the first bombardment, *^ In the whole 
course of my experience I never saw a siege con- 
ducted on such principles as these." Our friend 
had been without food, but not, I suspect, 
without drink — and that, we know, affects 
empty stomachs very much — since two o'clock 
that morning. Now, what is to be thought of 
an officer — gallant, he may be, as steel — who 
says, as I heard this gentleman say to a picket 
who asked him how the day went in front, 
^^ Well, we've been licked into a cocked hat ; 
knocked to ^." This was his cry to team- 
sters escorts, convoys, the officers and men on 
guard and detachment, while I, ignorant of the 
disaster behind, tried to mollify the effect of 
the news by adding, ^^ Oh 1 it^s a drawn battle. 
The troops are reoccupying the position from 
which they started in the morning." Perhaps 
be knew his troops better than I did. It was 
a strange ride, through a country now still as 
death, the white road shining like a river in 
the moonlight, the trees black as ebony in the 
shade ; now and then a figure flitting by into 
the forest or across the road — frightened friend 
or lurking foe, who could say? Then the 
anxious pickets and sentries all asking, ^* What's 
the news?" and evidently preparS for any 
amount of loss. Twice or thrice we lost our 
way, or our certainty about it, and shouted at 
isolated houses, and received no reply, except 
from angry watch-dogs. Then we were set 
right as we approached Washington, by team- 
sters. For an hour, however, we seemed to be 
travelling along a road which, in all its points, 
far and near, was ^Hwelve miles &om the 



Long Bridge." Up hiUs, down into valleys, 
with the silent grim woods forever by our 
sides. Now and then, in the profound gloom, 
broken only by a spark from the horse's hoof, 
came a dull but familiar sound like the shut* 
ting of a distant door. As I approached Wash- 
ington, having left the Colonel and his escort 
at some seven miles on the south side of the 
Long Bridge, I found the grand guards, pickets* 
posts, and individual sentries burning for news, 
and the word used to pass along, " What does 
that man say. Jack ? " ^^ Begorra, he tells me 
we're not bet at all — only retraiting to the 
ould lines for oonvanienoy of fighting to-mor- 
row again. Oh, that's illiganti " On getting 
to the tete de pont, however, the countersign 
was demanded ; of course, I had not got it. 
But the officer passed me through on the pro- 
duction of Gen. Scott's safeguaid. The lights 
of the city were in sight ; and reflected by the 
waters of the Potomac, just glistened by the 
clouded moon, shone the gay lamps of the 
White House, where the President was* prob- 
ably entertaining some friends. In silence I 
passed over the Long Bridge. Some few hours 
later it quivered under the steps of a rabble of 
unarmed men. At the Washington end a regi- 
ment with piled arms were waiting to cross 
over into Virginia, singing and cheering. Be- 
fore the morning they received orders, I be- 
lieve, to assist in keeping Maryland quiet. For 
the hundredth time I repeated the cautions ac- 
count, which to the best of my knowledge was 
; true. There were men, women, and soldiers 
to hear it. The clocks had just struck 11 p. m. 
as I passed Willard's. The pavement in front 
of the hall was crowded. The rumors of de- 
feat had como in, but few of the many who 
had been fed upon lies and the reports of com- 
plete victory which prevailed could credit the 
intelligence. Seven hours had not elapsed be- 
fore the streets told the story. The '* Grand 
Army of the North," as it was called, had rep- 
resentatives in every thoroughfare, without 
arms> orders, or officers, standing out in the 
drenching rain. When all these most unac- 
countable phenomena were occurring, I was 
fast asleep, but I could scarce credit my in- 
formant in the morning, when he told me that 
the Federalists, utterly routed, had fallen back 
upon Arlington to defend the capital, leaving 
nearly 5 batteries of artillery, 8,000 muskets, 
immense quantities of stores and baggnge, and 
their wounded prisoners in the hands of the 
enemy I 

Let the American journals tell the story their 
own way. I have told mine as I know it. It 
has rained incessantly and heavily since early 
morning, and the country is quite unUt for 
operations ; otherwise, if Mr. Davis desired to 
press his advantage, he might be now very 
close to Arlin^on Heights. He has already 
proved that he has a fair right to be considered 
the head of a * ' belligerent power. ^^ But^ though 
the North may reel under the shock, I cannot 
think it will make her desist from the struggle, 



62 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



nnless it be speedily followed by blows more 
deadly even than the repulse from Manassas. 
There is much talk now (of " masked batteries," 
of course) of outflanking, and cavalry, and such 
matters. The truth seems to be that the men 
were overworked, kept out for 12 or 14 hours 
in the sun, exposed to a long-range fire, badly 
officered, and of deficient regimental organiza- 
tion. Then came a most difficult operation — 
to withdraw this army, so constituted, out of 
action, iu face of an energetic enemy who had 
repulsed it. The retiremant of the baggage, 
which was without adequate guards, and was 
in the hands of ignorant drivers, was misun- 
derstood, and created alarm, and that alarm 
became a panic, which became frantic on the 
appearance of the enemy and on the opening 
of their guns on the runaways. But the North 
will be all the more eager to retrieve this dis- 
aster, although it may divert her from the 
scheme, which has been suggested to her, of 
punishing England a little while longer. The 
exultalion of the South can only be understood 
by those who may see it ; and if the Federal 
Government perseveres in its design to make 
Union by force, it may prepare for a struggle 
the result of which will leave the Union very 
little to fight for. More of the " battle" in my 
next. I pity the public across the water, but 
they must be the victims of hallucinations and 
myths it is out of my nower to dispel or rectify 
just now. Having told so long a story, I can 
scarcely expect your readers to have patience, 
and go back upon the usual diary of events ; 
but the records, such as they are, of this extra- 
ordinary repulse, must command attention. It 
is impossible to exaggerate their importance. 
No man can predict the results or pretend to 
guess at them. 

COMMENTS OK MB. BUSSELL^B LBTTEB* 

From the Chicago TVibune. 

Mr. Rcssell's letter to the Loudon T^mes^ the 
greater part of which we transferred to our col- 
umns yesterday morning, is, in many respects, a 
remarkable pnper. We enjoyed the privilege of 
riding from a point a couple of miles east of Ccn- 
treville, to another point east of Fairfax Court 
House, with Mr. Russell, and when he tells what 
took place on that bit of road, wc are competent 
judges of his truthfulness and fairness as a descrip- 
tive writer. We do not know and do not care 
what he saw, or says he saw, of the fight and the 
flight, before we found him ; but from the errors 
and misstatements in that portion of his narrative 
with which we are immediately concerned, wc 
should be justified in believing that he was not at 
the battle at all, and that the materials for his let- 
ter were gathered from some Fire Zouave or a pri- 
vate of the Ohio Second, who left, terror stricken, 
in the early part of the fray, and carried the fUal 
news of the rout and the race to the credulous rear. 
We left Ccntreville without knowing that a repulse 
had been felt, or that a retreat to that point had 
been ordered. Jogging leisurely down the Wash- 
ington road, perhaps ten minutes—certainly not 
more — ahead of Mr. Russell, we saw nothing of the 



flogging, lashing, spurring, beating, and abandontog 
that he so graphically describes. The road was as 
quiet and clear as if no army were in the vicinity. 
A mile from Centreville we met that New Jersey 
regiment, a private of which, Mr. Russell saya, 
threatened to ^' shoot him if he did not halt.** The 
officers were turning back the few fugitives, not a 
dozen in all, that were on their way in ; but, recog- 
nized as a civilian, as the T^mes correspondent 
roust have been, wc passed to the rear unchal- 
lenged. Mr. Russell, at that moment, could not 
have been half a mile behind ns. Pushing on 
slowly we were overtaken by Col. Huntei's car- 
riage, in which he, wounded, was going to the city. 
Mr. Russell saw it, or says he saw it, attended by 
an escort of troopers, at the head of whom was a 
major, who *^ considered it right to take charge of 
his chief and leave his battalion." We saw no 
troopers nor major. Hon. Isaac N. Arnold, of the 
House, was riding by the side of the vehicle, and 
he, a smooth-faced gentleman, in the garb of a 
civilian, may have been mistaken by our ** own cor- 
respondent " for a doubtful man of war. Possibly 
two miles and a half from Centreville, we stopped 
at a rond-side farm house for a cup of water. 
While drinking, Mr. Russell passed. We recog- 
nized him, rode along, and were soon engaged with 
him in a discussion of the causes of the check — ^it 
was not then known to be any thing more ; and, in 
his company, we went on through Fairfax, in all a 
distance, perhaps, of six or eight miles; and we 
can affirm that not one incident which he relates 
as happening in that stretch, had any foundation in 
fact. We saw nothing of that Englishman of whom 
he says : 

*' It WAS about this time I met acnrt bv the roadridr,snr< 
rounded by a group of soldiers, Eonic ot'^whom had * 69' od 
their caps. The owner, as I took him to be, wos in gnat 
distress ; and cried out, as I rnfised, *Can yuu tell mc, s'tr, 
where tlie Bixty-nlntb are t These men luy they are cut to 
pieces.* ' 1 can't tell you.* ' Pm In charge of the mails, sir, 
nnd I will deliver tb( m if I die for it. Yoo are a ceutlc- 
ninn, aiid I can depend on your word. Is It safe for mc to 
eo on ?* Not knowing the extent of the debacU^ I assured 
him it was, and a^ked the men of the rctfinu-nt bow they 
Iiappericd to be there. ' Bhure, the colonel himsrlf told us 
to go off every man on his own book, and to fly for onr 
lives,' replied one of them. The mall agent, who told mo 
ho was an Knglishmnn, started the cart ocrain. I sincerely 
hope no bad result to himself or his charge followed my 
advice." 

We rode into Fairfax together. 

** I reached Fairfax Court House ; the people, black and 
white, with anxious faces, were at the doors, and the in- 
fantry under nrms. I was besieged with quci^tiors, thoogb 
hundreds of fugitives had passed through before me." 

It is a small matter, this, but it marks the accu- 
racy of the man. Not a question was asked of Mr. 
Russell nor of us ; not a " fugitive," wc dare afBrm, 
had passed that way ; the infantry — another New 
Jersey regiment, if we arc not mistaken — were 
at their usual evening parade, supposing, no doubt, 
that their companions in arms bad won a great 
victory. 

" At one houpe I stopped to ask for water for my horse ; 
the owner sent liis servai^t for it cheerfully, the very house 
where wo had in vain asked for somctbii.g to eat in tho 
forenoon. • There's n frigl.t .irnoi-g them,' I obser\td in 
roply to his question concerning the* commissariat drivers. 
•They're afraid of the encmv's cavulry.' 'Are you an 
American t ' said the man. • Ko, 1 am not.» • Well, the ,' 
he said, ' there will bo cavalry on them soon rnonph. 
There's twentv thousand o( the beitt boraemen in the world 
iu Virgiuuy.' '• 

At the little one-horse tavern in Fairfax, the 



DOCITMENTS. 



63 



horjes — ^Mr. R.*s and our own— were watered, by 
A lervant ; but the reported conTcrsation did not 
take place. A short distance from that inn, Mr. 
RnaseU pat spurs to his animal, and, riding fu- 
riously, left us behind ; he picked up ample mate- 
rial for misrepresentation, however, as he went. 
We point out the greatest falsehood, if one false- 
hood can be gf«ater than another, iu the columns 
that he has devoted to the vilification of our 
troops: 

** Washington was still IS milec away. The road was 
rough and uncertain, and %g^\n my poor steed was under 
way, but It wu of no use trying to outstrip tbo runaways. 
Onee or twice I imaglued I heard guns In the roar, but I 
aould not be sure, In consequence of tho roar of the flight 
behind me. It was most surprising to see how far tho loot 
■oldtere had contrived to go on in advance.'* 

It must have been surprising indeed ! From the 
moment of meeting the First New Jersey regiment, 
of which we have spoken, not a soldier, unless one 
of a baggage, or a picket-guard, did we see on the 
road — ^not one. The wagons going in were few, 
and their progress was not such as to indicate that 
they were making a retreat. Wo faced train after 
train going out with supplies, without guard, and 
without suspicion that the army was beaten and in 
flight. The defeat was not known to any on the 
road, not even to Mr. Russell, who informed us that 
our army would fall back and encamp for the night, 
only to renew the battle the next day. The ** roar 
of the flight behind me^* is a stretch of the imogi- 
nation. We were ** behind me/* and heard the 
guns, and marked the time as 7:16; but save our 
poor old thick-winded steed, there was not another 
horse on the road within our sight. A few car- 
riages with wounded, a few retiring civilians — none 
making baste, none suspecting the finale that was 
reached — soon passed us; but not an armed -man, 
trooper nor footman, was anywhere near. Mr. Rus- 
sell in the next paragraph confesses as much : 



** It waa a strange ride, through a country now atlU oa 
decUA, the whito road shining like n river in the moonlight, 
the trc-s block as ebony In tho shade \ now and then a 
flgare fl^tt=ng by into the forest or across the road— fright- 
eued friead or furiciug foe, who could sav 9 Then tho anx- 
ious pickets a.id sentries all asking, * What's tho news?' 
and evidently prepared for any amount of loss." 

The truth is probably this : The imaginative cor- 
respondent left the battle-ground before any confu- 
sion occurred, and when the retrograde movement 
was ordered. Hearing the exaggerated stories of 
what came to be a flight, after he got into Wash^ 
ington, on Monday, while the excitement was at its 
height, he wove them into his letter as facts of his 
own observation. The rout was disgraceful enough 
to make any roan*s blood cold in his veins ; but it 
was not what Mr. Russell describea As we have 
asserted, he did not see it 

From tho Providence Journal, 

To tke JEditor of the Journal : 

Mr. Russell, who occupies so large a space in 
the London J^rnes in giving a description of ** What 
he saw" at the repulse of "Bull Run," was at no 
lime within three miles of the battle-field, and was 
at no time within sight Or musket-shot of the enemy. 

He entered Centrcville after the writer of this, 
and left before him. At the period of the hardest 
fighting, he was eating his lunch with a brother 
** John Dull,** near Gen. Miles*s head-quarters. 

When tiie officer arrived at Centreville, announc- 
mg the apparent success of the Federal forces, (of 



which he gives a correct description,) it was 4 
oVlock. The retreat commenced in Centreville at 
half-past four. During this half hour he went 
about one mile down the Warrenton road, and 
there met the teams returning, with some straggling 
soldiers and one reserve regiment, which were not 
iu the fight. He did not wait to see the main por- 
tion of the army, which did not reach Centreville 
until about two hours after hi^ flight. 

His excuse for hurrying to Washington on ac- 
count of mailing liis letter that night, is inconsis- 
tent with his statement that he went to bed, ond 
that the mail did not leave until 4 o'clock the next 
morning. 

He probably dreamed of the statements which he 
furnishes the TimeSy that there were no batteries 
taken — ^no'^charges made; that the Union forces 
lost five batteries, 8,000 stand of arms, &c., &c., 
and no doubt reflected his own feelings when he 
calls the Union forces cotoardlg at being repulsed 
after marching twelve miles and fighting three or 
four hours an entrenched enemy which numbered 
more Uian three to one. W. £. fl.* 

To the Editor of the Journal : 

At last we have it. After two Atlantic voyages 
it is "salt" enough, all must admit, and more than 
that, we must admit that, what he »aw of tlic affair 
at Bull Run ho has described with graphic and 
painful truth. 

But, ns your correspondent, W. E. H., who knew 
more of his personal movements than I did, says, 
*^ He was at no time within three miles of tbc bat- 
tle-field," and consequently was no better informed 
upon the subject than you were, Mr. Editor, sitting 
in your sanctum. Therefore the earlier struggles 
of the day — tho hard won successes of the Union 
troops — receive but passing notice, because he did 
not see them — he only saw the rout. 

Tet iu another letter, from which I have only 
seen extracts, he arrives at various conclusions, 
** from further information acquired.** One is that 
** there was not a charge of any kind made by the 
confederate cavalry upon any regiment of the enemy 
until they broke." If this be true, the Fire Zou- 
aves are all liurs, and thousands of spectators tvere 
deceived, including Major Burry, of the artillery, 
who states expressly in his report that the cavalry 
charged upon the Fire Zouaves. 

Mr Russell says, " there were no masked batteries 
at play on the side of the Confederates." Either 
he was grossly misinformed, or he purposely dis- 
torts the truth by quibbling on the word mcLshcd. If 
n masked battery is absolutely one concealed by 
carefully constructed abatis, or elaborate mantelets, 
such OS Mr. Ruasell has perhaps seen in India or the 
Crimea, and nothing else, then it is very possible 
there were none upon the field ; but if it is a bat- 
tery of siege or light artillery, with or without en- 
trenchments, so placed that it is entirely concealed 
by woods, underbrush, or artificial screens until the 
attacking force is close upon it, then I am one of 
thousands who can bear witness to the existence 
of several such upon the hill east of our (Rhode 
Island) field of action. I did not see either fortifi- 
cations or cannon; but when a puff of smoke is 
seen to issue from n piece of woods, followed by a 
heavy import and a heavier ball — when this goes 
on for hours, the missiles ploughing up tho earth in 
every direction, and sowing it broadcast with the 

• Mr. VrUliom £. Hamlin, of Providonoe, E. L 



64 



REBELUOK BECORD, 1860-«1. 



dead, ono is likely to conclude that there is tom^ 
thinff behind that screen of trees, and that tome* 
iking is my idea of a masked battery. 

Finally, he says, ** There were no desperate 
Strategies except by those who wanted to get away.'' 

Qi course not He did not see them, and he is 
too truthful to relate any thing he did not see. 

His account of the retreat is no worse than the 
truth — v^at he taw of it. But be it remembered 
that he was with the very advance of the flyiug 
column, the most panic-stricken portion of the 
crowd — ^that he was in Washington at 1 1 p. if. of 
Sunday, about the hour when our regiments and 
many others camped in the vicinity of Centreville, 
having regained our quarters, were lighting fires, 
drying our clothes, or talking over the prospect of 
a renewed attack on Manassas next day. Many of 
us lay down to sleep, from which we woke, more 
astonished than Mr. Russell himself, at the idea of 
continuing our retreat to Washington; but the 
order came from head-quarters, and we obeyed. 
Of this, or of the good order preserved by several 
regiments, including ours, all the way from the 
battle-field to Cub Run, and again resumed after 
three or four miles, Mr. RusseU says nothing — he 
did not see it — ^he wasn't there. 

Yet his story will be received as Tinted gospel, 
not to be gainsayed, by hundreds of thousands in 
England, while the contradiction, if it ever reaches 
there, will come as a stole American apology, un- 
worthy of belief. Dk W.* 

EUSSELL'8 SECOND LETTER ON BULL RUN. 

Wasbington, July 24, 1861. 

As no ono can say what a day or a night 
may bring forth, particularly in time of war, 
I avail myself of a chance of probable quiet, 
snob as it 19, amid the rolling of drams, the 
braying of trumpets and bands, the noise of 
marching men, rolling of wagons, and general 
life and activity in the streets, to write some 
remarks on the action at Manassas or Bull 
Run. Of its general effects abroad, and on the 
North and South, a larger and perhaps a better 
view can be taken from Europe than on this 
Bide of the Atlantic. There is a natural and 
intense anxiety to learn what impression will 
be made abroad by tlie battle — for, notwith- 
standing the vulgar and insolent arrogance of 
the least reputable portion of the press in the 
United States, generally conducted by aliens or 
persons who have left Great Britain /r<?m cause 
— ^it is felt that the result of the action must 
have very strong influences over the fortunes 
of the contending parties, particularly in the 
money-market, to which recourse must be had 
in fear and trembling. It would be well not 
to arrive at hasty conclusions in reference to 
the bearing of the defeat on the actual struggle. 
Those who are persuaded that the North must 
and will subjugate the South, see in the disaster 
merely a prolongation of the war, a certain loss 
of material, or even an increment of hope in 
the spirit it will arouse, as they think, among 
the Unionists. Others regard it as an evU 
omen for the compromise they desire to effect, 

• Vriothrop De Wolt 



as it will give the North another insult to 
avenge, and inspire the South with additional 
confidence. The Confederates will accept it as 
proof demonstrative of their faith that the 
North cannot conquer them, and may take it 
into their heads to corroborate it by an at- 
tempt to inflict on the North that with which 
they have been menaced by the Cabinet of 
Wasbington and its supporters. "What will 
England and France think of it ? " is the ques- 
tion which is asked over and over again. The 
news most go forth in its most unfavorable 
form, and it will be weeks, if ever, before the 
North can set a great victory to the credit side 
of its books against the Confederates. In thirty 
days or so the question will be answered — ^not 
hastily or angrily, in spite of provocation and 
offence, but in the spirit of honorable neutral- 
ity. In the States one thing is certain — the 
Cabinet will resist the pressure of the mob, or 
be hurled out of oflSce. If they yield to the 
fanatics and fight battles against the advice of 
their officers, they must be beaten; and the 
tone of New York indicates that a second de- 
feat would cost them their political existence. 
They can resist such pressure in future as has 
been brought on them hitherto by pointing to 
Bull Run, and by saying, " See the result of 
forcing Gen. Scott against his wishes." Of the 
Cabinet, Mr. Chase, the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, is perhaps the only man who bore up 
against the disheartening intelligence of Mon- 
day morning ; but Mr. Seward and others are 
recovering their spirits as they find that their 
army was more frightened than hurt, and that 
the Confederates did not advance on the Cap- 
ital immediately after the success. It was a 
sad, rude sweep of the broom to the cobweb- 
spinners; to the spider politicians, who have 
been laying out warps in all directions, and are 
now lying in frowsy heaps among the ruins of 
their curious artifices. Nothing can restore 
them to their places in the popular estimation ; 
nothing could have kept them there but the 
rapid and complete success of their policy, and 
the speedy fulfilment of their prophecies. The 
sword they have drawn is held over their heads 
by the hands of some coming man whose face 
no one can see yet, but his footsteps are audible, 
and the ground shdces beneath his tread. If 
Mr. Lincoln were indeed a despot, with the 
genius to lead or direct an army, now would 
be his time. All the odium which could be 
heaped upon hira by his enemies, all the accu- 
sations that could have been preferred, North 
and South, have been fully urged, and he could 
not add to them by leadmg his army to vic- 
tory, while with victory would certainly come 
the most unexampled popularity, and perhaps 
an extraordinary and prosperous tenure of 
power. The campaign would be one worthy 
of a Napoleon, nor could it be determined bj 
even $500,000,000 and 500,000 men, unless 
they were skilfully handled and well econo- 
mized. If popidar passion be excited by dema- 
gogues, and if it DO permitted to affect the 



n 



DOCUMSNTSw 



66 



eotincils of the State, it is easy to foresee the 
end, though it is not so easy to predict by 
what steps min will be reached at last. The 
Ministers are already ordered to resign by the 
masters of the mob, and suffer a just punish- 
ment for their temporary submission to the 
damor of the cro wnless monarchs of the North- 
East. The Secretary at War, Mr. Cameron, 
whose brother fell at the head of his re^^ment 
in the field, is accused of making the very sub- 
mission — which was, indeed, a crime if ever it 
occurred — ^by the very people who urged it 
upon him, and there are few Ministers who 
escape invective and insinuation. 

The great question to be decided just now is 
the value of the Union sentiment in the North. 
Will the men and the money be forthcoming, 
and that soon enough to continue the war of 
aggression or recuperation against the seceded 
States 7 The troops here complain of want of 
money, and say they are not paid. If that be 
so, there is proof of want of funds, which, if it 
lasts, will prevent the reorganization of another 
army, and I think it would not be safe to rely 
on the present army, or to depend on many of 
the regiments until they have been thoroughly 
reorganized. It must be remembered that the 
United States is about to lose the services of 
0ome 80,000 men, many of whom have already 
gone hcHne. These are '* three months* men," 
called out under the President's proclamation. 
Whether they will enlbt for the term of three 
years, now proposed, cannot be determined; 
but, judging from their words they will not do 
so if their present officers are continued or re- 
commissioned. At all events, they will nearly 
all go home to be ** mustered out of the ser- 
vice," as it is called, at the expense of the Gov- 
ernment. It is reported in Washington that 
steps were taken long ago to supply the places 
of the retiring battalions, and that there were 
also offers of 83 battalions, which have been 
accepted by the Government, sent in as soon 
as the news of the disaster at Bull Run was 
communicated to the North. How the regi- 
ments about to leave in a day or two were sent 
into the field at all is one of the mysteries of 
the War Department. 

While Congress has been passing bills of 
pains and penalties, confiscating rebel property, 
and araending sundry laches in the penal code, 
as well as filling up rat-holes, trough which 
conquered and run-away secessionists might 
escape, in (he laws and body of the (Constitu- 
tion, the conquest is suddenly deferred, and 
Cotton stands king on the battle-field. ** We 
are glad of it," cry the extreme Abolitionists, 
"^actually delighted, because now slavery is 
doomed." The extreme depression which fol- 
lowed after the joy and delight caused by the 
erroneous statements of victory, complete and 
brilliant, has been gradually disappearing, in 
proportion to the inactivity of the enemy or to 
their inability to take advantage of their suc- 
cess by immediate action. The funds have re- 
oovered« and men are saying, ^'Well, it's not 



so bad as it might have been.'' The eye of 
faith is turned to the future, the eye of specu- 
lation is directed on the hoards of capital, and 
there is a firm belief that some clever person 
or another will succeed in inducing John Bull 
to part with a little of his surplus cash, for 
which he will receive egregious percentage. 

K the bulk of the capital and population of 
the North is thrown into this struggle, there 
can be but one hope for the Confederates — 
brilliant victories on the battle-field, which must 
lead to recognition from foreign powers. The 
fight cannot go on forever, and If the Confed- 
erate States meet with reverses — if their capi- 
tal is occupied, their Congress dispersed, their 
territory Xtliat which they claim as theirs) oc- 
cupied, they must submit to the consequences 
of defeat. Is not that equally true of their op- 
ponents ? On what ground can the United States, 
which were founded on successful rebellion, 
claim exemption fl'om the universal law which 
they did so much to establish ? Whatever the 
feelings of the North may be now, there can be 
no doubt that the reverse of Manassas caused 
deep mortification and despondency in Wash- 
ington. Gen. Scott, whether he disapproved, 
as it is said, the movement onward or not, was 
certain that the Confederates would be defeat- 
ed. Every hour messengers were hurried off 
from the field to the end of the wire some miles 
away, with reports of the progress made by the 
troops, and every hour the telegrams brought 
good tidings up to 4 o^clock or so, wlien the 
victory seemed decided in favor of the Federal-, 
ists ; at least>, the impression was that they had 
gained the day by driving the enemy before 
them. Then came the news of the necessary 
retirement of the troops; nevertheless, it is 
affirmed that up to 8 o'clock in the evening 
Gen. Scott believed in the ultimate success of 
the United States troops, who under his own 
immediate orders had never met with a reverse. 
The President, the Secretary of War, and other 
members of the Government, were assembled 
in the room where the telegraph operator was 
at work far into the night, and as the oracles 
of fate uncoiled from the wires gloom gathered 
on their faces, and at last, grave and silent, 
they retired, leaving hope behind them. It 
must have been to them a time of anxiety be- 
yond words; but of old the highest honors 
were given to him who in calamity and disaster 
did not despur of the republic. And it is to the 
credit of the president and his advisers that they 
have recovered their faith in the ultimate suc- 
cess of their cause, and think they can subjugate 
the South after all. If the Confederates have suf- 
fered heavily in the battlo, as is believed to be 
the case, they may be disheartened in spite of 
their victory, and the news of a second uprising 
and lew en masse in the North may not be 
without an unfavorable effect on their ardor. 
Such men as Wade Hampton, who is reported 
killed, leave gaps in their ranks not readily 
filled, and the number of colonels reported to 
be hors de combat would indicate a considerable 



66 



BEBELLION BECOBB, 1860^1. 



loss. But the raw levies are not likelj to be fit 
for much for months to come, and it is difScult 
to see how thej will be fit for any thing until 
they get proper officers. Some of the so-called 
regiments which have recently come in are 
mere mobs, without proper equipments, uni- 
form, or arms; others are in these respects 
much better, marching well and looking like 
soldiers, but still no better than the troops who 
were beaten! It is not courage (need it be 
said?) which is wanting — it is officers; and 
without them men are worth little or nothing. 
The men of some regiments fought well ; others 
did not. There was little or no diiference be- 
tween the privates of the one and those of the 
other ; there was probably a marked distinction 
between the officers. The West Point cadets 
will all be used up by the increase of the regu- 
lar army of the United States to 40,000 men, 
just agreed upon by Congress, after some dis- 
putes between the Senate and the House of Rep- 
resentatives ; and the bulk of the officers with 
military experience and education are provided 
for already. 

The President is not exempt from the fate of 
the unfortunate in all republics, but he has yet 
a good deal of the future to draw upon, and the 
people are amused by changes among the mili- 
tary commanders and by tlireats and promises, 
for which they will all have to pay before the 
quarrel is adjusted. It is so generally asserted 
tnat Gen. Scott did not approve the advance, 
for which his plans were not matured, (and it 
is so probable, too,) that it may bo believed by 
those who have not the greatest faith in the 
firmness of his character, and who think he 
might be induced to give orders for the execu- 
tion of ill-conceived and hasty projects, or at 
all events, to precipitate operations without the 
necessary conditions of success. It is certain 
the country was becoming fretful and impatient, 
and that men like Mr. Wilson, Chairman of the 
Military Committee of the Senate, were loud 
in their complaints of the delays and inactivity 
of the army and of its chief, and of the preten- 
sions of tlio regular officers. The schism which 
must always exist between professionals and 
quacks, between regular soldiers and volun- 
teers, has been greatly widened by the action 
on Sunday. The volunteers indulge in severe 
reflections on the generalship of the command- 
ers, the regulars speak with contemptuous bit- 
terness of the inemciency and cowardice of the 
volunteer officers. The former talk learnedly 
of the art of war, and of the cruelty of being 
led like sheep to the slaughter. The latter, 
without detracting from the courage of the 
men, inveigh against those who directed their 
regiments on the field ; and the volunteer pri- 
vates are glad to add their testimony agamst 
many of the officers, whose pride in uniforms 
and gold lace did not permit them to soil them 
in the smoke of gunpowder. It is remarkable 
that so much hankering after military reputa- 
tion slionld bo accompanied, in some instances 
at least, by an absence of any military si)irit. 



The tone in which some officers speak of being 
^'whipped" is almost boastful and exultant. 
Last night I heard one declaring he thought it 
was a good thing they were beaten, as it would 
put an end to the fighting ; *^ he was quite sure 
none of his men would ever face the Confed- 
erates again." Another was of opinion that 
it was lucky they had not advanced much fur- 
ther, as in tiiat case they could not have escaped 
so well. And so on. It would be, I am certain, 
as unjust to the bulk of the officers to suppose 
they entertain such sentiments as these, as it 
would be in the last degree untrue to say that 
their men were destitute of courage, and were 
not ready to fight any enemy, if fairly disci- 
plined and properly led ; but the expression of 
these things is mdicative of the want of proper 
esprit militaire, and it should be reprehended 
by those who wish to establish the loyalty of 
the volunteer army. No doubt the American 
papers will furnish detailed lists of killed and 
wounded, if you have any fancy to publish them, 
and columns of letters from the soldiers, and 
pages of incidents of the battle which may be 
consulted by the curious ; but there is a concur- 
rence of testimony to the good conduct of 
Blenker^s Germans, the 69th Irish, and the 79th 
Scotch. Capt. Meagher, indeed, I am told, 
yielded to the universal panic, and was seen on 
foot at Centreville making the best of his way 
towards Fort Corcoran, with exclamations which 
implied that for the moment he recognized 
the Southern Confederacy as highly belligerent. 
Col. Corcoran, conspicuous by his great stature, 
being a man of G( feet in height, was an object 
of attraction to the enemy, and is lying danger- 
ously, if not mortally, wounded. The Rhode 
Island regiment has been, however, the most 
favored by the voice of praise, though many 
competitors are now putting in claims for at 
least equal honor. 

There are various statements in reference to 
the conduct of the regular cavalry and infantry. 
The regular officers admit that at one time the 
cavalry gave way, but they did not break or 
fly ; they were rallied, drew up in line again, 
and showed front to the enemy. The regular 
officers declare that it was the infantry which 
saved the retreat, covering it steadily in con- 
junction with the Germans ; and the losses of 
the United States Marines argue that they had 
a large share of the enemy's fire. The artillery 
who lost their guns speak, as artillery will do 
under the circumstances, of the infantry which 
deserted them ; and the general officers, who 
must after all be the best judges, bear strong 
testimony to the good services and general 
steadiness of the regulars engaged in the action. 
When the statements in the American papers 
are compared with the facta, I am aware it will 
be necessary to rely a little on " character,-* in 
asking faith for what I report. There was not 
a bayonet charge made by the Federalist in- 
fantry during the day ; there was not a charge 
of any kind made by the Confederate cavalry 
upon any regiment of their enemy imtil the 



DOCUMENTS. 



67 



latter broke. There was not a band to-band 
encounter between any regiments. There was 
not a single " battery charged " or taken by 
the Federalists. There were no masked hat- 
teriea in play by the former.* There was no 
annihilation of rebel horse by Zonaves, Fire or 
other. A volley fired by one battalion emptied 
three saddles among a body of horse who ap- 
peared at some distance, and the infantry which 
performed the execution then retired. There 
were no desperate struggles except by those 
who wanted to get away. The whole matter 
in plain English amounts to this : The Federal- 
ists advanced slowly, but steadily, under the 
fire of their artillery, driving the enemy, who 
rarely showed out of cover, in line before them, 
and gradually forced them back on the right 
and Uie centre for a mile and a half towards 
Manassas. As the enemy fell back they used 
their artillery also^ and there was a good deal 
of pounding at long ranges with light field- 
guxis, and some heavier rifled ordnance, the 
line on both sides being rarely within 600 
yards of each other. On one occasion the regi- 
ments on the right were received by a mus- 
ketry fire from the enemy, which induced them 
to &11 back, but they were rallied and led for- 
ward towards the front. The Confederates 
again gave way, and the Federalists advanced 
once more. Again the lino of the enemy ap- 
peared in front, and delivered fire. The Zou- 
aves, as they are called, and the 11th New 
York, which were on the fiank, fell into confu- 
sion not to be rallied, and eventually retired 
from the field in disorder, to use the mildest 
term, with a contagions effect on their com- 
radesy and with the loss of the guns which they 
were supporting. Nothing would, or could, or 
did stop them. In vain they were reminded 
of their oaths to *^ avenge Ellsworth's death." 
Their flag was displayed to the winds — it had 
lost its attractions. They ran in all directions 
with a speed which their fortune favored. *^ I 
tell the tale as it was told to me " by one who 
had more to do with them, and had better op- 
portunity of witnessing their conduct than I 
had ; for, as I have already stated in a previous 
letter, I was late on the ground, and had not 
been able to see much ere the retreat was or- 
dered. Though I was well mounted, and had 
left Washington with the intention of return- 
ing early that night, I found fugitives had pre- 
ceded me in masses all the way, and when I 
crossed the Long Bridge, about 11 o'clock, 
I was told that the city was full of those 
vho had returned from the fightf But if the 
miserable rout and panic of the Federalists 
have produced such aeplorablo results to their 
cause, they have still much to be thankful for. 
Had the Confederates been aware of their suc- 
cess, and followed up their advantage early on 

* 8m Mr. De "WoWb letter, paces 66-64 an<e, in -which 
Mr. Roflwli^s statetnents in regard to the chargeM on the 
fi<>ld tkod rccpectinf? maaked batteries, are anAcrterl to be in- 
rorrret and onfounded. See al^o the official reporta.— 
Ed.R. R. 

f See ante, pp. 9, 10, 63, 64.— JE7if. R. B. 

Vol. II.— Doc. 10 



Monday morning, there was no reason on earth 
why they should not have either got into 
Washington qr compelled the whole of the 
Federalist army that kept together and could 
not escape, as it was all on one road, to sur- 
render themselves prisoners, with all they pos- 
sessed. If the statements in the Federalist 
papers as to their strength be correct, the 
rebels could have easily spared 80,000 men for 
that purpose, with a reserve of 10,000 or 15,000 
in their rear. The Chain Bridge, the fords 
above the Falls, were open to them— at least, 
there could be but little or no opposition from 
the disorganized forces. The columns moving 
round from Fairfax to their left by Vienna 
would have been able certainly to cross at 
Matildaville ; others could have got over at the 
Falls, and still there ivould have been enough 
to permit Beauregard to occupy Manassas, and 
to send on a heavy column to cover Alexandria 
and to shut up the Federalists in the earth- 
works and tSte de pant, if not to wrest them 
from troops deeply affected by the rout they 
were witnessing. If the Confederates had the 
cavalry of which so much has been said, they 
were scandalously handled. A detour by a 
cross road from Centre villo to the Germantown 
road would have placed the horse in the rear 
of the retreating mass in half an hour, and it is 
not too much to say that mass would have 
thrown itself on the mercy of the pursuers. If 
Beauregard's or Lee's force was small, as they 
say, and suffered as much as the Federalists 
aver, the flight is the more incomprehensible. 
But still it is very strange that the victors 
should not have been aware of their victory — 
that is, of the utter rout which followed their 
repulse. The attempt to form line on the top 
of Centreville, only partially successful as it 
was, might have imposed on the enemy, and 
saved McDowell from the pursuit which ho did 
his best to avert. The journals, which at first 
boasted of the grand Union army of 45,000 
men, are now anxious to show that only 20,000 
were engaged. Why did the other 25,000 run 
away I The German regiment, under Col. 
Blenker, and perhaps some other corps, may 
have retired in good order, but eventually few 
withstood the ceaseless alarms. 

The rain, which commenced on Monday morn- 
ing early, may have had much to do with the 
undisturbed retreat of the Federalists, as the 
enterprise and activity of the enemy would be 
much diminislied in consequence, and as for 
the beaten army, it has been always observed 
that troops hold together and march well in 
rain. But with all allowances and excuses, it 
is still mysterious inactivity Johnston, whoso 
junction with 40,000 men is said to have taken 
place (if he had half the number it is more than 
I give him credit for) on the morning of the 
battle, must have swelled the force under Lee 
and Beauregard to 70,000 men at the least. 
He is the best officer in the Confederate army, 
and it is believed here that he is already away 
operating in Western Virginia. There is a bus- 



BEBBLUOH RBC»BD, ]SEO-«L 



SiciouB ulence ia the despatches and telegrains 
■om the yfeat and South- Western camps of the 
Federtdists which justifies the sccessioDiet ru- 
mors of disaster in those qoartcra. The Con- 
federates hy moving out to meet McBowcIl qH' 
ticiputed tiie engagement, and bronglit oo the 
action sooner tlian he expected, eo mnch so 
that ho was obliged to break up his column, 
and turn ont the regiments right and left as 
well 83 ho could to bring them into line. It 
would seem as if tliey were aware of his jilons, 
for they disregarded the movements on their 
right, and did not exhibit anj aolivitj there till 
the force opposite tlicir left began to pve woj, 
wlicreupoD they made an attempt on the left 
flank of the Fedcrohsts, which added to the 
alarm of the retiring army. 

In my lost letter, Bent at 4 o'clock on Tues- 
day morning by special courier to Boston, 
where it arrived in time for the Wednesday 
packet of .Tuly 24, 1 broaght down my narra- 
tive to the Monday preceding, such as it was, 
and have nothing to add to it of much conae- 
quence. One of the first acts of the Secretary 
of War, on being made aware of the reverse, 
was to telegraph to General KcClellan to come 
to Wasliington, and to demand reinforcements 
from the Governors of the Northern States, as 
well OS to put the authorities at Fort UcHenry 
on their Duord against a rising in Baltimore. 
On Tuesoay, the rain having ceased in the 
morning early, the streets were crowded with 
baggage carta and with soldiers, who wandered 
Dp and down astonishing the natives with anec- 
dotes of battle, and doing any tbing but duty 
with their regiments. These men have now 
been coerced by the monnted patrols to repair 
to tbe rendezvous assigned for them by Gen- 
eral Mansfield or to go to durance vile ; but for 
the whole day and night the Capitol presented 
an extraordinary aspect, to which a deeper in- 
terest was lent by tlie arrival of wagons and 
ambulances of wounded. 

WIDNIIDIT, JuIjSi. 

Before breakfast I rode over the Long 
Bridge to Arlington. There were groups of 
soldiers, mostly withont arms or belts, some 
few shoeless, a good many footsore, going along 
the ground or standing jn the streets of the 
dty engaged in the occupation called " toafing " 
in these parte. Several of the men stopped me 
to inquire after the different regiments to which 
they belonoed. They were dejected and brokea- 
looking fellows, bat, at all events, their mien 
was more becoming than that of their officers, 
who uixi ■ ■ 'I- '.. klsnzij ulkinp 

of thoir ' ■ ■'luiilucency nnd 

■witliout ^li^ .i!i |iapcr, nlliidin); 

to lUedciiiK-... '.-iuiiitts vcster- 

day ev6nill^^ I'ulls "■■- ;.■ u.w^o 

one dsy'»diiW fttilii' mil to 

return to tJw- ri ful- 

lovtM'*"' -pi' ■'■ 'lliv lie- 

r r 



pndence to come into my room to^y, and, 

after a series of anecdotes, which would fur- 
nish a stupendous sequel to Munchausen, as to 
hia valor, " masked batteries," charges of cav- 
alry, &c., to ask me for tbe loan of $G, on the 
ground that he waa a waiter at the hotel ti 
which I had stopped in New York. 1 could 
]ierceive by his talk and by that of some otber 
soldiers, the mode in which these stories about 
"charges" and "masked batteries" are made 
up. A newspaper reporter is made the victim 
of some glorious mytiis by a fri^tcned, intoi- 
ieated, or needy warrior, and these are duly 
made immortal in type. Then hundreds of men, 
anxious to see what is said about thum in the 
papers, and ignorant as soldiers generally ar« 
of tbe incidents of the affair in which they 
have been engaged, read of "Block Horet 
Rangers," " prodigious alaughter," " Fire Zou- 
aves," Capt, Meagher, on a white charger, 
with a green fag, rushing into the midst of in- 
occessible and impregnable matiked batteries, 
and persnada themselves it is all true, adding 
to their subsequent narratives such incidents 
of life and color as may bo within their knowl- 
edge or imagination. Fxcttemcnt has a won- 
derful influence on their perceptive facolties. 
Great exertions were requisite yesterday to 
prevent the mob of disorganized soldiera and 
the rabble from maltreating or murdering tbe 
Confederate prisoners, and it was necessary to 
rescue them by patrols of dragoons. In one 
instance a Senator informed General McDowell 
that he bad seen the mob with hia own eyes 
hanging a prisoner, and that gallant and gen- 
crons officer at once rushed off, if be could not 
rescue, at least to avenge the " rebel ; " but on 
arriving at the place he was happy to find ha 
was in time to shield the man from the vioUcce 
of tbe crowd, and that the Senator had mis- 
taken an " effigy " for a human being. Geo. 
McDowell has been mnch distressed by the 
dastardly conduct of some of the beaten troops 
towards their prisoners, and there have been 
strange scenes in consequence. " General," 
said one man, " had I known this I would have 
died a hundred times before I fell into these 
wretches' hands. Let me go free, and let any 
twoorfourof them venture to insult me then! " 
Tlie soldiers are, however, greatly irritated not 
only by defeat, but by reports of the most hor- 
rible cruelties and atrocities towards prisoner! 
and wounded by the Confederates; indeed, if 
it should be the case tiiat the ktter burnt a 
liospital at Centrevtlle with all the wounded, 
and that they cnt the throats of captives and 
dving soldiers on the field of battle and in the 
reireat, the indignation and disgust of the 
u liole civilized world should visit thcui, end 
thiir cause will be marred more by such vile 
omvnrdice and blood-thirstiness than ten snch 
lirtories could advance iL For one, I am loth 
to credit these stories, but it is only right to 
: Kiy that there are many such current, partiea- 
■ Wly in reference to the New Orleans Zouaves. 
Cn a previous letter some account was given 



i 



DOCUMENTSL 



69 



of the defences on the r!ght bank of the river 
opposite to Washington. Men were engaged 
in working at the teU de pontj and letting the 
water of the river into the newlj-dng ditch. 
It is probable the Long Bridge is mined, as no 
one is allowed to smoke npon it ; bnt the cart- 
er^ roanj- of whom are negroes, do not pay 
fiiQch attention to the order when the sentries 
ire not looking. Apropos of negroes, it is con- 
fidently asserted that a corps of them is em- 
ployed by the Confederates for camp duty, if 
not for fighting, and that they were certainly 
employed to guard the prisoners, to the intense 
loger of the Federalists. One officer who came 
in says that he was actually in their custody. 
He escaped by a method not often resorted to 
bj officers, for he pledged his word of honor 
he would not attempt to go away if he were 
allowed to go for a drink of water, and when 
be bad done so, he made the best of his way 
to Washington, and told the anecdote in so- 
detj, among whom was a member of the Brit- 
ish legation. There is an increase of the camps 
on the heights up to Arlington, and there must 
now be a strong force of infantry there, though 
there is a deficiency in field-artillery. Of guns 
in position in the works there is the greatest 
abundance. The road up to Arlington House 
was dotted with men returning to the camps, 
few of whom were encumbered with firelocks. 
Gen. tfcDowell was sitting with some ofiScers 
before hia tent nnder the trees which shaded 
the place from the sun. He is a man in the 
prime of life, some 40 and odd years of age, very 
Qowerfolly bnilt, with a kindly, honest, soldier- 
ly expression in face and manners, and it was 
pleasant to see that though he was not proud of 
being "whipped," there was no dejection other 
tlian that a roan should feel who has been 
heatea by his enemy, bnt who knows he has 
done his duty. Originally he had proposed a 
eeries of operations different from those which 
^ere actually adopted, and his dispositions for 
the advance of his columns after the scheme of 
attack was decided npon were careful and 
ebborate. Bnt he miscalculated somewhat the 
powers of regular troops. All his subsequent 
operations were vitiated by the impossibility 
of gaining the points fixed on for the first day's 
march, and Gen. Tyler, who engaged some- 
whAt too seriously with the enemy on the left 
at Bull Rnn on the Thursday before the battle 
in making what was a mere reconnoissance, put 
them on the alert and hastened np Johnston. 

The General was kind enough to go over the 
plans of the attack with me, and to acquaint 
nie with the dispositions he had made for car- 
rying out the orders he had received to make 
It, and to my poor judgment they were judi- 
eions and clear. With the maps laid ont on the 
table before his tent he traced the movements 
of the various colnmns from the commence- 
ment of ofiTensive measures to the disastrous 
Jdraace npon Manassas. It was evident that 
tho Confederate Generals either were inform- 
ed or divined the general object of his plan, 



which was, in fact, to effect a turning move- 
ment of his centre and right, while his left men- 
aced their right on Bull Knn, and to get round 
their left altogether; for they had, soon after 
he moved, advanced their columns to meet 
him, and brought on an engagement, which he 
was obliged to accent on ground and at a time 
where and when he had not contemplated 
fighting. The initial failure of the movement 
took place several days earlier, when his col- 
nmns were late on the march, though ample 
time had been allowed to them, so that, instead 
of getting to Centreville and to the Run, he 
was obliged to halt at Fairfax Court House, 
and to lose another day in occupying the posi- 
tions which ought to have been taken when he 
first advanced. 

By moving out to attack or meet him the 
enemy obliged him to abandon the design of 
turning them and getting round their left below 
Manassas, and when once they did so it became 
obvious that ho had not much chance of suc- 
ceeding, nnless he could actually push back 
the enemy and " keep them moving ^ with snch 
rapidity that they would fly into and out of 
their lines just as his own troops did from the 
field. The officers who were present were all 
agreed that the Federalists had advanced stead- 
ily on the right and centre, and that they had 
driven back the Confederates with considerable 
loss for a mile and a half when the panic took 
place in the regiments on the flank of the rights * 
which necessitated the issne of an order for the 
retirement of the whole force, and the advance 
of the reserves to cover it. The volunteers 
who had broken could not be rallied, the move- 
ment, always dangerous with snch materialsL 
under such circumstances was misunderstood 
by the wagon-drivers and by other regiments, 
and the retreat became finally tho sliameful 
rout, which was only not utterly disastrous be- 
cause of the ignorance and inactivity or the 
weakness of tlie enemy. Mojor Barry, an offi- 
cer of the regular United States Artillery, told 
me he conld not stop the runaways, who ought 
to have protected his guns, though the gunners 
stood by them till the enemy were fairly upon 
them, and that, as for the much-talked-of cav- 
alry, two round shots which were pitched into 
them by his battery sent them to the right- 
about at once. The regular ofiBcers spoke in 
only one way of the conduct of the officers of 
the volunteers and of certain regiments. In- 
deed, what could be said of men who acted 
after and in action as others acted before it, 
and went away as fast as they could? Thus 
the men of a volunteer battery marched off, 
leaving their guns on the ground, the very 
morning of the engagement, because their 
three-months' term of service was up, and the 
Pennsylvania regiments exhibited a similar 
spirit. The 69th Irish volunteered to serve as 
long as they were required, and so did some 
other corps, I believe ; but there must be some- 
thing rotten in the system, military and politi- 
cal, which generates such sentiments and de* 



70 



REBELUON BBOOBD, 18eo-«l. 



velops neither the sense of military honor nor 
«ny of that aSectionate demotion for the Union 
which is called hj one parly in America patri- 
Otiam. As the General was Bpeaking to me, a 
Tolunteer Colonel came up, and said abruptly, 
" General, my men have hail nothing to eat for 
Ibnrdays; what is to he done!" "Moke an 
Application to the commissariat officer, nod 
Tepresent the circumataDces to mo. There is 
no reason whatever why the men should he 
without food, for there is plenty of it in camp." 
"Yea; but the carters won't bring it. They 
go away and leave us, and, as I tell you, the 
men have had nothing for four days." " I tell 
70U, sir, that rnnat be the fault of tijeir officers. 
Why were not the circnmstaocea reported? 

Go over to Capt. , and he will take the 

necessary steps. And, after some further es- 
paliation on the hardships of his case, the Colo- 
nel, who is as brave as a lion, but who is not 
very well acquainted with military rou 
retired. It need not ho said that the men 



COnimiBsariat was true. Beckleas as all sol- 
diers are of provisions and food, volunteers art 
notoriouslj extraordinai'ily so. then, there it 
probably a wont of organization in thecommis- 
■oriat. McDowell's corps were ordered to 
march with three days' food cooked, not in- 
cluding, of coorse, the day of marching. The 
food was, however, issued, inclusive of that 
day, oud next day the men hod eaten 
or wasted the two daya' rations in one, 
had nothing. They were badly provided with 
food and with water on the very day of the ac- 
tion, and some men told me that evening they 
bod eaten nothing since 2^ a. u. Indeed, the 
General witnessed the disorder which waa 
caused by the regiments ruEliing out of the 
ranks to drink at a small stream before they 
went into action, though their canteeDa were 
filled before they set out. Ur. Wadsworth, a 
gentleman of New York of Iwge fortune, who, 
with the rank of Mtyor, is acting as aide-de- 
camp to the General, had just come in fi'om 
Centrevillo from the Conredcrates, to whom 
he had gone yesterday with a flag of truce, 
relative to tlie dead and wounded. They would 
not permit him to enter their lines, but other- 
wise received him courteously, and forwarded 
his despatches. This morning he waa told tliat 
an answer would bo sent in due time to his de- 
spatches, and he waa ordered lo retnrn to his 
quarters. While I was at Arlington, despatches 
and messengers were continually errivbg. One 
was from head- quarters, appointing Ui(]or Bar- 
ry to cominanil tht nrlillcTj, Anothci Blated 
tliat tjie oTiL'iFiT had ndvunoed to Fairfax Court 
House. Pristiilly in enmo tivo young men, 
who said they had heon^rewntetl poing lo 
that place by lh»4aHi|j|aj^U^^i)fedcr8tes, 
and that Ih^ 'ffl^^^^Hi^RS^ V^'^^ "" 
they turned i^g^^^^f^Kffm Op In Wim 




toward the Confederates. No one seemed to 
know, however, what Beauregard and Lee are 
doing, but it is affirmed that Johnston has gone 
otf with a corps towards Western VimDiaoQoe 
more, and that an insurrection in Baltunore and 
Maryland is only prevented by the rcepforce- 
menta which are pouring in to Gen. Banks, sad 
by the anticipations of speedy aid from the 
Confederates. Mr. Bemal, the Bridsh consul, 
came over to-day to consult with Lord Ljodi 
on certain matters connected with our inUre^ 
in the city of Baltimore. As the truth ii de- 
veloped the secesaionisls in Washington heccme 
radiant with joy, and cannot conceal tbeir ex- 
ultation wherever it is safe to indulge iL Their 
ears are erect for the sound of the cannon wliicb 
is to herald the eatrance of the enemy into the 
capital of the United States. The Unionist^ 
on the other hand, speak of the past hopes of 
the enemy, of the great reEnforcements BiriT- 
ing, of the renewed efforts of tlie North, aad 
of its dcteiTninatioD to put down rebellion. 
There must be an infatnation which amonnU 
to a kind of national insanily in a portion of 
the North, or is it possible that they believe 
what the joumale tell them — that they are the 
strongest, bravest, richest, mightiest people io 
tho world, and that they have only to will 
it, and the world — incluuiog the ConfedcrBl« 
States — is prostrate before them 1 The eiag- 
gerations and misstatements of part or the 
American press would certainly lead those who 
believed it to such couclusione. 

Let us take a few phrases from ;he papers in 
reference to the action at Manassas. One Nctt 
York journal on Monday announced positively 
"the national troops undisputed victors." "Boll 
Run lost, they must want water." " The en- 
thuaiasm which corned certain regimenta " 
whose " brave and brilliont exploits " were 
" preeminent," " into the face of the intrenched 
foe was etartiing in its effect;" "The nation 
has triumphed I Praise be to God! Live the 
HcpublicI " It does "not infer the Southern 
men are cowards," but that " all the forgery, 
perjury, and telegraphic lying have not weaned 
a very large proportion of them from their old 
love of the Union." "Splendid Union vic- 
toryl" " Terrible slanghtcr I " "Twclvehours' 
terrific fighting 1" "Their last hope gone!" 
" Heroism of tho Union forces I " " They know 
no such word as ' fear 1 '" " Hot chase of the 
rebels I " At 6,30, when the Federalists were 
in retreat, "an officer telegraphs the enemy 
totally routed." There is, of course, plenty of 
" flanking " and " mosked batteries ; " and, as 
a proof of hard work on the part of the pio- 
neers, it is remarked—" An observer judged it 
would ordinarily toke three months to do what 
tbcsjj lumbermen did in half a day I " " Guns 
ci« discharged as rapid as two in a minnte." 
We have Bnccesstully outflanked the enemy." 
'' brigadier qnartermnsler " was taken. In 
■M-rnl places it is slated that the men nsFcrted 
llieir officers were cowards." In another 
uinal of New York there are accounts of the 



DOGUUBMTS. 



71 



^Greatest battle ever foaght on this conti- 
nent ! " ** Fearful carnage on both sides t " 
^* Inceaumt roar of artillery and rattle of small- 
arms ! •* " Terrible tenacity ! " "After a ter- 
rific fight, each and every rebel battery was 
taken ! *» " Kow on to Richmond ! " " The 
rout of the enemy was complete ! " " Crash- 
log rebellion ! " ** Victory at Bull Run ; Sum- 
ter avenged ! '^ A " battle of unparalleled se- 
verity!" "Our gaQant and laurel-crowned 
army ! " Another newspaper, " Our army 
went into battle with firm step and light 
hearts, singing patriotic songs." Bull Run de- 
feat is placed ^' among those great military 
achievements which in ancient and modem 
times have overthrown or marked the begin- 
ning of empires,^* &c., " not less than 125,000 
being engaged on both sides." The poor blus- 
terer tells us "an army equal in numbers to 
that of France, and as well disciplined, will 
bum to resent the wrongs that have been 
offered to the country, and they will rejoice 
at being able to display abroad the vnlor for 
which there will be no longer a field at home." 
It would be worth while to know what the 
Secretary of State thinks of this style of writ- 
ing at present. His frame of mind just now, 
perhaps, is not suited to such strong expres- 
sions, particularly as the people they are meant 
to arouse only laugh at them. 

THvnsoAr, July 25, 1801. 

Last night there was an alarm that the en- 
emy were advancing. General Scott and his 
stalf were roused up in tlie night by messen- 
gers from the outposts. There was a similar 
alarm in Alexandria, but the report was un- 
true. The Confederates, however, have ad- 
vanced their pickets within six miles of the 
latter place. The War Department is in igno- 
rance of their general movements, and can get 
DO intelligence from the country. Several regi- 
ments marched out of the city, as their time 
was np, and their places will be taken by 
others coming in from the Iforth and West. 
The three-months men are going off just as 
their services are most needed. Can any one 
say the three-years men may not do the same ? 
The proportions of the contest are not likely to 
be dwaited. 

Fbidat, Jaly 28, 1861. 

I have kept my letter open to the last mo- 
ment, but there is no change to announce, ex- 
cept a nearer advance of the enemy's pickets 
on the road to Alexandria. General McClellan 
has arrived, and it is said he will send a force 
oat at once to guard the Upper Potomac, and 
to prevent any force crossing in that direction. 
The weather is not excessively hot, and is 
favorable enough for campaigning purposes. 
Washington is quiet to-day as yet. There are 
foiLsiderable additions to be made to the works 
on tlie other side, and, indeed, there is a liill in 
front of one of the redoubts which commands 
it a trifle, and which it is an oversight not 
to fortify. In a few days, if a column is ready, 
I hope to be able to accompany it. 



Ha R0BSELUS THIRD LETTER ON BULL RUl^ 

7%e rebel army eoiUd have entered Washitiffton — JSe 
speculcUes cu to the reasons why it did not. 

Washimotor, July 29, 1861. 

On this day week the Oonfederates could 
have marched into the capital of the United 
States. They took no immediate steps to fol- 
low up their unexpected success. To this mo- 
ment their movements have betrayed no fixity 
of purpose or settled plan to pursue an aggress- 
ive war, or even " to liberate Maryland if they 
have the means of doing so." 

And, indeed, their success was, as I suspect- 
ed, not known to them in its full proportions, 
and their loss, combined, perhaps, with the 
condition of their army, as much as political 
and prudential motives actuating their leaders, 
may have had a fur share in producing the 
state of inactivity with which the Federalists 
have no reason to be dissatisfied. 

A diplomatie vtew of our Union position^ 

Let ns look around, now that the smoke of 
battle has cleared away, and try to examine the 
condition of the ground. 
First, as regards foreign relations : — 
The personal good feeling and perfect under- 
standing which exist between the representa- 
tives of the great European powers directly 
interested in America, are founded on an ap- 
preciation of the exact demands of the interests 
they represent, and on the necessities of a com- 
mon honorable policy. England, having a vast 
commerce directly involved in the contest, has 
naturally been the first to provide for its safety 
in American waters, and has also felt it desir- 
able, in the face of the desperate counsels which 
hate been given on this side of the AtVintic^ to 
furnish a trifling reinforcement to her small 
military establishment in Canada. The fleet at 
present in observation is neither powerful nor 
ofiensively disposed, and no exception can be 
taken to the mode in which it has acted by the 
most sensitive Americans, although attempts 
have been made to arouse vulgar prejudices by 
erroneous statements respecting the views and 
declarations of Admiral Milne. The authori- 
tative assertions on that subject in some of the 
journals here are destitute of authority, except 
that of the writer. What is of more conse- 
quence, perhaps, in respect to the preservation 
of friendly relations between England and the 
United Sjtates, is the fact that a great change 
has come over the views of the members or mem- 
ber of the Cabinet who was supposed to seek the 
reconstruction of the Union in a war with Great 
Britain, and that the most favorable disposition 
is evinced to cultivate our good graces, not by 
any sacrifice of principles, but by the adoption 
of a tone at once calm, just, and dignified, 
which will be appreciated by the Foreign Of- 
! fice. It is not probable, either, that we shall 
I hear much more about the immediate annexa- 
tion of Canada, and the fury of 750,000 " better 
than French" soldiers with which we were 
threatened will be for a time averted. 



72 



KEBELLI(»r REOOED, 1860-81. 



7b Morrill TMff m a taim of tmbroiinurU. 
But if there are such pleasant clianges in 
diplomatic and press world, there is noUiing at 
all li^e them in commercial relations. In the 
Senate it is proposed to clap a round ten per 
cent, on all the duties to be levied under the 
Morrill tariff, and Mr. Simmons, the father of 
this wiclced little bit of political econonij, de- 
dsres he will thereby raise $45,000,000 of ad- 
ditional rerenue. The Eonse of Representa- 
tives, on the contrary, propose to raise revenue 
by taxes on coffee, tea, sn^ar, pepper, apices, 
and articles of the sort, not of necessity nor of 
luxury, but in the intermediate position, so 
that every one who usee them now will con- 
tinue to do so, notwithstandiug the tax, and no 
one will be the worse for it On tliese plans 
it is probable there will be aconference between 
the two branches of the LegisUtnre, in which 
the contending systems may be adjusted or 
amalgamated. The income tax to be adopted 
will give some (40,000,000, according to the 
oaloulatioDB of the designers, and the people 
fondly bolieve it will be removed as aoon as the 



nt mireattiile inltrttU of Frana and 
Ugtd opinion) cf thi mxnUltn of both thtu eo»tt- 

If the increase of ten per cent, on the Morrill 
tariff be actually passed, it is difficult to Boe 
how France can coatinne to regai-d with friendly 
feelings such a direct attack on her great arti- 
cle of exportation. Znglond is accustomed to 
bear these things from the United States, frut 
France cannot lyford any meddling or mitchief 
in her vine trade and her tobacaf moiiopoly. 
M. Mercier, the energetic and able representa- 
tive of our ally, is smJ to enteitain strong no- 
tions that the conte*t now leaging cannot termi- 
natt in the lueceit of the North in what itpro- 
pote* to ittelf. 

U. de Stoeckl, tlie Russian minister, who 
has lired long in America, knows her states- 
men and the genius of her people and institn- 
tions, and is a man of sagacity and vigorous 
intellect, U Icliered to hold the tame niewt. 

Perhaps the only minister who has really been 
neutral, otiserving faithfully all engagemeuta to 
actually existing powers, and sedulously avoid- 
ing all occasion of offence or irritability to an 
irritable people, rendered more than usually so 
by the evil days which have fallen upon them, 
is the discreet and loyal nobleman who repre- 
sents Greet Britain, and who is the only one 
threatened with a withdrawal of passports and 
all sorts of pains and penalties for the presum- 
ed hostility of bis Goveromeut lo the IJoitod 
BtaUs. 

/i the JVor(A aetitig tncrrl;/ on Iht d'/etnivt t 

The world sees thnt the North has not treat' 
ed tlio Sonthornera fls robels — irf-" 
it ha* not dared to do to. But tl 
bavo trcnl«d the Corifedernt'-' 
men t as belligerents. '' ' 
oned, and abot '' 



not received ; the exchange of prisonera with 

rebels is ridiculous. A regular " blockade " (^ 
rebel ports b quite anomuoua. It remains to 
be seen, alter Mr. Davis'a recent hints, what the 
QwemmetU daret to do in the com t^ thx "pi- 
rate*" vhom i<« eruiKrt caught in the ael, red- 
handed, of privateering policy. Meantime the 
arm raised to cliastiso aud subdue has been 
struck down, and the attitude of the North i» 
juet noa defemiTc. There will he on the part 
of the one people whom the American press 
has moat insolled and abused every disposition 
to give fair ploy end to listen to the call for 
" time." But the quarrel must have its limits 
— the time must be fixed, and the sponge must 
be thrown up if one or other of the coaibatants 
cannot "come up" to it; nor does it seem a 
case in which any amonut of "judicious boltle- 
holdiog" can prolong the fight. Now, at the 
present moment, the Nortti is less able to go 
mto the contest tJian she was a moDth ngo. 
She has suffered adefeot, she has lost >noraJ« and 
vtateriel. Besides killed, wounded, and prison- 
era, cannon, arms, baggage, she has lost an army 
of three-months men, who have marched away 
to their homes at the very moment the capital 
was in the grestest danger. 

Hu FtJerai rtinfarttnunf. 

Up to this period the reinforcements received 
do not bring up the Federalists to the strength 
they had before the fight. No one can or will tell 
how many have strayed away and gone off from 
their regiments since they rctnniod to the compe 
here, but the actual number of men who have 
come here are less than those who have gone 
away home by fully 8,000 rank and file. And 
the change has been hy no means for the better. 
The three-months men at least had been three 
months under arms. Tbey were probably at 
least aa martial and as ready lo fight as the rest 
of their people. Just as they are most required 
and likely not to be quite unserviceable, Ihey 
retire to receive ill-deserved and ridicnlout 
ovations, as tbongb they had been glorious con- 
querors and patriots, instead of beiug bniken 
and rented fugitives, who marched off from 
Washingtou wtien it might be expected the 
enemy were advancing against it. In their 
place come levies who nave not had oven the 
three months' training, and who are not as well 
equipped, so far as I can see, as their predeces- 
sors, to face men who are elated with success 
and the prestige of the first battle gained, and 
to be associated with regiments cowed, proba- 
bly, and certainly, in some instances demoral- 
ized, by defeat. 

The aTtillerymen «Jo tut the traeet of thtir 
hoTtetJrom caitton and carriage at Itatt hnat 
more about gmi* than the men tche tcill be put 
lo the Tieinjield batteries whicli Government are 
getting up as fast as tbey can ; anil the mus- 
•ts, -.f iho best description, left on the field 

Iftken, cannot he rtplaeed for a long time « 



la (act, mnrfi of this a 



t bo 



iltat ettemy is either 



DOOUMENTa 



73 



ineompetent or artful; it is quite certain he ie 
not actuated hy demency or a generotie pity. 
Engineers are bard at work strengthening the 
position on the sonth bank of the river ; but 
forts do not constitute safety. Without stoat 
hearts behind their lines and breastworks, 
abatis and redonbts avail nothing. 

A ^irtmdplan of aUaek on Waahinglati mapped out 
— General Beauregard wmH venture unlete almoit 
etrtain ofaueceet. 

It mnst be that the Confederates are deficient 
in the means of transport^ or in actual force to 
make an attack which is so obvious, if they de- 
sire to show the North it is not possible to sub- 
due them. The corps which went from Win- 
chester to Manassas under Johnson is put by 
the Federalists at 40)009. Let us take it at half 
that number. Beauregard and Lee are said to 
have had 60,000 at Manassas, including, I pre- 
some, the forces between it and Richmond. 
Divide that again. There were certainly 20,- 
000 between Monroe, the Court (?) and Rich- 
mond, of whom 10,000 could be spared ; and 
on the western side of the capital of the Con- 
federate States there was available at least an- 
other corps of 10,000, which could have been 
readily strengthened by 10,000 or 15,000 more 
from the South in case of a supreme effort. 
There teems no reason^ not connected with trans- 
porty equipment^ or discipline^ why the Confed- 
erates should not have been able last week to take 
the field with 75,000 men^ in two corps; one 
quite strong enough to menace the force on the 
right hank of the Potomac^ and to hold it in 
check, or to prevent it going over to the other 
aide ; the other to cross into Maryland^ which 
is now in parts only kept quiet hy force^ and 
to adcance down on Washington from the west 
and North, 

Li the event of success, the political advan- 
tages would he very great at home and abroad^ 
and there would be a new base of operations 
gained close to the enemy^s lines^ while the ad- 
vantages of holding the Potomac and Chesa- 
peake Bay would be much neutralized and 
finally destroyed. The navy yard would fall 
into the enemy*s hands. Fort Washington would 
probably soon follow. Fortress Monroe would 
bo condemned to greater isolation. Philadel- 
phia itself would be in imminent danger should 
the Confederates attempt greater aggression. 

But, for one, General Beauregard will con- 
aent to no ])lan of operations in which success 
is not rendered as certain as may be by all pos- 
sible precautions, and he might not favor a pro- 
posal which would lead to dividing an army 
into two parts, with a river between them and 
an enemy on each side. Monroe and Hampton, 
which are the true bases of operations against 
Richmond, liave been weakened to re&nforco the 
army covering Washington and Harper's Ferry, 
and yet I doubt if there are on the south bank 
of the Potomac at this moment 40,000 men all 
along tho lines who could move out and offer 
an enemy battle, leaving any adequate guards in 



tho trenches and garrisons in the tete de pont 
and works. 

The eaualry of the Southern army and loss of many 
mounted ^^ gentlemen,''^ 

The Confederates, as you were informed from 
the South, have enlisted men to serve for the 
war, and take no others. The staple of their 
army will undergo no change, and as it grows 
older it ought to get better, unless it be beaten. 

You will pardon me for referring to a re- 
mark in one of my previous letters, that there 
might be fierce skirmishes and even sanguinary 
engagements, between the two armies, but that 
these would be followed by no decisive results, 
owing to the want of cavalry. Strange to say, 
though the panic and very discreditable rout 
was caused by alarms of, and might have been 
prevented by the presence of cavalry, no steps 
are taken to remedy that great deficiency. The 
volunteers who were at Manassas will never 
stand the man on horseback again, and I believe 
the Confederates are quite aware of their ad- 
vantage, though they may have had to mourn 
the loss of many gentlemen who fell during the 
day. 

Military exaggerations North and South. 

The Northern papers are increasing the 
amount of butter in proportion as they decrease 
the losses of their loaves, and they do not ap- 
pear to perceive that tlie smaller the latter 
were, the less shoidd be the layer of the former 
— for it is no credit to an army to lose its guns, 
abandon its positions, throw away its muskets, 
leave its wounded in the hands of the enemy, 
and run some thirty and odd miles from front 
of CentrevUle, not merely to Arlington, but to 
Washington, without any cause at all; for 
without loss there was no cause of retreat^ and 
therefore no excuse for panic and rout. Again, 
they say there was only a portion of their army 
engaged. The greater shame for those who 
were not engaged to run, then. But before 
the battle, when McDowell's force was enumer- 
ated in terrorem at 50,000, it was said fifteen 
regiments had subsequently joined. Now it is 
averred only 16,000, 18,000, or 20,000 were in 
action. What on earth were the rest about ? 

And I am obliged to say that Mr. Davis's 
statements are quite as startling ; for, while he 
declares the enemy were 35,000 strong, he 
astonishes us by asserting that of all his host 
only 15,000 took part in the battle. As to 
losses, of course it is beyond any thing but 
imagination to give an estimate. Regiments 
reported to have been annihilated have turned 
up, quite hale and hearty, neat as imported, on 
the day of marching home ; and fond parents, 
wives, and relatives will bo spared many pangs 
and a great deal of mourning. I think my es- 
timate of killed and wounded was nearly cor- 
rect. Tho prisoners may amount to more than 
900 or 1,000, but tho Ihderalists hare lost more 
heavily tlian the totals under these heads would 
show, perhaps. It would bo rather ridiculous 
to call it cither a hard fought, a bloody, or a 



74 



REBELLION BKOOBI), 18«0-«1. 



glorious field ; but it was an important one ; it 
was a most trying one to the Federalists, toko 
icere hadlyfed arid hard toorked in a toaterless 
country y on a July day ^ for twelve hours ; they 
Moere exposed to the demoralizing effects of long- 
continued artillery fire. In spite of their want 
of discipline and the very unaccountable rout, 
the Federalists at first showed alacrity, but 
after a time they became torpid and difficult to 
handle. 

No one questions the general bravery of 
Americans, native or adopted, on either side ; 
but a defeat is rendered worse than ridiculous 
by attempts to tuni it into a triumph. Let the 
unfortunate brave rest content with the sym- 
pathy they deserve, and shun the ovations 
which are the duo of the conqueror. Praise 
and flattery cannot retake a gun, nor save a 
standard, nor win a battle — even if it be from 
toxpopuli in Broadway or Bowery. 

Army and F^nancicU measures of the Washington 

Cabinet, 

Tlie government in some measure let the 
world see what they think of the charges made 
against the ofiicers of the army in reference to 
the late battle. Here is on order just pub- 
lished : 

[Mr. Russell here gives the order (July 25) 
of Adjutant-general Thomas, United States 
Army, directing that volunteer officers shall 
undergo an examination, as well as the recon- 
struction of the military districts in Virginia, 
Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania— Ed.] 

He then continues: — Yesterday a bill was 
passed by the House of Representatives impos- 
ing a tax on carriages of from $1 to $50 ; gold 
watclics, $1 ; silver watches, 50c. ; excise on 
spirituous liquors, 5c. per gallon ; and on fer- 
mented liquors, 60c. per barrel, or 2c. a gallon. 
All incomes over $600 per annum, three per 
cent., including money at interest, &c. Every 
interest in the country is also taxed, including 
a tax on the net income of the banks ; but not 
on their currency or bank circniation. Landed 
estates are likewise taxed, and if it be accepted 
by the other branches of the Legislature, the 
people of the North will begin to feel that 
fighting is an expensive luxury, particularly if 
it be unsuccessful. 

Generals Banks and Butler , and the fortifications of 
Fortress Monroe — Ihe defences (f James River, 

It will be weeks before we have done hearing 
and seeing accounts of Bull Run, or, as it may 
be better called, of Manassas, unless some other 
action intervenes, as is very likely indeed. 

Gen. Banks, not finding any advantage in oc- 
cupying a point in front of Harper's Ferry, on 
tlie Virginia side, has, it is affirmed, withdrawn 
all his troops to a position in Maryland, which 
commands the passages from the Ferry ; and 
Gen. Butler, at Fortress Monroe, feels himself 
compelled to abandon his advauced works at 
Hampton, which I described hurriedly the 
other day, and to retire to the cover of the 
guns of the place. Fortress Monroe is quite 



impregnable to the enemy, for they have not 
the means of undertaking a regular Biege. If 
they get heavy guns and morlare, however, they 
can certainly make the interior unpleasant, and 
should they open trenches the Americana may 
have a Sebastopol in petto near Old Point Com' 
fort. 

Meantime the command of Colonel Phelps, 
at Newport News, consisting of four regiments^ 
is threatened by the enemy. His camp is In- 
trenched and furnished with a few howitzers 
and field-pieces, and heavy guns on the river 
face. I heard him apply to General Butler, 
when I was there, for horses and harness for his 
guns, as if he wanted to move them. He is a 
grim, dour, stem soldier, of the old Puritan 
type, and if attacked he will defend his camp 
to the last. Should he be beaten^ the Confeder- 
ates will have both sides of James River, 



Relative value of the officers slain on both sides — 
Sons of the *^ First Families'^ a greater loss than 
mere Irish or Oermans, 

The more closely the consequences of Man- 
assas are investigated, the more serious they 
seem to be. It must be granted that the Con- 
federates feel their losses more severely than 
the North does. Their colonels and officers are 
men qf mark, and even of privates killed or 
wounded one sees notices implying that they he" 
long to good families and are well known peo- 
ple. The O's and Macs and Vons (few of the 
latter), the Corcorans, Camerons, and Brug* 
gers, prisoners, wounded, or killed, are of Use 
consequence to the social system of the North 
than the Hamptons, Prestons^ and Manninge 
are to the South, If Mr. Davis and a few of 
the leaders were to fall in battle there would 
be less chance of the South continuing ita 
ptrnggle with the same heart and confidence ; 
but if all the cabinet were to go to-morrow from 
Washington, the spirit of the Northern Statee 
would not be dimUiished one iota. 

Announcements of the victory by the rebel chiefs. 

From the South, as yet, we have only a few 
scattered details of the fight and of its results ; 
but it can be seen that there was no very great 
exultation over the victory. The following in- 
teresting extracts from the Richmond Enquirer^ 
of July 23, will furnish a good idea of the 
manner in which the news was received : 

[Mr. Russell here gives the despatch of Jef- 
ferson Davis to Mi*s. Davis, announcing the tri- 
umph ; also his official report to Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Cooper at Richmond, the speech of Mr. 
Memminger in the rebel Congress announcing 
the news, with the resolutions passed by that 
body on the occasion.— i&^ Doc, 7. — ^Ed.] 

lie then adds : — It will be observed wlion Mr. 
Davis telegraphed to his wife ho spoke of a 
dearly-bought victoiy and a close pursuit. Of 
the latter there are no eWdences ; many troops 
remained till next morning in Centreville, not 
four miles from the scene of the figlit, and 
General Schenck's report states he withdrew 
his men in good order at his leisure. It wiU 



D00D1IBNT& 



76 



be so&Qj too, that all which has been said of the 
eoemy oatflanking the Federalists' left is rub* 
bifh, and that the main contest was, as I stated, 
on the right of the line. 

Mr. Davis retamed by train to Richmond on 
(he S3d a oonqaeror. His conduct is thus de- 
acribed: 

[Here he gives the account of Jeff. Davis's 
reception, with the report of his remarks, — 
given in Doc T. — ^£d.] 

7%t medical appliances and surgeons of the army. 

The '^ luxury of ambulances " is a new and 
curious ground of complaint, and I suspect that 
there were not many articles of the kind in the 
rear of the Confederate army. 

Apropos of this subject, I must remark that 
one class of officers in tlio Federal army did 
their duty nobly — the surgeons remained on the 
field when all others were retiring or had Irft, 
One is reported killed ; six are prisoners in the 
hands of the enemy, engaged in attending the 
wounded of both sides — ^an invaluable aid to 
the scanty medical staff of the Oonfederates. 

There is no reason to believe the treatment 
of wounded or prisoners was what it was re- 
ported to have been. There may have been 
some isolated acts of atrocity in the heat of 
battle or pursuit, and it is only too likely that 
a haiJding in which wounded men were placed 
was set fire to by a shell, bat it is only justice 
to the Confederate authorities to say that they 
seem to have done all they could for those who 
fell into their hands. Much irritation has been 
created by the false statements circulated on 
this subject, and the soldiers on guard over 
Confederate prisoners here would not permit 
them to receive some little luxuries which had 
been ordered by sympathizing inhabitants, on 
the ground that they did not deserve them 
afker th^ treatment given by their friends to 
theFeder]dist& 

Treas/m exists in every department of the Federal 
Government — What Mr. Bitssell saw in the United 
States Post Ofiee. 

And as I have used the word " sympathizers," 
let me add the expression of my belief that 
there is scarcely a department, high or low^ of 
the public sertiC'e of the United States in which 
there is not '^ treason " — I mean the aiding and 
abetting the enemy by information and advice. 
It is openly talked in society — its work is evi- 
dent on all sides. 

I went into the private department of the 
Post Office the other day, and found there a 
gentleman busily engaged in sorting letters at 
a desk. The last titnel saw him was at dinner 
with the Commissioners of the Confederate States 
at Washington, and I was rather surprised to 
see him now in the sanctum of the Post Office, 
teithin a few feet of Mr. Blair, of the sangre 
(i2ul of abolitionism. 

Said he, " / am just looking over the letters 
here to pick out some for our Southern friends, 
and I forward them to their owners as I find 
tkem;^'* and if the excellent and acute gentle- 



man did not also forward any little scraps of 
news he could collect I am in error. 

Again, a series of maps prepared with great 
care, for the use of General McDowell's staff, 
are given out to be photographed, and are so 
scarce that superior officers cannot get them. 
Nevertheless one is found in a tent of a Con- 
federate officer, in the advance of Fairfax Court 
Mouse, which must have been sent to him as soon 
as it was ready. 

It is also asserted that General Beauregard 
knew beforehand of McDowell's advance: 
but the Confederates left in such haste that 
much credence cannot be given to the state- 
ment that the enemy were fully informed of 
the fact any considerable length of time before* 
hand. 

The '^ On to Richmond^ cry. 

The battle having been duly fought and lost, 
the Federalists are employing their minds to 
find out why it was fought at all. 

The convulsions into which the New York 
press have been thrown by the inquiry, resemble 
those produced on a dead frog by the wire of 
Galvani. " Who cried ' On to Richmond ? ' » 
*^^ Not I, ^pon my honor. It was shouted out 
by some one in my house, but I dorCt know who, 
/never gave him authority. I won't shout any 
thing any moreJ^ 

" Who urged General Scott to fight the battle^ 
and never gave anybody any peace till he was 
ordered to do it?" ''Nobody!'' ''It was that 
other felhw.'' " Please, sir, it wasn't me." 

" I never approved it." , 

" I'll never say a word to a soldier again." 

" Mr. President knows I didn't''' 

It is really a most curious study. I begin to 
thing that the best possible instructors may 
sometimes be in the wrong at this side of the 
Atlantic. 

The Tribune declares that General Scott, 
being absolute master of tho situation, is re- 
sponsible for the battle. 

But the New York Tim^s gives a statement 
of what took place btfore the battle at the Gen- 
eraVs table, which, therefore, is probably pub- 
lished with his sanction, as it is impossible to 
suppose a gentleman would print it without ex- 
press permission, from which it would certainly 
appear that tho veteran commander was not, 
as I hinted, a free agent in tho matter. Here 
is the statement : 

[Mr. Russell here furnishes Raymond's Wash- 
ington letter to the New York Times, com- 
mencing with: — "General Scott, it is said, 
discussed the whole subject of this war, in all 
its parts, and with the utmost clearness and 
accuracy. He had a distinct and well-defined 
opinion on every point connected with it, and 
stated what his plan would be for bringing it 
to a close if the management of it had been left 
in his hands," &c. — ^Ed.] 

Can the Government meet a reaction? — General 
McClellan at work. 

It remams to be seen if tho plans of General 



76 



BEBELUOK BBOORB, 1860-61. 



Scott can now bo followed. The reaction along 
the Mississippi will be great, and Major-General 
Fremont, with great respect for his courage 
and enterprise, is not the man, I fear, to con- 
duct large columns successfully. 

Missouri is any thing but safe. 

Cairo is menaced, and my friends at Mem- 
phis seem to be stirring from their rest under 
their General. 

I regret that I cannot give any more interest- 
ing or important intelligence, but I have not 
been able to go out for the last two days to the 
camps, as in common with many people in Wash- 
ington, I was suffering a little from the weather 
— thunderstorms, rains, bad odors, which pro- 
duce the usual results in garrisons and ill-drain- 
ed cities. However, it is some consolation that 
there is nothing of consequeiioe doing. 

There was an alarm the night before last. 
8ome foolish people got the loan of a steamer 
and a big gun, and went down the river with 
themu When they were opposite one of the 
enemy's batteries, some three or four miles 
away, they fired their big gun, and " Oh'd," no 
doubt, at the shot as it plashed short in the 
water, the enemy treating them with a proper 
eHent contempt all the while. Having done 
this, they returned in the evening and amused 
themselves by firing away as hard as they could 
Just below the Long Bridge — I believe without 
Dall — and it may be imagined there was some 
commotion, as the reports shook doors and 
windows. 

General McClellan is doing his best to get 
things into order, and the outskirts of the city 
and tiie streets are quieter at night ; but there 
is rough work with Zouaves and others in 
Alexandria — Chouses burnt, people shot, and 
such like sports of certain sorts of ** citizen 
soldiery." They mil soon be shouting " money 
cr hlood,^^ if not kept in order and paid. These 
men form a marked exception to the general 
behavior of many regiments. 



Doc. 4. 
K Y. TRIBUNE NARRATIVE. 

A coKBESPOJTOKNT of tho Ncw York Tribune 
writing from Washington, under date of July 
23, gives the following account of the battle : 

My narrative of this extraordinary battle 
can accurately embrace most of what occurred 
with the division under Gen. Tyler, which 
opened the attack, which was, with the excep- 
tion of one brigade, desperately engaged from 
the beginning to the end, and which, so far as 
I can judge from the course in which events 
ran, was the last to yield before the panic which 
spread through the army. It is well under- 
stood that the conflict extended over a space of 
many miles, and that the experience of a single 
observer could grasp only those details which 
immediately surrounded him. The general 
progress and effects of the entire engagement 
were apparent from the advanced positions of 



Gen. Tyler's action, and of these it will be pos- 
sible for me to speak safely ; but tiie particuUr 
movement of the divisions under Col. Hunter 
and Col. Heintzelman should be told of by 
others who accompanied them. 

For the clear understanding of this record, 
the plan of battle, although often given, mnst 
be once more briefly set down. The enemy's 
strength had been tested and aflSnned by the 
hot skirmish of Thursday, the result of which 
did not justify a second serious attempt upon 
the same ground. There was, moreover, abon- 
daut evidence that the entire line of defences 
along Bull Run was equally formidable, and 
that any attack upon a single point wonld be 
extremely hazardous. It was therefore deter- 
mined to open tho assault in two directions 
simultaneously, and to offer a feint of a third 
onset, to divert attention, and if possible, con- 
fuse the enemy's defence. Accordingly, OoL 
Richardson was left with a considerable bat- 
tery of artillery and one brigade — ^the fourth 
of Gen. Tyler's division — at the scene of the 
skirmish of Thursday, with directions to open 
heavily with cannon at about the moment of 
the real attack elsewhere. The remainder of 
Gen. Tyler's division, his 1st, 2d, and 3d bri- 
gades, with powerful artillery, but without cav- 
alry, was sent to cross Bull Run at a point a 
mile and a half or more to the right, upon a 
road known as tho Stone Bridge road. A 
stronger wing, comprising the divisions of Col. 
Hunter and Col. Heintzelman, was carried 
around a good distance to the right, with tho 
purpose of breaking upon the enemy in flank 
and rear, and driving them towards Gen. Tyler, 
by whom their regular retreat should be cut 
off. Col. Miles's division remained at Centre- 
vllle in reserve, and had no part in the action. 

Long before dawn, the three divisions which 
sustained the battle moved from CentrovUle 
to the attack. The march was slow, and, to 
a certain degree, irregular. Even at that hour, 
there seemed a lack of unity and direct purpose 
among the oflScers, which sometimes was made 
too evdent to the troops not to affect their 
spii-it and demeanor. I believe it fust to say 
that, at the very opening of the <lay, it was 
plain to all that real and sound discipline was 
abandoned. I do not mean that this was tho 
case with separate regiments, many of which 
were always prompt, sure, and perfectly at the 
disposal of their commanders, but with tho bri- 
gades, the divisions, even the army, as a whole. 
The march was continued until, at 5} o'clock, 
Gen. Tyler's division had reached the j)lace of 
its attack. His Second and Third brigades, 
under Gen. Schenck and Col. Sherman, were 
arrayed in lines of battle, the former taking tho 
left, and the latter, after some changes, the 
right of the road. Skirmishers were pushed 
forw'ard, who, when close upon Bull Run, en- 
countered the pickets of the enemy, and ]>re8- 
ently exchanged irregular shots with thi'Ui. by 
which slight injuries were caused on both Mdes. 
N"othing further was attcmi)ted by tho infantry 



BOCDMSNTSL 



77 



for boors. A beavy d2>poiind rifled cannon 
was broaght well forwaid on the road, and 
threw a couple of shell among tlie rebel lines, 
whicb were indistinctly seen formed and form- 
ing a Ddile before ns. These were not answer- 
ed, and, for a while, tlie cannonade was dis- 
continued from oar side. 

Our position was less commanding and less 
dear than that we had occapied on Thursday. 
We were still before the valley of Bull Bun, 
bat tbe descent from our side was more grad- 
ual, and we were surrounded by thick woods 
down almost to the ravine through which the 
stream flows. The enemy, on the contrary, 
had cleared away all obstructing foliage, and 
bared the earth in every direction over which 
they could bring their artillery upon us. 
Clomps of trees and bushes remained wherever | 
their earthworks and other concealed defences 
could be advantageously planted among them. 
The ground on t^eir side was vastly superior 
to ours. It rose in regular slopes to great 
heights, but was broken into knolls and ter- 
races in numberless places, upon which strong 
earthworks were successively planted, some 
openly, but the greater part concealed. The 
long interval between our first discharge of 
artillery and the positive attack afforded abun- 
dant opportunity to overlook the ground. In 
no spot did the enemy seem weak. Nature 
had sapplied positions of defence which needed 
but little labor to render them desperately for- 
midable. How thoroughly these advantages 
had been improved we know by the enormous 
efibrts which were required to dislodge the 
troops, and by the obstinate opposition which 
they display<Ml before retiring from point to 
point. 

While our division waited, quiet and alert, 
Gen. McDowell led the columns of Hunter and 
Beintzelman far around by the right, to the 
enemy's flank and rear. The march was long 
and doubtless slow, for it was not until about 
II o'clock that we were able to discover indica- 
tions of their having met the rebels. From 
Eicbardson's position, to the left, however, we 
beard, at 8 o'clock, the commencement of vig- 
orous cannonading. The deep, sullen sound 
from bis distant batteries was all that broke the 
silence for nearly an hour. Then the hurrying 
of our officers up and down the hill, and through 
tbe woods, told us that our assault was about 
to open. The skirmishers had detected a thick 
and tangled abatis at the banks of the run, into 
wbich, before advancing, a few shell were 
tbrown. As these burst, the rebels swarmed 
out from their hiding-places, and took up their 
next fortified post beyond. Gen. Schenck's bri- 
gade was moved forward at the left, bat, be- 
fore reaching the run, received the full fire of 
a battery masked witb bushes, before which 
they retired to their first line. Again nil oper- 
ations were suspended by our division, and 
antil 11 o'clock the contest was carried on by 
th& artillery, which, indeed, at that hour, re- 
sounded from every point of the field. The 



action by artillery must have extended over 
five or six miles, from Richardson's position at 
the extreme left around to Hunter's at the 
right. The roar and rattle were incessant, and 
the air above the vast field soon became thick 
with smoke. 

Suddenly a line of troops was seen moving 
over the open hill-slope precisely in advance of 
us and within a mile — the least distance at 
which the rebel infantry had been seen. The 
8d brigade under Ool. Sherman was now drawn 
from its slielter among the woods and led rap- 
idly around by the right across the run and tow- 
ards one of the enemy's best positions. Brisk 
volleys of musketry were soon after heard, but 
the smoke hung like a veil before us and it was 
impossible to discover by whom, or against 
whom, they were directed. A puflT of wind 
afterwards cleared the view, and we saw the 
brigade still in firm line, and advancing with 
great speed. A few shots, and a round or two 
of artillery, next came from the right upon the 
2d brigade, whicb had not yet moved forward, 
and which, as a whole, held its post squarely, 
although some squads broke and ran into the 
open road. Orders were given to the men to 
lie upon their faces when not in motion, and 
menaced by artillery. However proper this 
precaution may have been at this time, it after- 
wards turned out to be one of the roost fatal 
causes of the demoralization of the division. It 
was so frequently repeated that some regiments 
at last could not be made to stand at any point 
whatever, the least report of cannon or mus- 
ketry sending them instantly upon their knees; 
and I saw an entire company of the New York 
2d grovel in the dust at the accidental snapping 
of a percussion cap of one of their own ritles. 

At 11^ o'clock the cannonading was lighter 
from our side, and the attention of the enemy 
seemed to be distracted from us. We were 
then able to descry great volumes of smoke 
arising in front, in the precise spot at whicb 
Hunter's column should have arrived. Thia 
gloomy signal of the battle waved slowly to 
the left, assuring us that Hunter and Hcintzel- 
man were pushing forward, and driving the 
enemy before them. At the same time, our 
right brigade disappeared over the eminence 
for which they had been contending, and the 
distant cheers, which evidently came from 
them, proved that the present triumph was 
their own* To sustain and re-enforce them, 
the reserve brigade of Oolonel Keyes was then 
brought down, and marched forward, in spite 
of a ti*emendous cannonade which opened upon 
them from the left, in the same line as that 
which Oolonel Sherman had followed. The 
left brigade, under General Schenck, did not ad- 
vance, but still remained on the ground where 
it had formed at the very outset. The result 
of this inaction wa't, that our left was at the close 
of the battle assailed and successfally turned ; 
and although the enemy did not pursue this final 
triumph, it was not the fault of tbe commander 
of that brigade that great mischief was not 



78 



BEBELLION BECX)RD, 1860-61. 



done. Colonel Keyes soon vanished with his 
four regiments, and the 8econd brigade was left 
isolated at the edge of the battle-ground. Its 
best protection then was furnished hj the 82- 
pound Parrott rifled cannon, which some rods 
to the right, among the brushwood, was raking 
the road far ahead, and plunging shell among 
the strongholds which the enemy still main- 
tained. 

At half-past 12 o'clock the hattle appeared 
to have reached its climax. Hunters and 
Ecintzelman^s divisions were deep in the ene- 
iny*s position, and our own force, excepting 
always the 2d brigade, was well at work. The 
discharges of artil)Bry and musketry caused a 
continuous and unbroken roar, which sometimes 
swelled tumultuously to terrific crashes, but 
never lulled. On the heights before us, bodies 
of infantry were plainly seen driving with fury 
one against the other, and slowly pressing tow- 
ards the left — another proof that our advance 
vaa resisted in vain. At one point, the rebels 
seemed determined to risk all rather than re- 
treat Many a regiment was brought to meet 
onr onset, and all were swept back with the 
same impetuous charges. Prisoners who were 
subsequently brouglit in admitted that some of 
onr troops, especially the 71 st New York reg- 
iment, literally mowed down and annihilated 
double their number. Two Alabama regi- 
ments, in succession, were cut right and left by 
the 71 St. The flanking column was now fully 
discernible, and the junction of our forces was 
evidently not far distant. The gradual aban- 
donment of their positions by the rebels could 
not bo doubted. At some points they fled 
precipitately, but in most cases moved regularly 
to the rear. It is probable that they only de- 
serted one strong post for another even strong- 
er, and that however far we might have crush- 
ed them back we should still have found them 
intrenched and fortifled to the last^ven to 
Manassas itself. But they had positively re- 
linquished the entire line in which they had 
first arrayed themselves against Tyler's division, 
excepting one fortifled elevation st the left, 
which could and should have been carried by 
the 2d brigade an hour before. How far the 
enemy had retreated before Hunter and Heint- 
zelman, I cannot say, but I am given to under- 
stand that they had forsaken all excepting one 
powerful earthwork with lofty embankments, 
up»on the highest ground of their field. It was 
this work, which, later in the day, was stormed 
by the Zouaves, and other regiments, and 
which, in spite of a daring and intrepidity 
which our rebel prisoners speak of with amaze- 
ment, resisted their charge. But other impor- 
tant works had been carried by the 8d and 4th 
brigades on our side, so that little appeared to 
remain for our victory but to perfect the union 
of the two columns, and to hold the ground we 
bad won. 

The fire now slackened on both sides for sev- 
eral minutes. Although the movements of onr 
own troops were mainly hidden, we could see 



a peculiar activity among the enemy at the 
spot where they had been most vehemently 
repulsed by Heintzelman. A long line of ap- 
parently fresh regiments was brought forward, 
and formed at the edge of a grove throngli 
which our men had penetrated. Four times 
we saw this line broken, and reformed by its 
officers, who rode behind, and drove back dose 
who fled with their swords. A fifth time it 
was shattered, and reformed, but could not be 
made to stand fast, and was led back to the 
fortified ground. This afforded us who looked 
on from the lower battle-field, a new ground 
for the conviction that the triumph would be 
with us. 

For nearly half an hour after this we were 
left in great uncertainty. The enemy languish- 
ed, and our own movements seemed clogged 
by some mysterious obstacle. All that was 
done within our view was the leading forward 
of Schenck's brigade a few hundred rods on the 
open road. But as many of us, lookers-on, had 
long before passed ahead to Bull Bun, and as- 
sured ourselves that the field was open for near- 
ly a mile in advance, this was not regarded as 
of much importance. From Bull Bun, the as- 
pect of the field was truly appalling. The ene- 
my's dead lay strewn so thickly that they rest- 
ed upon one another, the ground refusing space 
to many that had fallen. Few of our men had 
sufifered here, although it seemed that further 
on they lay in greater numbers. But the atten* 
tion of those who gazed was quickly turned 
from these awful results of the battle to the 
imminent hazard of its renewal. Down tow- 
ards our left, which had so long been exposed, 
a new line of troops moved with an alacrity 
that indicated entire freshness. As they swept 
around to the very woods upon which the Second 
brigade rested, the artillery from the last in- 
trenchments they held upon this field — ^that 
which should have been overrun betimes by our 
idle troops — opened with new vigor. Grape and 
round shot, most accurately aimed, struck the 
ground before, behind, and each side of Gen. 
Schenck and the group of officers about him. 
The Ohio regiments were somewhat sheltered 
by a cleft in the road, but the New York 2d 
was more exposed. Gen. Schenok was in great 
danger, to which, I am glad to say, he seemed 
perfectly insensible, riding always through the 
hottest of the fire as if nothing more serious 
than a shower of paper pellets threatened him. 
But more than this Gen. Schenck cannot claim. 

Nevertheless, our work progressed. Capt. 
Alexander, with the engineers, had completed 
a bridge across the run, over which our ambu- 
lances were to pass for the wounded, and by 
which our artillery could be planted in new po- 
sitions. Even then, although that stealthy col- 
umn was winding, awkwardly for us, about onr 
left, no person dreamed that the day was lost. 
The men of the brigade, at least, were firm, 
although they began to suflfer severely. Hor- 
rible gaps and chasms appeared once or twice 
in the ranks of the New York 2d. Four men 



DOCUVEMTSL 



79 



were torn in pieces bj a single roand of grape 
shot, and their blood was flung in great splasher 
over all who stood near. The carnage around 
seemed more terrific than it really was, so hid- 
eoos was the nature of the wounds. 

A few minutes later, and the great peril of 
our division, that which should have been fore- 
seen and provided against, was upon us. The 
enemy appeared upon the left flank, between us 
and our way of retreat. Why they failed, hav- 
ing onoe secured it, to pursue this enormous 
advantage, it is impossible to coqjecture. I am 
inclined to believe that the coolness and pre- 
cision of Col. McOook of the 1st Ohio regi- 
ment saved us from this disaster. It is certain 
GoL McOook displayed a firm resistance to the 
charge which menaced him, and that the ene- 
my wavered, and then withdrew. But, at tliis 
time, the first proofs of the panio which had 
stricken the army were disclosed. From the 
distant hills, our troops, disorganized, scattered, 
pallid with a terror which had no just cause, 
came pouring in among us, trampling down 
some, and spreading the contagion of their fear 
among alL It was even then a whirlwind which 
nothing conld resist. The most reluctant of the 
officers were forced from the valley up the hill, 
in spite of themselves. Whoever had stood 
would have been trodden under foot by his own 
meo. year the top of the hill a like oommotion 
was visible, but from a difforent cause. The 
rebel cavalry, having completely circumvented 
our led, had charged in among a crowd of 
wounded and stragglers, who surrounded a 
small boildiuff which had been used for our 
hospital. Nothing but the unexpected courage 
of a considerable number of unorganized men, 
many of them civilians, who seized the readiest 
weapons and repelled the enemy, saved that 
pomt from being occupied. If I could learn 
the names of that brave handful, I would be 
glad to set them down as shining lights amid a 
great and disastrous gloom ; and I will say that 
Br our flying army could have forgotten for a 
moment its affright, and paused to see wliat 
those true men could do, the nation might still 
have escaped the saddest disgrace which stains 
its history. 

The secret of that panic will perhaps never 
be known. All essay to explain it, and all fail. 
WJiether Gen. McDowell did or did not give an 
order to retreat I cannot say of my own knowl- 
edge. I am assured by one who was with him 
that he did ; and by others that he also failed 
to preserve his self-control. If this be so, we 
shall know of it in time, but all we can now be 
sure of is the afflicting fact of our utter and ab- 
solute rout. How nearly one great object of 
the day had been accomplish A may be under- 
stood when it is known that Gen. Tyler and 
Gen. McDowell had actually met. Many who 
came into the battle with Ool. Heintzelman 
and Gol. Hunter fled by the road over which 
G«n. Tyler had advanced. In the race from a 
fimcied danger, all divisions and all regiments 
are mingled. There was not even an attempt 



to cover I the retreat of Tyler's division. "With 
Heintzelman's it was better: Lieut. Drummond's 
cavalry troop keeping firm line, and protecting ^ 
the artillery until its abandonment was imper- 
atively ordered. The extent of the disorder 
was unlimited. Regulars and volunteers shared 
it alike. A mere fraction of our artillery was 
saved. Whole batteries were left upon the field, 
and the cutting off of others was ordered when 
the guns had already been brought two miles 
or more from the battle-ground, and were as 
safe as they would be in I^w York at this mo- 
ment. A perfect frenzy was upon almost every 
man. Some cried piteously to be lifted behind 
those who rode on horses, and others sought to 
clamber into wagons, the occupants resisting 
them with bayonets. All sense of manhood 
seemed to be forgotten. I hope, and I am sure, 
there were exceptions, but I am speaking of 
the rule with the mass. Drivers of heavy wag- 
ons dashed down the steep road, reckless of the 
lives they endangered on the way. Even the 
sentiment of shame had gone. Some of the 
better men tried to withstand the rush, and 
cried out against the flying groups, calling them 
*^ cowards, poltroons, brutes," and revUingthem 
for so degrading themselves, especially when no 
enemy was near. Insensible to the epithets, 
the runkways only looked relieved, and sought 
renewed assurance that their imagined pursuers 
were not upon them. Every impediment to 
flight was cast aside. Rifles, bayonets, pistols, 
haversacks, cartridge-boxes, canteens, blankets, 
belts, and overcoats lined the road. The pro- 
visions from the wagons were thrown out, and 
the tops broken away. All was lost to that 
American army, even its honor. 

The agony of this overwhelming disgrace can 
never be expressed in words, or understood by 
those who only hear the tale repeated. I be- 
lieve there were men upon that field who turned 
their faces to the enemy, and marched to certain 
death, lest they should share the infamy which 
their fellows had invited and embraced. The 
suffering of a hundred deaths would have been 
as nothing compared with the torture under 
which the few brave soldiers writhed, who were 
swept along by that maniac hurricane of terror. 
But suddenly their spirits were revived by a 
sight which so long as God lets them live, 
they will never cease to remember with pride 
and joy. Stretching far across the road, long 
before the hoped-for refuge of Centrevillo was 
reached, was a firm, unswerving line of men, to 
whom the sight of the thousands who dashed by 
them was only a wonder or a scorn. This was 
the Grerman rifle regiment, and to see the manly 
bearing of their general, and feel the inspira- 
tion which his presence gave at that moment, 
was like relief to those who perish in a desert. 
At least, then, all was not lost, and wo knew 
that, let our destiny turn that night as it should, 
there was one man who would hold and keep 
the fame of the nation unsullied to the end. 

I need not speak much in praise of the action 
of Blenker ana the officers who served him so 



80 



HEBELLION RECORD, ISCCMl. 



well. The events speak for them. Bteady and 
watchfal, he held his line throughout the even- 
ing, advancing his skirmishers at every token 
of attack, and spreading a sure protection over 
the multitudes who fled disordered through his 
columns. With three regiments he stood to 
fight against an outnumhering enemy already 
flushed with victory, and eager to complete its 
triumph. As tJie darkness increased his post 
became more perilous and more honorable. 
At 11 o^clock the attack came upon the ad< 
vance company of Ool. StahePs Kifles, not in 
force, but from a body of cavalry whose suc- 
cessful passage would have been followed by a 
full force, and the consequent destruction of 
our broken host. The rebel cavalry was driven 
back, and never returned, and at 2 in the morn- 
ing, the great body of our troops having passed 
and found their road to safety, the command 
was given to retreat in order, and the brigade 
fell slowly and regularly back, with the same 
precision as if on parade, and as thoroughly at 
the will of their leader as if no danger had ever 
come near them. Over and over again Blenker 
begged permission to maintain his post, or even 
to advance. '^ Retreat 1 " said he to McDowell's 
messenger ; ^' bring me the word to go on, sirl " 
— ^but the conmiand was peremptory, and he 
was left no alternative. 

Notwithstanding all that I had seen, it 
seemed incredible that our whole army should 
melt away in a night, and so I remained at 
Gentreville, trusting that by the morning a sort 
of reorganization should have taken place, and 
that our front should still oppose the enemy. 
At 7 o'clock I started towards the battle-field, 
but, on reaching a considerable acclivity, was 
amazed to find that no vestige of our troops 
remained, excepting a score or two of strag- 
gling fugitives who followed the tracks of those 
who had gone before. While returning to 
Gentreville a group of rebel cavalry passed, 
who looked inquiringly, but did not question. 
Their conversation turned upon the chances 
of cutting ofiT the retreat at Fairfax Oourt 
House. After seeking Mr. Waud, an artist of 
New York, who also lingered, I went straight 
to Fairfax. As we passed the church used as a 
hospital, the doctors came out, and finding 
what was the condition of affairs, walked rap- 
idly away. I do not wish to say that they de- 
serted the wounded. They may have returned 
for aught that I know. The road leading from 
Gentreville to Germantown was filled with 
marks of the ruinous retreat. At the out- 
skirts of the village thousands of dollars' worth 
of property lay wrecked and abandoned. In 
one field a quantity of powder had been 
thrown. A woman of apparently humble con- 
dition stopped us and asked us if we meant to 
leave it for the use of the enemy. We ex- 
plained that we could not well take it with us, 
she vehemently insisted that it 
■Uown up before we left. But the 
T^ blowing up a thousand pounds 
an agreeable task to set 




ourselves, and we tru6t<}d rather to the rain, 
which foil heavily, for its destruction. An- 
other woman stood by the roadside with the 
tears running down her brown cheeks, asking 
all who passed if they were hungry, and offer- 
ing them food. ^' God help you all," she said, 
as some of the wounded limped by her. We 
passed now and then groups of disabled men, 
who had forgotten their ii^uries in their fear, 
and had striven to drag themselves along by 
their companions. 6ome of them still streamed 
with blood, and yet would wrench themselves 
forward with all the power they could com- 
mand. The destruction of property seemed to 
have increased at every mile. Baggage wagons 
were overturned, ambulances broken in pieces, 
weapons of every kind cast off. Horses lay 
dead and dying. Food was heaped about the 
wayside. Bags of corn and oats were trodden 
into the ground. Piles of clothing were scat* 
tcred at ^1 sides. In many places the discard- 
ed goods and equipments were ranged breast 
high, and stood like monuments erected by our 
own hands to our own shame. 
At Fairfax I had hoped to find a rallying 

Elace, and could hardly believe that the flight 
ad gone even beyond this. But the village 
was deserted, excepting by native prowlers, 
who were ransacking the emptied contents of 
our baggage wagons, and who scowled sav> 
agely enough at the fugitives who sought 
among them a temporary shelter from the 
storm. Beyond Faiiiax the marks of destruc- 
tion were less frequent, though the stream of 
the retreat grew even stronger. Along the 
main road the flying kept their' way in some- 
thing like a continuous line, dividing only at 
the turnpike which leads to Arlington, into 
which some diverged, while others moved on to 
Alexandria. Three miles from the Long Bridge 
I came upon the rear of Blenker's brigade, 
Btahel's German Rifles still holding the hind- 
most position, and the other two regiments, 
Steinwehr's and the Garibaldi Guard, moving 
in order before them. Still in advance of these 
was the DeKolb regiment, also intact. But 
beyond all was tumult again, and even to the 
city itself the wretched disorder and confusion 
had reached. 

I was told that a few regimentis, beside the 
three faithful ones of Blenker's brigade, had 
come in in fair order ; and that they were the 
2d and 8d Michigan, and the Massachusetts Ist^ 
of Richu^on's brigade. I should be glad if 
it were so. The Massachusetts men won more 
honor on Thursday than should have been 
recklesdy sacrificed so soon after. But this is 
their own statement. I did not see them ar- 
rayed upon the Aid to resist the tempest that 
swept through our ranks, and I am still un- 
aware that any part of the army evaded that 
dreadful panic, excepting the three regiments 
whose honest claims to the gratitude of the 
country I have endeavored to assert. 

Apart from the panic, we lost the battle in 
a perfectly legitimate way. In numbers and 



y 




DOCDXENTS. 



81 



in tacttcfl the enemj proved themselveB our 
Boperiors. Tho nunority of oar generals were 
ignorant of their aaty, and incapable of per- 
forming it even when it was laid down before 
them. Who can hope that we win battles un- 
der conditions like these ? Another, and a re- 
markable fact to be considered is, that the 
enemy seemed perfectly ac<]aainted with our 
pl&ii<^ The feint of CoL Richardson availed 
nothing, since the rebel force had nearly all 
been drawn from that position. Onr combined 
atuck was thoroughly met, and at the very 
points where partial surprises had been antici- 
pAted. 

The number of our killed and wounded is 
itill a serious question here. I cannot believe 
tiut it exceeds five himdred. The number of 
missing is of coarse much greater, and if it be 
true that parties of our fugitives have been 
taken prisoners, I am afraid that many must 
be added to the list of killed. You have heard 
from other sources of the atrocities and cruel- 
ties trustworthilj reported to have been prac- 
ticed by the Southern army. 

The battle of Bull Run is a bitter adversity. 
Shall we not take the lesson to our hearts, and 
oat of 60 mach ovil bring some good ? 

— iV. r. Triburut Jnly 28. 



Doo. 6. 
KEV YORK " WORLD" NARRATIVE. 

Wasbivotox, Monday, July 22. 

At two o'clock this morning I arrived in 
Wo^iiingtoD, having witnessed the great con- 
flict near Manassas Junction from beginning to 
end, and the gigantic rout and panic which 
broke np the Federal army at its close. I stayed 
near the action an hour or two later than my 
associates, in order to gather the final incidents 
of the day, and fully satisty myself as to the 
nature and extent of the misfortune. 

And now in what order shall the event of 
yesterday be described ? Even now how shall 
one pretend to give a synthetic narration of the 
whole battle, based on the heterogeneous state- 
ments of a thousand men ; a battle whose arena 
was a tract miles in breadth and length, inter- 
spersed with hills and forests ; whose contend- 
ing forces were divided into a dozen minor 
armies, continually interchanging their posi- 
tions, and nerer all embraced within the cog- 
nizance of any spectator or participator. Even 
tho general commanding the Federal columns 
was ij^norant, at the close, of the positions of 
the several corps ; was ignorant, at the begin- 
mivr, of the topography of tho dangerous ter- 
ritory on which he attacked an overpowering 
fo5. Was either general of division better in- 
f<»med of the movements even of his own 
forces? I doubt it. I only know that at sun- 
tet hist evening, generals, colonels, and majors 
vera all retiring, devoid of their commands, no 
more respected or obeyed than the poorest pri- 
vate in the broken ranks. I know that a grand 
vmy, retreating before superior numbers, was 



never more disgracefully or needlessly disrupt- 
ed, and blotted, as it were, out of existence in 
a single day. This is the truth, and why should 
it not be recorded? And why should I not 
tell the causes which produced this sad result ? 
Weeks will be required for the proper summing 
up of details. At present, for one, I acknowl* 
edge my inadequacy to describe more than tlie 
panorama which passed before my own eyes, 
and the result decided by the combination of 
this with much that was seen and done else- 
where. . 

The affair of Thursday last was like a speo- 
tade in an amphitheatre, visible in its oneness 
to all who were on the sides of that mountain 
valley. But those who wore on yesterday's 
field now understand how little of a great bat- 
tle in a hilly region is known or seen by cari- 
ous lookers-on ; how much less by those actu* 
ally engaged in its turmoil. Bat let me give 
the plan and commencement of the engagement 
on our side, the progress of that portion which 
was within my ken^ and the truth in relation 
to the result. 

Programme of the Advance. 

On Friday, the day succeeding our repulse at 
Bull Run, Major Barnard, topographical engi- 
neer of the general staff, escorted by Oo. B of 
the Second Cavalry regiment, (under Lieut. 
Tompkins,) made a wide reoonnoissance of the 
country to the north, in order to examine the 
feasibility of turning the enemy's rear by a 
strategic movement in that direction. 

A route was discovered by which it appear- 
ed that such a meosuro might be successfaUy 
executed. In a letter on the defences of Man- 
assas Junction, I pointed out the different roods 
leading thitherward from Centreville. One— 
the most direct— is that passing through Thurs- 
day's battle-field ; another, further north, lead- 
ing, when produced, to Warrenton, beyond the 
Manassas Gap Railroad. From the latter, a 
minor road, branching off still more to the 
north, was found to open at a fork halfway 
between Centreville and tho Bull Run ravine. 
This road could be used for the rapid advance 
of men and artillery, preceded by a corps of 
sappers and miners. 

A plan was at once projected by Gen. Mc- 
Dowell for a decisive attack upon tho enemy's 
line of defence, to be made simultaneously by 
three advancing colnmns, from the several 
points of approach. The various division en- 
campments were already advantageously located 
for the inception of such a movement, and or- 
ders were swiftly issued for the entire army to 
start at six o'clock on Saturday afternoon. It 
was afterwards discovered that our stock of 
heavy ammunition embraced no more than 
nineteen rounds to each gun, and that we must 
send to Fairfax for a better supply. It was also 
thought advisable to have the army arrive in 
sight of the enemy at sunrise, and the first or- 
ders were accordingly countermanded, and fresh 
ones issued, appointing two o'clock of the en- 



BEBELLIOy RSOORD, ISOO-ei. 



ming morning for tlie lionr of leaving camp. 
Three dnjg' rations were to be served ont by 
the coiamissary, and the tents of each regiment 
to remain standing and nnder gnord. 

Iq the moonlight of tlio stillest Iiour of the 
night our force of 88,000 men began to move, 
in porstianco of the following arrangement for 
the advance : On the left, or Bouthernmost 
road, the gallant Colonel Richardson, be it re- 
membered, had continued to hold the approach 
to the field where ho fooglit bo bravely on 
Thursday, his command consisting of the Fourth 
Brigade of Tyler's Division, viz., the Second 
and Third Michigan, the First Mnssachn setts, 
and the Twelfth New York regiments. II was 
rightly determined that these troops, if they 
fought at nil, should be apportioned to ground 
of which they already had partial knowledge. 
Behind Richardson, and near Centrevillc, Coi. 
Miles was to take up his position in reserve, 
with his entire First and Second brigades. 
These included the Eighth (German Bifles) and 
Twenty-ninth New York regiments, the Gari- 
baldi Gnord and tho Twenty- fourth Pennsylva- 
nia, the Sixteenth, Eighteenth, Thirty-first, and 
Thirty-second New York regimenta, and the 
Company G (Second Artillery) battery— the 
one lately hrooght from Fort Pickens. Thus 
Richardson could call to his support, if neces- 
sary, a reserve of 7,000 men, in aidditioii to the 
4,000 with which he was instructed to hold hU 
paHtioTt, to pretent the enemy from moting en 
Ccntremlle patt our Itft, 6u( not to mate om« 
attaei. TIio centre, on the Varrenton road, 
commanded by Gen. Tyler, consisted of tho 
First and Second Bripides of the Tyler Divis- 
ion, embracing tlie First and Second Ohio, 
and Second New York regiments, under Gen. 
Schcnck, and the Sixty-nmth, Seventy-ninth, 
and Ttiirteentli New York, and Second Wiscon- 
ain, under Col. Sherman. Carlisle's, Rickett'a, 
and Ayres's battery, accompanied this impor- 
tant column, which numbered 0,000 men, and 
which was supported in the rear hy the Third 
Tyler Brigade, under Col. Keyes, consisting of 
the First, Second, and Third Connecticut regi- 
ments, and the Fourth Maine — a force of 8,000, 
available at a moment's call. On the c^ttrcme 
right. Col. Ilontcr took llio lead, with the two 
brigades of hia Division, viz., the Eighth and 
Fonrteenth New York regiments nnder Col. 
Porter, with a battalion of the Second, Third, 
and Eighth r^ular infantry, a portion of tho 
Second cavalry, and tho Fifth Artillery battery, 
Hnder Col. Burnside ; tho First and Second Ohio, 
thoSevcnty-first New York, and twoNew Hamp- 
shire regimenl«,with the renowned Rhode Island 
battery. After Hunter's followed Col. Heint- 
Kolmaii's Division, including the Fourth and 
Fifth Massachusetts .ind till* First Minnesota reg- 
iments, with ft i:ivi.hv iMiupiiHv ;uid aJattory, 
nllnnderOol.Fr:[[ikliii,!iii.l " .urth, 

andFifthMain.' nml i^o'-.m -eiit' 

nnder Col. Ilo^vtird. " »wi 

thus intnisteii " lHat 

labor of tv boin' 



movement on the right, ond these troops, as it 
eventuated, were to experience tho larger pail 
of the sanguinary fightmg of the day. 

On the night preceding the battle Gen. Cam- 
eron visited the camp, reviewed the Third Ty- 
ler brigade, passed a few hours with Gen. Mo- 
Dowell, and then left for Washington, in spirits 
depressed by no premonition of the disaster 
which was to berall our arms, and the private 
grief which would add a deeper sorrow to the 
feelings he now experiences. After midnight 
a carriage was placed at Gen. McDowell's tont, 
which was to bear him to the scene of action. 
In order to be ready to move with the army I 
went down to the familiar quarters of Lieuten- 
ant Tompkins, whose company was attached to 
the general's escort, and there slept an hour 
while our horses ate the only forage they Trere 
to have for a day and a half. At two o'clock 
we were awakened ; tho army had commenced 
to move. 

The Midnight ilarth. 

There was moonlight, as I have aoid ; and 
no moonlight scene ever offered more varying 
themes to the genius of a great artist. Through 
tho hazy valleys, and on hill-slopes, miles npart, 
were burning the fires at which forty regiments 
had prepared their midnight meal. In the vis- 
tas opening along a dozen lines of view, thon- 
sands of men were moving among tlio fitful 
beacons; horses were harnessing to artillery, 
white army wagons Trere in motion with the 
ambulances — whose black covering, when one 
thongbt about it, seemed as appropriate as that 
of the coffin which accompanies a condemned 
man to the death before him. All was silent 
conftision and intermingling of moving horses 
and men. But forty thousand soldiers stir as 
quickly as a dozen, and in fifteen minutes from 
the commencement of the bustle every regi- 
ment had taken its plsoe, ready to fall in to 
tho division to which it was assigned. Gen- 
eral McDowell and staff went in tlie centre of 
Tyler's, the central column. At 2J a. m. the 
last soldier had left the extended encampment?, 
except those remaining behind on guard. 

The central line appeared to offer the best 
chances for a snri'ey of the impending action, 
and in default of any certain pre-knowledpe, 
was accompanied by all n on -participators whom 
interest or doty had drawn to the movement 
of tho day. In order to obtain a full review 
of its moonlight march to the most momentous 
effort of the campaign, I started at the extreme 
rear, and rapidly passed along to overtake the 
van of the column. For some way Ihe central 
and right divisions were united, the latter 
forming off, as I have explained, about a mile 
beyond Centreville. So, leaving camp a mile 
below tho village, I enjoyed Ihe first spectacle 
of the day — a scene never to pass from the 
iiii.'uiory of those who saw it. Hero wcro 
liipinsunds of comrades-in-arms going forward 
[o hiv down their lives in a common cansc. 
lUre was all, and more than one had read of 
- -raphemalia of war. These were 



DOCUMKMTa 



Bot the armies of the aliens to ns, bnt, with 
the dress, the colors, the officers, of every regi* 
meat, we were so familiar that those of each 
bad for us their own interest, and a different 
charm. We knew the men, their discipline, 
their respective heroes ; what corps were most 
relied on ; whose voice was to be that of Hec- 
tor or A(]^unemnon in the coming fray. How 
another day would change all this I How some 
long-vaanted battalions woald perhaps lose 
their, as yet, unearned prestige, while acci- 
dent or heroism should gild the standards of 
many before andistingnisned I Then, as I fol- 
lowed along that procession of rambling can- 
Don-carriages and caissons, standards and ban- 
ners, the gleaming infantry with their thousands 
of shining bayonets, and the mounted officers 
of every staff, what fine excitement was added 
to the occasion by the salutations and last as- 
iorances of the many comrades dearer than 
the rest I The spirit of the soldiery was mag- 
nificent. They were all smarting under the 
reproach of Thursday, and longing for the op- 
portunity to wipe it out. There was glowing 
rivalry between the men of different States. 
*^ Old Massachusetts will not be ashamed of us 
to-night,'* *' Wait till the Ohio boys get at 
them." " We'll fight for New York to-day," 
and a hundred similar utterances, were shouted 
from the different ranks. The officers were as 
glad of the task assigned them as their men. I 
rode a JTew moments with Lieut. -Ool. Hoggerty, 
of the Sixty-ninth. He mentioned the news- 
paper statement t^at he was killed at the for- 
mer battle, and laughingly said that ho felt very 
warlike for a dead man, and good for at least 
one battle more. This brave officer was almost 
the first victim of the day. The cheery voice 
of Meagher, late the Irish, now the American 
patriot, rang out more heartily than ever. 
Then there were Corcoran, and Bumsido, and 
Keres, and Speidel, and many another skilled 
and gallant officer, all pushing forward to the 
first fruition of their three months' patient 
preparation. In the ranks of the Connecticut 
and other regiments, were old classmates and 
fellow-townsmen, with whom it was a privi- 
lege to exchange a word on this so different 
occasion from any anticipated in those days 
when all t!)e States were loyal, and tho word 
^disunion" was a portion of an unknown 
tongue. 

General McDowell's carriage halted at the 
janction of tho two roads, a place most favor- 
able for the quick reception of despatches from 
all portions of tho fielo. The column assigned 
to Colonel Hunter here divided from the main 
body and went on its unknown, perilous jour- 
ney around the enemy'd fiank. 

A mile along — ^and by this time tho white 
morning twilight gave us a clearer prospect 
than the fading radiance which had thus far 
Ulumed the march — we could look across an 
open country on the left . to the fann -house, 
where wo knew Col. Richardson was stationed, 
and to the blood-stained valley beyond, whose 
Vou II.— Doa 11 



upper reaches were now to be the arena of a 
larger conflict. But it was after sunrise when 
the van of General Tyler's column came to the 
edge of the wooded hill overlooking those 
reaches. The sun had risen as splendid as the 
sun of Austerlitz. Was it an auspicious omen 
for us, or for the foe? Who could foretell! 
The scenery was too beautiful and full of na- 
ture's own peace, for one to believe in the 
possibility of the tumult and carnage just at 
hand, or that among those green oak forests 
lurked every engine of destruction which hu- 
man contrivance has produced, with hosts of 
an enemy more dangerous and subtle than the 
wild beasts which had once here made their 
hiding-places. Then, too, it was Sunday morn- 
ing, ifven in the wUdemess, the sacred day 
seems purer and more hushed than any other. 
It was ours to first jar upon the stillness of the 
morning, and becloud the deamess of that 
serene atmosphere with the rude clangor of 
the avant messenger that heralded our chal* 
lenge to a disloyal foe. 

The Battle, 

From the point I mention, where tho road 
slopes down to a protected ravine, we caught 
the first glimpse of the enemy. A line of in- 
fantry were drawn up across a meadow in the 
extreme distance, resting close upon woods 
behind them. We could see the reflection of 
their bayonets, and their regular disposition 
showed them expectant of an attack. After a 
moment's inspection, General Tyler ordered 
Carlisle to aavance with his battery to the 
front, and here one could think of nothing but 
Milton's lino : 

** Vanguard I to right and left tho fW>nt unfold." 
The ancient order for the disposition of ad* 
vance ranks is still in military usage ; for the 
second and third Tyler brigades under Schenck, 
were at once formed in line of battle, in the 
woods on either side — the First Ohio, Second 
Wisconsin, Seventy-ninth, Thirteenth, and Six- 
ty-ninth Now York regiments succeeding each 
other on the right, and the Second Ohio, and 
Second New York being similarly placed on 
tho left, while the artillery came down the 
road between. 

A great 82-pound rifled Parrott gun — ^the 
only one of its calibre in our field service- 
was brought forward, made to bear on the 
point where we had just seen the enemy, (for 
the bayonets suddenly disappeared in the 
woods behind,) imd a shell was fired at fifteen 
minutes past a. m., which burst in the air ; 
but the report of the piece awoke tho country, 
for leagues around, to a sense of what was to 
be tho order of tho day. The reverberation 
was tremendous, shaking through tho hills 
like the volloy of a dozen plebeian cannon, 
and the roar of the revolving shell indescrib- 
able. Throughout the battle that gun, when- 
ever it was fired, seemed to hush and over- 
power every thing else. We waited a moment 
for an answering salutCi but receiving nonci 



84 



REBELUON BEOOHD; I86i>-«1. 




MDt the eeoond ihell Bt a hill-t«p, two milta 
off, where we saspected that a batteij had 
been plaDt«d by the rebels. The bomb boret 
like an echo close at the intended point, but 
Btjl! no answer came, and Oen. Tyler ordered 
Carlisle to cease firing, and bring the rest of 
his battery to the front of the wooda and our 
ootnnin, ready for inatant action. It was now 
about 7 o'clock. For half an hour but little 
more was done; then skirmishers vere de^ 
ployed into the forest on each ude, in order 
to discover the whereabouts of our nearest 
fi>eB. Beforo us lay a rolling and compara- 
tively open conntry, bat with eeveral hills and 
groves cutting off any extended view. In the 
western distance on the left we coold see the 
outskirts of Manassas Junotion. The woods 
Bt whose edge our line of battle formed, ex- 
tended half around the open fields in a kind of 
•emicircle, and it was into the arms of this 
orescent that our skirmishers advanced. Soon 
we began to hear random shots exchanged ir 
the thicket on the Itrfl, which proved tie ex- 
istence of an enemy in that direction. (What 
can be done against men who, to all the scieuco 
and discipline of European warfare, add more 
than the meanness and cowardly treachery of 
the Indian ) We had, all through the day, to 
hunt for the foe, though he numbered his 
myriads of men.) At the same time, a scout 
on the right captarcd a negro native, who was 
led to the general, shaking with fear, and anx- 
ious to impart such information as be bad. 
Through him we learned that the rebels were 

!|nartered among the woods on the right and 
aft, and in the grovee in the open country; 
thftt tiirv- had o™.-l^d:iba.i,;v ,.1! C- ,;i-',,in 
hill, wui huU \wi>l him .;t u ^yk iur U,rec -I.l: , 
asu^tlug to fell trees, EO that .iclear riin^-u' 111' 
the road we occupied could be obtained. 

By this time our scoots reported llie ciniri'.' 
in some force on the left. Two or three (Hji'i 
■kirmishora had been killed. Carlisle's biltt^■■>- 
Wtts sent to the front of the woods on tiic ni:lii, 
where it could be brought to play ffhercncL'ili 1. 
A few shell were Uirown into the omii'.-i!.: 
thicket, and then tiie Siicoud Ohio and Si'ininI 
New York marched down to rout ont the en- 
emy. In ten minutes the muaketry was hennl, 
and then a heavy cannonade answer. I'liey 
bad, without doubt, fallen upon a battery i;i 
the bushes. For a quarter of on hour ilwi'j' 
firing DM) tinued, when they came out in tri><»l 
order, confirming our surmises. After aihn;]. - 
ing a fTirlong they sawtha enemy, wlio ex- 
changed tliuir lire and retired thrnuirli Ihu 
forest. Suddenly from n ditTercnt dirKtUon a 
heard, exclaiming, '■ Now, ymi 
Yuilied derila, we've (jol von whtry w i> ■mint 
yon!" tod Mvwfll li . ■ . i 

upon tlitni with i- 
finaJlj r~ ' 




mystery of those thickets. No wddien tn 
willing to Lave their lighting entirely oonfined 
to storming infernal eulhworits at the pcnnt 
of the bayonet Every regiment, ycatenUy, 
was at times a " forlorn hope." 

Afewdeadand wounded began to be brougU 
io, and the battle of Manassas had conimeDeed. 
Carlisle's howitzers and the great rified gnn 
were opened In tlie direction of the bUlNy, 
which answered promptly, and a brie^ bnl ltr> 
rifie cannonading enened. In less than half in 
hour the enemy's gnna were ailenoed, two of 
Carlisle's howitzers advancing through the 
woods to gun a closer position. But a fatil 
error was here mode, as I thought, by GenenJ 
Tyler, in not ordering in a diviswn to driTeont 
the font rebel regiments stationed behind lbs 
battery, and to seize its eight guns. ThroD^ 
some inexplicable fatuity he seemed to asBoma 
that when a battery was silenced it was «»• 
vinced, and there it remained, with its defend- 
era, nubeord from and itntbonght of until the 
latter portion of the day, when it fcmned one 
cause of our final defeat. It is actually a fact, 
that while our whole forces were poshed aloDE 
the right to a co-operation witii HuDter's flank- 
ing column, and a distance of miles in advance 
this position on the left, close to the scene eF 
the commencement of the fight, nnd just in 
front of all our trains and ammunition wogoiia 
— a position chosen by all Epectalors as the 
moEt secure — wa.«, through the day, withia five 
minutes' reach of a concealed force of infantry, 
and a battery which had only been " silenced." 
No force was stationed to guard the rear of onr 
left fiank. It was near this very point, and with 
the assistance of this very infantry, that iba 
eoemy'a final churge was made, which created 
such irretrievable confuf^ion and dismay. And 
after the first few hours no ofGcer could be 
found in this vicinity to pay any attention to 
its security. All had gone forward to follow 
the line of the contest. 

Meantime, Richardson, on tho extreme left, 
could not content himself with " maintainiDg 
his position," for we heard occasional djechsrga 
from two of his guns. However, he took no 
other part in the action than by ehelliug tlis 
forces of the enemy which were sent nipidlj 
from his vicinity to the immediate point of con- 
test. From the hill behind we could see loDg 
columns advancing, and at first thought tliey 
> Bichardeon'a men moving on Bnll Bun; 
lOoo discovered their true character. In- 
deed, from every southward point tho enemj's 
reinforcements began to ponr in by thousands. 
Great clouds of duet erofe from the distant 
rooda. A person who ascended a lofly tree 
could see tho continual arrival of cars at the 
nearest point on tho Manassas railroad, with 
hosts of soldiers, who formed in solid squares 
and moved swiftly forward to join io the con- 
test. The whistle of the locomotive was plaiulj 
audible to those in our advance. It is believed 
that at least fifty thonsond were added doriug 
the day to the thirty thouaood rebels opposed 



DOCnVEKTa 



to Hi at the onset. It was hard for our nohle 
feUowa to withstand these inoessant reinforce- 
menta, but some of our regiments whipped sev- 
eral corps opposed to them in quick succession, 
and wkeneter our forces^ freth or tired^ met the 
enem/ff in open Jield, they made ehort uorh of 
hie opposition. 

At 10^ A. M. Hunter was heard from on the 
extreme right. Lie had previously sent a cou- 
rier to General McDowell, reporting that he liad 
safely crossed the run. The general was lying 
on the ground, having been ill during the night, 
but at once mounted his horse and rode on to 
join the column on which so much depended. 
From the neighborhood of Sudley Church he 
■aw the enemy *s left in battle array, and at 
once advanced upon them with the Fourteenth 
New York and a battalion of regular infantry 
— Gokmel Hunter ordering up the stalwart 
Rhode Island regiments, (one led by that model 
of the American volunteer, Bnrnside,) tlie Sec- 
ond New Hampshire, and our own finely-disci- 
plined Seventy-first. Gov. Sprague himself 
directed the movements of the Rhode Island 
brigade, and was conspicuous through the day 
for gallantry. The enemy were found in heavy 
numbers opposite this unexcelled division of 
oar army, and greeted it with shell and long 
volleys of battalion firing as it advanced. But 
on it went, and a fierce conflict ensued in the 
northern battle ground. As soon as Hunter 
was thus discovered to be making his way on 
the flank. Gen. Tyler sent forward the right 
wing of bis column to co-operate, and a grand 
force wa5i thus brouglrt to bear most eflTectually 
on Uie enemy*s left and centre. 

The famous Irish regiment, 1,600 strong, who 
have had so much of the hard digging to per- 
form, claimed the honor of a share in the hard 
flgliting, and led the van of Tyler^s attack, fol- 
lowed by the Seventy-ninth (Highlanders) and 
Thirteenth New York and Second Wisconsin. 

It was a brave sight — that rush of the Sixty- 
ninth into the death-struggle 1 With such 
cheers as those which won the battles in the 
Peninsula, with a quick step at first, and then 
a double quick, and at last a run, they dashed 
forward, and along the edge of the extended 
forest. Coats and knapsacks were thrown to 
either side, that nothing might impede their 
work, but we knew that no guns would slip 
from the hands of those determined fellows, 
even if dying agonies were needed to close 
them with a finner grasp. As the line swept 
along, Meagher galloped towards the head, cit- 
ing " Gome on, boys I you've got your chance 
at last ! *' I have not since seen him, but hear 
that he fought magnificently, and is wounded. 

Tyler's forces thus moved forward for half a 
mile, describing quite one-fourth of a circle on 
the right, until they met a division of the en- 
emy, and of course a battery of the enemy's 
most approved pattern. 

l%e heat of the CotUeet, 
It was noon, and now the battle oommenced 



in the fierceness of its most extended fury. The 
batteries on the distant hill began to play npon 
our own, and upon our advancing troops, with 
hot and thunderous effects. Carlisle answered 
for us, and Sherman for Hunter's division, 
while the great 82-pounder addressed itself re* 
sistlessly to the alternate defences of the foe. 
The noise of the cannonading was deafening 
and continuous. Conversely to the circum* 
stance of the former engagement, it completely 
drowned, at this period, the volleys of the mus^ 
ketry and riflemen. It blanched the cheeks of 
the villagers at CentreviUe, to the main street 
of which place some of the enemy's rifled shell 
were thrown. It was heard at Fairfax, at Al- 
exandria, at Washington itself. Five or six 
heavy batteries were in operation at once, and 
to their clamor was added the lesser roll of 
twenty thousand small-arms. What could we 
civilians see of the fight at this time ? Little : 
yet perhaps more than any who were engaged 
in it. How anxiously we strained our eyes to 
catch the various movements, thoughtless of 
every thing but the spectacle, and the successes 
or reverses of tlie Federal army. Our infantry 
were engaged in woods and meadows beyond 
our view. Wo knew not the nature or position 
of the force they were fighting. But now and 
then there would be a fierce rush into the open 
prospect, a gallant charge on one side and a 
retreat on the other^ and we saw plainly that 
our columns were gaming ground, and steadily 
pursuing their advantage by their gradu^ 
movement, which continued towards lSi& dis- 
tance and the enemy's centre. 

We indeed heard continuous tidings ot hero- 
ism and victory ; and those in the trees above 
us told US of more than wo could discover with 
our field glasses from below. We heard that 
Hunter had fairly rounded the enemy's flank, 
and then wo listened for ourselves to the sound 
of his charges in the northern woods, and saw 
for ourselves the air gathering up smoke from 
their branches, and the wavering column of the 
Mississippians as they fied from their first bat- 
tery, and were forced into the open field. Then 
we saw our own Sixty-ninth ana Seventy-ninth, 
corps animated by a chivalrous national rivalry, 
press on to the support of the more distant col- 
umn. We could catch glimpses of the contin- 
ual advances and retreats ; could hear occasion- 
ally the guns of a battery before undiscovered ; 
could guess how tenribly all this accumulation 
of death npon death must tell upon those un- 
daunted men, but could also see — and our 
cheers continually followed the knowledge— 
that our forces were gradually driving the 
right of the enemy aroxmd the second quarter 
of a circle, until by one o'clock the main battle 
was raging at a point almost directly opposite 
our standing-place— the road at the edge of the 
woods— where it had commenced six hours be- 
fore. 

There was a hill at the distance of a mile 
and a half, to which I have heretofore alluded* 
From its height overlooking the whole plain, a 



REBELUON BSCOBD, 1860-61. 



few shell bad reached ns early in the day, and 
as it was nearer the Manassas road than al- 
most any other portion of the field, more of the 
enemy *8 reinforcements gathered about its ridge 
than to the aid of the beaten rebels in the 
woods and valleys. Here there was an open 
battery, and long lines of infantry in support, 
ready, for a wonder, to let our wearied fellows 
see tiie fresh forces they had to conquer. 

As the Sixty-ninth and Seventy -ninth wound 
round the meadows to the north of this hill, 
and began to croM the road apparently with 
the intention of scaling it, we saw a colnmn 
coming down from the farthest perspective, 
and for a moment believed it to be a portion 
of Hunter^s division, and that it had succeeded 
in completely turning the enemy *s rear. A 
wild shout rose from us all. But soon the 
look-outs saw that the ensigns bore secession 
banners, and we knew that Johnston or some 
other rebel general, was leading a horde of 
fresh troops against our nnited right and centre. 
It was time for more regiments to be sent for- 
ward, and Keyes was oraered to advance with 
the First Tyler brigade. The three Connecti- 
cut regiments and the Fourth Maine came on 
with a will : the First Oonnecticut was posted 
in reserve, and the other three corps swept up 
the field, by the ford on the right, to aid the 
stmggliug advance. 

All eyes were now directed to the distant 
hill-top, now the centre of the figlit. All could 
see the enemy's infantry ranging darkly against 
the sky beyoud, and the first lines of our men 
moving with fine determination up the steep 
slope. The cannonading npon our advance, the 
struggle upon the hill-top, the interchange of 

Eosition between the contestants, were watched 
y us, and as new forces rushed in npon the 
enemy's side the scene was repeated over and 
over again. It must have been here, I think, 
that the Sixty-ninth took and lost a battery 
eight times in succession, and finally were com- 
pelled, totally exhausted, to resign the comple- 
tion of their work to the Connecticut regiments 
which had jnst come np. The Third Connecti- 
cut finally carried that summit, unfurled the 
Stars and Stripes above it, and paused from the 
fight to cheer for the Union cause. 

Then the battle began to work down the 
hill, the returning half of the circle which the 
enemy, driven before the desperate diarges of 
our troops, described during the day, until the 
very point where Tyler's advance commenced 
the action. Down the hill and into the valley 
thickets on the left, the Zouaves, the Connecti- 
cut) and New York regiments, with the uncon- 
querable Rhode Islanders, drove the continusJly 
enlarging but always vanquished columns of 
the enemy. It was only to meet more batter- 
ies, earthwork succeeding earthwork, ambus- 
cade after ambuscade. Onr fellows were hot 
and weary ; most had drunk no water during 
boars of dust) and smoke, and insufferable heat. 
No one knows what choking the battle atmos- 
jll^ro p.rodaoes in a few momenta, until he has I 



personally experienced it. And so the confliol 
lulled for a little while. It was the middle of 
a blazing afternoon. Our regiments held the 
positions they had won, but the enemy kept 
receiving additions, and continued a fiank move- 
ment towards our left — a dangerous movement 
for us, a movement which those in the rear 
perceived, and vainly endeavored to induce 
some general o£Scer to guard against 

Eere toa$ the ffrand hlwider^ or mi^ortune 
qf the battle, A misfortune, that we had no 
troops in reserve after the Ohio regiments were 
again sent forward, this time to assist in build- 
ing a bridge across the run on the Warrenton 
road, by the side of the stone bridge known to 
be mined. A blunder, in that the last reserve 
was sent forward at all. It should have been 
retained to guard the rear of the left, and every 
other regiment on the field should have been 
promptly recalled over the route by which it 
had advanced, and ordered only to maintain 
such positions as rested on a supported, contin- 
uous line. Gen. Scott says, to-day, that onr 
troops had accomplished three days' work, and 
should have restea long before. But McDowell 
tried to vanquish the South in a smgle struggle^ 
and the sad result is before ns. 

As it was, Capt. Alexander, with his sappers 
and miners, was ordered to cut through the 
abatis by the side of the mined bridge, in the 
valley directly before ns, and lay pontoons 
'across the stream. Carlisle's artillery was de- 
tailed to protect the work, and the Ohio and 
Wisconsin reserve to support the artiUery. 
Meanwhile, in the lull which I have mentioned, 
the thousand heroic details of Federal valor and 
the shamelessness of rebel treachery began to 
reach our ears. We learned the loss of the 
brave Cluneron, the wounding of Heintzelman 
and Hunter, the fall of Haggerty, and Slocnm, 
and Wilcox. We heard of tlie da«ih of the Irish- 
men and their decimation, and of the havoc made 
and sustained by the Rhode Islanders, the High- 
landers, the Zouaves, and the Connecticut Third; 
then of the intrepidity of Bumside and Sprague 
— liow the devoted and dai'ing young govern- 
or led the regiments he had so munificently 
equipped again and again to victorious charges, 
and at last sniked, with his own hands, the 
guns he could not carry away. The victory 
seemed ours. It was an hour sublime in un- 
selfii^huess, and apparently glorious in its re- 
sults I 

At this time, near four o'clock, I rode for- 
ward through the open plain to the creek where 
the abatis was being assailed by our engineers. 
The Ohio, Connecticut, and Minnesota regi- 
ments were variously posted thereabout ; others 
were in distant portions of the field ; all were 
completely exhausted and partly dissevered ; no 
general of division, except Tyler, could be found. 
Where were onr officers ? Where was the foe ? 
Who knew whether we had won or lost ? 

The question was to be quickly decided for 
us. A sudden swoop, and a body of cavalry 
rushed down upon our columns near the bridge 



DOCUMBNT& 



87 



The/ came from the woods on the left, and in- 
ftntry poured out behind them. Tyler and his 
staflEi with the reserve, were apparently cut off 
by the <}uick mancQuvre. I succeeded in gaining 
the position I had just left, there witnessed the 
capture of Carlisle's battery in the plain, and 
saw another force of cavalry and infantry pour- 
ing into the road at the very spot where the 
battle commenced, and near which the South 
Carolinians, who manned the battery silenced 
in the morning, had doubtless all day been lying 
coQcealed. The ambulances and wagons hau 
gtadaally advanced to this spot, and of course 
an instantaneous confusion and dismay resulted. 
Oar own infantry broke ranks in the field, 
plunged into the woods to avoid the road, got 
ap the hill as best they could, without leaders, 
every mao. saving himself in his own way. 

3%e Fliffht from, ike FUld. 

By the time I reached the top of the hill, the 
retreat, the panic, the hideous headlong confu- 
sion, were now beyond a hope. I was near 
the rear of the movement, with the brave 
Capt Alexander, who endeavored by the most 
gallant but unavalktble exertions to check the 
onward tumult. It was difficult to believe in 
the reality of our sudden reverse. "What 
does It all mean?'^ I asked Alexander. "It 
means defeat," was his reply. " We are beat- 
en ; it is a shameful, a cowardly retreat 1 Hold 
up men ! " he shouted, " don't be such infernal * 
cowards!^' and he rode backwards and for- 
wards, placing his horse across the road and 
vainly trying to rally the running troops. Tho 
teams and wagons confused and dismembered 
every corps. We were now cut off from tho 
advance body by the enemy's infantry, who 
had rushed on the slope Just left by ns, sur- 
rounded the guns and sutlers* wagons, and 
were apparently pressing up against us. " It's 
no use, Alexander," I said, " you must leave 

with the rest," ** I'll be d d if I will," was 

the sullen reply, and the splendid fellow rode 
back to make his way as best he could. Mean 
time I saw officers with leaves and eagles on 
their shoulder-straps, mayors and colonels, who 
had deserted their commands, pass me gallop- 
ing as if for dear life. No enemy pursued just 
then ; but I suppose all were afraid that his 
gans would be trained down the long, narrow 
avenue, and mow the retreating thousands, and 
bitter to pieces army wagons and every thing 
tl^ which crowded it Only one field-officer, 
BO far as my observation extended, seemed to 
have remembered his duty. Lieut.-Gol. Spei- 
del, a foreigner attached to a Connecticut regi- 
ment, strove against the current for a league. 
I positively declare that, with the two excep- 
tions mentioned, all efforts made to check the 
panic before Centreville was reached, were 
oootined to civilian$. I saw a man in citizen's 
dress, who had thrown off his coat, seized a 
musket, and was trying to rally the soldiers 
who came by at tho point of the bayonet. In 
a reply to a request for his name, he said it 



was 'Washbume, and I learned he was the 
member by that name from Illinois. The Hon. 
Mr. Kellogg made a similar effort. Both these 
Congressmen bravely stood their ground till 
the last moment, and were serviceable at Cen- 
treville in assisting the halt there ultimately 
made. And other civilians did what they could. 
But what a scene I and how terrific the onset 
of that tumultous retreat. For throe miles, 
hosts of Federal troops — all detached from their 
regiments, all mingled in one disorderly rout — 
were fieeing along the road, but mostly through 
the lots on either side. Army wagons, sutlers' 
teams, and private carriages, choked the pas- 
sage, tumbling against each other, amid clouds 
of dust, and sickening sights and sounds. Hacks, 
containing unlucky spectators of the late affray, 
were smashed like glass, and the occupanta 
were lost sight of in the debris. Horses, nying 
wildly from the battle-field, many of them in 
death agony, galloped at random forward, join- 
ing in l£e stampede. Those on foot who could 
catch them rode them bareback, as much to 
save themselves from being run over, as to 
make quicker time. Wounded men, lying along 
the banks — the few neither loft on the field nor 
taken to the captured hospitals — appealed with 
raised hands to those who rode horses, begging 
to be lifted behind, but few regarded sucn pe- 
titions. Then the artillery, such as was saved, 
came thundering along, smashing and over- 
powering every thing. The regular cavalry, I 
record it to their shame, loined in the m^l6e, 
adding to its terrors, for they rode down foot* 
men without mercy. One of the great guns 
was overturned and lay amid the ruins of a 
caisson, as I passed it. I saw an artilleryman 
running between the ponderous fore and after 
wheels of his gun-carriage, hanging on with 
both hands, and vainly striving to jump upon 
the ordnance. The drivers were spurring the 
horses ; he could not cling much longer, and a 
more agonized expression never fixed the feat- 
ures of a drowning man. The carriage bound- 
ed from the roughness of a steep hill leading to 
a creek, he lost his hold, fell, and in an instant 
the great wheels had crushed tlie life out of 
him. Who ever saw such a flight? Could the 
retreat at Borodino have exceeded it in confu- 
sion and tumult ? I think not. It did not slack 
in the least until Centreville was reached. 
There the sight of the reserve — ^Miles's brigade 
— formed in order on the hill, seemed some- 
what to reassure the van. But still the teams 
and foot-soldiers pushed on, passing their own 
camps and heading swiftly for the distant 
Potomac, until for ten miles the road over 
which the grand army had so lately passed 
southward, gay with unstained banners, and 
flushed with surety of strength, was covered 
with the fragments of its retreating forces, 
shattered and panic-stricken in a single day. 
From the branch route the trains attached to 
Hunter's division had caught the contagion of 
the flight, and poured into its already swollen 
ourrent another turbid freshet of oonf anon and 



88 



REBELUOK BEOORD, 1860-ei. 



dismay. Wbo ever saw a more shamefal aban- 
^nment of mouitions gathered at such vast 
expense ? The teamsters, m&nj of them, cut 
the traces of their horses, and galloped from 
the wagons. Others threw out their loads to 
accelerate their flight, and grain, picks, and 
shovels, and provisions of every kind lay tram- 
pled in the dust for leagues. Thousands of 
muskets strewed the route, and when some of 
us succeeded in rallying a body of fugitives, 
and forming them in a line across the road, 
hardly one but had thrown away his arms. 
If the enemy had brought up his artillery 
and served it upon ^he retreating train, or had 
intercepted our progress with five hundred of 
his cavalry, he might have captured enough 
supplies for a week^s feast of thanksgiving. 
As it was, enough was left behind to tell the 
story of the panic. The rout of the Federal 
army seemed complete. 

A Cheek to the Retreat, 

The sight of Miles^s reserve drawn up on the 
bDls at (^treville, supporting a full battery of 
field-pieces, and the efforts of the few officers 
still uuthfttl to their trust, encouraged many of 
the fugitive infantry to seek their old camps 
and go no farther. But the majority pushed 
on to a point near the late site of Oermantown, 
where Lient. Brisbane had formed a lino of 
Hunt's artillerists across the road and repulsed 
all who attempted to break through. I par- 
ticularly request attention to the service thus 
rendered by this loyal young officer. 

While he was thus engaged, a courier arrived 
with the news that Gol. Montgomery was ad- 
vancing with a New Jersey brigade from Falls 
Church, and that the retreat must be stopped, 
only the wagons being allowed to pass through. 
8ome thousands of the soldiery had alrei^y 
got far on their way to Washington. Poor 
fellows I who could blame them ? Their own 
colonels had deserted them, only leaving orders 
for them to reach Arlington Heights as soon as 
they could. A few miles farther I met Mont- 
gomery swiftly pressing to the rescue, and re- 
ported the success of Lieut. Brisbane's efforts. 
And so I rode along, as well as my weary horse 
could carry me, past groups of straggling fugi- 
tives, to Fairfax, where Ool. WocKibnry was 
expecting, and guarding against, a flank move- 
ment of the enemy, and on again to Long 
Bridge and the Potomac. But the van of the 
runaway soldiers had made such time that I 
found a host of them at the Jersey intrench- 
ments begging the sentinels to allow them to 
oross the bridge. To-day we learn of the safe 
retreat of the main body of the army; that 
they were feebly followed by the rebels as far 
as Fairfax, but are now within the Arlington 
lines, and that McDowell, a stunned and van- 
quished general, is overlooking the wreck of 
his columns from his old quarters at the Oustis 

mansion. 

Our Loaei, 

The list of the killed and wounded in this 



wide-spread action wiU not be found propor* 
tionate to the numbers engaged on either side, 
and to the duration of the conflict. The nature 
of the ground, and the fact that the struggle 
was confined to attacks upon batteries and am- 
buscades, made the whole affair a series of fiery 
skirmishes, rather than a grand field encounter. 
Men fought with a kind of American individ- 
uality—each for himself— and the musketry 
firing was of the most irregular character. 
There were few such heavy volleys as those 
which made the hills echo last Thursday. 

It would not be surprising if our entire loss 
in killed and wounded should prove to have 
been not over a thousand men. The rebels 
must have suffered twice as much from the 
terrific cannonading of our artillery in the fore- 
noon, and from the desperate charges of the 
Zouaves, the Sixty-ninth, and the other corps 
which were especially distinguished in the en- 
gagement. The Zouaves captured two batter- 
ies, fought hand to hand with the Carolinians 
in a furious bowie-knife conflict, routed the 
famous Black Horse Cavalry, and only broke 
ranks when victory became hopeless. 

Nine-tenths of our killed and wounded were 
perforce left on the field, and in the hospitals 
at either end ; and as the enemy retains pos- 
session of the ground, we can get no accurate 
details of our losses. From prisoners taken by 
us we learned that the rebel leaders, deter- 
mined to have no incumbrances on their hands, 
issued orders to give no quarter. It is posi- 
tively known that many of our comrades were 
bayoneted where they fell. All the wounded 
Zouaves suffered this inhupian fate. 

Rickett's, Carlisle's, and the West Point bat- 
teries remain in the enemy 's possession. Twen- 
( ty-three of our guns, including the thirty-two- 
pound siege pieces, were taken.* But Sher- 
man, who went into action with six cannon, 
came out with eight — two of them dragged 
from the rebel embrasures. Large numbers of 
sutlers' and train wagons are probably cut ofl^ 
and abandoned arms and munitions have fallen 
into the enemy's hands. At the date of this 
letter, it is uncertain whether any of our regi- 
ments which were intercepted at the time of 
the panic have surrendered themselves to the 
rebels ; but this rouFt be the case with many 
of the infantry, who, ignorant of the country, 
starving and exhausted, dashed into the forests 
in their retreat. Every hour, however, is re- 
ducing our list of missing, as the stragglers 
reach their old camps along the Potomac. 

Theory of the Defeat 

The disastrous result of the action was \per- 
haps inevitable — even though no panic had oc- 
curred at the close — from tlie three causes 
against which the noblest soldiery can never 
successfully oppose their daring. First, the 
enemy's forces had been largely underrated, 

* Six of the twenty-three cannon were recovered the 
next day by Col. Einstein, tho enemy having delayed re- 
moving tben& from tho field. 



DOCUMXNta 



iod nearly doubled our own in number ; second, 
the onos of the attaek rested entirely upon us, 
and tile natural and scientific defences of the 
rebds made their position almost impregnable; 
third, many of our leaders displayed a lament- 
able want of military knowledge. There was 
little real generalship iu the field. There was 
no one mind of the N^apoleouic order, at once 
centralizing and comprehending the entire move- 
ment of the day. There was no one to organ- 
ue oar regiments in strong, swift-moving col- 
umns, and burl them powerfully against the 
foe. Nor were the generals of division more 
competent to their work. They exhibited per- 
waai bravery, but advantages gained wore not 
secured ; important points were abandoned as 
soon as carried ; and a reckless, fatiguing pur- 
suit preferred, until Beauregard and Davis, 
who commanded in person, led us on to posi- 
tions thoronghiy available for the attack of 
tiieir final reinforcements. As for us, no one 
had thought of providing that reserve absolute- 
ly neceanary to the sealing and completion of 
a battle's successes. 

It u the last conflict of the day that decides the 
ektory and defeat. We had no cavalry to rout 
oar retreating foe. Our artillery was not ren- 
dered efficient in the afternoon. Gen. Tyler 
neglected to guard his rear, and to check the 
pushing forward of his trains. As for the 
colonels, many of those who were not wounded 
or killed in the engagement exhibited not mere-> 
ly inefficiency, but the pusillanimity which I 
have before recorded. To conclude: Before 
we can force our way through a country as 
well adapted for strategic defence as the fast- 
nesses of the Piedmontese, the defiles of Swit- 
zerland, or the almost uticooqu^drable wilds in 
which Schamyl so long held the Russians at 
baj — ^before we can possess and advance beyond 
the scientific intreochments with which the 
skill of disloyal ofiicers has made those Virginia 
forests so fearfully and mysteriously deaBiful 
to our patriotic soldiery, wo must discover the 
executive leader whose genius shall oppose new 
modes of subduing a novel, and thus far suc- 
cessful, mctlio'l of warfare, and whose alert ac- 
tion shall carry his devices into resistless effect. 

"N. y. VTorM, July 38. 

Doo. 0. 
'SEW YORK SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT, 

AT BULL EUN. 

Tub regiment left the Navy Yard Tuesday, 
July 16, at 10 oVlock, and marched up the 
avenue over the Long Bridge, to their camping 
grrounda, within five miles of Fairfax, where, at 
9 p. M., they stacked and bivouacked for the 
night in the open field, together with Colonel 
Bumside*s brigade, consisting of the First and 
Second Rhode Island Infantry, Second Rhode 
Island Battery, and Second New Hampshire 
Volunteers. At 5 a. m., July 17, (Wednesday,) 
the brigade formed a line of march, and pro- 



ceeded to Fairfax Court House, where they ar- 
rived at 10 A. M., and found the breastworks 
of tlie enemy deserted, as well as the town, of 
all secession troops. Halted in the town before 
the Court House; the flag was hoisted upon 
the Court House by the Rhode Island regiments, 
the band saluting it with the national airs. 

The march was then resumed; the whole 
brigade proceeded half a mile beyond Fairfax, 
and bivouacked on the old camp-ground of the 
rebels, which they had abandoned that morninff 
between 6 and 9 o^clock. Large quantities of 
blankets were found burning, having been de* 
stroyed by them in this manner in their hasty 
retreat ; <dso, a store-room of military clothing 
was found by them, as well as a dozen or more 
tents, which were immediately put to good use, 
and a bullock just dressed, which furnished 
rations for the Seventy-first, as far as it went. 

In this encampment the brigade remained till 
7 A. ic. Thursaay, July 18, the brigade agdn 
marched one mile, and halted by command of 
Gren. McDowell. Here the brigade remained 
till 8 p. M., on an old camp-ground of the ene- 
my, when the march was again taken up, under 
a scorching sun, till within a mile and a half of 
Centreville, where we bivouacked once more, 
the men making pleasant huts of the boughs 
of trees. 

During the night the regiment was called to 
arms, in consequence of the firing of pickets on 
our left. Friday and Saturday were passed in 
this place very pleasantly, the regiments of the 
brigade having a regimental drill each day, and 
also being served with good rations of fresh 
meat and plenty of coffee and sugar. 

On Saturday, orders were issued to prepare 
to march at 1 a. ic., Sunday, each man to take 
two days* rations of good salt beef, salt pork, 
and crackers in haversack, with positive in- 
structions to fill his canteen with water, and 
not to use it on the route, as water was scarce. 
This was done, and the regiment marched with 
the brigade Sunday morning at 2 a. m., for the 
battle-field, passing through Centreville just 
before sunrise. 

After proceeding a mile and a half beyond 
Centreville we were ordered to halt and cap 
our pieces. We then crossed a bridge, mounted 
a hill in the vicinity, and to the right of Gen. 
McDowell's head-quarters, and then turned to 
the right into a field, at a double-quick, which 
was kept up about a quarter of an hour, passing 
through a wood and halting in a field, where 
we remained about twenty minutes. Gen. Mc- 
Dowell and his staff came into the field. 
This was between 6 and 7 o^cIock. The march 
was then resumed by a circuitous route through 
tlie woods, passing several dry brooks, until we 
reached Bull Run, which we waded in great 
confusion, every one being anxious to get water. 
Company lines were immediately formed on 
the other side, and an advance was^ made up 
the road at a quick step, firing being heard 
upon our left. 

After a mile's marching at quick step, we 



BEBELUOSr BBCOBD^ IBM-tl. 



were pat upon donble-qaick up the hiU, wheel- 
ing to the left into an old etubble-field, where 
we halted, and our arrival was announced by a 
shot from a rifle cannon whistling over oar 
heads. The halt did not last two minutes, 
when GoL Bnrnside led the different regiments 
into their positions on the field. The Second 
Rhode Island entered tlie field first) to the ex- 
treme right, then the Rhode Island battery, 
six pieces, and the two howitzers of the Seven- 
ty-first ; and then to the left the Seventy-first, 
and after it, on its left tlie First Rhode Island, 
and then the Second Kew Hampshire, all form- 
ed in line of battle on the top of the hill. This 
movement was done at double*qnick. We were 
immediately ordered to fall back and lie down, 
as the dischai'ge from the enemy's battery was 
very severe. 

The First and Second Rhode Island regiments, 
the Rhode Island battery, and the two howit- 
zers oi>ened fire on the enemy. One of the 
Rhode Island guns was immediately disabled 
by a shot from the enemy, and was carried off 
the field. The Seventy-first lay there as or- 
dered, when an aid from Col. Burnside rode up 
and asked for the field officers. Col. Martin 
then ordered us forward. 

Prior to this some of the Seventy-first had 

gone over to the First Rhode Island, imd were 
ffhting in their ranks. Boronghs, commissary 
of the Seventy-first, rode up in front of us, dis- 
mounted from his horse, and told the boys to go 
in and fight on their own account, which they 
did with a will. Just prior to this Oapt Hart, 
of Company A, had been wounded and carried 
from the field ; also Capt. Ellis, of Company 
F. Then Lieut. Oakley came on. Going for- 
ward to the brow of the hill he received a 
shot in tbe leg of his pantaloons from one of 
his own men. 

Some time after this the firing ceased upon 
both sides. McDoweU, with his staff, then 
rode through our lines, receiving a cheer fh>m 
the Seventy-first, and passed down the hill to 
the left, within 600 feet of the enemy's line. 
After that the brigade fell back into the woods 
and rested, taking care of the wounded, and 
removing them to the hospital ; some straggling 
about over the fields without their muskets, 
looking on at the fight in other parts of the en- 
gagement, which they supposed was the end 
of the battle, thinking the day was ours. 

At about 8 o'clock we formed in lino again, 
on the brow of the hill. It was at this time 
that a shell fell over my left shoulder, and 
striking the ground behind me, rebounded upon 
the foot of private Wm. N. Smith, of Brook- 
lyn, tearing it open. He threw his arms 
around my neck, and I assisted in carrying 
him to the hospital. 

I returned from the hospital towards my reg- 
iment, and met other troops retreating, who 
informed me that my regiment had gone across 
the fields. I ran past Sudley Church, then 
used as the hospital, up the hill, saw a regi- 
ment about half a mile ahead, which I sup- 



posed was the Seventy-first ; took a short evi 
across the fields, when the cavalry galloped up 
and arrested me. 

They took me back to the hospital, where, 
during the confusion, I managed to conceal 
myself under a blanket, which was saturated 
with blood. Col. Barker, of the Virginia cav- 
alry, then galloped up, and ordered all the un- 
wounded prisoners to be driven to the June* 
tion. 

I should think there were about 60 prisonerg 
in all at that point. They left me, supposing 
I was wounded. A guard was left to guard 
the hospital. I arose to go in quest of Dr. reug- 
net, and found him engaged in amputating the 
arm of Harry Rockafellow, of 8. Street, I^ila- 
delphia, of Company F, Seventy-first regiment. 
Dr. Peugnet requested me to assist him, and 
he having completed his operation, then ampu- 
tated the arm at the shoulder-Joint of a ser- 
geant of a Maine or a New Hampshire regi- 
ment, who had a brother about 17 years of 
age, who had remained behind to take care of 
him. This man died under the operation. 
The next operation was that of my friend Wm. 
Smith, of Brooklyn, whom I had conveyed to 
the hospital. His foot was amputated. 

Daring this tiriie Drs. Foster, Swift, and Win- 
ston, of the Eighth New York ; Dr. Do Grant, 
Dr. Griswold, Dr. Buxton, and the doctor of 
the Fourth Maine ; Dr. Stewart, of Minnesota; 
Harris, of Rhode Island, and four others whose 
names I did not learn, one of whom, I believe, 
was the surgeon of the West Point battery, 
were attending to the wounded of their re- 
spective regiments. Private Tyler, of the West 
Point battery, had his thigh amputated and 
died that night. Cornelius, Col. Mardn's ser- 
vant, who was wounded while assisting the 
colpnel to dlBmount, also died. Mullen, Sec- 
ond Rhode Island, and two of the Seventy-first, 
whose names I do not know, were found dead 
next morning. 

Gen. Beauregard and Col. Barker came up 
about *H o'clocK that evening with 150 prison- 
ers of different regiments, most of whom were 
Fire Zouaves. He stopped and inquired how 
our wounded were getting along, while the 
prisoners were driven towards the Junction by 
the cavalry. During the night a number of 
prisoners were brought in, and on Monday 
morning 80 were sent on, their hands tied to- 
gether in front with Manilla rope ; among them 
was the lad of 17, from Maine, who plead bit- 
terly to be left to see his brother buried, but 
was refused. 

During the forenoon an order was issued by 
Gen, Johnston for every one to be removed 
from Sudley Church to Richmond, rid the Junc- 
tion. All who were not wounded were taken 
under a tree and tied, as an attack was antici- 
pated. Our doctors strongly remonstrated 
against this order, as the greater part of our 
wounded, 280 in number, had not received any 
attention. Capt. Patrick, of the Virginia caval- 
ry, stated these were his instructions, and ha 



DOOOmNXR 



n 



meant to oarrj them oat. Wewereaooordinglj 
all seized, liaadft bound, except the doctors, who 
were in ambolanoes. It was then raining in 
torrent's and some 80 of the wounded were 
Ijfing in the yicinity of the church and blaok- 
iini& shop without any sh^ter excepting a 
blanket. The doctors were hurriedly taken 
away, we belag told that our wounded would 
be cared for by themselYee. 

Here we waited till 12 oVlock at night in 
the rain, awaiting orders, when I requested 
OapL Patrick to allow me to go down to the 
hospital to see a relative who was badly wound- 
ed, telling him it would be better to shoot our 
wounded at once than to allow them to die 
off by inches ; they were all calliug for water, 
and no one there to give it to them. He then 
s^d, *^ Well, my man, choose another man with 
you and go down.'' I chose Smith, of Com* 
pany H, Seventy-first regiment. Capt. Patrick 
then inquired if there were any more men who 
had brothers or relatives among the wounded. 
A general rush took place among the prisoners 
— ibej all stepping forward. He then allowed 
Atwood Crosby, of Maine, to take care of his 
brother, who was wounded in the back, and 
five others: Tompkins, Company C, Seventy- 
first ; John Hand, of Massachusetts ; a young 
boy of the Second Rhode Island, about 17 
years old ; Deogan, of the Twenty-seventh, and 
another, an assistant to a Maine surgeon, and 
his fi^Tant, who cooked for the prisoners, un- 
der the direction of Tompkins. The rest were 
kept out in the rain all night, and the follow- 
ing morning were sent to Richmond. 

During Monday night a man from Wisconsin 
died, calling for his mother. He had a daguer- 
reotype of his wife and two children. He 
called m& to give him some water, which I did 
very frequently. He called for his ^^De^ 
mother '' — these were his last words. He was 
a man about 5 feet 6 inches, with a light mus- 
tache, and was wounded in the groin. A boy 
about 18 yeara old, dressed in the uniform of 
the Eighth regiment, about 5 feet 10 inches 
in heignt, sandy complexion, shot in the head ; 
had $21 in his pocket-book, and a white silk 
badge, marked ^^ Parker Guard," died Monday 
nigat. Lieut. Devers, of Ellsworth Zouaves, 
wounded in the arm. He laid down to rest, 
anl in the morning, when I went to bandage 
hii arm, I found him dead. Also, a man from 
Rockland, Me., named Fletcher. 

On Tuesday, Allen, of Company C, Seventy- 
first, died. He was wounded in the abdomen. 
Butler, of Company C, Seventy-first, Elizabeth- 
town, X. J., alao died; wounded in legs. 
Doctors were not there to amputate. George 
Sayne and John P. Morrissey, both of the Sev- 
eaty-firat, also died Wednesday morning, within 
one hour of each other, lying side by side. 
Mead, of Maasachusetta, a wealthy shoe-manu- 
fibcturer, died while having his thigh amputa- 
ted. Several others died, whose names I could 
not learn, numbering in all 32. 

On Tuesday evening, six of the doctors came 



back on parole—Drs. Pengnet, Swift, WiuBton, 
De Graw, Buxton, and Stewart — and immedi- 
ately commenced attending to the wounded. 
Their exertions were unremitting; their time 
day and night was given to the wounded until 
all the wounds were properly dressed and all 
cared for. 

On Wednesday morning, Dr. Peugnet put 
me in chai'ge of the hospital, and allowed me 
to choose 20 from the prisoners and wounded, 
who were able to take care of the wounded, to 
assist me. 

The same morning a lady of the neighbor- 
hood brought us a bottle of wine and two 
dozen eggs, and we bought at noon twelve 
dozen eggs from a sutler. Thursday morning 
a number of secession doctors made their ap* 
pearance, bringing with them some luxuries, 
which they gave to our doctors. Some time 
during the day Noble, of Company F, and Gil- 
lette, of the Engineer Corps, both of the Sev- 
enty-first, were brought in as prisoners, and 
were retained as assistants at the hospital. 
They were not wounded. This day a number 
of ladies and farmers df the surrounding coun- 
try visited our hospitals, bringing with them 
milk, soup, and cakes. 

On Friday, they commenced removing the 
prisoners and wounded, amongst them Capt. 
Gordon, of the Eleventn Massachusetts, Lieut. 
Hamlin, Scott Life Guard, and all the non- 
commissioned officers, leaving instructions with 
us to be prepared to follow the ambulances 
containing the wounded, who had undergone 
operations, on Saturday. In the mean time, 
Capt. Allen, of the Eleventh Massachusetts, 
disguised as a private and wounded prisoner, a 
Wisconsin boy, named Worldorf, and myself, 
planned an escape, which was successfully ac- 
compli^ed between 5 and 10 p. m. Friday 
night. We ran the guard, and crawled on our 
hands and &et out of hearing distance of the 
sentinels ; proceeded in a north-east direction 
until ^ ▲. M. ; met two pickets of ^the enemy 
in a small tent on the main road, which we 
had to cross to accomplish our escape; the 
pickets cowed at our appearance, and hid be- 
hind a tree, and we backed some one hundred 
feet with sticks pointed in the direction of the 
pickets, and then turned and ran about two 
miles, keeping a little to the north. 

At 2 p. M., not knowing where we were, we 
determined to approach a housed and inquire. 
We met two women at the gate, and told them 
we belonged to the Fourth Alabama regiment. 
They asked for Messrs. Grey of that regiment 
— if we knew them — and a number of others, 
all of whom, we told them, were shot at Bull 
Run. They asked where we came from, and 
where were our arms. These questions we 
evaded, and asked them to show us the way to 
Centreville, which they did. We took an op- 
posite dureotion, and at 4 p. m. halted at an* 
oUier house, where an old man came out and 
asked if we were soldiers. Wo replied in the 
affirmative, and added that we belonged to the 



92 



BEBELUON BIIOOB0, 1860-61. 



Fourth Alabama regiment, and had been pick- 
ing blackberries and strayed away from our 
camp. He then said, *^ Are yon the regiment 
that is waiting for artillery ? " I replied, ^^ The 
same.** "Then, boys," said he, "yon are sta- 
tioned at Ball's Mill, three miles from here, 
[pointing in the direction of Leesbarg,] half- 
way from here to Leesbnrg." He then said, 
"Were yon in the fight Sunday?" "Yes." 
" I am glad, boys, yon escaped from the slaugh- 
ter. These d— — d Yankees, I would like to see 
every man of thorn strung up ; I never could 
bear them. I will send Edward to show you 
the way to the main road." We thanked him 
and left. 

At 5 p. M. came to a railroad. I saw a little 
boy and girl, and asked them what road it was. 
They replied they did not know, but if we 
would go to the house Jeff, would tell us. 
After some fdrther inquiries, without getting 
any information, we crossed the track and took 
to the woods, and continued our march until 6 
p. H., when we saw a house standing alone in 
the bushes. We determined to go there, and 
get something to eat. Arriving at the gate, we 
inquired if they had something to sdl us. They 
said they liad, and we lost no time in investing 
in fifty cents* worth of hoe-cake and milk. 

While we were devouring these (to us) luxu- 
ries, a horseman galloped up to the door, and 
the lady of the house called the man with whom 
we were conversing, "Cousin George," (his 
name b Edwards.) We suspected something 
wrong, and took a precipitate leave down the 
hill, and continued our march. Half an hour 
after leaving this house we crossed the main 
road, and crossed the field, in order to reach a 
wood which we supposed was a forest, but 
which turned out to be nothing but a small 
thicket. Soon after crossing the thicket, we 
espied eight mounted troopers at fall speed, 
passing along the road, some fifteen yards 
ahead ; not supposing they were in search of 
ns, we cointinncd on our way, when, upon 
looking round, we found they had halted at 
the foot of the hill, and were looking in all di- 
rections ; at last they saw us, and command^ 
ns to halt and come back. This we had no 
desire to do; and, knowing the fence along 
the road to be impassable on horseback, we 
thought our chances of escape were good. We 
accordingly ran, and they fired, one or two of 
them dismounting simultaneously with the dis- 
charge of the others' guns, to let the rails of 
the fence down in order that they might pnrsne 
US into the woods. 

In the mean time we had gained the wood 
and found another fence surrounding it. This 
fence was equally as wide as the first one. 
They galloped off to the edge of the woods 
where we should have to pass to make our es- 
cape, and surrounded the woods. Here they 
dismounted, took down the rails and entered 
the bushes, and commenced their search. In 
the mean time we had run back to where we 
watered the bush, and hid under two large elm 



trees, Oapt. Allen clipping the branches, in 
order that we might pull them down over us 
with more facUity ; it was perhaps five minutes 
before they reached this portion of the thicket, 
and these trees being so much exposed, thej 
concluded no person was there, and went away 
to the other end of the woods, but soon re- 
turned, and on passing one of these trees, one 
of the horses ridden by one of onr pnrsnen 
grazed my right leg with his hoof^ and h> dose 
were they upon ns that we overheard all their 
conversation. 

During this time, some twelve or fifteen of 
the inhabitants of Milford turned out with their 
guns and pistols to assist the troopers to find 
the Yankees ; and an order waa given, bj an 
old man in citizen^s dress, for the horsemen to 
follow up in the next woods, with orders to 
the men who had come together, to look in bH 
the bushes and to turn over all the old logs, 
and leave nothing undone which they might 
suppose would tend to onr capture. Here one 

of them reckoned the Yankee — had 

got away : another said that if they were in 
those woods, they would give us a right warm- 
ing, and they commenced discharging tlieir 
guns in the bushes in every direction, but, 
happily, did not aim in the direction of onr 
tree. 

In about an hour the old man returned, and 
ordered a boy about eighteen years of age to 
remain beside us on a log, with instructions to 
fire at ns the moment he saw us*—" Even," said 
he, "if you do miss them." It was now 9 
p. M., and the long prayed-for darkness came 
to our rescue, and helped to cover our retreat. 
For nearly another hour the old wretch kept 
prowling about the woods, and finally went 
away. At about 11 o'clock we were so ex- 
hausted that we fell asleep, and rested until IS, 
when Allen crawled over to me and said, 
" They haven't got us yet." 

I had dreamt, during my short slumbert that 
I was a captive, and he had some difficulty in 
persuading me to the contrary. Being reas- 
sured, I arose fi-om my retreat, and, as \re 
emerged from beneath the branches iihich had 
just saved our lives, we beheld the youth irho, 
two hours before, had been placed to watch for 
us ; he was in a deep slumber, and had his gnn 
grasped between his folded arms, in a horizon- 
tal position. I drew my knife to despatch him, 
but Capt. Allen prevented me. 

We then retraced our steps for nearly a mile 
and a half, and struck over for the Potomac, 
which we reached at 4^ o'clock Sunday mop- 
ing, having kept up a quick and double-quick 
step all along the road. 

Having reached the Potomac, we sat down 
to rest ; but we were hardly seated before we 
saw a man on horseback approaching us by the 
road. He walked his horse past us as tliongh 
he was unaware of our presence, until he 
reached the corner of a fence surrounding a 
cornfield, when he put spurs to his horse and 
went up the hill at full speed. We suspected 



DOOOIBinS. 



99 



•oxzkethii^ in this movement, and looking for 
shallow water, but finding none, we imme- 
diately plunged into the stream and swam the 
river. When within twenty feet of the oppo- 
nte shore we heard firing and cries of *' come 
httck," and on turning round we saw ten or 
fifteen men, in their shirt sleeves, ordering us 
back, and firing several shots at us. Of course 
we did not obey this command, but started off 
at a good pace into what we supposed was 
Mtt-yland. We had not gone far before we came 
to another stream, which we waded. 

We afterwards ascertained that we had crossed 
Edward's Island about 17 miles from Washing- 
ton. Before losing sight of our pursuers, 
C^t. Allen showed his pistol, and shook it in 
defiance of them. This was the only weapon, 
with the exception of the knife, we had among 
US. This was about half-past five Sunday 
morning. Finding ourselves among friends, 
we walked five miles to Great Falls, where we 
laid down and rested till noon. On waking 
we resumed our march, and reached the arsenal 
at nine at night, where we found our picket- 
guard Gi Second Vermont regiment. They 
received us kindly, provided us with supper, 
and furnished us with a bed. The next morn- 
ing we all hurried on to Washington, and tele- 
graphed our safe arrival to our friends. 

« « 4i « « 4i 

E. P. DonsBTT. 

— JV. Y. Timet. 



Doc. 7. 
SECESSION LETTEHS AND NARRATIVES. 

DOOTOB J. 0. KOTT^S ACCOUNT. 

BiOBMoirD, July 23, 1961. 

DxAB Hableston : I have seen the great and 
glorious battle of Man&ssas, which brought a 
nation into existence, and the scene was grand 
and impressive beyond the power of language. 
We foresaw the action several days ahead — the 
enemy were known to bo advancing in immense 
masses from Arlington towards Fairfax, and the 
master stroke was at once made, to order John- 
ston down from Winchester, by forced marches, 
before Patterson could get down on the other 
side. John3ton^s troops marched all twenty- 
six miles, then crowded into the railroad, came 
down in successive trains, without sleeping or 
eating, (15,000,) and arrived, many of them, 
while the battle was raging. 

I got to Manassas the morning of the day 
previous to the fight; and knowing well both 
Generals Beauregard and Johnston, and their 
staff officers, I went immediately to head- 
quarters. Zac. Deas, among the rest, was there 
in full feather, and I of course felt at home in 
his camp, where I spent the night. General 
Beauregard determined to attack them in sev- 
eral columns at once the next morning, so as 
to cut them up before Patterson could arrive- 
but our scouts came early in the morning, in- 
forming the generals that the enemy had been 



in motion since two hours before day, which 
settled the question as to their intention- to 
make the attack. Beauregard, who had stud- 
ied the whole ground around — ^knew every hill| 
ravine, and pathway — ^had made all the neces- 
sary arrangements and planned the battle. Not 
knowing at what point of a semicircle of ten 
miles around Manassas the enemy would attack, 
his forces had to be scattered in such a way as 
to guard all points, prevent a fiank movement 
on either side, and guard his intrenohments and 
supplies in the centre. 

We got up in the morning at daylight, took a 
cup of coffee and remained quietly laughing and 
talking at head-quarters, while the scouts were 
passing in and out bringing news from the ene- 
my. At a quarter past six in the still, bright 
morning, we heard the first deep-toned sound 
of cannon on the centre of our line, about three 
miles off. We waited till nine for ftirther infor- 
mation, and at nine the generals ordered to horse, 
and away we dashed to the hill overlooking the 
point at which cannon, like minute guns, had 
continued slowly to fire. The enemy could not 
see any of our troops, but were firing at the dust 
kicked up along the road, which they saw above 
the low trees. We were for some time at the 
point they were firing at, and some twenty or 
thirty balls of their rifled cannons whizzed 
through the air above us, and I felt very forcibly 
the remark of Cuddy to his mother Hause, that 
^*a straggling bnUet has nae discretion" and 
might tdce my head off as well as that of any- 
body else. The firing at this point kept up 
slowly from a quarter past six till eleven, when 
we heard a gun fire on the extreme left of the 
semicircle, and we were then satisfied that 
the firing in front was a mere feint. In a few 
minutes the cannon firing came in rapid succes- 
sion, OS if one battery was answering another. 
The generals then ordered ^^to horse" again, 
and away we rode to the seat of battle, about 
three miles off. When we arrived on the top of 
a hill, in an old field, we could get glimpses of 
the fight through the woods. The cannons 
were roaring and the musketry sounded like a 
large bundle of fire crackers, and the constant 
roaring of the big guns, the sharp sound of 
rifled cannons, Mini6 rifles and muskets, with 
the bursting of shells, made one feel that death 
was doing his work with fearful rapidity. 

The enemy liad concentrated all his forces 
on this one point, while ours were scattered 
around a half circle of ten miles, and the few 
regiments who received the first onset were 
most terribly cut up. It was far greater odds 
than human nature could stand, the regiments 
were torn to pieces, driven back, and so over- 
whelmed by numbers that I feared the day was 
lost. At this stage of the game the enemy 
was telegraphing to Washington that the bat- 
tle had been won, and secession was about to 
be crushed. My heart failed me as I saw load 
after load of our poor wounded and dying 
soldiers brought and strewed on the ground, 
along the ravine where I was at work. Dr. 



94 



BEBEUJOK RBOOSD, 1860-61. 



Fanthraj, who belonged to Oeneral Johngton's 
staff, and myself were just getting fally to 
work, when an old sargeon, whom I do not 
know, came to ns and said the enemy were 
carrying every thing before them, and ordered 
Q8 to fall back to another point with the wound- 
ed, as they were turning our flank, and the 
battle would soon be upon us. Accordingly 
the wounded were taken up and we fell back, 
but after following the ambnlances for a mUe, 
we found that they were to be taken all the 
way to Manassas — about four miles — where 
there were hospitals and surgeons to receive 
them, and we returned to our position near the 
battle. 

At this Juncture I saw our reinforcements 
pouring in with the rapidity and eagerness 
of a fox chase, and was satisfied that they 
would drive every thing before them. Np one 
can imagine such a grand, glorious picture as 
these patriots presented, rushing to the field 
through the masses of wounded bodies which 
strewed the roadside as they passed along. For 
half a mile behind me the road passed down a 
gradual slope, and through an old field, as I 
looked back, I could see a regiment of infantry 
coming in a trot, with their bright muskets 
glittering in the sun ; then would come a bat- 
tery of artillery, each gun carriage crowded 
with men and drawn by four horses in full 
gallop. Kezt came troops of cavalry, dashing 
with the speed of Murat ; after these followed, 
with almost equal speed, wagons loaded with 
ammunition, &c., screaming all the while, 
" push ahead boys," " pitch into the d — d Yan- 
kees," *^ drive them into the Potomac." This 
kept up from about mid-day till dark, and I felt 
as if the Alps themselves could not withstand 
such a rush. The cannon and small-arms were 
roaring like a thunder storm as they rushed 
to the battle-field. One regiment, which had 
been driven back by overwhelming numbers, 
was now supported, and I soon })erceived that 
the firing was getting further ofif, as I had expect- 
ed, and I knew that the *^ pet lambs" now could 
only be saved by their superior heels. About 
this time, too, the last of General Johnston^s 
command arrived on the cars, opposite the 
battle-ground, to the number of some three or 
four thousand, and although they had been two 
nights without sleep, they jumped from the 
cars and cut across to the field. By this time 
we had collected about 15,000 against their 
85,000, and, from all accounts, no red fox ever 
made tracks so fast as did these cowardly 
wretches. They were all fresh and better 
accoutred in every respect than our men, one 
half or more of whom had to make forced 
marches to get at them. They had selected 
their position coolly and deliberately in the 
morning, while ours were scattered over ten 
miles and had to run through the mid-day sun- 
shine. If our men had been equally fresh 
they would have gone straight into their in- 
trenchments at Arlington. But I will not 
tpeculate on the future and weary you with 



details which will reach yon through print long 
before this. 

The victory was dearly bought, but stiU 
blood is the price of freedom ; and ve can at 
least, while we drop a tear over the graves of 
our fallen friends, feel the proud consolation 
that they have died like heroes, and given 
liberty to unborn generations. 

Our troops are pouring in every day flrom 
the South, and if Beauregard and Johnston 
choose to lead them, they can plant the hated 
Palmetto tree beside the Bunker Hill monu- 
ment, which was erected to commemorate the 
same principles for which we are now fight- 
ing, and to which a degenerate race has proved 
recreant. They have forced this fight upon 
us, and after exhausting every thing but honor 
for peace, it is their turn to sue for terms. 

I never had any idea of military science be- 
fore. Beauregard and Johnston played it like 
a game of choss without seeing the board — 
when a messenger came and told the enemy -s 
move, a move was immediately ordered to pnt 
him in check.* 

The times are so exciting here that I cannot 
yet foresee my movements. I found that they 
had surgeons enough for the wounded in the 
hospitals at Manassas, and having no commis- 
sion, I left and came up to Richmond to send 
down many things needed for the patients, 
thinking I could serve them better in this way 

than any other. —MoMU Evening JITeira, Ja!/ m. 

* Tho position of the Confedonte forces Is Urn gives la 
the paper: 





KXPLAKATTOir OV IKCTCn. 

A. The eolamns «f the enemy making the fidnt attaek ob 
tbo centre of tbo Confederate lines. 

B, B. The columns of the enemy, 85,000 strong, making 
tbo real attack on the left of tbts Confederate Hnca. 

1. Manassas Junction, with Confederate troops holding 
tbo fortifipd camp. 

2. The 1S.000 Confederate troops who fonfrht the hattlo 
and defeated the 8fi,000 Federals who attacked them. 

8. The centre of tbo Confederate lines ; a battery In po- 
sition. 

4. 4, 4, i. Positions of troops ftirminir the Confederate llnea, 
wbere they were kept in line to meet an advance ftvm any 
quarter. It Is understood that some reinforcements were 
sent down from these positions to join In the fight on the 
left. 

0. 6. Rnllroads which make the Junction at Mansasas. 

Note.— From the extreme left to the extrome Hgbt of 
our lines, which formed nearly a tme semioircle, the dis* 
tance was ten miles: but whether this distanco was meas* 
tired by tbo are or directly across f^om right to left. Is not 
oloar. 



DOCUMSNTa 



96 



irOTBB TAXXS OX THB BATTLX-FIBLDw 
Btu. Bun, Sunday Morning, Jolj fll— 10 o^cloek. 

It seemed to be conceded that this was to 
be the daj of trud for which we have been 
vorking for many months past, and, in com- 
mon with the immense mass of men assembled 
hsre^ I have taken my position npon Boll Bun, 
to share the fortunes of the contest. 

The scene a moment since, and yet, is nnut- 
terablj sublime. Upon the hill, just one and 
a thurd mile off, the enemy are placing their 
irtillery. We see them plunging down the 
Centre Til le road to the apex of l£e eminence 
above Mitchell^s ford, and deploying to the 
right and left. Dark masses are drifting on 
with the power of fate in the road. We see 
the colunms moving, and, as they deploy 
through the forests, we see the cloud of dust 
floitittg over them, to mark their course. 
When the dust ceases we are sure that they 
hare taken their position. The firing now 
oommencee from two batteries to the right 
and left of the road. It is constant, and an- 
other has been opened about a mile lower 
down. That, however, has been firing for an 
hour past. The guns are served with great 
rapidity and precision, and, as we are within 
Toag^ and uncertain, therefore, when they 
will &vor us, there is quite an interest in the 
position. Our own troops are in the dense 
forest that lies below us on Bull Bun. They 
are still, not a gun has yet been fired, and 
there would seem to be nothing to indicate 
their presence. Of their presence and their 
readiness the enemy is advised, however, and 
is making all the headway he can. Of the 
precise position, however, they are still unad- 
vised; and in every clump of trees, and all 
along the line, they are plunging shots. So 
far, however, none have told. Our own bat- 
teries are in reserve, ready for a spring to any 
point that may come to be available. The 
hospital is again the object for their fire ; and 
the battery I mentioned as a mile below the 
ford, having heavier guns than mere field- 
pieces, and one at least rifled, is now playing 
upon it. 

The object, however, of the most intense in- 
terest is a line of dust that begins to rise above 
the mass of forest lying for miles away to the 
right of the enemy. That it is a moving col- 
omn is evident, but whether of our own or the 
enemy is the principal question. If ours, we 
are taking the enemy in flank ; if theirs, they 
outflank us. It moves towards the enemy, and 
a courier that joins us reports that it is the bri- 
gade of General Cocke. On it goes. There is 
no corresponding column of the enemy. The 
movement promises success. The enemy may 
hare stationed a force in anticipation, but if 
not we fall upon their flank. 

HalfopMt 10 oVIook, A.V. 

There is firing on our flanking column. The 
enemy have opened their battery upon it half- 
way. The column responds. The firing be- 
comes ri^tid — ^musketry — ^rapid* Gens. Sean- 



regard, Johnston, and Bonham have just come 
to the hill where I have been standing. The 
whole scene is before us — a grand moving dio- 
rama. The enemy have sent a ball from their 
rified cannon at us. Another. They nass over 
us with a sound that makes our flesh crawl. 
All have left the spot but Gens. Beauregard, 
Bonham, and Johnston, and their aids. Tho 
firing has ceased at the head of our flanking 
column. It is renewed again, nearer, I think, 
to the enemy. Another ball exactly over our 
heads. A very sustaining force follows our 
flanking column. The enemy, flring at our 
generals, has dropped a shot among the wag- 
ons in the edge of the woods below, and they 
dash off. Another shot follows them as they 
fly, and plunges' in the ground but a few feet 
behind one of them. « 

11 o'clock. 

The firing has been awful. The heads of 
the flanking and resisting columns are distinct- 
ly visible from the smoke that rises above 
them, and they stand stationary for a long 
time; but at last the enemy's column goes 
back — a column of dust arises in their rear — a 
shout rises that roars loud as the artillery from 
our men — the enemy's flre slackens— our re- 
serves advance— the dust rises on to the posi- 
tion lately oocnnied by the enemy — we tri- 
umph, we triumpn, thank God I Tho dust still 
rises in the rear of the enemy, as though they 
were retreating rapidly. 

Quarter before twelve o'clock. 

The enemy make another stand. Again, 
there is the roar of musketry, long like the 
roar of distant and protracted thunder. Again 
the roar, but always at the head of tho enemy's 
column. A column of dust rises to tho left of 
our forces and passes to the enemy's right. It 
must be intended to flank them. It is fearful 
to think how many heart strings are wrung by 
the work that now goes on — how many brave 
men must be mangled and in anguish. 

Again tlie enemy has fallen back to another 
point, half a mile in the rear ; and the spirals 
of tho smoke curl up the side of tho mountain 
in the background. The whole scene is in the 
Piedmont valley, which I have often noticed 
to have slept so sweetly to the west of Centre- 
ville, and sweeping on down to tho Fonth. It 
is nearly level, or seems so, and tho Bine Hidgo 
rises to form the dark background of a most 
magniflcont picture. 

Twelve o'clock, IKoon. 

The batteries flrst opening have been silent 
for half an hour, and the whole extended valley 
is now the thick of the flght. Where tho enemy 
last took his stand retreating, the fight is fear- 
ful ; the dust is denser than the smoke. It is 
awful. They have been repulsed three times — 
so it is reported by a courier — and now they 
have taken their bloodiest and final Ftand. 

Half-pftst twelve o'clock. 

The firing now is at its height. Never, until 
now, have I dreamed of such a spectacle ; for 
one long mile the whole valley is a boiling 
crater of dust and smoke. 



96 



REBELLION REOORD, 1860-61. 



Quarter before one o'clock. 

Tho fray ceases; Generals Beauregard and 
Johnston dash on to tlie scene of action, and 
as wo cannot doubt that the enemy has again 
fallen back, it looks as though they were on their 
way to Washington. 

Ono o'clock. 
Column after column is thrown in from all 
nlmig the line of Bull Run to fall upon the left 
flank of the enemy, and the firing is again re- 
newed, as though nothing had been done. An 
effort would seem to have been made to out- 
flank us, and it has brought on another engage- 
ment further off, but on a line with the first. 
Tho cannon established on the hill was a feint 
at MitchelPs Ford, while of both armies the 
effort was to outflank. These guns now but 
play ot tho columns of dust as they rise from 
the infantry and cavalry as they tramp past ; 
and as those columns are near the point where 
I stand, they have brought a dozen balls at least 
witliin 100 yards. 

Fifte<Hi mlnntee past ono o^cIock. 
Tho firing has almost entirely ceased, but 
still our reserves are pouring in. The enemy 
seems to be making an attempt to cross at 
Mitcheirs Ford. All at MitchelPs Ford is a 
feint, and it is now certain that the grand 
battle-ground for empire is now to the west, 
beyond the Stone Bridge, on Boll Bun, and I 
go tliere, 

Eveolng. 

At two o'clock I arrived on the gi'ound ; but 
of tho further scenes of this eventful battle I 
have nothing more to say, save this only, that 
at five o'clock the enemy was driven from the 
field, leaving most of the guns of Sherman's 
battery behind them, with an awful list of dead 
and wounded. 

It will be evident to any one who becomes 
familiar with the events of the day that I mis- 
apprehend many of the occurrences. The at- 
tack was made at a point above the Stone 
Bridge, on Bull Run, by the whole disposable 
force of the enemy, led by General McDowell. 
The importance of the movement was not at 
first estimated, and it was met by Gen. Evans, 
with only the Fourth South Carolina regiment, 
Colonel Sloan, the Independent Louisiana bat- 
talion. Major Wheat, and two guns of the 
Washington Artillery. The charge of the ene- 
my was met with an intrepidity that was be- 
yond all praise, and the whole column of the 
enemy was held at bay until reinforcements 
came. These were led on by Colonel Jackson, 
Colonel Bartow, General Bee, and General 
Jones. The conflict went on in a fierce and ter- 
rible struggle of the Confederate troops against 
great odds and amidst terrible slaughter. 

At the crisis of the engagement two regiments 
of South Carolinians — ^Kershaw's and Cocke's — 
were ordered to advance. Kemper's battery 
was attached to Kershaw's. As these troops ad- 
vanced, they were joined by Preston's regiment 
of Cocke's brigade. A tremendous charge was 
made, which decided the fate of the day. After 
acts of incredible valor, the enemy was driven 



off far to the north. As they retreated on the 
Braddock road to Centreville a charge waa 
made upon them by a portion of our cavalry, 
and I think of the Radford Rangers. Thej 
dashed upon them about a mile away, and dnat 
above them for ten minutes rose up as from 
the crater of a volcano. The puni^ment waa 
severe and rapid. 

Colonel Hampton's Legion suffered greatly. 
It came last night, and marched directly into 
battle. When I went upon the ground I heard 
that Colonel Hampton and Johnson were both 
killed, but afterwards I met Colonel Hampton 
riding from the field, wounded badly, but ex* 
hilarated at the thought that his men had ex- 
hibited surpassing intrepidity, and that Gen- 
eral Beauregard himself had relieved him and 
led his legion into battle. 

Colonel Sloan's Fourth regiment South Oaro- 
lina Voltmteers suffered as much. They stood 
decimated at every fire until reinforcements 
came, and they exhibit a sad remnant of the 
noble body of men that entered into battle. 

Tho Second regiment, Colonel Kershaw, did 
fearful execution at the crisis of the contest, 
but Buffered less. 

The Fourth Alabama regiment. Col. Jonea, 
and the Eighth Qeorgut regiment, Col. Gardner, 
suffered greatly. 

Wearied and worn, and aick at heart, I re- 
tired from the field whose glory is scarce eqnal 
to its gloom, and I have not the strength now 
to write more. I send my field notes as they 
are. 

President Davis came upon the ground jnsi 
as the battle ended, and the wildest cheering 
greeted him. He rode along the lines of war* 
worn men who had been drawn off from ac- 
tion, and he seemed proud of them, and of his 
right to command such noble men, but it was 
tempered with a feeling of regret tbat their 
right to his respect had been vindicated at so 
dreadful a sacrifice. Many wounded still stood 
in the ranks, and exhibited the unalterable 
purpose to stand there while they had strength 
to do so. 

How many of the enemy were killed we 
have no means of knowing, but it must have 
been much greater than our own. Our men 
shot with the utmost possible coolness and 
precision, and they must have claimed thia 
compliment. 

We took Sherman's battery, sixteen guna, 
and three guns from those batteries that opened 
upon us first above Mitchell's Ford. 

These are facts reported to me on the ground 
at sundown, but they are not necessarily cor- 
rect. I have hesitated to state any thing, but 
upon tho whole have thought it best I will 
send a corrected list of our casualties to-mor- 
row. 

There was an engagement at the batteries 
above Mitchell's Ford, in which the Fifth, 
Seventh, and Eighth South Carolina regiments 
were engaged, but the facts have not transpired 
beyond tjie taking of guns. 



DOCCXENTa 



97 



JUfOTHSB SOUTH OABOLOTA SBPOBT. 

Armt or TBI Potomac, ) 

Camp Pickkits, Monday, Jaly 22, 1861. ) 

I gaye yon yesterday, as well as the ciroum- 
■Umoes would permit, my first impressions of 
the great battle at the Stone Bridge, and, after 
a day of constant inquiry, and as much reflec- 
tion aa was possible, I will attempt to give a 
more perfect oatline of that most brilliant mili- 
tary achievement. 

As I stated, the battle was expected. All 
things indicated the approach of an impending 
crisis. The moral atmosphere was heavy with 
its awfol import, and without being able to say 
what it was precisely that induced conviction, 
yet conviction of the contest had become a 
faith with aU, and men rose in the morning to 
a day pregnant of death to men, and of the 
fortones and the fate of the Republic. 

Nor did the realization of this conception de- 
pend upon the action of the enemy. They 
took the initiative^ and came to meet us ; but i^ 
they had notj we would have gone to them. It 
is now reasonably certain that matters here 
were so matored that the military authorities 
were ready and determined to advance, and it 
was with a feeling of relief, perhaps, that the 
first booming of the cannon at McLean's Ford 
removed from ns the responsibilities of that 
movement. We were not entirely prepared — 
as well prepared, at least, as we might have 
hoped to be. The forces of Gen. Holmes, from 
Fredericksburg, and of Gen. Evans, from 
Leesburg, were in the battle; and so, also, 
were the most of those from Gen. Johnston. 
Bat two brigades of Gen. Johnston's force — 
Gen. Smith's and Col. Elzey's — had not arrived. 
Hampton's Legion and Wynder^s Sixth regiment 
of Xorth Carolina had not arrived the night 
before. Many that had arrived from the 
sources mentioned above were without the 
provisions of a military life, and were too 
wearied for the most efficient military service ; 
hut UiU our forces had been greatly strength- 
ened. At least 15,000 men had been added to 
our too small force. The enemy, in not renew- 
ing the attack, or offering to bury their dead, 
would seem to have been demoralized; and 
under ^e circumstances, therefore, it would 
seem that our generals had resolved to strike 
and drive the invader back, or challenge fate 
npon the open field of battle. 

To this end it would seem to have been their 
purpose to lead an attacking force directly on 
the road to CentrevUle, by Mitchell s Ford, 
where Gen. Bonham, with his brigade, had 
b«ei> posted, and a flanking force by Stone 
Bridge, and along the line which the enemy 
liimsclf selected for a flanking force on us. 
This action of the enemy induced a necessary 
change in our plans. From attacking, we were 
forced to a defence, and it may be a question 
whether the result was better than it could 
have been. Our whole available force would 
then have been in action. As it was, only 
those were in that could be thrown upon the 



plain of battle at Stone Bridge. The rest, in 
reserve at the several crossings for five milea 
down, were inactive, suspended on contingen- 
cies for movement until too late for a du'ect 
movement on the enemy's position. 

The action, as I have stated, was commenced 
by a feint on the hills above Mitchell's Ford, 
upon the top of which the enemy industriously 
exhibited large masses of his forces ; and the 
demonstration was followed up, as I have sta- 
ted, by a movement round by Stone Bridge to 
our left flank. This movement was anticipated 
by a like movement of ours to take him upon 
his right flank; and thus the two flanking 
forces meeting, monopolized the interest, and 
became the leading actors in the splendid mili- 
tary drama. Our force, however, was a de- 
tachment ; theirs was their main body. They 
had determined to force a crossing at that 
point — ^to conquer fate to that object ; and to 
that end they had sent forward, it would seem, 
their entire force, beyond that necessary for 
the demonstration, and as the letter which 
was found on a prisoner, and a copy of w^hich 
I send you, states their force at 180,000 — ^too 
much, perhaps. It is certain it was lai^e, and 
that not less than 80,000 were despatched upon 
this mission. To meet this, we had only the 
brigade of Gen. Evans, consisting of the Fourth 
South Carolina, and Wheat's Louisiana Bat- 
talion, and two guns of the Washington Artil- 
lery, sustained by Col. Cocke's brigade, con- 
sisting of Cols. Cocke's Nineteenth Virginia 
regiment, Wither's Seventeenth Virginia, and 
Preston's Twenty-eighth Virginia. The disad- 
vantage, therefore, was in the fact that Uie 
great disproportion of our column left it ex- 
posed to an accumulated and concentrated fire, 
which occasioned a mortality disproportioned 
to what might have been anticipated fvoxn. a 
more equal number. In addition to this, the 
enemy had posted his column with all tho 
available regulars in the service. The Second 
and Third Infantry, at least, and Doubleday's 
battalion, late of Patterson's column, it is be- 
lieved, were in the action, as also some three 
three thousand collected at Washington for 
service. [Not one of these men were in Uie 
action. — £o. Times.] Staking the fate of his 
army on this attack, it was truly severe. Never 
did men fight as our men did. The Fourth 
regiment and Wheat's battalion stood until al- 
most cut to pieces under a concentrated fire 
from flank and front, and they did, in fact, as I 
thought they did, force the enemy to recoil ; 
but the utmost they could expect was to indues 
but a temporary check to such a moving mass. 
It still rolled on, and, as brigade after brigade 
was subsequently thrown in, it but sustained 
the check ; and, as they were successively cut 
up by the more abundant ordnance of the en- 
emy, they still left to him t^e advantage of his 
numbers. 

To exhibit the circumstances under which 
reinforcements were eflfeoted, I would state a 
little more explicitly the position of our forces. 



98 



REBELLION RECORD, 1860-61. 



Gen. Evans was on the extreme left, and above 
the Stone Bridge; Col. Oocke was next; Col. 
Jackson, with his brigade from Gen. Johnston^s 
forces, I think, was next ; Bartow was next ; 
Gen. Bonham next ; Gen. Jones was next, and 
Gen. Ewell and Col. Easley, with their respect- 
ive brigades, completed the display to the right 
at the Union Mills. These forces covered Bull 
Run from above the 8tone Bridge to the point 
of crossing by the riulroad, a distance of about 
dx miles. 

Bull Run, as I have had occasion to remark 
in former letters, is one of the branches of the 
Occoquan. They hold the Manassas Junction 
in the fork, and about three miles firom either. 
From Gentreville, as one may see from looking 
at the map, all the roads cross the run. That 
by MitchelFs Ford, being the most direct, is 
seven miles, and all the others longer. The 
fight occurring on the extreme right, all the 
reinforcements were necessarily thrown from 
along this line, and time was necessary ; and 
as a considerable time elapsed after the engage- 
ment at the Stone Bridge, before the precise 
character of the enemy^s movement appeared, 
it was late and long before all the movements 
oould be made to meet it. 

When it was ascertained what was the full 
meaning of the enemy to the left, I have reason 
to believe it was at once determined to throw 
a column from Mitcheirs Ford upon the bat- 
teries above, and taking them, to fall upon the 
€nemyU rear. Why it teas not dime I am not 
able to Mtate^ but it was not. And standing 
near Generals Beauregard, Johnston, and Bon- 
ham, on the hill of which I spoke yesterday, 
in the beginning of my report, I heard Gen. 
Beauregard remark, pointing to the fight to the 
west, *' There is the battle-ground." Soon 
after orders were despatched, and the generals, 
wiUi their aids and attendants, dashed on to 
enter on the scene of conflict. 

The apparent retreat of the enemy was, in 
fact, his extension to the right, to gain our 
flank, and sorely was that point contested. 
The fight began nearly in front of a house 
owned by a man named Lewes. Against the 
hill on which tliat house is situated,* the enemy 
had planted his battery, and it woa against 
that that many of our brave men fell. There 
the Fourth South Carolina and Wheat's bat- 
talion were slaughtered ; there the gallant Bar- 
tow fell; and that for many of the bloody 
hours of the contest was the comer-stone of 
the structure. From this it extended on by 
tuccessive eflTorts to outflank for two miles to 
the west. Brigade after brigade, as they suc- 
cessively fell in, took new ground. The Wash- 
ington Louisiana Artillery, as the other sections 
of it came, took ground still to the left, and 
Shield's and Pendleton's each took its hill for 
special thunder, and each contributed its con- 
tmgent to the mass of ^nghter. 

When I entered on the field at 2 o'clock, the 
fortunes of the day were dark. The remnants 
of the regimentSi so badly izyured, or wounded 



and worn, as they staggered out, gave gloomy 
pictures of the scene, and o^ up to this time, 
after four hours of almost unprecedented valor 
and exertion, no point had been given, as each 
addition but seemed to stem the current of the 
enemy, but eould not turn it baeh^ as our forces 
were not exhaustless, as the distances to be 
traversed were continually greater, and as the 
enemy stood in possession of almost unlimited 
military power, and even the event was doubt- 
ful. We could not be ronted, perhaps, but it 
is doubtful whether we were destined to a tietory. 
But at this point the fortunes of the day were 
changed. The God of Battles seemed to stoop 
to our relief. 

By an order of (xen. Beauregard, Gen. Bon- 
ham sent CoL Kershaw^s regiment, with Kem- 
per's battery of four guns annexed, and Col. 
Cash's regiment, to the rescue. On they came 
from four miles below, at a rapid march, drir- 
ing great masses of the enemy before them, and 
making fearful execution in their ranksu Hill 
after hill was passed with the same result, natil 
they reached the Stone Bridge. Here Gen. Beau- 
rep;ard halted them, reinforced them with a 
Virginia regiment, Hampton's Legion, what of 
it was in condition for service, some Maryland- 
ers and Louisionians, and started them again 
after the retreating foe, who fought and broke 
until the retreat became a rout. Cavalry 
came in now to finish. They wei*e pui'sued by 
our forces to Centre ville, some seven miles, 
leaving the road filled with plunder. Tlie cav- 
alry followed, cut down and captured, until 
late in the night. 

While this wus transpiring at one point, other 
events took place further on in another part of 
the field. 1 mentioned that two brigades of 
Gen. Johnston's forces were behind, having been 
delayed by a collision on the Manassas rnilroad. 
The brigade of Gen. Smith, consisting of 1,800 
men, arrived at Manassas after the fi^ht began 
and hurried to the field. And at the instant 
when the regiments of the Fourth Carolina, 
Fourth Georgin, Fourth Alabama, Hanrpton'a 
Legion, and others were struggling back for a 
moment's relief, and to fire again, they rnshed 
with deafening sliouts to the field of action. 
Col. Elzey, another portion of Gen. Johnston'* 
force detained upon the railroad, was ct'ining 
down. As he neared Manassas he heard tlie 
firing; he saw from the direction he coiild 
reach the scene of action sooner, and stopping 
the cars ho ordered out the men, puj-hed dirwt- 
ly on a distance of but a few miles, for the ene- 
my's object, doubtless, was to reach the Man- 
assas railroad in our rear. His line of travel 
brought him directly to the point where there 
was the cflfort to outflank again. TTie entmy^ 
again and again dffeated^ and met by svperior 
numbers^ seemed at once to lose the fpur of the 
contest wh4n driven bach. They did not face 
again over the rising grounds — beyond lines 
of dirt arose. What was their purpose did not 
appear. The sinking sun threw his sunlight 
over the magnificent landscape. The dead and 



DOCUMSNTS. 



99 



djiog lay aboat. The masses of horse lay ander 
cover of tlie hills for the occasion that should 
ioroke their action. Men stood to their arms 
along that bloody line, and looked a strange 
interest on the enemy. Was he to return and 
eontinoe a fight of eight hours' duration ? was 
he to change the point of his attack, and force 
them, wearied and broken as they were, to an- 
other field ? or, were they, broken and outdone, 
about to retire from a field in which they h5id 
become assured by experience there was no 
harvest of power or glory to be won, but where 
they were, indeed, welcomed by bloody hands 
to hospitable graves? That this was their pur- 
pose, at length appeared. A shout arose upon 
the eoDTiction, fn:>m 10,000 throbbing and ox- 
nltaat hearts. The cavalry poured down upon 
them. The dust, as from the crater of a vol- 
cano^ marked the point of contact. With a 
singuhir propriety of occurrence, the honored 
Chief M{^^istrate of the Confederacy arrived 
upon the ground almost as the shouts of victory 
died upon the distance. 

They rose again for him, and again and again 
for the gallant military chieflains uuder whose 
able leadership the action had been won. And 
there was not one who looked upon that field, 
strewn with the fragments of war, and glitter- 
ing in the beams of sunset, and upon those long 
lines of begrimed and bloody men, and upon 
the dark columns of the insolent invader, as 
crashed and cowed, he crawled from the field, 
who did not feel that he stood upon another 
historic point in human history. We stood 
upon one some six months since when we pro- 
daimed the truths of our political faith ; we 
stood upon another when we witnessed the 
Kriemnities of their vindication. There was no 
unbecoming demonstration — no heartless exul- 
tation. The common feeling was of sadness, 
rather that right and liberty^ in the inscrutable 
wajs of an overruling Providence, should only 
be purchased at 90 dear a price. But there was 
gratitude and trust, and an honest confidence 
of a future, which we had not scrupled to pur- 
chase at the sacrifices the God above us had 
seen proper to exact 

Tiie movement on the right wing of our army 
upon the batteries in front, which seemed to 
have been resolved on early in the action, was 
at length made. About the time of our final 
oharge upon the enemy's right, which droye 
them from the field. Gen. Jones, with the Fifth 
South Carolina regiment, Col. Jenkins, and the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Mississippi regi- 
ments, Cols. Featherston and Burt, moved round 
to gain the rear of the batteries over the hill, 
above Mitcheirs Ford. Gen. Bon ham, with the 
Third and Seventh South Carolina regiments, 
Cols. Williams and Bacon, moved up the hill in 
liront. The enemy, though in considerable force, 
at once recoiled from the encounter ; and, un- 
limberiDg their artillery, they made their way 
with the utmost rapidity in the direction of 
CeotreviHe. It was too late for pursuit — ^too 
lata to intercept the retreating columns from 
Yob IL— Doc 12 



the west, already under rapid headway; and, 
with no serious loss, and after but a short and 
spirited engagement on the enemy's left, in 
which the Fifth Carolina regiment sufifered to 
some extent, they returned to their positions. 

Of the many personal incidents of the battle, 
I have not time to speak to-night. My estima- 
ble friend, R. McKay, of Greenville, separated 
from his company, Capt. Hokes, came upon 
four of the enemy in charge of three of our 
prisoners whom they had token, and was un- 
comfortably conscious he was about to add to 
their number ; to be certain of the fact, how- 
ever, he exclaimed interrogatively, " Prisoners, 
boys ? " A Zouave answered, " We don't know 
exactly who are prisoners here." " Oh, you, of 
course," said our ready friend ; whereupon de- 
manding their arms, they laid them down, and 
were marched off to the rear. 

Six horsemen, detached from their company, 
dashed forward and came upon a company of 
the enemy all armed, forty-five in number, de- 
manding a surrender as the best means of avoid- 
ing their own capture. Tlie enemy complied, 
and the six men with sabres only marched 
them in. 

Arxt or TUB Potoxao. vbab Mahassas, { 

Tuesday, July 23. ) 

I have visited again to-day the scene of con- 
fiict, and am able to add still other particulars 
of that most memorable action. Your readers 
will remember that the battle was begun by a 
feint at Mitchell's Ford, on the road from Cen- 
treville to Warrenton. This, however, was only 
true in part. To that point the mass of the 
enemy's immense columns was indeed directed, 
but that also was another feint. Planting bat- 
teries against the forces guarding that bridge 
he exhibited a purpose to fbrce a crossing ; bnt, 
while seeking to induce that impression, ho in 
fact made a detour of more than a milo above, 
and further to the west ; and when our atten- 
tion was directed to the bridge, they sought to 
come upon our rear. To Gen. Evans, as I hove 
said, the task of defending the bridge had been 
committed. He soon detected the enemy's 
purposes, and advanced to counteract them. 
Under him, as I have said, were the Fourth 
South Carolina regiment. Col. Sloan, Wheat's 
battalion, two guns of Latham's battery, (not 
the Washington Artillery, as I was nt first in- 
formed,) and two companies of Radford's Cav- 
alry. These he advanced to Sudley's Ford, but 
had hardly placed them in position before he 
saw the enemy in overwhelming masses on hb 
fiank, having already crossed. To resist them 
successfully was beyond a reasonable hope. A 
portion of his small force had already been de- 
tached to defend the bridge, and with the rest, 
not more than 1,100, he could not hope to stand 
against the accumulated thousands on his left ; 
but he knew that victory or death was the de- 
termination for the day ; he could at least ar- 
rest them, and ordering round his two pieces 
of artillery, and rapidly throwing forward his 
forces to the left, in Uie face of the enemy'f 



100 



REBELUON BEOORD, 1860-61. 



battery already in position, and of their serried 
ranks near twenty times ]iis own in number, he 
advanced to the charge; for a time he was 
covered by a clump of trees, but passing these 
he came directly in front of the enemy, within 
easy distance, and made his charge upon them. 
The result, of course, could not be questioned. 
" For one ball of his " there were twenty of the 
enemy, and there could be no expectation but 
to be ultimately cut to pieces, but he could sell 
his forces for their utmost value, and he did. 
The enemy, in fact, recoiled from the intense 
severity of his onset, but recovering they began 
to bear him back. Gen. Bee, with his brigade, 
then came to his support. That again checked 
the current for an instant. Ool. Bartow then 
oame. That again impeded its resistless prog- 
ress; but the disparity was still too great. 
Their forces were driven down to the Warren- 
ton turnpike, then across it, and back to the 
woods, one hundred yards below. When 
Hampton's Legion came with this a charge was 
made, which drove the enemy back to the road. 
From this they were able to recover, and drove 
our forces back in turn ; again they rallied and 
drove back the enemy, but extending to the 
left they forced us back again. Jackson and 
Oocke had also come to maintain the unequal 
strife, and in the midst of fearful carnage strove 
to hold their own against overwhelming num- 
bers. 

Then it was, whilst the victory toatered in the 
"balance^ and hope seemed almost gone^ that the 
gallant Second, with Kemper's battery, and the 
Eighth, of Bonham's brigade, under a previous 
and well-timed order of Gen. Beauregard, 
came, swee])ing every thing before them, the 
foe flying from their deadly fire and fierce 
charges. 

On the other fiank Smith, too, marched with 
four regiments, fresh from the railroad, to the 
vicinity of the enemy, put them to flight and 
commenced the pursuit. 

Each in turn had met the snccessive enfilad- 
ing columns of the enemy, ttntil at length he 
hwd no other enfilading columns to advance. 
The pluck of our men began to tell agfidnst even 
overwhelming numbers. Their batteries, which 
they had advanced to the eminences east of tho 
Warrenton road, and near a mile within the 
line of battle which wo took at first, became 
the objects of attack. The assault was fearful, 
but the defence was stern and bloody. From 
Rickett's battery every horse was killed, and 
even to-day there lie around the place where 
it stood the bodies of one hundred of the enemy. 
It was taken twice, but retaken again ; and it 
was only when the regiments of Cols. Cash and 
Kershaw had cleared the land to the left that 
the efibrt to retake it was abandoned. The 
guns were turned at once upon the enemy, and 
helped to drive them from the field. Not far 
to the right the same tragedy was enacted to 
the same result. The line of the enemy cut in 
two at this point was never formed again. 
One portion retreated by the Warrenton turn- 



pike, in the direction of Centreville ; the others 
made again the detour round by Sudley's Ford ; 
both made for Centreville ; and as they went 
along the turnpike back, the play of Kemper's 
battery was as admirable as is often seen. The 
road is broad and straight for at least three 
miles. Be planted his battery upon it. He was 
animated to his utmost skill and power by his 
sense of wrongs. The enemy for months has held 
and abused his home in Alexandria ; and, as he 
ploughed the road along which they were forced 
to travel, I fear he did not ask for mercy on the 
souls of those he sent to their account. 

The regiments of Kershaw and Cash, with 
Kemper's Battery, followed to within a mile of 
Centreville. The road was strewed with plun- 
der, and at the Hanging Bridge, on Cobb's 
Creek, they took twenty-one guns^ which had 
become jammed, and which, together with the 
horses which they were all too hurried to un- 
hitch, were taken and sent back. 

I spoke, last night, of the movement of Gen- 
erals Jones and Bonham upon the batteries in 
front of them, but I did not state the full effect 
of their exertions. They followed on to within 
sight of Centreville. The enemy had preceded 
them, and had encamped. Alarmed at their 
approach, he struck his camp again, worn as be 
was, and did not stop until lar beyond Fairfax. 
Whether he stopped this side of Alexandria or 
Washington, does not appear. In his route, be 
left equipage and baggage, and four of his gnns 
at Centreville, which he had not the spirit even 
to attempt to save. The number of gnns now 
taken is reported to be fifty-one, and as a con- 
clusive indication of what is the true import 
and effect of our action, it may be stated that 
yesterday the Confederate fiag was run up at 
Fairfax. That night the town was in possesr 
sion of a detachment of our cavalry, and to- 
night it will be occupied by a force suflBcient 
to hold it. 

In further evidence of the demoralization of 
the enemy, it was stated this morning by a 
gentleman of official position and character in 
Alexandria, that he let1; that town unchallenged 
last night, that he came to our own pickets 
unquestioned, and that the rumor was, the vol- 
unteers whose term of service had expired, 
have resolved to leave; that it is determined 
to prevent them, and that the regular soldiers 
are now called out to keep them in subjection. 
This is probable. In a house to-day where 
some forty of the wounded enemy had crept, 
and where they have since been lying without 
food or attendance, I met a lad who said the 
coming of many of the troops was entirely in- 
voluntary ; that their term of service having 
expired, they demanded their discharge, but 
were told they must fight the battle, and that 
then they would be paid. If not willing to 
fight, they must do it anyhow. 

I mentioned yesterday that much dejjended 
on the opportune arrival of Col. Elzey with his 
brigade. In reference to the time I was mis- 
taken; his was a portion of the command of 



DOCUMENTa 



101 



GeD. Smith, whose coming, however, was most 
opportane; and when Gen. Smith was shot, 
GoL Elzey took command, and did at least his 
share to secure the victory. 

When I entered on the field at 2 oVlock of 
the day of battle, the scene, as I have men- 
tlooed, was gloomy, for the battle was unde- 
cided, and the chances seemed against us, bat I 
did not mention all that made it painfni. In 
peacefu] life we are not familiar with the scenes 
of var, and it has happened to me, at least, to 
have seen bat little suffering from the casualties 
or combats of life. I had not, therefore, the 
adTantago of familiarity, and just at once the 
scene was one to task the nerve of any 
man. At the first trench I came to, which was 
jost beyond the range of bullets, lay one hun- 
dred, at least, in every stage of suffering and 
endurance. One had his leg shot off with 
a cannon ball, another had his arm broken, an- 
other had his jaw shot away. GoL Hampton 
met ns with the appearance of having had a 
baQ in his temple, and he sud he had been in- 
sen»ble from the effects, but he hoped soon to 
be upon the field again. A few steps further 
on I saw a Palmetto boy with his under jaw 
shot off at the instant. I met Col. Shingler, 
riding before an ambulance, which, he said, 
contained the late lamented Gen. Bee. The 
GeDeral lay prostrate, and almost expiring, 
from the wound in his abdomen, which of ne- 
cessity must prove mortal. A few steps farther 
still, and there lay the helpless form of my late 
friend. Col. Johnson. Others there were — aged 
men, whose gray hairs proclaimed them sixty 
and more ; boys whose young hearts yearned, 
I know, for softer hands and sweeter faces than 
were around them there. To this spot all had 
besn impelled by the wounded soldiers' con- 
stant want of water. The stream, by the con- 
stant crossing, was so muddy, it was scarcely 
flnid, but they drank it ; and, with the night 
approaching, tlirough which they must either 
be under the cold sky or bear the jolting of a 
joQrney to Manassas, and without attendance 
or the certainty of medical attendance, they 
yet were cheerful, or, if not, enduring. No one 
added to the sufferings of others by exhibitions 
of his, and during the time I felt at liberty to 
5tay — ^for the order came for all able to bear a 
^n to enter in the ranks for a final stand — I 
heard no solitary groan from any one. 

But of all imaginable scenes of horror, the 
battle-field to-day excels. Upon the hills from 
which the enemy was last driven, still lay the 
dead they had not time to remove. Some had 
been buried by our own men, but the task was 
too repulsive, and the most of them were left 
upon the bare ground without a leaf to shade 
them, bloated, blackened, and rotting in the 
SOD, for birds and insects to devour. And it 
▼as scarcely possible not to commiserate the 
fftte of men who had offered up their lives for 
a country that would not show to them the 
cold charity of even a grave to lie in. Nor was 
H better with the poor starved wretches who 



had crawled into the storehouse upon the field 
of battle. Sick, famished, friendless, and with- 
out a home or country they could love or 
honor, it were scarcely better to be alive than 
dead. I spoke of the fact to Gen. Evans, in 
whose military department they are at present, 
and he promised to keep them from starving at 
least ; but in the mean time the country people 
were coming in with offers of assistance, and 
one was taking one poor fellow off to his house 
at Brentsville. 

Battles make singular developments. My 
friend. Dr. Shepardson, visiting the prisoners 
yesterday, found a college-mate among them. 
One of our soldiers found among them his own 
brother. Gen. Evans found among them M£\jor 
Tillinghast, long known in Charleston, who 
bad been his classmate— at the instant of re- 
cognition, Migor T. was at the point of deaths 
and died soon after ; and also in a horse that 
was taken at Fairfax, the charger upon which 
he rode in the service of the United States. 
And Ool. Mullins, in a customer that was 
skulking on the road to Centreville upon the 
evening of the battle, and whom he made his 
prisoner, the Hon. Mr. Ely, of New York. 

There is a feeling of regret for all the gaUant 
men who fell in this engagement, but for none 
more than for the gallant Bartow. He hod 
gone into this war with such uncalculating zeal 
and fidelity to the great cause, and bore him- 
self so nobly in the fight, that if there were 
the wish to, it were hard to withhold our ad- 
miration. When his horse was shot, be led 
the Eighth Greorgia regiment, on foot, to storm 
a battery. This was cut to pieces, and retiring 
to put himself at the head of the Seventh, he 
asked of Gen. Beauregard what he would have 
him do. The General said, *' There is the bat- 
tery." He started for it again. The color- 
bearer was shot down, when he seized the 
colors, and bearing them on, he received a shot 
in his left breast. 

Nor less lamented is the death of Gren. Bee. 
He has been regarded as one among the best 
military appointments, and has won opinion in 
every act of his military life. He was first in 
the field to sustiun our leading column at every 
succeeding crisis of the contest. He was pres- 
ent at the passage of the turnpike ; at tho gal- 
lant charge of the Hampton Legion; at the 
storming of the batteries ; and at last fell near 
the fatal spot where also had faUen the gallant 
Bartow. Of his aids were Gen. Gist, Ool. 
Shingler, and M^or Stevens, who was slightly 
wounded, shared his pains, and remained to the 
further fortune of the contest. 

Nor is less sympathy experienced for the 
sufferings of Gen. Smith. He came to stem the 
current of our backward fortunes, and leading 
his brigade to the very head of the flanking 
column, fell almost at the first fire, pierced 
throagh Uie breast with a grape shot Hopes^ 
however, are entertained for his recovery. On 
his staff were our townsmen, Ool. Buist and 
Oapt. Tapper, who were with him when he feSL 



102 



REBELLION BBCORD, 1860-«1. 



Of Col. Johnaon, the career was short and 
brilliant. The Legion arrived in the night, and 
in a few hours after, almost unfit for service, it 
was thrown into the very thickest of the fight, 
and Col. Johnson fell, with OoL Hampton, on 
^e spot upon which their columns had been 
planted. I sent the casualties of Col. Kershaw ^s 
regiment bj telegraph to-day; but those of 
the other regiments, so scattered as they are, 
and in weather so exceedingly unsuitable to 
travelling as it has been, I have not yet been 
able to obtain. 

President Davis left the army this morning 
in the cars for Richmond. Though the Chief 
Magistrate of a great republic at tbe most 
aalient period of its greatness, were an*ogated 
no special privilege, he took his seat with 
others in an overcrowded car; and in that, and 
in every oUier instance of his intercourse with 
his fellow-citizens here, he exhibited but the 
appearance and beai-ing of a well-bred gentle- 
man, as he unquestionably is. 

Abut or thb Potoxao, Camp Piokivb, I 
WedueadMy, Julj 24. f 

The great battle at Stone Bridge has been 
the theme for days, but still is not exhausted. 
It stirred our hearts so deeply that they cannot 
take the current of another thought Kor is it 
necessary. The military event of this age, and 
the event upon which hung suspended ue pri- 
vate feeling and the public interests of the 
South, it is scarcely to be thought of that I 
should ofiTer, or you should ask, the reason why 

1 dwell upon it. 

In writmg yesterday, I endeavored to present 
that at one time the fortunee qf the day were 
doubf/ul — hung atupended on a thread— and 
that by Beauregard's order, the mctorioue ad- 
vance of the Second and Eighth Carolina regi- 
ments, with Eempei^s battery from the centre at 

2 onclick, ofter seeeral fierce struagles determined 
fortune in our fazor. At 8 o clock, too, Gen. 
Smith, leaving the railroad cars, fonned his 
four regiments and marched against the enemy 
on the extreme left wing, driving them before 
him. I hesitate to dwell, however, upon cer- 
tain incidents which, however apparently es- 
tablished, were yet conte)«ted, or seemed to be 
so, and I was unwilling to commit myself to 
statements until I had made every reasonable 
effort to obtain the truth. The first of these 
was the taking of a battery by Hampton^s Le- 
gion. Your readers will now have had some 
faint conception of the battle-ground. It oc- 
curred, they will remember, on the turnpike 
road from Centre ville to Warrenton, Just after 
it crosses Bull Run, on the Stone Bridge. The 
road at this point pursues its path between two 
ridges or ascending slopes, the summits of 
which are near a mile apart. The woodland 
for near a mile has been all cleared away, and 
it was upon this splendid theatre, and all in full 
view, were made those constant movements to 
outflank each other, npon which fate depended. 
The enemy having made the detour by Sudley's 
Ford to get upon our flank, of which I spoke 



first, broke the cover of the trees which 
crowned the eminence on w^ich we rested, by 
planting a battery of rifled cannon. Gen. 
Evans met it the best he conld by ])lanting 
his two guns, the one to the right and the other 
to the left of his position, and advanced under 
such cover as they gave to meet the enemy. 
Be could not permanently cheek them, howeter; 
they drove him back across the road, and with 
him his pieces of artillery. One was disabled ; 
but the ottiers, under Lieut. Davidson, of La- 
thuin^s battery, took position in the road, and 
witli almost unexampled intrepidity continued 
to play upon the enemy advancing up the road, 
into which they had entered lower down, until 
they were already rising the eminence upon 
which he stood. Before that, however, Capt. 
Imboden, with his battery, from Staunton, had 
been placed within about one hundred yards of 
the road, and had opened a most gaJling fire. 
Gens. Bee and Bartow, and Hampton's Legion, 
rallied to sustain him. The fight was bloody, 
but nearer to the road, in position to rake their 
entire line, the enemy had planted another bat- 
tery. Fresh columns were thrown from the 
eminence beyond, across the field upon the 
road. Our gallant men were forced oack by 
the pressure of these overwhelming numbers. 
They crossed the road and planted two batter- 
ies, the one RicketVs and the other a section 
of Sherman^s, it is supposed, upon our side, but 
about two hundred yards off from Imbodon*s, 
to rake the hill with grape and canister. Drom 
these, even, Imbodenfs was compelUd to fall 
back, which he did, and carried off his guns, 
when it seemed impossible that any human 
power could save him. To take these batteries, 
so established upon our side^ or to quit the fields 
was then the only option left us. 

Of these the one, Rickett^s, of four guns, was 
beyond a little house owned and occupied by a 
roan named Henry, and the other to the right 
of it and lower down the hill. Against the 
first of these it was that Bee and Bartow fought 
and fell, and at length, at fearful sacrifice of 
life, the men and horses were shot down and 
the guns were silenced, but the other still kept 
on. No single movement could be made below 
the brow of the hill against the turning col- 
umns of the enemy until this was taken, and 
against that the legion, as a forlorn hope, was 
led. In their first charge they had advanced 
to Henry's house, and were passing through 
the garden, when Col. Hampton was shot 
down. Without his further orders tliey were 
confused. Thus, Lieut. -Col. Johnson had fallen, 
and Capt. Conner, of the Washington Dght In- 
fantry, senior captain, led them back to form 
them ; retiring under cover of the hill, they 
found the Seventeenth Virginia regiment, Col. 
Withers, and through Adjutant Barker, pro- 
posed that he should join them, which ho did. 
They formed their line of battle ; Capt. Conner 
led the legion. They tore down upon the en- 
emy through a storm of balls. They reserved 
their fire until within a certain distance of the 



DOGUlfEKT& 



108 



enemy. With a single voUej they Bwept the 
f^ona of men and horses. The infantry sostain- 
iog them ga^e way before the charge of bay- 
oneto, and raising their colors over one, and 
not knowing in exactly what form to assert a 
priority of claim to the other, Capt Gary got 
estride of it, and thus, for the fint time^ the 
Um of hatUe of the ensmy toae broken. The 
fi|htin^ was not ended. It raged with nnabat- 
eil fury on either side, and great destrnction 
of life. The gnard that undertook to defend 
Bi(^6tt*8 battery were at last driven off by 
the regiments of £ershaw and Gash ; and thus 
in the hands of these Oarolinians the possession 
of this battery permanently rested ; and then, 
tomed upon the flying enemy, it contributed, iu 
DO eltght degree, to swell the current of mor- 
tality that flowed upon them. 

At the crisis of this contest, it happened also 
to Gen. Bee to have contributed, in a special 
▼ay, to the result, which it were but lust to 
his memory to mention. He it was who had 
the office of assigning positions to the batteries 
which were first in position after those sustain- 
ag Qen. Evans, and upon a field so swept by 
musketry and ordnance he had little leisure for 
selection. Dashing over the field with Irnbo- 
den, he gave him in an instant a position, 
which ifas the very best that could have been 
selected. The slight elevation just before and 
on either side of him gave many of the advan- 
tages of an embrasure, while his x)osition com- 
Di^ided the entire field of operations of the en- 
emy. When forced to retire, the same advan- 
tages facilitated his escape. The next position 
on the eminence, to the rear, upon which other 
batteries had been placed, and to which Imbo- 
den was also ordered, was equally as fortunate. 
Without these positions it might have been im- 
po»tble to have kept the enemy in check whilo 
oar shattered regiments were reforming and 
the conquering reinforcements arrived ; with- 
out these advantages it would have been im- 
posable to hold them. The least mistake might 
have been fatal ; and ihe promptness of his ac- 
tion, nnder such particularly trying circum- 
stances, was more like tho inspiration of genius 
than the ordinary exercise of skill and judg- 
ment. 

I spoke of the efficiency of Capt. Kemper^s 
aetloTi on the flying enemy, but I did not men- 
tton that the captain was himself taken prison- 
er. Early in the day, when the fight was 
fiercest, and matters were so mixed that it was 
difficult to distinguish enemies from friends, 
Capt. Kemper was surrounded by about twenty 
Zouaves, and his sword was demanded. Ho 
asked for an officer, declaring that he would 
only snrrender to an officer. They told him 
to follow, and they would take him to ono ; 
he saw a column moving near them, whom 
he recognized as friends; pointing to these 
he said, '* There is one of your regiments, 
iSLk^ me to it." They started, and approach- 
ii^ a few steps nearer, he told them they wero 
and it was for them to surrender, 



which, seeing themselves under the guns of 
an enemy, they promptly did. It improves our 
feelings towards them to fight them, so it is 
said, at least, and so it seemed to be in this 
case. At the crisis of the fight, when it was 
doubtful if we would not be whipped, and 
when men, sinking from their wounds, were 
coming from a fight in which their friends and 
relations had been cut to pieces, some three or 
four prisoners brought in were rather in the 
way of being roughly treated. The propom- 
tion was made and responded to, to shoot them. 
I passed them on the way when the fight was 
going on, and greatly feared that something 
might be done to slmme us, but a few wor£ 
brought the sufferers to their senses, and the 
prisoners were spared. In every other in- 
stance, however, after the act of battle was 
over, the feeling was kinder than it could have 
been before the fight began. I saw the soldiers 
share their water with &em, which they could 
hardly spare themselves. Many of them were 
taken and cared for by the very men who shot 
them, and a friend, passing through the field 
when the fight was over, passed two wounded 
men, the one from Georgia, the other from 
New York. The New York man asked for wa- 
ter, and the wounded Georgian begged my friend 
for God^s sake to give it to him ; for that he 
himself had called upon a soldier from New 
York for water when his column was in re- 
treat, and, though it was at the risk of his life, 
he ran to the trench and brought it. 

It was in search of water that Adjutant S. 
M. Wilkes, of the Fourth regiment, lost his 
life. He had escaped the perils of the fight, 
and rode to the camp for a drink of water ; 
when starting back, ho met a party of the fly- 
ing enemy, who shot him. Col. Johnson fell the 
instant he entered into battle. They marched 
down to take position in the Warrenton turn- 
pike, and before tho legion had fired a gun, he 
was struck by a ball in the forehead, and fell 
without a word. 

When the fire so raged around tho house of 
Henry in the effort to take the batteries, the 
family were in it ; they were utterly uncon- 
scious it was to be tho theatre of battle, and 
made no effort to escape until it was too late 
to do so. Among them was an aged mother, 
whom the son and daughter carried to a gully, 
and for the first charge kept her out of the way 
of balls ; but when tho fight pressed on, they 
brought her in again ; and when it returned 
they could not move her again. She lay in 
bed, therefore, until the batteries w'ero taken. 
Tho house was literally riddled with balls, and 
when the old lady was looked for, she had been 
sent to her long account. Many balls passed 
through her, and she was perfectly at rest. 

Of individual experience, there wero scarcely 
room to speak. Ono lad, Oakley, from Ala- 
bama, taken prisoner, was tied ; but, when the 
enemy was fighting, ho cut the cords, found a 
musket, plunged it in a Zouave endeavoring to 
detain him, and started to his friends on the 



104 



REBELLION BEOORD, 1M0-6L 



way. On an offioer^s prospecting, he went up 
towards him, and when near enough, he .or- 
dered him to surrender ; the officer did so, and 
young Oakley bore him in triumph in to head- 
quartersw He proved to be Ool. Corcoran. 
One of the most obvious features of the battle- 
field is a group of horses, and the men beside 
them. The caisson had exploded. Men and 
horses were all killed, apparently near the 
close of the engagement, ana now lie all togeth- 
er bloated in &e sun. The mortality among 
horses was large ; as many as one hundred, at 
least, may be seen upon the field, and it is of 
regret for their loss that they were particularly 
fine ones. 

In the percussion shells, with which the ene- 
my so liberally bespattered the country, the 
enemy have left their sting behind them. Few 
explode in falling. Of twenty fired into the 
hill on which we first stood, not one exploded, 
but they do explode easily when struck upon 
the right point ; and these handled by the sol- 
diers, and dropped carelessly, are liable to do 
great injury. Two in this way have been ex- 
ploded, and one killed one man in Col. Pres- 
ton^sretgiment, and badly wounded two others. 

JM W. S. 

"Chofietton Mercury, July 29. 
USTTEB TO THS SIOHHOND DISPATCH. 

The following statement was prepared by an 
officer in the rebel army, who is said to have 
borne a conspicuous part on the field of battle : 

RiOBVOHo, July 27, 1861. 

It may not be unacceptable to your readers 
to learn something of the battle of Manassas 
from an eye-witness, who had better opportu- 
nities of observation, perhaps, than any one 
else. The first gun fired by the enemy was at 
five minutes past six o^clock in the morning, 
batteries opening against our centre as a feint 
to conceal the movement against our left. A 
short time afterwards General Johnston and 
General Beauregard, with their staff, rode off 
to the nearest point of elevation and observa- 
tion convenient to the centre, and there awaited 
developments whilst the iron hail whistled 
arouna and over them. A singular misconcep- 
tion seems to pervade the public mind, which 
has not yet been corrected, that General Beaure- 
gard fought the battle, and that General Jolm- 
Bton yielded to preconceived plans. Whilst, 
according to General Beauregard, all the merit 
to which he is entitled — and there does not live 
a more gallant gentleman and officer, nor one 
for whom I have a higher admiration as a Gen- 
eral — it is due to General Johnston to say, that 
he planned the battle. Essentially a man of 
judgment, General Johnston has never risked 
dui'ing the campaign any battle where our 
chances were not good. Though our men mur- 
mured vastly when ordered to go backward 
from Harper's Ferry, from Bunker's Dill, from 
Darksville, and from Winchester, no one can 
now dare to dispute the sagacity which planned 



all the movements. To have risked a battle by 
attacking superior numbers, entailing defeat 
upon us, would doubtless have cru^ed our 
proud republic in its inception. When General 
Johnston (who has always been in correspood- 
ence with General Beaur^ard in regard to 
tlie junction of the armies, and who, for weeks, 
has also pointed out to the President the abso- 
lute necessity of such a movement) received 
orders to form the junction, it came at a forta- 
nate moment, when Patterson had moved to 
Charleston, twenty-four miles distant, and 
had placed it out of his power to attack m in 
the rear. Only ten thousand of our column 
arrived in time for the battle, but they were 
enough. 

To return, however, to the battle. Onr line 
was extended over a distance of eight miles, in 
a position nearly assimilating to a semicircle. 
On Saturday night General Johnston assumed 
command, and nearly the entire night was con- 
sumed by the staff of both generals in writing 
orders to the different brigades to prepare for 
a forward movement in the morning. Gene- 
ral Beauregard^s plans were to be carried ont 
in a great measure, and the rout of the enemy 
would have been more signal, and doubtless 
Wa^ington would now be m our possession, if 
our attack had not been converted ihto a de- 
fence by the movements of the enemy. "We 
intended to move about eight o'clock, aod they 
commenced their attack l^fore our movement 
could be made. From a letter written by one 
of the enemy, dated July 20, nine p. m., and 
afterwards found by the writer, their position 
was taken, and movements commenced at that 
hour. 

To understand the battle, yon roust knov 
that our line was faced towards Bull Rno, and 
immediately back of it, defending the various 
fords. By turning our fiank, the line of battle 
was changed to a direction perpendicular to 
the one which we had assumed, and commenc- 
ing at our left exteoded back for a mile and a 
quarter. When the musketry betrayed the 
*^ cat in the meal-tub,'* away went the generals 
and their staf^ fiying upon the wings of the 
wind to reach the scene of action, distant three 
miles. The country was a rolling one, thickly 
interspersed with pine thickets, and the battle- 
ground was an open valley, with a hill upon each 
side, rising some 100 feet above the low ground, 
and distant from each other about 600 yards. 
The struggle was an alternate movement of 
regiments. When the head of McDoweira 
column reached Sudley's Spring, a ford much 
higher than it was anticipated they would 
cross, as the Stone Bridge was the point we 
were defending upon our extreme left, quietly 
tliey sneaked along, getting in behind u», until 
discovered, I believe, by General Evans's bri- 
gade, who opened fire upon them. 

Then in quick succession the eneroy^s regi- 
ments deployed in line to their right, whilst 
ours came up on our left. The engagement 
grew hot end heavy ; their column numbering 



DocuvEirraL 



105 



£5,000, wbile we coold only oppose them at 
the beginning with about 8,000. Slowly but 
snrelj the heavy colamn kept on its march, 
pressing our line back by the weight of num- 
Den* and moving on in the settled purpose of 
turning our flank, and attacking us in the rear. 
Gallantly, however, did our army struggle for 
the right, and, despite of odds, regiment after 
regiment threw itself in the way, aisputing the 
groand inch by inch, regardless of the fact 
tiiat its predecessors bad been cut to pieces or 
disperaeo. A batteiy harassing our lines, the 
Eighth G^rgia regiment was ordered to take 
it, and right well did they do so ; but a myriad 
of Yankees seemed to rise up, who had hitherto 
been concealed, and pouring in their fire upon 
ov oolamn, it seemed to melt away like snow 
beneath a snmmer^s sun. Oolonel Gardner 
was here shot down and taken prisoner, but 
afterwards retaken by our men later in the 
day