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objects of nature worthy of observation, if it succeeds in aiding those 
who are seeking information of the edible kinds, and stimulates 
some students to undertake the advancement of our knowledge of 
this group, it will serve the purpose the author had in mind in its 

I wish here to express my sincere thanks to iMrs. Sarah Tyson 
Rorer for her kindness in writing a chapter on recipes for cooking 
mushrooms, especially for this book; to Professor I. P. Roberts, 
Director of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, 
for permission to use certain of the illustrations (Figs. 1-7, 12-14, 3^- 
43) from Bulletins 138 and 168, Studies and Illustrations of Mush- 
rooms; to Mr. F. R. Rathbun, for the charts from which the colored 
plates were made; to Mr. J. F. Clark and Mr. H. Hasselbring, for 
the Chapters on Chemistry and Toxicology of Mushrooms, and Char- 
acters of Mushrooms, to which their names are appended, and also 
to Dr. Chas. Peck, of Albany, N. Y., and Dr. G. Bresadola, of 
Austria-Hungary, to whom some of the specimens have been 

Geo. F. Atkinson, 
Ithaca, N. Y., October, 1900. Cornell University. 


In this edition have been added 10 plates of mushrooms of which 
] did not have photographs when the first edition was printed. It 
was possible to accomplish this without changing the paging of any 
of the descriptive part, so that references to all of the plants in 
either edition will be the same. 

There are also added a chapter on the '*' Uses of Mushrooms/' 
and an extended chapter on the "Cultivation of Mushrooms." 
This subject I have been giving some attention to for several years, 
and in view of the call for information since the appearance of the 
first edition, it seemed well to add this chapter, illustrated by several 
flash-light photographs. 

G. F. a. 
September, 1901. 





Form and Characters of the Mushrooms, . . i 

Development of the Mushroom, 5 

Gill Bearing Fungi; Agaricaceae, 17 

The Purple- Brown-Spored Agarics, .... 18 

The Black-Spored Agarics, 32 

The White-Spored Agarics, 52 

The Rosy-Spored Agarics, 138 

The Ochre-Spored Agarics, 150 

The Tube Bearing Fungi; Polyporaceae, . .171 

Hedgehog Fungi; Hydnaceae, 195 

Coral Fungi; Clavariaceae, 200 

The Trembling Fungi; Tremellineae, . . . 204 

Thelephoraceae, 208 

Puff-Balis; Lycoperdaceae, . 209 

Stinkhorn Fungi; Phalloideae, 213 

Morels, Cup-Fungi, Helvellas, etc., Dis- 

comycetes, .... 216 

Collection and Preservation of the Fleshy 

Fungi, 222 

Selection and Preparation of Mushrooms for 

the Table, . . . . 229 

Uses of Mushrooms, 231 

Fungi in the Arts, 234 

Cultivation of Mushrooms 237 

The Cave Culture ofMushrooms in America, . 239 
The House Culture of Mushrooms, .... 241 

uring the Manure, 247 

Making up the Beds, 250 

What Spawn is, » 255 

Spawning the Beds, 26^ 

Chapter XXI. Recipes for Cooking Mushrooms (Mrs. Sarah 

Tyson Rorer), 277 

Chapter XXII. Chemistry and Toxicology of the Fungi 

(J. F. Clark), 288 

Chapter XXIII. Description of Terms applied to Certain 

Structural Characters of Mushrooms (H. 

Hasselbring), 298 

Appendix. Analytical Keys (The Author), 307 

Glossary of Technical Terms (The Author), . 313 
Index to Genera and Illustrations, . . . .315 

Index to Species, 321 











































Page 33, loth line, for Kopvoi read Konpoz. 

Page 220, lines 6 and 9, for Gyromytra read Gyromitra. 



Value of Form and Characters. — The different kinds of mushrooms 
vary in form. Some are quite strikingly different from others, so 
that no one would have difficulty in recognizing the difference in 
shape. For example, an umbrella-shaped mushroom like the one 
shown in Fig. i or 8i is easily distinguished from a shelving one 
like that in Fig. 9 or 188. But in many cases different species vary 
only slightly in form, so that it becomes a more or less difficult 
matter to distinguish them. 

In those plants (for the mushroom is a plant) where the different 
kinds are nearly alike in form, there are other characters than mere 
general form which enable one to tell them apart. These, it is true, 
require close observation on our part, as well as some experience in 
judging of the value of such characters ; the same habit of observa- 
tion and discrimination we apply to everyday affairs and to all 
departments of knowledge. But so few people give their attention 
to the discrimination of these plants that few know the value of their 
characters, or can even recognize them. 

It is by a study of these especial characters of form peculiar to 
the mushroom.s that one acquires the power of discrimination among 
the different kinds. For this reason one should become familiar with 
the parts of the mushroom, as well as those characters and markings 
peculiar to them which have been found to stamp them specifically. 

Parts of the Mushroom. — To serve as a means of comparison, the 
common pasture mushroom, or cultivated form {Agaricus campestris) , 
is first described. Figure i illustrates well the principal parts of the 
plant ; the cap, the radiating plates or gills on the under side, the 
stem, and the collar or ring around its upper end. 

The Cap. — The cap (technically the pileiis) is the expanded part 
of the mushroom. It is quite thick, and fleshy in consistency, 
more or less rounded or convex on the upper side, and usually white 
in color. It is from 1-2 cm. thick at the center and 5-10 cm. in 
diameter. The surface is generally smooth, but sometimes it is 
torn up more or less into triangular scales. When these scales are 
prominent they are often of a dark color. This gives quite a differ- 
ent aspect to the plant, and has led to the enumeration of several 


varieties, or may be species, among forms accredited by some to the 
one species. 

The Gills. — On the under side of the pileus are radiating plates, 
the gills, or lamelUv (sing, lamella). These in shape resemble some- 
what a knife blade. They are very thin and delicate. When 
young they are pink in color, but in age change to a dark purple 
brown, or nearly black color, due to the immense number of spores 
that are borne on their surfaces. The gills do not quite reach the 
stem, but are rounded at this end and so curve up to the cap. The 
triangular spaces between the longer ones are occupied by succes- 
sively shorter gills, so that the combined surface of all the gills is 
very great. 

Figure i. — Agaricus campestris. View of under side showing stem, annulus, 
gills, and margin of pileus. (Natural size.) 

The Stem or Stipe. — The stem in this plant, as in many other 
kinds, is attached to the pileus in the center. The purpose of the 
stem seems quite surely to be that of lifting the cap and the gills up 
above the ground, so that the spores can float in the currents of air 
and be.readily scattered. The stem varies in length from 2-10 cm. 
and is about i-i^ cm. in diameter. It is cylindrical in form, and 
even, quite firm and compact, though sometimes there is a central 
core where the threads are looser. The stem is also white and 
fleshy, and is usually smooth. 

The Ring. — There is usually present in the mature plant of Agaricus 
campestris a thin collar (^annulus') or ring around the upper end of the 
stem. It is not a movable ring, but is joined to the stem. It is very 
delicate, easily rubbed off, or may be even washed off during rains. 


Parts Present in Other Mushrooms — The Volva. — Some other mush- 
rooms, like the deadly Amanita (Amanita phalloides) and other species 
of the genus Amanita, have, in addition to the cap, gills, stem, and 
ring, a more or less well formed cup-like structure attached to the 
lower end of the stem, and from which the stem appears to spring. 
(Figs. 55, 72, etc.) This is the volva, sometimes popularly called 
the ''death cup," or "poison cup." This structure is a very 
important one to observe, though its presence by no means indicates 
in all cases that the plant is poisonous. It will be described more in 
detail in treating of 
the genus Amanita, 
where the illustra- 
tions should also be 

Presence or Absence 
of Ring or Volva. — 
Of the mushrooms 
which have stems 
there are four types 
with respect to the 
presence or absence 
of the ring and 
volva. In the first 
type both the ring 
and volva are ab- 
sent, as in the 
common fairy ring 
mushroom, Maras- 
mius oreades; in 
the genus Lactarins, 
Russula, Tricholo- 
ma, Clitocyhe, and 
others. In the second type the ring is present while the volva is 
absent, as in the common mushroom, Agaricus campestris, and its 
close allies ; in the genus Lepiota, Armillaria, and others. In the 
third type the volva is present, but the ring is absent, as in the 
genus l^olvaria, or Amanitopsis. In the fourth type both the ring 
and volva are present, as in the genus Amanita. 

The Stem is Absent in Some Mushrooms. — There are also quite a 
large number of mushrooms which lack a stem. These usually 
grow on stumps, logs, or tree trunks, etc., and one side of the cap 
is attached directly to the wood on which the fungus is growing. 

Figure 2. — Agaricus campestris. "Buttons" just appearing 
through the sod. Some spawn at the left lower corner. Soil 
removed from the front. ( Natural size.) 


o ^^ 

The pileus in such cases is lateral and shelving, that is, it stands 
out more or less like a shelf from the trunk or log, or in other cases 
is spread out flat on the surface of the wood. The shelving form is 

well shown in 
the beautiful 
Claudopus nidii- 
lans, sometimes 
called Pleurotus 
nidulans, and in 
other species of 
the genus Pleuro- 
tus, Crepidotus, 
etc . These 
plants will be 
described later, 
and no further 
description of the 
peculiarities i n 
form of the mush- 
rooms will be 
now attempted, 
since these will 
be best dealt 
with when dis- 
cussing species 
fully under their 
appropriate ge- 
nus. But the 
brief general de- 
scription of form 
given above will 
be found useful 
merely as an 
introduction t o 
the more de- 
tailed treatment. 
Chapter XXI 
should also be 
studied. For 

those who wish the use of a glossary, one is appended at the close 
of the book, dealing only with the more technical terms employed 


a ° 

^ o 



When the stems of the mushrooms are pulled or dug from the 
ground, white strands are often clinging to the lower end. These 
strands are often seen by removing some of the earth from the young 
plant, as shown in Fig. 2. This is known among gardeners as 
"spawn." It is through the growth and increase of this spawn 
that gardeners propagate the cultivated mushroom. Fine specimens 
of the spawn of the cultivated mushroom can be seen by digging 
up from a bed a group of very young plants, such a group as is 

Figure 4. — Agaricus campestris. Sections of " buttons " at different stages, 
showing formation of gills and veil covering them. (Natural size.) 

shown in Fig. 3. Here the white strands are more numerous than 
can readily be found in the lawns and pastures where the plant 
grows in the feral state. 

Nature of Mushroom Spawn. — This spawn, it should be clearly 
understood, is not spawn in the sense in which that word is used in 
fish culture ; though it may be employed so readily in propagation of 
mushrooms. The spawn is nothing more than the vegetative portion 
of the plant. It is made up of countless numbers of delicate, tiny, 
white, jointed threads, the mycelium. 

Mycelium of a Mold. — A good example of mycelium which is familiar 
to nearly every one occurs in the form of a white mold on bread or 


on vegetables. One of the molds, so common on bread, forms at 
first a white cottony mass of loosely interwoven threads. Later the 
mold becomes black in color because of numerous small fruit cases 
containing dark spores. This last stage is the fruiting stage of the 
mold. The earlier stage is the growing, or vegetative, stage. The 
white mycelium threads grow in the bread and absorb food substances 
for the mold. 

Mushroom Spawn is in the Form of Strands of Mycelium. — Now in the 
mushrooms the threads of mycelium are usually interlaced into 
definite strands or cords, especially when the mycelium is well 
developed. In some species these strands become very long, and 

Figure 5. — Agaricus campestris. Nearly mature plants, showing veil 
stretched across gill cavity. (Natural size.) 

are dark brown in color. Each thread of mycelium grows, or in- 
creases in length, at the end. Each one of the threads grows inde- 
pendently, though all are intertwined in the strand. In this way 
the strand of mycelium increases in length. It even branches as it 
extends itself through the soil. 

The Button Stage of the Mushroom. — The "spawn" stage, or 
strands of mycelium, is the vegetative or growing stage of the mush- 
room. These strands grow through the substance on which the 
fungus feeds. When the fruiting stage, or the mushroom, begins 
there appear small knobs or enlargements on these strands, and 
these are the beginnings of the button stage, as it is properly called. 
These knobs or young buttons are well shown in Fig. 3. They 


begin by the threads of mycelium growing in great numbers out 
from the side of the cords. These enlarge and elongate and make 
their way toward the surface of the ground. They are at first very 
minute and grow from the size of a pinhead to that of a pea, and 
larger. Now they begin to elongate somewhat and the end enlarges 
as shown in the larger button in the figure. Here the two main 
parts of the mushroom are outlined, the stem and the cap. At this 
stage also the other parts of the mushroom begin to be outlined. 
The gills appear on the under side of this enlargement at the end of 
the button, next the stem. They form by the growth of fungus 
threads downward in radiating lines which correspond in position to 

Figure 6. — Agaricus campestris. Under view of two plants just after rupture 
of the veil, fragments of the latter clinging both to margin of the pileus and 
to stem. (Natural size.) 

the position of the gills. At the same time a veil is formed over the 
gills by threads which grow from the stem upward to the side of the 
button, and from the side of the button down toward the stem to 
meet them. This covers the gills up at an early period. 

From the Button Stage to the Mushroom. — If we split several of the 
buttons of different sizes down through the middle, we shall be able 
to see the position of the gills covered by the veil during their forma- 
tion. These stages are illustrated in Fig. 4. 

As the cap grows in size the gills elongate, and the veil becomes 
broader. But when the plant is nearly grown the veil ceases to grow, 
and then the expanding cap pulls so strongly on it that it is torn. 
Figure 5 shows the veil in a stretched condition just before it is rup- 



Figure 7. — Agaricus campestris. Plant in 
natural position just after rupture of veil, 
showing tendency to double annulus on the 
stem. Portions of the veil also dripping 
from margin of pileus. (Natural size.) 

tured, and in Fig. 6 the veil 
has just been torn apart. 
The veil of the common 
mushroom is very delicate 
and fragile, as the illustra- 
tion shows, and when it is 
ruptured it often breaks 
irregularly, sometimes por- 
tions of it clinging to the 
margin of the cap and por- 
tions clinging to the stem, 
or all of it may cling to the 
cap at times ; but usually 
most of it remains clinging 
for a short while on the 
stem. Here it forms the 
annulus or ring. 

The Color of the Gills.— The 
color of the gills of the com- 
mon mushroom varies in 

different stages of development. When very young the gills are 

white. But very soon the gills become pink in color, and during 

the button stage if the veil is broken this pink color is usually 

present unless the button is 

very small. The pink color 

soon changes to dark brown 

after the veil becomes 

ruptured, and when the 

plants are quite old they 

are nearly black. This 

dark color of the gills is due 

to the dark color of the 

spores, which are formed 

in such great numbers on 

the surface of the gills. 
Structure of a Gill. — In 

Fig. 8 is shown a portion 

of a section across one of 

the gills, and it is easy to „ o * • • o • r 

° ' -^ Figure q. — Agaricus campestris. Section of 

see in what manner the gill showing /r^trama; j// = subhymeni- 

Spores are borne. The gill um ; /,=basidium, the basidia make up 

^ *=" the hymenium ; j-/=sterigma ; tr=spore. 

is made up, as the illustra- (Magnified.) 








tion shows, of mycelium threads. The center of the gill is called 
the trama. The trama in the case of this plant is made up of threads 
with rather long cells. Toward the outside of the trama the cells 
branch into short cells, which, make a thin layer. This forms the 
suhhymenium. The subhymenium in turn gives rise to long club- 
shaped cells which 
stand parallel to each 
other at right angles 
to the surface of the 
gill. The entire sur- 
face of the gill is 
covered with these 
club-shaped cells 
called hasidia (sing. 
basidium). Each of 
these cl ub-shaped 
cells bears either two 
or four spinous pro- 
cesses called sterigmala 
(sing, sterigma), and 
these in turn each bear 
a spore. All these 
points are well shown 
in Fig. 8. The basidia 
together make up the 

Wood Destroying 
Fungi. — Many of the 
mushrooms, and their 
kind, grow on wood. 
A visit to the damp 
forest during the sum- 
mer months, or during 
the autumn, will reveal large numbers of these plants growing 
on logs, stumps, from buried roots or rotten wood, on standing 
dead trunks, or even on living trees. In the latter case the 
mushroom usually grows from some knothole or wound in the 
tree (Fig. 9). Many of the forms which appear on the trunks of 
dead or living trees are plants of tough or woody consistency. They 
are known as shelving or bracket fungi, or popularly as " fungoids " 
or "fungos." Both these latter words are very unfortunate and 
inappropriate. Many of these shelving or bracket fungi are perennial 

Figure 9. — Polypoms borealis, showing wound at base of 
hemlock spruce caused by falling tree. Bracket fruit 
form of Polyporus borealis growing from wound. (1/15 
natural size.) 



and live from year to year. They may therefore be found during the 
winter as well as in the summer. The writer has found specimens 
over eighty years old. The shelves or brackets are the fruit bodies, 
and consist of the pileus with the fruiting surface below. The fruit- 
ing surface is either in the form of gills like Agaricus, or it is honey- 
combed, or spinous, or entirely smooth. 

Mycelium of the Wood Destroying Fungi. — While the fruit bodies are 
on the outside of the trunk, the mycelium, or vegetative part of the 
fungus, is within the wood or bark. By stripping off the bark from 



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:--:•. • 1 


. .<■■'■■ ■ ,^.«^^-***i-^ 

••^'^''^ -* wKmM-^' 

' ,.>»JI V Mr . 

Figure io. — Polyporus borealis. Strands of mycelium extending radially in 
the wood of the same living hemlock spruce shown in Fig. 9. (Natural 

decaying logs where these fungi are growing, the mycelium is often 
found in great abundance. By tearing open the rotting wood it can 
be traced all through the decaying parts. In fact, the mycelium is 
largely if not wholly responsible for the rapid disintegration of the 
wood. In living trees the mycelium of certain bracket fungi enters 
through a wound and grows into the heart wood. Now the heart 
wood is dead and cannot long resist the entrance and destructive 
action of the mycelium. The mycelium spreads through the heart 
of the tree, causing it to rot (Fig. 10). When it has spread over a 
large feeding area it can then grow out through a wound or old knot- 



hole and form the bracket fruit body, in case the knothole or wound 
has not completely healed over so as to imprison the fungus 

Fungi in Abandoned Coal Mines. — Mushrooms and bracket fungi 
grow in great profusion on the wood props or doors in abandoned 
coal mines, cement mines, etc. There is here an abundance of 
moisture, and the temperature conditions are more equable the year 
around. The conditions of environment then are very favorable for 
the rapid growth of these plants. They develop in mid-winter as 
well as in summer. 

Mycelium of Coal Mine Fungi. — The mycelium of the mushrooms 
and bracket fungi grows in wonderful profusion in these abandoned 
coal mines. So far down in the moist earth the air in the tunnels 
or passages where the coal or rock has been removed is at all times 
nearly saturated with moisture. This abundance of moisture, with 
the favorable temperature, permits the mycelium to grow on the 
surface of the wood structures as readily as within the wood. 

In the forest, while the air is damp at times, it soon dries out to 
such a degree that the mycelium can not exist to any great extent 
on the outer surface of the trunks and stumps, for it needs a great 
percentage of moisture for growth. The moisture, however, is 
abundant within the stumps or tree trunks, and the mycelium 
develops abundantly there. 

So one can understand how it is that deep down in these aban- 
doned mines the mycelium grows profusely on the surface of doors 
and wood props. Figure ii is from a flashlight photograph, taken 
by the writer, of a beautiful growth on the surface of one of the 
doors in an abandoned coal mine atWilkesbarre, Pa., during Septem- 
ber, 1896. The specimen covered an area eight by ten feet on the 
surface of the door. The illustration shows very well the habit of 
growth of the mycelium. At the right is the advancing zone of 
growth, marked by several fan-shaped areas. At the extreme edge 
of growth the mycelium presents a delicate fringe of the growing 
ends where the threads are interlaced uniformly over the entire 
area. But a little distance back from the edge, where the mycelium 
is older, the threads are growing in a different way. They are now 
uniting into definite strands. Still further back and covering the 
larger part of the sheet of mycelium lying on the surface of the door, 
are numerous long, delicate tassels hanging downward. These were 
formed by the attempt on the part of the mycelium at numerous 
places to develop strands at right angles to the surface of the door. 
There being nothing to support them in their attempted aerial flight. 



they dangle downward in exquisite fashion. The mycelium in this 
condition is very soft and perishable. It disappears almost at touch. 
On the posts or wood props used to support the rock roof above, 
the mycelium grows in great profusion also, often covering them 
with a thick white mantle, or draping them with a fabric of elegant 
texture. From the upper ends of the props it spreads out over the 
rock roof above for several feet in circumference, and beautiful white 
pendulous tassels remind one of stalactites. 

Direction in Growth of Mushrooms. — The direction of growth which 
these fungi take forms an interesting question for study. The com- 
mon mushroom, the 
Agaricus, the amani- 
tas, and other central 
stemmed species grow 
usually in an upright 
fashion ; that is, the 
stem is erect. The 
cap then, when it ex- 
pands, stands so that 
it is parallel with the 
surface of the earth. 
Where the cap does 
not fully expand, as 
in the campanulate 
forms, the pileus is 
still oriented horizon- 
tally, that is, with the 
gills downward. Even 
in such species, where 
the stems are ascend- 
ing, the upper end of 
the stem curves so 
that the cap occupies the usual position with reference to the surface 
of the earth. This is beautifully shown in the case of those plants 
which grow on the side of trunks or stumps, where the stems could 
not well grow directly upward without hugging close to the side of 
the trunk, and then there would not be room for the expansion of 
the cap. This is well shown in a number of species of Mycena. 

In those species where the stem is subcentral, i. e., set toward 
one side of the pileus, or where it is definitely lateral, the pileus is 
also expanded in a horizontal direction. From these lateral stemmed 
species there is an easy transition to the stemless forms which are 

Figure 12. — Agaricus campestris. Spore print. (Natural size.) 



sessile, that is, tlie shelving forms where the pileus is itself attached 
to the trunk, or other object of support on which it grows. 

Where there is such uniformity in the position of a member or 
part of a plant under a variety of conditions, it is an indication that 
there is some underlying cause, and also, what is more important, 
that this position serves some useful purpose in the life and well 
being of the plant. We may cut the stem of a mushroom, say of 
the Agaricus campestris, close to the cap, and place the latter, gills 
downward, on a piece of white paper, it should now be covered 
securely with a small bell jar, or other vessel, so that no currents of 
air can get underneath. 
In the course of a few 
hours myriads of the 
brown spores will have 
fallen from the surface 
of the gills, where 
they are borne. They 
will pile up in long 
lines along on either 
side of all the gills and 
so give us an impres- 
sion, or spore print, 
of the arrangement of 
the gills on the under 
side of the cap as 
shown in Fig. 12. A 
white spore print from 
the smooth lepiota 
(L. naucina) is shown 
in Fig. 13. This hori- 
zontal position of the 
cap then favors the 
falling of the spores, 

so that currents of air can scatter them and aid in the distribution of 
the fungus. 

But some may enquire how we know that there is any design in 
the horizontal position of the cap, and that there is some cause which 
brings about this uniformity of position with such entire harmony 
among such dissimilar forms. When a mushroom with a compara- 
tively long stem, not quite fully matured or expanded, is pulled and 
laid on its side, or held in a horizontal position for a time, the upper 
part of the stem where growth is still taking place will curve upward 

Figure 13. — Lepiota naucina. Spore print. (Natural size.) 


SO that the pileus is again brought more or less in a horizontal 

In collecting these plants they are often placed on their side in 
the collecting basket, or on a table when in the study. In a few 
hours the younger, long stemmed ones have turned upward again. 
The plant shown in Fig. 14 {Amanita phalloides) was placed on its 
side in a basket for about an hour. At the end of the hour it had not 
turned. It was then stood upright in a glass, and in the course of a 
few hours had turned nearly at right angles. The stimulus it 
received while lying in a horizontal position for only an hour was 
sufficient to produce the change in direction of growth even after the 
upright position had been restored. This is often the case. Some of 

Figure 14. — Amanita phalloides. Plant turned to one side by directive force of 
gravity, after having been placed in a horizontal position. (Natural size.) 

the more sensitive of the slender species are disturbed if they lie for 
only ten or fifteen minutes on the side. It is necessary, therefore, 
when collecting, if one wishes to keep the plants in the natural posi- 
tion for photographing, to support them in an upright position when 
they are being carried home from the woods. 

The cause of this turning of the stem from the horizontal position, 
so that the pileus will be brought parallel with the surface of the 
earth, is the stimulus from the force of gravity, which has been well 
demonstrated in the case of the higher plants. That is, the force 
which causes the stems of the higher plants to grow upward also 
regulates the position of the cap of the pileated fungi. The reason 
for this is to be seen in the perfection with which the spores are shed 
from the surfaces of the gills by falling downward and out from the 
crevices between. The same is true with the shelving fungi on trees, 



etc., where the spores readily fall out from the pores of the honey- 
combed surface or from between the teeth of those sorts with a spiny 
under surface. If the caps were so arranged that the fruiting surface 
came to be on the upper side, the larger number of the spores would 
lodge in the crevices between the extensions of the fruiting surface. 
Singularly, this position of the fruiting surface does occur in the case 
of one genus with a few small species. 

Interesting examples of the operation of this law are sometimes 
met with in abandoned coal mines, or more frequently in the woods. 
In abandoned mines the mushrooms sometimes grow from the 
mycelium which spreads out on the rock roof overhead. The rock 

Figure 15. — Polyporus applanatus. From this view the larger cap is in the 
normal position in which it grew on the standing tree. Turn one-fourth 
way round to the right for position of the plant after the tree fell. (16 
natural size.) 

roof prevents the plant from growing upright, and in growing later- 
ally the weight of the plant together with the slight hold it can obtain 
on the solid rock causes it to hang downward. The end of the stem 
then curves upward so that the pileus is brought in a horizontal po- 
sition. I have seen this in the case of Coprinus micaceiis several times. 
in the woods, especially in the case of the perennial shelving 
fungi, interesting cases are met with. Figure 15 illustrates one of 
these peculiar forms of Polyporus (Fo7?ies) applanatus. This is the 
species so often collected as a " curio," and on account of its very 
white under surface is much used for etching various figures. In the 
figure the larger cap which is horizontal represents the position of 
the plant when on the standing maple trunk. When the tree fell 



the shelf was brought into a perpendicular position. The fungus 
continued to grow, but its substance being hard and woody it cannot 
turn as the mushroom can. Instead, it now grows in such a way as 
to form several new caps, all horizontal, i. e., parallel with the sur- 

Plate 3, Figure i6. — Daedalea ambigua. Upper right-hand shows normal plant in 
normal position when on tree. Upper left-hand shows abnormal plant with the 
large cap in normal position when growing on standing tree. Lower plant shows 
same plant in position after the tree fell, with new caps growing out in horizontal 
direction. (Lower plant 1/2 natural size.) 

face of the earth, but perpendicular to the old shelf. If the page is 
turned one-fourth way round the figure will be brought in the 
position of the plant when it was growing on the fallen log. 


Another very interesting case is shown in the ambiguous 
trametes (Trametes ambigua), a white shelving fungus which occurs 
in the Southern States. It is shown in Fig. i6. At the upper right 
hand is shown the normal plant in the normal position. At the upper 
left hand is shown an abnormal one with the large and first formed 
cap also in the normal position as it grew when the tree was stand- 
ing. When the tree fell the shelf was on the upper side of the log. 
Now numerous new caps grew out from the edge as shown in the 
lower figure, forming a series of steps, as it were, up one side and 
down the other. 



The gill bearing fungi are known under the family Agaricacece, 
or popularly the agarics. They are distinguished by the fruiting 
area being distributed over the surface of plate-like or knife-like 
extensions or folds, usually from the under surface of the cap. 
These are known as the gills, or lamella, and they usually radiate 
from a common point, as from or near the stem, when the stem is 
present ; or from the point of attachment of the pileus when the 
stem is absent. The plants vary widely in form and consistency, 
some being very soft and soon decaying, others turning into an inky 
fluid, others being tough and leathery, and some more or less woody 
or corky. The spores when seen in mass possess certain colors, 
white, rosy, brown or purple brown, black or ochraceous. While a 
more natural division of the agarics can be made on the basis of 
structure and consistency, the treatment here followed is based on 
the color of the spores, the method in vogue with the older botanists. 
While this method is more artificial, it is believed to be better for the 
beginner, especially for a popular treatment. The sections will be 
treated in the following order : 

I. The purple-brown-spored agarics. 

The black-spored agarics. 
The white-spored agarics. 
The rosy-spored agarics. 
The ochre-spored agarics. 

*For analytical keys to the families and genera see Chapter XXII. 



The members of this subdivision are recognized at maturity by 
the purple-brown, dark brown or nearly black spores when seen in 
mass. As they ripen on the surface of the gills the large number 
give the characteristic color to the lamellae. Even on the gills the 
purple tinge of the brown spores can often be seen. The color is 
more satisfactorily obtained when the spores are caught in mass by 
placing the cap, gills downward, on white paper. 


In the genus Agaricus the spores at maturity are either purple- 
brown in mass or blackish with a purple tinge. The annulus is 
present on the stem, though disappearing soon in some species, and 
the stem is easily separated from the substance of the pileus. The 
gills are free from the stem, or only slightly adnexed. The genus is 
closely related to Stropharia and the species of the two genera are 
by some united under one genus {Psalliota, Hennings). Peck, 36th 
Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 41-49, describes 7 species. Lloyd 
Mycol. Notes, No. 4, describes 8 species. C. O. Smith, Rhodora, I: 
161-164, 1899, describes 8 species. 

Agaricus (Psalliota) campestris Linn. Edible. — This plant has been 
quite fully described in the treatment of the parts of the mushroom, 
and a recapitulation will be sufficient here. It grows in lawns, 
pastures, by roadsides, and even in gardens and cultivated fields. 
A few specimens begin to appear in July, it is more plentiful in 
August, and abundantly so in September and October. It is 5-8 cm. 
high (2-3 inches), the cap is 5-12 cm. broad, and the stem 8-12 mm. 
in thickness. 

The pileus is first rounded, then convex and more or less 
expanded. The surface at first is nearly smooth, presenting a soft, 
silky appearance from numerous loose fibrils. The surface is some- 
times more or less torn into triangular scales, especially as the plants 
become old. The color is usually white, but varies more or less to 
light brown, especially in the scaly forms, where the scales may be 

*For analytical key to the genera see Chapter XXII. 




quite prominent and dark brown in color. Sometimes the color is 
brownish before the scales appear. The tlesh is white. The gills 
in the young button stage are white. They soon become pink in 
color and after the cap is expanded they quickly become purple 
brown, dark brown, and nearly black from the large number of spores 
on their surfaces. The gills are free from the stem and rounded 
behind (near the stem). The stem is white, nearly cylindrical, or it 
tapers a little toward the lower end. The tlesh is solid, though the 
central core is less firm. The veil is thin, white, silky, and very frail. 

Figure 17. — Agaricus rodmani. Entirely white, showing double veil or ring. 
(Natural size.) Copyright. 

It is stretched as the cap expands and finally torn so that it clings 
either as an annulus around the stem, or fragments cling around the 
margin of the cap. Since the annulus is so frail it shrivels as the 
plant ages and becomes quite inconspicuous or disappears entirely 
(see Figs. 1-7). 

Variations in the surface characters of the cap and stem have led 
some to recognize several varieties. This is known as the common 
mushroom and is more widely known and collected for food than any 


Other. It is also cultivated in mushroom houses, cellars, caves, 
abandoned mines, etc. 

Agaricus (Psalliota) rodmani Pk. Edible. — Rodman's mushroom, 
Agaricus rodmani, grows in grassy places along streets of cities, either 
between the curbing and the walk, or between the curbing and the 
pavement. It is entirely white or whitish and sometimes tinged 
with yellowish at the center of the pileus. The plants are 4-8 cm. 
high, the cap 5-8 cm. broad and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is rounded, and then convex, very firm, compact and 
thick, with white flesh. The gills are crowded, first white, then 
pink, and in age blackish brown. The stem is very short, solid. 

Figure 18. — Agaricus arvensis, fairy ring. 

nearly cylindrical, not bulbous. The annulus is quite characteristic, 
being very thick, with a short limb, and double, so that it often 
appears as two distinct rings on the middle or lower part of the stem 
as shown in Fig. 17. This form of the annulus is probably due to 
the fact that the thick part of the margin of the pileus during the 
young stage rests between the lower and upper part of the annulus, 
i. e., the thick veil is attached both to the inner and outer surface of 
the margin of the cap, and when it is freed by the expansion of the 
pileus it remains as a double ring. It is eagerly sought and much 
relished by several persons at Ithaca familiar with its edible qualities. 
The plant closely resembles A. campestris var., edulis, Vittad. 
(See Plate 54, Bresadola, I Funghi Mangerecci e Velenosi, 1899) and 
is probably the same. 



Agaricus (Psalliota) arvensis Schaeff. Edible.— The field mushroom, 
or horse mushroom, Agaricus arvensis, grows in fields or pastures, 
sometimes under trees and in borders of woods. One form is often 
white, or yellowish white, and often shows the yellow color when 
dried. The plant sometimes occurs in the form of a fairy ring as 

Figure 19. — Agaricus silvicola. White to cream color, or yellow stains. 
(Natural size.) Copyright. 

shown in Fig. 18. It is 5-12 cm. high, the cap from 5-15 cm. broad 
and the stem 8-15 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is smooth, quite thick and firm, convex to expanded. 
The gills are first white, then tinged with pink and finally blackish 
brown. The stem is stout, nearly cylindrical, hollow, bulbous. The 
veil is double like that of Agaricus placomyces, the upper or inner 



layer remaining as a membrane, while the lower or outer layer is 
split radially and remains in large patches on the lower surface of 
the upper membrane. 

Agaricus (Psalliota) silvicola Vittad. Edible. — The Agaricus silvicola 
grows in woods, groves, etc., on the ground, and has been found also 
in a newly made garden in the vicinity of trees near the woods. It 
is an attractive plant because of its graceful habit and the delicate 

shades of yellow and 
white. It ranges from 
10-20 cm. high, the 
cap is 5-12 cm. broad 
and the stem 6-10 
mm. in thickness. 

The pileus becomes 
convex, and expanded 
or nearly flat, and 
often with an elevation 
or umbo in the center. 
It is thin, smooth, 
whitish and often 
tinged more or less 
deeply with yellow 
(sulfur or ochraceous) 
and is sometimes 
tinged with pink in the 
center. The flesh is 
whitish or tinged with 
pink. The gills when 
very young are whitish, then pink, and finally dark brown or 
blackish brown, much crowded, and distant from the stem. The 
stem is long, nearly cylindrical, whitish, abruptly enlarged below 
into a bulb. It is often yellowish below, and especially in drying 
becomes stained with yellow. The ring is thin, membranaceous, 
delicate, sometimes with broad, soft, fioccose patches on .the under 
side. The ring usually appears single, but sometimes the veil is 
seen to be double, and the outer or lower portion tends to split 
radially as in A. arvensis or A. placomyces. This is well shown in 
large specimens, and especially as the veil is stretched over the gills 
as shown in Fig. 20. 

From the form of the plant as well as the peculiarities of the veil 
in the larger specimens, it is related to A. arvensis and placomyces, 
more closely to the former. It occurs during mid-summer and 

Figure 20. — Agaricus silvicola, showing radiately 
torn lower part of veil. (Natural size.) Copy- 

o o 


' r . ■ 


" ' .V'.^ft'i 




early autumn. Figure lo is from plants (No. 1986 C. U. herbarium) 
collected in open woods at Ithaca. 

Agaricus (Psalliota) subrufescens Pk. Edible. — The Agariciis subru- 
fescens was described by Dr. Peck from specimens collected on a 
compost heap composed chiefly of leaves, at Glen Cove, Long 
Island. It occurs sometimes in greenhouses. In one case reported 
by Peck it appeared in soil prepared for forcing cucumbers in a 
greenhouse in Washington, D. C. 

According to the description the pileus becomes convex or broadly 
expanded, is covered with silky hairs and numerous minute scales. 
The color is whitish, grayish or dull reddish brown, the center being 
usually smooth and darker, while the flesh is white. The gills 
change from white to pinkish and blackish brown in age. The stem 
is long, nearly cylindrical or somewhat enlarged or bulbous at the 
base, first stuffed, then hollow, white. The annulus is thick, and the 
under side marked by loose threads or scales. 

This plant is said to differ from the common mushroom {A. cam- 
pestris) in the more deeply hemispherical cap of the young plant, the 
hollow and somewhat bulbous stem, and in the scales on the under 
side of the annulus. In fresh plants the flesh has also a flavor of 
almonds. It is closely related to A. silvaticus Schaeff., p. 62, T. 242, 
Icones Fung. Bav. etc., 1770, if not identical with it. A. sih'aticiis 
has light ochraceous or subrufescent scales on the cap, a strong odor, 
and occurs in gardens as well as in the woods. 

Agaricus (Psalliota) fabaceus Berk., was described in Hooker's 
London Journal of Botany, 6: 314, 1847, ^"^om specimens collected in 
Ohio. The plant is white and is said to have a strong but not 
unpleasant odor. Agaricus amygdalinus Curt., from North Carolina, 
and of which no description was published, was so named on account 
of the almond-like flavor of the plant. Dr. Farlow suggests (Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 26: 356-358, 1894) that A. fabaceus, amygda- 
linus, and subrufescens are identical. 

Agaricus (Psalliota) placomyces Pk. Edible. — The flat-cap mushroom, 
Agaricus pi acomyces Pk., occurs in borders of woods or under trees 
from June to September. According to Peck it occurs in borders of 
hemlock woods, or under hemlock trees. At Ithaca it is not always 
associated with hemlock trees. The largest specimens found here 
were in the border of mixed woods where hemlock was a constituent. 
It has been found near and under white pine trees in lawns, around 
the Norway spruce and under the Norway spruce. The plants are 
from 5-15 cm. high, the cap from 5-12 cm. in diameter, and the 
stem 6-8 mm. in thickness. 


The pHeus when young is broadly ovate, then becomes convex or 
fully expanded and flat in age, and is quite thin. The ground color 
is whitish, often with a yellowish tinge, while the surface is orna- 
mented with numerous minute brownish scales which are scattered 
over a large part of the cap, but crowded or conjoined at the center 
into a large circular patch. This gives to the plant with its shapely 
form a beautiful appearance. In the young stage the entire surface 
of the pileus is quite evenly brown. As it expands the outer brown 
portion is torn asunder into numerous scales because the surface 
threads composing this brown layer cease to grow. These scales are 
farther apart toward the margin of the cap, because this portion of 
the cap always expands more than the center, in all mushrooms. 
The gills are at first white, or very soon pink in color, and in age are 
blackish brown. Spores 5-8 x 3-4 //. 

The stem is nearly cylindrical, hollow or stuffed, white or whitish, 
smooth, bulbous, and the bulb is sometimes tinged with yellow. 
The veil is very handsome, and the way in which the annulus is 
formed from it is very interesting. The veil is quite broad, and it 
is double, that is, it consists of two layers which are loosely joined 
by threads. In the young stage the veil lies between the gills and 
the lower two-thirds of the stem. As the pileus expands the lower 
(outer part) layer of the veil is torn, often in quite regular radiating 
portions, as shown in Fig. 22. An interesting condition of the veil is 
shown in the middle plant in. Fig. 23. Here the outer or lower layer 
of the veil did not split radially, but remained as a tube surrounding 
the stem, while the two layers were separated, the inner one being 
still stretched over the gills. It is customary to speak of the lower 
part of the veil as the outer part when the cap is expanded and the 
veil is still stretched across over the gills, while the upper portion is 
spoken of as the inner layer or part. It is closely related to A. 
arvensis, and may represent a wood inhabiting variety of that species. 

Agaricus (Psalliota) comtulus Fr. — This pretty little agaric seems to 
be rather rare. It was found sparingly on several occasions in open 
woods under pines at Ithaca, N. Y., during October, 1898. Lloyd 
reports it from Ohio (Mycolog. Notes, No. 56, Nov. 1899), and 
Smith from Vermont (Rhodora I, 1899). Fries' description (Epicrisfs, 
No. Sjj) runs as follows: ''Pileus slightly fleshy, convex, plane, 
obtuse, nearly smooth, with appressed silky hairs, stem hollow, sub- 
attenuate, smooth, white to yellowish, annulus fugacious ; gills free, 
crowded, broad in front, from flesh to rose color.. In damp grassy 
places. Stem 2 inches by 2 lines, at first floccose stuffed. Pileus 
i-i^ inch diameter. Color from white to yellowish." 



The plants collected at Ithaca are illustrated in Fig. 24 from a 
photograph of plants (No. 2879 C. U. herbarium). My notes on 
these specimens run as follows : Plant 3-6 cm. high, pileus 1.5-3 cm. 
broad, stem 3-4 mm. in thickness. Pileus convex to expanded, 
fleshy, thin on the margin, margin at first incurved, creamy white 
with egg yellow stains, darker on the center, in age somewhat darker 
to umber or fuliginous, moist when fresh, ' surface soon dry, flesh 
tinged with yellow. The gills are white when young, then grayish 
to pale rose, and finally light purple brown, rounded in front, taper- 
ing behind (next the stem) and rounded, free from the stem, 4-5 
mm. broad. Basidia clavate, 25-30x5-6/^. Spores small, oval, 

Figure 24. — Agaricus comtulus (natural size, sometimes larger). Cap creamy 
white with egg-yellow stains, smoky when older. Stem same color ; gills grayish, 
then rose, then purple-brown. Copyright. 

3-4x2-3 ^A, in mass light purple brown. The stem tapers above, 
is sub-bulbous below, yellowish and stained with darker yellowish 
threads below the annulus, hollow, fibrous, fleshy. The veil whitish 
stained with yellow, delicate, rupturing irregularly, portions of it 
clinging to margin of the pileus and portions forming a delicate ring. 
When parts of the plant come in contact with white paper a blue 
stain is apt to be imparted to the paper, resembling the reaction of 
iodine on starch. This peculiarity has been observed also in the 
case of another species of Agarictis. The species is regarded with 
suspicion by some. 1 collected the plant also at Blowing Rock, N. C, 


in September, 1899. The caps of these specimens measure 4 cm. in 

Agaricus diminutivus Pk., is a closely related species. It is distin- 
guished chiefly by its somewhat larger size, and purplish to reddish 
brown hairs on the surface of the pileus, and by the somewhat larger 
spores, which, however, are small. 1 have found it at Ithaca, the 
surface of the pileus hairy, with beautiful, triangular, soft, appressed, 
purplish scales. 


in the genus Hypholoma the spores are purple brown, the gills 
attached to the stem, and the veil when ruptured clings to the mar- 
gin of the cap instead of to the stem, so that a ring is not formed, or 
only rarely in some specimens. The stem is said to be continuous 
with the substance of the cap, that is, it is not easily separated from 
it. The genus is closely related to Agaricus (Psalliota) and Stropharia, 
from both of which it differs in the veil not forming a ring, but 
clinging to the margin of the cap. It further differs from Agaricus 
in the stem being continuous with the substance of the cap, while 
Stropharia seems to differ in this respect in different species. The 
plants grow both on the ground and on wood. There are several 
species which are edible and are very common. Peck gives a 
synopsis of six species in the 49th Report New York State Mus., 
page 61, 1896, and Morgan describes 7 species in Jour. Cinn. Soc. 
Nat. Hist. 6: 11 3-1 15. 

Hypholoma sublateritium Schaeff. Edible, hitter sometimes. The 
name of this species is derived from the color of the cap, which is 
nearly a brick red color, sometimes tawny. The margin is lighter 
in color. The plants grow usually in large clusters on old stumps or 
frequently appearing on the ground from buried portions of stumps 
or from roots. There are from six to ten, or twenty or more plants 
in a single cluster. A single plant is from 8-12 cm. high, the cap is 
5-8 cm. broad, and the stem 6-8 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, smooth, or sometimes with 
loose threads from the veil, especially when young, even, dry. 
The flesh is firm, whitish, and in age becoming somewhat yellowish. 
The gills are adnate, sometimes decurrent by a little tooth, rather 
crowded, narrow, whitish, then dull yellow, and becoming dark from 
the spores, purplish to olivaceous. The stem usually tapers down- 
ward, is firm, stuffed, smooth, or with remnants of the veil giving it 
a floccose scaly appearance, usually ascending because of the crowded 


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growth. The veil is thin and only manifested in the young stage of 
the plant as a loose weft of threads. As the cap expands the \'eil is 
torn and adheres to the margin, but soon disappears. 

The tlesh of this plant is said by European writers to be bitter to 
the taste, and it is regarded there as poisonous. This character 
seems to be the only distinguishing one between the Hypholoma sub- 
lateritiiim Schaeff., of Europe, and the Hypholoma perplexum Pk., 
of this country which is edible, and probably is identical with H. 
sublateritium. If the plant in hand agrees with this description in 
other respects, and is not bitter, there should be no danger in its use. 
According to Bresadola, the bitter taste is not pronounced in H. sub- 
lateritium. The taste probably varies as it does in other plants. 
For example, in Pholiota prcecox, an edible species, I detected a 
decided bitter taste in plants collected in June, 1900. Four other 
persons were requested to taste the plants. Two of them pronounced 
them bitter, while two did not detect the bitter taste. 

There is a variety of Hypholoma sublateritium, with delicate 
floccose scales in concentric rows near the margin of the cap, called 
var. squamosum Cooke. This is the plant illustrated in Fig. 25, from 
specimens collected on rotting wood in the Cascadilla woods, Ithaca, 
N. Y. It occurs from spring to autumn. 

Hypholofua epixanthum Fr., is near the former species, but 
has a yellow pileus, and the light yellow gills become gray, not 

Hypholoma appendiculatum Bull. Edible. — This species is common 
during late spring and in the summer. It grows on old stumps and 
logs, and often on the ground, especially where there are dead roots. 
It is scattered or clustered, but large tufts are not formed as in H. 
sublateritium. The plants are 6-8 cm. high, the cap 5-7 cm. broad, 
and the stem 4-6 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is ovate, convex to expanded, and often the margin 
elevated, and then the cap appears depressed. It is fleshy, thin, 
whitish or brown, tawny, or with a tinge of ochre, and becoming 
pale in age and when dry. As the plant becomes old the pileus 
often cracks in various ways, sometimes splitting radially into several 
lobes, and then in other cases cracking into irregular areas, showing 
the white tlesh underneath. The surface of the pileus when young 
is sometimes sprinkled with whitish particles giving it a mealy 
appearance. The gills are attached to the stem, crowded, becoming 
more or less free by breaking away from the stem, especially in old 
plants. They are white, then flesh colored, brownish with a slight 
purple tinge. The stem is white, smooth, or with numerous small 


white particles at the apex, becoming hollow. The veil is very deli- 
cate, white, and only seen in quite young plants when they are fresh. 
It clings to the margin of the cap for a short period, and then soon 

Sometimes the pileus is covered with numerous white, delicate 
floccose scales, which give it a beautiful appearance, as in Fig. 26, 
from specimens (No. 3185 C. U. herbarium), collected on the campus 
of Cornell University among grass. The entire plant is very brittle, 

Figure 27. — Hypholoma appendiculatum (natural size), showing 
appendiculate veil. Copyright. 

and easily broken. It is tender and excellent for food. I often eat 
the caps raw. 

Hypholoma candolleanum Fr., occurs in woods on the ground, or on 
very rotten wood. It is not so fragile as H. appendiculatum and the 
gills are dark violaceous, not flesh color as they are in H. appendicu- 
latum when they begin to turn, and nearly free from the stem. 

Hypholoma lacrymabundum Fr. — This plant was found during Sep- 
tember and October in wet grassy places in a shallow ditch by the 
roadside, and in borders of woods, Ithaca, N. Y., 1898. The plants 
are scattered or clustered, several often joined at the base of the 
stem. They are 4-8 cm. high, the cap 2-5 cm. broad, and the stem 
4-8 mm. in thickness. 



The pileus is convex to expanded, sometimes broadly umbonate in 
age, and usually with radiating wrinkles extending irregularly. On 
the surface are silky or tomentose threads not much elevated from 
the surface, and as the plant ages these are drawn into triangular 
scales which are easily washed apart by the rains. The color is 
tawny or light yellowish with intermediate shades, darker on the 
umbo and becoming darker in age, sometimes umber colored, and 
stained with black, especially after rains where the spores are washed 
on the pileus. The flesh is tinged with light yellow, or tawny, or 

Figure 28. — Hypholoma lacrymabundum (natural size). Cap and stem tawny or 
light yello\N-ish, with intermediate shades or shades of umber, surface with soft 
floccose scales. Copyright. 

brown, soft, and easily broken. The gills are sinuate, adnate, some- 
what ventricose, very rarely in abnormal specimens anastomosing 
near the margin of the pileus, at first light yellowish, then shading 
to umber and spotted with black and rusty brown as the spores 
mature, easily breaking away from the stipe, whitish on the edge. 
Drops of moisture sometimes are formed on the gills. Basidia abruptly 
clavate, 30-35x10-12//. Cystidia hyaline, thin walled, projecting 
above the hymenium 40 ^, and 14-1 5 ^.^ broad. Spores black, purple 
tinged, broadly elliptical and somewhat curved, 9-1 1 x 7-^ i^i. 


The stem is fleshy to fibrous, the same color as the pileus, floccose 
scaly more or less up to the veil, smooth or white pruinose above 
the veil, straight or curved, somewhat striate below. 

The veil in young plants is hairy, of the same texture as the surface 
of the pileus, torn and mostly clinging to the margin of the pileus, 
and disappearing with age. 

The general habit and different stages of development as well as 
some of the characters of the plant are shown in Fig. 28 (No. 4620 
Cornell University herbarium). The edible qualities of this plant 
have not been tested. 

Hypholoma rugocephalum Atkinson. — This interesting species grows 
in damp places in woods. The plants are tufted or occur singly. 
They are 8-12 cm. high, the cap 6-10 cm. broad, and the stem 6-10 
mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, and the margin at last revolute 
(upturned). The surface is marked by strong wrinkles (rug«), 
which radiate irregularly from the center toward the margin. The 
pileus is broadly umbonate, fleshy at the center and thinner toward 
the margin, the tlesh tinged with yellow, the surface slightly viscid, 
but not markedly so even when moist, smooth, not hairy or scaly, 
the thin margin extending little beyond ends of the gills. The color 
is tawny (near fulvus). The gills are adnate, slightly sinuate, 5-7 
mm. broad, in age easily breaking away from the stem and then 
rounded at this end, spotted with the black spores, lighter on the 
edge. The spores are black in mass (with a suggestion of a purple 
tinge), oval to broadly elliptical, inequilateral, pointed at each end, 
echinulate, or minutely tuberculate, 8-iix6-8yw. The basidia 
are short, cylindrical ; cystidia cylindrical, somewhat enlarged at the 
free end, hyaline, delicate, thin-walled, in groups of two to six or 
more (perhaps this is partly responsible for the black spotted condi- 
tion of the gills). The stem is cylindrical, even, somewhat bulbous, 
of the same color as the pileus, but lighter above the annulus, 
irregular, smooth, fleshy, hollow, continuous with the substance of 
the pileus. The annulus is formed of a few threads, remnants of the 
veil, which are stained black by the spores. Figure 29 is from plants 
(No. 3202 C. U. herbarium) collected near Ithaca, July 18, 1899. 




The genus Stropharia has purple-brown spores, the gills are 
attached to the stem, and the veil forms a ring on the stem. 

Stropharia semiglobata Batsch. — This species is rather common 
and widely distributed, occurring in grassy places recently manured, 
or on dung. The plants are scattered or clustered, rarely two or 

Figure 30. — Stropharia semiglobata (natural size). Cap and stem light 
yellow, viscid ; gills brownish-purple. Copyright. 

three joined atlhe base. They are 5-12 cm. high, the cap 1-3 cm. 
broad, and the stems 2-4 mm. in thickness. The entire plant is 
light yellow, and viscid when moist, the gills becoming purplish 
brown, or nearly black. Stevenson says it is regarded as 


The pileus is rounded, then hemispherical (semi-globate), smooth, 
fleshy at the center, thinner toward the margin, even, very viscid 
or viscous when moist, light yellow. The gills are squarely set 
against the stem (adnate), broad, smooth, in age purplish brown to 
blackish, the color more or less clouded. The spores in mass, are 
brownish purple. The stem is slender, cylindrical, becoming hollow, 
straight, even or bulbous below, yellowish, but paler at the apex 
where there are often parallel stride, marks from the gills in the 
young stage. The stem is often viscid and smeared with the glutin- 
ous substance which envelopes the plant when young, and from the 
more or less glutinous veil. The ring is glutinous when moist. 

Figure 30 is from plants (No. 4613 C. U. herbarium) collected on 
one of the streets of Ithaca. 

Stropharia stercoraria Fr., is a closely related plant, about the 
same size, but the pileus, first hemispherical, then becoming ex- 
panded and sometimes striate on the margin, while the stem is 
stuffed. The gills are said to be of one color and the ring floccose, 
viscose, and evanescent in drying. It occurs on dung, or in grassy 
places recently manured. 

Stropharia aeruginosa Curt., the greenish Stropharia, is from 6-8 
cm. high, and the pileus 5-7 cm. broad. The ground color is yellow- 
ish, but the plant is covered with a greenish slime which tends to 
disappear with age. It is found in woods and open places during 
late summer and in autumn. According to Stevenson it is poisonous. 



The spores are black in mass, not purple tinged. For analytical 
keys to the genera see Chapter XXIi. 


The species of Coprinus are readily recognized from the black 
spores in addition to the fact that the gills, at maturity, dissolve into 
a black or inky fluid. The larger species especially form in this way 
an abundance of the black fluid, so that it drops from the pileus and 
blackens the grass, etc., underneath the plant. In some of the 



smaller species the gills do not wholly deliquesce, but the cap splits 
on top along the line of the longer gills, this split passing down 
through the gill, dividing it into two thin lamina, which, however, 
remain united at the lower edge. This gives a fluted appearance to 
the margin of the pileus, which is \ery thin and membranaceous. 

The plants vary in size, from tiny ones to those which are several 
inches high and more than an inch broad. Their habitat (that is, 
the place where they grow) is peculiar. A number of the species 

Figure 31. — Coprinus comatus, " shaggy-mane," in lawn. 

grow on dung or recently manured ground. From this peculiarity 
the genus received the name Coprinus from the Greek word ^ uofj^ft: , 
meaning dung. Some of the species, however, grow on decaying 
logs, on the ground, on leaves, etc. 

Coprinus comatus Fr. Edible. — One of the fmest species in this 
genus is the shaggy-mane, or horse-tail mushroom, as it is popularly 
called. It occurs in lawns and other grassy places, especiall\' in 
richly manured ground. The plants sometimes occur singly, or a 
few together, but often quite large numbers of them appear in a 
small area. They occur most abundantly during quite wet weatln r, 



or after heavy rains, in late spring or during the autumn, and also 
in the summer. From the rapid growth of many of the mush- 
rooms we are apt to be taken by surprise to see them all up some 
day, when the day before there were none. The shaggy-mane 
often furnishes a surprise of this kind. In our lawns we are accus- 
tomed to a pretty bit of greensward with clumps of shrubbery, and 
here and there the overhanging branches of some shade tree. On 
some fine morning when we find a whole flock of these shaggy- 
manes, which have sprung up during the night, we can imagine that 

Figure 32. — Coprinus comatus. " Buttons," some in section showing gill slits 
and hollow stem; colors white and black. (Natural size.) 

some such kind of a surprise must have come to Browning when he 
wrote these words : 

" By the rose flesh mushroom undivulged 
Last evening. Nay, in to-day's first dew 

Yon sudden coral nipple bulged, 
Where a freaked, fawn colored, flaky crew 

Of toadstools peep indulged." 

The plant is called shaggy-mane because of the very shaggy 
appearance of the cap, due to the surface being torn up into long 
locks. The illustrations of the shaggy mane shown here represent 
the different stages of development, and the account here given is 
largely taken from the account written by me in Bulletin 168 of the 
Cornell University Agr. Exp. Station. 



In Fig. 32 are shown two buttons of the size when they are just 
ready to break through the soil. They appear mottled with dark 
and white, for the outer layer of fungus threads, which are dark 
brown, is torn and separated into patches or scales, showing between 
the delicate meshes of white threads which lie beneath. The upper 

Figure ^t,. — Coprinus comatus (natural size). 

part of the button is already forming the cap, and the slight con- 
striction about midway shows the lower boundary or margin of the 
pileus where it is still connected with the undeveloped stem. 

At the right of each of these buttons in the figure is shown a sec- 
tion of a plant of the same age. Here the parts of the plant, though 



Still undeveloped, are quite well marked out. Just underneath the 
pileus layer are the gills. In the section one gill is exposed to view 
on either side. In the section of the larger button the free edge of 

the gill is still closely applied to the 
stem, while in the small one the gills 
are separated a short distance from 
the stems showing *• gill slits." Here, 
too, the connection of the margin of 
the pileus with the stem is still shown, 
and forms the veil. This kind of a 
veil is a marginal veil. 

The stem is hollow even at this 
young stage, and a slender cord of 
mycelium extends down the center of 
the tube thus formed, as is shown in 
the sections. 

The plants are nearly all white 
when full grown. The brown scales, 
so close together on the buttons, are 
widely separated except at the top or 
center of the pileus, where they remain 
close together and form a broad cap. 
A study of the different stages, 
which appear from the button stage 
to the mature plant, reveals the cause 
of this change in color and the wide 
separation of the dark brown scales. 
The threads of the outer layer of the 
pileus, and especially those in the 
brown patches seen on the buttons, 
soon cease to grow, though they are 
firmly entangled with the inner layers. 
Now the threads underneath and all 
through the plant, in the gills and in 
the upper part of the stem, grow and 
elongate rapidly. This pulls on the 
outer layer, tearing it in the first place 
into small patches, and causing them 
later to be more widely separated on 
FiGURK 34. — Copriniis comatus the mature plant. Some of these 
(natural size) This one entirely g^^j^g remain Guite large, while others 

white, none of the scales black ^ '=' 

tipped. are torn up into quite small tufts. 





As the plant ages, the next inner layers of the pileus grow less 
rapidly, so that the white layer beneath the brown is torn up into an 
intricate tangle of locks and tufts, or is frazzled into a delicate pile 
which exists here and there between well formed tufts. While all 

Figure 35. — Coprinus comatus, sections of the plants in Fig. ^^ (natural size). 

present the same general characters there is considerable individual 
variation, as one can see by comparing a number of different plants. 
Figure 34 shows one of the interesting conditions. There is little of 
the brown color, and the outer portion of the pileus is torn into long 
locks, quite evenly distributed and curled up at the ends in an inter- 



esting fashion which merits well the term *' shaggy." In others the 
threads are looped up quite regularly into triangular tresses which 
appear to be knotted at the ends where the tangle of brown threads 
holds them together. 

There is one curious feature about the expansion of the pileus of 
the shaggy-mane which could not escape our attention. The pileus 

has become very 
long while compar- 
atively little lateral 
expansion has 
taken place. The 
pileus has remained 
cylindrical or bar- 
rel-shaped, while in 
the case of the com- 
mon mushroom, the 
pileus expands into 
the form of an um- 

The cylindrical 
or barrel -shaped 
pileus is character- 
istic of the shaggy- 
mane mushroom. 
As the pileus elong- 
ates the stem does 
also, but more 
rapidly. This tears 
apart the connec- 
tion of the margin 
of the pileus with 
the base of the 
stem, as is plainly 
shown in Fig. 33. 
In breaking away, 
the connecting por- 
tion or veil is freed 
both from the stem 
and from the margin 
of the pileus, and is 
, ^ . , ^ J ,. left as a free, or 

Figure 36. — Coprinus comatus, early stages oi deliques- 
cence; the ring is lying on the sod (natural size). lOOSe, ring arounu 



the stem. In the shaggy-mane the veil does not form a thin, ex- 
panded curtain. It is really an annular outer layer of the button 
lying between the margin of the cap and the base of the stem. It 
becomes free from the stem. -As the stem elongates more rapidly 
than the cap, the latter is lifted up away from the base of the stem. 

Sometimes the free 
collar around the 
still loosely ad- 
superficial layer of 
or it remains 
more or less 
to the margin 
of the pileus 

ring is left as a 
base of the stem, 
herent to the 

the same, 

for a time 
adhere nt 

as shown in the plant at 
It is often lifted higher 
becomes free from the 
dangling somewhere on 
break and fall down on 
stances it may remain 
the margin of the pileus 
as the pileus in age ex- 
such cases one often 
to discover it clinging 
the cap. It is interest- 
of the plants at this 
can be made by split- 
lengthwise through the 
knife, as shown in Fig. 
at the right hand, the 
plainly seen running 
stem. The gills form 
plant, for they are very 

Figure 37. — Coprinus 
comatus, later stage of 
deliquescence, pileus 
becoming more ex- 
panded (natural size). 

the left hand in Fig. 33. 
up on the stem before it 
cap, and is then left 
the stem, or it may 
the sod. In other in- 
quite firmly adherent to 
so that it breaks apart 
pands somewhat. In 
searches for some time 
as a sterile margin of 
ing to observe a section 
stage. These sections 
ting the pileus and stem 
middle line with a sharp 
35. Here, in the plant 
*' cord " of mycelium is 
through the hollow 
a large portion of the 
broad and lie closely 

packed side by side. They are nowhere attached to the stem, but 
at the upper end round off to the cap, leaving a well defined space 
between their ends and the stem. The cap, while it is rather thick 
at the center, i. e., where it joins the stem, becomes comparatively 
thin where it spreads out over the gills. At this age of the plant 


the gills are of a rich salmon color, i. e., before the spores are ripe, 
and the taste when raw is a pleasant nutty flavor, reminding one of 
the meat of fresh green hickory nuts. In a somewhat earlier stage 
the edges of all the gills are closely applied to the stem which they 
surround. So closely are they applied to the stem in most cases that 
threads of mycelium pass from the stem to the edge of the gills. As 
the cap expands slightly in ageing, these threads are torn asunder 
and the stem is covered with a very delicate down or with flocculent 
particles which easily disappear on handling or by the washing of the 
rains. The edges of the gills are also left in a frazzled condition, as 
one can see by examining them with a good hand lens. 

The spores now begin to ripen and as they become black the color 
of the gills changes. At the same time the gills and the cap begin to 
dissolve into an inky fluid, first becoming dark and then melting into 
a black liquid. As this accumulates it forms into drops which dangle 
from the cap until they fall away. This change takes place on the 
margin of the cap first, and advances toward the center, and the con- 
trast of color, as the blackening invades the rich salmon, is very 
striking. The cap now begins to expand outward more, so that it 
becomes somewhat umbrella shaped. The extreme outer surface 
does not dissolve so freely, and the thin remnant curls upward and 
becomes enrolled on the upper side as the cap with wasted gills 
becomes nearly flat. 

Coprinus atramentarius (Bull.) Fr. Edible. — The ink-cap (Copri- 
nus atramentarius) occurs under much the same conditions as the 
shaggy-mane, and is sometimes found accompanying it. It is usually 
more common and more abundant, it springs up in old or newly 
made lawns which have been richly manured, or it occurs in other 
grassy places. Sometimes the plants are scattered, sometimes two 
or three in a cluster, but usually large clusters are formed where ten 
to twenty or more are crowded closely together (Fig. 39). The 
stems are shorter than those of the shaggy-mane and the cap is dif- 
ferent in shape and color. The cap is egg-shaped or oval. It varies 
in color from a silvery grey, in some forms, to a dark ashen grey, or 
smoky brown color in others. Sometimes the cap is entirely smooth, 
as I have seen it in some of the silvery grey forms, where the deli- 
cate fibres coursing down in lines on the outer surface cast a beauti- 
ful silvery sheen in the light. Other forms present numerous small 
scales on the top or center of the cap which are formed by the 
cleavage of the outer surface here into large numbers of pointed 
tufts. In others, the delicate tufts cover more or less the entire 
surface, giving the plant a coarsely granular aspect. This is perhaps 

Plate 9, Figure 38. 

-Coprinus comatus, drops of inky fluid about to fall from 
wasted pileus (natural size). 



the more common appearance, at least so far as my observation 
goes. But not infrequently one fmds forms which have the entire 
outer surface of the cap torn into quite a large number of coarse 
scales, and these are often more prominent over the upper portion. 
Fine lines or striations mark also the entire surface of all the forms,. 
especially toward the margin, where the scales are not so prominent. 
The marginal half of the cap is also frequently furrowed more or 
less irregularly, and this forms a crenate or uneven edge. 

Figure 40. — Coprinus atramentarius, scaly form (natural size). 

The annulus or ring on the stem of the ink-cap is very different 
from that of the shaggy-mane. It forms an irregularly zigzag: 
elevated line of threads which extend around the stem near the base. 
It is well shown in Fig. 41 as a border line betw^een the lower scaly 
end of the stem and the smooth white upper part. It is formed at 
the time of the separation of the margin of the cap from the stem, 
the connecting fibres being pulled outward and left to mark the line 



of junction, while others below give the scaly appearance. It is 
easily effaced by rough handling or by the washing of the rains. A 
section of a plant is illustrated by a photograph in Fig. 42. On 
either side of the stem is shown the layer of fibres which form the 
annulus, and this layer is of a different texture from that of the stem. 
The stem is hollow as seen here also. In this figure one can see 
the change in color of the gills just at the time when they begin 
to deliquesce. This deliquescence proceeds much in the same way 

Figure 41. — Coprinus atramentarius, showing annulus as border line between scaly 
and smooth part of the stem (natural size). 

as in the shaggy-mane, and sometimes the thin remnant of the cap 
expands and the margin is enrolled over the top. 

Coprinus micaceus (Bull.) Fr. Edible. — The glistening coprinus 
received its name because of the very delicate scales which often 
cover the surface of the cap, and glisten in the light like particles of 
mica. This plant is very common during the spring and early sum- 
mer, though it does appear during the autumn, it occurs about the 
bases of stumps or trees or in grassy or denuded places, from dead 



roots, etc., buried in the soil. It occurs in dense tufts of ten to thirty 
or more individuals ; sometimes as many as several hundred spring 
up from the roots of a dead tree or stump along the streets or in 
lawns, forming large masses. More rarely it occurs on logs in the 
woods, and sometimes the plants are scattered in lawns. From the 
different habits of the plant it is sometimes difficult to determine, 
especially where the individuals are more or less scattered. How- 
ever, the color, and 
the markings on 
the cap, especially 
the presence of the 
small shining scales 
when not effaced, 
charact e r ize the 
plant so that little 
difficulty is experi- 
enced in determin- 
ing it when one has 
once carefully noted 
these peculiarities. 
Figure 43 is 
from a group of 
three young indi- 
viduals photo- 
graphed just as the 
margin of the pileus 
is breaking away 
from the lower part 
of the stem, show- 
ing the delicate 
fibrous ring which 
is formed in the 
same way as in 
Coprinus atramen- 
tarius. The ring is 
much more delicate 

and is rarely seen except in very young specimens which are 
carefully collected and which have not been washed by rains. The 
mature plants are 8-10 cm. high (3-4 inches), and the cap varies 
from 2-4 cm. in diameter. The stem is quite slender and the cap 
and gills quite thin as compared with the shaggy-mane and ink-cap. 
The gills are not nearly so crowded as they are in the two other 

Figure 42. 

Coprinus atramentarius, section of one of the plants 
in Fig. 41 (natural size). 



species. The cap is tan color, or 
light buff, or yellowish brown. 
Except near the center it is marked 
with quite prominent striations 
which radiate to the margin. 
These striations are minute fur- 
rows or depressed lines, and form 
one of the characters of the species, 
being much more prominent than 
on the cap of the inl«ap. 

In wet weather this coprinus 
melts down into an inky fluid also, 
but in quite dry weather it remains 
more or less firm, and sometimes it 
does not deliquesce at all, but dries 
with all parts well preserved, though 
much shrunken of course, as is the case with all the very fleshy fungi. 

PiGURE 43. — Coprinus micaceus, young 
stage showing annulus, on the cap 
the "mica" particles (natural size). 

JFlGURE 44. — Coprinus micaceus, plants natural size, from floor of coal 
mine at Wilkesbarre. Caps tan color. Copyright. 

y Plate ii, Figure 45. — Panaeolus retirugis, group of plants from lawn along street, 
N:;;^^p showing veil in young plants at the left, which breaks into V-shaped loops and 
^'**'^ clings to margin of the cap. Cap dark smoky color at first, becoming grayish 
in age (natural size). Copyright. 



In Panceolus the pileus is somewhat fleshy, or thin, the margin 
even, that is, not striate. The margin extends beyond the gills, and 
the gills are not uniform in color, being clouded or spotted with black 
and brown colors, the edge of the gills often white in contrast. The 
spores are black. The stem is usually smooth, sometimes floccose 
scaly, often long, firm, generally hollow. The veil is of interwoven 
threads, sometimes quite compact, especially when the plants are 
young. Peck, 23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 10 et seq., gives a 
synopsis of five species. 

Pansolus retirugis Fr. — The color of this plant is not attractive, 
but it is one of the most beautiful species I have studied, if one 
regards form and the general features in its development. It is said 
to occur on dung. I have found it in lawns or grassy places, 
especially freshly made lawns or greenswards which have been 
heavily manured. The illustrations in Figs. 45-48 were made from 
photographs of plants which grew in a newly made boulevard along 
Buffalo street, Ithaca, N. Y. (No. 2356 C. U. herbarium). The 
plants are from 7-15 cm. high, the cap from 1-3 cm. in diameter, and 
the stem is 3-4 mm. in thickness. The size of the plants varies 
greatly according to the environment, being larger in moist soil and 
wet weather and smaller in dry soil and dry weather. It occurs in 
late spring and during the summer. 

The pileus is oval to o\'ate and conic, and in some cases it 
becomes more or less expanded, but never, so far as I have observed, 
does it become depressed or even plane. In wet weather it is usually 
at first dark smoky in color, viscid, becoming grayish in age, and as 
the pileus dries it becomes shining. In lighter colored forms the 
pileus is at first light leather color to cream color. Toward the 
center of the pileus are irregular wrinkles or shallow pits, the 
wrinkles anastomosing more or less, and it is because of this char- 
acter of the surface of the pileus that the plant receives its specific 
name. During dry weather there is a tendency for the pileus to 
crack, separating the dark color of the surface into patches showing 
the white flesh beneath. The pileus is often umbonate or gibbous, 
and the center is often darker than the margin. The pileus in rare 
cases is entirely white. The gills are adnate, broad in the middle, 
and in the more expanded forms as the gills separate more and more 
from the stem there is a tendency for them to become somewhat 
triangular. The spores are black in mass, are elliptical or short 
fusiform, and measure from 10-12 x 15-18^^. The stem is cylin- 



Figure 46. — Panaeolus retirugis, section of caps showing form and position of 

gills (natural size), 

drical, sometimes tortuous, smoky gray, light reddish brown, or 
paler, sometimes entirely white, the lighter forms of the stem 
accompanying the light forms of the pileus ; cartilaginous in texture, 
becoming hollow, always darker below and paler above, smooth, 
granulate with minute darker points, bulbous. The veil is very 

Fkuire 47. — Panaeolus retirugis, showing rugose character of cap in left- 
hand plant (natural size). Copyright. 



prominent and stout when the plant is young, and extends from the 
margin of the pileus to the stem when the plant is very young and 
the stem has not elongated. As the stipe elongates the veil sepa- 
rates from the stipe as a ring, and then, as the pileus expands, it is 
broken quite regularly into short segments which become arranged 
regularly around the margin of the pileus in the form of the letter V, 
which gives a beautiful appearance to this stage of the plant. It is 
only when the plants are fresh and moist that this condition of the 

Figure 48. — Panaeolus retirugis, showing cracked surface of cap in the left- 
hand plant, also in same plant the ring mark of black spores which lodged 
before veil ruptured ; in other plants showing well the V-shaped loops of veil 
on margin of cap (natural size). Copyright. 

veil can be seen, for on drying the veil collapses. Water is some- 
times caught under the veil before the pileus separates far from the 
stem, and the spores falling thus float against the stem at this point 
and make a dark ring around the stem, which, however, should not 
be mistaken for the annulus. In no case was the veil observed to 
cling to the stem, and many plants have been observed to see if 
this variation might present itself. 

This peculiarity of the veil in clinging to the margin of the pileus 



has led Hennings to place the plant in Karsten's genus (Engler and 
Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien) Chalymotta, as Chalymotta retirugis. The 
plants have several times been eaten raw by me, and while they 
have a nutty flavor and odor, the taste is not entirely agreeable in 
this condition, because of the accompanying slimy sensation. 

A number of smaller species, among them P. fimicola Fr., and P. 
papilionaceus Fr., occur in similar places. Panaeolus solidipes Pk., is a 
large species with a long, solid stem, growing on dung. Psilocybe 
fcenisecii, abundant in lawns and grassy places during late spring and 
summer, resembles a Panasolus. The cap shows zones of light and 
dark color, due to different amounts of water, which disappear as 
the plant matures. It belongs to the purple-brown-spored agarics. 


The pileus is thin, membranaceous, striate, the margin not ex- 
tending beyond the edge of the gills, and when young the margin 
of the pileus lies straight against the stem. The gills are black to 

fuliginous, of a 
not spotted as in 
Panceolus and 
Anellaria. The 
spores are black. 
The plants are all 
fragile. Only one 
species is men- 
tioned here. In 
appearance the 
species are like 
Psathyra of the 
spored agarics, 
but much thinner. 
Peck describes 
three species in 
the 23d Report N. 
Y. State Mus., p. 
I02etseq. Only 
one species is de- 
scribed here. 
Psatbyrella disseminata Pers. — This is a very common and widely 
distributed species, appearing from late spring until late autumn. It 

Figure 49. — Psathyrella disseminata (natural size), 
grayish, or grayish-brown. Copyright. 

caps whitish, 


sometimes appears in greenhouses throughout the year. The plants 
are 2-3 cm. high, and the caps 6-10 mm. broad. The plants are 
crowded in large tufts, often growing on decaying wood, but also on 
the ground, especially about much decayed stumps, but also in lawns 
and similar places, where buried roots, etc., are decaying. They 
resemble small specimens of a Coprinus. 

The pileus is whitish or gray, or grayish brown, very thin, oval, 
then bell-shaped, minutely scaly, becoming smooth, prominently 
sulcate or plicate, plaited. The gills are adnate, broad, white, gray, 
then black. The spores are black, oblong, 8x6//. The stem is 
very slender, becoming hollow, often curved. The entire plant is 
very fragile, and in age becomes so soft as to suggest a Coprinus in 
addition to the general appearance. Figure 49 is from plants collected 
on decaying logs at Ithaca. 


The genus Gomphidius has a slimy or glutinous universal veil 
enveloping the entire plant when young, and for a time is stretched 
over the gills as the pileus is expanding. The gills are somewhat 
mucilaginous in consistency, are distant and decurrent on the stem. 
The gills are easily removed from the under surface of the pileus in 
some species by peeling off in strips, showing the imprint of the gills 
beneath the projecting portions of the pileus, which extended part 
way between the lamina of the gills. The spores in some species 
are blackish, and for this reason the genus has been placed by many 
with the black-spored agarics, while its true relationship is probably 
with the genus Hygrophorns or Paxillus. 

Gomphidius nigricans Pk. — The description given by Peck for this 
plant in the 48th Report, p. 12, 1895, reads as follows : 

"■ Pileus convex, or nearly plane, pale, brownish red, covered 
with a tough gluten, which becomes black in drying, flesh firm, 
whitish ; lamellae distant, decurrent, some of them forked, white,' 
becoming smoky brown, black in the dried plant; stem subequal, 
longer than the diameter of the pileus, glutinous, solid, at first 
whitish, especially at the top, soon blackish by the drying of the 
gluten, whitish within, slightly tinged with red toward the base ; 
spores oblong fusoid, 15-25 yu long, 6-7 f^. broad. Pileus 1-2 inches 
broad ; stem 1.5-2.5 inches long, 2-4 lines thick." 

** This species is easily known by the blackening gluten which 
smears both pileus and stem, and even forms a veil by which the 
lamellae in the young plant are concealed. In the dried state the 
whole plant is black." 



** Under pine trees, Westport, September." 
What appears to be the same plant was collected by me at 

Blowing Rock, N. C, 
under a pine tree, in 
September, 1899 (No. 
3979 C. U. herbari- 

The notes taken 
on the fresh plant are 
as follows : 

Very viscid, with 
a thick, tough viscid 
cuticle, cortina or veil 
viscid, and collapsing 
on the stem, forming 
coarse, walnut-brown 
or dark vinaceous 
reticulations, termi- 
nating abruptly near 
the gills, or reaching 

The stem is white 
underneath the slimy 
veil covering, tough, 
fibrous, continuous, 
and not separable 
from the hymeno- 
phore, tapering below. 
The pileus is con- 
vex, the very thin 
margin somewhat in- 
curved, disk ex- 
panded, uneven, near 
the center cracked 
into numerous small 
viscid brownish are- 
oles; pileus flesh color, 
flesh same color ex- 
cept toward the gills. 
Gills dark drab gray, arcuate, distant, decurrent, many of them 
forked, separating easily from the hymenophore, peeling off in broad 
sheets, and leaving behind corresponding elevations of the hymeno- 

" 0) 

O N 

(J C^ 



V too 

C rr. 

C/2 5 


o C 



phore which extended between the lamina of the lamellae. Pileus 
7 cm. in diameter ; stem 4-5 cm. long by 2 cm. diameter. 

\n drying, the entire plant as well as the gluten becomes black, 
on the pileus a shining black. 

The spores are rusty to dark brown, or nearly black, fusoid or 
oblong, and measure 1 5-22 x 5-6 //. 

In Fig. 50 a side and under view of the plant are given, and 
in Fig. 51 a view after a portion of the lamellae have been peeled off. 


Figure 51. — Gomphidius nigricans. Under view with portion of gills 
stripped off from hymenophore, sho^\-ing forked character of gills 
(natural size). Copyright. 

showing how nicely the separation takes place, as well as showing 
the forked character of the lamella and the processes of the pileus, 
which extend between the lamina of the lamella. 

This plant seems to be very near Gomphidius glutiiiosus (Schaeff.), 
Fr., if not identical with it, though the illustrations cited in Schaeffer 
and in Krombholz seem to indicate a stouter plant. The descriptions 
say nothing as to the appearance of the dried plant. 



The spores are white in mass, or sometimes with a faint yellow- 
ish or lilac tinge. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter 


The genus Amanita has both a volva and a veil ; the spores are 
white, and the stem is easily separable from the cap. In the young 
stage the volva forms a universal veil, that is, a layer of fungus 
tissue which entirely envelops the young plant. In the button 
stage, where this envelope runs over the cap, it is more or less free 
from it, that is, it is not "concrete " with the surface of the pileus. 
As the pileus expands and the stem elongates, the volva is ruptured 
in different ways according to the species. In some the volva splits 
at the apex and is left as a "■ cup" at the base of the stem. In 
others it splits circularly, that is, transversely across the middle, the 
lower half forming a shallow cup with a very narrow rim, or in other 
cases it is closely fitted against the stem, while the upper half 
remains on the cap and is broken up into patches or warts. In still 
other cases the volva breaks irregularly, and only remnants of 
it may be found on either the base of the stem or on the pileus. For 
the various conditions one must consult the descriptions of the 
species. The genus is closely related to Lepiota, from which it is 
separated by the volva being separate from the pileus. This genus 
contains some of the most deadly poisonous mushrooms, and also 
some of the species are edible. Morgan, Jour. Mycol. 3: 25-33, 
describes 28 species. Peck, 33d Report N. Y. State Mus., pp. 38-49, 
describes 14 species. Lloyd, A Compilation of the Volva? of the U. 
S., Cincinnati, 1898, gives a brief synopsis of our species. 

Amanita muscaria Linn. Poisonous. — This plant in some places is 
popularly known as the fly agaric, since infusions of it are used as a 
fly poison. It occurs during the summer and early autumn. It grows 
along roadsides near trees, or in groves, and in woods, according to 
some preferring a rather poor gravelly soil. It attains its typical 
form usually under these conditions in groves or rather open woods 
where the soil is poor. It is a handsome and striking plant because 



O n 

^ P 

o' ' 

3 C- 

p Grq 

v: o 



of the usually brilliant coloring of the cap in contrast with the white 
stems and gills, and the usually white scales on the surface. It 
usually ranges from 10-15 cm. high, and the cap from 8-12 cm. 
broad, while the stem is 1-1.5 cm. in thickness, or the plant may 
be considerably larger. 

The pileus passes from convex to expanded and nearly flat in age, 
the margin when mature is marked by depressed lines forming par- 
allel striations, and on the surface are numbers of scattered floccose 
or rather compact scales, formed from the fragments of the upper 
part of the volva or outer veil. These scales are usually white in 
color and are quite easily removed, so that old plants are sometimes 
quite free from them. The scales are sometimes yellowish in color. 
The color of the pileus varies from yellow to orange, or even red, 
the yellow color being more common. Late in the season the color 
is paler, and in old plants also the color fades out, so that white 
forms are sometimes found. The flesh is white, sometimes yellowish 
underneath the cuticle. The gills in typical forms are white, in 
some forms accredited to this species they are yellowish. The stem 
is cylindrical, hollow, or stuffed when young, and enlarged below 
into a prominent bulb. It is white, covered with loose floccose 
scales, or more or less lacerate or torn, and the lower part of the 
stem and upper part of the bulb are marked usually by prominent 
concentric scales forming interrupted rings. These are formed by 
the splitting of the outer veil or volva, and form the remnants of the 
volva present on the base of the stem. 

The main features in the development of the plant are shown in 
Figs. 52-54, where a series from the button stage to the mature 
plant is represented. In the youngest specimens the outline of the 
bulb and the young convex or nearly globose cap are only seen, 
and these are covered with the more or less floccose outer veil or 
volva. The fungus threads composing this layer cease to grow, and 
with the expansion of the cap and the elongation of the stem, the 
volva is torn into patches. The upper and lower surface of the inner 
veil is attached to the edge of the gills and to the outer surface of 
the stem by loose threads, which are torn asunder as the pileus 
expands. Floccose scales are thus left on the surface of the stem 
below the annulus, as in the left hand plant of Fig. 53. The veil 
remains attached longer to the gills and is first separated from the 
stem. Again, as in the right hand plant, it may first be separated 
from the gills when it is later ripped up from the stern. 

The fly agaric is one of the well known poisonous species and is 
very widely distributed in this country, as well as in other parts of 



the world. In well developed forms there should be no difficulty in 
distinguishing it from the common mushroom by even a novice. Nor 
should there be difficulty in distinguishing it from the royal agaric, 
or Cesar's agaric {Amanita ccesarea), by one who has become 
reasonably familiar with the characters and appearance of the two. 
But small and depauperate specimens of the two species run so 
nearly together in form, color, and surface characters, that it 
becomes a matter of some difficulty for even an expert to distinguish 

Figure 54. — Amanita muscaria. View of upper side of cap (natural size). Colors 
as in Fig. 53. Copyright. 

Figures 52-54 are from plants (No. 2065 C- U. herbarium) col- 
lected in an open woods near Ithaca. For the poisonous property 
of the plant see Chapter XX. 

Amanita frostiana Pk. Poisonous. — According to Dr. Peck, who 
published the first description of this plant, it grows in company 
with Amanita muscaria, but seems to prefer more dense woods, 
especially mixed or hemlock woods, and occurs from June to 
October. The plant is 5-8 cm. high, the caps 2-5 cm. broad, and 
the stems 3-6 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is " convex to expanded, bright orange or yellow, 
warty, sometimes nearly or quite smooth, striate on the margin ; 


lamells white or tinged with yellow ; stem white or yellowish, stuffed, 
bearing a slight, sometimes evanescent annulus, bulbous at the 
base, the bulb slightly viargined by the volva ; spores globose," 
7.5-10 pi in diameter. He notes that it appears like a small form of 
A. muscaria, to which it was first referred as var. minor, — '* The 
only characters for distinguishing it are its small size and its globose 
spores." It is near A. muscaria var. puella Pers. 

I have several times found this plant in the Adirondack moun- 
tains, N. Y., and Ithaca, and also at Blowing Rock, N. C. The 
volva is often yellowish, so that the warts on the pileus are also 
yellow, and sometimes the only remnants of the volva on the base 
of the stem are yellow or orange particles. The annulus is also 
frequently yellow. In our plants, which seem to be typical, the 
spores are nearly globose, varying to oval, and with the minute 
point where the spore was attached to the sterigma at the smaller 
end, the spores usually being finely granular, 6-9 yw in diameter, 
and rarely varying towards short elliptical, showing a tendency to 
approach the shape of the spores of A. muscaria. The species as I 
have seen it is a very variable one, large forms being difficult to 
separate from A. muscaria, on the one hand, and others difficult to 
separate from the depauperate forms of A. ccesarea. In the latter, 
however, the stri^ are coarser, though the yellow color may be 
present only on portions of the pileus. The spores of A. ccesarea 
are from globose to oval, ovate or short elliptical, the globose ones 
often agreeing in size with the spores of A. frostiana, but they 
usually contain a prominent oil drop or '* nucleus," often nearly 
filling the spore. In some specimens of A. frostiana the spores are 
quite variable, being nearly globose, ovate to elliptical, approaching 
the spores of A. muscaria. These intermediate forms should not in 
themselves lead one to regard all these three species as representing 
variations in a single variable species. With observations in the 
field I should think it possible to separate them. 

Amanita phalloides Fr. Deadly Poisonous. — The Amanita phalloides 
and its various forms, or closely related species, are the most 
dangerous of the poisonous mushrooms. For this reason the A. 
phalloides is known as the deadly agaric, or deadly amanita. The 
plant is very variable in color, the forms being pure white, or 
yellowish, green, or olive to umber. Variations also occur in the 
way in which the volva ruptures, as well as in the surface characters 
of the stem, and thus it is often a difficult matter to determine 
whether all these forms represent a single variable species or whether 
there are several species, and if so, what are the limits of these 



species. Whether these are recognized as different forms of one 
species or as different species, they are all very poisonous. The 

plant usually occurs in woods 
or along the borders of woods. 
It does, however, sometimes 
occur in lawns. It varies from 
6-20 cm. high, the cap from 
3-10 cm. broad, and the stem 
6-10 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is fleshy, viscid 
or slimy when moist, smooth, 
that is, not striate, orbicular 
to bell-shaped, convex and 
finally expanded, and in old 
specimens more or less de- 
pressed by the elevation of 
the margin. The cap is often 
free from any remnants of the 
volva, while in other cases 
portions of the volva or outer 
veil appear on the surface of 
the cap in rather broad patches, 
or it may be broken up into a 
number of smaller ones quite 
evenly distributed over the 
surface of the cap. The pres- 
ence or absence of these scales 
on the cap depends entirely on 
the way in which the volva 
ruptures. When there is a 
clean rupture at the apex the 
pileus is free from scales, but 
the volva are torn away they are apt to 

Figure 55. — Amanita phalloides, white 
form, showing cap, stem, ring, and cup- 
like volva with a free, prominent limb 
(natural size). 


if portions of the apex 
remain on the cap. 

The white form is common in this country, and so is the olive or 
umber form. The yellow form is rarer. Sometimes there is only a 
tinge of yellow at the center of the white pileus, while in other cases 
a large part of the pileus may be yellow, a deeper shade usually on 
the center. The green form is probably more common in Europe 
than in this country. The olive form varies considerably also in the 
depth of the color, usually darker on the center and fading out to 
light olive or gray, or whitish, on the margin. In other cases the 



entire pileus may be dark olive or umber color. The gills in 
all the forms are white, and free from the stem or only joined 
by a narrow line. The stem is stuffed when young, but in age 
is nearly or quite hollow. It is cylindrical, 6-20 cm. long x 6-12 
mm. in thickness. In the larger specimens the bulb is quite prom- 
inent and abrupt, 
while in the smaller 
specimens it is not 
always proportionally 
so large. The stem is 
usually smooth and 
the color is white, ex- 
cept in the dark forms, 
when it is dingy or 
partakes more or less 
of the color of the 
pileus, though much 
lighter in shade. 
There is a tendency 
in these forms to a 
discoloration of the 
stem where handled 
or bruised, and this 
should caution one in 
comparing such forms 
with the edible A. 

Perhaps no part of 
the plant is more vari- 
able than the outer 
veil or volva. Where 
the volva is quite thick 
and stout it usually 
splits at the apex, and 
there is a prominent 
free limb, as shown in 
Fig. 55. Sometimes thin portions of the volva are caught, and remain 
on the surface of the pileus. But when the \-blva is thinner and of a 
looser texture, it splits transversely about the middle, circumscissile, 
and all or a large part of the upper half of the volva then clings to the 
cap, and is separated into patches. Between this and the former 
condition there seem to be all gradations. Some of these are shown 

Figure 57. — Amanita phalloides, volva circumscissile, cap 
scaly, limb of volva not prominent, cap dark, scales white 
(natural size). Copyright. 



in Fig. 56, which is from a photograph of dark olive and umber 
forms, from plants collected in the Blue Ridge mountains, at Blowing 
Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. In the very young plant the 

volva split transversely (in a 
circumscissile fashion) quite 
clearly, and the free limb is 
quite short and distant from 
the stem on the margin of the 
saucer-like bulb. In the large 
and fully expanded plant at 
the center, the volva ruptured 
irregularly at the apex, and 
portions of the thin upper half 
remain as patches on the cap 
while the larger part remains 
as the free limb, attached at 
the margin of the broad saucer- 
shaped bulb, and collapsed up 
against the base of the stem. 
Figure 58 and the small 
plant in Fig. 56, both from 
photographs of the sooty form 
of Amanita phalloides, show in 
a striking manner the typical 
condition of the circumsissle 
volva margining the broad 
saucer-like bulb as described 
for Amanita mappa. The color 
of A. mappa is usually said to 
be straw color, but Fries even 
says that the color is as in A. 
phalloides, " now white, now 
green, now yellow, now dark 
brown " (Epicrisis, page 6). 
According to this, Fig. 58 
would represent A. mappa. 

The variable condition in 
this one species A. phalloides, 
now splitting at the apex, now 

F1GURE5S.— Amanita phalloides, volva circumscissile, tearing up irregularly, nOW 

concave bulb margined by definite short limb of solittincf in a definitely cir- 

volva ; upper part of volva has disappeared from F & 

cap ; cap whitish, tinged with brown. cumscissile manner, seems to 



bid defiance to any attempt to separate the species of Amanita into 
groups based on the manner in which the volva ruptures. While it 
seems to be quite fixed and 
characteristic in certain species, 
it is so extremely variable in 
others as to lead to the suspicion 
that it is responsible in some 
cases for the multiplication and 
confusion of species. At the 
same time, the occurrence of 
some of these forms at certain 
seasons of the year suggests 
the desirability of prolonged and 
careful study of fresh material, 
and the search for additional 
evidence of the unity of these 
forms, or of their definite segre- 

Since the Amanita phalloides 
occurs usually in woods, or along 
borders of woods, there is little 
danger of confounding it with 
edible mushrooms collected in 
lawns distant from the woods, 
and in open fields. However, 
it does occur in lawns bordering 
on woods, and in the summer of 
1899 1 found several of the white 
forms of this species in a lawn 
distant from the woods. This 
should cause beginners and 
those not thoroughly familiar 
with the appearance of the plant 
to be extremely cautious against 
eating mushrooms simply be- 
cause they were not collected in 
or near the woods. Further- 
more, sometimes the white form 
of the deadly amanita possesses 
a faint tinge of pink in the gills, 
which might lead the novice ^ . . , . , . ^ 

° Figure 59. — Amanita verna, white (natural size). 

to mistake it for the common Copyright. 



mushroom. The bulb of the deadly amanita is usually inserted 
quite deep in the soil or leaf mold, and specimens are often picked 
leaving the very important character of the volva in the ground, and 
then the plant might easily be taken for the common mushroom, or 
more likely for the smooth lepiota, Lepiota naucina, which is entirely 
white, the gills only in age showing a faint pink tinge. It is very 
important, therefore, that, until one has such familiarity with these 
plants that they are easily recognized in the absence of some of 
these characters, the stem should be carefully dug from the soil. 
In the case of the specimens of the deadly amanita growing in the 
lawn on the campus of Cornell University, the stems were sunk to 
three to four inches in the quite hard ground. 

Amanita verna Bull. Deadly Poisonous. — The Amanita verna is by 
some considered as only a white form of the Amanita phalloides. 

It is of a pure white color, 
and this in addition to its 
very poisonous property 
has led to its designation 
as the ''destroying 

The pileus is smooth 
and viscid when moist ; 
the gills free ; the stem 
stuffed or hollow in age ; 
the annulus forms a broad 
collar, and the volva is 
split at the apex, and 
being quite stout, the 
free limb is prominent, 
and it hugs more or less 
closely to the base of the 
stem. Figure 59 repre- 
sents the form of the 
plant which Gillet recog- 
nizes as A. verna; the pilus convex, the annulus broad and entire, 
and the stem scaly. These tloccose scales are formed as a result of 
the separation of the annulus from the outer layer of the stem. 

The characters presented in the formation of the veil and annulus 
in this species are very interesting, and sometimes present two of 
the types in the formation of the veil and annulus found in the genus 
Amanita. In the very young plant, in the button stage, as the 
young gills lie with their edges close against the side of the stem. 

Figure 60. — Amanita verna, " buttons," cap bursting through 
the volva ; left-hand plant in section (natural size). Copy- 



loose threads extend from the edges of the gills to the outer layer of 
the stem. This outer layer of the stem forms the veil, and is more 
or less loosely connected with the firmer portion of the stem by loose 
threads. As the pileus expands, the threads connecting the edges 
of the gills with the veil are stronger than those which unite the veil 
with the surface of the stem. The veil is separated from the stem 
then, simultaneously, or nearly 
so, throughout its entire extent, 
and is not ripped up from below 
as in Amanita velatipes. 

As the pileus expands, then, 
the veil lies closely over the edges 
of the gills until finally it is freed 
from them and from the margin 
of the pileus. As the veil is split 
off from the surface of the stem, 
the latter is torn into numerous 
floccose scales, as shown in Fig. 


In other cases, in addition to 
the primary veil which is sep- 
arated from the stem in the man- 
ner described above, there is a 
secondary veil formed in exactly 
the same way as that described 
for Amanita velatipes. 

In such cases there are two 
veils, or a double veil, each at- 
tached to the margin of the pileus, 
the upper one ascending over the 
edges of the gills and attached 
above on the stem, while the 
lower one descends and is at- 
tached below as it is being ripped 
up from a second layer of the 
stem. Figures 59-61 are from 
plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, in September, 1899. 

Amanita virosa Fr. Deadly Poisonous. — This plant also by some is 
regarded as only a form of Amanita phalloides. It is a pure white 
plant and the pileus is viscid as in the A. verna and A. phalloides. 
The volva splits at the apex as m A. vema, but the veil is \'ery 
fragile and torn into shreds as the pileus expands, portions of it cling- 

FiGURE 61. — Amanita vema, small form, white 
(natural size). Copyright. 



ing to the margin of the cap as 
well as to the stem, as shown in 
Fig. 62. The stem is also adorned 
with soft floccose scales. Gillet 
further states that the pileus is 
conic to campanulate, not becom- 
ing convex as in A, verna and A. 

The variability presented in 
the character of the veil and in 
the shape of the pileus suggests, 
as some believe, that all these 
are but forms of a single variable 
species. On the other hand, we 
need a more careful and extended 
field study of these variations. 
Doubtless different interpreta- 
tions of the specific limits by 
different students will lead some 
to recognize several species where 
others would recognize but one. 
Since species are not distinct 
creations there may be tolerably 
good grounds for both of these 

Amanita floccocephala Atkinson. 
Probably Poisonous. — This species 
occurs in woods and groves at 
Ithaca during the autumn. The 
plants are medium sized, 6-8 cm. 
high, the cap 3-6 cm. broad, and 
the stems 4-6 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is hemispherical to 
convex, and expanded, smooth, 
whitish, with a tinge of straw 
color, and covered with torn, 
thin floccose patches of the upper 
half of the circumscissile volva. 
The gills are white and adnexed. 
The spores are globose, 7-10 yw. 
The stem is cylindrical or slightly 
tapering above, hollow or stuffed, 

Figure 62. — Amanita virosa, white (natural size). 



tloccose scaly and abruptly bulbous below. The annulus is superior, 
that is, near the upper end of the stem, membranaceous, thin, some- 
times tearing, as in A. virosa. The volva is circumscissile, the margin 
of the bulb not being clear cut and prominent, because there is much 
refuse matter and soil interwoven with the lower portion of the volva. 
The bulb closely resembles those in Cooke's figure (Illustrations, 4) 
of A. 7nappa. Figure 63 shows these characters well. 

Figure 63. — Amanita floccocephala (natural size). Copyright. 

Amanita velatipes Atkinson. Properties Unknown. — This plant is very 
interesting since it shows in a striking manner the peculiar way 
in which the veil is formed in some of the species of Amanita. 
Though not possessing brilliant colors, it is handsome in its form and 
in the peculiar setting of the volva fragments on the rich brown or 
faint yellow of the pileus. It has been found on several occasions 
during the month of July in a beech woods on one of the old flood 
plains of Six-mile creek, one of the gorges in the vicinity of Ithaca, 
N. Y. The mature plant is from 15-20 cm. high, the cap from 
8-10 cm. broad, and the stem 1-1.5 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is viscid when moist, rounded, then broadly oval and 
convex to expanded, striate on the margin, sometimes in old 


plants the margin is elevated. It is smooth throughout, and of a 
soft, rich hair brown, or umber brown color, darker in the center. 
Sometimes there is a decided but dull maize yellow tinge over the 
larger part of the pileus, but even then the center is often brown 
in color, shading into the yellow color toward the margin ; the light 
yellow forms in age, often thinning out to a cream color. The flesh 
of the pileus is rather thin, even in the center, and becomes very 
thin toward the margin, as shown in Fig. 67. The scales on the 
pileus are more or less flattened, rather thin, clearly separated from 
the pileus, and easily removed. They are more or less angular, and 
while elongated transversely at first, become nearly isodiametric as 

Figure 65. — Amanita velatipes. Different stages of "buttons," in the right-hand 
plant the upper part of the volva separating to form the scales (natural size). 

the pileus becomes fully expanded, passing from an elongated form 
to rectangular, or sinuous in outline, the margin more or less upturned, 
especially in 'age, when they begin to loosen and **p,eel " from the 
surface of the cap. They are lighter in color than the pileus and I 
have never observed the yellow tint in them. The gills are white, 
broad at the middle, about i cm., and taper gradually toward each 
end. The spores are usually inequilaterally oval, 8-10 x 6-7 yu, 
granular when young, when mature with a large oil drop. 

The stem is cylindrical, somewhat bulbous, the bulb often taper- 
ing abruptly, as shown in Figs. 64, 66. The stem is white, smooth, 
or floccose scaly where the veil has been ripped off from it. It is 

Plate 15, Figure 64. — Amanita velatipes (3/4 natural size). Cap hair-brown, or 
umber-brown, sometimes with tinge of lemon-yellow, or entirely maize-yellow. 
Scales, gills, and stem white. Copyright. 


hollow and stuffed with loose cottony threads, as shown in Fig: 67. 
The veil is formed by the ripping up of the outer layer of the stem 
as the latter elongates and as the pileus expands. When it is freed 
from the margin of the cap it collapses and hangs downward as a 
broad collar (Fig. 64). The annulus is inferior, its position on the 
stem being due to the peculiar way in which it is formed. 

Figure 66. — Amanita velatipes. Three plants natural size, the left-hand one 
sectioned, showing stuffed center of stem. Others show how veil is ripped up 
from the stem. For other details see text. Copyright. 

Some of the stages of development are illustrated in Figs. 64-67. 
The buttons are queer looking objects, the bulb being the most 
prominent part. It tapers abruptly below, and on the upper side is 
the small rounded young cap seated in the center. The volva is 
present as a rough floccose layer, covering the upper part of the bulb 


and the young cap. As the stem elongates and the pileus enlarges 
and expands, the volva is torn into areolate patches. The lower 
patches, those adjoining the margin of the cap and the upper part of 
the bulb, are separated in a more or less concentric manner. One or 
more of them lie on the upper part of the bulb, forming the " limb " 
of the *' ocreate " volva. Others lie around the margin of the pileus. 
Sometimes an annular one bordering the pileus and bulb is left cling- 
ing part way up on the stem, as shown in Fig. 66. The concentric 
arrangement on the pileus is sometimes shown for a considerable 
time, as in Fig. 67, the elongated areas being present in greater num- 
ber at this age of the pileus. However, as the pileus expands more, 
these are separated into smaller areas and their connection with the 
surface of the pileus becomes less firm. 

The formation of the veil and annulus can be easily followed in 
these figures. The margin of the cap in the button stage is firmly 
connected with the outer layer of the stem at its lower end. This 
probably occurs by the intermingling growth of the threads from the 
lower end of the stem and the margin of the cap, while the edges of 
the gills are quite free from the stem. Now as the stem elongates 
and the cap expands the veil is ** ripped " up from the outer part of 
the stem. This is very clearly shown in Fig. 66, especially where 
two strips on the stem have become disconnected from the margin 
of the cap and are therefore left in position on the outside of the stem. 

This species is related to A. excelsa Fr., which is said to have a 
superior ring. 

Amanita cothurnata Atkinson. Probably Poisonous. — The booted 
amanita, Amanita cothurnata, 1 have found in two different years in 
the Blue Ridge mountains at Blowing Rock, N. C, once in 1888, 
during the first week of September, and again during the three first 
weeks in September, 1899. It occurs sparingly during the first week 
or so of September, and during the middle of the month is very 
abundant. The species seems to be clearly distinct from other 
species of Amanita, and there are certain characters so persistent as 
to make it easily recognizable, it ranges in height from 7-12 cm. 
and the caps are 3-7 cm. or more broad, while the stems are 4-10 
mm. in thickness. The entire plant is usually white, but in some 
specimens the cap has a tinge of citron yellow, or in others tawny 
olive, in the center. 

The pileus is fleshy, and passes, in its development, from nearly 
globose to hemispherical, convex, expanded, and when specimens 
are very old sometimes the margin is elevated. It is usually white, 
though specimens are found with a tinge of citron yellow in the 

Plate i6, Figure 67. — Amanita velatipes. The right-hand plant shows how the 
veil is ripped up from the stem, and also shows the transversely elongate 
scales on the cap. For details see text (natural size). Copyright. 



center, or of tawny olive in the center of other specimens. The 
pileus is viscid, strongly so when moist. It is finely striate on the 
margin, and covered with numerous, white, floccose scales from the 
upper half of the volva, forming more or less dense patches, which 
may wash off in heavy rains. The gills are rounded next the stem, 
and quite remote from it. The edge of the gills is often eroded or 
frazzly from the torn out threads with which they were loosely con- 
nected to the upper side of the veil in the young or button stage. 
The spores are globose 
or nearly so, with a 
large *' nucleus " nearly 
filling the spore. 

The stem is cylin- 
drical, even, and ex- 
panded below into quite 
a large oval bulb, the 
stem just above the 
bulb being margined by 
a close fitting roll of the 
volva, and the upper 
edge of this presenting 
the appearance of hav- 
ing been sewed at the 
top like the rolled edge 
of a garment or buskin. 
The surface of the stem 
is minutely floccose 
scaly or strongly so, 
and decidedly hollow 
even from a very young 
stage, or sometimes 
when young with loose 
threads in the cavity. 

Figures 68-70, from plants (No. 3715, C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899, illustrate certain 
of the features in the form and development of this plant. 

In Amanita frostiana the remains of the volva sometimes form a 
similar collar, but not so stout, on the base of the stem. The varia- 
tions in A. frostiana where the stem, annulus and gills are white 
might suggest that there is a close relationship between A. frostiana 
and A. cothurnata, and that the latter is only a form of the former. 
From a careful study of the two plants growing side by side the 

Figure 69. — Amanita cothurnata. Different stages opening up 
of plant, the two center ones showing veil being ripped from 
stem, but veil narrow The right-hand illustration has been 
scratched transversely, these marks not being characteristic 
of the plant (natural size). Copyright. 



evidence is convincing that the two are distinct. Amanita fro stiana 
occurs also at Blowing Rock, appearing earlier in the season than 
A. cothurnata, and also being contemporary with it. A. frostiana is 
more variable, not nearly so viscid, nor nearly so abundant, the 
stem is solid or stuffed, the annulus is more frail and evolved from 
the stem in a different manner. The volva does not leave such a 
constant and well defined roll where it separated on the stem trans- 
versely, and the pileus is yellow or orange. When A. cothurnata is 

yellowish at all it is a 
different tint of yellow 
and then only a tinge 
of yellow atthe center. 
Albino or faded forms 
of A. frostiana might 
occur, but we would 
not expect them to ap- 
pear at a definite 
season of the year in 
great abundance while 
the normal form, show- 
ing no intergrading 
specimens in the same 
locality, continued to 
appear in the same 
abundance and with 
the same characters 
as before. The dried 
plants of A. cothurnata 
are apt to become 
tinged with yellow on 
the gills, the upper 
part of the stem and 
upper part of the an- 
nulus during the processes of drying, but the pileus does not change 
in like manner, nor do these plants show traces of yellow on these 
parts when fresh. The spores are also decidedly different, though 
the shape and size do not differ to any great extent, in A. frostiana 
and the pale forms of the species the spores are nearly globose or 
oval, rarely with a tendency to become elliptical, but the content is 
quite constantly finely' granular, while the spores of A. cothurnata are 
perhaps more constantly globose or nearly so, but the spore is nearly 
filled with a highly refractive oil globule or " nucleus." The pileus of 

Figure 70.— Amanita cothurnata. Two plants in section show 
ing clearly hollow stem, veil attachment, etc. (natural size) 



A.Jrostiana is also thinner than that of A. cothiirnata. It is nearer, 
in some respects, to specimens of Amanita pantherina received from 
Bresadola, of Austria-Hungary. 

Amanita spreta Pk. Said to be Poisonous. — According to Peck this 
species grows in open or bushy places. The specimens illustrated 
in Fig. 71 grew in sandy ground by the roadside near trees in the 
edge of an open field at Blowing Rock, N. C, and others were found 
in a grove. The plants are 10-15 cm. high, the caps 6-12 cm. 
broad, and the stems 8-12 mm. in thickness. The pileus is convex 

Figure 71. — Amanita spreta. The two outside plants show the free limb of the 
volva lying close against the stem (natural size, often larger). Copyright. 

to expanded, gray or light drab, and darker on the center, or 
according to Dr. Peck it may be white. It is smooth, or with only 
a few remnants of the volva, striate on the margin, and 1-.5 cm. 
thick at the center. The gills are white, adnexed, that is they reach 
the stem by their upper angle. The stem is of the same color as the 
pileus, but somewhat lighter, white to light gray or light drab, 
cylindrical, not bulbous, hollow or stuffed. The annulus is thin and 
attached above the middle of the stem. The volva is sordid white, 
and sheathes the stem with a long free limb of 3-5 lobes. It splits at 


the apex, but portions sometimes cling to the surface of the pileus. 

Figure 71 is from plants (No. 3707, C. U.) collected at Blowing 
Rock, N. C, September, 1899. 

Amanita caesarea Scop. Edible, but use great caution. — This plant 
is known as the orange amanita, royal agaric, Caesar's agaric, etc. 
It is one of the most beautiful of all the agarics, and is well dis- 
tributed over the earth. With us it is more common in the Southern 
States. It occurs in the summer and early autumn in the woods. 
It is easily recognized by its usually large size, yellow or orange 
color of the cap, gills, stem and ring, and the prominent, white, 
sac-like volva at the base of the stem. It is usually 12-20 cm. high, 
the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stems 6-10 mm. in thickness, 
though it may exceed this size, and depauperate forms are met with 
which are much smaller. 

The pileus is ovate to bell-shaped, convex, and finally more or less 
expanded, when the surface may be nearl}^ flat or the center may be 
somewhat elevated or umbonate and the margin curved downward. 
The surface is smooth except at the margin, where it is prominently 
striate. The color varies from orange to reddish or yellow, usually 
the well developed and larger specimens have the deeper and richer 
colors, while the smaller specimens have the lighter colors, and the 
color is usually deeper on the center of the pileus. The gills are 
yellow, and free from the stem. The stem is hollow, even in young 
plants, when it may be stuffed with loose threads. It is often very 
tloccose scaly below the annulus. It is cylindrical, only slightly 
enlarged below, where it is covered by the large, fleshy, sac-like 
white volva. The annulus is membranaceous, large, and hangs like 
a broad collar from the upper part of the stem. The stem and ring 
are orange or yellow, the depth of the color varying more with the 
size of the plant than is the case with the color of the cap. In small 
specimens the stem is often white, especially in depauperate speci- 
mens are the stem and annulus white, and even the gills are white 
when the volva may be so reduced as to make it difficult to distinguish 
the specimens from similar specimens of the poisonous fly agaric. 

In the button stage the plant is ovate and the white color of the 
volva, which at this time entirely surrounds the plants, presents an 
appearance not unlike that of an egg. The volva splits open at the 
apex as the stem elongates. The veil is often connected by loose 
threads with the outer portion of the stem and as the pileus expands this 
is torn away, leaving coarse tloccose scales on the stem. Some of the 
different stages in the opening of the plant are shown in Fig. ji. 
This illustration is taken from a photograph of plants (No. 3726, C. 




V. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, September, 1899. 
The plant is said to be one of the best esculents, and has been prized 
as an article of food from 
ancient times. Great cau- 
tion should be used in dis- 
tinguishing it from the tly 
agaric and from other ama- 

Amanita rubescens Fr. 
Edible, but use great cau- 
tion. — The reddish amanita, 
Amanita rubescens, is so 
called because of the sordid 
reddish color diffused over 
the entire plant, and espec- 
ially because bruised por- 
tions quickly change to a 
reddish color. The plant 
is often quite large, from 
12-20 cm. high, the cap 
8-12 cm. broad and the 
stem 8-12 mm. in thick- 
ness, but it is sometimes 
much smaller. it occurs 
during the latter part of 
the summer and in early 
autumn, in woods and open 

The pileus is oval to 
convex, and becoming ex- 
panded when old. It is 
smooth or faintly striate on 
the margin, and covered 
with numerous scattered, 
thin, floccose, grayish 
scales, forming remnants of 
the larger part of the volva 
or outer veil. The color of 
the cap varies correspond- 
ingly, but is always tinged 
red, or brownish red hues, 
free from the stem. The stem is nearly cylindrical, tapering some 

Figure 73. — Amanita rubescens. Plant partly expanded. 
Dull reddish brown, stains reddish where bruised ; for 
other details see text (natural size). Copyright. 

more or less distinctly with pink, 
The gills are white or whitish and 


above, and with a prominent bulb which often tapers abruptly below. 
In addition to the suffused dull reddish color the stem is often stained 
with red, especially where handled or touched by some object. There 
are very few evidences of the volva on the stem since the volva is so 
floccose and torn into loose fragments, most of which remain on the 
surface of the cap. Sometimes a few of these loose fragments are seen 
on the upper portion of the bulb, but they are easily removed by 
handling or by rains. The annulus is membranous, broad, and fragile. 

Since the plant has become well known it is regarded as excel- 
lent and wholesome for food and pleasant to the taste. In case of 
the larger specimens there should be no difficulty in distinguishing it 
from others by those who care to compare the descriptions closely 
with the fresh specimens. But as in all cases beginners should use 
extreme caution in eating plants they have not become thoroughly 
familiar with. Small specimens of this species sometimes show but 
little of the reddish color, and are therefore difficult to determine. 

Figures 73 and 74 are from plants (No. 3727 C. U. herbarium) 
collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

Amanita solitaria Bull. Edible, but use caution. — The solitary 
amanita, like many other plants, is not always true to its name. 
While it often occurs solitary, it does occur sometimes in groups. It 
is one of the largest of the amanitas. Its large size, together with its 
chalky white or grayish white color, and ragged or shaggy appear- 
ance, makes it a striking object in the woods, or along roadsides in 
woods where it grows. Frequently parts of the cap, the entire stem 
and the gills are covered with a white, crumbly, floccose substance 
of a mealy consistency which often sticks to the hands or other ob- 
jects. The plant ranges from 15-20 cm. or more high, the cap from 
8-15 cm. broad, and the stems are 1-2 cm. or more in thickness. 

In form the pileus ranges from nearly globose in the button stage, 
to hemispherical, convex and expanded, when quite old the margin 
becoming more or less elevated. It is covered either with flaky or 
floccose portions of the volva, or with more or less distinct conic 
white scales, especially toward the center. The conic scales are 
easily rubbed off in handling or are easily washed off by rains. 
Many of them are loosened and fall because of the tension produced 
by the expanding pileus on the surface of which they rest. These 
scales vary in size from quite small ones, appearing like granules, to 
those fewer in number and larger, 3 mm. high and nearly as broad 
at the base. In other cases the scales are harder and stouter and 
dark colored. These forms will be discussed after the description of 
the other parts of the plant. 



The gills are free, or are only attached by the upper inner angle ; 
the edges are often tloccose where they are torn from the slight union 
with the upper surface of the veil. The stem is cylindrical, solid or 
stuffed when old, enlarged usually below into a prominent bulb which 
then tapers into a more or less elongated root-like process, sometimes 
extending 5-10 cm. in the ground below the bulb. In rare cases the 
bulb is not present, but the cylindrical stem extends for a consider- 
able distance into the ground. The veil is a very interesting part of 
the plant and the manner in which it forms and disappears as the 
cap expands is worth a careful study. This is well shown in Figs. 
75, 76, from photographs of plants (No. 3731 C. U. herbarium) made 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

During the latter part of August and the first three weeks of Sep- 
tember the plants were quite common in the mountain woods at 
Blowing Rock. In certain features there was close agreement in the 
case of all the specimens examined, especially in the long rooting 
character of the base of the stem. The veil and annulus were also 
quite constant in their characters, though sometimes a tendency was 
manifested to split up more irregularly than at other times. In the 
character of the warts of the pileus there was great variation, show- 
ing typical forms of A7nanita solitaria and grading into forms which 
might be taken for typical Amanita strobiliformis. Especially is this 
so in the case of some of my specimens (No. 3733), where the scales 
are pyramidal, dark brown, surrounded by a sordid buff or grayish 
area, and these latter areas separated by narrow chinks whitish in 
color. The scales in this specimen are fixed quite firmly to the sur- 
face of the pileus. In other specimens (No. 3732) these hard scales 
remove quite easily, while in still another the pileus is almost smooth, 
even the floccose scales having been obliterated, while a very few of 
the hard angular warts are still present. In another half expanded 
plant (of No. 3732) the warts are pyramidal, 4-6 mm. long at the cen- 
ter of the pileus and rather closely imbricated, hard, and firmly joined 
to the surface of the cap. In Nos. 3733 and 3731 the spores meas- 
ure 7-9 x 4-6 yw. In 3732 they are longer, varying from 7-1 1 f.i. 

The specimens with the long hard scales suggest Amanita stro- 
biliformis Vittad., but the long rooting base of the stem does not agree 
with the description of that plant, but does clearly agree with Amanita 
solitaria Bull. A study of the variations in these plants suggests 
that Amanita solitaria and strobiliformis Vittad., represent only varia- 
tions in a single species as Bulliard interpreted the species more than 
a century ago. Forms of the plant are also found which suggest that 


A.pofypyramis B. & C, collected in North Carolina, is but one of the 
variations of A. solitaria. 

Figures 75, 76 show well certain stages in the development of 
this plant. The conical or pyramidal warts are formed in a very 
young stage of the plant by the primary separation of the outer part 
of the volva, and as the pileus expands more, and the cessation of 
growth of the outer veil proceeds inward, the scales become more 
widely separated at the apex and broader at the base. In some 
cases the volva is probably thinner than in others, and with the 
rapid expansion of the pileus in wet weather the scales would be 
smaller, or more tloccose. But with different conditions, when it is 
not so wet, the plant expands less rapidly, the surface of the pileus 
becomes drier, the volva layer does not separate so readily and the 
fissures between the scales proceed deeper, and sometimes probably 
enter the surface of the pileus, so that the size of the warts is aug- 
mented. A similar state of things sometimes takes place on the 
base of the stem at the upper margin of the bulb, where the con- 
centric fissures may extend to some distance in the stem, making the 
scales here more prominent in some specimens than in others. A 
similar variation in the character of the scales on the bulb of Amanita 
muscaria is sometimes presented. 

The veil is often loosely attached to the edges of the gills, and so 
is stripped off from the stem quite early. Sometimes it is more 
strongly adherent to the stem, or portions of it may be, when it is 
very irregularly ruptured as it is peeled off from the stem, as 
shown in the plant near the left side in Fig. 75. The veil is very 
fragile and often tears a little distance from the margin of the cap, 
while the portion attached to the stem forms the annulus. This 
condition is shown in the case of three plants in Fig. 75. The plant 
is said to be edible. 


This genus has white spores, and a volva, but the annulus and 
inner veil are wanting. In other respects it agrees with Amanita. 
It is considered as a subgenus of Amanita by some. 

Amanitopsis vaginata (Bull.) Roz. Edible. — The sheathed amani- 
topsis, A. vaginata, is a quite common and widely distributed plant 
in woods. It is well named since the prominent volva forms a large 
sheath to the cylindrical base of the stem. The plant occurs in 
several forms, a gray or mouse colored form, and a brownish or 
fulvous form", and sometimes nearly white. These forms are recog- 

Plate 22, Figure 76. — Amanita solitaria. Three plants, 34 natural size. Copyright. 

.. > 






nized by some as varieties, and by others as^ species. The plants 
are 8-15 cm. high, the caps 3-7 cm. broad, and the stems 5-8 mm. 
in thickness. 

The pileus is from ovate to bell-shaped, then convex and expanded, 
smooth, rarely with fragments of the volva on the surface. The 
margin is thin and marked by deep furrows and ridges, so that it is 
deeply striate, or the terms sulcate or pectinate sulcate are used to 
express the character of the margin. The term pectinate sulcate is 
employed on account of a series of small elevations on the ridges, 
giving them a pectinate, or comb-like, appearance. The color varies 
from gray to mouse color, brown, or ochraceous brown. The flesh 
is white. The gills are white or nearly so, and free. The spores 
are globose, 7-10 /^ in diameter. The stem is cylindrical, even, or 
slightly tapering upward, hollow or stuffed, not bulbous, smooth, or 
with mealy particles or prominent floccose scales. These scales are 
formed by the separation of the edges of the gills from the surface of 
the stem, to which they are closely applied before the pileus begins 
to expand. Threads of mycelium growing from the edge of the 
lamella and from the stem intermingle. When the pileus expands 
these are torn asunder, or by their pull tear up the outer surface of 
the stem. The volva forms a prominent sheath which is usually 
quite soft and easily collapses (Fig. j-j^. 

The entire plant is very brittle and fragile. It is considered an 
excellent one for food. I often eat it raw when collecting. 

Authors differ as to the number of species recognized in the plant 
as described above. Secretan recognized as many as ten species. 
The two prominent color forms are quite often recognized as two 
species, or by others as varieties ; the gray or mouse colored form 
as A. livida Pers., and the tawny form as A. spadicea Pers. Ac- 
cording to Fries and others the livida appears earlier in the season 
than spadicea, and this fact is recognized by some as entitling the two 
to specific rank. Plovvright (Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, p. 40, 
1897-98) points out that in European forms of spadicea there is a 
second volva inside the outer, and in livida there are ''folds or 
wrinkles of considerable size on the inner surface of the volva." 
He thinks the two entitled to specific rank. At Ithaca and in the 
mountains of North Carolina I have found both forms appearing at 
the same season, and thus far ha\-e been unable to detect the differ- 
ences noted by Plowright in the volva. But 1 have never found 
intergrading color forms, and have not yet satisfied myself as to 
whether or not the two should be entitled to specific rank. 

Some of the other species of Amanitopsis found in this countr\- 



are A. nivalis Grev., an entirely white plant regarded by some as 
only a white form of A. vagioata. Another white plant is A. volvata 
Pk., which has elliptical spores, and is striate on the margin instead 
of sulcate. 

Amanitopsis farinosa Schw. — The mealy agaric, or powdery ama- 
nita, is a pretty little species. It was first collected and described 
from North Carolina by de Schweinitz (Synop. fung. Car. No. 552, 
1822), and the specimens illustrated in Fig. 78 were collected by me 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. Peck has given 
in the 33rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 49, an excellent description 

P'iGURE 78. — Amanitopsis farinosa. Cap grayish (natural size). Copyright. 

of the plant, though it often exceeds somewhat the height given by 
him. It ranges from 5-8 or 10 cm. high, the cap from 2-3 cm. broad, 
and the stem 3-6 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is from subglobose to convex and expanded, becoming 
nearly plane or even depressed by the elevation of the margin in old 
specimens. The color is gray or grayish brown, or mouse colored. 
The pileus is thin, and deeply striate on the margin, covered with a 
grayish floccose, powdery or mealy substance, the remnant of the 
evanescent volva. This substance is denser at the center and is 
easily rubbed off. The gills are white and free from the stem. The 


spores are subglobose and ovate to elliptical, 6-7 // long. The stem is 
cylindrical, even, hollow or stuffed, whitish or gray and very slightly 
enlarged at the base into a small rounded bulb which is quite constant 
and characteristic, and at first is covered on its upper margin by the 
tloccose matter from the volva. 

At Blowing Rock the plants occurred in sandy soil by roadsides 
or in open woods. In habit it resembles strikingly forms of Amani- 
topsis vaginata, but the volva is entirely different (Fig. 78). Although 
A. vaginata was common in the same locality, 1 searched in vain for 
intermediate forms which I thought might be found. Sometime: the 
tloccose matter would cling together more or less, and portions of 
it remained as patches on the lower part of the stem, while depau- 
perate forms of A. vaginata would have a somewhat reduced volva, 
but in no case did 1 find intermediate stages between the two kinds 
of volva. 


The genus Lepiota lacks a volva, but the veil is present forming 
a ring on the stem. The genus is closely related to Amanita, from 
which it differs in the absence of the volva, or perhaps more properly 
speaking in the fact that the universal veil is firmly connected 
(concrete with) with the pileus, and with the base of the stem, so 
that a volva is not formed. The gills are usually free from the stem, 
some being simply adnexed, but in some species connected with a 
collar near the stem. The stem is fleshy and is easily separable from 
the cap. A number of the species are edible. Peck, 35th Report 
N. Y. State Mus., p. 150-164, describes 18 species. Lloyd, Mycol. 
Notes, November, 1898, describes 9 species. 

Lepiota naucina Fr. {Lepiota naucinoides Pk., Annularia Icevis 
Krombh.) Edible. — The smooth lepiota, L. naucina, grows in lawns, 
in pastures and by roadsides, etc. It occurs during the latter part of 
summer and during autumn, being more abundant in September and 
early October. It is entirely white, or the cap is sometimes buff, 
and in age the gills become dirty pink in color. It is from 8-12 cm. 
high, the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 8-15 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is very fleshy, nearly globose, then convex to nearly 
expanded, smooth, or rarely the surface is broken into minute scales. 
The gills are first white, free from the stem, and in age assume a dull 
pink tinge. The spores are usually white in mass, but rarely when 
caught on white paper they show a faint pink tinge. The spores 
are elliptical to oval. The stem is nearly cylindrical, gradually 
enlarging below so that it is clavate, nearly hollow or stuffed with 
loose threads. 



Since the plant occurs in the same situations as the Agaricus 
campestris it might be mistaken for it, especially for white forms. 
But of course no harm could come by eating it by mistake for the 
common mushroom, for it is valued just as highly for food by some 
who have eaten it. If one should look at the gills, however, they 
would not likely mistake it for the common mushroom because the 
gills become pink only when the plant is well expanded and quite 
old. There is much more danger in mistaking it for the white 
amanitas, A. phalloides, A. verna, or A. virosa, since the gills of these 
deadly plants are white, and they do sometimes grow in lawns and 

Figure 8o. — Lepiota naucina. — Section of three plants, different ages. 

Other grassy places where the smooth lepiota and the common 
mushroom grow. For this reason one should study the descriptions 
and illustrations of these amanitas given on preceding pages, and 
especially should the suggestions given there about care in collecting 
plants be followed, until one is so certainly familiar with the 
characters that the plants would be known "on sight." 

The pink color of the gills of this lepiota has led certain students 
of the fungi into mistakes of another kind. This pink color of the 
gills has led some to place the plant among the rosy spored agarics 
in the genus Annularia, where it was named Annularia Icvvis by 
Krombholtz (vide Bresadola Funghi Mangerecci e velenosi, p. 29, 

P U D [ 
Plate 25, Figure 81. — Lepiota procera. Grayish brown to reddish brown, gills and flesh 
white (3/4 natural size). Copyright. 


1899). It fits the description of that plant exactly. The pink color 
of the gills, as well as the fact that the gills turn brownish when dry, 
has led to a confusion in some cases of the Lepiota naiicina with the 
chalky agaric, Agariciis cretaceus. The external resemblance of the 
plants, as shown in various illustrations, is very striking, and in the 
chalky agaric the gills remain pink very late, only becoming brown 
when very old. 

Lepiota procera Scop. Edible. — The parasol mushroom, Lepiota 
procera, grows in pastures, lawns, gardens, along roadsides, or in thin 
woods, or in gardens. It is a large and handsome plant and when 
expanded seems not inappropriately named. It is from 12-20 cm. or 
more high, the cap expands from 5-12 cm., while the stem is 4-7 mm. 
in thickness. It occurs during summer and in early autumn. 

The pileus is oval, then bell-shaped, convex and nearly expanded, 
with usually a more or less prominent elevation (umbo) at the 
center. Sometimes it is depressed at the center. It is grayish 
brown or reddish brown in color on the surface and the flesh is 
whitish. As the cap expands the surface layer ceases to grow and 
is therefore cracked, first narrow chinks appearing, showing white or 
grayish threads underneath. As the cap becomes more expanded 
the brown surface is torn into scales, which give the cap a more or 
less shaggy appearance except on the umbo, where the color is more 
uniform. The torn surface of the pileus shows numerous radiating 
fibres, and it is soft and yielding to the touch. The gills are remote 
from the stem, broad and crowded. The spores are long, elliptical, 
12-17 1^ loi^g- The stem is cylindrical, hollow, or stuffed, even, 
enlarged below into a prominent bulb, of the same color as the pileus, 
though paler, especially above the annulus. The surface is usually 
cracked into numerous small scales, the chinks between showing the 
white inner portion of the stem. The ring is stout, narrow, usually 
quite free from the stem, so that it can be moved up and down on 
the stem, and is called a movable ring. 

Figure 81 is from plants (No. 3842, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in a garden at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

A closely related plant, Lepiota rachodes Vitt., has smaller spores, 
9-12 X 7-9 fj.. It is also edible, and by some considered only a variety 
of L. procera. It is rare in this country, but appears about Boston 
in considerable quantities *Mn or near greenhouses or in enriched 
soil out of doors," where it has the appearance of an introduced 
plant (Webster, Rhodora, 1: 226, 1899). It is a much stouter plant 
than L. procera, the pileus usually depressed, much more coarsely 
scaly, and usually grows in dense clusters, while L. procera usually 


occurs singly or scattered, is more slender, often umbonate. L. 
rachodes has a veil with a double edge, the edges more or less fringed. 
The veil is fixed to the stem until the plant is quite mature, when it 
becomes movable. The flesh of the plant on exposure to the air 
becomes a brownish orange tint. 

Lepiota morgan! Pk. — This plant occurs from Ohio, southward and 
west. It grows in grassy places, especially in wet pastures. It is 

Figure 82. — Lepiota americana. Scales and center of cap reddish or 
reddish brown. Entire plant turns reddish on drying (natural size). 

one of the largest of the lepiotas, ranging from 20-40 cm. high, the 
cap 20-30 cm. broad, and the stem about 2 cm. in thickness. The 
pileus, when fully expanded, is whitish, with large dark scales, 
especially toward the center. The ring is large, sometimes movable, 
and the gills and spores are greenish. Some report the plant as 
edible, while others say illness results from eating it. 

Lepiota americana Pk. Edible. — This plant is widely distributed in 
the United States. The plants occur singly or are clustered, 6-12 


cm. high, the cap 4-10 cm. broad, and the stem 4-10 mm. in thick- 
ness. The cap is adorned with reddish or reddish brown scales 
except on the center, where the color is uniform because the surface 
is not broken up into scales. The flesh is white, but changes to 
reddish when cut or bruised, and the whole plant becomes reddish 
on drying. 

Figure 82 is from plants (No. 2718, C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Ithaca. 

The European plant, L. badhami, also reported in this country, 
changes to a brownish red. It is believed by some to be identical 
with L. americana. 

Figure 'St,. — Lepiota cristata. Entirely white, but scales grayish or pinkish brown, 
stem often flesh color (natural size). Copyright. 

Lepiota acutesquamosa Weinm. — This is a medium or small sized 
plant with a floccose pileus adorned with small, acute, erect scales, 
and has a loose, hairy or wooly veil which is often torn irregularly. 
The erect scales fall away from the pileus and leave little scars 
where they were attached. 

Lepiota cristata A. & S. Edible. — -The crested lepiota, Lepiota cris- 
tata, occurs in grassy places and borders of woods, in groves, etc., 
from May to September, and is widely distributed. The plant is 
small, 3-5 cm. high, the cap 1-4 cm. broad, and the stem 2-5 mm. in 
thickness. It grows in clusters or is scattered. 

The pileus is ovate, bell-shaped, then convex and expanded, and 
thin. The surface is at first entirely dull reddish or reddish brown, 
but soon cracks into numerous scales of the same color arranged in a 
crested manner, more numerous between the margin and the center, 
and often arranged in a concentric manner. The center of the cap 


often preserves the uniform reddish brown color because the pileus 
at this point does not expand so much and therefore the surface does 
not crack, while the margin often becomes white because of the dis- 
appearance of the brown covering here. The gills are free from the 
stem, narrow, crowded, and close to the stem. The spores are more 
or less angular, elongated, more narrowed at one end, and measure 
5-8 X 3-4 yw. The stem is slender, cylindrical, hollow, whitish, 
smooth. The ring is small, white, and easily breaks up and disappears. 

The characters of the plant are well shown in Fig. 83 from plants 
collected at Ithaca. Lepiota angtistana Britz. is identical, and accord- 
ing to Morgan L. miamensis Morgan is a white form of L. angustana. 

Lepiota asperula Atkinson. — This lepiota resembles A. asper'm some 
respects, but it is smaller and the spores are much smaller, being very 
minute. The plant is 5-8 cm. high, the pileus 2-4 cm. broad, and the 
stem 4-6 mm. in thickness. It grows in leaf mould in the woods 
and has been found at Ithaca, N. Y., twice during July and Septem- 
ber, 1897. 

The pileus is convex and bell-shaped, becoming nearly or quite 
expanded. It is hair brown to olive brown in color. The surface is 
dry, made up of interwoven threads, and is adorned with numerous 
small, erect, pointed scales resembling in this respect A. asper Fr. 
The gills are white or yellowish, free, but rather close to the stem, 
narrow, often eroded on the edge, sometimes forked near the stem, 
and some of them arranged in pairs. The spores are oblong, smooth, 
and very minute, measuring 5 x 2 yw. The stem is the same color as 
the pileus, cylindrical, hollow, with loose threads in the cavity, en- 
larged into a rounded bulb below, minutely downy to pubescent. 
The outer portion of the bulb is formed of intricately interwoven 
threads, among which are entangled soil and humus particles. The 
veil is white, silky, hairy, separating from the stem like a dense cor- 
tina, the threads stretched both above and below as shown in Fig. 
84 from plants (No. 3157 C. U. herbarium), collected at Ithaca. 

In some specimens, as the pileus expands, the spaces between 
the pointed scales are torn, thus forming quite coarse scales which 
are often arranged in more or less concentric rows, showing the 
yellow-tinged flesh in the cracks, and the coarse scales bearing the 
fine point at the center. A layer connecting the margin of the pileus 
with the base of the stem and covered with fine brown points, some- 
times separates from the edge of the cap and the base of the stem, 
and clings partly to the cortina and partly to the stem in much the 
same way that portions of the volva cling to the stem of certain 
species of Amanita, as seen in A. velatipcs (Fig. 66). Sometimes 


this is left on the base of the stem and then resembles a short, free 
limb of a volva, and suggests a species of Amanita. The scales, 
however, are concrete with the pileus, and the species appears to 
show a closer relationship with Lepiota. 


In the genus Armillaria the inner veil which forms a ring on the 
stem is present. The stem is fibrous, or the outer portion cartilagin- 
ous in some species, and not easily separable from the substance of 
the pileus (continuous with the hymenophore), and the gills are 
attached to the stem, sinuate, or decurrent, spores white. Peck, 
43rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 40-45, describes 6 species. 

Some of the species resemble very closely certain species of Ama- 
nita or Lepiota, but can be distinguished by the firm continuity of 
the substance of the stem and cap. 

Armillaria raellea Vahl. Edible. — This is one of the most common of 
the late summer and autumn fungi, and is widely distributed over 
the world. It grows about the bases of old stumps or dead trees, or 
from buried roots. Sometimes it is found attached to the living roots 
of trees. The plant occurs in tufts or clusters, several to many indi- 
viduals growing together, the bases of their stems connected with a 
black rope-like strand from which they arise. The entire plant is 
often more or less honey colored, from which the plant gets its specific 
name. Its clustered habit, the usually prominent ring on the stems, 
and the sharp, blackish, erect scales which usually adorn the center 
of the cap, mark it as an easy plant to determine in most cases. 
The colors and markings, however, vary greatly, so that some of the 
forms are very puzzling. The plant varies in height from lo-i 5 cm., 
the cap from 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 4-10 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is oval to convex and expanded, sometimes with a slight 
umbo or elevation at the center. The color varies from honey color 
to nearly white, or yellowish brown to dull reddish brown, usually 
darker on the center. In typical forms the pileus is adorned with 
pointed dark brown, or blackish, erect, scales especially abundant 
over the center, while the margin is often free from them, but may 
be marked with looser floccose, brownish, or yellowish scales. Some- 
times there are no blackish pointed scales anywhere on the cap, only 
loose floccose colored scales, or in some forms the cap is entirely 
smooth. The margin in old specimens is often striate. The pileus 
is usually dry, but Webster cites an instance in which it was viscid 
in wet weather. 

The gills are attached to the stem squarely (adnate) or they are 


decurrent (extend downward on the stem), are white, or whitish, 
becoming in age more or less dingy or stained. The spores are 
rounded or elliptical, 6-9 yw. The stem is elastic, spongy within and 
sometimes hollow. It is smooth or often tloccose scaly below the 
ring, sometimes with prominent transverse bands of a hairy sub- 
stance. It is usually whitish near the upper end, but dull brown or 
reddish brown below the annulus, sometimes distinctly yellowish. 
The veil varies greatly also. It may be membranaceous and thin, or 
quite thick, or in other cases may be absent entirely. The ring of 
course varies in a corresponding manner. As shown in Fig. 85 it is 
quite thick, so that it appears double on the edge, where it broke 
away from the inner and outer surfaces of the margin of the cap. It 
is frequently fixed to the stem, that is, not movable, but when very 
thin and frail it often disappears. 

The honey colored agaric is said by nearly ail writers to be edible, 
though some condemn it. It is not one of the best since it is of rather 
tough consistency. It is a species of considerable economic import- 
ance and interest, since it is a parasite on certain coniferous trees, 
and perhaps also on certain of the broad-leaved trees. It attacks the 
roots of these trees, the mycelium making its way through the outer 
layer, and then it grows beneath the bark. Here it forms fan-like 
sheets of mycelium which advance along both away from the tree 
and towards the trunk. It disorganizes and breaks down the tissues 
of the root here, providing a space for a thicker growth of the mycel- 
ium as it becomes older. In places the mycelium forms rope-like 
strands, at first white in color, but later becoming dark brown and 
shining. These cords or strands, known as rhi:;^omorphs, extend for 
long distances underneath the bark of the root. They are also found 
growing in the hollow trunks of trees sometimes. In time enough 
of the roots are injured to kill the tree, or the roots are so weakened 
that heavy winds will blow the trees over. 

The fruiting plants always arise from these rhizomorphs, and by 
digging carefully around the bases of the stems one can find these 
cords with the stems attached, though the attachment is frail and 
the stems are easily separated from the cords. Often these cords 
grow for years without forming any fruit bodies. In this condition 
they are often found by stripping off the bark from dead and rotting 
logs in the woods. These cords were once supposed to be separate 
fungi, and they were known under the name Rhi^omorpha subcor- 

Armillaria aurantia Schaeff . ( Tricholoma peckii Howe) Suspected. — 
This is a very pretty species and rare in the United States. The 



plants are 6-8 cm. high, the cap 4-7 cm. broad, and the stem 6-8 
mm. in thickness. It occurs in woods. It is known by its viscid 
pileus, the orange brown or ochraceous rufus color of the pileus and 
stem, and the color of the stem being confined to the superficial layer, 
which becomes torn into concentric floccose scales, forming numerous 
minute floccose irregular rings of color around the stem. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, with an umbo, and the edge 
inrolled, fleshy, thin, viscid, ochraceous rufus (in specimens collected 

Figure 86. — Armillaria aurantia Schaeff. ( = Tricholoma peckii Howe). Cap 
orange-brown or ochraceous rufus, viscid ; floccose scales on stem same 
color (natural size). Copyright. 

by myself), darker on the umbo, and minutely scaly from tufts of 
hairs, and the viscid cuticle easily peeling off. The gills are narrow, 
crowded, slightly adnexed, or many free, white, becoming brown dis- 
colored where bruised, and in drying brownish or rufus. The spores 
are minute, globose to ovoid, or rarely sub-elliptical when a little 
longer, with a prominent oil globule usually, 3-3.5x3-5 yu, some- 
times a little longer when the elliptical forms are presented. The 
stem is straight or ascending, even, very floccose scaly as the pileus 
is unrolled from it, scales same color as the pileus, the scales running 



transversely, being separated perhaps by the elongation of the stem 
so that numerous floccose rings are formed, showing the white flesh 
of the stem between. The upper part of the stem, that above the 
annulus, is white, but the upper part floccose. 

This plant has been long known in Europe. There is a rather 
poor figure of it in Schaeffer Table 37, and a better one in Gillet 
Champignons de France, Hymenomycetes, I, opposite page 76, but 
a very good one in Bresadola Funghi Mangerecci e Velenosi, Tavel 
18, 1899. A good figure is also given by Barla, Les Champignons 

des Alpes — Mari- 
times, PI. 19, Figs. 
1-6. The plant was 
first reported from 
America in the 41st 
Report, State Muse- 
um, N. Y., p. 82, 
1888, under the name 
Trie ho lorn a peckii 
Howe , from the 
Catskill Mountains, 
N. Y. Figure 86 is 
from plants (No. 
3991, C. U. herbari- 
um) collected in the 
Blue Ridge moun- 
tains, at Blowing 
Rock, N. C, during 
September, 1899. 
The European and 
American description 
both ascribe a bitter 
taste to the flesh of the pileus, and it is regarded as suspicious. 

There does not seem to be a well formed annulus, the veil only 
being present in a rather young stage, as the inrolled margin of the 
pileus is unrolling from the surface of the stem. It seems to be more 
in the form of a universal veil resembling the veil of some of the 
lepiotas. It shows a relationship with Tricholoma which possesses in 
typical forms a delicate veil present only in the young stage. Per- 
haps for this reason it was referred by Howe to Tricholoma as an 
undescribed species when it was named T. peckii. If its affinities 
should prove to be with Tricholoma rather than with Armillaria, it 
would then be known as Tricholoma aiirantium. 

FiGURK 87. — Tricholoma personatum. Entire plant grayish brown, 
tinged with lilac or purple, spores light ochraceous (natural 
size, often larger). 




In the genus Tricholoma the volva and annulus are both wanting, 
the spores are white, and the gills are attached to the stem, but are 
more or less strongly notched or sinuate at the stem. Sometimes 
the notch is very slight. The stem is fleshy-fibrous, attached to the 
center of the pileus, and is usually short and stout. In some speci- 
mens when young there is a slight cobwebby veil which very soon 
disappears. The genus is a very large one. Some species are said 
to be poisonous and a few, are known to be edible. Peck, 44th 
Report, N. Y. State Mus., pp. 38-64, describes 46 species. 

Tricholoma person a = 
turn Fr. Edible.— This 
plant occurs during the 
autumn and persists up 
to the winter months. 
It grows on the ground 
in open places and in 
woods. The stem is 
short, usually 3-7 cm. 
long X 1-2 cm. in thick- 
ness, and the cap is 
from 5-10 cm. or more 
broad. The entire plant 
often has a lilac or pur- 
ple tint. 

The pileus is con- 
vex, expanded, moist, 
smooth, grayish to 
brownish tinged with 
lilac or purple, especi- 
ally when young, fading out in age. When young the pileus is 
sometimes adorned with white mealy particles, and when old the 
margin may be more or less upturned and wavy. The gills are 
crowded, rounded next the stem, and nearly free but close to the 
stem, violet or lilac when young, changing to dull reddish brown 
when old. The spores when caught in mass are dull pink or salmon 
color. They measure 7-9 yw long. The stem is solid, fibrous, 
smooth, deep lilac when young and retaining the lilac color longer 
than the pileus. Sometimes the base is bulbous as in Fig. ^j. 

This plant is regarded by all writers as one of the best of the 
edible fungi. Sometimes the pileus is water soaked and then the 

Figure 88, — Tricholoma personatum. Section (natural size). 



flavor is not so fine. The position of the plant is regarded as doubt- 
ful by some because of the more or less russety pink color of the 
spores when seen in mass, and the ease with which the gills sepa- 
rate from the pileus, characters which show its relationship to the 
genus Paxillus. 

Tricholoma sejunctum Sowerb. Edible. — This plant occurs on the 
ground in rather open woods during late summer and in the autumn. 
It is 8-12 cm. high, the cap 5-8 cm. broad, and the stem 10-15 mm. 
in thickness. 

Figure 89 — Tricholoma sejunctum. Cap light yellow, streaked with dark 
threads on the surface, viscid. Stem and gills white (natural size, often 
larger). Copyright. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, umbonate, viscid when moist, 
light yellow in color and streaked with dark threads in the surface. 
The flesh is white, and very fragile, differing in this respect from T. 
equestre, which it resembles in general form. The gills are broad, 
rather distant, broadly notched near the stem, and easily separating 
from the stem. The stem is solid, smooth and shining white. Figure 
89 is from plants collected at Ithaca. It is said to be edible. 

^ .2P 



The volva and annulus are wanting in this genus, and the spores 
are white. The stem is elastic, spongy within, the outside being 
elastic or fibrous, so that the fibres hold together well when the stem 
is twisted or broken, as in Tricholoma. The stem does not separate 
readily from the pileus, but the rather strong fibres are continuous 
with the substance of the pileus. The gills are narrowed toward the 
stem, joined squarely or decurrent (running down on the stem), very 
rarely some of them notched at the stem while others of the same 
plant are decurrent. In one species at least (C. laccata, by some 
placed in the genus Laccaria) the gills are often strongly notched or 
sinuate. The cap is usually plane, depressed, or funnel-shaped, 
many of the species having the latter form. The plants grow chiefly 
on the ground, though a number of species occur on dead wood. The 
genus contains a very large number of species. Peck describes ten 
species in the 23rd Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 76, et. seq., also 48th 
Report, p. 172, several species. Morgan, Jour. Cinn. Soc. Nat. Hist. 
6:70-73, describes 12 species. 

Clitocybe Candida Bres. Edible. — This is one of the large species of 
the genus. It occurs in late autumn in Europe. It has been found 
on several occasions during late autumn at Ithaca, N. Y., on the 
ground in open woods, during wet weather. It occurs in clusters, 
though the specimens are usually not crowded. The stem is usually 
very short, 2-4 cm. long, and 2-3 cm. in thickness, while the cap is 
up to 10-18 cm. broad. 

The pileus is sometimes regular, but often very irregular, and 
produced much more strongly on one side than on the other. It is 
convex, then expanded, the margin first incurved and finally wavy 
and often somewhat lobed. The color is white or light buff in age. 
The flesh is thick and white. The gills are white, stout, broad, 
somewhat decurrent, some adnate. 

The taste is not unpleasant when raw, and when cooked it is 
agreeable. I have eaten it on several occasions. Figures 90, 91 are 
from plants (No. 4612 C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca. 

Clitocybe laccata Scop. Edible. — This plant is a very common and 
widely distributed one, growing in woods, fields, roadsides and other 
waste places. It is usually quite easily recognized from the whitish 
scurfy cap, the pink or purplish gills, though the spores are white, 
from the gills being either decurrent, adnate, or more or less strongly 
notched, and the stem fibrous and whitish or of a pale pink color. 
When the plants are mature the pale red or pink gills appear 


mealy from being covered with tlie numerous white spores. 

The pileus is thin, convex or later expanded, of a watery appear- 
ance, nearly smooth or scurfy or slightly squamulose. The spores are 
rounded, and possess spine-like processes, or are prominently rough- 
ened. In the warty character of the spores this species differs from 
most of the species of the genus Clitocybe, and some writers place it in a 
different genus erected to accommodate the species of Clitocybe which 
have warty or spiny spores. The species with spiny spores are few. 
The genus in which this plant is placed by some is Laccaria, and 
then the plant is called Laccaria laccata. There are several other 
species of Clitocybe which are common and which one is apt to run 
across often, especially in the woods. These are of the funnel form 
type, the cap being more or less funnel-shaped. Clitocybe infundibuU= 
formis Schaeffer is one of these. The cap, when mature, is pale red 
or tan color, fading out in age. It is 5-7 cm. high, and the cap 2-4 
cm. broad. It is considered delicious. Clitocybe cyathiformis, as its 
name indicates, is similar in form, and occurs in woods. The pileus 
is of a darker color, dark brown or smoky in color. 

Clitocybe illudens Schw. Not Edible. — This species is distributed 
through the Eastern United States and sometimes is very abundant. 
It occurs from July to October about the bases of old stumps, dead 
trees, or from underground roots. It is one of the large species, the 
cap being 15-20 cm. broad, the stem 12-20 cm. long, and 8-12 mm. 
in thickness. It occurs in large clusters, several or many joined at 
their bases. From the rich saffron yellow color of all parts of the 
plant, and especially by its strong phosphorescence, so evident in the 
dark, it is an easy plant to recognize. Because of its phosphorescence 
it is sometimes called ''Jack-my-lantern." 

The pileus is convex, then expanded, and depressed, sometimes 
with a small umbo, smooth, often irregular or eccentric from its 
crowded habit, and in age the margin of the pileus is wavy. The 
flesh is thick at the center and thin toward the margin. In old plants 
the color becomes sordid or brownish. The gills are broad, not 
crowded, decurrent, some extending for a considerable distance down 
on the stem while others for a less distance. The stem is solid, firm, 
smooth, and tapers toward the base. 

While the plant is not a dangerously poisonous one, it has 
occasioned serious cases of illness, acting as a violent emetic, and of 
course should be avoided. Its phosphorescence has often been 
observed. Another and much smaller plant, widely distributed in 
this country as well as Europe, and belonging to another genus, is 
also phosphorescent. It is Panus stipticus, a small white plant with 



a short lateral stem, growing on branches, stumps, trunks, etc. 
When freshly developed the phosphorescence is marked, but when 
the plants become old they often fail to show it. 

Figure 92. — Clitocybe illudens. Entire plant rich saffron yellow, old plants become 
sordid brown sometimes ; when fresh shows phosphorescence at night (2/3 natural 
size, often much larger). Copyright. 

Clitocybe multiceps Peck. Edible. — This plant is not uncommon dur- 
ing late summer and autumn. It usually grows in large tufts of 10 
to 30 or more individuals. The caps in such large clusters are often 
irregular from pressure. The plants are 6-12 cm. high, the caps 
5-10 cm. broad, and the stems 8-15 mm. in thickness. The pileus 
is white or gray, brownish gray or buff, smooth, dry, the flesh 


white. The gills are white, crowded, narrow at each end. The 
spores are smooth, globose, 5-7 yu in diameter. The stems are tough, 
fibrous, solid, tinged with the same color as cap. Fig. 93 is from 
plants (No. 5467, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, October 
14, 1900. 


In the genus Collybia the annulus and volva are both wanting, the 
spores are white, the gills are free or notched, or sinuate. The stem 
is either entirely cartilaginous or has a cartilaginous rind, while the 
central portion of the stem is fibrous, or fleshy, stuffed or fistulose. 
The pileus is fleshy and when the plants are young the margin of 
the pileus is incurved or inrolled, i. e., it does not lie straight against 
the stem as in Mycena. 

Many of the species of Collybia are quite firm and will revive 
somewhat after drying when moistened, but they are not coriaceous 
as in Marasmiiis, nor do they revive so thoroughly. It is difficult, 
however, to draw the line between the two genera. Twenty-five 
of the New York species of Collybia are described by Peck in the 
49th Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 32 et seq. Morgan describes 
twelve species in Jour. Cinn. Soc. Nat. Hist., 6: 70-73. 

Collybia radicata Rehl. EdiUle. — This is one of the common and 
widely distributed species of the genus. It occurs on the ground in 
the woods or groves or borders of woods. It is quite easily recog- 
nized by the more or less flattened cap, the long striate stem some- 
what enlarged below and then tapering off into a long, slender 
root-like process in the ground. It is from this '' rooting " character 
that the plant gets its specific name. It is 10-20 cm. high, the cap 
3-7 cm. broad, and the stem 4-8 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is fleshy, thin, convex to nearly plane, or even with 
the margin upturned in old plants, and the center sometimes 
umbonate. It is smooth, viscid when moist, and often with wrinkles 
on the surface which extend radially. The color varies from nearly 
white in some small specimens to grayish, grayish brown or umber. 
The flesh is white. The gills are white, broad, rather distant, 
adnexed, i. e., joined to the stem by the upper angle. The spores 
are elliptical and about 15 x 10 yu. The stem is the same color as the 
pileus though paler, and usually white above, tapers gradually above, 
is often striate or grooved, or sometimes only mealy. The long 
tapering '* root " is often attached to some underground dead root. 
Fig. 94 is from plants (No. 5641, C. U. herbarium) collected at 
Ithaca, August, 1900. 

Collybia velutipes Curt. Edible. — This is very common in woods or 

Plate 31, Fig, 94. — Collybia radicata. Caps grayish-brown to grayish and 
white in some small forms. (Natural size.) Copyright. 




groves during the autumn, on dead limbs or trunks, or from dead places 
in living ones. The plants are very viscid, and the stem, except in 
young plants, is velvety hairy with dark hairs. Figure 95 is from plants 
(No. 5430, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, October, 1900. 

Collybia longipes Bull., is a closely related plant. It is much 
larger, has a velvety, to hairy, -stem, and a much longer root-like 
process to the stem. It has been sometimes considered to be merely 
a variety of C. radicata, and may be only a large form of that species. 
I have found a few specimens in the Adirondack mountains, and one 
in the Blue Ridge mountains, which seem to belong to this species, 

Collybia platyphylla Fr. Edible. — This is a much larger and stouter 
plant than Collybia radicata, though it is not so tall as the larger 
specimens of that species. It occurs on rotten logs or on the ground 
about rotten logs and stumps in the woods from June to September. 
It is 8-12 cm. high, the cap 10-15 ^^- broad, and the stem about 2 
cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex becoming expanded, plane, and even the 
margin upturned in age. It is whitish, varying to grayish brown or 
dark brown, the center sometimes darker than the margin, as is 
usual in many plants. The surface of the pileus is often marked in 
radiating streaks by fine dark hairs. The gills are white, very 
broad, adnexed, and usually deeply and broadly notched next the 
stem. In age they are more or less broken and cracked. The spores 
are white, elliptical, 7-10x6-7/^. 

The plant resembles somewhat certain species of Tricholoma and 
care should be used in selecting it in order to avoid the suspected 
species of Tricholoma. 


The genus Mycena is closely related to Collybia. The plants are 
usually smaller, many of them being of small size, the cap is usually 
bell-shaped, rarely umbilicate, but what is a more important charac- 
ter the margin of the cap in the young stage is straight as it is applied 
against the stem, and not at first incurved as it is in Collybia, when 
the gills and margin of the pileus lie against the stem. The stem is 
cartilaginous as in Collybia, and is usually hollow or fistulose. The 
gills are not decurrent, or only slightly so by a tooth-like process. 
Some of the species are apt to be confused with certain species of 
Omphalia in which the gills are but slightly decurrent, but in Omphalia 
the pileus is umbilicate in such species, while in Mycena it is blunt 
or umbonate. The spores are white. A large number of the plants 
grow on leaves and wood, few on the ground. Some of those which 
grow on leaves might be mistaken for species of Marasmius, but in 



Marasmius the plants are of a tou 

FiGiRK 96. — Mycena polygramma, long-stemmed 
form growing on gromid ( =M. praelonga Pk.). 
Cap dark brown with a leaden tint, striate on 
margin ; stem finely and beautifully longitudi- 
nally striate (natural size). Copyright. 

gh consistency, and when dried will 
revive again if moistened with 

Some of the plants have dis- 
tinct odors, as alkaline, or the 
odor of radishes, and in collecting 
them notes should be made on 
all these characters which usually 
disappear in drying. A few of 
the plants exude a colored or 
watery juice when bruised, and 
should not be confounded with 
species of Lactarius. 

Mycena galericulata Scop. Edible. 
— Mycena galericulata grows on 
dead logs, stumps, branches, etc., 
in woods. It is a very common 
and very widely distributed 
species. It occurs from late 
spring to autumn. The plants 
are clustered, many growing in 
a compact group, the hairy bases 
closely joined and the stems usu- 
ally ascending. The plants are 
from 5-12 cm. high, the caps from 
1-3 cm. broad, and the slender 
stems 2-3 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is conic to bell- 
shaped, sometimes umbonate, 
striate to near the center, and in 
color some shade of brown or 
gray, but variable. The gills 
are decurrent by a tooth, not 
crowded, connected by veins over 
the interspaces, white or flesh 
colored. The slender stems are 
firm, hollow, and hairy at the 

Mycena polygramma Bull.— This 
plant is very closely related to M. 
galericulata, and has the same 
habit. It might be easily mistaken 


for it. It is easily distinguished by its peculiar bright, shining, longi- 
tudinally striate to sulcate stem. It usually grows on wood, but 
does occur on the ground, when it often has a very long stem. In 
this condition it was described by Peck in the 23rd Report, N. Y. 
State Mus., p. 81, as Mycena prcelonga, from plants collected in a 
sphagnum moor during the month of June. This form was also col- 
lected at Ithaca several times during late autumn in a woods near 
Ithaca, in 1898. The plants are from 12-20 cm. high, the cap 1-2 
cm. broad, and the stem 2-3 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is first nearly cylindrical, then conic, becoming bell- 
shaped and finally nearly expanded, when it is umbonate. It is 
smooth, striate on the margin, of a dark brown color with a leaden 
tint. The gills are narrow, white, adnate and slightly decurrent on 
the stem by a tooth. The very long stem is smooth, but marked 
with parallel grooves too fine to show in the photograph, firm, hollow, 
somewhat paler than the pileus, usually tinged with red, and hairy 
at the base. Figure 96 is from plants (No. 31 13 C. U. herbarium), 
collected in a woods near Ithaca in damp places among leaves. A 
number of the specimens collected were attacked by a parasitic mucor 
of the genus Spinellus. Two species, S. fusiger (Link.) van Tiegh., 
and 5. macrocarpus (Corda) Karst., were found, sometimes both on 
the same plant. The long-stalked sporangia bristle in all directions 
from the cap. 

Mycena pura Pers. — This plant is quite common and very widely 
distributed, and oc- 
curs in woods and 
grassy open places, 
during late summer 
and in the autumn. 
The entire plant is 
nearly of a uniform 
color, and the color 
varies from rose, to 
rose purple, violet, 
or lilac. Plants from 
the Blue Ridge 
mountains of North 
Carolina were chiefly 
rose purple, very 
young plants of a 

much deeoer color Figure 97. — Mycena pura. Entire plant rose, rose-purple, 
^ violet, or lilac. Striate on margin of pileus (natural 

(auricula purple of size, often much larger). 




Ridgeway), while those collected at Ithaca were violet. The 
plants vary from 5-8 cm. high, the cap 2-3 cm. broad, and the 
stem 2-4 mm. stout. The plants are scattered or somewhat clus- 
tered, sometimes occurring singly, and again many covering a small 
area of ground. 

The pileus is thin, conic, bell-shaped to 
convex and nearly expanded, sometimes 
with a small umbo, smooth, and finely 
striate on the margin, in age the stria^ some- 
times rugulose from the upturning of the 
margin. Sometimes the pileus is rugose on 
the center. The gills vary from white to 
violet, rose, etc., they are adnate to sinuate, 
and in age sometimes become free by break- 
ing away from the stem. They are broad 
in the middle, connected by vein-like eleva- 
tions over the surface, and sometimes wavy 
and crenate on the edge, the edge of the 
gills sometimes white. The spores are white, 
oblong, 2.5-3.5 X 6-7 yw, smooth. The 
basidia are cylindrical, 20-25 x 3-4 yu, four- 
spored. There are a few cystidia in the 
hymenium, colorless, thin walled, clavate, 
the portion above the hymenium cylindrical, 
and 30-40 X 10-12 fA, 

The stem is sometimes white when young, 
but later becomes of the same color as the 
pileus, often a lighter shade above. It is 
straight, or ascending, cylindrical, even, 
smooth, hollow, with a few white threads 
at the base. 

Sometimes on drying the pileus becomes 
deeper in color than when fresh. The gills 
also become deeper in color in drying, though 
the edge remains white if white when fresh. 
Figure 97 is from plants (No. 3946, C. U. 
herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, in August, 1899. 
The plants are often considerably larger than shown in the figure. 
Mycena epipterygia Scop. — This pretty little species is quite readily 
distinguished by the gray, conic or bell-shaped cap, the long, hollow, 
slender stem, and the viscid pellicle or skin which is quite easily 
peeled off from the stem or cap when moist. It grows in woods or 


ena epipterygia. 

Cap viscid, grayish, often tinged 
with yellowish or reddish in age, 
gills white, sometimes tinged with 
blue or red, stem yellowish, or same 
color as cap (natural size). Copy- 



grassy places, or among moss, etc., on the ground or on very rotten 
wood. The plants are from 5-10 cm. high, the cap 1-2 cm. broad, 
and the stem about 2 mm. in thickness. It is widely distributed in 
Europe, America, and other North temperate countries. 

The pileus is viscid when moist, ovate to conic or campanulate, 
and later more or less expanded, obtuse, the margin striate, and some- 
times minutely toothed. The usual color is grayish, but in age it often 
becomes reddish. The gills are decurrent by a small tooth, and quite 
variable in color, whitish, then gray, or tinged with blue or red. 

The stem is very slender, tlexuous, or straight, fistulose, tough, 
with soft hairs at the base, usually yellowish, sometimes the same 
color as the cap, and viscid like the cap when moist. Figure 98 is 
from plants (No. 4547, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca in 
August, 1899. 

Mycena vulgaris Pers. — This common and pretty species is easily 
recognized by its smoky or grayish color, the umbilicate pileus and 
very slimy stem. It grows on decaying leaves, sticks, etc., in woods. 
It occurs in clusters. The plants are small, 3-5 cm. high, the cap 
4-7 mm. broad, and the stem about 1.5 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is thin, bell-shaped, then convex, and depressed 
at the center, with a papilla usually in the center, fmely striate on 
the margin, and slightly viscid. The gills are white, thin, and finally 
decurrent, so that from 
the form of the cap and 
the decurrent gills the 
plant has much the ap- 
pearance of an Ompha- 
lia. The stem is \-ery 
viscid, grayish in color, 
often rooting at the 
base, and with white 
fibrils at the base, be- 
coming hollow. 

Figure 99 is from 
plants collected in woods 
near Ithaca, during 
August, 1899. 

Mycena acicula 
Schaeff. — This is one 
of the \'ery small my- 
cenas, and with the 
brilliant red pileus and 

Figure 99. — Mycena vulgaris. Entirely white, center 
of cap grayish, entire plant very slimy when moist 

(natural size). Copyright. 


yellow gills and stem it makes a very pretty object growing on 
leaves, twigs, or rotten wood in the forest. It occurs during sum- 
mer and autumn. It is 2-5 cm. high, the cap 2-4 mm. broad, and 
the stem is thread-like. 

The pileus is very thin, mem- 
branaceous, bell-shaped, then con- 
vex, when the pointed apex appears 
as a small umbo. It is smooth, striate 
on the margin, and of a rich vermil- 
ion or orange color. The gills are 
rounded at the stem and adnexed, 
rather broad in the middle, distant, 
yellow, the edge white, or sometimes 
the gills are entirely white. The 
stem is very slender, with a root-like 
Figure 100.— Mycenaacicuia. Cap process entering the rotten wood, 

brilliant red, gills and stem yel- ' ^ 

lowish (natural size). Copyright. smooth except the hairs on the root- 
like process, yellow. 

Figure 100 is from plants (No. 2780, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in a woods near Ithaca. It has been found here several times. 

Mycena cyanothrix Atkinson. — This is a very pretty plant growing 
on rotting wood in clusters, often two or three joined at the base, the 
base of the stem inserted in the rotten wood for 1-2 cm., and the 
base is clothed with blue, hair-like threads. The plants are 6-9 cm. 
high, the cap 1-2 cm. broad, and the stem not quite 2 mm. in 

The pileus is ovate to convex, viscid when young. The color is 
bright blue when young, becoming pale and whitish in age, with a 
tendency to fuscous on the center. The cap is smooth and the 
margin finely striate. After the plants have dried the color is nearly 
uniform ochraceous or tawny. The gills are close, free, narrow, 
white, then grayish white, the edge finely toothed or fimbriate. 
The spores are globose, smooth, 6-9 m- The stem is slender, hollow, 
faintly purple when young, becoming whitish or fiesh color, fiexuous, 
or nearly straight, even, often two united at the base into a root-like 
extension which enters the rotten wood. The base of the stem is 
covered with deep blue mycelium which retains its color in age, but 
disappears on drying after a time. Figure loi is from plants (No. 
2382, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, in woods, June 16, 1898. 

Mycena hsmatopa Pers. — This is one of the species of Mvccna with 
a red juice which exudes in drops where wounds occur on the plant. 
It is easily recognized by its dense cespitose habit, the deep blood 


red juice, the hollow stem, and the crenate or denticulate sterile 
margin of the cap. Numbers of the plant occur usually in a single 
cluster, and their bases are closely joined and hairy. The stems are 
more or less ascending according to the position of the plant on the 
wood. The plants are 5-10 cm. high, the cap is 1-2.5 cm. broad, 
and the stem 2-3 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is conic, then bell-shaped, and as the margin of the cap 

Figure ioi. — Mycena cyanothrix. Cap viscid when young, blue, be- 
coming pale and whitish in age, and fuscous in center; gills white; 
stem faintly purple when young, then flesh color or white, blue, 
clothed with blue hairs at base (natural size). Copyright. 

expands more appears umbonate, obtuse, smooth, even or somewhat 
striate on the margin. The color varies from whitish to flesh color, 
or dull red, and appears more or less saturated with a red juice. 
The thin margin extends a short distance beyond the ends of the 
gills, and the margin is then beautifully crenate. The gills are 
adnate, and often extend down on the stem a short distance by a 
little tooth. The stem is firm, sometimes smooth, sometimes with 



minute hairs, at the base with long hairs, 
as that of the pileus. 

hollow, in color the same 

Figure 102. — Mycena haematopa. Dull red or flesh color, 
or whitish, a dull red juice exudes where broken or cut, 
margin of cap serrate with thin sterile flaps (natural 
size). Copyright. 

The color varies some- 
what, being darker in some 
plants than in others. In 
some plants the juice is more 
abundant and they bleed 
profusely when wounded, 
while in other cases there 
is but little of the juice, 
sometimes wounds only 
showing a change in color 
to a deep red without any 
free drops exuding. Figure 
102 is from plants collected 
at Ithaca, in August, 1899. 
It is widely distributed in 
Europe and North America. 

Mycena succosa Pk., 
another species of Mycena 
with a juice, occurs on very 
rotten wood in the woods. 
It is a small plant, dull 
white at first, but soon 
spotted with black, and 
turning black in handling 
or where bruised, and when 
dried. Wounds exude a 
**serum-like juice," and the 
wounds soon become black. 
It was described by Peck 
under Collyhia in the 25th 
Report, p. 74. 


The genus Omphalia is closely related to Mycena and Collybia. 
It differs from these mainly in the decurrent gills. In the small 
species of Mycena where the gills are slightly decurrent, the pileus is 
not umbilicate as it is in corresponding species of Omphalia. In some 
of the species of Omphalia the pileus is not umbilicate, but here the 
gills are plainly decurrent. The stem is cartilaginous. 



Omphalia campanella Batsch.— One of the most common and widely 
distributed species of the genus is 
the Httle bell -omphalia, Omphalia 
campanella. It occurs throughout 
the summer and autumn on dead 

or rotten logs, stumps, branches, "I- 

etc., in woods. It is often clustered, ^ 

large numbers covering a consider- !; 

able surface of the decaying log. -^ 

It is 1-3 cm. high, the cap 8-20 q 

mm. broad, and the stem very -5 

slender. i, 

The pileus is convex, umbilicate, ^ 

faintly striate, dull reddish yellow, % 

in damp weather with a watery ap- £. 

pearance. The gills are narrow, r 

yellow, connected by veins, strongly - 

curved because of the form of the % 

pileus, and then being decurrent on Z^ 

the stem. The stem is slender, often | 

ascending, brownish hairy toward | 

the base, and paler above. J- 

Omphalia epichysium Pers. — This ? 

plant occurs during the autumn in |; 

woods, growing usually on much c^ 

decayed wood, or sometimes appar- ^ 

ently on the ground. The smoky, ^ 

or dull gray color of the entire o 

plant, the depressed or funnel- 9- 

shaped pileus, and short, slender ^ 

stem serve to distinguish it. The ^ 

cap is 2-4 cm. broad, the plant is i' 
3-5 cm. high, and the stem 2-4 mm. 

in thickness. ? 

The pileus is convex, becoming a 

expanded, umbilicate or depressed 5r 
at the center or nearly funnel- 
shaped, smooth, smoky or gray 
with a saturated watery appearance, 
light gray or nearly white when dry. 

The gills are narrow, crowded, or a little decurrent. The slender 
stem is smooth, hollow, equal. Figure 104 is from plants (No. 3373, 




C. U. herbarium) collected in woods near Ithaca, N. Y., in the 
autumn of 1899. 


The genus Pleurotus is usually recognized without difficulty among 
the fleshy, white-spored agarics, because of the eccentric (not quite 
in the center of the pileus) or lateral stem, or by the pileus being 
attached at one side in a more or less shelving position, or in some 
species where the upper side of the pileus lies directly against the 
wood on which the plant is growing, and is then said to be resupinate. 

The gills are 
either decurrent 
downward ) on 
the stem, or in 
some species 
they are rounded 
or notched at the 
junction with the 
stem. There is 
no annulus, 
though some- 
times a veil, and 
the genus re- 
sembles both 
Tricholoma and 
Clitocybe, except 
for the position 
of the stem on 
the pileus. In 
Tricholoma and Clitocybe the stem is usually attached at the center, 
and the majority of the species grow on the ground, while the species 
of Pleurotus are especially characterized by growing on wood. Some 
species, at least, appear to grow from the ground, as in Pleurotus 
petaloides, which is sometimes found growing on buried roots or 
portions of decayed stumps which no longer show above ground. 
On the other hand species of Clitocybe, as in C. Candida (Fig. 91), 
often have an eccentric stem. This presents to us one of the many 
difficulties which students, especially beginners, of this group of 
fungi meet, and also suggests how unsatisfactory any arrangement 
of genera as yet proposed is. 

Pleurotus ulmarius Bull. Edible. — The elm pleurotus is so called 

[05. — Pleurotus ulmarius. Cap white, or with shades of yellow 
or brown near the center (natural size). Copyright. 


because it is often found growing on dead elm branches or trunks, or 
from wounds in living trees, but it is not confmed to the elm. It is a 
large species, easily distinguished from the oyster agaric and the 
other related species by its long stem attached usually near the center 
of the cap, and by the gills being rounded or notched at their inner 

Figure io6. — Pleurotus ulmarius. Under view and section (natural size). 


extremity. The cap is 5-12 cm. broad, the stem 5-10 cm. long, and 
1-2 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex, the margin incurved, then nearly expanded, 
smooth, firm, white or whitish, or with shades of yellow or brown on 
the center, and the tlesh is white. The gills are broad, rather distant, 


sinuate, white or nearly so. The spores are globose, 5-8 yu in diam- 
eter. The stem is firm, eccentric, usually curved because of its lat- 
eral attachment on the side of the tree, and the horizontal position 
of the pileus. 

The elm pleurotus has been long known as an edible fungus, and 
is regarded as an excellent one for food on account of its flavor and 
because of its large size. It occurs abundantly during the late 
autumn, and at this season of the year is usually well protected from 
the attacks of insects. It occurs in the woods, or fields, more fre- 
quently on dead trees. On shade trees which have been severely 
pruned, and are nearly or quite dead, it sometimes appears at the 
wounds, where limbs have been removed, in great abundance. In the 
plants shown in Fig. 105 the stems are strongly curved because the 
weight of the cap bore the plant downward. Sometimes when the 
plant is growing directly on the upper side of a branch or log, the 
stem may be central. 

Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Edible. — This plant is known as the oyster 
agaric, because the form of the plant sometimes suggests the outline 
of an oyster shell, as is seen in Fig. 107. It grows on dead trunks 
and branches, usually in crowded clusters, the caps often overlapping 
or imbricated. It is large, measuring 8-20 cm. or more broad. 

The pileus is elongated and attached at one side by being sessile, 
or it is narrowed into a very short stem. It is broadest at the outer 
extremity, where it becomes quite thin toward the margin. It is 
more or less curved in outline as seen from the side, being depressed 
usually on the upper side near the point of attachment, and toward 
the margin convex and the margin incurved. The color is white, 
light gray, buff or dark gray, often becoming yellowish on drying. 
The gills are white, broad, not much crowded, and run down on the 
stem in long elevated lines resembling veins, which anastomose 
often in a recticulate fashion. The spores are white, oblong, 7-10 yt/ 
long. The stem when present is very short, and often hairy at the 

The oyster agaric has long been known as an edible mushroom, 
but it is not ranked among the best, because, like most Pleuroti, it is 
rather tough, especially in age. It is well to select young plants. 
Figure 107 is from plants (No. 2097, C. U. herbarium) collected at 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Pleurotus sapidus Kalchb. Edible. — This plant usually grows in large 
clusters from dead trunks or branches or from dead portions of living 
trees. It grows on a number of different kinds of trees. The stems are 
often joined at the base, but sometimes the plants are scattered over a 


portion of the branch or trunk. The cap is from 5-10 cm. broad. 
The plants occur from June to November. 

The pileus is convex, the margin incurved when young, and more 
or less depressed in age, smooth, broadened toward the margin and 
tapering into the short stem, which is very short in some cases and 
elongated in others. Often the caps are quite irregular and the mar- 
gin wavy, especially when old. It is quite firm, but the margin splits 
quite readily on being handled. The color varies greatly, white, 
yellowish, gray, or brownish and lilac tints. The flesh is white. 
The stems are usually attached to the pileus, at or near one edge. 
The gills are white, broad, not at all crowded, and extend down on 
the stem as in the oyster agaric. They are white or whitish, and as 
in the other related species are sometimes cracked, due probably to 
the tension brought to bear because of the expanding pileus. The 
spores are tinged with lilac when seen in mass, as when caught on 
paper. The color seems to be intensified after the spores have lain 
on the paper for a day or two. 

It is very difficult to distinguish this species from the oyster 
agaric. The color of the spores seems to be the only distinguishing 
character, and this may not be constant. Peck suggests that it may 
only be a variety of the oyster agaric. I have found the plant 
growing from a dead spot on the base of a living oak tree. There 
was for several years a drive near this tree, and the wheels of 
vehicles cut into the roots of the tree on this side, and probably so 
injured it as to kill a portion and give this fungus and another one 
(Polystictus pergamenus) a start, and later they have slowly 
encroached on the side of the tree. 

Figure 108 represents the plant (No. 3307, C. U. herbarium) 
from a dead maple trunk in a woods near Ithaca, collected during the 
autumn of 1899. This plant compares favorably with the oyster 
agaric as an edible one. Neither of these plants preserve as well as 
the elm pleurotus. 

Pleurotus dryinus Pers. Edible. — Pleurotus dryinus represents a sec- 
tion of the genus in which the species are provided with a veil when 
young, but which disappears as the pileus expands. This species 
has been long known in Europe on trunks of oak, ash, willow, etc., 
and occurs there from September to October. It was collected near 
Ithaca, N. Y., in a beech woods along Six-mile creek, on October 
24th, 1898, growing from a decayed knothole in the trunk of a living 
hickory tree, and again in a few days from a decayed stump. The 
pileus varies from 5-10 cm. broad, and the lateral or eccentric stem 
is 2-12 cm. long by 1-2 cm. in thickness, the length of the stem 


depending on the depth of the insertion of the stem in a hollow por- 
tion of the trunk. The plant is white or whitish, and the substance 
is quite firm, drying quite hard. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, more or less depressed in the 
center, the margin involute, and the surface at first floccose, becom- 
ing in age floccose scaly, since the surface breaks up into triangular 
scales more prominent in and near the center, smaller and inconspic- 
uous toward the margin. The prevailing color is white, but in age 
the scales become cream color or buff (in European plants said to 
become fuscous). The pileus is either definitely lateral (Fig. 109) 
or eccentric when the stem is attached near the center as in Fig. no. 
The gills are white, becoming tinged with yellow in age, decurrent 
(running down on the stem) in striae for short distances, 4-5 mm. 
broad, not crowded. The stem is nearly central (Fig. no), or 
definitely lateral (Fig. 109), the length varying according to condi- 
tions as stated above. It is firm, tough, fibrous. The veil is promi- 
nent in young and medium plants, floccose, tearing irregularly as 
the pileus expands. 

Figure no is from plants (No. 2478a C. U. herbarium) growing 
from knothole in living hickory tree, and Fig. 109 from plants (No. 
2478^) growing on a dead stump, near Ithaca. 

According to the descriptions of P. dryinus as given by Persoon, 
and as followed by Fries and most later writers, the pileus is defi- 
nitely lateral, and more or less dimidiate, while in P. corticatus Fr., 
the pileus is entire and the stem rather long and eccentric. Steven- 
son suggests (p. 166) that corticatus is perhaps too closely allied to 
dryinus. The plants in our Fig. no agree in all respects with P. cor- 
ticatus, except that possibly the lamelkt do not anastomose on the 
stem as they are said to in corticatus. According to the usual descrip- 
tions corticatus is given as the larger species, while Fig. 109 of our 
plant, possessing the typical characters of dryinus, is the larger. The 
form of the pileus, the length and position of the stem, depends, as we 
know, to a large extent, on the position of the plant on the tree. 
When growing from the upper side, so that there is room above for 
the expansion of the cap, the pileus is apt to be more regular, just as 
is the case in Pleurotus ulmarius, and the stem more nearly central. 
When the plant grows from a hollow place in the trunk as those 
shown in Fig. no did, then there is an opportunity for them to grow 
more or less erect, at least until they emerge from the hollow, and 
then the pileus is more nearly equal in its expansion and the stem is 
longer. Berkeley describes specimens of P. dryinus with long stems 

Plate 37, Figurk no. — Pleurotus dryinus, form corticatus. Entire 
plant white, scales cream or buff in age sometimes. The ruptured 
veil shows in the small plant below .(natural size). Copyright. 



growing from a hollow in an ash, and Stevenson (p. 167) reports the 
same condition. 

Pleurotus sulfureoides Pk. — This rare species, first collected in the 
Catskill Mountains 1869, and described by Peck in the 23rd Report, 
N. Y. State Mus., p. 86, 1870, was found by me on two different 
occasions at Ithaca, N. Y., during the autumn of 1898, on rotting 
logs, Ithaca Flats, and again in Enfield Gorge, six miles from Ithaca. 
The plants are from 5-8 cm. high, the cap 3-5 cm. broad, and the 
stem 5-7 mm. in thickness, and the entire plant is of a dull, or pale, 

The pileus is nearly regular, fleshy, thin toward the margin, con- 
vex, umbonate, smooth or with a few small scales. The gills are 

Figure hi. — Pleurotus sulfureoides. Entire plant dull or pale yellow (natural 

size). Copyright. 

rather crowded, broad, rounded or notched at the stem, pale yellow. 
The spores are elliptical, 7-9 x 5-6 u. The stem is ascending and 
curved, nearly or quite central in some specimens in its attachment 
to the pileus, whitish or yellowish, mealy or slightly tomentose at 
the apex. 

Figure iii is from plants (No. 2953, C. U. herbarium) on rot- 
ting log, Ithaca Flats, October, 1898. 

Pleurotus petaloides Bull. Edible. — The petal-like agaric is so called 
from the fancied resemblance of the plant to the petal of a flower. 
The plant usually grows in a nearly upright or more or less ascend- 
ing position, or when it grows from the side of a trunk it is somewhat 
shelving. It is somewhat spathulate in form, i. e., broad at the free 


end and tapering downward into the short stem in a wedge-shaped 

Figure 112. — Pleurotus petaloides. Color pale reddish brown or brown, 
sometimes entirely white; gills white (natural size). Copyright. 

manner, and varies from 2-10 cm. long and 1-5 cm. in breadth. It 
grows on fallen branches or trunks, on stumps, and often apparently 

from the ground, 
but in reality 
from under- 
ground roots or 
buried portionsof 
decayed stumps, 

The pile us 
varies from a 
regular wedge- 
shape to spathu- 
late, or more or 
less irregularly 
petaloid, or 
conchoid forms, 
the extremes of 
size and form be- 
ing shown in 
Figs. 112, 113. 
The margin is at 
first involute, 
finally fully ex- 

mm, ^^ 








A ^^1 





Figure 113. — Pleurotus petaloides. More irregular form than that 
shown in figure 112; color same as there described (natural size). 

panded, and the upper surface is nearly plane or somewhat depressed. 
The color is often a pale reddish brown, or brown, and sometimes 



pure white. The margin is sometimes marked with fine striations 
when moist. The upper portion near the union with the stem is 
sometimes tomentose, sometimes smooth. The gills are narrow, 
white, or yellowish, crowded and strongly decurrent. While the 
plant varies greatly in form and size, it is easily recognized by the 
presence of numerous short whitish cystidia in the hymenium, which 
bristle over the surface of the hymenium and under a pocket lens 
present a ''fuzzy" appearance to the lamellae. They are 70-80 x 
10-12 i(. The spores are white. 

Figures 112, 113 are from plants collected at Ithaca. 

Pleurotus serotinus Schrad. This is an interesting plant and occurs 
during the autumn on dead trunks, branches, etc., in the woods. 
The stem is want- 
ing, and the cap is 
shelving, dimidi- 
ate, reniform or 
suborbicular. The 
plants occur singly 
or are clustered 
and overlapping, 
about the same 
size and position 
as Claiidopiis nid- 
u I an s , from 
which it is readily 
told by its white 
gills and spores. 
The color varies 
from dull yellow to brownish, often with shades of olive or green. 

Pleurotus applicatus Batsch. — This is a pretty little species and 
usually occurs on much decayed wood, lying close to the ground so 
that it is usually directly on the under side of the log or branch. It 
does occur, however, on the side of the log when it is more or less 
shelving, because of the tendency of the pileus always to be more 
or less horizontal. 

The pileus is 4-6 mm. broad, its upper surface closely applied to 
the wood or bark on which it is growing when it appears directly on 
the under side. The margin is sometimes free and involute. Some- 
times it is attached only by the center of the pileus. There is then 
often a short process. When it grows on the side of the log it is 
attached laterally, or on the upper side of one margin, while the greater 
portion of the pileus is free and shelving. The surface is smooth or 

Figure 114. — Pleurotus applicatus. Color gray to dark bluish gray, 
or black with a bluish tinge (natural size). Copyright. 



somewhat hairy. The color varies from gray to dark bluish gray, 
or black with a bluish tinge. The gills are thick, broad in propor- 
tion to the size of the cap, distant, and are said by some to be paler 
than the pileus. in plants collected at Ithaca, the gills are often as 
dark as the pileus. The entire plant is rather tough, and revives 
after being dried if placed in water, resembling in this respect M^r^s- 
mius, Panus, or Trogia, and it may be more nearly related to one of 
these. Figure 114 is from plants (No. 4599, C. U. herbarium) 
collected at Ithaca. 


The genus Hygrophorus is one which presents some difficulties in 
the case of some of the species, especially to beginners, and plants 
need to be studied in the fresh condition to understand the most im- 

FlGURE 115.— Hygrophorus chrysodon. Entirely white with golden yellow granules 
on cap and stem (natural size). Copyright. 

portant character which separates it from certain of the other white- 
spored agarics. The substance of the pileus is continuous with that 
of the stem, that is, the stem is not easily separated from the cap at 
the point of junction, but is more or less tenacious. The gills may 
be adnexed, adnate, sinuate, or decurrent, but what is important 
they are usually rather distant, the edge is acute or sharp, and grad- 
ually thickened toward the junction with the cap, so that a section 
of the gill is more or less triangular.- This is brought about by the 
fact that the substance of the cap extends downward into the gill 
between the laminae or surfaces of the gill. But the most important 
character for determining the genus is the fact that the surfaces of the 
gills become rather of a waxy consistency at maturity, so that they 
appear to be full of a watery substance though they do not bleed, 


and the surface of the gill can be rather easily removed, leaving the 
projecting line of the trama. This is more marked in some species 
than in others. The waxy consistency of the gills then, with the 
gills acute at the edge, broad at the point of attachment to the pileus, 
and the gills being rather widely separated are the important charac- 
ters in determining the species which belong to this genus. The 
nearest related genus is Cantharellus, which, however, has blunt 
and forked gills. A number of the plants are brilliantly colored. 

Hygrophorus chrysodon (Batsch.) Fries. Edible. — This plant has 
about the same range as Hygrophorus ebtirneus, though it is said to be 
rare. It is a very pretty plant and one quite easily recognized 
because of the uniform white ground color of the entire plant when 
fresh, and the numerous golden tloccules or squamules scattered over 
the cap and the stem. The name chrysodon means golden tooth, and 
refers to these numerous golden flecks on the plant. A form of the 
plant, variety leiicodon, is said to occur in which these granules are 
white. The plant is 4-7 cm. high, the cap 4-7 cm. broad, and the 
stem 6-10 mm. in thickness. The plants grow on the ground in the 
woods, or rather open places, during late summer and autumn. 

The pileus is convex, then expanded, the margin strongly involute 
when young, and unrolling as the cap expands, very viscid, so that 
particles of dirt and portions of leaves, etc., cling to it in drying. 
The golden or light yellow granules on the surface are rather num- 
erous near the margin of the pileus, but are scattered over the entire 
surface. On the margin they sometimes stand in concentric rows 
close together. The gills are white, distant, decurrent, 3-6 mm. 
broad, white, somewhat yellowish in age and in drying, and con- 
nected by veins. The spores white, oval to ovate, the longer ones 
approaching elliptical, 6-10 x 5-6 ja. 

The stem is soft, spongy within, nearly equal, white, the yellow- 
ish granules scattered over the surface, but more numerous toward 
the apex, where they are often arranged in the form of a ring. 
When the plant is young these yellow granules or squamules on the 
stem and the upper surface of the inrolled margin of the pileus meet, 
forming a continuous layer in the form of a veil, which becomes 
spread out in the form of separated granules as the pileus expands, 
and no free collar is left on the stem. 

Figure 115 is from plants (No. 3108, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in October, 1898, in woods, and by roadsides, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Hygrophorus eburneus (Bulliard) Fries. Edible. — This plant is widely 
distributed in Europe and America. It is entirely white, of medium 
size, very viscid or glutinous, being entirely covered with a coating 



of gluten, which makes it very slippery in handling. The odor is 
mild and not unpleasant like that of a closely related species, H. 
cossus. The plants are 6-15 cm. high, the cap is from 3-8 cm. broad, 

and the stem 3-8 
_ ^ i - mm. in thickness. It 

grows on the ground 
in woods, or in open 
grassy places. 

The pileus is 
fleshy, moderately 
thick, sometimes 
thin, convex to ex- 
panded, the margin 
uneven or sometimes 
wavy, smooth, and 
shining. When 
young the margin of 
the cap is incurved. 
The gills are strongly 
decurrent, distant, 
with vein-like eleva- 
tions near the stem. 
Spores rather long, 
oval, 6-10 X 5-6 yw, 
granular. The stem 
varies in length, it is 
spongy to stuffed 
within, sometimes 
hollow and tapers 
below. The slime 
which envelops the 
plant is sometimes so 
abundant as to form 
a veil covering the 
g entire plant and ex- 
tending across from 
^ the margin of the cap 
to the stem, covering 
the gills. As the plant dries this disappears, and does not leave an 
annulus on the stem. 

Figure 116 is from a photograph of plants (No. 2534, C. U. her- 
barium) collected in Enfield Gorge near Ithaca, N.Y., Nov. 5th, 1898. 


^ o 

T3 (U 



Hygrophorus fuligineus Frost. Edible. — The smoky hygrophorus was 
described in the 35th Report of the N. Y. State Museum, p. 134. It 
is an American plant, and was first collected at West Albany, dur- 
ing the month of November. It is one of the largest species of the 
genus, and grows on the ground in woods, in late autumn. The 
plants are 5-10 cm. high, the cap from 3-10 cm. broad, and the stem 
1-2 cm. in thickness. The large size of the plant together with the 
smoky, brown, viscid cap aid in the recognition of the plant. 

The pileus is convex, becoming expanded, smooth, very viscid, 
dull reddish brown or smoky brown, darker on the center ; the mar- 
gin of the pileus is even in young specimens, becoming irregular in 
others ; and in age often elevated more or less. The gills are broad, 
distant, usually decurrent, often connected by veins, white, with 
yellowish tinge in drying. The spores oval to elliptical, 8-12 x 5-7 yw. 
The stem is stout, sometimes ascending, equal, or enlarged in the 
middle, or tapering toward the base, solid, viscid like the pileus, 
usually white, sometimes tinged with the same color as pileus, some- 
what yellowish tinged in drying. 

Figure 117 is from plants (No. 2546, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in Enfield Gorge near Ithaca, Nov. 5, 1898. 

Hygrophorus pratensis (Pers.) Fr. Edible. — This hygrophorus grows 
on the ground in pastures, old fields, or in waste places, or in thin 
and open woods, from mid-summer to late autumn. The plants are 
3-5 cm. high, the cap 2-5 cm. or more broad, and the stem 6-12 mm. 
in thickness. The cap being thick at the center, and the stem being 
usually stouter at the apex, often gives to the plant a shape like 
that of a top. 

The pileus is hemispherical, then convex, then nearly or quite 
expanded, white, or with various shades of yellow or tawny, or buff, 
not viscid, often cracking in dry weather. Flesh very thick at the 
center, thinner at the margin. The flesh is firm and white. The 
gills are stout, distant, long decurrent, white or yellowish, and 
arcuate when the margin of the pileus is incurved in the young 
state, then ascending as the pileus takes the shape of an inverted 
cone. The gills are connected across the interspaces by vein-like 
folds, or elevations. The spores are nearly globose to ovate or nearly 
elliptical, white, 6-8 x 5-6 yw. The stem is smooth, firm outside 
and spongy within, tapering downward. 

Hygrophorus miniatus Fr. The vermilion hygrophorus is a very 
common plant in the woods during the summer. The cap and stem 
are bright red, sometimes vermilion. The gills are yellow and often 
tinged with red. The gills are adnate or sinuate. The plant is a 


small one but often abundant, and measures from 3-5 cm. high, and 
the cap 2-4 cm. broad. Hygrophorus coccineus (Schaeff.) Fr., is a some- 
what larger plant and with a scarlet cap, which becomes yellowish 
in age, and the gills are adnate. Hygrophorus conicus (Scop.) Fr., is 
another bright red plant with a remarkable conical pileus, and the 
gills are annexed to free. 

Hygrophorus psittacinus Fr., is a remarkably pretty plant, the cap 
being from bell-shaped to expanded, umbilicate, striate, and covered 
with a greenish slime. It occurs in woods and open places. The 
prevailing color is yellow, tinged with green, but it varies greatly, 
sometimes yellow, red, white, etc., but nearly always is marked by 
the presence of the greenish slime, the color of this disappearing as 
the plant dries. It occurs in pastures, open woods, etc., from mid- 
summer to autumn. 

Hygrophorus hypothejus Fr., is another very variable plant in color 
as well as in size, varying from yellow, orange, reddish, sometimes 
paler, usually first grayish when covered with the olive colored slime. 
The gills are decurrent, white, then yellow. It occurs in autumn. 


The genus Lactarius is easily distinguished from nearly all the 
other agarics by the presence of a milky or colored juice which exudes 
from wounded, cut, or broken places on the fresh plant. There are 
a few of the species of the genus Mycena which exude a watery or 
colored juice where wounded, but these are easily told from Lactarius 
because of their small size, more slender habit, and bell-shaped cap. 
By careful observation of these characters it is quite an easy matter 
to tell whether or not the plant at hand is a Lactarius. In addition 
to the presence of this juice or milk as it is commonly termed, the 
entire plant while firm is quite brittle, especially the gills. There are 
groups of rounded or vesiculose cells intermingled with thread-like 
cells in the substance of the cap. This latter character can only be 
seen on examination with the microscope. The brittleness of the 
plant as well as the presence of these groups of vesiculose cells is 
shared by the genus Russula, which is at once separated from 
Lactarius by the absence of a juice which exudes in drops. 

In determining the species it is a very important thing to know 
the taste of the juice or of the fresh plant, whether it is peppery, or 
bitter, or mild, that is, tasteless. If one is careful not to swallow 
any of the juice or flesh of the plant no harm results from tasting any 
of the plants, provided they are not tasted too often during a short 
time, beyond the unpleasant sensation resulting from tasting some 



of the very " hot " kinds. 
the milk when it first 
exudes from wounds and 
if it changes color on ex- 
posure to the air. These 
tests of the plant should 
be made of course while 
it is fresh. The spores 
are white, globose or 
nearly so in all species, 
and usually covered with 
minute spiny processes. 
There are a large number 
of species. Peck, 38th 
Report, N.Y. State Mus., 
pp. 1 1 i-i 33, describes 40 
American species. 

Lactarius volemus Fr. 
Edible. — This species is 
by some termed the 
orange brown lactarius 
because of its usual color. 
It was probably termed 
Lactarius volemus be- 
cause of the voluminous 
quantity of milk which 
exudes where the plant is 
broken or bruised, though 
it is not the only species 
having this character. 
In fresh, young plants, a 
mere crack or bruise will 
set loose quantities of the 
milky juice which drops 
rapidly from the plant. 
The plant is about the 
size of Lactarius delicio- 
sus and occurs in damp 
woods, where it grows 
in considerable abund- 
ance from July to Sep- 
tember, several usually 

It is important also to know the color of 

en? p; 






growing near each other. The pileus is convex, then expanded, 
often with a small elevation (umbo) at the center, or sometimes 
plane, and when old a little depressed in the center, smooth or 
somewhat wrinkled. The cap is dull orange or tawny, the shade of 
color being lighter in some plants and darker in others. The flesh 
is white and quite firm. The gills are white, often tinged with the 
same color as the pileus, but much lighter ; they are adnate or 
slightly decurrent. The stem is usually short, but varies from 
3-10 X 1-2 cm. It is colored like the pileus, but a lighter shade. 

The milk is white, abundant, mild, not unpleasant to the taste, 
but sticky as it dries. This plant has also long been known as one 
of the excellent mushrooms for food both in Europe and America. 
Peck states that there are several plants which resemble Lactarius 
volemus in color and in the milk, but that no harm could come from 
eating them. There is one with a more reddish brown pileus, Lac- 
tariiis rufuSy found sparingly in the woods, but which has a very pep- 
pery taste. It is said by some to be poisonous. 

Lactarius corrugis Pk. Edible. — This species occurs with Lactarius 
volemus and very closely resembles it, but it is of a darker color, and 
the pileus is more often marked by prominent wrinkles, from which 
character the plant has derived its specific name. It is perhaps a 
little stouter plant than L. volemus, and with a thicker cap. The 
surface of the pileus seems to be covered with a very fine velvety 
tomentum which glistens as the cap is turned in the light. The gills 
are much darker than in L. volemus. The plants are usually clearly 
separated on account of these characters, yet there are occasionally 
light colored forms of L. corrugis which are difficult to distinguish from 
dark forms of L. volemus, and this fact has aroused the suspicion that 
corrugis is only a form of volemus. 

The milk is very abundant and in every respect agrees with that 
of L. volemus. I do not know that any one has tested L. corrugis for 
food. But since it is so closely related to L. volemus 1 tested it dur- 
ing the summer of 1899 iri the North Carolina mountains. I consider 
it excellent. The methods of cooking there were rather primitive. 
It was sliced and fried with butter and salt. It should be well cooked, 
for when not well done the partially raw taste is not pleasant. The 
plant was very abundant in the woods, and for three weeks an 
abundance was served twice a day for a table of twelve persons. 
The only disagreeable feature about it is the sticky character of the 
milk, which adheres in quantity to the hands and becomes black. 
This makes the preparation of the plant for the broiler a rather un- 
pleasant task. 



Figure ii8 is from plants (No. 3910, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in the woods at Blowing Rock, during September, 1899. Just before 
the exposure was made to get the photograph several of the plants 
were wounded with a pin to cause the drops of milk to exude, as is 
well shown in the illustration. 

The dark color of the lamella in L. cormgis is due to the number 
of brown cystidia or set«, in the hymenium, which project above the 
surface of the gills, and they are especially abundant on the edge of 
the gills. These set^ are long fusoid, 80-120 x 10-12 yu. The vari- 
ations in the color of the gills, in some plants the gills being much 
darker than in others, is due to the variations either in the number 
of these setae or to the variation in their color. Where the cystidia 
are fewer in number or are lighter in color the lamellae are lighter 
colored. Typical forms of Lactarhis volemus have similar setc^, but 
they are very pale in color and not so abundant over the surface of 
the gills. In the darker forms of L. volemus the set^ are more abun- 
dant and darker in color, approaching those found in L. cormgis. 
These facts, supported by the variation in the color of the pileus in 
the two species 
and the \-aria- 
tions in the ru- 
gosities of the 
pileus, seem to 
indicate that 
the two species 

Lactarius lig= 
nyotus Fr. — 
This is known 
as the sooty 
lactarius and 
occurs in woods 
along with the 
smoky lactari- 
us. It is dis- 
tinguished from 
the latter by 
the dark brown 
color of the pi- 
leus and by the presence usually of rugose wrinkles over the center 
of the cap. In size it agrees with the smoky lactarius. 

Figure 119. — Lactarius lignyotus. Cap and stem sooty, cap wrinkled, 
gills white, then tinged with ochre (natural size, sometimes larger). 



The pileus is convex,. then plane, or somewhat depressed in the 
center, dry, sometimes with a small umbo, dark brown or sooty 
(chocolate to seal brown as given in Ridgeway's nomenclature of 
colors), covered with a very fine tomentum which has the appear- 
ance of a bloom. The margin of the cap, especially in old plants, is 
somewhat wavy or plicate as in Lactariiis fuliginosus. The gills are 
moderately crowded when young, becoming distant in older plants, 
white, then cream color or yellow, changing to reddish or salmon 
color where bruised. The spores are yellowish in mass, faintly so 
under the microscope, globose, strongly echinulate, 6-10 ja. The 
taste is mild, or sometimes slowly and slightly acrid. The plants 
from North Carolina showed distinctly the change to reddish or sal- 
mon color when the gills were bruised, and the taste was noted as 

Figure 119 is from plants (No. 3864, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in the Blue Ridge Mountains, at Blowing Rock, N. C, September, 


Lactarlus fuliginosus Fr. — 

The smoky or dingy lactarius 
occurs in woods and open 
grassy places. It is widely 
distributed. The plants are 
4-7 cm. high, the cap 3-5 cm. 
broad, and the stem 6-10 
mm. in thickness. The light 
smoky color of the cap and 
stem, the dull yellowish 
white color of the gills, and 
in old plants the wavy mar- 
gin of the cap make it com- 
paratively easy to recognize 
the species. 

The pileus is thin, at first 
firm, becoming soft, convex, 
then plane and often some- 
what depressed in the center, 
usually even, dry, the mar- 
gin in old plants crenately 
wavy, dull gray or smoky gray in color, with a fine down or 
tomentum. The gills are adnata, distant, more so in old plants, 
white, then yellowish, sometimes changing to salmon color or reddish 
where bruised. The spores are yellowish in mass, faintly yellow 

Figure 120. — Lactarius fuliginosus. Cap and stem 
smoky, cap usually not wrinkled ; gills white, then 
light ochre, distant (natural size). Copyright. . 



under the microscope, strongly echinulate or tuberculate, globose, 
6-IO //. The stem is usually paler than the pileus, firm, stuffed. 
The milk is white, slowly acrid to the taste. 

Figure 120 is from plants (No. 3867, C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

Lactarius gerardii Pk. — This plant was described by Dr. Peck in 
the 26th Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 65, and in the 28th Rept. p. 
129. According to the de- 
scriptions it differs from Lac- 
tamis ftiliginosus only in the 
spores being white, the gills 
more distant, and the taste 
being constantly mild. Since 
the taste in L. fiiliginostis is 
sometimes mild, or slowly 
acrid, and the lamellae in the 
older plants are more distant, 
the spores sometimes only 
tinged with yellow, there 
does not seem to be a very 
marked difference between 
the two species. In fact all 
three of these species, fnligi- 
nosus, lignyotus and gerardii, 
seem to be very closely re- 
lated. Forms of fuliginosiis 
approach lignyotus in color, 
and the pileus sometimes is 
rugose wrinkled, while in lig- 
fiyofus pale forms occur, and 
the pileus is not always 
rugose wrinkled. The color 
of the bruised lamella is the 
same in the two last species 
and sometimes the change in 
color is not marked. 

Lactarius torminosus (Schaeff.) Fr. — This plant is widely distribu- 
ted in Europe, Asia, as well as in America. It is easily recognized 
by the uneven mixture of pink and ochraceous colors, and the very 
hairy or tomentose margin of the cap. The plants are 5-10 cm. high, 
the cap about the same breadth, and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. 
It occurs in woods on the ground during late summer and autumn. 


OrQ_ ^ 

r. O 

o f^ 

fi, o 

3 5 

^ N 



The pileus is convex, .depressed in the center, and the margin 
strongly incurved when young, the abundant hairs on the margin 
forming an apparent veil at this time which covers up the gills. The 
upper surface of the pileus is smooth, or sometimes more or less cov- 
ered with a tomentum similar to that on the margin. The color is 
an admixture of ochraceous and pink hues, sometimes with concen- 
tric zones of darker shades. The gills are crowded, narrow, whitish, 
with a tinge of yellowish flesh color. The stem is cylindrical, even, 
hollow, whitish. 

The milk is white, unchangeable, acrid to the taste. Figure 121, 
left hand plants, is from plants (No. 391 1, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in the Blue Ridge Mountains, N. C, in September, 1899, and the 
right hand plant (No. 2960, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, N. Y. 

Figure 122. — Lactarius piperatus. Entirely white, milk very peppery (natural 
size, often larger). Copyright. 

Lactarius piperatus (Scop.) Fr. — This species is very hot and pep- 
pery to the taste, is of medium size, entirely white, depressed at the 
center, or funnel-shaped, with a short stem, and very narrow and 
crowded gills, and abundant white milk. The plants are 3-7 cm. 
high, the cap 8-12 cm. broad, and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. 
It grows in woods on. the ground and is quite common, sometimes 
very common in late summer and' autumn. 

The pileus is fleshy, thick, firm, convex, umbilicate, and then 
depressed in the center, becoming finally more or less funnel-shaped 
by the elevation of the margin. It is white, smooth when young, in 
age sometimes becoming sordid and somewhat roughened. The gills 



are white, very narrow, very much crowded, and some of them 
forked, arcuate and then ascending because of the funnel-shaped 
pileus. The spores are smooth, oval, with a small point, 5-7 x 4-5 //. 
The stem is equal or tapering below, short, solid. 

The milk is white, unchangeable, very acrid to the taste and 
abundant. The plant is reported as edible. A closely related spe- 
cies is L. pergmnenus (Swartz) Fr., which resembles it very closely, 
but has a longer, stuffed stem, and thinner, more pliant pileus, which 
is more frequently irregular and eccentric, and not at first umbilicate. 
Figure 122 is from plants (No. 3887, C. U. herbarium) collected at 
Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

Figure 123. — Lactarius resimus. Entire plant white, in age scales 
on cap dull ochraceous (natural size). Copyright. 

Lactarius resimus Fr. .^ — This plant is very common in the woods 
bordering a sphagnum moor at Malloryville, N. Y., ten miles from 
Ithaca, during July to September. I have found it at this place 
every summer for the past three years. It occurs also in the woods 
of the damp ravines in the vicinity of Ithaca. It was also abundant 



in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina, during September, 
1899. The plants are large, the caps 10-15 ^^- hroad, the stem 5-8 
cm. long, and 2-3 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex, umbilicate, then depressed and more or less 
funnel-shaped in age, white, in the center roughened with fibrous 
scales as the plant ages, the scales becoming quite stout in old plants. 
The scales are tinged with dull ochraceous or are light brownish in 
the older plants. The ochre colored scales are sometimes evident 
over the entire cap, even in young plants. In young plants the 
margin is strongly involute or inrolled, and a loose but thick veil of 

interwoven threads ex- 
tends from the surface 
of the roll to the stem. 
This disappears as the 
margin of the cap un- 
rolls with the expanding 
pileus. The margin of 
the pileus is often ster- 
ile, that is, it extends 
beyond the ends of the 
gills. The gills are 
white, stout, and broad, 
decurrent, some of them 
forked near the stem. 
When bruised, the gills 
after several hours be- 
come ochraceous brown. 
The spores are s u b- 
gl obose, minutely 
spiny, 8-12/^. The stem 
is solid, cylindrical, 
minutely tomentose, spongy within when old. 

The taste is very acrid, and the white milk not changing to yel- 
low. While the milk does not change to yellow, broken portions of 
the plant slowly change to flesh color, then ochraceous brown. Fig- 
ures 123, 124 are from plants collected in one of the damp gorges 
near Ithaca, during September, 1896. The forked gills, the strongly 
inrolled margin of the cap and veil of the young plants are well 
shown in the illustration. 

Lactarius chrysorrheus Fr. — This is a common and widely distribu- 
ted species, from small to medium size. The plants are 5-8 cm. high, 
the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 1-1.5 cm. in thickness. It 

Figure 124. — Lactarius resimus. Section of young 
plant showing inrolled margin of cap, and the 
veil (natural size). Copyright. 



grows in woods and groves during late summer and autumn. 
The pileus is fleshy, of medium thickness, convex and depressed 
in the center from the young condition, and as the pileus expands 
the margin becomes more and more upturned and the depression 
deeper, so that eventually it is more or less broadly funnel-form. 
The color varies from white to flesh color, tinged with yellow some- 
times in spots, and marked usually with faint zones of brighter yellow. 
The zones are sometimes very indistinct or entirely wanting. The 
gills are crowded, white then yellow, where bruised becoming yellow- 
ish, then dull reddish. The stem is equal or tapering below, hollow 

Figure 125. — Lactarius chrysorrheus. Cap white or flesh color, often tinged with 
yellowish, and with darker zones (natural size). Copyright. 

or stuffed, paler than the pileus, smooth (sometimes pitted as shown 
in the Fig. 125). 

The plant is acrid to the taste, the milk white changing to citron 
yellow on exposure. Figure 125 is from plants (No. 3875, C. U. her- 
barium) collected in the Blue Ridge Mountains at Blowing Rock, N. 
C, September, 1899. The species was quite abundant in this local- 
ity during August and September, in chestnut groves, mixed woods, 
and borders of woods. 

Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Fr. Edible. — Lactarius deliciosus grows in 
damp woods, is widely distributed and sometimes is quite common. 
It occurs from July to October. It is one of the medium or large 
sized species, being 3-10 cm. high, the cap 5-12 cm. broad, and the 


stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. It is easily recognized by its orange 
color and the concentric zones of light and dark orange around on the 
pileus, and by the orange milk which is exuded where wounded. 

The pileus is first convex, then slightly depressed in the center, 
becoming more expanded, and finally more or less funnel-shaped by 
the elevation of the margin. It is usually more or less orange in 
color or mottled with varying shades, and with concentric bands of a 
deeper color. The gills are yellowish orange often with darker spots. 
The stem is of the same color as the pileus but paler, sometimes with 
darker spots. The flesh of the plant is white, shaded with orange. 
In old plants the color fades out somewhat and becomes unevenly 
tinged with green, and bruised places become green. Peck states 
that when fresh the plant often has a slight acrid taste. 

Being a widely distributed and not uncommon plant, and one so 
readily recognized, it has long been known in the old world as well 
as here. All writers on these subjects concur in recommending it 
for food, some pronouncing it excellent, some the most delicious 
known. Its name suggests the estimation in which it was held 
when christened. 

Lactarius chelidonium Pk. Edible. — This pretty little Lactarius was 
described by Peck in the 24th Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 74. It 
is closely allied to Lactarius deliciosus, from which it is said to differ 
in its '* more narrow lamellae, differently colored milk, smaller 
spores." The plant is about 5 cm. high, the cap about 5 cm. broad, 
and the stem 1-1.5 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is fleshy, firm, convex and depressed in the center, 
smooth, slightly viscid when moist, "■ of a grayish green color with 
blue and yellow tints, and a few narrow zones on the margin." The 
gills are crowded, narrow, some of them forked at the base, and 
sometimes joining to form reticulations. The spores are yellowish. 
The short stem is nearly equal, smooth, hollow, and the same color 
as the pileus. 

The taste is mild, the milk not abundant, and of a yellowish color, 
" resembling the juice of Celandine or the liquid secreted from the 
mouth of grasshoppers." Wounds on the plant are first of the color 
of the milk, changing on exposure to blue, and finally to green. The 
plant occurs during late summer and in the autumn in woods. Peck 
reported it first from Saratoga, N. Y. It has been found elsewhere 
in the State, and it has probably quite a wide distribution. I found 
it during September, 1899, i^i the Blue Ridge Mountains of N. C. 
Figure i, plate 39, is from some of the water color drawings made by 
Mr. Franklin R. Rathbun. 


Lactarius indigo (Schw.) Fr. — The indigo blue lactarius is a very 
striking and easily recognized plant because of the rich indigo blue 
color so predominant in the entire plant. It is not very abundant, 
but is widely distributed in North America. The plant is 5-7 cm. 
high, the cap 5-12 cm. broad, and the stem is 1-2 cm. in thickness. 
The plants occur during late summer and in the autumn. 

The pileus when young is umbilicate, the margin involute, and in 
age the margin becomes elevated and then the pileus is more or less 
funnel-shaped. The indigo blue color is deeply seated, and the sur- 
face of the pileus has a silvery gray appearance through which the 
indigo blue color is seen. The surface is marked by concentric zones 
of a darker shade. In age the color is apt to be less uniformly dis- 
tributed, it is paler, and the zones are fainter. The gills are crowded, 
and when bruised, or in age, the indigo blue color changes somewhat 
to greenish. The milk is dark blue. 


The species of Russula are very characteristic, and the genus is 
easily recognized in most cases after a little experience. In the very 
brittle texture of the plants the genus resembles Lactarius, and many 
of them are more brittle than the species of this genus. A section 
of the pileus shows under the microscope a similar vesicular condi- 
tion, that is the grouping of large rounded cells together, with threads 
between. But the species of Russula are at once separated from 
those of Lactarius by the absence of a juice which exudes in drops 
from bruised parts of Lactarius. While some of the species are white 
and others have dull or sombre colors, many of the species of Russula 
have bright, or even brilliant colors, as red, purple, violet, pink, blue, 
yellow, green. In determining many of the species, however, it is 
necessary to know the taste, whether mild, bitter, acrid, etc., and in 
this respect the genus again resembles Lactarius. The color of the 
gills as well as the color of the spores in mass should also be deter- 
mined. The genus is quite a large one, and the American species 
are not well known, the genus being a difficult one. In Jour. Myco- 
log., 5: 58-64, 1889, the characters of the tribes of Russula with 
descriptions of 25 species are quoted from Stevenson, with notes on 
their distribution in N. A. by MacAdam. 

Russula alutacea Fr. Edible. — This handsome Russula differs from 
the others described here in the color of the gills and spores. The 
plant is common and occurs in mixed woods during the summer and 
early autumn. It is 5-10 cm. high, the cap 5-12 cm. broad, and the 
stem 1.5-2.5 cm. in thickness. 


The pileus is fleshy, oval to bell-shaped, becoming plane, and 
sometimes umbilicate. It is red or blood red in color, sometimes 
purple, and becoming pale in age, especially at the center. It is vis- 
cid when moist, the margin thin and striate-tuberculate. The gills 
are free from the stem, stout, broad, first white, becoming yellow, 
and in age ochraceous. The gills are all of the same length, not 
crowded, and they are connected by vein-like elevations over the 
surface. The stem is stout, solid, even, white, portions of the stem 
are red, sometimes purple. 

The taste is mild, and the plant is regarded as one of the very 
good ones for food. 

Russula lepida Fr. Edible. — This elegant Russula occurs in birch 
woods or in mixed woods during late summer and autumn. It is 5-8 
cm. high, the cap 6-8 cm. broad, and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse, not shining, 
deep red, becoming pale in age, often whitish at the center, silky, in 
age the surface cracking, the margin blunt and not striate. The gills 
are rounded next the stem, thick, rather crowded, and sometimes 
forked, white, sometimes red on the edge near the margin of the 
pileus. The gills are often connected by vein-like elevations over 
the surface. The stem is equal, white or rose color. The taste is 

Russula virescens (Schaeff.) Fr. Edible. — This plant grows on the 
ground in woods or in grassy places in groves from July to September. 
The stem is short, 2-7 cm. long x 1-2 cm. thick, and the cap is 5-10 
cm. broad. The plant is well known by the green color of the pileus 
and by the surface of the pileus being separated into numerous, quite 
regular, somewhat angular areas or patches, where the green color 
is more pronounced. 

The pileus is first rounded, then convex and expanded, and when 
old somewhat depressed in the center. It is quite firm, dry, green- 
ish, and the surface with numerous angular tloccose areas or patches 
of usually a deeper green. Sometimes the pileus is said to be tinged 
with yellow. The gills are adnate, nearly free from the stem, and 
crowded. The stem is white and firm. 

The greenish Russula, Russula virescens, like a number of other 
plants, has long been recommended for food, both in Europe and in 
this country. There are several species of Russula in which the 
pileus is green, but this species is readily distinguished from them by 
the greenish floccose patches on the surface of the pileus. Russula 
furcata is a common species in similar situations, with forked gills, 
and the cap very variable in color, sometimes reddish, purple, purple 



brown, or in one form green. 1 know of the Riissiila fluxata having 
been eaten in rather small quantities, and while in this case no harm 
resulted the taste was not agreeable. 

Russula fragilis (Pers.) Fr. — This plant is very common in damp 
woods, or during wet weather from July to September. It is a 
small plant and very fragile, as its name suggests, much more so 
than most other species. It is 2-4 cm. high, the cap 2-5 cm. broad, 
and the stem about i cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex, sometimes slightly umbonate, then plane, 
and in age somewhat depressed. The cuticle peels off very easily. 
The color is often a bright red, or pink, sometimes purple or violet, 
and becomes paler in age. It is somewhat viscid when moist, and 
the margin is very thin and strongly striate and tuberculate, i. e.., the 
ridges between the marginal furrows are tuberculate. The gills are 
lightly adnexed, thin, crowded, broad, all of the same length, white. 
The stem is usually white, sometimes more or less pink colored, 
spongy within, becoming hollow. The taste is very acrid. 

Russula emetica Fr. Poisonous. — This Russula has a very wide dis- 
tribution and occurs on the ground in woods or open places during 
summer and autumn. It is a beautiful species and very fragile. The 
plants are 5-10 cm. high, the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 1-2 
cm. in thickness. The pileus is oval to bell-shaped when young, 
becoming plane, and in age depressed. It is smooth, shining, the 
margin furrowed and tuberculate. The color is from pink or rosy 
when young to dark red when older, and fading to tawny or some- 
times yellowish in age. The cuticle is easily separable as in R. fra- 
gilis, the flesh white, but reddish just beneath the cuticle. The gills 
are nearly free, broad, not crowded, white. The stem is stout, 
spongy within, white or reddish, fragile when old. 

The plant is very acrid to the taste and is said to be poisonous, 
and to act as an emetic. 

Russula adusta (Pers.) Fr. — This plant occurs on the ground in 
woods during late summer and in autumn. It is 3-6 cm. high, the 
cap 5-15 cm. broad, and the stem is 1-1.5 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is fleshy, firm, convex, depressed at the center, and 
when old more or less funnel-shaped from the upturning of the mar- 
gin, which is at first incurved and smooth. It varies from white to 
gray and smoky color. The gills are adnate, or decurrent, thin, 
crowded, of unequal lengths, white, then becoming dark. The stem 
is colored like the pileus. The entire plant becomes darker in dry- 
ing, sometimes almost black. It is near Russula nigricans, but is 
smaller, and does not have a red juice as R. nigricans has. 




From the other white-spored agarics of a fleshy consistency Can- 
tharellus is distinguished by the form of the gills. The gills are gen- 
erally forked, once or several times, in a dichotomous manner, 
though sometimes irregularly. They are blunt on the edge, not 
acute as in most of the other genera. The gills are usually narrow 

and in many species 
look like veins, folds, 
or wrinkles, but in 
some species, as in 
Cantharelliis aurantia- 
cus, they are rather 
thin and broad. 

Cantharellus cibarius 
Fr. Edible.— This plant 
is known as the chan- 
terelle. It has a very 
wide distribution and 
has long been regarded 
as one of the best of 
the edible mushrooms. 
Many of the writers on 
fungi speak of it in 
terms of high praise. 
The entire plant is a 
uniform rich chrome 
yellow. Sometimes 
it is symmetrical in 
form, but usually it is 
more or less irregular 
and unsymmetrical in 
form. The plants are 
5-10 cm. high, the cap 
4-8 cm. broad, and the 
stem short and rather 

Figure 126 — Cantharellus cibarius. Under view showing 
forked gills with veins connecting them. Entire plant rich 
chrome yellow (natural size). 

The pileus is fleshy, rather thick, the margin thick and blunt and 
at first inrolled. It is convex, becoming expanded or sometimes 
depressed by the margin of the cap becoming elevated. The margin 
is often wavy or repand, and in irregular forms it is only produced at 
one side, or more at one side than at the other, or the cap is irregu- 


larly lobed. The gills are very narrow, stout, distant, more or less 
sinuous, forked or anastomosing irregularly, and because of the pileus 
being something like an inverted cone the gills appear to run down 
on the stem. The spores are faintly yellowish, elliptical, 7-10 /./. 
Figure 126 represents but a single specimen, and this one with a 
nearly lateral pileus. 

Figure 128. — Cantharellus aurantiacus, under view, enlarged nearly twice, showing regularly 

forked gills. 

Cantharellus aurantiacus Fr. — This orange cantharellus is very 
common, and occurs on the ground or on very rotten wood, logs, 
branches, etc., from summer to very late autumn. It is widely dis- 
tributed in Europe and America. It is easily known by its dull orange 
or brownish pileus, yellow gills, which are thin and regularly forked. 


and by the pileus being more or less depressed or funnel-shaped. 
The plants are from 5-8 cm. high, the cap from 2-7 cm. broad, and 
the stem about 4-8 mm. in thickness. 

The pUeus is fleshy, soft, flexible, convex, to expanded, or obconic, 
plane or depressed, or funnel-shaped, the margin strongly inrolled 
when young, in age simply incurved, the margin plane or repand and 
undulate. The color varies from ochre yellow to dull orange, or 
orange ochraceous, raw sienna, and tawny, in different specimens. 
It is often brownish at the center. The surface of the pileus is 
minutely tomentose with silky hairs, especially toward the center, and 
sometimes smooth toward the margin. The flesh is 3-5 mm. at the 
center, and thin toward the margin. The gills are arcuate, decur- 
rent, thin, the edge blunt, but not so much so as in a number of 
other species, crowded, regularly forked several times, at length 
ascending when the pileus is elevated at the margin. The color of 
the gills is orange to cadmium orange, or sometimes paler, cadmium 
yellow or deep chrome. The stem is clay color to ochre yellow, en- 
larged below, spongy, stuffed, fistulose, soft, fibrous, more or less 
ascending at the base. 

The taste is somewhat nutty, sometimes bitterish. The plants 
in Fig. 127 (No. 3272, C. U. herbarium) were collected near Ithaca, 
October 7, 1899. 


In this genus the plants are tough and fleshy or membranaceous, 
leathery and dry. They do not easily decay, but shrivel up in dry 
weather, and revive in wet weather, or when placed in water. This 
is an important character in distinguishing the genus. It is closely 
related to Collyhia, from which it is difficult to separate certain spe- 
cies. On the other hand, it is closely related to Lentinus and Panus, 
both of which are tough and pliant. In Marasmius, however, the 
substance of the pileus is separate from that of the stem, while in 
Lentinus and Panus it is continuous, a character rather difficult for 
the beginner to understand. The species of Marasmius, however, 
are generally much smaller than those of Lentinus and Panus, espe- 
cially those which grow on wood. The stem in Marasmius is in 
nearly all species central, while in Lentinus and Pajius it is generally 
more or less eccentric. Many of the species of the genus Marasmius 
have an odor of garlic when fresh. Besides the fairy ring (M. orea- 
des) which grows on the ground, M. roiula is a very common spe- 
cies on wood and leaves. It has a slender, black, shining stem, and 
a brownish pileus usually with a black spot in the depression in the 



center. The species are very numerous. Peck, 23rd Report, N. Y. 
State Mus., p. 124-126, describes 8 species. Morgan Jour. Cinn. 
Soc. Nat. Hist. 6: 189-194, describes 17 species. 

Marasmius oreades Fr. Edible. — This is the well known " fairy ring " 
mushroom. It grows during the summer and autumn in grassy 
places, as in lawns, by roadsides, in pastures, etc. It appears most 
abundantly during wet weather or following heavy rains. It is found 
usually in circles, or in the arc of a circle, though few scattered 
plants not arranged in this way often occur. The plants are 7-10 
cm. high, the cap 2-4 cm. broad, and the stem 3-4 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, sometimes the center elevated, 
fleshy, rather thin, tough, smooth, buff color, or tawny or reddish, 
in age, or in drying, paler. When moist the pileus may be striate 

Figure 129. — Marasmius oreades. Caps buff, tawny, or reddish. 

on the margin. The gills are broad, free or adnexed, rounded near 
the stem, white or dull yellowish. The spores are elliptical, y-8 1^1 
long. The stem is tough, solid, whitish. 

This widely distributed fungus is much prized everywhere by 
those who know it. It is not the only fungus which appears in rings, 
so that this habit is not peculiar to this plant. Several different 
kinds are known to appear in rings at times. The appearance of the 
fungus in rings is due to the mode of growth of the mycelium or 
spawn in the soil. 

Having started at a given spot the mycelium consumes the food 
material in the soil suitable for it, and the plants for the first year 
appear in a group. In the center of this spot the mycelium, having 
consumed all the available food, probably dies after producing the 


crop of mushrooms. But around the edge of the spot the myceHum 
or spawn still exists, and at the beginning of the next season it starts 
into growth and feeds on the available food in a zone surrounding 
the spot where it grew the previous year. This second year, then, 
the plants appear in a small ring. So in succeeding years it advances 
outward, the ring each year becoming larger. Where the plants 
appear only in the arc of a circle, something has happened to check 
or destroy the mycelium in the remaining arc of the circle. 

It has been noted by several observers that the grass in the ring 
occupied by the mushrooms is often greener than that adjoining. 
This is perhaps due to some stimulus exerted by the mycelium of the 
fungus on the grass, or possibly the mycelium may in some way 
make certain foods available for the grass which gives an additional 
supply to it at this point. 

Fig. 129 is from plants (No. 5503, C. U. herbarium) collected in 
a lawn, October 25, 1900, Ithaca. 

Illustrations of some fme large rings formed by this fungus 
appeared in circular No. 13 by Mr. Coville, of the Division of Botany 
in the U. S. Dept. Agr. 

Marasmius cohaerens (Fr.) Bres. {Mycena cohcerens Fr. Collybia lach- 
nophylla Berk. Collybia spinulifera Pk.) — This plant grows in dense 
clusters, ten to twenty individuals with their stems closely joined 
below and fastened together by the abundant growth of threads from 
the lower ends. From this character the name cohcerens was derived. 
The plants grow on the ground or on very rotten wood in woods dur- 
ing late spring and in the summer. The plant is not very common 
in this country, but appears to be widely distributed both in Europe 
and here, having been collected in Carolina, Ohio, Vermont, New 
York, etc. The plants are 12-20 cm. high, the cap 2-2.5 cm. broad, 
and the stem 4-7 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is fleshy, tough, convex or bell-shaped, then expanded, 
sometimes umbonate, or in age sometimes the margin upturned and 
more or less wavy, not viscid, but fmely striate when damp, thin. 
The color varies from vinaceous cinnamon to chestnut or light leather 
color, or tawny, paler in age, and sometimes darker on the center. 
The gills are sometimes more or less crowded, narrow, 5-6 mm. broad, 
adnate, but notched, and sometimes becoming free from the stem. 
The color is light leather color, brick red or bay, the color and color 
variations being due to numbers of colored cystida or spicules scat- 
tered over the surface of the gills and on the edge. The cystidia are 
fulvous, fusoid, 75-90 /ilong. The spores are oval, white, small, 6x 3 /j. 
The stem is long and slender, nearly cylindrical, tapering some- 



what above, slightly enlarged below, and rooting. The color is the 
same as that of the pileus or dark bay brown, and shining, and 
seems to be due to large numbers of spicules similar to those on the 
gills. The color 
is paler below in 
some cases, or 
gradually darker 
below in others. 
The stems are 
bound together 
below by numer- 
ous threads. 

Figure 130 is 
from plants (No. 
2373, C. U. her- 
bar ium) col- 
lected in woods 
near Freeville, 
N . ^' . The 
plants have been 
col lee ted near 
Ithaca on three 
different occas- 
ions, twice near 
Freeville about 
nine miles from 
Ithaca, and once 
in the woods at 
Ithaca. It is 
easily disting- 
uished by its 
color and the 
presence of the 
peculiar seise or 

Although the plant has been collected on several different occa- 
sions in America, it does not seem to have been recognized under 
this name until recently, save the record of it from Carolina by 
de Schweinitz (Synop. fung. Car. No. 606, p. 81). 

Figure 130. — Marasmius cohaerens (Fr.) Bres. (= Mycena cohaerens 
Fr. = Collybia lachnophylla Berk. = C. spinulifera Pk.) Color 
chestnut, light leather color, tawny or vinaceous cinnamon, darker 
in center; stems dark, shining; gills leather color, or fulvous, or 
wine color, brick red or bay, varying in different specimens (natural 
size). Copyright. 



The plants of this genus are tough and pliant, becoming hard 
when old, unless very watery, and when dry. The genus differs 
from the other tough and pliant ones by the peculiarity of the gills^ 
the gills being notched or serrate on the edges. Sometimes this 
appearance is intensified by the cracking of the gills in age or in 
drying. The nearest ally of the genus is Panus, which is only sep- 
arated from Lentimis by the edge of the gills being plane. This does 
not seem a very good character on which to separate the species of 
the two genera, since it is often difficult to tell whether the gills are 
naturally serrate or whether they have become so by certain tensions 
which exist on the lamellae during the expansion and drying of the 
pileus. Schroeter unites Panus with Lentinus (Cohn's Krypt. Flora, 
Schlesien, 3, i ; 554, 1889). The plants are usually very irregular 
and many of them shelving, only a few grow upright and have reg- 
ular caps. 

Lentinus vulpinus Fr. — This is a large and handsome species, having 
a wide distribution in Europe and in this country, but it does not 
seem to be common, it grows on trunks, logs, stumps, etc., in the 
woods. It was quite abundant during late summer and in the autumn 
on fallen logs, in a woods near Ithaca. The caps are shelving, closely 
overlapping in shingled fashion (imbricated), and joined at the nar- 
rowed base. The surface is convex, and the margin is strongly 
incurved, so that each of the individual caps is shell-shaped (con- 
chate). The surface of the pileus is coarsely hairy or hispid, the 
surface becoming more rough with age. Many coarse hairs unite to 
form coarse tufts which are stouter and nearly erect toward the base of 
the cap, and give the surface a tuberculate appearance. Toward the 
margin of the cap these coarse hairs are arranged in nearly parallel 
lines, making rows or ridges, which are very rough. The hairs and 
tubercles are dark in color, being nearly black toward the base, 
especially in old plants, and sometimes pale or of a smoky hue, espe- 
cially in young plants. The pileus is flesh color when young, becom- 
ing darker when old, and the flesh is quite thin, whitish toward the 
gills and darker toward the surface. The gills are broad, nearly 
white, flesh color near the base, coarsely serrate, becoming cracked 
in age and in drying, narrowed toward the base of the pileus, not 
forked, crowded, 4-6 mm. broad. The cap and gills are tough even 
when fresh. The plant has an intensely pungent taste. 

Figures 131, 132 represent an upper, front, and under view of 
the pilei (No. 3315, C. U. herbarium). 



Lentinus lecomtei Fr., is a very common and 
species growing on wood. 
When it grows on the upper 
side of logs the pileus is some- 
times regular and funnel- 
shaped (cyathiform), but it is 
often irregular and produced 
on one side, especially if it 
grows on the side of the sub- 
stratum. In most cases, how- _ 
ever, there is a funnel-shaped c 
depression above the attach- ^ 
ment of the stem. The pileus ,- 
is tough, reddish or reddish ] 
brown or leather color, hairy ^ 
or sometimes strigose, the |- 
margin incurved. The stem is 5. 
usually short, hairy, or in age E. 
it may become more or less =' 
smooth. The gills are narrow, i^ 
crowded, the spores small, | 
ovate to elliptical 5-6x2-3/^. ^ 
According to Bresadola this is z" 
the same as Pa7ius riidis Fr. S- 


It resembles very closely also < 
Panics cvathiformis (Schaeff.) % 
Fr., and P. strigosus B. & C. 1 

Lentinus lepideus Fr., \_L. s. 
5i2//jmc»sz/s (Schaeff. )Schroet.] ^ 
is another common and widely ,2, 
distributed species. It is much 
larger than L. lecomtei, whitish ■% 
with coarse brown scales on ^• 
the cap. It is 12-20 cm. high, r 
and the cap is often as broad. 
The stem is 2-8 cm. long and 
1-2 cm. in thickness. It 
grows on wood. 

Lentinus stipticus (Bull.) 
Schroet. {Paniis stipticus Bull.) 
is a very small species com- 
pared with the three named 

widelv distributed 



above. It is, however, a very common and widely distributed one, 
growing on wood, and may be found the year around. The pileus 

is 1-3 cm. in diameter, whitish 
or grayish, very tough, ex- 
panded in wet weather, and 
curled up in dry weather. The 
stem is very short, and attached 
to one side of the cap. When 
freshly developed the plant is 


This is a very interesting 
genus, but the species are very 
few. The plants are tough, 
pliant when fresh, and dry. 
The gills are very character- 
istic, being split along the edge 
and generally strongly revolute, 
that is, the split edges curve 
around against the side of the 
gill. This character can be 
seen sometimes with the aid of 
a hand lens, but is very evident 
when a section of the cap and 
gills is made and then examined 
with a microscope. The spores 
are white. 

Schizophyllum alneum (L.) 
Schroet. — This species usually 
goes by the name of Schizophyl- 
lum commune, but the earlier 
name is 5. alneiwi. It is a very 
common plant and is world wide 
in its distribution, growing on 
wood, as on branches, trunks, 
etc. It is white, and the pileus 
is very hairy or tomentose, with 
coarse white hairs. It is 1-3 
cm. in diameter, and the cap is 
Figure 1 33.— Schizophyllum alneum (=s sgssile, either attached at one 

commune). View of under side (natural 

size). Copyright. side when the cap is more pro- 

Plate 43, Figure 134. — Trogia crispa. Large cluster of caps, view 
of underside (natural size). Copyright. 


duced on one side than on the other, or it may be attached at or 
near the center of the top, when the cap is more evenly developed 
on all sides. It is often crenate or lobed on the margin, the 
larger plants showing this character more prominently. The margin 
is incurved. The gills are white, wooly, branched and extend out 
toward the margin of the cap like the radiations of a fan. The gills 
are deeply split along the edge, and strongly revolute. It is a very 
pretty plant, but one becomes rather tired of collecting it because it 
is so common. It may be found at all seasons of the year on dead 
sticks and branches, either in the woods or elsewhere, if the branches 
are present. It is very coriaceous, and tough. During dry weather 
it is much shrunken and curled up, but during rains it expands 
quickly and then it is seen in its beauty. 

Figure 133 shows the plant in the expanded condition, from the 
under side. The plants were growing on a hickory branch, and 
were dry and shrunken when brought in the laboratory. The branch 
and the fungus were placed in water for a few hours, when the fun- 
gus expanded, and was then photographed in this condition. 


This genus is characterized, according to Fries, by the gills being 
channeled along the edge, but singularly the only species attributed 
to the genus in Europe and in our country has not channeled gills, 
but only somewhat crisped along the edges. It is usually, therefore, 
a difficult matter for a beginner to determine the plant simply from 
this description. The gills are furthermore narrow, irregular, and 
the plants are somewhat soft and flabby when wet, but brittle and 
persistent when dry, so that when moistened they revive and appear 
as if fresh. 

Trogia crispa Fr. — This species is the principal if not only one in 
Europe and America. It is widely distributed, and sometimes not 
very uncommon. It occurs on trunks, branches, etc., often on the 
birch. The plants are from 0.5-1 cm. broad, usually sessile. The 
upper surface is whitish or reddish yellow toward the attachment, 
sometimes tan color, and when young it is sometimes covered with 
whitish hairs. The gills are very narrow, vein-like, irregular, inter- 
rupted or continuous, and often more or less branched. The gills are 
very much crisped, hence the name, blunt at the edge and white or 
bluish gray. The caps are usually much crowded and overlapped in 
an imbricated fashion as shown in Fig. 134; a photograph of a fine 
specimen after being moistened. 



The spores are rosy, pink, salmon colored, flesh colored, or red- 
dish. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII. 


In the genus Pluteus the volva and annulus are both wanting, the 
gills are usually free from the stem, and the stem is easily broken 

Figure 135. — Pluteus cervinus. Cap grayish brown, or sooty, smooth or some- 
times scaly, rarely white, stem same color, but paler; gills first white, then 
flesh color (natural size, often larger). Copyright. 

out from the substance of the cap, reminding one in some cases of a 
ball and socket joint. The substance of the cap, is thus said to be 
not continuous with that of the stem. The spores seen in mass are 
flesh colored as in other genera of this subdivision of the agarics. 

Pluteus cervinus Schaeff. Edible. — This is one of the very common 
species of the higher fungi, and is also very widely distributed. It 




varies considerably in size and appearance. It is 7-15 cm. high, the 
cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 6-12 mm. in thickness. It occurs 
on the ground from underground roots or rotten wood, or grows on 
decaying stumps, logs, etc., from spring until late autumn. Some- 
times it is found growing in sawdust. 

The pileus is fleshy, bell-shaped, then convex, and becoming 
expanded, the surface usually smooth, but showing radiating fibrils, 
grayish brown, or sometimes sooty, sometimes more or less scaly. 
The gills are not crowded, broad, free from the stem, white, then 

Figure 136. — Pluteus tomentosulus. Cap and stem entirely white, gills flesh 
color, stem furrowed and tomentose (natural size). Copyright. 

becoming flesh color with the maturity of the spores. One very 
characteristic feature of the plant is the presence of cystidia in the 
hymenium on the gills. These are stout, colorless, elliptical, thick- 
walled, and terminate in two or three blunt, short prongs. 

The stem is nearly equal, solid, the color much the same as that 
of the pileus, but often paler above, smooth or sometimes scaly. 

In some forms the plant is entirely white, except the gills. In 
addition to the white forms occurring in the woods, I have found them 
in an old abandoned cement mine growing on wood props. 


Pluteus tomentosulus Pk. — This plant was described by Peck in the 
32d Report, N. Y. State Mus., page 28, 1879. It grows on decaying 
wood in the woods during July and August. The plants are 5-12 
cm. high, the cap 3-7 cm. broad, and the stem 4-8 mm. in thickness. 
The description given by Peck is as follows : ** Pileus thin, convex 
or expanded, subumbonate, dry, minutely squamulose-tomentose, 
white, sometimes pinkish on the margin ; lamellae rather broad, 
rounded behind, free, crowded, white then flesh colored ; stem equal, 
solid, striate, slightly pubescent or subtomentose, white ; spores sub- 
globose, 7 ywin diameter, generally containing a large single nucleus." 
From the plant collected at Ithaca the following notes were made. 
The pileus and stem are entirely white, the gills flesh color. The 
pileus is expanded, umbonate, thin except at the umbo, minutely 
floccose squamulose, no pinkish tinge noted ; the flesh is white, but 
on the umbo changing to flesh color where wounded. The gills are 
free, with a clear white space between stem and rounded edges, 
crowded, narrow (about 3-4 mm. broad) edge finely fimbriate, prob- 
ably formed by numerous bottle-shaped cystidia on the edge, and 
which extend up a little distance on the side of the gills, but are not 
distributed in numbers over the surface of the gills ; cystidia thin 
walled, hyaline. The spores are flesh colored, subglobose, 5-7 yw. 
Stem cylindrical, even, twisted somewhat, white, striate and minutely 
squamulose like the pileus, but with coarser scales, especially toward 
the base, solid, flesh white. 

The species received its name from the tomentose, striate charac- 
ter of the stem. The plants (No. 3219, C. U. herbarium) illustrated 
in Fig. 136 were collected in Enfield Gorge, vicinity of Ithaca, July 
28, 1899. 


This genus takes its name from the volva, which means a wrap- 
per, and which, as we know from our studies of Amanita, entirely 
envelops the plant at a young stage. The genus is characterized 
then by the rosy or reddish spores, the presence of a volva, and the 
annulus is wanting. The sterrt is easily separable from the pileus at 
its junction, in this respect being similar to Amanita, Amanitopsis, 
Lepiota and others. The gills are usually, also, free from the stem. 
The species grow on rotting wood, on leaf mould and on richly man- 
ured ground, etc. They are of a very soft texture and usually soon 

Volvaria bombycina (Pers.) Fr. Edible. — The silky volvaria is so 
called because of the beautiful silky texture of the surface of the cap. 
It is not very common, but is world wide in its distribution, and occurs 



on decayed wood of logs, stumps, etc., during late summer and 
in autumn. It is usually of a beautiful white color, large, the volva 
large and thick, reminding one of a bag, and the stem is ascending when 
the plant grows on the side of the 
trunk, or erect when it grows on 
the upper side of a log or stump. 
The plant is from 8-16 cm. high, 
the cap 6-20 cm. broad, and the 
stem 1-1.5 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is globose, then bell- 
shaped, and finally convex and 
somewhat umbonate, white, accord- 
ing to some becoming somewhat red- 
dish. The entire surface is silky, 
and numerous hairs stand out in the 
form of soft down, when older the 
surface becoming more or less scaly, 
or rarely becoming smooth at the 
apex. The flesh is white. The 
gills are crowded, very broad along 
the middle, flesh colored, the edge 
sometimes ragged. The spores are 
rosy in mass, oval to broadly el- 
liptical, 6-9 X 5-6 //, smooth. The 
stem tapers from the base to the 
apex, is solid, smooth. The volva 
is large and bag-like. The plant 
is considered edible by some. Fig- 
ure 137 is from a plant (No. 3096, 
C. U. herbarium) collected on a log 
of Acer rubrum in Cascadilla woods, 
Ithaca, on August loth, 1898. 

Volvaria speciosa Fr. — This plant 
seems to be rare, but it has a wide 
distribution in Europe and the 
United States. It occurs on richly 
manured ground, on dung, etc. 
The plants are 10-20 cm. high, the 
cap 6-12 cm. broad, and the stem 
1-2 cm. in thickness. The entire plant is white or whitish, some- 
times grayish, especially at the center, where it is also sometimes 
darker and of a smoky color. 

Figure i 

-Volvaria bombycina. Cap, stem 

and volva entirely white, gills flesh color (nat- 
ural size). Copyright. 


The pileus is globose when young, then bell-shaped, and finally 
more or less expanded, and umbonate, smooth, very viscid, so that 
earth, leaves, etc., cling to it. The flesh is white and very soft. 
The gills are free, flesh colored to reddish or fulvous, from the deeply 
colored spores. The spores are broadly elliptical, or oval, 12-18 x 
8-10 yu. The stem is nearly cylindrical, or tapering evenly from the 
base, when young more or less hairy, becoming smooth. The volva 
is large, edge free, but fitting very close, flabby and irregularly torn. 

The species is reported from California by McClatchie, and from 
Wisconsin by Bundy. 

Specimens were received in June, 1898, from Dr. Post of Lansing, 
Mich, which were collected there in a potato patch. It was abundant 
during May and June. Plants which were sent in a fresh condition 
were badly decayed by the time they reached Ithaca, and the odor 
was very disagreeable. It is remarkable that the odor was that of 
rotting potatoes ! In this connection might be mentioned Dr. Peck's 
observation (Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 26: p. 67, 1899) that Agaricus 
maritimus Pk., which grows near the seashore, possessed "a taste 
and odor suggestive of the sea." 

McClatchie reports that it is common in cultivated soil, especially 
grain fields and along roads, and that it is ** a fine edible agaric and 
our most abundant one in California." 


In the rosy-spored agarics belonging to this genus the gills are 
decurrent, that is, extend for some distance down on the stem. The 
stem is fleshy. The gills are white at first and become pink or sal- 
mon color as the plants mature, and the spores take on their charac- 
teristic color. The plants should thus not be confused with any of 
the species of Agaricus to which the common mushroom belongs, 
since in those species the gills become dark brown or blackish when 
mature. The genus corresponds with Clitocybe among the white- 
spored ones. 

Clitopilus prunulus Scop. Edible. — This species grows on the ground 
in the woods from mid-summer to autumn. It is not very common, 
but sometimes appears in considerable quantities at one place. 
During the autumn of 1898 quite a large number of specimens were 
found in a woods near Ithaca, growing on the ground around an old 
stump. The plants are 3-8 cm. high, the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and 
stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is fleshy, firm, convex and becoming nearly plane, and 
sometimes as the plants become old the center may be slightly de- 


pressed. It is whitish in color, or dark gray, or with a leaden tint, 
dry, sometimes with a distinct bloom on the surface, and the margin 
is often wavy. The cap is sometimes produced more on one side than 
on the other. The gills are not close, at first whitish, then salmon 
colored as the spores mature, and they are decurrent as is character- 
istic of the genus. The spores are elliptical or nearly so, and meas- 
ure 10-12 J.I long. 

Figure 138 is from plants collected near Ithaca, in the autumn of 
1898. This species is considered to be one of the excellent mush- 
rooms for food. When fresh it has a mealy odor and taste, as do 
several of the species of this genus. It is known as the prune 

Clitopiius orcella Bull. Edible. — This plant is sometimes spoken of 
as the sweet-bread mushroom. It is much like the prune mushroom 
just described, in odor and taste, and sometimes resembles it in form 
and other characters. It is white in color, and the plants are usually 
considerably smaller, and the pileus is, according to my observations, 
sometimes more irregular, lobed and wavy on the margin. The flesh 
is also softer, and the cap is said to be slightly viscid in wet weather. 
The plant grows in the woods and sometimes in open fields. 


The volva and annulus are absent in this genus, the spores are 
rosy, the gills adnate to sinuate or adnexed, easily separating from 
the stem in some species. The stem is fleshy or fibrous, sometimes 
waxy, and the pileus is fleshy with the margin incurved, espe- 
cially when young. The spores are prominently angular. The genus 
corresponds with Triclioloma of the white-spored agarics, and also 
with Hebeloma and Inocyhe of the ochre-spored ones. Entoloma re- 
pandiim Bull., is an Inocyhe [/. repandiwi (Bull.) Bres.] and has 
angular spores resembling those of an Entoloma, but the spores are 
not rosy. 

Entoloma jubatum Fr. — Growing on the ground in woods. The 
plants are 5-10 cm. high, the, cap 3-6 cm. broad, and the stem 3-6 
mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is conic in some plants, to convex and umbonate, thin, 
minutely scaly with blackish hairy scales, dull heliotrope purple, 
darker on the umbo. The gills are vinaceous rufus to deep flesh 
color, strongly sinuate, and irregularly notched along the edge. The 
spores are irregularly oval to short oblong, coarsely angular, with an 
oil drop, 5-7 angled, 7-1 1 x 6-7 fi. The stem is of the same color as 
the pileus, sometimes deeply rooting, hollow. Figure 139 is from 



plants (No. 4000, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, 
during September, 1899. 

Entoloma grayanum Pk. — This plant grows on the ground in woods. 
It is from 6-8 cm. high, the cap is 3-6 cm. broad, and the stem 4-6 
mm. in thickness. 

Figure 139. — Entoloma jubatum. Entire plant dull heliotrope purple, gills later 
flesh color (natural size). Copyright. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, sometimes broadly umbonate, 
drab in color, the surface wrinkled or rugose, and watery in appear- 
ance. The flesh is thin and the margin incurved. The gills are first 
drab in color, but lighter than the pileus, becoming pinkish in age. 



The spores on paper are very light salmon color. They are globose 
or rounded in outline, 5-7 angled, with an oil globule, 8-10 pi in diam- 
eter. The stem is the same color as the pileus, but lighter, striate, 
hollow, somewhat twisted, and enlarged below. Figure 140 is from 
plants (No. 3998, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, 
during September, 1899. 

Figure 140. — Entoloma grayanum. Cap and stem drab, gills flesh color (natural 

size). Copyright. 

Entoloma strictius Pk. — The plants grow in grassy places, pastures, 
etc. They are clustered, sometimes two or three joined at the base 
of the stem. They are 7-10 cm. high, the caps 2-4 cm. broad, and 
the stems 3-6 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex, the disk expanded, and the margin incurved 
and more or less wavy or repand on the extreme edge. It is umbo- 
nate at the center with usually a slight depression around the umbo, 
smooth, watery (hygrophanous) in appearance, not viscid, of an 
umber color, shining, faintly and closely striate on the margin. 



In drying the surface of the pileus loses some of its dark umber color 
and presents a silvery sheen. The flesh is fibrous and umber color 
also. The gills are grayish white, then tinged with flesh color, slightly 
sinuate, the longer ones somewhat broader in the middle (ventricose), 
rather distant, and quite thick as seen in cross section, the center of 
the gill (trama) presenting parallel threads. The subhymenium 
is very thin and composed of small cells ; the basidia are clavate, 
25-30x9-10/^, and four-spored. The spores are dull rose color on 

Figure 141 — Entoloma strictius. Cap umber or smoky, stem paler, gills grayish, 
then flesh color (natural size). Copyright. 

paper, subgloblose, 5-8 jj. in diameter, angular with 5-6 angles as 
seen from one side. The stem is the same color as the pileus, but 
considerably lighter. It is hollow with white fibers within, fibrous 
striate on the surface, twisted, brittle, and somewhat cartilaginous, 
partly snapping, but holding by fibers in places, cylindrical, even, 
ascending, with delicate white fibers covering the lower end. 

Figure 141 is from plants (No. 2461, C. U. herbarium) collected 
near Ithaca, October, i\ 




In Leptonia the stem is cartilaginous, hollow or stuffed, smooth 
and somewhat shining. The pileus is thin, umbilicate or with the 
center darker, the surface hairy or scaly, and the margin at first 
incurved. The gills are adnate or adnexed at first, and easily 
separating from the stem in age. Many of the species are bright 

Leptonia asprella 
Fr. — This species — — -^•^^■* 

occurs on the 
ground in woods 
or in open grassy 
places. The 
plants are 3-5 cm. 
high, the cap 2-4 
cm. broad, and 
the stem 2-3 mm. 
in thickness. 

The pileus is 
convex, then more 
or less expanded, 
umbilicate, rarely 
umbonate, hair 
brown (mouse 
colored), with 

aarK scales on tne figure 142. — Leptonia asprella. Cap hair brown (mouse 

center and minute colored), minute dark scales at center, stem same 

, . , color, but sometimes reddish brown, green or blue, 

scales over the giiis flesh color, 

surface, striate. 

The gills are sinuate to adnexed. The spores are strongly 5-6 
angled, 10-12 x 8-10 pi. The stem is smooth, even, usually the same 
color as the cap, but sometimes it is reddish brown, green, or blue. 
Figure 142 is from plants (No. 3996, C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

Leptonia incana Fr., is a more common species, and is character- 
ized by an odor of mice. 





The genus Eccilia corresponds with Omphalia of the white- 
spored agarics. The stem is cartilaginous, hollow or stuffed. The 
pileus is thin and somewhat membranaceous, plane or depressed at 

the center, and the 
margin at first in- 
curved. The gills are 
more or less decur- 

Eccilia polita Pers. 
— This plant occurs 
on the ground in 
woods. It is 6-10 cm. 
high, the cap 2-4 cm. 
broad, and the stem 
is 3-4 mm. in thick- 

The pileus is con- 
vex and umbilcate, 
somewhat membra- 
naceous, smooth, 
watery in appearance, 
finely striate on the 
margin, hair brown to 
olive in color. The 
gills are decurrent. In 
the specimens illus- 
trated in Fig. 143 the 
gills are very irregular 
and many of them ap- 
pear sinuate. The 
spores are strongly 4-5 
angled, some of them 
square, 10-12 // in 
diameter, with a prominent mucro at one angle. The stem is 
cartilaginous, becoming hollow, lighter in color than the pileus, and 
somewhat enlarged below. Figure 143 is from plants (No. 3999, 
C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during Sep- 
tember, 1899. 

Figure 143. — Eccilia polita. Cap hair brown to olive, 
stem lighter, gills flesh color, notched and irregular 
(natural size). Copyright. 



In the genus Claiuiopus, recognized by some, the pileus is eccen- 
tric or lateral, that is, the stem is attached near the side of the cap, 
or the cap is sessile and attached by one side to the wood on which 
the plant is growing ; or the plants are resupinate, that is, they may 
be spread over the surface of the wood. 

The genus is perhaps not well separated from some of the species 
of Pleiirotiis with lilac spores like P. sapidiis. In fact, a number of the 
species were formerly placed in Pleurotus, while others were placed 
in Crepidotus among the ochre-spored agarics. Several species are 
reported from America. Peck in 39th Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 
67, et seq., 1886, describes five species. 

Claudopus nidulans (Pers.) Pk. — This is one of the very pretty 
agarics growing on dead branches and trunks during the autumn, and 
is widely distributed. It has, howe\-er, been placed in the genus 
Pleurotus, as P. nidulans. But because of the pink color of the spores 
in mass. Peck places it in the genus Claudopus, where Fries sug- 
gested it should go if removed from Pleurotus. It seems to be 
identical with Panus dorsalis Bosc. It is usually sessile and attached 
to the side of dead branches, logs, etc., in a shelving manner, or 
sometimes it is resupinate. 

The pileus is sessile, or sometimes narrowed at the base into a 
short stem, the caps often numerous and crowded together in an over- 
lapping or imbricate manner. It is nearly orbicular, or reniform, 
and 1-5 cm. broad. The margin is at first involute. The surface is 
coarsely hairy or tomentose, or scaly toward the margin, of a rich 
yellow or buff color. It is soft, but rather tough in consistency. 
The gills are broad, orange yellow. The spores, pink in mass, are 
smooth, elongated, somewhat curved, 6-8 ^i long. 

Figure 144 is from plants (No. 2660, C. U. herbarium) collected 
in woods near Ithaca. 



The spores are ochre yellow, rusty, rusty-brown, or some shade 
of yellow. For analytical keys to the genera see Chapter XXII. 


The genus Pholiota has ferruginous or ferruginous brown spores. 
It lacks a volva, but has an annulus ; the gills are attached to the 
stem. It then corresponds to Armillaria among white-spored agarics, 
and Stropharia among the purple-brown-spored ones. There is one 
genus in the ochre or yellow-spored plants with which it is liable to 
be confused on account of the veil, namely Corttnarius, but in the lat- 
ter the veil is in the form of loose threads, and is called an arachnoid 
veil, that is, the veil is spider-web-like. Many of the species of 
Pholiota grow on trunks, stumps, and branches of trees, some grow 
on the ground. 

Pholiota praecox Pers. Edible. — {Agaricus candicans Bull. T. 217, 
1770: Pholiota candicans Schroeter, Krypt, Flora, Schlesien, p. 608, 
1889. This plant occurs during late spring and in the summer, in 
pastures, lawns and grassy places, roadsides, open woods, etc. Some- 
times it is very common, especially during or after prolonged or heavy 
rains. The plants are 6-10 cm. high, the cap from 5-8 cm. broad, 
and the stem 3-5 mm. in thickness. The plants are scattered or a 
few sometimes clustered. 

The piieus is convex, then expanded, whitish to cream color or 
yellowish, then leather color, fleshy, the margin at first incurved, 
moist, not viscid. Sometimes the piieus is umbonate. The sur- 
face is sometimes uneven from numerous crowded shallow pits, giving 
it a frothy appearance. In age the margin often becomes upturned 
and t]uted. The gills are adnate or slightly decurrent by a tooth, 3-4 
mm. broad, a little broader at or near the middle, crowded, white, 
then ferruginous brown, edge sometimes whitish. There is often a 
prominent angle in the gills at their broadest diameter, not far from 
the stem, which gives to them, when the plants are young or mid- 
dle age, a sinuate appearance. The spores are ferruginous brown, 
elliptical. Cystidia abruptly club-shaped, with a broad apiculus. The 




stem is stuffed, later fistulose, even, fragile, striate often above the 
annulus. The stem is whitish or sometimes tlesh color. The veil is 
whitish, large, frail, and sometimes breaks away from the stem and 
clings in shreds to the margin of the cap. 

Figure 145 is from plants (No. 2362, C. U. herbarium) collected 
on the campus of Cornell University, June, 1898. The taste is often 
slightly bitter. 

Pholiota marginata Batsch. — This is one of the very common species, 
a small one, occurring all during the autumn, on decaying trunks, etc., 
in the woods. The plants are usually clustered, though appearing 
also singly. They are from 4-10 cm. high, the cap 3-4 cm. broad, 
and the stem 3-5 yu in thickness. 

The pileus is con- 
vex, then plane, tan 
or leather colored, 
darker when dry. It 
has a watery appear- 
ance (hygropha- 
nous), somewhat 
fleshy, smooth, stri- 
ate on the margin. 
The gills are joined 
squarely to the stem, 
crowded, at maturity 
dark reddish brown 
from the spores. 

The stem is cy- 
lindrical, equal, smooth, fistulose, of the same color as the pileus, 
becoming darker, and often with whitish fibrils at the base. The 
annulus is distant from the apex of the stem, and often disappears 
soon after the expansion of the pileus. Figure 147 is from plants 
(No. 2743, C. U. herbarium) collected near Ithaca.^ 

Pholiota unicolor Vahl, is a smaller plant which grows in similar 
situations. The plants are usually clustered, 3-5 cm. high, and the 
caps 6-12 mm. in diameter, the annulus is thin but entire and per- 
sistent. The entire plant is bay brown, becoming ochraceous in 
color, and the margin of the cap in age is striate, first bell-shaped, 
then convex and somewhat umbonate. The gills are lightly 

Pholiota adiposa Fr. — The fatty pholiota usually forms large clus- 
ters during the autumn, on the trunks of trees, stumps, etc. It is 
sometimes of large size, measuring up to 15 cm. and the pileus up to 

Figure 147. — I'holiota margmata. Cap and stem tan or 
leather color, gills dark reddish brown when mature (natural 
size). Copyright. 


17 cm. broad. Specimens collected at Ithaca during October, il 
were 8-10 cm. high, the pileus 4-8 cm. broad, and the stems 5-9 mm. 
in thickness. The plants grew eight to ten in a cluster and the bases 
of the stems were closely crowded and loosely joined. 

The pileus is convex, then expanded, the margin more or less in- 
rolled, then incurved, prominently umbonate, very viscid when moist, 
the ground color a saffron yellow or in the center burnt umber to wood 
brown. The cuticle of the pileus is plain or torn into scales which 
are wood brown, or when close together they are often darker, some- 
times nearly black. The flesh is saffron yellow, thick at the center 
of the cap, thinning out toward the margin, spongy and almost taste- 
less. The gills are adnate, and sometimes a little notched, brown 
(mars brown), and the edge yellow, 6-7 mm. broad. The spores are 
8 X 5 yu. The stem tapers downward, is compact, whitish then yellow, 
saffron yellow, flesh vinaceous, viscid, and clothed more or less with 
reflexed (pointing downward) scales. The stem is somewhat carti- 
laginous, tough, but snapping off in places. The veil is thin floccose 
and sometimes with coarse scales, soon disappearing. 

Figure 146 is from plants (No. 3295, C. U. herbarium) col- 
lected on the Ithaca flats from a willow trunk, Oct. 10, 1899. 

Pholiota aurivella Batsch, which has been found in the United 
States, is closely related to P. adiposa. 

Pholiota squarrosa Mijil., widely distributed and common in the 
autumn, both in Europe and America, on stumps and trunks, is a 
large, clustered, scaly plant, the scales '* squarrose ", and abundant 
over the pileus and on the stem below the annulus. It is brownish 
or ferruginous in color. 

Pholiota squarrosoides Pk., as its name indicates, is closely related 
to P. squarrosa. It has erect, pointed, persistent scales, especially 
when young, and has a similar habit to squarrosa, but differs chiefly 
in the pileus being viscid, while that of P. squarrosa is dry. P. 
subsquarrosa Fr., occurring in Europe, and also closely related to P. 
squarrosa, is viscid, the scales are closely appressed to the surface of 
the cap, while in squarrosa they are prominent and revolute. 

Pholiota cerasina Pk., occurs on decaying trunks of trees during 
late summer. The plants grow in tufts. They are 5-12 cm. high, 
the caps 5-10 cm. in diameter, and the stems 4-8 mm. in thickness. 
The pileus is smooth, watery when damp, cinnamon in color when 
fresh, becoming yellowish in drying, and the flesh is yellowish. 
The stem is solid, and equal, the apex mealy. The annulus is not 
persistent, and the gills are crowded and notched. The spores are 
elliptical, and rugose, 5x8//. 

Plate 48, Figure 148. — Pholiota squarrosoides. Entire plant brownish or^^d^iish 
brown; pileus viscid (three-fourths natural size). Copyright. 



Pboliota johnsoniana Pk. Edible. — This species was described from 
specimens collected at Knowersville, N. Y., in 1889, by Peck, in the 
23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 98, as Agaricus johnso7iianus . I 
found it at Ithaca, N. Y., for the first time during the summer of 
1899, and it was rather common during September, 1899, in the Blue 
Ridge Mountains at Blowing Rock, N. C. It grows in woods or in 
pastures on the ground. The larger and handsomer specimens I 
have found in rather damp but well drained woods. The plants are 
7-15 cm. high, the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 6-12 mm. in 

The pileus is fleshy, very thick at the center, convex, then ex- 
panded and plane, smooth, sometimes finely striate on the thin mar- 
gin when moist, yellowish, or fulvous, the margin whitish. The gills 
are attached to the stem by the upper angle (adnexed), rounded, or 
some of them angled, some nearly free. In color they are first gray, 
then rusty brown. They appear ascending because of the somewhat 
top-shaped pileus. The spores are irregularly ovoid, 4-6 x 3-3.5 A'. 
The stem is cylindrical or slightly tapering upward, smooth, slightly 
striate above the annulus, whitish, solid, with a tendency to become 
hollow. The veil is thick, and the annulus narrow and very thick or 
*' tumid," easily breaking up and disappearing. The plant is quite 
readily distinguished by the form of the pileus with the ascending 
gills and the tumid annulus. Peck says it has a " somewhat nutty 

Figure 149 is from plants (No. 4014, C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 


This genus, with ferruginous spores, corresponds with Collybia 
among the white-spored agarics. The gills are free or attached, but 
not decurrent, and the stem is cartilaginous. The plants grow both 
on the ground and on wood. Peck, 23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 
91, ef seq., gives a synopsis of seven species. 

Naucoria senii=orbicularis Bull. Edible. — This is one of the common 
and widely distributed species. It occurs in lawns, pastures, road- 
sides, etc., in waste places, from June to autumn, being more abund- 
ant in rainy weather. The plants are 7-10 cm. high, the cap 3-5 
cm. broad, and the stem 2-3 mm. in thickness. The pileus is convex 
to expanded, and is remarkably hemispherical, from which the species 
takes the name of semi-orbicularis . It is smooth, viscid when moist, 
tawny, and in age ochraceous, sometimes the surface is cracked 
into areas. The gills are attached, sometimes notched, crowded. 



much broader than the thickness of the pileus, pale, then reddish 
brown. The stem is tough, slender, smooth, even, pale reddish 
brown, shining, stuffed with a whitish pith. Peck says that the 
plants have an oily flavor resembling beechnuts. 

Naucoria vernalis Pk. — Nancoria vernalis was described by Peck in 
23rd Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 91, from plants collected in May. 
The plants described here appeared in woods in late autumn. The 
specimens from which this description is drawn were found growing 
from the under side of a very rotten beech log, usually from deep 
crevices in the log, so that only the pileus is visible or exposed well 
to the view. The plants are 4-8 cm. high, the cap 2-3 cm. broad, 
and the stem 4-5 mm. in thickness. The taste is bitter. 

Figure 150. — Naiicoria vernalis. Cap hair brown lu ^j..» color; gills grayish 
brown to wood brown ; stem clay color (natural size). Copyright. 

The pileus is convex, then the center is nearly or quite expanded, 
the margin at first inrolled and never fully expanded, hygrophanous, 
smooth (not striate nor rugose), flesh about 5-6 mm. thick at center, 
thin toward the margin. The color changes during growth, it is from 
ochraceous rufus when young (1-2 mm. broad), then clove brown to 
hair brown and clay color in age. The gills are grayish brown to 
wood brown, at first adnate to slightly sinuate, then easily breaking 
away and appearing adnexed. The spores are wood brown in color, 
oval to short elliptical and inequilateral 6-8x4-5^^. Cystidia hya- 
line, bottle shaped, 40-50 x 8-12 yw. The stem is somewhat hollow 
and stuffed, rather cartilaginous, though somewhat brittle, especially 


when very damp, breaking out from the pileus easily though with 
fragments of the gills remaining attached, not strongly continuous 
with the substance of the pileus. The color is buff to pale clay color ; 
the stem being even, not bulbous but somewhat enlarged below, 
mealy over the entire length, which may be washed off by rains, 
striate at apex either from marks left by the gills or remnants of the 
gills as they become freed from the stem. Base of stem sometimes 
with white cottony threads, especially in damp situations. In the 
original description the stem is said to be ** striate sulcate." Figure 
150 is from plants (No. 3242, C. U. herbarium) collected in woods 
near Ithaca, October i, 1899. 


Galera with ochraceous (ochraceous ferruginous) spores corres- 
ponds to Mvcena among the white-spored agarics. The pileus is 
usually bell-shaped, and when young the margin fits straight against 
the stem. The stem is somewhat cartilaginous, but often very 
fragile. The genus does not contain many species. Peck gives a 
synopsis of five American species in the 23rd Report N. Y. State 
Mus., p. 93, et seq., and of twelve species in the 46th Report, 
p. 61, et seq. One of the common species is Galera tenera Schaeff. 
It occurs in grassy fields or in manured places. The plants are 
5-8 cm. high, the cap 8-16 mm. broad, and the stem 2-3 mm. in 
thickness. The pileus is oval to bell-shaped, and tawny in color, 
thin, smooth, finely striate, becoming paler when dry. The gills 
are crowded, reddish-brown, adnexed and easily separating. The 
stem is smooth, colored like the pileus but a little paler, sometimes 
striate, and with mealy whitish particles above. Galera lateritia is 
a related species, somewhat larger, and growing on dung heaps 
and in fields and lawns. Galera ovalis Fr., is also a larger plant, 
somewhat shorter than the latter, and with a prominent ovate cap 
when young. Galera aotipoda Lasch., similar in general appearance 
to G. tenera, has a rooting base by which it is easily known. Galera 
flava Pk., occurs among vegetable mold in woods. The pileus is 
membraneous, ovate or companulate, moist or somewhat watery, 
obtuse, plicate, striate on the margin, yellow. The plants are 5-8 
cm. high, the caps 12-25 rnm. broad, and the stem 2-3 mm. in 
thickness. The plant is recognized by the pale yellow color of the 
caps and the plicate striate character of the margin. The plicate 
striate character of the cap is singular among the species of this 
genus, and is shared by another species, G. coprinoides Pk. 




In the genus Flammula, the pileus is fleshy, stem fleshy-fibrous, 
and the gills adnate to decurrent. 

Flammula polychroa Berk. — This is a beautiful plant with tints of 
violet, lavender, lilac and purple, especially on the scales of the pi- 
leus, on the veil and on the stem. It occurs in clusters during late 
summer and autumn, on logs, branches, etc., in the woods. The 
plants occur singly, but more often in clusters of three to eight or 

Figure 151. — Flammula polychroa, under view. Cap vinaceous buff to orange buff, 
scales lilac, purple or lavender; gills drab to hair brown (natural size). Copyright. 

more. The plants are 4-7 cm. high, the cap 3-5 cm. broad, and the 
stem 4-6 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex, and in the young stage the margin strongly 
incurved, later the cap becomes expanded and has a very broad umbo. 
It is very viscid. The surface is covered with delicate hairs which 
form scales, more prominent during mid-age of the plant, and on the 
margin of the cap. These scales are very delicate and vary in color 
from vinaceous-buff, lilac, wine-purple, or lavender. The ground 
color of the pileus is vinaceous-buff or orange-buff, and toward the 
margin often with shades of beryl-green, especially where it has been 


touched. In the young plants the color of the delicate hairy surface 
is deeper, often phlox-purple, the color becoming thinner as the cap 

The gills are notched (sinuate) at the stem, or adnate, sometimes 
slightly decurrent, crowded. Before exposure by the rupture of the 
veil they are cream-buff in color, then taking on darker shades, drab 
to hair brown or sepia with a purple tinge. The stem is yellowish, 
nearly or quite the color of the cap, often with a purplish tinge at 
the base. It is covered with numerous small punctate scales of the 
same color, or sulphur yellow above where they are more crowded 
and larger. The scales do not extend on the stem above the point 
where the veil is attached. The stem is slightly striate above the 
attachment of the veil. It is somewhat tough and cartilaginous, solid, 
or in age stuffed, or nearly hollow. The veil is floccose and quite 
thick when the plant is young. It is scaly on the under side, 
clinging to the margin of the pileus in triangular remnants, appearing 
like a crown. The color of the veil and of its remnants is the same 
as the color of the scales of the cap. 

The spores in mass are light brown, and when fresh with a slight 
purple tinge. (The color of the spores on white paper is near wal- 
nut brown or hair brown of Ridgeway's colors.) Under the micro- 
scope they are yellowish, oval or short oblong, often inequilateral, 
6-8 X 4-5 yw. 

Figure 151 is from plants (No. 4016, C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, September, 1899, on a fallen maple 
log. The plants sometimes occur singly. It has been collected at 
Ithaca, N. Y., and was first described from plants collected at 
Waynesville, Ohio. 

Flammula sapinea Fr., is a common plant growing on dead conifer- 
ous wood. It is dull yellow, the pileus 1-4 cm. in diameter, and 
with numerous small scales. 


In Heheloma the gills are either squarely set against the stem 
(adnate) or they are notched (sinuate), and the spores are clay-col- 
ored. The edge of the gills is usually whitish, the surface clay-col- 
ored. The veil is only seen in the young stage, and then is very 
delicate and fibrillose. The stem is fleshy and fibrous, and some- 
what mealy at the apex. The genus corresponds with Tricholoma 
of the white-spored agarics. All the species are regarded as unwhole- 
some, and some are considered poisonous. The species largely 
occur during the autumn. Few have been studied in America. 


Hebeloma crustuliniforme Bull. — This plant is usually common in 
some of the lawns, during the autumn, at Ithaca, N. Y. It often 
forms rings as it grows on the ground. It is from 5-7 cm. high, the 
cap 4-8 cm. in diameter, and the stem is 4-6 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex and expanded, somewhat umbonate, viscid 
when moist, whitish or tan color, darker over the center, where it is 
often reddish-brown. The gills are adnexed and rounded near the 
stem, crowded, whitish, then clay color and reddish-brown, the edge 

Figure 152. — Hebeloma crustuliniforme, var. minor. Cap whitish or tan color, or 
reddish-brown at center; gills clay color (natural size). Copyright. 

whitish and irregular. The gills are said to exude watery drops 
in wet weather. The stem is stuffed, later hollow, somewhat en- 
larged at the base, white, and mealy at the apex. Figure 1 52 is from 
plants (No. 271 3, C. U. herbarium) collected in lawns on the Cornell 
University campus. The plants in this figure seem to represent 
the variety minor. 


In the genus Inocybe there is a universal veil which is fibrillose in 
character, and more or less closely joined with the cuticle of the 
pileus, and the surface of the pileus is therefore marked with fibrils 
or is more or less scaly. Sometimes the margin of the pileus pos- 
sesses remnants of a veil which is quite prominent in a few species. 
The gills are adnate, or sinuate, rarely decurrent, and in one species 
they are free. It is thus seen that the species vary widely, and 
there may be, after a careful study of the species, grounds for the 
separation of the species into several genera. One of the most 
remarkable species is Inocybe echinata Roth. This plant is covered 
with a universal veil of a sooty color and powdery in nature. The 
gills are reddish purple, and the stem is of the same color, the spores 
on white paper of a faint purplish red color. Some place in it 
Psalliota. Collected at Ithaca in August, 1900. 



TUBARIA W. Smith. 

In the genus Tiibaria the spores are rust-red, or rusty brown 
(ferruginous or fuscous-ferruginous), the stem is somewhat cartilagi- 
nous, hollow, and, what is more important, the gills are more or less 
decurrent, broad next to the stem, and thus more or less triangular 
in outline. It is related to Naiicoria and Galera, but differs in the 
decurrent gills. The pileus is convex, or with an umbilicus. 

Tubaria pellucida Bull. — This species grows by roadsides in grassy 
places. The 
plants are from 
3-4 cm. high, and 
the cap 1-2 cm. 
in diameter, and 
the stem 2-3 mm. 
in thickness. 

The pileus i s 
conic, then bell- 
shaped, often ex- 
panded and with 
a slight umbo; 
the color is dull, 
reddish brown, 
and it has a watery 
appearance. The 
plant is sometimes enveloped with a loose and delicate universal 
or outer veil, which remains on the margin of the cap in the form 
of silky squamules as shown in the figure. The margin of the pileus 
is faintly striate. The gills are only slightly decurrent. Figure 153 
is from plants (No. 2360 C. U. herbarium) collected along a street 
in Ithaca. 

The stem is at first solid, becoming hollow, tapering above, and 
the apex is mealy. 


In CrepidoHis the pileus is lateral, or eccentric, and thus more or 
less shelving, or it is resupinate, that is, lying flat or nearly so on 
the wood. The species are usually of small size, thin, soft and 
fleshy. The spores are reddish brown (ferruginous). The genus 
corresponds to Pleiirotus among the white-spored agarics, or to Claii- 
dopiis among the rosy-spored ones. Peck describes eleven species 
in the 39th Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 69 et seq., 1886. 

FiGiRE 153. — Tubaria pellucida. Dull reddish brown (natural size). 


Crepidotus versutus Pk.. — This little Crepidotus has a pure white 
pileus which is covered with a soft, whitish down. The plants grow 
usually on the underside of rotten wood or bark, and then the upper 
side of the cap lies against the wood, and is said to be resupinate. 
Sometimes where they grow toward the side of the log the cap has a 
tendency to be shelving. In the resupinate forms the cap is attached 
usually near one side, and then is produced more at the opposite side, 
so that it is more or less lateral or eccentric. As the plant becomes 
mature the edge is free from the wood for some distance, only being 
attached over a small area. The cap is somewhat reniform, thin, 
and from 6-12 cm. in diameter. The gills radiate from the point 

Figure 154. — Crepidotus versutus. Cap white, downy ; gills whitish, then 
rusty (twice natural size). Copyright. 

where the cap is attached to the substratum, are not crowded, 
rounded behind, that is, at the lateral part of the cap where they con- 
verge. They are whitish, then ferruginous from the spores. The 
spores are sub-elliptical, sometimes inequilateral, and measure from 
8-12 X 4-6 lA. 

Crepidotus herbarum Pk., is a closely related species, separated on 
account of the smaller spores. Both species grow either on herbs or 
decaying wood. As suggested by Peck they are both closely related 
tot. chimonophilus Berk., which has ''oblong elliptical" spores. 
The shape of the spores does not seem to differ from the specimens 
which I have taken to be C. versutus. 


Crepidotus applanatus Fr., is a larger species, shelving and often 
imbricated. Crepidotus fulvotoraentosus Pk., is a pretty species with a 
tomentose cap and tawny scales, usually occurring singly. It is 
closely related to C. calolepis Fr. 

Figure 154 is from plants of Crepidotus versutus Pk., (No. 2732 
C. U. herbarium) collected on rotting wood at Freeville, N. Y., eight 
miles from Ithaca. The plants are represented twice natural size. 


The genus Cortinarius is chiefly distinguished from the other 
genera of the ochre-spored agarics by the presence of a spider-web- 
like (arachnoid) veil which is separate from the cuticle of the pileus, 
that is, superficial. The gills are powdered by the spores, that is, 
the spores fall away with difficulty and thus give the gills a pulveru- 
lent appearance. The plants are fleshy and decay easily. It is 
necessary to have plants in the young as well as the old state to 
properly get at the characters, and the character of the veil is only 
seen in young or half developed specimens. The species are to be 
distinguished from other ochre-spored agarics with a cobwebby veil 
by the fact that the veil in Cortinarius is superficial and the gills 
powdery. The number of species is very large, and they are diffi- 
cult to determine. They mostly occur in northern countries and in 
the autumn or late summer ; some species, however, occur during 
early summer. Peck, 23d Report, N. Y. State Mus., p. 105-112, 
describes 21 species. 

Cortinarius (Inoloma) violaceus (L.) Fr. Edible. — This species is known 
by the violet or dark violet color which pervades all parts of the 
plant. The plants are 8-10 cm. high, the pileus 7-15 cm. broad, and 
the stem is bulbous, 6-8 mm. in thickness. The veil is single. It 
occurs in woods and open places during late summer and in the 
autumn. The flesh of the plant is also violet, and this color is 
imparted to the liquid when the plant is cooked. The flavor is said 
to be something like that of Agaricus campestris. 

Cortinarius (Myxacium) collinitus (Pers.) Fr. Edible. — This is known 
as the smeared cortinarius because of the abundant glutinous sub- 
stance with which the plant is smeared during moist or wet weather, 
It grows in woods. The plants are 7-10 cm. high, the cap 5-8 cm. 
in diameter, and the stem is 8-12 mm. in thickness. It is usually 
known by the smooth, even, tawny cap, the great abundance of 
slimy substance covering the entire plant when moist, and when dry 
the cracking of the gluten on the stem into annular patches. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, smooth, even, glutinous when 



wet, shining when dry, tawny. The gills are adnate with a peculiar 
bluish gray tinge when young, and clay color to cinnamon when old. 
The spores are nearly elliptical, and 12-15 x 6-7 //. The stem is 
cylindrical, even, and with patches of the cracked gluten when 

Cortinarius (Dermocybe) cinnamomeus (L.) Fr. Edible. — The cinna- 
mon cortinarius is so called 
j« because of the cinnamon color 
of the entire plant, especially 
of the cap and stem. It 
grows in the woods during 
summer and autumn. It is a 
very pretty plant, and varies 
from 5-8 cm. high, the cap 
from 2-10 cm. broad, and the 
stem 4-6 mm. in thickness. 
The pileus is conic, or con- 
vex, and nearly expanded, 
sometimes nearly plane, and 
again with a prominent blunt 
or conic umbo. Sometimes 
the pileus is abruptly bent 
downward near the margin 
as shown in the plants in 
Fig- ^55> giving the appear- 
ance of a "hip-roof." The 
surface is smooth, silky, with 
""^ innate fibrils. Sometimes 
n there are cinnabar stains on 
^^9^ -B parts of the pileus, and often 

.^^W^^P, ^ there are concentric rows of 

JLm|^^„^ I scales near the margin. The 

«^^^^'" ^ flesh is light yellowish and 

B ^ ^ with stains of cinnabar. The 

W o gills are adnate, slightly sinu- 

^ ate,anddecurrentby atooth, 
easily separating from the 
stem, rather crowded, slightly ventricose. The color of the gills 
varies greatly ; sometimes they are the same color as the pileus, 
sometimes reddish brown, sometimes blood red color, etc. This 
latter form is a very pretty plant, and is var. semi-sangnineus Fr. 
Figure 155 is from plants (No. 2883 C. U. herbarium) collected 

U bJO 

en Oh 

:3 o 
"5 . 

73 O 


-S o 


at Ithaca. The species is widely distributed in this country as well 
as in Europe. 

Cortinarius (Dermocybe) ochroleucus (Schaeff.) Fr. — This is a 
very beautiful plant because of the soft, silky appearance of the sur- 
face of pileus and stem, and the delicate yellowish white color. 
It occurs in woods, on the ground among decaying leaves. The 
plants are 4-12 cm. high, the cap 4-7 cm. broad, and the stem above 
is 6-10 mm. in thickness, and below from 2-3 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex to nearly expanded, and sometimes a little 
depressed, usually, however, remaining convex at the top. It is dry, 
on the center finely tomentose to minutely squamulose, sometimes 
the scales splitting up into concentric rows around the cap. The cap 
is fleshy at the center, and thin at the margin, the color is from cream 
buff to buff, darker on the center. The gills are sinuate or adnate, 
slightly broader in the middle (ventricose) in age, pale at first, then 
becoming ochre yellow, and darker when the plant dries. The spores 
are tawny in mass, oval, elliptical, minutely tuberculate when mature, 
6-9 x 4-6 yu. The stem is clavate, pale cream buff in color, solid, 
becoming irregularly fistulose in age, bulbous or somewhat ventri- 
cose below, the bulb often large and abrupt, 1.5-3 cm. in diameter. 
The veil is prominent and attached to the upper part of the stem, the 
abundant threads attached over an area i cm. in extent and forming 
a beautiful cortina of the same color as the pileus and stem, but be- 
coming tawny when the spores fall on it. The stem varies consid- 
erably in length and shape, being rarely ventricose, and then only 
at the base ; the bulbous forms predominate and the bulb is often 
very large. 

Figures 156, 157 are from plants (No. 3674 C. U. herbarium) 
collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 


The genus Bolbitius contains a few species with yellowish or yel- 
lowish brown spores. The plants are very fragile, more or less 
mucilaginous when moist, usually with yellowish colors, and, what is 
the most characteristic feature beside the yellowish color of the 
spores, the gills are very soft, and at maturity tend to dissolve into 
a mucilaginous consistency, though they do not deliquesce, or only 
rarely dissolve so far as to form drops. The surface of the gills at 
maturity becomes covered with the spores so that they appear pow- 
dery, as in the genus Cortinarius, which they also resemble in the 
color of the spores. In the mucilaginous condition of the gills the 
genus approaches Coprinus. It is believed to occupy an intermediate 



position between Coprinns and Cortinarius. T\\e species usually 
grow on dung or in manured ground, and in this respect resemble 
many of tlie species of Coprinus. Some of the species are, however, 
not always confined to such a substratum, but grow on decaying 
leaves, etc. 

Bolbitius variicolor Atkinson. — This plant was found abundantly 
during May and June, 1898, in a freshly manured grass plat between 
the sidewalk and the pavement along Buffalo street, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Figure 158. — Bolbitius variicolor. Cap viscid, various shades of yellow, or smoky 
olive; gills yellowish, then rusty (natural size). 

The season was rainy, and the plants appeared each day during 
quite a long period, sometimes large numbers of them covering a 
small area, but they were not clustered nor cespitose. They vary 
in height from 4-10 cm., the pileus from 2-4 cm. broad, and the stem 
is 3-8 mm. in thickness. The colors vary from smoky to fuliginous, 
olive and yellow, and the spores are ferruginous. 

The pileus is from ovate to conic when young, the margin not at 
all incurved, but lies straight against the stem, somewhat unequal. 


In expanding the cap becomes convex, then expanded, and finally 
many of the plants with the margin elevated and with a broad umbo, 
and finely striate for one-half to two-thirds the way from the margin 
to the center. When young the pileus has a very viscid cuticle, 
which easily peels from the surface, showing the yellow flesh. 
The cuticle is smoky olive to fuliginous, darker when young, becom- 
ing paler as the pileus expands, but always darker on the umbo. 
Sometimes the fibres on the surface of the cap are drawn into strands 
which anastomose into coarse reticulations, giving the appearance of 
elevated veins which have a general radiate direction from the center 
of the cap. As the pileus expands the yellow color of the flesh shows 
through the cuticle more and more, especially when young, but 
becoming light olive to fuliginous in age. In dry weather the surface 
of the pileus sometimes cracks into patches as the pileus expands. 
The gills are rounded next the stem, adnate to adnexed, becoming 
free, first yellow, then ferruginous. The basidia are abruptly club- 
shaped, rather distant and separated regularly by rounded cells, four 
spored. The spores are ferruginous, elliptical, lo-i 5 x 6-8 //, smooth. 
The stem is cylindrical to terete, tapering, above, sulphur and ochre 
yellow, becoming paler and even with a light brown tinge in age. 
The stem is hollow, and covered with numerous small yellow floccose 
scales which point upward and are formed by the tearing away of the 
edges of the gills, which are loosely united with the surface of the 
stem in the young stage. The edges of the gills are thus sometimes 
finely fimbriate. 

At maturity the gills become more or less mucilaginous, depend- 
ing on the weather. Plants placed in a moist chamber change to a 
mucilaginous mass. When the plants dry the pileus is from a drab 
to hair brown or sepia color (Ridgeway's colors). Figure 158 is 
from plants (No. 2355 C. U. herbarium). 


In the genus Paxillus the gills are usually easily separated from 
the pileus, though there are some species accredited to the genus that 
do not seem to possess this character in a marked degree. The 
spores are ochre or ochre brown. Often the gills are forked near 
the stem or anastomose, or they are connected by veins which them- 
selves anastomose in a reticulate fashion so that the meshes resemble 
the pores of certain species of the family Polyporacece. The pileus 
may be viscid or dry in certain species, but the plant lacks a viscid 
universal veil. The genus is closely related to Gomphidius, where 
the gills are often forked and easily separate from the pileus, but 



Gomphidiiis possesses a viscid or glutinous universal veil. Peck in 
the Bull. N. Y. State Mus. Nat. Hist. 2 : 29-33, describes five species. 

Paxillus involutus (Batsch.) Fr. Edible.— This plant is quite common 
in some places and is widely distributed. It occurs on the ground in 
grassy places, in the open, or in woods, and on decaying logs or 
stumps. The stem is central, or nearly so, when growing on the 
ground, or eccentric when growing on wood, especially if growing 
from the side of a log or stump. The plants are 5-7 cm. high, the 
cap 3-7 cm. broad, and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. The plant 
occurs from August to October. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, and depressed in the center. 
In the young plant the margin is strongly inrolled, and as the pileus 


j^aigf. -y-^sij^gfj^HialfcMyi. ^^H 


^PTj^'jP^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 


Figure 159. — Paxillus involutus. Cap and stem gray, olive-brown, reddish 
brown or tawny (natural size). Copyright. 

expands it unrolls in a very pretty manner. The young plant is 
covered with a grayish, downy substance, and when the inrolled 
margin of the cap comes in contact with the gills, as it does, it presses 
the gills against this down, and the unrolling margin is thus marked 
quite prominently, sometimes with furrows where the pressure of the 
gills was applied. The color of the pileus varies greatly. In the 
case of plants collected at Ithaca and in North Carolina mountains 
the young plant when fresh is often olive umber, becoming reddish 
or tawny when older, the margin with a lighter shade. As Dr. Peck 
states, ** it often presents a strange admixture of gray, ochraceous, 
ferruginous, and brown hues." The tlesh is yellowish and changes 


to reddish or brownish where bruised. The gills are decurrent, when 
young arcuate, then ascending, and are more or less reticulated on 
the stem. They are grayish, then greenish yellow changing to 
brown where bruised. The spores are oval, 7-9 x 4-5 yw. The stem 
is short, even, and of the same color as the cap. 

At Ithaca, N. Y., the plant .is sometimes abundant in late autumn 
in grassy places near or in groves. The Figure 159 is from plants 
(No. 2508 C. U. herbarium) growing in such a place in the suburbs 
of Ithaca. At Blowing Rock, N. C, the plant is often very abun- 
dant along the roadsides on the ground during August and Sep- 

Paxillus rhodoxanthus (Schw.) — This species was first described by 
de Schweinitz as Agariciis rhodoxanthus, p. 83 No. 640, Synopsis fun- 
gorum Carolince superioris, in Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesell- 
schaft 1 : 19-131, 1822. It was described under his third section 
of Agariciis under the sub-genus Gymnopus, in which are mainly spe- 
cies now distributed in Clitocybe and Hygrophoriis. He remarks on 
the elegant appearance of the plant and the fact that it so nearly 
resembles Boletus stibtomentosus as to deceive one. The resemblance 
to Boletus subtomentostis as one looks upon the pileus when the 
plant is growing on the ground is certainly striking, because of the 
reddish yellow, ochraceous rufus or chestnut brown color of the cap 
together with the minute tomentum covering the surface. The sug- 
gestion is aided also by the color of the gills, which one is apt to get 
a glimpse of from above without being aware that the fruiting sur- 
face has gills instead of tubes. But as soon as the plant is picked 
and we look at the under surface, all suggestion of a Boletus vanishes, 
unless one looks carefully at the venation of the surface of the gills 
and the spaces between them. The plant grows on the ground in 
woods. At Blowing Rock, N. C, where it is not uncommon, I have 
always found it along the mountain roads on the banks. It is 5-10 
cm. high, the cap from 3-8 cm. broad, and the stem 6-10 mm. in 

The pileus is convex, then expanded, plane or convex, and when 
mature more or less top-shaped because it is so thick at the middle. 
In age the surface of the cap often becomes cracked into small areas, 
showing the yellow flesh in the cracks. The flesh is yellowish and 
the surface is dry. The gills are not very distant, they are stout, 
chrome yellow to lemon yellow, and strongly decurrent. A few of 
them are forked toward the base, and the surface and the space 
between them are marked by anastomosing veins forming a reticulum 
suggestive of the hymenium of the Polyporacece. This character is 


not evident without the use of a hand lens. The surface of the gills 
as well as the edges is provided with clavate cystidia which are filled 
with a yellow pigment, giving to the gills the bright yellow color so 
characteristic. These cystidia extend above the basidia, and the 
ends are rounded so that sometimes they appear capitate. The 
yellow color is not confined to the cystidia, for the sub-hymenium is 
also colored in a similar way. The spores are yellowish, oblong to 
elliptical or spindle-shaped, and measure 8-12 x 3-5 yw. The stem 
is the same color as the pileus, but paler, and more yellow at the base. 
It is marked with numerous minute dots of a darker color than the 
ground color, formed of numerous small erect tufts of mycelium. 

Figure 160 is from plants (No. 3977 C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. As stated above, 
the plant was first described by de Schweinitz as Agaricus rhodoxan- 
thiis'm 1822. In 1834 (Synop. fung. Am. Bor. p. 151, 1834) he 
listed it under the genus Gomphus Fries (Syst. Mycolog. 319, 1821). 
Since Fries changed Gomphus to Gomphidius (Epicrisis, 319, 1836- 
1838) the species has usually been written Gomphidius rhodoxanthiis 
Schweinitz. The species lacks one very important characteristic of 
the genus Gomphidius, namely, the slimy veil which envelops the 
entire plant. Its relationship seems rather to be with the genus 
Paxillus, though the gills do not readily separate from the pileus, one 
of the characters ascribed to this genus, and possessed by certain 
species of Gomphidius in even a better degree. (In Paxillus involu- 
tus the gills do not separate so readily as they do in certain species 
of Gomphidius.) Berkeley (Decades N. A. Fungi, 116) has described 
a plant from Ohio under the name Paxillus flavidus. It has been 
suggested by some (see Peck, 29th Report, p. 36 ; Lloyd, Mycolog. 
Notes, where he writes it as Flammula rhodoxauthus !) that 
Paxillus flavidus Berk., is identical with Agaricus rhodoxauthus 

Paxillus rhodoxauthus seems also to be very near if not identical 
with Clitocybe pelletieri Lev. (Gillet, Hymenomycetes 1: 170), and 
Schroeter (Cohn's Krypt, Flora Schlesien, 3, i : 516, 1889) trans- 
fers this species to Paxillus as Paxillus pelletieri. He is followed by 
Hennings, who under the same section of the genus, lists P. flavidus 
Berk., from N. A. The figure of Clitocybe pelletieri in Gillet Hymen- 
omycetes, etc., resembles our plant very closely, and Saccardo 
(Syll. Fung. 5 : 192) says that it has the aspect of Boletus subtoineuto- 
sus, a remark similar to the one made by de Schweinitz in the original 
description of Agaricus rhodoxauthus. Flammula paradoxa Kalch. 
(Fung. Hung. Tab. XVII, Fig. i) seems to be the same plant, as 



well as F. tammiiFr., with which Patouillard (Tab. Anal. N. 354) 
places F. paradoxa and Clitocybe pelletieri. 

Paxillus atro=tomentosus (Batsch) Fr. — This plant is not very com- 
mon. It is often of quite large size, 6-15 cm. high, and the cap 5-10 
cm. broad, the stem very short or sometimes long, from 1-2.5 ^^^ 
in thickness. The plant is quite easily recognized by the stout and 
black hairy stem, and the dark brown or blackish, irregular and 
sometimes lateral cap, with the margin incurved. It grows on wood, 
logs, stumps, etc., during late summer and autumn. 

The pileus is convex, expanded, sometimes somewhat depressed, 

Figure 161. — Paxillus atro-tomentosus, form hirsutus. Cap and stem 
brownish or blackish (natural size, small specimens, they are often 
larger). Copyright. 

lateral, irregular, or sometimes with the stem nearly in the center, 
brownish or blackish, dry, sometimes with a brownish or blackish 
tomentum on the surface. The margin is inrolled and later incurved. 
The flesh is white, and the plant is tough. The gills are adnate, often 
decurrent on the stem, and easily separable from the pileus, forked 
at the base and sometimes reticulate, forming pores. Spores yellow- 
ish, oval, 4-6x3-4 f.1. Stevenson says that the gills do not form 
pores like those of P. involutus, but Fig. 161 (No. 3362 C. U. her- 
barium) from plants collected at Ithaca, shows them well. There is, 


as it seems, some variation in this respect. The stem is solid, tough 
and elastic, curved or straight, covered with a dense black tomen- 
tum, sometimes with violet shades. On drying the plant becomes 
quite hard, and the gills blackish olive. 

Paxillus panuoides Fr. — This species was collected during August, 
1900, on a side-walk and on a log at Ithaca. The specimens collected 
were sessile and the pileus lateral, somewhat broadened at the free 
end, or petaloid. The entire plant is pale or dull yellow, the surface 
of the pileus fibrous and somewhat uneven but not scaly. The plants 
are 2-12 cm. long by 1-8 cm. broad, often many crowded together 
in an imbricated manner. The gills are pale yellow, and the 
spores are of the same color when caught on white paper, and they 
measure 4-5 x 3-4 //, the size given for European specimens of 
this species. The gills are forked, somewhat anastomosing at the 
base, and sinuous in outline, though not markedly corrugated as in 
the next form. From descriptions of the European specimens the 
plants are sometimes larger than these here described, and it is very 
variable in form and often imbricated as in the following species. 

Paxillus corrugatus Atkinson.— This very interesting species was 
collected at Ithaca, N. Y., on decaying wood, August 4, 1899. The 
pileus is lateral, shelving, the stem being entirely absent in the 
specimens found. The pileus is 2-5 cm. broad, narrowed down in an 
irregular wedge form to the sessile base, convex, then expanded, 
the margin incurved (involute). The color of the cap is yellow, 
maize yellow to canary yellow, with a reddish brown tinge near the 
base. It is nearly smooth, or very slightly tomentose. The flesh 
is pale yellow, spongy. The gills are orange yellow, 2-3 mm. broad, 
not crowded, regularly forked several times, thin, blunt, very wavy 
and crenulate, easily separating from the hymenophore when fresh ; 
the entire breadth of the gills is fluted, giving a corrugated appear- 
ance to the side. The spores in these specimens are faintly yellow, 
minute, oblong, broadly elliptical, short, sometimes nearly oval, 
3x1.5-2//. The basidia are also very minute. TJie spores are 
olive yellow on white paper. The plant has a characteristic and 
disagreeable odor. This odor persists in the dried plant for several 

Figure 162 is from the plants (No. 3332 C. U. herbarium) collected 
as noted above on decaying hemlock logs in woods. A side and 
under view is shown in the figure, and the larger figure is the under- 
view, from a photograph made a little more than twice natural size, 
in order to show clearly the character of the gills. The two smaller 
plants are natural size. When dry the plant is quite hard. 

Plate 53, Figure 162. — Paxillus corrugatus. Cap maize yellow to orange yellow, reddish 
brown near the base ; gills orange yellow. Two lower plants natural size ; upper one 
2 1/2 times natural size. Copyright. 

^OOT f^ 9 
T/iBUN o 



The plants belonging to this family are characterized especially 
by a honeycombed fruiting surface, that is, the under surface of the 
plants possesses numerous tubes or pores which stand close together 
side by side, and except in a very few forms these tubes are joined 
by their sides to each other. In Fistulina the tubes are free from 
each Other though standing closely side by side. In Meruliiis dis- 
tinct tubes are not present, but the surface is more or less irregu- 
larly pitted, the pits being separated from each other by folds which 
anastomose, forming a network. These pits correspond to shallow 

The plants vary greatly in consistency, some are very fleshy and 
soft and putrify readily. Others are soft when young and become 
firmer as they age, and some are quite hard and woody. Many of 
the latter are perennial and live for several or many years, adding a 
new layer in growth each year. The larger number of the species 
grow on wood, but some grow on the ground ; especially in the genus 
Boletus, which has many species, the majority grow on the ground. 
Some of the plants have a cap and stem, in others the stem is ab- 
sent and the cap attached to the tree or log, etc., forms a shelf, or 
the plant may be thin and spread over the surface of the wood in a 
thin patch. 

In the genus Dctdalea the tubes become more or less elongated 
horizontally and thus approach the form of the gills, while in some 
species the tubes are more or less toothed or split and approach the 
spine-bearing fungi at least in appearance of the fruit-bearing sur- 
face. Only a few of the genera and species will be described. 

The following key is not complete, but may aid in separating 
some of the larger plants : 

Tubes or pores free from each other, though stand- 
ing closely side by side, Fistulina. 

Tubes or pores not free, joined side by side, . . i. 
I — Plants soft and fleshy, soon decaying, 2. 

Plants soft when young, becoming firm, some 
woody or corky, stipitate, shelving, or spread 
over the wood, Polyporus, 



Tubes or pores shallow, formed by a network of 
folds or wrinkles, plants thin, sometimes spread 
over the wood, and somewhat gelatinous, . . Merulius. 
2 — Mass (stratum) of tubes easily separating from the 
cap when peeled off, cap not with coarse scales, 
tubes in some species in radiating lines, .... Boletus. 
Stratum of tubes separating, but not easily, cap 

with coarse, prominent scales, Strobilomyces. 

Stratum of tubes separating, but not easily, tubes 
arranged in distinct radiating lines. In one 
species {B. porosus) the tubes do not separate 

from the cap, Boletinus. 

This last genus is apt to be confused with certain species of Bo- 
letus which have a distinct radiate arrangement of the tubes. It is 
questionable whether it is clearly distinguished from the genus 


Of the few genera in the Polyporacece which are fleshy and pu- 
trescent. Boletus contains by far the largest number of species. The 
entire plant is soft and fleshy, and decays soon after maturity. The 
stratum of tubes on the under side of the cap is easily peeled off and 
separates as shown in the portion of a cap near the right hand side of 
Fig. 169. In the genus Polyporus the stratum of tubes cannot thus 
be separated. In the genera Strobilomyces and Boletinus, two other 
fleshy genera of this family, the separation is said to be more diifi- 
cult than in Boletus, but it has many times seemed to me a ** dis- 
tinction without a difference." 

The larger number of the species of Boletus grow on the ground. 
Some change color when bruised or cut, so that it is important to 
note this character when the plant is fresh, and the taste should be 
noted as well. 

Boletus edulis Bull. Edible. \_Ag. bulbosus Schaeff. Tab. 134, 1763. 
Boletus bulbosus (Schaeff.) Schroeter. Cohn's Krypt, Flora. Schles- 
ien, p. 499, 1889]. — This plant, which, as its name implies, is edible, 
grows in open woods or their borders, in groves and in open places, 
on the ground. It occurs in warm, wet weather, from July to Sep- 
tember. It is one of the largest of the Boleti, and varies from 5-12 
cm. high, the cap from 8-25 cm. broad, and the stem 2-4 cm. in 

The pileus is convex to expanded, smooth, firm, quite hard when 
young and becoming soft in age. The color varies greatly, from 


buff to dull reddish, to reddish-brown, tawny-brown, often yellowish 
over a portion of the cap, usually paler on the margin. The flesh is 
white or tinged with yellow, sometimes reddish under the cuticle. 
The tubes are white when young and the mouths are closed (stuffed), 
the lower surface of the tubes is convex from the margin of the cap to 
the stem, and depressed around the stem, sometimes separating from 
the stem. While the tubes are white when young, they become 
greenish or greenish-yellow, or entirely yellow when mature. The 
spores when caught on paper are greenish-yellow, or yellow. They 
are oblong to fusiform, 12-15 yu long. The stem is stout, even, or 
much enlarged at the base so that it is clavate. The surface usually 
shows prominent reticulations on mature plants near the tubes, 
sometimes over the entire stem. This is well shown in Fig. 164 from 
plants (No. 2886, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca, N. Y. 

Figure 165 represents plants (No. 41 34, C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, in September, 1899. The plant is widely 
distributed and has long been prized as an esculent in Europe and 
America. When raw the plant has an agreeable nutty taste, some- 
times sweet. The caps are sometimes sliced and dried for future 
us9. It is usually recommended to discard the stems and remove the 
tubes since the latter are apt to form a slimy mass on cooking. 

Boletus felleus Bull. Bitter. — This is known as the bitter boletus, 
because of a bitter taste of the flesh. It usually grows on or near 
much decayed logs or stumps of hemlock spruce. It is said to be 
easily recognized by its bitter taste. I have found specimens of a 
plant which seems to' have all the characters of this one growing at 
the base of hemlock spruce trees, except that the taste was not bit- 
ter. At Ithaca, however, the plant occurs and the taste is bitter. 
It is one of the large species of the genus, being from 8-12 cm. high, 
the cap 7-20 cm. broad, and the stem 1-2.5 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is convex becoming nearly plane, firm, and in age soft, 
smooth, the color \'arying from pale yellow to various shades of 
brown to chestnut. The tlesh is white, and where wounded often 
changes to a pink color, but not always. The tubes are adnate, long, 
the under surface convex and with a depression around the stem. 
The tubes are at first white, but become flesh color or tinged with 
flesh color, and the mouths are angular. The stem is stout, tapering 
upward, sometimes enlarged at the base, usually reticulated at the 
upper end, and sometimes with the reticulations over the entire sur- 
face (Fig. 166). The color is paler than that of the cap. The spores 
are oblong to spindle-shaped, flesh color in mass, and single ones 
measure 12-18x4-5 f.i. 


The general appearance of the plant is somewhat like that of the 
Boletus edulis, and beginners should be cautioned not to confuse the 
two species. It is known by its bitter taste and the flesh-colored 
tubes, while the taste of the B. edulis is sweet, and the tubes are 
greenish-yellow, or yellowish or light ochre. 

Plate 55 represents three specimens in color. 

Boletus scaber Fr. Edible. — This species is named the rough-stemmed 
boletus, in allusion to the rough appearance given to the stem from 
numerous dark brown or reddish dots or scales. This is a character- 
istic feature, and aids one greatly in determining the species, since 
the color of the cap varies much. The cap is sometimes whitish, 
orange red, brown, or smoky in color. The plant is 6-15 cm. high, 
the cap 3-7 cm. broad, and the stem 8-12 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is rounded, becoming convex, smooth, or nearly so, 
sometimes scaly, and the flesh is soft and white, sometimes turning 
slightly to a reddish or dark color where bruised. The tubes are 
small, long, the surface formed by their free ends is convex in out- 
line, and the tubes are depressed around the stem. They are first 
white, becoming darker, and somewhat brownish. The stem is solid, 
tapering somewhat upward, and roughened as described above. 

The plant is one of the common species of the genus Boletus, it 
occurs in the woods on the ground or in groves or borders of woods 
in grassy places. Writers differ as to the excellence of this species 
for food ; some consider it excellent, while others regard it as less 
agreeable than some other species. It is, at any rate, safe, and Peck 
considers it "first-class." 

Boletus retipes B. & C. — This species was first collected in North 
Carolina by Curtis, and described by Berkeley. It has since been 
reported from Ohio, Wisconsin, and New England (Peck, Boleti of 
the U. S.). Peck reported it from New York in the 23d Report, N. 
Y. State Mus., p. 132. Later he recognized the New York plant as 
a new species which he called B. ornatipes (29th Report, N. Y. State 
Mus., p. 67). I collected the species in the mountains of North 
Carolina, at Blowing Rock, in August, 1888. During the latter part 
of August and in September, 1899, 1 had an opportunity of seeing 
quite a large number of specimens in the same locality, for it is 
not uncommon there, and two specimens were photographed and are 
represented here in Fig. 167. The original description published in 
Grevillea 1 : 36, should be modified, especially in regard to the size 
of the plant, its habit, and the pulverulent condition of the pileus. 
The plants are 6-15 cm. high, the cap 5-10 cm. broad, and the stem 
0.5-1.5 cm. in thickness. 


Plate 58, Figure 166. — Boletus felleus. Cap light brown, tubes flesh color, 
stem in this specimen entirely reticulate (natural size, often larger). 



The pileus is convex, thick, soft and somewhat spongy, especially 
in large plants. The cap is dry and sometimes, especially when 
young, it is powdery ; at other times, and in a majority of cases 
according to my observations, it is not powdery. !t is smooth or 
minutely tomentose, sometimes the surface cracked into small patches. 

Figure 167. — Boletus retipes. Cap yellowish brown, to olive-brown or nearly black, 
stem yellow, beautifully reticulate, tubes yellow (natural size). Copyright. 

but usually even. The color varies greatly between yellowish 
brown to olive brown, fuliginous or nearly black. The tubes are 
yellow, adnate, the tube surface plane or convex. The spores are 
yellowish or ochraceous, varying somewhat in tint in different spec- 
imens. The stem is yellow, yellow also within, and beautifully retic- 


ulate, usually to the base, but sometimes only toward the apex. It 
is usually more strongly reticulate over the upper half. The stem is 
erect or ascending. 

The plant grows in woods, in leaf mold or in grassy places. It 
is usually single, that is, so far as my observations have gone at 
Blowing Rock. Berkeley and Curtis report it as cespitose. I have 
never seen it cespitose, never more than two specimens growing near 
each other. 

Boletus ornatipes Pk., does not seem to be essentially different from 
B. retipes. Peck says (Boleti U. S., p. 126) that "the tufted mode 
of growth, the pulverulent pileus and paler spores separate this spe- 
cies" {retipes) " from the preceding one " {ornatipes). Inasmuch as 1 
have never found B. retipes tufted, and the fact that the pileus is not 
always pulverulent (the majority of specimens I collected were not), 
and since the tint of the spores varies as it does in some other species, 
the evidence is strong that the two names represent two different hab- 
its of the same species. The tufted habit of the plants collected by 
Curtis, or at least described by Berkeley, would seem to be a rather 
unusual condition for this species, and this would account for the 
smaller size given to the plants in the original description, where the 
pileus does not exceed 5 cm. in diameter, and the stem is only 5 cm. 
long, and 6-12 mm. in thickness. Plants which normally occur 
singly do on some occasions occur tufted, and then the habit as well 
as the size of the plant is often changed. 

A good illustration of this 1 found in the case of Boletus edulis 
during my stay in the North Carolina mountains. The plant usually 
occurs singly and more or less scattered. I found one case where 
there were 6-8 plants in a tuft, the caps were smaller and the stems 
in this case considerably longer than in normal specimens. A plant 
which agrees with the North Carolina specimens I have collected at 
Ithaca, and so I judge that B. retipes occurs in New York. 

Boletus chromapes Frost. — This is a pretty boletus, and has been 
reported from New England and from New York State. During the 
summer of 1899 it was quite common in the Blue Ridge mountains, 
North Carolina. The plant grows on the ground in woods. It is 
6-10 cm. high, the cap is 5-10 cm. in diameter, and the stem is 8-12 
mm. in thickness. It is known by the yellowish stem covered with 
reddish glandular .dots. 

The pileus is convex to nearly expanded, pale red, rose pink to 
vinaceous pink in color, and sometimes slightly tomentose. The 
flesh is white, and does not change when cut or bruised. The tube 
surface is convex, and the tubes are attached slightly to the stem. 

o .r w 


or free. They are white, then flesh color, and in age become brown. 
The stem is even, or it tapers slightly upward, straight or ascending, 
whitish or yellow above, or below, sometimes yellowish the entire 
length. The flesh is also yellowish, especially at the base. The 
entire surface is marked with reddish or pinkish dots. 

Figure i68 is from plants (No. 4085 C. U. herbarium) collected 
at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

Boletus vermiculosus Pk. — This species was named B. vermiculosus 
because it is sometimes very "wormy." This is not always the 
case, however. It grows in woods on the ground, in the Eastern 
United States. It is from 6-12 cm. high, the cap from 7-12 cm. 
broad, and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is thick, convex, firm, smooth, and varies in color from 
brown to yellowish brown, or drab gray to buff, and is minutely 
tomentose. The flesh quickly changes to blue where wounded, 
and the bruised portion, sometimes, changing to yellowish. The 
tubes are yellowish, with reddish-brown mouths, the tube surface 
being rounded, free or nearly so, and the tubes changing to blue 
where wounded. The stem is paler than the pileus, often dotted with 
short, small, dark tufts below, and above near the tubes abruptly 
paler, and sometimes the two colors separated by a brownish line. 
The stem is not reticulated. Figure 169 is from a photograph of 
plants (No. 4132 C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, 
during September, 1899. 

Boletus obsonium (Paul.) Fr. — This species was not uncommon in 
the woods at Blowing Rock, N. C, during the latter part of August 
and during September, 1899. It grows on the ground, the plants 
usually appearing singly. It is from 10-15 cm. high, the cap 8-13 
cm. broad, and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness, considerably broader 
at the base than at the apex. 

The pileus is convex to expanded, vinaceous cinnamon, to pinkish 
vinaceous or hazel in color. It is soft, slightly tomentose, and when 
old the surface frequently cracks into fine patches showing the pink 
tlesh beneath. The thin margin extends slightly beyond the tubes, 
so that it is sterile. The tlesh does not change color on exposure to 
the air. The tubes are plane, adnate, very slightly depressed around 
the stem or nearly free, yellowish white when young, becoming dark 
olive green in age from the color of the spores. The tube mouths 
are small and rotund. The spores caught on white paper are dark 
olive green. They are elliptical usually, with rounded ends, 12-15 
X 4-5 i-i. The stem is white when young, with a tinge of yellow 
ochre, and pale flesh color below. It is marked with somewhat par- 


allel elevated lines, or rugae below, where it is enlarged and nearly 
bulbous. In age it becomes flesh color the entire length and is more 
plainly striate rugose with a yellowish tinge at the base. The stem 
tapers gradually and strongly from the base to the apex, so that it 
often appears long conic. 

The plant is often badly eaten by snails, so that it is sometimes 
diificult to obtain perfect specimens. Figure 170 is from a photo- 
graph of plants (No. 4092 C. U. herbarium) from Blowing Rock, 
N. C. 

Boletus americanus Pk. — This species occurs in woods and open 
places, growing on the ground in wet weather. It occurs singly or 
clustered, sometimes two or three joined by their bases, but usually 
more scattered. It is usually found under or near pine trees. The 
plant is 3-6 cm. high, the cap 2-7 cm. broad, and the stem is 4-8 
mm. in thickness. It is very slimy in wet weather, the cap is yellow, 
streaked or spotted with faint red, and the stem is covered with 
numerous brown or reddish brown dots. 

The pileus is rounded, then convex, becoming nearly expanded 
and sometimes with an umbo. It is soft, very slimy or viscid when 
moist, yellow. When young the surface gluten is often mixed with 
loose threads, more abundant on the margin, and continuous with 
the veil, which can only be seen in the very young stage. As the 
pileus expands the margin is sometimes scaly from remnants of the 
veil and of loose hairs on the surface. The cap loses its bright color 
as it ages, and is then sometimes streaked or spotted with red. The 
tube surface is nearly plane, and the tubes join squarely against the 
stem. The tubes are rather large, angular, yellowish, becoming dull 
ochraceous. The stem is nearly equal, yellow, and covered with 
numerous brownish or reddish brown glandular dots. No ring is 

This species grows in the same situations as the B. granulatus, 
sometimes both species are common over the same area. Figure 171 
is from plants (No. 3991 C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing Rock, 
N. C, September, 1899. The species is closely related to B.flavidiis 
Fr., and according to some it is identical with it. 

Boletus granulatus L. Edible. — This species is one of the very com- 
mon and widely distributed ones. It grow^ in woods and open 
places on the ground. Like B. americanus, it is usually found under 
or near pines. It occurs during the summer and autumn, sometimes 
appearing very late in the season. The plants are 3-6 cm. high, the 
cap is 4-10 cm. broad, and the stem is 8-12 mm. in thickness. The 
plants usually are clustered, though not often very crowded. 



The pileus is convex to nearly expanded, flat, 
very viscid and reddish 
brown, paler and yellow- 
ish when it is dry, but 
very variable in color, 
pink, red, yellow, tawny, 
and brown shades. The 
flesh is pale yellow. 
The tubes are joined 
squarely to the stem, 
short, yellowish, and the 
edges of the tubes, that 
is, at the open end (often 
called the mouth), are 
dotted or granulated. 
The stem is dotted in the 
same way above. The 
spores in mass are pale 
yellow ; singly they are 

The species is edible, 
though some say it should 
be regarded with sus- 
picion. Peck has tried 
it, and I have eaten it, 
but the viscid character 
of the plant did not make 
it a relish for me. There 
are several species 
closely related to the 
granulated Boletus. B. 
brevipes P k . , is one 
chiefly distinguished by 
the short stem, which 
entirely lacks the gland- 
ular dots. It grows in 
sandy soil, in pine groves 
and in woods. 

Boletus punctipes Pk. — 
This species has been re- 
ported from New York 
State by Peck. During 

When moist it is 









September, 1899, I found it quite common in the Blue Ridge 
mountains of North CaroHna, at an elevation of between 4000 and 
5000 feet. It grows on the ground in mixed woods. The plants 
are 5-8 cm. high, the caps 5-7 cm. broad, and the stem 6-10 mm. in 

The pileus is convex, sometimes becoming nearly plane, and it is 
quite thick in the center, more so than the granulated boletus, while 
the margin is thin, and when young with a minute gray powder. 
The margin often becomes upturned when old ; the cap is viscid when 

Figure 172. — Boletus punctipes. Cap viscid when moist, reddish brown, pink, yellow, 
taw-ny, etc., tubes yellowish, stem dark punctate (natural size). Copyright. 

moist, dull yellow. The tubes are short, their lower surface plane, 
and they are set squarely against the stem. They are small, the 
mouths rounded, brownish, then dull ochraceous, and dotted with 
glandules. The stem is rather long, proportionately more so than in 
the granulated boletus. It distinctly tapers upwards, is ** rhubarb 
yellow," and dotted with glandules. This character of the stem sug- 
gested the name of the species. The spores are 8-10x4-5//. 
Figure 172 is from plants (No. 4067 C. U. herbarium) collected at 
Blowing Rock, N. C. It is closely related to B. grannlatus and by 
some is considered the same. 



Boletus luteus Linn. {B. siihhiteus Pk.) This species is widely dis- 
tributed in Europe and America, and grows in sandy soil, in pine or 
mixed woods or groves. The plants are 5-8 cm. high, the cap 3-12 
cm. in diameter, and the stem 6-10 mm. in thickness. The general 
color is dull brown or yel- 
lowish brown, and the 
plants are slimy in moist 
weather, the stem and 
tubes more or less dotted 
with dark points. These 
characters vary greatly 
under different condi- 
tions, and the fact has led 
to some confusion in the 
discrimination of species. 

The pileus is convex, 
becoming nearly plane, 
viscid or glutinous when 
moist, dull yellowish to 
reddish brown, some- 
times with the color ir- 
regularly distributed in 
streaks. The flesh is 
whitish or dull yellowish. 
The tube surface is plane 
or convex, the tubes set 
squarely against the stem 
(adnate), while the tubes 
are small, with small, 
nearly ro unded, or 
slightly angular mouths. 
The color of the tubes is 
yellowish or ochre col- 
ored, becoming darker in 
age, and sometimes 
nearly brown or quite 
dark. The stem is pale 

yellowish, reddish or brownish, and more or less covered with 
glandular dots, which when dry give a black dotted appearance to 
the stem. In the case of descriptions of B. luteus the stem is said 
to be dotted only above the annulus, while the description of B. 
subluteus gives the stem as dotted both above and below the annulus. 

— V^ 

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£. 2 
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The spores are yellowish brown or some shade of this color in mass, 
lighter yellowish brown under the microscope, fusiform or nearly 
so, and 7-10 x 2-4 /^ The annulus is very variable, sometimes col- 
lapsing as a narrow ring around the stem as in Fig. 173, from 
plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, September, 1899 {B. sub- 
luteus Pk.), and sometimes appearing as a broad, free collar, as in 
Fig. 174. The veil is more or less gelatinous, and in an early stage 
of the plant may cover the stem as a sheath. The lower part of 
the stem is sometimes covered at maturity with the sheathing por- 
tion of the veil, the upper part only appearing as a ring. In this 
way, the lower part of the stem being covered, the glandular dots 
are not evident, while the stem is seen to be dotted above the 
annulus. But in many cases the veil slips off from the lower portion 
of the stem at an early stage, and then in its slimy condition 
collapses around the upper part of the stem, leaving the stem 
uncovered and showing the dots both above and below the ring 
{B. subluteus). 

An examination of the figures of the European plant shows that 
the veil often slips off from the lower portion of the stem in B. luteus, 
especially in the figures given by Krombholtz, T. 33. In some of 
these figures the veil forms a broad, free collar, and the stem is then 
dotted both above and below, as is well shown in the figures. In 
other figures where the lower part of the veil remains as a sheath 
over the lower part of the stem, the dots are hidden. I have three spec- 
imens of the B. luteus of Europe from Dr. Bresadola, collected at Tren- 
to, Austria-Hungary : one of them has the veil sheathing the lower 
part of the stem, and the stem only shows the dots above the an- 
nulus ; a second specimen has the annulus in the form of a collapsed 
ring near the upper end of the stem, and the stem dotted both above 
and below the annulus ; in the third specimen the annulus is in the 
form of a broad, free collar, and the stem dotted both above and be- 
low. The plants shown in Fig. 174 (No. 4124, C. U. herbarium) were 
collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. They 
were found in open woods under Kalmia were the sun had an op- 
portunity to dry out the annulus before it became collapsed or agglut- 
inated against the stem, and the broad, free collar was formed. My 
notes on these specimens read as follows: "The pileus is convex, 
then expanded, rather thick at the center, the margin thin, some- 
times sterile, incurved. In color it runs from ecru drab to hair-brown 
with streaks of the latter, and it is very viscid when moist. When 
dried the surface of the pileus is shining. The tubes are plane or 
concave, adnate, tawny-olive to walnut-brown. The tubes are 




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small, angular, somewhat as in B. granulatus, but smaller, and they 
are granulated with reddish or brownish dots. The spores are wal- 
nut brown, oblong to el- 
liptical, 8-10 X 2-3 fd. 
The stem is cylindrical, 
even, olive yellow above, 
and black dotted both 
above and below the 

Boletinus pictus Pk. — 
This very beautiful plant 
is quite common in damp 
pine woods. It is easily 
recognized by the red- 
dish cottony layer of 
mycelium threads which 
cover the entire plant 
when young, and form a 
veil which covers the 
gills at this time. As the 
plant expands the red- 
dish outer layer is torn 
into scales of the same 
color, showing the yel- 
lowish, or pinkish, flesh 
beneath, and the flesh 
often changes to pink or 
reddish where wounded. 
The tubes are first pale 
yellow, but become 
darker in age, often 
changing to pinkish, with 
a brown tinge where 
bruised. The stem is 
solid, and is thus differ- 
ent from a closely related 
species,^, cavipes Kalchb. 
The stem is covered with 
a coat like that on the 
pileus and is similarly 
colored, though often 
paler. The spores are 


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ochraceous, 15-18x6-8 yu. The plants are 5-8 cm. high, the caps 
5-8 cm. broad, and the stems 6-12 mm. in thickness. 

Figure 175 is from plants collected in the Blue Ridge mountains, 
Blowing Rock, N. C, September, 1899. 

Boletinus porosus (Berk.) Pk. — This very interesting species is 
widely distributed in the Eastern United States. It resembles a Polyp- 
orus, though it is very soft like a Boletus, but quite tenacious. The 
plants are dull reddish-brown, viscid when moist, and shining. The 
cap is more or less irregular and the stem eccentric, the cap being 
sometimes more or less lobed. The plants are 4-6 cm. high, the 
cap 5-12 cm. broad, and the short stem 8-12 mm. in thickness. It 
occurs in damp ground in woods. 

The pileus is fleshy, thick at the middle, and thin at the margin. 
The tubes are arranged in prominently radiating rows, the partitions 
often running radiately in -the form of lamellx, certain ones of them 
being more prominent than others as shown in Fig. 176. These branch 
and are connected by cross partitions of less prominence. This char- 
acter of the hymenium led Berkeley to place the plant in the genus 
Paxillus, with which it does not seem to be so closely related as with 
the genus Boletus. The stratum of tubes, though very soft, is very 
tenacious, and does not separate from the flesh of the pileus, thus 
resembling certain species of Poly poms. Figure 176 is from plants 
collected at Ithaca. 

Strobilomyces strobilaceus Berk. Edible. — This plant has a peculiar 
name, both the genus and the species referring to the cone-like ap- 
pearance of the cap with its coarse, crowded, dark brown scales, 
bearing a fancied resemblance to a pine cone. It is very easily dis- 
tinguished from other species of Boletus because of this character of 
the cap. The plant has a very wide distribution though it is not 
usually very common. The plant is 8-14 cm. high, the cap 5-10 
cm. broad, and the stem 1-2 cm. in thickness. 

The pileus is hemispherical to convex, shaggy from numerous large 
blackish, coarse, hairy, projecting scales. The margin of the cap is 
fringed with scales and fragments of the veil which covers the tubes 
in the young plants. The flesh is whitish, but soon changes to red- 
dish color, and later to black where wounded or cut. The tubes are 
adnate, whitish, becoming brown and blackish in the older plants. 
The mouths of the tubes are large and angular, and change color 
where bruised, as does the flesh of the cap. The stem is even, or 
sometimes tapers upward, often grooved near the apex, very tomen- 
tose or scaly with soft scales of the same color as the cap. The 
spores are in mass dark brown, nearly globose, roughened, and 

•N^ ^ 



Figure 178. — Strobilomyces strobilaceus. Sections of plants. Copyright. 

10-12 ^ long. Figs. 177-179 are from plants collected at Ithaca, 
N. Y. Another European plant, S. floccopus Vahl, is said by Peck to 
occur in the United States, but is much more rare. The only dif- 


4 ^ 

K ' 'k.-^- I 

Figure 179. — Strobilomyces strobilaceus. Under view. Copyright. 

ference in the two noted by Peck in the case of the American plants 
is that the tubes are depressed around the stem in 5. floccopus. 



In the genus Fistulina the tubes, or pores, are crowded together, 
but stand separately, that is, they are not connected together, or 
grown together into a stratum as in Boletus and other genera of the 
family Polyporaccce. When the plant is young the tubes are very 
short, but they elongate with age. 

Fistulina hepatica Fr. Edible. — This is one of the largest of the 
species in the genus and is the most widely distributed and common 
one. It is of a dark red color, very soft and juicy. It has usually a 
short stem which expands out into the broad and thick cap. When 
young the upper side of the cap is marked by minute elevations of a 
different color, which suggest the papilke on the tongue ; in age 
the tubes on the under surface have also some such suggestive ap- 
pearance. The form, as it stands outward in a shelving fashion 
from stumps or trees, together with the color and surface characters, 
has suggested several common names, as beef tongue, beef-steak fun- 
gus, oak or chestnut tongue. The plant is 10-20 cm. long, and 8-15 
cm. broad, the stem very short and thick, sometimes almost wanting, 
and again quite long. I have seen some specimens growing from a 
hollow log in which the stems were 12-15 cm. long. 

The pileus is very thick, 2 cm. or more in thickness, fleshy, soft, 
very juicy, and in wet weather very clammy and somewhat sticky 
to the touch. When mature there are lines of color of different shades 
extending out radially on the upper surface, and in making a longi- 
tudinal section of the cap there are quite prominent, alternating, dark 
and light red lines present in the tlesh. The tubes, short at first, 
become 2-3 mm. long, they are yellowish or tinged with tlesh color, 
becoming soiled in age. The spores are elliptical, yellowish, and 
5-6 /^ long. 

The plant occurs on dead trunks or stumps of oak, chestnut, etc., 
in wet weather from June to September. I have usually found it on 

The beef-steak fungus is highly recommended by some, while 
others are not pleased with it as an article of food. It has an acid 
flavor which is disagreeable to some, but this is more marked in 
young specimens and in those not well cooked. When it is sliced 
thin and well broiled or fried, the acid taste is not marked. 

Fistulina pallida B. & Rav. {Fistulina firma Pk.) — This rare and 
interesting species was collected by Mrs. A. M. Hadley, near Man- 
chester, New Hampshire, October, 1898, and was described by Dr. 
Peck in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 26: 70, 1899, as 

Plate 66, Figure i8o.— Fistulina pallida. Cap wood-brown to fawn or clay color, tubes A 
and lower part of the stem whitish (natural size). Copyright. 's jB R pC^ 


Fistulina firma. But two plants were then found, and these were 
connected at the base. During August and September it was quite 
common in a small woods near Ithaca, N. Y., and was first collected 
growing from the roots of a dead oak stump, August 4 (No. 3227 
C. U. herbarium), and afterward during October. During Septem- 
ber I collected it at Blowing Rock, N. C, in the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains, at an elevation of nearly 5000 feet, growing from the roots of 
a dead white oak tree. It was collected during September, 1899, by 
Mr. Frank Rathbun at Auburn, N. Y. It was collected by Ravenel 
in the mountains of South Carolina, around a white oak stump by 
Peters in Alabama, and was first described by Berkeley in 1872, in 
Grev. 1: 71, Notices of N. A. F. No. 173. Growing from roots or 
wood underneath the surface of the ground, the plant has an erect 
stem, the length of the stem depending on the depth at which the 
root is buried, just as in the case of Polyporus radicatiis, which has 
a similar habitat. The plants are 5-12 cm. high, the cap is 3-7 cm. 
broad, and the stem 6-8 mm. in thickness. 

The pileus is wood brown to fawn, clay color or isabelline color. 
It is nearly semi-circular to reniform in outline, and the margin 
broadly crenate, or sometimes lobed. The stem is attached at the con- 
cave margin, where the cap is auriculate and has a prominent boss or 
elevation, and bent at right angles with a characteristic curve. The 
pileus is firm, flexible, tough and fibrous, flesh white. The surface 
is covered with a fine and dense tomentum. The pileus is 5-8 mm. 
thick at the base, thinning out toward the margin. The tubes are 
whitish, 2-3 mm. long and 5-6 in the space of a millimeter. They 
are very slender, tubular, the mouth somewhat enlarged, the margin 
of the tubes pale cream color and minutely mealy or furfuraceous, 
with numerous irregular, roughened threads. The tubes often stand 
somewhat separated, areas being undeveloped or younger, so that 
the surface of the under side is not regular. The tubes are not so 
crowded as is usual in the Fistulina hepatica. They are not decurrent, 
but end abruptly near the stem. The spores are subglobose, 3 /^ in 
diameter. The stem tapers downward, is whitish below, and near 
the pileus the color changes rather abruptly to the same tint as the 
pileus. The stem is sometimes branched, and two or three caps 
present, or the caps themselves may be joined, as well as the stems, 
so that occasionally very irregular forms are developed, but there is 
always the peculiar character of the attachment of the stem to the 
side of the cap. 

Figure 180 is from plants (No 3676, C. U. herbarium) collected 


at Blowing Rock, N. C, September, 1899. Figures on the colored 
plate represent this plant. 

Polyporus frondosus Fr.' Edible. — This plant occurs in both Europe 
and America, and while not very common seems to be widely dis- 
tributed. It grows about old stumps or dead trees, from roots, often 
arising from the roots below the surface of the ground, and also is 
found on logs. The plant represents a section of the genus Polyporus, 
in which the body, both the stem and the cap, are very much 
branched. In this species the stem is stout at the base, but it 
branches into numerous smaller trunks, which continue to branch 
until finally the branches terminate in the expanded and leaf-like 
caps as shown in Figs. 181-182. The plants appear usually during 
late summer and in the autumn. The species is often found about 
oak stumps. Some of the specimens are very large, and weigh 10 
to 20 pounds, and the mass is sometimes 30 to 60 cm. (1-2 feet) in 

The plant, when young and growing, is quite soft and tender, 
though it is quite firm. It never becomes very hard, as many of the 
other species of this family. When mature, insects begin to attack 
it, and not being tough it soon succumbs to the ravages of insects and 
decay, as do a number of the softer species of the Polyporacex. The 
caps are very irregular in shape, curved, repand, radiately furrowed, 
sometimes zoned ; gray, or hair-brown in color, with a perceptibly 
hairy surface, the hairs running in lines on the surface. Sometimes 
they are quite broad and not so numerous as in Plate 67, and in 
other plants they are narrow and more numerous, as in Plate 68. 
The tubes are more or less irregular, whitish, with a yellowish tinge 
when old. From the under side of the cap they extend down on the 
stem. When the spores are mature they are sometimes so numerous 
that they cover the lower caps and the grass for quite a distance 
around as if with a white powder. 

This species is edible, and because of the large size which it often 
attains, the few plants which are usually found make up in quantity 
what they lack in numbers. Since the plant is quite firm it will 
keep several days after being picked, in a cool place, and will serve 
for several meals. A specimen which I gathered was divided 
between two families, and was served at several meals on successive 
days. When stewed the plant has for me a rather objectionable 
taste, but the stewing makes the substance more tender, and when 
this is followed by broiling or frying the objectionable taste is 
removed and it is quite palatable. The plants represented in Plates 
67 and 68 were collected at Ithaca. 



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There are several species which are related to the frondose polyp- 
orus which occur in this country as well as in Europe. Polyporus 
intybaceus Fr., is of about the same size, and the branching, and form 
of the caps is much the same, but it is of a yellowish brown or red- 
dish brown color. It grows on logs, stumps, etc., and is probably 
edible. It is not so common at Ithaca as the frondose polyporus. 

Polyporus umbellatus Fr. — This species is also related to the fron- 
dose polyporus, but is very distinct. It is more erect, the branching 

Figure i8: 

-Polyporus umbellatus. 

Caps hair-brown (natural size, often much 

more open, and the caps at the ends of the branches are more or less 
circular and umbilicate. The branches are long, cylindrical and 
united near the base. The spreading habit of the branching, or the 
form of the caps, suggests an umbel or umbrella, and hence the spe- 
cific name umbellatus. 

The tufts occur from 12-20 cm. in diameter, and the individual 
caps are from 1-4 cm. in diameter. It grows from underground roots 
and about stumps during summer. It is probably edible, but I have 


never tried it. Figure 183 is from a plant (No. 1930, C. U. herba- 
rium) collected in Cascadilla woods, Ithaca. 

Polyporus sulphureus ( Bull. ) Fr. Edible. {Boletus caudicinus 
Schaeff. T. 131, 132 : Polyporus caudicinus Schroeter , Cohn's Krypt. 
Flora, Schlesien, p. 471, 1899). — The sulphur polyporus is so-called 
because of the bright sulphur color of the entire plant. It is one of 
the widely distributed species, and grows on dead oak, birch, and 
other trunks, and is also often found growing from wounds or knot- 
holes of living trees of the oak, apple, walnut, etc. The mycelium 
enters at wounds where limbs are broken off, and grows for years in 
the heart wood, disorganizing it and causing it to decay. In time the 
mycelium has spread over a considerable area, from which nutriment 
enough is supplied for the formation of the fruiting condition. The 
caps then appear from an open wound when such an exit is present. 

The color of the plant is quite constant, but varies of course in 
shades of yellow to some extent. In form, however, it varies greatly. 
The caps are usually clustered and imbricated, that is, they overlap. 
They may all arise separately from the wood, and yet be overlap- 
ping, though oftener several of them are closely joined or united at 
the base, so that the mass of caps arises from a common outgrowth 
from the wood as shown in Fig. 184. The individual caps are flat- 
tened, elongate, and more or less fan-shaped. When mature there 
are radiating furrows and ridges which often increase the fan-like 
appearance of the upper surface of the cap. Sometimes also there 
are more or less marked concentric furrows. The caps may be con- 
vex, or the margin may be more or less upturned so that the central 
portion is depressed. When young the margin is thick and blunt 
and of course lighter in color, but as the plant matures the edge is 
usually thinner. 

In some forms of the plant the caps are so closely united as to 
form a large rounded or tubercular mass, only the blunt tips of the 
individual caps being free. This is well represented in Fig. 185, from 
a photograph of a large specimen growing from a wound in a butter- 
nut tree in Central New York. The plant was 30 cm. in diameter. 
The plants represented in Plate 69 grew on an oak stump. The 
tree was affected by the fungus while it was alive, and the heart 
wood became so weakened that the tree broke, and later the fruit 
form of the fungus appeared from the dead stump. 

The tubes are small, and the walls thin and delicate, and are 
sometimes much torn, lacerated, and irregular. When the mycelium 
has grown in the interior of a log for a number of years it tends to 
grow in sheets along the line of the medullary rays of the wood or 



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Plate 69, Figure 1S4. — Polyporus sulphureus. on oak slump. Entirely 

sulphur yellow ( I 6 natural size). Copyright. x/^BRA.^ 

*LATE^7i) Figure i86. — Polyporus brumalis. Cap and stem brown, tubes white. 
£ '^ower three plants natural size, upper one enlarged twice natural size. Copy- 


across in concentric layers corresponding to the summer wood. Also 
as the wood becomes more decomposed, cracks and rifts appear along 
these same lines. The mycelium then grows in abundance in these 
rifts and forms broad and extensive sheets which resemble somewhat 
chamois skin and is called "punk." Similar punk is sometimes 
formed in conifers from the mycelium of Fomes pinicola. 

Polyporus siilphureiis has long been known as an edible fungus, 
but from its rather firm and fibrous texture it requires a different 
preparation from the fleshy fungi to prepare it for the table, and this 
may be one reason why it is not employed more frequently as an 
article of food. It is common enough during the summer and espe- 
cially during the autumn to provide this kind of food in considerable 

Polyporus brumalis (Pers.) Fr. — This pretty plant is found at all sea- 
sons of the year, and from its frequency during the winter was named 
brumalis, from bruma, which means winter. It grows on sticks and 
branches, or on trunks. It usually occurs singly, sometimes two or 
three close together. The plants are 3-6 cm. high, the cap 2-6 
cm. in diameter, and the stem is 3-6 mm. in thickness. 

The cap is convex, then plane, and sometimes depressed at the 
center or umbilicate. When young it is somewhat fleshy and pliant, 
then it becomes tough, coriaceous, and hard when dry. During wet 
weather it becomes pliant again. Being hard and firm, and tough, 
it preserves long after mature, so that it may be found at any season 
of the year. The cap is smoky in color, varying in shade, some- 
times very dark, almost black, and other specimens being quite light 
in color. The surface is hairy and the margin is often fimbriate with 
coarse hairs. The stem is lighter, hairy or strigose. The tubes are 
first white, then become yellowish. The tubes are very regular in 

Figure 186 represents well this species, three plants being grouped 
rather closely on the same stick ; two show the under surface and 
one gives a side view. The upper portion of the plate represents 
two of the plants enlarged, the three lower ones being natural size. 
The plant is very common and widely distributed over the world. 
Those illustrated in the plate were collected at Ithaca. This species 
is too tough for food. 

Many of the thin and pliant species of Polyporus are separated by 
some into the genus Polystictus. The species are very numerous, as 
well as some of the individuals of certain species. They grow on 
wood or on the ground, some have a central stem, and others are 
shelving, while some are spread out on the surface of the wood. One 


very pretty species is the Polystictus perennis Fr. This grows on the 
ground and has a central stem. The plant is 2-3 cm. high, and the 
cap 1-4 cm. broad. Thepileus is thin, pliant when fresh and some- 
what brittle when dry. It is minutely velvety on the upper surface, 
reddish brown or cinnamon in color, expanded or umbilicate to nearly 
funnel-shaped. The surface is marked beautifully by radiations and 
fine concentric zones. The stem is also velvety. The tubes are 
minute, the walls thin and acute, and the mouths angular and at last 
more or less torn. The margin of the cap is finely fimbriate, but in 
old specimens these hairs are apt to become rubbed off. The left 
hand plant in Fig. 187 is Polyporus perennis . 

Polystictus cinnamomeus (Jacq.) Sacc, {P. oblecfans Berk. Hook. 
Jour. p. 51, 1845, Dec. N. A. F. No. 35: P. splendens Pk., 26th 
Report N. Y. State Mus., p. 26) is a closely related species with the 

Figure 187. — Left-hand plant Polystictus perennis; right-hand three 
plants Polystictus cinnamomeus. All natural size. Copyright. 

same habit, color, and often is found growing side by side with P. 
perennis. The margin of the cap is deeply and beautifully lacerate, 
as shown in the three other plants in Fig. 187. Polystictus connatns 
Schw., grows in similar situations and one sometimes finds all three 
of these plants near each other on the ground by roadsides. P. coji- 
natiis has much larger pores than either of the other two, and it is a 
somewhat larger plant. Figure 187 is from a photograph of plants 
collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

Polystictus versicolor (L.) Fr., is a very common plant growing on 
trunks and branches. It is more or less shelving, with a leaf-like 
pileus, marked by concentric bands of different colors. P. hirsutus 
Fr., is a somewhat thicker and more spongy plant, whitish or gray- 
ish in color, with the upper surface tomentose with coarse hairs. P. 
cinnabarinus (Jacq.) Fr., is shelving, spongy, pliant, rather thick, 
cinnabar colored. It grows on dead logs and branches, it is some- 


times placed in tlie genus Trametes under the same specific name. 
Polystictus pergamenus Fr., is another common one growing on wood of 
various trees. It is thin arid very pliant when fresh, somewhat 
tomentose above when young, with faint bands, and the tubes are 
often violet or purple color, and they soon become deeply torn and 
lacerate so that they resemble the teeth of certain of the hedgehog fungi. 

Polyporus lucidus (Leys.) Fr. \_Fomes lucidus (Leys.) Fr.] — 
This species is a very striking one because of the bright red or chest- 
nut color, the hard and brittle crust over the surface of the cap, which 
has usually the appearance of having been varnished. It grows on 
trunks, logs, stumps, etc., in woods or groves. The cap is 5-20 cm. 
in diameter, and the stem is 5-20 cm. long, and 1-2 cm. in thickness. 
The stem is attached to one side of the pileus so that the pileus is 
lateral, though the stem is more or less ascending. 

The cap is first yellowish when young, then it becomes blood red, 
then chestnut color. The stem is the same color, and the tubes are 
not so bright in color, being a dull brown. The substance of the 
plant is quite woody and tough when mature. When dry it is soon 
attacked and eaten by certain insects, which are fond of a number of 
fungi, so that they are difficult to preserve in good condition in her- 
baria without great care. 

The surface of the pileus is quite uneven, wrinkled, and coarsely 
grooved, the margin sometimes crenate, especially in large speci- 
mens. Figure 188 represents the plant growing on a large hemlock 
spruce stump in the woods. The surface character of the caps and 
the general form can be seen. This photograph was taken near 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Polyporus applanatus (Pers.) ¥x.\_Fomes applanatus (Pers.) Wallr.] 
— This plant is also one of the very common woody Polyporacece. 
it grows on dead trunks, etc., and sometimes is found growing 
from the wounds of living trees. It is very hard and woody. It 
has a hard crust, much harder than that of the Polyporus lucidus. 
The surface is more or less marked by concentric zones which mark 
off the different years' growth, for this plant is perennial. At cer- 
tain seasons of the year the upper surface is covered with a powdery 
substance of a reddish brown color, made up of numerous colored 
spores or conidia which are developed on the upper surface of this 
plant in addition to the smaller spores developed in the tubes on the 
under surface. 

The plant varies in size from 5-20 cm. or more in diameter, and 
i-io cm. in thickness, according to the rapidity of growth and the age 
of the fungus. The fruiting surface is white, and the tubes are very 


minute. They scarcely can be seen with the unaided eye. Bruises 
of the tubes turn brown, and certain *' artists " often collect these 
plants and sketch with a' pointed instrument on the tube surface. 
For other peculiarities of this plant see page 15. The age of the 
plant can usually be told by counting the number of the broader 
zones on the upper surface, or by making a section through the 
plant and counting the number of tube strata on the lower surface 
of the cap at its base. 

Polyporus leucophaeus Mont., is said to differ from this species in 
being more strongly zonate, and in the crust being whitish instead 
of reddish brown. 

Polyporus fomentarius (L.) Fr. \_Fomes fomentarius (L.) Fr.,] is 
hoof-shaped, smoky in color, or gray, and of various shades of dull 
brown. It is strongly zoned and sulcate, marking off each year's 
growth. The margin is thick and blunt, and the tube surface con- 
cave, the tubes having quite large mouths so that they can be readily 
seen, the color when mature being reddish brown. Sections of the 
plant show that the tubes are very long, the different years' growth 
not being marked off so distinctly as in P. applanatus and leucophceus. 
The plant grows on birch, beech, maple, etc. The inner portion 
was once used as tinder. 

Polyporus pinicola (Swartz.) ¥x .[^Fomes pinicola (Swartz.) Fr.]occurs 
on dead pine, spruce, balsam, hemlock spruce, and other conifers. The 
cap is about the width of the F. applanatus, but it is stouter, and does 
not have the same hard crust. The young growth at the margin, 
which is very thick, is whitish yellow, while the old zones are red- 
dish. The tubes are yellowish, and sections show that they are in 
strata corresponding to the years' growth. Polyporus igniarius (L.) 
Fr. \_Fomes igniarius (L.) Fr.J is a black species, more or less trian- 
gular, or sometimes hoof-shaped. The yearly zones are smaller, 
become much cracked, and the tubes are dark brown. One of these 
plants which 1 found on a birch tree in the Adirondacks was over 80 
years old. 

The genus Merulius has a fruiting surface of irregular folds or 
wrinkles, forming shallow, irregular pits instead of a deeply honey- 
combed surface. Merulius lacrymans(Jacq.) Fr., the *' weeping" meru- 
lius, or ''house fungus," often occurs in damp cellars, buildings, 
conduit pipes, etc. It is very destructive to buildings in certain parts 
of Europe (see Figs. 189, 190). Merulius tremellosus Schrad., is ver)^ 
common in woods during autumn. It is of a gelatinous consistency, 
and spread on the under surface of limbs or forms irregular shelves 
from the side (see Figs. 191, 192). 


'j^r J^^:.^^^ 





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Plate 73. — Merulius lacrymans. Figure 189. — Upper plant in conduit pipe leading ^^ 
from wash room, Gymnasium C. U., Autumn, 1899. Figure 190. — Lower '^' 
plant from under surface decaying hemlock spruce log in woods near Freeville, 
N. Y., October, 1899. Margin of plants white, fruiting surface a network of 
irregular folds, golden brown, or brown. Copyright. 

Plate 75, Figure 193. — Phlebia merismoides. On rotting log, woods near Ithaca, 
November 23, 1898 (No. 2634 C. U. herbarium). Various shades of orange, 
yellow or yellow brown when old. Copyright. 


Plate 76, Figure 194. — Phlebia merismoides. Portion of a plant 

natural size, to show interrupted folds of fruiting surface. For colors see 
Fig. 193. Copyright. 

times /v^'^i/ 



The plants belonging to this family vary greatly in size, form, 
and consistency. Some of them are very large, some quite small, 
some are fleshy in consistency, some are woody, corky ; some mem- 
branaceous ; and if we include plants formerly classed here, some are 
gelatinous, though there is a tendency in recent years on the part of 
some to place the gelatinous ones among the trembling fungi. The 
special character which marks the members of this family is the pecu- 
liarity of the fruiting surface, just as a number of the other families 
are distinguished by some peculiarity of the fruiting surface. In 
the Hydnacece it covers the surface of numerous processes in the form 
of spines, teeth, warts, coarse granules, or folds which are inter- 
rupted at short intervals. These spines or teeth always are directed 
toward the earth when the plant is in the position in which it grew. 
In this way the members of the family can be distinguished from cer- 
tain members of the club fungi belonging to the family Clavariacex, 
for in the latter the branches or free parts of the plant are erect. 

In form the Hydnacece are shelving, growing on trees ; or growing 
on the ground they often have a central or eccentric stem, and a 
more or less circular cap ; some of them are rounded masses, grow- 
ing from trees, with very long spines extending downward ; others 
have ascending branches from which the spines depend ; and still 
others form thin sheets which are spread over the surface of logs and 
sticks, the spines hanging down from the surface, or roughened with 
granules or warts, or interrupted folds (see Phlebia, Figs. 193, 194). 
In one genus there is no fruit body, but the spines themselves extend 
downward from the rotten wood, the genus Mncronella. This is only 
distinguished, so far as its family position is concerned, from such a 
species as Clavaria mucida by the fact that the plant grows downward 
from the wood, while in C. mucida it grows erect. 


The only species of the Hydnacece described here are in the genus 
Hydnum. In this genus the fruiting surface is on spine, or awl- 
shaped processes, which are either simple or in some cases the tips 
are more or less branched. The plants grow on the ground or on 




wood. The species vary greatly in form. Some are provided with 
a more or less regular cap and a stem, while others are shelving or 
bracket shaped, and still others are spread out over the surface of 
the wood (resupinate). 

Hydnum coralloides Scop. Edible. — Among the very beautiful species 
of the genus Hydnum is the coral one, Hydnum coralloides. It grows 
in woods forming large, beautiful, pure white tufts on rotten logs, 
branches, etc. The appearance of one of these tufts is shown in 

Figure 195. — Hydnum coralloides. Entirely white (natural size). Copyright. 

Fig. 195. There is a common stem which arises from the wood, 
and this branches successively into long, ascending, graceful shoots. 
The spines are scattered over the entire under side of these branches 
and hang down for 3-6 mm. They are not clustered at the ends of the 
branches, as in the bear's head hydnum, and the species can be easily 
distinguished by giving attention to the form of the branching and 
the distribution of the spines on the under side of the branches. 
Figure 195 represents a plant collected at Ithaca, and it is natural 


size. They grow, however, much larger than this specimen. The 
species is widely distributed, and not uncommon. It is excellent for 

Hydnum caput-ursi Fr. Edible. — This plant is also a beautiful one. 
It is more common than the coral hydnum so far as my observation 
goes. It is known by the popular name of " bear's head hydnum " 
in allusion to the groups of spines at the ends of the branches. It 

Figure 197. — Hydnum erinaceus. Entirely white (natural size, often larger). 

occurs in woods with a similar habit of growing on trunks, branches, 
etc. This plant also arises from the wood with a single stout stem, 
which then branches successively, the ends of the branches having 
groups of long pendant spines appearing like numerous heads. 
Sometimes the spines on the top of the group are twisted or curled 
in a peculiar way. Large tufts are sometimes formed, varying from 
12-20 or more centimeters in diameter. Figure 196 is from a plant 
collected at Ithaca. 


Hydnum caput=medusae Bull. Edible. — The medusa's head hydnum is 
a rarer species than either of the above in this country. It forms a 
large, tubercular mass which does not branch like the coral hydnum 
or the bear's head, but more like the Satyr's beard hydnum, though 
the character of the spines will easily separate it from the latter. 
The spines cover a large part of this large tubercle, and hang down- 
ward. The plant is known by the additional character, that, on the 
upper part of the tubercle, the spines are twisted and interwoven in 
a peculiar fashion. 

Hydnum erinaceus Bull. Edible. — This plant is sometimes called 
" Satyr's beard." It grows on dead trunks in the woods or groves, 
and is often found growing from wounds in living trees. It forms a 
large, tubercular mass which does not branch. The spines are very 
long and straight and hang downward in straight parallel lines from 
the sides of the mass. The spines are from 1-2 cm. or more long. 
Figure 197 represents one of the plants, showing the long spines. 

Hydnum repandum L. Edible. — This plant is not uncommon, and it is 
widely distributed. It grows usually in woods, on the ground. It 
varies greatly in size, from very small specimens, 1-2 cm. high to 
others 10-12 cm. high. The cap is 2-18 cm. broad, and the stem 
6-12 mm. in thickness. 

It is entirely white or the cap varies to buff, dull yellow reddish 
or dull brown. It is very brittle, and must be handled with the 
utmost care if one wishes to preserve the specimen intact. The 
pileus is more or less irregular, the stem being generally eccentric, 
so that the pileus is produced more on one side than on the other, 
sometimes entirely lateral at the end of the stem. The margin is 
more or less wavy or repand. The spines are white, straight, and 
very brittle. The stem is even or clavate. Figure 198 is from plants 
collected at Ithaca during August, 1899, and represents one of the 
large specimens of the species. In one plant the pileus is entirely 
lateral on the end of the long clavate stem, and is somewhat reni- 
form, the stem being attached at the sinus. In the other plant the 
stem is attached near the center. This species is considered one 
of the best mushrooms for the table. 

Hydnum imbricatum L. Edible. — This is a very variable species both 
in size and in the surface characters of the pileus. It occurs in woods, 
groves, or in open places under trees. The plants are 3-7 cm. high, 
and the pileus varies from 5-15 cm. broad, the stem from .5-2.5 cm. 
in thickness. The pileus is convex and nearly expanded, fleshy, 
thinner at the margin, regular or very irregular. The color is gray- 
ish in the younger and smaller plants to umber or quite dark in the 


Plate 78, Figure 198. — Hydnum repandum. Cap whitish or yellowish, or pale yellowish 
brown ; spines whitish or yellowish (natural size, often smaller). Copyright. 



larger and older ones. The surface is cracked and torn into triangu- 
lar scales, showing the whitish color of the flesh between the scales. 
The scales are small in the younger plants and larger in the older 
ones. Figure 200 is from plants collected at Ithaca, and the pileus 
in these specimens is irregular. The species is edible, but bitter to 
the taste. 

Figure 200. — Hydnum imbricatum. Caps brownish, spines whitish (natural size, 

often larger). 

Hydnum putidum Atkinson. — This plant grows on the ground in 
woods, and was collected in the Blue Ridge mountains at Blowing 
Rock, N. C, at an elevation of about 4000 feet. It is remarkable 
for its peculiar odor, resembling, when fresh, that of an Ethiopian ; 
for its tough, zonate pileus with a prominent white edge, and the 
stout irregular stem, resembling the stem of Hydnum velutinum. 
The plants are 8-12 cm. high, the cap 8-12 cm. broad, and the stem 
2-4 cm. in thickness. The plants grow singly, or sometimes a few 
close together, and then two or more may be conjoined. 

The pileus is first umbilicate or depressed, becoming depressed or 
infundibuliform, irregular, eccentric, the margin repand, and some- 
times lobed, and lobes appearing at times on the upper surface of the 
cap. The surface is first tomentose or pubescent, becoming smooth, 
with prominent concentric zones probably marked off by periodical 
growth ; the color is first white, so that the edge is white, becoming 
cream color to buff, and in age dull brown and sometimes blackish 
brown in the center of the old plants. The pubescence disappears 
from the old portions of the cap, so that it is smooth. The pubes- 
cence or tomentum is more prominent on the intermediate zones. 
The margin is rather thick, somewhat acute or blunt, the upper por- 


tion of the tlesh is spongy and the middle portion tough and coria- 
ceous, and darker in color. The pileus is somewhat pliant when 
moist or wet, and firm when dry, the dark inner stratum hard. 

The spines are first white or cream color, in age changing through 
salmon color, or directly into grayish or grayish brown. The spines 
when mature are long, slender, crowded, and decurrent on the upper 
part of the^tem. The spores are white, globose, echinulate, 3-4 /4. 
The stem is stout and irregular, very closely resembling the stem of 
Hydnum velutinum, with a thick, spongy, outer layer and a central 
hard core. 

The odor, which resembles that of a perspiring darkey, before the 
plant is dry, disappears after drying, and then the plant has the same 
agreeable odor presented by several different species of Hydnum. 
The odor suggests H. graveolens, but the characters of the stem and 
surface of the pileus separate it from that species, while the tough 
and pliant character of the cap separates it from H. fragile. Figure 
199 is from plants (No. 4334, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing 
Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 



This family is a very characteristic one, and very interesting 
from the large number of beautiful species in one genus, the genus 
Clavaria. The plants all are more or less erect, or at least stand out 
from the substratum, that is, the substance on which they are grow- 
ing. The fruiting surface covers the entire upper part of the plant, 
all but the bases of the stems. Some of the branched species of the 
Thelcphoracece resemble the branched species of the Clavariacecv , but 
in the former there is a more or less well defined upper portion on 
the tips of the branches which is flat, or truncate, and sterile, that is, 
lacks the fruiting surface. Some of the species are simple, elongate 
and clavate bodies. Some stand singly, others are clustered, or 
others are joined by their bases, and others still are very much 
branched. All of the species are said to be edible, that is, they are 
not poisonous. A few are rather tough, but they are mostly the 
small species which would not be thought of for food. The spores 
are borne on club-shaped basidia, as in the common mushrooms. 





The genus Clavaria is one of the most common ones in the family, 
and is one of the most attractive from the variety and beauty of sev- 
eral of the species. All of the plants are more or less erect, and at 
least stand out from the substratum on which they grow. They are 
either long and simple and more or less club-shaped, as the name 
implies, or they are branched, some but a few times, while others are 
very profusely branched. The plants vary in color, some are white, 
some yellow, some red, and some are red-tipped, while others are 
brownish in color. 

Clavaria formosa Pers. Edible. — This is one of the handsomest of 
the genus. It is found in different parts of the world, and has been 
collected in New England and in the Carolinas in this country. It is 
usually from 15-20 cm. high, and because of the great number of 
branches is often broader in extent. There is a stout stem from 2-4 

■ '•'^A 

Figure 202. — Clavaria botrytes. Branches red tipped (natural size). 

cm. in diameter, deep in the ground. This branches into a few stout 
trunks, which then rapidly branch into slender and longer branches, 



Figure 203. 

terminating into numerous tips. The entire plant is very brittle, 
and great care is necessary to prevent its breaking, both before dry- 
ing and afterward. When the plant is young and is just pushing out 
of the ground, the branches, especially the tips, are bright colored, 
red, pink, or orange, the color usually brighter when young in the 

younger plants. As the 
plant becomes older the 
color fades out, until at 
maturity the pink or red 
color has in many cases 
disappeared, and then the 
entire plant is of a light 
yellowish, or of a cream 
buff color. The spores are 
in mass light yellow, and 
the spores on the surface 
of the plant probably give 
the color to the plant at 
this stage. The spores 
are long, oval or oblong, 
10-15 ^ 2.5-3yw, and are 
minutely spiny. Figure 
201 is from a plant (No. 
4343, C. U. herbarium) 
collected at Blowing Rock, 
N. C, in September, 1899. 
The plant is very common 
in the mountain woods of 
North Carolina. 

Specimens of this Cla- 
varia were several times 
prepared for table use dur- 
ing my stay in the mount- 
ains, but the flavor was 
not an agreeable one, pos- 
sibly due to the fact that 
it needs some special 
preparation and season- 

Clavaria pistillaris. Dull whitish, tan or 
reddish (natural size). 

Clavaria botrytes Pers. Edible. — This plant is much smaller than C 
formosa, but has much the same general habit and color, especially 
when C. formosa is young. The plant has a stout stem which soon 


dissolves into numerous branches, which are red tipped. The spores 
are white, and in this way it may be distinguished from C.formosa, 
or from Clavaria aurea (Schaeff.), which has yellow or ochre spores, 
and which has also much the same habit as C, botrvtes, and is nearer 
in size. 

Clavaria pistillaris Linn. Edible. — This plant is a characteristic one 
because of its usually large size and simple form. It is merely a 
club-shaped body, growing from the ground. It has a wide range, 
both in Europe and North America, but does not seem to be common, 
though I have found it more common in the mountain woods of North 
Carolina than in New York. The plant is 5-20 cm. high, and 1-3 
cm. thick at the upper end. It is smooth, though often irregularly 
grooved and furrowed, due probably to unequal tensions in growth. 
The apex in typical specimens is rounded and blunt. It is dull white 

Figure 204. — Clavaria mucida. White (natural size). Copyright. 

or tan color or rufescent. The tlesh is white, and very spongy, 
especially in age, when it is apt to be irregularly fistulose. Figure 
203 is from plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during 
September 1899. 

There is what seems to be an abnormal form of this species figured 
by Schaeffer, Table 290, which Fries separated as a distinct species 
and placed in the genus Cratcrelliis, one of the Thelephoracea:. and 
called by him Craterelhis pistillaris. This plant has been found at 
Ithaca, and the only difference between this and the Clavaria pistil- 
laris L., seems to be in the fact that in Craterelhis pistillaris the end 
is truncate or in some specimens more or less concave. The spores 
seem to be the same, and the color and general habit of the two 
plants are the same. It is probably only a form of Clavaria pistillaris . 

Clavaria mucida Pers. — This is one of the smallest species of the 
genus Clavaria. It grows on rotten wood, and appears throughout 



the year. It is usually simple and clavate, but sometimes branched. 
The plant is white, or yellowish, or sometimes rose color, and meas- 
ures from 0.5 to 2 cm. inheight, though I have usually found it from 
0.5-1 cm. in height. It is soft and watery. Figure 204 is from 
plants (No. 4998, C. U. herbarium) collected at Ithaca in October, 



These fungi are called the trembling fungi because of their gelat- 
inous consistency. The colors vary from white, yellow, orange, 
reddish, brownish, etc., and the form is various, often very irregu- 
lar, leaf-like, or strongly folded and uneven. They are when fresh 
usually very soft, clammy to the touch, and yielding like a mass of 
gelatine. They usually grow on wood, but some species grow on 
the ground, and some are parasitic. The fruit surface usually covers 
the entire outer surface of the plant, but in some it is confined to one 
side of the plant. The basidia are peculiar to the order, are deeply 
seated in the substance of the plant, rounded or globose, and divided 
into four cells in a cruciate manner. From each one of these cells of 
the basidium a long, slender process (sterigma) grows out to the 

surface of the plant and 
bears the spore. A few 
species only are treated 
of here. 


In this genus the 
plants are gelatinous or 
cartilaginous. The 
form of the plant rs usu- 
ally very much con- 
torted, fold-like or leaf- 
like, and very much 
branched. The fruit- 
ing surface extends over 
the entire upper surface 
of the plant. 

Figure 205.- Tremella mycetophila, on Collybia 
dryophila (natural size). 



Tremeila lutescens Pers. — This plant is entirely yellow, and occurs 
on branches. It is 2-5 cm. in diameter, and is strongly folded, some- 
what like the folds of a brain (gyrose). It is very soft and inclined 
to be watery and fluid, and is of a bright yellow color, spread out on 
the surface of rotten wood. It is of world-wide distribution, and 
appears from mid- 
summer to late 

Tremeila myce = 
tophila Pk. — This 
plant is interesting 
from the fact that 
it is parasitic on a 
mushroom. Colly bia 
Jrvophila. It grows 
on the stem or on 
the top of the cap of 
the Colly bia, and it 
is white, or yellow- 
ish, very much con- 
torted (gyrose-pli- 
cate), nearly 
rounded, and 8-16 
mm. in diameter. 
Figure 205 repre- 
sents this Tremeila 
growing on the Col- 
ly bia dry ophila, from 
plants collected at 
Freeville woods 
near Ithaca. 

Tremeila frondosa 
Fr. — This is said to 
be the largest spe- 
cies of the genus. 
It grows on rotton 
wood. It occurs in 

Europe, has been collected in New York State, and the Fig. 206 is 
from a plant (No. 4339, C. U. herbarium) collected at Blowing 
Rock, N. C, in September, 1899. The plant figured here was 10 
cm. long and about 8 cm. high. It is very much twisted and con- 
torted, leaf-like, and the middle and base all united. It is of a 




pinkish yellow color, one plant being vinaceous pink and another 
cream buff in color. When young the leaf-like lobes do not show 
well, but as it expands they become very prominent. 

Several other species of Tremella are probably more common 
than the ones illustrated here. One of the commonest of the Tre- 
mellinece probably is the Exidia glandulosa, which in dry weather 
appears as a black incrustation on dead limbs, but during rains it 
swells up into a large, black, very soft, gelatinous mass. It is com- 
monly found on fallen limbs of oak, and occurs from autumn until 
late spring. It is sometimes called ** witch's butter." 

Figure 207. — Tremella fuciformis. Entirely white (natural size). Copyright. 

Tremella fuciformis Berk. — This is a very beautiful white tremella 
growing in woods on leaf mold close to the ground. It forms a large 
white tubercular mass resting on the ground, from the upper surface of 
which numerous stout, short, white processes arise which branch a few 
times in a dichotomous manner. The masses are 10-15 cm. in diam- 
eter, and nearly or quite as high. The flesh is very soft, and the 
parts are more or less hollow. The basidia are like those of the 
genus, globose, sunk in the substance of the plant, and terminate 
with four long, slender, sterigmata which rise to the surface and bear 
the spores. The spores are white, nearly ovoid, but inequilateral 
and somewhat reniform, continuous, 7-9 x 5-6 /v. 



Figure 207 is from a plant collected in a woods near Ithaca, in 
August, 1897. 


The genus Gyrocephalus differs from the other Tremdlinect in hav- 
ing the fruiting surface on the lower side of the fruit body, while the 
upper side is sterile. 

I. — G\Tocepha]us rufus. Reddish or reddish yellow (natural size). 

Gyrocephalus rufus (Jacq.) Bref. — This species is sometimes very 
abundant. It grows on the ground, generally from buried wood, or 
from dead roots. It is erect, stout at the base, and the upper end flat- 
tened and thinner. It is more or less spatulate, the upper side some- 
what concave, and the lower somewhat convex. In some plants 
the pileus is more regular and there is then a tendency to the funnel 
form. It is reddish, or reddish yellow in color, smooth, clammy, 
watery, and quite gelatinous. When dry it is very hard. Figure 


208 represents the form of the plant well, from plants collected at 
Ithaca. The plant is quite common in the damp glens and woods at 
Ithaca during the autumn.' 



Many of the species of the Thelephorace^e to which the following 
two species belong are too tough for food. A large number of these 
grow on wood. They are known by their hard or membranaceous 
character and by the fruiting surface (under surface when in the 
position in which they grew) being smooth, or only slightly uneven, 
or cracked. 

Craterellus cantharellus (Schw.) Fr., is an edible species. In gen- 
eral appearance it resembles the Cantharellus cibariiis. The color is 
the same, and the general shape, except that the former is perhaps 
more irregular in form. It may, however, be in most cases easily 
distinguished from C. cibarius by the absence of folds on the under 
or fruiting surface, since the fruiting surface is smooth, especially 
when the plants are young or middle age. However, when the plants 
get quite large and old, in some cases the fruiting surface becomes 
very uneven from numerous folds and wrinkles, which, however, 
are more irregular than the folds of C. cibarius. 

Craterellus cornucopioides (L.) Pers., is another edible species. 
It grows on the ground in woods. It is of a dusky or dark smoky 
color, and is deeply funnel-shaped, resembling a ** horn of plenty," 
though usually straight. The fruiting surface is somewhat uneven. 

The genus Stereum is a very common one on branches, etc., 
either entirely spread out on the wood, or with the margin or a large 
part of the pileus free. Hymenochcvte is like Stereum, but has numer- 
ous small black spines in the fruiting surface, giving it a velvety 
appearance. Corticium is very thin and spread over the wood in 




This is not the place for a discussion of the different genera of 
the puff-balls, etc., but it might be well to say that in recent years 
the old genus Lycoperdon has been divided into several genera. The 
giant buff-ball, and the L. cyathiforme, where the wall or peridium 
ruptures irregularly, have been placed in a genus called Calvatia ; 
certain other species which are nearly globose, and in which the wall 
is of a papery texture at maturity, are placed in the genus Bovista. 
There is one genus belonging to the same family as the lycoperdons, 
the species of which are very interesting on account of the peculiar 
way in which the wall is ruptured. This is the genus Geaster, that 
is, " earth star." The wall, or peridium, is quite thick in the 
members of this genus, and when it matures it separates into several 
layers which need not all be discussed here. A thick outer portion 
which separates from a thinner inner portion further splits radially 
into several star-like divisions, which spread outward and give to the 
plant the form of a star. Since the plants lie on the earth the name 
earth star was applied to them. This opens out in dry weather, 
even curving around under the plant, so that the plant is raised above 
the ground. Then in wet weather it closes up again. The inner 
portion of the wall opens at the apex in various ways, in the different 
species, so that the spores may escape. A closely related genus has 
several small perforations like a pepper box in the upper surface of 
the inner wall, Myriostoma. 


To this genus belong most of the ** puff-balls," as they are com- 
monly called, or, as they are denominated in the South, *' Devil's snuff 
box." All, or a large portion, of the interior of the plant at matur- 
ity breaks down into a powdery substance, which with the numer- 
ous spores is very light, and when the plant is squeezed or pressed, 
clouds of this dust burst out at the opening through the wall. The 
wall of the plant is termed the peridium. In this genus the wall is 
quite thin, and at maturity opens differently in different species. In 
several species it opens irregularly, the entire wall becoming very 
brittle and cracking up into bits, as in the giant puff-ball. In the 



remaining species it opens by a distinct perforation at the apex, and 
the remainder of the wall is more or less pliant and membranous. 
All of the puff-balls are said to be edible, at least are harmless, if 
eaten when the flesh is white. They should not be eaten when the 
flesh is dark, or is changing from the white color. 

Lycoperdon giganteum Batsch. Edible. — This, the giant puff-ball, is 
the largest species of the genus. Sometimes it reaches immense 
proportions, two to three or even four feet, but these large sizes are 
rare. It is usually 20 to 40 cm. (8-16 in.) in diameter. It grows 
on the ground in grassy places during late summer and in the autumn. 
It is a large rounded mass, resting on the ground, and near or at the 
center of the under side, it is attached to the cords of mycelium in 
the ground. It is white in color until it is ripe, that is, when the 
spores are mature, and it should be gathered for food before it is thus 
ripe. When it is maturing it becomes yellowish, then dusky or 
smoky in color. The flesh, which is white when young, changes to 
greenish yellow and finally brownish, with usually an olivaceous 
tinge, as the spores ripen. 

The plant is so large that it may be sliced, and should be sliced 
before broiling. A single specimen often forms enough for a meal 
for a large family, and some of the larger ones would serve for 
several meals. 

Lycoperdon cyathiforme Bosc. Edible. — This is called the beaker- 
shaped puff-ball because the base of the plant, after the spores have 
all been scattered, resembles to some extent a beaker, or a broad 
cup with a stout, stem-like base. These old sterile bases of the plant 
are often found in the fields long after the spores have disappeared. 
The plants are somewhat pear-shaped, rounded above, and tapering 
below to the stout base. They are 7-15 cm. in diameter, and white 
when young. At maturity the spore mass is purplish, and by this 
color as well as by the sterile base the plant is easily recognized. 
Of course these characters cannot be recognized in the young and 
growing plant at the time it is wanted for food, but the white color 
of the interior of the plant would be a sufiicient guarantee that it was 
edible, granted of course that it was a member of the puff-ball family. 
Sometimes, long before the spores mature, the outer portion of the 
plant changes from white to pinkish, or brownish colors. At maturity 
the wall, or peridium, breaks into brittle fragments, which disappear 
and the purplish mass of the spores is exposed. The plant grows in 
grassy places or even in cultivated fields. 

Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch. Edible. — This puff-ball is widely dis- 
tributed throughout the world and is very common. It grows in the 



woods, or in open places on the ground, usually. It is known from 
its characteristic top shape, the more or less erect scales on the upper 
surface intermingled with smaller ones, the larger ones falling away 
and leaving circular scars over the surface, which gives it a reticu- 
late appearance. The plants are white, becoming dark gray or gray- 
ish brown when mature. They vary 
in size from 3-7 cm. high to 2-5 cm. 
broad. They are more or less top- 
shaped, and the stem, which is stout, 
is sometimes longer than the rounded 
portion, which is the fruiting part. 
The outer part of the wall (outer 
peridium) when quite young sep- 
arates into warts or scales of varying 
size, large ones arranged quite reg- 
ularly with smaller ones between. 
These warts are well shown in the 
two plants at the left in Fig. 210, and 
the third plant from the left shows 
the reticulations formed of numerous 
scars on the inner peridium where 
the larger scales have fallen away. 

The plant at the extreme right is 
mature, and the inner peridium has 
ruptured at the apex to permit the 
escape of the spores. The spore 
mass, together with brownish threads 
which are intermingled, are greenish 
yellow with an olive tinge, then they 
become pale brown. The spores are 
rounded, 3.5-4.5 yu in diameter, 
sm.ooth or minutely warted. 

Another small puff-ball every- 
where common in woods is the Lyco- 
perdon pyriforme, so called because of 
its pear shape. It grows on very 
rotten wood or on decaying logs in 
woods or groves, or in open places 

where there is rotting wood. It is somewhat smaller than the 
gem-bearing lycoperdon, is almost sessile, sometimes many crowded 
very close together, and especially is it characterized by prominent 
root-like white strands of mycelium which are attached to the base 



where the plant enters the rotton wood. While these small species 
of puff-balls are not injurious to eat, they do not seem to possess an 
agreeable flavor. There are quite a number of species in this 
country which cannot be enumerated here. 

Related to the puff-balls, and properly classed with them, are the 
species of Scleroderma. This name is given to the genus because 
of the hard peridium, the wall being much firmer and harder than in 
Lycoperdon. There are two species which are not uncommon. Sclero- 
derma vulgare and 5. verrucosum. They grow on the ground or on 
very rotten wood, and are sessile, often showing the root-like white 
strands attached to their base. They vary in size from 2-6 cm. and 
the outer wall is cracked into numerous coarse areas, or warts, giving 
the plant a verrucose appearance, from which one of the species gets 
its specific name. 

Calostoma cinnabarinum Desv. — This is a remarkably beautiful plant 
with a general distribution in the Eastern United States. It has often 
been referred to in this country under the genus name Milremyces, 
and sometimes has been confused with a rarer and different species, 
Calostoma lutescens (Schw.) Burnap. It grows in damp woods, 
usually along the banks of streams and along mountain roads. It is 
remarkable for the brilliant vermilion color of the inner surface of the 
outer layer of the wall (exopertdium) , which is exposed by splitting 
into radial strips that curl and twist themselves off, and by the ver- 
milion color of the edges of the teeth at the apex of the inner wall 
(endoperidium) . The plant is 2-8 cm. high, and 1-2 cm. in diam- 
eter. When mature the base or stem, which is formed of reticulated 
and anastomosing cords, elongates and lifts the rounded or oval fruit- 
ing portion to some distance above the surface of the ground, when 
the gelatinous volva ruptures and falls to the ground or partly clings 
to the stem, exposing the peridium, the outer portion of which then 
splits in the manner described. 

When the plant is first seen above the ground it appears as a 
globose or rounded body, and in wet weather has a very thick gelatin- 
ous layer surrounding it. This is the volva and is formed by the 
gelatinization of the outer layer of threads which compose it. This 
gelatinous layer is thick and also viscid, and when the plants are 
placed on paper to dry, it glues them firmly to the sheet. When the 
outer layer of the peridium splits, it does so by splitting from the base 
toward the apex, or from the apex toward the base. Of the large 
number of specimens which I have seen at Blowing Rock, N. C, the 
split more often begins at the apex, or at least, when the slit is com- 
plete, the strips usually stand out loosely in a radiate manner, the 


tips being free. At this stage the plant is a very beautiful object 
with the crown of vermilion strips radiating outward from the base 
of the fruit body at the top of the stem, and the inner peridium rest- 
ing in the center and terminated by the four to seven teeth with ver- 
milion edges. At this time also the light yellow spore mass is oozing 
out from between the teeth. The spores are oblong to elliptical, 
marked with very fme points, and measure 15-18 x 8-10 yu. 

Figure 211 is from plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, in 
September, 1899. The Mytremyces liitescens reported in my list of 
** Some Fungi of Blowing Rock, N. C," in Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. 
Soc. 9: 95-107, 1892, is this Calostoma cinnaharinum. 



Most of the stink-horn fungi are characterized by a very offensive 
odor. Some of them at maturity are in shape not unlike that of a 
horn, and the vulgar name is applied because of this form and the 
odor. The plants grow in the ground, or in decaying organic matter 
lying on the ground. The spawn or mycelium is in the form of rope- 
like strands which are usually much branched and matted together. 
From these cords the fruit form arises. During its period of growth 
and up to the maturity of the spores, the fruit body is oval, that is, 
egg form, and because of this form and the quite large size of these 
bodies they are often called **eggs." The outer portion of the egg 
forms the volva. It is always thick, and has an outer thin coat or 
membrane, and an inner membrane, while between the two is a thick 
layer of gelatinous substance, so that the wall of the volva is often 
3-6 mm. in thickness, and is very soft. The outline of the volva 
can be seen in Fig. 215, which shows sections of three eggs in differ- 
ent stages. Inside of the volva is the short stem {receptacle) which 
is in the middle portion, and covering the upper portion and sides of 
this short stem is the pileus ; the fruit-bearing portion, which is 
divided into small chambers, lies on the outside of the pileus. In 
the figure there can be seen cross lines extending through this part 
from the pileus to the wall of the volva. These represent ridges or 
crests which anastomose over the pileus, forming reticulations. The 
stem or receptacle is hollow through the center, and this hollow opens 


out at the end so that there is a rounded perforation through the 
upper portion of the pileus. 

The spores are borne on club-shaped basidia within the chambers 
of the fruit-bearing portion (gleba), and at maturity of the spores the 
stem or receptacle begins to elongate. This pushes the gleba- and 
the upper part of the receptacle through the apex of the volva, leav- 
ing this as a cup-shaped body at the base, much as in certain species 
of Amanita, while the gleba is borne aloft on the much elongated 
stem. During this elongation of the receptacle a large part of the 
substance of the gleba dissolves into a thick liquid containing the 
spores. This runs off and is washed off by the rains, leaving the 
inner surface of the gleba exposed, and showing certain characters 
peculiar to the various genera. 

Among the stink-horns are a number of genera which are very 
interesting from the peculiarities of development ; and some of which 
are very beautiful and curious objects, although they do possess 
offensive odors. In some of the genera, the upper part of the plant 
expands into leaf-like — or petal-like, bodies, which are highly colored 
and resemble flowers. They are sometimes called " fungus flowers." 


Dictyophora means *' net bearer," and as one can see from Fig. 
212 it is not an inappropriate name. The stem or receptacle, as one 
can see from the illustrations of the two species treated of here, pos- 
sesses a very coarse mesh, so that not only the surface but the sub- 
stance within is reticulated, pitted and irregularly perforated. In 
the genus Dictyophora an outer layer of the receptacle or stem is sep- 
arated as it elongates, breaks away from the lower part of the stem, 
is carried aloft, and hangs as a beautiful veil. This veil is very 
conspicuous in some species and less so in others. 

Dictyophora dupHcata (Bosc.) Ed. Fischer. — This species is illus- 
trated in Fig. 212, made from plants collected at Ithaca. The plants 
are from 15-22 cm. high, the cap about 5 cm. in diameter, and the 
stem 2-3 cm. in thickness. According to Burt (Bot. Gaz. 22: 387, 
1896) it is a common species in the Eastern United States. The cap 
is more or less bell-shaped and the sculptured surface is marked in a 
beautiful manner with the reticulations. 

Plate S^, Figure 212. — Dictyophora duplicata. White (natural size). 




Plate 84, Figure 213. — Dictyophora ravenelii. Mature plants, showing vorvaA^p a "^/^ 
base ; elongated receptacle, cap at the top, and veil surrounding the receptacle - "^"^ 
under the cap (natural size). Copyright, 



Dictyophora ravenelii (B. & C.) Burt. — This plant also has a 
wide distribution in the Eastern United States. The stem is more 
slender than in the 
other species, D. 
diiplicata, the pile- 
us more nearly 
conic, and the sur- 
face of the pileus 
is merely gran- 
ular or minutely 
wrinkled, after the 
disappearance of 
the gleba, and 
does not present 
the strong reticu- 
lating ridges and 
crests which that 
species shows. 
The plants are 
from 10 to i8 cm. 
high. It grows in 
woods and fields 
about r otti ng 
wood, and in sawdust. The veil is very thin and delicate, form- 



Figure 214. — Dictyophora ravenelii. Egg stage, caps just bursting 
through the volva (natural size). Copyright. 

Figure 215. — Dictyophora ravenelii. Sections of eggs, and showing cords of 
mycelium (natural size). Copyright. 


ing simply a membrane, and does not possess the coarse meshes 
present in the veil of D. duplicata. The Figs. 214, 215 represent 
the different stages in the elongation of the receptacle of this 
plant, and the rupture of the volva. This elongation takes place 
quite rapidly. While photographing the plant as it was bursting 
through the volva, I had considerable difficulty in getting a picture, 
since the stem elongated so rapidly that the plant would show that 
it had moved perceptibly, and the picture would be blurred. 

In a woods near Ithaca a large number of these plants have 
appeared from year to year in a pile of sawdust. One of the most 
vile smelling plants of this family is the Ithyphallus impiidicus. 




The remaining fungi to be considered belong to a very different 
group of plants than do the mushrooms, puff-balls, etc. Neverthe- 
less, because of the size of several of the species and the fact that 
several of them are excellent for food, some attention will be given 
to a few. The entire group is sometimes spoken of as Discomycefes 
or cup-fungi, because many of the plants belonging here are shaped 
something like a disk, or like a cup. The principal way in which 
they differ from the mushrooms, the puff-balls, etc., is found in the 
manner in which the spores are borne. In the mushrooms, etc., the 
spores, we recollect, are borne on the end of a club-shaped body, 
usually four spores on one of these. In this group, however, the 
spores are borne inside of club-shaped bodies, called sacs or asci 
(singular, ascus). These sacs, or asci, are grouped together, lying 
side by side, forming the fruiting surface or hymenium, much as the 
basidia form the fruiting surface in the mushrooms. In the case of 
the cup or disk forms, the upper side of the disk, or the upper and 
inner surface of the cap, is covered with these sacs, standing side by 
side, so that the free ends of the sacs form the outer surface. In the 
case of the morel the entire outer surface of the upper portion of the 
plant, that where there are so many pits, is covered with similar 
sacs. Since so few of the genera and species of the morels and cup- 
fungi will be treated of here, I shall not attempt to compare the genera 
or even to give the characters by which the genera are known. In 

Plate 85, Figure 216. — Morchella esculenta (natural size). Copyright. V> 4^ 


most cases the illustrations will serve this purpose so far as it is desi- 
able to accomplish it in such a work as the present. Certain of the 
species will then be described and illustrated. 


The morels are all edible and they are usually easy to recognize. 
The plant consists of two distinct, prominent parts, the cap and the 
stem. The cap varies in form from rounded, ovate, conic or cylin- 
drical, or bell-shaped, but it is always marked by rather broad pits, 
covering the entire outer surface, which are separated from each 
other by ridges forming a network. The color of the plants does not 
differ to any perceptible extent in our species. The cap is usually 
buff or light ochre yellow, becoming darker with age and in drying. 

The stem in all our species is usually quite stout, though it varies 
to some extent in some of the different species, in proportion to the 
thickness of the cap. The stem is marked in some of the species by 
large wrinkles or folds extending irregularly but with considerable 
uniformity over the surface. The surface is further minutely 
roughened by whitish or grayish elevations, giving it a granular 
appearance. Sometimes these granules are quite evenly distributed 
over the surface, and in some species they are more or less separated 
into small areas by narrow lines. 

The morels appear early in the season, during May and June. 
They grow usually in damp situations, and are more abundant 
during rainy weather. Three species are illustrated here. 

Morchella esculenta Pers. Edible. — The name of this species, the 
esculent morel, indicates that it has been long known as an edible 
plant, especially since the man who named it lived a century ago. 
The plant is from 5-15 cm. high, the stem is 1-3 cm. in thickness, 
and the cap is broader than the stem. The cap is some^vhat longer 
than broad, and is more or less oval or rounded in outline. The 
arrangement of the pits on the surface of the cap is regarded by some 
as being characteristic of certain species. In this species the pits are 
irregularly arranged, so that they do not form rows, and so that the 
ridges separating them do not run longitudinally from the base toward 
the apex of the cap, but run quite irregularly. This arrangement 
can be seen in Fig. 216, which is from a photograph of this species. 
The stem is hollow. 

Morchella conica Pers. Edible. — This species is very closely related 
to the preceding one, and is considered by some to be only a form of 
the Morchella esculenta. The size is about the same, the only differ- 
ence being in the somewhat longer cap and especially in the arrange- 



ment of the pits. These are arranged more or less in distinct rows, 
so that the ridges separating them run longitudinally and parallel 
from the base of the cap to the apex, with connecting ridges extend- 




Figure 217. — Morchella conica (natural size). Copyright. 

ing across between the pits. The cap is also more or less conic, but 
not necessarily so. Figure 217 illustrates this species. The plant 
shown here is branched, and this should not be taken to be a char- 
acter of the species, for it is not, this form being rather rare. 

Plate 86, Figure 218. — Morchella crassipes (natural size). Copyright. ^ 



Morchella crassipes (\ ent.) Pers. Edible. — This species differs from 
the two preceding in the fact that the stem is nearly equal 
in width with the cap. Figure 218 illustrates a handsome speci- 
men which was 17 cm. high. The granular surface and the folds 
of the stem show very distinctly and beautifully. Collected at 

Morchella deliciosa Fr. Edible, has the cap cylindrical or nearly so. 
It is longer than the stem, and is usually two or three times as long 
as it is broad. The plant is smaller than the preceding, though large 
ones may equal in size small ones of those two. The plant is from 
4-8 cm. high. 

Morchella semilibera DC, and M. bispora Sor., \_Kerpa bohemica 
(Kromb.) Schroet.] occur in this country, and are interesting from 
the fact that the cap is bell-shaped, the lower margin being free from 
the stem. In the latter species there are only two spores in an ascus. 


The helvellas are pretty 
than the morels, usually. 
They have a cap and stem, 
the cap being very irregular 
in shape, often somewhat 
lobed or saddle-shaped. It 
is smooth, or nearly so, at 
least it is not marked by 
the large pits present in 
the cap of the morel, and 
this is one of the principal 
distinguishing features of 
the helvellas as compared 
with the morels. In one 
species the thin cap has its 
lower margin free from the 
stem. This is Helvella 
crispa Fr., and it has a 
white or whitish cap, and 
a deeply furrowed stem. 
It occurs in woods during 
the summer and autumn, 
and is known as the white 

and attractive plants. They are smaller 

Figure 219. — Helvella lacunosa (natural size). Copyright. 



Another species which has a wide range is the Helvella lacunosa, so 
called because of the deep longitudinal grooves in the stem. The 
cap is thin, but differs from the H. crispa in that the lower margin is 
connected with the stem. This species is illustrated in Fig. 219 from 
plants collected at Blowing Rock, N. C, during September, 1899. 

The genus Gyromytra is very closely related to Helvella, and is 
only distinguished by the fact that the cap is marked by prominent 
folds and convolutions, resembling somewhat the convolutions of the 
brain. Its name means convoluted cap. The Gyromytra esculenta Fr., 
is from 5-10 cm. high, and the cap from 5-7 cm. broad. While this 
species has long been reported as an edible one, and has been 
employed in many instances as food with no evil results, there are 
known cases where it has acted as a poison. In many cases where 
poisoning has resulted the plants were quite old and probably in the 
incipient stages of decay. However, it is claimed that a poisonous 
principle, called helvellic acid, has been isolated by a certain chemist, 
which acts as a violent poison. This principle is very soluble in hot 

water, and when 
care is used to 
drain off first 
water in which 
they have been 
cooked, squeezing 
the water well 
from the plants, 
they are pro- 
nounced harm- 
less. The safer 
way would be to 
avoid such sus- 
picious species. 

Spathularia velu= 
tipes Cooke & 
Far 1 w. — T h is 
species represents 
another interest- 
ing genus of the 
Discomycetes. 1 1 
is in the form of a 
** spatu la," and 
from this shape of the plant the genus takes its name. There 
are several species known in this country, and this one is quite 

Figure 220. — Spathularia velutipes (natural size). Copyright. 


common. The stem extends the entire length of the plant, running 
right through the cap, or perhaps it would be better to say that 
the cap or fruiting portion forms two narrow blades or wings on 
opposite sides of the upper part of the stem. These wing-like ex- 
pansions of the cap on the opposite sides of the stem give the spathu- 
late form to the plant. Figure 220 is from plants collected in the 
woods near Ithaca. 


^ ^IW 


■ tflH ^■^A_ A,^^^^^M ^M 



^mtk " 

'^ .;,^H^^H^^^^H^^^|^^^^^^H 

Figure 221. — Leotia lubrica (natural size). Copyright. 

Leotia lubrica Pers. — The genus Leotia is quite readily recognized 
by its form, and because the plants are usually slimy. This species 
is called luhrica because of the slippery character of the entire plant. 
It is dull yellowish or olive yellow in color. The cap, as can be seen 
from the figure (221), is irregularly rounded, and broader than the 
stem. The plant is illustrated natural size from specimens collected 
near Ithaca. 


By far the larger number of the Discomycetes are cup-shaped, and 
are popularly called *' cup-fungi." They vary from plants of very 
minute size, so small that they can be just seen with the eye, or some 
of the larger ones are several inches in breadth. They grow on the 
ground, on leaves, wood, etc. The variety of form and color is great. 
They may be sessile, that is, the cup rests immediately on the 
ground or wood, or leaves, or they may possess a short, or rather 
long stalk. The only species illustrated here has a comparatively 
long stalk, and the cap is deep cup-shaped, almost like a beaker. 
This plant is technically known as Sarcoscypha floccosa. It is repre- 



sented here natural size (Fig. 222). The stem is slender, and the 

rim of the cup is beset with long, strigose hairs. The inner surface 

of the cup is lined with 
the sacs (asci) and sterile 
threads (paraph yses), 
spoken of on a former 
page, when treating of 
the fruiting character of 
the morels and cup-fungi. 
In this plant the color of 
the inside of the cup is 
very beautiful, being a 
bright red. Another spe- 
cies, Sarcoscypha coccinea, 
the scarlet sarcoscypha, 
is a larger plant which 
appears in very early 
spring, soon after the frost 
is out of the ground. It 
grows on rotting logs and 
wood in the woods or in 
groves. The inside of the 

cup in this species is a rich scarlet, and from this rich color the 

species takes its name. 

Figure 222. 

— Sarcoscypha floccosa (natural 
size). Copyright. 




In the collection of the higher fungi it is of the utmost importance 
that certain precautions be employed in obtaining all parts of the 
plant, and furthermore that care be exercised in handling, in order 
not to remove or efface delicate characters. Not only is it important 
for the beginner, but in many instances an '' expert " may not be able 
to determine a specimen which may have lost what undoubtedly seem, 
to some, trivial marks. The suggestions given here should enable 
one to collect specimens in such a way as to protect these characters 
while fresh, to make notes of the important evanescent characters 
and to dry and preserve them properly for future study. For col- 
lecting a number of specimens under a variety of conditions the 
following list of ** apparatus " is recommended : 


One or two oblong or rectangular hand baskets, capacity from 
8-12 quarts. 

Or a rectangular zinc case with a closely fitting top (not the 
ordinary botanical collecting case). 

Half a dozen or so tall pasteboard boxes, or tins, 3x3, or 4x4, x5 
inches deep, to hold certain species in an upright position. 

A quantity of tissue paper cut 8 x 10 or 6 x 8 inches. 

Smaller quantity of waxed tissue paper for wrapping viscid or 
sticky plants. 

Trowel ; a stout knife ; memorandum pad and pencil. 

Collecting. — During the proper season, and when rains are abun- 
dant, the mushrooms are to be found in open fields, waste places, 
groves and woods. They are usually more abundant in the forests. 
Especially in dry weather are specimens more numerous in rather 
damp woods, along ravines or streams. In collecting specimens 
which grow on the ground the trowel should be used to dig up the 
plant carefully, to be sure that no important part of the plant is left 
in the ground. After one has become familiar with the habit of the 
different kinds the trowel will not be necessary in all cases. For 
example, most species of Russula, Lactarius, Tricholoma. Boletus, etc., 
are not deeply seated in the soil, and careful hand-picking will in 
most cases secure specimens properly, especially if one does not 
object to digging in the soil with the fingers. But in the case of most 
species of Amanita, certain species of Lepiota, Colly bia, etc., a trowel 
is necessary to get up the base of the plant in such a way as to pre- 
serve essential characters. Even then it is possible, if the ground is 
not too hard, to dig them out with the fingers, or with a stout knife, 
but I have often found specimens which could only be taken up with 
a trowel or spade. 

Species growing on sticks or leaves are easily collected by taking 
a portion of the substratum on which they grow. Specimens on the 
larger limbs or trunks or stumps can sometimes be '* picked," but 
until one is accustomed to certain individualities of the plant it is 
well to employ the knife and to cut off a portion of the wood if nec- 
essary, to avoid cutting off the base of the stem. 

It is necessary also to handle the specimens with the greatest 
care to avoid leaving finger marks where the surface of the stem or 
cap is covered with a soft and delicate outer coat, especially if one 
wishes to photograph the plant, since rubbed or marked places spoil 
the plant for this purpose. Also a little careless handling will remove 
such important characters as a frail annulus or volva, which often 
are absolutely necessary to recognize the species. 


Having collected the specimens, they should be properly placed in 
the basket or collecting case. Those which are quite firm, and not 
long and slender, can be wrapped with tissue paper (waxed tissue 
paper if they are viscid or sticky), and placed directly in the basket, 
with some note or number to indicate habitat or other peculiarity 
which it is desirable to make at the time of collection. The smaller, 
more slender and fragile, specimens can be wrapped in tissue paper 
(a cluster of several individuals can be frequently rolled up together) 
made in the form of a narrow funnel and the ends then twisted. 
The shape of the paper enables one to wrap them in such a way as 
to protect certain delicate characters on the stem or cap. These can 
then be stood upright in the small pasteboard boxes which should 
occupy a portion of the basket. A number of such wrappers can be 
placed in a single box, unless the specimens are of considerable size 
and numerous. In these boxes they are prevented from being 
crushed by the jostling of the larger specimens in the basket. These 
boxes have the additional advantage of preserving certain specimens 
entire and upright if one wishes later to photograph them. 

Field Notes. — The field notes which may be taken upon the collec- 
tion will depend on circumstances. If one goes to the sorting room 
soon after the collection is made, so that notes can be made there 
before the more delicate specimens dry, few notes will answer in the 
field, and usually one is so busy collecting or hunting for specimens 
there is not much inclination to make extended notes in the field. 
But it is quite important to note the habitat and environment, i. e., 
the place where they grow, the kind and character of the soil, in 
open field, roadside, grove, woods, on ground, leaves, sticks, stumps, 
trunks, rotting wood, or on living tree, etc. It is very important 
also that different kinds be kept separate. The student will recog- 
nize the importance of this and other suggestions much more than 
the new ''fungus hunter." 

Sorting Room. — When one returns from a collecting trip it is best 
to take the plants as soon as possible to a room where they can be 
assorted. An hour or so delay usually does not matter, but the 
sooner they are attended to the better. Sometimes when they are 
carefully placed in the basket, as described above, they may be kept 
over night without injury, but this will depend on the kinds in the 
collection. Coprini are apt to deliquesce, certain other specimens, 
especially in warm weather, are apt to be so infested with larvae 
that they will be ruined by morning, when immediate drying might 
save them. Other thin and delicate ones, especially in dry weather, 
will dry out so completely that one loses the opportunity of taking 


notes on the fresh specimen. Specimens to be photographed 
should be attended to at once, unless it is too late in the day, 
when they should be set aside in an upright position, and if 
necessary under a bell-jar, until the following day. As far as 
possible good specimens should be selected for the photograph, 
representing different stages of development, and one to show 
the fruiting surface. Sometimes it will be necessary to make 
more than one photograph to obtain all the stages. Also on 
different days one is' apt to obtain a specimen representing an im- 
portant stage in development not represented before. The plants 
should be arranged close together to economize space, but not usually 
touching nor too crowded. They should be placed in their natural 
position as far as possible, and means for support, if used, should be 
hidden behind the plant. They should be so arranged as to show 
individual as well as specific character and should be photographed if 
possible natural size, or at least not on a plate smaller than 5x7 
inches unless the plants are small ; while larger ones are better on 
6x8 or larger. Some very small ones it may be necessary to 
enlarge in order to show the character of the fruiting surface, and 
even large specimens can sometimes have a portion of the hymenium 
enlarged to good advantage if it is desirable to show the characters 
clearly. The background should be selected to bring out the char- 
acters strongly, and in the exposure and developing it is often neces- 
sary to disregard the effect of the background in order to bring out 
the detail of texture on the plant itself. The background should be 
renewed as often as necessary to have it uniform and neat. There 
is much more that might be said under this head, but there is not 
space here. 

To Obtain Spore Prints. — In many cases it is desirable to obtain 
spores in a mass on paper in order to know the exact tint of color 
produced by the species. Often the color of the spores can be satis- 
factorily determined by an examination of them under the micro- 
scope. One cannot always depend on the color of the lamella since 
a number of the species possess colored cystidia or spines in the 
hymenium which disguise the color of the spores. The best way 
to determine the color of the spores in mass is to catch them as 
they fall from the fruiting surface on paper. For the ordinary 
purpose of study and reference in the herbarium the spores caught 
on unprepared paper, which later may be placed in the packet with 
the specimen, will answer. This method has the advantage of 
saving time, and also the danger of injury to the spores from 
some of the fixatives on prepared paper is avoided. If for pur- 


poses of illustration one wishes pretty spore prints, perfect caps 
must be cut from the stem and placed fruiting surface downward 
on paper prepared with some gum arabic or similar preparation 
spread over it, while the paper is still moist with the fixative, and 
then the specimen must be covered with a bell-bar or other receiver 
to prevent even the slightest draft of air, otherwise the spores will 
float around more or less. The spores may be caught on a thin, 
absorbent paper, and the paper then be floated on the fixative in 
a shallow vessel until it soaks through and comes in contact with 
the spores. I have sometimes used white of egg as a fixative. 
These pieces of paper can then be cut out and either glued to card- 
boards, or onto the herbarium sheet. 

Sorting the Plants. — This should be done as soon as possible after 
collection. A large table in the sorting room is convenient, upon 
which the specimens may be spread, or grouped rather, by species, 
the individuals of a species together, on sheets of paper. Surplus 
dirt, or wood, leaves, etc., can be removed. A few of the specimens 
can be turned so that spores can be caught on the papers. If only 
one or a few specimens of a given species have been found, and it is 
desirable not to cut off the cap from the stem, the plant can be sup- 
ported in an upright position, a small piece of paper slit at one side 
can be slipped around the stem underneath the cap, on which the 
spores will fall. Sometimes it will be necessary to cover the plant 
with a bell-jar in order to prevent it from drying before the spores 
are shed. Experience with different species will suggest the treat- 
ment necessary. 

Taking Notes on the Specimens. — Very few probably realize the de- 
sirability of making notes of certain characters while the plants are 
fresh, for future reference, or for use by those to whom the plants 
may be sent for determination. It is some trouble to do this, and 
when the different kinds are plentiful the temptation is strong to neg- 
lect it. When one has available books for determination of the spe- 
cies, as many as possible should be studied and determined while 
fresh. But it is not always possible to satisfactorily determine all. 
Some may be too difficult for ready recognition, others may not be 
described in the books at hand, or poorly so, and further the number 
of kinds may be too great for determination before they will spoil. 
On these as well as on some of the interesting ones recognized, it is 
important to make a record of certain characters. These notes 
should be kept either with the specimen, or a number should be 
given the specimen and the notes kept separately with the cor- 
responding number. 



No Locality, Date. Name of collector. 


Habitat. — If on ground, low or high, wet or dry, kind of soil ; on fallen 
leaves, twigs, branches, logs, stumps, roots, whether dead or 
living, kind of tree ; in open fields, pastures, etc., woods, groves, 
etc., mixed woods or evergreen, oak, chestnut, etc. 

Plants.— Whether solitary, clustered, tufted, whether rooting or not, 
taste, odor, color when bruised or cut, and if a change in color 
takes place after exposure to the air. 

Cap. — Whether dry, moist, watery in appearance (hygrophanous), 
slimy, viscid, glutinous ; color when young, when old ; whether 
with fine bloom, powder ; kind of scales and arrangement, whether 
free from the cuticle and easily rubbed off. Shape of cap. 

Margin of Cap. — Whether straight or incurved when young, whether 
striate or not when moist. 

Stem. — Whether slimy, viscid, glutinous, kind of scales if not smooth, 
whether striate, dotted, granular, color ; when there are several 
specimens test one to see if it is easily broken out from the cap, 
also to see if it is fibrous, or fleshy, or cartilaginous (firm on the 
outside, partly snapping and partly tough). Shape of the stem. 

Gills or Tubes. — Color when young, old, color when bruised, and if 
color changes, whether soft, waxy, brittle, or tough ; sharp or 
blunt, plane or serrate edge. 

Milk. — Color if present, changing after exposure, taste. 

Veil. — (Inner veil.) Whether present or not, character, whether 
arachnoid, and if so whether free from cuticle of pileus or attached 
only to the edge ; whether fragile, persistent, disappearing, 
slimy, etc., movable, etc. 

Ring. — Present or absent, fragile, or persistent, whether movable, 
viscid, etc. 

Volva. — Present or absent, persistent or disappearing, whether it 
splits at apex or is circumscissile, or all crumbly and granular or 
floccose, whether the part on the pileus forms warts, and then 
the kind, distribution, shape, persistence, etc. 

Spores. — Color when caught on white paper. 

To the close observer additional points of interest will often be 


To Dry the Specimens. — Frequently the smaller specimens will dry 

well when left in the room, especially in dry weather, or better if 


they are placed where there is a draft of air. Some dry them in the 
sun. But often the sun is not shining, and the weather may be 
rainy or the air very humid, when it is impossible to dry the specimens 
properly except by artificial heat. The latter method is better for 
the larger specimens at all times. During the autumn when radia- 
tors are heated the fungi dry well when placed on or over them. 
One of the best places which I have utilized is the brick work around 
a boiler connected with a mountain hotel. Two other methods are, 
however, capable of wider application. 

ist. — A tin oven about 2x2 feet, and two or several feet high, 
with one side hinged as a door, and with several movable shelves of 
perforated tin, or of wire netting ; a vent at the top, and perforations 
around the sides at the bottom to admit air. The object being to 
provide for a constant current of air from below upwards between 
the specimens. This may be heated, if not too large, with a lamp, 
though an oil stove or gas jet or heater is better. The specimens 
are placed on the shelves with the accompanying notes or numbers. 
The height of this box can be extended where the number of 
specimens is great. 

2d. — A very successful method which I employed at a summer 
resort at Blowing Rock, N. C, in the mountains of North Carolina, 
during September, 1899, was as follows : An old cook stove was set 
up in an unoccupied cottage, with two wire screens from 3x4 feet, 
one above the other, the lower one about one foot above the top of 
the stove. Large numbers can be dried on these frames. Care of 
course must be taken that the plants are not burned. In all cases 
the plants must be so placed that air will circulate under and around 
them, otherwise they are apt to blacken. 

When the plants are dry they are very brittle and must be 
handled carefully. When removed from the drier many kinds soon 
absorb enough moisture to become pliant so that they are not easily 
broken. Others remain brittle. They may be put away in small 
boxes ; or pressed out nearly flat, not so as to crush the gills, and then 
put in paper packets. The plants which do not absorb sufficient 
moisture from the air, so that they are pliant enough to press, can be 
placed in small boxes or on paper in a large box with peat moss in 
the bottom, and the box then closed tightly until they absorb enough 
moisture to become flexible. The plants must not get wet, and they 
should be examined every half hour or so, for some become limp 
much sooner than others. If the plants get too moist the gills crush 
together when pressed, and otherwise they do not make such good 
specimens. When the specimens are dried and placed in the herba- 



The most prominent and at present important use of mushrooms 
from the standpoint of the utilitarian is as an article of food. We 
have now learned that their food value as a nutrient substance is 
not so great as has been fondly supposed, but, as Mr. Clark points 
out in Chapter XXll, in addition to the value they certainly do pos- 
sess as food, they have very great value as condiments or food 
ascessories, and *' their value as such is beyond the computation of 
the chemist or physiologist. They are among the most appetizing 
of table delicacies, and add greatly to the palatability of many foods 
when cooked with them." Mushrooms undoubtedly possess a food 
value beyond that attributed to them by the chemist or physiologist, 
since it is not possible in laboratory analysis to duplicate the condi- 
tions which exist in the natural digestion and assimilation of foods. 

Probably the larger number of persons, in America, at present 
interested in mushrooms, are chiefly concerned with them as an 
article of food, but a great many of these persons love to tramp to 
the fields and woods in quest of them just as the sportsman loves to 
hunt his game with dog and gun. It is quite likely that there will 
always be a large body of persons who will maintain a lively interest 
in the collection of game mushrooms for food. There are several 
reasons for this. The zest of the search, the pleasure of discovery, 
and the healthfulness of the outdoor recreation lend an appetizing 
flavor to the fruits of the chase not to be obtained by purchasing a 
few pounds of cultivated mushrooms on the market. It cultivates 
powers of observation, and arouses a sympathetic feeling toward 
nature, and with those outdoor environments of man which lend 
themselves so happily in bettering and brightening life, as well as in 
prolonging it. 

Many others are discovering that the observation of form and 
habits of mushrooms is very interesting occupation for those who 
have short periods of time at their disposal weekly. It requires but 
a little observation to convince one that there is an interesting 
variety of form among these plants, that their growth and expansion 

* There is not room here to discuss the uses of other fungi than the " mush- 



operate in conformity with certain laws which result in great 
variation in form and habit of the numerous kinds on the ground, on 
leaves, on branches, on tree trunks, etc. 

Another very favorable indication accompanying the increasing 
interest in the study of these plants, is the recognition of their im- 
portance as objects for nature study. There are many useful as 
well as interesting lessons taught by mushrooms to those who stop 
to read their stories. The long growth period of the spawn in the 
ground, or in the tree trunk, where it may sometimes be imprisoned 
for years, sometimes a century, or more, before the mushroom 
appears, is calculated to dispel the popular notion that the mushroom 
" grows in a night." Then from the button stage to the ripe fruit, 
several days, a week, a month, or a year may be needed, according 
to the kind, while some fruiting forms are known to live from several 
to eighty or more years. The adjustment of the fruit cap to a posi- 
tion most suitable for the scattering of the spores, the different ways 
in which the fruit cap opens and expands, the different forms of the 
fruit surface, their colors and other peculiarities, suggest topics for 
instructive study and observation. The inclination, just now be- 
coming apparent, to extend nature study topics to include mushrooms 
is an evidence of a broader and more sympathetic attitude toward 

A little extension of one's observation on the habits of these 
plants in the woods will reveal the fact that certain ones are serious 
enemies of timber trees and timber. It is quite easy in many cases 
for one possessing no technical knowledge of the subject to read the 
story of these " wood destroying " fungi in the living tree. Branches 
broken by snow, by wind, or by falling timber provide entrance 
areas where the spores, lodging on the heart wood of broken timber, 
or on a bruise on the side of the trunk which has broken through the 
living part of the tree lying just beneath the bark, provide a point 
for entrance. The living substaVice (protoplasm) in the spawn 
exudes a "juice " (en:iyme) which dissolves an opening in the wood 
cells and permits the spawn to enter the heart of the tree, where 
decay rapidly proceeds as a result. But very few of these plants 
can enter the tree when the living part underneath the bark is 

These observations suggest useful topics for thought. They 
suggest practical methods of prevention, careful forestry treatment 
and careful lumbering to protect the young growth when timber trees 
are felled. They suggest careful pruning of fruit and shade trees. 


by cutting limbs smooth and close to the trunk, and then painting 
the smooth surface with some lead paint. 

While we are thus apt to regard many of the mushrooms as 
enemies of the forest, they are, at the same time, of incalculable use 
to the forest. The mushrooms are nature's most active agents in 
the disposal of the forest's waste material. Forests that have de- 
veloped without the guidance of man have been absolutely dependent 
upon them for their continued existence. Where the species of 
mushrooms are comparatively few which attack living trees, there 
are hundreds of kinds ready to strike into fallen timber. There is a 
degree of moisture present on the forest floor exactly suited to the 
rapid growth of the mycelium of numbers of species in the bark, sap 
wood, and heart wood of the fallen trees or shrubs. In a few years 
the branches begin to crumble because of the disorganizing effect of 
the mycelium in the wood. Other species adapted to growing in 
rotting wood follow and bring about, in a few years, the complete 
disintegration of the wood. It gradually passes into the soil of the 
forest floor, and is made available food for the living trees. How 
often one notices that seedling trees and shrubs start more abund- 
antly on rotting logs. 

The fallen leaves, too, are siezed upon by the mycelium of a 
great variety of mushrooms. It is through the action of the mycelium 
of mushrooms of every kind that the fallen forest leaves, as well as 
the trunks and branches, are converted into food for the living trees. 
The fungi, are, therefore, one of the most important agents in 
providing available food for the virgin forest. 

The spawn of some fungi in the forest goes so far, in a number of 
cases, as to completely envelop those portions of the roots of certain 
trees as to prevent the possibility of the roots taking up food material 
and moisture on their own account. In such cases, the oaks, beeches, 
hornbeams, and the like, have the younger parts of their roots com- 
pletely enveloped with a dense coat of mycelium. The mycelium 
in these cases absorbs the moisture from the soil or forest floor and 
conveys it over to the roots of the tree, and in this way supplies 
them with both food and water from the decaying humus, the oak 
being thus dependent on the mycelium. In the fields, however, 
where there is not the abundance of humus and decaying leaves 
present in the forest, the coating of mycelium on the roots of these 
trees is absent, and in this latter case the young roots are provided 
with root hairs which take up the moisture and food substances 
from the soil in the ordinary way. 

The mushrooms also prevent the forest from becoming choked 


or strangled by its own fallen members. Were it not for the action 
of the mushroom mycelium in causing the decay of fallen timber in 
the forest, in time it would be piled so high as to allow only a 
miserable existence to a few choked individuals. The action of the 
mushrooms in thus disposing of the fallen timber in the forests, and 
in converting dead trees and fallen leaves into available food for the 
living ones, is probably the most important role in the existence of 
these plants. Mushrooms, then, are to be given very high rank 
among the natural agencies which have contributed to the good of 
the world. When we contemplate the vast areas of forest in the 
world we can gain some idea of the stupendous work performed by 
the mushrooms in ''house cleaning," and in "preparing food," 
work in which they are still engaged. 


A number of different species of mushrooms have been employed 
in the manufacture of useful articles. Their use for such purposes, 
however, was more common in the past than at present, and it is 
largely therefore a matter of interest at the present time, though 
some are still employed for purposes of this kind. 

Tinder mushroom, or amadou. — The Polyporus fomentarius, or 
" tinder mushroom " or, as it is sometimes called, *' German tinder," 
was once employed in the manufacture of tinder. The outer hard 
coat was removed and the central portion, consisting almost entirely 
of the tube system of several years' growth, was cut into strips and 
beaten to a soft condition. In this form it was used as tinder for 
striking fire. 

The inner portion was also used in making caps, chest-protectors, 
and similar articles. A process now in vogue in some parts of 
Germany, is to steam the fruit bodies, remove the outer crust, and 
then, by machinery constructed for the purpose, shave the fruit 
body into a long, thin strip by revolving it against a knife in much 
the same way that certain woods are shaved into thin strips for the 
manufacture of baskets, plates, etc. Some articles of clothing made 
from this fungus material are worn by peasants in certain parts of 

Mushrooms for razor strops. — The beech polyporus (P. betulinus) 
several centuries ago was used for razor strops. The fruit body 
after being dried was cut into strips, glued upon a stretcher, and 
smoothed down with pumice stone (Asa Gray Bull. 7: i8, 1900). 
The sheets of the weeping merulius (see Fig. 189) were also em- 
ployed for the same purpose, as were also the sheets of " punk " 


formed from mycelium filling in cracks in old logs or between boards 
in lumber piles. Sometimes extensive sheets of this punk are found 
several feet long and a foot or more wide. These sheets of pure 
mycelium resemble soft chamois skin or soiled kid leather. 

Mushrooms employed for flower pots. — In Bohemia (according to 
Cooke, Fungi, etc., p. 103) hoof-shaped fruit bodies of Polyporus 
fomentarius and igniarms are used for flower pots. The inner, or 
tube portion, is cut out. The hoof-shaped portion, then inverted 
and fastened to the side of a building or place of support, serves as 
a receptacle for soil in which plants are grown. 

Curios. — The Polyporus applanatns is much sought by some per- 
sons as a '* curio," and also for the purpose of etching. In the latter 
case they serve as pastels for a variety of art purposes. The under 
surface of the plant is white. All collectors of this plant know that 
to preserve the white fruiting surface in a perfect condition it must 
be handled very carefully. A touch or bruise, or contact with other 
objects mars the surface, since a bruise or a scratch results in a 
rapid change in color of the injured surface. Beautiful etchings can 
thus be made with a fme pointed instrument, the lines of color 
appearing as the instrument is drawn over the surface. 

Fungi for medicinal purposes. — A number of the fungi were formerly 
employed in medicine for various purposes, but most of them have 
been discarded. Some of the plants were once used as a purgative, 
as in the case of the officinal polyporus, the great puff ball, etc. 
The internal portion of the great puff ball has been used as an 
anodyne, and ''formidable surgical operations have been performed 
under its influence." It is frequently used as a narcotic. Some 
species are employed as drugs by the Chinese. The anthelmintic 
polyporus is employed in Burmah as a vermifuge. The ergot of rye 
is still employed to some extent in medicine, and the ripe puff balls 
are still used in some cases to stop bleeding of wounds. 

Luminosity of fungi. — While the luminosity possessed by certain 
fungi cannot be said to be of distinct utility, their phosphorescence 
is a noteworthy phenomenon. That decaying wood often emits this 
phosphorescent light has been widely observed, especially in wooded 
districts. It is due to the presence of the mycelium of one of the 
wood destroying fungi. The luminosity is often so bright that when 
brought near a printed page in the dark, words can be read. Haw- 
thorne " reported the light from an improvised torch of mycelium 
infected wood, to have carried him safely several miles through an 
otherwise impassable forest." (Asa Gray, Bull. 7: 7, 1900). The 
sulphur polyporus is said sometimes to be phosphorescent. The 


Clitocybe illiidens (see Fig. 92) has long been known to emit a strong 
phosphorescent light, and has been called '* Jack-my-lantern." 
This plant often occurs in great abundance. At mountain hotels it 
is often brought in by day, and the guests at night, discovering its 
luminosity, trace grotesque figures, or monograms, on the ground 
by broken portions, which can be seen at a considerable distance. 
Lentinus stipticus in this country is also phosphorescent. In Europe, 
the Pleurotus olearius (very closely related to our Clitocybe illudens) 
on dead olive trunks is one of the best known of the phosphorescent 
species. Other phosphorescent species are, according to Tulasne, 
A. igneus from Amboyna, A. noctileuciis in Manila, and A. gardneri 
in Brazil. 

The use of certain mushrooms in making intoxicant beverages is 
referred to in Chapter XXII. 

Since the artificial cultivation of mushrooms for food is becoming 
quite an industry in this country with some, the following chapter 
is devoted to a treatment of the subject. Mention may be made 
here, however, of the attempts in parts of France to cultivate 
truffles, species of subterranean fungi belonging to the ascomycetes 
(various species of the genus Tuber). It had long been observed 
that truffles grow in regions forested by certain trees, as the oak, 
beech, hornbeam, etc. Efforts were made to increase the production 
of truffles by planting certain regions to these trees. Especially in 
certain calcareous districts of France (see Cooke, Fungi, etc., p. 
260) young plantations of oak, beech, or beech and fir, after the 
lapse of a few years, produced truffles. The spores of the truffles 
are in the soil, and the mycelium seems to maintain some symbiotic 
relation with the roots of the young trees, which results in the 
increase in the production of the fruit bodies. Dogs and pigs are 
employed in the collection of truffles from the ground. 

Comparatively few of the truffles, or other subterranean fungi, 
have been found in America, owing probably to their subterranean 
habit, where they are not readily observed, and to the necessity of 
special search to find them. In California, however. Dr. Harkness 
(Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci.) has collected a large -number of species and 
genera. Recently (Shear. Asa Gray Bull. 7: 118, 1899) reports 
finding a "truffle" (Terfeiia oligosperma Tul.) in Maryland, and 
T. leonis occurs in Louisiana. 



The increasing interest in mushrooms during the past few years 
has not been confined to the kinds growing spontaneously in fields 
and woods, but the interest aroused in the collection and study of 
the wild varieties has been the means of awakening a general inter- 
est in the cultivation of mushrooms. This is leading many persons 
to inquire concerning the methods of cultivation, especially those 
who wish to undertake the cultivation of these plants on a small 
scale, in cellars or cool basements, where they may be grown for 
their own consumption. At somewhat frequent intervals articles 
appear in the newspapers depicting the ease and certainty with 
which mushrooms can be grown, and the great profits that accrue to 
the cultivator of these plants. While the profits in some cases, at 
least in the past, have been very great to cultivators of mushrooms, 
the competition has become so general that through a large part of 
the year the market price of mushrooms is often not sufiicient to 
much more than pay expenses. In fact, it is quite likely that in 
many cases of the house cultivation of mushrooms the profits are no 
larger, taking the season through, than they are from the cultivation 
of tomatoes or other hothouse vegetables. Occasionally some 
persons, who may be cultivating them upon a small scale in houses 
erected for some other purpose, or perhaps partly used for some 
other purpose, may succeed in growing quite a large crop from a 
small area with little expenditure of time and* money. The profits 
figured from such a crop grown on a small scale where the invest- 
ment in houses, heating apparatus, and time, is not counted, may 
appear to be very large, but they do not represent the true condi- 
tions of the industry where the expense of houses and the cost of 
time and labor are taken into consideration. 

Probably the more profitable cultivation of mushrooms in this 
country is where the cultivation is practiced on quite a large scale, 
in tunnels, or caves, or abandoned mines, where no expense is 
necessary in the erection of houses. The temperature throughout 
the year is favorable for the growth of the mushrooms without 
artificial heating. It is possible, also, to grow them on a large scale 
during the warm summer months when it is impossible to grow 




them under the present conditions in heating house structures, and 
also when the market price of the mushrooms is very high, and can 
be controlled largely by the grower. For this reason, if it were 
possible to construct a house with some practical system of cooling 
the air through the summer, and prevent the drip, the cultivation in 
houses would probably be more profitable. 

For the past few years the writer has been giving some attention 
to the different methods of the cultivation of mushrooms in America, 
and in response to the growing interest for information concerning 

Figure 223. — View in Akron " tunnel," N. Y. Mushroom Co. Beds beginning to 

bear. Copyright. 

the artificial cultivation of these plants, it has seemed well to add 
this chapter on the cultivation of mushrooms to the second edition of 
the present work. The cultivation as practiced in America exists 
under a great variety of conditions. All of these conditions have 
not been thoroughly investigated, and yet a sufficient number of 
them have been rather carefully studied to warrant the preparation 
of this chapter. The illustrations which have been made from time 
to time, by flash light, of the cave culture of mushrooms in America, 
as well as of the house culture, will serve to illustrate graphically 
some of the stages in the progress of the work. For present purposes 



we will consider, first, the conditions under which the cultivation is 
carried on, followed by a discussion of the principles involved in the 
selection and preparation of the material, the selection and planting 
of the spawn, as well as the harvesting of the crop. 


This has been practiced for a number of years in different parts 
of the Eastern United States, but perhaps only a small portion of 
the available caves or tunnels are at present used for this purpose. 

Figure 224, 

-View in Akron " tunnel," X. Y. Mushroom Co. 
bear. Copyright. 

Beds beginning to 

These subterranean mushroom farms are usually established in some 
abandoned mine where, the rock having been removed, the space 
is readily adapted to this purpose, if portions of the mine are not wet 
from the dripping water. The most extensive one which I have 
visited is located at Akron, New York, and is operated by the New 
York Mushroom Company. In a single abandoned cement mine 
there are 12 to 15 acres of available space ; about 3 to 5 acres of this 
area are used in the operations of the culture and handling of 
materials. The dry portions of the mine are selected, and flat beds 
are made upon the bottom rock, with the use of hemlock boards. 


making the beds usually i6 feet long by 4 feet wide, the boards 
being 10 inches wide. In this case, the beds, after soiling or finish- 
ing, are 9 inches deep, the material resting directly upon the rock, 
the boards being used only to hold the material on the edges in posi- 
tion. Figures 223 and 224 illustrate the position of the beds and 
their relation to each other, as well as showing the general structural 
features of the mine. The pillars of rock are those which were left 
at the time of mining, as supports for the rock roof above, while 
additional wood props are used in places. In this mine all of the 
beds are constructed upon a single plan. 

Figure 225. — View in Wheatland cave, showing ridge beds, and one flat bed. 


At another place, Wheatland, New York, where the Wheatland 
Cave Mushrooms are grown, beds of two different styles are used, 
the flat beds supported by boards as described in the previous case, 
and the ridge beds, where the material, without any lateral support, 
is arranged in parallel ridges as shown in Fig. 225. This is the 
method largely, if not wholly employed in the celebrated mushroom 
caves at Paris, and is also used in some cases in the outdoor cultiva- 
tion of mushrooms. As to the advantage of one system of bed over 
the other, one must consider the conditions involved. Some believe 
a larger crop of mushrooms is obtained where there is an opportunity, 
as in the ridge beds, for the mushrooms to appear on the sides as 
well as on the upper surface of the beds. In the flat beds the mush- 


rooms can appear only at the upper surface, though occasionally 

single ones crop out in the crevice between the side board and the 
rock below. 

Probably at Paris, and perhaps also 

at some other places where the system 5 : jl 
of ridge beds is used, the question of the 

cost of the lumber is an important one, ['. ^' \ 

and the system of ridge beds avoids the p 

expense of this item of lumber. In other c/-. 

cases, where the flat beds are used with ^ ^ 

the board supports, the cost of lumber is ^ / 

considered a small item when compared | / 

with the additional labor involved in | 

making the ridge bed. The flat beds are i 

very quickly made, and the material in 5 

some cases is not more than 7 inches I 

deep, allowing a large surface area com- ^ 

pared with the amount of food material, 2 

for the growth of the mushrooms. It S ^■ 

may be possible, with the flat, shallow |^ 

bed system, that as many or more mush- %^^ 

rooms are obtained from the same amount ^ g 
of manure, as in the case of the ridge 
beds. When we consider the cost of the 
manure in some places, this item is one 
which is well worth considering. 

— a 

o ^ 


Where this method of cultivation is 
employed, as the main issue, houses are 
constructed especially for the purpose. 
In general the houses are of two kinds. 
Those which are largely above the 
ground, and those where a greater or 
lesser pit is excavated so that the larger 
part of the house is below ground. Be- 
tween these extremes all gradations ex- 
ist. Probably it is easier to maintain an 
equable temperature when the house is 
largely below ground. Where it is largely 
above ground, however, the equability 

O a 

2 P 



of the temperature can 
structure of the house. 



c S 
a o 

E 2 



be controlled to a certain extent by the 
n some cases a wall air space is maintained 
around the sides and also over the roof of 
the building. And in some cases even a 
double air space of a foot or i8 inches 
each is maintained over the roof. In 
some cases, instead of an air space, the 
space is filled with sawdust, single on 
the sides of the house, and also a I2 or 
i8-inch space over the roof. The sides 
of the house are often banked with earth, 
or the walls are built of stone or brick. 

All of these houses, no matter what 
the type of construction, require venti- 
lation. This is provided for by protected 
openings or exits through the roof. In 
some cases the ventilators are along the 
side of the roof, when there would be two 
rows of ventilators upon the single gable 
roof. In other cases a row of ventilators 
is placed at the peak, when a single row 
answers. These ventilators are provided 
with shut-offs, so that the ventilation can 
be controlled at will. The size of the 
house varies, of course, according to the 
extent of the operations which the grower 
has in mind. 

The usual type of house is long and 
rather narrow, varying from 50 to 150 
feet long by 18 to 21 or 24 feet wide. In 
some cases the single house is constructed 
upon these proportions, as shown by Fig. 
226, with a gable roof. If it is desired to 
double the capacity of a house, two such 
houses are built parallel, the intercepting 
wall supporting the adjacent roof of the 
two houses, as shown in Fig. 227. A still 
further increase in the capacity of the 
house is often effected by increasing the 
number of these houses side by side. 
This results in a series of 8 or 10 houses 
forming one consolidated block of houses. 


each with its independent ridge roof and system of ventilation. The 
separating walls between the several houses of such a block are 
probably maintained for the purpose of better controlling the tem- 
perature conditions and ventilation in various houses. If desired, 
cummunication from one house to another can be had by doors. 

Interior structure and position of the beds. — The beds are usually 
arranged in tiers, one above the other, though in some houses the 
beds are confined only to the floor space. Where they are arranged 
in tiers in a house of the proportions given above, there are three 
tiers of beds. There is one tier on either side, and a tier through the 

Figure 228. — View in mushroom house (Wm. Swayne), showing upper bed in left 

hand tier. Copyright. 

middle ; the middle tier, on account of the peak of the roof at this 
point, has one more bed than the tiers on the side. The number of 
beds in a tier will depend on the height of the house. Usually the 
house is constructed of a height which permits three beds in the side 
tier and four in the center tier, with an alley on either side of the 
center tier of beds, giving communication to all. If the house is 
very long and it is desirable, for convenience in passing from one 
house to another, to have cross alley-ways, they can be arranged, 
but the fewer cross alleys the larger surface area there is for beds. 
The size of the beds is governed by convenience in making the 
beds and handling the crop. The beds on the side tiers, therefore, 
are often three to three and one-half feet in width, affording a con- 


venient reaching distance from the alley. The beds of the center 
tier have access from the alley on either side and are usually seven 
feet in width. The width of the alley varies according to the mind 
of the owner, from two to three or three and one-half feet. The 
narrow alley economizes space in the structure of a house ; the 
wide alley, while slightly increasing the cost of the structure, makes 
it much more convenient in handling the material, and in moving 
about the house. The beds are constructed of one-inch boards. 
Various kinds of lumber are used, the hemlock spruce, the oak, Georgia 
pine, and so on. The beds are supported on framework constructed 
of upright scantling and cross stringers upon which the bottom 
boards are laid. These occur at intervals of three to four feet. The 
board on the side of each bed is lo to 12 inches in width. The 
bottom bed, of course, is made on the ground. The upper beds in 
the tier are situated so that the distance is about three feet from the 
bottom of one bed to the bottom of the next above. Figs. 228 to 
231 show the general structure of the beds. 

Heating — One portion of the house is set apart for the boiler 
room, where a small hot water heater is located. The position of the 
heater in one of these houses is shown in Fig. 227. In other cases, 
where the plant is quite a large one, a small separate or connecting 
boiler apartment is often constructed. In other cases, where the 
house is connected with or adjoining a system of greenhouses 
devoted to hothouse vegetables, the water pipes may run from the 
general boiler house which supplies the heat for all the houses. 
The water pipes in the mushroom houses are sometimes run beneath 
the boards or the walk in the alley, or in other cases are run just 
beneath the roof of the building. 

Cultivation of mushrooms under benches in greenhouses. — This method 
is practiced to quite a large extent by some growers. In the house 
of Mr. William Swayne, Kennett Square, Pa., a number of large 
houses, devoted through the winter to the growing of carnations, are 
also used for the cultivation of mushrooms, a single long bed being 
made up underneath the beds of carnations. In these houses the 
water pipes providing heat for the building run along the sides of 
the building underneath the carnation beds at this point. Under 
these beds, where the water pipes run, no mushroom beds are made^ 
since the heat would be too great, but under the three middle rows 
of beds in the house, mushroom beds are located. In this way, in a 
number of houses, several thousand square feet of surface for mush- 
room beds can be obtained. The carnations are grown, not in pots, 
but in a general bed on a bench. In watering the carnations, care 



is used in the distribution of the water, and in the amount used, to 
prevent a surplus of water dripping through on the mushrooms 

Cellar culture. — For the cultivation of mushrooms on a small scale, 
unoccupied portions of cellars in a dwelling house are often used. 
The question is sometimes asked if it is injurious to the health of the 
family in a dwelling house when mushrooms are grown in the cellar. 
Probably where the materials used in making up the beds are thor- 
oughly cured before being taken into the cellar, no injurious results 

Figure 229. — View in mushroom house (Wm. Swayne). View down alley on right 

hand side. Copyright. 

would come from the cultivation of the plant there. In case the 
manure is cured in the cellar, that is, is there carried through the 
process of heating and fermentation in preparation for the beds, the 
odors arising from the fermenting material are very disagreeable to 
say the least, and probably are not at all beneficial to one's general 

In the cellar culture of mushrooms the places selected are along 
the sides of the cellar in unused portions. Floor beds alone may be 
made by using the boards to support one side, while the wall forms 


the support on the other side as in the arrangement of beds on the 
side tiers in the mushroom houses ; or tiers of beds may be arranged 
in the same way, one bed on the bottom, and one or two beds above. 
The number of beds will vary according to the available space. 
Sometimes, where it is not convenient to arrange the larger beds 
directly on the bottom of the cellar, or in tiers, boxes three or four 
feet, or larger, may be used in place of the beds. These can be 
put in out of the way places in the cellar. The use of boxes of this 
description would be very convenient in case it was desired to 
entirely do away with the possibility of odors during the fermenta- 
tion of the manure, or in the making up of the bed. Even though 
the manure may be cured outside of the cellar, at the time it is made 
in the beds the odors released are sometimes considerable, and for 
several days might be annoying and disagreeable to the occupants 
of the dwelling, until such a time as the temperature of the manure 
had dropped to the point where the odors no longer were perceptible. 
In this case, with the use of boxes, the manure can be cured outside, 
made into beds in the boxes and taken into the cellar after the 
temperature is down to a point suitable for spawning, and very little 
odor will be released. If there is a furnace in the cellar it should be 
partitioned off from the portion devoted to mushroom culture. 

Cultivation in sheds or out of the way places. — It is possible to grow 
mushrooms in a number of places not used for other purposes. In 
sheds where the beds may be well protected from the rain and from 
changing currents of air, they may be grown. In open sheds the 
beds could be covered with a board door, the sides of the bed being 
high enough to hold the door well above the mushrooms. In the 
basements of barns, or even in stables where room can be secured 
on one side for a bed, or tier of beds, they are often grown success- 

Garden and field culture of mushrooms. — In Europe, in some cases, 
mushrooms are often grown in the garden, ridge beds being made up 
in the spring and spawned, and then covered with litter, or with 
some material similar to burlaps, to prevent the complete drying out 
of the surface of the beds. Sometimes they are cultivated along 
with garden crops. Field culture is also practiced to some extent. 
In the field culture rich and well drained pastures are selected, and 
spawned sometime during the month of May. The portions of 
spawn are inserted in the ground in little T-shaped openings made 
by two strokes of the spade. The spade is set into the ground once, 
lifted, and then inserted again so that this first slit is on one side of 
the middle of the spade and perpendicular to it. The spade is in- 



serted here and then bent backwards partly so as to lift open the 
sod in the letter T. In this opening the block of spawn is inserted, 
then closed by pressure with the foot. The spawn is planted in this 
way at distances of 6 to 8 feet. It runs through the summer, and 
then in the autumn a good crop often appears. 


Selection of manure. — Horse manure is the material which is most 
generally used, though sometimes a small percentage of other 
manures, as sheep manure, is added. In the selection of the manure 

-View in mushroom house (L. S. Bigony). 
fourth bed, middle tier. Copyright. 

View on top of 

it is desirable to obtain that which is as fresh as possible, which has 
not passed through the stage of fermentation, and which contains 
some straw, usually as litter, but not too large a percentage of straw. 
Where there is a very large percentage of straw the manure is 
usually shaken out with a fork, and the coarser portion removed. 
If there is not too much of this coarse material the latter is often 
cured in a separate pile and used for the bottom of the beds, the 
fmer portions of the manure, which have been separated, are used 
for the finishing and for the bulk of the bed. 

Where manure is obtained on a large scale for the cultivation in 
houses or in caves, it is usually obtained by the carload from liveries 
in large cities. It is possible to contract for manure of certain livery 


stables so that it may be obtained in a practically fresh condition, 
and handled by the liverymen according to directions, which will 
keep it in the best possible condition for the purpose. In the cave 
culture of mushrooms the manure is usually taken directly into the 
caves, and cured in some portion of the cave. In the house culti- 
vation of mushrooms there is usually a shed constructed with an 
opening on one or two sides, at the end of the house connected with 
the beds, where the manure may be cured. In curing it, it is placed 
in piles, the size of which will depend upon the amount of manure 
to be cured, and upon the method employed by the operator. The 
usual size, where considerable manure is used, is about three feet in 
depth by ten or twelve feet wide, and fifteen to twenty feet long. 
The manure is laid in these piles to heat, and is changed or turned 
whenever desirable to prevent the temperature from rising too high. 
The object of turning is to prevent the burning of the material, 
which results at high degrees of temperature in fermentation. It is 
usually turned when the temperature rises to about 130° F. At 
each turning the outside portions are brought to the center of the 
pile. The process is continued until the manure is well fermented 
and the temperature does not rise above 100 to 120 degrees, and 
then it is ready for making into beds. 

There are several methods used in the process of curing, and it 
does not seem necessary that any one method should be strictly 
adhered to. The most important things to be observed are to 
prevent the temperature from rising too high during the process of 
fermentation, to secure a thorough fermentation, and to prevent the 
materal from drying out, or burning, or becoming too wet. The 
way in which the material is piled influences the rapidity of fermen- 
tation, or the increase of temperature. Where the material is 
rather loosely piled it ferments more rapidly, and the temperature 
rises quickly. Watering the manure tends to increase the rapidity of 
fermentation and the elevation of the temperature. It is necessary, 
though, sometimes to water the material if the heat has reached 
such a point that it is becoming too dry, or if there is a tendency for 
it to burn. The material is then turned, and watered some, but 
care should be used not to make it too wet, since the spawn will 
not run in wet material. 

In general we might speak of three different methods in the 
curing of the manure. First, the slow process of curing. According 
to this method, which is practiced by some, the time of fermenta- 
tion may extend from four to five weeks. In this case the manure 
is piled in such a way that the temperature does not rise rapidly. 



During the four or five weeks the manure is turned four or five 
times. The turning occurs when the temperature has arisen to such 
a point as to require it. 

Another method, used by some, might be called a rapid process of curing. 
According to this, the time for curing the manure extends over a 
period of about a week, or five to ten days. The material is piled 
in such a way as to cause rapid fermentation and rapid rising of 
temperature, the material sometimes requiring to be turned every 
day or two, sometimes twice a day, in order to lower the tempera- 
ture and prevent the material from burning or drying out. Between 

Figure 231. — View in mushroom house (L. S. Bigony's Mushroom Plant, Lans- 
dale, Pa.), showing alley and side tier of beds. Copyright. 

this rapid process of curing, and the slow process of curing, the 
practice may extend so that, according to the method of different 
operators, the period of curing extends from one week to a month 
or five weeks. 

The third method of curing consists in putting the material at once 
into the beds before curing, and mixing in with the manure, as it is 
placed in the bed, about one part of loam or garden soil to four or 
five parts of the fresh manure. The material is then left in this 
condition to cure without changing or turning, the temperature ris- 
ing perhaps not above 130° F. With some experience in determin- 
ing the firmness with which the bed should be made to prevent a too 
high rise of temperature, this practice might prove to be successful. 


and would certainly save considerable labor and expense in the 
making of the beds. Mr. William Swayne of Kennett Square, Pa., 
in the winter of 1900-1901, made up a portion of one of his beds 
in this way, and no difference could be seen in the results of 
the crop, the crop from the beds made in this way being as good as 
that of the adjoining beds, and he intends the following year to make 
up all of his beds in the same way. 

Mixing soil with the manure at the time of fermentation. — While in the 
cave culture of mushrooms the manure is usually fermented and 
used without the admixture of- soil, usually in the house or cellar 
culture rich loam soil, or rotted sod, is mixed with the manure 
at the time of turning it, during the process of fermentation. 
At the time of the first turning, soil is mixed in, a layer of the 
manure being spread out on the ground, and then a sprinkling of 
soil over this. Then another layer of the manure is added with 
another sprinkling of soil, and so on as the new pile is built up. In 
the first turning of the manure, about one part of soil is used to eight 
or nine parts of manure. Then at the last turning another mixture 
of soil is added, so that there is about one-fifth part soil in the mix- 
ture. The soil aids somewhat in lowering the temperature, and 
also adds some to the bulk, so that more beds can be made up with 
the same amount of manure. 

Horse droppings free from straw. — For growing mushrooms on a 
small scale, as in cellars or boxes, some prefer to select the horse 
droppings free from straw. 


Making up beds without the addition of soil. — In the cave culture of 
mushrooms the beds are usually made from manure alone, there 
being no addition of soil. This is perhaps partly due to the expense 
of getting the soil in and out from the caves as well as to the low tem- 
perature prevailing there. It is believed by many that the results 
are equally as good in beds from the manure alone as in those which 
contain an admixture of soil. The method of making the beds in 
the Akron cave, or ''tunnel," is as follows : The manure, imme- 
diately after it has passed through the process of fermentation and 
curing in the pile, is carted to the district in the mine where the beds 
are to be made and is dumped in a long windrow on the ground. 
The length of the windrow depends of course upon the amount of 
material which is ready, as well as upon the amount necessary for 
making up the beds for that distance. Two hemlock boards, six- 
teen feet long and ten inches wide, and two, four feet long and the 



same width, are then hastily nailed into the form of a rectangular 
frame. This is placed upon the rock bottom at one end of the row 
of material, perpendicular to it usually. 

The workmen then, with forks, distribute the material in this 
frame. If there is coarser material which has been separated from 
the fmer material, this is placed in the bottom of the bed and the 
finer material is then filled on top. A layer of material is distributed 
over the bottom and then tamped down by striking with the back of 
the fork, as shown in Fig. 232. In this figure the material is shown 
to be off at one end of the bed. This was in a section of the mine 
where it was not convenient to follow the beds in the direction of 


-View in Akron " tunnel," X. V. Mushroom Co. 
beds. Copyright. 

Making up the 

the pile of manure, so that the material is distributed on from the 
end of the bed instead of from the side, as is the usual method. 
After several inches have been distributed in this way and tamped 
down with the back of the fork, the operator tramps over the mate- 
rial with his feet and presses it down more firmly. Another layer 
of material is distributed over this, and tamped and tramped down 
in a similar manner. The operation is repeated until the depth of 
the manure after tramping down is about seven inches. It is then 
left for the completion of the curing process and for the lowering of 
the temperature to the desired point. Usually, after making the bed 
in this way, there is a rise in the temperature for several days, 
gradually lowering until finally it reaches the point favorable for 
planting the spawn. 


Where the beds are made successively, one after another, follow- 
ing the windrow of manure, the material used for the first bed 
removes from the windrow a sufficient amount to make room for the 
second bed, and in like manner room for the successive beds is pro- 
vided for as the material is taken for each one, so that the frames 
are put together and the beds are formed rapidly and easily. 

Making ridge beds in caves. — In the making of the ridge beds in 
caves there are two methods which might be spoken of. One 
method is the well known one practiced in certain of the caves near 
Paris, where the material is taken by workmen in large baskets and 
distributed in rows. The ridge is gradually formed into shape by 
walking astride of it, as additional material is emptied on from the 
baskets, the workmen packing and shaping the ridge by pressure 
from their limbs as they stand astride of the row. In this way the 
ridges are made as high or somewhat higher than their breadth at 
the base, and quite near together, so that there is just room in 
many cases to walk between the beds. In one cave in America, 
where the ridge system is used to some extent, the ridges are made 
with the aid of a board frame the length of the bed and the width of 
the base of the ridge. The. long boards of this frame are slanting so 
that they are more or less the shape of the ridge, but not equal to its 
height. This frame is placed on the rock bottom, filled with manure 
and tramped on by the workmen. Then the frame is lifted on the 
ridge and more material is added and tramped on in like manner, 
until the bulk of the ridge bed is built up in this way and com- 
pressed into shape. 

Beds in Houses Constructed for the Purpose of Growing iVlusbrooms. — 
Where only the floor of the house is used, a middle bed and two side 
beds are sometimes formed in the same manner as described in the 
construction of the house for the tiers of beds, with an alley on 
either side of the large center bed, giving access to all. In some 
cases the entire surface of the bottom is covered with material, but 
divided into sections of large beds by framework of boards, but with 
no alleys between. Access to these beds is obtained by placing 
planks on the top of the boards which make the frame, thus form- 
ing walks directly over portions of the bed. In some cases ridge 
beds, as described for cave cultivation, are made on the floor of 
these houses. The beds are filled in the same way as described for 
the cave culture of mushrooms, but usually, in the beds made in 
houses built for the purpose of growing mushrooms, a percentage of 
soil is mixed in with the manure, the soil being usually mixed in 
at the time of turning the manure during the process of fermentation. 


Garden soil or rich loam is added, say at the first time the manure 
is turned while it is fermenting. Then, some time later during the 
process of fermenting, another admixture of soil is added. The total 
amount of soil added is usually equal to about one-fifth of the bulk 
of the manure. 

As this material, formed of the manure with an admixture of soil, 
is placed in the beds it is distributed much in the same manner as 
described for the making of flat beds in caves or tunnels. Usually, 
however, if there is coarse material which was separated from the 
manure at the first sorting, this without any mixture of soil is placed 
in the bottom of the bed, and then the manure and soil is used for 
the bulk of the bed above. This coarser material, however, is not 
always at hand, and in such cases the beds are built up from the 
bottom with the mixture of manure and soil. The depth of the 
material in the beds in these houses varies according to the experi- 
ence of the operator. Some make the beds about eighteen inches in 
depth, while others do not make the beds more than eight or ten or 
twelve inches in depth. Where there are tiers of beds, that is, one 
bed above the other, very often the lowest bed, the one which rests 
directly upon the ground, is made deeper than the others. 

While it is the general custom to use material consisting of an 
admixture of manure and soil in the proportions described, this cus- 
tom is not always followed. In the case of the beds which are 
made up in the summer for the fall and early winter crop, soil, being 
easily obtained at that season of the year, is mixed with the manure. 
Some growers, however, in making the beds in midwinter for the 
spring crop, do not use any soil since it is more difficult to obtain it 
at that season. In such cases the beds are made up of manure 
alone. The experience in some cases shows that the crop resulting 
from this method is equally as good as that grown where soil has 
been added. In the experience of some other growers a bin of soil 
is collected during the summer or autumn which can be used in the 
winter for mixing in with the manure and making the beds for the 
spring crop. Where sod is used this is collected in pastures or 
fence rows in June, piled, and allowed to rot during the summer. 

In distributing the material in the beds, the methods of packing 
it vary according to the wishes or experience of the grower. It is 
often recommended to pack the material very firmly. The feeling 
that this must be packed very firmly has led to the disuse of beds 
in tiers by some, because it is rather difficult to pack the material 
down very firmly where one bed lies so closely above another. 
Where the practice is followed of packing the material very firmly in 


the bed, some instrument in the form of a maul is used to tamp it 
down. Where there are tiers of beds an instrument of this kind 
cannot well be used. Here a brick or a similar heavy and small in- 
strument is used in the hand, and the bed is thus pounded down 
firmly. This is a tedious and laborious operation. Many growers 
do not regard it as essential that the beds should be very firmly 
packed. In such cases the material is distributed on the beds and 
the successive layers are tamped down as firmly as can well be 
done with the back of a fork or an ordinary potato digger, which 
can be wielded with the two hands in between the beds. In the ex- 
perience of these growers the results seem to be just as good as 
where the beds are more firmly packed down. 

It is the practice in some cases where the bed lies against the 
side of the house to build up the material of the bed at the rear, 
that is, at the side of the house, much deeper than at the front, so 
that the depth of the bed at the back may be eighteen to twenty 
inches or two feet, while the front is eight to ten or twelve inches. 
This provides a slightly increased surface because of the obliquity 
of the upper surface of the bed, but it consumes probably a greater 
amount of material. It probably is not advantageous where the op- 
erations are carried on on a large scale, where abundant room is 
available, where the material for making the beds is expensive, 
and it is desirable to obtain from the material all that can be drawn 
in a single crop. The same practice is sometimes recommended and 
followed in the case of the beds made in cellars. 

In the making of beds with fresh material, that is, with unfer- 
mented manure, as was done by Mr. William Swayne of Kennett 
Square, Pa., one season, the coarser material is put in the bottom of 
the bed, and then as the manure is distributed in the bed the soil is 
sprinkled on also, so that finally when the bed is completed the pro- 
portions of soil and manure are the same as when it is mixed in at 
the time of fermentation. In making the beds in this way, should 
any one be led to attempt it, it would be necessary to guard against 
a too high temperature in the fermentation of this fresh material; 
the temperature should not run above 130 degrees. It would also 
require a longer time from the making of the bed to planting the 
spawn than in the case of those beds where the manure is fermented 
and cured before being made up. Probably the total amount of 
time from the beginning to the completion of the preparation of the 
bed for spawning would not be greater, if it would be so great. 

The beds all having been made, they are left until they are in a 
suitable condition for spawning. The determination of this point. 


that is, the point when the beds are ready for planting the spawn, 
seems to be one of the most important and critical features of the 
business. The material must be of a suitable temperature, prefer- 
ably not above 90° F., and not below 70°. The most favorable 
temperature, according to some, other conditions being congenial, 
ranges from 80° to 85° F., while many prefer to spawn at 70° to 75°. 
Many of the very successful growers, however, do not lay so much 
stress upon the temperature of the bed for the time of spawning as 
they do upon the ripeness, or the cured condition, of the material in 
the bed. This is a matter which it is very difficult to describe to 
one not familiar with the subject, and it is one which it is very dif- 
ficult to properly appreciate unless one has learned it by experience. 
Some judge more by the odor, or the " smell," as they say, of the 
manure. It must have lost the fresh manure "smell," or the 
'' sour smell," and possess, as they say, a *' sweet smell." Some- 
times the odor is something like that of manure when spawn has 
partly run through it. It sometimes has a sweetish smell, or a 
smell suggestive of mushrooms even when no spawn has run 
through it. 

Another important condition of the material is its state of dry- 
ness or moisture. It must not be too dry or the spawn will not run. 
In such cases there is not a sufficient amount of moisture to provide 
the water necessary for the growth of the mycelium. On the other 
hand, it must not be too wet, especially at the time of spawning and 
for a few weeks after. Some test the material for moisture in this 
way. Take a handful of the material and squeeze it. If on releas- 
ing the hold it falls to pieces, it is too dry. By squeezing a hand- 
ful near the ear, if there is an indication of running water, even 
though no water may be expressed from the material, it is too wet. 
If on pressure of the material there is not that sense of the move- 
ment of water in it on holding it to the ear, and if on releasing the 
pressure of the hand the material remains in the form into which it 
has been squeezed, or expands slightly, it is considered to be in a 
proper condition so far as moisture is concerned for planting the 


The spawn of the mushroom is the popular word used in speak- 
ing of the mycelium of the mushroom. The term is commonly used 
in a commercial sense of material in which the mycelium is grow- 
ing. This material is horse manure, or a mixture of one or two 
kinds of manure with some soil, and with the threads of the mycel- 
ium growing in it. The mycelium, as is well known, is the growing 


or vegetative part of the mushroom. Sometimes the word '' fiber " 
is used by the mushroom growers In referring to the mycelium 
which appears in the spawn, or in the mushroom bed. The 
mycelium is that portion of the plant which, in the case of the wild 
varieties, grows in the soil, or in the leaf mold, in the tree trunk or 
other material from which the mushroom derives its food. The 
threads of mycelium, as we know, first originated from the spore 
of the mushroom. The spore germinates and produces delicate 
threads, which branch and increase by growth in extent, and form 
the mycelium. So the term spawn is rarely applied to the pure 
mycelium, but is applied to the substratum or material in which 
spawn is growing ; that is, the substratum and mycelium together 
constitute the spawn. 

Natural spawn or virgin spawn. — This is termed natural spawn 
because it occurs under natural conditions of environment. The 
original natural spawn was to be found in the fields. In the early 
history of mushroom culture the spawn from the pastures and mead- 
ows where mushrooms grew was one of the sources of the spawn 
used in planting. The earth containing the spawn underneath 
clumps of mushrooms was collected and used. 

It occurs more abundantly, however, in piles of horse manure 
which have stood for some time in barn yards, or very often in stalls 
where the manure is allowed to accumulate, has been thoroughly 
tramped down and then has been left in this condition for some 
time, it occurs also in composts, hothouse beds, or wherever 
accumulations of horse manure are likely to occur, if other conditions 
are congenial. The origin of the natural spawn under these condi- 
tions of environment is probably accounted for in many cases by 
the presence of the spores which have been in the food eaten by the 
horse, have passed through the alimentary canal and are thus dis- 
tributed through the dung. 

The spores present in the food of the horse may be due to 
various conditions. Horses which go out to pasture are likely to 
take in with the food obtained in grazing the spores scattered around 
on the grass, and in the upper part of the sod, coming from mush- 
rooms which grew in the field. In other cases, the spores may be 
present in the hay, having been carried by the wind from adjacent 
fields, if not from those which have grown in the meadow. In like 
manner they may be present in the oats which have been fed to the 
horse. In the case of stable-fed animals, the inoculation of the 
manure in this way may not always be certain or very free. But 
in the case of pasture-fed horses which are stalled at night probably 


the inoculation is very certain and very abundant, so that a large 
number of spores would be present in the manure from horses fed in 
this way. 

The natural spawn also may originate from spores which are 
carried by the wind from the pasture or meadow mushrooms upon 
manure piles, or especially from spores which may lodge in the dust 
of the highways or street. Many of these spores v/ould cling to the 
hoofs of the horses and at night, or at times of feeding, would 
be left with the manure in the stall. At other times horse drop- 
pings may be gathered from roads or streets where spores may be 
present in the dust. The piles of the droppings accumulated in this 
way, if left a sufficient time, may provide natural spawn by this 
accidental inoculation from the spores. 

Probably few attempts have been made to grow the natural 
spawn with certainty in this country, though it does not appear to 
be an impracticable thing to do, since formerly this was one source 
of the virgin spawn in Europe, it is usually obtained by search 
through stables and barn yards or other places where piles of horse 
manure have accumulated and have remained for several months. 
In some cases the growers keep men employed through the summer 
season searching the yards and stables over a considerable area for 
the purpose of fmding and gathering this natural spawn. It is prob- 
ably termed virgin spawn because of its origin under these natural 
conditions, and never having been propagated artificially. 

The natural spawn, as indicated above, is employed for a variety 
of purposes. It is used for inoculating the bricks in the manufac- 
ture of brick spawn. It is used for propagating once or twice in the 
mushroom beds, for the purpose of multiplying it, either in the man- 
ufacture of brick spawn, or for flake spawn, which is planted 
directly in the beds to be used for the crop. In some places in 
America it is collected on a large scale and relied on as the chief 
source of spawn for planting beds. In such cases the natural or 
virgin spawn is used directly and is of the first and most vigorous 
generation. It is believed by growers who employ it in this way 
that the results in the quality and quantity of the crop exceed those 
produced from the market spawn. But even these growers would 
not always depend on the natural spawn, for the reason, that col- 
lecting it under these conditions, the quantity is certain to vary 
from year to year. This is due probably to varying conditions of 
the season and also to the varying conditions which bring about the 
chance inoculation, or the accumulation of the material in the yard 
for a sufficient amount of time to provide the mycelium. 


It would be interesting, and it might also prove to be profitable 
to growers, if some attempt were made to grow natural spawn under 
conditions which would perhaps more certainly produce a supply. 
This might be attempted in several different ways. Stall-fed horses 
might be fed a ripe mushroom every day or two. Or from the cap 
of ripe mushrooms the spores might be caught, then mixed with oats 
and fed to the horse. Again, the manure piles might be inoculated 
by spores caught from a number of mushrooms. Manure might also 
be collected during the summer months from the highways and aside 
from the probable natural inoculation which this material would 
probably have from the spores blown from the meadow and pasture 
mushrooms, additional inoculation might be made. The manure 
obtained in this way could be piled under sheds, packed down thor- 
oughly, and not allowed to heat above ioo° F. These piles could 
then be left for several months, care being used that the material 
should have the proper moisture content, not too dry nor too wet. 
This is given only as a suggestion and it is hoped that some practi- 
cal grower will test it upon a small scale. In all cases the tempera- 
ture should be kept low during the fermentation of these piles, else 
the spawn will be killed. 

One of the methods of obtaining natural spawn recommended by 
Cuthill (''Treatise on the Cultivation of the Mushroom") is to 
collect horse droppings all along the highways during the summer, 
mixing it with some road sand and piling it in a dry shed. Here it 
is packed down firmly to prevent the heat rising too high. A "trial " 
stick is kept in the pile. When this is pulled out, if it is so hot as 
to *' burn the hand," the heat is too great and would kill the spawn. 
In several months an abundance of the spawn is generated here. 

MilMrack spawn. — '* Mill-track " spawn originated from the spawn 
found in covered roadways at mills or along tram-car tracks where 
horses were used. The accumulation of manure trodden down in 
these places and sometimes mixed with sawdust or earth, provided 
a congenial place for the growth of the mycelium. The spawn was 
likely introduced here through spores taken in with the food of the 
horse, or brought there from highways, if they were not already in 
the soil from mushrooms grown there. It would be then multiplied 
by the growth of the spawn, and from spores of mushrooms which 
might appear and ripen. The well tramped material in which the 
mycelium grew here, when broken up, formed convenient blocks of 
spawn for storage and transportation, and probably led to the 
manufacture of brick spawn. 

Manufactured spawn. — The manufactured spawn, on the other 



hand, is that which is propagated artificially by the special prepara- 
tion of the substratum or material in which the mycelium is to grow. 
This material is inoculated either with a piece of natural spawn, or 
with pieces of previously manufactured spawm. It is put upon the 
market in two different forms ; the brick spawn, and the flake spawn. 
The latter is sometimes known as the French spawn, while the 
former, being largely manufactured in England, is sometimes spoken 
of as the English spawn. 

Brick spawn. — The brick spawn is so called because the material in 
which the mycelium is present is in the form of bricks. These 
bricks are about 5 by 8 inches by i^ inches in thickness, and weigh 
about ij{ pounds each when dried. The proportions of different 

^■■M^"' A < 



'■•^ji*^ . ^ > ■ 




pieces one brick may be broken. 

kinds of material used in the manufacture of brick spawn probably 
vary with different manufacturers, since there is a difference in the 
size and texture of bricks from different sources. One method of 
making the brick spawn is as follows : Equal parts of horse dung, 
and cow dung, and loam soil are thoroughly mixed together to a con- 
sistency of mortar. This is pressed into the form of bricks and 
stood on edge to dry. When partly dry, a piece of spawn about an 
inch in diameter is pressed into one side of each brick. The bricks 
are then stood up again until thoroughly dried. They are then piled 
upon a layer of fresh horse manure about 8 inches deep, the pile of 
bricks being about 3 feet high. This pile is then covered over 
loosely with fresh horse manure, a sufficient amount to produce. 


when heating, a temperature of about ioo° F. They are left in this 
condition until the mycelium or ''fiber" has thoroughly permeated 
the bricks. The spawn i-s now completed, and the bricks are allowed 
to dry. In this condition they are put upon the market. The bricks 
made with a very high percentage of soil often have the appearance 
of dried soil, with a slight admixture of vegetable matter. 

Brick spawn from other sources presents a very different texture 
and contains probably a much larger percentage of horse manure, 
or, at least, a much smaller percentage of soil. The appearance of 
the brick is not that of soil with a slight admixture of vegetable 
materials, but has much the appearance of a dried and compressed 
mixture of horse dung and cow dung, with an abundance of the 
''fiber" or mycelium, "the greyish moldy, or thready matter," 
which constitutes the vital part of the spawn. In the selection of 
spawn this is an important item, that is, the presence of an abund- 
ance of " fiber " or mycelium. It can be seen on the surface, usually 
showing an abundance of these whitish threads or sheets, or a 
distinct moldy appearance is presented. On breaking the brick the 
great abundance of the "fiber" or whitish mycelium is seen all 
through it. This indicates that the brick possesses a high percentage 
of the "fiber," an important part of the spawn. 

One not accustomed to the quality of spawn can therefore judge 
to a certain extent by the appearance of the bricks as to the quality^ 
at least they can judge as to the presence of an abundance or a 
scanty quantity of the "fiber." Since the spawn remains in good 
condition for several years, there is usually no danger in the use of 
spawn which may be one or two years old. But it does deteriorate 
to some extent with age, and young spawn is therefore to be pre- 
ferred to old spawn, provided the other desirable qualities are equal. 
Those who attempt to cultivate mushrooms, and depend on com- 
mercial or manufactured spawn, should see to it that the spawn 
purchased possesses these desirable qualities of texture, and the 
presence of an abundance of the mycelium. That which appears 
devoid of an abundance of mycelium should be rejected, and good 
spawn should be called for. There is no more reason why a grower 
should accept a worthless spawn from his seedsman than that he 
should accept "addled" eggs from his grocer. In this business, 
that is, the manufacture and sale of spawn, poor material is apt to 
be thrown on the market just as in the case of seeds, poor material 
may find its way upon the market. Sometimes this occurs through un- 
scrupulous dealers, at other times through their ignorance, or through 
their failure to know the quality of the product they are handling. 


There are some brands of spawn, that is, those manufactured by 
certain houses, which rank very high among those who know the 
qualities and the value of good spawn. Some large growers send 
direct to the manufacturer for their spawn, and where it is to be 
obtained in large quantities this is a desirable thing to do, since the 
cost is much less. Where obtained from seedsmen in large quanti- 
ties, the prices are much lower than where small quantities are 
purchased. One of these brands of spawn, the Barter spawn, is for 
sale by several different dealers, by Mr. H. E. Hicks, Kennett 
Square, Pa., by Henry F. Michell, 1018 Market street, Philadelphia, 
and by Henry Dreer, 724 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. Another 
brick spawn, known as *' Watson Prolific," is for sale by George C. 
Watson, Juniper and Walnut streets, Philadelphia. James Vicks 
Sons, Rochester, N. Y., and Peter Henderson & Co., New York 
City, have their spawn manufactured expressly for their trade. 

The Barter spawn is said to be made fresh every year, or every 
other year. Instead of the ** continued culture" of spawn, 
that is, inoculating the bricks each succeeding year from the same 
line of spawn, which is, as it were, used over and over again, a re- 
turn is made each year, or in the alternate years, to the natural or 
virgin spawn, which is obtained from old manure heaps. In this 
way, the Barter spawn* is within two to three, or four, generations 
of the natural spawn. The number of generations distant the brick 
is from the natural spawn, depends upon the number of times it may 
have been multiplied before it is inoculated into the bricks. That is, 
the natural spawn is probably first grown in large beds in order to 
multiply, to produce a sufficiently large quantity for the inoculation 
of the immense number of bricks to be manufactured. For it is 
likely that a sufficient amount of natural spawn could not be ob- 
tained to inoculate all the bricks manufactured in one year. If a 
sufficient amount of the natural or virgin spawn could be obtained 
to inoculate all the bricks of one year's manufacture, this would pro- 
duce a spawn removed only one generation from that of natural 

If the natural spawn were first grown in beds, and from here in- 
oculated into bricks, this particular brick spawn would be removed 
two generations from the natural spawn. So the number of times 
that successive inoculations are made to multiply the spawn, the 
manufactured products are removed that many generations from the 
natural spawn. Where recourse is had to the natural, or virgin, 

* I have not learned the history of the other kinds of spawn referred to above. 



spawn only once in two years, the second year's product would 
then be further removed from the natural spawn than the first year's 
product. Where we know that it is removed but one or a few gen- 
erations from the natural spawn, it is a more desirable kind. For 
the nearer it is to the natural spawn, other things being equal, the 
more vigorous the mycelium, and the finer will be the mushrooms 

The brick spawn is sometimes manufactured in this country by 
growers for their own use, but at present it is manufactured on such 
a large scale in England that little or no saving is effected by an 
attempt to manufacture one's own brick spawn in this country. 

Flake Spawn. — The flake spawn, or ** flakes," is commonly known 
as the French spawn, because it is so extensively manufactured in 

Figure 234. — French spawn, or " flakes," ready to plant. 

France. It is made by breaking down beds through which the my- 
celium has run, and before the crop of mushrooms appears. That 
is, the bed is spawned in the ordinary way. When the mycelium 
has thoroughly permeated the bed, it is taken down and broken into 
irregular pieces, six to eight inches in diameter. Thus, the French 
spawn, where the beds are made entirely of horse manure, with no 
admixture of soil, consist merely of the fermented and cured manure, 
through which the mycelium has run, the material, of course, being 
thoroughly dried. This spawn may be removed one or several gen- 
erations from the natural spawn. 

The French growers depend on natural spawn much more than 
American growers do. The natural spawn is collected from old 


manure heaps. Beds made up in the ordinary way for the cultiva- 
tion of mushrooms are planted with this. The mycelium is allowed 
to run until it has thoroughly permeated the manure. These beds 
are broken down and used to spawn the beds for the crop. In this 
case the crop would be grown from spawn only one generation re- 
moved from the virgin spawn. If a sufficient amount of natural 
spawn could not be obtained, to provide the amount required one 
generation old, it might be run through the second generation be- 
fore being used. From the appearance of any spawn, of course, the 
purchaser cannot tell how many generations it is removed from the 
natural spawn. For this quality of the spawn one must depend 
upon the knowledge which we may have of the methods practiced 
by the different producers of spawn, if it is possible even to deter- 
mine this. 


The beds for growing the mushrooms having been made up, the 
spawn having been selected, the beds are ready for planting when- 
ever the temperature has been sufficiently reduced and the material 
is properly cured. It is quite easy to determine the temperature of 
the beds, but it is a more difficult problem for the inexperienced to 
determine the best stage in the curing of the material for the recep- 
tion of the spawn. Some growers rely more on the state of curing 
of the manure than they do upon the temperature. They would 
prefer to spawn it at quite a low temperature, rather than to spawn 
at what is usually considered an optimum temperature, if the ma- 
terial is not properly cured. The temperature at which different 
treatises and growers recommend that the bed should be spawned 
varies from 70° to 90° F. Ninety degrees F. is considered by many 
rather high, while 70° F. is considered by others to be rather low ; 
80° to 85° is considered by many to be the most favorable temper- 
ature, provided of course the other conditions of the bed are con- 
genial. But some, so far as temperature is concerned, would prefer 
to spawn the bed at 75° F. rather than at 90°, while many recom- 
mend spawning at 70° to 75°. hi some cases, 1 have known the 
growers to allow the temperature of the beds to fall as low as 60° 
before spawning, because the material was not, until that time, at 
the proper state of curing. Yet an experienced grower, who under- 
stands the kind of spawn to plant in such a bed, can allow the tem- 
perature to go down to 60° without any very great risk. Fresh 
spawn in an active state, that is, spawn which is in a growing con- 
dition, as may be obtained by tearing up a bed, or a portion of one. 



through which the spawn has run, is better to plant in a bed of such 
low temperature. Or, a bed of such low temperature, after spawn- 
ing, might be ** warmed up," by piling fresh horse manure over it 
loosely for a week or ten days, sufficient to raise the temperature to 
80° or 90°. 

When the brick spawn is used, the method of planting varies, of 
course, with the methods of different operators. Some break the 
bricks into the desired size and plant the pieces directly in the bed, 
without any special preparation. The brick is broken into pieces 
about two or three inches in diameter. Some recommend breaking 
the brick of the ordinary size into about twelve pieces, some into 
nine pieces, so the custom varies with different operators. These 
pieces are planted from seven to nine inches apart in the bed. For 

FiCxURE 235. — Pieces of brick spawn ready to plant. 

example, if they are to be planted nine inches apart in the bed, holes 
are made, either with the hand or with some instrument, by press- 
ing the material to one side sufficiently to admit of the piece of spawn 
being pressed in tightly. These openings are made, say, the first 
row on one side of the bed, about four and one-half inches from the 
side, and nine inches apart in the row. The second row is made 
nine inches from the first row, and so on. The pieces of spawn are 
inserted in the opening in the bed, and at a slight distance, two to 
three inches, below the surface. Some, however, insert the piece 
of spawn just at the level of the bed, the opening being such that 
the piece of spawn pressed into the opening is crowded below in 
place, and the surrounding material fits snugly on the sides. Thus, 
when the bed is spawned, the pieces may be a slight distance below 
the top of the bed when they can be covered by some material, or in 


■other cases, where the operator varies the method, they would lie 
just at the surface of the bed. 

The bed is now firmed down according to the custom of the 
operator, either tamped down with some instrument very firmly, or 
by others, with the back of the fork or other similar instrument, the 
bed is made firm, but not quite so hard. The object in firming it 
down after spawning is to make the surface of the bed level, and 
also to bring the material in the bed very closely in touch on all 
sides with the spawn with which it is impregnated. 

Some growers follow the method of giving the spawn some little 
preparation before putting it into the bed. This preparation varies 
with different operators. Its object, however, is to slightly moisten 

Ti- r -c^ , o Figure 2-^6. " Flakes many generations 

Piece of French Spawn. j^. r tvt . i c u ^^ • <. » 

^ Piece of Natural Spawn. old, " running out. ' 

the dry spawn, and perhaps, also, to very slightly start the growth. 
To accomplish this, some will cover the bricks, before breaking them, 
with fresh horse manure, and allow this to remain several days, so 
that the warmth and moisture generated here penetrate the 
material and soften somewhat the brick. Some pile it in a room 
or compartment where there is little moisture, until the bricks are 
permeated to some extent with the moisture, so that they are a lit- 
tle easier broken. They should not, under any circumstances, be 
wet or soft in the sense of having absorbed an excess of water, nor 
should they be stored for any length of time where they will be 
damp. Still others break the bricks into the desired pieces and 
place these directly on the top of the bed, at the place where they 


wish to plant the piece of spawn. They are left here for two or 
three days on the surface of the beds. These pieces absorb some 
moisture and take up some warmth from the bed. Then they are 
planted in the ordinary way. 

Spawning with Flake Spawn, or Natural Spawn. — In the use of the 
flake or natural spawn, the planting is accomplished in a similar 
way, but larger pieces of the spawn are used, two or three times the 
size of the pieces of brick employed. Some use a large handful. In 
some few cases, the growers use a flake spawn from their own crop. 
That is, each year a few beds are spawned from material which has 
been kept over from the previous season. This is often kept in 
boxes, in cool places, where it does not thoroughly dry out. In this 
way, the spawn is used over and over again, until it becomes much 
less vigorous than natural spawn, or a spawn which is only one or 
only a few generations distant from the natural spawn. This is 
seen in the less certainty with which the spawn runs through the 
bed, in the smaller crop of mushrooms, and their gradual deteriora- 
tion in size. Some few practice the method of breaking down the 
bed after the crop has been nearly gathered, using this weak spawn 
to inoculate fresh beds. This practice is objectionable for the same 
reason that long cultivated spawn is objectionable. 

Soiling the Beds. — After the beds have been planted with the 
spawn, the next thing is to soil them. That is, the manure in the 
bed is covered with a layer of loam soil, or garden soil, to the depth 
of two inches, then spread evenly over the bed, leveled off, and 
tamped down, though not packed too hard, and the surface is 
smoothed off. The time at which the soiling is done, varies also 
with different operators. Some soil immediately after planting the 
spawn. Others believe that the spawn will most certainly fail to 
run if the beds are soiled immediately after planting. These opera- 
tors wait two or three weeks after the spawn has been planted to 
soil it. Others wait until the temperature of the bed has fallen from 
80° or 85° at the time of spawning, to 70° or 60° F. Soiling at this 
temperature, that is, at 60° or 70° F., probably prevents the rapid 
cooling down of the bed, and it is desirable to soil, at least at this 
temperature, for that purpose. When the beds are soiled, they are 
then left until the crop is ready to gather. Some operators give no 
further attention to the beds after soiling, other than to water the 
beds, if that becomes necessary. It is desirable to avoid watering, 
if the bed can be kept at the right state of moisture without. In 
watering the beds while the spawn is running, there is danger of 
killing the young spawn with the water. Wherever it is necessary, 


however, if the material in the bed becomes too dry, lukewarm 
water should be used, and it should be applied through a fine rose of 
a watering pot. 

While some operators after soiling the bed give no further care to 
it until the bed is bearing, others cover the beds with some litter, in 
the form of straw or excelsior. This is done for the purpose of 
conserving the moisture in the bed, and especially the moisture on 
the surface of the bed. Sometimes where there is a tendency for 
the material in the bed to become too dry, this litter on the surface 
retards the loss of moisture. Also, the litter itself may be moistened 
and the bed can absorb some moisture in this way, if it is desirable 
to increase the moisture content of the bed slightly. 

When the spawn has once run well through the bed, watering 
can be accomplished with less danger of injury, yet great care must 
be used even now. The spawn will run through a bed with a some- 
what less moisture content in the material than is necessary for 
drawing off the crop of mushrooms, though, of course, the spawn will 
not run if the bed is too dry. The only way to see if the spawn 
has run satisfactorily is to open up the bed at one or two points to 
examine the material, opening it up slightly. If the spawn has run 
well, a very delicate white "fiber," the mycelium, can be seen 
penetrating all through the material. This handful can be replaced 
in the bed, packed down, and the soil covered over and firmed again 
at this point. 

When the mushrooms begin to appear, if the bed is a little dry, 
it should be watered from time to time through the fine rose of a 
watering pot. Lukewarm water should be used. Nearly all grow- 
ers water the beds during the picking of the crop, or during the 
period of gathering the crop. At the first few waterings, water 
should not be sprinkled on the beds to wet them entirely through. 
Enough water is applied to diffuse a short distance only through the 
upper surface of the bed. At the next watering, several days later, 
the moisture is carried further down in the bed, and so on, through 
the several weeks, or months, over which the harvesting season ex- 
tends. The object of thus gradually moistening the bed from above, 
is to draw the crop from the spawn at the surface of the bed first, 
and then, as the moisture extends downward, to gradually bring on 
the crop from the ** fiber " below. 

Gathering the Mushrooms. — In artificial cultivation, the mushrooms 
usually formed are very near, or on, the surface of the bed. In the 
case of the meadow or pasture mushrooms, they are formed further 
below the surface. This is probably due to the fact that the con- 


ditions under which the mushrooms grow in cultivation are such 
that the surface of the bed is more moist, and is less subject to vari- 
ations in the content of moisture, than is the surface of the ground 
in pastures. Although there may be abundant rains in the fields, 
the currents of air over the surface of the ground, at other times, 
quickly dries out the upper layers of the soil. But indoors the 
mycelium often runs to the surface of the bed, and there forms the 
numerous pinheads which are the beginnings of the mushrooms. 
The beds at this stage often present numerous clusters of the 
mycelium and these minute pinheads crowded very closely together. 
Hundreds or perhaps thousands of these minute beginnings of 
mushrooms occur within a small space. There are very few of 
these, however, that reach the point of the mature mushroom. Few 
only of the pinheads grow to form the button, and the others abort, 
or cease to grow. Others are torn out while the larger ones are 
being picked. 

The time at which the mushrooms are picked varies within cer- 
tain limits, with the different growers. Most cultivators, especially 
those who grow the mushrooms in houses, consider 60° F. the desir- 
able temperature for the growth of mushrooms, that is, at a room 
temperature of 60° (while some recommend 57°). The temper- 
ature of the beds themselves will be slightly above this. Under 
these conditions, that is, where the mushrooms are grown at a room 
temperature of about 60°, they open very quickly. It is necessary 
here to gather the mushrooms before they open, that is, before the 
veil on the under surface breaks to expose the gill surface. This 
practice is followed, of course, within certain limits. It is not possi- 
ble in all cases, to pick every mushroom before the veil breaks. 
They are collected once a day usually. At the time of collection all 
are taken which are of suitable size. Many of them may not yet 
have opened. But in the case of some of the older or more rapidly 
growing ones, the veil may have broken, although they have not 
expanded very much. 

Some follow the method of having the fireman, on his round at 
night, when he looks after the fires in the heating room, gather the 
mushrooms. He passes through all parts of the house and picks the 
mushrooms which are of suitable size. These are gathered by 
grasping a single mushroom by the cap, or where there is a cluster 
of mushrooms close together, several are taken in the hand. The 
plant is twisted slightly to free the stem from the soil, without tear- 
ing it up to any great extent. They are thrown in this condition 
into baskets. The collector then takes them to the packing room. 



and the following morning the plants are trimmed, that is, the part of 
the stems to which the earth is attached is cut away, the plants are 
weighed, put in baskets, and prepared for the markets. In other 
cases, the mushrooms are gathered early in the morning, in the 
same way, taken to the packing room, where the lower part of the 
stem is cut away, the plants are weighed, placed into the baskets 
and shipped to market. 

In some of the caves, or abandoned mines, which I have visited, 
where the mushrooms are grown on a large scale, the practice in 
picking the mushrooms varies somewhat from that just described. 

Figure 237. — View in Packing Room (H. E. Hicks' Mushroom House, 
Kennett Square, Pa.) CopjTight. 

In the first place, the mushrooms are allowed to stand on the bed 
longer, before they are picked. They are rarely, if ever, picked 
before they open. Mushrooms may be quite large, but if they have 
not opened, they are not picked. Very frequently, the plant may 
open, but, the operator says, it is not open enough. It will grow 
more yet. The object of the grower, in this case, is to allow the 
mushrooms to grow as long as it is possible, before picking, for the 
larger the mushroom, the more water it will take from the bed, and 
the more it weighs. This may seem an unprofessional thing for a 
grower to do, and yet it must be remembered that a large water 
content of the mushroom is necessary. The mushrooms grown in 
these mines are very firm and solid, qualities which are desired, not 


only by the consumer, but are desirable for shipment. These mush- 
rooms are much thicker through the center of the cap than those 
usually grown in houses at a room temperature of 60° F. For this 
reason, the mushrooms in these caves spread out more, and the 
edges do not turn up so soon. Since the cap is so thick and firm at 
the center, it continues to grow and expand for some little time after 
having opened, without turning up on the edges, and without be- 
coming black and unsightly underneath. These large and firm 
mushrooms are not only desirable for their shipping qualities, but 
also, if they are not too large, they are prized because they are of 
such a nice size for broiling. 

It is quite likely that one of the important conditions in produc- 
ing mushrooms of this character is the low temperature of the mine. 
The temperature here, in July and August, rises not higher than 58° 
F., that is, the room temperature of the mines ; while in the winter 
it falls not lower than 52°. The growth of mushrooms, under these 
conditions, may not be quite so rapid as in a house maintaining a 
room temperature of 60°. The operator may not be able to grow 
so many crops from the same area, during the same length of time ; 
but the very fact that this low temperature condition retards the 
growth of the mushrooms is perhaps an important item in produc- 
ing the firm and more marketable product, which can be allowed to 
grow longer before it is picked. It is possible, also, that another 
condition has something to do with the firmness and other desirable 
qualities of these mushrooms. It is, perhaps, to be found in the 
fact that natural spawn is largely used in planting the beds, so that 
the spawn is more vigorous than that which is ordinarily used in 
planting, which is several or many generations distant from the 
virgin condition. 

The methods of picking in this mine differ, also, from those 
usually employed by growers of mushrooms. The mushrooms are 
pulled from the bed in the same way, but the operator carries with 
him two baskets and a knife. As fast as the mushrooms are pulled, 
and while they are still in hand, before the dirt can sift upon the 
other mushrooms, or fall in upon the gills of those which are open, 
the lower part of the stem is cut off. This stem end is then placed in 
one basket, while the mushrooms which have been trimmed are 
placed in another basket. In cutting off the stems, just enough is 
cut to remove the soil, so that the length of the stem of the mush- 
room varies. The mushrooms are then taken to the packing room 
in the cleanest possible condition, with no soil scattering therefrom 
or falling down among the gills, as occurs to a greater or lesser ex- 


tent where the mushrooms are picked and thrown indiscriminately 
into baskets. 

Packing the Mushrooms. — In the packing room the mushrooms are 
prepared for shipment to market. The method at present usually- 
employed is to ship them in baskets. The baskets vary in size, ac- 
cording to the market to which the mushrooms are to be shipped. 
They hold from three, to four, five, six, or ten pounds each. The 
larger baskets are only used where the mushrooms are shipped 
directly to the consumers. When the customer requires a large 
number of mushrooms, they can be shipped in these larger baskets. 
Where they are shipped to commission merchants, and the final 
market is not known to the packer, they are usually packed in small 
baskets, three to four or five pounds. The baskets are sometimes 
lined with paper; that is, at the time of the packing the paper is 
placed in the basket, one or two thicknesses of paper. The number 
of layers of paper depends somewhat upon the conditions of trans- 
portation. The greater amount of paper affords some protection 
from cold, in cold weather, and some protection from the evapora- 
tion of the moisture, in dry weather. When the basket is filled with 
the required quantity of mushrooms, which is usually determined 
first by weight, the surplus paper is folded over them. This is 
covered in most cases by thin board strips, which are provided for 
basket shipment of vegetables of this kind. In some cases, how- 
ever, where shipped directly to customers so that the baskets soon 
reach their destination, additional heavy paper, instead of the board, 
may be placed over and around the larger part of the basket, and 
then tied down neatly with cord. 

Placing the Mushrooms in the Basket. — Some growers do not give 
any attention to placing the mushrooms in the baskets. The stems 
are cut off in the packing room, they are thrown into the weighing 
pan, and when the beam tips at three, or four, or five pounds, as 
the case may be, the mushrooms are emptied into the baskets, 
leveled down, and the baskets closed for shipment. Others use 
more care in the packing of the mushrooms; especially is this the 
case on the part of those who pick the mushrooms when they are 
somewhat larger and more open, though the practice of placing the 
mushrooms in a basket is followed even by those who pick before 
the mushrooms are open. In placing them, one mushroom is taken 
at a time and put stem downward into the basket, until the bottom 
is covered with one layer, and then successive layers are placed on 
top of these. The upper layers in the basket then present a very 
neat and attractive appearance. In thus placing the mushrooms in 



the basket, if there are any mushrooms which are quite large, they 
are placed in the bottom. The custom of the operator here is dif- 
ferent from that of the grower of apples, or of other fruit, where the 
larger and finer samples are often placed on top, the smaller ones 
being covered below. It is a curious fact, however, that this prac- 
tice of placing the largest mushrooms below in the basket is due to 
the fact that usually the larger mushrooms are not considered so 

Figure 238. 

-View in packing room, Akron "tunnel," N. \'. Mushroom Co.; placing 
mushrooms in basket. Copyright. 

There are several reasons why the larger mushrooms are not 
considered so desirable or marketable as the medium-sized or 
smaller ones. In the first place, the larger mushrooms, under cer- 
tain conditions, especially those grown in house culture at a com- 
paratively high temperature, are apt to be very ripe, so that the 
gills are black from over-ripe spores, and are thus somewhat un- 
sightly. Those grown at a lower temperature, as is the case in 
some mines, do not blacken so soon, and are therefore apt to be free 
from this objection. Another objection, however, is on the part of 


the restaurant owner where mushrooms are served. In serving the 
mushrooms broiled on toast, the medium-sized one is more desirable 
from the standpoint of the restaurant owner, in that two medium- 
sized ones might be sufficient to serve two persons, while one quite 
large one, weighing perhaps the same as the two medium ones, 
would only be sufficient to serve one person at the same price, 
unless the large mushroom was cut in two. If this were done, how- 
ever, the customer would object to being served with half a mush- 
room, and the appearance of a half mushroom served in this way is 
not attractive. 

Resoiling. — Once or twice a week during the harvesting period all 
loose earth, broken bits of spawn, free buttons, etc., should be 
cleaned out where the mushrooms have been picked. These places 
should be filled with soil and packed down by hand. All young 
mushrooms that ''fog off" should be gathered up clean. Some 
persons follow the practice of growing a second crop on the same 
bed from which the first crop has been gathered. The bed is 
resoiled by placing about two inches of soil over the old soil. The 
bed is then watered, sometimes with lukewarm water to which a 
small quantity of nitrate of soda has been added. The large grow- 
ers, however, usually do not grow a second crop in this way, but 
endeavor to exhaust the material in the bed by continuous growth. 

Use of manure from beds which have failed. — Manure in which the 
spawn has failed to run is sometimes removed from the bed and 
mixed with fresh manure, the latter restoring the heat. If the 
manure was too wet, the moisture content can now be lessened by 
the use of dry soil. 

Cleaning house to prepare for successive crops. — When the crop is 
harvested, all the material is cleaned out to prepare the beds for the 
next crop. The material is taken out " clean," and the floors, beds, 
walls, etc., swept off very clean. In addition, some growers white- 
wash the floors and all wood-work. Some whitewash only the 
floors, depending on sweeping the beds and walls very clean. Still 
others whitewash the floors and wash the walls with some material 
to kill out the vermin. Some trap or poison the cockroaches, wood- 
lice, etc., when they appear. Some growers who succeed well for 
several years, and then fail, believe that the house ** gets tired," as 
they express it, and that the place must rest for a few years before 
mushrooms can be grown there again. Others grow mushrooms 
successfully year after year, but employ the best sanitary methods. 

Number of crops during a year. — In caves or mines, where the 
temperature is low, the beds are in process of formation and cropping 


continuously. So soon as a bed has been exhausted the material is 
cleaned out, and new beds are made as fast as the fresh manure is 
obtained. In houses where the mushrooms cannot be grown during 
the summer, the crops are grown at quite regular periods, the first 
crop during fall and early winter, and the second crop during spring. 
Some obtain the manure and ferment it during August and Septem- 
ber, spawning the beds in September and October. Others begin 
work on the fermentation of the manure in June or July, make up 
the beds in July and August, spawn, and begin to draw off the crop 
somewhat earlier. The second crop is prepared for whenever the 
first one is drawn off, and this varies even in the experience of the 
same grower, since the rate of the running of the spawn varies from 
time to time. Sometimes the crop begins to come four or five weeks 
from the time of planting the spawn. At other times it may be two 
or three months before the spawn has run sufficiently for the crop 
to appear. Usually the crop begins to come on well in six to eight 
weeks. The crop usually lasts for six weeks to two months, or 

Productivity of the beds. — One pound of mushrooms from every 
two square feet of surface is considered a very good crop. Some- 
times it exceeds this, the beds bearing one pound for every square 
foot, though such a heavy yield is rare. Oftener the yield is less 
than half a pound for a square foot of surface. 

Causes of failure. — The beginner should study very carefully the 
conditions under which he grows his crops, and if failure results, he 
should attempt to analyze the results in the light of the directions 
given for the curing of the manure, its moisture content, ** sweet- 
ness," character of the spawn, temperature, ventilation, etc. While 
there should be good ventilation, there should not be drafts of air. 
A beginner may succeed the first time, the second or third, and then 
may fail, and not know the cause of the failure. But given a good 
spawn, the right moisture content of the material at time of planting 
and running of the spawn, the sweet condition, or proper condition 
of the curing of the manure, proper sanitary conditions, there should 
be no failure. These are the most important conditions in mush- 
room culture. After the spawn has run and the crop has begun to 
come, the beds have been known to freeze up during the winter, and 
in the spring begin and continue to bear a good crop. After the 
spawn has run well, beds have accidentally been flooded with water 
so that manure water would run out below, and yet come on and 
bear as good a crop as adjoining beds. 

Volunteer mushrooms in greenhouses. — Volunteer mushrooms some- 


times appear in greenhouses in considerable quantity. These start 
from natural spawn in the manure used, or sometimes from the 
spawn remaining in ''spent" mushroom beds which is mixed with 
the soil in making lettuce beds, etc., under glass. One of the 
market gardeners at Ithaca used old spawn in this way, and had 
volunteer mushrooms among lettuce for several years. In making 
the lettuce beds in the autumn, a layer of fresh horse manure six 
inches deep is placed in the bottom, and on this is placed the soil 
mixed with the old, spent mushroom beds. The following year the 
soil and the manure at the bottom, which is now rotten, is mixed 
up, and a fresh layer of manure is placed below. In this way the 
lettuce bed is self-spawned from year to year. About every six 
years the soil in the bed is entirely changed. This gardener, during 
the winter of 1900-1, sold $30.00 to $40.00 worth of volunteer 
mushrooms. Another gardener, in a previous year, sold over $ 50.00 

Planting mushrooms with other vegetables. — In some cases gardeners 
follow the practice of inserting a forkful of manure here and there 
in the soil where other vegetables are grown under glass, and 
planting in it a bit of spawn. 

Mushroom and vegetable house combined. — Some combine a mushroom 
house and house for vegetables in one, there being a deep pit where 
several tiers of beds for mushrooms can be built up, and above this 
the glass house where lettuce, etc., is grown, all at a temperature of 
about 60° F. 


First Method. — Obtain fresh stable horse manure mixed with straw used in 
bedding the animals. Shake it out, separating the coarse material from the 
droppings. Put the droppings in a pile two to three feet deep. Pack down 
firmly. When the heat rises to near 130° F., turn and shake it out, making a 
new pile. Make the new pile by layers of manure and loam soil, or rotted sod, 
one part of soil to eight or nine parts of manure. Turn again when the heat rises 
to near 130° F., and add the same amount of soil. When the temperature is 
about 100° F., the material is ready for the beds. 

Preparing the beds. — Make the beds as described under the paragraph on pages 
250-253, or use boxes. Place the coarse litter in the bottom three to four inches 
deep. On this place three to four inches of the cured material, pack it down, and 
continue adding material until the bed is ten to fifteen inches deep. Allow the beds 
to stand, covering them with straw or excelsior if the air in the cellar or shed is 
such as to dry out the surface. 

Test the moisture content according to directions on page 255. 

Watch the temperature. Do not let it rise above 130° F. When it is down 


to 90° F, or 70° F., if the manure has a "sweetish" or " mushroomy " smell 
it is ready to spawn. 

Spawn according to directions on page 263. 

Soil according to directions on page 266 ; cover bed with straw or excelsior. 

Second Method. — Use horse droppings freed from the coarser material. 
Proceed as '\n first method. 

Third Method. — Use horse droppings freed from coarser material. Pile and 
pack firmly. Do not let temperature rise above 130° F. When it has cooled to 
100° F., make up the beds, at the same time mixing in an equal quantity of rich 
loam or rotted sod. Spawn in a day or two. 

In beginning, practice on a small scale and study the conditions thoroughly, 
as well as the directions given in this chapter. 




As varieties of mushrooms differ in analysis, texture and density 
of flesh, different methods of cooking give best results. For instance, 
the Coprinus micaceus, being very delicate, is easily destroyed by 
over-cooking; a dry, quick pan of the ''mushroom bells" retains 
the best flavor ; while the more dense Agaricus campestris requires 
long, slow cooking to bring out the flavor, and to be tender and digest- 
ible. Simplicity of seasoning, however, must be observed, or the 
mushroom flavor will be destroyed. If the mushroom itself has an 
objectionable flavor, better let it alone than to add mustard or lemon 
juice to overcome it. Mushrooms, like many of the more succulent 
vegetables, are largely water, and readily part with their juices on 
application of salt or heat ; hence it becomes necessary to put the 
mushroom over the fire usually without the addition of water, or the 
juices will be so diluted that they will lack flavor. They have much 
better flavor cooked without peeling, with the exception of puff-balls, 
which should always be pared. As they lose their flavor by soak- 
ing, wash them quickly, a few at a time ; take the mushroom in the 
left hand and with the right hand wash the top or pileus, using either 
a very soft brush or a piece of flannel ; shake them well and put 
them into a colander to dry. 


The wild or uncultivated Agaricus campestris, which is usually 
picked in open fields, will cook in less time than those grown in caves 
and sold in our markets during the winter and spring. Cut the 
stems close to the gills ; these may be put aside and used for flavor- 
ing sauces or soups. Wash the mushrooms carefully, keeping the 
gills down ; throw them into a colander until drained. 

Stewed. — To each pound, allow two ounces of butter. Put the 
butter into a saucepan, and when melted, not brown, throw in the 
mushrooms either whole or cut into slices ; sprinkle over a teaspoon- 
ful of salt ; cover the saucepan closely to keep in the flavor, and 

* The recipes for Agaricus are intended for the several species of this genus 



cook very slowly for twenty minutes, or until they are tender. 
Moisten a rounding tablespoonful of flour in a little cold milk ; when 
perfectly smooth, add sufficient milk to make one gill ; stir this into 
the mushrooms, add a salt-spoon of white pepper, stir carefully until 
boiling, and serve at once. This makes a fairly thick sauce. Less 
flour is required when they are to be served as a sauce over chicken, 
steak, or made dishes. 

Broiled. — Cut the stems close to the gills ; wash the mushrooms 
and dry them with a soft piece of cheesecloth ; put them on the 
broiler gills up. Put a piece of butter, the size of a marrowfat pea, 
in the center of each ; sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper. Put 
the broiler over the fire skin side down ; in this way, the butter will 
melt and sort of baste the mushrooms. Have ready squares of 
neatly toasted bread ; and, as soon as the mushrooms are hot on the 
skin side, turn them quickly and broil about two minutes on the gill 
side. Five minutes will be sufficient for the entire cooking. Dish 
on toast and serve at once. 

Panned on Cream Toast. — Cut the stem close to the gills ; wash and 
dry as directed for broiling. Put them into a pan, and pour over a 
very little melted butter, having gill sides up ; dust with salt and 
pepper, run into a hot oven for twenty minutes. While these are 
panning, toast sufficient bread to hold them nicely ; put it onto a hot 
platter, and just as the mushrooms are done, cover the bread with 
hot milk, being careful not to have too much or the bread will be 
pasty and soft. Dish the mushrooms on the toast, putting the skin 
side up, pour over the juices from the pan, and serve at once. 

These are exceedingly good served on buttered toast without the 
milk, and will always take the place of broiled mushrooms. 

In the Chafing Dish. — Wash, dry the mushrooms, and cut them into 
slices. To each pound allow two ounces of butter. Put the butter 
in the chafing dish, when hot put in the mushrooms, sprinkle over 
a teaspoonful of salt, cover the dish, and cook slowly for five min- 
utes, stirring the mushrooms frequently ; then add one gill of milk. 
Cover the dish again, cook for three minutes longer, add the beaten 
yolks of two eggs, a dash of pepper, and serve at once. These must 
not be boiled after the eggs are added ; but the yolk of egg is by far 
the most convenient form of thickening when mushrooms are cooked 
in the chafing dish. 

Under the Glass Cover or " Bell " with Cream. — With a small biscuit 
cutter, cut rounds from slices of bread ; they should be about two 
and a half inches in diameter, and about a half inch in thickness. 
Cut the stems close to the gills from fresh mushrooms ; wash and 


wipe the mushrooms. Put a tablespOonful of butter in a saucepan ; 
when hot, throw in the mushrooms, skin side down ; cook just a 
moment, and sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Arrange the 
rounds of bread, which have been slightly toasted, in the bottom of 
your " bell " dish ; heap the mushrooms on these ; put a little piece 
of butter in the center ; cover over the bell, which is either of glass, 
china, or silver ; stand them in a baking pan, and then in the oven 
for twenty minutes. While these are cooking, mix a tablespoonful 
of butter and one of flour in a saucepan, add a half pint of milk, or you 
may add a gill of milk and a gill of chicken stock ; stir until boiling, 
add a half teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper. When the mush- 
rooms have been in the oven the allotted time, bring them out ; lift 
the cover, pour over quickly a little of this sauce, cover again, and 
send them at once to the table. 

Another Method. — Wash and dry the mushrooms ; arrange them at 
once on the *' bell plate." The usual plates will hold six good sized 
ones. Dust with pepper and salt ; put in the center of the pile a 
teaspoonful of butter ; pour over six tablespoonfuls of cream or milk ; 
cover with the bell ; stand the dish in a baking pan, and then in a 
hot oven for twenty minutes. 

These are arranged for individual bells. Where one large bell is 
used, the mushrooms must be dished on toast before they are served. 
The object in covering with the bell is to retain every particle of 
the flavor. The bell is then lifted at the table, that the eater may 
get full aroma and flavor from the mushroom. 

Puree. — Wash carefully a half pound of mushrooms ; chop them 
fine, put them into a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter, and 
if you have it, a cup of chicken stock ; if not, a cup of water. Cover 
the vessel and cook slowly for thirty minutes. In a double boiler, 
put one pint of milk. Rub together one tablespoonful of butter and 
two tablespoonfuls of flour ; add it to the milk ; stir and cook until 
thick ; add the mushrooms, and press the whole through a sieve ; 
season to taste with salt and pepper only. 

Cream of Mushroom Soup. — This will be made precisely the same as 
in the preceding recipe, save that one quart of milk will be used 
instead of a pint with the same amount of thickening, and the 
mushrooms will not be pressed through a sieve. 




As these varieties usually grow together and are sort of compan- 
ion mushrooms, recipes given for one will answer for the cooking of 
the other. Being soft and juicy, they must be handled with care, 
and are much better cooked with dry heat. Remove the stems, and 
wash them carefully ; throw them into a colander until dry ; arrange 
them in a baking pan ; dot here and there with bits of butter, allow- 
ing a tablespoonful to each half pound of mushrooms ; dust with salt 
and pepper, run them into a very hot oven, and bake for thirty min- 
utes ; dish in a heated vegetable dish, pouring over the sauce from 
the pan. 

The C. micaceus may also be cooked after the same fashion — 
after dishing the mushrooms boil down the liquor. 

Stewed. — Wash and dry them ; put them into a large, flat pan, 
allowing a tablespoonful of butter to each half pound of mushrooms ; 
sprinkle at once with salt and pepper ; cover the pan, and stew for 
fifteen minutes. Moisten a tablespoonful of flour in a little cold milk ; 
when smooth, add a half cup of cream, if you have it ; if not, a half 
cup of milk. Push the mushrooms to one side ; turn in this mixture, 
and stir until boiling. Do not stir the mushrooms or they will fall 
apart and become unsightly. Dish them ; pour over the sauce, and 
serve at once. Or they may be served on toast, the dish garnished 
with triangular pieces of toast. 


Wash and dry the mushrooms ; put them into a deep saucepan 
with a tablespoonful of butter to each quart ; stand over a quick fire, 
sort of tossing the saucepan. Do not stir, or you will break the 
mushrooms. As soon as they have reached the boiling point, push 
them to the back part of the stove for five minutes ; serve on toast. 
These will be exceedingly dark, are very palatable, and perhaps are 
the most easily digested of all the varieties. 


These mushrooms, having very thin flesh and deep gills, must be 
quickly cooked to be good. Remove the stem, take the mushrooms 
in your hand, gill side down, and with a soft rag wash carefully the 
top, removing all the little brown scales. Put them into a baking 
pan, or on a broiler. Melt a little butter, allow it to settle, take the 


clear, oily part from the top and baste lightly the mushrooms, gill 
sides up ; dust with salt and pepper. Place the serving dish to heat. 
Put the mushrooms over a quick fire, skin side down, for just a 
moment ; then turn and boil an instant on the gill side, and serve at 
once on the heated plate. 

In this W3iy Lepiota procer a is most delicious of all mushrooms; 
but if cooked in moist heat, it becomes soft, but tough and unpalat- 
able ; if baked too long, it becomes dry and leathery. It must be 
cooked quickly and eaten at once. All the edible forms may be 
cooked after this recipe. 

These are perhaps the best of all mushrooms for drying. In this 
condition they are easily kept, and add so much to an ordinary meat 


Wash and dry the mushrooms ; cut them into strips crosswise of 
the gills, trimming off all the woody portion near the stem side. 
Throw the mushrooms into a saucepan, allowing a tablespoonful of 
butter to each pint ; sprinkle over a half teaspoonful of salt; cover, 
and cook slowly for twenty minutes. Moisten a tablespoonful of 
flour in a half cup of milk ; when perfectly smooth, add another half 
cup ; turn this into the mushroom mixture ; bring to boiling point, 
add just a grating of nutmeg, a few drops of onion juice, and a dash 
of pepper. Serve as you would stewed oysters. 

To make this into a la poulette, add the yolks of two eggs just 
as you take the mixture from the fire, and serve on toast. 

Mock Oysters. — Trim the soft gill portion of the Pleuroiiis ostreatus 
into the shape of an oyster ; dust with salt and pepper ; dip in beaten 
egg, then in bread crumbs, and fry in smoking hot fat as you would 
an oyster, and serve at once. This is, perhaps, the best method of 
cooking this variety. 


While in this group we have a number of varieties, they may all 
be cooked after one recipe. The stems will be removed, the mush- 
rooms carefully washed, always holding the gill side down in the 
water, drained in a colander ; and while they apparently do not con- 
tain less water than other mushrooms, the flesh is rather dense, and 
they do not so quickly melt upon being exposed to heat. They are 
nice broiled or baked, or may be chopped fine and served with may- 
onnaise dressing, stuffed into peeled tomatoes, or with mayonnaise 


dressing on lettuce leaves, or mixed with cress and served with 
French dressing, as salads. 

The *' green " or Russula virescens may be peeled, cut into thin 
slices, mixed with the leaves of water-cress which have been picked 
carefully from the stems, covered with French dressing, and served 
on slices of tomato. It is well to peel all mushrooms if they are to 
be served raw. To bake, follow recipes given for baking campestris. 
In this way they are exceedingly nice over the ordinary broiled steak. 

One of the nicest ways, however, of preparing them for steak is 
to wash, dry and put them, gills up, in a baking pan, having a goodly 
quantity ; pour over just a little melted butter ; dust with salt and 
pepper, and put them into the oven for fifteen minutes. While you 
are broiling the steak, put the plate upon which it is to be served 
over hot water to heat ; put on it a tablespoonful of butter, a little 
salt, pepper, and some fmely chopped parsley. Take the mushrooms 
from the oven, put some in the bottom of the plate, dish the steak on 
top, covering the remaining quantity over the steak. Add two table- 
spoonfuls of stock or water to the pan in which they were baked ; 
allow this to boil, scraping all the material from the pan ; baste this 
over the steak, and serve at once. 

Agariciis campestris and many other varieties may also be used 
in this same way. 


Remove the stems, and wash the mushrooms. Put them into a 
saucepan, allowing a tablespoonful of butter and a half teaspoonful of 
salt to each pint. Add four tablespoonfuls of stock to the given 
quantity ; cover the saucepan, and cook sloidy three-quarters of an 
hour. At the end of this time you will have a rich, brown sauce to 
which you may add a teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, and, if 
you like, a tablespoonful of sherry. Serve in a vegetable dish. 

Lactarius deliciosus Stewed. — Wash the mushrooms ; cut them into 
slices; put them into a saucepan, allowing a half pint of stock to 
each pint of mushrooms ; add a half teaspoonful of salt ; cover and 
stew slowly for three-quarters of an. hour. Put a tablespoonful of 
butter in another saucepan, mix with it a tablespoonful of flour ; add 
the mushrooms, stir until they have reached the boiling point ; add 
a teaspoonful of kitchen bouquet, a dash of pepper, and serve it at 
once in a heated vegetable dish. 

A nice combination for a steak sauce is made by using a dozen 
good sized Lactarius deliciosus with four ** beefsteak" mushrooms, 
using then the first recipe. 



Wash a dozen good sized mushrooms, either Ldctarii or Agarici, 
also wash and remove the pores from half a dozen good sized *' beef- 
steak " mushrooms, cutting them into slices. Put all these into a 
baking pan, sprinkle over a h.ilf teaspoonful of salt, add a tablespoon- 
ful of butter, and bake in a moderate oven three-quarters of an hour. 
Broil the steak until it is nearly done ; then put it into the pan with 
the mushrooms, allowing some of the mushrooms to remain under 
the steak, and cover with the remaining portion ; return it to the 
oven for ten minutes ; dish and serve at once. 


These are more palatable baked or fried. Wash the caps and 
remove the pores. Dip the caps in beaten egg, then in bread 
crumbs, and fry them in smoking hot fat ; oil is preferable to butter ; 
even suet would make a drier fry than butter or lard. Ser\-e at 
once as you would egg plant. 

Baked. — Wash and remove the pores ; put the mushrooms into a 
baking pan ; baste them with melted butter, dust with salt and pep- 
per, and bake in a moderately hot oven three-quarters of an hour ; 
dish in a vegetable dish. Put into the pan in which they were baked, 
a tablespoonful of butter. Mix carefully with a tablespoonful of flour 
and add a half pint of stock, a half teaspoonful of kitchen bouquet or 
browning, the same of salt, and a dash of pepper ; pour this over the 
mushrooms, and ser\-e. 

In Fritter Batter. — Beat the yolk of one egg slightly, and add a half 
cup of milk ; stir into this two-thirds of a cup of flour ; stir in the 
well beaten white of the egg and a teaspoonful of olive oil. Wash 
and remove the pores from the boleti. Have ready a good sized shal- 
low pan, the bottom covered with smoking hot oil ; dip the mush- 
rooms, one at a time, into this batter, drain for a moment, and drop 
them into the hot fat. When brown on one side, turn and brown on 
the other. Drain on soft paper and serve at once. 

Boleti in Brown Sauce. — Wash and dry the boleti ; remove the 
pores ; cut them into small pieces. To each pound allow a table- 
spoonful of butter. Put the butter into a saucepan with the mush- 
rooms ; add a half teaspoonful of salt; cover the pan, and stew 
slowly for twenty minutes ; then dust over a tablespoonful of flour ; 
add a half cup of good beef stock ; cook slowly for ten minutes 
longer, and serve. 



As these mushrooms' are slightly bitter, they must be washed, 
dried, and thrown into a little boiling water, to boil for just a moment ; 
drain, and throw away this water, add a tablespoonful of butter, a 
teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and a half cup of milk or stock ; 
cover the pan, and cook slowly for twenty minutes. As the milk 
scorches easily, cook over a very slow fire, or in a double boiler. 
Pour the mixture over slices of toast, and serve at once. A table- 
spoonful or two of sherry may be added just as they are removed 
from the fire. 


Wash, separating the bunches, and chop or cut them rather fine, 
measure, and to each quart allow a half pint of Supreme sauce. 
Throw the clavaria into a saucepan, cover, and allow it to stew gently 
for fifteen minutes while you make the sauce. Put a tablespoonful 
of butter and one of flour in the saucepan ; mix, and add a half pint 
of milk or chicken stock ; or you may add half of one and half of the 
other ; stir until boiling ; take from the fire, add a half teaspoonful 
of salt, a saltspoonful of pepper, and the yolks of two eggs. Take 
the clavaria from the fire, and when cool stir it into the sauce. 
Turn into a baking dish, sprinkle the top with crumbs, and brown in 
a quick oven. Do not cook too long, as it will become watery. 

Pickled Clavaria. — Wash the clavaria thoroughly without breaking 
it apart ; put into a steamer ; stand the steamer over a kettle of boil- 
ing water, and steam rapidly, that is, keep the water boiling hard 
for fifteen minutes. Take from the fire, and cool. Put over the fire 
sufficient vinegar to cover the given quantity ; to each quart, allow 
two bay leaves, six cloves, a teaspoonful of whole mustard, and a 
dozen pepper corns, that is, whole peppers. Put the clavaria into 
glass jars. Bring the vinegar to boiling point, and pour it over ; 
seal and put aside. 

This may be served alone as any other pickle, or on lettuce 
leaves with French dressing as a salad. 

Escalloped Clavaria. — Wash, separate and cut the clavaria as in first 
recipe. To each quart allow a half pint of chicken stock, a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Put a layer of bread 
crumbs in the bottom of the dish, then a layer of chopped clavaria, 
and so continue until you have the dish filled. Pour over the stock, 
which you have seasoned with salt and pepper ; dot bits of butter 


here and there over the top, and bake in a moderate oven thirty 

This recipe is excellent for the young or button Hypholoma, except 
that the time of baking must be forty-five minutes. 


To be eatable, the puff-balls must be perfectly white to the very 
center. Pare off the skin ; cut them into slices ; dust with salt and 
pepper. Have ready in a large, shallow pan a sufficient quantity of 
hot oil to cover the bottom. Throw in the slices and, when brown 
on one side, turn and brown on the other ; serve at once on a heated 

A la Poulette. — Pare the puff-balls ; cut them into slices and then 
into dice ; put them into a saucepan, allowing a tablespoonful of 
butter to each pint of blocks. Cover the saucepan ; stew gently for 
fifteen minutes ; lift the lid ; sprinkle over a teaspoonful of salt and 
a dash of pepper. Beat the yolks of three eggs until light ; add a 
half cup of cream and a half cup of milk ; pour this into the hot 
mixture, and shake until smoking hot. Do not allow them to boil. 
Serve in a heated vegetable dish, with blocks of toast over the top. 

Puff=Ban Omelet. — Pare and cut into blocks sufficient puff-balls to 
make a pint. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan ; add 
the puff-balls, cover and cook for ten minutes. Beat six eggs with- 
out separating, until thoroughly mixed, but not too light ; add the 
cooked puff-balls, a level teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper. 
Put a tablespoonful of butter into your omelet pan ; when hot, turn 
in the egg mixture ; shake over the hot fire until the bottom has 
thoroughly set, then with a limber knife lift the edge, allowing the 
soft portion to run underneath ; continue this operation until the 
omelet is cooked through ; fold and turn onto a heated dish. Serve 
at once. 

Other delicate mushrooms may be used in this same manner. 

Puff=BalIs with Agaricus campestris. — As the Agaricus campestris has 
a rather strong flavor and the puff-balls are mild, both are better for 
being mixed in the cooking. Take equal quantities of Agaricus cam- 
pestris and puff-balls ; pare and cut the puff-balls into blocks ; to 
each half pound allow a tablespoonful of butter. Put the butter in a 
saucepan, add the mushrooms, sprinkle over the salt (allowing a 
half teaspoonful always to each pint) ; cover the saucepan and stew 
slowly for twenty minutes. Moisten a tablespoonful of flour in a 
half cup of milk, add it to the mixture, stir and cook for just a 
moment, add a dash of pepper, and serve in a heated dish. 


This recipe may be changed by omitting the tlour and adding the 
yolks of a couple of eggs ; milk is preferable to stock, for all the 
white or light-colored varieties. 


Select twelve large-sized morels ; cut off the stalks, and throw 
them into a saucepan of warm water ; let them stand for fifteen min- 
utes ; then take them on a skimmer one by one, and drain carefully. 
Chop fine sufficient cold boiled tongue or chicken to make one cupful ; 
mix this with an equal quantity of bread crumbs, and season with 
just a suspicion of onion juice, not more than ten dops, and a dash 
of pepper. Fill this into the mushrooms, arrange them neatly in a 
baking pan, put in a half cup of stock and a tablespoonful of butter, 
bake in a moderate oven thirty minutes, basting frequently. When 
done, dish neatly. Boil down the sauce that is in the pan until it is 
just sufficient to baste them on the dish ; serve at once. 

A Second Method. — Select large-sized morels ; cut off the stalk ; 
wash well through several waters. Put into a frying pan a little 
butter, allowing about a tablespoonful to each dozen mushrooms. 
When hot, throw in the mushrooms, and toss until they are thor- 
oughly cooked ; then add a half pint of milk or stock ; cover the 
vessel, and cook slowly twenty minutes ; dust with salt and pepper, 
and serve in a vegetable dish. This method gives an exceedingly 
palatable and very sightly dish if garnished with sweet Spanish 
peppers that have been boiled until tender. 

Another Method. — Remove the stems, and wash the morels as 
directed in the preceding recipe. Make a stuffing of bread crumbs 
seasoned with salt, pepper, chopped parsley, and sufficient melted 
butter to just moisten. Place them in a baking pan ; add a little 
stock and butter ; bake for thirty minutes. When done, dish. Into 
the pan in which they were cooked, turn a cupful of strained toma- 
toes ; boil rapidly for fifteen minutes until slightly thickened ; pour 
this over the mushrooms ; garnish the dish with triangular pieces of 
toasted bread, and serve. 


In the following recipes one may use A^ariciis campestris, silvi- 
cola, arvensis, or Pleurotus ostreatus, or sapidiis, or Coprimis comatus, 
or any kindred mushrooms. The Agaricus campestris, however, are 
to be preferred. 

To Serve with a Boiled Leg of Mutton, wash well the mushrooms and 


dry them ; dip each into flour, being careful not to get too much on 
the gill side. In a saucepan have a little hot butter or oil ; drop these 
in, skin side down; dust them lightly with salt and pepper. After 
they have browned on this side, turn them quickly and brown the 
gills ; add a half pint of good stock ; let them simmer gently for 
fifteen minutes. Take them up with a skimmer, and dish them on a 
platter around the mutton. Boil the sauce down until it is the proper 
consistency ; pour it over, and serve at once. These are also good 
to serve with roasted beef. 

Mushroom Sauce for Game. — Wash well one pound of fresh mush- 
rooms ; dry, and chop them very fme. Put them into a saucepan 
with one and a half tablespoonfuls of butter ; cover, and cook slowly 
for eight minutes ; then add a half cup of fresh rubbed bread crumbs, 
a half teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoon of white pepper ; cover and 
cook again for five minutes ; stir, add a tablespoonful of chopped 
parsley, and, if you like, two tablespoonfuls of sherry ; turn into a 

A Nice Way to Serve with Fricassee of Chicken. — Wash and dry the 
mushrooms ; sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Put some oil or 
butter in a shallow pan ; when hot, throw in the mushrooms, skin 
side down ; cover the pan, put in the oven for fifteen minutes ; baste 
them once during the baking. Lift them carefully and put them on 
a heated dish. Add to the fat in the pan two tablespoonfuls of finely 
chopped mushrooms, a half cup of good stock ; boil carefully for five 
minutes. Have ready rounds of bread toasted ; dish the mushrooms 
on these ; put on top a good sized piece of carefully boiled marrow ; 
season the sauce with salt, and strain it over. Use these as a gar- 
nish around the edge of the plate, or you may simply dish and serve 
them for breakfast, or as second course at lunch. 

Oysters and Mushrooms. — Wash and remove the stems from a half 
pound of fresh mushrooms ; chop them fine ; put them into a sauce- 
pan with a tablespoonful of butter, a half teaspoonful of salt, and a 
dash of pepper ; cover closely, and cook over a slow fire for ten 
minutes. Have ready, washed and drained, twenty-five good sized 
fat oysters ; throw them perfectly dry into this mushroom mixture. 
Pull the saucepan over a bright fire ; boil, stirring carefully, for 
about five minutes. Serve on squares of carefully toasted bread. 

Tomatoes Stuffed with Mushrooms. — Wash perfectly smooth, solid 
tomatoes ; cut a slice from the stem end, and remove carefully the 
seeds and core. To each tomato allow three good sized mushrooms ; 
wash, dry, chop them fine, and stuff them into the tomatoes ; put a 
half saltspoon of salt on the top of each and a dusting of pepper. 


Into a bowl put one cup of soft bread crumbs ; season it with a half 
teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper ; pour over a tablespoonful 
of melted butter ; heap this over the top of the tomato, forming a 
sort of pyramid, packing in the mushrooms ; stand the tomatoes in a 
baking pan and bake in a moderate oven one hour. Serve at once, 
lifting them carefully to prevent breaking. 

Or, the mushrooms may be chopped fme, put with a tablespoon- 
ful of butter into a saucepan and cooked for five minutes before they 
are stuffed into the tomatoes ; then the bread crumbs packed over 
the top, and the whole baked for twenty minutes. Each recipe wil 
give you a different flavor. 



By J. F. CLARK. 

Regarding the chemical composition of mushrooms, we have in 
the past been limited largely to the work of European chemists. 
Recently, however, some very careful analyses of American mush- 
rooms have been made. The results of these investigations, while 
in general accord with the work already done in Europe, have em- 
phasized the fact that mushrooms are of very variable composition. 
That different species should vary greatly was of course to be ex- 
pected, but we now know that different specimens of the same species 
grown under different conditions may be markedly different in chem- 
ical composition. The chief factors causing this variation are the 
composition, the moisture content, and the temperature of the soil in 
which they grow, together with the maturity of the plant. The tem- 
perature, humidity, and movement of the atmosphere and other local 
conditions have a further influence on the amount of water present. 

The following table, showing the amounts of the more important 
constituents in a number of edible American species, has been com- 
piled chiefly from a paper by L. B. Mendel (Amer. Jour. Phy. 1: 
225-238). This article is one of the most recent and most valuable 
contributions to this important study, and anyone wishing to look 
into the methods of research, or desiring more detailed information 
than is here given, is referred to the original paper. 
























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Water. — Like all growing plants, the mushroom contains a very 
large proportion of water. The actual amount present varies greatly 
in different species. In the above table it will be seen that Polyporus 
sulphiireiis , with over 70 per cent, of water, has the least of any 
species mentioned, while the species of Coprinus and Agaricus have 
usually fully 90 per cent, water. The amount of water present, 
however, varies greatly in the same species at different seasons and 
in different localities, and with variations in the moisture content of 
soil and atmosphere, also with the age and rapidity of development 
of the individual plant. 

Total Nitrogen. — The proportion of nitrogen in the dry matter of 
different species varies from 2 per cent, to 6 per cent. This com- 
paratively high nitrogen content was formerly taken to indicate an 
unusual richness in proteid substances, which in turn led to very 
erroneous ideas regarding the nutritive value of these plants. The 
nitrogenous substances will be more fully discussed later, when we 
consider their nutritive value. 

Ether Extract. — This consists of a variety of fatty substances solu- 
ble in ether. It varies greatly in quality and quantity in different 
species. The amount is usually from 4 per cent, to 8 per cent, of 
the total dry matter. It includes, besides various other substances, 
several free fatty acids and their glycerides, the acids of low melt- 
ing point being most abundant. These fatty substances occur in the 
stem, but are much more abundant in the cap, especially in the fruit- 
ing portion. Just what nutritive value these fatty matters may 
have has never been determined. 

Carbohydrates. — The largest part of the dry matter of the mush- 
rooms is made up of various carbohydrates, including cellulose or 
fungocellulose, glycogen, mycoinuline, trehalose, mannite, glucose, 
and other related substances. The cellulose is present in larger pro- 
portion in the stem than in the cap, and in the upper part of the cap 
than in the fruiting surface. This is doubtless related to the sus- 
taining and protective functions of the stem and the upper part of 
the cap. Starch, so common as a reserve food in the higher plants, 
does not occur in the mushrooms. As is the case with the fats, no 
determination of the nutritive value of these substances has been 
made, but it may be assumed that the soluble cabohydrates of the 
mushrooms do not differ greatly from similar compounds in other 

Ash. — The ash of mushrooms varies greatly. Polyporus officinalis 
gives but 1.08 per cent, of ash in dry matter, Pleurotus ulmarius gives 
12.6 per cent., and Clitopilus prunulus gives 15 per cent. The aver- 


age of twelve edible species gave 7 per cent, ash in the stem and 
8.96 per cent, in the cap. 

In regard to the constituents of the ash, potassium is by far the 
most abundant — the oxide averaging about 50 per cent, of the total 
ash. Phosphoric acid stands next to potassium in abundance and 
importance, constituting, on an average, about one-third of the entire 
ash. Oxides of manganese and iron are always present ; the former 
averaging about 3 per cent, and the latter 5 per cent, to 2 per cent, 
of the ash. Sodium, calcium, and chlorine are usually present in 
small and varying quantities. Sulphuric acid occurs in the ash of all 
fungi, and is remarkable for the great variation in quantity present 
in different species ; e. g., ash of Helvella esculenta contains 1.58 per 
cent. H2 SO 4 while that of Agaricus campestris contains the relatively 
enormous amount of 24.29 per cent. 

Any discussion of the bare composition of a food is necessarily 
incomplete without a consideration of the nutritive value of the various 
constituents. This is especially desirable in the case of the mush- 
rooms, for while they are frequently overestimated and occasionally 
ridiculously overpraised by their friends, they are quite generally 
distrusted and sometimes held in veritable abhorrence by those who 
are ignorant of their many excellent qualities. On the one hand, we 
are told that ** gastronomically and chemically considered the flesh 
of the mushroom has been proven to be almost identical with meat, 
and possesses the same nourishing properties." We frequently hear 
them referred to as " vegetable beefsteak," " manna of the poor," 
and other equally extravagant and misleading terms. On the other 
hand, we see vast quantities of the most delicious food rotting in the 
fields and woods because they are regarded by the vast majority of 
the people as "toad-stools" and as such particularly repulsive and 

Foods may be divided into three classes according to the functions 
they perform : 

(tz) To form the material of the body and repair its wastes. 

(^) To supply energy for muscular exertion and for the main- 
tenance of the body heat. 

(c) Relishes. 

The formation of the body material and the repair of its wastes 
is the function of the proteids of foods. It has been found by care- 
ful experiment that a man at moderately hard muscular exertion 
requires .28 lb. of digestible proteids daily. The chief sources of our 
proteid foods are meats, fish, beans, etc. It has been as a proteid 
food that mushrooms have been most strongly recommended. Refer- 


ring to Table 1, it will be seen that nitrogen constituted 5.79 per cent, 
of the total dry substance of Coprinus comatus. This high nitrogen 
content, which is common to the mushrooms in general, was formerly 
taken to indicate a very unusual richness in proteid materials. It is 
now known, however, that there were several sources of error in 
this assumption. 

Much of the nitrogen is present in the form of non-proteid sub- 
stances of a very low food value. Another and very considerable 
portion enters into the composition of a substance closely related to 
cellulose. A third source of error was the assumption that all the 
proteid material was digestible. It is now known that a very con- 
siderable portion is not digestible and hence not available as food. 
Thus, notwithstanding the 5.79 per cent, of nitrogen in Coprinus 
comatus, we find but .82 per cent, in the form of actually available 
(i. e., digestible) proteids, or approximately one-seventh of what 
was formerly supposed to be present. 

The digestibility of the proteids varies very greatly with the spe- 
cies. Morner found the common field mushroom, Agaricus campes- 
tris, to have a larger amount of proteids available than any other 
species studied by him. Unfortunately, the digestibility of the 
American plant has not been tested. There is great need for further 
work along this line. Enough has been done, however, to demon- 
strate that mushrooms are no longer to be regarded as a food of the 
proteid class. 

The energy for the muscular exertion and heat is most economi- 
cally derived from the foods in which the carbohydrates and fats 

The common way of comparing foods of the first two classes 
scientifically is to compare their heat-giving powers. The unit of 
measurement is termed a calorie. It represents the amount of heat 
required to raise a kilogram of water 1° Centigrade. (This is 
approximately the heat required to raise one pound of water 4° Fahr- 
enheit.) A man at moderately hard muscular labor requires daily 
enough food to give about 3500 calories of heat-units. The major part 
of this food may be most economically derived from the foods of the 
second class, any deficiency in the .28 lb. of digestible protein being 
made up by the addition of some food rich in this substance. 

In the following table the value of ten pounds of several food sub- 
stances of the three classes has been worked out. Especial atten- 
tion is called to the column headed '* proteids " and to the last column 
where the number of heat-units which may be purchased for one 
cent at current market rates has been worked out. 








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The mushrooms have been valued at 25 cents per pound, which 
is probably considerably below the average market price for a good 
article. It should also be remarked that the amounts given in this 
table are the digestible and hence available constituents of the foods. 
The only exception to this is in the case of the fats and carbohy- 
drates of the mushrooms, no digestion experiments having been 
reported on these constituents. In the absence of data we have 
assumed that they were entirely digested. 

The beef and beans are typical animal and vegetable foods of the 
proteid class. A glance at the table will show how markedly they 
differ from the mushrooms. The latter are nearest the cabbage in 
composition and nutritive value. The similarity between the cab- 
bage and the Agaricus campestris here analyzed is very striking. 
The potato is somewhat poorer in fat, but very much richer than the 
mushroom in carbohydrates. 

The figures in the last column will vary of course with fluctua- 
tions in the market price, but such variation will not interfere at any 
time with the demonstration that purchased mushrooms are not a 
poor man's food. Here we find that one cent invested in cabbage 
at i>^ cents per pound, gives 93 calories of nutrition, while the same 
amount invested in Agaricus campestris — the common mushroom of 
our markets — would give but 5.3 calories y although they are almost 
identical so far as nutritive value is concerned. 

The same sum invested in wheat flour, with its high carbohydrate 
and good proteid content, would yield 658 calories or one-sixth the 
amount necessary to sustain a man at work for one day. The 
amount of mushrooms necessary for the same result is a matter of 
simple computation. 

Mushrooms, however, have a distinct and very great value as a 
food of the third class, that is, as condiments or food accessories, and 
their value as such is beyond the computation of the chemist or the 
physiologist, and doubtless varies with different individuals. They 
are among the most appetizing of table delicacies and add greatly to 
the palatability of many foods when cooked with them. It is surely 
as unfair to decry the mushroom on account of its low nutritive 
value, as it is wrong to attribute to it qualities which are nothing 
short of absurd in view of its composition. In some respects its place 
as a food is not unlike that of the oyster, celery, berries, and other 
delicacies. Worked out on the basis of nutritive value alone they 
would all be condemned ; the oyster for instance presents a showing 
but little better than the mushroom, and vastly inferior, so far as 
economy is concerned, to the common potato. This, too, for oysters 


purchased by the quart. The nutritive value of one cent's worth of 
oysters " on the half shell " would be interesting ! 

The question of the toxicology of the higher fungi is one of very 
great theoretical and practical interest. But on account of the great 
difficulties in the way of such investigations comparatively little has 
yet been accomplished. A few toxic compounds belonging chiefly to 
the class termed alkaloids have, however, been definitely isolated. 

Choline. — This alkaloid is of wide occurrence in the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. It has been isolated from Amanita muscaria, 
A. pantherina, Boletus luridus, and Helvetia esciilenta. It is not very 
toxic, but on uniting with oxygen it passes over to muscarine. 
According to Kobert the substance formed from choline on the decay 
of the mushrooms containing it is not muscarine, but a very closely 
related alkaloid, neurin. This transformation of a comparatively 
harmless alkaloid to an extremely deadly one simply by the partial 
decay of the plant in which the former is normally found, emphasizes 
very much the wisdom of rejecting for table use all specimens which 
are not entirely fresh. This advice applies to all kinds of mush- 
rooms, and to worm-eaten and otherwise injured, as well as decayed 
ones. Neurin is almost identical in its physiological effects with 
muscarine, which is described below. 

Muscarine. — This is the most important because the most danger- 
ous alkaloid found in the mushrooms. It is most abundant in Ama- 
nita muscaria, it is also found in considerable quantity in Amanita 
pantherina, and to a lesser, but still very dangerous extent in Boletus 
luridus and Russula emetica. It is quite probably identical with bul- 
bosine, isolated from Amanita phalloides by Boudier. Muscarine is an 
extremely violent poison, .cx)3 to .005 of a gram (.06 grain) being a 
very dangerous dose for a man. Like other constituents of mush- 
rooms, the amount of muscarine present varies very greatly with 
varying conditions of soil and climate. This, indeed, may account 
for the fact that Boletus luridus is regarded as an edible mushroom in 
certain parts of Europe, the environment being such that little or no 
muscarine is developed. 

According to Kobert, Amanita muscaria contains, besides choline 
and muscarine, a third alkaloid, pili-atropin. This alkaloid, like 
ordinary atropin, neutralizes to a greater or less extent the musca- 
rine. The amount of pilz-atropin present varies, as other constit- 
uents of mushrooms vary, with varying conditions of soil, climate, 
etc., and it may be that in those localities where the Amanita 
muscaria is used for food the conditions are favorable for a large pro- 
duction of pilz-atropin which neutralizes the muscarine, thus making 



the plant harmless. Be this as it may, Amanita muscaria, so deadly 
as ordinarily found, is undoubtedly used quite largely as food in parts 
of France and Russia, and it^ has been eaten repeatedly in certain 
localities in this country without harm. 

Fortunately muscarine has a very unpleasant taste. It is inter- 
esting in this connection to note that the Amanita muscaria is said to 
be used by the inhabitants of Northern Russia — particularly the 
Koraks — as . a means of inducing intoxication. To overcome the 
extremely unpleasant taste of the plant they swallow pieces of the 
dried cap without chewing them, or boil them in water and drink the 
decoction with other substances which disguise the taste. 

The symptoms of poisoning with muscarine are not at once evi- 
dent, as is the case with several of the less virulent poisons. They 
usually appear in from one-half to two hours. For the symptoms in 
detail we shall quote from Mr. V. K. Chestnut, Dept. of Agr., Wash- 
ington (Circular No. 13, Div. of Bot.) : "Vomiting and diarrhcea 
almost always occur, with a pronounced flow of saliva, suppression of 
the urine, and various cerebral phenomena beginning with giddiness, 
loss of confidence in one's ability to make ordinary movements, and 
derangements of vision. This is succeeded by stupor, cold sweats, 
and a very marked weakening of the heart's action. In case of rapid 
recovery the stupor is short and usually marked with mild delirium. 
In fatal cases the stupor continues from one to two or three days, 
and death at last ensues from the gradual weakening and final 
stoppage of the heart's action." 

The treatment for poisoning by muscarine consists primarily in 
removing the unabsorbed portion of the mushroom from the alimen- 
tary canal and in counteracting the effect of muscarine on the heart. 
The action of this organ should be fortified at once by the subcuta- 
neous injection, by a physician, of atropine in doses of from one 
one-hundredth to one-fiftieth of a grain. The strongest emetics, such 
as sulphate of zinc or apomorphine, should be used, though in case of 
profound stupor even these may not produce the desired action. 
Freshly ignited charcoal or two grains of a one per cent, alkaline 
solution of permanganate of potash may then be administered, in 
order, in the case of the former substance, to absorb the poison, or, 
in the case of the latter, to decompose it. This should be followed 
by oils or oleaginous purgatives, and the intestines should be cleaned 
and washed out with an enema of warm water and turpentine. 

Experiments on animals poisoned by Amanita muscaria and with 
pure muscarine show very clearly that when the heart has nearly 
ceased to may be stimulated to strong action almost instantly 


by the use of atropine. Its use as thus demonstrated has been the 
means of saving numerous lives. We have in this alkaloid an almost 
perfect physiological antidote for muscarine, and therefore in such 
cases of poisoning its use should be pushed as heroically as the symp- 
toms of the case will warrant. The presence of phallin in Amanita 
muscaria is possible, and its symptoms should be looked for in the 
red color of the blood serum discharged from the intestines. 

Phallin. — The exact chemical nature of this extremely toxic sub- 
stance is not certainly known, but it is generally conceded to be of 
an albuminous nature. That it is an extremely deadly poison is shown 
by the fact that .0015 grain per 2 lbs. weight of the animal is a fatal 
dose for cats and dogs. It is the active principle of the most deadly of 
all mushrooms, the Amanita phalloides, or death-cup fungus. We quote 
again from Mr. Chestnut's account of phallin and its treatment : 
'' The fundamental injury is not due, as in the case of muscarine, to 
a paralysis of the nerves controlling the action of the heart, but to a 
direct effect on the blood corpuscles. These are quickly dissolved 
by phallin, the blood serum escaping from the blood vessels into the 
alimentary canal, and the whole system being rapidly drained of its 
vitality. No bad taste warns the victim, nor do the preliminary 
symptoms begin until nine to fourteen hours after the poisonous 
mushrooms are eaten. There is then considerable abdominal pain and 
there may be cramps in the legs and other nervous phenomena, such 
as convulsions, and even lockjaw or other kinds of tetanic spasms. 
The pulse is weak, the abdominal pain is rapidly followed by nausea, 
vomiting, and extreme diarrhoea, the intestinal discharges assuming 
the "rice-water" condition characteristic of cholera. The latter 
symptoms are persistently maintained, generally without loss of con- 
sciousness, until death ensues, which happens in from two to four 
days. There is no known antidote by which the effects of phallin 
can be counteracted. The undigested material, if not already vom- 
ited, should, however, be removed from the stomach and intestines 
by methods similar to those given for cases of poisoning by Amanita 

** After that the remainder of the poison, if the amount of phallin 
already taken up by the system is not too large, may wear itself out on 
the blood and the patient may recover. It is suggested that this 
wearing-out process may be assisted by transfusing into the veins 
blood freshly taken from some warm-blooded animal. The depletion 
of the blood serum might be remedied by similar transfusions of salt 
and warm water." 

Heivellic Acid. — This very deadly poison is sometimes found in 


Helvetia esculenta Persoon (Gyromytra esculenta), particularly in old 
or decaying specimens. It has been studied and named by Boehm. It 
is quite soluble in hot water, and in some localities this species of Hel- 
vella is always parboiled — the water being thrown away — before it is 
prepared for the table. It seems to be quite generally agreed that 
young and perfectly fresh specimens are free from the poison. As 
the poison is very violent, however, this plant should be carefully 

The symptoms resemble in a very marked degree those of the 
deadly phallin, the dissolution of the red corpuscles of the blood being 
one of the most marked and most dangerous ; this is accompanied by 
nausea, vomiting, jaundice, and stoppage of the kidneys. There is 
no known antidote for this poison, hence the little that can be done 
would be similar to that mentioned under phallin. 

When poisoning by mushrooms is suspected, one cannot too 
strongly urge that the services of a competent physician should be 
secured with the least possible delay. 




In fungi, as in higher plants, each organ or part of the plant is 
subject to a great number of variations which appeal to the eye of 
the student, and by which he recognizes relationship among the 
various individuals, species, and genera of this group. For the pur- 
pose of systematic studies of mushrooms or even for the recognition 
of a few species, it is of primary importance to be acquainted with 
terms used in describing different types of variation. Only a few 
of the more important terms, such as are employed in this book, 
together with diagrams illustrating typical cases to which they are 
applied, will be given here. 

The pileus. — The pileus or cap is the first part of a mushroom which 
attracts the attention of the collector. It is the fleshy fruit body of 
the plant. This, like all other parts of the mushroom, is made up, 
not of cellular tissue as we find it in flowering plants, but of numer- 
ous interwoven threads, called hyphce, which constitute the flesh or 
trama of the pileus. Ordinarily, the filamentous structure of the 



flesh is very obvious when a thin section of the cap is examined 
under the microscope, but in certain genera, as Russula and Lactarius, 
many branches of the hyphce become greatly enlarged, forming little 
vesicles or bladders. These vesicles lie in groups all through the 
flesh of the pileus, sometimes forming the greater part of its sub- 
stance. The filamentous hyphce pass around and through these 
groups, filling up the interstices. In cross section this tissue resem- 
bles parenchyma, and appears as if it were made up of rounded cells. 
Such a trama is said to be vesiciilose to distinguish it from the ordinary 
or floccose trama. The threads on the outer surface of the pileus 



Portion of vesiculose trama in the pileus of a 

Figure 240, 
Portion of a floccose trama. 

constitute the cortex or cuticle. They are thick walled and often 
contain coloring matter which gives the plants their characteristic 
color. In many species their walls become gelatiriized, covering the 
outside of the pileus with a viscid, slimy, or glutinous layer, often 
called pellicle. In other instances the corticle layer ceases to grow 
with the pileus. It is then torn and split by the continued expand- 
ing of the rest of the plant, and remains on the surface in the form 
of hairs, fibers, scales, etc. 

As an example of the most usual form of the pileus, we may take 
that of the common mushroom {Agaricus campestris) when it is nearly 
expanded. The pileus is then quite regular in outline and evenly 
convex (Fig. 243). Many mushrooms during the early stages of their 
development have this form, which is variously changed by later 



growth. The convex piieus usually becomes plane or expanded as it 
grows. If the convexity is greater it is said to be campanulate (Fig. 
245), conical hemispherical, etc., terms which need no explanation. 
The piieus is umbilicate when it has an abrupt, sharp depression at 
the center (Fig. 241), infundihuliform when the margin is much 
higher than the center, so that the cap resembles a funnel (Fig-. 244), 

Figure 241. Figure 242. Fkuire 243. 

Figure 241. — Omphalia campanella, piieus umbilicate, gills decurrent. 
Figure 242. — Lepiota procera, piieus convex, umbonate; annulus free, movable; 

gills free. 
FKiURE 243. — Agaricus campestris, piieus convex, gills free. 

and depressed when the center is less, or irregularly, sunken. When 
the center of the piieus is raised in the form of a boss or knob it is 
umbonate (Fig. 242). The umbo may have the form of a sharp ele- 
vation at the center, or it may be rounded or obtuse, occupying a 
larger part of the disc. When it is irregular or indistinct the piieus 
is said to be gibbous (Fig. 246). 

The gills. — The gills or lamellae are thin blades on the under side 



of the pileus, radiating from the stem to the margin. When the 
pileus is cut in halves the general outline of the gills may be observed. 
In outline they may be broad, narrow, lanceolate, triangular, etc. 
In respect to their ends they are attenuate when gradually narrowed 
to a sharp point, acute when they end in a sharp angle, and obtuse 
when the ends are rounded. Again, the gills are arcuate when they 
arch from the stem to the edge of the pileus, and ventricose when 
they are bellied out vertically toward the earth. 

Figure 244. 

Clitocybe infundibuliformis, pileus in 

fundibuliforni, gills decurrent. 

Figure 245. 
Mycena galericulata, pileus conic to 
campanulate, gills decurrent by a 
tooth, stem fistulose. 

The terms given above are often used in descriptive works, but 
the most important feature to be noted in the section of the plant is 
the relation of the gills to the stem. This relation is represented by 
several distinct types which are sometimes used to limit genera or 
sub-genera, since the mode of attachment is usually constant in all 
species of a group. The principal relations of the gills to the stem 
are described as follows : Adnate when they reach the stem and are 
set squarely against it (Fig. 247) ; decurrent when they run down 
the stem (Fig. 244); sinuate or emarginate when they have a notch or 
vertical curve at the posterior end (Fig. 246) ; and free when they 



are rounded off without reaching the stem (Fig. 243). In all cases 
when the lamellae reach the stem and are only attached by the 
upper angle they are said to be adnexed. This term is often used in 
combination with others, as sinuate- adnexed (Fig. 248, small figure), 
or ascending adnexed (Fig. 248, larger plant). Sometimes the lamellae 
are adnate, adnexed, etc., and have a slight decurrent process or 
tooth as in Mycena galericulata (Fig. 245). In many plants the gills 

Figure 246. Figure 247. Figure 24S. 

Figure 246. — Tricholoma, gills sinuate, stipe solid. 
Figure 247. — Panaeolus papilionaceus, gills adnate. 
Figure 248. — Left-hand small plant, Hygrophorus, gills sinuate, adnexed. Right- 
hand plant Panaeolus retirugis, gills ascending adnexed ; veil appendiculate. 

separate very readily from the stem when the plants are handled. 
Sometimes merely the expansion of the pileus tears them away, so 
that it is necessary to use great caution, and often to examine plants 
in different stages of development to determine the real condition of 
the lamellae. 

In certain genera the gills have special characteristics which may 
be noted here. Usually the edge of the lamelki^ is acute or sharp 
like the blade of a knife, but in Cantharellus and Trogia the edges are 
very blunt or obtuse. In extreme forms the lamellae are reduced to 



mere veins or ridges. Again, the edge is generally entire, i. e., not 

noticeably toothed, but in Lentiniis it is often toothed or cut in various 

ways. In some other 

plants the edges are 

serrulate, crenulate, 

etc. In Schiiophyl- 

lum alnemn, a small 

whitish plant very 

common on dead 

sticks, the gills are 

split lengthwise 

along the edge with 

the halves revolute, 

i. e., rolled back. In 

Coprinus the gills 

and often a large 

part of the pileus 

melt at maturity into 

a dark, inky fluid. 
The hymenium. — 

The term hymcniufu 

is applied to the 

spore-bearing tissue 

of many fungi. In the Agaricacece the hymenium covers the entire 

surface of the gills and usually the portion of the pileus between 

the gills. It originates 
in the following man- 
ner : the threads form- 
ing the trama of the 
gills grow out from the 
lower side of the pileus 
and perpendicular to its 
under surface. As 
growth advances many 
branches of the threads 
turn outward toward 
either surface of the gill 
and finally terminate 
in club-shaped cells. 
These cells, therefore, 

Figure 249. — Section of portion of gill of Marasmius 
cohasrens. t, trama of gill ; sk, subhymenium ; k, 
■ hymenium layer. The long, dark cells are brown 
cystidia, termed spicules by some to distinguish them 
from the colorless cystidia. The long cells bearing 
the oval spores are the basidia. 

Figure 250. — Inocybe repanda (Bull.) Bres. (= Ento- 
loma repandum Bull.), t, trama of pileus; s/i, sub- 

hymenium; /^ the hymenial layer; the long cells y^^ gide by side, perpen- 
with a drop of moisture at the ends are cystidia ■' ' r r 

(sing, cystidium). 

dicular to the surface, 


forming a pavement, as it were, over the entire surface of the gills. 
Some of them put out four little prongs, on each of which a spore is 
borne, while others simply remain as sterile cells (Figs. 249, 250). 
The spore-bearing cells are hasidia ; the others are called paraphyses. 
They resemble each other very much, except that the basidia bear 
four sferigmata and a spore on each. In a few species the number of 
sterigmata is reduced to two and in some low forms the number is 
variable. The layer just beneath the basidia is usually more or less 
modified, being often composed of small cells different from the rest 
of the trama. This is called the siih-hymeiiial layer or stib-Iiymenium 
(Fig. 250). 

Other cells called cystidia occur in the hymenia of various species 
distributed through nearly all the genera of the agarics. Cystidia 
are large, usually inflated, cells which project above the rest of the 
hymenium (Fig. 250). They originate either like the basidia, from 
the sub-hymenial cells (Fig. 250), or from special hypha? deeper 
down in the trama of the gill (Fig. 249). They are scattered over 
the entire surface of the hymenium, but become more numerous on 
the edge of the lamellae. Their number is much smaller than that of 
the basidia, but in some species where they are colored they may 
greatly change the appearance of the gills. Cystidia often secrete 
moisture which collects in drops at their tips, a phenomenon common 
to all free fungous cells. 

The stem. — The stem is usually fixed to the center of the pileus, 
but it may be eccentric, i. e., fixed to one side of the center, or entirely 
lateral. When the stem is wanting the pileus is sessile. With 
regard to its interior the stem is solids when it is evenly fleshy 
throughout (Fig. 246), or hollow when the interior is occupied by a 
cavity (Fig. 248). If the cavity is narrow and tubular the stem 
\s fistiilose (Fig. 245) ; and if the center is filled with a pithy sub- 
stance it is stuffed (Fig. 243). These terms apply only to the nat- 
ural condition of the stem, and not the condition brought about by 
larv^, which eat out the interior of the stem, causing it to be hollow 
or fistulose. 

The terms applicable to the consistency of the stem are difficult 
to define. In general, stems may be either fleshy or cartilagmous. 
The meaning of these terms can best be learned by careful study of 
specimens of each, but a few general characters can be given here. 
Fleshy, fibrous stems occur in the genera Clitocyhe and Tricholoma , 
among the white-spored forms. Their consistency is like that of the 
pileus, namely, made up of fleshy, fibrous tissue. They are usually 
stout, compared with the size of the plant, and when bent or broken 


they seem to be more or less spongy or tough, fibrous, so that they 
do not snap readily. Cartilaginous stems have a consistency resem- 
bling that of cartilage. Their texture is always different from that 
of the pileus, which is fleshy or membranous. In general such stems 
are rather slender, in many genera rather thin, but firm. When bent 
sufficiently they either snap suddenly, or break like a green straw, 
^vithout separating. In regard to their external appearance some 
resemble fibrous stems, while others are smooth and polished as in 
Mycena and Omphalia. 

The veil — In the young stages of development the margin of the 
pileus lies in close contact with the stipe, the line of separation being 
indicated by a kind of furrow which runs around the young button 
mushroom. In many genera, as Colly bia, Mycena, Omphalia, etc., 
the pileus simply expands without having its margin ever united to 
the stipe by any special structure, but in other forms, which include 
by far the greater number of genera of the Agaricacece and some 
Boleti, the interval between the stem and pileus is bridged over by 
threads growing from the margin of the pileus and from the outer 
layers of the stem. These threads interlace to form a delicate mem- 
l)rane, known as the veil, which closes the gap between the stem 
and pileus and covers over the young hymenium. 

The veil remains firm for a time, but it is finally torn by the 
expanding pileus, and its remnants persist on the cap and stem in the 
form of various appendages, whose character depends on the charac- 
ter of the veil. In Cortinariiis the veil is made up of delicate threads 
extending radially from the stem to the margin of the cap without 
forming a true membrane. From its resemblance to a spider's web 
such a veil is said to be arachnoid. At maturity mere traces of it 
can be found on the stem. In many genera the veil consists of a 
delicate membrane which tears away from the stem and hangs in 
flakes to the margin of the pileus. In these cases the veil is appen- 
diculaU (Fig. 248). Frequently it is so delicate that no trace of it 
remains on the mature plant. Where the veil is well developed it 
usually remains on the stem as a ring or anmilus which becomes free 
and movable in species of Lepiota (Fig. 242) and Coprinus, or forms 
a hanging annular curtain in Amanita, or a thick, felty ring in Agar- 
tens, etc. In some plants (species of Lepiota) the annulus is con- 
tinuous with the outer cortex of the stem, which then appears as if 
it were partially enclosed in a sheath, with the annulus forming a 
fringe on the upper end of the sheath, from which the apex of the 
stem projects. 

No reference is here made to the volva, which encloses the entire 


plant, and which is described in connection with the genera in which 
it occurs. 

The few typical characters described here will help the student 
to become familiar with terms applied to them. In nature, however, 
typical cases rarely exist, and it is often necessary to draw distinc- 
tion between differences so slight that it is almost impossible to 
describe them. Only by patient study and a thorough acquaintance 
with the characters of each genus can one hope to become familiar 
with the many mushrooms growing in our woods and fields. 



By tb*^ Amhor. 



Plants of large or medium size ; fleshy, membranaceous, leathery, woody or 
gelatinous; growing on the ground, on wood or decaying organic matter ; usu- 
ally saprophytic, more rarely parasitic. Fruiting surface, or hymenium, formed 
of numerous crowded perpendicular basidia, the apex of the latter bearing two to 
six (usually four) basidiospores, or the basidiospores borne laterally ; in many 
cases cystidia intermingled with the basidia. Hymenium either free at the begin- 
ning, or enclosed either permanently or temporarily in a more or less perfect peri- 
dium or \eil. Basidiospores continuous or rarely septate, globose, obovoid, ellip- 
soidal to oblong, smooth or roughened, hyaline or colored, borne singly at the 
apex of sterigmata. 

Order Gasteromycetes. Plants membranaceous, leathery or fleshy, furnished 
with a peridium and gleba, the latter being sometimes supporced on a receptacle. 
Hymenium on the surface of the gleba which is enclosed within the peridium up 
to the maturity of the spores or longer ; spores continuous, sphseroid or ellipsoid, 
hyaline or colored. Puff-balls, etc. 

Order Hymenoviycetes. Hymenium, at the beginning, borne on the free outer 
surface of the compound sporophore, or if at first enclosed by a pseudo-peridium 
or veil it soon becomes exposed before the maturity of the spores ; mushrooms, etc. 


Analytical Key of the Families. 

Plants not gelatinous ; basidia continuous i 

Plants gelatinous or sub-gelatinous, basidia forked, or di- 
vided longitudinally or transversely 4 

1 — Hymenium uneven, i.e., in the form of radiating plates, or 
folds ; or a honey-combed surface, or reticulate, warty, 
spiny, etc 2 

* The sub-class Ascomycetes includes the morels, helvellas, cup fungi, etc., and 
many microscopic forms, in which the spores are borne inside a club-shaped bod}*, 
the ascus. Only a few of the genera are described in this book, and the technical*^ 
diagnosis will be omitted. See page 216. • ,• 

307 •' . 


Hymenium smooth (not as in B, though it may be con- 
volute and irregular, or ribbed, or veined) 3 

2 — Hymenium usually on the under side, in the form of radi- 
ating plates, or strong folds. The genus Phlebia in the 
Hydnace^e has the hymenium on smooth, somewhat 
radiating veins which are interrupted and irregular. One 
exotic genus has the hymenium on numerous irregular 
obtuse lobes (Rhacophyllus) Agaricaceae. . . 17 

Hymenium usually below (or on the outer surface when 
the plant is spread over the substratum), honey-combed, 
porous, tubulose, or reticulate; in one genus with short, 
concentric plates Polyporaceae. . 171 

Hymenium usually below (or on the outer surface when 
the plant is spread over the substratum), warted, tuber- 
culate, or with stout, spinous processes ; or with inter- 
rupted vein like folds in resupinate forms Hydnaceae. . . 195 

3 — Plants somewhat corky or membranaceous, more or less 
expanded ; hymenium on the under surface (upper sur- 
face sterile), or on the outer or exposed surface when 
the plant is spread over the substratum (margin may 
then sometimes be free, but upper surface, i.e., that to- 
ward the substratum sterile). (Minute slender spines are 
sometimes intermingled with the elements of the hyme- 
nium, and should not be mistaken for the stouter spi- 
nous processes of the Hydnace^e) Thelephoraceae. 208 

Plants more or less fleshy, upright (never spread over the 
surface of the substratum), simple or branched. Hyme- 
nium covering both sides and the upper surface. . . . Clavariaceae. . 200 
4— Basidia forked or longitudinally divided; or if continuous 
then globose, or bearing numerous spores; or if the 
plant is leathery, membranous, or floccose, then basidia 
as described. Hymenium covering the entire free sur- 
face or confined to one portion ; smooth, gyrose, folded 
or lobed ; or hymenium lamellate, porous, reticulate or 
toothed forms which are gelatinous and provided with 
continuous basidia may be sought here Tremellineae. . 204 


Pileus more or less expanded, convex, bell-shaped ; stipe central or nearly so ; 
or the point of attachment lateral, when the stipe may be short or the pileus ses- 
sile and shelving. Fruiting surface usually on the under side and exposed toward 
the earth, lamellate, or prominently folded or veined. Lamellae or gills radiating 
from the point of attachment of the pileus with the stipe or with the substratum 
in the sessile forms; lamellae simple or branched, rarely anastomosing behind, 
clothed externally on both surfaces with the basidia, each of which bears four 
spores (rarely two), cystidia often present. 

Key to the North American Genera. 



(Sometimes there is a faint tinge of pink or lilac when the spores are in bulk, 
but the color is not seen under the microscope.) 

Plants soft, fleshy or nearly so, usually soon decaying; 

dried plants do not revive well when moistened. . . . i 
Plants tough, either fleshy or gelatinous, membranaceous, 
corky or woody, persistent, reviving when moistened. . 13 

1— Gills acute on the edge 2 

Edge of the gills obtuse, or gills fold-like, or vein-like, but 

prominent 12 

2— Trama of the pileus of interwoven threads, not vesiculose. 3 
Traraa of the pileus vesiculose, plants rigid but quite 

fragile 11 

3— Gills thin, not much broadened toward the pileus. ... 4 

Gills broadened toward the pileus, of waxy consistency. . Hygrophorus. . no 
4— Stipe central or sub-central. (Some species of Pleurotus are 
sub-central, but the gills are usually not decurrent.) . . 5 
Stipe on one side of the pileus, or none, rarely with the 
stipe sub-central. (Some species of Clitocybe are sub- 
central.) Pleurotus. . . 102 

5— Stipe fleshy, pileus easily separating from the stipe, gills 

usually free 6 

Stipe fleshy or fibrous and elastic, pileus confluent with the 

stipe and of the same texture 7 

Stipe cartilaginous, pileus confluent with the stipe, but of 

a different texture .9 

6— Volva and annulus present on the stipe Amanita. . . 52 

Volva present, annulus wanting Amanitopsis. . 74 

Volva wanting, annulus present Lepiota. . . 77 

7— Annulus and volva wanting. 8 

Annulus usually present (sometimes vague), volva want- 
ing, gills attached to the stipe Armillaria. . . 83 

8— Gills sinuate Tricholoma. . 87 

Gills decurrent, not sinuate Clitocybe. . . 89 

9 — Gills decurrent, pileus umbilicate Omphalia. . . 100 

Gills not decurrent 10 

10— Margin of pileus at first involute, pileus flat or nearly so, 
somewhat fleshy (some plants rather tough and tend- 
ing toward the consistency of Marasmius) Collybia. . . 92 

Margin of the pileus at first straight, pileus slightly bell- 
shaped, thin Mycena. . . 93 

Gills usually free, pileus deeply plicate so that the gills are 
split where they are attached to the pileus, pileus mem- 
branaceous, very tender but not diffluent. ..... Hiatula. 

II— Plants where bruised exuding a milky or colored juice. . . Lactarius. . .114 

Plants not exuding a juice where bruised Russula. . .125 

12— Gills decurrent, dichotomous, edge blunt Cantharellus. 128 

Gills not decurrent, plants parasitic on other mushrooms. . Nyctalis. 


13— Edge of gills not split into two lamince 14 

Edge of gills split into two lamince and revolute. . . . Schizophyilum. 136 
14 -Plants leaihery, either flesjiy, membraneous, or gelat- 
inous 15 

Plants corky or woody (placed by some in Polyporacece). Lenzites. 
IS— Stipe separate from the pileus (hymenophore), easily 

separating '. 16 

Stipe continuous with hymenophore 17 

16— Plants tough and fleshy, membranaceous or leathery. . . Marasmius. . 130 

Plants gelatinous and leathery Heliomyces. 

17— Edge of the gills acute 18 

Edge of the gills obtuse 19 

18— Edge of gills usually serrate Lentinus. . .134 

Edge of gills entire Panas. . . .134 

19 — Gills dichotomous Xerotus. 

Gills fold-like, irregular Trogia. . . .137 

There are only a few rare species of Hiatula, Nyctalis, Heliomyces and Xero- 
tus in the United States. None are here described. 


(The spores are yellowish-brown or rusty-brown) 

Gills not separating readily from the pileus i 

Gills sometimes separating readily from the pileus, forked 
or anastomosing at the base, or connected with \-ein- 

like reticulations Paxillus. . . 165 

1— Universal veil not arachnoid (i.e., not cobwebby). ... 2 
• Universal veil arachnoid, distinct from the cuticle of the 

pileus, gills powdery from the spores Cortinarius. . 161 

2— Stipe central 3 

Stipe eccentric or none Crepidotus. . 159 

3 — Volva or annulus present on stipe 4 

Volva and annulus wanting 5 

4— Stipe with an annulus Pholiota. . .150 

Stipe with a volva. Locellina (not reported in U. S.) . . 
S— Gills free from the stem Pluteolus. 

Gills attached 6 

6— Gills not dissolving nor becoming powdery 7 

Gills dissoK'ing into a gelatinous or powdery condition, 

not diffluent as in Coprinus Bolbitius. . . 163 

7-Stipe fleshy 8 

Stipe cartilaginous or sub-cartilaginous 10 

8 — Gills somewhat sinuate 9 

Gills adnate or decurrent Flammula. . .156 

9— Cuticle of the pileus silky or bearing fibrils Inocybe. . . 158 

Cuticle of pileus smooth, viscid Hebeloma. . .157 

10— Gills decurrent Tubaria. . .159 

Gills not decurrent 11 

11— Margin of pileus inflexed Naucoria. . .155 

Margin of pileus straight, from the first Galera. . . .155 

No species of Pluteolus are here described. 



(The spores are rose color, pink, flesh or salmon color.) 

Stipe central i 

Stipe eccentric or none and pileus lateral Claudopus. . . 149 

1 ^Pileus easily separating from the stipe, gills free. ... 2 
Pileus confluent with the stipe and of the same texture, 

gills attached, in some becoming almost free 3 

2 — Volva present and distinct, annulus wanting Volvaria. . . 140 

Volva and annulus wanting Pluteus. . . .138 

3— Stipe fleshy to fibrous, margin of pileus at first Incurved. 4 

Stipe cartilaginous 5 

4 — Gills sinuate Entoloma. . 143 

Gills decurrent . ... ... . Ciitopilus. . . 142 

5— Gills not decurrent (or if so only by a minute tooth), easily 

separating from the stipe 6 

Gills decurrent, pileus umbilicate Eccilia. . . . 148 

■6— Pileus slightly convex, margin at first incurved Leptonia. . . 147 

Pileus bell-shaped, margin at first straight and pressed 

close against the stipe Nolanea. 

No species of Nolanea are described iiere. 


(The spores are dark brown or purplish brown.) 
Pileus easily separating from the stem ; gills usually free, i 
Pileus continuous with the stem ; gills attached. ... 2 
1— Volva wanting, annulus present. (Psalliota Fr.) . . . Agaricus. , . 18 

Volva present, annulus wanting Chitonia. 

Volva and annulus wanting Pilosace. 

2 — Veil present 3 

Veil wanting or obsolete 4 

3 — Annulus present, gills attached Stropharia. . . 31 

Annulus wanting, veil remaining attached to margin of 

pileus Hypholoma. . 26 

4 — Stipe tenaceous, margin of pileus first incur\'ed 5 

Stipe fragile, margin of pileus at first straight Psathyra. 

5 — Gills sub-triangularly decurrent Deconica. 

Gills not decurrent Psilocybe. 

But few species of Psathyra, Deconica, Chitonia and Pilosace are noted from 
the United States. None are here described. 


Pileus present to which the gills are attached i 

Pileus wanting, gills attached to a disk at apex of stem 

from which they radiate Montagnites.* 

<* One American species in Texas.) 


1— Gills more or less deliquescing, or pileus tliin, membranous 
and splitting between the lamina? of the gills and be- 
coming more or less plicate Coprinus. . . 32. 

Gills not deliquescing, etc 2 

2 — Spores globose, ovoid 3 

Spores elongate, fusiform (in some species brown), plants 

with a slimy envelope Gomphidius. . 49, 

3 — Pileus somewhat fleshy, not striate, projecting beyond the 
gills at the margin ; gills variegated in color from 

groups of dark spores on the surface 4 

Pileus somewhat fleshy, margin striate, gills not varie- 
gated Psathyrella. . 48 

4— Annulus wanting, but veil often present Panaeolus. . . 45 

Annulus wanting, veil appendiculate on margin of cap. . Chalymotta. . 48. 
Annulus present Anellaria. 


Agaricus (A-gar'i-cus), 18-26. 

ar\-ensis (ar-ven^sis), 21, fig. 18. 
campestris (cam-pes^tris), 1-9, 18, 

figs. 1-7, 12. 
comtulus (com^tu-lus), 24, fig. 24. 
cretaceus (cre-ta^ce-us), 79. 
diminutivus Cdi-min-u-ti'vus), 26. 
echinatus (ech-i-na^tus), 158. 
fabaceus (fa-ba^ce-us), 23. 
maritimus (ma-rit^i-mus), 142. 
placomyces (pla-comV-ces), 23, pi. 

4, 5, figs. 21, 22, 23. 
rodmani (rod^ma-ni), 20, tig. 17. 
silvaticus (sil-vat^i-cus), 23. 
silvicola(sil-vic^o-la), 20, figs. 19, 20. 
subrufescens (sub-ru-fes^cens), 23. 

Amanita (Am-a-ni^ta), 52. 

c^sarea (c2e-sa^re-a), 7c, pis. 18, 

19, fig. 72. 
cothurnata (coth-ur-na^ta), 66-69, 

pi. 17, figs. 68-70. 
floccocephala (floc-co-ceph'a-la), 62, 

fig. 63. 
frostiana (fros-ti-a^na), 54, 55, 67, 

pi. I. 
mappa (map^pa), 58. 
muscaria (mus-ca^ri-a), 52-54, pis. 

I, 12, 13, figs. 52-54. 
pantherina (pan-the-ri'na), 69. 
phalloides (phal-loiMes), 3, 14, 55- 

61, 78, pi. 14, figs. 55-58. 
polypyramis (pol-y-pyr^a-mis), 74. 
rubescens (ru-bes^cens), 71, 72, pis. 

19, 20, figs. 73, 74. 
spreta (spre^ta), 69, 70, fig. 71, 

soiitaria (sol-i-ta^ri-a 

■2-74, pis. 

21, 22, figs. 75, 76. 
velatipes (ve-lat^i-pes), 63-66, pis. 

15, 16, figs. 64-67. 
verna(ver^na),6o,6i, 78, tigs. 59-61. 
virosa (vi-ro^sa), 61, 62, fig. 62. 

Amanitopsis (A-man-i-top^sis), 74. 
faiinosa (far-i-no^sa), 76, 77, fig. 78. 
li\ ida (iiv^i-da), 75. 
nivalis (ni-va^lis), 76. 
spadicea (spa-dic^e-a), 75. 
vaginata (vag-i-na^ta), 74-76, pi. 

23, fig. 11- 
volvata (vol-va^ta), 76. 

Armillaria (Ar-mil-la^ri-a), 83. 

aurantia (au-ran'ti-a), 84-86, fig. 86. 
mellea (mel^le-a), 83, 84, pi. 27, fig. 

Annularia kievis ( An-nu-la'ri-ala?Vis), 

Ascomycetes ( As-co-my-ce^tes ), 216. 

Basidiomycetes (^Ba-sid-i-o-my-ce'tes), 

Black-spored agarics, 32. 

Bolbitius (Bol-bit'i-us) 163. 

variicolor (va-ri-ic^o-lor), 164, fig. 

Boletinus (Bo-le-ti'nus), 172. 
pictus (pic^tus), 183, fig. 175. 
porosus (po-ro'sus), 184, pi. 63, fig. 

Bolecus (Bo-le^tus), 172. 

americanus (a-mer-i-ca^nus\ 178, 

fig. 171. 
brevipes (brev^i-pes), 179. 
bulbosus (bul-bo^sus), 172. 
chromapes (chro^ma-pes), 176, pi. 

59, fig. 168. 
edulis Ce-du^lis), 172, i73» 176, pis. 

55, 56, 57, figs. 164, 165. 
telleus (feKle-us), 173, pl. 5^, tig. 

tlavidus (flav^i-dus), 178. 
granulatus (gran-u-la^tus), 178. 
luteus (lu^te-us), 181, 182, pl. 62, 

figs. 173. 174. 
obsanium (ob-so^ni-um), 177, pl. 

61, fig. 170. 
ornatipes (or-nat^i-pes), 174, 176. 
punctipes (punc^ti-pes), 179, fig. 

retipes (re'ti-pes), 174-176, fig. 167. 
scaber (sca^ber), 174. 
subluteus (sub-lu^te-us"), 181, 182. 

167, 168. 
vermiculosus(ver-mic-u-lo^sus), 177 

pl. 60, fig. 169. 

Bovista ( Bo-vis^ta), 209. 

Calostoma (Ca-los^to-ma), 212. 
cinnabarinum (cin-na-ba-ri^num), 

212, 213, pl. 82, fig. 211. 
tutescens (lu-tes^cens), 212. 

Calvatia (Cal-va'ti-a), 209. 

Cantharellus (Can-tha-reKlus), 128. 

Note. — In this index the generic and specific names have been divided into sylla- 
bles, and the place of the primary accent has been indicated, with the single object of 
securing a uniform pronunciation in accordance with the established rules of English 
orthoepy. :315 



Cantharellus — continued. 

aurantiacus (au-ran-li^a-cus), 129, 

130, pi. 41, figs. 127, 128. 
cibarius (ci-ba^ri-us), 128, fig'. 126. 

Chalymotta retirugis (Chal-y-mot^ta 
re-ti-ru''gis), 48. 

Clavaria (Cla-va^ri-a), 201. 

botrytes (bo-try^tes), 202, fig. 202. 
formosa (for-mo^sa), 201, pi. 80, 

fig. 201. 
mucida (mu^cl-da), 203, fig. 204. 
pistillaris (pis-til-la^ris), 203, fig. 


ClavariacejE (Cla-va-ri-a^ce-«), 200. 

Coral fungi, 200. 

Clitocybe (Cli-toc^'-be), 89. 

Candida (can^di-da), 89, pis. 28, 29, 

figs. 90, 91- 
cyathiformis (cy-a-thi-for^mis), 90. 
illudens (il-lu^dens), 90, fig. 92. 
infundibuliformis (in-fun-dib-u-li- 

for^mis), 90, fig. 244. 
laccata (lac-ca^ta), 89. 
multiceps (muKti-ceps), 91, pi. 30, 

%• 93- 
pelletieri (pel-let-i-e^ri), 168. 

Clitopilus (Cli-top^i-lus), 142. 
orcella (or-ceKla), 143. 
prunulus (pru^nu-lus), 142, pi. 44, 
fig. 138. - 

Collybia (Col-lyyi-a), 92. 

dryophila (dry-oph^i-la), 204, fig. 

longipes (lon^gi-pes), 93. 
lachnophylla (lach-no-phyKla), 132. 
jplatyphylla (plat-y-phyKla), 93. 
radicata (rad-i-ca^ta),92, pi. 31, fig. 

spinulifera (spin-u-lire-ra), 132. 
velutipes (ve-lu^ti-pes), 92, pi. 32, 

fig- 95- 

Coprinus (Co-prKnus), 32. 

atramentarius (a-tra-men-ta^ri-us) , 

40-42, pi. 10, figs. 39-42. 
comatus (co-ma^tus), 33-40, pi. 9» 

figs. 31-38. ^ 
micaceus (mi-ca^ce-us), 15, 42-44, 

figs. 43, 44. 

Corticium (Cor-tic'i-um), 208. 

Cortinarius (Cor-ti-na^ri-us), 161. 
cinnamomeus (cin-na-mo^me-us), 

162, fig. 155- 
collinitus (col-li-ni^tus\ i6>. 

Cortinarius — continued. 

ochroleucus (och-ro-leu'cus), 163, 

pis. 50, 51, figs. 156, 157. 
violaceus (vi-o-la^ce-us), 161. 

Craterellus (Crat-e-reKlus), 208. 
cantharellus (can-tha-reKlus), 208. 

pistillaris (pis-til-la^ris), 203. 

Crepidotus (Crep-i-do^tus), 159. 
applanatus (ap-pla-na^tus), 161. 
calolepis (ca-loKe-pis), 161. 
chimonophilus (chi-mo-noph^i-lus ), 

fulvotomentosus (ful-vo-tom-en-to^ 

sus), 161. 
herbarum (her-ba^rum), 160. 
versutus (ver-su^tus), 160, fig. 154. 

Dcedaleaambigua (Ds-da^le-a am-big^- 
u-a), 16, 17, pi. 3, fig. 16. 

Dictyophora (Dic-ty-oph^o-ra), 214. 
duplicata (du-pli-ca^ta), 214, pi. 83, 

fig. 212. 
ravenelii (rav-e-ne^li-i), 215, 216, pi. 

84, figs. 213-215. 

Discomycetes (Dis-co-my-ce^tes), 216. 

Eccilia (Ec-ciKi-a), 148. 

polita (po-li^ta), 148, fig. 143. 

Entoloma (En-to-lo^ma), 143. 

grayanum (gray-a^num), 144, 145, 

fig. 140. 
jubatum (ju-ba^tum), 143, 144, fig. 

repandum (re-pan^dum), 143, 303, 

fig. 250. 
strictius (stric^ti-us), 145, 146, tig. 


Exidia glandulosa (Ex-id^ia glan-du-k/- 
sa), 206. 

Fis.tulina (Fis-tu-li^na), 171, 186. 
firma (fir^ma), 186. 
hepatica (he-pat^i-ca), 186, pi. 65. 
pallida (paKli-da), 186, 187, pis. 6:^, 
66, fig. 180. 

Flammula (Flam^mu-la), 156. 
paradoxa (par-a-dox^a), 168. 
polychroa (po-lych^ro-a), 156, 157, 

fig. 151. 
rhodoxanthus (rhod-o-xan'thus), 

sapinea (sa-pin^e-a), 157- 
tammii (tam^mi-i), 169. 



Fomes (Formes), 193, 194- 

Galera (Ga-le^ra), 155. 

antipoda (an-tip^-da), 155. 
coprinoides (cop-rin-oiMes), 155. 
tlava (fla^va), 155. 
lateritia (lat-e-ri^ti-a), 155. 
tenera (ten^e-ra), 155. 

Geaster (Ge-as^ter), 209. 

Gomphidius (Gom-phid^i-us), 49. 
glutinosus Cglu-ti-no^sus), 51. 
nigricans (nig^ri-cans), 49-51, figs. 

50, 51. 
rhodnxanthus (rhod-o-xan^thus ;. 

Gomphus (Gom^phus), 168, 

Gyrocephalus (Gy-ro-ceph^a-lus), 207. 
rufus (ru^fus), 207, fig. 208. 

Gyromitra esculenta (Gy-rom^i-tra es- 
cu-len^ta), 22c. 

Hebeloma (He-be-lo^ma), 157. 

crustuliniforme (crus- tu-lin- i - 
for^me), 158, fig. 152. 

Hedgehog fungi, 195. 

Helveila (Hel-veFla), 219. 
crispa (cris^pa), 219. 
lacunosa (lac-u-no^sa), 220, fig. 219. 

Hydnaceje (Hyd-na^ce-£e), 195. 

Hydnum (Hyd^num), 195. 

caput-medus2e (ca^put--me-du^s«) , 

caput-ursi (ca^put-ur^si), 197, pi. 

77, fig. 196. 
coralloides (cor-al-!oi^des), 196, fig. 

erinaceus (er-i-na^ce-us), 198, fig. 

fragile (frag^i-le), 200. 
graveolens (gra-ve^o-lens), 2co. 
imbricatum ( im-bri-ca^tum), 198, fig, 

repandum (re-panMum ), 198, pi. 78, 

fig. 198. 
putidum (pu^ti-dum), 199, pi. 79, 

fig. 199. 
velutinum (ve-lu^ti-num), 200. 

Hygrophorus (Hy-groph^o-rus), no. 
chrysodon (chrys'o-don), in, fig. 

coccineus (coc-cin^e-us), n4. 
conicus (con^i-cus), nd. 

Hygrophorus — continued. 

eburneus (e-bur'ne-us), ni, pi. 38, 

fig. n6. 
fuligineus (fu-li-gin^e-us), n3, fig. 

hypothejus (hy-po-the^jus), n4. 
miniatus (min-i-a^tus), n3, n4. 
pratensis (pra-ten^sis), n3. 
psittacinus (psit-ta-cKnus), n4. 

Hymenochcete (Hy-me-no-chce^te), 208. 

Hymenomycetes ( Hy-me-no-my-ce^tes) 

Hypholoma (Hyph-o-lo^ma), 26. 
appendiculatum (ap-pen-dic-u-la^- 

tum), 27, 28, pi. 7, figs. 26, 27. 
candolleanum (can-dol-le-a^num), 

lachrymabundum (lach-ry-ma-bun^- 

dum), 28-30, fig. 28. 
perplexum (per-plex^um), 27. 
rugocephalum (ru-go-ceph^a-lum), 

30, pi. 8, fig. 29. 
sublateritium (sub-la-te-ri^ti-um), 

26, pi. 6, fig. 25. 

Inocybe (1-noc^y-be), 158. 
echinata (ech-i-na^ta), 158. 
repanda (re-pan^da), 303, fig. 250. 

Ithyphallus impudicus (Ith-y-phaKlus 
im-pu-di^cus), 216. 

Lactarius (Lac-ta^ri-us), n4. 

chelidonium (chel-i-do^ni-um), 124, 

pi. 39. 
chrysorrheus (chrys-or^rhe-us), 122, 

fig. 125. 
corrugis (cor-ru^gis), n6, fig. n8. 
deliciosus (de-lic-i-o^sus),i23, pi. 39. 
fuliginosus (fu-lig-i-no^sus), n8, 

fig. 120. 
gerardii (ge-rar^di-i), n9. 
indigo (in'di-go), 125, pi. 39. 
lignvotus (lig-nv-o^tus), n7, fig. 

pergamenus (per-ga-me^nus), 121. 
piperatus (pip-e-ra^tus), 120, fig. 

resimus (re-si^mus), 121, figs. 123, 

torminosus (tor-mi-no^sus), n9, 

fig. 121. 
volemus (vo-le^mus), 121. 

Lentinus (Len-ti^nus), 134. 
lecomtei (le-comt^e-i), 135. 
lepideus (le-pid^e-us), 135. 
stipticus (stip^ti-cus), 135, 136. 
vulpinus (vul-pi^nus). 134, pi. 42, 
figs. 131, 132. 



Leotia lubrica (Le-o^ti-a lu^bri-ca), 221, 
fig. 221. 

Lepiota (Lep-i-o^ta), tt. 


americana (a-mer-i-ca^na), 80, 81, 

fig. 82. 
asperula (as-per^u-la), 82, 83, pi. 26, 

fig. 84. 
badhami (bad^ham-i), 81. 
cristata (cris-ta^ta), 81, fig. 83. 
naucina (nau-ci^na), 13, 77-79? pl- 

24, figs. 79, 80. 
naucinoides (nau-ci-noi^des), 77. 
procera (pro-ce^ra), 79, pl. 25, figs. 

81, 242. 
rachodes (ra-cho^des), 79. 

Leptonia (Lep-to^ni-a), 147. 

asprella (as-preKla), 147, fig. 142. 
incana (In-ca^na), 147. 


Lycoperdon (Ly-co-per^don), 209. 
cyathiforme (cy-a-thi-for^me), 210, 

pl. 81, fig. 209. 
gemmatum (gem-ma^tum),2io, fig. 

giganteum (gi-gan^te-um), 210. 
pyriforme (pyr-i-for^me), 211. 

Marasmius (Ma-ras^mi-us), 130. 

cohcerens (co-hce^rens), 132, 133, 

figs. 1 30, 249. 
oreades (o-re^a-des), 131, fig. 129. 
rotula (rot^u-la), 131. 

Merulius (Me-ru^li-us), 171, 172, 194. 
lacrymans (iac^ry-mans), 194, pl. 

73, figs. 189, 190. 
tremellosus (trem-el-lo^sus), 194, 

pl. 74, figs. 191, 192. 

Mitremyces lutescens (Mi-trem^y-ces 
lu-tes^cens), 213. 

Morchella (Mor-cheKla), 217. 
bispora (bis^po-ra), 219. 
conica (con^i-ca), 217, fig. 217. 
crassipes (cras^si-pes), 219, pl. 86, 

fig. 218. 
deliciosa (de-lic-i-o^sa), 219. 
esculenta (es-cu-len^ta), 217, pl. 85, 

fig. 216. 
semilibera (sem-i-Hye-ra), 219. 

Mucronella(Mu-cro-neKla), 200. 

Mycena (My-ce^na), 93. 

acicula (a-cic^u-la), 97, 98, fig. 100. 

Mycena — continued. 

cyanothrix (cy-an^-thrlx), 98, fig. 


epipterygia (e-pip-te-ryg^i-a), 96, 

97, fig. 98. 
galericulata (gal-e-ric-u-la^ta), 94, 

h^matopa (hjE-mat^o-pa), 98-100, 

fig. 102. 
polygramma (pol-y-gram^ma), 94, 

fig. 96. 
prjelonga (prge-lon^ga), 94, 95. 
pura (pu^ra), 95, 96, fig. 97. 
succosa (suc-co'say, ico. 
vulgaris (vul-ga^ris), 97, fig. 99. 

Myriostoma (Myr-i-os^to-ma), 209.- 

Naucoria (Nau-co^ri-a), 153. 

semiorbicularis (sem-i-or-bic-u-la^- 

ris), 153, 154. 
vernalis (ver-na^lis), 154, fig. 150. 

Ochre-spored agarics, 150. 

Omphalia (Om-pha''li-a), 100. 

campanella (cam-pa-neKla), loi, 

254, pl. 33, figs. 103, 241. 
epichysium (ep-i-chys'i-um)ioi, tig. 
Pan^eolus (Pa-n^e^o-lus), 45. 
fimicola (fi-mic^o-la), 48. 
papilionaceus (pa-pil-i-o-na^ce-us), 

48, fig. 247. 
retirugis (re-ti-ru^gis), 45-48, pl. 

II, figs. 45-48, 248. 
solidipes (so-lid^i-pes), 48. 

Panus (Pa^nus), 134. 

cyathiformis (cy-a-thi-for^mis), 135. 
rudis (ru^dis), 135. 
strigosus (stri-go^sus), 135. 
stipticus (stip^ti-cus), 135, 136. 

Paxillus (Pax-iKlus) 165. 

atro-tomentosus (at-ro-tom-en-tcV- 

sus), 169, fig. 161. 
corrugatus (cor-ru-ga^tus), 170, pl. 

53, fig. 162. 
flavidus (flav^i-dus), 168. 
involutus (in-vo-lu^tus), 166, 167, 

fig. 159. 
panuoides (pan-u-oi^des), 170, pl. 

54, fig. 163. ^ , ^ 
rhodoxanthus (rhod-o-xairtnus), 

167, 168, pl. 52, fig. 160. 

Phalloidece (Phal-loid'e-ce), 213. 

Phlebia (Phle'bi-a), 195. 

merismoides (mer-is-moi^des), pis. 

75, 76, figs: 193, 194. 



Pholiota (Pho-li-o'ta), 150. 

adiposa (ad-i-po'sa), 151, 152, pi. 47, 

fig. 146. 
aurivella (au-ri-vel'la), 152. 
cerasina (ce-ras'i-na), 152. 
johnsoniana (john-so-ni-a'na), 153, 

pi. 49, fig. 149- 
marglnata (mar-gi-na'ta), 151, tig. 

precox (priE'cox), 150, 151, pi. 46, 

fig. 145. 
squarrosa (squar-ro'sa), 152. 
squarrosoides (squar-ro-soi'des), 152, 

pi. 48, fig. 148. 
subsquarrosa (sub-squar-ro'sa), 152. 
unicolor (u-nic'o-lor), 151. 

Pleurotus (Pleu-ro'tus), 102. 

applicatus (ap-pli-ca'tus;, 109, no, 

fig. 114. 
corticatus (cor-ti-ca'tus), 106, pi. 37, 

fig. no. 
dryinus (dry'i-nus), 105, 106, pi. 36, 

figs. 109, no. 
ostreatus (os-tre-a'tus), 104, pi. 34, 

fig. 107. 
petaloides (pet-a-loi'des), 107-109, 

figs. n2, n3. 
sapidus (sap'i-dus), 104, 105, pi. 35, 

fig. 108. 
serotinus (se-rot'i-nus), 109. 
sultureoides (sul-fu-re-oi'des), 107, 

fig. ni. 
ulmarius (ul-ma'ri-us'), 102-104, figs. 

105, 106. 

Pluteus (Plu*te-us\ 138. 

cervinus (cer-vi'nus), 138, 139, fig. 

tomentosulus (to-men-tos'u-lus) , 140, 
fig. 136. 

Polyporacese (Pol-y-po-ra'ce-ce), 171. 

Polyporus (Po-lyp'o-rus\ 171, 188-194 
applanatus (ap-pla-na'tus), 193, fig. 

borealis (bo-re-a'lis), 9, 10, tigs. 9, 

brumalis (,bru-ma'lis), 191, pi. 71, 

fig. 186. 
fomentarius (to-men-ta'rius\ 194. 
frondosus (tron-do'sus), 188, pis. 67, 

68, figs. i8r, 182. 
igniarius (ig-ni-a'ri-us), 194. 
intybaceus un-ty-ba'ceus), 184. 
leucoph^eus (leu-co-phse'us), 194. 
lucidus Ou'ci-dus), 193, pi. 72, fig. 

sulphureus (sul-phu're-us), 190, pis. 

69, 70, figs. 184, 185. 
umbellatus (um-bel-la'tus), 189, fig. 


Polystictus (Pol-y-stic'tus), 191. 

cinnabarinus (cin-na-ba-ri'nus), 192. 
cinnamomeus (cin-na-mo'me-us), 

192, fig. 187. 
connatus i,con-na'tus), 192. 
hirsutus (hir-su'tus), 192. 
oblectans (ob-lec'tans), 192. 
perennis (pe-ren'nis), 192, fig. 187. 
pergamenus (per-ga-me'nus), ^05, 

splendens (splen'dens), 192. 
versicolor (ver-sic'o-lor), 192. 

Psalliota (Psal-li-o'ta), 18-26, 158. 

Psathyrella (,Psath-y-rel'la), 48. 

disseminata (dis-sem-i-na'ta), 48, 
49, fig. 49. 

Psilocybe foenisecii (Psi-loc'y-be toe-ni- 
se'ci-i), 48. 

Purple-brown-spored agarics, 18. 

Rosy-spored agarics 138. 

Russula (Rus'su-la), 125. 

adusta (ad-us'ta), 127, pi. 40. 
alutacea (al-u-ta'ce-a), 125, 126, pi. 

emetica (e-meti-ca), 127, pi. 40. 
fragilis (trag'ilis), 127. 
turcata (fur-ca'ta), 127. 
lepida (lep'i-da), 126, pi. 40. 
nigricans (nig'ri-cans), 127. 
virescens (vi-res'cens), 126, pi. 40. 

Sarcoscypha floccosa (Sar-cos'cy-pha 
floc-co'sa), 221, 222, fig. 222. 

Schizophyllum (Schiz-o-phyl'lum), 136. 
alneum(arne-um), 1^36, 137, fig. 133. 
commune (com-mu'ne), 136, 

Scleroderma (Scler-o-der'ma~), 212. 
verrucosum (ver-ru-co'sum), 212. 
vulgare (vul-ga're), 212. 

Spathularia velutipes (Spath-u-la'ri-a 
ve-lu'ti-pes), 220, fig. 220. 

Spinellus fusiger (Spi-nel'lus fu'si-ger), 
macrocarpus (mac-ro-car'pus), 95. 

Sterium (Ste'ri-um), 208. 

Strobilomyces (Strob-i-lom'y-ces), 184. 
floccopus (floc'co-pus), 185. 
strobilaceus (strob-i-la'ce-us), i84' 
pi. 64, figs. 177-170- 



Stropharia (Stro-pha'ri a), 31. 
aeruginosa (se-ru-gi-no'sa), 32. 
semiglobata (sem-i-glo-ba'ta), 31, 

fig. 30. 
stercoraria (ster-co-rari-a), 32. 

Thelephoracese (Thel-e-pho-ra'ce-se) , 

Trametes (Tra-me'tes), 16, 193. 
ambigua (am-big'u-a), 16, 17. 

Trembling fungi, 204. 

Tremeiiine^ (Trem-el-lin'e-£e), 204. 

Tremella (Tre-mel'la), 204. 

frondosa (fron-do'sa), 205, fig. 206. 
fuciformis (fu-ci-for'mis), 206, fig. 

lutescens (lu-tes'cens), 205. 
mycetophila (my-ce-toph'i-la), 204, 

fig. 205. 

Triclioloma (Trich-o-lo'ma), 87. 
peckii (peck'i-i), 85, 86. 
personatum (per-so-na'tum), 87^. 

figs. 87, 88. 
sejunctum (se-junc'tum), 88, fig. 89. 

Trogia (Tro'gi-a), 137. 

crispa (cris'pa), 137, pi. 43, fig. 134. 

Tubaria (Tu-ba'ri-a), 159. 

pellucida (pel-lu'ci-da), 159, fig. 153. 

Tube-bearing fungi 171. 

Verpa bohemica (Ver'pa bo-hem'i-ca), 

Volvaria (Vol-va'ri-a), 140. 

bombycina (bom-byc'i-na), 140, 141,, 

fig. 137. 
speciosa (spe-ci-o'sa), 141, 142. 

White-spored agarics, 52. 


-acicula (Mycena), 97. 
acutesquamosa (Lepiota), 81. 
adiposa (Pholiota), 151. 
adusta (Russula), 127. 
seiuginosa (Stropharia), 32. 
alneum (Schizophyllum), 136. 
alutacea (Russula), 125. 
ambigua (Dsdalea), 16. 
ambigua (Trametes), 16. 
americana (Lepiota), 80. 
americanus (Boletus), 178. 
antipoda (Galera), 155. 
applanatus (Crepidotus), 161. 
applanatus (Polyporus), 193. 
appendiculatum (Hypholoma), 27. 
applicatus (Pleurotus), 109. 
arvensis (Agaricus), 20. 
asperula (Lepiota), 82. 
asprella (Leptonia), 147. 
atramentarius (Coprinus), 40. 
atro-tomentosus (Paxillus), 169. 
aurantia (Armillaria), 84. 
aurantiacus (Cantharellus), 129. 
aurivella (Pholiota), 152. 

badhami (Lepiota), 81. 
bispora (Morchella), 219. 
bohemica (Verpa), 219. 
bombycina (Volvaria), 140. 
botrytes (Clavaria), 202. 
brevipes (Boletus), 179. 
brumalis (Polyporus), 191. 
bulbosus (Boletus), 172. 
caesarea (Amanita), 70. 
calolepis (Crepidotus), 161. 
campestris (Agaricus), 18. 
campanella (Omphalia), loi. 
Candida (Clitocybe), 89. 
candolleanum (Hypholoma), 28. 
cantharellus (Craterellus), 208. 
caput-medus2e (Hydnum), 198. 
caput-ursi (Hydnum), 197. 
caudicinus (Polyporus), 190. 
cerasina (Pholiota), 152. 
cervinus (Pluteus), 138. 
chelidonium (Lactarius), 124. 
chimonophilus (Crepidotus), 160. 
chromapes (Boletus), 176. 
chrysodon (Hygrophorus), iii. 
chrysorrheus (Lactarius), 122. 
cibarius (Cantharellus), 128. 
cinnabarinum (Calostoma), 212. 
• cinnabarinus (Poiystictus), 192. 

cinnamomeus (Cortinarius), 162. 
cinnamomeus (Poiystictus), 192. 
coccinea (Sarcoscypha), 222. 
coccineus (Hygrophorus), 112. 
cohserens (Marasmius), 132. 
coh^rens (Mycena), 132. 
collinitus (Cortinarius), 161. 
comatus (Coprinus), 33. 
commune (Schizophyllum), 136. 
comtulus (Agaricus), 24. 
conica (Morchella), 217. 
conicus (Hygrophorus), 114. 
connatus (Poiystictus), 192. 
coprinoides (Galera), 155. 
coralloides (Hydnum), 196. 
carnucopioides (Craterellus), 208. 
corrugatus (Paxillus), 170. 
corrugis (Lactarius), 116. 
corticatus (Pleurotus), 106. 
cothurnata (Amanita), 66. 
cretaceus (Agaricus), 79. 
crassipes (Morchella), 219. 
crispa (Helvella), 219. 
crispa (Trogia;, 139. 
cristata (Lepiota) 81. 
crustuliniforme (Hebeloma), 158. 
cyanothrix (Mycena), 98. 
cyathiforme (Lycoperdon), 209. 
cyathiformis (Clitocybe), 90. 
cyathiformis (Panus), 135. 

deliciosa (Morchella), 219. 
deliciosus (Lactarius), 123. 
diminutivus (Agaricus), 26. 
disseminata (Psathyrella), 48. 
dryinus (Pleurotus), 105. 
dryophila (Collybia), 204. 
duplicata (Dictyophora), 214. 

eburneus (Hygrophorous), in. 
echinata (Inocybe), 158. 
edulus (Boletus), 172. 
emetica (Russula), 127. 
epichysium (Omphalia), loi. 
epipterygia (Mycena), 96. 
erinaceus (Hydnum), 198. 
esculenta (Gyromytra), 220. 
esculenta (Morchella), 217. 

farinosa (Amanitopsis), 76. 
felleus (Boletus), 173. 
fimicola (Panseolus), 48. 
firma (Fistulina), 186. 





flava (Galera), 155. 
flavidus (Boletus), 178. 
flavidus (Paxillus), 168. 
floccocephala (Amanitaj, 62. . 
tloccopus (Strobilomyces), 185. 
floccosa (Sarcoscypha), 221. 
faeniscii (Psilocybe), 48. 
fomentarius (Polyporus), 194. 
formosa (Clavaria), 201. 
fragile (Hydnum), 200. 
fragills (Russula); 127, 
frondosa (Tremella), 205. 
frondosus (Polyporus), 188. 
frostiana (Amanita), 54. 
fuciformis (Tremellr''- -706. 
fuligineus (Hygrop' -), 113. 
fuliginosus (Lacta* S. 

fulvo-tomentosus v 'Js^ 161. 

furcata (Russula), 11 
fusiger (Spinellus), 95. 

galericulata (Mycena), 94. 
gemmatum (Lycoperdon), 210. 
gerardii (Lactarius), 119. 
giganteum (Lycoperdon), 210. 
glandulosa (Exidia), 206. 
glutinosus (Gomphidius), 51. 
granulatus (Boletus;, 178. 
graveolens (Hydnum), 200. 
grayanum (Entoloma), 144. 

hsmatopa (Mycena), 98. 
hepatica (Fistulina), 186. 
herbarum (Crepidotus), 160. 
hirsutus (Polystictus), 192. 
hypothejus (Hygrophorus), 114. 

igniarius (Polyporus), 194. 
illudens (Clitocybe), 90. 
imbricatum (Hydnum), 198. 
impudicus (Ithyphallus), 216. 
incana (Leptonia), 147. 
indigo (Lactarius), 125. 
infundibuliformis (Clitocybe), 90. 
intybaceus (Polyporus), 189. 
involutus (Paxillus), 166. 

johnsoniana (Pholiota), 153. 
jubatum (Entoloma), 143. 

laccata (Clitocybe), 89. 
lachnophylla (.Collybia), 132. 
lachrymabundum (Hypholoma), 28. 
lacrymans (Merulius), 194. 
iacunosa (Helvella), 220. 
lasvis (Annularia), 78. 
lateritia (Galera), 155. 
lecomtei (Lentinus), 135. 
lepida (Russula), 126. 
lepideus (Lentinus), 135. 
lignyotus (.Lactarius), 117. 
livida (Amanitopsis), 75. 
longipes (CoUybia), 93. 

lubrica (Leotia), 221. 
lucidus (Polyporus), 193. 
leucoph^us (Polyporus), 194. 
lutescens (Calostoma), 212. 
lutescens (Mitremyces), 213. 
lutescens (Tremella), 205. 
luteus (Boletus), 181. 

macrocarpus (Spinellus), 95. 
mappa (Amanita), 58. 
marginata (Pholiota), 151. 
maritimus (Agaricus), 142. 
merismoides (Phlebia), 195. 
mellea (Armillaria\ 83. 
micaceus (Coprinus), 42. 
miniatus (Hygrophorus), 113. 
morgani (Lepiota), 80. 
mucL. (Clavaria), 203. 
muscaria (Amanita), 52. 
mycetop'iila (Tremella), 205. 

naucina (Lepiota), ']']. 
nigricans (Gomphidius), 49. 
nigricans (Russula), 127. 
nivalis (Amanitopsis), 76. 

oblectans (Polystictus), 192. 
obsonium (Boletus), 177. 
ochroleucus (Cortinarius), 163. 
orcella (Clitopilus), 143. 
oreades (Marasmius), 131. 
ornatipes (Boletus), 174. 
ostreatus (Pleurotus), 104. 

pallida (Fistulina), 186. 
pantherina (Amanita), 69. 
panuoides (Paxillus) 170. 
papilionaceus (Pan^eolusi, 48. 
paradoxa (Flammula), 168. 
peckii (Tricholoma), 85. 
pelletieri (Clitocybe), 16S. 
pellucida (Tubaria), 159. 
perennis (Polystictus), 192. 
pergamenus (Lactarius), 121. 
pergamenus (Polystictus), 193.= 
perplexum (Hypholoma), 27. 
personatum (Tricholoma), 87. 
petaloides (Pleurotus), 107. 
phalloides (Amanita), 55. 
pictus (Boletinus), 183. 
pinicola (Polyporus), 194. 
piperatus (Lactarius), 120. 
pistillaris (Clavaria"!, 203. 
pistillaris (Craterellus), 203. 
placomyces (Agaricus), 19. 
platyphylla (Collybia), 93. 
polita (Eccilia), 148. 
polychroa (Flammula), 156. 
polygram ma (Mycena), 94. 
polypyramis (Amanita), 74. 
porosus (Boletinus), 184. 
prgecox (Pholiota), 150. 
prslonga (Mycena), 94. 


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