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Full text of "Recent cotton mill construction and engineering"

'^f'UCT 



Recent 

Cotton Mill Construction 
AND Engineering 



Joseph Nasmf 



LIBRARY 



^NSSACHOs^^ 




1895 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 




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FROM 

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ALL THE PRINCIPAL STEAM USERS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. 



SPECIALITY FOR ELECTRIC LIGHT INSTALLATIONS 

ORIGINAL INVENTORS, 

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SOLE MAKERS: 

2, Exchange Street, MANCHESTER. 

Works : WAKEFIELD. Telegrams : " ECONOMISER " 



RECENT 

COTTON MILL CONSTRUCTION 
AND ENGINEERING. 



JOSEPH NASMITH, 



EDITOR OF THE "TEXTILE RECORDER"; AUTHOR OF "MODERN COTTON 
SPINNING machinery"' AND "THE STUDENTS' COTTON SPINNING." 



JOHN HEYWOOD, 

Deansgate and Ridoefield, Manchesteb. 

2, AMEN CORNER, LONDON, E.G. 

22, Paradise Street, Liverpool. 

33, Bridge Street, Bristol. 



IX VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, 
NEW YORK. 



ur. 



n%^ 






PREFACE. 



fTlHE following pages are in great part a reproduction of a 
special article which appeared in the Textile Recorder 
for May, 1894. It had been represented to the author that 
there was need of some article from which accurate informa- 
tion relating to modern methods of mill construction could 
be obtained. This led to the work being done, and the 
manner in which a large edition of the Textile Recorder 
was taken up demonstrated the interest felt in it. 

No claim is made for originality in the treatment of the 
subject, the book being avowedly a compilation of facts 
derived from actual practice. While this is so, it is, how- 
ever, claimed that no similar collection has been made, 
and that the facts, being based upon personal and 
communicated observation, have not previously been 
put into a shape likely to be serviceable. It is perhaps 
necessary to say that the book is chiefly intended as an 
aid to those practically engaged in the cotton trade, and 
not for architects or engineers. Several of the tables have 
been specially calculated by the author. Since its appearance 
in the Textile Recorder the article has undergone con- 
siderable amplification. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

CHAPTER I.— Introductory 7 

„ 11. — Constructional Details 17 

„ III. — Slow Burning and One-storeyed Buildings 35 

,, IV. — Cost, Strength, and Firk Rfsistance of 

Floors 46 

„ V. — Fire Appliances : Sprinklers 58 

„ VI. — Lighting , 76 

., VII. — Heating, Ventilation, and Humidity 84 

,, VIII. — Calculation of Machines IN Mill lOd- 

., IX. — Recent Examples OF Mills 109 

„ X. — Steam Boilers 134 

., XL— Boiler Appliances 153 

,, XIL — Steam Engines — General Remarks 166 

,, XIIL — Do. Recent Examples 174 

XIV.— Do. Do. 187 

,, XV. — Lighting Engines AND other Accessories... 207 

XVL— Turbines 224 

„ XVII. — Gearing — Toothed Wheels 233 

XVIIL— Do. Belt Driving 237 

XIX.— Do. Rope Driving 243 

,, XX. — Shafting AND Bearings 255 

INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 273 

LIST OF TABLES 276 

GENERAL INDEX 277 



RECENT COTTON MILL CONSTRUCTION 
AND ENGINEERING. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Perhaps in no other branch of textile work has a 
more marked advance taken place than in the 
character of the buildings used. As in other cases, 
the development has run concurrently with improve- 
ments in other directions, the result being obtained 
by the action of various forces at different times. 
There are well defined stages in the gradual evolu- 
tion of the present type of mill building which can 
be very clearly ascribed to the influence of certain 
factors. In the early stages of the factory, as a 
separate place of manufacture, it was naturally 
located near the only source of power then available 
— a running stream of water. In this country the 
flow of water available is considerable and constant, 
but it rarely happens in any of the districts suitable 
for manufacture that the fall is considerable. In 
the early days of organised manufacturing, how- 
ever, the factories which sprung up were all of small 
size, and the only motor available was the cum- 
brous water wheel, which was only capable of 
giving off" a comparatively small power. Further, 
up to 1820, the machines were generally of 
limited dimensions, which can easily be under- 
stood when their partially manual character is 
remembered. Mills were, therefore, narrow and 
low, and were generally of a light construction. 
The ceilings were only from six to eight feet 
high, and the windows of small dimensions, 



8 



containing a number of little panes of glass. 
The illustration given in Fig. 1, representing 
Messrs. Swainson, Birley and Co.'s mill at Preston, 
which is reproduced from Baines's History, shows 
the best type prevailing so late as 1835. Until 
recent years there were a number of these old mills 
existing in Lancashire, but they have gradually 
become obsolete and disappeared. In Derbyshh*e, 
there are still some of them existing along the course 
of the Derwent, but as an element in the factory 
life of to-day they may be considered to be extinct. 
It is, however, an interesting fact to note that 
Messrs. Horrocks, Crewdson, and Company, Limited, 
of Preston, have two mills adjoining one another 
bearing dates a century apart, the later mill 
having been recently erected. 

With the advent of the steam engine a new era 
began. The choice of situation became freer, and 
a millowner was able to locate his factory in any 
place convenient alike for himself and his operatives. 
The invention of the self-acting mule, which was 
entirely power driven, placed a new instrument in 
the hands of the spinner. By this time the whole 
of the machinery required to make cotton into cloth 
was adapted for power, and the first step was taken 
towards that acceleration of velocities which 
has since become so marked. Contemporaneously 
with the alteration in the size and character of the 
various machines induced by the march of invention, 
there began to be introduced new modes of manu- 
facturing them. The use of machine tools was 
enlarged^ owing to the great changes which took 
place in their construction by reason of the work of 
Roberts, Whitworth, and Nasmyth. The result was 
that machines were more perfectly constructed, 
the use of iron being largely extended. The two 
forces of greater skill on the part of the operative and 
improved constructional methods acted and reacted 
upon each other so as rapidly to alter the capacity 
and power of the machinery employed. Then there 
were the experiments of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Wm. 
Fairbairn, directed towards ascertaining the strength 




f^ 



10 



of cast-iron beams, which gave an impetus to the 
building of the so-called fireproof mill. Fairbairn 
himself built a large number of mills on this 
principle, but one or two failures occurred, which 
prevented the principle from spreading. Generally 
speaking, the English mills of what may be called 
the 1825-65 era were constructed with wooden 
floors, supported on transverse wooden beams, crossed 
by longitudinal joists, on to which two layers of 
floor boards were fixed. The ceiling was plastered 
on laths fastened to the joists, and the whole floor 
was thus a hollow timber construction of an ex- 
ceedingly inflammable character. The size of the 
mills was, however, increased, and a type was 
evolved which, with slight alterations, remained 
constant until after the close of the American civil 
war. 

Just before the year 1870 a beginning was made 
with the establishment of joint-stock spinning com- 
panies, stimulated by the establishment of the Sun 
Mill, Oldham, in 1868. The great success which 
attended this venture led to its wide imitation, and for 
a few years mills in Lancashire, and especially in Old- 
ham, increased with great rapidity. Gradually they 
became larger in size, and a call was made on the 
machinist to provide machines of greater dimen- 
sions. In 1874 the ring-spinning frame was begin- 
ning to make its influence felt, and, owing to the 
large production possible by reason of the great 
speeds at which the spindles could be run, the 
necessity for higher velocities of mules became 
apparent. Both machines required more careful 
construction, and, dating from the introduction 
of the ring frame, a complete change has come over 
constructive methods. The economic rivalry of 
the various limited companies speedily led to the 
more complete organisation of their forces. It 
was found possible to manage mills containing 
many thousands of spindles in excess of those pre- 
viously common with the same staff*, and mills 
were accordingly designed with this factor in full 
view. Gradually the lengths of the machines in- 



11 

creased, and the mill wasof necessity correspondingly 
enlarged. As a sequence to this there came a con- 
sideration of the method of providing light, so that a 
room 130ft. wide should not suffer in that respect. 
Gradually the ceilings became loftier, and the window 
area of greater importance. Thus, at the present 
day, in England, the cotton mill is distinguished by 
the enormous ratio of the window^ area to that of 
the wall. This will be fully demonstrated at a later 
stage. Nor did the whole consequence of the prac- 
tices named end here. It being desirable to place 
the mules or frames transversely of the building, it 
was requisite that no obstruction from any internal 
cause should exist. Especially in the case of 
mules it was desirable that in the space in which the 
carriages ran — the "mule gate" — no pillars support- 
ing the floors should be found. The rapid increase 
in the production of wrought-iron — and latterly 
steel — rolled girders placed in the hands of the mill 
architect a means which he was not slow to use, 
and restored the fireproof method of construction to 
the place it had partially lost. By skilful design, a 
floor has been evolved, which, while of large and 
comparatively unbroken area, is yet well supported, 
and, as will be demonstrated by actual examples, 
is well fitted for the purpose for which it was 
intended. 

Thus, since the year 1870 there have been at 
work three factors of importance: — (1) The in- 
creased competition, arising from economic causes, 
tending to the enlargement of the size of machines 
so as to correspond to the limit of the operative's 
capacity. (2) The improvements in the construe- -^ 
tive methods of machinists, resulting in the pro- ^-^ 
duction of machines capable of running with^^^ 
steadiness at high velocities. (3) The provision o^;^) 
building materials which lend themselves to the-^ 
construction of mills of large size. Each of these"^ 
factors has played its part in the evolution of th»- 
type of cotton-mill building which it is hoped ^ 
illustrate in a very complete manner. r^ 

A similar process has been in operation with tbfe 



12 



machinery employed for the production and trans- 
mission of the motive power. Early in the century 
the type of steam engine used was, in most 
cases, the beam, which worked at very low steam- 
pressures. Gradually the latter rose, until a 
maximum of about 601bs. to the square inch was 
used. The compound principle of using steam 
was generally adopted, but it is within quite recent 
years that the science of steam using has been 
adequately understood. The la.te Mr. Daniel 
Adamson experimented with quadruple expansion 
engines as applied to cotton mills many years 
before the possibility of its successful application 
became apparent. He failed because he had not 
the means of obtaining a sufficient steam pressure, 
but it is a high tribute to his prescience that he 
became the pioneer in the use of a material destined 
to place the required pressures within the reach of 
the engineer. As mild steel became improved its 
employment for boiler plates gradually grew, and 
the success of triple expansion engines in marine 
work turned the minds of mill engineers in 
the same direction. With the material at hand 
boilers were made to stand much higher pressures, 
and these were gradually introduced. The type of 
engine which superseded the beam, and was for 
many years the favourite, was the horizontal side- 
by-side compound, but this has slowly given 
way to the tandem type, either single or double, 
when triple or quadruple expansions are used with 
pressures ranging up to 200lbs. per square inch. 

The change in the type of engine used is 
accompanied by a considerable variation in the 
character of the gearing employed. Up to the 
year 1876 it may be said that in Lancashire, with 
the exception of a few mills which were driven by 
belts, almost all the gearing employed was toothed. 
To-day all that is changed, and nearly every 
new mill is provided with rope gearing. It is 
not necessary to inquire at this point into the 
reasons for this procedure, which will be dealt with 
hereafter, and it is sufficient to note the fact. One 



13 

point may, however, be mentioned. The use of rope 
gearing has led to a considerable change in the 
arrangement of the modern mill, in which it is now 
The rule to make the rope race a dividing space 
between the main body of the mill and the scutching 
or blowing room. The reason for this procedure is- 
twofold. First, the complete character of modern 
mixing and scutching machinery renders it desirable 
to arrange it so that the various machines will 
work conveniently together; and second, it is in 
this department that the risk of fire is greatest, sa 
that it is an advantage to have a complete or partial 
separation of the two parts of the building. It will 
be shown, therefore, that in modern mills the rope 
race forms a division between the mixing and spin- 
ning departments. 

In order that the improved methods of design 
and construction of mills may be fully appreciated, 
a brief description of some of the chief features and 
leading dimensions of one or two typical mills 
erected at different periods is given. In Dr. Ure's 
well-known work "The Cotton Manufacture of 
Great Britain" an illustration and description is 
given of a mill erected at Stockport in 1834 
by a Mr. Orrell. This mill contained 12,498 
throstle spindles, 14,928 hand mule spindles, and 
7,984 self-actor spindles, in all 45,860. There were 
in addition 1,100 power looms and the necessary 
pieparatory machines for both spinning and weaving. 
The building consisted of one main block with 
transverse wings at each end. The dimensions of 
the main spinning rooms were 280ft. long and 50ft. 
wide, and the height from floor to floor lift. 6in.y 
leaving a mean height from floor to ceiling of 10ft. 
Each of the floors in the building was fireproof, 
and consisted of a series of _L cast-iron beams, 
passing transversely of the mill and sustained about 
half way across by cast-iron pillars. From t he- 
transverse beams brick arches were sprung. These 
arches formed only a segment of a circle, and were 
about 9in. thick. Upon them the floor was laid, 
and was constructed of timber. The window 



u 



openings were 7ft. high by 5ft. wide, the sill being 
3ft. 6iD. from the floor level, but the lintel level 
with the ceiling. The windows were separated by 
brick piers 5ft. wide, so that the window area was 
in the ratio of about 1 to 4*5 of the wall surface. 
The mill was built with six storeys and an 
attic, the loom shed being of the usual tjpe, and 
placed behind the main building. The engines 
used were each of 90 horse-power nominal, and the 
shafts in the various rooms were driven by an up- 
right shaft running 58 '8 revolutions per minute. 
The speed of the line shafts is not given, but would 
not exceed 120 revolutions. 

The India Mill, at Darwen, erected by Messrs. 
Eccles, Shorrocks and Co., about 1870, was at that 
time considered to be one of the finest types of 
mill architecture. It was described in Mr. Evan 
Leigh's book, from which the particulars are ex- 
tracted. It consisted of one main building, with 
six storeys, and was 330ft. long, 99ft. wide, and 90ft. 
high. It was, and is, distinguished by a chimney 
■of a highly ornate character. It accommodated 48 
pairs of mules, each containing 708 spindles, in all 
67,968 spindles, with, of course, the whole of the 
preparatory machinery. The plan of the mill, as 
then arranged, provided for the blowing and scutch- 
ing machines being placed on the ground floor. 
These comprised 2 openers, 8 scutchers each with 
3 beaters and with lap machines combined, and 8 
finishing scutchers with 2 beaters each. The first 
and second floor each contained 84 carding engines 
with 2 rollers and clearers, and 44 self-stripping 
flats, 6 drawing frames each 4 heads of 6 deliveries, 
8 slubbing frames each of 90 spindles, 12 inter- 
mediate frames of 130 spindles each, and 24 roving 
frames of 180 spindles each, double geared. Each 
of the spinning rooms contained 12 pairs of mules, 
the remaining 12 pairs being placed in two small 
rooms at the end of the card room. It is only 
necessary to specially note that in this, a compara- 
tively recent mill, the card room is divided, a 
practice which is now generally abandoned. The 



15 

character of the driving will be dealt with later; 
but it may be mentioned that the boilers were of 
the Galloway type, and of steel. 

The windows used had an area of 45 square feet 
in the two card rooms, 40 square feet in the first 
and second spinning rooms, and 35 in the third 
spinning room. The wall space between the 
adjoining window frames was 5ft. for the floors from 
the second to the fifth inclusive. The construction 
was of the fireproof type, the floors being supported 
on shallow brick arches sprung from transverse iron 
beams, supported by pillars, arranged in three rows 
longitudinally of the building. The distance of 
the pillars in each row from each other was lOft, 
and between those in adjoining rows 22ft., a similar 
distance intervening between the pillars and the 
walls. This mill has been at work continuously 
since its erection, having been enlarged within the 
past few years, and the whole of its driving arrange- 
ments remodelled, but as it is a comparatively 
recent specimen of mill architecture of a now 
abandoned type, the above details will be of 
interest. 

There is no feature in a modern cotton spinning 
mill more noticeable than the tendency which exists 
to get all the card-room machinery on one floor. 
When the number of spindles is large, this is only 
possible if the dimensions of the mill building are 
considerable, and it is often necessary and advisable 
to place alongside the card-room a small one-storey 
shed in which the machinery is partly placed. Thus, 
to cite as an example, a recently erected mill con- 
taining 73,052 spindles, the length of the entire 
structure is 245ft. and its width 134ft. 6in. The 
building is practically divided into two parts by the 
rope race, leaving the larger block 173ft. by 134ft. 
6in. In this space the whole of the preparatory 
machinery is placed, excluding the mixing and 
scutching machines and four roving frames, each of 
252 spindles. These, however, are placed on the 
same floor. It is obvious that no good end would be 
served by adopting this course if the mules became 



16 



so long as to necessitate extra attendance to mind 
them, but owing to the improvements in construction 
this is not the case. In the mill instanced the mules 
are made to contain as many as 1,304 spindles, l-|iii- 
gauge, going a total length of 127ft. 6in., which fit 
easily within the walls. A pair of mules of this 
length can be tended by a spinner and two piecers, 
who would be required if the mules contained only 
1,000 or 1,100 spindles each. 

There are many things which affect the design of 
a spinning mill. Among the determining features 
are (1) the counts of yarn to be spun ; (2) the type 
of machine used for spinning ; (3) the character of 
the site and its locality ; (4) the water supply avail- 
able for all purposes ; (5) the facilities for handling 
and transporting the raw material and finished pro- 
duct ; (6) the character of the materials available 
for buildiug ; (7) the style and construction adopted 
with reference to fire ; (8) the prime motor adopted ; 
and (9) the class of gearing used. It may be true 
that each of these points are affected by other cod- 
siderations, all of which require weighing before a 
decision is come to, but it is not the purpose of this 
book to deal with all the reasons for taking a certain 
course, it being sufficient to define the essentials. 
One word, however, may be said in warning on the 
third point. The projector of a factory building 
ought to satisfy himself as to the soundness of the 
land prior to purchase, as any difl&culty with the 
oundations of a mill of the great weight now erected 
may prove a very costly matter. 

We must assume, however, that the whole of 
these points have been considered and settled, and 
that a mill of a defined type has been determined 
on. It may, perhaps, be safely said that at present 
there are two main types of factory buildings, viz.; 
the English and the American. In some features 
they approximate, while in others they vary con- 
siderably. The difference arises mainly from the 
different theory of construction adopted in order to 
avoid or diminish the risk of damage by fire. In 
each case the prevailing type has arisen naturally 



17 

out of the circumstances existing, but the results 
are widely diverse. The more recent type of 
English spinning mill is based upon what is known 
as the "fire-proof" constructive principle, while in 
the United States the construction adopted is that 
which is known as the " slow burning." Some par- 
ticulars of each type will be given, and it will be a 
convenient course to deal first of all with the English 
mill. It may, perhaps, be pointed out before dointj 
so that, with the necessary modifications to suit 
local circumstances, the English type is being- 
adopted in many other countries, while some of its 
details are even incorporated into American designs. 
A general form will first be described, and will be 
followed by detailed explanations. 



CHAPTER II. 

CONSTRUCTIOXAL DETAILS. 

Looking then at Fig. 2, which is a partial vertical 
section of an ordinary type of mill, it will be seen that, 
as previously named, it consists of six storeys — a 
basement, ground floor, and four upper floors. It 
is surmounted by a flat roof with a parapet, and is 
provided with a tower holding a water tank for the 
sprinkler installation. The engine and boiler house 
are usually built out from the main buildings, but 
the rope race is used to divide the mixing and 
blowing rooms from that part of the mill intended 
for spinning. The basement floor is ordinarily used 
fur storing yara, and is arranged to act as a *' condi- 
tioning" chamber. That portion of it which forms 
part of the blowing room building is utilised for mis- 
cellaneous storage, which sometimes includes cotton, 
but this is not an advisable or general practice. 
The ground floor forms in the main building the 
card room, and in the subsidiary building the 
scutching room. The first floor in the main building 
is a spinning room, and in the smaller one a mixing 
room. If the upper floors are continued in both 

B 



18 



blocks they are filled with spinning machines. The 
heights of the various rooms are as follow : — Base- 
ment, 6 to 7 feet; ground floor, 15 to 17 feet; first 
floor, 13 feet; second floor, 12 feet 6 inches; and 




Fig. 2. 



third floor, 12 feet. For a time there was a tend- 
ency towards rooms which were two or three feet 
higher than those detailed, but it is now the prac- 
tice to go in for a moderate height which, while per- 



19 



mitting the proper lightiug of the rooms, does uot 
entail an excessive cubic capacity. 

The columns which are usually employed in 
mill construction are generally similar to those 
shown in Figs. 3 and 4. They are ordinarily of cast 
iron, and are of a type which may be described as 
with flat fixed bases. The lowest of each line is 
carried by a cast-iron base plate bedded on a 







Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



foundation stone. The plate has a socket bored 
at the bottom for the reception of the turned end 
of the column, and a raised cross is formed on the 
top of the plate fitting into the socket of the column, 
and turned on the ends of its arms to size, so 
that the column is kept quite steady, being practi- 
cally fixed. It is essential that great care be taken 
to insist upon the accurate bedding and machining 



20 



of each column so that the line of thrust is per- 
pendicular and not diagonal. Professor HodgkinsoD, 
who, under the direction of Sir William Fairbairn, 
conducted a series of experiments, deduced the 
following formula for the strength of hollow columns 
of this character — 

W = 44-34 — — -— — where D = external diameter in 

inches, c? = internal diameter in inches, L = length 
in feet, W = breaking weight. A table of the values 
of the t5'5 power of the diameters and the 1*63 
power of the length is given herewith (see Tables 1 
and 2). 

TABLE 1. 

Value — 35 power of diameter. 



Diam 
Inche 


I. Value. 


Diam. 
Inches 


Value. 
i. 


Diam. 
Inches. 


Value. 


Diam. 
Inches 


Value, 


6 


529-09 


74 


1155-35 


9 


2187-00 


104 


3751-13 


H 


610-35 


71 


1295-85 


H 


2407-11 


lOf 


4073-14 


6i 


70016 


8 


1448-15 


9h 


2642-61 


11 


4414-43 


61 


79903 


8i 


1612-83 


9S 


2894-12 


llj 


4775-66 


7 


907-49 


84 


1790-47 


10 


3162-28 


114 


5175-54 


7i 


1026-08 


81 


1981-66 


m 


3447-73 


12 


5985-96 








TABLE 2. 












Valuf 


j=l-63 power of 


length. 






Length in ^^-^^^^ 1 
feet. 


Length in 
feet. 


Value. 


Length 
feet. 


^" Value. 




6 18-55 


10 


42-66 


14 


73-82 




7 23-85 


11 


49-83 


15 


82-61 




8 29-65 


12 


57-42 


16 


91-77 




9 35-92 


13 


65-42 


17 


101-30 



The above formula, however, is not a very easy 
one to remember or work out, and that adopted by 
Mr. Lewis Gordon — 

P = _Zj? — ^ is much easier. In this P = breaking 
1 + a r' 

load of a column in tons, s = square inches in 
sectional area, r = ratio of length to least diameter, 
/ and a constants depending on the strength of the 
material. The value of / for round solid or hollow 
cast iron columns is 36, and a = ^^. In the case of 
mill columns the value of r usually ranges from 8 to 



21 



24, and, adopting Gordon's rule, the numbers in the 
second column of Table 3 give the breaking weight 
per square inch of sectional area of cast iron. These 
are extracted from a very valuable book on "The 
Design of Structures," by Mr. S. Anglin. 







TABLE 3. 






Length. 

of 
Column 


Breaking 
Weight 
in Tons 


Length 

of 
Column 


Breaking 
Weight 
in Tons 


Length 

of 
Column 


Breaking 
Weight 
in Tons 


in 
Diameters 


per 
. Sq. Inch. 


in 
Diameters. 


per 
Sq. Inch. 


in 
Diameters. 


per 
Sq. Inch. 


6 


33-0 


14 


24-2 


22 


16-3 


7 


320 


15 


230 


23 


15-5 


8 


31-0 


16 


220 


24 


14-6 


9 


30-0 


17 


20-9 


25 


14 1 


10 


28-8 


18 


19-9 


26 


13-4 


11 


27-6 


19 


190 


27 


12-8 


12 


26-5 


20 


18-0 


28 


121 


13 


25-3 


21 


17-1 







Thus, if a column is 10ft. long, lOin. diameter, 
and lin. thick, its strength is obtained as follows : — 
The area of the metal is 28*28 square inches, and 
the length being 12 times the diameter, the strength 
is 28-28 X 26-5 = 739-42 tons. 

A rule which is sometimes observed is to make 
the thickness of the metal one-twelfth of the 
diameter of the column, and General Morin gives 
the following thicknesses : — 

From 7 to 10ft. long a thickness of *5in. 
„ 10 „ 13ft. „ „ -Gin. 

„ 13 „ 20ft. „ „ -Sin. 

The deductions made from the table given above, 
however, will be found to be reliable. The strength 
of a round column is always determined by the 
least diameter, which, as columns are often taper, 
is important. It is necessary, of course, that the 
basement pillars are properly bedded, because, if 
they are not, flexure takes place, and the column 
is submitted to a double strain. The practice 
recommended by some writers of bedding the column 
in cement is not advisable where heavy loads are 
borne, because the resistance to crushing is much 
less than is that of stone. It is much better to 



22 

make a firm fouudation for the base stone, and 
see that the pillar base plate is properly bedded, 
the use of a sheet of lead possessing advantages 
where there is any danger of uneven bedding. 

As a rule, spinning mills in England are built of 
the usual red brick, 9in. by 4Jin.by 3in., a material 
which is always accessible, and which can sometimes 
be made on the site from the clay there existing. 
Well burned brickwork, properly set in mortar, will 
stand a load of two tons to the square foot, but if 
set in cement, three tons. The weight of a cubic 
foot of brickwork is for common bricks from 100 to 
1251bs., llOlbs. being a fair weight, lied sandstone 
weighs about 1331bs., and Yorkshire stone about 
1551bs. per cube foot. 1,000 bricks of English size 
make about 23*4 cubic feet of finished work. To 
ascertain the number of bricks required for different 
thicknesses of walls, let ?i = number of half-bricks 
(4Jinches) in thickness of wall, a = superficial area 
in square feet, then n x '0053 x a = number of thou- 
sands of bricks required. Thus 200 square feet super- 
ficial of 9in. wall would take 2 x -0053 x 200 = 2 -06, 
or in other words, 2,060 bricks would be needed. 
The walls immediately above the footings are made 
from 2ft. 9in. to 3ft. 2in. thick between the 
windows, that portion of the wall below the win- 
dows being much thinner, usually about 12in. It 
will be understood that this practice varies in 
accordance with the type of window used, as will 
be presently shown. After the card room is passed 
the piers are made thinner by one brick, 4Jiu., 
so that each spinning room is 9 in. wider than the 
one below it. 

The main use of the piers in this method of 
construction is to carry the ends of the beams 
which form part of the floor. There are two or 
three methods of forming the latter which may be 
here described, the idea being to make a floor of 
fireproof construction. The type of floor which 
was adopted in many cases is shown in Fig. 5. In 
this case the longitudinal cast iron beams used are 
15in. deep at the ends near the columns and 20in, 



23 



deep in the centre, having a bottom flange 9in 
wide and lin. thick, and a top flange of 3 Jin. wide 
and lin. thick, the web being |in. thick. These 
beams are made in lengths to fit between the 
columns, and are semi-circular at each end to fit the 
circular nipple of the pillar, the latter being provided 
with a flange to sustain the beam. By flanges and 
bolts the various beams are fastened together, so as 
to form a continuous girder across the mill, properly 
secured to and sustained by the columns. In the 



Brick on edq 
Brick on end 




Fig. 5. 



best practice the collar on the column and the 
girder ends are machined, so as to give a true base ; 
and, as the column used for the next floor is socketed 
so as to fit on to the nipple of the one below and 
rest on the girder, it is easy to see that the machin- 
ing is almost a necessity. The columns are circular 
and hollow, and vary from Sin. diameter at the 
lower end and 7Jin. at the upper, to 6in. and 5Jin. 
respectively. The columns used in the basement 
are made Sin. diameter throughout and lin. thick, 
those in the card room floor being 1 Jin. thick, the 



24 

diflference being accounted for by the extra length. 
The thickness gradually diminishes in the upper 
storeys, but is never less than fin. These dimen- 
sions relate to the columns used in the example 
illustrated in Fig. 5, and, as shown in other ex- 
amples, are subject to variation. The columns 
are placed 10ft. 6iu. apart, transversely of the mill, 
and 21ft. 6in. longitudinally ; the beams being tied 
together by rods at suitable intervals. From the 
bottom flange of the beams the brick arches 
are sprung. These arches are 9in. at the 
flanks, diminishing towards the centre. A layer 
of concrete is sometimes used to level the floor, 
and wooden battens 4in. by Sin. are secured in it at 
distances of 2ft. apart so as to permit of a timber 
floor being laid for the reception of the machinery. 
In one rather notew^orthy case the floor was laid on 
small brick arches sustained on cast iron bearers, as 
described, without the intervening spaces between 
the arches being filled. The result was that when 
a fire did take place the open spaces below the 
flooring acted as flues, and the destruction of an 
ostensibly fireproof mill was complete. There are 
two chief objections to this type of floor. The arches 
are heavy and run longitudinally of the building, 
and there is a mass of unprotected cast iron work 
which is a source of great weakness. There is, 
further, the fact that the beams are fitted together 
in a way demanding more accurate Avork than is 
usually obtained in builders' iron structures. This 
type of floor, although there are many excellent 
examples in existence, has given way to others 
which are constructed with materials of a more 
convenient character. 

A modification of this form of floor is found in 
the employment of longitudinal rolled beams with 
transverse beams bolted to them at distances of 3ft. 
apart. This permits of the formation of a series of 
curved arches, the chord of which is only 3ft. as 
against 10ft. 6in. in the cast iron type. The floor 
is thus considerably lightened, and the w4iole of the 
thrust is taken from the main girders. The same 



25 



objection can be made to this floor as to the preced- 
ing example, namely, that in one direction the 
columns are only 10ft. 6in. apart, which, in a mule 
mill especially, is a matter of importance. The 
general recognition of the value of an unobstructed 
floor, as far as it can be got, has led architects in 



1^ 



21 FT - : 1 



13: 



m. 



TFT-n^ 



7FT- 



7FT- 



V--7T 



H 



Fig. 6. 



the more recent mills back to forms in which the 
greater distance of the pillars apart has again 
been restored, or in which the arched form of con- 
struction has been definitely abandoned. 

Another form of floor with which Messrs. Stott and 
Sons are identified is shown in skeleton in Fig. 6, and 



26 

has been carried out with success in several large mills 
recently erected. It consists in an arrangement by 
which the brick arches used are transversely arranged, 
and is designed so that it is only necessary to place 
columns at intervals of 21ft. each way. The head 
of the column (see Figs. 3 and 4) is a broad flange sup- 
ported by curved gussets IJin. thick. The sketch 
given in Fig. 3 shows clearly the construction of 
the column, and is taken from a recent example. 
The columns in the basement rest on a flat 
baseplate, which is bolted to foundation stones 
securely bedded, as has been previously de- 
scribed. The upper end of each column car- 
ries the girder flange, and the head passes up 
between the two girders and fits into a socket in the 
next column. The bottom of the socket and face 
of the column head are turned true, so that the 
columns rest on prepared true surfaces. The ex- 
ternal diameter of the head is Jin. less than the 
bore of the socket. The columns are each tapered 
Jin. in their total length, which varies, of 
course, with the height of the room. The centre 
of the line shaft is 2ft. 3in. below the face of 
the girder flange, the shaft being borne by side 
pedestals secured to faces on the column. 
Some of the latter, being intended to carry 
countershafts only, have narrower faces, only 
.5in. wide. Special faces are also prepared 
to which to attach the longitudinal girders. The 
weight thrown upon the columns is necessarily 
great, and it depends upon the character of the 
construction how great it is. The area within the 
four columns and their attached beams is 441 sq. ft., 
the total load per foot being about 1401bs. Prac- 
tically, therefore, the weight upon the basement 
columns in a four-storey mill on this computation 
would be about 110 tons. A cast iron column 
lOin. external dir^ieter, IJin. thick, and 7ft. long 
will, if calculated by Table 3, safely carry a 
load of 1,031 tons, so that there would be a factor 
of safety of 9 '4. A reduction of the area carried by 
the columns naturally diminishes the load on them. 



27 

Upon each arm of the flange a longitudinal rolled 
girder of I section, 16in. deep, with 6in. flanges, of 
the weight of 1601bs. to the yard, is placed. This 
will carry with a factor of safety of 4 and a span (jf 
21ft. a distributive load of 23-2 tons, which is in 
excess of that required. These girders are fastened 
to the faces shown on the coluncins, and transverse 
joists, 13in. by 6in., are fixed to them at a 
distance from centre to centre of 7ft. The 
arch, which is light but strong, is sprung 
from the transverse joists, and the spaces between 
the arches are levelled with concrete. The flooring 
boards are laid on wooden battens, and in places 
where much wear occurs a covering of thin birch 
boards is fixed. The total depth of the floor is 
19in. This type of floor provides wide bays and 
causes no obstruction in the "mule gate," while 
the run of the arches is transverse, thus off"ering no 
impediment to light. The floor is undoubtedly a 
good one, and has been carried out with consider- 
able success. 

The tendency is, however, growing in favour of 
the larger employment of concrete flat floors, with- 
out the use of brick arches. There is much to be 
said for this construction, which gives a remarkably 
substantial and strong floor. The mill of Messrs. 
J. and P. Coats, erected in 1886, was perhaps the 
first example of importance in this country, and 
the architects, Messrs. Morley and Woodhouse, 
now Mr. W. J. Morley, of Bradford, deserve the 
credit of the thorough construction which they 
adopted. The columns in this mill (see Fig. 7) 
are of cast iron, and are 21ft. apart longitudi- 
nally and 10ft. 6 in. transversely, although this 
is not universally the practice throughout the 
mill. The heads of columns are flanged to re- 
ceive the ends of rolled steel beams, which are 
16in. by Gin. A circular nipple is carried above the 
flange, and has cast with it two wings or flanges, 
one on each side, over which the longitudinal 
girders pass and to which they are bolted. The 
upper end of the column, as in Fig. 3, forms a socket 



29 



above these flanges into which the succeeding column 
fits, and tie rods are fixed at this point between 
opposite columns. The longitudinal beams, shown 
separately in plan, are crossed at right angles 
by light steel joints, 4in. by l|in., borne at 
their ends by angle steel bearers fixed to the 
beams. The space between the joists and above 
the beams is filled up with concrete Sin. thick, with 
a finish of Val de Travers cement above it. The 
concrete used consists of broken brick or stone and 
Portland cement in the proportion of 5 to 1. 
Wooden battens are laid on the concrete in cement, 
and the flooring boards are nailed on to them. The 
thickness of the boards is l|in., consisting of a 
thickness of lin. deal planks topped with a covering 
of American maple boards, Sin. by Jin. thick, which 
makes a floor which is extremely durable and solid. 
In the twisting mill the columns and ironwork were 
plastered with three coats of plaster on wire lathing, 
and the method of applying the casing to the 
beams is separately illustrated. The columns 
used in the mill are of unusual strength, those 
in the lower floor being llin. diameter and 
2in. thick. The next floor admits of a reduction of 
|in. diameter, the thickness being maintained. The 
dimensions for the upper storeys are lOin. diameter 
by If in. thick ; 9in. diameter and H-in. thick ; 8ii'. 
diameter by l^in. thick ; and Gin. diameter by lin, 
thick respectively. The strength of the ground 
floor columns is 1,181-89 tons. 

Another very good type of concrete floor, designed 
by Messrs. Potts, Son, and Pickup, of Manchester, 
and extensively carried out by them, is shown in sec- 
tion in Fig. 8. This firm has persistently pushed this 
floor, and to them is largely due its adoption for Lan- 
cashire mills. In this case the pillars used are 20ft. 
Gin. apart longitudinally of the mill and lift. 9hi. 
transversely. The columns sustain steel girders IGin. 
deep, with Gin. flanges, between which are fixed, at 
distances of 1ft. 9in., steel joists 5 Jin. deep, with 
2in. flanges. The joists are carried by angle-iron 
bearers fastened to the beams, and at suitable 



30 



intervals one is secured to the girders by side 
angles and bolts, the concrete holding the rest 
securely. The space between the joists is filled 




Fig. 8. 



in with concrete 6in. thick, on the top of which 
is a finish of waterproof concrete lin. thick. The 
utility of this finish is tested by allowing the floor 
to stand under water for three days, to detect 




Fig. 9. 

leakage. The concrete is carried below the joist 
|in., the total thickness being therefore 7in. The 
method of finishing the concrete where it joins the 



t 



31 

pillars is clearly shown. Battens are laid in the 
concrete to receive the flooring boards, which in 
all the spinning rooms are l^in. thick. The 
battens are always made wider at the bottom 
than at the top, so that the concrete forms a 
binder and prevents them from lifting. The joists 
extending to the walls are carried when necessary 
by the window lintel, constructed of steel, as 
shown in Fig. 9. The bottom plate is carried 
forward to sustain the joist, and the bolt heads are 
covered by a rose. It will have been noticed that 
when the transverse brick arch is used, and is 
sprung from cross girders 10ft. Gin. apart, a clear 
space of that amount between the necessary points 
of support is obtained. The support is found 
in the piers between the windows, the distance of 10ft. 
6in., as shown in Fig. 31 (see p. 77), corresponding 
to that from centre to centre of piers. With a 
concrete floor such a procedure is not possible, 
as it is essential that the transverse joists shall 
be much nearer together. It is therefore necessary, 
in order to carry the load, to find ample support for 
the ends of the joists. This is found in the employ- 
ment of the iron lintel, which is carried to the 
front so as to complete the latter, the dimensions 
being given in milUimetres. This device gives an 
admirable support to the joists, and enables the 
floor to be well carried throughout. One advantage 
of this method of construction is that much of the 
thrust upon the walls is obviated, as the joists are 
merely sustained by the lintels, and are not built 
in. The centre of the frame is filled with concrete. 
Another type of floor, shown in Fig. 10, which is 
adopted in America and carried out by the Carnegie 
yteel Company, is a variation on the ordinary 
concrete floor. In this case the vertical pillars are 
built of steel and the main girders are duplex, having 
joists or cross beams fixed to them by angle irons. 
The space between the cross girders is filled in by terra 
cotta moulded tiles set in cement w^hile sustained 
below by movable stages. They are burnt hard, 
and form a light floor quite as impervious to fire as 




I 



33 



the ordinary type of concrete. A layer of concrete 
or cement two inches thick is laid on the top of 
this arch, on which the flooring battens are laid, and 
boards fixed as usual. The chief feature of this 
construction is that the whole of the weight of the 
building is carried by the steel columns, the walls 
for each being sustained by the transverse girders, 
and acting merely as filling pieces. A new form of 
floor has been devised and patented in France and 
elsewhere, which is known by the name of the Hen- 
nebique system. In its essence it is founded upon 
the utilisation of the principal characteristic features 
of steel and concrete. The tensile strength of steel 
is greater than its resistance to compression, while 
on the other hand concrete has little tensile but 
great compressive strength. The new system is ac- 




FlG. 11. 

cordingly designed to utilise to the utmost these 
peculiar qualities of each material, and, as shown 
in Fig. 11, is characterised by the absence of the 
transverse joints which are one of the main features 
of the ordinary English floor. As the tendency 
towards flexure in concrete puts the material into 
compression, the inventor has proportioned the 
thickness of the floor to resist the weight put upon 
it. Referring, therefore, to Fig. 11 it will be seen 
the 3E longitudinal girders are embedded in con- 
crete, thus forming a composite beam, the strength 
of which is created alike by the resistance to the 
tensile stress on the steel girder and that to the 
compressive stress put on the concrete. It is well 
known that this combination materially strengthens 
the resistance of the girders to flexure. As shown, 
c 



34 

the distance from centre to centre of the beams 
which rest upon the pillars is 4 metres 90 centi- 
metres, or a little over 16 feet. The thickness of 
the concrete web or floor between the beams is 
12 centimetres or 4-72 inches. In cases where it is 
desired to plank the floor a special skimming of 
cement is laid, in which the battens are embedded. 
To these the planks are fixed in the usual way. It 
will be noticed that the space between the sup- 
porting beams has no other strength than that 
created by the resistance to compression of the con- 
crete, but the maker of this floor, M. Vermont- 
Caby, of Lille, states that this is sufficient to stand 
the ordinary stresses with ease, and to give a factor 
of safety of at least 10 to 1. The floor is said to 
be very rigid and strong. Some further remarks 
are made a little later. 

Referring now to Fig. 2, and to what has been 
previously said, the basement floor is less lofty than 
those above it, and is used as a conditioning cellar. 
In order to fit it for this purpose, it is well 
prepared in puddle or concrete, so as to be imper- 
vious to water, and is provided with tramways to 
facilitate the transport of the skips. These tram- 
ways may be commended to the notice of mill- 
owners as occupying very little space, and being 
readil}'' fixed, they materially reduce the cost of 
transportation within the mill. It may be 
mentioned here that they are as useful in the card 
and spinning rooms as in the basement. Upon the 
prepared floor are laid bricks, a short distance apart, 
allowing of the floor being covered with water to the 
depth of 2 or 3 inches, so as to leave the upper sur- 
face of the bricks dry. A special form of brick is 
sometimes used, which permits the ascent of the 
moisture while making an unbroken floor. This 
type of brick is afterwards referred to in dealing 
with the subject of humidity. The skips or baskets 
containing the cops or bobbins of yarn are thus 
kept out of actual contact with the water, while 
the heat of the room gradually evaporates the 
latter and causes the vapour to find its way 



35 



thoroughly into the yarn. Formerly it was the 
practice in England to make the roof of a mill of the 
ordinary type, timbered, slated, and glazed ; but the 
most", recent mills are now made with flat roofs. The 
upper surface of these is covered with a layer of 
asphalte, so as to form a watertight ceiling. A thin 
sheet of water is kept constantly on the roof as a 
protection against the eftects of the weather on the 
asphalte. The cotton bales are unloaded by a 
special bale hoist, which consists of a crab, driven 
by power, which is used to hoist the bale and also 
to draw in and out a carrier bogie. The latter runs 
upon a cat-head, which projects sufficiently far to 
enable loading or unloading to be easily conducted. 
The bogie carries a chain pulley over which the. 
chain passes to the snatch-block, so that the hook 
can be placed directly over the load. After the 
latter is raised, the bogie is run in, so as to land the 
bale in the storeroom. 



CHAPTER III. 

SLOW BURNING AND ONE-STOREYED BUILDINGS. 

Without pausing to consider at present the various 
points involved in the constructions described, we 
can proceed to deal with the "slow burning" con- 
struction adopted in America in lieu of the fire- 
proof type adopted here. The manufacturers of the 
United States have the enormous advantage of the 
counsel and guidance of the Boston Manufacturers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Co., which, through its officers, 
collects and collates all kinds of information 
bearing upon the construction and preservation of 
mills. The present type of mill in that country, 
as in this, has been evolved, and the difference 
in aim in each case has given correspondingly 
varied directions to the constructive policy. In 
the United States the aim has been to provide a 
building which although not fireproof is not easily 
destroyed. In this country brick and iron have 
always been cheap; in the United States timber 



36 



has been at once easier to obtain and cheaper than 
iron. The result is that the eHorts of American 
architects have been directed towards the most 
complete utilisation of the cheaper material, and a 
very admirable construction has been evolved. In 
the earlier stages of mill architecture in both coun- 
tries the joisted floor was the universal one, but it 
was speedily found to be very easily destroyed by 
fire. Accordingly the solid floor has been the pre- 
vailing type for some years, and where it is un- 
broken by apertures for the passage of belts it has 
many merits. We are enabled to present a number 
of details of this style of construction. 

In its chief features it is shown in Fig. 12, which 
is a partial transverse section of a mill so con- 
structed. The walls are built of brick, and, as in 
this country, gradually diminish in thickness as the 
building ascends. The floors are carried by strong 
transverse timber beams 14in. by 12in., or two beams 
14in. by 6in., which rest on wall plates, as shown. 
If two beams are used they are placed close together, 
but not actually in contact, so as to give a little 
ventilation. At 20ft. span these beams will carry 
safely a distributed load of 252cwt. At intervals 
the beams are supported by columns made of 
pine, from 8 to lOin. square. Tests made for 
the Boston Company showed that crushing occurred 
in pine columns at a pressure of 4:,5001bs. per square 
inch, a load of 6001bs. per square inch being therefore 
taken as a safe one. It is preferable to use square 
columns on account of their greater area. The details 
of the method of sustaining the beams and pillars 
are given in the illustration. It is the ordinary 
practice to form in one piece a cast-iron cap and 
base for the upper and lower pillars, and secure them 
by a pintle also of cast iron. The base of the 
pillar should rest on an iron plate projecting 
above the floor level. On the beams are nailed 
flooring boards, breaking joints every three feet, and 
Sin. thick. The planks are tongued and grooved. 
These planks are long enough for two bays, and on 
them is spread a layer of cement or mortar fin. 



38 

thick, or two thicknesses of asbestos paper, and 
above this a second set of hard wood flooring boards 
IJin. thick, with broken joints, is fixed. The 
nails for securing the boards should be driven 
down and not up, as the ends within the build- 
ing will condense moisture and drop. The roof 
is made nearly flat, and is rendered impervious to 
water by careful boarding, being also covered with 
waterproof felting. In some cases it is quite covered 
with gravel, which acts as considerable protection 
against fire. As shown, the roof planks overhang 
the walls, so as to weather well. A floor thus con- 
structed has been shown to be difficult of destruction, 
and is also impervious to water, w^hich, as it is a 
common practice to use automatic sprinklers, is a 
very important matter. If it is desired to get a 
more rigid floor, the top planks can be fastened on 
at right angles to those below, so as to act as 
braces. One special caution is given with reference 
to wooden beams by the Boston Company. It is — 
"Wherever and whenever solid beams or heavy 
timbers are made use of in the construction of a 
factory or warehouse, they should not be painted, 
varnished, oiled, filled, or incased in impervious 
concrete air-proof plastering or metal, for at least 
three years, lest fermentation should destroy them 
by what is called dry rot." As the fire protection 
of a wooden building is much improved by covering 
all exposed timbers with lime plaster, laid prefer- 
ably on wire netting, the value of this warning is 
obvious. 

The most common practice in this country is to 
construct weaving sheds with the saw tooth roof, 
shown as applied to a spinning mill in Fig. 55. 
The construction of a weaving shed is compara- 
tively simple, the chief points being light and a 
sufficiently good roof to keep out the rain. The 
method of construction adopted has the undoubted 
advantage of providing a building with a steady 
clear light, the incidence of which is such that no 
shadow^s are cast. In the northern hemisphere 
such a roof would be an-anged so that the windov s 



40 



face the north, because in that case no direct sun- 
light falls into the shed. The north face of the 
roof is therefore, substantially, glass and wood, while 
the south face is slated on timber rafters and 
principals. It will be noticed, in Fig. 13, that 
the glass face is arranged at an angle of 
about 30° from the vertical, while the slated 
portion is about 60°. The valleys between each 
ridge are occupied by cast-iron gutters, which 
run transversely across the shed, and are supported 
by columns. The pitch of the bays and columns 
is usually from 10ft. Gin. to 12ft. Gin. ; but the 
shed shown in Fig. 13 has been designed by the 
architect, Mr. W. J. Morley, of Bradford, with the 
columns 25ft. apart. They sustain longitudinal steel 
girders upon which the gutters are carried, 
and the latter are so constructed as to per- 
form the double function of acting as water- 
courses and of beams by which the roof principals 
are carried. In the detailed drawings which, 
through the courtesy of Mr. Morley, are given, 
the method of forming the roof will be readily 
understood without much explanation, the aim 
being to get wide bays so as not to interfere 
with the floor space more than possible. This is a 
very important matter. 

In some sheds recently designed by Messrs. 
Potts, Son, and Pickup for Messrs. Horrocks, 
Crewdson, and Co. Limited, and others, a very 
successful attempt has been made to obtain a clear 
floor space without sacrifice of light. The columns 
run in lines at intervals of 22ft., and carry longi- 
tudinal I girders. These sustain light girders of 
the Warren pattern, which practically form a 
frame for the roof, and from which the roof timbers 
are sprung. They are the full depth of the roof 
from the girder to the ridge, and the window frame 
is hung from them. The window is nearly vertical, 
and the underside of the slated roof is, of course, 
plastered and whitened. But the chief advantage 
claimed for this construction is that the distance 
between the columns transversely is 44ft., which 



41 



gives an unobstructed floor of 938 sq. ft. It will, 
of course, be understood that the span of each bay 
being lift, one girder is carried iialf way between 
each pair of columns. It is obvious that the 
angle at which the window is fixed will have a 
great influence upon the entrance of the light, and 
that when a window is, as in this case, nearly 
vertical, much of the light must of necessity be 
obtained by reflection. Diff'usion is as important 
as direct inlet, and a uniformly clear light without 
glare is the desideratum. Vertical windows keep 
clean longer than those at an angle, but the matter 
is one aff'ecting the whole design. It will be seen 
by the next example that in America a vertical light 
is relied on, but that it extends to all four sides. 




Fig. 1 4. 



In the United States a special form of one-storey 
mill has been evolved which is very interesting. 
It has been named the "Monitor" type, from the 
fact that light is obtained by means of a raised 
central lantern called a *' monitor." It is illus- 
trated in Figs. 14 to 19, the drawings being those 
issued by the Boston Mutual Company. There are 
two types of this form of mill, one in which the 
brick wall is run up to the roof between the windows, 
and the other in which it is merely a stool carrying 
a wood and glass framing, as shown in Fig. 14. 
The basement floor is 8ft. Gin. from floor 
to floor, and is lighted by side windows placed 



i2 



just above groiiDd level, their sills 5ft. 6in. 
above the basement floor. The lower floor is carried 
by timber beams 16in. deep and lOin. wide, oa 
which the flooriDg boards are laid, as shown 
in plan iu Fie. 15. The floors consist of 




F:: 



a lower layer Sin. thick, topped by hard 
wood planking IJin. thick. The roof (a plan 
of which is shown in Fig. 16), which consists of 
Sin. timbers, covered by gravel, terne plates, or pre- 






FiG. 16. 



pared cotton duck, is borne by rafters 16in. deep and 
lOin. wide, supported by a knee fixed to the wall. A 
slight batter from the monitor outwards is given to 
the roof (see Fig. 17), and the monitor can be con- 
tinuous. The columns carrying the roof, shown in 



43 



detail in Fig. 18, are lOin. square, made of piae, and 
resting upon an iron base, which in turn rests on the 
head of a cast iron pintle sustained by an iron plate 
fixed on the topof abrick pillar in the basement, '24:'m. 
by 16in. As shown, the ends of the floor beams are 
angled and rest upon the brickwork. The window 
frames are also illustrated in detail. They go 
right up to the roof, and are of the EngHsh type, 
much resembling the window shown in Fig. 31. 
From centre to centre of the posts the distance is 
Sft., and the height from top to bottom of frame 
10ft. The upper sash is divided, and each of them 
is hinged so as to swing, as shown in Fig. 18. The 




Fic-. 17. 

window posts rest upon iron caps or plates anchored 
in the wall. The window posts are lOin. square and 
are placed between the windows, and by means of 
ears, shown in dotted lines in the detailed drawings, 
the posts can be secured to the base plates. The 
posts are bored through the centre with a Ito- 
hole for ventilation, and the rafters are sustained 
by an iron cap fixed upon the top of the pillar. 

The "monitor" or lantern, shown in Fig. 19, is 
sustained by a beam 16in. deep by 5in., which is 
born by a knee fixed to the main outer posts and 
resting on the iron cap on the pillar. From the 
roof, posts 8in. square are carried up, fitting into 



3in.Jfmf-PJanA[_ 






^lo. BaofJ'MiiJLi 




Fig. 18. 



\3in P/anM 



3in~PlanR~, Grooyed andTTbnguec/ 




Fig. 19. 



46 



the rafters of the monitor. The eud rafters are 
r2in. by 8iiL, and the others 12 in. by 4in., and 
carry the roof timber. The ends of the rafters 
project so as to permit the roof to be carried oat 
for weathering purposes. Upon the rafters a plank 
4Jin. deep by 3iu. thick is secured, on which a 
stool 2in. thick and lOin. wide is placed to carry 
the window frames. The window sashes can be 
hung either as shown on the right of Fig. 19^ or on 
the left, and are constructed in the manner illus- 
trated in enlarged detail at the left hand bottom 
corner, with bevelled edges, so that they fit whether 
wet or dry. These details have been given in order 
to illustrate an ingenious method of timber con- 
struction, which has been very carefully thought 
out. It is obvious that the details of construction 
can be varied in accordance with the circumstances 
and material at the disposal of the constructor, but 
there is generally no difficulty. Rubble -walls are 
necessarily employed in some cases, and then it is 
essential that all caps or pads should be firmly 
fixed and anchored, a remark which applies to all 
wall boxes for the reception of shaft bearings. 



CHAPTER IV. 

AND FIRE RESIST 

It is obvious that as compared with the American 
type of building the English type is much the 
heavier. This applies with greater force to concrete 
floors made of broken brick or stone and cement, 
and in a lesser degree to those in w^hich coke 
breeze — that is, the riddled and washed small coke 
from gas works — is used. It has been objected 
that the latter is not fireproof, and, while this may 
be conceded so far as the material itself is concerned, 
it has been shown that when the cement is properly 
mixed with the breeze in proper proportions, the 
concrete so formed is impervious to fire. There is, 
of course, the risk w^hich always attends the use of 
an inflammatory material, that it may not be 



47 

properly protected, and this must be kept iu mind. 
On the other hand, the weight of the floor is 
considerably reduced. The weight of the solid 
timber floor shown in Fig. 12, is said to be about 
181bs. per square foot, and its cost in the United 
States abont Hd. per square foot. On the other 
hand, the weight of the fireproof floor, with heavy 
brick arches and cast iron beams, is from 115 to 
1201bs. per square foot, and its cost about 18d. per 
foot. The substitution of steel girders and cross- 
beams reduces alike this weight and cost. The steel 
and concrete floor shown in Fig. 8, weighs about a 
hundred pounds per square foot, and costs approxi- 
mately 16d. per foot. The American type of fireproof 
floor (Fig. 10) costs in that country a little more 
than the last named, but could be more cheaply 
produced in this country, where the steel joists are 
lower in price. The cost of this floor for a total 
load of 1251bs.5 is stated to be for a floor space of 200 
feet, about 15jd. per foot, and its weight 541bs. 
per square foot. The Heunebique floor, shown in 
Fig. 11, weighs 279 kilos, per square Uietre, or 
56*81bs. per square foot, and its cost is said to be 
12 francs per metre, or about lid. per square foot. 
It is, therefore, clear that while there is no 
great disparity in cost between four of these 
representative classes of floor, there is a great 
diff"erence in the weight per square foot. This, of 
course, is not unimportant, as it implies a propor- 
tionately heavy load upon the columns, mi>re 
especially those on the lower floors, which in the 
event of a fire might lead to their breakage if 
weakened by heat. In this respect the American 
terra-cotta floor has some advantages, and is worthy 
of consideration, but much can be done by protect- 
ing the ironwork with plaster or cement. The 
rigidity of the concrete floor is greatly in its favour, 
because it ensures a base for the machine almost 
without tremor, and one in which deflection 
is practically absent. The strength of the trans- 
verse joists when set in concrete is increased 
by one-third, which is valuable. 



48 



The joists and rolled girders used in this country 
are, as have been intimated, of X section, and the 
steel is usually capable of standing a tensile strain 
of from 26 to 28 tons per square inch of section, 
but occasionally rises to 32 tons. The resistance to 
crushing is practically equal to the tensile strength, 
but the shearing strength is only about three- 
fourths of that. Lloyd's test for shipbuilding steel 
is a minimum tensile strength of 27 tons to the 
square inch and a maximum of 31 tons, with an 
elongation prior to breaking of 20 per cent in 8 inches 
long. The test strip, after being heated to redness 
and cooled in water at a temperature of 82° F., 
must bend double round a curve with a diameter 
equal to three times the thickness of the strip. 
The French Admiralty test provides for a tensile 
strength of 28 tons for plates |in. and upwards 
thick, and 28 J tons if thinner; the elongation 
being 20 per cent on 8 inches. The tensile strength 
of wrought-iron joists is from 20 to 24 tons per 
square inch. In Table IV. particulars are given of 
steel girders of X section, as made by Messrs. 
Dorman, Long & Co., Limited, of Middlesborough, 
and calculated by Mr. Myles Cooper, of Manchester. 
TABLE 4. 



Weight 
per foot in 


Dimensions, inches. 


Distributed Load in tons 
carried per foot 

in following fractions of 
breaking strain. 


lbs. 
Approxi- 


Depth. 


Width 

of 
flanges. 


Thickness. 


mate, 


Web. 


Flange. 


ird. 


ith. 


^th. 


64-50 


16 


6 


-64 


•82 


649-17 


487-41 


389-92 


42 


15 


5 


-45 


-62 


422-80 


317-10 


254-00 


57 


14 


6 


-59 


-81 


541-51 


391-97 


313-57 


43 


12 


5 


-58 


-65 


322-75 


242-66 


193-66 


45-50 


10 


6 


-58 


-70 


306-35 


229-84 


183-87 


31-50 


10 


4* 


•41 


-66 


212-01 


159-01 


127-20 


25 


8 


4 


•42 


-56 


131-86 


98-89 


7911 


16 


6 


3 


•34 


•50 


63-21 


47-40 


37-92 


11 


51 


2 


•36 


•38 


34-69 


26-01 


20-81 


15-25 


5 


3 


-40 


•46 


48-85 


36-64 


29-31 


8-.P.0 


4 


If 


•37 


•35 


19 50 


14-60 


11-70 



For dead loads, such as are common in a mill, not 
less than one-fourth the breaking strain should be 
taken, but if rolling loads are needed, then one- 



49 



fifth should be used. It is not advisable to use 
one-thii'd only. Suppose the girders to be borne 
at distances of 20'5ft. apart and to be 16in. by 6in., 
the load per foot which they should carry would be 

—if one-fourth be taken— ^^^'^^ =23-7 tons. The 

20*5 

area sustained with columns placed 20ft. 6in. by 

14ft. 9in. apart is 302 sq. ft., and if the load be 

taken at 1401bs. per square foot the load on the 

girders is 18 "75 tons per foot, which is well within 

the strength named, and is indeed equal to the load 

taken at one-fifth breaking strain. The weight of 

wronght-iron rolled joists is about 5 per cent, and the 

strength from 2 5 to 30 per cent, less than those of steel. 

The preservation of a correct alignment in 

spinning machinery is known to be of importance, 

and this is secured with much more certainty 

in the English than in the American type. In 

the instructions issued by the Boston Mutual 

Manufacturers' Association, a table compiled by 

Mr. C. J. H. Woodbury is given, which is based 

upon a deflection to the extent of a curve 

with a radius of 1,250ft., assuming the modulus 

of elasticity of Southern pine to be •2,000,0001bs. 

The calculations made must be based upon 

this table, because anything beyond the standard 

deflection will affect the working of the machinery. 

A portion of the table to suit beams from Sin. to 

14in. deep, and of spans from 10ft. to 20ft. is given. 

It will be understood that the loads are for each 

inch of width in the beam : — 









TABLE 


5. 












Depth of Beam 


IN Inches. 


Deflection in 


n feet. 


8 


9 


10 11 


12 


13 


14 


inches. 






Load in 


Pounds per 


Foot 


of Span. 




10 


46 


65 


89 113 


154 


195 


244 


•1200 


11 


38 


54 


73 98 


127 


161 


202 


•1452 


12 


32 


45 


62 82 


107 


136 


169 


•1728 


13 


27 


38 


53 70 


91 


116 


144 


•2028 


14 


23 


33 


45 60 


78 


100 


124 


•2352 


15 


20 


29 


40 53 


68 


87 


108 


•2700 


16 


18 


25 


35 47 


60 


76 


95 


•3072 


17 


16 


22 


31 43 


54 


68 


84 


•3468 


18 


— 


20 


27 38 


49 


60 


75 


•3888 


19 





18 


25 35 


44 


54 


68 


•4332 


20 


- 


— 


22 32 


40 


49 


61 


•4800 



50 



On this basis the safe load for the span previously 
named would be 130 cwts. as against '252 cwts., 
which is the figure if deflection be neglected. On 
the other hand, the action of flame upon thick 
wooden beams or columns is slow, the charring of the 
surface acting as a protection to the centre, so that 
a long time elapses before the beam is so weakened 
as to be dangerous. As compared with unprotected 
ironwork, the solid timber slow-burning floor is 
much superior, but in comparison with protected 
iron, steel, and concrete floors, it has no such 
superiority. Recent figures tend to show that the 
difference in cost between timber and fireproof floors 
even in America is becoming less, so that there will 
be probably a considerable increase in the use of 
the latter. While this is so there remains the fact 
that in countries where timber is plentiful and cheap 
the American method of construction possesses 
sufficient advantages to justify its adoption, 
especially if applied to buildings of one or two 
storeys. 

As the question of the load on a mill floor is of 
importance, we give a few weights and measures of 
various machines and articles which will be useful. 
It will, of course, be understood that the figures 
given form approximations to the actual, but there 
will be slight variations with different machinists. 



TABLE 6. 



Article. 



Gotten bale 

„ ,, compressed 

Crighton opener, single 
„ „ double 

Crighton opener, single 
combined with single 
scutcher 

Crighton opener.d'ubl 
combined with single 
scutcher 



Superficial Measurement. 



81ft 

41ft 

12ft. by 5tt. lOin. ... 
18ft. 2in. by .^ft. lOin. 



24ft. lOin. by 6ft. 9iu, 
31ft. by 6ft. 6iu 



Weight, Cwts. 
of 1121bs. 



4-5 
4-9 

65 



108 



150 



51 



Table 6 (Continued). 



Article. 



Superficial Measurement, ^'of il'.,i^s ^• 



Scutching and lap ma- 
chine for 40in. cards 

Single, with feed-j 

Double IJ 

Carding machines — : 
Revolving flat, 38in.! 

laps 1 

Roller and clearer,! 

45in. cylinder, 36 



For three laps — ' \ 

14ft.2in.by6ft.6in.; j 

For three laps — 
21ft.6in.by6ft. 6iu. 



65 



90 



m. on wire 



„ 45in. by 40in....; 
„ 50in. by 48in.... 
,, double, 45iu. by 

40in 

Drawing frames — 

Width of frame 

Length of gearing...' 
Gauges, per delivery 



10ft. by 5ft. 6in 45 



9ft. Sin. by 5ft. 6in.... 42 
9ft. 3iu. by 5ft. lOin. 48 
10ft. by 6ft. 6in 52 



15ft. 7in. by 6ft. 6in. 62 



4ft. to 5ft 

2ft. 6in. to 3ft... 
1ft. 2in. to 20in. 



Combing machines — 

6 heads 13ft. 2in. by 3ft. 6in. 

8 heads 16ft. by 3ft. 6iu 



Lap machines 7ft. by 4ft. 6in. 

Derby doublers, 19in.! 12ft. by 6ft. 6iu. 



Slubbing machines- 
Width of frame., 
Length of gearing. 

Gauges 



"{ 



Intermediate frames- 
Width of frame 

Length of gearing. 



4ft. 6in 

3ft 

4 spindles in 16in. 
4 „ „ I8iu. 

4 ,. „ 20in. 



Per 

delivery, 
5 to 5i 



31 

40 

20 
42 

fFrom 1-06 
I to 1-3 per 
I spindle 
[ (longest 
f ram es 
I lightest 
L p'r sp'le). 



Gauges 



Roving frames — 
Width of frame . . 
Length of frame 
Gauges 



3ft fFrom 7 to 

3ft ... I -9 per 

4 spindles in 16in. to J spindle 
19iin. ; 6 spindles j (longest 

in 18in. to 21in | frames 

I I lightest). 



3ft 

3ft 

8 spindles in ISin. to 
23in 



I From -6 to 
y -66 per 
I spindle. 



52 
Table 6 {Continued). 



Article. 



Jack frames — 

Width of frames... 
Length of gearing 

Gauges 

Self-acting mule — 
Width of headstock.. 
Width over pair of 

mules 

Gauges 

King spinning frames- 
Gearing, one end 

„ both ends... 
Width, 1 tin roller,.. 

Gauges 

Doubling winding 

machine — 

Width of frame 

Gearing and frame 

ends 

Gauges for bobbins ) 

4in., 4^in., 5in. > 

lift ) 

King doubling 
machines — 

Width of frame 

Gearing, one end 

„ both ends , . 

Cop reel, 40 hanks 

Bobbin reel, double 40 

hanks 

Bundling press .... 
Gassing frame — 

Width of frame . 

Gearing, etc 

Gauge „ 



Superficial Measurement. 



3ft 

3ft 

10 spindles in 22^in. 
12 spindles in 22in 
or 24in 

5ft. Sin. to 5ft. 6in... 

20ft. 6in 

Igiu., l^in., Ifin. 
Hin 

2ft. 6in 

4ft 

2ft. 9in 

3ft. 6iu 

2iin., 2§in., 2^in 

3ft. 4in 

1ft. 9in 

2 bobbins in 6in. 
6Jin., 7in 



3ft 

2ft. Sin 

4ft. 9in 

24in., 2iin., 3in,, 3|in., 
3iin., 3|in., 4in 



12ft. 9in. by 2ft. 7in 

13ft. 4in. by 4ft 

3ft. by 2ft 

3ft. 2iu 

2ft. lOin 

2 lights in Sjin. ... 



Weight, Cwts. 
of ll'21bs. 



• 53 per 
spindle. 

( From '14 to 
i -22 per 
J spindle, 
I according 
I to gauge 
L & length. 



From "2 to 
^ '22 per 
i spindle. 



[ '3 to "5 per 
( bobbin. 



f Dry, -22 per 
spindle ; 
Scotch, 
wet, -23 
per spl. ; 
English, 
wet, -28 
per spl. ; 
Flyer 
frame, '4 
per spl. 

3-25 



•11 



•37per light 



53 
Table 6 (Continued). 



Article. 


Superficial Measurement. 


Weight, Cwts. 
of ll21bs. 


Cop wiudiog frame- 
Width of frame 


5ft. to 5ft. 6iu. 


1 


Gearing, etc 


1ft. 7in 


/ -13 to -18 


Gauge 


4 spindles in 5iu 

oft. to 5tt. 6in 

1ft. 7in 

4 spindles in 5in 

3ft. 8in.... 


( per spindle. 


Bobbin winding 
frame — 

Width of frame 

Gearing, etc 


|-14 to -19 


Gauge 


( per spindle. 


Drum winding frame — 
Width of frame 




Gearing, etc 


2ft 


f "41 to '62 


Gauge bobbins, 5in. 
lift 


6|in 


r per drum. 


Pirn winding frame — 
Width of frame 


4ft. 6in 




Gearing 


1ft. 9in. to 2ft. 6in. ... 

2 spindles in i^m. to 

43in 


•16 to '21 


Gauge 1 


jper spindle. 


Sectional warping 
machine 


4ft. by 4ft 

lift. Sin. by 7ft. 3in.. 

16ft. by 7ft. 6in 

38ft. 6in. by 9ft. 6in. 

19ft. by 12ft 


10 


Do. with creel 




Beaming machine 

Slasher sizing machine. 

Circular warping ma- 
chine — 
12yds. swift 


18 
12-25 


20yds. swift 


27ft by 20ft 


1475 


Looms — 

Light calico 40in. ... 

Drop box 40in 

Folding machines 


6ft. Sin. by 3ft. 9in... 
7ft. 6in. by 3ft. lOin. . 
6ft. 9in. by 6ft. 3 in... 


13-5 
15-5 
16 



There is, of course, in addition to these weights, 
the weight of material in the machines, the work- 
people, bobbins and other accessories, and the 
shafting. AVith the ordinary number of work- 
people and quantity of stock, the weight (neglecting 
cotton warehouse and blowing room) will be about 
141b. per spindle, so that the total load will run 
out about 44rb. per foot in a ring mill and 38 to 40 
in a mule mill, this being, of course, exclusive of 
the floor and gearing. 



54 

The question as to the fireproof condition of a 
mill is one which is of the highest importance. It 
is obviously a waste of money and worse to go in 
for an expensive form of construction, involving the 
enormous weight of a modern concrete floor building, 
when the building is left in even a partially unsafe 
state. There is no fact more capable of proof than 
that of the destructibility of buildings in which the 
weight is taken by unprotected ironwork. The 
whole matter resolves itself into one of the quantity 
of combustible material which is present. It is 
quite true that modern English machinery, with 
the exception of the mule, comprises little wood- 
work, but is, on the contrary, very free from com- 
bustible material. Thus it may be that the 
possible heat which can be attained in a fire is not 
enough to so weaken the iron columns as to destroy 
the building, but there is always the danger. The 
possibility of a stream of water striking one side of 
a highly heated column during the progress of a fire 
is always present, and a cracked column from that 
cause is sufficient to bring the whole fabric down. 
A wooden beam or column, 10 or 12in. square or 
round, can be burned in for a depth of 2in. without 
so seriously weakening it as to imperil the fabric. 
So far as the protection against burning out is con- 
cerned there is little to choose between the solid 
plank and the fireproof floor, except that the weight 
of the latter, under the circumstances named, con- 
stitutes a danger. This, of course, is subject to 
the condition that the solid plank floor is unbroken 
by belt holes, which is not always the case in 
America, where driving through the floor from 
below is a very favourite practice, as shown in Fig. 
20. This represents one of the weaving rooms of the 
Merrimack Manufacturing Company, at Lowell. 
Given, however, the unprotected condition of the 
ironwork, then the destruction of the edifice is 
rendered more possible. The remedy clearly is, 
therefore, to cover all ironwork with some material 
which is a bad conductor of heat, and which will 
resist alike the effect of fire and water. In Messrs. 



56 

Coats' mill, previously mentioned, all the ironwork, 
columns included, is protected ; and in the Castle 
Mill, at Staly bridge, all the ironwork except the 
columns is similarly protected by a coating of plaster 
laid on wire netting. Special forms of netting are 
made for the purpose, to which the plaster adheres 
very tenaciously. The advantages of cast-iron 
columns from a constructive point of view are so 
great that their use is desirable if they can be 
rendered safe, which, with the small amount of 
combustibles present, they may be considered to be. 
The prevailing type of cast-iron column also 
suffers from the fact that it is rarely cast on 
end, but nearly always on its side ; and, while 
it is true that the result is generally a good one, 
it is impossible to guarantee an even thickness 
of metal throughout, although the strength is 
generally such as to leave a margin of safety. It 
is always desirable to retain the right to drill the 
columns to ascertain the thickness of metal at 
various points. Hitherto no architect has been bold 
enough to use in mill construction the built steel 
columns which have been employed in other forms of 
constructive work. The extra resistance to flexure 
possessed by a carefully designed steel column seems, 
however, to point this out as the next step to be 
taken in fighting fire risks. Another point of some 
importance is the question of side-thrust on the 
walls in the event of fire. It is contended on 
behalf of concrete floors that, owing to the nature 
of the material, end-thrust of the beams is obviated, 
but this is a matter which has not been determined 
by actual experience and cannot be settled authori- 
tatively until it has. At the same time experiments, 
carefully made with a section of a steel and concrete 
floor made exactly like that used for a large mill, 
show that the transmission of heat through a floor 
of this type is very slow and that its expansion 
under a fierce blaze is very slight. It may be 
concluded that a concrete and steel floor, sustained 
by suitable columns with the whole of the exposed 
ironwork protected, gives a construction possessing 



0/ 

on the whole a balance of advantages. It is rigid, 
strong, and practically indestructible, but is heavy, 
thus necessitating a strong structure. As a matter 
of fact, in the economy of a mill in which the 
machines used are so long, a rigid floor is practically 
an essential. Any deflection or destruction of the 
alignment is a fertile source of a loss of power, and 
more may be lost in money value in this way than 
would repay the extra outlay two or three times. 
It is, however, worth considering whether a freer 
use of the honeycombed tiles shown in Fig. 10 would 
not give as rigid and secure a floor as the heavier 
type shown in Fig. 9. In the opinion of the writer 
it would, and more especially if joined to the system 
of sustaining the w^hole building on protected steel 
columns and girders, so that the wall of each floor 
is practically independent. The matter is one of 
cost simply, and should be so considered. 

A minor point in relation to this matter is that 
of the construction of the doors. In most mills 
these are what are styled fireproof — that is, are 
made entirely of iron. Their strength, however, 
is such that under a fierce fl-ime they would warp. 
In Messrs. Coats' mill, previously referred to, all the 
doors were of wood, being completely covered with 
tinplate to prevent the direct attack of the flame, a 
course which was also followed with the door frames. 
The American door is made of two thicknesses of 
matchboards, not more than 4in. wide, laid at right 
angles and nailed together. They are covered by 
tinned plates, lock-jointed and nailed under the 
joint, the sheets being bent round the door, so as to 
have no seams on the edges. The doors are hung 
on sloping rails, and are kept open by fusible 
solder attachments which melt at a temperature of 
162° F. Doors so formed and protected have been 
shown to be practically indestructible with ordinary 
fires. 

Although not really a part of fire prevention, the 
use of iron ladders and landings outside the mill is 
one which is widely adopted to facilitate escape in 
the case of fire. Analogous to this matter is that of 



58 



the material used in the construction of the stairs. 
The various plans hereafter given show the position 
of these in an ordinary mill, and in Lancashire it is 
the practice to make the treads and risers of Roch- 
dale flagstones. It is vrell known that under the in- 
fluence of heat this speedily splinters, and as the 
staircase is well adapted to act as a chimney, a fire 
breaking out in any of the lower rooms might have 
a disastrous eff'ect in this way. By the adoption of 
steel bearers and concrete treads this danger is ob- 
viated, and in the case of Messrs. Coats' mill the 
concrete is covered by boarding. It may be that 
the staircase requires to be employed as a means of 
exit, so that it is highly important to ensure its 
safety. The cost of a concrete staircase will not 
exceed a good flagged one. 



CHAPTER V. 

FIRE APPLIANCES : SPRINKLERS. 

Within the past few years the practice of fitting 
mills with devices for extinguishing fires has become 
largely extended. In most modern mills a special 
service of pipes is laid up the staircases to the 
upper floors, and on each floor nipples, on to which 
hose pipes can be screwed, are provided. These 
pipes are coupled up to a steam fire pump, so as to 
be always ready for use. In addition to this, filled 
fire buckets are kept in suitable places, although it 
is not always noticed that they are filled. According 
to Cassier's Magazine, a superintendent in one of the 
large New England mills, who had found it difficult 
to keep the tire pails full and in good order, some 
time ago adopted the following interesting expedient : 
The hooks carrying the pails were fitted up with 
pieces of spring steel, strong enough to lift the pail 
when nearly empty, but not sufficiently so to lift a 
full pail. Just over each spring, in such a position 
as to be out of the way of the handle of the pail, 
was set a metal point connected with a wire from an 



59 

open circuit battery. So long as the pails were full, 
their weight, when hung on their hooks, kept the 
springs down, but as soon as one was removed or 
lost a considerable portion of its contents by evapo- 
ration, the spring on its hook would rise, coming ni 
contact with the metal point, thus closing the battery 
circuit and ringing a bell in the manager's office, at 
the same time showing on an annunciator where the 
trouble was. As the bell continued to ring until the 
weight of the delinquent pail was restored, it was 
impossible to disregard the summons, and no more 
reason was found to complain of the condition of the 
fire buckets. But the most modem application, and 
the one which is most distinctive, is found in the 
extended employment of sprinkler heads. Of these 
there are several types, the Grinuel being probably 
the most widely known. The principle of the various 
sprinklers is generally the same, but their details 
vary somewhat. 

In arranging an installation of sprinklers, regard 
must be had to the country in which they are being 
fitted up. Thus, in a climate where extreme cold 
is likely to be experienced during a great part of 
the year, it is desirable to take special precautions 
against freezing, and what is known as the "dry 
pipe " system is preferable. If, on the other hand, 
a warm climate is the rule, precautions must be 
taken to avoid evaporation of the water supply, and 
the wet pipe can be used. As a general rule, 
sprinklers should be placed at a distance of ten feet 
apart, and, as with an ordinary head of water the 
spray discharged will cover a radius of eight or ten 
feet, 100 square feet will thus be served. Any 
specially dangerous places should be provided with 
an extra number of sprinkler heads, so that the 
danger is minimised, and the first row of sprinklers 
should not be more than five feet from the wall. 
Owing to recent improvements, not only do the 
sprinklers protect the floor, but their discharge is so 
arranged that it strikes upwards, and protects the 
ceiling also. The most important matter after the 
fixing of the heads is the provision of the necessary 




ik^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



61 



water supply. It is always considered desirable to 
have two sources of supply, but of these an elevated 
tank should always be one. This is usually placed 
in a tower, the altitude of which is such that the 




Fig. 22. 



base of the tank is not less than fifteen feet above 
the highest sprinkler head, and a minimum pressure 
of seven pounds to the square inch is desirable. 
The weight of a column of water lin. square and 



62 



12in. high being '434, the pressure per square inch 
can be calculated by multiplying the head in feet 
by that number. This tank should always be kept 
filled with water, and arrangements must be made 
to ensure this. The following is a table giving 
the minimum capacity of the tank for the specified 
number of sprinkler heads : — 

TABLE 7. 

Greatest number of sprinklers on Minimum 
any one floor or on corres- capacity 

ponding floors of communi- of tank in 
eating buildings. gallons. 

Exceediug 200 7,500 

Not exceeding 200 6.500 

150 5,000 

50 * 

* 100 gallons per sprinkler for the greatest number of sprinklers 
on any one floor or communicating floors, but in no case less than 
3,000 gallons. 

As a secondary source of supply, water from the 
town's mains may be used if sufficient to give the 
required pressure on the highest floor, or one of the 
special automatic pumps, such as the Worthington, 
may be used. The chief point to remember is that 
it is absolutely requisite to have an ensured supply 
under all circumstances. It is necessary to provide 
a check valve which shall exclude water from the 
secondary source of supply until the pressure from 
the primary source has fallen below its normal 
amount. The general arrangements of a sprinkler 
installation are shown in Figs. 21 and 22, and in 
sectional elevations, longitudinal and transverse. 
The sizes of pipes to be used for conveying the 
water are giv(?n in the following table, which is 
the official one : — 

TABLE 8. 

Size of Pipe. Sprinklers Size of Pipe. Sprinklers 

Inches. allowed. Inches. allowed. 

I 1 3 46 

1 3 3i 78 
1:1 5 4 115 

II 9 4| 125 
If 14 5 150 

2 18 6 200 
2h 28 



63 

The minimum size of the main pipes must be 
determined by the greatest number of sprinklers in 
any one floor or corresponding floor of communi- 
cating buildings. The size of the distributing pipes 
must be determined by the number of sprinklers 
which each is intended to serve. 

The table following is the one adopted by the 
Boston Mutual Manufacturer's Company, and it 
will be noticed varies from the preceding one, but is 
probably better for the American type of building. 

TABLE 9. 

Diameter „ . ,, „ Loss bv Diameter ^ • ii Loss bv 

of Pipe. ^FiV^tin friction in of Pipe. ^P^^'^^f^ friction in 
Inches. ^"°^«d- feet head. Diches. ^"^^^^'i- feet head. 

f 1 1-3] 24 28 2-6 

1 3 2'64 3 46 2-9 

1^ 6 2-34 3i 70 3 1. 

IJ 10 2-70 4 95 4 1 

2 18 2-80 

All sprinkler installations are fitted with an alarm 
gong, placed outside the building, and so arranged 
that on a decrease of the water pressure, such as 
that caused by the opening of a siugle sprinkler, 
the alarm is sounded. It is necessary that a stop- 
cock shall be placed in a suitable position, so as to 
be easily closed, and capable of being locked up, 
and pressure gauges to show the pressure in tlie 
pipes must also be provided. The essential features 
in connection with this instrument may be thus 
summarised. An unfailing supply of water from two 
sources should be provided. A pressure of at least 
7 lbs. must be on the highest head. The discharg- 
ing capacity of a sprinkler head with an ordinary 
orifice can be calculated by the following formula : 
"55 ^p ; p = head in pounds per square inch. The 
result is the number of cubic feet discharged per 
minute. Thus, if the head be 71bs., the dis';harge 
would be, assuming the orifice to be |in. with an 
area of -IQGSin., -55 ^7 = 1 -45 cub. ft. If the head 
be equal to say 401bs., then under the same 



64 



conditions the discharge would be 3*48. No greater 
distance than 10ft. must exist between adjoining 
heads, and this should be less in dangerous places. 
The following table was given in a recent article 
by Mr. Woodbury in Cassier's Magazine as applied 
to the American standard type of construction, one 
row of sprinklers being placed in the centre of each 
bav : — 







TABLE 10. 








Water pressure over 


Water pressure less than 


Bay's 

width 


201bs. per sq. in. 


201bs. 


per sq. in. 


Medium 


Special 


Medium 


Special 


in feet. 


hazard. 


hazard. 


hazard. 


hazard. 


12 . 


. 8 ft. apart. 


7ft. apart ... 


7ft. apart 


6ft. apart 


11 . 


. 9ft. „ 


8ft. „ ... 


8ft. „ 


7ft. „ 


10 . 


. 10ft. „ 


9ft. „ ... 


9ft. „ 


8ft. „ 


9 . 


. lift. „ 


10ft. „ ... 


10ft. „ 


9ft. „ 


8 . 


. 12ft. „ 


lift. „ ... 


lift. „ 


10ft. „ 



A pressure indicator and one showing the height of 
water in the tank must be fixed, as also an alarm 
gong capable of beings tested. The following are 
the requirements for a good sprinkler. It should 
be certain and prompt in action, quite free from 
leakage under working pressures, have distributing 
power over a large area, act at a temperature as 
low as is convenient, be simple in construction, 
strongly made, so as not to be easily damaged, and 
be arranged so as to be readily tested. The evidence 
of the past few years has shown sprinklers to be 
of the utmost value in the prevention of incipient 
fireSf and no mill is properly equipped without 
them. With them the wooden floor is compara- 
tively safe, without them the fireproof floor is of 
lessened value; while, if a mill is built with fireproof 
floors and is farther protected by sprinklers, the 
danger of serious damage by fire is rendered a 
remote one. 

The water delivery of any pump can be calcu- 
lated easily by knowing first the diameter D of the 
plunger in inches, the length of stroke in inches S, 



65 

and the number of strokes made per minute N. 
The area of the plunger is -7854:0- or A, and the 
delivery is in cubic inches per minute A S N, in 

cubic feet per minute , , and in gallons per 

minute ^ . It is better to have a slow speed 

for pumps than a fast one, and anything over 70ft. 
per minute is to be deprecated. It will be under- 
stood that the formula j ust given applies to a single 
pump, and that the results obtained must be 
multiplied by two when a duplex pump is used. 
The diameter of a pump plunger can be ascertained 

/ G 
by the formula D = J -q-u s N ' ^ "^ number of 



/ F 
gallons per minute, or / .qq^a^ q >t = number of 

cubic feet delivered per minute: G = '16045 cubic 
feet, a cubic foot of water weighing 62*321bs., 
and being equal to 6*232 gallons. By means of these 
data the delivery and dimensions of a pump can 
be easily arrived at. The loss by friction in clean 
pipes without bends is •0002961bs. per yard, but 
this amount can be rapidly increased if the pipes 
are dirty. There is, in cases where water has to be 
raised, a certain resistauce to be overcome, and, 
irrespective of any power required to account for 
friction or resistance within the pump, this must be 
allowed for in the case of a pump used either for 
fire or sprinkler purposes. 

The Worthington fire pump, of which an illus- 
tration is given in Fig. 23, has been largely used by 
many firms in connection with sprinkler installa- 
tions. It is one of that class of pumps which give 
a large delivery at a slow piston speed. The steam 
valve is an ordinary slide, which for this purpose is 
probably the best type to use, as the liability of 
sticking is much miniaiised. The valve spindle is 
actuated by a vibrating arm worked from a cross 

E 



66 



head at the end of the spindle, so that an easy but 
effective movement is given to it. The plunger 
works through a metallic ring or barrel which is 
bored so as to make a good fit, and so fixed in the 
pump that it can be easily taken out and replaced 
at will. The ring is fitted midway of the ca?ing, 
and has a water space all round it. The suction 




Fig. 23. 



valves are at the lower part of the casing, so that 
any grit or mud has a chance to fall before entering 
the barrel, thus avoiding damage. The delivery 
valves are at the top of the casing, and the course given 
to the water is nearly a straight one. The valves are 
all of large area, and can be readily examined 
and replaced. In the fire pump the speed can be 



67 

increased to a large extent if desired without in any 
way leading to knock or concussion, owing to the 
absence of tappets and the peculiar action of the 
steam valve. It is made with two cylinders, and 
each steam valve is opened by the action of the 
adjoining piston, so that the water valves have time 
to close prior to the delivery of the water. Thus it 
is a duplex double acting pump, with the cylinders 
and barrels placed side by side, and each controlled 
by its fellow. In applying this fire pump to a mill 
where it is desired to have it act automatically, a 
pressure regulator is provided, which maintains in 
the pipes a uniform pressure, a slight fall in which, 
owing to the opening of a sprinkler head, at once 
admits steam to the valve and starts the pump. 
The pressure fixed is in most cases a little below 
that in the town's mains, if these are used for one 
source of supply, and as the pump has no dead 
centres it starts readily at any point. An auto- 
matic drainage attachment is also fitted to the 
steam cylinders to avoid accidents. These pumps 
can be made to deliver from 80 to 1,270 gallons per 
minute, according to size, or from '4 to 5*15 gallons 
per stroke of each plunger. 

The Meri-yweather Vertical Mill Fixed Steam 
Fire Engine, illustrated in Fig. 24, has been sup- 
plied to the Staines Linoleum Company for the 
protection of their new works. It is specially suit- 
able for fixing in mills and factories provided with 
steam power, the size of the cylinders being such 
that the full power of the pump may be obtained 
when using steam at as low a pressure as 20 to 
30 lbs. per square inch. Thus the engine is available 
for use during the night or on Sundays, when the 
fires are banked up and the boiler pressure has 
fallen. It is constructed on the lines of Merry- 
weather and Sons' Steam Fire Engine as used in 
the London Brigade, but arranged vertically, thus 
economising space. The pump is direct acting, and 
has a long stroke and a heavy flywheel, whereby a 
very even motion is secured. It is cast in one 
piece with the frame, the barrels and valve seats 




Fig. 24. 



69 



beiDg of gun metal and the valves of india-rubber 
of special form, as used in the '' Greenwich " 
engines. The whole of the interior of the pump 
may be quickly examined by removing four nuts. 
The suction and delivery outlets may be arranged 
to suit the position in which the pump is placed. 
The pump may be connected direct to the fire main 
throughout the building, and screwed outlets for 
the attachment of hose may also be provided. 




Fig. 25. 

The Grinnell automatic sprinkler, Figs. 25 
and 26, which is the most extensively used and 
widely known, has the peculiar feature of a spring 
diaphragm, forming the valve seat. The 
opening of the Grinnell is half an inch in diameter, 
and the flexible diaphragm surrounds it. The 
valve was until recently formed with a pad of 
soft metal, which is pressed against the lip of 
the diaphragm, and so closes it. The valve was 
kept in position by a stirrup and lever, the 



70 



stirrup being fulcrumed on the oval yoke, and 
the lever fixed to the yoke at its lower end 
by fusible solder. Many hundreds of thousands 
of Grinnell sprinklers made in this way have 
been put into use and proved useful on occa- 
sion, but the exposure of rolled brass levers to 
the influences existing in mills where gas is used as 
an illuminant was found to result unfavourably. 
Accordingly the valve now consists of a hemispherical 




Fig 26. 

disc of glass, which is made to fit tightly on to the 
spring diaphragm by a thin ring of Babbitt metal 
placed round the orifice. To avoid corrosion and 
adhesion, the diaphragm is made of German silver. 
The valve is held in position by a strut, also 
made of German silver, which consists of three 
metallic pieces soldered together and sustained 
by the yoke. The latter carries the deflector 
or splash plate, and the strut is entirely pro- 
tected by solder, so that every moving part of 



71 



it is rendered proof against corrosion. There are 
two features in the Grinnell sprinkler which at the 
time of its introduction were novel and valuable 
improvements. The one is the large orifice pro- 
vided, which was in striking contrast to the practice 
previously followed, and ensured an ample discharge 
from each head. The next point is the use of 
the deflector or splash plate, which provided in a 
simple but effective manner a means whereby the 




Fiu. 27. 

water was distributed evenly over a large area. By 
the adoption of this deflector in some form or other 
most sprinklers have since been distinguished, and 
by slightly altering its shape the direction of the 
spray can be determined. The distinctive feature 
of the Grinnell, however, is found in the elastic 
diaphragm, which, owing to the fact that the water 
can pass behind it, always remains tight, being in 
fact tightened by an increase of pressure. Further, 
if water hammer occurs, this, it is claimed, is 



72 



entirely taken up and cannot cause a strain on 
the strut. It ought not to be forgotten that these 
features stand to the credit of Mr. Grinnell. 

The Witter sprinkler, shown in Figs. 27 and 28, 
consists of a body A, the upper part of which is tubu- 
lar, and is closed by a valve B held up to its position 
by a screw E pressing against the underside of the 
valve spindle. The bridge C is detached, being 
arranged so that one end rests upon a shoulder 




Fig. 28. 

formed in the lever F and the other upon a cross- 
piece D fastened in the case. F and H are two 
levers, each pivoted .at one end, and soldered 
together by fusible solder at their free ends N. A 
set-screw E is fixed in the bridge C, as shown, and is 
set so that when the toe of C rests upon the 
shoulder in F the valve B is pressed against its 
seat and closes the orifice. The action is as follows : — 
When the fusible solder melts, F and H drop away 
and C falls from under the valve B. The water 



73 



then rushes through the orifice into the chamber G 
and finds its way through the holes formed at the 
top and bottom of the chamber surrounding the 
tubular portion of A. By a deflector K L the spray 
is distributed. It is claimed for the Witter that 
the strain on the solder is diminished, and the 
sprinkler can be tested when desired, which is a 
feature of some importance. 

The Wall worth sprinkler (Fig. 29) made in this 
country by Mr. S. Walker, of RadclifFe, has its valve 




Fig. 29. 



seat formed of a flat upper disc, having a special com- 
position beneath it, and also acting as a deflector. 
The valve spindle is guided by a cross-bar attached 
to the frame, and is in two parts, screwed one within 
the other, so that it can be lengthened as desired. 
Its lower end is hollowed, so as to engage readily 
with the hollowed end of a lever pivoted at the 
lower part of the frame of the sprinkler. When the 
lever is rotated on its centre the hollowed end acts 
as a cam and forces the valve on its seat. The lever 



74 



has a long leg, which, when in a vertical position, 
has its upper extremity above the valve orifice. A 
fixed horn is formed on the sprinkler body, and 
when the lever is raised a link can be passed over 
it and the horn, so securing it. The link is in two 
pieces, secured together by fusible solder, and as the 
lever is a little in tension when the solder is melted, 
the spring is sufficient to release the valve instan- 
taneously. The Wallworth has two advantages : 
(1) its efficiency can be at any time tested by a spirit 
lamp, which can be used to fuse the link, and so 
prove the sprinkler to be in condition ; (2) the 
pressure on the valve can be accurately adjusted. 
Further, the solder seal being above the water level 
is not subject to any chilling from this cause. 

The Titan Sprinkler, which is made by Messrs. 
Geo. Mills and Co., of Radcliffe, is shown in Fig. 
30 as closed. It consists of a cylindrical body, in 
which IS fixed a collar bored in the centre, through 
which the spindle of the deflector passes. The 
lower end of the body is formed into a valve seat, 
and the inside of the deflector is filled with a soft 
metal which closes the aperture well. A dished 
cap is screwed on to the lower end of the body, 
which serves the purpose of covering the deflector 
and valve, and at the same time acts as a support to 
the levers holding up the valve. An internal flange 
or lip is formed on the lower part of the cap, and 
on this cap one end of a channel-shaped lever rests, 
the other end resting on a second straight lever, 
which is also fulcrumed on the lip, but at the other 
side. The second lever passes through a gap cut 
in the cap and rests on a shoulder or flange of a 
small collar through which a tube passes. The 
tube has a flange at its upper end which rests upon 
a small bracket formed on the outside of the cap. 
The flange of the tube rests on a boxwood washer, 
and the outer collar is soldered to the tube by 
fusible solder, a second boxwood washer being inter- 
posed between the end of the lever and the sealed 
collar. The proportions of the two levers are 
such that the strain on the fusible solder is but a 



75 

small fraction of the weight on the valve, this 
forming one of the features of this sprinkler. The 
other chief feature is found in the employment of 
the boxwood washers, which, being non-conductors, 
prevent the joint from being affected by the 




chilling action of the water increasing its sensitive- 
ness. When the tubular jouit is melted the support 
is taken from the deflector, which immediately falls 
and allows the water to flow. The deflector spindle 
has a collar on its upper end which supports it on 
the collar fixed in the body. 



76 
CHAPTER VI. 

LIGHTING. 

The question of lighting is a most important one, 
and deserves a good deal of attention. In England 
the light is usually grey, and it is very rarely that 
there it is bright and clear, such as is usual in other 
parts of the world. The necessity which, there- 
fore, exists for a large window area in this country 
does not prevail in all others. At the same time it 
may be said that when the very wide rooms named 
are used, some extra provision for lighting is neces- 
sary. In the United States, for instance, there is 
an approximation to the English type of window, 
which is also being adopted on the Continent in 
some measure. Lighting is not the only thing to 
think about in designing a window. There is, in 
addition, the very important matter of the radia- 
tion of heat which takes place from glass. For in- 
stance, in Russia and other countries where excessive 
cold exists, double windows are the rule, and it is 
very easy to see why this should be so. The radia- 
tion from a large window is necessarily great, and 
when the external temperature is very low, the loss 
of heat must be proportionate. On the other hand, 
in countries where ample sunshine and intense heat 
prevail, as in India, the window area must be con- 
tracted to limit the quantity of heat passed into 
the room, as otherwise the conditions would become 
intolerable. The size of the windows used is, there- 
fore, limited in two ways, each of which, however, 
affects the problem of planning. This matter is 
further referred to at some length in the next 
chapter. With reference to the quality of the glass 
used, this is ordinarily either sheet or rough plate, 
each of which entails the loss of a considerable per- 
centage of the available light. Messrs. Coats used 
in their mill polished plate, which is probably the 
best medium available. At the same time, there are 
some kinds of rolled plate which are very useful in 
producing a diffused rather than a bright light, and 



77 



thus avoiding shadows. There is, therefore, plenty 
of room for the exercise of thought on the subject, 
and in giving two or three sketches of windows com- 
mon in this country, it must be understood that they 
may possibly require altering if used elsewhere. 




Figs. 31 and 32. 



The window shown in Fig. 31 is a very common 
English type. It will be noticed that the windows 
are separated by brick piers 3ft. by 3ft. 2in., which 
project outwards, the window itself being 7ft. wide 



78 

and from 7ft. to 1 1 ft. high. It is carried up, as shown, 
practically to the level of the ceiling, so that the 
light can travel easily across the room. One point 
may be specially mentioned If the transverse sec- 
tion in Fig. 32 is looked at, it will be noticed that 
the brick piers are arranged so as to have an in- 
ternal "reveal." In other words, the window frame 
is fitted into its place from without, and not from 
within the building, and is received by the project- 
ing brick provided for the purpose. The reason for 
this procedure is found in the enormous area of the 
window^, which, when subjected to the pressure of a 
high wind, would, it is urged, be liable to blow in if 
fixed from within. On the other hand, there are 
many windows with outside reveals and large areas, 
which are securely fixed. The upper sash of 
the w^indow is made as a transom, so as to be easily 
opened for ventilating purposes. 

The window designed by Messrs. Potts, Son, and 
Pickup for their latest mills is shown in Fig. 33. 
as arranged for the end wail. It will be seen that 
it consists of an iron or wood frame 9ft. 3in. wide, 
with the wmdow head square, and having above 
it the iron lintel previously referred to. The pier 
between the window frames is, in this case, 5ft. Gin. 
wide and about 3 ft. thick, and carries the end of 
one of the longitudinal beams, which are placed 
14ft. 9in. apart. Lengthwise of the mill the special 
construction of the lintel, previously referred to, 
enables the cross joists, carrying the floor, to be 
sustained at any point where necessary. The height 
of the window depends, of course, upon that of the 
room ; but assuming it to be applied to a room 
15ft. high, then the window area w^ould be 139 
square feet. This area, it wall be seen, is not so 
much broken as the example in Fjgs. 31 and 32, 
the stanchions being of comparatively small 
size. The window sill, as shown, ^ forms a 
string course around the building. A flat-headed 
window, such as this, is naturally best when used 
in conjunction with a flat concrete floor, and when 
so used gives an admirable diffusion of light through- 
out the room. 



80 



A new system of construction, called the '^Praray," 
is being introduced into the United States, by Mr. C. 
R. Makepeace, of Providence (Rhode Island), which 
has for its object the provision of a large window 
area. This is obtained by the employment of an 
angular window and a reduction of the brick piers, 
which practically makes them merely pilasters, as 
shown in Figs. 34 and 35, and the difficulty with 
which the constructor is at once met in this case is 
that of carrying the upper floors entirely indepen- 
dently of the walls. As shown in Fig. 12, the ordi- 
nary American construction provides for the ends of 
the main timbers being carried by the walls, and of 
necessity this involves the provision of piers of 
sufficient strength. In the Praray construction the 




Fig. 34. 

floors are carried on independent columns, which are 
placed, as shown in the plan view in Fig. 35, in the 
angle of the window. The brick piers may be solid, 
or, as shown, hollow so as to serve for ventilating or 
heating flues, and the window frames are angularly 
disposed, so that the light freely enters from either 
direction. In the arrangement as proposed the 
window is the entire height of the room, which ap- 
pears to the writer to be alike unnecessary and 
detrimental, as there is no need of light near the 
floor level, while the danger of breakage is increased. 
If the window terminated about 3ft. 6 in. from the 



81 



floor all necessary purposes would probably be 
served. As designed, however, 86 per cent of the 
wall area is glass and only 14 per cent of brick, 





Fig. 35. 

which it will be admitted is an unusual proportion. 
The section given, Fig. 36, shows clearly the arrange- 
ment of a two-storey building, the hot air flue being 
in the right hand corner. 




With regard to artificial light the most customary 
one is gas, but the employment of the electric light 
is gradually being extended in this country and 
elsewhere. It is admittedly a better light for 

F 



82 

the purpose, and in cost is said to have proved 
as cheap as gas for large installations. The fol- 
lowing are the principal rules which are laid down 
by the insurance offices, in carrying out electrical 
lighting installations. The dynamo must be fixed in 
a dry place, and must not be exposed to dust or fly. 
It must be left quite clean and the bearings well 
oiled. The coils and conductors must be perfectly 
insulated, and, if possible, the dynamo itself should 
be on an insulating bed. All the conductors must 
be well and firmly supported, be laid so as to be 
conveniently got at for inspection, and should be 
marked in some way for identification. It is cus- 
tomary to lay the conductors in troughs and 
cover them by flat wooden strips. The switch- 
boards must be made of slate, and all the 
switches and commutators so constructed that 
they can, after being moved, be left without pro- 
ducing a permanent arc or heating. The main 
circuits must each be provided with a fusible safety 
catch. The proportioning of the wires must be so 
carried out that they are correct for the current and 
for the changes of current from larger to smaller. 
Safety catches, firing at 1 50° F. must be provided 
and enclosed in cases formed of incombustible 
material. The heating of wires is a sign that they 
are too small for their work. The permissible 
limits of safe current for lighting is fixed by the 
Fire Risk Committee at 1,000 amperes per square 
inch of sectional area. The ampere is the unit of 
current, and is obtained by dividing the electro 
motive force by the resistance of the conductor, or 
technically, the volts by the ohms. The intensity 
of current wanted by an ordinary 16-caudle power 
lamp is equal to from about '6 to 1 ampere, and 
in cases where a number of lamps are in circuit, it 
is more convenient to use a conductor with a 
number of strands. All the circuits should be 
complete in themselves, and must not be made 
up by the use of gas and water pipes. Outside un- 
covered metallic wires must be insulated for two 
feet on each side of each supporter, which is also 



83 

insuLated, and if they are carried over roofs must 
be seven feet clear above the ridge. All the 
joints must be made perfect, bath electrically and 
mechanically. Underground cables must be easy 
of access for inspection and repairs, and all the 
wires laid inside must be efficiently insulated. 
Where a wire passes through a partition or is 
liable to be abraded, it must be protected by a 
special casing, and all wires laid out of sight must 
be protected, and their position indicated. Arc 
lamps must be guarded by globes, which are them- 
selves protected by wire netting. 

The lamps which are most usually employed for 
the purpose of lighting cotton mills are of the incan- 
descent type, usually 16 caudle power, and are sus- 
pended from the ceiling by the conducting wires. 
The following description of a recent installation 
will supplement the foregoing abstract of the rules, 
and will give some idea of the method of carrying 
them into effect. 

As a recent example, a description of an electric 
installation put in by Messrs. J. H. Holmes and 
Sons, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, is given. In all, 
800 incandescent lamps of 16 candle power 
have been fitted within the mill, 132 in each 
spinning room, 80 in each cardroom, and 50 in the 
mixing and reeling rooms, and 400 lamps of 200 
candle power without it. A "Castle" dynamo, 
with an output of 57,500 watts, and capable of 
supplying 900 16-candle power lamps, is driven 
from the shafting by a friction clutch at a speed of 
450 revolutions per minute, which is slower than 
that sometimes run. A small pilot dynamo, with 
an output of 25,200 watts, and capable of supplying 
395 lights, and driven by an independent engine, 
is also fixed. The electrical efficiency of these 
machines is 96 per cent, and the commercial effi- 
ciency 92 per cent. The dynamos are compound 
wound, and the electrical pressure is the same for 
any number of lamps. This provides the power for 
three circuits, which light the engine and boiler 
houses, the offices, staircases and passages, and 



84 



about one-third of the lamps in each room. By a 
special arrangement of switchboard, any room in 
the mill can be put into circuit with the pilot 
dynamo, which is capable of fully lighting two 
rooms. The main use of the latter, however, is to 
provide light prior to starting and after stoppage. 
The main switchboard, which is made of polished 
slate, is near the dynamo, and there are eight main 
switch connections taken to a corresponding number 
of cut-outs, which act if an excess of current of 
150 per cent over the normal occurs. The mains 
are carried on each side of the mill, so as to give a 
uniform pressure, and wherever a branch wire is 
placed a cut-out is inserted. Each row of lights 
has a separate switch. The wires are laid in 
wooden grooved cases and covered with a wood 
capping, and the lamps are suspended from the 
ceiling. 



CHAPTER VII. 

HEATING, VENTILATION, AND HUMIDITY. 

The necessity for some improved method of heat- 
ing, ventilating, and humidifying the atmosphere of 
mills is becoming yearly more admitted. The neces- 
sity is greater abroad than in England, where there 
is, as a rule, a sufficient amount of humidity in the 
air. But as competitive conditions become more 
intense it is found that it is as essential to have a 
uniformity in this respect as in others. While the 
readings of a hygrometer during a week will show, if 
an average be taken, the relative humidity to be, 
say, 85, a detailed examination of the record will 
demonstrate that there will be a variation in the 
same day of as much as 12 degrees. Thus there mav 
be prevailing during that period conditions w^hich 
are widely divergent, and as there must be some 
definite amount which is the best, it follows that 
all these conditions cannot be so. What is 
desired, therefore, is uniformity in the relative 
humidity, and it is this factor which is causing 



85 

the wide adoption of instruments for this pur- 
pose in Great Britain. Where a dry air prevails, 
so that the relative humidity averages less than 
that required to produce the best results, it 
becomes more imperative to employ some arti- 
ficial means of obtaining it. In most cases it 
has been the practice to be conteat with simply 
injecting or discharging into the room the required 
amount of moisture, but the method of combin- 
ing it with a similar discharge of the required volume 
of fresh air is slowly coming into vogue. The 
large range of temperatures which exists in the 
United States has probably led to more drastic 
treatment of this problem than has hitherto been 
adopted here. The more common practice in heating 
is to employ high-pressure steam, conveyed in ranges 
of wrought-iron pipes suspended from 7 to 8 feet 
above the floor level. Ti>ese pipes use steam at a 
pressure of from 60° to 100° F , and are capable of 
giving off a large amount of heat. The area which 
it is necessary to provide to heat a room of any given 
capacity naturally varies according to circumstances. 
One rule which is given is to provide one square 
foot of heating surface for each 100 cubic feet. 
Another is to provide one square foot for each 10 
square feet of glass or for each 120ft. of wall space. 
The rule laid down by the Boston Mutual Company 
is one lineal foot of l:|in. pipe for each 70 cubic feet of 
air. These rules are obviously subject to adjustment 
to suit various circumstances, and are only approxi- 
mate. The advantage of high-pressure steam lies 
in the fact that the condensation per square foot is 
greater than with lower pressures, which implies 
the emission of more heat units per square foot. 

There is necessarily a certain loss from the trans- 
mission of heat through the avails and windows of 
any building, the amount varying directly with the 
difference between the temperature within and with- 
out the building. The German Government have 
gone into this question with the usual Teutonic 
thoroughness, and have laid down a rule and a 
number of coefficients which are of high importance. 



86 



The formula they use are as follows : H = SC (T - ^) 
where H = heat lost ; S = transmitting surface in 
square feet ; C — coefficient of transmission ; T = tem- 
perature inside building in degrees Fahrenheit ; and 
t = temperature outside building in degrees Fahren- 
heit. The coefficients C are as follows, dealing only 
with those applicable to mill buildings. For each 
square foot of wall, 9in. thick, 043 ; 14iu. thick, 
0-29; 18in. thick, 0-24; 23in. thick, 0-21 j 24in. 
thick, 0*20. For 1 square foot of wooden floor of 
American type, as ceiling, 0'104 ; 1 square foot of 
fireproof floor boarded as ceiling, 0*1 45 ; 1 square 
foot of single window, 0'776 ; of siugle skylight, 
1-118; of double window, 0-518; of double sky- 
light, 0-621 ; and of door, 0-414. These are co- 
efficients which are correct when the conditions are 
normal, but can with safety be increased if there 
are certain exposures, or if the building is only 
occasionally heated. These necessary allowances 
range from 10 to 50 per cent, and are greatest when 
during cold weather the building is heated inter- 
mittently. Assuming, however, that we are 
dealing with a spinning room, with a temperature of 
85° F., and an outside air temperature of 25° F., a 
difference of 60° F., then, by our formula, if the 
number of square feet in a single window be as in 
the case of Fig. 33, the amount of heat trans- 
mitted is H = 139 X -776x60 =-6471 -84 units. In 
this way the transmission through the walls, ceil- 
ings, and floors could be calculated, and it would 
be thus easy to ascertain how much heat must be 
supplied in order to recoup the loss. The case 
taken is, of course, a severe one, but worse are 
likely to arise elsewhere. An examination of 
the coefficients will show how large a part in cold 
countries thick walls, double windows, and small 
window areas play in the conservation of heat. 
There is another matter which requires mention on 
this head, viz., the fact that ceiling transmission 
may play an important part in the abstraction of 
heat. For instance, in a slate roofed weaving 
shed with nothing on the bare slates, within or 



87 

■without, the temperature would soon be diminished 
by radiation through the roof only ; and when to 
this is added the large glass area always present, it 
will be seen that the area of heating surface re- 
quired is greatly increased. In a spinning mill, 
where the various rooms are kept practically of the 
same temperature, the transmission through the 
ceilings and floors may be neglected except in the 
top floor ; but it is obvious that the abstraction of 
heat through the windows and walls cannot be 
neglected. It follows, therefore, that this trans- 
mission requires the careful attention of designers, 
and although the empirical rules given previously 
will probably be sufficient for practical purposes, the 
coefficient stated will prove the absolute necessity 
for discretion in constructing and an*anging plants 
for heating. 

The quantity of air which can be heated by lib. 
of steam, condensed into water and discharged at 
any temperature, can be calculated by the follow- 
ing formula. The specific heat of air is relatively 
to water "2379, whence 4-20341bs. of air can be 
heated at the same expenditure of heat as lib. of 
water. 

Let T = Heat units contained in lib. of steam at any abso- 
lute pressure. 
^ = Heat units in lib. of water of condensation. 
"\V = \Yeight of one cubic foot of dry air at initial 

temperature. 
V = Volume of air which can be heated by lib. of 

steam. 
X = Number of degrees air must be raised. 
X = Volume of air raised required number of degrees 
by lib. of steam. 

Then i:?2iylz^ = VaudX=^X 
VV N 

Having obtained the value of X, the number of lbs. 
of steam which are needed to heat any given space 
can be easily obtained. Thus, assuming that steam 
at lOOlbs. absolute is used, containing 12134 heat 
units and condensed, the water then containing 
212-9 heat units ; that the initial temperature of 
the air is 40° F., at which the weight of one cubic 



88 

foot is •07941bs. ; and that it is desired to raise it 
to 80° F., or 40° in all, then the formula works 
^^^ 4-2034 (1213»4-2129 )^,,,gg ^^^^ 52966^ 

•0794 40 

1324*15 cubic feet of air raised through 40° F. by 
the condensation of lib. of steam. If now 50,000 

cubic feet are to be warmed ^-—^ — -— = 37 'Gibs, of 

132415 

steam are required for the purpose. The value of 
high pressure, as compared with low pressure, steam 
as a heating medium, depends entirely upon the 
additional condensation per hour from each square 
foot of surface. This is obtained by multiplying 
the difference in temperature between the air and 
steam at initial pressure, or between the terminal 
temperature of the condensed water and the initial 
temperature of the steam, by the number of heat 
units passed per square foot of surface per hour at 
any given temperature of the air, and dividing the 
product by the latent heat of steam at atmo- 
spheric pressure. It will be found that this 
amount rises with the initial pressure of the 
steam. With reference to the amount of heat 
emitted. Dr. Anderson gives a formula as follows : 
T = temperature of air, t = difference in temperature 
between steam and air, m = co-efficient of radiation, 
and ^i = total heat units emitted per square foot. 
The value of m for a coil of 2m. galvanised wrought- 
iron pipes is 270*9, and for a coil of 4in. cast-iron 
pipes, 121-7. Then u = mx 1 •00427'^(1 '00427* - 1) 
-I- 2853 X J '233. It has been shown that the 
emission of heat from a cast-iron pipe 4ins. dia- 
meter, Jin. thick, and with an area of 1 '309 square 
feet per lineal foot is 664 thermal units into air at 
62° F., with a condensation of •991bs. of steam at 
115lbs. absolute. The rule given by Mr. Eobert 
Briggs for open pipe radiators is 1*8 unit per 
hour per square foot of heating surface per de- 
gree difference in temperature between the steam 
and air. Thus each square foot of wrought-iron 
pipe would, with steam at lOOlbs. absolute pressure, 



89 



at a temperature of 327*7°, if cooled to 80° F., yield 

247-7 X 1-8 units per hour = 444'86. Dividing this 

by the latent heat at atmospheric pressure, we get 

444*86 

„-, - = •461bs. of steam condensed, which will 
yoD'T 

enable the quantity required to be ascertained. 

The water of condensation is sometimes passed 

away by the employment of a steam trap of the 

usual construction, but is more often returned to 

the boiler by means of a special form of trap. In 

order to facilitate the necessary calculations, Tables 

24 to 26 are given at the end of the volume, 

showing the properties of saturated steam, the 

w^eight, etc., of air, and the heat units in water. 

Table 11 gives the surface areas of various diameters 

of tubes per foot run : — 

TABLE 11. 

SuRFACR OF Tubes in Square Feet per Ltkeal Foot. 



rJiam. 






Thickness in Inches. 






in 










Inches. 





















i 


i 


1 \ h 


^ 


■i 


i 







•0327 


•0654 


•0982 -1309 


•1636 


•1963 


•2291 


1 


•2618 


•2945 


•3272 


•3600 1 -3927 


•4^254 


•4581 


•4909 


2 


•5236 


•5563 


•5890 


•6218 ^6545 


•6872 


•7200 


-75-27 


3 


•7854 


•8181 


•8508 


8836 ^9163 


•9490 


•9817 


1-0145 


4 


1-0472 


1^0799 


1-1126 


1^1781 1-1781 


1-2108 


1-2435 


1-2763 


5 


1-3090 


1-3417 


1-3744 


1-4399 1 1-4399 


1-4726 


1^5053 


1-5381 



Instead of adopting the plan of heating by 
suspended steam pipes, the practice of forcing 
into a factory air which has been previously 
heated and, if necessary, humidified, is being 
adopted. It entirely depends upon the source of 
supply whether any improvement is made in the 
ventilation or not. If the air is drawn in from 
without it is obvious that a complete change of 
that within the room will take place. If, on the 
other hand, the same air is used over and over 
again, the injection of moisture does not affect the 
ventilation. No delusion is greater than that 
which infers the establishment of healthy ventila- 



90 



tion merely by the presence of a large cubic area 
within a room. The removal of foul, and the re- 
placement of it by fresh, air is absolutely essential 
to ventilation. This is recognised by the Cotton 
Cloth Factories' Act, and the plan generally 
adopted is to place air propellers in suitable positions 
throughout the room so as to extract the foul air. 
The usual method of fixing these is shown in Fig- 
37, which is an illustration of the use of a " Black- 
man " propellor. The exit trunk is made of wood, 
and is provided with doors so hung that they close 
automatically, thus avoiding back draughts. The 




Fig. 37. 



usual size of propellor for each 2,500 square feet of 
floor surface is 14in. diameter, and this will move 
from 1,000ft. to 1,500ft. of air per minute. The 
cost of providing air-propellors, including fixing and 
belting, ranges from <£6 to £Q 10s. each in this 
country. The ventilation of a sizing room is spe- 
cially arranged, there being hoods over the drying 
cylinders, by which the steam is confined and con- 
ducted to an exit trunk fitted with bafiles to pre- 
vent down currents. So far as spinning mills are 
concerned, the only rooms dealt with are the card- 
rooms, where in some cases air-propellors are fixed 
in the window near the cards to extract the fibre. 



92 



Although this tends to improTcment, it is neither 
so scientific or effective as the more modern 
principle, which forces the air into the room. 
It is well known that the capacity of air 
for the reception and retention of moisture is 
greater when the air has been previously heated. 
Accordingly the practice is increasing of in- 
jecting air which is both warmed and charged 
with humidity. In Fig. 38 some sketches are 
given of an arrangement designed by the Stur- 
tavant Company for application to a modern 
American mill. Although this is only devised to 
deal with the injection of heated air, it is perfectly 
easy to introduce into the air the required amount 
of humidity. In this way a perfect ventilation is 
obtained, and the air of the room kept at an even 
temperature. 

The reason for the commencement of humidifying 
in this country was to enable tiie easier weaving of 
the heavily-sized calicoes. In the United States of 
America, and other districts where there is a preva- 
lent dry atmosphere, the practice of introducing 
humidity into the air has long been known. Further, 
it has been discovered that there are certain places 
where the extra dryness of the air seriously militates 
against successful manufacture. In spite of this 
the growth of scientific methods of humidifying has 
been very slow. The flooding of the floors of 
spinning and weaving rooms with water is a 
recognition of the necessity for some provision of 
the sort, the operation here being a slow evaporation 
arising from the heat of the rooms. All these plans 
are crude and unsatisfactory, alike from the point 
of view of efi'ectiveness and economy, and it is not, 
therefore, surprising that other modes were sug- 
gested. The first plan adopted was to inject 
steam into the room with pipes carried across, but 
the humidity necessary was obtained only at the 
cost of a largely increased temperature combined 
with the extensive deposition of moisture. As 
a result of the opposition to the injection of 
steam the Cotton Cloth Factories' Act was 



93 

passed, and fixed by its provisions the quan- 
tity of air to be supplied per head, and the 
maximum amount of humidity which was permis- 
sible. Six hundred cubic feet of fresh air per 
person was fixed as the air supply, and a schedule 
of maximum humidities was also drawn, which has 
been since slightly amended, the amended table 
being given as Table 12. The importance of the 
introduction of fresh air arises from the fact 
that it improves the condition of the atmosphere 
from a sanitary point of view, a considerable 
reduction in the volume of carbonic acid being 
effected. At this point it may . be well to 
give a word of warning as to the form of hygro- 
meter used. A standard instrument is made 
by Messrs. John Davis and Sons, Derby, of which 
Mr. Osborn says : " This firm has produced an ex- 
cellent hygrometer, in which the glass of the tube 
magnifies the mercury column, so as to render the 
errors in taking the readings which arise from the 
ordinary thread-like columns impossible with ordi- 
nary sight." The essence of a correct hygrometer 
is the entire separation of the reservoir of water 
from the dry bulb thermometer, and it should be 
not less than 4 inches away. In many instruments 
sold for this purpose the construction is such that 
the position of the reservoir must affect the dry 
bulb thermometer. One form is sold in which a 
reservoir for cold water is provided between the two 
thermometers, thus exercising a decidedly chilling 
effect. Care must be taken to keep the resei-voir of 
the wet bulb thermometer filled with water. 

It should be carefully noted that the figures 
in Table 12 (see page 94) indicate the 
maximum limits, and do not mean that they 
must always be worked to. In all practical 
appliances for producing humidity in weaving sheds, 
therefore, there are two factors to be kept in view, 
the introduction of the defined volume of air, and 
the charging of it with the requisite moisture. For 
spinning rooms, the introduction of the air is not so 
essential. It can now be seen how it is proposed 
to effect these objects. 



94 



TABLE 12. 
Maximum Limits of Humidity of Atmosphere at given 
Temperatures. 



> O !^ 

ol2 

go's 


•5 . 

iji 


1 

1 


Go .2 
^ 1 


1 Grains of vapour 
per cubic foot 
of air. 


i 

bS bb 


1 

5 


O .'H 

III 


1-9 


35 


33 


80 


6-6 


68 


66 


88 


2-0 


36 


34 


82 


6-9 


69 


67 


88 


2-1 


37 


35 


83 




70 


68 


88 


2-2 


38 


36 


83 




71 


68-5 


85-5 


2-3 


39 


37 


84 


71 


72 


69 


84 


2-4 


40 


38 


84 




73 


70 


84 


2-5 


41 


39 


84 




74 


70-5 


81-5 


2-6 


42 


40 


84 


7-65 


75 


71-5 


81-5 


27 


43 


41 


84 


77 


76 


72 


79 


2-8 


44 


42 


85 


8-0 


77 


73 


79 


2-9 


45 


43 


85 


8-0 


78 


73-5 


77 


3-1 


46 


44 


86 


8-25 


79 


74-5 


77-5 


3-2 


47 


45 


86 


8-55 


80 


75-5 


77-5 


3-3 


48 


46 


86 


8-6 


81 


76 


76 


3-4 


49 


47 


86 


8-65 


82 


76-5 


74 


3-5 


50 


48 


86 


8-85 


83 


77-5 


74 


3-6 


51 


49 


86 


8-9 


84 


78 


72 


3-8 


52 


50 


86 


9-2 


85 


79 


72 


3-9 


f.3 


51 


86 


9-5 


86 


8C 


72 


41 


54 


52 


86 


9-55 


87 


80-5 


71 


4-2 


55 


53 


87 


9-9 


88 


81-5 


71 


4-4 


56 


54 


87 


10-25 


89 


82-5 


71 


4-5 


57 


55 


87 


10-3 


90 


83 


69 


47 


58 


56 


87 


10-35 


91 


83-5 


68 


4-9 


59 


57 


88 


107 


92 


84-5 


68 


51 


60 


58 


88 


11-0 


93 


85-5 


68 


5-2 


61 


59 


88 


111 


94 


86 


66 


5-4 


62 


60 


88 


l]-5 


95 


87 


66 


5-6 


63 


61 


88 


11-8 


96 


88 


66 


5-8 


64 


62 


88 


11-9 


97 


88-5 


65-5 


6-0 


65 


63 


88 


12-0 


98 


89 


64 


6-2 


66 


64 


88 


12-3 


99 


90 


64 


6-4 


67 


65 


88 


127 


100 


91 


64 



95 

There are two principal opposing schools on this 
subject, who each employ a special set of appliances. 
There are first, those appliances which produce a 
spray by the action of an air or water jet under 
pressure against an emerging stream of water ; each 
appliance being practically complete in itself and a 
series of the instruments being disposed about the 
room. In America, these are called with admirable 
directness "atomisers." In the second place there 
is that class of apparatus w^hich charges the air 
with the moisture prior to injecting it into the 
room and distributes it by means of pipes. 

The Drosophore, which is one of the first type, 
produces the necessary subdivision by the action of 
two water jets. Two nozzles (see Fig. 39), one des- 
cending and the other ascending, are placed exactly 
opposite each other. The aperture in the lower 
nozzle is slightly smaller than that in the upper 
one, but both are fed from the same source, with 
w^ater at about lOOlbs. pressure. The water emerging 
from the larger aperture is met by the ascending 
jet, and forced into a fine spray, while the force of 
the downw^ard current is sufiScient to create a rapid 
current of air, which, with the atomised moisture is 
discharged into the room, being distributed by the 
action of a dished plate. The method of arranging 
these instruments about a room is shown in Figs. 
40 and 41, as applied to a ring spinning room and 
weaving shed respectively. The Drosophore has 
been largely adopted, and is made in two forms, 
one of which can be easily fixed into the windows, 
(see Fig. 40) so as to act, if necessary, as a venti- 
lating apparatus. The water used can, if desired, 
be heated. 

The second class of humidifying apparatus takes 
two forms. In the first a steam nozzle is fixed at 
the entrance to a tube connecting either to the 
outer air or to the room to be treated, and by 
means of which a combined mixture of steam and 
air is injected into the building. Mr. Iloger Pye, 
of Blackburn, makes an appliance of this nature 
(see Fig. 42), and in his case he distributes the 



96 

combined air and vapour into the room by maiu 
pipes and branches from them (see Fig. 43). The 
pipes are made of zinc, and are provided with out- 




lets, the area of which can be closed by small 
slides in order to regulate the distribution. This 
device is simple and under control, and a water jet 
is supplied by which, if desired, a small quantity of 




H< 



\ 



^- 



N 



/ 




.-^^ 



T i T 

A i Jc 









^ 


■Wl- 


■: 


X 






w 


•w 




i! 


^ 










; 










< 


X 


y^ 










1 

1 




*—' 


3. 
1 < 




A-- 


1 


» 



Ml 



98 



water can be injected. A test of the air of a 
weaving shed provided with this appliance before 




Fig. 42. 
and after it was fitted showed 18 8 parts of C0._, per 
10,000 before, and 7*6 after. A second shed pro- 
vided with two fans per 1,000 looms, showed 14 1 




S KCTt O r^ ffrrou jl h A. b. 

Fig. 43. 



100 

parts before, and 7 parts after application ; and a 
spinning room with two fans to 22,000 spindles 
showed 15 "7 before, and 6*2 afterwards. This is a 
fair sample of the purification obtained by the 
introduction of fresh warmed air, and must have a 
great influence upon the health of the operatives. 

Another form adopted by Messrs. Jas. Howorth 
and Co., of Farnworth, is Lofthouse's apparatus, 
which is of the absorption type, and shown in Fig. 44. 
This consists, first, of a cylindrical vessel B, into 
which the air is drawn by the suction of a fan C placed 
beyond it. In this chamber the air can be heated 
by steam as it passes through. The hot or cold 
air, when taken from this chamber, is discharged 
by a pipe passing down the centre of a cylindrical 
vessel D. The pipe discharges a little above the 
bottom of the vessel, in which is always kept a 
certain depth of water, regulated by means of a ball 
tap, as shown at E. At the upper part of this 
vessel the discharge pipe leaves and is conveyed 
through the room which is being treated. In this 
pipe are placed the requisite number of discharging 
orifices, for each of which a small distributor is 
provided. The distributor is given a rotary move- 
ment by the passage of the air, and ejects it in 
all directions. The efi'ect of this arrangement is 
that, whether heated or not, the air is sent with 
great force into the water, and produces in it a 
considerable disturbance, being practically passed 
through it. The result is that it is charged with 
moisture very thoroughly, and, when it leaves the 
vessel, contains a mixture of air and vapour in an 
intimate condition. The height of the second 
vessel is such that no drops of water can be carried 
over. It is quite true that there is a slight 
deposition of water which has not been absorbed by 
the air, but it is not great, and, what is important, it 
takes place in the conveying tubes, and the water does 
not find its way through the distributors. In connec- 
tion with this apparatus it may be mentioned that 
by means of a special indicator it may be set so as 
to fix the quantity of moisture injected per hour. 



101 

Messrs. Howorth also make an apparatus of the 
spray type, which, however, in some respects 
partakes of the principle of the "Lofthouse." It 
consists of a cylindrical vessel, at one side of which 




is a fan, and within which is a sprayer consisting of 
a drum provided with fins or vanes. This revolves 
at a quick speed, and as it dips into water at each 
revolution it produces a very fine and copious spray. 
The water is kept at a constant level by means of a 



102 



tank and ball tap. By means of a steam coil the 
water can be heated to any extent which may be 
desired, and the result is that as the air is driven 
through the spray it takes up a large volume of 
moisture, thus acting as an absorber. The humid 
mixture is then driven forward by a tube, and is 
delivered into the air by a sort of distributing tray, 
forming it into a broad current which rapidly 
spreads over the room. Although the water is 
heated to a considerable extent occasionally, the air 
enters the room at the ordinary temperature. This 
is very remarkable, and enables the apparatus to be 
used as a heating and ventilating device as well as 
a humidifier. The apparatus is arranged to be fixed 
to a wall so as to be out of the way, and will deliver 
up to five gallons of water per hour, all of which can 
be ejected into the room. 

A very simple plan has been adopted by Messrs. 
Potts, Son, and Pickup in some recent examples. 
Beneath the floor, in lines extending under the 
looms along the shed, small trenches or culverts 
are formed, which are kept full of water. The 
culverts are made by a specially moulded brick, in 
the underside of which a semicircular groove is 
formed which is kept filled with water. The 
distance between the crown of the groove and the 
top of the brick is small, and it is found that the 
porosity of the brick allows the water to ooze 
through it, and thus be gradually absorbed by the 
air in the room. Two of these bricks are placed 
side by side, and as they come underneath the loom 
the moisture immediately affects the warps. It is 
obvious that this system is difficult to apply to 
a spinning room, but there are many other uses to 
which it is admirably suited. It involves, of course, 
the preparation of the floor, but the results have 
been found satisfactory. This system is also appli- 
cable to conditioning rooms. 

The value of humidity in a textile factory is that 
it preserves the natural moisture in the fibre being 
treated, and enables it, as far as possible, to 
maintain its original condition. The heat of 



103 



spinning-rooms iti cotton mills, for instance, is 
such that unless there was some vapour contained 
in the air, the amount of natural moisture, which is 
about 8 per cent, would very speedily be diminished. 
On the other hand it is equally necessary that the 
temperature of working should be high, in order to 
soften and render flexible the natural coating of wax 
surrounding the fibre. 

It has been pointed out that there is a difficulty in 
maintaining an even degree of humidity if natural 
means only are employed ; and, further, the usual 
method of heating mills has the disadvantage of 
drying the air. The presence of heated steam pipes 
in a room, especially if they are filled with high 
pressure steam, speedily leads to a drying of the 
air. This property has an immediate effect upon 
any fibres which are dealt with in such an atmo- 
sphere. In cotton an electrical condition is created, 
which causes the fibres to project outside the thread 
or roving, and thus escape being twisted into the 
yarn, wbich is weakened thereby. To avoid this 
trouble — which is greater abroad than in this 
country — humidification is absolutely necessary. It 
has been proved by repeated observations that when 
a uniform relative humidity is maintained the 
evenness of the weight and substance of the yarn 
is better obtained, and tliis is a matter of supreme 
importance. 

As to the exact amount of humidity to be produced 
in any room, this is a point upon which nothing 
definite can be said. The amount needed is often 
lower than is sometimes thought to be necessary, 
but there are so many circumstances which affect 
the problem that it is quite impossible to give even 
an approximate rule. If, however, the form of the 
humidifier be determined on, then the ascertain- 
ment of the exact conditions is easy, and requires 
little, if any, trouble, The only thing to be noted 
is that the advantage of artificial humidity is that 
the required degree can be obtained with exacti- 
tude independently of the ordinary meteorological 
fluctuations. Accurate records which have been 



104 



kept demonstrate that when a proper degree of 
humidity is maintained, not only does the evenness 
of the thread produced improve, but the amount of 
waste made by the clearers is less. On the other 
hand, an excess of humidity causes licking, and tells 
against economical work. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

CALCULATION OF MACHINES IN MILL. 

To illustrate for the guidance of readers the 
method of planning a cotton spinning mill for any 
particular counts, the following example is given : — 
The calculation is affected by two factors, the draft 
given in the various machines and the spindle speeds 
adopted. The production is affected by each of 
these, so that they must be fully considered. As- 
suming that 32's twist is to be spun, and that a 
start is made from a drawn sliver of '16 hank, 
then the hank slubbing being -625, intermediate 
roving 1*75, and roving 4 hank, the calculation for 
the machines would run out as follows : — With a 
spindle speed of 600 revolutions and a roller speed 
of 161 the production per hour would be l*61b. 
In like manner the intermediate frame spindles 
with a velocity of 800 revolutions and a front roller 
speed of 132 would each produce '561b. per hour, 
and the roving spindles running 1,000 revolutions 
with a front roller speed of 119 would each pro- 
duce 'IQlb. per hour. Putting the production of 
the mule at "01 81b. per hour, and of the ring frame 
at 'OSllb. per hour each, with a spindle speed of 
7,000 revolutions, then we are enabled to formulate 
the number of machines required to produce a given 
weight. To produce 30,0001bs. per week of 56 
hours or 535-71bs. per hour, 29,761 mule spindles or 
17,358 ring spindles would be required. To pro- 
duce the roving for these, allowing for waste say 
5*31bs. per hour, making altogether 5411bs. of 
roving wanted, 2,847 roving spindles are required. 
Now making an allowance of lOlbs. for waste, 



105 

5511bs. of intermediate roving is required, thus 
necessitating the use of 984 intermediate spindles. 
If Ulbs. be considered to be a fair allowance for 
waste^ then to produce 551 + 11 = 562]bs. hourly 
340 slubbiug spindles are needed. Plus waste 
121bs., 5741bs. of drawn sliver are required from the 
finishing head, so that with a production of IS'Slbs. 
per hour the number of finishing deliveries of drawing 
required are 30. If three passages are made 90 
heads in all are required. Coming to the carding 
engines and allowing for the waste there made, 
which would not be less than 281bs., w^e get the 
need for 6021bs. of carded sliver per hour. As- 
suming the production to be 8501bs. per week, or 
151bs. per hour, 40 carding engines are required. 
We have thus got the following as the needs of a 
mill of the capacity named. 29,761 mule spindles 
or 17,358 ring spindles, 2,847 roving spindles, 984 
intermediate roving spindles, 340 slubbing spindles, 
90 drawing heads, and 40 carding engines. To pre- 
pare the cotton for the carding engines three 
finishing and three breaking scutching machines 
would be sufficient, and by running an opener at 
its full capacity one vertical opener would suffice. 
In addition to these machines the usual bale 
breaking and mixing machines would be required. 

Having got the above particulars, the next thing 
is to settle the size of the machines used, so as to 
get a convenient mill. Taking the mules, 28, each 
containing 1,095 spindles, could be used. These, 
if Ifin. gauge, would be 131ft. long, and would 
necessitate a room of 137ft. internal width. 
Seven pairs of mules being in each room, its length 
would be about 165ft., so that the card room and 
basement would be 165ft. by 137ft., and in that 
space the cards, drawing frames, and all roving 
frames want disposing. This is a matter of planning 
which can be easily worked out from the known 
spaces occupied by the various machines. 

If ring frames are employed instead of mules the 
planning will be affected, because the 17,358 ring 
spindles would have to be arranged so as to give 



106 



the most profitable results. As a rule in this 
country, at the ordinary high speeds, from 600 to 
650 ring spindles can be attended to by one 
minder with the aid of the doffers. As there is 
a passage between each pair of machines, this 
means that the attendant could best manage the 
spindles on two adjoining frames. Thus a frame 
of 300 to 325 spindles would fulfil this condition, 
and these would occupy— if 2|in. gauge— about 
35ft. 6in. and 38ft. respectively. Placing two 
frames across the room, and allowing 8ft. for alleys, 
would give a building 79 or 84ft. wide. This will 
obviously affect the planning, and would probably 
render it necessary to have two card rooms instead 
of one. It will, of course, be understood that these 
instances are only given as examples to illustrate 
the procedure of planning. There are many other 
considerations which must be taken into account, 
such as, for instance, the class of cotton used, as 
this factor affects the quantity of finished material 
from a given weight. A change in the drafts of 
the various machines modifies their output, and so 
alters the proportions of each used, while the 
acceleration or diminution of the velocities still 
further affects the calculation. 

In laying out a thread mill two sets of machines 
are required. It is customary in making thread to 
twist two ends of yarn together first, and, after 
re- winding, to twist three of the doubled threads 
together. In this way six-fold sewing thread is pro- 
duced. This method of working implies the use of 
doubling winding machines. The output of these 
depends upon the counts which are wound, but an 
average speed of working is one in which 5,000 
inches of each end of yarn is wound on to the 
bobbin per minute. In thread making this speed is 
exceeded ; but assuming it to be correct, 139 yards 
of each end per minute will be wound. If two-fold 
thread is to be made, this would mean that 278 
yards would be wound per minute. Thus the 
number of yards wound per week of 56 hours can 
be easily obtained by multiplying the number of 



i 



107 

yards wound per minute by 3,360. From 
the product a percentage of from 7 J to 10 
can be taken for stoppages, and the remainder 
being divided by 840 will give the number 
of hanks. By dividing the latter by the counts 
of single yarn, the output of the winding frames 
can be obtained. Thus let it be supposed that 
50's two-fold are being wound, the weekly number 
of yards wound per bobbin will be 2 x 1 39 x 3360 = 

934,080 - 93,408 = ^^^ ~ ^^^ = 1002 ^ 50 = 2002 
840 

lbs. per week. A ring doubling frame with a 
spindle speed of 6,000 revolutions per minute will 
produce of 50's 2-fold, with a twist of 25 turns to 
the inch, 16oz. per week, so that one drum of 
doubling winding is equal to 20 twisting spindles 
on this computation. In dealing with the re- 
winding, the 50's 2-fold must be looked upon as 
25's single, and the computation of the output of 
the rewinding machines must be made on the basis 
of three ends of 25's yarn. This illustration will 
suffice to show the principle, but it is not possible 
to give an accurate statement of the output of 
doubled yarns, because the counts twisted and the 
number of turns per inch vary so much. The pro- 
ductions are, even with yarn of the same class, 
widely different, owing to the variation in the 
twist given. In addition to the machines named, 
the following are required for polishing and 
spooling. A winding frame for producing spools, a 
beaming machine, a cleaning machine, dyeing becks, 
or bleaching keirs, a second beaming machine, a 
beam polishing machine, a re-winding machine, and 
the necessary spooling machines. If soft thread is 
wanted the polishing machine is dispensed with. A 
polishing machine is capable of producing 1201bs. 
of SO's three-fold in 10 hours, and the plant named, 
less the polisher, will turn out 5,6701bs. per week 
of soft thread. A spooling machine of eight heads 
will produce 26 gross of 200yd. spools in lOJ hours, 
or 748,800yds. of thread. The equipment of a 



108 

thread mill is simple, but no uniform procedure can 
be laid down owing to the variation in the circum- 
stances. If the doubled thread is for lace 
purposes it is cleared and gassed, and for these 
operations vertical spindle winding machines and 
gassing frames are required. 

In planning a weaving shed regard must be had 
to the character of the cloth it is intended to 
weave. The output of a loom is determined 
mainly by two factors— the number of picks 
put in per minute and per inch. These are 
what determine the speed of the loom, and 
depend naturally upon the character of the work. 
Thus a plain calico or twill can be woven at a higher 
speed than a fancy or leno cloth. It is, therefore, 
essential to know the number of picks made 
as a preliminary to calculating the output 
per loom, and following that the number re- 
quired. A fair output of plain cloth 30 inches 
wide from one loom is 250 yards in 56 hours. The 
other machines required to prepare the yarn for 
weaving are first :— Cop or bobbin winding machines 
to produce warper's bobbins 1 -5 spindles to each 
loom, one beam warping machine to each 80 to 90 
looms, and with a medium number of picks per 
minute, one slasher sizing machine for each 300 to 
330 looms. To these must be added the necessary 
frames for drawing-in, etc If the yarn has to be 
dyed reels are necessary for winding it into hank, 
drum winding machines for re-winding it on to 
warper's bobbins after dyeing, and pirn winding 
frames for preparing the weft for use in the shuttle. 
The output of a bobbin reel on 20's twist in a w^ek 
of 5Q hours is SOClbs. ; of a cop reel in the same 
time 4001bs. A fair apportionment of the other 
machines named is as follows :— Pirn winding 
machine, 5 spindles to each loom; hank winding 
machine, 4 bobbins to each loom. If the warping 
is done, as is now somewhat common, on a sectional 
warping machine, one such machine can be provided 
for medium counts for each 60 looms. All these 
proportions must be varied in accordance with the 



109 

counts of yarn and permissible velocity. The ex- 
amples given on pages 109 to 116 will further 
illustrate the range of machines required in a com- 
plete installation, and fairly represent the general 
arrangement of a weaving shed. 



CHAPTER IX. 

EECENT EXAMPLES OF MILLS. 

In Fig. 45 a view is given of the Minerva Spinning 
Company's Mill, and in Fig. 46 a plan of the card 
room. This mill is designed to spin 40's twist and 
65's weft yarn, the machinery being made by Messrs. 
John Hetherington and Sons, Limited, and has since 
it commenced work fully given good results. It was 
designed, so far as the mill building is concerned, 
by Mr. Sidney Stott, of Oldham. In another portion 
of this issue we give particulars of the engines. The 
mixing room is provided with the usual machinery, 
by which the cotton is fed to two combined single 
openers and single scutching machines, the openers 
being on the Crighton principle, and fitted with the 
special grids patented by Messrs. Hetherington. 
There are four single-beater intermediate scutching 
ma chines with lap attachment, and four single- 
beater machines for finishing the laps. The latter 
produce laps 38in. wide, to supply cards with that 
width of wire. The plan shows that the mixing and 
blowing rooms are divided from the main mill by 
the rope race. The carding engines, of which there 
are 93, are of the revolving flat type. The diameter 
of the cylinder is 50in., and, as has been said, they 
are 38in. wide on the wire. The flexible bend is 
trued up by the makers' special apparatus, and is 
fitted close up to the cylinder edge so as to obviate 
"blowing out." The flats are 104 in number, of 
which 42 are always at work, and they are clothed 
over their whole surface. The drawing frames are 
nine in number, each frame having three heads of 



11: 



[: 



seven deliveries each, and 18in. gauge. They are 
fitted with front and back stop-motions, and sinf^le 
preventers. As will be seen from the plan they are 
conveniently placed among the slabbing frames, so 
that the drawings can be dealt with without undue 
labour. The slubbing frames are also nine in 
number, and have 86 spindles each, four spindles 
in 20in. Adjoining these are the intermediate 
frames, of which there are 13, with 132 spindles, 
six in 19fin. It will be seen that the drawing' 
slubbing, and intermediate frames occupy the 
same row, and the number of deliveries, or 
spindles, are such that all of them are as nearly as 
possible the same length, about 39ft. The roving 
frames are in the same room, and are 40 in number, 
each of them having 180 spindles, with eight 
spindles in 20in. This gauge makes the length of 
the roving frames over all iOft. 6in. These frames 
have extra large cones, which are as far apart as 
possible, and there are several features of interest 
in them which space does not enable us to deal 
with. In the first spinning room there are 20 
mules each with 1,320 spindles l^in. gauge ; in 
the second 16 mules each with 1,326 spindles 
IJin. gauge, and 10 mules each with 1,086 
spindles If in. gauge; and in the third room 26 
mules each with 1,092 spindles Ifin. gauge. It 
is perhaps worth calling attention to the additional 
spindles which are fitted in the higher spinning 
rooms, as compared with those immediately below? 
The narrower gauge is of course used for spinning 
weft, there being in all 47,616, and the wider for 
the twist mules, of which there are 39,252. The 
total number is, therefore, 86,868. The mules used 
in modem mills have, during the past few years, 
been remodelled, and are much more simple and 
effective. They have also been so far strengthened 
that a much larger output is got and higher speeds 
obtained, which cheapens production. Summarising 
the machinery in this mill, therefore, the account 
runs thus : — 



113 



Mule Spindles. 

2 vertical openers and scutchers = 1 to 43,434 

4 intermediate scutchers = ,, 21,717 

4 finishing scutchers = „ 21,717 

93 carding engines = ., 934 

63 finishing deliveries of drawing = \, 1,380 

792 slubbiug spindles = ,, 109'7 

1,716 intermediate spindles = „ 50-6 

6,680 roving „ = „ 13 

86,868 mule „ = 

As was said, this mill has now been working fcr 
some time, and has during that period been 
successful, the production of 38's twist averaging 
30 i^ hanks per spindle per week, and of 56's weft 
26| hanks. 

In Fig. 47 a view of the Milton Spinning Com- 
pany's mill at Mossley, designed by Messrs. Stott and 
Sons, of Manchester is given, and in Fig. 48 a plan 
of the card room. This mill has also been filled 
with machinery by Messrs. John Hetherington and 
Sous, Limited, and was arranged to spin 46's weft 
from American cotton, but is actually spinning a 
very wide range of counts, from 12's to 70's wefr. 
It will be observed that there is in this plan 
a deviation in the arrangement from that preced- 
ing. The mixing and blowing rooms do not 
occupy, as before, the whole of the ground floor at 
one end. There are in the former the usual 
feeding machines, which deliver to three combined 
openers and single scutchers, followed by five 
single beater intermediate, and five finishing 
scutching machines. There are 81 revolving flat 
cards of the same pattern as those previously 
named, with 50in. cylinders, 45in. on the wire. 
It will be seen that this mill is fitted with wide 
cards which, in some respects, are preferred for 
certain counts. The drawing frames are nine in 
number, each with three heads of eight deliveries 
and 18in. gauge. The arrangement of these frames 
relatively to the slubbers is similar to that pre- 
viously described. Of the slubbing frames there are 
nine, each containing 96 spindles, 4 in 19in. The 
intermediate frames number 17, each of 144 spindles, 

H 



116 



with 8 spindles in a box 25. Hn. gauge. The roving 
frames number 42, each of which has 184 spindles, 
and 8 spindles in a box 20in. gauge. As before, the 
lengths of these frames approximate, which is a 
very convenient practice. The mules are all 
designed for the spinning of weft yarns, and are 
contained in three rooms. In the first room there 
are 24 mules, each with 1,356 spindles l^in. 
gauge, in the second 24, each 1,368 spindles, l^yu. 
gauge, and in the third 24, each having 1,344 
spindles llin. gauge. It is somewhat noticeable 
that the number of spindles in each room very 
closely approximates, being, in the first room, 
32,544, in the second, 32,832, and, in the third, 
32,256, making a total of 97,632. An average pro- 
duction of 24J hanks per week of 70's weft is 
being obtained. Pursuing the same procedure as 
before, this mill contains : — 

Mule Spindles. 

3 opening machines = 1 to 32,544 

5 intermediate scutchers = 1 „ 19,526 

5 finishing „ .-^ i ^^ 19,526 

81 cardins: engines =^1,, 1,205-3 

72 finishing drawing deliveries ... = 1„ 1,3437 

864 slubbing spindles = 1 „ 113 

2,448 intermediate = l '^' 399 

7,728 roving .".' = 1 " 12-6 

97,632 mule 

The details of these two mills vary somewhat, 
but if the counts to be spun are taken into con- 
sideration, the variation is fully accounted for. The 
plan and arrangement of the card rooms in both 
instances is very good and compact. 

In Figs. 49 to 52 illustrations are given of 
a mill plan supplied by Messrs. Howard and 
Bullough. The mill, when finished, will spin 
yarns from 20's twist to 44's weft. The general 
elevation of the mill is shown in Fig. 49, the 
card room plan in Fig. 50, the first floor plan in 
Fig. 51, and the second floor in Fig. 52. It will be 
noticed that the blowing room is separated from the 
main building, and is placed below the mixing room, 
in which there is first a bale breaker feeding to 





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ffl 

m 
m 



Eaira 



a 



m 
ij|;te|iM!ica 



'•:n:EQl(Ei:!rEa 



118 



I, 



lattices which deliver the cotton into stacks. In 
the same room two hopper feeding machines, else- 
where described in this issue, are placed, these 
delivering by air trunks to two exhaust opening 
and lap machines combined. The laps thus formed 
are fed to four single beater intermediate scutching 
and lap machines, and the resultant laps are finished 
on four finishing scutching machines of like con- 
struction. In the card room there are 54 
revolving flat cards, these having 50-inch cylinders 
37 inches wide on the wire. The doffers of 
these cards are 26 inches diameter, and the 
machines are fitted with the appliances for set- 
ting, grinding, and slow driving of cylinder and 
flats, which are now commonly supplied, and 
are familiar to spinners. The drawing frames 
are, as shown in Fig. 50, disposed conveniently 
among the cards, so as to save labour as far as 
possible. They are fitted with electric stop 
motions, and are as ordinarily constructed by the 
firm. There are nine of these machines, each 
with three heads of six deliveries each. As the 
sliver makes three passages, there are necessarily 
54 finishing deliveries. There are seven slubbing 
frames, disposed in one row between the cards and 
roving frames, but they are arranged in a peculiar 
way. Thus the two slubbing machines at the 
right-hand side serve three intermediate frames 
and nine roving frames which are opposite to them, 
which may be called group A. These frames are 
also specially arranged. Thus, beginning near the 
rope race, there are first four roving frames, then two 
intermediates, then three roving frames, one inter- 
mediate, and, finally, two roving frames. The next 
group B consists of two slubbers, three intermediates, 
and seven roving frames, the order being— starting 
from the last group— two roving, two intermediates, 
three roving, one intermediate and two roving 
frames. Group C consists of one slubbing, 
two intermediate, four roving frames, the inter- 
mediates being in the centre of the roving machines. 
Finally, in group D, the remaining two slubbing 




120 

frames serve three intermediate and seven roving 
frames, the order of which is similar to those of the 
groups they resemble. It will be seen that this is 
a well thought out plan, and in its chief features 
requires some little comment. The disposition of 
the various machines relatively to each other 
enables the whole room to be worked with very 
little labour of carriage, as the successive stages 
follow one another perfectly. Further, the group- 
ing of the roving machinery in the manner described 
enables the room to be worked in sections, so to 
speak, which, as will be noticed from the counts to 
be spun, is necessary. 

The slubbing frames in group A have 72 spindles 
each or 144 in all; the intermediate frames 126 
spindles each = 378; and the roving machines 160 
spindles each = 1,440. In group B the arrangement 
is 2 slubbing machines of 76 spindles = 152 ; 3 inter- 
mediates of 126 spindles = 378; 7 roving machines 
of 160 spindles = 1,120. Group C has the following 
composition : 1 slubber 76 spindles ; 2 intermediates 
ot 100 spmdles each = 200; 4 roving frames of 160 
spindles = 640. Group D is made up as follows: 
2 slubbers of 60 spindles- 120 ; 3 intermediates 
ot 106 spindles = 318; and 7 roving frames of 160 
spmdles each = 1,120. The importance of this 
grouping will be made clear when the size and 
number of the ring frames and mules have been 
stated. The ring frames are disposed on the 
second floor, as shown in Fig. 52, and the mules 
on the first floor, as in Fig. 51. Of the former 
there are 28, each containing 380 spindles, or in 
all 10,640, these spinning 33's twist; 20, each of 
o48 spmdles, or in all 6,960 spindles, spinning 20's 
tw^ist; and 10, each containing 432 spindles, or 
4,o20 in all, spinning 24's weft. The 20 self- 
acting mules have each 900 spindles, or 18,000 
together, and spin 44's weft. The set of speed 
frames in group A has the following production. 
Ihe slubbmg frames produce in 72 hours 107-161b8 
per spindle of -6 hank slubbing -= 15,4281bs. 
The intermediate frames produce of 1-6 hank 



122 



roving, 40-821bs. per spindle, or 15,4281bs. in all 
per week; and the roving frames, 10-721bs. per 
spindle of 4-75 hank roving, equal to a weekly out- 
put of 15,4281bs. These serve the 28 ring frames 
of 380 spindles, which produce 1-45 hanks per 
spindle of 33's twist, or 15,4281bs. weekly. Thus 
this set of machines forms a complete section, which 
can be practically separated from the rest of the 
mill and worked independently. The same thing 
occurs with the other groups, which may be thus 
tabulated : — 

Group B. 

Slubbing, 152 spindles, 126-S51b. per spindle of -.5 hank = 192S01b 
intermediate, 3(S spindles, 511b 1-05 _ 

Roving, 1,120 spindles, 17-221b " " " 3-X- " ^ " 
Rings, 6,%0 spindles, 2-771b. ',] ',' ',', 2o"s twist= ',', 

Group C. 
Slubbing, 76 spindles, 126 •751b. per spindle of -5 hank = 96331b 

Rings, 4,320 spindles, 2-23]b. '' ',' ]] 24's weft = " 

Group D. 

Slubbing 120 spindles 107-25]b., per spindle of "6 hank = 12,8701b. 
Intermediate, 318 spindles, 40-51b. , 1-6 = 1°'"^". 

Roving, 1,120 spinales, ll-14lb. ' " " '-'--" " 

Mules, 18,000 spindles, 



ri5lb. 



44's weft= 



In all it will be seen that 57,2111bs. of cotton 
are required weekly for this production, which the 
preparatory machines are quite capable of giving. 
The details given show the plan to be well conceived 
and executed, and demonstrate the different con- 
ditions prevailing in this country and elsewhere. The 
mill thus arranged gives practically four complete 
sets of machines, which enable the variety of work 
required to be produced economically without loss 
of power or labour. The card room especially is 
notable for that feature, and is as well arranged as 
is conceivable. 

Fig. 53 is a perspective view specially prepared 
by the architects, Messrs. Potts, fcson, and Pickup, 
of two mills erected for the Societe Cotonnidre 
d' Hellemmes, Lille. One of these mills has been 
at work two or three years, but the other, which is 
at right angles to it, is only now being erected. 
A cotton warehouse is placed in the space between 




gff'il ll WEll 



m 





124 

the two mills, this being one-storeyed. The mills 
are arranged for spinning 50's twist and 60's weft. 
It will be noticed that each is constructed with 
the wnidow which has been illustrated, and so far 
as the fabric is concerned, it is of the steel and 
concrete floor type previously described. The whole 
of the machinery for both mills has been provided 
by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow, Limited. It con- 
sists of the usual series of machines for spinning 
these counts, but does not contain any combing. ° 
Fig. 54 is a plan of the cardroom of the Bediive 
bpinmng Mill now being erected near Bolton 
under the direction of the same architects 
When finished, the mill will contain 118,000 
mule spindles, and will be employed in spinnincr 
an average of 60's counts of yarn. As shown, the 
tull scheme includes two mills, but only one is now 
being erected. This will have five storeys, and is in 
Its general arrangement of usual construction. Re- 
verting to the plan of the cardroom, it will be seen 
that adjoining the engine house, and extending out- 
wards from the main building, is a shed in which 
the intermediate and roving frames are placed. 
Ihe wall of the upper storeys at that side is carried 
by strong pillars and girders, thus givinc^ ample 
access between the shed and cardroom, which prac- 
tically become one. The engine house is also built 
out from the main block, and the rope race par- 
tially divides the blowing room wing from the card 
roorn.^ The blowing room contains 4 double openin^r 
machines of Messrs. Dobson and Barlow's welf 
known type, combined with hopper feeds, and six 
smgle-beater scutchers. There are 160 " Simplex " 
carding engines arranged along one side of the 
room, and driven by two line shafts placed as indi- 
cated. These cards have cylinders oOin. diameter 
and are 39in. on the wire. In all, there are 36 
drawing frames, of which 8 have one head each of 
eight deliveries, and 28 have each 2 heads of eight 
deliveries of 16in. gauge. There are, therefore, 
012 deliveries of drawing. Following these ma- 
chines are 16 slubbing machines, each containino- 80 



IZD 



spindles, and of Sin. space. These are similar in 
construction to those described above, and supply 
32 intermediate frames of 138 spindles each, 
and of 6Jin. space, and 42 roving frames, 
each containing 210 spindles, of 4^in. space. 
The plan shows that the slubbing frames are 
shorter than the intermediate frames adjoining 
them, and that the space left is filled by four bob- 
bin boxes conveniently placed. The total number 
of spindles is, as stated, 118,000. This card room 
is an instance of supplementing an otherwise 
inadequate floor space by a shed, in preference to 
making a second card room. This is a custom to 
be commended. 

In Fig. 55 a plan of a one-storey mill arranged 
to spin, weave, dye, and finish cotton goods is given. 
This is the design of Messrs. Brooks and Doxev, and 
the mill from this plan was executed and furnished by 
them in Brazil. The chief feature in it, apart from its 
completeness, is the admirable arrangement which 
practically results in the cotton entering at one end, 
and then following a regular course uutil it emerges 
at the other end as finished cloth. The cotton 
enters the store, and after being subjected to seed- 
opening machines, passes into the ginning room, 
where it is freed from seeds, and is taken to the 
mixing room, in which there are three feed 
tables delivering to dust trunks. These convey 
it to three combined exhaust openers and 
scutchers, which supply five intermediate and 
five finishing scutcher.^. From these the laps 
pass directly into the card room, in which 
the carding machines, drawing, and speed frames 
are placed. In the same room there are all 
the ring spinning frames, both twist and weft. At 
the end of the ring room is the rope race, the engine 
being placed about midway, so as to form in a sense 
two wings, and adjoining the engine room in the 
first wing is a completely fitted mechanics' shop. 
After the yarn leaves the spinning room it passes 
into the winding and warping department. In 
this there are reeling, winding, warping, beaming, 



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□□ oa UU uu na cxd □□ on ozi a _ 




I 



I 



127 



and sizing machines, the sizing room coming imme- 
diately behind the boiler room. From the sizing 
room access is got to the weaviug shed, and this 
communicates with the bleaching, dyeing, and 
finishing rooms, and finally to the warehouse 
whence the cloth is despatched. Any one who has 
followed this description, along with the plan, will 
see that the cotton follows a regular course 
through the factory, and that there is literally no 
turning back w^ith its accompanying labour. This 
is the cardinal feature of the plan, but it is a very 
meritorious one. 

In all, this mill contains 33,536 ring spindles 
and preparation, and 1,000 looms and preparation, 
in addition to the finishing plant. Before detailing 
the machines used, it will be as well to notice the 
very complete driving arrangements. The engines 
and boilers occupy the centre of the building, the 
economisers being behind the boilers, and the 
chimney being brought to the front of the building. 
All the shafting is rope driven, and, as shown, the 
various line shafts in the ring room are inde- 
pendently driven. The cards and speed frames are 
driven directly from the line shafts, while the two 
sets of ring frames are driven from the line shaft by 
means of belts passing over gallows pulleys. The 
second motion shaft is carried across the sizing room, 
and forms one of the Ime shafts in the loom shed ; 
but also acts as a counter from which the remaining 
lines in the shed, and in the dyeing and warping 
department are driven, a second rope race being 
provided for the purpose. This is a most convenient 
and compact arrangement, and serves the purpose 
of dividing the building into sections, which is not 
without value in case of fire. The light is obtained 
by an ordinary weaving shed roof, but it will be 
noticed that the lights are vertical, a most essential 
point in a climate of this character. 

The machinery contained in this mill is as follows, 
taking it in departments : — 



128 



Spinning Depaetment. 
Two seed openers ; 24 double roller gins ; 3 feed 
tables ; 3 combined exhaust openers and scutchers ; 
5 intermediate scutchers ; 5 finishing scutchers ; 
80 revolving flat cards; 1 waste picker; 9 
drawing frames, each three heads, of 8 deliveries • 
9 slubbing frames of 94 spindles; 18 inter- 
mediate frames of 126 spindles; 32 roving 
frames of 160 spindles; 52 ring twist frames of 
320 spindles, 2|in. gauge ; 48 ring weft frames of 
352 spmdles, 2iin. gauge ; 2 ring doubling frames 
of 320 spmdles, 2f in. gauge ; 6 double 40-hank 
reels. 

Weaving Department, 
Six winding frames of 336 spindles each ; 3 pirn 
frames of 100 spindles each ; 2 sectional warping 
machines ; 1 hank sizing machine ; 1 winding-off 
machine ; 4 sizing frames and 1 size mixer ; 6 
drawing-in frames; 5 looming frames; 20 beam 
stands ; 1,000 looms ; 4 folding machines ; 1 cloth 
press, 1 bundling press, and 1 baling press ; 1 cloth 
marking machine. 

Bleaching and Dyeing. 

One kier, 4ft. by 40 by 4ft. 6in. ; 1 mixing 
machine and 1 hank w^ashing machine ; 2 hank 
dyeing cisterns ; 2 indigo vats and 1 circular indigo 
mill ; 1 wringing post and four tubs ; 1/32 hydro- 
extractor. 

Finishing. 

Two sewing machines; 1 three-bowl starch 
mangle ; 1 drying machine ; fittings for 3 starch 
boiling tubs ; 2 double hooking frames ; 1 damping 
machine, 1 belt stretcher, and 1 pasting table ; 1 
three bowl friction calender. 

Fig. 56 is a plan of a second combined spinning 
and weaving mill, also provided with a finishing 
plant, and designed and furnished by Messrs'! 
Brooks and Doxey, but smaller than the last 
example. It will be noticed that, with certain 
variations, the general scheme is not unlike the 



II 



129 

preceding example in the arrangements made to 
facilitate the forward movement of the material 
until it emerges from the warehouse. The cotton 
enters at the left-hand corner of the buildino:, at 
which point the store is placed, and is fed to a com- 
bined opener and scutching machine, which prepares 
laps for subsequent treatment by a breaker and 
finisher scutcher respectively. In the card-room at 
the point adjoining the blowing room 18 revolving 
flat cards of the Wilkinson type are placed, these 
having 50in. cylinders 37in. wide on the wire. The 
slivers produced are dealt with by two drawing- 
frames, each having three heads of seven deliveries 
each. There are two slubbing frames, each con- 
taining 94 spindles and ITMn. gauge, 4 inter- 
mediate frames of 126 spindles each and 19 Jin. 
gauge, and 8 roving frames, with 380 spindles each 
and 20 Jin. gauge. These supply the rovings for 16 
ring spinning-frames, which contain 380 spindles 
each, and are 2Jin. gauge for twist spinning ; and 
for 20 weft frames of 300 spindles, which are of 
2^in. gauge. Looking at the plan, it will be noticed 
that the slubbing, intermediate, and roving 
machines, which are respectively marked G, H, I, 
are driven directly from a line shaft running at 
250 revolutions per minute, and so placed that the 
cards are also driven from it. The ring frames are 
driven from a line shaft running at 300 revolutions 
per minute by means of gallows pulleys. Both 
these shafts are driven directly from the main rope 
drum, the rope race forming a dividing chamber, as 
shown. Five air propellors are fixed in the roof of 
the shed so as to aid in the work of ventilation. 

A second rope race is placed, as shown, and in that 
part of the building which is between these races the 
winding and warping machines are placed. These 
consist of two vertical spindle winding frames of 
300 spindles each, intended to wind the yarn on to 
5in. warping bobbins. Four beaming machines 
follow these, and one sizing machine, with a size 
mixer with three becks, is also placed, as shown, in 
a partially separated room. Four drawing-in frames 
I 



w 



130 

and eight beam stands complete the equipment of 

this part of the building. In the weaving shed 

proper there are 280 looms, with 38in. reed space, 

arranged, as shown, to be driven from line shafts,' 

the pulleys on which are fixed in such positions that 

four looms can be driven from each. This gives a 

very compact arrangement. In the finishing room, 

• seen at the left-hand corner of the loom shed, there 

are the following machines : One drying machine, a 

three-bowl water mangle, a two-bowl starch mangle, 

two starch tubs, a belt stretching machine, and a 

breaking and damping machine. The warehouse 

has the usual machines, viz., a cloth folder, a cloth 

press, a cloth marker, a jenny machine, and a small 

hydraulic press and pump. The mechanics' shop is 

placed arongside the engine house, which occupies 

the centre of the buiding, and contains a planing 

machine, an Sin. slotting machine, a drilling machine^ 

a wheel-cutting machine, a 12in. slide lathe, and a 

small vertical engine. 

The speeds of the various machines has been care- 
fully arranged, and, as the following details will show, 
are designed to be high. The opener beater runs 
at 1,085 and the scutcher beaters at 1,518 revolu- 
tions per minute. The carding engine cylinders 
make 164, and the front roller of the drawing frame 
355-5. The speed frames have the following 
spindle velocities : Slubbers, 664: ; intermediate, 
812 j roving frames, 1,199. The ring frames are 
arranged to revolve at 8,650 revolutions per minute. 
It is, of course, true that this mill is designed for 
spinning and weaving what, to English readers, are 
coarse goods, but it has been thoroughly thought 
out for its purpose. Preparation has been made for 
the introduction of the electric light, and lamps 
are proposed to be hung in the positions marked 
with a cross. Both of the plans presented are 
excellent samples of that type of mill which is 
exceedingly useful in countries just beginning to 
spin and weave cotton, and may be said to mark 
the highest point of that stage of progress. In each 
case the plan is carefully devised and the details 



131 



fully considered, and each forms an interesting 
example of its class. 

In Fig. 57 an illustration of the card room of the 
Park Road Spinning Company's mill, which is now 




approaching completion, is given. The machinery 
for this has been made by Messrs. Asa Lees and Co. 
Limited, and is designed for the spinning of the 



132 




ordinary medium counts from American cotton. 
These range from 32's to 40's twist and 40's to 50's 
weft, so that of all the mills illustrated this forms 
the one most typical of the staple Oldham trade. 
The engine house is placed as usual on one side of 
the mill, the rope race partially dividing the build- 
ing into two sections. In order to accommodate 
the whole of the cards on one floor, part of them 
are placed in a small shed carried out at one side, 
the wall being carried for the upper storeys in a 
strong girder supported by pillars. The blowing 
room has the mixing room above it, and in 
the latter there is a bale breaker, with over- 
head lattice for stacking the cotton. The latter 
is fed to the opening machines by two porcupine 
openers with regulating apparatus and auto 
matic feeders. These deliver by suitable dust 
trunks to two exhaust openers and lap machines 
combined. This combination of porcupme feed 
table, opener, and lap machine is being largely 
employed successfully, and forms a very effective 
arrangement. The addition of an nutomatic feeder 
makes it somewhat more complete. The laps from 
the openers are fed to four single beater scutchers, 
which in turn supply four finishing single beater 
scutchers, making laps suitable for 44ni. cards. 
The carding engines are 96 in number, and are of 
the revolving flat type, having cylinders 50in. 
diameter, and 44in. wide on the wire. These are 
arranged as shown, and are driven from two line 
shafts fixed in the position indicated. The drawing 
frames are placed in sets of threes between the 
cards and roving machines, and number in all 15. 
Each contains four heads of four deliveries each, 
17in. gauge, so that there are 240 deliveries in all, or 
80 finishing deliveries. The slivers from the drawing 
frames feed 10 slubbing frames, each containing 
98 spindles 18in. gauge, which supply 17 inter- 
mediate frames 140 spindles each, 25i\in. gauge. 
There are two sets of roving frames; one set, 20 
in number, being 20iin. gauge, and the other set, 
24 in number, being 19in. gauge. Of the former. 



M I 

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ordi 

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the 

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the 

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card 

Each 

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80 fin 

frame 

98 s^ 

medi; 

There 

in ni 

24 ir 



133 

18 contain 176 spindles each and 2 have 172 
spindles each ; while all the latter contain 192 
spindles each. The males are equally divided so 
far as numbers go between twist and weft, but 
there are more spindles devoted to spinning the 
latter. The twist mules number 38, containing in 
all 41,844 spindles, the gauge being Ifin. ; and the 
weft mules, which also number 38, contain 50,436 
spindles, a total of 92,280. There are two things 
to note in this mill. The first is the fact that the 
cards are wider than those used in some of the 
other cases ; and. the second, that of all the in- 
stances given this one alone furnishes an example 
of a mill devoted to the typical Lancashire counts. 
The proportions of the machines to the mule spindles 
are as follows : — 

Spindles, 

2 openers = 1 to 46,140 

4 breaker and 4 finisher scutches ... = 1 „ 23,070 

96 carding engines = 1 ,, 961'2 

80 finishing drawing deliveries = 1 ,, 1,153"5 

980 slubbing spindles = 1 „ 94*4 

2,380 intermediate „ = 1 „ 39 

Twist Spindles. 

3,512 roving „ = 1 ,, 11-91 

Weft Spindles. 

4,608 „ „ = 1 „ 10-94 

41,844 twist mule „ 
50,436 weft „ 

In Fig. 58, a reproduction from a photograph of 
the Nevski. Thread Mill, St. Petersburg, which 
belongs to a syndicate of English owners, is given. 
It is situated on the banks of the River Neva, 
which is shown as frozen over, and consists of two 
mills, the older one being in front and the newer 
one lying at the back. The latter w^as erected from 
the designs of Mr. W. J. Morley, Bradford, to whose 
courtesy the author is indebted for the loan of the pho- 
tograph. It will be noticed that the windows of the 



134 

new mill do not show quite such a large area of 
glass as ni England, the clear atmosphere rendering 
this unnecessary. It may be mentioned, however, 
that all the windows are double. 



CHAPTEK X, 

STEAM BOILERS, 

The boilers used in cotton mill practice in Enc^land 
are of the Lancashire type, with or without Galloway 
tubes, water tube boilers, although preferred else- 
where, not meeting with much favour here. In spite 
of the mcrease in steam pressures this style of boiler 
contmues to be the favourite, and is now workintr 
at pressures up to 2501bs. to the square inch. Gaf- 
loway tubes are generally specified, and their wide 
adoption IS in itself testimony to their usefulness. 
The boilers are now universally made of steel, or so 
nearly so that the statement is practically true, 
and as more use has been made of this material the 
methods of manipulating it have improved. It is 
not too much to say that steel boilers are better 
made, and are more reliable than iron boilers 
formerly were. In order to enable our readers to 
appreciate the character of a modern boiler we give 
them a copy of a specification of a Lancashire boiler, 
intended to work habitually at a pressure of 2001bs! 
to the square inch, and which has been so working 
for about two years. A good specification is an 
important matter, and afi^ords primd facie evidence 
that the details have been thought out. The specifi- 
cation referred to was drawn by Mr. J. F. L. Crosland 
the Chief Engineer of the Boiler Insurance and 
bteam Power Company, Limited, and the boiler 
was made to his approval. Attention is particularly 
called to the clause giving the tests to which the 
plates must be subjected. 



135 

SPECIFICATION FOR A STEEL 

LANCASHIRE BOILER. 

Working pressure 200tbs. to the square inch, to be delivered 
on its prepared seating. Length, 28ft. ; diameter, shell, 
8ft. in eight or nine rings of one plate each, flues, 3ft. 
2in. in at least 18 rings of one plate each ; shell plates, 
^|in. ; straps, inside, fin,, outside, fin. ; ends, ^^in. ; 
flue plates, ^nin. ; shell and gusset angles, 5 x 5 x f . 
Circular seams double riveted, longitudinal seams butt 
jointed, treble riveted. 

CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT. 
Drawings. 

Before the work is put in hand the makers are to provide 
and supply a tracing on cloth to the owners, and also a 
similar tracing to their engineer for sanction and concurrence, 
each tracing drawn to scale with figured dimensions, showing 
clearly the general arrangement of boiler, mountings, setting, 
etc., and in addition detail tracings with figured dimensions 
of all mountings, and of the riveting, and of the staying 
of the ends, and notwithstanding any such sanction or 
concurrence, or the approval after inspection of the work by 
any i-epresentative of the said engineer or his representative, 
the contractors will be required at their own expense to 
make good any defects which may arise from faulty design, 
material, t»r workmanship during the period of twelve 
months after the boiler has been set to work. 

It is to be understood, however, that in the event of the 
boiler being insured, the stipulation is not intended in any 
way to relieve the Boiler Insurance Company from the 
responsibility incurred upon them by the Policy of Insurance. 

Material and Workmanship. 

The workmanship must be of the best, and the material 
must be free from defects of any kind of the best boiler 
quality supplied by the steel makers. The boiler is to be 
open for inspection by the engineer or his representatives at 
any time during construction as well as on completion of the 
work, and to be tested and completed in every respect to 
the satisfaction of the said engineer. 

Brand of Plates. 

The plates must be made by the Siemens-Martin acid 
process, and the brand of the plates must be stated in the 
tender. The brand and tensile strength and elongation must 
also be clearly stamped on every plate in such a position that 
it can be seen from the outside of the boiler when finished, 
and the maker's certificate of the tensile strength of every 
plate must be forwarded. 



136 



Margin for Variation. 

_ It is to be understood that no plate will be passed for use 
in the boiler which is not fully up to the specified thickness 
and weight, and it is assumed that the margin usually 
allowed for variation in roHing the plates, say five per cent, 
wil , in accordance with the practice of the best makers of 
boiler plates, be above the specified thickness and weight. 

Tests of Plates. 

strips from the steel plates aud angles are to be provided 
by the contractor for testing in accordance with the direction 
of the engineer. All costs in connection with such tests to 
be defrayed by the contractor. The tensile strength of the 
steel for the shell, etc., cut lengthways or crossways, is not 
to be more than 30 tons per square inch, nor less than 26 
tons, and that for the furnaces and flues is not to be more 
than 28 tons per square inch, nor less than 24 tons. In all 
cases the elongation is not to be less than 20 per cent in a 
length of eight inches. 

Strips from the plates for the furnaces, flues, and angles 
are to be capable of being readily welded, and the strips 
trom these and the plates for the shell are to be capable of 
being bent double cold to a radius of one and a half times 
the thickness of the plate without fracture, after having been 
heated red-hot, and slaked at that heat in hot water of a 
temperature of not more than 82 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Samples of the rivets are to be submitted to such test, both 
hot and cold, as to bending, breaking, flattening, etc., and 
applied in such a manner as may be considered necessary to 
prove their fitness for the service intended. 

Position of Mountings. 

The maker of the boiler is to be entirely responsible for 
obtaining the particulars necessary to show the arrangement 
of setting, and for the position of the various mountings, 
details as to which must first be arranged by him with the 
purchasers, and then shown on the tracing before named. 

Bending. 

The plates are to be bent cold. 

Punching and Drifting, 

No punching is to be done for any purpose to any material 
used in the construction of the boiler, and drifting of the 
holes is under no circumstances to be resorted to. 

Planing. 

All edges of all plates and butt straps without exception 
to be planed or machined. 

Fullering. 

All seams to be fullered inside and outside (not caulked) 
after riveting. 



137 



Scouring". 

The plates and angles to be scoured entirely with a strong 
solution of sal-ammoniac to remove the black oxide from 
their surface before being put together. 

Placing in Position. 

The price named in the index is to include the supply of 
the boiler with all mountings and fittings named in the speci- 
fication properly jointed and fixed in their permanent posi- 
tions, together with delivery in good condition on its prepared 
seating. The contractors to supply all skilled labour and nil 
tackle necessary for placing the boiler on its prepared seating, 
but they do not supply any bricks, stonework, etc., nor 
undertake any mason's work, brickwork, joiner's work nor 
ironwork (other than the ironwork in connection with the 
boiler and its fittings) under this contract, and the purchaser 
is to provide all labourers' assistance. It is, of course, 
understood that the contractors will be afiforded all reasonable 
facilities for placing the boiler in position, and will not be 
required to remove nor to replace any permanent obstruction, 
nor to pull down nor make good any stonework, ironwork, 
masonry, brickwork, nor joiner's work. 

Notice for Examination. 

Notice is to be given to the engineer so that the work may 
be inspected — (1) When the plates are ready for bending in 
the rolls ; (2) when the boiler is in process of being drilled ; 

(3) when the riveting of the shell and fines is being done ; 

(4) when the boiler is complete in every respect, and ready 
for final testing in the presence of the inspector. 

PARTICULARS OF PLATES, ETC., OP 

BOILER. 

Dimensions, 

The boiler is to be .30 feet long and 8 feet in diameter, 
measured inside of the outer rings of plates with two internal 
flues each 3 feet 2 inches internal diameter except the second 
ring from the back end of each, which is to be tapered to 
2 feet 7 inches, and the last ring which is to be 2 feet 
7 inches parallel. 

Shell. 

The shell is to be formed of eight or nine rings, as may be 
found most suitable for the arrangement of the various 
fittings, each ring being formed of one plate only. Each ring 
to be perfectly cylindrical and to have the longitudinal 
joints so arranged as to fall on the upper part of the shell, 
and in such a position that when the boiler is seated they 
will fall clear of the covering of the side flues and the gusset 
stay angles. The plates are not to be less than l-fin. thick, 



138 



,i 



38-251bs. per square foot of the best quality of mild steel, 
and capable of satisfactorily sustaining all the tests Dre- 
viously specified. 

Circular Seams. 

The circular seauis are to be double-riveted, with lap 
joints. 

Longitudinal Seams. 

The longitudinal seams are to be butt jointed, with straps 
inside and outside, and to be treble-iiveted, six rows of rivets. 

Butt Straps. 

The butt straps to be cut by the makers of the boiler out 
of boiler plates of the same quality as the shell plates, the 
inside straps to be not less than fin. thick, 25-51bs. per sq. 
foot, and the outside straps to be not less than fin. thick, 
30-61bs. per square foot ; they must be capable of satisfac- 
torily complying with the tests specified. When placed in 
position the fibre in the shell plates and in the butt straps 
must be in the same direction. 

Ends. 

The end plates are each to be in one piece, rolled full size 
to avoid welds or joints, not less than i^in. thick, SSlSlbs. per 
square foot, turned on the edge, with holes for the flues cur 
out by machine. The plates are to be of the best quality of 
mild steel, and capable of satisfactorily complying with the 
tests previously specified. The front end plate is to be 
joined to the shell by an external steel ring. The back end 
plate is to be flanged for its attachment to the shell and to 
be double riveted thereto. 

Shell Ang-le Ringr. 

The angle ring for the front end of the shell is to be of the 
best quahty of mild steel, not less than 5in. by 5ia. by fin., 
and capable of satisfactorily standing the tests previously 
specified. It is to be welded solid at the joint, and fixed ex- 
ternally, and to be double riveted to the shell and end plate 

Stays- 

The ends are to be strengthened by means of five gusset 
stays at each end above the flues, and two at each end below 
the flues, all secured by double steel angles not less than 5in. 
by 5in. by fin., both to the ends and shell. The steel gusset 
plates to be not less than |in. thick, 357lbs. per square foot. 
The gusset angles and gusset plates must be equal in quality 
to the shell plates, and capable of satisfactorily standing the 
specified tests. The angles to be double riveted to the 
ends, gussets, and shell plates. The rivet holes for the 
stays in the shell plates are to be so arranged that the pitch 
is greater than the widest pitch in the longitudinal seams of 



139 

the shell. The bottom rivets in all the gusset stay angles on 
the end plates must be equidistant from the centre of the 
flues, and with the exception of those stays which are placed 
below the internal flues, the distance between the bottom 
rivets referred to above and the rivets joining the internal 
flues to the ends must not be less than 10 inches. 

Internal Flues. 

Each internal flue is to be formed of at least eighteen 
rings so arranged that the circular seams do not fall in line 
with each other nor with those of the shell. The plates are 
not to be less than T^^^in. thick, 231b. per square foot, of the 
best quality of mild steel, and capable of standing the 
specified tests. Each ring to be formed of a single plate 
welded longitudinally by steam hammer and connected by 
flanges with solid caulking rings between of a thickness not 
less than the ])lates themselves, and the flanges for the 
attachment of the flues to the end plates are to be stifi'ened 
by means of steel angle plates not less than fin. thick, 
IS'Slb. per square foot, shrunk on, and flanged with the glue 
plates, and riveted to them by rivets about 5in. or Sin. 
pitch, or the flues may be attached to the ends by steel 
angle rings, 3|in. by 3iin. by fin. Each flange to be formed 
at one heat. All the rivets to be 2in. pitch. 

Rivet Holes. 

The rivet holes in the shell and those for the gusset stay 
angles are not to be less than r;;in. diameter, and so spaced 
that the calculated value of the joint shall exceed 80 per 
cent, and those in the flues are not to be less than ^in. 
diameter, drilled out of the solid plate ; and wherever prac- 
ticable this is to be done with the plates and angles in 
position. The holes are to be afterwards slightly counter- 
sunk under the rivet heads and the burr cleaned off" between 
the plates. If from any cause they are at all unfair when 
the plates are drawn up together for riveting, they are to 
be rimered perfectly true before riveting. 

Rivets. 

AH rivets to be capable of satisfactorily complying with 
the test requirements specified in a preceding clause. Steel 
rivets may be used for the shell, but Lowmoor rivets are to be 
used for the furnaces and flues throughout, and also in any 
parts of the boiler requiring to be hand riveted, but the 
riveting is to be done by machine wherever practicable. 

Hydraulic Test. 

The boiler is intended to be worked at a pressure of 2001b. 
per square inch. It is to be tested by water pressure to the 
satisfaction of the engineer, both on completion at the 
makers and again after it has been seated at the purchaser's 
works, to 3001b. per square inch, with all mountings in 



140 



position except the safety valves, which must, however, 
before delivery be tested independently to the same pressure 
as the boiler. It is expected that every part will be tight, 
and that neither serious deflection nor indication of perma- 
nent set will be shown. 

MOUNTINGS AND FITTINGS. 
Manholes. 

A strong wrought-iron raised frame, 16in. diameter of 
approved design, with suitable wrought-iron cover and bolts, 
to be attached to the boiler on the top outside ; the manhole 
opening to be further strengthened by a steel doubling piece 
inside, of sufficient breadth to enable it to be attached to the 
shell by a row of rivets independent of those which pass 
through the manhole frame, and this row of rivets must be 
pitched 20 per cent wider apart than those in the longi- 
tudinal seams. The manhole frame to be attached to the 
shell by a double row of rivets passing through both the 
shell plate and the internal doubling plate. 

A strong steel ring fitted with suitable steel cover, cross- 
bars, and bolts, and having an opening not less than 16in. 
and 12in , to be fixed on the inside of the front end plate 
round the manhole opening below the flues, and to be double 
riveted to the plate. The manhole frames, covers, and bolts 
to be of approved design, material, and strength, and both 
the frames and covers to be faced to make the joints steam 
tight with only a thin coat of red lead. 

Branches. 

Wrought-iron branches to be double riveted on for all the 
mountings, and the flanges, to which the mountings are to 
be attached, are to be turned or planed. The position of the 
mountings will have to be arranged in accordance with 
preceding instructions. 

Stop Valves. 

One steam stop valve Sin. diameter, of approved design 
and construction, the casing and cover to be of steel. 

Anti-priming Pipes. 

A perforated cast-iron steam pipe is to be placed horizon- 
tally inside the boiler near the top, and connected with the 
branch for the stop valve. 

Safety Valves. 

One direct spring loaded safety valve, Adam's orTurnbull's 
patent, 4in. diameter, accurately loaded to 2001bs., fitted with 
easing gear, and having a crossbar for turning it round on its 
seating; and one Hopkinson's "Hipress" valve of at least 
equal area, having an efficient and approved low water 
arrangement, and loaded to 2001bs. per square inch. 



141 
Feed Valve and Pipe. 

One check-feed valve 2Mu. diameter of approved design 
and construction, the casing and cover to be of steel, attached 
to the front end plate and connected to a pipe not less than 
15ft. long carried forward horizontally into the boiler, parallel 
with the flues, and delivering the water at least 2in. above 
the level of the furnace crowns. 

Blow-off Tap and Pipe. 

One 2Mn. blow-off cock, of approved design and con- 
struction, with compound gland, both the casing and plug 
to be entirely of brass and asbestos packed both in the 
casing and gland, and so constructed that the spanner 
cannot be taken off until the tap has been closed. The tap 
to be connected to a strong cast steel elbow pipe, of approved 
form and section, not less than 6in. internal diameter at its 
connection to the faced branch on the boiler, and not less 
than lin. section of metal in the body. 

Water Gauges. 

Two glass tube water gauges, of the best construction, 
Dewrance's or Hopkiuson's heaviest pattern, made of gun 
metal, asbestos packed, with large water and steam 
thoroughfares, and arranged to shut off steam and allow the 
passages to be cleaned. 

Pressure Gauge, 

One lOin. steam pressure gauge. Bourdon's own make, 
graduated to SOOlbs., and having a thick red line at 2001bs., 
and arranged with the cock to open to the atmosphere when 
shut off from the boiler for the purpo.se of testing. 

Grate Bars. 

One set of grate bars of deep section, iin. thick and 
having fin. air spaces, in three lengths for each furnace, with 
bearers, dead plates, and bridge plates, the total length of 
fire bars to be 6ft. 6in. 

Furnace Frames, etc. 
Furnace frames and doors constructed for smoke preven- 
tion to be fitted, having at least two square inches of air 
space per square foot of fire grate. 

Dampers. 

Dampers and frames, with all pulleys, chains, rods, and 
weights complete and fixed. 

Flue Doors. 

ff- Two flue doors and frames complete for access to the 
external flues. 



142 
Foot Plates and Bearers. 

Foot plates and bearers for covering the blow-off pit, the 
flooring plate in front of the blow-off recess to extend 
upwards behind the angle ring of the shell, and to be curved 
go as to fit the bottom of the boiler to prevent the ashes 
falling into the blow-off pit. 

In order to illustrate the constructive details 
a number of sketches prepared to illustrate a paper 
read by Mr. James Sheuton, of Hyde, in December, 
1893, are given. Mr. Shenton is a practical con- 
structor of boilers, of extended experience, and his 




Fig. 59. 

remarks are valuable. Fias. 59 and 60 are illustra- 
tive of the lap joints used for longitudinal seams. 
That m Fig. 59 is one most generally adopted, and 
has a strength of 83-3 per cent, while the example 
given in Fig. 60, which is designed and made by 
Mr. Shenton, gives an effective strength of 88-8 per 
cent. In addition to the extra strength this joint 
is advantageous because there is less space between 
the outer rivets and the butt strips are held down 



143 



better. Where the pitch is so wide as in Fig. 59, 
there is great difficulty iu avoiding leakage between 
the rivets, on account of the large space. This is 
entirely obviated by the construction used in 




Fig. 60. 



Fig. 60, which enables a tight joint to be got with 
very little caulking. Without endeavouring to 
instruct our readers as to the method of making a 
boiler, it will be sufficient to give a few hints as to 
the essential points of construction. It is necessary 



I p 



144 



that the shell plates at the butts shall be bent to a 
true circle. Unless this is done the butt straps will 
not lie close up to the plates, and leakage will take 
place at that point. This is shown in Figs. 61 and 
62, which represent the two conditions. In a 
modern boiler-makinf;^ establishment, the provision 
and utilisation of modern machine tools is a charac- 
teristic feature, and the setting out of the various 
rings for drilling is a thoroughly scientific opera- 
tion. All holes should be drilled, and the edges 
of all plates planed to a proper bevel so as to be 
easily caulked. The caulking should be done with 
a tool which while fullering the edge of the plate 
does not groove the shell. Extreme care is taken to 




Figs. 61 and 62. 

ensure the drilling of all the holes in plates and 
straps to be fastened together, so that they will come 
exactly true with each other when being put 
together subsequently. In riveting, which should 
be done by power, the pressure must be put on 
in a line which is directly along the axis of the 
rivet, and should be retained until the rivet is 
cold, as only in this way can a tight joint be 
obtained. With regard to the flues, these are 
built up and put together in an equally thorough 
manner as the shell, each ring being welded 
along its longitudinal seams. The various 
types of corrugated or ribbed flues have not been 
largely employed in Lancashire boilers, but several 
types of expansion jomts, such as the Bowling 
hoop, have been widely adopted. With one of 



145 



the simplest and most effective of these, the name 
of the late Mr. Daniel Adamsou has been long 
associated. The method of setting out the front 
and back end plates of a boiler for the gusset stays 
and flues is shown in Figs. 63 and 64. These 
few remarks, in conjunction with the specification 
given, will enable readers to form an accurate 
idea of the necessary points in a well-made boiler, 




Fig. 63. 



and they will be convinced of the care which is 
now taken in constructing a boiler of the Lanca 
shire type. 

The standard of power generally adopted for a 
boiler is that agreed upon by the engineers at the 
Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, which was 
the evaporation of 301bs. of water per hour from an 
entering temperature of 212° F. when the steam 
K 



1^ 



pressure was 701bs. Coal consumption naturally 
varies in accordance with circumstances, but with 
moderately good coal, 161bs. per square foot of grate 
per hour, which will evaporate from 120 to 1601bs. 
of water, is burned. Mr. Michael Longridge, in a 
paper delivered in 1890, said that it was difficult to 
burn less than 161bs. or more than 2 libs, of coal 
per square foot of grate in Lancashire boilers 
without considerable excess of air. Taking 81bs. 




Fig. 64. 

of w^ater evaporated per lb. of coal as a fair 
average duty, then 1281bs. of water will, on the 
minimum computation, be evaporated per square 
foot of grate per hour. This is equal to 4-26- 
horse-power according to the standard given, but it 
will be better to call it 4 horse-power for each square 
foot of grate. The total surface which is exposed to 
the heat of the gases depends upon the method 
of setting the boiler, which in turn must be 
considered with reference to the velocity of the 



147 

gases. It is a safe rule to calculate that the grate 
area should be at least equal to one-teuth the total 
heating area, although higher ratios are adopted. 
The proper size of a boiler is determined by the 
evaporation required, and can be calculated from 
the coal duty, which in turn determines the heating 
surface required. In the type of boiler under con- 
sideration, fourteen square feet of heating surface 
will be sufficient to evaporate one cubic foot of water. 

In setting the boilers, the flues should be made 
large enough to allow a man to pass through them 
easily, and the undue contraction of the flues is 
very detrimental, as it renders inspection much 
more difficult. The smallest space should be at 
least a foot, and as a justification for this procedure 
it may be mentioned that it is better to have a 
moderate velocity of the gases, as in that way more 
heat is extracted from them. It is now the general 
practice to sustain the boiler on two seats, so as to 
form three flues under the boiler, one at each side 
and one in the centre. The use of a midfeather is 
dropped. In setting, care should be taken that all 
the seams are accessible for examination, and it is 
not desirable to cover too large a portion of the 
plates by the seatings. Especial care is needed to 
guard against leakage under the bearing surfiices, 
which is a fruitful source of corrosion, and no lime 
should be left in contact with the plates. The air 
required to burn good Lancashire coals, the 
calorific value of which is about 13,500 thermal 
units, is, according to Mr. Longridge, in practice, 
from 15 to 161bs. per lb. of coal. This matter 
depends to some extent upon the character of the 
coal with regard to clinker ing. If it is clean and 
burns well, then the smaller quantity of air is 
sufficient ; if otherwise, the larger amount is 
required. 

Mr. Longridge, at the conclusion of the paper 
named, gave the following hints to boiler us»ers : — 

(1) Get your boilers designed for the work they 
have to do, and not made 7ft. Gin. by 30ft., or 8ft. 
by 28ft., as the case may be, because it is 



148 



the fashion to have boilers of these particular 
dimensions. 

(2) Don't stick to 6ft. grates if a shorter length 
is required to burn the coal at the rate of 16 to 
2 libs, per hour. 

(3) Reduce your draught as much as the nature 
of the coal and the smoke inspector will permit. 
Try and reduce it till the fire is hot enough to 
melt a piece of steel boiler plate. 




Fig. 65. 



(4) Buy your coal dry and keep it dry. Weigh 
the ashes which come out of the furnaces as well as 
the coal that goes into them. 

(5) Be most careful to stop up air leaks in the 
brickwork and between the brickwork and the 
boiler. 

(6) Establish a gasometer for collecting gases 
from the flues and analyse them for carbonic acid, 
and try to get ten or twelve per cent of that gas in 
the samples by cutting down the draught. The 



149 



apparatus and its manipulations are of the simplest 
character, and the information gained will be of 
great practical utility, and will often lead to 
considerable economy. 

It may perhaps be of service to detail a few of 
of the causes of failure in mill boilers, 
these corrosion is a very common one. 
corrosion is the result of acidity in the feed water, 
which is often caused by the employment of water 
heated by means of exhaust steam, especially if 
animal oils or fats are used as lubricants. There 
are, however, feed waters drawn from wells or col- 
lected by surface drainage which contain free acids, 
and in this case the introduction of some form of 



Among 
Internal 




Fig. 66. 



neutralising agent is essential. External corrosion 
is more frequent than internal, and is in most cases 
caused by dampnesss either caused by leakage or 
from imperfect drainage below the flues and settings. 
For instance, in the example shown in Fig. 65 there 
had been leakage at the seam which was covered by 
the seating, and the moisture had spread over a 
large surface, setting up active corrosion as show^n. 
The composition of the gases evolved by the com- 
bustion of some classes of coal often actively aids 
in setting up corrosion, and the writer has had a 
very striking experience of the power of the com- 
bination of sulphurous coal and moisture to set up 
dangerous corrosion. Boiler owners should take care 
of leaks, and should also see that at the front of 



150 



the boiler, where the ashes are drawn from the fur- 
nace and cooled, no accumulation of moist ash is 
allowed to exist. Fig. 66 shows the result of this 
procedure. Grooving or channelling is another fre- 
quent occurrence, and is caused chiefly by the un- 
equal heating of various parts of the boiler. This 
action causes a certain "work" of the plates, and 
thus produces strain in them, which rapidly forms a 
groove if any chemical corrosive is in the water. 
The grooves are mostly found about the angle rings 
of the front end plates, but if there is due elas- 
ticity in the ends they may be avoided. 

As it is customary to test boilers by hydraulic 
pressure prior to putting them into work, a few 
words of warning may be given as to precautions 
necessary when this is done. Most owners are 
satisfied to know that the boiler has been thus tested 
to a pressure in excess of that at which it will work. 
As a matter of fact this is only a part of the pre- 
cautions to be taken, and forms a source of danger 
unless carefully carried out. It is essential to 
success that the character of the material and con- 
struction should be carefully specified and scruti- 
nised during construction, and although this is a 
matter involving some expense it is always advisable. 
Before a test is made by hydraulic pressure careful 
measurements of the boiler should be made, 
especially as regards the flues. When the pressure is 
applied, measurements should again be taken, and the 
deflection, if any, in the flues and end plates care- 
fully noted. The tightness of the rivets and seams 
must be looked to, but, although a high standard 
has now been reached, the importance of kn abso- 
lutely drop proof test may be easily exaggerated. 
In a well-made boiler in which the holes are drilled 
in position, and the rivets closed by power properly 
applied, leakage of the rivets is very infrequent, 
and a slight leakage of the seams is often only a 
small matter. The true test is the maintenance for 
a reasonable time of the pressure applied, and it is 
not uncommon to see it remain stationary for several 
minutes. After the water has been run off the 



151 

measurements of the parts should be again taken, 
in order to see if any permanent set has occurred. 
It is not an infrequent occurrence to find ovality in 
the flues, or bulging of the ends. If this is found 
to exist to any considerable degree it proves the 
boiler to be unfit for its intended duty. It is not 
detrimental, but quite the reverse, if the end plates 
bulge under pressure, because it proves that the 
staying is not so rigid as to prevent the ordinary 
expansion which takes place during work. It is in- 
advisable, especially with high pressure boilers, to 
subject them to too severe a test, and a test pressure, 
75 per cent over the working pressure, is, in the 
opinion of the writer, the maximum which should 
be applied. 

In order to ascertain the evaporative capacity of 
boilers, tests are made preferably under working 
conditions, and as many millowners may like to 
koow the method of making these tests a few 
particulars are here given. It will be at once 
obvious that the two important factors are the 
consumption of coal and of water, and every 
endeavour ought to be made to arrive at these 
accurately. With regard to coal consumption, 
the course followed is to clean out the furnaces 
before beginning the test, and to have at its 
commencement a good fire of proper thickness. 
Care should be taken to have all the coal as 
dry as possible, and as nearly uniform in that 
respect as can be. It should be carefully weighed 
in lots of definite weight, say 1 to 5 cwts. — the 
time of doing so being noted — and the firing must 
be conducted in the ordinary way so as to maintain 
an even fire. At the conclusion of the test the fire 
must be left in the same condition as at the begin- 
ning, and all ashes should be carefully weighed, 
but it is advisable periodically to draw out the 
cinders from the ashpit and pass them through the 
fire in order to utilise all combustible matter. It 
is obvious that the obtainment of the same condi- 
tions at the beginning and end of a test is a 
matter requiring care, and a little error may thus 



152 



ii# 



creep in. All the coal unused should be weighed, 
and deducted from the amount weighed to" the 
stoker. The record therefore shows the number of 
pounds of coal used during the test, and the ashes 
remaining at the end, the difiference between these 
being reckoned as the number of pounds of com- 
bustible. The water must be carefully measured. 
The height in the boiler gauge glasses at the 
commencement of the test is carefully noted, and 
some mark should be made, or measurement taken 
and noted of the height. At the termination of 
the test it is desirable to have the water at the 
same height, as otherwise a calculation must be 
made of the increase or decrease of the quantity of 
water in the boiler. This is a matter requiring 
care alike in manipulation and observation, but 
with a little pains an accurate result is possible. 
For measuring the feed water the best method 
is to provide two tanks, capable of holding a little 
over 100 lbs. of water or any other definite quan- 
tity, and of such a depth that a gauge glass can be 
fixed so that two points can be marked on it, 
between which the quantity of water named is con- 
tained. The feed water is supplied to the tanks by 
two ordinary plug taps, either of which can be used 
when necessary, one tank being filled while the other 
is being exhausted. The tanks are coupled together 
by a pipe, and a two-way cock is placed between them, 
so that the feed pump or injector can draw from 
either as needed. The tanks are both filled to the 
upper mark at the beginning of the test, and as 
the required quantity is taken from each, the time 
is recorded. At the end of the test the quantity of 
water drawn from the partially emptied tank is noted 
and added to the quantity previously used. A 
note of the temperature of the feed water must be 
taken at regular intervals, and the mean of the 
observations is taken as the temperature. The 
following is a sample of the headings of the obser- 
vation sheet, but these may be varied at will : — 



1 



No. of 
Weighing. 



153 

Coal. I Water. 

I Weight of j No. of I Tempera- 

Time. Weight! Ash at | Tank ' Time, j p®?* 
Completion. (Emptied ! -^-"g^ 



By dividing the weight of water used by the pounds 
of coal consumed, the evaporation per lb. of coal is 
obtained. The ash and cinder remaining should be 
carefully weighed and deducted from the weight 
of coai. The result is accepted as the amount of 
combustible matter. It is usual to estimate the evapo- 
ration from and at 212" F., and the following rule is 
used to calculate it. W = weight in lbs. water evapo- 
rated per lb. of fuel ; t = mean temperature of 
water ; H = total heat in British thermal units in 
the steam at a pressure calculated from 0^ F, and 
E =^ equivalent evaporation from and at 212" F.; 

XT _ J 

E = W-xttt;- . The thermal units will be found in 

a table at the end of the book. It must be under- 
stood that these remarks do not apply to the 
scientific test of a boiler, an operation requiring a 
large number of accurate observations, but merely 
to such a test as is required by a millowner. 



CHAPTER XI. 

BOILER APPLIANCES. 

It is customary and advisable to place behind 
steam boilers a feed water heater or " economiser." 
Of these there is practically only in use in cotton 
mills to-day the type known as Green's. This, 
as made by Messrs. Green and Sons, Limited, 
is illustrated in Fig. 67, and consists of a series of 
vertical cast-iron pipes, arranged in sections and 
fixed at the top and bottom into hollow boxes. The 



154 



pipes are nearly 4in, bore, and are made of a thick- 
ness suitable to the pressure they have to with- 




FiG. 67. 
stand. The feed water enters the bottom box of 
each section, and rises until it flows out of the top 
box. The economiser is placed directly in the 



155 

course of the gases in the flue, the heat from which 
raises the water to a temperature varying from 250° 
to 300" F. It is not desirable to cool the gases to 
too low a temperature, as otherwise the chimney 
draught is injured. As a certain amount of soot 
is deposited on the outside of the pipes, cast-iron 
" scrapers," which are given a reciprocal vertical 
movement, are arranged to scrape it off continuously. 
Some ingenuity has been expended on the 
construction of these scrapers, so that they 
shall press keenly on the pipe, and thus re- 
move the soot which may accumulate. The 
gain from the use of an economiser is two-fold. 
It lessens the amount of fuel needed to boil the 
water, and, by providing hot instead of cold feed 
water for the boiler, diminishes the strains on the 
latter. It is desirable that the feed water should 
not be too cold, as otherwise the aqueous vapour 
in the gases is condensed on the outside of the pipes 
at the bottom and produces corrosion, which is in- 
creased if there happens to be any sulphur in the 
coal. If there be eight pipes in a section, the space 
occupied is 6ft., and -i sections occupy in width 3ft. 
4in., Sin. being added for each additional section. 
An economiser contains about 8 pipes for each ton, 
and 4 pipes per ton of coal burnt are required. The 
capacity of each pipe and the corresponding space 
in the two boxes is 6 grallons. 

There have been large numbers of appliances 
patented from time to time for the purpose of aid- 
ing in the mechanical stoking of the boilers. It 
is curious to note how the same idea occurs perio- 
dically in a slightly modified form. The devices 
used may be thus classified : Steam or air blasts, 
stoking machines, divided bridges, and forced 
draught appliances. Of these the latter at present 
is not in extended use, but is making considerable 
progress, the most favourable method being to close 
the ashpit and create a slight pressure in it. 
With reference to steam blasts these are applied at 
the front of the furnace, in which a steam nozzle is 
fixed, so that the induced current thus set up 



156 

increases the draught. For cases in which the 
chimney draught is bad, or when a sudden supply 
of steam is required, this class of appliances gives 
good results, but otherwise their employment is of 
doubtful economy. The plan of using a divided 
bridge has the merit of admitting air at that point, 
and thus aiding in the combustion of the evolved 
but unconsumed gases which are produced after 
stoking. When the fire has burnt through, how- 
ever, and the volume of unconsumed gases 
decreases, there is, unless the air inlet is con- 
tracted, an excessive supply of air at this point, 
which carries away with it a number of heat units, 
thus producing no useful, but rather a wasteful, 
effect. 

With regard to mechanical stokers these have 
been mainly of two classes— the coking and the 
sprinkhng type. Of the latter Proctor's is the 
best known, and there is no doubt that it has ren- 
dered efficient service. The peculiar variable 
stroke of the shovel plate, which is characteristic 
of this stoker, is very effective, and gives a very 
good distribution of the coal over the grate area. 
There is no doubt, however, that the coking type 
is becoming more liked, more especially when com- 
bined with automatic feeding appliances. In this 
form of stoker the coal is first placed on the dead 
plate and is then carried forward by means of 
movable bars, which are given a combined vertical 
and horizontal movement. Under that treatment 
the coal is partially volatilized at the front of the 
furnace, and the gases evolved pass over a red fire 
at the back, by which they are consumed. In 
either of these types the coal is fed into a hopper 
at ^ the front of the boiler, and falls by its own 
weight, the rate of delivery being regulated by feed 
rollers which also act as crushers. If they are 
used with judgment there is no doubt that stokers 
are economical devices, and the only thing to 
remember is that they must be strongly made so as 
to withstand the hard usage to which many of them 
are put. Among the more novel applications is 



157 



Andrews' Helix feeder. lu this case the coal is 
supplied by a hopper, and is delivered into the path 
of revolving worms enclosed in troughs below the 
grate level. The result is that the coal is lifted 
into the fire from below, and all the gases have to 
pass through a red fire, being thus consumed. A 
very good fire is maintained in this way. 

In some of the most modern plants it has been 
arranged that the work of feediug the hoppers is 
automatically performed. The coal is tipped into 
the bunkers, from which it is conveyed by spiral 
conveyors to an endless elevator, which tips it into 
a second conveyor passing across the boiler fronts 
at a point above the hoppers. It is carried along 
and delivered through suitable apertures into any 
of the series of hoppers. In this way the work of 
feeding the boilers is rendered practically an auto- 
matic operation, and the duties of the fireman are 
resolved into keeping the fire clean and level, and 
regulating the supply of feed water. In this con- 
nection it may be mentioned that the conveyor 
screw invented by Mr. Thomas Wrigley, of Tod- 
morden, is a very good one. It consists of an 
endless worm of cast iron which, by an ingenious 
method of moulding, can be cast in almost any 
length. The quantity of coal delivered depends on 
the pitch of tlie worm, the depth of its thread, and 
the number of revolutions given to it. The eleva- 
tors used for this purpose consist of a series of 
buckets fixed on to two parallel pitched chains 
driven by chain wheels of the ordinary type. 

With a view of increasing the effective power of 
boilers, there have been several attempts to intro- 
duce forced draught, and one of the simplest 
methods is that made by Messrs. Meldrum Bros. In 
this the ashpits are closed, as shown in Figs. 68 and 
69, by a cast-iron plate, which, with the small door 
fixed in it, is made to be an air-tight fit. In this 
front two special blowers are fastened, these con- 
sisting of a trumpet-shaped tube enclosing a steam 
nozzle. These are fed with steam from a pipe fitted 
into the boiler in the steam space, and the quantity 



m 



158 



of steam passed can be regulated at will. There is 
no projecting part beyond the boiler except the 
steam pipe. A special form of fire-bar, with narrow 
air spaces, is provided, by means of which 
the smallest sized fuel can be riealt with without 
diflBculty. With any form of small coal, and 
coal which is very hot, such as anthracite, 
the blower answers very well, and not only 




Fig. 68. 



improves the combustioUj but also keeps ' the 
bars cool. While it may be admitted that the 
quantity of water evaporated per lb. of coal used 
is not equal to that obtained with ordinary coal, 
yet the cheapness of the fuel used renders the cost 
of evaporation a very low one. The forced draught 
is only equal, usually, to lin. water gauge, but a 
pressure equal to Gin. gauge can be got by this 
apparatus easily. 



159 

The safety valves employed in connection with 
steam boilers for cotton mill purposes are of two 
classes, mainly the lever and dead weight. One of 
the latter should always be used on each boiler. 
In some cases spring loaded safety valves have 
been adopted where high pressure steam is required. 
The area of safety valves depends upon two factors, 
the grate area and the pressure, the latter being 




Fig. 69. 



working at a low 



the most important. A boiler 
pressure requires a larger area of safety valve than 
one which works at a high pressure, because an 
increase of pressure implies a greater proportionate 
risk. The following formulae give the method of 
obtaining the area of a safety valve for mill boilers: 
"Where A = area of valve, G = area in square feet of 



grate, and P = absolute pressure, 



, 36G , 

A = : or, when 



160 



the lift of a fourth of the diameter of the valve is 

4G 
allowed, A = — . Spring safety valves are some- 
times used, and where they are the following 
formula for the strength of the spring is 
given by the Board of Trade : Where S = load on 
spring in lbs., D = diameter of spring (centre to 
centre of coils) in inches, (i = diameter or side of 
square of wire used, C = 8000 for round and 11,000 



for square steel, then d = 



VSxD 



The area per 



J C 

square foot of grate is fixed by a table provided by 
the Board of Trade : — 

TABLE 13. 

Boiler Area of Boiler Area of BoUer Area of Boiler Area of 
Pressure. Valve. Pressure. Valve. Pressure. Valve. Pressure. Valve. 



80 


•394 


110 


•300 


140 


•241 


170 


•202 


85 


•375 


115 


•288 


145 


•234 


175 


•197 


90 


•357 


120 


•277 


150 


•227 


180 


•192 


95 


•349 


125 


•265 


155 


•220 


185 


•187 


100 


•326 


130 


•258 


160 


•214 


190 


•182 


105 


•312 


135 


•250 


165 


•208 


200 


•174 



If the lever type is used care must be taken to see 
that the levers are made of wrought iron, and that 
their proportions are such that the weight must be 
placed at the end of the lever. It is not advisable 
to make the levers too long, unless they are 
balanced. The length of the lever, etc., can be got 
by the following rule : — D = diameter of valve in 
inches ; A = area of valve in square inches ; W = 
weight of ball in pounds; L = length of lever in 
inches ; P = blowing off pressure per square inch in 
pounds; B = fulcrum distance in inches. Then 
^^ ,^ ABP^ABP 
B = D and L = ^y : ^ = ~i7~- "^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

safety valves should not be more than y^^ per inch 
of width. 

The problem of incrustation is very often a 
serious one, especially if the sulphates of lime and 
magnesia are present. Carbonates can be more 
readily treated, and are more easily removed. Where 
the impurity in the water is carlDonate of lime, by 



161 

a treatment with caustic lime prior to passing it into 
the boiler, it can be precipitated. A tank is needed 
for this purpose, and in most cases the addition to 
the feed water of 3 grains of caustic soda for each 
4 grains of lime contained will be suflScient. Fcr 
sulphates, 4 grains of soda ash for each 5 grains in 
the water will suffice, while, if both salts are found, 
caustic soda will precipitate both. It is desirable 
to avoid excess in this matter, w^hich is one requiring 
intelligence. A composition has been introduced 
by the Boiler Enamelling Company, of Glasgow, 
which has the remarkable effect of depositing 
a thin enamel on the plates, and so preventing the 
adhesion of the incrusting matter. This appears 
to have a great probability of successful use in a 
large number of cases. 

Some remarks have already been made with 
reference to the size of the flues underneath a 
boiler, but it may be said at this point that 
provided facility of access is obtained, and that 
their area is not less than the least internal chim- 
ney area, that is all which is necessary. In a few 
cases the chimney is so placed as to necessitate 
long flues, but this practice is generally abandoned. 
In most instances it may be expected that the flue 
gases will take the shortest course to the chimney, 
and it is therefore advisable, on account of the loss 
sustained by radiation, not to make the flues either 
too long or too large. The chimneys mostly used 
in Lancashire are round, special bricks being 
moulded for the purpose, and their height is 
ordinarily determined by the bye-laws of the local 
authorities, but is usually about 100ft. The deter- 
mination of the outlet area of a chimney depends to 
a large extent on the amount of coal burned, and 
may be found by the formula where C = coal con- 
sumed per hour in lbs., and H = height in feet, 
, -070. 

A = • Another rule is where W = cubic feet of 

vH 

224 X W. 
water evaporated per hour r=^^ In commen- 

yJH. 



\¥ 



162 



cing to build a chimney care should be taken to get 
the foundations properly laid. It is better to lay 
first of all a thick bed of concrete, and upon that 
the brick footings, the first course of which should 
be double the size of the interior of the chimney, and 
gradually taper to the diameter of the base. The 
pressure on the brick work should not be more than 
one ton to the square foot. No care can be too 
great in laying the foundation, and it is better to 
spend a good deal of money on a foundation than 
to have any risk of settling. The taper or batter of 
a chimney should be about '3 to '35 of an inch to 
each foot of height, and the thickness must not be 
less than one brick, 9in., at the top, this thickness 
being sufiicient for about •25ft. from the top. 
Thence every 25ft. the thickness should be 
increased by 4Jin., and this is done by giving a 
series of set-off's inside the chimney, thus avoiding 
cutting the bricks. The courses are laid with 
bricks 4Jin. wide, and the necessary set-off's are 
maintained to any point until the minimum size is 
reached by reason of the batter, when an addi- 
tional set-off" is given. In order to give the neces- 
sary strength to the chimney, it is desirable to lay 
some of the courses of brick as stretchers and some 
as headers — that is, longitudinally and transversely. 
The practice of different architects varies in this 
respect, but Bancroft's rule is to lay 3 or 4 courses 
as stretchers and then put in a course of headers. 
It is also desirable to build a chimney in the sum- 
mer time, and to allow ample time for it to settle. 
The height should not be pushed on too rapidly, 
and a prolonged settlement is desirable. The 
mortar joints should be well made and narrow, 
the practice of grouting the brickwork being 
very objectionable. At the lower part of the 
chimney, up to about half its height, a fire-brick 
lining is built, being separated from the brick wall 
by a cavity, the lining being in some cases 
strengthened by binding it to the chimney, 
although this is a practice which is not advisable. 
The question of chimney draught is an important 



163 

one, as upon it depends the character of the com- 
bustion. Molesworth's nile for this is as follows : 
where V = velocity in feet per second, H = height 
of chimney in feet, T = temperature of air 
entering, T^ = temperature of external air, V = 
36-5 ^H(T-r). When T and T^ represent the 
absolute temperatures, another authority gives the 

formula for velocity V = 8 ^^^V" )y ^^^ ^^le 

discharge per second V x A when A = the area of 
chimney orifice. The temperature of the flue gases 
need not rise above 600° F., at about which point the 
maximum discharge of a chimuey takes place when 
the external air is of a temperature of about 60°F. 
Generally the greatest discharge is obtained when 
the temperature is equal to double the external 
tempei'ature + 461, but over a wide range of 
temperature, say, from 600 to 800°F. the ratio does 
not vary to any great extent, so that any increase 
over the former implies a waste of heat. 

All chimneys should be protected by lightning 
conductors. Until a few years ago this subject 
was little understood, but the rules are now well 
established. The material used is now either 
copper tape or rope, the former from J to 2in. 
wide by not less than 12 W.<t. thick, and the latter 
not less than |m. diameter, and made from wire 
12 W.G. diameter. This material can now be got 
cheaply made of deposited copper, which is nearly 
pure, and has a very high electrical conductivity. 
Although it is dearer than iron, the advantages 
attending its use are so great that it is worth buying. 
All the j' lints used should be well made, and not 
only riveted but soldered. It is desirable to pro- 
tect the rod for a few feet ab 've the ground. The 
terminals should be well made, and a good form is 
a ball screwed on to a nmud rod fastened to the 
top of the chimney and to the conductor. Finely 
pointed needles can be screwed into the ball, and 
should not be less than six inches long. It is also 
desirable to protect them by nickel plating. It is 



164 



I 



preferable to pass the conductor down the side 
of the chimuey most exposed to rain, and to fix 
it firmly but not tightly. Where a metal cap 
is used on a chimney, a copper band with points at 
intervals can be passed round the top, this course 
being recommended, In fixing the conductor sharp 
curves should as far as possible be avoided, and if 
quite a straight line can be taken it is to be pre- 
ferred. The earth connection is best made by the 
use of a large copper plate three feet square and 
yq inch thick, buried in the earth several feet, and 
covered with cinders. To this the conductor is at- 
tached, and failing its employment, the latter may 
be laid for several yards in a trench filled with coke 
formed at the required depth. Care in observing 
the particulars given will ensure good results in 
practice. 

The steam pipes used to convey the steam from 
the boiler to the engine have most commonly been 
made of cast iron, but on account of the hio-h 
pressures which are now common this practice is 
undergoing modification. Although it is not im- 
possible to make steam pipes of cast iron which are 
suflaciently strong to withstand safely the maximum 
pressures which are used, it is by no means the 
safest course to employ this material. Up to lOOlbs. 
steam pressure, cast iron is safe enough, but above 
1501bs. the weight of the pipe and the risky 
character of the material renders it better to look 
for a substitute. It has, therefore, become common, 
in dealing with these pressures, to make the pipes 
of steel plates, with a thickness of about -j^iii. 
These are riveted in the same way as a boiler, but 
care should be taken to use rivets of a sufficient 
size, so that the necessary resistance is given to 
the pressure, as, unless this is done, fracture is 
not unlikely. The pipes being usually made in 
considerable lengths, so that it is not easy to 
replace a broken rivet. The joints require caulk- 
ing, which involves a certain thickness of plate. 
It is now possible to obtain wrought-iron pipes 
of considerable diameter, which are welded, 



165 



electrically or otherwise, along the seams so as 
practically to form one piece. These are in all 
cases preferable to riveted pipes. If a long range of 
pipes is used, whatever be the material, it is essential 
that means be provided to take up the ex- 
pansion. These are sometimes in the form of 
expansion joints, consisting of two large dished 
discs coupled at their edges and having the steam 
pipes fixed to their centres : and in other cases are 
made as sockets or sliding joints. These, of course, 
require packing, and provision must be made to 
prevent the two pipes fr^m being drawn apart. It 
is equally necessary to provide means for drainage, 
and, where it is possible, to give a gradient, which 
should be taken advantage of to collect the water 
at one point and remove it by a steam trap. If 
possible the fall of the pipes should be towards the 
boiler. Condensation in uncovered pipes is very 

TABLE 14. 
Weight of Cast-iron Pipes is Pounds pbb Lineal Foot. 



Bjre. 








Thick 


N'Ess IS Inches, 






Ins. 


I 


1 


.^ 


f 


a 


1 


1 


u 


u 


1 


3-0 


5-0 


7-3 


9 9 








_ 


_ 


_ 


li 


3-6 


5-9 


8-5 


11-5 


14-: 





— 


— 


— 


li 


4-2 


6-9 


9-8 


13-0 


16-5 


20-4 


— 


— 


— 


1| 


4-9 


7-S 


11-0 


14-5 


is -4 


22-5 


27-0 


— 


— 


2 


5-5 


8-7 


12-2 


16-1 


20-2 


24-7 


29-4 


34-4 




2^ 


6-7 


10-5 


14-7 


191 


23-9 


28-9 


34-3 


40-0 


46-0 


3 


7-9 


12-4 


17 1 


22 1 


27-6 


33-2 


39-2 


45-5 


521 


3J 


9-2 


14-2 


19-6 


25-3 


31-3 


37-5 


441 


510 


58-2 


4 


10-4 


16-1 


221 


28-3 


34-9 


418 


40 


56-6 


64-4 


^ 


11-6 


17-9 


24-5 


31-4 


3S-6 


46-1 


53-9 


62-1 


70-5 


5 


128 


19-7 


26-9 


34-5 


42-3 


50-4 


5S-9 


67-6 


76 6 


5J 


141 


21-6 


29-4 


37-5 


460 


54-7 


63-8 


73-1 


82-S 


6 


15-3 


23-4 


31-9 


40-6 


49-7 


59-0 


6S-7 


78-7 


8S-7 


6^ 


16-5 


25-3 


34-3 


43-7 


53-3 


63-3 


73-4 


84-2 


95-1 


7 


17-7 


27"l 


36-8 


46-7 


56-S 


67-6 


78-5 


89-7 


101-2 


n 


19-0 


29-0 


390 


49-8 


60-7 


71-9 


83-4 


95-2 


107-4 


s 


20-0 


30 -S 


41-7 


52-9 


64-4 


76-2 


883 


100-S 


113-5 


8J 


21-6 


32-9 


44-4 


56-2 


68-3 


SO-7 


93-4 


106-5 


119-9 


9 


22-7 


34-5 


46 6 


59-0 


71-8 


S4-8 


98-1 


lUS 


125 8 


91 


23-9 


36 3 


49-0 


62-1 


75-4 


89-1 


103-1 


117-4 


131-9 


10 


25-1 


38-2 


51-5 


65-2 


79-1 


93-4 


ios-0 


122-9 


1S81 


lOi 


26-3 


40-0 


54-0 


6S-2 


82 8 


97-7 


112-9 


1-28 -4 


144-2 


11 


27-6 


41-8 


56-4 


71-3 


86-5 


102-0 


117 8 


13:J-9 


150-3 


Hi 


28-8 


43-7 


58-9 


74-3 


901 


106-3 


1-22-7 


139-4 


156-4 


12 


30-0 


45-5 


61-3 


77-4 


^^ 


110-6 


1-27-6 


145-0 


162-6 



Note.— For each Joint add one foot in length of the Pipe. 



166 



great, and it is therefore imperative that they shall 
be well drained. The weight of iron pipes depends 
on the thickness of metal used, but can be calcu- 
lated by the following formula: — D = outside dia- 
meter in inches ; d = inside diameter ; W = weight 
of a lineal foot; then W = 2 45 (D- — <i') for cast 
iron and 2*64 (T>' — d') for wrought iron. To this 
should be added for cast-iron pipes the weight of 
one foot for each pair of flanges used. A rule giveu 
for cast-iron pipes to work at pressures up to lOOlbs. 
is (i + 4 = thickness in sixteenths of an inch. Table 
14 (see page 165) gives the weight of cast-iron 
pipes calculated by the rule given. 



CHAPTER XII. 



STEAM ENGINES. — GENERAL REMARKS. 



Not only have the boilers used in modern mills 
been greatly improved, but a like process has 
taken place with the engines. The science of 
using steam has become better understood, and 
full effect is now obtained from the heat contained 
in it. ' As is well known, the steam engine is a 
heat engine, and Carnot's well-known formula, 

T-T' 

— ™ — , gives a means of calculating the work of a 

perfect heat engine. T = maximum temperature of 
the steam, and T' = minimum temperature. It 
is, of course, not possible to attain this theoretical 
efficiency in a steam engine, but there are many 
cases in which great improvement could be effected 
by a re-arrangement of the engines. A casual 
glance at the formula shows that the greater the 
difference in the temperatures the greater the 
power developed. It is not possible here and now 
to lay down the theoretical considerations which 
govern this question, and we must be content to 
give a few practical hints, which may be of 
service. The power required has now become so 



167 

large that except in weaving sheds there are 
not many simple — i.e., one-cylindered — engines at 
work. What type of engine should be adopted is a 
question which cannot be easily answered, unless a 
full statement of the specific circumstances is 
forthcoming ; but the principles upon which a mill- 
owner can proceed will be described. Briefly, it 
may be said that two things determine the point. 
First, there is cylinder condensation, caused by the 
fall of temperature owing to the expansion of the 
steam. Wherever this is excessive there is a dis- 
tinct loss. Second, there is the existence of strains 
upon the crank pins, which vary considerably in 
amount when the whole of the work is done in 
one cylinder in which there is a large range of steam 
pressure. 

The first of these points is important, because a 
coDsiderable loss in the quantity of the steam used 
occurs when condensation is excessive. For instance, 
assuming that the cut-off in the cylinder of an 
engine took place after 15 per cent of the stroke 
was completed, the loss by condensation in a simple 
engine would be 32, in a compound 26, and in a 
triple-expansion engine, 24 per cent respectively. 
But important as this undoubtedly is, it is not 
more so than the second point named, the excessive 
initial strains throw^n upon the crank pins when the 
whole work has to be done in one cylinder. It must 
be remembered that to obtain any great power, a 
cylinder of large size would be required, and the 
area of the piston would be so great that the influx 
of the steam would exercise an excessive pressure on 
the crank pin. For instance, if the power exerted 
on the pin be plotted out, it wdll be found that in a 
simple engine, the maximum and minimum pressures 
vary much more largely than they do in a compound 
engine, even if it be of the tandem single-crank 
type. If two engine?, each developing 1,250 horse 
power, be taken as an example, in the one case a 
simple condensing with a 42in. cylinder, and in the 
other a tandem compound with a high-pressure 
cylinder 30in. diameter, and a low-pressure 50in. 



168 



diameter, both using steam at 801bs. The initial 
stress on the crank pin in the simple engine is 
110,8361bs., and in the compound engine 62,2481bs., 
a very considerable difference. It is clear that the 
additional strength required in the former will affect 
the design throughout, and will render it necessary 
to increase the weight of the moving parts in order to 
bring them up to their work. This implies more work 
and friction in the engine itself. The case for the 
simple engine would be still worse, if instead of 
a tandem a side by side compound engine had been 
selected as an example. Thus, alike on the gi'ound 
of economy in working and in the avoidance of 
undue strains, a division of the steam expansion is 
desirable. It is not easy to determine when this 
process shall take place, but when the power re- 
quired is moderately large, and the steam pressure 
used is over 701bs., compounding will always pay. 
Up to 1201bs. pressure compound engines are best, 
and from loOlbs. to 2001bs. triple-expansion engines 
give good results. 

Whatever may be the type of engine used it is 
never wise to diminish its usefulness by cutting 
down the first cost. A well designed and propor^ 
tioned engine, constructed soundly and with due 
regard to accuracy, may appear "^to be dear, but 
it is fairly certain to be economical in the long run. 
An engine should be well balanced, with its working 
parts reduced to the least possible number, strong^ 
yet not unduly heavy, and with its proportions 
properly arranged and calculated. When high 
pressures are used, it is imperative that a good 
rapidly-acting valve motion be applied, and the 
passages ought to be arranged so that the steam 
has quick access to the cyliader without loss of 
pressure. Full boiler pressure cannot, perhaps, be 
got on the piston, but it can be very nearly 
approached. It is equally important that, as there 
must be some space left between the piston at the 
end of its stroke and the valve, the exhaust valve 
shall close in sufficient time to enable the steam 
£lling the space named to be compressed, and thus 



169 

raised to a temperature equal to or approaching 
that of the incoming steam. In this way the 
initial condensation of the steam is avoided. 
These conditions imply the existence of large 
areas in the valve ports, and such an arrange- 
ment of gear that these can be opened wide at 
once and closed instantaneously. Xothino: is of 
more importance in a steam-engine than the un- 
obstructed passage of the steam into the cylinder, 
and it is equally necessary that the exhaust valves 
open and close quickly, and that they are so 
a'-ranged as to drain off any water at every stroke. 
In setting the valves regard must be paid to the 
terminal pressures, which, in a multiple expansion 
engine, are determined on in proportioning the 
cylinder areas. In this class of engine the pro- 
vision of a receiver, either as a separate vessel or by 
duly proportioning the size of the steam pipes, is 
an absolute necessity if good work is to be got. 
The area of the receiver must be large enough to 
enable it to contain the whole of the steam 
discharged from the cylinder at each stroke. 
Although by compression it is possible to increase 
the temperature of the steam in the clearance 
spaces, this must not lead users to believe that 
these can be large without loss. On the contrary, 
the smaller the clearance spaces are the better for 
the engine. It will pay millowners to examine 
these points with regard to valve area and openings 
and clearance spaces, as they are two most 
important factors in economical work. 

In large engines, and indeed in all engines using 
steam at a high pressure, it is desirable to have 
steam jackets to the cylinders. The loss by con- 
densation being caused, as was said, by the cooling 
of the cylinder walls, it is highly important to 
protect these from cjoling by radiation. The 
application of a steam jacket has been the great 
difficulty, but this is in a fair way for being over- 
come. In the engines made by Messrs. Sulzer 
Bros., of Winterthur, for instance, who have long 
had a reputation for their engines, steam jackets 



170 



are usual, and, as will be seen from some of the 
descriptions which follow, they are also used by 
some of the best English firms. It is certain that 
a distinct gain, thotigh a small one, accrues from 
the use of a jacket, especially if it is fed by 
steam equal in temperature to that entering the 
cylinder. The condensation and re-evaporation 
which usually takes place is thus avoided. Th^^ 
usual practice with steam cylinders is to cover them 
with some form of non-conducting material in order 
to avoid cooliug by radiation. Not only should 
the cylinders be clothed, but also all exposed steam 
pipes. There are numerous compositions in the 
market for this purpose, some of which are little 
better than mud bound together with a mixture of 
hay or other fibre. Among the best materials 
which are suitable for this purpose asbestos and 
slag-wool may be recommended, the latter being 
alike effective and cheap. 

During recent years it has become usual to 
abandon the coal consumption per horse-power per 
hour as a measure of the efficiency of an engine, 
and to use instead the weight of steam taken. It 
is obvious that this is the better method, because it 
permits of an apportionment of the cost between the 
boiler and the engine. These are sometimes made 
by diff'erent persons, and the lumping together of 
the result may be unfair to either or both of them. 
It is much better, therefore, that the quantity of 
steam used should be taken as the measure of 
the efficiency of a steam engine. It is important, 
therefore, to see what the proper quantity is. 
In the Journal of the Franklin Institute 
for April, 1894-, particulars are given of a test 
by Professor Thurston of a set of triple expansion 
pumping engines. The results of the test show 
that ir6781bs. of steam y)er I.H.P. per hour were 
used at a fuel cost ov l-237lbs. These figures are 
very low, and were obtained by the employment of 
tubular boilers evaporating 8-9061bs. of water per 
lib. of coal. With a boiler of higher evaporative 
efficiency the coal consumption would be less. As 



171 

it is, the efficiency of the engine "is -068 of that of a 
Carnot cycle working through the same range of 
temperatures, or '77 of thermo-dynamic efficiency 
for the Rankine cycle of the ideal case." Professor 
Thurston says : -'An engine which brings down the 
consumption of energy of heat and steam and fuel 
to the equivalent of 13,056 B.T.U. per hour, 217 
per minute, per horse power, to 11-678 pounds of 
dry steam per horse power per hour, and to 1-25 or 
l*351bs. of fuel, giving an actual duty, watch by 
watch, for twenty-four hours, of 140,000,000 to 
150,000,000 per lOOlbs. of fuel actually consumed, 
with but moderate efficiency of boiler, and averaging 
the equivalent of 154,048,000 foot pounds per 
l,0001bs. of dry steam at the engine, not only 
establishes a wonderful record, but marks off an 
era in the progress of the steam engine. This is 
probably about the limit for the century, and iivelve 
pounds of steam per horse power per hour^ a figure 
now known to be approximated by several engines, 
may be taken as the culmination of the progress of 
the nineteenth century." It may be said that this 
result was obtained in engines which developed 
573'87 horse power with an average steam pressure 
of 121'61bs., and the observations were taken by 
trained observers from Sibley College specially 
organised so as to provide four watches during the 
24 hours continuous trial. It ought also to be men- 
tioned that the cylinders were steam jacketed, 
being supplied, so far as the high-pressure and 
intermediate cylinders were concerned, with steam 
at boiler pressure, and the low-pressure with steam 
at 341bs. The jacket steam for the first two 
cylinders was supplied directly and specially from 
the boiler, so that the temperature of the 
cylinder was well maintained. Some published 
tests of a triple-expansion engine made in 
Germany showed that with an initial pressure of 
155 ^Ibs. the engine used ll-851bs. of steam per 
I.H.P. Messrs. Sulzer Bros., in their catalogue, 
state their triple engines consume only 11 — 131bs. 
steam per I.H.P. per hour. No facts are known 



172 

which justify the lower figure. As a matter of 
tact, there is grave doubt as to the maintenance 
during actual work of any use of steam less in 
amount than 121bs. per I.H.P. per hour. In a 
recent careful and reliable test by Mr. Crosland of a 
set of mill engines at the Mutual Spinning Company 
Limited, at Heywood, the steam consumption was 
only 12-2 lbs. per I.H.P. per hour, which is the 
lowest yet ascertained during actual work in Lanca- 
shire. Details of this test are given at a later stage. 
Compound engines are, of course, not so econo- 
mical as triple expansion, but form a great advance 
upon simple engines. The consumption of steam 
ma good compound engine should be about 161bs. 
and m a simple engine with condenser about ISlbs. 
per LH.P. per hour. At one time engine makers 
in this country were reluctant to give any guarantee 
as to steam consumption in their engines, and it 
was made a matter of reproach that Continental 
engineers would do so readily. Now that is 
all changed, and any of the firms whose engines 
are illustrated will guarantee a certain steam con- 
sumption. This is the important point, and it 
should not be overlooked by millowners. 

Another matter which may be mentioned before 
passmg on is that of piston speed. Many years 
ago, when the Allen engine was introduced into 
Lngland, and was tried at a piston speed of 800ft. 
per minute, it proved to be unsuccessful, and it 
was roundly declared that such speeds were impos- 
sible. It is curious to note that since the intro- 
duction of high pressures and multiple expansions 
the piston speed of stationary engines has gradually 
gone up until, as will be seen, they are now often 
as high as 660ft. per minute. 

The favourite type of engine for cotton mill 
practice is the horizontal side by side, which pro- 
bably gives the maximum economy combined with 
steadiness. In constructing this engine ample 
areas should be given to the working parts, and 
due provision made for lubrication. The pressure 
per square inch on a crank pin should never be 



173 

more than SOOlbs., on the cross-head slides witli 
good lubrication 4001bs., and on the main bearings 
4001bs. or 5001bs. The speed of the steam in the 
main steam pipe should not be more than 2,500ft. 
per minute, and in the exhaust 4,500ft. If the 
engine is of jet condensing type, 25 to 30 times 
the weight of water is wanted for the weight of 
steam used ; but this depends on the temperature 
of the former, which should not exceed 100°F. In 
some cases surface condensers are used, and in that 
event the following rule will be of interest : The 
combined area of the surface of the tubes should 
be equal to the area of the heating surface required 
X "07. A simpler rule is that the tube surface 
needed is 2*5 to 3 square feet per I.H.P. If cooling 
reservoirs are constructed, they should be large and 
shallow rather than small and deep. The exact pro- 
portion naturally depends on the amount of cold 
water available. The reservoir should have a capacity 
equal to the volume injected into the condenser per 
day. The loss by evaporation has been estimated 
by Mr. Hurst to be from Jin. to ^in, per day in the 
summer, and from jg^"- *^ tV^"- "^ ^^^ winter. 
With regard to cooling appliances, there is room 
for improvement in this respect, and the question 
of area for condensing water is one of much interest 
in many places. 

Having thus dealt generally with some of the 
points relating to engines such as are used in 
cotton mills, several examples of recent construc- 
tion are given, so as to illustrate present 
day practice. In doing so it naturally happens 
that some similarity will exist between the various 
engines, the differences, which are important how- 
ever, being mainly in the arrangements of the valve 
gear, etc. It will be understood that the engines 
are selected as recent examples only, and are not 
necessarily the most important engines made by 
the various firms. 



ill 



ill 



174 
CHAPTER XIII. 

STEAM ENGINES — RECENT EXAMPLES. 

The engine illustrated in Fig. 70 is one recently 
made and erected by Messrs, Hick, Hargreaves 
and Co., Ltd., and set to work at Messrs. A. 
Bromiley and Co.'s factory, Folds Road, Bolton, and 
although of comparatively small power, it possesses 
special features which are interesting. It is of 
the makers' well-known Corliss type, as regards 
the framing and the construction and valve 
gear of both cylinders. It is designed for a load of 
-too I.H.P, and has cylinders ISin. and 32in. 
diameter by 4ft. stroke. The cylinder ratio is 
therefore 1 : 3-16. The speed is 70 revolutions 
per minute, or a piston speed of 560ft, and the 
boiler pressure 1201bs. per square inch. The steam 
is supplied by a 30ft. x Sft. Lancashire boiler, 
also supplied by Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves and Co., 
Limited. Each cylinder is built up of four parts 
bolted together, a method of construction which 
involves some extra cust, but is recognised as secur- 
ing important advantage^. The cylinder is furnished 
with a liner, or workiug barrel, which is fitted into 
the outer casing, being held at one end by a lip 
taking into a recess formed in the casing. The 
other end of the liner is free to slide, and in a 
recess, made in the casing, a few turns of 
asbestos picking are placed, being surmounted 
by a ring of metal. AVhen the valve case is 
bolted in position the ring and packing are thus 
secured. In this way there is perfect freedom 
of movement in the barrel. Both cylinders are 
jacketed on the principle, now generally employed 
by the makers, of making the whole steam supply 
to each cylinder pass through the jacket of that 
cylinder, this method preventing the cylinders being 
strained by unequal expansion, and securing a high 
measure of economy. One of the most, novel and 
important features about the engine is the applica- 
tion of the makers' patent " swivel " bearings to 



175 



both craniecks and to the crank pin. These 
devices red i the liability of hot necks or pins to 
an almost nigable quantity. The valve gear 
is of the " Ingfind Spencer " type, in which wrist 
plates are emplid, and so arranged as to secure 
the "dwell'" of tiN'alves duriug the period of the 
greatest load. Th\team and exhaust valves are 
driven by separate'ribt plates, thus allowing 
of independent adjustnt. As will be seen from 
the illustration, the dtTU of the engine is of a 
very simple and straigorward character. The 
working parts and surfi? are liberally propor- 
tioned, and the high finisll' the bright parts and 
the planished steel cylinder sings and crank race 
shields give the engine a verjVidsome appearance. 




Fig. 71. 

The power is transmitted by ropes, the drum ^^ 
15ft. diameter and grooved for 14 ropes. ^ 

})rovided with a barring rack, through which 
engine is moved by one of the makers' double cyli.. 
der barring engines. The engine is at present 
working with only a portion of the full load and 
with reduced boiler pressure, but the diagrams 
given (Figs. 71 and 72), though taken under these 
conditions, will serve to show the admirable 
character of the steam distribution. It is expected 
when full load is on that not more than 141bs. of 
steam per I.H P. will be required. Although this 
is a specimen of a comparatively small engine, it is 
none the less interesting, as it is an example of the 
characteristic method of construction carried out 
throughout by the makers. 



176 

As a contrast to the preceding, an ^stration, 
Fig. 73, is given of a set of tri^ expansion 
vertical engines of 1,000 b.p., also n-^ by Messrs. 
Hick, Hargreaves, and Co. Althg^i }^^^ being 
used for cotton spinning, they are work in Belfast, 
driving a fine flax spinning mill^'he cylinders are 
inverted, the high and interme^te pressures being 
outside, and the low pressure^ the middle. The 
high pressure cylinder is !'»• diameter, the inter- 
mediate 29in., and the lowessure 46in., the stroke 
in each case being 4ft. -he cylinder ratios are 
thus— high to intermedin, 1 : 2-23 nearly ; inter- 
mediate to low, 1 : iH ; high to low, 1 : 5-86. 
The engine makes 80/^olutions per minute, which 
is equal to a pistoi/peed of 640ft. per minute. 
The construction of/ a cylinder and valve gear is. 




Fig. 72. 

alio' ig for the variation in the design, similar 
to xt of the preceding example, and does not 
r :e further comment, except that the cylin- 
3 are not jacketed. Knowles' supplementary 
v^ernor is added to the engine, which enables 
,n accurate and absolute control to be attained 
over the steam admission. The crank shaft 
is 12in. diameter in the necks, and is built up 
in the manner common with marine engine shafts. 
Both it and the crank pins are, in accordance with 
the usual practice of the makers, bored from end 
to end. The crank-shaft and crank-pin bearings 
and the guide-blocks are lined with a special white 
metal, and the guide-bars are hollow, so as to pro- 
vide for the circulation of water. Special indi- 
cating cocks are fitted, as also a novel indicating 



177 

gear suggested by Mr. Wilson, the engineer super- 
intending their erection. This consists of a spindle, 
running in centres and carrying a quadrant for 
the indicator cord, and a spiral blade kept in or out 
of contact with a roller moving with the crosshead 
by means of a spring. The gear can be easily put 
in or out of action. The engines have a vertical 
single acting air-pump, 32in. diameter and 16in. 
stroke, and a jet condenser driven by levers from 
the low-pressure engine. The rope drum is fixed 
on the shaft at the intermediate cylinder end, and 
is 16ft. diameter, being grooved for 36 ropes. In 
order to ascertain the character of the work of 
this engine, a test lasting 5J hours was made 
by Mr. Wilson under working conditions. The 
mean indicated horse-power was 791-3, with a 
boiler pressure of 1561bs. per square inch, the 
vacuum obtained being ll-941bs. In order to 
ascertain the percentage of priming, a known pro- 
portion of salt was added to the feed water, and the 
water of condensation collected out of the main 
supply pipe. This being tested by chemical reagents 
was found to give results which, on being proved, 
were shown to be very accurate. In this way it was 
ascertained that 12-791bs. of steam per I.H.P. per 
hour was used, the consumption of coal — " Vivian's 
Thro' and Thro' "—being only 1 •221bs. It may be of 
interest to mention that the water evaporated from 
and at 212' F. was 12*1 libs, per lb. of coal, 
which for a Lancashire boiler, 28ft. by 7ft. 6in., is 
a high duty. The ratio of the grate area to the 
whole heating surface is 1 : 26-8, and a Green's 
economiser of 320 pipes was used, raising the feed 
to 258° F. 

The engines illustrated in Fig. 74 were recently 
constructed and put to work by Messrs. Daniel 
Adamson and Co. at the Mill of the Minerva Cotton 
Spinning Company, Limited, a view of which has 
been previously given. 

As will be noticed, they are of the horizontal 
tandem type, having two cylinders on each side of 
the main driving drum. The high and one low 

M 



right angles, on the opposite side. This arrangement 
is one which is largely adopted for engines of this 
class and duty, when perfectly steady turning is 
a necessity, as it secures a perfectly balanced 
engine and an equable distribution of the load on 
each crank pin. 

The high pressure cylinder is 22in. bore, the 
intermediate pressure cylinder 36in. bore, wiiilst the 
two low pressure cylinders are each 40in. bore, all 
being 60in. stroke. The cylinder areas are, there- 
fore — high to intermediate, 1 : 2'67 ; intermediate 
to low, 1 : 2-46 ; and the piston speed is 660ft. per 
minute. As now running, at 55 revolutions per 
minute, they will develop 1,500 horse-power with 
ease, with steam at 1601bs. pressure per square 
inch, for which pressure the boilers are loaded and 
the engines are proportioned. The power is given 
off from the engines by a main rope drum 30ft. 
in diameter, grooved for 40 ropes IJin. diameter, 
the speed of the ropes being 5,185ft. per minute. 
The drum is built up, and its finished weight is 65 
tons. It is cased in with polished pine, has an 
internal barring rack cast inside the rim, and is 
provided with one of the maker's automatic safety 
barring engines. 

The general design of the engines themselves is 
of the type commonly known as the Corliss or 
Trunk Guide frame pattern, and they are of mas- 
sive and strong construction. The portions of the 
frame nearest the cylmders have the slides for the 
crossheads cast therein, and these are bored out at 
the same time as the flanges for jointing to the 
cylinders are faced. At the end of the slides a sub- 
stantial foot, is provided for bolting the frames to 
the foundations, whilst at the end of the frames 
nearest the crank shaft a suitable flange is provided 
for jointing the frames to the crank shaft pedestals, 
which are cast separate and jointed to the frames 
with strong bolts. Between the two tandem cylin- 
ders on each side cast-iron distance pieces are fitted. 



Hii 



179 

These have slides cast in them in a simihir manner 
to the main frames, in which a crosshead, which is 
utilised as a coupling for the piston rods fur the 
high and low pressure cylinders, and as a support 
for the rod, slides. The distance pieces are bored 
out for the crossheads and the flanges faced for 
jointing to the cylinders at one operation, the 
whole engine being thus jointed together with faced 
joints from the machines in true alignment. The 
distance pieces are made large enough to allow 
of the cylinder covers being removed and pistons 
examined, without disconnecting any other parts of 
the engines. All steam joints can be made good 
with the minimum of trouble, they being perfectly 
accessible without any disturbance of the structural 
parts of the engine. Advantage is taken of the 
coupling crosshead for driving the air pumps, which 
are fixed immediately underneath the distance 
pieces, and are of the usual single acting bucket 
type, driven direct from the crosshead by steel 
plate levers. The two low pressure cylinders are 
fixed upon separate cast iron frames, bolted securely 
to the foundations, provision being made for the 
low pressure cylinders to slide freely thereon, and 
thus accommodate themselves to the expansion and 
contraction of the engines when hot and cold. 
The crank-shaft pedestals are fitted with phos- 
phor bronze steps, made in four parts, the two side 
sections being adjustable horizontally by means of 
wedges and screws fitted through the pedestal 
caps, whilst the top and bottom sections are turned 
and fitted into bored seats prepared for them, 
allowing their removal for examination or renewal 
with very little trouble and very slight lifting of 
the shaft. 

The high and intermediate pressure cylinders 
are each fitted with automatic expansion gear, each 
being controlled by a separate and independent 
governor positively driven by gearing. The two 
low pressure cylinders are fitted with circular 
semi-rotatmg valves, one at each end of the 
cylinders, and of the makers' latest improved type. 



"Wheelock" type. This gear was exhibited and 
obtained the highest awards at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion in 1878, since which time it has been a 
speciality of Messrs. Adamson, and has been shown 
at most of the principal exhibitions with similar suc- 
cessful results. The gear is of the single eccentric 
type — the same eccentric being used for driving the 
steam and exhaust valves — and is arranged for givinoj 
automatic control of the expansion from zero to 75 
per cent of the stroke of the piston, whilst retaining 
complete control of the periods of release and com- 
pression. The valves, which are of the flat-grid 
type, giving multiplicity of opening and small 
frictional surfaces, are driven by means of levers 
having a vibrating motion, keyed on the valve 
spindle, and are connected to the eccentric with ad- 
justable coupling rods in the usual manner. The 
steam valves are driven from the exhaust valve 
levers by the " Wheelock " latch link and are 
tripped by cams, the valves being instantly closed 
by means of helical coil springs working in air 
compression cylinders, cushioned and noiseless in 
action. The cams receive a positive travel from 
the eccentric rod, and are varied and controlled 
by the governor, a resultant action being thereby 
obtained capable of tripping the latch link in 
every position of the gear, whether moving forward 
or backward. There are also provided, in suitable 
positions, safety cams which prevent the steam 
valves opening in case of accident to the governor. 
Both steam and exhaust valves are contained in 
one chest at each end of the cylinder, the seats of 
the valves being formed in a plug turned to fit the 
cylinder. The chests, being separate from the 
cylinder, can be made of specially hard and durable 
iron, enabling spare valves to be kept in stock, 
and obviating any wear in the cylinder casting. 
The valve spindles are of the Wheelock patent 
self-packing type, which dispenses entirely with the 
usual stuffing boxes and glands, and are also practi- 
cally frictionless. The piston rods are of forged mild 



181 

steel, and their stuffing boxes are fitted with metallic 
packing throughout. The crank shaft is of Siemens- 
Martin mild steel, and has journals two diameters 
long, which are fitted with oil circulating pumps, 
to return all the oil used from a low level receiving 
cistern to a cistern fitted upon the pedestal caps, 
from which the supply of oil is regulated by means 
of a series of taps. The oil for lubrication is thus 
used over and over again, and is strained and 
sieved thoroughly at each change, this system of 
lubrication being found to keep the bearings in 
perfect condition with very little expenditure of 
oil. The main stop valve is fitted with " Tate's '" 
patent electric stop motion, arranged to close the 
valve automatically in case of accident in the mill, 
to the different rooms with which it is connected. 
The cylinders and pipes are clothed with non-con- 
ducting compositioD, and the bodies of the cylinders 
finished off with planished steel sheets bound 
together with brass belts. They have a complete 
set of automatic and hand lubricators, indicator 
and drain taps, indicator gear, steam and vacuum 
gauges, and .a complete set of oil catchers and 
drippers wherever required, and also handrails and 
guards round all dangerous places. 

The engines shown in Fig. 75 are at use at the 
Castle Spinning Company Limited, Stalybridge, 
and are of the horizontal condensing triple expan- 
sion type made hy Messrs. Yates and Thom, of 
Blackburn. They have a high pressure cylinder 
21 in. diameter, an intermediate cylinder 3-4in. dia- 
meter, and two low pressure cylinders each 39in. 
diameter, all made suitable for a stroke of oft. Gin. 
The ratio of the cylinder areas is thus, high to 
intermediate 1 : 2-33, intermediate to low 1 : 2-6. 
The piston speed is 660ft. per minute. They 
are capable of transmitting most economically 
1,400 I.H.P. with a boiler pressure of 1601bs. 
l)er square inch and a speed of 60 revolutions 
])er minute. The cylinders are arranged with the 
high pressure and one low pressure working on the 
right hand crank and the intermediate and other 



lismg the strains on the respective crank pms. 
The fly rope pulley is 30ft. diameter ; its peripheral 
velocity, 5,650 feet : it is turned and grooved for 32 
ropes each Ifiu. diameter, and weighs about 52 tons. 

The high pressure and intermediate cylinders 
have "Corliss'' valves, and 'are fitted with a 
patent valve gear. The steam and exhaust 
valves are worked independently of each other 
by separate eccentrics and wrist plates, the 
steam valves of the high pressure cylinder 
being under the control of a powerful high speed 
governor for automatically adjusting the point of 
cut-off, which efficiently controls the speed of the 
engine. An improved automatic safety knock-off 
motion is attached to the governor gear for stopping 
the engine in case of accident. The low pressure 
cylinders are fitted with double ported slide valves 
at each end of the cy]iudei*s. The steam and ex- 
haust ports of the cylinders as well as the pipes 
throughout are made of large area, thereby securini< 
low steam velocities both for the admission and 
eduction of the steam from the cylinders, and at 
the same time ensuiing free open passages for the 
steam to the condenser. These points reduce tlie 
initial loss to a minimum, and are of great import- 
ance for economical working. 

The engine bed plates are of the box girder form, 
strong and massively constructed. The crank shaft 
pedestals are fitted with steps in four parts, and 
wedges and screws, affording all possible means for 
easy and efiBcient adjustment. 

There is one set of condensing apparatus to each 
low pressure cylinder, each having a single acting 
vertical air pump fitted with cast-iron buckets of 
improved solid construction and multiple valve ar- 
rangement. Both of the air pumps, as well as the 
boiler feed pump, are worked by means of levers 
made of steel plates actuated from the piston rod 
crossheads of the engine. 

The stop valve for starting the engine is cm- 
veniently placed in the steam pipe on the top of 



183 

the high pressure cylinder, and is easily reached 
and manipulated from the engine house floor. The 
injection valve and other starting handles are all in 
close proximity to each other, an arrangement which 
is exceedingly handy and convenient for the engine 
attendant. 

The important point of lubrication is one to 
which the engineers have given their special 
attention. All the cylinders and main journals are 
provided and fitted with handsome and efficient 
lubricators, those for the crank shaft being con- 
tinuous, having in connection suitable pumps with 
filtering arrangements and cisterns. The crank 
pins are fitted with an effective centrifugal oiling 
arrangement. 

The floor space around the engines is covered 
with cast-iron chequered floor plates, and gives a 
very neat appearance. Polished wrought-iron hand- 
railing, with pillars of good design, are fixed around 
the connecting rods, cranks and fly rope pulley, for 
protection against accidents. 

One of Messrs, Yates and Thom's barring engines 
is provided, gearing into an internal spur rack cast 
on the inside of the rim of the fly rope pulley ; it 
is arranged so that it runs automatically out of 
gear and ceases work immediately the main engine 
gains its speed. The engine has a fine massive 
appearance. 

In Figs. 76 and 77 a plan and elevation of a set 
of triple expansion engines, made for the Park 
Road Spinning Company Limited, Dukinfield, by 
Mr. Benj. Goodfellow, of Hyde, are illustrated. The 
engines are capable of developing 1,500 I.H.P., and 
are designed to drive a mill which, when completed, 
will contain about 92,280 mule spindles, with all 
the necessary preparation required. They are of 
the horizontal triple compound condensing type, 
arranged with four cylinders, one high pressure, 
one intermediate pressure, and two low pressure, 
a compact arrangement which not only gives the 
highest results for regular turning, but an economy 
in steam and a symmetry which cannot be arrived 



mediate pressure cylinder, which is placed on the 
left hand engine and abreast of the high pressure 
cylinder, is 35in. diameter, and the two low pressure 
cylinders are 40in. diameter, one placed behind the 
high pressure cylinder and one behind the inter- 
mediate pressure cylinder. The cylinder area 
is thus proportioned — High pressure to interme- 
diate 1 : 2-52, intermediate to low 1 : 2-61, high 
pressure to low 1 : 6 "6. AW four cylinders are 
5ft. stroke, and the engines are now working at 60 
revolutions per minute, with an initial pressure of 
IGOlbs. per square inch, the piston speed being 
thus 600ft. per minute. 

Each cylinder is fitted with Corliss valves, 
those on the high pressure cylinder being auto- 
matically actuated by the governor, which is 
further assisted by a compensating motion 
enabling the speed of the engines to be controlled 
with the least possible variation, notwithstanding 
the frequent alterations in the load and steam pres- 
sure. All the steam or admission valves are worked 
by Ramsbottom's improved trip motion, which is 
so fitted up as to dispense with the necessity of a 
catch gear, and the valves and their mechanism are 
so designed and constructed that tliey work with ex- 
tremely little friction. The amount of power used 
to trip this gear is surprisingly small, and it is 
remarkably free and easy in action. Further, 
as it lias no clutch to engage and disengage, 
it is well adapted for quick running engines. 
The gear does not, in addition, re-act upon 
the governor when tripping. As is common 
with Mr. Goodfellow's engines, the steam valves 
are all placed on the top sides of the cylinders 
and the exhaust valves at the bottom, this being a 
preferable arrangement to putting both admission 
and exhaust valves at the same side of the cylinder. 
The governor is of a high speed type, with centre 
weight and spring, and is fitted with the firm's im- 



I 



111'' 



185 

proved compensating gear for adjusting the point of 
cut-off to suit the load and the steam pressure, at 
the same time maintaining the normal speed of the 
engines. Attached to the governor is a knock-off, 
or stopping arrangement, which throws the valves 
out of gear and prevents them opening to admit 
steam into the cyhnders, at the same time opening 
a valve which admits air into the condensers and so 
stops the engines in the shortest possible time. 

The engines are fitted with two air pumps and 
complete condensing apparatus, so as to keep every- 
thing as truly balanced as possible, and, at the same 
time, should any accident occur either to one engine or 
the other at any time, the disabled parts may be 
readily uncoupled, and a large portion of the 
work be driven from one engine. As these 
engmes are running at a rather high speed for 
engines of this class, the air-pump" bucket has 
been made on the bucket and plunger principle, 
thereby getting a much steadier motion, in 
consequence of having a constant deliveiy of the 
overflow water, and practically dispensing with the 
knock fi'om the pump, which is so very common in 
quick-running stationary engines. Each bucket 
and plunger derives its motion by means of the 
usual L levers, links, etc., as shown in Fig. 77, from 
a spider crosshead, sliding in a cast-iron distance 
piece, between the two cyhnders. This distance 
piece acts as the stay from one cylinder to the 
other, and at the same time it forms the guide 
for the spider cross head. This arrangement 
requires a rather longer engine-house than when 
both cylinders are put together and the condensing 
apparatus put under the main slide bai's, but the 
maker claims, with some justice, that it has the 
advantages of placing the condensing apparatus in 
a much more accessible position, does not cut an 
objectionable opening in the foundation at the 
• •rank-shaft end of the engine beds, and that by coup- 
ling the rods by means of the air-pump cross-head 
the cold low pressure rod is never worked through 
into the high pressure cylinder or vice versa. In 




Fig. 71 



more convenient to have the piston rod in two 
pieces than in one long cumbrous one, as is very 
common in the other case. 



187 

The main bearing used is shown in partial section 
and plan in Figs. 78 and 79. It will be noticed 
the brass is divided, so that it can be set up by 
wedges and screws, and that provision is made 
for continuous lubricatioD. The crank shaft is 
made of Whitworth's fluid compressed steel, and 
the fly rope pulley is 30ft. diameter, grooved for 46 
Ifin. ropes. It is made as two separate pulleys, 
i.e. there are two bosses, two sets of arms, and two 
sets of segments, each keyed on to the shaft with 
separate steel keys. There are some advantages in 
this arrangement, which has proved successful in 
practice. The face of the pulley is furnished with 
a rack, into which a barring engine is geared, and 
provided so as to be automatically disengaged when 
the main engine over-runs it. The engines will 
easily work with IJlb. of coal per I.E. P. per hour, 
including mill heating, and are a good sample of 
the most modern type. They are well calculated 
to do good service for many years and give entire 
satisfaction alike to the maker and user. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

STEAM ENGINE EXAMPLES. 

(Continued.) 

The engines, illustrated in Fig. ^0, are being 
made for a cotton spinning mill in the East, by 
Mr. George Saxon, and are constructed on the four 
cylinder triple expansion tandem principle. The 
high pressure cylinder is 17in. in diameter, the 
intermediate 29in. diameter, and each of the two low 
pressure cylinders 3Hin. in diameter. The cylinder 
ratios are therefore, high to intermediate, 1 : 2*9 ; 
intermediate to low, 1 : 2-36. The stroke is 5ft., 
and when running at 60 revolutions per minute, or 
a piston speed of 660 feet, with a boiler pressure of 
1601bs. per square inch, the engine is calculated to 
develop 800 I.H.P. The cylinders are arranged 
with one high pressure and one low pressure acting 



hand crank, the load on the respective cranks by 
this means being equalised as nearly as practicable. 
The engines work on to two cranks set at right 
angles to each other. Strong cast-iron polished 
distance-pieces are fixed between the cylinders on 
each side. 



W' 





Fig. 80. 



All the cylinders are fitted with Corliss valves 
actuated in a very simple and efficient manner. 
Each motion is provided with a tripping arrange- 
ment, and fitted with springs and air-cushioned 
boxes, and each valve can be independently ad- 
justed. The trip gear to the high pressure cylinder 
is connected with and adjusted automatically by an 
efficient high speed governor, which is fitted with a 



189 

mercurial balance or regulator. The range of cut-off 
varies from nothing to three-fourths of the stroke. 
The trip gears fitted to the intermediate and two 
low pressure cylinders are similar to that fitted to 
the high pressure, the cut-ofF being adjustable and 
capable of being varied while the engine is at work. 
The valves are worked by four eccentrics set on two 
separate shafts between the low pressure cylinders 
and in front of the fly rope pulley, the shaft being 
driven b}^ bevel gear from the crank shaft. 

The pistons are fitted with steel spiral coil 
, springs, the rods being of special mild steel and Sin. 

I and 4in. diameter respectively. The crossheads are 

I of hammered scrap iron fitted with mild steel 

I gudgeons. The connecting rods are 12ft. 6in. long, 

I centre to centre, 6Jin. diameter in the middle, an'd 

have the crank-pin ends forged solid. The cranks 
I are of hammered scrap iron, neatly shaped all over, 

I fitted with pins of special mild steel, and have 

journals QUn. diameter and 9in. long. The crank 
shaft is of special steel, and has journals 12in. 
diameter, 30iu. long, swelled to 15in. diameter for 
the pulley seat. The main driving drum, through 
which the whole of the power of the engine passes, 
is built up in segments, with loose boss, fitted with 
mild steel turned and bored hoops, and loose arms 
bolted to the rim segments and cottered to the 
boss. The drum is 25fr. diameter, and grooved for 
15 ropes l|iu. in diameter, with a rope speed of 
4,712ft. per minute. It weighs 30 tons and is 
prepared with a rack cast on the inside of the rim 
for gearing with a double cylinder automatic steam 
barring engine. The pedestals of the crank shaft 
are adjustable by wedges, and are fitted with four 
steps of cast iron lined with Magnolia metal, which 
is a method adopted with great success by this firm, 
the steps being adjustable both horizontally and 
vertically. The beds are of a very strong box 
section, bracketed up to receive the front ends of 
the low pressure cylinders. They are recessed for 
the slide blocks, and are fitted with polished 
wrought-iron guide bars. 



190 



Two sets of condensing apparatus are provided, 
each comprising an air pump 24in. diameter, 20in. 
stroke, with a hot well cast on top, and fitted with 
a grid over, having a series of india-rubber valves, 
condenser, and footbox with valve. The air-pumps 
are worked from the main crossheads of the engine 
by steel plate levers connected by strong links, top 
and bottom, 

The steam pipes are being made of electrically 
welded steel. The fittings comprise special metallic 
packed glands to all the cylinder covers, lubricators 
to the crank pedestals for continuous lubrication, 
radial lubricators to the crank pins, sight feed lubri- 
cators to cylinders and to all rotary and recipro- 
cating parts, and planished sheet steel casings, with 
brass bands. There are also fitted spring relief 
valves and drain and indicator cocks, indicating 
gear, polished brass drippers under cranks, polished 
haudrailing round cranks and along connecting-rods, 
etc ; a Moscrop speed and steam pressure recorder ; 
and, in connection with the starting valve, an 
electric stop motion, by which the valve may be 
closed and the engine brought to a stand from 
various parts of the mill in case of accidents. 

In Fig. 81 an illustration, taken from a photo- 
graph, is given of a set of triple expansion engines 
made by Messrs. J. and E. Wood, of Bolton, for the 
Mutual Spinning Company. These are the engines 
previously referred to as having a low steam con- 
sumption. They are, as will be seen, of the 
horizontal double tandem type, having four cylin- 
ders. Of these the bore of the high pressure 
cylinder is 21 in., the intermediate 33m., the two 
low pressures 35 m. All the cylinders are without 
steam jackets, but are, of course, otherwise pro- 
tected. The stroke of the engines is 6ft. and the 
velocity 53 revolutions, giving a piston speed of 
636ft. The high pressure and right-hand low 
pressure cylinder form one engine, actuating one 
crank, while the intermediate and second low 
pressure cylinder actuate the other, which is placed 
at an angle of 90° to the right-hand crank. The 



kii 



191 

areas of the cylinders bear the following ratio :— 
High pressure to intermediate, 1:2-|9; inter- 
mediate to low, 1:2-25; high pressure to low, 
1:5-61. The effective areas of the pistons, in 
square inches, are as follow :— high pressure, 
339-56; intermediate pressure, 848-05; left-hand 
low pressure, 937-26; right-hand low pressure, 
947-59. The clearances of the cylinders are, in 
cubic inches, as follows :— High pressure, 920; 
intermediate, 2,714; left-hand low pressure, 3,337 ; 
right-hand low pressure, 3,373. The ratios of 
clearance spaces to the volume swept by piston 
are :— High pressure cylinder, -0376; intermediate 
pressure cylinder, -0444; low pressure cylinders, 
•0494. The engines are fitted with Corliss valves, 
which are operated by the trip motion devised by 
the makers, which is of a very strong, simple, and 
effective character. The valves of the high 
pressure cylinder are controlled by a high speed 
governor of improved type. The piston rods for 
the high pressure and intermediate cylinders are 
4fin. diameter, those for the low pressure 5Jin. 
diameter at front and 4|in. diameter at back of 
piston. The piston rod is well supported back and 
front by slide blocks of large area, and the engine 
generally is strongly and well made. These engines 
were made in 1892, and on the 5th, 6th, and 
7th of September, 1893, Mr. J. F. L. Crosland 
made a thorough test of the engines, and 
some of the details of the results obtained by 
him are given. The boiler pressure was 1561bs. to 
the square inch, and was supplied by two Lanca- 
shire boilers, each 30ft. long and 8ft. diameter, with 
two flues, each 3ft. 2in. diameter, with 5 Galloway 
tubes in each flue. Behind the boilers an economiser 
with 288 pipes is fixed, which delivered the water 
to the boilers at a temperature of 304° F. The 
total heating surface of the two boilers is 2,016 
sq. ft., and the combined area of the fire 
grates 66-5 sq. ft, thus giving a ratio of 
30-31 to 1. In addition to this the heating sur- 
face of the economisers is 2,880 sq. ft. The boilers 



k:'iia\> aiaL/n., 



»^cli>Jl.ll-H-l 



Jlll 



of 12,963 thermal units. The test was made under 
careful supervision, mdicator diagrams being taken 
every 15 minutes, the whole trial lasting eight hours 
on two consecutive days. In Figs. 82 to 85 the 
indicator diagrams taken from these engines are 
siven. 



L'N£ CF BciLER P» 




Fig. 82. 




Jr'iG. 83. 

The trial showed that there was developed on the 
5th September a power of 1,089-7 I.H.P.. and on 
the 6th September 1,0-49-4 I.H.P. The division 
of labour on the two engines is very even, as on the 
5th September the right-hand crank had exerted on 
it 542-2 I.H.P., and the left-hand crank 547-5. It 



193 



may be well to note that the horse power absorbed in 
friction was 242-2, the friction diagrams being taken 
when the belts were upon the loose pulleys. It is 
not necessary to go through all the details of this 
trial, but we may at once come to the salient points. 
The weight of steam and water supplied to the engine 
per I.H.P. per hour was on the 5th September 
12-511bs., and deducting from this the weight of 
water, a net weight of dry saturated steam is left of 
12-21bs. On the second day the amount was a little 
greater, being 12'251bs., and the weight of dry coal 




Fig. Si. 



wm 




^i 



Fig. S5. 

consumed per I.H.P. per liour was on the first day 
l'371b., and on the second day 1"38. At the cost of 
the coal used, which was 6s. jMjr ton, 23 '1 H.P. is 
supplied hourly for Id. Looking at the engine as a 
thermal machine, and sticking to one day, Sep- 
tember 5th, the heat supplied was 14,935 thermal 
units, of which 2,565 were converted into work, 
giving an eflBciency of '172. A perfect heat engine 
working with the same range of temperature 
gives an eflBciency of '279, so that the relative 
efl&ciency is '616. Compare this with Professor 



was put at '668, and it will be seen that, accepting 
that test, the present engines, developing far 
higher powers, are practically as perfect. It is 
not necessary at this point to say anything with 
regard to the working of the boilers or economisers 
beyond noting that the equivalent evaporation at and 
from 212° F. was per lb. of coal burned 10*361bs., 
that the economiser raised the water from an 
average temperature of 130° F. to 304° F., and 
that the percentage of effective work done by the 
boilers and economisers was 75 '5. Both these 
results are satisfactory. It may safely be said 
that this test, which has been formally made and is 
beyond doubt reliable, establishes a result which is 
at once stratifying to the makers, and is the best yet 
recorded under like conditions for engines of this 

type. 

In Fig. 86 an illustration is given of a pair of 
compound engines, designed to drive a load of 
1,800 I.H.P. They were made by Messrs. Buckley 
and Taylor, and have the peculiarity, in these days, 
of being constructed with ordinary slide valves at 
each end of the cylinder. It is not often that com- 
pound engines of such large powers are now made 
for mill work, but the makers of the engines 
illustrated have constructed a number for Oldham 
cotton spinning mills, which are working with 
complete success and a remarkably low steum con- 
sumption. The cylinders of the engines shown 
have diameters of 26in. and 52in. respectively, or 
a ratio of 1 : 4. The stroke is 6ft., and the speed 
50 revolutions per minute; the pistcm velocity 
being thus ('00ft. per minute. The high pressure 
piston rod is steel, with a diameter of 4|iii , and the 
low pressure rod is 6 fin. diameter. The crank 
shaft is 17in. diameter and 34in. long in the necks, 
the body being 19in. and the wheel l)0ss 24in. dia- 
meter. The shaft is, of course, made of steel. 
The cranks, which are set at an angle of 90° to 
each other, are made of best hammered scrap iron, 
and have bosses round the shaft 36in. diameter and 



196 

round the pin 21 in. diameter, the thickness of the 
intervening web being 8in. The crank pins, which 
are made of steel, are lOin. diameter in the journals 
and 12in. long. The connecting rods are 18ft. 
long between centres, and are 10 Jin. diameter at 
their largest part. The air pumps provided are 
worked by L levers, as usual, being 32in. diameter 
and 3ft. stroke. The condenser is of the ordinary 
jet type. On the crank shaft a rope pulley is fixed, 
which is 30ft. diameter, and is prepared for 40 
jopes Ifin. diameter each. The speed of the ropes 
is, therefore, 4,712ft. per minute, which is a very 
effective one. The feed pumps, which are fixed on 
the engine, are 4Jin. in bore, and have a stroke of 
15in. A double-cylindered barring engine is pro- 
vided. The valve gear of these engines is of a tjpe 
which has been looked upon as inferior by some 
engineers, but the diagrams obtained from a num- 
ber of examples of this class do not show any signs 
of this. We present a set in Figs. 87 and 88 
taken from an engine which is steadily working 
with an average coal consumption of Iflbs. 
per I.H.P. per hour, this including the pro- 
duction of the steam used for heating the 
mill. Although the merits of valves of the 
Corliss type cannot be denied, it is evident from 
the results given that there is still something to be 
said for the simple slide valve which, as was said, 
is still much flivoured in the Oldham district 

In Fig. 89 the now well-known quadruple ex- 
pansion engine, made by Messrs. John Musgrave 
and Sons, Limited, is illustrated, this being an end 
view of the engines made for the Peel Spinning and 
Manufacturing Company, of Bury. They have 
four cylinders : the first, a high pressure having a 
bore of 18in. ; the second, the first intermediate 
cylinder, a bore of 26in. ; the third, the second 
intermediate, a bore of 37in. ; and the fourth, 
the low pressure, a bore of 54in. The cylinder 
ratios are therefore as follows : high to first inter- 
mediate 1:2 086; first to second intermediate 
1:2-025; second intermediate to low pressure 



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• practically form two pairs, the high and first 
intermediate pressure cylinders being fixed on one 
standard and working on to one crank, and the 
second intermediate and low pressure cylinders 
being fixed on the other standand, and working on 
to the second crank, the rope drum being fixed 
between the two engines. The stroke of the 
pistons is 4ft. 6in., and the speed 80 revolutions per 
minute, thus giving a piston speed of 720ft. The 
peculiarity of the engines is the employment of a 
triangular connecting rod, coupled by links to each 
piston rod, and vibrating on a pin fixed in the ends 
of a pair of levers oscillating on a fixed centre 
on the frami)]g. The result of this peculiar ar- 
rangement is that there is in a sense no dead 
centre in the engine, and side pressure on the guide 
bars is practically abolished. The vibrating levers 
have short tails formed, to which the air pump rods 
are coupled, the air pumps, of which there are two, 
having a diameter of 26in., with a stroke of 15in. 
The condenser is of the jet type. It should have 
\ . been mentioned that the valves are of the Corliss 

type, fitted with the makers' patent trip gear, and — 
so far as those of the first two cylinders are 
concerned — controlled directly from the governor, 
which can vary the cut-ofF from zero to three- 
quarters of the stroke. The rope drum is 21ft. 
diameter, grooved for 36 ropes Ifin. diameter, 
which have a velocity of 5,280ft. These engines 
are most interesting, as being the first practical 
attempt since that of the late Mr. Adamson to 
apply quadruple expansion to mill engines. 

The engines shown in side elevation in Fig. 90 
are an example of the compound side by side 
horizontal engine, this view showing very clearly 
the general arrangement of air pump, etc. 
The engine illustrated was made for an Indian 
mill, and is arranged for a wheel drive. The high 
pressure cylinder is 35in. bore and the low pressure 
60 inches, the ratio of their areas being 1 : 3 
nearly. The pistons have a stroke of 7ft., which. 




Fig. fcO. 



J 



201 



as the number of revolutions per minute is 44, give 
a piston speed of 536ft. The pressure of stear 
used is llOlbs. This engine has a frame of th 
trunk pattern, the guides being formed in th 
frame. The piston rod is carried through the bac 
of the cylinder, and carries a slide block sliding i; 
guides which are independent of the cylinder. I 
most cases the makers prefer to supply a patentee 
support for the piston rods, which consists of a roUe 
turned with a circular groove to suit the rod, an* 
revolving in a fixing w^hich forms an oil chambei 
The rod, when sliding, rotates the roller, and th 
lubricant carried upward by the latter reduces th 
friction considerably. The purpose of all classes c 



if 



''m 




Fjg. 91. 



slides is to sustain the piston rod and pistoi 
and prevent the latter wearing the cylinder oval 
and the roller support has many claims for coi 
sideration. The valves used in this engine are c 
the Corliss type, and are directly controlled by 
high speed governor. In order to avoid the groovin 
of the valves the arrangement shown in Fig. 9 
is employed. In this the rotation of the valv 
automatically causes it to slide endways a littL 
thus ensuring that it does not make two consecuti\ 
oscillations in the same place. In this way wear 
prevented, and the life of the valve increased. Tl 
engine has two air pumps, each driven from th 
crosshead of one engine by means of links and j 



^ 



frames. The stroke of the air pump is 28in. and 
its diameter 30iD. Between the two cylinders a 
receiver of ample area is placed. The crank shaft 
has a diameter in neck of 18in. and a length of 
bearing of 3ft. The fly-wheel has a diameter of 
22ft. 6in., weighs 45 tons, and the spur-wheel is 
17ft. 3 Jin. diameter. The latter gears into a pinion 
6ft. 7 Jin. diameter. The spur-wheel has 128 teeth, 
and the pinion 49 each, having a pitch of 5/o-in. 
and a width of 20in. Through these, 1,800 horse- 
power is transmitted, the second motion shaft 
having a speed of 115 revolutions per minute. It 
ought perhaps to be said that the makers of this 
engine recommend a box bedplate in preference to 
a trunk of the pattern shown, but as many users 
prefer the latter, it is a convenient form to 
illustrate. A coal consumption of about l-7lbs. 
per I.H.P. per hour can be obtained with this type 
of engine. A rack is fitted on one side of the fly- 
wheel into which the pinion of a small barring 
engine gears. 

In Fig. 92 an illustration is given of a set of 
triple expansion engines constructed by Messrs. 
Pollitt and Wigzell, Limited. They are of a special 
tppe, the high pressure cylinder working on to one 
crank, and the intermediate and low pressure on to 
the other, the cranks being fastened on opposite 
ends of the same shaft. The high pressure cylinder 
is 19in. diameter, the intermediate 28 Jin., and the 
low pressure 46in. The cylinder ratios are there- 
fore high pressure to intermediate, 1 :2-25; inter- 
mediate to low pressure, 1 : 2*6 ; high pressure to 
low, 1 : 5-86. The stroke of all the cylinders is 
5ft. 6in., and as the number of revolutions is 75, 
the piston speed is the high one of 825ft. per 
minute. The intermediate and low pressure 
cylinders are bolted together, one cylinder cover 
serving for the back end of the intermediate and 
the front end of the low pressure. There is one 
piston rod to the intermediate cylinder, and two to 
the low pressure cylinder, all connecting to one 



iiliiiiilii 



, 








IHi 



on the wedge block system. 

The valves employed on all the cylinders are of 
the piston type ; and those used for the high 
pressure and intermediate cylinders are on Pollitt 
and Wigzell's patented principle, in which the cut- 
off valve is fitted inside the main valve. The valves 
fitted on the high pressure cylinder are directly 
controlled by the governor, while those of the inter- 
mediate cylinder are controllable by hand. 

The crank shaft used in this set of engines is 
made of Whitworth's compressed fluid steel, the 
journals being 13in. diameter and 27in. long, while 
the body of the shaft is 19iu. diameter. On this 
shaft are fastened two rope driving drums, fixed 
side by side so as practically to form one drum. 
Each of these is 22ft. diameter, and is grooved for 
36 ropes l|in. diameter. At the speed named the 
velocity of the ropes is 5,183ft. per minute. The 
horise-power transmitted through each rope is about 
37. The two fly-wheels together weigh 45 tons, so 
that there is an ample weight to ensure steady 
driving. There is provision made for the appUca- 
tion of a barring engine of great power, this being 
made on Greenwood and Whiteley's patent. 

The whole of the working parts are made as far 
as possible of steel, and the crank pins are of ample 
diameter and area. The beds are made of a 
massive pattern, and strength is the cardinal 
feature in this design. The air pump and con- 
denser arrangements are of the usual class. 

Engines of this type are at work at the Parkside 
Spinning Com}>any's mill at Royton — one of the 
most successful concerns in Lancashire — driving 
machinery requiring 1,340 LH.P. The description 
given will show that there are a few unusual features 
in these engines. There is first the arrangement 
generally as to driving, only one low pressure 
cylinder being used, and this being coupled with the 
intermediate to one crank, the high pressure cylinder 
forming the second engine. The second point of 
notice is the fastenino: toi^ether of the intermediate 



205 



and low pressure cylinders, which is a novel ar 
unusual arrangement. The third point to note 
the employment of piston valves, and particular 
the adoption of an internal cut-off valve. Tin 
there is the high piston speed, which is greater thf 
usual. There are thus several features of noveli 
and interest in these engines, and they are workii 
with success at the mill named. 

As an example of the best type of Continent 
engine, we are enabled in Figs. 93 and 9-1 to give f 
illustration of an engine made by Messrs. Sulz 
Bros., of Winterthur, Switzerland. Messrs. Sulz 
are acknowledged to be at the head of this depai 
ment on the Continent, and it is not long sin 
every Anglophobist engineer held them up as i 
example to follow, and a warning of the increasii 
competition from abroad. A careful comparis( 
of results recently obtained with English engiu 
will show that, despite some conservatisr 
they have nothing to fear from any quarter, i 
the same time it is well for engineers to 
able to see w^hat others are doing, because tl 
Continental spinning manager isofreu a well-traini 
man, with a knowledge of engineering matters n 
to be lightly despised. By means of this he exac 
conditions which the average Englishman does n 
think of, but which have the effect of stimulatii 
the steam engine makers to greater exertioi 
Messrs. Sulzer adopt vertical lift valves, which a 
made with special care, and are placed above t 
cylinders, being provided with double conic 
surfaces, on which they are seated. Th( 
are balanced, so that little power is want 
to work them. The valves are placed at t 
ends of each cylinder, and are operated by can 
which are placed on a longitudhial shaft driv^ 
from the crank shaft. The governor is driv 
from the same shaft, and controls the cut-c 
having a range from zero up to 70 per cent of t 
stroke. The cylinders and covers are steam jackets 
and are in addition protected by non-conducti; 
material. The cylinders and jackets are provid 



206 



with safety valves and drain taps, and are also 
furnished with sight feed lubricators. To further 
avoid condensation the cylnider covers and pistons 
are turned and polished. The engine frame is 
of the trunk pattern, so arranged that the 
cvlinder and crank shaft bearings are coupled. 
The slide blocks are large in area. The crank 
shaft bearings fi)rm part of the frame, the 
brasses being in four parts, which are adjustable 
by wedges, and efficient means of lubrication are 
provided. The air pump and condensing arrange- 
ments are of the usual type, and require no special 
comment. Referring to the question of steam con- 
sumption, the minima per I.H.P. per hour for the 
various types of engine are given by the makers 
in their catalogue as follows : — Simple condensing 
type, 17 lbs. ; compound engines, 141bs. ; triple ex- 
pansion, lllbs. The writer takes leave to doubt the 
latter figure, and would substitute 121bs. for it. It 
is quite true that there have been many tests of 
engines made in which it is alleged the steam 
consumption has come down to nearly lllbs., but 
it is important to note that few of these have been 
conducted in anything like a careful and scientific 
way. An engine mnde by Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves, 
and Co. for a Swedish mill is reported to have been 
te.*^ted for two consecutive days, and to have used 
only ll'231bs. of water per I.H.P. per hour, in- 
cluding jacket drains. Had that test been con- 
ducted in such a manner that its records were 
accessible for criticism and the methods seen to be 
above reproach it would be the best result yet at- 
tained. As the matter stands, the facts prove that 
no mill engine has hitherto reached the limit of 
lllbs. of steam, and that any large engine which 
in ordinary work consumes less than 131bs. per 
I.H.P. may be looked on as in the first rank. It 
has been shown that this is the case with engines 
already at work. 










Fias. 93 AKD 94. 



I 



207 
CHAPTER XV. 

LIGHTING ENGINES AND OTHER ACCESSORIES. 

Fi^. 95 represents a compound side by side 
engine, two of which have been recently con- 
structed for electrical purposes by the Burnley 
Ironworks Company Limited. They are non- 
condensing, but provision is made for the applica- 
tion of a condenser whenever desirable. Each 
engine is prepared to transmit about 190 I.H.P. 
having 14in. and 24in. cylinders, 3ft. stroke, the 
dynamo being driven from a fly-rope pulley 14fr. 
diameter, grooved for eleven l^in. ropes running at 
90 revolutions per minute. The makers have 
applied their latest improvements in the Corliss gear 
and governor, and from recent very severe tests they 
claim that any variation in load will be readily com- 
pensated for. The engines are of the very best 
construction and workmanship, and are made on 
similar lines to the engines at the Burnley Electric 
Light Station, which we have had the opportunity 
of seeing. These, we were informed, ruu with 
economy and regularity under all conditions 
of load, and are everything that could be desired 
for the purpose. The success of the Burnley 
engines led to those illustrated being entrusted 
to the same firm. Much larger engines have been 
made by this company, but the present demand 
for steady and regular driving for electric purposes 
led us to deal with the one illustrated as likely 
to interest our readers. 

In cases where the building is lighted by elec- 
tricity, it is usual, and the better practice, to drive 
the dynamos by an independent motor. This is 
usually of the high speed inverted cylinder type, and 
economy of space is one of its chief features. At the 
Peel Mill, Bury, the engine used is one of the type 
of which the main engine is an example, and drives 
the dynamo through the intervention of a rope 
pulley. The " Globe " engine, made by the Globe 



209 



Engineering Company, Limited, is shown in 
Figs. 96 and 97, and is of the compound type. 
In the example illustrated, which at 250 revolu- 
tions per minute develops 300 H.P., the floor 




space occupied is lift, by 6ft. It is a compound 
condensing engine, although the condenser is not 
shown. The high pressure cylinders are super- 
posed on the low pressure, and the steam is used 
o 



after which the opening of a valve connects the top 
and bottom of the cylinder, thus placing the piston 
in equilibrium during its ascent. When the steam 
is again admitted, that below the piston passes into 
the low pressure cylinder, and is treated in exactly 
the same way as in the high pressure, finally being 
taken to the condenser. The valves are of the 
piston type, and a glance at Fig. 97 shows that 
there are three to the two cylinders, which enables 
them to be set independently of each other. The 
impulse given to the piston is therefore all in one 
direction, and the steam cycle is as follows : Top 
lij; of high pressure cylinder, bottom of high pressure 

cylinder, top of low pressure cylinder, bottom of 
low pressure cylinder, thence to condenser. A 
considerable expansion is obtained, and it is stated 
cylinder condensation is much reduced. The valves 
are driven from a rocking shaft, and are so coupled 
to it that one set balances the other. A centrifugal 
governor enclosed in an oil-tight casing controls the 
rocking shaft, and as it constantly revolves in oil the 
governor is very sensitive. In designing the engine 
care has been taken to make the parts light, and the 
valve rods and pistons are made from hollow steel 
bars. The cranks, like the valves, are set oppo- 
site to one another, so as to balance, and this specific 
feature has been carefully attended to. The 
bearings of the engine are of large area, and lined 
with Magnolia metal, and the bedplate, being a 
strong box casting, forms oil wells, into which the 
cranks dip at every revolution. The oil is thus 
sprayed over all the working parts. A sheet-iron 
case is provided to cover the whole of the working 
parts, and prevent the egress of oil ; but is so fitted 
that it can be readily opened to permit access to 
the motion work. The piston rods are packed with 
a special metallic packing, consisting of rings of 
Magnolia metal, so held as to be free to move. 
The friction of the engine is thus reduced to a low 
point. 



II 




The Moscrop Recorder (Fig. 98), made by Messrs. 
Arundel and Co., which is now an indispen- 




FiG. 98. 



213 

the rotation of an engine can be recorded. Its 
essential parts are a barrel which receives a move- 
ment synchronous with the hands of a clock, by the 
mechanism of which it is rotated. The barrel, in 
its movement, carries with it a paper band divided 
by transverse lines into spaces corresponding with 
definite intervals of time, and having also two or 
three longitudinal lines. Upon this paper — 
which is prepared for contact with a metallic 
marker — a marker wheel or pencil rests, being 
set so that when the engine is making its 
proper number of revolutions per minute, the 
wheel is directly over one of the longitudinal 
lines. The marker is connected with the slide 
of a centrifugal pendulum governor of a sensitive 
character, driven from the engine so that any diver- 
gence from the normal speed causes the marker to 
move either to one side or the other of this line. 
By observing the character of the line made, the 
uniformity of the velocity of the engine can be 
determined. It is now usual to make a record of 
the steam pressure upon the same band, so that the 
fluctuations in that can also be ascertained. So 
perfect is the mechanism of large mill engines, 
however, and so entirely are they under control, 
that although the steam pressure may and does vary 
considerably, the speed line shows an exceedingly 
small variation. The reduced diagram given in 
Fig. 99 is that taken from the engines of the 
Mutual Spinning Co., which have already been 
refen-ed to. Each of the vertical spaces represents 
a period of five minutes. It is not too much to say 
that no single instrument has done so much towards 
improving the steadiness of the velocity of mill 
engines as the Moscrop Recorder. 

In Fig. 100 we illustrate a form of lubricator 
specially made for steam engine cylinders. It con- 
sists of a cylindrical body, in which a piston having 
a hollow piston rod works, a stuffing box being fitted 
to prevent any escape of steam. The piston rod has 
a cap on its upper end, which can be removed, so 
that oil can be poured down the rod, and by means 



:i 









■1-1 






r 






Se 












of holes in it, find its way into tlie cylindrical body. 
At the lower end of the cylinder a valve is provided 
by which the steam is j 

admitted below the pis- ^^ , i . < . i ^. 
ton,which is thus pressed , r 
up, and so displaces the [. . t 
oil, which in time finds | r 
its way out by the sight 
feed tube shown, in this 
way passing to the cylin- 
der or steam pipe. The 
necessary provision is 
made for draining off the 
water of condensation 
when the cylinder is 
again to be filled with 
oil. It is claimed for 
this type of lubricator 
that no effect is produced 
by the bends in the feed 
pipe, however numerous ; 
that the same lubricator 
can be made to feed two 
cylinders; and that the 
action is positive. It is 
clear that when the pis- 
ton is at the top it acts 
as an indicator of the 
quantity of oil in the 
body. The valves are so 
arranged that any quan- 
tity of oil, from 1 to 200 
drops per minute, can be 
fed, and as no condensed 
water touches the glass 
tubes they cannot be- 
come dirty. The lubri- 
cator is compact and 
strong, being made by 



0; 



1 -■' 



^--^ 



■t 



-I--4- 



l-.J 



J" 
J... 



i I 



1 

"I 

■ I 

J 

4_. 



H 



215 



Before passing on, a few w ords may be said about 
steam engine indicators and their use. Properly 
employed, the indicator enables the working of an 




Fig. 100. 

engine to be accui'ately understood, but unless 
some care is taken in its use, the diagrams obtained 
may be causes of very serious errors. Millowners 



are often in doubt as to the class of instrument 
they should adopt, and on this point it may be said 
that for slow running engines the Richards is 
reliable. The great fault of that instrument, 




r\ 



"^ 



Fig. 101. 



viewed from the modern standpoint, is, that the 
movement of the pencil on the paper is obtained by 



217 



high speed the iaertia of the parts is so difficult to 
overcome that distorted diagrams result. Many 
other instruments have been introduced since, in 
which simpler pencil movements have been used, 
and the result has been a true diagram when run 
at high speeds. It has already been pointed out 
that the velocity of mill engines tends to increase, 
and there is, therefore, the greater need for caution 




Fig. 102. 

in this respect. It has been contended further 
that the relative velocities of the piston and pencil 
in the Kichards' type are not uniform throughout 
the whole range of the instrument. The two instru- 
ments illustrated in Figs. 101 and 102, are respec- 
tively the Thompson and the Tabor, which are much 
more simple and rehable than their predecessors. 

Having chosen the instrument to be used, the 
next thing is to apply it in the best manner. To 



begin with, the instrument should be kept absolutely 
clean and lubricated by pure oil free from gum or 
acid. Then the movement of the pencil must be 
quite free, and so easy that the weight of its attached 
parts will cause it to fall. It is better to fix the 
indicator at each end of the cylinder alternately 
rather than in the middle, if circumstances will 
permit. If, however, this is not possible, then care 
should be taken that all the bends are easy, that 
there are not too many of them, and that the three- 
way cock used leaves a clear passage for the steam. 
The character of the reducing gear is an important 
matter. What is wanted is to get an accurate 
reduction and reproduction of the motion of the 
piston on the pencil, for which purpose it is 
essential that the cord in leading off to the indicator 
shall as nearly as possible follow the path of the 
piston. In some forms of gear, such as the long 
pendulous rod, the cord is continuEdly assuming 
various angles. The " Lazy Tongs " type of 
pentagraph motion has some advantages, but by far 
the best form is found in the use of an endless cord 
passing over two pulleys rotating on pins at the 
ends of the slide. By fastening the cord to the 
cross head pin it is given a reciprocal motion 
similar to the piston, and so rotates the pulleys 
in each direction alternately. On the boss 
of one of the pulleys a smaller grooved pulley is 
fixed, on which the cord actuating the indicator is 
coiled. From this pulley the cord can be led so as 
to give a regular pull on the paper barrel in a 
horizontal or vertical line, so that all difficulties 
arising from varying angles are overcome. 

Having ascertained that the instrument is in true 
working order, and that the parts are all free, it is 
fixed in position and the paper put on the barrel. 
It is now essential, before coupling up the drum, 
that the steam is admitted to the cylinder so as to 



219 






weight must not be put on the pencil, as otherwise 
its movement will be retarded. The steam is then 
admitted to the indicator and the pencil pressed 
against the paper, thus producing the diagrams. 
The diagram should not be taken during one stroke 
only, but the pencil must be kept in contact with 
the paper for several strokes. This is important, 
as there is vsry often a great deal of difference in 
diagrams produced during successive strokes. It must 
be remembered that as it is from the revelations of 
the diagram that any correct idea can be formed 
either of the power developed, or of the manner in 
which the engine is working, it is essential to take 




Fig. 103. 

every precaution to obtain a correct figure. It is 
not necessary to have mathematically correct appli- 
ances, but accuracy is essential. 

The illustration given in Fig. 103 will serve to 
enable the chief features of a good diagram to be seen. 
In this figure the line of atmospheric pressure is shown 
by the letters A L. The admission of steam begins 
at B, and if the valves are well set the pencil rises 
rapidly in a nearly vertical line until the point C is 
reached. The line B C is the " admission line." The 
line C D is the " steam line," and should, if the area 
of the valve ports be large enough for its purpose, 
be horizontal. At E the valve closes, and the sharp- 
ness of the corner indicates the character of the cut 



off. From E to F the line shows the fall of the 
pressure caused by the expansion of the steam, and 
the nearer it approaches the theoretical line, plotted 
in accordance with the behaviour of a perfect gas 
under like conditions, t he more perfectly is this part 
of the work done. At F the valve opens for the 
exhaust, and at G is fully open, G H being the 
" exhaust line." The exhaust valve begins to close 
at the point H, and is fully closed at J, w4ien the 
work of compression takes place. The line J B is 
the " compression line." It is now possible to point 
out briefly the significance of some of the lines. If 
the line B C, instead of being vertical, inclines towards 
D, it is clear that the valve does not open sufficiently 
early, or, in other words, the " lead " is insufficient. 
If on the other hand at C there is a line projecting 
beyond the vertical, this is attributable either to too 
early an admission of steam, accompanied by its 
compression, or to a defect in the motion of the 
indicator. As show^n in Fig. 103, the line C D is 
horizontal. If it falls away from the horizontal it 
indicates some obstruction in the free admission of 
the steam, arising either from insufficient area in 
the pipes or the improper setting or construction of 
the valves. The height of the line C D should be 
compared with the height of a line draw^n to the 
same scale, representing the pressure of steam in 
the boiler. If it falls below^ that considerably it is 
necessary to look for the cause in the steam pipes, 
although it may arise from the contracted area of the 
valve port. Any fall from the horizontal line implies 
throttling or obstruction at some point between the 
source of supply and the cylinder. Dealing next with 
the expansion line, if the curve rises above the 
hyperbolic, it is attributable either to an improper 
admission of steam, or to re-evaporation of w^ater 
produced by condensation. In some classes of valve 
gear leakage is difficult to avoid, while in others 



221 



of the parts or of water in the cylinder. Dealing 
now with the " exhaust line," this is afifected by too 
early or too late exhaust. If the former, then in- 
stead of the line beginning to fall at F it does so 
earlier, and if the latter, the point F is carried forward, 
and the lowest point is not reached until the piston 
has made a good part of its return stroke. The 
line G H is broken and a curve is formed from F to 
some point more or less forward on G H. If there is 
insufficient compression, instead of the line J B 
being formed, G H is extended to a point vertical with 
B C, and a sharp corner is formed. If on the other 
hand the compression is too great, owing to too early 
closing of the exhaust valve, a loop is formed at the 
corner C of the diagram, although this may be 
caused by the use of too weak a spring. There are 
other distortions of the diagram which arise from 
various causes, mainly mechanical, but these are 
soon recognised after a little practice. 

So far the subject has been dealt with only as 
regards faults in the setting of the valves, and the 
methods of determining the po\ver of the engine can 
now be treated. On the atmospheric line (see Fig. 
104), perpendicular lines A B, C D, are erected touch- 
ing the two ends of the diagram. The distance 
between these lines is divided into eleven spaces, nine 
ei][ual to each other and the two end ones equal to 
half the width. The readiest way of doing this is shown 
in Fig. 104. A rule is laid across the diagram as 
shown, so that a length of five inches touches the per- 
pendiculars. Marks are made at a quarter inch from 
each of the perpendiculars, and then at each half 
inch between. Through these points perpendiculars 
are drawn, so that the measurements can be made. 
The mean height of the diagram between these lines 
is measured and is multiplied by the scale of the 
spring. This gives the mean pressure in pounds. 
Add all the results together and divide by 10, and 
the result is the mean pressure over the whole 
diagram. The horse powder is calculated by the 
following formula : P = mean effective pressure in 
lbs. ; L = tlie length of stroke in ieet; A = the area 



of the piston in square inches ; and N = the number 

PLAN 

of strokes per minute. Then oQ-rinn ^ indicated 

horse power (I.H.P.). The area of the figure can be 
obtained by various forms of planimeters, and among 
these an American invention, the Coffin Averager, is 
about the best. These devices undoubtedly save a 
little time, but are not always accessible. 




Fig. 104 



As has been said, the real test of the economy of 
an engine is the weight of steam used by it. This 
can be determined from the indicator diagram when 



223 

the indicator diagram. It is necessary to know 
accurately the volume of the clearance spaces in 
the cylinder, which can be arrived at by measure- 
ment, or more accurately by filling them with 
measured quantities of water. 13,750 cubic 
feet of steam per hour at lib. pressure, is 
required to produce one horse power without clear- 
ance and without expansion. The greater the 
pressure the less the volume, and to ascertain the 
value of the volume required it is necessary to 
divide the 13,750 by the mean eflPective pressure in 
the cylinder. We will call this quantity V. The 
mean effective pressure in a multiple expansion 
engine is the sum of the mean pressure in all the 
cylinders, not merely in the high pressure. To arrive 
at this in a compound engine, it is necessary to 
multiply the pressure in the low pressure cylinder 
by the ratio of its area to that of the high pressure. 
This, if the mean effective pressure of the high 
pressure cylinder be 301bs., and that of the low 
pressure 8 while the area of the latter is 3 : 1 of 
that of the high pressure, then the mean effective 
pressure of the two is (8 x 3) + 30 = 541bs. 
which is the quantity Y. The formula is as follows : 
Let P = the percentage of stroke up to point of cut 
off; C = percentage of clearance space to volume 
displaced by piston; S = percentage of return 
stroke made when compression begins ; W = weight 
per cubic foot of steam at pressure when cut off; 
w = weJo-ht per ciibic foot of steam at the pressure 
of compression. Then V [ (P + C) W - (S -f C) 
w'\ = lbs. of steam at cut off per I.H.P. Assuming 
that V = 541bs. ; that the cut off takes place 
at -25 of full stroke ; that compression takes 
place when ^j^ of stroke is completed making S = 
0-1 ; that the clearance C = '05 ; that the steam 
pressure at cut off is 601bs. or 74 "7 absolute ; the 
weight of a cubic foot of steam at that pressure is 
•1751b. ; and the pressure at compression 61bs., or 
20-71bs. absolute, with a weight per cubic foot of 
•0531b. Then the weight of' steam is obtained as 



224 



follows :- 



13750 



54 



-[(•25 + -05) -175 - (•! + -05) 

•053] = 254-63 (-0525 - -00795) = 11-343. 

This amount requires to be multiplied by a frac- 
tion in which the total steam, taken as 100, is 
the numerator, and the percentage of feed water 
accounted for by the indicator diagram, which is 
the total minus cylinder condensation, the denomi- 
nator. According to Mr. A. G. Brown this is as 
follows : — 



Percentage of 

stroke at which 

cut-off takes 

place. 


Percentage of Feed Water Accounted for in Diagram. 


Simple Engine 
Unjacketed. 


Compound 

Engines Steam 

Jacketed. 


Triple Expan- 
sion Steam 
Jacketed. 


10 


Q6 


74 




15 


71 


76 


78 


20 


74 


78 


80 


30 


78 


82 


84 


40 


82 


85 


87 


50 


8Q 


88 


90 



Applying this to the case given above we get 
— x 11*343 = 14 178 lbs. as the steam consump- 
tion per horse power per hour. If the cylinders 
are not jacketed, 5 per cent must be deducted 
from the percentages given, as there will be more 
condensation. The figures given are entirely sup- 
posititious, and are only intended to illustrate the 
method, so as to enable millowners to ascertain 
what the economy of their engines is. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

TURBINES. 



225 



advantage. Abroad the matter is different, and in 
Switzerland, for instance, the use of water power 
exists on a large scale. In some towns in 
the United States, notably Holyoke, Mass., where 
the Connecticut River has a considerable fall, the 
volume of water flowing down the river has, 
by means of dams, been utilised to provide a 
steady ample supply of water at constant pressure. 
The theoretical horse-power of a stream of water is 
obtained by the formula P= -001892 W H, where 
W = number of cubic feet of water flowmg per 
minute, and H = total head from tail race in feet. 
It is sometimes a little difficult to accurately gauge 
the actual flow of water over a weir, but the 
following procedure will serve. Take a board of 
sufficient length and width to form a dam in the 
stream. In this, cut a rectangular notch not longer 
than two-thirds the width of the stream, but suffi- 
ciently deep to pass all the water to be measured. 
The bottom edge of this notch should be bevelled on 
the side facing down stream, so as to make it 
nearly sharp. Drive a stake into the bottom of the 
stream a little behind the weir, so that it is exactly 

TABLE 15. 
Flow of ^YATER oyer Weirs. 



Inches 
Depth 

on 
Weir. 



0-40 
1-14 
2-09 
3-22 
4-51 
5-92 
7-46 
9-12 
10-88 
12-75 
14-71 
16-76 
18-89 
21-12 
23-42 
25-80 
28-26 
30-78 



0-47 
1-25 
2-12 
3-38 
4-68 
6-10 
767 
9-33 
11-11 
13-15 
14-96 
17-02 
19-17 
21-40 
23-71 
•26-10 
•28-57 
31-11 



0-56 
1-36 
2-30 
3-53 
4-85 
6-30 
7-87 
9-55 
11-34 
13-23 
15-21 
17-28 
19-44 
21-68 
24-01 
2G-41 
28-88 
31-43 



0-65 
1-47 
2-60 
3-69 
5-02 
6-49 
8-07 
9-77 
11-57 
13-47 
15-46 
17-55 
19-7-2 
21-97 
24-30 
26-71 
29-19 
31-75 



0-74 
1-59 
2-64 
3-85 
5-20 



9 99 
11-80 
13-72 
15-72 
17-82 
20-00 
22-26 
24-60 
2702 
29-51 
32-07 



0-83 
1-71 
2-78 
4-01 
5-38 
6-87 
8-49 
10-21 
12-04 
13-96 
15-98 
18-08 
20-27 
22-55 
24-90 
27-32 
29-83 
32-40 



0-97 
1-84 
2-93 
4-17 
5-56 
7-07 
8-70 
10-43 
12-27 
1421 
16-24 
18-35 
20-56 
22-83 
25-19 
27-63 
30-14 
32 73 



1-03 
1-96 
3-06 
4-35 
5-74 
7-27 
8-91 
10-66 
12-51 
14-46 
16-49 
18-62 
20-83 
23-13 
25-50 
27-94 
30-46 
33-05 



226 



level with the crest. When the water has reached 
its full height, take a measurement by means of a 
square. The water should have a clear fall of six 
inches below the crest of the weir. By ascertaining 
the depth and width, and the velocity of the stream, 
the number of cubic feet per minute passing can 
be ascertained. Table 15 gives the flow over weirs 
of different depths in cubic feet for each inch of 
width. If the velocity be ascertained and careful 
measurements taken of the depthof a stream, the flow 
can be easily calculated. If the head be known the 
power can be easily arrived at in the following manner. 
The head regulates the velocity and pressure of the 
efflux of water, and Table 16 gives the theoretical 
velocity of water in feet per second, and the number 
of cubic feet discharged per minute through an 
orifice of one inch area. When the discharge D in 
cubic feet and head of water H are known, the 
power of a turbine can be obtained by the following 
formula: P = 0-1134 D ^H7 which gives the 
theoretical efficiency of water. The actual efficiency 
of a turbine is usually taken at '66 of the 



TABLE 16. 

Theoretical Velocity and Discharge of Water through 
Orifices. 







«*-! 






^ 








^ 

^ 


ll 


^il 


<D 


ll 


1^1 
It £-5 


1 




m 


fl 


^.S 


0) 


s 


^'.S 


«2 - 


a 


^•2 


,2 


•S 


OTJ 


"** <a Q 


-" 


OT5 


Tt cTcT 


-" 


•3t3 


<0 (O 


-^ 


Jl 




1 




O +2 o 

6 a- 


1 


-ig 


ill 


ID 


>\ 




a 


> 1 


6 g o 


a 


>l 


1 


8-02 


3-34 


15 


31-06 


12-94 


28 


42-43 


17-68 




11-34 


4-73 


16 


3-2-08 


13-36 


2:- 


43-19 


17-98 


3 


13-89 


5-78 


17 


33-06 


13-77 


30 


43-93 


18-30 


4 


16-04 


6-68 


18 


34-02 


14-18 


31 


44-65 


18-60 


5 


17-93 


7-47 


19 


34-96 


14-57 


32 


45 '37 


18-90 


G 


19-64 
on .oo 


8-18 


20 

01 


35-87 


14-94 


33 


46 07 


19-20 



227 

theoretical. lu like manner water wheels if under- 
shot have an efficiency of -35 ; if breast -55 to 
•56 ; and if overshot '68. Another rale for Jonval 
turbines is, if P = actual horse power, P = '075 
D H ; and for Fourneyron high-pressure turbines, 
P = -079 D H. Table 15 is extracted from a 
catalogue of the Victor Turbine, which is very 
largely employed in the United States and this 
country. In other countries the force of water has 
been employed, and a full set of illustrations 
of a very high power turbine installation made 
by Messrs. W. Giinther and Sons, of Oldham, 
for the cotton mill of the Compania Industrial de 
Orizaba, Mexico, are given. This is, we believe, 
the largest installation applied to textile work 
existing, and its details will be interesting. In all 
there are five turbines of the Girard type, de- 
veloping together 1,560 horse-power. The spinning 
mill is driven by two turbines of 425 horse power 
each; the weaving mill by one of 300 horse power; 
the dyeing, print, bleach, and finishing department 
by one of 250 horse power; while a fifth, of 160 
horse power, supplies the whole power required for 
the electric lighting of the mill. The mill is built 
on ground lying nearer the level of the head than 
that of the tail water, and in order to overcome the 
difficulty thus created the turbines are placed in 
pits with a depth of 63ft. from the ground floor of 
the mill. The fall is in all 74ft., but the level of 
the head water is only 14 feet above the mill floor. 
The tail water is taken to the river by a tunnel. 
Separate pits are constructed for the turbines for 
the spinning and weaving mills, but those for the 
finishing and lighting are contained in the same pit. 
The headwater is conducted along a concrete canal, 
arranged at one side of the mill, and the conducting 
pipes for the turbines are fed by means of separate 
channels at right angles to the main canal. In 
order to facilitate the working of the mill each 
channel has a separate sluice gate, so that any of 
the turbines can be shut ofl" at will. 

It has been said that the turbines are of the 



i 



228 



Girard type. The reason for this selection is 
that turbines made on that principle need not 
necessarily be fed round their whole circumference, 
have a lower circumferential velocity, and permit 
of the diameter of the wheel being increased, while 
obtaining the required velocity without losing 
efficiency. The turbines are fitted as shown in Figs. 
105 and 106, with a slide of the butterfly type, by 
means of which the necessary adjustment of the 




Fig. 105. 



water inlet can be made by closing a certain number 
of ports. The slide is operated by the worm and 
circular rack shown, and can be operated from 
above by means of a hand wheel fixed on a pillar. 



229 



be observed that the ports occupy opposite quadrants. 
The regulation is completed by a throttle valve 
placed in the supply pipes, and worked by a governor 
placed in the turbine house. In starting, a small 
friction clutch on the hand wheel can be disengaged, 
and the throttle valve controlled by hand, so as to 
enable the turbines to be either stopped or started 
quickly. 




Fig. 106. 

In forming the vanes, alike for the guides and 
wheel, the plan was adopted of constructing them 
of steel, bending them to shape, and then placing 
them in the mould and running the cast iron round 
them. They are thus accurately and strongly fixed 
in position, and a wheel is produced which has the 
advantage alike of being smooth, strong, and dur- 
able. For high falls this plan is recommended by 
the maker. The curvature of the blades is shown 
in Fig. 107. 



230 



The general arrangement of the spinning-mill 
turbines is shown in Figs. 108 and 109. It will be 
seen that they are vertically placed, and are sustained 
on substantial foundation plates. They are fed by 
pipes 54in. in diameter, which, as shown, are car- 
ried up the pit until nearly level with the ground, 
and are then carried, as shown in Fig. 110, horizon- 
tally for a short distance, finally being turned up- 
wards, so as to enter the flume. The curves given, 
it will be seen, are all easy, so as to lessen the fric- 
tion considerably. The vertical range of pipes is 
sustained on a flat bottom, as shown, and the water 
enters the turbine by a branch at right angles. 
Despite the slight increase in loss by friction thus 




Fig. 107. 

caused the constructional advantages arising are 
considerable. The power is transmitted from the 
wheels by a hollow cast-iron turbine shaft, the foot- 
steps of which are placed above the water level 
and enclosed in an oil- vessel. (See Fig. 111.) 
A fixed steel pillar enters the cast-iron shaft, 
which revolves round it. Wear of the footstep 




WwrvfTw^. 



4/^ |[xi>y 



^l 



232 

step can be examined and oiled easily, and effective 
lubrication is well provided for. The cast-iron 
shaft is coupled to a steel vertical shaft, 6|in. 
diameter, which is sustained by bearings secured to 




233 

the weaving and finishing mill turbines have 48in. 
diameter wheels, and run at 153 revolutions; 
while the electric lighting turbine is only 30in. 
diameter, but has full injection, and a velocity of 
240 revolutions. The larger turbines for the spin- 
ning mill use 4,060ft. per minute, and have an 
effective head of water of 73ft. after deducting loss by 
friction. The speed of the second motion shafts is 
125 revolutions per minute, the power being trans- 
mitted by bevel wheels, 65 and 66 teeth respectively, 
3fin. pitch and lOin. wide, with a circumferential 
velocity of 2,120ft. On the second-motion shafts 
rope pulleys, lift, diameter, are placed, grooved 
for 18 ropes. The bearings alongside the pulley 
have journals Sin. diameter and 20in. long. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

GEARING — TOOTHED WHEELS. 

It is not often in modern practice that wheel 
gearing is employed, but there are still a few cases 
in which this occurs. As the matter will be referred 
to subsequently, it is only necessary now to deal 
with the question shortly. The advantage of wheel 
gearing lies mainly in its positive nature, and the 
fact that if the teeth are properly shaped the loss 
by friction is not as great as with other forms. Ex- 
cept in cases where strength is of more importance 
ihanloss of power, helical teeth are not to be recom- 
mended, as the difficulty in moulding is very consider- 
able. The shape and size of teeth is a matter which 
has received considerable attention at the hands of 
investigators. The strength of wheel-teeth is 
obtained by Box by the following formula S = P x 
Wx350, where P = pitch in inches, W = width of 
tooth. Molesworth's rule is, when the width of 
tooth is 21P to3JP, H = 0-6P-V. H = horse power 
transmitted, and V = velocity of pitch line in feet 
per second. In all the formulae given the pitch is 
the circular pitch, because, convenient as diametral 



234 



pitch is in some respects, it is not so generally used 
or known. The proportions given by Professor 
Unwin for wheel teeth are now generally admitted 
to be exact practice, although a simpler table is 
sometimes used. They are stated by him as follows, 
P = pitch :— 

Total height of tooth -65?+ '08 to -JoF + SO 

Depth below pitch line.... -35? + -08 to '40? + '08 
Height above pitch line.... 'SOP to 'SoP 

Side clearance -OGP+'Oi to •04P + -06 

Thickness of tooth '47? -'02 to "48? - 'OS 

Width of space •53P + -02 to •52P + -03 

Professor Rodinella, in a recent communication 
to the Franklin Institute, gives the following data : 

Total height of tooth 75 P. 

Depth below pitch line *41 P. 

Height above pitch line "34 P. 

Side clearance '07 P. 

Thickness of tooth "47 P. 

Width of space 'oS P. 

Thickness of rim '50 P. 

It will be seen that these do not greatly differ from 
Professor Un win's table. The thickness of the rim 
is sometimes taken at '45 P. 

Mr. Michael Longridge has for some years past 
strenuously contended that when considerable 
power is being transmitted by large wheels at 
velocities of 2,000ft. per minute and upwards, the 
depth of the teeth ought to be much less, and should 
not be more than -SoP. Two examples of wheel 
teeth, one of which is actually working, as approved 
by him, are shown in Figs. 112 and 113. 

Many wheels are now made shrouded, and this 
procedure undoubtedly adds to their strength, but 



235 

pitch used for mortice wheels in order to get the 
same strength as cast iron should be 1-26 times 
that when the latter is used. The question of the 
horse power transmitted by wheels is an important 
one. Messrs. John Musgrave and Sons, Limited, give 




Fig. 113. 



the following rules, where P = pitch, B = breadth of 
teeth in inches, V = velocity of pitch line in inches. 
P2 T» V P- B V . 

^•^•^ 1000 ^^' '^'^ ''''"' """^ 625~" ^' 

cast steel. Molesworth's rule has already been 
given, and Button's is as follows : — D = diameter 



236 



to pitch line, B = breadth in inches, P = pitch in 

inches, and N = number of revolutions per minute. 

P- B D N 
H.P. = — -j~ The question as to the shape 

of the teeth of the wheels is one which is not easy 
to answer. Epicycloidal teeth have been much in 
vogue, and if perfectly drawn and properly made 
they are undoubtedly the best form. The involute 
form, however, is much easier to make, and will 
work better under circumstances in which the 
epicycloidal form would fail, and is by some makers 
prefen-ed. Much difference of opinion prevails as 
to the proper speed for toothed wheels, but in 
several very successful jobs, where the wheels have 
been running for a long time with little wear, a 
speed of from 1,800 to 2,000 feet per minute has 
been adopted. There does not appear to be any 

TABLE 17. 
Horse Power Transmitted by Cast-iron Toothed Wheels 
FOR each inch of Width. For Steel Wheels HP x 1-6. 



Velocity of 

Pitcii Line 

in feet per 

minute. 


Pitch of Teeth ix Inches. 


1 


1 


n 


1^- 


Ij 


2 


2k 





4 


5 


6 


60 
120 
180 
240 
300 
360 
420 
480 
540 
600 
720 
840 


•033 

•67 

•10 

•13 

•17 

•20 

•23 

•27 

•30 

•33 

•40 

•47 


•06 
•12 
•18 
•24 
•30 
•36 
•42 
•48 
•54 
•60 


•094 
•188 
•28 
•37 
•47 
56 
•65 
•75 
•84 
•94 

l-l 

1-3 


•135 

•270 

•40 

•54 

•67 

•81 

•94 

1-1 

1^2 

P35 

1^6 

1-8 


•184 
•366 
•55 
•73 
•91 
M 

1? 

1-6 
1^8 
•2--1 
•2-5 


•24 
•48 
•72 
•96 

1^2 

1^4 

1^68 

1-9 

2-1 

2-4 

2-8 

3-3 


•375 
•75 

11 

1-5 

1-8 

2-2 

2-6 

3-0 

3-3 

3-7 

4-5 

5-2 


•54 
1-08 
1-6 
2-1 
2-7 
3-2 
3-7 
4-3 
4^8 
54 
6-4 
7^5 


•96 
1^9 
2-8 
3-8 
4-8 
5-7 
6-7 
7^6 
8-6 
9-6 
11-5 
13-4 


1-5 

3-0 

4-5 

6-0 

7-5 

9-0 

10-5 

12-1 

13-5 

l.-i-O 

18-0 

21-0 


2^16 

4-3 

6-4 

8-6 

10-8 

12-9 

15-1 

17-2 

19^4 

21-6 

25^9 

30-2 



237 



advantage in adopting higher velocities. The stress 
in the rim of a flywheel is a matter of importance, 
and affects all classes of gearing alike, but owing 
to the fact that the teeth of a wheel add to the 
weight, but are not a factor of strength, they must 
be neglected. The safe and easily remembered rule 
is to limit the peripheral velocity of any flywheel 
to 80ft. per second. Professor Unwin fixes the safe 
velocity'at 96ft. per second. In constructing wheels, 
the question of the numbers of arms and segments 
required are subject to the same remarks as are 
made at the beginning of the chapter on Rope 
Gearing. Table 17 gives the approximate horse 
powers" transmitted per inch of width by spur 
wheels running at different velocities. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

GEARING BELT DRIVING. 

Coming now to deal with the second method of 
transmitting power, viz. : leather or cotton belts, it 
may be first remarked that for main drives invol- 
ving the employment of very wide belts, this 
sysrem has nearly become obsolete in this country. 
With wide belts, failure means the entire stoppage 
of the whole mill, while when ropes are used, 
the failure of a single one is not of much conse- 
quence. For main drives there is no doubt that 
ropes are preferred to belts, but there have been 
several large belts made for this purpose which 
have been from time to time adopted with 
the most complete success. The matter is 
otherwise within a mill. Here belts are very 
convenient, and it is only a question of their 
proper application. The pulleys used in the 
transmission of power are generally made of cast 
iron, in one piece when of small size, and in 
halves when large, or when desired to place 
easily on a shaft. In some cases the practice 
of swelling the ends of each length of shaft 



238 

is followed, but it is an unadvisable thing. It 
makes the shaft more expensive, and largely in- 
creases the difficulty of putting on pulleys. In 
order to meet this, however, the eye of the pulley 
is made large enough to pass over the swell, and is 
bored taper, so that by the introduction of three 
segmental tapered keys accurately machined the 
pulley can be easily fitted. When a pulley is in 
halves, it can be easily taken on or off, and can be 
partially fixed by making its bore a little less than 
the diameter of the shaft. A hollow key fitted sub- 
sequently makes it quite secure. During the past 
few years there has been an extended use of 
wrought-iron pulleys, which possesses many advan- 
tages. They are light, easily applied, strong, and 
possess a slight flexibility w^hich enables them to 
take up shocks with ease. Originally the whole 
pulley, bars included, was made of wrought iron or 
steel, while other makers construct the bosses of cast 
iron. There does not appear to be much to be said 
for either procedure, pulleys of both classes work- 
ing admirably when transmitting large powers. 
Above 20in. diameter, the wrought-iron pulley 
possesses many advantages, and it has, therefore, 
been largely adopted in driving cotton-spinning 
machinery at the high speeds now common. 
Generally speaking, the weight of wrought-iron pul- 
leys is from one-half to two-thirds that of cast-iron 
pulleys, and as they are equally strong, this diminu- 
tion in weight constitutes a considerable item in the 
economy of a mill. In addition to this factor the 
balance of a wrought-iron is better than that of a 
cast-iron pulley. A wrought-iron pulley arm must be 
looked upon as a cantilever fixed at the boss, and 



239 

fixing a pulley on the shaft it is enough for 
:in ordinary size if a properly proportioned hol- 
low key be used, but if much power has to 
be transmitted a sunk key, either driven or 
feathered, is necessary. It is sometimes urged that 
the construction of a wrought-iron pulley tells 
against its security, especially as regards the fixity 
of the arms. From the author's experience he is 
able to say that this is not a fact, as many instances 
are known to him of large pulleys working for many 
years successfully in places where they are sub- 
jected to repeated shocks. Messrs. Croft and Perkins 
have a rolled rim of peculiar section, it being 
strengthened in the centre where the nipple of the 
arm is inserted so as to increase the grip at that 
point. 

With regard to the belts themselves, these are 
usually made of leather. The tenacity of leather 
varies from 3,000 to 5,0001bs. per square inch of 
sectional area. Single belts are usually from fV^^^ 
to fths of an inch thick, and as a rule they are 
worked at a stress of about SOOlbs. per square inch 
of sectional area. The effective stress possible 
entirely depends on the strength of the joint, which 
is greatest when it is spliced and cemented. In 
splicing, an overlap of double the width of the belt 
must be given up to 3in. wide, 6in. to Sin. 
with belts from Sin. to Sin. wdde, and 1 J times the 
width, for belts wider than this. For double belts 
the rule is to make the splice lOin. long with 
widths up to lOin., from lOin. to ISin. with 
widths up to ISin., and ISin. for all wider belts. 
If the belt is taken over guide pulleys, or if triple 
belts are used, the V splice should be used. The 
strength of a cemented joint has been put by Mr. 
H. A. Mavor as 8421bs. per inch of width, but the 
safe working stress is much less than this. Mr. 
Fred. W. Taylor has recently declared in the course 
of a very elaborate paper on this subject that for 
main drives, at velocities of from 4,000ft. to 
4,500ft. per minute — wiiich he considers the best 
and most economical — a total load of from 2001bs. 



240 



to 2251bs. per square inch of section, or 301bs. per 
inch of width of double belt is the best. Messrs. 
Lewis and Bancroft, from some experiments on belts, 
deduced the following formula : V = velocity in 
feet per second, S = working strength of leather 
in lbs. per square inch, then Y = J'2S^, and if 
any other material be used with a specific gravity 

of, say 7/, then Y = 5 ^'^— They say that " the 

velocity at which the maximum amount of power 
can be transmitted by any given belt is indepen- 
dent of its arc of contact and co-efficient of friction, 
and depends only upon the working strength of the 
material and its specific gravity." The working 
stresses commonly used in a European mill are much 
higher than that given by Mr. Taylor, being per inch 
of width, oOlbs. for a single leather belt, and 851bs. 
for a heavy double belt. The velocities as a rule 
do not exceed 1,800ft. to 2,000ft. per minute, which 
are lower than the speeds given by Mr. Taylor, 

TABLE 18. 
Medium Weights per Lineal Foot of Strapping. 



5 


d 




CO 


d 


o 


o 


5 


s 


o 


i 


i 


i^' 


i^ 


d 


in. 


TbT 


TbT 


lb. 


lb." 


lb. 


TbT 


Tb7 


lb. 


Tb.- 


Tb7 


ibT 


Tb" 


TbT 


Tb. 


2 


•19 


•38 


•57 


•76 


•95 


1^9 


3^8 


5^7 


7^6 


9^5 


19 


38 


57 


95 


2i 


•22 


•44 


•66 


•88 


1-10 


2^2 


4-4 


6^6 


8-8 


!!• 


22 


44 


o6 


110 


^ 


•25 


•50 


•75 


1- 


1^25 


2-5 


5^0 


7^5 


10^0 


12-5 


25 


50 


75 


125 


2| 


•29 


•58 


•87 


1-16 


1^45 


2^9 


5^8 


8^7 


11-6 


14 •D 


29 


58 


87 


145 




•33 


•66 


•99 


1^32 


1^65 


3^3 


6-6 


9^9 


13^2 


16^5 


33 


66 


99 


16f. 


3^ 


•37 


•74 


1^11 


1-48 


1-85 


3^7 


7^4 


11-1 


14^8 


18-5 


37 


74 


111 


185 


3-1 


•40 


•80 


1^20 


1^60 


2^0 


4-0 


8^0 


12^ 


16- 


20 • 


40 


SO 


120 


200 


3| 


•43 


•86 


1-29 


r72 


2-15 


4-3 


8-6 


12^9 


17^2 


21^5 


43 


86 


1-29 


215 


4 


•47 


•94 


1^41 


l^SS 


2-35 


4-7 


9-4 


14^1 


18^8 


23-5 


47 


94 


141 


235 



I 



241 

which relate to American practice. With regard 
to other kinds of belting, hair belts have been 
extensively used, and some forms of this, as, for 
instance, the " Lancashire," which was the pioneer 
in this direction, have been shown to withstand some 
high test stresses. An official test in Belgium gave 
an ultimate stress of 5,0001bs. per square inch of 
section, which is a very exceptional strength, and 
proves the belt to be well adapted for heavy drives. 
Table 18 is Messrs. Cockhill's list of weights of 
single leather belts. 

The coefficient of friction of a leather belt on 
an iron pulley is about -42, but the various ex- 
periments made demonstrate that there is an 
enormous variation in this factor, arising from the 
character and condition of belts and pulleys, the 
amount of slip, and atmospheric conditions. This 
variation will vitiate the value of many of the rules 
given to ascertain the power of belts, it being well 
known that most widely diverse results are obtained 
by using different rules. The position of the pulleys 
and the^variation in the angle of the drive, some- 
times the confined space in which belts work, all 
these factors have an influence on the power 
transmitted. For this reason, a number of em- 
pirical rules, more or less founded on observation, 
are commonly employed ; some of those most in 
accord with common practice, are now given. If 
F = driving force, W = width of belt, V = velocity in 

feet per sec, HP = ^ x W x V. Nystrom's 

VF ^ . mi . > w 7000 X H.P. 

rule is — . Professor Thurston's W = ^ — ^ 

550 o X V 

where S = surfiice of smaller pulley covered. Pro- 
fessor Unwin says that a belt lin. wide, running 
800ft. per minute, with an arc of contact of 180^, 
will transmit one horse power ; or, more exactly, 
the power is '0727 H.P. for single and '1272 for 
double belts for each foot of velocity per second, 
the belt being lin. wide. Messrs. Harper, of Aber- 
Q 



242 



deen, give the following rule for single belting per 
100ft. of velocity:— 

Inches wide 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 18 

H.P. transmitted... | J f | | 1 1| 1^ 1^ 1| 2^ 
For double belting multiply by IJ. Messrs. Hoyt 
fix 1 H.P. per inch of width at 1,000ft. per minute. 
Mr. Robert Briggs, of the Yale and Towne Manu- 
facturing Company, Connecticut, a most careful 
observer, uses the following method : D = diameter 
of driven pulley, W = width in inches of belt, R == 
revolutions per minute, DWR = P or driving power 
of the machine, which is spoken of in units. Then 
so many units are taken for each machine as deter- 
mined. 

The diameters of driving and driven pulleys 
should have a maximum ratio of 6:1, and the 
smallest should not be less than 100 times the 
thickness of the belt. The distance of their 
centres apart must depend upon the relative 
ratio of the diameters, and varies from 8 to 
20ft. Pulleys, if rounded, as is always desirable 
if no moving of the strap takes place, should 
have a convexity equal to Jin. to fin. for each 
foot of width. When wide belts are employed 
it is sometimes a good plan to perforate the 
rims, and this method has been patented in this 
country. This procedure is useful, as permit- 
ting the air to escape, and so maintaining the 
adhesion. The same advantage is derived by the 
use of link belts, but the extra weight of the latter 
tells against them. They have, however, the 
advantage of being very flexible and strong, and 
can be advantageously worked with small pulleys. 



243 
CHAPTER XIX. 

ROPE DRIVING. 

The most ordinary form of gearing adopted for 
modern spinning mills is rope. In applying this a 
large grooved pulley or drum fixed on the crank shaft 
takes the place of the spur wheel or belt pulley in 
other methods of driving. These pulleys are built 
up when of large size. Small-sized pulleys, say to 
6ft. diameter, may be made in one piece ; from 
that size up to 12ft. they are made in halves, 
which are fitted together with planed joints and 
subsequently bored and turned, but after that 
size has been passed it is the practice to build 
them up. The number of segments used depends 
to a great extent on the maker, but generally can 
be approximately ascertained by dividing the cir- 
cumference in feet by 7-8, which gives results 
corresponding generally with practice. The boss 
is cast separately and bored to receive the 
arms, which are turned to fit, and are machined 
at the ends to take the segments of the 
rim. This is very clearly shown in Figs. 114 and 
115, which illustrate a large driving drum 34ft. 
diameter, and grooved for 32 ropes IJiu. diameter, 
made for the Astley Mill Company, Dukinfield, by 
Mr. B. Goodfellow. The number of grooves depends 
upon the power to be transmitted. The dimen- 
sions and form of the grooves are shown in the 
sketch given in Fig. 116, and are calculated from 
the following formulae : — 

Let cZ = diameter of rope in inches; P = pitch 
of grooves ; D = depth of grooves ; R = radius of 
bottom of grooves ; "\V = width of mouth of 
grooves; V = thickness of flange between inner 
grooves ; A = thickness of outer flange ; S = depth 
from tip of outer flange to shoulder ; and T = 
thickness through bottom of grooves. Then — 

P = li cZ + ^in. or-fx^in. 

D = li rf-|-|in. or + ^in. 

R = § d ; and V^ = cl + ^% ot + ^%. 

T = hd; andA^id + xV- 

S = d; and V = |d 




Fig. 115. 



246 



From these formulae can be constructed the 
following table, which will give sufficiently accurate 
data of the principal dimensions, the smaller sizes 
being taken. 



Diameter of 
Rope = rf. 


P 


D 


R 


w 


T 


A 


V 


s 


Inches, 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




14 


If 


1 


It^ 


i 


tV 


^ 




n 


IH 


m 


M 


li\ 


1 


4 


i 


U 


If 


2 


n 


h 


lA 


H 


T% 


A- 


If 


n 


2i 


2 


T% 


IH 


3 

4r 


T^B 


rV 


14 


11 


2i 


n 


i 


1-11 


11 


i 


iV 


If 


If 


2i 


2| 


U 


2 


i 


1 


4 


If 


ii 


21 


2i 


H 


27^5 


H 


-H 


U 


11 


2 


2f 


21 


f 


2A 


1 


1 


T% 


2 



t 



With regard to the angle enclosed by the sides 
of the groove some makers, perhaps the majority, 
prefer it to be 45°, while others express an opinion 
that 40° is better, as there is less liability to wedg- 
ing. The depth is sufficient to avoid all possibility 
of the rope reaching the bottom of the groove. 

The formation of this groove accurately is of high 
importance, bat it must be accompanied by equal 
care in the making of the rope. With regard to 
the latter more will be said hereafter. Ropes are, 
in this country, said to be of a certain diameter, by 
which is meant the diameter of a circle circum- 
scribing the rope, while in America the size of the 



247 

the size of the different ropes employed, but what- 
ever be the cause the effect is the same. Suppose, 
for instance, that a driving pulley is 30ft. diameter 
to the line which is intended to be the centre Inie 
of the rope, or that where it touches the sides of 
the groove. If this pulley revolves say 50 times 
per minute then it would have a peripheral speed 
of 4,712ft., which if communicated to a rope em- 
ployed to drive a pulley 12ft. diameter would give 
the latter a speed of 125 revolutions. Assume now 




Fig. 116 



that the grooves are so shaped or the rope so reduced 
that the diameter of the pulley on the driving Inie 
is only 29ft. lOin. and that of the driven pulley 
only lift. lOin., then the speed of the rope would 

be at 50 revolutions per minute — 4,687ft., and 

the driven pulley would make 126 revolutions. If, 
therefore, adjoining grooves established these two 
sets of conditions, it would follow tliat the rope 
deepest in the groove would tend to do the greater 
part of the work, although its size might be the 
least. Not only would the rope deepest in gear 



Ul 



248 



tend to do most work, but the variation in the 
velocity of the ropes would lead to the establish- 
ment of friction, which is very injurious and 
destructive to their life. It is, by far, the most 
common thing for the fault to lie with the ropes, 
but it may happen that the grooves are not all 
accurately formed. 

The ropes used in most cases are made of cotton, 
which is preferable to hemp for many reasons. The 
various strands lie more closely together, owing to 
the character of the material; the rope is more 
flexible and elastic, and its wearing power, if all 
things are considered, is greater. The construction 
of any rope is a matter of high importance. It 
must be strong, flexible, elastic, and able to resist 
undue extension. No material fulfils these con- 
ditions so perfectly as cotton, and for this reason 
cotton ropes are to be preferred. The alternate 
bending and straightening of a rope as it passes 
over the pulleys entails a good deal of work, and 
the more flexible it is the better are its working 
qualities. Strength is principally of service, in so 
far as it enables the rope to resist extension under 
its working load, and it is this quality which is 
perhaps the most valuable. It is, of course, im- 
possible to resist extension entirely, but it is a 
factor of little importance if its ratio is the same 
with all the ropes of a set. It is not an uncommon 
thing to find all the ropes of a main drive sagging 
considerably near the end of a week's work, and in 
the interval between Saturday and Monday taking 
up so as to be quite tight. It is a thing worth 



249 

be as light as possible. The " Lambeth " rope is 
probably, for its size, the lightest made, although 
a four-stranded one. Its extension is also small, 
as is shown by Table 19, which, in order to render 
it inteUigible to the ordinary reader, has been 
slightly changed from the form in which it was 
cast by Messrs. Kirkaldy and Sons, who have made 
some recent tests, of which these are the results. 



TABLE 19. 



Circumference 
of rope, ins. 



3-86 



Diam. of rope, 
ins. 



1-23 



Weight per 
foot, lbs. 



•45 



5-12 



1-63 



Stress in 
lbs. 

'- 1,280 
2,560 
3,840 
5,120 
6,400 
7,681 
7,981 
2,380 
4,760 
7,140 
9,520 
( 11,900 
L13,872 



4-26* 



1-35 



•54 



1,490 

2,980 

4,470 

5,960 

7,450 

8,940 

10,430 

11,920 

L 13,275 



Extension 
per cent. 

1-4 

4-2 

7-0 

9-5 
11-4 
18-4 
Broke 

2-0 

5-0 

7-76 
10-20 
12-20 
Broke 

6-34 
10-36 
13-40 
15-60 
17-60 
19-20 
20-80 
22-20 

Broke 



* This rope was a three-strand one, with 120 16's throstle yarns 
spun from Egyptian in each strand. 

It is important to note that, although these ropes 
showed certain extensions when the stress is applied, 
they recovered their length when it was taken off, 
thus demonstrating the elasticity of the material. 
The important point to remember is that the stress 
is much in excess of any working load, as will be 
shown. 

The power exerted by ropes is a very important 
matter. To obtain its full effect, it is necessary to 
follow certain precautions in designing an installa- 



250 



tion. First, as shown in Fig. 117, the axis of no 
pulley should be in a higher position than 45° above 
a horizontal line drawn through the centre of the 
driving shaft. The reason for this procedure is that 
it is desirable that the upper side of the rope, 
which is, or ought to be, the idle side, should be 
allowed to form freely a catenary curve, or to " sag" 
between the pulleys. This establishes a larger arc of 
contact of the rope and pulley, and increases the 
power. The size of the pulleys used has been 







Fig. 117. 



251 

one, and designers of rope-drives may take it that 
there is room for a wise discretion in this matter. 
What should be remembered is that it is better to 
pass either a belt or rope used for driving over a 
lar<re pulley than over a small one, and that, subject 
to the exigencies of the case, the larger the pulley 
used, the better for the band or rope. 

With regard to the power developed by ropes, 
this is a matter in which nearly every man is a law to 
himself. All sorts of rules are given, but it may be 
stated that the subject depends mainly upon the 
life of the rope. That is to say that it is considered 
to be better to employ a moderate working tension, 
and thus enable the ropes to be used without undue 
faticrue Three things affect this matter, the power 
transmitted, centrifugal force, and the loss caused 
by bending and straightening and the frictional 
resistance of the air. It is usual to assume that 
the loss by the third factor is about 20 per cent of 
the gross working stress. The centrifugal force is 

calculated by the formula ^^^^ ^^^en S = speed 

in feet per second ; W = weight one foot of rope. 
Deducting these amounts from the gross working 
load per square inch, we are able to calculate the 

H.P. transmitted by the formula ^^^^^ ■ where 

V = velocity in feet per second and S = effective 
stress. These formulae may be tabulated thus : Let 
G = crvoss stress allowed. Then G-~^= working 

tension or T. Then T-(5?^) = net working 
tension or S, and-J^ = H.P. exerted. It will be 

seen that the whole matter rests upon the value of 
G, which has, in some cases, been fixed unduly high. 
The writer has proceeded in the calculation of 
Table 20, on the assumption that T = 2001bs., 
and by close comparison of the results of actual work 



252 



has found that this assumption is in accordance 
with facts. The table is as follows, and will be 
found to be safe and reliable : — 



i: 









TABLE 


20. 










peed 
minute 
feet. 




Diameter oi 


Ropes in 


Inches. 


1 


n 


li 


11 


n 


If 


1| 


Al 


2 


02 O 




















V 


Horse Power Transmitted. 


2500 


10-8 


13-4 


16-7 


20-5 


24-3 


28-5 


33-2 


381 


43-4 


2600 


11-1 


13-9 


17-2 


20-8 


25 


29-4 


341 


39-4 


44-7 


2700 


11-4 


14-3 


17-7 


21-7 


25-7 


30-2 


35-3 


40-6 


46 


2800 


11-8 


14-7 


18 2 


22-3 


26-4 


31 


36-2 


41-7 


47-3 


2900 


12-1 


151 


18-7 


22-9 


271 


31-9 


37-2 


42-8 


48-6 


3000 


12-3 


15-4 


191 


23-4 


27-8 


32-6 


381 


43-8 


49-5 


3100 


12-5 


15-7 


19-5 


24 


28-4 


33-4 


39 


44-8 


50-6 


3200 


12-9 


161 


19-9 


24-5 


29 


34 


39-9 


45-8 


52 


3300 


13-2 


16-5 


20-3 


25 


29-6 


34-8 


40-8 


46-8 


53-2 


3400 


13-4 


16-7 


20-6 


25-5 


301 


35-4 


41-6 


47-7 


54-3 


3500 


13-6 


16-9 


20-9 


26 


30-6 


36-2 


42-3 


48-6 


55-2 


3600 


13-9 


171 


21-2 


26-4 


311 


36-5 


43 


49-5 


56 


3700 


141 


17-3 


21-5 


26-8 


31-5 


371 


43-6 


50-2 


56-8 


3800 


14-2 


17-5 


21-7 


27 


31-9 


37-5 


44-2 


50-8 


57-6 


3900 


14-4 


17-7 


21-9 


27-3 


32-2 


37-9 


44-8 


51-4 


58-2 


4000 


14-5 


17-8 


221 


27-5 


32-6 


38-4 


45-3 


51-9 


58-9 


4100 


14-6 


17-9 


22-3 


27-8 


32-9 


38-7 


45-8 


52-4 


59-6 


4200 


14-7 


18 


22'5 


28 


331 


39 


46-3 


52-8 


60-3 


4300 


14-8 


18 


22-6 


281 


33-3 


39-3 


46-6 


53-2 


60-6 


4400 


14-9 


181 


22*7 


28-2 


33-4 


39-6 


46-8 


53-5 


60-9 


4500 


15 


181 


227 


28-3 


33-5 


39-7 


47 


53-8 


61-2 


4600 


151 


181 


22-7 


28-4 


33-6 


39-7 


47-2 


54 


61-4 


4700 


151 


181 


22-6 


28-4 


33-7 


39-8 


47-4 


54-2 


61-5 


4800 


151 


18 


226 


28-5 


33-7 


39-8 


47-5 


54-2 


61-5 


4900 

et\r\r\ 


15 

T K 


18 

1 '7.n 


22-5 


28-5 


33-7 


39-9 

OO-Q 


47-6 

A'7-P. 


54-3 

F.A-Q 


61-6 



253 



hundreds of feet the rope travels per minute, then, 
for" the sizes of ropes given, multiply x by the 
figure given in second line. 

Size of rope, inches 1 H U If H If ^i U 2 
Multiplier -3 '4 '5 -6175 -735 -8675 1 1-155 1-31 

Thus an inch rope running 3,000ft. per minute 
would develop 30 x -3 = 9 H.P., and a 2-inch rope 
running 4,000ft. would develop 40x1*31 = 52-4 
H.P. In this calculation no regard is paid to 
centrifugal action at all. Messrs. Combe, Barbour, 
& Combe, of Belfast, who were the originators of 
rope driving, do not recommend a higher velocity 
than 4,000ft. per minute, and prefer one of about 
3,500. Their rule is that a pulley, 4ft. diameter, 
and grooved for a rope IJin. diameter, running at 
100 revolutions per minute, will transmit 8 H.P. 
The working stress they use is 2401bs. per square 
inch. 




li 
•62 



If IS 
•72 -79 



1| 2 
•91 1-04 



Fig. lis. 

With regard to the weight of ropes this is an 
important matter, and the following are those of 
" Lambeth " ropes : — 

Diam. in inches... 1 1^ li 
Wght.perft.inlb.-27 "37 -15 

ozs Ib.oz Ib.oz lb.oz Ib.oz Ib.oz Ib.oz Ib.oz Ib.oz 
Weight peryd....l3 12 1 6 1 10 1 U 2 3 2 6 2 12 3 2 

The following remarks are made by Mr. Hart on 
the question of splicing ropes. To make a long 
splice, unlay each end of the rope 5ft., cut out the 
small centre cord, on which the four strands have 
been laid, interlay the ends together in the same 
way as for a short splice (Fig. 118), but mstead of 



254 



pushing the strands of one under the strands of 
the other, the splice is divided into parts and the 
four strands are spliced in different places (Fig. 119), 
care being taken to keep the rope equal in thickness 
in all parts. Unlay one of the strands and at the 
same time lay up the opposite strand in the vacant 
place for about four feet, care being taken to keep 
the turn in the strand. Tie the two strands tem- 
porarily. This we call the No. 1 strand. The next 
to it is No. 2 strand, which must not be worked 
until No. 3 is finished in the same manner as No. 
1 ; but instead of laying it up for 4ft., 1ft. 6in. is 
sufi&cient. Lay up No. 2 strand and No. 4 strand 
in the same manner as No. 1 and No. 3 strands, 
but in the opposite direction. Shorten the strands 




Fig. 119. 

to equal lengths of about a foot. Remove the 
friction bands (or outside threads), and tie a double 
overhand knot on the tension strands, laying each 
end over twice with the marlinspike or splicing 
pin, and finish ofi" by interlocking each end through 
the centre of the rope. 

No blacklead should be applied to ropes, as it 
adds unduly to the weight, and an application of 
a special wax or shoemakers' heelball is much better 



'2DD 

CHAPTER XX. 

SHAFTING AND BEARINGS. 

The power transmitted from the engine, whether 
by wheels, belts, or ropes, is utilised in the various 
rooms by means of shafts running longitudinally. 
If wheel gear is used the most ordinary method is 
to drive a vertical shaft sustained by a footstep, and 
by bearings close to the points at which the power 
is taken off. There has been a good deal of diffi- 
culty with geared mills, which has, in great part, 
been due to the fact that the work has not been so 
perfectly done as it might be, and partly to the 
difficulty of regulating the wear of the footstep and 
bearings. Wheel gearing wants especial care in con- 
struction, and this is not always given. In designing 
the footsteps they should be arranged so that there is 
not more than from 600 to SOOlbs. pressure on the 
bearing portion. It is the best practice to fit the 
footstep with loose washers, always immersed in 
oil and free to revolve under the pressure of the 
shaft. These washers are alternately phosphor 
bronze and steel, and if properly designed and 
arranged the wear is very small. In designing the 
bearings sustaining the line and upright shaft it is 
desirable to make them strong and massive and fix 
them firmly to the wall The outer ends of the shafts 
should be sustained by special bearings, if possible, 
and all the bearings ought to be capable of being 
easily set, so as to keep the wheels working on the 
pitch line. In the most modern practice there is 
an undoubted tendency towards higher velocities of 
shafting, and steel shafting has come into somewhat 
extensive employment. The resistance of shafting 
to torsion is found to vary as the cube of the 
diameter, but as it is necessary to take off the 
shaft between the bearings a certain amount 
of power, the diameter wants proportionately 
increasing. In many cases a calculation made 
on the basis named w^ould result in the use 






256 



of a shaft which, with the ordinary length 
between the bearings, would result in flexure when 
the weight was applied. The diameter of shaft 
required to transmit any known power, allowing 
for the flexure caused by pulleys and belts, is 
obtained by the following rule, where D = diameter 
in inches; H = H P to be transmitted; and 



N = revolutions per minute, D 



J6bK 

N ' 



The 



Unbreakable Pulley Co. give, as a rule, for wrought 





DiAMKTEU OF SlIAKT IN INCHES. 


tJOO 

K, ia-ocr. cl:ooocoooc»0 0^00>03J3;<^^H|- 
^ COt-i-lOOCOt~— OC-. l>-OC0r-l05t-«0CC^Ci 
r-r-.r-KMO^COCOCO'^OOt-t-OOC-. 0|--|r-H 


% 
% 


^ '^isS§|SS5|S|2g|S?||g 


o 


i^g^§^Si^||siS||§s|?o| 


< 




S??SFi§SgSggJ|i|l^|||g 




- §S5S^^S2S^S||||2|g|| 




:«" o 1^ .— c-1 CO CO -? -*" o -o r- CO r: o CI r^ rj< »« -o CO 
- 2c,co^.o-or^a.c.oo,-ro=.55«;5r^g- 


i! 

> 


i ^ oo CO r- oi o o C-. o c^J a: 


?? 


5 ?i -r o -c- 00 S'- c^ r: -o CO T-H CO 


CO 


S § c; ci C-. C-. cc CO CO CO 00 o o o --S o p >--: o -^ 


11 


era" 


?: § o o; :r- cr. cv c-. cs os c-- cj c; c; 7. ^- c-. b- c-. c-- 




CO 


^ 01 ?5 i^ -0 t- C-. i-H rt -t CO (M -0 X CO CO tS Ci 

^ -i i. 2 ^ is ::5 J^l S S t S2 g lH' i ^ S 'c^ § 






257 



3 / rr 

iron, D = 4*2 "^ - For steel, when the calcula- 
tion has been made from that formula, the diameter 
is found in one case, by multiplying D by -874, 
which is high, however, as '75 is a rule often 
adopted and found satisfactory. Another rule for 

line shafts is —^7^ — . Professor Unwm's rule is — 

HP =Nx -01163 D", and the results are about 
those usually accepted. Table 21 is calculated 
from this rule, which may be safely taken as 
giving the power transmitted by wrought-iron 
shafting. 

It is essential that the bearings shall be properly 
spaced, and the formula by which the distance in 
feet is calculated, is — when pulleys are carried — 
5 yU". Table 22 will be of service. 

TABLE 22. 

Diam. of Distance of Diam. of Distance of 

Shaft. Bearings. Sbaft. Bearings. 

in. ft. in. in. ft. in. 

2 ... 8 H 10 6 

2i 8 6 3i 11 

2J 9 3| 11 9 

2| .... 9 6 4 12 6 

3 10 

Line shafts are not often made larger than -iin. in 
spinning mills, so that this table will be sufficient. 
The co-efficient of friction of turned shafting is 
stated by Webber at -066, and the power absorbed 
is obtained by the aid of the following formula : 
With ordinary— i.e., intermittent — lubrication, the 
number of foot pounds absorbed per minute to over- 
come friction, when P = weight of shafting and 
pulleys -1- stress of belt, D = diameter of journal, 
and R = number of revolutions, is -0182 P D R, 
and with continuous oiling 0112 P D R. Another 
formula given by the Unbreakable Pulley Co. is 
•0157 P R. The weight of shafting per foot in 
iron and steel is given in Table 23. 

R 



258 







TABLE -20. 






Diameta- Weiglit per loot lbs. 


Diameter 


WeUiit 


p^r f;.;.: lbs. 


inindies. 


Inn. 


Steel. 


inincics. 


Iron. 


Steel. 


n 


5-89 


6007 


H 


3-21 


3-2-74 


yi 


802 


8-18 


H 


33-5 


34-17 


2 


105 


10-71 


4 


41-9 


42-73 


H 


133 


13-56 


4t 


47-3 


45-24 


2i 


16-4 


16-72 


H 


53 


54-Od 


2| 


19-8 


2019 


4| 


59-1 


6018 


3 


23-6 


24-07 


5 


65-5 


66S1 


H 


27-7 


2S-25 









The table given shows that steel shafting is 
slightly heavier than iron : but as its strength is 
greater than thai of iron, the same power can be trans- 
mitted by a lighter shaft Thus a 2iin. steel shaft 
is capable of transmitting as much power as a 3in, 
wrought-iron shaft, and their weight compares as 
jl 16'72 : 23 "6. Now, assuming that the revolutions 

are 150, and that in each case the weight of the 
pulleys between two bearings, plus the stress of the 
belts, is 4001bs., we can see what is the relative 
advantage of the two styles of shafts. The 
smaller shaft would require the bearings to be 
spaced 5\/2-5- = 9ft Sin., while the iron shaft 
reqnires only 5-^3- = 10ft. 5in. The weight of 9 ft. 
J Sin. of '2hin. steel shafting is 154-66, and of the 

K* iron shaft, 245-8. Adding to these the assumed 

I F weight of pulleys, we get a load on the bearings of 

y 5541bs. and 6451bs. respectively. If, therefore, the 

K labrication is continuous, the foot lbs. absorbed in 

overcoming friction in each case respectively are 
•0112 X 554 X 2-5 X 150 = 2315 and -0112 x 645 x 



•259 



the wisdom of the modem practice with regard to 
the use of steel shafts instead of wrought- iron. 

In most cases the bearings used m cotton miU 
practice are of a very simple kind being the 
standard pattern of plummer block. Where pos- 
sible -=^ide pedestals are employed, and these are 
fixed to the faces prepared for them on the columns 
as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The standard plummer 
block has top and bottom brass steps htted res- 
pectivelv in the body and cap, lubrication being 
provided bv means of some form of lubricator fixed 
in the cap." In the side pedestal, the sole is vertical 
to the axis, and is made of such a length that it fits 
easily on the face of the column, and can be 
supported bv a packing piece between the pro- 
iectincr rib and the bottom of the sole. In some 
cases,"shafts are suspended by hangers attached 
to the beams, but this practice is not an ordmary 
one, except as a supplement. The most common 
lencrth of the brasses is twice the diameter ot the 
shaft, but varies from U to 2^ times the diameter. 
Double the diameter is, however, better than a 
shorter length, and is more usual. 

A lar<^e "number of lubricatmg bearings of one 
kind or^another have from time to time been 
devised, and among them may be mentioned 
Mohler's patent, of which many thousands have 
been constructed. This consisted of a collar made 
of cast iron, and fixed on the shaft. It was from 
lin to iin. wide, and about fin. to fm. deep. 
The top" and bottom brasses were grooved to 
enable the collar to revolve easily without touchmg, 
:.nd each groove had a square hole in it at its crown. 
Through the hole in the bottom brass, the oil, con- 
taiued^iu a reservoir formed in the body, entered, so 
that the collar alwavs dipped into it. In the hole 
in the cap and top brass, a smaU sheet-iron scraper 
cut out to pass over the collar was placed, and as 
this just cleared the collar and shaft, it scraped the 
oil off the former and spread it over the whole 
surface of the journaL . 

A modification of this principle, embodymg an 



260 



improvement on it, has been adopted by Messrs. 
Astin and Barker, of Todmorden, who have carried 
out a large number of sets of mill gearing for some 
of the more recent mills. In this pedestal the 
bottom brass rests on ribs formed in the body, the 
spaces between which are used as an oil reservoir, 
but the brass is not grooved internally. The top 
brass, however, has one or two narrow grooves 
formed in it, which act as guides for rings of wire 
or iron of small diameter. These rings are made 
with an internal diameter much larger than the 
shaft on which they rest. The outer portion 
of the brass is grooved slightly near its upper 
edge, so as to permit the ring to pass over 
the brass into the reservoir of oil below. The 
rotation of the shaft draws the ring round 
with it, but at a slower speed, and the 
ring carries with it a certain portion of oil, 
which is taken oflf by the shaft and distributed over 
the journal. When the journal is a long one two rings 
are used, and this principle is apphed with perfect 
success to bearings Tin. to 9in. diameter used for 
second motion shafts. It is remarkable how 
speedily the oil is distributed, and it has been 
found quite unnecessary where these bearings are 
used to employ oil pumps to obtain a regular circu- 
lation. The use of oil pumps is common where 
there are long bearings, and bath lubrication, which 
this is, is the basis of the methods adopted for main 
bearings. 

Whether because of the rigid floors which are 
employed in this country or not, the type of adjust- 



261 

itself to any deflection which may take place in the 
shafting gives a great advantage, and leads to a 
decrease of friction. A little thought will show 
that the value of this point may be easily exag- 
gerated. For instance, suppose that an undue 
downward pull is exercised on two adjoining bays 
of shafting at the same time ; that is, two lengths 
supported by two outer and one centre bearing. It 
is obvious that the deflection on one side of the 
centre bearing will tend to cause it to swivel in one 
direction, and that the deflection at the other side 
will have the like efi'ect in the opposite direction. 
In point of fact swivel bearings cannot avoid what 
may be called cross friction, except when a shaft 
is only carried by two of them. The introduc- 
tion of a third bearing, if tliere be deflection on 
each side of it, at once reduces the advantage 
derived from the freedom of the bearing. Bat while 
this is true, it is equally true that in a large num- 
ber of cases where the conditions ]ust named do 
not exist, this property of adjustability does play a 
considerable part in reducing the friction caused 
by deflection, and it is only the extreme and very 
absurd claims put forward for this type of bearing 
that render it necessary to give this warning. On 
other grounds, such as ease of erection and freedom 
of adjustment, the swivel or ball bearings constitute 
a great advance on the ordinary type, and it ought 
not to be overlooked that at the worst the friction 
set up will never be greater than that in the 
ordinary fixed bearing, while on the other hand it 
may be much less. 

In Fig, 1 20 a cross section of a bearing of this type, 
made by the Unbreakable Pulley Company, is shown. 
This consists of a central bearing made of cast iron, 
and formed with a ball joint at its centre, so that 
it can move in any direction. It ought to be made 
clear at this point that in setting these bearings 
into line it is the absolute centre which is regarded, 
and not merely the centre of the bore at either end. 
That is to say, that, as the bearing is held by a ball 
joint midway of its length, it is the point of inter- 



262 



section of a vertical line described through the 
centre of the ball with the axis which is taken as 
the setting point of the bearing. This is important, 
because it is the power of swivelling or oscillating 
about its centre without that being disturbed, which 
constitutes the feature of this bearing. It will be 
clear that, unless this property existed, the value 
of an adjustable bearing is much diminished. The 
bearing shown is made of cast iron, accurately 
bored and made of ample length. The latter is 
important because of the diminution of the pressure 
per square inch which follows. As the true lubri- 
cation of a bearing is only effected when a film of 
oil is kept between the two parts, an undue pressure 
tends to shear it, and thus allow the two metals to 
come into contact. An enlargement of the bearing 
area, therefore, is of high value. In a valuable 
paper on the " Friction and Lubrication of Cylin- 
drical Journals," Professor Goodman, of Leeds, made 
the following remarks : '• Instead of taking the load 
per square inch as a basis in designicg bearings, 
the author takes the number of thermal units a 
given area is capable of conducting away per minute. 
The result of several thousand experiments shows 
that a gun-metal bearing working on a steel axle 
will keep cool when one square inch of surface is 
allowed for every thermal unit conducted per 
minute. 

Let P = total pressure iu lbs, on the journal. 
„ w = assumed co-efficient of friction, 
^j S = speed of journal surface in feet per minute. 
A = nominal area of brass in square inches— (".c, 



263 

Then the friction resistance = P« 

Foot lbs. of work done per minute... = P w S 

Thermal units generated per mmute — ^^^ 




Fio. 120. 



Wherever practicable, journals should be allowed a 
certain amount of end play, about one per cent of 
their length ; they will then run more smoothly, 
and the journal will not wear in grooves." Reverting 



2U 



now to Fig. 1 20, the surfaces in which the bearing 
proper is suspended are found at the ends of 
two plungers screwed on their outer surface, 
and fitting into rigid threaded eyes. The rota- 
tion of the screwed shanks enables a bearing to 




565 

be mentioned here that the iise of Magnolia metal 
for bearings is increasing, and some recent tests of 
a Sin. shaft running in bushes 4Mn. long, with a 
load of 5001bs. per sq. in., and a speed of 183 
revolutions per mmute, show that after four hours 
the heat did not rise excessively, although oil was 
only used for ten minutes at the start. 

In many cases — in fact, in the majority — it is the 
practice to so arrange the shafts that the cards 
are driven directly from the line. The roving 
frames are placed so that by a quarter twisted belt 
they can be driven directly from the shaft. This 
can easily be done if it is arranged that the point of 
delivery of the belt from each pulley is in the plane 
of the other pulley. As card rooms are now built 
of considerable height, this mode of procedure 
enables a long belt to be used, and naturally 
reduces its wear. It is often necessary to drive 
machines at some distance from the line shaft, 
while it is not desirable to employ counter shafts. 
When this occurs it is usual to employ guide 
pulleys, or, as they are often called, gallows 
pulleys, similar to those shown in Fig. 122. For 
instance, in the ring room of the Stockport Ring 
Spinning Company's Mill the ring frames are driven 
directly from the line shaft by long belts passing 
over gallows pulleys to driving pulleys of the 
frames. This is a most convenient course, and is 
often followed. Messrs. Astin and Barker make a 
gallows pulley in which the axis is of cast iron, 
being formed in one piece with the pulley, and 
revolving in a bearing of the self-lubricating type 
previously named. 

There are three types of coupling used to fasten 
together the various lengths of shafting. These 
are known as the box or muff, the flange, and the 
compression. The muff coupling is simply a 
cylinder of cast iron bored to fit the ends of the 
shafts, and having keyways cut in it by which it 
can be keyed on to the shafts which meet end to 
end midway of its length. This coupling is most 
effective when the ends of the shafts are formed 



266 



with a half lap, but as this is more expensive it is 
not often done except where great strength is re- 
quired. The proportions of these couplings are 
given by Moles worth as follows: — Where D = dia- 




267 

The face of each disc is turued so that they fit 
closely when the two shafts on which each is fixed 
are brought together. The couplings are fastened 
together by bolts accurately fitting bored and 
rimered holes in the flanges. It is good practice to 
recess the flanges for the bolt heads and nuts, or 
to form a shrouding flange, so that they do not 
project beyond the surface, and cannot therefore 
become entangled with the cleaning rags or 
the clothing of the workman. Professor Unwin 




Fig. 123. 

gives the following as proper proportions o: 
this class of coupling:— If fZ=- diameter of shaft 
a = distance of centre of bolts from outsid( 
of boss, c = depth of recess for bolthead o 
nut, 6 = width of keyway, ^ = depth of key 
way, rt = number of bolts, and e = diameter of bolts 

0-62 d , . , „. 

then 7t = 3 + 0-5 d, e= -j=-, a=l'5 e, c=l 25 e 

6 = 0-25 c^ + 0-125, and t = ^b. For the thicknes 
of the boss '4 d, diameter of boss d+'Sd, and fo 



the thickness of the flange from the inner face to 
bottom of bolt recess '3 d. The rule as given by 
Molesworth is «i = diameter shaft, D = diameter of 
boss, F = diameter of flange, I = thickness of flange, 
L = length of boss, Id = d + J^ d, F = 3 d + 2, 
l = -Z d+'i, L = c?+1. The bolts in this form 
of coupling are of c urse in shear, and they may 
be made a little larger than the size stated. In 
order to keep the shafts in line with each other, it 
is often the practice to pass one shaft into its 
opposing coupling from \ to h inch, but this is not 
always the case. 




Fig. 124. 



269 

turned on a special mandrel. Round the inside of 
the shell and the outside of the cones three grooves 
equidistant from one another are formed, one of 
those in the cones being cut right through. Three 
bolts are passed through the coupling from end to 
end, and by screwing them up the two cones are 
drawn towards each other and are gradually closed 
on the shaft. It is clear that a coupling such as 
this will be self-centreing, and will exercise a 
complete grip on the shaft. 

It is not pretended that the foregoing remarks 
furnish complete information on all the various 
points treated. That has not been the intention, 
which has rather been to give millowners such 
practical hints and descriptions of completed work 
as were most likely to be serviceable. It is obvious 
that various subjects have been omitted, but it is 
confidently hoped that within its limits the book 
will have some value to those engaged in practical 
work. 



TABLE 24. 

Properties of Saturated Steam. 







Number of British 








Absolute 




Thermal units from 
0° F per lb. 


Weight 


Volume 
one 


Relative 
volume 


pressure 


Tem- 
perature 


of one 
cubic 


pound 
of i 


cubic 


per 






eet steam 


square 


in "F of 


Latent 




foot of 


steam 


from one 


inch in 


steam and 


heat 


Total in. 


steam 


n cubic 


pound 
water. 


lbs. 


water. 


formation 


steam. 


in lbs. 


feet. 






of steam. 










1 


102-1 


1042-96 


1145 


•0030 


330-36 


20600 


2 


126 3 


102601 


1162-2 


-0058 


172-08 


10730 


3 


141-6 


1015-25 


1156-8 


-0085 


117-:.2 


7327 


4 


153-1 


1007-23 


1160-1 


-0112 


89-62 


5589 


5 


162-3 


1000-73 


llti3 


-0138 


72-66 


4253 


6 


170-2 


995-25 


1165-3 


•0163 


61-21 


3816 


7 


176 -9 


990-47 


1167-3 


•0169 


62-94 


3301 


8 


182-9 


986-25 


1169-2 


•0214 


46-69 


2911 


9 


188-3 


982-43 


1170-8 


•0239 


41-79 


2603 


10 


193-3 


978-96 


1172-3 


•0264 


37-84 


2360 


11 


197-8 


975-2 


1173-7 


•0289 


34-62 


2157 


12 


202-0 


972-2 


1175-0 


•0314 


31-88 


1988 


13 


205 9 


969-4 


1176-2 


•0338 


29^27 


1844 


14 


209-6 


966 -S 


1177-3 


•0362 


27-61 


1721 


14"7 


212-0 


965-2 


1178 1 


•0380 


26-36 


1644 


15 


213-1 


964-3 


1178-4 


•0387 


26-86 


1611 


18 


222-4 


957-7 


1181-2 


■0459 


21-78 


1357 


20 


228-0 


953-8 


1182-9 


•0607 


19-72 


1229 


22 


233-1 


950-2 


1184-6 


-0556 


18-03 


1123 


25 


240-1 


945-3 


1186-6 


-0625 


16-99 


996 


30 


250-4 


937-9 


1189-8 


-0743 


13-46 


838 


35 


259-3 


931-6 


1192-5 


-0858 


11-65 


726 


40 


267-3 


926 


1194-9 


-0974 


10-27 


640 


45 


274-4 


9-20-9 


1197-1 


-1089 


9-18 


572 


60 


281-0 


916-3 


]199-1 


•1202 


8-31 


518 


55 


287-1 


912-0 


1201-0 


•1314 


7-61 


474 


60 


292-7 


908-0 


1202-7 


-14-26 


7-01 


437 


65 


298-0 


904-2 


1204-3 


-1638 


6-49 


405 


70 


302-9 


900-8 


1206-8 


-1648 


6-07 


378 


75 


307-5 


897-5 


1207-2 


-1759 


5^68 


363 


80 


312-0 


894-3 


1208-5 


•1869 


6^35 


333 


85 


3161 


891-4 


1209-9 


-1980 


6-06 


314 


90 


320-2 


888-5 


1211-1 


•2089 


4-79 


298 


95 


324-1 


885 -8 


1212-3 


•2198 


4-65 


283 


100 


327-9 


883-1 


1213-4 


•2307 


4-33 


270 


105 


331-3 


880-7 


1-214-4 


•2414 


414 


257 



271 



TABLE 25. 
Showing Volume and Weight of Air and Saturated 
Mixture of Air and Vapour at Different Tempera- 
tures under the Pressure OF 30 Inches of Mercury. 



II . 


Volume of ^ 


ft'eight of a 


Saturated mixture of air and vapour. 


£i2 


dry air at i 
tempera- \ 
ure named} 


cub. ft. of 

dry air in 

lbs. 








|a> 


Weight of 
Air in lbs. 


Weight of 

Vapour in 

lbs. 


Weight of 

Mixture 

in lbs, 





•935 


•0864 


•0865 


•000079 


•0867 


10 


•955 


0843 


•0847 


•00012 1 


•0849 


15 


•965 


-0838 


-0838 


•00015 


-0840 


20 


•975 1 


•0830 


•0829 


•00018 


•0932 


25 


•986 1 


-0821 


•0820 


•00023 


-0824 


30 


•995 


-0813 


•0811 


•00028 \ 


-08] 5 


32 


1-000 


•0807 


0808 


•000304 


-0812 


35 


1006 


•0804 


•0802 


•00034 


•0808 


40 


1-0162 


-0797 


•0794 


•000408 


•0800 


42 


1-022 


-0791 


•0791 


•00044 


•0798 


45 


1^0264 


•0789 


•0786 


-00049 


-0794 


48 


1 032 


•0784 


-0781 


-00054 


-0789 


50 


1-037 


•0781 


•0777 


-00058 


-0787 


52 


1-040 


•0778 


-0774 


-00063 


•0787 


55 


1-047 


•C773 


•0770 


•00069 


•0780 


58 


1-053 


•0769 


■0765 


-00077 


•0777 


60 


1-057 


•0766 


•0761 


•00082 


•0774 


62 


1-061 


-0763 


•0758 


•00088 


•0772 


65 


1-067 


•O7.o9 


•0753 


•00097 


-0770 


68 


1-073 


-0754 


•0748 


-00108 


-0765 


70 


1-077 


•0751 


•0744 


•00114 


-0763 


72 


1-OSl 


•0747 


•0741 


•00122 


•0761 


75 


1-087 


•0784 


•0736 


-00134 


-0758 


78 


1-093 


-0740 


•0731 


-00147 


•0755 


80 


1-098 


-0737 


-0728 


•00157 


■0753 


85 


1-108 


-0731 


•0719 


•00182 


•0749 


90 


1-118 


•0724 


•0710 


-00212 


•0745 


95 


1-128 


•0717 


•0701 


•00-245 


•0742 


100 


1-138 


•0711 


•0691 


•00283 


•0739 



Note.— According to M. Regnault, air expands 491:13 part 
of its volume for every 1° of heat. 



TABLE 26. 
Number of Thermal Units in One Pound of Water, 



Tempe- 
rature. 


No. of 
Units. 


Tempe- 
rature. 


No. of 
Units. 


Tempe- 
rature. 


No. of 
Units. 


40 


40-001 


115 


115-129 


190 


190-543 


45 


45002 


120 


120-149 


195 


195-697 


50 


50-003 


125 


125-169 


200 


200-753 


55 


55-006 


130 


130-192 


205 


205-813 


60 


60-009 


135 


135-217 


210 


210-874 


65 


65*014 


140 


140-245 


215 


215-939 


70 


70-020 


145 


145-275 


220 


221-007 


75 


75-027 


150 


150-305 


225 


226-078 


80 


80036 


155 


155-339 


230 


231-153 


85 


85-045 


160 


160-374 


235 


236-232 


90 


90-055 


165 


165-413 


240 


241-313 


95 


95-065 


170 


170-453 


245 


246-398 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGl 



FIG. 



1 Swainson, Birley, and Go.'s mill j 

2 Vertical section of mill :J^ 

3_4 Front and side elevation mill columns ^^ 

5 Cast-iron fire-proof floor J^ 

6 Skeleton steel joist floor ' 

7 Coats' mill floor ^ 

8 Section steel and concrete floor ^^ 

9 Iron lintel o. 

10 Carnegie steel and tile floor 

11 Steel and concrete floor without joists ^ 

12 American type of building ^ 

13 Section of weaving shed 

14 Elevation of Monitor building * 

15 Roof plan of do 

16 Floor plan of do 

17 Section of part of do 

18 Details of wall of do 

19 Details of Monitor ^ 

20 View of American weaving room ^ 

21 Longitudinal section, mill, showing sprinklers t 

22 .Transverse do. do. 

23 Worthington steam pump J 

24 Merryweather do. 

25 Grinnell sprinkler closed 

26 Do. open I 

27 Witter sprinkler, section ; 

28 Do. elevation 

29 Walworth sprinkler clobed 

30 Titan sprinkler closed ; 

31-32 Elevation and cross section, window • 

33 Potts, Son, and Pickup's window ^ 

34-36 "Praray" window 

37 Position of air propellor 

38 Sturtevaut system of ventilation 

39 Section Drosophore •••••• 

40-41 Plan of rooms, with humidifiers fixed 

42 Pye' 8 humidifier • 

43 Plan do 

S 



p 



liSer 

r'nerr* mill 

:. :- nnll .. 



mil], amoged by Howard 
' 117 




57 Pi 

59 Or 

60 In 
61-62 

63 Se: 

64 : 

65 Ccz 
66 

67 Grr 



■iO. mtii ....... 

: jjint .... 
.tT«x caa joint . 



and 



da. 
da 

do. 



i! 



m 



Lodieator diagrams &ain. 



PAGE 
101 
110 
111 

114 
115 

123 

. 122 

. 125 

. 126 

. 128 

. 131 

. 133 

. 142 

. 143 

. 144 

. 145 

. 146 

. 148 

. 149 

. 154 

. 158 

. 159 

. 174 
175-6 

. 176 

. 177 

. 151 

. 1S3 

. 183 

. 1S6 

. 188 

. 190 
192-3 

. 195 

. 197 

. 199 



270 



107 Curvature <^ blades of turbine -^ 

108-9 Vertical elevations of turbines * 

110 Arrangement <rf sluice gates ^ 

111 Section of footstep J 

112-13 Wheel teeih - 

114 Partial elevation of rope pulley ^ 

115 Side do. do. J 

116 Diagram of rope pulley grooves - 

117 Do. arrangement of drive ^_- 

118-19 Splices for ropes -^| 

120 Swivel bearing for shafts ~ | 

121 Side swivel bearings : ^ 

122 '" Gallows" or guide pulleys - *: 

123-4 Seliar's shaft coupling ^* 



INDEX TO TABLES. 



TABLE PAGE 

1 Value of 3'5 power 20 

2 Value of 1-63 power 20 

3 Breaking weight of columns 21 

i Dimensions and safe loads of steel rolled joists 48 

5 Deflection of wooden beams 49 

6 Dimensions and weights of machines .- 50 

I 7 Capacity of tank for sprinklers 62 

8 Size of pipes for sprinklers 62 

9 American do. do 63 

t 10 Distance apart of sprinklers 64 

'1 11 Surface area of tubes 89 

12 Maximum limits of humidity 94 

13 Safety valve areas 160 

14 Weight of cast-iron pipes 165 

15 Flow of water over weirs 225 

16 Theoretical discharge of water 226 

17 Hoi se-power of wheels 23& 

18 Weights of leather belts 240 

19 Tests of Lambeth ropes 249 



GENERAL INDEX. 



A 



PAGE 



Adamson's triple expansion engines 1'' 

Adjustable shaft bearings • ^^^ 

American plan of mill construction ^o 

„. system of ventilation 92 

Air volume heated by steam ^J 

Arrangement of stays in steam boilers !•** 

B 

Beams, wooden, safe loads and deflection • 49 

,, steel, „ ,, ^ 

Bearings for shafts -^^ 

„ lubricating 209 

adjustable ••: 260 

„ lubrication of -^2 

Beehive Mills, plan of •• 1** 

Belts, strength of leather ^^^ 

„ splicing leather fj^ 

„ velocity of........ -*^ 

„ power transmitted by -"J^ 

Belt pulleys, proportions of 24'- 

Boilers, steam, arrangement of stays in 1** 

„ coal consumption of ,. ^^^ 

„ causes of damage to 1"^9 

„ chimneys for 1^1 

„ chimney draught of 1^2 

„ evaporative testof ^^\ 

,, evaporation of ^f^ 

„ economisers 1^^ 

„ elevators for coal for l^i, 

„ forced blast for ^^' 

„ hydraulic test of 1^0 

„ incrustation in 1^0 

„ lap joints for • ^^z 

„ method of setting • If' 

mechanical stokers .^.- ^^^ 



PAGE 

Boilers, steam, specification for 135 

„ standard of power of •• !*& 

„ safety valves for 1^» 

„ steam pipes for 1^4 

Brazilian spinning and weaving shed 126 

Brickwork, weight and dimensions of ^J 

Buckley and Taylor's compound engine 19* 

Burnley Ironworks Co.'s electric lighting engine ^07 



Calculation of machines required for spmnmg mill 104 

„ „ thread mill 106 

,, „ weaving shed 

„ indicator diagrams - 

„ weight of steam per I.H.P 

Carnegie type fireproof construction 

Cast-iron ,, » 

Causes of damage to boilers 

Characteristics of cotton ropes 

Chimneys, construction of 

„ draught of 

„ lightning conductors for 

Coal consumption of boiler -^^^ 

Coats' mill floor f 

Coefficients of transmission of heat °^ 

Columns for mills, design of 19 

„ strengthof ^^ 

Concrete, use of zL 

Condensation in steam cylinders }-^' 

,, water required for l^o 

Conditioning cellar, arrangement of 34 

Construction of stairways 
Cost and weight of floors 

rinnlincr rpsftrvoirs 



108 
221 
222 
31 
23 
149 
248 
161 
162 
163 
146 



58 

46 

173 



279 



Economiser, Green's ■ o 

Electric lighting 20 

„ engines ^^ 

Elevators for coal ; ,- 

Engines, steam, Adamson's triple expansion ^' 

Burnley Ironworks Co. 8 ^"i 

Buckley and Taylor's compound ^^ 

cylinder condensation of |^ 

I] crank strains in 

„ condensers of 

cooling reservoirs for 

", essential features of 

Goodfellow's triple expansion 

" Globe high-speed 

Hick, Hargreaves compound 

" „ triple expansion 

" Indicator, diagram of 

Musgrave's quadruple expansion 

compound •. 

Pollitt and Wigzell's triple expansion 

,, piston speed of . 

„ pressure on parts of 

„ power, calculation of 

steam jackets for 

steam used by dififerent types of J 

steam consumption, mode of calculating ^ 

Saxon's triple expansion ^ 

,, Sulzer's „ • t 

„ theoretical efl&ciency of 

', Wood's triple expansion 

Yates and Thom's expansion i 

Essential features of good engine ; 

Evaporative test of boiler 

F 

Fireproof construction 

cast iron 

rolled joists 

'' Stott's type of 

Potts' steel and concrete 

Carnegie type 

\[ Hennebique 

relative cost of 

Fire-resisting conttruction, American type of 

„ Monitor type 

power of 

Fire -extinction, water buckets for 

jj sprinklers for 



PAGE 

Fire-extinctioD, WorthiDgton pump for ... 65 

„ Merryweather ,, 67 

Flange couplings, proportions of ■ 266 

Flow of water over weirs 225 

Flywheels, safe speed of .....'. 237 

„ stress in rim..... 237 

Friction of shafting 257 



Gearing, wheel..... 233 

belt 237 

rope 243 

Girders, strength and weight of rolled steel 48 

Globe high-speed engine 208 

Goodfellow's triple expansion engine 183 

Grinnel sprinklers 69 

Grooves of rope pulley, proportions of 243 

„ „ shape of 246 

Gunther's turbines ." 227 



H 



^ 



Heating by steam pipes ... 84 

Heat, coefficients of transmission of 86 

„ loes by transmission.... 86 

„ units radiated .:.. 88 

Hennebique type of mill floor 33 

Hick, Hargreaves' engine 174 

History of mill development 8 

Howard and Bullough's mill plan.... 116 

Humidifier, Drosophore 95 

Lofthouse's 100 



281 

PAOE 

21S 

Indicator diagrams, features of 221 

calculation of i'-""(''^ 90'. 

]\ " computation of steam, consumption from ^^- 

Iron window lintels • 



251 

Lambeth cotton ropes, weight of 24 

strength ;•-• ^^ 

Lap joints for steam boilers 23 

Leather belts, strength of ""*".". 23 

„ splicing 24 

weight of •••;••■•; '.[ 24 

power transmitted by g 

Lighting, electric • 

Lightning conductors, rules for •• . 

Lintels, iron window 1' 

Lofthouse's humidifier -•••• '.!!!"!..... 2. 

Lubricating bearings ■■■■ o 

Lubrication of bearings "....... 2 

Lubricator, steam cylinder 

M 



le 



Machines, weight and measurement of .'....ZZ''. 1 

Meldrum's forced blast ' ' ' 

Merryweather fire pump • 

Mill, history of development of type __ 

determining features of plan 

„ general scheme of " " " ' 

„ columns 

„ American type ot •'..!........... 

„ weaving, type of • •• 

„ monitor type, one-storeyed •••••■ 

,, windows 

„ heating appliances for 109 — 

„ examples of modern 

„ boilers..... 

„ engines 

Milton Mill '"'''"'"'^'^^•••- 

Minerva Mill 

Monitor, one-storey mill 

Mortice wheels 

Moscrop Recorder .......!. 

Muff couplings 

Musgrave'a engine 

N 



Nevski Thread Mill 



t': 



Park Road Spinning Mill 131 

Pipes, steam, construction and weight of 164 

„ size of sprinkler 62 

Piston speeds 172 

Pollitt and Wigzell's engine 202 

Potts' fireproof floor 29 

Power of turbines 226 

Power transmitted by wheels 236 

„ „ belts 241 

„ „ ropes 251 

,, table of rope 252 

,, transmitted by shafting 256 

,, calculation for shafting 257 

„ ,, of indicator diagram 221 

,, „ of boiler 145 

,, absorbed by friction of shafting 257 

Pra ray window 80 

Propellors, use of air 90 

P.illeyp, belt 237 

„ wrought-iron belt 238 

„ proportions of belt 242 

„ proportions of rope 243 

„ grooves of rope, proportions of 243 

,, „ shape of 246 

Pump, water delivery of 65 

,, Worthington fire 65 

„ Merryweather 67 

Pye's humidifier 98 



ill 



Radiation of heat 88 

Recorder, Moscrop's Speed 212 

Reducing gear for indicator ... 218 

Rftlativfi fiost. anH wfiit;r}it-, of flnnrsj 46 



283 

PA( 

2( 

Sellars coupling 2! 

Shafting, arrangement of 2i 

,, bearings for 2i 

„ couplings for 2 

power transmitted by „ 

,, power absorbed by friction of ^ 

„ weight of 2 

Shape of wheel teeth .••• ^ 

Societe Cottoniere d'Hellemmes MiL 

Sprinklers, general arrangement of 

„ water supply for 

„ Bize of pipes for 

„ discharge of water by 

„ Grinnell 

„ Witter 

„ Wallworth 

„ Titan ■ [[ 

Stairways, construction of 135— ' 

Steam boilers (see under letter B). 166— 

„ engines (see under letter E) 215— 

engine indicator (see letter I) 

„ pipes, weight of 

„ heating, rules for • ] 

Steel girders, strength of ••••••• 

Stott's fireproof floor 

Strength of mill columns 

,j wheel teeth ■■"■ 

„ cotton ropes 

„ leather belts ■■■■ 

Stress on flywheel rim 



Tabor Indicator ••••••• 

Teeth of wheels, shape and strength ot 
Theoretical efficiency of steam engme.. 

„ discharge of water 

Thompson Indicator 

Titan Sprinkler '...•• 

Transmission of heat, loss by 



Vel 'city of wheels 

„ belts 

„ ropes •• 

Ventilation of mills by propellors 

American system 



• , v... PAGE 

Water buckets, use of ..:.! '58 

„ supply for sprinklers ,^..\.,. -61 

^ „ delivery of pumps ■ 65 

„ evaporated by boiler ..'.'. 145 

„ condensing quantity required 173 

, „ flow over weirs ', 225 

„ theoretical discharge of 226 

Weaving shed construction 38 

Weight of brickwork ....."...■..., 22 

5, machines " 50 

„ steam per I. H.P., estimation of ; 222 

r- „ belts ..-. 240 

t „ cotton ropes ...".. 249 

_ „ shafting .......' ■■ 258 

Weirs, water flow over = = ..... 225 

Wheels, cast iron 233 

„ mortice 235 

„ proportions of , 236 

„ power transmitted by 235 

„ shape and strength of teeth of 233 

„ stress on rim of 237 

Windows, design of 77 

„ Praray 80 

Wooden beams, safe loads, and deflection 49 

Wood's engine ; 190 

Wrought iron pulleys 238 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE UNBREAKABLE 

PULLEY & MILL GEARING CO, I 



I 



eciaiLies 



STEEL SHI-A-FTIlSrG 
UNIVERSAL COUPLINGS, 



FRICTION CLUTCHES, 

WRODCHT-IRON PULLEY! 

LARGEST MAKERS IN THE WORLD. 




24, WEST GORTON, MANCHESTl 

And 56, Cannon St, LONDON, E.C 



W. T. GLOVER & GO., 

Salford, Manchester. 

LONDON : 39, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 



GENERAL ENGINEERS, MACHINISTS, MILLWRIGHTS, &c. 

REPAIRS TO MILLS. &o., &o. 

Makers of ROPE, TWINE, AND B RAID MACHINERY. 

Smallware Machinery. 

Balling, Winding & Warping 

Machines. 

Spinning Machines. 

Wire-Winding Machines. 

Wire-Twisting Machines. 






Braid Machine. 

Tubular and 
Spindle 
Banding 
Machines 



Drilling 

Machines, 
Tools, and 
other 
Specialities. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



JOSEPH STUBBI 

Machine Maker and Ironfonnder, 

MANCHESTER. 

WORKS: Telegrams: "Winding. Manchei 
MiU Street Works, Ancoats. ( Ancoats Works. 

Branch Works. OpensHaw. Telephone No. , openshaw Work 

LONDON OFFICE: Manchester Exchange, No. 12 
35. Queen Victoria Street. E.G. Tuesdays and Fridays. 

NOTE —AH Communications to be addressed to MILL STREET W 
ANCOATS, MANCHESTER. 

MAKER AND PATENTE 

OF ALL CLASSES OF 

Winding, Doubling^, and Clearing: Frames, St 
Motion Winders for ordinary Bobbins, or ^ 
Quick Traverse for Tubes. Gassing: Frames 
Cotton, Worsted and Silk Yarns. Reels for C< 
Ring Throstle or other Bobbins. Yarn Prepar 
Machines. Yarn Presses for all purpo; 
Warping Mills, Adjustable Yarn Clearers, 8 

NOTE.— The above Machines (Newest Construction) may be i 
operation in Showroom at my Mill Street Works. 

High -Class Castin( 

FOR ALL PURPOSES, 

ORDINARY, ANNEALED, AND MALLEABLI 



LMiDiiin tuiiun nuriiO 







I llbl4oz. - ' 

/•Weight 0Fiy?« 

/ ForIi-. groove: ', 

lll^N. GROOVE 



•lliii 









They are firmly raade and very solid, containing more actual yarn for a given 

diameter than is usual ; and being made from pure Egyptian Throstle 

Yarn, without any weighting material, are light in weight. 

Also DRUM, RIM, SCROLL, SPINDLE. RING SPINDLE, 

TAPE and TUBULAR BANDINGS to any 

description for Cotton Mills. 

THE LAMBETH COTTON RO^^S are of unique design and construction, 
superseding all other Cotton Ropes FOR MAIN DRIVING. 

Tension and Friction accurately measured for and provided against, and the 
ROFBS fitted exactly to the working part of the grooves of the Pulley. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



CURTIS, SONS & CC 

(JOHN HETHERINGTON & SONS LTD., Proprietors), 

PHffNIX WORKS, ''''^ll\o%T'' IViANCHESTI 
MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF WOOLLEN MACHINER 

Including Carding Machines for Worsted, with FOUP LickerS-in and ' 
Cylinders for Botany and Fine Wools ; TWO LickePS-in and TwO 

lindeps for Medium Wools; One Lickep-in Breast and Two Cylin( 

for Camel Hair. Mohair, &c. ; Woollen Carding Machines on the Belgian 

cipie consisting of Scpibblcp, With Breast and One Cylind 
Intepmediate, with Taker-in and One Swift, and Cardep, ^ 

TakeP-in and One CylindeP, fitted with improved Tape Condenser. 
Carding Machines for Carpet Yarns, Heavy Woollens, Shoddy, Mungo, 
nels and Blankets, fitted with Automatic Feeds for Scribbler, and e 
Blamires Lap Feed or Scotch Feed, either " ordinary straight" or " diagc 

Automatic Feeds Fitted to Old Sepibbleps. 

Condensers of all kinds applied to old Machinery, including Single Si 
pep with " ordinary " or " Tandem " rubbers ; Single DoffeP DO 
Stripper, with "ordinary" or '' Tandem" Rubbers ; Double Doffer DO 
Stripper, with " ordinary" or " Tandem" rubbers ; also Tape Condens( 

Self- Acting Mules for all kinds of Woollens, Mungo, Shoddy, 
Blankets and Flannels ; any pitch from Ifin. to S^in. 

Carding and Spinning M achinery for Silk Noils. ^ 

Crighton Vertical Single and Double Openers. 

Oneners. with Cylinder, one or two beaters combined, and Lap Machine. 

Single and Double Scutchers, with Lap Machines attached, complete witi 

and Improved Regulation Motion, for producing laps of uniform weight. 
Carding Engines (Single or Double), with rollers and clearers. 
Carding Engines, either all Flats, or a union of Rollers, Clearers, and ] 

Self-stripping on our own Patent Principle. 
Carding Engines, with Revolving Flats, including all our patented improve 
Grinding Machines and Grinding Rollers. 
Sliver Lap Machines and Derby Doublers. 

Heilmann's Cotton Combing Machines. , , „ ^ ^ i.- 

Drawing Frames, with Front and Back stop-motions, and full Can-stop moti. 

positive and instantaneous in action. xn „^«c * „^tt- 

Slubbing, Intermediate, Roving, and Fme Jack Frames from ne^ 

terns, with our Patent Winding Motion, Patent Revolving Bush( 

Ring^Throstle^ Frames, with '(or without) inclined Stands, Sliding Thread 

Rabbeth Spindles, and the most recent improvements p w«>«,.= A 

Plver Throstle Frames, on the most approved principle, Patent footsteps, i 

Self-actine Mules, for fine or medium counts, with special arrangements for 

^ounts^ Complete with our improved Band Taking-in Motion, Strap-re 

Mule Twiners' on 'the most approved English and French P"nciples^^ 

Ring Doubling Frames. Flyer Doubling Frames. Cotton \ 

Windfng^rames, with or without stop-motions, for all classes of yarn. 

ESTIMA TES GIVEN ON APPLI CATION 

Attendance on LEEDS and HUDDER8FIELD EXCHANGE on TUESD 
BRADFORD on THURSDAYS. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



John Hetherington & Sons L^? 

W.m^h.imtmim undi Smgla@@r@, 
ANCOATS, PHCENIX, and HOPE WORKS, MANCHESTER, England. 




IVKJLKiSRS OF RXmIa K:INJ>S OF 



Cotton, Woollen, Worsted, and Silk Machinery, 



Metallic Drawing Roll Co. 



LIMITED. 

REGISTERED OFFICE :— 



20^ Arcade diambers^ 
St. Mary's Gate, MANCHESTER. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



PATENT WIETALLIG Drawing Rolls 



Between Three and Four Hundred Firms are now using: these 
Rolls, and over 30,000 deliveries have been supplied. 

This Roll is applied to Old as well as New/ Machinery, and in 
most of the New/ Machinery now beings ordered, the 

PATENT METALLIC ROLL IS SPECIFIED. 



TEN POINTS IN FAVOUR 

OF THE 

PATENT METALLIC DRAWING ROLL. 



1. THE PATENT 3IETALLIC ROLLS are 
perfectly made, being ground down to 
extreme accuracy in size ; hence we 
start with and maintain at all times a 
perfect roll, working without friction 



5. THE IMPERFECT OR "CUT WORK" 

arising fi'om imperfectly varnished 
rolls, or dr^- rolls because of lack of oil, 
is entirely eliminated. • 

6. THE COST OF ROLL COVERING, roll 

varnishing, delays because of sliver 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE "DROSOPHORE' 

For Moistening the Air in Cotton, Wool, Silk, Flax e 
»3w^ ..Jute Mills, Bleacheries, Paper Mills, &c. 




Over 

8,00( 

Machin 

IN 

Use. 

Registei 



Over 

8,000 

Machines 

IN 

Use. 

Patented 

IN ALL 

Countries. 



GIVES THREE TIMES MORE HUMIDITY THAN ANY ON THE MARKE 



PHF \PFR more EFFICIENT,<fe higherCAPAClTY than any other Ai.paratus in then] 
S^ixE ?M S useS. Admits fresh air from the outside, which is washed and punfie. 

can be moistened to any desired degree either %^-arm or cold dROSOPH( 

The ATMOSPHERE of Spinning Rooms or yVeaving bheds where the DRObOi ±1< 

is in nse is PERFECT, and there is no bad work even in the dryest and hottest 

It STREWmENS the YARN, and destroys troublesome ELECTRICITY, and PRC 
TION is INCREASED about 5 per cent ,>, Ail Mill I Q 

Kingdom and abroad. ,. _, ... „. _^ 

Our system is being adopted by all the leadnig Textile Firms. 
It is recommended by the Leading Medical Authorities 
The " DROSOPUORE" is the only HUM DIFIER ^llVcn^rH^t nn nn^ ^V^tG 

Beware of Imitations-Bringrinff Discredit on our Syste 
FURTHER INFORMATION PROMPTLY GIVEN ON APPLICATION. 
THE NEW AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER, Cheaper 
Better than any other, DEFIES COMPETITION 

The " DROSOPHORE " CO. LTD., 22, 23 and 24, ARCADE CHAME 

ST MARYS GATE, MANCHESTER. 

AGENTS : f^^^^^f^^^i^^o^'^'^^ri!^ .^f.SiSi.'"- ''^"" 
•• i°^^'Ji^a'ao?Saada-WM:'FIltVH?220, Devo,.Lir. Street. Bo.ton. U, 



HIGHEST 
AWARD, 




TO 



G-Z3 JE& 

FOR 



3B!, 



PYE'S PATENT UNIQUE HUMIDIFIER ^VENTILATOR 

Atmosphere of suitable Humidity and Temperature guaranteed either 
Summer or Winter. The only Humidifier and Ventilator which 

Reduces the Temperature in hot weather while working, 
Reduces Carbonic Acid Gas more than any other System, thereby 

creating a healthier atmosphere for the operatives. 
NO DRIP PINCS-THEREFORE SUITABLE FOR THE FINE ST WORK 

ROGCR I>YE, 

Practical and Consulting Ventilating and Heating Engineer, 
69, Darwen Street, BLACKBURN. 



ESTABLISHED 18S9. 

JNO. SWAILES & SONS, 

PATEHTEES, COP TUBE MANUFACTURERS, MACHIMISTS, k. 

Sole Makers of SWAILES' Patent Tubingf Apparatus, either 
permanent or portable, which is acknowledged after numer- 
ous tests by masters and workpeople to be the best for placing 
<-•««■» m-.-.v.Ao nil +-ha ci-nii-iriif^a rif iVTiiles. TTO-iners. Itine: Frames. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



This PAMPHLET, POST FREE, from 

LANCASHIRE PATENT BELTING 

AND HOSE CO., /^g! 

Itt JS.NCHE STE R. / ^J^^ 

'facts are stubborn! m^ 
things: ' ^^ 

A FEV/ 





FACTS /^p 



BY THE 



^^ / PIONEERS 

^^/ OF THE INDUSTR'^ 



Textile Factories 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 



Designed, Erected 



.^isrxD 



-- Fully Equipped 



IN ANY PART OF THE WORLD, 
AND HANDED OVER, IF DESIRED, 

In Full WorkingOrder 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



National Telephone No. 2. Telegraphic Address : "WILSON, BARNSLE 
ABC Code Used. E3T^B3LISE:EX) 1So2- a 1 Code Use 

WILSON & CO 

Attendance BARNSLEY LIMITED, Bx.£ord"E."£ 

Royal Exchange, wniii^w , Mondav= 

Tu^r^rr'Sa.. BARNSLEY, -^ ^^-^^ 

And 15, MARKET STREET, MANCHESTER «'PP''£fJ|«y£^,';''^' 

MAKERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

_ ^B^ s 

Required In the vari ous Textile Ind ustries. 

IVVEXT-R> ANL' PATENTEE^ 'jY 

PATENT STEEL FLANGE PROTECTORS FOR WARPINI 
WINDING, GASSING BOBBINS, &C. 



Preventing BreakSere or "iae-in? of Y^i^^^i 



•^z Pem-Ai-eiLt Sraootii E 



PATEUT PROTECTORS for RING DOUBLING & TWISTING BOBB 

En5i:ir:n^ C-.mplete Protection from Driving Studs on Spin.lles. 
NOTE.-Old Bobbins may be fitted with this Latest improvement 
nominal cost, maki ng them almost as good as new. 

PATENT RINGS OR HOOPS FOR RING TWIST BOBBlNSl RING WEFT PI 

A Neat ani Hel iaolc PreTe-:;.::Tc :f S: 1:":-^ :: ::-r5e rr: -^.c B. : r .- -. 
MAKERS OF ALL KINDSOF 

F :.r Lon^ or Short CoUar Frames. Fitted with Patent Steel Shields, 

Makers of RING^IS^flTwm BOBBI 

maKei S ^^\^^^^'^^-^^ patent brass shields. 

.-.f ^-.t^ri.r Q-^a:::7.--re::.::7 Pre: o.rei f :r C::. -n: :.i:.^ ^ :-r:. : :. :::. ^. - 

IMPERVIOUS TO STEAM, MOISTURE, OR OIL. Send for Sam 

PRINCIPAL MAKERS OF n X D 

BARLOW & LEACH'S New Patent Triple CombinanoD Ring B( 

Tne Latest Improvement m tsis Class of Bobbin. 

in dimensions and per fect accuracy in Fit and B.aance on bpma ies. 

SAMPLES & PRICES ON APPLICATION TO BARNSLEY 



TINKER, SHENTON & CO. 

HYDE, near MANCHESTER. 

TelegrapMc Address :-" DUPLEX, HYDE." Telephone No. 21. 




ADVERTISEMENTS. 



WILSON BROS., LTD. 

MAKERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

BOBBINS, TUBES, CREEL 
SKEWERS and SHUTTLES. 

ESTABLISHED 1823. 

THE LARGEST AND MOST COMPLETE BOBBIN WORKS IH THE WORI 

Awarded 16 Highest Prize Medals for 
Excellence of Manufacture. 

ORIGINAL INVENTORS AND MAKERS OF 

STEEL AND BRASS SHIELD PROTECTOI 

Which are successfully applied to Card Room Bobbins of all sizes 
and diameters. Beaded or straight. 

CREEL SKEWERS 

are fitted with Patent Metal Tips of Brass or Malleable Iron. 

RING BOBBINS FOR TWIST AND WEI 

are shielded with Brass or Steel Protectors of various kinds. 

WARPING BOBBIN FLANGES 

made unbreakable by a simple applied Steel Binder, which adds scai 
any to the weight of the Bobbin. 

SHUTTLES IN BOXWOOD, CORNEL & PERSIMMC 

made to suit either for Cops or Pirn Bobbins. 

WILSON BROS, are Sole Licensees and Users of the 
PATENT ENAMEL PROCESS, 

which renders Wood Bobbins impervious to Steam or Moisture use 
conditioning yarn. 

Bobbin Works-CORN HOLME MILL, TODMORDEI 
Also at GARSTON, LIVERPOOL. 
Show Room— 14, Market Place, MANCHESTER. 



DUIIhKWUKm& UIUMN^JUN, 

OK WORKS. 

BURNLEY. 




I 



^ 



I 



PLA1TBR0$.&G0.Ll 

IMPROVED CO TTON B ALE BREAK! 

PATEMT '"EXHAUST- OPEMERS. 
SCUTCHERS. WITH PATENT P EOAL REGULATD 
PATENT AUTOMATI C HOPPER F EEDING MACHIM 

REVOLVING SELF-STRIPPING FLAT CAMWB^E^IU 



PjiTon- cMmoKars fm wool, cottob » m wmn u^ y 

NKAVMC SlWBWC I TEIIIEDI^TE AM iPn« f^ 

PATENT SELF-A CTIIC MULE S t TWINER: 

PATENT RING SPINNI NG FRAMES FOR WARP AND 

RING DOUBLING FRAMES FOR COTTON. WOOLLl 
WOR STED AND S ILK. 

PREPARING. COMBING. ROVING AND SPINNING Wl 

ON BOTH THE F8EHCH AMD BRADFORD SYSTEMS 

BOYD'S PATENT STOP-MOT ION TWISTERS 

Plam mad Faacy, i-- C " - 

PREPARING MACHINERY FOR WEAVING, 



WILLIAM RYDER, 

Bee Hive Works, BOLTON. 

MA>-UFACTURER OF ALL KIXD3 OF 

FLUTED ROLLERS 

Iron, Steel and Case-hardened. 
PLAIN and LOO SE BOSS TOP RO LLERS 

spindles^&Tflyers 

(Fivers of Steel) of every description, 
tor Cotton, Silk, and Woollen 
Spinning. 



MULE SPINDLES. 



Telegraphic 
Address — 
"BEEHIVE, 
^'] BOLTON." 

' Telephone No. 55. 

Manchester 
Exchange, 
Pillar P. 



Licensed Maker of 

RING 
SPINDLES,; 

WITH 

WOODMANCY'S 
PATENT COMBINED 
OIL TUBE AND 
HOLDER. 



'C, 




GENERAL 
TOOL 
s MAKER. 



Inventor, Patentee and Maker of 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



. . Telephone 

Telegraphic Address. OLDHAJ 

■'ASA. OLDHAM." ^0. 7- OLDHA 

ASA LEES & C( 



LIMITED, 



Soho Iron Works 



MANCHESTER OFFICE (Open Tuesdays and Friday. 
27, HOF\%OOD AVENITE. 



MAKERS OF 



All Kinds of Machine 

FOR 

Preparing, Spinning, and Doubling Cotton and \ 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE CONTINENT OF EUROI 

BAERLEIN & Co., 

X2, Blacbifriars Street, Salford 

MANCHESTER, 

TO whom all Communications relating to Continental Bus 
should be addressed. 



AGENTS FOR INDIA:- 

BRADBURY, BRADY & CO., Brnce Lane, Fort, B 



Frictionless Engine Packing 

COIVTF^ANY 

CaWe Mills, Glasshouse St., OldMmM 



REGISTERED 

TRADE 

MARK. 




REGISTERED 

TRADE 

MARK. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 




SAXONS, OPENSHAW. 



No. »a». 



GEORGE SAXON, 

©penshaw BnoineerinG Morks, 

MANCHESTER. 



iliiiiiiiiillililiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiK :5 

!liiiiilli|ip'f'™'''§iiii^^^^^ 



!|!-^ 




ADVERTISEMENTS. 



New Patent Hopper Feed 




LORD BROTHER 

TODMORDKN, 



FOR 



OPENING, CLEANING, 

CARDING, SPINNING 
AND WEAVING OOTT( 



Telephone (Nati 
No. 6. 



Telegraphic Address: 

"LORDS, TODMORDEN.' 

MANCHESTER EXCHANGE, Tuesday and Friday, No. 12 Pi 



I 1:1 



ili 



JOHN HEYW OQD'S TECHN ICAL WOm. 

CTT-nv PTTTF INSTRUCTOR. For instruction on Chadwick's Improved Slide Rule, 
^^ contSnfeg Ne5 tad important Rules upon the present practice of Engineering. For 
the use of Engineers, Millwughts, Mechanics and Artisans, Mill Owners Cotton 
Spinners Calico Printers, Bleachers and Finishers. Colliery Propneiors, Blacksmiths, 
Moulders and Steam Users generally. Br John Chadwick. This book gives a 
greater variety of Rules and Questions and useful information upon the subject than 
hS been before published in any work on the Slide Rule. Cloth, 2s A new and 
vastly improved Rule has been designed and prepai;ed or this book It is boxwood, 
with steel slide. Every figure has been accurately checked and verified. Price 7s. 6d. 
VOUNG'S CS ) PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC Containing Rules and their application 
^ to Merchants Cotton Spinners, Manufacturers, and Mechanical Calculations useful 
to Artisans in general New Edition. Cloth lettered, 3s. 6d. loungs Key to 
Arithmetic. Cloth, 4s. 
qnUND LIGHT AND HEAT. Specially prepared (by Alfoxzo Gardiner Head Master 
^°^of a Leeds Boatd school) for Science Classes, Grammar, Private Training, and other 
Schools carefully revised, with numerous additions, in accordance with the New 
Svnabu's of the Science and Art Department. An Appendixconta^ins the Kxammat^^^^^^ 
Papers set during the last ten years, with answers and full sohitions of a 1 the mathe- 
matical questions. Eighteenth Edition, Revised. Cloth, stiff, 204 pp., Is. 6d. 
TxATJ-mion-K- TO nOTTON SPINNING. Compiled for the general use of young Carders 
^^^Sfspim-^5 OveTlo^kerr By J E Holme' Corrected and Revised by C, R Bkook.s, 
MSA Senior Honours Medallist: Lecturer on Cotton Spinning W eaving and 
Designing at the Blackburn Technical School. Fcap. 8vo, cloth gilt, Second Edition, 

HANDBOOK FOR TRE USE OF COTTON MANUFACTURE STUDENTS. By 

HAWDauUR r urj i ^ Medallist, late Lecturer on " Cotton Manufacture and 

Wearing and PatternDesigning " at the Blackburn Technical School. Third Edition. 

Crown 8vo, paper cover, 60 pp., sewn, Is. 

PRESTWICH'S YOUNG MAN'S ASSISTANT TO COTTON SPINNING. Revised 

and wilafged Containing a Collection of Useful and Practical Calculations (with 

Remarks and Observations) in connection with Modern Cotton Spinning, Doublin? 

Plain and Skein Reeling, Making Up, Weaving, etc.. each Rule bemg given with 

Examples fully worked out in a plain, simple, and easy manner. Also some useful 

Calculations, with Explanations on the Steam Engine and Boiler, for the use of the 

Engineer. Cloth, gilt lettered, 4s. 6d. 

MODERN BLEACHING AND FINISHING. By a Practical Bleacher. Illust. Cloth, 2s. 

PRACTICAL PATTERN MAKING AND MOULDING. By W. H Wilson. For 

^ St.idenTs Artisans, and Engineers. A thoroughly practiced work, illustrated with 

over 300 Engravings and numerous examples of most modern and approved methods 

S A^ols^if o"? CoNTENTs.-Examples of Geometry. Selection of Tools and Timber Green 
c.^'/^t^^IsIh .,.H T,n«m Moulding. Machine Tool Work. Rope and Speed Pulleys. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



MechaniGal Stoker 



50 



PER CENT of Ordei 
received are from ol 
Customers, many 
vrhom have bad tl 
Stoker Tftrorking X 
Years. 



20 per cent. MORE DUTY. 10 to 15 per cent. IN ECONOI 
eUARANTEED REMEDY FOR SMO KE HUISAMCE. 

The First and only Inventor of the Radial SHovel wi 
Tappet and Spring. 

The ONLY MOVING BARS BEFORE the PUBLIC that can be WORKED in TI 
DIFFERENT WAYS :- 

i'n^ cL' bf pSt inrrS^out of gear and worlced intermittently 
3rd- AS HAND-MOVING BARS. 



Sole Patentee of Steam Bearer to Prevent the Bar Ends Bnrnmi 

— LARGEST NUMBER OF REFERENCES IN THE TRADE. — 

The Stoker has been before the Public over 17 Yearf 
and is protected by lO dilTe ren ^atents. ^ 

WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS, 

J. PROCTOR, 

HAMMERTON STREET IRON WORKS, 



M 



i 





,=. o 






(A 


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DATE DUE Q 


9. 




IBRPI 




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MARg 


1-1980 




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ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE 



"NON-DRIP" Shaft Beari 

(ETCHELLS' PATENT), 

re5;t and cheapest. 



RAILWAY FOUNDRY, LEEDI 



g I I ^^.»..K«r«a :-" UOCO, LEEDS." 



Telegrams :-